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Il

November 2)000

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B

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REVIEW
U.S. Department of Labor

Bureau o f Labor Statistics

In th is is s u e :

Older Americans
Alternative ORI aggregations

Employment in Mexico

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J»

U.S. Department of Labor
Alexis M. Herman, Secretary
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Katharine G. Abraham, Commissioner
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MONTHLY LABOR

REVIEW______________________
Volume 123, Number 11
November 2000

Articles
Employment and unemployment in Mexico in the 1990s

3

Focusing only on total employment and the unemployment rate obscures
an important response to economic downturns—the informal sector
Gary Martin

Income distribution of older Americans

19

Between 1967 and 1997, elderly households achieved greater equality
of income distribution, narrowing the gap with nonelderly households
Rose M. Rubin , Shelley I. White-Means, Luojia Mao Daniel

Alternative CPI aggregations:two approaches

31

Plutocratic and democratic approaches for constructing price indexes
incorporate different normative assumptions about consumer well-being
Mary Kokoski

Departments
Labor month in review
Précis
Book reviews
Publications received
Current labor statistics

2
40
41
42
45

Editor-in-Chief: Deborah P. Klein • Executive Editor: Richard M. Devens • Managing Editor: Anna Huffman Hill • Editors: Brian I. Baker,
Bonita L. Boles, Richard Hamilton, Leslie Brown Joyner, Lawrence H. Leith • Book Reviews: Roger A. Comer, Ernestine Patterson
Leary • Design and Layout: Catherine D. Bowman, Edith W. Peters • Contributors: Todd Wilson


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Labor Month in Review

The Novem ber Review
In the interval since April 1994, when
the Review last published an article
on employment and unemployment in
Mexico, that nation has undergone a
significant cycle in its general busi­
ness condition. Gary M artin’s article
updates our earlier article and rein­
forces the notion that attempting to
apply twin definitions of employment
in economies that differ significantly
can reveal as much about the differ­
ences as about anything else. In par­
ticular, Martin notes that convention­
ally-measured employment continued
to grow despite a substantial drop in
m easured output in 1995. He at­
tributes this to the role of the informal
sector in M exico’s economy: growth
in employment in very small enter­
prises, jobs without fringe benefits,
and jobs in rural areas provided sub­
sistence for many as jobs in the more
formal sector became scarcer.
R ose R ubin, Shelley I. W hiteMeans, and Luojia Mao Daniel take a
broad look at income distributions
within the group of elderly house­
holds and the comparison of their in­
comes with other households. Their
fin d in g s su g g est th a t in eq u ality
within the group has declined some­
what over the past three decades.
These findings should encourage ad­
ditional research.
Mary Kokowski investigates the
potential differences between aggre­
gating the Consumer Price Index us­
ing a “ p lu to c ra tic ” a g g re g a tio n
method— the relative levels of total
expenditure provide the w eights—
used in the current index to a “demo­
cratic” index in which each household’s
expenditure pattern is equally weighted.
She suggests that there is little em­
pirical difference between the demo­
cratic and plutocratic index values ex­

2

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

cept extreme scenarios of rapid price
change among goods that are inelas­
tic in demand.

Stock options
In 1999, 1.7 percent of all private in­
dustry employees received stock op­
tions. Executives were about three
times as likely to get stock options
than were other employees, 4.6 per­
cent versus 1.6 percent, respectively.
The share of nonexecutive employees
offered stock options ranging from 0.7
percent for those earning less than
$35,000 to 12.9 percent for those earn­
ing $75,000 and more.
The likelihood that employees re­
ceived stock options also varied by
industry, from 0.2 percent in nondu­
rable manufacturing industries to 5.3
percent in durable manufacturing in­
dustries, and by geographic region,
from 1.1 percent in the Northeast to
2.1 percent in the West. Read more in
“P ilot Survey of the Incidence of
Stock Options in Private Industry in
1999,” news release u s d l 00-290.

Productivity growth
fastest in United States
O f 10 industrialized countries, the
United States gain in manufacturing
labor productivity of 6.2 percent was
the highest in 1999. P roductivity
growth in the United Kingdom was 4.3
percent, while France registered a
growth rate of 4.0 percent, o th er
countries with notable increases in
manufacturing output per hour were
Japan and Sweden. Productivity in
the manufacturing sector rose by 3.1
percent in Japan and 2.9 percent in
Sweden.

November 2000

Partly as a result of the faster pro­
ductivity growth, the index of unit la­
bor costs in U.S. manufacturing in
1999 edged down to 80.1 percent of
an index of com petitors’ costs mea­
sured in dollars; in 1998, the percent­
age was 83.5 percent. Additional in­
formation is available in “International
Comparisons of Manufacturing Pro­
ductivity and Unit Labor Cost Trends,
1999,” news release u s d l 00-295.

O ccu p atio n al
earnings
Workers in the highest paid occupa­
tion earned on average more than
three times as much per hour as those
in the low est paid in 1998. M ean
hourly earnings of workers in execu­
tive, administrative, and managerial
positions were $28.63 in 1998, com­
pared with $7.85 for those in service
occupations.
The second highest paid occupa­
tion in 1998 was professional spe­
cialty and technical, with an average
of $23.63 per hour. The second lowest
was handlers, equipm ent cleaners,
h elp ers, and laborers, w ith m ean
hourly earnings of $9.52. In the remain­
ing occupations, hourly earnings av­
eraged between $10 and $20. Learn
more in National Compensation Sur­
vey: Occupational Wages in the United
States, 1998, b l s Bulletin 2529.
□

Communications regarding the Monthly
Labor Review may be sent to the Editorin-Chief at the addresses on the inside
front cover, or faxed to (202) 691-5899.
News releases discussed in this issue are
available at

http://stats.bls.gov/newsrels.htm

Employment and Unemployment in Mexico;

Employment and unemployment
in Mexico in the 1990s
Focusing only on Mexico’s total employment
and its unemployment rate obscures
an important response to economic downturns,
namely, relative growth in the informal sector

G a ry Martin

Gary Martin is an
economist in the
Division of Foreign
Labor Statistics,
Bureau of Labor
Statistics.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

ravelers are often cautioned against
viewing other countries through the lens
of their own cultural bias. Economists must
be warned as well about the pitfalls of evaluat­
ing the performance of economies that differ
greatly from those that they are accustomed to
examining. Although Mexico joined with the
United States and Canada in the North Ameri­
can Free Trade Agreement in 1994, this alliance
should not cause one to lose sight of the fact that
Mexico’s economy continues to differ consider­
ably from those of its northern neighbors. The
application of the usual measures of “employ­
m ent” and “u nem ploym ent” to ev a lu a te
M exico’s economic performance in the 1990s
reveals many such differences.
For the first 4 years of the 1990s, Mexico’s
economy grew at an annual rate of 3.6 percent,
continuing the long recovery from the 1982 “debt
crisis.” The economy experienced a sharp de­
cline in 1995, however, as a result of the “peso
crisis” of late December 1994. Gross domestic
product fell by 6.2 percent, but employment ac­
tually rose slightly. Unemployment rose sharply,
although the level reached was not particularly
high by world standards. The impact of the cri­
sis, both in severity and duration, shows up more
clearly in other indicators, such as those for the
composition of employment and the trend in real
wages. This article focuses on the employment
side, but includes some information on the wage
trend.

T

In economies such as Mexico’s, the “informal
sector,” made up primarily of small establish­
ments providing marginal, insecure, and lowpaying jobs, looms large in the best of times.1
Because Mexico lacks a broad social safety net,
this sector takes on added significance in hard
times, as the data clearly revealed in the imme­
diate wake of the 1994 peso crisis. Overall, em­
ployment continued to increase, but the rate of
growth slowed. Employment in the smallest es­
tablishments and in jobs with no fringe benefits
grew at a much faster rate than did employment
overall. Employment also rose much more in
Mexico’s less urban areas, where the data sug­
gest the informal sector is more dominant, than
it did in the more urban areas.
Real wages fell substantially in 1995. But while
gross domestic product rose sharply in the fol­
lowing years, real wages remained well below
pre-crisis levels through 1998.2 (See table 1.) The
lingering effects of the downturn also still could
be seen on the employment side of the labor mar­
ket. By 1997, unemployment had returned to pre­
crisis figures, and the rate of employment growth
was greater than before; even so, the aggregates
conceal a disproportionately high rate of growth
over the longer term in a number of key indica­
tors of informality.
The three key indicators of informality found
in Mexico’s National Employment Survey, the
primary source of data for this article, are (1)
“employed in establishments with five or fewer
Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

3

Employment and Unemployment in Mexico

That rate may be contrasted
with an average annual unemploy­
ment rate of 5.8 percent for the
Ending year
Beginning year
United States and 9.7 percent for
1991
1992
1994
1997
1998
1999
1993
1995
1996
Canada.8 The figure for Mexico
is deceptive. The job situation was
1 9 9 0 ...............
4.2
2.1
2.8
3.0
3.1
3.9
3.3
3.6
1.5
2.9
3.6
2.8
3.3
.9
1.7
2.5
3.0
1 9 9 1 ...............
not substantially better there com­
1 9 9 2 ...............
2.7
2.0
3.2
.0
1.2
2.3
2.9
pared with its two North Ameri­
2.4
1 9 9 3 ...............
2.9
3.0
4.5
-1 .0
1.0
1 9 94...............
-6 .2
-.7
1.7
2.7
2.5
can Free Trade Agreement part­
1 9 9 5 ...............
5.6
5.1
5.1
5.9
ners. Fleck and Sorrentino have
1 9 9 6 ...............
6.8
5.8
5.1
4.8
4.2
1 9 9 7 ...............
noted two principal reasons for the
1 9 9 8 ...............
3.7
difference in the unemployment
rate
in Mexico and the United
S ource: OECD Economic Surveys, México, 1997-1998, p. 135 for 1990-96 data; INEGI, Cuaderno de Información
States: the measurement concepts
Oportuna, September 1999, tables 1.1 and 1.4 for 1997 data, and June 2000 for 1998 and 1999 data.
them selves are different, and
many people who are counted as
workers,” (2) “self-employed,” and (3) “without any em­
employed in Mexico find only unproductive and marginal
ployment benefits.”3 None of these measures is necessarily
employment in Mexico’s large informal sector.9
a measure of informality.4 However, a relatively small pro­
portion of workers in an advanced, industrial economy falls
Adjustment to U.S. concepts
into any of those categories, while a relatively high propor­
tion of workers in the developing world does. Consequently,
Adjustments of Mexico’s unemployment rates to U.S. con­
this leads to the assumption that intertemporal and interre­
cepts are shown in table 2. The National Employment Sur­
gional differences in these categories in Mexico indicate
vey was used for consistent geographic coverage through
differences in the importance of the informal sector.5 Data
time, and only its more urban areas were considered to cor­
used as indicators of formality from the National Employ­
respond as closely as possible to the Urban Employment
ment Survey are (1) “employed in establishments with six
Survey from which the official unemployment rates are gen­
or more employees,” (2) “with some employment benefits,”
erated. The National Employment Survey identifies cities
and (3) “covered by social security.” Administrative data
with a population of 100,000 and more, plus all state capi­
from Mexico’s Social Security Institute supplement the third
tals, as “more urban areas.” This is contrasted with the re­
category.
mainder of the country, called “less urban areas.” (See ap­
This article updates a 1994 Monthly Labor Review ar­
pendix for more details on the two surveys.) Three adjust­
ticle on Mexico’s employment and unemployment.6 It pre­
ments were made, two to unemployment and one to the la­
sents more recent calculations of Mexico’s unemployment
bor force. Mexico counts as employed two groups of people
rates under U.S. concepts, and updates Mexico’s comple­
that the United States generally includes among the unem­
mentary unemployment indicators that cover aspects of the
ployed and one group that the United States omits from the
country’s employment situation missed by the unemploy­
labor force altogether. The first two groups are those on
ment rate. It also examines the importance of the informal
temporary layoff and those who anticipate starting a job
sector in Mexico over a longer time period and under a
within 30 days. Concerning the latter group, since January
wider range of economic conditions than does the previous
1994, the U.S. Current Population Survey designates as un­
article. Improvements in Mexico’s labor data Since 1994,
employed only those persons waiting to start a new job who
including greater geographic coverage, more consistency
have engaged in a job search within the past month. If they
in methodology, and more frequent availability of results,
have not searched for a job in that period, they are not in
enrich the new analysis. (See appendix.)
the labor force.10 Mexicans who are already counted as em­
ployed are n^Lasked about their job search history, so there
is no way of knowing how many among those expecting to
Low general unemployment
start work within the next month actually looked for work.
For many years, unemployment has been strikingly low in
In counting all those individuals in Mexico waiting to start
Mexico, as reported both by the National Employment Sur­
work as “unemployed” using U.S. definitions in this article,
vey, done annually only since 1995, and by the monthly
it is assumed that all those who think they have a job in
Urban Employment Survey. (See appendix.) According to
hand but have not yet begun to work, sought that job or
the urban survey, the average annual official rate of unem­
some other job in the previous month. The third adjustment
ployment during the 1991-99 period was 3.7 percent.7
involves a subtraction from the labor force of unpaid famTable 1.

4

Annual percentage change in real gross domestic product
in Mexico, 1990-99 (1993 prices)

Monthly Labor Review November 2000


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Table 2.

Adjustment of Mexico’s unemployment rates to U.S. concepts, more urban areas,
second-quarter 1991, 1993, 1995-98
Total

Category

Men

Women

Men

Total

1991

Women

Total

1993

Men

Women

1995

Reported unem ploym ent..........
Plus:
Persons on temporary
la y o ff.....................................
Persons waiting to start
a new job in 30 d a y s...........

352,114

209,144

142,970

490,941

306,703

184,238

1,107,667

700,748

406,919

142,141

93,359

48,782

190,966

126,286

64,680

104,111

63,434

40,677

92,311

58,347

33,964

94,197

61,238

32,959

104,255

68,026

36,229

Adjusted unem ployed...............

586,566

360,850

225,716

776,104

494,227

281,877

1,316,033

832,208

483,825

Reported labor fo rc e .................
Minus unpaid family workers
working less than 15 hours
per w e e k '.............................

14,706,007

9,617,006

5,089,001

15,705,194

10,220,312

5,484,882

16,554,068

10,597,341

5,956,727

140,798

57,898

82,900

180,419

77,940

102,479

175,337

58,320

117,017

Adjusted labor fo rc e ..................

14,565,209

9,559,108

5,006,101

15,524,775

10,142,372

5,382,403

16,378,731

10,539,021

5,839,710

Unemployment rates:
R e p o rte d ...............................
A d ju s te d .................................

2.4
4.0

2.2
3.8

2.8
4.5

3.1
5.0

3.0
4.9

3.4
5.2

6.7
8.0

6.6
7.9

6.8
8.3

1996

1997

1998

Reported unem ploym ent..........
Plus:
Persons on temporary
la y o ff.....................................
Persons waiting to start
a new job in 30 d a y s ...........

953,690

601,453

352,237

615,530

342,101

273,429

590,610

337,892

252,718

158,082

111,054

47,028

124,975

90,084

34,891

189,713

127,122

62,591

94,516

57,351

37,165

121,767

66,685

55,082

105,457

61,071

44,386

Adjusted unem ployed...............

1,206,288

769,858

436,430

862,272

498,870

363,402

885,780

526,085

359,695

Reported labor fo rc e .................
Minus unpaid family workers
working less than 15 hours
per w eek1.............................

17,052,788

10,936,842

6,115,946

17,906,946

11,298,267

6,608,679

18,793,502

11,858,117

6,935,385

193,662

80,790

112,872

219,962

77,025

142,937

213,261

94,570

118,691

Adjusted labor fo rc e ..................

16,859,126

10,856,052

6,003,074

17,686,984

11,221,242

6,465,742

18,580,241

11,763,547

6,816,694

Unemployment rates:
R e p o rte d ...............................
A d ju s te d ................................

5.6
7.2

5.5
7.1

5.8
7.3

3.4
4.9

3.0
4.4

4.1
5.6

3.1
4.8

2.8
4.5

3.6
5.3

1 Predominantly unpaid family workers; however, a few nonfamily
workers are included.
N ote : The “more urban areas” are those with 100,000 or more

ily— and some nonfamily—workers working less than 15
hours per week.11 Such persons are excluded from the U.S.
labor force.
The rate of unemployment is the ratio of total unemployed
to the total civilian labor force expressed as a percentage.
All three adjustments raised the rate of Mexico’s unem­
ployment, the first two by increasing the size of the nu­
merator, the third by reducing the size of the denominator.
The adjustments added an average of 1.6 percentage points
to the unemployment rate over the period.12
This is actually an overadjustment on several counts.
First, some unknown portion of those waiting to start a new
job would not have sought work in the 4 weeks prior to
their interview and would be dropped both from the ranks
of the unemployed and the labor force under U.S. concepts.

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inhabitants and state capitals,
S ource: in e g i , National
1 gg 7 and 1998, including

Employment Survey 19 91,1993,1995,1996,
unpublished data.

Second, in the United States, one must have actively
sought work to be in the labor force. An active job search
method is defined as any effort that could have resulted in a
job offer without any further action on the part of the
jobseeker. In Mexico, the respondent need only say that he
or she sought work in the past 4 weeks to be counted.
Third, in the United States a respondent must have been
available for work in the reference week (the last full work­
week before the interview) to be counted as part of the labor
force. In Mexico the assumption is made that if they sought
work they were available. No test of availability is applied.
Fourth, in some cases when there is no sign of a discour­
aged attitude, the respondent in Mexico is counted as in
the labor force even though he or she may not have sought
work in the past 4 weeks.13
Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

5

Employment and Unemployment in Mexico

If sufficient information existed to account for these indi­
viduals who are included in the labor force in Mexico and
excluded in the United States, then it would lower the ad­
justed unemployment rate by reducing both the total num­
ber of unemployed and the total labor force. For the cat­
egory of those waiting to start a new job, the reduction would
only be calculated since 1994. For the others, it would be
calculated for the entire period.
No adjustments have been made for the fact that the work­
ing age population in Mexico is 12 years and older and in
the United States it is 16 years and older. Indications are
that such an adjustment would have little effect. The aver­
age unemployment rate in the more urban areas for the years
the National Employment Survey was taken, 1991-98, was
4.06 percent for those 12 years and older and 4.07 percent
for those 15 years and older. The 12 through 14 age group
averaged only 1.4 percent of the labor force throughout the
period.14

Overstated though it may be, the adjusted 1995 unem­
ployment rate of just 8 percent (3 percentage points more
than the 1993 adjusted rate) is still quite low in light of the
steep decline in Mexico’s economy. The United States has
had nothing like a 1-year drop of 6 percent in gross domes­
tic product in recent memory, and much smaller declines
have been associated with greater relative unemployment
and employment changes.15 Mexico’s adjusted unemploy­
ment rate, even restricted to urban areas where, as shown
later in the article, unemployment is consistently higher than
for the country as a whole, appears to reflect economic distress
to a lesser extent than does the U.S. unemployment rate.16
Examining the data for the entire period, however, a dif­
ferent picture emerges. The average rate of unemployment
for the 6 discontinuous years considered, after the adjust­
ment, is 5.64 percent contrasted with 5.68 percent for the
United States for the same 6 years. Disregarding the slight
overadjustment, differences in the definitions themselves

Rates of unem ploym ent and labor underutilization
Of the 10 rates, R-l through R-10, all but R-2 and R10 are calculated as a proportion of the labor force. R-2
counts “discouraged workers” among the unemployed in
the numerator, so they are added to the labor force in the
denominator as well. R-10 is not an unemployment rate
at all but a measure of the working poor, so it is given as
a proportion of total employment.
R -l Open unemployment rate: Persons in the labor
force who did not work for at least one hour in the ref­
erence week (the previous full work week) or do any
unpaid family work, as a percent of the labor force. This
is the official unemployment rate.
R-2 Alternative unemployment rate: Open unem­
ployed, plus persons who expect to begin work within
the next 4 weeks, plus persons not in the labor force,
but who are available for work and who looked for work
at some time in the past (the hidden unemployed), as a
percent of the labor force and the hidden unemployed.
R-3 Real economic pressure rate: Open unemployed
and employed seeking a second job, as a percent of the
labor force.
R-4 Real preference pressure rate: Open unemployed
and employed seeking a new job, as a percent of the
labor force.
R-5 General pressure rate: Open unemployed and
employed seeking either a new job or a second job, as a
percent of the labor force.
R-6 Part time less than 15 hours and unemployment
rate: Open unemployed and employed working less than
15 hours a week, as a percent of the labor force.

6 Monthly Labor Review

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November 2000

R-7 Part time for economic reasons and unemploy­
ment rate: Open unemployed and employed working
less than 35 hours a week for economic reasons, as a
percent of the labor force.
R-8 Part time less than 35 hours and unemployment
rate: Open unemployed and employed working less than
35 hours a week, as a percent of the labor force.
R-9 Insufficient income and unemployment rate:
Open unemployed and employed who earn less than the
minimum wage, as a percent of the labor force.
R-10 Critical conditions of the employed rate: Em­
ployed working less than 35 hours a week for economic
reasons, working more than 35 hours a week while earn­
ing less than the minimum wage, or working more than
48 hours a week while earning less than 2 times the
minimum wage, as a percent of total employment.
Though these various rates may give a more complete
picture of hardship experienced by Mexico’s workforce,
none quite captures the phenomenon of the informal sec­
tor and its marginal, insecure, and relatively unproduc­
tive labor. R-2 bears a resemblance to the U.S. unem­
ployment measure in that it incorporates among the un­
employed those who are waiting to start work in the next
month (although, as noted earlier, since 1994, such indi­
viduals must have actively sought work in the past month
to be included in the labor force, and, thus, among the
unemployed). It goes further by including, as well, those
who had become discouraged and suspended their job
search. It does not, however, add to the unemployed those
who are temporarily laid off, nor does it add to the labor

may explain why Mexico’s urban unemployment rate remains
lower than the overall rate in the United States. Despite
that, these adjustments fail to account for the large number
of people in Mexico who are counted as employed, but who
still live around the economy’s margins. These people have
only a small counterpart in the United States.

Complementary rates
Because the conventional unemployment rate does not ad­
equately reflect the ability of the economy to provide suit­
able jobs, M exico’s Instituto Nacional de Estadística,
Geografía, e Informática (National Institute of Statistics,
Geography and Informatics, or INEGI) has developed a num­
ber of alternatives. The official or open rate suggests by its
name that there are a number of people in the country whose
defacto unemployment or underutilization is hidden. This
official rate is accompanied in the monthly statistics by nine

force unpaid family workers working less than 15 hours a
week. There are enough similarities, on balance, between
R-2 and the U.S. method of unemployment measurement
to explain, to a degree, the fact that R-2 and the rate ad­
justed to U.S. concepts both average 1.6 percentage points
higher than R-l in the years reported. There are enough
differences, however, that R-2 should not be seen as a
surrogate for unemployment as it would be measured in
the United States.
R-3 through R-5 are measures of job dissatisfaction or
inadequacy added onto R -l, and provide no indication of
why the new job might be sought. The marginal nature of
the existing job is only one of a number of possible ex­
planations. The remarkable thing here is how low these
rates remained throughout the period, with R-5—which
simply combines R-3 and R-4— not reaching double dig­
its even during the crisis conditions of 1995. The same
low expectations, relative to the alternative, that keep so
many people out of the formal job market could well be
responsible for the low level of job search generally,
whether the potential searchers are currently employed
or not. (The connection between high levels of informal
employment and low levels of search for formal jobs was
noted in a letter from in e g i , July 6, 2000. To support the
observation, the Institute further notes that the 1996 sur­
vey of microscale operations found that less than 5 per­
cent of own-account workers would have been willing to
shift to salary work. The relatively greater opportunities
for those with little formal education in the informal sec­
tor, they note, would also explain why many potential em­
ployers in the manufacturing sector in the last couple of


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additional measures. (See box for a description and evalu­
ation of each of the alternative measures.) These comple­
mentary rates of unemployment, underemployment, and
employment with very low remuneration are intended to
give a more complete picture of the state of the labor
market. They are derived from the Urban Employment
Survey and published monthly. Yearly averages from 1991
to 1998 are in table 3.17
All the alternatives except the last (R-10) simply incorpo­
rate other measures of presumed hardship into the open un­
employment rate. One way of evaluating their effectiveness
as measures of hardship is to examine how they performed
in the crisis year of 1995. Were they generally more sensi­
tive to the downturn than was the open unemployment rate?
In fact, they were not. For R-2 through R-8, the increases
in the rates in 1995 are all substantially explained by the
increases in the rates of their R -1, or open unemployed, com­
ponents. The increase in R-9 goes considerably beyond the

years complain of labor shortages at the same time that
the size of the informal sector remains great.)
In the case of R-6, adding on those working 15 hours
or less a week might capture a few who have no other
choice, but it probably includes more who do. Workers
in the informal sector can no more afford to work so few
hours than they can afford to be unemployed. R-7, which
adds to the category of unemployed those persons work­
ing less than 35 hours a week for economic reasons, does
not capture the informal sector because the economic rea­
sons are defined quite narrowly, suggesting that the con­
dition is only temporary. The economic reasons are a cut­
back in production, owing to a failure of sales, of financ­
ing, of raw materials, or of equipment. It does not in­
clude all those who are working so few hours simply be­
cause they have no other choice. R-8, on the other hand,
is probably too broad a definition because, like R-6, it
would include a number of people who choose to work
limited hours.
That leaves R-9 and R-10, which would seem to cap­
ture best the marginal workers of the informal sector of
the economy. Each attempts to bring into the measure
the working poor. Unfortunately, each relates income to
the minimum wage, not allowing sufficiently for the de­
cline in the value of the minimum wage resulting from
inflation. The minimum wage has periodically been in­
creased, but the increases have not kept pace with infla­
tion. (In 1994, for instance, the real minimum wage was
60 percent below its 1981 level. See o e c d Economic
Surveys, Mexico, 1996-1997 [Paris, Organization for
Economic Cooperation and Development, 1996], p. 94.)

Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

7

Employment and Unemployment in Mexico

Table 3.

Unemployment rates and underutilization rates in Mexico, more urban areas, 1991-99

[In percent]

R-l
G eographic
coverage,
year and quarter

R-2

R-3

R-4

Real
Real
Open
Alternative
unemploy­ unem ploy­ econom ic preference
pressure
pressure
m ent rate m ent rate
rate
rate

General
pressure
rate

R-6

R-7

R-8

R-9

R-10

Part-time
Part-time
Insuf­
Part-time
for
less than 35 ficient
Critical
less than 15 econom ic
hours
income conditions
hours and
reasons
and
of the
and
unem ploy­
and
unem ploy­ unem ploy­ em ployed
ment
ment
unem ploy­
rate
m ent rate
rate
m ent rate
rate

16 urban areas
1 9 91....................

2.6

4.2

3.5

4.0

4.8

6.1

4.8

20.8

11.7

14.3

34-37 urban areas
19921 .................
19932 .................

2.8
3.4

4.8
5.6

4.0
4.8

4.4
5.3

5.5
6.6

6.5
7.7

5.3
6.3

21.6
23.0

10.9
12.4

14.1
14.2

37-45 urban areas
19943 .................
19954 .................
19965 .................
19976 .................
19987 .................
19997 .................

3.7
6.3
5.4
3.7
3.1
2.5

5.9
8.6
6.4
4.6
4.1
3.4

4.6
7.7
6.8
4.8
4.0
3.1

5.4
8.3
7.3
5.4
4.6
3.5

6.4
9.8
8.7
6.6
5.4
4.0

7.8
10.7
10.0
8.3
7.3
6.1

6.2
8.5
7.3
5.4
4.6
3.8

22.3
25.7
25.3
23.4
21.4
19.1

11.3
16.2
17.2
16.4
14.5
12.8

13.7
15.7
16.6
16.6
14.5
13.2

1 Average calculated from first two quarters covering 32 cities and last
two quarters covering 34 cities.
2 Covers 34 cities in first quarter, 35 in second, 36 in third, and 37 in
fourth.
3 Covers 37 cities in first two quarters, 38 in third, and 39 in fourth.
4 Covers 39 cities.
5 Covers 41 cities January and February; 43 cities the rest of the year.
6 Covers 44 cities.

unemployment increase, but it and R -10 are flawed mea­
sures. Each measure attempts to incorporate poverty into
the rate by including those persons whose wages are either
below the minimum wage or are only slightly above, but
who work long hours. The legal minimum wage that is used
for this measure, however, has not kept pace with inflation;
consequently, there is a downward bias in each of these rates.
Had R-9 been fully adjusted for inflation, it would have
captured, primarily in 1995, the rise in open unemployment
and the effect on the lowest paid wage earners of the fall in
the real wage. To the extent that anyone working for less
than the legal minimum wage is not formally employed in
an establishment that obeys the labor laws, this rate also
would have captured some of the growth in informal sector
employment in 1995, although informal sector workers are
not necessarily so poorly paid.
In sum, the one measure of worker hardship among the
overabundance of alternatives that might have been clearly
superior to the unemployment rate cannot be relied upon
because of its downward bias. The conventional unemploy­
ment rate remains, then, the natural fallback position, even
with its weaknesses.

The informal sector ‘buffer9
Compared with the United States, Mexico still exhibits many
of the characteristics of a developing country. Table 4 shows
8

R-5

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7 Covers 45 cities.
N ote : See box for full defintion of the rates. Rates are yearly averages
from the monthly Urban Employment Survey.
S ource : 1993, Fleck and Sorrentino, p. 23; 1994-96, INEGI, C uaderno
de Inform ación O portuna, table 2.16, various issues; 1997-99, INEGI,
Indicadores de Em pleo y Desem pleo, various issues.

that roughly 20 percent of Mexico’s employed workers are
in agriculture, compared with only 3 percent in the United
States.18 The birth rate in Mexico, as of 1997, was 25 per
1,000, compared with 15 per 1,000 in the United States, and
the overall level of per capita output and income is much
lower.19 Hourly compensation of manufacturing production
workers in 1999 in Mexico was only 12 percent of compen­
sation for such workers in the United States (down from 22
percent in 1980 and 17 percent in 1994).20In 1996, Mexico’s
per capita gross domestic product was 28 percent of the U.S.
level when measured at purchasing power parities.21 Indeed,
the existence of a large, relatively unproductive informal
sector is both a major cause and a consequence of Mexico’s
lower gross domestic product per capita. Income is also sub­
stantially less equally distributed in Mexico than it is in the
United States.22
Mexico has no program of unemployment compensation,
which is another obvious reason for its low unemployment
rate.23 Few people can afford the time it might take to look
for the most desirable job. In some cases, mandated sever­
ance pay provides some cushion, scaled up in accordance
with the number of years the dismissed worker has been
employed. Rather than facilitating an extended period of job
search, thus pushing up the rate of unemployment, as unem­
ployment compensation does, severance pay, on balance,
likely reduces the rate of unemployment. The dismissed
worker might feel less financial pressure to look for work

immediately, but when the employer is unable to save any­
thing near the full cost of a worker’s salary by laying him
off, he may be discouraged from doing so in the first place.24
Such legally-mandated, employer-borne employment pro­
tection of a type that is more stringent in Mexico than in
most industrialized countries also contributes to the size of
the informal sector.25 Employers are driven, or tempted, to
work outside the purview of labor regulators. Mexico is said
to suffer from an “informality trap” because of the narrow
base of employers upon whom social security contributions
(im ss ), a housing fund ( in f o n a v it ), and the new individual
accounts for retirement ( sar ) must fall.26
Mexico’s large urban informal sector and migration, both
back to the countryside and to the United States, are par­
ticularly important in hard economic times, acting as a buffer
to inhibit the growth of open unemployment.27 Evidence pre­
sented below indicates that the urban informal sector per­
formed its task quite well in 1995. A closer examination
reveals some of the reasons for the sector’s resilience through
good times and bad.
Low capital expense and great ease of entry are basic char­
acteristics of informal businesses.28 Informal workers in
Mexico are usually self-employed or one of just a few work­
ers, including the owner-employer, in a small enterprise.
Most are in retail trade or services. Those who are classified
as manufacturers are usually making food and beverages or
garments, activities requiring skills possessed by many
household workers.29 Often they are in family operations
with members of the family working for no wage or salary,
and family and business finances are intermingled.
Surveys in Mexico have found that 60 percent of informal
businesses have no fixed address outside the home, and more
than 80 percent borrowed no money to finance their opera­
tions. The life of the business tends to be quite short, par­
ticularly for the smallest firms, and business incomes are
low.30Wages also are low and fringe benefits are minimal or
nonexistent. To the extent that they evade required labor laws,
registration requirements, and often taxes as well, informal
enterprises can be considered illegal.31 The main safety net
against failure in an informal enterprise is that low legal,
technical, and financial barriers make it relatively easy for a
new one to be started.
Definitions. For the purpose of measurement, the urban in­
formal sector has been variously defined as the self-employed
and workers in firms with five or fewer employees; selfemployed, unpaid workers, and domestics; unpaid workers
and those making less than the minimum wage; workers not
insured with social security; and workers in businesses not
registered with Mexico’s Tax Bureau, to name just a few.
Of recent estimates of relative size of the urban informal
sector, the lowest is 20.3 percent of urban employment
(1993). The definition of the sector in this case is simply


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“employed in businesses not registered with the Tax Bu­
reau.”32 The highest is 54.0 percent of urban employment
(1995), where the definition includes all own-account work­
ers (excluding administrative workers, professionals, and
technicians), unpaid family workers, and employers and
employees working in establishments with fewer than 5 or
10 persons engaged, depending on available information.
Paid domestic workers were excluded.33
The 1993 System of National Accounts recommended by
the United Nations adopted a standardized definition of the
informal sector put forth by the Fifteenth International Con­
ference of Labour Statisticians in that same year. There, “in­
formality” is defined in terms of characteristics of the enter­
prise in which a person works rather than in terms of the
characteristics of the person or the job. Informal enterprises
are defined as household operations, with household finances
and business finances virtually indistinguishable from one
another. To rule out certain household enterprises that clearly
don’t belong in the informal sector, a requirement also was
established that there be some type of nonregistration with
proper governing bodies, of either the enterprise or its employ­
ees, and that there be a maximum size. The actual maximum
size was not specified, leaving some flexibility for national
institutional differences.34 Using those criteria, the 1998
Survey of Micro-enterprises in Mexico determined that 29.5
percent of total nonfarm employment was in the informal
sector.35
Indications are that productivity in the informal sector is
quite low. A 1980 study estimated that the urban informal
sector accounted for only 10.4 percent of Mexican gross
domestic product.36
In the United States in 1996, the self-employed (includ­
ing the incorporated self-employed) constituted 10.5 per­
cent of civilian employment; in Mexico the comparable pro­
portion was 28.7 percent.37 In Mexico, in 1996, 50.4 per­
cent of the nonfarm employed labor force worked in estab­
lishments with five or fewer employees.38 No direct com­
parison with the United States is possible. However, in 1996,
in the United States only 14.9 percent of nonfarm employ­
ment covered by unemployment insurance was in establish­
ments with nine or fewer employees. For those in establish­
m ents w ith four or few er, the num ber was 6.5
percent.39Virtually all U.S. workers are covered by the un­
employment insurance program except for the self-employed
and railroad workers. Assuming that all the self-employed—
who were 9.6 percent of the total employed outside agricul­
ture in 1996—were working in establishments with very few,
if any, employees, the percentage of workers in such small
establishments remains far lower in the United States than
in Mexico.40
The employment buffer. Table 4 reveals some of the work­
ing components of the informal sector buffer. Total employ Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

9

Employment and Unemployment in Mexico

Table 4.

Employment in Mexico, 1991, 1993, and 1995-98
Characteristic

1991

1993

1995

1996

1997

1998

Total employment
Total............................................................
Less urban a re a s ..................................
More urban areas1................................

30,534,083
16,180,190
14,353,893

32,832,680
17,618,427
15,214,253

33,881,068
18,434,667
15,446,401

35,226,036
19,126,938
16,099,098

37,359,758
20,068,342
17,291,416

38,617,511
20,414,619
18,202,892

16,317,694

18,453,522

19,890,223

20,253,492

21,152,983

21,717,240

14,216,389

14,379,158

13,990,845

14,972,544

16,206,775

16,900,271

Without any employment benefits.......
With some employment benefits..........

18,530,101
11,739,761

20,908,139
11,676,699

22,042,368
11,536,046

22,673,196
12,332,697

24,686,705
12,356,412

24,399,054
13,963,520

Covered by social security2 ................
Covered by social security3 ................

11,015,583
10,545,898

11,318,250
10,657,482

10,963,583
10,567,948

11,365,917
11,035,109

12,277,333
11,184,431

13,264,083
12,558,402

Self-em ployed.......................................
In agriculture, forestry,
hunting, or fis h in g ...............................

9,612,380

10,129,526

10,045,405

10,115,284

10,879,739

10,961,622

8,189,759

8,842,774

8,378,344

7,921,686

9,020,277

7,817,369

53.0
47.0

53.7
46.3

54.4
45.6

54.3
45.7

53.7
46.3

52.9
47.1

In establishments
with five or fewer em ployees..............
In establishments
with six or more employees................

Percentage of total employment:
Less urban a re a s ..................................
More urban areas1................................
In establishments
with five or fewer em ployees..............
In establishments
with six or more employees................

53.4

56.2

58.7

57.5

56.6

56.2

46.6

43.8

41.3

42.5

43.4

43.8

Without any employment benefits........
With some employment benefits..........

61.2
38.8

64.2
35.8

65.6
34.4

64.8
35.2

66.6
33.4

63.6
36.4

Covered by social security3 .................

34.8

32.7

31.5

31.5

30.2

32.7

Self-em ployed.......................................
In agriculture, forestry, hunting,
or fis h in g .:............................................

31.5

30.9

29.6

28.7

29.1

28.4

26.8

26.9

24.7

22.5

24.1

20.2

1991-98

1991-93

1993-95

1995-98

3.4
3.4
3.5

3.7
4.3
3.0

2.6
2.3
.8

4.5
3.5
5.6

4.2

6.3

3.8

3.0

2.5

.6

-1 .4

6.5

Without any employment benefits........
With some employment benefits..........

4.0
2.5

6.2
-.3

2.7
-.6

3.4
6.6

Covered by social security2 .................
Covered by social security3 .................

2.7
2.5

1.4
.5

-1 .6
-.4

6.6
5.9

Self-em ployed.......................................
In agriculture, forestry,
hunting, or fis h in g ...............................

1.9

2.7

-.4

3.0

-.7

3.9

-2 .7

-2 .3

Annual percentage change
Total............................................................
Less urban a re a s ..................................
More urban areas1................................
In establishments
with five or fewer em ployees..............
In establishments
with six or more employees................

1Areas with 100,000 or more inhabitants.

Note: Absolute and relative data for employees with social secrity and em­
ployment benefits excludes “employed” persons waiting to start a new job.

2 From the Social Security Institute statistics on covered employees.
3 From the National Employment Survey.

10

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Source: INEGI, National Employment Survey, various years, Cuaderno de
Inform ación Oportuna, various years, (Social Security Institute statistics).

ment actually rose from 1993 to 1995, while gross domestic
product and consumption fell. The rise was greater in the
less urban areas than in those more urbanized. It was greater
still among employees with no employee benefits, and great­
est of all among workers in establishments with five or fewer
employees.41 Employment fell among those with some em­
ployment benefits, particularly those covered by social se­
curity as recorded by the Social Security Institute. Except
for the fact that self-employment declined slightly, the im­
age that emerges is that of the informal sector shoring up the
employment situation during an economic downturn. The
indicators of informal employment generally rose faster than
did employment overall, while indicators of formal employ­
ment were all falling. Employment in establishments with
six or more employees, among those with some employment
benefits, and among those covered by social security all de­
clined at an annual rate of between 1 percent and 2 percent.
Migration. Migration to the United States may have played
some role in keeping the unemployment rate from rising any
higher than it did.42 The U.S. economy was in the middle of
an expansion and the fall in the peso made U.S. wages all
that much more attractive. Even so, if emigration had been
the entire explanation, overall employment in Mexico would
not have continued to rise.
Agricultural employment. That the employment situation
was so much better in 1995 in the less urban areas than in
the more urban areas cannot be attributed to agriculture.
Employment rose in spite of, rather than because of, what
was going on with agricultural employment. The fluctua­
tions in agricultural employment in the time period under
observation appear to be so capricious that one must look to
other explanations such as flaws with the data collection—
in this more difficult data-collection area—or changes in ag­
ricultural policy designed to replace subsistence farming with
more competitive market farming. One explainable anomaly
is the large increase in agricultural employment in 1997,
which occurred because the survey that year for rural areas
was late, extending into the third quarter, and it captured a
large number of seasonal agricultural workers who had not
been counted in other years.
Nonagricultural employment. In table 5, agriculture is re­
moved from the picture, which greatly clarifies the situa­
tion. The growth of employment during the 1993-95 period
is much more pronounced in the less urban areas, in small
establishments, and among workers without employment
benefits. Furthermore, the apparent anomaly of declining
self-employment in the period is eliminated. Nonagricultural
self-em ploym ent rose even more than did nonagricul­
tural em ploym ent in establishm ents with five or fewer
em ployees.

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Informal sector ups and downs. The disproportionate growth
in the indicators of informality, except for self-employment,
can also be seen from 1991 to 1993, a period when real
gross domestic product grew at an annual rate of 2.8 per­
cent. (See table 5.) After the across-the-board relative growth
of informal sector indicators from 1993 to 1995, the trend
reversed during the 1995-98 period when real gross domes­
tic product grew at a robust 5.6-percent annual rate. Em­
ployment in small establishments, employment without any
benefits, and self-employment all grew more slowly than
did employment overall. The small exception is that the for­
mal indicator of “covered by social security” grew slightly
more slowly than did overall employment.
The change in the trend since 1995 was not enough to
prevent informal indicators from growing faster in general
than overall employment during the 1991-98 period. The
one exception here is “self-employment,” which grew
slightly less.
Legislated reform. Social security participation might have
been influenced by a reform in social security that was en­
acted in December 1995 and went into effect in July 1997.
The reform, among other things, increased the length of par­
ticipation (working in a job with mandatory social security
contributions) from 500 weeks to 25 years to qualify for
eventual retirement benefits. It also slightly increased the
guaranteed minimum benefit at retirement while strength­
ening the link between workers’ contributions and benefits.
In Mexico, the social security system also includes health
benefits, and reforms in that aspect of the system might be
most significant. The contributions required of employers
were substantially reduced and it became easier for those in
the informal sector to participate voluntarily in the social
security program.
The continued fall in the proportion of the workers par­
ticipating in social security in 1996 and 1997 (which can be
seen in the percentage of the total column in table 5) might
reflect anticipation of the changes. In particular, the com­
mon practice of leaving the system after the required 500
weeks of participation may have accelerated briefly. The
small surge in 1998, then, might reflect an end of that prac­
tice as workers became locked into the new 25-year partici­
pation requirement. It might also reflect new participants
taking advantage of what is, overall, a more attractive pro­
gram, a program that is also specifically aimed at reducing
the size of the informal sector.43

Two Mexicos
Measured unemployment is lower and the indicators of in­
formality are greater in Mexico’s less urban than in its more
urban areas. In 1991, the rate of unemployment, at 2.4 per­
cent, was only slightly lower in the former than in the latter.
Monthly Labor Review

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11

Employment and Unemployment in Mexico

Nonagricultural employment in Mexico, 1991, 1993, and 1995-98
Characteristic

1991

1993

1995

1996

1997

1998

Total employment
Total...........................................................
Less urban a re a s ..................................
More urban areas1................................

22,344,324
8,281,632
14,062,692

23,989,906
8,972,820
15,017,086

25,502,724
10,237,264
15,265,460

27,304,350
11,425,846
15,878,504

28,339,481
11,309,325
17,030,156

30,800,142
12,758,557
18,041,585

In establishments
with five or fewer em ployees..............
In establishments
with six or more employees................

10,418,191

11,656,595

12,974,490

13,755,124

14.090.457

15,244,503

11,926,133

12,333,311

12,528,234

13,549,226

14,249,024

15,555,639

Without any employment benefits........
With some employment benefits..........

10,966,533
11,192,962

12,626,352
11,205,017

14,216,823
11,064,812

15,268,060
11,849,497

16,223,115
11,891,316

17,130,326
13,478,928

Covered by social security...................
Self-em ployed.......................................

10,089,206
5,669,406

10,234,845
5,917,838

10,165,702
6,644,053

10,615,378
6,913,796

10,788,994
7,307,990

12,148,125
7,766,943

Percentage of total nonagricultural
employment:
Less urban a re a s .................................
More urban areas1.................................

37.1
62.9

37.4
62.6

40.1
59.9

41.8
58.2

39.9
60.1

41.4
58.6

In establishments
with five or fewer em ployees..............
In establishments
with six or more employees................

46.6

48.6

50.9

50.4

49.7

49.5

53.4

51.4

49.1

49.6

50.3

50.5

Without any employment benefits........
With some employment benefits..........

49.5
50.5

53.0
47.0

56.2
43.8

56.3
43.7

57.7
42.3

56.0
44.0

Covered by social security....................
Self-em ployed.......................................

45.5
25.4

42.9
24.7

40.2
26.1

39.1
25.3

38.4
25.8

39.7
25.2

1991-98

1991-93

1993-95

1995-98

Total...........................................................
Less urban a re a s ..................................
More urban areas1.................................

4.7
6.4
3.6

3.6
4.1
3.3

3.1
6.8
.8

6.5
7.6
5.7

In establishments
with five or fewer em ployees..............
In establishments
with six or more employees................

5.6

5.8

5.5

5.5

3.9

1.7

.8

7.5

Without any employmnet benefits........
With some employment benefits..........

6.6
2.7

7.3
.1

6.1
-.6

6.4
6.8

Covered by social security...................
Self-em ployed.......................................

2.7
4.6

.7
2.2

-.3
6.0

6.1
5.3

Annual percentage change

1Areas with 100,000 or more inhabitants and state capitals.
N ote : Absolute and relative data for employees with social security and employment benefits excludes “employed” persons waitinq to start a new iob.
S ource : in e g i , National Employment Survey, various years.

(See table 6.) By 1993, however, a considerable gap had
opened up between them as the number of unemployed ac­
tually fell in the less urban areas, while it was rising sub­
stantially in the more urban areas. The gap widened in 1995,
as the more urban areas were harder hit by the economic
downturn. The gap narrowed somewhat through 1997, but
then expanded slightly again in 1998. Throughout the pe­
riod from 1991 to 1998, the number of unemployed grew at
12

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an annual rate of 7.7 percent in the more urban areas, while
it declined in the less urban areas.
If the official unemployment rate were to be based upon
a survey of the entire country and not just the more urban
areas, it would be even lower than the one reported. In the
6 years during which both the National Employment Sur­
vey and the Urban Employment Survey were taken, the na­
tionwide unemployment rate averaged 1.1 percentage points

Table 6.

M exico’s unemployment in more urban areas versus less urban areas, 1991, 1993,
and 1995-98
1991

Characteristic

1993

1997

1996

1995

1998

Labor fo rc e .............................................
More urban a re a s ...............................
Less urban a re a s ...............................

31,229,048
14,706,007
16,523,041

33,651,812
15,705,194
17,946,618

35,558,484
16,554,068
19,004,416

36,580,746
17,052,788
19,527,958

38,344,658
17,906,946
20,437,712

39,507,063
18,793,502
20,713,561

Open unem ployed.................................
More urban a re a s ...............................
Less urban a re a s ...............................

694,965
352,114
342,851

819,132
490,941
328,191

1,677,416
1,107,667
569,749

1,354,710
953,690
401,020

984,900
615,530
369,370

889,552
590,610
298,942

Open unemployment rate (percent).....
More urban a re a s ...............................
Less urban a re a s ...............................

2.2
2.4
2.1

2.4
3.1
1.8

3.7
5.6
2.1

2.6
3.4
1.8

2.3
3.1
1.4

1991-98

4 .7 "
6.7
3.0

1991-93

1995-98

1993-95

Annual percentage change
Labor fo rc e .............................................
More urban a re a s...............................
Less urban a re a s ...............................

3.4
3.6
3.3

3.8
3.3
4.2

2.8
2.7
2.9

3.6
4.3
2.9

Open unem ployed.................................
More urban a re a s...............................
Less urban a re a s ...............................

3.6
7.7
-1 .9

8.6
18.1
-2 .2

43.1
50.2
31.8

-19.1
-18.9
-19.3

N ote : The “more urban areas” are those with 100,000 or more inhabitants and state capitals.
S ource: in e GI, National Employment Survey, various years.

lower than this urban rate.44 Applying that difference to the
entire period yields a national average unemployment rate
of 2.6 percent from 1991 to 1999 (unadjusted to U.S. con­
cepts). Employment in general is more likely to be infor­
mal in the less urban areas. The following tabulation shows
informal employment indicators, by percent of total area
employment, in 1998.45

Not covered by social security........
Without any employee benefits.......
In establishments with five
or fewer em ployees..........................
Self-em ployed....................................
Unpaid workers..................................
Domestic workers..............................

More
urban
areas*

Less
urban
areas

53.2
48.1

87.1

11A

42.7
22.9
4.9
4.8

68.3
33.2
4.5
4.5

*100,00 or more inhabitants and state capitals.

Two types of work often counted as informal—unpaid
and domestic labor—have been added to the indicators.
Except for domestic workers (a very small category) the
measures of informality for the less urban areas are far higher
than those for the more urban areas.
In some of the poorer and more rural states, the percent
of the population covered by social security is less than a


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third as great as the percent covered in richer states. Fol­
lowing is the percent of population covered by social secu­
rity in 1995.46
Percent
Northern states
Coahuila...............................................
Nuevo L e o n .........................................
S in aola.................................................

75.4
72.1
58.1

Pacific region
Jalisco....................................................

49.2

Poorer states in South and interior
P u eb la ...................................................
Guerrero...............................................
Oaxaca...................................................
Chiapas.................................................

33.3
34.1
24.4
23.5

As noted previously, unemployment in Mexico appears
to be something that only those with some economic com­
fort can afford. The unemployed are also better educated
than average. (See table 7.) In 1995, chosen because it was
the year of highest unemployment in the period, the phe­
nomenon can be observed in both the more urban and the
less urban areas. Unemployment is not only lower for the
generally less educated, but it is also lower in every educa­
tion category in the less urban than in the more urban areas.
The highest unemployment rate observed for any educa­
tion category was 8.3 percent, the rate of those with incomMonthly Labor Review

November 2000

13

Employment and Unemployment in Mexico

Table 7.

Labor force and unemployment In Mexico, by education, more urban areas versus
less urban areas, 1995
All

Education

More urban areas

Percent of total
Labor
force

Unemployment
Unemploy­ percentage
ment
rate

Less urban areas

Percent of total
Labor
force

Unemployment
Unemploy­ percentage
ment
rate

Percent of total
Labor
force

Unemployment
Unemploy­ percentage
ment
rate

Total..........................

100.0

100.0

4.7

100.0

100.0

6.7

100.0

100.0

3.0

No education.......................
Incomplete p rim a ry ............
Complete p rim a ry ..............
Complete and
incomplete high sc h o o l...
More than high s c h o o l.......

