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MONTHLY LABOR

REVIEW
Volume 131, Number 11
November 2008

401(k) plans move away from employer stock as investment vehicle

3

Increasingly, employees are given the option to choose how their 401(k) plan funds are invested;
this greater choice is one factor in the decreased exposure to investment in employer stock
William J. Wiatrowski

Occupational employment in the not-for-profit sector

11

The for-profit and not-for-profit sectors differ in regards to the industries
with the most employees and the types of jobs that employees most commonly hold
Zack Warren

The employment rate of people with disabilities

44

Three critical issues assess the success of employment policies for the disabled,but there is no clear
consensus regarding the outcome of these issues; more comprehensive survey coverage is needed
Burt S. Barnow

How high school students use time: a visual essay

51

Mary Dorinda Allard

Departments
Labor month in review
Current labor statistics

2
63

Editor-in-Chief: Michael D. Levi z Executive Editor: William Parks II z Managing Editor: Leslie Brown Joyner z Editors: Brian
I. Baker, Casey P. Homan z Book Review Editor: James Titkemeyer z Design and Layout: Catherine D. Bowman, Edith W. Peters z
Contributing Editor: Lawrence H. Leith

Labor Month In Review

The November Review
Given ongoing events in the securities markets, workers and their families are perhaps more focused on
their retirement plans and retirement
investments than ever before. The
lead article in this month’s Review
examines an important aspect in the
history of 401(k) plans, namely, the
changing availability over time of the
opportunity to invest in the stock of
one’s own employer. William J. Wiatrowski first provides a brief overview
of these defined contribution retirement plans, and then elucidates the
shift over the 20 years from 1985 to
2005 of the use of stock as an investment vehicle. Given the prominence
and ubiquity of 401(k) plans in today’s world, the changes discussed in
this article are particularly timely.
Zack Warren compares occupational employment and wages in the
not-for-profit and for-profit sectors
using data from the Occupational
Employment Statistics (OES) program. As he notes, the number of
not-for-profit institutions has increased rapidly in recent years, and
the employment generated by such
places has grown concurrently. Using
the great volume of detailed industry
and occupational employment information available from this program,
he finds that occupational differences
between for-profit and not-for-profit
organizations can vary greatly from
industry to industry.
The employment status of people
with disabilities has been a topic of
considerable attention and research
in recent years, in both the public
and private sectors. Burt S. Barnow
identifies issues he feels are especially
critical in regard to measuring not

2

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

only employment status, but also the
very nature of disability status itself.
He also examines the impact of the
Americans with Disabilities Act on
the employment trends of disabled
persons. He makes it clear that from
his perspective socioeconomic surveys have to cover these issues more
comprehensively if a fuller understanding of this sensitive subject is to
be attained.
Finally for the November issue,
Mary Dorinda Allard provides a look
at how that most rambunctious of
groups—high school students—allocate their time engaging in homework, household activities, and other
aspects of their lives.

Labor force characteristics
by race and ethnicity
As data have indicated for a long time,
there are differences in employment
and unemployment patterns for labor
market participants relating to race
and ethnicity. Adult men of Hispanic
ethnicity, for instance, have a higher
share of their population employed
than do their white, black, and Asian
counterparts. Among adult women, a
lower share of Hispanics is employed
than their counterparts from the race
groups.
In terms of education attained—always a critical factor influencing labor
market outcomes—about the same
share (around 90 percent) of white,
black, and Asian workers 25 years of
age and older has received at least a
high school diploma. By contrast,
a significantly smaller share (about
66 percent) of Hispanic workers has
completed high school.
A full range of comparative information like that noted here can be

found in a new report from BLS called
Labor Force Characteristics by Race and
Ethnicity, 2007. The report contains
analysis and detailed tables presenting an array of labor market measures
tabulated from this particular demographic focus. The online edition of
this report can be found at http://
www.bls.gov/cps/cpsrace2007.pdf

Program Perspectives
recently launched a new publication called Program Perspectives. It
is designed to be a showcase for the
Bureau’s various programs to highlight recent trends and developments
in their data. The format is designed
to be concise and visually fresh. This
online publication likely will be posted a number of times per year.
The inaugural issue focuses on
health benefits data from the National Compensation Survey. Topics
covered include trends in employer
costs for health benefits, access rates
to health care benefits for employees,
and participation rates for workers in
their employers’ health plans. The first
issue can be found online at http://
www.bls.gov/opub/perspectives/
BLS

Communications regarding
the Monthly Labor Review
may be sent to:
Editor-in-Chief
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Washington, DC 20212
E-mail: mlr@bls.gov
Telephone: (202) 691-5900

401(k) plans

401(k) plans move away from employer
stock as investment vehicle
Increasingly, employees are given the option to choose how their 401(k)
plan funds are invested; this greater choice is one factor in the decreased
exposure to investment in employer stock

William J. Wiatrowski

William J. Wiatrowski
is an economist
in the Office of
Compensation and
Working Conditions,
Bureau of Labor
Statistics. E-mail:
Wiatrowski.william@
bls.gov.

T

he Pension Protection Act of 2006
seeks to encourage expanded participation in 401(k) plans by allowing new employees to be automatically
enrolled in such plans, and, in the absence
of an employee decision, clarifying the rules
for investment of plan assets. Regulations
to implement this law, finalized by the U.S.
Department of Labor in October 2007,
specify that a “participant in a participant
directed individual account pension plan
will be deemed to have exercised control
over assets in his or her account if, in the
absence of investment directions from the
participant, the plan invests in a qualified default investment alternative,” which
establishes a general prohibition against
holding or permitting acquisition of employer securities.1 This effort to ensure that
employee accounts are invested in a diversified portfolio is a change from the earlier
history of 401(k) plans, when investment
in employer stock was prevalent. As plans
begin to adapt to these new regulations, a
look at the trend in 401(k) investment options over the past two decades shows a
steady move away from employer stock as
an investment vehicle. Should plans choose
to expand the use of automatic enrollment
features as a means of further encouraging
participation, the regulations requiring the
use of qualified investments might result in
further movement away from investment in
employer stock.

401(k) plans, in brief
Internal Revenue Code section 401(k)
was introduced as part of the Revenue Act
of 1978.2 Commonly known as “401(k)
plans,” these kinds of plans first came into
prominence in the early 1980s. Section 401(k)
defines a feature of a defined contribution
plan that allows employees to choose to
defer some income (and, consequently,
defer current taxation of that income) into
a retirement account. In general, defined
contribution plans are individual accounts
that accumulate employer and employee
contributions, plus earnings, the result
of which is available to the employee at
retirement. The most prevalent 401(k) plan is
known as a savings and thrift plan (or some
variant such as a thrift-savings plan), which
gives the employee the option to invest some
percent of earnings that is then matched by
employer funds. For example, a plan might
allow the employee to contribute from 110 percent of their earnings, tax deferred,
with the employer matching 50 percent of
the first 6 percent of earnings contributed.
If the employee chose to contribute 10
percent, the employer would add 3 percent
(50 percent of the first 6 percent). The
total of 13 percent of earnings would then
be invested in the employee’s account.3
There are other types of defined contribution plans and other ways that section
401(k) is used to allow pretax contributions.
Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

3

401(k) plans

In all cases, the total employee and employer contributions
are invested, with the employee bearing the risk of investment gains and losses. The investment choices for 401(k)
plans have changed considerably over the past 20 years,
reflecting changes in law and regulation, the expanded use
of 401(k) plans as the primary vehicle for providing retirement income, and heightened concern that employees
should be properly educated about investment choices.4

401(k) investment options
The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) tracks the percent of
workers who participate in various types of employee benefits, as well as the details of those benefits. Following the
introduction of 401(k) plans, BLS expanded its benefits
survey in the mid-1980s to incorporate defined contribution plans. Since then, BLS data have tracked the increased
participation in defined contribution plans and the decreased participation in defined benefit plans. By capturing the provisions of 401(k) plans, BLS has also tracked
the movement toward allowing employees to choose their
own investments and the decline in the use of employer
stock as an investment vehicle.5
The typical plan consists of employee contributions and
employer matching contributions, each of which can be

invested in a variety of vehicles. A plan may give participants the choice of investment options for the employee
contributions, the employer matching contributions, or
both, or the plan may specify the investments without
providing a choice to the employee. Early 401(k) plans
often allowed participants to choose how to invest their
own funds, but the plan designated how employer matching funds were invested. For example, among plan participants in 1985, 90 percent could elect how their own
contributions were invested while only 48 percent could
elect how employer funds were to be invested. Two decades later, while the same percent could elect how their
own contributions were invested, those who could elect
how employer funds were invested had risen gradually to
76 percent of participants. Chart 1 shows the percentage
of participants who could choose their own investments
over time.6 (Note that the intervals between data in the
chart vary based on the availability of data.)
New tabulations from the most recent BLS data indicate that most plans treat the investment of employee
and employer funds the same way. These 2005 data show
that, in the minority of cases where investment provisions differed, typically employees could choose how to
invest their own funds, but they had no choice in the investment of employer matching funds.7 This could be due

Chart 1. Percent of 401(k) plans participants allowed to choose plan investments, 1985–2005
Percent of participants

Percent of participants

100

Employee contributions

100

Employer contributions

80

80

60

60

40

40

20

20

0

0
1985

4

1989

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

1993

1997

2000

2003

2005

in part to regulations restricting plan investments when
no employee choice is offered.8

Using stock as an investment vehicle
Although plans are allowing participants to make their own
investment choices more frequently than in the past, the
use of employer stock as one of those choices has become
less prevalent. The widespread prevalence of investment in
employer stock in the 1980s may be related to how 401(k)
plans were first introduced—as supplements to existing
defined benefit plans. Because these plans were not considered the employee’s primary source of retirement income,
employers had the opportunity to use the plans to serve
other purposes, such as building loyalty through employee
ownership. At roughly the same time, labor-management
agreements were introducing more cooperative provisions
intent on building employee loyalty, ranging from statements of cooperation and joint efforts to address safety
issues up to union-management participation in strategic
decision making.9
There are drawbacks to investments in company stock,
however, such as lack of investment diversity and the
potential for financial improprieties, both of which can
affect the value of an employee’s account. Consider the
following examples:

• In 1996, the Color Tile Company filed for bankruptcy. The company’s 401(k) plan was invested largely
in employer stock, which lost much of its value.
Because the risk of investment gains and losses is
borne by the plan participant, individual employees
lost much of their retirement savings.

• The highly publicized case of financial mismanagement at Enron Corporation also had implications
for the company’s 401(k) plan. The plan, which was
invested largely in employer stock, declined significantly in value. The plan allowed participants to
choose among several investment options for their
own contributions, but required that all company
matching contributions be invested in employer
stock. The company did have a provision that allowed employees to switch investment vehicles,
but company matching contributions could not be
switched out of employer stock until an employee
reached age 50.

• More recently, employees at Countrywide Finance
and Bears-Stern saw their plan balances drop with
the price of their employer’s stock. In the case of

Countrywide, employees filed suit against their employer because company financial problems related
to the loan business led to a decline in the value of
their 401(k) plan.10
Issues such as these, occurring at a time when 401(k)
plans were increasingly becoming the primary employersponsored retirement vehicle for many employees, resulted
in increased scrutiny of 401(k) investments and a number
of changes in the regulatory environment surrounding
401(k) plans. One result was the introduction of rules regarding investment education and diversity by the U.S.
Department of Labor.11
BLS data provide some indication of the use of employer stock as a 401(k) investment vehicle. They indicate that
workers’ exposure to own-employer stock has declined
substantially since 1985. Among funds contributed by
employers, a significant fraction of this decline was likely
caused by the increased control of the funds given to workers, as documented in chart 1. Since employer stock was
more prevalent among employer-provided funds with no
investment choice than among employer-provided funds
in which employees chose investment allocation—NCS
data from 1993 indicate that these fractions were 64 percent and 38 percent, respectively—the increasing fraction
of funds having employee choice caused employer stock
exposure to decline. Less change is observed among employee-provided funds, where investment choice was and
continues to be widespread.
Another source of decline in workers’ exposure to
own-employer stock was that, within those plans allowing choice, there was a marked decline in the fraction
allowing employer stock as a possibility. This trend applied to both employer- and employee-provided funds.
Among employee-provided funds, the proportion of
workers that had the choice to invest in employer stock
was 70 percent in 1985, but that figure had declined to
25 percent by 2005. Among employer-provided funds,
the percent of those who could choose employer stock
as an investment declined sharply from 1985 to 1997
(61 percent to 25 percent), and then continued to drop
after that, reaching 19 percent in 2005.12 (See chart 2.)
Tabulations from the 2005 BLS benefits survey give
details on whether those able to choose their investments
have the same choices for employee and employer contributions. In nearly every plan, the availability of employer
stock as an investment choice was treated the same for
employee and employer contributions—either all contributions could be invested in employer stock or no contributions could be invested in employer stock.
Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

5

401(k) plans

Chart 2. Percent of 401(k) plan participants with employer stock included among investment choices, 1985–2005

Percent of participants

Percent of participants

80

80
Employee contributions

Employer contributions

60

60

40

40

20

20

0

0
1985

1989

1993

1997

Calculating potential stock exposure
These data alone do not provide a complete look at the
potential exposure of own-employer stock in 401(k) investments. In this article, potential exposure is defined as
the percent of participants that could have their account
invested in employer stock, either automatically (in plans
that do not give employees the ability to make investment
decisions) or at the participant’s choosing.13 Such a figure
cannot be calculated in most years because data are not
available on the proportion of plans invested in employer
stock where no investment choice is given. Nonetheless,
available data can be used to estimate the lower and upper
bounds of possible employer stock exposure by assuming
that none or all of these funds, respectively, are exposed to
employer stock. Additionally, some assumptions and a little algebra can be used to provide an estimate of where the
true exposure figure is likely to lie within those bounds.
The lower bound, or minimum stock exposure, is derived from those participants that had a choice of investments that included employer stock. It assumes that none
of the participants with no investment choice held employer stock. Because the potential to invest in employer
stock among those with a choice is known, consider this
6

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

2000

2003

2005

proportion to be the lower bound of overall stock exposure, as follows:
• In 1985, 48 percent of 401(k) participants were given
an investment choice for employer matching funds
and 61 percent of them had employer stock as one
of the choices. Thus, about 29 percent (0.48 × 0.61
= 0.29) of all participants had a choice and could
choose employer stock.
• The comparable figures in 2005 are 76 percent and
19 percent, yielding about 14 percent (0.76 × 0.19 =
0.14) of all participants who had a choice and could
choose employer stock.
• Using the same calculation, the lower bound for
employee funds was 63 percent in 1985, and it had
fallen to 23 percent by 2005.
The upper bound, or maximum stock exposure, assumes
that participants who are not given a choice of investments
have potentially all their funds invested in own-employer
stock. This was the case in the Color Tile plans, for example, but it might not be the case in all plans. Looking
at the investment of employer matching funds, 52 percent
did not have an investment choice in 1985, and 24 percent

did not have an investment choice in 2005. Adding those
with no choice to those whose choices included employer
stock (the lower bound computed on page 6) yields the
upper bound of potential employer stock exposure. For
employer matching funds, that upper bound was 81 percent of all participants in 1985 (0.52 + 0.29), but it had
fallen to 38 percent of all participants in 2005 (24 plus
14). The upper bound for employee funds was 73 percent
in 1985 and 32 percent in 2005.
Mirroring the increase in investment choice and the
decline in the choice of employer stock, the decline in the
upper bound for employer funds is driven by increased
investment choice, while the decline in the upper bound
for employee funds is driven by the decreased opportunity
to choose employer stock. Charts 3 and 4 depict the lower
and upper bound for employee and employer funds.
Where, between these upper and lower bounds, did the
true percent of workers with exposure to company stock
lie? NCS data in most years do not allow the direct measurement of this figure. In 1993, however, the BLS benefits
survey compiled data on the available investment vehicles
for 401(k) funds, regardless of whether participants were
allowed to direct their investments. Such data can be dif-

ficult to capture from written plan descriptions, which often do not provide details of investments when no choice
is provided. Nonetheless, this 1 year of data provides a
small piece of information to anchor projections of the
exposure in the surrounding years.
Among all plan participants in 1993, 43 percent were in
plans that allowed investment of employee contributions
in employer stock; the total potential exposure of employer stock was 43 percent. This compares with about 41
percent of participants who could choose employer stock
as an investment (86 percent with choice multiplied by 48
percent with stock as one of the choices). This suggests
that only about 2 percent of all participants had plans that
offered no choice and were invested in employer stock.
The story is quite different for employer matching contributions. In this case, the exposure for all participants
was 49 percent. This compares with 22 percent who could
choose employer stock as an investment (0.58 × 0.38).
Thus, about 27 percent of participants had plans in which
employer matching funds were automatically invested in
employer stock.
Some assumptions are used to project what this exposure number might have been in other years between 1985

Chart 3. Potential investment of 401(k) employer matching funds in employer stock, 1985–2005
Percent of participants

Percent of participants
100

100

80

80

Upper bound

60

60

40

40

Projected value

Lower bound
20

20

0

0
1985

1989

1993

1997

2000

2003

2005

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

7

401(k) plans

Chart 4. Potential investment of 401(k) employee contributions in employer stock, 1985–2005

Percent of participants

Percent of participants

80

80
Upper bound

70

70

60

60
Lower bound

50

50
Projected value

40

40

30

30

20

20

10

10

0

0
1985

1989

1993

and 2005, as shown in table 1. To make this calculation,
start by determining, for 1993, the percentage of participants having employer stock among those in which the
employee had no choice over investment allocation; these
figures were 12.29 percent (1.72 ÷ 14) for employee contributions and 64.19 percent (26.96 ÷ 42) for employer
contributions. Apply to these numbers the rate of change
in employer stock observed between 1993 and the other
years among contributions where the employee did choose
the investment allocation. The overall employer stock exposure was calculated from this projection.
These results provide a point estimate that lies between
the upper and lower bounds. For employee funds, this
point estimate straddles the lower bounds throughout the
period, demonstrating that only a small proportion of the
funds invested without employee choice went into employer stock. As employer stock as a choice declined, the
overall exposure declined at a comparable rate. Conversely,
for employer funds, the point estimate begins at the upper bound in 1985, as nearly all funds invested without
employee choice went into employer stock. The effect of
an increase in employee choice and a decrease in stock
as a choice is seen as the point estimate declines sharply
8

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

1997

2000

2003

2005

over the two decades, ultimately nearing the lower bound.
Decomposing this change, the decline can largely be attributed to the decline in the availability of stock as an
investment choice.14 The middle lines in charts 3 and 4
identify the estimates of total employer stock exposure.

Data by worker and establishment characteristics
Although the BLS benefits program regularly updates
the data that are collected and the methods of presentation, emphasis over the past few years has been on presenting data for subgroupings within the private sector
economy. Data on 401(k) investment choices for 2005 are
available by occupational group (white collar, blue collar,
and service workers), industry group (goods producing
and service producing), establishment employment (1 to
99 workers and 100 or more workers), and whether the
workers are union or nonunion. Table 2 provides data
on whether employees can choose their investments and
whether their choices include employer stock for each of
these categories.
The data in many of these categories show little variation, with a couple of exceptions. Looking at the availabil-

Table 1. Calculation of employer stock penetration in 401(k) plans, 1985–2005
Characteristic

1985

1989

1993

1997

2000

2003

2005

Employee contributions
Share with investment choice ...............................................................
Percent of share with employer stock as a choice .........................
Percent of total with employer stock as a choice...........................

90.0
70.0
63.0

90.0
60.0
54.0

86.0
48.0
41.3

87.0
42.0
36.5

91.0
38.0
34.6

86.0
29.0
24.9

91.0
25.0
22.8

Share without investment choice ........................................................
Percent of share receiving employer stock
(projected) ...............................................................................................
Percent of total receiving employer stock
with no choice (projected).................................................................

10.0

10.0

14.0

13.0

9.0

14.0

9.0

17.9

15.4

12.3

10.8

9.7

7.4

6.4

1.8

1.5

1.7

1.4

.9

1.0

.6

Total penetration (projected) ................................................................
Employer contributions
Share with investment choice ...............................................................
Percent of share with employer stock as a choice .........................
Percent of total with employer stock as a choice...........................

64.8

55.5

43.0

37.9

35.5

26.0

23.3

48.0
61.0
29.3

53.0
50.0
26.5

58.0
38.0
22.0

65.0
25.0
16.3

65.0
20.0
13.0

72.0
21.0
15.1

76.0
19.0
14.4

Share without investment choice ........................................................
Percent of share receiving employe stock (projected) .................
Percent of total receiving employer stock with no choice
(projected) .............................................................................................

52.0
100.0

47.0
84.5

42.0
64.2

35.0
42.2

35.0
33.8

28.0
35.5

24.0
32.1

52.0

39.7

1

27.0

14.8

11.8

9.9

7.7

Total penetration (projected) ................................................................

81.3

66.2

1

49.0

31.0

24.8

25.1

22.1

1

Estimated from 1993 data; other figures projected as discussed in text..

Table 2.

NOTE:

1

1

1

1

Results are rounded for presentation.

Percent of 401(k) plan participants with investment choices by selected characteristics, 2005
Industry group

Occupational group
Characteristic

All workers

Establishment
size

100
Goods
Service 1 to 99 or more
producing producing workers workers

Union status

White
collar

Blue
collar

Service
workers

91
25

91
26

92
24

91
21

89
22

92
26

91
19

92
29

97
42

91
24

76
19

75
19

77
18

84
19

72
16

78
20

71
14

79
22

82
31

76
18

Union Nonunion

Employee contributions
Investment choice allowed .....................
Choice includes company stock..........
Employer contributions
Investment choice allowed .....................
Choice includes company stock ..........

ity of investment options for employee contributions, 97
percent of union participants have such options, compared
with 91 percent of nonunion participants. (For all participants, the comparable figure is 91 percent and most other
subgroupings show similar results.) Looking at the investment choices available among those allowed to choose,
42 percent of union participants who could choose their
investments had a choice of employer stock, compared
with 24 percent of nonunion participants. (Again, comparable numbers for all participants and most other subgroupings were similar to the nonunion figures.) Looking
at investment options for employer contributions, once
again union participants more often had plans that allowed investment choice (82 percent of union participants

versus 76 percent of nonunion participants) and included
employer stock among the choices (31 percent, compared
with 18 percent).
Although these patterns warrant further study, two
factors might contribute to the difference between union
and nonunion workers. First, union workers are much
more likely to be in a defined benefit plan than are their
nonunion counterparts—67 percent of union workers
participate in a defined benefit plan, compared with 15
percent of nonunion workers.15 Second, union workers
are more likely to be offered defined contribution plans
in addition to a defined benefit plan, while nonunion
workers might only be offered defined contribution plans.
Thus, for union workers, 401(k) plans might be considMonthly Labor Review • November 2008

9

401(k) plans

ered supplemental plans, which may in turn give employers more latitude to invest in employer stock.

THE 401(K) PLAN HAS BECOME THE MOST PROMINENT
type of employer-provided retirement benefit plan—more
than twice as many employees participate in such plans
(or in similar defined contribution plans) as participate in
defined benefit plans. As such, these plans have changed
many of their provisions over time, in recognition that investment risk is borne by the employee. The steady increase

in the percent of participants who have investment choices
for both employee and employer funds, and the steady
decrease in the percent who may choose employer stock
as one of those options, reflect both changes in law and
regulation, concerns based on high-profile plans, and an increase in investment education among employers and employees. Experimental tabulations further demonstrate that
the upper bound of employer stock exposure has declined
steadily in the past two decades as plans move toward putting all investment decisions in the hands of employees and
providing education to help make those decisions.

Notes
Acknowledgment: The author would like to thank Keenan Dworak-Fisher, an economist in the BLS Office of Compensation and Working Conditions,
for his advice and assistance with tabulations and analysis.
1
On October 24, 2007, the U.S. Department of Labor published final
regulations (72 Federal Register 60452, October 24, 2007) related to the default investment of retirement plan assets. These regulations, which result from
provisions of the Pension Protection Act of 2006 (Public Law 109–280), are
codified in 29 Code of Federal Regulations 2550.404c–5.
2

See Public Law 95–600, 92 Stat. 2763 (Nov. 6, 1978).

3

For a discussion of employer matching contributions in 401(k) plans, see
Keenan Dworak-Fisher, “Employer Generosity in Employer-Matched 401(k)
plans, 2002–03,” Monthly Labor Review, September 2007, pp. 11–19.
4
The U.S. Department of Labor, through its Employee Benefits Security
Administration, provides guidance to employers on investment education for
their employees. See, for example, http://www.dol.gov/dol/allcfr/title_29/
part_2509/29CFR2509.96-1.htm, as well as http://www.dol.gov/ebsa/publications/AC-1107a.html (both visited Jul. 7, 2008).
5
For the most recent data on detailed provisions of employee benefits, including defined contribution plans, see National Compensation Survey: Employee
Benefits in Private Industry in the United States, 2005, Bulletin 2589 (Bureau of
Labor Statistics, May 2007).
6
Collection and tabulation of BLS benefits data have undergone several
changes over the two decades covered in this study. Data for 1985 through 1997
are for full-time workers in medium and large private establishments, which
generally are those with 100 or more workers. Data for 2000 are for full-time
workers in all private establishments, regardless of the number of workers in
the establishment. Data for 2003 and 2005 are for all workers in all private
establishments. Because of these changes, the analysis presented here is limited
to details of plan provisions. While participation in 401(k) plans may differ by
employee group (such as full-time versus part-time workers), past studies of
changes in survey coverage have shown that plan provisions are often similar
among all groups. Data by worker and establishment characteristics at the end
of this article confirm this lack of variation. In addition, tabulation methods
have changed over the period of this study; most notable, unknown plan provisions have been treated in different ways. In this study, every effort was made to
compare similar data. However, no estimates of sampling error were calculated
for estimates in this article. Therefore, statements of comparison could not be
validated with a statistical test.

9
For more information on labor-management cooperative agreements, see
George R. Gray, Donald W. Myers, and Phyllis S. Myers, Cooperative provisions in labor agreements: a new paradigm?” Monthly Labor Review, January
1999, pp. 29–45.
10
These are just a few examples of issues related to the use of employer stock
as a 401(k) investment. For more information on these and other examples,
see Report of the Working Group on Employer Assets in ERISA Employer-Sponsored
Plans, on the Internet at http://www.dol.gov/ebsa/publications/acemer.htm
(visited Jul. 7, 2008); Eileen Alt Powell, “Holding too much company stock can
hurt workers if company falters,” San Diego Union Tribune, Mar. 19, 2008, on
the Internet at http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/business/200803191429-onthemoney.html (visited Jul. 8, 2008); and “Countrywide Sued Over
401(k)s,” The Washington Post, Sept. 13, 2007, p. D2 (visited Jul. 8, 2008).
11
For more on investment education requirements, see Report of the Working
Group on Employer Assets in ERISA Employer-Sponsored Plans, on the Internet at
http://www.dol.gov/ebsa/publications/acemer.htm (visited Jul. 7, 2008).
12
The availability of employer funds as an investment choice may be related to the type of company sponsoring the benefit plan. For example, smaller
companies may be owned by a single proprietor or small number of owners;
there may be no employer stock. In addition, some companies may have stock
holders but the stock is not publicly traded and not available for benefit plan
participants. In such cases, employer stock may not be an investment option.
Looking at data for smaller versus larger establishments, the proportion of plan
participants who had investment choice was similar while the proportion that
could investment in employer stock was greater among larger employers.
13
It is important to recognize that the BLS data are limited to the benefit plan provisions; data do not include information on employee investment
decisions. Information on actual employee investments is available from other
sources, such as the Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI) and the Survey
of Consumer Finance. EBRI data on 401(k) assets indicate that the portion of
assets in employer stock has dropped in recent years, from 19 percent in 1999
to 11 percent in 2006. Changes in asset proportions may be due to investment
choices, investment returns, fund transfers, and other items. Information from
EBRI may be found at www.ebri.org (visited Jul. 3, 2008). Data from the Survey
of Consumer Finance are available on the Internet at www.federalreserve.gov/
pubs/oss/oss2/scfindex.html (visited Jul. 3, 2008).

7
These new tabulations of the investment choice provisions for employee
and employer funds are incomplete because data are missing for some plan
provisions.

14
Holding the availability of stock as an investment constant at 1993 levels,
the decline in stock exposure from 1993 to 2005 is slight—only about 4 percentage points. Conversely, holding the availability of investment choice constant at 1993 levels, the decline in stock exposure mirrors the decline shown in
chart 3. These tests indicate that, among employer funds, eliminating stock as an
investment choice has by far the greater effect on overall stock exposure.

8
See U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, 29 CFR 2550.404c-1. For further
discussion, see Report of the Working Group on Employer Assets in ERISA EmployerSponsored Plans (U.S. Department of Labor, Advisory Council on Employee
Welfare and Pension Benefits Plans, Nov. 13, 1997), on the Internet at http://
www.dol.gov/ebsa/publications/acemer.htm (visited Jul. 7, 2008).

15
For recent BLS data on participation in benefit plans, see National Compensation Survey: Employee Benefits in Private Industry in the United States,
March 2007, Summary 07–05 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, August 2007);
available on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/sp/ebsm0006.pdf.
(visited Sept. 8, 2008).

10

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

Not-For-Profit Sector

Occupational employment
in the not-for-profit sector
The for-profit and not-for-profit sectors differ in regards to the industries
with the most employees and the types of jobs that employees most
commonly hold; the average wage of each sector is similar, but in a given
occupation, the profit sector is generally more highly remunerative

O
Zack Warren

Zack Warren is an
economist in the Occupational Employment
Statistics program,
Bureau of Labor Statistics. E-mail: warren.
zachary@bls.gov

ver the last few years, not-for-profit
employment has expanded rapidly.
Employment in not-for-profit establishments increased by over 5 percent in
2 years between 2002 and 2004;1 over the
same period, total private employment increased by less than 1 percent.2 Likewise,
the number of not-for-profit establishments
has increased by more than 36 percent in
the last 10 years.3 This rapid employment
growth, combined with the unique nature of
not-for-profit activities, has generated significant interest in employment patterns of
not-for-profit establishments.
Although there are a fair number of statistics relating to the number and type of
not-for-profit establishments in the United
States, there are surprisingly few employment and wage data on the people who work
in this sector. Among the most comprehensive analyses of not-for-profit employment
was a study by Lester M. Salamon and S.
Wojciech Sokolowski, who detailed the size
and urban nature of not-for-profit work and
described not-for-profit employment by
industry.4 This article seeks to further their
analysis by identifying the kinds of jobs
found in the not-for-profit sector, as well
as by comparing the wages of those working for not-for-profits with the wages of
those working in for-profit establishments.
It also examines differences in occupational
staffing patterns between for-profit and notfor-profit establishments within the same
industry. This is accomplished by combining
data from the 2006 Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey of the Bureau
of Labor Statistics with tax-exempt-status

information from the Internal Revenue
Service’s Business Master File of the Statistics of Income program.5
For the purposes of this article, a not-forprofit establishment is defined as one with
501(c) tax-exemption status. Not-for-profit
organizations include “corporations, and any
community chest, fund, or foundation, organized and operated exclusively for religious,
charitable, scientific, testing for public safety,
literary, or educational purposes…no part of
the net wages of which inures to the benefit
of any private shareholder or individual.”
Not-for-profit establishments also consist
of some labor and agricultural organizations,
business leagues, clubs and fraternal organizations, employee benefit organizations, and
credit unions.6 In order to maintain not-forprofit status, not-for-profit establishments
must not contribute to political campaigns.
As the aforementioned definition shows,
the not-for-profit sector consists of much
more than interest groups and charities. Although the 501(c) status does not encompass all not-for-profit work, it does cover a
broad range of activities. The definition of
not-for-profit employment based on 501(c)
status excludes government workers; in this
article, occupational employment and wage
data for government workers are presented
alongside the private for-profit and private
not-for-profit establishments in industries
where government employment is significant. When cross-industry government estimates are included, they comprise State-,
local-, and Federal-level data. Industry-specific government estimates are for State and
local government only.
Monthly Labor Review • November 2008 11

Not-For-Profit Sector

Description of the data set
The OES program surveys 1.2 million business establishments in six semiannual collection panels over a period of
3 years. Each establishment is asked to provide occupation
and wage information on each of its workers. The data are
used to create employment and wage estimates for the 801
occupations in the Standard Occupational Classification
system; the estimates are for the Nation, States, all metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas, and almost 400 industries defined according to the North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS). The sample is stratified
and weighted by the establishments’ 4- or 5-digit NAICS
industry, by State or territory (including Puerto Rico, the
Virgin Islands and Guam), by metropolitan or nonmetropolitan area, and by size. Because the OES survey does
not ask whether establishments are for profit or not for
profit, the original OES sample weights, which represent
individual establishments’ probability of selection, are not
adjusted for profit-status.
The estimates presented in this article were created by
pairing 2006 survey year OES establishment records with
the 501(c)-firm master list from the IRS Business Master
Table 1.

File. Records were linked on the basis of the Employer
Identification Number (EIN), which is an identifier assigned by the IRS to all employers that file taxes. In this
article, it is assumed that all establishments under a taxexempt EIN are tax exempt, because EINs are firm specific and not establishment specific. This methodology
produced a sample of approximately 80,000 OES units
identified as tax exempt, out of the total OES sample of
1.2 million establishments. Although the OES sample
does not target not-for-profit establishments specifically, the large size and deep stratification of the sample
are sufficient to produce estimates for the not-for-profit
sector nationally and for industries with a relatively large
percentage of not-for-profit employment. This matching
process is similar to, but less robust than, the one used by
Salamon and Sokolowski to identify not-for-profit establishments within the Quarterly Census of Employment
and Wages.7

Industries in the not-for-profit sector
Overall, not-for-profit employees make up approximately
8 percent of the total weighted employment in the OES

Industries with high levels of not-for-profit employment, 2006				

Not-for-profit
For-profit
Government Percent of emp-		
Industry
					
employment
employment
employment ployment in not								
for-profits
NAICS

6221 General, medical, and surgical hospitals....................................................
6113 Colleges, universities, and professional schools......................................
6241 Individual and family services........................................................................
6111 Elementary and secondary schools.............................................................
6231 Nursing care facilities........................................................................................
8134 Civic and social organizations........................................................................
6232 Residential mental retardation, mental health, and substance
	  abuse facilities.................................................................................................
8139 Business, professional, labor, political, and similar organizations.....
6211 Offices of physicians..........................................................................................
6243 Vocational rehabilitation services.................................................................

3,375,840
994,510
665,180
490,470
411,470
374,910

741,890
81,630
299,040
236,380
1,159,310
34,130

799,020
1,632,110
(1)
7,650,530
(1)
(1)

69
37
69
6
26
92

337,260
307,020
293,560
257,100

166,920
120,170
1,848,440
54,850

(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)

67
72
14
82

Child day care services......................................................................................
Outpatient care centers....................................................................................
Community care facilities for the elderly...................................................
Other amusement and recreation Industries ..........................................
Home health care services..............................................................................
Management of companies and enterprises............................................
Scientific research and development services.........................................
Social advocacy organizations.......................................................................
Other residential care facilities......................................................................
Depository credit intermediation.................................................................

251,560
241,290
222,860
215,300
170,050
167,210
157,190
156,870
119,870
115,950

517,390
246,730
405,060
850,130
684,980
1,629,380
429,470
10,050
45,080
1,690,210

(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)

33
49
35
20
20
9
27
94
73
6

6242 Community food and housing, and emergency and
	  other relief services.......................................................................................
8132 Grantmaking and giving services.................................................................
7121 Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions..................................
8131 Religious organizations....................................................................................

107,480
107,030
104,230
100,800

22,910
11,920
16,090
81,360

(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)

82
90
86
55

6244
6214
6233
7139
6216
5511
5417
8133
6239
5221

 		
1

12

Data are not available by industry for Federal Government workers or for State and local government workers outside schools and hospitals.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

sample, whereas for-profit employment is over 75 percent
of the total; the remaining 16 percent of employees are in
the public sector. Table 1 shows the 4-digit NAICS industries in the OES sample with the highest levels of not-forprofit employment, as well as the for-profit employment
in the same industries. In agreement with previous studies,
the table reveals that not-for-profits participate mostly in
healthcare, educational, or community support activities.

Occupations in the not-for-profit sector
The occupational composition of for-profit, not-for-profit,
and government employment is shown in chart 1, with the
share of employment in each of the 22 major occupational
groups shown along the x-axis. For example, community
and social services occupations represent only 0.3 percent
of for-profit employment, but this occupational group
represents about 7 percent of not-for-profit employment.
The occupational mix of not-for-profits is influenced by
the industries in which not-for-profits are concentrated.
Compared with for-profit establishments, not-for-profits
tend to employ more community and social service workers, teachers, healthcare workers, and personal care and
service workers. These occupations are concentrated in the
healthcare and social assistance industry and the education
industry, which have the largest not-for-profit employment. They also employ far smaller shares of sales workers,
food service workers, construction and extraction workers,
maintenance workers, production workers, and transportation workers, because these occupational categories are
more commonly associated with profit-seeking activities:
a not-for-profit organization that is not manufacturing or
selling a product will understandably require fewer sales
and production workers than a for-profit establishment.

Wages in the not-for-profit sector
Across all industries, for-profit employees earned an average hourly wage of $18.13, while not-for-profit employees
had a slightly higher average wage of $19.93. Although
the total average wages were higher for not-for-profit
workers, this was often primarily due to the occupational
composition and the relative lack of very low paying occupations in these establishments. It is also possible that
the duties performed by people employed in these lowpaying occupations are also performed in not-for-profit
establishments, but by volunteers instead of paid workers.
Because unpaid workers are excluded from the OES survey, their work was not captured by this study.
Chart 2 shows in more detail how occupational mix

contributes to the difference in average wages. Despite
the higher average wages in not-for-profit establishments
compared with for-profit establishments, not-for-profits
paid less for the same type of work: occupation by occupation, for-profit workers had higher average wages
than not-for profit workers in 12 of the 22 occupational
groups, including most of the higher paying occupational
groups with more highly skilled workers. For many of the
occupational groups, these wage differences are relatively
small;8 however, in the instances where there is a large gap
in wages for the same occupational group, the gap generally favors the for-profit workers. Some occupations had
higher wages in not-for-profit establishments, including
education-related occupations, architecture and engineering occupations, healthcare support workers, food service
occupations, and building service occupations. Overall,
government workers out-earned both for-profit and notfor-profit workers in production and service occupations,
whereas for-profit workers out-earned government workers and not-for-profit workers in professional occupations.
In the few major occupational groups where not-forprofit employees earned considerably higher wages than
for-profit employees, the comparisons may not be especially meaningful because of the small employment totals
or, in the case of education workers, may be somewhat
misleading. For example, the construction and extraction
and farming, fishing, and forestry occupational groups
both show an advantage for not-for-profit employees;
however, not-for-profit workers in these groups are extremely rare. Although education workers earned higher
wages in not-for-profit establishments, the premium is
magnified by differences in the detailed occupational composition within this group. Education workers are shown
to have had higher wages in part because postsecondary
teachers, who generally earn more than elementary and
secondary school teachers, made up a larger part of notfor-profit employment, and in part because teachers of all
types earned more in private not-for-profits than they did
in private for-profit establishments, as shown below.
Not-for-profit
Postsecondary ........... $69,581
Primary and
Secondary ................. $37,968

For-profit

Government

$53,254

$63,596

$29,761

$50,117

Salamon and Sokolowski demonstrated that, contrary
to the conventional wisdom, workers in educational services earned higher wages in not-for-profits than in forprofit establishments;9 by examining occupational data
Monthly Labor Review • November 2008 13

Not-For-Profit Sector

Chart 1. Distribution of employment in not-for-profit, for-profit, and government establishments
Percentage of the sector in occupational group1

Occupational group

0

5

10

Management

15

20

25

30

35

20

25

30

35

Not-for-profit
For-profit
Government

Business and financial operations
Computer and mathematical
Architecture and engineering
Life, physical, and social science
Community and social services
Legal
Education, training, and library
Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media
Healthcare practitioners and technical operations
Healthcare support
Protective service
Food preparation and serving related
Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance
Personal care and service
Sales and related
Office and administrative support
Farming, fishing, and forestry
Construction and extraction
Installation, maintenance, and repair
Production
Transportation and material moving

0

5

10

15

Percentage of the sector in occupational group1
1
This refers to the percentage of the sector (not-for-profit, for-profit, or government) that is represented by the occupational group in question, across
all industries. For example, community and social services occupations represents 7 percent of not-for-profit employment.

14

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

Chart 2. Mean hourly wages in not-for-profit, for-profit, and government establishments
Hourly wage, in dollars

Occupational group
0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

Management
Business and financial operations

Not-for-profit
For-profit
Government

Computer and mathematical
Architecture and engineering
Life, physical, and social science
Community and social services
Legal
Education, training, and library
Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media
Healthcare practitioners and technical
Healthcare support
Protective service
Food preparation and serving related
Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance
Personal care and service
Sales and related
Office and adminstrative support
Farming, fishing, and forestry
Construction and extraction
Installation, maintenance and repair
Production
Transportation and material moving
0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

Hourly wage, in dollars

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008 15

Not-For-Profit Sector

one can see exactly why. Postsecondary education teachers’
wages were generally lower in the government sector than
in not-for-profits, whereas government wages were usually higher for elementary and secondary school teachers
than teachers’ wages in both for-profits and not-for-profits. Full employment and wage data for all detailed occupations are shown in appendix table A–1 at the end of
this article.
Managers and employees in legal occupations had much
higher wages in for-profit establishments. This holds true
for all detailed management occupations except education
administrators and food service managers. The premium
for legal occupations is due in part to the much higher
wages for lawyers and law clerks in for-profit establishments, as well as to the larger share of legal occupation
employment that lawyers and law clerks constitute. Managers and employees in legal occupations have the highest
wage premiums in for-profit establishments in part because, compared with people in other occupations, these
two groups have by far the widest range of wages and
therefore more room for differentiation compared with
low-paying occupations, which feature very narrow wage
ranges.
Because an establishment’s industry is a major determinant of its occupational composition, comparing forprofit and not-for-profit establishments within the same
industry provides the best means of examining the effects
of profit status on occupational staffing patterns. The
next section examines three industries with high levels of
not-for-profit employment: the hospital industry, which
is the largest employer of not-for-profit workers; depository credit intermediation, which has the majority of its
employment in for-profits; and social advocacy, which has
the majority of its employment in not-for-profits.

General medical and surgical hospitals
Of the industries shown in table 1, general medical and
surgical hospitals had the highest level of not-for-profit
employment. “This industry comprises establishments
known and licensed as general medical and surgical
hospitals primarily engaged in providing diagnostic and
medical treatment (both surgical and nonsurgical) to
inpatients with any of a wide variety of medical conditions.”10 Among the industries examined in this study, the
general medical and surgical hospital industry is notable
for its lack of differentiation between for-profit and notfor-profit establishments. By most measures other than
total employment, the for-profit and not-for-profit sectors of this industry are very similar, because each sector
16

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

employs relatively the same types of workers, as shown in
table 2.
The only two occupational groups with more than a percentage point difference in employment share are healthcare practitioners and technical workers, representing 55
percent of for-profit employment and about 53 percent of
not-for-profit employment, and office and administrative
support workers, with approximate shares of 15 percent of
not-for-profit employment and 14 percent of for-profit
employment. Within the healthcare practitioner occupational group, the distribution of employment among the
occupations is also very similar. The biggest differences are
found in employment shares of physicians and surgeons
and the nursing occupations. Physicians and surgeons
account for 2.2 percent of employment in not-for-profit
hospitals, 1.2 percent in for-profit hospitals, and 2.5 percent in State and local government hospitals.
This may in part reflect differences in how the doctors are
employed rather than in the number of doctors working
at the hospital: private, for-profit hospitals may be more
likely to have doctors who are self employed and would
not be captured by the OES survey. Private for-profit
hospitals employed relatively more registered nurses and
licensed practical nurses than private not-for-profit hospitals and government hospitals. Not-for-profit hospitals
also had about 8 percent more office and administrative
support workers. The difference in office and administrative support employment is not due to a large difference
in any single occupation, but rather to an accumulation of
small differences in most occupations between for-profit
and not-for-profit hospitals.
Average wages across all occupations in this industry
were $21.95 per hour in the for-profit sector and $22.59
per hour in the not-for-profit sector—a marginal but statistically significant 64-cent advantage for not-for-profit
employees. Average wages for all occupations were similar
in part because the staffing patterns were similar, and in
part because the wages for individual occupations were
similar. As with employment, the biggest differences in
wages were in nursing occupations, because registered
nurses, licensed practical nurses, and nursing aides earned
between 2 percent and 5 percent more in not-for-profit
hospitals, as shown in table 3.
The similarities between the two sectors are due to several reasons, not least of which is that the nature of hospital
activities demands an adherence to standards of patient
care and welfare that may limit the ability of profit-seeking hospitals to distinguish themselves from not-forprofit hospitals in terms of production and staffing. Also,
in contrast to industries where not-for-profits make up a

Table 2. Occupational employment in for-profit, not-for-profit, and government establishments in general medical and
			
surgical hospitals, 2006
Relative percent difference
					
For-profit
Not-for-profit
Government
Percentage
Percentage
Percentage
between forOccupation
				
employment employment employment of for-profit
of not-forof			
profit and not								
employment profit employ- government			
for-profit1
									
ment
employment
    Total, all occupations........................
Management ....................................................
Business and financial operations . ...........
Computer and mathematical .....................
Architecture and engineering ....................
Life, physical, and social science ................
Community and social services .................
Legal . ...................................................................
Education, training, and library . ................
Arts, design, entertainment, sports,
and media . ......................................................

741,890
26,410
11,310
5,490
640
2,500
11,900
90
2,530

3,375,840
112,450
59,330
33,650
3,540
16,260
63,380
800
13,550

799,020
27,660
14,150
8,560
760
3,380
16,010
230
4,050

100.0
3.6
1.5
.7
.1
.3
1.6
.0
.3

100.0
3.3
1.8
1.0
.1
.5
1.9
.0
.4

100.0
3.5
1.8
1.1
.1
.4
2.0
.0
.5

...
6
–15
–35
–22
–43
–17
–105
–18

780

6,670

1,460

.1

.2

.2

–88

Healthcare practitioners and technical....
Dentists, general..........................................
Dietitians and nutritionists......................
Pharmacists...................................................
Anesthesiologists........................................
Family and general practitioners...........
Internists, general.......................................
Obstetricians and gynecologists...........
Pediatricians, general.................................
Psychiatrists...................................................
Surgeons........................................................

408,210
50
2,400
8,080
390
1,780
590
260
300
260
560

1,773,890
500
12,280
35,930
2,500
11,730
5,230
1,630
2,320
2,670
3,860

408,780
270
2,800
8,340
820
2,610
760
310
540
560
510

55.0
.01
.32
1.09
.05
.24
.08
.03
.04
.04
.08

52.5
.01
.36
1.06
.07
.35
.16
.05
.07
.08
.11

51.2
.03
.35
1.04
.10
.33
.10
.04
.07
.07
.06

5
–120
–13
2
–42
–45
–95
–38
–71
–122
–52

Physicians and surgeons, all other........
Physician assistants....................................
Registered nurses........................................
Occupational therapists............................
Physical therapists......................................
Respiratory therapists................................
Medical and clinical laboratory
   technologists............................................
Medical and clinical laboratory
   technicians................................................
Cardiovascular technologists and
   technicians................................................
Diagnostic medical sonographers........

4,970
1,280
218,950
3,810
7,150
14,260

42,750
11,250
951,140
16,100
31,390
50,120

14,030
2,010
211,300
3,440
6,530
10,670

.67
.17
29.51
.51
.96
1.92

1.27
.33
28.17
.48
.93
1.48

1.76
.25
26.45
.43
.82
1.34

–89
–93
5
7
4
23

14,020

68,710

14,640

1.89

2.04

1.83

–8

9,000

43,620

9,670

1.21

1.29

1.21

–7

4,980
4,130

23,480
18,450

4,570
3,480

.67
.56

.70
.55

.57
.44

–4
(2)

19,360

78,780

17,130

2.61

2.33

2.14

11

6,260
7,880
10,740

24,110
33,410
40,390

9,230
7,790
8,790

.84
1.06
1.45

.71
.99
1.20

1.16
.98
1.10

15
7
17

33,940

107,210

33,870

4.57

3.18

4.24

31

9,970

41,250

10,380

1.34

1.22

1.30

9

4,530

24,250

4,320

.61

.72

.54

–18

94,130

430,380

103,980

59,330
5,920
3,710
5,330
10,080
4,910

259,860
33,240
20,950
27,490
48,820
26,800

64,520
8,950
3,950
5,470
9,190
6,600

Radiologic technologists and
   technicians................................................
Emergency medical technicians and
	  paramedics................................................
Pharmacy technicians...............................
Surgical technologists...............................
Licensed practical and licensed
   vocational nurses....................................
Medical records and health
   information technicians.......................
Health technologists and
   technicians, all other.............................
Healthcare support . .......................................
Nursing aides, orderlies, and
   attendants.................................................
Medical assistants.......................................
Medical equipment preparers................
Medical transcriptionists..........................
Healthcare support workers, all other
Protective service ............................................

12.7
8.00
.80
.50
.72
1.36
.7

12.7
7.70
.98
.62
.81
1.45
.8

13.0
8.07
1.12
.49
.68
1.15
.8

(2)
4
–23
–24
–13
–6
–20

See note at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008 17

Not-For-Profit Sector

Table 2. Continued—Occupational employment in for-profit, not-for-profit, and government establishments in general
medical and surgical hospitals, 2006
Relative
percent
					
For-profit Not-for-profit Government Percentage
Percentage Percentage
difference
Occupation
				
employment employment employment of for-profit
of not-forof 			
between
								
employment profit employ- government			
for-profit
									
ment
employment and not-forprofit1
Food preparation and serving related . ...
Building and grounds cleaning and
maintenance ................................................
Personal care and service .............................
Sales and related .............................................
Office and administrative support . ..........
First-line supervisors/managers
   of office and administrative
   support workers......................................
Switchboard operators, including
   answering service...................................
Bill and account collectors.......................
Billing and posting clerks and
   machine operators.................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and
   auditing clerks.........................................
Interviewers, except eligibility
   and loan.....................................................
Receptionists and information
   clerks...........................................................
Stock clerks and order fillers...................
Medical secretaries.....................................
Secretaries, except legal, medical,
   and executive...........................................
Office clerks, general..................................
Construction and extraction .......................
Installation, maintenance, and repair ......
Production .........................................................
Transportation and material moving . .....

21,410

94,270

22,770

2.9

2.8

2.8

3

27,600
2,110
1,580
106,300

121,880
16,250
9,980
520,100

30,420
4,150
1,540
125,850

3.7
.3
.2
14.3

3.6
.5
.3
15.4

3.8
.5
.2
15.8

3
–69
–39
–8

6,190

28,360

7,310

.83

.84

.91

(2)

4,790
3,640

15,030
12,200

3,590
3,960

.65
.49

.45
.36

.45
.50

31
26

5,620

29,120

7,390

.76

.86

.92

–14

3,800

20,890

6,050

.51

.62

.76

–21

11,920

56,620

12,240

1.61

1.68

1.53

–4

5,600
3,720
14,490

30,140
17,250
64,990

5,580
4,330
15,760

.75
.50
1.95

.89
.51
1.93

.70
.54
1.97

–18
(2)
(2)

8,220
15,880
1,690
7,230
3,140
1,930

48,910
73,150
9,260
34,590
17,430
11,370

8,440
27,110
2,580
9,440
4,360
2,310

1.11
2.14
.2
1.0
.4
.3

1.45
2.17
.3
1.0
.5
.3

1.06
3.39
.3
1.2
.5
.3

–31
(2)
–21
–5
–22
–29

1
This refers to the relative percentage difference between for-profit
and not-for-profit percentage of employment, using the for-profit
percentage as a base, which allows occupations with low and high levels
of employment to be more easily compared.
2
All differences are statistically significant at the 90-percent confidence

relatively small proportion of total industry employment,
not-for-profits accounted for 69 percent of employment
in the hospital industry, and they may influence wages in
the hospital industry more than not-for-profits influence
wages in other industries.

Depository credit intermediation
The depository credit intermediation industry illustrates a
different aspect of not-for-profit employment: in contrast
to hospitals, and despite composing one of the industries
with the highest level of not-for-profit employment, the
establishments in the depository credit intermediation
industry are overwhelmingly for-profit. This industry is
made up mostly of commercial banks, which are primarily
for-profit institutions, and credit unions, which are equally
18

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

level, except those marked as footnote 2.
NOTE: Occupations that are indented are categories of the non-indented
occupational groups and enter into each respective occupational group’s
estimate. They are broken out from the occupational groups in order to
provide more detail where necessary.

divided between for-profit and not-for-profit establishments in the OES sample. As shown in table 4, this industry—unlike the hospital industry—shows a clear distinction between the profit sector and not-for-profit sector in
regards to occupational employment and wages. Not-forprofit establishments in this industry accounted for only 6
percent of total industry employment and therefore likely
held much less sway over the industry’s wages than notfor-profit hospitals.
Total average wages in this industry were $20.06 per
hour in for-profit establishments, compared with $17.04
in not-for-profit organizations. Unlike the cross-industry totals, this difference appears across the occupational
board and is more than a mere effect of the occupational
mix in the two establishment types. Wages in for-profit establishments were significantly higher in all occupational

Table 3. Occupational wages in for-profit, not-for-profit, and government establishments in general medical and surgical
hospitals, 2006						
		

			
For–profit Not–for–profit Government
Occupation
		
wage
wage
wage
					
					

Difference
between
for-profit
and not-forprofit

Difference
Difference
between
between
for-profit			
not-for-profit
and			
and
government
government

    Total, all occupations...........................................

$21.95

$22.59

$21.24

–$0.64

$0.71

$1.35

Management ....................................................................
Business and financial operations . ...........................
Computer and mathematical .....................................
Architecture and engineering ....................................
Life, physical, and social science ................................
Community and social services .................................
Legal . ...................................................................................
Education, training, and library . ................................
Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media . .

40.82
24.64
28.08
28.65
31.67
22.01
42.43
32.43
21.42

42.58
25.31
28.25
26.66
30.12
22.24
40.53
26.20
21.57

39.96
24.47
27.21
27.87
25.65
21.20
32.33
34.03
19.93

–1.76
–.67
(1)
1.99
1.55
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)

.86
(1)
(1)
(1)
6.02
.81
10.10
(1)
1.49

2.62
.84
1.04
–1.21
4.47
1.04
8.20
–7.83
1.64

Healthcare practitioners and technical ...................
Dentists, general..........................................................
Dietitians and nutritionists......................................
Pharmacists...................................................................
Anesthesiologists........................................................
Family and general practitioners...........................
Internists, general.......................................................
Obstetricians and gynecologists...........................
Pediatricians, general.................................................
Psychiatrists...................................................................
Surgeons........................................................................
Physicians and surgeons, all other........................
Physician assistants....................................................
Registered nurses........................................................
Occupational therapists............................................
Physical therapists......................................................
Respiratory therapists................................................
Medical and clinical laboratory technologists..
Medical and clinical laboratory technicians......
Cardiovascular technologists and technicians
Diagnostic medical sonographers.......................
Radiologic technologists and technicians.........
Emergency medical technicians and
	  paramedics.....................................................
Pharmacy technicians..............................................
Surgical technologists...............................................
Licensed practical and licensed vocational
	  nurses...........................................................................
Medical records and health information
	  technicians.................................................................
Health technologists and technicians,
	  all other..........................................................

26.64
49.92
23.36
45.01
72.26
68.96
76.42
68.24
65.71
69.07
75.47
58.41
35.60
28.97
31.32
33.14
23.03
24.32
17.46
20.18
27.42
23.57

27.84
57.29
23.12
44.21
73.05
67.41
62.84
74.63
60.28
63.58
73.13
55.66
35.95
29.48
29.94
32.09
23.47
24.34
17.32
20.87
27.93
24.01

26.24
41.54
22.86
44.77
73.46
73.16
67.01
76.96
68.21
63.55
79.26
38.71
36.72
28.26
30.60
32.22
22.43
23.70
16.89
19.89
26.61
22.98

–1.20
(1)
(1)
.80
(1)
(1)
13.58
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
–.51
1.38
1.05
–.44
(1)
(1)
–.69
–.51
–.44

(1)
8.38
.50
(1)
(1)
(1)
9.41
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
19.70
–1.12
.71
.72
.92
.60
.62
.57
(1)
.81
.59

1.60
15.75
(1)
–.56
(1)
–5.75
(1)
–2.33
–7.93
(1)
(1)
16.95
(1)
1.22
–.66
(1)
1.04
.64
.43
.98
1.32
1.03

14.82
14.17
17.52

14.88
14.32
17.94

13.78
14.00
16.45

(1)
(1)
–.42

1.04
(1)
1.07

1.10
.32
1.49

16.90

17.51

16.18

–.61

.72

1.33

14.71

15.40

14.51

–.69

(1)

.89

19.86

18.71

18.29

1.15

1.57

(1)

Healthcare support . .......................................................
Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants............
Medical assistants.......................................................
Medical equipment preparers................................
Medical transcriptionists..........................................
Healthcare support workers, all other.................

12.27
11.27
13.15
12.97
15.25
13.45

12.70
11.81
14.03
13.14
15.08
13.19

11.77
10.72
13.46
12.28
13.96
12.98

–.43
–.54
–.88
(1)
(1)
(1)

.50
.55
–.31
.69
1.29
(1)

.93
1.09
.57
.86
1.12
(1)

Protective service ............................................................
Food preparation and serving related . ...................
Building and grounds cleaning and
maintenance ................................................................
Personal care and service .............................................
Sales and related .............................................................
Office and administrative support . ..........................
First-line supervisors/managers of office and

13.58
10.38

13.86
10.93

15.49
10.29

(1)
–.55

–1.91
(1)

–1.63
.64

10.24
11.65
13.63
13.85

10.89
12.14
14.37
14.40

10.19
10.97
13.30
13.70

–.65
(1)
(1)
–.55

(1)
.68
(1)
(1)

.70
1.17
1.07
.70

See notes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008 19

Not-For-Profit Sector

Table 3.   Continued—Occupational wages in for-profit, not-for-profit, and government establishments in general medical
			
and surgical hospitals, 2006						
		

			
For-profit
Not-for-profit Government
Occupation
		
wage
wage
wage
					
					

Difference
between
for-profit
and not-forprofit

Difference
Difference
between
between
not-for-profit
for-profit			
and
and
government
government

	  administrative support workers.........................
Switchboard operators, including
	  answering service....................................................
Bill and account collectors.......................................
Billing and posting clerks and machine
	  operators.....................................................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing
	  clerks.............................................................................
Office clerks, general..................................................

$21.88

$22.69

$21.02

–$0.81

$0.86

$1.67

11.07
13.83

11.75
14.41

10.80
13.10

–.68
–.58

.27
.73

.95
1.31

13.55

14.17

13.26

–.62

(1)

.91

14.63
12.07

15.24
12.97

14.76
12.92

–.61
–.90

(1)
–.85

.48
(1)

Interviewers, except eligibility and loan.............
Receptionists and information clerks..................
Stock clerks and order fillers...................................
Medical secretaries.....................................................
Secretaries, except legal, medical, and
	  executive.....................................................................
Construction and extraction .......................................
Installation, maintenance, and repair ......................
Production .........................................................................
Transportation and material moving . .....................

12.83
11.74
12.80
13.59

13.10
12.47
12.82
13.85

12.18
11.12
12.89
12.97

–.27
–.73
(1)
–.26

.65
.62
(1)
.62

.92
1.35
(1)
.88

13.14
21.84
17.09
15.88
12.92

14.49
22.97
18.39
14.81
12.71

13.31
24.57
17.20
13.26
12.89

–1.35
–1.13
–1.30
1.07
(1)

(1)
–2.73
(1)
2.62
(1)

1.18
–1.60
1.19
1.55
(1)

1
All differences are statistically significant at the 90-percent confidence
level, except those marked as footnote 1.

NOTE:

Occupations that are indented are categories of the non-indented

groups other than protective services; building, cleaning
and maintenance occupations; and legal occupations, all
of which are very small parts of the depository credit intermediation industry. The differences are illustrated by
the high-paying occupations: for-profit managers earned
an average of $45.89 per hour, compared with $38.91 for
not-for-profit managers; for-profit business and financial
workers earned $28.87, compared with $21.32; and forprofit computer and mathematical workers earned $32.58,
compared with $24.47.
As illustrated in table 4, not-for-profit credit intermediaries also showed a significant difference in occupational
mix from their for-profit counterparts: for-profit establishments employed relatively more managers and business and financial workers and, like for-profit hospitals,
relatively fewer office and administrative support workers.
Among the business and financial operations occupations,
the not-for-profits employed larger concentrations of
loan officers, loan counselors, and training and development specialists than the for-profits, whereas most other
business and financial operations occupations were more
prevalent in the for-profit establishments.
Among office and administrative workers, wages were
generally higher in for-profit establishments. Bank tellers
are one of the few occupations that received higher wages
20

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

occupational groups and enter into each respective occupational group’s estimate. They are broken out from the occupational groups in order to provide
more detail where necessary.

in not-for profit establishments, averaging $10.88 per
hour in for-profits and $11.19 in not-for-profits. In addition to differences in wages, there were large differences
in the occupational distribution of bank-related office and
administrative workers. Tellers, who are heavily concentrated in the credit intermediation industry, accounted for
29.8 percent of employment in for-profit establishments
and 35.4 percent in not-for-profits. Similarly, loan interviewers accounted for 4.4 percent in for-profit businesses
and 5.7 percent in not-for-profits. The difference in distribution among bank tellers, loan interviewers, and other
bank-related office occupations may be due to the more
diverse product lines offered by for-profit banks, which
serve a wider market than credit unions (because credit
unions, by definition, restrict their membership).
Perhaps most tellingly, for-profit banks also employed,
by a large margin, relatively more sales workers than notfor-profit establishments in the industry. This suggests
that active sales are a much more important part of forprofit business, which again relates to the more diverse
products available from the for-profit banks, compared
with the credit unions. Although for-profit banks employed higher shares of most sales occupations, the largest
difference was in the share of securities, commodities, and
financial services sales agents, who accounted for 2.9 per-

Table 4. For-profit and not-for-profit employment and wages in depository credit intermediation, 2006

		

					

For-profit Not-for-profit For-profit Not-forPercentage Percentage
Relative
Wage
Occupation
		
employment employment
wage
profit wage of for-profit of not-for- percentage difference
						
employprofit
difference
						
ment
employment
between 				
								
for-profit and				
								
not-for-profit1
    Total, all occupations...........................

1,690,210

115,950

$20.06

$17.04

100.0

100.0

...

$3.02

Management ....................................................
Business and financial operations . ...........
Training and development
	  specialists....................................................
Business operations specialists,
	  all other.......................................................
Accountants and auditors........................
Credit analysts..............................................
Financial analysts........................................
Personal financial advisors.......................
Loan counselors...........................................
Loan officers..................................................
Financial specialists, all other..................

140,820
275,990

9,330
17,120

45.89
28.87

38.91
21.32

8.3
16.3

8.0
14.8

()
10

6.98
7.55

5,550

590

23.29

21.90

.33

.51

–54

1.39

15,100
24,340
14,820
16,670
23,680
4,320
121,560
19,390

720
1,900
480
200
250
540
10,860
480

29.65
26.40
28.20
34.43
36.62
22.01
27.80
27.41

23.86
22.80
20.92
27.25
36.59
16.62
20.35
22.84

.89
1.44
.88
.99
1.40
.26
7.19
1.15

.62
1.64
.42
.17
.22
.47
9.37
.41

31
(2)
52
83
84
–83
–30
64

5.79
3.60
7.28
7.18
(2)
5.39
7.45
4.57

Computer and mathematical .....................
Life, physical, and social science ................
Legal . ...................................................................
Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and
	  media ..........................................................
Protective service ............................................
Building and grounds cleaning and
	  maintenance ............................................
Sales and related .............................................
Securities, commodities, and financial
	  services sales agents...............................
Sales representatives, services,
	  all other.......................................................

53,280
4,510
3,140

2,350
490
60

32.58
29.76
44.57

24.47
24.47
34.94

3.2
.3
.2

2.0
.4
.1

36
–59
71

8.11
5.29
(2)

3,520
4,240

450
440

24.61
17.16

20.86
20.28

.2
.3

.4
.4

–88
(2)

3.75
(2)

7,260
80,790

400
1,460

9.48
26.92

11.34
23.26

.4
4.8

.3
1.3

19
74

–1.86
3.66

48,930

610

29.35

23.40

2.89

.53

82

5.95

16,010

380

21.95

21.04

.95

.33

66

(2)

Office and administrative support . ..........
First-line supervisors/managers of
	  office and administrative support
	  workers.......................................................
Bill and account collectors.......................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and
	  auditing clerks...........................................
Tellers...............................................................
Customer service representatives.........
Loan interviewers and clerks..................
New accounts clerks...................................
Receptionists and information
	  clerks.............................................................
Executive secretaries and
	  administrative assistants.......................
Office clerks, general..................................
Installation, maintenance, and repair ......
Production .........................................................

1,111,640

83,430

13.47

13.34

65.8

72.0

–9

(2)

103,460
20,290

7,570
2,570

21.25
15.35

20.84
15.35

6.12
1.20

6.52
2.22

(2)
–85

(2)
(2)

58,020
503,950
97,520
74,030
68,430

3,890
41,000
7,330
6,600
5,650

13.90
10.88
14.36
15.18
14.06

14.80
11.19
13.99
14.80
13.57

3.43
29.82
5.77
4.38
4.05

3.35
35.36
6.32
5.69
4.87

(2)
–19
(2)
–30
–20

–.90
–.31
(2)
(2)
.49

8,040

1,010

11.20

11.09

.48

.87

–83

(2)

34,600
37,740
3,410
320

1,350
2,020
330
(3)

18.99
12.32
16.19
18.94

18.29
11.94
16.70
(3)

2.05
2.23
.2
.0

1.16
1.74
.3
.0

43
22
–43
49

.70
.38
(2)
(2)

1
This refers to the relative percentage difference between for-profit and
not-for-profit percentage of employment, using the for-profit percentage as
a base, which allows occupations with low and high levels of employment to
be more easily compared.
2
All differences are statistically significant at the 90-percent confidence
level, except those marked as footnote 2.

cent of employment in for-profit establishments and only
0.5 percent in not-for-profit establishments. Finally, forprofit establishments employed relatively more computer
and mathematical workers, which may be a function of the
greater urgency for innovation in the for-profit sector.

2

Data not available.
NOTE: Occupations that are indented are categories of the nonindented occupational groups and enter into each respective occupational
group’s estimate. They are broken out from the occupational groups in
order to provide more detail where necessary.
3

Social advocacy organizations
The industry that most typifies what is generally considered to be not-for-profit work is the social advocacy
industry, which comprises “establishments primarily enMonthly Labor Review • November 2008 21

Not-For-Profit Sector

Table 5. For-profit and not-for-profit employment and wages in social advocacy organizations, 2006
For-profit Not-for-profit For-profit Not-for- Percentage Percentage of
Relative
Wage 		
Occupation
		
employment employment wage profit wage of for-profit not-for-profit percentage difference
						
employ- employment difference
						
ment		
between for-			
								
profit and 			
								
not-for-profit1
    Total, all occupations...............................

10,050

156,870

$18.68

$17.95

100.0

100.0

...

$0.73		

Management ...........................................................
Public relations managers...............................
Financial managers............................................
Social and community service
   managers..........................................................
General and operations managers..............
Business and financial operations . ..................
Meeting and convention planners..............
Business operations specialists,
   all other...............................................................
Accountants and auditors...............................
Community and social services ........................
Mental health counselors................................
Child, family, and school social workers....
Medical and public health social
    workers..............................................................
Mental health and substance abuse
   social workers..................................................
Social workers, all other...................................
Health educators................................................
Social and human service assistants...........
Community and social service
   specialists, all other.......................................
Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and
media .....................................................................
Healthcare practitioners and technical ..........
Building and grounds cleaning and
maintenance .......................................................
Personal care and service ....................................
Office and administrative support . .................
Computer and mathematical ............................
Life, physical, and social science .......................
Legal . ..........................................................................
Education, training, and library . .......................
Healthcare support . ..............................................
Food preparation and serving related . ..........
Sales and related ....................................................
Farming, fishing, and forestry ............................
Construction and extraction ..............................
Installation, maintenance, and repair .............
Transportation and material moving . ............

930
60
90

17,190
1,260
720

36.80
33.36
39.39

34.42
37.17
37.57

9.3
.56
.85

11.0
.80
.46

–18
–44
46

(2)		
–3.81		
(2)		

350
230
920
(3)

5,210
5,290
11,590
660

31.11
41.32
27.62
25.68

26.46
40.98
23.22
19.92

3.44
2.25
9.2
(3)

3.32
3.37
7.4
.42

(2)
–50
20
(2)

(2)		
(2)		
4.40		
5.76		

430
130
2,350
170
220

5,370
2,420
27,500
330
5,650

26.58
26.16
16.49
12.05
21.20

22.05
26.67
15.93
16.89
16.37

4.27
1.28
23.4
1.70
2.21

3.42
1.54
17.5
.21
3.60

20
–21
25
87
–63

4.53		
(2)		
(2)		
–4.84		
4.83		

130

1,600

25.03

18.72

1.31

1.02

22

6.31		

440
100
50
750

1,540
1,070
1,470
8,380

16.87
23.59
12.30
12.50

16.44
18.28
19.16
12.86

4.39
.98
.45
7.46

.98
.68
.93
5.34

78
30
–108
28

(2)		
5.31		
–6.86		
(2)		

390

5,220

17.89

17.61

3.89

3.33

14

(2)		

500
70

7,730
1,730

29.54
33.60

24.28
21.24

5.0
.7

4.9
1.1

(2)
–63

(2)		
12.36		

140
1,480
1,850
170
500
70
290
20
120
160
40
60
80
80

3,510
19,570
32,260
2,150
4,340
1,710
11,000
800
2,990
3,740
440
500
1,490
3,480

11.43
8.94
14.40
25.39
21.02
24.10
12.37
11.41
9.08
15.03
15.20
22.31
17.31
11.17

10.61
9.72
14.40
27.08
27.43
32.99
13.34
10.21
8.84
19.89
12.12
15.92
14.36
10.36

1.4
14.7
18.4
1.7
5.0
.7
2.8
.2
1.2
1.6
.4
.6
.8
.8

2.2
12.5
2.6
1.4
2.8
1.1
7.0
.5
1.9
2.4
.3
.3
1.0
2.2

–60
15
–11
18
45
–51
–147
–116
–65
–45
32
50
–15
–173

(2)		
–.78		
(2)		
(2)		
–6.41		
–8.89		
(2)		
(2)		
(2)		
–4.86		
(2)		
6.39		
2.95		
(2)		

3

Data not available.

This refers to the relative percentage difference between for-profit
and not-for-profit percentage of employment, using the for-profit
percentage as a base, which allows occupations with low and high levels
of employment to be more easily compared.
2
All differences are statistically significant at the 90-percent
confidence level, except those marked as footnote 2.

NOTE: Occupations that are indented are categories of the non-indented
occupational groups and enter into each respective occupational group’s estimate. They are broken out from the occupational groups in order to provide
more detail where necessary.

gaged in promoting a particular cause or working for the
realization of a specific social or political goal to benefit a
broad or specific constituency.”11 The industry, predictably,
heavily favors the not-for-profit sector, which makes up
94 percent of industry employment. Although the total
number of not-for-profit jobs in this industry is not as
large as it is in some other industries, social advocacy or-

ganizations had the highest percentage of not-for-profit
employment, as shown in table 1.
The staffing patterns in the for-profit and not-for-profit
sectors of the social advocacy industry are disparate. The
largest difference between the for-profit and not-forprofit establishments in the industry is in the community
and social service occupational group, which makes up 23

1

22

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

percent of for-profit social advocacy employment and only
18 percent of not-for-profit social advocacy employment.
(See table 5.) The difference in this group is driven by two
mental-health-related occupations and by the assistants
to the people in those occupations. The two occupations
are mental health and substance abuse social workers and
mental health counselors. Mental health and substance
abuse workers accounted for 4.4 percent of employment
in for-profit social advocacy establishments and one percent in not-for-profit social advocacy establishments.
Mental health counselors accounted for 1.7 percent of
employment in for-profits and 0.2 percent in not-forprofits. Social and human service assistants accounted for
7.5 percent of not-for-profit employment and 5.3 percent
of for-profit employment. The not-for-profit sector employed a higher concentration of education, training, and
library workers, and a lower concentration of business and
financial occupations. As it was in other industries, the
share of office and administrative workers was higher in
the not-for-profit sector.
Despite having fairly similar total average wages of $18.68
per hour in for-profit establishments and $17.95 per hour
in not-for-profit establishments, the social advocacy industry had relative wages that differed greatly depending
on the occupation. Major differences in wages appear as
large premiums for employees of for-profit establishments
in business and financial, healthcare practitioner, and construction and extraction occupations. In contrast, the life,
physical, and social science; legal; and sales occupational
groups all show a sizeable wage premium for the not-for-

profits. Together, these differences in opposite directions
produce similar average wages, though some of the variation can be explained by the low level of for-profit employment in certain occupations in this industry. Three of
the four social work occupations had much higher wages
in for-profits, whereas other community and social service occupations earned much lower wages in for-profits.
Meeting and convention planners and business operations
specialists also earned higher wages in for-profits.
THIS ARTICLE EXAMINED EMPLOYMENT AND WAGES

in for-profit and not-for-profit establishments, using data
from the Occupational Employment Statistics survey and
the IRS Business Master File, which was used to identify not-for-profit establishments that appeared in the
OES sample. This article showed that average wages were
slightly higher in not-for-profit establishments but that
this is because not-for-profit organizations generally do
not have the same employment patterns as for-profit businesses, not because not-for-profits pay more for the same
work. The article demonstrates that, in general, not-forprofit workers earned less for a given occupation, especially
among the highest paying occupations. Occupational differences between for-profit and not-for-profit establishments vary greatly from industry to industry, but not-forprofit establishments on the whole employed many fewer
production, construction, transportation, sales, and food
service workers, yet more scientists, healthcare workers,
community workers, and personal care workers.

Notes
Lester M. Salamon and S. Wojciech Sokolowski, “Employment in
America’s Charities: A Profile,” Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies Nonprofit Employment Bulletin, December 2006, p. 9.
1

2
Total private employment 2002–2004 was calculated using “Table
1. Total coverage (UI and UCFE) by ownership: Establishments, employment, and wages, 1997-2006 annual averages,” from the Quarterly
Census of Employment and Wages, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Sept.
17, 2007, on the Internet at www.bls.gov/cew/ew06table1.pdf (visited
Nov. 24, 2008).

“Number of Nonprofit Organizations in the United States, 1996
– 2006,” National Center for Charitable Statistics, on the Internet at
http://nccsdataweb.urban.org/PubApps/profile1.php?state=US
(visited Nov. 24, 2008).
3

Lester M. Salamon and S. Wojciech Sokolowski, “Nonprofit organizations: new insights from the QCEW data,” Monthly Labor Review,
September 2005, pp. 21–23.
4

“SOI Tax Stats - Exempt Organizations: IRS Master File Data,” Internal Revenue Service, on the Internet at www.irs.gov/taxstats/char5

itablestats/article/0,,id=97186,00.html (visited Nov. 24, 2008).
6
“Exemption from tax on corporations, certain trusts, etc,” Government Printing Office, 26 U.S. Code 501, Jan. 3, 2006. Visit www.gpoaccess.gov/uscode (visited Nov. 24, 2008) and search for 26USC501.
7
Salamon and Sokolowski, “Employment in America’s Charities,”
p. 21.
8
The difference is, like all comparisons in the text, statistically significant at the 90-percent confidence interval for all occupations except for
the arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupational group.
9

Salamon and Sokolowski, pp. 24–25.

