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C E R T IF IC A T E
T h is p u b lic a tio n is is s u e d p u r s u a n t t o t h e
p ro v is io n s o f t h e s u n d r y

c iv il a c t (41 S ta t s .

1430) a p p r o v e d M a r c h 4 , 1 9 2 1 .

A D D IT IO N A L COPIES
OF THIS PUBLICATION M A T B E PRO CU R ED FRO M
T H E S U PE R IN T E N D E N T OF DOCUM ENTS
U .S .G O V E R N M E N T PRIN T IN G OFFICE
•WASHINGTON, D . C.
AT

15 C E N T S P E R COPY
S u b s c r ip t io n P r ic e P e r Y e a r
a n a d a , M e x i c o , $1.50; O t h e r

U n it e d S t a t e s , C


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C o u n t r ie s , $2.25

C o n te n ts
Special a rtic le s :
Page
O pposition of organized lab o r to th e tip p in g sy ste m ________________
1-4
R esults of a rb itra tio n proceedings u n d e r railro a d -la b o r a c t of 1926___
5-9
L abor legislation in U ruguay, by P ercy A. M a rtin a n d E a rl M. S m ith , 10-17
In d u stria l relatio n s and lab o r c o n d itio n s:
E nglish tra d e s d isp u te s a n d tra d e s-u n io n a c t_______________________ 18, 19
T he “ e x it” in terv ie w ________________________________ _____________ 19; 20
E m p lo y m en t pro ced u re a n d in d u stria l housing w ork of E u ro p ean
street-railw ay co m p an ies__________________________________________ 20-22
A frica— N a tiv e la b o r conditions a n d p o p u la tio n problem s in N yasaland.:_____________________________________________________________ 22-24
Chile— Suggested m eans of u tilizing w orkers’ spare tim e ________
24
P roductivity of la b o r :
Increased p ro d u c tiv ity in v arious in d u stries, 1899 to 1925__________ 25-32
M inim um w age:
M assachusetts— M inim um w age decisions__________________________
33
South A frica— M inim um wage a n d n a tiv e la b o r____________________
34
In d u stria l accid en ts:
A ccident experience in th e iron a n d steel in d u stry to th e end of 1926__ 35-52
Q uarry accidents in th e U n ited S ta te s in 1925______________________ 53, 54
C o m p arativ e accid en t experience of large group of p la n ts in 1925 an d
1926-----------------------------------------------------------------5 4 ,5 5
P e n a lty th e A m erican N atio n p a y s for s p e e d _______________________ 55, 56
In d u s tria l accid en ts to w om en in New Jersey, Ohio, a n d W isco n sin ,- 56-59
P en alties for v io latio n of safety o rd e rs _______________
60
Illinois— C oal-m ine accidents in 1926______________________________ 60, 61
Ohio—
In ju ries to m inors in 1 9 2 6 _____________________________________ 61, 62
O ccupational disease claim s, 1921 to 1926______________________ 62, 63
Tennessee— M ining accid en ts in 1926_____________________________ 63, 64
W orkm en’s co m pensatio n an d social in su ra n c e :
R ecent com pensation re p o rts—
H a w a ii----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 65, 66
O klahom a_____________________________________________________
66
G erm any— U nem p lo y m en t in su ran ce a c t ___________________________ 67-69
C ooperation:
C ooperative ban k in g au th o rized in I o w a ___________________________
70
D evelopm ent of b uilding a n d loan associations, 1925-26____________ 70, 71
W ork of rem edial lo an asso c ia tio n s_________________________________
71
C ooperative m o v e m e n t in S p a in ___________________________________ 72-75
W’o rk e rs ’ education an d train in g :
Sum m er schools fo r w om an w o rk e rs________________________________
76
In d u s tria l tra in in g in A laska_______________________________________ 76, 77
W elfare w ork:
E nco u rag em en t of th r ift by em ployers_____________________________ 78-82
L abor la w s :
C olom bia— W eekly re st la w _______________________________________
83


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hi

IV

CONTENTS

la b o r organizations and co n g re sse s:
Page
In te rn a tio n a l trad e -u n io n congress, 1927----------------------------------------- 84, 85
R esolutions of In te rn a tio n a l C onference of W om an W o rk e rs________85, 86
O rganization of C u b an F ed e ra tio n of L a b o r________________________
86
H o u sin g :
B uilding p erm its in re p re se n ta tiv e cities___________________________ 87-115
In d u stria l d is p u te s :
S trikes an d lockou ts in th e U n ited S ta te s in A ugust, 1927________ 116-122
C onciliation w ork of th e D e p a rtm e n t of L ab o r in A ugust, 1927___ 122-124
M exico— W ork of conciliation a n d a rb itra tio n b o a rd s_______________
125
Wages and h ours of lab o r:
E n tra n c e w age ra te s for com m on labor, Ju ly 1, 192 7-------------------- 126-128
A verage w ages an d h o u rs in c o tto n goods m an u fa c tu rin g , 1926___ 128, 129
W age ra te s in open -cu t copper m in e s ---------------------------------------------129
W age policy of A m erican F ed e ra tio n of L a b o r___________________ 129-134
G erm any— R esto ra tio n of e ig h t-h o u r d ay in th e iron in d u s try _____134, 135
G re a t B ritain — W age ra te s in th e Leeds d is tric t__________________ 135-137
Ita ly — W ages in th e M ilan d is tric t_____________________________ 137, 138
T ren d of em ploym ent:
E m p lo y m en t in selected m an u fa c tu rin g in d u stries, A ugust, 1 9 2 7 ... 139-150
T ren d of em p lo y m e n t a n d pay -ro ll to ta ls in b o o t a n d shoe factories,
b y d istricts, 1923 to 1927_____________________________________ 150-152
E m p lo y m en t a n d to ta l earn in g s of railro a d em ployees, Ju ly , 1926, a n d
Ju n e a n d Ju ly , 1927___________________________________________ 152, 153
S ta te re p o rts on em p lo y m en t—
C alifo rn ia___________________________________________________ 153, 154
Illin o is______________________________________________________ 155, 156
Io w a__________________________________________________________
157
M a ry la n d _____________________________________________________
158
M a ssach u setts______________________________________________ 158, 159
N ew Jersey _________________________________________________ 160, 161
P en n sy lv a n ia __________________________________________________
162
W isconsin__________________________________________________ 163, 164
U n em ploym ent in I t a l y ____________________________________________
164
W holesale and re ta il p ric e s :
R etail prices of food in th e U n ited S ta t e s _____________ ___________ 165-186
R etail prices of coal in th e U n ited S ta te s_______________________ 186-189
R evised index nu m b ers of w holesale prices, 1923 to A ugust, 1927 _ 190-198
C om parison of retail-p rice changes in th e U n ited S ta te s a n d in foreign
co u n tries______________________________________________________ 198-200
Cost of liv in g :
T he problem of “ re tu rn e d g o o d s” _______________________________ 201, 202
A rgentina— Incom e a n d e x p en d itu re of a la b o re r’s fam ily in Buenos
Aires in 1926_________________________________________________ 202-204
Labor ag reem en ts, aw ards, an d decisio n s:
A w ards a n d decisions—
R ailroads, m ain ten an ce-o f-w ay em ployees— C hicago & N o rth
W estern R ailw ay C o _____________________________________ 205, 206
R ailroads— D ecisions of T ra in Service B oards of A d ju stm e n t. 206-208
R ailw ay clerks— W ab ash R ailw ay C o--------------------------------------209
T rad e agreem ents in 1926------------------------------------------------------------ 209, 210
C olonization:
C olonization schem e in A rg e n tin a -------------------------------------------------211


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CONTENTS

V

Im m ig ratio n and. em igration :
p age
S ta tistic s of im m ig ratio n for Ju ly , 1927__________________________ 212-218
M exico— R estric tio n upo n im m ig ra tio n _____________________________
218
A ctivities of S tate lab o r b u re a u s :
C alifornia, H aw aii, Illinois, Iow a, M ary lan d , M assach u setts, New
Jersey, Ohio, O klahom a, P e n n sy lv an ia, Tennessee, a n d W isconsin,
219
B ibliography :
U nio n -m an ag em en t co o p eratio n : A list of references, com piled by
L a u ra A. T h o m p so n ___________________________________________ 220-227
P u blications redating to lab o r:
Official— U n ited S ta te s __________________________________________ 228-230
Official— F oreign c o u n tries_______________________________________ 230, 231
U nofficial_____________________________
231-234


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T h is Issu e in B rief

The tipping system is opposed by organized labor in practically all
the trades in which the system is prevalent. Tipping is in essence
merely a method by which the public supplements the inadequate
wages paid by employers. It implies servility on the part of the
recipient and is thus opposed to the principles of trade-unionism.
The unions affected are in favor of the complete abolition of tipping
and a corresponding increase in straight wages (p. 1).
A series of railroad arbitrations have been held, during the year that
the railroad labor act has been in effect. Under this act disputes
which can not be settled by the parties themselves or through the
mediation of the United States Board of Mediation may be referred
to arbitration. Thus far all unsettled disputes have been so referred.
In these arbitrations the employees, with few exceptions, have
received some wage increase, although usually considerably less than
requested. The outstanding case in which an upward adjustment
of wages was denied was that of the conductors and trainmen on
some 55 western railroads. In the case of maintenance-of-way arbi­
trations the increases ran as low as one-half cent per hour, or $1.04
per month (p. 5).
The output per worker between 1899 and 1925 increased 45 per cent
in agriculture, 171 per cent in mining, and 48 per cent in manufacturing
and railway transportation, according to a study made by the United
States Department of Commerce. Much of this increase in produc­
tivity is attributed to the increase in the use of power equipment.
Thus, in manufacturing, the average horsepower of prime movers per
worker was 2.1 in 1899 and 4.3 in 1925; while in mining and quarrying
the increase was from 4.9 in. 1902 to 6.2 in 1919 (p. 25).
Accidents in the iron and steel industry continued to decline in 1926,
according to the annual study of the Bureau of Labor Statistics;
the accident frequency in a large group of selected plants being 6.8
per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure in 1926, compared with 8.2 in 1925 and
with 60.3 in 1913 (p. 35).
The number oj families provided jor by new dwellings in 78 cities was
187,233 in the first half of 1927, compared with 201,685 in the first
half of 1926, according to the semiannual report of the Bureau of
Labor Statistics on building permits in principal cities. The average
cost of one-family dwellings for which permits were obtained in the
first half of 1927 was $4,903 as compared with $4,777 in the first half
of 1926. Other details of the survey are given on page 87.
The average entrance wage rate jor common labor in the United
States on July 1, 1927, was 42.6 cents per hour as compared with
43.2 cents on January 1, 1927, and with 42.8 cents on July 1, 1926
(p. 126).
The modern wage policy oj the American Federation oj Labor empha­
sizes the importance of the factor of productivity and strives for
higher “ social wages—for wages which increase as measured by
prices and productivity.” A thorough analysis of the meaning and
purposes of this new wage policy is made by the president of the
federation (p. 129).

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V II

V III

MONTHLY LABOE EEVIEW

Industrial training for the natives of Alaska is being carried on by
the United States Bureau of Education. Three schools located at
points accessible from the different sections of the Territory have
been established and others are planned. The courses offered include
house building, carpentry, boat building, furniture making, sled con­
struction, operation and repair of gas engines, marine engineering,
tanning, navigation, ivory carving, and basket weaving. The
natives are said to possess extraordinary manual dexterity. As a
result of the work of the Bureau of Education and other agencies,
the primitive conditions of life in Alaska have gradually disappeared
except in the more remote regions (p. 76).
Unemployment insurance in Germany became effective October 1,
1927.—The system is administered by the State, the cost being
borne in equal proportions by the workers and the employers. The
benefit is fixed according to the wage or salary of the unemployed
person and embraces the benefit proper and a family allowance.
The benefit becomes payable, as a rule, the eighth day after notifi­
cation. The claim to benefit arises after 26 weeks’ payment of
premiums and the period of benefit is likewise limited to 26 weeks.
The benefit, including family allowance, varies from 60 to 80 per
cent of the standard wage, depending on the waa;e or salary class
(P- 67).
Social legislation in Uruguay is so advanced that “ one may regard
this little South American State as a vast social laboratory in which
experiments of interest not only to Uruguay but to the world at
large have taken place,” according to the authors of an article on
this subject (p. 10).
One day of rest in seven is required for all industrial and com­
mercial employees in Colombia, according to a recent law. Sunday
is established as the rest day, but in the case of continuous industries,
and in those in which Sunday closing would work hardship to the
public, some other day in the week may be allowed, provided author­
ization is obtained from the Ministry of Industry. However, no
worker may be employed on his rest day without his consent, and
in case of being so employed he may choose between a compensatory
rest day or not less than double pay for the time worked (p. 83).


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MONTHLY

LABOR REVI EW
OF U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
vol

. 25.

n o

.

4

W A S H IN G T O N

Oc

t o b e r

, 1927

O p p o sitio n of O rganized Labor to th e T ip p in g S y ste m

HE question of the desirability of abolishing the tipping system
is receiving the attention of the trades subject to this method
of remuneration. Conspicuous among these are the so-called
“ personal service” occupations—those of the Pullman porters, wait­
ers and waitresses, chauffeurs and hack drivers, barbers, employees
of beauty parlors, etc. In all of these the union has given serious
consideration to the question, and in most instances the conclusion
has been unfavorable to the continuance of the system. Especially
is this likely to be true as the union gains in power and inclusiveness
in its field. A basic wage sufficient to maintain the worker and his
family in moderate comfort is the main objective of all trade-unions,
and the union is aware that in any occupation in which tipping is
prevalent or customary the fact that the worker is the recipient of
gratuities is one of the main obstacles to the securing of the basic wage.
The employer feels that the acceptance of tips by his employees
relieves him of the obligation to pay full wages, and tips, thereafter,
have to take the place of wages. The result is a wage wholly inade­
quate for the maintenance of a family, and to make up the deficit the
employee must depend upon the generosity of the patron, an uncer­
tain factor at best.
The unions oppose gratuities also on the grounds that receiving
tips tends to detract from the independence of the workers and to
create a servile spirit among them. As soon, therefore, as the union
feels that it is strong enough to do so it is likely to press for the
establishment of a fair basic wage and the abolition of the tipping
system.
It is safe to say that the abolition of tipping would be welcomed by
the public. Many patrons now tip because they feel that the tip
insures better service, or because without it the service will be
mediocre. Many do so because they are cognizant of the fact that
the “ tipped” occupations are usually underpaid jobs and that the
tip is the necessary supplement to the wage; or do so, unwillingly,
because they think that the tip is expected and they feel they must
do the “ usual” thing.
The tip is often an embarrassment to the giver in that he may be
uncertain as to the amount he should give, and to the recipient in
that there is implied, in the taking, a certain inferiority of status.

T


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1

2

MONTHLY LABOE EEVIEW

The attitude of the tipping public is well expressed in an editorial
irom Collier’s Weekly, reproduced in the September, 1927, issue of
the Messenger, as follows:
O ne of o u r b e st a n d m o st p e rm a n e n t evils is tip p in g . R eform ers a re alw ays
conducting a cam paig n a g a in st it. T hese cam paigns g e t now here b ecause th e y
a tta c k th e p ra ctice fro m th e w rong end. T h e av erag e m an tip s w aiters, b arb ers,
p o rters, a n d o th ers because h e likes to p a y his w ay a n d know s t h a t in certain
kinds of service cu sto m orders a tip a n d em ployers red u ce w ages b y th e a m o u n t
of th e tip s. * * *
T ipping itself is a n offense to th e code of A m erican business ethics. I t belongs
in countries w here begging is a recognized life calling, w here p e tty b rib e ry of
govern m en t em ployees is a recognized channel of revenue, w here class d istin ctio n s
are sh a rp a n d oppressive, a n d w here c u ltiv a te d serv ility is a n a rt. B u t th e
custom is ro o ted in th e U n ite d S ta te s a n d i t will grow a n d th riv e u n til th e g re a t
a rm y of th e tip p e d rises in rebellion a n d creates a n d d em an d s a rig h t to s tra ig h t
p ay .

Since the subject is now before the public it is of interest to see
what action the unions concerned have taken or are considering on
the subject.
Teamsters, Chauffeurs, etc.
'T ’HE official policy of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters,
Chauffeurs, Stablemen, and Helpers of America is that of oppo­
sition to the tipping system on the ground that acceptance of tips
places the recipient in the position of a menial. The union takes
the position that “ the best cure for it is to raise wages.” In the
August, 1927, issue of the union’s official magazine, Daniel J. Tobin,
president of the union, makes the following statement:
O ne of th e su b s ta n tia l th in g s accom plished b y o u r o rg an izatio n since its
fo rm atio n is t h a t of discouraging th e custom of tip p in g . T h e only b ra n c h of
o u r c ra ft in w hich tip p in g p rev ailed w as a m o n g st th e carriag e a n d h ack drivers,
of old, a n d th is h a s been so m ew h at in h e rite d b y th e ta x ic a b driv ers. T his
custom , how ever, is g rad u ally being e lim in ated am o n g st un io n m en d u e to th e
fa c t t h a t o u r union h as raised th e sta n d a rd of w ages a n d b ro u g h t u p th is class of
w orkers to real high-grade, in d e p e n d e n t in d iv id u als.

Hotel and Restaurant Employees
^W AITERS and waitresses notoriously suffer from low wages, it
” being expected that these will be supplemented by gratuities
from the customers. The bad effect upon both workers and union
is seriously recognized by the president of the Hotel and Restaurant
Employees’ International Alliance and Bartenders’ International
League of America. In his monthly letter to the membership, dated
April 25, 1927, Mr. Flore discusses the various factors upon which the
union must lay stress. Conditions of employment are among the
most important, including the eight-hour day, and a living basic
wage. He emphasizes the fact that “ the time must come when the
workers in the catering industry must reach the higher standards in
life—the elimination of gratuities and the establishment of a basic
wage.”
Too long h as th e em ployer d epended upo n th e consum er to p ay fo r th e service
ren d ered , a n d th e consum er, realizing t h a t responsibility, is ra p id ly d riftin g from
th e service e stab lish m e n ts to th o se of th e nonservice ty p e in o rd er to av o id th a t
responsibility. A nd th e m o ral of t h a t is t h a t b o th em ployer a n d em ployee
suffer from th e loss of t h a t tra d e . W e a re living in a n age of tra n sitio n a n d
progress. T h e cate rin g in d u s try is passing th ro u g h a perio d of ev o lu tio n . Service
estab lish m en ts are ra p id ly giving w ay to o th e r ty p e s of food em p o riu m s w here
m ore or less unskilled service is req u ired a n d no g ra tu itie s called for. I n connec
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[718]

OEGANIZED LABOE OPPOSED TO T IP P IN G SYSTEM

3

tio n w ith th is ty p e of in s titu tio n s com m issary k itch en s are estab lish ed a n d p re ­
p a re d a n d cooked food is d elivered in th e rm o s u ten sils re a d y fo r co n su m p tio n .
T his m eth o d of o p eratio n reduces th e n u m b e r of skilled m ech an ics re q u ire d in th e
p re p a ra tio n a n d cooking of food to a m inim um , lessens th e o v erh ead co st, a n d
m ak es th e ir o p eratio n serious co m p e tito rs to th e service e sta b lish m e n ts. In
th is tra n sfo rm a tio n service em p lo y er a n d em ployee h a v e a co m m u n ity in te re st.
W e, on o u r p a rt, assum e th e ta s k of brin g in g th e p u b lic b a c k to th e th o u g h t of
form er m e th o d s a n d en v iro n m en ts, w hile th e em ployer m u s t assum e th e responsi­
b ility of p ay in g his em ployee a w age w o rth y of his h ire, w ith h o u rs a n d conditions
of em p lo y m en t w hich encourage his a c tiv ity , a n d t h a t b rin g s us dow n to th e
qu estio n of salesm anship a n d w astes.1

The July 30, 1927, issue of Labor, the organ of the railroad brother­
hoods, reports the attitude of the New York City local of waiters and
waitresses as revealed in the testimony of its secretary-treasurer who
is also vice president of the national union. He is reported as saying:
T h e union h a s m ad e sev eral a tte m p ts to g et a living w age fo r its m em bers,
b u t h a s failed. T hey a re com pelled to d ep en d on th e c h a rity of th e p ublic. We
are opposed to tip p in g , b u t th e re is n o th in g else to be done u n til a living w age is
g u a ran teed em ployees of re s ta u ra n ts a n d hotels.

Pullman Porters
Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters is a comparatively new
organization, having been formed during the summer of 1925.
Although it claims as members nearly 7,000 of the 12,000 colored
maids and porters employed by the Pullman Co., it has had an uphill
struggle for recognition as the representative of the employees.
Late in 1926 the brotherhood, acting under the terms of the rail­
road labor act of 1926, requested a conference with the company for
the purpose of discussing certain desired improvements in conditions.
The request being denied, the brotherhood took its case before the
United States Mediation Board. The main question in the dis­
pute—that of the right of the brotherhood to represent the em­
ployees—is now before the board for determination.2
One of the main demands of the brotherhood is that the tipping
practice be abolished. The union points out that the minimum wage
rate of porters is $72.50 per month. Overtime is received after 11,000
miles have been traveled, such pay raising the average monthly
compensation received from the company to $78.11. This was dis­
closed by returns on a questionnaire from 673 regular and 104 extra
porters. The tips averaged $58.15 per month. The union is making
a stand for a minimum rate of $150 a month and the abolition of the
tipping system.3
The brotherhood has even filed a complaint with the Interstate
Commerce Commission asking that the commission require the
Pullman Co. to cease “ informing and instructing applicants for posi­
tions as porters that they may expect increment to their wages from
passengers, and from inducing or permitting porters in its service to
receive gratuities from passengers, and from continuing to fix its wage
rates for porters at an amount insufficient to enable them to remain
in the service * *
4
In the words of one of the brotherhood’s organizers: “ Intheir
struggle to organize, the porters and maids have set their faces
!The Mixer and Server (Cincinnati), M ay 15,1927, p. 7.
JThe Messenger (New York), August, 1927, p. 284.
8Idem, M ay, 1927, pp. 164-166.
^United States Daily, W ashington, Sept. 19, 1927.


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[119]

4

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

resolutely against the ‘tipping system’ as a method of rewarding
them for the many excellent services they render the traveling public.
This phase of the campaign * * * marks the porter’s struggle
as the most significant effort of the Negro since his emancipation.
He has come to understand that a firm and balanced manhood is
incompatible with a dependence on public gratuities; that tips
carry with them a haunting and horrible sense of insecurity, to say
nothing of the lack of dignity. Tips for the Negro as a reward for
his labor bring back to the dim corners of his memory years of sorrow
and bitterness spent in slavery; and they also tend to keep alive the
the fog of prejudice and ill feeling.” 5
Barbers
desirability of tipping is being thrashed out in the Journeymen
barbers’ International Union. The question was precipitated
by the action of the employers’ organization, the Associated Master
Barbers, in its convention held in November, 1926. That convention
passed the following resolution:
W hereas th e accep tan ce of g ra tu itie s, know n as th e tip p in g h a b it, is p re v a le n t
am ong m a s te r a n d jo u rn ey m en b a rb e rs th ro u g h o u t th e c o u n try ; a n d
W hereas w e believe t h a t th e p ractice h a s low ered th e esteem of th e p ublic for
th e profession, h a s m ad e u n ifo rm shop service alm o st im possible to th e g reat
d e trim e n t of th e public, h as te n d e d to d is ru p t th e m orale of th e shop em ployee
a n d h a s p rev en ted m ore g eneral b a rb e r p a tro n a g e to th e in estim ab le financial
loss of th e profession; T herefore, be it
Resolved, T h a t we, th e delegates to th e A ssociated M a ste r B arb ers of A m erica,
in convention assem bled a t D es M oines, Iow a, N o vem b er 8, 9, 10, h ereb y go on
record as being em p h a tic a lly opposed to th e accep tan ce of g ra tu itie s by m a ste r
a n d jo u rn ey m en b arb ers; a n d be i t fu rth e r
Resolved, T h a t we e a rn e stly recom m end to th e affiliated locals of th is n a tio n a l
association t h a t th e y resp ectiv ely e n a c t local legislation fo rb id d in g th e ir m em bers
to accep t g ra tu itie s a n d p ro v id in g fo r th e en fo rcem en t of th is m easure; a n d be it
fu rth e r
Resolved, T h a t we h ereb y re q u e st th e official a n d a c tiv e cooperation of th e
Jo u rn ey m en B arb ers’ In te rn a tio n a l U nion of A m erica in th e a b o lish m en t of th e
vicious “ tip p in g ” h a b it a n d urge u p o n th e m t h a t th e y fo rb id th e ir m em bers to
a cc ep t g ra tu itie s in shops w here th e m a ste r b a rb e r will co o p erate to th is en d ;
be i t fu rth e r
Resolved, T h a t a copy of th is reso lu tio n be fo rw ard ed by th e n a tio n a l secretary
to every affiliated local of th e A ssociated M a ste r B arb ers of A m erica a n d to th e
office of th e Jo u rn ey m en B a rb e rs’ In te rn a tio n a l U nion of A m erica a t In d ian ap o lis,
In d ia n a .6

Since the publication of the resolution in the official journal of the
union the matter has been discussed pro and con, the correspondents
being about equally divided in the matter. The president of the
union, however, has unequivocally expressed himself in opposition to
the tipping practice, stating that, in his opinion, “ there is no honest,
man who dare deny the tipping system is a bad one.” He opposes
the practice because it breeds servility on the part of the recipient,
because it lowers his standing, and because it does n ot create an
incentive for a fair wage.7
As already stated, much discussion is taking place in the columns
of the union magazine, and the matter will doubtless come up for
attention at the 1927 convention of the union.
6 Locomotive Engineers’ Magazine, April, 1927, p. 260.
6 The Journeyman Barber (Indianapolis, Ind.), February, 1927, p. 14.
7 Idem, issues of November, 1926 (p. 448), and January, 1927 (p. 555).


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

5

R e su lts o f A rb itra tio n P roceed in gs u n d er R ailroad L abor A ct
o f 1926 1

NDER the terms of the railroad labor act of 1926 a board of
mediation of five members was appointed. This board began
operation in July, 1926.
The act provides means for both mediation and arbitration of labor
disputes. Disputes between carriers and men upon which the parties
are unable to reach an agreement may be submitted for mediation to
the United States Board of Mediation. If mediation fails, a special
board of arbitration may be set up, consisting of one or two repre­
sentatives each of men and management, and one or two “ neutral”
arbitrators agreed upon by the other representatives. If the parties
fail to agree upon the neutral arbitrator or arbitrators these may be
appointed by the board of mediation. The parties bind themselves
to accept the decision of the arbitrators.
Up to September 1, 1927, many arbitration proceedings had been
entered into under the new act, involving blacksmiths, clerks, con­
ductors and trainmen, firemen and enginemen, maintenance-of-way
employees, telegraphers, train dispatchers, etc.
In the main, the men have been successful in obtaining increases
in wages, though usually these were not so large as were asked for.
The smallest rate of increase granted was given in the case of the
maintenance-of-way employees on the two railroads—the Louisville
& Nashville and the Chicago & North Western—for which the track­
men’s cases have been decided. The increases in these two cases
ranged from one-half cent to 3 cents per hour, or from $1.04 to $6.24
per month.
The outstanding case in which an upward adjustment of wage rates
was denied was that of the conductors and trainmen on some 55
western railroads. This action on the part of the arbitration board
came as a surprise, especially since these classes of employees on the
railroads of the East and Southeast had just been granted an increase
of 7y% per cent.

U

Railway Clerks, Freight Handlers, and Station Employees
HTHE first arbitration case handled under the new act was that
involving the rates of pay of railroad clerks on the Nashville,
Chattanooga & St. Louis Railway. • The award, made October 29,
1926, increased the combined compensation of the whole group of
employees involved by $125 a day, or $3,250 per month, divided
among the clerks in proportion to the salary being received at the
time the award was made.
A case, involving 65,000 employees of the American Express Co.,
which was carried over from the old Railroad Labor Board, was
referred to arbitrators soon after the creation of the United States
Board of Mediation. The men asked for increases of from ll3di to
12 cents per hour. By the decision of the arbitrators on January 13,
1927, an increase of 2^2 cents per hour was granted.
Wages of the employees of the New York Central Railroad Co.
and the Grand Central Terminal were increased 6 per cent, or about
i Data are from text of agreements of boards and from Labor (organ of the railroad brotherhoods), issues
of Apr. 2 to Sept. 24,1927.


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MONTHLY LABOE BEVIEW

3 cents an hour, by an arbitration decision rendered March 26, 1927.
Exactly one month later station employees of the Boston & Maine
Railroad were granted increases amounting to about 5 ^ per cent.
Increases of pay ranging from 2 to 7 cents per hour were granted
to nearly 10,000 employees of the Southern Pacific Railroad Co. by
a decision given at the end of April. The award was made retro­
active to January 1, 1927. The employees covered by the award
included clerical employees, freight, baggage, and mail handlers, train
and engine crew callers, elevator operators, watchmen, perishables
inspectors, and others.
Negotiations for a wage increase which terminated in an arbitra­
tion decision rendered July 16, 1927, were begun between the Brother­
hood of Railway Clerks and the Southern Railway Co. in August,
1925. The dispute was ready for hearing when the Railroad Labor
Board was abolished, necessitating beginning the negotiations anew,
under the 1926 act. The men and the carrier being unable to come
to. an agreement, and the efforts of the United States Mediation
Board being equally unsuccessful, the matter was referred to a board
of arbitration. The award of this board granted an increase of 2 ^
cents an hour to some 6,000 employees, effective July 16, 1927.
The brotherhood had asked for a flat increase of 6 cents per hour.
About 9,700 employees of the Illinois Central Railroad Co., by
an arbitration decision rendered August 24, were granted a 5 per
cent increase in the rates of pay. This amounted to a fraction less
than 3 cents an hour for clerks and 2.4 cents an hour for freight
handlers.
About the same time the employees of the Wabash Railway Co.
were granted increases—3 ^ cents per hour for clerks, 2 cents per hour
for station employees and chore boys, 2 % cents per hour for freight
handlers, and 3 cents per hour for sealers, scalers, and fruit inspectors.
Stowers, stevedores, and callers were given a rate 4 cents per hour
above that of freight handlers.
The demand of some 7,500 clerks on the Chicago & North Western
Railway for an increase of 15 cents an hour will be heard before an
arbitration board.
Conductors and Trainmen
T 'H E first wage movement of the railway conductors and trainmen
1 under the new act began with the filing of claims for wage
increases of $1 to $1.50 per day on the eastern railroads. The parties
failing to reach a settlement, the matter was taken to arbitration
and the award of the board was rendered December 1, 1926, making
a general 73^ per cent increase in wage rates. The same increase
was subsequently agreed to by the Southeastern railroads.
The Order of Railway Conductors and the Brotherhood of Rail­
way Trainmen then attempted to obtain similar benefits for their
members who were employed on 55 western railroads. Approx­
imately 70,000 workers were affected by arbitration proceedings
brought in the western district, and this number did not include
employees of the Chicago & Alton Railroad Co., which was not a
party to the agreement, but which agreed to abide by the decision
of the arbitrators. The award of the arbitration board, however,
denied any increase in rates of pay of the conductors and trainmen,
but granted a 7^2 per cent increase to yardmen.

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[722]

ARBITRATION UNDER RAILROAD LABOR ACT OP 1926

7

Firemen and Enginemen
'"THE 1}/2 per cent increase awarded to the conductors and trainA men on the eastern railroads was extended by agreement, with­
out resorting to arbitration, to the firemen and enginemen on those
roads. The Brotherhood of Locomotive Enginemen and Firemen
then sought to obtain an increase for those of its members who were
employed on the southeastern railroads. I t was unable to persuade
the officials of those carriers to make the increase, and an arbitration
agreement was therefore signed early in April, 1927, by the Brother­
hood and 12 southeastern railroads. I t was reported at that time
that the arbitrators’ decision would affect directly some 7,500
workers, and probably at least 6,000 more indirectly, it being “ taken
for granted that eventually the decision of the board will be ac­
cepted by those lines which are not involved in the arbitration
proceedings.” The men asked for increases in wages amounting to
$1 per day for men working on engines of less than 250,000 pounds
on the drivers and $1.25 for those on engines of over that weight.
The board rendered its decision June 20, giving increases of 35
cents a day for men in passenger and yard service and 40 cents a
day for men in freight service; this, it was estimated, amounted to
an increase of about 7 per cent in the existing rates.
The employees of 12 carriers were affected by the increase. The
Southern Railway Co., the Seaboard Air Line Railway Co., and
several other railroads of the territory were not parties to the arbitra­
tion. Practically the same increases were obtained for 3,500 employ­
ees of the Southern Railway Co., however, by an agreement reached
between the men and the company early in July. Simultaneously
demand was made upon the western railroads. Negotiations failed,
as did also the efforts of a Federal mediator, and an agreement to
arbitrate was reached early in August. No award has as yet been
made in the case.
Locomotive Engineers
YY7AGE negotiations on the eastern railroads began May 23, 1927,
’ ’ the union asking for an increase of 15 per cent for its 30,000
members employed by these roads. Action was postponed, however,
until after the close of the convention of the Brotherhood of Loco­
motive Engineers, when negotiations were reopened, July 25. The
services of the United States Board of Mediation were requested a
few days later, and an agreement was reached by which the men were
to receive an increase of 7p2 per cent, effective August 1. Thus a
7^2 Per cent increase has been made on the eastern railroads for
conductors and trainmen, firemen and enginemen, and locomotive
engineers.
Conferences with the southeastern railroads began August 16,
mediation failed, and the parties have agreed to arbitrate. It is
understood that after an agreement has been reached wage demands
will be made upon the western carriers.
Maintenance-of-way Employees
ry'H E Chicago & North Western Railway Co. and the Brotherhood of
* Maintenance of Way Employees on March 24, 1927, signed an
agreement to arbitrate the wage demands of the men, this being the

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MONTHLY LABOE EEVIEW

first action of the brotherhood, under the terms of the act of 1926
involving the employees of an entire railway system. Similar
action was taken with the representatives of the Louisville &Nashville
Railroad Co., the men asking in both cases for a flat increase of 5 cents
an hour. These two actions, it was reported, involved some 24,000
men.
The arbitrators in the case of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad
Co. awarded increases ranging from 1 cent to 2 cents per hour.
That means an advance of $2.08 to $4.16 a month if the men work
8 hours a day for 26 days a month.
In the Chicago & North Western case the award divided the men
into 22 classes and granted increases ranging from less than onelialf cent to 3 cents per hour in 9 classes; in 10 classes no change
of rate was allowed; and for 1 class the minimum hourly rate was
reduced from 38 to 35 cents per hour. In one class the monthly rate
was abolished and an hourly rate substituted and in another no
change of rate was made, but the minimum salary was raised from
$40 to $55 per month.

The wage controversy of the brotherhood with the Chicago, St.
Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha Railway Co. has been referred to an
arbitration board.
Signalmen

A. DEMAND upon the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Co. that its
signalmen be paid the current rate of 78 cents per hour was
resisted by the carrier, mediation was unsuccessful, and it was then
decided that the matter should be submitted to arbitration. Renewal
of direct negotiations, however, led to an agreement by which the road
will pay the current rate. The same rate was also obtained by
agreement on the Central Railroad Co. of New Jersey.

The request of the signalmen for an increase of 11 cents an hour
on the Louisville & Nashville Railroad Co. will be heard by a board
of arbitration in the near future.
Telegraphers

HPHE first action of the Order of Railroad Telegraphers under the
act of 1926 was taken to secure an adjustment of wages, amount­
ing to about 8 cents per hour, for some 1,400 of its members employed
on the Northern Pacific Railway Co. Arbitration proceedings began
March 25, 1927. This was another case which had originally been
inaugurated in 1925, but in which no agreement could be reached.
The arbitrators’ decision, handed down during the latter part of
April, granted an increase of 3 cents per hour.

A dispute involving both rules and wages of telegraphers of the
Grand Central Terminal has been submitted to arbitration.
Train Dispatchers

'W/'AGE demands of the Train Dispatchers7 Association upon the
Mobile & Ohio Railroad Co. were submitted to an arbitration
board early in April, 1927, and its demands upon the Louisville &
Nashville Railroad Co. went to arbitration about the middle of May.
A decision rendered late in September gave the dispatchers on the
latter road an increase of 58 cents a day.

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[724]

ARBITRATION UNDER RAILROAD LABOR ACT OF 1926

9

Cases Settled by Agreement and by Mediation

'T'PIE above discussion has in general covered only cases in which, it
1 having been found impossible for the parties to agree either by
themselves or with the good offices of a third person, the settlement
of the matter was left to arbitrators selected by the parties involved.
In addition, however, many cases have occurred in which an amicable
settlement has been reached between men and management. Thus,
the Soo Line and its telegraphers were able to settle a wage dispute,
the telegraphers obtaining an increase in the rate per hour of about
3 cents. In like manner, the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Co. agreed
to an increase of 5 per cent for its clerks, and the New York, New
Haven & Hartford Railroad to a general increase for its clerks. As
already noted, the southeastern railroads granted to their conductors
and trainmen the 1x/¿ per cent increase awarded by an arbitration
board to employees of this class on railroads of the East, while the
Southern Railway Co. agreed to extend to its firemen and enginemen
practically the same increase obtained by arbitration on the other
southeastern carriers. After a sharp dispute, telegraphers on the
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Co. obtained an agreement
from the company by which these employees were granted an in­
crease of 2^2 cents per hour.
Mediation by the United States Mediation Board has resulted in
settlements in many other cases, such, for instance, as the 3 per
cent increase obtained by the telegraph and tower service employees
of the Southern Pacific Railroad Co., the increase ranging from 2
to 7 p2 cents per hour obtained by railway clerks on the Maine Central
Railroad and of 2 L2 cents per hour on the Central Vermont Railway
Co., the 7 per cent increase secured by the engineers on eastern
railroads, a slight increase for certain classes of maintenance-of-way
employees of the Southern Pacific Railroad Co., and many others
concerning which details are not available.
It was reported that of 289 cases submitted to the United States
Mediation Board up to September 17, a settlement had been brought
about in 145.

63952°—27----- 2

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[725]

Labor L eg isla tio n in U rugu ay
B v P ercy A. M a r t in , professor of h isto ry in S ta n fo rd U n iv ersity , C alifornia,
"and E arl M . S m ith , d ire c to r of th e I n s titu to P a n A m ericano of M ontevideo,

U ruguay

O THE student of social progress as reflected in labor legislation
no Latin-American country offers a more promising field for
investigation than Uruguay. Though this little Republic,
created in 1828 as a buffer State between Argentina and Brazil,
has not escaped the cycle of revolutions, dictatorships, and political
convulsions to which all of our neighbors south of the Rio Grande
have at one time or another fallen heir, the advent of the twentieth
century witnessed the dawn of a new era. To a greater extent,
possibly, than any of the other South American States Uruguay has
succeeded in squaring the theory with the practice of democracy.
To be sure, conditions have been singularly propitious. Nature
has been lavish in her gifts to Uruguay. Though in area only as
large as New England with the addition of Maryland,1 over 85 per
cent of Uruguay’s surface is admirably adapted for agriculture or
stock raising. "The country lies entirely in the South Temperate
Zone. The climate is healthful and invigorating. The population,2
almost entirely of white extraction, is industrious and intelligent. A
progressive government has by means of an excellent school system
done much to banish illiteracy. Finally, the political party which for
years has been in power (the so-called Colorado) has inscribed on its
platform a long series of social and economic reforms, many of which
have in recent years been written on the statute books. In fact,
one may regard this little South American State as a vast social
laboratory in which experiments of interest not only to Uruguay but
to the world at large have taken place.

T

Labor Legislation.

rT'HE first important piece of legislation to demand notice is the
* law of July 21, 1914, for the prevention of accidents. Industrial
establishments, construction companies, railroads, mines, quarries,
and a long list of other industries are obliged to take effective measures
to safeguard their employees from accident. The law has been
amplified and rendered enforceable by means of executive decrees
which specify in great detail the type of safeguards to be established
in each industry or group of industries. Provision is also made
for government inspection of machinery, installation of safety
appliances, and isolation of dangerous machinery. Each infraction
of the law is punished by a fine of 50 pesos.3
Despite the fact that many of the minute regulations of this law
are only imperfectly carried out there has been an encouraging de­
crease in industrial accidents. At the beginning of 1925 there were
55,500 persons employed in industries, according to the statistics
supplied by Dr. César Charlone, director of the National Labor
1Uruguay contains 71,153 square miles.
aIn 1924 the population amounted to 1,640,214.
_
,,,
..
s República Oriental del Uruguay. Legislación obrera del Uruguay. Año I, No. 1 (Montevideo, 1921),
pp. 27 et seq. The Uruguayan peso, which is divided into 100 centesimos, is worth slightly more than
the American dollar.

10


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LABOR LEGISLATION IN URUGUAY

11

Bureau.4 During the first six months of 1925 there were in Uruguay
3,095 reported industrial accidents. These included 6 cases of death,
1 of permanent total disability, 13 of partial disability, 2,957 of tem­
porary disability; in the remaining 118 cases no data are available.
An examination of the machinery in the larger industrial establish­
ments in Montevideo, especially the great packing houses, reveals
fully as many and as efficient safety devices as are to be found in
corresponding plants in the United States. On the other hand, the
introduction of labor-saving devices has proceeded rather slowly.
A great deal of carrying is done. Gangs of stevedores still load and
unload ships. Bricks, instead of being elevated by power, are thrown
or carried. Dirt and débris are removed by baskets. Compara­
tively few hand trucks and freight elevators are used.
Workmen's compensation law.—Another landmark in labor legisla­
tion closely allied to the accident prevention law is the law of Novem­
ber 26, 1920, providing for compensation for industrial accidents.5
The law is most comprehensive; not only does it refer to factories in
general but 218 industries are specifically mentioned. The law pro­
vides for compensation to the workmen as follows :
(a) For temporary disability lasting more than 7 days, half pay,
beginning the eighth day after the accident. If the incapacity lasts
longer than 30 days the compensation begins with the day following;
the accident.
(b) For permanent total disability, two-thirds of the wages for life.
(c) For permanent partial disability, a life annuity equal to onehalf the reduction in wages due to the disability. If the reduction is
less than 10 per cent no annuity is granted.
(d) For death by accident, the following annuities for the depend­
ents: For wife (until married again), or disabled husband, 20 per cent
of the annual wages of the deceased; in case of mother or father
living, minor children and dependent minors living in deceased’s
home, 15 per cent for one, 25 per cent for two, 35 per cent for three,
and 40 per cent for four or more, and in case neither mother nor father
is living, 20 per cent for each child.
At first sight this law would seem to contain extraordinarily liberal
provisions for the workmen. In reality, however, its scope is severely
limited by a clause that in cases in which the wage of the victim is
more than 750 pesos per year this sum, and not his actual wages, will
be taken as the basis for calculating the indemnity. It is obvious
that this provision adversely affects the compensation of all well-paid
laborers. For instance, 500 pesos becomes the maximum disability
compensation.
It is generally agreed that the workmen’s compensation law should
have as its logical corollary compulsory insurance. In Uruguay ex­
cept in the case of public employees there is no legislation forcing
industries existing when the law was passed to carry insurance for
their workmen. In practice, however, almost all of the more impor­
tant industries carry such insurance with the State Insurance Bank
(Banco de Seguros del Estado). The premiums are not excessive and
the industry is relieved of all risk as well as of the task of caring for
the victims of accidents. The expenses incurred by the employees
* El Libro del Centenario Uruguayo (Montevideo, 192G), p. 339: “ Legislación Obrera Uruguaya.”
t Legislación Obrera del Uruguay, pp. 63 et seq.


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MONTHLY LABOE BEVIEW

are regarded as a legitimate charge on the industry and in most cases
are passed on to the public. The insurance bank maintains a regular
staff of physicians who render assistance to the employees when
accidents arise.
The workmen, like the employers, are, on the whole, satisfied
with the operations of the law. Employees pay no direct premiums.
They are well attended in case of accidents, and in case of disability,
they and their families are not deprived of all resources. The law
seems to be well enforced. No license is granted to any new industry
coming within the scope of the law until guaranties are given that all
workmen will be insured. A lawyer is appointed whose especial
duty it is to see that all obligations on the part of the insurance bank
are met. The law is sufficiently clear and enforceable to make
unnecessary any great amount of litigation. Of the 3,095 industrial
accidents noted above as occurring in the first six months of 1925,
2,046 of the victims were granted half-salary compensation, 85 were
not insured (but 1 of these was granted compensation by his em­
ployer) 9 cases were pending when the report for the period was
published, and for 943 no data were available.

Eight-hour law.6—This important piece of legislation was promul­
gated on November 17, 1915. The Uruguayans regard this law as
one of their most important conquests in the domain of social reform.
At first of very wide application, its scope was somewhat restricted
by executive decrees, notably those of January 31, 1916, and May 21,
1921. At the present time the following industries and occupations
are not subject to its provisions: Agriculture and stock raising,
domestic service, chauffeurs of public automobiles, directors and
managers of industrial and commercial houses. On the other
hand no establishment is too small to escape the provisions of the
law; the same is true even of shops in which members of the same
family are employed. Eight continuous hours, however, are per­
mitted in certain industries. More than 8 hours are allowed in the
case of maritime and port labor, provided that the total does not
exceed 48 hours per week. A 15-minute rest after two hours of
ironing is obligatory in laundries. The eight-hour law was extended
in 1923 to include all employees of hospitals and sanatoriums.

In general the eight-hour law is accepted as the permanent law of
the land. No political party seeks its repeal, and there is a move­
ment—thus far of small proportions—to extend it to include domestic
help and farm labor, The objection to the law naturally comes from
the side of the industrialists, especially the managers of great packing
houses. They declare they can not pay a man for 10 hours when he
works only 8. Thus they justify a wage of less than a peso and
a half per day for seasonal labor. One also hears the complaint
that Uruguayan industries are handicapped in the competition
with Argentina and Brazil, where the eight-hour law is not operative.
The sponsors of the eight-hour law believed that it would afford
opportunity for improving the lot of the laboring classes. In some
measure these hopes have been realized. It has been a boon to
young men of ambition. The night schools provided by the Govern­
ment in Montevideo have enabled many employees to fit themselves
for more remunerative positions.
6 Leglislacion Obrera del Uruguay, pp. 79 et seq.


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LABOB LEGISLATION IN UBUGUAY

The law has been reasonably well enforced. While minor in­
fractions are not infrequent, flagrant disobedience is rare, as inspectors
are everywhere present. During the year 1926, 64 establishments or
individuals were convicted and fined for breaking the law. That the
law is effective in preventing exploitation, especially of the newly
arrived and ignorant immigrants, is beyond dispute.
One day’s rest in seven.7—Laws making one rest day each week
obligatory were passed November 19 and December 10, 1920. These
laws were much more inclusive than the eight-hour law, but rural
labor was not included even in these. When one recalls that Uruguay
is predominately a pastoral and agricultural country, the compara­
tively limited application of this legislation is apparent. Through a
mass of regulations, adjustments to the special exigencies of practi­
cally every type of industry are provided. In general the period of
rest falls on Sunday and consists of 24 consecutive hours. When this
is not practicable another day of the week may be substituted for
Sunday. When the industry in question must function continually
one day of rest is required after 5 days of work. It is obvious,
however, that employers are loath to adopt this latter provision,
and in 1924 less than 9 per cent of the laborers fell in this category.
In certain cases it is permitted to give two half days off instead of
one whole day, or a half day may be given every Sunday and some
other day every two weeks. Another privilege is the arrangement
between employer and employee whereby the rest days may accumu­
late for a monthly, quarterly, or semiannual vacation.
The following table indicates the manner in which the law was
carried out in 1924:8
PR O V ISIO N S FO R W E E K L Y R E ST FOR W OR K ER S IN C O M M E R C IA L A N D I N D U S ­
T R IA L E ST A B L ISH M E N T S IN U R U G U A Y IN 1924
Number of workers in com­
mercial e sta b lish m e n ts Number of workers in indus­
trial establishments having—
having—
Department

Montevideo ___ _________ .
Other departments___________
Total _______ ______

Sunday
off

Week
day off

One day
in six off

Sunday
off

Week
day off

11,498
4,032

5,012
1, 501

2, 345
1,012

31, 452
9,808

10,089
1,404

2,305
442

15, 530

0,513

3,357

41, 260 J

11, 493

2,747

One day
in six off

As a result of this law, the six-day week is all but universal in the
field of industry, commerce, and domestic service, in the larger
communities at least. In small and isolated establishments in the
interior of Uruguay difficulties of enforcement occur; but the law is
known, the rest day is demanded and is generally accorded. This
law is a boon for domestic workers who in most countries in Latin
America are subject not only to long hours but also to week-in weekout continuous service. In general, employers have cooperated in
carrying out this legislation and no perceptible difference has been
made in regard to wages.
7 Legislación Obrera del Uruguay, pp. 185 et seq.
8 El Libro del Centenario del Uruguay (Montevideo, 1925), p. 339: “ Legislación Obrera Uruguaya.”


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Minimum wage jor rural laborers.—The social and labor legislation
thus far reviewed has been designed chiefly to improve the lot of the
urban laborers and employees; this despite the fact that Uruguay is
predominantly a pastoral and rural country. The causes of this
anomaly are not far to seek. Thanks to their effective organiza­
tions, workmen in the cities can exert an influence in political spheres
not enjoyed by the rural laborers, while difficulties of enforcing labor
laws in the sparsely settled interior are formidable. Finally, the dom­
inant political party has recruited most of its strength from the in­
habitants of Montevideo and the other large towns and as a conse­
quence has been somewhat less concerned with the plight of the
l a b o r e r s on the g r e a t e s t a n c i a s .
The first serious attempt to remedy this discrimination was the
passage, on February 15, 1923, of the law establishing a minimum
wage for rural laborers (salario minimo rural).9 The minimum wage
set is 18 pesos per month, or 72 centésimos per day. The em­
ployer is also obliged, at the option of the laborer, either to provide
hygienic sleeping quarters and good food or pay an additional 50
centésimos per day or 12 pesos per month. Furthermore, one day’s
rest in seven is obligatory.10 The law applies to rural properties
with an assessed valuation of more than 20,000 pesos. In the case
of properties of more than 60,000 pesos assessed value the minimum
wage was increased by an executive decree of April 8, 1924,11 to 80
centésimos per day, or 20 pesos per month.
An additional executive decree provides for the issuance by the
bureau of labor of “ booklets of control” (libretas de contralor) for
the individual laborer. These booklets contain the following data:
Name, nationality, age, residence, and civil status of boththelaborer
and employer; the location and assessed value of the establishment;
the date on which the work began, the conditions of contract, amount
of wages, provisions for board and room, the day of rest, etc. _ These
reports are kept by the employers and are periodically examined by
Government inspectors.
One of the writers had occasion to spend some time on a number
of large Uruguayan estancias, and, to the best of his knowledge, the
law of minimum wage has proven a distinct success. Rural laborers
are cognizant of its terms, the reports are universally kept, inspectors
regularly make their rounds, and recalcitrant establishments are
forced to live up to the provisions of the law. During 1926, 137
fines were collected for breaking this law. Instances have arisen
where employees signed for the legal wage and without protest
received less. I t is impossible to determine how common is this
deceit, but it can not be very general, for the average wage of coun­
try laborers has gradually risen to 18 pesos, the legal minimum lor
the middle-size establishments. Indirectly, therefore, all rural labor
has benefitted from the law.
National Bureau of Labor

'T'HE enforcement and regulation of labor laws is in the hands of
A the National Bureau of Labor (Oficina Nacional del Trabajo)
under the general direction of the Minister of Industries. Only the
8 Jiménez de Aréchaga: Leyes, Decretos y Resoluciones Usuales. Montevideo, 1926, pp. 575 et seq.
10 This provision applies to all rural properties, irrespective of size.
11 Jiménez de Aréchaga: Leyes, Decretos y Resoluciones Usuales. Montevideo, 1926, p. 578.


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LABOR LEGISLATION IN URUGUAY

15

most important of the activities of the bureau can be noted here.
Inspectors see that the provisions of the eight-hour and minimumwage laws are carried out, and a lawyer of the bureau sees to it that
employees receive their accident compensation. All licenses to new
industries must be countersigned by the bureau. Inspectors see
that every establishment has its one day of weekly rest for every
employee. To assure more adequate enforcement of the existing
labor laws in 1923, two subdivisions of the bureau were established
in the interior of the country. For the fiscal year 1924-25 the
expenses of the bureau amounted to approximately 15,000 pesos.12
Other activities of the bureau of labor include the maintenance of
a free employment agency;13 the publication of a monthly bulletin,
the Cronica de la Oficina Nacional del Trabajo;14 the investigation
of labor conditions both at home and abroad; and the drafting of
legislative proposals. The bureau has also attempted to act as
mediator in industrial disputes, but with very meager success. This
failure is due in large part to the fact that the labor movement, in
so far as it is organized, is largely of the radical syndicalist type and
reposes no confidence in the bureau of labor, which it considers as
an organ of capitalism.
Woman and Child Labor

A T THE present time only one measure dealing with the subject
of woman and child labor is on the statute books. This is the
so-called “ chair law” (ley de la silla),15 passed on July 10, 1918.
The law makes obligatory in all stores, factories, and other estab­
lishments the installation of chairs in sufficient number to permit
all woman employees to sit when not engaged in work requiring a
standing position. According to the director of the bureau of labor,
the law is in force and obeyed. Investigation revealed that in
stores, at least, chairs are available. In the industrial establish­
ments, however, adequate provision does not seem to be made for
women whose work generally calls for a standing position.
Pending the enactment of further legislation the bureau of labor
attempts to throw certain safeguards about women and children in
industry. Two woman inspectors devote their whole time to this
task. They see that the “ chair law” is enforced, intercede in any
difficulty between woman workers and their employers, and en­
deavor to protect women and children from immoral and unsanitary
conditions of work.
There is a widespread conviction in Uruguay that the virtual absence
of laws looking to the protection of women and children in indus­
try forms a serious gap in the country’s social legislation. Accord­
ing to the present Minister of Industries, Doctor Acevedo Alvarez,16
there are 9,571 women employed in industry. Statistics regarding
the number of children gainfully employed are not available, but the
total must be impressive if the figures given by Doctor Acevedo for a
single establishment are at all typical. In the largest glass factory
12 República Oriental del Uruguay. Presupuesto General de Gastos para el Ejercicio Económico de
1924-25, P t. I, p. 282.
13 In 1925, 1,128 positions were secured through its efforts.
This publication, begun in 1925, was later forced to suspend owing to lack of funds.
18 Jiménez de Aréchaga: Leyas, Decretos y Resoluciones Usuales. M ontevideo, 1926, p. 539.
1« E l D ía, Apr. 1, 1927.


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

of Montevideo, for instance, some 50 per cent of the 476 employees
are less than 18 years of age, while 29 are between 10 and 14 and 36
between 14 and 15. The same authority points out that children
employed in industrial establishments are accustomed to labor the
regulation eight hours, irrespective of their age. >
To meet this admittedly deplorable situation there has been
introduced into the Uruguayan Congress, partly through the efforts
of the bureau of labor, a comprehensive bill dealing with the labor
of women and children. Its outstanding provisions are as followsProhibition of any kind of gainful employment in the case of chil­
dren under 15 years of age.
A maximum of four hours of work per day for boys and girls under
18 years and of six hours for those under 21.
Absolute prohibition of night work in factories, shops, or stores for
women and for boys under 18 years of age.
Children under *18 can not be employed in factories or shops until
they have completed the sixth grade in school and have passed a
physical examination—given free by the public health depart­
ment—showing them to be fit for the work. They can not be em­
ployed in occupations detrimental to health or morals.
Women are to be granted 12 weeks’ vacation on two-thirds pay at
time of childbirth.
Factories and shops employing women must have a day nursery
attached.17
Old-age Pensions

O N E topic closely allied to but lying slightly outside the field of
^
labor legislation is that of pensions. For many years public
employees of almost every catego^ have been eligible to pensions and
retirement allowances. The Government has been extraordinarily
liberal in this respect. In the fiscal year 1924-25 nearly 2,000,000
pesos were expended for these purposes, of which amount consid­
erably over half went to civilians and the remainder to members
of the military and their families.18 Our interest, however, lies in a
pension of an entirely different type. On February 11, 1919, was
passed the law providing for old-age pensions.19 Every person who,
on arriving at the age of 60, is incapable of work and is indigent is
entitled to a minimum yearly pension from the State of 96 pesos or its
equivalent in direct or indirect aid. This amount is not absolute
but is determined in part by the National Insurance Bank, which
administers the pensions. On October 11, 1926, the directors of the
bank raised the sum to 9 pesos per month for the calendar year 1927.20
On August 31, 1924, the recipients of this pension numbered to 24,336,
entailing an expenditure for the first half of the calendar year 1924 of
slightly over 1,000,000 pesos.21 The revenues for the pension fund
are derived from several sources, of which the most important are
the contributions of 20 centesimos monthly payable by employers
for each of their employees and a graduated surtax on all real estate
whose value is not less than 200,000 pesos. Opinion among social
17 E l D ía, Mar. 21,1927, where the chief provisions of the law are analyzed.
18 República Oriental del Uruguay. Presupuesto General de Gastos para el Ejercicio Económico de
1924-25, P t. I, pp. 335 et seq.
19 Jiménez de Aréehaga: Leyes, Decretos y Resoluciones Usuales. Montevideo, 1926, pp. 541 et seq.
20 El D ía, Oct. 12, 1926.
21 E l Libro del Centenario. Montevideo, 1926, p. 337.


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LABOK LEGISLATION IN URUGUAY

17

workers in Uruguay is practically unanimous regarding the benefits
of the old-age pension law, and there is every likelihood that the
amounts paid will, as time goes on, show a substantial increase.
Conclusion

/"AUR brief survey of the existing labor legislation of Uruguay should
^
warrant the statement that this progressive South American
State need not fear comparison in the domain of social welfare with
the United States and the more advanced nations of Europe. Not
merely has a fairly complete and coherent system of laws been written
on the statute books, but the laws are enforced with honesty and
intelligence. That serious gaps still exist is admitted by all pro­
gressive Uruguayans. The most serious omission, as has already been
indicated, is adequate protection for children and women in industry.
There has also been a tendency to further the interests of the urban
laborer and to neglect his fellow* worker in the country. Finally,
there is a real need for a comprehensive labor code. Such an instru­
ment would correct the defects of the present legislation, fill the
existing gaps, and coordinate the various stipulations scattered
through the Civil Code relative to labor contracts. It is encouraging
to note that the director of the labor bureau, Doctor Charlone, in
collaboration with Sr. César Mayo Gutiérrez, former Minister of
Industries, has prepared such a labor code and that it will shortly
be submitted to Congress for approval.22
22

The chief provisions of this draft are given in El Dia for Apr, 16, 1927.


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INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS AND LABOR
CONDITIONS
E n g lish T rad es D isp u te s an d T r a d es-U n io n A ct.

N JULY 29, 1927, the English act relating to trade-unions and
trade disputes, having passed both houses of Parliament,
received the royal assent and became law. The original
terms of the bill were given in the Labor Review for May, 1927 (pp.
122-124), but a number of amendments were made before the act
was passed. The Ministry of Labor Gazette (London) for August,
1927, gives_ a summary of the amended provisions of the new law.
A strike is declared illegal if it (1) has any object other than or in
addition to the furtherance of a trade dispute within the trade or
industry in which the strikers are engaged ; and (2) is a strike designed
or calculated to coerce the Government either directly or by inflicting
hardship upon the community. Illegal lockouts are defined in
similar terms, and it is declared illegal to commence or continue, or
to apply any sums in furtherance or in support of, any such illegal
strike or lockout.

O

A tr a d e d isp u te is n o t to be deem ed to be w ith in a tra d e or in d u stry unless
i t is a d isp u te betw een em ployers a n d w orkm en, o r betw een w orkm en a n d
w orkm en, in t h a t tra d e o r in d u stry w hich is connected w ith th e em p lo y m en t or
nonem ploym ent, o r th e te rm s of th e em p lo y m en t, o r w ith th e co n d itio n s of
lab o r of persons in t h a t tra d e o r in d u s try . W ith o u t p reju d ice to th e g enerality
of th e expression “ tra d e o r in d u s try ,” w orkm en a re to be deem ed to be w ithin
th e sam e tra d e o r in d u s try if th e ir w ages o r conditions of em p lo y m en t are
d eterm in ed in acco rd an ce w ith th e conclusions of th e sam e jo in t in d u stria l
council, conciliation b o ard , o r o th e r sim ilar body, o r in accordance w ith ag ree­
m en ts m ade w ith th e sam e em ployer o r group o f'em ployers.

Penalties are provided for any violation of this provision, and the
protection formerly extended to trade-unions by the trade disputes
act of 1906, and continued under the emergency powers act of 1920,
are withdrawn; “ but no person is to be deemed to have committed
an offense under any regulations maffe under the emergency powers
act, 1920, by reason only of his having ceased work or having refused
to continue to work or to accept employment.”
. The second section provides that no trade-union shall have the
right to expel or otherwise to discipline any member who shall refuse
to take part or to continue to take part in any illegal strike, nor shall
such a member “ be placed in any respect either directly or indirectly
under any disability or at any disadvantage as compared with other
members of the union or society.” This is made retrospective so as
to include the strike of May, Î926.

The third section forbids picketing, if it includes intimidation, and
intimidation is defined in such terms as to make picketing of any
kind an impossibility under the law.
The fourth section changes the custom in regard to political con­
tributions from trade-union members. Hitherto, it has been the
practice for trade-unions to levy these contributions on all members
18

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T H E “ EXIT” INTERVIEW

19

unless they give notice in writing that they do not wish to contribute
for this purpose. Hereafter such contributions may be levied only
on those who give notice in writing that they wish to contribute for
this purpose.
The fifth section forbids civil-service employees to affiliate with
any trade-union organization including other than public employees.
Under this section the unions of civil-service employees are obliged
to withdraw from bodies such as the Trade Union Congress.
The sixth section forbids any local authority to make membership
or nonmembership in a trade-union a condition of employment. It
is also unlawful to make membership or nonmembership in a tradeunion a condition of any contract with a local or other public
authority.
The seventh section empowers the Attorney Gene al to apply for
an injunction to restrain any application of the funds of a trade-union
in contravention of the act.
Section 8 defines a “ strik e ,” for th e purposes of th is a c t, as m ean in g th e cessa­
tio n of w ork b y a b o d y of p ersons em ployed in a n y tr a d e o r in d u s try a c tin g in
co m b in atio n , o r a co n certed refusal, o r a refu sal u n d e r a com m on u n d e rsta n d in g ,
of a n y n u m b e r of persons w ho are, o r h a v e been, so em ployed, to c o n tin u e to w o rk
o r to a c c e p t em ploym en t. “ L o c k o u t” is defined as m ean in g th e closing of a
place of em p lo y m en t o r th e suspension of w ork, o r th e refu sa l b y a n em p lo y er
to co n tin u e to em ploy a n y n u m b e r of p ersons em ployed b y h im in consequence
of a d isp u te, done w ith a view to com pelling th o se persons, o r to a id a n o th e r
em ployer in com pelling p erso n s em ployed b y him , to a c c e p t te rm s o r conditions
of o r affecting em p lo y m en t. A strik e o r lo ck o u t is n o t to be deem ed to be cal­
cu lated to coerce th e G o v ern m en t unless such coercion o u g h t reaso n ab ly to be
expected as a consequence thereof.

The “ Exit” In terview
HE practice of conducting interviews with employees who are
leaving the service of a company is discussed in a leaflet en­
titled “ The exit interview,” published recently by the Policy­
holders Service Bureau, of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., the
study being based oil the experience of 60 companies.
Practically all of the companies conducting these exit interviews
are'said to indorse the idea, and the data obtained indicate that such
interviews are practical from the standpoint of time, cost, and results.
When an employee leaves with a grievance he is a company liability
just as much as a dissatisfied customer, and his grievance may be one
that affects the morale of the organization. Not only does the exit
interview afford a chance to learn the reasons for the employee’s
seeking work elsewhere, but useful information may also be obtained
regarding undesirable working conditions, foremen’s attitudes, and
so on, and the employee may be given pertinent information about
the policies of the company, as well as the opportunities it offers and
ways of taking advantage of them. The interview may also show
the reaction of certain types of employees to certain jobs, which helps
the company in determining the types of individuals suitable for
different kinds of work.
Most companies having 5,000 or more employees assign the duty of
conducting exit interviews to the regular employment interviewers or
to the employment manager or his assistant. In plants employing

T


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

between 200 and 5,000 the practice was found to be somewhat
different. In five-sixths of these plants the matter was handled by
the official corresponding to the employment manager or his chief
assistant; in the remaining one-sixth, by the foreman, paymaster,
employment clerk, interviewer, or nurse. In the majority of in­
stances the interviewer has authority to take action, but in unusual
cases he reports the matter to his superior.
Although it is pointed out that the questions asked in the exit
interview may naturally be expected to vary with the individual case,
the following were found to be typical of those asked:
1. W h a t’s th e tro u b le?
2. W h a t’s th e m a tte r, Jo h n , ta k in g a rest?
3. Is i t a m a tte r of m oney?
4. D id n ’t you lik e y o u r job?
5. H ow d id you g e t along w ith y o u r forem an?
6. H ow d id you lik e th e o th e r em ployees in y o u r d e p a rtm e n t?
7. A re you leaving w ith a clear u n d e rsta n d in g of th e a d v a n ta g e s of y o u r p res­
e n t job?
8. H av e you a n y rem ark s or com p lain ts to m ak e reg ard in g w orking conditions
or tr e a tm e n t w hile on th e job?
9. W h at in cen tiv e does y o u r new p lace of em p lo y m en t offer?
10. H av e you considered th e expense of m oving, etc.?
11. A re you im pro v in g yourself b y leaving?
12. W hy do you th in k y o u w ill a d v an ce m ore quick ly in a n o th e r o rg an izatio n ?
13. W ould you like to w ork for th e sam e fo rem an ag ain if you cam e back to us?
14. W h a t can you tell us t h a t will b e tte r th e service o r be" a good th in g fo r our
em ployees?
15. H ow long h av e you considered leaving?
16. D o you care to tra n sfe r to a n o th e r d e p a rtm e n t?
17. D o n ’t y o u lik e th is tow n?
18. H as y o u r add ress ch anged since you e n tered o u r em ploy?
19. H av e you a n o th e r job?
20. C an we help you g e t o th e r w ork?

The time and cost of these interviews will, of course, also vary in
the different cases. It was estimated by one larg’e company that the
time taken in interviewing 4,600 discharged, laid off, and quitting
employees during the first 11 months of 1926 averaged one hour a
day of two men’s time, or an average of about six and three-fourths
minutes to a case, with an interviewer’s salary cost of 10 cents a case.
Of these 4,600 employees, 195, or 4.2 per cent, remained in the com­
pany’s employment as a result of the interview.
Em ploym ent Procedure and in d ustrial Housing Work of
European Street-Railw ay Companies

MPLOYMENT methods in use by European street-railway
companies are more elaborate than those of American com­
panies, according to an article in the Electric Railway Journal.1
Applicants for employment must present the usual testimonials
as to character and pass the standard physical and intelligence tests.
But in addition an increasingly large number of companies are also
subjecting prospective employees to psychological tests to determine
their fitness for the job. Men already in the service may also be

E


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HOUSING WORK OF STREET RAILWAY COMPANIES

21

required to submit to periodical examinations both as to physical
and mental fitness. Thus the electric railway company in Paris
requires a more or less rigid physical and psychotechnical examina­
tion of its motormen every five years up to the age of 45, every three
years from 45 to 54 years of age, and every year thereafter. A
similar examination may also be required of any employee who has
just had an accident or a severe case of illness.
The records of this company disclose a tendency toward an increase
of accidents after the motorman or bus driver reaches the age of 55
to 60 years. I t is thought that the tests, by revealing perhaps un­
suspected physical and other defects that may be corrected, will act
as a check upon accidents. The records of the Paris company show
that accidents participated in by 100 motormen employed after the
system was put into effect were 163^ per cent fewer than those of 100
men engaged prior to the test system. During 1926 the street-railway
and bus accidents declined, although accidents from all other types
of vehicles in the city of Paris increased. While this can not alto­
gether be ascribed to the test system the street-railway officials
believe that to a large extent the system can be credited with the
reduction.
Among the tests given to the motorman or bus driver is that of
judging distances. Various objects representing cars and other
vehicles moving at different rates of speed are shown on a skeleton­
ized table, and the person taking the test is asked to indicate which
of these objects he thinks will collide with any of the others.^ Some
of the men are able to judge so instinctively that they can indicate
correctly, almost instantly, while others must wait until the objects
have almost come into contact.

Another examination tests the subject’s ability to handle a given
traffic situation. The man stands on a platform equipped like that
of a street car (or if he is to be a bus driver, like that of a bus) while
a moving picture is run off showing a crowded street with pedestrians
and various types of vehicles crossing before him. The man is
expected to make the movements with controller and brake handle
that he would if he were really operating the street car or bus.

Similar tests are given by the company operating the street-railway
system of Berlin, except that that company also_ adds a test to de­
termine the man’s acuteness of hearing as well as his ability to identify
the direction from which the sound comes.
Schools are maintained by many European traction companies in
which the mechanism and working of street car or bus are taught. The
largest school is that of the London omnibus company which has laid
out a series of test roads incorporating all the conditions which the
bus driver is likely to meet.
Housing Work of European Street-Railway Companies

MEARLY all companies have provided housing accommodation
^
for at least some of their employees in or near the car house.
“ This not only cuts down the time required by them to travel be­
tween their homes and place of employment, but is of value to the
company as it makes them more easily available in cases of emer­
gency.” Generally apartments are provided for several families on
the second or third floor of the car house itself.

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MONTHLY LABOE REVIEW

Some companies have undertaken housing projects on ground ad­
joining the car barns. The most extensive of these housing projects
is that of the Berlin surface-line companies which has erected apart­
ment buildings adjoining eight of its car barns, the buildings contain­
ing from 58 to 247 apartments each. The largest of these occupies
an entire city block, with the car barn in the middle of one side.

These apartments are rented to employees at rates considerably
lower than the current rate and are primarily for employees of the
company. If a worker leaves the employ of the firm, although he is
not obliged to vacate, he must pay a higher rent. The rents are
“ based on providing a sinking fund of 1 per cent a year on the cost
of the buildings after paying maintenance and interest on the
investment.”
The apartments are of 1, 2, and 3 rooms, exclusive of kitchen,
bathroom, and hall, and nearly every apartment has a balcony.
N a tiv e Labor C o n d itio n s an d P o p u la tio n P ro b lem s in N y a sa la n d ,
A frica

HE International Labor Review for July, 1927, contains an

T

article entitled “ Native labor conditions and population
problems in Nyasaland,” based on data taken from the
report on the Nyasaland census of 1926.1
The Nyasaland Protectorate has a land area of about 37,890 square
miles and a population of 1,290,885 natives, 1,656 Europeans, and
850 Asiatics. Its general location is southeast Africa.

The report states that the exodus of thousands of native laborers
from Nyasaland each year in search of work and adventure in South­
ern Rhodesia, where they often remain as long as 10 years and from
which they seldom return before 3 years have elapsed, is regarded
by many as a serious social problem in Nyasaland and as the foremost
cause tending to reduce the native birth rate below its normal figure,
although various native practices and superstitions are mentioned as
possible causes. Data obtained in the 1926 census of Nyasaland
show that the average birth rate per family is 6.32. This rate,
although not a high general birth rate, is thought to be “ high enough
to cause a rapid increase in the population If the death rates could
be reduced, and more especially if the expectation of life in adults
could be increased concurrently.” Of 13,644 children born to 2,159
women questioned, 12,180 were born alive and 1,464 were stillborn,
2,288 died before walking, and 3,032 died as children, leaving only
6,860, or slightly more than 50 per cent, who lived through childhood.
The average number of stillbirths per family was 0.68 and the deaths
before walking 1.06. These rates are believed to be unduly high
and are “ undoubtedly affected by the factors limiting the birth rate,
especially those arising from native conservatism and customs.”
The mortality of children between 2 and 14 years of age, according
to the figures cited, averaged 1.40 per family, or one child in every
four born. Among the causes given for this high rate are deaths
from accidental causes associated more or less with parental neglect,
^ Afriea (Nyasaland Protectorate).


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Superintendent of Census.

[738]

Report on the census of 1926. Zomba,

NATIVE LABOE CONDITIONS IN NY ASALAND, ABBICA

23

complete absence of organized medical attention within the reach of
the ordinary natives, and insufficient and unsuitable food during the
periods of food shortage which occur nearly every year in some part
of the Protectorate.
The problem of the emigration from the country of large numbers
of laborers, many of whom are married, has been recognized by the
Government in passing legislation by which natives “ are forbidden
by law to leave the Protectorate without a pass, and it is illegal to
recruit natives in Nyasaland for service outside. Before a pass is
issued the native is bound to satisfy the resident magistrate that
he has made provision for the support of his family and for the pay­
ment of his hut tax for the current and ensuing year, but Nyasaland
has hundreds of miles of open and unguarded border, and thousands
of natives leave for Southern Rhodesia each year without passes,
paying without demur the fine of 10s. or £1 ($2.43 or $4.87, par) for
having evaded the laws.”
The report places the number of temporary emigrants from Nyasa­
land who are employed in Southern Rhodesia at about 30,000, with
average earnings for each of £1 per month. It is reported that these
emigrants bring or send back home at least £100,000 a year, and it
is doubtful whether they could at present be employed at home
either in producing crops for export or in paid employment in such
a way as to provide an addition to the country’s net earnings after
meeting all expenses and their own maintenance and purchases on
the Rhodesian scale of an amount equivalent to the £100,000 actually
distributed.
Native labor, in the aggregate, is considered expensive because of
its inefficiency. It is said that “ the natural life of a native is not
conducive to sustained labor and unless some trouble is taken with
him he is not capable of regular work for a long period. Under
normal conditions, if he works at full pitch, three or four hours is
the limit of his effective day’s work. Subconsciously he adapts his
output of labor so that it will spread over the time he is called upon
to work. Overtime, however encouraged or rewarded, means a lower
standard of efficiency throughout the whole task, and the overtime
period is entirely wasted in many cases. The labor problem is not
one of numbers but of the efficiency of the unit, and that efficiency
is a medico-social matter which can only be solved by the combined
action of the natives themselves, the Government, and the employers
of labor.”
The natives of Nyasaland are afflicted with various physical ail­
ments, the most serious mentioned being leprosy, consumption, hook­
worm, and malaria, and very few of them live to_ be over 70 years
of age. Malnutrition, due to unsuitable diet, is said to be an impor­
tant factor in undermining their health. Hookworm is prevalent to
such an extent that it would probably be simplest to say that all
natives are infected. The increased prevalence in recent years has
been ascribed to the breakdown of tribal discipline. Headmen are
responsible for the sanitation of their villages, but they have little
power, and the administrative staff is not large enough to insure
that the sanitary measures laid down in theory are accomplished^ in
fact. The laziness and inefficiency so often complained of in native
laborers are believed to be due partly to hookworm and other com­
plaints and partly to undernourishment.

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[739]

24

MONTHLY LABOE EEVIEW

Under the “ employment of natives ordinance’’ an employer of
native laborers must see that they are fed. Natives working in
their own district may receive cash in lieu of rations if they desire,
as also may other natives between May 1 and October 31, the dry
season. The natives “ almost invariably exercise the option, as they
try and save on their ration money, not realizing the cost to their
health and efficiency, though there are indications of a change in the
natives’ attitude on this point.”
T he m inim um w eekly ra tio n scale u n d er th e o rdinance is slig h tly less liberal
th a n th e legal m in im u m fo r sh o rt-te rm prisoners. T h e scale fo r lo ng-term
prisoners (six m o n th s a n d over) w ould a p p e a r ex tra o rd in a rily lib eral to a laborer,
and it m ay be said w ith confidence t h a t v ery few free n a tiv e s g e t such a d iet
th ro u g h o u t th e year, alth o u g h th e m edical a u th o ritie s re g a rd i t as th e
irreducible m inim u m fo r a m a n u a l laborer.
I n 1910, alth o u g h a t t h a t tim e th e stu d y of food values h a d n o t a d v an ced
far, a com m ittee ap p o in te d to consider th e q u estio n of n a tiv e d ie ts in S o u th ern
R hodesia s ta te d th a t th e m in im u m allow ance of m e a t (1 p o u n d a w eek), as th e n
laid dow n for n ativ es w orking on th e m in es, w as u n d o u b te d ly insufficient.
T h e su p e rin te n d e n t of census p o in ts o u t t h a t if th e daily scale recom m ended
b y th is com m ittee is to be considered a reaso n ab le scale fo r a w orking n a tiv e
th e re rem ains no vestige of d o u b t t h a t th e N y asalan d n a tiv e is u n d ern o u rish ed
a n d t h a t t h a t is th e crux of th e local lab o r problem .

The superintendent recommends that the option of receiving
money in lieu of rations be taken away from native employees and
a revised ration scale prepared; that an adequate inquiry be insti­
tuted into the suitability of the normal native foodstuffs as a whole
and in particular localities, and into the possibility of introducing a
more suitable form of staple or subsidiary diet; and that in view of
the medical opinion that biological proteids are essential to a proper
diet, especially of a manual laborer, and in view of the fact that
the available meat supplies are inadequate, an inquiry be made into
the methods best calculated to increase the existing flocks and herds
and to insure a regular and sufficient supply of meat at a reasonable
price in those areas where it is most needed. But whatever steps
are taken by the Government to foster the health of the native popu­
lation the superintendent considers that a great responsibility rests
upon the employers of labor.

S u g g e sted M ean s o f U tiliz in g Workers* Spare T im e in C h ile 1

HE committee appointed recently by the Chilean Ministry of
Social Welfare to consider the utilization of workers’ spare
time has held several meetings and recommends that libraries
and museums should be open between 5 and 8 p. m., that gardens
and parks should be open between 5 and 10 p. m. without charge for
pedestrians, that popular concerts should be given after 5 p. m.,
and that a national stadium should be built and a national interest
in sports developed.

T

1 Chile Boletín del Ministerio de Higiene, Asistencia y Previsión Social, M ay, 1927, and International
.Labor Ornee, Industrial and Labor Information, Geneva, July 18, 1927, p. 01.


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[7401

PRODUCTIVITY OF LABOR
In creased P ro d u ctiv ity in V arious In d u strie s, 1899 to 1925

REVIOUS articles in the Labor Review have presented data
regarding the increased productivity of labor in various in­
dustries, particularly in manufacturing and in railroad trans­
portation. In the Commerce Yearbook for 1926 considerable space
is devoted to this subject and estimates given of the increase in
output per worker over the period 1899 to 1925 for agriculture and
mining, as well as for manufacturing. According to these estimates
the output per worker during the period referred to increased 45 per
cent in agriculture and 99 per cent in mining, as compared with 48
per cent in manufacturing and in railroad transportation, the aver­
age increase for all four groups being 79 per cent. This means that
for the major industries of the country the total output of 1925
could be produced with not very far from one-half the number of
workers which would have been required under conditions existing
in 1899.
The detailed explanations and compilations showing how these
results were obtained are presented below, together with an analysis
of certain of the factors responsible for the changing efficiency of
production. The text and tables are taken from the Commerce Year­
book for 1926/ with corrections in the figures for mining in Table 1
as subsequently made by the Department of Commerce.

P

Quantitative Increase in Production, 1899 to 1925

(CALCULATIONS as to the quantitative increase in the products
of agriculture, mining, and manufactures and in the volume of
railway traffic from 1899 to 1925 are summarized in Table 1. There
are no long-time data as to construction, a field in wnich the increase
during recent years has been exceptionally rapid. Still less possible
is it to measure the increase in the services (other than rail transport)
which do not incorporate themselves in tangible goods.
The data in the table are in part estimates and there may be a
margin of error of several per cent in some of the items. The broad
movement is, however, substantially as shown. The percentage of
increase given for the output of factories is almost certainly an
understatement. The quantitative figures from which the general
average is computed are necessarily confined largely to commodities
of simple type. Highly elaborate commodities in many instances
can not be reported at all in terms of quantity and in many other
cases the quantities are not comparable from census to census on
account of differences of quality, style, shape, and size. In a pro­
gressing country increase in output is naturally most marked in the
i United States. Department of Commerce. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce.
merce yearbook, 1926. Vol. I—United States. Washington, 1927, pp. 16-^4.

63952 ° — 27—

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3

[ 741 ]

25

Com­

26

M ONTHLY LABOE EE VIEW

unstandardized articles. Moreover the quantitative increase in
articles not themselves comparable quantitatively can not be satis­
factorily estimated by adjusting the statistics of their value by price
indexes. Price statistics of articles themselves are either not avail­
able or not comparable. It is not to be expected that the movement
of their prices should be parallel with that of standardized commodi­
ties, since a large proportion of them are newly developed articles in
the production of which improvements take place with exceptional
rapidity, while the exceptional increase in output likewise tends to
reduce cost of production.
T

able

1 . —G E N E R A L

IN D E X E S OF PR O D U C T IO N A N D W O R K E R S, 1925 IN R E L A T IO N TO
1899
Workers
(thousands)

Index 1925 (1899=100)

Value of output
(millions of dollars)

Industry

Agriculture______________________ _
Mining ____________
Manufactures_____________________
Transportation (railway)___________
Total or average___________

Work­ Quanti­ Output
tative
per
ers
output worker

1899

1925

10, 500
600
5,200
929

10,500
1,065
9, 772
1,846

100
177
188
198

145
348
278
293

145
199
148
148

3,500
600
4,830
1,300

12,400
4,300
26,775
5,602

17, 229

23,183

135

1 244

2 179

10, 230

49,077

1899

1925

1 Computed by giving the above percentages weights according to the relative importance of the several
branches in 1899, as determined by value of product.
2 Obtained by dividing the average index of increase in output (247) by the actual ratio of total workers
in 1925 to the total in 1899 (135). The figure exceeds the weighted average of the indexes of output per worker
in the several branches, because the increase in number of workers between 1899 and 1925 was confined to
branches in which the average value of output per worker is greater than it is in agriculture.

The combined output of agricultural, mineral, and manufactured
commodities, and of railroad transportation increased nearly two
and one-half times between 1899 and 1925. Population meantime
had increased 54 per cent, so that, per capita of the total population,
the output of these branches of industry increased nearly 60 per
cent.
The increase in production of goods and services not covered by
Table 1 has been greater than in these fields themselves. This is
indicated by the fact that the number of workers in these four branches
increased between 1899 and 1925 by only about 35 per cent as com­
pared with 54 per cent for the total population, reflecting the shift
from agriculture, and more recently from manufactures, into com­
merce, professional and personal service, and construction. It is
reasonable to assume that the increase in total output of goods and
services of all kinds, per person in the to.tal population, has been as
great as the increase in output per worker in the four great branches
of agriculture, mining, manufactures, and railroad transportation.
This increase has been about 80 per cent (calculated by dividing 244,
the relative number for output for 1925 as compared with 1899, by
135, the relative number for workers).2
2The calculations above summarized deal only w ith actual quantities, the combined percentages of
increase being made up by weighting the percentages of change in the individual commodities according
to their relative importance in terms of value. Roughly similar conclusions m ay be reached by adjusting
the reported value of products according to the general wholesale price index.


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[7421

PRODU CTI VIT Y IN VARIOUS INDUSTRIES

27

The increase in production per hour of gainful labor has been even
greater that the increase per worker. The hours of labor in every
industry have been cut down during the past quarter century. Cen­
sus statistics regarding hours of labor go back only to 1909. They
show a reduction of 11 per cent between that year and 1923 (data
for 1925 not yet being available!. As compared with 1899 the reduc­
tion in hours for factory workers has probably been at least 15 per
cent. In the other major branches of industry working hours have
been cut down similarly.
Changes in Production From Census to Census

detailed analysis of the available data indicates that there
was a decided increase in production per person employed in the
major branches of industry from the beginning of the century down
to the outbreak of the World War, and a still more rapid increase
after the close of the war. The movement is to some extent obscured
by the fact that the year 1914, in which the quinquennial census of
manufactures was taken, was one of considerable depression. Con­
sequently little if any increase appeared in the output per worker
in manufacturing industries between 1909 and 1914. Had the
census covered the more normal year 1913 the upward trend dis­
closed by the two preceding censuses would have been found con­
tinuing. From 1899 to 1909 the number of wage earners in factories
increased about 40 per cent, while the physical volume of production
increased at least 60 per cent.
The exceptional demand for certain types of commodities during
the war resulted in very great activity of business. Many women
were called from the homes, and many men from the farms, to the
factories, while the farmers in turn by greater effort were able to
increase their production. The process of expanding output, how­
ever, carried with it great dislocation of industry—the employment
of many workers on unfamiliar tasks, the turning of much machinery
to purposes for which it was but little adapted, and the hasty erection
of plants. Consequently efficiency of industry fell below normal.
Production per worker in factories was no greater in 1919 than in
the depressed year 1914. A very similar experience befell the
railways.
The Increase in Production Since 1919

'T H E increase in production of the major industries since 1919 has
been rapid and at the same time there has been a diminution in
the number of workers in these industries, so that the increase in
output per worker has been decidedly greater. The changes are
shown in Table 2. In this table also some of the figures are approxi­
mate only, but it is probable that they understate rather than over­
state the increase in production.


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28
T

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

able

2 .—

G E N E R A L IN D E X E S OF P R O D U C T IO N A N D W O R K ER S, 1925 IN R E L A T IO N TO
1919
Workers
(thousands) 1

Index 1925 (1919=100)

Value of output
(millions of dollars)

Industry

Agriculture____________________ .
M ining_______ _ _______
Manufactures___ _____________ : _
Transportation (railway) 2 ______
Total or average_______________

Work­ Quanti­ Output
per
tative
ers
output worker

1919

1925

11, 300
1,065
10, 689
1,915

10, 500
1,065
9, 772
1,744

93
100
91^
91

24,969

23,081

93

1 Estimates.

108
133

1919

1925

104K

118
133
140
115

15,700
3,175
24, 750
4,721

12,400
4, 300
26| 775
5, 602

120

129

48, 346

49,077

128}4

2 Data based on Class I roads.

Between 1919 and 1925 the output of the agricultural industry
increased approximately 8 per cent, of mining 33 per cent, of manu­
factures 28H per cent, and of transportation 4 3^ per cent. In each
of these branches, except perhaps mining, as to which there are no
complete statistics, there were fewer persons employed in 1925 than
in 1919, and the increase in output per worker ranges from about 18
per cent for agriculture to 40 per cent for manufactures.
For the four branches combined the increase in output (ascertained
by weighting the percentages of increase in the individual branches
by the relative value of their products in 1919) was approximately
one-fifth, while there was a decrease of about 7 per cent in the number
of workers. The output per worker, therefore, was nearly 30 per
cent greater in 1925 than in 1919.
As already stated, the production of 1919 was relatively inefficient
so that the increase in output per worker in recent years is greater
than would have been the case had normal conditions prevailed
throughout the world. That this is far from being the only explana­
tion of the increase, however, is shown apart from other evidences,
by comparison of the normal and prosperous year 1923 with the
normal and prosperous year 1925. The number of wage earners in
American factories declined by 4.4 per cent but the quantity of
output increased by 6 or 7 per cent, the output per worker being at
least 11 per cent greater in 1925 than in 1923. Similarly the railways
(Class I carriers) carried practically the same volume of traffic in
1925 as in 1923 (slightly greater freight and somewhat less passenger
traffic) but were able to do so with 7 per cent fewer employees.
Major Factors in Advancing Industrial Efficiency

"J~TIE fact that national output per capita has long been greater
in the United States than in most other countries is in some
measure owing to the abundance of agricultural land in proportion
to the population, and the abundance and variety of mineral resources.
During the earlier history of the country its progress was in consid­
erable part owing to the opening up of new resources. The increase
in output during recent decades, however, can not be attributed to
this cause. There have been some new discoveries of minerals,
notably of petroleum, but these contributions have been offset by
the partial using up of other resources and by the necessity, with the

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[744]

29

PEODUCTIVITY IN YAEIOUS INDUSTRIES

growth of population, of extending cultivation to somewhat inferior
lands. The principal factors in. the recent increase in productivity
are, therefore, human as distinguished from natural factors.
Education and Research

AMONG these factors is the advance in education and scientific
research. (Table 3.) Taking account both of the proportion
of the children in school and of the average duration of attendance,
the amount of elementary and secondary instruction given in 1924
was 154 per cent greater than in 1870, and 85 per cent greater than
in 1890. In 1890 about
per cent of the children between the
ages of 14 and 17 years were in high schools and academies; in 1924
over 33 per cent. Of persons 18 to 21 years of age about lj^ per
cent were in colleges and universities in 1890, and more than 7lA
per cent hi 1924. Meantime instruction has become much better
in quality and especially more practical and more conducive to
thinking power and to productive capacity. The rapidly expanding
scientific research in colleges and universities, in endowed research
institutions and in laboratories of great industrial concerns, has
also proved of great practical importance in the progress of industry.
T a b l e 3 — PRO G RESS OF E D U C A T IO N IN T H E U N IT E D ST A T ES

1870

Item
Pupils in elementary and secondary schools, per cent of total
Expenditure for elementary and secondary schools per person
Average annual salary of teachers in elementary and secondary

1890

1920

77.8
121

1924

82.8
132

57.0
78

68. 6
86

73. 5
113

$5

$7

$24

$37

$62

$252
298
5.6

$485
1.032
14. 3

$871
2,041
26.4

$1, 227
2,754
33.2

78
1.5

204
2.8

414
5.6

607
7.7

78

189

341

13.3
7.7
6.2
57.1

7.7
5.0
3.0
30.4

6.0
4.0
2.0
22.9

$189

Pupils in collegiate, postgraduate, and professional courses,
Receipts of institutions of higher learning, exclusive of addiPercentage of illiterates in population 10 years of age and over:

1910

20.0
11.5
81. 4

Capital

ANOTHER factor in the progress of industry is the large and
increasing use of capital. The reports of corporations for taxa­
tion purposes furnish significant data as to capital used in produc­
tion; the great bulk of industry is conducted by corporations. The
combined assets of corporations in the fields of mining, manufac­
turing, transportation, and public utilities in 1924 were more than
$90,000,000,000, of which about $28,000,000,000 were in the form
of current assets—inventory, accounts receivable, and cash—and the
remainder in fixed assets—plant and equipment. In the mining
industry the assets of corporations were equal to about $10,500 per
wage earner employed (including the wage earners of noncorporate
concerns). The corresponding proportion for manufacturing indus­
tries was about $5,250, and for the steam railroads more than $8,000.

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[745]

30

MONTHLY LABOE REVIEW

The amount of capital used is rapidly increasing. The increase in
the savings deposits in banks, the increase in assets of building and
loan associations, the premiums paid to life insurance companies
less the operating expenses, and the additions to surpluses of corpora­
tions, together total about $6,000,000,000 annually. There are, of
course, many other forms of savings, apart from these. It has been
roughly estimated that the total annual savings amount to about
$10,000,000,000. These savings largely go directly to aid production.
They include also, however, sums invested, as in homes and public
improvements, for the purpose of producing not salable commodities
or services but a continuous use or enjoyment.
Machinery and Power

T H E use of capital in industry is reflected conspicuously in the
^ machine equipment of farms, factories, mines, and other pro­
ductive enterprises. The relative abundance of capital makes it
possible with advantage to discard promptly the less efficient machine
in favor of the more efficient.
A rough measure of the use of machinery is furnished by the sta­
tistics of the capacity of prime movers. In manufacturing industries
each wage earner on the average is aided by prime movers of a capacity
oi 4.3 horsepower' in 1899 the average was 2.1. The power employed
on American railways has similarly increased. The average capacity
oi the individual locomotive has doubled since 1900 and it requires
no more men to operate a locomotive than before.
^ A still broader view of the use of power is gained from the data of
the production of mineral fuels and of water power. The output
of these fuels and water power, reduced to the terms of equivalent
of coal, has averaged during recent years about 7 tons per capita
of the entire population, a figure four or five times greater than
half a century ago, and about twice as great as in 1900. Moreover
the heat and energy derived have increased much more still by
reason of the growing efficiency with which fuels are utilized.
Mass Production

C X C E PT in agriculture, where the so-called one-man farm has
thus lar proved more efficient, American industry is charac­
terized by large-scale production.
In 1923 there were more than 10,000 manufacturing establishments
in this country with an output each exceeding $1,000,000, and these
together contributed two-thirds of the value of all factory products,
t here were nearly 1,000 factories each employing more than 1,000
wage earners and these together reported 2,100,000 employees out of
an aggregate of 8,800,000 in all plants. Considerably more than half
of the total number of factory workers were in plants employing 250
or more wage earners each. The relative importance of large plants
has increased materially; in 1909 (the first year for which comparable
statistics are available) 43 per cent of all factory wage earners were in
plants with more than 250 employees.


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[746]

31

PRODUCTIVITY IN VARIOUS INDUSTRIES
T

able

4

—R E L A T IO N OF PO W ER E Q U IP M E N T TO N U M B E R OF W ORKERS

[Source: Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce, and Interstate Commerce Commission]

Wage earners

Industry group and year

Manufacturing industries:
1899
________ __________________________
1909
____________________________
1914
. _ _________________________________
1919
_____________________________
1923
.
- . ________________________________
1925 ........................................ ....... ............
M ining and quarrying:
1902 _____________ ______ ___________
1909 - ____________________________________ _____ 1919.
_______________________________

Railways:
Fiscal year-

1899 ____
1909____
1914____
Calendar year—
Class I—
1919
1923
1925

4,713,000
6,615,000
7,036, 000
9,096, 000
8,778, 000
8,384,000

10, 000,000
18,675, 000
22,437,000
29, 504,000
33,094,000
35,735, 000

2. 1
2.8
3.2
3.2
3.8
4.3

581,728
1,065, 283
1,088,189

2,867,562
4,608,253
6,723, 786

4.9
4.3
6.2

Number
of em­
ployees

Industry group'and year

Horsepower
per wage
earner

Horsepower of
prime movers

Aggregate
tractive
Total capower of pacity of
locomo- freight cars
tives

000 pounds

Tons

Per employee

Trac­ Car
tive capac­
power ity
Pounds Tons.

929,000
1, 503,000
1, 710,000

1 660,000 1 34,980,000
1, 549,000 73, 665,000
1, 932,000 90,977,000

710
1,030
1,130

37.7
49.0
53.2

21, 935,000
21, 879,000
21, 769,000

2, 313,000 99,001,000
2, 544, 000 101, 318,000
2, 587,000 105,570,000

1,200

1,350
' 1,460

51.2
53.9
59.7

1 Number of locomotives, 36,703; estimated average capacity, 18,000 pounds. Number of cars, 1,295,510;
estimated average capacity, 27 tons.
2 Including Class I switching and terminal companies; 1919 estimated as to such companies.

Large scale production is particularly conducive to low costs where
processes are repetitive—that is, where large quantities of the same
product are turned out. The big plant can in such cases introduce
highly specialized machinery adapted to the various particular tasks,
whereas the smaller plant must often use machines intended for more
general purposes, turning them first to one and then to another
operation. Repetition also permits close specialization of labor.
The great magnitude of the domestic market has much to do with
large-scale operation of plants. The United States has a population
much greater than that of any other country of high standard of
living and the per capita income of its people averages much higher
than in most other countries. For many manufactured articles the
American market is greater than that of all other countries combined.
In Europe the many national boundaries place barriers on the dis­
tribution of products, and tend to limit the size of the plants producing
any given article.
Elimination of Waste

j\/[UCH of the progress of industry, especially during recent years,
has been owing to the fact that problems of production and dis­
tribution have been systematically studied. The result has been to
render discovery, invention, and improvement largely an organized
and continuous process rather than a haphazard one. This move­
ment has come to be commonly designated as “ elimination of waste”

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[747 ]

32

MONTHLY LABOE BEVIEW

or “ simplified practice. ” These systematic movements are conducted
by individual corporations and other concerns, by associations of
producers, dealers and consumers, by special research organizations,
by universities, and by the Federal and State Governments. There is
a growing practice of cooperation among all interests toward this end.
One of the several important directions taken in recent years has
been concerted agreement for the simplification of products. In
scores of branches of industry producers, dealers, and consumers
have agreed to the cutting out of unnecessary sizes, shapes, and
varieties of products, concentrating production on a limited number
of standard forms, with the consequent marked reduction in average
unit cost.


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[748]

MINIMUM WAGE
M in im u m W age D e cisio n s, M a ssa c h u setts

HE minimum wage division of the Massachusetts State Depart­
ment of Labor and Industries has recently issued a report of
its activities for the year ended November 30, 1926. During
this period decrees establishing minimum rates of wages in two
occupations were entered, one affecting employees in candy factories
and the other employees in jewelry and related lines.
The rate of $13 per week fixed for experienced workers in the candy
occupation supersedes the $12.50 rate entered July 19, 1919, and
became effective March 1, 1926. The rate for beginners and learners
was fixed at $9 per week. A rate of $14.40 per week was decreed
for female employees of ordinary ability in the manufacture of jewelry
and related lines, with a special minimum rate for beginners of $12
a week. The decree became effective January 1, 1927.
In the course of the regular inspection work for the year wage records
were secured for 36,454 women in 1,361 establishments under 15
decrees. Of this number 34,479, or 94.6 per cent, represented full
compliance. In 1,030 establishments with 22,753 employees full
compliance was shown at the time of the first inspection. There
were 1,968 cases of noncompliance found in 328 establishments, the
majority of which were in firms that had been previously advertised
because of their noncompliance.
Wage records were secured for 4,542 women in 115 candy factories,
and for 4,450 women in 80 establishments manufacturing stationery
goods and envelopes. There were 90 cases in 29 candy factories
requiring adjustment and 221 cases in 39 stationery-goods establish­
ments; the greater number of these were settled before the close of
the year.
Noncompliances under the candy decree represent 0.2 per cent of
the employees for whom records were secured and 1.7 per cent in the
case of the establishments. Under the stationery-goods and envelopes
decree the noncompliance cases represent 0.4 per cent with respect to
the employees and 1.3 per cent with respect to establishments.
The result of a study of the wages of women employed in the
manufacture of electrical machinery and supplies in 16 cities made
in 1925 discloses that out of 2,443 cases in 34 firms nearly one-half
(47.1 per cent) were earning under $15 a week, and nearly one-third
(31.8 per cent) under $13 a week. Of the 761 women paid on a time
basis two-thirds (65.2 per cent) had rates for full-time employment
below $15 a week, and more than one-third (36.8 per cent) had rates
below $13 a week.

T


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33

34

MONTHLY LABOE REVIEW

M inim um Wage and Native Labor in South Africa
KCCORDING to Industrial and Labor Information, of the Inter­
national Labor Office, for July 11, 1927, the Government of
South Africa was recently called upon to defend itself for
having established a minimum wage of a shilling an hour for some
forms of unskilled labor. Unskilled labor in South Africa is usually
performed by natives or colored workers, and the charge was made
that the rate thus fixed was too high, leading to demands from
other natives and rousing unrest among those not receiving it.

A

In th e S o u th A frican H ouse of A ssem bly on M ay 19, 1927, a m em b er of th e
opposition drew a tte n tio n to th e inclusion in G o v ern m en t c o n tra c ts b y th e
M inister of P o sts a n d T eleg rap h s of a clause stip u la tin g fo r th e p a y m e n t of a
m in im u m ra te of w age fo r unskilled lab o r of 8s. a d ay fo r a d a y of eig h t hours.
H e arg u ed t h a t such a m inim um w age policy could n o t be lim ited to G o v ern ­
m e n t co n tra c ts, a n d t h a t i t h a d in fa c t caused excessive w age d em an d s am ong
n a tiv e ag ric u ltu ra l w orkers. H e also criticized th e m in iste r fo r a tte m p tin g to
ju stify his actio n b y info rm in g th e n a tiv e s t h a t th e y could n o t live d ecen tly on
less th a n 8s. a d ay , a n d b y p o in tin g o u t t h a t th e n a tiv e s w ere o rg an izin g ._
I n rep ly th e m in iste r expressed th e opinion t h a t m em bers w ere n o t serious in
declaring t h a t a m inim u m w age of 8s. a d ay h a d had a p ernicious effect on n a tiv e s
in th e countryside. M oreover, in reg ard to th e G o v ern m en t c o n tra c ts, ev ery
case w as tre a te d on its m erits, a n d in c ertain p a rts of th e c o u n try th e shilling-anh o u r clause h ad been m odified to fit th e circum stances. H e h a d , how ever,
definitely laid dow n th e policy t h a t p a y m e n t should be fo r w ork a n d n o t fo r
color. I f th e c o n tra c to rs preferred to p a y 8s. a d a y to efficient b lack w orkers
ra th e r th a n ta k e on w hites, he considered th e p o sitio n sa tisfa c to ry , as th e y
w ould be p ay in g fo r th e w ork perform ed.


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[750]

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS
A ccid en t E xperience in th e Iron and S te e l In d u stry to th e E nd
of 1926

OR some years past accident experience for the iron and steel
industry has been presented by the Bureau of Labor Statistics
for two groups of plants. One group is selected as embodying
the best practices and the most pronounced success in the effort at
accident prevention. The other group embraces all plants for which
it was possible to secure information, including those plants mentioned
above.
Table 1 presents the results in the selected group to the end of 1926:

F

T

1 . — A C C ID E N T F R E Q U E N C Y R A TE S (PER 1,000,000 H O U R S’ E X P O SU R E ) FO R A
SE L E C T E D GR O U P OF IR O N A N D ST E E L PL A N T S, 1913 TO 1926, B Y PR O D U C T S A N D
BY YEARS

able

Year

1 9 1 3 ________________________
1914- _______________________
1915 ________________________
1916_________________________
1917. ......................... ......................
1918 _______________________
1919
_________
1920 _______________________
1921 ________________________
1922
____________
1923- _______________________
1924_________________________
1925 ________________________
1926 _______________________

Fabri­
cated
products

100.3
59.0
53.5
52.1
51.3
38. 2
32.8
35.3
28.4
33.8
32.6
33.4
27.4
24.3

Sheets

Wire
and
products

61.6
47.2
37.3
34.0
33.9
25.9
25.8
22.7
17.5
16.9
17.2
10.3
11.4
9.4

59.3
46!2
52.4
48.2
32.5
18.8
12.5
12.0
7.5
7.9
7.9
6.2
4. 2
3.9

Miscellaneous steel
Tubes

Total
Group A Group B

27.2
12. 5
10.8
12.4
10.2
9.1
9.1
8.9
6.1
7.1
7.0
5. 1
4.0
3.6

70.9
50.7
51.9
67.6
51.3
42.0
39.7
35.3
15.8
14. 5
13.9
11.8
9.8
6.6

41.3
27.6
23.0
28.2
20. 5
31.4
23.0
18.6
12.1
10.8
9.8
7.9
3.7
3.8

60.3
43.5
41.5
44.4
34.5
28.8
26.1
22.9
13. 2
13.0
12.7
10.2
8.2
6.8

The same data contained in Table 1 are presented in Table 2 from
another point of view. It would be quite possible that in a generally
favorable situation there should be concealed a very unsatisfactory
situation in respect of certain departments or causes. Table 2
shows that the influences tending to accident reduction have been
remarkably pervasive.
There is somewhat prevalent an idea that machinery has come to
be almost without significance in the accident problem. Neither
these figures nor any others of similar character justify this conclu­
sion. In common with other causes machines are now operated much
more safely than in the past but relatively to other causes injuries due
to them are still of serious moment.


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[751]

35

36
T

MONTHLY LABOE REVIEW

2 .—A C C ID E N T F R E Q U E N C Y R A TE S (P E R 1,000,000 H O U R S’ E X P O SU R E ) FOR
A S E L E C T E D G R O U P OF IR O N A N D ST E E L P L A N T S, 1913 TO 1926, B Y Y E A R S
A N D C A USES

able

Accident cause

1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 To­
tal

M a ch in ery
7.3
W orking machines. 3.8
Caught in
. 2.5
Breakage_____ . 1
M oving material in ______ 1 . 2
Cranes, e t c .. . . __ 3.5
Overhead_____ 2 . 8
.3
Locom otive.
Other hoisting
apparatus__ .4
V eh icles___
2.3
H o t s u b s ta n c e s ____ 5.4
Electricity_______
.5
Hot m etal___
3. 6
Hot water, etc. . . 1.3
Falls o f p e r s o n s ...
4.5
From ladders_____ .3
From scaffolds. .
.2
Into openings... _. . 2
D ue to insecure
footing... . . . . 3.8
F a l l i n g m a t e r ia !
n o t o th er w ise sp ecified ______
1.2
H a n d lin g ______
26, 7
Dropped in handling..................... 1 1 . 2
Caught b etw een ... 3.4
Trucks_________
1.9
Lifting_____
2. 5
Flying from tools _. .2
Sharp points and
e d g e s ______ _ 3.8
Tools_____ ______ 3.7
M isc e lla n e o u s__
12.il
Asphyxiating g a s.. .3
Flying, not striking e y e _________ .8
F ly in g , strik in g
e y e------------------ 2.9
Heat ____ ____
.9
Other...........
8.0

5.0
2. 7

4.9

5. 4

4.5

4.0

2.6

2.6

1.7
.1

1.7
.1

2.0
1.2

1.8

1.8
1

.

.8

2.3
1.9
.2

.2
1.9
3.6
.4
2. 1
1. 1
4. 1
.1

.8

2.3

.8
2.8

.1

1

.1
.1

.6
2.2

.4
1.9

1.9

1.6
.2

.2

.2

.2

.1
1.6

.1
1, 7
4t. 5
.4
3. 0
1. 1
3. 7

.J
1. 7
3.6
.3
2.5

.1

3.5
.1

.1
.2

.2
1

.

.2
1

.

.3

3. 7

3. 1

3. 1

.7
19.4

20.6

7.3

7. 6

2.6

2.6

1.0
2.3
.2

1.4
2.5
.1

8.4
3.1
1.4
2.5
.1

3.4
2.6
8.8
.2

3.8
2.6
6.5
.1

.6
2. 1
.8
5.1

.7

.4
1.9
1. 5

.7
2.5

2. 5

1.2

3.4
1.5

2.2

2.0
.2

3.7
.2
2.3

3.3
1.4
.9
.1

1.3
3,0
.3

.1
1.2
2.8

.2

.3

2.1
6
2.8
2
.2

.2

.1

2.0
.6
2.8
.1
.2
.1

2.6

2.3

2.3

.8

3.2
.1

.6
4
21.5 15.7

.

.

.3
12.8

1.0
.1

1.8
.8
.6

2.2
1.1
.8

.1

.1

2.3
1.0

.7
(i)

2.0
.8
.6

(>)

1.6

.7
.5
0 )

1.5
.7
.5
0 )

3.4
1.6
1.1
.1

.1

.3

.2

.2

.2

.2

1.2

1.3

.5

1.2

1.0
.1

1.1
1

.9

1.5

.1

.9
.7
.1

.9
.7

.2

1.0
.8
.2

.1

.2

.2
1

.1
.5

.1

.1
6
1.2

.1

.1

.1

.1

.5
.9

.3
.6

.3
.5

L0
2.4

)
.4
.1

.1

.2

.4
.1

. .
2.5
.3
1.8

.4
2.5
.1
.2
1

1.2
1
.8
2

.

.
1.7
.1

.

.1
.1

2.1

1.4

4
11.7 10.4

6.1
2 1

.
1.2
2.0
.1

5.5
1.7
.9
1.4
.1

5.0
1.7
.7
1.4
.1

4.4
1.3
.6
1.1
.1

3.1
2.9
7.0
.1

2.2
2.0
5.4
.1

1.5
1. 7
4.6
.1

1.3
1.4
4.1
.2

.6

.5

.4

.5

1. 7
.4
3.7

1.9
.4
4.1

1.6
.1
3.2

1.6
.2
2.2

.4
1.1
1
7

.
.
.3
1.5
.1

.

.

(>)
.9
.2
1.4
.1

.1

.1

0)

.1

1.3

1.1

.1

0

1.8

)

.
.
2.4
.1
.2
.1

1.1

.9

.8

2 0

.6
.2

1.4
.1
.1
(0

(!)
.1

1.0
1
1

0)

0

1.1

.
.

1 6
6

.

1

1

e',5

5.8

5.5

3.9

3.4

i. 9

11.4

2.6

2.6

1.9
.5
.2
.3

1. 5
.4
.2
.3

1.2

4. 7
1.4
.8
1. 3
.1

.7
.5
.8
.1

.7
.4
.8
.1

2.3
.7
.4
.5
.1

1.5
1.4
3.1
.1

1.1
.8
1.3
.5

.6
.7
1.9

.3
.6
1.6
(i)

.4
.5
1.1

C1)

.6
.8
1.8
.1

0)

.4
.5
.4
(i)

.3

.3

.2

.1

.3

.2

,i

.1

.3

1.3
.1
2.2

1.1
.1
1.5

.5
.1
.6

.4
.1
1.3

.2

.3
.1
1.0

.2

0)

.1

(0

.2

1.1
.2
2.2

G rand to t a l___ 60.3 43.5 41.5 44.4 34.5 28.8 26.3 22.0 13.3 13.0 12.8 10.2

8.2

6.8

24.8

(>)

1.1

(0

(0

.8

.3
.2
.3
(!)

1. 6
16
3.9

.1

i Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

Attention will now be directed to the general statistics gathered
from the industry at large. Table 3 is computed by overlapping
five-year intervals and gives a very good idea of the progress of the
departments which it has been possible to treat in that way. Al­
though the exposure of individual years is of considerable volume,
it is not large enough to indicate the trend as clearly as does the
method employed in Table 3.