10.8
20.9
21.4

4.4
14.2
18.2

1.9
3.2
4.0

4.1
11.3
19.6

3.3
8.9
16.5

5.5
5.3
5.6

16.7
29.2
22.9

6.5
24.4
21.6

1.2
2.5
2.8

27.9
19.0

39.6
23.6

6.7
5.9

35.1
29.8

43.3
28.0

8.3
6.3

21.6
9.5

32.5
15.1

4.5
4.8

N ote : The “more urban areas” are those with 100,000 or more inhabitants and state capitals.
S ource : in e g i , National Employment Survey, 1995, table 9.

plete or complete high school education in the more urban
areas. The next highest was 6.3 percent, the rate for those
with more than a high school education in the more urban
areas. The lowest two rates, 1.2 and 2.5 percent, were for
those with no education and incomplete primary education,
respectively, in the less urban areas.
Demonstrating further the contrast between the regions,
the labor force was more concentrated among the better
educated in the more urban areas, where 64.9 percent had
at least some high school education, and among the less
educated in the less urban areas. In the less urban areas,
only 31.1 percent of the labor force had at least some high
school education, while 16.7 percent had no education at
all, more than four times as great a percentage as the 4.1
percent in the more urban areas. The greater concentration
of workers among the better educated tended to raise the
average unemployment rate in the more urban areas, while
the concentration of workers among the lesser educated,
who are also predominant in the informal sector, lowered
the average unemployment rate in the less urban areas.

tive theory of rigid employment holds true, then, for the
country’s most recent economic shock, as it did previ­
ously for a protracted period after the financial crisis
touched off by falling oil prices in 1981. On the employ­
ment side, however, the alternative explanation holds true
mainly just for the informal sector. Table 4 shows that all
the indicators for formal employment declined from 1993
to 1995. Had a National Employment Survey been taken
in 1994, a steeper decline would no doubt have been re­
vealed. Declining real wages, which permit employers to
lower costs when revenues are falling without laying off
employees, probably somewhat mitigated the reduction in
formal employment.
The existence of a large informal sector in other large
Latin American countries might explain the downward ri­
gidity of employment in those countries almost as well as it
does in Mexico. In 13 Latin American countries, urban in­
formal sector employment averaged 47 percent of total ur­
ban employment, according to estimates by the International
Labor Office in the mid-1990s. These countries include
Argentina at 46 percent and Brazil at 48 percent.49

S e g m e n te d m a rk e t versus fle x ib le w a g e s
An alternative explanation has been extended for the rela­
tive rigidity of employment and unemployment in Latin
America in the face of an economic decline. Instead of un­
employment going up as it does in the United States, the
main adjustment is a fall in real wages. Real wages can be
reduced more easily in Latin America partly because of High
rates of inflation. To reduce real wages, employers need
only to hold the line on nominal wages or raise them at
lower rates than the rate of inflation.47
Indeed, the consumer price index (CPI) in Mexico went
up by almost a third in the first 6 months of 1995, and, as
noted previously, real wages plunged after having gone up
steadily since 1988.48 The real wage aspect of the altema14

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Maquiladoras a n d e x p o rt-le d g ro w th
The relative expansion of the informal sector in Mexico
would have been even greater in the 1990s than it was had
it not been for the growth of Mexico’s in-bond manufactur­
ing system. Begun in 1965, the maquiladora program, as it
is called, takes advantage of a provision in U.S. trade law
that provides for import duties to be paid only upon the
value added to U.S. components. Most maquiladoras are
subsidiaries of large multinational corporations assembling
finished products from components received primarily from
the United States. Maquiladora employment has increased
every year since 1982.50
Even with the steady increase, maquiladora employment

still constitutes only 2.6 percent of total employment and
14.6 percent of manufacturing employment. Including in­
direct employment generated by maquiladoras would, of
course, raise both proportions. But because most of these
firms’ backward and forward product linkages, as well as
their financial linkages, are with the exterior, the rise would
have been very small.51
Regarded not as an anomalous enclave in M exico’s
economy, but as representative of a larger phenomenon, the
growth of maquiladora employment takes on added im­
portance. Since the beginning of the North American Free
Trade Agreement and the fall of the peso in 1994, exports
in general from Mexico have soared. In 1998, $64.4 billion
in merchandise was exported from non-maquiladora plants
versus $53.1 billion from maquiladora plants. From 1994
through 1998, non-maquiladora exports grew annually by
$14.1 billion while maquiladora exports grew by $7.4 bil­
lion annually. From 1991 through 1994, non-maquiladora
exports grew only by $2.5 billion annually versus
maquiladora export growth of $3.5 billion annually. Altogether,
in current U.S. dollar terms, exports grew at the extraordinary
annual rate of 17.9 percent from 1994 through 1998.52
The direct jobs created by these exports are not in the
informal sector. Workers in manufacturing for export are
typically wage and salary workers, they work in establish­
ments with more than five employees, and most receive
fringe benefits of some kind. A continuation of this rate of
export-led growth would, in due time, effect large changes
in Mexico’s labor structure.

V irtuous c irc le
Commentators on Mexico at the
in 1996:

oecd

wrote hopefully

The way forward is to introduce a range o f m easures
that w ould favour form al activity. W ith the shift from
inform ality to form al activity, the tax base w ould in­
crease; this in turn w ould allow a reduction in tax rates
w ithout w eakening the p osition o f public fin an ces, and/
or im proved delivery o f services to workers and firms

in the formal sector, thereby strengthening in cen tives
to sw itch to form al a ctivity.53

They refer to it as a “virtuous circle.”
Mexico did move forward in the 8 years under consider­
ation in terms of job creation. Employment grew at an an­
nual percentage rate of 3.4 percent from 1991 to 1998. By
this measure, Mexico compares very favorably with the
United States and Canada, which had annual growth rates
in employment of 1.6 percent and 1.5 percent, respectively,
during the period. Mexico’s compares even more favorably
with those of such countries as the United Kingdom (0.8 per­
cent) and Japan (0.3 percent).54 It would also appear that
Mexico is more than meeting its growing requirement for
jobs, because the annual rate of growth of the working age
population was 2.5 percent.55 Even the number of employed
persons covered by social security and employees in estab­
lishments with six or more employees grew at least that fast.
Alhough overall employment may have grown, the “vir­
tuous circle” remained elusive. Two of the three main indi­
cators of informal employment, “in establishments with five
or fewer employees,” and “without any employment ben­
efits,” grew at a much greater annual rate than did em­
ployment generally. If agriculture is excluded, the trends
are even more pronounced for these indicators, and selfemployment grew at a faster rate than overall employment
as well. Informal employment was apparently a more
dominant factor in Mexico in 1998 than in 1991. The
economic downturn in 1995 played a large part in these
developments, but it only accelerated a trend that was rec­
ognizable from 1991 to 1993.
Since 1995, however, most indicators of formal employ­
ment relative to total employment have grown. Three fac­
tors help explain these changes: recovery from the dispro­
portionate effect of the economic downturn on the formal
sector, a substantial rise in exports, and reforms in the so­
cial security system. It remains to be seen whether this is
the beginning of a long-term trend in Mexico away from
informal sector employment or only a brief interruption of
a trend in the opposite direction.
D

Notes
ACK NO W LEDG EM EN TS: The author thanks Ricardo Rodarte and
Rodrigo Negrete of INEGI (I n s titu to N a c io n a l d e E s ta d ís tic a , G e o g r a fía ,
e I n f o r m á tic a ) for providing unpublished statistics and furnishing addi­
tional information. Carlos Salas, professor at the Colegio de México
(Mexico City) reviewed an early draft and provided insightful comments.
Special gratitude is due Constance Sorrentino and Susan Fleck of the
Division of Foreign Labor Statistics.

ceptance of the concept, the International Labour Office included “ur­
ban informal sector employment” among the 18 indicators in its new
reference work, K e y I n d ic a to r s o f th e L a b o u r M a r k e t, 1 9 9 9 (Geneva,
International Labour Office, 1999). For important contributions to what
they describe as the “immense” literature on the informal sector see note
2 in Donald C. Mead and Christian Morrison, “The Informal Sector El­
ephant,” W o r ld D e v e lo p m e n t, October 1996, pp. 1611-19.

1 A great deal has been written about the informal sector in develop­
ing countries since British anthropologist, Keith Hart, coined the term
in 1970. See his “Small-Scale Entrepreneurs in Ghana and Develop­
ment Planning,” T h e J o u r n a l o f D e v e lo p m e n t S tu d ie s , April 1970, pp.
104-20, and “Informal Income Opportunities and Urban Employment
in Ghana,” J o u r n a l o f M o d e r n A fr ic a n S tu d ie s , January 1973, pp. 6189 (reprinted in several readers). Revealing the widespread current ac­

2 Real wages in manufacturing were still 20 percent below their 1994
level as of September 1998. The 1998 average of real wages in retail
trade was 15 percent below, and of wholesale trade was 21 percent be­
low, the 1994 average. Manufacturing real wages are from OECD E c o ­
n o m ic S u r v e y s , M e x ic o , 1 9 9 8 - 1 9 9 9 (Paris, Organization for Economic
Cooperation and Development, 1999), p. 32. The yearly averages for
real wages in trade are calculated from INEGI, C u a d e r n o d e I n fo r m a c ió n


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Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

15

Employment and Unemployment in Mexico

O p o r tu n a ,

September 1999, table 2.27.

3 To receive no employee benefits at all means that the worker gets no
end-of-year bonus, paid vacation, profit sharing, social security (IM SS),
civil servants’ social security (ISSSTE), saving system for retirement (SA R ),
housing allowance, medical or health benefits, or any other fringe benefit
that he or she might volunteer to the interviewer.
4 A small establishment might be a retail outlet of a chain of stores or
the local office of a larger organization. It could be a well-capitalized
small operation that pays its workers well and scrupulously abides by all
the labor and the tax laws. A self-employed person could be a doctor,
lawyer, engineer, or some other type of highly skilled and well-paid con­
tractor. Even someone with no employment benefits could be a member
of the professional class and quite far from what is generally understood
as the informal sector.
5 This assumption may not be entirely valid with respect to employ­
ment benefits because of changes in the social security program in 1997,
discussed later in the article.
6 Susan Fleck and Constance Sorrentino, “Employment and Unem­
ployment in M exico’s Labor Force,” M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , November
1994, pp. 3-31.
7 Calculated from the open unemployment rate in table 3.
8 Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Comparative Civilian Labor Force Sta­
tistics, Ten Countries, 1959-1999,” April 17, 2000, table 2, http://
stats.bls.gov/special.requests/ForeignLabor/flsflorc.pdf (visited Nov.
13, 2000).
9 Fleck and Sorrentino, pp. 12-16.
10 Unlike Mexico’s survey, the U.S. survey has no question that di­
rectly asks if the respondent is waiting to start a new job. Rather, those
answering that they have a job but also respond that they did not work in
the past week are asked why they did not work. If they reply they were
waiting to start a new job, they are potentially counted as unemployed.
They are dropped from the labor force and not counted as unemployed
unless they respond positively to an additional question concerning
whether or not they actively sought work in the past 4 weeks.
11 Employed persons in Mexico are defined as those who are 12 years
old or older and, in the reference week (the week prior to their interview),
(1) worked at least one hour for barter or money or were self-employed;
or (2) did any work at all as an unpaid family or nonfamily worker; or (3)
were temporarily absent from work because of illness, vacation, travel,
personal reason, or studies and were p a i d while on leave (no time limit is
placed on the absence as long as the person is paid); or (4) did not work
or receive pay, but expected either to begin a new job or to return to work
within the next 4 weeks. The unemployed are defined as persons 12 years
old and older who, in the reference week, did not work for 1 or more
hours or do any unpaid family work and (1) were available for work and
actively sought work in the previous 4 weeks or (3) had sought work in
the past 1-2 months and were waiting (a) for the next season to begin or
(b) for a reply to a job application; or have intentions to call upon poten­
tial employers within the next few days. The sum of the employed and
the unemployed, in Mexico as elsewhere, is the labor force, though in
Mexico it is called the economically active population, consistent with
the terminology of the International Labour Organization.
12 The reported unemployment rates from which adjustments are made
differ somewhat from the unemployment rate in table 3 even though only
urban areas are considered in each case. That is because the numbers
come from the two different major household surveys, and the so-called
“more urban areas” of the National Employment Survey include addi­
tional cities to those covered by the Urban Employment Survey. (See the
appendix.) Another reason why they differ is that the National Employ­
ment Survey, also noted in the appendix, is a snapshot taken in the sec­
ond quarter of the given year whereas the Urban Employment Survey
annual number is an average of the results of twelve monthly surveys.
13 The Mexican questionnaire asks for the dates when the job search

16

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began and when the respondent last sought work. The interviewer is urged
to make sure that the search has been uninterrupted between the two
dates. This is one of the factors considered to determine if the search is
serious even though the respondent might not have sought work in the
past 4 weeks. Some other factors considered are if they are awaiting a
response to a job solicitation or if they are recuperating from an illness.
14 The published tables of the National Employment Survey break at
12 through 14 years old instead of 12 through 15, so the precise effect of
including all four year-age groups cannot be calculated with readily avail­
able data.
15 When gross domestic product fell by 0.5 percent in 1991, the U.S.
rate of unemployment rose to 6.8 percent, from 5.6 percent the previous
year. Total employment fell by 0.9 percent. Before that, in 1982, a drop
in GDP of 2.0 percent had resulted in an unemployment rate of 9.7 per­
cent, up from 7.6 percent the previous year. Total employment fell by 0.9
percent then, as well. GDP numbers are from Bureau of Economic Analy­
sis, National Income and Product Accounts, http://www.bea.doc.gov/
bea/dn/gdplev.htm (visited Nov. 13, 2000); unemployment statistics are
from “Comparative Civilian Labor Force Statistics, Ten Countries, 1959—
1999,” table 2.
16 The relatively low continuing unemployment for 1995 is apparently
not a result of the fact that the National Employment Survey, which pro­
duced the statistics referred to here, is taken only in the second quarter of
the year. The average unemployment for the year from the Urban Em­
ployment Survey, as observed in table 3, was 6.3 percent. That survey
reported an unemployment rate of 6.5 percent in the second quarter. These
are both lower than the unadjusted “snapshot” rate of 6.7 percent rate of
the more urban areas in the National Employment Survey. See C u a d e r n o
d e I n fo r m a c ió n O p o r tu n a , March 1996, table 2.1, for quarterly unem­
ployment rates in 1995.
17 For a more complete discussion of what each rate measures, see the
Fleck-Sorrentino article. The R-l definition has changed slightly. Any­
one out on strike is now considered employed. Previously, a striking worker
was considered employed only if he or she expected to return to work in
less than 4 weeks. Another alternative rate described in Fleck and
Sorrentino has been discontinued.
18 U.S. data are from “Comparative Civilian Labor Force Statistics,
Ten Countries, 1959-1999,” table 7. “Agriculture,” in each case, is de­
fined as “agriculture, forestry, hunting, and fishing.”
19W o rld D e v e lo p m e n t I n d ic a to r s , 1 9 9 9 ,

The World Bank (Washing­

ton, DC, 1999), table 2.2.
20 Bureau of Labor Statistics press release, September 7, 2000, “Inter­
national Comparisons of Hourly Compensation Costs for Production
Workers in Manufacturing, 1999, Supplementary Tables,” table 4.
21 Mexico’s per capita measured at current exchange rates was only 12
percent of U.S. GDP per capita, reflecting, to a degree, the plummet in
the value of the peso beginning in late December 1994. For a full treat­
ment of the peso crisis and its aftermath, see OECD E c o n o m ic S u r v e y s ,
M e x ic o , 1 9 9 4 - 1 9 9 5 (Paris, Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development, 1995). The per capita GDP comparisons are from their OECD
E c o n o m ic S u r v e y s , 1 9 9 8 - 1 9 9 9 , basic statistics, international compari­
sons, unnumbered fold-out page.
22W o r ld D e v e lo p m e n t I n d ic a to r s , 1 9 9 9 , table 2.8. The Gini index, given
in the cited table, is a measure of income inequality. On a scale from 0 to
100, 0 represents perfect income equality and 100 complete income in­
equality. In 1995, the Gini index in Mexico was 53.7; in 1994, the Gini
index in the United States was 40.1.

23
An alternative to unemployment compensation was initiated in 1992,
however, with the creation of the SAR (individual accounts for retire­
ment), a pension fund program in addition to M exico’s social security
program administered by private banks. Deposits in the SAR can be drawn
upon during periods of unemployment, but only after one has contrib­
uted for 5 years, so it would not have come into play during the period
under study. The sums provided are also very small.

24 In the case of collective dismissals for routine economic reasons,
employers are required by law to pay a lump-sum equivalent of three
months wages to all dismissed workers plus a seniority premium of 12
days of salary per year of employment with that employer, with a ceiling
of two minimum wages. In the case of individual dismissals without a
very strictly defined “just cause,” an additional 20 days of salary per year
is added to the above if the worker has more than 15 years of service.
Additional severance requirements may be part of collective agreements.
OECD E c o n o m ic S u r v e y s , 1 9 9 6 - 1 9 9 7 , p. 98.
25 OECD

E c o n o m ic S u r v e y s , 1 9 9 6 —1 9 9 7 ,

p. 96.

26 OECD E c o n o m ic S u r v e y s , 1 9 9 6 - 1 9 9 7 , pp. 100-01.
27 OECD E c o n o m ic S u r v e y s , 1 9 9 6 - 1 9 9 7 , pp. 64-65.

28 Low capital intensity, small size, and illegality to one degree or an­
other, were the three measures for informality used by Mead and Morrison,
op. cit., in their seven-nation study. They found a good deal of variability
among the countries, none of which was Mexico, in the degree to which
these features intersected. They conclude that the term, “informal sec­
tor,” may be appropriate for examining an individual country, but defini­
tional problems make multicountry comparisons difficult.
29 A 1996 analysis from the Urban Employment Survey of
microenterprises (6 or fewer employees) found that 33 percent of such
firms defined as “informal” were in commerce, 33 percent in services,
and 23 percent in manufacturing. The remainder was in an “other” cat­
egory that includes construction and transportation. Informal
microenterprises were 72 percent of all manufacturing firms, 58 percent
of service firms, and 51 percent of commercial firms. See Ricardo Rodarte,
“ E x p e r ie n c ia s e n la m e d ic ió n d e l s e c to r in fo r m a l e n M e x ic o ,” INEGI,
N o ta s , R e v is ta d e I n fo r m a c ió n y A n a ly s is , no. 5, 1998, p. 22.
30 Fleck and Sorrentino, pp. 13-14. Reports of generally low incomes
must be regarded with some reservation, however. Underreporting of in­
come to survey takers and tax collectors alike is likely to be greater in the
informal sector.
31 See Nestor Elizando,’’Illegality in the Urban Informal Sector of
Mexico City,” in Victor E. Tokman, ed., B e y o n d R e g u la tio n , T h e I n fo r ­
m a l E c o n o m y in L a tin A m e r ic a (Boulder and London, Lynne Reinner
Publishers, 1992), pp. 55-83. Although labeled “illegal,” the term does
not include criminal, underworld activities as commonly understood in
the United States.
32 OECD E c o n o m ic S u r v e y s , 1 9 9 6 - 1 9 9 7 , p. 73. See also Fleck and
Sorrentino, p. 12, for a collection of earlier estimates.
33 K e y

I n d ic a to r s o f th e L a b o r M a r k e t,

pp. 180 and 186.

34 More details are in Ralf Hussmannns and Farhad Mehran, “Statisti­
cal definition of the informal sector: International standards and prac­
tices,” 52nd session of the International Statistical Institute, Helsinki,
Finland, August 9-18, 1999. Further information may be found at http:/
/www.stat.fi/isi99/proceedings/arkisto/varasto/huss0772.pdf (visited
Nov. 7, 2000).
35 INEGI letter, May 11, 2000. The wide discrepancy between this fig­
ure and the much higher percentage of employed persons receiving no
fringe benefits of any kind, the Institute points out, bespeaks a flexibility
in labor relationships in Mexico that is not so well captured by the
“formal vs. informal” dichotomy. Workers paid by the job on a contract
basis by formal enterprises could account for a substantial part o f this
discrepancy.
36 Clara Jusidman, T h e I n fo r m a l S e c to r in M e x ic o , Occasional Paper
Number 1, prepared for the U.S. Department of Labor and Secretariat of
Labor and Social Welfare of Mexico, September 1992, p. 19. A Spanish
version of this report was also published as E l S e c to r in fo r m a l e n M e x ic o
(Mexico City, Secretaria del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Subsecretaría
“B,” 1993). Jusidman refers simply to a study by INEGI for her 10.4
percent figure, but no indication is given as to what definition of the
informal sector was used. By any definition of Mexico’s informal sector


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that has been offered, this percentage is much lower than the percentage
of employment in the informal sector.
37 The U.S. percentage is from Marilyn E. Manser and Garnett Picot,
“The role of self-employment in U.S. and Canadian job growth,” M o n th ly
L a b o r R e v ie w , April 1999, p. 16. Official U.S. statistics for self-employ­
ment exclude the incorporated self-employed. Mexican statistics include
them. The U.S. percentage here is in accord with M exico’s definition.
The Mexico percentage is presented in table 4 of this article. Mexico
tabulates workers on their own account separately from owner-employ­
ers. The two are combined here, consistent with the International Labour
Office definition of self-employed. Owner-employers were 4.8 percent
of total employed workers in Mexico in 1996. The United States includes
both those without paid employees (own-account workers in Mexico)
and those with employees in its definition of self-employed. Removing
high-income professionals from the self-employed would probably make
the disparity between the two countries even greater. On the other hand,
when commentators speak of the “informal” sector, they often mean only
the urban informal sector, as opposed to the “traditional” or “subsistence”
agriculture sector. If Mexico’s many small family farms were to be ex­
cluded from this measure, the disparity between the countries would be
somewhat reduced. The self-employed were 25.3 percent of total nonagricultural employment in Mexico in 1996 (table 5) and 7.4 percent of
U.S. nonagricultural employment in the same year (Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics, E m p lo y m e n t a n d E a r n in g s , March 1997, Table A-6). Assuming
the incorporated self-employed were the same percentage of nonagricul­
tural self-employed as of the total self-employed, 9.5 percent of nonagri­
cultural workers in the United States would have been self-employed by
Mexican concepts.
38 See table 5. More workers are in establishments of small size than in
firms of small size because an establishment can be a part of a larger
organization. That is why this percentage is greater than previous esti­
mates of informality based upon firm size.
39 Bureau of Labor Statistics, E m p lo y m e n t a n d W a g e s , A n n u a l A v e r ­
table 9. Neither the household nor the establishment surveys
for the United States break down employment by establishment size.
a g es, 1 9 9 6 ,

40 Manser and Picot, p. 16, for U.S. nonagricultural self-employed.
41 As stated earlier in note 3, to receive no employee benefits at all
means that the worker gets no end-of-year bonus, paid vacation, profit
sharing, social security (IM SS), civil servants’ social security (ISSST E ),
saving system for retirement (S A R ), housing allowance, medical or health
benefits, or any other fringe benefit that he or she might volunteer to the
interviewer. One could hardly find a better definition of a member o f the
informal sector. As far as the small scale of operations is concerned, it
would have been better to have statistics on those working in firms, as
opposed to establishments, with five or fewer employees, but these num­
bers are not readily available.
42 Net emigration from Mexico to the United States from 1990 to 1995
is estimated at 1.39 million. The Mexican-born population living in the
United States is estimated to have increased 1.9 million from 1990 to
1996. See B in a tio n a l S tu d y o n M ig r a tio n b e tw e e n M e x ic o a n d th e U n ite d
S ta te s , Commission on Immigration Reform, United States, and Minis­
try of Foreign Affairs, United Mexican States, 1997, p. iii.
43 See OECD E c o n o m ic S u r v e y s , 1 9 9 6 - 1 9 9 7 , pp. 120 and 151; 1 9 9 7 pp. 71-81, and 88-119; 1 9 9 7 - 1 9 9 9 , pp. 118-21; Marco A.
Espinosa-Vega and Tapen Sinha, “A Primer and Assessment of Social
Security Reform in Mexico,” E c o n o m ic R e v ie w , First Quarter, 2000 (Fed­
eral Reserve Bank of Atlanta), pp. 1-23. Espinosa-Vega and Sinha note
(pp. 3-4) that the retirement benefit increase, on average, was so small
for those contributing past the 10th year of work that the incentive was
quite strong to drop out or evade payments into the old program after the
10-year mark had been reached.
1998,

44 Calculated from differences in open unemployment rates in tables 3
and 6.
45 Data are from INEGI, National Employment Survey, 1998, tables
3.28, 3.30, 3.39, 3.53

Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

17

Employment and Unemployment in Mexico

46 Data are from
p. 96.

O ECD E c o n o m ic S u r v e y s , M e x ic o , 1 9 9 7 - 1 9 9 8 ,

47 See Jose Antonio González Anaya, “Labor Market Flexibility in
Thirteen Latin American Countries and the United States, Revisiting
and Expanding Okun Coefficients” (Washington, DC, The World Bank,
1999).
48 The 1995 CPI changes are from C u a d e r n o d e I n fo r m a c ió n O p o r tu n a ,
May 1997, table 3.1; additional real wage observations are from O E C D
E c o n o m ic S u r v e y s , 1 9 9 6 - 1 9 9 7 , pp. 87-91.
49 K e y I n d ic a to r s o f th e L a b o u r M a r k e t, pp. 179-80. These are the
same thirteen countries as were examined in the González Anaya study.

50 INEGI,
p. 8.

I n d u s tr i a M a q u i l a d o r a d e E x p o r ta c ió n ,

February 2000,

51 OECD E c o n o m ic S u r v e y s , 1 9 9 6 - 1 9 9 7 , p. 92.

52 C u a d e r n o d e I n f o r m a c ió n O p o r tu n a , December 1996, table 4.6;
March 1997, table 4.8; and December 1999, table 4.8.
53 OECD E c o n o m ic S u r v e y s , 1 9 9 6 - 1 9 9 7 , p. 9.

54 “Comparative Civilian Labor Force Statistics, Ten Countries, 1959—
1999,” table 2.
55 INEGI, National Employment Survey, 1998, table 2.2.

A ppendix: The surveys
The Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e
Informática (INEGI), created through a governmental reor­
ganization in 1983, introduced the National Employment
Survey in 1988. This was the first generally reliable house­
hold survey of employment representative of the nation as a
whole. The survey and the published results, from the be­
ginning, have been probing and thorough, revealing a wide
range of characteristics of Mexico’s labor market.The pri­
mary shortcoming in these beginning years was that the sur­
vey was not conducted regularly. The next National Em­
ployment Survey wasn’t made until 1991. After that, sur­
veys were taken in 1993 and 1995. Since 1995, the surveys
have been conducted annually.
From the beginning, the National Employment Surveys
have been conducted only in the second quarter of the year.
Because of differences in the questionnaire and sample de­
sign in all but the largest urban areas, 1988 lacks compara­
bility with the later years. That leaves only the period from
1991 to 1998 for a relatively clear, consistent picture of over­
all employment in Mexico.1
For larger urban areas only, labor information has been
more readily available for a longer period. The Urban Em­
ployment Survey was initiated in 1983 covering 12 cities on
a quarterly basis. It first overlapped with and then replaced
the Continuous Occupational Survey, which for most of the
years of its existence had covered only the three largest cit­
ies, Mexico City, Guadalajara, and Monterrey. In 1985 the
survey questionnaire was revised and enlarged and the cov­
erage was expanded to 16 cities. Since 1987, this survey has
been conducted on a monthly basis. Coverage jumped to 34
cities by the end of 1992, and, with subsequent regular in­
creases, now stands at 45 cities.
The expanding coverage of the Urban Employment Sur­
vey makes comparisons over time somewhat problematic,
but the benefits outweigh this disadvantage.2 Observers now
are able to trace on a monthly basis a number of labor mar­
ket indicators for individual cities, cities that previously were
18

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statistically invisible; the monthly aggregates are more truly
representative of the entire country than before, particularly
the measures of the rate of unemployment; and because the
Urban Employment Survey has never been more than a par­
tial view of labor in the country, the lack of comparability
over time is of lessened consequence. If one wants to know
what is happening, for instance, to overall employment or to
the overall labor force over time, then the National Employ­
ment Survey still must be consulted.
Note that the National Employment Survey itself is di­
vided into “more urban” and “less urban” areas. The rela­
tively stable “more urban” portion should not be confused
with the Urban Employment Survey with its steadily expand­
ing coverage. The more urban coverage of the National Em­
ployment Survey, throughout the period, consists of the cov­
erage of the Urban Employment Survey plus additional ar­
eas of “high population density.” Those additional areas are
cities with a population of 100,000 or more and state capi­
tals, whether or not they meet the 100,000-person minimum.
Employment in the more urban areas, as defined, ranged
from a high of 47.0 percent of total national employment in
1991 to a low of 45.6 in 1995.

Notes to the ap p en d ix ________________
1 A new questionnaire was introduced in 1995, and there is one modi­
fication that is most noteworthy. Previously, persons on strike were
counted as emoloyed, but only if they expected to return to work within 4
weeks. Under tne revised system, anyone on strike is counted as em­
ployed. This also conforms with the practice in the United States. Be­
cause virtually no striking worker expects to stay out on strike for more
than 4 weeks, this change should have a minimal effect on the final em­
ployment or unemployment figures.
2 With the expanded coverage, official unemployment has been con­
sistently lower by about one-tenth of a percentage point than would have
been the case had the survey continued to cover only 16 cities. (The
information on the 16-city rate was obtained from an e-mail from INEGI,
May 11, 2000. The official unemployment rate is from table 3 of this
article.)

Incomes of Older A m erican*

Income distribution
of older Americans
Although remaining concentrated in lower
income groups, elderly households achieved
significantly greater equality o f income distribution
between 1967 and 1997; the gap with the income
distribution of nonelderly households narrowed
RoseM. Rubin,
Shelley I. White-Means,
and
Luojia Mao Daniel

Rose M. Rubin and
Shelley I. White-Means
are professors of
economics, and
Luojia Mao Daniel is a
doctoral candidate
in economics,
Fogelman College of
Business and
Economics, University
of Memphis, Memphis,
Tennessee.


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lthough many older Americans are finan­
cially comfortable, with a significant
group being well off, the largest share of
elderly (defined as persons aged 65 or older)
households has low incomes. Income inequality
among older households persists despite more
than 30 years of growth of income transfer pro­
grams designed to reduce poverty and improve
the economic status of elderly persons. This gap
highlights the importance of analyzing the income
distribution of the elderly to determine the nature
and extent of any inequalities that appear in it.
Although government transfer programs have
substantially enhanced the well-being of many of
the elderly, numerous older persons continue to
suffer low incomes.
Measures of income inequality provide insight
into the relative economic positions of house­
holds, which are generally reported for the popu­
lation as a whole. For example, the Bureau of the
Census reports a decrease in U.S. household in­
come inequality following World War II, from 1947
to 1968, followed by increased income inequality
up to the mid-1990s.1 This conclusion is rein­
forced by other studies of income inequality.2 For
the elderly in particular, the income distribution
through the 1980s remained more unequal than
that of the nonelderly.3 Daniel B. Radner finds
that income inequality declined for the elderly and
rose for the nonelderly from 1967 to 1992. How­
ever, his findings are unclear, because “taking
account of taxes and noncash income could, in
actuality, affect the results of the comparisons

A

made. Unfortunately, income data that cover
taxes and noncash income do not exist for the full
time period covered by this article.”4 The same
argument applies to the analysis set forth herein.
Differential patterns of change in household
money income distributions for different age
groups during the 1990s require an expansion of
previous analyses. A clue to changes in the dis­
tributions of income can be gleaned from a brief
review of changes in median income by age
group. While median income for the group aged
45 to 54 years increased 22 percent from 1967 to
1977, it rose only 7 percent during the next dec­
ade and actually declined 1 percent from 1987 to
1997.5 For the group at preretirement age (55 to
64 years), median income increased 18 percent, 7
percent, and 6 percent during the same three dec­
ades. For elderly households (65 years and older),
median income grew by almost a third (32 per­
cent) from 1967 to 1977 and a further 27 percent
from 1977 to 1987, but only 2 percent the follow­
ing decade.6 As will be shown later, these
changes in median income correspond closely to
shifts in the distribution of income. Notably, the
trend of relatively higher increases in median in­
come slows during the 1990s. Interestingly, for
that decade only, growth in median income for
households aged 55 to 64 years is greater than
that for households aged 45 to 54 and that for
households aged 65 and older.
The sections that follow present an analysis of
the relative income distributions of elderly house­
holds over the three decades from 1967 to 1997,
Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

19

Incomes of Older Americans

compared with income distributions of nonelderly households
during the same three decades. Relative changes over time in
the inequality of the distribution of income are determined and
compared by age group. This information is critical to a consid­
eration of the relative well-being of different age groups.

Economics and incom e inequality
The distribution of income and the extent of inequality are
determined by several factors, including the functioning of
the market system, a person’s experiences in the labor market,
government policies, household choices, and economic op­
portunities. While many of these factors are beyond the pur­
view of the household, individual households make personal
decisions that also determine the extent of inequality.
Economic theory seeks to explain how household de­
cisionmaking influences inequality. Addressing life-stage
decisionmaking and income and expenditure patterns, the tradi­
tional economic theory of households embodies the expecta­
tion that elderly households generally have lower incomes than
nonelderly households. Consumer theory recognizes that in­
come and, therefore, consumption and saving decisions vary
over the life cycle. The classical theory of income that underlies
consumption and saving behavior is grounded in two comple­
mentary economic theories: the “life cycle hypothesis”7 and the
“permanent-income hypothesis.”8 These theories are widely
used to explain how changes in expected income over the life­
time of the household determine expenditure and saving pat­
terns over time. Both approaches indicate that as households
age, they are likely to experience declining income.
The life cycle hypothesis posits that consumers attempt to
maintain a relatively stable consumption level through their
lifetime by saving during their maximum earning years and
dissaving during retirement, when income is reduced.9 The
related permanent-income hypothesis suggests that consum­
ers adjust their spending levels to their perceived level of
future income.10 Thus, the underlying economic theory pre­
dicts that rational elderly consumers would tend to disregard
reductions in current income in order to maintain previous
living standards. Both of these theories predict that older
households, expecting to receive relatively lower incomes,
would tend to dissave by spending more than their current
reduced incomes.
These two basic economic theories of income and con­
sumption seek to describe household behavior in relation to
a changing level of one’s household income over the life
cycle. But the theories do not predict either equality or in­
equality in the distribution of income for households of vari­
ous types, nor do they predict the effects of inequality on
households.
More recent theories of household economic behavior11
indicate the role and consequences of household decision­

20

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November 2000

making that affects both the income distribution and the
degree of income inequality. Gary Becker, for example, de­
velops a theory of family behavior that is intended to shed
light on equality and the economic rise and fall of families.
He posits that adult human capital, a major determinant of
income, is in turn determined by endowments inherited
from parents and by parental and public expenditures on
children’s development. Further, parents who are relatively
richer are able to have both higher consumption and greater
investments in their children, with less dependence on
borrowing to finance the children’s education and with
less concern that the children’s inheritances might be re­
duced. Therefore, Becker concludes, “The direct relation
between the incomes of parents and children is likely to be
concave rather than linear.”12
Susan E. Mayer terms Becker’s theory of family behavior
the “investment theory” of the way parents’ income affects
children’s life chances. She emphasizes the relationship be­
tween the economic achievements of parents and children,
which results from both inherited endowments and parental
investment in their children. She further suggests that these
relationships engender higher rates of success for children
raised in affluent families. Mayer also articulates a “role-model
theory” that seeks to explain intergenerational trends in in­
equality. The theory emphasizes that both the family’s income
level and its relative position in the income distribution influ­
ence children’s later positions in the income distribution.13
This notion suggests that disadvantaged children are less
likely to move up in the income distribution.
In contrast to Becker’s perspective and similar to Mayer’s
view, Robert Frank’s “positional consumption theory” con­
cludes that, in addition to the absolute level of income, the
household’s relative position in the distribution of income is a
critical factor for decisionmaking. Frank posits that house­
holds at the lower end of the income distribution have greater
difficulty achieving community consumption standards,
which affects their quality of life.14
Other researchers—most notably, Radner, in his analyses
for the Social Security Administration—emphasize the impor­
tance of the distribution of income and of inequality.15 This
research needs updating and further consideration in the con­
text of the theories of family behavior, intergenerational in­
vestment and role modeling, and positional consumption. In
particular, as the oldest baby boomers enter preretirement age
groups,16 it is important to compare their income distribution
with that of the elderly.
One would expect that if elderly households are concen­
trated at lower income levels, with a more limited number at
higher income levels, then their income distribution would be
relatively less equal than that of all households or of non­
elderly households, similar to previously documented trends.
However, it is also expected that, during the 1990s, the evolv-

ing market system, changes in labor market experiences, re­
cent government policies, and alterations of household struc­
tures will generate changes in the degree of income inequality
among older persons and also between older and workingage persons. Accordingly, patterns seen today may not ex­
tend into the future, and Social Security and medicare, as well
as other transfer programs, must ultimately reflect the new
distributions.

that were calculated remained unaffected.
For each of the 4 years examined, CPS-published grouped data,
rather than microdata sets, were used. This choice was based on
work by statisticians Mike Fuller and Ed Welniak, who concluded
that analyses using grouped data sets closely approximate the
results of analyses of microdata.23 Because the CPS microdata­
bases are extremely large, it is often more efficient for researchers
to employ grouped data, from which research results of compa­
rable reliability are obtainable.24

M e th o d s
Data. The database utilized in this article comprises pub­
lished grouped data from the U.S. Bureau of the Census Cur­
rent Population Survey (CPS) on money income of house­
holds in the United States. Following Radner, the article uses
cash income before taxes17 of household units, classified by
the age of the householder.18 Approximately 50,000 house­
holds are interviewed monthly in the CPS sample, but only the
March interview includes supplementary questions about
money income.19
The data presented are for the years 1967,1977,1987, and
1997 from the March supplement to the CPS and additional
Census Bureau publications on income.20 The 4 years selected
for analysis represent comparable periods in terms of macroeconomic activity: each falls during an extended period of
growth and prosperity and is at least several years past the
previous recession. Thus, the years of data analyzed are not
differentially affected by macroeconomic conditions. The data
for the years 1977,1987, and 1997 are now available online.21
The CPS income data are for money income from all sources
and combine money earnings (wage and salary income) with
income other than earnings (the sum of money income from all
sources except wages and salaries). The official Census Bu­
reau definition of income is money income excluding capital
gains before taxes.22
Several format changes were introduced into the CPS data
over the three-decade period under consideration. The 1967
data were in a slightly different format from that for subse­
quent years, making it necessary to account for rounding
error in that year’s data. The CPS sample was redesigned sev­
eral times to improve the quality and accuracy of the data and
to reflect rising income levels in the Nation. The level of the
lowest income group and the intervals between the groups
increased over time. For example, the minimum income group,
under $1,000 in 1967, was under $2,500 by 1987. The openended highest income group also increased over time, from
$50,000 in 1967 to $100,000 in 1997. The number of income
groups defined increased over time as well, from 18 in the
1967 data set, to 21 in 1977 and 1987, and 41 in the 1997 data­
base. These changes were accounted for in compiling the
income and household quintiles used in this article, so that
the comparability of the Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients


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Methodology. The distribution of income describes the rela­
tive shares of total income received by different population
groups. The income distribution and the extent of inequality in
it can be determined with the use of two standard economic
measures: Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients.
A Lorenz curve is a geometric representation of the income
distribution—a plot of the share of total money income re­
ceived by the defined population category against shares of
households in that category. Usually, the shares represented
are quintiles (20-percent groupings) of income on the vertical
axis and quintiles of households on the horizontal axis. The
Lorenz curve depicts the cumulative percentage of income
received against the cumulative percentage of households
receiving it. Thus, a (straight-line) 45-degree Lorenz curve
would represent an equal distribution of income, with 20 per­
cent of households receiving 20 percent of income, 40 per­
cent of households receiving 40 percent of income, and so
forth. This line of equal income distribution is used as a stand­
ard against which the Lorenz curve of the actual distribution
of income is compared to analyze the degree of inequality of
income distribution.
An income distribution for one population group is found
to be more equal than that for another if the Lorenz curve for
the first population lies above the Lorenz curve for the second
without intersecting it anywhere. Similarly, the income distri­
bution for one population group is found to be less equal than
that for another if the Lorenz curve for the first population lies
below the Lorenz curve for the second without intersecting it
anywhere. But if two Lorenz curves intersect, then the com­
parison is deemed ambiguous.25
The extent of inequality of an actual income distribution can
be measured by a Gini index or coefficient (designated G, where
0 < G < 1). The Gini coefficient compares the area between the
45-degree line of perfectly equal income distribution and the
Lorenz curve of the actual income distribution in question. A
Gini ratio with a value of zero indicates perfect equality of
income distribution, with the actual curve coinciding with the
45-degree line. In contrast, a Gini ratio with a value of unity
indicates perfect inequality. Thus, the larger the Gini coeffi­
cient (or the closer it is to its maximum value of unity), the
greater is the degree of inequality in the actual distribution of
income. Put another way, the more bowed out a Lorenz curve
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Incomes of Older Americans

is from the line of income equality, the less equal is the distri­
bution of income it represents; and the closer the Lorenz curve
is to the 45-degree line, the more equal is the income distribu­
tion represented.26
Because of the choice of data set used, some further refine­
ments were required. To calculate the Gini coefficient using
grouped c p s data, the mean income for each of the 40 $2,500interval income levels was multiplied by the number of house­
holds in that group. However, this standard procedure requires
that the upper limit of the open-ended $ 100,000-plus income
group be determined. Accordingly, the open-ended highest
income group for both elderly and nonelderly households for
each of the 4 years of data studied was top coded. Thus, an
upper boundary was defined for the top income group: twice
the upper limit of the next-to-last income group.27 This proce­
dure has been demonstrated to closely approximate alterna­
tive approaches for grouped income data.28
Alternative approaches were tested and found wanting in
that inconsistent effects would have biased the comparative
findings for all years except 1997, which had a much larger
number of income groups. The alternative approach of sup­
plying an overall mean and letting the aggregate income of
the open-ended category default to the remainder was used
to determ ine the household and income quintiles for

199? 29

To calculate income and household groups by quintiles in
order to develop the Lorenz curves, data were regrouped for
each year. As noted earlier, the number of database income
groups increased over the period of the study, from 18 in the
1967 cps data to 21 in each of 1977 and 1987 and to 41 in 1997.

Table 1.

For each of the 4 years examined, the cumulative share of the
age group by income category was determined, and the data
were regrouped into quintiles.
Table 1 presents the compiled regrouped cps data in the
form needed to develop comparative Lorenz curves and to
calculate the associated Gini coefficients. The table shows
the percentage share of money income for households, by
income quintile, for elderly (aged 65 years and older) and
nonelderly households for the 4 years examined. The table
also shows the same data for middle-aged households (aged
55 to 64 years) and for further disaggregated elderly age
groups (65 to 69 years, 70 to 74 years, and 75 years and older)
for 1997, as well as the Gini coefficients for these age groups
for each period.
Table 2 presents the Gini coefficients of the inequality of
income distribution, by age group, for 1997. The 1997 values
and standard errors are compiled and published in the c p s
data, but those for the earlier years were not available. Hence,
upper and lower limits were calculated in order to test the
significant differences between Ginis for different age groups.
These significant differences (at the 0.10 level) in the equality
of income distribution between households are presented in
the lower portion of the table.30
One caveat in the interpretation of findings from the data in
table 2 is that comparisons of the effects of income and in­
come inequality on household or individual well-being de­
pend upon household size. Thus, analyses of well-being of­
ten utilize equivalence scales to adjust household or family
income for differences in family size. Rubin and Nieswiadomy,
for example, report that married-couple households require

Percentage share of money income for households, by income quintile and age group, 1967,1977,1987, and 1997

Income group
Year

Age of householder
Lowest fifth

1967
1977
1987
1997

Under 6 5 .......................................
65 and o ld e r..................................
Under 6 5 .......................................
65 and o ld e r.................................
Under 6 5 .......................................
65 and o ld e r..................................
Under 6 5 .......................................
4 5 -5 4 .........................................
5 5 -6 4 .........................................
65 and o ld e r.................................
6 5 -6 9 .........................................
7 0 -7 4 .........................................
75 and o lder..............................

5.4
3.8
4.9
5.4
4.1
4.7
3.9
4.0
3.2
4.5
3.8
4.7
5.1

Second fifth

Third fifth

Fourth fifth

12.0
7.5
11.4
8.7
10.5
7.2
10.1
10.1
8.5
8.6
8.3
9.1
8.1

17.0
12.0
17.6
13.6
16.7
14.1
16.2
16.0
14.5
13.5
13.7
14.0
13.1

23.0
21.2
23.6
21.4
21.8
22.0
24.0
23.3
22.4
21.4
21.4
21.2
20.3

S ource : Compiled from the following U.S. Bureau of the Census publica­
tions: Consum er Income, publication no. P60-57, 1968, tables 1, 2; Money
Incom e in 1977 o f Households in the U nited States, Current Population Re­
ports, publication no. P60-117,1978, tables 13,35; Money Incom e o f House­

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Highest fifth
42.5
55.8
43.1
51.0
47.0
52.0
45.9
46.6
51.5
52.0
52.8
51.1
52.6

Gini
coefficient
0.366
.561
.358
.438
.395
.448
.426
.409
.464
.478
.478
.455
.466

holds, Fam ilies, and Persons in the U nited States, Current Population Re­
ports, publication no. P60-162,1989, tables 8, 29; and Current Population
Reports, March Supplement, 1998, table 15.

Table 2.

Gini coefficie n ts of the in equality of incom e distribution, by a g e group, 1997
Age group
Measure

Under 65

65 and older

45-54

55-64

65-69

70-74

75 and older

Gini coefficient..................................
Standard e rro r...................................
Upper lim it.........................................
Lower lim it.........................................

0.426
.004
.433
.419

0.478
.010
.494
.462

0.409
.008
.423
.395

0.464
.011
.482
.446

0.478
.017
.506
.450

0.455
.019
.486
.424

0.466
.014
.490
.442

Age group

Under 65

45-54

55-64

65 and older

70-74

75 and older
_
0
0
0
0

Under 6 5 ...........................................
45-54 .............................................
55-64 .............................................
65 and o ld e r......................................
65-69 .............................................
70-74 .............................................
75 and o ld e r..................................

+

N ote : All tests carried out at 0.10 significance level. Plus sign indicates
row age group has larger Gini value. Minus sign indicates column age group
has larger Gini value. Zero indicates no significant difference in Gini values.

income that is 37 percent higher than single-person house­
holds to achieve the same level of well-being.31
In comparing income inequality between elderly and
nonelderly households, consideration may be given to the
fact that many elderly households are single-person or mar­
ried-couple households and nonelderly households tend to
have a larger average size. Similarly, family size among the
elderly has declined during the last 40 years, resulting in in­
creasing numbers of single elderly, most of whom are women.
If this decrease in average elderly household size is ignored,
care must be taken not to assume that a change in inequality
equates to a change in well-being.
The analysis presented in this article does not use equiva­
lence scales to adjust for differences in household size be­
cause, as noted earlier, the data that are utilized are published
grouped CPS data. Absent the use of microdata, it is not pos­
sible to use equivalence scales to adjust for household size.

R e se a rch q u e s tio n s
The study presented addresses the broad question, “What
changes have occurred over time in the comparative income
distributions and in the inequality of income distributions of
elderly and nonelderly households?” To answer this ques­
tion, it is necessary to ask and answer four other questions: (1)
What is the 1997 income distribution of elderly households?
(2) How has the income distribution of elderly households
changed over the three decades from 1967 to 1997? (3) How
has the degree of inequality of income distribution of elderly
households changed over the same three decades? and (4)
How does the income distribution of elderly households com­
pare with that of nonelderly households?


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_

65-69

_

_

0

-

-

-

0

0
0

0
0
0

S ource: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, March
Supplement, 1998, table 15.

R esults
1997 income distribution of elderly households. Chart 1 pre­
sents the 1997 money income distribution of U.S. households,
by age group, comparing all households with those under age
65 and those aged 65 and older. As the life cycle hypothesis
suggests, the data reveal the concentration of elderly house­
holds in lower income groups relative to households in their
preretirement, prime earning years and to the total population.
Approximately three-fourths of older households have annual
incomes below $35,000. Almost 30 percent of households aged
65 and older have incomes in the range from $10,000 to $20,000,
whereas only 12 percent of households under age 65 and 15
percent of all households are in this poverty or near-poverty
range. In contrast, about 60 percent (the middle three quintiles)
of nonelderly households have incomes between $20,000 and
$75,000, with the largest concentration of nonelderly house­
holds (more than 20 percent) in the $50,000-to-$75,000 income
group.32
Another way of viewing the differential income distribution
of elderly and nonelderly households is to compare the share
of households in each income quintile by age group, as seen
in chart 2. In 1997, the percentage of elderly households in the
lowest income quintile was twice as great as the percentage of
nonelderly households in the same quintile, while fewer elder­
ly households were in the two highest income quintiles than
nonelderly households were in the highest quintile.
It is important to note that, because the data are not ad­
justed for family size, the findings reported in chart 2 may
overestimate the extent of relative inequality between elderly
and nonelderly. The chart indicates that the elderly are twice
as likely as the nonelderly to be in the bottom quintile of the

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Incomes of Older Americans

Chart 1.

Household incom e distribution, by age group and total population, 1997
Percent of
age group

Percent of
age group

Under $10,000
$20,000-$34,999
$50,000-$74,999
$100,000 and more
$10,000-$19,999
$35,000-$49,999
$75,000-$99,999
SOURCE: Compiled from Current Population Reports, March Supplement (Bureau of the Census, 1998), table H-4.

Chart 2.

Percent distribution of households within incom e quintile, by age group, 1997
Percent
distribution

Percent
distribution

□

Share of households (percent)
SOURCE: Compiled from Current Population Reports, March Supplement (Bureau of the Census, 1998),
table 15.

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Highest fifth
Fourth fifth
Third fifth
Second fifth
Lowest fifth

Chart 3.

Change in incom e distribution of elderly U.S. households aged 65 and older, 1997

Share of aggregate
income (percent)

Share of aggregate
income (percent)

45-degree line

1967

100
40
60
Share of households (percent)
SOURCE: Compiled from Current Population Reports, March Supplement (Bureau of the Census, 1998), table H-4.
20

Chart 4.

Gini coefficient, by age groups, 1967,1977,1987, and 1997

Ratio

Ratio

0.60

0.60

0.50

0.50

0.40

-

0.30

-

0.20

-

0.10

II
1
■
□

1967
1977
1987
1997

0.00
All ages

Under 65 years

65 years and older

SOURCE: Compiled from Current Population Reports, March Supplement (Bureau of the Census, 1998), table H-4.


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Incomes of Older Americans

income distribution. When researchers have used income
adjusted by the poverty threshold to adjust for family size,
the elderly are seen to be only 1.25 times more likely than
the nonelderly to be in the bottom quintile of the income
distribution.
When the older population is further disaggregated, dis­
tinct income distribution differentials appear between those
aged 65 to 74 and those aged 75 and older. Nearly half of all
households in the latter category were in the lowest income
quintile, compared with less than 30 percent of households
aged 65 to 74. And more than twice as many households in the
65-74 age group were in the two highest income quintiles,
compared with those aged 75 and older.33 However, when the
Gini coefficients for the 1997 income distribution are compared
for the 65-69,70-74, and 75-and-older age groups (see table
2), differences in the inequality of the income distributions of
these groups turn out not to be significant.
Change in income distribution o f elderly households over
time. Chart 3 presents Lorenz curves comparing the income

distributions of households with a householder aged 65 and
older in 1967 and 1997. Over the three decades between those
years, the Lorenz curve of the elderly household income dis­
tribution shifted inward, closer to the line of equal distribution

Chart 5.

of income. This shift clearly indicates that elderly households
have achieved greater equality of income. However, the Lorenz
curves for 1977,1987, and 1997 are so close that it is impos­
sible to distinguish them on one graph for comparison. The
close comparability of elderly income distributions for these
periods can be seen in the data presented in table 1.
I n e q u a lity o f in c o m e d is tr ib u tio n o f e ld e r ly h o u s e ­
holds. The degree of inequality of the income distribution of

all elderly households changed significantly from 1967 to 1997.
As shown by the Gini coefficients in table 1 and chart 4, in
1967-97, the largest change in the income distribution of older
households occurred between 1967 and 1977. During that dec­
ade, the income distribution became significantly more equal
for households aged 65 and older.
After 1977, the distribution of income for older households
became slightly less equal in 1987 and again in 1997. This
finding highlights the critical importance of the period ana­
lyzed. Looking at changes in equality of the income distribu­
tion only from 1977 to 1997 would present a much different
picture than that found in this article. While the data from 1967
to 1997 reveal significant decreases in inequality, the data from
1977 to 1997 indicate slightly increased inequality. A similar
pattern exists in households younger than 65. These findings

Comparison of U.S. elderly household incom e distributions, by age group, 1997

Share of aggregate
income (percent)

Share of aggregate
income (percent)

100

80

60

40

20

0
SOURCE:

26

Compiled from Current Population Reports, March Supplement (Bureau of the Census, 1998), table H-4.

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Incomes of Older Americans

Chart 7.