10
See North American Industry Classification System, United States,
2002 (Office of Management and Budget), NAICS 622110, p. 820.
Available on the Internet at www.census.gov/eos/www/naics/ (visited
Nov. 24, 2008).

Ibid, NAICS 813310, p. 893. Available on the Internet at www.census.gov/eos/www/naics/ (visited Nov. 24, 2008).
11

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008 23

Not-For-Profit Sector

Table A–1. For-profit, not-for-profit, and government employment and wages, by detailed occupation, 2006			
						
Percent		
Govern- Percentage Percentage
		
age of
Governof forof not-forFor-profit Not-for-profit ment
		
govern- For-profit Not-forOccupation
ment		
employemployprofit
profit
wage
profit
wage
		
employ				
ment
wage
ment
ment
employemploy- employ				
ment					
ment
ment
			
ment
Chief executives...............................................
228,750
General and operations managers........... 1,427,710
Advertising and promotions managers..
33,670
Marketing managers......................................
150,130
Sales managers................................................
306,590
Public relations managers............................
22,420
Administrative services managers............
146,580
Computer and information systems
managers......................................................
210,130
Financial managers........................................
388,550
Compensation and benefits managers...
37,570
Training and development managers.....
20,330

28,170
117,840
4,090
8,880
4,320
15,630
34,630

45,190
124,850
810
2,080
640
6,190
52,910

0.23
1.41
.03
.15
.30
.02
.14

0.26
1.09
.04
.08
.04
.14
.32

0.21
.58
.00
.01
.00
.03
.25

$73.70
48.65
41.82
52.46
49.26
50.19
35.85

$66.26
42.78
34.01
40.73
45.62
38.78
33.11

$49.15
41.09
32.12
37.81
36.69
36.66
33.64

17,270
36,070
5,170
3,940

25,030
48,030
4,180
3,330

.21
.38
.04
.02

.16
.33
.05
.04

.12
.22
.02
.02

53.03
50.14
40.29
43.45

46.27
42.59
36.12
38.34

42.20
40.56
35.03
34.05

Human resources managers, all other.....
Industrial production managers................
Purchasing managers....................................
Transportation, storage, and
distribution managers..............................
Farm, ranch, and other agricultural
managers.....................................................
Farmers and ranchers....................................
Construction managers................................
Education administrators, preschool
and child care center/program.............
Education administrators, elementary
and secondary school...............................
Education administrators,
postsecondary.............................................
Education administrators, all other..........

39,010
152,810
57,230

6,110
1,020
2,720

11,160
1,080
7,100

.04
.15
.06

.06
.01
.03

.05
.01
.03

47.29
40.40
41.28

41.35
38.43
39.52

40.63
36.50
41.79

73,510

1,090

15,200

.07

.01

.07

37.54

34.67

38.56

2,630
230
197,060

160
(1)
1,710

520
50
9,770

.00
.00
.19

.00
(1)
.02

.00
.00
.05

28.39
21.91
40.04

24.00
16.00
38.11

28.18
17.67
33.91

22,520

18,370

6,230

.02

.17

.03

18.48

20.78

29.65

8,780

18,500

190,270

.01

.17

.88

65,880

72,610

80,060

8,560
7,110

31,840
6,290

63,840
14,260

.01
.01

.29
.06

.30
.07

33.39
30.33

39.51
34.20

40.61
35.62

Engineering managers..................................
Food service managers.................................
Funeral directors..............................................
Gaming managers..........................................
Lodging managers..........................................
Medical and health services managers...
Natural sciences managers..........................
Property, real estate, and community
association managers...............................
Social and community service
managers......................................................
Managers, all other.........................................
Agents and business managers
of artists, performers, and athletes......
Purchasing agents and buyers,
farm products..............................................

165,720
175,440
22,450
2,330
30,200
93,810
19,820

3,200
6,630
30
80
700
96,940
4,770

15,940
8,290
390
1,060
590
42,830
14,190

.16
.17
.02
.00
.03
.09
.02

.03
.06
.00
.00
.01
.89
.04

.07
.04
.00
.00
.00
.20
.07

53.21
22.36
27.47
32.89
23.81
38.05
57.49

54.98
25.13
25.41
20.51
23.23
39.80
51.67

48.52
22.08
29.47
31.08
25.11
39.24
44.07

142,200

5,910

9,530

.14

.05

.04

24.82

25.65

28.93

17,490
181,050

65,800
31,210

29,390
123,790

.02
.18

.61
.29

.14
.58

26.24
44.40

25.77
37.37

29.98
38.05

10,330

780

(1)

.01

.01

(1)

41.37

27.78

40.73

12,630

250

300

.01

.00

.00

25.99

21.77

20.46

135,490

1,700

790

.13

.02

.00

24.52

23.62

21.59

218,070

11,730

48,310

.22

.11

.22

25.55

23.45

28.39

225,550
12,660

6,130
80

49,130
(1)

.22
.01

.06
.00

.23
(1)

24.67
23.91

22.91
27.73

28.60
20.32

71,360
215,610
2,730

8,630
880
1,040

145,560
910
7,740

.07
.21
.00

.08
.01
.01

.68
.00
.04

28.10
27.30
27.29

25.38
28.45
26.13

22.48
26.44
22.65

143,560

18,910

24,520

.14

.17

.11

25.07

21.11

20.36

73,030

12,430

18,750

.07

.11

.09

26.27

24.39

24.29

Wholesale and retail buyers,
except farm products..............................
Purchasing agents, except wholesale,
retail, and farm products.........................
Claims adjusters, examiners, and
investigators.................................................
Insurance appraisers, auto damage.........
Compliance officers, except agriculture,
construction, health and safety, and
transportation.............................................
Cost estimators................................................
Emergency management specialists.......
Employment, recruitment,
and placement specialists.......................
Compensation, benefits, and job
analysis specialists.....................................
See notes at end of table.

24

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

Table A–1. Continued—For-profit, not-for-profit, and government employment and wages, by detailed occupation, 2006			
						
Percent		
Govern- Percentage Percentage
		
age of
GovernFor-profit Not-for-profit ment
of forof not-for		
govern- For-profit Not-forOccupation
ment		
employemploywage
profit
wage
profit
profit
		
employ			
ment
wage
ment
ment
employemploy- employ				
ment				
ment
ment
ment
Training and development specialists.....
Human resources, training, and labor
relations specialists, all other.................
Logisticians........................................................
Management analysts...................................
Meeting and convention planners...........
Business operations specialists,
all other..........................................................
Accountants and auditors............................
Appraisers and assessors of real estate...
Budget analysts...............................................
Credit analysts..................................................

139,770

30,530

27,580

0.14

0.28

0.13

$24.81

$23.09

$24.66

99,390
55,550
354,410
27,280

60,700
1,140
20,900
12,690

46,470
23,220
102,060
2,640

.10
.05
.35
.03

.56
.01
.19
.12

.22
.11
.47
.01

26.61
30.81
39.11
21.76

22.85
29.74
35.11
22.51

29.64
33.34
30.63
20.39

540,740
899,880
38,090
23,310
65,510

120,400
72,650
210
4,080
1,430

332,220
131,160
28,210
31,170
210

.53
.89
.04
.02
.06

1.11
.67
.00
.04
.01

1.54
.61
.13
.14
.00

29.95
29.66
26.78
33.27
28.97

24.22
26.05
29.59
27.51
24.04

28.67
26.46
21.53
29.07
25.01

Financial analysts............................................
Personal financial advisors...........................
Insurance underwriters.................................
Financial examiners........................................
Loan counselors...............................................
Loan officers......................................................
Tax preparers....................................................
Financial specialists, all other......................
Computer and information scientists,
research........................................................
Computer programmers..............................
Computer software engineers,
applications..................................................
Computer software engineers,
systems software........................................

182,380
115,620
97,040
15,170
21,150
340,400
62,660
83,210

8,490
3,220
2,530
390
5,650
14,510
210
8,980

7,270
1,000
650
9,070
3,750
5,740
70
29,330

.18
.11
.10
.01
.02
.34
.06
.08

.08
.03
.02
.00
.05
.13
.00
.08

.03
.00
.00
.04
.02
.03
.00
.14

37.68
42.25
27.85
31.95
20.94
30.06
15.94
29.43

30.76
26.71
25.75
32.00
17.92
22.21
13.38
23.94

29.23
25.30
23.48
37.83
18.68
28.50
16.41
27.56

19,810
352,860

1,810
16,040

6,040
28,950

.02
.35

.02
.15

.03
.13

48.40
34.04

42.92
29.94

40.69
26.70

440,360

13,460

19,310

.43

.12

.09

39.87

36.08

31.07

318,640

6,310

4,490

.31

.06

.02

42.03

42.38

34.00

Computer support specialists....................
Computer systems analysts.........................
Database administrators..............................
Network and computer systems
administrators.............................................
Network systems and data
communications analysts......................
Computer specialists, all other...................
Actuaries.............................................................
Mathematicians...............................................
Operations research analysts......................
Statisticians.......................................................
Mathematical technicians............................

397,810
370,550
86,750

39,010
26,470
10,890

80,050
51,050
12,520

.39
.37
.09

.36
.24
.10

.37
.24
.06

21.68
35.64
33.48

20.05
31.88
28.38

19.97
29.24
28.46

230,740

24,470

35,050

.23

.23

.16

32.11

29.51

27.62

170,260
94,550
15,460
1,150
42,760
9,100
590

13,850
5,830
480
220
3,500
2,600
170

20,040
81,240
760
1,470
9,970
8,240
450

.17
.09
.02
.00
.04
.01
.00

.13
.05
.00
.00
.03
.02
.00

.09
.38
.00
.01
.05
.04
.00

33.15
32.19
44.51
44.02
33.07
34.20
26.40

30.39
28.08
39.12
46.56
33.20
31.41
22.18

27.47
34.93
38.56
39.19
33.81
32.06
16.45

Mathematical scientists, all other..............
Architects, except landscape and naval..
Landscape architects.....................................
Cartographers and photogrammetrists..
Surveyors...........................................................
Aerospace engineers.....................................
Agricultural engineers...................................
Biomedical engineers....................................
Chemical engineers........................................
Civil engineers..................................................
Computer hardware engineers..................

9,460
96,150
19,970
7,090
51,690
74,850
2,130
11,100
26,870
169,980
68,870

250
470
90
210
300
(1)
180
2,010
650
1,030
1,440

480
4,790
2,110
4,180
5,120
(1)
770
940
1,840
68,270
4,340

.01
.09
.02
.01
.05
.00
.00
.01
.03
.17
.07

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
(1)
.00
.02
.01
.01
.01

.00
.02
.01
.02
.02
(1)
.00
.00
.01
.32
.02

31.81
33.43
29.04
24.75
24.47
42.07
32.84
39.39
39.37
35.31
44.22

27.68
35.25
30.35
21.69
29.00
(1)
33.30
29.35
43.08
33.28
34.08

21.20
34.82
29.14
26.26
26.36
46.38
31.40
32.60
34.67
32.73
41.44

Electrical engineers........................................
Electronics engineers, except
computer.......................................................
Environmental engineers.............................
Health and safety engineers, except
mining safety engineers and
inspectors......................................................
Industrial engineers.......................................
Marine engineers and naval architects...

136,950

4,060

7,200

.14

.04

.03

37.99

37.98

36.08

112,330
34,650

1,930
1,910

18,130
15,040

.11
.03

.02
.02

.08
.07

39.38
35.61

42.71
39.64

41.89
32.60

20,720
195,970
6,530

780
1,940
330

3,210
2,150
960

.02
.19
.01

.01
.02
.00

.01
.01
.00

33.24
33.90
35.53

29.21
34.53
30.70

31.41
34.63
42.95

See notes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008 25

Not-For-Profit Sector

Table A–1. Continued—For-profit, not-for-profit, and government employment and wages, by detailed occupation, 2006			

						

Percentage of
		
Govern- Percentage Percentage
		
Governof not-forof forFor-profit Not-for-profit ment
govern- For-profit Not-for		
Occupation
ment		
employemployprofit
profit
wage
profit
wage
ment
		
employ				
wage
ment
ment
employemployemploy				
ment				
ment
ment
ment
Materials engineers........................................
Mechanical engineers...................................
Mining and geological engineers,
including mining safety engineers......
Nuclear engineers...........................................
Petroleum engineers.....................................
Engineers, all other.........................................
Architectural and civil drafters...................
Electrical and electronics drafters.............
Mechanical drafters........................................
Drafters, all other.............................................
Aerospace engineering and operations
technicians....................................................
Civil engineering technicians.....................
Electrical and electronic engineering
technicians....................................................
Electro–mechanical technicians................
Environmental engineering technicians
Industrial engineering technicians...........
Mechanical engineering technicians.......
Engineering technicians, except,
drafters all other.........................................
Surveying and mapping technicians.......
Animal scientists..............................................
Food scientists and technologists.............
Soil and plant scientists................................
Biochemists and biophysicists...................
Microbiologists................................................
Zoologists and wildlife biologists.............
Biological scientists, all other......................
Conservation scientists.................................
Foresters.............................................................
Epidemiologists...............................................
Medical scientists, except
epidemiologists..........................................
Life scientists, all other..................................
Astronomers.....................................................
Physicists............................................................
Atmospheric and space scientists.............
Chemists.............................................................
Materials scientists.........................................
Environmental scientists and
specialists, including health...................
Geoscientists, except hydrologists and
geographers.................................................
Hydrologists......................................................
Physical scientists, all other.........................
Economists........................................................
Market research analysts..............................
Survey researchers..........................................
Clinical, counseling, and school
psychologists...............................................
Industrial–organizational psychologists
Psychologists, all other..................................
Sociologists.......................................................
Urban and regional planners......................
Anthropologists and archeologists..........
Geographers.....................................................
Historians...........................................................
Political scientists............................................
See notes at end of table.

26

19,030
203,730

370
2,180

1,860
12,120

0.02
.20

0.00
.02

0.01
.06

$36.03
34.67

$36.00
38.53

$41.55
37.70

6,320
11,650
14,630
122,970
103,680
31,910
72,590
21,050

(1)
580
30
4,460
320
420
260
530

480
2,650
410
29,930
4,160
220
330
1,450

.01
.01
.00
.12
.10
.03
.07
.02

(1)
.01
.00
.04
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.01
.00
.14
.02
.00
.00
.01

37.56
45.14
49.15
38.40
20.97
23.88
22.07
21.87

35.11
44.43
42.94
39.96
21.77
21.64
25.60
24.26

34.24
40.29
38.18
42.11
22.19
22.68
21.15
19.40

7,890
48,590

(1)
500

(1)
38,190

.00
.05

(1)
.00

(1)
.18

25.92
20.76

(1)
21.63

20.56
19.76

142,350
14,520
16,660
72,420
45,120

3,430
390
590
550
800

22,060
440
3,520
1,330
890

.14
.01
.02
.07
.04

.03
.00
.01
.01
.01

.10
.00
.02
.01
.00

23.75
22.40
20.31
24.40
22.86

23.78
25.26
22.78
25.55
24.36

28.43
18.94
21.92
27.44
24.83

53,310
58,720
840
7,380
5,100
14,420

1,420
1,220
170
620
810
2,630

24,310
11,270
2,920
820
5,210
1,650

.05
.06
.00
.01
.01
.01

.01
.01
.00
.01
.01
.02

.11
.05
.01
.00
.02
.01

25.10
16.06
28.70
28.27
29.29
40.84

22.94
20.50
27.56
32.19
25.32
37.69

27.41
19.02
24.58
27.15
27.35
23.54

7,990
3,990
5,690
990
3,840
540

2,240
2,240
1,870
1,260
120
810

5,760
11,790
18,000
13,820
6,820
2,800

.01
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00

.02
.02
.02
.01
.00
.01

.03
.05
.08
.06
.03
.01

30.26
28.29
33.68
24.94
26.83
34.75

33.03
25.44
28.95
27.00
24.09
33.81

31.73
26.82
29.52
26.73
24.32
26.34

38,540
6,810
100
6,830
3,390
67,790

19,950
2,570
360
3,730
1,220
2,610

19,890
3,790
960
4,860
3,670
12,470

.04
.01
.00
.01
.00
.07

.18
.02
.00
.03
.01
.02

.09
.02
.00
.02
.02
.06

38.78
33.50
48.71
47.20
32.93
31.06

31.47
27.59
43.53
48.06
43.39
32.10

26.47
28.26
46.15
42.57
39.56
33.70

8,360

560

470

.01

.01

.00

37.30

39.14

29.57

38,040

3,360

37,060

.04

.03

.17

31.02

31.71

27.25

22,390
3,860
8,080
3,770
196,040
19,850

360
80
2,280
1,690
14,130
2,160

6,280
3,810
11,380
7,620
4,210
2,280

.02
.00
.01
.00
.19
.02

.00
.00
.02
.02
.13
.02

.03
.02
.05
.04
.02
.01

40.07
33.20
43.86
43.86
32.14
18.26

35.92
44.19
35.29
41.19
26.09
19.73

32.55
32.14
39.51
37.75
28.10
25.18

21,660
750
2,010

23,390
250
1,210

52,600
150
4,800

.02
.00
.00

.22
.00
.01

.24
.00
.02

37.48
47.51
45.90

28.33
38.19
38.70

30.90
30.09
35.39

700
6,480
2,820
210
730
770

1,760
420
280
50
370
680

980
25,800
1,890
710
2,000
2,520

.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01

.00
.12
.01
.00
.01
.01

33.64
32.13
23.78
29.36
27.38
28.67

36.23
27.47
23.73
21.87
22.69
40.67

26.09
27.38
28.07
31.44
25.10
45.66

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

Table A–1. Continued—For-profit, not-for-profit, and government employment and wages, by detailed occupation, 2006			

						
PercentPercentage Percentage
		
Govern		
of not-for- age of For-profit Not-forof forFor-profit Not-for-profit ment
		
governOccupation
profit
profit
employemploywage
profit wage
		
employ				
ment
employemployment
ment
				
ment				
employment
ment
ment
Social scientists and related workers,
all other..........................................................
9,080
4,880
17,470
0.01
0.04
0.08
$33.47
$34.55
Agricultural and food science
technicians....................................................
10,380
1,730
7,210
.01
.02
.03
16.23
16.78
Biological technicians....................................
28,180
18,340
25,530
.03
.17
.12
19.60
18.89
Chemical technicians.....................................
56,620
2,050
2,420
.06
.02
.01
19.69
18.47
Geological and petroleum technicians...
10,790
60
430
.01
.00
.00
25.03
18.63
Nuclear technicians........................................
5,990
320
100
.01
.00
.00
31.31
30.22
Social science research assistants.............
5,160
5,770
4,910
.01
.05
.02
18.69
16.50
Environmental science and protection
technicians, including health................
19,310
2,050
13,700
.02
.02
.06
18.77
16.37
Forensic science technicians.......................
1,700
220
10,540
.00
.00
.05
24.08
24.12
Forest and conservation technicians.......
980
380
29,240
.00
.00
.14
18.14
17.95
Life, physical, and social science
technicians, all other................................
22,730
11,080
25,410
.02
.10
.12
20.53
19.96
Substance abuse and behavioral
disorder counselors...................................
Educational, vocational, and school
counselors.....................................................
Marriage and family therapists..................
Mental health counselors.............................
Rehabilitation counselors............................
Counselors, all other......................................
Child, family, and school social
workers...........................................................
Medical and public health social
workers...........................................................
Mental health and substance abuse
social workers..............................................
Social workers, all other................................
Health educators.............................................
Probation officers and correctional
treatment specialists................................
Social and human service assistants........
Community and social service
specialists, all other....................................
Clergy..................................................................
Directors, religious activities and
education......................................................
Religious workers, all other.........................
Lawyers...............................................................
Arbitrators, mediators, and conciliators..
Paralegals and legal assistants...................
Court reporters................................................
Law clerks...........................................................
Title examiners, abstractors, and
searchers........................................................
Legal support workers, all other................
Business teachers, postsecondary............
Computer science teachers,
postsecondary............................................
Mathematical science teachers,
postsecondary............................................
Architecture teachers, postsecondary.....
Engineering teachers, postsecondary.....
Agricultural sciences teachers,
postsecondary.............................................
Biological science teachers,
postsecondary.............................................
Forestry and conservation science
teachers, postsecondary.........................

Government		
wage

$31.29
15.94
16.57
19.06
18.74
23.80
16.54
20.48
22.82
16.16
18.39

18,830

43,520

13,710

.02

.40

.06

17.13

16.63

19.54

21,780
6,200
23,810
23,980
3,580

45,840
9,080
54,330
71,700
9,170

161,300
6,080
13,770
26,030
11,920

.02
.01
.02
.02
.00

.42
.08
.50
.66
.08

.75
.03
.06
.12
.06

19.81
20.31
18.83
16.52
18.26

19.22
20.09
16.87
13.92
17.28

25.70
24.73
22.27
20.32
20.98

22,230

95,170

149,570

.02

.88

.70

17.56

16.64

21.52

35,820

58,820

22,670

.04

.54

.11

21.69

21.14

21.81

23,510
8,050
10,260

67,100
20,310
29,170

24,450
33,980
18,740

.02
.01
.01

.62
.19
.27

.11
.16
.09

19.04
19.31
21.12

17.37
18.76
20.23

19.87
23.61
24.51

1,720
54,270

900
167,890

87,880
103,070

.00
.05

.01
1.55

.41
.48

15.32
12.58

14.26
12.13

22.31
14.68

14,640
15,050

45,900
19,400

48,640
3,520

.01
.01

.42
.18

.23
.02

16.64
19.91

16.55
20.65

19.51
24.08

6,890
2,280
418,460
2,900
191,480
6,370
18,270

7,460
3,610
17,210
2,620
5,160
(1)
370

420
130
115,270
2,710
33,550
10,290
13,350

.01
.00
.41
.00
.19
.00
.02

.07
.03
.16
.02
.05
(1)
.00

.00
.00
.54
.01
.16
.00
.06

16.93
13.15
58.09
27.59
21.61
21.31
18.38

18.47
14.48
41.08
28.07
20.37
(1)
13.98

29.33
19.40
43.50
28.70
23.35
24.55
19.62

61,640
12,920
6,020

220
1,180
22,300

1,740
24,980
39,700

.06
.01
.01

.00
.01
.21

.01
.12
.18

19.53
22.59
60,110

18.60
18.14
72,810

19.85
25.42
69,890

4,820

8,030

24,000

.00

.07

.11

58,780

73,950

63,050

1,660
300
890

10,320
1,810
7,700

32,870
3,760
23,580

.00
.00
.00

.10
.02
.07

.15
.02
.11

61,290
64,340
78,170

65,490
71,870
87,320

61,930
65,020
80,200

80

950

9,120

.00

.01

.04

61,480

72,470

77,750

880

15,610

35,700

.00

.14

.17

73,770

81,840

82,260

(1)

440

2,170

(1)

.00

.00

(1)

58,360

68,990

See notes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008 27

Not-For-Profit Sector

Table A–1. Continued—For-profit, not-for-profit, and government employment and wages, by detailed occupation, 2006			
						
Percent		
Govern- Percentage Percentage
		
age of
Governof not-forof forFor-profit Not-for-profit ment
For-profit Not-for		
		
governOccupation
employemployprofit
profit
wage
profit- wage ment
		
employ			
ment
wage
ment
ment
employemploy				
ment				
employment
ment
ment
Atmospheric, earth, marine, and space
sciences teachers, postsecondary........
260
1,970
6,480
0.00
0.02
0.03
$73,290
$78,260 $73,890
Chemistry teachers, postsecondary.........
1,010
6,870
11,840
.00
.06
.06
68,680
72,440
68,680
Environmental science teachers,
postsecondary.............................................
110
1,650
2,570
.00
.02
.01
60,500
69,490
73,970
Physics teachers, postsecondary...............
210
4,190
8,000
.00
.04
.04
77,480
78,370
72,500
Anthropology and archeology teachers,
postsecondary.............................................
70
1,710
3,300
.00
.02
.02
70,240
72,800
65,770
Area, ethnic, and cultural studies
teachers, postsecondary..........................
180
2,860
4,340
.00
.03
.02
62,920
67,580
61,200
Economics teachers, postsecondary........
300
4,340
7,770
.00
.04
.04
72,890
85,730
75,810
Geography teachers, postsecondary.......
130
780
3,170
.00
.01
.01
60,180
64,710
62,500
Political science teachers, p
ostsecondary...............................................
330
5,030
8,520
.00
.05
.04
71,400
71,750
67,270
Psychology teachers, postsecondary.......
1,250
10,350
18,190
.00
.10
.08
65,150
66,490
63,380
Sociology teachers, postsecondary..........
Social sciences teachers, postsecondary,
all other.........................................................
Health specialties teachers,
postsecondary............................................
Nursing instructors and teachers,
postsecondary............................................
Education teachers, postsecondary.........
Library science teachers,
postsecondary.............................................
Criminal justice and law enforcement
teachers, postsecondary..........................
Law teachers, postsecondary.....................
Social work teachers, postsecondary.......
Art, drama, and music teachers,
postsecondary.............................................
Communications teachers,
postsecondary.............................................
English language and literature
teachers, postsecondary..........................
Foreign language and literature
teachers, postsecondary..........................
History teachers, postsecondary...............
Philosophy and religion teachers,
postsecondary.............................................
Graduate teaching assistants......................
Home economics teachers,
postsecondary.............................................
Recreation and fitness studies teachers,
postsecondary.............................................
Vocational education teachers,
postsecondary.............................................
Postsecondary teachers, all other.............
Preschool teachers, except special
education......................................................
Kindergarten teachers, except special
education......................................................
Elementary school teachers, except
special education.......................................
Middle school teachers, except
special and vocational education.........
Vocational education teachers,..................
middle school..............................................
Secondary school teachers, except
special and vocational education.........

430

5,720

9,990

.00

.05

.05

62,310

67,400

60,730

430

1,590

3,830

.00

.00

.00

49,620

73,510

70,130

8,720

41,080

68,140

.01

.38

.32

61,590

95,580

91,680

4,090
3,740

11,190
17,760

24,270
32,370

.00
.00

.10
.16

.11
.15

55,420
53,090

60,870
56,110

58,070
58,600

40

880

2,950

.00

.01

.01

56,630

53,960

58,490

400
940
110

2,080
6,240
2,620

7,960
4,790
5,170

.00
.00
.00

.02
.06
.02

.04
.02
.02

55,330
71,870
54,710

53,030
95,680
59,630

55,880
96,300
57,190

6,230

29,980

36,120

.01

.28

.17

55,630

59,630

57,500

1,010

6,790

15,910

.00

.06

.07

52,110

57,510

56,480

2,600

15,800

41,220

.00

.15

.19

56,410

59,650

56,430

2,290
550

9,470
7,570

13,120
12,940

.00
.00

.09
.07

.06
.06

41,180
63,760

66,700
67,470

58,340
60,560

930
960

10,430
25,550

6,570
86,620

.00
.00

.10
.24

.03
.40

54,710
28,320

59,750
32,600

61,520
29,480

130

500

3,720

.00

.00

.02

46,500

62,050

60,890

1,440

4,370

11,380

.00

.04

.05

47,630

50,130

56,330

43,660
14,570

12,880
77,750

54,690
182,640

.04
.01

.12
.72

.25
.85

20.25
69,280

24.61
77,640

23.81
70,060

195,330

119,920

48,640

.19

1.11

.23

10.50

12.45

20.17

11,740

14,550

140,080

.01

.13

.65

32,220

36,730

49,250

66,520

86,710

1,379,610

.07

.80

6.41

38,520

41,150

49,330

19,890

42,800

594,870

.02

.39

2.77

40,950

44,210

49,960

290

1,020

14,550

.00

.01

.07

38,190

40,540

47,180

28,960

76,490

938,890

.03

.70

4.37

46,060

47,250

51,310

See notes at end of table.

28

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

Table A–1. Continued—For-profit, not-for-profit, and government employment and wages, by detailed occupation, 2006			

						
PercentPercentage Percentage
		
Govern		
age of
of forof not-forFor-profit Not-for-profit ment
		
govern- For-profit Not-forOccupation
profit
employemployprofit
wage
profit-wage
		
employ			
ment
employment
ment
employ				
ment			
employment
ment
ment
Vocational education teachers,
secondary school.......................................
Special education teachers, preschool,
kindergarten, and elementary
school............................................................
Special education teachers, middle
school.............................................................
Special education teachers, secondary
school.............................................................
Adult literacy, remedial education, and
GED teachers and instructors...................
Self–enrichment education teachers.......
Teachers and instructors, all other............
Archivists............................................................
Curators..............................................................
Museum technicians and
conservators.................................................

Government		
wage

2,110

2,960

91,940

0.00

0.03

0.43

$52,160

$53,580

$50,500

7,620

15,410

194,310

.01

.14

.90

43,870

42,410

50,470

1,520

3,890

100,950

.00

.04

.47

44,890

47,290

51,620

3,930

6,500

126,680

.00

.06

.59

45,200

46,980

52,990

9,710
76,520
71,610
1,050
1,030

10,070
45,790
54,060
2,510
5,620

52,050
27,730
456,420
1,930
2,900

.01
.08
.07
.00
.00

.09
.42
.50
.02
.05

.24
.13
2.12
.01
.01

18.18
17.44
34,270
21.58
25.16

18.75
18.59
35,700
19.73
23.51

23.94
21.17
35,410
23.20
24.58

670

4,220

4,960

.00

.04

.02

18.42

17.47

18.94

Librarians............................................................
Library technicians.........................................
Audio–visual collections specialists.........
Farm and home management advisors..
Instructional coordinators...........................
Teacher assistants...........................................
Education, training, and library
workers, all other........................................
Art directors......................................................
Craft artists........................................................
Fine artists, including painters,
sculptors, and illustrators........................

10,370
5,250
350
1,850
18,550
114,100

21,220
13,980
1,160
570
21,600
154,720

118,910
95,590
5,120
10,280
77,970
983,120

.01
.01
.00
.00
.02
.11

.20
.13
.01
.01
.20
1.43

.55
.44
.02
.05
.36
4.57

23.97
14.46
17.01
35.63
25.55
20,060

23.85
14.19
18.17
20.08
23.17
21,340

24.45
13.22
20.78
20.28
27.91
22,130

4,290
28,990
4,400

11,940
1,860
370

68,650
350
140

.00
.03
.00

.11
.02
.00

.32
.00
.00

17.74
38.25
13.91

17.84
29.59
10.35

16.94
28.18
16.44

9,940

570

750

.01

.01

.00

22.65

21.16

23.57

Multi–media artists and animators...........
Artists and related workers, all other.......
Commercial and industrial designers......
Fashion designers...........................................
Floral designers................................................
Graphic designers...........................................
Interior designers............................................
Merchandise displayers and window
trimmers........................................................
Set and exhibit designers.............................
Designers, all other.........................................
Actors..................................................................

25,040
4,050
33,040
15,370
61,400
179,020
52,100

690
320
300
250
120
6,200
170

560
3,510
230
60
70
6,650
320

.02
.00
.03
.02
.06
.18
.05

.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.06
.00

.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.03
.00

28.11
19.37
28.58
33.53
11.05
20.97
23.01

24.01
18.84
25.74
20.91
13.22
20.64
23.57

22.23
28.70
22.43
23.77
16.90
22.90
28.48

62,760
5,620
10,700
45,420

190
1,950
410
6,190

30
770
320
270

.06
.01
.01
.04

.00
.02
.00
.06

.00
.00
.00
.00

12.75
23.12
23.28
22.11

13.07
18.19
28.77
20.10

17.80
22.58
23.71
15.37

Producers and directors................................
Athletes and sports competitors...............
Coaches and scouts........................................
Umpires, referees, and other sports
officials...........................................................
Dancers...............................................................
Choreographers...............................................
Music directors and composers.................
Musicians and singers...................................
Entertainers and performers, sports
and related workers, all other................
Radio and television announcers..............

52,300
10,840
56,750

8,280
1,420
40,360

3,590
250
57,410

.05
.01
.06

.08
.01
.37

.02
.00
.27

36.80
78,980
33,390

24.88
44,020
33,170

25.66
49,270
33,250

5,500
13,080
14,480
5,240
22,660

3,000
3,030
1,800
4,000
22,870

5,320
70
100
240
1,160

.01
.01
.01
.01
.02

.03
.03
.02
.04
.21

.02
.00
.00
.00
.01

28,620
13.05
18.10
26.44
26.06

25,300
17.01
21.16
24.53
29.38

27,410
13.98
16.66
26.05
19.24

56,610
37,210

1,440
2,640

1,450
420

.06
.04

.01
.02

.01
.00

16.84
17.37

17.40
17.10

16.11
14.44

8,110
6,450
51,300
117,600
86,170
42,070
33,280
9,730

110
330
1,850
62,790
11,430
1,650
7,320
4,760

110
90
280
30,420
2,940
1,660
2,820
16,520

.01
.01
.05
.12
.09
.04
.03
.01

.00
.00
.02
.58
.11
.02
.07
.04

.00
.00
.00
.14
.01
.01
.01
.08

16.31
32.44
20.19
26.63
25.75
29.28
28.70
20.15

17.15
29.06
18.61
24.68
25.06
28.54
24.13
17.40

15.32
18.05
20.01
24.79
21.87
28.85
28.17
18.97

Public address system and other
announcers...................................................
Broadcast news analysts...............................
Reporters and correspondents..................
Public relations specialists...........................
Editors.................................................................
Technical writers..............................................
Writers and authors........................................
Interpreters and translators.........................
See notes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008 29

Not-For-Profit Sector

Table A–1. Continued—For-profit, not-for-profit, and government employment and wages, by detailed occupation, 2006			
						
Percent		
Govern- Percentage Percentage
		
age of
GovernFor-profit Not-for-profit ment
of not-forof for		
govern- For-profit Not-forOccupation
ment		
employemploywage
profit
wage
profit
profit
		
employ				
ment
wage
ment
ment
employ- employemploy				
ment				
ment
ment
ment
Media and communication workers,
all other..........................................................
Audio and video equipment
technicians...................................................
Broadcast technicians....................................
Radio operators...............................................
Sound engineering technicians.................
Photographers.................................................
Camera operators, television, video,
and motion picture....................................
Film and video editors...................................
Media and communication equipment
workers, all other........................................
Chiropractors....................................................

16,010

3,010

4,170

0.02

.03

0.02

$23.11

$21.09

$19.46

30,840
27,180
470
12,970
58,280

4,150
2,700
40
990
1,080

5,840
2,680
930
220
1,180

.03
.03
.00
.01
.06

.04
.02
.00
.01
.01

.03
.01
.00
.00
.01

19.03
16.63
17.68
24.45
15.09

16.57
17.69
20.08
20.16
21.76

17.21
19.71
16.71
19.25
19.75

19,970
16,900

1,310
410

1,140
130

.02
.02

.01
.00

.01
.00

22.50
28.17

15.13
18.19

23.13
19.76

9,460
24,870

2,170
510

6,350
90

.01
.02

.02
.00

.03
.00

22.58
39.09

23.97
35.93

30.22
24.86

Dentists, general..............................................
Oral and maxillofacial surgeons................
Orthodontists...................................................
Prosthodontists................................................
Dentists, all other specialists.......................
Dietitians and nutritionists..........................
Optometrists.....................................................
Pharmacists.......................................................
Anesthesiologists............................................
Family and general practitioners...............
Internists, general...........................................

80,710
5,030
5,120
450
1,880
19,780
22,910
181,900
24,420
69,750
34,750

3,260
250
(1)
(1)
200
19,000
1,040
41,510
4,440
27,880
12,450

2,350
50
(1)
(1)
2,530
12,980
410
18,220
1,210
12,580
1,670

.08
.00
.01
.00
.00
.02
.02
.18
.02
.07
.03

.03
.00
(1)
(1)
.00
.18
.01
.38
.04
.26
.11

.01
.00
(1)
(1)
.01
.06
.00
.08
.01
.06
.01

68.76
80.94
85.64
78.39
74.59
23.22
47.47
45.17
91.74
76.00
81.79

55.55
50.56
53.80
47.26
40.17
22.84
49.02
44.18
76.56
68.08
66.30

47.14
47.32
(1)
(1)
36.15
22.67
31.09
42.73
64.78
56.96
62.94

Obstetricians and gynecologists...............
Pediatricians, general....................................
Psychiatrists.......................................................
Surgeons............................................................
Physicians and surgeons, all other............
Physician assistants........................................
Podiatrists..........................................................
Registered nurses............................................
Audiologists......................................................
Occupational therapists...............................

18,010
3,900
19,230
8,390
10,260
8,380
41,780
8,060
99,800
62,410
39,570
17,430
7,640
730
829,950 1,164,360
6,920
2,170
40,730
29,160

650
1,450
6,170
2,140
48,110
6,060
670
439,300
1,830
18,910

.02
.02
.01
.04
.10
.04
.01
.82
.01
.04

.04
.08
.08
.07
.58
.16
.01
10.73
.02
.27

.00
.01
.03
.01
.22
.03
.00
2.04
.01
.09

88.00
70.07
77.59
91.04
84.26
35.59
58.92
28.34
30.21
31.88

78.53
63.47
70.35
79.51
59.60
35.90
50.73
29.07
28.37
28.93

59.79
64.46
65.11
72.79
45.83
35.65
41.53
27.88
27.43
27.69

Physical therapists..........................................
Radiation therapists.......................................
Recreational therapists.................................
Respiratory therapists...................................
Speech–language pathologists.................
Therapists, all other........................................
Veterinarians.....................................................
Health diagnosing and treating
practitioners, all other..............................
Medical and clinical laboratory
technologists...............................................
Medical and clinical laboratory
technicians....................................................

91,700
4,150
8,420
33,350
26,610
4,730
46,310

48,910
8,240
8,570
54,080
18,240
5,390
1,140

16,130
1,920
7,200
12,360
53,950
1,590
2,380

.09
.00
.01
.03
.03
.00
.05

.45
.08
.08
.50
.17
.05
.01

.07
.01
.03
.06
.25
.01
.01

33.37
34.86
16.11
23.32
33.41
21.92
39.53

31.98
31.78
17.02
23.45
29.60
20.35
33.90

30.56
30.33
19.85
22.60
27.06
25.14
34.55

19,480

17,740

16,130

.02

.16

.08

52.94

29.75

35.42

55,940

81,320

27,110

.06

.75

.13

23.86

24.20

23.99

63,480

59,570

22,180

.06

.55

.10

15.90

17.20

17.13

Dental hygienists.............................................
Cardiovascular technologists
and technicians...........................................
Diagnostic medical sonographers............
Nuclear medicine technologists................
Radiologic technologists and
technicians....................................................
Emergency medical technicians and
paramedics...................................................
Dietetic technicians........................................
Pharmacy technicians...................................

162,610

2,310

1,570

.16

.02

.01

30.11

27.13

23.32

14,010
20,140
7,460

24,920
20,330
10,000

5,210
4,080
1,940

.01
.02
.01

.23
.19
.09

.02
.02
.01

21.65
27.89
30.70

20.94
27.99
30.16

20.20
27.09
28.58

81,230

87,830

22,720

.08

.81

.11

23.25

24.06

23.09

76,080
8,540
230,410

49,380
11,440
38,300

73,080
4,560
15,680

.08
.01
.23

.46
.11
.35

.34
.02
.07

13.15
11.85
12.29

13.76
12.99
14.34

15.23
12.64
15.10

See notes at end of table.

30

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

Table A–1. Continued—For-profit, not-for-profit, and government employment and wages, by detailed occupation, 2006			

						

PercentGovern- Percentage Percentage
		
age of
For-profit Not-for-profit ment
For-profit
Not-forof forof not-for		
governemployemploywage
profit wage
profit
profit
Occupation
		
employ				
ment
ment
ment
employemploy- employ				
ment				
ment
ment
ment
		

Psychiatric technicians..................................
Respiratory therapy technicians................
Surgical technologists...................................
Veterinary technologists and
technicians....................................................
Licensed practical and licensed
vocational nurses.......................................
Medical records and health
information technicians...........................
Opticians, dispensing....................................
Orthotists and prosthetists..........................
Health technologists and technicians,
all other..........................................................
Occupational health and safety
specialists......................................................
Occupational health and safety
technicians....................................................
Athletic trainers...............................................
Healthcare practitioners and technical
workers, all other........................................
Home health aides..........................................

Government		
wage

15,120
5,360
31,630

13,620
10,490
43,180

30,340
3,300
10,220

0.01
.01
.03

0.13
.10
.40

0.14
.02
.05

$12.90
18.62
18.20

$13.27
19.44
18.00

$16.11
17.86
16.44

65,350

1,930

2,560

.06

.02

.01

13.15

15.03

16.92

419,690

212,350

96,550

.41

1.96

.45

18.28

17.78

16.77

80,470
64,490
4,100

63,590
1,180
630

21,710
130
590

.08
.06
.00

.59
.01
.01

.10
.00
.00

13.66
15.41
30.83

14.89
17.49
24.29

16.12
16.01
28.68

33,360

28,890

10,360

.03

.27

.05

17.64

18.77

19.46

19,130

3,300

20,160

.02

.03

.09

29.23

28.78

27.60

5,710
7,370

1,330
4,470

3,020
3,620

.01
.01

.01
.04

.01
.02

22.32
36,890

18.40
38,520

20.64
43,250

21,040
471,040

19,150
245,180

10,650
36,690

.02
.46

.18
2.26

.05
.17

20.65
9.27

20.83
9.97

25.18
12.45

727,130
13,110
12,950
3,810
38,510
31,770
40,140
266,370
315,340
13,910
46,580

499,070
12,260
7,550
2,630
16,940
10,690
1,590
6,400
75,720
24,040
33,670

152,340
31,910
3,250
1,370
4,320
3,110
390
7,190
19,060
4,910
6,710

.72
.01
.01
.00
.04
.03
.04
.26
.31
.01
.05

4.60
.11
.07
.02
.16
.10
.01
.06
.70
.22
.31

.71
.15
.02
.01
.02
.01
.00
.03
.09
.02
.03

10.58
10.52
21.20
13.62
20.08
11.11
18.83
14.76
12.88
12.78
14.61

11.47
11.36
18.90
12.40
19.37
11.79
20.21
14.06
13.52
13.15
15.00

11.79
12.84
19.43
14.35
19.47
10.03
19.72
15.30
14.46
12.51
14.22

Pharmacy aides................................................
Veterinary assistants and laboratory
animal caretakers.......................................
Healthcare support workers, all other.....
First–line supervisors/managers
of correctional officers..............................
First–line supervisors/managers
of police and detectives...........................
First–line supervisors/managers
of fire fighting and prevention
workers...........................................................
First–line supervisors/managers,
protective service workers,
all other..........................................................
Fire fighters........................................................
Fire inspectors and investigators...............
Forest fire inspectors and prevention
specialists......................................................

46,080

3,070

930

.05

.03

.00

9.75

12.20

12.18

64,210
81,870

3,760
71,260

2,540
33,830

.06
.08

.03
.66

.01
.16

9.88
13.05

12.23
13.43

12.98
14.86

1,060

80

36,410

.00

.00

.17

20.78

21.78

26.40

30

510

91,530

.00

.00

.43

28.27

31.34

33.20

580

200

50,370

.00

.00

.23

26.81

21.06

31.26

31,110
5,290
1,280

4,320
2,630
60

10,840
277,940
12,120

.03
.01
.00

.04
.02
.00

.05
1.29
.06

20.20
16.84
22.20

21.64
13.34
21.77

27.39
20.44
24.13

30

(1)

1,680

.00

(1)

.00

14.08

(1)

17.28

Correctional officers and jailers.................
Detectives and criminal investigators.....
Parking enforcement workers....................
Police and sheriff’s patrol officers.............
Transit and railroad police...........................
Animal control workers.................................
Private detectives and investigators........
Gaming surveillance officers
and gaming investigators.......................

15,110
(1)
330
230
(1)
80
31,810

960
60
290
3,640
(1)
1,470
560

409,010
(1)
9,500
642,600
3,870
13,070
3,730

.01
(1)
.00
.00
(1)
.00
.03

.01
.00
.00
.03
(1)
.01
.01

1.90
(1)
.04
2.99
.00
.06
.02

13.56
(1)
14.70
20.22
23.81
13.88
17.91

12.70
30.40
10.81
21.45
(1)
12.37
24.29

18.48
(1)
15.16
22.93
23.74
14.31
21.51

4,070

50

4,520

.00

.00

.02

13.64

14.55

15.42

Nursing aides, orderlies, and
attendants.....................................................
Psychiatric aides..............................................
Occupational therapist assistants.............
Occupational therapist aides......................
Physical therapist assistants........................
Physical therapist aides.................................
Massage therapists.........................................
Dental assistants..............................................
Medical assistants...........................................
Medical equipment preparers....................
Medical transcriptionists..............................

See notes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008 31

Not-For-Profit Sector

Table A–1. Continued—For-profit, not-for-profit, and government employment and wages, by detailed occupation, 2006			
						
Percent		
Govern- Percentage Percentage
		
age of
Governof forof not-forFor-profit Not-for-profit ment
For-profit Not-for		
government		
employemployprofit
profit
Occupation
wage
profit
wage
		
employ				
ment
wage
ment
ment
employemploy				
ment				
employment
ment
ment
Security guards................................................
Crossing guards...............................................
Lifeguards, ski patrol, and other
recreational protective service
workers...........................................................
Protective service workers, all other........
Chefs and head cooks....................................
First–line supervisors/managers
of food preparation and serving
workers...........................................................
Cooks, fast food...............................................
Cooks, institution and cafeteria.................
Cooks, private household............................
Cooks, restaurant............................................

863,230
10,870

70,590
310

100,000
56,630

0.85
.01

0.65
.00

0.46
.26

$10.86
12.08

$12.39
12.36

$13.54
10.43

29,820
27,180
96,120

34,340
3,820
4,770

45,040
51,140
3,840

.03
.03
.09

.32
.04
.04

.21
.24
.02

8.72
12.53
17.78

8.31
13.48
22.49

9.34
15.71
22.84

692,580
619,950
149,180
500
813,950

26,910
(1)
72,160
390
12,800

55,840
(1)
159,120
(1)
3,250

.68
.61
.15
.00
.80

.25
(1)
.67
.00
.12

.26
(1)
.74
(1)
.02

13.77
7.64
10.19
15.38
10.07

15.32
8.94
10.80
11.53
11.60

14.20
(1)
9.99
9.98
10.59

Cooks, short order...........................................
Cooks, all other.................................................
Food preparation workers...........................
Bartenders.........................................................
Combined food preparation and
serving workers, including fast food...
Counter attendants, cafeteria,
food concession, and coffee shop........
Waiters and waitresses..................................
Food servers, nonrestaurant.......................
Dining room and cafeteria attendants
and bartender helpers..............................

183,450
11,500
718,420
433,670

6,300
1,330
67,840
49,990

540
110
100,860
3,670

.18
.01
.71
.43

.06
.01
.63
.46

.00
.00
.47
.02

8.97
11.47
8.69
8.98

9.56
10.19
9.50
8.30

9.74
11.70
9.62
8.74

2,283,990

42,830

146,240

2.25

.39

.68

7.51

9.15

9.50

479,820
2,261,080
126,550

14,580
54,460
47,790

36,510
9,120
10,170

.47
2.23
.12

.13
.50
.44

.17
.04
.05

8.01
8.23
9.32

9.13
9.31
9.65

9.21
8.39
10.45

362,300

20,150

20,700

.36

.19

.10

7.75

8.51

8.82

477,930

21,130

6,170

.47

.19

.03

7.75

8.37

8.11

336,140

3,790

2,030

.33

.03

.01

8.07

9.95

8.91

45,230

4,550

5,620

.04

.04

.03

9.10

10.15

10.12

122,090

20,610

41,870

.12

.19

.19

15.33

16.93

17.93

87,030

7,750

16,940

.09

.07

.08

18.82

21.34

20.84

1,449,300
729,880
12,240
61,260

172,700
141,370
(1)
(1)

536,320
34,170
(1)
(1)

1.43
.72
.01
.00

1.59
1.30
(1)
(1)

2.49
.16
(1)
(1)

9.68
8.76
13.01
14.03

10.65
9.96
10.77
(1)

12.25
9.66
(1)
14.67

739,780

65,120

126,850

.73

.60

.59

10.70

11.11

12.91

22,360
24,380

340
360

3,230
3,920

.02
.02

.00
.00

.02
.02

13.52
13.99

14.84
16.96

15.00
16.37

13,250
17,040
7,060

1,200
590
60

7,650
6,460
6,440

.01
.02
.01

.01
.01
.00

.04
.03
.03

11.84
20.86
12.56

10.06
15.65
12.09

11.87
19.37
11.69

78,910
9,250
87,420
61,160

30,410
700
16,120
1,250

17,220
90
4,880
21,260

.08
.01
.09
.06

.28
.01
.15
.01

.08
.00
.02
.10

17.00
14.17
9.47
7.78

16.26
16.82
10.00
10.56

20.47
16.93
13.15
9.14

9,990

3,760

4,070

.01

.03

.02

9.85

9.14

11.25

7,920

380

6,150

.01

.00

.03

12.10

10.04

11.02

Dishwashers......................................................
Hosts and hostesses, restaurant,
lounge, and coffee shop..........................
Food preparation and serving related
workers, all other........................................
First–line supervisors/managers
of housekeeping and janitorial
workers...........................................................
First–line supervisors/managers
of landscaping, lawn service,
and groundskeeping workers................
Janitors and cleaners, except maids
and housekeeping cleaners...................
Maids and housekeeping cleaners...........
Building cleaning workers, all other.........
Pest control workers.......................................
Landscaping and groundskeeping
workers...........................................................
Pesticide handlers, sprayers,
and applicators, vegetation....................
Tree trimmers and pruners..........................
Grounds maintenance workers,
all other..........................................................
Gaming supervisors.......................................
Slot key persons...............................................
First–line supervisors/managers
of personal service workers....................
Animal trainers.................................................
Nonfarm animal caretakers.........................
Gaming dealers................................................
Gaming and sports book writers
and runners..................................................
Gaming service workers, all other.............
See notes at end of table.

32

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

Table A–1. Continued—For-profit, not-for-profit, and government employment and wages, by detailed occupation, 2006			

						

PercentGovern- Percentage Percentage
		
age of
GovernFor-profit Not-for-profit ment
of not-forof for		
govern- For-profit Not-forment		
employemploywage
profit
wage
Occupation
profit
profit
		
employ				
ment
wage
ment
ment
employemploy				
ment				
employment
ment
ment
		

Motion picture projectionists.....................
Ushers, lobby attendants,
and ticket takers.........................................
Amusement and recreation
attendants.....................................................
Costume attendants......................................
Locker room, coatroom, and dressing
room attendants.........................................
Entertainment attendants
and related workers, all other................
Embalmers.........................................................
Funeral attendants.........................................
Barbers................................................................
Hairdressers, hairstylists,
and cosmetologists...................................

10,370

360

(1)

0.01

0.00

(1)

$9.58

$11.68

$15.04

88,650

9,600

4,440

.09

.09

.02

8.24

9.34

9.26

164,180
2,630

24,950
1,190

47,270
330

.16
.00

.23
.01

.22
.00

8.15
14.44

8.44
14.11

9.37
12.61

14,120

3,850

860

.01

.04

.00

9.33

9.93

10.29

(1)
8,780
32,620
11,360

5,630
80
90
50

()
(1)
(1)
180

()
.01
.03
.01

.00
.00
.00
.00

()
(1)
(1)
.00

()
19.44
10.52
12.68

8.36
18.07
12.95
13.00

10.59
17.95
(1)
15.67

345,940

990

360

.34

.01

.00

11.78

12.08

12.93

1,080
47,640
15,660
23,080
47,330
18,040
16,640
3,100
96,940

190
(1)
(1)
110
400
620
11,150
120
(1)

(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
1,110
740
3,040
60
(1)

.00
.05
.00
.02
.05
.02
.02
.00
.00

.00
(1)
(1)
.00
.00
.01
.10
.00
(1)

(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
.01
.00
.01
.00
(1)

16.98
10.22
8.19
14.06
10.33
12.62
11.02
14.92
(1)

21.43
11.78
(1)
15.79
10.26
11.08
9.72
12.93
(1)

(1)
(1)
(1)
16.50
11.08
10.08
12.56
11.17
(1)

16,490

370

4,340

.02

.00

.02

10.00

9.72

10.57

Child care workers..........................................
272,180
Personal and home care aides....................
370,210
Fitness trainers and aerobics
instructors.....................................................
149,740
Recreation workers.........................................
76,200
Residential advisors........................................
8,980
Personal care and service workers,
all other..........................................................
38,770
First–line supervisors/managers
of retail sales workers................................ 1,107,610
First–line supervisors/managers
of non–retail sales workers.....................
269,790
Cashiers............................................................... 3,429,260
Gaming change persons
and booth cashiers....................................
18,820

175,890
193,230

127,020
19,010

.27
.37

1.62
1.78

.59
.09

8.39
8.28

9.23
9.45

10.15
9.85

48,730
83,070
27,800

8,040
115,720
11,760

.15
.08
.01

.45
.77
.26

.04
.54
.05

15.70
10.73
11.48

13.95
10.44
11.39

14.07
11.62
12.95

10,870

9,190

.04

.10

.04

10.18

10.39

11.24

9,760

7,300

1.09

.09

.03

18.62

16.34

18.98

3,400
37,620

14,450
44,370

.27
3.38

.03
.35

.07
.21

37.35
8.55

31.43
9.50

28.29
12.11

460

7,660

.02

.00

.04

10.53

9.72

9.79

Counter and rental clerks.............................
465,360
Parts salespersons...........................................
236,960
Retail salespersons......................................... 4,376,750
Advertising sales agents...............................
156,990
Insurance sales agents..................................
307,360
Securities, commodities, and financial
services sales agents.................................
259,800
Travel agents.....................................................
87,500
Sales representatives, services,
all other..........................................................
489,920
Sales representatives, wholesale
and manufacturing, technical
and scientific products.............................
391,050

4,980
40
30,980
2,900
(1)

1,080
40
13,220
180
(1)

.46
.23
4.32
.15
.30

.05
.00
.29
.03
(1)

.01
.00
.06
.00
(1)

11.21
14.37
11.48
24.68
28.08

10.13
18.75
9.69
24.75
27.39

11.39
16.55
11.66
16.71
(1)

1,510
910

100
90

.26
.09

.01
.01

.00
.00

43.42
15.06

34.01
15.57

35.19
11.43

11,850

1,310

.48

.11

.01

27.17

24.35

23.59

1,740

260

.39

.02

.00

34.90

33.85

20.82

3,770

510

1.47

.03

.00

28.08

27.38

22.10

Makeup artists, theatrical
and performance........................................
Manicurists and pedicurists........................
Shampooers......................................................
Skin care specialists........................................
Baggage porters and bellhops...................
Concierges.........................................................
Tour guides and escorts................................
Travel guides.....................................................
Flight attendants.............................................
Transportation attendants,
except flight attendants
and baggage porters................................

Sales representatives, wholesale
and manufacturing, except technical
and scientific products............................. 1,492,150

1

1

1

1

See notes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008 33

Not-For-Profit Sector

Table A–1. Continued—For-profit, not-for-profit, and government employment and wages, by detailed occupation, 2006			

						

PercentGovern- Percentage Percentage
		
age of
GovernFor-profit Not-for-profit ment
of not-forof for		
govern- For-profit Not-forment		
employemployprofit
profit
wage
profit
wage
Occupation
		
employ				
ment
wage
ment
ment
employemploy				
ment				
employment
ment
ment
Demonstrators and product
promoters.....................................................
83,440
650
80
0.08
0.01
0.00
$12.32
$13.38
$17.25
Models.................................................................
690
210
570
.00
.00
.00
13.31
13.68
13.50
Real estate brokers.........................................
46,670
360
90
.05
.00
.00
38.58
33.77
28.33
Real estate sales agents................................
161,630
2,260
4,880
.16
.02
.02
26.09
22.14
28.49
Sales engineers................................................
74,900
300
90
.07
.00
.00
39.92
39.01
36.00
Telemarketers...................................................
378,230
10,050
150
.37
.09
.00
11.61
10.99
12.68
Door–to–door sales workers, news and
street vendors, and related workers....
10,960
(1)
(1)
.01
(1)
(1)
12.84
12.12
(1)
Sales and related workers, all other..........
140,690
19,230
3,380
.14
.18
.02
19.23
21.21
23.27
First–line supervisors/managers of
office and administrative support
workers......................................................... 1,100,580
116,310
148,660
1.09
1.07
.69
22.25
22.23
22.76
Switchboard operators, including
answering service......................................
129,360
30,680
13,330
.13
.28
.06
11.17
11.63
12.38
Telephone operators......................................
23,480
2,150
1,040
.02
.02
.00
15.90
13.60
14.44
Communications equipment
operators, all other.....................................
1,950
460
1,840
.00
.00
.01
14.65
11.98
18.21
Bill and account collectors...........................
387,110
28,110
11,750
.38
.26
.05
14.66
14.87
14.89
Billing and posting clerks and
machine operators.....................................
430,380
64,960
26,740
.42
.60
.12
14.38
14.30
13.78
		

Bookkeeping, accounting, and
auditing clerks............................................
Gaming cage workers....................................
Payroll and timekeeping clerks..................
Procurement clerks.........................................
Tellers...................................................................
Brokerage clerks..............................................
Correspondence clerks.................................
Court, municipal, and license clerks.........
Credit authorizers, checkers,
and clerks......................................................
Customer service representatives.............
Eligibility interviewers, government
programs.......................................................
File clerks............................................................

1,545,730
12,910
164,880
47,220
564,980
72,290
13,090
3,140

131,990
100
14,830
5,560
42,220
170
1,150
60

191,410
5,140
28,150
22,270
430
160
2,050
103,970

1.52
.01
.16
.05
.56
.07
.01
.00

1.22
.00
.14
.05
.39
.00
.01
.00

.89
.02
.13
.10
.00
.00
.01
.48

15.18
11.82
15.75
15.51
10.92
18.88
14.56
12.16

15.15
10.93
16.12
15.17
11.20
18.65
14.15
16.37

15.83
11.11
16.54
17.51
13.35
21.59
13.11
15.76

65,020
2,010,600

(1)
93,250

(1)
56,810

.06
1.98

(1)
.86

(1)
.26

15.15
14.59

15.49
14.24

(1)
14.98

2,400
172,010

3,030
26,760

101,720
25,490

.00
.17

.03
.25

.47
.12

16.37
11.12

14.29
11.53

18.29
12.33

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks.........
Interviewers, except eligibility
and loan.........................................................
Library assistants, clerical.............................
Loan interviewers and clerks......................
New accounts clerks......................................
Order clerks.......................................................
Human resources assistants, except
payroll and timekeeping.........................
Receptionists and information clerks......
Reservation and transportation ticket
agents and travel clerks...........................
All other information and record
clerks...............................................................
Cargo and freight agents.............................

213,500

1,010

810

.21

.01

.00

9.35

9.93

9.86

102,720
4,000
240,550
76,130
261,330

76,860
15,660
8,860
5,840
3,190

32,480
89,660
910
(1)
690

.10
.00
.24
.08
.26

.71
.14
.08
.05
.03

.15
.42
.00
(1)
.00

12.44
11.85
15.67
14.17
13.51

13.28
11.39
15.11
13.61
13.43

14.50
10.93
14.74
10.39
14.85

99,740
921,160

18,280
130,070

42,900
66,410

.10
.91

.17
1.20

.20
.31

16.43
11.39

15.89
11.40

17.53
12.08

158,570

1,270

530

.16

.01

.00

14.48

12.62

15.81

107,700
84,060

14,330
470

110,700
680

.11
.08

.13
.00

.51
.00

14.75
18.45

15.44
19.62

16.86
22.99

Couriers and messengers.............................
Police, fire, and ambulance
dispatchers...................................................
Dispatchers, except police, fire,
and ambulance...........................................
Meter readers, utilities...................................
Production, planning, and expediting
clerks...............................................................
Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks......

93,980

7,800

6,890

.09

.07

.03

10.92

11.18

12.51

6,200

2,450

86,160

.01

.02

.40

14.53

14.26

15.78

166,990
22,920

4,980
3,140

14,660
19,800

.16
.02

.05
.03

.07
.09

16.57
16.40

14.92
14.26

16.43
14.42

259,740
743,210

10,900
10,250

17,210
14,060

.26
.73

.10
.09

.08
.07

19.13
13.11

16.71
12.41

21.82
18.55

See notes at end of table.

34

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

Table A–1. Continued—For-profit, not-for-profit, and government employment and wages, by detailed occupation, 2006			
						

Percent		
Govern- Percentage Percentage
			
			
age of
Governof forFor-profit Not-for-profit ment
Not-for- 			
of not-for		
			
govern- For-profit
Occupation
profit
employemployprofit wage ment
profit
wage
		
employ						
ment
wage
ment
ment
employemploy- employ				
ment					
ment
ment
ment
Stock clerks and order fillers.......................
Weighers, measurers, checkers, and
samplers, recordkeeping.........................
Executive secretaries and
administrative assistants.........................
Legal secretaries..............................................
Medical secretaries.........................................
Secretaries, except legal, medical,
and executive..............................................
Computer operators......................................
Data entry keyers............................................
Word processors and typists.......................
Desktop publishers.........................................
Insurance claims and policy
processing clerks........................................
Mail clerks and mail machine
operators, except postal
service............................................................
Office clerks, general......................................
Office machine operators,
except computer........................................

1,646,820

33,720

44,050

1.62

0.31

0.20

$10.61

$11.88

$15.44

74,430

1,880

1,490

.07

.02

.01

13.16

10.81

14.62

1,042,460
245,460
281,520

195,140
3,780
95,040

267,500
20,980
21,080

1.03
.24
.28

1.80
.03
.88

1.24
.10
.10

18.94
19.14
14.09

18.16
17.48
13.88

18.46
17.93
13.56

1,119,710
96,540
243,390
57,360
28,340

202,500
9,220
19,550
8,190
1,260

456,820
19,140
36,160
96,130
890

1.10
.10
.24
.06
.03

1.87
.08
.18
.08
.01

2.12
.09
.17
.45
.00

13.10
16.67
12.03
14.91
17.34

13.97
16.06
12.79
14.67
18.27

14.66
17.66
13.71
14.15
16.52

226,260

9,990

3,180

.22

.09

.01

15.71

16.04

16.95

119,200
2,169,390

9,660
290,330

13,010
598,230

.12
2.14

.09
2.68

.06
2.78

11.79
11.87

12.48
12.18

13.89
12.78

83,850

2,710

5,560

.08

.02

.03

12.36

13.10

14.28

Proofreaders and copy markers.................
Statistical assistants........................................
Office and administrative support
workers, all other........................................
First–line supervisors/managers
of farming, fishing, and forestry
workers.........................................................
Farm labor contractors..................................
Agricultural inspectors..................................
Animal breeders..............................................
Graders and sorters, agricultural
products........................................................
Agricultural equipment operators............
Farmworkers and laborers, crop,
nursery, and greenhouse.........................

15,130
8,900

440
1,990

1,410
9,950

.01
.01

.00
.02

.01
.05

14.54
16.93

15.61
15.93

9.21
14.15

144,260

31,190

103,750

.14

.29

.48

14.48

13.89

13.49

16,670
2,050
3,230
1,990

370
(1)
290
70

2,800
(1)
11,420
(1)

.02
.00
.00
.00

.00
(1)
.00
.00

.01
(1)
.05
(1)

18.61
13.87
16.65
15.38

21.19
(1)
13.38
15.19

22.94
(1)
19.27
(1)

43,940
20,810

90
100

1,920
300

.04
.02

.00
.00

.01
.00

8.80
10.52

10.27
9.15

12.27
13.19

228,140

1,330

2,080

.23

.01

.01

8.42

10.97

12.68

45,760
5,340
770
1,420
8,640
28,140
4,750
5,740

950
270
(1)
650
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)

1,280
2,980
(1)
6,810
(1)
150
(1)
(1)

.05
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
(1)
.01
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)

.01
.01
(1)
.03
(1)
.00
(1)
(1)

9.80
11.03
12.98
12.92
15.72
14.84
14.88
15.15

10.15
11.68
(1)
10.40
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)

13.74
13.88
17.32
11.73
(1)
16.50
15.87
(1)

532,090
16,710
117,460

3,700
160
230

46,100
560
1,290

.52
.02
.12

.03
.00
.00

.21
.00
.01

27.73
23.34
21.26

29.38
22.56
19.84

24.41
21.54
21.19

19,100
964,000
36,730

(1)
8,060
50

50
22,620
100

.02
.95
.04

(1)
.07
.00

.00
.11
.00

17.88
19.08
18.39

22.51
21.01
22.48

18.62
19.53
19.62

14,850
7,440
51,370

(1)
(1)
(1)

60
(1)
(1)

.01
.00
.00

(1)
(1)
(1)

.00
(1)
(1)

18.80
15.31
18.89

17.42
(1)
(1)

20.22
(1)
24.70

219,580
984,670

100
2,220

1,350
48,260

.22
.97

.00
.02

.01
.22

17.00
14.22

19.57
14.95

18.68
15.01

Farmworkers, farm and ranch
animals...........................................................
Agricultural workers, all other....................
Fishers and related fishing workers..........
Forest and conservation workers..............
Fallers...................................................................
Logging equipment operators...................
Log graders and scalers................................
Logging workers, all other...........................
First–line supervisors/managers
of construction trades
and extraction workers............................
Boilermakers.....................................................
Brickmasons and blockmasons..................
Stonemasons....................................................
Carpenters.........................................................
Carpet installers...............................................
Floor layers, except carpet, wood,
and hard tiles...............................................
Floor sanders and finishers..........................
Tile and marble setters..................................
Cement masons and concrete
finishers..........................................................
Construction laborers....................................
See notes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008 35

Not-For-Profit Sector

Table A–1. Continued—For-profit, not-for-profit, and government employment and wages, by detailed occupation, 2006			

						

PercentGovern- Percentage Percentage
		
age of
Governof not-forof forFor-profit Not-for-profit ment
For-profit Not-for		
government		
employemployprofit
profit
Occupation
wage
profit
wage
		
employ				
ment
wage
ment
ment
employemploy				
ment				
employment
ment
ment
		

Paving, surfacing, and tamping
equipment operators................................
Pile–driver operators.....................................
Operating engineers and other
construction equipment operators.....
Drywall and ceiling tile installers...............
Electricians.........................................................
Glaziers................................................................
Insulation workers, floor, ceiling,
and wall..........................................................
Insulation workers, mechanical.................
Painters, construction
and maintenance.......................................
Paperhangers...................................................
Pipelayers...........................................................
Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters...
Plasterers and stucco masons.....................
Reinforcing iron and rebar workers..........
Roofers................................................................
Sheet metal workers......................................
Helpers––brickmasons, blockmasons,
stonemasons, and tile and marble
setters.............................................................
Helpers––carpenters......................................
Helpers––electricians....................................
Helpers––painters, paperhangers,
plasterers, and stucco masons...............
Helpers––pipelayers, plumbers,
pipefitters, and steamfitters...................
Helpers, construction trades,
all other..........................................................
Construction and building inspectors.....
Elevator installers and repairers.................
Fence erectors..................................................
Hazardous materials removal workers....
Highway maintenance workers.................
Rail–track laying and maintenance
equipment operators................................
Construction and related workers,
all other..........................................................
Derrick operators, oil and gas.....................
Rotary drill operators, oil and gas.............
Earth drillers, except oil and gas................
Explosives workers, ordnance handling
experts, and blasters.................................
Mine cutting and channeling machine
operators.......................................................
Rock splitters, quarry.....................................
Helpers––extraction workers......................
Extraction workers, all other.......................
First–line supervisors/managers
of mechanics, installers,
and repairers................................................
Computer, automated teller,
and office machine repairers.................
Radio mechanics.............................................
Telecommunications equipment
installers and repairers, except line
installers.........................................................
Avionics technicians.......................................

48,040
5,040

(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)

0.00
.00

(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)

$16.62
24.16

(1)
(1)

$15.74
20.40

326,970
140,530
584,680
51,770

1,320
150
6,120
(1)

68,960
60
31,060
310

.32
.14
.58
.05

0.01
.00
.06
(1)

0.32
.00
.14
.00

19.95
18.66
22.28
18.25

20.01
13.80
23.30
24.78

16.77
19.79
23.20
23.02

31,110
27,550

600
30

70
570

.03
.03

.01
.00

.00
.00

16.44
19.87

14.01
14.57

18.87
23.89

244,650
6,120
47,800
409,960
50,190
30,980
124,960
170,800

3,930
(1)
160
3,290
50
(1)
100
270

16,360
(1)
10,680
25,420
780
(1)
660
7,090

.24
.01
.05
.40
.05
.00
.12
.17

.04
(1)
.00
.03
.00
(1)
.00
.00

.08
(1)
.05
.12
.00
(1)
.00
.03

16.13
17.41
16.33
22.03
17.79
20.01
16.92
19.43

18.60
21.98
15.25
22.55
20.41
(1)
20.05
21.93

19.99
18.49
15.59
20.76
22.64
23.71
20.72
22.87

62,540
107,410
102,070

(1)
330
210

110
400
1,240

.00
.11
.10

(1)
.00
.00

.00
.00
.01

13.34
11.45
11.85

(1)
12.65
15.71

19.52
11.03
16.47

23,320

40

170

.02

.00

.00

10.81

13.59

15.92

81,250

150

1,450

.08

.00

.01

12.04

14.89

19.64

34,630
41,140
21,400
24,470
37,350
5,460

140
700
30
(1)
340
40

1,700
55,520
600
(1)
1,440
136,940

.03
.04
.02
.00
.04
.01

.00
.01
.00
(1)
.00
.00

.01
.26
.00
(1)
.01
.64

11.74
23.82
29.62
13.53
18.24
15.51

14.77
20.20
25.13
(1)
19.29
14.97

14.14
22.95
27.70
10.62
20.56
15.32

13,180

(1)

(1)

.00

(1)

(1)

18.91

(1)

22.65

46,660
16,910
18,010
19,200

720
(1)
(1)
(1)

8,950
(1)
(1)
150

.05
.00
.00
.00

.01
(1)
(1)
(1)

.04
(1)
(1)
.00

15.75
18.23
20.36
17.66

17.56
(1)
(1)
(1)

15.90
(1)
(1)
21.11

3,600

(1)

(1)

.00

(1)

(1)

20.24

(1)

18.76

7,730
3,830
24,000
8,690

()
(1)
(1)
(1)

()
(1)
(1)
210

.00
.00
.00
.00

()
(1)
(1)
(1)

()
(1)
(1)
.00

18.68
13.85
14.59
18.40

()
(1)
(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)
(1)
20.78

385,310

12,340

56,250

.38

.11

.26

27.04

25.99

26.28

135,450
5,240

1,070
40

4,510
960

.13
.01

.01
.00

.02
.00

18.20
18.55

18.05
19.95

18.98
22.55

185,020
13,200

2,620
50

3,610
2,120

.18
.01

.02
.00

.02
.01

24.39
22.80

20.77
21.80

21.67
22.65

See notes at end of table.

36

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

1

1

1

1

1

Table A–1. Continued—For-profit, not-for-profit, and government employment and wages, by detailed occupation, 2006			

						

PercentGovern- Percentage Percentage
		
age of
Governof forof not-forFor-profit Not-for-profit ment
		
govern- For-profit Not-forment		
employemployprofit
profit
Occupation
wage
profit
wage
		
employ				
ment
wage
ment
ment
employemploy				
ment				
employment
ment
ment
		

Electric motor, power tool,
and related repairers.................................
Electrical and electronics installers
and repairers, transportation
equipment....................................................
Electrical and electronics repairers,
commercial and industrial
equipment....................................................
Electrical and electronics repairers,
powerhouse, substation,
and relay........................................................
Electronic equipment installers
and repairers, motor vehicles................
Electronic home entertainment
equipment installers and repairers......
Security and fire alarm systems
installers.........................................................
Aircraft mechanics and service
technicians....................................................
Automotive body and related
repairers........................................................
Automotive glass installers
and repairers................................................
Automotive service technicians
and mechanics............................................
Bus and truck mechanics and diesel
engine specialists.......................................
Farm equipment mechanics.......................
Mobile heavy equipment mechanics,
except engines............................................
Rail car repairers..............................................
Motorboat mechanics...................................
Outdoor power equipment and other
small engine mechanics..........................
Bicycle repairers...............................................
Recreational vehicle service
technicians....................................................
Tire repairers and changers.........................
Mechanical door repairers...........................
Control and valve installers
and repairers, except mechanical
door.................................................................
Heating, air conditioning,
and refrigeration mechanics
and installers................................................
Home appliance repairers............................
Industrial machinery mechanics...............
Maintenance and repair workers,
general...........................................................
Maintenance workers, machinery.............
Millwrights.........................................................
Electrical power–line installers
and repairers................................................
Telecommunications line installers
and repairers................................................
Camera and photographic equipment
repairers.........................................................
Medical equipment repairers.....................
Musical instrument repairers
and tuners.....................................................

21,740

150

340

0.02

0.00

0.00

$16.67

$13.83

$20.72

16,660

280

(1)

.02

.00

(1)

20.42

19.80

(1)

64,760

630

13,610

.06

.01

.06

21.48

22.84

23.87

18,510

1,400

2,410

.02

.01

.01

27.62

25.72

25.01

19,380

(1)

(1)

.00

(1)

(1)

14.82

(1)

22.61

35,070

60

270

.03

.00

.00

15.20

14.70

19.67

51,980

140

510

.05

.00

.00

17.35

19.65

19.77

99,900

650

18,250

.10

.01

.08

23.77

21.64

23.37

154,690

70

1,670

.15

.00

.01

18.29

20.18

21.00

18,790

(1)

(1)

.00

(1)

(1)

15.35

(1)

(1)

607,850

2,740

35,890

.60

.03

.17

17.15

17.94

19.56

216,120
29,200

1,240
40

38,900
300

.21
.03

.01
.00

.18
.00

18.31
14.56

18.61
15.57

19.12
16.06

100,460
19,860
18,450

260
(1)
80

19,340
(1)
100

.10
.00
.00

.00
(1)
.00

.09
(1)
.00

19.58
19.85
16.53

19.75
(1)
15.90

21.06
(1)
18.67

24,610
8,320

240
(1)

730
(1)

.02
.00

.00
(1)

.00
(1)

13.28
10.86

15.54
(1)

17.78
(1)

13,520
103,840

30
(1)

(1)
370

.01
.10

.00
(1)

(1)
.00

16.00
10.90

12.86
11.59

14.37
15.53

15,070

(1)

100

.00

(1)

.00

16.34

(1)

17.55

33,140

1,470

7,860

.03

.01

.04

22.17

19.89

20.26

229,340
43,160
243,080

4,470
150
1,290

19,100
150
10,100

.23
.04
.24

.04
.00
.01

.09
.00
.05

18.83
16.91
20.28

21.23
19.98
20.62

20.83
18.97
22.95

999,240
73,170
53,020

95,320
890
70

226,040
8,030
250

.99
.07
.05

.88
.01
.00

1.05
.04
.00

16.02
17.33
22.99

15.12
17.97
24.74

16.67
18.63
22.61

79,470

16,940

15,250

.08

.16

.07

24.17

23.35

23.25

155,850

1,590

1,000

.15

.01

.00

21.91

20.96

22.44

3,130
24,770

140
6,020

230
1,490

.00
.02

.00
.06

.00
.01

17.81
20.50

17.64
21.27

15.53
20.67

4,980

60

90

.00

.00

.00

15.15

21.03

21.15

See notes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008 37

Not-For-Profit Sector

Table A–1. Continued—For-profit, not-for-profit, and government employment and wages, by detailed occupation, 2006			

						

Percent		
Govern- Percentage Percentage
		
age of
of forFor-profit Not-for-profit ment
Governof not-for		
		
govern- For-profit Not-for- 			
employemployOccupation
profit
ment
profit
wage
profit wage
		
employ				
ment
ment
ment
employwage
employ				
ment				
employment
ment
ment
Precision instrument and equipment
repairers, all other......................................
Coin, vending, and amusement
machine servicers and repairers...........
Commercial divers..........................................
Fabric menders, except garment...............
Locksmiths and safe repairers....................
Manufactured building and mobile
home installers............................................
Riggers................................................................
Signal and track switch repairers...............
Helpers––installation, maintenance,
and repair workers.....................................
Installation, maintenance, and repair
workers, all other........................................
First–line supervisors/managers
of production and operating
workers...........................................................
Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging,
and systems assemblers..........................
Coil winders, tapers, and finishers............
Electrical and electronic equipment
assemblers....................................................
Electromechanical equipment
assemblers....................................................
Engine and other machine assemblers...
Structural metal fabricators and fitters...