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[752]

ACCIDENT EXPERIENCE IN IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY
T

able

37

3 .—A C C ID E N T R A TE S IN TH E IR O N A N D S T E E L IN D U S T R Y , BY D E P A R T M E N T S
A N D 6-YEAR PE R IO D S

Frequency, rates (per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure)

Period

1907-1911.-________
1908-1912___________
1909-1913___________
1910-1914___________
1911-1915___________
1912-1916_________
1913-1917___________
1914-1918___________
1915-1919___________
1916-1920 1917-1921___________
1918-1922___________
1919-1923........ ............
1920-1924___________
1921-1925___________
1922-1926___________

All de­
part­
ments
69.2
65.1
62.1
59. 2
53.3
51.3
48. 2
43.6
41. 5
41.1
39. 5
36. 5
34.9
33. 6
31.3
29.9

Blast
furnaces

Bessemer
con­
verters

76.1
67. 7
62.4
62. 3
50. 3
47. 8
41. 4
40. 5
39.0
38.0
36. 3
34. 0
32.9
30.7
29. 0
28. 7

101. 5
79. 5
92. 3
89.8
65.0
76. 1
68.3
60. 7
57. 7
53. 1
47.0
39.9
30. 5
24.9
17. 0
16.7

Open
hearth

84.2
79. 5
78.6
75.0
67.6
64. 8
58.4
53. 5
50.5
50. 2
44.8
41.3
33.0
32.9
29.9
28.3

Foun­
dries

H eavy­
rolling
mills

60.1
61.5
65.1
63.6
59. 3
57. 8
60. 4
57.0
61.0
61.0
63.1
60. 4
61. 7
62.7
63. 1
62.8

Plate
mills

Sheet
mills

61.0
57.0
51.7
46.1
39.4
37. 3
32.1
31.1
32.4
31. 4
29.9
27.6
23.8
21.2
18. 1
16.6

69.4
60. 8
55.9
49.9
44. 7
41. 5
36.6
39.8
39.2
38.4
37.6
36.7
31.4
29.4
26.8
25.6

44.1
47.9
49.1
51.1
48.1
47.4
41.3
35.8
32.7
33.7
33.4
35.2
37.2
35.1
33.2
30.6

4.4
4.2
4.0
3.6
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.4
3.9
3.5
3.3
2.9
2.4
2.3
2.6
2.6

5.1
4. 1
3.8
3.9
3.1
2.8
2.6
2.6
2.5
2.6
2.5
2.5
2.4
2.4
2.6
2.6

3.1
2.8
3.0
2.6
2.2
2.3
2.1
1.8
1.5
1.8
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.1
1.9
1.8

Severity rates (per 1,000 hours’ exposure)
1907-1911___________
1908-1912______ ____
1909-1913___________
1910-1914-__________
1911-1915.-.................
1912-1916................. .
1913-1917-...................
1914-1918__________
1915-1919___________
1916-1920.--.................
1917-1921___________
1918-1922___________
1919-1923___________
1920-1924___________
1921-1925___________
1922-1926___________

5.0
4.3
4.4
4.1
3.6
3.7
3.7
3.5
3.6
3.5
3.4
3.1
3.0
2.8
2.7
2.8

10.6
8.8
8.3
7.0
6.2
5.8
5.6
5.4
5.8
5.7
5.7
5.5
5.0
4. 5
4.6
4.7

7.6
7.4
6.7
6.4
5.3
6.1
7.1
7.3
6.9
6.3
5.4
4.2
3.2
2.6
3.2
4.0

7.5
6.6
6.8
6.6
5.8
5.5
5.1
5.8
6. 5
6.3
5.8
5.3
4.2
4.2
4.0
4.6

2.7
3.1
3.5
3.6
3.3
3.1
3.3
3.2
3.4
3.2
3.2
2.7
2.7
2.8
3.1
3.2

With a single exception, Table 3 indicates a very regular decline in
both frequency and severity. The decline in severity is naturally
more irregular than that in frequency because of the intrusion from
time to time of death and permanent disabilities with their heavier
weighting. For example, in the combined departments frequency
declines with perfect regularity from period to period, while in sever­
ity there are a number of instances of the later period having the
same or a higher rate.
The single exception to this regular decline is found in the found­
ries. There is some slight variation, but it is quite as likely to be in
one direction as the other, and the trend, if there is one, is upward
rather than downward. Attention has been called to this situation
from time to time in these annual reviews, and it is distinctly dis­
appointing that, taken as a whole, foundries are so much out of step
with the other departments of the industry.
Accident Experience of the Industry and Its Departments

'"TABLE 4 (see p. 43) presents the year-to-year experience and that
* of three consecutive five-year periods beginning with 1910. The
experience of these five-year periods, on account of larger volume, is

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[753]

38

MONTHLY LABOE EEVIEW

more authoritative than that of the individual years. For this reason
these periods will be used as the basis of comment, being designated
as period 1, period 2, and period 3.
T h e I n d u s tr y

Frequency rates: Period 1, 59.2; period 2, 41.6; period 3, 33.6.
Severity rates: Period 1, 4.1; period 2, 3.6; period 3, 2.8.
In 1925 both frequency and severity declined, while in 1926 fre­
quency further declined and severity slightly increased.
Chart 1 presents the straight-line trends derived by applying the
method of least squares to the details of the iron and steel industry
accident rates as shown in Table 4 (p. 43).

Frequency rates: Period 1, 62.3; period 2, 39.0; period 3, 30.7.
Severity rates: Period 1, 7.0; period 2, 6.1; period 3, 4.5.
In 1925 both rates declined, and in 1926 both rates rose slightly.
Blast furnaces are generally recognized as one of the particularly
hazardous departments of the industry. If an intrinsically dangerous
department can bring about such improvement as that shown by
these rates it should be possible for any department to improve its
record.
Chart 2 presents the straight-line trends derived by applying the
method of least squares to the details of blast furnace accident rates
as shown in Table 4.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[754]

ACCIDENT EXPEEIENCE IN ITtON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

39

B e s s e m e r C o n v e r te rs

Frequency rates: Period 1, 89.8; period 2, 57.7; period 3, 24.9.
Severity rates: Period 1, 6.4; period 2, 6.9; period 3, 2.6.
In 1925 frequency declined very markedly and severity rose, and
in 1926 both rates rose.
There has been a considerable and fairly steady decline in fre­
quency, but severity has shown great irregularity. This is due in
part to a too-small exposure and in part to the nature of the opera­
tion, involving hazard against which it is difficult to guard.

Frequency rates: Period 1, 75.0; period 2, 50.5; period 3, 32.9.
Severity rates: Period 1, 6.6; period 2, 6.5; period 3, 4.2.
In 1925 both rates declined, and in 1926 a further decline in fre­
quency was registered, while severity rather sharply increased.
F o u n d r ie s

Frequency rates: Period 1, 63.6; period 2, 61.0; period 3, 62.7.
Severity rates: Period 1, 3.6; period 2, 3.4; period 3, 2.8.
In 1925 both rates rose, and in 1926 both somewhat declined.
The figures quoted above show a practically unchanged frequency;
some improvement in severity. If Table 4 be consulted, it will
appear that no substantial improvement has occurred in the years
covered by the study. This is particularly disappointing in view of
the fact that some of the foundry organizations have made a fine
record.


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[755]

40

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

Chart 3 presents the straight-line trends derived by applying the
method of least squares to the details of foundry accident rates, as
shown in Table 4.
H e a v y - R o llin g M ills

Frequency rates: Period 1, 46.1; period 2, 32.4; period 3, 21.2.
Severity rates: Period 1, 3.6; period 2, 3.9; period 3, 2.3.
In 1925 both rates declined, and there was a further decline of
both rates in 1926. This decline in rates is undoubtedly due in
considerable measure to modifications in the mills, which have tended
to render operation safer.

Chart 4 presents the straight-line trends derived by applying the
method of least squares to the details of heavy-rolling mill accident
rates, as shown in Table 4.
P l a t e M ills

Frequency rates: Period 1, 49.9; period 2, 39.2; period 3, 29.4.
Severity rates: Period 1, 3.9; period 2, 2.5; period 3, 2.4.
In 1925 frequency declined and severity rose, and in 1926 both
rates declined.
S h e e t M ills

Frequency rates: Period 1, 51.1; period 2, 32.7; period 3, 35.1.
Severity rates: Period 1, 2.6; period 2, 1.5; period 3, 2.1.
In 1925 frequency rose and severity remained unchanged. A
decline of both rates was again registered in 1926.


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[756]

ACCIDENT EXPERIENCE IN IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

41

T u b e M ills

Frequency rates: Period 1, 40.5; period 2, 22.4; period 3, 22.7.
Severity rates: Period 1, 2.2; period 2, 1.8; period 3, 1.9.
In both rates there was a decline in 1925, and in 1926 frequency
rose and severity declined.
F a b r ic a tin g S h o p s

Frequency rates: Period 1, 79.9; period 2, 55.2; period 3, 52.7.
Severity rates: Period 1, 3.4; period 2, 2.6; period 3, 2.4.
In 1925 both rates declined; in 1926 frequency declined but severity
increased.

W ire D ra w in g

Frequency rates: Period 1, 65.7; period 2, 45.8; period 3, 24.0.
Severity rates: Period 1, 3.2; period 2, 2.6; period 3, 2.3.
In 1925 frequency rose and severity declined; in 1926 both rates
declined.
Wire drawing is peculiar in that the severity of accidents causing
permanent disability is in excess of that due to death. This is related
to the danger of being tangled in the wire as it passes toward the
block. Such an entanglement may result in the loss of a hand or
other serious injury.
E le c tric a l D e p a r tm e n t

Frequency rates: Period 1, 47.1; period 2, 40.3; period 3, 20.5.
Severity rates: Period 1, 6.3; period 2, 7.2; period 3, 3.0.
The year 1925 registers both rates as declining, and in 1926 the
decline continued.
The rather high severity of this department is related to the
dangers incident to handling circuits of high voltage.
63952°—27
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1757]

42

MONTHLY LABOE REVIEW
M e c h a n ic a l D e p a r tm e n t

Frequency rates: Period 1, 62.7; period 2, 41.3; period 3, 23.7.
Severity rates: Period 1, 4.0; period 2, 3.5; period 3, 2.8.
In 1925 frequency declined and severity rose slightly. In 1926
frequency rose and severity declined. These movements are shown
in Chart 5.
Y a rd s

Frequency rates: Period 1, 50.8; period 2, 37.5; period 3, 26.4.
Severity rates: Period 1, 6.0; period 2, 6.1; period 3, 4.1.
In 1925 both frequency and severity increased, while in 1926 both
declined. High severity rates in this department have been notice­
able throughout the progress of this study.

Frequency rates: Period 1, 121.7; period 2, 107.2; period 3, 97.5.
Severity rates: Period 1, 31.4; period 2, 22.3; period 3, 19.9.
In 1925 both rates declined, but in 1926 both rates rose, severity
reaching a point higher than in any previous year. In only one
other year (1917) has the number of deaths been as great as in 1926.
In that year the exposure was greater, with the result that the rate
was markedly lower. The rates are so constantly high as to indi­
cate, in spite of the small exposure, a very serious degree of hazard.
The above are the more important departments in the industry.
As a rule they show a condition of progress, not so rapid as in the
earlier years but substantial and encouraging.


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[758]

43

ACCIDENT EXPERIENCE IN IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

T \ b t f 4 —A C C ID E N T S A N D A C C ID E N T R A T E S IN T H E IR O N A N D S T E E L IN D U S T R Y ,

1907 TO 1926, B Y D E P A R T M E N T S A N D B Y Y E A R S A N D 5-YEAR PE R IO D S

The industry
A c c id e n t f r e q u e n c y
rates (per 1,000,000
hours’ exposure)

Number of cases
Year or
period

Fullyear
workers

27,632
1907
1910
. . . . 202' 157
231,544
1911
___ 300, 992
1912
1913
___ 319,919
1914
- - 256,299
1915
___ 116' 224
166,646
1916
1917 _____ 410,852
474, 435
1918
1919
___ 377, 549
442,685
1920
1921 . ___ 237,094
1922_______ 335,909
1923
___ 434, 693
1924_______ 389', 438
___ 445,223
1925
436,692
1926
1910-1914__ 1,310; 911
1915-1919__ 1, 545,706
1920-1924.__ 1,839,818

Per­ Tem­
ma­ porary
Death nent disa­
disa­ bility
bility
61
327
204
348
426
219
87
159
523
543
419
327
156
236
314
312
207
322
1,524
1,731
1,345

106
848
931
1,241
1,200
860
3?2
728
1,268
1,253
848
1, 084
527
878
1,188
1,133
1,091
1,202
5, 080
4, 469
4,810

Total

6,530
44,108
34, 676
54, 575
55, 556
37, 390
13,481
20, 655
57, 094
54, 293
41,009
49,482
21, 279
32,120
41, 766
34,481
36,404
31, 667
226,305
186, 532
179,128

Per­
ma­
Death nent
disa­
bility

6,697
45, 283
35, 811
56,164
57,182
38, 469
13, 940
21, 542
58, 885
56, 089
42, 276
50, 893
21,962
33, 234
43, 268
35,920
37,772
33, 230
232,954
192,732
185, 277

0.7
.5
.3
.4
.4
.3
.2
.3
.4
.4
.4
.2
.2
.2
.2
.3
.2
.2
.4
.4
.2

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’ ex­
posure)

Per­ Tem ­
Tem­
ma­ po­ To­
po­ To­
rary
nent
Death
rary
disa­ disa­ tal
disa­ tal
bility
bility
bility
78.8
72.7
49.9
60.4
57.9
48.6
38.7
41.3
46.3
38.1
40.2
37.3
29.9
31.9
32.1
29.5
27.3
24.2
57.5
40. 2
32.5

80.8
74.7
51. 5
62.2
59.6
50. 0
40.0
43.0
47.7
39.4
41.6
38.3
30.8
33.0
33. 2
30.8
28. 3
25.3
59.2
41. 6
33. 6

4.4
3. 2
1.8
2. 3
2. 7
1. 7
1. 5
1.9
2. 5
2. 3
2. 2
1. 5
1. 3
1. 4
1. 4
1. 6
1. 2
1. 7
2.3
2. 2
1. 5

1.7
1.2
1. 1
1. 1
.9
.9
.7
1. 0
.9
.8
.8
.8
.7
.8
.8
.9
.8
.8
1.1
.8
.8

1.1
.8
.6
.8
.7
.6
.5
.6
.6
.5
.6
.4
.5
.5
.5
.5
.4
.4
.7
.6
.5

7.2
5. 2
3. 5
4. 2
4.3

2. 3 97.1
1. 2 85. 5
.8 51.3
1. 1 58. 8
.8 58. 1
1.0 49. 4
.7 30. 5
1.3 39. 4
.9 40. 9
. 6 35. 0
.7 38.0
.5 30. 2
.5 25. 0
.7 29. 4
. 8 30. 3
.9 29. 7
.7 23. 1
.8 24. 2
1.0 60. 4
.8 37. 4
.7 29.4

101.3
87.9
52. 9
60. 8
59. 8
51.0
31. 8
41. 2
42. 5
36. 4
39. 7
31. 1
26.0
30. 8
31. 7
31. 3
24. 3
25. 5
62. 3
39.0
30.7

11. 5
6.9
4.8
5.4
5.3
3.5
3. 5
3. 1
4.4
4. 9
5.7
2. 7
3.0
4. 2
3.6
4.0
3. 1
3. 2
5. 2
4.7
3.4

2.7
1. 7
.9
1.0
1. 0
1.0
.6
.9
.9
.8
1.0
.9
.5
.4
.1
1.1
.9
.8
1.0
.9
.7

1. 8
1.0
.8
.8
.9
.7
.4
.6
.5
.5
.5
.4
.4
.5
.5
.5
.4
.5
.8
.5
.5

16.0
9.6
6.5
7.2
7.2
5.2
4.5
4.6
5.8
6.2
7.2
4.0
3.9
5.1
4.2
5.6
4.4
4.5
7.0
6. 1
4.5

134.0
130. 2
81. 9
99. 1
80. 7
53. 3
54. 5
73. 4
68. 9
51. 4
44. 8
36. 8
25.4

2.1
7.9
2. 3
2. 8
4. 6
2. 2
1.3
6.4
6.7
4.4
4. 3
1. 4
2.3

0.9
.9
1. 1
1. 0
1. 2
1. 2
1. 4
2. 1
1. 3
1. 0
.5
.3
.4

2. 4
1. 6
1. 1
1. 5
1. 2
.9
.8
1. 2
1. 2
.8
.9
.6
.4

5.4
10.4
4.5
5.3
7.0
4. 3
3. 5
9. 7

1.3
1.4
1.3
1.4
1.3
1.1
1.1
1.4
1.0
.9
1.0
.8
.7
.9
.9
1.0
.8
.9
1.3
1.0
.9

2. 7
3. 5
4.0
3. 6
3. 6
2. 7
2. 5
2. 7
2. 7
2.5
2. 9
4.1

Blast furnaces
1907.......... .
1910_______
1911_______
1912..............
1913...............
1914_______
1915_______
1916..............
1917.......... .
1918............
1919.............
1920........... .
1921............ .
1 9 2 2 ...........
1923..............
1924_______
1925..............
1926_______
1910-1914...
1915-1919...
1920-1924...

1,566
19,389
21,479
27,154
31, 988
26, 572
10, 721
14,905
36, 202
41,449
32, 889
35,470
15,486
17, 933
29, 698
25, 268
25, 819
25, 893
126, 582
136,166
123, 854

9
68
52
73
86
45
19
23
79
102
94
47
23
38
53
50
40
42
324
317
211

11
68
54
87
80
77
23
57
93
72
67
58
24
35
68
66
51
63
366
312
251

456
4, 971
3, 303
4,790
4, 749
3, 935
981
1.763
4,440
4, 358
3, 745
3, 214
1, 160
1,586
2, 702
2, 248
1, 789
1,881
22, 578
15, 287
10, 910

476
5,107
3,409
4, 950
4, 945
4. 057
1, 023
1,843
4,612
4. 532
3,906
3.319
1,207
1, 659
2, 823
2, 364
1,880
1,986
23, 268
15,910
11, 372

1.9
1. 2
.8
.9
.9
.6
.6
.5
.7
.8
1.0
.4
.5
.7
.6
.7
.5
.5
.9
.8
.6

Bessemer converters
1907..............
1910.............
1911_______
1912............
1913_______
1 9 1 4 ...........
1915.-..........
1916..............
1917..............
1918.............
1 9 1 9 ...........
1920...............
1921_______

967
5,070
5,155
6,521
6,885
4. 470
3,160
4,070
5,979
5,881
6, 555
6,907
3,440

1
20
6
9
16
6
2
13
20
13
14
5
4


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

5
18
24
37
42
25
21
34
21
18
18
9
6

383
1,943
1, 237
1,892
1,610
685
494
848
1,194
877
849
750
252

389
1, 981
1, 267
1,938
1,668
716
517
894
1, 235
908
881
764
262

[759]

0.3
1.3
.4
.5
.8
.4
.2
1.1
1. 1
.7
.7
_2
.4

1.7 132. 0
1. 2 127. 7
1. 6 79. 9
1. 9 96. 7
2.0 77. 9
1. 8 51. 1
2. 2 52. 1
2. 8 69. 5
1. 2 66. 6
1.0 49. 7
.9 43. 2
.4 36. 2
.6 24. 4

9. 2

6.2

5.7
2.3
3.1

44
T

M ONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

4 .—A C C ID E N T S A N D A C C ID E N T R A T E S IN T H E IR O N A N D ST E E L IN D U S T R Y
1907 TO 1926, B Y D E P A R T M E N T S A N D B Y Y E A R S A N D 5-YEAR P E R IO D S—Contd.

able

Bessemer converters— Continued

Number of cases
Y ear or
period

1922_______
1923............._
1924..............
1925_______
1926-.-........
1910-1914...
1915-1919...
1920-1924...

Fullyear
workers

4,778
6,080
4,943
4,834
4,526
28,101
25,645
26,147

Per­ Tem­
ma­
Death nent porary
disa­
disa­ bility
bility
2
6
7
9
6
57
62
24

8
20
10
10
19
146
112
53

233
367
274
115
178
7,367
4,262
1, 876

Total

243
393
291
134
203
7,570
4,436
1,953

A c c id e n t fr e q u e n c y
rates (per 1,000,000
hours’ exposure)

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’ ex­
posure)

Per­
ma­
Death nent
disa­
bility

Per­
ma­
Death nent
disa­
bility

0.1
.3
.5
.6
.4
.7
.8
.3

0.6
1.1
.7
.7
1.3
1. 7
1. 5
.7

Tem­
po­
rary To­
disa­ tal
bility

Tem­
po­
rary To­
disa­ tal
bility

16.3
20.1
18. 5
7. 9
13. 1
87.4
55/4
23.9

17.8
21. 5
19. 7
9. 2
14.8
89. 8
57.7
24.9

0.8
2.0
2.8
.7
2.7
4.0
4.8
1.8

0.5
.5
.6
3. 7
4. 7
1. 1
1.1
.4

0.3
.5
.3
.2
.3
1.3
1.0
.4

1.6
3.0
3.7
4.6
7.7
6.4
6.9
2.6

1. 6
1.8
1. 4
1.9
1.5
1. 1
1. 1
1. 3
1. 3
1. 3
1.0
.8
.6
.8
1.0
1. 0
1.1
1.0
1.5
1. 2
.9

101.3
103. 6
58.8
77. 6
70. 7
64. 3
46. 5
50. 3
49. 5
50.3
45. 6
37. 0
28. 2
32.6
28.6
28. 9
25.8
20.0
72.8
48. 6
31.5

104. 5
106.4
60.8
80.4
72.8
65.8
48. 0
52.0
51. 5
52. 5
47.4
38.3
29. 0
33.8
30.2
30.4
27.3
21.8
75. 0
50.5
32.9

9.3
6.0
3.4
5.3
3.4
2. 2
2.7
2. 5
4.4
5.4
4. 7
3.0
1.4
2. 2
3.4
3.0
2.2
4.6
4.0
4.4
2.7

4. 0
2.4
1.1
1.9
1.4
1. 5
.9
.8
1. 2
1.4
1.3
.8
.4
.9
1.1
.9
1.0
1. 2
1.6
1.2
.9

1. 1
1. 4
.9
1.0
1.0
.8
.6
.9
.8
1. 1
.8
.5
.5
.5
.7
.5
.5
.5
1.0
.9
.6

14.4
9.8
5.4
8.2
5.8
4. 5
4.2
4.2
6.4
7.9
6.8
4.3
2.3
3.6
5.2
4.4
3.7
6.3
6.6
6.5
4.2

1.1
1. 5
1.4
1.9
1.6
1. 2
.5
1. 6
1.1
1. 1
.9
.9
.7
.9
1.2
1.3
1.2
1.4
1. 6
1.0
1. 0

63. 5 65.0
51. 6 53. 2
48.6 50.4
64. 6 66.8
70. 9 72.8
64.9 66.4
30. 0 30. 5
39. 3 4L 2
71.4 73.0
56. 8 58. 1
55. 7 56.8
63. 2 64. 2
59. 7 60.6
60. 5 61.6
61.8 63. 2
60.9 62.4
64.5 65.9
59. 0 60. 6
61. 7 63. 6
59. 7 61. 0
61.5 62.7

2.1
.8
2.7
2.1
1.7
1.6

0.3
1.0
1.0
1. 5
1. 2
1.0
2
.6
1.0
1. 0
.8
.8
.7
.9
.8
1.1
1.3
1.1
1.1
.9
.9

1.0
.6
.6
.8
.8
.7

3.4
2.4
4.3
4.4
3.7
3.3

.7
.9
.7
.7
.8
.8
.7
.8
.8
.9
.9
.7
.7
.8

2.9
4.7
3.2
2.7
2.3
2.7
2.7
3.0
3.0
3.7
3.3
3.6
3.4
2.8

Open-hearth furnaces
1907_______
1910_______
1911_______
1912_______
1913_______
1914--_____
1915_______
1916______
1917_______
1918_______
1919_______
1920_______
1921_______
1922______
1923______
1924______
1925_______
1926_______
1910-1914— _
1915-1919—
1920-1924—

2,987
9,739
10, 718
17, 355
20, 604
12, 877
5,969
9,654
21, 457
26, 410
22, 685
28,823
12, 783
19, 805
24, 917
21, 493
22, 837
22, 727
71, 293
86,175
107,820

14
29
18
47
35
14
8
12
47
71
53
43
9
22
42
32
25
51
143
191
148

14
53
45
99
95
41
20
37
86
103
71
70
21
46
74
67
73
67
333
317
278

908
3, 028
1, 890
4, 039
4, 368
2,484
832
1,458
3, 187
3,983
3, 103
3,164
1, 082
1,936
2,145
1,864
1, 769
1, 322
15, 809
12, 563
10,191

936
3, 110
1,953
4,185
4, 498
2, 539
860
1, 507
3, 320
4, 157
3, 227
3,277
1,112
2,004
2, 261
1,963
1, 867
1, 440
16, 285
13, 071
10, 617

1. 6
1.0
.6
.9
.6
.4
.4
.4
.7
.9
.8
.5
.2
.4
.6
.5
.4
.8
.7
.7
.5

Foundries
1907_______
1910_______
1911_______
1912..............
1913_______
1914_______
1915..............
1916-,..........
1917_______
1918_______
1919_______
1920_______
1921_______
1922..............
1923--.........
1924_______
1925_______
1926_______
1910-1914—
1915-1919—
1920-1924—

939
16, 885
13,499
23, 294
24, 605
17, 634
1,309
1, 231
31, 805
32,181
24, 220
35, 300
15, 388
22, 770
38, 660
37, 325
35, 570
41, 501
95,917
92, 746
149, 441


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1
7
18
23
22
14
1
45
23
15
13
9
12
26
21
27
26
84
84
81

3
78
57
135
118
61
2
6
101
106
62
97
34
59
126
143
128
178
449
277
459

179
2, 615
1, 970
4, 512
5, 236
3, 432
118
145
6,810
5, 482
4, 048
6,688
2,756
4,134
7, 171
6,820
6, 877
7,376
17, 765
16, 604
27, 569

183
2,700
2,045
4, 670
5,376
3, 507
120
152
6, 956
5,611
4,125
6, 798
2, 799
4,205
7, 323
6, 984
7, 032
7, 571
18, 298
16, 965
28,109

[760]

0.4
.1
.4
.3
.3
.3
.3
.5
.2
.2
.1
.2
.2
.2
.2
.3
.2
.3
.3
.2

1.6
2.8
1.5
1. 2
.7
1.2
1.1
1.4
1. 1
1.5
1.3
1.8
1.8
1.1

45

ACCIDENT EXPERIENCE IN IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY
T

4 —A C C ID E N T S A N D A C C ID E N T R A T E S IN T H E IR O N A N D ST E E L IN D U S T R Y ,
1907 TO 1926, B Y D E P A R T M E N T S A N D B Y Y E A R S A N D 5-YEAR P E R IO D S—Contd.

able

Bar mills
A c c id e n t f r e q u e n c y
rates (per 1,000,000
hours’ exposure)

Number of cases
Year or
period

1915_______
1916_______
1917._........ _
1918_______
1919_______
1920_______
1921
1922_______
1922
1924_______
1925_______
1926_______
1915-1919__
1920-1924__

Fullyear
workers

3, 232
3,042
7, 472
5,734
4,601
3, 880
1, 912
3,780
4 002
4,093
4, 471
3, 042
24, 081
17, 666

Per­ Tem­
ma­ porary
Death nent disa­
disa­ bility
bility
1
4
8
6
1
1
7
2
2
1
20
10

7
11
34
18
7
5
5
10
17
7
13
10
77
44

577
783
1, 940
756
689
525
228
392
443
285
324
146
4, 745
1,869

Total

Per­
ma­
Death nent
disa­
bility

585
798
1,982
780
697
531
233
409
460
294
339
157
4,842
1,923

0.1
.4
.4
.3
.1
.1
.6
.2
.2
.1
.3
.2

Tem­
po­
rary To­
disa­ tal
bility

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’ ex­
posure)
Per­
ma­
Death nent
disa­
bility

Í.0
.9
.7
1.7
1.1

0.6
.5
1.0
.7
.5
.2
1.0
.8
.7
.2
.9
.4
.7
.6

0.7 1.9
1.1 4.2
1.0 4.0
.7 3.5
.7 1.6
.5 1.2
.6 1.6
.5 5.0
.6 1.3
.5 1.7
. 4 2. 2
.3 1.4
.7 3.1
. 5 2.2

65.3
79. 2
45. 4
50.3
37. 6
26. 8
29. 4
33.4
30.9
33. 5
33.8
27.0
17.1
18.7
18.6
21. 5
16.3
10. 6
46. 1
32.4
21. 2

3.5
4.0
1.4
2.3
1.7
1.5
2.8
1.4
2.9
2.4
2.3
1. 2
.6
1.2
1.0
2.7
1.6
1.0
2.1
2.4
1.3

0.3
1.5
.9
.9
.6
1.0
1.0
1.3
1.0
.9
1.1
.4
.3
.9
.8
.8
1.1
.8
.9
1.0
.6

1.0
1.0
.7
.7
.6
.4
.3
.5
.5
.5
.5
.4
.3
.4
.3
.4
.3
.2
.6
.5
.4

110.9 113. 7
61. 1 64.5
44. 8 46. 3
58.0 59. 7
44. 5 46. 2
30. 6 32.0
19.3 20.9
31.0 32.3
37. 7 39. 0
49. 9 50.9
35. 0 36'. 0
32. 1 33.0
23. 1 23.8
31.2 32.7
25.3 26.4
26. 1 27.2
21. 5 22. 7
18. 1 19. 4
48.0 49.9
38. 2 39.2
28.3 29.4

4.2
4.3
2.3
.8
1.1
1.1
1.0
1.3
1.2
1.7
1.5
1.5
1.3
.6
1.1
.9
2.1
1.1
1.8
1.4
1.2

3.7
1.6
1.0
2.0
1.2
1.0
.6
.7
.9
.6
.5
.6
.3
.9
1.2
.6
1.2
1.0
1.4
.6
.8

1.2
.7
.6
.8
.6
.5
.3
.5
.5
.7
.5
.4
.4
.5
.4
.5
.4
.4
.7
.5
.4

59. 5
85.8
86. 5
43.9
49.9
44. 8
39. 8
34. 6
36. 4
23. 2
24. 2
16.0
65. 6
35.3

60.3
87.4
88.4
45. 2
50. 5
45.3
40.7
36.1
37.8
24.0
25.3
17. 2
67.0
36.3

0.6
2.6
2.1
2.1
.4
.5

0.7
2.0
1.3
.8
1.1
1. 5
1.1
1. 5
1.4
1.1
1.0
.5
.5
1.3
.7
1.0
1.0
.9
1.3
1.2
.8

64.0
76. 5
43. 9
49. 1
36. 2
25.0
27.8
31.7
29.0
32.0
32. 4
26.3
16. 5
17. 2
17. 7
20.0
15.0
9. 5
44. 4
30. 8
20. 2

2. 1
2.7
1.1
1.6
1.5
1.2
1.4
1.1
1.1
.7
.7
.6
.5
1.4
.9
.9
.9
1. 1
1.6
.8
.9

0.7
1. 2
1. 5
1.0
.5
.4
.9
.9
1.4
.6
1.0
1.1
1.1
.8

Tem­
po­
rary To­
disa­ tal
bility

3.7

Heavy-rolling mills
4,556
1907_______
9, 442
1910_______
12,409
1911_______
1912_______
16, 258
17, 569
1913_______
1914_______
11,985
7,148
1915_______
10,076
1916_______
20, 530
1917_______
19, 807
1918_______
17, 605
1919_______
20, 787
1920_______
9,000
1921_______
14, 574
1922_______
1923_______ ' 16,602
13,162
1924_______
16, 553
1925--..........
14, 553
1926_______
67, 663
1910-1914--75,166
1915-1919--74,944
1920-1924---

8
19
9
20
16
10
10
7
30
24
20
12
3
9
8
18
13
7
74
91
50

10
57
48
41
60
55
24
44
87
67
53
34
15
56
36
39
50
38
261
275
180

874
2,167
1,636
2, 395
1,910
899
596
959
1,784
1,900
1,711
1,638
485
752
882
789
747
417
9, 007
6, 950
4, 546

892
2, 243
1,693
2, 456
1,986
964
630
1,010
1,901
1, 991
1,784
1,684
503
817
926
846
810
462
9, 342
7,316
4,776

0.6
.7
.2
.4
.3
.3
.5
.2
.5
.4
.4
.2
.1
.2
.2
.5
.3
.2
.4
.4
.2

4.8
6.5
3.0
3.9
2.9
2.9
4. 1
3.2
4.4
3.8
3.9
2.0
1.2
2.5
2.1
3.9
3.0
2.0
3.6
3.9
2.3

Plate mills
1907 - ..........
1910'______
1911..............
1912-............
1913- ..........
1914.. ..........
1915 ............
1916-............
1917 ..........
1918-............
1919 _____
___
1920
1921 _____
1922-............
1923- ..........
1924 ..........
1925 ..........
1926 - ........
1910-1914-..
1915-1919...
1920-1924...

1,915
3,287
4,390
5,128
5,430
3,476
2,086
4,681
6,764
9,650
11.892
11,928
4, 580
6,198
8,731
6,454
5,734
7, 306
27,711
35,073
37, 891


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

4
7
5
2
3
2
1
3
4
8
9
9
3
2
5
3
6
4
19
25
22

12
27
15
25
25
13
9
15
22
19
24
23
7
26
24
18
15
25
105
89
98

637
602
590
893
725
319
121
436
760
1,446
1,247
1,147
318
581
662
606
370
396
3,129
4, 016
3, 214

653
636
610
920
753
334
131
454
792
1,473
1,280
1,179
328
009
691
527
391
421
3,253
4,130
3,334

[7 6 1 ]

0.7
.7
.4
.1
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.3
.3
.3
.2
.1
.2
.2
.4
.2
.3
.2
.2

a1
6.6

3.9
3.6
2.9
2.6

1.9
2.5
2.6
3.0
2.5
2.5
2.0
2.0
2.7
2.6
3.7
2.5
3.9
2.5
2.4

46
T

MONTHLY LABOE EEVIEW

4 .—A C C ID E N T S A N D A C C ID E N T R A TE S IN T H E IR O N A N D ST E E L IN D U S T R Y
1907 TO 1926, B Y D E P A R T M E N T S A N D B Y Y E A R S A N D 5-YEAR PE R IO D S—Contd.

able

Puddling mills
A c c id e n t f r e q u e n c y
rates (per 1,000,000
hours’ exposure)

NumDer of cases
Year or
period

1917_______
1918_______
1919_______
1920_______
1923 ______
1924 _____
1925_______
1926_______
1917-1919...
1920-1924...

Fullyear
workers

4,129
2, 712
1,619
2,007
1,620
814
1,108
1,591
8, 460
4,406

Per­ Tem ­
ma­
Death nent porary
disa­
disa­ bility
bility
1
3
1

1
4

10
4
1
10
3
4
6
5
15
9

572
370
140
243
280
156
166
204
1,082
797

Total

583
377
141
254
283
160
172
210
1,101
806

Per­
ma­
Death nent
disa­
bility
0.1
.4
.2

.2
.2

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’ ex­
posure)

Tem­
Per­ Tem­
po­
ma­ po­
rary To­
Death
nent
rary To­
disa­ tal
disa­ disa­ tal
bility
bility bility

0.8
.5
2
1.7
6
1 6
1. 8
1.0
.6
.7

46.2
45.5
28 8
40.3
67 6
63 9
49 9
42.5
42.6
60.3

66 6
61 7
43.7
43.4
61.0

1.2
.9
.8
.7
.9
.8
.5
.8
.5
.3
.6
.8
.8
.9
.7
.6
.6
.6
.9
.5
.8

43.3
59.6
40.7
57.1
47.8
46.8
39.0
35.8
33.4
18.1
32.0
40.1
35.8
40.3
27.6
29.0
32.2
22.1
50.0
32.1
34.2

44.8
61.0
41. 6
58.0
49.0
47.8
39.6
36.8
34.0
18.5
32.7
41.0
36.7
41.3
28.5
29.7
32.9
22.8
51.1
32.7
35.1

1.6
2.1
1.5
1.1
1.4
.8
1.0
.6
1.1
.8
.8
1.0
1.5
.9

37.0
34. 6
47. 1
35. 9
24.9
30. 7
20. 0
24.7
20.2
15.0
16. 7
15. 5
37.7
22.7

38.6
36. 7
49.1
37.5
26.6
31.6
21.0
25.4
21.4
15.9
17.8
16.8
39.5
23.7

0.7
.9
1.3
1.2
1.3

95.5
54.9
50.7
42.0
28.0

96.4
55.9
52.0
43.7
29.6

47. 1
46.4

0.5
2.2

0.6
.4

0.6
.6

1.7
3.2

42. 2

1.0

!s

.6

2.4

1.2
.9

1.5
.4
.8

.8
.6
1.1

3.6
1. 9
1.9

1.8
2.9
.7
1.2
1.6
.9
.9
.6
.8
.3
.3
1.2
.6
.8
1.0
.5
.6
.4
1.4
.7
.8

1.9
.8
.7
.7
.5
.5
.3
.5
.6
.5
.4
.7
.5
.8
.7
.7
.4
.5
.6
.4
.7

0.4
.6
.4
.7
.6
.6
.5
.5
.5
.2
.4
.8
.5
.9

4.1
4.3

0.5
.5

.8
.6
.7
1.4
1.6
1.8
.6

0.7
1.9
1.4
1.0
1.4
.5
.7
.5
1.3
.7
1.0
.7
1.3
.8

1.0
.6
.2
1.3
1.6

0.6
.4
.8
.8
.7

1.5
.7
.5
.5
.4

Sheet mills
1907............
1910_..........
1911 ___
1912 ___
1913 .......
1914 ___
1915 ___
1916 ___
1917 ___
1918 ___
1919 .......
1920 .......
1921. .....
1922. .....
1923. .....
1924 ___
1925 ___
1926 ___
1910-1914..
1915-1919..
1920-1924..

2,211
18, 501
29,710
32,087
25,938
22,187
16,266
24, 722
26,855
17,278
19,214
24,279
15,845
24, 391
29, 814
28,247
32,043
31,713
128,423
104,335
121,552

2
28
9
19
21
11
7
13
11
3
3
14
5
10
14
7
10
6
88
37
50

8
52
71
67
67
51
23
62
38
17
32
59
38
66
61
54
56
55
308
172
278

274
3,310
3, 625
5,497
3,717
3,113
1,901
2,655
2,687
937
1,854
2,979
1,702
2,951
2, 390
2,457
3, 096
2,100
19,262
10,034
12,479

284
3,390
3, 705
5, 583
3,805
3,175
1,931
2,730
2,736
957
1,889
3,052
1,745
3,027
2,465
2, 518
3,162
2,161
19, 658
10, 243
12, 807

0.3
.5
.1
.2
.3
.2
.1
.2
.1
.1
.1
.2
.1
.1
.2
.1
.1
.1
.2
.1
.1

.5
.6
.3
.6
.4
.6

1.8
2.6
2.0
1.7
1.6
1.9
1.0
2.7

1.1
2.3
1.6
2.5
2.2
1.7
1.7
1.2
2.6
1.5
2.1

Rod mills
1915_______
1916_______
1917_______
1918_______
1919
___
1920..._____
1921_______
1922_______
1923_______
1924_______
1925_______
1926_______
1915-1919...
1920-1924...

2,062
2,493
3,249
2,463

7
5
2

229
259
699
350
184

239
275
729
366

di', 729

10
16
23
11
ID

1

9

344

354
132

1
1
1
2
2

10
7
7

4 , 951

2; 099
; 645
3,224
2,828
2,907
2,569
15,218
14,425
2

6

14
4

5

8
70
37

126
196
189
127
146
119
1,721
982

202
200

135
155
129
1,805
1,023

0.5
.5
.3
.1
___
.1
.1
.1
.2
.3
.3
.1

2.8
3.1
1.6
.5

.5

.6
.5
.4
.3
.5
.3
.4
.3
.4
.5
.4

Tube mills
1907-............
1910-............
1911_______
1912_______
1913- ..........

2,007
1
9, 767
3
13, 676
1
17,080
10
18,909
15
1 Less than one-tenth of 1.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

4
25
53
60
72

575
1,608
2, 0S0
2,154
1,586

580
1,636
2,134
2, 224
1,673

[762]

0.2
.1
0)

.5
.3

1.2
2.4
4. 7
4.7
3.5
1.4
1.0
1.8
2.2
1.8
2.6
2.7
3.6
1.7

47

ACCIDENT EXPEEIENCE IN IEON AND STEEL INDUSTRY
T

4 .—A C C ID E N T S A N D A C C ID E N T R A T E S IN T H E IRO N A N D ST E E L IN D U S T R Y ,
1907 TO 1926, B Y D E P A R T M E N T S A N D B Y Y E A R S A N D 5-YEAR P E R IO D S —Contd.

able

Tube mills— C ontinued
A c c id e n t f r e q u e n c y
rates (per 1,000,000
hours’ exposure)

Number of cases
Year or
period

1914 ............
1915 ..........
1916_______
1917_______
1918- _____
1919_______
1920_ ..........
1921. ............
1 9 2 2 ...........
1923.............
1924_______
1925 ............
1926_______
1910-1914.—
1915-19191920-1924...

Fullyear
workers

13, 906
7,109
11,355
19,819
18, 499
18, 326
22, 666
14, 622
19, 535
24, 766
22, 655
25,511
32, 089
73; 338
75,108
104, 577

Per­ Tem­
ma­
Death nent porary
disa­
disa­ bility
bility

Total

39
21
26
51
41
39
71
35
40
54
68
64
95
249
178
268

1,241
205
453
2,035
1,176
1,172
2,250
879
1,378
1,354
1,267
1,216
1,628
8, 908
5,041
7,128

7
2
2
17
8
9
13
4
6
8
14
10
9
36
38
45

1,195
182
425
1,967
1,127
1,127
2,166
840
1,332
1,292
1,185
1,142
1, 524
8,623
4,825
6,815

Per­
ma­
Death nent
disa­
bility
0.2
.1
.1
.3
.1
.2
.2
.1
.1
.1
.2
.1
.1
.2
.2
.1

Tem­
po­
rary To­
disa­ tal
bility

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’ ex­
posure)
Per­
ma­
Death nent
disa­
bility

Tem­
po­
rary To­
disa­ tal
bility

29.7
9.6
13.4
34.3
21.1
21.3
33. 1
20.0
23.5
18.2
18.4
15.9
17.0
40.5
22.4
22.7

1.0
.6
.4
1.7
.9
1.0
1.1
.5
.6
.6
1.2
.8
.6
1.0
1.0
.9

0.6
.6
.3
.5
.4
.6
.5
.5
.6
.6
.6
.6
.7
.7
.5
.6

0.4
.2
.3
.4
.3
.3
.5
.4
.4
.3
.3
.3
.2
.5
.3
.4

2.0
1.4
1.0
2.6
1.6
1.9
2.1
1.4
1.6
1.5
2.1
1.7
1.5
2.2
1.8
1.9

1.1 112.3 113.7
1.2 53.2 54.7
1.1 67.8 69. 1
1.2 72.0 73.5
1.1 51.6 52.9
1.1 36.2 37.5
1.0 38.0 39.2
.7 50.8 51.6
.7 36.0 36.9
.6 39.4 40.2
1.1 44.1 45.4
1.0 40.9 42.0
1.0 41.5 42.7
1.2 35.8 37.1
1.2 33.5 34.9
.8 23.2 24. 1
.9 23.5 24.5
1.2 71.8 73.3
.7 41.0 41.9
1.0 38.4 39.6

2.1
1.5
1.5
2.0
1.0
.9
1.2
.7
1.2
1.1
1.5
.7
1.0
.8
1.0
.7
.4
1.7
1.0
1.0

1.6
1.1
1.0
1.1
.8
.5
.6
.7
.5
.4
.9
.9
.9
1.3
1.3
.5
.7
1.1
.5
1.1

1.3
.7
.9
1.0
.7
.4
.7
.7
.5
.6
.5
.7
.7
.6
.6
.4
.4
.9
.6
.6

5.0
3.3
3.4
4.1
2.5
1.8
2.5
2.1
2.2
2.1
2.9
2.3
2.6
2.7
2.9
1.6
1.5
3.7
2.1
2.7

1.9 91.5 94.4
1.3 149.2 150.9
1.6 55.4 57.1
1.4 79.2 81.0
1.1 80.6 82. 1
1.2 65.6 67.0
1.3 41. 1 42.7
1.7 47. 1 49.3
.9 59 2 60.4
.3 58.0 58.6
.5 47.3 47.9
1.3 52.7 54.2
1.2 50.9 52.2
.8 69.6 70.7
.8 59.4 60.3
1.0 28.3 29.4
.7 18.2 19.0
1.4 16.4 18.0
1.3 78.3 79.9
.7 54.3 55.2
1.0 51.5 52.7

5.8
2.5
.7
2.1
2.2
1.2
1.6
2.8
1.8
1.5
.7
1.6
.8
1.7
.8
.5
.4
.9

2.9
1.0
1.0
.9
.8
1.0
.6
.7
.6
.5
.3
1.1

0.8
1.9
.6
.8

9.5
5.4
2.3
3.8
3.8
2.9
2.9
4.4
3.1
2.6
1.5
3.3
2.1
3.3
2.2
1.8

0.9
1.0
.8
.9
.7
.7
1.0
.8
.7
.7
1.0
.8
1.0
1.1
.8
.9

28.6
8.5
12.5
33.1
20.3
20.4
31.9
19. 1
22.7
17.4
17.2
14.9
15.9
39.2
21.4
21.7

Unclassified rolling mills
1910_______
1911_______
1912 ..............
1913_______
1914_______
1915..............
1916- .......... 1917_______
1918_______
1919- _____
1920_______
1921 ______
1922_______
1923_______
1924 ........ .
1925_______
1926--..........
1910-1914--1915-19191920-1924- —

14,434
21,231
22, 909
23, 382
22, 873
4,367
8,082
27,978
37,163
25,106
21,055
12,068
19,382
26,357
21, 664
26, 353
25, 268
104,829
102, 696
109, 555

15
16
16
24
11
2
5
10
22
14
16
4
10
11
11
9
5
82
53
55

49
76
76
84
75
14
25
60
74
45
68
36
59
92
77
59
66
360
218
345

4,861
3,388
4,660
5, 051
3, 541
475
922
4, 265
4,015
2, 967
2, 785
1,479
2,416
2, 830
2,193
1,836
1,783
21, 501
12, 644
12, 631

4,925
3,480
4, 752
5, 159
3,627
491
952
4,335
4,111
3,026
2, 869
1,519
2,485
2, 933
2, 277
1,904
1,754
21,943
12, 915
13, 027

0.3
.3
.2
.3
.2
.2
.2
.1
.2
.2
.3
.1
.2
.1
.2
.1
.1
.3
.2
.2

Fabricating shops
1907_______
1910_______
1911....... .......
1912_______
1913— ..........
1914— ..........
1915— -........
1916_______
1917-..........1918-............
1919— . ........
1920— ..........
1921_______
1922— -........
1923— ..........
1924— ..........
1925_______
1926-.............
1910-1914— .
1915-1919— .
1920-1924.—

2,081
8,713
19, 530
28, 988
30, 470
20, 837
3,818
4,980
23,614
29,166
19, 407
17, 216
12, 908
16,184
22, 547
10, 626
15, 718
15,467
108, 538
80, 985
89, 880

6
11
8
32
34
13
3
7
21
22
6
14
5
14
9
5
3
7
98
59
47


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

12
33
92
119
104
77
15
25
67
29
27
68
45
41
52
63
35
64
425
163
269

571
3,901
3,244
6, 890
7, 368
4,103
471
703
4,192
5, 077
2, 752
2, 721
1,971
3, 381
4,019
1, 787
857
756
25, 506
13,195
13,879

589
3,945
3,344
7,041
7,506
4,193
489
735
4,280
5,128
2,785
2,803
2, 021
3, 436
4,080
1,855
895
827
26, 029
13,417
14,195

[70S]

1.0
.4
.1
.4
.4
.2
.3
.5
.3
.3
.1
.2
.1
.3
.1
.1
.1
.2
.3
.2
.2

1.7

1.5
1.0

.7
.8
.7
.8
.9

1.0
.9
.5
.8

.8

.7
.7
.9
.7
.6
.5
.6
.6
.8
.7
.5
.4
.4
.8
.6
.6

1.7

2.3
3.4
2.6
2.4

48
T

M ONTHLY LABOE EEVIEW

4 . — A C C ID E N T S A N D A C C ID E N T R A TE S IN T H E IR O N A N D S T E E L IN D U S T R Y
1907 TO 1926, B Y D E P A R T M E N T S A N D BY Y E A R S A N D 5-YEAR PE R IO D S—Contd. ’

able

Forge shops
A c c id e n t fr e q u e n c y
rates (per 1,000,000
hours’ exposure)

Number of cases
Y ear or
period

1917_______
1918_______
1919_______
1920_______
1921_______
1922_______
1923_______
1924_______
1925_______
1926_______
1910-1914__
1915-1919__
1920-1924..._

Fullyear
workers

Per­ Tem­
ma­
Death nent porary
disa­
disa­ bility
bility

3,881
6,408
2,169
2,197
902
1,514
2,049
2, 272
3, 794
1,790
6,249
12, 667
8,901

3
4
2
1
2
1
3
8
9
4

15
26
4
5
3
8
9
9
11
7
19
45
34

917
1,009
257
380
107
233
309
567
893
263
1,080
2,189
1,596

Total

Per­
ma­
Death nent
disa­
bility

935
1,039
263
385

0.3
.2
.3

111

.4
.4
.2

243
319
576
907
270
1,107
2, 243
1,634

.3
.4
.2

.1

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’ ex­
posure)

Tem­
Per­ Tem­
po­
ma­ po­
rary T o­ Death nent rary To­
disa­ tal
disa­ disa­ tal
bility
bility bility

1.3
1.4
.6
.8
1.1
1.8
1.5
1.3
1.0
1.3
1.0
1.2
1.3

78.8
53.2
39.5
58. 6
39.5
51. 3
50.2
83. 2
78.5
48.7
57.6
57.6
59.8

80.4
54.8
40.4
59. 4
41.0
53.5
51.9
84. 5
79.7
50. 0
59.0
59.0
61.2

2.7
2.3
2. 7
1.5
1.4
2.6
3.6
1.5
1.6
1. 2
1.6
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.3
1.1
.9
2. 1
2.0
1.3

74.7
59. 0
67. 1
66.4
50.6
77.7
61. 6
41.3
25.8
23. 9
31. 5
19.1
20.2
20.7
20. 5
22. 7
15.0
63. 5
43. 7
22.6

77.6
61.4
69.9
68.1
52.1
80.3
65.3
42.9
27. 5
25. 1
33.2
20.6
21.6
21. 9
21. 8
23.9
16.0
65.7
45.8
24.0

1.0
.6
.6
.9
.4
.3
.8
.4
.6

61.6
43.0
45.9
41. i
43.1
12.5
58.9
43.4
34.1
34. 7
30.0
20.7
15.5
16.6
14.3
12.3
9.6
45.2
38.5
19.7

62.7
44.5
47.7
43.5
45.1
13.5
61.3
45,8
35.5
36.1
30.6
21.2
16.0
17.6
15.4
13.2
10.4
47.1
40.3
20.5

1.5
1.2
1.8

1.6
1.1
.3
.8
1.0
1.7
.9
1. 5
.9
.4
.6
1.1
1.2

1.3
.7
.6
.7
.7
.9
.7
1. 2
.8
.7
.7
.9
.9

4.4
3.0
2.7
15
3.9
5.2
2.6
2 7
3.3
1. 1
3.9
3.4
3.0

0.7
.6
.7
.7
.5
.8
.6
.6
.4
4
.5
.4
.4
.4

4.3
3.2
3.8
2.7
2.2
3.5
4.3
2.0
2.2
2.5
2.7
2.1
1.9

.3
.5
.7
.5
.4

2.6
2.0
2.5
1.1
1.3
2.4
2.9
1.0
1.2
i n
1.7
1.4
1.3
1.2
1J$
1.2
.8
1.9
1.6
1.5

.4
.3
.6
.5
.4

1.9
1.6
3.2
2.6
2.3

2.6
2.2
3.1
7.0
6.9
3.3
7.3
7.3
4.2
5.6
2.2
1.3
2.3
2.3
3.5
3.0
2.6
4.6
5.7
2.4

0.9
.9
1.7
1. 2
1.0
.2
.4
1.3
1.1
.9
.1
.6
.1
.4
.4
.6
.3
1.2
1.0
.3

0.7
.5
.5
.5
.5
.1
.8
.7
.4
.5
.4
.3
.4
.3
.3
.3
.3
.5
.5
.3

4.2
3.6
5.3
8.7
8.4
3.6
8.5
9.3
5.7
7.0
2.7
2.2
2.8
3.0
5.2
3.9
3.2
6.3
7.2
3.0

2.2

2.6
1.0
1.6
2.6
1.4
.9

Wire drawing
1910 _............
1911..............
1912............ .
1913_______
1914_______
1915.......... .
1916_______
1917_______
1918_______
1919_______
1 9 2 0 ...........
1921_______
1922........... .
1923_______
1924_______
1925..........
1926_______
1910-1914...
1915-1919...
1920-1924...

10,370
11,819
13, 059
12, 769
11,468
7,859
9,551
13, 727
12,790
8,739
13, 243
9,186
13, 836
14, 783
11, 567
13, 758
13,329
59,481
52, 666
62,614

5
4
4
6
2
1
4
3
4
2
4
3
2
2
3
21
12
11

84
89
104
59
47
62
104
63
60
32
63
36
53
54
44
47
34
383
321
250

2. 323
2,270
2, 627
2,542
1,742
1,831
1,764
1,700
991
626
1,252
527
837
919
711
938
601
11, 504
6,912
4,246

2,412
2, 363
2, 735
2, 607
1,791
1,894
1,872
1, 766
1,055
658
1,317
567
893
975

0.2
.1
.1
.2
.1
.3
.1
.1
.1

987
638
11,908
7, 245
4,507

.1
.1
.1
.1
.1

.1
.1
.1
.4

.3
.9
.4
.3

Electrical department
1910_______
1911_______
1912............ .
1913_______
1914_______
1915............ .
1916..............
1917............ 1918_______
1919_______
1920 ............ 1921_______
1922_______
1 9 2 3 ...........
1924_______
1925............ .
1926_______
1910-1914...
1915-1919...
1920-1924...

1,526
2,700
3, 796
4, 012
2, 327
812
1,635
4,385
4, 747
4,644
4,473
3,025
3,528
4, 325
3,989
4,011
4.611
14, 921
16, 023
19, 339


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2
3
6
14
8
1
6
16
10

13
5
2

4
5
7
6

6
33
46
23

3
9
15
15
6
1
6
16
10
7
3
3
1

8
6
5
6
48
40
21

282
356
523
495
301
23
289
571
485
483
403
188
164
215
171
148
131
1,957
1,851
1,141

287
368
544
524
315
25
301
603
505
503
411
193
169
228
184
159
143
2,038
1,937
1,185

[764]

0.4
.4
.5
1.2
1. 1
.5
1. 2
1.2
.7
.9
.4
.2
.4
.4
.6
.5
.4
.8
1.0
.4

0.7
1.1
1.3
1.2
.9
.5
1.2
1.2
.7
.5
.2
.3
.1
.6
.5
.4
.4
1.1
.8
.4

49

A CCID ENT EXPERIENCE IN IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY
T

4 — A C C ID E N T S A N D A C C ID E N T R A TE S IN T H E IR O N A N D S T E E L IN D U S T R Y ,
1907 TO 1926, B Y D E P A R T M E N T S A N D BY Y E A R S A N D 5-YEAR P E R IO D S—Contd.

able

M echanical department

Number of cases
Y ear or
period

1908_______
1910_______
1911_______
1912_______
1913_______
1914-............
1915_______
1916_______
1917_______
1918_______
1919_______
1920_______
1921_______
1922_______
1923_______
1924_______
1925_______
1926_______
1910-1914__
1915-1919--.
1920-1924--.

Fullyear
"workers

1, 619
15, 927
17, 863
21, 591
24, 009
17, 772
5,987
16, 920
33, 328
58, 002
40, 609
34, 648
25, 036
30, 324
37,449
31, 331
36,666
38, 953
97,161
154, 846
162,121

Per­ Tem­
m a­
Death nent porary
disa­
disa­ bility
bility
4
18
13
19
36
18
3
9
43
54
45
26

21

25
37
29
31
32
104
154
138

7
56
80
95
103
60
27

86

134
162
83

68

41
75

102

80
71
74
392
492
366

430
, 618
3,015
4,040
4, 972
3,149
573
2,245
5,201
, 054
4,483
3, 767
1,703
1,626
2,045
1,855
1, 717
1,887
17, 794
18, 556
10, 996

2

6

Total

A c c id e n t f r e q u e n c y
rates (per 1,000,000
hours’ exposure)

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’ ex­
posure)

Per­
ma­
Death nent
disa­
bility

Per­
ma­
Death nent
disa­
bility

441
2, 692
3,108
4,154
5, 111
3, 227
603
2, 340
5, 378
, 270
4, 611
3, 861
1,775
1,726
2,184
1, 964
1,819
1,993
18, 292
19, 202
11, 510

6

Tem­
po­
rary To­
disa­ tal
bility

0.8 1.4
.4
1.2
.2 1. 5
.3
.5
.3

.2
.2

.4
.3
.4
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.4
.3
.3

Tem ­
po­
rary To­
disa­ ta
bility

0. 6 1.1
.9
.5
1.1 .7
1.8 1.2 .8
2.9
1.0 .9
2.0 1.0 .7
1.0 .7 .4
1.1 1.5 .6
2.6 1.0 .8
1.9
1.0 .4
2.2 .7 . 5
1.5
.6 . 5
.4
.5
1. 7
1.6 .7 .3
2.0 1.0 .3
1.7
.6 .3
1. 7
.7
.3
1.6 .6 .3
2. 1 1.1 .8
2. 0 1.0 .5

6.6

89.1
54. 8
56. 3
1.5 62. 4
1.4 69. 0
59. 1
1. 5 31. 9
1.7 44. 2
1.3 52. 0
.9 34. 8
.7 36. 8
. 7 36. 2
.5 22. 7
17. 9
.9 18. 2
17. 8
.7 15. 6
16. 1
1.3 61. 0
. 1 39. 9
.6

91. 3
56.4
58.0
64.2
70. 9
60. 5
33. 6
46. 1
53. 7
36. 0
37. 9
37. 2
23. 6
19. 0
19.4
18. 9
16. 6
17.0
62. 7
41.3
23. 7

4.9
2.3
1.5

1.7

.7

.4

2.8

15. 4
22. 9
17. 3
12. 5
10. 9
11. 4
9. 6
.6
14. 5
5.4
22. 4
18. 6
11.3

16. 4
24. 6
18.4
12. 9
.2
11. 9
10. 4
.6
15. 0
.0
23. 5
19. 8
11. 9

3.1
4.9
5.4
1.7
1. 7

1.0

0.3
.4

4.4
5.8

66.6

3.8
5.0
2.4
4.1
4.7
2. 5

1.1

.8
.8
.6
1
.8 22

3.7
3.3
3.8
4.8
3.7

2.1

3.2
4.4
3.3
3.4

2.6
2.5
2.6
3.3
2.6
2.7
2.5
4.0
3.5

Power houses
1917_______
1918_______
1919_______
1920..-..........
1921_______
1922_______
1923_______
1924_______
1925_______
1926--.........
1912-1914--.
1915-1919--1920-1924---

4,552
3, 699
4,093
4, 591
2, 344
3,361
4, 070
4, 511
4, 218
3,446
8,083
13, 219
18, 878

7
9

11
4
2
6

210

7

10
2
1

254
213
172
77
115
117
157
183
56
544
739
638

5
4

8

5
3
3

4
3

17

18

6 21
21
27

224
273
226
177
79

0.5

127
170
190
62
571
787
673

.5
.4

120

.8

.9
.3
.3

.2
.3
.2

.7
.3

0.5
.9

.2
.1
.5
.3

.6 11

.3
.3
.9
.5
.3

11

12
6

2.9

2.2
1.4
1.7
1. 5
4.1

1.8

.5
.1
«
.7
.4

.6
.3
.4

.8
.6

.3

.2 5.7
.2 1.9
. 2 1. 9
.2 .9
.1 3.4
.2 3.0
.3 2.0
.1 2.2
.3 2.6
.3 5.0
.2 2.3

Yards
1907_______
1910..............
1911_______
1912_______
1913_______
1914_______
1915.......... .
1916_______
1917_______
1918..............
1919_______
1920_______
1921_______
1922_______
1923_______
1924_______
1925............ .
1926_______
1910-1914..1915-1919...
1920-1924...

1Less than

2

, 618
15, 932
9,085
11,180
11,859
7, 879
3,843
7 , 853
15,732
16, 354
10,108
12,087
5,840
7, 969
, 381
8,269
7,683
9, 857
55, 932
53. 890
42, 546

8

5
40

11

23
28

10
12

36
33
25

10
6
15
12
10
12
19
112
106
53

10

49
43
64
50
37
15
56
77
62
48
33

22

16
35
19
24
19
243
258
125

509
2,054
1, 336
1.940
1,807
975
417
929
1,792
1,526
, 021
922
422
536
693
617
755
474
, 112
5,685
3,190

1

8

524
2,143
1,390
2, 027
1,885

1,022

432
997
1,905
, 621
1,094
965
450
567
740
644
791
512
, 467
6,049
3, 366

1

8

one-tenth of 1 per cent.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

tT6o]

0.6 1. 2
.8 1.0
.4
1.6
.7
1.9
.8 1.4
.4
1. 6
.5

1. 3
2.4

.8 1.6
.7
1. 2
.8 1.6
.3
.3

.6

.5
.4
.5
.7
.7
.7
.4

.9
1.3
.7
1. 4

.8
1.0
.7
1. 5

1.6
1.0

64.8
43.0
49.0
57. 8
52.0
41. 2
36. 2
39. 4
38. 0
31. 1
33. 7
25. 4
24. 1
22. 4
27. 5
24. 9
32. 8
16. 0
48. 6
35. 2
25.0

44. 8
51.0
60.4
54. 2
43. 2
37. 5
42.3
40.4
33.0
36. 1
26.6
25. 7
23.7
29.4
26.1
34.3
17.4
50.8
37.5
26.4

3.1
4.6
4.0
4.9
1.7

2.1

3.8
2.9
2.4
3.1
3.9
4.0
3.9
2. 5

2.6 1.1
1.0 .5
.7
.8
1.0 .7
1.4
.6
1.0 . 4
2. 2 .6
1.7
.6
1. 2 .6
1.9
.6

.4

7.5
6.5
5.0
6.3
6.4
4.5
1. 4
5.9
6.9
5.8
7.4
3.4
4.4
4.8
5.2
3.8
5.3
4.9

.4

4.1

1.9
1.4

1.3
1.9
.5
1.9
.9

1.6
.6
1.4
1.6
1.2

.4
.5
.5
.4
.5

.6
.6 6.0
.6 6.1

50

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

T able 4 .—A C C ID E N T S A N D A C C ID E N T R A TE S IN T H E IR O N A N D ST E E L IN D U S T R Y ,
1907 TO 1926, B Y D E P A R T M E N T S A N D B Y Y E A R S A N D 5-YEAR PE R IO D S—Contd.

Erection of structural steel

Number of cases
Year or
period

1 9 1 5 ...........
1916_______
1917...............
1918_______
1919_______
1920_______
1921........... .
1922_______
1923_______
1924_______
1 9 2 5 ...........
1926_______
1912-1914...
1915-1919. __
1920-1924...

Eullyear
workers

Per­ Tem ­
ma­
Death nent porary
disa­
disa­ bility
bility

803

1,011

1,156
1,234
775
637
573
595
912
1,009
937
774
2,157
4, 979
3, 726

8 7
10 3
12 15
10 3
5
7
6 12
5
4
5
2
3
7
10 10
9
3
11 5

26
45
29

24
35
35

251
251
442
364
214
204
168
129
234
291
188
180
738
1, 522
1,026

Total

A c c id e n t f r e q u e n c y
rates (per 1,000,000
hours’ exposure)

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’ ex­
posure)

Per­
ma­
Death nent
disa­
bility

Per­
ma­
Death nent
disa­
bility

Tem­
po­
rary To­
disa­ tal
bility

Tem­
po­
rary To­
disa­ tal
bility

19.9
4.3
1.2 25.4
1.0
19.8
1.7
1.7 23.2
20.8 4.0 2.2 27.0
.8
101.8 16.2 2.0 1.4 19.6
2.2
12.9
86.8
1.3
1.3 15.5
222 3.3 6.6 111.8
19.7
3.7
2.5 25.9
177
2.9
17. 5
1.1 1.7 20.2
136
2.8 1.1
16.8
2.5
1.8 21.1
244
1.1 2.6
6.6 1.6 1. 2 9.4
311
3.3
19.8
3.4
1.9 25.1
200 3.2 1.1
19.2
2.2 1.0 22.4
2.2
196
4.8
28.4
2.3
1. 3 32.0
788
4.0
24.1
5. 5
1.8 31.4
1,602
3.0
18.1
2.6 1.6 22.3
1,090
2.6
15.6
2.5
1.8 19.9
266
264
469
377
226

3.3
3.3
3.5
2.7

2.9 104. 2 110.4
82.7 87.0
4.3 127. 5 135.3
98.3
3.0
92.0
121.7
2.3 97.8 103.0
72.3 76. 2
85. 5 89.2
3.3 96.1 102.7
66.9 71. 2
78.3 85.3
3.7 114.0 121.7
2.3 101.9 107. 2
3.1 91.8 97.5

Coke ovens 2
1915_______
1916_______
1917--..........
1918_______
1919____
1920_______
1921_______
1922_______
1923_______
1924_______
1925 ______
1926_______
1912-1914.-1915-1919-.1920-1924-- -

1,648
2,195
6,641
9, 395
9, 022
, 620
5,768
6,554
, 961
7, 506
7,599
10, 745
13,282
28, 901
37,409

8
8

2

5
26

21
12
6
2
2

7
9
4
19
27

66

26

4

6
10
14
10
11
4
1

14
15
14

22

39
44
45

128
150
508
662
647
518
182
207
416
254
142
277
1,651
2,095
T, 577

134
161
544
697
669
535
188

210

437
278
160
318
1, 717
2,205
1,648

0.4

.8

1.3
.7
.4

.2

.1
.1
.3
.4

0.8
.9
.5
.5
.4
.4

.2

.1
.5
.7

25.9
22. 7
25.5
23. 5
23.9
.0
10. 5
10. 5
15. 5
11.3
.2

10

.2 .6 6
.6 .7 8.6
1.0 41.4
.8 .5 24. 1
.2 .4 14. 1
.7

27.1
24.4
27.3
24. 7
24.7
.6

10
10.8

10. 7
16.3
12.4
7.0
9.9
43.1
25.4
14.7

2.4
4.6
7.8
4. 5
2.7
1.4
.7

0.6
.5
.5
.5

.6

.7
.3

.6 .2
1.6 1.1
2.4
.9
1.1 .9

3.5
4.1
4.6
1.4

.7
1.5
.5
.7

0.3
.4
.4
.4
.4
.3

3.3
5. 5
8.7
5.4
3.7
2.4

.3

3.0
3.5

.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.6
.4
.2

1.1
1.0

2.2
6.2

4.4

2.3

M iscellaneous departments
A xle works

1915...............
1916 ............
1917 ..........
1918- ..........
1919- _____
1920- ..........
1921- ..........
1922. ..........
1923 ______
1924- _____
1925- _____
1926 ______
1912-1914--1915-19191920-1924-..

191
372
713
609
582
743
242
490
774
516
436
340
1, 326
2,467
2,764

1

21

22

1. 7

36. 6
15. 2
37. 9
85. 4
36. 1
44. 8
16. 5
7. 5
12. 9
14.2
4. 6
.9

38. 3
15. 2
37. 9
87. 0
36. 1
44.8
17. 9
7. 5
12. 9
15.4
4. 6
1. 3
.6
46. 2
21.5

0.3
.1
.9
.1
.7
.7
.5
.1
.i

3. 4
.1
.9
5. 0
.7
.7
.7
.1
.1
4.3
.1

.3

1.7

Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.
This section of the table covers only those coke ovens operated in connection w ith steel works.
more complete information, see publications of the Bureau of Mines.

For

3

1
1

1

2
2

4
4
4

1

17
81
156
63

100
12
11
30
22
6

9
438
338
1Î5

17
81
159
63

100
13
11
30
24

6

13
444
342
178

1
2


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[766]

1. 6
1.3

.6

.6
.4

.5

.2

1.0 110.1 111
.5 45. 7
. 1 21.1

3.1
3.9

8. 3
3.9
3.0
1.4

1

8

.2 ..21
2. 8 3. 2 6.0
2. 1 1.6 6.7
1. 2 . 7 1.9
(>)

*

51

ACCIDENT EXPERIENCE IN IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY
T

4 . — A C C ID E N T S A N D A C C ID E N T R A T E S IN T H E IR O N A N D S T E E L IN D U S T R Y ,
1907 TO 1926, B Y D E P A R T M E N T S A N D B Y Y E A R S A N D 6-YEAR P E R IO D S—Contd.

able

M iscellaneous departm ents— C o n tin u ed

Number of cases
Year or
period

Fullyear
workers

Per­ Tem ­
ma­
Death nent porary
disa­
disa­ bility
bility

Total

A c c id e n t fr e q u e n c y
rates (per 1,000,000
hours’ exposure)

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’ ex­
posure)

Per­
ma­
Death nent
disa­
bility

Per­
ma­
Death nent
disa­
bility

Tem­
po­
rary To­
disa­ tal
bility

Tem ­
po­
rary To­
disa­ tal
bility

Car tvheels

1915_- ..........
1916_______
1917,-..........
1918_______
1919_______
1920---........
1921--.........
1922. ...........
1923_______
1924_______
1925_______
1926_______
1912-1914..1915-1919--1920-1924-..

389
734
1,296

1,866
1,619
1,215
552

1,102

1,099
1,083
931
792
2,367
5,904
5, 050

2
1
1
1
1
1

3

3
7
3

1
2

4

11
4
2
1
3
3
3
15
18

10

25
348
250
337
353
170
92
78
116
137
69
32
609
1,313
595

26
352
257
33K
365
174
95
78
118
141
72
35
627
1,338
608

0.9

0 9 21 4 22 3
.9 158. 0 159.0
64. 3
60 2 60. 4
72. 6 75.1
46 7 47 7
56. 7 58. 6
23. 6 23. 6
.3 35. 2 35.8
.9 42. 2 43.4
1 24 7 25 8
2 13 3 14 5
85.8 88.3
74. 1 75. 5
. 7 39.3 40.2

66.1

.82 1.0
.2 2.3
10
.6 1.2

.3
.3
.4
.4

.2

1
1
2.1
1.0

5. 4
4.6
]

0. 3

0. 7

.4

.9
.6

.9
.5

.6
.7
.6

1.0 2.1

1
1.2 1.0 1.0

3.6

1.8
1.8
2.5
2.4
.2

1

.2

.3
1. 3
6
.9
.5
.4

1

1

.0
8.5
5.9
1. 7
3.2
1. 5
4.9

.6
.8 2.8
.8 2.9
. 6 1. 9
4 20
1.3 4.7
1.0 3.9
.7

2.3

Docks and ore yards

1915_______
1916. _____
1917- ........ .
1918_______
1919_______
1920_______
.1921--.........
1922_______
1923_______
1924 ______
1925_______
1926- _____
1911-1914--.
1915-1919--.
1920-1924...

115
195
353
368
352
379
235
271
538
340
388
389
1,293
1,383
1, 761

3

2
1
1
3

2
3

6

4

2
2
1
1
6
2

7
16
78
35
39

3
3
4

7
15

1
11
12
12

1112
12
7
8

139
175
57

9

21
81
37
45
15

11

13
18
16
9
9
153
193
73

5.1
1. 9
.9

5. 8
3.4
.9
.9
5. 7

20. 3
27.4
73. 6
31. 7
37. 0
.6
15. 6
.6
9. 2
.8
.0
.7
35.8
42. 2

26.1
35.9
76.4
33. 5
42. 7
13.3
15. 6
16.0
.1
15. 7
7. 7
.8
39.4
46. 5
13.9

1.8 10
3. 7
3. 7
8
11
1. 9
3. 9 11
6
1. 7
.1
.8 2.8
1.4
2.9
.8 2.3 10.8
.9

30.8
11.3
5.4
5.3

2. 3
7.3
.7
.3
10 4
2. 9

22.2

7.6
3. 9
14. 4

10. 3

2. 6
2.8

4. 6
.7
4.5

8

4.1
5.8

0. 1 2. 4
. 5 38.6
1.0 13.0
.3 6.0
. 5 10 9
. i 8.3
.5
.5
.3 30.1
. 2 4. 1
. 3 14. 7
.6
.3
. 3 2. 9

10
.8 8.2
. 5 13.3
.3 10.6

Woven w ire fence

1915_______
1916- ..........
1917_______
1918_______
1919_______
1920-............
1921_______
1922
1923-............
1924_______
1925_______
1926_______
1915-1919-..
1920-1924.-.

1,552
1,623
1,269
1,531
L336
1,097
1, 095
1.528
1,603
1,301
1,290
1,363
7,311
6,623


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

10
18
10
1
1
1
1

5
4

6
3
6
3
6
2
6

47
24

294
180
98
77
35
48
79
85
124
63
105
83
684
399

304
198
108
82
40
54
82
91
128
69
107
89
732
424

[767]

2.1
3. 7
2.6
1.1
0.2 1.0
1. 8
.2

.9
1.3

.6

1. 5
.5
1.5

63.1
37.0
25.7
16. 8
8.7
14.6
24. 1
18. 5
25.8
16.1
27.1
.8
31.2

20
.1 2.1
.1 1.2 20.1

85. 2
40.7
28.3
17. 9
9.9
16. 4
30. 0
19. 8
26.6
17. 6
27. 6
22. 3
33.4
21.4

1.2
2.1
1.0
.6
2.9
.8

3. 0
1.5

1.2
.3
.3

.7
.5
1.3

.2
.5
1.6
1.2

0.5
.4
.4
.2

.2

.2
.4
.4

.2
.2

.4
.3
.3
.3

1. 7
3.4
2. 5
.2
2.3
3.1

1

1.2
1.1
1.9
1.5

.6
.8
2.2
1.8

52
T

M ONTHLY LABOE EEVIEW

4 .—A C C ID E N T S A N D A C C ID E N T R A T E S IN T H E IR O N A N D S T E E L IN D U S T R Y ,
1907 TO 1926, B Y D E P A R T M E N T S A N D B Y Y E A R S A N D 5-YEAR P E R IO D S —Contd.

able

M iscellaneous departm ents— C o n tin u e d

Number of cases
Y ear or
period

Fullyear
workers

Per­ T em ­
ma­
Death nent porary
disa­
disa­ bility
bility

Total

A c c id e n t fr e q u e n c y
rates (per 1,000,000
hours’ exposure)

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’ ex­
posure)

Per­
ma­
Death nent
disa­
bility

Per­
ma­
Death nent
disa­
bility

Tem­
po­
rary To­
disa­ tal
bility

Tem ­
po­
rary To­
disa­ tal
bility

N ails and staples

1915_______
1916_______
1917_______
1918_______
1919_______
1920_______
1921_______
1922_______
1923_______
1924 _____
1925_______
1926_______
1915-1919...
1920-1924...

1,546
1,993
2,323
1,916
2,040
2, 364
1,718
2,366
3, 404
1,939
1,925
2, 658
9,818
10, 890

1
1
1
1
1
2

3

12
10
16
10
8
8
6
10
7
6
6
2

181
236
184
123
58
164
91

194
246

201
133
66

121
131
81

88
100

56
37

.1

.2
2.3
1. 7
1. 3
1

172
98
132
139
87
94

1
.2 1.2
.1
1.4
.1 .9
10
1. 0

840
628

.1
.1

102

782
588

0.2 2.6

.3
1.9

1.1

39.0
39. 5
26.4
21 4
9 5
23 1
17. 7
17. 0
17.4
13 9
15 2
16 4
26. 5
18.0

41.8
39 7
28.8
23 1
8
24 2
19.0
18.5
18. 5
14 Q
16 2
16 7
28. 5
19.2

1.3

1.7

0.3

3.3

.9

2.1

3

3 3

1.2 .6
.8 1.3
.8 1.2

.3
.3
.2

2.1
2.4
2.2

10

.4

1.3

.3
.2

2. 0
1.8

0.6
.3
1.0

0.4
.5
.7
1. 3
.4

0. 5
.6
.6
.6
.5

1. 5
14
2. 4
.8

0.8

0.4

1.2

0. 6 0. 6

2 7
3. 4
3 1
2 9
6
8
6
2
2 5
8
8

.6 1.0

Hot m ills

1923.............
1924_______
1925_______
1926 ______
1920-1924...

6,374

5, 789
7, 773
4,319
30,018

2
1
4
4

11

9
7
19
15
39

820
634
913
834
3, 223

831
642
936
853
3,273
'

0.1
.1
.2
.3
.1

0.5
.4

.8
1.2
.4

42.9 43.5
36.6 37.1
39. 1 40. 1
64. 2 65.7
35.8 36.3

3. 9
.7

1 6
1.6

Cold rolling

1926_______

2

1,824

211

213

0.4

38.3

38.7

Unclassified

1915_______
1916_______
1917_______
1918_______
1919_______
1920_______
1921_______
1922..........
1 9 2 3 . ........
1924_______
1925_______
1926_______
1915-1919...
1920-1924...

21, 547
24, 216
71, 249
97, 513
78, 804
104, 741
53, 403
79, 405
95,138
93, 018
132, 291
, 826
293, 329
425, 704

112


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16
17
65
79
60
72
36
39
52

66

45
58
237
265

41
72
164
284
145
261
134
233
273
285
308
306
706
1,186

2, 749
2, 714
8,165
9,930
7, 054
, 208
4, 468
, 848
9,719
, 032
10, 648
, 325
30, 612
40, 275

11
6
8
8

2,806
2,803
8,394
10, 293
7, 259
11,541
4,638
7, 120
10, 044
, 383
, 001
8,689
31, 555
41, 736

8
11

[7 0 S ]

0. 2 0. 6
.2 1.0
.3
.8
.3
1.0
.3
.6
.2 .8
.2 .8
.2 1.0
.2 1.0
.2 1.0
.1
.8
.2 .9
.3
.8
.2 .9

42. 5 43.3
37.4 38.6
38. 2 39. 3
33. 9 35. 2
29. 8 30. 7
35. 7 36. 7
27.9 28. 9
28.7 29. 9
34. 1 35. 3
28. 8 30. 0
26.8 27. 7
24. 6 25. 7
34.8 35 9
31.5 32.6

1. 5
1. 4

1. 8
1. 6

1. 5
1. 4
1. 3

1.0
1.1
1.4
.7
0
6

1
1
1.2

1. 4
.8
.9
.7
.9
.8
.8
.9
.9
.7
7
13
.9

.6
5
.5
4
J5
4
.5
5
4

2
2
2
2
2
1

.5

2.6

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

53

Q uarry A ccid en ts in th e U n ited S ta te s in 1925

SLIGHT improvement in the accident record of the stonequarrying industry is indicated by the recent report (Bulletin
286) of the United States Bureau of Mines on quarry accidents
in the United States during the calendar year 1925. In this industry,
which employed a total of 91,872 men (about 2 per cent less than in
1924) and worked an average of 273 days, the number of fatal acci­
dents was 149, or 11 more than in 1924, with a fatality rate of 1.78
per 1,000 300-day workers as compared to 1.63, while the number of
nonfatal injuries was 14,165, or 4.1 per cent less than in 1924, with a
rate of 169.67 as compared to 175.03 in 1924. The exposure in 1925
was about 1 per cent less than in 1924.

A

The general improvement in accident-prevention work in quarries,
so far as fatalities is concerned, the report declares, is indicated by
the downward trend of the death rate when considered in five-year
periods. During 1911 to 1915 this rate was 2.19, during the next
five years it was 2.10, and during the last five years, including 1925,
it was 1.78.
The severity rate is not actually worked out in the report, except
for the five-year period 1921 to 1925, but data are given so that a
rate may be determined. This rate appears to be 3.57 for the fatal
cases and 2.39 for the nonfatal cases in 1925, and 3.27 and 2.26,
respectively, in 1924. These rates are computed on an estimated
number of days lost (since the report does not show the amount of
time lost as the result of individual accidents but does classify the
accidents as to degree of disability) by using the standard adopted
by the International Association of Industrial Accident Boards and
Commissions 1 for fatal and permanent cases—namely, 6,000 days
each, 800 days as the average time lost in. permanent partial disa­
bility cases 2 and 30 days and 4 days as the average time lost in each
case of temporary disability lasting, respectively, more than 14 days
and from 1 to 14 days.

Of the total number of accidents reported during 1925, 149 (1.04
per cent) resulted in death, 452 (3.16 per cent) caused permanent
disability, 2,627 (18.35 percent) caused temporary disability exceed­
ing 14 days, and 11,086 (77.45 per cent) caused loss of time exceeding
the remainder of the day of the accident but not more than 14 da37s.
The statistics in this report are presented in considerable detail by
kind of quarry, by cause of accident, by State, by year,, etc., and
similar data are also given for the quarries classified as dimensionstone and nondimension-stone quarries. The accident rates for
each year since 1916 in the former group of quarries have been con­
sistently lower than in the other group. In 1925 these rates were:
Dimension-stone quarries (not including outside plants)—Fatality
rate, 1.94 per 1,000 300-day workers, and nonfatality rate, 181;
nondiinension-stone quarries (not including outside plants)—Fatality
rate, 2.59, and nonfatality rate, 193.
1 U nited States Bureau of Labor Statistics. Bulletin No. 276: Standardization of industrial accident
statistics. Washington, 1920, p. 18.
2 Reported by the California Industrial Accident Commission.


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54

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

The following table summarizes the accident experience in all
quarries during the years 1924 and 1925:
A C C ID E N T

E X P E R IE N C E

OF Q U A R R IES IN T H E U N IT E D ST A T E S D U R IN G 1924
A N D 1925

Accidents

Severity rate (per
1,000 days’ lost)

Frequency rate

E quiv­
N um ­ alent
Per 1,000 300- Per 1,000,000
ber em­ 300-day
day workers man-hours
ployed work­
Fa- Per­
Temers
ma­ porary
tal nent
Fa­ N on­ Fa­ N on­
tal
fatal
tal
fatal
94,242
91, 872

84,426
83,487

138
149

470
452

14, 307
13,713

1.63
1.78

175. 03
169. 67

0.54
.59

58.34
56.56

Fatal

Non- Tofatal tal

3.27
3. 57

2.26
2. 39

5. 52
5.96

Falls or slides of rock or overburden caused the greatest number of
deaths (34 of the 101) to men working inside the pits, while handling
rock at the face caused the greatest number of nonfatal accidents
(1,639 of the 8,632, or 19 per cent) occurring inside the pits. Flying
objects caused the greatest number of nonfatal injuries, 19.9 per cent,
which took place outside the pits, while machinery was responsible
for 27.1 per cent of the deaths occurring in outside operations.
In 1925 the fatality rate per 1,000 300-day workers was highest
in Maryland quarries, being 5.09, and in 1924 it was highest in
Connecticut, being 5.29. The nonfatal rate was highest in Massa­
chusetts (341.59) in 1925, and highest in Minnesota (315.09) in 1924.
The report contains a section dealing with the relative hazard of
large and small quarries, in which all quarries employing less than 25
workers are placed in the latter grouping. It appears that both the
fatal and nonfatal rates were somewhat higher for the small opera­
tions than for the large ones. In 1925 the fatality rate per 1,000
300-day workers in small quarries was 3.65, and in large quarries it
was 1.97, while the nonfatal injury rate was, respectively, 245.29
and 183.55.
C o m p arative A c cid e n t E xperience of Large G roup o f P la n ts in

1925 and 1926

HE accident experience of 1,725 of the plants holding member­
ship in the National Safety Council is set forth in an article
in the National Safety News for September, 1927. This rep­
resents an increase of 494 (40 per cent) over the number reporting
in 1925. The plants are classified into 16 industrial groups or sec­
tions. The accident frequency rate (per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure)
of all plants reporting is shown to be 31,87 as compared with 30.6 in
1925, while the severity rate (days lost per 1,000 hours’ exposure)
was 2.50 and 2.02, respectively. One out of every 13 workers suf­
fered a lost-time injury, and the average time lost per injury was
78 days.
The experience of 687 plants reporting both in 1925 and 1926
shows a reduction in frequency and severity rates, the former being
lowered more than 13 per cent and the latter about 11 per cent.

T


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55

PENALTY NATION PAYS FOR SPEED

The following table gives the data for these 687 plants, classified
by industrial group, for 1925 and 1926.
A C C ID E N T E X P E R IE N C E OF 687 P L A N T S B E L O N G IN G TO T H E N A T IO N A L SA F E T Y
C O UNCIL, 1925 A N D 1926

Industry group

Lost-time accidents

Total hours worked

N um ­
ber of
plants

1926

1925

1926

1925

Autom otive______________ _________ ____
C e m e n ts ______________________ ____
Chemical -------------- ------------ --------------Construction __________________________
M etals..................................................................
Packers and tanners------------------------------Paper and pulp_________ _________ ______
Petroleum_________ _____ _________ _____
Power press__ _______________________
Quarry ______ _________________________
Textile
__________________ _______ ___
W oodworking.................................................

56
114
52
30
172
9
79
14
66
11
24
60

193,170, 392
95,164, 043
65, 660, 528
22, 707,156
366,980, 532
10, 297, 413
83, 444, 770
202, 568, 652
134,925, 769
9, 140, 291
62, 459,152
38,070, 771

292, 250,161
91, 246, 572
63,908,310
26, 810, 713
420, 892,130
10, 244, 703
91, 511, 224
216,977, 595
158, 204, 457
9, 590, 566
62, 875, 420
37, 260, 639

6,012
2,480
1, 763
1, 549
14, 282
279
2, 957
5, 230
3, 743
472
832
1,589

5,789
2,079
1,688
1,860
14, 479
694
2,926
5, 554
3,335
467
836
1, 418

T otal_______ _____ ___ _______ ____

687

1, 284, 589, 469

1, 481, 772, 490

41,188

i 41,126

Accident fre­
quency rates
(per 1,000,000
hours’ expo­
sure)

D ays lost
Industry group
1925

1926

1925

1926

Accident sever­
ity rates (per
1,000 hours’
exposure)

1925

1926

A utom otive_____________________ ______
Cement---------------------- --------- --------------Chemical.............................................................
C onstruction............... ......................- ..............
M etals______ _________________________
Packers and tanners_______ ____________
---------------------- --------Paper and pulp
Petroleum____ _____ ____________ ______
Power press___________________ _______ Quarry________________________________
Textile_____ _________________________
W oodworking...................................................

305, 578
486, 385
206, 667
165, 840
797, 838
12, 039
158, 246
445, 494
172, 539
66, 289
26, 106
88, 647

329, 953
349, 856
204, 524
187, 962
862, 537
29,180
180,105
455, 865
204, 229
71,916
33,011
103, 619

31.1
26.0
26.9
68.2
38.9
27. 1
35.4
25.8
27.8
51.6
13. 3
41. 7

19.8
22.8
26. 4
69. 4
34.4
67.8
32.0
25.6
21.1
48. 7
13. 3
38. 1

1.58
5.11
3.15
7. 31
2.17
1.17
1.90
2.20
1.28
7.25
.42
2. 42

1.13
3.83
3.20
7. 01
2.05
2.85
1.97
2.10
1.29
7.50
.53
2. 78

T ota l................ ........................................

‘ 2, 923, 368

3, 012, 757

32. 1

27.7

2. 28

2.03

i This is not the sum of the items hut is as appears in the original.

P en a lty th e A m erican N a tio n P ays for S p e e d 1

NE out of every 200 persons living in the United States will be
permanently disabled by industrial accidents this year—a
total of more than a half million. Nearly another million
other men and women will sustain disabling accidents which will
necessitate absence from work four weeks or more. Disease and
accidents of everyday life add another million of handicapped indi­
viduals. This is the penalty the nation pays for pursuing its “ speedmad” way. Each year for the last 50 the industrial demands of this
Nation have resulted in a far greater number of disabled men than
the total list of casualties from the World War.
These facts prove beyond doubt that we are a wasteful nation and
have done little toward conserving our man power. The nation is
on the eve of a great change. Before long a certain handicap, such

O

>By Dr. Harry E. Mock, Gorgas Memorial Institute; reprinted from the Rehabilitation Review, New
York, April, 1927, p. 157.


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56

MONTHLY LABOE EEVIEW

as heart disease, the loss of an arm or leg, will not bar a man from a
job. It is estimated that 90 per cent of the men and women injured
in industry can be returned to useful employment by a careful
selection of their occupations.
Inadequate convalescent care is the shame of industrial centers
to-day. No provision has been made in our scheme of things for
proper convalescent care after _hospital treatment is completed.
Intimately tied up with the provision for convalescents is vocational
training when necessary. For it happens in many instances that a
man or woman is permanently incapacitated to earn a living in the
accustomed way, and they need new training to qualify them for
work which they are physically fitted to do. This thought has
caused the medical profession to link hands with the educator and
with the personnel managers of industry to the end that all handi­
capped individuals may once more become productive units of
society.
In d u stria l A c c id e n ts to Women in N ew Jersey , O hio, an d
W iscon sin

B

ASED partly upon workmen’s compensation records for the year
ending June 30, 1920, and partly upon interviews with women
who had been left with permanent injuries as a result of acci­
dents, the United States Women’s Bureau has recently completed a
study (Bui. No. 60) of industrial accidents to women in New Jersey,
Ohio, and Wisconsin.
Three sections of the report are given over to an analysis of work
accidents to women from the points of view of legislation, adminis­
tration, and prevention in the States under consideration. Another
section presents some of the interviews with the permanently dis­
abled women, indicating in a general way the need for legislative and
administrative changes and for the promotion of preventive work in
connection with accidents to women. A total of 3,285 cases were
covered (1,096 in New Jersey, 1,545 in Ohio, and 644 in Wisconsin),
and 385 out of 536 women reported as permanently injured (according
to State records) were interviewed personally in an effort to deter­
mine the results of the industrial accidents with special reference to
the adjustment of the injured workers to their preaccident status.
From this latter standpoint it is shown that 40, or about one-tenth
of the women interviewed, were unable to return to any work, and
40.8 per cent could not return to the work they had formerly done.
Of the 338 who definitely returned to industry, 95 (or 28.1 per cent)
never equaled their former wages, while 243 (or 71.9 per cent) received
the same or higher earnings than before their accident. About 80
per cent of these workers returned to their former employers, while
18.6 per cent were soon laid off or had to quit on account of their
disability. Of the women interviewed 47.8 per cent were responsible
ior the support of others in addition to themselves.
In p resen tin g a general p ic tu re of th e w ays in w hich w om en are being in ju re d
it is of in te re st to show th e n a tu re of th e in ju ry as re la te d to th e cause of th é
accid en t
M achinery , w hich w as th e cause in 46.4 p e r c e n t of th e cases, was
responsible for 60.6 p e r c en t of th e cu ts a n d lace ratio n s, fo r 26.3 p e r c e n t of th e


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INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS TO WOMEN

57

bruises an d contusions, fo r 85.3 p e r c en t of th e cru sh in g in ju ries, fo r 10.6 p e r cen t
of th e sp rain s a n d strain s, fo r 95.6 p e r c e n t of th e a m p u ta tio n s, a n d fo r 37.8 p e r c en t
of th e p u n ctu res. M etal-w orking m ach in ery , w hich cau sed 40.3 p e r c e n t of th e
m achine accidents, caused o v er o ne-half of th e to ta l tr a u m a tic a m p u ta tio n s an d
alm o st o n e-fo u rth of th e c u ts a n d lace ratio n s. T ex tile m ach in ery , second in th e
m achine group in resp o n sib ility fo r accid en ts, w as a n im p o rta n t fa c to r in in ju rie s
in th e n a tu re of cu ts, lace ratio n s, a n d p u n c tu re s; a n d p a p e r m ach in ery , w hich
w as th ird , gave rise to a c cid en ts re su ltin g largely in cru sh in g in ju ries. F alls of
persons w ere n u m erically second in seriousness to m ach in e accid en ts, cau sin g 20.8
p e r c e n t of th e cases. B esides being th e m o st fre q u e n t cau se of d islocations a n d
concussions, th e y w ere responsible fo r 61.7 p e r c e n t of th e sp ra in s a n d stra in s,
for 61.5 p e r c e n t of th e frac tu re s, a n d fo r 37.6 p e r c e n t of th e bruises a n d con­
tusions. T he h an d lin g of objects, th e th ird larg e cause of accid en ts, 15 p e r cent
of th e to ta l n u m b er being in c u rre d in th is w ay, caused 37.8 p e r c en t of th e p u n c ­
tu res, 21.9 p e r cen t of th e sp rain s a n d stra in s, a n d 21 p e r c e n t of th e c u ts a n d
laceratio n s.

The total number of cases included in the report, as classified by
the author, covers 15 fatal, 803 permanent disabilities, and 2,467 tem­
porary disabilities. Ninety-two women were compensated for occu­
pational diseases and 11 for hernia. Slightly more than one-half of
the permanent injuries involved one finger, dismemberment or loss
of use resulting; and 2,243, or 68.3 per cent of the total number of
injuries, were to the upper extremities. Of 3,263 cases, 676, or 20.7
per cent, were complicated by infection. Three of these cases
resulted in death and 148 in permanent disability.

The report indicates quite a variation in the length of time required
lor recovery—that is, the healing period. Manufacturing industries,
employing 26.8 per cent of the women exposed to hazard, caused 77.7
per cent of the total injuries, 86.3 per cent of the cases resulting in
permanent disability, and 74.9 per cent of the cases resulting in
temporary disability. Of the total of 3,253 women for whom the
healing period was reported, 1,344 (41.3 per cent) required a healing
period of 4 weeks or longer, and of that number 269 (20 per cent)
required a healing period of 12 weeks or longer. Of these 269 cases,
26.4 per cent were in the services grouped as clerical, professional,
etc., in which 61.5 per cent of the women were employed. Textiles,
which comprised 6.6 per cent of the total number of women employed,
accounted for 8.5 per cent of the 269 cases requiring a healing period
of 12 weeks or longer; trade, which comprised 8.8 per cent of the total
number, was responsible for 8.6 per cent with such a healing period;
food and kindred products, which comprised 3.4 per cent, for 8.2
per cent; laundry work, which comprised 0.9 per cent, for 4.5 per
cent; iron and steel, which comprised 1.3 per cent, for 5.2 per cent;
and clothing, which comprised 5 per cent of all the workers, for 5.2
per cent with the long healing period.

The table following, arranged from the report, shows the frequency
rates per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure, and also the severity rates, in
terms of days lost per 1,000 hours’ exposure, for death and permanent
disability cases, by industry groups.

<63952°—27----- 5

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58

MONTHLY LABOR EE VIEW

N U M B E R E M P L O Y E D A N D A C C ID E N T R A TE S FOR W O M E N IN JU R E D IN IN D U S T R Y
IN N E W JE R SE Y . OHIO, A N D W ISC O N SIN , FOR Y E A R E N D IN G JU N E 30, 1920, BY
IN D U S T R Y GROUPS

Accident frequency
rates (per 1,000,000
man-hours)

Accidents

Industry group

Manufacturing:
Agricultural implements_ ...... .............
Automobiles_______
B uttons (composition)_____________
Chemicals and allied
products_________
Clay, glass, and
stone products. __ .
Clothing (including
dressmaking)_____
Electrical supplies. _.
Food and kindred
products..............
Iron and steel . . . ....
Laundry work,cleaning, aDd d y ein g __
Leather products___
M etal g o o d s _______
Paper boxes. ______
Paper and pulp____
Printing and publishing____ ____ ____
Rubber................. .......
S tra w ........ ...............
Textiles____________
Wagons and carriages______ _____
Wood products..........
Miscellaneous______
Clerical and professional... ________
Transportation_______
A g ricu ltu re, except
farm laborers ............
Trade .............................

N um ­
ber
em­
ployed

Estimated
number of
days lost

Per­ Tem ­
Per­ Tem ­
ma­
ma­ po­
Fa­ nent po­
Fa­
nent
tal disa­ rary TotaP tal disa­ rary Total Fatal
disa­
disa­
bil­ bility
bil­ bility
ity
ity

1
21

126
3,213

4
61

5
82

2. 65 10. 58 13.23
2.18 6. 33 8.51

Accident
severity
rates (per
1,000 man­
hours) 2

Per­
ma­
nent
disa­
bil­
ity

Per­
ma­
Fa­ nent
tal disa­
bil­
ity

600
11,280

1. 59
1.17

617

6

12

18

3.24

6. 48

9. 72

2,250

1. 22

4,266

37

49

86

2. 89

3. 83

6.72

15,252

1.19

7,125

24

73

97

1.12

3. 42

4. 54

8,958

.42

38,146
8,995

29
51

160
109

189
160

.25
1.89

1. 40
4.04

1. 65
5.93

12, 840
26,640

.11
.99

2. 96
5. 78

3. 82
9. 09

26,094
10,263

1

66
102

232
178

299 0.01 .84
3. 31
280

6,824
10, 607
5,295
1, 793
2,750

1
5

25
25
77
24
9

61
83
132
69
31

87
108
214
93
41

26
12

102
91
4
323

1. 62
. 52

1

6,000

30, 756 0. 08
43, 860

.39
1. 42

.05 1. 22 2. 98 4. 25 6,000
. 79 2. 61 3. 39
.31 4. 85 8. 31 13.47 30,000
4, 46 12. 83 17. 29
. 12 1. 09 3. 76 4. 97 6,000

31,128 .29
12, 750
35, 460 1. 89
14,160
6, 762 .73

1. 52
.40
2. 23
2. 63
.82

5,357
7,688
282
50, 440

56

76
79
4
267

157
4, 597
8,864

1
17
83

1
66
92

2
83
176

(3)

1

6. 35
3. 95
4. 73
2. 13

10,140
4,728

. 63
.20

. 37

4. 73
3. 43
4. 73
1. 76

32, 808

.22

2. 12
1. 23
.04 3.12

2. 12
4. 79
3.46

4. 25
6. 02
6.62

6,000

300
8, 400
46, 670

.05
.05

.30
.99

.35 30,000
1. 04

51, 546
2, 700

.02

.04
.04

.23

. 64
. 61
1. 76

467,355
21, 547

5

75
3

415
64

495
67

536
66,901

1

1
31

3
133

4
165

( 3)

. 62
. 15

1. 87
.66

2. 49
.82

960
21.396

.03

.60
. 11

Total__________ 759, 838

15

802 2, 454 3, 271

(3)

.35

1.08

1. 43 90,000 432, 344

.04

. 19

6,000

1Complete data on 14 cases not available.
2The number of days lost is given in the report in a table showing an employment of 748,395 and no acci­
dent record, but the severity rates have been figured on the basis of 759,838 employed, taken from a table
in the report which also gives the number of accidents but does not give the number of days lost. The
discrepancy which results in the rates affects only 5 industries and in no case amounts to more than 0.37.
Rates for temporary disabilities are not given because of insufficient data.
ELess than 0.01.

The total compensation paid in 3,285 cases was $329,490, or an
average of $100.30 per case. The 15 fatal cases received $21,124, or
an average of $1,408.27 each, and the 803 permanent disability cases
received $228,088, or an average of $284.04 each. In 3,225 cases
the ratio of compensation to estimated amount of earnings or wages
lost was 20.4; in 15 fatal cases it was 8.42, in 746 permanent dis­
ability cases it was 18.19, and in 2,464 temporary cases it was 58.07.
Just over one-half of the women reporting wages were receiving less
than $15 per week, the median wage being $14.95, and of the total
number slightly less than one-half were under 25 years of age.


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[774]

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS TO WOMEN

59

The following data taken from the summary of facts contained in
the report include the essential details (some of which have already
been noted) brought out by the investigation:
Cause of accident:
Per cent
M achinery_________________ 46. 4
Falls of persons______________21. 0
Handling of objects________ 15. 0
Other causes_______________ 17. 6
N ature of injury:
All injuries—
Cut, laceration, punc­
tu re__________________ 32. 9
Bruise, contusion, crush. 27. 5
Sprain, strain ___________ 11. 7
D islocation, fracture___10. 4
A m putation___________ 7. 7
Burn, scald, crush and
burn________________ 4. 7
Permanent disability cases—
Cut, laceration, punc­
tu re__________________ 23. 5
Bruise, contusion, crush. 22. 3
Sprain, strain _________
4. 8
D islocation, fracture___10. 2
A m putation____________ 30. 4
Burn, scald, crush and
burn________________
3. 4
Location of injury:
Upper extrem ities__________ 68. 3
Lower extrem ities__________ 15. 0
T runk_____________________ 12. 5
4. 1
H ead______________________
Healing period of at least 12
weeks in relation to age:
All injuries—
Under 20 years of a g e .. 3. 9
20 and under 40 years of
a ge------------------ .-------- 7. 7
40 and under 60 years of
age_________________ 14. 0
60 years of age and over. 24. 3
Perm anent disability cases—
Under 20 years of a g e .. 11. 6
20 and under 40 years of
age___________________ 20. 8
40 and under 60 years of
a g e___________________ 33. 1
60 years of age and over. 50. 0

P e rm a n e n t d isab ility cases:
By S tates—Percent
N ew Je rs e y _____________ 29. 1
O hio_______
8. 5
W isconsin______________ 13. 9
Age of w om en—
U n d er 20 y e a rs _________ 28. 8
20 a n d u n d e r 40 y e a rs .. 52. 3
40 a n d u n d e r 60 y e a r s .. 16. 2
60 y ears a n d o v e r_____
2. 7
Cases in terv iew ed (385):
N a tiv ity —N ativ e-b o rn w h ite _____78. 2
N ativ e-b o rn n e g ro _____ 6. 2
Foreign b o rn __________ 15. 6
E d u c a tio n N a tiv e b o rn — h a d fin­
ished e ig h th g rad e or
a tte n d e d high sc h o o l. 36. 3
F oreign b o rn —
C ould sp eak E nglish 88. 3
C ould read E n g lish . 58. 3
D e p e n d e n ts_________________ 47. 8
Sole s u p p o r t____________ 12. 6
C o n trib u te d definitely,
n o t sole s u p p o r t_____35. 2
E xperience in ac c id e n t occu­
p a tio n —Less th a n 6 m o n th s ____35. 6
Less th a n 1 m o n th _____14. 5
Less th a n 1 w eek ______ 6. 0
In d u stria l re h a b ilita tio n —
D isabled
fo r
fo rm er
w o rk _________________ 40. 8
D isabled for all a v a il­
able w o rk ____________ 10. 4
Of th e 338 w ho definitely
re tu rn e d to in d u s try —
R e tu rn e d to fo rm er
e m p lo y e r_________79. 6
Soon la id off o r h a d
to q u it_________ 18. 6
• N ever since acci­
d e n t h a d earn ed
so m u ch as be­
fo re ______________ 28. 1

The report states th atH azard is so in h e re n t a p a r t of in d u stry , as a t p re se n t c o n stitu te d , t h a t various
occupations h av e each a p red ictab le risk, a n d th e cost to th e in ju re d em ployee
oi th e accidents w hich occur— th e w age loss, m ed ical cost, a n d expense of re sto ra ­
tio n of earning cap acity — is as logically a d irect expense of p ro d u c tio n as is
spoiled m a te ria l or d am ag e d eq u ip m en t. F u rth e rm o re , th e su prem ely im p o rta n t
su b ject of accid en t p rev e n tio n should receive u n re m ittin g a tte n tio n . T h o ro u g h
stu d y of in d u stria l h a z a rd a n d scientific an aly sis of causes of ac c id e n t m ean
m uch in a red u ctio n of casu alties in cu rred b y m en a n d w om en 'while engaged
in gainful p u rsu its.


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[775]

60

MONTHLY LABOE EEVIEW

P e n a ltie s for V io la tio n o f S a fety Orders

HE law of Wisconsin provides that an employer shall be liable
for 15 per cent increased compensation for injuries sustained by
his employee under hazards outlawed by the safety orders of the
commission. Likewise the compensation payable to an employee
or his dependents is subject to a reduction of 15 per cent for willful
failure to use safety devices provided by the employer, or for willful
failure to obey any reasonable rule adopted by the employer for the
safety of the employee, or for injury resulting from intoxication.
The frequency of violations of such orders by both employers and
employees and the amount of increased and decreased compensation
for the year ended December 31, 1926, is shown in tables appearing
in the July 1, 1927, issue of Wisconsin Labor Statistics, issued by the
Industrial Commission of Wisconsin.
Out of the total of 22,177 cases closed during the year there were
539 cases in which employers paid the increased benefits. Recovery
of increased benefits was most frequent from violations of safety
orders governing power presses (118),1 circular saws (96), solid scaf­
folds (46), and gears (40). These comprised approximately threefifths of the total number of violations. The amount of normal
compensation paid in these cases was $315,479.71, and the increased
compensation incurred amounted to $47,851.03.
During the same period there were only 12 employees whose com­
pensation was reduced for violation of safety orders or rules, 6 of
these being for failure to use guards on machinery and 6 for intoxi­
cation at the time of injury. The amount of normal indemnity in
these cases was reduced from $4,568.34 to $3,891.79.
The frequency of the violations in the two classes are in the pro­
portion of 45 to 1, which is quite a contrast when it is considered
that the employees outnumber the employers many times.

T

C o a l-M in e A c cid e n ts in Illin o is in 1926

HE 921 coal mines of Illinois, employing 77,732 men, produced a
total of 69,813,255 tons of coal in 1926, as shown by the forty-fifth
coal report recently issued by the State department of mines and
minerals. The shipping mines, numbering 244, or only26.5 percent
of all the coal mines, but employing 94.6 per cent of the men, produced
97.2 per cent of the coal. These mines worked an average of 155
days each. The average annual earnings of 14,197 pick miners was
$1,022, while 34,926 machine miners averaged $1,406 during the year.
In 1926 there were 165 (153 underground) fatal accidents. This
is 1 fatality to each 423,111 tons of coal mined, or a rate of 2.36
deaths per 1,000,000 tons produced. During the preceding 18-month
period the rate was 1.8. As usual, falls of roof and sides claimed the
greatest number of casualties, 55.6 per cent of the underground
fatalities with haulage second, killing 25.5 per cent.
There were 9,012 nonfatal accidents. In 381 of them the men did
not return to work, and the number of days lost by those who did

T

iT he order relating to power presses was violated once by 45 employers, twice by 13 employers, three
tim es by 6 employers, four times by 3 employers, five times by 2 employers, and seven times by 1 employer.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[7761

61

IN JU R IE S TO MINORS IN OHIO

return to work was 243,816, or an average of 28 days each. For
each million man-hours worked there were 75.68 nonfatal accidents,
indicating severity rate of 2.05 per thousand man-hours. The follow­
ing table gives the frequency and severity rates in greater detail:
T a b l e 1.— A C C ID E N T FR E Q U E N C Y A N D SE V E R IT Y R A TE S IN ILL IN O IS COAL M IN E S

IN 1926
Fatal
cases

Item

Frequency rate (per 1,000,000 man-hours’ exposure),.. _________ ______
Severity rate (days lost per 1,000 man-hours’ exposure) 1_________ ______

Nonfatal
cases
75. 68
8 2.05

1. 39
2 8. 31

Total

77.06
4 10.36

1 It is not clear whether the days lost, given in the report (p. 85), are based on the standard allowance
as adopted by the International Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions and published
in U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Bui. No. 276, p. 18.
2 The star.dard allowance of 6,000 days lost for each fatality is used in determining this rate. (See note 1.)
8 Based on 8,631 injured men who returned to w c h .
i Based on 8,796 accidents, 381 in which the men did not return to work not being included.

The report contains a table comparing the accident record for the
93^2-yBar period ending December 31, 1926, during which compensa­
tion has been compulsory, with the preceding 5-year period during
which compensation was elective, and also the 30-year period, 1883
to 1912, when there was no compensation act in force. It appears
from this table, a summary of which is given below, that a more
favorable showing in average annual number of accidents, average
number of tons mined per accident, average number of men employed
to each accident, and the accident rate per 1,000 employees, was
made during the years preceding those in which compensation has
been compulsory.
T a b l e 2 .—C O M PA R ISO N OF A V ER A G E A N N U A L A C C ID E N T R E C O R D IN ILLINO IS COAL

M IN E S D U R IN G PE R IO D IN W HICH C O M PE N SA T IO N HAS B E E N C O M PU LSO R Y
W IT H A V ER A G E A N N U A L R E C O R D FO R C E R T A IN P R E C E D IN G PE R IO D S
Average per year
Men not re­
N um ­ N um ­ Acci­ turned to work
ber
em­
ber
of
dent
Days
N um ­ N um ­
tons rate per
lost by
ber em­ ber in ­ ployed
per
mined
1,000
Per
men
re­
ployed jured 1 injury
per
em ­
N um ­
cent turned
injury ployed
ber
of in­
jured

Period

9Y i years of compulsory compensation, 1918 to 1926_________________ 87, 059
5 years of elective compensation,
1913 to 1917______________________ 79,186
30 years preceding compensation,
1883 to 1912— .................................... __ 44, 461

3, 354

26

22,070

38.5

482

14.4

60

1,210

65

53,377

15.3

159

13.1

00

470

96

55, 893

10. 6

i Including only those losing 30 or more days each.

In ju ries to M in ors in O hio in 1926

SPECIAL statistical report on injuries to workers under 18 years
of age, drawn from the records of the Industrial Commission
of Ohio for the year 1926, has just been issued by the division
of safety and hygiene of the commission as a part of Special Bulletin
No. 1. This report, it is stated, includes the first comprehensive

A


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[777]

62

M ONTHLY LABOE EEVIEW

and exhaustive studies of industrial accidents in Ohio. During
18 months of 1926 and 1927 nearly 2,000 plants and construction
operations were visited by safety engineers of the commission, who
were responsible for recommending mechanical safeguards and
assisting in the safety work of employees and who addressed groups
of workers and employers in an effort to do everything possible to
reduce accidents.
The report contains very little explanatory text. The tabular
material covers claims filed during 1926. During the period covered
there were 3,692 cases, 3,139 being males and 553 being females.
Sixteen of the males were married and one was divorced; six of the
girls were married. There were 6 fatalities and 38 permanent
injuries among the boys; one girl was permanently disabled. A
total of 687 cases, or 18.6 per cent of all cases, developed blood
poisoning.
The report shows that a total of 87,169 days was lost as a result of
these injuries to minors. Nearly 24 per cent was due to 1,346 cases
of temporary disability, 34.9 per cent to 39 cases of permanent dis­
ability, and 41.3 per cent to 6 fatal cases, all these estimates being
based upon the standard weighting adopted by the International
Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions.1 In
each of 716 of the temporary disability cases more than seven days
were lost, and 63.1 per cent of these temporary cases caused no time
loss. More than one-fifth of all the time loss was due to blood
poisoning. The largest proportion of all accidents reported, about
25 per cent, occurred in metal manufacturing, but 70.2 per cent of
these caused no time loss.
Data as to accident frequency and severity are not given in the
report and can not be determined from the tables presented, since
the number of employees or the hours of exposure is not given.
Handling objects Paused 839 (22.7 per cent) of the accidents
represented by the claims filed, with machinery a close second, with
831 cases. The largest number of days lost, 21,034 (24.1 per cent)
was due to motor vehicles, in which cause group 3 of the fatal cases
are found, accounting for 18,000 of these days lost.
The report classifies the accidents and days lost by industry and
cause, by part of machine, manner of occurrence, kind of machine,
and by degree of disability.
O c c u p a tio n a l D isea se C la im s in O h io, 1921 to 1926

REPORT on occupational diseases for which compensation was
paid in Ohio, from July 1, 1921, to January 1, 1927, based on
claims filed with the industrial commission of that State, has
recently been prepared by the division of safety and hygiene of the
commission and issued as a part of Special Bulletin No. 1. During
the five and one-half years covered by the report, 4,443 claims were
filed, and 336 were disallowed. The tabular matter relating to the
distribution of these cases by industry, cause, etc., pertains to the
total number filed, while the statement as to compensation cost
necessarily relates to the number of claims allowed, which according
to the report appears to be 2,093 as this number when added to the

A

1 See U . S. Bureau of Labor Statistics B ui. N o. 276, p. 18.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[778]

63

M IN IN G ACCIDENTS IN TENNESSEE

number of claims disallowed (336), that of claims in which there was
no time loss (1,380), and that of claims with time loss of seven days
and under (634), makes the total of 4,443 claims filed.
A time loss of 760,069 days is noted, including the time lost by 101
fatal cases and 6 permanent disability cases. Temporary disability
of more than seven days occurred in 2,322 cases (52.3 per cent), the
total time loss being 134,471, or 17.7 per cent of the total time loss.
About 3,000 of these occupational disease claims involved affections
of the skin, dermatitis being responsible for 2,890, or 65 per cent, of
the total claims, with a time loss amounting to 11 per cent of the total
time lost in all occupational disease cases. These cases of dermatitis
were due to the action of various industrial elements or compounds
upon the skin, including oils, cutting compounds, gases, dust, liquids,
fumes, or vapors. Industrial poisoning, including that by brass,
zinc, lead, mercury, phosphorus, arsenic, anilin, wood alcohol, etc.,
accounted for 1,092 claims (24.6 per cent) and was responsible for a
time loss of 345,519 days, or 45.5 per cent of the total time loss.
Metal-goods manufacturing caused 25.7 per cent of the cases of
occupational disease and 23.9 per cent of the total time loss.
The industrial commission awarded a total of $369,942 in settle­
ment of compensation claims. Of this amount, $178,743 was paid in
death claims, $2,890 in permanent disability claims, and $188,309
(51 per cent) in claims where the temporary disability lasted beyond
the statutory period of seven days. Nearly 76 per cent of the total
compensation amount was paid for industrial poisoning, with lead
poisoning taking the largest amount, $241,760, or 86.3 per cent of the
compensation for industrial poisoning cases. Of the total compensa­
tion awarded, those working in metal-goods manufacturing received
a larger sum than any other industry, the amount being $65,117, or
17.6 per cent; and here again lead poisoning was the cause resulting
in the largest compensation, requiring $44,990, or 12.1 per cent of
the total allowed and 69.1 per cent of the amount awarded to this
particular industry group.
M in in g A ccid en ts in T en n e ssee in 1926 1

N THE coal mines of Tennessee in 1926 there were 49 fatal acci­
dents, 27 of which were caused by an explosion in one mine,
and 232 nonfatal injuries. In mines other than coal there were
9 fatal and 146 nonfatal accidents. This gives a total of 436 mining
accidents, 58 of which resulted fatally. The following statement,
summarizing information for the years 1925 and 1926, computed and
gleaned from the report, covers coal mines only, similar data not
being complete for other metal mines:

I

1925

N u m b er of em ployees_____________________
8, 951
N u m b er of d ay s m ines o p e ra te d ___________
202
T o ta l m an -h o u r exposure__________________ 18, 081, 020
N u m b er of acc id e n ts_______________________
A ccident frequency ra te (per m illion m anh o u rs )___________________________
N u m b er of fa ta litie s________________
27
F a ta lity ra te (per m illion m an-hours)
1. 5
1 Tennessee. Department of Labor. Division of M ines.
resources of Tennessee. Nashville, 1927.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[7791

1926

8, 374
234
19, 595, 160
281
14. 3
49
2. 5

Thirty-second annual report of the mineral

64

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

The increase in the fatality rate in 1926, it is explained, was due to
an explosion in one mine which resulted in the death of 27 men, 13
of whom were miners and 6 drivers. The total production of coal
was 6,089,162 short tons, giving a fatality rate of 8.05 per million
tons mined. The report indicates that the average daily wage paid
to employees in coal mines was $3.33.