Comparison of U.S. elderly (aged 65 years and older) and m iddle-aged
(45-54 years and 55-64 years) household incom e distributions, 1997

Share of aggregate
income (percent)

Share of aggregate
income (percent)

100

80

60

40

20

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

Share of households (percent)
SOURCE: Compiled from Current Population Reports, March Supplement (Bureau of the Census, 1998), table H-4.

show the importance of disaggregating the data by age group.
When all age groups are aggregated, the data indicate in­
creased inequality throughout the 1967-97 period; this is re­
vealed not to be the case, however, when the age groups are
disaggregated.
When older households are disaggregated by age group,
the data indicate relatively small differences in the groups’
income distributions. Chart 5 compares the 1997 income distri­
butions of households aged 65 to 69 years, 70 to 74 years, and
75 years and older. The distributions are barely distinguish­
able, demonstrating the similarity of inequality of income dis­
tributions among these age groups. This finding is reinforced
by the Gini coefficients listed in tables 1 and 2. In particular,
table 2 shows no significant differences in the inequality of
income distribution among elderly age groups, as measured
by their Gini coefficients.
Comparison of income distribution of elderly and nonelderly
households. In chart 6, the income distribution of elderly
households is compared with that of nonelderly households, for
each of the 4 years studied. The Lorenz curves reveal that the
distribution of income of elderly households approached that of
nonelderly households more closely in 1977 than in 1967, and
the gap continued to narrow in each succeeding decade. These
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shifts can also be detected in the data in table 1, but the Lorenz
curves present a visual image of the closing income distribution
gap between the two groups. Over time, the decreasing gap cor­
responds with Gini coefficients that are converging.
Another perspective on the comparison of the income dis­
tributions of elderly with nonelderly households and with all
U.S. households over time is seen in chart 4. Over the three
decades since 1967, elderly households have larger Gini coef­
ficients than nonelderly households, indicating a greater de­
gree of inequality; however, the differences in the Ginis are
quite small and are not significant. Since 1977, the Gini coeffi­
cients for all households, households under age 65, and those
aged 65 and older have increased slightly and by about the
same order of magnitude. This parallel movement reinforces
the finding that both elderly and nonelderly households sus­
tained slight declines in equality of their income distributions
over the past two decades.
We can also compare the degree of inequality of income
distributions by calculating ratios of Gini coefficients between
nonelderly and elderly households. A value of 1.00 indicates
the same degree of inequality of income distribution for the
two groups, whereas a value less than unity indicates a greater
degree of inequality for the elderly. The ratio was 0.762 in 1967,
increased to 0.845 in 1977 and to 0.904 in 1987, and then de-

creased slightly to 0.883 in 1997. This movement provides
further corroboration of the finding that the relative inequal­
ity of elderly and nonelderly income distributions declined
between 1967 and 1987, but increased very slightly from 1987
to 1997.
It is particularly important to compare the income distribu­
tion of 65-and-older households with those of the preretire­
ment (45 to 54 years) and middle-aged (55 to 64 years) groups,
because such an analysis may shed light on expectations con­
cerning the income distributions of future cohorts of older
Americans. Chart 7 shows the 1997 Lorenz curves for the three
groups. Households aged 45 to 54, the first wave of the babyboom generation to reach middle age, have a more equal distri­
bution of income than either of the two older groups. (See also
table 2.) This preretirement group has the most equal distribu­
tion of income in 1997, compared with the distributions of the
other age groups in the same year. In addition, the preretire­
ment group’s Gini index is significantly different from those of
all older age groups. This finding may reflect the larger share
of income generated from current earnings (wages and sala­
ries) for the group than is generated for older households,
which receive larger shares of income from wealth, assets, or
pensions, all of which are highly unequally distributed. In ad­
dition, the finding may reflect differences in the demographic
composition of the age groups, due to the shorter life expect­
ancy of black males.
In contrast to the age 45-54 group, equality of the income
distribution for the 55-64 group is not significantly different
from that for older age groups. (See table 2.) Overall, the in­
come distribution of the group aged 55 to 64 years is signifi­
cantly more unequal (or less equal) than that of the group of
45- to 54-year-olds. But it is significantly more equal (or less
unequal) than the income distribution of all other age groups,
except the age 70-74 group, with which a comparison reveals
no significant difference.
T h e s t u d y s e t f o r t h in t h is a r t ic l e used c p s data span­
ning three decades to analyze the income distributions of
Americans in three age groups: 65 years and older, 55 to 64

years, and 45 to 54 years. Detailed knowledge of the income
distribution and the extent of inequality in it contributes to our
understanding of the economic well-being of groups within our
society. Frank’s positional income theory suggests that, as the
distribution of income of the elderly became somewhat less equal
since 1977, the lower income elderly faced a greater difficulty
maintaining their standards of consumption and a high quality
of life. Further, from 1987 to 1997, the degree of inequality in­
creased over that from 1977 to 1987, possibly indicating a declin­
ing ability of lower income elderly persons to maintain their
standard of living relative to the higher income elderly.
A particular problem for impoverished elderly households
is their inability to change their low income status. The elderly
are considerably less likely to move out of poverty than are
nonelderly adults: the exit rates of the two groups were 14
percent and 25 percent, respectively.33 This gap reflects the
relative stability of elderly incomes during the past two dec­
ades. Thus, over a short period, the degree of inequality in the
income distribution of the elderly is unlikely to shift substan­
tially. However, over longer periods of decades, the differing
economic statuses of the various groups, all becoming older
and some proceeding into retirement, may alter the relative
economic situation of the elderly.
The results of this study reveal that, over the past three
decades, the Lorenz curve of elderly household income distri­
bution has shifted inward, closer to the line of equal distribu­
tion of income. While this shift clearly indicates that elderly
households have achieved greater equality of income distri­
bution, close to three-quarters of elderly households have
annual income levels below $35,000, and almost half of house­
holds aged 75 and older are in the lowest income quintile.
The concentration of older households in lower income
groups relative to households in their preretirement, prime
earning years and relative to the total population is clear.
Households aged 45 to 54 have the most equal distribution of
1997 income, and their Gini index is significantly different from
those for all older age groups. This state of affairs may presage
shifts in the distribution of income and degree of inequality
for future cohorts of elderly or retirees.
□

Notes
1
Daniel H. Weinberg, A B r i e f L o o k a t P o s tw a r U .S . In c o m e I n e q u a l­ W e a lth , September 1990, pp. 227-47.
Current Population Reports, Publication No. P60-191 (Bureau of
4 Daniel E. Radner, “Incomes of the Elderly and Nonelderly, 1967the Census, June 1996).
1992,” S o c ia l S e c u r ity B u lle tin , winter 1995, pp. 82-97.
2 See Nan L. Maxwell, “Demographic and Economic Determinants
5 All median-income figures used in this article are in constant 1998
of United States Income Inequality,” S o c ia l S c ie n c e Q u a r te r ly , summer
dollars.
1989, pp. 245-63; and Teresa Amott, “Re-slicing the Pie: Government
6 H is to r ic a l In c o m e T ables, table H-15, “Age of Householder—House­
Policy and Income Inequality,” D o l l a r s & S e n s e , May 1989, pp. 10holds by Median and Mean Income: 1967 to 1998,” on the Internet at the
11 .
Census Bureau home page, http://www.census.gov/hhes/income/
3 See Michael D. Hurd, “Research on the Elderly: Economic Status,
histinc/hlO.htm.
Retirement, and Consumption and Saving,” J o u r n a l o f E c o n o m ic L i t ­
7 Albert Ando and Franco Modigliani, “The Life Cycle Hypothesis
e r a tu r e , June 1990, pp. 565-637; and Stephen Crystal and Dennis Shea,
of Saving: Aggregate Implication and Tests,” A m e r ic a n E c o n o m ic R e “The Economic Well-Being of the Elderly,” R e v i e w o f I n c o m e a n d
ity ,


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Incomes of Older Americans

v ie w ,

n j,

March 1963, pp. 55-84.

8 Milton Friedman, A T h e o r y o f C o n s u m p tio n
Princeton University Press, 1957).

F u n c tio n

(Princeton,

9 See Ando and Modigliani, “Life Cycle Hypothesis of Saving.”
10 See Friedman,

T h e o r y o f C o n s u m p tio n F u n c tio n .

11 See Gary Becker, A T r e a tis e o n th e F a m i l y (Cambridge, ma,
Harvard University Press, 1991); Robert Frank, M i c r o e c o n o m i c s
a n d B e h a v i o r (New York, McGraw-Hill, 1997); and Susan E. Mayer,
“Trends in the Economic Well-being and Life Chances of America’s
Children,” Chapter 4 in Greg J. Duncan and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn
(eds.), C o n s e q u e n c e s o f G r o w in g U p P o o r (New York, Russell Sage
Foundation, 1997).
12 See Becker,
13 See Mayer,
14 See Frank,

T r e a tis e o n th e F a m ily ,

p. 251.

E c o n o m ic W e ll-b e in g a n d L ife C h a n c e s .
M ic r o e c o n o m ic s a n d B e h a v io r .

15 See Daniel B. Radner, “Money Incomes of Aged and Nonaged
Family Units, 1967-1984,” S o c ia l S e c u r ity B u lle tin , August 1987, pp.
9-28; “Changes in the Incomes of Age Groups, 1984-1989,” S o c ia l
S e c u r i t y B u lle tin , December 1991, pp. 2-18; “An Assessment of the
Economic Status of the Aged,” S tu d ie s in In c o m e D is tr ib u tio n , Publica­
tion No. 13-11776(16) (Social Security Administration, May 1993);
and I n c o m e s o f th e E ld e r ly a n d N o n e ld e r ly .
16 Daniel B. Radner, “The Retirement Prospects for the Baby Boom
Generation,” S o c ia l S e c u r ity B u lle tin , January 1998, pp. 3-19.
17 See Radner, “Economic Status of the Aged”; and

I n c o m e s o f th e

E ld e r ly a n d N o n e ld e r ly .

18 Since 1979, the term h o u s e h o ld e r has been used in lieu of h e a d o f
The householder is defined as the individual responding to
the survey, who can be either spouse in a married-couple household.
Therefore, classifying the household as elderly depends on the age of
whichever spouse is the respondent.
h o u s e h o ld .

19 M o n e y I n c o m e in th e U n ite d S t a t e s : 1 9 9 7 , Current Population
Reports, publication no. P60-200 (Bureau of the Census, 1998).
20 C o n s u m e r I n c o m e , publication no. P60-57 (Bureau of the Census,
1968), tables 1, 2; M o n e y I n c o m e in 1 9 7 7 o f H o u s e h o ld s in th e U n ite d
S ta t e s , Current Population Reports, publication no. P60-117 (Bureau
o f the Census, 1978), tables 13, 35; M o n e y I n c o m e o f H o u s e h o l d s ,
F a m i l i e s , a n d P e r s o n s in th e U n i t e d S t a t e s , Current Population Re­
ports, publication no. P60-162 (Bureau of the Census, 1989), tables 8,
29; C o n s u m e r I n c o m e , Current Population Reports, publication no.
P60-57 (Bureau of the Census, 1998), table 1, p. 2; M e a s u r in g 5 0 Years
o f E c o n o m ic C h a n g e U sin g th e M a r c h C u r r e n t P o p u la tio n S u rv e y , Cur­
rent Population Reports, publication no. P60-203 (Bureau of the Cen­
sus, 1998), appendix, table C-19, pp. 35-41.
21 See S e l e c t e d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s b y Q u in tile : M a r c h 1 9 9 7 , Current
Population Survey, Annual Demographic Survey, March Supplement
(Bureau o f the Census, 1997), table 3, on the Internet at http://
ferret.bls.census.gov/macro/031997/quint/3_000.htm; Current Pop­

30

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ulation Reports, March Supplement, table H -4 (Bureau of the Census,
1998), on the Internet at http://ferret.bls.census.gov/macro/031998/
hhinc/4_001.htm; and Current Population Reports, March Supplement,
table 15 (Bureau o f the Census, 1998), on the Internet at http://

ferret.bls.census.gov/macro/031998/quint/15_000.htm.
22 See M o n e y I n c o m e in th e U n i t e d S t a t e s : 1 9 9 7 . In the current
article, the Lorenz curve distributions of income include only cash
income (money income and cash assistance) and do not encompass
the value of in-kind subsidies, such as food stamps, subsidized housing,
medicare, and medicaid. Future research could extend the results ob­
tained herein by comparing the distributions of cash income and total
cash plus in-kind income. If the total value of all subsidies (cash plus inkind) were included in the analysis of income distribution, then inequality
of the distribution of income would be reduced for all groups, but par­
ticularly for older Americans, who benefit from medicare and other subsi­
dies. Therefore, caution must be exercised in attempting to extend the
aforesaid conclusions on income distribution and the inequality of income
distribution to a consideration of relative standards of living.
23 See Mike Fuller, “The Estimation o f Gini C oefficients from
Grouped Data, Upper and Lower Bounds,” E c o n o m ic s L e tte r s , vol. 3,
no. 2, 1979, pp. 187-92; and Ed Welniak, C a lc u la tin g I n d e x e s o f I n ­
c o m e C o n c e n tr a t io n ( gini ’s ) f r o m G r o u p e d D a t a : A n E m p i r i c a l S tu d y

(Bureau of the Census, memo, June 10, 1998).
24 Welniak,
25

Radner,

C a lc u la tin g I n d e x e s o f I n c o m e C o n c e n tr a tio n .

M o n ey In com es o f A g e d a n d N o n a g ed .

26 See John A. Bishop, Subhabrata Chakraborti, and Paul D. Thistle,
“Relative Deprivation and Economic Welfare: A Statistical Investiga­
tion with Gini-Based Welfare Indices, S c a n d in a v i a n J o u r n a l o f E c o ­
n o m i c s , vol. 93, no. 3, 1991, pp. 421-37; B. Milanovic, “A Simple
Way to Calculate the Gini Coefficient, and Some Implications,” E c o ­
n o m ic s L e tte r s , vol. 56, no. 1, 1997, pp. 45-49.
27 See J. J. Thompson, T h e J o u r n a lis t a n d th e G in i C o e f f ic ie n t: A
S t a t i s t i c a l A p p r o a c h to C o v e r in g I n c o m e I n e q u a l i t y , master’s thesis,
School of Journalism and Mass Communications, University of North
Carolina, 1995; J. J. Thompson, “A Tool for Measuring Income In­
equality,” N ie m a n R e p o r ts , spring 1997, pp. 42-44, on the Internet at

http://web3.searchbank.com/infotrac/session/708/269/367525w7/
18!xrn; and Welniak.
28 Welniak,

C a lc u la tin g I n d e x e s o f I n c o m e C o n c e n tr a tio n .

29 Welniak,

C a lc u la tin g I n d e x e s o f I n c o m e C o n c e n tr a tio n .

30 See Bishop, Chakraborti, and Thistle, “Relative Deprivation and
Economic Welfare.”
31 Rose M. Rubin and Michael L. Nieswiadomy, E x p e n d itu r e s
(Westport, ct, Praeger Publishers, 1997), p. 60.

o f O ld e r

A m e r ic a n s

32 Current Population Reports, March supplement, 1998, table H-4.
33 Current Population Reports, March Supplement, 1998, table 15.
34 Rubin and Nieswiadomy,

E x p e n d itu r e s o f O ld e r A m e r ic a n s ,

p. 77.

A lte rn ative Price Indices

Alternative CPI aggregations:
two approaches
Plutocratic and democratic approaches for constructing
an aggregate price index each incorporate different
normative assumptions about the well-being of U.S. households;
neither is favored by economic theory
Mary Kokoski

Mary Kokoski is an
economist in the
Division of Price and
Index Number
Research, Bureau of
Labor Statistics.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

he theory of the cost-of-living index,
which underlies the Consumer Price In­
dex ( c p i), is formulated within the context
of the preferences and welfare of the individual.
To construct an aggregate price index for a popu­
lation requires that some method of aggregation
be used to “average” the effects of price changes
on all households in the population. It is intended
that this aggregate index represent the “average”
or “representative” household.
In most cases (including the c p i), the aggre­
gation method used corresponds to a plutocratic
index.1 Other types of aggregation, such as the
democratic index,2 are also possible, and, in terms
of economic theory, equally valid. However, as
this article explains in a later section, the pluto­
cratic approach is much more practicable, and it
may provide a different measure of price change
than the democratic index.
This article provides an empirical analysis of
the differences between the plutocratic and
democratic price indices, using data from the
Consumer Expenditure Survey and the c pi for the
1987-97 period. The analysis constructs house­
hold-specific price indices from the Consumer
Expenditure Interview sample, using the U.S. na­
tional average c p i series for all these households
at the most detailed level of commodity disag­
gregation possible. Because the U.S. economy
experienced low inflation during the 1987-97 pe­
riod, this analysis also includes some hypotheti­
cal scenarios of price change. While it is impos­
sible to predict what prices will do in future mar­

T

kets, these scenarios provide some information
on the sensitivity of the differences between the
plutocratic and democratic indices.

T heory
The theory of the cost-of-living index, which
underlies the consumer price index concept, is
based on the observed preferences and implied
welfare of a single individual, or a single house­
hold, if that household is assumed to behave as a
cohesive decisionmaking unit. In practice, how­
ever, it is not possible for a government to pro­
duce a separate price index for each household in
its population. Instead, statistical agencies con­
struct an average, or representative index to mea­
sure the effects of price changes on the average
or representative, household.
The c p i is the aggregate, representative mea­
sure of price change as experienced by house­
holds. It is based largely on the Laspeyres index
formula and statistical samples of household ex­
penditures, prices, and urban consumers in Met­
ropolitan Statistical Areas.3 For the c p i , the Con­
sumer Expenditure Survey ( c e x ) collects informa­
tion on a representative sample of U.S. urban
households to determine their expenditure pat­
terns. In addition, information on prices is col­
lected from a sample of outlets and products
based on their likelihood of being patronized and
purchased, respectively. The overall c p i is then
constructed by taking a weighted average of
household information, and the result is a pluto-

Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

31

Alternative Price Indices

cratic Laspeyres price index.
To illustrate this formally, one would first define the
Laspeyres price index for each individual household, h, as:

a)

where Lhis the index value for household h, S„his the share of
household h’s total expenditures devolted to good n, and Pn is
the market price for good n. It is assumed that all households
face the same market price for goods and services. An aggre­
gate Laspeyres index for a population is therefore, a weighted
average of the price index values for all households in the
population. If there are H households in the population, the
aggregate index would look like:

(2)

I„sX

where whrepresents the weight given to the individual index
for household h in computing the average.
The choice of the weighting scheme used to derive the
aggregate price index is not prescribed specifically by eco­
nomic theory. It depends upon the assumptions adopted
about the social wefare function for the society whose index it
represents.4If we decide to accord equal weight to each house­
hold in its representation in the aggregate index, then wh= l/H
for all households h and the aggregate price index follows the
democratic formula. If we decide to weight each household in
accordance to its total household expenditure, then the
weights are determined by:

where Ehis the total expenditure of household h. The pluto­
cratic formula is formed by using this weighting scheme (3)
with equation (2).
For the plutocratic formula, expenditure shares for each
good, by all households, are treated as if they were those of
one aggregate “super-household.”5 This is favorable because
the index can be constructed from information just on the
prices and mean expenditure shares of all households. In con­
trast, to produce a democratic index, one must first construct
the price indices for each individual household, then average
32

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November 2000

them to produce an aggregate index. This is far less practi­
cable.
In the democratic index, the expenditure pattern of each
household counts in equal measure in determining the popu­
lation index; in essence, it is a case of “one household-one
vote.” In the plutocratic case, the contribution of each
household’s expenditure pattern is positively related to the
total expenditure of that household, relative to other house­
holds—in essence, “one dollar, one vote.” If all households,
regardless of how much they spend in total, have the same
expenditure pattern, then both formulas would give the same
index number as a result. Also, if all prices change by the same
amount, the two index formulas will give the same result (a
trivial case). However, if expenditure patterns differ across
households, then there is no reason to expect the democratic
and plutocratic indices to provide the same numbers. Most
importantly, if the expenditure patterns of households differ
systematically according to how much they spend in total,
then the differences between the democratic and plutocratic
formulas is of more than academic interest.
It is reasonable to assume that household expenditure is
strongly related to household income, at least relative to other
households. More affluent households are likely to spend
more in any given period than poorer households. Such rela­
tively more well-to-do households are also more likely to spend
a higher proportion of their total expenditure on different
goods and services than are less affluent households, spe­
cifically on those goods that are not income-elastic or classi­
fied as “necessities” (for example entertainment and travel).
In this situation, the democratic index may be more represen­
tative of the inflation experience of the less rich households,
while the plutocratic index may be more representative of
richer households.

Empirical experience
To assess the importance of the choice of a plutocratic, ver­
sus a democratic approach for the c p i , we start with a histori­
cal empirical analysis. We use the same data as those for the
c p i , specifically, the Consumer Expenditure Survey ( c e x ) , to
provide the household expenditure weights and c p i item price
indices for the price changes in goods and services. The c e x
sample comprises the 1982 and 1984 households in the Inter­
view survey. Households participating in the Interview sur­
vey provide information on their expenditures on various
goods and services in four separate quarterly interviews. The
Diary survey complements the Interview by collecting expen­
diture information on more detailed categories of goods and
services, those which are purchased frequently, such as food.
This survey comprises a different sample of households than
the Interview participants, and it is administered in two weekly

Table 1.

Price indices by major expenditure category, 1987-97

[1987=100]

Year

Food

Housing

Fuel/
utilities

Housefurnishings

Apparel

Trans­
portation

Medical

Entertain­
ment

Other'

1988
1989
1990
1991

...................................
...................................
...................................
...................................

104.1
110.0
116.4
120.5

103.8
107.7
112.5
117.0

101.4
104.7
108.3
111.9

102.2
103.8
105.8
108.3

104.3
107.2
112.2
116.4

103.1
108.3
114.3
117.5

106.5
114.8
125.1
136.1

104.3
109.7
114.9
120.0

106.6
114.9
123.7
133.5

1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997

...................................
...................................
...................................
...................................
...................................
...................................

122.2
124.8
127.7
131.2
135.4
138.9

120.4
123.6
126.8
130.0
133.8
137.3

114.4
117.8
119.2
120.1
123.8
127.0

110.2
111.4
113.0
114.8
116.4
117.1

119.3
120.9
120.6
119.4
119.1
120.2

120.0
123.7
127.4
132.0
135.7
136.9

146.1
154.8
162.9
169.5
175.4
180.3

123.4
126.5
130.2
132.7
136.8
139.9

142.7
150.1
154.5
161.0
167.6
174.9

1 Other includes personal care, education expenses, tobacco products, and legal and funeral expenses.

installments. For the c p i , information from the Diary survey is
statistically raked into the expenditure share information from
the Interview survey to calculate the expenditure weights. For
example, while the Interview survey provides the expenditure
share for all food at home, the Diary survey allows this share
to be further disaggregated into the various categories of food
items. While this works well for the c p i , a plutocratic method,
the construction of an alternative, democratic index requires
constructing household-level price indices and thus limits the
analysis to the Interview sample and that level of detail.
In this empirical analysis, the total number of households
is 18,984, and the study period encompasses 1987-97. By
choosing 1987 as the reference period, we are able to observe
that a few more detailed expenditure categories could be in­
cluded that did not have separate item price indices in 1984.
Beyond 1997, some item category definitions changed, which
would have limited the level of detail as well. The total number
of expenditure categories is 146. Unfortunately, there are no
data available to determine whether there are differences in
the prices paid for any goods and services across households.
It is assumed that the same U.S. national urban average cpi
prices apply to all the households in the sample.
While the household indices were constructed from 146
expenditure categories, it is difficult to get a sense of price
change patterns from such a detailed list of item price indices.
Thus, to provide a setting for the analysis, table 1 presents an
overview of the price changes for the 1987-97 period
(1987=100) by general expenditure category. As this table
shows, the relative prices for fuels and utilities and housefurnishings increased most slowly, while those of medical
care and other goods and services increased most rapidly.
Overall, however, inflation rates were lower during the 198797 period than in other periods such as the 1970s and early
1980s.
Household-specific price indices were constructed for each
household in the 1982 and 1984 c e x sample. These indices


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were then aggregated by both the plutocratic method and the
democratic method (from the formulae in the previous section).
The resulting aggregate index values for 1987-97 are presented
in table 2, along with the percentage difference between the
plutocratic index value and its corresponding democratic index
counterpart.
Generally, it appears that there is very little difference be­
tween the two types of indices over the 1987-97 study period,
with the democratic index usually slightly higher in value. The
largest differences are about 1 index point, and occur from 1990
through 1992. The inflation rates for most commodities appear
to be somewhat higher during this 3-year period, compared
with other rates within the study period. Although in one year,
1995, that the plutocratic index value appears to exceed its
democratic counterpart, there is no overall trend or divergence
between the two index series. It is difficult to draw quantitative
conclusions from the index values because the statistical sig­
nificance of these results is not known. Qualitative conclu­
sions, however, can be made.
The practical implications of using the plutocratic versus
Table 2. Plutocratic and dem ocratic index values,
(whole sample), 1987-97
[1987 = 100]

Year

Democratic

Plutocratic

Percentage
difference

1988
1989
1990
1991

................................
................................
................................
................................

103.76
108.38
113.71
117.95

103.84
108.90
114.93
119.14

-0.077
-.480
-1.073
-1.009

1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997

................................
................................
................................
...............................
................................
................................

121.27
124.95
128.30
132.05
135.61
138.01

122.22
125.57
128.59
132.03
135.92
138.70

-.783
-.496
-.226
.015
-.229
-.500

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November 2000

33

Alternative Price Indices

the democratic price index formula depend upon the extent of
systematic differences in expenditure patterns across house­
holds and the patterns of price changes experienced by these
households. Because the plutocratic index will likely be more
representative of those households with higher total expen­
ditures, it would be of interest to examine the differences be­
tween the plutocratic and democratic aggregations by popu­
lation subgroups defined by different levels of total expendi­
ture. Therefore, we divided the household sample into expen­
diture quintiles and constructed separate plutocratic and
democratic indices by quintile. The lowest quintile (1) includes
those households that are in the lowest 20 percent of the c e x
sample, as ranked by total household expenditure. The high­
est quintile (5) is, therefore, the highest 20 percent of house­
holds in terms of expenditure. While each quintile includes
the same number of households, the range and mean of total
expenditures by quintile varies, as shown in the following
tabulation:
Q u in tile

M ean
exp en d itu re

1 .................
2 .................
3 .................
4 .................
5 .................

$1,066.57
2,389.00
3,863.32
5,933.02
13,195.87

R an ge
o f ex pen ditu re
a m o u n ts

$6.00-$1,737.13
1,737.14 -3,069.69
3,069.80 -4,730.88
4,730.99 -7,522.17
7,522.20-89,561.12

This tabulation also shows the range of total expenditure
values encompassed by each quintile varies from about $1,600
(quintile 1 through quintile 3) to a high of more than $80,000 in
quintile 5. Doubtless there are a few “outlier” households in
the highest quintile. However, because they are legitimate
members of the sample and represent the very high-expendi­
ture households in the population, they are not eliminated
from this study.
The plutocratic and democratic index values by expendi­
ture quintile are presented in table 3. The percentage differ­

ence between the plutocratic value and its democratic coun­
terpart (based on the values in table 3) are provided in table 4.
As for the sample taken as a whole, the differences between
the plutocratic and democratic indices within each quintile
are generally quite small. The largest differences appear in the
first and fifth quintiles, which was expected in the latter case.
In quintile 5, there are a very few households with very high
expenditures, which therefore have a larger effect on the plu­
tocratic index. In comparison, the democratic index within
quintile 5 diminishes the disproportionate contribution that
those households make to the index value. Still, while the
democratic index for quintile 5 rises more quickly than its
plutocratic counterpart, the differences are generally less than
1 index point. In other quintiles there is no consistent pattern;
the plutocratic index value often exceeds the democratic in­
dex value. By comparing index values by index type across
quintiles an interesting pattern emerges. For the plutocratic
index, there is a general inverted U-shaped pattern, with higher
index values in the middle three quintiles and lower values in
quintile 1 and quintile 5. The cross-quintile pattern for the
democratic index is different, with generally the lowest index
values in the highest quintile, quintile 5. Again, the differ­
ences are quite small.
Past empirical studies have shown that differences in ex­
penditure patterns based on household demographic at­
tributes are generally not statistically significant and sepa­
rate indices for different demographic groups do not neces­
sarily better represent subgroups within larger groups.6 For
most a priori definitions of demographic groups, there is gen­
erally more variation across households within each group
than there is across groups. Again, one should not draw quan­
titative conclusions from these results because the statistical
significance of any differences observed in this analysis be­
tween quintile indices is unknown.
Empirical analysis relies upon observed information. In re­
cent years (the study period), both overall inflation and vari­
ability of price changes relative to each other have been

Index values by expenditure quintile, 1987-97
[1987 = 100]

Quintile 1

Quintile 2

Quintile 3

Quintile 4

Quintile 5

Year
Plutocratic
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997

34

........
........
........
........
........
........
........
........
........
........

103.74
109.32
116.11
120.06
122.62
125.28
127.85
130.84
135.05
138.09

Democratic Plutocratic Democratic
103.73
109.35
116.19
120.09
122.54
125.12
127.64
130.60
134.85
137.82

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103.86
109.19
115.63
119.90
122.96
126.08
128.93
132.14
136.26
139.36

103.86
109.19
115.65
119.91
122.96
126.06
128.90
132.11
136.23
139.34

November 2000

Plutocratic Democratic

103.89
108.99
115.15
119.51
122.73
126.05
129.02
132.37
136.30
139.31

103.89
109.00
115.16
119.52
122.74
126.05
129.01
132.36
136.30
139.31

Plutocratic
103.97
108.90
114.79
119.14
122.50
126.08
129.24
132.87
136.66
139.47

Democratic

103.97
108.90
114.81
119.17
122.52
126.09
129.24
132.85
136.65
139.47

Plutocratic
103.62
107.74
112.26
116.41
119.87
123.89
127.59
131.68
134.85
136.72

Democratic
103.74
108.04
112.82
117.02
120.48
124.52
128.15
132.27
135.56
137.58

1 Percentage difference between plutocratic and dem ocratic index, by year and quintile, 1987-97
Year

Quintile 1

Quintile 2

Quintile 3

Quintile 4

Quintile 5

1987
1988
1989
1990
1991

.........................................
.........................................
.........................................
.........................................
.........................................

0
.00964
-.027
-.069
-.025

0
0
0
-.017
-.0083

0
0
-.0092
-.0087
-.0084

0
0
0
-.017
-.025

0
-0.116
-.033
-.499
-.524

1992
1993
1994
1995
1996

.........................................
.........................................
.........................................
.........................................
.........................................

.0652
.1277
.1643
.1834
.1481

0
.0159
.0233
.0227
.022

-.0081
0
.0075
.0076
0

-.016
-.0079
0
.0151
.0073

-.509
-.509
-.439
-.448
-.527

1997 .........................................

.1955

.0144

0

0

-.629

smaller than those in other historical periods. Thus, price
index values have exhibited very little change. If plutocratic
and democratic indices do not differ much over the period of
empirical observation, conclusions from an empirical analy­
sis cannot be easily generalized and the sensitivity of the
issue to more extreme experiences of price change has not
been tested. In the context of the Laspeyres index, because
of its fixed weight property, it is fairly straightforward to per­
form a simple sensitivity test of this issue. This is done by
posing hypothetical scenarios of price change and assess­
ing the resulting effects on the comparison of plutocratic and
democratic index formulations.

Hypothetical scenarios
If the historical period of study does not provide much evi­
dence of a difference between the plutocratic and democratic
index alternatives, then what price change scenarios could
be used to highlight this issue? Granted, it is impossible to
predict what specific price regimes might occur in the future,
or how consumer behavior might change and make the fixedweight Laspeyres assumption untenable. It is also impracti­
cal to simulate large numbers of hypothetical price change
scenarios and attempt to summarize them in a meaningful
way. Nevertheless, it may be illuminating to simulate a few
scenarios for price change, including a few extremes, and
make a qualitative assessment of their effects.
Because the issue of plutocratic and democratic index dif­
ferences is driven by differences in expenditure patterns
among households, which are correlated with total expendi­
ture (and, thus, likely income), we have framed this hypo­
thetical analysis within this context. First, we pose several
degrees of price change, from a decline of 10 percent to an
increase of 500 percent. Using the observed relative prices
for 1987 as the reference, we pose these hypothetical price
change scenarios on the c e x sample in the previous analysis
for two different groups of commodities and services, while
all other prices are held the same (that is at the 1987 level).


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Based on a survey of the empirical literature, and the ob­
served expenditure shares by quintile in our c e x sample, we
identify a set of commodities and services as “necessities”
and “luxuries.” Necessities are those goods and service cat­
egories that are expenditure (or income) inelastic. “Luxuries”
are expenditure (and income) elastic goods. This is not a
finely detailed, or by any means, a definitive categorization,
but we have included the following items in the necessities
group: food at home, shelter, fuels and utilities, motor fuel,
vehicle maintenance and repair, tobacco products, and per­
sonal care. Among luxuries we include alcoholic beverages,
food away from home, housefurnishings, and entertainment.
These two groups are not mutually exhaustive because sev­
eral categories of goods and services appeared to be am­
biguous or their elasticities unknown, based on the existing
literature. Any number of groupings of item categories is
possible, even given this elasticity criterion; these group­
ings are intended to be illustrative.
While it may not be informative to provide the expendi­
ture shares by 146 detailed categories, table 5 presents a
summary for more aggregate categories by expenditure
quintile. These shares generally corroborate the economic
literature, with lower quintiles having higher shares of expen­
ditures for food, housing, and fuels and utilities. Private trans­
portation has a higher relative share for higher quintile groups
because it includes not only motor fuels, and maintenance
and repair, but also vehicle purchases themselves. Higher
quintile groups also spend relatively more on entertainment
and housefurnishings.
The index values for the hypothetical scenarios are pre­
sented in table 6 for the aggregate sample of households. The
results in table 6 show the expected outcome that the demo­
cratic index will increase more rapidly than the plutocratic as
the relative prices of necessities increase. It appears that the
democratic index will exceed its plutocratic counterpart by 1
index point for every 10-percent change in prices for necessi­
ties. Thus, if those prices should rise by 100 percent, the
democratic index will be 10 points higher, or 14 percent higher,
Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

35

Alternative Price Indices

Table 5. Average expenditure shares, by expenditure quintile and com m odity
Quintile 1

Commodity
F o o d .........................................
H ousing....................................
Fuels and u tilitie s ....................
Furnishings..............................
Apparel.....................................
Private transportation.............
Medical c a re ............................
Entertainment..........................
Other'........................................

Quintile 2

0.302
.170
.168
.033
.057
.069
.108
.025
.067

Quintile 4

Quintile3

0.294
.185
.170
.044
.049
.105
.072
.027
.055

0.271
.181
.156
.049
.053
.129
.072
.031
.057

0.268
.157
.156
.055
.055
.150
.071
.033
.055

Quintile 5
0.241
.103
.116
.073
.069
.229
.060
.050
.059

Other includes personal care, education expenses, tobacco products, and legal and funeral expenses.

Table 6.

Simulated price change scenarios for necessity and luxury items
Necessities

Price change
(in percent)

Plutocratic

Democratic

Luxuries
Percent
difference

Plutocratic

Democratic

Percent
difference

0 ...................................
- 1 0 ..............................
- 5 .................................
-1 .................................
1 ...................................
5 ...................................
1 0 .................................
1 5 ................................

100
96.17
97.58
99.51
100.48
102.42
104.83
107.25

100
94.18
97.09
99.42
100.58
102.91
105.82
108.73

0
2.07
.50
.09
-.1 0
-.4 8
-.9 4
-1.38

100
98.04
99.02
99.8
100.2
100.98
101.96
102.93

100
98.06
99.03
99.81
100.19
100.97
101.94
102.91

0
-.0 2
-.01
-.01
.01
.01
.02
.02

2 0 .................................
5 0 ................................
1 0 0 ..............................
1 2 0 ..............................
1 3 0 ..............................
1 5 0 ..............................

109.67
124.17
148.34
158.01
162.84
172.51

111.64
129.11
158.21
169.85
175.67
187.31

-1.80
-3.98
-6.65
-7.49
-7.88
-8.58

103.91
109.78
119.56
123.47
125.42
129.38

103.88
109.7
120.22
123.27
125.21
129.09

.03
.07
-.5 5
.16
.17
.22

200
250
300
350
400
450

196.68
220.85
245.02
269.19
293.36
317.53
341.7

216.42
245.52
274.63
303.73
332.84
361.94

-10.04
-11.17
-12.08
-12.83
-13.46
-13.99
-14.44

139.11
148.89
158.67
168.44
178.22
188.00

138.78
148.48
158.18
167.87
177.57
187.26

197.78

196.96

.24
.28
.31
.34
.36
.39
.41

..............................
..............................
..............................
..............................
..............................
..............................

500 ..............................

391.05

than the plutocratic index. The designated luxury goods
group represents a sm aller proportion of the average
household’s total expenditures than necessities, so the im­
pact of radically changing its prices is much less. As ex­
pected, under these scenarios, the plutocratic index will rise
more quickly than its democratic counterpart. The maximum
difference, however, is less than 1 index point, or 0.4 percent,
when luxury prices rise by the extreme of 500 percent.
To illustrate the index values for the hypothetical sce­
narios, we provide the values for the same scenarios by ex­
penditure quintile for necessities and luxuries. Table 7 pro­
vides the corresponding differences between the plutocratic
and democratic index values by expenditure quintile and
price change scenario and table 8 provides the correspond­
ing percentage differences.
In table 7 (top panel), the pattern of differences between
index types across quintiles, is somewhat more interesting.

36

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November 2000

In the lowest quintile, the plutocratic index exceeds the demo­
cratic, but by a very small amount. In the other quintiles, the
democratic index exceeds the plutocratic index when prices for
necessities rise, but again, the differences are very small. The
largest divergence between index types is, as expected, within
the highest quintile, quintile 5, but still, only 4 index points with
a doubling of prices for necessities. In table 7 (lower panel), the
pattern comparing index types across quintiles is the opposite
of table 7
panel). The largest divergence is, again, in
quintile 5, at about 1 index point for a doubling of prices for
luxuries.
In some extreme cases, hypothetical scenarios give some
indication of the maximum effects that price changes could im­
pose on the comparison of plutocratic and democratic indices.
However, it is the pattern of price changes, not the general level
of inflation, which matters for this issue. In the empirical analy­
sis (in the previous section), the democratic index exceeded the

plutocratic by about 0.6 points in 1997, when prices were less
than 40 percent higher than the reference period. If the prices
of only necessities were to increase by 50 percent, the simu­
lated democratic index exceeds the simulated plutocratic in­
dex by 5 points. Because patterns of price change cannot be
predicted, such analysis is an empirical matter.

Conclusions
This analysis examines the issue of the choice between the

plutocratic (“one dollar-one vote”) approach and the demo­
cratic (“one household-one vote”) approach to constructing
an aggregate price index for a society. Neither is favored by
economic theory, but each incorporates different normative
assumptions about the social welfare function. The extent to
which the two types of index formulation will give different
index values is an empirical issue; the divergence depends
upon the systematic difference in household expenditure pat­
terns, the patterns of price changes which occur, and the
assumptions about household behavior which underlie the

Table 7. Simulated price changes for necessities and luxuries, by quintile
Price change
(in percent)

Quintile 1
Plutocratic

Quintile 2

Quintile 4

Quintile 3

Quintile 5

Democratic Plutocratic Democratic Plutocratic Democratic Plutocratic Democratic Plutocratic Democratic

Necessities:
0 .............................
- 1 0 .........................
- 6 ...........................
-1 ...........................
1 .............................
5 .............................
1 0 ...........................

100.00
93.35
96.68
99.34
100.67
103.33
106.65

100.00
93.41
96.70
99.34
100.66
103.30
106.59

100.00
93.47
96.73
99.35
100.65
103.27
106.53

100.00
93.46
96.73
99.35
100.65
103.27
106.54

100.00
93.76
96.88
99.38
100.62
103.12
106.24

100.00
93.74
96.87
99.37
100.63
103.13
106.26

100.00
94.31
97.16
99.43
100.57
102.84
105.69

100.00
94.29
97.14
99.43
100.57
102.85
105.72

100.00
96.42
98.21
99.64
100.36
101.79
103.58

100.00
96.01
98.00
99.60
100.40
102.00
104.00

1 5 ...........................
2 0 ...........................
5 0 ...........................
1 0 0 .........................
1 2 0 .........................
1 3 0 .........................
1 5 0 .........................

109.98
113.30
133.25
166.50
179.80
186.45
199.75

109.89
113.18
132.96
165.91
179.10
185.67
198.87

109.80
113.06
132.66
165.31
178.38
184.91
197.97

109.81
113.08
132.71
165.42
178.50
185.05
198.13

109.37
112.49
131.22
162.44
174.92
181.17
193.65

109.39
112.52
131.31
162.81
175.13
181.39
193.91

108.53
111.37
128.44
156.87
168.25
173.93
185.31

108.57
111.43
128.57
157.15
168.58
174.29
185.72

105.38
107.17
117.92
135.83
143.00
146.58
153.75

105.99
107.99
119.97
139.95
147.94
151.93
159.92

200
200
300
350
400
450
500

233.00
266.25
299.50
332.75
366.00
399.25
432.50

231.83
264.79
297.74
330.70
363.66
396.61
429.57

230.62
263.28
295.94
328.59
361.25
393.91
426.56

230.84
263.55
296.26
328.97
361.28
394.39
427.10

224.87
256.09
287.31
318.53
349.74
380.96
412.18

225.22
256.52
287.83
319.13
350.44
381.74
413.05

213.74
242.18
270.62
299.05
327.49
355.92
384.36

214.29
242.87
271.44
300.00
328.59
357.16
385.74

171.66
189.58
207.49
225.41
243.32
261.24
279.15

179.89
199.87
219.84
239.81
259.79
279.76
299.73

0 .............................
- 1 0 .........................
- 5 ...........................
-1 ...........................
1 .............................
5 .............................
1 0 ...........................

100.00
98.23
99.11
99.82
100.18
100.89
101.77

100.00
98.17
99.09
99.82
100.18
100.92
101.83

100.00
98.23
99.11
99.82
100.18
100.89
101.77

100.00
98.23
99.12
99.82
100.18
100.88
101.76

100.00
98.06
99.03
99.81
100.19
100.97
101.94

100.00
98.07
99.03
99.81
100.19
100.97
101.93

100.00
97.85
98.93
99.79
100.22
101.08
102.15

100.00
97.86
98.93
99.79
100.21
101.07
102.14

100.00
98.08
99.04
99.81
100.19
100.96
101.92

100.00
97.98
98.99
99.80
100.20
101.01
102.02

1 5 ...........................
2 0 ...........................
5 0 ...........................
1 0 0 .........................
1 2 0 .........................
1 3 0 .........................
1 5 0 .........................

102.66
103.55
108.87
117.74
121.29
123.07
126.61

102.75
103.66
109.16
118.31
121.97
123.80
127.46

102.66
103.55
108.87
117.73
121.28
123.05
126.59

102.65
103.54
108.84
117.68
121.22
122.99
126.53

102.91
103.89
109.71
119.43
123.31
125.25
129.14

102.90
103.87
109.67
119.34
123.21
125.14
129.01

103.22
104.30
110.75
121.49
125.79
127.94
132.24

103.21
104.28
110.70
121.41
125.69
127.83
132.11

102.88
103.84
109.60
119.20
123.04
124.96
128.80

103.03
104.04
110.11
120.22
124.27
126.29
130.33

200
250
300
350
400
450
500

135.49
144.36
153.23
162.10
170.97
179.84
188.71

136.62
145.77
154.93
164.08
173.24
182.39
191.55

135.46
144.32
153.19
162.05
170.92
179.78
188.65

135.37
144.21
153.05
161.89
170.73
179.58
188.42

138.85
148.56
158.28
167.99
177.70
187.42
197.13

138.67
148.34
158.01
167.68
177.35
187.02
196.69

142.98
153.73
164.47
175.22
185.96
196.71
207.45

142.81
153.52
164.22
174.92
185.62
196.33
207.03

138.40
148.00
157.60
167.20
176.80
186.40
196.00

140.45
150.56
160.67
170.78
180.89
191.00
201.11

.........................
.........................
.........................
.........................
.........................
.........................
.........................

Luxuries:

.........................
.........................
.........................
.........................
.........................
.........................
.........................


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Monthly Labor Review

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37

Alternative Price Indices

Percentage differences between plutocratic and dem ocratic index for necessities and luxuries, by scenario
and quintile
Price c h a n g e
(in percent)

Q uintile 1

Q uintile 2

Q uintile 3

Quintile 4

Q uintile 5

Necessities:
0 .................................
- 1 0 ............................
- 6 ..............................
-1 ..............................
1 .................................
5 .................................
1 0 ..............................

0
-0.064
-.021
0
.00993
.029
.0563

0
0.0107
0
0
0
0
-.0094

0
0.0213
.0103
.0101
-.0099
-.0097
-.019

0
0.0212
.0206
0
0
-.0097
-.028

0
0.4252
.2138
.0401
-.04
-.206
-.405

1 5 ..............................
2 0 ..............................
5 0 ..............................
1 0 0 ............................
1 2 0 ............................
1 3 0 ............................
1 5 0 ............................

.0818
.1059
.2176
.3544
.3893
4183
.4406

-.0091
-.018
-.038
-.067
-.067
-.076
-.081

-.018
-.027
-.069
-.228
-.1 2
-.121
-.134

-.037
-.054
-.101
-.178
-.196
-.207
-.221

-.579
-.765
-1.738
-3.033
-3.455
-3.65
-4.013

200
250
300
350
400
450
500

.5021
.5484
.5876
.6161
.6393
.6612
.6775

-.095
-.103
-.108
-.116
-.0083
-.122
-.127

-.156
-.168
-.181
-.188
-.2
-.205
-.211

-.257
-.285
-.303
-.318
-.336
-.348
-.359

—4.794
-5.428
-5.952
-6.388
-6.769
-7.089
-7.372

-1 ..............................
1 ................................
5 .................................
1 0 ..............................

0
.0611
.0202
0
0
-.0 3
-.059

0
0
-.01
0
0
.00991
.00983

0
-.01
0
0
0
0
.00981

0
-.01
0
0
.00998
.00899
.00979

0
.102
.0505
.01
-.01
-.0 5
-.098

1 5 ..............................
2 0 ..............................
5 0 ..............................
1 0 0 ............................
1 2 0 ............................
1 3 0 ............................
1 5 0 ............................

-.088
-.106
-.266
-.484
-.561
-.593
-.671

.00974
.00966
.0276
.0425
.0495
.0488
.0474

.00972
.0193
.0365
.0754
.0811
.0878
.1007

.00969
.0192
.0451
.0658
.0795
.086
.0983

-.146
-.193
-.465
-.856
-1.00
-1.064
-1.188

-.834
-.977
-1.109
-1.221
-1.328
-1.418
-1.505

.0664
.0762
.0914
.0987
.1112
.1112
.1219

.1296
.1481
.1706
.1845
.197
.2134
.2232

.1189
.1366
.152
.1712
.1828
.1932
.2025

-1.481
-1.73
-1.948
-2.141
-2.313
-2.468
-2.607

............................
............................
............................
............................
............................
............................
............................

Luxuries:
0 ................................
- 1 0 ............................

- 5 .............................

200
250
300
350
400
450
500

............................
............................
............................
............................
............................
............................
............................

index formula used to construct a household-level index.
This empirical and hypothetical analysis used data from
the c e x and the c p i , at the greatest level of commodity disag­
gregation possible. The results show that there is little differ­
ence between the democratic and plutocratic index values for
the 1987-97 period, and that the one index type need not
always exceed the other. Only in extreme scenarios, in which
price changes were measured for expenditures on inelastic
goods, did the democratic and plutocratic index values show
a difference between of about 1 index point for every 10percent increase in the relative prices of these goods.
A complete examination of this issue would take into
consideration other aspects for which empirical informa­
38

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November 2000

tion is not presently available:
• Differences in price changes faced by different house­
holds, or different demographic groups of households, re­
mains an empirically elusive issue. Unfortunately, data col­
lected for the c p i do not identify the prices paid by survey
households for the goods and services they purchase. It is
possible that poorer households are restricted in their
choice of outlets and, thus, prices they pay for goods, but
there is no definitive empirical information on this.
• The treatment of quality change in durable goods can affect
the choice of index type. This is especially true for those
goods for which the purchase decision may be discrete

(not “how much,” but, “do I buy one or not”).7
• The level of detail at which commodities and services are
defined for the c p i also does not allow a fine discrimination
of which specific items within a goods category are being
purchased by individual survey households. For example,
expenditure shares can be derived for steak, but not the
grade or the cut (filet mignon or top sirloin). In a very
complex economy, such a level of detail would be extremely
difficult to capture for price index computation. Yet, it may
be at this level of detail that differences in expenditure

patterns, and thus the experience of inflation, may differ
across household groups.
• The assumption of a fixed weight index, or the choice of
which index formula to employ that best describes a
household’s behavior when it tries to minimize the impact
of price increases, can affect the comparison. The expen­
diture shares observed in a given sample of households
during a given survey period might well be different from
those of households during another period, under different
relative prices and other economic conditions.
□

Notes
A CK NO W LEDG M ENT: The author would like to thank Rob Cage for
supplying data and Mathew Taylor for assisting in the research.

1 The plutocratic index is an aggregate price index in which the
relative level o f total expenditures of each household provides the
weights. For more information, see W. E. Diewert, “The Theory of the
Cost-of-Living Index and the Measurement of Welfare Change,” in W.
E. Diewert and C. Montmarquette, eds., P r ic e L e v e l M e a s u r e m e n t (Sta­
tistics Canada, 1983), pp. 163-233.
2 The democratic index is an aggregate price index in which each
household’s expenditure patterns are equally weighted. For more infor­
mation, see W. E. Diewert, “The Theory of the Cost-of-Living Index,”
pp. 163-233.
3 See bls H a n d b o o k o f M e th o d s , Bulletin 2490 (Bureau of Labor
Statistics, April 1997), p. 167.
4 The “social welfare function” is a formula that measures the


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aggregate level o f welfare or satisfaction of a group of persons or
households. For more detail on this general issue, see R. Poliak, “The
Social Cost-of-Living Index,” J o u r n a l o f P u b lic E c o n o m ic s , 1981, vol.
26, pp. 126-34.
5 W. E. Diewert, “The Theory of the Cost-of-Living Index,” pp.
163-233.
6 R. T. Michael, “Variation Across Households in the Rate of Infla­
tion,” J o u r n a l o f M o n e y , C r e d it, a n d B a n k in g , 1979, vol. 11, pp. 3 2 46; R. P. Hagemann, “The Variability of Inflation Rates across House­
hold Types,” J o u r n a l o f M o n e y , C r e d it, a n d B a n k in g , 1982, vol. 14,
pp. 494-510; and M. F. Kokoski, “Consumer Price Indices by Demo­
graphic Group,” bls Working Paper No. 167 (Bureau of Labor Statis­
tics, April 1987).
7 T. Erickson, “The Ambiguous Effect of New and Improved Goods on
the Cost-of-Living,” E c o n o m ic s L e tte r s , August 2000, pp. 143-47.

Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

39

Précis

IT im proves
e m erg e n cy outcom es
It still often seems difficult to find com­
puters in the macro-productivity figures
outside the computer industry itself or
the relatively easy-to-measure durable
goods manufacturing sector. Indeed, at
least one study reviewed for this depart­
ment indicated that there are specific
service-sector applications in which
productivity may not be improved by
computers. (See the March 2000 Précis.)
On the plus side of the ledger, how­
ever, Susan Athey and Scott Stem find
significant improvements in emergency
services in a recent nber study, The Im­
p a ct o f Information Technology on
Emergency Health Care Outcomes.
Their study combines information from
an original survey of information tech­
nology ( it ) and job design in emergency
call (911) centers with detailed data on
virtually all ambulance rides to emer­
gency room admissions in Pennsylva­
nia in 1994 and 1996.
Their results indicate that the adop­
tion o f the more IT-intensive “En­
hanced 911” systems that link automatic
caller identification to a GIS database is
associated with significant improve­
ments in the outcomes of cardiac dis­
tress calls to the emergency service.
These improved outcomes include bet­
ter intermediate health care at the scene,
such as measurement of blood pressure,
respiration, and pulse, increased sur­
vival rate, and better outcomes in terms
of mortality and cost once the patient
reaches the hospital.

In a general conclusion about pro­
ductivity measurement in the service
sector, Athey and Stem remark, “In con­
trast to studies that attempt to evaluate
the gains from it by aggregating across
a wide variety of heterogeneous estab­
lishments and applications of IT, our
approach has been to identify a specific
application and to tailor both the mea­
surement of IT and the productivity
analysis to fit the application.” Perhaps
this indicates that as much as quality
40

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adjustment is the “house-to-house com­
bat” of price measurement, these de­
tailed studies will be the street-to-street
fighting needed to understand service
sector productivity.

could raise concerns regarding the stan­
dard of living of some of these elderly as
they reach very advanced ages.