9,950

120

3,160

0.01

0.00

0.01

$22.35

$19.89

$23.25

37,230
2,500
1,260
15,200

300
60
(1)
610

2,060
130
(1)
2,120

.04
.00
.00
.01

.00
.00
(1)
.01

.01
.00
(1)
.01

14.25
22.08
14.53
15.34

12.71
16.73
(1)
21.14

15.73
18.01
16.07
20.23

9,510
10,340
4,710

(1)
400
(1)

(1)
1,330
(1)

.00
.01
.00

(1)
.00
(1)

(1)
.01
(1)

12.79
18.34
23.50

(1)
21.49
18.41

(1)
23.67
(1)

141,990

3,760

16,320

.14

.03

.08

11.27

13.03

14.15

115,450

1,430

15,280

.11

.01

.07

16.54

16.12

20.74

652,250

6,870

23,370

.64

.06

.11

24.21

21.21

25.47

27,650
22,660

(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)

.00
.00

(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)

21.09
12.90

(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)

215,100

700

190

.21

.01

.00

13.10

14.53

12.27

60,260
45,150
100,170

(1)
(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)
(1)

.00
.00
.00

(1)
(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)
(1)

13.87
17.01
15.07

(1)
(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)
18.38

Team assemblers............................................. 1,253,650
Timing device assemblers, adjusters,
and calibrators.............................................
2,470
Assemblers and fabricators, all other.......
283,830
Bakers..................................................................
140,660
Butchers and meat cutters...........................
128,940
Meat, poultry, and fish cutters
and trimmers..............................................
140,490
Slaughterers and meat packers.................
118,750
Food and tobacco roasting, baking,
and drying machine operators
and tenders..................................................
18,570
Food batchmakers..........................................
93,000

(1)

(1)

1.24

(1)

(1)

12.56

9.47

(1)

(1)
4,840
630
(1)

(1)
640
830
1,220

.00
.28
.14
.13

(1)
.04
.01
(1)

(1)
.00
.00
.01

14.54
14.97
11.31
13.47

(1)
9.75
12.57
12.51

(1)
10.19
13.20
18.93

(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)

.14
.00

(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)

10.21
10.54

10.66
(1)

(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)

.00
.00

(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)

12.34
11.89

(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)

44,340

(1)

(1)

.00

(1)

(1)

10.93

(1)

(1)

139,600

270

(1)

.14

.00

(1)

15.77

14.51

(1)

17,740

(1)

(1)

.02

(1)

(1)

21.54

20.44

(1)

94,300

(1)

(1)

.00

(1)

(1)

14.09

(1)

23.13

30,640

1

()

1

()

.00

1

()

1

()

14.31

()

22.04

34,490

(1)

(1)

.00

(1)

(1)

15.42

(1)

(1)

270,480

380

110

.27

.00

.00

13.30

12.46

15.18

42,550

(1)

(1)

.04

(1)

(1)

15.20

11.49

(1)

Food cooking machine operators
and tenders..................................................
Computer–controlled machine tool
operators, metal and plastic...................
Numerical tool and process control
programmers...............................................
Extruding and drawing machine
setters, operators, and tenders, metal
and plastic.....................................................
Forging machine setters, operators,
and tenders, metal and plastic..............
Rolling machine setters, operators,
and tenders, metal and plastic..............
Cutting, punching, and press machine
setters, operators, and tenders,
metal and plastic........................................
Drilling and boring machine tool
setters, operators, and tenders,
metal and plastic........................................
Grinding, lapping, polishing,
and buffing machine tool setters,
See notes at end of table.

38

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

1

Table A–1. Continued—For-profit, not-for-profit, and government employment and wages, by detailed occupation, 2006			

						

PercentGovern- Percentage Percentage
		
age of
GovernFor-profit Not-for-profit ment
of not-forof for		
govern- For-profit Not-forment		
employemployOccupation
profit
profit
wage
profit
wage
		
employ				
ment
wage
ment
ment
employemploy				
ment			
employment
ment
ment
operators, and tenders, metal
and plastic.....................................................
99,920
(1)
(1)
0.00
(1)
(1)
$14.30
(1)
(1)
		

Lathe and turning machine tool
setters, operators, and tenders,
metal and plastic........................................
Milling and planing machine setters,
operators, and tenders, metal
and plastic.....................................................
Machinists..........................................................
Metal–refining furnace operators
and tenders..................................................
Pourers and casters, metal...........................
Model makers, metal and plastic...............
Patternmakers, metal and plastic..............
Foundry mold and coremakers..................
Molding, coremaking, and casting
machine setters, operators,
and tenders, metal and plastic..............
Multiple machine tool setters,
operators, and tenders, metal
and plastic.....................................................
Tool and die makers.......................................
Welders, cutters, solderers,
and brazers...................................................
Welding, soldering, and brazing
machine setters, operators,
and tenders..................................................
Heat treating equipment setters,
operators, and tenders, metal
and plastic.....................................................
Lay-out workers, metal and plastic...........
Plating and coating machine setters,
operators, and tenders, metal
and plastic.....................................................
Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners........
Metal workers and plastic workers,
all other..........................................................
Bindery workers...............................................
Bookbinders......................................................
Job printers.......................................................
Prepress technicians and workers.............
Printing machine operators........................
Laundry and dry–cleaning workers.........
Pressers, textile, garment, and related
materials........................................................
Sewing machine operators..........................
Shoe and leather workers
and repairers................................................
Sewers, hand.....................................................
Tailors, dressmakers, and custom
sewers.............................................................
Textile bleaching and dyeing machine
operators and tenders..............................
Textile cutting machine setters,
operators, and tenders.............................
Textile knitting and weaving machine
setters, operators, and tenders..............
Textile winding, twisting, and drawing
out machine setters, operators,
and tenders..................................................

65,910

(1)

(1)

.00

(1)

(1)

15.97

(1)

(1)

29,050
379,640

(1)
1,230

(1)
5,140

.00
.37

(1)
0.01

(1)
0.02

15.51
17.12

(1)
$20.00

(1)
$23.03

18,330
14,850
8,260
7,060
14,430

(1)
(1)
60
(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)
60
(1)
(1)

.00
.00
.01
.00
.00

(1)
(1)
.00
(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)
.00
(1)
(1)

16.12
14.87
21.19
18.31
14.38

(1)
(1)
21.03
(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)
22.31
(1)
25.43

156,290

50

490

.00

.00

.00

13.08

17.30

22.71

97,530
96,970

170
50

70
440

.10
.10

.00
.00

.00
.00

15.38
21.88

11.01
21.09

19.33
26.13

373,220

470

5,280

.37

.00

.02

15.69

18.00

21.31

48,810

(1)

(1)

.00

(1)

(1)

16.05

(1)

19.97

26,830
9,110

(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)

.00
.00

(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)

15.21
16.30

(1)
(1)

22.40
22.96

41,060
17,510

(1)
(1)

(1)
120

.00
.02

(1)
(1)

(1)
.00

13.98
15.43

(1)
14.63

21.27
21.77

46,710
61,840
6,620
43,670
68,910

190
(1)
(1)
1,390
(1)

1,040
(1)
(1)
1,370
(1)

.05
.00
.00
.04
.00

.00
(1)
(1)
.01
(1)

.00
(1)
(1)
.01
(1)

18.06
12.99
15.01
16.29
16.60

13.50
(1)
(1)
17.06
(1)

20.78
17.78
23.99
16.78
19.29

184,310
188,040

(1)
22,770

(1)
8,540

.00
.19

(1)
.21

(1)
.04

15.63
8.90

(1)
9.77

19.02
10.93

74,890
223,660

690
2,370

110
370

.00
.22

.00
.02

.00
.00

8.86
9.67

8.83
8.60

12.40
14.22

8,160
9,430

(1)
290

(1)
60

.00
.01

(1)
.00

(1)
.00

10.40
10.46

(1)
8.35

(1)
12.90

29,560

440

140

.03

.00

.00

11.85

15.13

12.38

20,180

()

1

()

.00

()

1

()

11.48

12.60

(1)

19,350

190

(1)

.02

.00

(1)

10.86

9.55

(1)

38,790

(1)

(1)

.00

(1)

(1)

11.75

(1)

(1)

44,120

(1)

(1)

.00

(1)

(1)

11.32

(1)

(1)

1

1

See notes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008 39

Not-For-Profit Sector

Table A–1. Continued—For-profit, not-for-profit, and government employment and wages, by detailed occupation, 2006			

						

PercentGovern- Percentage Percentage
		
age of
For-profit Not-for-profit ment
of forof not-for		
govern- For-profit Not-forOccupation
employemployprofit
profit
wage
profit wage
		
employ				
ment
ment
ment
employemploy- employ				
ment				
ment
ment
ment
		

Extruding and forming machine
setters, operators, and tenders,
synthetic and glass fibers........................
Fabric and apparel patternmakers............
Upholsterers......................................................
Textile, apparel, and furnishings
workers, all other........................................
Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters....
Furniture finishers...........................................
Sawing machine setters, operators,
and tenders, wood.....................................
Woodworking machine setters,
operators, and tenders, except
sawing............................................................
Woodworkers, all other.................................
Nuclear power reactor operators..............
Power distributors and dispatchers..........
Power plant operators...................................
Stationary engineers and boiler
operators.......................................................
Water and liquid waste treatment
plant and system operators....................
Chemical plant and system operators.....
Gas plant operators........................................
Petroleum pump system operators,
refinery operators, and gaugers...........
Plant and system operators, all other......
Chemical equipment operators
and tenders..................................................
Separating, filtering, clarifying,
precipitating, and still machine
setters, operators, and tenders..............
Crushing, grinding, and polishing
machine setters, operators,
and tenders..................................................
Grinding and polishing workers, hand....
Mixing and blending machine setters,
operators, and tenders.............................
Cutters and trimmers, hand........................
Cutting and slicing machine setters,
operators, and tenders.............................
Extruding, forming, pressing,
and compacting machine setters,
operators, and tenders.............................
Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle
operators and tenders..............................
Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers,
and weighers...............................................
Jewelers and precious stone and metal
workers...........................................................
Dental laboratory technicians....................
Medical appliance technicians...................
Ophthalmic laboratory technicians..........
Packaging and filling machine
operators and tenders..............................
Coating, painting, and spraying
machine setters, operators,
and tenders..................................................
Painters, transportation equipment.........
Painting, coating, and decorating
workers...........................................................

17,890
8,780
40,180

(1)
(1)
100

(1)
(1)
190

0.00
.00
.04

(1)
(1)
.00

(1)
(1)
.00

$14.38
18.49
13.66

(1)
$11.36
15.16

(1)
(1)
$17.77

21,560
127,970
25,040

420
130
30

950
530
(1)

.02
.13
.02

.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
(1)

11.54
13.75
12.79

10.37
16.38
11.86

20.81
20.14
(1)

60,210

30

30

.06

.00

.00

12.20

9.64

16.59

97,580
10,600
3,550

100
180
(1)

140
600
(1)

.10
.01
.00

.00
.00
(1)

.00
.00
(1)

12.06
11.59
34.25

11.39
8.58
(1)

14.13
20.78
30.71

6,200
26,520

450
1,700

1,780
6,020

.01
.03

.00
.02

.01
.03

30.20
27.51

28.37
25.10

30.27
22.95

20,760

6,630

15,780

.02

.06

.07

22.12

22.92

22.88

17,260
53,470
11,800

2,050
(1)
(1)

88,980
(1)
(1)

.02
.00
.00

.02
(1)
(1)

.41
(1)
(1)

17.69
23.44
26.05

16.66
(1)
(1)

17.83
20.24
19.02

40,760
10,030

(1)
280

(1)
3,810

.00
.01

(1)
.00

(1)
.02

25.21
22.29

(1)
20.54

21.43
21.84

51,530

(1)

(1)

.05

(1)

(1)

19.79

19.52

(1)

43,400

70

270

.04

.00

.00

17.36

17.86

16.86

41,600
44,010

(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)

.00
.00

(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)

14.14
12.22

(1)
(1)

18.60
22.47

142,030
28,830

330
(1)

(1)
(1)

.14
.00

.00
(1)

(1)
(1)

14.76
11.67

15.32
(1)

19.45
(1)

78,240

160

40

.08

.00

.00

14.20

12.45

11.19

81,590

70

70

.08

.00

.00

13.99

13.98

14.95

26,940

110

60

.03

.00

.00

15.24

15.66

18.38

476,950

4,640

5,500

.47

.04

.03

15.41

13.28

21.38

26,480

()

()

.00

()

()

15.97

()

(1)

45,110
9,850
29,220

90
600
460

700
210
160

.04
.01
.03

.00
.01
.00

.00
.00
.00

16.69
16.52
13.17

18.28
16.00
16.48

22.01
19.01
19.87

387,480

1,710

550

.38

.02

.00

11.97

12.23

14.81

102,170
51,860

180
(1)

260
320

.10
.00

.00
(1)

.00
.00

13.54
18.54

14.82
(1)

16.59
21.24

29,580

150

320

.03

.00

.00

12.05

12.50

19.80

See notes at end of table.

40

Government		
wage

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

1

1

1

1

1

Table A–1. Continued—For-profit, not-for-profit, and government employment and wages, by detailed occupation, 2006			

						

PercentGovern- Percentage Percentage
		
age of
GovernFor-profit Not-for-profit ment
of forof not-for		
govern- For-profit Not-forment		
employemployOccupation
wage
profit
wage
profit
profit
		
employ				
ment
wage
ment
ment
employemploy- employ				
ment				
ment
ment
ment

		

Photographic process workers...................
Photographic processing machine
operators.......................................................
Semiconductor processors..........................
Cementing and gluing machine
operators and tenders..............................
Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling
equipment operators and tenders.......
Cooling and freezing equipment
operators and tenders..............................
Etchers and engravers...................................
Molders, shapers, and casters, except
metal and plastic........................................
Paper goods machine setters,
operators, and tenders.............................
Helpers—production workers....................
Production workers, all other.....................
Aircraft cargo handling supervisors.........
First–line supervisors/managers
of helpers, laborers, and material
movers, hand...............................................
First–line supervisors/managers
of transportation and material–
moving machine and vehicle
operators.......................................................
Airline pilots, copilots, and flight
engineers.......................................................

23,560

380

310

0.02

0.00

0.00

$12.79

$12.56

$15.95

49,930
41,390

220
(1)

100
(1)

.05
.00

.00
(1)

.00
(1)

10.33
16.70

13.31
(1)

14.10
(1)

23,630

(1)

(1)

.00

(1)

(1)

12.89

(1)

(1)

15,530

(1)

(1)

.00

(1)

(1)

12.20

(1)

(1)

10,100
11,290

(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)

.01
.00

(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)

12.42
13.21

13.12
(1)

(1)
34.77

42,580

(1)

290

.04

(1)

.00

12.80

16.17

16.75

114,320
537,470
291,380
5,440

120
3,610
6,000
(1)

(1)
1,700
2,890
230

.11
.53
.29
.01

.00
.03
.06
(1)

(1)
.01
.01
.00

15.66
10.61
13.72
21.55

14.46
10.33
9.85
21.34

(1)
12.26
17.22
28.50

174,310

2,040

4,240

.17

.02

.02

20.12

17.73

20.08

189,100

2,580

30,580

.19

.02

.14

24.16

20.08

26.47

72,750

340

2,850

.00

.00

.00

(1)

(1)

(1)

25,250
3,060

980
60

1,030
1,660

.02
.00

.01
.00

.00
.01

67,570
18.67

52,800
17.03

56,180
22.30

13,960
73,090
166,340
397,090

3,640
3,950
26,030
1,580

3,800
115,360
265,490
250

.01
.07
.16
.39

.03
.04
.24
.01

.02
.54
1.23
.00

10.30
13.40
12.54
11.71

10.12
11.45
10.61
10.81

11.53
17.55
11.91
12.29

1,651,430

2,430

32,990

1.63

.02

.15

17.42

15.84

16.04

917,570
128,130
53,630

12,550
19,720
2,170

19,130
8,110
16,320

.91
.13
.05

.12
.18
.02

.09
.04
.08

13.18
10.60
11.48

11.64
10.04
12.38

14.30
11.74
17.05

Locomotive engineers...................................
Railroad brake, signal, and switch
operators.......................................................
Railroad conductors and yardmasters.....
Subway and streetcar operators................
Rail transportation workers, all other......
Sailors and marine oilers..............................
Captains, mates, and pilots of water
vessels............................................................
Motorboat operators.....................................
Ship engineers.................................................
Bridge and lock tenders................................

35,260

30

1,580

.03

.00

.01

29.93

14.04

25.69

22,200
35,670
(1)
5,630
28,360

()
(1)
(1)
(1)
250

()
(1)
6,180
(1)
3,380

.00
.00
(1)
.00
.03

()
(1)
(1)
(1)
.00

()
(1)
.00
(1)
.02

25.06
28.33
20.65
18.15
15.51

()
(1)
(1)
(1)
15.30

(1)
(1)
22.34
20.66
17.16

26,720
1,830
12,640
670

820
80
100
50

1,960
560
1,500
2,980

.00
.00
.01
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.01
.01

27.43
15.25
28.70
14.33

24.12
13.77
23.14
13.50

27.81
21.78
27.31
18.01

Parking lot attendants...................................
Service station attendants...........................
Traffic technicians...........................................
Transportation inspectors............................
Transportation workers, all other..............
Conveyor operators and tenders...............
Crane and tower operators..........................

122,730
93,340
(1)
13,190
37,740
50,150
44,630

4,320
110
(1)
80
320
(1)
100

6,260
2,690
5,820
10,600
4,390
(1)
1,280

.12
.09
(1)
.01
.04
.05
.04

.04
.00
(1)
.00
.00
(1)
.00

.03
.01
.00
.05
.02
(1)
.01

8.77
8.99
17.57
23.18
15.40
13.43
19.85

9.26
12.27
(1)
25.29
14.71
17.93
19.58

10.04
15.21
18.77
30.86
16.40
(1)
20.74

Commercial pilots...........................................
Airfield operations specialists.....................
Ambulance drivers and attendants,
except emergency medical
technicians....................................................
Bus drivers, transit and intercity................
Bus drivers, school..........................................
Driver/sales workers.......................................
Truck drivers, heavy and tractor–
trailer...............................................................
Truck drivers, light or delivery
services...........................................................
Taxi drivers and chauffeurs..........................
Motor vehicle operators, all other.............

1

1

1

1

1

See notes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008 41

Not-For-Profit Sector

Table A–1. Continued—For-profit, not-for-profit, and government employment and wages, by detailed occupation, 2006			

						

Percent		
Govern- Percentage Percentage
		
age of
GovernFor-profit Not-for-profit ment
of forof not-for		
govern- For-profit Not-forOccupation
ment		
employemployprofit
profit
wage
profit
wage
		
employ				
ment
wage
ment
ment
employemploy				
ment				
employment
ment
ment
Dredge operators............................................
Excavating and loading machine
and dragline operators.............................
Hoist and winch operators..........................
Industrial truck and tractor operators.....
Cleaners of vehicles and equipment........

1,650

(1)

(1)

0.00

(1)

(1)

$17.62

(1)

$20.44

65,670
2,670
620,160
329,580

290
(1)
2,340
(1)

2,410
(1)
9,180
(1)

.06
.00
.61
.33

.00
(1)
.02
(1)

.01
(1)
.04
(1)

17.12
17.94
13.89
9.55

$21.26
(1)
13.87
11.56

15.86
20.37
18.63
(1)

31,760
(1)
6,860

66,790
(1)
1,130

2.27
.00
.82

.29
(1)
.06

.31
(1)
.01

11.04
11.57
9.27

10.62
(1)
8.26

11.62
11.34
17.12

(1)

(1)

.00

(1)

(1)

21.53

(1)

(1)

(1)

550

.00

(1)

.00

19.65

(1)

16.66

340
50
(1)
650
(1)
(1)

49,880
(1)
(1)
4,450
18,800
82,410

.08
.00
.00
.05
(1)
.00

.00
.00
(1)
.01
(1)
(1)

.23
(1)
(1)
.02
.00
.00

14.86
18.98
16.40
15.89
(1)
7.50

11.82
16.24
(1)
13.77
(1)
(1)

14.73
(1)
(1)
15.71
17.21
21.15

80
(1)
6,640
40,090
68,100
21,140

(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)

203,900
30
(1)
(1)
500
(1)

.00
(1)
.00
.00
.00
.00

(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)

.00
.00
(1)
(1)
.00
(1)

16.66
(1)
16.72
20.48
20.89
10.92

(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)

19.74
15.24
(1)
(1)
26.08
(1)

17,390
880

(1)
(1)

4,960
(1)

.00
.00

(1)
(1)

.00
(1)

15.12
13.80

(1)
(1)

17.26
(1)

25,360
9,610
2,880

(1)
(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)
(1)

.00
.00
.00

(1)
(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)
(1)

17.37
19.38
18.49

(1)
(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)
(1)

Roof bolters, mining.......................................
Roustabouts, oil and gas..............................
Motorcycle mechanics..................................
Refractory materials repairers,
except brickmasons..................................
Watch repairers................................................
Fiberglass laminators and fabricators......
Shoe machine operators and tenders.....
Model makers, wood.....................................
Patternmakers, wood.....................................
Tire builders.......................................................
Air traffic controllers.......................................

4,240
41,120
16,720

(1)
(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)
(1)

.00
.00
.00

(1)
(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)
(1)

20.29
12.93
15.37

(1)
(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)
23.09

3,340
3,100
32,520
4,210
1,870
2,240
23,240
2,540

(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
50
40
(1)
20,850

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
.00
.00
(1)
.00

19.61
15.64
12.96
10.83
15.62
16.03
18.36
32.55

(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
23.70
25.51
(1)
55.39

Locomotive firers.............................................
Rail yard engineers, dinkey operators,
and hostlers..................................................
Loading machine operators,
underground mining................................
Wellhead pumpers.........................................
Legislators..........................................................
Postmasters and mail superintendents..
Tax examiners, collectors, and revenue
agents.............................................................
Administrative law judges,
adjudicators, and hearing officers........

530

(1)

(1)

.00

(1)

(1)

22.08

(1)

(1)

5,710

(1)

100

.00

(1)

.00

19.15

(1)

24.17

2,490
13,270
(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)
62,150
26,670

.00
.00
(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)
.00
.00

19.35
17.67
(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)
32,780.00
26.76

(1)

(1)

75,980

(1)

(1)

.00

(1)

(1)

23.81

(1)

(1)

14,540

(1)

(1)

.00

(1)

(1)

37.36

Laborers and freight, stock,
and material movers, hand..................... 2,296,910
Machine feeders and offbearers................
148,740
Packers and packagers, hand.....................
826,770
Gas compressor and gas pumping
station operators........................................
3,860
Pump operators, except wellhead
pumpers........................................................
9,580
Refuse and recyclable material
collectors.......................................................
78,320
Shuttle car operators.....................................
2,800
Tank car, truck, and ship loaders................
15,440
Material moving workers, all other...........
47,140
Bailiffs..................................................................
(1)
Postal service clerks........................................
120
Postal service mail sorters, processors,
and processing machine operators.....
Hunters and trappers.....................................
Terrazzo workers and finishers...................
Tapers..................................................................
Structural iron and steel workers..............
Helpers––roofers.............................................
Septic tank servicers and sewer
pipe cleaners................................................
Segmental pavers...........................................
Service unit operators, oil, gas,
and mining...................................................
Continuous mining machine operators..
Mining machine operators, all other........

See notes at end of table.

42

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

Table A–1. Continued—For-profit, not-for-profit, and government employment and wages, by detailed occupation, 2006			

						

PercentGovern- Percentage Percentage
		
age of
GovernFor-profit Not-for-profit ment
of forof not-for		
		
govern- For-profit Not-foremployemploywage
profit- wage ment
Occupation
profit
profit
		
employ			
ment
wage
ment
ment
employemploy- employ				
ment				
ment
ment
ment
Judges, magistrate judges,
and magistrates..........................................
(1)
(1)
26,320
(1)
(1)
.00
(1)
(1)
$45.92
Detectives and criminal investigators.....
(1)
(1)
100,890
(1)
(1)
.00
(1)
(1)
28.99
Fish and game wardens................................
(1)
(1)
7,560
(1)
(1)
.00
(1)
(1)
21.21
Postal service mail carriers...........................
(1)
(1)
348,170
(1)
(1)
.00
(1)
(1)
21.03

		

1

Data not available.

NOTE: The teaching occupations, athletes, coaches, umpires, athletic train-

ers, legislators, flight attendants, and pilots show annual wages instead of
hourly wages, because these occupations generally do not work full time
year round.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008 43

Employment and Disability

The employment rate
of people with disabilities
Critical issues in evaluating employment policies
for the disabled are the measurement of employment status,
the measurement of disability status, and the question of which
subpopulations of the disabled should be included; no clear
consensus has emerged regarding the outcome of these issues,
except that surveys must provide more comprehensive coverage

Burt S. Barnow

Burt S. Barnow is associate director for
research and principal
research scientist,
Institute for Policy
Studies, Johns Hopkins
University, Baltimore,
Maryland. This article
was prepared for the
Interagency Committee on Disability Research, 2006 National
Disability Employment
Research Summit. Email: barnow@jhu.edu

P

romoting employment for people
with disabilities has long been an important policy objective in the United
States. Some examples of Federal policies
whose goal is to increase employment for
people with disabilities are the vocational
rehabilitation system, funded by grants from
the U.S. Rehabilitation Services Administration to the States; the Ticket to Work
program; the Work Opportunity Tax Credit;
and the Americans with Disabilities Act
(ADA). Many of these policies are relatively
new; yet analysts have noted a decline in the
employment rate of people with disabilities
in recent years,1 and some evaluations of the
ADA indicate that, rather than increasing
employment, the Act may have reduced employment for those with disabilities. These
surprising findings have led some observers
to take a closer look at employment statistics
for such individuals. Perhaps, they argue, it
is not that the programs and policies have
failed to aid disabled individuals in finding
employment; rather, the statistics themselves
are misleading and inappropriate.
This article examines three issues that are
critical in assessing the success of employment policies for the disabled: the measure44

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

ment of employment status, the measurement
of disability status, and the decision regarding
whom to include in the analyses. Because the
empirical studies reviewed herein made use
of three specific surveys—the 2000 Decennial Census, the Current Population Survey
(CPS), and the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP)—the focus of the
article is the definitions and measurement
of employment and disability status in those
three surveys. The measurement of employment status has not been an issue of dispute
in the literature, so it is discussed first. Next,
the definitions of disability status are examined, followed by a review of the definitions
used and analyses undertaken in evaluations
of the ADA. The article concludes with suggestions about future research on measuring
disability status.

Employment status
Employment status is the least controversial
of the aforementioned three issues. Definitions of employment and other labor force
statuses generally follow those used for the
CPS, a monthly survey of approximately
60,000 households that is used to develop

the Nation’s official employment statistics. The CPS defines employment (actually, employed persons, but the two
terms may be taken to be identical for the purposes of this
article) as follows:

coverage for government programs, such as food
stamps; and to provide improved statistics on the
distribution of income and measures of economic
well-being in the country.5

Persons 16 years and over in the civilian noninstitutional population who, during the reference week, (a)
did any work at all (at least 1 hour) as paid employees; worked in their own business, profession, or on
their own farm, or worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in an enterprise operated by a member
of the family; and (b) all those who were not working but who had jobs or businesses from which they
were temporarily absent because of vacation, illness,
bad weather, childcare problems, maternity or paternity leave, labor-management dispute, job training,
or other family or personal reasons, whether or not
they were paid for the time off or were seeking other
jobs.2

The SIPP operates by having national panels that include
between 14,000 and 36,700 members who are followed
for a period that varies from 2½ to 4 years. Labor force
questions are included in the “core” module of the questionnaire, along with other key income and program participation questions. Topics covered in the topical modules (though not during each interview) include personal
history, childcare, wealth, program eligibility, child support, utilization and cost of health care, disability, school
enrollment, taxes, and annual income.6
The SIPP questions on employment are somewhat different from the ones asked in the CPS or the 2000 census.
To illustrate, first, the SIPP asks about employment during
a particular month, rather than during a particular week, as
the CPS and 2000 census do. Second, although the SIPP
asks questions dealing with unpaid work in a family business, they are not as specific as the questions used in the
CPS. Third, the SIPP questions about temporary absence
from work are not the same as the questions in the CPS
and the 2000 census. Because of these significant differences, one would not expect to find consistent responses
across the surveys.
Although the three surveys produce somewhat different results, the literature does not appear to have major
criticisms of the standard measures of employment. However, one author has written several articles on how simply
knowing the employment status of people with disabilities does not tell us the complete story. Lisa Schur’s 2002
and 2003 studies7 used the CPS and SIPP to analyze the
extent to which people with disabilities are more likely
to participate in what she refers to as “nonstandard jobs”:
part-time, temporary, and independent contractor positions. It has long been established that such positions
pay lower wages and offer less generous fringe benefits
than full-time positions, so accepting a position of that
nature can be deleterious to workers with disabilities if
they do not voluntarily choose such work. Schur found
that more than 40 percent of workers with disabilities are
in some form of nonstandard work, nearly twice the rate
for their nondisabled counterparts. Schur also found that
these arrangements are likely to be voluntary and that the
primary explanation appears to be health problems. Thus,
on the one hand, increasing nonstandard work opportunities may be an appropriate way to draw more people with
disabilities into employment. On the other hand, noted
Schur, employers may be reluctant to pay for the cost of

People who are not employed are classified as being either
unemployed or not in the labor force. To be considered unemployed, a person must not have worked during the reference week, must have been available for work except for a
temporary illness, and must have actively searched for work
during the 4-week period ending in the reference week. Individuals who do not meet the criteria for being employed
or unemployed are categorized as “not in the labor force.”
The 2000 census uses the same concept of employment
as the CPS, but because the purpose of the census is broader than that of the CPS, the census is structured differently
and does not do as good a job of capturing labor force
status as does the CPS:
Census 2000 was designed to collect general information about the labor force for very small geographic areas on a one-time basis. It was primarily a
mail-out/mail-back data collection that asked fewer
and less precise questions than the CPS on employment and unemployment.3
The Census Bureau notes, “at the national level, Census
2000 estimates of employment were considerably below,
and estimates of unemployment above, the corresponding
CPS estimates.” 4
The SIPP is a federally sponsored longitudinal data collection effort whose purpose is
To collect source and amount of income, labor force
information, program participation and eligibility
data, and general demographic characteristics to
measure the effectiveness of existing Federal, State,
and local programs; to estimate future costs and

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

45

Employment and Disability

accommodations for workers who are on the job for a
limited time or for limited hours, and health insurance is
a higher proportion of pay for part-time workers. Schur
concluded that nonstandard work is an important option
for people with disabilities, but further research is needed
to determine whether such jobs provide the benefits and
support that those people require and whether appropriate accommodations and benefits are in fact provided.
One particular aspect of CPS labor force statistics deserves mention here, in that it may prove useful in the
discussion which follows on the appropriate population
to consider in determining the employment rate of people
with disabilities. In the CPS, individuals who are neither
employed nor unemployed are categorized as “not in the
labor force,” and the survey includes questions aimed at
identifying these workers’ interests and actions in seeking
employment. Individuals who are not in the labor force are
asked if they would like to work. If so, they are asked questions to determine whether they are marginally attached to
the labor force, which means that they want work, are able
to work, are available for work, and have looked for work
during the past 12 months, but not in the past 4 weeks;
or whether they are discouraged workers, which means that
they satisfy the aforementioned conditions, but, in addition, they are not currently looking for work because they
believe that there are no jobs available or there are none
for which they would qualify.

Defining disability status
Disability is a more complex concept than employment,
and there are a number of definitions thereof. According to Andrew J. Houtenville and Richard B. Burkhauser,
“Disability is a controversial concept to define and measure.” 8 Michele Adler showed that Federal programs use
a wide range of definitions of disability, and Burt S. Barnow showed how one Federal program, the Job Training
Partnership Act, defined disabilities differently for eligibility and reporting purposes.9 Burkhauser, Houtenville,
and David C. Wittenburg noted that the most common
conceptualizations of disability are based on the models of Saad Nagi and the World Health Organization.10
Burkhauser, Houtenville, and Wittenburg observed that a
population may be characterized as consisting of a set of
four concentric circles, with the outermost circle consisting of all working-age people, the next circle including
those with impairments, the third circle comprising those
with activity limitations, and the innermost circle consisting of people with longer term activity limitations. Note,
importantly, that disability is not usually defined as being
46

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

synonymous with activity limitations. Rather, most analysts define a disability as a combination of an impairment
and some type of activity limitation.
The March CPS Supplement includes a question on
characteristics that limit work activities, namely, “(Do
you/Does anyone in this household) have a health problem or disability which prevents (you/them) from working or which limits the kind or amount of work (you/they)
can do?” the responses to which many economists and
other social scientists have used to analyze disabilities.11
In addition, the Census Bureau has developed an algorithm that classifies a person as being disabled or having
a “work disability” in response to a series of questions in
the basic CPS monthly instrument, as well as the March
Supplement; these other responses used to classify someone as having a disability include “retired or left a job for
health reasons,” “not in the labor force because of a health
reason,” “currently not in the labor force because of a disability,” “did not work in the previous year because of illness or a disability,” “under age 65 and received Medicare
or Supplemental Security Income in the previous year,”
and “received Veterans’ Administration disability income
in the previous year.” 12 The Census Bureau warns that the
CPS questions are not designed to capture any particular
concept of disability and that the questions on disability
may or may not be appropriate for any particular research
issue.13
The long form of the 2000 census included six questions on disability that were developed by a Federal interagency workgroup.14 The first two questions asked about
impairments in vision or hearing and limitations in basic
activities such as walking, climbing stairs, reaching, lifting, and carrying. The next four questions asked whether
the person had a physical, mental, or emotional condition lasting 6 months or longer that resulted in difficulty
in doing any of the following: learning, remembering, or
concentrating; dressing, bathing, or getting around the
house; going outside the home alone to shop or visit a
doctor’s office; and working at a job or business.15 The
Census Bureau notes that the 2000 census captures only
a few dimensions of disability. Concern has been raised
by some Census Bureau staff that there was a problem in
the length and complexity of some of the disability questions, likely leading to undercounts of the population with
employment disabilities and the population with stay-athome disabilities (which may overlap).16
Of the three surveys discussed in this article, the SIPP
has the most complete set of questions on disability. The
SIPP questions capture limits in functional activities (for
example, seeing, hearing, and speaking); activities of daily

living (such as getting around the home, getting in and
out of bed, and eating); instrumental activities of daily
living (for instance, going outside of the home, keeping
track of money, and preparing meals); the use of assistive devices; the presence of conditions related to mental
functioning; and the presence of a work disability.17 In
addition to collecting comprehensive information on disabilities, the SIPP asks some of the questions more than
once over the period that panel members are interviewed
(generally, 2½ years), thereby offering the opportunity to
look for changes in disability status and consistency of responses over time.

The ADA and employment trends
In recent years, two series of studies have focused respectively on employment trends of people with disabilities
and evaluations of the ADA. In both cases, the studies concluded that a downward trend in employment for people
with disabilities began in the 1990s and has continued
on to the present, with some researchers attributing at
least part of the trend to the ADA. Critics of these studies
generally have argued that the findings are spurious and
are due to the researchers using the wrong definition of
disability or the wrong subset of the disabled population
in their analysis.
Although the ADA was intended to increase employment opportunities for people with disabilities by prohibiting discrimination in the workplace and by requiring
employers to accommodate the needs of workers with
disabilities, economic theory is more ambiguous. The major argument economists have made is that if employers
perceive the costs of accommodation to be high, they will
refrain from hiring workers with disabilities. A more general point is one that has been made in studying age discrimination: workers who lose their jobs are more likely
to bring a discrimination suit than an applicant is, because
the worker who is laid off knows the relevant pool of labor, whereas the applicant often has no idea whom the
employer hires or what the qualifications of those who are
hired are. Thus, employers must weigh the costs of possibly violating the discrimination law against the costs of
providing accommodations to workers with disabilities.
In the latter regard, note that because the ADA uses the
vague term “reasonable accommodation,” employers face
uncertainty as to what level of accommodation would be
considered reasonable. Of course, as case law develops, it
may be that the term “reasonable accommodation” will be
fleshed out, thereby alleviating or even eliminating employers’ concerns.

The most often cited study of the ADA was conducted by Daren Acemoglu and Joshua D. Angrist.18 Using
March CPS data, they estimated employment trends from
1988 through 1996 for workers with disabilities. Acemoglu and Angrist used regression analysis to statistically
control for other factors that might have influenced employment rates for workers with disabilities, such as receipt of income transfer payments through Social Security
Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income.
After controlling for other relevant factors, the authors
concluded that the ADA led to declines in employment for
workers aged 21 to 39 years with disabilities, but they did
not find evidence of any employment impact for similar
workers between the ages of 40 and 58 years. Acemoglu
and Angrist tested a variety of specifications for their
empirical work, and they consistently found a decline in
the number of weeks of employment for younger workers
with disabilities after the ADA became effective.
In a series of articles, Thomas DeLeire used the SIPP
to estimate the employment effects of the ADA.19 With
data from 1986 through 1995, DeLeire performed a probit analysis to estimate how the enactment of the ADA
affected the probability of employment and wage rates for
men aged 18 to 64 years with disabilities. In his simplest
model, in which he controlled only for the presence of the
ADA, DeLeire found that the Act reduced employment
by a statistically significant 7.2 percentage points. When
demographic characteristics, industry, and occupation
were held constant, the impact declined to 4.1 percentage points, again statistically significant. Next, DeLeire
allowed the impact of the ADA to vary by year, and he
found that employment effects began in 1990, when the
ADA was passed, and increased in magnitude every year
thereafter. He then found that the effects were greater for
workers in manufacturing, blue-collar, and managerial occupations; workers with physical and mental disabilities;
and workers whose disabilities were not due to work-related injuries. He found no evidence that the ADA affected
the wage rates of disabled workers.
Kathleen Beegle and Wendy A. Stock analyzed the impact of State disability discrimination laws on the employment and wage rates of people with disabilities.20 They
noted that, prior to the enactment of the ADA, most States
already had laws prohibiting employment discrimination
against people with disabilities. Using decennial census
data from 1970, 1980, and 1990, they performed a series
of ordinary least squares regressions to determine the impacts of discrimination laws on the earnings, labor force
participation rates, and employment of disabled individuals. In contrast to DeLeire (who considered the effects of
Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

47

Employment and Disability

the ADA rather than State laws), Beegle and Stock found
that the discrimination laws were associated with lower
relative earnings for the disabled and slightly lower labor
force participation rates, but that they had no effect on
employment rates.
A number of articles have been critical of the literature
on the impact of the ADA; the major arguments relating
to the definition of disability and the relevant population
to analyze are discussed next. Because the ADA was not
implemented as a classical experiment with random assignment of employers and disabled people to treatment
status, the evaluations are subject to the usual challenges to
nonexperimental evaluations; these issues are not covered
in detail here, because the main purpose of this article is
to explore definitions of employment and disability status
and not to discuss the impact of the ADA.21
An important issue raised by all the critics is the definition of people with disabilities. The critics argue that the
article by Acemoglu and Angrist and the articles by DeLeire suffer from two problems in their definitions of the
disabled population of interest. First, they argue that, because the questions in the CPS and SIPP which are used to
identify people with disabilities do not correspond well to
the population covered by the ADA, those authors’ analyses
cannot be used to determine the impact of the ADA on the
covered population.22 Second, the critics argue that, by using a definition of disability based on the ability to work,
the ADA can be a victim of its own success: to the extent
that employers make appropriate accommodations, some
people with impairments will no longer consider themselves as having a disability, and those people, who were
helped by the ADA, will no longer be counted as disabled.
The first argument—that evaluations should examine
the impact of the ADA only on the population covered
by the Act—appears to be misguided. As all researchers
on people with disabilities stress, the population with
disabilities is not homogeneous. It is possible that the
ADA might help one subgroup while hurting another. For
example, much of the research on raising the minimum
wage looks beyond the impact on those making less than
the new minimum wage: there could be ripple effects that
lead to wage increases for workers earning more than the
new minimum, and if there is a sector that is not covered
by the Act, workers in that sector may suffer a decrease
in their wages while those in the covered sector gain.23
If one believes that the only problem with the article by
Acemoglu and Angrist and the articles by DeLeire is that
they look at the “wrong” population of people with disabilities, one should still be very concerned with the findings, which imply that some individuals with disabilities
48

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

are made worse off because of the ADA. Alternatively, the
findings that some groups are helped and some are hurt
might be due to specification errors in the analyses: measurement error and omitted variables can lead to biased
estimates of the impact of the Act.
The second argument is more problematic. On the one
hand, studies that use work limitations to define the population of interest are likely to develop biased estimates
to the extent that employers implement accommodations
which remove workers from the ranks of the disabled. On
the other hand, to the extent that researchers use a more
general activity limitation measure, individuals who have
employers accommodate their work limitations are still
likely to have limitations on other activities.
Research by Kruse and Schur and by Houtenville and
Burkhauser show how important the definition of the pool
of those with disabilities is in estimating the impact of the
ADA.24 Kruse and Schur developed 14 disability measures
based on activity limitation, receipt of disability income,
and ability to work. They found that the employment of
people with disabilities after the ADA was passed differed
by disability measure: employment declined for those
reporting work disabilities, but improved among those
reporting any or severe functional limitations or limitations associated with activities of daily living who do not
report a work disability.25 Houtenville and Burkhauser
found that, by considering only individuals with a disability lasting for 2 consecutive years instead of a single
year, the employment decline estimated by Acemoglu and
Angrist to have resulted from the passage of the ADA did
not in fact exist. What are we to make of the findings by
these two studies? Either (1) the ADA has affected different subpopulations of people with disabilities differently
or (2) the results vary because of specification errors—for
example, omitted explanatory variables or measurement
error. The sensitivity of the findings with regard to the
population analyzed should give pause to the notion of
declaring the ADA ineffective, at least until these matters
are resolved.
Similar issues arise in research on recent employment
trends of people with disabilities. A series of articles by
Burkhauser and his colleagues points to a steady decline
in the employment rate for people with disabilities, beginning prior to the enactment of the ADA.26 Some observers,
such as Thomas W. Hale, argue that the data on the population is so poor in capturing the magnitude of the disabled population that we should refrain from asking even
simple trend questions until we obtain improved data.27
Stapleton, Burkhauser, and Houtenville concur that there
are problems with the data sources now available on the

employment of people with disabilities, but they argue
that the major data sources (from the CPS, the SIPP, and
the National Health Insurance Survey) all produce highly
correlated employment series, so we can in fact identify
trends in the overall employment level of people with disabilities.28 Although their reasoning is quite convincing,
sometimes specific numbers, rather than trends, are needed, and sometimes also specific subgroups of the disabled
population need to be identified.

Implications for research and policy
All the studies reviewed in this article expressed some
concern with the data that are available to analyze employment status for people with disabilities. The primary
issue is measuring disability status appropriately, rather
than measuring employment status. However, additional
insights might be gained by paying more attention to what
Schur refers to as “nonstandard jobs” (part-time jobs, temporary situations, and independent-contractor work), as
well as by focusing more on the situation of people who are
not in the labor force (for example, whether such people
want to work, whether they are available to work, whether
they have searched for work in the past 12 months, and
the reasons they have not searched for work).
The data that are available appear to be adequate for
identifying trends in employment patterns for people
with disabilities, but they are clearly inadequate for assessing the impact of acts such as the ADA. Because the
consensus definitions of disability go beyond impairments
and include activity limitations, such as work limitations,
research is needed to better show how various impair-

ments limit major activities and how the trends have
changed over time. Because the ADA is intended to affect
the target population’s work limitations through employer
accommodations, it is inappropriate to assess the impact
of that Act by analyzing only the work-disabled population; the fact that studies using alternative definitions of
disability in assessing the impact of the ADA reach quite
different conclusions means that further work is needed
to discover the impact of the ADA on various subpopulations. Research that explores the use of the impaired
population and various definitions of activity limitations,
including the ability to work at all, also must be pursued.
In addition, studies indicate that the length and degree of
impairment can affect estimates of the impact of the Act,
so further exploration of how and why that occurs would
be valuable.
Clearly, to truly understand the relationships that exist
among impairments, disability, and work, major surveys
must provide more comprehensive coverage of these issues. Unfortunately, space on the periodic surveys is expensive and scarce, so it would be naïve simply to call for
more and better data. What may be more feasible is to
periodically expand the samples of disabled individuals in
some of these surveys and to ask more detailed questions
about impairment, activity limitations, and disability.
Finally, we should not be surprised that researchers
cannot yet agree on the impact of the ADA or even how to
measure the impact. The United States has had minimumwage legislation since 1938, and economists still disagree
on whether such legislation helps or hurts workers. It
would truly be surprising if a consensus on the impact of
the ADA could be reached in less than 20 years.

Notes
1
See Richard V. Burkhauser, Andrew J. Houtenville, and David C. Wittenburg, “A User’s Guide to Current Statistics on the Employment of People
with Disabilities,” in David C. Stapleton and Richard V. Burkhauser (eds.), The
Decline in Employment of People with Disabilities: A Policy Puzzle (Kalamazoo,
MI, Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2003), pp. 23–86.
2
Definition cited from the glossary at the BLS Internet site www.bls.gov/bls/
glossary.htm (visited June 5, 2008). The reference week is the week for which
respondents are asked to report their activities.
3
“Employment Status: 2000” (U.S. Census Bureau, August 2003), on the
Internet at www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/c2kbr-18.pdf (visited June 3,
2008).
4

Ibid.

5
“Survey of Income and Program Participation” (U.S. Census Bureau, Feb.
14, 2002; last updated Jan. 2, 2008), on the Internet at www.census.gov/sipp/
overview.html (visited June 3, 2008).
6

Ibid.

7
Lisa A. Schur, “Dead End Jobs or a Path to Economic Well Being? The Consequences of Non-Standard Work Among People with Disabilities,” Behavioral
Sciences and the Law, November–December 2002, pp. 601–20; and “Barriers or
Opportunities? The Causes of Contingent and Part-Time Work Among People
with Disabilities,” Industrial Relations, October 2003, pp. 589–622.

8
Andrew J. Houtenville and Richard B. Burkhauser, Did the Employment
of People with Disabilities Decline in the 1990s, and Was the ADA Responsible? A
Replication and Robustness Check of Acemoglu and Angrist (2001), Research Brief
(Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Employment and Disability Institute, 2004).

9
See Michele Adler, Programmatic Definitions of Disability: Policy Implications (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disability, Aging, and Long-Term Care Policy, 1991), on the Internet at aspe.hhs.
gov/daltcp/reports/prodefes.htm (visited June 5, 2008); and Burt S. Barnow,
“Policies for People with Disabilities in U.S. Employment and Training Programs,” in Jerry L. Mashaw, Virginia Reno, Richard Burkhauser, and Monroe
Berkowitz (eds.), Disabilities, Cash Benefits, and Work (Kalamazoo, MI, Upjohn
Institute for Employment Research, 1996).
10

See Saad Nagi, “Disability Concepts Revisited: Implications for Preven-

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

49

Employment and Disability

tion,” in A. M. Pope and A. R. Tarlove (eds.), Disability in America: Toward
a National Agenda for Prevention (Washington, DC, National Academy Press,
1991), pp. 309–27; and Saad Nagi, Towards a Common Language for Functioning, Disability, and Health (Geneva, World Health Organization, 2002).
11
Richard V. Burkhauser and Andrew J. Houtenville, A Guide to Disability
Statistics from the Current Population Survey—Annual Social and Economic Supplement (March CPS) (Ithaca, NY, Cornell University, Rehabilitation Research
and Training Center on Disability Demographics and Statistics, 2006).
12
“Uses and limitations of CPS data on work disability” (U.S. Census Bureau, undated), on the Internet at www.census.gov/hhes/www/disability/
cps/cpstableexplanation.pdf (visited June 5, 2008).
13

Ibid.

14
Questions on earlier decennial censuses are not comparable to the ones in
the 2000 census.
15

ficients are often biased if relevant variables are omitted from the analysis
or if one or more of the explanatory variables are measured in error. (See,
for example, Jeffrey M. Wooldridge, Introductory Econometrics: A Modern Approach, 4th ed. (Mason, Ohio, South Western, Cengage Learning, 2009).)
Both Ace-moglu and Angrist, “Consequences of Employment Protection?”
and DeLeire, “Changes in Wage Discrimination,” used a variety of specifications to test for the impact of the ADA, but they may not have had all of the
relevant explanatory variables available to them. In addition, the ADA may
have had an impact prior to the effective date of the Act or even prior to
its enactment, and the impact may have changed over time as the rules on
reasonable accommodation were interpreted by the courts. Articles that note
alleged econometric problems in the analyses of Acemoglu and Angrist and
of DeLeire include Tom Tolin and Martin Patwell, “A Critique of Economic
Analysis of the ADA,” Disability Studies Quarterly, winter 2003, pp. 130–42;
Douglas Kruse and Lisa Schur, “Employment of People with Disabilities
Following the ADA,” Industrial Relations, January 2003, pp. 31–66; and Robert Silverstein, George Julnes, and Renee Nolan, “What Policymakers Need
and Must Demand from Research Regarding the Employment Rate of Persons with Disabilities,” Behavioral Sciences and the Law, May–June 2005, pp.
399–448.)

The last two questions were asked only of persons 16 years or older.

16

An employment disability is an impairment that prevents the person from
working; a stay-at-home disability is an impairment that prevents the person
from leaving the home. Both types of disability are self-reported on the census
form. (See William A. Erickson and Andrew J. Houtenville, A Guide to Disability Statistics from the 2000 Decennial Census (Ithaca, NY, Cornell University,
Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Disability Demographics and
Statistics, 2005). The original Census Bureau analyses can be found in Sharon
M. Stern, “Counting People with Disabilities: How Survey Methodology Influences Estimates in Census 2000 and the Census 2000 Supplementary Survey,” Census Bureau Staff Research Report (U.S. Census Bureau, Poverty and
Health Statistics Branch, 2003), on the Internet at www.census.gov/acs/www/
Downloads/ACS/finalstern.pdf (visited Apr. 19, 2005). See also Sharon Stern
and Matthew Brault, “Disability Data From the American Community Survey:
A Brief Examination of the Effects of a Question Redesign in 2003,” Census
Bureau Staff Research Report (U.S. Census Bureau, Housing and Household
Economic Statistics Division, 2005), on the Internet at www.census.gov/hhes/
www/disability/ACS_disability.pdf (visited June 5, 2008).)
17
The questions are on the Internet at www.census.gov/hhes/www/disability/
sipp.html (visited June 5, 2008).
18
Daron Acemoglu and Joshua D. Angrist, “Consequences of Employment
Protection? The Case of the Americans with Disabilities Act,” Journal of Political Economy, October 2001, pp. 915–57.
19
Thomas DeLeire, “The Wage and Employment Effects of the Americans
with Disabilities Act,” Journal of Human Resources, fall 2000, pp. 693–713;
“Changes in Wage Discrimination Against People with Disabilities: 1984–
1993,” Journal of Human Resources, winter 2001, pp. 145–58; and “The Americans with Disabilities Act and the Employment of People with Disabilities,”
in Stapleton and Burkhauser (eds.), The Decline in Employment of People with
Disabilities, pp. 259–77.
20
Kathleen Beegle and Wendy A. Stock, “The Labor Market Effects of
Disability Discrimination Laws,” Journal of Human Resources, fall 2003, pp.
807–59.

22
See Tolin and Patwell, “A Critique”; Kruse and Schur, “Employment of
People with Disabilities”; Peter Blanck, Lisa Schur, Douglas Kruse, Susan
Schwochau, and Chen Song, “Calibrating the Impact of the ADA’s Employment Provisions,” Stanford Law and Policy Review, vol. 14, no. 2, 2003, pp. 267–
90; and Silverstein, Julnes, and Nolan, “What Policymakers Need.” Thomas
W. Hale, “The Lack of a Disability Measure in Today’s Current Population
Survey,” Monthly Labor Review, June 2001, pp. 38–40, also makes this point,
though only implicitly.
23
See, for example, Ronald G. Ehrenberg and Robert S. Smith, Modern Labor Economics: Theory and Public Policy, 9th ed. (Boston, Pearson, 2005).
24
See Kruse and Schur, “Employment of People with Disabilities”; and
Houtenville and Burkhauser, “Did the Employment of People with Disabilities
Decline?”
25
Activities of daily living are defined as “the tasks of everyday life, such as
eating, bathing, dressing, toileting, and transferring.” (See Joshua M. Wiener,
Raymond J. Hanley, Robert Clark, and Joan F. Van Nostrand, “Measuring the
Activities of Daily Living: Comparisons Across National Surveys,” Journal of
Gerontology: Social Sciences, November 1990, pp. S229–37.)
26
See, for example, Burkhauser, Houtenville, and Wittenberg, “A User’s
Guide to Current Statistics”; Andrew J. Houtenville and Mary C. Daly,
“Employment Declines among People with Disabilities,” in Stapleton and
Burkhauser (eds.), The Decline in Employment of People with Disabilities, pp. 87–
124; Richard V. Burkhauser and David C. Stapleton, “Review of the Evidence
and Its Implications for Policy Change,” in Stapleton and Burkhauser (eds.), The
Decline in Employment of People with Disabilities, pp. 369–405; David C. Stapleton, Richard V. Burkhauser, and Andrew J. Houtenville, Has the Employment
Rate of People with Disabilities Declined? Research Brief (Ithaca, NY, Cornell
University, Employment and Disability Institute, 2004); and Elaine M. Maag
and David C. Wittenburg, Real Trends or Measurement Problems? Disability and
Employment Trends from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (Washington, DC, The Urban Institute, 2003).

27

Hale, “The Lack of a Disability Measure.”

21

The articles in question all used ordinary least squares regression analysis
for continuous dependent variables and regression analysis, logit analysis, or
probit analysis for discrete dependent variables. Estimates of regression coef-

50

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

28
Stapleton, Burkhauser, and Houtenville, Has the Employment Rate of People
with Disabilities Declined?

Visual Essay: High School Students’ Time Use

How high school students use time: a visual essay
Mary Dorinda Allard

H

igh school students have many demands
on their time, and how they choose to
spend that time on any given day depends
on a variety of factors, such as the age and the sex
of the student. Data from the American Time Use
Survey (ATUS) show how much time per day, on
average, high school students devote to leisure activities, household activities, work, and homework.
ATUS data also reveal differences in students’ use of
time between weekdays and weekend days.
In the ATUS, which is administered to individuals age 15 and older, survey respondents are asked
about the activities they performed “yesterday.” The
survey obtains information about respondents’ pri-

mary (or main) activities. (Information about other
activities they were engaged in during these primary activities is not collected.) Data were collected
throughout 2003–07; however, for this essay, data are
restricted to months when most high school students
attend school—that is, September through May.
All data in this visual essay refer to students ages 15
to 19 who were enrolled full time in high school. While
most of the data used here are for those in grades 9
through 12, a small number of eighth-grade students
may be included in the estimates.
This essay was prepared by Mary Dorinda Allard, an
economist in the Division of Labor Force Statistics, Bureau of Labor Statistics. E-mail: atusinfo@bls.gov.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

51

Visual Essay: High School Students’ Time Use

1. High school students divided the hours of an average schoolday among many activities

Other

Working
Eating
Grooming
Travel

Leisure and sports

Sleep

Educational activities

NOTE: Estimates are for September through May, 2003–07. Schooldays are nonholiday weekdays on which high school students ages 15 to
19 attended class.

x Together, sleeping and engaging in educational activities accounted for almost two-thirds of high school students’ time on an average schoolday. On average, students slept for 8.1 hours and performed educational activities, such as attending class and doing homework, for 7.5 hours.

x Students split the remaining time among a range of activities: leisure and sports activities (4.0 hours); travel (1.1
hours); grooming (0.8 hour); eating (0.8 hour); working (0.5 hour); and other activities, such as volunteering,
shopping, and doing household activities (1.2 hours).

52

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

2. Some activities were more popular among male high school students, and other activities were
more popular among female high school students

Watching TV
Socializing
Games/computer
Homework
Sports/exercise
Household activities
Shopping

Male high school students
Female high school students

Working
Volunteering
Reading
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Percent of high school students who did the activity on an average day
NOTE: Estimates are for September through May, 2003–07. Data are averages of all days of the week for high school students
ages 15 to 19.

x Seventy-nine percent of male high school students watched TV on an average day, compared with 75 percent of
female high school students.

x Female high school students were more likely than male high school students to do homework on an average
day—50 percent of females did so, compared with 37 percent of males. Female students also were more likely
than male students to do household activities (such as housework, cooking, and lawn care)—54 percent of females did so on an average day, compared with 37 percent of males.

x Male high school students were more likely than their female counterparts to engage in sports and exercise
activities on an average day: 37 percent of males played sports, whereas 21 percent of females did. Forty-three
percent of male students and 27 percent of female students played games and/or used a computer for leisure on
an average day.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

53

Visual Essay: High School Students’ Time Use

3. Male and female high school students spent their leisure time differently
Average hours per day
6.0

Average hours per day
6.0

5.7 hours per day
Other

5.0

5.0
Games/computer

4.5 hours per day
Other

4.0
Socializing

3.0

Sports/exercise
Reading/relaxing

2.0

1.0

Watching TV

Games/computer

Socializing

4.0

3.0

Sports/exercise
Reading/relaxing

2.0

Watching TV

1.0

0.0

0.0
Male high school students

Female high school students

NOTE: Estimates are for September through May, 2003–07. Data are averages of all days of the week for high school students ages 15 to 19.

x Male high school students spent 1.2 hours more doing leisure activities on an average day than did female high
school students (5.7 hours, compared with 4.5 hours).

x Male high school students spent more time than female high school students watching TV (2.2 hours, compared
with 1.9 hours), playing games and/or using a computer for leisure (1.1 hours, compared with 0.5 hour), and
doing sports activities (0.9 hour, compared with 0.4 hour). Female high school students spent slightly more time
socializing (1.0 hour) than did their male counterparts (0.8 hour).

54

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

4. High school students slept more on Sundays than on any other day of the week

Mondays–Thursdays

Fridays

Saturdays

Sundays

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

10.0

12.0

Average hours per day
NOTE: Estimates are for September through May, 2003–07. Weekday holidays are excluded. All estimates are for high school students ages 15
to 19. A day is defined as beginning at 12 a.m. and ending at 11:59 p.m.

x High school students slept more on Sundays (10.7 hours) than they did on any other day of the week, and
they slept least on Fridays (8.4 hours). They slept an average of 10.0 hours on Saturdays and 8.7 hours per day
Monday through Thursday.

x High school students slept later in the morning on weekend days than they did on weekdays. At 7 a.m. on
weekdays, about 25 percent of high school students were asleep, compared with about 85 percent on Saturdays
and Sundays.

x On average, high school students went to sleep later on Friday and Saturday nights than they did Sunday
through Thursday. At 11 p.m. Sunday through Thursday, about 70 percent of high school students were asleep,
as opposed to about 45 percent on Friday and Saturday nights.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

55

Visual Essay: High School Students’ Time Use

5. High school students spent different amounts of time doing activities on weekdays and weekend days
Average hours spent
doing the activity

Average hours spent
doing the activity
6.0

6.0

Work,
weekend day

5.0

5.0

4.0

4.0

Watching TV,
weekend day
Work,
weekday

3.0

2.0

3.0

Watching TV,
weekday

Homework,
weekend day

2.0

Homework,
weekday

1.0

1.0

0.0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

0.0
100

Percent of high school students who did the activity
NOTE: Estimates are for September through May, 2003–07. Weekday holidays are excluded. All estimates are for high school students ages 15
to 19.

x About 15 percent of high school students worked on an average weekday and an average weekend day. On days
that students worked, they spent more time doing so on weekend days than on weekdays (5.0 hours, compared
with 3.5 hours).

x Forty-nine percent of high school students did homework on an average weekday, compared with 30 percent on
an average weekend day. On days that students did homework, they studied for 2.4 hours on weekend days and
1.7 hours per day on weekdays.

x Seventy-five percent of high school students watched television on an average weekday, compared with 81 percent on an average weekend day. High school students who watched television did so for almost an hour longer
on weekend days (3.3 hours) than they did on weekdays (2.4 hours).

56

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

6. High school students with a parent who had a bachelor’s degree or higher were more likely to do homework
on an average day

Percent of high school
students

Percent of high school
students
100

100
2 hours or more

90
80
70

Between 1 and 2 hours

39 percent
did
homework

Less than 1 hour

90

2 hours or more
52 percent
did
homework
Between 1 and 2 hours

60

70
60

Less than 1 hour

50

50
40

40
30

80

Did not do homework

30
Did not do homework

20
10

20
10

0

0
Students whose parent(s) had less than
a bachelor’s degree

Students with a parent who had
a bachelor’s degree or higher

NOTE: Estimates are for September through May, 2003–07, and are for high school students ages 15 to 19 who lived with at least one parent.
Data are averages of all days of the week. If the high school student lived with two parents, the educational attainment of parents was determined
by the parent with the highest educational attainment.

x On an average day, 39 percent of high school students whose parent(s) had less than a bachelor’s degree did
homework, compared with 52 percent of those with a parent who had a bachelor’s degree or higher.

x In addition to being more likely to do homework on an average day, high school students whose parent(s) had
higher educational attainment spent more time, on average, doing homework. Twenty-four percent of students
with a parent holding a bachelor’s degree or higher spent 2 or more hours doing homework, compared with 13
percent of those whose parent(s) held less than a bachelor’s degree.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

57

Visual Essay: High School Students’ Time Use

7. The activities high school students did varied by age

Driving
Household activities
Shopping
Games/computer
Sports/exercise
Ages 17–19
Working

Ages 15–16

Volunteering
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Percent of high school students who did the activity on an average day
NOTE: Estimates are for September through May, 2003–07. Estimates are averages of all days of the week for high school students ages 15
to 19.

x Fifty-one percent of high school students ages 17 to 19 drove on an average day, compared with 25 percent of
students ages 15 to 16.

x Older high school students were more likely to work, shop, and do volunteer activities on an average day than
were younger high school students. Among students who worked, those ages 17 to 19 worked almost an hour
longer than students ages 15 to 16—4.4 hours, compared with 3.5 hours. Regardless of age, high school students
who volunteered spent slightly more than 2 hours doing so, and those who shopped did so for about 1 hour.

x High school students ages 15 to 16 were more likely than those ages 17 to 19 to do household activities, play
games and/or use a computer for leisure, and engage in sports and exercise activities.

58

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

8. There are many activities that employed high school students were less likely to do on workdays than on
nonworkdays

Watching TV
Socializing
Homework
Not employed

Household activities

Employed, nonworkday
Games/computer

Employed, workday

Sports/exercise
Shopping
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Percent of high school students who did the activity on an average day
NOTE: Estimates are for September through May, 2003–07, and are for high school students ages 15 to 19. Workdays are days on which high
school students did some paid work or income-generating activity, such as babysitting.

x Sixty-five percent of employed students watched TV on days that they worked. By contrast, 80 percent of students
without a job watched TV on an average day. Among those who watched TV, employed students spent about an
hour less doing so on workdays than did students without a job (1.9 hours, compared with 2.8 hours).

x On nonworkdays, 29 percent of employed high school students participated in sports activities. However, on
workdays, only 19 percent of employed students played sports.

x Forty-six percent of high school students who were not employed did homework on an average day, compared
with about 40 percent of those who were employed. Employed high school students were about as likely to do
homework on workdays as on nonworkdays.

x Forty-one percent of employed high school students shopped on nonworkdays, whereas 26 percent shopped on
workdays. Thirty percent of students who were not employed shopped on an average day.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

59

Visual Essay: High School Students’ Time Use

9. Employed high school students were less likely to eat with one or more parents on weekday workdays

Weekday

Not employed
Employed, nonworkday
Employed, workday

Weekend day

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Percent who ate with a parent
NOTE: Estimates are for September through May, 2003–07, and are for high school students ages 15 to 19. Weekday holidays are excluded.
Workdays are those on which high school students did some paid work or income-generating activity, such as babysitting.

x Employed high school students were less likely to eat with a parent sometime during the day on weekdays they
worked than on weekdays they did not work. (Thirty-five percent of employed high school students ate with a
parent on an average weekday on which the students worked, compared with 60 percent on a weekday they did
not work.) By contrast, 52 percent of those who were not employed ate with a parent on an average weekday.

x On an average weekend day, more than 50 percent of high school students ate with a parent, regardless of the
student’s employment status.

60

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

10. The company that high school students kept varied by activity
Percent of time doing activity
that was spent with family
members

Percent of time doing activity
that was spent with others
(excluding family)

Percent of time doing activity
that was spent alone

Homework
Games/computer
Household activities
Watching TV
Travel
Eating
Sports/exercise
Shopping
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Percent of total time spent in the activity on an average day
NOTE: Estimates are for September through May, 2003–07. Estimates are averages of all days of the week for high school students ages 15 to 19.
Percent spent with “others” includes time spent with friends, neighbors/acquaintances, and other household and non-household members.

x Shopping was the activity that high school students were most likely to do with family members. Of the time
that high school students spent shopping, they spent about 61 percent with family members; 26 percent of the
time, they were with others. Only 13 percent of students’ shopping time was spent alone.

x High school students typically ate with others as well. Students were alone only 15 percent of the time they spent
eating.

x Homework was typically done alone. High school students spent 77 percent of homework time alone; about 16
percent of homework time was spent with family members.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

61

Nominations Sought for 2009 Julius Shiskin Award

Nominations are invited for the annual Julius Shiskin Memorial Award for Economic Statistics. The Award is given in recognition of unusually original and important contributions
in the development of economic statistics or in the use of statistics in interpreting the economy. Contributions are recognized for statistical research, development of statistical tools,
application of information technology techniques, use of economic statistical programs,
management of statistical programs, or developing public understanding of measurement
issues. The Award was established in 1980 by the Washington Statistical Society (WSS) and
is now cosponsored by the WSS, the National Association for Business Economics, and the
Business and Economics Statistics Section of the American Statistical Association (ASA).
The 2008 award recipients were William R. Bell and Robert M. Groves. Dr. Bell was recognized for his innovative statistical research that led to improved economic statistics through
important contributions to the theory and practice of seasonal adjustment, small area estimation, and time series modeling; Dr. Groves was recognized for his innovative statistical
research that led to improved economic statistics through important contributions to the
theory and practice of survey methods for the conduct of sample surveys of both households
and establishments.
Because the program was initiated many years ago, statisticians and economists often ask,
“Who was Julius Shiskin?” At the time of his death in 1978, “Julie” was the Commissioner
of the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and earlier served as the Chief Statistician at the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), and the Chief Economic Statistician and Assistant
Director of the Census Bureau. Throughout his career, he was known as an innovator. At
Census he was instrumental in developing an electronic computer method for seasonal adjustment. In 1961, he published Signals of Recession and Recovery, which laid the groundwork
for the calculation of monthly economic indicators, and he developed the monthly Census
report Business Conditions Digest to disseminate them to the public. In 1969, he was appointed
Chief Statistician at OMB where he developed the policies and procedures that govern the
release of key economic indicators (Statistical Policy Directive Number 3), and originated a
Social Indicators report. In 1973, he was selected to head BLS where he was instrumental in
preserving the integrity and independence of the BLS labor force data and directed the most
comprehensive revision in the history of the Consumer Price Index (CPI), which included a
new CPI for all urban consumers.
Nominations for the 2009 award are now being accepted. Individuals and groups in the public
or private sector from any country can be nominated. The award will be presented with an
honorarium of $750 plus additional recognition from the sponsors. A nomination form and a
list of all previous recipients are available on the ASA Website at www.amstat.org/sections/
bus_econ/shiskin.html. For questions or more information, please contact Steven Paben,
Julius Shiskin Award Committee Secretary, via e-mail at paben.steven@bls.gov or phone at
202–691–6147.
Completed nominations must be received by April 1, 2009.

Current Labor Statistics
Monthly Labor Review
November 2008

NOTE: Many of the statistics in the
following pages were subsequently
revised. These pages have not been
updated to reflect the revisions.
To obtain BLS data that reflect all revisions, see
http://www.bls.gov/data/home.htm
For the latest set of "Current Labor Statistics,"
see http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/curlabst.htm

Current Labor Statistics

Notes on current labor statistics

............... 64

Labor compensation and collective
bargaining data

Comparative indicators
1. Labor market indicators.................................................... 76
2. Annual and quarterly percent changes in
compensation, prices, and productivity.......................... 77
3. Alternative measures of wages and
compensation changes................................................... 77

30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.

Labor force data
4. Employment status of the population,
seasonally adjusted ........................................................
5. Selected employment indicators, seasonally adjusted ........
6. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted ....
7. Duration of unemployment, seasonally adjusted...............
8. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment,
seasonally adjusted ........................................................
9. Unemployment rates by sex and age,
seasonally adjusted ........................................................
10. Unemployment rates by State, seasonally adjusted............
11. Employment of workers by State,
seasonally adjusted .........................................................
12. Employment of workers by industry,
seasonally adjusted .........................................................
13. Average weekly hours by industry, seasonally adjusted......
14. Average hourly earnings by industry,
seasonally adjusted .........................................................
15. Average hourly earnings by industry.................................
16. Average weekly earnings by industry ................................
17. Diffusion indexes of employment change,
seasonally adjusted .....................................................
18. Job openings levels and rates, by industry and regions,
seasonally adjusted........................................................
19. Hires levels and rates by industry and region,
seasonally adjusted........................................................
20. Separations levels and rates by industry and region,
seasonally adjusted.........................................................
21. Quits levels and rates by industry and region,
seasonally adjusted........................................................

36.
37.
78
79
80
80

Employment Cost Index, compensation ..........................105
Employment Cost Index, wages and salaries .................... 107
Employment Cost Index, benefits, private industry ......... 109
Employment Cost Index, private industry workers,
by bargaining status, and region .................................... 110
National Compensation Survey, retirement benefits,
private industry ............................................................ 111
National Compensation Survey, health insurance,
private industry.............................................................. 114
National Compensation Survey, selected benefits,
private industry ............................................................. 116
Work stoppages involving 1,000 workers or more ............ 116

Price data

87
88
89

38. Consumer Price Index: U.S. city average, by expenditure
category and commodity and service groups................. 117
39. Consumer Price Index: U.S. city average and
local data, all items ....................................................... 120
40. Annual data: Consumer Price Index, all items
and major groups........................................................... 121
41. Producer Price Indexes by stage of processing .................. 122
42. Producer Price Indexes for the net output of major
industry groups ............................................................. 123
43. Annual data: Producer Price Indexes
by stage of processing.................................................... 124
44. U.S. export price indexes by end-use category................... 124
45. U.S. import price indexes by end-use category...................125
46. U.S. international price indexes for selected
categories of services ..................................................... 125

90

Productivity data

91

47. Indexes of productivity, hourly compensation,
and unit costs, data seasonally adjusted ......................... 126
48. Annual indexes of multifactor productivity....................... 127
Annual indexes of productivity, hourly compensation,
unit costs, and prices ..................................................... 128
50. Annual indexes of output per hour for select industries.... 129

81
81
82
82
83
86

91
92
92

22. Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages,
10 largest counties ........................................................ 93
23. Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, by State .. 95
24. Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment
and Wages, by ownership .............................................. 96
25. Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages,
establishment size and employment, by supersector...... 97
26. Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and
Wages, by metropolitan area ........................................ 98
27. Annual data: Employment status of the population.......... 103
28. Annual data: Employment levels by industry ................. 103
29. Annual data: Average hours and earnings level,
by industry .................................................................... 104

International comparisons data
51. Unemployment rates in 10 countries,
seasonally adjusted ........................................................ 133
52. Annual data: Employment status of the civilian
working-age population, 10 countries........................... 134
53. Annual indexes of productivity and related measures,
16 economies................................................................ 135

Injury and Illness data
54. Annual data: Occupational injury and illness.................... 137
55. Fatal occupational injuries by event or exposure ............... 139

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

63

Current Labor Statistics

Notes on Current Labor Statistics
This section of the Review presents the
principal statistical series collected and
calculated by the Bureau of Labor Statistics:
series on labor force; employment; unemployment; labor compensation; consumer,
producer, and international prices; productivity; international comparisons; and injury
and illness statistics. In the notes that follow,
the data in each group of tables are briefly
described; key definitions are given; notes
on the data are set forth; and sources of additional information are cited.

General notes
The following notes apply to several tables
in this section:
Seasonal adjustment. Certain monthly
and quarterly data are adjusted to eliminate
the effect on the data of such factors as climatic conditions, industry production schedules, opening and closing of schools, holiday
buying periods, and vacation practices, which
might prevent short-term evaluation of the
statistical series. Tables containing data that
have been adjusted are identified as “seasonally adjusted.” (All other data are not seasonally adjusted.) Seasonal effects are estimated
on the basis of current and past experiences.
When new seasonal factors are computed
each year, revisions may affect seasonally
adjusted data for several preceding years.
Seasonally adjusted data appear in tables
1–14, 17–21, 48, and 52. Seasonally adjusted
labor force data in tables 1 and 4–9 and seasonally adjusted establishment survey data
shown in tables 1, 12–14, and 17 are revised
in the March 2007 Review. A brief explanation of the seasonal adjustment methodology
appears in “Notes on the data.”
Revisions in the productivity data in table
54 are usually introduced in the September
issue. Seasonally adjusted indexes and percent changes from month-to-month and
quarter-to-quarter are published for numerous Consumer and Producer Price Index
series. However, seasonally adjusted indexes
are not published for the U.S. average AllItems CPI. Only seasonally adjusted percent
changes are available for this series.
Adjustments for price changes. Some
data—such as the “real” earnings shown in
table 14—are adjusted to eliminate the effect
of changes in price. These adjustments are
made by dividing current-dollar values by
the Consumer Price Index or the appropriate
component of the index, then multiplying
by 100. For example, given a current hourly
wage rate of $3 and a current price index
number of 150, where 1982 = 100, the hourly
rate expressed in 1982 dollars is $2 ($3/150
x 100 = $2). The $2 (or any other resulting
64

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

values) are described as “real,” “constant,” or
“1982” dollars.