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[780]

WORKMEN’S COMPENSATION AND
SOCIAL INSURANCE
R e cen t C o m p en sa tio n R ep orts
H a w a ii

HE industrial accident board of the city and county of Honolulu
has recently presented its reports for the years ending June
30, 1925, and June 30, 1926.
During the year ending June 30, 1925, 4,311 accidents were reported
to the board, of which 25 were fatal. There were 33 nationalities
represented, 1,156 of the injured being Japanese, 672 Filipinos, 647
Portuguese, 448 American, and 440 Hawaiian, the others following
in smaller groups. Of the persons involved, 4,256 were males and 55
females; 2,323 were married and 1,988 were single.
Accidents causing disability of less than one day numbered 1,103,
and those lasting less than one week, 1,689. These were noncompensable except as far as medical, etc., aid was involved. Of the
remaining cases, 1,435 caused only temporary total disability, for
which compensation amounting to $50,436 was paid. Medical and
hospital expenses for this group and for those not receiving compensa­
tion because disabled less than one week, amounted to $67,716, or a
total for the 4,227 accidents of $118,152. Permanent partial dis­
ability, caused by amputation or loss of use of different members of
the body, succeeded the period of total disability in 59 cases. Pay­
ments for the total disability periods in these cases aggregated $5,706,
and for the permanent partial disabilities, $35,190. Medical and
hospital service brought the total benefits for these cases up to
$47,381.
The 25 fatal cases called for compensation amounting to $42,240
and funeral expenses of $2,345. Medical and hospital expenses in
the sum of $922 made the total benefits for this class $45,507.
The total compensation benefits for the year were $211,039.
The board emphasized the need of Territorial legislation in relation
to compulsory safety devices.
The report for the year ended June 30, 1926, shows 4,511 accidents
reported during the year, 3,041 of them being noncompensable except
so far as medical, etc., aid was involved, and of the remaining 1,470
cases, 1,362 caused only temporary total disability, 85 were succeeded
by permanent partial disability, and 23 were fatal.
There were 31 nationalities represented, 1,327 of the injured being
Japanese, 844 Filipinos, 643 Portuguese, 406 American, and 402
Hawaiian, the others following in smaller groups. Of the persons
injured 4,448 were males and 63 females; 2,382 were married and
2,129 were single.
Compensation in the amount of $47,385 was paid on account of the
1,362 cases causing temporary total disability, and medical, etc., aid

T


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[781]

65

66

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

for this group and for those not receiving compensation because
disabled less than one week amounted to $59,266, or a total for the
4,403 accidents of $106,651. Payments for the total-disability
period in the 85 cases that were succeeded by permanent partial dis­
ability aggregated $10,422 and for permanent partial disabilities
$43,023. Medical, etc., aid brought up the total benefits for these
cases to $63,217.
The 23 fatal cases called for $11,864 in compensation, $978
funeral expenses, and $1,022 medical and hospital expense, a total
of $13,864.
The total compensation benefits for the year were $183,732.
The majority of the sugar and pineapple plantations and canneries
maintain their own medical staff and hospitals for the care of their
employees and do not report to the board the cost of the hospital and
medical services for each individual case of minor accidents. The
foregoing figures therefore do not include costs of this kind.
O k la h o m a

Industrial Commission of Oklahoma in its eleventh annual

report covers the year September 1, 1925, to August 31, 1926.
Its summary statement shows 49,837 accidents reported during that
period as compared with 48,699 reported in 1925, an increase of 1,138.
This is the smallest annual increase in accidents reported by the com­
mission since 1921 and is attributed to three causes—namely, the
safety work that is being conducted in many of the industries covered
by the act, the campaign of education to secure prompt reports of
accidents, and cooperation in providing prompt medical attention,
i There were 50,962 cases finally disposed of and actually closed out
during the year. This includes injuries which may have happened
prior to September 1, 1925, but in which the extent of disability
could not be determined until this year.
The three causes producing the greatest number of accidents were
stepping on or striking against objects (7,568), falling objects from
elevation (4,530), and lifting heavy objects (4,238). Not all the
injuries reported have been permanently classified as to nature and
extent. However, 270 cases of a permanent nature, either total or
partial, have been determined, of which 33 were eye injuries in which
the vision was totally destroyed. The aggregate time lost in 45,929
cases in which employees were found entitled to compensation was
854,584 man-days. The compensation paid aggregated $1,107,997
and medical aid $279,630, making total benefits $1,387,627.
The location of the injuries caused by accidents is given in much
detail, as are also the number of accidents in the various industries,
percentage of disabilities, time lost, and compensation paid, classified
by causes. The largest number of accidents occurred in the oil
industry (20,279), _oil-well drilling being responsible for 13,043 of
them. Accidents in mining and quarrying came next, with 8,977,
and building, erecting, and demolishing followed, with 3,429 acci­
dents. The number of accidents does not indicate their seriousness,
oil-well drilling being chargeable with the largest amount of lost time
(218,553 days) and of compensation and medical aid cost ($394,173),
far exceeding the totals for any other occupation.


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M ONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

67

G erm a n U n e m p lo y m e n t In su ra n ce A c t 1

N. JULY 16, 1927, the Reichstag passed an act by which the
present system of unemployment relief out of public funds is
replaced by a system of compulsory insurance of workmen
and employees against unemployment. At the same time the public
employment bureaus operated at present by the communities under
State supervision are taken over by the Reich. The act, which is
headed “ Law concerning mediation of employment and unemploy­
ment insurance,’’ came into force October 1, 1927.
The provisions of the act are, summarized, as follows:

O

Administrative Authorities

'‘THERE shall be established a Federal Bureau for Employment
A and Unemployment Insurance, which shall absorb the Federal
employment bureau, the present central official employment office.
This new bureau is a self-governing body, except in so far as it is
placed under the supervision of the Federal Minister of Labor, and
the Federal Government has reserved the right to approve its budget,
service regulations, the formation of new wage classes, and certain
other powers. The organs of self-government are boards of executives
composed for each section of representatives in equal numbers of
workers, including at least one employee, employers, and public
bodies (State and communal). The representatives of public bodies,
however, have no voice in the settlement of questions relating to
unemployment insurance. This field is reserved entirely to workers
and employers to insure strict adherence to the principle of selfgovernment.
The duties of the authorities include to a large extent measures to
prevent unemployment. Aside from finding work for the unem­
ployed, traveling expenses may be paid to workmen and employees
being transferred to other places out of funds of the Federal bureau,
also working equipment and eventually a limited contribution to the
wages or salaries. The State labor offices may promote emergency
work for the unemployed out of the bureau’s funds, by way of loans
or subsidies which, however, shall not be given to private enter­
prises carrying on an occupation for profit.
Persons Subject to Insurance

'"THE liability to unemployment insurance applies to all classes of
A workers liable to compulsory health insurance (the wage limit
being from October 1, 1927, 3,600 reichsmarks,2 at present 2,700
reichsmarks a year), to employees liable to compulsory old-age and
sickness insurance (limited to persons earning a salary of up to 6,000
reichsmarks a year), and to the crews of vessels. Certain exemptions
are made with regard to persons employed in forestry and inland or
coast fishery who themselves live on the proceeds of their work and
are in the employ of another person ordinarily less than six months
a year; also to workers subject to long-term labor contracts and
apprentices bound by an apprenticeship of no less than two years.
1Summary furnished by United States Consul General C. B. Hurst, Berlin, Aug. 6, 1927.
s Reichsmark=23.8 cents.


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MONTHLY LABOE EEV IEW

Premiums and Benefits

rT'HE unemployment insurance premiums are payable jointly with
the health insurance fees, or, if a person is not liable to health
insurance, they must be paid to the local health insurance office
under whose jurisdiction the insured would come in case of liability.
The cost of the premiums, borne in equal proportion by workers and
employers, will be fixed by the executive board of the Federal Bureau
for Employment and Unemployment Insurance. The rate shall not
exceed 3 per cent of the wages or salaries forming the basis of calcula­
tion—namely: (1) For persons liable to compulsory health insurance,
the basic wages or salaries set for the calculation of health insurance
premiums; (2) for employees not liable to health, but liable to oldage and sickness insurance (i. e., persons receiving a salary exceeding
3.600 reichsmarks, but not 6,000 reichsmarks a year), and persons
having insured themselves voluntarily, the amount of salary of
3.600 reichsmarks; (3) for crews of vessels not liable to health in­
surance, the average wages or salaries paid to members of the respec­
tive class of workers to which the insured belongs.
The health insurance offices turn over the premiums collected to
the State labor offices. The premiums include a share for the States
and a share for the Reich. The latter shall be applied to cover
deficits of any overburdened State labor district and to create an
emergency fund which is to be kept up in an amount equal to the
sum total of benefits required for 600,000 unemployed during a three
months’ period of unemployment.
The benefit is fixed according to the wages or salaries received by
the unemployed and embraces the benefit proper and a family
allowance. Wages and salaries are divided into 11 classes, and for
each wage class a standard wage or salary is set, of which a certain
percentage constitutes the benefit. The family allowance amounts
to 5 per cent of the standard wage or salary. The benefit is paid
from the eighth day after the authorities are notified of a person’s
unemployment; under certain conditions it may be paid earlier.
The claim to benefit arises after 26 weeks’ payment of premiums,
and payment of the benefit likewise is limited to 26 weeks. The
benefit is granted if the applicant is fit and willing to work, if he has
lost his job without his own fault, or at the least resigned it for a just
reason. The benefit is not granted during strikes and lockouts,
except under certain conditions, in case of indirect participation, to
avoid special hardship. After the expiration of the 26 weeks’ benefit
the beneficiary falls under the category of the “ Ausgesteuerte ”—i. e.,
persons who after having had their full allowance from the insurance
funds are turned over to the care of the so-called “ Krisenfiirsorge,”
or emergency relief, in times of economic crises, the cost of which is
borne by the Reich and communities at the ratio of 4 to 1. This
relief is granted also to certain unemployed who have not yet acquired
a full claim to benefit, if they are deserving. The cost of this relief
is the only expenditure which the Reich and the communities will in
future incur through unemployment.
The obligation to accept any work assigned to an unemployed
person is maintained only with regard to persons below 21 years of
age and beneficiaries of the “ crisis” relief, but other beneficiaries


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GERMAN UNEM PLOYM ENT INSURANCE ACT

must after nine weeks’ payment of benefit accept any work allotted
to them, however uncongenial or unfamiliar.
Short-time Workers

CHORT-TIME workers receiving insufficient or irregular wages
^ may be granted benefit out of the Federal bureau’s funds, but
the amount of benefit plus the wages received shall not exceed fivesixths of the full wages to which the beneficiary would be entitled
under normal conditions.
The principal advantage of the insurance system over the system
of unemployment relief out of public funds lies in the fact that the
workmen and employees, through their contributions, acquire a legal
claim to support during a period of unemployment, and that the
benefit is fixed in proportion to the wages and salaries normally paid
the unemployed.
In the following table it is shown how the system of wage classes
and benefits works out:
W AGE C LASSES A N D B E N E F IT S U N D E R G E R M A N U N E M P L O Y M E N T IN S U R A N C E
LAW
[Reichsmark = 23.8 cents]
Benefit (in per cent of
standard wage)
Standard
wage or
salary

Weekly wage or salary class

Basic benefit

Total
benefit,
including
family
allowance1

Reichsmarks

10 reichsmarks and under................... - ...........- .............. - ................
Over 10 and up to 14 reichsmarks.------------ -------------------------Over 14 to 18 reichsmarks.. ------------------------- ------------------Over 18 to 24 reichsmarks— ------------------------------- --------- Over 24 to 30 reichsmarks------ -------------------------------------------Over 30 to 36 reichsmarks.--------- ----- ---------------------------------Over 36 to 42 reichsmarks-------------- ------------ ----------------------Over 42 to 48 reichsmarks------------------------- - ...............................
Over 48 to 54 reichsmarks---- --------------------- -------- ------------Over 54 to 60 reichsmarks---------------------- ----- ---------------------Over 60 reichsmarks.................. ........................... ...............................
1 Fam ily allowance=5 per cent of standard wages.


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8
12
16
21
27
33
39
45
51
57
63

75.0
65.0
55.0
47.0
40.0
40.0
37.5
35.0
35.0
35.0
35. 0

80.0
80.0
75.0
72.0
65.0
65.0
62. 5
60.0
60. 0
60.0
60. 0

COOPERATION
C oop erative B a n k in g A u th o rized in Iow a

T ITS 1927 session the Iowa Legislature passed a law (ch. 205,
Laws of 1927) authorizing the formation of cooperative banks
empowered to conduct a general banking business.
Ten persons are required as incorporators. Shares may not be
less than $10 each, and share capital equal to that required in the
case of State banks must be subscribed before a certificate of incor­
poration will be issued.
Cooperative banks are given all the powers granted to State banks.
Dividends on share capital may not exceed 8 per cent of the par
value of the stock. After this has been paid and a suplus equal to
half the capital stock has been accumulated any surplus earnings
may be distributed among the depositors and borrowers—among
the depositors in proportion to the amount of interest received by
them on their deposits and among the borrowers in proportion to
the amount of interest paid by them on their loans.
Voting is on the basis of one vote per stockholder, regardless of
amount of stock owned.
The use of the term “ cooperative bank” is prohibited, except by
enterprises incorporated under this act, on penalty of a fine of $500.
The July 23, 1927, issue of Agricultural Cooperation (Washington,
D. C.) reports that already one bank has been incorporated under
this act. It began business June 28 in the little town of What
Cheer, “ taking over the business of a small savings bank which had
the confidence of the community but needed more capital.” The
new bank is capitalized at $25,000, and has 77 members, many of
whom are said to be members of the Farmers’ Union.

A

D e v elo p m en t o f B u ild in g and L oan A sso c ia tio n s, 1925-26

T THE thirty-fifth annual meeting of the United States League
of Local Building and Loan Associations, held in Asheville,
N. C., July 19 to 22, 1927, data were submitted by the secre­
tary of the league showing the status of the building and loan asso­
ciations at the end of the fiscal year 1925-26.1 His report shows
that that year brought forth the “largest increase in assets which
has ever been shown in any single year of their history.” As com­
pared with the previous year the membership increased nearly 8 per
cent and assets nearly 15 per cent. During 1925-26 these associa­
tions made mortgage loans aggregating $1,945,000,000, “which
provided the means for the purchase or building of over 550,000

A

'U nited States League of Local Building and Loan Associations. Secretary’s annual report relating
to the budding and loan associations in the United States, subm itted to the thirty-fifth annual meeting
at Asheville, N . C., July 19-22, 1927. Cincinnati [1927?].
8

70

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WOBK OF REMEDIAL LOAN ASSOCIATIONS

71

homes.” The mortgage loans of these organizations outstanding at
the end of 1925-26 amounted to $5,852,689,591.
The table below, taken from the report, shows the number, mem­
bership, and assets of these associations, by States:
D E V E L O P M E N T OF B U IL D IN G A N D LOAN ASSO CIATIONS IN T H E U N IT E D ST A T E S,
1926-27

State

N um ­
ber of Number
of
asso­
cia­ members
tions

20
Alabama 1________
6
A rizona................
A rkansas................
71
176
C alifornia...............
64
Colorado..................
38
Connecticut______
41
Delaware ________
22
D ist. of C olum bia73
Florida......... .............
21
Georgia •...... .............
12
Idaho____________
881
Illinois......................
399
Indian a......... ..........
74
Iowa_____________
153
Kansas........... ..........
147
Kentucky________
100
L ouisiana........... .
38
Maine _________
M aryland1 ........... 1, 210
220
M assachusetts____
83
M ichigan_________
83
Minnesota ______
35
M ississippi...............
243
M issouri_________
31
M ontana_________
83
N ebraska_________

20,000
3, 925
53,064
223,440
85,144
35, 896
16, 250
59, 299
27,000
5,000
4,250
840, 000
382,123
71, 800
189, 393
133, 400
165, 332
26,171
330, 000
466, 492
192, 070
69, 618
18, 600
215, 000
37, 500
218, 807

Total
assets

State

$15,000,000
1, 681, 526
32,029, 637
190,106,988
35,186, 058
18, 290,897
8,844,308
50, 729, 274
39, 357, 725
1, 500, 000
2, 335, 265
355, 509, 301
247, 903, 736
40, 771, 567
107, 315, 298
74, 704,133
154,186, 635
17,458,473
200, 000, 000
425, 511, 319
112,887, 929
28, 643, 208
13, 015,838
139,461, 899
13, 738, 790
153,128, 475

N um ­
ber of Number
of
asso­
cia­ members
tions

1
N evada_________
28
N ew Hampshire - .
18
N ew Mexico •_. _.
N ew Jersey______ 1,473
N ew York_______
309
240
North C a rolin a...
18
North Dakota___
841
Ohio____________
90
Oklahoma_______
42
Oregon.....................
Pennsylvania........ 4,460
7
Rhode Island . . .
152
South Carolina___
26
South Dakota____
24
Tennessee—............
138
Texas .....................
24
U tah.. _________
9
Vermont________
79
Virginia_________
72
Washington_____
60
West Virginia........
171
W isconsin..............
20
W yoming 1.............
Total

Total
assets

$460, 370
900
9,223, 974
15,115
3, 250,000
6, 500
760, 067,751
1, 084, 381
297,707,160
504,008
85,715,009
96, 590
15,300
7, 788, 410
928, 381, 733
2,147, 275
103, 343,185
167, 410
18, 280, 225
38, 200
1, 800, 000 1,130, 000, 000
19, 538, 506
31, 819
22, 782, 000
26, 800
5, 000,427
7, 015
6, 716, 217
11, 275
70, 804, 572
124, 951
30,864,124
96,284
2, 236,747
3, 805
44, 557,196
51, 500
249, 338
89,001,163
28, 704, 386
54, 500
182,382, 373
229,165
8,000, 000
14, 000

____ 12, 626 10, 665, 705 6, 334,103, 807

1 Figures estimated.

W ork of R em ed ia l L oan A sso cia tio n s

HE National Federation of Remedial Loan Associations has re­
cently issued a report covering the operations of 28 associa­
tions affiliated with the federation for the fiscal year 1926-27.
These societies are semiphilanthropic institutions financed byprivate capital “ to supply funds for necessitous borrowers at legi­
timate rates,” and were established, it is stated, “ to provide such
competition as would result in the improvement of the methods
commonly employed by money lenders and to afford an object
lesson that would attract reputable capital” to the money-lending
business.1
These associations make loans on chattels, pledges, etc., at rates
varying, among the different societies, from 8 per cent per year to
23^ and 3 per cent per month. The paid-in capital of the 28 associa­
tions at the end of the fiscal year 1926-27 amounted to $21,708,325
and their surplus to $8,609,478. Loans numbering 713,251 and
amounting to $55,081,727 were made during the year. Losses from
unpaid loans amounted to $49,838, or less than one-tenth of 1 per
cent of loans made. The average loan amounted to $77.

T

•See “ Cooperative provision of credit to the needy worker” in the Labor Review for August, 1927
(pp. 68-71).


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

C ooperative M o v em en t in S p ain

HE cooperative movement of Spain is described in an article by
Prof. Charles Gide in an article in the April-June, 1927, issue
of the Kevue des Études Coopératives,1 from which the follow­
ing data are taken.

T

Consumers’ Cooperation

IT IS pointed out that Spain holds a “ very little place” in the
1 consumers’ cooperative movement. Exact statistics are not
available, but it is estimated that there are some 250 consumers’
societies, witji about 80,000 members, grouped into three federations.
This in a country with a population of some 25,000,000 means that
there is about 1 cooperator to every 100 inhabitants.
In point of average cooperative purchases per member these
societies make a better showing. The average yearly sales per
member average 1,100 pesetas ($163.85), and in some societies
average as high as 2,340 pesetas ($348.56), a figure, according to
Professor Gide, which no French society can equal. These high
yearly sales, it is explained, are due to the great variety of goods
carried by Spanish cooperative societies.
Spain’s most original contribution to the development of coopera­
tion, however, is found in the colonization societies and the organ­
izations formed by the fishermen.
Colonization Societies

/\ LAW was passed in 1907 having for its purpose the internal
colonization of Spain and the repopulation of the country.
Under the law, poor peasant families were to be allotted plots of
ground and provided with the means of cultivation. The benefits
of the law, however, were to be limited to families without means
which lived in the vicinity of the lands to be colonized (because these
would already be familiar with the requirements and conditions of
the land in the region) and which possessed some knowledge of or
aptitude for farming. The law provided for a royal commission (or
junte) which was to have charge of the administration of the law.
The first problem arising was that of securing land for colonization
purposes. No attempt was made to secure privately owned land,
the experiment being confined solely to that owned by the State or
the communes. The communal land was of two classes: That in
which title was in the commune as such, and that which was really
“ common” land—i. e., owned collectively by the people of the com­
mune and which could be disposed of only by a referendum securing
a three-fourths vote of all the inhabitants. The State land could be
secured easily enough, but the communes were generally unwilling
to dispose of land that was of value. The result was that communal
lands taken over were usually the poorest land in the district.
In allotting the land preference was given to families with the
largest number of sons, for sons would be of greater help in farming
than would daughters. Only those peasants were chosen who
seemed capable of becoming good colonists and who could give proof
'R evue des Etudes Coopératives, Paris, avril-juin, 1927, pp. 209-230: “ Certains aspects originaux du
mouvement coopératif en Espagne,” par Charles Gide.


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COOPEKATIVE MOVEMENT IN SPAIN

73

of general good conduct. Each family was given, free, a plot of
ground large enough to enable the family “ to live by its own labor”
but not large enough to require any outside hired help. As one of
the objects of the law was the creation of independent farmers from
poor farm laborers, care was taken to prevent the attraction to the
colony of wageworkers.
.
For the first five years the colonist held his land on probation.
During this period he must demonstrate his fitness as a colonist
and his ability as a farmer; if he failed the land was taken back.
At the end of the five-year period the colonist became proprietor of
his plot of ground with the dwelling thereon, but with the restriction
that (1) he could not dispose of it for 10 years; (2) if after 10 years
he wished to sell, the colonization society must be given the first
chance to purchase; (3) he was prohibited from using the farm as
security for a loan; and (4) the plot of land must never be divided.
The colonists in each locality were required to form a cooperative
association whose functions included the supply of household and
farm necessaries, the marketing of the products of the colony, and
the provision of a medium of credit, savings, mutual aid, and cultural
development.
Capital was necessary to finance the farming operations, the supply
of machinery, the necessaries of life, etc., while the land was being
brought into cultivation, for the colonists were, as already stated,
chosen from the poorest farm laborers. This capital was obtained
from the communes, from agricultural credit and other banks, etc.,
on the collective guaranty of the colony, acting through the coopera­
tive society. These advances were payable over long periods, some­
times up to 50 years.
The State’s contribution to the community took the form of the
construction of roads, sewers, and various community services.
There are now some 20 such colonies, covering altogether about
10,500 hectares (nearly 26,000 acres) and including somewhat over
1,200 colonists. Thus the average holding is not quite 9 hectares
(about 22 acres), although this varies according to the kind and
quality of land obtained. Most of the colonies_are in the southwest
of Spain, and the greater portion of the land is situated on the moun­
tain sides, since the municipalities were unwilling to give up land
unless it was “ well-nigh useless.”
One colony is described which was ceded a barren stretch of land
that upon analysis was shown to be 91 per cent pure sand. But,
“ by a dispensation of Providence,” it was found that the soil was
exactly suited to the cultivation of vineyards, the sand also being
fatal to the phylloxera with which European vineyards are afflicted;
also, the land was situated at the mouth of the Guadalquivir River
and was therefore irrigated by its waters. Thus what seemed an
utterly worthless piece of ground turned out to be a wonderful pro­
ducing region, and each family from its plot of ground (1 hectare—
about 2 Y2 acres—for those with a market garden, 2 hectares for
those with vineyards) averages an income of from 3,000 to 5,000
pesetas ($447 to '$745) per year.
.
A central bank has been formed which is endeavoring to introduce
among the colonists a genuinely cooperative system of farming—
that of the collective farming of a number of plots of ground instead
of the individual cultivation of each plot.
63952°—27— 6

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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

The scope of the colonization work is limited by the amount of
lands available for the purpose. Immense amounts of land are
owned by rich landowners, and much of this is idle ground which
might be made of use for the people as a whole. With this in mind,
the junte drew up a bill designed to remedy ^the land situation. It
provided for a survey of all the lands in the Kingdom “ to determine
what were the uncultivated lands, neglected by the proprietors, but
which could be improved and in that way were proper for coloniza­
tion.” Such of these lands as was necessary would be expropriated,
with indemnity to the owners.
The bill was introduced in 1911 and again in 1914, when the war
caused it to be laid aside. It was presented for a third time in 1921,
but was laid aside because of much opposition. Professor Gide
remarks that the limitation upon land ownership imposed by the bill
would be “ very modest” as compared with the measures of expro­
priation taken by some of the countries of eastern Europe, but the
bill “ appeared very revolutionary in Spain,” and its chances of pas­
sage appear remote, especially since the junta has been dissolved
and the colonization work placed under a ministerial bureau, indicat­
ing, perhaps, that the administration found the zeal of the junta “ a
trifle importunate.”

If, however, the bill becomes law and “ all the great^ Spanish
domains are cultivated by small proprietors, required to unite under
a system of cooperative associations, it would be a considerable
achievement in the history of the cooperative movement. We
might even see the ideal solution of the great agrarian problem.”
Fishermen’s Cooperatives

’S cooperative associations, or positos2 marítimos,

as they are known in Spain, have attained a remarkable development. They are found along all the seacoast of Spain and now
number some 140 or 150, with about 35,000 members. Eighty of
these associations own their own boats.
Though the primary object of these associations is the sale of fish
directly to the consumer (Professor Gide points out that there is
hardly a commodity in which the margin between the price received
by the producer and that paid by the consumer is greater), the
organizations include not only the fishermen but all the workers of
sea and port. Thus the fishers, lightermen, boat builders, calkers,
painters, etc., all belong to the same association.
These associations, it is pointed out, are, as regards altruistic
character, in the front rank of the cooperative movement. No
dividends are returned to either members or patrons of the society.
The earnings, above the wages of the members, are used, first, to pay
any debts of the association (such as money borrowed to buy boats,
etc.), and then, if any money is left, it is used for social purposes.
The societies are directing their attention especially to “ the two
scourges of maritime population in all countries, but particularly in
Spain—ignorance and alcoholism.” In Spain 85 per cent of the
fisher population can neither read nor write. The first step of these
organizations of illiterate fishers is to provide schools for their chil1 “ Positos” means literally a place where something is deposited, as a bank, grain elevator, etc., but it
is explained that the word has a wide general use in Spain in sort of a symbolic way.


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COOPERATIVE MOVEMENT IN SPAIN

75

dren. Already more than 100 schools have been built, at which
8,650 children are in attendance. At these schools the children not
only are receiving a general education but are also being instructed in
the principles and practice of cooperation. They form their own little
cooperative societies through which they purchase their books,
pencils, and other school supplies, plan and carry out little excursions,
etc.
The fishers’ societies make their own nets, cordage, and paint, paint
and calk the boats, etc. Any capital needed can be secured, through
the collective liability of the group, from the Maritime Credit Bank,
administered by a council composed of the Minister of Marine,
certain other State officials, and representatives of the men.
Of the societies, 50 devote themselves solely to the marketing of the
catch, but 66 have also established insurance against sickness,
invalidity, and old age; 26 make loans to their members; 6 have
undertaken to build homes for the workers; and 36 have established
cooperative stores.


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[791]

WORKERS’ EDUCATION AND TRAINING
S u m m e r S c h o o ls for W om an W orkers 1

OUR special summer schools for woman wage earners were in
session this year. The Southern Summer School for Woman
Workers in Industry at Sweet Briar College, Va., which opened
for the first time July 22, 1927, had 24 students, while the new school
at Barnard College, New York City, began its courses on June 27 with
accommodations for 40 students. This latter experiment is under the
auspices of a joint committee of college representatives and woman
workers and is administered as a separate unit within the Columbia
University Summer Session. The Wisconsin Summer School for
Women in Industry was inaugurated several years ago 2 and started
its 1927 season with 50 students.
The well-known Bryn Mawr College School dates back to 1921.3
Of the 521 woman workers who have availed themselves of the courses
at this school during its six seasons, 56 have returned for a second
summer. This year there were 102 students. They came from
various parts of the United States and one of the women was from
England.
Brookwood Labor College, it will be recalled, holds summer
institutes for men and women. '

F

Industrial Training in Alaska

HROUGH its Alaska division, the United States Bureau of
Education is developing and educating the native population of
Alaska, many of whom are in a state of racial childhood and
require assistance in adjusting themselves to the new conditions
which civilization has brought about, according to a pamphlet
recently published by that bureau.4 This work involves the uplifting
of entire communities and includes the maintenance of schools,
hospitals, and orphanages, the relief of destitution, the fostering of
trade, the organization of cooperative business enterprises, the estab­
lishment of colonies, and the supervision of the reindeer industry.
One of the most effective agencies for the advancement in civiliza­
tion of a native village, the bureau reports, is the establishment in
it of a cooperative store, owned and managed by the natives, under the
supervision of a teacher of a United States public school. In this
store food and clothing are sold at equitable prices and the profits,
which otherwise would go to a white trader, are divided among the

T

i XT- S. Women’s Bureau. News Letter N o. 51: Activities affecting women in industry.
*Labor Review, July, 1926, p. 98.
3Idem, pp. 97, 98.
.
_
,
4United States. Department of the Interior. Bureau of Education. Bulletin, 1927, N o. 6: Work
of the Bureau of Education for the natives of Alaska, by William Hamilton.

76

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INDUSTRIAL TRAINING IN ALASKA

77

natives themselves. The natives also acquire self-confidence and
experience in business affairs through managing the store.

Until recently no systematic form of industrial education for the
natives of Alaska was provided within the Territory. Formerly
young Alaskans were sent to the schools maintained by the United
States Office of Indian Affairs in the States. This policy, however,
was found to be unwise and uneconomic for various reasons. The
change of climate frequently had a deleterious effect on the health
of the children, and many of those who returned to Alaska found it
difficult to adapt themselves to their home environment. Some of
those who remained in the States are said to have found themselves
forced into unfortunate social conditions. Therefore the policy was
adopted of establishing industrial schools within Alaska itself. Three
schools, located at points accessible from the different sections of the
Territory, already have been established, and the Bureau of Educa­
tion states that it is the intention to extend the facilities for industrial
training as rapidly as funds permit.

The curricula of these vocational schools include house building,
carpentry, boat building, furniture making, sled construction, opera­
tion and repair of gas engines, marine engineering, navigation, tan­
ning, ivory carving, and basket weaving. The native races of Alaska
are said to possess extraordinary dexterity, evidence of which is
found in the ivory carving of the Eskimos, the basket weaving of
the Aleuts, and the totem carving of the inhabitants of southeastern
Alaska, and with very little training they excel in all mechanical
occupations.

As a result of the work of the Bureau of Education and of other
civilizing agencies, the primitive conditions which existed in Alaska
when the bureau began its work there 40 years ago have gradually
disappeared except in some of the remotest settlements which have
not been reached. In many of the villages the old huts have been
replaced by neat, well-furnished houses, the homes of self-supporting,
self-respecting natives, thousands of whom are employed by the great
canneries of southern Alaska. Fleets of power boats owned and
operated by natives carry fish from the fishing grounds to the canner­
ies. Many natives are employed in the mines, while others are pilots,
trappers, storekeepers, loggers, or ivory carvers, and still others are
employed as cooks, janitors, and orderlies in the hospitals. Some
have entered the legal and clerical professions. For many years the
bureau has been appointing as teachers in its Alaska school service
the brightest of the graduates of its schools. Native girls showing
special qualifications for medical service are received into the bureau’s
hospitals for training as nurses. Throughout northwestern Alaska
and along the Alaska Railroad native owners of reindeer, whose
herds furnish an inexhaustible meat supply, are important factors in
the industrial and economic situation of the Territory.


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[793]

WELFARE WORK
E n c o u r a g e m e n t o f T h r ift by E m p loyers

S PART of the Bureau of Labor Statistics' recent survey of
personnel activities carried on by industrial establishments
in the United States, study was made of the various plans in
use for the encouragement of thrift among employees. These plans
include savings and loan funds, building funds, profit-sharing plans,
sale of company stock to employees, vacation and Christmas savings
funds, cooperative buying and discounts on company goods, legal
aid, and advice as to investments and expenditures.
The survey covered a total of 430 companies. One hundred and
ninety-six companies reported that an effort was made to get their
employees to put something in the bank each pay day. In the
majority of instances this assistance consisted of deducting from the
pay envelope an amount specified by the employee and depositing
it to his credit in his bank or sometimes arranging for a representative
of a bank to be present on pay day to receive the employees’ deposits.
While this may not be regarded as very definite assistance on the
part of the employer, it does make it easy for the individual employee
to maintain a bank account, and it has the added merit, where the
employees themselves make the deposits, of the example afforded by a
large number following a plan of systematic saving. In other
establishments there is a savings fund into which the members pay a
stated amount each week and often this fund is used as a loan fund
for subscribers. Very often these funds are in charge of the employees
and they are allowed the necessary time for the management of the
fund and for collecting deposits on pay day.

A

Types of Savings and Loan Funds

'T'HERE are several types of savings funds—credit unions in
1 which membership is conditioned on purchasing a stipulated
number of shares of stock; investment funds in which the depos­
itor’s savings will be invested for him if he wishes; funds in which
members are required to pay a certain percentage of their salary,
a stated amount being paid in to their credit by the company; the
regular savings and loan fund, in which a certain rate of interest is
paid on deposits and from which members in good standing may secure
small loans; and vacation and Christmas savings funds. The last
two are planned for saving for a definite purpose, but they have been
found to have a good effect in teaching the value of systematic saving.
Frequently a very large proportion of the employees of an establish­
ment are members of the savings fund. A credit union made up of
nearly the entire personnel of a company manufacturing incandescent
lamps is probably typical of this type of organization. A small
entrance fee is charged, and in order to become a member it is neces­
sary to subscribe for at least one share of stock, after which the usual
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ENCOURAGEMENT OF T H R IFT BY EMPLOYERS

79

banking procedure in making deposits or withdrawing money is
followed, although the directors may a t any time require depositors
to give 30 days’ notice of intention to withdraw the whole or any
part of a deposit. Members in good standing in the credit union
may secure loans upon written application and stating the purpose for
which the loan is desired, the maximum amount loaned to any member
at any one time being $50 unsecured and $200 secured. This
organization is run entirely by the employees, but the employer pays
for the bookkeeping.
A large mail-order house sells thrift certificates to those employees
who wish to purchase them. The certificates are issued in denomina­
tions of $50 and multiples thereof and may be paid for in regular
installments or by deposit at any time. Payments may be made per­
sonally to the cashier, or the paymaster may be authorized to deduct
them from the pay. These certificates, which are nonnegotiable,
bear interest at the rate of 5 per cent. Any employee who is the
head of a family and who has saved at least $500 may secure a loan
from this company for the purpose of building or buj^ing a home, and
emergency loans are made to employees on approval of the office
manager.
The savings plan of a gas and electric company was established
for the encouragement of thrift among the employees and to interest
them in the company’s affairs by helping them to become part owners
through acquisition of the company’s stock. The plan permits de­
posits in sums of not less than 25 cents. Five per cent interest,
compounded quarterly, has been paid since the organization of the
fund. Depositors may, from time to time, make arrangements to
have their savings invested in the bonds or capital stock of the com­
pany, but this is entirely optional with them. The fund is adminis­
tered without expense to the employees. A board of 14 trustees, 10
of whom are employee depositors and the remainder company
officials, directs the operation of the fund. More than half of the
4,200 employees at the time of the survey belonged to the fund and
had on deposit more than a quarter of a million dollar's. Members
may borrow up to $200 from the fund, the loan to be repaid in
monthly installments within a year.
A corporation with many plants had in 1926 about 36,000, or 54
per cent of all eligible employees, participating in its savings and
investment plan. Under this plan all employees are eligible to par­
ticipate after three months’ service with the company, and em­
ployees who desire to do so may pay into the savings fund each year
an amount not to exceed 10 per cent of their wages or salary, with a
maximum of $300. The corporation pays into this fund on or before
the last day of December each year an amount equal to one-half the
net payments made by the employees which is credited to the account
of each employee over a period of five years. Employees may with­
draw their savings from the fund, plus interest, at any time, but if
they withdraw before the end of five years they forfeit the unma­
tured portion of the money paid in by the corporation. Interest at
the rate of 6 per cent per annum is paid. The funds in the different
plants are divided into yearly classes designated by the year in which
the class was formed. At the end of the period for the 1920 class—
the first five-year class—8,300 employees received $11,200,000 in
cash and common stock. This was equivalent to a return of more

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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

than nine dollars to one on each employee’s savings. Through the
resources of this fund employees are assisted in buying or building
homes, and in the first six years it was in operation more than 7,000
employees took advantage of this assistance.
A combined savings and profit-sharing plan is in force among all
the branches of a large mail-order house. In order to participate an
employee must deposit 5 per cent of his salary. The company con­
tributes a part of the net profits of the business after certain deduc­
tions have been made, and this contribution is credited to the de­
positors pro rata according to their deposits, with an increase in the
per cent for each five-year service period.
In some plants an “ auto teller,” or automatic saving machine, is
installed. From 25 cents to $25 can be deposited in the machine,
which stamps the amount on the deposit slip and returns the slip to
the depositor. When deposits are made in this way employers do
not know the amount of the individual employee’s savings, a feature
which appeals to many employees. It also has the advantage that
it affords a convenient way of depositing small amounts. A taxi
company reported that drivers find it particularly convenient, as
they deposit their tips at the end of each shift. Another company
stated that various savings schemes had been tried which had not
proved successful, but that the auto teller was used by large numbers.
There were 72 loan funds maintained either by the company or
as a part of the savings plan. Some firms have a considerable
amount of money available for emergency loans. Repayment is
nearly always made through pay-roll deductions,
j A number of the savings plans are linked up with the profit-sharing
or the stock-ownership plan. An example is that of a company hav­
ing about 10,000 employees. The thrift program includes a wagedividend plan, purchase of company stock, a savings and loan fund,
and a building and loan and housing plan. The wage-dividend plan
is based on wages and length of service, the dividends upon common
stock over $1 a share which are declared during the calendar year
being used for these disbursements. About 85 per cent of the em­
ployees are eligible to participate in this plan; approximately 60 per
cent own company stock; the savings and loan association has 5,300
members; and nearly a thousand have been assisted in building or
purchasing homes by the employees’ realty corporation.
Building and Loan Associations

rT'HIRTY-NINE companies reported building and loan associations
A or some plan of giving financial aid in building or buying homes.
In addition to these there are a number of firms which have no special
plan which is followed in all cases but who give both advice and
financial help to their employees who wish to own their own homes.
There are certain features that are common to the majority of
building and loan plans. A year’s service with the firm is generally
required before financial aid is given, and the majority of the plans
require that the buyer have 10 per cent of the value of the property
for an initial payment in order to receive the help of the association
or the company.
Although company housing plans are usually limited to some one
district, several companies allow employees to choose lots wherever

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¿ENCOURAGEMENT OF T H R IF T BY EMPLOYERS

81

they wish, feeling that it is better for the employee to choose the
locality in which he shall live rather than to be restricted to a district
chosen by the company.
Legal Aid and Advice as to Investments and Expenditures

KJEARLY two-thirds of the companies reported that their employees
^
have the privilege of coming to them for free legal advice. In
many of the larger establishments the firm has its own legal staff, or it
may be there is a single attorney or some member of the firm who is
qualified who gives part of his time to this work.
A company with many thousands of employees has a staff of law­
yers who give free advice in every kind of personal, domestic, or
business difficulty, the object being to keep employees out of trouble,
or, if already in it, to defend them so far as they are in the right. The
work of the legal staff includes everything done in any law office,
including counsel, advice, examination and preparation of legal papers
or documents, and representation of employees in court when the
merits of the case warrant this. The effect of this work is consid­
ered to be important in fostering the good will of the working force.
On the other hand, a number of companies which reported that
legal advice was given if requested evidently did not make much of
a feature of this service, while a number stated that employees were
not encouraged to ask for it.
. . . .
.
Advice as to investments and expenditures is given in many in­
stances. The legal department usually advises employees as to
investments. In a number of cities bureaus or commissions con­
nected with the city chamber of commerce have been established for
the purpose of protecting the public from fraudulent schemes and
dishonest advertising and merchandising methods. Industrial estab­
lishments which support these bureaus often refer their^ employees
to them for advice. In some plants men are appointed in different
departments whose business it is to keep informed on these matters
and give advice to other employees when it is requested, ihey work
with the Better Business Bureau or the Industrial Protective Asso­
ciation and can get disinterested advice at any time as to the merit
of proposed investments.
Cooperative Buying and Discounts

COOPERATIVE stores were found in only 21 instances, but a
large proportion of the companies either promoted the cooper­
ative buying of certain commodities or allowed employees a discount
on their own products or on supplies bought by them.. Rubber boots,
safety or work shoes, overalls, tools, and similar articles are often
bought in quantities and sold at cost; and many companies buy coal
and sell at reduced prices to their employees or make an arrangement
with coal dealers whereby employees can have coal charged to the
company and pay for it through pay-roll deductions, in this way
making it possible for employees to buy their winter’s supply when
it is cheapest. Two hundred and thirty-seven firms reported that a
special discount is allowed employees on company goods. Depart­
ment stores without exception allow a discount on merchandise rang­
ing from 10 to 25 per cent, with stated times at which employees may

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82

MONTHLY LABOE EEVIEW

make their purchases, and sometimes special sales are arranged for
them.
A cooperative store maintained by the employees of an insurance
company has been in successful operation for a number of years.
This store saves employees about 25 per cent on purchases and the
business averages nearly $18,000 a month. Another large office force
runs a cooperative store where clothing and furniture and some gro­
ceries, auto supplies, etc., can be purchased at about 10 per cent
above the wholesale price, this margin covering the salary of the man
in charge and other expenses. The company gives the space for the
store and light and heat. The employees’ thrift club of 600 members
in a metal manufacturing plant runs a cooperative store which started
on a small scale but is now very successful. The club also has charge
of the employees’ lunch room. The company pays the running ex­
penses on both projects and no attempt is made to make any profit,
prices being reduced if any surplus is shown.
Forty-one companies reported that cooperative buying had been
discontinued. In the majority of cases it was given up shortly after
the close of the World War, having served its purpose during that
time and being no longer needed. Some feel, however, that the estab­
lishment of chain stores has largely done away with the necessity for
cooperative buying, and many companies do not favor it, as, if it is
done on a large scale, the merchants of the community feel that it is
unfair.
Other Plans for Encouraging Thrift
A M O N G other methods which are designed to teach employees

the importance of saving and to allow them to have a share in
the prosperity of the enterprise are profit-sharing and stock-ownership
plans and bonuses for length of service or for regular attendance. As
a survey of profit-sharing and stock-ownership plans was beyond the
scope of the present study, little information was secured beyond the
fact that some such system was in effect. About 50 Companies had
some plan by which the employees shared in the profits either through
a regular profit-sharing plan, through a bonus system, or by distribu­
tion of company stock, while 123 companies reported that they have
a special plan for the sale of stock to employees. The distribution
of thrift literature is another method of educating employees to the
desirability of planning in time for the inevitable rainy day. The
pay envelope and the plant paper furnish convenient means for
reminding employees of the advisability of saving, and various com­
panies use the services of visiting nurses or other personnel workers
to give practical demonstrations in economics as related to work­
men’s incomes.


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[798]

LABOR LAWS
W eekly R e st Law o f C olom b ia 1

N NOVEMBER 16,1926, the Colombian Legislature passed alaw
(No. 57) requiring all private and public industrial or com­
mercial establishments to grant their wage earners and salaried
employees one day of rest for every six days of work. The law estab­
lishes Sunday as the rest day and stipulates that the rest period shall
be at least 24 hours long. The provisions of this law shall apply also
to domestic servants.
In certain specified instances, as in continuous industries arid in
those in which Sunday closing would work hardship to the public,
the rest may be given on another day of the week than Sunday (either
to the entire personnel simultaneously or in shifts), or from Sunday
noon until Monday noon, or two half days a week may be given.
In order to remain open all day Sunday proprietors of establish­
ments must obtain the authorization of the Ministry of Industry.
No worker may be employed on his rest day without his consent, and
in case of being so employed he may choose between a compensatory
rest day or not less than double pay for the time worked.
The law specifies that all who work for the State or municipalities
shall be compensated for national and religious holidays in addition
to their days of rest.
Violations of the law are punishable by a fine of 20 pesos,2 and any
who may hinder the Labor Office inspectors in the enforcement of the
law are to be fined a similar amount.
Establishments allowed to remain open on Sundays must post in
a conspicuous place a placard showing the names of their workers
and the days on which they have their weekly rest.

O

1 Colombia. Diario Oficial, Bogota, N ov. 17, 1926, pp. 297, 298.
1 The exchange rate of the peso in 1926=98.40 cents.


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83

LABOR ORGANIZATIONS AND
CONGRESSES
In te r n a tio n a l T ra d e-U n io n C on gress, 1927 1

H P H E fourth annual congress of the International Federation of
T ra d e -U n io n s w a s h e ld in P a ris , A u g u st 1 -6 , 1927.

Among the various decisions reached by the congress were
the following:
That in view of the growing importance of nonmanual workers and
civil servants in economic and political life, it is highly desirable to
win over such workers to the trade-union international and to facili­
tate their close cooperation with the manual workers. For this
purpose the trade-union movement all over the world should endeavor
to induce nonmanual workers to affiliate and should stimulate the
formation of such unions.
In unionizing nonmanual workers and civil servants attention
should be paid to their special position, their working conditions,
their sooial status, and their mentality. These workers should not,
against their will, be incorporated into organizations of manual
workers. Cooperation should be encouraged, however, in cases in
which manual and nonmanual workers have already formed success­
ful joint organizations.
The International Federation of Trade-Unions will be allowed to
initiate international relief action only when “ several trade or in­
dustrial unions of the same country are simultaneously involved in
economic conflicts of such an extent that the means requisite to
conduct them can not be raised either in the country, or by the inter­
national trade secretariat to which these unions are affiliated.” In
exceptional cases, however, the International Federation of TradeUnions may organize relief action when so large a number of the
workers in a trade or industry are concerned in the conflict that the
resources of the country itself or of the international trade-union
secretariat are insufficient.
“ International strike breaking must be prevented.” Those who,
despite the warnings of their organizations, are found guilty of
strike breaking shall be expelled from their organizations.
In
exceptional cases the national center concerned in a labor conflict
may appeal to the International Federation of Trade-Unions for the
prevention of the transportation of certain commodities to the
country in which such conflict is being carried on.
The congress urged its affiliated organizations to take all the steps
that in their judgment might seem appropriate to maintain or recover
the eight-hour day and demanded that the Governments ratify the
Washington convention on that subject. Strong opposition was
expressed to separate agreements between Governments on the eighthour day without reference to the International Labor Office, and
1 International Federation of Trade-Unions, Amsterdam.

84


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Press Report N o. 29, Aug. 11, 1927, pp. 3-9.

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF WOMAN WORKERS

85

the practice of nations in permitting numerous exceptions when
ratifying the Washington convention was forcefully condemned.
Governments were called upon by the congress to act in accord­
ance with recommendation of the 1927 International Economic
Conference that “ Government institutions, trade organizations,
and public opinion give special attention to measures of a kind cal­
culated to insure to the individual the best, the healthiest, and the
most worthy employment, such as vocational selection, guidance
and training, the due allotment of time between work and leisure,
methods of remuneration giving the worker a fair share in the in­
crease of output, and general conditions of work and life favorable
to the development and preservation of his personality.”
The congress held that it is the duty of the International Federa­
tion of Trade-Unions to carry on a perpetual peace propaganda and
to use a11 available means (placards, pamphlets, etc.) for this cam­
paign. A special appeal was made to mothers and teachers to imbue
the rising generation with the “ spirit of universal peace” in order
“ that international brotherhood may soon become a living reality.”
The following is the program, in part, recommended by the con­
gress to its national sections :
Promotion of general economic progress.—The national centers
should wage war on “ protectionist commercial policy and on all
other measures tending to give rise to economic and commercial
enmity.”
Scientific management should be indorsed only on condition that
representatives of the wage earners engaged in the undertaking or of
the competent labor organizations invariably cooperate in such
scientific management and that it shall result, step by step, in the
increase of real wages and the consequent expansion of the market.
National and international cartels should in the future be brought
more under trade-union supervision and control. Attempts to keep
prices up and to raise prices regardless of the needs of the great mass
of consumers must be fought in every possible way by the tradeunions, especially by securing the establishment in all countries of
government cartel control offices, of public registers of cartels, and
of courts for the control of cartels on which the trade-unions shall
have representatives.
The economic importance of the home market must be fully recog­
nized.—Trade-unions should strive to lower prices or to raise wages
or, preferably, to do both, in order to increase the mass consumption
of the products of improved labor and economic processes.
R e so lu tio n s o f I n te r n a tio n a l C on feren ce of W om an W ork ers1

T THEIR Paris conference, July 29-30, 1927, the woman wage
earners affiliated with the International Federation of TradeUnions adopted a resolution in favor of the protection of
woman as a worker and of the woman worker as a woman, declaring
the solidarity of organized woman workers with all the workers, and
expressing the earnest desire to strive enthusiastically with all work­
ers “ for the regeneration of the world.”

A
1

International Federation of Trade Unions, Amsterdam.


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Press Report No. 29, Aug. 11, 1927, pp. 11,12.

86

MONTHLY LABOH EE VIEW

Woman workers all over the world were urged to become tradeunionists. The conference also insisted that the wages and labor
conditions of persons engaged in home work should “ at least be
placed on equality with those of the factory workers of the same
trade” ; and, furthermore, that “ in all countries the social legisla­
tion of the land shall be applied in its entirety to all persons engaged
in home work. ” This it was declared could only be accomplished
through attaching the greatest importance to the trade-union organi­
zation of such persons.
It was also demanded that a convention be issued by the Inter­
national Labor Conference of 1928 “ establishing methods for fixing
minimum wages for home workers.”

O rg a n iza tio n o f C u b an F ed era tio n o f Labor

HE Cuban Federation of Labor was organized in Habana on
May 22, 1927, by a group of workers representing various in­
dustries, according to the September, 1927, issue of the Pan
American Union Bulletin. The aims of the organization will be to
improve the economic and social conditions of the workers and
thereby assist in developing industrial activities. The federation will
aid its members during periods of unemployment, disability, and illness, when such cases are not provided for under the workmen^
compensation law.
bhe Cuban Federation of Labor is affiliated with the Pan American
h ederation of Labor.

T


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[802 ]

HOUSING
B u ild in g P e r m its in R e p resen ta tiv e C ities

HE Bureau of Labor Statistics presents herewith its semiannual
report of building operations in cities having a population of
100,000 or over. Reports were received for the first half of
1927 from 80 cities, as compared with 78 in the first half of 1926.
Of the 80 cities reporting for the first half of 1927, over 94 per cent
forwarded their schedules by mail either direct to the bureau or to
cooperating State bureaus. For the other 6 per cent of the cities
schedules were compiled by agents of the bureau, from records kept
in the offices of the local building officials.
The bureau’s questionnaire asked for the number and cost of each
of the different kinds of buildings for which permits were issued ip
this period. The costs reported are those stated by the prospective
builder at the time of applying for a permit, and information was
collected only for buildings erected inside the city limits of the
municipalities selected, since the city building officials have no
authority outside the corporate limits. This, of course, leaves large
suburban developments unaccounted for.
Table 1 shows the total number of new buildings and the estimated
cost of each of the different kinds of new buildings for which permits
were issued in the 80 cities for which schedules were received for the
six months ending June 30, 1927, the per cent that each kind forms of
the total number, the per cent that the cost of each kind forms of the
total cost, and the average cost per building.

T

T a b l e l . — N U M B E R A N D COST OE N E W B U IL D IN G S A C C O R D IN G TO P E R M IT S ISSU E D

IN 80 C ITIES, JA N U A R Y 1 TO JU N E 30, 1927, BY K IN D OF B U IL D IN G
Buildings for which permits were issued
Estimated cost
Kind of building
Number

Per
cent of
total

Amount

Per
cent of
total

Average
per build­
ing

Residential buildings

65,188
11,618

39.1
7.0

$319, 616,929
98,141,450

23.1
7.1

$4,903
8,447

All other...............................................- ......................

1,501
6,515
707
88
62
52

.9
4.0
.4
.1
(■)
0)

16,207,139
355,957,616
39,384,233
28,178,044
807,741
13,307,372

1.2
25.7
2.8
2.0
.1
1.0

10,798
54,637
55, 706
320,205
13,028
255,911

T o ta l..________ ______________________

85,731

51.5

871, 600, 524

62.9

10,167

One-family and two-family dwellings with

1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.


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88

MONTHLY LABOE EEVIEW

T able

IN

1

.— N U M B E R A N D COST OF N E W B U IL D IN G S A C C O R D IN G TO PF'RMTT'i T^dTTTm

80

C IT IES, J A N U A R Y

1

TO J U N E 30, 1927, B Y K IN D OF B U lL D I N G —Continued^D

Buildings for which permits were issued
Estimated cost

( Kind of building
Number

Per
cent of
total

Amount

Per
Average
cent of per build­
total
ing

Nonresidential buildings

Amusement buildings____________
C hurches.......... ....................... ............
Factories and workshops_____ ____
Public garages.____________ ______ ___________
Private garages______-......... ............
Service stations............. ........................
In stitu tio n s..________________ . . . .
Office buildings____ ____ _________
Public buildings_______ __________
Public works and utilities_________
Schools and libraries______________
Sheds________ ___________________
Stables and barns________________
Stores and warehouses.. . . . . ______
All other............ ...................... ..............

409
339
1,489
1,580
62,827
1,663
100
579
124
157
244
5,084
79
4,410
1, 695

.2
.2
.9
.9
37.7
1.0
.1
.3
.1
.1
.1
3.1
(>)
2.6
1.0

$60, 474, 640
18, 637,435
55, 251,240
33, 539, 770
22,662, 602
4,563, 252
18,405, 111
128,472, 870
20,003, 638
12,481,434
55,616,179
1, 903,121
265, 490
79,353, 886
3,004, 252

4. 4
1.3
4.0
2.4
1.6
.3
1.3
9.3
1.4
.9
4.0
.1
0)
5.7
.2

$147,860
54,978
37,106
21,228
361
2, 744
184,051
221, 888
161,320
79,500
227,935
374
3,361
17, 994
1,772

T o t a l....____ ______ ________

80,779

48.5

514, 634,920

37.1

6,371

Grand to ta l._________ ______

166,510

100.0

1, 386, 235,444

100.0

8,325

1Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

In these 80 cities, $1,386,235,444 was spent for new buildings
in the first half of 1927. Of this amount $871,600,524, or 62.9 per
cent, was spent for residential buildings and $514,634,920, or 37.1
per cent, for nonresidential buildings.
Of the amount expended for residential buildings the greatest
amount, $355,957,616, or 25.7 per cent of the amount spent for all
new buildings, was expended for apartment houses. Although only
$319,616,929, or 23.1 per cent, was spent for one-family dwellings,
more permits were issued for one-family dwellings in these 80 cities
during this period than for any other class of building, there being
65,188 of these homes projected during the first half of this year.
The next most numerous class of building was private garages,
accounting for 62,827 buildings. Two-family dwellings accounted
for 7.1 per cent of the whole amount expended.
In the nonresidential group more money \vTas expended for office
buildings than for any other class of structure. The cost of office
buildings during the six months ending June 30, 1927, was $128,472,870, or 9.3 per cent of all moneys used during that period for new
buildings. Next in importance in the nonresidential group was
“ stores and. warehouses,” accounting for 5.7 per cent of the total
• amount disbursed.
The average cost of one-family dwellings in these 80 cities was
$4,903, as compared with $4,777 in the first half of 1926. Hotels
cost înore per building than any other class of structure, the average
cost of the 88 hostelries for which permits were issued in this period
being $320,205. Schools and libraries ranked higher hi average
cost than any other kind of nonresidential building, followed in
order by office buildings and institutions.

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BUILDING PERM ITS IN REPRESENTATIVE CITIES

The average cost of all new buildings was $8,325. The average
cost of residential buildings was $10,167 and of nonresidential build­
ings $6,371. The average cost of nonresidential buildings, however,
is heavily weighted with that of private garages, which was only
$361. Excluding private garages, the average cost of nonresidential
buildings was $27,405.
Families Provided for

r"FABLE 2 shows the number and per cent of families provided for
^ by each of the different kinds of dwellings for which permits
were issued in 78 identical cities in the first half of 1926 and the
first half of 1927.
T

2 . — N U M B E R A N D P E R C E N T OP FA M ILIE S TO B E H O U SE D IN N E W D W E LL ­
ING S FOR W HICH P E R M IT S W E R E ISSU E D IN 78 ID E N T IC A L C IT IES D U R IN G T H E
F IR ST H A L F OF 1926 A N D T H E FIR ST H A L F OF 1927, B Y K IN D OF D W E L L IN G

able

Kind of dwelling

Number of dwell­
ings for which
permits
were
issued
First
half of
1926

First
half of
1927

Families provided for
Number
First
half of
1926

First
half of
1927

Per cent
First
half of
1926

First
half of
1927

One-family dwellings.....................................
Two-family dwellings__________________
One-family and two-family dwellings
w ith sto res... ___ ___ _____ _________
M ulti-familv dwellings .
_
. . .
M ulti-family dwellings w ith stores_____

74, 029
11, 864

64,747
11, 577

74, 029
23, 728

64, 747
23,154

36.7

2,032
6, 806
548

1,498
6,478
706

3,310
94, 330
6,288

2, 471
88, 809
8,052

1 .6

1 .3

46.8
3.1

47.4

Total ___________________________

95, 279

85,006

201, 685

187, 233

100.0

1 0 0 .0

1 1 .8

3 4 .6
1 2 .4

4 .3

There were 187,233 families provided with homes in new buildings
in these 78 cities in the first half of 1927, as compared with 201,685
in the first half of 1926, a decrease in housing units of 7.2 per cent.
One-family dwellings, which accommodated 74,029 families, or 36.7
per cent of all families provided for during the first half of 1926,
provided for only 64,747 families, or 34.6 per cent, in the first six
months of 1927. Apartment houses, on the other hand, provided
for 47.4 per cent of all families housed in new buildings during the
first half of 1927 and 46.8 per cent in the corresponding period of
1926.
Table 3 shows the number and per cent of families provided for in
the different kinds of dwellings in the 65 identical cities for which
reports were received for the first six months of each of the years
1922 to 1927. For convenience, one-family dwellings and twofamily dwellings with stores are grouped with two-family dwellings,
and multi-family dwellings with stores are grouped with multi-family
dwellings.

63952°—27------7

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MONTHLY LABOH REVIEW

T a b l e 3 -—N U M B E R A N D P E R C E N T OF FA M IL IE S P R O V ID E D FO R IN T H E D IF F E R ­

E N T K IN D S OF D W E L L IN G S IN 65 ID E N T IC A L C IT IES IN T H E F IR ST H A L F OF
1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1926, A N D 1927

Number of families provided for in—
Period
One-family Two-family
dwellings dwellings
First half of—
1 9 2 2 ................
1923..................
1924_________
1925____ ____
1926_________
1 9 2 7 ...............

63, 892
77, 875
82, 514
87, 783
71, 818
57, 899

32,351
39, 314
50, 904
39,320
26, 727
24,204

M ulti­
family
dwellings

All classes
of dwell­
ings

51, 006
77, 826
69, 619
80, 291
100, 201
95,448

147,249
195, 015
203,037
207, 394
198, 746
177, 551

Per cent of families provided for in—

One-family Two-family
dwellings
dwellings

43.4
39.9
40.6
42.3
36.1
32.6

22.0
20.2
25.1
19.0
13. 4
13.6

M ulti­
family
dwellings

34.6
39.9
34.3
38.7
50. 4
53.8

In the first half of 1922 in these 65 cities 147,249 families were
housed in new buildings. The number steadily rose until a peak of
20/,394 was reached in 1925. This was 40.8 per cent more than in
1922. The number decreased in the first six months of 1926 to
198,746 and during the first half of 1927 to 177,551. The latter
figure is the lowest since 1922 and only 20.6 per cent higher than in
that year.
In the first half of 1922 one-family dwellings provided 43.4 per cent
of all housing units, while multifamily dwellings provided but 34.6
per cent. In the first half of 1927 the apartment-house percentage
had risen to 53.8, while the single-family-dwelling percentage had
fallen to 32.6.
While the total number of families provided for during the first
half of 1927 increased 20.6 per cent as compared with the first half
of 1922, the number of families provided for in apartment houses
increased 87.1 per cent. In contrast the number of families housed
in new one-family dwellings decreased 9.4 per cent.
Building Trend, 1926-27

T A B L E 4 shows the number and cost of the different kinds of
buildings for the 78 identical cities from which reports were
received for the first half of 1926 and of 1927 and the per cent of
increase or decrease in the number and in the cost in the first half of
1927 as compared with the first half of 1926.


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BUILDING PEEM ITS IN REPRESENTATIVE CITIES

T A BL E 4 .—N U M B E R A N D COST OE N E W B U IL D IN G S FOR W H IC H P E R M IT S W E R E
IS S U E D IN 78 C IT IES D U R IN G T H E F IR ST H A L F OF 1926 A N D 1927, B Y K IN D OF
B U IL D IN G
N ew building for which permits were issued in
first half of—
1927

1926

Kind of building

Per cent of
change, 1927
as compared
w ith 1926

N um ­
ber

Cost

N um ­
ber

Cost

N um ­
ber

Cost

One-family dwellings.................................
Two-family dwellings----------------- -----One-family and two-family dwellings
w ith sto res., . . . _ ___ . -----------M ulti-fam ily dwellings------------- -------M ulti-family dwellings w ith stores........
H otels__ _____ ______________________
Lodging houses................................... .........
All other...... ................................ ................

78,483
12, 048

$374,929,350
102, 929,851

64,747
11, 577

$317,855, 774
97,745,680

-1 8 .5
-3 .9

-1 5 .2
—5. 0

2, 056
6,888
550
119
9
65

21,117, 089
367, 478,406
31, 264,464
72, 661,358
329,400
14, 420, 800

1,498
6, 478
706
87
62
52

T otal________ ____ ______ ______

100, 218

985,130, 718

85, 207

325
326
1,502
1,663
65, 769
1,318
79
534
89
179
279
6,027
112
5, 342
1,584

48, 689,729
15,193,610
73, 019,325
27,937, 809
27, 743, 758
4, 770, 230
14, 277,980
87,882, 638
9, 904, 652
17,511,186
58,076, 620
2,673,129
315, 446
94, 935,790
6,723,309

R esidential buildings

N onresidential buildings

Amusement buildings................................
Churches____________ ______________
Factories and w orkshops.........................
Public garages--------------------------------Private garages....... ....................................
Service stations................................. .........
Institutions......... ............................. ...........
Office buildings............ ...............................
Public buildings. . ............................... ..
Public works and utilities____________
Schools and libraries-------------------------Sheds_______________________________
Stables and b a r n s.._________________
Stores and warehouses----------------------All other________________ ____ _______

16,186,639 -2 7 .1 -2 3 .4
-6 .0
- 3 .3
355,254,316
39,380, 733 +28.4 +26.0
28,138, 044 -2 6 .9 -6 1 .3
807, 741 +588. 9 +145. 2
- 7 .7
13,307,372 -2 0 .0
869, 476,299

-1 5 .0

60,383,740
18, 543, 435
54, 952, 840
33,403, 270
22, 537, 992
4,492, 602
18, 234, 111
128,426, 700
20, 003, 638
12,481, 434
54, 995, 314
1, 885, 963
265,490
78, 843,311
2,984, 752

+24.9 +24.0
+ 3.1 +22.0
- 1 . 5 -2 4 .7
- 5 . 4 +19.6
- 5 . 1 -1 8 .8
—5. 8
+24.6
+24. 1 +27.7
+ 7 .5 +46.1
+39.3 +102. 0
-2 2 .3 -2 8 .7
- 5 .3
-1 4 .3
-1 8 . 7 -2 9 .5
-29. 5 -1 5 .8
-1 8 .6 -1 7 .0
•+ 6 .8 -5 5 .6

-1 2 .6

fi.
406
336
1,479
1, 574
62,426
1, 642
98
574
124
157
239
4, 901
79
4,347
1,691

85,128

489,655,211

80, 073

512, 434, 592

-5 .9

+ 4 .7

Grand total------------------------------ 185,346

1,474, 785, 929

165, 280

1,381, 910, 891

-1 0 .8

- 6 .3

T otal---------------- --------- --------- -

In the 78 cities from which reports were received for both periods
a total of $1,381,910,891 was spent for all new buildings in the first
six months of 1927, as compared with $1,474,785,929 in the first six
months of 1926, a falling off of 6.3 per cent. The number of new
buildings for which permits were issued fell from 185,346 in the first
half of 1926 to 165,280 in the first half of the current year, a reduction
of 10.8 per cent.
Residential buildings decreased 15 per cent and their cost 12.6
per cent. All classes of residential buildings except lodging houses
and multi-family dwellings with stores showed a decline in both
number and cost. While the number of nonresidential buildings
decreased 5.9 per cent their cost increased 4.7 per cent. The money
expended for the erection of the 80,073 buildings in this group in the
first half of 1927 was $512,434,592 as compared with $489,655,211
for 85,128 buildings in the first half of 1926. Public buildings showed
the largest percentage of increase in money expended of any class of
nonresidential buildings—102 per cent—while their number increased
39.3 per cent. Amusement buildings, churches, institutions, and office
buildings also showed an increase in both number and cost in the
first half of 1927 as compared with the first half of 1926. There was


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

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M ONTHLY LABOE EE V IEW

a decrease in both the number and cost of factories and workshops,
private garages, public works and utilities, schools and libraries,
sheds, stables and barns, and stores and warehouses. Service stations
and “ all other nonresidential” showed an increase in number but a
decrease in amount expended, while public garages showed a decrease
in number but an increase in the amount expended.
Per Capita Expenditure for Buildings

r"PABLE 5 shows the per capita expenditure for new buildings, new
1 housekeeping dwellings, additions and repairs, and for all buildings
in the 72 cities in which either the population was estimated by the
Census Bureau for 1927 or a State census was made in 1925.
T a b l e 5 .—P E R C A PITA E X P E N D IT U R E FOR N E W B U IL D IN G S , N E W H O U SE K E E P IN G

D W E L L IN G S, A N D FO R A D D IT IO N S A N D R E P A IR S TO OLD B U IL D IN G S IN 72 CITIES
IN T H E F IR ST SIX M O N T H S OF 1927
Per capita expenditure for—

City and State

Per
Rank in
capita
per
expendi­
Estimated
capita
for
population
Repairs,
expendi­ ture
new
July 1,1927
N ew
additions,
All
ture for
buildings and alter­ buildings all build­ house­
keeping
ations
ings
dwellings

Albany, N . Y ________________________
119, 500
Baltimore, M d_______ _________ _ __
819, 000
Birmingham, A la____________________
215, 400
Boston, M ass________________________
793,100
Buffalo, N . Y ___________________ ____
550,000
Cambridge, M a ss,______ ____________
123, 900
Camden, N . J _________________ . . —
133,100
Canton, Ohio____________ _ _ — __ _
113, 300
Chicago, 111________ _______ __________ 3,100, 500
Cincinnati, Ohio___________________ .
412, 200
Cleveland, Ohio______________________
984, 500
Columbus, Ohio____ ____ ____________
291,100
Dallas, T ex__________________ _______
208, 600
Dayton, Ohio...... .............- ____ _________
180, 400
Denver, Colo........................... .............. „
289, 800
Des Moines, Iowa____________________
148, 900
Detroit, Mich__........................................
1, 334, 500
Duluth, M in n ______________ ____ ____
114, 700
El Paso, Tex-------------------------------------113,500
Fall River, M ass_____________________
132, 600
Flint, M ich. __ _____________________
142, 700
Fort Worth, Tex____________ _________
163, 600
Grand Rapids, M ich____ ____________
158, 700
Hartford, Conn
—
_________ _ .
168, 300
Indianapolis, In d __________________ _
374, 300
Jersey C ity, N . J ------------- ------------321, 500
Kansas City, Kans___________________
117, 500
Kansas City, M o ------------------------------383,100
Louisville, K y ............ - ------------------------320, 100
Lowell, M ass............ ................................. —
» 110,296
Lynn, M ass_________________________
104, 800
Memphis, T en n ______________________
178,900
Milwaukee, Wis ____ ______ __________
531,100
Minneapolis, M inn---------- ------ ----------441, 700
Nashville, T e n n .. __________________
137, 800
Newark, N . J _________ ______ ________
466,300
N ew Bedford, M ass—..................................
i 119, 539
N ew Haven, Conn_________ __________
184, 900
New Orleans, La_____________________
424, 400
New York, N . Y _____________________
5, 970, 800
Norfolk, V a .......................................... .........
179, 200
Oakland, Calif_________ _______ _____ .
267, 300
Omaha, N ebr. ______________________
219, 200
Paterson, N . J ................................... ........
143, 800
Philadelphia, P a ________ ____________
2, 035,900
Pittsburgh, Pa__________ ______ ______
642, 700
1 State census 1925.


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[808 ]

$44. 55
15. 80
44. 55
25. 74
24. 74
29. 89
19. 89
14. 32
65. 94
27. 55
16. 67
40.91
18. 76
26. 07
20.19
8. 81
52. 74
14. 62
1.92
8. 20
79. 21
67. 07
25. 09
40. 40
32. 62
14.88
8. 03
20.49
40. 91
2.89
17. 05
38. 47
35. 09
25. 26
24. 22
53. 36
4.58
15. 86
16. 74
76. 20
10.16
35.16
9. 35
19. 51
26. 67
23. 36

$12.88
3. 77
5. 33
6. 94
1.44
3. 67
2. 82
2. 40
1. 86
5. 24
3. 47
4. 41
4.26
6. 59
3. 40
.88
6.26
5. 62
2. 34
1.43
4. 24
22. 32
4. 40
4.89
1.12
1. 83
.66
2. 48
3. 00
1.53
2. 48
4. 71
4.01
3.00
1.90
4. 96
1. 72
2.94
2. 01
5. 87
1.65
5. 72
1.25
4. 04
3.63
4.57

$57. 43
19. 57
49. 88
32.68
26.18
33. 57
22. 71
16. 72
67. 80
32. 80
20.14
45. 31
23.02
32. 66
23. 59
9. 69
59. 01
20.24
4.26
9. 62
83. 45
89. 40
29. 48
45.28
33. 73
16. 70
8.68
22. 97
43.92
4. 42
19. 53
43.17
39. 10
28.26
26. 12
58. 32
6. 30
18.80
18. 76
82.09
11. 80
40.88
10.60
23. 55
30.30
27.93

9
56
10
27
40
25
51
61
6
26
54
13
48
28
44
67
7
53
72
68
3
2
30
14
24
62
69
49
15
71
57
18
21
35
41
8
70
58
59
4
65
20
66
45
29
36

$30. 39
10. 85
28.10
13. 57
12. 44
17. 12
9. 21
10.08
42. 44
23. 66
9. 58
22.03
6. 55
14.68
12.94
5. 37
28.41
7.14
1.42
5. 76
44. 51
40.39
15. 55
20.00
13. 51
9. 49
3. 62
14. 77
15. 93
1.57
8. 61
19.45
18.14
10. 94
7.50
29. 85
3.06
6. 00
6. 95
46.83
6. 37
17. 40
5. 56
16.01
15. 53
12.88

93

BUILDING PERM ITS IN REPRESENTATIVE CITIES

T a b l e 5 . —PE R C A PITA E X P E N D IT U R E FOR N E W B U IL D IN G S , N E W H O U SE K E E P IN G

D W E L L IN G S, A N D FOR A D D IT IO N S A N D R E PA IR S TO OLD B U IL D IN G S IN 72 C IT IES
IN T H E F IR ST SIX M O N T H S OF 1927—Continued
Per capita expenditure for—

City and State

Providence, R. I ................................ ...........
Reading, Pa ...............................................
Richmond, V a..............................
Rochester, N . Y _______ _______
St. Louis, M o ......................... ...
St. Paul, M inn. ...........................
Salt Lake City, U tah__
San Antonio, T ex......................
San Diego, Calif ______________
San Francisco, Calif____ ..
Scranton, P a....................................
Somerville, M ass......... .................. ..............
Spokane, W ash. . . . ________ . .
Springfield, M a s s .......................................
Syracuse, N . Y ._ ___________________
Tacoma, W ash.............................................
Tampa, Fla..................... ...................... .........
Toledo. Ohio................................ .................
Trenton, N J________________________
Tulsa, Okla_________________________
U tica, N Y __________ ______ _________
Washington, D . C . __________________
Wilmington, D el_____________________
Worcester, M ass_____________________
Yonkers, N . Y ................. .............................
Youngstown, Ohio........................................

Rank in
per
Estimated
capita
population
Repairs,
expendi­
July 1,1927
New
additions,
All
ture for
buildings and alter­ buildings all build­
ations
ings
280, 600
114, 500
191, 800
234, 500
839, 200
250,100
135, 700
211, 400
115, 300
576, 000
143, 900
101, 600
109, 000
147, 400
197, 000
107, 200
107, 800
304, 000
136, 700
150, 000
103, 400
540, 000
126, 400
195, 500
118,800
169, 400

$37.29
18. 63
25. 12
30. 06
16. 01
20. 30
18. 15
27.93
65. 00
39.64
23.03
18. 50
12.11
28. 17
41. 64
23. 62
22.68
24.05
19. 51
45. 56
11. 07
37. 63
22.07
20. 45
124. 96
27. 70

$5.98
4. 47
3. 22
3. 68
2. 18
2.92
1. 57
1.19
5. 65
3.90
1. 89
2.49
1.57
6. 38
4.64
3. 00
4.25
4. 76
3. 21
1. 82
1.91
4. 09
3. 98
6. 16
6. 22
1.15

$43. 27
23.11
28. 34
33. 74
18. 19
23. 22
19. 72
29. 12
70. 65
43. 55
24.92
20.99
13. 68
34. 55
46.24
26. 62
26. 94
28.80
22.73
47. 38
12. 98
41. 72
26. 05
26.61
131. 19
28. 85

Total, 80 cities............ ....................... 232, 280, 223

242.94

2 4.28

2 47. 22

17
47
34
23
60
46
65
31
6
16
43
52
63
22
12
38
37
33
50
11
64
19
42
39
1
32

Per
capita
expendi­
ture for
new
house­
keeping
dwelling'
$14. 68
7.20
15.35
17.67
9.66
11.96
14.77
13.09
40.83
29.87
4.42
10.28
10.25
19.75
24.68
13.97
9.65
13.46
9.08
17.48
7.74
23.74
10.03
13.60
102.51
17.12
1 25.69

2 Including 8 cities not shown in distribution.

Of the 80 cities from which reports were received for the first half
of 1927 estimates of population as of July 1, 1927, were made by the
Bureau of the Census for 70. For two others State census figures
of 1925 were used. As the Census Bureau did not estimate the
population for the other 8 cities, and as they were not in States where
a census was made in 1925, no population figures were obtainable for
that date. For this reason no data are presented in this table for
the cities of Akron, Atlanta, Bridgeport, Houston, Los Angeles,
Oklahoma City, Portland (Oreg.), or Seattle. Data for these cities
are, however, included in the totals, the 1920 census figures being
used. Data for these cities are included in the total however, and
in the computation they have been credited the population of the
last available estimate. No estimate has been made for some cities
because they showed a decrease in population between 1910 and 1920,
nor for other cities because they -were growing faster than the normal
rate.
The total per capita expenditure for all buildings in these 80 cities
was $47.22, and of this amount $42.94 was spent for the erection of
new buildings and $4.28 for repairs to old buildings. Of the amount
spent for new buildings $25.69 was for the erection of housekeeping
dwellings. The largest per capita expenditure was in Yonkers,
N. Y., where $131.19 per person was expended on buildings in the first
half of 1927. Fort Worth, Tex., and Flint, Mich., followed in order,
the former with a per capita expenditure of $89.40 and the latter of

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[809]

94

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

$83.45. The lowest amount was in El Paso, Tex., where only $4.26
was spent in this period.
Housing in Relation to Population

rT ‘ABLE 6 gives detailed information for building permits issued in
1 78 cities in the first half of 1926 and for 80 cities in the first
half of 1927. Part 1 of the table gives the number and cost of each
kind of dwelling, the number of families provided for by each type of
house, and the ratio of families provided for to each 10,000 of
population.
It will be noted that the ratio of families provided for is based both
on the 1920 census and on the population as estimated by the Census
Bureau for the specified year.
The 78 cities from which reports were received for the first half of
1926 provided for 207,231 families, or at the rate of 73.2 families to
each 10,000 of population, according to the 1920 census, or of 65.6
families to each 10,000 inhabitants, according to the population as
estimated by the Census Bureau for July 1, 1926. The 80 cities
reporting for the first half of 1927 provided for only 187,970 families,
a ratio of 66 families to each 10,000 of population, according to the
1920 census, or 58.2 according to the 1927 estimate of population.
The following cities were the five leading home builders in 1926 and
in 1927. The ratio shown is based on the population as estimated
for the specified year.
1926
San D iego_____________________ 157.
Y onkers_______________________ 144.
H o u sto n ______________________ 125.
D e tro it________________________ 116.
N ew Y o rk ______________________ 114.

1927
1
8
1
9
7

Y o n k ers_______________________
San D iego___________________
F lin t--------------------------------------F o rt W o rth ___________________
N ew Y o rk _____________________

172. 4
132. 8
121. 3
110. 7
99.2

Part 2 of the table shows the number and the cost of nonresidential buildings in each of the cities reporting.
Part 3 gives the number and the cost of additions and repairs to
old buildings, the grand total of the number and cost of new build­
ings and repairs to old buildings, the number and cost of instal­
lations, and the rank in cost o construction of the cities reporting.
During the first half of 1927 there were 97,179 permits issued, inthe 80 cities reporting, for repairs and alterations to existing buildings
at a cost of $138,154,250. The number of permits for repairs in the
78 cities reporting in the like period of 1926 was 90,364 and the ex­
penditure for such work was $134,898,195.
The cities which reported on installations in the first six months of
1927 showed 36,645 such permits and an expenditure of $18,485,848.
The cities reporting for the first half of 1926 issued permits for 34,907
installations to cost $19,534,750.
The grand total for all new buildings, together with repairs to old
buildings, was 263,689 in the first half of 1927 and 275,710 in the
first half of 1926. The total estimated cost of these operations in
the 80 cities reporting was $1,524,389,694 in the period scheduled in
1927, and $1,609,684,124 in the corresponding period of 1926.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[810]

95

BUILDING PERM ITS IN REPRESENTATIVE CITIES

Following is a list of the five leading cities for each of the periods
and the total amount expended for construction work in each city:
1926

N ew Y ork _______________________ $510, 263, 696
C hicago__________________________ 183, 577, 891
D e tro it__________________________
96, 204, 092
P h ilad elp h ia_________
70, 379, 825
Los A ngeles______________________
63, 161, 395

1927

$490,
210,
78,
61,
58,

119,588
210,475
742,327
683,600
192,977

It will be noted that Chicago was the only city of these five leading
cities whjch spent more for construction during the first half of 1927
than during the first half of 1926.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1811]

T a ble 6 .—N U M B E R A N D E ST IM A T E D COST OF B U IL D IN G S (N E W C O N ST R U C TIO N , A N D R E PA IR S, A L T E R A TIO N S, A N D A D D IT IO N S TO OLD
B U IL D IN G S) C O V ERED B Y P E R M IT S ISSU E D IN T H E FIR ST H A LF OF 1926 A N D OF 1927, B Y IN T E N D E D U SE OF B U IL D IN G S

O
05

PA R T 1.—NEW R ESID EN TIA L BUILDING S
Housekeeping dwellings
First
half of
each
year

C ity and State

Akron, Ohio______
Albany, N . Y _____
Atlanta, Ga...... ..........
Baltimore, M d ...
00
j-i Birmingham, A la ...
L_J

Boston, M ass____
Bridgeport, Conn_____
Buffalo, N . Y _____
Cambridge, M ass........
Camden, N . J__........
Canton, Ohio............

.

Chicago, 111_______
Cincinnati, Ohio_____
Cleveland, Ohio _____
Columbus, Ohio______
Dallas, T ex___ _____ _
Dayton, Ohio________


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927

One-family dwellings

N um ­
ber

Cost

Fam i­
lies

1,041
1,229
172
140
630
664
2, 765
2, 115
1, 529
1, 324
332
265
63
90
893
666
16
29
358
246
383
238
3, 675
3, 325
827
848
1,104
859
1,104
703
993
368
255
321

$5, 036,763
6,158,590
1,975,950
2,075, 500
2, 465, 700
2, 425, 560
10, 515, 000
8, 338,000
3,479, 745
4,265, 509
1, 975, 538
1, 637, 000
291, 750
555, 500
3, 582, 435
2, 654, 450
168, 000
331, 900
1, 456,100
968, 050
1, 791, 275
' 943, 450
24,169, 850
21, 413,000
5,383, 300
5, 987, 883
5, 899, 500
4,638, 600
5,103, 350
3, 504, 200
2,948, 810
900, 696
1,213,968
1,513, 420

1,041
1,229
172
140
630
664
2, 765
2, 115
1, 529
1,324
332
265
63
90
893
666
16
29
358
246
383
238
3, 675
3, 325
827
848
1,104
859
1,104
703
993
368
255
321

One-family and two-fam­
ily dwellings with stores

Two-family dwellings

N um ­
ber

55
56
146
165

3
11
11

426
403
16
42
276
262
38
56
15

3
6
1,241
1, 257
97
173
503
308
247
146
177
77
38
162

Cost

$1,284,000
1,483, 500
332, 397
413, 300
17, 000
6, 550
61, 750
4,236, 750
3, 678, 503
135, 200
323, 750
1,034,470
1, 310,150
371,800
516, 500
88,400
25,000
48,050
13, 780,100
14, 810, 700
1,088,000
1,746,750
4, 831,000
2, 946,000
1,907, 500
1,179, 300
833, 935
299, 850
266, 334
436, 487

Fami­ N um ­
ber
lies

110

1

112

1
9
9
22
5

292
330
6
22
22
852
806
32
84
552
524
76

3
7
1
2

12

55
53

Cost

M ulti-family dwellings

Fami­ N um ­
lies
ber

$10, 000
9,000
38,800
15, 450
104, 500
26, 000
6,800
39,125
10,000
42,000
127, 600

11
27
6
3
8
2
4
22

674,225
558,100

84
83

2
1
12

3
24
8
1
28
43
9
8
21

43
139
197
33

112

10

19
18
32

Cost

M ulti-family dwellings
w ith stores

Fam i­ N um ­
lies
ber

$64, 500
m , 500
1,132' 000
16^000
313. 700
655,150
720j 000
520, 000
547i 000
1, 595, 625
3, 385, 000
4, 338,800

119
4
170
341
250
103
248
444
873
1,190

316,250
448,030
2,136, 000
1,241,000
1,272,500

147
512
331
282

Cost

21

Fam i­
lies
--------12

1

60,000

25

M

3
4

27
3
260

42

r
w

§
fcd

50

125,000
90, 625
13, 000
1,069, 500

______
............

rd
fed

23
15

412, 700
185, 400

79
119
1

7,672,000
13,141,200
26, 000

1,187
2,004
8

39

222

15
2

1, 335,000
252,000
74,000
653, 500
22,500

4

184,600

25

1

1

110

14

77,300

19

3

180,000

50

12

2

1 0 ,0 0 0

2,482
2,514
194
346
1,006
616
494
292
354
154
76
324

167
151

2, 519, 900
2,426, 600
15,000

3
232
200

28
8

450, 000

46

1 2 2 ,0 0 0

11

3
942
1,173
28
25
54
28

12

3
3

137, 500
35,000
27, 500

19
6
6

21

444,225

21

140,000
64,203, 400
79, 782, 900
1,115,000
2,016,500
2,186, 000
1, 470, 500
216, 000
1, 039, 500
2, 679, 750
166, 500
162, 000
514, 000

40
12, 745
15, 686
321
529
456
A31
52
180
802
52
54
114

4 5Ki

99
52

_____

6

2

10

30
83
13

7
20

W

$48,000
10,500

2

30

1

o
¡2j

212

6
3

43
16
115
12

<

g

<1

Detroit, M ich,.............

Grand Rapids, M ic h ,..
Hartford, C onn______

Indianapolis, In d , ___

[813]

Jersey City, N . J ,........

Kansas City, M o_____

Louisville, K y ,..............

Memphis, Tenn---------Milwaukee, W is______
Minneapolis, M inn___

N ew Bedford, Mass___


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

789
714
244
166
6,143
3,087
274
169
47
22
60
88
622
1,599
1,110
962
• 639
595
87
63
1, 278
1, 565
811
820
6
6
388
217
1,159
643
5. 091
4, 224
1,076
601
47
37
98
55
683
477
937
765
1, 241
752
302
276
231
105
61
48
55
60

3, 434 500
3, 397j 300
861, 850
747,290
28,806,973
16,288,857
1,323, 919
811, 614
175' 713
117. 815
281, 950
477, 805
2,415' 755
5; 933', 926
4,765,054
5,277,219
2,812,025
2,410, 750
620, 642
584,194
5, 343, 317
4, 644, 013
3,554, 035
3.658. 004
49, 000
44, 500
979, 225
425, 200
4, 500. 550
2. 842, 400
18, 988, 953
16.451, 840
5 , 082, 050
3, 930, 050
180. 000
155, 900
492, 250
306, 300
3, 041,460
1, 992, 200
5,200 ,100
4. 261, 575
5, 354, 240
3 , 390] 440
819, 750
800! 350
1,920. 450
k 316. 400
376, 000
298, 700
519, 476
580,000

789
714
244
166
6,143
3,087
274
169
47
22
60
88
622
1,599
1, HO
962
639
595
87
63
1, 278
1, 565
'811
820
6
6
388
217
1,159
643
5, 091
4, 224
1,076
601
47
37
98
55

683
477
937
765
1, 241
' 752
302
276
231
105
61
48
55
60

39
12

301, 500
91,000

78
24

3
1,836
1,195

23, 400
14, 714, 777
8, 665,481

6
3, 672
2, 390

1

6,800

2

22
16
4
30
13
291
18
8
128
69
108

179
73

165,100
115,950
32,880
190, 042
93. 591
490,000
107,850
51,000
1,205, 000
934, 649
738,128
1, 672, 000
574. 980
552, 845
1,393, 500
-578, 700

48
16
549
485
145
37
11
3
38
31
143
113
223
281
61
67
3
3
256
247
17
5
21
9

397, 500
122, 500
3,875, 956
3| 724[ 148
1,850, 000
118, 000
65,300
17^ 800
321, 300
270, 400
534, 750
318, 500
1,893,100
2,369, 760
527, 500
530, 700
K 500
31, 000
3,309, 978
2,898, 050
190, 000
43| 000
191, 600
75,000

220
120
100

10
15

252, 452
123, 790

26
22

44
32
8
60
26
582
36
16
256
138
216
440
240
200
358
146

i
3
4
7
6
19
7

8,000
40,000
41,386
53; 457
56, 296
201, 41570, 400

2
4
4
13
10
27
11

2
2
12
11
1

24,500
16, 000
91, 831
151, 000
5,600

3
4
18
20
2

12
14
5

232, 500
147, 500
15. 000

24
22
8

96
32
1,098
970
290
74
22
6
76
62
286
226
446
562
122
134
6
6
512
494
34
10
42
18

3
2

14. 500
13, 000

4
4

55
4
2

50, 900
51, 300
9,000

92
7
3

2
19
27
38

9,100
50, 700
364,406
547,800

3
22
36
60

11

188, 500

14

18
7
3
2
275
306
1

1, 356, 500
263, 000
45, 000
29,000
13,364, 815
10,685, 362
14,000

700
150
18
12
4, 569
3,325
4

6
7
10
9

105, 460
33| 350
104,800
130,184

103
21
30
37

12
29
36

144, 241
241, 300
335,805

53
90
119

1
119
53
124
103
12
18
52
30
2

6,000
2, 362, 200
1,289, 771
1, 842,383
1, 726, 350
905, 000
847, 600
3,33 k 500
2,154, 000
7, 500

4
844
347
551
515
195
208
954
668
10

61
71
345
496
45
21

1,803. 000
2, 564, 800
9, 666, 621
lk 66k 850
i; 07k 000
641,400

1,017
1,448
4, 068
5.443
228
90

26
12
51
64
26
45
38
35
6
6
117
150

625, 700
325, 500
1,104; 300
1,117,900
' 793, 150
1, 719, 000
1, 002, 835
' 909, 080
100, 000
202. 000
4, 638,100
9,131, 900

194
113
398
407
236
636
313
343
40
80
820
1,931

39
20

995,100
455, 000

317
229

5

104,000

30

131
75

4,040,706
2,148,162

666
412

1

9,500

4

1
1
34

30,000
23,143
304.100

6
10
121

17
11

677,000
542,000

221
127

1

120, 000

40

9
2

587,000
125, 000

131
24

2
2

127, 000
115, 000

26
60

6
9

400, 000
358,800

39
61

1

52, 000

29

13
26

445, 000
738,000

71
130

3

382,000

63

1

24,000

3

B U ILD IN G PEBM ITS IN BEPBESENTATIVE CITIES

Fort Worth, Tex_____

1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927

T a b le 6 —N U M B E R A N D E ST IM A T E D COST OF B U IL D IN G S (N E W C O N ST R U C TIO N , A N D R E PA IR S, A L TE R A TIO N S, A N D A D D IT IO N S TO OLD

B U IL D IN G S) C O V E R E D B Y P E R M IT S ISSU E D IN T H E F IR ST H A L F OF 1926 A N D OF 1927, B Y IN T E N D E D USE OF B U IL D IN G S—Continued

CO
00

P A R T 1 .—NEW R E SID E N T IA L B U IL D IN G S—Continued
Housekeeping dwellings

City and State

First
half of
each
year

One-family dwellings

N um ­
ber

B ro o k ly n ................

[814]

M anhattan_______
Queens.......................
Richmond________
Norfolk, Va________ _
Oakland, Calif________
Oklahoma City, O kla..
Omaha, Nebr..................
Paterson, N . J________
Philadelphia, Pa............
Pittsburgh, Pa...... .........
Portland, Oreg...........
Providence, R. I ............
Reading, P a . . .......... .


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Fam i­
lies

N um ­
ber

Cost

Fami­ N um ­
lies
ber

Cost

Multi-family dwellings

Fami­ N um ­
lies
ber

Cost

Multi-family dwellings
w ith stores

Fami­ N um ­
lies
ber

Cost

Fami­
lies

1926
1927

315
252

$1,162, 500
1, 035, 621

315
252

219
276

$968,215
907,845

438
552

40
27

$285,128
233,669

75
45

43
26

$312,300
730,846

130
84

28
5

$123, 650
42,000

84
25

1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927

816
676
3,010
2.529
4
2
6,703
6,197
657
731
171
170
1,813
958
457
582
453
193
106
108
5,322
4, 771
979
1,030
1,841
1,420
231
254
193
105

5, 899, 050
5,115, 100
18. 602, 550
16,822, 300
762, 000
75, 500
39,432, 600
37, 265, 200
3, 023, 690
3, 398,179
721, 150
841, 975
6,094, 618
3,341, 088
1,461, 283
2, 200, 000
2, 079, 325
933, 220
547,470
529, 266
25, 542. 585
22, 698, 375
7,496,125
6, 374, 806
7,883, 635
6,019, 760
2,425,040
1, 968, 700
1,041, 300
693,000

816
676
3, 010
2,529
4
2
6,703
6,197
657
731
171
170
1, 813
958
457
582
453
193
106
108
5,322
4, 771
979
1,030
1,841
1,420
231
254
193
105

709
742
1,227
L 415
2
2
978
1,329
43
51
5
2
86
34
33
56
14
3
116
66
31
13
51
38
60
30
111
121

7,178, 952
7, 705, 500
11,886. 700
14,467, 500
70, 000
28, 500
8, 932, 650
11,003, 550
270, 300
365, 600
14,100
8; 000
525, 665
176, 660
189, 000
263, 960
164, 500
27, 000
782, 670
452, 350
177, 010
180, 000
619, 000
321, 500
600, 340
225,000
1,548,560
1,240, 900

1,418
1,484
2, 454
2,830
4
4
1, 956
2,658
86
102
10
4
172
68
66
112
28
6
232
132
62
26
102
76
120
60
222
242

99
28
458
462

1,118, 698
399, 700
5, 586, 000
5; 964, 000

181
50
916
924

1, 403
772

144

8,304, 000

2,082

988
506
32
57
6

18, 936
15, 433
16. 902
9,646
5, 266
4, 306
5', 788
7, 879
4

6, 009, 000
3, 843, 000

5,449, 200
2, 723, 500
171, 650
323, 000
25, 000

75,847, 500
63,296, 000
64, 467, 000
38, 605, 500
34, 855, 000
32,140, 000
18, 842; 000
26, 079,100
13, 000

34
26

603
295
23
35
3

884
617
1,344
'862
105
78
530
585
1

28
29

1, 771, 000
1, 669, 000

420
326

1

30. 000

9

12
8
1
1

69,142
39, 373
10,000
6, 000

13
8
2
1

8
9
73
48
12
22

129,400
292, 000
1, 230, 890
903, 030
142, 000
579, 000

64
138
536
423
55
193

14
7
1
1

349, 000
189, 656
15, 000
18, 000

108
64
6
8

13
14
165
132
26
15

141, 800
152, 000
861, 630
538, 040
326, 400
123, 000

20
17
186
151
32
17

38
50
75
459
19
15

3

240, 000

45

17
1C

99
478
1,192
1, 670
263
287
940
550
87
155
3
24

87, 000
173, 000
736, 165
1, 627, 700
82, 000
62, 000

95, 900
165; 000
21,500
8,000

257, 500
534', 500
995, 500
3, 880, 835
6, 567,170
538, 000
1, 395, 000
2,955,200
2, IO5 ; 000
- 357,000
602,500
15,000
1 2 3 ;0 0 0

10
12
6
33
3
3

11
10
4
1

9
30
50
30
34
9
11
73
31
28
25
1
5

4
1

142,000
15,000

31
3

4
2

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

N ew Orleans, La...........
N ew York, N . Y.:
The Bronx_______

Cost

One-family and two-fam­
ily dwellings with stores

Two-family dwellings

Richmond, V a........... . .
Rochester, N . Y ______
St. Louis, M o________
St. Paul, M inn.............

San Antonio, T ex___.
San Diego, Calif______
San Francisco, Calif___
Scranton, P a . .. ........ .
Seattle, W ash________
Somerville, M ass_____
Spokane, Wash_______
..

[8 1 5 ]

Syracuse, N . Y ......... .
Tacoma, Wash_______
Tampa, F la .................. .
Toledo, Ohio_________
Trenton, N . J..........

..

Tulsa, Okla................. .
Utica, N . Y .....................
Washington, D . C._ . .
Wilmington, D el_____
Worcester, M ass--------Yonkers, N . Y _______
Youngstown, Ohio-----Total (78 cities). _
(80 cities). .


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2,914, 695
1,450,528
3, 767,138
3, 679, 630
3,898,288
2, 960,675
3, 774, 285
2,254, 992
1,162, 650
1,112, 710
2,369, 562
2,400, 468
4,681, 505
3,977,843
8, 786, 217
7,131, 778
217, 700
409,650
6,586, 985
5,831,300
16, 000
1,213,269
1,013, 700
1,176,030
1,106, 200
2,253,850
3,367, 900
1,321,075
1,107,670
945,155
2,654,639
3,310,275
1,069,894
1, 231, 200
1,664,992
2,058, 885
1,195,000
696, 200
12,983,970
6, 774,030
1,107, 879
1,217,325
1, 602,135
1,694, 890
2, 504,100
2,662,185
2,432,300
2,437, 700

1926
1927

78,483
65,188

374,929,350
319,616,929

566
324
674
654
1,105
838
716
416
302
264
870
788
1,536
1,238
1,883
1,586
30
90
1,981
1,690
4
369
282
261
246
346
533
536 •
409
437
643
799
235
203
309
422
192
110
2,021
1,069
181
183
320
273
245
286
472
520
78,483
65,188

19
34
51
46
376
200
57
24
10
22
16
16
39
64
160
163
6
24
41

134,407
280, 950
514! 350
427, 500
503,160
1,329,000
547, 855
232, 920
47,000
114' 800
88; 825
109, 645
256,068
288, 226
1,148; 650
1,228,409
43,000
182; 500
395, 770

38
68
102
92
752
400
114
48
20
44
32
32
78
128
320
326
12
48
82

6
2
39
16
6

75,600
13,000
362,050
126, 500
102, 800

10
2
44
20
6

4
5
17
10
5
1
1
5

9,300
19, 080
172, 670
63,040
27', 000
5,000
32,000
49', 700

4
5
24
21
10
1
2
12
2

1

10,000

1

18
36
19
22
322
228
25
7
6
11
12
15
22
40
170
219
8

570,000
1,213; 500
' 765i 090
1,125,500
7,049,100
3,057, 500
839,400
340,800
303; 000
776', 500
298,200
238, 800
217', 846
378; 400
4 ,50L 551
8, 731,152
64,500

190
347
291
484
3,052
1,353
490
125
224
240
200
150
90
144
2,088
3,208
24

55
57
30

2,823, 900
3,693, 600
' 622', 500

822
855
176

1
17
21
5
15
7
6
7
8
10

100, 000
900', 400
1,424,000
' 169,000
611, 000
344, 000
387, 000
80, 800
325,000
339,500

52
302
461
77
159
152
108
31
103
105

7
11
1

184, 750
387,200
10,000

81
136
4

11,879,000
5,431, 000
62,000
50, 000
1,164,000
554,100
6, 796; 800
8,349; 800
' 197', 600
82, 000
367,478,406
355, 957, 616

4,000

1

107
57
40
71

729, 600
375', 100
423; 500
625, 500

214
114
80
142

1
6
2

6,500
48,000
13,000

2
9
3

20
35

152,250
247,850

40
70

2
5
6

10, 500
46, 500
74,500

2
7
10

1

5,000

2

33
39
34
12
5
5

55,100
155,300
298 500
104, 500
29,000
30,300

66
78
68
24
10
10

1
2

6,000
30,000

1
2

6
4
2

119,000
50,500
10,700

10
6
2

60
44
41
79
15
25

575,800
379 700
589,500
891,' 300
128; 400
223,000

120
88
82
158
30
50

2
4

9,000
30,500

2
5

13
11

98, 500
100,000

14
15

93
42
1
2
72
37
76
82
8
5

12,048
11,618

102, 929,851
98,141,450

24,096
23,236

2,056
1,501

21,117,089
16,207,139

3,342
2,475

6,888
6,515

22
20
18
9
1
4

460, 700
488, 640
1,251,000
630,000
100,000
163,200

101
144
421
98
40
12

1

41,000

30

5
3

147, 900
107, 500

47
56

2

O
u0
<

Springfield, M ass.

566
324
674
654
1,105
838
716
416
302
264
870
788
1,536
1,238
1,883
1,586
30
90
1,981
1,690
4
369
282
261
246
346
533
536
409
437
643
799
235
203
309
422
192
110
2,021
1,069
181
183
320
273
245
286
472
520

3

4
6

192, 000
245, 000

41
45

1
6
7

3, 500
157,000
120,150

3
22
28

1
1
1

4,500
15,000
15,000

3
3
11

2,779
1,347
20
12
282
141
1,150
1,551
39
21

12
3

1,502,000
532, 000

332
151

1

18,000

5

11
2
2
2

1,804,000
' 2 7 5 ;0 0 0
50, 000
58,000

203
53
12
16

95,013
88, 916

550
707

31, 264,464
39,384, 233

6, 297
8,155

BUILDING PERM ITS IN REPRESENTATIVE CITIES

Salt Lake City, U tah..

1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
192,7
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927

CO

co

T a ble 6 . —N U M B E R A N D E ST IM A T E D COST OF B U IL D IN G S (N E W C O N ST R U C TIO N , A N D R E PA IR S, A L T E R A T IO N S, A N D A D D IT IO N S TO O L D

B U IL D IN G S) C O V ERED BY P E R M IT S ISSU E D IN T H E FIR ST H A LF OF 1926 A N D OF 1927, BY IN T E N D E D USE OF B U IL D IN G S —Continued
PA R T 1.—NEW R E SID E N T IA L B U IL D IN G S —Continued

C ity and State

Atlanta, Ga_____
Baltimore, M d........

[816 ]

Birmingham, A la ,..
Boston, M ass____
Bridgeport, C o n n ... .
Buffalo, N , Y ___
Cambridge, M ass..........
Camden, N . J_............
Canton, Ohio___
Chicago, 111..........
Cincinnati, Ohio—. .
Cleveland, Ohio..
Columbus, Ohio........
Dallas, T ex___
D ayton, O h io ..............

Denver, Colo..................

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927

Population of city
Total
families
provided
for

1,062
1,441
403
269
1,108
1,346
3,073
2,224
1,844
1,825
2,062
2,525
'117
284
1,775
1,837
423
423
388
315
389
293
20,321
23, 729
1,352
1,723
2,834
1,960
1,685
1,296
2,167
574
406
784
1,567
888

Census of
1920

208,435
113,344
200,616
733,826
178,806
748,060
143, 535
506, 775
109,694
116, 309
87,091
2,701, 705
401,247
796,841
237,031
158,976
152,559
256,491

Census
estimate
for year
specified
0)
(i)
119,000
119, 500
C1)'
(0
808,000
819,000
211,000
215,400
787,000
793j 100
0)
(i)
544,000
550,000
122,000
123,900
131,000
133,100
110,000
113,300
3,048,000
3,100, 500
411, 000
412, 200
960,000
984, 500
285,000
291,100
200, 000
208, 600
177,000
180,400
285,000
298,800

Ratio of families pro­
vided for to each
10,000 of popula­
tion based on—
Census of
1920

51.0
69.1
35.6
23. 7
55.2
67.1
41. 9
30.3
103.1
102.1
27.6
33.8
8. 2
19.8
35.0
36.2
38.6
38.6
33.4
27.1
44.7
33.6
75.2
87.8
33. 7
42.9
35.6
24.6
71.1
54.6
136.3
36.1
26.6
51.4
61.1
34.6

Census
estimate
for year
specified

Total new residential
dwellings

Nonhousekeeping dwellings „

Hotels
N um ­
ber
1

Cost

Lodging houses
N um ­
ber

Cost

Other
Num ­
ber

Cost

$862,972

33. 9
22. 5

1

$300,000

38.0
27. 2
87.4
84. 7
26. 2
31. 8

2
1
2
1
4
3

650 000
2.5 000
18, 000
93, 750
955,000
1, 575,000

1

300,000

32. 6
33.4
34. 7
34.1
29. 6
23. 7
35.4
25.9
66.7
76. 5
32. 9
41.8
29. 5
19.9
59.1
44.5
108.4
27.5
22.9
43.5
55.0
30.6

3

1,605, 750

3

1,458,000

20
22

5, 905,000
3, 532,000

1

$150,000

2
1

266,000
175; 000

1

30,000

1

1
4

Number

Cost

1 045
1*253
’ 236

6 937 090
4,401 9.50

814
881

3 161 097
3, 509 460

1’ 572
1’ 300

5* 788*845

MONTHLY

Akron, Ohio____
Albany, N . Y ___

First
half
of
each
year

O
O

91
105

20,000
3, 540,000

2
1

150 000
60’, 000

i

16, ÒÒÒ

120,000

72
117
373
263
386
249
6,126
’ 954
1,046
1 731
1 210
1 378
’ 898
1 258
458
322
507
846
734

1*780’ 800
1\ 544’ 500
1,225 350
lj 816*275
1 141 .500
118,420; 250
138 646 400
Ì 627’ 300
9* 751 133
14 9 9 7 ’ 500
9,604 100
7 588 350
o’ 471 *500
6 512 495
1,367, 046
2,206, 527
2,648, 507
5,092, 500
3, 767, 300

3

[817]


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

23.1
14.5
151.7
92.9
28.1
17.3
19.3
6.1
11.3
13.4
69.2
189.0
117.0
170.1
49.8
44.7
102.2
49.2
149.2
183.7
41.0
39.1
49.4
29.1
40.1
21.4
71.0
67.4
177. 9
184.5
73.4
35.5
6.4
3.8
37.1
23.2
86.2
69.7
37.8
47.1
44.0
32.3
29.4
30.6
37.7
62.9
7.8
5.0
25.5
18.9

20.0
12.4
116.9
69.2
24.6
14. 9
13.8
4.1
10.4
12.1
46.3
121.3
78.4
110. 7
44.0
38.8
86.0
40.3
125.1
35.1
32. 8
46.3
26. 9
34.7
18.5
61.4
57.1

10
6
1

8,605, 700
1,243, 240
' 105,000

1

1,350,000

4

4,649,336

1

160,000

5
1
13
11

510,000
20,000
2,516,600
1,485,000

2
4
2
2

825,000
3,380, 000
67,000
535, 000

1

500,000

1
7

1

13,000

56

704,141

1
2

2,500
62,000

330, 000
3,406', 300

1,160

1

62,000

1

286,000

1

200,000

2
2
2
4

140, 000
200', 000
55,000
324,000

1

40,000

55. 5
26.0
6.5
35.4
21.9
79. 0
63.3
33.4
40.1
38. 6
27. 8
25. 4
26.3
34.1
55. 9
7.9
22. 7
16.6
1 July, 1925, estimate.

252
171
8,406
4,691
276
170
53
30
93
116
630
1,650

* State census Jan. 1, 1925,

1,398
664
604
354
198
1,527
1,901
946
938
258
126
395
217
1, 278
736
5, 998
5,216
1, 327
672
60
40
162
98
880
673
1, 230
1,161
1,344
860
311
286
604
516
78
54
116
89

1.010.850
799,690
70,115,423
42,561,192
1,442, 919
818,414
281,173
160,665
559,850
763,939
2,490,021
6,364,666
6,529,384
7,312,680
2,990,275
2,467, 750
4,951,342
3.366.614
12,667,495
8,255,363
5.445.615
5,058,449
5, 593, 500
3,209,500
1,001,725
425.200
7,352, 550
5,877,700
35,048,130
33,322,838
8,453,950
5,099,550
254,300
173, 700
1,439, 250
902.200
4,741,610
3,479,300
9, 720, 756
13,216,135
7,006, 575
5, 689, 220
934, 250
1, 533,350
9,868, 528
13.916.850
566, 000
365, 700
1,746,176
1, 110, 000

BUILD IN G PEEM ITS IN EEPBESENTATIVE CITIES

292
126, 468
146,000
1926
148, 900
1927
184
993, 678
1, 290,000
15,076
1926
1927
9,236
1,334, 500
98, 917
278
113,000
Duluth, M inn................ 1926
171
1927
114, 700
150
77,560
109,000
El Paso, Tex_________
1926
47
1927
113,500
120,485
131,000
136
1926
Fall River, M ass_____
1927
161
132,600
91,599
634
137,000
-.1926
1927
1,731
142, 700
106,482
159,000
1926
1,246
Fort Worth, Tex_____
1927
1,811
163,6u0
137,634
686
156,000
Grand Rapids, M ic h ... 1926
158, 700
1927
615
138,036
1,411
164,000
Hartford, C onn_______ 1926
679
168,300
1927
138,276
2 164, 954
1926
2,063
Houston, T ex________
1927
2,540
0)
314,194
Indianapolis, Ind -----1,288
367,000
1926
374,300
1,228
1927
1,473
298,103
318,000
1926
Jersey City, N . J_____
866
321, 500
1927
101,177
117,000
Kansas City, Kans____ 1926
406
217
117, 500
1927
324,410
2,302
375,000
Kansas City, M o_____
1926
383,100
1927
2,187
Los Angeles, Calif____
10, 257
576, 673
1926
0)
1927
10,637
(>)
234,891
311,000
1, 725
Louisville, K y ................ 1926
320,100
833
1927
72
112,759
3 110,296
1926
Lowell, M a ss...............
43
1927
0)
104,000
99,148
Lynn, M a ss ............. .... 1926
368
104,800
230
1927
162, 351
177,000
Memphis, Tenn______
1926
1,399
1,132
178, 900
1927
457,147
517, 000
1926
1,726
531,100
1927
2Î153
380, 582
434,000
1,676
Minneapolis, M in n ___ 1926
441, 700
1,229
1927
118,342
137, 000
348
Nashville, Tenn______
1926
362
137, 800
1927
414, 524
459,000
Newark, N . J ________
1926
1,563
466,300
1927
2,607
New Bedford, Mass___ 1926
95
121,217
3 119, 539
1927
61
(')
414
162,537
182, 000
New Haven, Conn____ 1926
184,900
1927
307
1 N ot estimated by Census Bureau.