S ocial Security’s
earnings test

What are l m d s and what do they have
to do with productivity? A longitudinal
micro-level data set ( l m d ) follows a
large number of firms or establishments
over a period of time, l m d s allow re­
searchers to conduct certain types of
productivity studies that are not pos­
sible with aggregate data.
In “Understanding Productivity: Les­
sons from Longitudinal M icrodata”
(Journal of Economic Literature, Sep­
tember 2000), Eric J. Bartelsman of Free
University, Amsterdam and Mark Dorns
of the Federal Reserve Board of Gover­
nors review recent productivity studies
that have used l m d s . They pay par­
ticular attention to the Longitudinal Re­
search Database ( l r d ), a large data set
of U.S. manufacturing establishments
that has been developed by the U.S.
Census Bureau. The authors have both
worked with the LRD and are quite famil­
iar with it. The l r d combines data from
the Census of Manufactures and the
Annual Survey of Manufactures. The
establishment-level data from the two
have been linked starting in 1972 and
continuing (as of now) through 1997.
Data from supplementary surveys have
also been linked to the basic data.
There have been numerous valuable
findings from studying productivity
with data sets such as the l r d . Among
the findings discussed by Bartelsman
and Dorns is that “the amount of pro­
ductivity dispersion is extremely large—
some firms are substantially more pro­
ductive than others.” They also note
that “a large portion of aggregate pro­
ductivity growth is attributable to re­
source reallocation. The manufacturing
sector is characterized by large shifts in
employment and output across estab­
lishments every year—the aggregate
data belie the tremendous amount of tur­
moil underneath.”
□

In April of this year, the Senior Citizens
Freedom to Work Act was signed into
law. This new law eliminated the earn­
ings test for recipients of Social Secu­
rity benefits who are over the normal
Social Security retirement age (now 65).
The test reduced current payments to
recipients whose labor income was
above a certain level. While benefits
were later increased to make up for such
a reduction, the test was often viewed
as a tax on earnings. A version of the
test still affects recipients aged 62-64,
and will affect more as the normal retire­
ment age is raised to 67. Therefore, the
test’s impact on the behavior of older
workers is still of interest.
Jonathan Gruber of Massachusetts
Institute of Technology and National
Bureau of Economic Research [n b e r ]
and Peter Orszag of Sebago Associates
and University of California Berkeley in­
vestigate this impact in “Does the So­
cial Security Earnings Test Affect Labor
Supply and Benefits Receipt?” ( n b e r
Working Paper 7923). They analyze data
from the March Supplement to the Cur­
rent Population Survey during the 197398 period. One noteworthy feature of
their analysis is that it studies data on
both women and men. Earlier studies of
the earnings test have tended to focus
solely on men.
Gruber and Orszag find that the earn­
ings test does not have a robust influ­
ence on m en’s labor supply choices.
They do find more evidence that sug­
gests that the earnings test affects
women’s labor supply decisions. Gruber
and Orszag’s analysis also indicates that
removing the earnings test may increase
the early receipt of Social Security ben­
efits, which lowers benefit levels. This

November 2000

Productivity a n d LMDs

Book Reviews

Economies in crisis
The Return of Depression Economics.
By Paul Krugman. New York, New
York, W. W. Norton and Company,
1999,176 pp. $23.95.
This interesting yet very complicated
book offers a tour of the major economic
crises which have spread across the
world in the 1990s, including those of
East Asia, Brazil, Mexico, and Russia.
Paul Krugman provides pithy accounts
of the devaluation of Thailand’s baht
currency, the “financial doomsday ma­
chine” created by hedge funds, and
the “liquidity trap” of the Japanese
economy.
This economics professor at the M.I.T.
maintains that while the world economy
is not and probably will not be in de­
pression in the near future, “depression
economics” policies have staged a come­
back. Krugman draws analogies between
factors behind the economic crises that
afflicted East Asia (including South Ko­
rea, Thailand, and Indonesia), Brazil,
Mexico, and Russia in recent years, and
factors behind the Great Depression in
this country during the 1930s. He char­
acterizes the Great Depression as a con­
dition created by a collapse in aggregate
demand that was prolonged by inaction
of the Federal Reserve (Fed) and the
Hoover Administration. He points out
that the Fed could have ended the Great
Depression by dramatically increasing
the money supply. The author points
out the irony in how the International
Monetary Fund (IMF), the last-resort
lender to national governments, has ap­
parently not learned from the mistakes
of the 1930s. In an effort to satisfy in­
vestors, the IMF has traditionally re­
quired fiscal and monetary austerity in
the countries it lends to. Krugman says
this policy of tight national budgets and
tight money supplies is folly, reminiscent
of economic conditions in this country
during the Hoover Administration, con­
ditions which prolonged the Great De­
pression.


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When countries experiencing eco­
nomic crises desperately need loans from
the IMF, they have routinely been re­
quired to raise interest rates to extremely
high levels (to appeal to creditors), in­
crease taxes, reduce national spending,
and wait for the economy to improve.
The author points out that the IMF’s re­
cession-fighting policies are the oppo­
site of those of this country during postWorld War II recessions. He asserts that
IMF requirements for double-digit inter­
est rates and reduced national spending
in countries experiencing recessions is
ironically a guaranteed strategy for a
prolonged, severe recession.
The author proposes that countries
whose economies have suffered from in­
vestor panic and capital flight should
avoid implementing austerity measures
of the IMF. Instead, these countries
should apply emergency controls on
outflows of short-term, liquid capital in­
vestments. Moreover, the author rec­
ommends that countries tax companies
that borrow in foreign currency. Accord­
ingly, countries experiencing a reduction
in demand for exports may then be able
to allow the value of their currencies to
slide, yet avoid provoking a financial
collapse.
Devaluing one’s currency is an easy
way for a country to reduce the price of
its products when faced with a sudden
reduction in demand for them. However,
collapsing currencies end up bankrupt­
ing local businesses and banks who
have borrowed in foreign currencies,
because the currencies they must repay
are much more expensive.
The book analyzes economic crises
of selected countries in the 1990s. These
include the currency crises of East Asia
in 1997 and 1998, the Japanese reces­
sion of the 1990s, the Brazilian financial
panics of 1998 and 1999, and the col­
lapse of the Mexican peso and other
Latin American currencies during 1994
and 1995. The most interesting parts of
the book examine the factors behind East
Asia’s economic woes, including those
of Japan.

Krugman’s main explanation for most
of these crises involves the increased
proliferation of liquid financial invest­
ments made in “emerging markets” from
investors abroad. Sudden shifts in in­
ternational investor sentiments, result­
ing from irrational, herd mentalities of
international investors, have wreaked
havoc on emerging markets. For de­
cades governments have removed regu­
latory restraints on domestic and inter­
national trade. International investment
fund traders tend to change opinions
suddenly, withdrawing liquid, indirect
investments from developing markets in
a panic.
The main villains in this book are the
U.S. “hedge funds,” investment institu­
tions that control assets around the
world, well in excess of the respective
investors’ wealth. Such assets include
foreign currencies, stocks, bonds, and
real estate. Reputable hedge funds have,
in recent years, been able to make in­
vestments that are up to 100 times the
size of their owners’ investment. There­
fore, a relatively small drop in asset prices
can result in huge losses for hedge-fund
investors and corresponding panic and
capital flight. According to Krugman,
“the competition among hedge funds to
exploit ever narrower profit opportuni­
ties had created a sort of financial
doomsday machine.”
Despite the speculative bubble that
developed in East Asia in the late 1990s,
the author contends that the region’s
growth was real and solid and was not
based on just borrowed funds. From the
start of the East Asian “economic
miracle” until the early 1990s, the eco­
nomic growth of that area was for the
most part financed by a pay-as-you-go
basis, with little money borrowed from
abroad. The small amount of money that
was borrowed was invested mainly as
direct foreign investment for building
plants for manufacturing exports.
In 1990, private investments made in
“emerging markets,” including those of
South Korea, Thailand, Indonesia, and
Mexico, totaled $42 billion. By 1997, pri-

Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

41

Book Reviews

vate capital flows had ballooned to $256
billion. In the early 1990s, most of the
money was invested in Mexico and the
rest of Latin America. However, after
1994, an increasing share was invested
in the economies of Southeast Asia.
The July 1997 devaluation of
Thailand’s “baht” currency set into mo­
tion depreciating financial and real es­
tate asset values that spread across
much of Asia. From 1996 to the first half
of 1997, an increasing number of specu­
lative investments in Thai real estate and
stocks, financed by external lenders,
deflated in value. Consequently, foreign
lenders increasingly stopped lending
money to Thailand.
The loss in investor confidence
quickly spread from Thailand to Malay­
sia, Indonesia, South Korea, and Japan.
By 1998, all of these countries were ex­
periencing recessions. As far as inter­
national investors were concerned, fi­
nancial losses in one Asian economy
were a precursor for more in other Asian
economies. However, these economies
were only marginally linked, engaging
in a relatively small amount of trade with
neighboring countries. Increasingly
though, lenders avoided lending to
these countries, and real estate, stock,
and currency values plummeted.
Between 1953 and 1973, the Japanese
economy transformed itself like no other
in history. The country changed from a
m ostly agricultural country to the
“world’s largest exporter of steel and
automobiles.” But since 1991, the Japa­
nese economy has languished in a re­
cession. Krugman notes that Japan pro­
duced less in 1998 than in 1991. During
the 1990s, Japan, to no avail, repeatedly
applied the two standard remedies for
increasing consumer demand and end­
ing a recession. Its government lowered
interest rates and increased government
spending.
After its bubble economy burst, Ja­
pan eventually lowered interest rates to
near 0 percent. But the economy and
consumer demand continued to slump.
Throughout the 1990s, the Japanese

42

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

government borrowed money and in­
vested in public works projects, such as
roads and bridges, even when many
agreed they were not needed. In 1998,
Japan projected a deficit equal to 10 per­
cent of its GDP. But the successes of the
stimulus policies have been short lived.
Japan is caught in a “liquidity trap,”
a condition in which the public chooses
to hold any amount of money that is
supplied. Maybe due to its aging popu­
lation, or maybe due to fear of its future
economy, Japanese consumers have not
been willing to increase spending to the
point of approaching their economy’s
capacity.
Krugman suggests that the answer
to Japan’s liquidity trap may be the ex­
pectation of inflation. Since 1994, con­
sumer inflation in Japan has remained
near 0 percent. For the 12-month period
ended April 2000, Japanese consumer
prices decreased 0.8 percent. The au­
thor suggests that the Japanese govern­
ment created inflation by drastically in­
creasing the money supply, and con­
vinced the public that consumer infla­
tion is here to stay. Perhaps when its
citizens expect annual inflation of 3 to 4
percent over many years, and when they
expect the purchasing power of their yen
will be less next month or next year, they
will hoard less yen and increase spend­
ing and borrowing.
I recommend this book to readers
who understand the fundamental theo­
ries of international finance and mac­
roeconomics.

Borjas, George J., Foreign-Born Teaching

—Todd Wilson

Assistants and the Academic Performance
o f Undergraduates. Cambridge, MA, Na­

Office of Prices and Living Conditions,
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Publications received
Economic and social statistics
Glaeser, Edward L., David Laibson, and
Bruce Sacerdote, The Economic Ap­
proach to Social Capital. Cambridge, MA,
National Bureau o f Economic Research,
Inc., 2000,39 pp. (Working Paper 7728.)

November 2000

$10 per copy, plus $10 for postage and
handling outside the United States.
International Labor Organization, Yearbook
of Labor Statistics, 1999.58th ed. Geneva,
International Labor Organization, 1999,
1353 pp. Available in the United States
from ILO Publications Center, Waldorf,
MD.

Israel Central Bureau o f Statistics, Monthly

Bulletin o f Statistics, March, April and
May 2000. Jerusalem, Israel Central Bu­
reau o f Statistics, 2000, 153 pp. each.
M in istere de L’E co n o m ie, Annuaire

Statistique de la France, 2000, Vol. 103.
Paris, Ministere de L’Economie, Des Fi­
nances et de L’Industrie, 1,026 pp.
Statistics Netherlands, Statistical Yearbook
of the Netherlands, 2000. Voorburg, The
Netherlands, Statistics Netherlands,
2000, 551 pp.
Madden, Janice F., Changes in Income

Inequality within U.S. Metropolitan Ar­
eas. Kalamazoo, MI, W.E. Upjohn Insti­
tute for Employment Research, 2000, 199
pp.

Economic growth
and development
Anderson, John E. and Robert W. Wassmer,

Bidding for Business: The Efficacy o f Lo­
cal Economic Development Incentives in
a Metropolitan Area. Kalamazoo, MI,
W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment
Research, 2000, 243 pp.
Krugman, Paul, The Return of Depression
Economics. New York, W.W. Norton &
Co., 1999, 176 pp. $23.95.

Education

tional Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.,
2000,13 pp. (Working Paper 7635.) $10
per copy, plus $10 for postage and han­
dling outside the United States.
Card, David and Thomas Lemieux, Can

Falling Supply Explain the Rising Return
to College for Younger Men? A CohortBased Analysis. Cambridge, MA, National
Bureau of Economic Research, Inc., 2000,
51 pp. (Working Paper 7655.) $10 per
copy, plus $10 for postage and handling
outside the United States.
_____D avid , Estim ating the Return to

Schooling: Progress on Some Persistent
Econometric Problems. Cambridge, MA,
National Bureau of Economic Research,
Inc., 2000,46 pp. (Working Paper 7769.)
$10 per copy, plus $10 for postage and
handling outside the United States.
Cobb, W illiam H., Radical Education

in the Rural South: Commonwealth Col­
lege, 1922-1940. Detroit, Wayne State
U n iversity P ress, 2 0 0 0 , 263 pp.
Hoxby, Caroline M., Benevolent Colluders?

The Effects of Antitrust Action on College
Financial Aid and Tuition. Cambridge,
MA, National Bureau of Economic Re­
search Inc., 2000,55 pp. (Working Paper
7754.) $10 per copy, plus $10 for post­
age and handling outside the United
States.
Mary Joyce and D avid N eum ark, An

Introduction to School-to-Work Programs
in the NLSY97: How Prevalent Are They,
and Which Youths Do They Serve? Cam­
bridge, MA, National Bureau of Economic
Research, Inc., 2000, 35 pp. (Working
Paper 7733.) $10 per copy, plus $10 for
postage and handling outside the United
States.
____ Evaluating School-to-Work Programs
Using the New NLSY. Cambridge, MA,
National Bureau o f Economic Research,
Inc., 2000,46 pp. (Working Paper 7719.)
$10 per copy, plus $10 for postage and
handling outside the United States.

eds., Social Services in the Workplace:

Rich, Robert and Joseph Tracy, Uncer

Repositioning Occupational Social Work
in the New Millennium. Binghamton, NY,

tainty and Labor Contract Durations.

The Haworth Press, Inc., 2000, 223 pp.
Chaykowski, Richard and others, Facilitat

ing Conflict Resolution in Union-Manage­
ment Relations: A Guide for Neutrals.
Ithaca, NY, Cornell University, PERC In­
stitute on Conflict Resolution, School of
Industrial and Labor Relations, 2000,36
pp. $15, paper.
Fitz-enz, Jac, The ROI of Human Capital:

M easuring the Econom ic Value o f
Employee Performance. N ew York,
AMACOM, American Management As­

sociation, 2000, 298 pp. $29.95.
Haspels, N elien and M ichele Jankanish,
Action Against Child Labour. Geneva,
International Labor Organization, 2000,
334 pp. $34.95. Available in the United
States from ILO Publications Center,
Waldorf, MD.
Heath, Simon, Good Faith in Wrongful

Dismissal: Canadian Employment Law
After Wallace v. United Grain Growers
Ltd. Kingston, Ontario, Queen’s Univer­
sity, Industrial Relations Center, IRC
Press, 2000, 32 pp.
Ichniowski, Casey and others, eds. The

American Workplace: Skills, Compensa­
tion, and Employee Involvement. New

Romer, Paul M., Should the Government

York, NY, Cambridge University Press,
2000, 287 pp. $54.95.

Subsidize Supply or Demand in the Mar­
ket for Scientists and Engineers? Cam­

Love, Carolyn Kristjanson, Mergers and

bridge, MA, National Bureau of Economic
Research, Inc., 2000, 49 pp. (Working
Paper 7723.) $10 per copy, plus $10 for
postage and handling outside the United
States.

Health and safety
Chappell, Duncan and Vittorio Di Martino,
Violence At Work. 2nd ed. Geneva, Inter­
national Labor Organization, 2000, 171
pp. $ 14.95, paper. Available in the United
States from ILO Publications Center,
Waldorf, MD.

Industrial relations
Alexander, Mark, Employee Performance

Acquisitions: The Role of H R M in Suc­
cess. Kingston, Ontario, Queen’s Uni­
versity, Industrial Relations Center, IRC
Press, 2000, 16 pp.
Marjoribanks, Timothy, News Corpora­
tion, Technology and the Workplace. New
York, Cambridge University Press, 2000,
221 pp., bibliography. $54.95, cloth;
$19.95, paper.
M athers, Tory, C oalition Building: A

Critical Look at Salaried Professionals
and the Soul-Battering System That
Shapes Their Lives. Lanham , MD,
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.,
2000, 293 pp. $26.95.
Telford, Megan Elizabeth, Med-Arb: A

Viable Dispute Resolution Alternative.
Kingston, Ontario, Queen’s University,
Industrial Relations Center, 2000,17 pp.

International economics
A cem oglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and
James A. Robinson, The Colonial Ori­

gins of Comparative Development: An
Empirical Investigation. Cambridge, MA,
National Bureau o f Economic Research,
Inc., 2 000,70 pp. (Working Paper 7771.)
$10 per copy, plus $10 for postage and
handling outside the United States.
B e llo fio r e , R iccard o, G lobal Money,

Capital Restructuring and the Changing
Patterns o f Labour. Northampton, MA,
Edward Elgar, 1999,202 pp. $85.
R auch, Jam es E. and Vitor Trindade,

Information and Globization: Wage CoMovements, Labor Demand Elasticity,
and Conventional Trade Liberalization.
Cambridge, MA, National Bureau of Eco­
nomic Research, Inc., 2000,41 pp. (Work­
ing Paper 7671.) $10 per copy, plus $10
for postage and handling outside the
United States.

Labor and econom ic history
Harris, Howell John, Bloodless Victories:

The Rise and Fall of the Open Shop in the
Philadelphia Metal Trades, 1890-1940.
New York, Cambridge University Press,
456 pp. $44.95.

Labor force

versity, Industrial Relations Center, IRC
Press, 2000, 14 pp.

Auer, P eter, Em ploym ent R evival In

M u lligan , C asey B ., Can M onopoly

Unionism Explain Publicly Induced Re­
tirement? Cambridge, MA, National Bu­

versity, Industrial Relations Center, IRC
Press, 2000, 20 pp.

reau o f Economic Research, Inc., 2000,
26 pp. (Working Paper 7680.) $10 per
copy, plus $10 for postage and handling
outside the United States.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Schm idt, Jeff, D isciplin ed M inds: A

P rogressive Strategy fo r Canadian
Unions. Kingston, Ontario, Queen’s Uni­

and Discipline Problems: A New Ap­
proach. Kingston, Ontario, Queen’s Uni­

Barak, Michal E. Mor and David Bargal,

Cambridge, MA, National Bureau of Eco­
nomic Research, Inc., 2000,48 pp. (Work­
ing Paper 7731.) $10 per copy, plus $10
for postage and handling outside the
United States.

Europe: Labour Market Success in Aus­
tria, Denmark, Ireland and the Nether­
lands. Geneva, International Labor Orga­
nization, 2000, 140 pp. Available in the
United States from the ILO Publications
Center, Waldorf, MD.
Cappelli, Peter, Examining the Incidence of

Downsizing and Its Effect on Establish-

Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

43

Book Reviews

merit Performance. Cambridge, MA, Na­
tional Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.,
2000, 43 pp. (Working Paper 7742.) $10
per copy, plus $10 for postage and han­
dling outside the United States.
U.S. Department o f Labor, Report on the
Youth Labor Force. Washington, 2000,
76 pp.

Labor and econom ic history
Bernhardt, Debra E. and Rachel Bernstein,

Ordinary People, Extraordinary Lives:
A Pictorial History o f Working People in
New York City. New York, New York
University Press, 2000, 219 pp. $29.95.

Prices and living conditions
Gordon, Robert J., The Boskin Commission
Report and Its Aftermath. Cambridge, MA,
National Bureau of Economic Research,
Inc., 2000,48 pp. (Working Paper 7759.)
$10 per copy, plus $10 for postage and
handling outside the United States.

Productivity and
technological change

H all, B ronw yn, H., Adam Jaffe, and
Manuel Trajtenberg, Market Value and
Patent Citations: A First Look. Cambridge,
MA, National Bureau o f Economic Re­
search, Inc., 2000, 47 pp. (Working Pa­
per 7741.) $10 per copy, plus $10 for
postage and handling outside the United
States.
Jaffe, Adam B., Manuel Trajtenberg, and
M ichael S. Fogarty, The Meaning of

Patent Citations: Report on the N B E R I
Case-Western Reserve Survey of Paten­
tees. Cambridge, MA, National Bureau o f
Economic Research, Inc., 2000, 43 pp.
(Working Paper 7631.) $ 10 per copy, plus
$ 10 for postage and handling outside the
United States.
Thursby, Jerry G. and Marie C. Thursby,

Who Is Selling the Ivory Tower? Sources
of Growth in University Licensing. Cam­
bridge, MA, National Bureau of Economic
Research, Inc., 2000, 25 pp. (Working
Paper 7718.) $10 per copy, plus $10 for
postage and handling outside the United
States.

Wages and compensation
Beaudry, Paul and D avid Green, The

o f the Marketfor Wide-Bodied Commer­
cial Aircraft. Cambridge, MA, National

Changing Structure o f Wages in the US
and Germany: What Explains the Differ­
ence? Cambridge, MA, National Bureau

Bureau of Economic Research, Inc., 2000,
54 pp. (Working Paper 7710.) $10 per
copy, plus $10 for postage and handling
outside the United States.

o f Economic Research, Inc., 2000,47 pp.
(Working Paper 7697.) $ 10 per copy, plus
$ 10 for postage and handling outside the
United States.

Bernard, Andrew B. and others, Plants and
Productivity in International Trade. Cam­
bridge, MA, National Bureau of Economic
Research, Inc., 2000, 51 pp. (Working
Paper 7688.) $10 per copy, plus $10 for
postage and handling outside the United
States.

Berman, Eli, Kevin Lang, and Erez Siniver,

Benkard, C. Lanier, A Dynamic Analysis

Bemdt, Ernest R., Robert S. Pindyck, and
Pierre Azoulay, Consumption Externali­

ties and Diffusion in Pharmaceutical
Markets: Antiulcer Drugs. Cambridge,
MA, National Bureau o f Economic Re­

search, Inc., 2000, 53 pp. (Working Pa­
per 7772.) $10 per copy, plus $10 for
postage and handling outside the United
States.
Gordon, Robert J., Interpreting the “One

Big Wave” in U.S. Long-Term Produc­
tivity Growth. Cambridge, MA, National
Bureau of Economic Research, Inc., 2000,
71 pp. (Working Paper 7752.) $10 per
copy, plus $10 for postage and handling
outside the United States.

44

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Language-Skill Complementarity: Re­
turns to Immigrant Language Acquisition.
Cambridge, MA, National Bureau of Eco­
nomic Research, Inc., 2000,35 pp. (Work­
ing Paper 7737.) $10 per copy, plus $10
for postage and handling outside the
United States.
Blau, Francine D. and Lawrence M. Kahn,
Gender Differences in Pay. Cambridge,
MA, National Bureau of Economic Re­
search, Inc., 2000, 38 pp. (Working Pa­
per 7732.) $10 for postage and handling
outside the United States.

ham, AL, National Compensation Survey,
July 1998. Washington, 1999, Bulletin
3095-76, 45 pp. Stock No. 829-00100937-1. $5. For sale by the Superinten­
dent o f Documents, P.O. Box 371954,
Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954.
______ Em ployer Costs fo r Em ployee
Compensation, 1986-99. Washington,
2000, Bulletin 2526, 293 pp. Stock No.
029-001-03360-5. $32. For sale by the
Superintendent o f Documents, Mail Stop:
SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-9328.
_____ Knoxville, TN National Compensa­
tion Survey, July 1999. Washington, 1999,
Bulletin 3100-04,50 pp. Stock No. 310004. $6. For sale by the Superintendent o f
Documents, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh,
PA 15250-7954.

Welfare programs and
social insurance
Geanakoplos, John, Olivia S. Mitchell, and
Stephen P. Zeldes, Would a Privatized

Social Security System Really Pay a
Higher Rate o f Return? Cambridge, MA,
National Bureau o f Economic Research,
Inc., 2000, pp. 137-157. (NBER Reprint,
2266.) $10 per copy, plus $10 for post­
age and handling outside the United
States.
______ Social Security M oney’s Worth.
Cambridge, MA, National Bureau of Eco­
nomic Research, Inc., 2000, pp. 79-151.
(NBER Reprint 2267.) $ 10 per copy, plus
$ 10 for postage and handling outside the
United States.
G illion , C olin and others, eds., Social

Security Pensions: Development and Re­
form. (Executive Summary) Geneva, In­
ternational Labor Organization, 2000,43
pp. Available in the United States from
ILO Publications Center, Waldorf, MD.

O ’Shaughnessy, K.C., David I. Levine, and
Peter Cappelli, Changes in Managerial

Grogger, Jeff, Time Limits and Welfare
Use. Cambridge, MA, National Bureau of
Economic Research, Inc., 2000, 43 pp.
(Working Paper 7709.) $ 10 per copy, plus
$ 10 for postage and handling outside the
United States.

Pay Structures 1986-1992 and Rising
Returns to Skill. Cambridge, MA, National

International Labor Office, World Labour

Bureau of Economic Research, Inc., 2000,
45 pp. (Working Paper 7730.) $10 per
copy, plus $10 for postage and handling
outside the United States.
U.S. Bureau o f Labor Statistics, Birming­

November 2000

Report, 2000: Income Security and So­
cial Protection In a Changing World.
Geneva, International Labor Organiza­
tion, 2000,321 pp. $34.95, paper. Avail­
able in the United States from ILO Publi­
cations Center, Waldorf, MD.

«5

C urrent Labor Statistics

Notes on labor statistics

«

Labor com pensation and collective
bargaining data— continued

56

26. Participants in benefits plans, small firms
and government...................................................................
27. Work stoppages involving 1,000 workers or m o r e...........

Com parative indicators
1. Labor market indicators.........................................................
2. Annual and quarterly percent changes in
compensation, prices, andproductivity..........................
3. Alternative measures of wages and
compensation changes........................................................

57
57

Labor force data
4. Employment status o f the population,
seasonally adjusted.............................................................
5. Selected employment indicators,
seasonally adjusted.............................................................
6. Selected unemployment indicators,
seasonally adjusted.............................................................
7. Duration of unemployment,
seasonally adjusted............................................................
8. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment,
seasonally adjusted............................................................
9. Unemployment rates by sex and age,
seasonally adjusted.............................................................
10. Unemployment rates by States,
seasonally adjusted.............................................................
11. Employment o f workers by States,
seasonally adjusted............................................................
12. Employment o f workers by industry,
seasonally adjusted.............................................................
13. Average weekly hours by industry,
seasonally adjusted.............................................................
14. Average hourly earnings by industry,
seasonally adjusted............................................................
15. Average hourly earnings by industry...................................
16. Average weekly earnings by industry..................................
17. Diffusion indexes o f employment change,
seasonally adjusted.............................................................
18. Annual data: Employment status o f the population........
19. Annual data: Employment levels by industry...................
20. Annual data: Average hours
and earnings levels by industry........................................

58
59
60
61
61
62
63
63

Price data
28. Consumer Price Index: U.S. city average, by expenditure
category and commodity and service groups................. 81
29. Consumer Price Index: U.S. city average and
local data, all item s.............................................................. 84
30. Annual data: Consumer Price Index, all items
and major groups................................................................. 85
31. Producer Price Indexes by stage o f processing................. 86
32. Producer Price Indexes for the net output o f major
industry groups................................................................... 87
33. Annual data: Producer Price Indexes
by stage o f processing........................................................ 88
34. U.S. export price indexes by Standard International
Trade Classification............................................................ 89
35. U.S. import price indexes by Standard International
Trade Classification............................................................ 90
36. U.S. export price indexes by end-use category.................. 91
37. U.S. import price indexes by end-use category................. 92
38. U.S.international price indexes for selected
categories o f services.......................................................... 92

64
66
67
68
69
70
71
71
72

Labor com pensation and collective
bargaining data
21. Employment Cost Index, compensation,
by occupation and industry group................................... 73
22. Employment Cost Index, wages and salaries,
by occupation and industry group................................... 75
23. Employment Cost Index, benefits, private industry
workers, by occupation and industry group.................. 76
24. Employment Cost Index, private nonfarm workers,
by bargaining status, region, and area s i z e ..................... 77
25. Participants in benefit plans, medium and large firm s...... 78


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79
80

Productivity data
39. Indexes o f productivity, hourly compensation,
and unit costs, data seasonally adjusted......................... 93
40. Annual indexes o f multifactor productivity........................ 94
41. Annual indexes of productivity, hourly compensation,
unit costs, and p rices......................................................... 95
42. Annual indexes o f output per hour for selected
industries............................................................................... 96

International comparisons data
43. Unemployment rates in nine countries,
data seasonally adjusted..................................................... 99
44. Annual data: Employment status o f the civilian
working-age population, 10 countries.............................. 100
45. Annual indexes o f productivity and related measures,
12 countries........................................................................... 101

Injury and illness data
46. Annual data: Occupational injury and illness
incidence rates...................................................................... 102
47. Fatal occupational injuries by event or
exposure................................................................................ 104

Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

45

Notes on Current Labor Statistics

This section of the Review presents the prin­
cipal statistical series collected and calcu­
lated by the Bureau o f Labor Statistics:
series on labor force; employment; unem­
ployment; labor compensation; consumer,
producer, and international prices; produc­
tivity; international comparisons; and injury
and illness statistics. In the notes that follow,
the data in each group o f tables are briefly
described; key definitions are given; notes
on the data are set forth; and sources of addi­
tional information are cited.

General notes
The following notes apply to several tables
in this section:
Seasonal adjustment. Certain monthly
and quarterly data are adjusted to eliminate
the effect on the data o f such factors as cli­
matic conditions, industry production sched­
ules, opening and closing of schools, holi­
day buying periods, and vacation practices,
which might prevent short-term evaluation
o f the statistical series. Tables containing
data that have been adjusted are identified as
“seasonally adjusted.” (All other data are not
seasonally adjusted.) Seasonal effects are es­
timated on the basis o f past experience.
When new seasonal factors are computed
each year, revisions may affect seasonally
adjusted data for several preceding years.
Seasonally adjusted data appear in tables
1 -1 4 ,1 6 -1 7 ,3 9 , and 43. Seasonally adjusted
labor force data in tables 1 and 4 -9 were re­
vised in the February 2000 issue o f the Re­
view. Seasonally adjusted establishment sur­
vey data shown in tables 1, 12-14 and 1617 were revised in the July 2000 Review and
reflect the experience through March 2000.
A brief explanation o f the seasonal adjust­
ment methodology appears in “Notes on the
data.”
Revisions in the productivity data in table
45 are usually introduced in the September
issue. Seasonally adjusted indexes and per­
cent changes from month-to-month and
quarter-to-quarter are published for numer­
ous Consumer and Producer Price Index se­
ries. However, seasonally adjusted indexes
are not published for the U.S. average AllItems CPI. Only seasonally adjusted percent
changes are available for this series.
Adjustments for price changes. Some
data— such as the “real” earnings shown in
table 14— are adjusted to eliminate the ef­
fect o f changes in price. These adjustments
are made by dividing current-dollar values
by the Consumer Price Index or the appro­
priate component o f the index, then multi­
plying by 100. For example, given a current
hourly wage rate o f $3 and a current price

46

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index number o f 150, where 1982 = 100, the
hourly rate expressed in 1982 dollars is $2
($3/150 x 100 = $2). The $2 (or any other
resulting values) are described as “real,”
“constant,” or “ 1982” dollars.

tin 1979.
Detailed data on the occupational injury
and illness series are published in Occupa­

Sources of information

tional Injuries and Illnesses in the United
States, by Industry, a BLS annual bulletin.
Finally, the Monthly Labor Review car­

Data that supplement the tables in this sec­
tion are published by the Bureau in a variety
of sources. Definitions of each series and
notes on the data are contained in later sec­
tions of these Notes describing each set of
data. For detailed descriptions o f each data
series, see b l s Handbook o f Methods, Bul­
letin 2490. Users also may wish to consult

Major Programs o f the Bureau o f Labor Sta­
tistics, Report 919. News releases provide
the latest statistical information published by
the Bureau; the major recurring releases are
published according to the schedule appear­
ing on the back cover o f this issue.
More information about labor force, em­
ployment, and unemployment data and the
household and establishment surveys under­
lying the data are available in the Bureau’s
monthly publication, Employment and Earn­
ings. Historical unadjusted and seasonally
adjusted data from the household survey are
available on the Internet:
http://stats.bls.gov/cpshome.htm
Historically comparable unadjusted and sea­
sonally adjusted data from the establishment
survey also are available on the Internet:
http://stats.bls.gov/ceshome.htm
Additional information on labor force data
for areas below the national level are pro­
vided in the BLS annual report, Geographic

Profile o f Employment and Unemployment.
For a comprehensive discussion o f the
Employment Cost Index, see Employment
Cost Indexes and Levels, 1975-95, bls Bul­
letin 2466. The most recent data from the
Employee Benefits Survey appear in the fol­
lowing Bureau o f Labor Statistics bulletins:

Employee Benefits in Medium and Large
Firms; Employee Benefits in Small Private
Establishments; and Employee Benefits in
State and Local Governments.
More detailed data on consumer and pro­
ducer prices are published in the monthly
periodicals, The CPI Detailed Report and
Producer Price Indexes. For an overview of
the 1998 revision o f the CPI, see the Decem­
ber 1996 issue of the Monthly Labor Review.
Additional data on international prices ap­
pear in monthly news releases.
Listings o f industries for which produc­
tivity indexes are available may be found on
the Internet:
http://stats.bls.gov/iprhome.htm
For additional information on interna­

November 2000

tional comparisons data, see International
Comparisons of Unemployment, bls Bulle­

ries analytical articles on annual and longer
term developments in labor force, employ­
ment, and unemployment; employee com­
pensation and collective bargaining; prices;
productivity; international comparisons; and
injury and illness data.

Symbols
n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified,
n.e.s. = not elsewhere specified.
p = preliminary. To increase the time­
liness o f some series, preliminary
figures are issued based on repre­
sentative but incomplete returns,
r = revised. Generally, this revision
reflects the availability o f later
data, but also may reflect other ad­
justments.

Comparative Indicators
(Tables 1-3)
Comparative indicators tables provide an
overview and comparison o f major bls sta­
tistical series. Consequently, although many
o f the included series are available monthly,
all measures in these comparative tables are
presented quarterly and annually.
Labor market indicators include em­
ployment measures from two major surveys
and information on rates o f change in com­
pensation provided by the Employment Cost
Index (ECi) program. The labor force partici­
pation rate, the employment-to-population
ratio, and unemployment rates for major de­
mographic groups based on the Current
Population (“household”) Survey are pre­
sented, while measures o f employment and
average weekly hours by major industry sec­
tor are given using nonfarm payroll data. The
Employment Cost Index (compensation), by
major sector and by bargaining status, is cho­
sen from a variety of bls compensation and
wage measures because it provides a com­
prehensive measure of employer costs for
hiring labor, not just outlays for wages, and
it is not affected by employment shifts among
occupations and industries.
Data on changes in compensation, prices,
and productivity are presented in table 2.

Measures o f rates o f change o f compensa­
tion and w ages from the Employment Cost
Index program are provided for all c iv il­
ian nonfarm workers (exclu d in g Federal
and household workers) and for all private
nonfarm workers. Measures o f changes in
consumer prices for all urban consumers;
producer prices by stage o f processing;
overall prices by stage o f processing; and
overall export and import price indexes are
given. Measures of productivity (output per
hour o f all persons) are provided for major
sectors.

Alternative measures of wage and com­
pensation rates of change, which reflect the
overall trend in labor costs, are summarized
in table 3. Differences in concepts and scope,
related to the specific purposes of the series,
contribute to the variation in changes among
the individual measures.

Notes on the data
Definitions of each series and notes on the
data are contained in later sections of these
notes describing each set o f data.

Employment and
Unemployment Data

ceding 4 weeks. Persons who did not look for
work because they were on layoff are also
counted among the unemployed. The unem­
ployment rate represents the number unem­
ployed as a percent of the civilian labor force.
The civilian labor force consists of all
employed or unemployed persons in the
civilian noninstitutional population. Persons
not in the labor force are those not classified
as employed or unemployed. This group
includes discouraged workers, defined as
persons who want and are available for a job
and who have looked for work sometime in
the past 12 months (or since the end o f thenlast job if they held one within the past 12
months), but are not currently looking,
because they believe there are no jobs
available or there are none for which they
would qualify. The civilian noninstitu­
tional population comprises all persons 16
years of age and older who are not inmates
of penal or mental institutions, sanitariums,
or homes for the aged, infirm, or needy. The
civilian labor force participation rate is the
proportion o f the civilian noninstitutional
population that is in the labor force. The
employment-population ratio is employ­
ment as a percent o f the civilian nonin­
stitutional population.

Notes on the data
(Tables 1; 4-20)

Household survey data
Description of the series
data in this section are ob­
tained from the Current Population Survey,
a program of personal interviews conducted
monthly by the Bureau of the Census for the
Bureau of Labor Statistics. The sample con­
sists of about 50,000 households selected to
represent the U.S. population 16 years o f age
and older. Households are interviewed on a
rotating basis, so that three-fourths o f the
sample is the same for any 2 consecutive
months.

E mployment

From time to time, and especially after a
decennial census, adjustments are made in
the Current Population Survey figures to
correct for estimating errors during the
intercensal years. These adjustments affect
the comparability o f historical data. A de­
scription o f these adjustments and their ef­
fect on the various data series appears in the
Explanatory N otes o f Employment and

Earnings.
Data beginning in 2000 are not strictly
comparable with data for 1999 and earlier
years because of the introduction o f revised
population controls. Additional information
appears in the February 2000 issue of Em­

ployment and Earnings.

Definitions
Employed persons include (1) all those who
worked for pay any time during the week
which includes the 12th day o f the month or
who worked unpaid for 15 hours or more in
a family-operated enterprise and (2) those
who were temporarily absent from their regu­
lar jobs because o f illness, vacation, indus­
trial dispute, or similar reasons. A person
working at more than one job is counted only
in the job at which he or she worked the
greatest number o f hours.
Unemployed persons are those who did
not work during the survey week, but were
available for work except for temporary ill­
ness and had looked for jobs within the pre­


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Labor force data in tables 1 and 4 -9 are
seasonally adjusted. Since January 1980,
national labor force data have been season­
ally adjusted with a procedure called X -l 1
arim a which was developed at Statistics
Canada as an extension o f the standard X11 method previously used by b l s . A de­
tailed description o f the procedure appears
in the X - l l a r i m a Seasonal Adjustment
Method, by Estela Bee Dagum (Statistics
Canada, Catalogue No. 12-564E, January
1983).
At the beginning o f each calendar year,
historical seasonally adjusted data usually
are revised, and projected seasonal adjust­
ment factors are calculated for use during
the January-June period. The historical sea­

sonally adjusted data usually are revised for
only the most recent 5 years. In July, new
seasonal adjustment factors, which incorpo­
rate the experience through June, are pro­
duced for the July-December period, but no
revisions are made in the historical data.
F or a d d it io n a l inform atio n on na­
tional household survey data, contact the
Division of Labor Force Statistics: (202) 6916378.

Establishment survey data
Description of the series
E mployment , h o ur s , a n d

earning s data

in this section are compiled from payroll
records reported monthly on a voluntary ba­
sis to the Bureau o f Labor Statistics and its
cooperating State agencies by about 300,000
establishments representing all industries
except agriculture. Industries are classified
in accordance with the 1987 Standard In­
dustrial Classification (SIC) Manual. In most
industries, the sampling probabilities are
based on the size o f the establishment; most
large establishments are therefore in the
sample. (An establishment is not necessar­
ily a firm; it may be a branch plant, for ex ­
ample, or warehouse.) Self-em ployed per­
sons and others not on a regular civilian
payroll are outside the scope o f the sur­
vey because they are excluded from estab­
lishment records. This largely accounts for
the difference in em ployment figures be­
tw een the household and establishm ent
surveys.

Definitions
An establishment is an economic unit which
produces goods or services (such as a fac­
tory or store) at a single location and is en­
gaged in one type o f economic activity.
Employed persons are all persons who
received pay (including holiday and sick
pay) for any part o f the payroll period in­
cluding the 12th day o f the month. Per­
sons holding more than one job (about 5
percent o f all persons in the labor force)
are counted in each establishment which
reports them.
Production workers in manufacturing
include working supervisors and nonsupervisory workers closely associated with pro­
duction operations. Those workers men­
tioned in tables 11-16 include production
workers in manufacturing and mining; con­
struction workers in construction; and
nonsupervisory workers in the following in­
dustries: transportation and public utilities;
wholesale and retail trade; finance, insurance,
and real estate; and services. These groups ac­
count for about four-fifths o f the total em-

Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

47

Current Labor Statistics
ployment on private nonagricultural payrolls.
Earnings are the payments production
or nonsupervisory workers receive during
the survey period, including premium pay
for overtime or late-shift work but exclud­
ing irregular bonuses and other special
paym ents. Real earnings are earnings
adjusted to reflect the effects of changes in
consumer prices. The deflator for this series
is derived from the Consumer Price Index
for Urban W age Earners and C lerical
Workers (CPi-W).
Hours represent the average w eekly
hours o f production or nonsupervisory work­
ers for which pay was received, and are dif­
ferent from standard or scheduled hours.
Overtime hours represent the portion o f av­
erage weekly hours which was in excess of
regular hours and for which overtime premi­
ums were paid.
The Diffusion Index represents the per­
cent of industries in which employment was
rising over the indicated period, plus one-half
of the industries with unchanged employment;
50 percent indicates an equal balance between
industries with increasing and decreasing em­
ployment. In line with Bureau practice, data
for the 1-, 3-, and 6-month spans are season­
ally adjusted, while those for the 12-month
span are unadjusted. Data are centered within
the span. Table 17 provides an index on pri­
vate nonfarm employment based on 356 in­
dustries, and a manufacturing index based on
139 industries. These indexes are useful for
measuring the dispersion of economic gains
or losses and are also economic indicators.

Beginning in June 1996, the bls uses the
X-12 arima methodology to seasonally ad­
just establishment survey data. This proce­
dure, developed by the Bureau of the Cen­
sus, controls for the effect of varying survey
intervals (also known as the 4- versus 5-week
effect), thereby providing improved mea­
surement of over-the-month changes and un­
derlying economic trends. Revisions o f data,
usually for the most recent 5-year period, are
made once a year coincident with the bench­
mark revisions.
In the establishment survey, estimates for
the most recent 2 months are based on in­
complete returns and are published as pre­
liminary in the tables (12-17 in the Review).
When all returns have been received, the es­
timates are revised and published as “final”
(prior to any benchmark revisions) in the
third month of their appearance. Thus, De­
cember data are published as preliminary in
January and February and as final in March.
For the same reasons, quarterly establish­
ment data (table 1) are preliminary for the
first 2 months of publication and final in the
third month. Thus, fourth-quarter data are
published as preliminary in January and Feb­
ruary and as final in March.
F or additional information on estab­
lishment survey data, contact the Division of
Monthly Industry Employment Statistics:
(202) 691-6555.

Unemployment data by
State
Description of the series

Notes on the data
Establishment survey data are annually ad­
justed to comprehensive counts o f employ­
ment (called “benchmarks”). The latest ad­
justment, which incorporated March 1999
benchmarks, was made with the release of
May 2000 data, published in the July 2000
issue o f the Review. Coincident with the
benchmark adjustment, historical seasonally
adjusted data were revised to reflect updated
seasonal factors. Unadjusted data from April
1999 forward and seasonally adjusted data
from January 1996 forward are subject to
revision in future benchmarks.
In addition to the routine benchmark revi­
sions and updated seasonal factors introduced
with the release o f the May 2000 data, all esti­
mates for the wholesale trade division from
April 1998 forward were revised to incorpo­
rate a new sample design. This represented
the first major industry division to convert to
a probability-based sample under a 4-year
phase-in plan for the establishment survey
sample redesign project. For additional infor­
mation, see the the June 2000 issue of Employ­

ment and Earnings.
Revisions in State data (table 11) occurred
with the publication of January 2000 data.

48

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Data presented in this section are obtained
from the Local Area Unemployment Statis­
tics (LAUS) program, which is conducted in
cooperation with State employment security
agencies.
Monthly estimates o f the labor force,
employment, and unemployment for States
and sub-State areas are a key indicator o f lo­
cal economic conditions, and form the basis
for determining the eligibility of an area for
benefits under Federal economic assistance
programs such as the Job Training Partner­
ship Act. Seasonally adjusted unemployment
rates are presented in table 10. Insofar as
possible, the concepts and definitions under­
lying these data are those used in the national
estimates obtained from the cps .

Notes on the data
Data refer to State of residence. Monthly data
for all States and the District of Columbia are
derived using standardized procedures
established by BLS. Once a year, estimates are
revised to new population controls, usually
with publication o f January estimates, and
benchmarked to annual average cps levels.
F or additional information on data in

November 2000

this series, call (202) 691-6392 (table 10) or
(202) 691-6559 (table 11).

Compensation and
Wage Data
(Tables 1-3; 21-27)
C ompensation and wage data are gathered
by the Bureau from business establishments,
State and local governments, labor unions,
collective bargaining agreements on file with
the Bureau, and secondary sources.

Employment Cost Index
Description of the series
The Employment Cost Index (ECl) is a quar­
terly measure of the rate o f change in com­
pensation per hour worked and includes
wages, salaries, and employer costs o f em­
ployee benefits. It uses a fixed market
basket o f labor— similar in concept to the
Consumer Price Index’s fixed market basket
o f goods and services— to measure change
over time in employer costs o f employing
labor.
Statistical series on total compensation
costs, on wages and salaries, and on benefit
costs are available for private nonfarm work­
ers excluding proprietors, the self-employed,
and household workers. The total compensa­
tion costs and wages and salaries series are
also available for State and local government
workers and for the civilian nonfarm economy,
which consists o f private industry and State
and local government workers combined. Fed­
eral workers are excluded.
The Employment Cost Index probability
sample consists o f about 4,400 private non­
farm establishments providing about 23,000
occupational observations and 1,000 State
and local government establishments provid­
ing 6,000 occupational observations selected
to represent total employment in each sector.
On average, each reporting unit provides
wage and compensation information on five
well-specified occupations. Data are col­
lected each quarter for the pay period includ­
ing the 12th day o f March, June, September,
and December.
Beginning with June 1986 data, fixed
employment weights from the 1980 Census
o f Population are used each quarter to
calculate the civilian and private indexes
and the index for State and local govern­
ments. (Prior to June 1986, the employment
weights are from the 1970 Census o f Popu­
lation.) These fixed weights, also used to
derive all o f the industry and occupation
series indexes, ensure that changes in these
indexes reflect only changes in compensa­
tion, not employment shifts among indus-

tries or occupations with different levels o f
wages and compensation. For the bargaining
status, region, and metropolitan/non-metropolitan area series, however, employment
data by industry and occupation are not
available from the census. Instead, the 1980
employment weights are reallocated within
these series each quarter based on the cur­
rent sample. Therefore, these indexes are not
strictly comparable to those for the aggre­
gate, industry, and occupation series.

Definitions
Total compensation costs include wages,
salaries, and the employer’s costs for em­
ployee benefits.
Wages and salaries consist of earnings
before payroll deductions, including produc­
tion bonuses, incentive earnings, commis­
sions, and cost-of-living adjustments.
Benefits include the cost to employers
for paid leave, supplemental pay (includ­
ing nonproduction bonuses), insurance, retire­
ment and savings plans, and legally required
benefits (such as Social Security, workers’
compensation, and unemployment insurance).
Excluded from wages and salaries and em­
ployee benefits are such items as payment-in­
kind, free room and board, and tips.

Notes on the data
The Employment Cost Index for changes in
wages and salaries in the private nonfarm
economy was published beginning in 1975.
Changes in total compensation cost— wages
and salaries and benefits combined— were
published beginning in 1980. The series of
changes in wages and salaries and for total
compensation in the State and local govern­
ment sector and in the civilian nonfarm
econom y (excluding Federal em ployees)
were published beginning in 1981. Histori­
cal indexes (June 1981=100) are available on
the Internet:
http://stats.bls.gov/ecthome.htm
F or a d d it io n a l inform ation on the
Employment Cost Index, contact the Office
o f Compensation Levels and Trends: (202)
691-6199.

Employee Benefits Survey
Description of the series
Employee benefits data are obtained from
the Employee Benefits Survey, an annual
survey o f the incidence and provisions o f
selected benefits provided by employers.
The survey collects data from a sample of
approxim ately 9,000 private sector and
State and local government establishments.
The data are presented as a percentage of em­


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ployees who participate in a certain benefit, or
as an average benefit provision (for example,
the average number of paid holidays provided
to employees per year). Selected data from the
survey are presented in table 25 for medium
and large private establishments and in table
26 for small private establishments and State
and local government.
The survey covers paid leave benefits
such as holidays and vacations, and personal,
funeral, jury duty, military, family, and sick
leave; short-term disability, long-term dis­
ability, and life insurance; medical, dental,
and vision care plans; defined benefit and
defined contribution plans; flexible benefits
plans; reimbursement accounts; and unpaid
family leave.
A lso, data are tabulated on the in ci­
dence o f several other benefits, such as
severance pay, child-care assistance, well­
ness programs, and em ployee assistance
programs.

Definitions
Employer-provided benefits are benefits
that are financed either wholly or partly by
the employer. They may be sponsored by a
union or other third party, as long as there is
some employer financing. However, some
benefits that are fully paid for by the em­
ployee also are included. For example, long­
term care insurance and postretirement life
insurance paid entirely by the employee are
included because the guarantee o f insurabil­
ity and availability at group premium rates
are considered a benefit.
Participants are workers who are covered
by a benefit, whether or not they use that benefit
If the benefit plan is financed wholly by
employers and requires employees to complete
a minimum length of service for eligibility, the
workers are considered participants whether or
not they have met the requirement. If workers
are required to contribute towards the cost of
a plan, they are considered participants only
if they elect the plan and agree to make the
required contributions.
Defined benefit pension plans use prede­
termined formulas to calculate a retirement
benefit (if any), and obligate the employer to
provide those benefits. Benefits are generally
based on salary, years of service, or both.
Defined contribution plans generally
specify the level o f employer and employee
contributions to a plan, but not the formula
for determining eventual benefits. Instead,
individual accounts are set up for partici­
pants, and benefits are based on amounts
credited to these accounts.
Tax-deferred savings plans are a type of
defined contribution plan that allow par­
ticipants to contribute a portion of their sal­
ary to an employer-sponsored plan and defer
income taxes until withdrawal.

Flexible benefit plans allow employees
to choose among several benefits, such as life
insurance, medical care, and vacation days, and
among several levels of coverage within a given
benefit.

Notes on the data
Surveys of employees in medium and large
establishments conducted over the 1979—86
period in clu d ed e sta b lish m en ts that
employed at least 50, 100, or 250 workers,
depending on the industry (most service
industries were exclu d ed ). The survey
conducted in 1987 covered only State and
lo c a l govern m en ts w ith 50 or more
employees. The surveys conducted in 1988
and 1989 in clu d ed m edium and large
establishments with 100 workers or more in
private industries. All surveys conducted over
the 1979-89 period excluded establishments
in Alaska and Hawaii, as well as part-time
employees.
Beginning in 1990, surveys of State and
local governm ents and sm all private
establishments were conducted in evennumbered years, and surveys of medium and
large establishments were conducted in oddnumbered years. The small establishment
survey includes all private nonfarm
establishments with fewer than 100 workers,
while the State and local government survey
includes all governments, regardless of the
number of workers. All three surveys include
full- and part-time workers, and workers in all
50 States and the District of Columbia.
F or a d d it io n a l inform ation on the
Employee Benefits Survey, contact the Of­
fice of Compensation Levels and Trends on
the Internet:

http ://stats.bls.gov/ebshome.htm

Work stoppages
Description of the series
Data on work stoppages measure the num­
ber and duration of major strikes or lockouts
(involving 1,000 workers or more) occurring
during the month (or year), the number of
workers involved, and the amount o f work
time lost because of stoppage. These data are
presented in table 27.
Data are largely from a variety o f pub­
lished sources and cover only establish­
ments directly involved in a stoppage. They
do not measure the indirect or secondary
effect o f stoppages on other establishments
whose employees are idle owing to material
shortages or lack of service.