Sources of information
Data that supplement the tables in this section are published by the Bureau in a variety
of sources. Definitions of each series and
notes on the data are contained in later sections of these Notes describing each set of
data. For detailed descriptions of each data
series, see BLS Handbook of Methods, Bulletin
2490. Users also may wish to consult Major
Programs of the Bureau of Labor Statistics,
Report 919. News releases provide the latest statistical information published by the
Bureau; the major recurring releases are
published according to the schedule appearing on the back cover of this issue.
More information about labor force,
employment, and unemployment data and
the household and establishment surveys
underlying the data are available in the
Bureau’s monthly publication, Employment
and Earnings. Historical unadjusted and
seasonally adjusted data from the household
survey are available on the Internet:
www.bls.gov/cps/
Historically comparable unadjusted and seasonally adjusted data from the establishment
survey also are available on the Internet:
www.bls.gov/ces/
Additional information on labor force data
for areas below the national level are provided in the BLS annual report, Geographic
Profile of Employment and Unemployment.
For a comprehensive discussion of the
Employment Cost Index, see Employment
Cost Indexes and Levels, 1975–95, BLS Bulletin 2466. The most recent data from the
Employee Benefits Survey appear in the following Bureau of Labor Statistics bulletins:
Employee Benefits in Medium and Large Firms;
Employee Benefits in Small Private Establishments; and Employee Benefits in State and Local
Governments.
More detailed data on consumer and
producer prices are published in the monthly
periodicals, The CPI Detailed Report and Producer Price Indexes. For an overview of the
1998 revision of the CPI, see the December
1996 issue of the Monthly Labor Review. Additional data on international prices appear
in monthly news releases.
Listings of industries for which productivity indexes are available may be found on
the Internet:
www.bls.gov/lpc/
For additional information on international comparisons data, see Interna-

tional Comparisons of Unemployment, Bulletin
1979.
Detailed data on the occupational injury
and illness series are published in Occupational Injuries and Illnesses in the United States,
by Industry, a BLS annual bulletin.
Finally, the Monthly Labor Review carries
analytical articles on annual and longer term
developments in labor force, employment,
and unemployment; employee compensation
and collective bargaining; prices; productivity; international comparisons; and injury
and illness data.

Symbols
n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.
n.e.s. = not elsewhere specified.
p = preliminary. To increase
the timeliness of some series,
preliminary figures are issued
based on representative but
incomplete returns.
r = revised. Generally, this revision
reflects the availability of later
data, but also may reflect other
adjustments.

Comparative Indicators
(Tables 1–3)
Comparative indicators tables provide an
overview and comparison of major bls statistical series. Consequently, although many
of the included series are available monthly,
all measures in these comparative tables are
presented quarterly and annually.
Labor market indicators include employment measures from two major surveys
and information on rates of change in
compensation provided by the Employment
Cost Index (ECI) program. The labor force
participation rate, the employment-population ratio, and unemployment rates for major
demographic groups based on the Current
Population (“household”) Survey are presented, while measures of employment and
average weekly hours by major industry sector are given using nonfarm payroll data. The
Employment Cost Index (compensation),
by major sector and by bargaining status, is
chosen from a variety of BLS compensation
and wage measures because it provides a
comprehensive measure of employer costs for
hiring labor, not just outlays for wages, and it
is not affected by employment shifts among
occupations and industries.
Data on changes in compensation, prices, and productivity are presented in table 2.
Measures of rates of change of compensation

and wages from the Employment Cost Index
program are provided for all civilian nonfarm
workers (excluding Federal and household
workers) and for all private nonfarm workers.
Measures of changes in consumer prices for
all urban consumers; producer prices by stage
of processing; overall prices by stage of processing; and overall export and import price
indexes are given. Measures of productivity
(output per hour of all persons) are provided
for major sectors.
Alternative measures of wage and compensation rates of change, which reflect the
overall trend in labor costs, are summarized
in table 3. Differences in concepts and scope,
related to the specific purposes of the series,
contribute to the variation in changes among
the individual measures.
Notes on the data
Definitions of each series and notes on the
data are contained in later sections of these
notes describing each set of data.

Employment and
Unemployment Data

4 weeks. Persons who did not look for work
because they were on layoff are also counted
among the unemployed. The unemployment
rate represents the number unemployed as a
percent of the civilian labor force.
The civilian labor force consists of all
employed or unemployed persons in the civilian noninstitutional population. Persons not
in the labor force are those not classified as
employed or unemployed. This group includes
discouraged workers, defined as persons who
want and are available for a job and who
have looked for work sometime in the past
12 months (or since the end of their last job
if they held one within the past 12 months),
but are not currently looking, because they
believe there are no jobs available or there are
none for which they would qualify. The civilian noninstitutional population comprises
all persons 16 years of age and older who are
not inmates of penal or mental institutions,
sanitariums, or homes for the aged, infirm,
or needy. The civilian labor force participation rate is the proportion of the civilian
noninstitutional population that is in the
labor force. The employment-population
ratio is employment as a percent of the civilian noninstitutional population.

(Tables 1; 4–29)

Notes on the data

Household survey data

From time to time, and especially after a decennial census, adjustments are made in the
Current Population Survey figures to correct
for estimating errors during the intercensal
years. These adjustments affect the comparability of historical data. A description of
these adjustments and their effect on the
various data series appears in the Explanatory Notes of Employment and Earnings. For
a discussion of changes introduced in January
2003, see “Revisions to the Current Population Survey Effective in January 2003” in
the February 2003 issue of Employment and
Earnings (available on the BLS Web site at
www.bls.gov/cps/rvcps03.pdf).
Effective in January 2003, BLS began
using the X-12 ARIMA seasonal adjustment
program to seasonally adjust national labor
force data. This program replaced the X-11
ARIMA program which had been used since
January 1980. See “Revision of Seasonally
Adjusted Labor Force Series in 2003,” in
the February 2003 issue of Employment and
Earnings (available on the BLS Web site at
www.bls.gov/cps/cpsrs.pdf) for a discussion
of the introduction of the use of X-12 ARIMA
for seasonal adjustment of the labor force
data and the effects that it had on the data.
At the beginning of each calendar year,
historical seasonally adjusted data usually
are revised, and projected seasonal adjustment factors are calculated for use during the

Description of the series
Employment data in this section are obtained from the Current Population Survey,
a program of personal interviews conducted
monthly by the Bureau of the Census for
the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The sample
consists of about 60,000 households selected
to represent the U.S. population 16 years of
age and older. Households are interviewed
on a rotating basis, so that three-fourths of
the sample is the same for any 2 consecutive
months.

Definitions
Employed persons include (1) all those who
worked for pay any time during the week
which includes the 12th day of the month or
who worked unpaid for 15 hours or more in a
family-operated enterprise and (2) those who
were temporarily absent from their regular
jobs because of illness, vacation, industrial
dispute, or similar reasons. A person working
at more than one job is counted only in the
job at which he or she worked the greatest
number of hours.
Unemployed persons are those who did
not work during the survey week, but were
available for work except for temporary illness
and had looked for jobs within the preceding

January–June period. The historical seasonally adjusted data usually are revised for only
the most recent 5 years. In July, new seasonal
adjustment factors, which incorporate the
experience through June, are produced for
the July–December period, but no revisions
are made in the historical data.
F OR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on
national household survey data, contact the
Division of Labor Force Statistics: (202)
691–6378.

Establishment survey data
Description of the series
Employment, hours, and earnings data in this
section are compiled from payroll records
reported monthly on a voluntary basis to
the Bureau of Labor Statistics and its cooperating State agencies by about 160,000
businesses and government agencies, which
represent approximately 400,000 individual
worksites and represent all industries except
agriculture. The active CES sample covers
approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll workers. Industries are classified in
accordance with the 2002 North American
Industry Classification System. In most
industries, the sampling probabilities are
based on the size of the establishment; most
large establishments are therefore in the
sample. (An establishment is not necessarily
a firm; it may be a branch plant, for example,
or warehouse.) Self-employed persons and
others not on a regular civilian payroll are
outside the scope of the survey because they
are excluded from establishment records.
This largely accounts for the difference in
employment figures between the household
and establishment surveys.

Definitions
An establishment is an economic unit which
produces goods or services (such as a factory
or store) at a single location and is engaged
in one type of economic activity.
Employed persons are all persons who
received pay (including holiday and sick pay)
for any part of the payroll period including
the 12th day of the month. Persons holding
more than one job (about 5 percent of all
persons in the labor force) are counted in
each establishment which reports them.
Production workers in the goods-producing industries cover employees, up through
the level of working supervisors, who engage
directly in the manufacture or construction of
the establishment’s product. In private service-providing industries, data are collected
for nonsupervisory workers, which include
most employees except those in executive,
Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

65

Current Labor Statistics

managerial, and supervisory positions. Those
workers mentioned in tables 11–16 include
production workers in manufacturing and
natural resources and mining; construction
workers in construction; and nonsupervisory workers in all private service-providing
industries. Production and nonsupervisory
workers account for about four-fifths of the
total employment on private nonagricultural
payrolls.
Earnings are the payments production
or nonsupervisory workers receive during
the survey period, including premium pay
for overtime or late-shift work but excluding irregular bonuses and other special
payments. Real earnings are earnings
adjusted to reflect the effects of changes
in consumer prices. The deflator for this
series is derived from the Consumer Price
Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical
Workers (CPI-W).
Hours represent the average weekly
hours of production or nonsupervisory
workers for which pay was received, and are
different from standard or scheduled hours.
Overtime hours represent the portion of
average weekly hours which was in excess
of regular hours and for which overtime
premiums were paid.
The Diffusion Index represents the
percent of industries in which employment
was rising over the indicated period, plus
one-half of the industries with unchanged
employment; 50 percent indicates an equal
balance between industries with increasing
and decreasing employment. In line with
Bureau practice, data for the 1-, 3-, and 6month spans are seasonally adjusted, while
those for the 12-month span are unadjusted.
Table 17 provides an index on private nonfarm employment based on 278 industries,
and a manufacturing index based on 84
industries. These indexes are useful for measuring the dispersion of economic gains or
losses and are also economic indicators.

Notes on the data
Establishment survey data are annually
adjusted to comprehensive counts of employment (called “benchmarks”). The March
2003 benchmark was introduced in February
2004 with the release of data for January
2004, published in the March 2004 issue of
the Review. With the release in June 2003,
CES completed a conversion from the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system to
the North American Industry Classification
System (naics) and completed the transition
from its original quota sample design to a
probability-based sample design. The industry-coding update included reconstruction
of historical estimates in order to preserve
66

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

time series for data users. Normally 5 years
of seasonally adjusted data are revised with
each benchmark revision. However, with this
release, the entire new time series history for
all CES data series were re-seasonally adjusted
due to the NAICS conversion, which resulted
in the revision of all CES time series.
Also in June 2003, the CES program introduced concurrent seasonal adjustment for
the national establishment data. Under this
methodology, the first preliminary estimates
for the current reference month and the
revised estimates for the 2 prior months will
be updated with concurrent factors with each
new release of data. Concurrent seasonal
adjustment incorporates all available data,
including first preliminary estimates for
the most current month, in the adjustment
process. For additional information on all of
the changes introduced in June 2003, see the
June 2003 issue of Employment and Earnings
and “Recent changes in the national Current
Employment Statistics survey,” Monthly Labor Review, June 2003, pp. 3–13.
Revisions in State data (table 11) occurred with the publication of January 2003
data. For information on the revisions for
the State data, see the March and May 2003
issues of Employment and Earnings, and “Recent changes in the State and Metropolitan
Area CES survey,” Monthly Labor Review,
June 2003, pp. 14–19.
Beginning in June 1996, the BLS uses
the X-12-ARIMA methodology to seasonally adjust establishment survey data. This
procedure, developed by the Bureau of the
Census, controls for the effect of varying
survey intervals (also known as the 4- versus
5-week effect), thereby providing improved
measurement of over-the-month changes
and underlying economic trends. Revisions
of data, usually for the most recent 5-year
period, are made once a year coincident with
the benchmark revisions.
In the establishment survey, estimates
for the most recent 2 months are based on
incomplete returns and are published as preliminary in the tables (12–17 in the Review).
When all returns have been received, the
estimates are revised and published as “final”
(prior to any benchmark revisions) in the
third month of their appearance. Thus, December data are published as preliminary in
January and February and as final in March.
For the same reasons, quarterly establishment data (table 1) are preliminary for the
first 2 months of publication and final in the
third month. Fourth-quarter data are published as preliminary in January and February
and as final in March.
F OR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on

establishment survey data, contact the Division of Current Employment Statistics:
(202) 691–6555.

Unemployment data by State
Description of the series
Data presented in this section are obtained
from the Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program, which is conducted in
cooperation with State employment security
agencies.
Monthly estimates of the labor force,
employment, and unemployment for States
and sub-State areas are a key indicator of local economic conditions, and form the basis
for determining the eligibility of an area for
benefits under Federal economic assistance
programs such as the Job Training Partnership Act. Seasonally adjusted unemployment
rates are presented in table 10. Insofar as possible, the concepts and definitions underlying
these data are those used in the national
estimates obtained from the CPS.

Notes on the data
Data refer to State of residence. Monthly
data for all States and the District of Columbia are derived using standardized procedures
established by BLS. Once a year, estimates are
revised to new population controls, usually
with publication of January estimates, and
benchmarked to annual average CPS levels.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on data
in this series, call (202) 691–6392 (table 10)
or (202) 691–6559 (table 11).

Quarterly Census of
Employment and Wages
Description of the series
Employment, wage, and establishment data
in this section are derived from the quarterly
tax reports submitted to State employment
security agencies by private and State and
local government employers subject to State
unemployment insurance (ui) laws and from
Federal, agencies subject to the Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees
(ucfe) program. Each quarter, State agencies edit and process the data and send the
information to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
The Quarterly Census of Employment
and Wages (QCEW) data, also referred as ES202 data, are the most complete enumeration
of employment and wage information by
industry at the national, State, metropolitan
area, and county levels. They have broad
economic significance in evaluating labor

market trends and major industry developments.

Definitions
In general, the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages monthly employment data
represent the number of covered workers
who worked during, or received pay for, the
pay period that included the 12th day of
the month. Covered private industry employment includes most corporate officials,
executives, supervisory personnel, professionals, clerical workers, wage earners, piece
workers, and part-time workers. It excludes
proprietors, the unincorporated self-employed, unpaid family members, and certain
farm and domestic workers. Certain types
of nonprofit employers, such as religious
organizations, are given a choice of coverage
or exclusion in a number of States. Workers
in these organizations are, therefore, reported
to a limited degree.
Persons on paid sick leave, paid holiday,
paid vacation, and the like, are included.
Persons on the payroll of more than one
firm during the period are counted by each
ui-subject employer if they meet the employment definition noted earlier. The employment count excludes workers who earned no
wages during the entire applicable pay period
because of work stoppages, temporary layoffs,
illness, or unpaid vacations.
Federal employment data are based on
reports of monthly employment and quarterly wages submitted each quarter to State
agencies for all Federal installations with
employees covered by the Unemployment
Compensation for Federal Employees (ucfe)
program, except for certain national security
agencies, which are omitted for security reasons. Employment for all Federal agencies
for any given month is based on the number
of persons who worked during or received
pay for the pay period that included the 12th
of the month.
An establishment is an economic unit,
such as a farm, mine, factory, or store, that
produces goods or provides services. It is
typically at a single physical location and
engaged in one, or predominantly one, type
of economic activity for which a single industrial classification may be applied. Occasionally, a single physical location encompasses
two or more distinct and significant activities.
Each activity should be reported as a separate
establishment if separate records are kept
and the various activities are classified under
different NAICS industries.
Most employers have only one establishment; thus, the establishment is the
predominant reporting unit or statistical

entity for reporting employment and wages
data. Most employers, including State and
local governments who operate more than
one establishment in a State, file a Multiple
Worksite Report each quarter, in addition
to their quarterly ui report. The Multiple
Worksite Report is used to collect separate
employment and wage data for each of the
employer’s establishments, which are not
detailed on the ui report. Some very small
multi-establishment employers do not file a
Multiple Worksite Report. When the total
employment in an employer’s secondary
establishments (all establishments other
than the largest) is 10 or fewer, the employer
generally will file a consolidated report for all
establishments. Also, some employers either
cannot or will not report at the establishment
level and thus aggregate establishments into
one consolidated unit, or possibly several
units, though not at the establishment level.
For the Federal Government, the reporting unit is the installation: a single location
at which a department, agency, or other government body has civilian employees. Federal
agencies follow slightly different criteria than
do private employers when breaking down
their reports by installation. They are permitted to combine as a single statewide unit: 1)
all installations with 10 or fewer workers,
and 2) all installations that have a combined
total in the State of fewer than 50 workers.
Also, when there are fewer than 25 workers
in all secondary installations in a State, the
secondary installations may be combined and
reported with the major installation. Last, if a
Federal agency has fewer than five employees
in a State, the agency headquarters office
(regional office, district office) serving each
State may consolidate the employment and
wages data for that State with the data reported to the State in which the headquarters
is located. As a result of these reporting rules,
the number of reporting units is always larger
than the number of employers (or government agencies) but smaller than the number
of actual establishments (or installations).
Data reported for the first quarter are
tabulated into size categories ranging from
worksites of very small size to those with
1,000 employees or more. The size category
is determined by the establishment’s March
employment level. It is important to note that
each establishment of a multi-establishment
firm is tabulated separately into the appropriate size category. The total employment level
of the reporting multi-establishment firm is
not used in the size tabulation.
Covered employers in most States report
total wages paid during the calendar quarter,
regardless of when the services were performed. A few State laws, however, specify
that wages be reported for, or based on the

period during which services are performed
rather than the period during which compensation is paid. Under most State laws or
regulations, wages include bonuses, stock
options, the cash value of meals and lodging,
tips and other gratuities, and, in some States,
employer contributions to certain deferred
compensation plans such as 401(k) plans.
Covered employer contributions for
old-age, survivors, and disability insurance
(oasdi), health insurance, unemployment insurance, workers’ compensation, and private
pension and welfare funds are not reported as
wages. Employee contributions for the same
purposes, however, as well as money withheld
for income taxes, union dues, and so forth, are
reported even though they are deducted from
the worker’s gross pay.
Wages of covered Federal workers represent the gross amount of all payrolls for all
pay periods ending within the quarter. This
includes cash allowances, the cash equivalent
of any type of remuneration, severance pay,
withholding taxes, and retirement deductions. Federal employee remuneration generally covers the same types of services as for
workers in private industry.
Average annual wage per employee for
any given industry are computed by dividing total annual wages by annual average
employment. A further division by 52 yields
average weekly wages per employee. Annual
pay data only approximate annual earnings
because an individual may not be employed
by the same employer all year or may work for
more than one employer at a time.
Average weekly or annual wage is affected by the ratio of full-time to part-time
workers as well as the number of individuals
in high-paying and low-paying occupations.
When average pay levels between States and
industries are compared, these factors should
be taken into consideration. For example,
industries characterized by high proportions
of part-time workers will show average wage
levels appreciably less than the weekly pay
levels of regular full-time employees in these
industries. The opposite effect characterizes
industries with low proportions of part-time
workers, or industries that typically schedule
heavy weekend and overtime work. Average
wage data also may be influenced by work
stoppages, labor turnover rates, retroactive
payments, seasonal factors, bonus payments,
and so on.

Notes on the data
Beginning with the release of data for 2001,
publications presenting data from the Covered Employment and Wages program have
switched to the 2002 version of the North
Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

67

Current Labor Statistics

American Industry Classification System
(NAICS) as the basis for the assignment and
tabulation of economic data by industry.
NAICS is the product of a cooperative effort on the part of the statistical agencies
of the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
Due to difference in NAICS and Standard
Industrial Classification ( SIC) structures,
industry data for 2001 is not comparable to the SIC-based data for earlier years.
Effective January 2001, the program
began assigning Indian Tribal Councils and
related establishments to local government
ownership. This BLS action was in response to
a change in Federal law dealing with the way
Indian Tribes are treated under the Federal
Unemployment Tax Act. This law requires
federally recognized Indian Tribes to be treated similarly to State and local governments.
In the past, the Covered Employment and
Wage (CEW) program coded Indian Tribal
Councils and related establishments in the
private sector. As a result of the new law, CEW
data reflects significant shifts in employment
and wages between the private sector and
local government from 2000 to 2001. Data
also reflect industry changes. Those accounts
previously assigned to civic and social organizations were assigned to tribal governments.
There were no required industry changes for
related establishments owned by these Tribal
Councils. These tribal business establishments
continued to be coded according to the economic activity of that entity.
To insure the highest possible quality
of data, State employment security agencies
verify with employers and update, if necessary, the industry, location, and ownership
classification of all establishments on a 3-year
cycle. Changes in establishment classification codes resulting from the verification
process are introduced with the data reported
for the first quarter of the year. Changes
resulting from improved employer reporting
also are introduced in the first quarter. For
these reasons, some data, especially at more
detailed geographic levels, may not be strictly
comparable with earlier years.
County definitions are assigned according
to Federal Information Processing Standards
Publications as issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Areas
shown as counties include those designated
as independent cities in some jurisdictions
and, in Alaska, those areas designated by the
Census Bureau where counties have not been
created. County data also are presented for
the New England States for comparative
purposes, even though townships are the
more common designation used in New
England (and New Jersey).
The Office of Management and Budget

68

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

(OMB) defines metropolitan areas for use
in Federal statistical activities and updates
these definitions as needed. Data in this table
use metropolitan area criteria established
by OMB in definitions issued June 30, 1999
(OMB Bulletin No. 99-04). These definitions
reflect information obtained from the 1990
Decennial Census and the 1998 U.S. Census
Bureau population estimate. A complete list
of metropolitan area definitions is available
from the National Technical Information
Service (NTIS), Document Sales, 5205 Port
Royal Road, Springfield, Va. 22161, telephone 1-800-553-6847.
OMB defines metropolitan areas in terms
of entire counties, except in the six New England States where they are defined in terms of
cities and towns. New England data in this
table, however, are based on a county concept
defined by OMB as New England County
Metropolitan Areas (NECMA) because county-level data are the most detailed available
from the Quarterly Census of Employment
and Wages. The NECMA is a county-based
alternative to the city- and town-based metropolitan areas in New England. The NECMA for
a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) include:
(1) the county containing the first-named city
in that MSA title (this county may include
the first-named cities of other MSA, and (2)
each additional county having at least half its
population in the MSA in which first-named
cities are in the county identified in step 1.
The NECMA is officially defined areas that
are meant to be used by statistical programs
that cannot use the regular metropolitan area
definitions in New England.
For additional information on the
covered employment and wage data, contact
the Division of Administrative Statistics and
Labor Turnover at (202) 691–6567.

Job Openings and Labor
Turnover Survey
Description of the series
Data for the Job Openings and Labor
Turnover Survey (JOLTS) are collected and
compiled from a sample of 16,000 business
establishments. Each month, data are collected for total employment, job openings,
hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, and other
separations. The JOLTS program covers all
private nonfarm establishments such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as Federal,
State, and local government entities in the
50 States and the District of Columbia. The
JOLTS sample design is a random sample
drawn from a universe of more than eight
million establishments compiled as part of the

operations of the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, or QCEW, program. This
program includes all employers subject to
State unemployment insurance (UI) laws and
Federal agencies subject to Unemployment
Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE).
The sampling frame is stratified by ownership, region, industry sector, and size class.
Large firms fall into the sample with virtual
certainty. JOLTS total employment estimates
are controlled to the employment estimates
of the Current Employment Statistics (CES)
survey. A ratio of CES to JOLTS employment
is used to adjust the levels for all other JOLTS
data elements. Rates then are computed from
the adjusted levels.
The monthly JOLTS data series begin with
December 2000. Not seasonally adjusted
data on job openings, hires, total separations, quits, layoffs and discharges, and other
separations levels and rates are available for
the total nonfarm sector, 16 private industry
divisions and 2 government divisions based
on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), and four geographic
regions. Seasonally adjusted data on job
openings, hires, total separations, and quits
levels and rates are available for the total
nonfarm sector, selected industry sectors, and
four geographic regions.

Definitions
Establishments submit job openings infor-mation for the last business day of the
reference month. A job opening requires
that (1) a specific position exists and there
is work available for that position; and (2)
work could start within 30 days regardless
of whether a suitable candidate is found;
and (3) the employer is actively recruiting
from outside the establishment to fill the
position. Included are full-time, part-time,
permanent, short-term, and seasonal openings. Active recruiting means that the establishment is taking steps to fill a position by
advertising in newspapers or on the Internet,
posting help-wanted signs, accepting applications, or using other similar methods.
Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers,
promotions, demotions, or recall from layoffs
are excluded. Also excluded are jobs with
start dates more than 30 days in the future,
jobs for which employees have been hired but
have not yet reported for work, and jobs to be
filled by employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside
contractors, or consultants. The job openings
rate is computed by dividing the number of
job openings by the sum of employment and
job openings, and multiplying that quotient
by 100.

Hires are the total number of additions
to the payroll occurring at any time during
the reference month, including both new and
rehired employees and full-time and parttime, permanent, short-term and seasonal
employees, employees recalled to the location
after a layoff lasting more than 7 days, on-call
or intermittent employees who returned to
work after having been formally separated,
and transfers from other locations. The hires
count does not include transfers or promotions within the reporting site, employees
returning from strike, employees of temporary
help agencies or employee leasing companies,
outside contractors, or consultants. The hires
rate is computed by dividing the number of
hires by employment, and multiplying that
quotient by 100.
Separations are the total number of
terminations of employment occurring at
any time during the reference month, and
are reported by type of separation—quits,
layoffs and discharges, and other separations.
Quits are voluntary separations by employees
(except for retirements, which are reported
as other separations). Layoffs and discharges
are involuntary separations initiated by the
employer and include layoffs with no intent
to rehire, formal layoffs lasting or expected
to last more than 7 days, discharges resulting
from mergers, downsizing, or closings, firings
or other discharges for cause, terminations
of permanent or short-term employees, and
terminations of seasonal employees. Other
separations include retirements, transfers to
other locations, deaths, and separations due to
disability. Separations do not include transfers
within the same location or employees on
strike.
The separations rate is computed by dividing the number of separations by employment, and multiplying that quotient by 100.
The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other
separations rates are computed similarly,
dividing the number by employment and
multiplying by 100.

Notes on the data
The JOLTS data series on job openings, hires,
and separations are relatively new. The full
sample is divided into panels, with one panel
enrolled each month. A full complement of
panels for the original data series based on the
1987 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)
system was not completely enrolled in the
survey until January 2002. The supple-mental
panels of establishments needed to create NAICS estimates were not completely enrolled
until May 2003. The data collected up until

those points are from less than a full sample.
Therefore, estimates from earlier months
should be used with caution, as fewer sampled
units were reporting data at that time.
In March 2002, BLS procedures for collecting hires and separations data were revised to
address possible underreporting. As a result,
JOLTS hires and separations estimates for
months prior to March 2002 may not be
comparable with estimates for March 2002
and later.
The Federal Government reorganization
that involved transferring approximately
180,000 employees to the new Department
of Homeland Security is not reflected in
the JOLTS hires and separations estimates
for the Federal Government. The Office of
Personnel Management’s record shows these
transfers were completed in March 2003. The
inclusion of transfers in the JOLTS definitions
of hires and separations is intended to cover
ongoing movements of workers between
establishments. The Department of Homeland Security reorganization was a massive
one-time event, and the inclusion of these
intergovernmental transfers would distort
the Federal Government time series.
Data users should note that seasonal
adjustment of the JOLTS series is conducted
with fewer data observations than is customary. The historical data, therefore, may
be subject to larger than normal revisions.
Because the seasonal patterns in economic
data series typically emerge over time, the
standard use of moving averages as seasonal
filters to capture these effects requires longer
series than are currently available. As a result,
the stable seasonal filter option is used in the
seasonal adjustment of the JOLTS data. When
calculating seasonal factors, this filter takes
an average for each calendar month after
detrending the series. The stable seasonal
filter assumes that the seasonal factors are
fixed; a necessary assumption until sufficient
data are available. When the stable seasonal
filter is no longer needed, other program features also may be introduced, such as outlier
adjustment and extended diagnostic testing.
Additionally, it is expected that more series,
such as layoffs and discharges and additional
industries, may be seasonally adjusted when
more data are available.
JOLTS hires and separations estimates
cannot be used to exactly explain net changes
in payroll employment. Some reasons why it
is problematic to compare changes in payroll
employment with JOLTS hires and separations, especially on a monthly basis, are: (1)
the reference period for payroll employment
is the pay period including the 12th of the
month, while the reference period for hires
and separations is the calendar month; and

(2) payroll employment can vary from month
to month simply because part-time and oncall workers may not always work during
the pay period that includes the 12th of the
month. Additionally, research has found that
some reporters systematically underreport
separations relative to hires due to a number of factors, including the nature of their
payroll systems and practices. The shortfall
appears to be about 2 percent or less over a
12-month period.
F OR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on
the Job Openings and Labor Turnover
Survey, contact the Division of Administrative Statistics and Labor Turnover at (202)
961–5870.

Compensation and
Wage Data
(Tables 1–3; 30–37)
The National Compensation Survey (NCS)
produces a variety of compensation data. These
include: The Employment Cost Index (ECI)
and NCS benefit measures of the incidence and
provisions of selected employee benefit plans.
Selected samples of these measures appear in
the following tables. NCS also compiles data on
occupational wages and the Employer Costs
for Employee Compensation (ECEC).

Employment Cost Index
Description of the series
The Employment Cost Index (ECI) is a
quarterly measure of the rate of change in
compensation per hour worked and includes
wages, salaries, and employer costs of employee benefits. It is a Laspeyres Index that
uses fixed employment weights to measure
change in labor costs free from the influence
of employment shifts among occupations
and industries.
The ECI provides data for the civilian
economy, which includes the total private
nonfarm economy excluding private households, and the public sector excluding the
Federal government. Data are collected each
quarter for the pay period including the
12th day of March, June, September, and
December.
Sample establishments are classified by
industry categories based on the 2002 North
American Classification System (NAICS).
Within a sample establishment, specific job
categories are selected and classified into
about 800 occupations according to the 2000
Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)
System. Individual occupations are com-

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

69

Current Labor Statistics

bined to represent one of ten intermediate
aggregations, such as professional and related
occupations, or one of five higher level aggregations, such as management, professional,
and related occupations.
Fixed employment weights are used
each quarter to calculate the most aggregate
series—civilian, private, and State and local
government. These fixed weights are also used
to derive all of the industry and occupational
series indexes. Beginning with the March
2006 estimates, 2002 fixed employment
weights from the Bureau’s Occupational
Employment Statistics survey were introduced. From March 1995 to December 2005,
1990 employment counts were used. These
fixed weights ensure that changes in these
indexes reflect only changes in compensation,
not employment shifts among industries or
occupations with different levels of wages
and compensation. For the series based on
bargaining status, census region and division,
and metropolitan area status, fixed employment data are not available. The employment
weights are reallocated within these series
each quarter based on the current eci sample.
The indexes for these series, consequently, are
not strictly comparable with those for aggregate, occupational, and industry series.

Definitions
Total compensation costs include wages,
salaries, and the employer’s costs for employee benefits.
Wages and salaries consist of earnings
before payroll deductions, including production bonuses, incentive earnings, commissions, and cost-of-living adjustments.
Benefits include the cost to employers
for paid leave, supplemental pay (including nonproduction bonuses), insurance,
retirement and savings plans, and legally
required benefits (such as Social Security,
workers’ compensation, and unemployment
insurance).
Excluded from wages and salaries and
employee benefits are such items as paymentin-kind, free room and board, and tips.

Notes on the data
The ECI data in these tables reflect the
con-version to the 2002 North American
Industry Classification System (NAICS) and
the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system. The NAICS and SOC data
shown prior to 2006 are for informational
purposes only. ECI series based on NAICS
and SOC became the official BLS estimates
starting in March 2006.
The ECI for changes in wages and salaries
70

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

in the private nonfarm economy was published beginning in 1975. Changes in total
compensation cost—wages and salaries and
benefits combined—were published beginning in 1980. The series of changes in wages
and salaries and for total compensation in
the State and local government sector and
in the civilian nonfarm economy (excluding
Federal employees) were published beginning in 1981. Historical indexes (December
2005=100) are available on the Internet:
www.bls.gov/ect/
A DDITIONAL INFORMATION on the
Employment Cost Index is available at www.
bls.gov/ncs/ect/home.htm or by telephone
at (202) 691–6199.

National Compensation Survey
Benefit Measures
Description of the series
NCS benefit measures of employee benefits
are published in two separate reports. The
annual summary provides data on the incidence of (access to and participation in)
selected benefits and provisions of paid
holidays and vacations, life insurance plans,
and other selected benefit programs. Data on
percentages of establishments offering major
employee benefits, and on the employer and
employee shares of contributions to medical
care premiums also are presented. Selected
benefit data appear in the following tables. A
second publication, published later, contains
more detailed information about health and
retirement plans.

Definitions
Employer-provided benefits are benefits
that are financed either wholly or partly by
the employer. They may be sponsored by a
union or other third party, as long as there
is some employer financing. However, some
benefits that are fully paid for by the employee also are included. For example, long-term
care insurance paid entirely by the employee
are included because the guarantee of insurability and availability at group premium
rates are considered a benefit.
Employees are considered as having access to a benefit plan if it is available for their
use. For example, if an employee is permitted
to participate in a medical care plan offered
by the employer, but the employee declines to
do so, he or she is placed in the category with
those having access to medical care.
Employees in contributory plans are
considered as participating in an insurance
or retirement plan if they have paid required

contributions and fulfilled any applicable
service requirement. Employees in noncontributory plans are counted as participating
regardless of whether they have fulfilled the
service requirements.
Defined benefit pension plans use predetermined formulas to calculate a retirement
benefit (if any), and obligate the employer to
provide those benefits. Benefits are generally
based on salary, years of service, or both.
Defined contribution plans generally
specify the level of employer and employee
contributions to a plan, but not the formula
for determining eventual benefits. Instead,
individual accounts are set up for participants, and benefits are based on amounts
credited to these accounts.
Tax-deferred savings plans are a type of
defined contribution plan that allow participants to contribute a portion of their salary
to an employer-sponsored plan and defer
income taxes until withdrawal.
Flexible benefit plans allow employees
to choose among several benefits, such as life
insurance, medical care, and vacation days,
and among several levels of coverage within
a given benefit.

Notes on the data
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON THE NCS
benefit measures is available at www.bls.
gov/ncs/ebs/home.htm or by telephone at
(202) 691–6199.

Work stoppages
Description of the series
Data on work stoppages measure the number
and duration of major strikes or lockouts
(involving 1,000 workers or more) occurring
during the month (or year), the number of
workers involved, and the amount of work
time lost because of stoppage. These data are
presented in table 37.
Data are largely from a variety of published sources and cover only establishments
directly involved in a stoppage. They do not
measure the indirect or secondary effect of
stoppages on other establishments whose
employees are idle owing to material shortages or lack of service.

Definitions
Number of stoppages: The number of
strikes and lockouts involving 1,000 workers or more and lasting a full shift or longer.
Workers involved: The number of workers directly involved in the stoppage.
Number of days idle: The aggregate

number of workdays lost by workers involved
in the stoppages.
Days of idleness as a percent of estimated working time: Aggregate workdays
lost as a percent of the aggregate number of
standard workdays in the period multiplied
by total employment in the period.

Notes on the data
This series is not comparable with the one
terminated in 1981 that covered strikes involving six workers or more.
A DDITIONAL INFORMATION on work
stop-pages data is available at www. bls.
gov/cba/home.htm or by telephone at (202)
691–6199.

Price Data
(Tables 2; 38–46)
Price data are gathered by the Bureau
of Labor Statistics from retail and primary markets in the United States. Price
indexes are given in relation to a base period—December 2003 = 100 for many Producer Price Indexes (unless otherwise noted),
1982–84 = 100 for many Consumer Price
Indexes (unless otherwise noted), and 1990
= 100 for International Price Indexes.

Consumer Price Indexes
Description of the series
The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a measure
of the average change in the prices paid by
urban consumers for a fixed market basket
of goods and services. The CPI is calculated
monthly for two population groups, one
consisting only of urban households whose
primary source of income is derived from
the employment of wage earners and clerical
workers, and the other consisting of all urban
households. The wage earner index (CPI-W) is
a continuation of the historic index that was
introduced well over a half-century ago for
use in wage negotiations. As new uses were
developed for the CPI in recent years, the need
for a broader and more representative index
became apparent. The all-urban consumer
index (CPI-U), introduced in 1978, is representative of the 1993–95 buying habits of about
87 percent of the noninstitutional population
of the United States at that time, compared
with 32 percent represented in the CPI-W. In
addition to wage earners and clerical workers,
the CPI-U covers professional, managerial, and
technical workers, the self-employed, shortterm workers, the unemployed, retirees, and

others not in the labor force.
The CPI is based on prices of food, clothing,
shelter, fuel, drugs, transportation fares, doctors’
and dentists’ fees, and other goods and services
that people buy for day-to-day living. The
quantity and quality of these items are kept
essentially unchanged between major revisions
so that only price changes will be measured. All
taxes directly associated with the purchase and
use of items are included in the index.
Data collected from more than 23,000 retail
establishments and 5,800 housing units in 87
urban areas across the country are used to develop the “U.S. city average.” Separate estimates
for 14 major urban centers are presented in table
39.The areas listed are as indicated in footnote 1
to the table. The area indexes measure only the
average change in prices for each area since the
base period, and do not indicate differences in
the level of prices among cities.

Notes on the data
In January 1983, the Bureau changed the way
in which homeownership costs are meaured
for the CPI-U. A rental equivalence method
replaced the asset-price approach to homeownership costs for that series. In January 1985,
the same change was made in the CPI-W. The
central purpose of the change was to separate
shelter costs from the investment component
of homeownership so that the index would
reflect only the cost of shelter services provided
by owner-occupied homes. An updated CPI-U
and CPI-W were introduced with release of the
January 1987 and January 1998 data.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION, contact the Division of Prices and Price Indexes:
(202) 691–7000.

Producer Price Indexes
Description of the series
Producer Price Indexes (PPI) measure average changes in prices received by domestic
producers of commodities in all stages of
processing. The sample used for calculating
these indexes currently contains about 3,200
commodities and about 80,000 quotations
per month, selected to represent the movement of prices of all commodities produced
in the manufacturing; agriculture, forestry,
and fishing; mining; and gas and electricity
and public utilities sectors. The stage-of-processing structure of PPI organizes products by
class of buyer and degree of fabrication (that is,
finished goods, intermediate goods, and crude
materials). The traditional commodity structure of PPI organizes products by similarity of
end use or material composition. The industry
and product structure of PPI organizes data in

accordance with the 2002 North American
Industry Classification System and product
codes developed by the U.S. Census Bureau.
To the extent possible, prices used in
calculating Producer Price Indexes apply to
the first significant commercial transaction
in the United States from the production
or central marketing point. Price data are
generally collected monthly, primarily by
mail questionnaire. Most prices are obtained
directly from producing companies on a voluntary and confidential basis. Prices generally are reported for the Tuesday of the week
containing the 13th day of the month.
Since January 1992, price changes for
the various commodities have been averaged
together with implicit quantity weights representing their importance in the total net
selling value of all commodities as of 1987. The
detailed data are aggregated to obtain indexes
for stage-of-processing groupings, commodity
groupings, durability-of-product groupings,
and a number of special composite groups. All
Producer Price Index data are subject to revision 4 months after original publication.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION, contact the Division of Industrial Prices and
Price Indexes: (202) 691–7705.

International Price Indexes
Description of the series
The International Price Program produces
monthly and quarterly export and import
price indexes for nonmilitary goods and
services traded between the United States
and the rest of the world. The export price
index provides a measure of price change
for all products sold by U.S. residents to
foreign buyers. (“Residents” is defined as in
the national income accounts; it includes
corporations, businesses, and individuals, but
does not require the organizations to be U.S.
owned nor the individuals to have U.S. citizenship.) The import price index provides a
measure of price change for goods purchased
from other countries by U.S. residents.
The product universe for both the import
and export indexes includes raw materials,
agricultural products, semifinished manufactures, and finished manufactures, including both capital and consumer goods. Price
data for these items are collected primarily
by mail questionnaire. In nearly all cases,
the data are collected directly from the exporter or importer, although in a few cases,
prices are obtained from other sources.
To the extent possible, the data gathered
refer to prices at the U.S. border for exports
and at either the foreign border or the U.S.
Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

71

Current Labor Statistics

border for imports. For nearly all products, the
prices refer to transactions completed during
the first week of the month. Survey respondents are asked to indicate all discounts, allowances, and rebates applicable to the reported
prices, so that the price used in the calculation
of the indexes is the actual price for which the
product was bought or sold.
In addition to general indexes of prices
for U.S. exports and imports, indexes are also
published for detailed product categories of exports and imports. These categories are defined
according to the five-digit level of detail for the
Bureau of Economic Analysis End-use Classification, the three-digit level for the Standard
International Trade Classification (SITC), and
the four-digit level of detail for the Harmonized System. Aggregate import indexes by
country or region of origin are also available.
BLS publishes indexes for selected categories of internationally traded services,
calculated on an international basis and on a
balance-of-payments basis.

Notes on the data
The export and import price indexes are
weighted indexes of the Laspeyres type. The
trade weights currently used to compute both
indexes relate to 2000.
Because a price index depends on the same
items being priced from period to period, it
is necessary to recognize when a product’s
specifications or terms of transaction have
been modified. For this reason, the Bureau’s
questionnaire requests detailed descriptions of
the physical and functional characteristics of
the products being priced, as well as information on the number of units bought or sold,
discounts, credit terms, packaging, class of
buyer or seller, and so forth. When there are
changes in either the specifications or terms
of transaction of a product, the dollar value
of each change is deleted from the total price
change to obtain the “pure” change. Once
this value is determined, a linking procedure
is employed which allows for the continued
repricing of the item.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION, contact the Division of International Prices:
(202) 691–7155.

Productivity Data
(Tables 2; 47–50)

Business and major sectors
Description of the series
The productivity measures relate real output
to real input. As such, they encompass a fam72

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

ily of measures which include single-factor
input measures, such as output per hour,
output per unit of labor input, or output per
unit of capital input, as well as measures of
multifactor productivity (output per unit
of combined labor and capital inputs). The
Bureau indexes show the change in output
relative to changes in the various inputs.
The measures cover the business, nonfarm
business, manufacturing, and nonfinancial
corporate sectors.
Corresponding indexes of hourly compensation, unit labor costs, unit nonlabor
payments, and prices are also provided.

Definitions
Output per hour of all persons (labor
productivity) is the quantity of goods and
services produced per hour of labor input.
Output per unit of capital services (capital
productivity) is the quantity of goods and
services produced per unit of capital services input. Multifactor productivity is the
quantity of goods and services produced per
combined inputs. For private business and
private nonfarm business, inputs include
labor and capital units. For manufacturing,
inputs include labor, capital, energy, nonenergy
materials, and purchased business services.
Compensation per hour is total compensation divided by hours at work. Total
compensation equals the wages and salaries
of employees plus employers’ contributions for
social insurance and private benefit plans, plus
an estimate of these payments for the self-employed (except for nonfinancial corporations
in which there are no self-employed). Real
compensation per hour is compensation per
hour deflated by the change in the Consumer
Price Index for All Urban Consumers.
Unit labor costs are the labor compensation costs expended in the production of a
unit of output and are derived by dividing
compensation by output. Unit nonlabor
payments include profits, depreciation,
interest, and indirect taxes per unit of output.
They are computed by subtracting compensation of all persons from current-dollar value
of output and dividing by output.
Unit nonlabor costs contain all the components of unit nonlabor payments except
unit profits.
Unit profits include corporate profits
with inventory valuation and capital consumption adjustments per unit of output.
Hours of all persons are the total hours
at work of payroll workers, self-employed
persons, and unpaid family workers.
Labor inputs are hours of all persons
adjusted for the effects of changes in the

education and experience of the labor force.
Capital services are the flow of services
from the capital stock used in production. It
is developed from measures of the net stock
of physical assets—equipment, structures,
land, and inventories—weighted by rental
prices for each type of asset.
Combined units of labor and capital
inputs are derived by combining changes in
labor and capital input with weights which
represent each component’s share of total
cost. Combined units of labor, capital, energy,
materials, and purchased business services are
similarly derived by combining changes in
each input with weights that represent each
input’s share of total costs. The indexes for
each input and for combined units are based
on changing weights which are averages of
the shares in the current and preceding year
(the Tornquist index-number formula).

Notes on the data
Business sector output is an annually-weighted index constructed by excluding from real
gross domestic product (GDP) the following
outputs: general government, nonprofit
institutions, paid employees of private households, and the rental value of owner-occupied
dwellings. Nonfarm business also excludes
farming. Private business and private nonfarm business further exclude government
enterprises. The measures are supplied by
the U.S. Department of Commerce’s Bureau
of Economic Analysis. Annual estimates of
manufacturing sectoral output are produced
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Quarterly manufacturing output indexes from the
Federal Reserve Board are adjusted to these
annual output measures by the BLS. Compensation data are developed from data of the
Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Bureau
of Labor Statistics. Hours data are developed
from data of the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
The productivity and associated cost
measures in tables 47–50 describe the relationship between output in real terms and
the labor and capital inputs involved in its
production. They show the changes from
period to period in the amount of goods and
services produced per unit of input.
Although these measures relate output
to hours and capital services, they do not
measure the contributions of labor, capital,
or any other specific factor of production.
Rather, they reflect the joint effect of many
influences, including changes in technology;
shifts in the composition of the labor force;
capital investment; level of output; changes
in the utilization of capacity, energy, material,
and research and development; the organi-

zation of production; managerial skill; and
characteristics and efforts of the work force.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on this
productivity series, contact the Division of
Productivity Research: (202) 691–5606.

Industry productivity measures
Description of the series
The BLS industry productivity indexes measure the relationship between output and
inputs for selected industries and industry
groups, and thus reflect trends in industry efficiency over time. Industry measures include
labor productivity, multifactor productivity,
compensation, and unit labor costs.
The industry measures differ in methodology and data sources from the productivity
measures for the major sectors because the
industry measures are developed independently of the National Income and Product
Accounts framework used for the major
sector measures.

of the net stock of physical assets—equipment, structures, land, and inventories. The
measure of intermediate purchases is a
combination of purchased materials, services,
fuels, and electricity.

Notes on the data
The industry measures are compiled from
data produced by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Census Bureau, with additional
data supplied by other government agencies,
trade associations, and other sources.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on this
series, contact the Division of Industry Productivity Studies: (202) 691–5618, or visit the
Web site at: www.bls.gov/lpc/home.htm

International Comparisons
(Tables 51–53)

Labor force and unemployment
Description of the series

Definitions
Output per hour is derived by dividing an
index of industry output by an index of labor
input. For most industries, output indexes
are derived from data on the value of industry output adjusted for price change. For
the remaining industries, output indexes are
derived from data on the physical quantity
of production.
The labor input series is based on the
hours of all workers or, in the case of some
transportation industries, on the number of
employees. For most industries, the series
consists of the hours of all employees. For
some trade and services industries, the series
also includes the hours of partners, proprietors, and unpaid family workers.
Unit labor costs represent the labor compensation costs per unit of output produced,
and are derived by dividing an index of labor
compensation by an index of output. Labor
compensation includes payroll as well as
supplemental payments, including both
legally required expenditures and payments
for voluntary programs.
Multifactor productivity is derived by
dividing an index of industry output by an index of combined inputs consumed in producing that output. Combined inputs include
capital, labor, and intermediate purchases.
The measure of capital input represents the
flow of services from the capital stock used
in production. It is developed from measures

Tables 51 and 52 present comparative
measures of the labor force, employment,
and unemployment approximating U.S.
concepts for the United States, Canada,
Australia, Japan, and six European countries.
The Bureau adjusts the figures for these
selected countries, for all known major
definitional differences, to the extent that
data to prepare adjustments are available.
Although precise comparability may not
be achieved, these adjusted figures provide
a better basis for international comparisons than the figures regularly published
by each country. For further information
on adjustments and comparability issues,
see Constance Sorrentino, “International
unemployment rates: how comparable are
they?” Monthly Labor Review, June 2000,
pp. 3–20, available on the Internet at www.
bls.gov/opub/mlr/2000/06/art1full.pdf.

Definitions
For the principal U.S. definitions of the labor
force, employment, and unemployment, see
the Notes section on Employment and Unemployment Data: Household survey data.

Notes on the data
Foreign country data are adjusted as closely
as possible to the U.S. definitions. Primary
areas of adjustment address conceptual differences in upper age limits and defini-

tions of employment and unemployment,
provided that reliable data are available to
make these adjustments. Adjustments are
made where applicable to include employed
and unemployed persons above upper age
limits; some European countries do not
include persons older than age 64 in their
labor force measures, because a large portion
of this population has retired. Adjustments
are made to exclude active duty military
from employment figures, although a small
number of career military may be included
in some European countries. Adjustments
are made to exclude unpaid family workers
who worked fewer than 15 hours per week
from employment figures; U.S. concepts do
not include them in employment, whereas
most foreign countries include all unpaid
family workers regardless of the number
of hours worked. Adjustments are made
to include full-time students seeking work
and available for work as unemployed when
they are classified as not in the labor force.
Where possible, lower age limits are based
on the age at which compulsory schooling
ends in each country, rather than based on
the U.S. standard of 16. Lower age limits
have ranged between 13 and 16 over the years
covered; currently, the lower age limits are
either 15 or 16 in all 10 countries.
Some adjustments for comparability are
not made because data are unavailable for
adjustment purposes. For example, no adjustments to unemployment are usually made for
deviations from U.S. concepts in the treatment
of persons waiting to start a new job or passive
jobseekers. These conceptual differences have
little impact on the measures. Furthermore,
BLS studies have concluded that no adjustments should be made for persons on layoff
who are counted as employed in some countries because of their strong job attachment as
evidenced by, for example, payment of salary
or the existence of a recall date. In the United
States, persons on layoff have weaker job attachment and are classified as unemployed.
The annual labor force measures are obtained from monthly, quarterly, or continuous household surveys and may be calculated
as averages of monthly or quarterly data.
Quarterly and monthly unemployment
rates are based on household surveys. For
some countries, they are calculated by applying annual adjustment factors to current published data and, therefore, are less
precise indicators of unemployment under
U.S. concepts than the annual figures. The
labor force measures may have breaks in
series over time due to changes in surveys,
sources, or estimation methods. Breaks are
noted in data tables.
For up-to-date information on adjustments and breaks in series, see the Technical
Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

73

Current Labor Statistics

Notes of Comparative Civilian Labor Force
Statistics, 10 Countries, on the Internet at
www.bls.gov/fls/flscomparelf.htm, and the
Notes of Unemployment rates in 10 countries,
civilian labor force basis, approximating U.S.
concepts, seasonally adjusted, on the Internet
at www.bls.gov/fls/flsjec.pdf.
F OR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on
this series, contact the Division of Foreign
Labor Statistics: (202) 691-5654 or flshelp@
bls.gov.

Manufacturing productivity
and labor costs
Description of the series
Table 53 presents comparative indexes of
manufacturing output per hour (labor productivity), output, total hours, compensation
per hour, and unit labor costs for the United
States, Australia, Canada, Japan, the Republic
of Korea, Taiwan, and 10 European countries.
These measures are trend comparisons—that
is, series that measure changes over time—
rather than level comparisons. BLS does
not recommend using these series for level
comparisons because of technical problems.
BLS constructs the comparative indexes
from three basic aggregate measures—output, total labor hours, and total compensation. The hours and compensation measures
refer to employees (wage and salary earners)
in Belgium and Taiwan. For all other economies, the measures refer to all employed
persons, including employees, self-employed
persons, and unpaid family workers.
The data for recent years are based on the
United Nations System of National Accounts
1993 (SNA 93). Manufacturing is generally defined according to the International Standard
Industrial Classification (ISIC). However, the
measures for France include parts of mining
as well. For the United States and Canada, it
is defined according to the North American
Industry Classification System (NAICS 97).

Definitions
Output. For most economies, the output
measures are real value added in manufacturing from national accounts. However, output for Japan prior to 1970 and
for the Netherlands prior to 1960 are
indexes of industrial production. The
manufacturing value added measures for the
United Kingdom are essentially identical
to their indexes of industrial production.
For United States, the output measure for
the manufacturing sector is a chain-weighted
74

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

index of real gross product originating (deflated value added) produced by the Bureau
of Economic Analysis of the U.S. Department of Commerce. Most of the other
economies now also use chain-weighted
as opposed to a fixed-year weights that are
periodically updated.
To preserve the comparability of the U.S.
measures with those of other economies,
BLS uses gross product originating in manufacturing for the United States. The gross
product originating series differs from the
manufacturing output series that BLS publishes in its quarterly news releases on U.S.
productivity and costs (and that underlies the
measures that appear in tables 48 and 50 in
this section). The quarterly measures are on
a “sectoral output” basis, rather than a valueadded basis. Sectoral output is gross output
less intrasector transactions.
Total hours refer to hours worked in all
economies. The measures are developed from
statistics of manufacturing employment and
average hours. For most other economies, recent years’ aggregate hours series are obtained
from national statistical offices, usually from
national accounts. However, for some economies and for earlier years, BLS calculates the
aggregate hours series using employment
figures published with the national accounts,
or other comprehensive employment series,
and data on average hours worked.
Hourly compensation is total compensation divided by total hours. Total compensation includes all payments in cash or in-kind
made directly to employees plus employer
expenditures for legally required insurance
programs and contractual and private benefit plans. For Australia, Canada, France,
and Sweden, compensation is increased
to account for important taxes on payroll
or employment. For the United Kingdom,
compensation is reduced between 1967 and
1991 to account for subsidies.
Labor productivity is defined as real
output per hour worked. Although the labor
productivity measure presented in this release
relates output to the hours worked of persons
employed in manufacturing, it does not measure
the specific contributions of labor as a single
factor of production. Rather, it reflects the joint
effects of many influences, including new technology, capital investment, capacity utilization,
energy use, and managerial skills, as well as the
skills and efforts of the workforce.
Unit labor costs are defined as the cost
of labor input required to produce one unit
of output. They are computed as compensation in nominal terms divided by real output.
Unit labor costs can also be computed by
dividing hourly compensation by output per
hour, that is, by labor productivity.

Notes on the data
The measures for recent years may be
based on current indicators of manufacturing output (such as industrial production
indexes), employment, average hours, and
hourly compensation until national accounts and other statistics used for the
long-term measures become available.
F OR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on
this series, go to http://www.bls.gov/news.
release/prod4.toc.htm or contact the Division of Foreign Labor Statistics at (202)
691–5654.

Occupational Injury
and Illness Data
(Tables 54–55)

Survey of Occupational Injuries
and Illnesses
Description of the series
The Survey of Occupational Injuries and
Illnesses collects data from employers about
their workers’ job-related nonfatal injuries
and illnesses. The information that employers
provide is based on records that they maintain
under the Occupational Safety and Health
Act of 1970. Self-employed individuals, farms
with fewer than 11 employees, employers
regulated by other Federal safety and health
laws, and Federal, State, and local government
agencies are excluded from the survey.
The survey is a Federal-State cooperative
program with an independent sample selected for each participating State. A stratified
random sample with a Neyman allocation
is selected to represent all private industries
in the State. The survey is stratified by Standard Industrial Classification and size of
employment.

Definitions
Under the Occupational Safety and Health
Act, employers maintain records of nonfatal
work-related injuries and illnesses that involve one or more of the following: loss of
consciousness, restriction of work or motion,
transfer to another job, or medical treatment
other than first aid.
Occupational injury is any injury such
as a cut, fracture, sprain, or amputation that
results from a work-related event or a single,
instantaneous exposure in the work environment.
Occupational illness is an abnormal

condition or disorder, other than one resulting from an occupational injury, caused by
exposure to factors associated with employment. It includes acute and chronic illnesses
or disease which may be caused by inhalation,
absorption, ingestion, or direct contact.
Lost workday injuries and illnesses are
cases that involve days away from work, or
days of restricted work activity, or both.
Lost workdays include the number of
workdays (consecutive or not) on which the
employee was either away from work or at
work in some restricted capacity, or both,
because of an occupational injury or illness.
BLS measures of the number and incidence
rate of lost workdays were discontinued beginning with the 1993 survey. The number
of days away from work or days of restricted
work activity does not include the day of injury
or onset of illness or any days on which the
employee would not have worked, such as a
Federal holiday, even though able to work.
Incidence rates are computed as the
number of injuries and/or illnesses or lost
work days per 100 full-time workers.

Notes on the data
The definitions of occupational injuries and
illnesses are from Recordkeeping Guidelines
for Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (U.S.
Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, September 1986).
Estimates are made for industries and employment size classes for total recordable cases,
lost workday cases, days away from work cases,
and nonfatal cases without lost workdays. These
data also are shown separately for injuries.
Illness data are available for seven categories:
occupational skin diseases or disorders, dust
diseases of the lungs, respiratory conditions
due to toxic agents, poisoning (systemic
effects of toxic agents), disorders due to
physical agents (other than toxic materials),
disorders associated with repeated trauma,
and all other occupational illnesses.
The survey continues to measure the
number of new work-related illness cases
which are recognized, diagnosed, and reported during the year. Some conditions, for
example, long-term latent illnesses caused
by exposure to carcinogens, often are difficult to relate to the workplace and are not
adequately recognized and reported. These
long-term latent illnesses are believed to be
understated in the survey’s illness measure. In

contrast, the overwhelming majority of the
reported new illnesses are those which are
easier to directly relate to workplace activity
(for example, contact dermatitis and carpal
tunnel syndrome).
Most of the estimates are in the form
of incidence rates, defined as the number
of injuries and illnesses per 100 equivalent
full-time workers. For this purpose, 200,000
employee hours represent 100 employee years
(2,000 hours per employee). Full detail on the
available measures is presented in the annual
bulletin, Occupational Injuries and Illnesses:
Counts, Rates, and Characteristics.
Comparable data for more than 40 States
and territories are available from the bls
Office of Safety, Health and Working Conditions. Many of these States publish data
on State and local government employees in
addition to private industry data.
Mining and railroad data are furnished to
BLS by the Mine Safety and Health Administration and the Federal Railroad Administration. Data from these organizations are
included in both the national and State data
published annually.
With the 1992 survey, BLS began publishing details on serious, nonfatal incidents
resulting in days away from work. Included
are some major characteristics of the injured
and ill workers, such as occupation, age, gender, race, and length of service, as well as the
circumstances of their injuries and illnesses
(nature of the disabling condition, part of
body affected, event and exposure, and the
source directly producing the condition). In
general, these data are available nationwide
for detailed industries and for individual
States at more aggregated industry levels.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on occupational injuries and illnesses, contact the
Office of Occupational Safety, Health and
Working Conditions at (202) 691–6180, or
access the Internet at: www.bls. gov/iif/

Census of Fatal
Occupational Injuries
The Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries
compiles a complete roster of fatal job-related injuries, including detailed data about the
fatally injured workers and the fatal events.
The program collects and cross checks fatality
information from multiple sources, including

death certificates, State and Federal workers’
compensation reports, Occupational Safety
and Health Administration and Mine Safety
and Health Administration records, medical
examiner and autopsy reports, media accounts, State motor vehicle fatality records,
and follow-up questionnaires to employers.
In addition to private wage and salary
workers, the self-employed, family members, and Federal, State, and local government workers are covered by the program.
To be included in the fatality census, the
decedent must have been employed (that is
working for pay, compensation, or profit)
at the time of the event, engaged in a legal
work activity, or present at the site of the
incident as a requirement of his or her job.

Definition
A fatal work injury is any intentional or
unintentional wound or damage to the body
resulting in death from acute exposure to
energy, such as heat or electricity, or kinetic
energy from a crash, or from the absence of
such essentials as heat or oxygen caused by a
specific event or incident or series of events
within a single workday or shift. Fatalities
that occur during a person’s commute to or
from work are excluded from the census,
as well as work-related illnesses,which can
be difficult to identify due to long latency
periods.

Notes on the data
Twenty-eight data elements are collected,
coded, and tabulated in the fatality program,
including information about the fatally
injured worker, the fatal incident, and the
machinery or equipment involved. Summary worker demographic data and event
characteristics are included in a national news
release that is available about 8 months after
the end of the reference year. The Census
of Fatal Occupational Injuries was initiated in 1992 as a joint Federal-State effort.
Most States issue summary information
at the time of the national news release.
F OR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on
the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries
contact the BLS Office of Safety, Health,
and Working Conditions at (202) 691–
6175, or the Internet at: www.bls.gov/iif/

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

75

Current Labor Statistics: Comparative Indicators

/DERUPDUNHWLQGLFDWRUV
6HOHFWHGLQGLFDWRUV






,,,


,9

,

,,


,,,

,9

,

,,

,,,

(PSOR\PHQWGDWD
Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional
population (household survey):

1

Labor force participation rate........................................................
Employment-population ratio........................................................
UnemployPHQWUDWH««««««««««««««««««««
0HQ«««««««««««««««««««««««««
16 to 24 years...........................................................................
25 years and older....................................................................
:RPHQ««««««««««««««««««««««««
16 to 24 years...........................................................................
25 years and older....................................................................
Employment, nonfarm (payroll data), in thousands:

66.2
63.1
4.6
4.6
11.2
3.5
4.6
9.7
3.7

66.0
63.0
4.6
4.7
11.6
3.6
4.5
9.4
3.6

66.2
63.1
4.7
4.6
11.4
3.5
4.7
10.1
3.8

66.3
63.4
4.4
4.5
11.0
3.3
4.4
9.7
3.5

66.2
63.2
4.5
4.6
10.8
3.6
4.4
9.0
3.5

66.0
63.0
4.5
4.6
11.5
3.5
4.4
9.0
3.6

66.0
62.9
4.7
4.8
11.8
3.6
4.6
9.8
3.7

66.0
62.8
4.8
4.9
12.2
3.7
4.7
9.9
3.8

66.0
62.7
4.9
5.0
12.7
3.8
4.8
10.0
3.9

66.1
62.6
5.3
5.5
13.3
4.2
5.1
11.0
4.1

66.1
62.2
6.0
6.4
14.6
5.0
5.5
11.7
4.5

1

7RWDOQRQIDUP«««««««« 
Total private....................................................................... 114,113

137,626
115,423

136,528
114,472

136,982
114,899

137,310
115,167

137,625
115,423

137,837
115,610

138,078
115,759

137,831
115,454

137,617
115,154

137,318
114,776

22,531
Manufacturing«««««««««««««««««««« 14,155

22,221
13,883

22,564
14,138

22,436
14,033

22,362
13,953

22,267
13,890

22,138
13,822

21,976
13,772

21,737
13,644

21,491
13,527

21,303
13,380

Service-providing«««««««««««««««««««««««113,556

115,405

113,964

114,546

114,948

115,358

115,699

116,102

116,094

116,126

116,015

Goods-producing ««««««««««««««««««««««

Average hours:
7RWDOSULYDWH««««
Manufacturing««««««««««««««««««««
2YHUWLPH«««««««««««««««««««««



4.4



4.2



4.4



4.2



4.1



4.1



4.2



4.0



4.0

3.7

3.8

33.6

3.6

3.3

3.3

1.1

.6

.9

.8

1.0

.6

.8

.7

.8























2.5

2.4

.7

.5

.4

1.0

.5

.6

1.0

.7

.4



(PSOR\PHQW&RVW,QGH[
Total compensation:
4

Civilian nonfarm «««««««««««««««««««««««««
3ULYDWHQRQIDUP««««««««
5

Goods-producing ««««««««««««««««««««««
5

Service-providing ««««««««««««««««««««««
State and local gRYHUQPHQW«««««««««««««««
Workers by bargaining status (private nonfarm):
8QLRQ««««««««««««««««««««««««««
1RQXQLRQ«««««««««««««««««««««««««
1

3.4

3.2

.9

.7

.9

.9

.9

.6

.9

.7

.6
























3.2


3.2


.9


.6


1.0


.9


.8


.6


.9


.7


.6

Quarterly data seasonally adjusted.
Annual changes are December-to-December changes. Quarterly changes
are calculated using the last month of each quarter.
3
The Employment Cost Index data reflect the conversion to the 2002 North
American Classification System (NAICS) and the 2000 Standard Occupational
Classification (SOC) system. The NAICS and SOC data shown prior to 2006 are
for informational purposes only. Series based on NAICS and SOC became the
official BLS estimates starting in March 2006.
2

76

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

4

Excludes Federal and private household workers.
Goods-producing industries include mining, construction, and manufacturing. Serviceproviding industries include all other private sector industries.
5

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, household survey data reflect revised population
controls. Nonfarm data reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the North
American Industry Classification System (NAICS), replacing the Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) system. NAICS-based data by industry are not comparable with SIC
based data.

2. Annual and quarterly percent changes in compensation, prices, and productivity
Selected measures

2006

2006

2007
III

2007
IV

I

2008

II

III

IV

I

II

III

1, 2, 3

Compensation data

Employment Cost Index—compensation:
Civilian nonfarm...................................................................
Private nonfarm...............................................................
Employment Cost Index—wages and salaries:
Civilian nonfarm……………………………………………….
Private nonfarm...............................................................
Price data

3.3
3.2

3.3
3.0

1.1
.8

0.6
.7

0.9
.8

0.8
.9

1.0
.8

0.6
.6

0.8
.9

0.7
.7

0.8
.6

3.2
3.2

3.4
3.3

1.1
.8

.6
.7

1.1
1.1

.7
.8

1.0
.9

.7
.6

.8
.9

.7
.7

.8
.6

3.2

2.8

.0

-.5

1.8

1.5

.1

.7

1.7

2.5

.0

3.0
3.5
1.6
6.5
1.4

3.9
4.5
1.8
4.0
12.2

-.9
-1.3
.0
-.4
1.2

.1
-.2
1.3
-.8
4.0

2.2
2.8
.3
1.5
5.7

1.9
2.5
-.1
3.2
3.8

.1
.2
-.1
.1
-2.4

1.8
1.9
1.2
2.0
11.9

2.8
3.4
.7
5.0
14.5

4.2
5.3
.6
6.7
16.4

-.3
-.6
1.0
.9
-15.5

.9
1.0

1.5
1.4

-2.0
-2.1

.2
.2

-.1
.0

5.0
4.1

6.2
5.8

.1
.8

2.3
2.6

3.7
3.6

1.3
1.1

2.1

.9

2.7

-2.6

.4

3.4

1.8

1.9

-.2

8.6

-

1

Consumer Price Index (All Urban Consumers): All Items......
Producer Price Index:
Finished goods.....................................................................
Finished consumer goods.................................................
Capital equipment……………………………………………
Intermediate materials, supplies, and components…………
Crude materials.....................................................................
4

Productivity data
Output per hour of all persons:

Business sector.....................................................................
Nonfarm business sector.......................................................
5

Nonfinancial corporations ……………….…………...………………

1
Annual changes are December-to-December changes. Quarterly changes are
calculated using the last month of each quarter. Compensation and price data are not
seasonally adjusted, and the price data are not compounded.
2

only. Series based on NAICS and SOC became the official BLS estimates starting in
March 2006.
4
Annual rates of change are computed by comparing annual averages. Quarterly
percent changes reflect annual rates of change in quarterly indexes. The data are
seasonally adjusted.

Excludes Federal and private household workers.

3
The Employment Cost Index data reflect the conversion to the 2002 North American
Classification System (NAICS) and the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)
system. The NAICS and SOC data shown prior to 2006 are for informational purposes

5

Output per hour of all employees.

3. Alternative measures of wage and compensation changes
Quarterly change
Components

2007
III

Four quarters ending—

2008
IV

I

II

2007
III

III

2008
IV

I

II

III

1

Average hourly compensation:
All persons, business sector..........................................................
All persons, nonfarm business sector...........................................
Employment Cost Index—compensation:

4.4
5.3

3.6
3.8

3.8
3.5

4.7
4.7

4.8
4.5

3.7
3.6

3.4
3.3

3.9
4.0

4.1
4.3

1.0
.8
.5
.8
1.8

.6
.6
.7
.6
.7

.8
.9
.8
.9
.5

.7
.7
.8
.7
.5

.8
.6
.7
.6
1.7

3.3
3.1
2.0
3.2
4.3

3.3
3.0
2.0
3.2
4.1

3.3
3.2
3.1
3.2
3.6

3.1
3.0
2.7
3.0
3.5

2.9
2.8
2.9
2.8
3.4

1.0
.9
.7
.9
1.7

.7
.6
.3
.7
.7

.8
.9
.8
.9
.6

.7
.7
1.1
.7
.5

.8
.6
.7
.6
1.8

3.3
3.4
2.7
3.4
3.5

3.4
3.3
2.3
3.5
3.5

3.2
3.2
2.6
3.3
3.5

3.2
3.1
2.9
3.2
3.4

3.1
2.9
2.9
3.0
3.5

2

3

Civilian nonfarm ……….………………………………………….…………..…
Private nonfarm….......................................................................
Union…………..........................................................................
Nonunion…………....................................................................
State and local government….....................................................
Employment Cost Index—wages and salaries:
3

3.6
3.3

2

Civilian nonfarm ……….………………………………………….…………..…
Private nonfarm….......................................................................
Union…………..........................................................................
Nonunion…………....................................................................
State and local government….....................................................
1

Seasonally adjusted. "Quarterly average" is percent change from a
quarter ago, at an annual rate.
2

The Employment Cost Index data reflect the conversion to the 2002
North American Classification System (NAICS) and the 2000 Standard

Occupational Classification (SOC) system. The NAICS and SOC data shown
prior to 2006 are for informational purposes only. Series based on NAICS
and SOC became the official BLS estimates starting in March 2006.
3

Excludes Federal and private household workers.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

77

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

4. Employment status of the population, by sex, age, race, and Hispanic origin, monthly data seasonally adjusted
>1XPEHUVLQWKRXVDQGV@
Employment status

2007

Annual average
2006

2007

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

2008
Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

TOTAL
&LYLOLDQQRQLQVWLWXWLRQDO
1

population ……………………. 228,815
Civilian labor force.............. 151,428
66.2
Participation rate...........
Employed........................ 144,427
Employment-pop63.1
ulation ratio 2……………
7,001
Unemployed...................
4.6
Unemployment rate.....
Not in the labor force........ 77,387

231,867 232,461 232,715 232,939 233,156 232,616 232,809 232,995 233,198 233,405 233,627 233,864 234,107 234,360
153,124 153,506 153,306 153,828 153,866 153,824 153,374 153,784 153,957 154,534 154,390 154,603 154,853 154,732
66.0
66.0
65.9
66.0
66.0
66.1
65.9
66.0
66.0
66.2
66.1
66.1
66.1
66.0
146,047 146,260 146,016 146,647 146,211 146,248 145,993 145,969 146,331 146,046 145,891 145,819 145,477 145,255
63.0
7,078
4.6
78,743

62.9
7,246
4.7
78,955

62.7
7,291
4.8
79,409

63.0
7,181
4.7
79,111

62.7
7,655
5.0
79,290

62.9
7,576
4.9
78,792

62.7
7,381
4.8
79,436

62.6
7,815
5.1
79,211

62.7
7,626
5.0
79,241

62.6
8,487
5.5
78,871

62.4
8,499
5.5
79,237

62.4
8,784
5.7
79,261

62.1
9,376
6.1
79,253

62.0
9,477
6.1
79,628

Men, 20 years and over
&LYLOLDQQRQLQVWLWXWLRQDO
1

population ……………………. 102,145
Civilian labor force.............. 77,562
75.9
Participation rate...........
Employed........................ 74,431
Employment-pop72.9
ulation ratio 2……………
3,131
Unemployed...................
4.0
Unemployment rate.....
Not in the labor force……… 24,584

103,555 103,847 103,973 104,087 104,197 103,866 103,961 104,052 104,152 104,258 104,371 104,490 104,613 104,741
78,596
78,689
78,664
79,075
79,004
78,864
78,748
78,838
78,776
78,878
79,037
79,327
79,318
79,444
75.9
75.8
75.7
76.0
75.8
75.9
75.7
75.8
75.6
75.7
75.7
75.9
75.8
75.8
75,337
75,332
75,274
75,834
75,499
75,427
75,362
75,197
75,148
75,001
74,998
75,094
74,866
74,631
72.8
3,259
4.1
24,959

72.5
3,357
4.3
25,158

72.4
3,389
4.3
25,309

72.9
3,240
4.1
25,012

72.5
3,505
4.4
25,193

72.6
3,437
4.4
25,002

72.5
3,386
4.3
25,213

72.3
3,641
4.6
25,214

72.2
3,628
4.6
25,376

71.9
3,877
4.9
25,380

71.9
4,038
5.1
25,334

71.9
4,234
5.3
25,163

71.6
4,452
5.6
25,295

71.3
4,813
6.1
25,298

Women, 20 years and over
&LYLOLDQQRQLQVWLWXWLRQDO
1

population ……………………. 109,992
Civilian labor force.............. 66,585
60.5
Participation rate...........
Employed........................ 63,834
Employment-pop58.0
ulation ratio 2……………
2,751
Unemployed...................
4.1
Unemployment rate.....
Not in the labor force……… 43,407

111,330 111,590 111,703 111,805 111,903 111,739 111,822 111,902 111,990 112,083 112,183 112,290 112,401 112,518
67,516
67,795
67,623
67,776
67,866
67,982
67,816
68,159
68,176
68,390
68,446
68,303
68,672
68,423
60.6
60.8
60.5
60.6
60.6
60.8
60.6
60.9
60.9
61.0
61.0
60.8
61.1
60.8
64,799
65,033
64,827
64,980
64,912
65,098
64,950
65,055
65,260
65,138
65,238
65,167
65,047
65,072
58.2
2,718
4.0
43,814

58.3
2,762
4.1
43,795

58.0
2,796
4.1
44,080

58.1
2,796
4.1
44,029

58.0
2,954
4.4
44,037

58.3
2,885
4.2
43,756

58.1
2,865
4.2
44,006

58.1
3,104
4.6
43,743

58.3
2,916
4.3
43,814

58.1
3,252
4.8
43,693

58.2
3,208
4.7
43,737

58.0
3,135
4.6
43,988

57.9
3,625
5.3
43,729

57.8
3,351
4.9
44,094

16,982
7,012
41.3
5,911

17,024
7,021
41.2
5,895

17,040
7,020
41.2
5,914

17,048
6,977
40.9
5,832

17,056
6,996
41.0
5,801

17,012
6,978
41.0
5,724

17,027
6,810
40.0
5,681

17,041
6,787
39.8
5,717

17,056
7,005
41.1
5,923

17,064
7,266
42.6
5,907

17,073
6,907
40.5
5,655

17,084
6,973
40.8
5,558

17,092
6,863
40.2
5,563

17,101
6,865
40.1
5,552

34.8
1,101
15.7
9,970

34.6
1,126
16.0
10,003

34.7
1,105
15.7
10,020

34.2
1,145
16.4
10,071

34.0
1,196
17.1
10,059

33.6
1,254
18.0
10,034

33.4
1,130
16.6
10,216

33.5
1,070
15.8
10,254

34.7
1,082
15.4
10,051

34.6
1,358
18.7
9,798

33.1
1,253
18.1
10,166

32.5
1,415
20.3
10,110

32.6
1,299
18.9
10,229

32.5
1,313
19.1
10,236

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years
&LYLOLDQQRQLQVWLWXWLRQDO
1
population ……………………. 16,678
7,281
Civilian labor force..............
43.7
Participation rate...........
6,162
Employed........................
Employment-pop36.9
ulation ratio 2……………
1,119
Unemployed...................
15.4
Unemployment rate.....
Not in the labor force……… 9,397

White3
&LYLOLDQQRQLQVWLWXWLRQDO
1

population ……………………. 186,264
Civilian labor force.............. 123,834
66.5
Participation rate...........
Employed........................ 118,833
Employment-pop63.8
ulation ratio 2……………
5,002
Unemployed...................
4.0
Unemployment rate.....
Not in the labor force……… 62,429

188,253 188,644 188,813 188,956 189,093 188,787 188,906 189,019 189,147 189,281 189,428 189,587 189,747 189,916
124,935 125,316 125,151 125,430 125,460 125,340 124,940 125,190 125,171 125,762 125,704 125,971 125,981 125,955
66.4
66.4
66.3
66.4
66.3
66.4
66.1
66.2
66.2
66.4
66.4
66.4
66.4
66.3
119,792 119,992 119,883 120,194 119,889 119,858 119,534 119,574 119,667 119,661 119,518 119,542 119,222 119,180
63.6
5,143
4.1
63,319

63.6
5,324
4.2
63,329

63.5
5,268
4.2
63,662

63.6
5,235
4.2
63,526

63.4
5,571
4.4
63,633

63.5
5,482
4.4
63,447

63.3
5,406
4.3
63,966

63.3
5,616
4.5
63,829

63.3
5,504
4.4
63,975

63.2
6,101
4.9
63,519

63.1
6,186
4.9
63,724

63.1
6,428
5.1
63,616

62.8
6,760
5.4
63,766

62.8
6,775
5.4
63,961

27,485
17,496
63.7
16,051

27,584
17,483
63.4
16,046

27,627
17,430
63.1
15,946

27,666
17,453
63.1
15,980

27,704
17,538
63.3
15,961

27,640
17,713
64.1
16,090

27,675
17,632
63.7
16,169

27,709
17,702
63.9
16,116

27,746
17,753
64.0
16,234

27,780
17,742
63.9
16,029

27,816
17,716
63.7
16,085

27,854
17,767
63.8
16,040

27,896
17,973
64.4
16,074

27,939
17,737
63.5
15,714

58.4
1,445
8.3
9,989

58.2
1,437
8.2
10,101

57.7
1,483
8.5
10,197

57.8
1,473
8.4
10,212

57.6
1,577
9.0
10,165

58.2
1,623
9.2
9,927

58.4
1,463
8.3
10,043

58.2
1,586
9.0
10,007

58.5
1,520
8.6
9,992

57.7
1,713
9.7
10,038

57.8
1,632
9.2
10,100

57.6
1,726
9.7
10,088

57.6
1,899
10.6
9,923

56.2
2,023
11.4
10,202

Black or African American3
&LYLOLDQQRQLQVWLWXWLRQDO
1
population ……………………. 27,007
Civilian labor force.............. 17,314
64.1
Participation rate...........
Employed........................ 15,765
Employment-pop58.4
ulation ratio 2……………
1,549
Unemployed...................
8.9
Unemployment rate.....
Not in the labor force……… 9,693

6HHIRRWQRWHVDWHQGRIWDEOH

78

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

&RQWLQXHG²(PSOR\PHQWVWDWXVRIWKHSRSXODWLRQE\VH[DJHUDFHDQG+LVSDQLFRULJLQPRQWKO\GDWDVHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status

2007

Annual average
2006

2007

Sept.