Des Moines, Iow a.........
Detroit, M ich________

T a b l e 6 .—N U M B E R A N D E ST IM A T E D COST OF B U IL D IN G S (N EW C O N ST R U C TIO N , A N D R E PA IR S, A L T E R A T IO N S, A N D A D D IT IO N S TO OLD

B U IL D IN G S) C O V E R E D B Y PE R M IT S ISSU E D IN T H E F IR ST H A L F OF 1926 A N D OF 1927, B Y IN T E N D E D USE OF B U IL D IN G S —Continued
P A R T 1.—NEW R E SID E N T IA L B U IL D IN G S—Continued

First
half
of
each
year

C ity and State

New Orleans, La_____
New York, N . Y.:
The Bronx_______
Brooklyn_________

[818]

Manhattan- ____ Queens___________
Richmond______
Norfolk, Va__________
Oakland, Calif_______
Oklahoma City, Okla.Omaha, Nebr________
Paterson, N . J ..............
Philadelphia, P a______
Pittsburgh, Pa____

__

Portland, Oreg_______
Providence, R. I - - . .
Reading, Pa_______ -Richmond, V a----------


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1920
1027

Population of city
Total
families
provided
for
Census of
1920

1, 042
958

387, 219

22, 754
18,415
23, 282
18, Oil
5,274
/
4, 312 ■ 5, 620, 048 \
15,855
17, 566
779
899
251
115, 777
312
2,642
216,261
1,521
586
91,295
896
481
191, 601
284
495
135,875
785
6,837
1,823,779
7,077
1,395
588,343
1,425
2,901
258, 288
2,075
557
237, 595
698
203
107, 784
131
794
171, 567
739

Census
estimate
for year
specified
419,000
424, 400

5, 924, 000
5,970,800

174, 000
179, 200
261, 000
267, 300
4 104, 080
0)
215,400
219, 200
143, 000
143, 800
2, 008, 000
2, 035, 900
637, 000
642, 700
2 282,383
(l)
275, 000
280, 600
114, 000
114, 500
189, 000
191,800

Ratio of families pro­
vided for to each
10,000 of popula­
tion based on—
Hotels
N um ­
ber

26. 9
24.7

24.9
22. 6

1
1

114.7
99.2

1
2
1

35,000
313, 000
125; 000

120. 9
105.3

21.7
26.9
122. 2
70.3
64.2
98.1
25.1
14.8
36.4
57.8
37.5
38.8
23.7
24.2
112.3
80.3
23.4
29.4
18.8
12.2
46.3
43.1

14.4
17.4
101.2
56.9
56.3
22.3
13.0
34.6
54.6
34.0
34.8
21.9
22.2
102.7
20.3
24.9
17.8
11.4
42.0
38.5

Other

Lodging houses

Census
estimate
for year
specified

Cost

N um ­
ber

Cost

Nujnber

Cost

Number

Cost

$20, 000
631', 304

646
587

$2,871, 793
3; 58b 285

1

20,000

2
1
19
8
2
3

1, 950,000
170, 000
35,293,000
9, 206,000
161,000
227,500

2,543
2,089
6, 041
5,413
149
103
8,844
8, 440
724
818
187
181
2,004
1,057
505
662
469
205
276
250
5, 559
4, 988
1,074
b 098
1, 975
1,486
382
414
199
112
604
394

96,073, 200
80,359, 300
102,492,250
84; 333; 300
78,145, 500
4 3 ; 6 8 2 ; 000
74, 588, 4 5 0
79; 367, 850
3; 478, 640
4,116,779
889, 650
1,141, 975
8, 642, 215
4, 962, 807
1,942,283
3, 066, 960
2,375, 825
L 2 1 7 ; 720
2, 095, 940
2, 302,116
32,140, 225
31, 696, 885
10,338, 825
8; 516; 306
11,474,175
9,139, 760
4,976, 500
4,119,100
1, 0 9 2 ; 800
1, 111,000
4, 619, 102
2, 944; 978

3

$7,900

19
13

$7,165, 500
2', 232; 000

2

400, 000

2

330, 000

2

2

635, 000

2
1
1
2

855, 000
240,000
35, 000
550; 000

1

110, 000

to

Total new residential
dwellings

Nonhousekeeping dwellings

Census of
1920

O

132,000

1

2, 500

2
5
4

197, 000
85, 600
422, 300

1

550, 000

1
1

287, 000
l, ooo; 0 0 0

tel

3

Rochester, N . Y .........
St. Louis, M o_______
St. Paul, M inn...........
Salt Lake City, Utah.
San Antonio, Tex----San Diego, C alif____
San Francisco, Calif—
Scranton, Pa...............
Seattle, W ash..............
Somerville, Mass.......
Spokane, Wash_____
Springfield, M ass----Syracuse, N . Y _____
oo Tacoma, Wash...........
M.
3 Tampa, F la ..........
Toledo, Ohio...............
Trenton, N . J—..........
Tulsa, O kla.................
Utica, N . Y .................
Washington, D . C—
W ilmington, D el........
Worcester, M ass____
Yonkers, N . Y ______
Youngstown, Ohio—.
Total (78 cities)..
(80 cities).

1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1936
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927

1,178
1, 376
5, 374
2. 709
1,366
601
546
548
1. 136
975
1,728
1,531
4,348
5,177
68
150
2, 803
2, 545
264
369
335
780
823
553
882
688
517
473
815
1,012
235
208
459
648
266
134
5,152
2,583
203
195
729
507
1,680
2,048
567
622

1926
1927

207, 231
187,970

295, 750
772, 897
234,698
118,110
161,379
74, 683
508,676
137, 783
315.312
93, 091
104,437
129, 614
171. 717
96, 965
51, 608
243,164
119. 289
72, 075
94, 156
437,571
110,168
179, 754
100,176
132,358

28. 314,695 « 31, 577,223
28. 459,394 4 32, 280, 223

1 N ot estimated by Census Bureau.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

321, 000
324, 500
830, 000
839, 200
248, 000
250,100
133, 000
135, 700
205, 000
211,400
110. 000
115, 300
567, 000
576, 000
143, 000
143, 900
0)
(>)
101, 600
109, 000
109, 000
145, 000
147, 400
184, 000
197. 000
106, 000
107, 200
107, 800
294, 000
304. 000
134, 000
136, 700
133, 000
150, 000
103. 000
103, 400
528, 000
540, 000
124, 000
126, 400
193, 000
195, 500
116, 000
118, 800
165, 000
169, 400

•

39.8
46.5
69.5
35.0
58.2
25.6
46.2
46.4
70.4
60.4
231.4
205.0
85.5
101.8
4.9
10.9
88.9
80.7
28.4
35.3
32.1
60.2
63.5
32.2
51.4
71.0
53.3
91.7
33.5
41.6
19.7
17.4
63.7
89.9
28.3
14.2
117.7
59.0
18.4
17.7
40.6
28.2
167.7
204.4
42.8
47.0

36.7
42.4
64.7
32.3
55.1
24.0
41. 1
40.4
55.4
46. 1
157.1
132.8
76.7
89.9
4.8
10.4

73.2
66.0

65.6
58.2

26. 0
33.9
30.7
53.8
55.8
30. 1
44.8
64.9
48.2
43.9
27.7
33.3
17.5
15.2
34.5
43.2
25.8
13.0
97.6
47.8
16.4
15.4
37.8
25.9
144.8
172. 4
34.4
36.7

'■July, 1925, estimate.

4
1
1
2

-----------------!..............
1,383, 000
400,000
480. 000
240, 000

2
2
1

1, 000, 000
1,400. 000
356,000

5
6

405, 000
745, 000

3
2

570, 000
750, 000

1
1

250, 000
42,000

1

40,000

2

135.000

2
2

450. 000
1,350, 000

1
1

1
2

2
1

215, 000
36,000

5
1

829, 500
6, 600

1

30, 000

1

14,000

1

15.000

1

6,000

2

595,000

25, 000
800

4, 000
27, 800

141
125
184
186
455
359
374
450
510
564

5,582,878
5.734.270
14,446, 598
8, 718, 675
5,880,340
3, 231,912
I . 512, 650
2,004, 010
3, 806,887
4,167,993
5,684,087
4, 707,509
15, 845, 818
17,955,439
357,200
641,850
10, 005,885
10,275,700
1.044.270
1,213,269
1,117,700
2,817, 530
2,911. 800
3,116,350
5,112,400
1,721, 075
1,494,670
1, 079, 955
3,350,389
4,092,275
1,069, 894
1.240, 700
1, 929,842
2, 785,185
1,533, 500
800,700
27,557,9)0
14,167, 830
1,180, 579
1,308,447
3,368,935
2, 959.190
II, 784. 400
12, 278,285
2, 906, 800
3,300, 700

100, 218
85,731

985,130, 718
871,600, 524

772
744
864
294
807
453
318
297
905
826
615
352
233
979
45
119
040
750
76
369
284
387
325
402
628
545
415
448
683
857
235
205
352
478
229
122

1

100, 000

1

400,000

119
88

72, 661,358
28.178,044

9
62

329,400
807, 741

4 July, 1924, estimate.

1

41, 122

1
1

300, 000
90, 000

65
52

14,420, 800
13,307,372

5 See notes to details.

O

CO

T a b l e 6 .— N U M B E R A N D E ST IM A T E D COST OP B U IL D IN G S (N E W C O N ST R U C TIO N , A N D R E PA IR S, A L T E R A TIO N S A N D A D D IT IO N S TO OLD

B U IL D IN G S) C O V E R E D B Y P E R M IT S ISSU E D IN T H E FIR ST H A L F OF 1926 A N D 1927, B Y IN T E N D E D USE OF B U IL D IN G S —Continued

o

P A R T 3 .—NEW N O N R E SID E N T IA L B U IL D IN G S

City and state

Akron, O h io ............
Albany, N . Y __..........
Atlanta, Ga______
Baltimore, M d ____
Birmingham, Ala____

Bridgeport, C onn. .
Buffalo, N . Y „

.

Cambridge, M ass__
Camden, N . J _____
Canton, Ohio____
Chicago, 111 _____
Cincinnati, Ohio._
Cleveland, O h io ...
Columbus, O hio...
Dallas, T ex.................
Dayton, Ohio ..........
Denver, C o lo ..............
D es Moines, Iow a........


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927

2

$18,350

3
3
6
6

110,000
50, 500
90, 500
81,000

2
33
3
1
1
1
6
3

19,265
631, 226
220,000
50,000
6,000
33,000
693,000
242, 500

1
2

75,000
48,000

1
300,000
1
150, 000
16 10,370, 000
7 1,460, 000
2 1,575,000
6
8
4
3
3
3

590, 000
1, 035,000
275,000
1,960,000
120,000
17,000

1
5
5
3
1

200,000
138,000
577, 000
1,464, 000
2,000

6
6

$176 500
200,171

1
4
7
4
8
11
12
3
3
1

350,000
99, 000
231,850
275,000
382,000
177, 500
201,750
275,000
77, 000
30,000

5
6

289,800
480,000

1
3
1
3
2
11
12
6
2
6
3
2
1
16
6
2

40, 000
87, 000
14, 000
100,000
14,000
771, 500
1,087,000
63,500
122, 000
436; 500
120,000
87,000
5,000
278, 750
135,400
146,000

4
2

68, 500
32,000

5

ÍÓ4,9ÒÒ 1

Factories,
shops, etc.
N um ­
ber
11
15
8
1
3
2
22
8
18
23
20
8
4
4
31
427
10
27
20
11
8
154
147
12
13
29
31
14
6
8
2
8
23
13
8
1

Cost

$343,600
40,600
498,000
100,000
160,000
145,000
275,500
428,000
316, 243
120, 750
367,400
253, 800
22,140
90, 500
1,120,050
1, 571, 820
236,400
726, 500
608, 200
318, 200
85, 530
102, 450
6,107,400
5,471, 800
424, 500
465,000
1, 256,000
785, 500
223,400
46, 500
57,600
33, 700
280,122
540,650
227,800
60, 500
5,000

Garages (public)

Garages (private)

Gasoline and
service stations

N um ­
ber

N um ­
ber

N um ­
ber

Cost

7
$222, 700
5
14, 500
6
453, 500
3
74,100
3
135,000
5
147, 000
8
137, 000
15
135, 360
23 2,702, 000
8
522,000
4
84,800
8
98, 700
15
111, 250
66
116, 540
3
106, 000
9
172,180
4
32, 500
2
37, 000
2
12, 000
12
61,800
127 3,360, 800
115 5,609,400
16
185, 000
9
338, 500
24
414, 500
11
671, 500
1
7,000
11
518,000
12
272, 200
6
103, 900
13
251, 700
10
66,280
10
95,000
9
198, 500
4
12,100
5
17, 215

1,048
202
184
194
182
1,671
1,731
130
270
662
510
221
245
1,380
1,312
87
83
348
226
399
313
3, 297
4,442
847
788
2,793
2,268
1,409
1,330
50
101

584
634
462
400
311
206

Cost

$602,816
324, 601
175,863
211, 900
21, 232
18,827
974,090
871,100
17, 515
42, 719
596,131
387,955
110, 263
92,316
506, 671
547, 034
65, 715
72, 745
110,405
102, 690
217,107
67, 981
1, 521,110
1,678,650
320,375
355,360
669, 600
533, 900
433, 550
388, 500
19, 440
24,183
300,974
330, 998
232, 650
188, 600
49, 230
34,001

Cost

22
28
19
22
20
18
22
11
17
29
29
8
3
1
78
87
3
6
5
8

$40, 500
56,509
16, 700
59, 200
57, 350
57, 825
88, 500
53, 000
115, 500
136, 875
84, 300
41,150
106, 300
31,120
361, 050
88, 715
15, 000
25, 500
28, 200
42,100

13
88
137
20
15
25
71
11
27
32
23
2
15
12
20
12
9

17, 850
324, 500
502, 300
61, 940
24, 735
16, 900
120, 900
21, 100
63,400
122, 750
58, 800
7,400
98, 400
77, 500
68,500
25, 900
26, 950

Institutions

N um ­
ber

Cost

Office buildings

N um ­
ber

Cost

79
5

$2. 816, 785
5,002,500

1

$240,000

4

1,465,000

4
1
4
3
2
4

1,150,000
100,000
123, 500
674, 812
1,020,000
899,000

3
2
2
11
14
4
2
3

95,000
10,000
494,000
57, 562
2,496, 250
2,021,000
8, 500
9,700

1

37,477

2
1

85,000
230, 000

2

315,000

2
1

370, 595
112, 000

3
2
5

302, 500
130,000
168, 200

7
11
2

1,438,000
2,401, 900
1, 200,000

50
40

13,696,800
27,383,300
48, 500
486, 000
45,000
630, 000
575, 000
549,025
331,285

4

21,000

6
14
2
3
3
16
12

2

137,400

2
2

45,000
107,000

1

111,000

F
K¡
LABOR REVIEW

[ 820 ]

Boston, M ass. ____

Amusement and
Churches
First recreation places
half of
each
year N um ­
N um ­
Cost
Cost
ber
ber

Duluth, M inn...............

1926
1927
1926

Fall River, M ass..........
Flint, M ic h ..................
Fort Worth, T ex_____
Grand Rapids, M ic h ..
Hartford, C o n n ...........
Houston, T ex..... ...........
Indianapolis, Ind_____
Jersey City, N . J ..........
Kansas City, K ans----

[821]

Kansas City, M o..........
Los Angeles, Calif........
Louisville, K y...............
Lowell, M ass...... ..........
Lynn, M ass--------------

1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927

Memphis, Tenn...........

1927
1926
1927
1926
Minneapolis, M inn—
1927
Nashville, Tenn______ 1926
1927
1926
Newark, N . J-----------1927
New Bedford, M a ss.— 1926
1927
New Haven, Conn----- 1926

Milwaukee, W is_____

N ew Orleans, L a..........


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1926
1927

818, 600
8,393, 500

2

23,000

1
i

8, 000
2,000

2
6
1
18

250
510, 000
1,350, 000
114,312

1

26,000

2
4
7
4

778, 000
103, 700
2, 450, 921
370,000

2
4
25
24
3
2

64,000
42,125
2,494, 950
1, 931, 425
190, .500
31, 750

2
1
1
1
2
6

9,350
150, 000
14 300
15,600
225, 000
2,202^ 167

3

1,171,000

4
2
1

214,000
380,000
15,000

1
5

1, 500
1,374' 000

5
6

85' 950
169,066

10
20
1
2
1
1

384,000
1,031, 600
10, 000
14, 500
40 000
3^000

2
5
4
3
10
3
1
1
1
7
14
8
9

188,000
70, 320
90, 250
51,000
102, 615
150, 200
84,000
35, 000
109,538
188,930
133, 050
693,250
298,265

4
3
2
4
18
27
4
8

13, 500
31,000
125,000
118,000
398,860
944,025
302,000
96,250

1
1
3
4

12,000
50, 000
128, 400
152; 750

2
4
5
3
6
4
2

58, 000
143, 600
326, 500
70,000
131,000
158, 000
172,000

1
3
2

32, 000
72, 500
7,850

79
70
6

2,998,158
5, 235,862
114,100

57
50
4

1,945,358
1, 094, 950
33, 000

1

7, 000

1

3,500

10
10
1
8
71
75
11
7
29
5
15
6
12
5
18
21

14, 650
13,475
4,000
12,443
297,167
430,165
79,800
19,500
116,145
30,300
239, 500
345, 500
50,975
45,985
112, 550
168,229

3
9
90
73
48
27
4
1
4
9

38,500
101, 000
1,100, 778
1, 371, 729
525, 352
211,225
13, 050
2,500
41,200
44, 300

5
6
14
17
15
4
6
17
130
7
3
6

230,100
295, 000
583, 000
199, 995
120, 925
254,000
33,800
505, 000
419,740
61,500
20,000
164, 000,

9
6

51,250
60, 529

2
24,900
2
495,445
13
35 2,064, 218
1
44,000
78, 914
6
98, 000
5
3
134,800
82,800
3
104, 685
6
375,420
16
814, 250
24
9
246, 400
522, 754
30
139, 077
12
239, 595
13
2
33, 500
68, 000
2
9
316, 500
392, 250
22
97 1,181, 670
132 1,663,437
168, 000
9
11
601, 000
4
6
4
4
13
14
9
6
9
1
39
35
7
2
1
4
8
5

29,200
121,975
362,050
206,700
496, 600
144, 400
210,050
51, 400
482, 610
57, 500
756,763
1,206, 507
175,000
5,000
12, 500
56,200
7L 800
146, 747

7,939 2,290,477
5,818 1, 582, 804
48, 820
213
44,995
194
5,400
36
15, 000
100
41,745
110
41,175
100
189, 839
640
283, 894
948
112
41,477
49,316
314
258,760
898
238, 290
822
282, 851
369
255, 060
305
13, 905
14
47, 255
87
439, 106
1,492
368, 257
1, 557
143, 848
205
184, 415
225
33,863
198
6,500
61
68, 650
288
74, 775
300
5,159 1,277, 579
4,984 1,204,499
78, 350
250
71,425
252
26, 385
96
22,015
95
62,435
178
56,010
151
276, 500
680
128,180
465
858,919
1,531
723,816
1,837
354, 910
1,426
291,150
1,248
9,965
97
6,825
61
719, 622
702
700, 392
523
98, 350
101
97
80, 550
182
158,250
187
130, 600
57, 660
26
48, 500
35

91
136
8
5

219,900
342,956
62,000
6,100

1
1
4
4
8
10
21
15
17
1
2
21
20
18
13
2

500
3, 500
6, 890
52,125
23,445
5,896
73, 500
39, 500
50,050
8,860
50,400
219, 303
47,015
36,350
46,700
17,500

7
2
20
39
191
175
8
12
1
6
4

11,300
3,000
62,000
89,050
171, 507
152,441
54,000
43, 500
9,200
23, 500
18,200

4
10
29
35
26
48
11
6
7
6
12
11
9
11
30
19

17, 550
58, 500
60,400
77, 575
66,900
95,100
36,450
11, 400
198, 750
18,000
42. 000
28, 750
63, 000
27, 000
112, 450
89,294

1

17
18

3,068, 000
2,920,340

1

75,000

3

57, 896
497,600

7,000

11

2
2

62,162
26,500

1
3
1
5
1
2

260, 000
470, 000
75,000
859, 500
6,000
412,000

1 1, 000,000

3 59,500
9 216,650
3 299,809
1
3,000
10

7
4

79,500
376,383

2

1,900,000

2
1
1

332,800
26,000
300,000

1

140,000

1
1
1

715,000
31,000
164,823

6,000

6

141, 000
164,200

52
42
4
2

837,426
507,205
990,908
2, 750, 000

3

53,850

6

2
8

323, 600
94, 797

2
36,400
4 291,200
6
461,200
10 177,800
7
616,350
10 1,050,300
35
22
2

3,424, 576
2,290,800
170,000

5
2
6
4

436,000
490,000
1, 673, 442
1, 686, 763

BUILDING PERM ITS IN REPRESENTATIVE CITIES

63952°— 27 ------ 8

El Paso, T e x ................

8
10

00
8o

Detroit, M ich...... .........

0
01

TABtE B U IL D IN G S ? C O V E R E D B Y P E R M IT S
^ S T O U C T i O N , A N D R E PA IR S, A L T E R A TIO N S, A N D A D D IT IO N S TO OLD
x>uipaxu\iu&j l v e k r i i EX P E R M IT S ISSU E D IN T H E FIR ST H A L F OF 1926 A N D 1927, B Y IN T E N D E D USE OF B U IL D IN G S —Continued

City and state

New York, N . Y.:
The Bronx___
Brooklyn_______
M anhattan......... .
Queens................. .

Norfolk, Va....... ..........
Oakland, Calif.............
Oklahoma City, Okla

Philadelphia, Pa_____

Richmond, Va__..........
Rochester, N . Y . ..........


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2

2
1
5
1
1
3
6
3
3
4
6
5
4
2

5
5
4
6
1
2

60, 600
58, 500
275,000
81, 500
25, 000
27, 500

1
12
9
8
5
5
3
1
1

20,000
671, 550
645, 500
733,000
198,000
300, 000
100,000
200,000
12, 000

2
1
2
4
3

282, 500
52, 500
454,722
930,000
189,200

3
2
5
4
2

215,000
13,700
534,421 .
230, 236
75,000

6

13

18
9

710,125
698,700

N um ­
ber

51 $2,023, 000
207 3, 766, 930
84
963,100
82 3,191, 500
25 2,387,000
28 4,816, 300
41 1, 019, 300
36
785, 350
6
48, 800
4
33, 500
i
1, 500
3
79,000
6
79,850
6
172, 000
4
54,000
6
89, 000
1
1, 600
76
117, 575
56
28,925
43 1, 317, 000
45 1,842, 760
6
470, 000
9
37,850
47 1,024, 300
39 1,401, 700
65
207,800
14
138,500
6
36, 600
12
85,850
4
38,500
8
63,100
8
365, 700
48,500
5

Cost

518
$438, 679
408
174, 500
2,780 1,899, 700
2,650 1, 399, 915
85
23, 850
149
34,700
2,997 1, 304, 000
3,604 1, 355, 128
334
103, 758
413
113, 622
208
33, 010
248
48, 418
1,606
473; 340
1,063
372, 779
445
138, 684
569
100,800
136
340, 953
121
30,185
175
167, 386
145
141, 990
900 2, 616,235
793
789, 750
901
559, 381
946
618,037
2,049
346,115
1, 725
276,925
440
481,000
405
343,115
212
164,025
195
136, 925
203
108,748
209
73,122
1,075
468,940
1,054
387,739

13
12
20
37
7
7
13
46
7
4
6
2
29
17
9
1
19
18
8
7

Cost

$19, 460
64,200
25, 000
162, 525
234, 050
5,750
102, 440
117, 347
15,500
13, 500
13, 714
5, 250
61, 300
31, 450
18, 000
8,000
65,300
33, 900
82,525
39,775

9
15
20
22
15
23
2
4

68,000
85,000
180,000
111, 900
79,900
32,000
9,800

19
30

44,750
83,350

N um ­
ber

Cost

1
2
4
3
1
1

$75, 000
1, 300, 000
1,850, 000
1, 920, 000
200,000
148, 000

2
2

225, 000
433, 500

1

3
3
8

34,100
382, 000
2, 360, 500

1
2
1
1

1, 650, 000
42, 000
6,000
50, 000

1

10,288

cC

Reading, Pa...................

27
30

84,414
78, 800
29,250
9,000
696, 000
55, 000
2, 000
23, 500
746, 000
652, 600
168,400
64, 000
652,000
1,383,440
2,760, 600
639,000

!, 963, 500
, 661, 850
:, 770,300
:, 341, 400
536, 000
258, 000
707, 000
945,000
163, 000
35.000
51.000
17, 500
178, 080
317, 600
58, 550
123, 900
47, 500
104, 500
58, 900
35, 000
726,925
241, 575
835,250
397,850
97, 000
411, 650
207, 300
58.000
400, 400
83, 600
722,667

N um ­
ber

Cost

Institutions

cc

Providence, R. I _____

71
48
92
113
33
24
50
45
26
3
3

N um ­
ber

<N

Portland, Oreg.............

$825, 000
670, 000
1,348, 000
510, 000
830, 000
2,800, 000
846,-500
2, 376, 500
26, 000
86, 000
34,000

Gasoline and
service stations

OC

Pittsburgh, Pa............ .

4

7
9
18
8
3
2
18
12
2
4
1

Cost

Garages (private)

O
O
O

Paterson, N .J ............. .

24 $2, 949,250
26 7,945, 500
20 3, 651, 000
27 6, 783, 000
18 5, 240,000
20 6, 756, 000
15 2, 101, 750
25 4,193, 800
12
202, 000
2
9, 500
2
9,500

N um ­
ber

Garages (public)

S

Omaha, N ebr.............. .

1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927

Factories,
shops, etc.

Office buildings

N um ­
ber

7
19
15
23
39
47
29
15
7
1

$286, 300
529, 800
4, 084, 000
4, 508, 500
17, 909, 200
51,370, 500
966, 600
1, 393, 500
77, 620
2,000

1
4
2
3
2
4
3

400, 000
515, 600
130, 000
742, 500
302, 000
160, 500
230,125

29
24
6

195, ÖÖ0

4 759* 875
485,* non
1,230, 000
659,000
1,779, 600
419, 800
3, 704, 200
902, 500

4
4
7

13
12
6
5
2

2

Cost

2

1

46, 350
1,108,250
830,000

LABOR REVIEW

[822 ]

Richmond.............

Amusement and
Churches
First recreation places
half of
each
year N um ­
N um ­
Cost
Cost
ber
ber

O
05

P A R T 3 .—N E W N O N R E S ID E N T IA L B U IL D IN G S -C on tin u ed

Salt Lake City, U ta h ..
San Antonio, Tex..........

San Francisco, C a lif...
Scranton, Pa__.............
Seattle, W ash.................
Somerville, M ass_____
Spokane, W ash_______
Springfield, M ass..........
Syracuse, N . Y _ _..........
Tacoma, W a sh .............

[823]

Tampa, F la ........ ..........
Toledo, O h io ................
Trenton, N . J__............
Tulsa, Okla__................
Utica, N . Y__.............
Washington, D . C ____
Wilmington, D e l_____
Worcester, M a ss..........
Yonkers, N . Y ...........
Youngstown, Ohio___
Total (78 cities).
(80 cities).


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

34
47
i

275,350
138, 200
16,800

3
1
2

65, 800
600
625,000

10
11
3
5

511, 950
704, 500
90,300
522,000

1
5
3
1

1,496, 000
1, 680,000
' 190,000
60,000

2
1
2
1
2
2

730,000
30,000
914', 000
400,000
42,900
30,900

11

328,358

1

463,000

1926
1927

325 48, 689,729
409 60,474,640

4
5
4
1
2
1
10
6
10
6
3
4
3
2
3
1
1

142, 500
320,400
54,089
150,000
65,000
50' 000
99' 375
160j 600
143,000
37, 500
196^ 150
91,750
573,000
44j 000
21,200
50,000
75,000

48
30
5
1
3
4
8
9
9
15
39
26
2
4
31
34
3

1,173, 300
432, 950
313,200
1,320
15, 940
53; 500
618; 400
313; 020
145, 900
81,190
547; 300
654,100
65, 000
383, 300
289; 550
48L 875
198, 000

3
1

31,500
100,000

2

170,000

1
1
2
1
2

100,000
5 ; 000
19,000
18,000
58,000
150,000
12,100
111,000

5
2
6
9
7
17
5
7
27
20
21
21
10
8
3
5
5
6
3
5
10
11
3
11
5
9

30,000
37, 000
110, 000
77’, 600
230, 675
324, 500
1 2 4 ;0 0 0
100,400
523,476
772,746
231, 429
124,935
65, 900
23,800
19,700
76,000
148,000
956, 250
136, 500
647,425
270,105
29, 465
224,000
422, 800
44, 500
30,000

2

40,000

1
7
3

1
1
2

100, 000
9,000
66,684

3
4

116,000
269,500

3
3
3
i
i
i

252, 000
6,000
1, 025,000
25,000
l' 500
150,000

2
4
3
3
6
2
1

232,000
147,000
180i 000
400i000
405,000
9, 500
16,000

326 15,193,610
339 18,637,435

1,502 73,019,325
1,489 55,251,240

7
5
11
7
3
4
7
5
21
14
6
7

184, 500
135,000
96,420
37,440
46,000
114,000
184; 800
31,600
179,050
143, 400
109; 950
242,450

3
25
17
2
7
3
116

601, 800
305,200
120, 000
63,000
22,000
85,765

8
5
3
3
4
40
2
41
36
9
5
3
5
6
7
1
3
116
61
17
23
12
9

155,400
99,500
29,500
33, 500
16, 500
103, 381
13, 500
49, 030
44,765
50, 500
140, 500
12,100
21, 500
207, 438
707, 000
25, 000
20, 500
311,480
157, 230
245,200
352, 900
96, 000
62,000

1,663 27, 937,809
1, 580 33, 539,770

2,359
1,781
872
722
64
55
225
223
562
446
96
77
62
246
1,089
996
91
462
429
382
464
600
753
335
100
310
1,167
1,406
172
206
424
577
171
131
1,194
774
486
418
244
230
261
286
487
370

671,059
447, 805
197, 518
164,558
13,025
28,810
68; 382
59,961
112,133
90,045
81,132
39,910
96,530
147,367
136,155
197,425
80,405
5L 363
48; 740
110,810
260; 832
225,170
267,939
74,555
6,000
44,205
247. 863
335,126
124; 177
111, 020
160, 844
195,434
68, 900
49,925
353,665
227, 360
143,175
134, 566
115,590
118, 060
150, 005
194,701
91, 500
85,000

65, 769 27,743, 758
62,827 22,662,602

4
7
4
8
4
7
13
15
22
13
30
19
1
4

22,300
27,500
10,800
28,800
13,400
16,000
49; 225
62; 005
25,815
17,550
38; 084
20,755
10, 200
16,300

25
11
10
3
7
14
3
26

37, 500
29,250
8', 625
2,000
14,700
18; 600
¿600
37,300

7
10
17
16
2
14
14
13
10
5
10
11

12,000
4L 400
29,650
27,400
11,826
49, 350
60, 700
35,700
32,475
8,750
260,000
92, 500

3
5
12
6
8
10
12

28,000
14,000
26, 750
20,960
29,600
45, 000
57,000

1, 318 4,770, 230
1,663 4,563, 252

2
2
1

455,000
154,000
60,000

1
1
12

75,000
300,000
1,043,950

2
3

25,087
42, 399

I
1

100,000
160,000

7
8
2

1, 728,000
1, 596,000
46,800

8
2

793,900
25,300

3
20
11
7
2

452,000
162,100
1.120,800
8,370,000
50,000

1
26
14

30,000
1, 519,665
107,525

1

5,000

2
7

235,000
750,000

5
2

46,170
472,297

4
2

246, 752
362,000

1
1
3
1
1
1
2
1

40, 500
85,000
155, 568
11,000
250,000
10,000
660,000
95,918

1
1

500,000
162,000

6

2, 503, 200

5
3
1
1

372,871
146,169
121,889
101,000

7
10

887, 500
1,764,110

2
3
1
2
1
1

35, 250
252, 800
5,900
5,000
1,900, 000
150,000

1

90,000

79 14,277,980
100 18,405, 111

BUILDING PERM ITS IN REPRESENTATIVE CITIES

San Diego, C alif...........

1926
1827
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927

0

St. Paul, M inn_______

OO
b
O
0

St. Louis, M o ...............

534 87,882, 638
579 128,472, 870

O

T a b l e 6 .— N U M B E R A N D E ST IM A T E D COST OF B U IL D IN G S (N E W C O N ST R U C TIO N , A N D R EPA IR S. A L T E R A T IO N S, A N D A D D IT IO N S TO OLD B U IL D ­

ING S) COV ERED B Y P E R M IT S ISSU E D I N T H E FIR ST H A L F OF 1926 A N D OF 1927, B Y IN T E N D E D U SE OF B U IL D IN G S—Continued

City and State

Akron, Ohio_____
Albany, N . Y ___
Atlanta, G a .................
Baltimore, M d ____
Birmingham, A la___

[824]

Boston, Mass
Bridgeport, C onn_
Buffalo, N . Y . _
Cambridge, M ass.
Camden, N . J___
Canton, Ohio..............
Chicago, 111...........
Cincinnati, Ohio_____
Cleveland, O hio..........
Columbus, Ohio............
Dallas, Tex______
Dayton, Ohio................
Denver, Colo________
Des Moines, Iowa____


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Public works
Public buildings
and utilities
First
half of
each
year N um ­
Num ­
Cost
Cost
ber
ber
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927

1
2
2

$72,000
22,690
35,000

5
2
1
2

$77, 500
726,000
110,000
270,000
731,000
220,000
100,000
246, 506
75, 000
405,000

187,000

2
1
1

147, 500
150,000
80,000

5
2
1
6
1
3

2
1

593,198
250,000

4

1
2
13

80,000
8,083,000

19
21
5
1

1

300,000

2
2

716, 500
2,000

3
4

1

21,000
296, 800
1,032,000
9, 186,000
60,000
667,100
3,450

60,000

Schools, libra­
ries, etc.
N um ­
ber

Cost

2
2
3
1
3

$181,000
320,000
1,205,000
250,000
136, 606

3
2
3
1
5
7
2
1
4
8
7
1
1
1

730,000
950,000
192,267
6L 117
691,000
2,107, 984
350,000
70,000
810,000
2,437,449
53,803
60,000
26,000
39,000

21
12
1

12,268,000
3, 933,000
35,000

7
2

1, 787,000
' 925,000

2

1,010,000

2

143,250

4
2
1

817, 266
110,000
76,000

Stables and
barns

Sheds

N um ­
ber
11
12
6
9
95
135
105
2
50
18
152
155
10
9
50
50
7
7

Cost

$11,300
5,835
1,265
1,200
45,027
47,445
63,080
3,500
17,403
3,635
77,445
122,014
7, 774
5,950
5L 322
20,050

1, 525
1,650

24
20
263
196
45
46
804

3,030
3,210
540, 500
151,175
8,460
44’ 815
246, 750

46
55
66
92
31

30, 550
35; 800
47,950
75; 016
16,454

323
323
5
8

60,800
64,800
485
2,610 1

N um ­
ber

1
2
2
2
1

1
1

Cost

non
8 150
5,625
5,200

$4

5 ,0 0 0

1,500
900

1 0 0 0
1 0 ,2 0 0

1
4
1

5,000
1,800
1,800

1

200

1
1

Stores, ware­
houses, etc.
N um ­
ber

200
4 ,0 0 0

15,000
600

Cost

45

$611,545

5

161,500
184,800
5 378, 340
1,269,150
798,000
859,000
1 001, 502
983,225
1, 753, 600
li IO5 ' 317
48,115
47, 750
1, 906,115
419,725
219 300
10r| 700
157 425
578,000
199 950
62’ 450
9,435,160
6,939, 900
277, 600
202 300
2, 846, 950
2, 504, 000
984, 600
534,400
864, 775
881,892
38,900

17
86
87
35
45
90
119
100
63
19
10
34
12

15
10
6
5

1
2
2
1

O

GO

P A R T 2 .—NEW N O N R E S ID E N T IA L B U IL D IN G S—Continued

15
11
354

305
31
25
249
69
56
43

99
46
7
44
47
41
43

371 200
41o’ 750
1547985
1 5 3 ! 875

All other

N um ­
ber

Cost

Total

N um ­
ber
1,093
1,197
258
244
421
442
1,885
1,818
338

1

4
6

276

$500

222, 500
49,300

545

1,017
’ 776
267
283
1 605
1,596

Cost

3, 860 351
8,081,528
1,391 600
1 957 387
5,431,170
3 ’ 449] Ì62
10 513 326
8,077,’ 220

g
O
3
H
K
tF
Kj

6,762’ 333

131
400
270

1 582J775

382
4,415
5,465
982
905
3 966
2 467
1 546
l ’ 483
305
303
650
688

480*741
60,443,’270
65, 786,725
4 151 375

279

’ 5 1 2 ! 551

*

1 422

’ 190

6* 802* 600
5

’ 436) 800

2, 545’ 376
2

’ 054* 194

162,450

3

Minneapolis, M inn___


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927

5
2
1
1

i

1,101, 639
655,000
40,000
8,000

721, 522

2
4

26,600
90,000

3
2
1
1
30

1,624, 300
70, 111
10| 900
260,000
522,754

2
12

2

4

5
2

73, 500
1,600

1

4,240

1

18,000

18
8
4

2,957,550
1,645,063
' 710,000

1

75,000

1
7
4

382,500
1,848,000
241,300

1
2
1
9
4
2

165,000
313,477
50,000
701,146
373,000
1,800,000

3
7
6
51
25
2
6

233,000
1,087,000
' 558Ì 000
4, 884,176
1,003, 500
37, 500
1,450,000

1
1
1
3

90,000
L000
6,000
72,000

1

10,000

2
12

277,000
602,409

17,000

1

100,000

79, 527

66
16

Ì, 518, 310
472,044

1

150,000

1
1
1

65,000
200,000
340,000

1
2
2

65,000
31,200
24,500

3
1
5
4

227, 500
292, 500
1,596,000
178,000

2
5

11,000
1,077,000

10
1
1
1

590, 770
360,000
150,000
40,000

1

100,000

2,450

187,000

8

1,057,370

12
2

384,768
1,006,161

3

101,936

2

405,000

1
1

3,500
476,000

4
3

1,788, 474
376,000

522
297
27
35

4,275
8,955

15
10
41
59
31
46
37
29
3
23
3

2, 565
2,895
14, 890
16, 727
2,675
5, 750
9,250
13,975
925
11,095
6,600

57
44
4
1

14,793
3,914
6,000
1,500

43
25
1,116
1,035
76
229
12
20
3
15
16
18

414, 312
298, 388
10, 095
41,085
1,205
1,170
55
8,469
16,120
21,840

184

118, 755

13
54
24
21
9

1,300
6,015
5,150
22,375
11,232

50
51
82
30
31

10, 780
49,035
128,327
8,980
12,345

2
2

22,100
5,100

6
6

19

1

12

1

40

1

35

12

14,800

1

30

3

4, 850

1

3,000

25
2

5,600
1, 300

2

2,500

22

14
42
160
180
23
42
12

37, 650
5, 550

5
77
84
81
88
42
25
34
29
64
49
288
307
151
52
3
3
11

1

7,800

1
1

35,000
60

9
89
37
42
51
75
44
27
18
93
82
2

9
6
2

4

31, 500

61
46

5,898,739
4,292,987
140,093
95,300
122,080
18,000
12, 300
45,180
171, 337
249, 339
829,202
2,479,685
391,050
576,200
211,421
428.000
1,761,958
1,867,205
757,551
672,280
1,094,000
212, 300
163, 600
176,500
1,192,400
592, 700
5,192, 614
6,335, 815
320, 300
647, 800
4, 275
24, 800
142,450
114.000
902.000
1,906,060
513, 750
944,675
1,089,350
281,445
227, 750
117, 600
5,026,025
5,043,363
80,000
35, 400

13
10
10
10

273,300
182,200
108,415
3,976

4
2
25
205

8, 550
480
9,218
68,818

9

7,841

11
52
22

280,500
58,010
7, 445

53
61
175

278, 663
541,425
95, 000

8
1
4
1

1,215
3,500
315
50

217

166,470

51
17

127,190
290, 695

6

81,056

5
3

5,250
22,500

210.000

193, 500
586, 379
264, 433

8,754 20,854,082
6,442 27,823,901
287
1,333,303
260
858, 526
59
217.980
106
56,740
157
238,310
153
323,035
748
1,065,320
1,330
4,938, 791
397
5,469,417
3,660,360
697
999
1,139,160
1,513,465
935
424
I , 463,811
3,431,885
359
171
3,353,227
314
5,985,431
3,098,217
1, 720
7,149, 830
1,791
2, 303,975
296
1,572,648
303
255, 763
245
518,000
100
441
3,108, 700
1,973,450
458
7,220 19, 909,872
6,909 16,802,316
2, 777, 605
755
7,995,335
606
57,780
126
144,985
129
215
569,055
884, 804
194
804
2, 313, 620
552
3,402,230
1,854
5,004, 539
5, 419,688
2,163
2, 843, 345
1.616
1, 429
5,468,015
1, 457, 790
208
1,804, 275
132
933 II, 615, 879
818 10,964,251
726, 850
132
173
181.980
2,973, 721
270
1, 822, 627
291
193
4,580, 135
3,524, 844
162

BUILDING PERM ITS IN REPRESENTATIVE CITIES

[825]

1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
Indianapolis, Ind_____ 1926
1927
1926
1927
Kansas City, Kans___ 1926
1927
1926
1927
Los Angeles, Calif____ 1926
1927
. 1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926

O
«O

E ST IM A T E D COST OF B U IL D IN G S (N E W C O N STR U C TIO N , A N D R EPAIRS, A LTE R A TIO N S, A N D A D D IT IO N S TO OLD B U IL D ­
ING S) C O \ L R E D B Y P E R M IT S ISSU E D IN T H E F IR ST H A L F OF 1926 A N D OF 1927, BY IN T E N D E D USE OF B U IL D IN G S—Continued
P A R T 2 .—N E W N O N R E SID E N T IA L B U IL D IN G S -C ontinued

City and State

N ew York, N . Y.:
The B ron x..
Brooklyn
Manhattan
Queens....................

[ 828 ]

Richmond.............
Norfolk, V a.
Oakland, C alif..
Oklahoma City, Okla .
Omaha, Nebr
Paterson. N . ,T
Philadelphia, Pa
Pittsburgh, Pa_
Portland. Oreg
Providence, R. I
Reading, Pa
Richmond, Va
Rochester, N . Y ___
St. Louis, M o .............


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Public works
Public buildings
and utilities
First
half of
each
year N um ­
Num ­
Cost
Cost
ber
ber

1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927

5

$245,000

13
4
2
6
1
7
3
2
2

2,755,000
400,000
85,000
435,000
2,500
933,000
345,000
30,000
67,025

1
1

13,000
18, 500

2

5
11
9

524,000
745,000
114,250

1
1
7
8
1

16,200
500.000
524, 660
247,990
2,000

1

1
4

1,908, 800
' 108; 445

2

16,000

4
3
1

71,400
50, 000
463, 000

6
12
3
1
1
1
1

1

16,000

$75,000

2
1
1

5,000

306,000
92, 650
2, 409, 600
300, 000
365,000
30, 000
120; 000
117, 900
70, 000
10.000

Schools, libra­
ries. etc.
N um ­
ber

7
4
3
4
4
4
8
13
1
4
2

Cost

$848 non

343

Cost

3, 830,000
1, 481,000
8, 615, 700
306,000
531,000
331,000

4
2

779, 700
230,000
5, 422, 505
3, 715, 450
2, 426,954
32,000
295 000
723,400
500,000

1

11 000

3
4
6

1, 200 079
63o! 000

N um ­
ber

4

26
40
20
23
20
19
22
10
12
1
6

15, 505
28,966
23,060
7, 370
4,130
2,595
23,950
14,040
5, 750
100
1,220

2
4

4,525
801

35
35
158
192
55
45
7
19
238
186
37
48
363
500

Cost

$63,070

2, 256, 000

1, 522,657
1,560,356
5 200

2

N um ­
ber

2 ,745 000

11
11
1

9
8
7
1
3
9

Stables and
bams

Sheds

4,430
11,995
56, 030
169,385
39, 200
10, 750
925
11, 075
89,282
43, 922
24, 695
39, 791
51, 672
80i 097

$1,500

2

2,000

3
8
4
1
6
4
3

24,000
101,450
2,900
150
510
255
16,900

11
4

17,995
54,800

1
4

1,000
57, 00Ô

1

17,220

2

1,200

1
1

800
400

Stores, ware­
houses, etc.
N um ­
ber

Cost

79 $1,816,
108 2,503,
98 1,064,
78 1, 760,
38 14,949!
40 8, 325,
204 2,473,
240 3,083,
83
196,
40
355,
6
107,
11
91,
79 1,620,
54
569,
48
310,
32
357,
64
347,
42
142,
39
182,
19
174,
129 3, 557,
112 4,133
60 1,286,
58 1,798,
81
536,
60
758,
68
715,
35
529,
12
51,
4
159,
54
267,
82
646,
641,
20
24
155,
174 2, 031,
115
744,

All other

N um ­
ber

Cost

$11,400
400
439
19
14
134
142
82
57

257,330
589, 415
16,618
8, 605
70,211
54,915
27,034
9,735
20. 750
137,377
25, 665
28, 500

1

335
144 3,783, 430
296,180
38
4, 400
3
22
55,250

8,000
1,000

1,045
1, 265
1,000

110

T able

Total

N um ­
ber

Cost

1,133 $12, 488, 659
843 19, 481,530
3, 547 21, ê69, 580
3,466 25,977,955
277 71,258, 818
345 91,490, 455
3,547 16, 558, 626
4,245 24, 928, 671
597
2, 799, 397
558
1, 226, 677
258
669, 356
288
677, 877
1,811
5, 304,069
1,234
4, 435,822
536
1,145, 334
631
1, 577,300
261
2, 720,238
214
832,085
316
899,911
245
503,426
1,353 30,057, 710
1,137 22, 602, 730
1,066
7,001, 865
1,124
6, 500, 352
2,395
4,185,145
2,085
9, 671, 700
678
6,043, 800
548
6,343, 315
259
1, 588, 425
256
1,022, 650
521
1,423, 921
498
1, 872, 890
1,198
4,541, 322
1,191
4, 021, 681
3,007
7, 069, 907
2,508
4, 715,427

F
>
W
O
Pd
td
3

St. Paul, M in n .............
Salt Lake City, U tah..
San Antonio, T ex____
San Diego, C alif..........

Scranton, Pa..................
Seattle, W a sh ...............

Springfield, M ass.........
Syracuse, N . Y ..............
Tacoma, W ash..............

[827]

Tampa, F l a ........... .......
Toledo, Ohio________
Trenton, N . J ................
Tulsa, Okla....................
Utica, N . Y ....................
Washington, D . C........
Wilmington, D el_____
Worcester, Mass...........
Yonkers, N . Y ..............
Youngstown, Ohio___
Total (78 cities).
Total (80 cities).


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1926
1927

2

14,480

2

61, 000

1, 750,000

2

81, 750

3
9

71, 650
802, 695

1

125, 000

1
1
3

90,000
23, 000
22, 000

1
2
4

5, 750
9,065
121,500

2

121,874
2
2

900, 000
170, 000

2

282, 000

3
11
4
2
3
5
3

47,000
1, 458, 908
1, 029,014
182, 000
313,809
881, 000
930,000

500,000

1
1

10, 673
50, 778

1
1
1

206, 840
10,000
5, 400

3

550,000

178,855

10
7

7,090
2,850

171
109
11
4

47, 692
22 , 281
2 4, 360
1 , 800

21

59,336

6
292
221
4
28
3
12
9

5,840
42,155
33, 790
475
3,500
' 525
22, 650
4,395

1

2,000

2
1

620,372
300,000

1

500

2
5

144, 000
620, 865

162
179

25, 660
16; 683

5

1, 337,303
35
10
58
34
1

29, 756
13; 448
16, 930
9,942
1,500
9,145
11', 235
3, 250
200
5, 288
11, 653
5, 079
1, 550
9, 500
1,500

1
1
1

900
5,000
80

10
5

1,000
750

2, 673,129
1, 903,121

112
79

315,446
265,490

4
1

215
936, 000

72, 500

4
1
2

89 9, 904, 652
124 20, 003, 638

5
1

44, 000
50,000

3
2
1
2

25,950
101,000
50,000
26,000

1

600, 000

1
1
1

275,000
252, 000
io ; 000

34
39
6
1
59
38
9
6
9
10

179 17, 511,186
157 12, 481,434

279
244

58, 076, 620
55, 616,179

6,027
5,084

9
7
1

1, 010,193
' 941,027
248,935

4
1

183, 730
119, 354

3,400
L 000
3,500

27
17
31
23
26
54
79
66
95
76
1
12
129
99
11
20
16
10
9
29
29
38
25
52
80
70

152,100
311,916
172; 500
167,950
197,525
356; 654
594,462
518, 010
1, 309,625
1, 381, 950
62,000
62', 200
1, 046,900
1, 907, 940
93; 600
43,360
52, 061
109,000
67, 600
165,725
310, 675
232, 625
319, 000
416, 975
801,110
335,945

4
55
47
3
7
64
94
4
6
20
7
29
25
21
20

9,085
303, 670
416,885
21, 200
84, 200
1, 767, 664
' 871, 450
69,000
102, 345
571, 990
19, 515
382, 800
277,190
526, 000
125,000

1
182

39, 600
215; 090

52
29

19, 400
4; 940

3

cir:
cc
oc

Somerville, M ass_____
Spokane, Wash.............

2
1

1
25
13
29
18

1, 600
702,100
48; 314
6', 665
9; 020

1

1,150

7

4,050

1

1,200

2
1

2,100
6,680

2
19
15
12
6
10
10

7,000
121,310
11,180
8, 970
2,550
15, 000
15, 000

5,342 94, 935, 790 1, 584 6, 723, 309
4,410 79, 353, 886 1,695 3, 004, 252

1,143
940
129
104
296
316
991
723
308
236
71
284
1,607
1,417
128
528
466
559
517
685
852
398
312
578
1,335
1,533
277
300
585
700
194
156
1,341
964
503
443
491
388
345
380
569
451

1, 166,182
1, 845,124
1, 207,135
459,010
3, 949, 707
1, 435, 840
3, 105, 788
2, 787, 216
12, 404, 296
4, 878, 823
988,730
2, 672,016
6, 366, 425
4, 363,255
835,080
175,598
202, 491
1, 303, 525
1, 239, 741
1, 688, 532
3, 081,983
2, 146,180
1, 037, 628
1, 365, 248
2, 445, 777
3, 218, 378
1, 352, 970
1, 426, 921
675, 694
4, 048, 961
819,075
343, 875
5, 154,249
6, 154, 743
797,749
1, 480,776
2, 068, 693
1, 038,487
2, 517, 914
2, 567,291
2, 991,500
1, 392, 250

85,128 489, 655, 211
80, 779 514, 634, 920

BUILDING PERM ITS IN REPRESENTATIVE CITIES

San Francisco, C a lif...

1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927

T a ble 6 .— N U M B E R A N D E ST IM A T E D COST OF B U IL D IN G S (N E W C O N ST R U C TIO N , A N D R E PA IR S, A L TE R A TIO N S, A N D A D D IT IO N S TO O L D

B U IL D IN G S) C O V ERED B Y PE R M IT S ISSU E D IN T H E FIR ST H A L F OF 1926 A N D OF 1927, B Y IN T E N D E D USE OF B U IL D IN G S —Continued

to

P A R T 3 —R E PA IR S, A L TE R A TIO N S, A N D A D D IT IO N S T O OLD B U IL D IN G S, AN D G R A N D TO T A L OF ALL P E R M IT S
Repairs, etc., on residential
buildings 6

C ity and State

First
half of
each
year

Housekeeping
dwellings
N um ­
ber

Atlanta, G a.........

[828]

Baltimore, M d__
Birmingham, Ala.
Boston, M ass___
Bridgeport, Conn
Buffalo, N . Y ___
Cambridge, Mass.
Camden, N . J___
Canton, Ohio____
Chicago, 111..........
Cincinnati, Ohio..
Cleveland, Ohio..
Columbus, O hio..
Dallas, T ex______
Dayton, Ohio........


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927

810
887
1,951
2,198
64
46
727
632
205
171
283
274
251
176
1,731
1,975
1,828

$275, 627
298, 987
1, 315,953
1, 524, 735
148,336
58,360
521,365
435,432
151,310
115; 925
183,670
144,033
91,659
69,555
1,061,020
1, 617, 740
686,269

1,048
1,044
564
533
654
622
293
234

790,950
754,325
530,050
464,800
728, 564
370,862
169,636
160,047

N um ­
ber

1
80
44

3
2

Cost

$63
334, 910
68,452

19, 200
30, 000

Repairs, etc., on
n o n re sid e n tia l
buildings 6

N um ­
ber

215
170
911
935
43
26
212
188
142
114
87
76
119
126
1,403
1,468
462
499
1,484
162
202
100
595
252
218

Cost

Total repairs, etc.

N um ­
ber

376
400
1,044
987
754
790
7,163
7, 212
$506, 626
1,025
849,380
1,058
3,476, 310
2,942
3, 908,310
3,177
130, 464
107
181,190
72
56L 902
939
354,480
820
667,885
347
339; 321
285
129', 349
370
230, 755
350
19i; 970
370
2 0 2 ; 890
302
3, 653; 351
3,134
4 , 1 5 9 ; 610
3,443
li 29L 990
2,290
2,531
1, 273, 950
1,547
2, 666', 800
2,528
' 838; 900
729
786,400
737
489, 935
754
518; 607
1,217
652,845
545
1,029! 063 1
452

Cost

$800,357
356,035
1,331,041
1, 539, 386
713,462
860, 519
3, 562,150
3,090,010
782,253
1,148,430
5,127,173
5, 501,497
278,800
239, 550
1,089, 267
789,912
819,195
455,246
313,019
374, 788
283, 629
272,445
4, 714,371
5, 777, 350
1,981, 259
2,161,385
2,064,900
3,421,125
1, 388,150
1,281,200
1, 218,499
889,469
822,481
1,189,110

Grand total of all per­
mits for new con­
Installation permits
struction and re- Rank
in cost
pairs, etc.
of construction
N um ­
N um ­
Cost
Cost
ber
ber

2,514
2,850
1,538
1,432
1,989
2,113
11,850
11,159
2,935
2,993
4,865
4, 873
465
520
3,802
3,431
550
533
1,143
883
1, 212

933
13,675
14, 959
4, 226
4,482
7, 244
6,205
3, 653
3,118
2,317
1,978
1, 517
1,647

$8, 531, 853
11,153,476
13,814, 519
6,862,986
12,251,114
6,327,366
21,059,820
16, 026, 610
9, 290,943
10, 743, 976
27,673,787
25,919, 520
1,607, 242
1,951, 563
13,983, 583
14,396, 345
3, 528, 638
4,158,921
3,455,844
3, 022,328
3,017, 721
1,898,686
183,577,891
210,210,475
13,759, 934
13, 518, 728
35,000,400
19,827, 825
11, 668, 700
13,189,500
10,730, 584
4,801, 891
4,087, 558
5,891,811

28
40
42

85
120
125
120
112
186

$38, 012
30, 999
116, 729
122,356
221,133
92,125

473
464
3, 639
3,960
4
3
4

367,153
468,411
5, 686,859
3, 643,813
10,150
2,450
3,075

22
243
416
27
1,361
38

8,925
1, 018,000
1,603,600
90,115
751,835
502,425

Alterations
that changed
family accom­
modations
Fam i­ Fam i­
lies
lies
before after

790

838

1

2

25

65

54
65

145
133

30

60

15
31
7
71
20
54
61
72
2
22
12
23
52
44

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

Akron, Ohio____
Albany, N . Y ___

Cost

Nonhousekeep­
ing dwellings

Indianapolis, Ind____

[829]

Kansas City, Kans___

Minneapolis, M in n ...

N ew Bedford, M a ss...

95
98

55,475
86,640

21
30

75,100
44,190

556
608

283, 682
214,109

118
112

182. 512
430, 565

230
122
107

200,125
91,790
90,932

48
48
69

66, 000
397,840
98,261

1,288
1,347
679
340

393, 685
361, 560
672, 037
174, 756

180
148
185
242

1,144, 950
' 336i 085
470, 397
648,175

250
2,911

177,311
759,821

779
302

129,947
521, 708

6

11,445

866

55
45

165, 900
184,000

331
369

207,910
403,105

354

274, 675

192

674, 765

386
414
294
321
399
546
6,010

401
425
157
153
185
176

571
481
236
230

121,000
150,200
85, 540
49,020
275,275
138, 985

1, 333,111
776,248
97,810
121,695

97
110
83
102
74
138

181
213
19
27

1,000, 590
809,015
143, 530
119,405
226j 845
120,466

1,220,482
1, 534,955
32,875
84,300

6 For years in which figures are not shown total repairs, etc., only were reported.

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1,343
1,904
116
128
3, 768
3,766
674
720
250
278
170
176
1,115
1,395
1,047
1, 254
1,468
1, 495
864
582
1,481
1,029
3,279

6,387
498
535
240
255
259
314
1,176
950
1,180
1,167
1,291
1,228
652
520
752
674
255
257

923, 300
985, 900
130, 575
130, 830
5,234,587
8,357, 234
466,194
644,674
160, 000
266,125
489, 630
189,193
471, 067
604,470
1,870, 183
3, 652,320
1, 538,635
697,645
1,142,434
822,931
553, 593
307, 258
1,292,974
418,461
373, 810
587,105
115, 395
77,178
591,885
949,440
8,203, 393
8,067,823
1,121, 590
959,215
229,070
168,425
502,120
259,451
1,249, 610
842,270
2,227,066
2,130,173
1,349,610
1,323,075
411,672
261,262
2, 553, 593
2, 311,203
130,685
205,995

3, 066
3, 733
745
578
20,928
14,899
1, 237
1,150
362
414
420
445
2,493
4,375
2,604
3,349
3,131
3,034
1,642
1,139
3,179
3,244
5,945
3, 595
940
843
934
638
2,118
1,740
19,228
18, 512
2,580
1,813
426
424
636
606
2,860
2,175
4,264
4,491
4, 251
3,517
1,171
938
2,289
2,008
465
484

7,442,250
6,836, 700
2,853,125
1,443,071
96, 204,092
78,742,327
3,242,416
2,321,614
659,153
483, 530
1, 287, 790
1, 276,167
4,026,408
11,907,927
13,868, 984
14.625, 360
5,668, 070
4,678,860
7, 557, 587
7,621,430
16,574,315
14, 548,052
9,836,806
12.626, 740
8,271,285
5,369,453
1,372,883
1,020,378
11,053,135
8,800, 590
63,161, 395
58,192,977
12, 353,145
14,054,100
541,150
487,110
2,510,425
2,046,455
8,304,840
7,723,800
16, 952, 361
20, 765, 996
11,199, 530
12,480, 310
2,803, 712
3,598,887
24,038,000
27,192, 304
1,423, 535
753,675

41

256
76

170,650
51,050

137
128

268,844
25,880

205
243

467
624

253
101
54

55,470
27,205
9,109

1,182
241
31
8
3

601,555
120', 890
34,305
33, 300
79,000

74
138

226,900
28,475

6,907
5,362

2,139,437
1,514,085

586
450
12,200
12, 388

617,090
884,000
3,158,399
4,208,886

134
134
610
751

20, 841
20,335
304,591
604,597

74
280
263

3
67
80
76
27
18
53

34
39

52
47

40
1,347

95
1,466

23

115

38
19
24
47
77
33
5
21
79
70
37
10
25
55
6

BUILDING PERM ITS IN REPRESENTATIVE CITIES

Grand Kapids, M ich..

1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927

78
00

T a b l e 6 .— N U M B E R A N D E ST IM A T E D COST OP B U IL D IN G S (N EW C O N ST R U C TIO N , A N D R EPA IR S, A LTE R A TIO N S, A N D A D D IT IO N S TO OLD

B U IL D IN G S) C O V ERED B Y P E R M IT S ISSU E D IN T H E FIR ST H A L F OF 1926 A N D OF 1927, BY IN T E N D E D USE OF B U IL D IN G S —Continued
PABLT 3 .

R E PA IR S, A L T E R A TIO N S, A N D A D D IT IO N S TO OLD B U IL D IN G S, A N D G R A N D T O TAL O F ALL P E R M IT S —Continued
Repairs, etc., on residential
buildings

City and State

First
half of
each
year

Housekeeping
dwellings
Num­
ber

New Orleans, La____
New York, N. Y.:
The Bronx...........
[830]

Brooklyn______
Manhattan. _......
Queens________
Richmond........
Norfolk, Va._...... .....
Oakland, Calif..........
Oklahoma City, Okla.
Omaha, Nebr............
Paterson, N. J _____
Philadelphia, Pa____
Pittsburgh, Pa_____
Portland, Oreg_____

Providence, R. I ____
Reading, Pa..............

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927

110
110
105

$180,000
250,640
343,800

588
331
2,416
2,412
707
715
1,778
1,720
200
286
151
190

887, 682
768, 555
2,834,100
2,875,915
3,294,210
4,389,290
900, 702
1,083,266
187,434
268, 555
88,032
111,070

197
52
41
2,087
3,125
1,298
1,407
1,775
1, 828
1, 351
1, 353
855
762

N um ­
ber

64

27
43
161
145

Cost

$173,250

65,400
73,900
1,291, 940
2,425,450

171,148
37, 775
32,238
5,827,030
1, 845, 970
620,110
1,020,041
571, 555
622, 015
815, 600
533, 575
357, 950
342, 730 1

245

818,280

16
12

21, 460
46,850

1

22, 000

N um ­
ber

271
77
197
384
3,126
845
915
770
820
482
430
118
182
93
103

Cost

$363,000
'190|016
510,890
1,306, 880
4 , 183; 843

6,592, 540
4, 612,300
10,123, 938
11,476, 937
3,039, 765
2,720,146
185,985
276,914
149, 537
184;032

65
59
52

275,971
450,400
242,225

122
1,040
430
488
565
481
314
260
87
165

1, 536,580
5, 538,015
2,087, 753
1,868,607
1,026, 300
695, 640
830, 600
1,144, 225
208, 600
169, 625

Total repairs, etc.

N um ­
ber

Cost

347
381
251
302

$509, 747
543 000
613,906
854,690

972
3,457
3,288
3, 370
1,638
1,680
2,260
2,150
318
468
244
293
1,428
1,621
248
262
111
93
629
797
2,454
4,165
Ï, 744
1,907
2,340
2,309
1,665
1, 613
943
927

2,194, 562
4, 952' 398
9,492,040
7, 562,115
14, 710,088
18, 291,677
3,940,467
3,803,412
' 373; 419
545,469
237; 569
295 102
1,402, 901
1, 529 733
1 7 9 ; 790
447,119
488; 175
274,463
761,027
580; 583
8,181,890
7,383, 985
2,729,323
2,935,498
1, 597, 855
1, 317, 655
1, 646, 200
1, 677, 800
' 588; 550
512,355

Grand total of all per­
mits for new con­ Rank Installation permits
struction and re­ in cost
pairs, etc.
of con­
struc­
tion
N um ­
N um ­
Cost
Cost
ber
ber
733
761
1,090
1,051

$5 229 644
3 476 627
8! 065; 834
7,960,819

4,648
6,389
12,876
12,24,9
2,064
2,128
14, 651
1 4 ; 835
1,639
li 844
689
762
5 243
Z 912
l ’ 289
1, 555
841
512
1,221
1, 292
9, 366
10,290
3; 884
4,129
6, 710
5,880
2, 725
2, 575
1,401
1,295 1

110, 756,421
104, 793,228
133, 653,870
117,873,370
164,114,406
153,464,132
95,087,543
108,099, 933
6, 651,456
6, 888,925
1 796 575
2 114 954
1Ft 3 4 9 ’ 185
3* 267 407
5; 09l’ 379
5,584,238
2, 324,268
3, 756 878
3 386 125
70, 379; 825
61, 683,600
20,070,013
17,952,156
17, 257,175
20,129,115
12, 666; 500
1 2 ; 140, 215
3, 269, 775
2, 646, 005

57

108
236

22

Alterations
that changed
family accom­
modations
Fam i­ Fami­
lies
lies
before after

; 000

22

36
1,062

275,369

2,728
3, 383

1,433,446
1,747, 703

538
1 09.7
78
28

131 460
830 733
11’875
9 150

1

30
50

34

57

50

96
47

32
43

ni

777

66
58
4

283
134

loi! 825
57; 490

13

11
26
65

1 152
18
24

167 970
7; 380
7,975

70

.

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

New Haven, Conn__

Cost

Nonhousekeep­
ing dwellings

Repairs, etc., on
n o n re sid e n tia l
buildings

Richmond, Va...........
Rochester, N. Y____
St. Louis, Mo............
St. Paul, Minn....... ..
San Antonio, Tex___
San Diego, Calif........
San Francisco, Calif...
Scranton, Pa..............
Seattle, Wash............
Somerville, Mass.......
Spokane, Wash..........
Springfield, Mass.......
[831]

Syracuse, N. Y..........
Tacoma, Wash...........
Tampa, Fla____ ___
Toledo, Ohio............ .
Trenton, N. J............
Tulsa, Okla...............
Utica, N. Y...............
Washington, D. C__
Wilmington, Del........
Worcester, Mass........
Yonkers, N Y_____
Youngstown, Ohio__
Total (78 cities).
(80 cities).


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1926
1927

296
285
441
511

141,106
133, 036
383, 545
419, 212

2
5
38
1

4, 455
10, 260
301, 757
31, 000

208
200
423
497

580,027
474, 096
1,157, 196
743,845

1,059
577
990
100
91

451, 235
474, 062
361, 350
85, 872
70,365

12

24,130

630
313
232
63
49

1, 351, 785
878,921
369, 702
173, 446
143, 120

506
490
902
1,009
2,689
1, 701
890

214
2,006
2,175
231
379
327
192
223
568
672
598
628
1, 490
964
928
231
303
307
392
47
72
1, 452
1,479
301
348
468
509
214
204
142
163

725, 588
617, 392
1, 842,498
1,194,057
5, 869, 351
1, 827, 150
1,352, 983
731, 052
259,318
213, 485
147,965
251, 625
666, 228
651, 532
3,473,003
2,247, 869
97, 235
272, 240
1, 958,160
1, 808,955
253,330
350,468
170, 588
393,899
940,920
845, 780
914, 326
504, 795
321, 480
458, 686
1,231, 665
1, 445, 741
354, 467
438,922
421, 395
273, 475
105, 650
197, 750
2, 450, 596
2, 206, 269
383, 330
503, 691
810,513
1, 205, 096
503, 622
739, 452
79, 500
195, 000

90, 364
97,179

134, 898,195
138,154, 250

1, 222

163
140
321
234
1,205
1, 202

1,000
906

973,003
847,869

448
600

2, 500,000
1,400,000

88

182
274
248

79, 540
89,023
83, 690

3
1

23,965
250

49
102
78

173, 790
237,480
86, 648

312
416

293, 580
306,065

1
15

20, 000
112, 500

255
241

532, 200
495, 761

1, 012
759
745
37
253
226
278
34
31

250, 560
531,409
509, 013
29,187
275, 789
120,975
168, 373
67,800
54, 250

478
205
183
186
50
80
114
13
41

208, 126
700, 256
936, 728
323,395
163,133
296,920
105,102
37, 850
143, 500

243
239
150
105
92
123

192, 590
145, 779
302, 617
186, 030
50, 000
75, 000

8

1,885

1

3, 500

225
270
64
99
50
40

1,448
1, 506

617,923
1,059, 317
201, 005
553, 422
29, 500
120, 000

1, 631
1, 382
2,872
2,944
7,560
5, 503
2,840
2,615
610
541
1, 522
1,376
3,811
3, 277
3,989
3, 721
204
617
5, 653
5,342
435
1,276
1, 077
1,138
1, 065
1, 655
2,152
1, 541
1,355
2, 516
2,982
3,318
743
808
1, 244
1, 570
470
350
4,934
3, 568
988
977
1,414
1, 256
933
1, 034
1,221

1, 178

6, 768, 611
5, 435, 260
11,966,698
10,950, 008
27,385, 856
15,261, 252
8,399, 505
5, 808,088
2, 979,103
2, 676, 505
7,904, 559
6,155, 458
9,456,103
8,146, 257
31, 723,117
25, 082,131
1,443,165
3, 586,106
18,330, 470
16,447,910
2,132, 680
1, 739, 335
1,490, 779
4, 514,954
5, 092,461
5, 650, 662
9,108, 709
4, 372, 050
2, 853, 778
2,903, 889
7, 027, 831
8, 756, 394
2, 777, 331
3.106, 543
3,026,931
7.107, 621
2, 458, 225
1,342, 325
35,162, 815
22,528, 842
2, 361, 658
3,292, 914
6, 248, 141
5, 202, 773
14, 805, 936
15, 585, 028
5,977, 800
4, 887, 950

275, 710 1, 609, 684, 124
263,689 1,524,389,694

46

5

950

690
61
104

207,461
46,946
38,832

8

391
380
1,200
1,200

78, 342
98, 388
500, 000
200, 000

56

300

550

29
17
45

68
62

167
125

33

54

25
52

51
87

37
75

126
192

380
2,515

1,275
3, 448

64
43
35

14
68
73
49
32

2

950

63
62

54

8,057

34
60
39

5
1

20, 705
5,000

370
452
35
112

958, 070
488, 500
23, 035
106, 476

79

110

34, 907
36, 645

19, 534, 750
18, 485, 848

75
9
59
48
16
51

BUILDING PERM ITS IN REPRESENTATIVE CITIES

Salt Lake City, Utah.

1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927
1926
1927

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES
S trik es an d L o ck o u ts in th e U n ited S ta te s in A u g u st, 1927

B

EGINNING with this issue of the Labor Review, the Bureau
of Labor Statistics presents its monthly reports on industrial
disputes in a very much more complete form than it has been
able to do in the past. This improvement has been made possible in
large part by the cooperation of the Conciliation Service of the De­
partment of Labor and other agencies.
Under the new method of presentation data are given not only
regarding the number of disputes beginning each month, but also
regarding the number in effect at the end of the month and the
number of workdays lost by reason of disputes during each month.
The number of workdays lost is computed by multiplying the num­
ber of workers affected in each dispute by the length of the dispute
measured in working-days as normally worked by the industry or
trade in question.
Disputes involving fewer than six workers and those lasting less
than one day have been omitted. Data for July and August are
subject to revision because of the fact that reports for these months
are more or less incomplete.
The bureau is largely dependent upon newspapers and trade jour­
nals for its initial information regarding disputes. These are followed
by questionnaires addressed to such sources as may further supple­
ment the bureau’s reports with reliable information, and at this time
the bureau wishes to assure all those cooperating in this work of its
appreciation as well as to solicit assistance from others concerned.
Industrial Disputes Beginning in and in Effect at End of June, July and August

r~PABLE 1 is a summary table showing for each of the months, June,
A July, and August, the number of disputes which began in these
months, the number in effect at the end of each month, and the num­
ber of workers involved. It also shows, in the last column, the
number of man-days lost.
T a b l e 1 .—IN D U S T R IA L D IS P U T E S B E G IN N IN G IN A N D IN E F F E C T AT E N D OF JU N E,

JULY, A N D A U G U ST, 1927

Number of dis­
putes

Number of workers
involved in
disputes

M onth and year
Begin­
ning in
month
June, 1927-.............................................. .............
July, 19271..................................................
August, 19271-......... ................................................

75
70
63

1 Preliminary figures, subject to revision.

116

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[832]

In effect
at end of
month

Begin­
ning in
month

In effect
at end of
month

102
105
71

18,585
8
7,327

196, 047
199,422
182, 845

Number
of mandays lost
during
month

4, 859, 468
5, 236, 963
4, 941,789

117

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS

Industrial Disputes Beginning in and in Effect at End of June, July, and August,
by Industries

■"TABLE 2 gives the sanm information as that shown in Table 1,
by industries, thus offering the opportunity for more detailed
comparison.
T

able

2 . — IN D U S T R IA L

D IS P U T E S B E G IN N IN G IN A N D IN E F F E C T AT E N D OF JU N E .
JU LY, A N D A U G U ST, 1927, BY IN D U S T R IE S
Number of workers
involved in
Numbei
disputes
of mandays lost
during
In effect
Begin­ In effect
at end of ning in at end of month
month
month
month

Number of dis­
putes 1
Industry and months
Begin­
ning in
month
Automobiles:
June________________
July_____________________________________
A ugust........ ...........
Bakery trades:
June_______________ _ .
July__________________________________
A ugust_____________________ _
Barbers:
June_______________
July______________________________
A ugust_____________ __
Building trades:
June_____________ _
July_________________________________
A ugust______________
Chauffeurs and teamsters:
J u n e .....................................
July_________________________________________
August_____ _______ . . . _ _ . . . ____
Clerks:
June____ _ .
July_____________________________________
Clothing:
June_____. . .
July---------------------------------------------------------A ugust__________________________ . .
Farm labor:
A ugust___ ____ ________________
Furniture:
June.................. . . . . .
J u ly ..._______________________________
August.......... ......................................
July_______ ______________ _______ ________
A u g u s t............. ............ . . .
Hotels and restaurants:
June_________________________ _____
J u ly ..______________________________________
August....................... ...................... .
Laundries:
June____________ _________
July____________________________________
Metal trades:
June__________________________________
July___ ____ _________________________________
August___________ _______ _____ ____
Mining:
June.______ _______ ____________
J u ly .._________ ______________ ______________
A u gu st......... ................. ....................
Miscellaneous:
June .................................. .......................
J u ly ........... .................................................................
A ugust_______ ____ ____________
M otion picture and theatrical workers:
June__________ _______ ______ _______
July........ .................................................... ...................
August_____________ ______
Municipal employees:
June.............................. .................... ....................
J u ly .....................................................................
August........ ................ ........................................

1 Figures for July and August are preliminary.

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[833]

1
1

2
3

15
100

54
154

75
900
000

2

5
1

27

412
8

10,188
3, 064
400

5

2

2,290

2,000

26,460
28, 600
312

1

104

17
18
16

25
21
19

11,328
8, 078
670

13, 565
5,420
2, 608

341,757
347, 626
89,828

1
1
2

1
2
2

150
200
15

13
213
15

300
400
3,415

23
23

575
575

925
1, 065
882

12,148
25,625
21, 609

1
1
14
20
13

16
23
13

672
2,276
2,550

1

1

47

47

47

2
1
3

4
2
2

230
157

280
50
34

1,855
2, 080
810

1
1

1
2

80
30

80
110

320
1,006

1

2
2
2

15

18
18
18

3,195
450
450

1

i

150

150

5,400
1,764

1
3
1

3
4
2

26
16
25

59
49
25

468
392
763

3
9
4

6
8
6

1, 922
18, 477
990

176,618
190, 518
176, 850

4,414, 308
4, 778, 650
4, 764, 540

1
5
1

1
2
1

7
3,876
50

22
50

487
5,426
310

2
4
4

5
8
4

31
116
608

65
77
608

547
1,829
3,887

350
350

3

1
1
2

30

8 750
8,750
8.870

118

MONTHLY LABOE REVIEW

T a b l e 2 .—IN D U S T R IA L D IS P U T E S B E G IN N IN G IN A N D IN E F F E C T A T E N D OF JU N E ,

JU L Y , A N D A U G U ST , 1927, BY IN D U S T R IE S —Continued
Number of workers
involved in
Number
disputes
of mandays lost
In effect
Begin­ In effect during
at end of ning in at end of month
month
month
month

Number of dis­
putes
Industry and months
Begin­
ning in
month
Oil and chemicals:
June____________ ___________________________
Pottery:
A u g u st,,________________________ _____ _
Printing and publishing:
June............................................. _.....................
July____________ __________________ __________
A ugust_______ ______________ ______________
Rubber:
June,..................................................... .......
_
July------------------------------- ------------- -------------- Slaughtering and meat packing:
June................................ _...........................................
July...................................................................................
A ugust.............................. ................. ..........
Stone:
J u ly ,,...............................................................................
A ugust_________________________________
Telephone and telegraph:
June,_____ ______ ______ __________________ _
J u ly .................................. ............................. ...............
August_____________ _______ _________ ___
Textile:
June_________________ _____ _______ _____ _
July..................... ................................................ ............
A ugust____________ _____ _________________ _
Tobacco:
June________ ________________________ ______

2

48

160

1
6
3

11
11
7

163
52

715
672
579

16,030
16, 320
12, 548

1

1

64

64

384
256

i

1
1
1

30

6
6
6

ISO
150
270

1

1
1

1

1
1
1

23

23
23
23

322

1
13
3
9

13
12
4

1,049
190
2,014

707
674
996

13, 659
12, 610
31, 386

1

529

375

2,250

Industrial Disputes Beginning in August, Classified by Number of Workers and
by industries

T A B L E 3 classifies by number of workers and by industries those
1 disputes beginning in August for which complete data on this
point are available.
T a b l e 3.—N U M B E R OF IN D U S T R IA L D IS P U T E S B E G IN N IN G IN A U G U ST , 1927, CLASSI­

F IE D B Y N U M B E R OF W O R K E R S A N D B Y IN D U S T R IE S

Number of disputes beginning in August,
involving—
Industry

6 and
under
20
workers

20 and
under
100
workers

100 and
under
500
workers

2

3

2

B a r b e r s ........ ...........................................................
Building trades______________________
Chauffeurs and teamsters__ __
Clothing .................................
Farm labor_______ ____
Furniture __________
Glass_________ ___
Metal trades. _________
M ining________
Miscellaneous____ ____
Motion picture and theatrical workers. .
Municipal employees______
Slaughtering and meat p ackin g... ..............
T extile.......................

i
2

1,000 and
under
5,000
workers

1
3

1
3
1

1

i

1

2

1

2

1

2
i
i

Total......................................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

500 and
under
1,000
workers

7

[834]

4

3

23

12

4

1

119

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS

Industrial Disputes Ending in August, by Industries and Classified Duration

4 are shown the number of industrial disputes ending
P inTABLE
August, by industries and classified duration.
T a b l e 4 - N U M B E R OF IN D U S T R IA L D IS P U T E S E N D IN G IN A U G U ST , 1927, BY IN D U S 1 able 4 . J NUi i
T R IE S a n d c l a s s i f i e d d u r a t i o n

Classified duration of strikes ending in August
1927
Industry

One-half
month or
less

1
1
5
5

Over onehalf and
less than
1 month

1 month
and less
than 2
months

1
1

2 months
and less
than 3
months

3
1

1
1

'
M iscellaneous____________________ _____ - .............. - —

2
1
2
1
1

1
1

i
i

1

i
i

5

7

1

6
1
27

1
1

5

A brief summary of the principal strikes beginning in August as
well as those continuing into August follows:
Strikes and Lockouts Beginning in August, 1927

AAOTION-PICTURE theaters, Illinois.—A dispute between movingI v l picture machine operators and theater owners in Chicago as
to the number of operators to be employed in one of the theaters
resulted in the closing of some 350 or more theaters, beginning
August 29.
The theater owners or exhibitors wanted to employ only two
operators in the theater referred to, and the operators’ union insisted
on the employment of four, which was the number that had formerly
been employed in that theater under another management. When
the operators’ union ordered operators in all Orpheum Circuit
theaters to walk out during the afternoon of the 29th the Chicago
Exhibitors’ Association retaliated by ordering that all motion-pic­
ture and vaudeville theaters in the Chicago district belonging to the
association be closed at 6 p. m. August 29.
This action by the association had the effect of locking out or
laying off about 15,000 employees consisting of mostly operators,
ushers, musicians, and stage hands. The two last-named groups had
made certain demands, but no agreement had been reached, the musi­
cians being by far the largest union group involved in the dispute
with the exhibitors. As explained by the spokesman for the opera­
tors, the initial walkout was occasioned by the desire of the Orpheum
Circuit to eliminate two operators in the Belmont Theater, which
had been operated by another company using four projection men.
The Orpheum policy in other cities, he said, was to use only two
[835]

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

120

MONTHLY LABOE REVIEW

men in the projection booth, and it feared that if the four-men
precedent was established in Chicago it might have to be extended.
The exhibitors issued this statement:
W e h av e enough m oney a n d resources in o u r tre a su ry to c arry on th e fight
indefinitely u n til th e u n io n s a re re a d y to deal w ith th e ex h ib ito rs in a business­
like m anner. W e will n o t p e rm it la b o r lead ers to te ll us how to serve th e Chicago
public or w h a t to do w ith o u r tre m e n d o u s in v e stm e n ts in C hicago.

Prospects of a settlement of the strike were indicated on the
morning of September 3, after an all-night meeting between the
theater owners and workers, when it was announced that “ both
sides had commenced getting together for an agreement. ”
Later in the day it was announced that the “ strike and lockout”
was ended in the offices of the mayor of Chicago, where exhibitors,
machine operators, and stage hands’ representatives met after the
mayor had announced that he represented the public, which wanted
movies over Sunday and Labor Day. The terms of settlement were
not divulged, but were, it is stated, in the nature of a compromise
agreement whereby the two operators at the Belmont Theater, over
whom the fight started, are to receive full pay until next January,
when the operators’ agreement expires, and their status will be con­
sidered again at that time; the stage hands will receive an increase in
wages of “ between 7 and 8 per cent, representing three-fourths of
what they asked for.” It should be stated that the stage hands
had assumed an aggressive strike attitude for higher wages on Sep­
tember 1, following the expiration of their agreement on August 31.
Differences with the musicians were settled on September 5. They
had demanded the installation of four-piece orchestras in small
theaters, and, like the agreement with the stage hands, the settle­
ment reached was a compromise. The theater owners agreed to
install orchestras in part of the 47 theaters now without them, some
for full time and others for part of the year only.
This struggle resulted in a victory for the machine operators and
a partial victory for the musicians and stage hands. It also resulted
in an estimated loss in receipts of more than $1,000,000, having tied
up for several days theatrical investments of perhaps more than
$75,000,000.
Raincoat makers, Massachusetts.—A strike of waterproof clothing
workers in Boston and vicinity began on August 25. The number of
workers involved, including union and nonunion of both sexes, but
mostly female, is variously reported at from 1,000 to 2,000. The
strike was to enforce demands for a wage increase averaging from 20
to 25 per cent and a renewal of the 42-hour week agreement. The
old agreement, according to press reports, allowed $44 per week for
men and $35 for women in the organized shops, while in the un­
organized shops girls and women received from $10 to $12 a week.
It is understood that by August 29 this strike was successful as
regards at least 90 per cent of the workers.
Textile workers, North Carolina.—An unsuccessful strike of approxi­
mately 800 unorganized textile employees of the Harriet Cotton Mills,
of the Cooper interests, in Henderson, began on August 4 to enforce
a demand for a wage increase of 1 2 ^ per cent, which the operatives
claimed was promised them three years ago when their wages were
reduced during a period of business depression. The trouble began

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[836]

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS

121

at mill No. 1 and spread to the other mills, so that by August 11, all
the four mills were involved.
Following a conference between directors and employees on August
12 it was announced that an understanding to arbitrate had been
reached, but later this was denied, with the announcement that the
mills had proposed that the operatives return to work at once, the
wage question to be worked out later, which was rejected by the
workers. Troops were placed on guard at the plants, but remained
on duty only about two days, as their presence was found to be
unnecessary.
Further conferences were without results. Finally the operatives
proposed to return to work at once under certain conditions: “ We ask
that you allow us time lost during the strike, allowing each and every
one of us to return to work, and leaving the wage and living conditions
to you gentlemen whom we have known and worked for so long.”
The directors refused to accept this proposal.
Eviction notices against some of the workers caused uneasiness.
September 3, it was stated, was the last day for five mill families to
occupy mill houses, as legal ejection papers were posted and were
effective on that date, but the mill management announced that
papers served on four of the original nine employees had been with­
drawn. It was also reported on September 3 that some of the
strikers had expressed a willingness to return to work on Monday
morning, September 5. Later it was announced that a committee of
strikers had come to an agreement with the mill officials on the night
of September 3 and that the employees would return to work Monday
morning, September 5, on their old wage scale, with the understanding
as indicated by the strikers’ committee, that the mills would drop
eviction proceedings and grant wage increases at the earliest possible
moment. Some striking operatives returned to work on September
5, and on September 19 it was reported that virtually all of the
workers had returned and the mills were fully manned.
Strikes and Lockouts Continuing Into August, 1927

1DITUMINOUS coal strike.—The major suspension of April 1
continues. Some mines in Indiana have resumed operations
under the Jacksonville scale and, according to press reports, 8 or 10
mines in Central Pennsylvania resumed operations on an open-shop
basis during the latter part of August. Among the operating com­
panies are the Clearfield Bituminous Coal Corporation, Madeira-Hill
Coal Mining Co., Peole, Peacock & Kerr, and the Pennsylvania Coal
& Coke Corporation. These mines, it is stated, had been closed since
July 1, and heretofore have been operated under contracts with the
United Mine Workers.
Upon petition of the Clearfield Bituminous Coal Corporation,
Judge Langhorn, of Indiana County, issued a temporary injunction
on August 30 against District 2 United Mine Workers, Clearfield;
James Mark, president; Faber McCloskey, vice president; Richard
Gilbert, secretary and treasurer; local union No. 1515 at Dixonville;
and about 40 individuals as members of the union, restraining them
from interfering with the work of operating the Barr mine.
From Des Moines, Iowa, under date of September 1, comes the
information that Governor Hamill, of that State, has refused for the
6 3 9 5 2 °— 27-------9


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[8 3 7 ]

122

M ONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

third time to send troops to the coal fields of Appanoose County,
“ where the operators are trying to start up nonunion.” He denied
the request for troops on the ground that the situation in Appanoose
County did not warrant such a course. His decision was reached
after conferring with operators, union officers, and the civil officials
of Appanoose County.
Joint wage negotiations were resumed on September 7 between
members of the Coal Operators’ Association of Illinois and District
12 of the United Mine Workers. Following a meeting of the full
committees of operators and miners, negotiations were turned over
to a subcommittee of two operators and two miners, who will endeavor
to reach an agreement upon a new contract to succeed the one which
expired March 31.
On September 12 it was announced from Chicago that the sub­
committee had failed to reach an agreement and that a committee of
nine operators had been . appointed to consider the situation. The
committee of nine, however, refused to accept this plan, and on Sep­
tember 13 it was announced that negotiations to end the coal strike
in Illinois had failed, when a joint conference of miners and operators
adjourned without reaching an agreement.
Supplementary note.—It was reported from Chicago that on Octo­
ber 1 the operators and miners had reached an agreement whereby
the mines in Illinois will resume operations after being idle six
months. Under the agreement the mines are to resume operations
as soon as possible, paying the old Jacksonville wage scale, while a
study is being made of the Illinois mine situation by a commission
of four, composed of two executives from the operators and two from
the miners. This commission is to report on February 7, 1928, to
a joint scale committee of both factions, and its findings will be taken
as a basis for a permanent contract next spring.
A temporary settlement in Iowa was reached on October 4, following a
meeting of the Iowa Coal Operators’Association at which the operators
agreed to settle on a plan similar to the one formulated for Illinois.
Laborers and hod carriers, Rhode Island.—The strike of building
laborers and hod carriers in Providence and vicinity, which began
June 1, terminated, it is understood, on August 25, but the terms of
settlement have not been reported.
C o n c ilia tio n W ork o f th e D e p a r tm e n t o f Labor in A u g u st, 1927
B y H u g h L. K e r w in , D ir e c t o r

of

C o n c il ia t io n

HE Secretary of Labor, through the Conciliation Service, exer­
cised his good offices in connection with 38 labor disputes during
August, 1927. These disputes affected a known total of 18,782
employees. The table following shows the name and location of the
establishment or industry in which the dispute occurred, the nature
of the dispute (whether strike or lockout or .controversy not having
reached the strike or lockout stage), the craft or trade concerned, the
cause of the dispute, its present status, the terms of settlement, the
date of beginning and ending, and the number of workers directly
and indirectly affected.
On September 1, 1927, there were 42 strikes before the department
for settlement, and, in addition, 5 controversies which had not
reached the strike stage. The total number of cases pending was 45.

T


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[838]

LA BO R D IS P U T E S H A N D L E D B Y T H E U N IT E D ST A T ES D E P A R T M E N T OP LA BO R T H R O U G H ITS C O N C IL IA TIO N SE R V IC E , A U G U ST , 1927
Workers
involved

Duration
Company or industry and location

Nature of
controversy

Craftsmen concerned

Hazel Glass Co., Washington, Pa.,
Clarksburg and Grafton, W. Va.,
and Zanesville, Ohio.
Washington Mold & Machine Co.,
Washington, Pa.
Carpenters, Peoria, 111.........................

Asked 5 cents per hour in­
crease.
Wage cut of three-fourths
cent per yard.
Objection to bonus plan____

[839]

do.

Glassworkers.

do.

Mold makers.

.do.

Carpenters............... . Wages, open shop, and con­
ditions.
Textile workers____ Amount of production-------

Wilkes-Barre Silk Co., Wilkes- . ....d o .
Barre, Pa.
Printers, Salem, Oreg.......................... ..........do.

do.

Printers...................... Asked new agreement, $48
atad $51 for 42-hour week.
Plasterers; tile set­ Jurisdiction...........................
ters.
C arpenters............. Proposed wage cut------------

Notre D am e University, South Controversy
Bend, Ind.
Evans Construction Co., Colum­ Strike-----. . .
bus, Ohio.
Hess-Goldsmith Silk Co., Kingston, ___ do........... Textile weavers.
Pa.
Hess-Goldsmith Silk Co., Wilkesdo.
do.
Barre, Pa.
do.
___ do..............
D o ___________ ______________
do.
United Pants Co., Worcester, Mass.
Pants makers.

Present status and terms of settle­
ment

Ending

1927
Adjusted. Returned without change; July 2
3 men em ployed elsewhere.
Adjusted. Returned; accepted cut July 27
and new methods.
Pending.......................................................

D i­ Indi­
rectly rectly

1927
Aug. 1

22

Aug.

30

8

10

80
30

___ do__________ ____ ______________
Sept. 10

125

1,500

Adjusted. Accepted new working Aug. 4
conditions.
(i)
Pending.____ _____ _____ ___________

Aug.

6

496

4

Adjusted. Accepted National Board Aug.
of Awards’ decision.
Pending._______ ___________________ Aug.

Aug.

4

Adjusted. Returned without increase. M ay

Wage cuts; 4-loom s y ste m ... Adjusted. Allowed increase on 4loom system.
Sympathy w ith K in gston .. . Adjusted. Returned when Kingston
settled.
___do.................... .................... ___ do________ _____ _______________
Working conditions in plant _ Adjusted. Accepted terms of com­
pany.
Pure Oil Co., Newark, O hio......... . Controversy Oil workers________ Discharges for union affilia­ Adjusted. Workers reinstated w ith­
out prejudice.
tion.
Capital Taxicab Co., Jersey City, Strike.......... Drivers_____ ____ _ Working conditions________ Unclassified. Returned to work be­
fore arrival o f commissioner.
N . J.
Stein & Merritt, N ew York C ity__ ___ do_____ Neckwear m akers... Objection to nonunion slip Pending.___________________________
stitching.
Kaiser Ventilating Co., Chicago, ___ do........... Sheet-metal work­ Union membership dispute. . Adjusted. Contractor became union
member.
ers.
111.
John R . E vans Co., Philadelphia, Threatened Leather workers___ W a g es.......... 1____________ Adjusted. Wage scale formulated for
glazed kid leather work.
strike.
Pa.
Harriet Cotton M ills, Henderson, Strike_____ Textile workers......... Asked 12Yi per cent increase. Pending. Proposed compromise re­
jected.
N . C.
1 N ot reported.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Begin­
ning

2

1

(9

70

150

4

75

Aug. 16

372

3

Aug. 15 ___do___

120

8

..» d o ___

July 29

Aug.

3

90
30

6

Aug. 10

Sept. 4

7

73

Aug.

9

Aug. 10

Aug.

3

Aug. 17

7

Aug. 15

Sept. 12

700

(9

CONCILIATION WORK OF T H E DEPARTMENT

Kentucky River Sand & Stone Co., S trik e.,........ E m ployees...
Tyrone, K y.
Lasay Silk Co., Fall River, Mass_______do_____ W eavers____

Cause of dispute

60

Aug.

7

800

to

OO

Duration
Company or industry and location

Nature of
controversy

Craftsmen concerned

Cause of dispute

Wage c u t .______________ .

Apr. 25

Sept. 12

84

150

Aug. 17

Aug. 22

200

100

(i)
Aug. 17

Aug. 22

(l)
80

220

Aug. 12

Aug. 13

50

50

Adjusted. Workers joined union and Aug. 11
returned.
Aug. 16
ranged difficulty.

Aug. 22

25

ployed elsewhere.
Adjusted. Company agreed to pay
union wage scale with union hourson
this job.

Controversy. Bookbinders______ Dischargesforunionactivity.
Strike........... Clothing makers___ 5 employees discharged for Unclassified.
alleged sabotage.
change.
___do_____ Building trades____
____ d o ____
____do_____

Blau & Jachomowitz, New York ____do_____
City.
Velour Hat Co., N ew York C ity___ _ _ _do_____
Building trades, Lexington, K y____ ____do_____

Cloak and dress Demand for closed shop___
makers.
Coat makers_______
ship cards.
Ladies’ coat makers Organization d isp u te _____

Veterans Hospital, Bedford, Mass^ Strike_____
W aterproof garments. B oston,Mass- ____do_____
____do_____
hands, and musicians, Chicago,

Returned

w it h o u t

Hat fin ish e r s_____ Wages and conditions____
Building crafts_____ Sympathy with carpenters. _
turned.

___ Asked closed shop. . . . . .
Carpenters, Lexington, Ky_- ____ __ ..d o _____ Carpenters..
Jno. M . Wood, contractor, Cleve- Threatened Stonecutters _____ Wages of apprentices___
land, Ohio.
strike.
Shoe lasters, Quincy, 111_________ Controversy. Lasters____________ Wages for new work.........

contract.
terms.

Building laborers__ Demand for closed shop.
Garment makers___ Asked 20 per cent increase...
Theater em ployees..

15

Aug. 22

20

9

30
300

19

Aug. 31

Aug. 26

Aug. 27

70
3

230
35

Aug.

Aug. 22

4

Sept. 3

CO
1, 000
600

10,000

15

230

150

200

5,727

13, 055

Aug.

1

Aug. 29

F . & C. Chevrolet Garage, Nash Lockout___ Mechanics_________ Discharged for union afiiliaand Buick auto companies, Des
tion.
Moines, Iowa.
Theater building, Fort Wayne, Ind. Controversy.

Aug. 27
July
out change of labor conditions.

 N ot reported.
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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Aug. 19

contract w ith workers.

T otal_____________________
1

D i­ Indi­
rectly rectly
38

(>)

jected.
cut.
Asked union wage scale and
union recognition.

Ending

1 Aug. 15

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

[840]

Art Color Plant, Dunellen, N . J___
Kondazian & Son, Watertown,
Mass.
Bryant Construction Co., Indianapolis, Ind.
Beata Coat & Dress Co.,New York
City.
Kaplan & Cohen, N ew York C ity ...

Workers
involved

Present status and terms of settle­
ment
Begin­
ning

Kent Strauss Silk Co., Allentown, Strike_____ W eavers__________
Pa.
___do__.....................
Wallace Silk Co., Phillipsburg,
N . J.
Park Lap Co. (Inc.), Buffalo, N . Y_ ........do______ C arpenters........... .

124

LABOR D IS P U T E S H A N D L E D BY T H E U N IT E D ST A T ES D E P A R T M E N T OF LABOR T H R O U G H ITS C ONCILIATION SE R V IC E , A U G U ST , 1927—Con.

125

M ONTHLY LABOE REVIEW

W ork o f th e M exican C o n c ilia tio n a n d A r b itra tio n B oards

REPORT on labor disputes handled by the central boards of
conciliation and arbitration in Mexico in 1926 was sub­
mitted to the Department of Industry, Commerce, and
Labor.1 The table following shows the number and causes of the
disputes, the number of workers affected, the terms of settlement, and
the amounts awarded.

A

LA BO R D IS P U T E S H A N D L E D B Y T H E M E X IC A N C E N T R A L B O A R D S OP C O N C IL I­
A T IO N A N D A R B IT R A T IO N IN 1926
[Average exchange value of peso in 1926 = 48.3 cents]
Number of workers
involved
Causes of conflict

N um ­
ber of
cases

Men

Fa­
Favor­ voring
Wom­ Chil­ ing the em­ Pend­ In dis­ Award­
ed
pute
dren work­ ploy­ ing
en
ers
ers
Pesos

Pesos

69
71
1

109, 627
28,906
393
458,712
118,278
180

24

1
10

90
3, 559

106,248
15,236
5,332
310,650
203,618
7,667
2,847
468
130,263

195

197

719,745

782,329

4
17
2
13
133
2

14

209
159
70
1,501
3,011
48
30
27
215

53

5,270

237
Industrial accidents................................
197
Violation of labor contracts------------72
Reduction of wages....................... .........
Withholding of wages— ------ --------- 1,583
Unjustified dismissal_______ _______ 3, 215
51
Increase of wages d e n ie d ---------------30
Violation of legal working hours-----28
Poor administration........................... . .
249
Miscellaneous..........................................

362
5, 593
337
3,148
6,145
1,155
259
82
7,218

38
122
308
728
1,331
281
61
12
381

8
20
1
10

5,662

24,299

3,262

T otal.............................................

Amount—

Settlements—

24
21

i Mexico. Departamento de Industria, Comercio y Trabajo. Boletín Comercial, Mexico, D . F.,
M ay 6, 1927, and Pan American Union Bulletin, Washington, September, 1927, p. 940.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

'[841]

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR
Entrance Wage Rates for Common Labor, July 1, 1927
HE term common labor has many interpretations among dif­
ferent industries, and even among different localities or plants
in the same industry. Many employers make a practice of
increasing the rate of pay of a laborer after a stated length of service,
provided a sufficient degree of fitness for the job has been developed;
otherwise the employee is dropped. Owing to these difficulties in
the way of securing comparable data as to wage rates for common
labor, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has confined these statistics to
entrance rates alone—that is, the data here presented are based on
rates of pay per hour given unskilled adult male common laborers
when first hired.
This survey is limited to 13 important industries, which require
considerable numbers of common laborers. Some establishments
have reported two rates—for example, one for the 10-hour day and
one for the 8-hour day, or one for white and one for colored or Mexican
workers; these distinctions have not been maintained in the tabulated
data, although it is apparent that the lowest rates are shown for those
geographic divisions where there are large numbers of colored or
Mexican workers, while the highest rates are shown for localities
where an 8-hour day is more or less prevalent.
The industries included in this study and the number of common
laborers in each on July 1, 1927, employed, at entrance rates, in the
establishments reporting are as follows:

T

Number of
laborers

A utom obiles____________________________________________
B rick, tile, a n d te r r a c o tt a ______________________________
C em en t_________________________________________________
E lectrical m achin ery , a p p a ra tu s, a n d su p p lies___________
F o u n d ry a n d m achine-shop p ro d u c ts____________________
Iro n an d ste e l__________________________________________
L e a th e r_________________________________________________
L u m b er (saw m ills)______________________________________
P a p e r a n d p u lp _________________________________________
P etro leu m refin in g ______________________________________
S lau g h terin g a n d m e a t p a c k in g _________________________
P ublic u tilitie s__________________________________________
G eneral c o n tra c tin g _____________________________________

5, 604
3, 117
1, 842
2, 883
9, 299
19, 934
2, 874
13, 304
7, 341
3, 738
6, 327
15, 989
36, 468

T o ta l____________________________________________

128, 720

The number of common laborers reported in each of the nine
geographic divisions of the United States is:
Number of
laborers

New E n g la n d ___________________________________________
M iddle A tla n tic ________________________________________
E a s t N o rth C e n tra l_____________________________________
W est N o rth C e n tra l__________ ;_________________________
S o u th A tla n tic __________________________________________
E a s t S o u th C e n tra l_____________________________________
W est S o u th C e n tra l____________________________________
M o u n ta in ______________________________________________
Pacific__________________________________________________

126

T o ta l____________________________________________
[842]


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

6,
34,
30,
10,
13,
7,
8,
4,
12,

922
872
139
339
741
175
043
790
699

128, 720

127

COMMON LABOE— ENTEANCE WAGE BATES

The weighted average hourly rate for the several industries com­
bined is 42.6 cents, both the lowest and the highest rates reported
being in general contracting, the lowest, 15 cents, in the South Atlantic
division, and the highest, $1.12^, in the Middle Atlantic division.
The highest average rate per hour in any of the industries, 48.2
cents, appears in general contracting, followed by 46.3 cents in the
automobile industry; the lowest average rate, 32.2 cents, appears in
the sawmill industry.
The highest average hourly rate in any geographic division, 47.2
cents, appears in the Middle Atlantic division, followed by 46.7, in
both the New England and East North Central divisions, and 46.5
in the Pacific division; the lowest average rate, 27 cents, appears in
the East South Central division.
The weighted average entrance rates per hour for all industries
covered, including general contracting, have been as follows:
Cents

Ju ly 1, 1926_____________
O c to b e r*1, 1926_____________________________________________
J a n u a ry 1, 1927_____________________________________________
J u ly 1, 1927_____________________

42.
43.
43.
42.

8
4
2
6

Omitting the data for general contracting, which was first in­
cluded in these compilations on July 1, 1926, average entrance rates
per hour for the periods studied have been as follows:
Cents

J a n u a ry 1, 1926_____________________________________________ 40.
A pril 1, 1926________________________________________________ 40.
Ju ly 1, 1926_________________________________________________ 40.
O ctober 1, 1926_____________________________________________ 40.
41.
Ja n u a ry 1, 1927________________
Ju ly 1, 1927_________________________________________________ 40.

2
5
9
9
0
4

The table following shows for each industry the high, low, and aver­
age entrance rates per hour in each geographic division and in the
United States as a whole:
H O U R L Y W AGE R A T E S P A ID EOR CO M M O N LA BO R , JU L Y 1, 1927
[The rates on which this table is based are entrance rates paid for adult male common labor]

Geographic division
Industry

United
id­ East West
East
States New M
dle North North South
Eng­
A t­ South
At­
Cen­
Cen­
Cen­
land lantic tral
tral lantic tral

Automobiles:
Cents Cents
Low ............................................... 33. 3
High________________ ____
70. 0
Average— __________________ 46. 3
Brick, tile, and terra cotta:
Low __ ____ _ ______________
17.5
40.0
High------------------ ---------------62. 7
50.0
Average_______ ______ ______ 42.2
44.1
Cement:
Low ............... ..... ...................... 25. 0
High_______________________
56. O
A verage... . . . _____________ 39. 2
Electrical machinery, apparatus,
and supplies:
L ow ______________________
33. 0
33.0
H ig h ...________ ____________ 61. 0
48. 0
Average.......................................... 44.2
42.8


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Cents

Cents

Cents

40. 0
62. 5
43. 8

35. 0
62. 5
47. 0

33.3
65. 0
38.4

25.0
62. 7
50.3

30.0
50. 0
39.7

27.0
40.0
30.9

35. 0
45. 0
43. 8

35. 0
44. 0
39.6

35. 0
35. 0
35.0

40. 0
51. 0
41. 6

39. 0
61. 0
49.2

35.0
40. 0
37.5

[843]

West
South Moun­ Pa­
Cen­ tain cific
tral

Cents Cents Cents

Cents

Cents

45. 0
70. 0
50. 6
17.5
40.0
28.7

40. 0
40. 0
40.0

2

17. 5
37.0
24. 3

Q. 0
37. 5
27.1

26. 0
40. 0
30. 9

25; 0
28 0
27.1

38.5
40. 0
39. 3

40.0
53.4
43.3
34. 0
56. 0
47. 2

128

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW
H O U R L Y W A G E R A T E S PA ID FO R C O M M O N LABOR, JU L Y 1, 1927—Continued
Geographic division
Industry

United
East West South East
States N ew M id­ North
North A t­ South
dle
Eng­
Cen­ Cen­ lantic
A t­
Cen­
land lantic
tral
tral
tral

Foundry and machine-shop products:
Cents
Low........................................ ....... 17. 5
High_______ ____ ___________ 56. 0
Average__________ __________ 37. 8
Iron and steel:
20. 0
H igh_____________ _____ ____
50. 0
A v era g e....................................... 43. 2
Leather:
L ow _______________________
22. 5
H igh ........... ................................. . 60. 0
Average........ ............ .................. 41.4
Lumber (sawmills):
L ow _______________ ______ _
16. 0
H igh_______________________
62. 5
A ver age.____________________ 32. 2
Paper and pulp:
L ow _______________________
22. 5
H ig h _____________ _______
54. 0
Average _______ ____ ______ 42. 5
Petroleum refining:
30. 0
High____________________ . . . 62. 0
Average ______ __________
44. 0
Slaughtering and meat packing:
Low . ____________________
37. 5
High_______________________ 45. 0
A v e r a g e ........ .............................. 41. 7
Public utilities:1
Low........................... ................... 20. 0
High_______________________
71. 5
Average__________ __________ 39.8
General contracting:2
L ow .............................................
15.0
High_________ _____________ 112. 5
A verage.............................. ......... 48. 2
Total :
L ow . _______________ 15. 0
High--------------------------- 112. 5
A verage........................... . 42. 6

West
South M oun­ Pa­
Cen­ tain cific
tral

Cents

Cents

Cents

Cents

33.0
45.0
39. 7

30. 0
50. 0
40. 4

34. 0
50. 0
39. 2

35. 0
50. 0
40.3

17. 5
43. 8
27. 3

28. 0
40. 0
30. 5

40. 0
45. 0
43. 2

30. 0
50. 0
43. 5

35. 0
50. 0
44. 2

35. 0
40. 0
37.1

20 0
44. 0
36. 7

31. 0
31. 0
31. 0

47.9
54. 2
50. 2

33. 3
60.0
44. 1

35. 0
52. 0
42. 4

22. 5
40. 0
32. 4

27. 5
33. 0
33. 0

33. 0
36. 0
34. 2

30.0
40.0
38.6

30.0
62. 5
36.0

32. 5
35. 0
34.6

16.0
35. 0
21.9

18. 5 20.0
30. 0 .31. 5
23. 0 24. 2

36. 0
50. 0
44. 1

35. 0
50. 0
42. 2

35. 0
54. 0
44. 0

35. 0
40. 0
38. 3

30. 0
38. 3
36. 3

22. 5
26. 0
24. 4

50. 0
50. 0
50. 0

30 0
50. 0
44. 2

30 0
50. 0
38. 9

40 0
50. 7

53 0
62 0
59.4

37. 5
37. 5
37. 5

¿0 0
40 0
40.0

40.0
45 0
42.2

37. 0
53. 0
45. 2

Cents Cents Cents Cents

22. 5
30. 0
26. 3

Cents

35. 0
41. 8
36.3

44.0
56.0
50.6

41 0
49 0
48. 8

42 5
50 0
46. 2
44. 0
48. 8
48.6

40. 0
45.0
41. 6

29.0
50.0
42.4
40 0
51. 3
43.0

38. 0
40. 0
39. 5

40. 0
45. 0
42. 6

40. 0
45. 0
41. 4

37. 5
45. 0
42. 2

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

40.0
71. 5
47.4

32.0
63.0
45. 5

32. 5
60. 0
45.9

30. 0
40. 0
33.4

20.0
45.0
32.9

25.0
40. 0
29. 1

27. 0
35.0
29. 2

35. 0
40. 0
36.7

33.0
56.3
47.9

40.0
81. 5
53. 5

35.0
112. 5
55. 6

35.0
92. 5
57. 0

30.0
100. 0
43. 2

15.0
62. 5
32.6

20.0
35. 0
28. 4

25.0
50. 0
35. 3

30. 0
62. 5
44. 2

40.0
75.0
51.4

33.0
25.0
81. 5 .112. 5
46. 7
47. 2

30.0
92. 5
46. 7

27.0
100. 0
40. 6

15. 0
62. 5
31. 5

17. 5
40. 0
27.0

20. 0
50.0
31. 8

30. 0
62. 5
44. 4

29.0
75.0
46.5

1Including street railways, gas works, waterworks, and electric power and light plants.
2Including building, highway, public works, and railroad construction.

A verage W ages a n d H ou rs in C o tto n G oods

Manufacturing, 1926

SUMMARIZED statement of earnings and hours worked in 151
cotton mills in 12 States during one representative week in
1926 is shown below. These figures represent the employees
in all occupations combined, by States. Bulletin No. 446 of the
Bureau of Labor Statistics presents the results of the bureau’s study
in greater detail.
This table shows that the 82,982 employees earned an average of
32.8 cents per hour, averaged 45 hours per week of actual work, and
earned an average of $14.76 per week. In the representative week
canvassed 15 per cent of the mills did not operate all their normal
full time and a considerable number of employees in all the mills did
not work all the time the mills were in operation. Had they worked
the full-time hours, which averaged 53.3, they would have earned,
at the same rate per hour, $17.48 per week. Their actual hours
worked and actual earnings were 84 per cent of full-time hours and
earnings.

A


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WAGE POLICY OF AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR

A V ER A G E W AGES A N D H OURS OF LABOR IN COTTO N-GOODS M A N U F A C T U R IN G
1926, BY ST A TES

State

Per
Aver- Aver­
age
cent
age
hours of fu ll­
fullactu­
tim e
tim e
ally
hours
hours worked
actu­
per
one
ally
week in
week worked

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
earn­
ings
per
week

Aver­
age
actual
earn­
ings
made
in one
week

N um ­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

N um ­
ber of
em ­
ploy­
ees

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

6
6
15
5
23
6
3
47
3
12
22
3

5,352
2, 918
9,765
3,237
17, 305
4, 273
2,194
17, 621
753
4,771
12, 631
2,162

$0. 242
.386
.250
.369
.413
.429
. 412
.289
.388
.407
.252
.303

54. 8
50. 8
57.0
53. 9
48. 5
53. 8
49.1
55. 8
52.1
50. 2
55.1
55.2

43. 4
48.3
45. 7
45.1
45. 5
47.3
44. 3
47. 2
39.4
44. 2
41.0
44.3

79
95
80
84
94
88
90
85
76
88
74
80

$13. 26
19. 61
14. 25
19. 89
20. 03
23.08
20. 23
16.13
20. 21
20. 43
13. 89
16. 73

$10. 51
18.67
11. 39
16. 67
18. 78
20. 33
18.26
13. 63
15.29
18.00
10.33
13.42

151

82, 982

.328

53.3

45.0

84

17.48

14. 76

W age R a te s in O p e n -C u t C opper M in es

REPORT on drilling and blasting in open-cut copper mines by
the Bureau of Mines1gives daily wage rates for specified occu­
pations in six such mines located in Arizona, Nevada, New
Mexico, and Utah. The table below gives the average wage rate
per eight-hour shift for all the mines:

A

A V ER A G E D A IL Y W AGE SCALE, IN SIX O PEN -C U T C O PP E R M IN E S, IN 1924-25, B Y
OCCU PA TIO N

Average
daily
wage rate

Occupation

F ir e m e n ................................ ......................
Churn-drill run n ers..................................
Churn-drill helpers___________________
1 Five mines.

Occupation

$7.48
5. 41
4. 19
1 5. 44
2 5. 24
2 4. 33
2 Four mines.