Definitions
Number of stoppages:

The number o f
strikes and lockouts involving 1,000 work­
ers or more and lasting a full shift or longer.

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49

Current Labor Statistics
W orkers involved: The number o f
workers directly involved in the stoppage.
Number of days idle: The aggregate
number o f workdays lost by workers in­
volved in the stoppages.
Days of idleness as a percent of estimated
working time: Aggregate workdays lost as a
percent of the aggregate number o f standard
workdays in the period multiplied by total
employment in the period.

Notes on the data
This series is not comparable with the one
terminated in 1981 that covered strikes in­
volving six workers or more.
F or a dd itio na l information on work
stoppages data, contact the Office o f Com­
pensation and Working Conditions: (202)
691-6282, or the Internet:

http ://sta ts.bls.gov/cbahome.htm

Price Data

Notes on the data

(Tables 2; 28-38)
data are gathered by the Bureau
o f Labor Statistics from retail and pri­
mary markets in the United States. Price
indexes are given in relation to a base pe­
riod— 1982 = 100 for many Producer Price
Indexes, 198 2 -8 4 = 100 for many Con­
sumer Price Indexes (unless otherw ise
noted), and 1990 = 100 for International
Price Indexes.

P rice

Consumer Price Indexes
Description of the series
The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a mea­
sure of the average change in the prices paid
by urban consumers for a fixed market bas­
ket of goods and services. The cpi is calcu­
lated monthly for two population groups, one
consisting only o f urban households whose
primary source o f income is derived from the
employment o f wage earners and clerical
workers, and the other consisting of all ur­
ban households. The wage earner index (CPIW ) is a continuation of the historic index that
was introduced well over a half-century ago
for use in wage negotiations. As new uses
were developed for the CPI in recent years,
the need for a broader and more representa­
tive index became apparent. The all-urban
consumer index (CPi-U), introduced in 1978,
is representative of the 1993-95 buying hab­
its of about 87 percent o f the noninstitutional
population o f the United States at that time,
compared with 32 percent represented in the
CPi-w. In addition to wage earners and cleri­
cal workers, the CPI-U covers professional,
managerial, and technical workers, the selfemployed, short-term workers, the unem­
ployed, retirees, and others not in the labor

50

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force.
The cpi is based on prices of food, cloth­
ing, shelter, fuel, drugs, transportation fares,
doctors’ and dentists’ fees, and other goods
and services that people buy for day-to-day
living. The quantity and quality o f these
items are kept essentially unchanged be­
tween major revisions so that only price
changes will be measured. All taxes directly
associated with the purchase and use of items
are included in the index.
Data collected from more than 23,000 re­
tail establishments and 5,800 housing units
in 87 urban areas across the country are used
to develop the “U.S. city average.” Separate
estimates for 14 major urban centers are pre­
sented in table 29. The areas listed are as in­
dicated in footnote 1 to the table. The area
indexes measure only the average change in
prices for each area since the base period, and
do not indicate differences in the level of
prices among cities.

In January 1983, the Bureau changed the
way in which homeownership costs are
meaured for the CPi-U. A rental equivalence
method replaced the asset-price approach to
homeownership costs for that series. In
January 1985, the same change was made
in the CPi-w. The central purpose o f the
change was to separate shelter costs from
the investment component o f home-owner­
ship so that the index would reflect only the
cost of shelter services provided by owneroccupied homes. An updated cpi-U and cpi w were introduced with release o f the Janu­
ary 1987 and January 1998 data.
F or a d d it io n a l inform ation on con­
sumer prices, contact the D ivision o f Con­
sumer Prices and Price Indexes: (202)
6 9 1 -7 0 0 0 .

Producer Price Indexes
Description of the series
Producer Price Indexes (PPI) measure av­
erage changes in prices received by domes­
tic producers o f commodities in all stages
of processing. The sample used for calcu­
lating these indexes currently contains about
3,200 commodities and about 80,000 quo­
tations per month, selected to represent the
movement o f prices o f all commodities pro­
duced in the manufacturing; agriculture, for­
estry, and fishing; mining; and gas and elec­
tricity and public utilities sectors. The stageof-processing structure o f ppi organizes
products by class o f buyer and degree of
fabrication (that is, finished goods, interme­
diate goods, and crude materials). The tradi­
tional commodity structure o f ppi organizes
products by similarity o f end use or mate­
rial composition. The industry and product

November 2000

structure o f ppi o rg a n izes data in
accordance with the Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) and the product code ex­
tension o f the sic developed by the U.S. Bu­
reau of the Census.
To the extent possible, prices used in
calculating Producer Price Indexes apply
to the first significant commercial trans­
action in the United States from the pro­
duction or central marketing point. Price
data are generally collected monthly, pri­
marily by mail questionnaire. M ost prices
are obtained directly from producing com­
panies on a voluntary and confidential ba­
sis. Prices generally are reported for the
Tuesday o f the week containing the 13th
day o f the month.
Since January 1992, price changes for the
various commodities have been averaged
together with im plicit quantity w eights
representing their importance in the total net
selling value of all commodities as of 1987.
The detailed data are aggregated to obtain
indexes for stage-of-processing groupings,
commodity groupings, durability-of-product
groupings, and a number of special composite
groups. All Producer Price Index data are
subject to revision 4 months after original
publication.
F or a d d it io n a l inform ation on pro­
ducer prices, contact the D ivision o f In­
dustrial Prices and Price Indexes: (202)
6 9 1 -7 7 0 5 .

International Price Indexes
Description of the series
The International Price Program produces
monthly and quarterly export and import
price indexes for nonmilitary goods traded
between the United States and the rest o f the
world. The export price index provides a
measure o f price change for all products sold
by U.S. residents to foreign buyers. (“Resi­
dents” is defined as in the national income
accounts; it includes corporations, busi­
nesses, and individuals, but does not require
the organizations to be U.S. owned nor the
individuals to have U.S. citizenship.) The
import price index provides a measure of
price change for goods purchased from other
countries by U.S. residents.
The product universe for both the import
and export indexes includes raw materials,
agricultural products, semifinished manufac­
tures, and finished manufactures, including
both capital and consumer goods. Price data
for these items are collected primarily by
mail questionnaire. In nearly all cases, the
data are collected directly from the exporter
or importer, although in a few cases, prices
are obtained from other sources.
To the extent possible, the data gathered
refer to prices at the U.S. border for exports
and at either the foreign border or the U.S.

border for imports. For nearly all products,
the prices refer to transactions completed dur­
ing the first week of the month. Survey re­
spondents are asked to indicate all discounts,
allowances, and rebates applicable to the re­
ported prices, so that the price used in the cal­
culation of the indexes is the actual price for
which the product was bought or sold.
In addition to general indexes of prices
for U.S. exports and imports, indexes are also
published for detailed product categories of
exports and imports. These categories are
defined according to the five-digit level of
detail for the Bureau of Economic Analysis
End-use Classification (SiTC), and the four­
digit level o f detail for the Harmonized
System. Aggregate import indexes by coun­
try or region o f origin are also available.
publishes indexes for selected catego­
ries o f internationally traded services, calcu­
lated on an international basis and on a balance-of-paym ents basis.
bls

Notes on the data
The export and import price indexes are
weighted indexes of the Laspeyres type. Price
relatives are assigned equal importance
within each harmonized group and are then
aggregated to the higher level. The values as­
signed to each weight category are based on
trade value figures compiled by the Bureau
o f the Census. The trade weights currently
used to compute both indexes relate to 1990.
Because a price index depends on the same
items being priced from period to period, it is
necessary to recognize when a product’s speci­
fications or terms of transaction have been
modified. For this reason, the Bureau’s ques­
tionnaire requests detailed descriptions of the
physical and functional characteristics o f the
products being priced, as well as information
on the number of units bought or sold, dis­
counts, credit terms, packaging, class of buyer
or seller, and so forth. When there are changes
in either the specifications or terms of trans­
action of a product, the dollar value of each
change is deleted from the total price change
to obtain the “pure” change. Once this value
is determined, a linking procedure is em­
ployed which allows for the continued repric­
ing of the item.
For the export price indexes, the preferred
pricing is f.a.s. (free alongside ship) U.S. port
o f exportation. When firms report export
prices f.o.b. (free on board), production point
information is collected which enables the
Bureau to calculate a shipment cost to the port
o f exportation. An attempt is made to collect
two prices for imports. The first is the import
price f.o.b. at the foreign port o f exportation,
which is consistent with the basis for valua­
tion o f imports in the national accounts. The
second is the import price c.i.f.(costs, insur­
ance, and freight) at the U.S. port of importa­


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tion, which also includes the other costs as­
sociated with bringing the product to the U.S.
border. It does not, however, include duty
charges. For a given product, only one price
basis series is used in the construction of an
index.
F or additional information on inter­
national prices, contact the Division of In­
ternational Prices: (202) 691-7155.

Productivity Data
(Tables 2; 39-42)

Business sector and major
sectors
Description of the series
The productivity measures relate real output
to real input. As such, they encompass a fam­
ily o f measures which include single-factor
input measures, such as output per hour, out­
put per unit o f labor input, or output per unit
of capital input, as well as measures o f mul­
tifactor productivity (output per unit of com­
bined labor and capital inputs). The Bureau
indexes show the change in output relative
to changes in the various inputs. The mea­
sures cover the business, nonfarm business,
manufacturing, and nonfinancial corporate
sectors.
Corresponding indexes o f hourly com­
pensation, unit labor costs, unit nonlabor
payments, and prices are also provided.

Definitions
Output per hour of all persons (labor pro­
ductivity) is the quantity of goods and ser­
vices produced per hour of labor input. Out­
put per unit of capital services (capital pro­
ductivity) is the quantity of goods and ser­
vices produced per unit o f capital services
input. Multifactor productivity is the quan­
tity of goods and services produced per com­
bined inputs. For private business and pri­
vate nonfarm business, inputs include labor
and capital units. For manufacturing, in­
puts include labor, capital, energy, non-en­
ergy materials, and purchased business ser­
vices.
Compensation per hour is total compen­
sation divided by hours at work. Total com­
pensation equals the wages and salaries of
employees plus employers’ contributions for
social insurance and private benefit plans,
plus an estimate of these payments for the
self-employed (except for nonfinancial cor­
porations in which there are no self-em ­
ployed). Real compensation per hour is
com pensation per hour deflated by the
change in the Consumer Price Index for All
Urban Consumers.
Unit labor costs are the labor compen­

sation costs expended in the production o f a
unit o f output and are derived by dividing
compensation by output. Unit nonlabor
payments include profits, depreciation,
interest, and indirect taxes per unit o f out­
put. They are computed by subtracting com­
pensation o f all persons from current-dollar
value o f output and dividing by output.
Unit nonlabor costs contain all the
components o f unit nonlabor payments ex­
cept unit profits.
Unit profits include corporate profits
with inventory valuation and capital con­
sumption adjustments per unit of output.
Hours of all persons are the total hours
at work o f payroll workers, self-employed
persons, and unpaid family workers.
Labor inputs are hours o f all persons ad­
justed for the effects o f changes in the edu­
cation and experience o f the labor force.
Capital services are the flow of services
from the capital stock used in production. It
is developed from measures of the net stock
o f physical assets— equipment, structures,
land, and inventories— weighted by rental
prices for each type of asset.

Combined units of labor and capital
inputs are derived by combining changes in
labor and capital input with weights which
represent each component’s share o f total
cost. Combined units of labor, capital, energy,
materials, and purchased business services are
similarly derived by combining changes in
each input with weights that represent each
input’s share of total costs. The indexes for
each input and for combined units are based
on changing weights which are averages of the
shares in the current and preceding year (the
Tomquist index-number formula).

Notes on the data
Business sector output is an annually-weighted
index constructed by excluding from real gross
domestic product (gdp) the following outputs:
general government, nonprofit institutions,
paid employees of private households, and the
rental value o f owner-occupied dwellings.
Nonfarm business also excludes farming. Pri­
vate business and private nonfarm business
further exclude government enterprises. The
measures are supplied by the U.S. Department
of Commerce’s Bureau o f Economic Analy­
sis. Annual estimates of manufacturing sectoral
output are produced by the Bureau o f Labor
Statistics. Quarterly manufacturing output in­
dexes from the Federal Reserve Board are ad­
justed to these annual output measures by the
BLS. Compensation data are developed from
data of the Bureau o f Economic Analysis and
the Bureau o f Labor Statistics. Hours data are
developed from data of the Bureau of Labor
Statistics.
The productivity and associated cost mea­
sures in tables 39-42 describe the relation-

Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

51

Current Labor Statistics
ship between output in real terms and the
labor and capital inputs involved in its pro­
duction. They show the changes from period
to period in the amount o f goods and ser­
vices produced per unit o f input.
Although these measures relate output to
hours and capital services, they do not mea­
sure the contributions o f labor, capital, or any
other specific factor of production. Rather,
they reflect the joint effect of many influences,
including changes in technology; shifts in the
composition of the labor force; capital invest­
ment; level of output; changes in the utiliza­
tion of capacity, energy, material, and research
and development; the organization of produc­
tion; managerial skill; and characteristics and
efforts of the work force.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on this
productivity series, contact the Division of
Productivity Research: (202) 691-5606.

Industry productivity measures
Description of the series
The BLS industry productivity data supplement
the measures for the business economy and
major sectors with annual measures o f labor
productivity for selected industries at the
three- and four-digit levels o f the Standard
Industrial C la ssific a tio n sy stem . The
industry measures differ in methodology
and data sources from the productivity
measures for the major sectors because the
industry measures are developed indepen­
dently o f the National Income and Product
Accounts framework used for the major
sector measures.

employees. For some transportation indus­
tries, only indexes of output per employee
are prepared. For some trade and service
industries, indexes o f output per hour of
all persons (including self-employed) are
constructed.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on this se­
ries, contact the Division of Industry Produc­
tivity Studies: (202) 691-5618.

International Comparisons
(Tables 43-45)

Labor force and
unemployment
Description of the series
Tables 43 and 44 present comparative meas­
ures of the labor force, employment, and un­
em ploym ent— approximating U .S. con­
cepts— for the United States, Canada, Aus­
tralia, Japan, and several European countries.
The unemployment statistics (and, to a lesser
extent, employment statistics) published by
other industrial countries are not, in most
cases, comparable to U.S. unemployment
statistics. Therefore, the Bureau adjusts the
figures for selected countries, where neces­
sary, for all known major definitional differ­
ences. Although precise comparability may
not be achieved, these adjusted figures pro­
vide a better basis for international compari­
sons than the figures regularly published by
each country.

Definitions

Definitions

Output per hour is derived by dividing an in­

For the principal U.S. definitions o f the la­
bor force, employment, and unemployment,

dex of industry output by an index o f labor
input. For most industries, output indexes are
derived from data on the value o f industry out­
put adjusted for price change. For the remain­
ing industries, output indexes are derived from
data on the physical quantity o f production.
The labor input series consist of the hours
of all employees (production and nonproduc­
tion workers), the hours o f all persons (paid
employees, partners, proprietors, and unpaid
family workers), or the number of employees,
depending upon the industry.

Notes on the data
The industry measures are compiled from
data produced by the Bureau o f Labor Sta­
tistics, the Departments o f Commerce, Inte­
rior, and Agriculture, the Federal Reserve
Board, regulatory agencies, trade associa­
tions, and other sources.
For m ost industries, the productivity
indexes refer to the output per hour o f all

52

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see the Notes section on Employment and
Unemployment Data: Household survey
data.

Notes on the data
The adjusted statistics have been adapted to
the age at which compulsory schooling ends
in each country, rather than to the U.S. stan­
dard o f 16 years of age and older. Therefore,
the adjusted statistics relate to the popula­
tion aged 16 and older in France, Sweden,
and the United Kingdom; 15 and older in
Canada, Australia, Japan, Germany, Italy
from 1993 onward, and the Netherlands; and
14 and older in Italy prior to 1993. The insti­
tutional population is included in the de­
nominator o f the labor force participation
rates and employment-population ratios for
Japan and Germany; it is excluded for the
United States and the other countries.
In the U.S. labor force survey, persons on

November 2000

layoff who are awaiting recall to their jobs are
classified as unemployed. European and
Japanese layoff practices are quite different
in nature from those in the United States;
therefore, strict application o f the U.S. defi­
nition has not been made on this point. For
further information, see Monthly Labor Re­
view, December 1981, pp. 8-11.
The figures for one or more recent years
for France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands,
and the United Kingdom are calculated using
adjustment factors based on labor force sur­
veys for earlier years and are considered pre­
liminary. The recent-year measures for these
countries, therefore, are subject to revision
whenever data from more current labor force
surveys become available.
There are breaks in the data series for the
United States (1990, 1994, 1997, 1998),
France (1992), Italy (1991,1993), the Neth­
erlands (1988), and Sweden (1987).
For the United States, the break in series
reflects a major redesign o f the labor force
survey questionnaire and collection method­
ology introduced in January 1994. Revised
population estimates based on the 1990 cen­
sus, adjusted for the estimated undercount,
also were incorporated. In 1996, previously
published data for the 1990-93 period were
revised to reflect the 1990 census-based
population controls, adjusted for the un­
dercount. In 1997, revised population con­
trols were introduced into the household sur­
vey. Therefore, the data are not strictly
conparable with prior years. In 1998, new
composite estimation procedures and minor
revisions in population controls were intro­
duced into the household survey. Therefore,
the data are not strictly comparable with data
for 1997 and earlier years. See the Notes sec­
tion on Employment and Unemployment
Data of this Review.
For France, the 1992 break reflects the
substitution of standardized European Union
Statistical Office (EUROSTAT) unemployment
statistics for the unemployment data esti­
mated according to the International Labor
Office (ilo ) definition and published in the
Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD) annual yearbook and
quarterly update. This change was made be­
cause the eurostat data are more up-to-date
than the oecd figures. Also, since 1992, the
eurostat definitions are closer to the U.S.
definitions than they were in prior years. The
impact o f this revision was to lower the un­
employment rate by 0.1 percentage point in
1992 and 1993, by 0.4 percentage point in
1994, and 0.5 percentage point in 1995.
For Italy, the 1991 break reflects a revi­
sion in the method of weighting sample data.
The impact was to increase the unemploy­
ment rate by approximately 0.3 percentage
point, from 6.6 to 6.9 percent in 1991.
In October 1992, the survey methodol-

ogy was revised and the definition of unem­
ployment was changed to include only those
who were actively looking for a job within
the 30 days preceding the survey and who
were available for work. In addition, the
lower age limit for the labor force was raised
from 14 to 15 years. (Prior to these changes,
BLS adjusted Italy’s published unemploy­
ment rate downward by excluding from the
unem ployed those persons who had not
actively sought work in the past 30 days.)
The break in the series also reflects the in­
corporation of the 1991 population census
results. The impact o f these changes was to
raise Italy’s adjusted unemployment rate by
approximately 1.2 percentage points, from
8.3 to 9.5 percent in fourth-quarter 1992.
These changes did not affect employment
significantly, except in 1993. Estimates by
the Italian Statistical Office indicate that em­
ployment declined by about 3 percent in
1993, rather than the nearly 4 percent indi­
cated by the data shown in table 44. This dif­
ference is attributable mainly to the incorpo­
ration o f the 1991 population benchmarks in
the 1993 data. Data for earlier years have not
been adjusted to incorporate the 1991 cen­
sus results.
For the Netherlands, a new survey ques­
tionnaire was introduced in 1992 that al­
lowed for a closer application o f ilo guide­
lines. eurostat has revised the Dutch series
back to 1988 based on the 1992 changes. The
1988 revised unemployment rate is 7.6 per­
cent; the previous estimate for the same year
was 9.3 percent.
There have been two breaks in series in
the Swedish labor force survey, in 1987 and
1993. Adjustments have been made for the
1993 break back to 1987. In 1987, a new
questionnaire was introduced. Questions re­
garding current availability were added and
the period of active workseeking was reduced
from 60 days to 4 weeks. These changes low­
ered Sweden’s 1987 unemployment rate by
0.4 percentage point, from 2.3 to 1.9 percent.
In 1993, the measurement period for the la­
bor force survey was changed to represent
all 52 weeks of the year rather than one week
each month and a new adjustment for popu­
lation totals was introduced. The impact was
to raise the unemployment rate by approxi­
mately 0.5 percentage point, from 7.6 to 8.1
percent. Statistics Sweden revised its labor
force survey data for 1987-92 to take into
account the break in 1993. The adjustment
raised the Swedish unemployment rate by 0.2
percentage point in 1987 and gradually rose
to 0.5 percentage point in 1992.
Beginning with 1987, bls has adjusted
the Swedish data to classify students who
also sought work as unemployed. The im­
pact o f this change was to increase the ad­
justed unemployment rate by 0.1 percentage
point in 1987 and by 1.8 percentage points


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in 1994, when unemployment was higher. In
1998, the adjusted unemployment rate had
risen from 6.5 to 8.4 percent due to the ad­
justment to include students.
The net effect o f the 1987 and 1993
changes and the BLS adjustment for students
seeking work lowered Sweden’s 1987 unem­
ployment rate from 2.3 to 2.2 percent.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION On this se­
ries, contact the Division of Foreign Labor
Statistics: (202) 691-5654.

Manufacturing productivity
and labor costs
Description of the series
Table 45 presents comparative indexes of
manufacturing labor productivity (output per
hour), output, total hours, compensation per
hour, and unit labor costs for the United
States, Canada, Japan, and nine European
countries. These measures are trend compari­
sons— that is, series that measure changes
over time— rather than level comparisons.
There are greater technical problems in com­
paring the levels o f manufacturing output
among countries.
BLS constructs the comparative indexes
from three basic aggregate measures— out­
put, total labor hours, and total compensa­
tion. The hours and compensation measures
refer to all employed persons (wage and sal­
ary earners plus self-employed persons and
unpaid family workers) in the United States,
Canada, Japan, France, Germany, Norway,
and Sweden, and to all employees (wage and
salary earners) in the other countries.

Definitions
Output, in general, refers to value added in
manufacturing from the national accounts of
each country. However, the output series for
Japan prior to 1970 is an index o f industrial
production, and the national accounts mea­
sures for the United Kingdom are essentially
identical to their indexes o f industrial pro­
duction.
The 1977-97 output data for the United
States are the gross product originating (value
added) measures prepared by the Bureau of
Economic Analysis of the U.S. Department
o f Commerce. Comparable manufacturing
output data currently are not available prior
to 1977.
U.S. gross product originating is a chaintype annual-weighted series. (For more in­
formation on the U.S. measure, see Robert
E. Yuskavage, “Improved Estimates o f Gross
Product by Industry, 1959-94,” Survey of
Current Business, August 1996, pp. 133—
55.) The Japanese value added series is based
upon one set of fixed price weights for the
years 1970 through 1997. Output series for

the other foreign economies also employ fixed
price weights, but the weights are updated
periodically (for example, every 5 or 10 years).
To preserve the comparability o f the U.S.
measures with those for other economies, bls
uses gross product originating in manufac­
turing for the United States for these com­
parative measures. The gross product origi­
nating series differs from the manufacturing
output series that bls publishes in its news
releases on quarterly measures o f U.S. pro­
ductivity and costs (and that underlies the
measures that appear in tables 39 and 41 in
this section). The quarterly measures are on
a “sectoral output” basis, rather than a valueadded basis. Sectoral output is gross output
less intrasector transactions.
Total labor hours refers to hours worked
in all countries. The measures are developed
from statistics of manufacturing employment
and average hours. The series used for France
(from 1970 forward), Norway, and Sweden
are official series published with the national
accounts. Where official total hours series are
not available, the measures are developed by
bls using employment figures published with
the national accounts, or other comprehen­
sive employment series, and estimates of
annual hours worked. For Germany, bls uses
estimates o f average hours worked developed
by a research institute connected to the Min­
istry o f Labor for use with the national ac­
counts employment figures. For the other
countries, bls constructs its own estimates
of average hours.
Denmark has not published estimates of
average hours for 1994-97; therefore, the bls
measure o f labor input for Denmark ends in
1993.
Total compensation (labor cost) includes
all payments in cash or in-kind made directly
to employees plus employer expenditures for
legally required insurance programs and con­
tractual and private benefit plans. The mea­
sures are from the national accounts of each
country, except those for Belgium, which are
developed by bls using statistics on employ­
ment, average hours, and hourly compensa­
tion. For Canada, France, and Sweden, com­
pensation is increased to account for other sig­
nificant taxes on payroll or employment. For
the United Kingdom, compensation is reduced
between 1967 and 1991 to account for em­
ployment-related subsidies. Self-employed
workers are included in the all-employed-per­
sons measures by assuming that their hourly
compensation is equal to the average for wage
and salary employees.

Notes on the data
In general, the measures relate to total manu­
facturing as defined by the International Stan­
dard Industrial Classification. However, the
measures for France (for all years) and Italy

Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

53

Current Labor Statistics
(beginning 1970) refer to mining and manu­
facturing less energy-related products, and
the measures for Denmark include mining
and exclude manufacturing handicrafts from
1960 to 1966.
The measures for recent years may be
based on current indicators o f manufactur­
ing output (such as industrial production in­
dexes), employment, average hours, and
hourly compensation until national accounts
and other statistics used for the long-term
measures become available.
F or additional information on this se­
ries, contact the Division of Foreign Labor
Statistics: (202) 691-5654.

Occupational injury
and Illness Data
(Tables 46-47)

Survey of Occupational
Injuries and Illnesses

an occupational injury, caused by exposure to
factors associated with employment. It in­
cludes acute and chronic illnesses or disease
which may be caused by inhalation, absorp­
tion, ingestion, or direct contact.
Lost workday injuries and illnesses are
cases that involve days away from work, or
days of restricted work activity, or both.
Lost workdays include the number of
workdays (consecutive or not) on which
the employee was either away from work
or at work in some restricted capacity, or
both, because o f an occupational injury or
illness. BLS measures o f the number and
incidence rate o f lost workdays were dis­
continued beginning with the 1993 survey.
The number o f days away from work or
days o f restricted work activity does not
include the day o f injury or onset o f illness
or any days on which the employee would
not have worked, such as a Federal holiday,
even though able to work.
Incidence rates are computed as the
number o f injuries and/or illnesses or lost
work days per 100 full-time workers.

Notes on the data
Description of the series
The Survey of Occupational Injuries and Ill­
nesses collects data from employers about their
workers’ job-related nonfatal injuries and ill­
nesses. The information that employers provide
is based on records that they maintain under
the Occupational Safety and Health Act of
1970. Self-employed individuals, farms with
fewer than 11 employees, employers regulated
by other Federal safety and health laws, and
Federal, State, and local government agencies
are excluded from the survey.
The survey is a Federal-State coopera­
tive program with an independent sample
selected for each participating State. A
stratified random sample with a Neyman al­
location is selected to represent all private
industries in the State. The survey is strati­
fied by Standard Industrial Classification
and size o f employment.

Definitions
Under the Occupational Safety and Health
Act, employers maintain records o f nonfatal
work-related injuries and illnesses that in­
volve one or more o f the following: loss of
consciousness, restriction of work or motion,
transfer to another job, or medical treatment
other than first aid.
Occupational injury is any injury such as
a cut, fracture, sprain, or amputation that re­
sults from a work-related event or a single, in­
stantaneous exposure in the work environment.
Occupational illness is an abnormal con­
dition or disorder, other than one resulting from

54

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The definitions o f occupational injuries and
illnesses are from Recordkeeping Guidelines
for Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (U.S.
Department o f Labor, Bureau o f Labor Sta­
tistics, September 1986).
Estimates are made for industries and em­
ployment size classes for total recordable cases,
lost workday cases, days away from work cases,
and nonfatal cases without lost workdays.
These data also are shown separately for inju­
ries. Illness data are available for seven catego­
ries: occupational skin diseases or disorders,
dust diseases of the lungs, respiratory condi­
tions due to toxic agents, poisoning (systemic
effects of toxic agents), disorders due to physi­
cal agents (other than toxic materials), disor­
ders associated with repeated trauma, and all
other occupational illnesses.
The survey continues to measure the num­
ber of new work-related illness cases which
are recognized, diagnosed, and reported dur­
ing the year. Some conditions, for example,
long-term latent illnesses caused by exposure
to carcinogens, often are difficult to relate to
the workplace and are not adequately recog­
nized and reported. These long-term latent ill­
nesses are believed to be understated in the
survey’s illness measure. In contrast, the over­
whelming majority o f the reported new ill­
nesses are those which are easier to directly
relate to workplace activity (for example, con­
tact dermatitis and carpal tunnel syndrome).
Most o f the estimates are in the form of
incidence rates, defined as the number o f in­
juries and illnesses per 100 equivalent full­
time workers. For this purpose, 200,000 em­
ployee hours represent 100 employee years

November 2000

(2,000 hours per employee). Full detail on the
available measures is presented in the annual
bulletin, Occupational Injuries and Illnesses:

Counts, Rates, and Characteristics.
Comparable data for more than 40 States
and territories are available from the bls Of­
fice o f Safety, Health and Working Condi­
tions. Many of these States publish data on
State and local government employees in ad­
dition to private industry data.
Mining and railroad data are furnished to
bls by the Mine Safety and Health Adminis­
tration and the Federal Railroad Administra­
tion. Data from these organizations are in­
cluded in both the national and State data
published annually.
With the 1992 survey, BLS began publish­
ing details on serious, nonfatal incidents re­
sulting in days away from work. Included are
some major characteristics o f the injured and
ill workers, such as occupation, age, gender,
race, and length of service, as well as the cir­
cumstances o f their injuries and illnesses (na­
ture of the disabling condition, part o f body
affected, event and exposure, and the source
directly producing the condition). In general,
these data are available nationwide for de­
tailed industries and for individual States at
more aggregated industry levels.
F or additional information on occu­
pational injuries and illnesses, contact the
Office of Occupational Safety, Health and
Working Conditions at (202) 691-6180, or
access the Internet at:

http ://www.b!s.gov/oshhome.htm

Census of Fatal
Occupational Injuries
The Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries
compiles a complete roster of fatal job-re­
lated injuries, including detailed data about
the fatally injured workers and the fatal
events. The program collects and cross
checks fatality information from multiple
sources, including death certificates, State
and Federal workers’ compensation reports,
Occupational Safety and Health Administra­
tion and Mine Safety and Health Adminis­
tration records, medical examiner and au­
topsy reports, media accounts, State motor
vehicle fatality records, and follow-up ques­
tionnaires to employers.
In addition to private wage and salary
workers, the self-em ployed, family mem­
bers, and Federal, State, and local govern­
ment workers are covered by the program.
To be included in the fatality census, the
decedent must have been employed (that is
working for pay, compensation, or profit)
at the time o f the event, engaged in a legal
work activity, or present at the site o f
the incident as a requirement o f his or her
job.

Definition

related illnesses, which can be difficult
to identify due to long latency periods.

A fatal work injury is any intentional or un­
intentional wound or damage to the body re­
sulting in death from acute exposure to energy,
such as heat or electricity, or kinetic energy
from a crash, or from the absence of such es­
sentials as heat or oxygen caused by a specific
event or incident or series of events within a
single workday or shift. Fatalities that occur
during a person’s commute to or from work
are excluded from the census, as well as work-

Notes on the data
Twenty-eight data elements are collected,
coded, and tabulated in the fatality program,
including information about the fatally in­
jured worker, the fatal incident, and the ma­
chinery or equipment involved. Summary
worker demographic data and event charac­
teristics are included in a national news re­

lease that is available about 8 months after
the end o f the reference year. The Census of
Fatal Occupational Injuries was initiated in
1992 as a joint Federal-State effort. Most
States issue summary information at the time
o f the national news release.
F or a d d it io n a l inform atio n on the
Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries con­
tact the bls Office o f Safety, Health, and
Working Conditions at (202) 691-6175, or
the Internet at:

http ://ww w.bls.gov/oshhome.htm

Bureau of Labor Statistics Internet
The Bureau of Labor Statistics World Wide Web site on the Internet contains a range of
data on consumer and producer prices, employment and unemployment, occupational com­
pensation, employee benefits, workplace injuries and illnesses, and productivity. The
homepage can be accessed using any Web browser:
http://stats.bls.gov
Also, some data can be accessed through anonymous ftp or Gopher at
stats.bls.gov


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Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

55

Current Labor Statistics:

Comparative Indicators

1. Labor m arket indicators
Selected indicators

1998

1998

1999
II

1999

III

IV

I

II

2000
III

IV

1

II

E m p lo y m e n t d a ta
E m p lo y m e n t s ta tu s o f th e c iv ilia n n o n in s titu tio n a llz e d
p o p u 'a tio n ( h o u s e h o ld s u rv e y ):1
L a b o r fo r c e p a rtic ip a tio n ra te ......................................................................

67.1

67.1

6 7 .0

6 7 .0

67.1

6 7 .2

67.1

6 7 .0

6 7 .0

6 7 .5

6 7 .3

E m p lo y m e n t- p o p u la tio n ra tio ......................................................................

64.1

6 4 .3

64.1

6 4 .0

64.1

6 4 .3

6 4 .2

6 4 .2

6 4 .3

6 4 .7

6 4 .6

U n e m p lo y m e n t r a t e .........................................................................................

4 .5

4 .2

4 .4

4 .5

4 .4

4 .3

4 .3

4 .2

4.1

4.1

4 .0

M e n .....................................................................................................................

4 .4

4.1

4 .3

4 .5

4 .3

4 .2

4 .2

4.1

4 .0

4 .0

3 .9

1 6 to 2 4 y e a r s ..............................................................................................

11.1

10.3

1 0.7

1 1.5

1 0.6

1 0.4

1 0.4

1 0.0

10.4

9 .7

9 .7

2 5 y e a r s a n d o v e r ......................................................................................

3.2

3 .0

3.1

3 .2

3.1

3 .0

3 .0

30

2 9

2 .9

2 .8

W o m e n ..............................................................................................................

4 .6

4 .3

4 .6

4 .5

4 .6

4 .4

4 .4

4 .4

4 .2

4 .2

4.1

1 6 to 2 4 y e a r s ..............................................................................................

9 .8

9 .5

9 .7

9 .9

9 .4

9 .8

9 .2

9 .5

9 .4

9 .6

9 .0

2 5 y e a r s a n d o v e r ......................................................................................

3 .6

3 .3

3 .6

3 .5

3 .6

3 .4

3 .4

3 .3

3.1

3 .2

3 .2

E m p lo y m e n t, n o n fa r m (p a y ro ll d a ta ), in th o u s a n d s :1
T o ta l........................................................................................................................

1 2 5 ,8 6 5

1 2 8 ,7 8 6

1 2 5 ,4 8 6

1 2 6 ,1 8 0

1 2 6 ,9 6 7

1 2 7 ,8 0 0

1 2 8 ,4 3 0

1 2 9 ,0 7 3

1 2 9 ,7 8 3

1 3 0 ,6 2 6

1 3 1 ,5 5 2

P riv a te s e c to r ..................................................................................................

1 0 6 ,0 4 2

1 0 8 ,6 1 6

1 0 5 ,7 2 6

106,321

1 0 7 ,0 1 6

107 ,74 1

1 0 8 ,3 1 9

1 0 8 ,8 7 4

1 0 9 ,5 0 7

1 1 0 ,1 9 5

1 1 0 ,7 2 5

G o o d s - p r o d u c in g ........................................................................................

2 5 ,4 1 4

2 5 ,4 8 2

2 5 ,4 2 7

2 5 ,4 0 8

2 5 ,4 6 9

2 5 ,4 8 8

2 5 ,4 5 4

2 5 ,4 5 9

2 5 ,5 2 4

2 5 ,6 8 0

2 5 ,7 0 3

M a n u fa c tu r in g ..........................................................................................

1 8 ,8 0 5

1 8 ,5 4 3

18,871

1 8 ,7 6 5

1 8 ,7 1 6

1 8 ,6 3 2

1 8 ,5 4 3

1 8 ,5 1 6

1 8 ,4 8 2

1 8,4 81

1 8 ,4 8 8

S e r v ic e -p ro d u c in g .......................................................................................

100,451

1 0 3 ,3 0 4

1 0 0 ,0 5 9

1 0 0 ,7 7 2

1 0 1 ,4 9 8

1 0 2 ,3 1 2

1 0 2 ,9 7 6

1 0 3 ,6 1 4

1 0 4 ,2 5 9

1 0 4 ,9 4 6

1 0 5 ,8 4 9

A v e r a g e h o u rs :
P riv a te s e c to r ..................................................................................................

3 4 .6

3 4 .5

3 4 .6

3 4 .6

3 4 .6

3 4 .5

3 4 .5

3 4 .5

3 4 .5

3 4 .5

3 4 .5

M a n u fa c tu rin g ..............................................................................................

4 1 .7

4 1 .7

4 1 .7

4 1 .7

4 1 .7

4 1 .6

4 1 .7

4 1 .8

4 1 .7

4 1 .7

4 1 .7

O v e r tim e .....................................................................................................

4 .6

4 .6

4 .6

4 .6

4 .5

4 .5

4 .6

4 .6

4 .7

4 .6

4 .7

E m p lo y m e n t C o s t I n d e x 2
P e rc e n t c h a n g e in th e E C I, c o m p e n s a tio n :
A ll w o rk e rs (e x c lu d in g fa rm , h o u s e h o ld a n d F e d e ra l w o rk e rs ) ......

3 .4

3 .4

.8

1.2

.6

.4

1.0

1.1

.9

1 .3

1.0

P riv a te in d u s tr y w o r k e r s .............................................................................

3 .5

3 .4

.9

1.1

.6

.4

1.1

.9

.9

1 .5

1.2

G o o d s -p ro d u c in g '3...................................................................................

2 .8

3 .4

.8

.7

.5

.8

.7

.9

1.0

1 .6

1.2

S e r v ic e -p ro d u c in g 0..................................................................................

3 .8

3 .4

.8

1.3

.6

.3

1.3

.9

.8

1 .4

1.2

S ta te a n d lo c a l g o v e rn m e n t w o rk e rs .....................................................

3 .0

3 .4

.3

1.5

.6

.5

.4

1.5

1.0

.6

.3

U n io n ......................................................................................................................

3 .0

2 .7

1.0

1.1

.5

.4

.7

.9

.7

1 .3

1.0

N o n u n io n ...............................................................................................................

3 .5

3 .6

.8

1.1

.6

.5

1.2

.9

1.0

1.5

1.2

W o rk e rs b y b a rg a in in g s ta tu s (p riv a te in d u s try ):

1 Q u a rte rly d a ta s e a s o n a lly a d ju s te d .
2 A n n u a l c h a n g e s a re D e c e m b e r-to -D e c e m b e r c h a n g e s . Q u a rte rly c h a n g e s a re c a lc u la te d u s in g th e la s t m o n th o f e a c h q u a rte r.
3 G o o d s -p ro d u c in g in d u s tr ie s In c lu d e m in in g , c o n s tru c tio n , a n d m a n u fa c tu rin g . S e rv ic e -p ro d u c in g in d u s trie s in c lu d e all o th e r p riv a te s e c to r in d u s trie s .

56

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November 2000

2. Annual and quarterly percent changes in com pensation, prices, and productivity

III

II

2000

1999

1998

1999

1998

Selected measures

I

IV

III

II

I

IV

II

C o m p e n s a t io n d a t a 1,2
E m p lo y m e n t C o s t In d e x — c o m p e n s a tio n (w a g e s ,
s a la r ie s , b e n e fits ) :
C iv ilia n n o n f a r m .......................................................................................

3 .4

3 .4

0 .8

1 .2

0 .6

0 .4

1 .0

1.1

0 .9

1 .3

1 .0

P riv a te n o n f a r m ..................................................................................

3 .5

3 .4

.9

1.1

.6

.4

1.1

.9

.9

1 .5

1 .2

E m p lo y m e n t C o s t In d e x — w a g e s a n d s a la rie s :
C iv ilia n n o n f a r m .....................................................................................

3 .7

3 .5

.7

1 .3

.7

.5

1 .0

1.1

.8

1.1

1 .0

P r iv a te n o n f a r m ..................................................................................

3 .9

3 .5

.9

1 .3

.6

.5

1 .2

.9

.9

1 .2

1 .0

1 .6

2 .7

.5

.4

.2

.7

.7

1 .0

.2

1 .7

.7

.0

2 .9

.5

-.1

.4

.0

1 .2

1 .5

.1

1 .4

1 .2

.0

3 .8

.8

.0

.2

.0

1 .8

2 .2

-.2

1 .8

1 .5

C a p ita l e q u ip m e n t ................................................................................

.0

.3

-.5

-.4

.9

-.1

-.4

-.4

1 .2

.1

.0

In te r m e d ia te m a te r ia ls , s u p p lie s , a n d c o m p o n e n ts ..................

-3 .3

3 .7

.2

-.5

-1 .6

-.2

1 .9

1 .9

.1

1 .9

1 .5

C r u d e m a te r ia ls ..........................................................................................

- 1 6 .7

1 5 .3

-1 .8

-5 .6

-2 .5

-.1

9 .4

1 0 .2

-3 .5

9.1

7 .8

P r ic e d a t a 1

C o n s u m e r P ric e In d e x (A ll U r b a n C o n s u m e rs ) : A ll Ite m s .......
P r o d u c e r P ric e In d e x :
F in is h e d g o o d s ..........................................................................................

P r o d u c t iv i t y d a t a 3
O u t p u t p e r h o u r o f a ll p e r s o n s :
B u s in e s s s e c to r ..........................................................................................

N o n fin a n c ia l c o r p o r a t io n s 4 ..................................................................
1

A nnual

changes

a re

D e c e m b e r- to -D e c e m b e r

c a lc u la te d u s in g t h e la s t m o n th o f e a c h q u a rte r.

changes.

2 .7

3.1

1.1

2.1

3 .9

3 .3

.9

4 .9

7 .7

1 .6

6 .5

2 .6

2 .9

1 .6

1 .8

3 .6

2 .6

.6

5 .2

8 .0

1 .9

5 .7

3 .6

4 .3

4 .0

5 .2

3 .4

4 .4

3 .8

5.1

6.1

2 .9

5 .0

Q u a rte rly

changes

a re

C o m p e n s a tio n a n d p ric e d a ta a re n o t

c e n t c h a n g e s r e fle c t a n n u a l ra te s o f c h a n g e in q u a rte rly in d e x e s .

T h e d a t a a re

s e a s o n a lly a d ju s te d ,

s e a s o n a lly a d ju s te d , a n d th e p ric e d a ta a re n o t c o m p o u n d e d .

4 O u tp u t p e r h o u r o f a ll e m p lo y e e s .

2 E x c lu d e s F e d e r a l a n d p r iv a te h o u s e h o ld w o rk e rs .
3 A n n u a l r a te s o f c h a n g e a re c o m p u te d

b y c o m p a rin g a n n u a l a v e r a g e s . Q u a rte rly p e r-

3. A lternative measures o f w age and com pensation changes
Four quarters ending—

Quarterly average
1999

Components
I

II

1

2000

1999

2000
IV

III

II

II

I

IV

III

I

II

A v e r a g e h o u r ly c o m p e n s a t io n :1
A ll p e r s o n s , b u s in e s s s e c to r ...........................................................................

5 .2

5 .0

5 .3

3 .8

3 .5

6 .4

5.1

5 .0

5.1

4 .8

4 .4

4 .7

A ll p e r s o n s , n o n fa r m b u s in e s s s e c to r .......................................................

4 .5

5 .0

5 .5

4 .2

3 .9

5 .3

4 .9

4 .8

4 .8

4 .8

4 .6

4 .7

.4

1 .0

1.1

.9

1 .3

1 .0

3 .0

3 .2

3.1

3 .4

4 .3

4 .4

.4

1.1

.9

.9

1 .5

1 .2

3 .0

3 .3

3.1

3 .4

4 .6

4 .6

E m p lo y m e n t C o s t In d e x — c o m p e n s a tio n :
C iv ilia n n o n fa r m 2 ..................................................................................................

U n io n .....................................................................................................................

.4

.7

.9

.7

1 .3

1 .0

3 .0

2 .7

2 .5

2 .7

3 .6

3 .9

N o n u n io n .............................................................................................................

.5

1.2

.9

1.0

1 .5

1 .2

3 .0

3 .4

3 .2

3 .6

4 .7

4 .6

.5

.4

1 .5

1.0

.6

.3

2 .9

3 .0

2 .9

3 .4

3 .6

3 .5

C iv ilia n n o n fa r m 2 ..................................................................................................

.5

1 .0

1.1

.8

1.1

1 .0

3 .3

3 .6

3 .3

3 .5

4 .0

4 .0

P r iv a te n o n f a r m .................................................................................................

.5

1.2

.9

.9

1 .2

1 .0

3 .3

3 .6

3 .2

3 .5

4 .2

4.1

E m p lo y m e n t C o s t In d e x — w a g e s a n d s a la rie s :

U n io n ....................................................................................................................

.4

.8

.7

.6

.5

.9

3.1

3.1

2 .5

2 .6

2 .7

2 .8

N o n u n io n ............................................................................................................

.5

1 .2

.9

.9

1 .3

1.1

3 .3

3 .7

3 .3

3 .6

4 .4

4 .3

S ta te a n d lo c a l g o v e r n m e n ts ......................................................................

.4

.4

1 .9

.9

.6

.3

2 .9

3.1

3 .3

3 .6

3 .8

3 .7

1 S e a s o n a lly a d ju s te d . " Q u a r te r ly a v e r a g e " is p e r c e n t c h a n g e fro m a q u a rte r a g o , a t a n a n n u a l ra te .
2 E x c lu d e s F e d e r a l a n d h o u s e h o ld w o rk e rs .


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November 2000

57

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

4. Employment status of the population, by sex, age, race, and Hispanic origin, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]

Employment status

Annual average

1999

2000

1998

1999

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

2 05 ,22 0

2 07 ,75 3

208 ,26 5

208 ,48 3

208 ,66 6

208 ,83 2

208,782

208 ,90 7

209 ,05 3

209 ,21 6

209,371

209 ,54 3

209 ,72 7

2 09 ,93 5

210,161

137,673

139,368

139,475

139,697

139,834

140,108

140,910

141,165

140,867

141,230

140,489

140,762

140,399

140,742

1,406,3 9

Sept.

TO TAL
C ivilia n n o n institution a l

C ivilia n la b o r fo rc e ...............
P articip ation ra te ..........

67.1

67.1

67.0

67.0

67.0

67.1

67.5

67.6

67.4

67.5

67.1

67.2

66.9

67.0

66.9

E m p lo y e d ...........................

131,463

133,488

133,650

133,940

134,098

134,420

135,221

135,362

135,159

135,706

134,715

135,179

134,749

134,912

1,351,61

E m p lo y m e n t-p o p -

U n e m p lo y e d ......................

64.1

64.3

64.2

64.2

64.3

64.4

64.8

64.8

64.7

64 9

64.3

64.5

64.2

64.3

64.3

6,210

5,880

5,825

5,7 5 7

5,736

5,688

5,6 8 9

5,804

5,7 0 8

5,5 2 4

5,774

5,5 8 3

5,650

5,829

5,47 7

U n e m p lo y m e n t ra te...

4.5

4.2

4.2

4.1

4.1

4.1

4.0

4.1

4.1

3.9

4.1

4.0

4.0

4.1

3.9

N ot in th e lab o r fo rc e .......

6 7,547

68,385

6 8,790

6 8,786

68,832

68,724

67,872

67,742

6 8,187

6 7,986

68,882

68,781

6 9,329

6 9,193

69,522

M en, 20 y e a rs a n d o v e r
C ivilia n n on in s titu tio n a l
9 0,790

9 1,555

9 1,793

91,896

9 1,986

92,052

92,057

92,092

92,145

92,303

9 2,408

9 2,546

92,642

9 2,754

9 2,863

C iv ilia n lab o r fo rc e ...............

6 9,715

70,194

7 0,328

70,339

7 0,388

70,529

70,917

7 1,120

70,822

70,761

70,603

70,714

70,702

7 1,067

71,002

P a rticip ation ra te ..........

76.8

76.7

76.6

76.5

76.5

76.6

77.0

77.2

76.9

76.7

76.4

76.4

76.3

76.6

76.5

E m p lo y e d ...........................

67,135

67,761

6 7,943

6 7,898

68,037

68,197

6 8,585

68,691

6 8,480

68,481

6 8,230

6 8,430

6 8,440

68,7 57

68,699

E m p lo y m e n t-p o p u la tio n ra tio 2..............

73.9

74.0

74.0

73.9

74.0

74.1

74.5

74.6

74.3

74.2

73.8

73.9

73.9

74.1

74.0

A g ric u ltu re ......................

2 ,350

2 ,244

2 ,189

2,206

2,262

2 ,227

2,303

2,309

2,232

2,213

2 ,217

2 ,269

2 ,296

2,2 8 8

2 ,35 0

N o na g ricu ltu ra l
in d u s trie s .....................

6 4,785

6 5,517

6 5,754

65,692

6 5,775

6 5,970

66,282

66,382

66,249

66,269

66,013

66,161

6 6,144

6 6,469

6 6,349

U n e m p lo y e d ......................

2,5 8 0

2,433

2 ,385

2,441

2,351

2,332

2,332

2 ,429

2,342

2 ,280

2 ,373

2,284

2 ,263

2 ,309

2,3 0 9

U n e m p lo y m e n t ra te....

3.7

3.5

3.4

3.5

3.3

3.3

3.3

3.4

3.3

3.2

3.4

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.2

W o m e n , 20 y e a rs a n d o v e r
C iv ilia n n on in stitu tio n a l
9 8,786

100,158

100,385

100,458

100,573

100,666

100,579

100,666

100,713

100,809

100,929

101,007

101,111

101,209

101,321

C ivilia n lab o r fo rc e ...............

5 9,702

6 0,840

6 0,860

6 0,955

61,052

6 1,154

6 1,576

6 1,575

61,671

61,920

61,614

6 1,596

6 1,508

6 1,260

6 1,386

P a rticip ation ra te ..........

60.4

60.7

60.6

60.7

60.7

60.7

61.2

61.2

61.2

61.4

61.0

61.0

60.8

60.5

60.6

E m p lo y e d ...........................

5 7,278

5 8,5 55

5 8,630

5 8,800

5 8,838

58,9 58

5 9,280

59,398

59,422

5 9,757

5 9,248

5 9,278

5 9,222

5 8,949

5 9,268

u la tio n ra tio 2..............

58.0

5 8.5

58.4

58.5

58.5

58.6

58.9

59.0

59.0

59.3

58.7

58.7

58.6

58.2

58.5

A g ric u ltu re ......................

768

803

778

800

768

791

826

871

894

899

864

834

792

824

744

In d u s trie s....................

5 6,510

5 7,752

5 7,852

5 8,000

5 8,0 70

5 8,167

5 8,454

5 8,526

58,5 28

5 8,858

5 8,383

58,4 44

5 8,430

5 8,125

5 8,524

U n e m p lo y e d ......................

2 ,424

2,285

2 ,2 3 0

2,1 5 5

2,2 1 4

2,1 9 6

2,2 9 7

2,1 7 8

2,2 4 9

2 ,163

2 ,367

2 ,318

2,286

2,311

2,1 1 8

U n e m p lo y m e n t ra te....

4.1

3.8

3.7

3.5

3.6

3.6

3.7

3.5

3.6

3.5

3.8

3.8

3.7

3.8

3.5

E m p lo y m e n t-p o p -

N o na g ricu ltu ra l

B o th s e x e s , 16 t o 1 9 y e a rs
C ivilia n n on in stitu tio n a l
p o p u la tio n 1.............................

15,644

16,040

16,086

16,129

16,107

16,114

16,147

16,149

16,196

16,104

16,034

15,991

15,974

15,972

15,977

C ivilia n la b o r fo rc e ...............

8,256

8 ,333

8,287

8,403

8,394

8,425

8,416

8,470

8,374

8,549

8,271

8,452

8,1 8 9

8 ,415

8,251

P articip ation ra te ..........

5 2.8

52.0

51.5

52.1

52.1

52.3

52.1

52.4

51.7

53.1

51.6

5 2.9

51.3

52.7

51.6

E m p lo y e d ...........................