2008

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

+LVSDQLFRU/DWLQR
HWKQLFLW\
Civilian noninstitutional
1
population ……………………. 30,103
Civilian labor force.............. 20,694
68.7
Participation rate...........
Employed........................ 19,613
Employment-pop65.2
ulation ratio 2……………
1,081
Unemployed...................
5.2
Unemployment rate.....
Not in the labor force ………… 9,409

31,383
21,602
68.8
20,382

31,617
21,872
69.2
20,619

31,714
21,778
68.7
20,554

31,809
21,872
68.8
20,623

31,903
21,888
68.6
20,517

31,643
21,698
68.6
20,320

31,732
21,755
68.6
20,401

31,820
21,775
68.4
20,269

31,911
21,917
68.7
20,404

31,998
22,102
69.1
20,573

32,087
22,131
69.0
20,420

32,179
22,071
68.6
20,435

32,273
22,226
68.9
20,452

32,369
22,258
68.8
20,531

64.9
1,220
5.6
9,781

65.2
1,253
5.7
9,745

64.8
1,224
5.6
9,936

64.8
1,249
5.7
9,938

64.3
1,371
6.3
10,016

64.2
1,378
6.3
9,946

64.3
1,354
6.2
9,977

63.7
1,507
6.9
10,045

63.9
1,512
6.9
9,994

64.3
1,529
6.9
9,896

63.6
1,711
7.7
9,956

63.5
1,636
7.4
10,108

63.4
1,774
8.0
10,048

63.4
1,727
7.8
10,111

1

The population figures are not seasonally adjusted.
Civilian employment as a percent of the civilian noninstitutional population.
3
Beginning in 2003, persons who selected this race group only; persons who
selected more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, persons who
reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main
race.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white and black or African American) do not
sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. In addition, persons whose
ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race and, therefore, are classified
by ethnicity as well as by race. Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population
controls used in the household survey.

2

6HOHFWHGHPSOR\PHQWLQGLFDWRUVPRQWKO\GDWDVHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG
[In thousands]
Annual average

2007

Selected categories
2006

2007

Sept.

Oct.

2008

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Characteristic
Employed, 16 years and older.. 144,427 146,047 146,260 146,016 146,647 146,211 146,248 145,993 145,969 146,331 146,046 145,891 145,819 145,477 145,255
Men....................................... 77,502
78,254
78,229
78,177
78,604
78,260
78,157
78,113
77,948
78,038
77,954
77,794
77,823
77,632
77,396
67,792
68,030
67,838
68,043
67,951
68,091
67,880
68,021
68,293
68,092
68,097
67,996
67,845
67,860
Women............................…… 66,925
Married men, spouse
present................................

45,700

46,314

46,235

46,189

46,339

46,213

46,063

46,136

45,961

45,964

45,862

45,911

46,120

45,829

45,958

35,272

35,832

35,712

35,449

35,689

35,565

35,536

35,648

35,749

36,177

36,171

36,270

36,185

36,055

35,913

4,162

4,401

4,499

4,401

4,513

4,665

4,769

4,884

4,914

5,220

5,233

5,416

5,724

5,718

6,055

2,658

2,877

2,991

2,788

3,008

3,174

3,247

3,291

3,323

3,558

3,595

3,816

4,194

4,112

4,232

1,189

1,210

1,166

1,215

1,223

1,236

1,163

1,222

1,362

1,323

1,281

1,336

1,286

1,362

1,516

reasons……………………… 19,591

19,756

19,812

19,337

19,539

19,526

19,613

19,348

19,409

19,809

19,428

19,496

19,406

19,712

19,371

4,071

4,317

4,397

4,302

4,453

4,577

4,677

4,790

4,797

5,125

5,164

5,308

5,599

5,641

5,941

2,596

2,827

2,922

2,745

2,981

3,120

3,174

3,231

3,238

3,513

3,531

3,744

4,156

4,032

4,121

1,178

1,199

1,153

1,207

1,205

1,219

1,149

1,216

1,354

1,331

1,288

1,328

1,277

1,350

1,537

reasons.................………… 19,237

19,419

19,451

19,157

19,224

19,225

19,296

19,019

19,072

19,456

19,047

19,106

19,051

19,281

19,033

Married women, spouse
present................................
Persons at work part time1
All industries:
Part time for economic
reasons…………………….…
Slack work or business
conditions………….........
Could only find part-time
work………………………
Part time for noneconomic
Nonagricultural industries:
Part time for economic
reasons…………………….…
Slack work or business
conditions........................
Could only find part-time
work………………………
Part time for noneconomic

1

Excludes persons "with a job but not at work" during the survey period for such reasons as vacation, illness, or industrial disputes.

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population controls used in the household survey.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

79

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

6HOHFWHGXQHPSOR\PHQWLQGLFDWRUVPRQWKO\GDWDVHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG
[Unemployment rates]
Annual average

2007

Selected categories
2006

2007

2008

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Characteristic
Total, 16 years and older............................
Both sexes, 16 to 19 years.....................
Men, 20 years and older.........................
Women, 20 years and older...................

4.6
15.4
4.0
4.1

4.6
15.7
4.1
4.0

4.7
16.0
4.3
4.1

4.8
15.7
4.3
4.1

4.7
16.4
4.1
4.1

5.0
17.1
4.4
4.4

4.9
18.0
4.4
4.2

4.8
16.6
4.3
4.2

5.1
15.8
4.6
4.6

5.0
15.4
4.6
4.3

5.5
18.7
4.9
4.8

5.5
18.1
5.1
4.7

5.7
20.3
5.3
4.6

6.1
18.9
5.6
5.3

6.1
19.1
6.1
4.9

White, total 1………………………………
Both sexes, 16 to 19 years................
Men, 16 to 19 years........................
Women, 16 to 19 years..................
Men, 20 years and older....................
Women, 20 years and older..............

4.0
13.2
14.6
11.7
3.5
3.6

4.1
13.9
15.7
12.1
3.7
3.6

4.2
14.3
16.4
12.2
3.9
3.5

4.2
14.0
15.9
12.0
3.8
3.6

4.2
14.7
17.8
11.8
3.7
3.7

4.4
14.4
16.8
12.1
3.9
4.0

4.4
15.6
19.0
12.3
3.9
3.8

4.3
14.4
17.1
11.8
3.9
3.8

4.5
13.2
14.7
11.7
4.1
4.1

4.4
13.8
15.2
12.4
4.1
3.7

4.9
16.4
17.7
14.9
4.4
4.1

4.9
16.6
17.8
15.3
4.5
4.2

5.1
19.0
22.2
15.6
4.7
4.1

5.4
17.2
19.2
15.0
4.9
4.7

5.4
17.4
19.4
15.2
5.3
4.2

Black or African American, total 1………
Both sexes, 16 to 19 years................
Men, 16 to 19 years........................
Women, 16 to 19 years..................
Men, 20 years and older....................
Women, 20 years and older..............

8.9
29.1
32.7
25.9
8.3
7.5

8.3
29.4
33.8
25.3
7.9
6.7

8.2
28.9
33.9
24.2
7.5
7.1

8.5
27.9
36.0
20.1
8.2
7.1

8.4
29.7
34.6
24.9
7.9
7.0

9.0
34.7
39.5
30.1
8.4
7.0

9.2
35.7
41.3
28.5
8.3
7.3

8.3
31.7
32.6
30.9
7.9
6.5

9.0
31.3
38.9
25.4
8.4
7.5

8.6
24.5
27.9
21.9
8.4
7.4

9.7
32.3
40.1
25.2
8.9
8.2

9.2
29.6
35.5
23.9
9.3
7.4

9.7
32.0
38.0
26.5
10.0
7.5

10.6
28.8
29.2
28.3
10.3
9.1

11.4
29.4
32.6
26.3
11.9
9.3

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity………………
Married men, spouse present................
Married women, spouse present...........
Full-time workers...................................
Part-time workers..................................

5.2
2.4
2.9
4.5
5.1

5.6
2.5
2.8
4.6
4.9

5.7
2.5
2.9
4.7
4.7

5.6
2.6
2.9
4.7
5.0

5.7
2.6
3.0
4.6
5.0

6.3
2.7
3.1
4.9
5.6

6.3
2.7
3.1
4.8
5.4

6.2
2.7
3.1
4.8
5.0

6.9
2.8
3.3
5.0
5.3

6.9
2.8
3.0
5.0
4.9

6.9
2.9
3.1
5.5
5.5

7.7
3.0
3.3
5.5
5.4

7.4
3.2
3.3
5.7
5.5

8.0
3.5
3.7
6.2
5.7

7.8
3.8
3.5
6.2
5.9

Educational attainment2
Less than a high school diploma................

6.8

7.1

7.5

7.4

7.6

7.6

7.7

7.3

8.2

7.8

8.3

8.7

8.5

9.6

9.6

High school graduates, no college 3………
Some college or associate degree………..

4.3
3.6

4.4
3.6

4.6
3.4

4.6
3.5

4.5
3.3

4.7
3.7

4.6
3.6

4.7
3.7

5.1
3.8

5.0
3.9

5.2
4.3

5.1
4.2

5.2
4.5

5.7
4.8

6.3
5.0

Bachelor's degree and higher 4…………….

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.1

2.2

2.2

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.7

2.5

Mar.

Apr.

June

July

1

Beginning in 2003, persons who selected this race group only; persons who

selected more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, persons who
reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main
race.
2

Data refer to persons 25 years and older.

'XUDWLRQRIXQHPSOR\PHQWPRQWKO\GDWDVHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG
[Numbers in thousands]
Weeks of
unemployment
Less than 5 weeks...........................
5 to 14 weeks..................................
15 weeks and over..........................
15 to 26 weeks.............................
27 weeks and over.......................
Mean duration, in weeks...................
Median duration, in weeks...............

Annual average
2006
2,614
2,121
2,266
1,031
1,235
16.8
8.3

2007
2,542
2,232
2,303
1,061
1,243
16.8
8.5

2007
Sept.
2,537
2,330
2,392
1,112
1,280
16.6
8.9

Oct.
2,508
2,454
2,367
1,052
1,315
17.0
8.7

2008

Nov.
2,633
2,157
2,398
1,014
1,384
17.2
8.7

Dec.
2,793
2,330
2,520
1,182
1,338
16.6
8.4

Jan.
2,634
2,396
2,503
1,124
1,380
17.5
8.8

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population controls used in the household survey.

80

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

Feb.
2,639
2,396
2,377
1,079
1,299
16.8
8.4

2,767
2,525
2,400
1,118
1,282
16.2
8.1

2,484
2,495
2,626
1,272
1,353
16.9
9.3

May
3,244
2,469
2,773
1,223
1,550
16.6
8.3

2,712
2,999
2,916
1,328
1,587
17.5
10.0

2,835
2,823
3,118
1,440
1,678
17.1
9.7

Aug.
3,235
2,821
3,402
1,561
1,841
17.4
9.2

Sept.
2,853
3,051
3,607
1,598
2,008
18.4
10.2

8QHPSOR\HGSHUVRQVE\UHDVRQIRUXQHPSOR\PHQWPRQWKO\GDWDVHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason for
unemployment
1

Job losers …………………….…
On temporary layoff..............
Not on temporary layoff........
Job leavers..............................
Reentrants...............................
New entrants...........................

Annual average
2006

2007

2007

Sept.

Oct.

2008

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

3,321
921
2,400
827
2,237
616

3,515
976
2,539
793
2,142
627

3,622
963
2,660
839
2,154
685

3,731
1,064
2,668
790
2,103
709

3,609
979
2,630
783
2,160
669

3,857
975
2,882
798
2,343
697

3,796
1,040
2,756
830
2,201
667

3,854
971
2,883
769
2,112
648

4,154
1,056
3,098
781
2,117
681

4,014
1,099
2,915
850
2,134
624

4,282
1,113
3,169
870
2,460
828

4,370
1,077
3,292
833
2,498
748

4,407
1,037
3,370
861
2,705
811

4,824
1,266
3,559
999
2,652
820

5,171
1,407
3,764
974
2,555
822

47.4
13.2
34.3
11.8
32.0
8.8

49.7
13.8
35.9
11.2
30.3
8.9

49.6
13.2
36.4
11.5
29.5
9.4

50.9
14.5
36.4
10.8
28.7
9.7

50.0
13.6
36.4
10.8
29.9
9.3

50.1
12.7
37.5
10.4
30.4
9.1

50.7
13.9
36.8
11.1
29.4
8.9

52.2
13.2
39.0
10.4
28.6
8.8

53.7
13.7
40.1
10.1
27.4
8.8

52.7
14.4
38.2
11.2
28.0
8.2

50.7
13.2
37.5
10.3
29.1
9.8

51.7
12.7
39.0
9.9
29.6
8.9

50.2
11.8
38.4
9.8
30.8
9.2

51.9
13.6
38.3
10.7
28.5
8.8

54.3
14.8
39.5
10.2
26.8
8.6

2.4
.5
1.4
.4

2.4
.5
1.4
.5

2.3
.5
1.4
.4

2.5
.5
1.5
.5

2.5
.5
1.4
.4

2.5
.5
1.4
.4

2.7
.5
1.4
.4

2.6
.6
1.4
.4

2.8
.6
1.6
.5

2.8
.5
1.6
.5

2.9
.6
1.7
.5

3.1
.6
1.7
.5

3.3
.6
1.7
.5

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Percent of unemployed
Job losers1…………………….…
On temporary layoff...............
Not on temporary layoff.........
Job leavers...............................
Reentrants................................
New entrants............................
Percent of civilian
labor force
2.2
2.3
Job losers1…………………….…
.5
.5
Job leavers...............................
1.5
1.4
Reentrants................................
.4
.4
New entrants............................
1
Includes persons who completed temporary jobs.

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population controls used in the household survey.

8QHPSOR\PHQWUDWHVE\VH[DQGDJHPRQWKO\GDWDVHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG
[Civilian workers]
Sex and age

Annual average

2007

2006

2007

Sept.

Total, 16 years and older..................
16 to 24 years...............................
16 to 19 years............................
16 to 17 years.........................
18 to 19 years.........................
20 to 24 years............................
25 years and older........................
25 to 54 years.........................
55 years and older..................

4.6
10.5
15.4
17.2
14.1
8.2
3.6
3.8
3.0

4.6
10.5
15.7
17.5
14.5
8.2
3.6
3.7
3.1

4.7
11.0
16.0
18.6
14.3
8.8
3.7
3.8
3.1

Men, 16 years and older.................
16 to 24 years.............................
16 to 19 years..........................
16 to 17 years.......................
18 to 19 years.......................
20 to 24 years..........................
25 years and older......................
25 to 54 years.......................
55 years and older................

4.6
11.2
16.9
18.6
15.7
8.7
3.5
3.6
3.0

4.7
11.6
17.6
19.4
16.5
8.9
3.6
3.7
3.2

Women, 16 years and older...........
16 to 24 years.............................
16 to 19 years..........................
16 to 17 years…………………
18 t0 19 years…………………
20 to 24 years..........................
25 years and older......................
25 to 54 years.......................
55 years and older 1…………

4.6
9.7
13.8
15.9
12.4
7.6
3.7
3.9
2.9

1

Oct.

2008

Nov.

Dec.

4.8
10.8
15.7
17.5
14.3
8.6
3.7
3.8
3.1

4.7
10.7
16.4
19.0
14.4
8.0
3.7
3.8
3.0

5.0
11.8
17.1
19.6
15.4
9.4
3.9
4.1
3.2

4.9
12.2
18.3
21.9
16.2
9.5
3.7
3.8
3.3

4.9
12.0
18.1
19.0
16.8
9.3
3.7
3.8
3.1

4.7
11.8
19.5
21.4
17.8
8.6
3.6
3.7
3.1

4.5
9.4
13.8
15.7
12.5
7.3
3.6
3.8

4.5
9.8
13.7
15.6
12.3
7.9
3.7
3.8

4.6
9.6
13.3
16.1
11.6
7.7
3.7
3.9

3.0

3.0

3.0

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

4.9
11.7
18.0
20.4
15.9
8.7
3.8
3.9
3.2

4.8
11.3
16.6
18.3
15.5
8.9
3.8
3.9
3.2

5.1
11.3
15.8
18.6
14.0
9.3
4.0
4.2
3.4

5.0
11.0
15.4
19.7
13.2
8.9
3.9
4.2
3.0

5.5
13.0
18.7
21.2
17.5
10.4
4.1
4.4
3.3

5.5
12.6
18.1
23.3
15.6
10.1
4.3
4.5
3.3

5.7
13.4
20.3
24.9
17.3
10.2
4.4
4.6
3.6

6.1
13.1
18.9
22.1
17.1
10.5
4.9
5.1
4.1

6.1
13.2
19.1
21.6
17.6
10.5
5.0
5.2
4.1

5.1
12.8
19.8
22.1
18.4
9.8
3.8
4.0
3.2

5.1
13.1
21.8
24.0
19.5
9.4
3.8
4.0
3.2

4.9
12.5
18.7
20.5
18.0
9.9
3.7
3.8
3.2

5.2
12.5
17.8
22.0
15.2
10.3
4.0
4.1
3.3

5.1
12.0
16.9
22.2
14.5
9.9
4.0
4.3
3.0

5.6
14.1
20.7
23.3
19.6
11.0
4.2
4.4
3.4

5.7
13.8
19.9
26.2
17.1
11.2
4.3
4.6
3.4

6.1
15.2
23.4
29.4
19.9
11.6
4.6
4.9
3.7

6.3
14.3
20.7
24.0
18.6
11.5
5.0
5.2
4.2

6.7
14.4
21.0
23.0
20.1
11.5
5.5
5.8
4.4

4.6
9.4
13.4
17.1
10.7
7.4
3.8
4.0

4.9
10.7
14.4
17.3
12.3
8.8
3.9
4.1

4.7
10.1
14.2
17.2
12.1
8.0
3.8
3.9

4.7
9.9
14.5
16.2
12.8
7.7
3.8
4.0

5.0
10.0
13.8
15.5
12.8
8.1
4.1
4.2

4.8
9.8
14.0
17.5
11.8
7.7
3.9
4.0

5.3
11.9
16.6
19.0
15.2
9.6
4.1
4.4

5.2
11.2
16.3
20.3
13.9
8.8
4.2
4.4

5.2
11.4
17.1
20.4
14.6
8.7
4.2
4.3

5.8
11.9
17.1
20.2
15.6
9.4
4.8
5.0

5.5
11.9
17.1
20.3
14.8
9.4
4.4
4.6

2.8

2.9

3.4

3.3

3.4

2.8

2.8

3.4

4.3

4.5

3.9

Data are not seasonally adjusted.

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population controls used in the household survey.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

81

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

10. Unemployment rates by State, seasonally adjusted
Aug.
2007

State

July

Aug.

2008p

2008p

Aug.
2007

State

July

Aug.

2008p

2008p

Alabama............................…………………
Alaska........................................................
Arizona............................……………………
Arkansas....................................................
California............................…………………

3.6
6.3
3.7
5.5
5.5

5.1
6.8
5.1
4.5
7.4

4.9
6.9
5.6
4.8
7.7

Missouri………………………………………
Montana.....................................................
Nebraska............................…………………
Nevada......................................................
New Hampshire............................…………

5.2
3.1
3.1
4.9
3.4

6.4
4.0
3.4
6.6
3.9

6.7
4.4
3.5
7.1
4.2

Colorado....................................................
Connecticut............................………………
Delaware...................................................
District of Columbia............................……
Florida........................................................

3.8
4.6
3.2
5.7
4.2

5.2
5.8
4.4
6.7
6.2

5.4
6.5
4.8
6.9
6.6

New Jersey................................................
New Mexico............................………………
New York...................................................
North Carolina............................……………
North Dakota.............................................

4.2
3.4
4.6
4.7
3.2

5.4
4.1
5.2
6.6
3.5

5.9
4.6
5.8
6.9
3.6

Georgia............................…………………
Hawaii........................................................
Idaho............................………………………
Illinois.........................................................
Indiana............................……………………

4.4
2.7
2.7
5.2
4.5

6.0
3.9
4.1
7.2
6.3

6.3
4.2
4.6
7.3
6.4

Ohio............................………………………
Oklahoma..................................................
Oregon............................……………………
Pennsylvania.............................................
Rhode Island............................……………

5.7
4.3
5.3
4.4
5.1

7.2
4.1
5.9
5.4
7.8

7.4
4.0
6.5
5.8
8.6

Iowa............................………………………
Kansas.......................................................
Kentucky............................…………………
Louisiana...................................................
Maine............................……………………

3.8
4.0
5.5
3.7
4.8

4.3
4.6
6.7
4.0
5.5

4.5
4.7
6.8
4.7
5.5

South Carolina............................…………
South Dakota.............................................
Tennessee............................………………
Texas.........................................................
Utah............................………………………

5.8
2.9
4.7
4.3
2.8

7.0
3.0
6.8
4.7
3.5

7.6
3.3
6.6
5.0
3.7

Maryland............................…………………
Massachusetts...........................................
Michigan............................…………………
Minnesota..................................................
Mississippi............................………………

3.6
4.4
7.2
4.5
6.2

4.3
5.0
8.5
5.8
8.0

4.5
5.2
8.9
6.2
7.7

Vermont............................…………………
Virginia.......................................................
Washington............................………………
West Virginia.............................................
Wisconsin............................………………
Wyoming....................................................

3.8
3.1
4.5
4.7
4.9
3.0

4.8
4.4
5.6
4.5
4.9
3.6

4.9
4.6
6.0
4.1
5.1
3.9

S

 SUHOLPLQDU\

(PSOR\PHQWRIZRUNHUVRQQRQIDUPSD\UROOVE\6WDWHVHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG
State

Aug.
2007

July

Aug.

2008p

2008p

State

Aug.
2007

July

Aug.

2008p

2008p

Alabama............................………… 2,186,926 2,177,385 2,175,153
352,895
359,214
360,853
Alaska.............................................
Arizona............................…………… 3,035,883 3,087,175 3,100,259
Arkansas........................................ 1,367,662 1,373,504 1,373,423
California............................………… 18,237,052 18,409,115 18,415,159

Missouri……………………………… 3,037,016
Montana.........................................
503,554
Nebraska............................…………
986,432
Nevada........................................... 1,341,006
New Hampshire............................…
738,313

3,016,849
504,578
992,237
1,400,119
743,207

3,007,649
505,394
996,253
1,404,471
743,999

Colorado......................................... 2,715,441
Connecticut............................……… 1,869,843
Delaware........................................
442,216
District of Columbia........................
325,009
Florida............................................ 9,158,734

2,763,603
1,889,884
446,601
330,018
9,341,459

2,744,961
1,890,442
447,046
332,388
9,326,000

New Jersey.....................................
New Mexico............................……
New York........................................
North Carolina............................…
North Dakota..................................

4,461,960
944,241
9,532,181
4,521,597
366,096

4,505,589
953,175
9,566,604
4,603,062
372,658

4,525,498
957,929
9,587,734
4,568,570
372,342

Georgia............................………… 4,824,440
Hawaii.............................................
646,184
Idaho............................……………
756,842
Illinois............................................. 6,715,404
Indiana............................…………… 3,209,420

4,928,333
664,561
753,099
6,753,070
3,236,689

4,910,138
664,199
754,766
6,725,873
3,250,008

Ohio............................………………
Oklahoma.......................................
Oregon............................……………
Pennsylvania..................................
Rhode Island............................……

5,979,682
1,733,151
1,931,102
6,283,057
574,959

5,989,521
1,736,679
1,950,919
6,364,440
573,543

5,994,695
1,745,138
1,952,719
6,403,374
570,978

Iowa............................………………
Kansas...........................................
Kentucky............................…………
Louisiana........................................
Maine............................……………

1,660,828
1,478,535
2,043,315
1,999,477
704,243

1,677,450
1,489,686
2,037,082
2,010,247
711,959

1,682,098
1,493,640
2,039,875
2,048,904
710,970

South Carolina............................… 2,139,707 2,162,603 2,165,068
South Dakota..................................
443,998
443,705
445,066
Tennessee............................……… 3,045,511 3,038,276 3,033,920
Texas.............................................. 11,509,724 11,692,051 11,744,547
Utah............................……………… 1,368,546 1,385,575 1,383,446

Maryland............................…………
Massachusetts...............................
Michigan............................…………
Minnesota.......................................
Mississippi............................………

2,981,375
3,406,852
5,016,076
2,934,609
1,314,932

3,020,045
3,417,799
4,958,855
2,936,001
1,332,190

3,016,800
3,412,895
4,943,431
2,937,545
1,329,241

Vermont............................…………
352,766
Virginia........................................... 4,063,841
Washington............................……… 3,417,487
West Virginia..................................
810,426
Wisconsin............................……… 3,090,130
Wyoming........................................
288,413

NOTE: Some data in this table may differ from data published elsewhere because of the continual updating of the database.
S

 SUHOLPLQDU\

82

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

352,725
4,148,319
3,452,135
805,586
3,069,189
291,255

351,142
4,144,496
3,472,536
802,447
3,075,250
292,640

(PSOR\PHQWRIZRUNHUVRQQRQIDUPSD\UROOVE\LQGXVWU\PRQWKO\GDWDVHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG
[In thousands]
Industry

Annual average
2006

TOTAL NONFARM................. 136,086
TOTAL PRIVATE........................ 114,113

2007

2007
Sept.

Oct.

2008

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.p

Sept.p

137,623 137,837 137,977 138,037 138,078 138,002 137,919 137,831 137,764 137,717 137,617 137,550 137,477 137,318
115,420 115,610 115,715 115,759 115,745 115,666 115,557 115,454 115,363 115,264 115,154 115,048 114,944 114,776

22,531

22,221

22,138

22,101

22,049

21,976

21,907

21,816

21,737

21,628

21,577

21,491

21,437

21,380

21,303

684
64.4
619.7
134.5
220.3
Mining, except oil and gas 1……
78.0
Coal mining……………………
Support activities for mining……
264.9
7,691
Construction................................
Construction of buildings........... 1,804.9
985.1
Heavy and civil engineering……
Speciality trade contractors....... 4,901.1
Manufacturing.............................. 14,155
Production workers................ 10,137
8,981
Durable goods...........................
6,355
Production workers................
558.8
Wood products..........................
509.6
Nonmetallic mineral products
464.0
Primary metals..........................
1,553.1
Fabricated metal products.........
1,183.2
Machinery……….....................
Computer and electronic

723
60.8
662.1
146.0
224.5
77.6
291.6
7,614
1,761.0
1,001.2
4,851.9
13,884
9,979
8,816
6,257
519.7
503.4
456.0
1,563.3
1,188.2

727
59.7
667.4
147.3
226.7
78.0
293.4
7,589
1,749.4
998.8
4,840.3
13,822
9,958
8,778
6,245
513.1
501.0
451.6
1,565.0
1,186.2

727
59.1
667.8
148.9
226.9
78.1
292.0
7,577
1,736.6
999.5
4,841.3
13,797
9,934
8,761
6,232
511.8
500.9
451.5
1,568.0
1,189.0

735
59.9
675.0
152.3
226.0
78.7
296.7
7,520
1,716.4
999.0
4,804.8
13,794
9,944
8,763
6,242
509.0
499.5
452.6
1,565.6
1,189.9

739
60.6
677.9
153.1
225.2
78.3
299.6
7,465
1,702.4
993.8
4,768.4
13,772
9,933
8,739
6,220
507.2
496.4
452.2
1,562.7
1,191.0

744
60.7
683.2
154.5
227.0
78.6
301.7
7,426
1,690.2
984.6
4,750.8
13,737
9,922
8,718
6,214
503.5
494.4
452.3
1,560.9
1,193.8

744
60.2
684.0
153.8
225.7
78.7
304.5
7,382
1,673.0
977.6
4,731.8
13,690
9,879
8,685
6,182
498.6
492.2
451.4
1,557.1
1,191.7

750
60.1
689.7
155.2
226.2
79.2
308.3
7,343
1,668.2
976.9
4,697.5
13,644
9,847
8,652
6,152
492.9
487.7
451.3
1,556.9
1,195.1

752
60.8
690.9
154.2
225.8
79.3
310.9
7,284
1,648.2
967.4
4,668.0
13,592
9,799
8,607
6,112
490.9
486.3
450.1
1,544.1
1,193.1

760
59.5
700.6
158.3
229.6
80.5
312.7
7,246
1,634.9
965.3
4,645.6
13,571
9,784
8,594
6,100
482.4
482.1
448.7
1,544.2
1,195.1

768
57.3
710.2
160.1
230.9
81.3
319.2
7,196
1,621.5
959.5
4,615.1
13,527
9,738
8,564
6,064
477.3
479.3
446.8
1,537.1
1,194.4

777
57.7
719.4
162.4
231.3
81.2
325.7
7,173
1,618.3
955.5
4,598.7
13,487
9,692
8,541
6,033
473.3
476.6
446.0
1,531.8
1,196.5

789
58.3
730.3
164.5
233.6
83.5
332.2
7,160
1,614.9
950.1
4,595.1
13,431
9,643
8,489
5,988
467.8
476.0
442.1
1,534.4
1,192.7

798
59.6
738.5
165.9
233.5
84.2
339.1
7,125
1,596.8
944.6
4,583.6
13,380
9,587
8,452
5,943
463.3
473.4
443.5
1,527.1
1,188.7

products 1……………………… 1,307.5
Computer and peripheral

1,271.9

1,260.5

1,256.5

1,260.5

1,257.6

1,256.3

1,251.9

1,254.1

1,253.8

1,250.1

1,247.1

1,246.1

1,249.0

1,249.0

equipment..............................
Communications equipment…

196.2
136.2

186.9
128.6

185.9
128.5

185.1
128.1

185.5
129.5

185.4
129.0

184.9
129.5

185.9
128.7

186.0
129.4

186.7
130.9

186.2
130.4

184.6
131.8

185.1
130.8

185.8
131.2

186.2
131.0

Semiconductors and
electronic components..........
Electronic instruments……….

457.9
444.5

444.5
444.0

437.4
442.0

435.8
441.9

437.0
443.0

434.9
443.7

433.5
444.3

429.7
442.9

428.7
446.2

426.7
445.7

424.2
445.6

422.1
444.9

423.2
444.1

424.5
444.9

425.2
444.8

Electrical equipment and
appliances...............................
Transportation equipment.........

432.7
1,768.9

427.2
1,710.9

426.0
1,706.1

427.2
1,689.3

426.6
1,693.5

423.8
1,684.7

421.6
1,678.1

420.8
1,672.0

419.9
1,651.1

421.5
1,630.6

422.1
1,636.8

422.0
1,631.9

422.4
1,624.8

418.8
1,588.5

416.4
1,575.6

Furniture and related
products.....……………………… 560.1
Miscellaneous manufacturing
643.7
Nondurable goods.....................
5,174
3,782
Production workers................
Food manufacturing.................. 1,479.4

534.5
641.0
5,068
3,723
1,481.3

530.6
637.6
5,044
3,713
1,476.0

528.3
638.2
5,036
3,702
1,478.6

527.0
638.8
5,031
3,702
1,477.9

523.8
639.9
5,033
3,713
1,486.3

520.4
636.4
5,019
3,708
1,483.2

516.0
633.3
5,005
3,697
1,482.7

511.2
632.0
4,992
3,695
1,477.0

506.4
630.2
4,985
3,687
1,473.8

503.5
629.1
4,977
3,684
1,473.5

499.5
628.8
4,963
3,674
1,472.4

495.6
627.7
4,946
3,659
1,469.8

488.8
630.7
4,942
3,655
1,472.4

483.5
631.1
4,928
3,644
1,475.8

GOODS-PRODUCING………………
Natural resources and
mining…………..……….......……
Logging....................................
Mining..........................................
Oil and gas extraction……………

Beverages and tobacco
products…………………………
Textile mills………………………
Textile product mills...................
Apparel………………………….
Leather and allied products.......
Paper and paper products.........

194.2
195.0
166.7
232.4
36.8
470.5

195.7
169.9
158.4
213.0
33.9
460.6

195.7
164.8
156.3
209.2
34.0
459.0

195.2
164.9
155.9
206.8
33.7
459.2

194.3
164.9
157.2
206.4
34.1
458.6

192.0
163.0
155.7
204.8
33.7
460.3

191.1
162.0
154.0
202.0
34.5
459.0

189.3
161.4
153.0
200.6
33.5
457.8

190.8
158.7
153.3
198.1
33.5
457.9

193.3
156.4
152.2
198.0
33.9
458.4

193.7
155.1
151.0
196.6
33.7
458.1

192.5
152.2
149.3
196.4
34.6
456.6

192.2
149.9
148.7
195.9
33.9
454.9

191.6
150.3
147.9
197.2
35.2
452.4

191.0
149.0
148.1
194.8
35.1
449.4

Printing and related support
activities…………………………
Petroleum and coal products.....
Chemicals..................................
Plastics and rubber products..

634.4
113.2
865.9
785.5

624.2
113.4
862.9
754.0

623.0
112.9
864.3
748.4

622.2
112.6
860.7
745.9

622.0
112.1
860.5
743.0

619.5
111.7
862.0
744.2

620.1
112.2
861.2
739.7

614.6
112.5
861.0
738.7

614.2
112.2
860.5
735.6

611.7
112.2
861.3
734.1

607.3
113.4
861.6
732.8

601.9
113.8
859.8
733.9

598.9
114.6
857.1
730.2

599.4
114.1
854.9
726.6

596.6
113.7
852.0
722.3

SERVICE-PROVIDING...................

113,556

115,402 115,699 115,876 115,988 116,102 116,095 116,103 116,094 116,136 116,140 116,126 116,113 116,097 116,015

PRIVATE SERVICEPROVIDING……………………… 91,582
Trade, transportation,
and utilities................................
Wholesale trade.........................
Durable goods…………………..
Nondurable goods……………

26,276
5,904.5
3,074.8
2,041.3

93,199

93,472

93,614

93,710

93,769

93,759

93,741

93,717

93,735

93,687

93,663

93,611

93,564

93,473

26,608
6,028.3
3,130.7
2,069.3

26,649
6,055.6
3,143.4
2,078.5

26,644
6,069.8
3,147.4
2,086.5

26,693
6,075.0
3,152.4
2,086.6

26,658
6,072.9
3,145.0
2,089.3

26,631
6,067.3
3,138.0
2,090.9

26,579
6,057.6
3,127.3
2,088.4

26,552
6,054.3
3,127.8
2,087.5

26,496
6,043.9
3,118.1
2,086.9

26,451
6,038.4
3,109.8
2,089.3

26,431
6,034.6
3,103.6
2,088.4

26,393
6,017.6
3,094.3
2,078.4

26,356
6,008.3
3,086.6
2,074.3

26,298
6,004.2
3,084.2
2,068.7

Electronic markets and
agents and brokers……………

788.5
828.4
833.7
835.9
836.0
838.6
838.4
841.9
839.0
838.9
839.3
842.6
844.9
847.4
851.3
Retail trade................................. 15,353.3 15,490.7 15,487.3 15,469.1 15,513.1 15,487.8 15,472.2 15,428.8 15,401.4 15,355.7 15,331.8 15,324.2 15,302.4 15,277.0 15,236.9
Motor vehicles and parts
dealers 1………………………
Automobile dealers..................

1,909.7
1,246.7

1,913.1
1,245.3

1,916.0
1,246.6

1,911.9
1,247.4

1,911.0
1,244.9

1,909.3
1,244.6

1,910.2
1,244.0

1,905.1
1,236.2

1,901.5
1,233.7

1,897.6
1,228.8

1,892.9
1,224.2

1,883.3
1,215.2

1,870.6
1,204.3

1,855.6
1,191.2

1,845.4
1,182.6

Furniture and home
furnishings stores....................

586.9

581.0

576.2

577.3

584.9

584.5

579.9

575.9

570.6

569.0

568.5

568.9

569.2

567.3

565.0

Electronics and appliance
stores.......................................

541.1

543.7

540.1

537.1

542.6

540.4

534.3

533.6

535.0

534.7

539.3

534.9

535.2

534.7

530.8

See notes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

83

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

&RQWLQXHG²(PSOR\PHQWRIZRUNHUVRQQRQIDUPSD\UROOVE\LQGXVWU\PRQWKO\GDWDVHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG
[In thousands]
Annual average

Industry

2007

2008

2007

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.p

Sept.p

1,305.3
2,848.5

1,291.9
2,856.0

1,285.4
2,859.6

1,279.9
2,871.9

1,271.6
2,871.9

1,266.0
2,880.1

1,258.5
2,885.7

1,250.8
2,890.1

1,240.5
2,882.4

1,240.3
2,880.7

1,238.2
2,879.2

1,230.1
2,879.5

1,234.7
2,868.8

1,231.4
2,863.0

961.1
864.1

988.6
861.2

990.1
864.2

991.0
862.0

998.6
859.1

999.9
850.5

1,000.6
853.8

993.5
854.2

993.9
852.6

993.4
847.4

990.9
841.2

990.4
844.4

990.0
841.3

985.4
840.2

986.2
834.5

Clothing and clothing
accessories stores …………………1,450.9

1,500.4

1,502.4

1,500.9

1,524.5

1,508.6

1,498.2

1,496.3

1,498.9

1,495.4

1,494.5

1,494.8

1,494.8

1,498.3

1,500.9

Sporting goods, hobby,
book, and music stores…………… 645.5
General merchandise stores1………2,935.0
Department stores………………… 1,557.2
Miscellaneous store retailers……… 881.0
Nonstore retailers…………………… 432.8

658.2
2,984.6
1,576.7
868.7
437.6

665.1
2,976.5
1,570.5
873.3
435.5

664.0
2,975.8
1,568.5
869.0
435.1

664.0
2,968.2
1,560.6
868.3
440.1

661.6
2,976.7
1,568.4
866.3
446.5

667.2
2,971.1
1,564.3
869.4
441.4

661.9
2,955.7
1,543.3
865.3
443.1

658.6
2,943.9
1,534.3
862.8
442.7

651.5
2,939.0
1,528.1
863.3
441.5

653.2
2,928.5
1,514.7
860.8
441.0

654.5
2,939.6
1,516.3
858.9
437.1

649.3
2,948.4
1,517.2
857.4
436.6

654.1
2,946.4
1,511.1
856.4
435.1

651.4
2,935.3
1,500.3
857.5
435.5

Transportation and
warehousing................................. 4,469.6
Air transportation…………….……… 487.0
Rail transportation……...…………… 227.5
62.7
Water transportation………...………
Truck transportation………..……… 1,435.8

4,536.0
492.6
234.4
64.3
1,441.2

4,551.2
494.5
234.6
65.0
1,440.6

4,548.7
495.2
234.0
64.9
1,433.6

4,549.0
503.0
233.8
65.0
1,428.7

4,539.9
502.1
232.5
64.4
1,423.1

4,534.5
504.7
233.8
63.8
1,422.5

4,535.5
508.2
233.7
62.5
1,417.4

4,537.7
507.5
233.7
61.6
1,420.4

4,538.3
504.5
233.5
62.3
1,415.2

4,524.1
501.3
233.0
61.3
1,409.8

4,514.0
497.6
230.0
61.8
1,400.1

4,513.6
495.2
232.1
61.9
1,398.3

4,510.5
491.0
230.2
60.6
1,401.1

4,494.4
486.4
231.4
59.6
1,388.8

2006
Building material and garden
supply stores................................ 1,324.1
Food and beverage stores............. 2,821.1
Health and personal care
stores………………………………
Gasoline stations……………………

Transit and ground passenger
transportation………...……………
Pipeline transportation………...……

399.3
38.7

410.0
40.1

417.8
40.1

417.4
40.3

411.5
40.6

411.8
40.8

411.9
40.6

413.5
40.9

412.9
41.2

418.3
41.3

412.9
42.2

416.4
42.8

417.1
43.3

418.8
43.0

422.6
43.3

Scenic and sightseeing
transportation…….…………………

27.5

29.4

29.8

30.3

30.9

31.3

31.0

31.5

31.7

31.3

31.1

31.3

30.6

30.5

30.3

Support activities for
transportation………………..……
Couriers and messengers……...……
Warehousing and storage…………
Utilities………………………….………......
Information…………………...….

570.6
582.4
638.1
548.5
3,038

582.9
582.5
658.7
553.4
3,029

586.5
580.3
662.0
554.8
3,031

589.9
577.9
665.2
556.1
3,027

589.2
584.4
661.9
555.5
3,022

587.1
588.1
658.7
557.1
3,018

584.9
585.5
655.8
557.1
3,014

585.9
586.0
655.9
557.0
3,016

586.3
585.3
657.1
558.2
3,013

588.2
585.0
658.7
557.7
3,007

587.1
587.2
658.2
557.1
3,002

587.0
587.7
659.3
558.1
2,997

590.3
586.5
658.3
559.8
2,988

590.7
587.1
657.5
559.7
2,983

589.8
584.9
657.3
562.6
2,980

Publishing industries, except
Internet…………………...…………

902.4

898.2

893.7

894.6

892.2

889.7

889.2

886.8

882.9

882.8

879.7

877.0

873.0

870.6

868.8

Motion picture and sound
recording industries……...………… 375.7
Broadcasting, except Internet..
328.3

380.0
326.4

384.3
327.0

380.5
324.8

376.3
325.0

376.3
321.9

372.9
323.0

380.1
322.1

383.0
322.5

382.5
320.8

380.9
321.2

382.0
319.6

379.1
320.4

379.0
318.3

380.7
319.8

Internet publishing and
broadcasting………………...………
Telecommunications………….…… 1,047.6

1,028.3

1,024.4

1,023.6

1,026.4

1,026.8

1,025.3

1,022.0

1,020.1

1,018.0

1,017.7

1,018.9

1,016.1

1,016.3

1,012.9

270.5
125.7
8,308
6,146.6

273.1
128.8
8,294
6,136.0

273.2
130.0
8,283
6,124.5

272.6
129.5
8,260
6,115.5

273.5
129.3
8,252
6,111.2

273.0
130.5
8,244
6,106.2

274.2
131.2
8,231
6,102.2

272.3
131.9
8,231
6,103.4

272.2
130.7
8,229
6,103.8

272.1
130.1
8,226
6,098.8

269.8
130.0
8,213
6,088.0

268.3
130.8
8,206
6,081.1

267.7
131.3
8,201
6,078.7

266.8
130.5
8,184
6,067.6

21.2

21.1

20.9

20.8

20.7

20.7

20.7

20.9

20.9

21.1

21.0

20.9

20.9

20.9

20.9

related activities 1………………… 2,924.9
Depository credit

2,881.6

2,856.7

2,844.8

2,834.3

2,829.2

2,825.0

2,820.4

2,811.8

2,807.9

2,800.5

2,794.0

2,788.6

2,786.9

2,789.4

intermediation 1…………………… 1,802.0
Commercial banking..…………… 1,322.9

1,822.5
1,345.8

1,831.0
1,350.1

1,829.3
1,350.1

1,823.4
1,344.7

1,824.6
1,345.9

1,821.5
1,342.2

1,823.3
1,344.9

1,821.6
1,343.4

1,822.9
1,344.2

1,820.6
1,343.4

1,818.1
1,343.1

1,815.3
1,340.9

1,814.3
1,340.8

1,812.2
1,340.7

818.3

847.9

853.2

855.0

856.9

856.7

859.2

862.5

865.8

867.2

866.6

866.0

860.6

862.2

854.4

Insurance carriers and
related activities………………...… 2,303.7

2,308.1

2,317.0

2,315.3

2,315.6

2,316.8

2,313.9

2,311.1

2,318.4

2,319.7

2,323.2

2,319.2

2,323.2

2,320.3

2,314.7

87.9

87.8

88.2

88.6

88.0

87.8

87.4

87.3

86.5

87.9

87.5

87.9

87.8

88.4

88.2

Real estate and rental
and leasing………………………..… 2,172.5
Real estate……………………….… 1,499.0
Rental and leasing services………
645.5

2,161.7
1,491.9
640.3

2,157.7
1,489.8
637.8

2,158.6
1,489.1
639.7

2,144.7
1,477.1
637.4

2,140.6
1,476.4
633.6

2,138.0
1,471.4
635.2

2,128.6
1,466.0
631.0

2,127.8
1,465.0
631.1

2,124.9
1,465.7
627.4

2,127.3
1,466.4
629.5

2,125.1
1,466.2
627.2

2,125.3
1,463.7
629.3

2,122.4
1,464.8
625.5

2,116.0
1,460.0
623.7

ISPs, search portals, and
data processing………..…………
Other information services…………

263.2
120.8
8,328
Financial activities………………..…
Finance and insurance……………..…6,156.0
Monetary authorities—
central bank…………………..……
Credit intermediation and

Securities, commodity
contracts, investments……………

Funds, trusts, and other
financial vehicles…………….……

Lessors of nonfinancial
intangible assets………………..…

28.1

29.5

30.1

29.8

30.2

30.6

31.4

31.6

31.7

31.8

31.4

31.7

32.3

32.1

32.3

Professional and business
services…………………………...…

17,566

17,962

18,000

18,070

18,079

18,131

18,101

18,073

18,014

18,031

17,982

17,927

17,904

17,861

17,834

services1…………………………… 7,356.7
Legal services……………..……… 1,173.2

7,662.0
1,176.4

7,729.7
1,178.6

7,759.3
1,179.7

7,784.8
1,175.2

7,820.5
1,173.9

7,819.2
1,173.0

7,829.2
1,174.9

7,823.5
1,172.6

7,845.6
1,172.5

7,839.1
1,172.2

7,850.3
1,171.3

7,855.4
1,168.8

7,861.2
1,167.1

7,873.3
1,165.1

889.0

947.2

964.5

971.3

979.4

993.3

992.3

991.9

983.3

986.1

973.8

978.0

976.3

977.7

976.4

Architectural and engineering
services…………………………… 1,385.7

1,436.0

1,443.2

1,451.1

1,453.9

1,460.4

1,460.5

1,463.0

1,461.8

1,464.9

1,464.9

1,466.2

1,466.0

1,466.1

1,462.8

Professional and technical

Accounting and bookkeeping
services……………………………

.

See notes at end of table

84

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

&RQWLQXHG²(PSOR\PHQWRIZRUNHUVRQQRQIDUPSD\UROOVE\LQGXVWU\PRQWKO\GDWDVHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG
[In thousands]
Industry

Annual average

2007

2008

2006

2007

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.p

Sept.p

1,284.6

1,359.8

1,375.5

1,380.0

1,387.5

1,391.4

1,391.6

1,393.5

1,391.3

1,403.9

1,408.9

1,411.7

1,419.7

1,425.8

1,434.3

886.4

952.8

967.2

974.8

985.1

994.3

989.2

992.7

997.0

1,001.3

1,006.9

1,014.6

1,019.0

1,020.5

1,029.3

1,810.9

1,846.0

1,854.7

1,860.9

1,850.0

1,847.8

1,845.5

1,844.7

1,839.7

1,841.0

1,836.4

1,837.8

1,830.2

1,830.3

1,825.8

Administrative and waste
services…………………………… 8,398.3
Administrative and support

8,453.6

8,415.3

8,449.6

8,444.1

8,462.8

8,436.2

8,398.6

8,351.2

8,344.4

8,306.0

8,239.2

8,218.1

8,169.4

8,134.8

services 1……………………… 8,050.2
Employment services 1……… 3,680.9
Temporary help services…… 2,637.4
792.9
Business support services……
Services to buildings

8,096.7
3,600.9
2,605.1
805.5

8,057.4
3,533.0
2,565.1
802.7

8,092.2
3,567.7
2,592.0
798.5

8,081.4
3,563.9
2,583.7
798.9

8,099.3
3,566.9
2,578.5
803.7

8,070.8
3,562.1
2,574.6
797.4

8,036.1
3,531.6
2,536.8
796.6

7,987.3
3,483.7
2,506.0
794.1

7,978.9
3,462.2
2,487.1
792.8

7,939.8
3,421.8
2,451.6
789.2

7,873.5
3,363.3
2,415.3
785.2

7,852.3
3,339.9
2,391.6
786.2

7,801.6
3,292.5
2,356.5
784.6

7,767.3
3,263.6
2,332.4
783.8

and dwellings…………………

1,801.4

1,851.2

1,863.2

1,866.3

1,861.1

1,872.0

1,861.3

1,859.7

1,857.3

1,864.6

1,865.9

1,867.4

1,864.4

1,866.5

1,863.8

Waste management and
remediation services………….

348.1

356.9

357.9

357.4

362.7

363.5

365.4

362.5

363.9

365.5

366.2

365.7

365.8

367.8

367.5

17,826
2,900.9

18,327
2,949.1

18,451
2,967.7

18,490
2,974.9

18,522
2,975.5

18,568
2,984.5

18,617
3,003.4

18,665
3,009.6

18,709
3,018.6

18,757
3,030.5

18,820
3,047.3

18,891
3,099.2

18,935
3,111.6

18,994
3,127.0

19,019
3,131.2

Computer systems design
and related services…………
Management and technical
consulting services……………
Management of companies
and enterprises……..……….....

Educational and health
services………………...……….
Educational services…….………

Health care and social
assistance……….……………… 14,925.3 15,377.6 15,483.0 15,515.1 15,546.7 15,583.2 15,613.6 15,655.0 15,690.5 15,726.1 15,772.4 15,791.3 15,823.3 15,867.1 15,887.7
Ambulatory health care
services 1……………………… 5,285.8
Offices of physicians…………… 2,147.8
Outpatient care centers………
492.6
Home health care services……
865.6
Hospitals………………………… 4,423.4

5,477.1
2,204.0
507.1
913.3
4,517.3

5,523.1
2,219.1
509.3
925.2
4,541.6

5,547.3
2,226.1
511.4
930.3
4,549.7

5,554.8
2,232.2
511.0
929.1
4,558.8

5,566.0
2,235.6
513.0
930.9
4,572.4

5,581.7
2,240.8
511.5
934.7
4,579.3

5,600.0
2,248.2
512.0
939.5
4,592.8

5,612.5
2,251.7
511.9
943.3
4,606.4

5,632.8
2,259.6
514.9
946.1
4,616.2

5,649.9
2,265.2
516.6
951.0
4,635.0

5,667.7
2,273.1
516.7
954.5
4,642.9

5,693.2
2,281.1
520.3
960.8
4,653.5

5,706.4
2,282.9
522.5
964.6
4,667.4

5,721.3
2,287.6
519.5
966.7
4,670.9

2,952.0
1,600.8
2,431.2
849.2
13,474

2,962.8
1,604.3
2,455.5
857.4
13,552

2,963.1
1,603.1
2,455.0
853.3
13,604

2,967.5
1,605.9
2,465.6
856.7
13,628

2,971.2
1,608.2
2,473.6
857.1
13,635

2,974.6
1,608.8
2,478.0
859.2
13,644

2,979.9
1,613.3
2,482.3
858.6
13,660

2,983.4
1,609.6
2,488.2
861.8
13,676

2,987.3
1,610.7
2,489.8
858.1
13,690

2,989.8
1,612.1
2,497.7
860.2
13,679

2,987.7
1,608.9
2,493.0
848.8
13,679

2,986.4
1,606.5
2,490.2
842.2
13,655

2,988.4
1,605.2
2,504.9
849.2
13,645

2,986.6
1,601.4
2,508.9
853.1
13,628

Nursing and residential
care facilities 1………………… 2,892.5
Nursing care facilities………… 1,581.4
Social assistance 1……………… 2,323.5
Child day care services………
818.3
Leisure and hospitality………..
13,110
Arts, entertainment,
and recreation……….…….……

1,928.5

1,977.5

1,985.3

1,996.4

2,001.4

2,010.3

2,016.1

2,019.1

2,025.7

2,021.1

2,013.1

2,011.7

1,999.5

1,995.4

1,984.4

Performing arts and
spectator sports…………………

398.5

412.4

414.3

419.0

426.4

429.9

429.5

431.0

433.9

436.4

434.7

438.0

433.1

433.0

429.0

Museums, historical sites,
zoos, and parks…………………

123.8

130.2

131.6

131.9

131.6

131.5

132.6

131.7

133.4

132.6

133.9

132.7

132.1

131.9

130.8

1,406.3

1,434.9

1,439.4

1,445.5

1,443.4

1,448.9

1,454.0

1,456.4

1,458.4

1,452.1

1,444.5

1,441.0

1,434.3

1,430.5

1,424.6

Amusements, gambling, and
recreation………………………

Accommodations and
food services…………………… 11,181.1 11,496.3 11,567.0 11,607.5 11,626.8 11,624.7 11,628.0 11,640.7 11,650.7 11,668.7 11,665.8 11,667.4 11,655.6 11,649.1 11,643.4
Accommodations………………. 1,832.1
1,856.4 1,856.4 1,863.6 1,870.3 1,858.1 1,854.9 1,854.4 1,849.4 1,853.0 1,849.0 1,843.4 1,835.8 1,827.5 1,826.6
Food services and drinking
places…………………………… 9,349.0
Other services……………………… 5,438
Repair and maintenance……… 1,248.5
Personal and laundry services
1,288.4

9,639.9
5,491
1,257.0
1,305.2

9,710.6
5,495
1,262.5
1,304.4

9,743.9
5,496
1,260.1
1,303.4

9,756.5
5,506
1,258.0
1,309.7

9,766.6
5,507
1,255.5
1,306.9

9,773.1
5,508
1,252.9
1,306.6

9,786.3
5,517
1,255.2
1,306.4

9,801.3
5,522
1,254.8
1,308.5

9,815.7
5,525
1,254.0
1,309.9

9,816.8
5,527
1,251.7
1,310.6

9,824.0
5,525
1,245.6
1,312.8

9,819.8
5,530
1,243.8
1,315.1

9,821.6
5,524
1,234.4
1,318.1

9,816.8
5,530
1,236.6
1,319.0

Membership associations and
organizations…………………… 2,901.2
Government..................................
Federal........................................
Federal, except U.S. Postal
Service....................................
U.S. Postal Service………………
State...........................................
Education................................
Other State government..........
Local...........................................
Education................................
Other local government...........

2,928.8

2,927.6

2,932.8

2,938.0

2,944.4

2,948.9

2,955.6

2,959.0

2,961.4

2,964.3

2,966.5

2,970.8

2,971.3

2,974.8

21,974
2,732

22,203
2,727

22,227
2,721

22,262
2,722

22,278
2,728

22,333
2,735

22,336
2,717

22,362
2,725

22,377
2,726

22,401
2,734

22,453
2,740

22,463
2,744

22,502
2,750

22,533
2,747

22,542
2,750

1,962.6
769.7
5,075
2,292.5
2,782.0
14,167
7,913.0
6,253.8

1,964.6
762.3
5,125
2,318.4
2,806.6
14,351
7,976.6
6,374.5

1,961.4
759.3
5,138
2,327.7
2,810.3
14,368
7,970.6
6,397.5

1,963.5
758.3
5,138
2,325.9
2,812.4
14,402
7,994.6
6,406.9

1,966.7
761.7
5,131
2,314.3
2,816.5
14,419
7,999.6
6,419.2

1,972.3
763.1
5,153
2,332.5
2,820.9
14,445
8,016.5
6,428.2

1,977.3
739.7
5,159
2,335.1
2,824.0
14,460
8,018.0
6,441.5

1,982.9
741.6
5,158
2,332.9
2,824.9
14,479
8,031.9
6,447.5

1,986.6
739.1
5,157
2,332.9
2,823.8
14,494
8,035.7
6,457.8

1,996.0
737.9
5,170
2,340.8
2,829.1
14,497
8,032.1
6,465.0

2,006.5
733.3
5,174
2,344.4
2,829.7
14,539
8,060.0
6,479.2

2,013.1
731.0
5,179
2,354.3
2,824.9
14,540
8,053.2
6,486.8

2,018.6
731.5
5,193
2,366.7
2,826.5
14,559
8,072.5
6,486.5

2,025.2
721.6
5,203
2,372.2
2,830.7
14,583
8,082.1
6,501.2

2,031.8
717.8
5,208
2,379.7
2,828.6
14,584
8,098.4
6,485.2

1

Includes other industries not shown separately.
NOTE: See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.
p = preliminary.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

85

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

13. Average weekly hours of production or nonsupervisory workers1 on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry, monthly
data seasonally adjusted
Annual average
Industry

2006

2007

2007
Sept.

Oct.

2008

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.p Sept.p

TOTAL PRIVATE…………………………

33.9

33.8

33.8

33.8

33.8

33.8

33.7

33.7

33.8

33.8

33.7

33.7

33.7

33.7

33.6

GOODS-PRODUCING………………………

40.5

40.6

40.6

40.6

40.7

40.5

40.4

40.4

40.5

40.4

40.2

40.3

40.3

40.3

40.0

Natural resources and mining……………

45.6

45.9

46.2

46.0

46.2

45.8

45.7

45.7

46.2

44.9

44.6

45.0

44.8

45.4

44.4

Construction…………………………………

39.0

39.0

38.9

39.0

39.1

39.0

38.8

38.7

38.9

38.9

38.5

38.7

38.7

38.7

38.5

Manufacturing……………………..............
Overtime hours..................................

41.1
4.4

41.2
4.2

41.4
4.2

41.2
4.1

41.3
4.1

41.1
4.0

41.1
4.0

41.1
4.0

41.2
4.0

41.0
4.0

41.0
3.9

41.0
3.8

41.0
3.8

40.9
3.7

40.7
3.6

Durable goods..…………………............
Overtime hours..................................
Wood products.....................................
Nonmetallic mineral products...............
Primary metals.....................................
Fabricated metal products...................
Machinery…………………………………
Computer and electronic products……
Electrical equipment and appliances…
Transportation equipment....................
Furniture and related products………..
Miscellaneous manufacturing..............

41.4
4.4
39.8
43.0
43.6
41.4
42.4
40.5
41.0
42.7
38.8
38.7

41.5
4.2
39.4
42.3
42.9
41.6
42.6
40.6
41.2
42.8
39.2
38.9

41.6
4.2
39.7
42.7
42.6
41.9
42.7
40.6
41.2
42.8
39.4
39.7

41.5
4.1
39.5
42.6
42.6
41.7
42.9
40.6
40.7
42.7
39.1
39.0

41.5
4.1
39.0
42.9
42.7
41.7
42.9
40.9
41.2
42.6
38.9
38.8

41.3
4.0
39.2
41.5
42.2
41.6
42.9
40.5
41.6
42.1
39.1
38.8

41.4
4.1
39.0
42.2
42.5
41.6
43.1
40.4
41.4
42.6
38.3
39.0

41.4
4.1
39.0
42.1
42.4
41.7
43.0
40.5
41.1
42.9
38.2
38.8

41.5
4.0
38.7
43.1
42.9
41.7
42.7
41.0
41.3
42.3
38.7
39.3

41.3
4.0
38.8
42.2
42.4
41.6
42.5
41.1
41.1
42.3
38.7
39.3

41.2
3.9
39.1
42.3
42.2
41.4
42.1
41.2
41.1
42.1
38.8
39.2

41.2
3.8
39.3
42.1
42.5
41.2
42.1
41.2
41.0
42.2
39.0
39.2

41.3
3.8
39.0
42.5
42.4
41.2
42.1
41.1
40.9
42.6
38.3
39.1

41.2
3.7
39.0
42.4
42.8
41.3
42.8
41.1
40.9
41.8
38.0
39.4

40.9
3.5
38.4
41.8
42.4
41.2
42.1
40.9
41.1
41.8
37.5
38.6

Nondurable goods..................................
Overtime hours..................................
Food manufacturing............................…
Beverage and tobacco products..........
Textile mills………………………………
Textile product mills……………………
Apparel.................................................
Leather and allied products..................
Paper and paper products………………

40.6
4.4
40.1
40.8
40.6
39.8
36.5
38.9
42.9

40.8
4.1
40.7
40.8
40.3
39.7
37.2
38.1
43.2

40.9
4.1
40.7
40.8
40.4
39.9
37.2
37.9
43.2

40.8
4.1
40.8
40.6
40.2
39.2
36.6
37.7
43.3

40.9
4.1
40.6
40.5
39.9
39.1
36.9
38.1
43.7

40.8
4.0
40.4
40.8
40.2
39.9
37.5
39.1
44.0

40.6
3.9
40.5
40.5
38.7
38.6
36.7
38.2
44.0

40.6
3.9
40.6
40.1
38.8
39.3
36.8
38.2
43.9

40.7
3.9
40.7
40.4
38.8
39.3
36.7
38.7
43.6

40.5
3.9
40.8
39.6
38.4
38.3
36.6
38.6
43.3

40.5
3.8
40.8
39.7
39.0
38.7
36.0
38.7
42.5

40.5
3.8
40.6
39.0
38.9
39.1
36.4
38.5
42.7

40.5
3.7
40.5
38.9
39.4
39.2
37.0
38.4
42.6

40.5
3.7
40.4
38.3
39.6
38.8
36.5
37.7
43.0

40.2
3.7
40.3
38.3
39.2
38.2
36.4
37.9
42.5

Printing and related support
activities.............................................
Petroleum and coal products……………
Chemicals…………………………………
Plastics and rubber products……………

39.2
45.0
42.5
40.6

39.1
44.2
41.9
41.3

38.9
43.4
42.0
41.6

38.8
42.9
41.7
41.7

39.0
43.8
42.1
42.1

38.8
44.0
41.5
41.4

38.4
43.8
41.6
41.1

38.2
43.6
41.4
41.2

38.6
43.5
41.9
41.1

38.5
43.2
41.3
41.0

38.5
44.2
41.3
41.0

38.1
44.4
41.8
41.1

38.0
45.4
41.9
41.3

38.2
44.8
41.6
41.3

38.0
44.5
41.6
40.9

PRIVATE SERVICEPROVIDING………………………………

32.5

32.4

32.4

32.4

32.4

32.4

32.4

32.3

32.4

32.4

32.4

32.4

32.3

32.4

32.3

Trade, transportation, and
utilities.......……………….......................
Wholesale trade........……………….......
Retail trade…………………………………
Transportation and warehousing…………
Utilities………………………………………
Information…………………………………
Financial activities…………………………

33.4
38.0
30.5
36.9
41.4
36.6
35.7

33.3
38.2
30.2
36.9
42.4
36.5
35.9

33.3
38.2
30.2
36.9
42.5
36.5
35.7

33.2
38.1
30.1
36.7
42.2
36.2
35.7

33.3
38.1
30.2
36.8
42.5
36.2
35.8

33.3
38.3
30.1
36.8
42.8
36.3
35.8

33.4
38.4
30.2
36.6
43.1
36.3
35.8

33.3
38.2
30.1
36.7
42.8
36.2
35.8

33.4
38.4
30.2
36.7
43.3
36.6
35.8

33.4
38.3
30.2
36.7
42.6
36.5
35.9

33.3
38.3
30.1
36.5
42.4
36.6
36.0

33.3
38.3
30.1
36.5
42.8
36.6
35.9

33.2
38.4
30.0
36.4
42.4
36.7
35.7

33.2
38.3
30.1
36.4
42.3
36.7
36.0

33.2
38.1
30.1
36.4
42.8
36.8
35.9

Professional and business
services……………………………………
Education and health services……………
Leisure and hospitality……………………
Other services……………........................

34.6
32.5
25.7
30.9

34.8
32.6
25.5
30.9

34.8
32.6
25.4
30.9

34.8
32.6
25.4
30.8

34.7
32.6
25.3
30.9

34.8
32.6
25.3
30.8

34.7
32.6
25.3
30.8

34.6
32.6
25.3
30.8

34.8
32.7
25.3
30.9

34.8
32.6
25.4
30.8

34.8
32.7
25.3
30.8

34.8
32.6
25.3
30.8

34.8
32.6
25.2
30.8

34.9
32.6
25.2
30.9

34.9
32.5
25.1
30.8

1

Data relate to production workers in natural resources and mining and
manufacturing, construction workers in construction, and nonsupervisory workers
in the service-providing industries.

86

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

NOTE: See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark
revision.
p = preliminary.

14. Average hourly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers1 on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry,
monthly data seasonally adjusted
Annual average

2007

Industry
TOTAL PRIVATE
Current dollars………………………
Constant (1982) dollars……………
GOODS-PRODUCING...............................

2008

2006

2007

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.p Sept.p

$16.76
8.24

$17.42
8.32

$17.57
8.35

$17.59
8.34

$17.64
8.27

$17.70
8.27

$17.75
8.26

$17.81
8.29

$17.87
8.28

$17.89
8.27

$17.95
8.24

$18.00
8.17

$18.06
8.12

$18.14
8.17

$18.17
8.19

18.02

18.67

18.78

18.77

18.84

18.90

18.98

19.04

19.12

19.12

19.17

19.25

19.33

19.40

19.45

19.90
20.02
16.81
15.96
17.68
15.33

20.96
20.95
17.26
16.43
18.19
15.67

20.99
21.12
17.34
16.50
18.28
15.74

21.05
21.07
17.34
16.52
18.28
15.73

21.02
21.20
17.40
16.58
18.31
15.85

21.54
21.30
17.41
16.60
18.33
15.86

21.75
21.38
17.49
16.68
18.41
15.92

21.69
21.47
17.55
16.74
18.49
15.94

22.01
21.56
17.61
16.79
18.54
16.03

21.61
21.60
17.62
16.80
18.58
15.99

21.71
21.70
17.65
16.85
18.61
16.04

22.01
21.77
17.71
16.93
18.67
16.11

22.54
21.84
17.78
16.99
18.75
16.14

23.02
22.01
17.75
16.98
18.70
16.16

23.17
22.06
17.79
17.04
18.74
16.21

PRIVATE SERVICEPROVIDING..........………………..............

16.42

17.10

17.26

17.28

17.33

17.39

17.44

17.50

17.55

17.58

17.64

17.69

17.74

17.82

17.85

Trade,transportation, and
utilities…………………………………....
Wholesale trade....................................
Retail trade...........................................
Transportation and warehousing………
Utilities……………………………………
Information..............................................
Financial activities..................................

15.39
18.91
12.57
17.28
27.40
23.23
18.80

15.79
19.59
12.76
17.73
27.87
23.94
19.64

15.90
19.72
12.83
17.86
28.14
24.01
19.76

15.94
19.77
12.86
17.86
28.32
24.10
19.78

15.93
19.86
12.81
17.93
28.18
24.11
19.87

16.00
19.93
12.81
18.07
28.52
24.18
19.91

16.02
19.97
12.80
18.10
28.61
24.33
20.00

16.07
20.00
12.84
18.21
28.58
24.41
20.05

16.11
20.03
12.86
18.25
28.77
24.53
20.11

16.11
20.05
12.85
18.33
28.56
24.50
20.16

16.16
20.06
12.90
18.38
28.81
24.67
20.23

16.19
20.12
12.90
18.39
29.14
24.74
20.26

16.20
20.16
12.90
18.41
28.65
24.82
20.30

16.26
20.30
12.95
18.47
28.86
24.86
20.38

16.24
20.25
12.93
18.45
28.74
24.85
20.44

Professional and business
services.................................................

19.13

20.13

20.36

20.31

20.42

20.46

20.53

20.63

20.74

20.84

20.90

21.01

21.12

21.28

21.38

Education and health
services.................................................
Leisure and hospitality..........................
Other services.........................................

17.38
9.75
14.77

18.11
10.41
15.42

18.29
10.55
15.55

18.34
10.60
15.59

18.43
10.61
15.66

18.48
10.65
15.71

18.54
10.67
15.74

18.59
10.73
15.76

18.61
10.74
15.77

18.64
10.79
15.79

18.71
10.81
15.81

18.75
10.85
15.85

18.81
10.86
15.90

18.85
10.90
15.93

18.89
10.91
15.97

Natural resources and mining...............
Construction...........................................
Manufacturing.........................................
Excluding overtime...........................
Durable goods……………………………
Nondurable goods………………………



Data relate to production workers in natural resources and mining and
manufacturing, construction workers in construction, and nonsupervisory
workers in the service-providing industries.

NOTE: See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.
p = preliminary.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

87

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

15. Average hourly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers1 on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry
Annual average

2007

Industry
2006
TOTAL PRIVATE……………………………… $16.76
Seasonally adjusted…………………….
–

2007

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

2008
Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.p Sept.p

$17.42 $17.64 $17.60 $17.63 $17.75 $17.80 $17.85 $17.92 $17.91 $17.90 $17.96 $17.98 $18.05 $18.20
– 17.57 17.59 17.64 17.70 17.75 17.81 17.87 17.89 17.95 18.00 18.06 18.14 18.17

GOODS-PRODUCING......................................

18.02

18.67

18.91

18.86

18.88

18.96

18.90

18.94

19.03

19.06

19.13

19.24

19.37

19.50

19.58

Natural resources and mining……………..

19.90

20.96

20.93

21.02

20.99

21.68

21.96

21.87

22.26

21.77

21.51

21.74

22.41

23.02

23.17

Construction.…………..................................

20.02

20.95

21.32

21.25

21.26

21.38

21.24

21.35

21.43

21.48

21.60

21.69

21.90

22.15

22.28

Manufacturing…………………………………… 16.81

17.26

17.39

17.34

17.42

17.51

17.53

17.55

17.60

17.63

17.63

17.71

17.71

17.74

17.82

Durable goods..…………………..................
Wood products .........................................
Nonmetallic mineral products ………………
Primary metals .........................................
Fabricated metal products …....................
Machinery …………..………………………
Computer and electronic products ...........
Electrical equipment and appliances ........
Transportation equipment ........................
Furniture and related products .................
Miscellaneous manufacturing ...................

17.68
13.39
16.59
19.36
16.17
17.20
18.94
15.54
22.41
13.80
14.36

18.19
13.67
16.93
19.66
16.53
17.72
19.95
15.94
23.02
14.32
14.66

18.35
13.65
16.94
19.83
16.61
17.79
20.20
16.10
23.42
14.36
14.78

18.30
13.81
16.94
19.81
16.69
17.68
20.28
15.80
23.20
14.36
14.70

18.36
13.82
17.05
19.69
16.70
17.74
20.22
15.68
23.41
14.35
14.72

18.46
13.88
16.94
19.73
16.82
17.95
20.33
15.73
23.46
14.50
15.00

18.43
13.90
16.99
20.04
16.77
17.72
20.51
15.70
23.34
14.38
14.91

18.50
13.82
16.86
19.99
16.78
17.81
20.60
15.73
23.48
14.37
14.95

18.53
13.89
16.80
20.21
16.85
17.85
20.80
15.66
23.46
14.42
15.08

18.56
13.96
17.12
20.20
16.81
17.88
20.90
15.76
23.52
14.45
14.97

18.57
14.08
16.90
20.23
16.84
17.98
20.99
15.69
23.53
14.48
14.97

18.67
14.12
16.98
20.25
16.92
17.87
21.06
15.75
23.79
14.58
15.15

18.63
14.22
16.94
20.42
16.94
17.93
21.15
15.87
23.68
14.52
15.35

18.70
14.23
16.86
20.30
17.07
17.91
21.24
15.96
23.86
14.60
15.34

18.80
14.33
16.97
20.35
17.15
18.00
21.30
15.98
23.94
14.56
15.42

Nondurable goods………………………......
Food manufacturing ...........................……
Beverages and tobacco products .............

15.33
13.13
18.18

15.67
13.54
18.49

15.77
13.65
18.40

15.71
13.61
18.69

15.83
13.63
19.54

15.90
13.70
19.69

15.99
13.87
19.55

15.93
13.74
19.64

16.01
13.83
19.59

16.03
13.86
19.26

16.04
13.89
19.05

16.08
13.95
18.57

16.19
14.01
18.86

16.13
13.99
18.43

16.23
14.03
18.85

12.55
11.86
10.65
11.44
18.01
15.80
24.11
19.60
14.97

13.00
11.78
11.05
12.04
18.43
16.15
25.26
19.56
15.38

13.16
11.73
11.17
12.24
18.54
16.37
25.95
19.52
15.45

12.93
11.75
11.16
12.10
18.50
16.48
24.92
19.35
15.41

13.06
11.67
11.20
12.50
18.47
16.33
26.95
19.52
15.49

13.13
11.75
11.28
12.12
18.71
16.65
25.52
19.57
15.65

13.29
11.68
11.43
12.78
18.78
16.51
26.55
19.46
15.56

13.35
11.62
11.46
12.68
18.61
16.49
26.51
19.40
15.58

13.45
11.78
11.35
12.81
18.66
16.65
27.22
19.35
15.69

13.45
11.78
11.51
12.63
18.58
16.64
27.12
19.39
15.77

13.50
11.86
11.43
12.88
18.74
16.66
27.01
19.37
15.71

13.58
11.80
11.36
12.88
18.89
16.78
27.17
19.33
15.69

13.77
11.80
11.35
12.85
19.07
16.82
27.70
19.46
15.84

13.65
11.75
11.31
12.94
18.80
16.80
27.76
19.50
15.87

13.71
11.87
11.45
12.80
18.95
16.87
28.35
19.72
15.94

Textile mills ..............................................
Textile product mills .................................
Apparel .....................................................
Leather and allied products ………………
Paper and paper products …………………
Printing and related support activities…...
Petroleum and coal products ………………
Chemicals ……………………………………
Plastics and rubber products ....................
PRIVATE SERVICEPROVIDING …………………………………….