Average
daily
wage rate
i $4. 24
13.55
3 4. 25
2 4.10
3.07
2.72

8 One mine.

W age P olicy of th e A m erican F ed era tio n o f Labor

HE following statement on the modern wage policy of the
American Federation of Labor and the appended comments
on such policy are reproduced from the American Federationist of August, 1927 (pp. 919-924):

T

Statement of Policy

/~\NE of the chief tasks of organized labor has always been to secure
^
higher wages for workers. The struggle for higher wages now
enters its third phase.
1United States. Department of Commerce. Bureau of Mines.
mines, by E. D . Gardner. Washington, 1927.


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Drilling and blasting in open-cut copper

130

MONTHLY LABOE BEVIEW

In the earliest period organized labor struggled for higher money
wages. Instead of $10 per week, it tried to secure $11 per week,
and the next year perhaps $12.
A second period in the wage policy began as organized labor realized
that the amount of money is no adequate measure for deciding whether
a wage is high or low, and that it is necessary to relate money wages
to prices. Then organized labor struggled for higher real wages—
that is, wages that would buy more.
Very obvious changes in prices induced organized labor to realize
the necessity for calculating in real wages.
Very obvious changes in productivity of labor to-day induce
organized labor again to widen its wage policy.
Higher money wages from an economic point of view do not
improve the situation of the worker if prices increase more than
money wages.
Higher real wages from a social point of view do not improve the
situation of the worker if productivity increases more than real wages.
For higher productivity^ without corresponding increase of real
wages means that the additional product has to be bought by others
than the wage earner. This means that the social position of the
wage earner in relation to other consumers becomes worse, because
his standard of living will not advance proportionately with those of
other groups.
Deteriorating social position—that is, declining purchasing power
of the mass of the wage earners in relation to the national product—
brings about industrial instability which will develop into industrial
crisis.
3 he American Federation of Labor is the first organization of
labor in the world to realize the importance of the factor productivity
in economic society. It no longer strives merely for higher money
wages; it no longer strives merely for higher real wages; it strives for
higher social wages—for wages which increase as measured by prices
and productivity.
This modern wage policy lifts the movement to an absolutely new
level. For higher real wages meant only betterment of the economic
position—while higher social wages mean betterment of the economic
and social position of the worker. The modern wage policy guarantees
an active but stable development of industrial society.
(Signed)
W il l ia m
G r e e n .
Comments
I.

I n tr o d u c t io n

O N E of the chief tasks of organized labor has always been to
secure higher wages for workers.”
Organized labor tries to secure higher wages for the workers
because higher wages mean a better life, because higher wages secure
progress toward life worthy of men. And labor was organized in
order to secure for the workers the opportunities which growing
civilization offers.
“ The struggle for higher wages now enters its third phase.”


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WAGE POLICY OP AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR

131

In its struggle for higher wages organized labor broadened its
point of view. Better insight into economic things brought new
factors into consideration. The modern wage policy is the second
enlargement in the point of view.
II.

E a r lie r P o in t s of V iew

“ In the earliest period organized labor struggled for higher money
wages. Instead of $10 per week it tried to secure $11 per week, and
the next year perhaps $12.”
In the earliest period of wage struggles and wage negotiations
organized labor only considered the figures. If you get $10 you can
spend 10 times $1 or two times $5. If you get $11 you can spend,
instead of 10 times, 11 times $1, or you can spend two times $5
and you have left one more dollar, while if you get only $10 there
is nothing left after you have spent two times $5. And you can
spend still more if you get $12 per week. We call these wages—•
which organized labor in this earliest period tried to increase—
money wages, because it looked only for a higher amount of money.
“A'second period in the wage policy began as organized labor
realized that the amount of money is no adequate measure for decid­
ing whether a wage is high or low, and that it is necessary to relate
money wages to prices. Then organized labor struggled for higher
real wages—that is, wages that would buy more.”
After a while organized labor realized that higher money wages do
not mean always a better living, a more abundant life. And just
that organized labor has to secure for the workers. But why did
higher money wages not secure better living conditions? Let us
assume wages rise by 10 per cent. If prices, at the same time, rise
more than 10 per cent, the worker can buy less with his wages than
before, although the money amount of the wages is higher.
Example.—First year: Weekly earnings, $20; weekly expenses, $20.
Then, in the next year, wages increase by 10 per cent, but prices
increase by 20 per cent. The situation is the following now:
Second year: Weekly earnings, $22 (10 per cent higher than in the
year before); weekly expenses, $24 (20 per cent increase of the prices
of all commodities).

We see: Money wages increased but prices increased more. The
worker has to go into debt if he wants to buy as many commodities
as in the previous year, or he has to restrict his expenses and to
buy less; that means, of course, that his standard of living becomes
worse; that his economic position becomes worse, although his money
wages increased.
Organized labor learned that it had to pay attention to prices, and
that wages had to be measured not only by the figure indicating the
amount of money but also by prices; organized labor learned to relate
wages and prices. Wages which are related to prices we call real
wages. They give a real picture of the economic situation of the
worker. The real-wage policy of organized labor did not intend to
keep wages exactly on the same level with prices. It did not say:
If prices go up 10 per cent wages also have to go up 10 per cent; if
prices go down 10 per cent wages also have to go down 10 per cent.
The significance of the second period of wage policy lies in the fact
that prices are a measure for wages. Wages may keep pace with


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132

MONTHLY LABOE EEVIEW

prices; wages may increase more than prices; wages may decrease
less than prices—but always prices are the measure for wages;
always wages are related to prices.
III.

H o w D id S u c h C h a n g e s in t h e W a g e P o lic y C o m e A b o u t?

“Very obvious changes in prices induced organized labor to realize
the necessity for calculating in real wages. Very obvious changes
in productivity of labor to-day induce organized labor again to widen
its wage policy.”
One is usually concerned only with things which have become
obvious. If every day you see a green street car you don’t notice it.
But if suddenly the street car is black you are astonished and wonder
what it means. Just so it was with organized labor. As long as
prices did not change very much organized labor did not care about
prices. But as prices rose quite a bit, organized labor paid attention,
organized labor began to study the problem, and finally started a
new wage policy—the real-wage policy. Nowadays a new factor
in economic life becomes very obvious—productivity. In the recent
past productivity of labor increased very much. Organized labor
began to pay attention, organized labor began to study the problem
and, finally, to-day organized labor starts a broader wage policy.
IV .

T h e E c o n o m ic P o i n t of V iew a n d th e S o c ia l P o i n t o f V iew

“ Higher money wages from an economic point of view do not
improve the situation of the worker if prices increase more than
money wages.”
We saw that if you get higher money wages that does not mean
that your economic position improves, because the economic position
is very much determined by the amount of commodities which you
can buy for yourself and your family. Higher money wages, however,
do not buy more commodities if the prices of the commodities increase
more than the money wages. Thus organized labor strove for higher
real wages, which are money wages related to prices, in order to
improve the economic situation of the worker.
“ Higher real wages from a social point of view do not improve the
situation of the worker if productivity increases more than real
wages.”
The worker lives in a society. In this society everybody tries to
improve his economic situation. Now, it can happen that those
who are not wage earners improve their economic situation more
than the wage earners improve theirs. Then the economic situation
of the wage earners improves, since they can buy more commodities
than before, but their social situation, their position in society,
becomes worse because those who are not wage earners can buy
proportionately more than they can buy. This happens, e. g., if
productivity increases more than real wages increase. Therefore,
the modern wage policy no longer pays attention merely to prices
or to real wages; it tries no longer to secure merely a better economic
situation for the wage earner, but it watches, in addition, the wage
earners’ social position, his position in society; watches also that his
share in the progress of civilization does not become smaller. Thus,
as organized labor in the second period paid attention to the develop
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[848]

WAGE POLICY OF AMEBICAN FEDEKATION OF LABOE

133

ment of prices in order to secure a satisfying economic position for
the wage earner, it starts now its third phase of its wage policy
watching the development of productivity in order to secure a
satisfying social position for the worker.
V.

P r o d u c ti v ity , R e a l W ag e s, S o c ia l P o s itio n of t h e W o rk e r a n d I n d u s t r i a l S ta b ilit y

“ For higher productivity without corresponding increase of real
wages means that the additional product has to be bought by others
than the wage earner. This means that the social position of the
wage earner in relation to other consumers becomes worse, because
his standard of living will not advance proportionately with those of
other groups.”
How does increasing productivity bring about such changes in the
social position of the worker?
Let us assume: All American workers produce in one hour 100,000
commodities. The price of each commodity is $1. The value of all
commodities together is then $100,000. All the workers together
get as wages for their work $50,000. With their wages they can
buy 50,000 commodities, or just half of their product. The other
half, also 50,000 commodities, will be bought by other consumers
who are not wage earners. In the next year the productivity increases
by 10 per cent. That means that all American workers together, in
one hour, produce 10 per cent more commodities than in the year
before. They produce, then, instead of 100,000 commodities, 110,000
commodities. Let us assume that the price of the single commodity
does not change. I t remains $1 for the single commodity. Let us
assume that the wages of the wage earners do not change. Then
they buy just as many commodities as in the year before. They get
together $50,000 as wages and can buy with their wages, as in the
year before, 50,000 commodities. Their real wages remain on the
same level; they neither decrease nor increase. On the other side,
in the year before, there were 50,000 commodities for other con­
sumers. In this year, after the increase of the productivity of the
worker, there are 60,000 commodities left. The additional product
of 10,000 commodities has to be bought by those other consumers.
So the consumers who are not wage earners buy 20 per cent more
commodities than in the year before. Their economic position has
improved, while that of the workers remained unchanged. That
means that the social position of the wage earner became worse;
he is worse off compared with the other consumers, because he did
not have a share in the additional product produced by his increasing
productivity. So increasing productivity to which he contributed
made the social position of the worker worse. I t did not permit him
to share together with all others the benefits of human progress.
“ Deteriorating social position—that is, declining purchasing power
of the mass of the wage earners in relation to the national product—
brings about industrial instability which will develop into industrial
crisis.”
If the social position of the wage earner deteriorates, if the share
of the wage earner in the national product declines, the product added
by increasing productivity has to be bought by other consumers. In
the long run, however, those other consumers—either those m the

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134

MONTHLY LABOE BEVIEW

country itself or those abroad—can not absorb the total additional
product. Stocks accumulate. They grow and grow. Industrial
instability arises; industrial instability turns to depression and de­
pression to crisis. _ Allowing the wage earner a proportionate share in
the products of increasing productivity, therefore, means from the
point of view of social economics: Taking measures to prevent
industrial instability, industrial depression, and industrial crisis.
V I.

T h e A m e ric a n F e d e r a tio n o f L a b o r a n d th e P o lic y o f S o c ia l W ag e s

a The American Federation of Labor is the first organization of
labor in the world to realize the importance of the factor productivity
in economic society.”
All over the world organized labor has realized the necessity to
turn from a wage_ policy which provides only higher money wages to
a wage policy which provides also higher real wages.
The American Federation of Labor, however, is the first of all
trade-unions or trade-union federations to realize the importance of
the factor productivity in economic society; the first to provide
increasing benefits in progressing civilization for the worker.
7It no longer strives merely for higher money wages; it no longer
strives merely for higher real wages; it strives for higher social
wages, for wages which increase as measured by prices and pro­
ductivity. ”
Striving for higher money wages means striving for a higher
amount of money as wage. Striving for higher real wages means
striving for wages which increase in relation to prices and secure a
better economic situation for the worker. Striving for higher
social wages means striving for wages which increase in relation to
prices and productivity, and secure a better economic and social posi­
tion for the worker. We call these wages social wages because they
are significant for the position of the worker in society.
In what degree should social wages increase? Differently in
different industries. The social wage policy of the American Federa­
tion of Labor does not intend to keep wages exactly on the same level
with prices and productivity. I t does not say, if prices and pro­
ductivity (combined) go up 10 per cent wages also have to go up fO
per cent; if prices and productivity (combined) go down 10 per cent
wages also have to go down 10 per cent. The significance of the
modern wage policy lies in the fact that no longer prices alone, but
prices and productivity, are a measure for wages. Wages may keep
pace with prices and productivity; wages may increase more, wages
may decrease less—but always both prices and productivity are the
measure for wages; always wages are related to prices and produc­
tivity.
R e sto ra tio n o f 8-H ou r D ay in th e G erm an Iron In d u stry 1

A decree of July 16, 1927, the Federal Minister of Labor has
B T applied
paragraph 7 of the working-hours decree of December
21, 1923, which prohibits the overstepping of the 8-hour
day by workers exposed to excessive heat, dust, poisonous gases, or
i Report of Consul General C. B. Hurst, Berlin, July 27, 1927.


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WAGE KATES IN LEEDS (ENGLAND) DISTRICT

135

explosives, to six different groups of workers employed in a certain
process of production in furnaces, tube-casting works, steel works,
puddling works, rolling mills, forges, and press roiling mills. The
decree shall take effect on January 1, 1928. Its enforcement in
specific parts of the Reich or a single undertaking can be postponed
if it is liable to menace the interests of the respective industry or
undertaking.
The decree will result in the restoration from January 1, 1928, of
the three-shift system in the ironworks and rolling mills. In April,
1925, a similar decree was issued, with regard to furnace workers
employed in the immediate operation of the furnaces, but at that
time only about 3 per cent of the entire workmen employed in the
smelting industry were affected, as against 22 per cent affected
under the present decree.
In order better to understand the situation it must be borne in
mind that after the war the 8-hour day was enforced in Germany in
the entire foundry industry. In December, 1923, the 10-hour day
and a 12-hour preparedness for work was introduced by voluntary
agreement between employers and labor unions, but assurances
were given by employers that the 8-hour day would be reinstated as
soon as production wTas restored to normal. The labor unions this
year demanded the redemption of this promise under the terms of
the above-mentioned paragraph 7 of the working-hours decree. The
labor committee of the Federal Economic Council, after a close exam­
ination of the situation, recommended the enforcement of the 8-hour
day in the works named above, whereupon, despite energetic protests
on the part of employers, the Minister of Labor issued the decree of
July 16, 1927.
The reasons offered by employers in protest of the decree are that
the iron industry has not yet sufficiently recovered to stand the
additional strain of the costs entailed by the introduction of the
three-shift system and the employment of a larger working force.
W age R a tes in th e L eeds (E ngland) D istr ic t

ABLE 1 gives the hourly wage rate in the early part of 1927 for
skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled workers in various industries
in the Leeds district, England. Table 2 gives for a limited
number of occupations the pre-war hourly wage rate, present rate,
and the maximum rate reached between these periods. These figures
were obtained from authoritative sources by a representative of the
Bureau of Labor Statistics.

T


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136

MONTHLY LABOE EEVIEW
T a b l e 1 .— R A TE S OF PA Y IN LOCAL IN D U S T R IE S OF L E E D S, E N G L A N D

[Conversions into United States money made on par basis]
Rate per hour
Eng­
lish
cur­

Industry and occupation

Laborers............................ ...............

re n c y
s. d.

Cents

40.6
30.9
37.5
33.5
31.4
30.4
to
40.6
26.6
to
29.6
24.6
to
26.6
29.4
to
32.4
26.4
to
28.9
21.8
40.0
29.9
26.4
24.3
23. 3
34.0
29.4
to

à

|1

2%

29.4

3%

30.9

ll

to

to

Foundries and machine shops:
Fitters, turners, etc___________ 1 2
Planers, slotters, millers, etc___ 1 1
i0 1 0 %
Laborers........................................... ■! to
[0 10^
Furniture and allied trades: Pol­
ishers, cabinetmakers, etc._______ 1 7 %


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30.4

l-L
-!

I n d u s tr y a n d o c cu p a tio n

u . s.
c u r­
ren c y

Boot and shoe: D ay workers______ 1 3
Building trades:
Joiners, bricklayers, etc............... 1 8
Laborers......................................... . 1 3%
Civil engineering:
Drivers of trucks and locomo­
tives______ ________ _______ i e y
Strikers, plate layers, jointers’
mates......... . ............................... . l 4y2
Laborers_____________________ i 3y2
Chemical industry:
i1 3
Pipe fitters, bricklayers, etc....... < to
ll 8
(i i y&
Tar-process men, ammonia, etc. I to
U 2%
[i oys
Pitch loaders, laborers, etc.
\ to
U i%
Clothing industry:
[1 2 ^
Cutters, fitters, and tailors.
] to
U 4
(1 1
Packers, warehousemen, etc___ ] to
[1 2 %
General workers............................ 0 1 0 %
Electrical contracting:
Electricians and wiremen............ 1 1 %
Electricians’ m ates....................... 1 2 %
Fire-clay, brick, etc., industry:
Skilled workers............, .............._ 1 1
Semiskilled workers
........... . . 1 0
Laborers.... ...................................... o n y 2
Flour milling:
Stone men, millers, e t c . . .......... . i i %
M otormen’s assistants and | i 2 y 2
horsemen..................................... t to

Rate per hour

28.4
26.4
20.8
to
21.8
39.5

Glass industry:
Fitters_______________ _______
Warehousemen and packers_ ___
Laborers ................. ...................
Leather industry:
Shavers, splitters, etc.................
Hard setters, e t c . . . . . . ........ .........
Laborers........... ...........................
Mining, surface:
Firemen, pumpmen, enginemen (eastern district)...............
Firemen, pumpmen, enginemen (western district)______
Laborers (eastern district)_____
Laborers (western district)____
Printing industry:

Eng­ U . S.
lish
cur­
cur­
rency rency
s. d.
1

3.4

1 1%
0 il%
1

3

i

oy2

l

oy2

11

Cents

31.2
26.9
23.3
30.4
26.4
25.3

1 0.2
0 11.8
1 0.1

24.7
24.0
24.5

I'1 I
Lithographers...................... .........t to
1.1 U %
Cutters and caster attendants..
General workers______________ 1 1%
Sheet-metal
industry:
Skilled
workers___________ ____________
Textile industry (wool) :
I[1 2%
Comb minders................................) to

38.0
to
48.2
36.2
28.1

1 5%
1 3%

11
i

3H

m

Shoddy men and wool runners, -j to
1.1 1%
Laborers........................... .. ........... .. 1 1.17
Transportation:
1 0%
Railway guards, shunters, e tc .. J to
4^
1(0.1 11^

Railway porters, loaders, lamp- 1
men, etc ________ _____________ ] to
.1 oy2
Drivers of motor vehicles........ .. 1 4
Checkers, warehousemen, mo- J 1 1
tormen, etc. (water) ............... .. 1 1to4
Laborers (w a te r ).............. ................ i oy2
Vehicle industry:
Body makers_________________ 1 6
Brush hands, strikers, etc_____ i oy2
Laborers____________ _______ ___ 1 o
Miscellaneous:
Saddlers_________ ___________ ___ 1 5
Laborers, soap and candle
workers____________________
Laborers, brew eries.._________ 1 2

[852]

12

30.9
29.4
to
31.4
27.1
to
27.9
26.7
25.9
to
33.0
23.3
to
25.3
32.4
26.4
to
32.4
25.3
36.5
25.3
24.3
34.5
28.4
28.4

137

WAGES IN MILAN DISTINCT (ITALY)

T a b l e 2 . —PR E -W A R , M A X IM U M , A N D P R E S E N T R A T E S P E R H O U R PA ID IN

SP E C IF IE D O C C U PA T IO N S IN L E E D S, E N G L A N D
[Conversions into United States currency made on par basis]
Preser t rate
Pre-war
rate

Industry and occupation

Maximum
rate

s. d.

s. d.

Building trades:
Carpenters and joiners.
Laborers...... ....................
Electricity plants:
Meter repairers..............

0
0

10

0

7

8X

0

Laborers.
Foundries and machine shops:
Fitters and turners.............
Blacksmiths’ helpers..........

0
0

i
■!

Laborers.

i

Gas works:
Machine m e n ............ .
Vertical stokers______
Gas makers....................
Laborers.........................
Vehicle manufacture:
Body makers..... ...........
Brush hands............... .
Water works:
Ferrulers and jointers.
Laborers.........................

(
]
[

»4

57/8
0 4
to
0 4M
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0

English
currency
s. d.

2 4
2 1

i
i

2

i
i

1

to
1

0
7*4

8

1

m
1 7
1

4M

to
1 5M

8
3M

2M

1 25.3
23.3
to
24.3

i

6*4

8

l
l

m

2

i* 4

l

5M

1

0H

l

7*4

1 7*4
1m

l
l

6*4

40.6
30.9

11 3.3
11 OH
i 0 H *4
to
11 0
l
i

9%
9

Cents

37.5
29.4
to
29.9

6*4

to

1 9.9
1 1 0 .2
1 9*
1

9*4

U . S.
currency

%

1 3 1 .0

4M
4M
4M

33.7
34.2
34.2
29.4

6
OH

36.5
25.3

2
1

26.4

28.4

l fid. (10 cents) per week increase over union scale.

W ages in th e M ilan D istr ic t, Ita ly 1

RESENT wage scales in certain trades in Lombardy are of special
interest in view of the recent general reductions of wages in
Italy, which have been made in order to cut production costs
and the cost of living. Table 1 shows the wage scales in certain
industries in Milan in effect June 1, 1927. Since then there has been
a reduction in wages of from 10 to 15 per cent. Such reductions,
however, have been made only in the “ caro-viveri,” or high-cost-ofliving allowance.

P

* Report from T . Jaeckel, consul general at Milan, Italy, July 12, 1927.

63952°— 27----- 10

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[853]

138

MONTHLY LABOE EEYIEW
T a b l e 1 . — W AGES PE R W E E K (48 HOURS) IN M IL A N , JU N E 1, 1927

[Average exchange rate of lira=5.4 cents for M ay, 1927]
W ages per
week, includ­
ing cost-ofliving bonus
Industry and occupation
Lire

Wages per
week, includ­
ing cost-ofliving bonus

Per
cent
of in­
crease
for
United
States over­
time
cur­
rency

Building:
M a so n s.......... . .
192. 00 $10. 37
Carpenters_______ . . 201. 60 10. 89
Painters _______
221. 70 11.97
Whitewashers_____
202. 50 10. 94
Apprentices.................
124. 80
6.74

50
50
30

Mechanical industries:
Adjusters ____ ____
Pattern makers___
Lathe hands............
Apprentices.................

154. 26
165. 30
166. 80
123. 60

8.33
8.93
9.01
6. 67

25
25
25
25

Furniture makers:
Cabinetmakers . .
Apprentices________

187. 50
132. 60

10.13
7.16

20
20

Industry and occupation
Lire

Printing and bookbinding:
Compositors, hand _

30

262.83 $14.19

M onotype operators . 281. 50
In charge of machines—
Apprentices_____
Bookbinders—
Chemical and pharmaceutical industry: Skilled
workers over 21 years
H eavy chemical industry:
Skilled workers, first

Per
cent
of in­
crease
United for
States over­
time
cur­
rency

30

15. 20

30

176.86

9.55

30

143.13

7.73

30

137.40

7.42

15

133.68

7.22

15

Table 2 gives the weekly wages in the printing industry, including
the cost-of-living bonus, in June, 1927, as compared with the pre-war
scale of wages.
In the industries listed in the table the working-day is eight hours.
The law forbids working for more than 10 hours per day even for over­
time. Therefore, the 30 per cent increase per hour for overtime is
only for the two hours above the regulation eight.
Table 2 is presented to illustrate the increase in the “ nominal”
wages through the cost-of-living bonus. The figures are for wages
in the printing and bookbinding trades, but are typical of the situa­
tion for all industries.
T a b l e 2 .—W AGES IN T H E P R IN T IN G IN D U S T R Y IN M IL A N , JU N E 1, 1927, C O M PA R E D

W ITH T H E PR E-W A R SCALE

[Pre-war exchange rate ofl ira computed at par=19.3 cents.

Occupation

June 1, 1927
Pre-war scale of
wages per week
Cost-of-living bonus
Total wages per
(48 hours)
per week
week (48 hours)
Lire

Compositors, hand.............
Linotype operators... . . .
M onotype operators ____
Apprentices (third year).....................
Machine workers:
Operatives_________ ______
Apprentices________ ______
Bookbinders:
Men . _____________
W omen________

’

Average exchange rate for M ay, 1927=5.4 cents]

United
States
currency

Lire

United
States
currency

Lire

U nited
States
currency

44.70
60.60
57.00
24.60

$8. 63
11.70
11.00
4.75

218.13
224.50
224. 50
115.12

$11. 78
12.12
12.12
6.22

262. 83
285.10
281. 50
139. 72

$14.19
15.40
15.20
7. 54

44.10
30.60

8. 51
5.91

215. 20
146. 26

11. 62
7.90

259.30
176. 86

14.00
9. 55

44.70
25.92

8.63
5.00

218.13
117. 93

11.78
6.37

262. 83
143.13

14.19
7. 73

The general wage reductions after June 1, 1927, have evidently
brought about a still further decline in the real wage. It is thought
probable, however, that an equilibrium will be effected if the Govern­
ment succeeds in reducing the cost of living.


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[854]

TREND OF EMPLOYMENT
E m p lo y m e n t in S e le c te d M a n u fa c tu r in g In d u str ie s in A u g u st,
1927

MPLOYMENT in manufacturing industries increased one-tenth
of 1 per cent in August, as compared with July, and pay-roll
1 totals increased 2.1 per cent.
The easing off of the vacation season and the completion of July
inventory taking and repairs account in part for these increases,
although a well-defined upward trend appeared in several industries.
The level of employment in August, 1927, nevertheless, was 3.6
per cent lower than in August, 1926, and pay-roll totals were 3.8
per cent lower.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics’ weighted index of employment for
August, 1927, is 87.4, as compared with 87.3 for July, 1927; 89.1 for
June, 1927; and 90.7 for August, 1926; the weighted index of pay­
roll totals for August, 1927, is 91.0, as compared with 89.1 for July,
1927; 93.3 for June, 1927; and 94.6 for August, 1926.
The report for August, 1927, is based on returns made to the
Bureau of Labor Statistics by 10,918 establishments in 54 of the
principal manufacturing industries. These establishments in August
had 3,028,729 employees whose combined earnings in one week were
$80,566,040.

E

C o m p a r is o n o f E m p lo y m e n t a n d P a y - r o l l T o t a ls in J u l y a n d A u g u s t , 1927

'"THIRTY-TWO of the 54 separate industries had more employees
* in August than in July, and 40 industries reported increased
pay-roll totals. The industries outstanding in both items were pot­
tery, stoves, fertilizers, carriages and wagons, millinery and lace
goods, confectionery, pianos, woolen and worsted goods, boots and
shoes, and automobiles, the greater part of the increases haying been
of a seasonal character. Employment increases in these industries
ranged from 16.2 per cent in pottery establishments to 4 per cent in
automobile plants; pay-roll total increases ranged from 27.0 in
potteries to 5.8 per cent in woolen and worsted goods mills.
The industries showing the most pronounced decreases, both in
employment and in pay-roll totals, were cigars and cigarettes, ship­
building, slaughtering and meat packing, ice cream, and machine
tools. The last named, however, owed its decreases mainly to a regular
vacation period in a few establishments.
Cotton-goods mills fell off slightly as to employment and increased
slightly as to employees’ earnings, and the same condition prevailed
in foundries and machine shops, while the cement, stamped and
enameled ware, and glass industries, and steam-car building and
repairing shops coupled larger increases in pay-roll totals with small
decreases in employment. The iron and steel industry showed a

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139

140

M O NTH LY LABOE EEVIEW

1.2 per cent drop in employment, with an increase of 4.9 per cent in
pay-roll totals.
Eight of the twelve groups of industries gained employees in
August and nine gained in pay-roll totals, the leather group leading
with increases of 3.2 per cent and 7.6 per cent in the two items, re­
spectively. The textile group’s gains were 1.3 per cent and 3.6 per
cent; the iron and steel group fell off 0.8 per cent in employment but
gained 3 percent in pay-roll totals; the vehicle group’s increases were
0.9 per cent and 5.4 per cent. The tobacco and the food groups
and the group of miscellaneous industries showed decreases, both
in employment and in employees’ earnings.
The level of employment was higher in August as compared with
July in five of the nine geographic divisions, these being the four
Central divisions and the Pacific division; pay-roll totals were larger
in every division except the Mountain division.
T a b l e 1 .— C O M PA R ISO N OF E M P L O Y M E N T A N D PA Y -R O LL TOTALS IN ID E N T IC A L

E ST A B L ISH M E N T S D U R IN G ON E W E E K EA CH IN JU L Y A N D A U G U ST , 1927

Number on pay roll
Industry

Estab­
lish­
ments

Amount of pay roll
Per
cent of
change

July, 1927

August,
1927

Per
cent of
change

July,
1927

August,
1927

1,710

230,740

227,997

0)

¥5,976,267

¥5,855, 759

194
301
213
337
650
15

93, 553
29,937
11,851
15,323
68,631
11,445

89, 793
31, 9C9
11,482
15, 508
68,007
11,298

-4 .0
+ 6 .6
- 3 .1
+ 1 .2
-0 .9
- 1 .3

2,432, 413
565, 297
392,169
399,018
1, 850, 852
336, 518

2,308, 741
599, 916
375, 917
408, 393
1,829,057
333, 735

- 5 .1
+ 6.1
- 4 .1
+ 2.3
- 1 .2
- 0 .8

1,932
479
257
200
190
29
97
287
96
215
82

602,475
237,189
80, 642
55,139
60, 874
23, 661
30, 502
63,949
19, 304
20, 334
10,881

608,429
235,440
82,014
55, 694
63, 594
23, 501
30,895
65, 585
19, 265
20, 791
11,650

(>)
-0 . 7
+ 1 .7
+ 1 .0
+4. 5
-0 .7
+ 1 .3
+2. 6
-0 .2
+ 2 .2
+ 7.1

11,848,405
3, 828,033
1,484, 885
1,147,392
1,362, 201
608,365
717, 516
1, 622, 759
321,437
511,694
244,123

12,237,679
3, 857,405
1, 572, 336
1,185, 235
1, 441, 710
642,167
744, 687
1, 659,195
319, 906
539,903
275, 135

O
+ 0.8
+ 5 .9
+ 3 .3
+ 5.8
+ 5 .6
+ 3 .8
+ 2 .2
- 0 .5
+ 5.5
+12.7

1, 792
206
47
154

653,464
266,027
14, 128
23,310

646,813
262, 739
13, 768
23,701

(')
-1 .2
-2 . 5
+ 1 .7

18,296,3G9
7,382, 581
346, 731
670, 550

18,824,362
7, 746, 205
335, 645
715,044

0+)4 .9

965
69
152

237, 501
31,961
28,482

236, 217
30, 898
25,483

-0 .5
- 3 .3
-1 0 .5

6,837,930
763,214
844, 825

6,902, 317
763,321
781,970

+ 0 .9
+ 0)
- 7 .4

112
87

39,429
12,626

39,580
14,427

+ 0 .4
+14.3

1,117,341
333,197

1,176,105
403,755

+ 5 .3
+21.2

Lum ber and its products.

1,153
470
262
421

218,604
126, 218
32, 705
59, 681

221,085
127,032
32, 728
61,325

(>)
+ 0 .6
+ 0.1
+ 2 .8

4,704,212
2,499, 935
786, 626
1,417, 651

4, 891, 711
2, 558, 213
817, 685
1, 515,813

0)
+ 2 .3
+ 3.9
+ 6.9

Leather and its products.

3G1
129
232

124,061
27,443
96, 618

128,176
27, 558
100, 618

«
+ 0 .4
+ 4 .1

2,914, 727
679,132
2,235, 595

3,141,720
699, 249
2, 442, 471

(>)
+ 3 .0
+ 9.3

Paper and printing..........

909
221
176
305
207

171,526
56, 777
19, 047
47,770
47, 932

172, 676
57,423
19, 300
48, 409
47, 544

)
+ 1.1
+ 1 .3
*4"1. 3
-0 .8

0

5,495,558
1,458, 889
423, 750
1,675,915
1, 937,004

5,571,091
1, 501, 278
437, 856
1,708, 640
1, 923,317

0)
+ 2.9
+ 3.3
+ 2.0
-0 .7

Food and kindred p ro d u cts..

Slaughtering and meat pack­
in g ............................................ .
Confectionery............................
Ice cream...................... .............
F l o u r .........................................
Baking__ ______ ___________
Sugar refining, cane..................

Textiles and their products__

Cotton goods........ .................... .
Hosiery and knit goods...........
Silk g o o d s...................................
Woolen and worsted goods__
Carpets and r u g s.....................
Dyeing and finishing textiles.
Clothing, m en’s ..................... ..
Shirts and collars___________
Clothing, women’s _________
M illinery and lace goods.........

Iron and steel and their prod­
u c ts..............................................
Iron and s te e l................. ..........
Cast-iron pip e______________
Structural ironwork.................
Foundry and machine-shop
products........................... .......
Hardware____________ _____
Machine tools.............................
Steam fittings and steam and
hot-water heating appara­
t u s .............................................
Stoves............................ ..............
Lumber, sawm ills______
Lumber, millwork.........
Furniture............................

Leather_________ ______
Boots and shoes_______

Paper and pulp...............
Paper boxes......................
Printing, book and job.
Printing, new spapers...
See footnotes at end of table.


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(9

-3 .2
+ 6 .6

141

EM PLOYMENT IN MANUFACTURING IN DU STRIES

T a b l e 1 ,— C O M PA R ISO N OP E M P L O Y M E N T A N D PAY -R O LL TOTALS IN ID E N T IC A L

E ST A B L IS H M E N T S D U R IN G ONE W E E K EA CH IN JU L Y A N D A U G U ST , 1927—Con.

Amount of pay roll

Number on pay roll
lishments

Industry

Chem icals and allied products
Petroleum refining.....................

Stone, clay, and glass products.
Brick, tile, and terra cotta----G lass.I..........................................

M etal products, other th a n
iron and steel____ . --------

Stamped and enameled w are.
Brass, bronze, and copper
products...................................

August,
1927

July,
1927

Per
cent of
ehange

Per
cent of
change

July, 1927

August,
1927

$2, 616,393
841,884
157, 111
1,617,398

Î2, 633, 731
855, 655
172, 241
1,605, 835

0
+ 1 .6
+ 9 .6
- 0 .7

2,967,143
817, 545
893, 381
324,062
932,155

0
+ 1 .6
- 1 .2
+27.0
+ 3 .5
0
+ 4 .8

367
133
172
62

89,408
31,199
7, 457
50, 752

89,254
31,357
8,292
49,605

0
+ 0 .5
+11.2
- 2 .3

679
102
404
61
112

112,492
27, 518
36,025
10, 726
38,223

112,920
27, 480
35,125
12, 463
37,852

- 0 .1
-2 . 5
+16.2
1.0

2,864,252
804, 667
904,156
255,106
900, 323

220
67

51,075
18,916

51,295
18,850

0
-0 .3

1,328,343
457,902

1,356,604
479, 895

+ 0 .9

870,441

876, 709

+ 0.7

755,661

706,423

0

0

-

153

32,159

32,445

Tobacco products-----------------

172

42,609

38,892

Cigars and cigarettes— ..........

29
143

7,644
34, 965

7,981
31,911

+ 4 .4
- 8 .7

123,517
632,144

122,094
584, 329

-1 .2
-7 .6

1,216

469,514
298,819
1, 618

478,829
310, 647
1,734

0
+ 4 .0
+ 7 .2

14,101,549
9,191,101
35,895

15,057,245
10,010,971
38,459

0
+ 8.9
+ 7.1

Chewing and smoking tobacco

Vehicles for land transportaCarriages and wagons_______
Car building and repairing,
electric-railroad___________
Car building and repairing,
steam-railroad.........................

201
66

0

383

25,420

25, 543

+ 0 .5

768,459

784, 515

+ 2.1

566

143, 657

140,905

-1 .9

4,106,094

4, 223,300

+ 2.9

Miscellaneous industries..........

407
83

251, 669
21, 633

251,363
21,967

0
+ 1 .5

7,178,679
593, 762

7,322,572
631, 875

0
+ 6 .4

Rubber boots and shoes_____

175
43
10
56
40

121,190
7, 380
16,398
56,437
28, 631

121,842
7,810
16,412
55,930
27,402

+ 0 .5
+ 5 .8
+ 0 .1
- 0 .9
- 4 .3

3,415,854
202, 888
404,967
1,715, 970
845, 238

3,567,105
229,050
409, 692
1, 713, 440
771, 410

+ 4.4
+12.9
+ 1 .2
- 0 .1
—8. 7

78,080,415

80,560,040

Agricultural im plements------Electrical machinery, appar­
atus, and supplies..................

Shipbuilding, steel---------------

All ind ustries___________ 10,918 3,017,637 3,028, 729

0

«

R ecapitulation by Geographic Divisions
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION

N ew England__________________
M iddle Atlantic................................
East North Central.........................
West North Central..............- .........
South A tla n tic ________ ______
East South Central......................
W est South Central.........................
M o u n ta in ..........................................
Pacific...........................- ......................

All d iv i s i o n s _____________

1,400
2,582
2,898
1,061
1,174
492
464
185
662

411,043
844, 674
979, 347
162, 782
280, 559
104,142
86, 891
28, 253
119, 946

408,315
844, 333
992, 209
163, 297
279,070
105, 618
87, 712
27, 837
120, 338

10,918 3,017,637 3,028, 729

- 0 .7
_(2)
+ 1.3
+ 0 .3
-0 .5
+ 1 .4
+ 0 .9
-1 . 5
+ 0 .3
0

$9,927, 936
23,242,924
27,864, 723
4,080, 881
5,121, 707
1,983,223
1,820, 261
769, 487
3,269, 273

$9, 995,217
23, 788,824
29, 468, 284
4,131,800
5,157,920
2,032, 591
1,855, 530
763, 767
3,372,107

+ 0.7
+ 2.3
+ 5 .8
+ 1 .2
+ 0 .7
+ 2 .5
+ 1 .9
- 0 .7
+ 3.1

78,080,415

80, 566,040

0

1 The per cent of change has not been computed for the reason that the figures in the preceding columns
are unweighted and refer only to the establishments reporting; for the weighted per cent of change, wherein
proper allowance is made for the relative importance of the several industries, so that the figures m ay rep­
resent all establishments of the country in the industries here represented, see Table 2.
2 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.


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142

MONTHLY LABOE BEVIEW

T able 2 .- P E R

C E N T S OF C H A N G E , JU L Y TO A U G U ST , 1927-12 G R OUPS OF I N D U S ­
T R IE S A N D TO TAL OF A L L IN D U S T R IE S
IN D U S -

tC°/?SUto6d fr°in? t, P in-dex ?Hmbers of each group, which are obtained by weighting the index numbers
of the several industries of the group, by the number of employees, or wages paid, in the industries]
Per cent of change,
July, 1927, to
August, 1927

Per cent of change,
July, 1927, to
August, 1927

Group

Group

Food and kindred products...
Textiles and their products__
Iron and steel and their prod­
ucts __________
Lumber and its products. .
Leather and its products..
Paper and printing. _ . . .
Chemicals and allied prod­
ucts__________
Stone, clay, and glass prod­
u cts.........................

C o m p a ris o n

Number
on pay
roll

Amount
of pay
roll

- 0 .9
+ 1 .3

- 1 .9
+ 3 .6

- 0 .8
+ 1 .0
+ 3 .2
+ 0 .6

+ 3 .0
+ 3 .5
+ 7 .6
+ 1 .5

+ 0 .7

+ 1 .4

+ 0 .4

+ 3 .9

M etal products, other than
iron and ste el.. . .
Tobacco products . . . .
Vehicles for land transporta­
tio n ______
Miscellaneous industries
AH in d ustries____

o f E m p lo y m e n t a n d P a y - r o l l T o t a l s in
A u g u s t , 1926

Number
on pay
roll

Amount
of pay
roll

+ 0 .6
-7 .2

+ 1 .6
- 6 .8

+ 0 .9
- 1 .7

+ 5 .4
-2 .9

+ 0 .1

+ 2 .1

A u g u st,

1927,

and

EM PLOYM ENT in manufacturing industries was 3.6 per cent
lower in August, 1927, than in August, 1926, and pay-roll totals
were 3.8 per cent lower.
Fourteen of the 54 separate industries showed increased employ­
ment in August, 1927, as compared with August, 1926, and 20 indus­
tries showed increased pay-roll totals. Six of the 14 increases in
employment and 9 of the 20 increases in pay-roll totals were in indus­
tries belonging to the textile group. The cotton-goods section of
this group reported the greatest increases both in employment and
m pay-rod totals, the increases having been 13.6 per cent and 21.6
per cent, respectively, in the two items. The textile group as a
whole showed increases of 4.7 per cent and 7.3 per cent in the two
items.
The paper group of industries made small increases both in employ­
ment and pay-roll totals, as did the food group in pay-roll totals, but
the remaining groups showed decreases in employment ranging from
9.2 per cent in the vehicle group to 0.8 per cent in the food group,
and decreases in employees’ earnings ranging from 9.4 per cent in the
vehicle group to 0.4 in the leather group.
The greatest decreases in employment in separate industries shown
m this comparison over the 12-month period were 30.5 per cent in
carnages and wagons, 13.2 per cent in fertilizers, 12.9 per cent in
cast-iron pipe, and 12 per cent in pottery.
The iron and steel industry decreased about 7.5 in each of the two
items, ana the iron and steel grow]) of industries as a whole decreased
8.1 pei cent in each item. The automobile industry had 8.6 per cent
lev el employees and its pay-roll totals were 10.7 per cent lower in
August, 1927, than in August, 1926.
The South Atlantic division alone of the nine geographic divisions
had more employees in August, 1927, than in August, 1926, the increase
bemg 17 per cent. The greatest decrease was 8 per cent, in the West
South Central division, and the smallest decreases were 1.2 per cent
m the Pacific division and 0.4 per cent in the Mountain division.

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EMPLOYMENT IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES

T a b l e 3 —C O M PA R ISO N OF E M P L O Y M E N T A N D PAY-R O LL TO TALS, A U G U ST , 1927,

W ITH A U G U ST , 1926
[The per cents of change for each of the 12 groups of industries and for the total of all industries are weighted
in the same manner as are the per cents of change in Table 2]
Per cent of change
August, 1926, to
August, 1927

Per cent of change
August, 1926, to
August, 1927
Industry

Industry

N um ­ A m ount
of
ber on
pay roll pay roll

Num- Amount
of
ber on
pay roll pay roll

Food and kindred products Slaughtering and meat
packing...............................
Confectionery____________
Ice cream----------- ------------Flour...... .............................—
B aking_____________ ____ _
Sugar refining, cane............. .

Textiles and their p ro d u cts..
Cotton goods------------- -----Hosiery and knit goods-----Silk goods________________
Woolen and worsted goods..
C arpets and rugs...................
D yeing and finishing tex­
tiles____________________
Clothing, m en’s __________
Shirts and collars-------------Clothing, women’s . . ........ .
M illinery and lace goods—

Iron and steel and their
p r o d u c ts ..._________ ____

Iron and steel........................
Cast-iron p ip e.------- --------Structural ironwork_______
Foundry and machine-shop
products_________ ____
Hardware___ ____________
Machine tools____________
Steam fittings and steam
and hot-water heating
apparatus______________
Stoves........ ..............................

Lum ber and its products.

-0 .8

+0.2

Paper and printing----- -------

-1 .2
- 2 .0
-7 .8
-4 .2
+ 1 .3
+ 5 .7

+ 1 .2
- 0 .9
- 9 .7
-6 .2
+ 2 .6
+4. 5

Chem icals and allied prod­
u cts...................... ...................

+4.7

+21.6
+ 0 .3
+ 1 .3
+ 3 .9
+ 7 .5

+ 2 .4
-0 .4
-0 .9
+ 3 .1
+ 2 .6

+ 5 .8
-1 .8
+ 5 .8
+ 7 .5
+ 6 .1

-8 .1

-7 .7
—12. 9
- 7 .4

-7 .5
-8 . 8
-4 .2

- 7 .9
-1 0 . 5
-1 0 .6

-9 .0
-1 3 .6
-1 0 .5

-5 .7
-1 0 .0

- 4 .1
-5 .5

-8 .5

-7 .1

Lumber, sa w m ills..........
Lumber, millwork............
Furniture____ ____ ____

-1 0 .3
- 9 .3
-2 .4

- 8 .9
- 8 .3
- 0 .3

Leather and its products.

-1 .5

- 0 .4

Leather_______________
Boots and shoes_______

- 2 .3
-1 .3

+0.1

-2 . 1
- 3 .8
+ 0 .5
+ 3.1

+1.3

-3 .8
+ 0 .8
+ 2 .3
+ 4 .7

-5 .0

- 2 .5

C hem icals........................... .
Fertilizers__________ ____ _
Petroleum refining------------

- 0 .3
-1 3 .2
-8 .0

+ 4.1
-6 .9
-8 .5

Stone, clay, and glass prod­
u cts________________ ____

-7 .9

- 8 .9

+7.3

+13.6
- 1 .1
+ 1 .5
+ 2 .4
+ 4 .3

-8 .1

Paper and pu lp......................
Paper boxes--------------------Printing, book and job-----Printing, newspapers_____

Cement_________ ____ ____
Brick, tile, and terra cotta.
Pottery.....................................
Glass.................................... .

- 4 .1
-8 .4
-1 2 .0
- 6 .8

-7 .7
-9 .6
-1 1 .6
-7 .5

M etal products, other th an
iron and ste e l.___ _______

-4 .8

- 8 .1

-9 .6

-2 .7

-2 .7

-7 .2

-3 .3

- 4 .3

Chewing and smoking to­
bacco and snuff_________
Cigars and cigarettes---------

- 5 .7
- 2 .9

-2 .4
-4 .5

Vehiclesforiand transporta­
tion __________ __________

-9 .3

Stamped and enameled
ware___________________
Brass, bronze, and copper
products................. ............

Tobacco products...... .............

-9 .4

Automobiles_______ ______
Carriages and wagons_____
Car building and repairing,
electric-railroad_________
Car building and repairing,
steam-railroad.................

- 8 .6
-3 0 .5

-1 0 . 7
-2 5 .0

+ 3 .5

+ 2 .2

- 9 .6

-8 .4

M iscellaneous industries___

-2 .1
- 7 .9

-7 .9
-3 .7
-1 1 .6
+10.8
+ 0 .6
-3 .4

All in d u s tr ie s..............

-5 .2
-9 . 2
+ 0 .5
- 0 .6
+ 0 .8
- 3 .6

West South Central _________
Mountain ____ ______

- 8 .0
-0 .4
—1.2

- 6 .0
+1.1
- 1 .0

Ali d iv isio n s..... .......... -

-3 .6

-3 .8

Agricultural implements__
Electrical machinery, ap­
paratus, and supplies----Pianos and organs________
Rubber boots and shoes___
Automobile tires....... ...........
Shipbuilding, steel------------

- 3 .1
+ 0 .6

- 3 .9

-3 .8

R ecapitulation by Geographic D ivisions
GEO GRA PHIC D IV ISIO N — COn.

GEO GRA PHIC DIVISION

West North Central____ ____ East South Central..... ...............

-2 .1
— 5. 2
—4 6
-2 .3
+1.7
-7 .4

-0 . 8
-5 . 4
—4. 7
-2 .8
+1.2
-6 .5

P e r C a p ita E a r n in g s

CAPITA earnings for the 54 industries combined in August,
F IR
1927, were 2 per cent higher than in July, 1927, and two-tenths
of 1 per cent lower than in August, 1926.

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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

Per capita earnings in August, 1927, showed a gain over July, 1927,
in 42 industries, and a gain over August, 1926, in 34 industries.
In the comparison between July and August, 1927, the outstanding
increases were in the following industries: Pottery, 9.3 per cent;
pianos, 6.7 per cent; carpets, 6.3 per cent; iron and steel, 6.2 per
cent; and stoves, 6.1 per cent. The most pronounced decreases
were 5.3 per cent in chewing and smoking tobacco and 4.6 per cent
in shipbuilding.
In the comparison over a period of 12 months the leading increases
were: 10.3 per cent in rubber boots and shoes, 8 per cent in carriages
and wagons, 7.6 per cent in stamped and enameled ware, and 7.1
per cent in both cotton goods and fertilizers.
T a b l e 4 .—C O M PA R ISO N OF P E R C A PITA E A R N IN G S, A U G U ST , 1927, W ITH JU L Y , 1927

A N D A U G U ST , 1926

Industry

Per cent of
change August,
1927, compared
with—
July,
1927

Pottery........... .....................................
Pianos and organs.............................
Carpets and r u g s.-.......... ...............
Iron and steel - - .............................
Stoves.............................................. .
M illinery and lace goods...............
Stamped and enameled ware____
Boots and shoes________________
Car building and repairing, steamrailroad.............................................
Structural ironwork........................
Agricultural im plem ents................
Automobiles_____ ____ _________
Steam fittings and steam and hotwater heating apparatus______
Glass.......... .......................... ..............
Furniture....... .....................................
Hosiery and knit goods_________
Electrical machinery, apparatus,
and supplies....................................
Lumber, m illw ork...........................
Machine tools....................................
Hardware............................................
Clothing, wom en’s _____________
D yeing and finishing textiles.........
Leather. ..............................................
Silk goods.............................. ...........
Paper boxes......................................
Cement_____________ _______ _
Lumber, saw m ills.______ _______
Paper and pulp______ ____ _____

Industry

August,
1926

+ 9 .3
+ 6 .7
+ 6 .3
+ 6 .2
+6. 1
+ 5 .3
+ 5 .2
+ 4 .9

+ 0.4
- 2 .5
+ 3.1
+ 0 .2
+ 4 .8
+3.1
+ 7 .5
+ 1 .7

+ 4 .9
+ 4 .9
+ 4 .8
+ 4 .8

+ 1 .6
+ 3 .7
-0 .4
- 2 .3

+ 4 .8
+ 4 .6
+ 4.1
+ 4.1

+ 1 .5
-0 .9
+ 0 .2
+ 1 .5

+ 3 .9
+3. 9
+ 3 .5
+ 3 .4
+ 3 .2
+ 2 .5
+ 2 .5
+ 2 .3
+ 2 .0
+ 1 .7
+ 1 .7
+ 1 .7

+ 1 .4
+ 1 .2
+ 0 .2
-3 .4
+ 4 .2
+ 3 .0
-1 .2
- 0 .3
+ 4 .8
-3 . 7
+ 1 ,8
- 1 .8

Car building and repairing, electrie-railroad ________________
Petroleum refining_____________
Cotton goods__________________
Foundry and machine-shop products_______
_ ... _
Brick, tile, and terra cotta..............
Cigars and cigarettes___________
Woolen and worsted goods. ____
Chemicals______________ ______
Flour. _________ _________
Rubber boots and shoes_________
Automobile tires__ ________
Printing, book and job__________
Sugar refining, c a n e .......................
Printing, new sp ap ers.....................
Carriages and wagons. _____
Brass, bronze, and copper prod­
ucts ____ ____ ______
Shirts and collars_____________
Baking____________ _______
Clothing, m en’s ___________
Confectionery...............................
Cast-iron p ip e ...........
Ice cream. _ __________
Slaughtering and meat packing. . .
Fertilizers. ____ ________
Shipbuilding, steel. __________
Chewing and smoking tobacco
and snuff........................................

Per cent of
change August,
1927, compared
w ith—
July,
1927

August,
1926

+ 1 .6
+ 1 .6
+ 1 .5

- 1 .3
-0 .8
+ 7 .1

+ 1 .5
+ 1 .3
+ 1.3
+ 1.3
+ 1 .1
+ 1.1
+1. 1
+ 0 .8
+ 0 .6
+0. 5
+ 0.1

- 1 .3
- 1 .4
- 1 .5
+ 1 .7
+ 4 .4
- 1 .9
+10.3
+ 1.3
+ 1 .9
- 0 .8
+ 1 .6
+ 8 .0

- 0 .2
- 0 .2
- 0 .3
- 0 .3
-0 .4
- 0 .7
- 1 .1
-1 . 1
- 1 .4
- 4 .6

- 4 .8
+ 6 .5
+ 1.3
- 1 .4
+ 1. 1
+ 4 .5
- 2 .1
+ 2.3
+ 7.1
- 4 .4

- 5 .3

+ 3 .3

1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

W age C h anges

T^WENTY-EIGHT establishments in 16 industries reported increases in wage rates during the month ended August 15,
1927. These increases averaged 6.3 per cent and affected 1,493
employees, or 23 per cent of the total number in the establishments
concerned.
Twenty-one establishments in eight industries reported decreases
in wage rates during the same period. The decreases averaged 6.7
per cent and affected 2,375 employees, or 78 per cent of all employees
in the establishments concerned.

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EMPLOYMENT IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES

T a b l e 5 .— W AGE A D JU ST M E N T S O C C U R R IN G B E T W E E N JU L Y 15 A N D A U G U ST 15,1927

Establishments

Per cent of increase
or decrease in
wage rates

Employees affected

Per cent of employees

Industry

Number
Total
report­
num­
ing in­
ber
crease or
report­ decrease
ing
in wage
rates

Range

Total
Average number

In estab­
lishments
In all
reporting establish­
increase or ments
decrease in reporting
wage rates

Increases
Ice cream..........................................
Baking______________________
Clothing, women’s - _ ________
Iron and steel_____________
Foundry and machine-shop
products___________________
Lumber, sawmills _ __________
Furniture____________________
Printing, book and job _______
Printing, newspapers_________
Chemicals_______________ ____
Fertilizers___________________
Brick, tile, and terra cotta_____
Stamped and enameled ware__
Autom obiles......................- ..........
Car building and repairing,
electric-railroad............- ...........
Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies_______ ____

213
C50
215
206

2
6
I
2

5. 0-10.0
8. 0-10.0
7.5
3.8

7.1
9.2
7.5
3.8

24
39
6
470

51
13
15
49

0)
0)
(!)

965
470
421
305
207
133
172
404
67
201

2
1

14.0
5.0
12.0
1.0
3.3
5.0
12.1
15.0
8.0
7.0

61
20
14
8
283
42
48
18
125
251

8
9
11
15
25
10
54
100
87
16

0

2
1
1
1

5. 3-15.0
5.0
12.0
1.0
2.0- 4. 0
5.0
10.0-12. 5
15.0
8.0
7.0

0

383

1

16.7

16.7

65

46

6)

175

1

5.0

6.0

19

5

0

80
14
100
100
100
58

0

100

1
1
4
1

Decreases
Carpets and r u g s..........................
Clothing, m en’s ___ ___________
Iron and steel...........- ................ .
Hardware________________ ___
Lumber, sawm ills____________
Furniture____________________
Brick, tile, and terra cotta_____
Electrical machinery, apparatus and supplies.................. .

29

287
206
69
470
421
404
175

0

0)

0

«

0)

0

1
1
1

•

1
1
2
1
1
5
9

5.0
10.0
2. 5- 6. 0
1.5
10.0
5.0-11.0
8.0-10.0

5.0
10.0
3.6
1.5
10.0
8.7
9.9

320
12
335
372
142
631
550

1

10.0

10.0

13

0

0

88

1
1
l
2

0

1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

In d e x e s o f E m p lo y m e n t a n d P a y - r o l l T o t a l s in M a n u f a c t u r i n g I n d u s t r i e s

INDEX numbers for August, 1927, and for June and July, 1927,
A and August, 1926, showing relatively the variation in number of
persons employed and in pay-roll totals in each of the 54 industries
surveyed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, together with general
indexes for the combined 12 groups of industries, appear in Table 6.
The general index of employment for August, 1927, is 87.4, this
number being 0.1 per cent higher than the index for July, 1927, 1.9
per cent lower than the index for June, 1927, and 3.6 per cent lower
than the index for August, 1926. The general index of pay-roll
totals for August, 1927, is 91.0, this number being 2.1 per cent higher
than the index for July, 1927, 2.5 per cent lower than the index for
June, 1927, and 3.8 per cent lower than the index for August, 1926.


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

T a b l e 6 .—IN D E X E S OF E M P L O Y M E N T A N D PAY-ROLL TOTALS IN M A N U F A C T U R ­

IN G IN D U S T R IE S —A U G U ST , 1926, A N D JU N E , JU LY, A N D A U G U ST , 1927
[M onthly average, 1923=100]
Employment
Industry

1926
August

Pay-roll totals

1927
June

July

1926
August August

1927
June

July

August

General index _____ ______

90.7

89.1

87.3

87.4

94.6

93.3

89.1

91.0

Food and kindred products____

89.8
81. 2
79. 5
113.0
92. 5
100.8
93.4

90.7
83. 6
77. 5
103. 5
85.3
104. 8
98. 7

89.9
83.6
73. 1
107. 6
87. 6
103. 0
100.0

89.1
80. 2
77.9
104. 2
88.6
102. 1
98.7

93.5
82. 7
86.4
123. 9
96. 5
104.7
95.9

96.4
87. 6
87.6
110. 7
88.9
110.4
104.4

95.5
88. 2
80.7
116. 6
88. 5
108.7
101.0

93.7
83.7
85.6
111.9
90.5
107.4
100.2

Textiles and their products_____

81.5
76.2
93. 6
96. 3
76. 3
90.4
94.2
85. 1
77. 2
74. 5
65.1

86.0
87.6
97.2
97.8
78. 2
96.0
97. 2
82. 5
77. 7
77. 3
64.9

84.2
87.2
91. 0
96.7
74. 7
95.0
95.3
82. 7
76. 7
75. 2
62.4

85.3
86.6
92.6
97. 7
78. 1
94.3
96. 5
84.8
76. 5
76. 8
66. 8

80.6
71.4
104.4
103.4
74.7
86. 7
93. 2
82. 5
74. 6
73.8
65.8

86.2
88.5
112.0
105.6
77.5
95. 2
99. 7
77.3
79. 6
72.4
68.2

83.5
86. 1
98.9
101. 3
73.4
88.3
95.0
79. 3
79.3
75.2
62.0

86.5
86.8
104. 7
104. 7
77.6
93.2
98.6
81.0
78.9
79.3
69.8

91.8
96. 7
109.7
104.9

86.9
92. 3
99. 9
95.7

85.1
90.4
98. 1
95.5

84.4
89.3
95. 6
97.1

94.8
97.8
106.8
112.7

91.8
97. 0
99. 9
105. 0

84.8
86.3
100.6
101.3

87.1
90.5
97.4
108.0

87.7
85.8
92.4

82.3
82. 0
95. 1

81.2
79.4
92.3

80.8
76.8
82.6

90.3
96. 2
101.9

85.4
90.4
105.5

81.4
83. 1
98.5

82.2
83.1
91.2

97.0
85.4

90.6
80.5

91. 1
67.3

91.5
76.9

101.8
83.1

96.4
81.7

92.7
64.8

97.6
78.5

92.4
90.2
98.6
96.4

84.0
80. 7
89.9
91. 6

83.7
80.4
89.3
91. 6

84.5
80.9
89.4
94 1

99.6
97.4
106.6
102 6

92.7
90.1
97. 5
98 8

89.4
86.7
94.1
95 7

92.5
88.7
97.8
102 3

...

92.4
90. 7
93.0

85.2
87. 5
84. 4

88.2
88.2
88.2

91.0
88.6
91.8

93.7
93. 3
93.8

82.5
89. 1
79.9

86.7
87.8
86.3

93.3
90.4
94.4

Paper and printing ____________

102.3
95. 2
100.1
102.4
110. 1

102.4
92.0
94. 5
103. 2
115.3

101.8
92.2
95.0
101.6
114.4

102.4
93.2
96.3
102.9
113.5

109.2
101.9
106.4
111.3
114.8

111.0
97.0
102.8
114.4
123.3

109.0
95.3
103.8
111.6
121.0

110.6
98.0
107.2
113.9
120.2

C hem icals and allied products___

94.7
93.6
82.6
101.6

90.3
94.0
65.6
96.2

89.4
92.9
64.5
95.7

90.0
93.3
71.7
93.5

98.9
100.1
90.0
100.0

100. 0
108.1
76.0
97.9

95.1
102. 6
76.5
92. 2

96.4
104.2
83.8
91.5

S ton e, clay, and glass p ro d u cts...

102.9
97.2
110.1
107.7
95.9

99.0
92.3
104.1
102.6
94.9

94.4
93.3
103.5
81.6
90.3

94.8
93.2
100.9
94.8
89.4

110.5
107.4
116.8
116.8
104.0

105.6
100.0
110.8
105.4
103.1

96.9
97.5
106.9
81.3
93.0

99.1
105.6
103.2
96.2

94.5
91.3

90.7
84.2

89.5
82.8

90.0
82.5

94.0
84.4

91.5
83.2

86.9
78.4

88.3
82.1
90.6

Slaughtering and meat packing.,.
C onfectionery. ______ ___________
Ice c re a m _____________________
Flour ........ ..................................
Baking_____ _____ ____ ______ _
Sugar refining, cane.........................

Cotton goods__________________
Hosiery and knit goods . ______
Silk g o o d s .___________ ________
Woolen amd worsted goods . . .
Carpets and r u g s ________ _____
Dyeing and finishing textiles.. . .
Clothing, m en’s. ______________
Shirts and collars_______________
Clothing, women’s_____________
M illinery and lace goods_______

li on and steel and their products.
Iron and steel _________________
Cast-iron p ip e... ............................
Structural ironwork. __________
Foundry and machine - shop
p r o d u c t s __________________
Hardware______________ _______
Machine tools__________________
Steam fittings and steam and
hot-water heating apparatus__
Stoves____________ _______ ____

Lum ber and its products______
Lumber, saw m ills..______ ______
Lumber, millwork...........................
Furniture________ ___________

Leather and its products___

L eather.. _ ___________________
Boots and shoes...... .................... .

Paper and p u lp .. ____________
Paper boxes____ _____________
Printing, book and job...... .........
Printing, newspapers........... ...........
Chemicals____ ____ _______
Fertilizers_________ _______ _
Petroleum ..................................

Cement______________ ___
Brick, tile, and terra cotta______
Pottery................................... „ . . .
Glass___ _____________________

M etal products, other th a n iron
and steel. _ ._ . . .
_______
Stamped and enameled ware____
Brass, bronze, and copper products........ ...............................

Tobacco products_______
Chewing and smoking tobacco
and snuff_________ ______
Cigars and cigarettes.......................


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

100.7

96.0

93.7

92.5

93.4

97.6

94.6

90.0

81.2

84.6

84.6

78.5

84.4

87.8

86.7

80.8

96.6
79.2

89.2
84.0

87.3
84.3

91.1
76.9

97.6
82.8

98.9
86.5

96.4
85.6

95.3
79.1

[862 ]

147

EMPLOYMENT IN MANUFACTURING IN DU STRIES

T a b l e 6 . — IN D E X E S OF E M P L O Y M E N T A N D PAY-ROLL TOTALS IN M A N U F A C T U R ­

IN G IN D U S T R IE S —A U G U ST , 1926, A N D J U N E , JU L Y , A N D A U G U ST , 1927—Continued
Employm ent
Industry

1926
August

Vehicles for land transportation..
Automobiles___________ _____
Carriages and wagons__________
Car building and repairing, elec­
tric-railroad__________________
Car building and repairing,
steam-railroad________ _______

M iscellaneous industries.
Agricultural im plem ents________
Electrical machinery, apparatus,
and supplies ________________
Pianos and organs____________
Rubber boots and shoes________
Automobile tires______________
Shipbuilding, steel__________

Pay-roll totals

1927
June

91.4

85.1

July

82.3

108.4
104.3

101.6
70.5

95.3
67.6

87.7

89.8

80.3

74.7

94.6

98.7

1926
August August

83.0

94.7

1927
June

July

August

81.4

85.8

85.8
100.1
78.8

99.1
72.5

112.1
105.0

96.4
76.3

90.3

90.8

90.3

93.1

90.4

92.3

74.0

72.6

83.5

78.8

74.3

76.5

94.2

92.6

99.5

91.9
73.6

104,9

99.5

96.6

94.0

89.5

85.3

86.6

107.5

101.1

93.1

99.0

97.5
92.3
80.3
111. 1
88.6

94.8
82.9
86.5
113.8
99.7

92.0
79.2
80.6
111.4
93.3

92.4
83.8
80.7
110.4
89.3

101.5
100.9
82.4
113.3
94.6

101.7
86.0
97.4
120.2
103.7

93.6
79.0
90.2
114.2
100.1

97.7
89.2
91.3
114.0
91.4

Table 7 shows the general index of employment in manufacturing
industries and the general index of pay-roll totals from January,
1923, to August, 1927.
Following Table 7 is a graph made from index numbers, showing
clearly the course of employment for each month of 1926 and for
each completed month of 1927, thus making possible a comparison
between corresponding months of the two years. This chart repre­
sents the 54 separate industries combined and shows the course of
pay-roll totals as well as the course of employment.
T

able

7 .— GENERAL

IN D E X E S OF E M P L O Y M E N T A N D PAY-ROLL T O TALS
M A N U F A C T U R IN G IN D U S T R IE S , JA N U A R Y , 1923, TO A U G U ST , 1927

IN

[M onthly average, 1923=100]
Employment

Pay-roll totals

M onth
1923

1924

1925

1926

1927

1923

1924

1925

1926

1927

January_________
February_________
M arch .___________
April___ ______ . .
M a y .. . .....................
June______________
July______________
A ugust____________
September _______
O ctober.....................
Novem ber____ _ . . .
December_________

98.0
99.6
101.8
101.8
101.8
101.9
100.4
99.7
99. 8
99.3
98. 7
96.9

95.4
96.6
96.4
94.5
90.8
87.9
84.8
85.0
86.7
87.9
87.8
89.4

90.0
91. 6
92.3
92. 1
90.9
90.1
89.3
89.9
90.9
92. 3
92.5
92.6

92.3
93.3
93.7
92.8
91.7
91.3
89.8
90.7
92.2
92.5
91. 4
90.9

89.4
91.0
91.4
90.6
89.7
89.1
87.3
87.4

91.8
95.2
100.3
101.3
104.8
104.7
99.9
99.3
100. 0
102. 3
101.0
98.9

94. 5
99.4
99.0
96.9
92.4
87.0
80.8
83.5
86.0
88. 5
87. 6
91.7

90.0
95. 1
96.6
94.2
94.4
91. 7
89.6
91.4
90.4
96. 2
96. 2
97.3

93.9
97.9
99.1
97.2
95.6
95. 5
91.2
94. 6
95.1
98 6
95. 4
95. 6

90.9
96.4
97.7
96.6
95.6
93.3
89.1
91.0

Average____

100.0

90.3

91.2

91.9

1 89.5

100.0

90.6

93.6

95.8

1 93.8

1 Average for 8 months.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[863]

148


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

MONTHLY LABOE REVIEW

[864]

149

EMPLOYMENT IN M ANUFACTUBING IN DU STRIES

P r o p o r ti o n o f T i m e W o rk e d a n d F o r c e E m p lo y e d in M a n u f a c t u r i n g I n d u s tr ie s
in A u g u s t , 1927

D EPO R TS from 8,760 establishments in August, 1927, show that 1
per cent of these establishments were idle, 79 per cent were
operating on a full-time schedule, and 20 per cent on a part-time
schedule; 34 per cent of the establishments had a full normal force of
employees and 65 per cent were operating with reduced forces. The
establishments in operation were employing an average of 87 per
cent of a full normal force of employees, who were working an average
of 97 per cent of full time. The average percentages were unchanged
from those of the July report.
T a b l e 8 .— E ST A B L ISH M E N T S W O R K IN G FU L L A N D PA R T T IM E A N D E M P L O Y IN G

F U L L A N D PA R T W O R K IN G FORGE IN A U G U ST , 1927

Establish­
ments
reporting
Industry
Total Per
num­ cent
idle
ber

Food and kindred products. ____

Slaughtering and meat packing__
Confectionery.__.......... ............... .
Ice cream_____________ ________
F lo u r ............. ........................... .........
Baking...................................................
Sugar refining, cane_____________

Textiles and their products ______
Cotton goods________ _______ ___
Hosiery and knit goods........ ..........
Silk goods__________ ___________
Woolen and worsted goods..............
Carpets and ru g s..______________
Dyeing and finishing textiles_____
Clothing, men’s...... ................ ...........
Shirts and c o lla r s .............................
Clothing, women’s . _____________
Millinery and lace good s................

Iron and steel and their products
Iron and ste el........................ ............
Cast-iron pipe_____________ ____ _
Structural ironwork_____________
Foundry and machine-shop products_________ ________________
Hardware______________________
Steam fittings and steam and hotStoves_______ __________________

Lum ber and its products _________

Lumber, sawmills_______________
Lumber, millwork___ ____ ______
Furniture..............................................

Leather and its products _________

Leather_______ ________________
Boots and shoes........ .......................

Paper and p r in tin g . ..................... .......
Paper and p u lp ............................. .
Paper boxes..........................................
Printing, book and job__________

1.394

Per cent of
Per cent of
establish­ Average establishments Average
per cent
per cent
ments
operating
of normal
operating— of full
with—
time
full force
operated
employed
in estab­
in estab­
Full
Part lishments
Full Part lishments normal
time time operating force normal operating
force

1

149
224
170
283
558
10

2
2

1,454

1

431
180
174
173
20
78
186
59
106
47

1
1
1
1
5

81

17

14
40
1
29
6
20

17

97

98
92
100
92
100
89

98

44
12
35
49
44

39

60

90

56
86
65
48
56

92

50

49

92
76
80
72
60
59
84
78
84
79

6
23
20
27
35
41
13
22
12
21

66
73
56
93

33
24
34

2

63
50
70

3

61
51

382
204
343

2
2
1
1

86
79
71

12
20
27

98
98
96

33
23
28

65
76
71

285

1

93
95
92

6

100
100
100

33
37
31

85

14

98

1

89
67
84
100

10
33
16

98
96
98
100

76

20

96

96
58
100

3
36

99
93
100

3
4

1,545
161
41
127
859
54
134

1
3
10
0)

94
75

929

102
183

672
154
129
246
143

Chem ical and allied p roducts. ........

301

Chemicals______________________
Fertilizers______________________
Petroleum refin in g..____________

96
161
44

1
1
0)

(>)
3
1
6

i Less than one-half of 1 per cent.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

83
86
58
99
69
94
80

[8 6 5 ]

79

67
85
96
97
90
96

99
97
97
96
97
93
98
97
98
95

63
44
49
41
50
42
49
42
43
19

35
56
50
58
45
58
48
58
53
81

90
90
86
75

94

7

94
89
99

22
16
29
39

77
81
61
61

82
93
86

36
48
30

94
93
95

19
4
15

81
94
85

81
81

39
47

95
91

46
43

54
55

93
90

70

86
86
81

66
62
68

91

19

4
7

97

29

47

49
28
43
69

17

29
8
23

53
50
72
56
31

89
93
87
82

89

84

83

88

89
92

94
95
89
93
98

80

68

70
86

90

77

48
87

150

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

T a b l e 8 .— E S T A B L IS H M E N T S W O R K IN G FU L L A N D P A R T T IM E A N D E M P L O Y IN G

FU L L A N D P A R T W O R K IN G FO R C E IN A U G U ST , 1927—Continued

Establish­
ments
reporting

Industry
•

Stone, clay, and glass products___
Brick, tile, and terra cotta_______
Pottery________________________
Glass_______ . . . ------ ------------------

Metal products, other th a n iron
and steel---- --------------------------- .
Brass', bronze, and copper products....................................................

Tobacco products_____________

Total Per
num­ cent
idle
ber
513
89
291
56
77

2

181
52

Per cent of
Per cent of
establish­ Average establishments Average
per cent
per cent
ments
operating
of normal
operating— of full
with—
time
full force
operated
employed
in estab­
in estab­
Full
Part lishments
Full Part lishments
time time operating normal normal operating
force
force
78
96
76
57
82

20
4
22
41
13

96
99
97
89
96

29
24
31
30
26

89
76
67
68
69

88
89
89
85
85

1

78
83

22
17

96
96

20
27

80
73

83
85

129

1

76

23

96

17

82

82

118

8

62

31

95

27

65

87

9

70
60

30
31

95
95

22
28

78
62

82
88

90
80
88

10
20
12

99
96
98

30
16
22

70
84
78

89
78
79

2
2
5

Chewing and smoking tobacco and

Cigars and cigarettes____________

23
95

Vehicles for land tran sp ortation ,,. 1, 041
137
58
Car building and repairing, elecCar building and repairing, steam-

M iscellaneous industries_________
Agricultural implem ents________
Electrical machinery, apparatus,

Shipbuilding, steel________ _____

328

94

6

100

39

61

95

518

90

10

99

28

72

90

73
59

27
40

96
95

24
14

76
85

82
74

76
64
50
84
94

24
36
50
16
6

96
93
89
98
100

27
25
30
31
25

73
75
70
69
75

86
84
79
86
75

79

20

97

34

65

87

327
73

(>)
1

139
28
10
45
32

Average__________________ _ 8, 760

1

i Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

T ren d of E m p lo y m e n t an d P ay-roll T o ta ls in B o o t an d S h oe
F a cto ries, by D istr ic ts, 1923 to 1927

HE trend of employment and of pay-roll totals in the three
principal boot and shoe making districts of the United States—
New England, Middle Atlantic, and North Central—is shown
in the following table and accompanying chart.

T

The information collected is presented in the form of index numbers
which show relatively the movement of employment and pay-roll
totals from month to month—from January, 1923, to August, 1927.
In computing these index numbers the monthly average for 1923 is
used as a base, or 100. The data for 56 months are linked together
by means of a chain index, the per cent of change from one month to
the succeeding month being obtained by comparing reports from
identical establishments for the two months. The number of estab­
lishments reporting has varied from month to month, and the average
number in 1927 is greater than in 1923, but even in the earlier year so
large a number of employees was represented in each district as to
render the information representative of the industry as a whole in
the respective districts.

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[ 866]

EMPLOYMENT IN MANUFACTURING IN DU STRIES

151

In August, 1927, the representation from each district was as fol­
lows: New England, 126 establishments, 36,929 employees, and
$895,231 pay-roll total; Middle Atlantic, 30 establishments, 26,283
employees, and $719,759 pay-roll total; North Central, 56 establish­
ments, 32,135 employees, and $737,052 pay-roll total.
The range of employment has been greatest in the New England
States, the index of employment standing at 109.2 in February, 1923,

TREND OF EMPLOYMENT & PAY-ROLL TOTALS
IN BOOT & SHOE FACTORIES BY DISTRICTS.
M ONTHLY

AVERAGE

1923 = 1 0 0 .

120

100

so

60

120

100

80

60

and at 68.5 in June, 1927; in the Middle Atlantic States the index of
employment stood at 103.7 in August, 1923, and at 86.2 in July, 1924;
and in the North Central States the index of employment stood at
107.9 in August, 1927, and at 91.2 in May, 1924.
The average indexes of employment for the eight months of 1927
are 76.3 in the New England division, 95.2 in the Middle Atlantic
division, and 103.5 in the North Central division.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[86 71

152
T

MONTHLY LABOE BEVIEW

v ble

9 . —IN D E X E S OF E M P L O Y M E N T A N D PAY-R O LL T O TALS IN BOOT A N D SHOE

FA C T O R IE S, BY D IST R IC T S

New England States: C onnecticut, M aine, M assachusetts, New H am pshire, Rhode Island,
and Verm ont
[M onthly average, 1923=100]
Employment

Pay-roll totals

M onth
1923

1924

1925

1926

1927

96. 1
97.2
96.4
91.0
86.3
75. 2
78. 5
85.4
.1
.9
85.0
82.4

89. 5
91.7
90.9
84.0
80. 5
70.9
78.0
85.3
.2
.2
82.1
74.9

79.2
85.2
84. 4
77.9
77.0
75.0
79.3
84.3
85. 7
85.4
83.1
76. 5

79.3
80.5
80.8
75.6
72.2
.5
74.6
78.6

December...................

106.9
109.2
107.3
102.9
99.8
90. 9
94.3
100.5
100. 5
98. 2
97. 9
91.4

A verage........

100. 0

87.6

83.4

81. 1

176.3

January....................
February. _______
M a rc h .....................
April............................
M a y ............................
June. ____________
July_______ ____ —
August_____ ______

88
88

86
86

68

1923

1924

107.5
110.9
108.1
99. 7
98.3
84. 7
90.6
104.9
103. 7
97.0
.2
93. 5

99.3
102.9
102.4
87.9
82. 7
69. 6
73.5
87.2
92.2
90. 7
76. 6
72.8

84.4
89.6
.5
76.0
71. 5
61.8
72.9
85.1
80. 2
81. 7
70. 6
63.0

71.1
79.9
84. 1
69.9
69.3
69. 3
74.8
85. 1
84. 1
81.0
73.6
63.9

100.0

86. 5

77.1

75.5

i 70.2

101

1925

88

1926

1927

68.2

76.0
76.3

68.0
64.9
59.5
69.6
79.3

Middle A tlantic States: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania
Jan u ary..................
February ------ -----March.......... ..............
April______ _____ _
M ay_________ ____
J u n e ..____________
July______________
August........................

December...................

Average____

97.9
98. 5
99.8
98.2
100.1
101.8
102.4
103.7
101. 3
99. 4
98. 7
98.3

96.8
96.6
98.0
94.3
90.1
86.4
86.2
90.3
91. 2
91. 6
90.1
92.9

94.4
96.6
97.9
95.6
94.9
93.6
94.2
96.3
100.4
99.0
94. 6
98.2

97.8
97.4
95.3
91.6
89.5
88.9
91.9
93.8
94.0
94.7
93.9
94.7

94.7
94.7
95.4
93.0
93.6
94.6
96.9
99.0

99. 1
98. 1
102.6
99.3
102.8
107.4
105.8
103.8
99.6
95.4
87.4
98.8

95.8
97.3
97. 1
91.6
89.2
86.9
89. 5
96.3
101. 8
100.1
86.1
104.1

106.7
109.8
112.0
104.8
106.6
106.4
107.1
113.3
107.4
102.4
94.2
104. 5

103.7
105. 7
100.4
93.6
80.8
94; 4
101.7
103. 7
106.2
107. 6
100. 7
104.4

102.8
106.0
105.0
101.4
98.8
105.9
108.9
113.1

100.0

92.0

96.3

93.6

195.2

100. 0

94. 7

106.3

100.2

i 105. 2

North Central States: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, M ichigan, M innesota, Missouri, Ohio, and
Wisconsin
January......................
February .......... .
March_______ _____
April______________
M ay______________
June________ _____
July_____ ____ ____
August____________

December...................

Average____

101.7
102.7
103. 5
102.0
99. 7
97.5
97.5
100.8
100. 5
99. 4
98.3
96.8

100.0

102.7
102. 1
101. 5
94.8
91.2
91.8
91. 5
94.1
99. 4
101. 7
104 9
1Ö1. 1
98. 1

103.2
104. 5
104.2
101. 9
100.3
101.6
105. 1
110.8
111. 3
110. 3
106 8
102.4

103. 9
101.4
98. 5
93.5
92. 6
96.6
100. 5
106.8
109. 6
107. 8
105. 2
105.9

107.2
106.2
105.1
99.0
98. 5
100. 8
103.4
107.9

102.4
103.6
108.8
105. 7
99. 7
98.8
90.7
97.3
98. 8
101. 5
96.0
96.3

98.0
96.8
92. 5
85.2
79.4
83.1
78.7
92.3
98. 2
98.6
96.3
94.5

93.4
98.2
98.8
94.1
94.3
93.8
97. 7
109.9
104.3
105.3
95. 5
93.2

96.7
98.2
90.2
82.0
84.0
91.6
98.7
108.0
104. 7
104.7
96. 5
97.6

101.2
108.4
101.4
94.5
94.0
96.5
103.1
111.5

105.2

101.9 i 103. 5

100.0

91.1

98.2

96.1

i 101.3

i Average for 8 months.

E m p lo y m e n t a n d T o ta l E a rn in g s o f R ailroad E m p lo y ees, J u ly ,
1926, a n d J u n e an d J u ly , 1927

HE number of employees on the 15th of July, 1927, and the
total earnings of employees in the entire month of July, 1927,
on Class I railroads of the United States are shown in the
table following, together with similar information for June, 1927,
and July, 1926. The data are presented for all occupations com­
bined, excluding executives and officials, and also for the six general
groups of occupations; under each group data are shown separately
for a few of the more important occupations.
Class I railroads are roads having operating revenues of $1,000,000
a year and over.

T


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[ 868]

153

REPORTS ON EMPLOYMENT----CALIFORNIA

E M P L O Y M E N T A N D TO T A L M O N T H L Y E A R N IN G S OF R A IL R O A D E M P L O Y E E S—
JU LY, 1926, A N D JU N E A N D JU L Y , 1927
[From monthly reports of Interstate Commerce Commission. As data for only the more important occu­
pations are shown separately, the group totals are not the sum of the items under the respective groups]
Number of employees at
middle of month
Occupation

1927

1926

1927

1926

Total earnings

June

July .

July

July

July

June

C lerks.________________ _____ Stenographers and typists----------

286, 771
168, 281
25,463

281,851
163, 820
25, 313

282, 554 $39,612,098 $39,641,215 $39,761,287
163,993 22,059,980 21,828,144 21,844,577
3,199, 365
3,181,461
3,145, 593
25, 354

M aintenance o f w ay and struc­
tu res_________ _________ ___

473,517

482,453

487,429

Professional, clerical, and general.

Laborers, extra gang and work
train..................... ............................
Laborers, track and roadway sec­
tion_________ _____ __________

M aintenance o f eq u ip m en t and
stores. _____ __________________

Carmen___________________ . . .
M achinists____________________
Skilled-trades helpers. ________
Laborers (shops, engine houses,
power plants, and stores)_____
Common laborers (shops, en­
gine houses, power plants, and
stores) ____________________

Transportation, other th a n train,
engine, and yard_____________
Station agents_________________
Telegraphers, telephoners, and
tow erm en ___________________
Truckers (stations, warehouses,
and platforms)_______________
Crossing and bridge flagmen and
gatemen______ _________ _____

Transportation
(yardmasters,
sw itch tenders, an d hostlers). . .
Transportation, train an d engine
Road conductors. ____________
Road brakemen and flagmen____
Y ard brakemen and yard helpers.
Road engineers and motormen
Road firemen and helpers______
All occu p ations...... ........... .

44,025, 554

45, lie , 703

44,132,344

86,635

90,911

95,014

7, 036, 962

7, 342,991

7,353, 750

242, 737

250,323

249,940

18, 216, 799

18, 856, 452

18,133, 629

517,189
112, 328
60, 353
113, 824

493, 059
105, 341
59, 032
108, 541

489,934
104, 730
58, 509
107, 858

67, 513,001
16, 553, 702
9, 498, 530
12, 504, 663

65,615,168
15, 970, 598
9,422, 292
12,282, 934

63. 711,201
15, 458, 541
9, 022, 725
11,864,902

42, 736

41, 373

41,292

4,059, 908

3,905,597

3,927,301

60, 589

57,029

56,541

4,967, 996

4, 700, 606

4,512,247

210,666
30, 691

205,918
30,445

208,027
30, 460

26,088,564
4, 849,191

25, 534, 362
4, 741, 748

25,718,239
4, 773, 881

25,481

24,665

24, 614

3, 916,469

3,731, 747

3, 805,589

38, 389

36, 929

35, 729

3, 577, 261

3, 504,995

3, 367,194

1, 696, 488

1, 703, 355

1, 700, 879

22, 528

22,003

21,989

4,589,849
4,456,889
4,594, 934
23,516
23,357
24,233
316, 810 65,261,287 62,918,817 63, 590,903
317,818
327,995
8, 736, 507
8, 619,369
8, 871, 204
36, 361
36,159
37,412
72,078 13,067, 538 12, 559, 928 12, 638, 734
72, 536
75,140
9, 232,908
9,131,720
52, 270
9,166, 769
52, 523
53,956
42,960 11,894, 315 11,079, 718 11, 214, 468
42,889
44, 596
8, 640, 680
8, 490, 326
8, 837,159
43,936
44, 018
45, 933
1,840,371 1,804,456 1,806,270 247,095,438 243,277,154 241,503,823

State Reports on Em ploym ent
C a lif o rn ia

HE following data, taken from the August, 1927, issue of the
Labor Market Bulletin show changes in number of employees
and in amount of weekly pay roll of 736 industrial estab­
lishments in California from July, 1926, to July, 1927 :

T

P E R C E N T OF C H A N G E IN N U M B E R OF E M PL O Y EE S A N D IN TO TAL A M O U N T OF
W E E K L Y PA Y ROLL IN 736 C A LIFO RN IA E ST A B L ISH M E N T S B E T W E E N JU LY, 1926,
A N D JU LY, 1927
_____________________ _
Employees

Industry

Stone, clay, and glass products:
Miscellaneous stone and mineral products
Lime, cement, plaster.....................................
Brick, tile, pottery..........................................
Glass........ ....................... - .................................
T o ta l........................................................ .......

11
63952°—27
https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Weekly payroll

Per cent
Per cent
Number
of estab­ Number of change Amount of change
as com­
as
com­
lishm ents in July,
in July,
pared
pared
reporting
1927
1927
with
with
July, 1926
July, 1926
13
6
18
8
45

[869]

1,644
1,611
3,002
870
7.127

+12.1
-8 . 5
+19.8
+ 2.7
+ 8.3

$53, 355
52, 303
71, 896
29, 310
206,864

+16.1
- 2 .8
+23.9
+ 6.7
+11.6

154

M ONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

P E R C E N T OF C H A N G E IN N U M B E R OF E M P L O Y E E S A N D IN T O T A L A M O U N T OF
W E E K L Y P A Y R O L L IN 736 C A L IF O R N IA EST A B L IS H M E N T S B E T W E E N JU L Y , 1926,
A N D JU L Y , 1927—Continued
Employees

Number
Per cent
Per cent
of estab­
Amount of change
lishm ents Number ofaschange
com­
in July, as com­
reporting in July,
pared
pared
1927
1927
with
with
July, 1926
July, 1926

Industry

Metals, machinery, and conveyances:
Agricultural im plem ents_____________________ _
Automobiles, including bodies and parts_______
Brass, bronze, and copper produets ________ _
Engines, pumps, boilers, and t a n k s .____ . . . .
Iron and steel forging, bolts, nuts, etc________ .
Structural and ornamental steel_______________
Ship and boat building and naval repairs______
Tin cans_______________ ______ _____ ________ _
Other iron-foundry and machine-shop products..
Other sheet-metal products__________ ______ _
Cars, locomotives, and railway repair sh o p s.. . .
Total___ ________________ ____ _____________
Wood manufactures:
Sawmills and logging_______ . _. __________
Planing mills, sash and door factories, e t c ____
Other wood manufactures___ ____ ____________
Total_______ ______ ______ ____ ____________
Leather and rubber goods:
Tanning _____________ . . . ___ ____ ______ .
Finished leather products__ __________________
Rubber products___________ _______ ________
Total____________ ______ ______ ______ ______
Chemicals, oils, paints, etc.:
Explosives___________ _____ __________________
Mineral oil refining___________________________
Paints, dyes, and colors. _ __ ____ ____________
Miscellaneous chemical products__ _______ _
Total_________ __________ ______ __________
Printing and paper goods:
Paper boxes, bags, cartons, etc___________ _____
P r in tin g _________ . . _ _______________ _____
Publishing__ . . . . . . . . . ___________
_ _
Other paper produ cts______________________ _
Total. _____________ _ _ ______________
Textiles:
Knit goods _ _______________
Other textile products_________________
Total.................................................
Clothing, millinery, and laundering:
M en’s clothing
... .
_________ _ . _
W omen’s c lo th in g ...... ......... ...........................
M illinery _________ _ . _____ .
Laundering, cleaning, and dyeing. . . . ______
Total__________________________________ . _
Foods, beverages, and tobacco:
Canning, preserving of fruits and vegetables____
Canning, packing of fish_____________________
Confectionery and ice cream.. . _____ _______
Groceries, not elsewhere specified_______
. ..
Bread and bakery products__________ _______
Sugar_________ _____ _______________________
Slaughtering and meat products_________ ____
Cigars and other tobacco products.. .
____
Beverages ...... .................... .............. ._ ________
Dairy products_______________________________
Flour and grist m ills. . . . __________________
Ice manufactures ________
_
Other food products_______________ _____ .
Total__________ ____ _______________________
Water, light, and power__________ __________
M iscellaneous. _________ _ _
Grand total, all industries___ _ . ___ ____ _


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Weekly pay roll

[870]

7
13
9
8
6
19
5
7
68
20
18
180

1,471
1,855
927
934
2,200
4,792
1,431
2,103
6,311
1, 554
8,060
31,638

+ 5 .5
—32. 9
-1 4 .4
+a3
-6 . 7
+ 9 .8
-2 2 .7
-2 0 .9
- 5 .2
-.2
+ 4.4
- 5 .0

$42, 016
54, 581
27,362
28,938
60,650
155,156
40,387
59, 447
184, 929
46, 017
237,158
936, 641

+ 7 .9
—39.3
- 8 .1
-2 .2
-1 3 .7
+20.8
-3 0 .7
-1 6 .5
-.6
+■ 4
+11.8
- 2 .5

20
57
41
118

11, 289
9,346
4,242
24, 877

+ 2 .9
- 1 .3
+ 3 .0
+ 1.3

286, 738
260,131
120, 020
666,889

+ 3 .0
- 3 .4
+ 8 .0
+3. 2

8
5
6
19

920
451
2,706
4,077

+11.0
-8 . 5
+4. 3
+ 4.1

25,412
9,701
78,380
113,493

+15.5
-1 0 .4
+ 5.5
9

4
7
7
13
31

501
10,149
660
1,971
13, 281

-5 . 5
-1 8 .1
+ 3 .0
-9 .0
-1 5 . 6

13,883
396,583
16, 614 :
52,404
479,484

- 7 .6
-1 4 .8
+ 1 .4
- 3 .9
-1 3 .0

12
53
14
9
88

1,699
2,450
2,664
1,047
7,860

+ 6 .9
-.3
+ .9
+ 5 .2
+3. 7

49, 724
86,364
97, 988
23,864
257, 940

+41.2
-1 .8
+• 1
+10.1
+ 6.3

12
6
18

951
1,613
2, 564

__ rj
+ 2 .5
+ 1.3

20, 754
33, 559
54, 313

+24.7
+ 9.5
+14. 9

24
9
6
19
58

2, 600
995
352
3,066
7,013

-3 . 6
+17.2
+50.4
+ 6.4
+ 5 .3

52, 208
21, 235
6,355
66, 819
146, 617

-a 3
+32.9
+50. 4
+4.1
+5.1

33
7
23
4
20
6
14
3
4
10
11
15
13
163
4
12
736

13, 722
588
1,502
387
3,106
3,033
2, 646
028
429
2,540
774
1,179
755
31,289
3,376
2,046
135,148

-1 7 .0
199, 286
6, 922
-7 . 5
—4. 5
36, 456
9,073
-1 4 .9
- .4
85, 733
+ 3 .2
81, 562
+4. 4
78, 885
+ 4 .8
12, 085
12, 388
- 1 .6
80, 025
+16. 7
22, 204
-1 5 .2
39, 038
-1 1 .7
-1 5 .2
16,547
680,204
-8 .4
+ 2 .4
95, 979
54,800
- 2 .4
- 3 . 8 3, 693, 224

-2 1 .3
- 2 .2
- 5 .2
-1 0 .3
-t"2. 0
+ 9 .9
+ 4 .0
+ 7 .8
-6 . 7
+ 9 .2
-8 .6
-1 0 .7
—4.1
- 6 .3
+ 4 .0
+2. 2
- 1 .9

155

REPORTS ON EMPLOYMENT----ILLIN O IS
Illin o is

'"THE July, 1927, issue of the Labor Bulletin, published by the
Illinois Department of Labor, contains the following statistics
showing the changes in employment and earnings in Illinois factories
in June, 1927, as compared with May, 1927:
C H A N G E S I N E M P L O Y M E N T A N D E A R N IN G S IN ILLINO IS FA C T O R IE S FR OM M AY
TO JU N E , 1927

Per cent of change from M ay to June, 1927
Em ploym ent

Industry
Males

Stone, clay, and glass products:

Metals, machinery, conveyances:

Wood products:
Pianos, organs, and other musical instruments------

Furs and leather goods:

Chemicals, oils, paints, etc.:

T otal_________________ ____ _________________Printing and paper goods:


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[8 7 1 ]

Females

Total em­
ployees

Total
earnings

+ 2 .3
+ 3 .8
- 3 .7
+14.6

- 1 .4
+66.7
-5 .9
+ .2

+ 2 .2
+ 4 .4
- 3 .7
+12.8

+ 5.3
+14.5
- 4 .3
+19.2

+ 3 .8

+ .1

+ 3 .6

+ 5.4

- 2 .9
- 1 .7
- 2 .3
- 3 .1
- 1 .2
+ 4 .2
- 7 .8
- .5
- 2 .0
- .7
- 2 .6
- 4 .3

+ 2 .5
+ 4 .0
-8 . 1
-4 .5
- 4 .4
- 6 .4
- 7 .8
+ 2.7
- 1 .3
0.0
-1 0 .8
-6 .0

-2 .9
-1 .8
-2 .9
-3 .2
- 1 .2
+ 4 .0
-7 .5
-.6
-5 .0
- .7
- 3 .9
-5 .0

+ 1 .3
-1 .0
-5 .2
-8 . 1
+ 1.1
+ 7 .7
-6 .8
—.6
—1.2
-1 .4
-3 .7
- 7 .8

- 1 .9

-2 . 1

- 2 .9

-.8

+12.3
+ .3
+ .8
+4. 1
+ 2 .0

-1 6 .7
+ .7
+22.7
+ 6 .3
+ 4 .5

+11.6
+ .3
+ 2.1
+ 4 .2
+ 2 .8

+25.1
+ 4 .3
+ 4 .2
+ 7 .0
+ 1 .0

+3.3

+ 3 .6

+ 3 .3

+ 8 .2

+ 3 .4
+ 2 .2
+ 6 .8
+ .6

+ 3 .2
- 7 .9
+ 7.5
+ 8.4

+ 3 .4
- 2 .4
+ 2 .9
+5.4

+ 10.2
-5 .9
+ 5 .7
+ 2 .6

+ 4 .9

+ 7.1

+ 3.1

+ 6 .3

-.7
+ .8
- 8 .0
+ 1 .1

-.6
+ 7.2
- 8 .4
+12.7

- .7
+ 3 .4
-8 .0
+ 2 .6

+ 7.1
- 2 .9
+ 5 .7

-3 . 0

+ 2.6

- 1 .6

+ 2 .8

+ 2 .9
- 1 .9
+5. 2
- 1 .5
- 1 .8

- 3 .3
- 5 .2
- 5 .4
-1 0 .8
+ 8 .8

+ .9
- 3 .3
+ 2.5
-4 .0
+ 1.1

-.8
-1 .3
+ 4 .2
- 2 .4
+ 6 .4

+ 2 .5

- 3 .8

--------- h i

+ 1.7

156

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

C H A N G E S IN E M P L O Y M E N T A N D E A R N IN G S IN ILL IN O IS F A C T O R IE S FR O M M A Y
TO J U N E , 1927—Continued

Per cent of change from M ay to June, 1927
Employm ent

Industry
Males
Textiles:
Cotton and woolen goods..... ............................
Knit goods, cotton and woolen hosiery_____
Thread and tw ine................................................

Females

Total em­
ployees

Total
earnings

+1. 7
+ 5 .0
-1 1 . 9

+ 6 .9
- 3 .3
-5 . 9

+ 2 .9
+ 2.5
-1 2 .9

+. 9
+ 6.3
—14.6

+ .3

+ .7

T o ta l--.......................................... ....................

-.2

- 1 .5

Clothing, millinery, laundering:
M en’s clothing......................................................
M en’s shirts and furnishings...........................
Overalls and work clothing________ _______
M en’s hats and caps..........................................
Women’s clothing_______________________
Women’s underwear._____________ _____
Women’s hats........- _____ _______ - .................
Laundering, cleaning, and dyeing...................

+ 5 .7
+ 5 .9
-1 1 .1
- 8 .3
-1 3 .8
-2 .2
+13.4
+ 4 .2

+ 1.9
- 1 .4
- 2 .2
+18.2
-1 0 .5
- 1 .0
-2 6 .8
+ 1 .5

+2. 1
+ 3.3
-3 .2
0.0
-11. 1
+ 1.3
-1 8 .0
+ 2.3

+22.5
+ 4.3
+ 3 .4
+98.5
—9.9
-1 0 .3
-2 4 .6
+ 2 .2

Total...................................................................

+ 4 .3

- 1 .8

+ .1

+12. 1

Food, beverages, and tobacco:
Flour, feed, and other cereal products_____
Fruit and vegetable canning and preserving.
Miscellaneous groceries.......................... „„____
Slaughtering and meat packing___ ________
Dairy products___ ______ ____ ______ _____
Bread and other bakery products_________
Confectionery................................................ .
Beverages_______________________________
Cigars and other tobacco products_________
Manufactured ice________________________
Ice cream....................................................... .........

-.8
- 2 .4
- 2 .1
+ 9 .6
-. 1
+ 6 .2
- 3 .6
+ 6 .5
+17.0
+5. 0
+ 8 .7

+ 5 .2
+ 5 .6
+ 1 .9
+10.6
- 6 .9
- 1 .9
+ 1 .3
-1 . 2
+ 6 .8
+17.2

-.3
—. 7
- 5 .1
+ 9 .8
-.5
+ 3 .6
+ .5
+1. 7
+11.3
+ 5 .0
+ 9 .5

+ 2 .5
+ 8 .9
+ 6 .0
+ 7 .9
+ 2.4
+ 2 .8
+ 5 .3
+1. 2
+19.0
+14.6
+ 5 .2

Total................................ ................................

+ 6.4

+ 5 .0

+ 5 .0

+ 6 .9

Total all manufacturing industries_______

+ .7

+ .2

-.3

+ 2.6

Trade—Wholesale and retail:
Department stores....................... .................... .
Wholesale dry goods___________ __________
Wholesale groceries...................... .....................
Mail-order houses.................................... ............

-.8
+ 1.7
-3 .0
+ .8

+ 1 .9
-1 9 . 1
+2. 5
+ 2.1

+■ 9
- 8 .9
- 1 .6
- 1 .2

+. 9
-1 0 .4
—1.2
- 1 .2

T otal................ ....................................................

+ .2

+ 1 .2

- 1 .1

-1 .2

Public utilities:
Water, light, and power................................ .
Telephone_____ - ................................... ............
Street railways_________ ______ ______ ____
Railway car repair shops....................................

-3 .6
+ 1 .0
+ .4
+ 1 .7

- 3 .5
+ 2 .2
+ .9
+ 2 .6

- 1 .4
+ 1 .8
+ .3
+ 1.7

-1 .3
+ 4 .0
+ 2 .3
+ 6 .2

+2. 0

T otal............................................................. .......

+ .3

+ .7

+ 2 .5

Coal mining........................................................ ..........

+14.8

+14.8

+23.1

Building and contracting:
Building construction......... ........................... .
Road construction............................................ .
Miscellaneous contracting..................................

+ 4 .5
+24.5
+10.4

+ 4 .5
+24.5
+10.4

+ 2 .6
+ 5 .8
-7 .0

T otal....................................................................

+ 6 .8

Total, all industries...........................;..............

+ .9


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[872]

+ .9

+ 6 .8

+ 1.1

+ .1

+ 2.4

157

REPORTS ON EMPLOYMENT----IOWA
Io w a

•"THE August, 1927, issue of the Iowa Employment Survey, pub1 lished by the bureau of labor of that State, shows the following
changes in volume of employment from July to August, 1927:
C H A N G E S IN V O L U M E OF E M P L O Y M E N T IN IOW A, JU L Y TO A U G U ST , 1927

Industry

Employees on pay
rollj August, 1927
N um ­
ber of
firms
Per cent of
re­
change as
port­ N um ­ compared
ber
ing
with July,
1927

Food
and kindred
products:
Meat packing..........
Cereals.......................
Flour_________. . .
Bakery produ cts...
Confectionery_____
Poultry, produce,
butter, etc--------Sugar, starch, sirup,
glucose, etc_____
Other food products, coffee, e tc ...
T otal. ________
Textiles:
Clothing, men’s___
M illin e r y .............
Clothing, women’s,
and woolen goods.
Hosiery, awnings,
etc----- ------------Buttons, pearl____
Total _________
ron and steel works:
Foundry and machine shops . .
Brass, bronze prod­
ucts, plumbers’
supplies________
Autos, tractors, and
engines____ ____
Furnaces..................
Pum ps---- -----------Agricultural implem e n t s _________
Washing machines.
T otal......................
Lumber products:
Millwork, interiors,
e t c . . . __________
Furniture, desks,
etc_____________
Refrigerators____ _
Coffins, u n d e r takers’ sup p lies..
Carriages, wagons,
truck bodies.........
Total --------------


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

8
2
3
8
6

- 1 .4

7,069
949
116
839
373

+19.2

9

665

-1 0 .6

3

1,440

+ 2 .5

395

+ 8 .8

47 11,846

-.7

8
10
2

0.0
-1 7 .2
0.0

Industry

Leather products:
Shoes____________
Saddlery and har­
ness____________
Fur goods and tan­
ning—
Gloves and mittens.

2

241

+ 2 .1

3

115

+ 1 9 .8

4
3

299

+ 4.2

T o t a l.......... .........

12

721

+ 5 .9

Paper products, print­
ing and publishing:
Paper products___
Printing and pub­
lishing. .................

0
12

332

+ 5 .7

2, 203

+ 2 .7

17

2,535

+ 3 .0

8

451

+ 2.7

9
14

2,347
1,218

-8 .0

T o ta l..................
1,129
149

+ .9
-2 .0

3

565

- 3 .9

5
7

667
430

—. 5
+ 8 .0

27

2,940

+ .4

28

3,520

+ 4 .1

0.0

4

306

5
7
4

2,086
307
255

+ 8 .9
+ 1.3
-1 .6

8
8

784
2, 297

+ 7 .3

9, 555

+ 3 .9

2,646

-.7

Employees on pay
roll, August, 1927
N um ­
ber of
firms
Per cent of
re­
change as
port­ N um ­ compared
ber
ing
with July,
1927

P a t e n t m e d ic in e s ,
chemicals and com­
pounds_____________
Stone and clay prod­
ucts:
Cement, plaster,
gypsum------------Brick and tile_____
Marble and granite,
crushed rock and
stone.......................

66

+ 6 .5

— .6

3

96

+ 1 7 .1

26

3,661

- 5 .1

Tobacco and cigars____

3

276

-.4

Railway car shops-------

8 10,124

+ 1 .0

Total

.............

1,124

3

112

+14.8
+33.3

Various industries:
Auto tires and
tubes___________
Brooms
and
brushes_________
Laundries________
M ercantile...............
Public service_____
Seeds _ -------------Wholesale houses...
Commission houses
Other industries___

5

153

- 2 .6

T o t a l..................-

61 10, 476

+ 2.9

Grand total_____

309 56, 710

+ 1.4

64

16

8

0.0

4

90

- 6 .3

36

4,125

+ 3 .6

[873]

2
5
4

6
2
22
4

7
9

154

0 .0

165
177
2, 430
3, 937
213
1,081
237
2,082

+ 3 .8
—2.8
—22.6

+• 7
0 .0

+.6
-7 .8
20.1

158

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW
M a ry la n d

T H E following report on volume of employment in Maryland from
July to August, 1927, was furnished by the commissioner of
labor and statistics of Maryland:
C H A N G ES IN E M P L O Y M E N T IN ID E N T IC A L E ST A B L ISH M E N T S IN M A R Y L A N D IN
A U G U ST , 1927

Employment
Estab­
lis h ­
ments
report­
ing for
both
months

Industry

Bakery.............................
Beverages and soft drinks
Boots and shoes____
Boxes, fancy, and paper__
Boxes, wooden__.........
.
Brass and bronze_____
Brick, tile, etc____
Brushes....................
Car building and repairing.
Chemicals_______ ._
Clothing, men’s outer garments
Clothing, women’s outer garments
Confectionery_______
Cotton goods..........
Fertilizer____
Pood preparation___
Foundry___
Furnishing goods, m en’s
Furniture
Glass manufacture
Icecrea m ... .
Leather goods____
Lithographing_______
Lumber and planing
Mattresses and spring beds
____________
Pianos
Plumbers’ supplies........ .............. .
Printing..
Rubber-tire manufacturing_____________________
Shipbuilding__________
Shirts_____
Stamping and enameling ware___
Tinware________
Tobacco______
M iscellaneous_____

Per cent
Number of change
of em­
as com­
ployees,
pared
with
August,
July,
1927
1927

Pay roll

Amount,
August,
1927

Per cent
of change
as com­
pared
with
July,
1927

178
1,317
379

+• 5

+9. 6

7

+• 7

+ 5 .8

4

359

-5 .8

5
4

2,385
747

+ 7 .7

8

144

OuO* do
.t
48,105. 82
8 , 513. 22

O, Udji, ^_L

10

4
8

3
3
5
3
9
4
3
4
10
1

3
4
4
4
6

16

806
693
923
185
650
523
628
153
961
1,123
1,328
2,731
722
562
1,164
2,938
629
4,109

- 1 .3
+17.8
- 8 .0
- 2 .3
+ .3
-4 .9
- 7 .2
+ 1 .4
- 6 .2
—fi 4
- 7 .6
+ 7 .2
- 2 .2
+12.9
+ 6 .7
+ 1 .2

10,918. 33
20, 664. 80
5,476.45
13,318. 77
15, 566. 02
17,150. 75
4,814.07
23, 912. 6 8
29,211.24
44, 682. 27
145,309. 6 6
19,628. 8 6
22,377. 63
64, 661. 70
8,299.80
97, 649. 81

- 2 .1
+ 7 .6
+14.6
+ 1 .0
- 1 .4
- 4 .1
- . 1

-2 .9
- 5 .4
+• 2
+ 2 .1
—3.0
—4.1
+ 1 .3
-1 4 .0
+

2 .6

+ 6 .2
+ 4 .4

M a s s a c h u s e tt s

A PRESS release from the Department of Labor and Industries
of Massachusetts shows the following changes in volume of
employment in various industries in that State from June, 1927, to
July, 1927:


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[874]

159

REPORTS ON EMPLOYMENT----MASSACHUSETTS

N U M B E R OE E M P L O Y E E S IN 1,025 M A N U F A C T U R IN G E ST A B L ISH M E N T S IN MASSAC H U SE T T S, W E E K IN C L U D IN G OR E N D IN G N E A R E S T TO JU N E 15 A N D JULY 15,1927
Number of wage earners employed
Number
of estab­
lish­
ments

Industry

B ook b in d in g ............................. .........................................
Boot and shoe cut stock and findings............................
Boots and shoes......................... ......................................
Boxes, paper................ ......... .................. ............................
Boxes, wooden packing...... ................................. ..............
Bread and other bakery products________ ____ ____
Carpets and m g s......................................................
Cars and general shop construction and repairs, steam
railroads.................................................. .........................
Clothing, men’s _____ _________ _______ ___________
Clothing, wom en’s ____ _______ _______ ____ _______
Confectionery.....................................................................
Copper, tin, sheet iron, e t c . .......................... ..................
Cotton goods__________________________________ ”
Cutlery and tools.............................................................
Dyeing and finishing textiles______ _______ ________
Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies_____
Foundry products____ ___________________________
Furniture_____________ ______________ _____ _____
Gas and by-products. . . . ________________________
Hosiery and knit goods....................................................
Jewelry_________ _________ _____ _________________
Leather, tanned, curried, and finished............. ...........
Machine-shop products_____________ _____________
Machine and other tools.-.......................... ............ .........
Motor vehicles, bodies, and parts....................................
Musical instrum ents............................................ ..............
Paper and wood pulp. .......................................................
Printing and publishing, book and job ____________
Printing and publishing, new spapers...........................
Rubber footwear.......... ..................................................
Rubber goods.............. ......................................................
Silk goods____ ______ _______________ ____________
Slaughtering and meat packing.......................................
Stationery goods____ ______ _____________________
Steam fittings and steam and hot-water heating
apparatus-___________ _____ ___________________
Stoves and stove linings_______________ __________
Textile machinery and parts............................ ................
Tobacco_________________________ __________
Woolen and worsted g o o d s..............................................
All other industries............................ ................................
Total, all industries..... ...........................................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[875]

15
43
80
27

July 1927
June,
1927

909
2,117
21,050
2,016

Full
time
793
2 ,102

20, 241
1,315
697
4,519
3,138

12

1 ,021

48
5

4, 531
3, 519

4
28
34
18
15
52

2, 832
4,129
1,494
3,733
499
40, 771
2, 090
6 , 624
9,220
2, 692
3, 605
1,192
4, 546
2, 217
6,105
5, 709
2, 665
2,567
1,039
6 , 427
3, 353
2, 364
8,540
2, 757
4,205
1, 552
1 , 680

2,300
437
34, 003
1,037
3,063
7,702
1,697
1,682
1,218
1-; 973
1,232
5,876
5,219
1,811
1,181
768
3,953
2,723
2, 271
7,347
2,725
3, 593
1,580
1,444

5
58
129

1,759
1,500
4,037
641
18,587
31, 279

1,515
282
1,981
242
9. 572
23,451

1,025

227, 579

170, 873

20

9
14
20

36
13
12

33
32
45
26
16
13
26
50
18
3
7
10

5
12

9
5
12

3,168
1 ,0 2 2

Part
tim e

Total

109
107
3, 453
688

299
32
287
2, 814
822
365
1,128
43
6,215
716
3,396
1,280
1,005
1,809
1,459
971
261
305
721
1,717
293
2 ,122

382
8

462
54
138
174
811

902
2, 209
23, 694
2,003
996
4, 551
3,425
814
3’ 990
1,387
3, 428
480
40, 218
1, 753
6 , 459
8,982
2, 702
3, 491
1 , 218
3,432
2,203
6,137
5,524
2,532
2, 898
1 , 061
6,075
3,105
2, 279
7, 347
2,725
4,055
1,634
1,582
2

405
8 , 587
5,845

1,689
1,093
3, 983
647
18,159
29, 296

51,285

222,158

2 ,0 0 2

160

MONTHLY LABOE EEYIEW
New J e r s e y

rTTHE New Jersey Department of Labor has furnished the followA ing data showing the changes in volume of employment and
pay roll from June to July, 1927, in 855 establishments in that State:
P E R C E N T OF C H A N G E IN N U M B E R OF E M P L O Y E E S A N D IN TO T A L A M O U N T OF
W E E K L Y PA Y ROLL IN 855 N E W JE R SE Y E ST A B L ISH M E N T S, JU L Y , 1927, C O M PA R E D
W ITH JU N E , 1927
W eekly pay roll

Employees

Per cent
Per cent
Number
change
of change
of plants Number of
as
com­
Amount
as com­
reporting in July,
in July,
pared
pared
1927
1927
with
with
June,
June,
1927
1927

Industry

Food and kindred products:
B aking___________ ____ _____________________
Canning and preserving ____________________
Confectionery and ice cream_________________
Provisions___________________________________
Other food products--____________ ___________
T otal---__________________ _

___________

Textiles and their products:
Carpets and rugs_____________________________
Clothing-____ _________ ______ _______________
Cotton goods___________ ____ ______ __________
Dyeing and finishing textiles__________________
Hats and c a p s.-____ _
______________ _______
Hosiery and knit g o o d s __________ ___________
M illinery and lace-___________________________
Shirts and collars__________ ____ _____________
Silk goods- —____ ___________________________
Woolen and worsted goods_____________ _____
Miscellaneous textile products..................................
Total__________ _______________ _______ ____
Iron and steel and their products:
Cast-iron pipe___________________________ ____
Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies. .
Foundry and machine-shop products__________
Hardware_____________________
Iron and steel forgings________ . . . . ________
Machine tools______________ _ . . _
______
Steam fittings and steam and hot-w-ater heating
apparatus. ...... ................................................
Structural-iron w o r k _______________________
Total______ _______ _________________ ____
Lumber and its products:
Furniture ____________________________
Lumber and millwork____________ ________ ___
Total................... ................................. .....................
Leather and its products:
Boots and shoes____________ _____ _________ _
Leather____ . . . . . .
___________ _
Leather products.................................................
Total......................................... ................................
Tobacco products—............... ....... .......................................
Paper and printing:
Paper and pulp_______ ____________________
Paper boxes_______________ ___________ . .
Printing, book and job _____________________
Printing, newspapers..................................................
T otal........................ ..................................................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[876]

11

1,411
3,586
308
1,316
1,804

+ 1.4
-2 .9
- 6 .4
- 1.6
-31. 7

$45, 248
76,458
7, 832
38, 806
47, 817

+ 3 .7
- 1 .5
-3 7 .8

45

8

, 425

-1 0 .3

216,161

-1 1 .9

10

1,175
4,122
7, 392
10, 803
1,086
3, 622
903
1,916
8,416
9, 972
1,933

- 2 .1
-4 . 5
-1 .3
- 4 .8
- .5
- 4 .1
- 2.2
-5 .8
- 6 .3
+36.4
- 3 .4

31, 963
80, 885
112, 947
272, 537
31,102
97, 283
16,396
36, 365
208, 980
261, 622
41,923

212

51,340

16
8

7
3

3
29
15
38
6

17
10

9
57
18

6

28
79
7
8
22

3,515
19, 919
18,278
908
803
3,297

-3 .0

- 8 .0
-8 .4
-

2 0 .0

- 3 .1
+ 1.3
- 7 .6
+ 1 .6
-3 .2
- 5 .5
+44.8
- 7 .1

+ 1 .7 1,192,003
-.3
-

2 .6

+ .9
- 1 .9
-f-1 . 0
- 4 .1

+ .8

94, 782
514, 296
534, 016
27, 570
23, 766
91,134

-9 .6
- 7 .0
- 2 .1
+ 2 .8
+ 4.0
- 8 .9

10

3,914
1,544

-

1.6

111, 587
46, 633

-4 .9
- 3 .2

173

52,178

-

1 .0

1, 443, 784

- 4 .9

13

+ .8

5
13

1,221

707

- 3 .6
- 1.8

34, 235
20,207

- 6 .5
- 1 .0

18

1,928

- 3 .0

54,442

- 4 .5

7

1,146
3,173
513

-

4

26,040
91, 111
10,853

- 4 .9
—5.3
+ 3 .4

33

4, 832

1 .1

128,004

- 4 .5

12

3, 511

+10.3

62, 030

+ 5 .0

- 5 .3
+ 6. 6
+3. 7

99, 797
30, 905
81, 715
82, 086

-9 .2
+ .3

12
10

3,844
1,542
2,378
2,049

62

9, 813

+ .2

294, 503

- 4 .0

22

22

18

1 .1

-.9
-1 .9
-

+ .8

-

- . 6
2 .1

161

REPORTS ON EMPLOYMENT— N EW JERSEY

P E R C E N T OF C H A N G E IN N U M B E R OF E M P L O Y E E S A N D IN TO TAL A M O U N T OF
W E E K L Y PA Y ROLL IN 855 N E W JE R SE Y E ST A B L ISH M E N T S, JU LY, 1927, C O M PA R E D
W ITH JU N E , 1927—Continued
W eekly pay roll

Employees

Per cent
Per cent
Number
of change
of plants Number ofaschange
Amount as com­
com­
reporting in July,
pared
in July,
pared
with
with
1927
1927
June,
June,
1927
1927

Industry

Chemicals and allied products:
Chemicals___________________________________
Explosives_________ - ........................ .........................
Oils and greases _________ _________________
Paints and varnish.
----------- --------------------Petroleum refining— _________________ ______ _

8

8,921
2,300
1,474
1,725
14, 873

- 1 .0
+ 4 .5
- 3 .1
- 5 .3
-.3

78

29, 293

- . 6

27
7

4, 328
3.198
3, 870

42
6

9
13

-3 .5
-8 .3
—5.6
-7 .8

$248, 044
6,145
43,129
52, 504
495,158

-

1 0 .8

898, 980

- 8 .3

- 1 .0
-5 .9
-1 7 .8
+ .3

124,169
6 6 , 691
119, 970
36,012

-1 3 .2
-9 .2
-1 4 .5
- 2.8

12, 397

- 7 .9

346, 842

-1 1 .9

9
14

601
4, 350
3,727
7, 271

+ 3.1
- 1 .7
+ 3 .9
- 3 .6

19, 677
112, 529
118,758
173,253

+ 6 .5
-5 .2
+ 1 .5
-1 9 .4

Total—................................................................ .........