7,051

7,172

7,077

7,242

7,223

7,265

7,356

7,273

7,257

7,467

7,237

7,471

7,087

7,2 0 6

7,195

u la tion ra tio 2...............

45.1

44.7

44.0

44.9

44.8

45.1

45.6

45.0

44.8

46.4

45.1

46.7

44.4

45.1

45.0

A g ric u ltu re ......................

261

234

212

232

280

261

242

228

233

243

217

218

211

232

2 47

E m p lo y m e n t-p o p -

N o na g ricu ltu ra l
in d u s trie s .....................

6,790

6,938

6 ,865

7,010

6,943

7,004

7,114

7,046

7,024

7,224

7,020

7,2 5 3

6,876

6,974

6,94 8

U n e m p lo y e d ......................

1,205

1,162

1,210

1,161

1,171

1,160

1,060

1,197

1,117

1,082

1,034

981

1,101

1,209

1,056

U n e m p lo y m e n t rate....

14.6

13.9

14.6

13.8

14.0

13.8

12.6

14.1

13.3

12.7

12.5

11.6

13.4

14.4

12.8

W h ite
C iv ilia n n on in stitu tio n a l
p o p u la tio n 1.............................

171,478

173,085

173,432

173,585

173,709

173,821

173,812

173,886

173,983

174,092

174,197

174,316

174,443

174,587

174,74 5

C iv ilia n la b o r fo rc e ................

115,415

116,509

116,495

116,654

116,703

117,008

117,716

117,821

117,832

117,988

117,097

117,451

117,258

117,551

117,53 5

P a rticip ation ra te ..........

67.3

67.3

67.2

67.2

67.2

67.3

67.7

67.8

67.7

67.8

67.2

67.4

67.2

67.3

67.3

E m p lo y e d ...........................

110,931

112,235

112,303

112,548

112,611

112,951

113,704

113,634

113,630

113,915

112,988

113,484

113,156

113,352

113,450

E m p lo y m e n t-p o p u la tio n ra tio 2...............

64.7

64.8

64.8

64.8

64.8

65.0

65.4

65.3

65.3

65.4

64.9

65.1

64.9

64.9

64.9

U n e m p lo y e d ......................

4 ,484

4 ,273

4,192

4,106

4,092

4,057

4,011

4,187

4,202

4,0 7 3

4,1 0 8

3,967

4 ,103

4,1 9 9

4,0 8 5

U n e m p lo y m e n t ra te....

3.9

3.7

3.6

3.5

3.5

3.5

3.4

3.6

3.6

3.5

3.5

3.4

3.5

3.6

3.5

p o p u la tio n 1.............................

24,3 73

2 4,855

2 4,9 46

2 4,985

2 5,0 19

25,051

2 5,047

2 5,076

2 5,105

2 5,1 35

25,161

25,191

25,221

2 5,258

25,2 9 9

C ivilia n la b o r fo rc e ................

15,982

16,365

16,474

16,489

16,508

16,513

16,622

16,785

16,572

16,636

16,596

16,557

16,456

16,512

2 6,403

P a rticip ation ra te ..........

65.6

65.8

66.0

66.0

66.0

65.9

66.4

66.9

66.0

66.2

66.0

65.8

65.2

65.4

64.8

E m p lo y e d ...........................

14,556

15,056

15,114

15,124

15,187

15,204

15,254

15,471

15,356

15,444

15,261

15,275

15,190

15,190

15,246

B la c k
C ivilia n n on in stitu tio n a l

E m p lo y m e n t-p o p u la tio n ra tio 2..............

59.7

60.6

60.6

60.5

60.7

60.7

60.9

61.7

61.2

61.4

60.7

60.6

60.2

60.1

60.3

U n e m p lo y e d ......................

1,426

1,309

1,360

1,365

1,321

1,309

1,368

1,314

1,216

1,191

1,335

1,302

1,266

1,322

1,156

U n e m p lo y m e n t rate....

8.9

8.0

8.3

8.3

8.0

7.9

8.2

7.8

7.3

7.2

8.0

7.9

7.7

8.0

7 .0

S ee fo o tn o te s a t e n d o f tab le.

58

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

November 2000

4. Continued— Employment status of the population, by sex, age, race, and Hispanic origin, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]

2000

1999

Annual average

Employment status

1998

1999

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

2 1 ,0 7 0

2 1 ,6 5 0

2 1 ,8 2 0

2 1,8 81

2 1 ,9 4 7

2 2 ,0 0 8

2 2 ,0 4 7

2 2 ,1 0 8

2 2 ,1 6 6

2 2,2 31

2 2 ,2 9 2

2 2 ,3 5 5

2 2 ,4 2 2

2 2 ,4 8 8

2 2 ,5 5 5

1 4 ,3 1 7

1 4 ,6 6 5

1 4 ,7 6 6

1 4 ,8 0 9

1 4 ,8 8 7

1 4 ,9 8 4

15,251

1 5 ,2 4 9

1 5 ,3 1 3

1 5 ,3 5 5

1 5 ,3 2 2

1 5 ,3 2 5

1 5 ,1 8 8

1 5 ,2 4 8

1 5 ,5 3 6

6 7 .9

6 7 .7

6 7 .7

6 7 .7

6 7 .8

68.1

6 9 .2

6 9 .0

69.1

69.1

6 8 .7

6 8 .6

6 7 .7

6 7 .8

6 8 .9

13,291

1 3 ,7 2 0

1 3 ,7 9 5

1 3 ,8 7 9

1 3 ,9 7 9

1 4 ,0 9 5

1 4 ,3 9 5

1 4 ,3 8 2

1 4 ,3 5 5

1 4 ,5 2 4

1 4 ,4 3 2

14,461

1 4 ,3 3 9

1 4,371

1 4,3 71

H is p a n ic o r ig in
C iv ilia n n o n in s titu tio n a l

P a rtic ip a tio n r a te ...........

E m p lo y m e n t- p o p -

U n e m p lo y m e n t ra te ...

63.1

6 3 .4

6 3 .2

6 3 .4

6 3 .7

6 4 .0

6 5 .3

65.1

6 4 .8

6 5 .3

6 4 .7

6 4 .7

6 4 .0

6 3 .9

6 5 .0

1 ,0 2 6

945

971

930

908

889

856

868

958

831

890

864

849

876

871

7 .2

6 .4

6 .6

6 .3

6.1

5 .9

5 .6

5 .7

6 .3

5 .4

5 .8

5 .6

5 .6

5 .7

5 .6

1 T h e p o p u la tio n fig u re s a re n o t s e a s o n a lly a d ju s te d .

d a ta fo r th e " o th e r ra c e s " g ro u p s a re n o t p re s e n te d a n d H ís p a n le s a re in c lu d e d in b o th th e

2 C iv ilia n e m p lo y m e n t a s a p e rc e n t o f th e c iv ilia n n o n in s titu tio n a l p o p u la tio n .

w h ite a n d b la c k P °P u la tio n g ro u p s .

N O T E: D e ta il fo r th e a b o v e ra c e a n d H is p a n ic -o rig in g ro u p s w ill n o t s u m to to ta ls b e c a u s e

5.

Selected em ploym ent indicators, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[In thousands]

Selected categories

2000

1999

A n n u a l a v e ra g e

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

1998

1999

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

1 3 1 ,4 6 3

1 3 3 ,4 8 8

1 3 3 ,6 5 0

1 3 3 ,9 4 0

1 3 4 ,0 9 8

1 3 4 ,4 2 0

135,221

1 3 5 ,3 6 2

1 3 5 ,1 5 9

1 3 5 ,7 0 6

1 3 4 ,7 1 5

1 3 5 ,1 7 9

1 3 4 ,7 4 9

1 3 4 ,9 1 2

135

7 0 ,6 9 3

7 1 ,4 4 6

7 1 ,6 3 0

7 1 ,6 2 3

7 1 ,7 3 2

7 1 ,9 2 7

7 2 ,3 5 8

7 2 ,4 7 3

7 2 ,3 1 3

7 2 ,3 0 7

7 1 ,9 4 8

7 2 ,2 1 7

7 2 ,0 6 3

7 2 ,4 0 7

7 2 ,3 5 2

6 0,771

6 2 ,0 4 2

6 2 ,0 2 0

6 2 ,3 1 7

6 2 ,3 6 6

6 2 ,4 9 3

6 2 ,8 6 3

6 2 ,8 8 9

6 2 ,8 4 6

6 3 ,3 9 9

6 2 ,7 6 7

6 2 ,9 6 2

6 2 ,6 8 6

6 2 ,5 0 5

6 2 ,8 0 9

4 2 ,9 2 3

4 3 ,2 5 4

4 3 ,3 6 7

4 3 ,2 0 6

4 3 ,2 7 3

4 3 ,2 8 3

43,9 51

4 3 ,5 3 5

4 3 ,2 9 7

4 3 ,2 7 2

4 3 ,2 1 6

4 3 ,3 5 7

4 3 ,2 8 4

4 3 ,3 7 2

4 3 ,3 2 4

3 2 ,8 7 2

3 3 ,4 5 0

3 3 ,2 7 5

3 3,521

3 3 ,6 3 5

3 3 ,7 6 2

3 4 ,1 6 6

3 3 ,8 8 2

3 3 ,7 8 0

3 3 ,8 7 7

3 3 ,7 8 6

3 3 ,8 2 4

3 3 ,6 1 8

3 3 ,4 1 3

3 3 ,4 0 2

7 ,9 0 4

8 ,2 2 9

8 ,3 1 2

8 ,3 9 8

8 ,5 2 6

8 ,3 7 5

8 ,3 6 2

8 ,2 2 0

8 ,0 8 2

8 ,3 0 7

8,301

8 ,2 8 0

8 ,4 8 3

8 ,5 1 9

8 ,5 4 8

W a g e a n d s a la ry w o r k e r s ......

2 ,0 0 0

1 ,9 4 4

1 ,9 3 0

1 ,9 3 6

2 ,0 4 9

2 ,0 1 8

2 ,0 2 4

2 ,0 2 5

2 ,0 4 3

2 ,0 5 4

2 ,0 0 6

2 ,0 5 9

2 ,0 7 9

2 ,0 5 6

1 2 2 ,9 9 2

S e lf-e m p lo y e d w o r k e r s .........

1,341

1 ,2 9 7

1 ,1 9 8

1 ,2 6 7

1 ,2 1 6

1,211

1 ,3 2 0

1 ,3 4 4

1 ,2 9 2

1 ,2 7 2

1 ,2 5 2

1 ,1 7 5

1 ,1 8 2

1 ,2 5 8

1 ,2 8 8

38

40

40

42

41

36

38

51

42

43

38

50

40

37

39

1 1 9 ,0 1 9

1 2 1 ,3 2 3

1 2 1 ,5 8 3

1 2 1 ,6 5 4

1 2 1 ,9 6 5

1 2 2 ,4 2 6

1 2 2 ,8 2 3

1 2 3 ,1 6 6

1 2 3 ,1 6 9

1 2 3 ,6 2 3

1 2 2 ,8 6 0

1 2 3 ,0 0 2

122,681

1 2 2 ,7 7 3

1 2 2 ,9 9 2

1 8 ,3 8 3

1 8 ,9 0 3

1 9 ,0 8 0

1 8 ,8 1 7

1 8 ,9 0 2

1 8 ,9 5 9

1 9 ,0 1 3

1 9 ,3 9 4

1 9 ,5 9 8

1 9 ,2 8 0

1 9 ,1 6 9

1 8 ,7 7 7

1 8 ,4 9 7

1 8 ,4 9 6

1 8 ,9 7 9

1 0 0 ,6 3 7

1 0 2 ,4 2 0

1 0 2 ,5 0 3

1 0 2 ,8 3 7

1 0 3 ,0 6 3

1 0 3 ,4 6 7

1 0 3 ,8 1 0

1 0 3 ,7 7 2

103,571

1 0 4 ,3 4 3

103,691

1 0 4 ,2 2 5

1 0 4 ,1 8 4

1 0 4 ,2 7 7

1 0 4 ,0 1 3

C h a r a c t e r is t ic
E m p lo y e d , 16 y e a rs a n d o v e r..

M a rr ie d m e n , s p o u s e

M a rr ie d w o m e n , s p o u s e

W o m e n w h o m a in ta in

C la s s o f w o r k e r
A g r ic u ltu r e :

N o n a g ric u ltu ra l in d u s trie s :
W a g e a n d s a la ry w o r k e r s ......

962

933

1 ,0 3 5

939

944

948

9 52

1 ,0 1 6

998

1 ,0 1 9

953

957

807

716

812

9 9 ,6 7 4

1 0 1 ,4 8 7

1 0 1 ,4 6 8

1 0 1 ,8 9 8

1 0 2 ,1 1 9

1 0 2 ,5 1 9

1 0 2 ,8 5 8

1 0 2 ,7 5 6

1 0 2 ,5 7 3

1 0 3 ,3 2 4

1 0 2 ,7 8 3

1 0 3 ,2 6 8

1 0 3 ,3 7 7

103,561

1 03 ,20 1

S e lf-e m p lo y e d w o rk e rs ........

8 ,9 6 2

8 ,7 9 0

8,791

8 ,8 3 3

8 ,6 8 6

8 ,6 6 2

8 ,8 0 2

8 ,7 9 3

8 ,7 0 4

8 ,7 5 0

8 ,7 1 4

8 ,6 6 5

8 ,6 0 9

8 ,5 9 0

8 ,7 7 9

U n p a id fa m ily w o r k e r s .........

1 03

95

1 00

101

108

98

92

74

107

1 03

82

71

80

116

1 05

3 ,6 6 5

3 ,3 5 7

3 ,2 8 3

3 ,1 7 9

3 ,2 7 4

3 ,3 2 0

3 ,2 1 9

3 ,1 3 9

3 ,1 2 4

3 ,1 2 4

3 ,2 4 8

3 ,1 1 7

3,071

3 ,1 6 4

3 ,1 8 9

2 ,0 9 5

1 ,9 6 8

1 ,9 2 2

1 ,9 2 8

1 ,9 3 0

1,951

1 ,8 9 3

1 ,8 0 7

1 ,8 2 0

1 ,8 4 4

1 ,9 6 2

1,811

1 ,8 4 6

1 ,9 9 7

2 ,1 0 1

1 ,2 5 8

1 ,0 7 9

1 ,0 7 3

993

1 ,0 3 2

1 ,0 2 5

1 ,0 1 2

1 ,0 2 3

953

1 ,0 1 6

978

1 ,0 2 2

9 00

855

815

1 8 ,5 3 0

1 8 ,7 5 8

18,801

1 8 ,7 9 9

18,651

1 8 ,6 1 8

1 8 ,8 8 9

19,031

1 8,7 70

1 8 ,4 7 4

1 8 ,4 0 9

1 8 ,3 0 8

1 8 ,5 5 8

1 8 ,7 0 9

1 8 ,4 5 6

3,501

3 ,1 8 9

3 ,1 1 2

2 ,9 8 3

3 ,1 0 5

3 ,1 5 7

3 ,0 6 6

2 ,9 8 5

3 ,0 0 3

3,021

3 ,0 9 6

2 ,9 6 7

2 ,9 4 0

3 ,0 3 8

3 ,0 2 1

1 ,9 9 7

1,861

1 ,8 0 6

1 ,8 0 7

1 ,8 1 5

1 ,8 4 3

1,801

1 ,7 0 5

1 ,7 6 6

1,7 8 2

1 ,840

1 ,7 1 3

1 ,7 5 0

1 ,9 2 4

1 ,9 8 3

1 ,2 2 8

1 ,0 5 6

1 ,0 6 3

9 64

1 ,0 1 3

1 ,0 1 8

9 66

1 ,0 0 5

922

989

9 62

994

881

838

804

1 7 ,9 5 4

1 8 ,1 9 7

1 8 ,2 7 3

1 8 ,2 4 9

1 8 ,0 8 3

18,061 I

1 8 ,3 4 7 I

1 8 ,4 0 6

1 8 ,1 8 4

1 7 ,9 4 3

1 7 ,8 5 3

1 7 ,7 4 3

18,041

1 8 ,1 9 0

1 7 ,8 7 9

P riv a te h o u s e h o ld s .........

P e r s o n s a t w o r k p a r t t im e 1
A ll in d u s trie s :
P a rt tim e fo r e c o n o m ic

S la c k w o rk o r b u s in e s s

C o u ld o n ly fin d p a rt-tim e

P a rt tim e fo r n o n e c o n o m ic

N o n a g ric u ltu ra l in d u s trie s :
P a rt tim e fo r e c o n o m ic

S la c k w o rk o r b u s in e s s

C o u ld o n ly fin d p a rt-tim e

P a rt tim e fo r n o n e c o n o m ic
r e a s o n s .................................. I
'

E x c lu d e s p e rs o n s "w ith a jo b b u t n o t a t w o rk " d u rin g th e s u rv e y p e rio d fo r su ch re a s o n s a s v a c a tio n , illn e ss, o r in d u s tria l d is p u te s .


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

59

Current Labor Statistics:

6.

Labor Force Data

Selected unem ploym ent indicators, m onthly data seasonally adjusted

[Unemployment rates]

1999

A n n u a l a v e ra g e

Selected categories
1998

1999

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

2000
Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

C h a r a c t e r i s t ic
T o ta l, 1 6 y e a r s a n d o v e r ....................................

4 .5

4 .2

4 .2

4.1

4.1

4.1

4 .0

4.1

4.1

3 .9

4.1

4 .0

4 .0

4.1

3 .9

B o th s e x e s , 1 6 to 1 9 y e a r s ..........................

1 4 .6

1 3 .9

1 4 .6

1 3 .8

1 4 .0

1 3 .8

1 2 .6

14.1

1 3 .3

1 2 .7

1 2 .5

1 1 .6

1 3 .4

1 4 .4

1 4 .4

M e n , 2 0 y e a r s a n d o v e r ................................

3 .7

3 .5

3 .4

3 .5

3 .3

3 .3

3 .3

3 .4

3 .3

3 .2

3 .4

3 .2

3 .2

3 .2

3 .2

W o m e n , 2 0 y e a r s a n d o v e r ..........................

4.1

3 .8

3 .7

3 .5

3 .6

3 .6

3 .7

3 .5

3 .6

3 .5

3 .8

3 .8

3 .7

3 .8

3 .5

3 .5

3 .6

3 .5

W h ite , t o t a l..........................................................

3 .9

3 .7

3 .6

3 .5

3 .5

3 .5

3 .4

3 .6

3 .6

3 .5

3 .5

3 .4

B o th s e x e s , 1 6 t o 1 9 y e a r s ...................

1 2 .6

1 2 .0

1 2 .3

11 8

12 0

12 2

10 8

1? 8

11 7

11 fi

10 fi

q 4

M e n , 1 6 t o 1 9 y e a r s ..............................

14.1

1 2 .6

1 2 .7

1 1 .9

1 2 .8

1 3 .3

1 2 .4

1 4 .4

1 1 .3

1 3 .0

1 0 .7

1 1 .2

1 2 .6

1 3 .3

1 2 .2

W o m e n , 1 6 t o 1 9 y e a r s .......................

1 0 .9

1 1 .3

1 1 .9

1 1 .7

1 1 .2

1 0 .9

9.1

1 0 .4

12.1

1 0 .0

1 0 .5

7 .4

1 0 .3

1 1 .0

1 0 .7

M e n , 2 0 y e a r s a n d o v e r ..........................

3 .2

3 .0

2 .9

2 .9

2 .8

2 .8

2 .8

2 .9

2 .9

2 .8

2 .8

2 .8

2 .7

2 .7

2 .9

W o m e n , 2 0 y e a r s a n d o v e r ...................

3 .4

3 .3

3 .2

3.1

3.1

3 .0

3.1

3.1

3 .2

3.1

3 .3

3 .2

3 .3

3 .3

3.1

B la c k , t o t a l..........................................................

8 .9

8 0

8 3

8 3

8 .0

7 9

8 ?

7 8

7 3

B o th s e x e s , 1 6 t o 1 9 y e a r s ...................

2 7 .6

2 7 .9

3 0 .8

3 0 .8

2 8 .4

2 5 .3

2 3 .9

2 4 .3

25.1

2 2 .2

2 3 .9

2 5 .4

2 6 .6

2 7 .8

2 3 .9

M e n , 1 6 to 1 9 y e a r s ..............................

30.1

3 0 .9

3 0 .3

3 5 .3

3 1 .0

2 7 .5

2 4 .0

2 2 .3

2 1 .3

2 2 .0

2 7 .7

3 2 .0

2 5 .0

3 3 .7

2 6 .7

W o m e n , 1 6 to 1 9 y e a r s .......................

2 5 .3

2 5 .1

3 1 .4

2 6.1

2 5 .9

2 3 .0

2 3 .8

2 6 .6

2 8 .9

2 2 .4

2 0 .2

1 8 .2

2 7 .9

2 2 .5

2 1 .5

M e n , 2 0 y e a r s a n d o v e r ..........................

7 .4

6 .7

7.1

7 .7

7 .0

7 .0

7 .4

7.1

6 .4

6 .6

7 .2

6 .9

6 .7

7 .4

6 .3

W o m e n , 2 0 y e a r s a n d o v e r ...................

7 .9

6 .8

6 .7

6.1

6 .6

6 .7

7 .2

6 .5

6.1

5 .8

7 .0

6 .6

6 .4

6 .3

5 .8

6 .3

5 .4

5 .8

5 .6

5 .6

5 .7

5 .6
2 .1

H is p a n ic o r ig in , t o t a l...................................

7 .2

6 .4

6 .6

6 .3

6.1

5 .9

5 .6

5 .7

M a r r ie d m e n , s p o u s e p r e s e n t ................

2 .4

2 .2

2 .2

2 .2

2.1

2 .2

2 .0

2.1

2 .0

1 .8

1 .9

1 .9

2 .0

2 .0

M a r r ie d w o m e n , s p o u s e p r e s e n t..........

2 .9

2 .7

2 .6

2 .5

2 .5

2 .5

2 .6

2 .6

2 .7

2 .6

2 .9

2 .6

2 .8

2 .9

2 .8

W o m e n w h o m a in ta in fa m ilie s ...............

7 .2

6 .4

6 .4

6 .0

6 .0

6 .2

6 .2

6.1

6 .8

6 .3

6 .5

6.1

5 .6

6 .0

5 .3

F u ll- tim e w o r k e r s ..........................................

4 .3

4.1

4 .0

4 .0

3 .9

3 .9

3 .9

3 .9

3 .8

3 .8

3 .9

3 .8

3 .7

4 .0

3 .8

P a r t- tim e w o r k e r s ..........................................

5 .3

5 .0

5 .0

4 .7

4 .9

4 .9

4 .6

4 .9

5.1

4 .6

5 .3

4 .8

5 .3

5 .0

4 .6

N o n a g r ic u ltu r a l w a g e a n d s a la ry
w o r k e r s .....................................................................

4 .6

4 .3

4 .3

4 .2

4 .2

4.1

4 .2

4 .2

4 .3

4 .0

4 .2

4 .0

4.1

4.1

4 .0

M in in g ...................................................................

3 .2

5 .7

6 .7

5 .0

4 .6

4.1

2 .6

4 .0

2 .5

2 .8

4 .2

3 .5

5.1

4 .6

5 .8

C o n s t r u c t io n .......................................................

7 .5

7 .0

6 .9

6 .7

5 .7

6 .6

6 .4

7 .5

6 .9

5 .2

5 .8

5 .9

5 .9

6 .5

6 .4

M a n u f a c tu r in g ...................................................

3 .9

3 .6

3 .9

3 .7

3 .7

3 .6

3 .2

3 .3

3 .9

4 .0

3 .7

3 .4

3 .6

3 .5

3 .6

D u r a b le g o o d s ..............................................

3 .4

3 .5

4 .0

3 .5

3 .7

3 .6

2 .8

3 .0

3 .0

3 .9

3 .6

3 .5

3 .3

3.1

3.1

N o n d u r a b le g o o d s ......................................

4 .7

3 .9

3 .9

4 .0

3 .7

3 .5

3 .9

3 .8

5 .2

4.1

3 .7

3.1

4 .0

4 .3

4 .4

T r a n s p o r t a tio n a n d p u b lic u tilitie s ...........

3 .4

3 .0

2 .8

3.1

3 .3

3 .0

3 .7

3 .2

3.1

2 .9

3 .2

2 .7

3 .2

3.1

3 .3

5.1

5 .3

5 .4

4 .9

5.1

5 .2

5 .0

5.1

4 .7
2 .0

In d u s tr y

W h o le s a le a n d re ta il t r a d e ..........................

5 .5

5 .2

5 .2

4 .9

5 .3

5 .2

F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , a n d re a l e s ta te .......

2 .5

2 .3

2 .3

2 .3

2 .3

2.1

2 .5

2 .9

2 .4

2 .6

2 .4

2 .3

2.1

2 .5

S e r v ic e s ...............................................................

4 .5

4.1

4.1

4 .0

3 .9

3 .8

4 .2

3 .7

4 .0

3 .7

4.1

3 .8

4 .0

3 .8

3 .6

G o v e r n m e n t w o r k e r s ...........................................

2 .3

2 .2

2 .0

2.1

2 .0

2.1

2.1

2 .2

1 .7

1 .7

2 .0

2 .5

2.1

2 .4

2 .0

A g r ic u ltu r a l w a g e a n d s a la r y w o r k e r s ........

8 .3

8 .9

5 .7

7 .7

8 .3

7.1

5 .0

6 .5

5 .6

8 .4

7 .6

7 .3

7 .0

8 .5

7 .8

E d u c a tio n a l a tta in m e n t1
L e s s th a n a h ig h s c h o o l d ip lo m a ....................

7.1

6 .7

6 .8

6 .6

6 .5

6 .0

6 .6

6 .0

6 .9

6.1

7 .0

6 .4

6 .4

6.1

6.1

H ig h s c h o o l g r a d u a te s , n o c o lle g e ................

4 .0

3 .5

3 .5

3 .3

3 .3

3 .5

3 .5

3 .5

3 .4

3 .4

3 .6

3 .4

3 .3

3 .7

3 .3

d e g r e e .......................................................................

3 .0

2 .8

2 .7

2 .7

2 .7

2 .5

2 .6

2 .9

2 .7

2 .6

2 .5

2 .9

2 .8

2 .9

2 .6

C o lle g e g r a d u a t e s ..................................................

1 .8

1 .8

1 .7

1 .7

1 .7

1 .8

1 .8

1 .6

1 .6

1.5

1 .6

1 .5

1 .7

1 .8

1 .9

S o m e c o lle g e , le s s t h a n a b a c h e lo r's

1 D a ta r e fe r to p e r s o n s 2 5 y e a r s a n d o v e r.

60

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

November 2000

7.

Duration of unem ploym ent, m onthly data seasonally adjusted

[Numbers in thousands]

Weeks of
unemployment

M e d ia n d u r a tio n , in w e e k s ..................

8.

Sept.

1999

1998

2000

1999

Annual average

Nov,

Oct.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept

2 ,6 2 2

2 ,5 6 8

2 ,5 8 2

2 ,5 4 5

2 ,6 0 1

2 ,6 2 0

2 ,4 4 7

2 ,6 0 3

2 ,8 2 4

2 ,4 5 5

2 ,5 3 1

2 ,5 9 5

2 ,4 7 0

2 ,5 9 4

2 ,4 8 7

1 ,9 5 0

1 ,8 3 2

1 ,8 0 5

1,8 1 1

1 ,7 6 0

1 ,6 9 4

1 ,7 5 4

1 ,8 6 4

1 ,7 1 9

1 ,8 6 8

1 ,9 5 3

1 ,7 5 9

1 ,8 1 2

1 ,8 4 6

1 ,7 1 7

1 ,6 3 7

1 ,4 8 0

1 ,4 1 2

1 ,4 3 4

1 ,401

1 ,3 8 8

1 ,3 7 2

1 ,2 7 7

1 ,2 9 5

1 ,2 5 0

1 ,3 3 7

1 ,2 4 2

1 ,3 3 1

1 ,3 8 4

1 ,2 7 6

763

755

708

719

725

693

667

673

657

670

677

593

654

679

607

875

725

704

715

676

695

705

604

637

580

660

649

677

705

624

1 4 .5

1 3 .4

1 3 .0

1 3 .2

1 3 .0

1 2 .9

1 3 .2

1 2 .5

1 2 .8

1 2 .4

1 2 .6

1 2 .4

1 3 .3

1 3 .0

1 1 .9

6 .7

6 .4

5 .9

6 .3

6 .2

5 .9

5 .7

6.1

6 .0

6 .0

5 .8

5 .8

6 .0

6 .2

5 .2

Unem ployed persons by reason for unem ploym ent, m onthly data seasonally adjusted

[Numbers in thousands]______________________________________ ______________ ___________ ___________

Reason for
unemployment

Oct.

Sept.

1999

1998

2000

1999

Annual average

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.
2 ,5 1 1

J o b lo s e r s 1.................................................

2 ,8 2 2

2 ,6 2 2

2 ,5 7 3

2 ,5 1 8

2 ,4 9 3

2 ,401

2 ,4 7 7

2 ,6 1 6

2 ,5 4 1

2 ,3 0 6

2 ,4 8 3

2 ,4 5 0

2 ,4 1 7

2 ,6 1 5

866

848

869

802

851

795

739

838

781

703

894

959

856

940

823

O n t e m p o r a r y la y o ff...........................

1 ,9 5 7

1 ,7 7 4

1 ,7 0 4

1 ,7 1 6

1 ,6 4 2

1 ,6 0 6

1 ,7 3 9

1 ,7 7 8

1 ,7 5 9

1 ,6 0 2

1 ,5 8 9

1,491

1,561

1 ,6 7 4

1 ,6 8 8

N o t o n te m p o r a r y la y o ff....................

734

783

758

778

821

825

776

759

824

883

774

671

799

782

746

2 ,1 3 2

2 ,0 0 5

1 ,9 6 7

1 ,9 5 8

1 ,9 3 5

2 ,0 3 6

2 ,0 4 3

1 ,9 7 5

1 ,9 7 9

1,961

2 ,0 9 3

2 ,0 7 6

1,961

1 ,9 1 9

1 ,7 7 4

R e e n tr a n ts .................................................

520

469

504

511

485

453

393

387

434

408

500

343

402

514

4 11

N e w e n t r a n ts .............................................

4 5 .5

4 4 .6

4 4 .3

4 3 .7

4 3 .5

4 2 .0

4 3 .5

4 5 .6

4 4 .0

4 1 .9

4 2 .4

4 4 .2

4 3 .3

4 4 .8

4 6 .2

1 3 .9

1 4 .4

1 5 .0

1 3 .9

1 4 .8

1 3 .9

1 3 .0

1 4 .6

1 3 .5

1 2 .8

1 5 .3

1 7 .3

1 5 .3

16.1

15.1

3 1 .5

3 0 .2

2 9 .4

2 9 .8

2 8 .6

28.1

3 0 .6

3 1 .0

3 0 .5

29.1

2 7 .2

2 6 .9

2 8 .0

2 8 .7

3 1 .0

P e r c e n t o f u n e m p lo y e d

N o t o n t e m p o r a r y la y o ff...................

N e w e n t r a n ts .............................................

1 1 .8

1 3 .3

13.1

1 3 .5

1 4 .3

1 4 .4

1 3 .6

1 3 .2

1 4 .3

15.1

1 3 .2

12.1

1 4 .3

1 3 .4

1 3 .7

3 4 .3

34.1

3 3 .9

3 4 .0

3 3 .7

3 5 .6

3 5 .9

3 4 .4

3 4 .3

3 5 .6

3 5 .8

3 7 .5

35.1

3 2 .9

3 2 .6

8 .4

8 .0

8 .7

8 .9

8 .5

7 .9

6 .9

6 .7

7 .5

7 .4

8 .5

6 .2

7 .2

8 .8

7 .5

1 .8

P e r c e n t o f c i v i li a n
la b o r fo r c e
2.1

1.9

1 .8

1.8

1.8

1.7

1.8

1.9

1 .8

1.6

1.8

1.7

1.7

1.9

.5

.6

.5

.6

.6

.6

.6

.5

.6

.6

.6

.5

.6

.6

.5

J o b le a v e r s ................................................

1.5

1.4

1.4

1.4

1.4

1.5

1.4

1.4

1.4

1.4

1.5

1.5

1.4

1.4

1 .4

R e e n tr a n ts .................................................

.4

.3

.4

.4

.3

.3

.3

.3

.3

.3

.4

.2

.3

.4

.4

N e w e n t r a n ts ...........................................

1 In c lu d e s p e r s o n s w h o c o m p le te d te m p o ra ry jo b s .


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

61

Current Labor Statistics:

9.

Labor Force Data

U nem ploym ent rates by sex and age, m onthly data seasonally adjusted

[Civilian workers]

Sex and age

Annual average
1998

1999

1999

2000

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

T o ta l, 1 6 y e a r s a n d o v e r .......................

4 .5

4 .2

4 .2

4.1

4.1

4.1

4 .0

4.1

4.1

3 .9

4.1

4 .0

4 .0

4.1

3 .9

1 6 to 2 4 y e a r s .......................................

1 0 .4

9 .9

1 0 .0

1 0 .0

1 0 .0

9 .8

9 .3

1 0 .0

9 .7

9 .3

9 .8

9 .0

9 .2

9 .4

8 .7

1 6 to 1 9 y e a r s ...................................

1 4 .6

1 3 .9

1 4 .6

1 3 .9

1 4 .0

1 3 .8

1 2 .6

14.1

1 3 .3

1 2 .7

1 2 .5

1 1 .6

1 3 .4

1 4 .4

1 2 .8

1 6 t o 1 7 y e a r s ...............................

1 7 .2

1 6 .3

16.1

1 5 .9

1 6 .5

1 6 .5

1 4 .0

1 5 .9

1 5 .3

1 4 .6

1 6 .0

13.1

1 6 .5

17.1

1 5 .7

1 8 to 1 9 y e a r s ...............................

1 2 .8

1 2 .4

1 3 .8

1 2 .4

1 2 .3

12.1

1 1 .4

1 2 .8

12.1

1 1 .4

1 0 .4

1 0 .6

1 1 .5

1 2 .6

1 1 .2

2 0 to 2 4 y e a r s ...................................

7 .9

7 .5

7 .2

7 .7

7 .7

7 .4

7 .4

7 .5

7 .6

7 .2

8 .2

7 .5

6 .8

6 .4

6 .4

2 5 y e a r s a n d o v e r ...............................

3 .4

3.1

3.1

3 .0

3 .0

3 .0

3 .0

3 .0

3 .0

2 .9

3 .0

3 .0

3 .0

3.1

3 .0

2 5 to 5 4 y e a r s ...............................

3 .5

3 .2

3 .2

3.1

3.1

3 .0

3.1

3 .0

3 .0

3 .0

3.1

3.1

3 .2

3 .2

3 .0

5 5 y e a r s a n d o v e r .......................

2 .7

2 .8

2 .6

2 .7

2 .6

2 .7

2 .8

3 .0

2 .7

2 .4

2 .4

2 .3

2 .4

2 .6

2 .8

M e n , 1 6 y e a r s a n d o v e r ......................

4 .4

4.1

4 .0

4.1

4 .0

4 .0

3 .9

4.1

3 .8

3 .8

3 .9

3 .9

3 .8

4 .0

3 .8

1 6 to 2 4 y e a r s .....................................

11.1

1 0 .3

9 .9

1 0 .4

1 0 .2

1 0 .6

9 .7

1 0 .3

9 .2

9 .6

1 0 .0

9 .5

9 .6

10.1

9 .3

1 6 to 1 9 y e a r s .................................

1 6 .2

1 4 .7

1 4 .6

1 4 .2

1 4 .9

1 5 .2

1 4 .0

1 5 .5

1 2 .4

1 3 .6

13.1

14.1

1 4 .0

1 6 .0

1 3 .6

1 6 to 1 7 y e a r s ............................

19.1

1 7 .0

1 6 .6

1 5 .5

1 6 .9

1 7 .7

1 4 .3

1 7 .3

15.1

1 5 .8

1 6 .9

1 5 .6

1 7 .4

1 6 .9

1 7 .4

1 8 to 1 9 y e a r s ............................

14.1

13.1

1 3 .2

1 3 .2

1 3 .6

1 3 .5

1 3 .7

1 3 .9

1 0 .5

1 2 .4

1 0 .8

1 3 .3

1 1 .9

1 5 .5

1 1 .0

2 0 t o 2 4 y e a r s ................................

8.1

7 .7

7 .2

8 .2

7 .5

7 .8

7 .2

7 .3

7 .4

7 .3

8 .3

6 .8

7.1

6 .7

6 .9

2 5 y e a r s a n d o v e r ............................

3 .2

3 .0

3 .0

2 .9

2 .8

2 .8

2 .8

2 .9

2 .8

2 .7

2 .8

2 .8

2 .8

2 .8

2 .8

2 5 to 5 4 y e a r s ............................

3 .3

3 .0

3 .0

3 .0

2 .9

2 .9

2 .9

2 .9

2 .8

2 .7

2 .8

2 .9

2 .8

2 .9

2 .8

5 5 y e a r s a n d o v e r ....................

2 .8

2 .8

2 .9

2 .8

2 .6

2 .5

2 .5

2 .8

2 .8

2 .7

2 .6

2 .2

2 .4

2 .7

2 .6

W o m e n , 1 6 y e a r s a n d o v e r ...............

4 .6

4 .3

4 .3

4 .2

4 .2

4.1

4 .2

4.1

4 .3

4 .0

4 .3

4.1

4 .3

4 .3

4 .0

62

1 6 to 2 4 y e a r s .....................................

9 .8

9 .5

1 0 .0

9 .6

9 .8

8 .9

8 .9

9 .6

1 0 .2

8 .9

9 .5

8 .5

8 .9

8 .6

8 .0

1 6 to 1 9 y e a r s .................................

1 2 .9

1 3 .2

1 4 .7

1 3 .4

1 3 .0

1 2 .2

11.1

1 2 .6

1 4 .4

1 1 .6

1 1 .8

8 .9

1 2 .8

1 2 .6

1 1 .9

1 6 to 1 7 y e a r s ............................

15.1

1 5 .5

1 5 .6

1 6 .3

16.1

15.1

1 3 .7

1 4 .3

1 5 .4

1 3 .3

1 5 .0

1 0 .4

1 5 .5

1 7 .3

1 3 .9

1 8 t o 1 9 y e a r s ............................

1 1 .5

1 1 .6

1 4 .5

1 1 .4

1 0 .8

1 0 .5

8 .9

1 1 .6

1 3 .7

1 0 .4

9 .9

7 .8

1 1 .0

9 .4

1 1 .5

2 0 to 2 4 y e a r s ................................

7 .8

7 .2

7 .2

7 .2

7 .9

7 .0

7 .6

7 .8

7 .7

7 .2

8 .2

8 .2

6 .5

6 .2

5 .7

2 5 y e a r s a n d o v e r ............................

3 .6

3 .3

3 .2

3.1

3.1

3 .2

3 .2

3 .0

3 .2

3 .0

3 .3

3 .2

3 .3

3 .5

3 .2

2 5 t o 5 4 y e a r s ............................

3 .8

3 .4

3 .4

3 .2

3 .3

3 .2

3 .3

3 .0

3 .3

3 .2

3 .5

3 .4

3 .5

3 .6

3 .2

5 5 y e a r s a n d o v e r .....................

2 .6

2 .8

2.1

2 .5

2 .6

2 .9

3.1

3 .3

2 .7

2 .0

2 .3

2 .4

2 .3

2 .6

3.1

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

November 2000


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

10. U nem ploym ent rates by State, seasonally adjusted
State

Aug.
1999

July”
2000p

Aug.
2000

Aug.
1999

State

July2000p

Aug.
2000
2 .6

4 .9

4.1

4 .5

M is s o u r i.....................................................................

3 .4

2 .4

6 .3

5 .5

5 .8

M o n ta n a ....................................................................

5 .2

5.1

5.1

4 .5

3 .7

4 .0

N e b r a s k a ..................................................................

2 .8

2 .8

2 .7

4 .4

4.1

4.1

N e v a d a .......................................................................

4 .7

3 .5

3 .7

c; n

5.1

5 1

2 .6

3.1

2 .9

4 .0

2 .8

2 .7

2 .8

N e w J e r s e y ..............................................................

4 .7

3 .7

3 0

2 .4

2 .5

N e w M e x ic o ............................................................

5 .5

5 .4

5 .4

3 .3

3 .8

3 .9

N e w Y o r k ..................................................................

5 .2

4 .2

4 .5

5 .9

5 .0

5 .4

N o rth C a ro lin a ........................................................

3 .2

3 .2

3 .5

3 .7

3 .7

3 .7

N o rth D a k o ta ...........................................................

3 .3

2 .6

2 .9

4 0

3 .3

3 .7

O h io ............................................................................

4 .4

4 .2

4 .2

5 .4

4 .0

4 .3

O k la h o m a ................................................................

3 .2

3 .0

3 .2

5 .2

4 .5

4 .5

O r e g o n ......................................................................

5 .8

5 .0

5 .3

4 .4

4 .3

4 .2

P e n n s y lv a n ia ..........................................................

4 .5

4 .0

4 .0

3 .0

3 .6

3 .4

R h o d e Is la n d ...........................................................

4 .2

4 .0

4 .5

2 .5

2.1

2 .2

S o u th C a r o lin a ........................................................

4 .5

4 .0

4 .2

2 .9

3 .4

3 .4

S o u th D a k o ta ..........................................................

2 .9

2 .3

2 .2

4 .4

3 .9

3 .8

T e n n e s s e e ..............................................................

4 .0

3 .6

3 .6

4 .9

4 .5

4 .7

T e x a s ..........................................................................

4 .6

4.1

4 .3

4 1

3 .5

3 .2

U ta h ............................................................................

3 .7

3 .0

3.1

2 .7

2 .7

3 .4

3 .2

3 .5

V e r m o n t....................................................................

3 .0

3 2

2 .9

2 .6

V ir g in ia ......................................................................

2 .8

2 .5

2 .5

3 6

3 .6

3 .8

W a s h in g to n ............................................................

4 .7

4 .9

5.1

2 .9

2 .5

2 .8

W e s t V ir g in ia ..........................................................

6 .6

5 .4

5 .2

5 .0

5 .6

4 .9

W is c o n s in ...............................................................

2 .9

3 .7

3 .5

W y o m in g ..................................................................

4 .8

4 .0

4 .3

p = p re lim in a r y

11. Employm ent of workers on nonfarm payrolls by State, seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]

State

Id a h o .........................................................

Io w a ..........................................................

M a in e .......................................................

Aug. 1999

July
2000

Aug.
2000p

State
M is s o u r i....................................................

Aug.

Aug.
1999

July
2000

2 ,7 2 5 .8

2 ,7 5 1 .9

2 ,7 7 2 .6

3 8 2 .9

3 9 0 .3

3 9 0 .0

2000p

1 930 5

1 9 4 7 .2

1 ,9 5 0 .8

P7R 1

282 8

2 8 2 .9

2 1 7 2 .8

2 ,2 6 8 .1

2 ,2 7 4 .2

N e b r a s k a .................................................

8 9 4 .9

8 9 0 .7

8 8 9 .9

1 1 4 1 .3

1 ,1 7 0 .6

1 ,1 7 1 .5

N e v a d a .....................................................

9 9 4 .4

1 ,0 3 1 .0

1 ,0 3 8 .1

14 0 3 3 4

14 4 3 6 ?

1 4 ,4 5 0 .7

N e w H a m p s h ir e ...................................

6 0 8 .3

6 1 0 .2

6 1 1 .5

2 148 0

2 ,2 0 3 .1

2 ,2 0 2 .7

N e w J e r s e y ............................................

5 ,8 7 0 .9

3 ,9 2 0 .4

3 ,9 1 8 . 6

1 6 7 6 .2

1 6 9 6 .2

1 ,6 9 6 .5

N e w M e x ic o ..........................................

7 3 3 .0

7 4 3 .0

7 4 7 .3

4 1 3 .4

4 2 4 .8

4 2 3 .3

N e w Y o r k ................................................

8 ,4 6 9 .9

8 ,6 1 5 .0

8 ,5 8 7 .4

617 0

6 I5 .3

6 2 5 .2

N o rth C a r o lin a ......................................

3 ,9 0 6 .2

3 ,9 3 4 .9

3 ,9 5 0 .7

6 909 7

7 ,1 7 1 .0

7 ,1 9 8 .5

N o rth D a k o ta ........................................

3 2 3 .1

3 2 4 .2

3 2 2 .6

3 Q 1fi 1

4 003 5

4 0 1 3 .3

O h io ..........................................................

5 ,5 6 1 .5

5 ,5 8 8 .7

5 ,5 9 5 .4

5 3 8 .8

5 4 5 .0

5 4 5 .4

O k la h o m a ...............................................

1 ,4 6 3 .6

1 ,4 9 2 .2

1 ,4 9 3 .1

5 4 2 .6

5 6 1 .0

5 6 3 .9

O r e g o n ......................................................

1 ,5 7 9 .8

1 ,6 0 0 .3

1 ,5 9 9 .1

5 ,9 6 8 .1

6 ,0 1 8 .3

6 ,0 1 3 .7

P e n n s y lv a n ia ........................................

5 ,5 8 7 .1

5 ,6 0 9 .0

5 ,5 5 7 . 8

? 980 6

6 9 1 8 .3

3 ,0 0 3 .2

R h o d e Is la n d .........................................

4 6 6 .8

4 7 3 .3

4 7 0 .7

1 ,4 6 5 .3

6 ,9 1 8 .3

1 ,4 9 4 .0

S o u th C a r o lin a ......................................

1 ,8 3 7 .7

1 ,8 7 2 .9

1 ,8 8 1 .5

1 ,3 2 5 .3

6 ,9 1 8 .3

1 ,3 5 1 .8

S o u th D a k o ta ........................................

3 7 2 .7

3 7 7 .3

3 7 8 .4

1 799 3

6 918 3

1 ,8 4 1 .9

2 ,6 8 7 .5

2 ,7 2 4 .4

2 ,7 2 8 .3

1 898 1

6 9 1 8 .3

1 ,9 1 1 .0

T e x a s ........................................................

9 ,1 6 2 .9

9 ,3 8 5 .9

9 ,4 1 6 .8

5 8 6 .2

6 ,9 1 8 .3

5 9 8 .1

U ta h ..........................................................

1 ,0 5 3 .0

1 ,0 7 1 .9

1 ,0 7 2 .6

2 3 7 2 .6

6 9 1 8 .3

2 ,4 2 1 .1

V e r m o n t...................................................

3 ,2 4 7 .8

6 918 3

3 ,2 8 6 .3

2 9 0 .9

2 9 6 .5

2 9 6 .0

3 ,4 1 5 .2

3 ,4 6 5 .2

3 ,4 7 1 .6
2 ,7 0 5 .0

4 5 4 2 .6

6 ,9 1 8 .3

4 ,5 7 8 .4

W a s h in g to n ..........................................

2 ,6 4 9 .8

2 ,2 6 3 .9

2 617 0

6 9 1 8 .3

2 ,6 6 0 .4

W e s t V ir g in ia ........................................

7 2 3 .5

7 3 0 .8

7 2 8 .9

1 ,1 6 1 .5

6 ,9 1 8 .3

1 ,1 4 6 .5

W is c o n s in ...............................................

2 ,7 8 2 .7

2 ,8 2 0 .2

2 ,8 2 2 .7

W y o m in g ................................................

2 3 1 .2

2 3 7 .9

2 3 4 .9

p = p re lim in a r y
NO TE: S o m e d a ta in th is ta b le m a y d iffe r fro m d a ta p u b lis h e d e ls e w h e r e b e c a u s e o f th e c o n tin u a l u p d a tin g o f th e d a ta b a s e .

Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

63

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

12. Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by industry, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
In d u s tr y

A n n u a l a v e ra g e

1999

2000

1998

1999

S e p t.

O c t.

N ov.

D ec.

Jan.

Feb.

M a r.

A p r.

M ay

June

A u g .p

S e p t.p

T O T A L .....................................

125,865

128,786

129,265

129,523

129,788

130,038

130,387

130,482

131,009

131,419

131,590

131,647

# ## ####

131,516

1 31 ,76 8

P R IV A T E S E C T O R ...................

106,042

108,616

109,042

109,275

109,517

109,730

110,036

110,088

110,462

110,752

110,578

110,845

111,001

111,018

1 11 ,306

2 5,414

25,482

2 5,460

2 5,483

2 5,5 27

25,561

2 5,677

25,624

2 5,738

2 5,725

25,684

2 5,700

15,756

2 5,643

2 5 ,6 0 6

M in in g ............................................

590

535

527

529

527

530

530

533

536

539

539

5 39

538

537

536

M e tal m in in g ...................................

49

45

45

45

45

45

45

45

45

45

44

44

43

44

44

O il and g a s e x tra c tio n .................

339

293

287

289

288

291

293

296

300

303

305

306

306

304

303

G O O D S -P R O D U C IN G .....................

J u ly

N o n m e ta llic m in erals,
e x c e p t fu e ls ................................

110

112

112

112

112

111

111

111

111

111

110

110

110

109

108

C o n s t r u c t io n ...................................

6,020

6,404

6,439

6,470

6,516

6,552

6,652

6,618

6,726

6,694

6,666

6,668

6,670

6,675

6,703

G e n e ra l b uild in g c o n tra c to rs .....

1,377

1,450

1,458

1,464

1,470

1,474

1,498

1,491

1,508

1,497

1,497

1,498

1,498

1,504

1,509

b u ild in g .........................................

840

869

866

872

876

882

892

885

905

899

888

877

881

883

881

S p e c ia l tra d e s c o n tra c to rs .........

3,804

4,084

4,115

4,134

4 ,170

4 ,196

4,262

4,242

4,313

4,2 9 8

4,281

4,2 9 3

4,291

4 ,288

4,3 1 5
18,365

H e a vy c o n s tru c tio n , e xcept

M a n u fa c tu r in g ................................

18,805

18,543

18,494

18,484

18,484

18,479

18,495

18,473

18,476

18,492

18,479

18,493

18,548

18,431

P ro d u ctio n w o rk e rs ...............

12,952

12,739

12,700

12,702

12,702

12,701

12,713

12,697

12,683

12,689

12,682

12,683

12,741

12,629

12,592

D u ra b le g o o d s .............................

11,205

11,103

11,090

11,083

11,085

11,087

11,099

11,088

11,094

11,104

11,106

11,120

11,161

11,086

11,045

P ro d u ctio n w o rk e rs ...............

7,666

7,590

7,580

7,581

7,579

7,579

7,592

7,592

7,580

7,584

7,584

7,593

7,629

7,568

7 ,543

L u m b e r a nd w o o d p ro du cts....

814

828

830

831

831

831

830

832

830

830

828

827

825

818

814

F u rn itu re and fix tu re s ................

5 33

5 48

551

5 53

553

552

553

553

555

557

558

558

5 64

557

557

562

563

5 63

562

564

565

568

567

568

567

5 66

5 64

S to n e , c la y , and g la ss
p ro d u c ts ....................................
P rim a ry m e tal in d u s trie s ...........

566

568

571

715

700

697

697

698

698

699

699

701

699

699

699

698

695

692

1,509

1,517

1,518

1,519

1,520

1,521

1,523

1,525

1,528

1,534

1,535

1,540

1,539

1,538

1,532

2 ,206

2,141

2 ,133

2 ,130

2,131

2,132

2,130

2,131

2,124

2,1 2 6

2,1 2 5

2,1 3 0

2,1 3 7

2,1 3 2

2 ,1 2 3

382

370

370

369

370

370

369

368

366

364

360

360

361

363

361

1,707

1,670

1,670

1,672

1,670

1,673

1,679

1,684

1,682

1,691

1,693

1,697

1,719

1,719

1,712

a c c e s s o rie s.............................

660

636

636

638

638

640

642

645

646

651

654

661

670

675

679

T ra n s p o rta tio n e q u ip m e n t.......

1,893

1,884

1,880

1,873

1,870

1,867

1,871

1,855

1,865

1,859

1,863

1,864

1,863

1,818

1,811

e q u ip m e n t................................

995

1,019

1,025

1,022

1,022

1,023

1,027

1,029

1,028

1,026

1,026

1,030

1,029

993

989

A irc ra ft a nd p a rts ......................

5 25

495

4 83

4 78

473

470

469

4 53

467

461

4 63

460

460

456

457

873

856

852

849

850

849

847

844

844

844

845

844

849

848

846

395

395

396

397

398

399

399

398

397

397

394

393

396

395

394

N o n d u ra b le g o o d s .....................