16.42

17.10

17.31

17.27

17.31

17.45

17.52

17.58

17.65

17.62

17.59

17.64

17.63

17.68

17.86

Trade, transportation, and
utilities…….……..........................................
Wholesale trade ………………………………
Retail trade ……………………………………
Transportation and warehousing ……………
Utilities ………..…..….………..………………

15.39
18.91
12.57
17.28
27.40

15.79
19.59
12.76
17.73
27.87

16.00
19.85
12.91
17.96
28.27

15.94
19.75
12.85
17.89
28.44

15.84
19.89
12.70
17.94
28.17

15.89
20.10
12.64
18.04
28.61

16.02
20.01
12.78
18.08
28.62

16.08
20.03
12.82
18.14
28.61

16.16
20.08
12.90
18.19
28.88

16.16
20.01
12.90
18.28
28.69

16.14
19.93
12.91
18.33
28.83

16.20
20.05
12.92
18.44
29.01

16.21
20.12
12.93
18.53
28.48

16.25
20.23
12.96
18.52
28.61

16.29
20.21
13.02
18.51
28.80

Information………………………………….....

23.23

23.94

24.22

24.15

24.11

24.34

24.44

24.44

24.58

24.52

24.60

24.73

24.70

24.75

24.97

Financial activities……..………....................

18.80

19.64

19.88

19.79

19.83

19.97

19.96

20.07

20.18

20.22

20.20

20.27

20.20

20.28

20.41

19.13

20.13

20.34

20.19

20.33

20.67

20.65

20.77

20.93

20.84

20.81

21.03

20.99

21.05

21.27

services………………………………………… 17.38

Professional and business
services…………………………………………
Education and health
18.11

18.33

18.33

18.42

18.51

18.61

18.58

18.62

18.63

18.64

18.68

18.85

18.84

18.93

Leisure and hospitality ………………………

9.75

10.41

10.53

10.61

10.67

10.77

10.73

10.82

10.76

10.80

10.82

10.77

10.72

10.80

10.89

Other services…………………......................

14.77

15.42

15.58

15.55

15.61

15.75

15.74

15.78

15.84

15.82

15.84

15.85

15.80

15.84

15.99

1 Data relate to production workers in natural resources and mining and
manufacturing, construction workers in construction, and nonsupervisory
workers in the service-providing industries.

88

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

16. Average weekly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers1 on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry
Industry

Annual average
2006

2006

2007

Sept.

$589.72
–

$603.29
593.87

730.16

757.06

907.95
781.21

2007
June

780.61

793.65

791.03

$592.74
598.18

$596.19
600.20

$605.70
604.01

$599.99
604.68

$601.44
604.92

$612.44
606.60

777.20

771.37

770.30

771.67

756.00

751.92

766.91

766.21

769.03

783.07

961.78

979.52

981.63

969.74

992.94

988.20

986.34 1,017.28

970.94

950.74

987.00 1,006.21 1,052.01 1,038.02

816.06

842.14

841.50

829.14

825.27

805.00

800.63

825.06

824.83

833.76

852.42

858.48

874.93

866.69

691.02

711.36

725.16

717.88

722.93

728.42

716.98

714.29

723.36

722.83

721.07

729.65

719.03

729.11

730.62

732.00
532.99
Wood products .........................
712.71
Nonmetallic mineral products....
Primary metals…………………… 843.59
668.98
Fabricated metal products.........
Machinery………………………… 728.84

754.12
539.10
716.79
843.28
687.13
753.99

770.70
548.73
735.20
848.72
699.28
761.41

763.11
548.26
730.11
841.93
700.98
762.01

763.78
534.83
731.45
842.73
701.40
762.82

771.63
546.87
696.23
844.44
708.12
780.83

759.32
530.98
696.59
851.70
695.96
763.73

758.50
523.78
686.20
847.58
693.01
762.27

767.14
531.99
715.68
869.03
702.65
763.98

766.53
538.86
722.46
852.44
699.30
761.69

765.08
553.34
718.25
853.71
697.18
756.96

774.81
564.80
726.74
868.73
698.80
754.11

760.10
558.85
726.73
859.68
691.15
749.47

774.18
560.66
728.35
868.84
706.70
762.97

774.56
557.44
721.23
864.88
710.01
757.80

766.96

809.19

828.20

827.42

833.06

841.66

822.45

826.06

852.80

854.81

862.69

873.99

862.92

870.84

877.56

636.95
957.65

656.58
666.54
985.57 1,011.74

649.38
992.96

652.29
671.67
999.61 1,006.43

649.98
638.64
994.28 1,002.60

645.19
994.70

646.16
999.60

640.15
648.90
985.91 1,013.45

641.15
649.57
658.38
975.62 1,002.12 1,007.87

535.90

561.03

572.96

561.48

559.65

578.55

545.00

541.75

555.17

553.44

557.48

571.54

557.57

566.48

manufacturing..........................

555.90

569.98

588.24

574.77

571.14

589.50

580.00

575.58

594.15

586.82

583.83

595.40

594.05

605.93

596.75

Nondurable goods.......................

621.97
525.99

639.99
550.65

651.30
566.48

644.11
560.73

653.78
562.92

656.67
561.70

646.00
556.19

638.79
546.85

648.41
555.97

647.61
559.94

646.41
565.32

652.85
566.37

652.46
567.41

654.88
569.39

660.56
575.23

741.34
509.39
472.24
389.20
445.47
772.39

753.80
524.47
467.96
411.52
459.43
795.20

747.04
536.93
468.03
414.41
462.67
813.91

751.34
515.91
457.08
410.69
458.59
806.60

787.46
521.09
457.46
415.52
478.75
816.37

793.51
539.64
478.23
423.00
484.80
834.47

778.09
514.32
449.68
416.05
484.36
826.32

769.89
512.64
454.34
420.58
480.57
805.81

785.56
521.86
464.13
418.82
499.59
807.98

768.47
515.14
450.00
423.57
491.31
802.66

763.91
523.80
454.24
412.62
502.32
788.95

733.52
529.62
468.46
415.78
501.03
804.71

737.43
535.65
462.56
416.55
485.73
806.66

711.40
541.91
458.25
411.68
481.37
806.52

716.30
544.29
453.43
414.49
481.28
814.85

618.92

632.08

644.98

644.37

640.14

654.35

630.68

629.92

644.36

640.64

638.08

634.28

630.75

643.44

649.50

Durable goods……………………

May

$613.34
610.51

$605.28
598.26

Manufacturing……………………

Apr.

$611.90
611.32

$594.13
596.23

CONSTRUCTION

Mar.

$605.93
608.62

$594.88
594.54

Natural resources
and mining………………………..

Feb.

Sept.p

Dec.

GOODS-PRODUCING……………

Jan.

Aug.p

Nov.

TOTAL PRIVATE………………… $567.87
Seasonally adjusted..........
–

Oct.

July

Computer and electronic
products..................................
Electrical equipment and
appliances...............................
Transportation equipment………
Furniture and related
products………………………..

551.82

Miscellaneous

Food manufacturing...................
Beverages and tobacco
products..................................
Textile mills………………………
Textile product mills……………
Apparel……………………………
Leather and allied products.......
Paper and paper products…….
Printing and related
support activities………………
Petroleum and coal

products………………………… 1,085.50 1,115.24 1,144.40 1,074.05 1,204.67 1,099.91 1,157.58 1,134.63 1,165.02 1,163.45 1,188.44 1,228.08 1,276.97 1,240.87 1,278.59
819.99
821.79
801.09
823.74
818.03
809.54
801.22
810.77
800.81
794.17
811.86
811.48
813.15
824.30
Chemicals………………………… 833.67
Plastics and rubber
products…………………………
PRIVATE SERVICEPROVIDING…………....................
Trade, transportation,
and utilities………………………
Wholesale trade......…………......
Retail trade…………………………

608.41

635.15

647.36

642.60

652.13

657.30

639.52

637.22

644.86

646.57

644.11

649.57

644.69

653.84

655.13

532.78

554.78

567.77

557.82

559.11

570.62

558.89

564.32

573.63

567.36

566.40

578.59

571.21

574.60

576.88

514.34
718.63
383.02

526.38
748.90
385.20

542.40
768.20
396.34

529.21
752.48
386.79

525.89
757.81
382.27

535.49
779.88
385.52

525.46
758.38
379.57

529.03
759.14
380.75

538.13
775.09
387.00

534.90
764.38
385.71

534.23
761.33
387.30

545.94
779.95
394.06

541.41
770.60
391.78

542.75
774.81
392.69

545.72
770.00
395.81

Transportation and
warehousing……………………… 636.97
654.83
668.11
656.56
661.99
678.30
650.88
654.85
667.57
663.56
665.38
680.44
674.49
679.68
677.47
Utilities……………………………… 1,135.34 1,182.17 1,215.61 1,208.70 1,194.41 1,221.65 1,222.07 1,218.79 1,241.84 1,225.06 1,219.51 1,247.43 1,204.70 1,204.48 1,244.16
Information…………………………

850.42

873.63

896.14

874.23

872.78

893.28

877.40

879.84

902.09

887.62

890.52

917.48

908.96

913.28

923.89

Financial activities………………… 672.21

705.29

721.64

702.55

705.95

726.91

708.58

716.50

730.52

721.85

721.14

739.86

719.12

726.02

726.60

Professional and
business services………………

662.27

700.15

715.97

702.61

705.45

727.58

704.17

714.49

734.64

725.23

724.19

744.46

728.35

736.75

742.32

Education and Education and
health services…………………… 564.94

590.18

603.06

595.73

600.49

607.13

604.83

603.85

608.87

603.61

605.80

610.84

614.51

614.18

615.23

Leisure and hospitality………….

250.34

265.45

269.57

268.43

266.75

272.48

262.89

269.42

272.23

272.16

273.75

278.94

276.58

278.64

271.16

Other services……………………… 456.50

476.80

484.54

478.94

480.79

488.25

480.07

482.87

489.46

485.67

486.29

492.94

488.22

492.62

492.49

1 Data relate to production workers in natural resources and mining and manufacturing,

NOTE: See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.

construction workers in construction, and nonsupervisory workers in the service-

Dash indicates data not available.

providing industries.

p = preliminary.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

89

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

17. Diffusion indexes of employment change, seasonally adjusted
[In percent]
Timespan and year

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug. Sept. Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Private nonfarm payrolls, 278 industries
Over 1-month span:
2004...............................................
2005..............................................
2006..............................................
2007…………………………………
2008…………………………………

50.5
52.2
65.1
51.6
45.4

50.5
60.6
60.9
51.8
41.4

64.1
54.2
64.4
52.7
47.4

62.6
58.2
59.3
51.1
45.6

61.7
55.8
53.3
56.6
46.4

58.9
58.2
52.7
50.4
42.3

56.0
58.0
60.4
52.2
38.3

50.0
61.3
58.9
51.6
44.7

56.9
54.7
53.5
56.4
38.1

56.9
53.6
55.8
54.6

51.3
62.4
57.1
48.2

51.8
54.7
56.0
48.5

Over 3-month span:
2004...............................................
2005..............................................
2006..............................................
2007…………………………………
2008…………………………………

54.4
52.2
67.2
58.4
46.7

52.9
55.5
66.2
54.7
42.7

57.3
57.5
66.6
55.3
42.3

63.5
60.8
65.5
54.7
44.0

68.8
58.9
60.6
56.2
43.1

66.6
61.9
58.2
53.3
44.0

61.3
60.4
56.0
53.1
36.3

56.4
63.9
58.9
54.7
38.3

57.7
61.1
55.7
58.4
36.1

59.5
54.4
56.4
56.8

61.9
54.9
57.1
54.7

54.6
61.3
58.4
52.4

Over 6-month span:
2004...............................................
2005..............................................
2006..............................................
2007…………………………………
2008…………………………………

50.0
54.6
63.1
59.1
51.5

51.6
57.3
64.4
56.4
49.8

55.3
56.8
67.2
57.5
44.7

60.9
57.5
67.0
56.8
46.5

63.7
57.5
64.4
58.8
43.6

65.1
58.2
66.4
58.2
39.1

65.1
64.4
61.5
56.2
37.6

63.9
62.8
61.7
58.0
38.9

60.4
62.0
60.4
58.2
37.2

61.7
59.3
59.7
57.1

58.2
61.5
60.8
54.6

56.0
62.0
56.0
53.8

Over 12-month span:
2004...............................................
2005..............................................
2006..............................................
2007…………………………………
2008…………………………………

40.5
60.6
67.2
62.6
53.8

42.3
60.8
65.1
59.1
54.6

45.1
59.7
65.5
60.4
52.6

48.9
58.9
62.6
58.9
50.4

51.3
58.0
64.8
59.5
49.3

58.2
60.0
66.4
58.4
45.8

57.5
60.9
64.4
57.5
44.7

55.7
63.3
64.4
58.8
42.3

57.3
60.4
66.2
61.7
41.2

58.8
58.9
65.1
60.4

60.6
59.5
64.4
59.9

60.8
61.7
65.5
57.7

Manufacturing payrolls, 84 industries
Over 1-month span:
2004...............................................
2005..............................................
2006..............................................
2007…………………………………
2008…………………………………

43.5
36.3
57.7
47.6
40.5

47.6
48.8
45.8
35.7
28.6

47.0
42.9
54.8
30.4
38.1

63.7
44.6
48.8
29.8
35.1

50.6
42.3
38.1
37.5
44.6

51.2
35.1
53.0
39.3
30.4

58.3
38.1
50.6
41.7
26.8

42.9
47.0
44.0
33.3
34.5

42.9
45.8
36.3
40.5
26.8

48.2
46.4
40.5
45.2

42.3
47.0
38.1
44.6

39.9
47.0
39.3
36.3

Over 3-month span:
2004...............................................
2005..............................................
2006..............................................
2007…………………………………
2008…………………………………

41.1
38.1
54.8
33.9
35.7

40.5
39.3
52.4
28.6
27.4

43.5
42.3
47.6
32.1
26.8

56.5
44.6
48.8
27.4
29.2

58.9
36.3
44.6
29.8
29.8

61.3
37.5
50.6
32.7
35.7

57.7
33.3
42.9
31.0
24.4

47.0
39.9
47.6
34.5
23.2

46.4
45.8
36.3
32.1
20.8

41.7
41.7
37.5
39.3

44.6
38.7
32.1
44.0

38.7
49.4
34.5
41.7

Over 6-month span:
2004...............................................
2005..............................................
2006..............................................
2007…………………………………
2008…………………………………

29.2
33.9
42.9
34.5
34.5

31.5
38.1
45.2
27.4
33.9

32.7
35.1
50.6
23.8
32.1

44.6
36.9
47.6
27.4
28.0

49.4
32.1
48.2
31.5
26.8

54.8
32.1
47.6
34.5
20.8

59.5
41.7
46.4
33.3
19.6

56.0
35.7
48.8
31.0
20.2

51.2
36.3
43.5
29.2
21.4

51.8
36.9
41.7
35.1

44.0
37.5
38.7
34.5

38.7
42.3
29.8
32.7

Over 12-month span:
2004...............................................
2005..............................................
2006..............................................
2007…………………………………
2008…………………………………

13.1
44.6
44.6
39.3
29.8

14.3
43.5
40.5
36.3
29.8

13.1
41.7
40.5
36.9
29.8

20.2
40.5
39.3
28.6
24.4

23.2
36.3
39.3
29.8
27.4

35.7
35.1
44.6
26.2
24.4

36.9
32.1
41.7
26.8
23.8

38.1
33.9
42.3
29.2
22.0

36.9
32.7
46.4
30.4
25.0

44.0
33.3
48.2
29.8

44.6
33.3
45.2
33.3

44.6
38.1
44.0
33.9

NOTE: Figures are the percent of industries with employment
increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged
employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance
between industries with increasing and decreasing
employment.

90

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

See the "Definitions" in this section. See "Notes on the data"
for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.
Data for the two most recent months are preliminary.

-RERSHQLQJVOHYHOVDQGUDWHVE\LQGXVWU\DQGUHJLRQVHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG
1

Levels (in thousands)
Industry and region
Mar.
Total2………………………………………………

Percent

2008
Apr.

May

2008

June

July

p

Aug.

Mar.

Sept.

Apr.

2.6

May

2.6

June

2.6

July

2.5

Sept.p

Aug.

3,672

3,612

3,631

3,497

3,492

3,375

3,254

2.5

2.4

2.3

2
Total private …………………………………

3,225

3,192

3,185

3,073

3,046

2,952

2,828

2.7

2.7

2.7

2.6

2.6

2.5

2.4

Construction………………………………

102

99

130

100

94

85

96

1.4

1.3

1.8

1.4

1.3

1.2

1.3

Manufacturing……………………………

251

244

249

241

229

245

217

1.8

1.8

1.8

1.7

1.7

1.8

1.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities………

562

550

572

539

569

572

474

2.1

2.0

2.1

2.0

2.1

2.1

1.8

Professional and business services……

714

676

649

670

696

634

578

3.8

3.6

3.5

3.6

3.7

3.4

3.1

Education and health services…………

696

684

648

682

687

643

640

3.6

3.5

3.3

3.5

3.5

3.3

3.3

Leisure and hospitality……………………

501

491

503

452

432

383

417

3.5

3.5

3.5

3.2

3.1

2.7

3.0

441

422

451

417

412

423

434

1.9

1.8

2.0

1.8

1.8

1.8

1.9

2.3

Industry

Government…………………………………
Region 3
Northeast…………………………………

602

618

600

608

615

617

596

2.3

2.3

2.3

2.3

2.3

2.4

South………………………………………

1,386

1,364

1,386

1,440

1,384

1,317

1,215

2.7

2.7

2.7

2.8

2.7

2.6

2.4

Midwest……………………………………

781

752

721

676

638

664

667

2.4

2.3

2.2

2.1

2.0

2.1

2.1

West………………………………………

918

883

937

789

847

777

760

2.9

2.8

2.9

2.5

2.7

2.5

2.4

1

Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal
adjustment of the various series.
2

Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other
services, not shown separately.
3

Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey,
New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas,
Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland,
Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia,

West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri,
Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California,
Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, Wyoming.
NOTE: The job openings level is the number of job openings on the last business day of the
month; the job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month
as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
P

= preliminary.

+LUHVOHYHOVDQGUDWHVE\LQGXVWU\DQGUHJLRQVHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG
Levels1 (in thousands)
Industry and region
Mar.
Total2………………………………………………

Percent

2008
Apr.

May

June

2008
July

Aug.

p

Sept.

Mar.
3.3

Apr.
3.4

May
3.0

June
3.2

July
2.9

Aug.

Sept.p

4,569

4,715

4,123

4,438

4,026

4,063

4,364

3.0

3.2

Total private 2…………………………………

4,147

4,311

3,871

4,136

3,751

3,822

4,094

3.6

3.7

3.4

3.6

3.3

3.3

3.6

Construction………………………………

350

385

286

354

242

322

261

4.8

5.3

3.9

4.9

3.4

4.5

3.7

Manufacturing……………………………

309

300

274

285

249

251

273

2.3

2.2

2.0

2.1

1.8

1.9

2.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities………

884

943

828

906

858

878

877

3.3

3.6

3.1

3.4

3.3

3.3

3.3

Professional and business services……

893

858

770

889

748

701

807

5.0

4.8

4.3

5.0

4.2

3.9

4.5

Education and health services…………

501

510

479

485

474

509

498

2.7

2.7

2.5

2.6

2.5

2.7

2.6

Leisure and hospitality……………………

801

841

847

741

798

728

814

5.9

6.1

6.2

5.4

5.8

5.3

6.0

429

407

329

340

321

315

312

1.9

1.8

1.5

1.5

1.4

1.4

1.4

2.7

Industry

Government…………………………………
Region

3

Northeast…………………………………

715

743

646

761

657

679

693

2.8

2.9

2.5

3.0

2.6

2.7

South………………………………………

1,703

1,725

1,538

1,666

1,512

1,549

1,598

3.4

3.5

3.1

3.4

3.0

3.1

3.2

Midwest……………………………………

986

986

914

966

934

926

1,020

3.1

3.1

2.9

3.1

3.0

2.9

3.2

1,170

1,246

1,111

1,084

979

1,004

1,035

3.8

4.0

3.6

3.5

3.2

3.3

3.4

West………………………………………
1

Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal
adjustment of the various series.

2

Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other
services, not shown separately.

Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri,
Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona,
California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah,
Washington, Wyoming.

3

Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New
York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware,
District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi,
North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia;

NOTE: The hires level is the number of hires during the entire month; the hires rate is
the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
p

= preliminary.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

91

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

7RWDOVHSDUDWLRQVOHYHOVDQGUDWHVE\LQGXVWU\DQGUHJLRQVHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG
Levels1 (in thousands)
Industry and region
Mar.
Total2………………………………………………

Percent

2008
Apr.

May

June

2008
July

Aug.

p

Sept.

Mar.
3.2

Apr.
3.2

May

June

3.1

3.2

July
3.2

Sept.p

Aug.

4,390

4,404

4,313

4,368

4,359

4,398

4,053

3.2

3.0

2
Total private …………………………………

4,100

4,112

4,046

4,115

4,128

4,149

3,790

3.6

3.6

3.5

3.6

3.6

3.6

3.3

Construction………………………………

367

378

393

409

473

400

375

5.0

5.2

5.4

5.7

6.6

5.6

5.3

Manufacturing……………………………

304

390

359

353

324

325

336

2.2

2.9

2.6

2.6

2.4

2.4

2.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities………

941

1,003

868

1,003

1,013

933

940

3.5

3.8

3.3

3.8

3.8

3.5

3.6

Professional and business services……

806

739

741

799

694

851

713

4.5

4.1

4.1

4.5

3.9

4.8

4.0

Education and health services…………

449

429

434

417

464

424

345

2.4

2.3

2.3

2.2

2.4

2.2

1.8

Leisure and hospitality……………………

776

722

801

749

741

754

723

5.7

5.3

5.8

5.5

5.4

5.5

5.3

291

295

269

259

244

257

253

1.3

1.3

1.2

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.1

2.5

Industry

Government…………………………………
Region 3
Northeast…………………………………

737

709

685

658

745

705

629

2.9

2.8

2.7

2.6

2.9

2.7

South………………………………………

1,617

1,666

1,614

1,681

1,629

1,633

1,449

3.3

3.4

3.3

3.4

3.3

3.3

2.9

Midwest……………………………………

918

949

915

954

912

893

934

2.9

3.0

2.9

3.0

2.9

2.8

3.0

1,101

1,094

1,096

1,089

1,099

1,142

1,015

3.6

3.5

3.5

3.5

3.6

3.7

3.3

West………………………………………

1
Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal
adjustment of the various series.

Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska,
North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California,
Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington,
Wyoming.

2

Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other
services, not shown separately.
3

Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New
York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware,
District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi,
North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia;

NOTE: The total separations level is the number of total separations during the entire
month; the total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire
month as a percent of total employment.
p

= preliminary

4XLWVOHYHOVDQGUDWHVE\LQGXVWU\DQGUHJLRQVHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG
Levels1 (in thousands)
Industry and region
Mar.
2

Total ………………………………………………

Percent

2008
Apr.

May

June

2008
July

Aug.

p

Sept.

Mar.
1.7

Apr.
1.8

May
1.7

June
1.7

July
1.7

Aug.

Sept.p

2,375

2,444

2,336

2,365

2,314

2,252

2,101

1.6

1.5

Total private 2…………………………………

2,258

2,301

2,210

2,242

2,209

2,134

1,995

2.0

2.0

1.9

1.9

1.9

1.9

1.7

Construction………………………………

111

127

124

139

157

150

109

1.5

1.7

1.7

1.9

2.2

2.1

1.5

Manufacturing……………………………

157

182

163

154

134

143

146

1.2

1.3

1.2

1.1

1.0

1.1

1.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities………

535

550

495

545

545

485

498

2.0

2.1

1.9

2.1

2.1

1.8

1.9

Professional and business services……

386

385

391

413

363

352

311

2.1

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.0

2.0

1.7

Education and health services…………

279

270

229

246

268

234

225

1.5

1.4

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.2

1.2

Leisure and hospitality……………………

529

516

547

525

499

482

473

3.9

3.8

4.0

3.8

3.7

3.5

3.5

126

144

126

123

111

121

119

.6

.6

.6

.5

.5

.5

.5

Industry

Government…………………………………
Region 3
Northeast…………………………………

334

368

327

344

341

306

274

1.3

1.4

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.2

1.1

South………………………………………

996

1,001

937

969

930

912

808

2.0

2.0

1.9

2.0

1.9

1.8

1.6

Midwest……………………………………

491

500

485

515

504

513

517

1.6

1.6

1.5

1.6

1.6

1.6

1.6

West………………………………………

568

575

584

539

541

518

494

1.8

1.9

1.9

1.7

1.8

1.7

1.6

1

Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal
adjustment of the various series.
2

Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other
services, not shown separately.
3
Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New
York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware,
District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi,
North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West
Virginia;

92

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri,
Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona,
California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon,
Utah, Washington, Wyoming.
NOTE: The quits level is the number of quits during the entire month; the quits
rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total
employment.
p

= preliminary.

22. Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages: 10 largest counties, first quarter 2008.

County by NAICS supersector

Establishments,
first quarter
2008
(thousands)

Average weekly wage1

Employment
March
2008
(thousands)

Percent change,
March
2007-082

First
quarter
2008

Percent change,
first quarter
2007-082

United States3 ..............................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

9,112.7
8,820.9
125.3
890.0
361.3
1,923.2
144.9
872.4
1,504.2
838.9
731.2
1,194.1
291.8

134,761.1
112,728.2
1,731.8
7,020.0
13,529.8
26,031.1
3,013.5
8,005.6
17,691.9
17,845.8
13,112.5
4,444.1
22,032.9

0.4
.2
2.7
-4.1
-2.3
.2
-.1
-1.7
.5
3.0
1.3
1.0
1.3

$905
913
1,020
898
1,079
745
1,469
1,898
1,131
767
360
547
868

2.4
2.4
10.5
4.8
1.9
1.9
2.3
.2
4.2
3.6
2.9
3.4
2.7

Los Angeles, CA ..........................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

425.0
421.0
.5
14.0
14.8
54.2
8.5
24.4
42.4
27.9
26.7
192.2
4.0

4,229.6
3,617.0
11.4
149.6
440.0
803.6
214.6
240.6
597.5
492.5
397.9
250.0
612.6

.4
-.1
-5.0
-5.5
-3.4
.0
2.2
-4.3
-1.5
2.9
1.2
1.3
3.2

992
975
1,745
975
1,084
792
1,723
1,807
1,165
848
528
441
1,088

2.1
2.1
13.8
2.6
5.0
1.1
.5
.3
4.3
3.4
3.5
4.8
1.5

Cook, IL ........................................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

138.2
136.8
.1
12.1
7.0
27.4
2.5
15.7
28.5
13.7
11.5
14.2
1.4

2,490.4
2,178.2
1.0
84.3
229.4
465.9
57.5
209.6
431.2
373.1
226.6
95.6
312.2

-.5
-.5
-10.7
-4.9
-3.0
-1.1
.4
-2.4
-.1
1.9
1.2
.6
-.5

1,147
1,167
919
1,315
1,062
838
1,820
2,905
1,403
833
412
721
1,006

2.7
2.9
-6.5
9.2
1.8
2.7
.2
4.5
3.2
3.3
1.2
2.9
1.3

New York, NY ...............................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

118.5
118.3
.0
2.3
3.0
21.7
4.4
18.7
24.7
8.7
11.3
17.6
.3

2,376.0
1,923.2
.2
36.2
36.0
246.4
134.1
377.6
489.3
293.1
213.9
87.8
452.8

1.7
1.9
-4.5
8.9
-6.3
.8
.7
.7
1.9
1.5
3.7
1.8
.8

2,805
3,229
2,375
1,596
1,499
1,211
2,698
9,840
2,343
989
766
1,105
1,004

-1.0
-1.4
23.3
8.6
-4.1
.8
5.0
-3.7
3.8
3.9
2.7
7.6
1.7

Harris, TX .....................................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

96.6
96.1
1.5
6.7
4.7
22.2
1.4
10.6
19.3
10.2
7.5
11.4
.5

2,046.5
1,791.5
80.0
157.0
184.1
426.9
32.6
120.3
337.7
216.5
176.8
58.5
255.0

3.4
3.5
5.5
5.4
2.7
3.3
.0
.9
3.6
4.6
3.0
1.7
2.9

1,172
1,212
3,698
1,042
1,524
1,068
1,363
1,701
1,293
839
384
632
893

3.8
3.9
13.5
3.6
2.8
1.6
-4.0
1.3
4.0
3.1
2.7
5.3
2.1

Maricopa, AZ ................................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

101.7
101.0
.5
11.0
3.6
22.4
1.7
13.0
22.6
9.9
7.3
7.2
.7

1,805.2
1,580.7
8.7
144.5
127.3
372.2
30.9
145.0
306.8
206.5
187.1
50.5
224.5

-1.4
-1.9
-4.2
-14.2
-4.6
-.1
3.5
-4.4
-1.9
4.6
.6
1.0
2.8

867
865
991
884
1,252
805
1,164
1,238
870
879
405
577
880

1.3
1.1
22.5
2.4
5.0
-1.2
.9
-.8
1.6
3.4
.0
4.2
3.0

See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

93

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

22. Continued—Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages: 10 largest counties, first quarter 2008.

County by NAICS supersector

Establishments,
first quarter
2008
(thousands)

Average weekly wage1

Employment
March
2008
(thousands)

Percent change,
March
2007-082

First
quarter
2008

Percent change,
first quarter
2007-082

Orange, CA ..................................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

100.1
98.7
.2
7.0
5.3
17.5
1.4
11.0
19.0
9.9
7.1
15.3
1.4

1,504.9
1,347.3
6.5
94.5
174.2
276.2
29.7
115.7
273.9
146.8
175.1
47.9
157.6

-1.1
-1.4
.7
-8.2
-2.2
-.4
-2.7
-13.6
-1.7
4.2
3.5
1.7
1.5

$1,019
1,001
563
1,080
1,188
918
1,544
1,722
1,124
863
397
560
1,170

1.2
.9
-.2
.7
3.0
-1.2
10.9
(4)
3.7
3.0
.3
.4
3.0

Dallas, TX .....................................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

67.8
67.3
.6
4.4
3.1
15.1
1.7
8.8
14.7
6.6
5.3
6.5
.5

1,489.7
1,322.2
8.0
84.0
135.4
304.5
49.6
144.1
279.0
148.6
128.8
38.9
167.4

2.0
1.9
13.6
3.7
-3.3
1.4
.3
(4)
3.8
3.6
2.6
1.7
2.6

1,119
1,145
3,497
953
1,320
1,003
1,694
1,869
1,236
891
509
625
913

2.6
2.5
20.2
1.6
1.0
2.8
5.2
2.2
3.3
3.7
-2.9
3.1
3.4

San Diego, CA .............................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

97.8
96.5
.8
7.1
3.2
14.4
1.3
9.7
16.1
8.1
6.9
24.3
1.3

1,327.6
1,098.1
11.3
78.0
103.1
216.1
38.2
76.4
217.2
135.2
160.4
55.9
229.5

.0
-.5
.7
-12.3
-.2
-1.7
1.9
-6.5
-.2
4.1
2.0
1.4
2.7

945
936
534
985
1,316
772
1,910
1,329
1,170
840
422
482
986

1.9
1.7
4.3
3.4
5.5
3.8
-4.8
-2.4
3.5
3.1
1.7
.6
2.2

King, WA ......................................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

76.8
76.3
.4
6.9
2.5
15.1
1.8
7.1
13.7
6.5
6.2
16.2
.5

1,186.2
1,030.4
3.1
71.3
112.5
220.2
77.8
76.1
189.6
124.4
110.0
45.4
155.8

2.7
2.9
.4
4.9
1.4
2.1
5.2
.3
3.3
4.2
3.6
.6
1.5

1,125
1,142
1,621
1,086
1,443
958
2,144
1,651
1,306
837
447
599
1,010

4.2
4.3
-.5
6.7
4.9
1.9
12.8
-1.8
3.7
5.5
-1.1
7.7
3.0

Miami-Dade, FL ............................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

88.2
87.8
.5
6.5
2.7
23.5
1.6
10.6
17.9
9.4
5.9
7.6
.4

1,029.9
876.6
10.8
50.9
46.0
253.7
20.1
70.5
135.6
141.7
107.0
37.2
153.3

-1.0
-1.2
-6.5
-11.4
-6.3
-.2
-3.6
-3.0
-4.1
3.9
.1
2.5
.2

871
837
465
812
774
777
1,354
1,483
992
796
506
526
1,062

1.5
1.2
-1.5
1.0
2.1
1.0
-3.2
4.0
.7
3.2
1.8
1.3
2.5

1

Average weekly wages were calculated using unrounded data.

2

Percent changes were computed from quarterly employment and pay data
adjusted for noneconomic county reclassifications. See Notes on Current Labor
Statistics.
3

94

Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

Virgin Islands.
4

Data do not meet BLS or State agency disclosure standards.

NOTE: Includes workers covered by Unemployment Insurance (UI) and
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) programs. Data are
preliminary.

23. Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages: by State, first quarter 2008.

State

Establishments,
first quarter
2008
(thousands)

Average weekly wage1

Employment
March
2008
(thousands)

Percent change,
March
2007-08

First
quarter
2008

Percent change,
first quarter
2007-08

United States2 ...................................

9,112.7

134,761.1

0.4

$905

2.4

Alabama ............................................
Alaska ...............................................
Arizona ..............................................
Arkansas ...........................................
California ...........................................
Colorado ...........................................
Connecticut .......................................
Delaware ...........................................
District of Columbia ...........................
Florida ...............................................

121.7
21.1
162.7
85.2
1,345.1
178.2
113.2
29.0
32.5
631.0

1,947.0
303.0
2,639.7
1,178.4
15,561.5
2,300.0
1,683.9
418.4
680.8
7,918.6

-.2
1.0
-1.3
-.1
.1
1.7
1.2
.5
1.1
-2.2

740
866
820
667
1,008
920
1,254
987
1,488
777

3.2
4.2
2.4
4.1
2.1
3.6
-.6
.1
4.3
1.8

Georgia .............................................
Hawaii ...............................................
Idaho .................................................
Illinois ................................................
Indiana ..............................................
Iowa ..................................................
Kansas ..............................................
Kentucky ...........................................
Louisiana ...........................................
Maine ................................................

276.4
39.0
57.6
365.0
160.1
94.2
86.0
112.9
121.7
50.8

4,060.9
628.1
645.3
5,796.1
2,858.7
1,469.8
1,363.2
1,794.0
1,887.3
584.1

.1
.2
.2
.1
-.7
.9
1.0
.1
1.3
.5

847
773
635
980
757
710
737
714
765
701

1.3
3.5
.3
2.6
2.4
3.6
2.4
2.4
4.8
3.5

Maryland ...........................................
Massachusetts ..................................
Michigan ............................................
Minnesota .........................................
Mississippi .........................................
Missouri .............................................
Montana ............................................
Nebraska ...........................................
Nevada ..............................................
New Hampshire ................................

164.8
212.7
259.1
173.5
71.0
175.2
42.9
59.1
76.7
48.9

2,530.3
3,203.1
4,058.8
2,644.8
1,138.2
2,708.0
432.4
912.2
1,266.3
621.2

.0
.9
-1.8
.6
.8
.0
.9
1.4
-1.2
.3

963
1,143
857
908
634
768
625
687
839
863

2.8
3.3
.9
4.0
3.3
3.5
4.3
3.2
4.7
3.4

New Jersey .......................................
New Mexico ......................................
New York ..........................................
North Carolina ...................................
North Dakota .....................................
Ohio ..................................................
Oklahoma ..........................................
Oregon ..............................................
Pennsylvania .....................................
Rhode Island .....................................

276.3
54.5
582.3
258.4
25.4
294.4
100.4
133.8
341.5
35.9

3,939.9
823.8
8,555.0
4,069.1
343.3
5,189.1
1,560.0
1,713.1
5,608.8
464.8

.5
.6
1.3
.9
2.6
-1.0
1.6
.3
.5
-1.5

1,133
717
1,399
788
652
798
707
776
869
851

3.3
4.7
.1
1.3
6.2
1.0
4.7
2.9
2.4
2.3

South Carolina ..................................
South Dakota ....................................
Tennessee ........................................
Texas ................................................
Utah ..................................................
Vermont ............................................
Virginia ..............................................
Washington .......................................
West Virginia .....................................
Wisconsin ..........................................

117.4
30.3
143.4
558.7
86.7
24.8
229.2
218.9
48.8
159.7

1,888.3
389.4
2,746.4
10,420.8
1,220.2
300.8
3,653.5
2,928.6
700.3
2,734.3

.1
2.0
.6
2.8
1.4
-.3
.2
2.1
.3
.2

695
632
761
903
718
735
918
899
679
760

2.8
5.2
3.3
3.6
3.2
4.4
2.0
3.7
4.0
2.2

Wyoming ...........................................

24.8

277.2

2.9

779

6.7

Puerto Rico .......................................
Virgin Islands ....................................

57.1
3.5

1,004.5
46.5

-1.6
1.1

489
708

2.7
3.4

1
2

Average weekly wages were calculated using unrounded data.

Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico
or the Virgin Islands.

NOTE: Includes workers covered by Unemployment Insurance (UI)
and Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE)
programs. Data are preliminary.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

95

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

24. Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, by ownership
Year

Average
establishments

Average
annual
employment

Total annual wages
(in thousands)

Average annual wage
per employee

Average
weekly
wage

Total covered (UI and UCFE)
1998 ..................................................
1999 ..................................................
2000 ..................................................
2001 ..................................................
2002 ..................................................
2003 ..................................................
2004 ..................................................
2005 ..................................................
2006 ..................................................
2007 ..................................................

7,634,018
7,820,860
7,879,116
7,984,529
8,101,872
8,228,840
8,364,795
8,571,144
8,784,027
8,971,897

124,183,549
127,042,282
129,877,063
129,635,800
128,233,919
127,795,827
129,278,176
131,571,623
133,833,834
135,366,106

$3,967,072,423
4,235,579,204
4,587,708,584
4,695,225,123
4,714,374,741
4,826,251,547
5,087,561,796
5,351,949,496
5,692,569,465
6,018,089,108

$31,945
33,340
35,323
36,219
36,764
37,765
39,354
40,677
42,535
44,458

$614
641
679
697
707
726
757
782
818
855

$31,676
33,094
35,077
35,943
36,428
37,401
38,955
40,270
42,124
44,038

$609
636
675
691
701
719
749
774
810
847

$31,762
33,244
35,337
36,157
36,539
37,508
39,134
40,505
42,414
44,362

$611
639
680
695
703
721
753
779
816
853

$33,605
34,681
36,296
37,814
39,212
40,057
41,118
42,249
43,875
45,903

$646
667
698
727
754
770
791
812
844
883

$30,251
31,234
32,387
33,521
34,605
35,669
36,805
37,718
39,179
40,790

$582
601
623
645
665
686
708
725
753
784

$43,688
44,287
46,228
48,940
52,050
54,239
57,782
59,864
62,274
64,871

$840
852
889
941
1,001
1,043
1,111
1,151
1,198
1,248

UI covered
1998 ..................................................
1999 ..................................................
2000 ..................................................
2001 ..................................................
2002 ..................................................
2003 ..................................................
2004 ..................................................
2005 ..................................................
2006 ..................................................
2007 ..................................................

7,586,767
7,771,198
7,828,861
7,933,536
8,051,117
8,177,087
8,312,729
8,518,249
8,731,111
8,908,198

121,400,660
124,255,714
127,005,574
126,883,182
125,475,293
125,031,551
126,538,579
128,837,948
131,104,860
132,639,806

$3,845,494,089
4,112,169,533
4,454,966,824
4,560,511,280
4,570,787,218
4,676,319,378
4,929,262,369
5,188,301,929
5,522,624,197
5,841,231,314

Private industry covered
1998 ..................................................
1999 ..................................................
2000 ..................................................
2001 ..................................................
2002 ..................................................
2003 ..................................................
2004 ..................................................
2005 ..................................................
2006 ..................................................
2007 ..................................................

7,381,518
7,560,567
7,622,274
7,724,965
7,839,903
7,963,340
8,093,142
8,294,662
8,505,496
8,681,001

105,082,368
107,619,457
110,015,333
109,304,802
107,577,281
107,065,553
108,490,066
110,611,016
112,718,858
114,012,221

$3,337,621,699
3,577,738,557
3,887,626,769
3,952,152,155
3,930,767,025
4,015,823,311
4,245,640,890
4,480,311,193
4,780,833,389
5,057,840,759

State government covered
1998 ..................................................
1999 ..................................................
2000 ..................................................
2001 ..................................................
2002 ..................................................
2003 ..................................................
2004 ..................................................
2005 ..................................................
2006 ..................................................
2007 ..................................................

67,347
70,538
65,096
64,583
64,447
64,467
64,544
66,278
66,921
67,381

4,240,779
4,296,673
4,370,160
4,452,237
4,485,071
4,481,845
4,484,997
4,527,514
4,565,908
4,611,395

$142,512,445
149,011,194
158,618,365
168,358,331
175,866,492
179,528,728
184,414,992
191,281,126
200,329,294
211,677,002

Local government covered
1998 ..................................................
1999 ..................................................
2000 ..................................................
2001 ..................................................
2002 ..................................................
2003 ..................................................
2004 ..................................................
2005 ..................................................
2006 ..................................................
2007 ..................................................

137,902
140,093
141,491
143,989
146,767
149,281
155,043
157,309
158,695
159,816

12,077,513
12,339,584
12,620,081
13,126,143
13,412,941
13,484,153
13,563,517
13,699,418
13,820,093
14,016,190

$365,359,945
385,419,781
408,721,690
440,000,795
464,153,701
480,967,339
499,206,488
516,709,610
541,461,514
571,713,553

Federal government covered (UCFE)
1998 ..................................................
1999 ..................................................
2000 ..................................................
2001 ..................................................
2002 ..................................................
2003 ..................................................
2004 ..................................................
2005 ..................................................
2006 ..................................................
2007 ..................................................

47,252
49,661
50,256
50,993
50,755
51,753
52,066
52,895
52,916
63,699

NOTE: Data are final. Detail may not add to total due to rounding.

96

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

2,782,888
2,786,567
2,871,489
2,752,619
2,758,627
2,764,275
2,739,596
2,733,675
2,728,974
2,726,300

$121,578,334
123,409,672
132,741,760
134,713,843
143,587,523
149,932,170
158,299,427
163,647,568
169,945,269
176,857,794

25. Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, establishment size and employment, private ownership, by
supersector, first quarter 2007
Size of establishments
Industry, establishments, and
employment

Total

Fewer than
5 workers1

5 to 9
workers

10 to 19
workers

20 to 49
workers

50 to 99
workers

100 to 249
workers

250 to 499
workers

500 to 999
workers

1,000 or
more
workers

Total all industries2
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

8,572,894
112,536,714

5,189,837
7,670,620

Natural resources and mining
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

124,002
1,686,694

69,260
111,702

23,451
155,044

15,289
205,780

10,137
304,936

3,250
222,684

1,842
278,952

519
179,598

190
126,338

64
101,660

Construction
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

883,409
7,321,288

580,647
835,748

141,835
929,707

84,679
1,137,104

52,336
1,564,722

15,341
1,046,790

6,807
1,004,689

1,326
443,761

350
232,556

88
126,211

Manufacturing
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

361,070
13,850,738

136,649
238,848

61,845
415,276

54,940
755,931

53,090
1,657,463

25,481
1,785,569

19,333
2,971,836

6,260
2,140,531

2,379
1,613,357

1,093
2,271,927

Trade, transportation, and utilities
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

1,905,750
25,983,275

1,017,012
1,683,738

381,434
2,539,291

248,880
3,335,327

160,549
4,845,527

53,721
3,709,371

34,536
5,140,740

7,315
2,510,273

1,792
1,167,986

511
1,051,022

Information
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

143,094
3,016,454

81,414
113,901

20,986
139,730

16,338
222,710

13,384
411,218

5,609
387,996

3,503
533,877

1,134
392,350

489
335,998

237
478,674

Financial activities
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

863,784
8,146,274

563,670
890,816

155,984
1,029,911

81,849
1,080,148

40,668
1,210,332

12,037
822,627

6,313
945,396

1,863
645,988

939
648,691

461
872,365

Professional and business services
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

1,456,681
17,612,073

989,991
1,375,429

196,645
1,292,744

125,014
1,685,085

83,127
2,520,739

32,388
2,243,595

20,412
3,102,005

5,902
2,012,609

2,263
1,535,591

939
1,844,276

Education and health services
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

812,914
17,331,231

388,773
700,195

179,011
1,189,566

116,031
1,559,689

75,040
2,258,922

27,393
1,908,595

18,815
2,828,678

4,153
1,409,073

1,906
1,319,128

1,792
4,157,385

Leisure and hospitality
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

716,126
12,949,319

275,121
439,080

120,795
815,688

132,408
1,858,394

134,766
4,054,666

39,766
2,648,733

10,681
1,510,212

1,639
551,528

646
438,008

304
633,010

Other services
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

1,119,209
4,402,263

908,792
1,109,065

118,963
776,354

57,419
756,783

25,169
732,313

5,562
379,320

2,731
401,371

457
152,994

95
62,295

21
31,768

1

Includes establishments that reported no workers in March 2007.

2

Includes data for unclassified establishments, not shown separately.

1,407,987
933,910
648,489
220,564
124,980
30,568
9,326,775 12,610,385 19,566,806 15,156,364 18,718,813 10,438,705

11,049
5,510
7,479,948 11,568,298

NOTE: Data are final. Detail may not add to total due to rounding.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

97

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

26. Average annual wages for 2006 and 2007 for all covered workers1 by
metropolitan area
Average annual wages3
Metropolitan area2
2007

Percent
change,
2006-07

Metropolitan areas4 ..............................................................

$44,165

$46,139

4.5

Abilene, TX ............................................................................
Aguadilla-Isabela-San Sebastian, PR ...................................
Akron, OH ..............................................................................
Albany, GA ............................................................................
Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY ..............................................
Albuquerque, NM ...................................................................
Alexandria, LA .......................................................................
Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ ....................................
Altoona, PA ............................................................................
Amarillo, TX ...........................................................................

29,842
19,277
38,088
32,335
41,027
36,934
31,329
39,787
30,394
33,574

31,567
20,295
39,499
33,378
42,191
38,191
32,757
41,784
31,988
35,574

5.8
5.3
3.7
3.2
2.8
3.4
4.6
5.0
5.2
6.0

Ames, IA ................................................................................
Anchorage, AK ......................................................................
Anderson, IN ..........................................................................
Anderson, SC ........................................................................
Ann Arbor, MI ........................................................................
Anniston-Oxford, AL ..............................................................
Appleton, WI ..........................................................................
Asheville, NC .........................................................................
Athens-Clarke County, GA ....................................................
Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta, GA .....................................

35,331
42,955
32,184
30,373
47,186
32,724
35,308
32,268
33,485
45,889

37,041
45,237
32,850
31,086
49,427
34,593
36,575
33,406
34,256
48,111

4.8
5.3
2.1
2.3
4.7
5.7
3.6
3.5
2.3
4.8

Atlantic City, NJ .....................................................................
Auburn-Opelika, AL ...............................................................
Augusta-Richmond County, GA-SC ......................................
Austin-Round Rock, TX .........................................................
Bakersfield, CA ......................................................................
Baltimore-Towson, MD ..........................................................
Bangor, ME ............................................................................
Barnstable Town, MA ............................................................
Baton Rouge, LA ...................................................................
Battle Creek, MI .....................................................................

38,018
30,468
35,638
45,737
36,020
45,177
31,746
36,437
37,245
39,362

39,276
31,554
36,915
46,458
38,254
47,177
32,829
37,691
39,339
40,628

3.3
3.6
3.6
1.6
6.2
4.4
3.4
3.4
5.6
3.2

Bay City, MI ...........................................................................
Beaumont-Port Arthur, TX .....................................................
Bellingham, WA .....................................................................
Bend, OR ...............................................................................
Billings, MT ............................................................................
Binghamton, NY ....................................................................
Birmingham-Hoover, AL ........................................................
Bismarck, ND .........................................................................
Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford, VA ................................
Bloomington, IN .....................................................................

35,094
39,026
32,618
33,319
33,270
35,048
40,798
32,550
34,024
30,913

35,680
40,682
34,239
34,318
35,372
36,322
42,570
34,118
35,248
32,028

1.7
4.2
5.0
3.0
6.3
3.6
4.3
4.8
3.6
3.6

Bloomington-Normal, IL .........................................................
Boise City-Nampa, ID ............................................................
Boston-Cambridge-Quincy, MA-NH ......................................
Boulder, CO ...........................................................................
Bowling Green, KY ................................................................
Bremerton-Silverdale, WA .....................................................
Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT .........................................
Brownsville-Harlingen, TX .....................................................
Brunswick, GA .......................................................................
Buffalo-Niagara Falls, NY ......................................................

41,359
36,734
56,809
50,944
32,529
37,694
74,890
25,795
32,717
36,950

42,082
37,553
59,817
52,745
33,308
39,506
79,973
27,126
32,705
38,218

1.7
2.2
5.3
3.5
2.4
4.8
6.8
5.2
0.0
3.4

Burlington, NC .......................................................................
Burlington-South Burlington, VT ............................................
Canton-Massillon, OH ...........................................................
Cape Coral-Fort Myers, FL ....................................................
Carson City, NV .....................................................................
Casper, WY ...........................................................................
Cedar Rapids, IA ...................................................................
Champaign-Urbana, IL ..........................................................
Charleston, WV .....................................................................
Charleston-North Charleston, SC ..........................................

32,835
40,548
33,132
37,065
40,115
38,307
38,976
34,422
36,887
35,267

33,132
41,907
34,091
37,658
42,030
41,105
41,059
35,788
38,687
36,954

0.9
3.4
2.9
1.6
4.8
7.3
5.3
4.0
4.9
4.8

Charlotte-Gastonia-Concord, NC-SC ....................................
Charlottesville, VA .................................................................
Chattanooga, TN-GA .............................................................
Cheyenne, WY ......................................................................
Chicago-Naperville-Joliet, IL-IN-WI .......................................
Chico, CA ..............................................................................
Cincinnati-Middletown, OH-KY-IN .........................................
Clarksville, TN-KY .................................................................
Cleveland, TN ........................................................................
Cleveland-Elyria-Mentor, OH .................................................

45,732
39,051
35,358
35,306
48,631
31,557
41,447
30,949
33,075
41,325

46,975
40,819
36,522
36,191
50,823
33,207
42,969
32,216
34,666
42,783

2.7
4.5
3.3
2.5
4.5
5.2
3.7
4.1
4.8
3.5

Coeur d’Alene, ID ..................................................................
College Station-Bryan, TX .....................................................
Colorado Springs, CO ...........................................................
Columbia, MO ........................................................................
Columbia, SC ........................................................................
Columbus, GA-AL ..................................................................
Columbus, IN .........................................................................
Columbus, OH .......................................................................
Corpus Christi, TX .................................................................
Corvallis, OR .........................................................................

29,797
30,239
38,325
32,207
35,209
32,334
40,107
41,168
35,399
40,586

31,035
32,630
39,745
33,266
36,293
34,511
41,078
42,655
37,186
41,981

4.2
7.9
3.7
3.3
3.1
6.7
2.4
3.6
5.0
3.4

See footnotes at end of table.

98

2006

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

26. Continued — Average annual wages for 2006 and 2007 for all covered
workers1 by metropolitan area
Average annual wages3
Metropolitan area2

Percent
change,
2006-07

2006

2007

Cumberland, MD-WV ............................................................
Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX ............................................
Dalton, GA .............................................................................
Danville, IL .............................................................................
Danville, VA ...........................................................................
Davenport-Moline-Rock Island, IA-IL .....................................
Dayton, OH ............................................................................
Decatur, AL ............................................................................
Decatur, IL .............................................................................
Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach, FL .........................

$29,859
47,525
33,266
33,141
28,870
37,559
39,387
34,883
39,375
31,197

$31,373
49,627
34,433
34,086
30,212
39,385
40,223
35,931
41,039
32,196

5.1
4.4
3.5
2.9
4.6
4.9
2.1
3.0
4.2
3.2

Denver-Aurora, CO ................................................................
Des Moines, IA ......................................................................
Detroit-Warren-Livonia, MI ....................................................
Dothan, AL .............................................................................
Dover, DE ..............................................................................
Dubuque, IA ...........................................................................
Duluth, MN-WI .......................................................................
Durham, NC ...........................................................................
Eau Claire, WI .......................................................................
El Centro, CA .........................................................................

48,232
41,358
47,455
31,473
34,571
33,044
33,677
49,314
31,718
30,035

50,180
42,895
49,019
32,367
35,978
34,240
35,202
52,420
32,792
32,419

4.0
3.7
3.3
2.8
4.1
3.6
4.5
6.3
3.4
7.9

Elizabethtown, KY .................................................................
Elkhart-Goshen, IN ................................................................
Elmira, NY .............................................................................
El Paso, TX ............................................................................
Erie, PA .................................................................................
Eugene-Springfield, OR .........................................................
Evansville, IN-KY ...................................................................
Fairbanks, AK ........................................................................
Fajardo, PR ...........................................................................
Fargo, ND-MN .......................................................................

32,072
35,878
33,968
29,903
33,213
33,257
36,858
41,296
21,002
33,542

32,701
36,566
34,879
31,354
34,788
34,329
37,182
42,345
22,075
35,264

2.0
1.9
2.7
4.9
4.7
3.2
0.9
2.5
5.1
5.1

Farmington, NM .....................................................................
Fayetteville, NC .....................................................................
Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers, AR-MO ...............................
Flagstaff, AZ ..........................................................................
Flint, MI ..................................................................................
Florence, SC ..........................................................................
Florence-Muscle Shoals, AL ..................................................
Fond du Lac, WI ....................................................................
Fort Collins-Loveland, CO .....................................................
Fort Smith, AR-OK .................................................................

36,220
31,281
35,734
32,231
39,409
33,610
29,518
33,376
37,940
30,932

38,572
33,216
37,325
34,473
39,310
34,305
30,699
34,664
39,335
31,236

6.5
6.2
4.5
7.0
-0.3
2.1
4.0
3.9
3.7
1.0

Fort Walton Beach-Crestview-Destin, FL ..............................
Fort Wayne, IN ......................................................................
Fresno, CA ............................................................................
Gadsden, AL ..........................................................................
Gainesville, FL .......................................................................
Gainesville, GA ......................................................................
Glens Falls, NY ......................................................................
Goldsboro, NC .......................................................................
Grand Forks, ND-MN .............................................................
Grand Junction, CO ...............................................................

34,409
35,641
33,504
29,499
34,573
34,765
32,780
29,331
29,234
33,729

35,613
36,542
35,111
30,979
36,243
36,994
33,564
30,177
30,745
36,221

3.5
2.5
4.8
5.0
4.8
6.4
2.4
2.9
5.2
7.4

Grand Rapids-Wyoming, MI ..................................................
Great Falls, MT ......................................................................
Greeley, CO ...........................................................................
Green Bay, WI .......................................................................
Greensboro-High Point, NC ...................................................
Greenville, NC .......................................................................
Greenville, SC .......................................................................
Guayama, PR ........................................................................
Gulfport-Biloxi, MS .................................................................
Hagerstown-Martinsburg, MD-WV .........................................

38,056
29,542
35,144
36,677
35,898
32,432
35,471
24,551
34,688
34,621

38,953
31,009
37,066
37,788
37,213
33,703
36,536
26,094
34,971
35,468

2.4
5.0
5.5
3.0
3.7
3.9
3.0
6.3
0.8
2.4

Hanford-Corcoran, CA ...........................................................
Harrisburg-Carlisle, PA ..........................................................
Harrisonburg, VA ...................................................................
Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford, CT .............................
Hattiesburg, MS .....................................................................
Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton, NC ..............................................
Hinesville-Fort Stewart, GA ...................................................
Holland-Grand Haven, MI ......................................................
Honolulu, HI ...........................................................................
Hot Springs, AR .....................................................................

31,148
39,807
31,522
51,282
30,059
31,323
31,416
36,895
39,009
27,684

32,504
41,424
32,718
54,188
30,729
32,364
33,210
37,470
40,748
28,448

4.4
4.1
3.8
5.7
2.2
3.3
5.7
1.6
4.5
2.8

Houma-Bayou Cane-Thibodaux, LA ......................................
Houston-Baytown-Sugar Land, TX ........................................
Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH ...........................................
Huntsville, AL .........................................................................
Idaho Falls, ID .......................................................................
Indianapolis, IN ......................................................................
Iowa City, IA ..........................................................................
Ithaca, NY ..............................................................................
Jackson, MI ...........................................................................
Jackson, MS ..........................................................................

38,417
50,177
32,648
44,659
31,632
41,307
35,913
38,337
36,836
34,605

41,604
53,494
33,973
45,763
29,878
42,227
37,457
39,387
38,267
35,771

8.3
6.6
4.1
2.5
-5.5
2.2
4.3
2.7
3.9
3.4

See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

99

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

26. Continued — Average annual wages for 2006 and 2007 for all covered
workers1 by metropolitan area
Average annual wages3
Metropolitan area2
2007

Jackson, TN ...........................................................................
Jacksonville, FL .....................................................................
Jacksonville, NC ....................................................................
Janesville, WI ........................................................................
Jefferson City, MO .................................................................
Johnson City, TN ...................................................................
Johnstown, PA .......................................................................
Jonesboro, AR .......................................................................
Joplin, MO .............................................................................
Kalamazoo-Portage, MI .........................................................

$34,477
40,192
25,854
36,732
31,771
31,058
29,972
28,972
30,111
37,099

$35,059
41,437
27,005
36,790
32,903
31,985
31,384
30,378
31,068
38,402

1.7
3.1
4.5
0.2
3.6
3.0
4.7
4.9
3.2
3.5

Kankakee-Bradley, IL ............................................................
Kansas City, MO-KS ..............................................................
Kennewick-Richland-Pasco, WA ...........................................
Killeen-Temple-Fort Hood, TX ...............................................
Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol, TN-VA ............................................
Kingston, NY ..........................................................................
Knoxville, TN .........................................................................
Kokomo, IN ............................................................................
La Crosse, WI-MN .................................................................
Lafayette, IN ..........................................................................

32,389
41,320
38,750
31,511
35,100
33,697
37,216
45,808
31,819
35,380

33,340
42,921
40,439
32,915
36,399
35,018
38,386
47,269
32,949
36,419

2.9
3.9
4.4
4.5
3.7
3.9
3.1
3.2
3.6
2.9

Lafayette, LA .........................................................................
Lake Charles, LA ...................................................................
Lakeland, FL ..........................................................................
Lancaster, PA ........................................................................
Lansing-East Lansing, MI ......................................................
Laredo, TX .............................................................................
Las Cruces, NM .....................................................................
Las Vegas-Paradise, NV .......................................................
Lawrence, KS ........................................................................
Lawton, OK ............................................................................

38,170
35,883
33,530
36,171
39,890
28,051
29,969
40,139
29,896
29,830

40,684
37,447
34,394
37,043
40,866
29,009
31,422
42,336
30,830
30,617

6.6
4.4
2.6
2.4
2.4
3.4
4.8
5.5
3.1
2.6

Lebanon, PA ..........................................................................
Lewiston, ID-WA ....................................................................
Lewiston-Auburn, ME ............................................................
Lexington-Fayette, KY ...........................................................
Lima, OH ...............................................................................
Lincoln, NE ............................................................................
Little Rock-North Little Rock, AR ...........................................
Logan, UT-ID .........................................................................
Longview, TX .........................................................................
Longview, WA ........................................................................

31,790
30,776
32,231
37,926
33,790
33,703
36,169
26,766
35,055
35,140

32,876
31,961
33,118
39,290
35,177
34,750
39,305
27,810
36,956
37,101

3.4
3.9
2.8
3.6
4.1
3.1
8.7
3.9
5.4
5.6

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, CA .............................
Louisville, KY-IN ....................................................................
Lubbock, TX ..........................................................................
Lynchburg, VA .......................................................................
Macon, GA .............................................................................
Madera, CA ...........................................................................
Madison, WI ...........................................................................
Manchester-Nashua, NH .......................................................
Mansfield, OH ........................................................................
Mayaguez, PR .......................................................................

48,680
38,673
31,977
33,242
34,126
31,213
40,007
46,659
33,171
20,619

50,480
40,125
32,761
34,412
34,243
33,266
41,201
49,235
33,109
21,326

3.7
3.8
2.5
3.5
0.3
6.6
3.0
5.5
-0.2
3.4

McAllen-Edinburg-Pharr, TX ..................................................
Medford, OR ..........................................................................
Memphis, TN-MS-AR ............................................................
Merced, CA ............................................................................
Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Miami Beach, FL ..............................
Michigan City-La Porte, IN .....................................................
Midland, TX ...........................................................................
Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis, WI ....................................
Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI ...........................
Missoula, MT .........................................................................

26,712
31,697
40,580
31,147
42,175
31,383
42,625
42,049
46,931
30,652

27,651
32,877
42,339
32,351
43,428
32,570
45,574
43,261
49,542
32,233

3.5
3.7
4.3
3.9
3.0
3.8
6.9
2.9
5.6
5.2

Mobile, AL ..............................................................................
Modesto, CA ..........................................................................
Monroe, LA ............................................................................
Monroe, MI ............................................................................
Montgomery, AL ....................................................................
Morgantown, WV ...................................................................
Morristown, TN ......................................................................
Mount Vernon-Anacortes, WA ...............................................
Muncie, IN .............................................................................
Muskegon-Norton Shores, MI ................................................

36,126
35,468
30,618
40,938
35,383
32,608
31,914
32,851
30,691
33,949

36,890
36,739
31,992
41,636
36,223
35,241
32,806
34,620
31,326
34,982

2.1
3.6
4.5
1.7
2.4
8.1
2.8
5.4
2.1
3.0

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach, SC ....................
Napa, CA ...............................................................................
Naples-Marco Island, FL .......................................................
Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro, TN .................................
New Haven-Milford, CT .........................................................
New Orleans-Metairie-Kenner, LA .........................................
New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island, NY-NJ-PA ......
Niles-Benton Harbor, MI ........................................................
Norwich-New London, CT .....................................................
Ocala, FL ...............................................................................

27,905
41,788
39,320
41,003
44,892
42,434
61,388
36,967
43,184
31,330

28,576
44,171
41,300
42,728
47,039
43,255
65,685
38,140
45,463
31,623

2.4
5.7
5.0
4.2
4.8
1.9
7.0
3.2
5.3
0.9

See footnotes at end of table.

100

Percent
change,
2006-07

2006

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

26. Continued — Average annual wages for 2006 and 2007 for all covered
workers1 by metropolitan area
Average annual wages3
Metropolitan area2

Percent
change,
2006-07

2006

2007

Ocean City, NJ ......................................................................
Odessa, TX ............................................................................
Ogden-Clearfield, UT .............................................................
Oklahoma City, OK ................................................................
Olympia, WA ..........................................................................
Omaha-Council Bluffs, NE-IA ................................................
Orlando, FL ............................................................................
Oshkosh-Neenah, WI ............................................................
Owensboro, KY .....................................................................
Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA ...................................

$31,801
37,144
32,890
35,846
37,787
38,139
37,776
39,538
32,491
45,467

$32,452
41,758
34,067
37,192
39,678
39,273
38,633
41,014
33,593
47,669

2.0
12.4
3.6
3.8
5.0
3.0
2.3
3.7
3.4
4.8

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville, FL ........................................
Panama City-Lynn Haven, FL ...............................................
Parkersburg-Marietta, WV-OH ..............................................
Pascagoula, MS ....................................................................
Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent, FL ...........................................
Peoria, IL ...............................................................................
Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD ................
Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ ...............................................
Pine Bluff, AR ........................................................................
Pittsburgh, PA ........................................................................

39,778
33,341
32,213
36,287
33,530
42,283
48,647
42,220
32,115
40,759

40,975
33,950
33,547
39,131
34,165
43,470
50,611
43,697
33,094
42,910

3.0
1.8
4.1
7.8
1.9
2.8
4.0
3.5
3.0
5.3

Pittsfield, MA ..........................................................................
Pocatello, ID ..........................................................................
Ponce, PR .............................................................................
Portland-South Portland-Biddeford, ME ................................
Portland-Vancouver-Beaverton, OR-WA ...............................
Port St. Lucie-Fort Pierce, FL ................................................
Poughkeepsie-Newburgh-Middletown, NY ............................
Prescott, AZ ...........................................................................
Providence-New Bedford-Fall River, RI-MA ..........................
Provo-Orem, UT ....................................................................

36,707
28,418
20,266
36,979
42,607
34,408
39,528
30,625
39,428
32,308

38,075
29,268
21,019
38,497
44,335
36,375
40,793
32,048
40,674
34,141

3.7
3.0
3.7
4.1
4.1
5.7
3.2
4.6
3.2
5.7

Pueblo, CO ............................................................................
Punta Gorda, FL ....................................................................
Racine, WI .............................................................................
Raleigh-Cary, NC ..................................................................
Rapid City, SD .......................................................................
Reading, PA ..........................................................................
Redding, CA ..........................................................................
Reno-Sparks, NV ...................................................................
Richmond, VA ........................................................................
Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA .................................

30,941
32,370
39,002
41,205
29,920
38,048
33,307
39,537
42,495
36,668

32,552
32,833
40,746
42,801
31,119
39,945
34,953
41,365
44,530
37,846

5.2
1.4
4.5
3.9
4.0
5.0
4.9
4.6
4.8
3.2

Roanoke, VA .........................................................................
Rochester, MN .......................................................................
Rochester, NY .......................................................................
Rockford, IL ...........................................................................
Rocky Mount, NC ..................................................................
Rome, GA ..............................................................................
Sacramento--Arden-Arcade--Roseville, CA ...........................
Saginaw-Saginaw Township North, MI ..................................
St. Cloud, MN ........................................................................
St. George, UT ......................................................................

33,912
42,941
39,481
37,424
31,556
34,850
44,552
37,747
33,018
28,034

35,419
44,786
40,752
38,304
32,527
33,041
46,385
37,507
33,996
29,052

4.4
4.3
3.2
2.4
3.1
-5.2
4.1
-0.6
3.0
3.6

St. Joseph, MO-KS ................................................................
St. Louis, MO-IL .....................................................................
Salem, OR .............................................................................
Salinas, CA ............................................................................
Salisbury, MD ........................................................................
Salt Lake City, UT ..................................................................
San Angelo, TX .....................................................................
San Antonio, TX ....................................................................
San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos, CA ...................................
Sandusky, OH .......................................................................

31,253
41,354
32,764
37,974
33,223
38,630
30,168
36,763
45,784
33,526

31,828
42,873
33,986
39,419
34,833
40,935
30,920
38,274
47,657
33,471

1.8
3.7
3.7
3.8
4.8
6.0
2.5
4.1
4.1
-0.2

San Francisco-Oakland-Fremont, CA ...................................
San German-Cabo Rojo, PR .................................................
San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA ..................................
San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo, PR .........................................
San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles, CA ........................................
Santa Barbara-Santa Maria-Goleta, CA ................................
Santa Cruz-Watsonville, CA ..................................................
Santa Fe, NM ........................................................................
Santa Rosa-Petaluma, CA ....................................................
Sarasota-Bradenton-Venice, FL ............................................

61,343
19,498
76,608
24,812
35,146
40,326
40,776
35,320
41,533
35,751

64,559
19,777
82,038
25,939
36,740
41,967
41,540
37,395
42,824
36,424

5.2
1.4
7.1
4.5
4.5
4.1
1.9
5.9
3.1
1.9

Savannah, GA .......................................................................
Scranton--Wilkes-Barre, PA ..................................................
Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA ..............................................
Sheboygan, WI ......................................................................
Sherman-Denison, TX ...........................................................
Shreveport-Bossier City, LA ..................................................
Sioux City, IA-NE-SD .............................................................
Sioux Falls, SD ......................................................................
South Bend-Mishawaka, IN-MI ..............................................
Spartanburg, SC ....................................................................

35,684
32,813
49,455
35,908
34,166
33,678
31,826
34,542
35,089
37,077

36,695
34,205
51,924
37,049
35,672
34,892
33,025
36,056
36,266
37,967

2.8
4.2
5.0
3.2
4.4
3.6
3.8
4.4
3.4
2.4

See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

101

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

26. Continued — Average annual wages for 2006 and 2007 for all covered
workers1 by metropolitan area
Average annual wages3
Metropolitan area2
2007

Spokane, WA .........................................................................
Springfield, IL .........................................................................
Springfield, MA ......................................................................
Springfield, MO ......................................................................
Springfield, OH ......................................................................
State College, PA ..................................................................
Stockton, CA ..........................................................................
Sumter, SC ............................................................................
Syracuse, NY .........................................................................
Tallahassee, FL .....................................................................

$34,016
40,679
37,962
30,786
31,844
35,392
36,426
29,294
38,081
35,018

$35,539
42,420
39,487
31,868
32,017
36,797
37,906
30,267
39,620
36,543

4.5
4.3
4.0
3.5
0.5
4.0
4.1
3.3
4.0
4.4

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL ..................................
Terre Haute, IN ......................................................................
Texarkana, TX-Texarkana, AR ..............................................
Toledo, OH ............................................................................
Topeka, KS ............................................................................
Trenton-Ewing, NJ .................................................................
Tucson, AZ ............................................................................
Tulsa, OK ...............................................................................
Tuscaloosa, AL ......................................................................
Tyler, TX ................................................................................

38,016
31,341
32,545
37,039
34,806
54,274
37,119
37,637
35,613
36,173

39,215
32,349
34,079
38,538
36,109
56,645
38,524
38,942
36,737
37,184

3.2
3.2
4.7
4.0
3.7
4.4
3.8
3.5
3.2
2.8

Utica-Rome, NY .....................................................................
Valdosta, GA .........................................................................
Vallejo-Fairfield, CA ...............................................................
Vero Beach, FL ......................................................................
Victoria, TX ............................................................................
Vineland-Millville-Bridgeton, NJ .............................................
Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC .....................
Visalia-Porterville, CA ............................................................
Waco, TX ...............................................................................
Warner Robins, GA ...............................................................

32,457
26,794
40,225
33,823
36,642
37,749
36,071
29,772
33,450
38,087

33,916
27,842
42,932
35,901
38,317
39,408
37,734
30,968
34,679
39,220

4.5
3.9
6.7
6.1
4.6
4.4
4.6
4.0
3.7
3.0

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV ...............
Waterloo-Cedar Falls, IA .......................................................
Wausau, WI ...........................................................................
Weirton-Steubenville, WV-OH ...............................................
Wenatchee, WA .....................................................................
Wheeling, WV-OH .................................................................
Wichita, KS ............................................................................
Wichita Falls, TX ....................................................................
Williamsport, PA ....................................................................
Wilmington, NC ......................................................................

58,057
34,329
34,438
31,416
28,340
30,620
38,763
30,785
31,431
32,948

60,711
35,899
35,710
32,893
29,475
31,169
39,662
32,320
32,506
34,239

4.6
4.6
3.7
4.7
4.0
1.8
2.3
5.0
3.4
3.9

Winchester, VA-WV ...............................................................
Winston-Salem, NC ...............................................................
Worcester, MA .......................................................................
Yakima, WA ...........................................................................
Yauco, PR .............................................................................
York-Hanover, PA ..................................................................
Youngstown-Warren-Boardman, OH-PA ...............................
Yuba City, CA ........................................................................
Yuma, AZ ...............................................................................

34,895
37,712
42,726
28,401
19,001
37,226
33,852
33,642
28,369

36,016
38,921
44,652
29,743
19,380
38,469
34,698
35,058
30,147

3.2
3.2
4.5
4.7
2.0
3.3
2.5
4.2
6.3

1 Includes workers covered by Unemployment
Insurance (UI) and Unemployment Compensation
for Federal Employees (UCFE) programs.
2 Includes data for Metropolitan Statistical
Areas (MSA) as defined by OMB Bulletin No.
04-03 as of February 18, 2004.

102

Percent
change,
2006-07

2006

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

3 Each year’s total is based on the MSA
definition for the specific year. Annual changes
include differences resulting from changes in
MSA definitions.
4 Totals do not include the six MSAs within
Puerto Rico.

27. Annual data: Employment status of the population
>1XPEHUVLQWKRXVDQGV@
Employment status
Civilian noninstitutional population...........
Civilian labor force............................……
Labor force participation rate...............
Employed............................…………
Employment-population ratio..........
Unemployed............................………
Unemployment rate........................
Not in the labor force............................…
1

1997
203,133
136,297
67.1
129,558
63.8
6,739
4.9
66,837

19981
205,220
137,673
67.1
131,463
64.1
6,210
4.5
67,547

19991

20001

20011

207,753
139,368
67.1
133,488
64.3
5,880
4.2
68,385

212,577
142,583
67.1
136,891
64.4
5,692
4
69,994

215,092
143,734
66.8
136,933
63.7
6,801
4.7
71,359

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

217,570
144,863
66.6
136,485
62.7
8,378
5.8
72,707

221,168
146,510
66.2
137,736
62.3
8,774
6
74,658

223,357
147,401
66
139,252
62.3
8,149
5.5
75,956

226,082
149,320
66
141,730
62.7
7,591
5.1
76,762

228,815
151,428
66.2
144,427
63.1
7,001
4.6
77,387

231,867
153,124
66
146,047
63
7,078
4.6
78,743

Not strictly comparable with prior years.

28. Annual data: Employment levels by industry
>,QWKRXVDQGV@
Industry

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Total private employment............................…

103,113

106,021

108,686

110,996

110,707

108,828

108,416

109,814

111,899

114,184

115,717

Total nonfarm employment……………………
Goods-producing............................………
Natural resources and mining.................
Construction............................……………
Manufacturing............................…………

122,776
23,886
654
5,813
17,419

125,930
24,354
645
6,149
17,560

128,993
24,465
598
6,545
17,322

131,785
24,649
599
6,787
17,263

131,826
23,873
606
6,826
16,441

130,341
22,557
583
6,716
15,259

129,999
21,816
572
6,735
14,510

131,435
21,882
591
6,976
14,315

133,703
22,190
628
7,336
14,226

136,174
22,570
684
7,689
14,197

137,969
22,378
722
7,624
14,032

Private service-providing..........................
79,227
Trade, transportation, and utilities..........
24,700
Wholesale trade............................……… 5,663.90
Retail trade............................………… 14,388.90
Transportation and warehousing.........
4,026.50
Utilities............................………………
620.9
3,084
Information............................……………
7,178
Financial activities............................……
Professional and business services……
14,335
Education and health services…………
14,087
11,018
Leisure and hospitality……………………
Other services……………………………
4,825

81,667
25,186
5,795.20
14,609.30
4,168.00
613.4
3,218
7,462
15,147
14,446
11,232
4,976

84,221
25,771
5,892.50
14,970.10
4,300.30
608.5
3,419
7,648
15,957
14,798
11,543
5,087

86,346
26,225
5,933.20
15,279.80
4,410.30
601.3
3,631
7,687
16,666
15,109
11,862
5,168

86,834
25,983
5,772.70
15,238.60
4,372.00
599.4
3,629
7,807
16,476
15,645
12,036
5,258

86,271
25,497
5,652.30
15,025.10
4,223.60
596.2
3,395
7,847
15,976
16,199
11,986
5,372

86,599
25,287
5,607.50
14,917.30
4,185.40
577
3,188
7,977
15,987
16,588
12,173
5,401

87,932
25,533
5,662.90
15,058.20
4,248.60
563.8
3,118
8,031
16,395
16,953
12,493
5,409

89,709
25,959
5,764.40
15,279.60
4,360.90
554
3,061
8,153
16,954
17,372
12,816
5,395

91,615
26,231
5,897.60
15,319.30
4,465.80
548.5
3,055
8,363
17,552
17,838
13,143
5,432

93,339
26,472
6,005.30
15,382.00
4,531.20
553.5
3,087
8,446
17,920
18,377
13,565
5,472

19,909

20,307

20,790

21,118

21,513

21,583

21,621

21,804

21,990

22,252

Government……………………………………

19,664

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

103

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

29. Annual data: Average hours and earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers on nonfarm
payrolls, by industry
Industry

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Private sector:
Average weekly hours.......…….................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars).........................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)........................