55

15, 949

-

1.2

424, 217

- 9 .5

Vehicles for land transportation:
Automobiles and parts _________ ___ _______
Car building and repairing, steam railroad--------

13
9

4,701

+ .7
+ 1 .6

194, 896
139, 626

-

, 822

+ 1. 1

334, 522

- 1 .3

1,560
3,748
964
7,361
9,205
6,513
3,033

- 8 .1
-. 7
+ 2 .0
- 2 .3
- 6 .0
+ 2 .3
- 8 .4

41,216
105, 208
19, 562
216,141
248,125
201, 666
91,676

-9 .4
—5.7
+ 2 .2
+ 5 .6
-9 .2
+ 3 .4
-5 .8

- 3 .1

Total...... ................ ................ ....................................
Stone, clay, and glass products:
Brick, tile, and terra cotta______ _____________
Glass________________ _______________________
Pottery___________________________ __________
Other products...................................-.........- ..............
Total...... .................................. ........... ................. M etal products, other than iron and steel:
Brass, bronze, and copper products........ ............ .
Sheet-metal and enamel ware -- --------------------Smelting and refining......... ................................ .......
Wire and wire goods—- ............................................. .

Total_________________ ______________ _____
Miscellaneous industries:
Cork and cork specialties...........................................
Jewelry and novelties......... .................................. —
Laundries----------------------------------------------------Musical instrum en ts___________ ______ ____ _
Rubber tires and goods___________ ______ _____
Shipbuilding------- --------------------------Unclassified.......... ......................- ------------------------

21
2

57
11
21

22

5
28
8

4
29
6
8

1,001

6,121

10

..................... ...............................

88

32,384

Total, all industries-.....................- ..........................

855

232, 872

T o ta l...............


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[877]

-

1 .2

-.3

- 2 .4

923, 594
6

, 319,082

2 .6

_

- 4 .7

162

MONTHLY LABOE BEVIEW
P e n n s y lv a n ia

HTHE Bureau of Statistics of the Department of Labor and Indus­
try of Pennsylvania furnished the following report on changes
in employment, in weekly man-hours, and in pay-roll totals in
Pennsylvania from July to August, 1927:
PE R C E N T OP C H A N G E S IN N U M B E R OF E M P L O Y E E S, IN T O T A L W E E K L Y
M A N-H O U R S, A N D IN W E E K L Y PA Y ROLL IN 490 P E N N S Y L V A N IA E ST A B L ISH ­
M E N T S B E T W E E N JU L Y A N D A U G U ST , 1927

Industry

M etal manufactures:
Automobiles, bodies, and parts_____
Car construction and repair . . . ____
Electrical machinery and apparatus___
Engines, machines, and machine tools..
Foundries and machine s h o p s .____
Heating appliances and apparatus____
Iron and steel blast furnaces . . . .
Iron and steel forgings..
Steel works and rolling mills ........ .
Structural iron works. .
Miscellaneous iron and steel products..
Shipbuilding..........
Hardware.. . . .
Nonferrious metals_______
Total __
Textile products:
Carpets and rugs____
Clothing___________
Cotton goods________
Silk g o o d s______ ___
Woolens and worsteds__
Knit goods and hosiery
Dyeing and finishing textiles........
T otal____ ____
Foods and tobacco:
Bakeries ..............
Confectionery and ice cream. .
Slaughtering and meat packing. _
Cigars and tobacco____
T otal_______
Building materials:
Brick, tile, and terra-cotta products
Cement____
Glass. ______
T otal_________
Construction and contracting:
B uild ings.............
Street and highway.
General________ .
T otal______ _
Chemicals and allied products:
Chemicals and drugs
Paints and varnishes___
T otal__________ _____ _
Miscellaneous industries:
Lumber and planing-mill products
Furniture ___________
Leather tanning____
Leather products. ___
Boots and sh o es... _. . . . .
Paper and pulp products_____
Printing and publishing______
Rubber tires and goods.................
T otal_____ . . .
All industries_______


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Number of wage
Total weekly man­
earners
hours
N um ­
ber of
Per cent
Per cent
plants Week ofchange
of change
report­ ending as com­ Week end­ as com­
ing
August
ing
August
pared
pared
15,1927
with
15,1927
with
July, 192/
July, 192/
7,844
8 , 377
5,289
8 , 780
7.541
1,656
7,804
1,431
30,482
1,802
10, 642
4,049
1,135
765
97, 597

- 6 .1
+ 1 .7
+ 3 .6
-5 .2
- 2 .3
+ 4 .0
-3 . 7
- 1 .2
-6 .9
-3 . 7
+ 1 .7
- 2 .3
+11.3
-. 5
- 3 .2

384, 741
383,302
259, 368
423, 274
345| 266
83, 964
372, 840
59, 796
1,373, 950
93,933
504, 603
156, 082
45, 756
36, 024
4, 522, 899

—6 . 6
+7. 3
+13. 9
—3. 8
+. i
+29.9
+ 1 .9
+ 8. 5
+ 5 .3
+ 6 .8
-9 .9
+ 8. 1
- 1 .2
+ 1 .6

+10 4
+13. 1
3 fi
—. 2
+28. 1
-1-2. 5
+16.4
+. 3
+3. 6
+ 7.1
-3 .8
+10. 3
+ 2.3
+ 2 .2

1 , 616
920
1, 514
8,510
2,418
5, 824
283
21, 085

-1 8 .2
- 8 .2
-.9
+ 2 .4
+ 8. 5
—1 . 1
-1 . 7
- . 6

79, 305
40, 992
74, 076
374, 027
116,139
207, 008
12, 385
903, 932

-1 8 .2
- 9 .1
-. 1
+ 12. 0
+16.0
-1 .9
+ 1 .2
+3. 5

-1 9 .9
—5. 1
+ 2.0
+13.9
+19. 9
+ 7 .0
+ 2 .2
+ 6 .7

1,461
2, 591
1, 258
341
5. 651

-2 . 3
- 1 .3
-. 1
+ 8 .9
-. 7

74,481
134' 051
63j 216
13, 962
285, 710

—3. 3
—i. 7
-. 3
+ 13.3
- 1 .1

—1 5
—5
+ .4
+11.4
-. 1

2, 466
4, 019
4,236
10, 721

- 3 .1
+• 3
+ 1 .2
-. 1

114, 869
243, 633
198, 420
556, 922

+ 3 .2
+18.4
+ 7 .2

766
, 062
2,560
5, 388

+
+
+

—3. 6
+ 7 .5
+ 2 .1
+ 3 .5

+4 1
+ 7 .8

2.6

31, 274
10oj 575
124, 636
261, 485

825
259
1,084

+ 3 .4
- 1 .1
+ 2 .3

46, 818
12, 635
59,453

+ 3 .4
-1 .4
+ 2 .3

+3. 9
- 1 .0
+ 2 .9

61, 960
74,343
110,074
6,028
78,132
141, 074
62, 779
42, 520
576, 910
7,167,311

+ 4 .4
+4. 2
+ 4 .9
+. 5
+17. 3
+2. 9
—. 1
+ 2. 8
+ 5 .0
+2. 5

+ 2.6
+ 7 .2

16
13
15
31
43
6

9
6
22
11

17
3
6

7
205
6
10
12
21
8

13
3
73
17
10

9
7
43
14
7
12

33
15
4
9
28

2

10

5
15
19
15
9
5
9
10

23
3
93
490

Total
weekly
pay roll:
Per cent
of change
July to
August,
1927

1,283
1,545
2,190
134
1, 651
2, 701
1,399
838
11, 741
153,267

[878]

1 .2
8 .0
1 .0

+ 4 .2
+ 5 .6
+ 3 .9
+ 9 .2
+ 1 .0
+ .9
- 1 .8
+ 3 .1
-1 .9 |

+ .2

- . 8

—6

1

-3 .0
+ 5 .8
+18.0
+ 8 .3

- . 8

+ 3 .2

4-3. 2

—2. 4
+22. 5
+2. 5
— 2 8

+ 1 .9
+ 4 .0
+ 3 .2

163

REPORTS ON EMPLOYMENT— W ISCONSIN
W is c o n s in

’’’THE July, 1927, issue of the Wisconsin Labor Market, issued by
the State industrial commission, contains the following data on
volume of employment in Wisconsin industries in June, 1927:
P E R CENT OF C H A N G E IN N U M B E R OF E M P L O Y E E S A N D IN TO T A L A M O U N T OF
PA Y ROLL IN ID E N T IC A L E ST A B L ISH M E N T S IN W ISC O N SIN FR O M JU N E , 1926,
A N D M A Y , 1927, TO JU N E , 1927

Per cent of change
May, 1927, to June, 1927 June, 1926, to June, 1927

Industry

Employ­
ment

Pay roll

Employ­
ment

Pay roll

M anu al

Agriculture_______________ _______ ______
Logging..................................................................
M in in g............................................... ...................
Lead and zinc_______________________
iron_________ ________ ______________
Stone crushing and quarrying.......... ..............
M anufacturing....................................................
Stone and allied in d u str ies..................
Brick, tile, and cement blocks.........
Stone finishing_______ _____ _____
M etal........ .................. ...................................
Pig iron and rolling mill products__
Structural-iron work
Foundries and machine shops.
Railroad repair shops................
Stoves_____________________________________
Aluminum and enamel w a r e ...._____________
Machinery_________________________________
Automobiles________________________________
Other metal products______________ ___ ____ _
Wood_________ _______ ________________________
Sawmills and planing m ills........... ............ ............
Box factories________________________ _______
Panel and veneer m ills______________________
Furniture___________________________ _______
Sash, door, and interior finish________________
Other wood products________________________
Rubber___________________ _____________________
Leather_____________________ ____ _______ ______
Tanning__ ________________ ______________ . .
Boots and shoes_____________________________
Other leather products_________ ____________
P ap er.._________________________ _____ _____ ___
Paper and pulp m ills_______________________
Paper boxes___________ _____________________
Other paper products_________________ ______
Textiles________________________________________
Hosiery and other knit goods________________
Clothing___________ ______ _________________
Other textile products_______________________
Foods_________________________________________
Meai. packing______________________________
Baking and confectionery___________________
M ilk products______________________________
Canning and preserving_____________________
Flour mills_________________________________
Tobacco manufacturing___________________ _
Other food products_________________________
Light and power_______________________ ________
Printing and publishing_________________________
Laundering, cleaning, and dyeing________ _______
Chemical (including soap, glue, and explosives)___
Construction:
Building_____________________ _______ __________
Highway.................... .........................................................
Railroad____________ ___________ _____________
Marine, dredging, sewer-digging...................................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[8 7 9 ]

+16.9
- 9 .7
+18.4
+24.3

-2 6 .1
+ 5 .6
+ 7 .2

+ 6 .5
+ 8 .5

+ 2.1

+ 3 .4

+20.4
-4 .4

+13.4
+37.5
+ 4.7

+ 10.6

+ 2.0

+• 7
+26.0
+12. 5
+36. 1
-1 . 7
-2 3 .4
8.1
- 1. 1

-

+ 2.1
+ 2.8

+ 1.6

-2 1 .7
- 3 .9
+ 2.1

- 1 .7
- 2 .4
- 3 .3
- 3 .5
+ 2.1
+ 1 .5
+ 1 .1
- 3 .4
+ 3 .6
+ .5
+ 3 .0
+ 5 .2
-. 1
+ .2
+ .5
+ 1 .3
- 1 .6
+ 2 .7
+ .8
+ .4
-3 .2
+ 6 .4
+ .5
+ .9
+ 4 .9
-1 0 .0
+ 7 .2
+25.6
+ 2 .8
+ 2 .8
+28.5
- 5 .0
- 3 .9
+ 2 .2
+ 3 .9
-.2
-.4
+ 3 .4

+ 2 .5
-3 .6
+ 2 .8
+ 3 .6
+16.6
- 9 .1
+ 1 .6
- 7 .2
+ 8 .9
+ 3 .3
+ 5 .3
+ 6.4
+ 5 .2
+ 4.1
+ 4 .7
+ .6
+ 5 .4
+ 8 .7
+ 6 .8
+ 9 .3
- 4 .3
+ 3 .6
- .5
- 2 .9
+ 5 .3
- 5 .9
+ 9.4
+33. 1
+ .7
+ 5 .7
d 12.5
+ 4 .9
+. 4
+ 4 .6
+3. 5
- 1 .5
+ 3 .4
+7. 2

+12.5
+30.6
+12.4
-5 .9

+13.7
+ 41.0
+11.0
+14.2

+ 6.1

- .3
+18.7
10.6

-

-4 2 .3
- 9 .3

+33.3
-8 .4
+10.3
+17.0
-2 .5
+19.7
-4 .7
+ 5 .4
-1 .7
—9.1
-1 3 .2
-4 6 .7
—13.3
+ 2.2

- .9
-1 8 .8
+

2.1

-1 6 .2
-2 4 .9
- 3 .6
-3 . 7
- 8.0
21.8

-

+ 1.8

—25.5
+ 5 .7
—16.7
—34.3

—11.1
— 2.5

—11.1
-1 9 .2

—6.7
+■1

-8 .9

+.5

+ 4.8
- 5 .6
+ 20.2
-18. 1
-41. 5
- 9 .6
+ 5 .7
- 3 .2

+ 10.8

-6 .3
+27. 5
—19.4
-4 4 .3

—5.9

+

10.8

+ 2 .3

+.8

+ 2 .5

+ 7 .9

+ 1.0

+ 10.2

+.9

+ 2 .5
+ 2.6

+ 3 .6
+ 3.8
+38.4
-.4
+18. 4
-2 9 .8
-1 8 .6
- 1 .3
- 3 .6

+ 6 .4

+ 12.8
+ 6.6

+ 1 .3

+.9

+ 6.1

+45.7
-

1.8

+ 7 .2
-3 6 .6
-

21.8

+43.3
-5 .6
+15.1
+ 9 .7

+.3

8.2

-4 .0

-3 .9
- 1 .5
-1 6 .1
+22.5

+ 4 .2
-.9
-1 0 .7
+29.0

-

164

M ONTHLY LABOR EEYIEW

P E R C E N T OF C H A N G E IN N U M B E R OF E M P L O Y E E S A N D IN T O T A L A M O U N T OF
PA Y ROLL IN ID E N T IC A L E ST A B L ISH M E N T S IN W ISC O N SIN FR O M JU N E , 1926,
A N D M A Y , 1927, TO JU N E , 1927—Continued
Per cent of change
M ay, 1927, to June, 1927 June, 1926, to June, 1927

Industry-

Em ploy­
ment

Pay roll

Em ploy­
ment

Pay roll

M a n u a l —Continued

Communication:
Steam railways................................
Electric railways_______________
Express, telephone and telegraph
Wholesale trade_________ _______ _
Hotels and restaurants...........................

+ 4 .2
-.3
+ 2 .3
+ 2 .5
+ 3 .1

+ 4 .0
+■ 4
+ 3 .0
+ 8 .9

-5 .0
+ 4 .8

+ 1.1

+• 3

+ 2.4
+11.5

+ 2.6
+ 2.1

+ 6.1

N onm anu al

-. 1

Manufacturing, mines, and quarries
Construction................. ..........................
C om m unication...................... ; _____
Wholesale trade________ _______ _
Retail trade—Sale force only .............
Miscellaneous professional services. .
Hotels and restaurants........................

+ 2.0
+ 1 .4

+.2

-.8

+ 2 .7
+ 3.1

+.5

- 5 .7
- 1 .4
+ 6 .0
+1. 9
+ 4 .0 __________

+ 4 .9

+ 6.2

- 1 .3
-1 1 .4
+11.9
+13.4
-7 .3

+ 6 .9
+14.2
+ 3 .5
-3 .9
+ 7 .8
+ 10.8

U n e m p lo y m e n t in Ita ly 1

CCORDING to the National Social Insurance Organization
(Cassa Nazionale per le Assicurazioni Sociali) of Italy, there
were 215,316 persons totally unemployed in that country at
the close of April, 1927. While this number was below that for any
month in the first quarter of this year, it was more than double that
for April, 1926.
The distribution of the totally unemployed for February and
April, 1927, is showm below:

A

A g r ic u ltu r e , fish in g , e t c ______________________________________
E x t r a c t iv e in d u s t r ie s ___________ ______________________________
I n d u s tr ie s u s in g a g r ic u ltu r a l a n d sim ila r p r o d u c t s _________
M e ta l-w o r k in g t r a d e s ------------------------------------------------------------C o n s tr u c tio n a n d b u ild in g t r a d e s ___________________________
T e x t ile in d u s t r y ---------------------------------------------------------------------C h e m ic a l t r a d e s ---------------------------------------------------------------------I n d u s tr ie s a n d s e r v ic e s fo r c o lle c t iv e n e e d s ________________
P u b lic w o r k s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------U n s k ille d la b o r ___________________ _________________
_
O th e r s---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

February

April

73, 4 6 1
3 ,4 9 1
23, 0 7 0
19, 5 3 7
58, 9 4 2
47, 3 6 1
3, 9 2 8
12, 132
5, 359
8 ,1 2 1
3, 6 5 7

58, 0 3 8
2 ,7 4 8
21,’ 718
17, 8 5 5
39, 217
45, 0 9 0
3, 0 4 6
12, 172
5. 3 9 8
7 861
2, 173

T o t a l----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 5 9 , 0 5 9

.

215, 316

In addition to the totally unemployed there were 54,730 persons
officially reported as partially unemployed in Italy in April, 1927,
while for April, 1926, the number of persons so reported was only
6,793.
E x cerp t from Commerce and Industries of Italy, Naples, June, 1927, quoted in report from vice consul
Ernest Evans, dated July 1, 1927.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[ 880 ]

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL PRICES
R e ta il P rices o f Food in th e U n ite d S ta te s

HE following tables are compiled from monthly reports of
actual selling prices 1 received by the Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics from retail dealers.

T

Table 1 shows for the United States retail prices of food on August
15, 1926, and July 15 and August 15, 1927, as well as the percentage
changes in the year and in the month. For example, the retail price
per 8-ounce package of corn flakes was 10.9 cents on August 15,
1926; 9.8 cents on July 15, 1927; and 9.7 cents on August 15, 1927.
These figures show decreases of 11 per cent in the year and 1 per cent
in the month.
The cost of the various articles of food combined shows a decrease
of 2.1 per cent on August 15, 1927, as compared with August 15, 1926,
and a decrease of 0.6 per cent on August 15, 1927, as compared with
July 15, 1927.
T a b l e 1 —A V ER A G E

R E T A IL PR IC ES OP SP E C IF IE D FOOD A R TIC L ES A N D PE R
C E N T OF IN C R E A SE OR D E C R E A SE A U G U ST 15, 1927, C O M PA R E D W ITH JULY 15,
1927, A N D A U G U ST 15, 1926
[Percentage changes of five-tenths of 1 per cent and over are given in whole numbers]

Average retail price on—
Article

Unit
Aug. 15,
1926

July 15,
1927

Aug. 15,
1927

Cents

Cents

Cents

Per cent of increase
(+ ) or decrease
( - ) Aug. 15,1927,
compared with—
Aug. 15,
1926

July 15,
1927

Pound_____
____do_____
____do...........
__ __do...........
____do_____

41.8
36.2
30.4
22.5
14.3

43.6
37.9
31.7
23.9
15.3

43.7
38.1
31.7
23.9
15.3

+5
+5
+4
+6
+7

+ 0.2
+1
0
0
0

........ do...........
____do...........
........ do_____
____do_.........
____do_____

40.5
52.0
60.7
39.2
37.9

34.9
46.6
54.6
40.3
35.6

37.7
46.5
54.3
39.2
35.4

-7
-1 1
-1 1
0
-7

+8
-0 .2
-1
-3
-1

____ do...........
Quart_____
M ilk, evaporated....................... .............. 15-16 oz. cam
Pound..........
Oleomargarine (all butter substitutes) - ........ do___ _

38.2
13.9
11.4
50.6
30.2

32.3
14.0
11.5
51.5
28.0

32.9
14.1
11.6
51.4
28.0

-1 4
+1
+2
+2
-7

+2
+1
4-i
-0 .2
0

) In addition to retail prices of food and coal, the bureau publishes the prices of gas and electricity from
each of 51 cities for the dates for which these data are secured.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[ 881 ]

165

166

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

T a b l e 1 .—A V ER A G E

R E T A IL PR IC E S OF S P E C IF IE D FOOD A R T IC L E S A N D PE R
C E N T OF IN C R E A SE OR D E C R E A SE A U G U ST 1.5, 1927, C O M PA R E D W ITH JU LY 15,
1927, A N D A U G U ST 15, 1926.—Continued

Average retail price on—
Article

C heese.................................
Lard___________________
Vegetable l ard substitute
Eggs, strictly fresh______
Bread_______ ________

Unit

Pound.
____do.
____do.
Dozen.
Pound.

Aug. 15,
1926

July 15,
1927

Aug. 15,
1927

Cents

Cents

Cents

Per cent of increase
(+ ) or decrease
( - ) Aug. 15,1927,
compared with—
Aug. 15,
1926

35. 7
22.7
25. 9
44.9
9.4

36. 9
18.8
25.0
36.9
9.3

37.0
18. 9
25.0
42.0
9.3

+4
-1 7
-3
-6
-1

July 15,
1927

+ 0 .3
+1
0
+14
0

Flour_______ ___________
Corn m eal_____________
Rolled oats_____________
Corn flakes____________
Wheat cer e a l.._________

___do___
i-oz. pkg__
28-oz. pkg.

6.0
5.1
9.0
10.9
25.4

5.5
5.2
9.0
9.8
25.4

5.6
5.2
9.0
9.7
25.5

-7
+2
0
-1 1
H-0.4

Macaroni______________
R ice___________________
Beans, n a v y ___________
Potatoes_______________
Onions:____________ ___

Pound _
._do_
,-do-do.
..d o .

20.2
11.6
9.2
3.6
5.9

20.0
10.7
9.4
4.2
7.8

20.1
10.6
9.5
3.4
6.4

- 0 .4
-9
+3
-6
+8

+1
-1
+1
-1 9
-1 8

Cabbage__________ ____
Beans, baked___________
Corn, c a n n e d ....................
Peas, canned.................... .

____do___
N o. 2 can.
------ do___
........ do___

4.3
11.8
16.4
17.5

5. 5
11.5
15.5
16.7

4.4
11.5
15.6
16.7

+2
-3
-5
-5

-2 0
0
+1
0

Tomatoes, canned______
Sugar__________________
T ea_____________ ______
Coffee........... ........................

____ do___
Pound___
------ d o ___
------ d o ___

11.8
7.0
77.1
51.0

12.0
7.4
77.5
47.6

12.0
7.3
77.6
47.4

+2
+4
+1
-7

0
-1
+ 0.1
- 0 .4

Prunes..................................
Raisins_________________
Bananas________________
Oranges................................ .

........ d o ___
____do___
D ozen___
____do___

17.2
14.8
34.5
50.7

15.7
14.4
33.4
50.2

15.6
14. 3
33.7
53.8

-9
-3
-2
+6

-1
-1
+1
+7

-- .d o ___

...do__

+2
0
0
-1
+ 0 .4

Weighted food index____

Table 2 shows for the United States average retail prices of specified
food articles on August 15, 1913, and on August 15 of each year from
1921 to 1927, together with percentage changes in August of each of
these specified years, compared with August, 1913. For example, the
retail price per pound of sugar was 5.6 cents in August, 1913; 7.5
cents in August, 1921; 8.1 cents in August, 1922; 9.6 cents in August,
1923; 8.2 cents in August, 1924; 7.0 cents in August, 1925, and
August, 1926; and 7.3 cents in August, 1927.
As compared with August, 1913, these figures show increases of 34
per cent in August, 1921; 45 per cent in August, 1922; 71 percent
m August, 1923; 46 per cent in August, 1924; 25 per cent in August,
1925, and August, 1926; and 30 per cent in August, 1927.
„The cost of the various articles of food combined showed an increase
of 51.1 per cent in August, 1927, as compared with August, 1913.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[882]

167

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD

T a b l e 2 .— A V ER A G E R E T A IL PR IC E S OF S P E C IF IE D FOOD A R T IC L E S A N D P E R C E N T

OF IN C R E A SE OR D E C R E A SE A U G U ST 15, OF C E R T A IN S P E C IF IE D Y E A R S COM ­
P A R E D W ITH A U G U ST 15, 1913
[Percentage changes of five-tenths of 1 per cent and over are given in whole numbers]
Per cent of increase, Aug. 15 of each
specified year compared w ith Aug.
15, 1913

Average retail price on Aug. 15—
Article
Unit

1913 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927
Cts. Cts. Cts. Cts. Cts. Cts. Cts. Cts.

Sirloin steak . ..........
Round s te a k ,......... .
Rib roast__________
Chuck roast_______
Plate beef......... .........

Pound. .
__.do___
___do___
___do___
__ _do___

26.4 40. C39. C41.1 40.7
23.2 35.6 34.1 35.5 34.8
20.2 29.1 2a 2 29.2 29.1
16.5 20.8 20. C20.8 21,0
12.2 13.5 12.6 12.7 13.1

41.8 43.7
36.2 38.1
30.4 31.7
22.5 23.9
14.3 15.3

52
53
44
26
11

48
47
40
21
3

56
53
45
26
4

54
50
44
27
7

59
56
50
34
14

58
56
50
36
17

66
64
57
45
25

Pork chops________
Bacon_____________
Ham______________
Lamb, leg of_______

. . . d o ___
___do___
___do___
___do___
__do___

21.9 38.0 35.1 32.1 34.8 40.0 40.5 37.7
28.3 43.7 40.6 39.2 38.3 49.3 52.0 46.5
28.4 52. 9 50. 8 46.3 46.8 54.9 80.7 54.3
18.9 34.3 36. C37.2 37.3 38.7 39.2 39.2
21.5 38.9 34.9 34.5 34. 8 36. 2 37.9 35.4

74
54
86
81
81

60
43
79
90
62

47
39
63
97
00

59
35
64
97
62

83
74
93
105
68

85
84
114
107
76

72
64
91
107

63

48

56

56

58

58

60

45

25

46

36

53

43

45

48
12

45
7

65
6

56
20

67
51

62
41

68
17

44
73
73
50

12
55
55
30

26
55
36
37

35
57
55
57

48
68
85
80

36
68
82
70

27
66
70
73

1

10

8

17

30

33

22

121

37

95

37

132

89

79

34
27
19

45
26
21

71
28
26

46
30
46

25
40
71

25
42
71

30
43
59

42.0
36.2
30.3
22.1
13.9

Salmon, canned, red. ___do . .
36.0 31.9 31.2 31.2 32.3 38.2 32.9
M ilk, fresh________ Quart. . . 8.8 14.3 13.0 13.7 13.7 13.9 13.9)14.1
M ilk, evaporated.
(i)_____
13.5 10. 8 12.2 11.1 11.5 11.4111.6
B utter__________ _ P o u n d .. 35.4 51.2 44.2 51.8 48.3 54.1 50. 6:51. 4
Oleomargarine (all -__do
28. 7 27.1 28.3 29.6 30.3 30. 2 28. 0
butter substitutes).
22.0 32. 6 31.8 36.3 34. 4 36 8 35.7 37.0
Lard______________ __ do
16.1 18.1 17. 2 17.1 19.3 24.3 22.7 18.9
Vegetable lard sub- ___do ___
21.1 22.9 22.8 25.2 25.9 25.9 25.0
stitute.
Eggs, strictly fresh.. D o z en .. 33.0 47.6 37.1 41.5 44.6 48.9 4 1 9 42.0
Bread_____________ Pound. . 5.6 9.7 8.7 8.7 8.8 9.4 9.4 9.3
Flour_____________ ___do___ 3.3 5.7 5.1 4.5 5.1 6.1 6.0| 5.6
Com m eal_________ __-do___ 3.0 4.5 3.9 4.1 4.7 5.4 5.1 5.2
10. 0 8. 7 8. 8 8. 8 9. 2 9. 0 9. 0
Com flakes

........ .

(2) ...........
(3)_____

_do___
R ice______________
Beans, n avy ........... __ do___

12.2 9. 8 9.7 9. 6 10. 9 10.9
29. 8 25. 7 24. 4 24.3 24.6 25.4
20. 7 20. 0 19.8 19. 6 20.4 20.2
8.7 8.8 9.6 9.4 10.2 11.3 11.6
7.9 11.3 11.0 9.7 10.3 9.2

Potatoes__________ ___do___ 1.9 4.2
5.3
Onions...... .................. __ d o. __
6.1
14.2
o ). ...
o n ___
16.0

2.6 3.7 2.6 4.4 3.6 3.4
5. 9 6. 5 6. 5 8.0 5. 9 6. 4
3.9 4. 8 4.3 5. 5 4.3 4.4
13.4 12.9 12.6 12.4 11. 8 11.5
15.4 15.4 15. 9 18.4 16.4 15.6

(<)...........
17. 6 17.6 17.6 18.2 18.4
12. 0il3. 6 13.0 13.3 13.7
c4) . . . . .
Sugar, granulated... Pound __ 5.6 7.5 8.1 9.6 8.2 7.0
T ea___ ____ _______ __ do __
69. 2 68. 3 69.7 70.9 75.9
Coffee_____________ __ do___ 29.8 35.6 36.2 37.6 43.4 50.9
Prunes_____

9.7
25. 5
20.1
10.6
9.5

17.5 16. 7
11.8 12. 0
7.0 7.3
77.1 77.6
51.0 47.4

.

18. 8 20. 8 19.0 17.3 17.3 17.2 15. 6
30.2 23.2 17.4Ï15. 4 14.4 14. 8 14.3
38. 6 34. 2 38. 4!S5. 4 34. 5 34. 5 33. 7
53. 5 64. 8 50.9 46.1 59. 8 50.7 53. 8

Weighted food index 8_ ________

53.3 37.5 45.1 42.9 59.0 54.3 51.1

1 15-16 ounce can.
2 8-ounce package.
8 28-ounce package.
4 No. 2 can.
8 Beginning with January, 1921, index numbers showing the trend in the retail cost of food have been
composed of the articles shown in Tables 1 and 2, weighted according to the consumption of the average
family. From January, 1913, to December, 1920, the index numbers included the following articles: Sirloin
steak, round steak, rib roast, chuck roast, plate beef, pork chops, bacon, ham, lard, hens, flour, corn meal,
eggs, butter, milk, bread, potatoes, sugar, cheese, rice, coffee, and tea.

Table 3 shows the changes in the retail prices of each of 22 articles
of food for which prices have been secured since 1913, as well as the
changes in the amounts of these articles that could be purchased for
$1 in specified years, 1913 to 1926, and in July and August, 1927.


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168

MONTHLY LABOB KEVIEW

3 . —AVER A G E R E T A IL PR IC ES OF SP E C IF IE D A R T IC L E S OF FOOD A N D
A M O U N T PU R C H A SA B L E FOR $1 IN EA CH Y E A R , 1913 TO 1926, A N D IN 'JU L Y A N D
A U G U ST , 1927

T able

Sirloin steak
Year

1913.....................
1920__________
1921__________
1922._________
1923__________
1924__________
1925........... .........
1926....................
1927:
July______
August___

Plate beef

Pork chops

Aver­
Aver­
age
Amt.
age
Amt.
retail for $1 retail for $1
price
price

Cents
per lb.

Cents
per lb.

Lbs.

25.4
43.7
38.8
37.4
39.1
39.6
40.6
41.3

Cents
per lb.

Lbs.

Cents
per lb.

3.9
2.3
2.6
2.7
2.6
2.5
2. 5
2.4

Lbs.

22.3
39. 5
34.4
32.3
33. 5
33.8
34.7
35.6

4.5
2.5
2.9
3.1
3.0
3.0
2.9
2.8

Cents
per lb.

Lbs.

Cents
per lb.

19.8
33.2
29.1
27.6
28.4
28.8
29.6
30.3

5.1
3.0
3.4
3.6
3.5
3.5
3.4
3.3

16.0
26.2
21. 2
19.7
20.2
20.8
21.6
22.5

6.3
3.8
4.7
5.1
5.0
4.8
4.6
4.4

12.1
18.3
14.3
12.8
12.9
13. 2
13.8
14.6

8.3
5.5
7.0
7.8
7.8
7.6
7.2
6.8

21.0
42.3
34.9
33.0
30.4
30.8
36.6
39.5

4.8
2.4
2.9
3.0
3.3
3.2
2.7
2.5

43.6
43.7

2.3
2.3

37.9
38.1

2.6
2.6

31.7
31.7

3.2
3.2

23.9
23.9

4.2
4.2

15.3
15.3

6.5
6.5

34.9
37.7

2.9
2.7

Lbs.

Ham

Hens

Milk

Butter

Lbs.

Cheese

Cents
per lb.

Lbs.

Cents
per lb.

Cents
per lb.

Lbs.

Cents
per at.

Qts.

3.7
1.9
2.3
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.1
2.0

26.9
55. 5
48.8
48.8
45. 5
45.3
52.6
57.4

Cents
per lb.

27.0
52.3
42.7
39.8
39.1
37.7
46.7
50.3

3.7
1.8
2.0
2.0
2. 2
2.2
1.9
1.7

21.3
44.7
39.7
36.0
35.0
35.3
36.6
38.8

4.7
2.2
2.5
2.8
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6

8.9
16.7
14.6
13.1
13.8
13.8
14.0
14.0

Lbs.

Cents
per lb.

11. 2
6.0
6.8
7.6
7.2
7.2
7.1
7.1

38.3
70.1
51.7
47.9
55.4
51.7
54.8
53.1

2.6
1.4
1.9
2.1
1.8
1.9
1.8
1.9

22.1
41.6
34.0
32.9
36.9
35.3
36.7
36.6

4.5
2.4
2.9
3.0
2.7
2.8
2.7
2.7

46.6
46.5

2.1
2.2

54.6
54.3

1.8
1.8

35.6
35.4

2.8
2.8

14.0
14.1

7.1
7.1

51.5
51.4

1.9
1.9

36.9
37.0

2.7
2.7

Lbs.

Eggs

Bread

Flour

Corn meal

Lbs.

Rice

Cents
ver lb.

Lbs.

15.8
29. 5
18.0
17.0
17.7
19.0
23.3
21.9

6.3
3.4
5.6
5.9
5.6
5.3
4.3
4.6

34.5
68.1
50.9
44.4
46.5
47.8
52.1
48.5

Cents
per lb.

Lbs.

2.9
1.5
2.0
2.3
2.2
2.1
1.9
2.1

Cents
per lb.

Lbs.

5.6
11.5
9.9
8.7
8.7
8.8
9.4
9.4

17.9
8.7
10.1
11.5
11. 5
11.4
10.6
10.6

Cents
per lb.

3.3
8.1
5.8
5.1
4.7
4.9
6.1
6.0

30.3
12.3
17.2
19.6
21.3
20.4
16.4
16.7

3.0
6.5
4. 5
3.9
4.1
4.7
5.4
5.1

33.3
15.4
22.2
25.6
24.4
21.3
18.5
19.6

8.7
17.4
9.5
9.5
9.5
10.1
11.1
11.6

11.5
5.7
10.5
10.5
10.5
9.9
9.0
8.6

18.8
18.9

5.3
5.3

36.9
42.0

2.7
2.4

9.3
9.3

10.8
10.8

5.5
5.6

18.2
17.9

5. 2
5.2

19.2
19.2

10.7
10.6

9.3
9.4

Potatoes
Cents
per lb.

1913.....................
1920...... ..............
1921.....................
1922__________
1923__________
1924__________
1925__________
1926__________
1927:
July....... .
August........

Chuck roast

Aver­
Aver­
age
Amt.
age
Amt.
retail for $1 retail for $1
price
price

Lard

1913__________
1920....................
1921__________
1922__________
1923........ .............
1924.....................
1925__________
1926...... ..............
1927:
J u ly ...........
August........

Rib roast

Aver­
Aver­
age
Amt.
age
Amt.
retail for $1 retail for $1
price
price

Bacon

1913...... ..............
1920__________
1 9 2 1 ..................
1922__________
1923__________
1924__________
1925...... ..........
1926...... ...............
1927:
July______
August........

Round steak

Lbs.

1.7
6.3
3.1
2.8
2.9
2.7
3.6
4.9

58.8
15.9
32.3
35.7
34. 5
37.0
27.8
20.4

4.2

23.8
29.4

3 .4


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Cents
perdoz. D ozs.

Sugar
Cents
per lb.
5.5

Cents
per lb.

Lbs.

Tea

Coflee

Cents
per lb.

Lbs.

Cents
per lb.

6.9

18.2
5. 2
12. 5
13.7
9.9
10.9
13.9
14.5

54. 4
73.3
69.7
68.1
69.5
71.5
75.5
76.7

1.8
1.4
1.4
1.5
1.4
1.4
1.3
1.3

29.8
47.0
36.3
36.1
37.7
43.3
61.5
51.0

3.4
2.1
2.8
2.8
2.7
2.3
1.9

7.4
7.3

13. 5
13.7

77.5
77.6

1.3
1.3

47.6
47.4

2.1
2.1

19.4
8.0
7.3
10.1
9.2
7.2

Lbs.

[884]

Lbs.

2 .0

Lbs.

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD

169

In d e x N u m b e r s o f R e ta il P r i c e s o f F o o d in t h e U n ite d S t a t e s

IN TABLE 4 index numbers are given which show the changes in
* the retail prices of specified food articles, by. years, from 1913 to
1926,2 and by months for 1926, and for January through August, 1927.
These index numbers, or relative prices, are based on the year 1913
as 100 and are computed by dividing the average price of each com­
modity for each month and each year by the average price of that
commodity for 1913. These figures must be used with caution. For
example, the relative price of sirloin steak for the year 1926 was
162.6, which means that the average money price for the year 1926
was 62.6 per cent higher than the average money price for the year
1913. As compared with the relative price, 159.8 in 1925, the figures
for 1926 show an increase of nearly 3 points, but an increase of 1.75
per cent in the year.
In the last column of Table 4 are given index numbers showing
changes in the retail cost of all articles of food combined. Since
January, 1921, these index numbers have been computed from the
average prices of the articles of food shown in Tables 1 and 2,
weighted according to the average family consumption in 1918. (See
March, 1921, isjsue, p. 25.) Although previous to January, 1921,
the number of food articles has varied, these index numbers have
been so computed as to be strictly comparable for the entire period.
The index numbers based on the average for the year 1913 as 100.0
are 153.4 for July and 152.4 for August, 1927.
The curve shown in the chart on page 171 pictures more readily
to the eye the changes in the cost of the food budget than do the
index numbers given in the table.
3 For index numbers of each month, January, 1913, to December, 1925, see Bulletin No. 396, pp. 44 to
61, and Bulletin N o. 418, pp. 38 to 61.

63952°—27----- 12

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[885]

170

MONTHLY LABOE EEVIEW

T able 4 . —I N D E X N U M B E R S OF R E T A IL PR IC ES OF P R IN C IP A L A R T IC L E S OF FOOD
BY Y E A R S, 1913 A N D 1920 TO 1926, A N D B Y M O N TH S FOR 1926, A N D JA N U A R Y TH R O U G H
A U G U ST , 1927
[Average for year 1913=100.0]

Year and month

Sirloin Round Rib Chuck Plate Pork Ba­
steak steak roast roast beef chops con

ut­
Ham Hens Milk Bter
Cheese

1913___________
100.0 100.0
1920
...................... ......................
172. 1 177.1
1921
_______
152. 8 154.3
1922
_______
147. 2 144. 8
1923
_______
153.9 150. 2
1924
_______
155.9 151. 6
1926___ ______ ____ _
159. 8 155.6
1926_______________
162.6 159.6

100.0
167.7
147. C
139.4
143.4
145.5
149.5
153.0

100.0
163.8
132. 5
123.1
126.3
130.0
135.0
140. 6

100.0
151.2
118. 2
105. 8
106. 6
109. 1
114.1
120.7

100.0
201.4
166. 2
157. 1
144. 8
146. 7
174.3
188.1

100.0
193. 7
158.2
147.4
144. 8
139.6
173.0
186.3

100.0
206.3
181.4
181.4
169. 1
168.4
195. 5
213.4

209.9
186.4
169.0
164.3
165.7
171.8
182.2

187. 6
164.0
147.2
155. 1
155. 1
157.3
157.3

183.0
135.0
125.1
144.
135.0
143. 1
138.6

188.2
153.9
148.9
167.0
159.7
166. 1
165.6

1926: January______
February____
M a rch .............
April________
M a y .......... .
June...................
July-------------A u gu st.............
September___
October______
November___
December____

160. 6
159.8
160.2
161. 8
163.4
165.4
165. 4
164.6
165.0
163.4
161.0
160.2

157.0
156. 1
156. 5
157. 8
160. 5
162. 3
162.8
162.3
163.2
161.4
159.2
158.3

151. 5
148.0
151.0
152. 5
153. 5
154.5
155. 1
153.5
154. 5
154.5
152.5
152. 5

138.1
138.1
138. 1
139.4
140.6
141.9
141.9
140.6
141.9
142.5
141.9
141.9

119.8
120. 7
120. 7
121. 5
120.7
120.7
119.8
118.2
119.8
120.7
121. 5
123. 1

173.8
172.9
177.1
182.4
191.9
200.0
198.6
192. 9
202.4
202.9
187.1
177.1

178.5
181. 1
179.3
179.6
182.6
190. 7
193. 7
192.6
192. 2
191.5
188.9
183.7

198. 1
199.3
200.7
202.6
207.8
221.9
226.4
225.7
224.5
222.3
217.1
212.3

181.2
182.6
185.0
190. 1
192.5
188.7
184.0
177.9
177.5
176. 5
174.2
174.6

159.
159.6
157.3
156. 2
156. 2
155. 1
155.1
156.2
157.3
157.3
158.4
159.6

144.6
142.3
139.9
132.
130.5
131.3
130.8
132.1
137.1
141.8
145. 4
154.8

170.1
169.7
168.3
165.2
162.9
161.5
161.1
161.5
163.3
166.1
167.0
169.2

1927: January______
February_____
M a r c h .............
April..................
M a y .................
June_________
July_________
A ugust.............

160.6
161.0
161.8
164.6
166. 5
166.9
171.7
172.0

158.3
158. 7
159.6
163. 2
165. 5
165.9
170. 0
170.9

153.0
153.5
153.5
156.1
157.6
157. 1
160.1
160.1

141.9
141.9
142. 5
145.6
146.9
146.9
149.4
149.4

124.0
123. 1
123. 1
125. 6
125. 6
125.6
126.4
126.4

174.3
171. 0
174.3
175. 7
173.3
165. 2
166.2
179.5

181. 1
179. 6
179.3
178.2
176. 3
174.4
172.6
172.2

211.2
210.8
210.0
210.8
209.3
206.3
203.0
201.9

180.8
180.8
181.7
182.6
180.3
170.4
167.1
166.2

158.4
158.4
158.4
157.3
156.2
156.2
157. 3
158.4

152. 5
153.5
154.6
152.5
139.4
135.2
134.5
134.2

170.1
170.1
168.8
167.9
167.4
167.4
167.0
167.4

Bread Flour

Corn
meal

Year and month

Lard

Eggs

Rice

100.0 100.0 100.0

Pota­ Sugar
toes

Tea

100.0

All
Coffee arti­
cles 1

1913_______________
1920
________
1921
________
1922
________
1923
________
1924
_______
1925
_______
1 9 2 6 ............................

100.0
186. 7
113.9
107. 6
112.0
120.3
147. 5
138.6

100.0
197. 4
147.5
128.7
134.8
138.6
151.0
140.6

100.0
205.4
176.8
155.4
155.4
157.1
167.9
167.9

100.0
245. 5
175.8
154.5
142. 4
148.5
184.8
181.8

100.0
216. 7
150. C
130. C
136. 7
156.7
180. C
170.0

100.0
200. C
109.2
109. 2
109.2
116. 1
127.6
133.3

100.0
370.6
182.1
164. 7
170.6
158.8
211.8
288.2

100.0
352.7
145. 5
132.7
183. 6
167.3
130.9
125.5

100.0
134.7
128.1
125.2
127.8
131.4
138.8
141.0

100.0
157.7
121.8
121.1
126. 5
145.3
172.8
171.1

100.0
203.4
153.3
141.6
146.2
145.9
157.4
160.6

1926: January.............
February.........
March________
April..................
M a y ........... .......
J u n e ..................
July_____ ____
A ugust..............
September........
October______
Novem ber........
December____

141.1
140. 5
138.6
136.1
136. 1
143.0
144.9
143.7
141. 1
138. 6
133. 5
129. 1

156.2
127.0
111. 6
111.9
112.8
118.0
122.0
130.1
149.3
168.7
191.3
189.0

167.9
167.9
167.9
167.9
167.9
167.9
167. 9
167.9
167.9
167.9
167.9
167.9

187.9
190.9
187.9
184.8
184.8
184.8
181. 8
181.8
175.8
172.7
172.7
169.7

173.3
173.3
173.3
170.0
170.0
170.0
170.0
170.0
170.0
170.0
170.0
170.0

133.3
133.3
134. 5
134. 5
134.5
134. 5
134. 5
133. 3
134. 5
133.3
129. 9
128. 7

341.2
335.3
329. 4
394. 1
352.9
294.1
241.2
211.8
229.4
223. 5
235.3
235.3

121.8
121.8
121.8
120.0
121.8
125. 5
125.5
127.3
127.3
129.1
129.1
132.7

139.9
139.9
139.9
140.3
140. 4
141.4
141. 5
141. 7
141. 5
142.1
141.7
141. 4

172.1
172.1
172. 1
171.5
171.1
171.1
171.5
171. 1
171.1
170.8
170. 5
170.1

164.3
161.5
159.9
162.4
161.1
159. 7
157.0
155.7
158. 5
160.0
161.6
161.8

1927: January______
February.........
M arch...............
April____ ____
M ay........ ...........
June...................
J u l y . .. ..............
A ugust..............

126. 6
124. 1
122.8
120.9
120.3
119.0
119.0
119. 6

162.0
128. 1
102. 6
98.3
97.4
97. 1
107.0
121.7

167.9
167.9
167. 9
167.9
167.9
166.1
166. 1
166.1

169.7
169.7
166.7
166.7
166.7
166.7
166. 7
169.7

170.0
170.0
170.0
170.0
170.0
173.3
173. 3
173.3

126. 4
124. 1
124.1
123.0
121. 8
123.0
123.0
121.8

235.3
223. 5
217.6
217. 6
264. 7
352.9
247.1
200.0

136.4
136.4
134. 5
132.7
132. 7
132. 7
134.5
132.7

142.5
142.3
142.6
142.6
142.3
142.1
142.5
142.6

168. 5
167.4
165.4
163.8
161.7
160.7
159.7
159.1

159.3
156.0
153.8
153.6
155.4
158.5
153.4
152.4

130 articles in 1907; 15 articles in 1908-1912; 22 articles in 1913-1920; 43 articles in 1921-1927


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[886]

BETAIL PEICES OF FOOD

171

iao
170

I 60
ISO

14-0

I 30

I ZO

110
100

JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUN. JUL. AU6. 5EP. OCT. MOV. DEC.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[887]

172

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW
R e ta il P ric e s of F o o d in 51

A VERAGE retail food prices are shown in Table 5 for 40 cities
For 11 other cities prices are shown for the same dates with
the bureau until after 1913.
T a b l e 5 .— A V ER A G E R E T A IL PR IC E S O F T H E PR IN C IP A L

[Exact comparisons of prices in different cities can not be made for some arti

Atlanta, Ga.
Article

Unit

Baltimore, M

Birmingham, Ala.

Aug. 15— July Aug. Aug. 15— July Aug. Aug. 1515, 15,
15, IS,
1913 1926 1927 1927 1913 1926 1927 1927

July Aug.
15,
1927 1927

15,

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Sirloin steak ___________ Pound___
Round steak____________ -__do_____
Rib roast_______________ -__do_____
Chuck roast................ ......... ...d o ...........

25.0
21.5
20.1
15.5

40.3
36. 6
31.3
23.4

42. 4
37.8
33.0
24. 6

43.1
38. t
33. C
25.0

24.3
23.0
19.3
16.0

Cts.
40.2
36.8
30.5
21.9

Cts.
41.5
37. 5
31.5
23. 5

Plate beef_______________ _—do--------

9.4
23. 5
32.0
31. 0

13.4
38. 8
48.8
60. 8

15.2
33. 4
44.9
55. 7

15.2
35.1
44.5
56. 4

12.6
19. 3
26.3
34. 5

14. 7
39. 0
47.0
62. 3

15.5
33. 8
43.0
57. 7

40. 3 18. 3 40.1
33.1 21. 2 41. 0
34.0
36. 9
18.0 8.8 13.0

39. 9
37. 3
28. 9
14.0

23.3 38. 42.1 42.2
17.0 37.3 33.5 33.2
33.9 33.9
40.
10.1 20.0 16.3 16.3

13.4 13.5
11.3 11.3
54.1 52.9 36.7 54.9 55.5
26. 8 26.2
30. 3 28.0

39.0 56.1 56.8 55.1
36.5 32.3 32.2

36. 2
18.8
21. 9
36.7

23.0 35.6 36.2
16.5 22 . 19. 6
22.4 22.2
42.3 35.5

Bacon, sliced____________ ---do_____
Ham, s lic ed .........................
Lamb, leg of_. ________ _
M ilk, fresh____1_________

19. 4 38.3 40. 9
20. 2 35. 8 33. 7
37.2 33. 6
Quart____ 10.0 18.8 18.0

M ilk, evaporated _______ 15-16 oz. can
13.5
Butter
_____________ Pound___ 37.1 54. 6
Oleomargarine (all butter
31. 0
substitute).
25. 0 33. 6
Lard___________________ -_-do_____ 16.1 22.7
23. 6
Eggs, strictly fresh______ Dozen___ 28.3 41. 7
Bread__________________ P o u n d .. _
Flour___________________ ---do_____
Com m e a l............................ - —d o...........
Rolled oats.—___________
Corn flakes______________
Wheat cereal_____ __
M acaron i.............................
Rice __________ _______
Beans, n a v y ____________
Potatoes_____ __________ ---do_____
Onions.......................... .........
Cabbage. ________ _____
Beans, baked___________

Tomatoes, canned...........
Sugar, gra n u la ted _______
T ea____________________
P r u n es................................
Raisins . . _____________
Bananas___________ ____
O r a n g e s .____ __________

36. 2 22. 5
19.0 15.0
21. 9
40.6 27.7

6.0 11.0 10.8 10.8
3.5 6.7 6.5 6.5
2. 6 4.1 3.9 3.9

5.4
3.2
2.5

9. 5 0.3 9.3
11.3 9.8 9.8
26. 2 26.2 26. 8
21. 6 21. 7 21. 7
8. 6 11. 6 10. 5 10. 3
10. 7 10. 4 10. 2
2.3 5.0 5.4 4.4
7. 7 8.7 7.7
5. 5 6. 3 5.4
11. 7 11.1 11.1
17. 7 18. 2 18. 2
18. 8 19. 7 20.1

33. 9
21.5
24. 4
40.0

35.1
17.1
22. 4
32.6

9.7
5.8
4.0

9. 9
5.3
4.0

8. 3 8. 2
10. 2 9.1
24. 3 24.1
18. 7 19. 0
9. 0 10. 8
7 9
4.0
5. 3

17.8
16. 3
29. 5
49.8

17. 8
16. 3
27. 5
51. 6

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

42.2
36.3
31.1
23.8

10.5 14.2 15.5 15.9

20.0 39.1 33.7 34.9

35.0 51.0 47.1 48.0
31.3 59.5 55.0 55.0

12.6 12.6 12.6

36.5
19.3
21.7
37.5

10.4 10.3

6.6 6.7

4.2
9.9

4.3

10.1

12.0

11.1

26.9
19.1

27. 7
18.8

9. 7
8 4
3.4
6. 9

10.8
10.2

4. 6 4. 2
10. 6 10. 3
16. 0 14. 3
16. 6 14. 5

5.9
11.7
16.1
19.9

1.7

11.0 11.5 11.5
10.1 10. 7
5. 9 7.4 7. 8 7. 6 5.1 6. 5 6. 7
60. 0 104. 8 103. 8 103. 8 56. 0 75.1 73. 4
32.0 61.1 49. 6 49. 6 24.8 47 7 43. 1
18. 7
18. 4
26. 4
48 1

Cts.

28.1 41.0 42.4
22.5 35. 5 36.7
20. 6 28.7 29.9
16.8 22 . 23.9

14. 4
13. 4
25. 8
49 1

13. 3
13. 0
24 5
50.8

5.0

8.6

11.0

11.1

5.7 7.4
61. 3 96.6
28.8 54.2

7.8
96.3
51.6

20.4
15.2
37.1
50.7

19.1
14.9
38.1
49.9

19.5
14.7
37.3
50.9

1 The steak for which prices are here quoted is called “ sirloin” in this city but in most of the other cities
included in this report it would be known as “ porterhouse” steak.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[888]

173

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD
C itie s o n S p ecified D a te s

for August 15, 1913 and 1926, and for July 15 and August 15, 1927.
the exception of August, 1913, as these cities were not scheduled by
A R T IC L E S OF FOOD IN 81 CITIES ON S P E C IF IE D D A T E S
cles, particularly meats and vegetables, owing to differences in trade practices]
Bridgeport,
Conn.

Boston Mass

Aug. 15—
1913

1926

Cts.

Cts.

Buffalo , N . Y .

Butte, M ont.

Charleston, S. C.

July Aug. Aug. July Aug. Aug. 15— July Aug. Aug. July Aug. Aug. 15— July Aug.
15,
15,
15, 15,
15,
15, 15,
15, 15, 15,
15,
15,
1927 1927 1926 1927 1927 1913 1926 1927 1927 1926 1927 1927 1913 1926 1927 1927.
Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

1 35.8 1 65.4 1 70.2 168.8 48.3 53.5 53.9
36. 2 51.1 55.3 55.7 41.9 46.0 46.4
25.6 39.0 39.7 39.9 36.4 40.4 40.3
18.0 27.5 30.8 29.2 27.4 29.9 30.4

23.8
20.5
17.0
15.5

42.4
35.5
30.8
23.3

43.5
37.0
31.5
24.3

44.1
37.5
32.0
24.8

32.3
28.8
27.6
19.5

35.0
31.4
28.8
21.4

32.9
30.6
29.0
21.5

21.8
20.0
20.0
15.8

33.5
30.5
27.7
20.7

33.0
30. 7
27. 0
20.2

33.4
30.7
27.0
20.9

11.5
22.0
24.5
28.0

13.4
43.3
48.4
59.7

11.9
22. 5
27.5
28.3

14.1
39.2
47.1
57.5

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

18.7
44.0
49.7
66.2

20.3
35.7
44. 7
59.6

19.9
40.9
44.6
59.1

11. Z
44.6
55.1
68.3

12.9
38.2
50.8
58.2

12.7
41.4
51.0
57.5

14.0
36.8
41.8
53.1

14.2
42.3
42. 2
53.0

12.8
42.7
60.0
64.2

14.4
35.2
55.0
59.2

12.9
35.5
55.4
60.0

14.6
34.3
40.4
50.8

15.0
34.7
39.3
50.3

40.7
41.4
37. 4
14.9

42.1
38.3
31. 6
14.3

40.3
38.8
62. 7
14.8

40.4
40.4
36. 2
16.0

43.6
38. 1
31. 5
16.0

40.8 15.5 35.5 36.0
39.6 21.8 38.5 36.7
31.5
37.6 30. 5
16.0 8.0 13.0 13.0

34.8
36.5
31.3
13.0

39.0
35.5
32. 5
14.3

39.5
34.7
31.1
14.0

38.9 21.3 42.9 40.6
32.9 22.2 40. 1 36.7
31.9
38. 8 29.0
14.0 11.7 18.0 19.0

40.0
35.1
30.2
19.0

12.2
51. 5
29.5

12.0
56.3
28.3

12.2 11.6 11.5 11.5
11.3 11.3 11.3
52. 2 50.3 52.8 52. 6 32.9 50.0 51. 4 51. 2
28.3 29.6 27.4 27.4
28.0 28.1 28.0

11.2
48.3

11.2
49.1

11.2
12.0 11.8 11.8
49.2 34. 2 49.3 50.0 49.8
31.0 30.6 29.8

42.4

36.9
22.6
25.2
64.2

38.6
18.9
25.1
54.0

38.6
19.1
25. 2
62.4

39.7
22.4
25.9
61.4

40.5
18. 1
25.3
49.9

41.0 20.0 36.7 38.8 38.0
18.4 14.5 21.7 17.6 17.7
25.2
25.9 25.9 25. 7
56.7 29.8 44.4 36.3 43.1

35.5
25.4
29.3
53.6

36.5
23.8
29. 7
42.8

36.5 20.5 31.6
23.2 15.3 24. 1
29. 7
25.3
46.8 30.0 46.3

5.9
3.8
3.5

9.1
6.4
6.5

8.5
6. 2
6.6

8.5
6.1
6.7

8.8
6. 2
8.0

8.8
5.8
7.7

8.7
5.1
5.1

9.8
5.8
5.9

9.8
5.5
5.8

9.3
10. 8
24. 5
22.3

9.2
10. 1
25.2
22. 5

9.1 8.6 8.5 8.5
8.6 8.7 8. 7
10.0 10.5 9. 7 9. 7
10.2 9. 5 9. 5
25.2 24.6 24.8 24.8
24.6 24.7 24.6
22. 7 22.7 22. 7 22.7 ........ 21.6 21. 1 21.1

7. 2
12. 2
28.4
19.4

7. 5
10.9
28.5
19.5

9. 5 9. 5 9.5
7.5
10.4
12.0 10.2 10.2
26.4 25.8 25.8
28.5
19.5 ........ 18.7 18.6 18.4

12.0
9.8
3.6
7.1

12.0
10. 1
o. 7
7.2

11.9 11.5 11.5 11.5
10.4 9.5 9.6 9.6
3.0 3.4 3. 5 3.0
5.9 6. 8 8.6 6. 7

9.3 11.5 10.3 10.2
8.9 8.8 8.9
2.5 3.7 3.4 2.7
6.8 8.7 7.0

12.3
10.4
2.9
4.8

11.1
10.1
4.6
8.5

11.2
10.1
2.9
6.1

5.4
13.1
18.7
20. 5

5.9
13.3
18.0
20.4

5.2 4. 2 6.1 5.2
13.4 11.3 11. 5 11. 5
17.9 19.8 18. 1 18.1
20.2 21.4 21.0 20.8

4.4 5.5 4.4
9. 8 9.9 10.0
16.1 15. 5 15.4
16.4 16.0 15.9

5.4
14. 5
16.0
14.6

8.0
13.9
15.0
13.9

5.1
14.0
15.5
14.1

5.6
58.6
33.0

11.9
6.8
74.0
54.9

12.1
7.4
74.4
52.2

11.6 13.3 13.8 13. 4
13.7 13.1 13.3
7.2 6.6 7. 1 7. 1 5.5 6.7 7.1 6.9
74.9 60.3 60.9 60.9 45.0 71.7 66.6 67.6
52.0 48.6 46.0 45.9 29.3 49.0 45.9 45.4

13.8
8.3
83.3
57.0

12.9
8.7
82.3
54.5

9.8 10. 2 10.2
13.3
8.7 5.1 6.6 7.0 6.7
82.2 50.0 74.4 82.4 82.4
53.8 26.3 46.1 43.9 44.0

..........

17.1
13.6
45. 0
56.0

15.4
13.3
42.2
64.7

15.5
13.4
41.5
61.2

24.2
25.8
33.8
23.0
25.6
8.9
35.9
22.4
15.7

—

9.2
1.9

16.2
14.5
34.5
57.9

16.0
14.2
34.5
59.7

8.8
5.7
7.7

5.6
3.0
2.6

16.0
14.3
35.0
63.1 ........

8.9
5.7
5.4

16.2
14.4
41.4
53.4

8.7
5.1
5.1

14.2
13.6
40.8
55.7

1Per pound.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[889]

9.8
5.5
6.0

33.0
20.6
21. 7
35.7

33.6
20.6
21.7
40.0

6.0 10.2 10.9 10.9
3. 7 7.2 6.9 6.9
2.4 4.1 3.9 4.0

5.5
2.3
•

14.2 17.6 15.3 15.4
13.5 15.9 15.0 15.0
40.9 214.8 213. 5 213.1
56.9 46.3 45.0 63.9 ........

9.8
9.8
3.8
5. 6

7.3
9.7
4,3
7.8

7.2
9.6
3.6
7.3

4.9 6.9 5.2
9. 8 9. 8 10.0
15.0 14.3 14.4
17.8 16.3 16.5

15.2
14.4
37.9
45.6

14.3
14. 6
26.3
40.0

13.6
14.6
25.0
42.9

174

MONTHLY LABOE REVIEW
T able 5 —A V ER A G E R E T A IL PR IC ES OF T H E P R IN C IP A L A R T I

Chicago, 111.

Unit

Article

Cincinnati, Ohio

Aug. 15—

Aug. 15—
Aug. 15—
July Aug.
July Aug.
July Aug.
15, 15,
15, 15,
15, 15,
1913 1926 1927 1927 1913 1926 1927 1927 1913 1926 1927 1927
Cts

Cts

Cts.

Cts

Cts.

46.0
37.3
35.0
25.5

46.9
38.0
35.9
25. 7

24.1 39.2
22. 1 35.9
19.3 30.
15.2 21.

39.1
35.7
31.6
23.1

39.6 25.4 39. 7
35.6 22.9 33
31.1 18.7 27
22.6 16. 9 22.7

11.4 14.4 15.2
38.0 32.4
32.0 55.1 49.9
32.2 57.6 54.0

15.0
36.8
50.1
54.4

11.0
21. 7
26.3
30.2

15.
32. 7
4
53.3

15.8
37.4
40.9
54.4

19.9 41.0 39.3
19.7 37.8 35.6
39.5 34.9
"äö 14.0 14.0

39.1 16.5 37.7 37.3 36.1 19.6 37.4 39. 38.5
36.2 23.4 35.2 37.9 35.5 21.5 39.2 36.5 36.2
34.7
37.6 30.8 31.2
39.1 33.1 33.6
14.0
14.0 13.3 13.3 8.0 13.7 14.0 14.0

Sirloin steak....... .........
Round steak________
Rib roast___________
Chuck r o a st--............

Pound . . .
. ..d o ____
. ..d o ____
. ..d o ____

24.1 44.5
21.2 36.0
20.2 34.8
15.7 24.6

Plate beef__________
Pork chops___- _____
Bacon, sliced_______
Ham, sliced________

. ..d o ------. ..d o -----. ..d o ____
. ..d o ____

20

Lamb, leg of................
Hens_______________
Salmon, canned, redM ilk, fresh-..................

...d o ____
...d o ____
...d o ____
Quart___

«

Cts.

15.3
37.9
46.3
60.3

Cts. Cts.

M ilk, evaporated-

15-16 oz.
10.9 11.2 11.3
10.9 11.3
cans.
B u tte r .._______________ Pound___ 32.7 47.8 50.1 50.3
49.1 40.8
Oleomargarine (all butter ...d o _____
27.1 26.9 27.0
30.3 27.9
substitutes).
Cheese_______ ___ _____ _
-do.
25.0 40. 41.5 42.0 21.0 35.5 36.2
Lard______________ _____
-do15.1 22.0 19.0 19.
14.3 21. 1 17.0
Vegetable lard substitute. ...d o __
26.1 26.6 26.3
26. 1 25.7
Eggs, strictly fresh............. Dozen .
44. 37.8 42.3
38.2 34.0
Bread_________ . . .
Flour...... .............
Com m eal________

Pound___
...d o _____
...d o _____

Rolled o a ts ..
Corn flak es.Wheat eereal.
Macaroni___

...d o _____
8-oz. pkg_.
28-oz. pkg.
Pound___

R ice______ ____ ________
Beans, n avy____________
P otatoes.___ ___________
Onions___________ _____

-do.
_do.
-do.
-do.

Cleveland, Ohio

6.1
2.9

9.8
5.5

2.8 6.0

9.9
5.3
6.7

9.9
5.2

6.6

8.3 8.4 8.5
10.0 9.6 9.5
24.5 25.0 25.2
19. 19.1 19.0
9.0 11.9 11.1 11.2
9.2 9. 7 9. 7
3.4 4.3 3.6
5.5 8.0 6.4

2.0

4.8
3. 3
2. 7

9. 2
6. 1
3. 9

8.9
5.8
4.2

9.8
8.5
4. 5
6.6

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

42.7
36.
30.0
24.8

43.1
36.7
30.1
24.7

12.0 12.7 14.1
22.1 41.1 35.4
30.3 52.0 46.2
37.3 63.7 54.3

14.2
39.5
45.8
53.8

11.3

11.1

11.4 11.4

49.5 35.7 52.4 53.5 53.9
27.7
32.5 29.2 29.2
36.4 23.0 35.9 38.4 38.7
17.1 16.6 23.7 20.2 20.3
25.9
27.7 26.6 26.8
40.3
47.2 38.4 43.9
8.9
5.8
4.2

8.5 8.7 8.8
10.4 9.4 9.3
24.6 24.8 24.8
18.4 18.4 18.4
8.8 11.5
7.
2 .2
4.3
5.2

Cts.

5.6
3.2
2.8

8.0
6.1
5.4

7.7
5.6
5.6

7.7
5.7
5.7

9.5 9.4 9.4
11.3 9.9 9.7
25.2 25.5 25.7
21. 9 21.8 21.7

9.9
8.6
3.7
5.8

8.5 12.0 11.1 11.3
7.8 8.6 8.7
3.7 4.0 3.2
6.3 8.3 6.3

3.3
11.0 10.5 10.4
15.4 14.6 14.9
17.2 16.8 16.8

12.8 13.1 12.9

Cabbage_____
Beans, baked.
Corn, canned.
Peas, canned—

. -do_____
No. 2 can
..d o _____
..d o ......... .

Tomatoes, canned..........
Sugar, granulated..........
T e a ....................................
Coffee________________

..d o _____
14.0 13.8 13.9
11.7 11.
11.9
13.4 14.1 14.1
Pound___ 5.2 6.7 7.1 7.1 5.4 7.0 7.6 7.5 5.6 7.1 7.5 7.5
..d o _____ 55.0 72.2 74.2 73.5 60.0 77.5 75. 5 75.5 50.0 81.1 81.6 81.6
..d o _____ 30.7 51.3 48.0 47.9 25.6 46.5 42.9 42.6 26.5 54.3 50.4 50.3
--d o ....
18.8 17.6 17.3
18.7 16.3 16.3
17.3 15.5 15.2
..d o __
15.5 15.1 15.2
15.0 14.9 14.6
14.9 14. 7 14.7
Dozen.
40.8 38.8 39.2
35. u 36.1 36.1
10.3 lo. 3 110..33
..d o — .
52.4 55.2 57.8
42.0 45.4 51.4
52.0 54.7 56.

Prunes...
R aisins...
B ananas .
Oranges..

4.1 5. 8 4. 2
12.7 12.9 13.0
16.5 15.8 16.0
17.0 16.8 16.8

1

4.2

5.6

4.7

17.1 16.9 16.9
17.6 18.2 18.2

1

• 1,T ®^ea^ r which prices are here quoted is called “ rump ’’ in this city, but in most of the other cities
included in this report it would be known as “ porterhouse” steak.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

175

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD
CLES OF FOOD IN 51 C IT IES ON S P E C IF IE D D A T E S —Continued
Columbus,
Ohio

Dallas , Tex

Detroit Mich.

Denver, Colo.

Fall River, Mass.

Aug. 15—
Aug. 15—
Aug. 15—
Aue. 15—
July Aug.
July Aug.
July Aug.
July Aug.
Aug. July Aug.
15, 15,
15, 15,
15,
15, 15,
15,
15, 15, 15,
1926 1927 1927 1913 1926 1927 1927 1913 1926 1927 1927 1913 1926 1927 1927 1913 1926 1927 1927
Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

39.8
35.2
30. 5
24.5

41.4
36.6
31.8
26.0

41.7
37.1
32. 2
26.0

22.8
20.8
20.1
16.7

36.1
32. 5
27.8
21.0

38.1
34.6
29.0
23.5

37.7
34.1
28.8
23.7

24.3
22.2
17.8
15.8

35.7
32.4
24.8
20.5

36.6
33.7
26.0
21.3

35.5
32.8
25.6
20.9

26.3
21.0
20.5
15.0

43.0
35.8
31.3
23.3

43.9
36.8
32.7
24.5

44. 3 136.0
37.9 28.4
32.9 23.2
25.1 18.4

Cts.

15.4
37.4
.54.6
59.6

16.6
33.0
48.3
54.6

16.6
36.2
48.2
54.2

12.9
22.0
38.0
31.3

17.8
36.9
48. 2
62.2

18.3
35.8
45.3
57.4

17.7 9.6 11.5 12.0
35.6 20.0 39.1 31.3
46.2 30.5 53.0 46.2
57.1 33.8 61.9 53.4

12. 2
34.9
46.2
51.8

11.3
21. 5
25.0
28.0

14.4
41.6
54.3
64.2

14.7
35.7
48.2
58.3

15.1
40.3 22. Ò
48.2 25.7
58.4 32.5

13.6
39.2
46.2
59.4

13.9
35.4
43.9
54.4

13.9
37.0
43.6
53.9

43. 7
39.0
40.5
11.0

47.5
36.0
35.4
12.0

44.4 22.0 42.1 46.4 45.0 16.1 37.3 37.8 37.0 17.3 41.0 41.6 40.7 21.0 42. 5
36.0 17.7 31.1 31.7 30.7 19.4 32.3 30.3 29.4 21.8 40.0 37.2 36.9 25.0 43.3
39.7
39.3 32.3 33.5
38.3 32.6 33.8
36.3
40.7 33.9 35.9
12.0 Î5. ö 12.0 13.0 13.0 8.4 12.0 12.0 12.0 7.9 14.0 14.0 14.0 9.0 14.2

43.8
41.9
34.7
14.0

42.3
42.7
34.8
15.0

Cts.

Cts.

12.8

12.7 12.7

47.5 50.4 50.6 36.0 50.4 50.3 50.2 34.3 44.5 45.1 43.7 33.7 51.0 52.0 51.9 34.6 50.4
30.4
28.6 27.4 26.6 —
29.1 25.0 24.9 —
33.6 30.7 30.5
29.5 27.5 27.7

50.9 51.9
30.5 30.5

35.0
20. 5
26.0
35.1

35.7
16.2
26.2
30.6

8.1
6.0
3.6

7.8
5.4
3.8

10. 7 10. 7 10.7

13.0 13.3 13.1

11.3 11.6 11.5

11.1 11.3 11.4

Cts.

'60.0 166.9 1 66.3
46.6 50.2 49.7
31.8 34. 1 34.4
22.8 25.2 25.1

36.1 20.0 34.7 37.1 36.8 26.1 36.4 36.8 37.1 20.7 36.1 38.5
16.6 16.8 25.6 22.4 23.4 16.5 23.2 19.2 19.0 16.6 22. 5 18.9
27. 2 27.1
25.2 23.0 23.7
25.1 22.3 22.6
26.5
33.6 27.0 39.3 30.6 35.3 30.0 40.2 33.1 37.5 30.0 43.3 36.0
7.7
5.3
3.7

5.4
3.2
2.8

9.6
5.7
4.4

9.5
5.5
4.5

9.5
5.5
4.5

10.2
10. 9
27.1
20. £

10.9
10. 5
27.9
21. S

10.5
10.6
27.2
21.5

5.4
2.5
2.5

8.3
4.7
4.1

7.9
4.4
4.5

8.0
4.4
4.5

5.6
3.1
2.8

8.2
6.0
5.7

8.5
5.4
6.5

39.1 22.8 38.5 »
18.9 15.3 21.7
26.7
26.7
40.9 41.8 62.0

39.3
18.1
26.4
49.8

40.4
18.1
26.4
56.3

6.2
3.4
3.5

9.2
5.8
6.8

9.2
5.8
6.7

8.5
5.4
6.0

9.3
6. 3
6.8
9.4
11. 5
25.3
24.5

9.4 9.4
10. 2 10.1
25.0 25.0
24.2 24.2

9.3 12. 7 11.4 11.6 8.6 11.5 10.1 9.9 8.4 12.2 11.9 11.8 10.0 11.8
9.8
10.2 10.5 10.6
8.2 8.4 8.6 __
10.1 11.1 11. C
2. 7 5.3 5. £ 5.6 1.8 2.9 4.6 3.2 1.9 3.5 3.7 2.9 1.9 3.0
..... 5.3 8.4 7.9 — 5.3 7.7 6.1 ........ 5.2 7.6 5.9 ........ 6.3

10.8 11.0
10.4 10.6
3.6 2.8
8.7 7.0

3.8
12.4
16.6
18.9

5.7 4.7
12. 2 12.1
16.2 16.5
18. 1 18.1

11.9
12.2 11.4 12.0
11.8 12.6 12.5
11.7 13.1 12.6
12.3 13.3 13.3
7.2 7.8 7.8 5.9 7.6 8.2 8.0 5.8 7.5 7. £ 7.8 5.4 7.0 7.5 7.5 5.5 6.9
89.3 91.1 90.2 66. 7 103.2 105. £ 107.5 52.8 69.6 68.8 69.2 43.3 73.3 75.5 75.5 44.2 60.3
51.5 48.7 48.6 36.7 60.5 57.7 56.7 29.4 51.2 49.2 48.9 29.3 51.5 48.5 48.3 33.0 52.5

13.2 13.2
7.3 7.2
63.8 63.8
48.5 48.7

15.8
14.6
2 9.6
48.5

14.8 14.8
13.8 13.8
3 9.4 2 9. 6
53.2 54.0

9.4 9.4 9.3
10.8 9.9 9.7
24. 5 26.4 26.4
21.3 21.0 21.0
13. 5 12.1 12.1
7.6 8.2 8.5
3.8 4.1 3.4
7.0 8.8 7.2
4.5 5.5 4.6
12.2 12.5 12.6
15. 3 13.8 14.1
15.2 14.7 14.7

17.7
15.3
36. 7
50.3

17.1
14.7
38.6
50.0

17.0
14.6
38.6
56.2

5.4 7.6 6.4
13.5 12.9 13.2
18.1 18.1 18.6
22.1 21. 7 22.1

21.4
16.6
33.8
51.6

21.8
16.5
36.3
48.7

20.7
16. 5
35. 0
53.2

8.2 7.6 7.6
11.1 9. 6 9.6
25.0 24.6 24.6
20.4 19. £ 19.7

2.5 3.5 2.2
11. £ 11.1 11. C
14.9 13.5 14.0
15. 6 14. 7 14.8

18.4 16.3 15.7
14. £ 14. 2 14. C
»11. 1 210.8 210. 9
43.6 44.0 44.6

2 Per pound.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[891]

9.4 9.6 9.5
10.6 9. £ 9.8
25.8 25. 5 25.5
21.6 22.2 22.4

4.2 4.7 3.3
11. 5 11. 7 11.5
15.9 16.2 16.2
16.3 17.0 16. £

18.8
15. 7
35. 0
53.0

18. 2
15. 3
34.4
55.8

17.1
15. C
33.9
56.9

176

MONTHLY LABOE EEVIEW
•Table 5 —A V ER A G E R E T A IL PR IC E S OF T H E P R IN C IP A L A R TI
Houston, Tex.
Article

U nit

Indianapolis, Ind.

Jacksonville, Fla.

Aug 15—
Aug. 15—
Aug. July Aug.
July Aug.
July Aug.
15, 15, 15,
15, 15,
15, 15,
1926 1927 1927 1913 1926 1927 1927 1913 1926 1927 1927
Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Sirloin steak........ .............. ......... Pound........ . 33.2 35.0
Round steak_______________ ____ do_____ 31.5 33.6
25. 8 27. 5
Chuck r o a st............................... ____ do_......... 20.0 22.0

35.0
33.2
27.1
21.6

26.5
24. 7
18. 2
16.4

39.0
37. 7
29.4
24.8

40.6
39. 1
30.3
25.0

41. 4
39.1
30.4
25.2

26.0
22.0
23. 3
14.0

37.7
31.3
2ty 5
20.8

36.3
32.1
27.3
20.3

35.4
31.7
27.1
19.8

Plate beef................ .................... ........ do_____
Pork chops ___________ ____
Bacon, sliced_______________ ____ d o _____
Ham, sliced___ ____ _____ . . . ........ do...........

17.3
37.1
52.2
56. 7

18.0
33.2
45. 1
52. 5

17.8
33. 6
46.5
52.1

12.1
22. 7
31.0
31.2

15. 4
39. 5
49.5
62. 7

15. 8
32. 9
43.0
54. 6

15.7
36. 1
42.4
52.5

10.3
22. 3
30.3
28. 7

13.1
40. 0
50.0
59.4

13.0
32.1
43.6
50.9

12.5
32. 9
42. 8
51.4

Lamb, leg of________________
H ens_______ _ _________
Salmon, canned, red________
M ilk, f r e s h _______________ Quart______

36. 0
35. 3
36. 7
15.6

35. 7
31.1
30. 2
15.2

34.3 20. 7
32.9 21.0
30. 8
15.6 8.0

41.7
39. 8
36.3
12.0

41.3
36.3
33. 5
12.0

42.5 19.3 37.5 39.9
36.3 22. 8 38.6 33. 8
33. 5
39. 6 32. 6
12.0 12.4 22.0 20.3

36.2
32.9
33. 8
20.3

Cts.

Cts.

M ilk, evaporated___________ 15-16 oz. cans 11.5 11.6
Butter_____________________
49.1 49. 5
Oleomargarine (all butter sub- ____ do_____ 29.9 27.8
stitutes).
31. 8 32. 6
Lard___________ __________
23. 7 19. 6
Vegetable Icwrd substitutes . .
20. 6 16. 7
Eggs, strictly fresh— ................ D o zen .......... 37.2 30.0
B r e a d ..___________________ Pound_____
Flour______________ _______
Corn m eal-................................ ..

9.0
5. 8
4.1

8.5
5. 2
4. 2

11.9 11.9 11.9
10.8 10. 7 10.8
11.6
47.9 34.5 47.4 50. 4 50.4 38. 6 53. 2 52. 5 51. 8
31.9 30.9 30.9
27.8
30.1 29.1 29.4
33.5 21. 0
21.3 15.2
16.8
35.5 24.0
8.5
5.1
4. 3

5.1
3.1
2.6

Rolled oats_____________ ___
8. 9 8.8 8.9
Corn fla k e s________________
11.9 9. 5 9.5
Wheat cereal_______ _____ _
28-oz. p k g ... 25.4 25.4 25.0
Macaroni__________________
18.3 18. 4 18. 6
Rice...... .........................................
Beans, n a v y ..._____________
Potatoes___________________
Onions......................................

10.1
9. 5
4. 9
5.5

Cabbage_______________ . . .
Beans, baked_______________
Corn, canned___________ . _
Peas, canned_____ _____ ____

4.9 5. 8 5.4
11.3 11.0 11.0
15.5 14. 2 13.9
14.1 13.7 13.7

9.0 9.0
9. 7 10.1
5. 5 5. 0
8.2 7.0

35.5
20. 6
26. 7
35.7

37. 2
16. 8
27. 4
29.8

8.1
5. 8
4.2

8.1
5. 5
4.2

37.2 22 5 34.1
16. 8 15. 5 24.9
27.4
25. 4
33.1 34.0 50.8

34. 5
21.3
23.3
38.4

34.5
21.1
22. 5
46.1

8.1
5.5
4.2

6.5 11.0 10.9 10.9
3. 8 6. 9 6. 7 6.6
2.9 4. 2 4. 2 4.3

8.1 8. 3 8.3
10.1 9.4 9.4
24. 8 25.5 25.1
19. 2 19. 7 19. 7

9. 5 9.5 9.3
11. 2 9. 9 10. 0
24.9 24.4 24.8
20. 0 19. 4 19.4

9. 2 12. 2 10. 7 10. 7
7. 7 8. 7 8. 7
3. 7 4. 2 3. 3
5.4 7.9 7.3

2. 2

3.9 6. 7 4.6
10. 6 10.3 10.3
15. 0 13. 9 13.9
15. 2 13.7 13. 7

6 6 11.1
10. 3
2.6 5. 2
7. 7

9.4
9. 8
4 8
8. 6

9 6
9. 6
4 3
7.9

6. 3 7. 8 4.9
11.4 10. 8 10. 7
20. 7 17. 8 17. 8
19.8 17. 6 17.8

Tomatoes, canned.....................
10.0 10. 7 10. 6
11.3 13. 0 13. 0
10 3 10 3 10 1
Sugar, granulated___________ Pound_____ 7.1 7.1 6.9 5.9 7.3 7.5 7.5 5.9 7.3 7.8 7.6
T ea____ ____ ______________
81. 7 84 8 84 7 60 0 86.1 87. 9 87. 9 60 0 99 8 98 9 98 9
44. 9 41.2 40. 9 30.0 51.1 47.6 47.4 34 5 50. 2 47. 8 47.3
Coflee...........................................
P r u n e s .................... ..................
R aisin s..________ __________
B a n a n a s.................... ................
Oranges.......................................

16.8
14. 6
29.5
38. 9

15. 0
14.5
25. 8
41. 4

15.4
14.5
26.2
45. 6

19.3
15. 9
31.8
49.1

18 5
15. 4
30.5
47.4

18 5
15. 2
30.5
50. 8

18 6
16 5
27.0
90 5

16 1
14 7
26. 7
46. 7

16 8
14 7
31.0
60.0

1 The steak for which prices are here quoted is called “ sirloin ” in this city, but in most of the other cities
included in this report it would be known as “ porterhouse” steak.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[802]

177

BETAIL PRICES OF FOOD
C L ES OF FO OD IN 51 C IT IES ON SP E C IF IE D D A T E S —Continued
Kansas City, Mo.

Little Rock, Ark.

Los Angeles, Calii.

Manchester, N . H .

Louisville, Ky.

Aug. 15—
Aug. 15—
Aug. 15—
Aug 15—
July Aug.
July Aug.
July Aug.
July Aug.
July Aug.
16, 15,
1927 1913 1926 1927 1927 1913 1926 1927 1927 1913 1926 1927 1927 1913 1926 1927 1927
1927
1913 1926

Aug. 15—

C ts.

C ts.

C ts.

C ts.

Cts.

C ts.

Cts. Cts.

C ts.

C ts.

Cts. C ts.

C ts.

C ts.

24. 4
22.3
18.0
15.3

40. 2
34. 7
27. 2
20.2

38. 7
34.4
27. 5
20.0

38.7
34.7
27.5
20.1

26.3
20.6
20.0
16.3

33.9
31.1
27.3
21.8

37.8
34.1
29.4
22.3

36.5
34.5
28.0
22.5

24.0
21.0
19.6
15.8

36.8
30.2
29. 2
20.1

37.4
30.8
29.0
20.2

37.6
30.8
29.0
20.1

23.2
20.0
18.3
15.6

36.3
31.3
26.0
19.2

37.7
34.5
27.5
21.3

37.5
33.3
27.5
21.3

12.3
20.9
31.3
30.6

13.6
39.3
52.6
61.7

13.9
32.6
44.3
52.2

13.9 13.5
35.5 22.5
44.6 38.0
51.7 30.6

16.1
35.8
64.5
57.7

16.9
31.4
47.1
51.3

16.7 12.3
33.6 25.4
46.9 33.8
50.8 36.7

13.9
46.4
62.0
71.8

13.6
41. 9
55.0
66. 7

13.6 13.1
45.8 20.6
54.7 29.7
66.4 30.0

15. 7
36.3
51.9
55.0

17.3
32.1
47.3
49.2

17.7 ..... 16.0
35.6 21.4 38.5
46.9 23.6 44. 2
50.4 30.0 53.7

17.4
32. 4
38.9
46. 6

16.9
36.9
39.0
46.3

18. 7 35.7 36.7
16.9 32.8 29.8
39.7 34.9
9.1 13.0 13.0

36.5 20.0
30.1 18.3
35.5
13.0 10.0

40.0
29.0
40. 1
15.0

40.8
27.3
32. 1
15.0

40.8 18.8
28.3 26.8
32.1
15.0 10.0

37.8
44.6
36.0
15.0

37.2
41.1
30.9
15.0

36.1 17.1
40.3 22.9
31.3 __
15.0 8.8

40.6
37.0
39.0
12.0

42.0
34.5
30.5
12.0

41.3 21.0 40.0 40.3
33.3 24. 4 44.2 42. 9
38. 8 31. 6
31.3 —
12.0 8.0 14.0 13. 8

39.1
42.5
33.3
14.8

C ts.

Cts. Cts.

11.9 11.9 12.0
10.0 10.3 10.3
12.1 12.0 12.0
11.7 11.7 11.7
35. 4 48.6 49. 5 48.4 39.0 49. 1 50.5 50.5 39.5 51.9 50.3 51.6 36.4 50.3 61.0 51.4
32.8 27.4 27.4
31.5 26.2 26.2 —
30.7 27.8 27.5 —
27.9 25.5 25.5
21. 8 35. 0 35. 7 35.9 23.3 33.9 36.8 36.8 19.5 38.9 38.2 38.1 21.7 36.4 37.1 37.0
16. 4 22.9 18.8 19.0 16.3 23.9 21.0 21.5 17.9 24.3 19.2 19.6 16.1 22.1 18. 1 18.0
26.1 24.0 24.4 __ 29.2 28.7 28.0
24.3 20.0 20.9
27.9 27.4 27.4
25.3 37.5 31.0 33.7 28.3 40.6 33.4 37.1 39.0 48.1 34.8 41.9 25.0 36.1 28.2 33.8
6. 0 10.0
3. 0 5. 7
2.7 5.0

__

__

9.6 6.0
5.2 3.5
4.9 2.5

9. 2 9.1 9.0
11 9 10.1 10.1
26 9 26. 3 26. 7
20.3 19.9 19.9 —

8. 7 11. 5
9. 3
1.9 2. 4
5.9
—

9.6
5.2
5.0

9.9
9. 5
3.0
7.7

9.9 8.3
9.6
2.3 2.0
7.0

3 1 4 0 4. 1
12.8 12.3 12.3
14. 8 14. 0 14. 2
15.2 14.7 14.9 —

9.2 6.0
6.1 3.6
4.1 3.3

8.6
5.5
5.3

8.4
5.3
5.4

9.5
6.3
4.1

9.2
6.1
4.0

10.6
12.1
25.4
20.4

10.3
10.2
25.9
20.1

9.9
9.7
4.7
6.7

8.6
9.3
4.8
8.2

8.8 7.7 11.2 10.2
9.2 10. C
8.5
4.9 1.8 3.6 4. 1
5.1 6.9
7.2 —

4.9

6.1

5.5

10.0
10.2
25.9
20.2

16.6 16! 6 16.6
17.8 17.8 17.6

. . . .

9.8 10.0 10.0
10.1 9.5 9.4
25.0 24.9 24.8
18.2 18.4 18.3

4.3 7.2
11 2
16.4 15.8
17.5 17.2

215.3 214. 5
10.1 10.7 10.7
12 3 11. 5 11.4
7 3 7 6 7. 6 5. 8 7. 7 7.9 7.9 5.6 6. 8 7. (
f>4 (1 86
90. 89. 50.0 105.9 107.4 107.4 54.5 75.3 74.7
27.8 54. 49. C 48.7 30.8 54.9 50.8 51.3 36.3 53.8 51.2
16.7 14.5
19. 17. f 17.
18
16.4
16
13. < 12.7
1.5
14. 14. S __ 15. 15.5 15.5
3
9. i 3 9.1
3
9.
(
_____
3
8.
8
9.4
310.
310.
310
46.8 47.
4 9 . e 44.6 47.3
47. 46. 50.

s No. 2H can.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

8.4 5.7
5.2 3.4
5.4 2.3

9.3
6.2
3.6

9.3
6.2
4.1

. . . .

12.8 12.7 12.9
37.6 51. 6 57. 7 57.1
26.3 25. 8 25. 8

—

21.0 36.0 36.7
16. 2 21. 8 18. 2
25. 6 26.1
35.6 55. 8 48. 2

36.6
17. 8
25.8
55.0

8.7
6.2
5. 3

8.7
5. 9
5. 3

8.7
5.8
5.2

9 .0

9 .1

9 .1

—

6.1
3. 4
3.6

__
__

—

—

10.2 8.1 11.2 11.5 11.2 8.8
10. C__ 7.7 8. 5 8.3 —
3.7 1.9 3.2 3.7 2.8 1.9
5.6 6.6 6.3 ........
5.8 —
4.7 5.3 5.0 __
5.1
10. 7 10. 2 10.2
11 c
16.5 14.6 15.2
15.8
16.9 . . . . 15.7 14.6 14.8 ........
10.3 10.9 11.1
215.0
7. ( 5.5 7.2 7.7 7.5 5. 6
74.9 62.5 82.6 90.4 90.7 4 7 . 0
51.4 27.5 50.0 47.3 47.6 32.0
14.0
12. t
3 9.0
55.

__
_____

18.2
15.9
310.4
46.5

16.3
14.7
3 9.8
42.3

’ Per pound.

[893]

__

9.2
6.0
4.2

8.3 8.6 8.5
10. 6 9.6 9.5
24.8 25.2 25.0
19.1 18.9 18.7

__

137.4 1 5 7 . 8 162.6 162.4
30.6 45.5 49.0 48. 6
20.8 28.5 30.6 29.7
17.2 23.6 24. 7 24.9

16.9 __
14.6
a 9.5
46. 2

11. 1 9 . 7 9. 5
25. 8 25. 8 25. 6
24.0 23. 7 23. 8
11.0 10.0 10.1
9. 0 9.1 9. 2
3.4 3 . 4 2. 8
6. 0 7. 5 5. 8
4.6 6 . 0 3 . 3
14. C 13.4 13. 2
17.4 15.9 16.1
19.3 17.9 17.3
11.8 13.1 12.7
7.1 7. 6 /. 3
62.9 63. 5 63. 5
52. 3 47.9 47.7
15.9
14. 3
a 9. 5
53.9

14.2 14.1
14. 0 14.0
a 9. 2
50. 9 58.5

178

M ONTHLY LABOE EEVIEW
T able 5 .—A V ER A G E R E T A IL PR IC ES OF T H E P R IN C IP A L A R T I
Memphi
Article

U nit

Aug. 15—

Milwaukee, Wis.

July Aug. Aug. 15— July

15, 15,
15,
1913 1926 1927 1927 1913 1926 1927
Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts

37.3
34.4
28.0
20.3

38.6
35.8
27.3
21.0

16. 1
29.1
40.3
54.0

17.2
32.4
39.
53.5

Sirloin steak_____________
Round steak___________
Rib roast____
Chuck roast..........................

Pound ___ 22.9 36.3
__ do_____ 19. 34. 0
__.do_ __ 21.5 26.9
__ do_____ 15.6 19. 5

Plate beef...............__.........
Pork chops__
Bacon, sliced_________
Ham, sliced______ ______

___do.
__ do_____
— do
___do_____

11.9 15. 2
20.0 35.7
32. 44.9
30. 7 .60.4

Lamb, leg of__
Hens__________________
Salmon, canned, red .
M ilk, fresh.....................

-__do.

20. 1 40.0 38. 7
20.0 31 0 28.4
35. 4 33.6
10.0 15.0 15.0

M ilk, evaporated _ ______
B utter__________
Oleomargarine (all butter
substitutes).
Cheese_____________
Lard_____ ______ _
Vegetable lard substitute..
Eggs, strictly fresh______

15-16oz.cans
11. 4 11.6 11.8
Pound___ 37.0 49. 5 50.9 51.2
_._do. ___
26.6 24.5 25. 7

B read .....................
Flour__________
Corn meal ...........
Rolled oats.........
Corn flakes.. . .
Wheat cereal................. .
Macaroni____ ____
Rice________
Beans, n a v y ...
Potatoes__ _
Onions.........................

Quart........

..__do_____
Dozen___
Pound___
__do_

8-oz. pkg._
28-oz. pkg.
Pound___
__do_ ___
-__do._ ___

20 8 32 3
16 5 20 2
.23. 8
29.3 39. 1
6.0
3.4

9. 7
6. 6

2 2 3.9

.....

Cabbage.......... ................
Beans, baked....................
Corn, canned ________
Peas, canned_________

21.2 35.0 36. 1

18.8 28. 5 29.2
16.4 24.3 25.3

12. 0 14.3 14.8
20 . 2 37.9 33.0

28. 6 51.5 46.3
29.0 57.3 49.9

37.9 20.
39.2 41.8
29.
19. 8 33.8 31.3
31.6
34.6 32.6
15.0 7.0 11.0 11.0

.
3
8
1
7

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

35.
32.
29.2
23.9

36.6
32.3
29.2
24.2

2 10.3 12. 6
7 20. ( 36.6
27.7 53.2
9 32.7 60.7

13.9
32.2
47. i
53.5

13. 6
34.0
46.3
53. 1

3 14.4 35.9 36.5
18.5 32. 1 31.8
__ 39. 2 35.0
7.0 11.0 11.0

35.9
30.7
36.0
11.0

33. 34.3 21.3 33.2 34.9
16. 1 16.5 16.3 22. 4 19.0
26. 6 26.5
32. 1 35.5
37. 2 30.2
9. 5
6. 1

4.1

5.6
3. 1
3.3

8.3
9. 1
5.0
6.3

8.9
4.9
5.8

4 3 4.8 4. 7
11.3 11.2
16 1 14.6 14.8
17 6 15.3 15.8

9.0
5.5
5. 5

20.8 32.8 35.9
15.6 21.3 18.1
27.3 27. 1
25.3 35.8 29.5

__

...... I

> Whole.

[894]

9.0
5. 1
5. 7

5.6
3.0
2.4

8.4
10.4 9.4
24.4 24.3
17.9 17.9 17.
9.0 11.9 10. 7
8.3
3. 0 3.6
5.7 8.5

1. 5

.....
.....

9.3
5. 7
5.5

5.8

9.0
5.2
5.4

35.9
18. 1
26.6
33. 1
8.9
5.2
5.4

8.2 8.1 7.9
10.7 10.4 10.4
25.3 25.6 25.6
19.3 18.9 18.9

9. 1 11.8
9. 1
1.0 2. 2
6.1

8.2

4. 7

24.
21.
21. (
17.0

__ 11.5 11.7 11.7
: 31.4 46.8 46.9 47.3
..... 28.3 25.0 25.2

11.0 11.2

20.2 21.8

9.5
6.0
3.9

Cts.

33.'
21.
26.
21.3

46.9 48.0
27.5 26.4

10.5 10.5
9.3 9.5
4.0 2.2
9.6 6.6

3.8 5.0 2.8
12. 3 12.2 12.1
15.4 13.5 13.2
15.4 14.1 14.1

11. 1 11.0

15.5 15.2
16. 4 . 15. 1

Tomatoes, canned___
10 8 9.8 9.9
13.3
Sugar, granulated______
Pound___ 5.7 7. 1 7.3 7. 1 5.5 6.7
T e a . . . ___
63 8 96 7 98.8 98.6 50.0 70.8
Coffee.................................... ___do_____ 27.5 51.3 47.3 47.6 27.5 46.
Prunes............................. .
17 3 13.8 14.7
17.0
Raisins. _______
14.6 14.7
14.9
Bananas. _____
28 8 ^8. 3 3 8. 5
39.3
Oranges................... .............. ..»do_____
50. 1 39. 1 49.2
48.2


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Aug. 15— Julj
Aug.
16, 15,
1927
1927
1913 1926

15,

Cts. Cts. Cts.
22. 6 39. 2 40.5

9 4 9. 1 9.0
il i 9.
9.9
25.6 26.0 26.0
19. 6 18.9 19.3

7.5 10.7
9 5
4. 4
56

2.1

Minneapolis, Minn

13.3
13.5 13.4 13.4
7. 1
5.8 7.2 7.6 7.5
70.6
45.0 60.6 60.8 60.8
42.4 42. 1 30.8 53.9 50.3 50.5
15.4
14. 6
3 9.3
49.0

15. 5
14.6
2 9.3
50.8

17.3
15. 1
10.7
48.8

15 6
15.0
10.8
48.7

15 5
14. 9
10.7
57.0

179

RETAIL PRICES OP PO O D
CLES OF FOOD IN 51 C IT IES ON S P E C IF IE D D A T E S—Continued
N ew Haven, Conn.

Newark, N . J.

M obile, Ala.

N ew Orleans, La.

N ew York, N . Y.

Aug.15— July Aug. Aug. 15— July Aug. Aug. 15— July Aug. Aug. 15— July Aug.
Aug. July Aug
15, 15,
15,
1926 1927 1927 1913 1926 1927 1927 1913 1926 1927 1927 1913 1926 1927 1927 1913 1926 1927 1927.
Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

34. 1
33.6
28.2
22.1

35.0
34.1
29.5
22.7

35.4
34. 6
29.2
22.5

.29.2
28.4
21. 2
18.8

46. 4
43. 7
35.2
23.9

48.8
46.3
38. 1
25.8

48.8
46.4
37.6
25 1

32.8
30.4
24.2
20.0

53.3
43. 9
35.8
26.6

58.3
46.3
38.8
28.8

58.3
46. 7
38.4
28.5

21. 9
18.9
19.4
14.5

3.52
30. 6
29.8
20.9

37.0
32.9
31.2
21.8

37.6
33.0
31.4
21.6

26.8
26. 1
21.9
16.3

45. 8
44.2
38.9
24.2

49.1
46.4
40.8
26.9

49.5
47.1
41. 1
26.7

16.6
41.4
51. 5
57.1

17.7
36.4
47.3
50.7

17.3 12.0
36. 7 24.2
46.1 26.4
52.7 122. 2

12. 5
41. 2
49.0
57. 5

14. 2
36.6
46.0
54.3

15.5 16.7
13.2
38.5 23.4 40.8 35. 1
45.7 29.3 52.7 46.2
53.5 34.0 65.0 58.9

16.7
38.2
45. 5
58.0

11.0
23.8
33. 1
31.3

16.4
38. 5
50.6
54.3

17. 7
35.2
47.0
51.1

17.2
37.4
46.2
50.4

14.9
22. 2
26.4
30.0

19.7
43.5
52. 7
64.7

20.8
39.2
47.4
58.7

21.0
40.5
48.0
58.7

38.3
37. 5
41.1
17.8

41.4
34.0
31.3
17.8

41.4 20.0 38.4 41. 6 39.0 19.2 41. 5 42.3 40. 5 21.3
34.2 24.0 37.4 37. 1 36.8 24.0 43.1 40.8 40.7 21.7
34.9 31.0 31.2 __
36.9 29.4 30.2
31.2
17.8 9.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 9.Ö 16.0 16.0 16.0 9.3

38.7
37.3
40.3
14.0

40.1
34.8
36.9
14.0

39.3 15.8
35.1 22.0
37. 1 __
14.0 9.0

36.8
39.9
36.9
15.0

40.6 38.3
38.2 38.4
30.6 31.2
15.0 15.0

11.1
11.1 11.3 11.2
11.9 12.0 12.1
11.2 11.3 11.3
11.7 11. 7 11.7
53.8 52.9 52.4 35.8 51.4 53.4 52.6 34. Ö 50.5 52.0 52. 1 34. 0 51.1 51.8 52.0 34.3 51. 1
30.3
30. 5 28.8 28.7
SO 8
29 3
31.4 29. 8 29. 8
30. 5 29. 8 29.1

11. 1 11. 1
52.9 52.6
27.9 27.6

35.4
22.3
22 0
44.9

35.2
19. 1
20 4
38.4

36.1 24.3 3 9 . 8 3 9 . 9
19.3 16.5 22. 6 19.3
25. 7 25. 5
20 0
40.7 42. 2 54.0 44.6

9.6 10.1 10. 1
6.6 6. 1 6. 1
3.9 4. 1 4.1

5. 6
3.7
3.6

9.3
6.2
6.6

9. 5
5. 6
6. 5

38.6
19.9
26.0
47.2

38.0
19. 7
25.9
52.6

6.1
3.3
3.4

9.6
6.1
6.2

9.7
5.7
6.4

9.7
5.7
6.5

9.0 9.0 8.9
10.3 9.9 9.8 __
24.6 24. 7 24.5 __
10.0 10.5 10.7 ........
10.8 7.4 10.1 9.9 9.9 8.0
8.4 8.4 8.6 __
9.5 __
2.8 2.2 4. 1 5.0 4.3 2.4
3.9 5. 1 4.9 ........
6.9 —

8.6
10.0
24.1
20.8

8.7 8.7
9.1 8.8
24.0 24.0
20.9 20.9

10. 7
10.1
3.4
6.2

9.6
10.0
3.7
7.3

4. 6
10.9
14.6
15.2

4.4 4.0
10.5 10.7
13.8 13.9
14.7 14.7

35 .6

10.3
10.8
6.8 5.0 6.2
78.8 43.3 64.8
35.6 27.2 47.2

11.4 11.5
6.7 6.6
66.3 66.3
44.2 44. 4

16.7
13.9
15.7
53.8

17.0
13.8
16.7
49.4

9.5
5.6
6. 5

6.0
3.3
3.2

9.2
6. 1
7. 1

9.2
5. 6
7.1

—

9.0 11.3 10. 5 10.5 9.3 11.9 10.9
9.5 9. 5
9.6 9.7 9.8
2.6 3.3 3.6 3. C 2.1 3.3 3. 6
..... 6.6 7.6 6.1 — 7.0 9.1

8 4 8. 4 8. 4
8.8
9.3
9 .9
24.3 24. 1 24. 1
21.1 20.9 21.5 —

4 3 5 7 50
io! 6 1Ó. 8 1 0 . 8
16.6 15.0 15.2
17.4 15.3 15.8

9.2
5.6
6.8

5. 1
3. 7
2.8

8.8
7.2
3.9

4 9

5. 7 4. 4
11. 1 11.1
18.8 18.6 18.6
19.3 19.2 18.9

1 1 .6

18.1 17.2 16.6
14.3 14.4 14.2
45. S 47. Ì 49! 3

14.5
14.3
37.
57.4

16.8
14. (
34. ‘
52.9

15.7
14. ]
34. 5
56.

2 Per pound.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

8.7
6.7
4.2

4. 9 4.8 4.8
10.9 10.6 10.6
14.8 15.2 14.8
17.7 16.6 17.0

9.9
10 8 10 8
10 9 11. 3 11. 2
12. 5 13.2 13.2
7.1 "7 . 4 7 . 1 5.3 6 . 3 6 . 9 6.9 5.4 6.6 7.2 7.2 5.3 6.3
80.3 7 7 . 8 7 7 . 8 53.8 63. 5 62.8 62.8 55.0 60.1 57.4 57.4 62. 1 81.3
50.3 4 7 . 4 4 7 . 5 29.3 50.2 46.9 45.8 33.8 52.9 49.0 49.3 26.4 36.6
15.8 14.5
14. 6 14.3
38, 37. 5
51.7
54.

8.8
6. 7
4.3

9. 4 9.3 9.3
10. 7 10. 1 10. 1
24.7 24.8 24.8 __
22.2 22.2 22.2 —

11. 5 19.5 10.0
8.9 8.8 8.8
5.0 6.0 4.8
5.7 6.8 6.4

.....

Cts.

39.5 22.0 37.7 39.0 39.2 22.0 35.1 36.8 36.9 19.4 38.1
19.5 15.8 22.7 18. 1 18.5 15.4 22.2 19. 2 19.1 16.2 23. 1
26.3
22.4 18.8 18.5
26. 5 25.4 25.6
25. 6
48.8 42.6 62.1 51.9 56.6 30. 4 42.3 36.4 40.6 38.6 55.6

8 7 8 3 8 4
11.3 9. 6 9 . 5
25.5 24.4 24.4
20.9 20.9 20.6

10.8 10.6 10.5
17.5 16. 1 15.7
16.9 15.7 15.6

Cts.

[895]

15.6
14.0 __
35. < __
61.0 __

17.9
14.3
15.8
43.

10.8
6 .9
7 9 .1

__

15.5
14.8
37.7
60.6

14. 1
14. 1
35.6
58.1

9.7
10.0
3.2
6.5

13.9
13.9
37.1
64.6

180

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW
T able 5 —A V E R A G E R E T A IL P R IC E S OF T H E P R IN C IP A L A R TI
Norfolk, Va.
Article

Unit

Aug July Aug.
15, 15, 15,
1926 1927 1927

C ts.

Omaha, Nebr.
Aug. 15—

Peoria, 111.

July Aug. Aug. July Aug.
15,
15,
15,
15,
15,
1927 1927 1926 1927 1927

1913

1926
C ts.

C ts.

C ts.

37. £
35.4
26.3
22.0

39.5
37.6
27.2
22.9

Cts.

C ts.

40. 1
37.8
27.4
22.9

34.8
34. 1
25.2
21.1

36.5
34.6
25.7
21.8

Sirloin steak.............
Round steak______
Rib r o a s t................
Chuck roast........... .

41. (
35. *
32.4
23.3

C ts.

Cts.

Pound.
___ do.
___ do.
----- do.

41. 8
36.8
33.4
24.3

C ts.

42.2
36.5
33.4
23.3

25.4
22.8
19.0
16.2

Plate beef...... ..................
Pork chops______ ____
Bacon, sliced_________
Ham, slic ed .......... .........

___ do.
___ do.
----- do.
___ do.

15.2
39. 1
49.7
53.8

15.9
35.2
44.1
48.0

16. 2
36.2
44.3
47.8

11. 8
20.4
28.6
30.0

12. 3
37.6
55.8
62.4

13.2
33.5
50. C
54.1

12. 8
35.7
48.9
53.8

14. 0
36.3
53.0
58.2

14. 4
31.5
50.8
54.2

15.0
33.2
50.8
54.2

Lamb, leg of_________
Hens_________ ______
Salmon canned, r e d .. .
M ilk, fresh____ ______

___ do.
___ do.
___ do.
Quart..

41.0
39.5
38.4
17.5

42.1
36.7
33.9
17.5

41.7
35.9
33.9
17.5

18.0
16.4

37.9
32.2
38.9
11.3

38.7
30. C
34.5
10.3

37.9
29.6
34.4
10.8

37.9
34.7
39.3
11.7

41.3
33.6
33.5
13.0

42.5
32.9
33.5
13.0

11.7
11.7
55.3 33. Ö 46.5
26.8 .......... 29.9

11.8
49.4
26.1

11.8
48.4
26.2

11.5
46.2
29.4

11.4
47.3
27.9

11.4
47.3
27.7

35.2
18.8
23.0
40.5

22.9
17.8
23.3

33.9
24.6
27.9
35.7

36.4
20.5
26.0
28.7

36.3
19.6
25. 9
30.9

35.0
23.0
27.0
35.2

36.4
18.7
27.8
29.2

36.2
18.8
27.1
33.0

9.9
5.7

5.2
2.7

10.2
5.0

9.8
4.6

9.7
4.6

10.1
5.9

10.0
5.2

10.2
5.3

4.4 4.6 4.6
8.3 8.8 8.7
10.3 9.6 9.7
24.2 25.0 25.0
19.1 19.1 19.1

2.4

4.9
10.3
12.4
28.0
20.9

4.7
10.1
10.5
28.0
21.3

4.6
10. 1
10.3
27.9
21.3

4.8
9.0
11.9
25.4
20.5

4.8
8.9
10.2
26.3
18.6

4.8
9.2
10.2
26.3
18.6

R ic e ......................................... .
-_do.
Beans, n a v y........................... .
_-do.
Potatoes................................... ____do.
O nions..................................
-.d o .