7,600

7,440

7,404

7,401

7,399

7,392

7,3 9 6

7,385

7,382

7,388

7,373

7,373

7,387

7,345

7 ,3 2 0

P ro du ctio n w o rk e rs ................

5 ,287

5,1 4 9

5 ,120

5,121

5,1 2 3

5,122

5,121

5,105

5 ,103

5 ,105

5,098

5 ,090

5 ,112

5,061

5 ,0 4 9

F o od a nd kin d re d p ro d u c ts ......

1,683

1,677

1,673

1,673

1,675

1,674

1,681

1,672

1,671

1,664

F a b rica te d m e tal p ro d u c ts ......
In d u strial m a c h in e ry a nd
e q u ip m e n t.................................
C o m p u te r a n d o ffice
e q u ip m e n t..............................
E le c tro n ic and o th e r e le ctrical
e q u ip m e n t.................................
E le c tro n ic c o m p o n e n ts and

M o to r ve h ic le s and

In s tru m e n ts a nd re lated
p ro d u c ts .....................................
M is c e lla n e o u s m a n u fa c tu rin g
in d u s trie s .....................................

1,678

1,675

1,679

1,680

1,669

T o b a c c o p ro d u c ts .......................

41

39

38

38

38

38

38

37

35

37

37

37

37

34

36

T e xtile m ill p ro d u c ts ...................

598

560

552

550

552

549

548

549

549

548

545

542

544

541

539
6 35

A p p a re l and o th e r textile
p ro d u c ts .....................................

766

692

678

674

672

669

666

665

665

665

660

652

656

644

P a p e r and allied p ro d u c ts ........

677

668

666

665

665

665

664

663

662

662

661

663

062

660

657

P rintin g a nd p u b lis h in g .............

1,565

1,553

1,551

1,551

1,549

1,548

1,549

1,550

1,551

1,554

1,552

1,558

1,561

1,560

1,560

C h e m ic a ls a nd a llie d p ro ducts.

1,043

1,034

1,031

1,032

1,031

1,030

1,031

1,031

1,031

1,030

1,028

1,028

1,026

1,023

1,026

P e tro le u m a nd c o a l p ro d u cts...

139

134

133

133

132

132

132

132

132

132

132

132

131

133

131

1,005

1,006

1,005

1,008

1,009

1,011

1,011

1,010

1,010

1,007

998

R u b b e r a nd m is c e lla n e o us
p la s tic s p ro d u c ts .......................

1,008

1,008

1,014

1,006

L e a th e r a nd le a th e r p ro ducts...

84

78

77

77

76

76

76

76

76

75

75

74

76

75

74

S E R V IC E -P R O D U C IN G ..................

100,451

103,304

103,805

104,040

104,261

104,477

104,710

104,858

105,271

105,694

105,906

105,947

105,851

105,873

106,162

T r a n s p o r ta tio n a n d p u b lic
u tilit ie s .........................................

6,611

6,826

6,8 6 6

6,875

6,898

6,911

6,925

6,937

6,953

6,970

6,962

6,985

7,010

6,941

7,046

T ra n s p o rta tio n ...............................

4,2 7 3

4,4 0 9

4,436

4,441

4,4 5 3

4,459

4,470

4,479

4,492

4,509

4,501

4,510

4,5 4 6

4,548

4,5 5 8

R a ilroa d tra n s p o rta tio n .............

231

230

226

2 26

226

2 26

225

225

222

221

219

217

2 19

221

2 20

p a s s e n g e r tra n s it......................

469

485

488

489

4 90

491

4 93

494

494

498

498

493

502

504

5 05

Loca l and in te ru rb an
T ru c k in g and w a re h o u s in g .......

1,744

1,805

1,816

1,818

1,823

1,818

1,827

1,828

1,833

1,839

1,834

1,834

1,846

1,844

W a te r tra n s p o rta tio n ..................

1,850

181

187

189

190

190

192

192

196

197

200

200

202

199

204

202

T ra n s p o rta tio n b y a ir..................

1,181

1,227

1,238

1,241

1,246

1,253

1,291

1,256

1,259

1,268

1,270

1,269

1,279

1,282

1,288

P ipe lin e s, e x c e p t n a tu ra l gas...

14

13

13

13

13

13

13

12

12

12

12

12

13

12

12

T ra n s p o rta tio n s e rv ic e s ...........

454

463

466

464

465

466

464

4 65

4 66

469

4 69

473

475

475

4 75

u tilitie s ............................................

2,3 3 8

2,4 1 6

2,4 3 0

2,4 3 4

2,4 4 5

2,4 5 2

2,4 5 5

2,4 5 8

2,461

2,461

2,461

2,4 7 5

2,4 7 4

2 ,393

2 ,4 8 8

C o m m u n ic a tio n s ..........................

1,477

1,552

1,565

1,572

1,581

1,588

1,591

1,598

1,602

1,604

1,606

1,619

1,618

1,538

1,632

861

865

865

862

864

864

864

860

859

857

855

856

856

855

8 56

W h o le s a le tr a d e .............................

6,800

6,924

6,962

6,973

6,989

7,002

7,005

7,011

7,017

7,055

7 ,048

7,049

7,0 5 0

7,062

7,0 6 5

R e ta il tr a d e .......................................

22,2 95

2 2,788

2 2,844

2 2,863

2 2,893

2 2,936

2 2,973

2 2,987

2 3,027

2 3,197

2 3,064

2 3,122

2 3,196

2 3,188

2 3 ,1 8 9

su p p lie s .........................................

948

989

994

1,004

1,008

1,012

1,016

1,020

1,034

1,032

1,025

1,018

1,018

1,020

G e n e ra l m e rch a n d ise s to re s ......

1,015

2 ,730

2,771

2,757

2,752

2,752

2,766

2 ,765

2,762

2 ,756

2,791

2 ,744

2,741

2 ,727

2 ,738

D e p a rtm e n t s to re s ......................

2 ,7 5 0

2 ,415

2,431

2 ,414

2,408

2 ,406

2 ,416

2 ,419

2 ,417

2,4 0 9

2 ,443

2 ,388

2,386

2 ,373

2 ,390

2 ,3 9 9

C o m m u n ic a tio n s a nd p ub lic

E lectric, g as, a nd sa n ita ry
s e rv ic e s .......................................

B uild in g m a te ria ls a nd garden

S ee fo o tn o te s a t e nd o f table.

64

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

November 2000

12.

Continued— Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by industry, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[In th o u s a n d s ]

Industry

1998

1999

2000

1999

Annual average
Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May.

June

July

Aug.p

Sept.p

3,484

3,495

3,495

3,496

3,498

3,501

3,501

3,503

3,502

3,522

3,516

3,515

3,519

3,522

3,5 2 5

se rvice s ta tio n s ...........................

2,332

2,369

2,372

2,377

2,380

2,386

2,399

2,394

2 ,407

2 ,410

2 ,408

2,412

2,411

2 ,417

2 ,4 2 0

N e w and used c a r d e a le rs .......

1,047

1,079

1,087

1,089

1,092

1,094

1,097

1,100

1,105

1,106

1,107

1,110

1,111

1,114

1,118

1,195

1,195

1,197

1,206

1,203

1,205

F ood s to re s .....................................
A u to m o tive d e a le rs and

A p p a re l a nd a cc e s s o ry stores...

1,141

1,174

1,183

1,186

1,190

1,182

1,176

1,184

1,188

F u rn itu re and hom e fu rnishings
s to re s ............................................

1,025

1,082

1,092

1,093

1,091

1,098

1,099

1,102

1,111

1,113

1,113

1,118

1,119

1,121

1,120

E atin g and d rinkin g p la c e s.........

7,768

7,940

7,956

7,950

7,966

7,986

7,998

7,992

8,000

8,097

8,028

8,071

8,132

8,098

8 ,0 7 7

2 ,868

2,969

2,995

3,005

3,008

3,005

3,019

3,021

3,029

3,037

3,0 3 5

3,050

3,064

3,0 6 9

3 ,0 7 7

M is c e lla n e o u s retail
e s ta b lis h m e n ts ...........................
F in a n c e , in s u ra n c e , a n d
re a l e s ta te ......................................

7,389

7,569

7,589

7,599

7,604

7,813

7,612

7,624

7,621

7,610

7,600

7,588

7,586

7,6 0 6

7,6 2 2

F in a n c e ............................................

3,588

3,691

3,702

3,704

3,707

3,710

3,709

3,717

3,713

3,709

3,703

3,705

3,708

3,7 1 6

3 ,7 2 7

D e p o s ito ry in s titu tio n s ...............

2,046

2,061

2,063

2 ,063

2,001

2,059

2,058

2,057

2,054

2,052

2,044

2,042

2 ,036

2,0 3 7

2 ,0 3 6

C o m m e rcia l b a n k s ...................

1,472

1,476

1,476

1,475

1,473

1,471

1,470

1,469

1,466

1,464

1,456

1,454

1,449

1,451

1,449

S av in g s in s titu tio n s..................

256

252

250

250

250

248

247

245

243

243

243

242

240

240

239
688
758

N o n d e p o s ito ry in stitu tio ns........

658

710

711

706

704

704

699

699

692

686

684

682

683

683

647

688

697

703

709

713

716

723

728

732

736

741

748

752

S e c u rity a nd c o m m o d ity
b ro k e rs .........................................
H o ldin g a nd o th e r in ve stm ent
o ffic e s ..........................................

238

231

231

232

233

234

236

238

239

239

239

240

241

244

2 45

In s u ra n c e .........................................

2,3 3 5

2,371

2 ,376

2,3 7 8

2,375

2,378

2,372

2 ,373

2,373

2,365

2,361

2 ,359

2,354

2,3 5 7

2 ,3 5 5

In s u ra n c e c a rrie rs .......................

1,591

1,611

1,610

1,612

1,008

1,810

1,606

1,606

1,605

1,597

1,594

1,593

1,585

1,587

1,584

Insu ra n ce a ge n ts, b ro kers,
a n d s e rv ic e ....... ........................

744

761

786

766

707

768

766

767

768

768

767

766

769

770

771

Real e s ta te .................. ......... .........

1,465

1,607

1,511

1,517

1,522

1,625

1,531

1,534

1,535

1,536

1,536

1,524

1,524

1,533

1,540

Service»1...........................

3 7,533

39,027

39,321

39,482

39,606

39,707

39,844

39,914

4 0,090

4 0,195

4 0,220

40,401

4 0,4 03

40,5 78

4 0 ,7 7 8

708

766

770

774

782

782

800

796

812

801

790

788

794

799

799

H o tels a nd o th e r lo d g in g p la ce s

1,789

1,848

1,863

1,863

1,868

1,868

1,866

1,868

1,885

1,902

1,904

1,922

1,925

1,923

1,927

1,201

1,233

1,243

1,247

1,252

1,257

1,263

1,265

1,265

1,272

1,262

1,271

1,273

1,285

1,284

B usin ess s e rv ic e s ......................

8,618

9,267

9,404

9,466

9,502

9,538

9,571

9,615

9,681

9,735

9,715

9,773

9 ,768

9,809

9 ,9 2 5

1,002

997

998

S erv ic e s to b u ild in g s ..................

950

985

994

997

998

997

997

1,000

1,004

1,001

996

997

P e rson ne l su p p ly s e rv ices.......

3,278

3,601

3,678

3,712

3,734

3,748

3,753

3,773

3,817

3,885

3,855

3,873

3,851

3 ,873

3 ,907

H elp su p p ly s e rv ic e s ...............

2,956

3,228

3,298

3,327

3,343

3,358

3,361

3,382

3,418

3,485

3,440

3,444

3 ,433

3,444

3 ,5 1 3

1,615

1,831

1,866

1,874

1,880

1,888

1,896

1,906

1,915

1,927

1,929

1,933

1,950

1,954

1,953

and p a rk in g .................................

1,145

1,184

1,186

1,191

1,191

1,192

1,194

1,195

1,192

1,195

1,192

1,191

1,194

1,198

1,200

M is c e lla n e o u s re p air se rvices...

376

377

377

379

379

382

382

384

384

383

383

384

384

385

386

634

635

634

C o m p u te r and d ata
p ro c e s s in g s e rv ic e s ................
A uto re p a ir s e rvices

M o tio n p ic tu re s ......................

624

625

624

626

623

630

634

632

635

576

610

619

1,594

1,800

1,672

1,091

1,701

1,703

1,721

1,723

1,729

1,752

1,755

1,789

1,795

1,808

1,793

10,041

10,063

10,088

10,078

10,091

10,093

10,104

10,116

10,143

10,157

10,183

1,898

1,903

1,910

1,914

1,920

1,925

1,928

1,928

1,930

1,933

1,945

A m u s e m e n t a nd re cre atioh
s e rv ic e s ................................
Health s e rv ic e s ..............................

9,853

9,989

10,015

10,027

1,806

1,877

1,888

1,893

O ffice s a nd clin ics o f m edical
d o c to rs ........................................
N u rs in g and p e rso n a l care
fa c ilitie s .......................................
H o m e h ea lth c a re s e rv ic e s ......

1,772

1,785

1,785

1,785

1,785

1,787

1,788

1,790

1,791

1,789

1,788

1,786

1,787

1,792

1,793

3,930

3,982

3,989

3,992

3,992

3,997

4,001

4,002

4,004

3,999

4,005

4 ,008

4,0 1 8

4 ,020

4 ,0 3 4

666

636

635

636

637

837

638

639

639

641

641

642

645

645

642

971

997

1,000

1,003

1,005

1,007

1,008

1,007

1,007

1,004

1,006

1,009

1,012

1,014

1,0 1 3

2,178

2 278

2,294

2,291

2,305

2,309

2,308

2,309

2 ,329

2,329

2,3 5 6

2,374

2,3 7 4

2 ,389

2 ,3 8 8

2,6 4 6

2,800

2 ,823

2,8 4 8

2,868

2,084

2,905

2,912

2,929

2,940

2,946

2,9 4 5

2 ,9 1 9

2 ,960

2 ,9 9 5

768

776

765

826

828

833

821

695

701

708

721

729

737

740

749

753

758

760

744

775

785

790

795

800

803

807

810

812

816

820

M u s e u m s and b o ta n ica l and
zo o lo g ica l g a rd e n s ...................

94

98

98

99

99

99

100

100

101

102

101

103

103

103

102

M e m b e rs h ip o rg a n iz a tio n s.........

2,372

2,425

2 ,430

2,431

2,434

2,430

2,439

2,439

2,4 4 0

2,439

2 ,438

2,441

2 ,429

2,4 3 3

2 ,4 5 0

3,139

3,254

3,283

3,300

3,310

3,327

3,344

3,354

3,369

3,368

3,390

3,415

3,411

3,435

3 ,4 5 4

908

953

956

964

969

974

982

984

985

987

995

1,005

1,007

1,010

1,013

E ng ine e ring and m a n a g em en t
E ng ine e ring a nd a rch itectural
M a n a g e m e n t and pub lic

G o v e rn m e n t....................................

1,000

1,036

1,044

1,054

1,068

1,060

1,074

1,077

1,085

1,088

1,096

1,110

1,107

1,116

19,823

2 0,170

20,223

20,248

20,271

20,308

20,351

20,394

2 0,547

20,667

21,012

20,802

2 0,606

2 0,4 98

2 0,4 62

2,686

2,6 6 9

2,655

2,847

2,646

2,046

2,663

2,700

2,816

2,885

3,238

3,092

2 ,819

2,6 5 7

2 ,6 2 4

F e de ra l, e xcep t Postal
1,819

1,796

1,785

1,779

1,780

1,780

1,797

1,835

1,951

2,022

2 ,374

2,230

1,954

1,790

1,761

S ta te ................................................

4,612

4,695

4,714

4,722

4,723

4 ,727

4,725

4,728

4,7 3 3

4,744

4,737

4,7 1 6

4,774

4 ,7 6 3

4 ,7 6 7

1,922

1,968

1,978

1,979

1,980

1,983

1,981

1,981

1,982

1,990

1,983

1,967

1,994

2 ,000

O th e r S ta te g o v e rn m e n t..........

2,690

2,727

2,736

2,743

2,743

2,744

2,744

2,747

2,751

2,754

2,754

2,749

2 ,750

2,7 6 3

2 ,7 7 0

12,525

12,806

12,854

12,879

12,902

12,935

12,963

12,966

12,998

13,038

13,037

12,994

13,043

13,078

13,071

7,085

7,272

7,299

7,308

7,323

7,343

7,356

7,355

7,373

7,408

7,395

7,361

7,394

7 ,400

7 ,3 9 0

5,6 3 0

5,642

5,6 3 3

5 ,6 4 9

5 ,678

5, 661

O th e r local g o v e rn m e n t...........

5 ,440

5 ,534

5 ,555

5,571

5,579

5,592

5,807

5,611

5,6 2 5

1,997

1 In clu de s o th e r in d u s trie s not show n separately.
p = p re lim in ary.
N o t e : S ee "N o te s o n th e d a ta ” fo r a d escrip tion o f the m ost re ce nt b en chm ark revision.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

65

Current Labor Statistics:

13.

Labor Force Data

A verage w eekly hours of production or nonsupervisory workers on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry, m onthly
d a ta seasonally adjusted
Annual average
Industry

1998

1999

,

Sept.

2000

1 9 9 9

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.p Sept.p

P R IV A T E S E C T O R ...........................................

3 4 .6

3 4 .5

3 4 .5

3 4 .5

3 4 .5

3 4 .5

3 4 .5

3 4 .6

3 4 .5

3 4 .6

3 4 .4

3 4 .5

3 4 .4

3 4 .3

3 4 .4

G O O D S - P R O D U C I N G ...........................................

4 1 .0

4 1 .0

4 1 .2

4 1 .1

4 1 .3

4 1 .0

4 1.1

4 1 .3

4 1 .2

4 1 .5

4 0 .9

4 0 .9

4 1.1

4 0 .8

4 0 .5

M I N I N G ........................................................................

4 3 .9

4 3 .8

4 4 .3

4 4 .1

4 4 .2

4 4 .3

4 4 .7

4 4 .7

4 4 .7

4 5 .3

4 4.1

4 4 .7

4 5 .3

4 4 .6

4 4 .7

M A N U F A C T U R I N G ..............................................

4 1 .7

4 1 .7

4 1 .8

4 1 .8

4 1 .7

4 1 .7

4 1 .7

4 1 .8

4 1 .7

4 2 .2

4 1 .4

4 1 .6

4 1 .7

4 1 .3

4 1 .2

4 .6

4 .6

4 .7

4 .7

4 .7

4 .7

4 .6

4 .7

4 .6

4 .9

4 .5

4 .6

4 .6

4 .5

4 .4

D u r a b le g o o d s .....................................................

4 2 .3

4 2 .2

4 2 .4

4 2 .3

4 2 .2

4 2 .2

4 2 .3

4 2 .3

4 2 .3

4 2 .8

4 2 .0

4 2 .2

4 2 .4

4 1 .9

4 1 .7

4 .8

4 .8

4 .9

4 .8

4 .8

4 .8

4 .8

4 .9

4 .8

5.1

4 .7

4 .8

4 .7

4 .6

4 .5

L u m b e r a n d w o o d p r o d u c ts ......................

4 1.1

4 1 .2

4 1 .1

4 1 .1

4 1.1

4 1 .0

4 1 .1

4 1 .0

4 0 .9

4 1 .2

4 0 .7

4 0 .8

4 1.1

4 0 .3

4 0 .2

F u r n itu r e a n d f ix tu r e s ...................................

4 0 .5

4 0 .3

4 0 .4

4 0.1

3 9 .9

4 0 .2

4 0 .2

4 0 .3

4 0 .2

4 0 .6

4 0 .3

3 9 .9

3 9 .7

3 9 .4

3 9 .2 .

4 3 .5

4 3 .5

4 3 .5

4 3 .5

4 3 .8

4 3 .5

4 3 .6

4 3 .5

4 3 .4

4 3 .6

4 3 .0

4 2 .9

4 3 .7

4 3 .2

4 3 .1

4 4 .2

4 4 .2

4 4 .5

4 4 .3

4 4 .3

4 4 .4

4 4 .5

4 4 .5

4 4 .4

4 4 .9

4 3 .8

4 3 .9

4 4 .3

4 3 .6

4 3 .6

P r im a r y m e ta l in d u s tr ie s .............................
B la s t fu r n a c e s a n d b a s ic s te e l

In d u s tr ia l m a c h in e r y a n d e q u ip m e n t....

4 4 .6

4 4 .8

4 5 .0

4 5 .2

4 5 .3

4 5 .4

4 5 .3

4 5 .4

4 5 .2

4 5 .0

4 4 .7

4 5 .0

4 5 .0

4 4 .2

4 4 .1

4 2 .3

4 2 .2

4 2 .3

4 2 .2

4 2.1

4 2.1

4 2 .4

4 2 .4

4 2 .5

4 3 .0

4 2 .3

4 2 .4

4 2 .6

4 2 .0

4 1 .9

4 2 .8

4 2 .2

4 2 .4

4 2 .3

4 2 .2

4 2 .2

4 2 .3

4 2 .3

4 2 .3

4 2 .9

4 2 .2

4 2 .5

4 2 .6

4 2 .1

4 1 .8

E le c tr o n ic a n d o th e r e le c tric a l

T r a n s p o r t a tio n e q u ip m e n t..........................

4 1 .4

4 1 .4

4 1 .6

4 1 .6

4 1 .4

4 1 .5

4 1 .6

4 1 .6

4 1 .8

4 2 .2

4 1 .3

4 1 .4

4 1 .9

4 1 .1

4 1 .1

4 3 .4

4 3 .8

4 4 .0

4 3 .8

4 3 .6

4 3 .4

4 3 .8

4 4 .0

4 3 .7

4 4 .3

4 3 .2

4 4 .0

4 3 .9

4 3 .4

4 2 .7

4 3 .5

4 5 .0

4 5 .4

4 5 .0

4 4 .7

4 4 .5

4 5 .0

4 5 .0

4 4 .6

4 5 .5

4 4 .2

4 5 .3

4 4 .5

44 6

43 3

I n s tr u m e n ts a n d r e la te d p r o d u c ts ..........

4 1 .3

4 1 .5

4 1 .5

4 1 .5

4 1 .5

4 1 .5

4 1 .3

4 1 .2

4 1 .2

4 1 .6

4 1 .2

4 1 .3

4 1 .6

4 1 .1

4 1 .3

M is c e lla n e o u s m a n u fa c tu r in g ...................

3 9 .9

3 9 .8

3 9 .9

3 9 .8

3 9 .7

3 9 .7

3 9 .5

3 9 .5

3 9 .4

3 9 .8

3 9 .3

3 9 .4

3 9 .7

3 9 .5

3 9 .4

4 0 .9

4 0 .9

4 1 .0

4 1 .0

4 1 .0

40 9

40 9

4 1 .0

4 0 .9

4 1 .3

40 6

4 0 .7

40 7

4 0 .6

4 0 .5

A p p a r e l a n d o th e r te x tile p ro d u c ts ........

4 .3

4 .4

4 .4

4 .5

4 .5

4 .5

4 .4

4 .5

4 .3

4 .6

4 .3

4 .3

4 .3

4 .2

4 .2

4 1 .7

4 1 .8

4 1 .7

4 1 .9

4 1 .8

4 1 .7

4 1 .6

4 1 .6

4 1 .6

4 1 .9

4 1 .2

4 1 .5

4 1 .2

4 1 .5

4 1 .4

4 1 .0

4 0 .9

4 0 .9

4 1 .2

4 1 .3

4 1 .2

4 1 .1

4 1 .7

4 1 .6

4 1 .9

4 1 .1

41.1

4 0 .5

3 9 .9

4 0 .6

3 7 .3

3 7 .5

3 7 .4

3 7 .5

3 7 .4

3 7 .5

3 7 .6

3 7 .7

3 7 .8

3 8 .0

37.1

3 7 .0

3 7 .3

3 6 .9

3 6 .7

4 3 .4

4 3 .5

4 3 .4

4 3 .5

4 3 .4

4 3 .3

4 3 .3

4 3 .5

4 3 .2

4 3 .6

4 2 .8

4 2 .8

4 2 .4

4 2 .4

4 2 .4

P rin tin g a n d p u b lis h in g ................................

3 8 .3

3 8 .2

3 8 .3

3 8 .3

3 8 .3

3 8 .3

3 8 .3

3 8 .3

3 8 .2

3 8 .5

3 8 .0

3 8 .2

3 8.1

3 7 .9

3 7 .9

C h e m ic a ls a n d a llie d p r o d u c ts ................

4 3 .2

4 3 .0

4 3 .2

4 3 .0

4 3 .0

4 3 .0

4 2 .9

4 2 .7

4 2 .6

4 2 .9

4 2 .7

4 2 .9

4 3 .4

4 3 .0

4 2 .9

4 1 .1

R u b b e r a n d m is c e lla n e o u s
4 1 .7

4 1 .7

4 1 .8

4 1 .5

4 1 .5

4 1 .5

4 1 .6

4 1 .6

4 1 .5

4 2.1

4 1 .3

4 1 .4

4 1 .4

4 1 .2

L e a th e r a n d le a t h e r p r o d u c ts ...................

3 7 .6

3 7 .8

3 7 .5

3 7 .6

3 7 .7

3 7 .4

3 7 .8

38.1

3 8 .0

3 8 .9

3 8 .2

3 7 .8

3 7 .1

3 7 .2

3 7 .3

S E R V I C E - P R O D U C IN G ........................................

3 2 .9

3 2 .8

3 2 .8

3 2 .9

3 2 .8

3 2 .9

3 2 .9

3 2 .8

3 2 .8

3 2 .8

3 2 .7

3 2 .9

3 2 .7

3 2 .7

3 2 .8

P U B L I C U T I L IT IE S .........................................

3 9 .5

3 8 .7

3 8 .6

3 8 .4

3 8 .3

3 8 .4

3 8 .4

3 8 .3

3 8 .3

3 8 .7

3 8 .4

3 8 .4

3 8 .8

3 8 .4

3 8 .7

W H O L E S A L E T R A D E .........................................

3 8 .3

3 8 .3

3 8 .4

3 8 .6

3 8 .4

3 8 .5

3 8 .6

3 8 .5

3 8 .6

3 8 .6

3 8 .6

3 8 .6

3 8 .5

3 8 .3

3 8 .5

R E T A IL T R A D E ......................................................

2 9 .0

2 9 .0

2 8 .8

2 9 .0

2 9 .0

2 9.1

2 9 .1

2 9.1

2 9 .0

2 8 .8

2 8 .8

2 9 .0

2 8 .8

2 8 .8

288

T R A N S P O R T A T IO N A N D

p = p re lim in a r y .
N O TE : S e e " N o te s o n t h e d a ta " fo r a d e s c r ip tio n o f th e m o s t r e c e n t b e n c h m a r k re v is io n .

66

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

November 2000

14. A verage hourly earnings o f production or nonsupervisory workers on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry,
seasonally adjusted
Industry

P R IV A T E S E C T O R (In c u r r e n t d o l l a r s ) . .

Annual average

1999

2000

1998

1999

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.p Sept.p

$ 1 2 .7 8

$ 1 3 .2 4

$ 1 3 .3 5

$ 1 3 .3 8

$ 1 3 .4 1

$ 1 3 .4 4

$ 1 3 .4 9

$ 1 3 .5 4

$ 1 3 .5 8

$ 1 3 .6 4

$ 1 3 .6 6

$ 1 3 .7 0

$ 1 3 .7 5

$ 1 3 .8 0

$ 1 3 .8 3

G o o d s - p r o d u c in g ...........................................

1 4 .3 4

1 4 .8 4

1 4 .9 6

1 4 .9 9

1 5 .0 3

1 5 .0 5

1 5 .1 3

1 5 .2 0

1 5 .2 5

1 5 .3 0

1 5 .2 9

1 5 .3 4

1 5 .4 0

1 5 .4 6

1 5 .4 7

M in in g .................................................................

1 6.91

1 7 .0 9

1 7 .1 4

1 7 .0 9

1 7 .0 0

1 7 .0 4

1 7 .0 9

1 7 .1 4

1 7 .2 7

1 7 .2 6

1 7 .2 5

1 7 .2 4

1 7 .2 3

1 7 .0 5

1 7 .1 9

C o n s t r u c t io n .....................................................

1 6.61

1 7 .1 8

1 7 .2 6

1 7 .3 3

1 7 .3 7

1 7 .4 4

1 7 .5 0

1 7 .6 0

1 7 .6 7

1 7 .7 8

1 7 .7 5

1 7 .7 7

1 7 .9 0

1 7 .9 4

1 7 .9 8
1 4 .4 4

M a n u f a c tu r in g ................................................

1 3 .4 9

1 3.91

1 4 .0 4

1 4 .0 6

1 4 .0 7

1 4 .1 0

1 4 .1 5

1 4.21

1 4 .2 3

1 4 .2 8

1 4 .2 7

1 4 .3 6

1 4 .3 9

1 4 .4 4

E x c lu d in g o v e r tim e ..................................

1 2 .7 9

1 3 .1 8

1 3 .2 9

1 3.31

1 3 .3 3

1 3 .3 6

13.41

1 3 .4 5

1 3 .4 7

1 3 .4 9

1 3 .5 3

1 3 .6 0

1 3 .6 4

1 3 .6 9

1 3 .7 4

S e r v ic e - p r o d u c i n g ..........................................

1 2 .2 7

1 2 .7 3

1 2 .8 3

1 2 .8 6

1 2 .8 9

1 2 .9 3

1 2 .9 7

1 3.01

1 3 .0 5

1 3.1 1

1 3 .1 5

1 3 .1 9

1 3 .2 3

1 3 .2 8

1 3 .3 3

T r a n s p o r t a tio n a n d p u b lic u tilitie s ........

15.3 1

1 5 .6 9

1 5 .7 9

1 5 .7 9

1 5 .8 4

1 5 .9 4

1 5 .9 2

1 6 .0 0

1 6 .0 4

1 6 .1 2

1 6 .2 2

1 6 .2 8

1 6 .1 7

1 6 .2 6

1 6 .2 7

W h o le s a le t r a d e ............................................

1 4 .0 7

1 4 .5 8

1 4 .7 0

1 4 .7 5

1 4 .7 6

1 4 .8 3

1 4 .9 0

1 4 .8 9

1 4 .9 8

1 5 .0 3

1 5 .0 2

1 5 .1 6

1 5 .2 2

1 5 .2 3

1 5 .3 7

R e ta il t r a d e ......................................................

8 .7 4

9 .0 8

9 .1 6

9 .1 8

9.21

9 .2 5

9 .2 6

9 .3 2

9 .3 5

9 .3 9

9 .3 9

9 .4 3

9 .4 5

9 .5 0

9 .5 4

F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , a n d re a l e s ta te ....

1 4 .0 7

1 4 .6 2

1 4.71

1 4 .7 3

1 4 .7 6

1 4 .7 8

1 4 .8 6

1 4 .8 7

1 4 .9 5

1 4 .9 8

15.0 1

1 5 .0 5

1 5 .0 3

1 5 .1 2

1 5 .1 8

S e r v ic e s .............................................................

1 2 .8 4

1 3 .3 6

1 3 .4 6

1 3.51

1 3 .5 3

1 3 .5 7

1 3.61

1 3 .6 6

1 3 .6 9

1 3 .7 4

1 3 .7 9

1 3 .8 2

1 3 .8 9

1 3 .9 4

1 3 .9 7

7 .7 5

7 .8 6

7 .8 7

7 .8 6

7 .8 7

7 .8 7

7 .8 7

7 .8 8

7 .8 7

7 .8 4

7 .8 7

7 .8 8

7 .8 6

7 .9 0

-

P R IV A T E S E C T O R (In c o n s t a n t (1 9 8 2 )
d o l l a r s ) ...................................................................
-

D a ta n o t a v a ila b le .

p = p r e lim in a r y .
N O TE : S e e " N o t e s o n th e d a ta " f o r a d e s c r ip tio n o f th e m o s t re c e n t b e n c h m a r k re v is io n .


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

67

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

15. A verage hourly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry
Industry

2000

1999

Annual average
1998

1999

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

P R IV A T E S E C T O R .............................................

$ 1 2 .7 8

$ 1 3 .2 4

$ 1 3 .3 8

$ 1 3 .4 1

$ 1 3 .4 3

$ 1 3 .4 6

$ 1 3 .5 8

$ 1 3 .5 8

$ 1 3 .5 9

$ 1 3 .6 9

$ 1 3 .6 4

$ 1 3 .6 2

$ 1 3 .6 8

$ 1 3 .6 7

$ 1 3 .8 8

M I N I N G ......................................................................

1 6.91

1 7 .0 9

1 7 .1 3

1 7 .0 5

17.0 1

1 7 .1 9

1 7 .3 0

1 7 .2 0

1 7 .2 8

1 7 .2 9

1 7 .1 9

1 7 .0 9

1 7 .1 3

1 6 .9 4

1 7 .1 9

C O N S T R U C T I O N .................................................

16.6 1

1 7 .1 8

1 7 .4 6

1 7 .5 4

1 7 .4 2

1 7 .4 7

1 7 .3 9

1 7 .4 2

1 7 .5 4

1 7 .6 6

1 7.71

1 7 .7 4

1 7 .9 5

1 8 .0 5

1 8 .1 9

M A N U F A C T U R I N G .............................................

1 3 .4 9

1 3.91

14.1 1

1 4 .0 3

1 4 .0 8

1 4 .2 0

1 4 .1 9

1 4 .1 9

1 4 .2 2

1 4 .2 8

1 4 .2 7

1 4 .3 4

1 4 .3 7

1 4 .3 8

1 4 .5 1

1 5 .0 6

Aug.p Sept.p

goods.................................

1 3 .9 8

1 4 .4 0

1 4 .6 2

1 4 .5 5

1 4 .5 8

1 4 .7 3

1 4 .7 2

1 4 .7 3

1 4 .7 6

1 4 .8 2

1 4 .8 0

1 4 .9 0

1 4 .8 6

1 4 .9 4

L u m b e r a n d w o o d p r o d u c ts ....................

1 1 .1 0

1 1 .4 7

1 1 .5 6

1 1 .6 0

1 1 .6 0

1 1 .6 4

1 1 .6 7

1 1 .6 3

1 1 .6 2

1 1 .7 3

1 1 .7 4

1 1 .8 2

1 1 .8 7

1 1 .8 3

1 1 .9 0

F u r n itu r e a n d f ix tu r e s ..................................

1 0 .9 0

1 1 .2 3

1 1 .3 3

1 1 .3 3

1 1 .3 6

1 1 .4 7

1 1 .4 7

11.5 1

1 1 .5 9

1 1 .6 4

1 1 .6 9

1 1 .7 3

1 1 .8 0

1 1 .8 2

1 1 .8 9

S to n e , c la y , a n d g la s s p ro d u c ts ............

1 3 .5 9

1 3 .8 7

1 4 .1 0

1 4 .0 0

1 4 .0 4

1 3 .9 7

1 3 .9 4

1 3 .9 6

1 4 .0 3

1 4 .2 3

1 4 .2 8

1 4 .3 6

1 4 .4 2

1 4.4 1

1 4 .5 4

P r im a r y m e ta l in d u s tr ie s ...........................

1 5 .4 8

1 5 .8 3

1 6 .1 8

16.0 1

1 6 .1 2

1 6 .1 7

1 6 .2 0

1 6 .2 8

1 6 .3 4

1 6.51

1 6 .4 0

1 6 .5 2

1 6 .6 8

1 6 .5 5

1 6 .6 7

D u r a b le

B la s t f u r n a c e s a n d b a s ic s te e l
p r o d u c t s .......................................................

1 8 .4 2

1 8.8 1

1 8 .9 9

1 8 .9 0

1 9.1 1

1 9 .0 9

1 9 .1 6

1 9 .3 2

1 9 .4 9

1 9 .7 2

1 9 .4 6

1 9 .6 2

1 9 .7 8

1 9 .4 9

1 9 .6 3

F a b r ic a te d m e ta l p r o d u c ts .......................

1 3 .0 7

1 3 .4 8

1 3 .6 4

1 3 .5 2

1 3 .5 9

1 3 .7 2

13.7 1

1 3 .6 7

1 3 .6 9

1 3 .7 5

1 3 .7 5

1 3 .8 2

1 3 .8 2

1 3 .9 0

1 4 .0 3

In d u s tr ia l m a c h in e r y a n d e q u ip m e n t...

1 4 .4 7

1 5 .0 2

1 5 .2 4

1 5 .1 8

1 5 .2 2

1 5 .3 6

1 5 .3 9

1 5 .4 0

1 5 .4 3

1 5 .4 2

1 5 .4 5

1 5.51

1 5.6 1

1 5 .6 6

1 5 .7 4

E le c tr o n ic a n d o th e r e le c tric a l
e q u ip m e n t .....................................................

1 3 .1 0

1 3 .4 6

1 3 .6 4

1 3 .6 0

1 3.61

1 3 .7 3

1 3 .7 7

1 3 .7 2

1 3 .7 0

1 3 .7 0

1 3 .6 5

1 3 .7 2

1 3 .7 9

1 3 .7 9

1 3 .8 8

T r a n s p o r t a tio n e q u ip m e n t ........................

1 7.5 1

1 8 .0 4

1 8 .5 0

18.4 1

1 8 .3 9

1 8 .7 2

1 8 .5 7

1 8 .5 8

1 8 .7 0

1 8 .8 2

1 8 .7 9

1 9.01

1 8 .6 6

1 9 .0 4

1 9 .2 5

M o t o r v e h ic le s a n d e q u ip m e n t ............

1 7 .8 4

1 8.41

1 8 .9 6

1 8 .8 5

1 8 .8 0

1 9 .2 2

1 8 .9 9

1 9 .0 3

1 9 .1 7

1 9 .3 6

1 9 .3 5

1 9 .6 2

1 9 .0 7

1 9 .6 1

1 9 .7 8

In s tr u m e n ts a n d re la te d p r o d u c ts ........

1 3.81

1 4 .1 7

1 4 .2 9

1 4 .3 6

1 4 .3 4

14.4 1

1 4 .3 8

14.4 1

1 4 .4 0

1 4 .4 0

1 4 .4 4

1 4 .4 9

1 4 .6 5

1 4 .6 3

1 4 .7 2

1 0 .8 8

1 1 .3 0

1 1 .4 3

1 1 .4 5

1 1.41

1 1 .5 4

1 1 .5 2

1 1 .5 3

1 1 .5 5

1 1 .5 8

1 1 .5 9

1 1 .6 0

1 1 .6 5

1 1 .6 2

1 1 .7 3

1 3 .5 3

1 3 .6 7

N o n d u r a b l e g o o d s ..........................................

1 2 .7 6

1 3 .1 6

1 3 .3 3

1 3 .2 5

13.3 1

1 3 .3 9

1 3 .3 7

1 3 .3 6

1 3 .3 7

1 3 .4 5

1 3 .4 3

1 3 .4 8

1 3.61

F o o d a n d k in d r e d p r o d u c ts ......................

1 1 .8 0

1 2 .0 9

1 2 .1 8

1 2 .0 9

1 2 .1 9

1 2 .2 8

1 2 .2 3

1 2 .2 3

1 2 .2 7

1 2 .3 6

1 2 .3 6

1 2 .3 9

1 2 .4 6

1 2 .4 0

1 2 .5 5

1 8 .5 6

1 9 .0 7

1 8 .9 0

1 7 .8 2

1 8 .0 2

1 8 .0 3

1 7.2 1

1 7 .4 8

1 9 .1 0

19.7 1

2 0 .4 0

2 0 .8 7

2 1 .0 8

2 0 .9 2

1 9 .1 5

T e x tile m ill p r o d u c t s ....................................

1 0 .3 9

1 0.71

1 0 .7 8

1 0 .7 3

1 0 .8 0

1 0 .8 4

1 0 .8 4

1 0 .8 5

1 0 .8 6

1 0 .9 4

1 0.9 1

1 0.91

1 0 .9 7

1 0 .9 8

1 1 .0 8

A p p a r e l a n d o th e r t e x tile p r o d u c ts .......

8 .5 2

8 .8 6

9.01

8 .9 9

8 .9 8

9 .0 4

9 .0 3

9 .0 3

9 .0 5

9 .0 5

9 .0 5

9 .0 7

9 .0 6

9 .0 8

9 .1 9

P a p e r a n d a llie d p r o d u c ts ........................

1 5 .5 0

1 5 .9 4

1 6 .2 4

1 6 .0 9

1 6 .0 8

1 6 .1 2

1 6 .0 2

1 5 .9 9

1 6 .0 0

1 6 .1 5

1 6 .1 2

1 6 .1 8

1 6 .2 9

1 6 .1 8

1 6.3 1

1 3 .4 6

1 3 .8 4

1 3 .9 8

1 3 .9 8

1 4 .0 2

1 4 .1 2

1 4 .1 0

1 4 .1 3

1 4 .1 8

1 4 .2 0

1 4 .1 5

1 4 .1 5

1 4 .2 9

1 4 .2 9

1 4 .4 7

C h e m ic a ls a n d a llie d p r o d u c ts ...............

1 7 .0 9

1 7 .3 8

1 7 .6 7

1 7.61

1 7 .6 4

1 7 .6 7

1 7 .7 0

1 7 .6 7

1 7 .6 3

1 7 .7 7

1 7 .8 0

1 7.9 1

1 8 .1 7

1 8 .0 0

1 8 .1 2

P e tr o le u m a n d c o a l p r o d u c ts ..................

2 0 .9 1

2 1 .3 9

2 1 .5 5

2 1 .6 2

2 1 .7 6

2 1 .7 6

2 1 .6 2

2 2 .0 3

2 2 .2 4

2 1 .7 7

2 1 .3 4

2 1 .1 9

2 1 .2 4

2 1 .0 1

2 1 .3 9

p la s tic s p r o d u c t s .........................................

1 1 .8 9

1 2 .3 6

1 2.51

1 2 .4 2

1 2 .4 6

1 2 .5 7

1 2.61

1 2 .5 7

1 2 .5 8

1 2 .6 7

1 2 .6 5

1 2 .7 2

1 2 .8 4

1 2 .8 1

1 2 .9 0

L e a th e r a n d le a th e r p r o d u c ts ..................

9 .3 5

9 .7 7

9 .9 5

9 .9 1

9 .9 3

1 0.01

1 0 .0 8

9 .9 6

1 0.01

1 0 .1 3

1 0 .0 5

1 0 .0 8

1 0 .0 8

1 0 .1 5

1 0 .2 6

P U B L I C U T I L IT IE S .........................................

15.3 1

1 5 .6 9

1 5 .8 0

1 5 .7 8

1 5 .9 0

1 5 .9 6

1 5 .9 8

1 6 .0 5

1 6 .0 2

1 6 .1 5

1 6 .1 3

1 6 .1 7

1 6 .1 9

1 6 .2 2

1 6 .2 8

W H O L E S A L E T R A D E ......................................

1 4 .0 7

1 4 .5 8

1 4 .6 8

1 4 .7 4

1 7 .7 6

1 4 .8 5

1 4 .9 9

1 4.91

1 4 .8 3

1 5 .1 4

1 4 .9 9

1 5 .0 4

1 5 .2 5

1 5 .1 6

1 5 .3 5

R E T A IL T R A D E ....................................................

8 .7 4

9 .0 8

9 .1 9

9 .2 1

9 .2 2

9 .2 6

9 .3 3

9 .3 5

9 .3 7

9 .4 2

9 .3 9

9 .3 8

9 .3 8

9 .4 1

9 .5 7

A N D R E A L E S T A T E .....................................

1 4 .0 7

1 4 .6 2

1 4 .6 4

1 4 .6 9

1 4 .7 4

1 4 .7 6

1 4 .9 9

1 4 .9 3

1 4 .9 7

1 5 .1 2

1 5 .0 2

1 4 .9 3

1 5.0 1

1 4 .9 9

1 5 .1 1

S E R V IC E S ..............................................................

1 2 .8 4

1 3 .3 6

1 3 .4 5

13.5 1

1 3 .5 7

1 3 .6 5

1 3 .7 8

1 3 .7 7

1 3 .7 7

1 3 .8 3

1 3 .7 6

1 3 .6 8

1 3 .7 4

1 3 .7 0

1 3 .9 6

R u b b e r a n d m is c e lla n e o u s

T R A N S P O R T A T IO N A N D

F IN A N C E , IN S U R A N C E ,

p = p re lim in a r y .
N O T E : S e e "N o te s o n th e d a ta " fo r a d e s c r ip tio n o f th e m o s t r e c e n t b e n c h m a r k re v is io n .

68 Monthly Labor Review

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

November 2000

16. Average w eekly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry
Industry

2000

1999

Annual average
1998

1999

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.p

Sept.p

$ 4 4 2 .1 9

$ 4 5 6 .7 8

$ 4 5 8 .9 3

$ 4 6 3 .9 9

$ 4 6 3 .3 4

$ 4 6 5 .7 2

$ 4 6 7 .1 5

$ 4 6 4 .4 4

$ 4 6 4 .7 8

$ 4 7 3 .6 7

$ 4 6 7 .8 5

$ 4 7 1 .2 5

$ 4 7 7 .4 3

$ 4 7 4 .3 5

$ 4 7 7 .4 7

4 6 0 .5 8

4 61 .61

4 6 2 .6 5

4 6 3 .6 8

4 65.41

4 6 8 .4 8

4 68.51

4 7 1 .9 4

4 6 9 .9 0

4 7 2 .6 5

4 7 3 .0 0

4 7 3 .3 4

4 7 6 .7 5

PRIVATE SECTOR

2 6 8 .3 2

2 7 1 .2 5

2 6 9 .9 6

2 7 2 .4 5

2 71.91

2 73 .31

2 73.51

2 7 0 .5 0

2 6 8 .3 5

2 7 3 .3 2

2 6 9 .6 5

2 7 0 .0 6

m in in g ...............................................

7 4 2 .3 5

7 4 8 .5 4

7 5 8 .8 6

7 5 8 .7 3

7 5 8 .6 5

7 6 3 .2 4

7 6 6 .3 9

7 5 8 .5 2

7 5 8 .5 9

7 7 6 .3 2

7 6 3 .2 4

7 7 0 .7 6

7 7 5 .9 9

7 6 2 .3 0

7 8 0 .4 3

CONSTRUCTION..............................

6 4 6 .1 3

6 7 1 .7 4

6 7 3 .9 6

7 0 1 .6 0

6 8 8 .0 9

6 7 7 .8 4

6 6 4 .0 4

6 7 4 .1 5

6 8 0 .5 5

6 9 2 .2 7

7 0 1 .3 2

7 0 2 .5 0

7 2 3 .3 9

7 25.61

7 2 7 .6 0

590.61

5 9 5 .3 3

6 0 5 .0 7

MANUFACTURING

L u m b e r a n d w o o d p ro d u c ts ......

5 6 2 .5 3

5 8 0 .0 5

5 8 8 .3 9

5 8 9 .2 6

5 9 4 .1 8

6 0 3 .5 0

5 9 0 .3 0

5 8 8 .8 9

5 9 0 .1 3

5 9 5 .4 8

5 9 0 .7 8

5 9 7 .9 8

3 4 1 .3 4

3 4 4 .4 5

3 46.11

3 46.01

3 4 8 .7 0

3 5 4 .1 7

345.61

3 4 2 .9 8

3 4 0 .7 2

3 43.61

3 40.51

3 4 2 .6 8

5 9 1 .3 5

6 0 7 .6 8

6 1 5 .5 0

6 1 8 .3 8

6 2 2 .5 7

6 3 4 .8 6

6 2 1 .1 8

6 2 0 .1 3

6 2 2 .8 7

6 2 8 .3 7

6 2 3 .0 8

6 3 0 .2 7

6 1 8 .1 8

6 2 5 .9 9

6 3 5 .5 3

4 56.21

4 7 2 .5 6

4 7 2 .8 0

4 8 0 .2 4

4 8 0 .2 4

4 8 0 .7 3

4 7 4 .9 7

4 6 9 .8 5

4 70.61

4 8 2 .1 0

4 8 0 .1 7

4 8 5 .8 0

4 83.11

4 8 2 .6 6

4 8 4 .3 3

4 4 1 .4 5

4 5 2 .5 7

4 5 6 .6 0

4 5 8 .8 7

4 5 8 .9 4

4 7 1 .4 2

4 5 9 .9 5

4 5 8 .1 0

4 6 2 .4 4

4 6 4 .4 4

4 6 5 .2 6

4 6 8 .0 3

4 6 2 .5 6

4 7 0 .4 4

4 7 6 .7 9

5 9 1 .1 7

6 0 3 .3 5

6 2 0 .4 0

6 1 6 .0 0

6 2 0 .5 7

6 0 4 .9 0

5 9 1 .0 6

5 9 1 .9 0

5 9 6 .2 8

6 1 4 .7 4

6 2 1 .1 8

6 2 4 .6 6

6 3 1 .6 0

6 3 1 .1 6

6 38 .31

6 8 4 .2 2

6 9 9 .6 9

7 1 6 .7 7

7 0 9 .2 4

7 2 0 .5 6

7 3 2 .5 0

7 2 2 .5 2

7 2 2 .8 3

7 2 3 .8 6

7 3 4 .7 0

7 2 1 .6 0

7 2 8 .5 3

7 2 5 .5 8

7 1 8 .2 7

7 3 0 .1 5

S to n e , c la y , a n d g la s s

B la s t fu r n a c e s a n d b a s ic

F a b ric a te d m e ta l p ro d u c ts .........

8 2 1 .5 3

8 4 2 .6 9

8 5 2 .6 5

848.61

8 6 5 .6 8

8 7 8 .1 4

8 6 7 .9 5

8 7 5 .2 0

8 7 5 .1 0

8 9 1 .3 4

8 7 3 .7 5

8 8 2 .9 0

8 8 8 .1 2

8 59.51

8 6 3 .7 2

5 5 2 .8 6

5 6 8 .8 6

5 7 1 .5 2

5 7 4 .6 0

5 8 0 .2 9

5 9 4 .0 8

5 7 9 .9 3

5 7 6 .8 7

5 7 7 .7 2

5 8 3 .0 0

5 8 1 .6 3

5 8 7 .3 5

5 7 6 .2 9

5 8 3 .8 0

5 9 4 .8 7

6 1 9 .3 2

6 3 3 .8 4

6 35.51

6 4 0 .6 0

6 4 6 .8 5

6 6 3 .5 5

6 5 4 .0 8

6 5 2 .9 6

6 5 4 .2 3

6 5 5 .3 5

6 5 3 .5 4

6 5 9 .1 8

6 5 4 .0 6

6 5 6 .1 5

6 6 2 .6 5

5 4 2 .3 4

5 5 7 .2 4

5 6 3 .3 3

5 6 8 .4 8

5 7 2 .9 8

5 8 2 .1 5

5 7 2 .8 3

5 6 9 .3 8

5 7 1 .2 9

5 6 9 .9 2

5 6 1 .0 2

5 6 9 .3 8

5 6 6 .7 7

5 6 6 .7 7

5 7 6 .0 2

7 5 9 .9 3

7 9 0 .1 5

8 1 2 .1 5

8 1 0 .0 4

8 1 1 .0 0

8 3 8 .6 6

8 11.51

8 1 5 .6 6

8 1 9 .0 6

8 2 9 .9 6

8 1 7 .3 7

8 3 6 .4 4

7 8 1 .8 5

8 2 0 .6 2

8 3 7 .3 9

7 7 6 .0 4

8 2 8 .4 5

8 6 0 .7 8

8 5 2 .0 2

8 4 9 .7 6

8 8 7 .9 6

8 5 0 .7 5

8 5 6 .3 5

8 6 0 .7 3

8 8 0 .8 8

8 6 6 .8 8

8 8 8 .7 9

8 0 0 .9 4

8 6 4 .8 0

8 7 8 .2 3

In d u s tria l m a c h in e ry a n d

E le c tro n ic a n d o th e r e le c tric a l

T ra n s p o rta tio n e q u ip m e n t..........
M o to r v e h ic le s a n d

In s tru m e n ts a n d re la te d
5 7 0 .3 5

5 8 8 .0 6

5 8 7 .3 2

5 9 4 .5 0

6 0 0 .8 5

6 1 2 .4 3

5 9 5 .3 3

5 9 5 .1 3

5 9 3 .2 8

5 9 4 .7 2

5 9 2 .0 4

5 9 6 .9 9

6 0 0 .6 5

5 9 9 .8 3

6 0 7 .9 4

M is c e lla n e o u s m a n u fa c tu rin g ...