34.5
12.51
431.86

34.5
13.01
448.56

34.3
13.49
463.15

34.3
14.02
481.01

34
14.54
493.79

33.9
14.97
506.72

33.7
15.37
518.06

33.7
15.69
529.09

33.8
16.13
544.33

33.9
16.76
567.87

33.8
17.41
589.36

Goods-producing:
Average weekly hours.............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars).......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................

41.1
13.82
568.43

40.8
14.23
580.99

40.8
14.71
599.99

40.7
15.27
621.86

39.9
15.78
630.04

39.9
16.33
651.61

39.8
16.8
669.13

40
17.19
688.17

40.1
17.6
705.31

40.5
18.02
729.87

40.5
18.64
755.73

Natural resources and mining
Average weekly hours............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars).....................
Construction:

46.2
15.57
720.11

44.9
16.2
727.28

44.2
16.33
721.74

44.4
16.55
734.92

44.6
17
757.92

43.2
17.19
741.97

43.6
17.56
765.94

44.5
18.07
803.82

45.6
18.72
853.71

45.6
19.9
908.01

45.9
20.99
962.54

Average weekly hours............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars).....................
Manufacturing:

38.9
15.67
609.48

38.8
16.23
629.75

39
16.8
655.11

39.2
17.48
685.78

38.7
18
695.89

38.4
18.52
711.82

38.4
18.95
726.83

38.3
19.23
735.55

38.6
19.46
750.22

39
20.02
781.04

38.9
20.94
814.83

Average weekly hours............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars).....................
Private service-providing:

41.7
13.14
548.22

41.4
13.45
557.12

41.4
13.85
573.17

41.3
14.32
590.65

40.3
14.76
595.19

40.5
15.29
618.75

40.4
15.74
635.99

40.8
16.15
658.59

40.7
16.56
673.37

41.1
16.8
690.83

41.2
17.23
710.51

Average weekly hours..………................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars).......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................

32.8
12.07
395.51

32.8
12.61
413.5

32.7
13.09
427.98

32.7
13.62
445.74

32.5
14.18
461.08

32.5
14.59
473.8

32.4
14.99
484.81

32.3
15.29
494.22

32.4
15.74
509.58

32.5
16.42
532.84

32.4
17.09
554.47

Trade, transportation, and utilities:
Average weekly hours.............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars).......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................
Wholesale trade:

34.3
11.9
407.57

34.2
12.39
423.3

33.9
12.82
434.31

33.8
13.31
449.88

33.5
13.7
459.53

33.6
14.02
471.27

33.6
14.34
481.14

33.5
14.58
488.42

33.4
14.92
498.43

33.4
15.4
514.61

33.4
15.82
528.22

Average weekly hours.........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Retail trade:

38.8
14.41
559.39

38.6
15.07
582.21

38.6
15.62
602.77

38.8
16.28
631.4

38.4
16.77
643.45

38
16.98
644.38

37.9
17.36
657.29

37.8
17.65
667.09

37.7
18.16
685

38
18.91
718.3

38.2
19.56
747.7

Average weekly hours.........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Transportation and warehousing:
Average weekly hours.........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Utilities:
Average weekly hours.........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Information:
Average weekly hours.........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Financial activities:

38.8
14.41
559.39

38.6
15.07
582.21

38.6
15.62
602.77

38.8
16.28
631.4

38.4
16.77
643.45

38
16.98
644.38

37.9
17.36
657.29

37.8
17.65
667.09

37.7
18.16
685

38
18.91
718.3

30.2
12.8
747.7

39.4
13.78
542.55

38.7
14.12
546.86

37.6
14.55
547.97

37.4
15.05
562.31

36.7
15.33
562.7

36.8
15.76
579.75

36.8
16.25
598.41

37.2
16.52
614.82

37
16.7
618.58

36.9
17.28
637.14

37
17.76
656.95

42
20.59
865.26

42
21.48
902.94

42
22.03
924.59

42
22.75
955.66

41.4
23.58
977.18

40.9
41.1
40.9
41.1
41.4
42.4
23.96
24.77
25.61
26.68
27.42
27.93
979.09 1,017.27 1,048.44 1,095.90 1,136.08 1,185.08

36.3
17.14
622.4

36.6
17.67
646.52

36.7
18.4
675.32

36.8
19.07
700.89

36.9
19.8
731.11

36.5
20.2
738.17

36.2
21.01
760.81

36.3
21.4
777.05

36.5
22.06
805

36.6
23.23
850.81

36.4
23.92
871.03

35.7
13.22
472.37

36
13.93
500.95

35.8
14.47
517.57

35.9
14.98
537.37

35.8
15.59
558.02

35.6
16.17
575.51

35.5
17.14
609.08

35.5
17.52
622.87

35.9
17.94
645.1

35.8
18.8
672.4

35.9
19.66
706.01

34.3
13.57
465.51

34.3
14.27
490

34.4
14.85
510.99

34.5
15.52
535.07

34.2
16.33
557.84

34.2
16.81
574.66

34.1
17.21
587.02

34.2
17.48
597.56

34.2
18.08
618.87

34.6
19.12
662.23

34.8
20.15
700.96

32.2
12.56
404.65

32.2
13
418.82

32.1
13.44
431.35

32.2
13.95
449.29

32.3
14.64
473.39

32.4
15.21
492.74

32.3
15.64
505.69

32.4
16.15
523.78

32.6
16.71
544.59

32.5
17.38
564.95

32.6
18.03
587.2

26
7.32
190.52

26.2
7.67
200.82

26.1
7.96
208.05

26.1
8.32
217.2

25.8
8.57
220.73

25.8
8.81
227.17

25.6
9
230.42

25.7
9.15
234.86

25.7
9.38
241.36

25.7
9.75
250.11

25.5
10.41
265.03

32.7
11.29
368.63

32.6
11.79
384.25

32.5
12.26
398.77

32.5
12.73
413.41

32.3
13.27
428.64

32
13.72
439.76

31.4
13.84
434.41

31
13.98
433.04

30.9
14.34
443.37

30.9
14.77
456.6

30.9
15.22
470.05

Average weekly hours.........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Professional and business services:
Average weekly hours.........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Education and health services:
Average weekly hours.........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Leisure and hospitality:
Average weekly hours.........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Other services:
Average weekly hours.........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................

NOTE: Data reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), replacing the Standard Industrial Classification
(SIC) system. N AICS-based data by industry are not comparable with SIC-based data.

104

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

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Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

105

Current Labor Statistics: Compensation & Industrial Relations

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101.9

110.1

102.1


102.9
103.2
103.2

103.2
102.4
102.5
103.6

102.9
102.7

110.4

102.5


103.5
104.1
104.2

103.9
103.7
104.0
104.0

103.7
102.9

102.8

104.2


104.7
105.1
104.5

105.0
105.3
105.8
105.7

104.6
103.9

104.7

104.6


105.9
105.7
104.9

105.6
106.0
106.4
106.1

104.2
105.1

105.0

105.4


106.9
106.9
106.7

106.5
107.5
108.1
107.1

105.3
106.1

105.6

105.6


107.5
107.7
107.5

107.3
108.1
108.6
107.6

105.7
106.6

106.5

106.8


109.0
108.6
108.1

108.2
109.0
109.5
108.7

107.2
107.6

108.1

107.3


109.9
109.4
109.1

109.1
109.3
110.0
109.4

107.1
108.2

108.1

107.4


110.8
110.3
111.4

110.1
110.6
111.4
109.9

-0.1
.6

.0

.1


.8
.8
2.1

.9
1.2
1.3
.5

2.8
2.9

3.0

1.9


3.6
3.2
4.4

3.4
2.9
3.1
2.6

6WDWHDQGORFDOJRYHUQPHQWZRUNHUV««««««««««

103.2

104.1

105.1

105.7

107.6

108.4

108.9

109.4

111.3

1.7

3.4

Workers by occupational group
ManagHPHQWSURIHVVLRQDODQGUHODWHG«««««««««
3URIHVVLRQDODQGUHODWHG««««««««««««««
6DOHVDQGRIILFH«««««««««««««««««««
2IILFHDQGDGPLQLVWUDWLYHVXSSRUW««««««««««
6HUYLFHRFFXSDWLRQV«««««««««««««««««

103.3
103.4
103.3
103.5
103.1

104.0
104.0
104.1
104.2
104.5

104.9
104.8
105.6
105.7
105.4

105.4
105.3
106.2
106.4
106.3

107.5
107.5
107.9
108.2
108.0

108.3
108.2
108.6
108.9
109.1

108.8
108.6
108.8
109.3
109.7

109.3
109.1
109.3
109.8
110.0

111.3
111.1
111.0
111.4
111.9

1.8
1.8
1.6
1.5
1.7

3.5
3.3
2.9
3.0
3.6

Workers by industry
(GXFDWLRQDQGKHDOWKVHUYLFHV««««««««««««
(GXFDWLRQVHUYLFHV«««««««««««««««
6FKRROV«««««««««««««««««««
Elementary and secondaryVFKRROV««««««
+HDOWKFDUHDQGVRFLDODVVLVWDQFH«««««««««
+RVSLWDOV«««««««««««««««««««

103.7

103.5
103.6
105.1
103.3

104.3

104.1
104.2
105.7
104.3

104.8

104.6
104.7
107.1
105.6

105.3

104.9
105.0
107.6
106.3

107.5

107.4
107.4
108.6
107.5

108.2

108.0
108.0
109.3
108.2

108.6

108.4
108.3
110.1
109.2

109.1

108.8
108.8
111.1
109.7

111.2

111.0
111.1
112.7
110.8

1.9

2.0
2.1
1.4
1.0

3.4

3.4
3.4
3.8
3.1

102.4

103.8

105.6

106.6

108.0

109.1

109.7

110.1

111.6

1.4

3.3

3

Public administration «««««««««««««««
1

Cost (cents per hour worked) measured in the Employment Cost Index consists of
wages, salaries, and employer cost of employee benefits.
2
Consists of private industry workers (excluding farm and household workers) and
State and local government (excluding Federal Government) workers.
3
Consists of legislative, judicial, administrative, and regulatory activities.

106

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

NOTE: The Employment Cost Index data reflect the conversion to the 2002 North
American Classification System (NAICS) and the 2000 Standard Occupational
Classification (SOC) system. The NAICS and SOC data shown prior to 2006 are for
informational purposes only. Series based on NAICS and SOC became the official BLS
estimates starting in March 2006.

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Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

107

Current Labor Statistics: Compensation & Industrial Relations

&RQWLQXHG²(PSOR\PHQW&RVW,QGH[ZDJHVDQGVDODULHVE\RFFXSDWLRQDQGLQGXVWU\JURXS
[December 2005 = 100]

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:KROHVDOHWUDGH«««««««««««««««««
5HWDLOWUDGH«««««««««««««««««««
Transportation and warehousing«««««««««
8WLOLWLHV«««««««««««««««««««««
,QIRUPDWLRQ«««««««««««««««««««
)LQDQFLDODFWLYLWLHV««««««««««««««««
)LQDQFHDQGLQVXUDQFH«««««««««««««
Real estate and rental and leasing««««««««
3URIHVVLRQDODQGEXVLQHVVVHUYLFHV«««««««««
(GXFDWLRQDQGKHDOWKVHUYLFHV«««««««««««
(GXFDWLRQVHUYLFHV«««««««««««««««
+HDOWKFDUHDQGVRFLDODVVLVWDQFH««««««««
+RVSLWDOV««««««««««««««««««
Leisure and hospitality««««««««««««««
$FFRPPRGDWLRQDQGIRRGVHUYLFHV««««««««
2WKHUVHUYLFHVH[FHSWSXEOLFDGPLQLVWUDWLRQ«««««

102.7
101.9

103.0

102.5


103.0
103.0
103.1

102.9
102.3
102.2
103.4

103.0
102.8

103.5

102.8


103.5
104.0
104.1

103.7
103.7
103.8
103.8

103.8
103.1

104.3

104.7


104.8
104.8
104.2

104.6
105.7
106.0
105.7

104.8
104.2

105.5

104.9


105.9
105.6
104.6

105.4
106.4
106.5
106.1

104.0
105.1

106.1

106.0


106.7
106.9
106.4

106.5
108.1
108.4
107.3

105.2
106.1

106.8

105.9


107.5
107.7
107.4

107.2
108.8
109.0
107.9

105.2
106.4

108.0

107.2


109.1
108.6
107.9

108.2
109.7
110.0
109.2

107.2
107.6

109.3

107.7


110.0
109.2
108.6

109.2
109.9
110.4
109.9

106.8
108.1

109.3

107.7


111.0
110.2
110.8

110.3
111.4
111.9
110.4

-0.4
.5

.0

.0


.9
.9
2.0

1.0
1.4
1.4
.5

2.7
2.9

3.0

1.6


4.0
3.1
4.1

3.6
3.1
3.2
2.9

6WDWHDQGORFDOJRYHUQPHQWZRUNHUV««««««««««

102.8

103.5

104.1

104.6

106.4

107.1

107.7

108.2

110.1

1.8

3.5

Workers by occupational group
ManagHPHQWSURIHVVLRQDODQGUHODWHG«««««««««
3URIHVVLRQDODQGUHODWHG««««««««««««««
6DOHVDQGRIILFH«««««««««««««««««««
2IILFHDQGDGPLQLVWUDWLYHVXSSRUW««««««««««
6HUYLFHRFFXSDWLRQV«««««««««««««««««

102.9
103.0
102.6
102.7
102.4

103.5
103.6
103.2
103.4
103.9

104.0
103.9
104.5
104.7
104.5

104.3
104.2
104.8
105.0
105.2

106.3
106.3
106.3
106.5
106.5

107.0
107.0
107.0
107.3
107.7

107.6
107.5
107.4
107.8
108.3

108.2
108.1
107.9
108.3
108.6

110.1
110.1
109.3
109.7
110.4

1.8
1.9
1.3
1.3
1.7

3.6
3.6
2.8
3.0
3.7

Workers by industry
(GXFDWLRQDQGKHDOWKVHUYLFHV««««««««««««
(GXFDWLRQVHUYLFHV«««««««««««««««
6FKRROV«««««««««««««««««««
Elementary and secondaryVFKRROV««««««
+HDOWKFDUHDQGVRFLDODVVLVWDQFH«««««««««
+RVSLWDOV«««««««««««««««««««

103.1

103.0
103.0
104.8
103.1

103.6

103.4
103.4
105.5
104.4

104.0

103.6
103.6
106.6
105.7

104.2

103.9
103.8
107.2
106.5

106.3

106.1
106.0
108.2
107.6

107.1

106.8
106.6
109.2
108.6

107.5

107.2
106.9
110.1
109.8

108.1

107.7
107.5
111.0
110.3

110.2

109.9
109.8
112.8
111.4

1.9

2.0
2.1
1.6
1.0

3.7

3.6
3.6
4.3
3.5

102.0

103.5

104.5

105.2

106.4

107.4

108.2

108.6

109.9

1.2

3.3

2

Public administration «««««««««««««««
1

Consists of private industry workers (excluding farm and household workers) and
State and local government (excluding Federal Government) workers.
2
Consists of legislative, judicial, administrative, and regulatory activities.
NOTE: The Employment Cost Index data reflect the conversion to the 2002 North

108

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

American Classification System (NAICS) and the 2000 Standard Occupational
Classification (SOC) system. The NAICS and SOC data shown prior to 2006 are for
informational purposes only. Series based on NAICS and SOC became the official
BLS estimates starting in March 2006.

(PSOR\PHQW&RVW,QGH[EHQHILWVE\RFFXSDWLRQDQGLQGXVWU\JURXS
[December 2005 = 100]

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&LYLOLDQZRUNHUV«««««««««««««««««««

102.8

103.6

104.0

105.1

106.1

106.8

107.6

108.1

108.9

0.7

2.6

3ULYDWHLQGXVWU\ZRUNHUV«««««««««««««««« 102.5

103.1

103.2

104.3

105.0

105.6

106.5

107.0

107.5

.5

2.4

Workers by occupational group
ManagHPHQWSURIHVVLRQDODQGUHODWHG«««««««««
6DOHVDQGRIILFH«««««««««««««««««««
1DWXUDOUHVRXUFHVFRQVWUXFWLRQDQGPDLQWHQDQFH««««
Production, transportation, and material moving«««««

102.8
102.0
103.5
101.6

103.4
102.9
104.0
102.0

103.8
103.4
103.4
101.2

104.9
104.3
104.8
102.4

105.6
105.2
105.3
102.7

106.0
106.0
105.9
103.7

107.3
106.5
106.5
104.4

107.9
107.0
107.0
104.5

108.5
107.6
107.5
104.8

.6
.6
.5
.3

2.7
2.3
2.1
2.0

6HUYLFHRFFXSDWLRQV«««««««««««««««««

103.0

103.6

104.2

105.1

106.0

106.7

107.6

108.5

108.7

.2

2.5


Goods-producing««««««««««««««««««
Manufacturing««««««««««««««««««« 100.5
Service-providing«««««««««««««««««« 103.0


100.8
103.7


99.6
104.1


101.0
105.2


100.7
106.0


101.7
106.6


102.3
107.6


102.2
108.1


102.3
108.7


.1
.6


1.6
2.5

105.2

107.0

108.0

110.3

111.0

111.4

111.8

113.9

1.9

3.3

Workers by industry

6WDWHDQGORFDOJRYHUQPHQWZRUNHUV««««««««««

104.1

NOTE: The Employment Cost Index data reflect the conversion to
the 2002 North American Classification System (NAICS) and the 2000
Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system. The NAICS and
SOC data shown prior

to 2006 are for informational purposes only. Series based on NAICS and SOC became the official
BLS estimates starting in March 2006.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

109

Current Labor Statistics: Compensation & Industrial Relations

33. Employment Cost Index, private industry workers by bargaining status and region
[December 2005 = 100]
2006
Series

Sept.

2007

Dec.

Mar.

June

2008

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Percent change
Sept.

3 months
ended

12 months
ended

Sept. 2008
COMPENSATION
Workers by bargaining status1
8QLRQ«««««««««««««««««««««««««
Goods-producing«««««««««««««««««««
Manufacturing«««««««««««««««««««
Service-providing«««««««««««««««««««

102.4
101.8

102.9

103.0
102.2

103.6

102.7
101.5

103.7

103.9
102.8

104.7

104.4
103.1

105.4

105.1
104.0

106.0

105.9
104.6

107.0

106.7
105.6

107.5

107.4
106.2

108.3

0.7
.6

.7

2.9
3.0

2.8

1RQXQLRQ«««««««««««««««««««««««
Goods-producing«««««««««««««««««««
Manufacturing«««««««««««««««««««
Service-providing«««««««««««««««««««

102.6
102.0

102.7

103.2
102.5

103.4

104.2
103.3

104.4

105.1
104.2

105.3

105.9
104.8

106.2

106.5
105.4

106.8

107.5
106.5

107.7

108.3
107.1

108.6

108.9
107.6

109.2

.6
.5

.6

2.8
2.7

2.8

Workers by region1
1RUWKHDVW«««««««««««««««««««««««
6RXWK«««««««««««««««««««««««««
0LGZHVW««««««««««««««««««««««««
:HVW«««««««««««««««««««««««««

102.5
102.8
102.3
102.5

103.3
103.5
102.8
103.0

104.0
104.3
103.3
104.2

105.1
105.3
104.2
104.9

106.2
106.1
104.6
105.7

106.8
106.7
105.3
106.5

107.4
107.8
106.0
107.8

108.1
108.5
107.0
108.4

108.7
109.1
107.4
109.3

.6
.6
.4
.8

2.4
2.8
2.7
3.4

Workers by bargaining status1
8QLRQ«««««««««««««««««««««««««
Goods-producing«««««««««««««««««««
Manufacturing«««««««««««««««««««
Service-providing«««««««««««««««««««

101.7
101.9

101.6

102.3
102.3

102.2

102.8
102.7

102.9

103.7
103.6

103.8

104.4
104.3

104.6

104.7
104.3

104.9

105.5
105.2

105.8

106.7
106.4

106.9

107.4
107.1

107.7

.7
.7

.7

2.9
2.7

3.0

1RQXQLRQ«««««««««««««««««««««««
Goods-producing«««««««««««««««««««
Manufacturing«««««««««««««««««««
Service-providing«««««««««««««««««««

102.7
102.4

102.7

103.3
103.0

103.4

104.5
104.2

104.6

105.3
105.0

105.4

106.2
105.8

106.3

106.9
106.4

107.0

107.9
107.7

107.9

108.7
108.4

108.8

109.4
109.0

109.4

.6
.6

.6

3.0
3.0

2.9

Workers by region1
1RUWKHDVW«««««««««««««««««««««««
6RXWK«««««««««««««««««««««««««
0LGZHVW««««««««««««««««««««««««
:HVW«««««««««««««««««««««««««

102.5
102.9
102.0
102.7

103.1
103.6
102.6
103.2

104.0
104.6
103.6
104.8

105.0
105.6
104.4
105.4

106.1
106.5
105.0
106.2

106.6
107.0
105.6
107.0

107.5
108.1
106.3
108.3

108.2
109.1
107.5
108.9

108.7
109.8
107.9
109.9

.5
.6
.4
.9

2.5
3.1
2.8
3.5

WAGES AND SALARIES

1
The indexes are calculated differently from those for the
occupation and industry groups. For a detailed description of
the index calculation, see the Monthly Labor Review Technical
Note, "Estimation procedures for the Employment Cost Index,"
May 1982.

110

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

NOTE: The Employment Cost Index data reflect the conversion to the 2002 North American
Classification System (NAICS) and the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system. The
NAICS and SOC data shown prior to 2006 are for informational purposes only. Series based on NAICS
and SOC became the official BLS estimates starting in March 2006.

1DWLRQDO&RPSHQVDWLRQ6XUYH\5HWLUHPHQWEHQHILWVLQSULYDWHLQGXVWU\E\
DFFHVVSDUWLFLSDWLRQDQGVHOHFWHGVHULHV±
Year

Series
2003

2004

2005

2007

2006

1

All retirement
Percentage of workers with access
All workers………………………………………………………

57

59

60

60

White-collar occupations 2 ……………………………………

67

69

70

69

-

-

-

-

-

76
64

Management, professional, and related ……………….

61

Sales and office ……………………………………………

-

-

-

-

Blue-collar occupations 2………………………………………

59

59

60

62

-

-

-

-

-

61

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance...…
Production, transportation, and material moving…...…
Service occupations……………………………………………

-

-

-

-

65

28

31

32

34

36

Full-time…………………………………………………………

67

68

69

69

70

Part-time………………………………………………………

24

27

27

29

31

Union……………………………………………………………

86

84

88

84

84

Non-union………………………………………………………

54

56

56

57

58

Average wage less than $15 per hour……...………………

45

46

46

47

47

Average wage $15 per hour or higher……...………………

76

77

78

77

76

Goods-producing industries…………………………………

70

70

71

73

70

Service-providing industries…………………………………

53

55

56

56

58

Establishments with 1-99 workers……………………………

42

44

44

44

45

Establishments with 100 or more workers…………………

75

77

78

78

78

All workers………………………………………………………

49

50

50

51

51

White-collar occupations 2 ……………………………………

59

61

61

60

-

-

-

-

-

69
54

Percentage of workers participating

Management, professional, and related ……………….
Sales and office ……………………………………………

-

-

-

-

Blue-collar occupations 2………………………………………

50

50

51

52

-

-

-

-

-

51

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance…...
Production, transportation, and material moving…...…
Service occupations……………………………………………

-

-

-

-

54

21

22

22

24

25

Full-time…………………………………………………………

58

60

60

60

60

Part-time………………………………………………………

18

20

19

21

23

Union……………………………………………………………

83

81

85

80

81

Non-union………………………………………………………

45

47

46

47

47

Average wage less than $15 per hour……...………………

35

36

35

36

36

Average wage $15 per hour or higher……...………………

70

71

71

70

69

Goods-producing industries…………………………………

63

63

64

64

61

Service-providing industries…………………………………

45

47

47

47

48

Establishments with 1-99 workers……………………………

35

37

37

37

37

Establishments with 100 or more workers…………………

65

67

67

67

66

Take-up rate (all workers) 3……………………………………

-

-

85

85

84

All workers………………………………………………………

20

21

22

21

21

White-collar occupations 2 ……………………………………

23

24

25

23

-

-

-

-

-

29
19

Defined Benefit
Percentage of workers with access

Management, professional, and related ……………….
Sales and office ……………………………………………
2
Blue-collar occupations ………………………………………

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance...…

-

-

-

-

24

26

26

25

-

-

-

-

-

26
26

Production, transportation, and material moving…...…

-

-

-

-

Service occupations……………………………………………

8

6

7

8

8

Full-time…………………………………………………………

24

25

25

24

24

Part-time………………………………………………………

8

9

10

9

10

Union……………………………………………………………

74

70

73

70

69

Non-union………………………………………………………

15

16

16

15

15

Average wage less than $15 per hour……...………………

12

11

12

11

11

Average wage $15 per hour or higher……...………………

34

35

35

34

33

Goods-producing industries…………………………………

31

32

33

32

29

Service-providing industries…………………………………

17

18

19

18

19

9

9

10

9

9

34

35

37

35

34

Establishments with 1-99 workers……………………………
Establishments with 100 or more workers…………………
See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

111

Current Labor Statistics: Compensation & Industrial Relations

&RQWLQXHG²1DWLRQDO&RPSHQVDWLRQ6XUYH\5HWLUHPHQWEHQHILWVLQSULYDWHLQGXVWU\
E\DFFHVVSDUWLFLSDWLRQDQGVHOHFWHGVHULHV±
Year

Series
2003

2004

2005

2007 1

2006

Percentage of workers participating
All workers………………………………………………………
2
White-collar occupations ……………………………………
Management, professional, and related ……………….
Sales and office ……………………………………………
Blue-collar occupations 2……………………………………
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance...…
Production, transportation, and material moving…...…
Service occupations…………………………………………
Full-time………………………………………………………
Part-time………………………………………………………
Union……………………………………………………………
Non-union………………………………………………………
Average wage less than $15 per hour……...………………

20
22
24
7
24
8
72
15
11

21
24
25
6
24
9
69
15
11

21
24
26
7
25
9
72
15
11

20
22
25
7
23
8
68
14
10

20
28
17
25
25
7
23
9
67
15
10

Average wage $15 per hour or higher……...………………

33

35

34

33

32

Goods-producing industries…………………………………

31

31

32

31

28

Service-providing industries…………………………………

16

18

18

17

18

Establishments with 1-99 workers…………………………

8

9

9

9

9

Establishments with 100 or more workers…………………

33

34

36

33

32

Take-up rate (all workers) 3……………………………………

-

-

97

96

95

All workers………………………………………………………

51

53

53

54

55

White-collar occupations 2 ……………………………………

62

64

64

65

-

-

-

-

-

71
60

Defined Contribution
Percentage of workers with access

Management, professional, and related ……………….
Sales and office ……………………………………………
2
Blue-collar occupations ……………………………………

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance...…

-

-

-

-

49

49

50

53

-

-

-

-

-

51
56

Production, transportation, and material moving…...…

-

-

-

-

Service occupations…………………………………………

23

27

28

30

32

Full-time………………………………………………………

60

62

62

63

64

Part-time………………………………………………………

21

23

23

25

27

Union……………………………………………………………

45

48

49

50

49

Non-union………………………………………………………

51

53

54

55

56

Average wage less than $15 per hour……...………………

40

41

41

43

44

Average wage $15 per hour or higher……...………………

67

68

69

69

69

Goods-producing industries…………………………………

60

60

61

63

62

Service-providing industries…………………………………

48

50

51

52

53

Establishments with 1-99 workers…………………………

38

40

40

41

42

Establishments with 100 or more workers…………………

65

68

69

70

70

All workers………………………………………………………

40

42

42

43

43

White-collar occupations 2 ……………………………………

51

53

53

53

-

-

-

-

-

60
47

Percentage of workers participating

Management, professional, and related ……………….

-

-

-

-

Blue-collar occupations 2……………………………………

38

38

38

40

-

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance...…

-

-

-

-

40
41

Sales and office ……………………………………………

Production, transportation, and material moving…...…

-

-

-

-

Service occupations…………………………………………

16

18

18

20

20

Full-time………………………………………………………

48

50

50

51

50

Part-time………………………………………………………

14

14

14

16

18

Union……………………………………………………………

39

42

43

44

41

Non-union………………………………………………………

40

42

41

43

43

Average wage less than $15 per hour……...………………

29

30

29

31

30

Average wage $15 per hour or higher……...………………

57

59

59

58

57

Goods-producing industries…………………………………

49

49

50

51

49

Service-providing industries…………………………………

37

40

39

40

41

Establishments with 1-99 workers…………………………

31

32

32

33

33

Establishments with 100 or more workers…………………

51

53

53

54

53

-

-

78

79

77

3

Take-up rate (all workers) ……………………………………
See footnotes at end of table.

112

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

&RQWLQXHG²1DWLRQDO&RPSHQVDWLRQ6XUYH\5HWLUHPHQWEHQHILWVLQSULYDWHLQGXVWU\
E\DFFHVVSDUWLFLSDWLRQDQGVHOHFWHGVHULHV±
Year

Series
2003

2004

2005

2007 1

2006

Employee Contribution Requirement
Employee contribution required…………………………
Employee contribution not required………………………
Not determinable……………………………………………

-

-

61
31
8

61
33
6

65
35
0

Percent of establishments
Offering retirement plans……………………………………
Offering defined benefit plans………………………………
Offering defined contribution plans……………………….

47
10
45

48
10
46

51
11
48

48
10
47

46
10
44

1

The 2002 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) replaced the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)
System. Estimates for goods-producing and service-providing (formerly service-producing) industries are considered comparable.
Also introduced was the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) to replace the 1990 Census of Population system.
Only service occupations are considered comparable.

2

The white-collar and blue-collar occupation series were discontinued effective 2007.

3

The take-up rate is an estimate of the percentage of workers with access to a plan who participate in the plan.

Note: Where applicable, dashes indicate no employees in this category or data do not meet publication criteria.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

113

Current Labor Statistics: Compensation & Industrial Relations

1DWLRQDO&RPSHQVDWLRQ6XUYH\+HDOWKLQVXUDQFHEHQHILWVLQSULYDWHLQGXVWU\
E\DFFHVVSDUWLFSDWLRQDQGVHOHFWHGVHULHV
Year

Series
2003

2004

2005

2007 1

2006

Medical insurance
Percentage of workers with access
All workers…………………………………………………………………………

60

69

70

71

White-collar occupations 2 ………………………………………………………

65

76

77

77

-

-

-

-

-

85
71

Management, professional, and related …………………………………
Sales and office………………………………………………………………
2
Blue-collar occupations ………………………………………………………

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance………………………

71

-

-

-

-

64

76

77

77

-

-

-

-

-

76

Production, transportation, and material moving…………………………

-

-

-

-

78

Service occupations……………………………………………………………

38

42

44

45

46

Full-time…………………………………………………………………………

73

84

85

85

85

Part-time…………………………………………………………………………

17

20

22

22

24

Union………………………………………………………………………………

67

89

92

89

88

Non-union…………………………………………………………………………

59

67

68

68

69

Average wage less than $15 per hour…………………………………………

51

57

58

57

57

Average wage $15 per hour or higher…………………………………………

74

86

87

88

87

Goods-producing industries……………………………………………………

68

83

85

86

85

Service-providing industries……………………………………………………

57

65

66

66

67

Establishments with 1-99 workers………………………………………………

49

58

59

59

59

Establishments with 100 or more workers……………………………………

72

82

84

84

84

All workers…………………………………………………………………………

45

53

53

52

52

White-collar occupations 2 ………………………………………………………

50

59

58

57

-

-

-

-

-

67
48

Percentage of workers participating

Management, professional, and related …………………………………
Sales and office………………………………………………………………
Blue-collar occupations 2………………………………………………………
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance………………………

-

-

-

-

51

60

61

60

-

-

-

-

-

61

Production, transportation, and material moving…………………………

-

-

-

-

60

Service occupations……………………………………………………………

22

24

27

27

28

Full-time…………………………………………………………………………

56

66

66

64

64

Part-time…………………………………………………………………………

9

11

12

13

12

Union………………………………………………………………………………

60

81

83

80

78

Non-union…………………………………………………………………………

44

50

49

49

49

Average wage less than $15 per hour…………………………………………

35

40

39

38

37

Average wage $15 per hour or higher…………………………………………

61

71

72

71

70

Goods-producing industries……………………………………………………

57

69

70

70

68

Service-providing industries……………………………………………………

42

48

48

47

47

Establishments with 1-99 workers………………………………………………

36

43

43

43

42

Establishments with 100 or more workers……………………………………

55

64

65

63

62

Take-up rate (all workers) 3………………………………………………………

-

-

75

74

73

All workers…………………………………………………………………………

40

46

46

46

46

White-collar occupations 2 ………………………………………………………

47

53

54

53

-

-

-

-

-

62
47

Dental
Percentage of workers with access

Management, professional, and related …………………………………
Sales and office………………………………………………………………
2
Blue-collar occupations ………………………………………………………

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance………………………

-

-

-

47

47

46

-

-

-

-

-

43

Production, transportation, and material moving…………………………

-

-

-

-

49

Service occupations……………………………………………………………

22

25

25

27

28

Full-time…………………………………………………………………………

49

56

56

55

56

Part-time…………………………………………………………………………

9

13

14

15

16

Union………………………………………………………………………………

57

73

73

69

68

Non-union…………………………………………………………………………

38

43

43

43

44

Average wage less than $15 per hour…………………………………………

30

34

34

34

34

Average wage $15 per hour or higher…………………………………………

55

63

62

62

61

Goods-producing industries……………………………………………………

48

56

56

56

54

Service-providing industries……………………………………………………

37

43

43

43

44

Establishments with 1-99 workers………………………………………………

27

31

31

31

30

Establishments with 100 or more workers……………………………………

55

64

65

64

64

See footnotes at end of table.

114

40

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

35. Continued—National Compensation Survey: Health insurance benefits in
private industry by access, particpation, and selected series, 2003-2007
Year

Series
2003

2004

2005

2007 1

2006

Percentage of workers participating
All workers……………………………………………………………………………

32

37

36

36

2
White-collar occupations ………………………………………………………

37

43

42

41

-

-

-

-

-

51
33

Management, professional, and related ……………………………………
Sales and office…………………………………………………………………
Blue-collar occupations 2…………………………………………………………
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance…………………………

36

-

-

-

-

33

40

39

38

-

-

-

-

-

36

Production, transportation, and material moving……………………………

-

-

-

-

38

Service occupations………………………………………………………………

15

16

17

18

20

Full-time……………………………………………………………………………

40

46

45

44

44

Part-time……………………………………………………………………………

6

8

9

10

9

Union………………………………………………………………………………

51

68

67

63

62

Non-union…………………………………………………………………………

30

33

33

33

33

Average wage less than $15 per hour…………………………………………

22

26

24

23

23

Average wage $15 per hour or higher…………………………………………

47

53

52

52

51

Goods-producing industries………………………………………………………

42

49

49

49

45

Service-providing industries………………………………………………………

29

33

33

32

33

Establishments with 1-99 workers………………………………………………

21

24

24

24

24

Establishments with 100 or more workers………………………………………

44

52

51

50

49

3
Take-up rate (all workers) …………………………………………………………

-

-

78

78

77

Percentage of workers with access………………………………………………

25

29

29

29

29

Percentage of workers participating………………………………………………

19

22

22

22

22

Percentage of workers with access………………………………………………

-

-

64

67

68

Percentage of workers participating………………………………………………

-

-

48

49

49

Percent of estalishments offering healthcare benefits …………………......…

58

61

63

62

60

Vision care

Outpatient Prescription drug coverage

Percentage of medical premium paid by
Employer and Employee
Single coverage
Employer share……………………………………………………………………

82

82

82

82

81

Employee share…………………………………………………………………

18

18

18

18

19

Family coverage
Employer share……………………………………………………………………

70

69

71

70

71

Employee share…………………………………………………………………

30

31

29

30

29

1

The 2002 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) replaced the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)
System. Estimates for goods-producing and service-providing (formerly service-producing) industries are considered comparable.
Also introduced was the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) to replace the 1990 Census of Population system.
Only service occupations are considered comparable.

2

The white-collar and blue-collar occupation series were discontinued effective 2007.

3

The take-up rate is an estimate of the percentage of workers with access to a plan who participate in the plan.

Note: Where applicable, dashes indicate no employees in this category or data do not meet publication criteria.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

115

Current Labor Statistics: Compensation & Industrial Relations

1DWLRQDO&RPSHQVDWLRQ6XUYH\3HUFHQWRIZRUNHUVLQSULYDWHLQGXVWU\
ZLWKDFFHVVWRVHOHFWHGEHQHILWV
Year

Benefit
2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Life insurance……………………………………………………

50

51

52

52

58

Short-term disabilty insurance…………………………………

39

39

40

39

39

Long-term disability insurance…………………………………

30

30

30

30

31

Long-term care insurance………………………………………

11

11

11

12

12

Flexible work place………………………………………………

4

4

4

4

5

Flexible benefits………………………………………………

-

-

17

17

17

Dependent care reimbursement account…………..………

-

-

29

30

31

Healthcare reimbursement account……………………...…

-

-

31

32

33

Health Savings Account………………………………...………

-

-

5

6

8

Employee assistance program……………………….…………

-

-

40

40

42

Section 125 cafeteria benefits

Paid leave
Holidays…………………………………………...……………

79

77

77

76

77

Vacations……………………………………………..………

79

77

77

77

77

Sick leave………………………………………..……………

-

59

58

57

57

Personal leave…………………………………………..……

-

-

36

37

38

Family leave
Paid family leave…………………………………………….…

-

-

7

8

8

Unpaid family leave………………………………………..…

-

-

81

82

83

Employer assistance for child care…………………….………

18

14

14

15

15

Nonproduction bonuses………………………...………………

49

47

47

46

47

Note: Where applicable, dashes indicate no employees in this category or data do not
meet publication criteria.

:RUNVWRSSDJHVLQYROYLQJZRUNHUVRUPRUH
Annual average

2007

Measure
2006
Number of stoppages:
Beginning in period.............................
In effect during period…......................

2007

Sept.

Oct.

2008

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

Aug. Sept.p

July

20
23

21
23

5
6

3
3

1
2

2
4

0
1

2
3

2
4

1
2

2
4

2
2

1
1

2
2

2
2

Workers involved:
Beginning in period (in thousands)…..
70.1
In effect during period (in thousands)… 191.0

189.2
220.9

108.3
108.3

41.7
41.7

10.5
14.2

6.5
20.7

0.0
10.5

6.2
16.7

5.7
11.9

2.3
6.0

3.4
9.4

4.2
4.2

8.5
8.5

7.0
7.0

28.2
28.2

Days idle:
Number (in thousands)….................... 2,687.5 1,264.8

261.5

73.9

284.0

254.8

220.5

148.8

140.9

104.4

125.0

12.3

42.5

102.4

469.8

0.01

0

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.02

1

Percent of estimated working time ……

0.01

0.01

1

Agricultural and government employees are included in the total employed
and total working time; private household, forestry, and fishery employees are
excluded. An explanation of the measurement of idleness as a percentage of
the total time

116

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

worked is found in "Total economy measures of strike idleness," Monthly Labor Review ,
October 1968, pp. 54–56.
NOTE:

p = preliminary.

38. Consumer Price Indexes for All Urban Consumers and for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers:
U.S. city average, by expenditure category and commodity or service group
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Annual average

Series

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2007

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Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

117

Current Labor Statistics: Price Data

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Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

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Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

119

Current Labor Statistics: Price Data

39. Consumer Price Index: U.S. city average and available local area data: all items
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120

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

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40. Annual data: Consumer Price Index, U.S. city average, all items and major groups
>± @
Series
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Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

121

Current Labor Statistics: Price Data

3URGXFHU3ULFH,QGH[HVE\VWDJHRISURFHVVLQJ
> @
Annual average

2007

Grouping
2006
Finished goods....……………………………
Finished consumer goods.........................
Finished consumer foods........................

2007

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

2008
Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

Junep Julyp Aug.p Sept.p

160.4
166.0
156.7

166.6
173.5
167.0

167.4
174.8
168.4

168.6
175.9
169.7

171.4
179.4
169.5

170.4
178.2
172.2

172.0
180.1
174.5

172.3
180.4
173.6

175.1
184.2
176.0

176.5
185.8
175.5

179.8
190.3
177.6

182.5
193.9
180.1

185.0
197.1
180.9

182.1
193.1
181.4

182.0
192.7
182.0

excluding foods.....................................
Nondurable goods less food.................
Durable goods......................................
Capital equipment...................................

169.2
182.6
136.9
146.9

175.6
191.7
138.3
149.5

177.0
194.6
136.7
148.9

177.9
194.5
139.8
150.6

182.9
201.5
140.2
151.0

180.1
197.9
139.5
150.7

181.9
200.3
140.1
151.4

182.7
201.4
140.2
151.8

187.1
208.2
139.9
151.8

189.6
211.7
140.5
152.4

195.0
220.0
140.3
152.7

199.1
226.5
139.8
152.7

203.2
232.5
140.3
153.6

197.4
223.8
139.9
153.7

196.7
222.6
140.1
154.3

Intermediate materials,
supplies, and components........…………

164.0

170.7

172.2

172.2

176.2

175.7

177.8

179.1

184.5

187.3

192.8

196.9

202.5

200.2

198.7

for manufacturing......................................
Materials for food manufacturing..............
Materials for nondurable manufacturing...
Materials for durable manufacturing.........
Components for manufacturing................

155.9
146.2
175.0
180.5
134.5

162.4
161.4
184.0
189.8
136.3

163.3
166.6
186.0
189.1
136.5

164.4
166.3
189.4
189.0
136.6

166.1
166.6
195.1
188.6
136.7

166.3
169.8
195.1
188.1
136.8

168.4
173.6
199.3
189.5
137.4

170.1
176.7
201.5
193.1
137.8

173.1
180.0
206.0
200.3
137.9

175.5
180.3
209.5
205.6
138.6

179.1
182.7
215.9
211.9
139.4

181.6
185.7
220.1
216.3
139.9

186.6
187.7
231.9
219.4
141.4

190.6
187.4
243.8
220.1
142.1

187.1
185.2
236.9
213.0
142.5

Materials and components
for construction.........................................
Processed fuels and lubricants...................
Containers..................................................
Supplies......................................................

188.4
162.8
175.0
157.0

192.5
173.9
180.3
161.7

193.2
178.4
181.0
162.3

193.2
175.5
182.3
163.0

193.2
189.7
183.2
163.9

193.4
186.3
183.4
164.6

194.4
188.6
185.1
166.8

195.7
189.0
185.7
168.1

197.3
206.1
185.9
170.0

200.2
211.8
187.0
171.3

203.3
227.3
187.6
173.1

206.3
238.6
188.5
174.3

209.9
249.6
191.6
177.7

213.1
224.2
194.2
179.4

214.4
223.2
198.1
179.9

Crude materials for further
processing.......................…………………
Foodstuffs and feedstuffs...........................
Crude nonfood materials............................

184.8
119.3
230.6

207.1
146.7
246.3

204.6
151.9
237.4

211.8
150.0
252.0

225.6
152.9
274.1

229.0
158.5
275.4

235.5
162.6
283.8

245.5
165.4
299.9

262.1
169.2
327.7

274.6
168.1
352.4

293.1
173.2
382.4

305.2
178.9
399.6

317.9
179.3
423.3

280.0
170.4
360.5

257.8
168.0
320.8

Special groupings:
Finished goods, excluding foods................
Finished energy goods...............................
Finished goods less energy........................
Finished consumer goods less energy.......
Finished goods less food and energy.........

161.0
145.9
157.9
162.7
158.7

166.2
156.3
162.8
168.7
161.7

166.9
159.7
163.0
169.2
161.5

168.1
159.1
164.7
170.8
163.2

171.6
170.4
164.9
171.0
163.6

169.6
163.8
165.5
172.0
163.5

171.0
166.6
166.7
173.5
164.4

171.7
167.2
167.0
173.7
165.0

174.6
177.5
167.6
174.7
165.1

176.4
182.4
168.0
174.9
165.7

180.1
194.8
168.8
175.9
166.1

182.8
204.3
169.5
177.0
166.2

185.9
213.0
170.4
177.8
167.1

182.0
198.2
170.7
178.3
167.3

181.7
195.5
171.3
178.9
167.9

and energy................................................
Consumer nondurable goods less food

166.7

170.0

170.0

171.8

172.2

172.2

173.2

174.0

174.1

174.8

175.2

175.4

176.2

176.6

177.2

and energy..............................................

191.5

197.0

198.3

199.0

199.3

200.0

201.4

203.0

203.6

204.3

205.4

206.4

207.6

208.8

209.8

Intermediate materials less foods
and feeds..................................................
Intermediate foods and feeds.....................
Intermediate energy goods.........................
Intermediate goods less energy..................

165.4
135.2
162.8
162.1

171.5
154.4
174.6
167.6

172.9
158.2
179.5
168.2

172.9
159.6
177.4
168.9

177.0
161.4
191.1
170.2

176.3
164.6
187.8
170.4

178.2
170.6
190.5
172.3

179.4
175.0
191.5
173.7

184.7
180.3
208.6
176.0

187.7
180.5
213.4
178.4

193.3
184.5
228.7
181.4

197.4
186.8
240.5
183.4

203.0
194.6
253.0
187.3

200.5
194.0
230.3
190.1

199.1
192.2
226.2
189.4

and energy................................................

163.8

168.4

168.9

169.5

170.8

170.9

172.5

173.7

175.8

178.3

181.2

183.2

186.9

189.9

189.3

Crude energy materials..............................
Crude materials less energy.......................
Crude nonfood materials less energy.........

226.9
152.3
244.5

232.8
182.6
282.6

219.9
188.3
289.9

237.7
187.4
292.8

267.1
189.2
289.9

268.3
194.1
291.7

273.6
200.9
307.3

291.7
205.9
319.7

325.4
211.7
332.1

346.1
218.5
366.7

386.1
223.9
372.4

409.7
229.1
374.5

437.9
232.2
387.2

352.7
223.2
379.1

311.4
213.3
342.6

Finished consumer goods

Materials and components

Finished consumer goods less food

Intermediate materials less foods

S SUHOLPLQDU\

122

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

3URGXFHU3ULFH,QGH[HVIRUWKHQHWRXWSXWRIPDMRULQGXVWU\JURXSV
>'HFHPEHU XQOHVVRWKHUZLVHLQGLFDWHG@
NAICS

2007

Industry
Sept.
Total mining industries (December 1984=100).............................

Oct.

Nov.

2008
Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

Junep July p Aug.p Sept.p

214.3
256.2
162.2
169.7

228.3
279.6
162.4
168.5

249.3
314.8
161.3
168.7

249.5
315.9
161.2
164.9

254.2
321.9
164.9
167.2

263.8
335.0
170.3
168.8

287.2
371.6
174.8
169.8

301.6
390.8
186.1
170.1

329.0
436.2
184.7
172.2

345.9
463.5
185.1
174.6

368.9
499.4
189.3
176.5

306.9
395.4
191.6
178.8

276.2
345.1
189.4
178.3

163.7
160.8
110.3
108.7
101.3
150.0
107.2
116.1
107.0
267.4

164.5
160.7
111.1
108.9
101.5
150.4
106.5
117.1
107.1
266.9

168.0
161.4
111.1
109.1
101.5
150.5
106.1
117.8
107.2
305.5

166.9
162.8
111.2
109.3
101.5
151.1
106.1
118.0
107.4
288.4

168.5
165.8
112.1
110.1
101.8
152.0
105.7
118.5
107.8
294.9

169.6
167.5
112.7
110.3
101.8
152.4
105.5
119.2
108.1
298.4

173.4
169.8
112.7
110.4
102.0
152.6
105.9
119.6
108.2
337.1

175.3
171.2
112.9
110.6
102.2
152.7
106.2
120.2
109.0
347.7

179.4
174.0
114.2
111.4
102.2
152.4
108.2
120.5
109.2
384.1

182.0
176.3
114.2
111.7
102.2
153.9
109.5
120.8
109.5
406.0

185.6
180.1
115.2
112.6
102.4
154.4
109.0
121.6
110.0
428.9

183.0
180.8
114.9
113.9
102.8
154.8
109.2
124.2
110.4
383.9

183.1
180.2
115.2
115.1
102.6
154.2
109.6
126.5
110.5
381.6




(December 1984=100)………………………………….…………
Chemical manufacturing (December 1984=100)…………………… 205.0
151.2
Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

206.4
151.6

209.2
152.2

210.4
153.2

213.6
154.8

215.8
155.6

218.4
156.4

221.1
156.8

224.5
158.3

227.8
159.5

233.7
162.7

240.0
165.0

241.2
166.4









Primary metal manufacturing (December 1984=100)………………
Fabricated metal product manufacturing (December 1984=100)…
Machinery manufacturing………………………..……………………
Computer and electronic products manufacturing…………………
Electrical equipment, appliance, and components manufacturing
Transportation equipment manufacturing……………………………
Furniture and related product manufacturing

188.8
162.8
112.5
93.3
123.7
103.8
165.9

188.6
163.3
112.7
93.1
124.2
106.3
166.1

188.9
163.7
113.0
92.8
124.5
106.6
166.6

188.6
164.3
113.1
92.6
124.4
106.0
166.4

190.4
165.6
113.8
92.6
125.2
106.6
167.1

194.2
166.8
114.3
92.8
125.9
106.6
167.8

202.4
168.3
114.6
92.7
127.1
106.1
168.3

211.5
171.1
115.1
92.7
127.3
106.7
169.5

221.1
173.0
115.8
92.8
127.8
106.6
170.2

228.5
174.7
116.5
92.8
128.4
105.9
171.7

233.2
177.3
117.9
93.0
129.0
106.5
172.1

235.1
178.9
118.5
93.0
129.9
106.3
172.7

227.4
180.3
119.0
92.9
129.9
106.5
173.6



Miscellaneous manufacturing………………………………………… 107.1

107.2

107.5

107.7

108.5

108.7

109.2

109.3

109.4

110.0

110.4

110.8

110.7

116.0
119.0
107.8
123.9
73.7
126.0

115.3
120.1
111.1
123.5
78.0
130.2

116.1
121.1
114.9
123.8
73.7
125.7

118.0
119.0
89.3
123.8
66.6
134.7

118.3
119.6
109.0
124.8
67.1
136.0

118.4
118.8
110.2
124.5
61.6
133.8

117.9
120.1
113.4
125.5
60.6
133.1

118.9
119.4
119.7
127.2
65.7
136.4

118.3
120.2
118.7
127.3
59.3
136.5

118.6
119.8
111.3
128.0
67.3
138.0

118.1
120.3
110.1
135.4
80.1
140.9

118.8
120.8
109.9
133.1
84.3
167.6

118.7
122.0
109.5
134.2
85.3
159.5

Air transportation (December 1992=100)…………………………… 180.5
Water transportation…………………………………………………… 115.3
Postal service (June 1989=100)……………………………………… 175.5

187.2
117.2
175.5

189.4
116.5
175.5

187.1
116.4
175.5

192.0
119.0
175.5

191.8
119.2
175.5

198.6
120.6
175.5

199.5
121.1
175.5

203.7
124.7
180.5

211.7
127.0
180.5

211.4
129.3
180.5

213.0
132.2
180.5

208.8
134.6
180.5

127.2

126.6

127.4

127.8

129.7

131.1

134.5

137.0

141.1

146.3

146.2

140.7

122.9
107.6
124.1
158.2
115.8
113.5

122.9
107.7
125.1
161.3
116.4
113.9

121.5
106.7
125.3
161.9
116.5
114.3

122.7
106.7
125.3
161.9
117.0
114.6

123.3
107.3
125.4
162.4
117.9
115.4

123.3
107.3
125.5
162.6
118.0
117.2

123.3
107.3
125.5
162.9
118.3
117.7

123.2
107.3
125.4
162.7
118.5
118.2

123.2
106.9
125.4
162.7
118.6
118.5

123.2
106.6
125.4
162.8
118.1
117.6

123.2
106.9
125.4
163.2
119.1
117.8

123.4
106.9
126.8
163.1
119.4
118.1

123.4
106.9
126.4
163.4
119.4
118.3

108.4
99.6
102.0
100.4
121.1
109.0
110.7
102.9
117.2
154.3
112.4

108.5
101.0
101.8
100.3
121.4
108.5
110.5
103.5
118.9
154.8
113.1

108.5
102.3
101.2
100.5
124.2
108.5
110.5
106.1
118.4
155.1
112.9

108.5
103.6
100.7
100.4
123.0
110.0
109.9
105.6
119.1
155.1
113.0

109.7
104.4
100.6
100.4
122.5
108.1
110.3
106.6
121.3
159.9
115.6

109.8
104.6
100.9
100.5
122.9
108.2
109.8
106.0
121.3
160.3
114.1

110.4
105.2
100.6
100.5
121.0
109.7
110.0
106.8
125.1
160.7
113.8

110.9
106.4
101.0
100.4
119.6
109.5
110.2
107.3
120.3
161.1
112.7

110.7
105.5
101.3
100.8
119.6
110.5
106.9
108.3
122.0
160.9
114.0

110.2
102.7
101.1
100.9
120.7
109.7
105.4
107.4
125.2
160.9
112.4

110.8
103.3
101.0
101.0
118.8
110.2
107.0
109.7
132.6
161.5
115.8

111.3
104.3
101.7
101.1
119.4
111.5
105.4
110.8
133.4
161.7
116.3

110.3
104.3
101.4
101.1
119.0
111.9
105.5
108.7
128.8
161.5
115.9

140.7
105.1
122.0
100.9
106.8
108.9
145.0

140.8
105.1
122.4
102.5
106.9
108.9
145.8

140.8
105.1
122.3
101.7
107.1
109.5
144.7

140.8
105.1
122.2
100.2
108.7
108.4
143.7

139.2
105.2
122.3
98.8
108.9
110.7
145.4

140.3
105.3
123.0
98.8
109.1
112.1
145.2

140.3
105.3
123.0
98.8
108.9
112.0
145.3

140.5
105.7
122.9
98.8
108.9
112.2
145.6

140.5
106.3
122.7
98.8
109.0
111.9
144.9

141.9
105.7
122.9
98.8
109.2
112.8
149.6

141.5
105.7
123.1
98.8
109.1
112.1
152.8

141.5
105.7
123.5
98.8
109.8
113.1
152.4

141.6
106.3
123.2
99.9
109.5
113.9
144.7

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

123














Oil and gas extraction (December 1985=100) .............................
Mining, except oil and gas……………………………………………
Mining support activities………………………………………………
Total manufacturing industries (December 1984=100)................
Food manufacturing (December 1984=100)…………………………
Beverage and tobacco manufacturing...........................................
Textile mills....................................................................................
Apparel manufacturing………………………………...………………
Leather and allied product manufacturing (December 1984=100)
Wood products manufacturing………………………………………
Paper manufacturing.....................................................................
Printing and related support activities...........................................
Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

(December 1984=100)………….…………………………………

(December 1984=100)………………………………………………

Retail trade







Motor vehicle and parts dealers………………………………………
Furniture and home furnishings stores………………………………
Electronics and appliance stores……………………………………
Health and personal care stores………………………………………
Gasoline stations (June 2001=100)…………………………………
Nonstore retailers………………………………………………………
Transportation and warehousing





Utilities


Utilities…………………………………………………………………… 129.3
Health care and social assistance








Office of physicians (December 1996=100)…………………………
Medical and diagnostic laboratories…………………………………
Home health care services (December 1996=100)…………………
Hospitals (December 1992=100)……………………………………
Nursing care facilities…………………………………………………
Residential mental retardation facilities………………………………
Other services industries














Publishing industries, except Internet ………………………………
Broadcasting, except Internet…………………………………………
Telecommunications……………………………………………………
Data processing and related services………………………………
Security, commodity contracts, and like activity……………………
Lessors or nonresidental buildings (except miniwarehouse)………
Offices of real estate agents and brokers……………………………
Real estate support activities…………………………………………
Automotive equipment rental and leasing (June 2001=100)………
Legal services (December 1996=100)………………………………
Offices of certified public accountants………………………………
Architectural, engineering, and related services

(December 1996=100)………………………………………………

Advertising agencies……………………………………………………

Employment services (December 1996=100)………………………

Travel agencies…………………………………………………………

Janitorial services………………………………………………………

Waste collection…………………………………………………………

Accommodation (December 1996=100)……………………………
S SUHOLPLQDU\

Current Labor Statistics: Price Data

43. Annual data: Producer Price Indexes, by stage of processing
> @
Index

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Finished goods
7RWDO
)RRGV«««««««««««««
(QHUJ\«««««««««««««««««
2WKHU«««««««««««««
























































Intermediate materials, supplies, and
components
7RWDO
)RRGV«««««««««««««««««
(QHUJ\««««««««««««
2WKHU«««««««««««««















































































































Crude materials for further processing
7RWDO
)RRGV«««««««««««««
(QHUJ\«««««««««««««««««
2WKHU«««««««««««««

86H[SRUWSULFHLQGH[HVE\HQGXVHFDWHJRU\
[2000 = 100]
2007

Category
Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

2008
Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

ALL COMMODITIES……………....................................

116.7

117.6

118.7

119.3

120.7

121.8

123.8

124.4

124.8

126.1

128.0

125.8

124.6

Foods, feeds, and beverages……………...……………
Agricultural foods, feeds, and beverages….............
Nonagricultural (fish, beverages) food products……

157.8
160.8
133.0

164.1
167.6
134.2

165.9
169.8
133.1

171.1
175.2
136.1

180.5
185.0
142.0

188.7
193.8
144.7

196.9
202.6
148.3

192.8
198.2
146.4

193.3
198.9
145.5

198.0
204.0
146.1

211.1
218.5
146.9

189.1
194.2
145.6

189.1
194.4
143.5

Industrial supplies and materials……………...………… 148.8

150.5

153.9

154.1

157.1

159.1

165.5

167.9

169.6

173.2

177.7

173.7

169.1

Agricultural industrial supplies and materials…........

140.0

142.7

144.9

144.7

146.0

150.6

159.3

157.9

156.9

158.0

162.8

161.5

158.0

Fuels and lubricants…...............................…………

200.9

204.8

224.7

222.8

232.1

225.6

249.5

259.3

275.8

297.2

313.0

275.2

268.8

Nonagricultural supplies and materials,
excluding fuel and building materials…………...…
Selected building materials…...............................…

145.0
114.4

146.5
114.2

147.9
113.8

148.5
113.7

150.9
113.3

154.1
113.8

158.2
114.2

160.1
114.1

160.1
113.9

161.6
113.8

164.9
113.9

165.0
114.4

160.3
113.8

Capital goods……………...…………………………….… 99.9
Electric and electrical generating equipment…........ 106.7
Nonelectrical machinery…...............................……… 93.1

100.1
107.1
93.2

100.3
107.2
93.4

100.6
107.5
93.6

100.9
107.7
93.7

101.3
108.3
93.9

101.2
108.6
93.7

101.5
108.7
93.9

101.6
108.6
93.9

102.0
108.9
94.2

101.9
109.2
94.0

102.0
109.2
94.1

101.9
109.6
93.9

Automotive vehicles, parts, and engines……………...

106.3

106.5

106.5

106.7

106.9

107.0

107.1

107.5

107.5

107.4

107.7

107.8

107.9

Consumer goods, excluding automotive……………... 106.2
Nondurables, manufactured…...............................… 107.0
Durables, manufactured…………...………..........…… 104.2

106.4
107.4
104.2

106.8
108.0
104.4

107.3
108.2
105.2

107.3
108.1
105.2

107.4
108.2
105.5

108.0
109.3
105.4

108.1
109.8
105.1

108.1
110.0
105.1

108.2
110.1
105.2

108.6
110.0
106.1

108.6
109.9
106.3

108.3
109.0
106.4

Agricultural commodities……………...…………………
Nonagricultural commodities……………...……………

162.8
114.4

165.0
115.4

169.3
115.7

177.5
116.6

185.6
117.3

194.3
118.8

190.5
119.6

190.8
120.1

195.2
121.2

207.8
122.3

187.9
121.4

187.4
120.2

124

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

156.8
113.8

86LPSRUWSULFHLQGH[HVE\HQGXVHFDWHJRU\
[2000 = 100]
2007

Category
Sept.

Oct.

2008

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

ALL COMMODITIES……………....................................

121.8

123.6

127.5

127.3

129.2

129.5

133.5

137.3

141.2

145.5

147.6

143.8

139.5

Foods, feeds, and beverages……………...……………
Agricultural foods, feeds, and beverages….............
Nonagricultural (fish, beverages) food products……

131.8
144.4
103.5

133.2
146.5
103.2

133.4
147.1
102.5

134.4
148.3
103.0

138.1
153.1
104.3

137.8
152.6
104.4

141.8
157.3
106.8

143.7
159.8
107.2

145.0
162.2
105.9

147.7
165.1
108.4

149.9
167.9
109.1

150.8
168.5
111.0

148.3
165.4
109.6

Industrial supplies and materials……………...………… 190.7

197.2

212.8

211.3

218.2

219.0

234.5

248.7

265.0

283.0

291.1

274.1

256.2

Fuels and lubricants…...............................…………
Petroleum and petroleum products…………...……

250.0
264.4

262.4
277.7

294.8
312.2

290.3
306.7

301.9
319.6

300.0
315.6

329.0
347.5

354.6
375.8

388.3
412.2

423.7
450.3

438.2
465.6

399.4
427.2

362.4
388.9

Paper and paper base stocks…...............................

111.2

112.2

108.0

109.2

112.5

113.4

114.1

116.2

117.1

117.3

119.0

119.9

119.8

Materials associated with nondurable
supplies and materials…...............................………
Selected building materials…...............................…
Unfinished metals associated with durable goods…
Nonmetals associated with durable goods…...........

128.2
116.9
209.1
102.5

131.4
115.7
211.0
103.0

133.7
115.6
214.8
103.3

135.3
116.0
217.2
103.8

143.6
115.9
215.3
105.4

146.6
113.8
224.5
105.9

147.8
114.1
241.5
105.2

148.7
114.3
259.2
106.2

149.6
116.2
263.6
107.3

152.9
119.2
273.2
107.6

157.2
121.3
275.1
110.8

159.3
122.1
271.5
111.9

160.0
122.5
260.1
111.8

Capital goods……………...…………………………….… 91.9
Electric and electrical generating equipment…........
106.5
Nonelectrical machinery…...............................……… 87.7

92.0
106.8
87.7

92.1
107.5
87.7

92.2
107.9
87.7

91.9
107.7
87.4

92.0
108.7
87.4

92.2
109.3
87.5

93.0
111.5
88.0

93.3
111.7
88.4

93.2
112.0
88.2

93.5
112.7
88.4

93.4
113.0
88.3

93.3
112.9
88.1

Automotive vehicles, parts, and engines……………...

105.2

105.6

106.2

106.8

107.1

107.2

107.4

107.8

107.8

107.9

108.0

108.1

108.0

Consumer goods, excluding automotive……………...
102.1
Nondurables, manufactured…...............................… 105.0
Durables, manufactured…………...………..........…… 98.8
Nonmanufactured consumer goods…………...……… 103.4

102.2
105.1
99.0
103.3

102.4
105.3
99.2
103.3

102.6
105.5
99.3
103.8

103.1
106.5
99.6
104.0

103.5
106.8
100.0
104.1

104.0
107.5
100.4
104.3

104.6
107.9
101.1
105.6

104.8
108.0
101.3
105.8

104.9
107.9
101.5
106.6

105.1
108.1
101.7
106.7

105.2
108.4
101.7
106.6

105.1
108.1
101.8
106.6

86LQWHUQDWLRQDOSULFH,QGH[HVIRUVHOHFWHGFDWHJRULHVRIVHUYLFHV
[2000 = 100, unless indicated otherwise]
Category

2006
Sept.

2007
Dec.

Mar.

June

2008

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Import air freight……………...........................................
Export air freight……………...……………………………

133.1
117.9

131.2
116.7

130.7
117.0

132.3
117.0

134.2
119.8

141.8
127.1

144.4
132.0

158.7
140.8

156.8
146.2

Import air passenger fares (Dec. 2006 = 100)……………
Export air passenger fares (Dec. 2006 = 100)…............

130.9
142.4

125.4
137.3

122.9
140.2

144.6
147.3

140.2
154.6

135.3
155.7

131.3
156.4

171.6
171.4

161.3
174.9

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

125

Current Labor Statistics: Productivity Data

,QGH[HVRISURGXFWLYLW\KRXUO\FRPSHQVDWLRQDQGXQLWFRVWVTXDUWHUO\GDWDVHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG
[1992 = 100]

2005

,WHP

2006

III

IV

I

135.6
164.1
119.6
121.1
131.6
125.0

135.3
165.8
119.6
122.6
132.4
126.3

136.1
168.0
120.7
123.5
133.4
127.2

134.6
163.2
118.9
121.2
133.2
125.6

134.2
164.7
118.8
122.7
134.2
126.9

142.8
160.8
117.2
113.5
112.6
115.7
152.2
125.5
116.9
172.9
166.5
121.3
96.3

II

2007
III

IV

I

136.6
168.1
119.7
123.1
136.2
128.0

135.9
169.0
119.1
124.3
136.2
128.8

135.9
172.6
122.1
127.0
133.4
129.4

135.9
174.7
122.4
128.5
134.3
130.7

135.1
166.8
119.8
123.5
135.5
127.9

135.7
167.1
118.9
123.2
138.6
128.8

135.0
167.9
118.3
124.4
138.3
129.5

135.0
171.7
121.4
127.1
134.8
130.0

144.8
161.2
116.3
111.8
111.4
113.1
177.4
130.3
117.7

146.3
164.5
118.1
112.5
112.4
112.9
182.5
131.5
118.8

146.0
164.5
117.0
113.1
112.6
114.4
183.1
132.8
119.4

147.0
165.1
116.3
112.8
112.3
114.2
193.0
135.3
120.0

172.8
165.3
119.2
95.6

172.6
170.9
122.7
99.0

172.7
169.5
120.7
98.2

174.5
170.3
120.0
97.6

II

2008
III

IV

I

II

III

137.6
175.5
121.6
127.5
137.4
131.2

139.7
177.0
121.9
126.7
139.7
131.6

139.7
178.9
121.7
128.1
139.2
132.2

140.5
180.6
121.5
128.5
140.2
132.9

141.8
182.2
121.2
128.6
140.9
133.2

142.2
184.3
120.6
129.6
143.1
134.7

135.0
173.7
121.8
128.7
135.2
131.1

136.4
174.1
120.7
127.7
138.2
131.5

138.3
175.5
120.8
126.9
140.3
131.8

138.6
177.8
120.9
128.3
139.8
132.5

139.5
179.5
120.8
128.7
141.0
133.2

140.8
181.1
120.4
128.6
141.9
133.5

141.1
183.1
119.8
129.8
144.4
135.2

146.0
167.8
118.7
115.3
114.9
116.2
173.9
131.6
120.5

146.2
170.3
119.4
116.7
116.5
117.2
171.8
131.8
121.6

147.4
171.3
118.7
116.5
116.2
117.4
172.5
132.2
121.5

148.1
172.5
118.7
116.8
116.5
117.8
166.8
130.9
121.3

148.8
175.0
119.0
117.9
117.6
118.9
155.9
128.8
121.3

148.7
176.2
118.6
118.6
118.5
119.0
150.3
127.4
121.5

151.8
177.8
118.2
117.7
117.1
119.1
147.0
126.6
120.3

–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–

175.4
174.6
123.5
99.5

177.0
176.9
124.0
100.0

178.7
176.4
122.3
98.7

180.6
176.4
121.4
97.6

182.5
179.7
122.2
98.5

184.0
181.4
122.1
98.6

183.1
183.1
121.7
100.0

182.6
185.3
121.2
101.5

%XVLQHVV
Output per hour of all persons........................................
Compensation per hour…………………………….………
Real compensation per hour………………………………
Unit labor costs…...............................……………………
Unit nonlabor payments…………...………..........………
Implicit price deflator………………………………………
1RQIDUPEXVLQHVV
Output per hour of all persons........................................
Compensation per hour…………………………….………
Real compensation per hour………………………………
Unit labor costs…...............................……………………
Unit nonlabor payments…………...………..........………
Implicit price deflator………………………………………
1RQILQDQFLDOFRUSRUDWLRQV
Output per hour of all employees...................................
Compensation per hour…………………………….………
Real compensation per hour………………………………
Total unit costs…...............................……………………
Unit labor costs.............................................................
Unit nonlabor costs......................................................
Unit profits......................................................................
Unit nonlabor payments…………...………..........………
Implicit price deflator………………………………………
0DQXIDFWXULQJ
Output per hour of all persons........................................
Compensation per hour…………………………….………
Real compensation per hour………………………………
Unit labor costs…...............................……………………
127('DVKLQGLFDWHVGDWDQRWDYDLODEOH

126

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

48. Annual indexes of multifactor productivity and related measures, selected years
> XQOHVVRWKHUZLVHLQGLFDWHG@
Item

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Private business
3URGXFWLYLW\
Output per hour of all persons......……………..............
87.4
Output per unit of capital services……………………… 104.6
Multifactor productivity……………………………………
93.7
Output…...............................………………………….……
79.2

90.0
104.7
95.3
82.8

91.7
104.9
96.2
87.2

94.3
103.5
97.5
91.5

97.2
102.3
98.7
96.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

102.8
96.0
100.1
100.5

107.1
94.8
101.8
102.0

111.2
95.6
104.4
105.2

114.5
97.5
107.0
109.7

116.8
98.6
108.8
113.8

118.0
99.1
109.4
117.4

120.2
98.1
110.1
120.1

88.8
75.7
84.4
83.6

90.7
79.1
86.9
85.9

94.2
83.2
90.6
87.4

96.4
88.4
93.9
91.1

99.0
94.1
97.5
95.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

98.6
104.6
100.3
107.0

97.2
107.6
100.2
112.9

97.0
110.0
100.7
116.3

98.4
112.5
102.5
117.4

100.2
115.4
104.6
118.4

102.8
118.5
107.4
119.1

103.8
122.3
109.2
122.3

3URGXFWLYLW\
Output per hour of all persons........……………………… 88.2
Output per unit of capital services……………………… 105.6
Multifactor productivity……………………………………
94.5
Output…...............................………………………….……
79.3

90.5
105.5
95.9
82.8

92.0
105.3
96.5
87.2

94.5
103.9
97.8
91.5

97.3
102.5
98.8
96.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

102.7
96.0
100.1
100.5

107.1
94.7
101.8
102.1

111.0
95.4
104.3
105.2

114.2
97.3
106.8
109.6

116.4
98.3
108.6
113.7

117.6
98.7
109.0
117.4

119.7
97.9
109.7
120.1

88.2
75.0
83.9
83.5

90.2
78.5
86.4
85.8

93.9
82.7
90.3
87.3

96.2
88.1
93.6
91.0

99.0
93.9
97.4
94.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

98.7
104.7
100.5
107.0

97.2
107.8
100.2
113.1

97.1
110.3
100.8
116.4

98.6
112.7
102.6
117.4

100.4
115.6
104.7
118.4

103.1
118.9
107.6
119.1

104.1
122.8
109.4
122.4

3URGXFWLYLW\
Output per hour of all persons...…………………………
Output per unit of capital services………………………
Multifactor productivity……………………………………
Output…...............................………………………….……

79.8
98.7
90.8
80.3

82.7
98.0
91.2
83.1

87.3
100.6
93.8
89.2

92.0
100.7
95.9
93.8

96.1
100.4
96.7
97.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

101.6
93.5
98.7
94.9

108.6
92.3
102.4
94.3

115.3
93.2
105.2
95.2

117.9
95.4
108.0
96.9

123.5
98.9
108.4
100.4

125.0
100.2
110.1
102.3

–
–
–
–

Inputs:
Hours of all persons.....................................................
Capital services…………...………..........………….……
Energy……………….……….........................................
Nonenergy materials....................................................
Purchased business services.......................................
Combined units of all factor inputs…………...………...