11.8 11.7 11.5
8.1 8.1 8.2
3.7 3.8 3.8
6.9 7.4 7.0

8.5

11.5
9.8
3.0
6.7

11.1
10.1
3.7
8.9

11. 1
10. 2
2.9
6.9

11.8
8.5
3.1
6.1

11.4
8.9
4.2
9.6

11.5
8.9
3.2
8.3

Cabbage------Beans, baked.
Corn, canned.
Peas, canned..

----- do___
No. 2 can.
___ do___
----- do-----

4.7 5.2 4.9
10.0 9.8 9.9
15.4 14.9 14.7
21.2 19. 2 19.2

3.9
13.7
16.0
16.0

3.8
13.0
16.2
15.3

3.8
13.0
16.4
15.3

3.5
11.3
15.6
18.0

6.2
11. 1
14.6
16.7

4.2
11. 1
14.4
16.9

Tomatoes, canned.
Sugar, granulated..
Tea...... .................... .
Coffee____ ______

___ do.
Pound.
___ do.
-----do.

10. 1 9.9 9.9
6.6 7.1 6.9
89. 1 95.8 95.8
50.0 47.8 47.7

13.5
7.3
78.8
57.5

13.1
7.9
78.4
53.5

12.9
7.7
77.8
53.4

13.7
7.5
67.9
51.9

12.2
8.6
70.9
47.5

12.6
8.4
70.8
47.8

Prunes...
R aisins..
Bananas .
Oranges..

___ do.
-----do.
Dozen.
-----do.

17.0
14.4
33.5
51.5

17.4 16.5 16.4
15.7 15.3 15.2
3 11. 5 3 10.6 3 10.7
46.3 43.2 44.5

19.6
15.5
3 9.8
45.9

18.0
14.5
«9.8
49.0

17.4
14.5
3 9.8
48.2

M ilk, evaporated_________ 15-16 oz. can. 11.1 11.8
Butter___________________ Pound____ 53.4 54.7
Oleomargarine (all butter ----- do-------- 27.8 27.7
substitutes).
C h e e se ..._______ ________
..d o ......... 32.2 35.0
L ard-..^________ ________
..d o .......... 21.6 18.8
Vegetable lard substitute__ ------ do......... . 23.3 22.8
Eggs, strictly fresh................. Dozen_____ 43.0 34.7
B read...
F lo u r ...

P o u n d ...
------ d o ...

Corn meal....................
Rolled oats_________
Corn flakes______ : ...
Wheat cereal........ .......
M acaroni....................

----- do--------- do----8-oz. pkg._
28-oz. pkg.
Pound___

9.9
6.0

9.9
5.6

15.4
14.3
33.2
55.0

16.0
14.3
34.5
53.8

8.2

1.7

6.1
56.0
30.0

C ts.

36.1
34.8
25.5
22.6

1 The steak for which prices are here quoted is called “ sirloin” in this city, but in most of the other
cities included in this report it would be known as “ porterhouse” steak.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[896]

181

BETAIL PBICES OP FOOD
C L E S OF FOOD IN SI C IT IE S ON S P E C IF IE D D A T E S —Continued
Philadelphia, Pa.

Portland, Me.

Pittsburgh, Pa.

Providence, R. I.

Portland, Oreg.

Aug. 15— July Aug. Aug. 15— July Aug. Aug. July Aug. Aug. 15— July Aug. Aug. 15— July Aug.
15,
15,
15, 15,
15, 15, 15, 15, 15,
15, 15,
1927 1927 1926 1927 1927 1913 1926 1927 1927 1913 1926 1927 1927
1913 1926 1927 1927 1913 1926
Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

>32.3
27.5
22.6
18.4

155.8
42.9
36.9
26.0

160.8
47. 1
38.8
28.3

159.8
46.7
38.4
28.2

28.0
24.8
22. 5
17.3

47.6
39.2
33.9
24.5

49.0
41.3
35.0
27.0

49.8
42.0
35.7
27. 1

162.8
47.7
30.9
21. 6

166. 1
49.2
31.8
22.5

>66. 1
49.3
32.5
22.7

23.9
21.4
19.9
16. 4

29. 6
26.9
24.8
18.3

31.4
28.7
25.9
19.6

31. 5
28.8
26.3
19.8

Ifi 7 18. 6
22, 4 45. 8 39 9 43.6 23.5 41.9 38.3 42.0 40.9 34.1
28. 2 50.0 45. 5 46.2 30. 1 56.0 50.8 51.3 46.6 43. 5
32. G 04.2 59.6 57.9 31.6 67.4 60.7 60.8 63.9 55. 5

18. 7
38.8
43.5
55.2

13. 6
24.4
31.5
31.2

12. 9
42.7
59.7
60.6

14. 1
36.0
53.7
56.0

17.8
14.2
36.8 21.6 45.8
46.9
23.4
53.6
56.3 33.3 65.3

18.2
36.9
41.9
57.0

17.9
42.0
42.2
55.6

42.3 17.2 35.2 37.2 36.9 18.7 42.6
41.8 20.7 33.9 32.5 31.7 24.8 42.9
38.4
37. 1 32.6 32.8
32.1
13.8 9.3 12.0 12.0 12.0 9.0 14.8

43.2
37.8
31.9
14.5

41.4
39.7
32.2
15.5

20. 2 42. 0
23. 1 41.2
37. 6
8.0 12.0

43.8
38.9
27. 5
13.0

41. 6 19.7 40.9 43.8 42.0
38.9 26.0 42.3 42.7 42.0
38.9 30.4 30.3
29.2
13.0 8.6 14.0 14.0 14.0

41. 1
42.4
39.1
13.5

43.0
42.3
30.2
13.8

140.2
31.6
24.2
18.8

172.0 1 74. 9 75.3
49.9 52. 1 52. 5
38.1 40. 5 40. 5
28. 5 31. 6 31.4

12.2
10.4 10.9 10.9
11.5 11.2 11.2 12.3 12.4 12.6
11. 5 11.6 11.7
39. 4 54.2 54.9 55.0 35.6 51.3 52.6 53.6 52.8 54.7 54.7 39.5 51.1 49.7 51.5 36.0 51.4
29.3
28.9
27.3
30.1
30.4 30.1 30.0 29.6 27. 5 27.5 —
29.6 28.3 28.3 —
-----

12. 1 12.1
51. 1 51. 4
27.3 27.1

37.2 21.7 36.1
20.2 15.7 22.0
28.6 __ 27.0
35.1 38.4 62.9

36.8
18. 3
26. 4
50.9

36.9
18.4
26.5
59.8

5.9
3.5

9.2
6.3

9.1
6.0

9.1
6.0

5. 1 5.7 6.1 2.8
10. 1 10,6 10.4
11.2 9.4 9.5 __
26.7 26.6 26.7 __
— 17.6 18.4 18.3 ........
12.5 8.6 11.3 10.4 10.3 9.3
9.9 11.3 11.1 __
10. C
2.9 1.3 2.6 4.2 2.8 2.0
5.7 ..... 3.8 6.5 4.5 —

5.1
9.2
10.9
25.3
23.5

5. 1 5.0
9. 1 9.1
9.8 9.6
25.1 24.9
23.4 23.4

12.0
9.3
3.3
5. 4

10.7 10.6
9.8 10.1
3.5 2.8
8.2 5.2

3.8
11.3
17.8
19.4

5.0 4.8
11.4 11.2
16.3 16.8
18.4 18.4

13.6
*16. 7 216.9 216.8
11.6 12. 12. 12. 12.8 12.8
11.2 12. 11.7
7.; 7.3 6. i 7.3 7.3 6.4 7. ] 7.3 7.3 5.2 6.7
6.7 5.7 7.
6.
5. 0
61.2
48.3
77.
75.8
77.3
62.2
62.2
55.0
61.
83.3
83.
£
54. 0 74.3 68.2 67.6 58.0 85.3
24.5 45. 39.7 37.2 30.0 50.3 47.2 46. 54. 49. 49.4 35.0 52.8 51. 51.3 30. 54.3
16. £
14.4 11.0 11. £
14.
18.
16." 16. 15.6 14.
14. 13. 13. €
14. '
14. 14. 14.3 13.1 13.1 13. ■ __ 13. £ 13.7 13.
1.8
13.
13.
32 .
311. 312. £ *12.7
28
30
40. 38. 38. i 310.3 310. 311.
56.
£
50.
45.
£
47.
C
58.
7
57.3
66.3
54.
60.
52.4
52.
.....
52. 5O.t
........
........

13.0 13.1
7. 1 7.0
60.9 60.6
48.7 48.9

39.0 24. 5
18.0 15.8
25. 4
42.4 28.9

37.9
22.8
27. 5
45.6

40.0
18. 6
27.5
38.7

9.4
5.2

5.4
3.2

9.3
5.8

9. 1
5.3

4.8 4.7 4.7
8. 6 8.7 8.8
10. 0 9. 5 9.4
24. 4 24.4 24.7
20.9 20.3 20.3

2.8

25.0 39.3 39.4
15. 6 22. 9 17.4
25. 7 25.7
34.3 45.8 38.5
4.8
3.2
2. 7

__

9.4
6.1

9.4
5.4

.....

39.8
18. 5
27.4
43.3

37.8
21.9
25.2
56.3

38.0
18.4
25.8
46.2

37.1
20.4
28.9
31.5

9.4
5.2

9.3
5.1

9.0 10.1 10.0 10.3
5.2 5.9 5.5 5.5

5.8 5.5 5.8 5.1 5. 1 5.0
9.2 9. 1 9.0 8.0 8.1 8.0
10.5 10.1 9.8 11. 4 9. £ 9.6
25.3 25. 1 25.2 25. £ 25. 6 25.4
23.4 23.5 23.3 25.6 24.4 24.4

9.8 12. 5 11.4 11.3 9.2 13.0 11.7 11.6 12.9 12.6
8.1 8.9 8. £ 9.6 9.7
8. 7 9. 1 9. 1
2.1 3.9 4.2 3.3 1.9 3. 5 3.8 2.9 3.1 3.6
5.6 6.9 5.5 ..... 6.9 8.6 6. 5 6.0 8.0

.....

38.3 20.8 37.6
18. 1 18.6 24. 6
28.8
26.7
56.9 33.8 41.8

5.2 6.8 4.7 4.6 6.1 3.8
12.9 12.3 12. ‘ 15.0 14.4 14.4
16.8 15.6 15.8 16.2 14.2 13.8
17.2 16.8 16.6 18.6 17.5 17.7

4.1 4.8 4. 1
10. 6 10.8 10.8
14. 6 14. 14.3
15.0 14.9 15.0

5.6
2.9
3.3

4.9 4.7 3.7
13.2 12.0 12.0
19.0 19.3 18.9
18.3 19. 1 18.3

1

* Per pound.

s No. 23/2 can.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[8 9 7 ]

9.3
5.1

.....

14. £
14.
30.8
68.

14.8
13.8
32.5
65.5

182

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW
T able 5 .—A V ER A G E R E T A IL P R IC E S OF T H E P R IN C IP A L A R T I

•
Richmond, Va.
Article

Unit

Rochester,
N . Y.

St. Louis, Mo.

Aug. 15—

Aug. 15—
July Aug Aug July Aug
July Aug.
15, 15, 15, 15. 15,
15, 15,
1913 1926 1927 1927 1926 1927 1927 1913 1926 1927 1927
Cts.

Cts.

Sirloin steak...........................
Round steak................................ ------ do............
Rib roast________ _
Chuck roast.......... ...................... ------ do..........

22.
20.
19.3
15.

39.4
35.1
31.9
23.2

Cts.

Cts.

40.4
35.8
32.2
23.9

Cts.

42. C
36.6
32.5
23.8

Cts.

42.
35.4
30.5
24.8

43. C
35.5 36.3 24.7 36.4 37 6
31.7 32.5
25.2 25.6 15.3 20.8 21.5

39.2
38.0
30.8
22.8

Plate beef..............................
Pork chops.______ __________ ------ do............
Bacon, sliced__ ______ ______ ........ do_____
Ham , sliced................................. ........ do............

12. S
21.2
27. C
26.0

16.3
40.3
48.2
48.8

17.2
35.9
43.2
45.6

17.1
37.8
42.4
45.8

12.8
44.5
46.9
60.7

13.8
38.0
41.2
53.7

C ts.

13.7
40.9
41.5
53.7

C ts.

11.5
20.8
28.0
28.3

C ts.

C ts.

C ts.

13.8
36.3
48.2
59.0

14.3
29. 1
42. 2
50.0

15.0
35.0
42.7
51.3

Lamb, leg of...... _........................ ........ do_.......... 19.3 46.3 44.4 43.2
H e n s..
____
19.4 37.6 33.0 33.2
Salmon, canned, red_______
36.8 34.5 34.5
M ilk, fresh____ _____ .
Quart........ . 10.0 14.0 14.0 14. 0

39.1 40.0 38.7 19.0 38.2
42.4
37.3 30.5 31.5
39. 1
12.5 12.5
8.0 13.0

38.8
32.6
33.6
13.0

37.7
31.9
33.7
13.0

M ilk, evaporated__________
15-16 oz. can.
B utter...
Oleomargarine (all butter ------ do............
substitutes).
Cheese_________ ________
Lard_____ ______ ________
Vegetable lard substitute.........
Eggs, strictly fresh__________ Dozen...........

36.6
18. 1
25.9
37.6

35.0
21.2
24.9
42.7

34.2
17.6
24.3
34.0

9.4
5.5
4.7

8.9
5.8
5.6

9.0

9.0

5.5

9.8

5.4

5.7

2.2

4.4

Bread..........................................
Flour_______ ____
Corn meal....................................

12.4 12.6 12.7 11.6 11.4
10.4 11.0 10.9
38.6 56.1 57. 1 56.0 50.0 52.0 51.6 "33.~8 51.0 52.3 52.7
31.9 31.4 31.4 30.8 28.8 29.2
27.6 26.9 26.8
21.8 35.7 36.1
15.3 22.0 18.2
26.2 25.5
26.6 40.4 34.0
5.3
3.3
2.1

Rolled oats..................................
C orn fla k es...... .....................
Wheat cereal................
Macaroni________ ___

9.5
6.0
4.6

9.4
5.5
4.9

36.5 19.2 32.8 35.5
17.7 14.5 18.9 15.0
24.3
2o. 8
40.2 23.0 37.8 30.9
5.3
4.5

36.0
15.2
25.8
36.2
9.9
5.3
4.6

9.0 8.6 8.5 9.2 9.2 9.2
11.2 9.6 9.7 10.3 9.5 9.4
25.5 26.0 25.8 25.4 24.5 24.8
20.2 20.4 20.4 21.5 19.5 19.5

8.8 8.4 8.4
10. 1 8.8 8.8
24.3 24.7 24.8
21.1 19.8 19.9

Rice...... ......................
Beans, navy_____ _____
Potatoes................. .......
Onions............ ..............

10.0 13.1 11.9 12.0 10.5 10.9 10.4
9.0 9.0 8.5 9.1 8.9
1.8 4.2 3.9 3.6
7.5 8.3 7.6 5.9 7.5 6.0

8.4 10.7 10.2 10.2
7.7
8.7
3.5
5.1 7.1 6.4

Cabbage___ ______
Beans, baked_______
Corn m eal.. _________
Peas, canned____

4.3 3.7 3.9 3.4 7.0 3.3
10.1 10.1 10.1 10.5 10.2 10.3
15.5 15.0 14.8 16.1 14.7 15.0
20.4 19.1 18.9 18.4 16.9 17.2

3.5 4.9 4. 1
10.6
10.4
15.9 15. 2 15.2
16.7
15.2

Tomatoes, canned_____
Sugar, granulated_________
T ea___________
Coffee________ ____
P run es.. . _____
Raisins______ ____
Bananas.. _____ •
Oranges_______

Pound...........

10.1 10.6 10. 5
11.3 11.3
5.1 6.9 7.3 7.0 6.4 6.8 6.6 5.4 7. 1 7.3 7.2
56.0 91.9
73.9 76.5 76.5
26.8 49.4 45.6 45.6 47.9 41.4 41.4 24.4 48. 1 45.6 45.3
18.5
14.7
36.8
56.8

1 N o 2 ^ can.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[898]

15.4
14.2 14. 1 14.3 14.6 14.6
36.7 36.7 37.0 35.0 34.0
52.3 53.5 49. 0 49.6 54.6

48. 0

14.3 14.4
31. 2 31. 5

183

RETAIL PRICES OP FOOD
CLES OF FOOD IN 51 C IT IES ON SP E C IF IE D D A T E S —Continued
Salt Lake City,
Utah

St. Paul, M inn.

San Francisco,
Calif.

Savannah,
Qa.

Scranton, Pa.

Aug. 15—

Aug. 15—
Aug. 15—
Aug. 15—
July Aug.
July Aug.
July Aug. Aug. July Aug.
July
15,
15,
15, 15,
15.
15, 15, 15, 15,
15,
1927
1927
1927
1927
1927
1927
1927
1927
1926
1913 1926
1913 1926
1913 1926
1913 1926 1927

Aug15,
1927

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

40.1
34.7
31. 6
25.9

23.1
20.0
20.0
15.4

30.8
27.3
23.6
17.9

33.6
31. 1
25.9
20.0

33.2
30.6
25.9
19.6

20.7
19.3
21.0
15.0

Cts.

Cts.

37.1
32.3
30.1
23.3

39.9
34.7
32.4
26.1

Cts.

26.6
22.9
20.6
17.0

31.7
28.9
29.2
18.4

33.2
30.4
30.1
19.2

33.2
30. 1
30. 1
19.7

35.0
28. 5
28.1
19.1

35.5
29.0
28.0
18.8

35.8
30.0
27.9
19.0

26.8
23.3
23.8
18.0

51.0
42.4
36.6
27.5

52.1 52.6
43.8 44.4
37.6 37.8
28.8 28.7

10.6
19.7
27.2
28.3

13.4
36.8
51.8
57.6

14.6
30.7
45. 1
48.9

14.7
32.7
44.4
48.2

12.3
23.0
32.0
30.8

12.4
39.7
53.7
61.0

14.4
32. 7
47.2
57.5

14.2
35.6
46.9
57.1

13.3
23. 7
34.7
32.0

14.2
46.8
65.7
70.3

14.8
40.2
58.2
64.1

15. 1
42.6
57.5
63.3

15.0
36.5
47.5
50.0

15.0
32.0
41. 0
45.5

16.3
32.3
41.9
45.0

12.5
22.3
28.0
31. 7

11.6
45. 1
54.3
65.5

12.6 13.3
39.5 41.3
48.0 48.3
60.6 58.9

33.6 18.5 34.6 36.7 35.2 16.5 37.8 38.6 37.7
29. 1 25.0 32.8 29. 6 29.6 23. 8 45.3 42.4 41.4
36.4 33.4 34.8
36.3
36. 2 29.9 30. 6
11.0 8.7 11.0 11.0 11.0 10.0 14.0 14.0 14.0

41.0
34.5
39. 1
17.0

41.0
30.0
33. 3
17.0

41.0 20.0 46. 1
31. 1 23.3 45. 5
33. 5
37. 3
17.0 8.6 12.0

17.9 34.3 35.1
19.4 31.6 29.5
38.7 36. 0
6.9 11.0 11.0

11.8 11.7 12.0
10.6 10.6 10.6
11. 8
10. 1 10.5 10.5 11.3 11.4 11.4
32.8 46.6 46.6 46.0 40. Ô 46.6 46.6 48. 2 40.7 53.0 51.4 53.7 53. 8 52.7 52. 1 35.2 50.7
29.4
28.1 24.8 24.8 ........ 30.1 28.9 28.0 ........ 31. 5 30.3 27. 0 34.8 32. 1 32.2 —

—

21.0 34.1 35.8
15.0 22. 1 18.4
27. 1 28. 1
24.3 35.8 29.7
5.9
3.0
2.4

—

35.8 23.3 29.4 30.7 30.7 19.0
18.3 19.3 25.2 21.0 20.5 18.0
2a 1
29. 8 29. 4 29.2
33.8 32.9 37.3 28.6 34.0 38.2

9.8 10.0 10.0
5. 8 5.4 5.4
5.3 5.2 5.2
10.0
11.9
26.8
18.7

10.2
10.8
26.4
18.7

9.7
4.2
5.6

9. 7
4.2
5.6

5.9
3.4
3.4

38.7
23.0
28. 3
33.9

9.8
5.8
6.3

9.5
5.8
6.5

38.3
22. 7
28. 2
40. 7

34.5
22. <1
20. 5
46. 7

35. 1
18.4
16. 7
38.0

2.9 3. 3 2.6
13.7 13. 6 13.6
15. 1 14. 3 14. 3
16. 1 15.3 15.3 —

8.2 11.2
9.8
1.2 2.2
4.9

9.2
9. 3
3.7
7.6

9.6
9. 5
2.4
5.3

35.4
18.9
26.0
44.5

5.6 10.4
3.5 6.4
7.5

10.7
5.9
7.8

10.7
5.9
7.8

17.7 15.7 15. 1
15.1 14 4 14.3
14. 7 13. 5 13. 7
15. 7 15. 6 15. 4
2 11.6 210.6 2 10.3
a 14.5 a 12.4 512. 8
50. 6 48.9 53.4 ........ 41.4 45. 1 48.3

15. 1
13. 1
30.6
49.0

1 Per pound.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[899]

13.0
13.1
31.9
50.0

12. 7
13. 2
31.3
50.3

10. O 9.7 9.8
10.9 10. 1 10.1
25.8 25. 1 25.1
23.4 22.9 23. 1

9.9 9.7 8.4 11.7
11. 1
9. 3 9. 4
4.6 3.8 2.0 3.3
6.6
8. 1 6.9 —

11. 1 11.2
10. 6 10.6
3.7 2.9
7.6 6.7

3.8
11.0
17. 2
17.7

5. 1 3.5
11.3 11.4
16. 6 16. 8
17.4 17.2

9.9 10. 1 10.0
12.0
6. 8 7.2 6.9 5.7 6.8
82. 1 81. 7 81. 7 52.5 66.8
48.9 45.3 45.5 31.3 52.4

12.6 12.2
7. 2 7.2
71. 2 71.2
49. 1 49. 1

15.9
15. 1
31. 5
51. 7

16.0
14. 7
33. 2
55.5

4. 8 5.9 5.3
3.2 4.1 3.0
13.4 13.0 13.0 12.5 12. 1 12. 1
13.6 13. 3 12.9
15.3 14. 6 14. 4
18. 5 17.9 18. 2 15. C 15. 1 15. 2
16.1 15.7 15.5 ..... 18.5 17.8 17.9 16.4 16.9 16.7 —

14.4 14.3 14.3
14.5 13.6 13.9
115.3 1 15.0 115.1
5.6 7.5 7. 5 7.4 6. 1 7.8 8.0 8. 1 5.5 6.8 7.0 7. C
45.0 69.9 67. 4 68. 1 65. 7 88.3 86. 5 86.5 50.0 68.8 71.8 72. 4
30.0 53. 1 50.8 50.8 35.8 56.8 54.9 55.1 32.0 54.0 51.9 52.0

12.0 11.9
52. 1 51.7
28.4 28.4
35.7
18.9
26. 1
38.7

9.5 10.5 10.7 10. 7
5.7 6.8 6.6 6. 6
6.5 3.6 3.8 3. 7

8.5 12.0 11.3 11.5 10. 7
9. 6 10. 0 10.3 10. 4
1.7 3.6 4.7 3. 6 4.8
3.9 5.5 4.3 6.9

46.4
43.4
34.0
12.0

35.2 18.0 35.4
18. 1 16.2 22.6
17. 0
26. 2
45.9 30.1 46. 1

8.9 8.8 8.8
10. 2
9. 5 9.8 10.0 8.9 8.6 8. 6
10.7
10.5 10.0 10.0 10. 1 9.6 9.6
12.3 10.6 10.2
26. 4
25.5 25.5 25. 5
25. 5 25.3 25.3 24.5 24.3 24. 3
18.7 ..... 20.4 20.0 19.9 ..... 15.6 15.6 15.8 18.3 18.2 18.2 ........

10.0 12.0 10.7 10.5
9. 4 9. 6 9. 5
1.0 2.6 3.7 2.4
6.9 8.5 7.3

—

9.9
4.5
5.5

5.9
2. 6
3.3

3a 0
25.4
28. 3
47.2

47.5
43. 1
33. 4
12.0

Cts.

14.8
14. 7
30.4
46.9

14.9
14. 6
29.6
46.9 —

17.8
15.0
34.0
53.7

16.1
14.7
32.9
59.5

184

MONTHLY LABOE EEVIEW

T able 5 .—A V E E A G E E E T A IL P R IC E S OF T H E P R IN C IP A L A R T IC L E S OF FOOD IN 51
C IT IES ON S P E C IF IE D D A T E S—Continued
Seattle, Wash.
Article

U nit

Âug. 15—
1913 1926
Cts.

Cts.

24.4
21.5
20.0
16.2

33.4
29.5
27.0
19.7

.do.
.d o .
.do.
.do.

12.7
24.2
34.2
31.7

Lamb, leg of_______
Hens.......................... .
Salmon, canned, red.
M ilk, fresh..................

----- do.
___ do.
----- do.
Quart..

19.4
23.8

M ilk, evaporated___
B utter..........................
Oleomargarine............
Cheese_____________
Lard............................ .
Vegetable lard substitute
Eggs, strictly fr e sh ...
Eggs, storage.
Bread______
Flour_______
Corn meal__

___ do..
Pound.
___ do..
-----do..

Rolled o a ts...
Corn flakes.
Wheat cereal.
Macaroni___

----- do____
8-oz. pkg_.
28-oz. pkg.
Pound___

R ice...............
Beans, navy.
Potatoes____
Onions...........

.do.
.do.
.do.
.do.

C abbage.___
Beans, baked.
Corn, canned.
Peas, canned..

------do___
N o. 2 can.
........do___
------do___

Tomatoes, canned.
Sugar, granulated.
T ea..........................
Coffee......................

------do.
Pound.
----- do..
----- do.

Prunes...
R aisins...
Bananas.
Oranges..

----- do.
----- do.
D ozen.
----- do.

Sirloin steakRound steak.
Rib roast___
Chuck roast..

Springfield, 111.

Washington, D . C.

July Aug. Aug. July Aug. Aug. 15— July Aug.
15,
15,
15,
15,
15,
15, 15,
1927 1927 1926 1927 1927
1913 1926 1927 1927
Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

34.7
30.8
28.0
20.3

Cts.

34.7
30.6
27.7
20.5

Cts.

Cts.

36.1
35.4
23. t
22.1

37. £
36. Ç
24.4
22.8

Cts.

Cts.

37 1
36.1
24.4
22.6

Cts.

27.8
24.5
21. 6
17.3

46.9
40. 5
35.0
24.3

49.4
42.9
35.3
26.9

50.1
43.1
34.8
26.4

14.5
43.5
62.0
65.0

15.4
38.3
57.5
61.1

15.1
38. 6
57.0
60.0

13.3
36. a
50.7
59.3

13.8
30.0
45. 8
50.8

14.2
31.4
46.3
50.4

12.1
23.0
28.4
31.0

13.4
44.8
53.1
61.5

13.9
37.4
43.9
57.1

13.9
42.2
43.8
57.2

8.5

36.5
34.0
38.2
13.0

36.6
31. 9
34.6
12. 0

36.6
33.2
35.8
12.0

41.0
35. 4
41.7
12.5

41.7
32.5
34.8
14.3

41.3 19.4 42.3 42.1 40.7
33.0 21.9 41.8 38.6 37.1
34.4
38.4 31.2 33.1
14.4 8.0 14.0 15.0 15.0

15-16 oz. can.
Pound____ 39.0
----- do_____
----- do_____ 21.7
----- d o .......... 17.4
----- d o ........ __
Dozen........... 39.0

10.6
51.4
30.8
35.5
24.4
28.1
43.3

10. 7
51.0
28. 2
34.7
20.3
27.3
32.0

10.6
52.6
27.2
35.1
20.7
27.3
37.9

11.7
48.9
30.2
35.4
22.5
27.7
35.4

11.8
49.0
28.0
36.6
18.1
27.3
30.5

11.7
49.6
27.9
37.4
18.0
27.5
33.2

9.6
5.1
4.9

9.7
5.2
5.9

9.7
5.0
5.6

10. 1
6.1
5.0

10.3
5. 7
4.8

10.3
5.6
4.9

8.7
11.9
27.5
18.3

8.7
10.3
27.7
18.2

8.6
10.4
27. 5
18.1

10.0
11.6
26. 8
19.4

9.9
10.2
27.3
18.9

10.1
10.2
27.3
18.9

9.2 9.3 9.3
10.7 9. 5 9.5
24.9 24.4 24.4
23.8 22.1 22.6

12.7
10. 1
2.8
4.1

12.0
11.0
4.8
6.9

12.0
11.1
3.1
5.0

11.3
8.6
3.3
5.8

10.9
9 1
4.8
9.3

10.9
9 1
3.6
6.7

9.8 13.1 11.5 11.5

4.4
13.3
18.8
20.0

6.1
11.9
17.3
18.5

4.9
11.9
17.1
18.3

3 7
10.9
15.6
17.1

fi fi

3 4

10.3
14.5
15.6

14.5
15.9

1 17.5 i 16.9 1 17.0
7.1
7.4
7.3
79.0 75.7 75.9
52.1 49.1 49.0

13.8
7.6
80.7
53.4

13.6
7.9
84.6
49.3

13.6
10.3 10.1 1C. 1
7.9 5.2 6. 8 7.1 6.8
83.8 57.5 91.1 91.4 91.2
49.7 28.8 48.1 42.8 43.0

15.7 14.0 13.3 17.8
14.8 14.0 14.0 15.3
2 13. 2 2 12.2 2 12. 5 2 9. 8
48.0 45.7 50.0 55.3

15.9
15.8
29 5
45.2

16.0
15.3

17.9 17.0 16.0
14.8 14.4 14.6

49.0

57.9 56.5 56.8

Pound_____
___ do___
----- do___
----- do___

Plate beef___
Pork chops...
Bacon, sliced.
Ham, sliced..

5.5
2.9
3.2

7.7
1.6

6.3
50.0
28.0

1 N o. 23^ can.

12.0
36.6 53.2
31.5
23.8 37. 7
15.3 23. 1
25.8
30.0 45.9

io ! 3

5.7
3.8
2.5

2.0

8.8
6.7
5.2

3.9
6.4

12.0
53.8
28.5
39.1
17.5
24. 5
38.5

12.1
53.7
28.9
39.1
17.8
24.5
42.2

9.0
5.8
5.2

9.1
5.8
5.2

3.8
7.3

3.4
6.3

10.6 10.1 9.8
15.8 14.3 14.3
16.9 16.2 15.9

s Per pound.

C h a n g e s in R e t a il F o o d C o s ts in 51 C itie s

HPABLE 6 shows for 39 cities the percentage of increase or decrease
m the retail cost of food 3 in August, 1927, compared with the
average cost in the year 1913, in August, 1926, and in July, 1927.
For 12 other cities comparisons are given for the one-year and the
one-month periods. These cities have been scheduled by the bureau
8 For list of articles see note 5, p. 167.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[9 0 0 ]

185

RETAIL PEICES OF FOOD

at different dates since 1913. These percentage changes are based on
actual retail prices secured each month from retail dealers and on
the average family consumption of these articles in each city.4
T a b l e 6 .—PE R C E N T A G E C H A N G E IN T H E R E TA IL COST OF FOOD IN A U G U ST , 1927,

C O M PA R E D W ITH T H E COST IN JULY, 1927, A U G U ST, 1926, A N D W ITH T H E A V E R ­
AGE COST IN T H E Y E A R 1913, B Y C ITIES

City

Percent­ Percent­
Percent­ age de­
age de­
age in­
crease
crease
August,
August,
crease
August, 1927, com­ 1927, com­
1927, com­ pared
pared
with
with
pared
with 1913 August,
July,
1927
1926

Minneapolis___

47.0
44.6
52.7
52.1

0.0
3.3
0.8
0.5
0. 7

N ew York_______
Norfolk ____ ___
Omaha___________

46.0

Philadelphia______

53.9

3.1
1. 6
0.0
2.5
2.4

0.8
1. 1
0.3
2.8
0.9

Pittsburgh _____ .
Portland, M e___ _
Portland, O reg... .
Providence_______
Richmond _______

36.8
54.8
58.5

_ ___
______

55.7

57.0
57.3
58.7
53.4

3.3
3.8
4.7
3.0
1.4

0.9
i 0. 5
0.6
0.3
0.0

Buffalo_____ _____
B u tte.
.. .
Charleston, S. C __
Chicago___ _______
C incinnati.. _____

54.6

3.7
2.0
3.7
0.0
3.3

Cleveland________
Columbus________
D a lla s ....................
D enver__________
D etroit____ .

51.2
52.5
36.0
60.2

City

N ew ark.. _______
N ew Haven___ . .
N ew Orleans_____

A tlanta__________
B a ltim o r e ..______
Birmingham. . . . .
Boston_____
Bridgeport______

54. 1
63.8
54. 5

Percent­ Percent­
Percent­ age de­
age de­
age in­
crease
crease
crease
August, August,
August, 1927, com­ 1927, com­
1927, com­ pared
pared
pared
with
with
with 1913 August,
July,
1926
1927

55.5

52.9

Fall River___ ____

51.9

Indianapolis______
Jacksonville.
Kansas City, M o ...

47. 8
48. 2
44.0

0.5
3. 1
2.4
7.7
4.3

i 0.4
’• 0. 1
1. 5
0. 1
1.0

Rochester
St. Louis.

Salt Lake C ity. ._
San F ra n cisco .___

31.2
48.5

Little R o c k .. .
Los Angeles.
___
Louisville _______
M anchester. _____
M em phis_________
M ilwaukee_______

46.3
40. 5
46. 6
52.5
46. 6
54.6

2.3
2.4
2. 1
0.8
2.3
1.4

10.8
10.6
0. 5
i 0.3
i 1.9
0.3

Savannah
. ...
Scranton
............
Seattle. ____

56.5
42.9

Washington, D . C__

58.7

2.6
2. 8
1.7
2.3
0.5

4.2
14
1.0
0.9
0.4

1.1
1. 6
4. 1
1 0. 1
2.4

0.0
l0 8
1.5
17
1.5

2.5
1.0
1.2
2.1
3.9

1.2
1 0. 7
1.9
i 1.1
10.2

3.4
0.2
2. 7
0.7
2.0

0 8
0.6
2. 6
1.6
0.5

4.4
1.5
1.9
0.1
4.0

0.1
0.7
2.3
2. 6

10.5

i Increase.

Effort has been made by the bureau each month to have all sched­
ules for each city included in the average prices. For the month of
August, 99 per cent of all the firms supplying retail prices in the 51
cities sent in a report promptly. The following-named 39 cities had
a perfect record; that is, every merchant who is cooperating with
the bureau sent in his report in time for his prices to be included in
the city averages: Atlanta, Baltimore, Birmingham, Bridgeport, Buf­
falo, Butte, Charleston, S. C., Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland,
Columbus, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Fall River, Houston, Indianapo­
lis, Jacksonville, Kansas City, Mo., Louisville, Manchester, Memphis,
Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Newark, New Haven, New York, Norfolk,
Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Portland, Me., Providence, Rochester,
St. Louis, St. Paul, San Francisco, Savannah, Scranton, and Seattle.
4 The consumption figures used from January, 1913, to December, 1920, for each article in each city were
given in the November, 1918, issue, pp. 94 and 95. The consumption figures which have been used for
each month beginning with January, 1921, were given in the March, 1921, issue, p. 26.

6 3 9 5 2 °— 27-


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

13

[9 0 1 ]

186

MONTHLY LABOE REVIEW

The following summary shows the promptness with which the
merchants responded in August, 1927:
R E T A IL PR IC E R E PO R T S R E C E IV E D FOR A U G U ST , 1927
Geographic division
United
States

Item

Percentage of reports received___________
Number of cities in each section from
which every report was received_______

R e ta il

Prices

North
Atlantic

South
Atlantic

North
Central

South
Central

99.0

99.7

99.0

99.1

97.0

98.0

39

13

5

4

6

11

Western

o f Coal in th e U n ited S ta te s a

HE following table shows the average retail prices of coal on
January 15 and July 15, 1913, August 15, 1926, and July 15
and August 15, 1927, for the United States and for each of the
cities from which retail food prices have been obtained. The prices
quoted are for coal delivered to consumers, but do not include
charges for storing the coal in cellar or coal bin where an extra
handling is necessary.
In addition to the prices for Pennsylvania anthracite, prices are
shown for Colorado, Arkansas, and New Mexico anthracite in those
cities where these coals form any considerable portion of the sales
for household use.
The prices shown for bituminous coal are averages of prices of the
several kinds sold for household use.

T

T

1 .—A V ER A G E R E T A IL P R IC E S OF COAL P E R T O N OF 2,000 P O U N D S, FOR H O U SE ­
H O L D U SE , ON JA N U A R Y 15 A N D JU LY 15, 1913, A U G U ST 15, 1926, A N D JU L Y 15 A N D
A U G U ST 15, 1927

able

1913

1926

1927

City, and kind of coal
J a n .15

July 15

Aug. 15

$7.99
103.4

$7.46
96.6

$15. 49
200.4

$15.15
196.1

$15.15
196.1

$8.15
103. 0

$7. 68
97.0

$15.23
192.5

$14.81
187.1

$14. 80
187.0

$5. 48
100.8

$5.39
99.3

$8. 81
162.1

$8.91
Î63.9

$8. 99
165.4

GO

OO

Atlanta, Ga.:
Bituminous _______ ____________
Baltimore, Md.:
* Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove_______ ______ ____________
C hestnut_______________________
Bitum inous................................... ..............
Birmingham, Ala.:
Bitum inous_________ ______ _________
Boston, Mass.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
S t o v e ___________________ ____
C hestnut____________ ________

Aug. 15

til

United States:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove —
Average price______
Index (1913 = 109)____________
C h estn u t —
Average price_____ ____ _
Index (1913=100)____________
B itu m in ou s —
Average price
. . _______
Index (1913 = 100)_______________

July 15

$4. 83

$7.65

$7. 38

$7. 58

i 7. 70
i 7. 93

i 7. 24
i 7. 49

i 16. 00
i 15. 50
7. 67

i 15. 75
1 15. 00
8.04

1 15. 75
1 15. 00
8.18

4. 22

4. 01

7. 31

7.18

7. 30

8. 25
8. 25

7. 50
7. 75

16.25
16.00

16.00
15. 75

16.00
15.75

1 Per ton of 2,240 pounds.
« Prices of coal were formerly secured semiannually and published in the March and September issues.
Since June, 1920, these prices have been secured and published monthly.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[902]

187

RETAIL PRICES OF COAL

T able 1 .—A V ER A G E R E T A IL PR IC E S OF COAL P E R T O N OF 2,000 P O U N D S, FO R H O U SE ­
H O L D U SE , ON JA N U A R Y 15 A N D JULY 15, 1913, A U G U ST 15, 1926, A N D JU L Y 15 A N D
A U G U ST 15, 1927—Continued
1927

1926

1913
City, and kind of coal
J a n .15

July 15

Bridgeport, Conn.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Buffalo, N . Y.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—

Chicago, 111.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—

Cincinnati, Ohio:
Cleveland, Ohio:
Pennsylvania anthracite—

Houston, Tex.:
Indianapolis, Ind.:
Jacksonville, Fla.:

10.95

1 6.75

11.00
11.00

10.94

i 6. 75

11.00

11.00

8.25
4.97

8.00

7.80
8.05
4. 65

16.88
16.63
8.32

16.70
16.20
9.09

16.70
16.20
9.16

3.50

3.38

6. 75

7.06

7.10

7. 50
7.75
4.14

7. 25
7. 50
4.14

15. 20
14.80

15.05
14. 65
9.02

15.05
14.70
8.92

6.96

6.85

Manchester, N . H.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Memphis, Tenn.:
Milwaukee, Wis.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Bitum inous------ -----------------------------i Per ton of 2,240 pounds.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

8.68
6. 72

14.33

8.25

7. 21

15. 50
12. 72

14.17
11.71

12.21

8.88

9.00
8.50
4. 88

16.00
16.50
10. 45

15. 90
15. 90
9. 60

15.90
15.90
9.78

8.00
8. 25
5.20

7.45
7. 65
5. 20

16. 00
15. 50
9. 25

15. 50
15.00
9.18

15.50
15.00
9. 21

8. 25
8. 25

7. 43
7.61

16. 75
16. 25

16.50
16.00

16.50
16.00
11.60

3. 70

7.00

6.96

7.50

7.00

11.00
6. 81
12.00

11.40

3.81

12.00

12.00

4. 39

3.94

14.20
15.33
7.66

13.20
15.17
7. 65

13. 50
15.00
7.90

6.00

5.33

13.00
9.45

14.00
9.85

13.50
9.96

13.52

12. 50

15.31

14. 75

15. 55

4.20

4.00

6.47

6.58

6.94

10. 00
10.00

8. 50
8. 50
24.22

17.00
17.00

17.00
16.75

17.25
17.00

7.26

8. 36

8.30

7. 85

16.80
16. 65
. 99

16.40
15.95
9.42

16. 40
15.95
9.29

Little Rock, Ark.:
Arkansas anthracite—

Louisville, Ky.:

$14. 50
14. 50
13.74
13. 34

Kansas City, Mo.:
Arkansas anthracite—

Los Angeles, Calif.:

$14. 50
14.50
13. 78
13.38

8.50
5.25

Fall River, Mass.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—

$15.00
15. 00
13. 75
13.39

Columbus, Ohio:

Detroit, Mich.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—1

Aug. 15

$6.54
6.80

Dallas, Tex.:
Arkansas anthracite—
Denver, Colo.:
Colorado anthracite—

July 15

$6.75
6.99

Butte, M ont.:
Charleston, S. C.:

Aug. 15

:4. 34

8. 00
8. 25
6. 25

8.10
5.71

8

2 Per 10-barrel lot (1,800 pounds).

[803]

188

MONTHLY LABOE BEVIEW

T able 1.—A V ER A G E R E T A IL PR IC E S OF COAL P E R T O N OF 2,000 PO U N D S, FO R H O U SE ­
HOLD U SE, ON JA N U A R Y 15 A N D JULY 15, 1913, A U G U ST 15, 1926, A N D JU L Y 15 A N D
A U G U ST 15, 1927—Continued
1913

1926

1927

City, and kind of coal
J a n .15
Minneapolis, Minn.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—

$9. 25
9. 50
5.89

July 15

$9.05
9.30
5. 79

Mobile, Ala.:

Aug. 15

July 15

Aug. 15

$18.10
17. 95
11.03

$17.90
17.45
11.16

$17. 90
17. 45
11.16

9.50

9.31

9.46

Newark, N . J.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
6. 50
6. 75

6.25
6. 50

13.95
13.45

13. 70
13. 20

13. 75
13.25

7.50
7.50

6. 25
6.25

15.15
15.15

14.65
14. 65

14. 65
14.65

2 6.06

2 6.06

9.32

9.39

9.32

7.07
7.14

6.66
6. 80

14. 75
14.50

14.08
13. 79

14.08
13. 79

15. 50
15. 50
8. 52

14.50
14. 50
8. 55

14.50
14.50
8.55

9. 67

9.68

9. 75

6. 79

6.97

6.96

N ew Haven, Conn.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
N ew Orleans, La.:
New York, N . Y.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Norfolk, Va.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—

Omaha, Nebr.:
6.63

6.13

Peoria, 111.:
Philadelphia, Pa.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
1 7.16
l 7.38

1 6.89
1 7.14

i 15.79
1 15. 54

1 14. 96
1 14. 46

1 14.89
i 14.39

1 8.00
3 3.16

i 7. 44
33 .18

15.13

15.00
5. 72

14. 63
5. 53

16. 56
16. 56

16. 56
16.56

16. 56
16. 56

Pittsburgh, Pa.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Portland, Me.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Portland, Oreg.:

9.79

9. 66

11. 96

12. 98

13.33

4 8.25
4 8. 25

4 7. 50
4 7. 75

4 16. 25
4 16.00

4 16.00
4 15. 75

4 16 00
4 15. 75

8. 00
8. 00
5. 50

7. 25
7.25
4.94

15. 83
15. 50
9.09

15. 50
15.50
9.63

15.50
15. 50
9. 61

14. 60
14.15

14.35
13.90

14.35
13.90

Providence, R. I.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Richmond, Va.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—

Rochester, N . Y.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
St. Louis, Mo.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—

St. Paul, Minn.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—

8. 44
8. 68
3.36

7.74
7.99
3.04

16. 70
16.45
6.17

16.65
16.25
7.16

16.70
16.25
7. 44

9. 20
9.45
6. 07

9 05
9.30
6.04

18.10
17.95
11.22

17.85
17.45
11.29

17.90
17. 45
11.40

11.00
11.00
5.64

11. 50
11. 50
5. 46

18 00
18.00
6.49 1

18.00
18.00
7.29

18.00
18.00
7. 73

Salt Lake City, Utah:
Colorado anthracite—
Bitum inous________ ________________

i Per ton of 2,240 pounds.
* Per 10-barrel lot (1,800 pounds).
3 Per 25-bushel lot (1,900 pounds).
4 The average price of coal delivered in bin is 50 cents higher than here shown. Practically all coal is
delivered in bin.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[904]

189

RETAIL PRICES OF COAL

T able 1.—A V ER A G E R E T A IL PR IC E S OF COAL P E R T O N OF 2,000 PO U N D S, FOR H O U SE ­
HOLD U SE , ON JA N U A R Y 15 A N D JULY 15, 1913, A U G U ST 15, 1926, A N D JU LY 15 A N D
A U G U ST 15, 1927—Continued
1927

1926

1913
City, and kind of coal
J a n .15
San Francisco, Calif.:
New Mexico anthracite—
Colorado anthracite—

$17.00
17.00
12.00

July 15

Seattle, Wash.:

$25.00

$25.00

17. 00
12.00

24.50
16. 22

24.50
15.50

24.50
15.40

» 10. 88

510. 63

« 10. 38

11.00
10. 67

10.48
10. 23

10.48
10.23

9.76

10.07

9. 77

4. 38

4.44

4.44

4. 25
4.50

4. 31
4.56

7.63

7.70

17.50
17. 65

Aug. 15

$25.00

Springfield, 111.:
Washington, D . C.:
Pennsylvania anthractite—

July 15

$17. 00

Savannah, Ga.:
Scranton, Pa.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—

Aug. 15

1
1

7. 38
7. 53

115. 66
1 15. 39

1
1

10. 79
18.75
1 7. 75

1

Bituminous—
1

15. 25
14. 73

1
1

10. 67
9.00
7. 78

1

1
1

1 Per ton of 2,240 pounds.
6 All coal sold in Savannah is weighed by the city. A charge of 10 cents per ton or half ton is made,
additional charge has been included in the above prices.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[905]

15.25
14. 73
10. 67
9.00
17. 78
1

This

190

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

R evised Index N u m b ers o f W h olesale P rices, 1923 to A u g u st,
1927

HERE are presented herewith the results of a recently completed
revision of the index numbers of wholesale prices constructed
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. This revision consists of
(1) the addition of a number of important articles to the list of com­
modities included in the index, (2) a shift of the price base to the
last completed year, 1926, and (3) the substitution of more recent
“ weights’7 for those heretofore employed. In addition, there has
been a slight rearrangement of commodities in certain groups, while
the former group of “ clothing materials” has been superseded by two
groups—“ hides and leather products” and “ textile products.”
The number of commodities or price series has been increased from.
404 to 550, some of these being composites made by combining three
or more quotations into one. Additions to the list formerly used
include, among others, such important items as agricultural machinery
and plows, automobiles and tires, prepared fertilizers, by-product coke,
manufactured gas, gloves, traveling bags and suit cases, rayon,
sewing machines, stoves, box board, and mechanical wood pulp.
Several articles no longer important, as clay worsted suiting, New
York State hops, and Bessemer steel billets and rails, have been
dropped.
The shift in the price base from 1913 to 1926 has been made in
order that the latest and most reliable information may be utilized
as the standard for measuring price changes. Also, it has become
increasingly apparent that the year 1913 is now too remote to furnish
a satisfactory base for comparing price levels in recent years.
For much the same reasons data for the years 1923 to 1925 have
been substituted for the 1919 figures used in weighting the prices
included in the index numbers. Where trustworthy information for
the three years 1923, 1924, and 1925 could be procured, as in the
case of agricultural products, the average for these years was used
as the weight. For manufactured products the biennial census
reports of 1923 and 1925 were used. In all cases the most recent
and dependable information obtainable has been employed in con­
structing the weighted index numbers for the various groups of
commodities. It is the purpose of the bureau to extend the revision
of its index numbers further into past years as the exigencies of the
work will permit, and additional results will be announced as fast as
the computations are completed.

T


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[906]

EEVISED INDEX NUMBERS OF WHOLESALE PRICES

191

T able 1.—R E V IS E D I N D E X N U M B E R S OF W H O L E SA L E PR IC E S , B Y G R O U PS OF
C O M M O D IT IE S, JA N U A R Y , 1923, TO A U G U ST , 1927
[1926=100]
Foods

Farm products
Year and month
Grains

Livestock Other
All farm Butter,
and
farm
cheese,
poultry products products and milk

Meats

Other
foods

All foods

1923
Average for y e a r ._
January______
February____
M arch_______
April_________
M ay-------------June_________
July-------------August_______
September___
October______
November____
December____

88.0
87.8
90.0
89.4
92.7
91.5
87.8
83.6
84.3
87.2
92.9
85. 3
82.4

77.7
78.9
78.7
78.8
75.7
77.8
75.1
78.1
82.0
84.2
78.0
71.8
72.7

116.7
118.0
118.3
118.8
116.2
111.6
113.4
108.6
109.2
115.5
118.9
128.2
127.1

98.6
99.6
100.0
100.2
98.5
96.7
96.0
94.0
95.8
100.0
100.6
101.8
101.0

103.4
110.9
107.4
106.0
102.4
94.3
92.5
94.3
100.1
105.9
108.4
110. 5
109.0

76.2
80.3
76.0
74.6
74.5
74.6
75.5
76.1
77.2
81.9
79.6
74. 1
71.6

99.6
92.9
94.9
99.3
102.3
103.3
102.0
98.5
94.2
97.2
101.7
103. 1
100.7

92.7
92.3
91.2
92.6
93.3
92.3
91.7
90.5
89.9
94.0
95.8
95.1
92.9

100.6
85.3
87.5
85.9
85.2
86.0
90.4
104.4
109.1
109.2
114.2
116.9
129.9

79.3
74.0
74.0
77.7
79.7
77.7
74.4
77.5
84.2
84.3
86.0
78.8
82.6

114.2
125. 9
120.0
111.5
113.7
110.3
109.5
111.2
111.9
108.6
111.5
116.2
118.6

100.0
101.4
98.8
95.7
97.3
95.1
94.3
98.6
102.0
100.4
103.2
103.'6
108.3

94.5
105.1
102.8
99.6
90.8
85.4
87.1
87.5
91.1
93.7
91.6
98.8
101.1

75.7
71.4
70.1
70.4
71.4
73.3
76.2
74.7
78.3
80.1
80.8
80.6
82.0

100.0
99.3
99.9
97.5
95.2
93.1
93.0
95.7
97.9
100.8
105.4
107.4
110.0

91.0
91.4
90.8
89.2
86.7
85.3
86.5
87.4
90.3
92.8
94.9
97.1
99.3

118.3
139.7
136.9
124.5
116.3
123.8
121.5
114.8
115.9
107.5
104. 3
106.8
110.0

98.9
87.8
91.7
104.8
100.0
96.8
100.9
106.7
105.5
105.1
97.9
93.8
93.9

114.5
122.9
118.1
114.2
109. 9
108.8
110. 9
115.0
114.3
114.4
114.4
118.4
111.8

109.8
113.8
112.4
112.8
107.6
107.3
109.3
112.1
111.6
110.0
107.0
108.1
105.4

101.1
99.5
100.0
103.5
100.0
96.3
94.4
97.6
100.8
103.9
106.2
106.0
104.6

93.3
82.3
81.8
88.8
91.6
88.8
89.3
94.3
97.4
98.5
104.6
104.2
99.0

104.5
111.2
107.2
104.1
99.8
101.8
104.6
103.2
103.5
102.4
102.2
107.6
103.9

100.2
99.7
97.7
99.1
97.3
96.7
97.8
99.4
101.2
101.6
103.8
106.2
102.4

100.0
112.6
108.2
101.8
102.9
100.3
97.6
100.7
95.7
95.3
97.4
93.6
96.9

100.0
98.8
100.4
99.8
98.6
103.8
106.7
102.2
98.3
103.7
102,2
93,3
93.5

100.0
111.6
107.3
103.0
105.6
102.2
98.0
95.3
97.1
97.7
95.1
96.2
95.2

100.0
107.4
105.1
101.7
102.8
102.4
100.9
98.6
97.2
99.3
97.9
94.7
94.9

100.0
102.3
101.6
99.5
97.2
96.0
95.4
95.5
97.3
101.1
102.9
104.5
107.4

100.0
100.3
97.8
98.0
99.3
100.2
102.3
101.4
99.9
101.6
101.3
99.0
98.4

100.0
104.2
101.9
99.7
102.5
101.7
101.3
98.2
95.9
98.0
99.7
99.9
99.6

100.0
102.6
100.5
99.1
100.4
100.1
100.5
98.8
97.5
99.8
100.8
100.5
100.7

95.9
95.3
93.0
93.2
104.3
109.7
107.0
108.3

98.5
99.4
100.6
101.2
93.9
90.6
95.3
98.2

95.4
92.6
90.2
89.8
95.1
95.9
95.9
102.8

96.5
95.4
94.2
94.3
96.3
96.5
97.6
102.2

105.4
107.1
106.1
105.2
98.9
97.7
97.9
98.8

89.4
89.6
89.9
90.9
89.8
88.6
90.5
90.3

98.8
95. 7
93.0
93.0
95.7
97.1
94.7
95.0

96.9
95.9
94.5
94.6
94.4
94.4
93.9
94.2

1924
Average for y e a r ..
January______
February____
M arch_______
April_________
M ay-------------June_________
Ju ly_________
August_______
September___
October______
November____
December____
1925
Average for year _ _
January______
February____
M arch_______
April_________
M ay_________
June_________
Ju ly_________
August_______
Septem ber___
October______
* November____
December____
1926
Average for year. .
January______
February.___
M arch_______
April_________
M ay -------------June_________
July-------------August_______
September___
O ctober...___
November____
December____
1927
January..
February.
M a rc h ...
April____

May___

June____
July-----A u gu st..


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[907]

192

MONTHLY LABOE, REVIEW

T able 1.—R E V IS E D I N D E X N U M B E R S OF W H O L E SA L E P R IC E S , B Y G R O U PS OF
C O M M O D IT IE S, J A N U A R Y , 1923, TO A U G U ST , 1927—Continued
[1926=100]
Hides and leather products

Year and month

Hides
Boots
and Leather and
skins
shoes

Textile products

All
Other hides
leather
and
Cotton
prod­ leather goods
ucts
prod­
ucts

oolen Other
Silk Wand
and worsted textile
prod­
rayon goods
ucts

All
textile
prod­
ucts

1923
Average for year___
J anuary_______
February. ___
March________
April__ ______
M a y __________
J u n e ... ______
July___________
August ______
September . _
October
__ . .
November____
December____

117. 6
130. 9
135.5
137.2
137. 1
135.4
121. 8
110.8
107.3
102.0
100.8
91.2
99.1

104.1
107.0
107.1
107.8
107.8
107.0
104.6
104.9
102.9
102.4
101.7
100.0
98.4

99.1
98.9
98. 9
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.4
98.9
98.9
98.9
98.9

103.8
103.8
103.8
103.8
103. 8
103.8
103.8
103.8
103.8
103.8
103.8
103.8
103.8

104.2
107. 6
108.6
109.4
109.3
108.8
105.5
103.3
102.1
100. 7
100.3
97. 9
99.2

116.9
116.9
118.9
121. 0
120.3
117.3
115.0
111.8
110.3
113.5
115.5
120.3
124.1

129.5
127.8
129. 5
132.0
135.3
135.1
128. 9
123.3
122.1
134.0
135.1
126.3
124. 7

107.5
104.4
106.0
107.6
110.1
110.4
109.2
108.2
107.3
107.2
106.8
106.4
106.3

77.4
79.5
79. 7
78.9
78.9
77.1
76.6
76.5
75.4
75.9
76.2
76.5
77.0

111.3
110.2
111. 8
113.4
114.4
113.0
110.5
107.9
106.7
110.2
111.1
111.4
112.7

1924
Average for year___
January_______
February______
March ______
April_____ __ .
M ay__________
June___ _______
July___________
August________
September. ___
October _____
November . _
December..........

110.2
103.9
115.8
112.5
106.5
103.1
102.7
103.3
109.0
108. 9
112.3
116.5
126. 2

99.8
98.5
99.7
100.1
100. 1
99.7
95.9
95. 7
* 99.3
99.4
100.5
103.1
106.2

98.4
98.8
98.8
98.8
98. 7
98.6
98.6
98.6
97.7
97.6
98.0
98. 7
99.1

103.9
103.9
103. 9
103. 9
103.9
103.9
103.9
103. 9
103. 9
103.9
103.9
103.9
103.9

101.4
100.1
102. 9
102.3
101.0
100.2
99. 2
99.3
100.8
100. 7
101.9
103. 7
106.6

114.7
121.6
118.2
114.8
113.5
114.8
114.8
114.2
115.3
112.9
112.4
112.3
112.2

103.1
125.4
115.5
109.4
102.3
97.9
92.9
94. 7
100.4
99. 6
97. 7
100.8
101.2

106.8
105. 6
105.6
106.1
106.2
106.0
105.2
104.7
104.9
105. 9
108. 9
110.6
111.5

87.1
82.1
81. 7
81.9
82. 5
82.1
82.8
83.9
86.8
87. 7
96.9
98.5
97.7

106.7
112.3
109.1
106.8
105.0
104.7
103.6
103.7
105.6
104.9
106.4
107.7
107.8

1925
Average for year___
J anuary_____
February. . . .
March _______
April__________
M a y __________
June__________
July---------------August________
Septem ber.. . _
October_______
N ovember ___
December_____

118.7
136.3
138. 7
129.9
120.0
114. 6
110. 4
114. 6
114.8
112.5
110.0
110.0
112.8

104.8
109.1
110. 6
110.6
108.2
103.1
103.5
103.1
101.9
101.9
101.9
102.1
101.8

100.5
100.2
100.4
100.6
100. 6
100.6
100.6
100.7
100. 7
100. 7
100. 7
100. 7
100.7

104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0

105.4
109.9
110. 9
109.1
106.5
104.3
103.5
104.3
104.1
103.6
103.1
103.1
103.6

110.0
111.1
111.0
112.0
111. 5
110.3
108.8
108.8
109.3
109.8
110.3
108.7
107.4

104.5
101.8
102.9
100.5
101.1
102.4
102.9
103.9
106.1
107.9
108. 5
107.8
108.1

110. 2
113.3
114.2
114.1
113.1
111. 1
110.6
109.8
108.2
107.0
106.8
107.3
107.0

104.1
104.1
103.0
105.5
102.5
101. 7
100. 9
102.2
103.5
104.2
107.0
107.6
106.8

108.3
108.8
109. 2
109.4
108.6
107.7
106. 9
107.1
107.4
107. 6
108. 3‘
107.7
107.0

June__________
July---------------August________
September_____
October_______
N ovem ber. ___
December.........

100.0
112.8
104. 1
98.0
91.6
94.8
94.6
97.5
100.5
95.8
106.2
103.2
103.3

100.0
101.8
101.8
101.8
101.4
99.6
99.2
98.6
98. 7
99.1
99.2
99.4
99.4

100.0
100. 5
100. 5
100. 5
100. 4
100.4
100.3
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
103.3
101.4
100.1
98. 7
98.9
98.8
99.0
99.7
98.8
101.0
100.4
100.4

100.0
105.8
104.8
103. 5
102.3
100.5
99.1
98.6
99.5
100.0
97.3
95.4
93.3

100.0
108.2
107.6
104.0
100.5
100.1
100.3
98.0
97.6
99.0
97.6
94.7
92.4

100.0
106.7
105.3
103.1
101.4
100.5
100.3
99.3
98.7
98.4
98.3
98.5
98.4

100.0
106.2
104.9
101.7
101.0
99.3
98.3
98.4
97.7
98.5
99.2
98.1
99.7

100.0
106.3
105.2
103.0
101.3
100.1
99.4
98.5
98.5
98.9
97.7
96.3
95.2

1927
January________ _
February__________
M arch. _______ . . .
April________ ____
M ay _________
June. _ ________ _
July---------------------A u g u s t ...________

105.5
101. 5
102.3
108.2
114.2
123.8
133.5
131.3

99.6
99. 7
100.2
100.2
103.3
107.6
113.5
114.3

99.8
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.9
101.0
103.0
103.3

101.2
101. 2
101.2
101.2
101.2
101.2
101.6
103.3

101.0
100. 2
100.5
101. 7
103. 7
107.3
111.7
111.7

92.1
92.6
92.7
92. 5
93.8
95. 1
96.1
100.2

90.1
90.9
90.6
91.8
90.7
90.3
87.4
86.6

98.2
98.9
98.8
98.7
97.4
97.1
97.2
97.4

99.9
97.9
93.5
94.5
92.5
93.0
93.9
95.7

94.3
94.6
94.0
94.2
93.9
94.3
94.3
96.2

1926
Average for year__
January_______
February______
March________
April__________

May________


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[9 0 8 ]

REVISED INDEX NUMBERS OF WHOLESALE PRICES
T able

193

1.—R E V ISE D

I N D E X N U M B E R S OF W H O L E SA L E P R IC E S, B Y G R O U PS OF
C O M M O D IT IE S, JA N U A R Y , 1923, TO A U G U ST , 1927—Continued
[1926=100]
Fuel and lighting

Year and month

Anthracite Bituminous
coal
coal

Coke

Manufac­
tured gas

Petroleum
products

All fuel
and
lighting

1923

July

_________________

100.8
101.4
101.1
100.7
97.0
97.5
98.1
99.2
100.4
102.9
103.6
103.8
104.0

113.4
136.9
129.9
122.1
115.4
112.6
110.1
107.9
106.8
107.1
105.7
103.8
103.0

118.8
134.6
130. 7
131.6
130.5
123.3
119.5
114.3
113.1
113.3
108.8
103.0
101.9

104.8
106.8
105.8
105.8
105.8
105.8
104.8
104.8
102.9
102.9
102.9
102.9
102.9

82.6
88. 7
101. 4
103. 7
98. 5
87. 5
86.0
79.1
75.0
71.3
69. 6
64. 7
65. 5

97.3
108.4
111.8
110.6
105.6
99.3
97.6
93.6
91.4
90.0

98.6
101.4
100.8
99.8
95.7
96.0
96.8
97.7
98.4
98.9
99.3
99.2
99.3

99.7
104.0
103. 5
101.6
99.7
99. 1
99. 1
97.4
96.7
98.1
99.0
98.7
99.1

97.2
101.9
102.6
102.6
99.3
98.0
96.6
94.6
93.5
94.2
93.5
93.5
96.1

102.9
101.9
101.9
102.9
102.9
102.9
102.9
102.9
102. 9
102. 9
102.9
102.9
101.9

83.5
83.3
94. 7
94. 0
92. 9
89.1
83.0
81. 2
76. 7
76.6
73. 2
75. 7
80.2

92.0
93.8
98.9
98.0
96.2
94.2
91.4
90.0
87.7
88.2
86.9
88.0
90.3

99.7
98.3
98.1
97.0
93.0
92.7
93.3
94.1
95.7
99.9
108.6
112.9
112.9

96.5
98.3
96. 5
95.5
94.3
94.3
93.8
93.8
94.7
97.7
98.2
100.5
100. 7

97.7
97. 4
96.9
95.6
94.3
93.3
92.5
92.6
93.4
94.9
105.8
111.0
105.9

101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
102.9
101.9
102.9
102.9
102.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.0

95.0
83. 5
104.2
99.9
94.3
96. 4
104.2
102.3
95. 4
89.3
87.4
89.4
91. 7

96.5
91.5
100.6
98.1
94.6
95.5
99.0
98.2
95.5
94.1
95.1
97.6
98.3

100.0
113.7
102.0
101.2
98.1
97.6
97.3
97.4
98.1
98.4
98.4
98.8
98.8

100.0
98.9
99.0
97.2
95.0
95.2
95.2
95.4
96.6
98.2
104.3
116.8
107.9

100.0
114.0
115.3
102.2
93.6
92.6
94.0
93.8
94.3
95.3
96.3
106.2
103.3

100.0
101.9
101.0
101.9
101.9
101.0
101.0
101.0
100.0
99.0
99. 0
99.0
98.1

100.0
92.3
96.3
96.9
99.4
106.3
106. 6
103.3
104. 6
105.4
100. 9
94.1
93. 7

100.0

99.1
98.9
96.8
93.8
93.6
94.8
95.2
95.7

103.9
101.5
100.1
99.9
99.8
100.3
100.0
101.9

97.4
96.1
96.0
95.4
94.0
94. 2
93. 7
93.8

93.0
90.9
80. 0
70.0
68.0
68.0
68.1
66.5

97.7
95.8
90.0
84.9
83.9
84.2
84.2
84.1

85.5
85.6

1924

July

__________________

1925

1926

1927


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[909]

1

99.0
99.0
98.1
98. 1
99.0
99. 0
99. 6
99. 6 :
1

99.1
97.7
100.8
101.0
100.6
101.5
101.3
102. 5
99.4

194
T able

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

1.—R E V IS E D

I N D E X N U M B E R S OF W H O LESA LE PR IC E S , B Y G R OUPS OF
C O M M O D IT IE S, J A N U A R Y , 1923, TO A U G U ST , 1927—Continued
.

[1926=100]

Metals and metal products

Year and month

Iron
and
steel

Agri­
Noncul­
ferrous tural
metals imple­
ments

Building materials

Automobiles

Other
metal

All
metals
and

ucts

prod­
ucts

Lum-

Brick

Port­ Struc­
land
tural
cement steel

1923
Average for year----January_______
February ------M arch.. _____
April__________
M ay__________
June________
July___________
A ugust.. _____
September. ___
October_______
November_____
December_____

117.3
106. 6
110. 6
117. 1
122.9
122.8
120. 6
119.5
119. 1
118.7
117. 6
116.9
117.2

95.3
95.0
99.4
107.4
106.8
100.4
95.8
92.3
91.2
90.6
87.4
88.4
90.5

98.8
98.5
98. 5
98. 5
98.6
98.6
98.8
98.9
98.9
98.9
98.9
98.9
98.9

108.7
107.9
107.9
107. 9
107.9
107.9
108.0
114.3
111.8
112.0
105.3
105.2
105. 2

103.3
104. 2
104.2
103. 2
103.2
103. 2
103. 2
103. 2
103.2
103.2
103.2
103. 2
103. 2

109.3
105.0
107.1
110.8
112.8
111.7
110. 3
111.8
110. 5
110.3
106. 7
106. 5
107.0

111.8
114. 1
116. 8
120.7
123.4
120.0
114. 2
110.9
107. 6
103.9
104.7
104.2
101. 2

103.6
102. 2
102.7
103.3
104.3
102.8
104.9
105. 3
104.3
103.2
103.3
103.3
104.2

107.9
105.2
108.5
108.5
108.5
108.5
108.5
109.4
109.6
109.6
108.6
105.7
104.2

123.7
102.1
107.2
112.3
132.8
134.0
130.2
127.7
127.7
127.7
127.7
127.7
127.7

1924
Average for year----January_______
February...........
March________
April. ________
M ay__________
June_______. . .
July___________
August________
September___ _
October_______
November_____
D ecem b er.____

109.4
117.5
117.6
116.9
113. 2
110.8
109. 1
107.5
105.8
103.9
102.9
103.0
105.6

93.0
91. 1
94.0
97.7
93.4
88.9
86.8
87.0
93. 1
92.4
92.8
97.3
101.4

105.7
105.8
105. 8
105.8
105. 8
105.8
105.8
105.7
105.7
105.7
105.7
105.7
105.6

107.5
107.0
107.0
107.1
107.1
107. 1
107.1
107. 1
109.1
109.3
109. 1
109. 1
107.8

101.7
101.5
101. 5
102.1
102.1
102. 1
102. 1
101. 5
101.5
101.5
101. 5
101. 5
101.5

106. 3
108.0
108. 5
108.9
106.8
105. 2
104.3
103.7
104.9
104. 2
103.8
104. 5
105.6

99.3
103.8
104.6
103.7
103.5
102.6
96.6
93.8
94.1
95.9
96.3
97.5
99.5

103.4
104.3
104. 2
104.2
104. 2
104.1
104.3
103.7
103.5
103.0
103.0
102.0
100.8

105.7
104.8
105. 2
105.6
105. 7
106.1
106.1
106.1
106.1
106.1
106.1
106.1
104.5

114.2
127.7
127.7
127.7
125.1
121.3
116.2
112.3
109.8
104.7
99.6
97.0
100.8

102. 2
107.3
107. 2
106. 5
103. 1
101. 5
100.6
99.4
99. 2
99.6
100.9
101.4

101.4
105.8
103.3
99.5
95. 1
95.7
96.7
99. 1
103. 2
103.7
104.9
106.5
103.9

100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.3
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.3
100.3

105.3
107.2
107. 2
107.6
107.6
107.6
107.6
107. 6
103.3
101. 5
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.5
100.6
100. 6
100. 6
100. 6
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.9
100.9
100. 9

103. 2
106. 5
106. 1
105.4
103. 5
103.0
102.8
102. 9
101.7
100. 9
100.7
101.4
101. 2

100.6
103.2
106.7
103.3
99.5
100.8
96.9
96.8
99.4
99.0
99.7
100.5
102.2

100.1
100.5
100.6
100.4
100.8
100.9
99.9
99.7
99. 5
99.5
99.4
100.0
100. 1

102.6
103. 1
103.2
103. 2
103.2
103.2
103. 2
103. 2
103.2
103.2
101.7
100.4
100.4

102.2
107. 2
104.7
107.2
104.7
102.1
102.1
102. 1
98.3
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6

1926
Average for year___
January_______
February............
March________
April__________
M a y __________
June_____ _____
July___________
August ______
Septem ber.. . .
October_______
November_____
December..........

100.0
101. 3
100.7
100. 7
100.3
99.4
98.9
99.5
99.4
99.8
99. 9
100. 2
100.0

100.0
102.7
102. 6
100.6
98.5
97.3
97.8
100. 2
102.2
102. 2
100. 5
98. 8
96.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.4
97.4
99.7
102.1
102.3
102.3
102.3
102.3
102.3

101.1
100.4
100.4
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.4
99.4
99.4

100.0
99.9
99.6
99.3
98.8
98.3
99.1
100.7
101.0
101. 2
101.0
100.8
100.4

100.0
103.3
103.0
102.5
100.9
99.9
99. 2
98.4
98. 1
98.5
98.2
100.2
98.9

100.0
101.0
101.7
101.7
101.6
101.6
101.4
101.4
99.5
97.7
97.7
97.5
97.5

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
99.9
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.4

100.0
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
94.5
99.6
99.6
102.1
102.1
102. 1
102.1

1927
January......................
February................ .
March____________
April______________
M ay______________
June.............................
July___________. . . .
A ugust__________

99. 2
97.7
97.4
97. 2
96.8
96. 1
95. 5
95. 1

94.8
93.6
95. 1
93.2
91.0
90.0
89.3
92.5

99.4
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.4
99. 4
99.4
99.3

99.9
99.9
99. 8
99. 8
102. 9
102. 9
102. 6
102. 2

99.5
99. 5
99. 5
99. 5
99.5
100.6
100. 6
100.7

98.8
98.0
98. 2
97. 8
98. 6
98. 2
97.7
98.0

96.7
96. 0
95.0
95.0
95. 2
94. 9
93.9
92.2

98.3
96.0
93.6
93. 5
93. 5
93.4
93.3
93.2

98.3
96.5
96. 5
96.5
96.5
96. 5
96. 5
96.5

102.1
99.6
97.0
97.0
97.0
94. 5
90.7
91.9

1925
Average for year----January _____
February__ _
M a r c h ________
April__________
M a y ---------------June___ _______
July___________
A ugust________
Septem ber____
October._______
November_____
December_____


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

100. 0

100. 0

100.0
100. 0

[910]

101. 1

195

REVISED INDEX NUMBERS OF WHOLESALE PRICES
T able

1.—R E V ISE D

IN D E X N U M B E R S OF W H O L E SA L E P R IC E S , B Y G R O U PS OF
C O M M O D IT IE S, JA N U A R Y , 1923, TO A U G U ST , 1927—Continued
[1926=100]
Building materials—
Continued
I

House-furnishing
goods

Chemicals and drugs

Drugs
and
Chem­ pharicals maceuticals

All
Mixed chem­ Furni­ Fur­
nishferti- icals
ture
ings
and
lizers
drugs

All

Other
build­
ing
materials

All
build­
ing
materials

105.5
100.8
102.3
104.3
106.5
109. 6
107.9
106.7
106.2
106.1
105.4
105.2
105.3

108.7
107.1
109.4
112.2
115.5
114. 3
111.1
108.9
107.1
105.4
105.7
104.9
103.6

100.6
100.1
100.5
102.1
103.3
101.8
99.3
98.5
97.9
98.7
100.1
102.9
103.0

95.7
95.1
95.7
97.1
97.0
96.5
95.9
94.8
94.4
95.9
95.5
95.3
94.9

102.5
105.9
108.1
110. 8
110. 1
105.0
100.9
99.9
98.8
98.7
99.5
96.9
95.9

107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4

101.1
101.3
102.0
103. 6
104.1
102.3
100.1
99.4
98.8
99.4
100.3
101.4
101.2

116.7 104.8
118.7 104.0
118.7 104.3
118.7 104.3
119.1 105. 4
119.1 105. 5
119.4 105. 5
119. 6 104.7
115.9 104.7
115. 9 104. 6
115. 9 104. 8
109.8 105.1
109.8 105.7

108.9
109.4
109.6
109.6
110. 4
110. 5
110.6
110. 2
108.8
108.8
108. 9
106. 8
107. 2

99.7
97.4
99.0
99.3
97. 6
A p r il.______
M ay_________ 97. 6
96.1
96.1
July_________
99.2
August______
September. . . 99. 8
101.7
104.9
December____ 106.3

104.0
105.9
106.2
106.8
106.2
105.4
103.1
102. 3
103.1
102. 1
101.3
101.8
103.2

102.3
105.1
105. 7
105.5
105.0
104.3
100.8
99.2
99.7
99.9
99.8
100.5
101.8

102.2
103.7
103.3
102.3
101.2
99.2
97.7
98.9
102.3
102. 4
103. 5
105.5
105.5

95.8
95.5
95.5
95.3
95.5
95.0
94.2
94.2
95. 6
96.3
96.8
97.5
97.3

92.6
95.0
92.6
91.7
92.1
91. 5
91.7
89.6
92.2
91. 9
92.3
94.2
96.2

95.9
95.9
95.9
95.9
95.9
95.9
95.9
95.9
95.9
95. 9
95.9
95.9
95.9

98.9
100.1
99.4
98.7
98.2
96.9
95.9
96.2
98.8
98.9
99.6
101.2
101.5

107.9 103.4
109.2 105. 2
109. 2 105. 3
108. 2 105. 5
108. 2 105. 4
108. 2 103.0
107.9 102. 4
107.3 101. 7
107.3 101.9
107. 3 102.1
107.3 102.0
107. 3 102. 9
107.3 103.3

104.9
106.7
106.7
106. 5
106. 4
104.9
104. 4
103.8
103.9
104. 0
104.0
104.6
104. 8

1925
Average for y e a r... 109.3
J a n u a r y ..----- 111.7
F ebruary____ 111.6
108. 6
A p r il............... 105. 6
M ay____ ____ 107. 6
106.1
July_________ 103.6
A ugust______ 106. 7
112.8
-September
113.7
113.5
December____ 109.6

100.4
102.2
102.7
101. 5
100. 5
99. 1
99.3
99. 5
99.9
100.0
99.9
99.8
100.2

101.7
103.8
105.2
103.3
101. 1
101.4
99.6
99.3
100.6
101.1
101.3
101.5
101.9

104.1
105.8
103.6
103.4
102.4
102.3
102.2
102.7
104.1
105. 6
106.0
106. 2
104.6

97.7
97.5
97.5
97.5
97.9
97.3
97.2
97.1
97. 1
96.9
97.1
99.8
100.1

98.8
98.7
99.5
99.8
99.3
98.7
96.4
95.9
96.8
98.9
100.3
100.7
101.1

100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4

101.8 104.6
102.7 108.1
101.6 108.1
101.5 105.7
100.9 105. 7
100. 7 105.7
100.2 105.7
100.4 105. 4
101.4 105. 4
102. 6 103. 9
103.0 103.7
103.6 102. 3
102.8 102.3

102.2
102. 5
102. 4
102. 5
102. 9
102. 8
102.1
101. 5
101. 5
101. 6
102.4
102. 0
102.0

103.1
104.5
104. 5
103.7
103.9
103.9
103. 4
102.9
102. 9
102. 4
102.9
102.1

100.0
100. 3
100.4
100. 2
99. 8
99. 5
99. 3
99.5
99.8
99.8
100.8
100.6

100.0
102.3
101.8
101. 1
100.0
99.1
98.9
99.4
99.5
99.5
99. 5

100.0
102.2
100.5
99.3
99.4
100.2
101.7

100.0
99.6
99.2
98.0
97. 6
98.5
100. 2
101.6

100.0
102.9
104.0
105.0
103. 6
101.6
99.4
97.4
96.7
97.0
95.8
98.0
99.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
101. 6
100.8
100.2
99.9
100.2
100.9
100.4
99. 8
100. 2
99. 1
98. 6
98. 8

100.0 100.0
101.8 101. 2
101. 3 100. 9
101.0 100.9
100. 7 100. 8
100.1 100. 2
100.0 100.0
99. 9 100. 0
99. 5 100. 0
99. 5
99.3
99. 5
99. 5
99. 5

100.0
101.4

99.1
99. 6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
82.1
84.8
86.6
89.7

97.6
97.6
97.1
97.8
95. 4
95. 8
95. 3
95. 4

98.8

97.9

Year and month

Paint
materials

1923
Average for y e a r... 101.3
January--------- 103.0
105.4
109.1
113.1
April_______
M ay.................. 107. 5
104. 1
99.1
July_________
A ugust. _____ 97.2
95.9
September___
98. 1
95.5
December........ 95.0
1924
Average for y e a r...
January______

1926
Average for year..

100.0
107.7
February......... 103.4
99.0
95.4
April ______
M a y _________ 91. 5
96. 3
101. 1
July
103.7
September___ 102.7
101. 1

100. 5
97.6

101.1

100.1

99.2

100.3
101.0
99.3
97.9
97.7

97.7
96. 6
96.4
95.9
95.2
94. 5
94.0
93.0

97.5
96.2
95.3
95.0
95. 1
94.6
93.7
92.9

98.0
98.2
97.4
99.1
99.8
99.9
100.0
100.2

100. 1

101. 1
101.1
101.1

91.3
90.2
88.7
88.2
88.0
87. 7
86.9
86.7

101.0
101.2

lizer
rials

1927

July____________
August______

96.0
94.5
92.5
91.0
93.9
92.7
91.5
92. 5


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[9 1 1 ]

100. 1

99.3
98.0
98.3
93. 8
91.2

97.8
97. 8
97. 8
97. 8
97. 8
97. 8
97. 8
97. 8

99.1

fur­
nishgoods

100.9
100.8
100. 2
100.0

99.4

196

MONTHLY LABOE EEVIEW

T a b l e 1 .— R E V IS E D IN D E X N U M B E R S OF W H O L E SA L E

P R IC E S, B Y G R O U PS OF
C O M M O D IT IE S, JA N U A R Y , 1923, TO A U G U ST , 1927—Continued
[1926=100]
Miscellaneous

Year and month
Cattle
feed

Paper
and
pulp

All com­
modities

Other
miscel­
laneous

All
miscel­
laneous

61.3
64.5
71.6
71.8
67. 5
62.7
53.9
57. 7
61. 2
59. 1
53.4
57.1
55.2

102.0
100.3
104.2
107. 3
107.4
104.5
102.9
101. 5
100.0
98.9
99.0
99.1
99.6

98.8
99.8
102. 7
103. 4
102.4
100.8
97.0
96. 7
97. 5
97.4
96.3
96.3
95.5

100.6
102.2
103.5
104. 6
104.0
102.0
100.4
98.6
97.9
99.7
99.6
98.6
98.3

54.3
52.9
52. 6
46.0
47. 1
39. 9
37. 5
45.8
54. 2
57. 6
66. 9
70.4
80. 5

100.8
106. 5
104.0
104. 0
104. 5
103. 1
100. 6
97.9
96. 1
96.4
97.4
98.3
100.6

95. 5
97.4
95. 7
93.9
94.2
91.8
90. 5
92.0
93.8
95. 1
97.4
98. 5
105.9

98.1
99.8
100.0
98.7
97.6
96.1
95.1
95.9
97.4
97.5
98.6
99.6
102.1

09 fi
101 5
102. 7

113 9
101 7

109.6
107. 7
108.2
108.9
109. 8
103. 8
103.9
100.3

149.9
75.2
73. 6
84. 7
90.2
117. 7
158.8
215.3
167.5
180.0
205. 8
217.0
206.2

103. 5
103.5
104. 5
104.8
102.4

100.0

100.0

Rubber, Automo­
crude
bile tires

1923
Average for year.
January____
February___
March_____
April_______
M ay_______
June_______
July-----------A ugust_____
Septem ber...
October____
N ovem ber...
December__

118. 5
124.8
127.4
126. 2
120.0

122.3
106.3
104. 1
111. 7
119.6
122. 5
120.3
116.9

102.8

104.0
103. 7
102. 8

103.8
103.9
103.6
102.9
103. 0
103.0
101.9
100.6

99.5

1924
Average for year.
January____
February___
March_____
April_______
M ay_______
June _ ___
July________
A u g u st..___
September__
October_____
November__
December___

110.2

117. 1
110. 5
104.8
99. 0
92.4
93.3
110.3
114. 8
112. 7
118.0
117. 5
127.9

100.7
98.8
98.6
98. 5
99. 5
99.5
99. 6
98.0
99. 5
101.6
101.2
101.8

111. 7

1925
Average for year.
January____
February___
' M arch..____
April_______
M ay_______
June_______
July_______
August_____
September. _.
October____
November__
December__

112. 7
129.7
110.4
107. 1
107. 4
117.7
118.3
111. 3
114. 3
111.3
104.7
111.4
110.0

105. 2
101.9
98.9
98.8
112.0

101. 8

99. 9
98.9

99.0
100.3
105. 5
110.0

102.1

121.9
124.4
121.5

103.4
104.6
104.2
103.7
103.6
104.5
103.4

100.0

100.0

100.0

99.9
99. 5
99.7
99.9
99.8

116.8
109.0
106.3
103.9
102. 5

100.8

101.0

100.4
100. 3

97.5
95.4
94. 2
93. 4
90.8
89.9

100.2

99.8
98. 1
97. 5
98.2
97.8
99.0

117. 1
126. 5
118.0
120.0

1926
Average for year
January __
February_____
March .
ApriL ______
M ay___________
June___ . . .
July______________
A ugust_____
September ._ .
October_______
November. _.
December____

100.0
111. 1
101. 1
98.0
104.8
99. 1
96. 2
100.3
99. 3
95. 6
93. 5
97. 6
105.3

1927
January...........
February______
March_____
April______
M ay_____
June. .
Ju ly__________________
A ugust.............................

110.0
115.8
110.9
113.2
117.7
117.8
115.4
125.4


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

106. 5
109.4
105.8

100.0

100. 7
100.3
99. 5
95. 7
92. 1
92.1
93. 7

164. 1
128. 3
120.9
105. 2
99. 7
89.2
85. 6
80. 7
85. 1
87. 7
82.0
78.1

108.8
108.3
108.3
108.3
97.2
92.8
91.4
91.4
83.6
78. 6

93. 0
92.9
92.8
93.4
92.2
92.0
92. 0
92.0

80.7
78.3
84.1
83.8
84.1
76.1
72.0
71.9

78.6
78.7
78. 7
78.7
78.7
78.3
77.9
77.9

102.6
101. 6

1912]

123.3
110.8

100.0

99.8
99. 6
99. 7
99.6
100. 3
100.0
100.2

100.3
100.6
100.0

100.0

90.3
90.6
90.9
91.3
91.3
90.2
89.3
89.9

103.6
102.1

100.4
100.1

100.5
100.5
99.5
99.0
99.7
99.4
98.4
97.9

96.6
95.9
94.5
93.7
93.7
93.8
9 4 .1

95.2

197

REVISED INDEX NUMBERS OF WHOLESALE PRICES

The following table furnishes a comparison of the bureau’s old
and revised general index numbers reduced to the same base, viz,
1926 equals 100, together with the purchasing power of the dollar
as measured by each series, for the period from January, 1923, to
August, 1927.
T able 2

.—

I N D E X N U M B E R S OF W H O L E SA L E P R IC E S A N D P U R C H A S IN G PO W ER
OF T H E D O L L A R , J A N U A R Y , 1923, TO A U G U ST , 1927
[1926=100]
Old series

Year and month

N ew series

Pur­
chas­
ing
Index power
Index
of
dollar

Pur­
chas­
ing
power
of
dollar

Cents

Cents

Old series

Year and month

1923
Average for year___
January________
F ebruary............
March .. ______
A pril__________
M a y ____ ____
June___ _____
July----------------August- _______
September...........
October______
Novem ber___ .
December______

Pur­
Pur­
chas­
chas­
ing
ing
Index power Index power
of
of
dollar
dollar

1925—Continued
101. 8
103.2
103.8
105.0
105. 1
103.4
101. 7
99. 7
99.4
101.8
101.4
100.7
100.0

98. 2
96.9
96. 3
95. 2
95. 1
96. 7
98.3
100. 3
100.6
98. 2
98.6
99.3
100.0

100.6
102.2
103. 5
104.6
104.0
102.0
100.4
98.6
97.9
99. 7
99.6
98.6
98.3

99.4
97.8
96.6
95.6
96.2
98.0
99. 6
101.4
102. 1
100. 3
100.4
101.4
101.7

Average for year----- 99. 1
January_______ 100. 1
February_______ 100. 5
March_________
99.3
98. 3
A p r il.................
97.3
June . . . .............. 95.8
97.4
July___________
99. 1
A ugust________
98.5
September_____
October________ 100.6
November_____
.1
December______ 104.0

100.9
99.9
99.5
100.7
101.7
102.8
104.4
102.7
100.9
101. 5
99.4
98.9
96.2

98.1
99.8
100.0
98. 7
97. 6
96. 1
95.1
95.9
97.4
97.5
98.6
99.6
102.1

101.9
100.2
100.0
101.3
102.5
104. 1
105.2
104.3
102.7
102.6
101.4
100.4
97.9

95.1
94. 3
94.0
93.8
96.7

103.5
103.5
104.5
104.8
102.4

96.6
96.6
95.7
95.4
97.7

1924

101

M ay___________
June___________
July___________
A ugust......... .......
September_____
October____ .
N ovem ber-.- . . .
December__

105.1
106.0
106.4
106. 6
103.4


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

102.8
104.2
105.9
106.2
105. 8
104. 4
104.4
103.4

Cents

97.3
96.0
94.4
94.2
94. 5
95.8
95.8
96.7

102.1
103.4
104.6
104.2
103.7
103.6
104.5
103.4

100.0
103.6
102. 1
100.4

100.5
100.9
99.8
98.8
99. 7
99. 1
98. 1
97.5

100.0
96.8
97.5
99. 7
99. 9
99. 5
99.1
100.2
101. 2
100. 3
100.9
101.9
102.6

97.3
97.0
96. 2
95. 5
95.4
95.2
95.8
97.1

102.8
103. 1
104.0
104. 7
104.8
105.0
104.4
103.0

Cents

97.9
96. 7
95.6
96.0
96.4
96.5
95.7
96.7

1926
Average for y e a r ___
January..............
February_______
March _. ___
A pril__________
M ay___________
June___________
July----------------August _. _ ____
S ep tem b er.____
October. . _____
November_____
December_____

1925
Average for year____
January________
February_______
M a r c h ________
April ...................

N ew series

[913]

100.0
103.3
102. 6
100.3
100. 1

100. 5
100.5
99.5
99.0
99. 7
99. 4
98. 4
97.9

100.0
96.5
97.9
99. 6
99.9
99. 5
99.5
100.5
101.0
100.3
100.6
101.6
102.1

96.6
95.9
94. 5
93.7
93.7
93.8
94.1
95.2

l03. 5
104.3
105.8
106.7
106. 7
106.6
106.3
105.0

100.1

1927
January_______
February______
March_________
A p ril..- _______
M ay___________
June. - ______
July___________
A u g u s t...... .........

198

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

TREND

OF W H O LE S A LE
(l 92.6

=

10 0.)

PRICES.

JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JIM JUL. AUG. SER OCT NOV. DEC.

Comparison of Retail-Price Changes in th e U nited States and
in Foreign Countries
HE principal index numbers of retail prices published by foreign
countries have been brought together with those of this bureau
m the subjoined table after having been reduced in most cases
to a common base, namely, prices for July, 1914, equal 100. This
base was selected instead of the average for the year 1913, which
is used in other tables of index numbers of retail prices compiled by
the bureau, because of the fact that in numerous instances satisfac­
tory information for 1913 was not available. Some of the countries
shown in the table now publish index numbers of retail prices on the
1914, base. In such cases, therefore, the index numbers are
reproduced as published. F or other countries the index numbers here
shown have been obtained by dividing the index for each month
specmed m the table by the index for July, 1914, or the nearest
period thereto as published in the original sources. As stated in the
rir ’ ^ 16 •riuml?er
articles included in the index numbers for the
ciñieren t countries differs widely. These results, which are designed
merely to show price trends and not actual differences in the several
countries, should not, therefore, be considered as closely comparable
with one another. In certain instances, also, the figures are not
absolutely comparable from month to month over the entire period
owing to slight changes in the list of commodities and the localities
mcfuded on successive dates.

T


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[9 1 4 ]

199

COMPARISON OP RETAIL-PRICE CHANGES

I N D E X N U M B E R S OF R E TA IL PR IC ES IN T H E U N IT E D ST A TES A N D IN OTH ER
i
C O U N TR IE S

C ountry...

United
States

Canada

Number of
localities-

Belgium

Czecho­
slovakia

D en­
mark

59

Entire
country

100

Finland

France
(except
Paris)

France
(Paris)

Germany

13 (11
foods)

Foods

320
13 (11
foods)

Commodities in­ 43 foods
cluded.. .

29 foods

C o m p u t­ Bureau
ing agen­ of Labor
c y . .......... Statistics

Govern­
Ministry
Central Ministry Ministry
ment
Depart­ of Indus­ Office of
ment of try and Statistics Statisti­ Bureau of of Labor of Labor
cal De­ Statistics
Labor
Labor
partment

Base =100. July, 1914 July, 1914

56 (foods, 29 foods
etc.)

April,
1914

Foods

36 foods

Federal
Statis­
tical
Bureau

October,
January- August, July, 1914 1913-.
July, 1914 July, 1914 June, 1914
1914
July, 1914

Year and
month

1923
Jan_____..
F eb ______
M ar_____
A pr--------M ay_____
June_____
July-------A ug-------Sept_____
Oct______
N o v _____
D e c _____
1924
Jan_____
F eb _____
M ar..........
A pr-------M ay____
June____
July------A ug------Sopt_____
Oet_____
N o v _____
D e c ..........
1925
Jan_____
F eb _____
Mar____
A pr_____
M ay.........
June____
July_____
A ug-----Sept_____
Oct_____
N o v ____
D e c .........
1926
Jan_____
F eb _____
M ar____
A pr------M a y ____
June.........
July____
A ug------Sept____
Oct_____
N o v ____
D e c ..........
1927
Jan_____
F e b ____
Mar____
A pr------M ay____
June------

180

141
139
139
140
140
141
144
143
146
147
148
147

142
142
145
143
140
138
137
142
141
144
144
145

383
397
408
409
413
419
429
439
453
458
463
470

146
144
141
138
138
139
140
141
144
145
147
148

145
145
143
137
133
133
134
137
139
139
141
143

480
495
510
498
485
492
493
498
503
513
520
521

151
148
148
148
148
152
156
157
156
158
164
162

145
147
145
142
141
141
141
146
146
147
151
156

521
517
511
506
502
505
509
517
525
533
534
534

161
158
156
159
158
156
154
152
155
157
158
158

157
155
154
153
152
149
149
150
147
147
148
151

527
526
521
529
558
579
637
681
684
705
730
741

854
845
832
832
837
861
876
878
878

156
153
150
150
152
155

153
151
149
146
145
146

755
770
771
774
776
785

914
914
915
923
931
949


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188

1108
1103
1096
1047
1016
1004
1003
1087
1103
1140
1133

331
337
349
373

1112

836
838
830
829
825
833
837
842
853
877

194

1089
1070
1067
1035
1037
1040
1052
1125
1125
1156
1160
1160
1130

911
904
901
894
914
916
894
884
875
863

393
400
426

1120

440

1152
1137
1097

434

1101
210

866

177

1145
1222

451

1187
1165
1164
1138

471

1090
1106

503

1100

159

888

902
912

[9 1 5 ]

400

1085
1078
1090
1105
1153
1137
1126
1114

523
610
647

1110

156

1092
1095
1086

586
572

309
316
321
320
325
331
321
328
339
349
355
365
376
384
392
380
378
370
360
366
374
383
396
404

127
117
120
123
126
120
126
122
125
134
135
:135

408
410
415
409
418
422
421
423
431
433
444
463

137
145
146
144
141
146
154
154
153
151
147
146

480
495
497
503
522
544
574
587
590
624
628
599

143
142
141
142
142
143
145
146
145
145
148
150

592
585
581
580
589
580

151
152
151
150
151
153

200

MONTHLY LABOE REVIEW

I N D E X N U M B E R S OF R E T A IL PR IC ES IN T H E U N IT E D ST A TES A N D IN OTH ER
C O U N T R IE S—Continued
C ountry..

Italy

localities.

47
20 foods
and
char­
coal

Nether­ Norway Sweden Switzer­ United
King­
lands
land
dom
6

29 (27
foods)

Ministry
Comput­
of N a­ Central
ing
tional Bureau
agency.. Econo­ of Sta­
tistics
my
Base=100 _

1913

JanuaryJune,
1914

South
Africa

India
(Bom­
bay)

Aus­
tralia

New
Zea­
land

9

1

30

25

31

49

33

Foods

50 (43
foods, 7
fuel and
light)

Foods

Central
Bureau
of Sta­
tistics

Social
Board

Office
Labor
Office Ministry of Cen­
of
sus and
(re­
Labor
Statis­
vised)
tics

Labor
Office
(re­
vised)

Bureau
of Cen­
sus and
Statis­
tics

Census
and
Statis­
tics
Office

July,
1914

July,
1914

July,
1914

July,
1914

July,
1914

July,
1914

630

21 foods 24 foods 17 foods

July,
1914

1914

46 foods
and
59 foods
groceries

Year and
month

1923
J a n ..........
Feb_____
M ar_____
Apr_____
M ay____
June____
July_____
A ug------Sept____
O c t . .. __
N o v _____
D ec_____
1924
Jan______
Feb_____
M ar_____
Apr_____
M a y ____
June____
July-------Aug-------Sept_____
O ct______
N o v _____
D ec_____
1925
Jan______
Feb_____
M ar_____
Apr______
M a y _____
June_____
July_____
Aug-------Sept_____
O ct______
N o v _____
D ec............
1926 .
Jan______
F eb______
M ar_____
Apr______
M a y _____
June_____
Ju ly_____
Aug--------Sept_____
Oct______
N o v _____
D ec______
1927
Jan______
Feb______
M ar_____
Apr______
M a y _____
June..........

542
527
524
530
535
532
518
512
514
517
526
528

148
149
149
149
147
145
145
143
142
145
149
149

214
214
214
212
214
213
218
220
218
217
221
226

166
165
166
163
161
161
160
161
165
165
164
164

160
158
159
161
164
166
166
166
167
167
171
172

175
173
171
168
162
160
162
165
168
172
173
176

117
117
117
117
118
118
116
115
115
117
120
118

151
150
149
150
148
146
148
149
149
147
147
152

145
144
145
152
156
162
164
165
161
157
157
156

139
140
141
142
143
142
142
143
145
146
147
147

527
529
523
527
530
543
538
534
538
556
583
601

150
151
152
152
151
151
150
150
152
154
156
157

230
234
241
240
241
240
248
257
261
264
269
274

163
162
162
159
159
158
159
163
165
172
172
172

173
172
171
169
169
170
170
170
170
174
175
175

175
177
176
167
163
160
162
164
166
172
179
180

120
122
122
122
122
120
117
117
117
120
122
121

154
151
147
143
143
147
151
156
156
156
157
156

155
153
152
150
151
149
148
147
146
146
147
148

150
149
150
150
150
150
148
146
145
145
148
150

609
609
610
606
600
602
605
619
642
645
652
653

156
157
157
155
154
152
152
152
152
149
149
148

277
283
284
276
265
261
260
254
241
228
223
221

170
170
171
170
169
169
169
170
168
166
165
164

172
172
171
169
168
169
169
169
170
168
168
167

178
176
176
170
167
166
167
168
170
172
172
174

120
120
121
124
123
122
120
119
118
119
117
116

152
152
155
153
151
149
152
147
146
148
149
151

148
149
151
152
154
155
156
156
156
157
156
155

147
146
149
149
150
149
151
152
153
155
156
154

658
649
636
633
643
647
645
648
656
662
655
622

148
147
147
146
146
146
146
146
149
148
148
146

216
212
205
198
195
194
198
196
193
191
186
184

162
160
159
158
157
157
156
156
157
157
158
157

165
163
161
161
159
159
159
157
158
160
159
159

171
168
165
159
158
158
161
161
162
163
169
169

116
117
118
119
119
118
117
117
117
120
119
117

151
150
151
150
150
152
155
153
152
153
152
154

155
154
159
163
163
162
159
157
155
153
155
158

154
153
152
151
151
151
149
150
148
147
146
149

629
615
610
606
599
558

147
146
146
145
145
145

180
177
173
169
169
172

156
153
151
151
150
151

158
157
156
156
156
157

167
164
162
155
154
154

116
117
118
119
121
120

155
152
152
151
150
151

158
153
151
151
152
153

148
146
146
145
145
144


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[916]

COST OF LIVING
T h e P ro b lem o f “ R etu r n e d G o o d s ’*

HE Crockery and Glass Journal (New York City) for August
25, 1927, contains the results of a study recently made by
the University of Southern California to ascertain the senti­
ments of the members of women’s clubs in Los Angeles on various
questions relating to the practice of returning purchases made at
retail stores. The questions asked were as follows:

T

1.
H av e you ever re tu rn e d m erchandise w hen it m ig h t n o t h av e been necessary
if you h a d been m ore careful in buying?
2.
H av e you ever re tu rn e d goods w hen it w ould h av e been u nnecessary if
th e salesm an h a d given y o u m ore inform ation?
3. D id you ever m ak e a p u rch ase to save th e feelings of a courteous clerk?
4. Should people p a y fo r th e privilege of h av in g goods se n t C. O. D.?
5.
T en p e r c e n t of th e m erchandise pu rch ased in re ta il stores is re tu rn e d . If
it cost you 2 cen ts on each d o llar’s w o rth of m erchandise you b u y because of th is
privilege, w ould you still w a n t it?
6. Should a p e n a lty be charged on re tu rn goods a fte r five days?
7.
If one sto re allow s re tu rn s a n d th e o th e r does n o t, w hich w ould you buy
from ?
8. Should th e tim e of re tu rn be lim ited to th re e week days?
9.
Som e custom ers ab u se th e re tu rn privilege. If one sto re should refuse th is
privilege, dissatisfied cu sto m ers w ould go to o th e r stores. W h a t should be done?
10. W h a t o th e r suggestions can you m ak e concerning th e a m o u n t of re tu rn s?

Two hundred and eighty replies were received. In some cases one
questionnaire represented the views of a section of a club’s member­
ship and in others the views of the club as a whole. The study is
therefore considered representative of the existing attitude although
the number of actual reports received was small.
In regard to question 1, 107, or 38 per cent, stated that they had
returned merchandise when it might not have been necessary, while
166 said they had not. The article states that if the questionnaire
performs no other service than to remind 38 per cent of the house­
wives who received it that they are adding to the costs of retailing
by returning goods which they bought carelessly it should prove worth
while.
Out of 272 replies to question 2, 156 reported that they had been
obliged to return purchases when it would have been unnecessary if
the sales force had given more or better information, the remaining
replies being in the negative. Some of the replies to this question
suggested that “ clerks should give attention only when desired” ;
that “ stores need better salesmen so as to avoid wrong size, etc.” ;
that “ salesmen should not be too persistent or misrepresent things” ;
and that “ salesmen are too eager to make sales.”
In answer to question 3, 62 stated that they had bought to please
a clerk, intending at the time to return the merchandise later.
63952°—27— —14

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[917]

201

202

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

One hundred and sixty-one said that they thought customers should
pay for the privilege of having goods sent on approval or C. O. D.,
while 100 did not think so. Many expressed themselves as feeling
that goods should not be sent on approval and others that stores are
at fault in urging people to have goods sent on approval; that cus­
tomers should make partial payments for the goods, losing the deposits
if they return their purchases; or that a delivery charge should be
made for goods sent on approval.
Of the 244 answering the question relating to paying for the return
privilege, 145 were willing to pay for it, but 99 were not. Two
hundred and six were in favor of penalizing the indifferent or care­
less returning of goods after 5 days, and 48 voted against it.
Two hundred and seventeen said that they would favor the store
which gives the return privilege and 40 preferred the store that does
not grant it.
On the matter of a return time limit, 113 voted in favor of 3
days and 52 against it, while 136 voted in favor of a 5-day limit
and 49 against it. This gives a total of 249 who were in favor of a
time limit on the return of goods. Many comments were received
on this point. Sixty-five different persons suggested uniform action
by all stores; some suggested the enforcement of the limit only to
unreliable customers; others felt that the rule should be modified
under certain conditions or in regard to certain goods.
In summing up the data obtained in the study, the following tenta­
tive conclusions were reached:
1. C onsum ers seem to w a n t un ifo rm a ctio n by all th e stores so all will be tre a te d
alike. W hile th is q u estio n w as n o t asked for in th e q u estio n n aire, 65 suggested
it of th e ir ow n accord.
2. A m a jo rity of consum ers believe th a t those who h av e goods se n t on a p p ro v al
or C. O. D . should p a y fo r th e privilege.
3. A big m a jo rity w ere in fav o r of penalizing th o se who ab u se d th e re tu rn
privilege. M an y w ere in d ig n a n t t h a t th e y h ad to p a y fo r th e sins of o thers.
4. A gain a m a jo rity fav o red th e 3 o r 5 d ay lim it on th e re tu rn of m erchandise.
5. T he public does n o t y e t consider th e sales force as id eal b y a n y m eans.
6. M an y expressed th em selv es as being opposed to th e sto re policy of urging
people to b u y b y em phasizing th e ease of th e re tu rn in g of m erch an d ise n o t liked.
If th is qu estio n h a d been ask ed , a larg e v o te p ro b a b ly w ould h av e been polled.
7. S en tim en t in fav o r of a p e n a lty in case goods were n o t re tu rn e d w ith in th e
lim it w as v ery strong.
8. M an y in d irect in d icatio n s p o in t to th e conclusions t h a t th e pu b lic is far
m ore susceptible to consum er e d u catio n on store costs, services, a n d policies
th a n com m only supposed.

In co m e an d E x p en d itu re o f a L aborer’s F a m ily in B u e n o s
A ires in 1926

HE results of a recent survey made in Buenos Aires by the
National Labor Department of Argentina to ascertain the
average income and expenditure of a laborer’s family during
the year 1926 appear in the April, 1927, issue of Cronica Mensual
of Buenos Aires (pp. 1987-1991). The data were obtained from a
study of 700 families, including 2,772 persons.
The report states that the average earnings of the workman’s
family in 1926 were 1,995.17 paper pesos 1 as against 2,032.99 pesos

T

1All amounts are given in paper pesos, which are worth 44 per cent of the gold pesos, the average exchange
rate of which was 92.15 cents in 1926, making the paper peso equal 40.5 cents.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[918]

INCOME AND EXPENDITURE OF A LABORER’S FAMILY

203

in 1925 and 2,006.36 in 1924, while the average annual expenditure
per family in 1926 was 1,923.44 pesos, as against 1,976.17 in 1925
and 2,023.81 in 1924.
Of the 700 families investigated, 530 had balanced budgets, 135
had a surplus which averaged 500 pesos for the year, and 35 families
reported an average deficit of 502 pesos.
The following tables show the average income and expenditure of
the 700 laborers’ families in Buenos Aires in 1926, by means of support
and by number of persons in family. The exact distribution of the
“ other expenses” was not ascertainable. In the table showing the
average income and expenditure by number of persons in family
the last two columns were not given in the original report but have
been computed. There is a slight discrepancy in the average annual
expenditure as shown by the two tables.
T able 1.—A V ER A G E A N N U A L IN C O M E A N D E X P E N D IT U R E FOR 700 F A M IL IE S IN
B U E N O S A IR E S, B Y M E A N S OF SU P PO R T

[The average exchange value of the paper peso in 1926 was 40.5 cents]

Families supported
by—

N um ­ Average
ber of annual
fami­ income
lies
Pesos

1,785. 26
940. 71
1,845. 76

1, 756. 56
1,163. 78
1,885. 51

18

2,611.11

2, 440. 67

117

2, 871. 25

2, 689. 69

62
44

1,846.06
2,305. 84

1,852.18
2,174.48

1
14
23

2,280.00
2, 539. 28
1,361. 22

2,040.00
2,069. 57
1,244.87

more children....
One or more children..
Father and brother (or
One or more brothers..
Single m a n .............. .


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Families supported
by—

N um ­ Average
ber of annual
fami­ income
lies
Pesos

Pesos

250
28
115
Parents and one or
Father and one or

Average
annual
expendi­
tures

Single w o m a n --------Uncle and one or more
nephews__________
Grandfather and one
or more
grandchildren___________
One son-in-law . . . . .
Two unrelated persons.
One grandchild---------

[919]

Average (pesos).
Average (U. S.
currency).........

Average
annual
expendi­
tures
Pesos

17

758.71

764.47

4

2,835. 00

2, 250.00

4
1
1
1

2,248. 50
2,160. 00
3,600. 00
1, 200. 00

2,013.00
2, 016.00
2,400.00
1, 200.00

1,995.17

1,923.44

$808. 04

$778.99

204

MONTHLY LABOE EEVIEW

T able 2 .—A V ER A G E A N N U A L IN C O M E A N D E X P E N D IT U R E FO R 700 FA M IL IE S IN
B U EN O S A IR E S, B Y N U M B E R OF PE R SO N S IN FA M IL Y
[The average exchange value of the paper peso in 1926 was 40.5 cents]
Average annual expenditure for—
Number of persons in family

Husband and w ife.-.................................
Parents and one c h ild -....................... ___
Parents and two children____________
Parents and three children___________
Parents and four children.._____ _____
Parents and five children____________
Parents and six children_____________
Parents and six children and two grand­
parents___________________________
Parents and seven children___________
Parents and eight children___________
Parents and nine children____________
Parents and ten children_____________
Parents, one child, and one nephew___
Parents, one child, and two nephew s..
Parents, two children, and two nephews
Parents, two children, and one brotherin-law____________________________
Parents, tw o children, and mother-inlaw _______________________________
Parents, three children, and one
brother-in-law_____________________
Husband and wife and one nephew___
Husband and wife and tw o nephews__
Husband and wife and one godchild___
Husband and wife and brother-in-law..
Husband and wife and two brothers-inlaw __________ _____ _______________
Husband and wife and one grand­
daughter____ _____________________
Husband and wife and two grand­
daughters______________________
Husband and wife and mother-in-law..
Father and one child____ ____________
Father and two children______________
Father, two children, and one brotherin-law_____________________________
Father and three c h ild r e n ..._________
Father, three children, and daughter-inlaw _______________________________
Father and four children_____________
Mother and one child________________
Mother and two children_____________
Mother and three children____________
Mother and four children_____________
Mother and five children.. . . _________
Mother and six children______________
Mother and seven children___________
Mother and ten children_____________
Mother, one child, and son-in-law_____
Mother, one child, and one godchild___
Mother, one child, and one grandson__
Mother, two children, and three grand
children__________________________
Single m an______________ __________
Single wom an______________________
Two brothers_______________________
Two brothers and one child__________
Two brothers and one cousin________
Two brothers and two grandsons_____
Three brothers______________________
Four brothers__ ____ _______________
Uncle and two nephews_____________
Grandfather and two grandsons______
Two unrelated persons.................
Average (pesos)_________
Average (U . S. currency).