100.6
81.4
113.7
78.9
88.8
88.5

100.4
84.8
110.4
86.0
88.5
91.1

102.2
88.7
108.2
92.9
92.1
95.1

101.9
93.2
105.4
97.7
95.0
97.8

101.3
97.0
105.5
102.6
100.0
100.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

93.5
101.5
90.6
93.3
100.7
96.2

86.8
102.1
89.3
88.4
98.2
92.1

82.6
102.1
84.4
87.7
99.1
90.5

82.2
101.6
84.0
87.3
97.0
89.7

81.3
101.5
91.6
92.4
104.5
92.7

81.8
102.0
86.6
91.5
106.6
92.9

–
–
–
–
–
–

Inputs:
Labor input...................................................................
Capital services…………...………..........………….……
Combined units of labor and capital input………………
Capital per hour of all persons.......................……………
Private nonfarm business

Inputs:
Labor input...................................................................
Capital services…………...………..........………….……
Combined units of labor and capital input………………
Capital per hour of all persons......…………………………
Manufacturing [1996 = 100]

127('DVKLQGLFDWHVGDWDQRWDYDLODEOH

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

127

Current Labor Statistics: Productivity Data

49. Annual indexes of productivity, hourly compensation, unit costs, and prices, selected years
> @
Item

1962

1972

1982

1992

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Business
2XWSXWSHUKRXURIDOOSHUVRQV
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±
±
±
±
±

±
±
±
±
±
±

±
±
±
±
±
±




































































±
±

Nonfarm business
2XWSXWSHUKRXURIDOOSHUVRQV
&RPSHQVDWLRQSHUKRXU««««««««««««««
5HDOFRPSHQVDWLRQSHUKRXU««««««««««««
8QLWODERUFRVWV«««««««««
8QLWQRQODERUSD\PHQWV««««««««««
,PSOLFLWSULFHGHIODWRU«««««««««««««««
Nonfinancial corporations
2XWSXWSHUKRXURIDOOHPSOR\HHV
&RPSHQVDWLRQSHUKRXU««««««««««««««
5HDOFRPSHQVDWLRQSHUKRXU««««««««««««
7RWDOXQLWFRVWV«««««««««
8QLWODERUFRVWV
8QLWQRQODERUFRVWV
8QLWSURILWV
8QLWQRQODERUSD\PHQWV««««««««««
,PSOLFLWSULFHGHIODWRU«««««««««««««««
Manufacturing
2XWSXWSHUKRXURIDOOSHUVRQV
&RPSHQVDWLRQSHUKRXU««««««««««««««
5HDOFRPSHQVDWLRQSHUKRXU««««««««««««
8QLWODERUFRVWV«««««««««
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'DVKLQGLFDWHVGDWDQRWDYDLODEOH

128

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

50. Annual indexes of output per hour for selected NAICS industries
[1997=100]
NAICS

Industry

21
211
2111
212
2121
2122


0LQLQJ«««««««««««««««««««
2LODQGJDVH[WUDFWLRQ«««««««««««««
2LODQGJDVH[WUDFWLRQ«««««««««««««
0LQLQJH[FHSWRLODQGJDV«««««««««««
&RDOPLQLQJ«««««««««««««««««
0HWDORUHPLQLQJ«««««««««««««««
1RQPHWDOOLFPLQHUDOPLQLQJDQGTXDUU\LQJ««««




3RZHUJHQHUDWLRQDQGVXSSO\««««««««««
1DWXUDOJDVGLVWULEXWLRQ««««««««««««







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$QLPDOIRRG«««««««««««««««««
*UDLQDQGRLOVHHGPLOOLQJ««««««««««««
6XJDUDQGFRQIHFWLRQHU\SURGXFWV««««««««
)UXLWDQGYHJHWDEOHSUHVHUYLQJDQGVSHFLDOW\«««

1987

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Mining



















































































































































































































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127















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Utilities

Manufacturing

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

129

Current Labor Statistics: Productivity Data

50. Continued - Annual indexes of output per hour for selected NAICS industries
[1997=100]
NAICS

1987

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006







/LPHDQGJ\SVXPSURGXFWV«««««««««««
2WKHUQRQPHWDOOLFPLQHUDOSURGXFWV«««««««
3ULPDU\PHWDOV««««««««««««««««
,URQDQGVWHHOPLOOVDQGIHUURDOOR\SURGXFWLRQ«««
6WHHOSURGXFWVIURPSXUFKDVHGVWHHO«««««««

Industry

88.2
83.0
81.0
64.8
79.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

114.9
99.0
102.0
101.3
100.6

104.4
95.6
102.8
104.8
93.8

98.5
96.6
101.3
106.0
96.4

101.8
98.6
101.0
104.4
97.9

99.0
106.9
115.2
125.1
96.8

107.1
113.6
118.2
130.4
93.9

104.7
110.6
132.0
164.9
88.6

119.3
118.9
135.5
163.1
90.8

116.5
116.3
134.3
163.5
86.1

2007
-







$OXPLQDDQGDOXPLQXPSURGXFWLRQ«««««««
2WKHUQRQIHUURXVPHWDOSURGXFWLRQ«««««««
)RXQGULHV««««««««««««««««««
)DEULFDWHGPHWDOSURGXFWV«««««««««««
)RUJLQJDQGVWDPSLQJ«««««««««««««



81.4
87.3
85.4



100.0
100.0
100.0



101.2
101.3
103.5



104.5
103.0
110.9



103.6
104.8
121.1



107.4
104.8
120.7



116.7
110.9
125.0



116.3
114.4
133.1



123.9
113.4
142.0



128.6
116.9
147.6



131.8
119.7
152.7



-







&XWOHU\DQGKDQGWRROV«««««««««««««
$UFKLWHFWXUDODQGVWUXFWXUDOPHWDOV«««««««
%RLOHUVWDQNVDQGVKLSSLQJFRQWDLQHUV«««««
+DUGZDUH««««««««««««««««««
6SULQJDQGZLUHSURGXFWV«««««««««««

86.3


88.7


100.0


100.0


99.9


100.5


108.0


105.2


105.9


114.3


110.3


113.5


113.4


115.5


113.2


125.4


107.6


126.0


114.1


131.8


116.6


131.1












0DFKLQHVKRSVDQGWKUHDGHGSURGXFWV««««««
&RDWLQJHQJUDYLQJDQGKHDWWUHDWLQJPHWDOV«««
2WKHUIDEULFDWHGPHWDOSURGXFWV«««««««««
0DFKLQHU\««««««««««««««««««
$JULFXOWXUHFRQVWUXFWLRQDQGPLQLQJPDFKLQHU\«

76.9
75.5
91.0
82.3


100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0


99.6
100.9
101.9
102.9


104.2
101.0
99.6
104.7


108.2
105.5
99.9
111.5


108.8
107.3
96.7
109.0


114.8
116.1
106.5
116.6


115.7
118.3
111.6
125.2


114.6
125.3
111.2
127.0


116.3
136.5
112.5
134.1


117.1
135.5
117.7
137.4










,QGXVWULDOPDFKLQHU\««««««««««««««
&RPPHUFLDODQGVHUYLFHLQGXVWU\PDFKLQHU\«««
+9$&DQGFRPPHUFLDOUHIULJHUDWLRQHTXLSPHQW««
0HWDOZRUNLQJPDFKLQHU\««««««««««««
7XUELQHDQGSRZHUWUDQVPLVVLRQHTXLSPHQW«««

75.1
87.0
84.0
85.1


100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0


95.1
106.3
106.2
99.1


105.8
110.0
110.2
100.3


130.0
101.3
107.9
106.1


105.8
94.5
110.8
103.3


117.6
97.8
118.6
112.7


117.0
104.7
130.0
115.2


126.5
106.5
132.8
117.1


122.4
115.1
137.1
127.3


135.3
122.3
133.4
128.3










2WKHUJHQHUDOSXUSRVHPDFKLQHU\««««««««
&RPSXWHUDQGHOHFWURQLFSURGXFWV««««««««
&RPSXWHUDQGSHULSKHUDOHTXLSPHQW«««««««
&RPPXQLFDWLRQVHTXLSPHQW««««««««««
$XGLRDQGYLGHRHTXLSPHQW««««««««««

83.5
28.4
11.0
39.8


100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0


103.7
118.4
140.4
107.1


106.0
149.5
195.9
135.4


113.7
181.8
235.0
164.1


110.5
181.4
252.2
152.9


117.9
188.0
297.4
128.2


128.1
217.2
373.4
143.1


127.1
244.3
415.1
148.4


138.4
259.6
543.3
143.7


143.8
282.2
715.7
178.2






3346



6HPLFRQGXFWRUVDQGHOHFWURQLFFRPSRQHQWV«««
(OHFWURQLFLQVWUXPHQWV«««««««««««««
Magnetic media manufacturing and reproduction«
(OHFWULFDOHTXLSPHQWDQGDSSOLDQFHV«««««««
(OHFWULFOLJKWLQJHTXLSPHQW«««««««««««

17.0
70.2
85.7
75.5
91.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

125.8
102.3
106.4
103.9
104.4

173.9
106.7
108.9
106.6
102.8

232.2
116.7
105.8
111.5
102.0

230.0
119.3
99.8
111.4
106.7

263.1
118.1
110.4
113.4
112.4

321.6
125.3
126.1
117.2
111.4

360.0
145.4
142.6
123.3
122.7

381.6
146.6
142.1
130.0
130.3

380.4
150.6
137.7
129.4
136.7

-







+RXVHKROGDSSOLDQFHV«««««««««««««
(OHFWULFDOHTXLSPHQW««««««««««««««
2WKHUHOHFWULFDOHTXLSPHQWDQGFRPSRQHQWV«««
7UDQVSRUWDWLRQHTXLSPHQW«««««««««««
0RWRUYHKLFOHV««««««««««««««««

73.3
68.7
78.8
81.6
75.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

105.2
100.2
105.8
109.7
113.4

104.0
98.7
114.7
118.0
122.6

117.2
99.4
119.7
109.4
109.7

124.6
101.0
113.1
113.6
110.0

132.3
101.8
114.0
127.4
126.0

146.7
103.4
116.2
137.5
140.7

159.6
110.8
115.6
134.9
142.1

164.5
118.5
121.6
140.9
148.4

173.2
118.1
115.7
142.4
163.8

-







0RWRUYHKLFOHERGLHVDQGWUDLOHUV««««««««
0RWRUYHKLFOHSDUWV««««««««««««««
$HURVSDFHSURGXFWVDQGSDUWV«««««««««
5DLOURDGUROOLQJVWRFN«««««««««««««
6KLSDQGERDWEXLOGLQJ«««««««««««««

85.0
78.7
87.2
55.6
95.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

102.9
104.9
119.1
103.3
99.3

103.1
110.0
120.8
116.5
112.0

98.8
112.3
103.4
118.5
122.0

88.7
114.8
115.7
126.1
121.5

105.4
130.5
118.6
146.1
131.0

109.8
137.0
119.0
139.8
133.9

110.7
138.0
113.2
131.5
138.7

114.2
144.1
125.0
137.3
131.7

110.9
143.7
117.9
148.0
127.3

-







2WKHUWUDQVSRUWDWLRQHTXLSPHQW«««««««««
)XUQLWXUHDQGUHODWHGSURGXFWV«««««««««
+RXVHKROGDQGLQVWLWXWLRQDOIXUQLWXUH«««««««
2IILFHIXUQLWXUHDQGIL[WXUHV«««««««««««
2WKHUIXUQLWXUHUHODWHGSURGXFWV«««««««««

73.8
84.8
85.2
85.8
86.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

111.5
102.0
102.2
100.0
106.9

113.8
101.6
103.1
98.2
102.0

132.4
101.4
101.9
100.2
99.5

140.2
103.4
105.5
98.0
105.0

150.9
112.6
111.8
115.9
110.2

163.0
117.0
114.7
125.2
110.0

168.3
118.4
113.6
130.7
121.3

184.1
125.0
120.8
134.9
128.3

197.8
127.8
124.0
134.4
130.8

-





0LVFHOODQHRXVPDQXIDFWXULQJ««««««««««
0HGLFDOHTXLSPHQWDQGVXSSOLHV««««««««
2WKHUPLVFHOODQHRXVPDQXIDFWXULQJ«««««««

81.1
76.3
85.4

100.0
100.0
100.0

105.2
109.0
102.1

107.8
111.1
105.0

114.7
115.5
113.6

116.6
120.7
111.8

124.2
129.1
118.0

132.7
138.9
124.7

134.9
139.5
128.6

144.6
148.5
137.8

149.8
152.8
143.2

-








:KROHVDOHWUDGH«««««««««««««««

'XUDEOHJRRGV««««««««««««««««
62.3
0RWRUYHKLFOHVDQGSDUWV«««««««««««« 74.5
)XUQLWXUHDQGIXUQLVKLQJV«««««««««««

/XPEHUDQGFRQVWUXFWLRQVXSSOLHV«««««««« 109.1
&RPPHUFLDOHTXLSPHQW««««««««««««
28.0


100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0


107.1
106.4

105.4
125.5


119.2
120.4

109.3
162.0


125.0
116.7

107.7
181.9


128.9
120.0

116.6
217.9


140.2
133.4

123.9
264.9


146.6
137.6

133.0
299.1


161.5
143.5

139.4
352.8


167.4
146.5

140.2
402.0


174.5
162.7

135.4
447.3


178.4
161.8

124.5
508.5








0HWDOVDQGPLQHUDOV«««««««««««««« 101.7
(OHFWULFJRRGV««««««««««««««««
42.8
82.2
+DUGZDUHDQGSOXPELQJ««««««««««««
0DFKLQHU\DQGVXSSOLHV««««««««««««
74.1
0LVFHOODQHRXVGXUDEOHJRRGV«««««««««« 89.8
1RQGXUDEOHJRRGV««««««««««««««


100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0


100.9
105.9
101.8
104.3
100.8


94.0
127.5
104.4
102.9
113.7


93.9
152.8
103.7
105.5
114.7


94.4
147.6
100.5
102.9
116.8


96.3
159.5
102.6
100.3
124.6


97.5
165.7
103.9
103.4
119.6


106.3
194.1
107.3
112.4
135.0


104.2
204.6
104.5
117.6
135.5


99.9
222.1
105.6
121.2
122.3


94.4
235.1
105.8
121.5
118.4


Wholesale trade

130

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

50. Continued - Annual indexes of output per hour for selected NAICS industries
[1997=100]
NAICS

Industry

1987

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007







3DSHUDQGSDSHUSURGXFWV«««««««««««
'UXJJLVWV JRRGV«««««««««««««««
$SSDUHODQGSLHFHJRRGV«««««««««««
*URFHU\DQGUHODWHGSURGXFWV««««««««««
)DUPSURGXFWUDZPDWHULDOV««««««««««

85.6
70.7

87.9


100.0
100.0

100.0


98.4
94.2

101.1


100.1
93.1

101.0


100.9
85.9

102.4


104.6
84.9

101.9


116.6
89.8

98.6


119.7
100.2

104.9


130.9
105.8

104.1


141.7
112.1

103.4


136.9
109.7

103.8


146.5
104.3

109.7









&KHPLFDOV«««««««««««««««««« 90.4
3HWUROHXP««««««««««««««««««
84.4
$OFRKROLFEHYHUDJHV«««««««««««««« 99.3
0LVFHOODQHRXVQRQGXUDEOHJRRGV«««««««« 111.2
(OHFWURQLFPDUNHWVDQGDJHQWVDQGEURNHUV«««« 64.3
(OHFWURQLFPDUNHWVDQGDJHQWVDQGEURNHUV«««« 64.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

97.1
88.5
106.5
105.4
102.4
102.4

93.3
102.9
105.6
106.8
112.3
112.3

87.9
138.1
108.4
115.0
120.1
120.1

85.3
140.6
106.4
111.9
110.7
110.7

89.1
153.6
106.8
106.1
109.8
109.8

92.2
151.1
107.9
109.8
104.5
104.5

91.2
163.2
103.1
120.7
101.6
101.6

87.4
153.3
104.0
124.1
91.5
91.5

85.1
149.4
107.4
121.9
95.0
95.0

86.4
149.1
108.5
117.1
98.3
98.3







5HWDLOWUDGH«««««««««««««««««
0RWRUYHKLFOHDQGSDUWVGHDOHUV«««««««««
$XWRPRELOHGHDOHUV««««««««««««««
2WKHUPRWRUYHKLFOHGHDOHUV««««««««««
$XWRSDUWVDFFHVVRULHVDQGWLUHVWRUHV«««««


78.4
79.2
74.1
71.8


100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0


106.4
106.5
109.6
105.1


115.1
116.3
114.8
107.6


114.3
113.7
115.3
108.4


116.0
115.5
124.6
101.3


119.9
117.2
133.6
107.7


124.3
119.5
133.8
115.1


127.3
124.7
143.3
110.1


126.7
123.5
134.6
115.5


129.3
125.8
142.6
115.9


132.2
129.8
146.9
112.0







)XUQLWXUHDQGKRPHIXUQLVKLQJVVWRUHV««««««
)XUQLWXUHVWRUHV««««««««««««««««
+RPHIXUQLVKLQJVVWRUHV««««««««««««
(OHFWURQLFVDQGDSSOLDQFHVWRUHV««««««««
(OHFWURQLFVDQGDSSOLDQFHVWRUHV««««««««

75.1
77.3
71.3
38.0
38.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

104.1
104.3
104.1
122.6
122.6

110.8
107.5
115.2
150.6
150.6

115.9
112.0
121.0
173.7
173.7

122.4
119.7
126.1
196.7
196.7

129.3
125.2
134.9
233.5
233.5

134.6
128.8
142.6
292.7
292.7

146.7
139.2
156.8
334.1
334.1

150.5
142.3
161.4
367.5
367.5

158.2
151.1
168.3
412.0
412.0

168.7
156.6
184.6
471.1
471.1



4442



%XLOGLQJPDWHULDODQGJDUGHQVXSSO\VWRUHV«««« 75.8
%XLOGLQJPDWHULDODQGVXSSOLHVGHDOHUV«««««« 77.6
66.9
Lawn and garden equipment and supplies stores«
)RRGDQGEHYHUDJHVWRUHV««««««««««« 110.8
*URFHU\VWRUHV«««««««««««««««« 111.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

107.4
108.3
102.4
99.9
99.6

113.8
115.3
105.5
101.9
102.5

113.3
115.1
103.1
101.0
101.1

116.8
116.7
118.4
103.8
103.3

120.8
121.3
118.3
104.7
104.8

127.1
127.4
125.7
107.2
106.7

134.6
134.0
140.1
112.9
112.2

134.8
134.9
134.7
117.9
116.8

137.9
138.0
138.3
120.6
118.2

142.2
140.0
162.1
123.8
120.6







6SHFLDOW\IRRGVWRUHV««««««««««««« 138.5
%HHUZLQHDQGOLTXRUVWRUHV«««««««««« 93.6
+HDOWKDQGSHUVRQDOFDUHVWRUHV««««««««

+HDOWKDQGSHUVRQDOFDUHVWRUHV««««««««

*DVROLQHVWDWLRQV««««««««««««««« 83.9

100.0
100.0


100.0

100.5
104.6


106.7

96.4
99.1


110.7

98.5
105.7


107.7

108.2
107.1


112.9

105.3
110.1


125.1

112.2
117.0


119.9

120.3
127.8


122.2

125.3
139.8


124.7

139.4
146.1


124.9

145.4
156.8


129.3







*DVROLQHVWDWLRQV«««««««««««««««
&ORWKLQJDQGFORWKLQJDFFHVVRULHVVWRUHV«««««
&ORWKLQJVWRUHV««««««««««««««««
6KRHVWRUHV«««««««««««««««««
-HZHOU\OXJJDJHDQGOHDWKHUJRRGVVWRUHV«««

83.9
66.3
67.1
65.3


100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0


106.7
106.3
108.7
94.2


110.7
114.0
114.2
104.9


107.7
123.5
125.0
110.0


112.9
126.4
130.3
111.5


125.1
131.3
136.0
125.2


119.9
138.9
141.8
132.5


122.2
139.1
140.9
124.8


124.7
147.6
153.0
132.0


124.9
162.4
169.4
145.1


129.3
176.6
186.9
141.6








6SRUWLQJJRRGVKREE\ERRNDQGPXVLFVWRUHV««
6SRUWLQJJRRGVDQGPXVLFDOLQVWUXPHQWVWRUHV««
%RRNSHULRGLFDODQGPXVLFVWRUHV«««««««
*HQHUDOPHUFKDQGLVHVWRUHV««««««««««
'HSDUWPHQWVWRUHV««««««««««««««

74.9
73.2

73.5


100.0
100.0

100.0


107.9
111.5

105.3


114.0
119.8

113.4


121.1
129.4

120.2


127.1
134.5

124.8


127.6
136.0

129.1


131.5
141.1

136.9


151.1
166.0

140.7


163.5
179.3

145.0


170.5
191.4

149.8


167.8
189.2

152.5








2WKHUJHQHUDOPHUFKDQGLVHVWRUHV«««««««
0LVFHOODQHRXVVWRUHUHWDLOHUV««««««««««
)ORULVWV«««««««««««««««««««
2IILFHVXSSOLHVVWDWLRQHU\DQGJLIWVWRUHV«««««
8VHGPHUFKDQGLVHVWRUHV«««««««««««


65.1

61.4
64.5


100.0

100.0
100.0


108.9

111.5
119.1


111.3

119.2
113.4


114.1

127.3
116.5


112.6

132.3
121.9


119.1

141.5
142.0


126.1

153.9
149.7


130.8

172.8
152.6


139.2

182.4
156.6


155.0

204.8
167.6


160.8

224.5
182.0







2WKHUPLVFHOODQHRXVVWRUHUHWDLOHUV«««««««
1RQVWRUHUHWDLOHUV«««««««««««««««
(OHFWURQLFVKRSSLQJDQGPDLORUGHUKRXVHV««««
9HQGLQJPDFKLQHRSHUDWRUV««««««««««
'LUHFWVHOOLQJHVWDEOLVKPHQWV««««««««««

68.3
50.7
39.4

70.8

100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

105.3
114.3
120.2

101.9

103.0
128.9
142.6

104.3

104.4
152.2
160.2

122.5

96.9
163.6
179.6

127.9

94.4
182.1
212.7

135.1

99.9
195.5
243.6

127.0

96.9
215.5
273.0

130.3

101.6
220.6
290.1

119.6

114.0
261.9
355.9

127.5

115.4
290.8
397.2

138.4








$LUWUDQVSRUWDWLRQ«««««««««««««««
81.1
/LQHKDXOUDLOURDGV««««««««««««««

*HQHUDOIUHLJKWWUXFNLQJORQJGLVWDQFH«««««« 85.7
8VHGKRXVHKROGDQGRIILFHJRRGVPRYLQJ«««« 106.7
863RVWDOVHUYLFH««««««««««««««
90.9
90.9
863RVWDOVHUYLFH««««««««««««««

100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

97.6

99.4
91.0
101.6
101.6

98.2

99.1
96.1
102.8
102.8

98.1

101.9
94.8
105.5
105.5

91.9

103.2
84.0
106.3
106.3

102.1

107.0
81.6
106.4
106.4

112.8

110.7
86.2
107.8
107.8

126.9

110.7
88.6
110.0
110.0

135.5

113.2
88.3
111.2
111.2

142.5

112.3
87.0
111.3
111.3


-







&RXULHUVDQGPHVVHQJHUV««««««««««« 148.3
:DUHKRXVLQJDQGVWRUDJH«««««««««««
:DUHKRXVLQJDQGVWRUDJH«««««««««««
*HQHUDOZDUHKRXVLQJDQGVWRUDJH«««««««

5HIULJHUDWHGZDUHKRXVLQJDQGVWRUDJH««««««
-

100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

112.6
106.4
106.4

97.9

117.6
107.7
107.7

103.4

122.0
109.3
109.3

95.4

123.4
115.3
115.3

85.4

131.1
122.1
122.1

87.2

134.0
124.8
124.8

92.3

126.8
122.5
122.5

99.3

125.1
124.9
124.9

97.5

128.6
122.3
122.3

88.5


-

100.0

116.1

116.3

117.1

116.6

117.2

126.4

130.7

136.5

142.7

-

Retail trade

Transportation and warehousing

Information
511

Publishing industries, except internet

64.1

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

131

Current Labor Statistics: Productivity Data

50. Continued - Annual indexes of output per hour for selected NAICS industries
[1997=100]
NAICS

1987

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006








1HZVSDSHUERRNDQGGLUHFWRU\SXEOLVKHUV«««« 105.0
6RIWZDUHSXEOLVKHUV«««««««««««««« 10.2
0RWLRQSLFWXUHDQGYLGHRH[KLELWLRQ«««««««
90.7
%URDGFDVWLQJH[FHSWLQWHUQHW«««««««««« 99.5
5DGLRDQGWHOHYLVLRQEURDGFDVWLQJ«««««««« 98.1
&DEOHDQGRWKHUVXEVFULSWLRQSURJUDPPLQJ«««« 105.6

Industry

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

103.9
134.8
99.8
100.8
91.5
136.2

104.1
129.2
101.8
102.9
92.6
139.1

107.7
119.2
106.5
103.6
92.1
141.2

105.8
117.4
101.6
99.2
89.6
128.1

104.7
122.1
99.8
104.0
95.1
129.8

109.5
138.1
100.4
107.9
94.6
146.0

106.6
160.6
103.6
112.5
96.6
158.7

107.6
173.7
102.4
117.7
100.9
164.6

110.8
177.0
105.7
125.5
109.5
169.9

2007
-





:LUHGWHOHFRPPXQLFDWLRQVFDUULHUV«««««««
56.9
75.6
:LUHOHVVWHOHFRPPXQLFDWLRQVFDUULHUV««««««
&DEOHDQGRWKHUSURJUDPGLVWULEXWLRQ«««««« 

100.0
100.0


107.7
110.5


116.7
145.2


122.7
152.8


116.7
191.9


124.1
217.9


130.5
242.6


131.7
292.2


138.2
381.9


146.2
435.9






&RPPHUFLDOEDQNLQJ«««««««««««««





























3DVVHQJHUFDUUHQWDO«««««««««««««
7UXFNWUDLOHUDQG59UHQWDODQGOHDVLQJ«««««
9LGHRWDSHDQGGLVFUHQWDO«««««««««««


60.3
77.0


100.0
100.0


115.4
113.2


120.9
129.4


121.7
134.9


113.5
133.3


114.0
130.3


115.8
148.5


136.6
154.5


145.1
144.2


162.2
176.4


-







7D[SUHSDUDWLRQVHUYLFHV««««««««««««
$UFKLWHFWXUDOVHUYLFHV«««««««««««««
(QJLQHHULQJVHUYLFHV«««««««««««««
$GYHUWLVLQJDJHQFLHV«««««««««««««
3KRWRJUDSK\VWXGLRVSRUWUDLW««««««««««

82.9
90.0
90.2

98.1

100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

107.6
111.4
98.2

124.8

105.8
106.8
98.0

109.8

100.9
107.6
102.0

108.9

94.4
111.0
100.1

102.2

111.4
107.6
100.5

97.6

110.0
112.6
100.5

104.1

99.9
118.3
107.8

93.0

103.6
120.8
115.4

93.5

99.7
119.1
116.2

95.3


-





(PSOR\PHQWSODFHPHQWDJHQFLHV««««««««
7UDYHODJHQFLHV«««««««««««««««
-DQLWRULDOVHUYLFHV«««««««««««««««


75.1

100.0

100.0

86.8

95.3

93.2

98.6

89.8

101.0

99.6

102.1

116.8

105.6

115.4

118.8

119.8

116.6

115.9

121.5

122.9

115.6


-





0HGLFDODQGGLDJQRVWLFODERUDWRULHV«««««««
0HGLFDOODERUDWRULHV««««««««««««««
'LDJQRVWLFLPDJLQJFHQWHUV«««««««««««

-

100.0
100.0
100.0

118.8
117.2
121.4

124.7
121.4
129.7

131.9
127.4
139.9

135.3
127.7
148.3

137.6
123.1
163.3

140.8
128.6
160.0

140.8
130.7
153.5

137.9
126.0
154.0

140.1
128.2
156.3

-




$PXVHPHQWDQGWKHPHSDUNV«««««««««
%RZOLQJFHQWHUV«««««««««««««««












































7UDYHOHUDFFRPPRGDWLRQ«««««««««««« 85.1
)RRGVHUYLFHVDQGGULQNLQJSODFHV«««««««

92.1
)XOOVHUYLFHUHVWDXUDQWV««««««««««««
/LPLWHGVHUYLFHHDWLQJSODFHV«««««««««« 96.5
6SHFLDOIRRGVHUYLFHV«««««««««««««
89.9
'ULQNLQJSODFHVDOFRKROLFEHYHUDJHV«««««« 

100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0


100.1

100.9
101.2
100.6


105.6

100.8
100.4
105.2


111.8

103.0
102.0
115.0


107.6

103.6
102.5
115.3


112.1

104.4
102.7
114.9


114.4

104.2
105.4
117.6


120.4

104.8
106.8
118.0


115.0

105.2
107.5
119.2


111.8

106.0
109.8
118.7



105.1
108.6
120.2








$XWRPRWLYHUHSDLUDQGPDLQWHQDQFH««««««« 85.9
+DLUQDLODQGVNLQFDUHVHUYLFHV««««««««
83.5
)XQHUDOKRPHVDQGIXQHUDOVHUYLFHV««««««« 103.7
'U\FOHDQLQJDQGODXQGU\VHUYLFHV«««««««« 97.1
3KRWRILQLVKLQJ««««««««««««««««
95.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

103.6
108.6
106.8
100.1
69.3

106.1
108.6
103.3
105.0
76.3

109.4
108.2
94.8
107.6
73.8

108.9
114.6
91.8
110.9
81.2

103.7
110.4
94.6
112.5
100.5

104.1
119.7
95.7
103.8
100.5

112.0
125.0
92.9
110.6
102.0

111.9
129.9
93.2
120.5
112.4

112.8
122.3
99.7
119.6
114.4

-

Finance and insurance
Real estate and rental and leasing

Professional and technical services

Administrative and waste services

Health care and social assistance

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

Accommodation and food services

Other services

NOTE: Dash indicates data are not available.

132

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

8QHPSOR\PHQWUDWHVDSSUR[LPDWLQJ86FRQFHSWVFRXQWULHVVHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG
[Percent]
2006

&RXQWU\

2006

2007

I

II

2007

III

IV

I

II

2008

III

IV

I

United States………

4.6

4.6

4.7

4.7

4.7

4.4

4.5

4.5

4.7

4.8

Canada………………

5.5

5.3

5.7

5.4

5.6

5.4

5.4

5.3

5.2

5.2

5.2

Australia……………

4.8

4.4

5.0

4.9

4.7

4.5

4.5

4.3

4.3

4.3

4.1

Japan…………………

4.2

3.9

4.2

4.2

4.2

4.1

4.0

3.8

3.8

3.9

3.9

France………………

9.5

8.6

9.8

9.7

9.5

9.2

9.0

8.8

8.5

8.2

8.1

Germany……………

10.4

8.7

11.1

10.6

10.1

9.6

9.3

8.9

8.5

8.2

7.7

Italy…………………

6.9

6.1

7.3

6.9

6.7

6.4

6.3

6.1

6.0

6.0

-

Netherlands…………

3.9

3.2

4.3

3.9

3.8

3.8

3.6

3.2

3.0

3.0

-

Sweden………………

7.0

6.1

7.3

7.3

6.7

6.5

6.4

6.1

5.8

5.9

5.8

United Kingdom……

5.5

5.4

5.3

5.5

5.6

5.5

5.5

5.4

5.4

5.2

-

NOTE: Dash indicates data not available.
Quarterly figures for France, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands are
calculated by applying annual adjustment factors to current published data
and therefore should be viewed as less precise indicators of unemployment
under U.S. concepts than the annual figures. Quarterly figures for Sweden
are BLS seasonally adjusted estimates derived from Swedish not
seasonally adjusted data.
For further qualifications and historical annual data, see the BLS report
Comparative Civilian Labor Force Statistics, 10 Countries (on the

4.9

Internet at http://www.bls.gov/fls/flscomparelf.htm ).
For monthly
unemployment rates, as well as the quarterly and annual rates published in
this table, see the BLS report Unemployment rates in 10 countries, civilian
labor force basis, approximating U.S. concepts, seasonally adjusted (on the
Internet at http://www.bls.gov/fls/flsjec.pdf ). Unemployment rates may
differ between the two reports mentioned, because the former is updated
semi-annually, whereas the latter is updated monthly and reflects the most
recent revisions in source data.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

133

Current Labor Statistics: International Comparisons

52. Annual data: employment status of the working-age population, approximating U.S. concepts, 10 countries
[Numbers in thousands]

Employment status and country

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

137,673
15,135
9,339
67,240


23,004
7,744
4,401


139,368
15,403
9,414
67,090


23,176
7,881
4,423


142,583
15,637
9,590
66,990


23,361
8,052
4,482


143,734
15,891
9,744
66,860


23,524
8,199
4,522


144,863
16,366
9,893
66,240


23,728
8,345
4,537


146,510
16,733
10,079
66,010


24,020
8,379
4,557


147,401
16,955
10,221
65,770


24,084
8,439
4,571


149,320
17,108
10,506
65,850


24,179
8,459
4,694


151,428
17,351
10,699
65,960


24,395
8,541
4,748


153,124
17,696
10,948
66,080


24,459
8,686
4,823


67.1
65.1
64.3
63.2


47.3
61.1
63.2


67.1
65.4
64.3
62.8


47.7
61.8
62.8


67.1
65.9
64.0
62.4


47.9
62.5
62.7


67.1
66.0
64.4
62.0


48.1
63.4
63.7


66.8
66.1
64.4
61.6


48.3
64.0
63.6


66.6
67.1
64.3
60.8


48.5
64.7
63.9


66.2
67.7
64.6
60.3


49.1
64.6
63.8


66.0
67.7
64.6
60.0


49.1
64.8
63.6


66.0
67.4
65.3
60.0


48.7
64.7
64.8


66.2
67.4
65.6
60.0


48.9
65.1
65.0


66.0
67.7
66.0
60.0


48.6
65.9
65.3


8QLWHG6WDWHV«««««««««««««««««« 129,558
&DQDGD««««««««««««««««««««
13,637
AXVWUDOLD««««««««««««««««««««
8,444
-DSDQ«««««««««««««««««««««
64,900
)UDQFH««««««««««««««««««««

*HUPDQ\«««««««««««««««««««

,WDO\«««««««««««««««««««««« 20,169
1HWKHUODQGV««««««««««««««««««
7,189
6ZHGHQ««««««««««««««««««««
3,969
8QLWHG.LQJGRP««««««««««««««««


131,463
13,973
8,618
64,450


20,370
7,408
4,033


133,488
14,331
8,762
63,920


20,617
7,605
4,110


136,891
14,681
8,989
63,790


20,973
7,813
4,222


136,933
14,866
9,086
63,460


21,359
8,014
4,295


136,485
15,223
9,264
62,650


21,666
8,114
4,303


137,736
15,586
9,480
62,510


21,972
8,069
4,293


139,252
15,861
9,668
62,640


22,124
8,052
4,271


141,730
16,080
9,975
62,910


22,290
8,056
4,334


144,427
16,393
10,186
63,210


22,721
8,205
4,416


146,047
16,767
10,470
63,510


22,953
8,408
4,530


63.8
59.6
59.0
61.0


41.9
57.7
56.8


64.1
60.4
59.3
60.2


42.2
59.1
57.6


64.3
61.3
59.6
59.4


42.6
60.3
58.3


64.4
62.0
60.3
59.0


43.2
61.5
60.0


63.7
61.9
60.0
58.4


43.8
62.6
60.4


62.7
62.4
60.2
57.5


44.3
62.9
60.6


62.3
63.1
60.7
57.1


44.9
62.2
60.1


62.3
63.3
61.1
57.1


45.1
61.8
59.4


62.7
63.4
62.0
57.3


44.9
61.6
59.9


63.1
63.6
62.5
57.5


45.5
62.5
60.4


63.0
64.2
63.1
57.6


45.6
63.8
61.3


6,739
1,248
759
2,300


2,584
423
445


6,210
1,162
721
2,790


2,634
337
368


5,880
1,072
652
3,170


2,559
277
313


5,692
956
602
3,200


2,388
239
260


6,801
1,026
658
3,400


2,164
186
227


8,378
1,143
629
3,590


2,062
231
234


8,774
1,147
599
3,500


2,048
310
264


8,149
1,093
553
3,130


1,960
387
300


7,591
1,028
531
2,940


1,889
402
361


7,001
958
512
2,750


1,673
336
332


7,078
929
478
2,570


1,506
278
293


4.9
8.4
8.3
3.4


11.4
5.6
10.1


4.5
7.7
7.7
4.1


11.5
4.4
8.4


4.2
7.0
6.9
4.7


11.0
3.5
7.1


4.0
6.1
6.3
4.8


10.2
3.0
5.8


4.7
6.5
6.8
5.1


9.2
2.3
5.0


5.8
7.0
6.4
5.4


8.7
2.8
5.2


6.0
6.9
5.9
5.3


8.5
3.7
5.8


5.5
6.4
5.4
4.8


8.1
4.6
6.6


5.1
6.0
5.1
4.5


7.8
4.8
7.7


4.6
5.5
4.8
4.2


6.9
3.9
7.0


4.6
5.3
4.4
3.9


6.2
3.2
6.1


Civilian labor force
8QLWHG6WDWHV«««««««««««««««««« 136,297
&DQDGD««««««««««««««««««««
14,884
AXVWUDOLD««««««««««««««««««««
9,204
-DSDQ«««««««««««««««««««««
67,200
)UDQFH««««««««««««««««««««

*HUPDQ\«««««««««««««««««««

,WDO\«««««««««««««««««««««« 22,753
1HWKHUODQGV««««««««««««««««««
7,612
6ZHGHQ««««««««««««««««««««
4,414
8QLWHG.LQJGRP««««««««««««««««


Participation rate1
8QLWHG6WDWHV««««««««««««««««««
&DQDGD««««««««««««««««««««
AXVWUDOLD««««««««««««««««««««
-DSDQ«««««««««««««««««««««
)UDQFH««««««««««««««««««««
*HUPDQ\«««««««««««««««««««
,WDO\««««««««««««««««««««««
1HWKHUODQGV««««««««««««««««««
6ZHGHQ««««««««««««««««««««
8QLWHG.LQJGRP««««««««««««««««

Employed

Employment-population ratio2
8QLWHG6WDWHV««««««««««««««««««
&DQDGD««««««««««««««««««««
AXVWUDOLD««««««««««««««««««««
-DSDQ«««««««««««««««««««««
)UDQFH««««««««««««««««««««
*HUPDQ\«««««««««««««««««««
,WDO\««««««««««««««««««««««
1HWKHUODQGV««««««««««««««««««
6ZHGHQ««««««««««««««««««««
8QLWHG.LQJGRP««««««««««««««««

Unemployed
8QLWHG6WDWHV««««««««««««««««««
&DQDGD««««««««««««««««««««
AXVWUDOLD««««««««««««««««««««
-DSDQ«««««««««««««««««««««
)UDQFH««««««««««««««««««««
*HUPDQ\«««««««««««««««««««
,WDO\««««««««««««««««««««««
1HWKHUODQGV««««««««««««««««««
6ZHGHQ««««««««««««««««««««
8QLWHG.LQJGRP««««««««««««««««

Unemployment rate
8QLWHG6WDWHV««««««««««««««««««
&DQDGD««««««««««««««««««««
AXVWUDOLD««««««««««««««««««««
-DSDQ«««««««««««««««««««««
)UDQFH««««««««««««««««««««
*HUPDQ\«««««««««««««««««««
,WDO\««««««««««««««««««««««
1HWKHUODQGV««««««««««««««««««
6ZHGHQ««««««««««««««««««««
8QLWHG.LQJGRP««««««««««««««««
1

/DERUIRUFHDVDSHUFHQWRIWKHZRUNLQJDJHSRSXODWLRQ

2

(PSOR\PHQWDVDSHUFHQWRIWKHZRUNLQJDJHSRSXODWLRQ

NOTE: Dash indicates data not available.
There are breaks in series for the United States (1998, 1999, 2000, 2003, 2004), Australia
(2001), Germany (1999, 2005), the Netherlands (2000), and Sweden (2005). For further
qualifications and historical annual data, see the BLS report &RPSDUDWLYH

134

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

&LYLOLDQ
/DERU
)RUFH
6WDWLVWLFV

&RXQWULHV
(on
the
Internet
at
http://www.bls.gov/fls/flscomparelf.htm). Unemployment rates may differ from those
in the BLS report 8QHPSOR\PHQW UDWHV LQ  FRXQWULHV FLYLOLDQ ODERU IRUFH EDVLV
DSSUR[LPDWLQJ 86 FRQFHSWV VHDVRQDOO\ DGMXVWHG
(on the Internet at
http://www.bls.gov/fls/flsjec.pdf  EHFDXVH WKH IRUPHU LV XSGDWHG VHPLDQQXDOO\
whereas the latter is updated monthly and reflects the most recent revisions in source
data.

53. Annual indexes of manufacturing productivity and related measures, 16 economies
[1996 = 100]
Measure and economy

1980

1990

1993

1994

1995

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Output per hour
8QLWHG6WDWHV«««««««««
&DQDGD««««««««««««
AXVWUDOLD«««««««««««
-DSDQ«««««««««««««
.RUHD5HSRI«««««««««
7DLZDQ««««««««««««
%HOJLXP«««««««««««
'HQPDUN«««««««««««
)UDQFH««««««««««««
*HUPDQ\«««««««««««
,WDO\«««««««««««««
1HWKHUODQGV«««««««««
1RUZD\««««««««««««
6SDLQ««««««««««««
6ZHGHQ«««««««««««
8QLWHG.LQJGRP««««««««





±











































































































































































































































































Output
8QLWHG6WDWHV«««««««««
&DQDGD««««««««««««
AXVWUDOLD««««««««««««
-DSDQ«««««««««««««
.RUHD5HSRI«««««««««
7DLZDQ««««««««««««
%HOJLXP««««««««««««
'HQPDUN«««««««««««
)UDQFH««««««««««««
*HUPDQ\«««««««««««
,WDO\««««««««««««««
1HWKHUODQGV««««««««««
1RUZD\««««««««««««
6SDLQ««««««««««««
6ZHGHQ««««««««««««
8QLWHG.LQJGRP««««««««

















































































































































































































































































Total hours
8QLWHG6WDWHV««««««««« 
&DQDGD«««««««««««« 
AXVWUDOLD«««««««««««« 
-DSDQ««««««««««««« 
.RUHD5HSRI«««««««««
±
7DLZDQ«««««««««««« 
%HOJLXP«««««««««««« 
'HQPDUN««««««««««« 
)UDQFH«««««««««««« 
*HUPDQ\««««««««««« 
,WDO\«««««««««««««« 
1HWKHUODQGV«««««««««« 
1RUZD\«««««««««««« 
6SDLQ«««««««««««« 
6ZHGHQ«««««««««««« 
8QLWHG.LQJGRP«««««««« 































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Hourly compensation
(national currency basis)
8QLWHG6WDWHV«««««««««
&DQDGD««««««««««««
AXVWUDOLD««««««««««««
-DSDQ«««««««««««««
.RUHD5HSRI«««««««««
7DLZDQ««««««««««««
%HOJLXP««««««««««««
'HQPDUN«««««««««««
)UDQFH««««««««««««
*HUPDQ\«««««««««««
,WDO\««««««««««««««
1HWKHUODQGV««««««««««
1RUZD\««««««««««««
6SDLQ««««««««««««
6ZHGHQ««««««««««««
8QLWHG.LQJGRP««««««««
6HHQRWHVDWHQGRIWDEOH



±

±












Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

135

Current Labor Statistics: International Comparisons

&RQWLQXHG²$QQXDOLQGH[HVRIPDQXIDFWXULQJSURGXFWLYLW\DQGUHODWHGPHDVXUHVHFRQRPLHV
0HDVXUHDQGHFRQRP\

































8QLWODERUFRVWV
(national currency basis)
8QLWHG6WDWHV«««««««««
&DQDGD««««««««««««
AXVWUDOLD««««««««««««
-DSDQ«««««««««««««
.RUHD5HSRI«««««««««
7DLZDQ««««««««««««
%HOJLXP««««««««««««
'HQPDUN«««««««««««
)UDQFH««««««««««««
*HUPDQ\«««««««««««
,WDO\««««««««««««««
1HWKHUODQGV««««««««««
1RUZD\««««««««««««
6SDLQ««««««««««««
6ZHGHQ««««««««««««
8QLWHG.LQJGRP««««««««



±













































































































































































































































































8QLWODERUFRVWV
86GROODUEDVLV
8QLWHG6WDWHV«««««««««
&DQDGD««««««««««««
AXVWUDOLD««««««««««««
-DSDQ«««««««««««««
.RUHD5HSRI«««««««««
7DLZDQ««««««««««««
%HOJLXP««««««««««««
'HQPDUN«««««««««««
)UDQFH««««««««««««
*HUPDQ\«««««««««««
,WDO\««««««««««««««
1HWKHUODQGV««««««««««
1RUZD\««««««««««««
6SDLQ««««««««««««
6ZHGHQ««««««««««««
8QLWHG.LQJGRP««««««««



±













































































































































































































































































127('DWDIRU*HUPDQ\IRU\HDUVEHIRUHDUHIRUWKHIRUPHU:HVW*HUPDQ\'DWDIRURQZDUGDUHIRUXQLILHG*HUPDQ\'DVKLQGLFDWHVGDWDQRWDYDLODEOH

136

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

54. Occupational injury and illness rates by industry, 1 United States
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers

Industry and type of case 2

1989

1

1990

1991

1992

1993

4

1994

4

1995

4

1996

4

1997

4

3

1998

4

1999

4

2000

4

2001

4

5

PRIVATE SECTOR

8.6
4.0
78.7

8.8
4.1
84.0

8.4
3.9






8.5
3.8
–

8.4
3.8
–

8.1
3.6
–

7.4
3.4
–

7.1
3.3
–



±



±



±



±

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing
Total cases ............................………………………….
Lost workday cases.....................................................
Lost workdays........………...........................................

10.9
5.7
100.9

11.6
5.9
112.2

10.8
5.4






11.2
5.0
–

10.0
4.7
–

9.7
4.3
–

8.7
3.9
–

8.4
4.1
–



±



±



±



±

Mining
Total cases ............................………………………….
Lost workday cases.....................................................
Lost workdays........………...........................................

8.5
4.8
137.2

8.3
5.0
119.5

7.4
4.5






6.8
3.9
–

6.3
3.9
–

6.2
3.9
–

5.4
3.2
–

5.9
3.7
–



±



±



±



±

Construction
Total cases ............................………………………….
Lost workday cases.....................................................
Lost workdays........………...........................................

14.3
6.8
143.3

14.2
6.7
147.9

13.0
6.1






12.2
5.5
–

11.8
5.5
–

10.6
4.9
–

9.9
4.5
–

9.5
4.4
–



±



±



±



±

General building contractors:
Total cases ............................………………………….
Lost workday cases.....................................................
Lost workdays........………...........................................

13.9
6.5
137.3

13.4
6.4
137.6

12.0
5.5






11.5
5.1
–

10.9
5.1
–

9.8
4.4
–

9.0
4.0
–

8.5
3.7
–



±



±



±



±

Heavy construction, except building:
Total cases ............................………………………….
Lost workday cases.....................................................
Lost workdays........………...........................................

13.8
6.5
147.1

13.8
6.3
144.6


6.0






11.1
5.1
–

10.2
5.0
–

9.9
4.8
–

9.0
4.3
–

8.7
4.3
–



±



±



±



±

Special trades contractors:
Total cases ............................………………………….
Lost workday cases.....................................................
Lost workdays........………...........................................

14.6
6.9
144.9

14.7
6.9
153.1

13.5
6.3






12.8
5.8
–

12.5
5.8
–

11.1
5.0
–

10.4
4.8
–

10.0
4.7
–



±



±



±



±

Manufacturing
Total cases ............................………………………….
Lost workday cases.....................................................

13.1
5.8

13.2
5.8

12.7
5.6




12.1
5.3

12.2
5.5

11.6
5.3

10.6
4.9

10.3
4.8













Lost workdays........………...........................................

113.0

120.7





–

–

–

–

–

±

±

±

±

14.1
6.0
116.5

14.2
6.0
123.3

13.6
5.7






13.1
5.4
–

13.5
5.7
–

12.8
5.6
–

11.6
5.1
–

11.3
5.1
–



±



±

±
±
±



±

Total cases ............................…………………………
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost workdays........………........................................

18.4
9.4
177.5

18.1
8.8
172.5

16.8
8.3






15.9
7.6
–

15.7
7.7
–

14.9
7.0
–

14.2
6.8
–

13.5
6.5
–



±



±



±



±

Furniture and fixtures:
Total cases ............................…………………………
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost workdays........………........................................

16.1
7.2
–

16.9
7.8
–

15.9
7.2
±





14.6
6.5
–

15.0
7.0
–

13.9
6.4
–

12.2
5.4
–

12.0
5.8
–



±



±



±



±

Stone, clay, and glass products:
Total cases ............................…………………………
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost workdays........………........................................

15.5
7.4
149.8

15.4
7.3
160.5

14.8
6.8






13.8
6.3
–

13.2
6.5
–

12.3
5.7
–

12.4
6.0
–

11.8
5.7
–



±



±



±



±

Primary metal industries:
Total cases ............................…………………………
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost workdays........………........................................

18.7
8.1
168.3

19.0
8.1
180.2

17.7
7.4






17.0
7.3
–

16.8
7.2
–

16.5
7.2
–

15.0
6.8
–

15.0
7.2
–



±



±



±





Fabricated metal products:
Total cases ............................…………………………
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost workdays........………........................................

18.5
7.9
147.6

18.7
7.9
155.7

17.4
7.1






16.2
6.7
–

16.4
6.7
–

15.8
6.9
–

14.4
6.2
–

14.2
6.4
–



±



±



±



±

Total cases ............................…………………………
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost workdays........………........................................

12.1
4.8
86.8

12.0
4.7
88.9

11.2
4.4






11.1
4.2
–

11.6
4.4
–

11.2
4.4
–

9.9
4.0
–

10.0
4.1
–



±



±



±



±

Electronic and other electrical equipment:
Total cases ............................…………………………
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost workdays........………........................................

9.1
3.9
77.5

9.1
3.8
79.4

8.6
3.7






8.3
3.5
–

8.3
3.6
–

7.6
3.3
–

6.8
3.1
–

6.6
3.1
–



±



±



±



±

Transportation equipment:
Total cases ............................…………………………
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost workdays........………........................................

17.7
6.8
138.6

17.8
6.9
153.7

18.3
7.0






18.5
7.1
–

19.6
7.8
–

18.6
7.9
–

16.3
7.0
–

15.4
6.6
–



±



±



±



±

Instruments and related products:
Total cases ............................…………………………
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost workdays........………........................................

5.6
2.5
55.4

5.9
2.7
57.8

6.0
2.7






5.6
2.5
–

5.9
2.7
–

5.3
2.4
–

5.1
2.3
–

4.8
2.3
–



±



±



±



±

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries:
Total cases ............................…………………………
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost workdays........………........................................

11.1
5.1
97.6

11.3
5.1
113.1

11.3
5.1






10.0
4.6
–

9.9
4.5
–

9.1
4.3
–

9.5
4.4
–

8.9
4.2
–



–



–



–



–

Total cases ............................………………………….
Lost workday cases.....................................................
Lost workdays........………...........................................
5

Durable goods:
Total cases ............................………………………….
Lost workday cases.....................................................
Lost workdays........………...........................................
Lumber and wood products:

Industrial machinery and equipment:

See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

137

Current Labor Statistics: Injury and Illness Data

&RQWLQXHG²2FFXSDWLRQDOLQMXU\DQGLOOQHVVUDWHVE\LQGXVWU\8QLWHG6WDWHV
Industry and type of case2

,QFLGHQFHUDWHVSHUZRUNHUV 
1989

1

1990

1991

1993 4 1994 4 1995 4 1996 4 1997 4 1998 4 1999 4 2000 4 2001 4

1992

Nondurable goods:
Total cases ............................…………………………..…
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost workdays........………...............................................

11.6
5.5
107.8

11.7
5.6
116.9

11.5
5.5






10.7
5.0
–

10.5
5.1
–

9.9
4.9
–

9.2
4.6
–



–




Food and kindred products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..
Lost workday cases......................................................
Lost workdays........………............................................

18.5
9.3
174.7

20.0
9.9
202.6

19.5
9.9






17.6
8.9
–

17.1
9.2
–

16.3
8.7
–

15.0
8.0
–



–




Tobacco products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..
Lost workday cases......................................................
Lost workdays........………............................................

8.7
3.4
64.2

7.7
3.2
62.3

6.4
2.8






5.8
2.3
–

5.3
2.4
–

5.6
2.6
–

6.7
2.8
–



–




Textile mill products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..
Lost workday cases......................................................
Lost workdays........………............................................

10.3
4.2
81.4

9.6
4.0
85.1

10.1
4.4






9.7
4.1
–

8.7
4.0
–

8.2
4.1
–

7.8
3.6
–

Apparel and other textile products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..
Lost workday cases......................................................
Lost workdays........………............................................

8.6
3.8
80.5

8.8
3.9
92.1

9.2
4.2






9.0
3.8
–

8.9
3.9
–

8.2
3.6
–

Paper and allied products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..
Lost workday cases......................................................
Lost workdays........………............................................

12.7
5.8
132.9

12.1
5.5
124.8

11.2
5.0






9.9
4.6
–

9.6
4.5
–

Printing and publishing:
Total cases ............................…………………………..
Lost workday cases......................................................
Lost workdays........………............................................

6.9
3.3
63.8

6.9
3.3
69.8

6.7
3.2






6.9
3.1
–

Chemicals and allied products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..
Lost workday cases......................................................
Lost workdays........………............................................

7.0
3.2
63.4

6.5
3.1
61.6

6.4
3.1






Petroleum and coal products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..
Lost workday cases......................................................
Lost workdays........………............................................

6.6
3.3
68.1

6.6
3.1
77.3

6.2
2.9


Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..
Lost workday cases......................................................
Lost workdays........………............................................

16.2
8.0
147.2

16.2
7.8
151.3

Leather and leather products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..
Lost workday cases......................................................
Lost workdays........………............................................

13.6
6.5
130.4

7UDQVSRUWDWLRQDQGSXEOLFXWLOLWLHV
Total cases ............................…………………………..…
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost workdays........………...............................................



±



±



±



±



±



±





±



±



±



–



±



±



±



±

7.4
3.3
–



–








±



±



±

8.5
4.2
–

7.9
3.8
–



–



±



±



±



±

6.7
3.0
–

6.4
3.0
–

6.0
2.8
–



–



±



±



±



±

5.9
2.7
–

5.7
2.8
–

5.5
2.7
–

4.8
2.4
–



–



±



±



±



±





5.2
2.5
–

4.7
2.3
–

4.8
2.4
–

4.6
2.5
–



–



±



±



±



±

15.1
7.2






13.9
6.5
–

14.0
6.7
–

12.9
6.5
–

12.3
6.3
–



–



±



±



±



±

12.1
5.9
152.3

12.5
5.9






12.1
5.5
–

12.0
5.3
–

11.4
4.8
–

10.7
4.5
–



–



±



±



±



±

9.2
5.3
121.5

9.6
5.5
134.1

9.3
5.4






9.5
5.4
–

9.3
5.5
–

9.1
5.2
–

8.7
5.1
–



–



±



±



±



±

:KROHVDOHDQGUHWDLOWUDGH
Total cases ............................…………………………..…
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost workdays........………...............................................

8.0
3.6
63.5

7.9
3.5
65.6

7.6
3.4






8.1
3.4
–

7.9
3.4
–

7.5
3.2
–

6.8
2.9
–



–



±



±



±



±

Wholesale trade:
Total cases ............................…………………………..…
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost workdays........………...............................................

7.7
4.0
71.9

7.4
3.7
71.5

7.2
3.7






7.8
3.7
–

7.7
3.8
–

7.5
3.6
–

6.6
3.4
–



–



±



±



±



±

Retail trade:
Total cases ............................…………………………..…
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost workdays........………...............................................

8.1
3.4
60.0

8.1
3.4
63.2

7.7
3.3






8.2
3.3
–

7.9
3.3
–

7.5
3.0
–

6.9
2.8
–



–



±



±



±



±

)LQDQFHLQVXUDQFHDQGUHDOHVWDWH
Total cases ............................…………………………..…
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost workdays........………...............................................

2.0
.9
17.6

2.4
1.1
27.3

2.4
1.1






2.9
1.2
–

2.7
1.1
–

2.6
1.0
–

2.4
.9
–



–



±



±



±



±

6HUYLFHV
Total cases ............................…………………………..…
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost workdays........………...............................................

5.5
2.7
51.2

6.0
2.8
56.4

6.2
2.8






6.7
2.8
–

6.5
2.8
–

6.4
2.8
–

6.0
2.6
–



–



–



–



–



–





1
Data for 1989 and subsequent years are based on the Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1987 Edition. For this reason, they are not strictly comparable with data
for the years 1985–88, which were based on the Standard Industrial Classification
Manual, 1972 Edition, 1977 Supplement.

N = number of injuries and illnesses or lost workdays;
EH = total hours worked by all employees during the calendar year; and
200,000 = base for 100 full-time equivalent workers (working 40 hours per week, 50 weeks
per year).

2
Beginning with the 1992 survey, the annual survey measures only nonfatal injuries and
illnesses, while past surveys covered both fatal and nonfatal incidents. To better address
fatalities, a basic element of workplace safety, BLS implemented the Census of Fatal
Occupational Injuries.

4
Beginning with the 1993 survey, lost workday estimates will not be generated. As of 1992,
BLS began generating percent distributions and the median number of days away from work
by industry and for groups of workers sustaining similar work disabilities.
5

Excludes farms with fewer than 11 employees since 1976.

3

The incidence rates represent the number of injuries and illnesses or lost workdays per
100 full-time workers and were calculated as (N/EH) X 200,000, where:

138

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

NOTE: Dash indicates data not available.

55. Fatal occupational injuries by event or exposure, 1996-2005
20053

1996-2000
(average)

2001-2005
(average)2

All events ...............................................................

6,094

5,704

5,734

100

Transportation incidents ................................................
Highway ........................................................................
Collision between vehicles, mobile equipment .........
Moving in same direction ......................................
Moving in opposite directions, oncoming ..............
Moving in intersection ...........................................
Vehicle struck stationary object or equipment on
side of road .............................................................
Noncollision ...............................................................
Jack-knifed or overturned--no collision .................
Nonhighway (farm, industrial premises) ........................
Noncollision accident ................................................
Overturned ............................................................
Worker struck by vehicle, mobile equipment ................
Worker struck by vehicle, mobile equipment in
roadway ..................................................................
Worker struck by vehicle, mobile equipment in
parking lot or non-road area ....................................
Water vehicle ................................................................
Aircraft ...........................................................................

2,608
1,408
685
117
247
151

2,451
1,394
686
151
254
137

2,493
1,437
718
175
265
134

43
25
13
3
5
2

264
372
298
378
321
212
376

310
335
274
335
277
175
369

345
318
273
340
281
182
391

6
6
5
6
5
3
7

129

136

140

2

171
105
263

166
82
206

176
88
149

3
2
3

Assaults and violent acts ...............................................
Homicides .....................................................................
Shooting ....................................................................
Suicide, self-inflicted injury ............................................

1,015
766
617
216

850
602
465
207

792
567
441
180

14
10
8
3

Contact with objects and equipment ............................
Struck by object ............................................................
Struck by falling object ..............................................
Struck by rolling, sliding objects on floor or ground
level .........................................................................
Caught in or compressed by equipment or objects .......
Caught in running equipment or machinery ..............
Caught in or crushed in collapsing materials ................

1,005
567
364

952
560
345

1,005
607
385

18
11
7

77
293
157
128

89
256
128
118

94
278
121
109

2
5
2
2

Falls ..................................................................................
Fall to lower level ..........................................................
Fall from ladder .........................................................
Fall from roof .............................................................
Fall to lower level, n.e.c. ...........................................

714
636
106
153
117

763
669
125
154
123

770
664
129
160
117

13
12
2
3
2

Exposure to harmful substances or environments .....
Contact with electric current ..........................................
Contact with overhead power lines ...........................
Exposure to caustic, noxious, or allergenic substances
Oxygen deficiency .........................................................

535
290
132
112
92

498
265
118
114
74

501
251
112
136
59

9
4
2
2
1

Fires and explosions ......................................................
Fires--unintended or uncontrolled .................................
Explosion ......................................................................

196
103
92

174
95
78

159
93
65

3
2
1

Event or exposure1

Number

Percent

1 Based on the 1992 BLS Occupational Injury and Illness Classification Manual.
2 Excludes fatalities from the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks.
3 The BLS news release of August 10, 2006, reported a total of 5,702 fatal work injuries for calendar year
2005. Since then, an additional 32 job-related fatalities were identified, bringing the total job-related fatality
count for 2005 to 5,734.
NOTE: Totals for all years are revised and final. Totals for major categories may include subcategories not
shown separately. Dashes indicate no data reported or data that do not meet publication criteria. N.e.c. means
"not elsewhere classified."
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, in cooperation with State, New York City,
District of Columbia, and Federal agencies, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries.

Monthly Labor Review • November 2008

139

COMPENSATION AND WORKING CONDITIONS

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Wages in the Nonprofit Sector: Occupations Typically Found in Educational and
Research Institutions
by Amy Butler
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Originally Posted: November 26, 2008
Revision posted: April 15, 2009
The National Compensation Survey now publishes wage data on full-time workers in private nonprofit establishments. This is
the second in a series of three articles comparing the average hourly earnings of full-time workers in private nonprofits,
private industry as a whole, State governments, and local governments.
In 2007, there were over 1.64 million nonprofit organizations in the United States.1 Nonprofits include, but are not limited to,
hospitals, churches, educational institutions, social welfare organizations, and charitable organizations. Health professionals,
educators, other professionals, health technicians, administrative support workers, and service occupations account for the
majority of paid workers in the nonprofit sector.2
The National Compensation Survey (NCS) provides a source of recent data to compare the wage rates of workers in
nonprofits with those of their counterparts in private industry as a whole3 and in State and local governments. Separate wage
estimates for full-time workers in private nonprofit establishments in 2007 were published in National Compensation Survey:
Occupational Earnings in the United States, 2007.4 The NCS now provides average hourly wage estimates by occupational
group and by detailed occupation for full-time workers employed in all private industry, in the private nonprofit sector, in State
government, and in local government.5
Educational institutions include elementary and secondary schools, colleges and universities, vocational schools, and
libraries. These institutions can be either publicly or privately administered and funded. Almost a third of postsecondary
educational institutions are nonprofit.6 Approximately 19 percent of postsecondary students in the United States are enrolled
in private nonprofit education institutions; this includes 28 percent of undergraduates who attend private nonprofit 4-year
colleges.7 There are also private elementary and secondary schools.8 Almost a quarter of all elementary and secondary
schools are private schools.9 These schools educate about 9 percent of elementary and secondary school students.10 Public
elementary and secondary schools are funded by the government and must adhere to government regulations, while private
schools have more control over their curriculum and are funded primarily by tuition payments and other private sources, such
as individual donors and religious organizations. Elementary and secondary schools, as well as colleges and universities,
employ a variety of occupations such as teachers, education administrators, building maintenance workers, clerical workers,
and food service workers.
Postsecondary colleges and universities that have research departments employ workers classified as engineers and
scientists in addition to teachers and professors. Engineers and scientists are found not only in academic organizations, but
also in private research-and-development establishments. Private research-and-development establishments may be
nonprofit, or these establishments might operate nonprofit research-and-development units within a for-profit enterprise. In
addition to academic and research facilities, engineers and scientists are employed in many different government agencies
that work to study the environment and public health concerns.
Several hypotheses have been posited to explain why the wages of nonprofit workers could differ from their for-profit
counterparts. According to the labor donation hypothesis, workers in the nonprofit sector are willing to donate a portion of
their paid labor and receive lower wages because they obtain satisfaction from the fact that their efforts achieve altruistic
goals. Also, nonprofits might pay lower wages and compensate their workers with employer-provided benefits or other
favorable job characteristics such as a flexible work schedule. On the other hand, nonprofits might actually pay higher wages
because nonprofits do not benefit from the cost reductions of paying lower wages in the same way that for-profit employers

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COMPENSATION AND WORKING CONDITIONS

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

do. In addition, nonprofits may choose to hire better quality workers in order to produce a better quality product or service and
pay these employees higher wages.11
Using data from the 2007 National Compensation Survey, this second article of a three-part series compares the wages of
full-time nonprofit workers in occupations typically found in educational and research institutions with those of the same
occupations12 in all private industry, in State governments, and in local governments. Comparisons are made for
occupational groups and for specific occupations. The first article in the series examined the wages of workers in
management, selected professional, and administrative support occupations. The third article examines the wages of
occupations concentrated in healthcare and social assistance organizations.

Education, Training, And Library Occupations
Chart 1 shows that average hourly earnings of education, training, and library occupations in nonprofit establishments
($29.33) were less than those of workers in these occupations in State government ($41.89) and local government ($32.36).
These occupations in private industry averaged $26.51 per hour, which is not significantly different from those in nonprofit
establishments. For this occupational group, State government employees had the highest hourly wages, overall.13

Elementary and middle school teachers. Teachers at public elementary and secondary schools are required to have a
teaching certification, but teachers at private schools may not have this requirement. As shown in chart 2, below, elementary
and middle school teachers at private schools earned, on average, $25.34 per hour, which is lower than the hourly rate for
teachers at public elementary and middle schools ($35.56).14 Elementary and middle school teachers earned $25.32 per
hour at private nonprofits, which is 30 percent less than the earnings of teachers employed by State and local governments.

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COMPENSATION AND WORKING CONDITIONS

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Secondary school teachers. Secondary school teachers, who teach at high schools and secondary vocational schools,
often teach one or two subjects. Private secondary school teachers earned an average of $32.47 per hour, which is less than
what secondary school teachers at public schools earned ($35.89 per hour). The hourly earnings of secondary school
teachers at private nonprofit schools ($33.99) were not statistically different from those at public schools.
Postsecondary school teachers. Colleges, universities, and vocational schools are postsecondary schools. Unlike
elementary and secondary school teachers, postsecondary teachers are further separated into specific occupations by the
subject that they teach. For example, a professor of biology would be classified in the category Biological Science Teachers,
Postsecondary. A postsecondary teacher who does a combination of both teaching and research is classified as a teacher.
Postsecondary school teachers earned similar wages at nonprofits ($48.82 per hour), at all private schools ($46.14 per hour),
and at public postsecondary schools ($47.51 per hour).
Librarians. Librarians are employed by schools, private establishments, and governments. The average hourly wage of
librarians at private nonprofits ($25.37) was not significantly different from those at State and local governments ($27.98) but
lower compared to those in private industry ($31.96).

Education Administrators
The occupation education administrator is a management occupation commonly found in educational institutions. Education
administrators coordinate research activities, academic programs, or student admissions. Education administrators at private
nonprofit establishments earned, on average, $31.39 per hour, less than their counterparts at State and local governments
($42.15 per hour)15 but not significantly different from those in private industry ($29.20 per hour).

Educational, Vocational, And School Counselors
Educational, vocational, and school counselor is one occupation in the community and social services occupational group.
These counselors work with students or as curriculum counselors. The average hourly wages of educational, vocational, and
school counselors employed by nonprofits ($21.02) were less than those of their counterparts at State and local governments
($34.58 per hour)16 but not significantly different from those in private industry ($20.80 per hour).

Life, Physical, And Social Science Occupations
Life, physical, and social science occupations can be found at academic institutions, research organizations, private
businesses, and State and local public health departments. This occupational group includes biologists, chemists, and social

Page 3

COMPENSATION AND WORKING CONDITIONS

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

scientists, as well as clinical, counseling, and school psychologists. As chart 3 shows, the average hourly wages of life,
physical, and social science occupations at nonprofits ($26.95) were less than those in all private industry ($31.27) and in
local governments ($30.16), but they were similar to those at State governments ($24.56).

Architecture And Engineering Occupations
State and local governments employ workers in architecture and engineering occupations in their environmental protection
and health and safety agencies. Private sector businesses, such as architecture design firms, employ such workers as well.
In the nonprofit sector, these occupations are often found at academic institutions and research organizations. As chart 4
shows, the average hourly wages of architecture and engineering occupations at nonprofit establishments ($36.37) were
higher than the wages of workers in these occupations at State governments ($29.30) and at local governments ($29.64).
Wages of nonprofit workers in these occupations did not differ significantly from those of workers in all private industry
establishments ($33.36 per hour). For engineers specifically, the average hourly wages at nonprofits ($44.72) were higher,
compared with those of all private industry ($39.09) and State and local governments ($33.97).17

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COMPENSATION AND WORKING CONDITIONS

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Food Preparation And Serving Occupations
These workers can be found at school cafeterias, as well as at restaurants, hospital cafeterias, and nursing home kitchens.
As chart 5 shows, food preparation and serving related workers employed by private industry establishments earned an
average of $9.15 per hour, which is less than what these workers earn at nonprofit establishments ($11.92 per hour). The
average hourly wages of nonprofit food preparation and serving related workers were very similar to the average hourly
wages of local government workers ($11.90), but they were less than those of State government workers ($14.12).

Building And Grounds Cleaning And Maintenance Occupations
Janitors, housekeepers, and grounds maintenance workers are employed by schools, hospitals, businesses, and companies
that contract these services. As chart 6 shows, workers in these occupations earned less at nonprofits ($12.07 per hour) than
at local governments ($14.44 per hour). Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations at private industry
establishments earned, on average, $11.83 per hour, which is very similar to the average hourly wage at private nonprofit
establishments and at State governments ($11.53 per hour).

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COMPENSATION AND WORKING CONDITIONS

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Summary
Data from the 2007 National Compensation Survey were used to compare the wages of full-time workers in nonprofit
organizations, all private industry, State government, and local government organizations, and the following results were
found:
• State government workers earned the highest wages in education, training, and library occupations. The average
hourly earnings of education, training, and library occupations in nonprofit establishments were less than those of
workers in these occupations at State government and local government.
• Elementary and middle school teachers earned 30 percent less at private nonprofit schools than at public schools;
however, secondary as well as postsecondary teachers earned similar hourly wages at private nonprofit schools and
at public schools.
• The average hourly wages of life, physical, and social science occupations at nonprofits were less than those of all
private industry and local governments, but they were similar to those at State governments.
• Architecture and engineering workers in nonprofit establishments earned higher wages than their counterparts in State
and local governments, but they earned similar wages to those in private industry as a whole.
• The hourly rates of food preparation and serving related occupations employed by nonprofits did not differ significantly
from local government employees, were less than State government employees, and were higher compared with
workers employed by all private industry.
• Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations at nonprofits earned less than at local governments, but
their wages were very similar to those in all private industry and State governments.
Amy Butler
Economist, Division of National Compensation Survey, Office of Field Operations, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Telephone: (202) 691-5756; E-mail: Butler.Amy@bls.gov.

NOTE: Data for private industry in this article have been revised. When the article was originally published, the tabulations for
private industry incorrectly included State and local government workers, in addition to private sector workers. The error has
been corrected.

Notes
1 Data on the total number of tax-exempt organizations are from Internal Revenue Service Data Book 2007, Publication 55B (Internal Revenue
Service, March 2008), table 25; available on the Internet at http://www.irs.gov/taxstats/article/0,,id=168593,00.html. Churches are not required
to apply for recognition of tax-exemption.
2 See Christopher J. Ruhm and Carey Borkoski, "Compensation in the Nonprofit Sector," The Journal of Human Resources, autumn 2003, pp.
992-1021.
3 Private industry includes both nonprofit and for-profit establishments. Separate wage estimates for employees of for-profit establishments
were not available.
4 National Compensation Survey: Occupational Earnings in the United States, 2007, Bulletin 2704 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, August 2008);
available on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ncswage2007.htm. The National Compensation Survey (NCS) has always included
nonprofit establishments in its private industry measures of occupational earnings, compensation cost trends, benefit incidence, and detailed
benefits provisions. For more information on the National Compensation Survey, see BLS Handbook of Methods, Chapter 8, "National
Compensation Measures," available on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/opub/hom/homtoc.htm.
5 Occupations are classified according to the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system, which categorizes more than 800
individual occupations into 23 major groups. The National Compensation Survey does not survey agriculture, Federal government, military, or
private household employers. For more information on the detailed occupations included in each major occupational group, see National
Compensation Survey: Occupational Earnings in the United States, 2007, appendix B; available on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ocs/
sp/ncbl0841.pdf.
6 For the 2006-07 period, 1,640 of a total of 4,314 degree-granting institutions were private not-for-profit and 208 of a total of 2,222 nondegree-granting Title IV institutions offering postsecondary education were private not-for-profit. See Digest of Education Statistics: 2007
(National Center for Education Statistics, March 2008), tables 255 and 359; available on the Internet at http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/
2007menu_tables.asp.

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COMPENSATION AND WORKING CONDITIONS

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

7 In the fall of 2006, among a total of 18,205,474 students, 3,543,455 were enrolled in private not-for-profit Title IV institutions. In addition,
among 8,666,183 undergraduate students enrolled in the fall of 2006, 2,409,256 were enrolled in 4-year private not-for-profit undergraduate
schools. See Enrollment in Postsecondary Institutions, fall 2006; Graduation Rates, 2000 and 2003 Cohorts; and Financial Statistics, Fiscal
Year 2006 (National Center for Education Statistics, June 2008), table 1; available on the Internet at http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2008/2008173.pdf.
8 Private elementary and secondary schools include both nonprofit and for-profit schools.
9 In 2005-06, there were 28,996 private elementary and secondary schools. See Characteristics of Private Schools in the United States:
Results from the 2005-2006 Private School Universe Survey (National Center for Education Statistics, March 2008), table 1; available on the
Internet at http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2008/2008315.pdf. There were 97,382 public elementary and secondary schools in 2006-07. See Digest of
Education Statistics: 2007 (National Center for Education Statistics, March 2008), table 91; available on the Internet at http://nces.ed.gov/
programs/digest/d07/tables/dt07_091.asp.
10 In 2005-06, there were 5,057,520 students enrolled in private elementary and secondary schools. See Characteristics of Private Schools in
the United States: Results from the 2005-2006 Private School Universe Survey, (National Center for Education Statistics, March 2008), table
1. There were 48,912,085 students enrolled in public elementary and secondary schools in 2005-06. See Digest of Education Statistics: 2007
(National Center for Education Statistics, March 2008), table 91.
11 Ruhm and Borkoski, "Compensation in the Nonprofit Sector"; also, Laura Leete, "Whither the Nonprofit Wage Differential? Estimates from
the 1990 Census," Journal of Labor Economics, January 2001, pp. 136-170.
12 That is, those workers who are classified in the same occupations according to the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)
system.
13 Statements of comparisons in this article are significant at a standard error level of 1.645 or more (90-percent confidence level), unless
indicated otherwise. See table 1 for wage estimates and the corresponding relative standard errors.
14 The wage estimate for teachers of public schools is the combined wage estimate for teachers in the State and local government sectors.
15 Combined wage estimate for State and local government workers.
16 Combined wage estimate for State and local government workers.
17 Combined wage estimate for State and local government workers.

Table 1. Average hourly earnings of selected occupations of full-time workers found in educational and research
institutions, 2007
Nonprofit
Occupation

Education,
Training, and
Library

Hourly
Mean

Private

Relative
Standard
Error

Hourly
Mean

State Government

Relative
Standard
Error

Hourly
Mean

Relative
Standard
Error

Local Government
Hourly
Mean

Relative
Standard
Error

State and Local
Government
Hourly
Mean

Relative
Standard
Error

$29.33

5.1

$26.51

4.1

$41.89

6.7

$32.36

1.0

$33.63

1.4

Elementary and
Middle School
Teachers

25.32

4.7

25.34

4.5

-

-

35.54

1.0

35.56

1.0

Secondary
School Teachers

33.99

4.3

32.47

4.2

-

-

35.89

1.3

35.89

1.3

Postsecondary
Teachers

48.82

3.6

46.14

4.1

48.07

7.2

45.08

4.7

47.51

5.8

Librarians

25.37

3.2

31.96

11.5

25.65

4.3

28.56

6.1

27.98

5.0

Education
Administrators

31.39

4.7

29.20

4.5

39.03

6.1

43.15

2.2

42.15

2.4

Educational,
Vocational, and

21.02

9.5

20.80

8.3

22.07

4.1

38.46

3.4

34.58

3.6

NOTE: A dash (-) indicates that no published data are available.

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COMPENSATION AND WORKING CONDITIONS

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Nonprofit
Occupation

Hourly
Mean

Private

Relative
Standard
Error

Hourly
Mean

State Government

Relative
Standard
Error

Hourly
Mean

Relative
Standard
Error

Local Government
Relative
Standard
Error

Hourly
Mean

State and Local
Government
Hourly
Mean

Relative
Standard
Error

School
Counselors
Life, Physical,
and Social
Science

26.95

5.1

31.27

2.8

24.56

5.2

30.16

2.9

26.84

3.0

Architecture and
Engineering

36.37

5.9

33.36

2.6

29.30

6.6

29.64

2.3

29.49

3.2

Engineers

44.72

3.8

39.09

1.2

34.18

7.1

33.77

3.6

33.97

3.9

Food
Preparation and
Serving Related

11.92

2.5

9.15

1.7

14.12

4.9

11.90

3.2

12.27

2.8

Building and
Grounds
Cleaning and
Maintenance

12.07

2.2

11.83

3.2

11.53

7.3

14.44

1.4

13.93

2.2

NOTE: A dash (-) indicates that no published data are available.

Data for Chart 1. Average hourly earnings of full-time workers in education, training, and library occupations, 2007
Occupation

Education, Training, and Library

Nonprofit

$29.33

Private

State Government

$26.51

Local Government

$41.89

$32.36

Data for Chart 2. Average hourly earnings of full-time teachers by broad occupation, 2007
Occupation

Nonprofit

Private

State and Local Government

Elementary and Middle School Teachers

$25.32

$25.34

$35.56

Secondary School Teachers

$33.99

$32.47

$35.89

Postsecondary Teachers

$48.82

$46.14

$47.51

Data for Chart 3. Average hourly earnings of full-time workers in life, physical, and social science occupations, 2007
Occupation

Life, Physical, and Social Science

Nonprofit

$26.95

Private

$31.27

State Government

$24.56

Local Government

$30.16

Data for Chart 4. Average hourly earnings of full-time workers in architecture and engineering occupations, 2007
Occupation

Architecture and Engineering

Nonprofit

$36.37

Private

$33.36

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State Government

$29.30

Local Government

$29.64

COMPENSATION AND WORKING CONDITIONS

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Data in Chart 5. Average hourly earnings of full-time workers in food preparation and serving related occupations,
2007
Occupation

Food Preparation and Serving Related

Nonprofit

Private

$11.92

$9.15

State Government

$14.12

Local Government

$11.90

Data for Chart 6. Average hourly earnings of full-time workers in building and grounds cleaning and maintenance
occupations, 2007
Occupation

Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance

Nonprofit

Private

State Government

Local Government

$12.07

$11.83

$11.53

$14.44

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