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Num Average
ber of
fam­ annual
ilies income

Food

Rent

Average
surplus
(+ ) or
Miscel­
defi­
All
laneous purposes
cit ( - )
items

Pesos

Pesos

107
77
92
98
57
29
15

1, 647. 53
1,898. 86
2,037. 91
2, 143. 10
2, 423. 47
2, 654. 76
2, 711. 60

Pesos

595. 51
756. 62
988. 04
1,141. 19
1,354. 74
1, 514. 48
1, 704. 00

Pesos

425. 94
433. 80
467. 73
449. 44
508. 15
578. 07
566. 40

Pesos

565. 74
561. 27
554. 61
480. 21
534. 53
508.14
517. 46

1, 587. 19
ij 751. 69
2, 010. 38
2, 070. 84
2, 397. 42
2, 600. 69
2, 787. 86

1
12
4
3
2
1
1
1

1, 980. 00
3, 025. 00
2, 548. 50
3, 040. 00
3, 990. 00
2, 400. 00
2,160. 00
2,160. 00

1,200. 00
1,170. 00
2, 010. 00
2, 080. 00
2, 760. 00
1,200. 00
1, 200. 00
1,440. 00

720. 00
675. 00
609. 00
424. 00
720. 00

60. 00
527. 50
390. 00
536. 00
510. 00
1, 200. 00
780. 00
180. 00
300. 00
420. 00

1, 980. 00
2, 372. 50
3, 009. 00
3,040. 00
3,990. 00
2,400. 00
2,160. 00
2,160. 00
2,400. 00

1

2, 400. 00

1,440. 00

420. 00

540. 00

1

1, 800. 00

1, 200. 00

360. 00

240. 00

1, 800. 00

1
1
1
1
3

2, 520. 00
2, 340. 00
2, 520. 00
1, 800. 00
1, 920. 00

1, 560. 00
900. 00
960. 00
840. 00
900. 00

900. 00
420. 00
600. 00
408. 00

60. 00
636. 00
960. 00
960. 00
492. 00

2, 520. 00
1,956. 00
2, 520. 00
1, 800. 00
1, 800. 00

1

2,160. 00

1, 080. 00

456. 00

624. 00

2,160. 00

Pesos

+60. 34
+ 147.17
+27. 53
+72. 26
+26. 05
+54.07
-7 6 . 26
+652. 55
-460. 50

+384. 00
+ 120. 00

1

1, 800. 00

720. 00

384. 00

696. 00

1, 800. 00

1
1
11
9

1,800. 00
1, 680. 00
1, 859. 45
2, 506. 67

960. 00
720. 00
632. 73
893. 33

432. 00
540. 00
400. 36
401. 33

408. 00
420. 00
624. 55
764. 00

1, 800. 00
1,680. 00
1,657. 64
2, 058. 66

+201. 81
+448. 01

1
5

2,280.00
2, 628. 00

960. 00
1,080. 00

300. 00
780. 00
403. 20 1, 084. 00

2, 040. 00
2, 567. 20

+240. 00
+60. 80

3, 690. 00
2, 235. 00
1, 321. 20
1, 848. 29
1, 861. 87
1, 981. 15
1, 322. 00
2, 640. 00
1 3, 360. 00
1 3,390. 00
1 2,160. 00
1 1, 080. 00
1 1, 320. 00

1, 440. 00
1, 500. 00
492. 00
734. 12
937. 50
1,107. 69
980. 00
1, 560. 00
1,920. 00
2,160. 00
720. 00
720. 00
720. 00

720. 00 1, 308. 00
420. 00
315. 00
398. 88
416. 88
402.18
571. 47
444. 75
526. 50
485. 77
428. 00
540. 00
302. 00
630. 00
450. 00
780. 00
660. 00
456. 00
234. 00
876. 00
420. 00
240. 00
120.00
312. 00
288. 00

3,468. 00
2,235. 00
1, 307. 76
1, 707. 77
1, 908. 75
2, 021. 46
1, 822. 00
2, 640. 00
3, 360. 00
2, 850. 00
2, 016. 00
1,080.00
1, 320. 00

+222. 0C

1, 200. 00
438. 26
243. 53
648. 00
1, 080. 00
900. 00
720. 00
936. 00
1, 200. 00
990. 00
630. 00
600. 00

540. 00
120. 00
342. 26
464. 35
309. 00
230. 12
403. 20
595. 20
288. 00
996. 00
540. 00 1, 080. 00
384. 00
216. 00
535. 20
769. 20
360. 00 1.140. 00
432. 00
840. 00
444. 00
288. 00
720. 00 1, 080. 00

1, 860. 00
1, 244. 87 +116. 35
782. 65
-23. 83
1, 646. 40 +633. 60
2, 364. 00 +756. 00
2, 520. 00 +720. 00
1, 320. 00 -240. 00
2,240. 40 +321. 60
2, 700. 00 +660. 00
2,262. 00 +978. 00
1,362. 00 - 222. 00
2, 400. 00 + 1,200.00

1
2
25
34
16
13
3

1
23
17
5
1
l
1
5
1
2
2
1

1, 860. 00
1, 361. 22
758. 82
2, 280. 00
3,120. 00
3, 240. 00
1, 080. 00
2, 562. 00
3, 360. 00
3, 240. 00
1,140. 00
3, 600. 00
1,995. 17
$808. 04

[920]

950. 23 452. 06
530. 84
$384. 84 £183. 08 J $214. 99

1, 933. 13
$782. 92

+13. 44
+140. 52
-46.88
-4 0 . 31
-500. 00
+540. 00
+ 144. 00

+62.04
+$25.13

LABOR AWARDS AND DECISIONS
Awards and Decisions
R a ilr o a d s ,

M a i n t e n a n c e - o f - W a y E m p lo y e e s — C h ic a g o
R a ilw a y C o .

&

N o r th

W e s te rn

N ARBITRATION award in a dispute between the maintenance-of-way employees and their employers, the Chicago &
North Western Railway Co., was made by a board of arbitra­
tion, consisting of William Walliser and C. H. Westbrook appointed
by the carrier, J. J. Farnan and E. E. Milliman named by the em­
ployees, and E. C. Davies and Homer B. Dibell named by the United
Stales Board of Mediation, August 15, 1927.
The brotherhood asked a uniform rate of increase of 5 cents per
hour. The carrier asked a decrease in the wages of some of the
employees and asked that no change be made in others.
The employees are divided into 22 groups, the wages awarded to
the various groups being as follows:
Bridge building—painter, construction, mason, and concrete
foremen: Rate of $172.50 per month unchanged.
Assistant, bridge building—painter, construction, mason, and con­
crete foremen: Rate of $160 per month changed to 5 cents per hour
in excess of the maximum rate paid in the gang supervised.
Carpenters and painters and leaders: Old rate, 57 cents to 69 cents
per hour. Those receiving 57, 58%, and 59% cents increased to 58%,
60, and 61 cents, respectively. Those receiving 61%, 62, 63, and 64%
cents were unchanged. Those receiving 69 cents are given 58%
cents with varying differentials.
Carpenter and painter helpers: Old rates of 48% to 67 cents per
hour increased one-half cent per hour. The 67-cent rate is abolished,
the one employee receiving it being given the minimum rate with a
differential.
Masons and mason leaders: Old rates 59% to 68% cents per hour;
the minimum rate is increased to 61 cents; other rates unchanged.
Mason helpers: Old rates, 48% and 51% cents per hour, increased
one-half cent.
Scale and bridge inspectors: Rate of 66 cents per hour unchanged.
Pile driver, ditching and hoisting engineers: Rates of $139.08 and
$159.08 per month unchanged.
Pile-driver firemen: Rate of $90.92 per month unchanged.
Track and section foremen and maintenance foremen: Rates $115
to $145 per month, increased $5 per month.
Assistant track and section foremen and assistant maintenance
foremen: Rates of 43, 45, and 49 cents per hour increased 1 cent per
hour.
Extra gang foremen: Rate of $140 per month increased $5 per
month.

A


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[921]

205

206

MONTHLY LABOE EEYIEW

Coal-chute foremen and coal-wharf and fence-gang foremen: Rate
of $110 per month unchanged.
Track and section laborers: Old rate, 38 cents per hour. New
rate, 37 cents to those employed less than one year;. 39 cents for one
to two years’ service; 41 cents for those who have served over two
years.
Extra gang laborers: Rate of 38 cents per hour changed to 35

cents.

Laborers other than track and roadway, maintenance of way,
and shop: Rate of 38 cents per hour unchanged.
Laborers, shops, engine houses, and power plants, coal-chute
laborers: Rate of 38 cents per hour unchanged.
Common laborers, shops, engine houses, power plants, and stores:
Rate of 38 cents per hour unchanged.
Lampmen: Old rates of $47.95 to $93.25 per month increased $1
per month.
Pumpers: Rates of $57.12 to $98.88 per month unchanged.
Drawbridge tenders and assistants: Rates of $70.92 to $85.92 un­

changed.

Crossing watchmen and flagmen: Rates of $40 to $135 per month
unchanged except that the minimum is $55.

The dissenting opinion filed by the arbitrators representing the
carrier was as follows:
Because of th e railw ay c o m p an y ’s d u ty to fu rn ish tra n s p o rta tio n efficiently
a n d econom ically, th e a d d itio n a l b u rd e n upon th o se p ay in g th e cost of tra n s ­
p o rta tio n w hich will re su lt from w age increases, th e railw ay c o m p a n y ’s h arassed
financial condition, th e fa c t t h a t it can em ploy a n ab u n d a n c e of la b o r fo r less
th a n it is now paying , th e fa c t t h a t its em ployees are now e arn in g m ore th a n
th e y could e arn in o th e r lines of w ork a n d m ore th a n like la b o r is receiving in
ag ricu ltu re or in d u stry , th e fa c t t h a t th e cost of living is declining a n d th a t
th ere is no econom ic ju stificatio n for a n y w age increases, we d issen t from th e
aw ard of th e m ajo rity .

A statement by the arbitrators representing the employees was as
follows:
In order to m ake th is a w ard possible, we v oted, in com prom ise, in fav o r of
th e increases g ra n te d only as a n im m ed iate m easure of relief. B u t we do n o t
consider th e increases g ra n te d as a d e q u a te or sufficient.
In our ju d g m e n t th e evidence in th e case am p ly su sta in e d th e co n te n tio n s for
increased wages for all em ployees, a n d red u ctio n s m ad e are in o u r opinion n o t
justified.
R a ilr o a d s — D e cis io n s of T r a in S e rv ic e B o a r d s o f A d j u s tm e n t

Eastern Region

rT'HE Train Service Board of Adjustment for the Eastern Region
1 has recently decided two cases in regard to the wage rates to be
applied in certain cases.
The first case was one on the New York Central Railroad, Docket
No. 379, decided July 26, 1927. The main line of the Erie division
crosses the main line of the Franklin division at Ashtabula. The
Ashtabula yards are practically 6 miles in length east and west and
8V2 miles in length north and south. The OD tower, an inter­
locking plant at the crossing of the roads, lies about 5 or 6 miles from
the southern end of the yard and about 2 miles from the eastern end

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[922]

LABOR AWARDS AND DECISIONS

207

of the yard. Tower W is at the western end of the yard, and Carson
at the southern end.

A crew assigned to the main-line service between Wesleyville and
Collinwood were ordered light out of Wesleyville and to pick up a
train of empties at Carson for Collinwood. They arrived at OD
tower at 12.51 p. m., at Carson at 1.40 p. m., left Carson at 2.56, and
passed tower W at 3.44 p. m.
The rule for conversion from through to local freight rates is as
follows:
(b) W ay freight, also crew s of o th e r freig h t tra in s w hich se t o u t or pick up
or han d le w ay fre ig h t a t fo u r o r m ore sta tio n s or do sw itch in g a t a n y one p o in t
en ro u te in excess of 1 h o u r a n d 45 m in u tes will be p aid local ra te s.
N ote 1.— T im e of sw itching to begin a t tim e of a rriv a l a n d te rm in a te a t
tim e of d e p a rtu re from th e sta tio n . P a ra g ra p h (6) does n o t a p p ly in in itial or
te rm in a l te rrito ry or to th e se ttin g o u t of b ad -o rd er cars en ro u te.

The members of the crew claimed that they were in Ashtabula
over 1 hour and 45 minutes and that Note 1 was applicable to their
case, and demanded pay at local rates.

The position of the management and the decision of the board
were as follows:
Position o f m anagem ent.— T h e m an a g e m e n t co n ten d s th a t in figuring th e tim e
to d eterm in e w h eth er local ra te should be applied, only th e tim e consum ed a t
th e p o in t w here w ork is a c tu a lly p erform ed should be ta k e n in to co n sid eratio n ,
as i t w ould be necessary fo r th e crew to m ake th e ru n betw een O D to w er a n d
tow er W even h a d th e y m ad e no stop.
O ur records show t h a t crews in freig h t service m ak in g sto p s a t A sh ta b u la a n d
C arson h ave con sisten tly claim ed se p a ra te stops a t each p o in t u n d e r th e fourstop provision of th e conversion ru le a n d have been allow ed local p a y on t h a t
basis w hen fo u r stops in th e ag g reg ate w ere m ad e on a n y trip .
T h ere have been som e claim s m ad e by crews on th e basis of th e com bined
tim e a t A sh tab u la an d C arson being over 1 h our a n d 45 m in u tes, b u t th e y have
been con sisten tly declined.
.
D ecision.— In a sm u c h as th e m an ag e m en t concedes t h a t a crew doing w ork a t
W est or H a rb o r Y ard s w ould if d elay ed over 1 h o u r a n d 45 m in u tes b etw een
a rriv a l a t O D tow er a n d d e p a rtu re a t W to w er be p aid local ra te , th e b o ard
decides th e claim is sustained.

The other case was on the Boston & Maine Railroad, where a
trainman ordinarily ended his work at 3.08 p. m., but on Saturday
made an additional run ending Sunday morning at 1.15. He was
paid for Saturdays, holidays, and the day before holidays on the
basis of two days’ pay. Rule 18 of the trainmen’s agreement reads
in part as follows:
E ffective Ju n e 1, 1924, w hen th e m o n th ly earn in g s of reg u larly assigned p a s­
senger tra in m e n from daily g u a ra n ty , m ileage, overtim e, a n d o th e r rules do n o t
produce th e follow ing av erag e a m o u n ts p er d a y , th e y will be p aid fo r each d ay
service is perform ed: B aggagem en h an d lin g express, $5.50; baggagem en, $5.16;
and b rak em en , $5.

The question arose as to how many days a month the trainman
worked. The committee contended that he worked 30 days a month
and actually performed service every day of the month and the fact
that his Sunday assignment started before midnight should not
deprive him of the benefits of a 30-day month.
The management contended that his daily mileage was 99.1 miles,
increased Saturday co 227.66 miles. The carrier stated that it was
its practice to date all time slips filed by men in engine, train, and
yard service using the date on which the service commenced.

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[923]

208

MONTHLY LABOE EEVIEW

T h e S a tu rd a y tr ip is n o t a S u n d ay assig n m en t sim ply because it extends
b ey o n d m id n ig h t S a tu rd a y 1 h o u r a n d 15 m inutes. T h ere a re n u m erous S a tu r­
d a y assignm ents in passenger service w hich ex ten d b eyond m id n ig h t in to S unday,
b u t th e y a re considered a p o rtio n of th e S a tu rd a y a ssig n m en t ex actly th e sam e as
th o u g h a n y o th e r w eek -d ay a ssig n m en t w as co m pleted a fte r m id n ig h t, w hen it
w ould be recognized w ith o u t q u estio n a s a n assig n m en t of th e p revious day.
T h e ru n a d v ertise d covers w eek-day tra in s only. H is assig n m en t w as, th e re ­
fore, one to be p aid fo r on th e basis of 26 d ay s a m o n th .
W e co n ten d t h a t M r. T . d id n o t h av e a S u n d ay assig n m en t a n d t h a t a S unday
assig n m en t is one w hich com m ences betw een 12.01 a. m. S u n d ay a n d m id n ig h t
S unday n ig h t, a n d t h a t th e m eth o d of p a y m e n t fo r filling a S a tu rd a y assig n m en t
has n o th in g to do w ith th e daily g u a ra n ty of a n y o th e r d a y th a n S a tu rd a y , a n d
t h a t M r. T . h as been p ro p erly p aid u n d e r th e rules, as follows: 22 d a y s a t “$4.70,
$103.40; 4 d a y s a t $9.75, $39; a to ta l of $142.40.
T h e m o n th ly g u a ra n ty of $141 being earn ed in th e 26-day period, a n y S u n d ay
assig n m en t in volving e x tra service p erform ed by M r. T. w ould be p aid en tirely
o u tsid e of th e m o n th ly g u a ra n ty .
Decision.— W ith _th e u n d e rsta n d in g th a t no p reced en t is estab lish ed th e re b y ,
th e b o a rd decides in th is p a rtic u la r case t h a t com p en satio n should be b ased on
daily earn in g g u a ra n ty for 30 d ay s p er m onth.

Western Region

"THREE decisions were made by the Train Service Board of Adjust­
ment for the Western Region May 11 , 1927, relative to the pay
engineers and firemen are to receive when held at the away-fromhome terminal, interpreting article 27 of the agreement made between
the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Coast Line and the
Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers and Brotherhood of Locomo­
tive Firemen and Enginemen. Article 27 reads in part as follows:
E ngineers, firem en, a n d helpers in pool freig h t a n d in unassigned service held
a t o th e r th a n hom e te rm in a l will be p aid co n tin u o u s tim e for all tim e so held
a fte r th e ex p iratio n of 16 ho u rs from th e tim e relieved fro m p rev io u s d u ty , a t
th e reg u lar ra te p er h o u r p aid th e m for th e la s t service p erform ed. If held 16
hours a fte r th e ex p iratio n of th e first 24-hour period, th e y will be p aid co n tin u o u s
tim e fo r th e n e x t succeeding 8 hours, or u n til th e end of th e 24-hour period, a n d
sim ilarly for each 24-hour p eriod th e re a fte r.

In decision No. 2391 an engineer and fireman had stopped at
Barstow, the away-from-home terminal in unassigned passenger
service. They were held there for 25 hours and were paid for 8 hours
at passenger overtime rate. They made claim for payment at 1%
passenger day in accordance with the statement in the last line of
the first sentence of article 27 above quoted. The management
refused to pay the higher rate on the ground that it never had
done so.

The board sustained the claim.
In decision No. 2392 the engineer and fireman were held at Seligman, the away-from-home terminal in unassigned passenger service,
for 23 hours and 50 minutes, when they went, underpay, deadheading
back to the home terminal. They were paid for 7 hours and 50
minutes at passenger overtime rate. They claimed pay at one-fifth
of the daily passenger rate. Their claim was sustained by the board.
Decision No. 2393 was an exact duplicate of the preceding except
that the time held was 23 hours and 25 minutes. The decision was
the same as in the two preceding cases.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[924]

LABOR AWARDS AND DECISIONS

209

R a ilw a y C le rk s— W a b a s h R a ilw a y C o .

AUGUST 17, 1927, a decision in the dispute between the Brotherhood of Railway and Steamship Clerks, Freight Handlers,
Express and Station Employees and the Wabash Railway Co. was
made by a board of arbitration consisting of S. E. Cotter, appointed by
the carrier, George M. Harrison, selected by the brotherhood, and Fred
L. Williams, appointed by the United States Board of Mediation.
The award was as follows:
T his aw ard shall be m ad e effective as of A ugust 16, 1927, a n d th e increases in
ra te s of p ay g ra n te d herein shall be a d d ed to th e ra te s in effect A u gust 15, 1927.
S ec tio n 1. All clerks, etc., desig n ated in ru le 1, section 1, of th e schedule
effective M ay 1, 1924,
cen ts p er hour.
S e c . 2. All em ployees in ru le 1, sections 2 a n d 3, of th e schedule effective M ay 1,
1924, com m only know n as sta tio n em ployees, in cluding such as baggage-room
em ployees, callers, w atch m en , ja n ito rs, etc., 2 cen ts p er hour.
S e c . 3. All em ployees in ru le 1, sections 2 a n d 3, of th e schedule effective
M ay 1, 1924, such as m essengers, chore boys, a n d th o se engaged in asso rtin g
w aybills, etc., n o t req u irin g clerical a b ility , 2 cen ts p e r hour.
S e c . 4. E m ployees w ith o u t p revious clerical experience as a clerical w orker h ere­
a fte r en terin g th e service a n d filling positions of clerk or m ach in e o p e ra to r shall
be p aid as follow s: F irst six m o n th s $2.35 p er day , second six m o n th s $3.19J4
per day, a n d th e re a fte r shall be p a id th e estab lish ed full ra te of p a y fo r th e
position occupied.
_
.
S e c . 5. F reig h t han d lers as generally d esig n ated in ru le 1, schedule fo r freig h t
h andlers, effective M ay 1, 1924, 23^ cen ts p er hour.
S e c . 6. T h e follow ing differentials shall be m a in ta in e d b etw een fre ig h t h an d lers
a n d th e classes nam ed below : (a) Sealers, scalers, a n d fru it a n d p erish ab le inspec­
to rs, 3 cents p er h o u r above th e ra te s for tru c k e rs; (b) stow ers, stevedores, callers,
etc., 4 cents p er h o u r ab o v e th e ra te s for tru ck ers.

T rade A g r eem e n ts in 1926

HE Bureau of Labor Statistics has just issued as Bulletin No. 448
a compilation of trade or collective agreements for the year
1926. This is the third compilation of its kind made by the
bureau. The present bulletin, however, is somewhat broader in
scope through the inclusion of railroad agreements, which had been
omitted previously owing to their length.
Since 1912 the bureau has made an effort to collect agreements
made in the leading industries. The number of agreements made
annually is not known, as most of them are not printed. In fact,
probably the majority of them are not reduced to writing, but are
simply verbal understandings. That the number of agreements made
must be very large is evidenced by the fact that the bureau has a
collection of 17,000 copies, having received over 1,500 during the
current year. It is evident that only a small percentage of them
can appear in a bulletin of this character.
The constitutions of the international organizations frequently
contain clauses required to be inserted in all agreements made by
unions under their jurisdiction. As many locals insert these and
other items in their own constitutions it occasionally happens that
the by-laws and constitution of a local contain all that elsewhere
appears in written agreements. In fact the observance of the by­
laws by an employer is occasionally the only agreement required, and
failure on his part to observe the by-laws results in the loss of his
help.

T


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[925]

210

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

Sometimes the agreement requires the employer to observe the
rules, by-laws, or constitution of the union, and occasionally such
observance is not required. Some agreements read as if they were a
promise made by the employer.
There is no uniform method of making agreements. The less
formal are made by a local and presented to the employers for accept­
ance. Others are made by the national officers of the union, by
delegates, by large sections of the unions, by district councils, or
by small groups of locals in a city and its vicinity, or by the locals
or their officials, acting in accordance with the vote of the local made
in general meeting as to what it desires to have inserted in the next
agreement. In some cases, a local is not allowed to make a demand
on employers without first securing the approval of its national
officers. In other cases a representative of the national board aids
in the drawing up of the agreement. As a matter of fact, in a major­
ity of cases the new agreement is merely a slightly revised copy of
the old and the bargaining is over the insertion or the revision of
a few items.
The agreement, after being made, is generally returned to the local
for approval. It is accepted or rejected in open meeting after hear­
ing the report of the officers. If rejected, it is returned to the officers
for further consideration. If accepted, it is signed by the proper
officers—president, secretary, business agent, or a committee—and in
many cases sent to the national officers for their approval. In the
meantime the agreement is being examined by the employers, for
frequently it has been drawn up by a joint committee representing
both employees and employers, and its exact wording is often a
compromise between the two parties. If satisfactory the agreement
is signed by the individual employers or by some one designated by
them if they act collectively. In one case the agreement is signed by
each member of the union.
The agreements are generally executed in duplicate, one copy beingretained by the employer and one by the local. A third copy is some­
times made and filed with the national organization. In many cases
these two or three copies are the only evidence of the contract. In
some cases, however, the union prints the agreement and gives a copy
of it to each member. Oftentimes the employers also print copies for
their own use. The railroads very generally print copies for the use
of their employees and officials. Sometimes the agreements are
posted on the walls of the shop.
In a few cases the national organization issues a general form of
contract with blank spaces for hours of work, wages, and a few other
items that vary with the different unions. Such forms also serve as
models for locals which print their own agreements.
From these various printed copies and a few typewritten copies
furnished where the agreement has not been printed the present
bulletin has been prepared.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[926]

COLONIZATION
C o lo n iz a tio n Scheme in A rg en tin a

N ACCOUNT of a novel and recent colonization project in
Argentina which was submitted by railway representatives
and which has met with the approval of President Alvear
and the Minister of Agriculture, appears in the September, 1927,
issue of the Pan American Union Bulletin (pp. 900-902).
The railway companies of Argentina are to form an organization
to be known as the Consorcio Ferroviario de Colonización for the
purpose of colonizing the lands served by their systems and of develop­
ing the large tracts of agricultural land. A board elected by the
associated railway companies is to manage this organization, whose
object will be to bring families direct from abroad for the purpose of
land settlement. Each railway company is to retain the manage­
ment of the colonies within its own particular jurisdiction and will
select and purchase the lands to be colonized as well as provide the
necessary funds. The companies will contribute to the capital in
proportion to the mileage of their lines.
The price charged the colonists for the land shall not exceed its
cost price plus the improvements, value of the buildings, installations,
etc., plus 10 per cent of the total sum, which is to serve as a reserve
fund for incidental expenses. The colonists may purchase the land
on a long-term part-payment plan. To families coming from abroad
who may not have sufficient funds to defray the working expenses
for the first year, the organization will advance a sum sufficient to
purchase necessary equipment.
Each colony is to organize cooperative societies for the sale of
provisions, etc., in order to supply the colonists with cheap clothing,
groceries, and the like.
As each colony becomes sufficiently well settled an urban center
is to be organized which will include a church, school, police station,
building for the cooperative society, etc.
The article concludes as follows:

A

I n v ie w o f A r g e n tin a ’s in c r e a s in g n e e d of in t e llig e n t , c a p a b le , a n d t h r if t y
c o lo n is t s fo r t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f h e r e n o r m o u s e x t e n s io n o f a g r ic u ltu r a l la n d
w h ic h if s a tis fie d w o u ld g o fa r to w a r d s o lv in g t h e l a t if u n d ia p r o b le m
th e o u t­
c o m e o f t h i s l a t e s t c o lo n iz a t io n s c h e m e , w h ic h a p p e a r s t o b e e n t ir e ly p r a c tic a b le
a n d p r o m is in g , w ill b e fo llo w e d w ith c lo s e a t t e n t i o n _b y a ll in t e r e s t e d in t h e
p r o g r e s s o f t h a t y o u n g c o lo s s u s in t h e P a n A m e r ic a n f a m ily o f n a tio n s A r g e n tin a .


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

211

[927]

IMMIGRATION AND EMIGRATION
S ta tis tic s o f Im m ig r a tio n for J u ly , 1927
By J. J. K u n n a , C h ie f S t a t ist ic ia n U n it e d S t a te s B u r e a u

of

I m m ig ration

LIENS admitted to the United States in the first month of the
new fiscal year beginning July 1, 1927, totaled 39,393. This
is 5,440 less than the average admitted during the preceding
12 months. There was, however, a large outward movement of
passengers in July last, 27,739 aliens having left here during the
month, or 6,613 above the monthly average number of alien depar­
tures for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1927.
Many Americans responded to the lure of strange countries dur­
ing the latter part of June and the first part of July, when the vaca­
tion exodus to Europe is at its height. The statistics for the two
months show that 51,379 United States citizens left the country in
June and 65,686 in July. The women outnumbered the men among
these departures, the females comprising 60,254 and the males 56,811
of the 117,065 citizens leaving here during June and July, 1927.
The vast majority of these citizens were destined to Europe via
New York, 94,390, or four-fifths of the total for the two months,
having embarked at that port. July, 1927, also saw the return of
many of these tourists, 29,935 American citizens having arrived
during this month.
Deportations in July, 1927, show an increase over the previous
two months, but still below the monthly average of 972 for the
fiscal year ended June 30, 1927, only 700 aliens having been deported
from the United States under warrant proceedings during July last.
Over 67 per cent of the July deportees came in over the international
land boundaries, 318 entering from Canada and 154 from Mexico,
the remaining 228 having gained admission to the United States at
the seaports; nearly four-fifths of the total were surreptitious entries.
Aliens debarred from entering the United States during July last
numbered 2,002, but only 268 of these were rejected at the seaports
of entry. The other 1,734 aliens were refused admission at points
along the land border, 1,514 having been turned back to Canada
and 220 to Mexico. At New Uork, our principal seaport and where
the bulk of the immigration from overseas continues to land, 18,110
aliens sought admission during the month, of whom 92 were debarred,
or about 5 out of every thousand applicants; and most of these
rejected were stowaways and seamen seeking permanent admission
to the United States without first having obtained visas from Ameri­
can consuls. During the flood-tide immigration before tne World
War, when the annual immigration passed the million mark, the ratio

A

212

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[ 928 ]

STATISTICS OF IMMIGRATION FOR JU L Y , 1927

2 13

of rejections at the same port was over 16 per thousand seeking
admission.
Of the 39,393 aliens of all classes admitted under the immigration
act of 1924 during July last, 46 per cent, or 18,018, entered at New
York and 6,197 at the other seaports, 8,210 came in over the northern
land boundary, and 6,968 at points along the Rio Grande. Of the
8,210 aliens admitted from Canada, 6,182, or 75.3 per cent, were
natives of that country; 1,830 were born in European countries,
principally Great Britain and Ireland; and 198 in other countries.
Of the aliens entering the United States from Mexico during the
same month, numbering 6,968, over 96 per cent, or 6,737, were born
in Mexico; 105 were natives of Germany, Great Britain, Spain,
and other European countries; and 126 of China and other countries.
Of the July admissions, 13,656 were recorded under section 4-c of
the act as natives of nonquota countries. Mexico, with 6,706, was
the largest contributor of this class of aliens; while Canada sent
5,838; Central and South America, 545; the West Indies, 395; and
Newfoundland, 172. Admissions during July under the act of 1924
also included 6,962 aliens of the class charged to the quota; while
6,099 came in as residents of the United States returning from a
temporary sojourn abroad; 6,560 visitors for business or pleasure;
and 2,669 were in continuous passage through the United States on
their way elsewhere. The remaining admissions this month included,
among others, 2,397 wives and children of United States citizens and
548 Government officials, their families, attendants, servants, and
employees.
Canada, Mexico, Germany, Italy, Great Britain, Poland, and the
Irish Free State, in the order named, were the principal countries
from which the newcomers came during July, 1927, over four-fifths
of the total immigrant aliens admitted this month coming from these
seven countries. The same proportion of the permanent July de­
partures were destined to Europe, 7,559 out of a total of 9,230
emigrant aliens for July giving countries on that continent as their
future homes.
T able

IN W A R D A N D O U TW ARD PA SSE N G E R M O V E M E N T D U R IN G T H E FISCAL
Y E A R E N D E D JU N E 30, 1927, A N D D U R IN G T H E M O N T H OF JU LY, 1927

1 .—

Outward

Inward

Period

Aliens
Aliens departed
de­
Aliens admitted
U nited
barred
U nited
States
from
States
Total
citizens
Total
enter­
citizens
NonN on­
ing i Em i­ emi­ T o ta l2 de­
ar­
Immi­ imm
i­
Total
parted
grant2
rived
grant grant
grant2

Aliens
de­
ported
after
land­
in g 2

F isc a l year
ended June
30, 1927____ 335,175 202, 826 538,001 378,520 916,521 19, 755 73, 366 180,142 253, 508 369, 788 623, 296 11,662
July, 1927____ 23,420 15, 973 39,393

29, 935 69, 328

2,002 9,230 18, 509 27, 739

65,686 93,425

1 N ot included among inward numbers, as they were not permitted to enter the United States.
2 Deported aliens are included among the emigrant or the nonemigrant aliens.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[929]

700

214

MONTHLY LABOK REVIEW

T a b l e 3 .—IM M IG R A N T A L IE N S A D M IT T E D TO A N D E M IG R A N T A L IE N S D E P A R T E D

FR O M T H E U N IT E D ST A T ES D U R IN G T H E FISCAL Y E A R E N D E D JU N E 30, 1927, A N D
D U R IN G T H E M O N TH OF JU LY, 1927, BY RACE OR P E O P L E , SE X , A N D AGE GROUPS
Immigrant

Emigrant

Race or people

African (black)..........................................................................
Armenian________ __________________________ _____
Bohemian and Moravian (Czech)___________________
Bulgarian, Serbian, and M ontenegrin_____________ __
Chinese_____. . . . _____ ______ _______________
Croatian and Slovenian________ _______ ______ _____
Cuban_____________ _____ __ ___________
_
Dalmatian, Bosnian, and Herzegovinian____________
Dutch and Flem ish_____ _____________________ .
East Indian. ________ _____________________
_______________ _
English . . _________
Finnish________________________ .
French________________________________ .
G e r m a n ..______ _ ______________ __
Greek..
...
. ____
H e b r e w _______________ . ______ .
Irish . . . . ___ __________
Italian (north)____
_______________
Italian (south)____________ _______
Japanese__________________ _______
Korean______________ _______ _
Lithuanian__ . . . . . . . ______ _ _
Magyar___________________ _________
M exican___ ____ _________
Pacific Islander_____ ________ ___________
Polish____________________________
Portuguese__________________ .
Rumanian___________________
Russian_________________________ _.
Ruthenian (Russniak) _____
_______
Scandinavian (Norwegians, Danes, and Sw edes)_____
Scotch . __________________
Slovak. .............................
Spanish
Spanish American______________
Syrian____ _______________
Turkish___________________
W elsh________ . ______ .
West Indian (except Cuban)______________ .
Other peoples__________________________

Fiscal year
1927

July, 1927

Fiscal year
1927

955
983
2,406
600
1,051
821
1,919
69
3,125
51
40,165
629
19,313
56,587
2,557
11,483
44, 726
2,637
15, 892
660
47
549
1,049
66, 766
8
4, 249
843
422
1,249
445
19,235
25,544
1,017
1, 065
3,185
684

83
117
62
38
53
58
281
5
211
2
3,250
31
1,537
2,190
256
1,061
1,980
221
1,359
37
3
12
81
6,626

870
51
1, 724
L 592
4,117
'251
980
380
1,005
83
7,449
577
1,761
5,515
3,140
224
1,432
2; 209
15,627
1,148
52
331
946
2, 774

285
79
25

2,725
2,363

121

July, 1927

59
6
230
149
260
21
144
14
143
6
1,177
141
427
1,175
204
22
228
287
1,509
74
3
94
120

293

7

754
129
83
79
5
357
332
67
338

1 ,2 0 1

112

12

1,300
381
396

131
31
30

510
19
3,678
1,930
693
2, 781
1, 792
203
166
65
754
241

335,175

23,420

73,366

9, 230

Male____ ________ ___________
Female._ ________________ ____

194,163
141,012

12, 903
10, 517

51, 536
21,830

5,607
3, 623

Under 16 years________________________
16 to 44 years___
___________ _______
45 years and over__________________ _____

51, 689
254, 574
28, 912

4,334
16, 757
2,329

2,986
54,217
16,163

6

T otal______________________ ____


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

16
817
1,578
185
127
346
83

212

15
30
10
22
11

400
, 553
2,277

215

STATISTICS OF IMMIGRATION FOR JU L Y , 1927

T a b l e 3 . — LAST P E R M A N E N T R E SID E N C E OF IM M IG R A N T A L IE N S A D M IT T E D TO

A N D I N T E N D E D F U T U R E P E R M A N E N T R E S ID E N C E OF E M IG R A N T A L IE N S D E ­
P A R T E D FR O M T H E U N IT E D ST A TES D U R IN G T H E FISCAL Y E A R E N D E D JU N E
30, 1927, A N D D U R IN G T H E M O N T H OF JU LY, 1927, B Y C O U N TR Y
[Residence for a year or more is regarded as permanent residence]
Emigrant

Immigrant
Country

Fiscal year
1927

July, 1927

Fiscal year
1927

243
1,016
764

16
59
38
16
269

237
468
482
130
2, 276

222

3,540
223
2,505
139
438
4,405
48, 513
Great Britain and Northern Ireland:

9,990
491
, 611
1,068
2, 089
813
28,054
17, 297
403
770

6

536
14
536
1,637
4, 748

21

226
1, 649
520
14
411
114

12

221

73
738
1,521
8

4,994
165
1,441
44
3,130
841
1,049
17, 759
21

4
90
72
9
302
85
1

129
476
960
876
1

256
5
200

105
207
1, 787
5
85

50
4
91
157
786

314
13
456
1, 786
2,650
2,347
1,248
239
2,178
1,115
594
24
1,911
13

124
87
53
286
158
127

216
1, 190
388

52
81
128
46
323
113
55
70
25

168, 368

8,028

55,402

7,559

13
1, 471

5
109
7
43
62

20

111

1, 733
, 068
9, 211

6

Portugal, including Azores, Cape Verde, and Madeira

10

114
9

July, 1927

567
1, 270
1,183
429
8,287
2 ,1 2 1

1

165
6

2

267
13
80

29

4,179
126
1,205
142
33
185
74
43

325

6,007

421

7,180
143
, 723
389

1,953
487
2, 957
1,598
2,134

233
97
317
163
146

102

723
464
33
590
60
213

68
2

3, 669
81. 506
3, 074
67, 721
3,020
999
108
1, 663
1,089

2

67
85
743

6

88
6

20

10

4
14
23
8

2

98

187
55
213

701
209
1,244

124

161, 872

14, 984

11, 303

1,192

228
292
464
248
34

15
24
32
9
3

28
84
379
129
34

32
18

2 ,6 8 8

12

4
Total, America...............................................................

Total, others........ ............ ............................................-


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[931*5

8

, 266

83

654

58

335,175

23,420

73,366

9, 230

1

216

MONTHLY LABOE EEVIEW

T able 4 —A L IE N S A D M IT T E D TO T H E U N IT E D ST A T ES U N D E R T H E IM M IG R A T IO N
ACT OF 1924 D U R IN O T H E M O N T H OF JU LY, 1927, B Y C O U N T R Y OR A R EA OF
B IR T H
[Quota immigrant aliens are charged to the quota; nonimmigrant and nonquota immigrant aliens are
not charged to the quota]

Admitted

Annual
quota

Country or area of birth

Albania__________________ ____ _
Andorra _ _ ........................................
Austria....... ...... ..........................
B elgium ................ ....................................
B ulgaria,__ _ _________ ____
Czechoslovakia— _________
Danzig, Free C ity of_________________
Denmark______________
Estonia _____________ _
Finland_____ ________
F r a n c e ,___ ________ _
Germany_________ _______
Great Britain and Northern Ireland:
E n glan d ._ ____________
Northern Ireland __ ........ ......._■
Scotland____ _________
W a le s _________________
Greece____________________
______________
Hungary
Iceland
_________________
Irish Free State. __________
I t a l y ........ ...................................
L a tv ia .. ............................
Liechtenstein_____________ _
L ith u a n ia ................. ..............
L uxem burg.. ____________
Monaco ............... ......................
Netherlands_______________
Norway . ..................................
Poland ___________ _____
Portugal___________ _________
R u m a n ia .................. .........
R u s s i a . . .......... ..............
San Marino . ______ _____
S p a in .. _____________
Sweden______________
Switzerland . . . _ ________
Turkey in Europe .
_____
Yugoslavia........................ .........
Other Europe .........................
Total, EuroDe.

Nonim mi­
grant and
nonquota
immigrant

July, 1927

July, 1927

100
100

Total
during
July, 1927

12

785
i 512

- --

45

165
31
455

100

3,073
228
i 2, 789
124
471
i 3, 954
51, 227
]

194

i 34, 007

|

261

119
9

1

\

860
620

17
1,208

2,917

2,398
43

3,258
132
196

100

473
100

28,567
i 3,845
142

4

1

3,108

1,272
3,342

100

344

18

100
100

1

i 1,648
6 ,453
i 503
603
i 2,248

1

286
1,081
24

143

167

132

767
605
262
108
161

12,877

19, 616

100

i 131
9. 561
i

100

671
0

______

1

Afghanistan..............................
Arabia______________
Armenia____________
B hutan____ ________ ____
C h in a ... _____________
India . . ..........................
Iraq (M esopotamia)_____
Japan____
... _
M uscat................ ............
N ep a l_________
Palestine__________
Persia_______ .
Siam ..............................
Syria____________
Turkey in Asia _____
Other Asia.....................

29

)

161,422
100
100

1

9

28

76
9

632
82
36
608

47

61

100

100
100
100

14

100

1

11
112

C1)
(l)

Total, A sia...................
m -n in»

Quota
immigrant

26
1, 564

,

1 688

U0ta/ 0r c.o loni?s> dependencies, or protectorates in Other Europe, Other Asia Other Africa


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[932]

217

STATISTICS OF IMMIGRATION FOll JU L Y , 1927

T able 4 —A L IE N S A D M IT T E D TO T H E U N IT E D ST A T ES U N D E R T H E IM M IG R A T IO N
A C T OF 1924 D U R IN G T H E M O N T H OF JU LY, 1927, B Y C O U N T R Y OR A R EA OF
B IR T H —Continued

Admitted

Annual
quota

Country or area of birth

Cameroon (B ritish)_______
Cameroon (F r e n c h )___ _
E gyp t________________________
E thiopia________ _
Liberia, ______
M orocco____
Ruanda and U r u n d i...
South A frica.-.
South W est A frica .-Tanganyika___
Togoland (B ritish)..
Togoland (French) „
Other Africa........

Nonim mi­
grant and
nonquota
immigrant

July, 1927

July, 1927

7

16

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
■ (»)

Total, Africa_____
Australia_______
Nauru . .
____
N ew Zealand
N ew Guinea______
Samoa______
Z ap ... _______
Other Pacific_____ .
Total, Pacific.-

Quota
immigrant

5

4

9

18

43

61

3

5

8

33

68

101

121
100
ICO
100
100
100

19

451

470

7

158

165

1

3
5
4

5

621

C anada.. .
N ew foundland..
M exico___
Cuba
Dominican Republic
H aiti_________
British W est Indies..
Dutch W est Indies..
French W est Indies.

27

» 3Ì
(>)
0)

British Honduras . .
Canal Zone
Other Central America.

11

Brazil. . .
BritishGuiana___
D utch Guiana______
French Guiana . .
Other South America___

»7
0)

0)

Greenland___
Miquelon and St. P ier r e...

(>)

164,667

3
5

621

648

6,719
324
7,026
1,537
129
37
457
14
3

6,719
324
7,026
1, 537
129
37
488
14
3

13
3
368

14
3
368

137
15
2

137
22
2

511

511

6

6

39

17, 301

17,340

3 6, 962

32,431

39, 393

0)

Total, America___
Grand total, all countries. . .

23

1,200 |

0)
_.

Total
during
July, 1927

O(1hi?Panifl(lU otauf9 r C A0l0ni®S’ dependencies, or protectorates in Other Europe, Other Asia, Other Africa,
b e lo n g 0 7 1 nta l r \ A ^ eQ
riC? ls. lncl':lde<1 with the annual quota for the European country to which they
kejon,£’*. Q u o te for Turkey m Asia is included w ith that ior Turkey in Europe.
1 Q9 7
vi??:s ? ere issi}S? during the latter part of the fiscal year ended June 30,
wfth L tu a l nationality.6 S e f ^ e i l f o f the^act^
0“ 11^ f°r qU° ta PUrp° SeS doeS not always coincide

63952°—27----- 15

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MONTHLY LABOE REVIEW

T able 5 .—A L IE N S A D M IT T E D TO T H E U N IT E D ST A T ES U N D E R T H E IM M IG R A T IO N
A C T OF 1924 D U R IN G T H E FISC A L Y E A R E N D E D JU N E 30, 1927, A N D D U R IN G T H E
M O N T H OF JU L Y , 1927, B Y S P E C IF IE D CLASSES
[The number of immigrants appearing in this table and in Table 4 is not comparable w ith the number of
statistical immigrant aliens shown in the other tables, by races, countries, States, and occupations]
Fiscal
year 1927 July, 1927

Class

N onim m igrants

Temporary visitors for—

5,683

548

22, 515
37, 993
28,312

1,201

1,662
4,898
2,669
97

95,704

9,874

i 10,084
i 8,421
95,910

11,236
i 1,161
6,099

2158,657

2 13,656
85
26
64
29
60

N onquota im m igrants

Nativks ”of"danada,' Newfoundland, Mexico, Cuba, Haiti, Dominican Republic,

i 889
1 189
595
338
721
138
40

21

1,833
4,514
887
980

10

T otal------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------- ----- -----------

284, 227

6
2
112
4
6
8
3

22, 557

158, 070

6,962

538,001

39,393

1 W ives, and children under 18 years of age, born in quota countries.
2 Does not include aliens born in nonquota countries who were admitted under the act as Government
officials, visitors, etc.

Restriction upon Immigration into Mexico 1
HE immigration into Mexico of laborers from Syria, Lebanon,
Armenia, Palestine, Arabia, and Turkey is forbidden, according
to the provisions of an executive order issued on July 8, 1927,
any person who upon arrival in the country does not possess at least
10,000 pesos 2 being considered a laborer.
The order states that immigrants from most of the above-men­
tioned countries declare on their passports that they are farm laborers,
but upon their arrival they do not engage in this work. Their
activities are not of a productive nature, but consist largely of money
lending or street peddling with practically no capital. The Mexican
Government feels justified, therefore, in prohibiting the admission of
these aliens during the last quarter of 1927 as well as during the years
1928 and 1929.
The following are exempt from the foregoing restrictions: Husbands
and wives of those who have been lawfully admitted, as well as their
ascendants and descendants, provided that the latter have an honest
means of livelihood and are in a good financial position.

T

1 Mexico. Diario Oficial, Mexico City, July 15,1927, p. 1.
T he exchange rate of the peso in 1926= 48.31 cents.

2


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[934]

ACTIVITIES OF STATE LABOR BUREAUS
A MONG the labor activities of State bureaus the following,
reported either directly by the bureaus themselves or through
the medium of their printed reports, are noted in the present issue
of the Labor Review:
California.—Report on changes in number of employees and in
amount of weekly pay roll in 736 industrial establishments, page 153.
Hawaii.—Report of Industrial Accident Board of the City and
County of Honolulu, page 65.
Illinois.—Coal-mine accidents in 1926, page 60; and report on
changes in employment and earnings in factories in the State, page 155.
Iowa.—Changes in volume of employment, page 157.
Maryland.—Changes in volume of employment in certain indus­
tries in that State, page 158.
Massachusetts.—Work of minimum wage division of State Department of Labor and Industries, page 33; and changes in volume of
employment in various industries, page 158.
New Jersey.-—Changes in volume of employment and pay roll in
855 establishments, page 160.
Ohio.—Injuries to minors in 1926, page 61; and occupational
disease claims, page 62.
Oklahoma.—Operations under the State workmen’s compensation
act, page 66.
Pennsylvania.—Changes in employment, in man-hours worked, and
in pay-roll totals in various industries, page 162.
Tennessee.—Mining accidents in 1926, page 63.
Wisconsin.—Penalties for violation of orders of State Industrial
Commission, page 60; and volume of employment in Wisconsm
industries, page 163.


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[935]

BIBLIOGRAPHY
U n io n -M a n a g e m e n t C oop eration : 1 A L ist of R eferen ces
C om piled b y L a u r a A. T h o m p s o n , L i b r a r i a n , U. S. D

epartm ent

of

L abor

General Discussion
A m e r ic a n F e d e r a t io n o f L a b o r .

Proceedings of 4 5 th -4 6 th a n n u a l conventions, 1925-1926.
D. C., 1925-1926.

W ash in g to n ,

1925: Union-management cooperation (Report of Executive Council) pp. 35, 36, 231; State­
ment of wage policy (recommending cooperation between labor and management in study of
waste in production) p. 271.
, ,
..
, ,
, , , .
1926' Cooperation between unions and management (need for cooperation, statement of basic
principies upon which satisfactory industrial relations policies must rest) pp. 51, 52, 287, 317, 318.
B a s e s f o r u n io n - m a n a g e m e n t c o o p e r a t io n .

A m erican F ed era tio n ist, M arch, 1926, v. 33, pp. 274, 275.
Editorial stressing the importance of the trade-union to the success of cooperation between labor
and management.
B e y e r O t t o S . J t.

T h e econom ic fu n c tio n s of th e organized lab o r m o v em en t.
C an ad ian C ongress Jo u rn a l, A ugust, 1924, v. 3, No. 8, pp. 9-12.
■
------ H ow as well a s w h at.
A m erican F ed e ra tio n ist, A u g u st, 1926, v. 33, pp. 938-946.

On the need for consideration by labor organizations of matters of method as well as of
policy. B y the consulting engineer of the Railway Employees’ Department American Fed­
eration of Labor. See also paper on “ The technique of cooperation in Bulletin of the Taylor
Society, February, 1926, pp. 7-20.

------ L ab o r’s new sta n d on la b o r saving.
F acto ry , F e b ru a ry , 1926, v. 36, p p . 266, 267.
------ T rade-union p a rtic ip a tio n indispensable in efficient a d m in istra tio n of
in d u stry .
(In E ig h th A nnual N ew Y ork S ta te In d u stria l Conference. Proceedings,
1924, pp. 81-85.)
Summarizes the proper basis of effective participation by labor in the conduct of industry
as follows: (1) Full and cordial recognition of the bona fide unions of the employees as their
proper agents in all matters affecting their welfare; (2) Extending to these unions and their spokes­
men constructive as w ell as protective functions in management; (3) Agreement between unions
and management to cooperate for improved service, elimination of waste, increased production,
better morale, etc.; (4) Agreement to share fairly the consequent benefits; (5) Perfection of
definite administrative machinery to accomplish these purposes.

C.
W orkers’ p a rtic ip a tio n in jo b stu d y .
A m erican F e d e ra tio n ist, N ovem ber, 1925, v. 32, pp. 1029-1038.

B ro w n , G eo ffrey

Available also as a reprint.

------ W orkers’ p a rtic ip a tio n in jo b stu d y .
A m erican F ed e ra tio n ist, Ju n e , 1927, v. 34, pp. 702-710.
Address before the Philadelphia Conference on Elimination of Waste in Industry, April, 1927.
Printed also in Bulletin of the Taylor Society, June, 1927, v. 12, pp. 415-420.
„„at,OQ, Tr
“ Only b y some form of participation in job study can workers gam any opportunity for necessary
self-expression in their daily w ork.” In the opinion of this author the joint job-analysis committee
in any industrial establishment needs the reinforcing strength of the workers regular trade-union
in order to give the workers a sense of freedom and strength essential to independent and creative
thought.
i As defined in the pamphlet “ The cooperative policy of the Railway Employees’ Department, A. F.
of L ’’ (p 3) : “ Union-management cooperation is not a cut and dried system or plan which can be intro­
duced into a shop or railroad organization in the form of a finished product or method, such as you can do,
for example, w ith a new machine tool, or a new process of welding. Cooperation is essentially a step torward in the human relationship between worker and manager. As such it has grown logically out; of the
recognition of the standard railroad labor unions and the existence of collective bargaining,
purpose,
just as the purpose of union recognition and collective bargaining, is to enable the r a i l r o : rrilrnad
successfully, to provide better service to the public and to safeguard and improve the welfare of railroad
employees.”

220


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221

B r u èr e , R obert W.
T h e w orkers re c a p tu re th e ir tools.
Survey, M ay 15, 1927, v. 58, p p . 210, 211.
The Philadelphia Conference on the Elimination of Waste in Industry as viewed b y this
writer revealed not only a shift in emphasis from the method of warfare to the method of “ con­
structive” cooperation but showed that “ what the workers are driving at, what they must
drive at if they are to maintain their due functional status in industry, is not only an increased
industrial income, but also the coordinate control with management of the new took of largescale machine production.”
B u tl er , H arold B .

In d u s tria l relatio n s in th e U n ited S tates. G eneva, 1927. 135 pp.
n a tio n a l L ab o r Office, S tudies a n d re p o rts, series A, No. 27.)

(In te r­

“ Cooperation between employers and trade-unions” : pp. 93-105.
The concluding chapter of this report is reprinted in the M onthly Labor Review for September
1927, pp. 39-44.
G a r d i n e r , G . L.

C u ltiv atin g t h a t “ w e ” feeling.
In d u s tria l Psychology, Ja n u a ry , 1927, v. 2, pp. 28-34.
G r e e n , W il l ia m .

L ab o r will co o p erate to elim in ate w aste.
P rin te rs ’ In k , S ep tem b er 2, 1926, v. 136, pp. 3, 4 + .
------ L ab o r will h elp figh t w aste.
In d u s tria l M anagem en t, Ja n u a ry , 1926, v. 71, p. 46.
See also “ Management’s response to Mr. Green’s proposals, ” p. 47 of same issue.

— L a b o r’s id eals concerning m an ag em en t. L a b o r’s a ttitu d e to w a rd in d u s try
a n d in d u s tria l processes is changing— u n d e rsta n d in g a n d cooperation will
serve th e b e st in te re sts of all.
B ulletin of th e T a y lo r Society, D ecem ber, 1925, v. 10, p p . 241-246.
Paper presented at joint meeting of Taylor Society and the management division of the Ameri­
can Society of Mechanical Engineers, N ew York, December 3, 1925. Discussion by John A
Fitch, Sanford Thompson, Royal Meeker and others, pp. 246-253.
Summarized in M onthly Labor Review, March, 1926, v . 22, pp. 554, 555.

- L a b o r ’s i n t e r e s t in in d u s tr ia l w a s t e e lim in a tio n .

A m erican F ed eratio n ist, Ju n e , 1927, v. 34, p p . 729-733.
Address before the Conference on Elimination of Waste in Industry, Philadelphia, April 1927
Printed also in Bulletin of Taylor Society, June, 1927, v. 12, pp. 407-410.

------ T h e new a n d ad v an ced p osition of organized lab o r on v ita l problem s of
m an ag e m en t a n d coo p eratio n in th e elim in atio n of w aste.
In d u s tria l M anagem en t, A pril, 1926, v. 71, p p . 221-224.
Address before the Chicago Forum Council, January 10, 1926.
“ Organized labor * * * is irrevocably committed to the maintenance of high wages and
high living standards. If given the opportunity it will cooperate earnestly and sincerely in all
efforts to promote efficiency in management and the high standard of American workmanship.”

------- Peace in in d u stria l pursu its.
M o n th ly B ulletin (C h am b er of C om m erce of th e S ta te of N ew Y ork),
N ovem ber, 1926, v. 18, N o. 4, pp. 23-28.
Address at the annual banquet of the Chamber of Commerce of the State of N ew York, November
18, 1926.
“ If peace is to be established and maintained among those associated w ith the industrial life of
the nation, they must think in terms of cooperation, understanding and m utuality * * *. Labor
stands ready to give to industry and to society the benefit of its organized strength and service.”

------ T h e problem s w hich m o d ern trad e -u n io n s confront.
A m erican F ed e ra tio n ist, A pril, 1925, v. 32, p p . 225-232.
Address before the Harvard Union, Harvard University, March 20, 1925. Traces the develop­
ment from the defensive tactics of early trade-unionism to the new method of union-management
cooperation.
Also printed b y the American Federation of Labor in pamphlet form under title “ Modern tradeunionism,” 1925. 16 pp.

— U nions red u ce in d u stria l w aste.
of L abor, 1925. 12 pp.

W ashington, D. C., A m erican F e d eratio n

• . “ Labor is interested in the successful management of industry because it reasons that with the
introduction of economy processes, in the development of efficiency and increased production the
cost of manufacturing and production can be reduced without lowering the standard of the workers
or reducing wages.”

Is

A

NEW

V I E W -P O I N T

TOW ARDS

O R G A N IZ E D

F ac to ry , Ja n u a ry , 1925, v. 34, p. 37.
Extracts from statements by labor leaders.


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222

MONTHLY LABOE EEVIEW

L ab or

combats w a s t e .

N ation, N ovem ber 18, 1925, v. 121, p. 565.
Editorial on the statement on wage policy of the Atlantic City convention of the American Federa­
tion of Labor, 1925, recommending cooperation between labor and management in the study of waste
in production.

L a b o r ’s

c o n f e r e n c e on th e e l i m i n a t i o n of w a s t e .

M o n th ly L abor Review , Ju ly , 1927, v. 25, pp. 41-43.
Summary of the papers presented at the conference held at the Philadelphia Labor Institute,
April 9-10, 1927.
i n t e r e s t i n i n d u s t r i a l w ast e e l i m i n a t i o n .
F o u r p ap ers p resen ted
before a C onference on th e E lim in atio n of W aste in In d u s try , h eld u n d er th e
auspices of th e C e n tra l L ab o r C ollege of P h ilad elp h ia, A pril 9 a n d 10, 1927.
B ulletin of th e T a y lo r Society, Ju n e , 1927, v . 12, p p . 407-424.

L a b o r ’s

C ontents .—Labor and waste elimination, by William Green.—Waste elimination in the fullfashioned hosiery industry, by Gustave Geiges.—Workers’ participation in job study, by Geoffrey
C. Brown.—Scientific management and waste elimination, b y Fred J. Miller.
Papers printed also in American Federationist, June, 1927.
For summary of the discussions at the conference see M onthly Labor Review, July, 1927, pp.
41-43; Survey, M ay 15,4927, pp. 210, 211; Personnel Journal, August, 1927, pp. 145-147.

L a u c k , W. J e t t .

P o litical a n d In d u s tria l D em ocracy,
W agnalls Co., 1926. 374 pp.

1776-1926.

N ew

Y ork,

Funk

&

After describing various outstanding and representative attempts toward employee representa­
tion and industrial democracy, the author gives as one of his conclusions (p. 324) that “ a definite,
independent organization of employees is an essential preliminary to cooperation and industrial
democracy. The standard labor organization fully meets this need, and all systems of cooperation
or industrial democracy should be based on or coordinated w ith labor organizations.”

L e w i s o h n , S am A.

T he N ew L eadersh ip in In d u s try .
234 pp.

N ew Y ork, E. P . D u tto n & Co. [cl926].

“ The potential constructiveness of unionism,” pp. 164-172.
See also address on “Advanced methods of dealing w ith problems of industrial relations’ m
Proceedings of Eighth Annual N ew York State Industrial Conference, 1924, pp. 71-79.

M ovement

fo r coop era ti ve m a n a g e m e n t .

L ab o u r G azette (C an a d a ), A ugust, 1927, v. 27, p. 831.
M ufso n , I srael.

W h a t of union m a n a g e m e n t cooperation? A w ord in its favor.
L abor Age, O ctober, 1926, v. 15, No. 10, p p . 8-10.
In the view of this writer a union-management cooperation plan is merely an extension of
the power of collective bargaining. It substitutes a more scientific approach for the old method
of “ muddling through.” Furthermore, it enables the worker to get an insight into the ma­
chinery of industrial productivity and by linking management and labor together may provide
for a peaceful transition of ownership.

P r e s i d e n t W oll

u r g e s c oop era ti on to impr ove i n d u s t r y .

A m erican P h o to -en g rav er, Ja n u a ry , 1927, v. 19, pp. 100-103.
T r a d e - u n i o n c o n f e r e n c e on el i m i n a ti o n of w ast e i n i n d u s t r y he ld i n
P h i l a d e l p h i a , P a ., A pril 9-10, 1927. P ublished by A m erican F ed e ra tio n of

L abor [1927],

69 pp.

Papers read at the conference called by the Central Labor Union and Labor College of Philadelphia.
Reprinted from the June, 1927, American Federationist.
_
.
C ontents .—Introduction, b y William Green and Spencer Miller, Jr.—Union cooperation to
eliminate waste, by Frank McGarrigle.—Labor’s waste conference, by Israel Mufson.—Full-fashioned
hosiery industry, b y Gustave Geiges.—Pressmen’s engineering service, by William H. M cHugh.—
Workers’ concern in management, by Tobias Hall.—An engineer’s attitude towards waste, by Major
Fred J. Miller.—Labor and waste, b y M atthew Woll.—Labor and scientific management, by Irving
Fisher.—Waste through unemployment, by Morris L. Cooke.—Workers’ participation in job study,
by Geoffrey C. Brown.—Measuring labor’s productivity, by Sanford E. Thompson.—Standardization
of equipment, by Robert T. Kent.—Union management cooperation, by John A. P h illip s—From the
employer’s point of view, by Frank Sutcliffe.—Labor’s interest in industrial waste elimination, by
William Green.
_____ ____ , , , , ,
Summary in Journal of Electrical Workers and Operators, M ay, 1927, pp. 227-229, 277; M onthly
Labor Review, July, 1927, pp. 41-43; Survey, M ay 15, 1927, pp. 210, 211; Personnel Journal, August,
Four* of the papers (Green, Geiges, Brown, and Müler) printed in full in the Bulletin of the Taylor
Society, June, 1927, pp. 407-424.

W a l l in g , W il lia m E n g l i s h .

A m erican L abo r a n d A m erican D em ocracy.
1926. 184 pp.

N ew Y ork, H a rp e r & Bros.,

The chapter on “ Labor cooperates w ith capital” in part 2 includes brief discussion of unionmanagement cooperation.


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W oll, M a tt h ew .

E d u catio n al tra in in g for in d u stry .
A m erican P ho to -en g rav er, F e b ru a ry , 1927, v. 19, pp. 195-198.
Address at annual meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers in N ew York
City, December 6-9, 1926.
Includes brief discussion of cooperation between management and men to increase efficiency
in production.

------ E d u catio n al tra in in g for in d u stry .
A m erican P ressm an, M arch, 1927, v. 37, No. 4, pp. 32, 33.
------ In d u s tria l relation sh ip .
C ap ital a n d lab o r m u s t cooperate.
A m erican P h o to -en g rav er, A ugust, 1927, v. 19, pp. 903-910.
Address to the convention of the International Photo-Engravers’ Union held at Washington
July 14-16, 1927.
'

•------ L a b o r’s v iew point.
{In Y. M . C. A. H u m a n relatio n s in in d u stry , n in th a n n u a l conference.
Silver B ay, N. Y., 1926, pp. 88-94.)
Includes brief statement regarding union-management cooperation.

W or k e r

s u b s t i t u t e s fo r o w n e r .

N ew R epublic, A u g u st 4, 1926, v. 47, p p . 295, 296.
Editorial discussing the suggestion that in union-management cooperation m ay possibly be found
a substitute for the old profit-initiative stimulus supposed by tradition to be furnished by theowner
but now lost in the wide distribution of stockholdings.

W r ig h t , C h e s t e r M.

L ab o r tells how it w a n ts to help m an ag em en t.
P rin te rs ’ In k , N o v em b er 18, 1926, v. 137, p. 1 0 9 + .

Union-Management Cooperation on the Railroads
of L a b o r .
R ailw ay E m ployees’ Department.
T he coop erativ e policy of th e R ailw ay E m p lo y e e s’ D e p a rtm e n t, A. F. of L.
F ed erated Shop C rafts. [Chicago, 1926?] 35 p p .

A merican F ederation

C o n t e n t s —Pt. I. Introductory statement by the Executive Council.—Pt. II. The cooperative
pohcy of the Federated Shop Crafts.—Pt. III. Some important aspects of the cooperative policy —
Pt. IV. M etnods as well as policy.
J
Address of Otto S. Beyer, Jr., at the seventh biennial convention, Railway E m ployees’ Depart­
ment, A. F. of L., June 29, 1926, pp. 21-35.

-------------- Official proceedings, sev en th c o n v en tio n R ailw ay E m p lo y e e s’ D e p a rt­
m en t, A m erican F ed e ra tio n of L abor, Ju n e 28 to J u ly 2, 1926. Chicago,x
Contains (pp. 69-74) history of the union-management cooperative program on the Baltimore & Ohio,
tno text of memorandum agreement entered into, statement of principles of cooperation, procedure
to be followed by local cooperative committees, and a brief review of results of the cooperative plan.

T h e B al timore & O hio

coop era ti ve p l a n .

E d ito ria l R esearch R ep o rts, M ay 4, 1925, p p . 236-252.
B e l d e n , R obert.

T h e B . a n d O. co o p erativ e p lan.
M a n u fa c tu re rs’ N ews, M ay 23, 1925, v. 27, N o. 21, pp. 14, 16.
B e y e r , O tto S., J r.
B. & O. engine 1003.
S urvey G raphic, J a n u a ry 1, 1924, v. 51, pp. 311-317.
B . & O. engine 1003 was the first locomotive to be reconstructed under the union-manage­
ment cooperative plan. In this article the engineer retained by the shop crafts to guide the
development of the new plan tells how it was put into effect in the Glenwood shop at Pitts­
burgh and the results so far achieved. In the view of this writer, these results justify a belief
that the trade-union movement, given constructive industrial functions in addition to its
present humanitarian functions, will measure up to its enlarged responsibilities.

E conom ic fu n ctio n s of th e organized la b o r m o v em en t. U nion a n d m an ag e­
m e n t cooperation in th e ra ilro a d in d u stry .
C an ad ian C ongress Jo u rn a l, A ugust, 1924, v. 3, No. 8, pp. 9-12.
Includes brief statement of cooperation between railroad management and the unions on the
B. & O. and C. N . R .

------ M an ag em en t a n d la b o r co operation on th e railro ad s. A descrip tio n a n d
d etailed discussion of th e “ B. & O. p la n .”
In d u s tria l M an ag e m e n t, M ay, 1927, v. 73, p p . 2 6 4 -270.
Summary in M onthly Labor Review, July, 1927, v. 25, pp. 30-33.


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S., J r . O rganized la b o r’s co o p eratio n w ith ra ilro a d m an ag e m en t.
(I n N a tio n al C onference of Social W ork. P roceedings, 1925, p p . 307-310.)

B e y e r , O tto

This paper at the session devoted to a discussion of new developments in industrial relations
describes the program of systematic cooperation which has been worked out between the organized
shop crafts and the Baltimore & Ohio, Canadian National, Chicago & North Western, and the Chesa­
peake & Ohio Railroads as based on four principles: (1) Acceptance by management of the standard
shopcraft unions as constructive and helpful in running of the railroad; (2) Systematic cooperation
w ith these unions for improved service to the patrons of the railroads; (3) Stabilization of employ­
ment; (4) Sharing fairly the gains of cooperation between the railroad, its employees and the public
which they both serve. Only from two sources is hostility to the policy of the shopcrafts ’ cooperation
w ith management being experienced. One is found among those railroad officers who still deny the
right of workers to organize; the other is in members of the radical wing of the labor movement who
criticize the new extension of collective bargaining as “ class collaboration.”

- R a ilro a d u n io n -m an ag em en t cooperation.
A m erican F e d e ra tio n ist, A ugust, *1925, v. 32, p p . 645-653.
Describes the structure of the unions and the railroad shop administration where union-manage­
ment cooperation is in efiect w ith a detailed description of the machinery of cooperation.

■T h ree y ears of th e “ B. a n d O. P la n .”
N ew R epublic, A ugust 4, 1926, v. 47, p p . 298-300.
“ When the Glen wood experiment was first inaugurated the purpose of the cooperative program
was rather general—cooperation for mutual benefit. As the program developed in the three years
of its existence, its immediate objectives became more specific * * * reductions in grievances,
increased sense of responsibility on the part of employees for the success of the railroad, and on the
part of management for the welfare of the employees, improvements in methods of employee training,
better conditions of em ploym ent in respect to working facilities, sanitation, lighting and safety,
conservation of material, increased output, improved quality of workmanship, recruiting of new
employees, stabilizing employm ent and finally financial participation by the employees in the gains
due to cooperation.”
....
,
The article traces briefly the progress made towards the accomplishment of these objectives and
calls attention to the importance to the public of the new ly developed ability of the unions to set
standards for management. See also editorial in same issue (p. 295) entitled “ Worker substitutes for

------ T h e tec h n iq u e of cooperation.
B ulletin of th e T a y lo r Society, F e b ru a ry , 1926, v. 11, pp. 7-20.
Discusses the basic requirements for effective union-management cooperation and describes in
detail the machinery of cooperation and typical problems met by union-management cooperation.
For editorial critical of views expressed on standard v. company unions see Railway Age, February 13,
1926, pp. 415, 416. R eply by O. S. Beyer in same journal, February 27, 1926, p. 513, and by Sumner
H . Slichter, March 6, 1926, pp. 573, 574.

W. E.
T w o ty p e s of ra ilro a d unions— P e n n sy lv a n ia S y stem co m p an y u n io n com ­
p ared w ith B. & O. co o p e ra tiv e p lan .
M ach in ists’ M o n th ly Jo u rn a l (In te rn a tio n a l A ssociation of M ach in ists),
A pril, 1926, v. 38, p p . 147, 148, 191.

C h alm ers,

C o l l e c t iv e m a n a g e m e n t w o r k s w e l l a t P it t s b u r g h .

E lectric R ailw ay Jo u rn a l, D ecem ber 4, 1926, v. 68, p p . 1007, 1008.
C o n lo n , P e t e r J.

T h e G lenw ood p lan in th e railro a d shops: co o p eratio n in in d u stry .
(I n Second C ath o lic C onference on In d u s tria l P roblem s, 1924, pp. 59-67.)
B y the vice president of the International Association of M achinists.
C o o p e r a t io n i n t h e B a l t im o r e & O h io r a il r o a d s h o p s .

M o n th ly L ab o r R eview , M ay, 1924, v. 18, pp. 1058-1061.
C. N . R . shopm en begin to en jo y fru its of cooperation.
C an ad ian C ongress Jo u rn a l, O ctober, 1925, v. 4, N o. 10, pp. 17, 18.

T h e c o o p e r a t iv e p l a n .

From the Federated Railwayman.
T h e c o o p e r a t iv e p r o g r a m m e o n t h e C a n a d ia n N a t io n a l .

C an ad ian C ongress Jo u rn a l, F e b ru a ry , 1925, v. 4, No. 2, pp. 20-22.
From the Federated Railwayman.
. . .
Discusses particularly the handling of grievances and the stabilization of employment.
C orbett, J o seph .

U nio n -m an ag em en t co o p eratio n on th e C an a d ia n N a tio n a l R ailw ays.
A m erican F e d e ra tio n ist, M arch , 1927, v. 34, pp. 311-314.
B y the general chairman, Brotherhood of Railway Carmen of America.

J.
U n io n -m an ag em en t co o p eratio n a t S tra tfo rd .
A m erican F e d e ra tio n ist, F e b ru a ry , 1927, v. 34, p p . 171-177.

C ullum , F red

A description of the working of the union-management committee in the Stratford motivepower shop on the Canadian National Railways, by a trade-unionist who participated in the
development of the plan. For successful cooperation he states that “ the feeling that must be
dominant is, that you are all working to the same end, whoever you may represent, and that
end is the accomplishment of work by the most efficient, easiest, safest, and prompt method
consistent w ith the least wastage of material, tim e, or labor.”


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UNION-MANAGEMENT COOPEEATION
C. N .
A pprentice tra in in g on th e B altim o re & Ohio.
A m erican F ed e ra tio n ist, A ugust, 1927, v. 34, p p . 937-945.

F ullerton,

The method of apprentice training is included in the cooperative agreement between the
railroad and the Federated Shop Crafts.
G r e a t B r i t a i n . M in istry o f Labor.

R e p o rt of th e delegation a p p o in te d to stu d y in d u stria l conditions in C an ad a
a n d th e U nited S ta te s of A m erica. L ondon, H . M . S ta tio n e ry Office,
1927. 117 p p. (C m d. 2833.)
An appendix (pp. 61-63 (discusses schemes of union-management cooperation on the railroads.
I n d u s t r ia l r e l a t io n s o n C a n a d ia n

N a t io n a l R a il w a y s .

Bloom field’s L ab o r D igest, M arch 20, 1926, v. 20, pp. 3415-3417.
I n t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n o f M a c h in is t s .

Proceedings of th e S e v en tee n th co nvention, D e tro it, M ichigan, S ep tem b er
15-17, 1924. [W ashington, D. C., 1924.]
Resolutions introduced by lodges opposed to B. & O. plan, pp. 233, 234; Majority and minority
reports of committee to investigate plan, pp. 234,235; discussion (including statement by President
Johnston), pp. 235-245.
J e w e l l , B e r t M.

A coop erativ e co m m ittee in actio n .
A m erican F ed e ra tio n ist, Ja n u a ry , 1927, v. 34, pp. 26-32.
A description of the working of the cooperative committee in the locomotive repair shops of
the Canadian National Railways at Stratford, Ont.
Issued also as a reprint by the American Federation of Labor.

-------R ecen t extension of collective b arg ain in g — cooperation— in th e ra ilro a d
in d u stry .
A m erican F e d e ratio n ist, Ju ly , 1925, v. 32, pp. 525-533.
An account of the beginnings of the union-management cooperative movement on the Baltinmre.
& Ohio, first in the shops at Glenwood, Pittsburgh, and then its extension to all shops on the lme
and later to the Chesapeake & Ohio and the Chicago & North Western.

------ U n io n -m an ag em en t co o p eratio n *
* *. L a b o r’s a p p ra isa l of principles,
m eth o d s, a n d resu lts of u n io n -m an ag em en t coo p eratio n in th e railro a d in d u s try .
A m erican P h o to -e n g ra v e r, A u g u st-S e p te m b e r, 1926, v. 18, p p . 668-671,
745-747.
Summarized in M onthly Labor Review, November, 1926, v. 23, pp. 965, 966.

L. E .
.
C an b ro th erh o o d s a n d m an a g e m e n t w ork to g e th e r? T h e m am ten an ce-o fw ay organ izatio n su b m its a p la n fo r jo in t solu tio n of m u tu a l problem s.
R ailw ay Age, M arch 6, 1926, v. 80, p p . 581—583.

K eller,

See also Editorial in same issue, pp. 571,572.
R e s u l t s o f c o o p e r a t io n o f w o r k e r s a n d m a n a g e m e n t o n r a il r o a d s .

M o n th ly L ab o r R eview , Ju ly , 1927, v. 24, pp. 30-33.
Summary of articles in Industrial Management for M ay, 1927, by Daniel Willard and Otto S.
Beyer, Jr.
R oberts J o h n.

C an ad ian N a tio n a l R ailw ays co o p erativ e p lan. N ew Y ork, A m erican
M an ag em en t A ssociation, 1926. 8 pp. (A m erican M a n ag em en t Asso­
ciation. P ro d u c tio n E x ecu tiv es’ Series, N o. 34.)
Description by the general supervisor of work methods of the machinery for cooperation on
the C. N . R. and the benefits of the system.

S n o w , F r a n k l in .

, .

S u b sta n tia l progress in cooperation : em ployees a n d m an ag e m en ts w orking
to g e th e r to th e ir m u tu a l in te re sts u n d e r several d ifferent plans.
R ailw ay Age, Ju n e 5, 1926, v. 80, p p . 1485-1488.

S oule, G eorge.

.

.

.

.

,

A tra d e -u n io n ’s ach ie v em en t in im p ro v in g service an d e lim in atin g w aste.
( I n E ig h th A n n u al N ew Y ork S ta te In d u s tria l C onference. P ro ceed ­
ings, 1924, p p . 85-89.)
On the Baltimore & Ohio system.

S ir H e n r y W o r t h .
M an ag em en t’s a p p ra isa l of p rinciples, m eth o d s a n d resu lts.
B ulletin of th e T a y lo r Society, F e b ru a ry , 1926, v. 11, pp. 26-29.

T hornton,

By the chairman of the board of directors and president of the Canadian National Railways.
“ We are definitely and irrevocably committed to the principle of cooperation w ith our em­
ployees.”


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MONTHLY LABOE REVIEW

coop era ti on i n
r a i l r o a d i n g : R ecen t
o p eratio n on th e B altim o re & Ohio railro ad .
L aw a n d L abor, S eptem ber, 1925, v. 7. p p . 239-242.

Un io n-management

su rv ey

of

its

co op er a ti on i n t h e r a il w a y i n d u s t r y : A case p re s e n ta ­
tio n of effort to w a rd stab ilizatio n . I. T h e te c h n iq u e of cooperation, by O tto
S. B eyer, Jr. I I . L a b o r’s ap p ra isa l of principles, m eth o d s a n d resu lts, by
B ert M. Jew ell. I I I . M a n a g e m e n t’s a p p ra isa l of p rinciples, m eth o d s an d
results, b y Sir H e n ry W o rth T h o rn to n .
B ulletin of th e T a y lo r Society, F e b ru a ry , 1926, v. 11, pp. 6-29.

Un io n - management

Comments on the addresses by Sumner II. Slichter, Henry Bruere, Francis Lee Stuart, pp 3-5
. Abstracts in the Railway Age, February 13, 1926, v. 80, pp. 425-428. See also editorial in same
issue, pp. 415, 416, and reply by O. S. Beyer in issue of February 27, 1926, p. 513 and by Sumner H.
Slichter in issue of March 6,1926, pp. 573, 574.
management cooperation.
R ecen t extension of collective b argaining,
by B ert M. Jew ell * * * a n d R ailro ad u n io n -m an ag em en t cooperation,
by O. S. B eyer, Jr. * * * W ashington, D, C., A m erican F e d e ra tio n of
L abor, 1925. 17 pp.

Un io n

Reprint of articles from the July and August, 1925, numbers of the American Federationist.

U n io n i za ti o n

an d

em p l o y e e

representation in

co mp et it io n .

L aw a n d L abor, Septem ber, 1924, v. 6, pp. 253-255.
W a r f i e l d , M . S.
P ullm an conducto rs tr y cooperation.
A m erican F e d e ra tio n ist, M arch, 1927, v. 34, p p . 308-310.
B y the president of the Order of Sleeping Car Conductors.

W illard, D a nie l.

T he lab o r policy of th e B altim ore & Ohio.
R ailw ay Age, N o v em b er 8, 1924, v. 77, pp. 839-841.
•------ T h e new executiv e view p o in t on lab o r re la tio n s: W h a t th e “ B. & O. p la n ”
has done in a c tu a l p ra c tic e .
In d u s tria l M an ag em en t, M ay, 1927, v. 73, pp. 260-263.
Address before the National Civic Federation, N ew York City, February 17, 1927, by the presi­
dent of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. The general results are summed up as having been “ emi­
nently satisfactory up to date.”
Same in American Photo-engraver, v. 19, pp. 528-533. Summary in M onthly Labor Review,
July, 1927, v. 25, pp. 30-33.

W oll , M a t t h e w .

P ro d u ctio n a n d m an ag e rial problem s.
A m erican P h o to -en g rav er, M ay, 1927, v. 19, pp. 525-528.
Remarks as chairman at a luncheon conference called by the Industrial Relations Depart­
ment of the National Civic Federation to discuss the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad unionmanagement plan.

Union-Management Cooperation in Other Industries
B e r r y , G e or ge L.

P rin tin g p ressm e n ’s engineering d e p a rtm e n t.
A m erican F e d e ra tio n ist, A ugust, 1925, v. 32, pp. 658, 659.
The engineering department of the International Printing Pressmen’s Union examines
daily more than 500 newspapers and if defects appear in successive issues these are called to
the attention of the superintendent of printing and publisher of the paper, with a remedy
suggested. In case of long-continued defects, or upon request, an engineer is sent to the city
where the newspaper is published to confer with the foreman.

B u r r o w s , W. G.

C ooperation m eans success.
A m erican P ressm an, D ecem ber, 1926, v. 37, p p . 34, 35.
C omstock , L ou is K .
Peace basis in th e electrical in d u stria l field.
Jo u rn al of E lectrical W orkers, F e b ru a ry , 1926, v. 25, p p . 54, 55, 96.
C ouncil on in d u stria l rela tio n s in th e electrical co n stru ctio n in d u stry .
(r n E ig h th A nnual N ew Y ork S ta te In d u s tria l C onference. Proceedings
1924, p p . 38-46.)
*
C o n s t it u t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t i n i n d u s t r y . A s tu d y of th e p rinciples guiding
u n io n-m anagem ent re la tio n sh ip u n d e r th e im p a rtia l a rb itra tio n m ach in ery in
th e m en ’s clothing in d u s try in Chicago.
A dvance, J a n u a ry 28, 1927, p. 4; F e b ru a ry 4, 1927, p. 4: F e b ru a ry 11, 1927
p. 4; F eb ru a ry 28, 1927, p. 7; M arch 4, 1927, p. 4.


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227

F o r d , C ha r le s P.

A rbitral procedure for electrical builders.
A m erican F ed eratio n ist, F e b ru a ry , 1927, v. 34, p p . 178-131.
On the work of the National Council on Industrial Relations for the Electrical Construc­
tion Industry, made up of 5 members from the employers and 5 from the union.

G a r y , D orothy P.

,
. .
M an ag em en t as a fu n ctio n of unionism .
W orld T o-m orrow , A ugust, 1925, v. 8, pp. -35-237.
W ith reference to the men’s clothing industry.

G eiges, G ustave.

Full-fashioned hosiery industry.
A m erican F ed e ra tio n ist, Ju n e, 1927, v. 34, pp. 668-675.
In this article the president and business representative of the Philadelphia branch (rf the
American Federation of Full Fashioned Hosiery Workers discusses some of the teclmical prob­
lems of the industry, why they are of concern to the organized workers, and the efforts b emg
made to solve them in firms which cooperate with the union. Printed also in Bulletin of the
Taylor Society, June, 1927, v. 12, pp. 410-415.

H a b e r , W illiam G.

Craftsm anship in building.
A m erican F ed e ra tio n ist, D ecem ber, 1926, v. 33, pp. 1446-1451.
Issued also as a reprint.

H all, T obias.

W orkers’ concern in management.
A m erican F ed e ra tio n ist, Ju n e, 1927, v. 34, p p . 679-681.
Describes the w ay the Upholstery Weavers’ Union of Philadelphia is trying to solve some
of the problems of shop efficiency.

H asten, F rank.

.

.

.

U nion cooperation in clay in d u stry .
_
A m erican F ed e ra tio n ist, Ja n u a ry , 1927, v. 34, p p . 3b-38.

'

B y the general president of the United Brick and Clay Workers of America.

K o h n , W i l li a m .

C ooperation as we p ra c tic e it.
....
A m erican F ed e ra tio n ist, D ecem ber, 1926, v. 33, pp. 1452-1456.
B y the president of the Upholsterers’ International Union of North America.
also as a reprint.

Issued

IjE V T he W om en’s G a rm e n t W orkers. A h isto ry of th e In te rn a tio n a l L ad ies’
G a rm e n t W ork ers’ U nion. N ew Y ork, B. W. H uebsch, (In c.), 1924.
608 pp.
“ The Cleveland experiment,’’

pp. 360-381.

M cG r a d y , E d w ar d F.

G re a te r service to w orkers a n d to in d u stry .
A m erican F e d e ra tio n ist, A ugust, 1926, v. 33, pp. 923—925.
Describes the service which the International Printing Pressmen’s and Assistants’ Union
gives to the employers who have contractual relations w ith the organization.

[ M c G a r r i g l e , F r a n k .]

Union cooperation to eliminate waste.
A m erican F ed e ra tio n ist, Ju n e, 1927, v. 34, pp. 682, 68o.

This paper on the tapestry carpet weaving industry was erroneously credited to Robert
Lawrie.
M cH ugh , W il liam H.

Pressmen’s engineering service.

A m erican F ed e ra tio n ist, Ju n e, 1927, v. 34, p p . 6 /6 -6 7 8 .
A dpscriution of the free engineering service maintained by the International Printing
Pressmen and Assistants’ Union to aid unionized newspapers in the United States to eliminate
waste and advance the technical Quality of their publications.

M orthcott , C la r e n c e H.

Som e B ritish in stan ces of cooperation w ith labor.
A m erican F e d e ra tio n ist, M ay, 1927, v. 34, pp. 562-566.
Particularly at Rowntree Cocoa Works, York, England.

O ’B r i e n , S imon P.

L ongshorem en stab ilize th e ir jobs.
A m erican F ed e ra tio n ist, M ay, 1927, v. 34, pp. 573, 574.

P r e s s m e n ’s

pr od u ct io n s e r v i c e .

A m erican F ed eratio n ist, F e b ru a ry , 1926, v. 33, pp. 182-184.


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PUBLICATIONS RELATING TO LABOR
Official—United States
B ureau o f C h ild ren ’s Aid, a n d D e p a rtm e n t o f P u b lic W elfare.
California laws relating to women and children. Sacramento, 1926. 282 pp.
I l l in o is .
D e p a rtm e n t of M ines a n d M inerals. Forty-fifth coal report of Illin o is,
1926. Springfield, 1927. 277 pp.
D a ta on coal-m ine accidents, ta k e n from th is rep o rt, are given on page 60 of
th is issue.
C a l if o r n ia —

I n d i a n a .— In d u s tria l

B oard. Proceedings of the second State-wide industrial
safety conference, Indianapolis, December 7-9, 1926. Ind ia n a p o lis \1927P
137 pp.

-------- ;----- Year book of the State of In d ia n a fo r the year 1926.

vi, 1184 PP-

Indianapolis, 1926.

In clu d es th e re p o rts of th e In d u stria l B oard a n d th e D e p a rtm e n t of M ines
a n d M ining, of In d ia n a . T he re p o rt of th e la tte r office co n ta in s d a ta on fa ta l
coal-m ine accidents, 1898 to 1926, a n d also on p ro d u c tio n of coal, n u m b e r of
em ployees, a n d w ages p a id in specified coal m ines of th e S ta te in th e fiscal year
ending S eptem ber 30, 1926. D a ta on accid en ts in v ario u s in d u stries, ta k e n
from th e re p o rt of th e In d u stria l B oard, w ere p u blished in th e Septem ber, 1927,
L abor R eview (p. 56).
K e n t u c k y .— D e p a rtm e n t

of L abor. B ureau of A griculture, L ab o r, a n d S ta tis­
tics. B ulletin 31: In d u stria l housekeeping, with suggestions. Frankfort
[1927?]. 295 pp., illustrated.
A com pilation of articles on good housekeeping as applied to in d u s tria l p la n ts,
including suggestions fo r v e n tila tio n ; illu m in atio n (w ith lig h tin g code); com ­
b a tin g th e hazard s fro m d u st, fum es a n d gases, a n d h e a t; s a n ita tio n ; seats fo r
w orkers; a n d safety. T h ere is an a rticle on th e gen eral d ev elo p m en t of w ork­
m en ’s com pensation acts w ith special reference to th e K e n tu c k y law . T he
concluding section gives excerpts from K e n tu ck y law s re la tin g to th e em ploy­
m e n t of labor.
D e p a rtm e n t of L ab o r an d In d u strie s. A n n u a l report on the
statistics of labor fo r the year ending November 30, 1926. Part 11 .— Tw entyfifth annual directory o f labor organizations in M assachusetts, 1926 (labor bul­
letin No. 148). [Boston, 1926?]. 53 pp.

M a ssach usetts.

D ivision of M inim um W age.
1926. Boston [1927?]. 12 pp.
R eview ed on page 33 of th is issue.

Report fo r the year ending November 30,

O hi o .— In d u s tria l Com m ission.

D ivision of S afety a n d H ygiene. Special B ul­
letin No. 1: Statistical reports of injuries to m inors under 18 years of age,
occupational disease claims, additional award claims. Columbus, 1927.
139 p p ., charts.
S um m aries of th e sections of th is re p o rt covering in ju ries to m inors a n d occu­
p a tio n a l diseases are given on page 61 of th is issue.
O k l a h o m a .— In d u s tria l

C om m ission. Eleventh annual report, September 1, 1925,
to A u g u st 31, 1926. Oklahoma C ity [19261]. 263 p p .; folder.
A su m m ary of th e w o rk m en ’s com pensation d a ta c o n tain ed in th is re p o rt is
given on page 66 of th is issue.
228
[944]

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PUBLICATIONS RELATING TO LABOR

229

T e n n e s s e e .— D e p a rtm e n t

of L abor. D ivision of M ines. Thirty-second annual
report of the m ineral resources of Tennessee. Nashville, 1927. 180 p p ., illus.
D a ta on m ine acciden ts, ta k e n from th is re p o rt, are given on page 63 of th is

issue.
W a s h i n g t o n .— [D e p a rtm e n t

of L ab o r a n d In d u stries?] C om pilation o f insurance
and medical aid acts adm inistered by D epartment of Labor and Industries,
1927. O lym pia, 1927. 51 pp.
W i s c o n s i n .— C om m issioner of B anking.
Thirty-second annual report on State
banks, m utual savings banks and trust companies of W isconsin, showing [their\
condition at the close of business, December 81, 1926. M adison, 1927. 15b pp.
D a ta include 7 m u tu a l savings b an k s, 2 cred it unions, a n d 171 b u ild in g a n d
loan associations.
U n i t e d S t a t e s .— D e p a rtm e n t of Com m erce. B u reau of F oreign a n d D om estic
C om m erce. Commerce yearbook, 1926. Vol. I — United States. W ashington,
1927. xx, 676 pp., charts.
T he fifth issue of th e C om m erce Y earbook is being p u b lish ed in tw o volum es,
th e one n o ted here being volum e 1 a n d covering th e U n ite d S tates. I t gives de­
ta ile d in fo rm atio n on business a n d in d u stria l conditions d u rin g 1926 w ith com ­
p a ra tiv e d a ta for earlier years. T he sta tistic s include w ages a n d h o u rs of lab o r,
em p loym ent, prices a n d cost of living, p ro d u ctio n , im m ig ratio n a n d em ig ratio n ,
and th e sh ift in o ccupatio n s (1880-1920). Some of th e d a ta on increase in p ro ­
ductio n are rep ro d u ced on page 25 of th is issue.
______________ Trade inform ation bulletin No. 493: Parana pine lumber industry
of B razil, by Joseph C. Kircher. W ashington, Ju n e, 192/. 17 pp.
T his re p o rt co n tain s a sh o rt acco u n t of th e lab o r su pp ly an d wages p aid in th e
P a ra n a p in e lu m b er in d u s try of B razil. W ages for com m on lab o r var;y from 4 to
6 m ilreis (50 to 75 cents) p e r 9-hour day , while th e m ore skilled w orkers receive
u p to 12 m ilreis ($1.50) p er d ay . M inors are p aid from 1 to 3 m ilreis (20 to 40
cents) p e r day.
As reg ard s th e ir n atio n a lity , th e re p o rt sta te s th a t m an y of th e w orkers are
recen t im m ig ran ts from P o lan d , Ita ly , P o rtu g al, a n d G erm any.
T h ere is a g reat scarcity of filers, saw yers, a n d forem en fo r larg e o p eratio n s
an d one com pany h as been com pelled to b ring m en fro m th e U n ite d S ta te s to
fill th e jobs. T hese m en a re p a id in A m erican m oney a n d receive a p p ro x im ately
th e sam e ra te s or a little h ig h er th a n a t hom e. If th e y sta y for a p erio d of tw o
years th e y are given th e ir expenses to B razil a n d re tu rn a n d one-half tim e w hile
traveling.
_________ B ureau of M ines. B ulletin 272: Safeguarding workmen at oil derricks,
by H . C. M iller. W ashington, 1927. vi, 111 pp., illustrations, diagrams.
T his re p o rt sta te s t h a t progress to w a rd safety h as been especially ra p id in th e
im p ro v em en t of derrick c o n stru ctio n a n d in m eth o d s of safeguarding th o se w hose
d u ties ta k e th e m in to derricks. Aside fro m th e c o n sta n t d an g er of w orkm en fa ll­
ing a n d o f exposure to m ach in ery h azard s, a n d th e risk of being stru c k b y tools
or m a terials d ro p p ed from above, a m o st serious a sp ect of th e d errick h az a rd ,
fo rtu n a te ly of ra th e r in fre q u e n t occurrence, is its p a rtia l or to ta l collapse d u e to
im p ro p er design, fa u lty m aterials a n d co n stru ctio n , d e te rio ra tio n th ro u g h age
a n d v ib ra tio n , a n d softening of th e g ro u n d u n d e r th e d errick footings^ b y w ate r.
H ow ever, th e re p o rt p o in ts o u t how w orkm en m ay be safeg u ard ed in sp ite of
th ese dangers, a n d includes m an y illu stra tio n s a n d diagram s.
_______________ B ulletin 273: D rilling and blasting in open-cut copper m ines, by
E . D. Gardner. W ashington, 1927. v, 98 pp., diagrams, illustrations.
D escribes th e drilling a n d b lastin g m eth o d s in use in c e rta in m in es in A rizona,
N evada, N ew M exico, a n d U ta h w here th e o p en -cu t m in in g of copper ores
prevails. W age d a ta from th is re p o rt will be fo u n d on page l'29 of th is issue.


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U n i t e d S t a t e s .— D e p a rtm e n t

of C o m m erce. B u re a u of M ines. B ulletin 286:
Q uarry accidents in the U nited States, 1925, by W illiam W . A dam s. W ash­
ington, 1927. v, 98 pp.
R eview ed on page 53 of th is issue.

------ D e p a rtm e n t of L a b o r. B u reau of L ab o r S ta tistic s. B ulletin No. 440Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1926. W ashington, 1927. v, 256 pp., charts.
C u rre n t w holesale p rice index n u m b ers b rin g in g u p to d a te th e m o st im p o rta n t
in fo rm atio n given in th is b u lletin a re p u b lish ed each m o n th in th e L ab o r R eview ;
w holesale prices of in d iv id u a l com m odities a re p u b lish ed in th e second m o n th of
each q u a rte r; a n d in th e th ird m o n th of each q u a rte r, w holesale price index
nu m b ers for th e U n ited S ta te s a n d foreign co u n tries are given.
------- .--------------- B ulletin No. 448: Trade agreements, 1928.

iv, 204 PP-

W ashington, 1927.

D iscussed briefly on page 209 of th is issue.
'

B ulletin No. 449: B u ilding permits in the principal cities of the
United States in 1926. W ashington, 1927. Hi, 129 pp.
An ad v an ce sum m ary of th e com plete survey of building p e rm its fo r 1926 w as
published in th e L ab o r R eview fo r M ay, 1927 (pp. 85-101). Special stu d ies on
th e tre n d to w ard a p a rtm e n t-h o u se living in A m erican cities a n d on p er c a p ita
expen d itu re for n o n resid en tial build in g s in re p re se n ta tiv e cities, based on th e
d a ta co n tained in th is bulletin, w ere published in th e L ab o r R eview for June,
1927 (pp. 1-18), a n d Ju ly , 1927 (pp. 17-19), respectively.
------ -- -----C hildren’s B ureau. Publication No. 177: The Children’s B ureau of
Cleveland. A study o f the care o f dependent children in Cleveland, Ohio, by
M ary M ather Leete. W ashington, 1927. v, 98 pp.
~
Women s B ureau. B ulletin No. 60: In d ustria l accidents to women in
N ew Jersey, Ohio, and W isconsin. W ashington, 1927. vii, 316 pp.
R eview ed on page 56 of th is issue.
-------D e p a rtm e n t of th e In te rio r. B ureau of E d u catio n . B ulletin, 1927, No. 6:
W ork of the B ureau of E ducation fo r the natives o f A laska, by W illia m H am ilton.
Washington, 1927. 5 pp. (Advance sheets fro m the B ien n ia l Survey of
Education, 1924-1926.)
R eview ed on page 76 of th is issue.

Official—Foreign Countries
C ourt of C onciliation a n d A rb itra tio n . Commonwealth arbitration
reports, vol. 23: A report o f cases decided and awards made in the Common­
wealth Court of Conciliation and Arbitration, including conferences convened
by the president and deputy presidents, J a n u a ry 1, 1926, to J u ly 19 1926
Melbourne, 1926. x xxiii, 940 pp.

A u s t r a l ia .

------- ( V i c t o r i a ) . —

G o v ern m en t S ta tist. V ictorian year-book, 1925-26. M el­
bourne, 1927. vi. 647 pp., maps.
T h is y earbook co n tain s d a ta on la b o r cond itio n s in facto ries a n d shops, wages,
em ploym ent, child lab o r, in d u stria l accidents, w o rk m e n ’s com pensation, in v alid
a n d old-age pensions a n d m a te rn ity allow ances, th e w ork of v ario u s relief funds,
friendly societies, a n d th e W orking M e n ’s College a t M elbourne.
M inistère de l ’In té rie u r e t de l ’H ygiène. A n n u a ire statistique de la
Belgique et du Congo Belge, 1924-25. Tome L. Brussels, 1927. [Various
paging.)
V olum e co n tain s d a ta on w ages in Belgian coal m ines from 1920 to 1925,
in d u stria l accidents, strik es, lockouts, n u m b e r of w orkers em ployed in various
industries, social insu ran ce, co operation, etc.
B e l g i u m .—

D irection G énérale d e la S ta tistiq u e . Statistique des coopératives
dans le R oyaum e de Bulgarie pendant l ’année 1923. Sofia, 1927. 133 pp.
E n tire ly s ta tis tjpal, th e ta b le s giving d etailed d a ta (in b o th B u lg arian a n d
French) concerning th e v ario u s ty p e s of co o p erativ e societies in B ulgaria. On
B u l g a r ia


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231

D ecem ber 31, 1923, th e re w ere 3,409 co o p erativ e societies of all k inds, of w hich
1,812 fu rn ish ed rep o rts. T hese h a d 336,506 m em bers.
C a n a d a .— B ureau of S ta tistic s.
In te rn a l T ra d e B ranch. Prices and price in ­
dexes, 1913-1926. Ottawa, 1927. 170 pp.
T he volum e includes sta tistic s of dom estic a n d foreign wholesale a n d retail
prices, secu rity prices, exchange ra te s, prices of services (gas, electricity , tele­
phone, a n d stre e t car), a n d im p o rt a n d ex p o rt valu atio n s. In some cases d a ta
are given for as far back as 1890.
I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a b o r O f f i c e .— Studies and reports, series D (wages and hours
of work), No. 17: M in im u m wage-fixing m achinery— an international study oj
legislation and practice. Geneva, 1927. 155 pp.
T his s tu d y w as first pu b lish ed for use a t th e te n th session of th e In te rn a tio n a l
L ab o r C onference, th e su b je c t form ing Ite m I I of th e ag en d a of th e conference.
A brief notice of th e re p o rt w as p ublished in th e Ju n e , 1927, L ab o r Review
(p. 228). T he In te rn a tio n a l L abor Office h as now pu b lish ed i t as one of its
series of S tudies an d R ep o rts. T he in fo rm atio n c o n tain ed in th e p revious re p o rt
has been re p rin te d w ith a few a lte ra tio n s of d etail a n d w ith th e a d d itio n of a
su p p lem en t giving sum m aries of m in im u m w age legislation in N orw ay, C zecho­
slovakia, H u n g ary , a n d Spain, th ese co u n tries h av in g been o m itte d u o m th e
o rig in al re p o rt for lack of d a ta .
N o r w a y — [D e p a rte m e n te t for Sociale Sakér.] S tatistisk e C en tralb y râ. Arbeidsl<j>nnen i jordbruket, 1926-27. Oslo, 1927. U], 15 PP- Norges offisielle
statistikk V I I I , S3.
T his re p o rt p resen ts w ages of a g ricu ltu ral w orkers in N orw ay in 1926—27, w ith
co m p arativ e figures fo r earlier years.
P o l a n d . — M inistère du T ra v a il e t de l ’A ssistance Sociale.
Bibliothèque de
l’inspection du travail, V I: L ’Inspection du travail en 1925. W arsaw, 1927.
cxviii, 337 pp.
A m ong th e v arious sections in th is re p o rt is a resum é of fa c to ry in spection in
P o lan d in 1925, w hich is preceded by a brief review of th e econom ic situ a tio n of
th e co u n try in t h a t year.
------ Office C en tral de S tatistiq u e. Statistique de la Pologne, Tome
Fascicule 2: Le premier recensement général de la République polonaise du
Septembre 30, 1921. Bâtim ents. Tableaux. W arsaw , 1926. vii, 79 pp.
T h e resu lts of th e build in g census in P o lan d are p resen ted in 3 tab le s, th e
first, for th e c o u n try as a w hole, including b o th u rb a n a n d ru ra l localities. I he
o th er tw o tab les are confined to tow ns.
__________ Statistique de la Pologne, Tome X V I I : Le premier recensement général
de la République polonaise du Septembre 30, 1921. Logements, population,
professions. Department de Kielce. W arsaw, 1927. xvi, 303 pp.
T he com plete p u b lic a tio n of th e re su lts of th e first census of th e R epublic of
P o lan d will include 14 volum es. V olum e X V II, listed above, c o n tain s sta tistic s
on occupied dw ellings, th e resid en t p o p u latio n , a n d th e n u m b e r oi persons
engaged in various gainful occupations.

Unofficial
o f R a il w a y E x e c u t iv e s .
C o m m ittee on S tab ilizatio n of E m ­
plo y m en t. Stabilization of employm ent on the railroads. W ashington, 1927.
9 pp., chart.
A v r a m , M o is H .
The rayon industry. New York, D. V an N ostrand Co., 1927.
xxi, 622 pp., illustrations, diagrams.
T his book p resen ts d e tailed discussions of all th e fa c to rs e n terin g in to th e
p ro d u ctio n of rayon. I t sta te s t h a t th e lab o r cost of pro d u cin g a p o u n d of ray o n
is from 48 to 60 cents.

A s s o c ia t io n


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

T ., C om piler. Selected articles on old-age pensions. N ew Y o rk
H . W . W ilson Co., 1927. Ixxii, 359 pp. ( The handbook series, Series I I
vol. 1.)
O ne of th e h an d b o o k series p u blished by th is co m p an y , w hich is arran g ed
w ith a view to th e “ special need of lib rarian s, high-school d eb a tin g leagues, a n d
oth ers who w a n t reliable in fo rm atio n in condensed fo rm .” T his volum e on
old-age pensions co n tain s general discussions of old-age pensions in th is co u n try
an d ab ro ad , a n d a rg u m e n ts fo r a n d a g a in st a n o n c o n trib u to ry old-age pension
law. Briefs a n d a b ib lio g rap h y a re included.
B em an, L am ar

M odern industry. N ew Y o rk,
Longm ans, Green & Co., 1927. x, 593 pp., m aps, illustrations, diagrams.
A descriptive acco u n t of th e v arious p ro d u c tiv e a c tiv itie s of m o d ern econom ic
life, a n d th e relatio n s of th e various p a rts to each o th er.
B o g a r t , E r n e s t L ., a n d L a n d o n , C h a r l e s E .

D iscussions by leading authorities as pre­
sented at the Congress of A m erican In d u stry , held in Philadelphia, September
7 to 27, 1926. Philadelphia, 1926. 276 pp., illustrations, charts.
In clu d ed am ong th e addresses a t th is conference, a n d rep ro d u ced in th is
volum e of th e proceedings, w ere th e follow ing: T h e em ployee— his resp o n sib il­
ities, b y S ecretary of L a b o r Ja m es J. D avis; T h e em p lo y er— his responsibilities,
b y C harles Piez; L ab o r, b y W illiam G reen; In d u s tria l associations, b y Jo h n E.
E d g erto n ; In d u s tria l m an ag e m en t, b y H en ry S. D ennison; a n d H u m a n re la ­
tionships, b y T hom as E. M itten .
C o n g r e s s o f A m e r ic a n I n d u s t r y .

A c a d e m y o f A r t s a n d S c ie n c e s .
Transactions, Vol. 28, pp.
79-235: The distribution of in d ustrial occupations in E ngland, 1841—1861 by
Clive D ay. N ew Haven, M arch, 1927.

C o n n e c t ic u t

Forem anship and supervision: A practical handbook fo r fore­
m an conference leaders and supervisors of vocational education. N ew York,
John W iley & Sons (In c.), 1927. xvii, 238 p p ., charts, illustration.
F a i r c h i l d , H e n r y P ra_t t , E d ito r.
Im m ig ra n t backgrounds. N ew York, John
W iley & Sons (In c.), 1927. x, 269 pp.
A series of m onographs, by v ario u s a u th o rs, dealing w ith th e racial, cultural,
an d social ch aracteristics of th e peoples w hich h av e c o n trib u te d m o st heavily to
im m igration in to th e U n ited S tates.
C ush m a n , F r a n k .

F r a n c e s E l m a . Labor and politics in England,
D urham, N . C., D uke U niversity Press, 1927. vii, 319 pp.

G il l e s p ie ,

The worker and his job: Outlines fo r the use of
N ew York, 129 E ast 52d Street, 1927. 65 pp.
I hese stu d y o u tlin es w ere p re p a re d fo r use in sm all classes o r
m eetin g u n d e r th e au sp ices of trad e-u n io n s, shops, co m m u n ity
tions, or churches, in th e consid eratio n of problem s t h a t arise in
th e ir ev ery d ay w orking relatio n s.
I n q u ir y , T h e .

1850-1867

workers’ arouvs
clubs of w orkers
houses, associa­
connection w ith

1927. Issu ed by the general •council of the Trades Union
congress and the national executive of the Labor P arty. London, Labor P ub­
lications Departm ent, 3 2 -3 4 Eccleston Square, 1927. xl, 507 pp.
T his issue of th e L ab o r Y earbook co n ta in s th e u su a l d a ta on th e a c tiv itie s of
various o rganization s affiliated to th e T rad es U nion C ongress a n d th e L ab o r
P a rty in G reat B rita in in 1926-27; a brief su rv ey of th e a c tiv itie s of P a rlia m e n t
in 1926, th e te x t of th e tra d e d isp u tes a n d tra d e -u n io n s bill, w ith a c tio n ta k e n
on it b y lab o r organ izatio n s a n d b y th e G o v ern m en t; te x t a n d discussion of th e
ag reem en t betw een th e L ab o r P a rty a n d th e C o o p erativ e P a rtv ; a n d co nsiderable
d a ta on w ages an d hours, u n em p lo y m en t, in d u s tria l d isp u tes, in d u s tria l accid en ts,
tra d e boards, trad e-u n io n s, cost of living, po o r relief, etc., a n d in te rn a tio n a l lab o r
m a tte rs. D irectories of B ritish a n d of in te rn a tio n a l la b o r bodies a n d p u b licatio n s
are included.
L abor Y ear B ook,


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PUBLICATIONS RELATING TO LABOR
L ippin c o t t , I saa c ,

United States.
illustrations.

233

and T u c k e r , H. R.
Economic and social history of the
New York, D. Appleton & Co., 1927. xxiii, 635 pp., maps,

T his book, in te n d e d as a school tex tb o o k , stresses th e social a n d econom ic
d ev elo pm ent of th e N atio n , a t th e sam e tim e p re se n tin g th e lead in g political
issues. I t is div id ed in to th re e p a rts : I, C olonial tim es; I I , T h e fo u n d in g of a
n atio n , 1789-1860; a n d I I I , T h e g ro w th of n a tio n a l pow er, 1860 to th e p resen t.
E ach p a r t co n tain s sections on lab o r conditions.
and S t e g e m e r t e n , G. J.
Time and motion
study and formulas for wage incentives. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co.
{Inc.), 1927. xiv, 377 pp., charts, illustrations.
M e t r o po l it a n L if e I n su r a n c e C o . P olicyholders Service B ureau. Labor
turnover series No. 2: The exit interview. ~New York [1927?]. 21 pp.

L o w r y , S. M ., M a y n a r d , H . B.,

R eview ed on page 19 of th is issue.
of L egal A id O r g a n iz a t io n s .
Record of proceedings
at the fourth annual meeting, held at New York City, April 7 and 8, 1926.
[Boston, 1927?] 273 pp.
N a tio na l I n d u s t r ia l C o n f e r e n c e B oard (I n c .). Minimum wage legislation
in Massachusetts. New York, 247 Park Avenue, 1927. xiii, 243 pp., charts.

N a t io n a l A sso cia tio n

T his volum e p resen ts a stu d y of th e s tru c tu re a n d a d m in istra tio n of th e m in i­
m u m w age law for w om en in M assach u setts. I t s conclusions a re t h a t “ alth o u g h
th e w ages of som e w om en in M assa c h u se tts in d u strie s h a v e been raised since
1914 th ro u g h th e o p era tio n of th e m in im u m w age law , th e g eneral level of wages
in th ese o ccupations is ju s t a b o u t w here i t w ould h a v e been h a d th e re been no
w age law . Ju d g ed b y th e experience in M assach u setts, no m a tte r how lib eral
th e sta n d a rd s, a n im p a rtia l ev a lu a tio n of resu lts can p ro d u ce very little in fav o r
of reco m m en d ato ry m in im u m w age legislation fo r w o m en .”
------ The workmen's compensation problem in New York State.

Park Avenue, 1927. xx, 375 pp., charts.

New York, 2Jf7

T h is volum e co n tain s a stu d y of th e w o rk m en ’s co m p en satio n law of New
Y ork a n d its d ev elo p m en t a n d o p eratio n , com parison w ith th e co m p en satio n laws
of o th e r S tates, a ttitu d e of th e co u rts to w a rd its in te rp re ta tio n a n d a d m in istra ­
tio n , an d its cost to th e S ta te .
of I n d u st r ia l P sychology .
Institute report No. 1: Occu­
pation analysis— the study of aptitudes and attainments necessary for success
in different kinds of employment. London W . C. 1, 329 High Holborn [1926?].
[4], 36 pp.

N a t io na l I n st it u t e

T h e first of a series of special rep o rts describing an ex p erim en t in v o catio n al
guidance carried o u t in L ondon.
B u reau o f B usiness R esearch. Monograph No. 8:
Money-lending practices of building and loan associations in Ohio, by H.
Morton Bodfish. Columbus, 1927. vii, 84 pp., maps, charts.
R a t h b o n e , E lea n o r F . The disinherited family— a plea for direct provision
for the costs of child maintenance through family allowances. London, George
Allen & Unwin {Ltd.), 1927. xii, 345 pp. 3d ed.

O hio S ta te U n iv e r s it y .

In th is la te s t ed itio n M iss R a th b o n e h as ad d ed a c h a p te r on dev elo p m en ts in
th e fam ily-allow ance m o v em en t in G re a t B rita in an d o th e r co u n tries since th e
first p u b licatio n of h e r book in M arch, 1924.
L ib ra ry . Bulletin No. 84: Employment for the
handicapped {supplementary list). New York, 130 East 22d Street, August,
1927. 4 PP- {Bibliography.)
S m it h , H omer J. Industrial education: Administration and supervision. New
York, Century Co., 1927. xx, 334 PP-> maps, charts.
R u ss e l l S age F o u n d a t io n .

68952°—27

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S oc iété po u r l ’É t u d e pr a tiq u e d e la P a r tic ipa tio n d u P e r so n n e l d a n s le
B é n é f ic e s . Bulletin de la 'participation aux bénéfices, 1926. Paris, 1926.

200 pp.

T h e proceedings of th e fo rty -se v e n th g eneral assem bly of th e F ren ch Society
for th e S tu d y of P ro fit S h arin g a n d of th e m eetings of th e a d m in is tra tiv e council
held d u rin g 1926.
of L ocal B u il d in g a n d L oan A s so c ia t io n s .
Pro­
ceedings of the thirty-fourth annual meeting, held at Minneapolis, Minn.,
July 20-22, 1926. Cincinnati [1926?]. 883 pp.

U n it e d S t a tes L e a g u e

D a ta p resen ted a t th is m eeting, show ing th e s ta tu s of th e b uilding a n d loan
associations in 1924-25, w ere given in th e M arch, 1927, issue of th e L ab o r R e­
view (p. 42).
------ Secretary's annual report relating to the building and loan associations in the

United States, submitted to the 35th annual meeting at Asheville, N. C., July
19-22, 1927. Cincinnati [1927?]. 87 pp.

D a ta from th is re p o rt a re given on page 70 of th is issue.

Employment statistics and trade-unions. Washington,
(Reprinted from the American Federationist, April, 1927.)
W o o d bu r y , R o ber t M o r se . Infant mortality and its causes, with an appendix
on the trend of maternal mortality rates in the United States. Baltimore,
Williams & Wilkins Co., 1926. x, 204 PP•------ Workers' health and safety— a statistical program. New York, Macmillan
Co., 1927. xii, 207 pp. (Publication of Institute of Economics, Washington,
D. C.)
V an

K leeck, M ary.

1927.

7 pp.

T his book h as been w ritte n , it is sta te d in th e preface, in th e belief t h a t " s ta tis ­
tics should b e a m eans to a n en d a n d n o t a n end in th em selv es a n d t h a t en d is th e
im p ro v em en t of econom ic a n d social co n d itio n s,” a n d th e p u rp o se of th e a u th o r
is to p re s e n t a p la n b y w hich th is m ission of sta tistic s m ay b e accom plished, w ith
special ap p lic a tio n to th e field of acc id e n t a n d h e a lth sta tistic s. T h is p lan is
th e d ev elo p m en t of tw o th o u g h ts, nam ely :
F irst, th e a b a n d o n m e n t of superfluous co m p ilatio n s a n d th e in tro d u c tio n of
such changes in m eth o d s a n d ta b u la tio n s a s can b e m a d e w ith o u t a n y m ajo r
reo rganization of existing m e th o d s a n d p ro ced u re, a n d , second, reco m m en d atio n s
for guiding th e fu rth e r d ev elo p m en t of sta tistic s to m e e t p re se n t or fu tu re re q u ire­
m ents.
T h e book is in tw o p a rts : In d u s tria l accid en ts, a n d T h e w o rk ers’ h e a lth , each
p a r t dealing w ith th e p ro b lem p resen ted , s ta tistic s needed, a n a p p ra isa l of existing
sta tistic s, a n d a suggested p ro g ram . T h e re is a plea fo r g o v e rn m e n ta l a p p ro p ria ­
tio n s to m ak e a d e q u a te s ta tis tic a l in fo rm a tio n a v a ila b le as a m ean s of m eetin g
th e ever p re s e n t problem s of in d u stria l safety a n d h e a lth — " t h e sav in g of life, th e
d im in u tio n of injuries, th e decrease in disease, th e p ro m o tio n of h e a lth , a n d th e
elim ination of th e econom ic a n d social consequences of a c cid en ts a n d sickness.”


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

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