4 34.11

4 4 9 .7 4

4 5 3 .7 7

4 5 9 .1 5

4 5 9 .8 2

4 6 6 .2 2

4 5 0 .4 3

4 5 3 .1 3

4 5 6 .2 3

4 5 6 .2 5

4 5 4 .3 3

4 5 8 .2 0

4 5 3 .1 9

4 6 0 .1 5

4 6 8 .0 3

5 2 1 .8 8

5 3 8 .2 4

5 4 6 .5 3

5 4 7 .2 3

5 5 1 .0 3

5 5 7 .0 2

5 4 4 .1 6

5 4 2 .4 2

5 4 2 .8 2

5 4 8 .7 6

5 4 3 .9 2

5 4 9 .9 8

5 4 9 .8 4

5 4 9 .3 2

5 6 0 .4 7

F o o d a n d k in d re d p ro d u c ts ........

4 9 2 .0 6

5 0 5 .3 6

5 1 2 .6 2

5 1 2 .6 2

5 1 8 .0 8

5 2 0 .6 7

5 0 5 .1 0

5 00.21

5 0 1 .8 4

5 0 6 .7 6

5 0 6 .7 6

5 1 2 .9 5

5 1 3 .3 5

5 1 7 .0 8

5 29 .61

7 1 0 .8 5

7 6 2 .8 0

7 54.11

7 5 3 .7 9

7 7 4 .8 6

7 9 3 .3 2

672.91

6 8 5 .2 2

7 4 1 .0 8

7 8 2 .4 9

8 1 1 .9 2

8 3 6 .8 9

8 3 2 .6 6

8 4 0 .9 8

7 9 4 .7 3

4 2 5 .9 9

4 3 8 .0 4

4 3 8 .7 5

4 4 5 .3 0

4 4 9 .2 8

4 53.11

4 4 3 .3 6

4 48.11

4 5 0 .6 9

4 5 6 .2 0

4 4 8 .4 0

4 5 1 .6 7

4 5 0 .2 9

4 5 0 .1 8

4 5 4 .2 8

3 1 7 .8 0

3 3 2 .2 5

3 3 1 .5 7

3 3 8 .9 2

3 3 7 .6 5

3 4 3 .5 2

3 3 5 .9 2

3 3 9 .5 3

3 4 2 .0 9

3 4 1 .1 9

3 3 6 .6 6

3 3 9 .2 2

3 33.41

3 3 5 .9 6

3 39 .11

6 7 2 .7 0

6 9 3 .3 9

7 0 9 .6 9

7 0 4 .7 4

7 0 4 .3 0

7 1 2 .5 0

6 9 5 .2 7

6 8 7 .5 7

6 8 6 .4 0

6 9 6 .0 7

686.71

6 9 2 .5 0

6 8 7 .4 4

6 8 1 .1 8

6 9 6 .4 4

A p p a re l a n d o th e r te x tile

5 1 5 .5 2

5 2 8 .6 9

5 3 9 .6 3

5 3 9 .6 3

5 4 3 .9 8

5 5 0 .6 8

5 3 4 .3 9

5 3 6 .9 4

5 4 0 .2 6

5 4 2 .4 4

5 3 3 .4 6

5 3 4 .8 7

5 4 0 .1 6

5 4 3 .0 2

5 5 5 .6 5

C h e m ic a ls a n d a llie d p ro d u c ts ..

7 3 8 .2 9

7 4 7 .3 4

7 65.11

7 5 8 .9 9

7 6 5 .5 8

7 7 2 .1 8

7 5 7 .5 6

7 5 0 .9 8

7 4 9 .2 8

7 5 7 .0 0

7 5 6 .5 0

7 6 8 .3 4

7 7 9 .4 9

7 7 2 .2 0

7 8 0 .9 7

P e tro le u m a n d c o a l p ro d u c ts ....

9 1 1 .6 8

9 21.91

9 3 0 .9 6

9 3 3 .9 8

9 3 5 .6 8

9 3 7 .8 6

9 3 3 .9 8

9 5 6 .1 0

9 6 9 .6 6

9 6 6 .5 9

9 1 9 .7 5

9 2 3 .8 8

9 5 5 .8 0

9 2 6 .5 4

9 5 6 .1 3

R u b b e r a n d m is c e lla n e o u s
495 .81

5 15.41

5 2 0 .4 2

5 1 6 .6 7

5 2 3 .3 2

5 3 2 .9 7

5 2 3 .3 2

5 2 0 .4 0

520.81

5 2 8 .3 4

523.71

5 2 9 .1 5

5 2 2 .5 9

5 25.21

5 3 4 .0 6

L e a th e r a n d le a th e r p ro d u c ts ...

3 5 1 .5 6

3 69.31

3 7 2 .1 3

3 7 4 .6 0

3 7 8 .3 3

3 7 5 .7 5

3 7 2 .9 6

3 7 5 .4 9

3 7 9 .3 8

3 8 8 .9 9

3 8 4 .9 2

3 8 7 .0 7

3 6 5 .9 0

3 8 4 .6 9

3 8 8 .8 5

TRANSPORTATION AND
PUBLIC UTILITIES.......................

6 0 4 .7 5

6 0 7 .2 0

6 0 8 .3 0

6 0 5 .9 5

6 0 8 .9 7

6 1 2 .8 6

6 1 2 .0 3

6 11.51

6 0 8 .7 6

6 2 6 .6 2

6 1 6 .1 7

6 2 2 .5 5

6 3 4 .6 5

6 3 0 .9 6

6 3 3 .2 9

5 66.51

5 8 8 .9 5

5 7 5 .6 2

5 7 9 .0 4

5 9 1 .7 0

5 8 0 .6 3

5 8 9 .4 4

WHOLESALE TRADE....................

5 3 8 .8 8

5 58.41

5 6 0 .7 8

5 6 7 .4 9

5 6 6 .7 8

5 7 0 .2 4

578.61

5 6 8 .0 7

RETAIL TRADE................................

2 5 3 .4 6

2 6 3 .3 2

2 6 4 .6 7

2 6 6 .1 7

264 .61

2 7 1 .3 2

2 65 .91

2 6 6 .4 8

2 6 7 .9 8

2 7 2 .2 4

2 7 0 .4 3

2 7 4 .8 3

2 7 9 .5 2

2 7 7 .6 0

2 7 5 .6 2

FINANCE, INSURANCE,
AND REAL ESTATE....................

5 1 2 .1 5

5 2 9 .2 4

5 2 8 .5 0

5 30.31

5 3 0 .6 4

534.31

5 5 1 .6 3

5 3 8 .9 7

5 3 7 .4 2

5 5 4 .9 0

5 3 9 .2 2

5 4 0 .4 7

5 5 0 .8 7

5 4 1 .1 4

5 4 5 .4 7

SERVICES.........................................

4 1 8 .5 8

4 3 5 .5 4

4 3 4 .4 4

4 4 1 .7 8

4 4 3 .7 4

4 4 4 .9 9

450 .61

4 4 8 .9 0

4 4 7 .5 3

4 5 3 .6 2

4 4 5 .8 2

4 4 7 .3 4

4 5 3 .4 2

4 5 0 .7 3

4 5 3 .7 0

p = p re lim in a ry .
N o t e : S e e "N o te s o n th e d a ta " fo r a d e s c rip tio n o f th e m o s t re c e n t b e n c h m a rk re v is io n . D a sh in d ic a te s d a ta not a va ila b le .


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

69

Current Labor Statistics:
17.

Labor Force Data

Diffusion indexes of em ploym ent change, seasonally adjusted

[In percent]
Timespan and year

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov

Dec.

Private nonfarm payrolls, 356 industries
O v e r 1- m o n t h s p a n :
1 9 9 8 ..........................................................................

6 3 .2

5 6 .6

6 0 .5

5 8 .7

5 8 .3

5 9 .7

5 3 .9

58.1

5 6 .2

5 3 .8

5 9 .0

5 7 .4

1 9 9 9 ..........................................................................

5 4 .1

5 8 .8

5 3 .9

5 9 .6

5 2 .8

5 7 .9

5 8 .8

5 3 .8

5 7 .3

6 0 .7

6 0 .8

5 9 .0

2 0 0 0 ..........................................................................

6 0 .8

54.1

6 0 .7

5 6 .5

4 5 .9

5 6 .2

5 8 .7

5 0 .8

5 2 .4

-

-

-

O v e r 3 - m o n th s p a n :
1 9 9 8 ..........................................................................

6 4 .3

6 6 .6

6 3 .2

6 6 .3

6 3 .6

5 8 .0

5 7 .4

5 7 .9

5 9 .7

5 8.1

5 8 .6

5 9 .4

1 9 9 9 ..........................................................................

5 8 .3

5 7 .3

5 8 .4

5 4 .4

5 7 .3

5 8 .8

58.1

6 0 .7

5 9 .6

6 3 .5

6 4 .3

6 3.1

2 0 0 0 ..........................................................................

6 1 .0

6 2 .6

6 1 .9

5 7 .4

5 6 .7

5 8 .3

5 6 .9

5 4 .8

-

-

-

-

O v e r 6 -m o n th s p a n :
1 9 9 8 ..........................................................................

6 9 .8

6 7 .4

6 5 .2

6 1 .8

6 2 .9

6 1 .4

5 9 .0

5 8 .4

5 7 .4

5 9 .7

5 9 .3

5 9.1

1 9 9 9 ..........................................................................

6 0 .0

5 8 .0

5 7 .6

5 8 .6

5 4 .4

5 9 .7

6 0 .4

6 2.1

6 4 .0

6 2 .8

6 5 .2

6 4 .6

2 0 0 0 ..........................................................................

6 5 .6

6 0 .8

6 1 .0

6 1 .9

59.1

5 4 .8

-

-

-

-

-

-

O v e r 1 2 - m o n th s p a n :
1 9 9 8 ..........................................................................

6 9 .7

6 7 .3

6 7 .3

6 5 .9

6 3 .9

6 2 .5

6 1 .5

6 2.1

6 1 .0

5 9 .8

5 9 .8

5 8.1

1 9 9 9 ..........................................................................

6 0 .3

5 8 .3

5 7 .6

5 9 .4

5 9 .6

6 0 .5

6 1 .9

6 1 .0

6 2 .6

6 2 .9

6 2 .5

6 3 .2

2 0 0 0 ..........................................................................

6 5 .0

6 3 .5

6 0.1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Manufacturing payrolls, 139 industries
O v e r 1- m o n t h s p a n :
1 9 9 8 ..........................................................................

5 7 .9

5 0 .7

5 3 .6

5 0 .7

4 7.1

5 0 .0

3 7 .8

5 0 .0

4 5 .7

3 9 .9

4 1 .7

4 3 .9

1 9 9 9 ..........................................................................

4 5 .0

4 1 .0

4 2 .8

4 6 .4

4 0 .3

4 6 .4

5 4 .7

38.1

4 6 .4

5 1 .8

5 1 .4

5 0 .4

2 0 0 0 ..........................................................................

5 2 .2

4 7 .8

5 1.1

5 1.1

4 5 .7

5 1.1

5 7 .6

3 7 .4

3 7 .4

-

-

-

1 9 9 8 ..........................................................................

5 6 .8

5 6 .8

5 2 .2

5 2 .2

4 8 .6

4 1 .4

3 9 .2

4 0 .3

4 3 .2

3 7.1

3 6 .7

4 0 .6

1 9 9 9 ..........................................................................

3 6 .7

3 7.1

3 7.1

3 4 .5

3 7 .8

4 3 .5

3 9 .9

4 5 .0

4 2.1

5 0 .4

51.1

5 0 .7

2 0 0 0 ..........................................................................

4 7 .8

5 2 .5

4 9 .3

4 8 .9

4 9 .6

5 3 .6

4 4 .6

3 4 .2

-

-

-

-

O v e r 3 - m o n th s p a n :

O v e r 6 -m o n th s p a n :
1 9 9 8 ..........................................................................

60.1

5 4 .3

5 0 .4

3 9 .9

4 3 .5

4 2 .1

3 8 .8

3 6 .7

3 6 .0

3 9 .9

3 4 .5

3 2 .7

1 9 9 9 ..........................................................................

3 5 .6

3 3 .5

3 3 .5

3 7.1

3 2 .7

3 8 .8

4 1 .0

4 5 .7

4 8 .2

4 3 .2

4 8 .6

5 1.1

2 0 0 0 ..........................................................................

5 1 .4

4 7 .5

5 0 .4

5 3 .6

4 5 .3

3 4 .9

-

-

-

-

-

-

O v e r 1 2 - m o n th s p a n :
1 9 9 8 ..........................................................................

5 5 .0

5 1 .8

5 1 .8

4 6 .8

4 0 .6

3 9 .9

3 7 .8

38.1

3 7.1

3 6 .0

3 4 .2

3 3 .5

1 9 9 9 ..........................................................................

3 7 .4

3 2 .4

3 1 .7

3 5 .3

3 6 .0

3 7.1

3 8 .8

3 9 .6

4 2 .4

4 2 .4

4 2 .4

4 6 .0

2 0 0 0 ..........................................................................

4 7 .8

4 4 .2

3 6 .3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

D a ta n o t a v a ila b le .

NO TE:

d e c r e a s in g e m p lo y m e n t.

F ig u r e s a r e th e p e r c e n t o f in d u s tr ie s w ith e m p lo y m e n t in c r e a s in g

p lu s o n e - h a lf o f th e in d u s tr ie s w ith

u n c h a n g e d e m p lo y m e n t, w h e r e 5 0

p e r c e n t in d ic a te s a n e q u a l b a la n c e b e tw e e n in d u s tr ie s w ith in c r e a s in g a n d

70

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

November 2000

s p a n a re p re lim in a r y .

D a ta fo r th e 2 m o s t r e c e n t m o n th s s h o w n in e a c h

S e e th e " D e fin itio n s " in th is s e c tio n .

S e e " N o te s o n

th e d a ta " fo r a d e s c r ip tio n o f th e m o s t re c e n t b e n c h m a r k re v is io n .

18.

A nnud d d cr Employment std u s of th e p o p u ld io n

[Numbers in thousands]

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

C iv ilia n n o n in s titu tio n a l p o p u la tio n ..............

1 9 0 ,9 2 5

1 9 2 ,8 0 5

1 9 4 ,8 3 8

1 9 6 ,8 1 4

1 9 8 ,5 8 4

2 0 0 ,5 9 1

2 0 3 ,1 3 3

2 0 5 ,2 2 0

2 0 7 ,7 5 3

C iv ilia n la b o r fo r c e ...........................................

1 2 6 ,3 4 6

1 2 8 ,1 0 5

1 2 9 ,2 0 0

1 3 1 ,0 5 6

1 3 2 ,3 0 4

1 3 3 ,9 4 3

1 3 6 ,2 9 7

1 3 7 ,6 7 3

1 3 9 ,3 6 8

6 6 .2

6 6 .4

6 6 .3

6 6 .6

6 6 .6

6 6 .8

67.1

6 7 .1

6 7 .1

E m p lo y e d ......................................................

1 1 7 ,7 1 8

1 1 8 ,4 9 2

1 2 0 ,2 5 9

1 2 3 ,0 6 0

1 2 4 ,9 0 0

1 2 6 ,7 0 8

1 2 9 ,5 5 8

1 3 1 ,4 6 3

1 3 3 ,4 8 8

E m p lo y m e n t- p o p u la tio n r a tio ............

6 1 .7

6 1 .5

6 1 .7

6 2 .5

6 2 .9

6 3 .2

6 3 .8

6 4.1

6 4 .3

3 ,2 6 9

3 ,2 4 7

3 ,1 1 5

3 ,4 0 9

3 ,4 4 0

3 ,4 4 3

3 ,3 9 9

3 ,3 7 8

3 ,2 8 1

N o n a g ric u ltu ra l in d u s tr ie s ...............

1 1 4 ,4 9 9

1 1 5 ,2 4 5

1 1 7 ,1 4 4

1 1 9 ,6 5 1

1 2 1 ,4 6 0

1 2 3 ,2 6 4

1 2 6 ,1 5 9

1 2 8 ,0 8 5

1 3 0 ,2 0 7

U n e m p lo y e d ...............................................

8 ,6 2 8

9 ,6 1 3

8 ,9 4 0

7 ,9 9 6

7 ,4 0 4

7 ,2 3 6

6 ,7 3 9

6 ,2 1 0

5 ,8 8 0

U n e m p lo y m e n t ra te ...............................

6 .8

7 .5

6 .9

6.1

5 .6

5 .4

4 .9

4 .5

4 .2

N o t in th e la b o r fo r c e ......................................

6 4 ,5 7 8

6 4 ,7 0 0

6 5 ,6 3 8

6 5 ,7 5 8

6 6 ,2 8 0

6 6 ,6 4 7

6 6 ,8 3 7

6 7 ,5 4 7

6 8 ,3 8 5

Employment status

L a b o r fo r c e p a r tic ip a tio n r a te .................

19.

Annual data: Em ploym ent levels by industry

[In thousands]

Industry
T o ta l e m p lo y m e n t .....................................................

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

1 0 8 ,2 4 9

1 0 8 ,6 0 1

1 1 0 ,7 1 3

1 1 4 ,1 6 3

1 1 7 ,1 9 1

1 1 9 ,6 0 8

1 2 2 ,6 9 0

1 2 5 ,8 6 5

1 2 8 ,7 8 6

P r iv a te s e c to r ..........................................................

8 9 ,8 4 7

8 9 ,9 5 6

9 1 ,8 7 2

9 5 ,0 3 6

9 7 ,8 8 5

1 0 0 ,1 8 9

1 0 3 ,1 3 3

1 0 6 ,0 4 2

1 0 8 ,6 1 6

G o o d s - p r o d u c in g ...............................................

2 3 ,7 4 5

2 3 ,2 3 1

2 3 ,3 5 2

2 3 ,9 0 8

2 4 ,2 6 5

2 4 ,4 9 3

2 4 ,9 6 2

2 5 ,4 1 4

2 5 ,4 8 2

M in in g .................................................................

689

635

610

601

581

580

596

590

535

C o n s tr u c tio n ....................................................

4 ,6 5 0

4 ,4 9 2

4 ,6 6 8

4 ,9 8 6

5 ,1 6 0

5 ,4 1 8

5 ,6 9 1

6 ,0 2 0

6 ,4 0 4

M a n u fa c tu r in g .................................................

1 8 ,4 0 6

1 8 ,1 0 4

1 8 ,0 7 5

1 8,3 21

1 8 ,5 2 4

1 8 ,4 9 5

1 8 ,6 7 5

1 8 ,8 0 5

1 8 ,5 4 3

S e r v ic e - p r o d u c in g ............................................

8 4 ,5 0 4

8 5 ,3 7 0

8 7 ,3 6 1

9 0 ,2 5 6

9 2 ,9 2 5

9 5 ,1 1 5

9 7 ,7 2 7

1 0 0 ,4 5 1

1 0 3 ,3 0 4

T r a n s p o rta tio n a n d p u b lic u tilitie s .........

5 ,7 5 5

5 ,7 1 8

5 ,8 1 1

5 ,9 8 4

6 ,1 3 2

6 ,2 5 3

6 ,4 0 8

6 ,6 1 1

6 ,8 2 6

W h o le s a le t r a d e ............................................

6 ,0 8 1

5 ,9 9 7

5 ,9 8 1

6 ,1 6 2

6 ,3 7 8

6 ,4 8 2

6 ,6 4 8

6 ,8 0 0

6 ,9 2 4

1 9 ,2 8 4

1 9 ,3 5 6

1 9 ,7 7 3

2 0 ,5 0 7

2 1 ,1 8 7

2 1 ,5 9 7

2 1 ,9 6 6

2 2 ,2 9 5

2 2 ,7 8 8

6 ,6 4 6

6 ,6 0 2

6 ,7 5 7

6 ,8 9 6

6 ,8 0 6

6 ,9 1 1

7 ,1 0 9

7 ,3 8 9

7 ,5 6 9

2 8 ,3 3 6

2 9 ,0 5 2

3 0 ,1 9 7

3 1 ,5 7 9

3 3 ,1 1 7

3 4 ,4 5 4

3 6 ,0 4 0

3 7 ,5 3 3

3 9 ,0 2 7

1 8 ,4 0 2

1 8 ,6 4 5

1 8 ,8 4 1

1 9 ,1 2 8

1 9 ,3 0 5

1 9 ,4 1 9

1 9 ,5 5 7

1 9 ,8 2 3

2 0 ,1 7 0

2 ,9 6 6

2 ,9 6 9

2 ,9 1 5

2 ,8 7 0

2 ,8 2 2

2 ,7 5 7

2 ,6 9 9

2 ,6 8 6

2 ,6 6 9

4 ,3 5 5

4 ,4 0 8

4 ,4 8 8

4 ,5 7 6

4 ,6 3 5

4 ,6 0 6

4 ,5 8 2

4 ,6 1 2

4 ,6 9 5

1 1,0 81

1 1 ,2 6 7

1 1 ,4 3 8

1 1 ,6 8 2

1 1 ,8 4 9

1 2 ,0 5 6

1 2 ,2 7 6

1 2 ,5 2 5

1 2 ,8 0 6

F in a n c e , in s u ra n c e , a n d re a l e s ta te ....

F e d e r a l..........................................................

L o c a l...............................................................
N O TE :


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

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Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

71

Current Labor Statistics:

20.

Labor Force Data

Annual data: A verage hours and earnings o f production or nonsupervisory workers on nonfarm
payrolls, by industry
Industry

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

Private sector:
A v e r a g e w e e k ly h o u r s ............................................................

3 4 .3

3 4 .4

3 4 .5

3 4 .7

3 4 .5

3 4 .4

3 4 .6

3 4 .6

3 4 .5

A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s (In d o lla r s ) ...............................

1 0 .3 2

1 0 .5 7

1 0 .8 3

1 1 .1 2

1 1 .4 3

1 1 .8 2

1 2 .2 8

1 2 .7 8

1 3 .2 4

A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a r n in g s (in d o lla r s ) ..............................

3 5 3 .9 8

3 6 3 .6 1

3 7 3 .6 4

3 8 5 .8 6

3 9 4 .3 4

4 0 6 .6 1

4 2 4 .8 9

4 4 2 .1 9

4 5 6 .7 8

Mining:
4 4 .4

4 3 .9

4 4 .3

4 4 .8

4 4 .7

4 5 .3

4 5 .4

4 3 .9

4 3 .8

A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s (in d o lla r s ) ............................

A v e r a g e w e e k ly h o u r s ..........................................................

1 4 .1 9

1 4 .5 4

1 4 .6 0

1 4 .8 8

1 5 .3 0

1 5 .6 2

1 6 .1 5

1 6.91

1 7 .0 9

A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a r n in g s (in d o lla r s ) ...........................

6 3 0 .0 4

6 3 8 .3 1

6 4 6 .7 8

6 6 6 .6 2

6 8 3 .9 1

7 0 7 .5 9

7 3 3 .2 1

7 4 2 .3 5

7 4 8 .5 4

Construction:
A v e r a g e w e e k ly h o u r s ..........................................................

3 8.1

3 8 .0

3 8 .5

3 8 .9

3 8 .9

3 9 .0

3 9 .0

3 8 .9

39.1

A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s (in d o lla r s ) ............................

1 4 .0 0

1 4 .1 5

1 4 .3 8

1 4 .7 3

1 5 .0 9

1 5 .4 7

1 6 .0 4

1 6.6 1

1 7 .1 8

A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a r n in g s (in d o lla r s ) ...........................

5 3 3 .4 0

5 3 7 .7 0

5 5 3 .6 3

5 7 3 .0 0

5 8 7 .0 0

6 0 3 .3 3

6 2 5 .5 6

6 4 6 .1 3

6 7 1 .7 4

Manufacturing:
A v e r a g e w e e k ly h o u r s ..........................................................

4 0 .7

4 1 .0

4 1 .4

4 2 .0

4 1 .6

4 1 .6

4 2 .0

4 1 .7

4 1 .7

A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s (in d o lla r s ) ............................

1 1 .1 8

1 1 .4 6

1 1 .7 4

1 2 .0 7

1 2 .3 7

1 2 .7 7

1 3 .1 7

1 3 .4 9

1 3.91

A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a r n in g s (in d o lla r s ) ...........................

4 5 5 .0 3

4 6 9 .8 6

4 8 6 .0 4

5 0 6 .9 4

5 1 4 .5 9

5 3 1 .2 3

5 5 3 .1 4

5 6 2 .5 3

5 8 0 .0 5

Transportation and public utilities:
A v e r a g e w e e k ly h o u r s ..........................................................

3 8.1

3 8 .3

3 9 .3

3 9 .7

3 9 .4

3 9 .6

3 9 .7

3 9 .5

3 8 .7

A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s (in d o lla r s ) ............................

1 3 .2 0

1 3 .4 3

1 3 .5 5

1 3 .7 8

1 4 .1 3

1 4 .4 5

1 4 .9 2

15.3 1

1 5 .6 9

A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a r n in g s (in d o lla r s ) ...........................

5 0 2 .9 2

5 1 4 .3 7

5 3 2 .5 2

5 4 7 .0 7

5 5 6 .7 2

5 7 2 .2 2

5 9 2 .3 2

6 0 4 .7 5

6 0 7 .2 0

Wholesale trade:
A v e r a g e w e e k ly h o u r s .........................................................

3 8.1

3 8 .2

3 8 .2

3 8 .4

3 8 .3

3 8 .3

3 8 .4

3 8 .3

3 8 .3

A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s (in d o lla r s ) .............................

1 1 .1 5

1 1 .3 9

1 1 .7 4

1 2 .0 6

1 2 .4 3

1 2 .8 7

1 3 .4 5

1 4 .0 7

1 4 .5 8

A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a r n in g s (in d o lla r s ) ............................

4 2 4 .8 2

4 3 5 .1 0

4 4 8 .4 7

4 6 3 .1 0

4 7 6 .0 7

4 9 2 .9 2

5 1 6 .4 8

5 3 8 .8 8

5 5 8 .4 1

2 9 .0

Retail trade:
A v e r a g e w e e k ly h o u r s ..........................................................

2 8 .6

2 8 .8

2 8 .8

2 8 .9

2 8 .8

2 8 .8

2 8 .9

2 9 .0

A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s (in d o lla r s ) .............................

6 .9 4

7 .1 2

7 .2 9

7 .4 9

7 .6 9

7 .9 9

8 .3 3

8 .7 4

9 .0 8

A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a r n in g s (in d o lla r s ) ............................

1 9 8 .4 8

2 0 5 .0 6

2 0 9 .9 5

2 1 6 .4 6

2 2 1 .4 7

2 3 0 .1 1

2 4 0 .7 4

2 5 3 .4 6

2 6 3 .3 2

Finance, insurance, and real estate:
A v e r a g e w e e k ly h o u r s ..........................................................

3 5 .7

3 5 .8

3 5 .8

3 5 .8

3 5 .9

3 5 .9

3 6.1

3 6 .4

3 6 .2

A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s (in d o lla r s ) .............................

1 0 .3 9

1 0 .8 2

1 1 .3 5

1 1 .8 3

1 2 .3 2

1 2 .8 0

1 3 .3 4

1 4 .0 7

1 4 .6 2

A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a r n in g s (in d o lla r s ) ............................

3 7 0 .9 2

3 8 7 .3 6

4 0 6 .3 3

4 2 3 .5 1

4 4 2 .2 9

4 5 9 .5 2

4 8 1 .5 7

5 1 2 .1 5

5 2 9 .2 4

Services:
A v e r a g e w e e k ly h o u r s ..........................................................

3 2 .4

3 2 .5

3 2 .5

3 2 .5

3 2 .4

3 2 .4

3 2 .6

3 2 .6

3 2 .6

A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s (in d o lla r s ) .............................

1 0 .2 3

1 0 .5 4

1 0 .7 8

1 1 .0 4

1 1 .3 9

1 1 .7 9

1 2 .2 8

1 2 .8 4

1 3 .3 6

A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a r n in g s (in d o lla r s ) ............................

3 3 1 .4 5

3 4 2 .5 5

3 5 0 .3 5

3 5 8 .8 0

3 6 9 .0 4

3 8 2 .0 0

4 0 0 .3 3

4 1 8 .5 8

4 3 5 .5 4

72

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

November 2000

21.

Employment Cost Index, com pensation,' by occupation and industry group

[June 1989 = 100]

Series
June

Civilian workers2..........................................................

1 37 .4

Sept.

2000

1999

1998

Dec.

Mar.

June

1 39.0

1 3 9 .8

1 40 .4

1 41 .8

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

1 4 3 .3

1 4 4 .6

1 46 .5

1 48 .0

Percent change
12
3
months
months
ended
ended
June 2000
1.0

4 .4

W o rk e rs , b y o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p :
W h ite - c o lla r w o rk e rs ..........................................................................

1 38 .7

1 40 .6

1 41 .4

1 41 .9

1 4 3 .3

1 45 .0

1 4 6 .3

1 48 .4

1 4 9 .9

1.0

4 .6

P ro fe s s io n a l s p e c ia lty a n d te c h n ic a l........................................

1 38 .3

1 40 .0

1 41 .0

1 41 .3

1 42.2

1 4 3 .9

1 45 .3

1 46 .7

1 4 8 .3

1.1

4 .3

E x e c u tiv e , a d m ln itra tiv e , a n d m a n a g e ria l..............................

1 39 .7

1 41 .7

1 41 .8

1 4 3 .5

1 45 .4

1 47 .3

1 48 .6

1 5 0 .5

1 51 .9

.9

4 .5

A d m in is tra tiv e s u p p o rt, in c lu d in g c le ric a l................................

1 39 .3

1 40 .4

1 41 .3

1 42 .5

1 4 3 .4

1 44 .7

146.1

1 48 .6

150.1

1.0

4 .7

B lu e -c o lla r w o rk e rs ............................................................................

1 34 .3

1 3 5 .3

136.1

137.1

1 38 .3

1 39 .5

1 40 .6

1 4 2 .7

144.1

1.0

4 .2

S e rv ic e o c c u p a tio n s ..........................................................................

1 37 .9

1 39 .4

1 40 .0

1 4 1 .3

1 42 .4

143.1

1 44 .8

1 46 .0

147.1

.8

3 .3

G o o d s -p ro d u c in g ................................................................................

1 36 .3

1 37 .2

1 37 .9

139 .0

1 40 .0

1 41 .2

1 4 2 .5

1 4 4 .9

1 4 6 .6

1.2

4 .7

M a n u fa c tu rin g ...................................................................................

1 37 .2

1 38.2

1 3 8 .9

1 39 .9

1 40 .9

142.1

1 4 3 .6

1 46 .0

1 4 7 .5

1.0

4 .7

S e r v ic e -p ro d u c in g ..............................................................................

1 37 .7

1 39 .6

1 40 .4

1 40 .9

1 42 .4

1 44.0

1 45 .3

147.1

1 4 8 .4

.9

4 .2

S e r v ic e s ...............................................................................................

1 39.0

1 40 .8

1 41 .7

1 4 2 .3

143 .2

145.1

1 46 .5

1 48 .0

1 49 .3

.9

4 .3

H e a lth s e rv ic e s ...............................................................................

1 3 8 .5

139.1

139.1

1 40 .5

1 4 1 .4

1 42 .7

1 44 .3

1 4 5 .9

1 47 .5

1.1

4 .3

H o s p ita ls ........................................................................................

1 38.2

1 39 .4

1 40 .2

1 41 .3

142 .2

1 43 .4

1 45 .0

1 4 6 .3

1 4 7 .7

1.0

3 .9

E d u c a tio n a l s e rv ic e s ....................................................................

1 37 .7

140 .2

1 41 .0

1 4 1 .3

1 41 .7

1 4 4 .6

1 4 5 .8

1 4 6 .5

1 4 6 .8

.2

3 .6

P u b lic a d m in is tra tio n 3......................................................................

1 3 7 .4

1 38 .9

1 39 .9

1 4 0 .8

1 4 1 .5

1 42 .4

1 44 .4

1 4 5 .7

146.1

.3

3 .3
4 .3

W o rk e rs , b y in d u s try d iv is io n :

N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ..............................................................................

1 3 7 .3

1 39 .0

1 39 .9

1 40 .5

1 4 1 .9

1 43 .4

1 44 .7

1 4 6 .6

1 48 .0

1.0

Private industry workers.............................................

1 37 .5

1 39 .0

1 3 9 .8

1 40 .4

1 42 .0

1 4 3 .3

1 4 4 .6

1 46 .8

1 4 8 .5

1.2

4 .6

E x c lu d in g s a le s o c c u p a tio n s .....................................................

1 37 .5

1 38 .8

1 3 9 .4

1 4 0 .5

1 41 .9

1 43 .2

1 44 .5

1 4 6 .5

1 48 .2

1.2

4 .4

W h ite - c o lla r w o rk e rs .......................................................................

1 3 9 .4

141.1

1 42 .0

1 42 .4

144.1

1 4 5 .6

1 4 6 .9

1 4 9 .3

151.1

1.2

4 .9

E x c lu d in g s a le s o c c u p a tio n s ..................................................

1 39 .9

1 4 1 .3

1 4 1 .9

1 43 .0

1 44 .5

1 46 .0

1 4 7 .3

1 4 9 .4

1 5 1 .3

1.3

4 .7

P ro fe s s io n a l s p e c ia lty a n d te c h n ic a l o c c u p a tio n s ............

140.1

1 41 .6

1 4 2 .6

1 4 2 .9

144.1

1 45.2

1 46 .7

1 48 .4

1 5 0 .7

1 .5

4 .6

E x e c u tiv e , a d m in itra tiv e , a n d m a n a g e ria l o c c u p a tio n s ..

1 40 .0

1 4 1 .9

1 41 .8

1 4 3 .7

1 4 5 .8

1 47 .7

149.1

151.1

1 52 .7

1.1

4 .7

S a le s o c c u p a tio n s .........................................................................

1 3 7 .3

1 40 .4

1 4 2 .6

1 39 .6

1 4 2 .6

144.1

1 4 5 .3

1 4 8 .9

1 50 .3

.9

5 .4

A d m in is tra tiv e s u p p o rt o c c u p a tio n s , in c lu d in g c le ric a l...

1 3 9 .6

1 4 0 .6

1 41 .4

1 42 .6

1 4 3 .7

1 45 .0

1 46 .2

1 4 9 .0

1 5 0 .6

1.1

4 .8

1 34 .3

1 35 .2

1 35 .9

1 36 .9

1 38 .2

1 39 .4

1 4 0 .5

1 4 2 .6

144.1

1.1

4 .3

W o rk e rs , b y o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p :

P re c is io n p ro d u c tio n , c ra ft, a n d re p a ir o c c u p a tio n s ........

1 34 .4

1 3 5 .4

136.1

1 37 .2

1 38 .4

1 3 9 .6

1 4 0 .6

1 4 2 .3

144.1

1.3

4.1

M a c h in e o p e ra to rs , a s s e m b le rs , a n d in s p e c to rs ..............

1 34 .7

1 35 .7

1 3 6 .8

1 3 7 .3

1 38 .4

1 3 9 .9

1 41 .4

1 44 .0

1 4 5 .0

.7

4 .8

T ra n s p o rta tio n a n d m a te ria l m o v in g o c c u p a tio n s .............

1 29 .9

1 30 .7

1 3 0 .7

1 3 1 .6

1 3 3 .6

1 34 .4

1 35 .2

1 3 7 .5

1 3 8 .6

.8

3 .7

H a n d le rs , e q u ip m e n t c le a n e rs , h e lp e rs , a n d la b o re rs ....

1 3 7 .6

1 38 .5

1 39.2

1 41 .0

1 4 2 .3

1 43 .2

1 44 .4

1 4 6 .4

148.1

1.2

4.1

S e rv ic e o c c u p a tio n s .......................................................................

1 36 .0

1 3 7 .3

1 38 .0

1 39 .5

1 4 0 .6

1 41 .0

1 4 2 .6

1 4 3 .9

1 4 5 .4

1.0

3 .4

P ro d u c tio n a n d n o n s u p e rv is o ry o c c u p a tio n s 4....................

1 36 .6

1 38 .0

1 39 .0

1 39 .3

1 40 .8

1 4 1 .9

143.1

1 4 5 .3

1 4 6 .9

1.1

4 .3

1 36 .2

137.1

1 37 .8

1 38 .9

1 3 9 .9

141.1

1 4 2 .5

1 4 4 .8

1 4 6 .6

1.2

4 .8

1 35 .6

136 .5

1 37 .2

1 38 .3

1 39 .3

1 4 0 .5

1 4 1 .8

1 44 .2

1 4 5 .9

1.2

4 .7

1 3 8 .8

1 39 .7

1 40 .2

1 41 .7

1 42 .7

1 4 3 .9

1 4 5 .5

148.1

150.1

1.4

5 .2

1 37 .4

1 3 8 .3

1 38 .8

1 40 .4

1 41 .3

1 42 .5

1 43 .9

1 4 6 .5

1 48 .4

1.3

5 .0

1 34 .6

1 35 .5

1 3 6 .3

137.1

1 3 8 .3

1 39 .4

1 40 .7

1 42 .8

1 4 4 .4

1.1

4 .4

W o rk e rs , b y in d u s try d iv is io n :
G o o d s -p ro d u c in g .............................................................................

C o n s tr u c tio n ...................................................................................

1 32 .7

1 33 .4

1 34 .3

1 3 5 .6

1 3 6 .9

1 3 7 .9

1 3 8 .7

1 4 0 .8

1 43 .2

1.7

4 .6

M a n u fa c tu rin g .................................................................................

1 37 .2

1 38 .2

1 38 .9

1 39 .9

1 40 .9

142.1

1 4 3 .6

1 46 .0

1 4 7 .5

1.0

4 .7

D u ra b le s ...........................................................................................

T ra n s p o rta tio n .............................................................................

139.1

140.1

1 4 0 .5

1 41 .8

1 43 .0

1 44 .3

1 4 5 .8

1 48 .2

1 50 .2

1.3

5 .0

1 37 .3

1 3 8 .3

1 3 8 .7

140.1

1 41 .3

1 42 .5

1 43 .8

1 46 .2

1 48 .2

1.4

4 .9

1 4 0 .5

142.1

1 4 4 .4

1 4 5 .6

.8

4 .4

1 35 .9

1 3 6 .8

1 37 .7

1 3 8 .5

1 39 .4

1 37 .4

1 38 .5

139 .2

1 3 9 .9

1 41 .0

1 4 2 .3

1 44 .0

1 4 6 .5

1 4 8 .3

1.2

5 .2

1 3 6 .7

1 37 .6

138 .2

1 39 .6

1 4 0 .4

1 4 1 .5

1 4 2 .8

1 44 .9

1 46 .0

.8

4 .0

1 3 7 .8

1 39 .6

1 40 .5

1 40 .9

1 42 .8

144.1

1 4 5 .3

1 47 .4

149.1

1.2

4 .4

1 38 .5

1 40 .0

1 4 0 .6

1 41 .7

1 4 3 .3

1 44 .6

1 4 5 .9

1 4 7 .7

1 49 .4

1.2

4 .3

1 39 .3

1 41 .2

1 42 .2

1 4 2 .3

1 4 4 .3

1 45 .8

1 47 .0

1 4 9 .3

1 51 .0

1.1

4 .6

1 4 0 .6

1 42 .2

1 42 .8

1 4 3 .8

1 4 5 .5

1 47 .0

1 4 8 .3

1 5 0 .3

152.1

1.2

4 .5

1 33 .2

1 3 4 .3

1 34 .8

1 36 .2

1 37 .8

139.1

1 3 9 .8

1 41 .8

143.1

.9

3 .8

1 3 5 .8

1 37 .0

1 3 7 .8

1 3 9 .3

1 4 0 .5

1 4 0 .8

1 42 .4

1 4 3 .6

145.1

1.0

3 .3

137.1

1 38 .5

1 39 .3

139 .7

1 4 0 .9

1 41 .8

1 4 2 .3

1 4 3 .9

1 45 .7

1.3

3 .4

1 34 .9

1 36 .7

1 37 .3

1 36 .8

138.1

1 3 8 .7

1 3 9 .5

1 4 0 .4

1 4 1 .8

1.0

2 .7

1 39 .7

1 40 .7

1 41 .9

1 43 .4

1 4 4 .6

1 45 .7

146.1

1 48 .6

1 5 0 .9

1.5

4 .4

1 39 .2

1 4 0 .5

1 41 .7

1 4 3 .3

1 44 .9

146.1

1 4 6 .0

1 48 .4

1 5 0 .9

1.7

4.1

1 40 .3

1 4 1 .0

142.1

1 43 .4

1 44 .2

145.1

146.1

1 4 8 .9

1 51 .0

1.4

4 .7

1 35 .8

1 3 7 .6

1 38 .2

1 3 8 .9

141.1

1 42 .2

1 4 3 .5

1 4 5 .6

1 4 7 .3

1.2

4 .4

1 36 .3

138.1

1 38 .8

1 39 .9

1 4 1 .9

1 4 2 .8

1 4 4 .3

1 46 .4

148.1

1.2

4 .4

1 38 .6

1 40 .8

1 42 .8

1 42 .7

1 4 4 .6

1 4 6 .3

1 4 8 .5

1 50 .0

1 5 1 .8

1.2

5 .0

1 38 .2

1 40 .0

1 41 .2

1 42 .4

1 44 .0

1 4 5 .8

1 4 7 .4

1 49 .6

151.1

1.0

4 .9

R e ta il tr a d e ...................................................................................

1 3 4 .4

1 3 5 .9

1 35 .6

1 36 .8

139.1

1 40 .0

1 4 0 .7

1 43 .2

1 4 4 .8

1.1

4.1

1 33 .0

1 33 .2

1 34 .0

1 35 .0

1 35 .6

1 3 7 .2

1 38 .3

1 3 9 .7

1 41 .0

.9

4 .0

F o o d s to r e s ...............................................................................

1 32 .9

1 33 .7

1 32 .7

1 34 .3

1 3 5 .7

1 37 .0

138.1

140.1

1 42 .5

1.7

5 .0

S e e fo o tn o te s a t e n d o f ta b le .


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

73

Current Labor Statistics:

Compensation & Industrial Relations

21. C ontinued— Employm ent Cost Index, com pensation,1by occupation and industry group
[June 1989 = 100]

1998

1999

2000

Series
June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Percent change
3
12
months
months
ended
ended
June 2000

F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , a n d re a l e s ta t e ........................................

1 3 8 .4

1 4 1 .0

1 4 2 .5

1 4 1 .5

1 4 5 .8

1 4 7 .6

1 4 8 .3

1 5 2 .0

1 53.1

0 .7

5 .0

E x c lu d in g s a le s o c c u p a tio n s .................................................

1 4 1 .3

1 4 3 .2

1 4 3 .3

1 4 5 .6

1 4 8 .8

1 5 1 .0

1 5 1 .6

1 5 4 .2

1 5 5 .5

.8

4 .5
5 .7

B a n k in g , s a v in g s a n d lo a n , a n d o th e r c re d it a g e n c ie s .

1 4 5 .3

1 4 8 .4

1 4 6 .7

1 4 8 .8

1 5 5 .4

1 5 9 .3

1 5 9 .8

1 6 2 .7

1 6 4 .2

.9

I n s u r a n c e ...........................................................................................

1 3 8 .9

1 4 1 .9

1 4 1 .7

1 4 1 .7

1 4 4 .0

1 4 4 .5

1 4 5 .8

1 4 9 .9

1 5 1 .3

.9

5.1

S e r v ic e s ..................................................................................................

1 4 0 .3

1 4 1 .8

1 4 2 .7

1 4 3 .5

1 4 4 .6

146 .1

1 4 7 .6

1 4 9 .4

1 5 1 .2

1.2

4 .6

B u s in e s s s e r v ic e s ..........................................................................

1 4 0 .7

1 4 3 .5

1 4 5 .9

1 4 7 .5

1 4 8 .7

1 5 0 .7

1 5 1 .9

1 5 4 .2

1 5 6 .3

1 .4

5.1

H e a lth s e r v ic e s ................................................................................

1 3 8 .7

1 3 9 .0

1 3 9 .0

1 4 0 .5

1 4 1 .4

1 4 2 .6

1 4 4 .2

1 4 5 .8

1 4 7 .5

1.2

4 .3
3 .8

H o s p it a ls ..........................................................................................

1 3 8 .2

1 39 .1

1 3 9 .9

1 4 1 .2

1 42 .1

1 4 3 .0

1 4 4 .6

1 4 5 .8

1 4 7 .5

1 .2

E d u c a tio n a l s e r v ic e s ....................................................................

1 4 3 .9

1 4 7 .0

1 4 7 .7

1 4 8 .3

1 4 8 .7

1 5 2 .2

1 5 3 .0

1 5 4 .0

1 5 4 .9

.6

4 .2

C o lle g e s a n d u n iv e r s itie s .........................................................

1 4 4 .8

1 4 7 .8

1 4 8 .5

1 4 9 .2

1 4 9 .6

1 5 2 .6

1 5 3 .3

1 5 4 .6

1 5 5 .5

.6

3 .9

N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g .............................................................................

1 3 7 .2

1 3 8 .9

1 3 9 .7

1 4 0 .3

1 4 2 .0

1 4 3 .4

1 4 4 .5

1 4 6 .7

1 4 8 .4

1 .2

4 .5

W h it e - c o lla r w o r k e r s ......................................................................

1 3 9 .2

1 41 .1

1 4 2 .0

1 4 2 .3

144 .1

1 4 5 .6

1 4 6 .9

1 4 9 .2

1 5 1 .0

1 .2

4 .8

E x c lu d in g s a le s o c c u p a tio n s ................................................

1 4 0 .5

1 4 2 .0

1 4 2 .7

1 4 3 .7

1 4 5 .3

1 4 6 .8

1 48.1

1 5 0 .2

1 5 2 .0

1 .2

4 .6

B lu e - c o lla r o c c u p a t io n s ................................................................

1 3 2 .4

1 3 3 .4

1 3 4 .0

1 3 5 .2

1 3 6 .8

1 3 8 .0

1 3 8 .7

1 4 0 .6

1 4 2 .3

1 .2

4 .0

S e r v ic e o c c u p a t io n s ......................................................................

1 3 5 .7

1 3 6 .9

1 3 7 .7

1 3 9 .2

1 4 0 .4

1 4 0 .7

1 4 2 .3

1 4 3 .5

1 45.1

1.1

3 .3

State and local government workers..............................

1 3 6 .9

1 3 9 .0

1 3 9 .8

1 4 0 .5

1 4 1 .0

143 .1

1 4 4 .6

1 4 5 .5

1 4 5 .9

.3

3 .5

W h it e - c o lla r w o r k e r s ..............................................................................

1 3 6 .2

1 3 8 .4

1 3 9 .3

1 3 9 .8

1 4 0 .2

1 4 2 .6

1 4 4 .0

1 4 4 .9

1 4 5 .3

.3

3 .6

P r o fe s s io n a l s p e c ia lty a n d te c h n ic a l..........................................

1 3 5 .6

1 3 7 .7

1 3 8 .5

1 3 8 .8

1 3 9 .3

1 4 2 .0

1 4 3 .2

1 44.1

1 4 4 .5

.3

3 .7

E x e c u tiv e , a d m in is tr a tiv e , a n d m a n a g e r ia l..............................

1 3 7 .9

1 4 0 .4

1 4 1 .6

1 4 2 .6

1 4 2 .8

1 4 4 .5

1 46 .1

1 4 7 .0

1 4 7 .2

.1

3.1

W o r k e r s , b y o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p :

A d m in is t r a tiv e s u p p o r t, in c lu d in g c le r ic a l.................................

1 3 7 .2

1 3 9 .5

1 4 0 .3

1 4 1 .4

1 4 1 .3

1 4 3 .0

1 4 5 .0

1 4 5 .9

1 4 6 .5

.4

3 .7

B lu e - c o lla r w o r k e r s ................................................................................

1 3 5 .2

1 3 6 .8

1 3 7 .8

1 3 8 .8

1 3 9 .5

1 4 0 .9

1 4 2 .5

1 4 3 .7

1 4 4 .2

.3

3 .4

S e r v ic e s .....................................................................................................

1 3 6 .6

1 3 9 .0

1 3 9 .7

1 4 0 .0

1 4 0 .5

1 4 3 .2

1 4 4 .5

1 4 5 .2

1 4 5 .5

.2

3 .6

S e r v ic e s e x c lu d in g s c h o o ls 5 .........................................................

1 3 6 .2

1 3 8 .7

1 3 8 .8

1 3 9 .6

1 4 0 .3

1 4 2 .6

1 4 3 .8

1 4 5 .2

1 4 5 .8

.4

3 .9

H e a lth s e r v ic e s .................................................................................

1 3 8 .0

1 4 0 .3

1 4 0 .7

1 4 1 .2

1 4 2 .0

1 4 4 .2

1 4 5 .8

1 4 7 .3

1 4 7 .9

.4

4 .2
4 .0

W o r k e r s , b y in d u s tr y d iv is io n :

H o s p it a ls ..........................................................................................

1 3 8 .4

1 4 0 .7

1 4 1 .2

1 4 1 .7

1 4 2 .7

1 4 4 .8

1 4 6 .3

1 4 7 .9

1 4 8 .4

.3

E d u c a tio n a l s e r v ic e s ......................................................................

1 3 6 .5

1 3 8 .8

1 3 9 .6

1 3 9 .9

1 4 0 .3

1 43 .1

1 4 4 .4

1 4 5 .0

1 4 5 .2

.1

3 .5

S c h o o ls .............................................................................................

1 3 6 .7

1 39 .1

1 3 9 .9

1 4 0 .2

1 4 0 .6

1 4 3 .5

1 4 4 .7

1 4 5 .3

1 4 5 .5

.1

3 .5
3 .4

E le m e n ta r y a n d s e c o n d a r y .................................................

1 3 6 .2

1 3 8 .8

1 3 9 .3

1 3 9 .6

1 4 0 .0

1 4 2 .9

144 .1

1 4 4 .5

1 4 4 .7

.1

C o lle g e s a n d u n iv e r s itie s .....................................................

1 38.1

1 4 0 .4

1 4 1 .5

1 4 1 .7

1 42 .1

1 4 4 .8

1 4 6 .5

1 4 7 .4

1 4 7 .6

.1

3 .9

P u b lic a d m in is t r a t io n 3 ..........................................................................

1 3 7 .4

1 3 8 .9

1 3 9 .9

1 4 0 .8

1 4 1 .5

1 4 2 .4

1 4 4 .4

1 4 5 .7

1 46 .1

.3

3 .3

1 C o s t (c e n ts p e r h o u r w o rk e d ) m e a s u re d in th e E m p lo y m e n t C o s t In d e x c o n s is ts o f
w a g e s , s a la r ie s , a n d e m p lo y e r c o s t o f e m p lo y e e b e n e fits .
2 C o n s is ts o f p r iv a te in d u s tr y w o r k e r s (e x c lu d in g fa r m a n d h o u s e h o ld w o rk e rs ) a n d
S ta te a n d lo c a l g o v e r n m e n t (e x c lu d in g F e d e ra l G o v e rn m e n t) w o rk e rs .

74

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

November 2000

3 C o n s is ts o f le g is la tiv e , ju d ic ia l, a d m in is tra tiv e , a n d re g u la to r y a c tiv itie s .
4 T h is s e rie s h a s th e s a m e in d u s tr y a n d o c c u p a tio n a l c o v e r a g e a s th e H o u r ly
E a r n in g s in d e x , w h ic h w a s d is c o n tin u e d in J a n u a r y 1 9 8 9 .
5 In c lu d e s , fo r e x a m p le , lib r a ry , s o c ia l, a n d h e a lth s e rv ic e s .

22.

Employment Cost Index, wages and salaries, by occupation and industry group

[June 1989 = 100]

Series
June

C iv ilia n w o r k e r s 1...................................................................................

1 35.0

Sept.

1 36 .8

2000

1999

1998

Dec.

137 .7

Mar.

1 38 .4

June

1 39 .8

Sept.

1 41.3

Dec.

Mar.

1 42 .5

1 44 .0

June

1 45 .4

Percent change
12
3
months
months
ended
ended
June 2000
1.0

4 .0

W o rk e rs , b y o c c u p a tio n a l g ro up :
W h ite -c o lla r w o rk e rs .........................................................................

1 36.7

1 38.8

1 39.7

140.1

1 41.6

1 43 .3

1 44.6

1 46.2

147 .6

1.0

4 .2

P ro fe s s io n a l s p e c ia lty a n d te c h n ic a l........................................

1 36.6

1 38.5

1 39 .4

140.1

1 41 .0

1 42 .6

1 44 .0

144 .9

1 46 .4

1.0

3 .8

E x e c u tiv e , a d m in itra tiv e , a n d m a n a g e ria l..............................

1 38.3

1 40 .5

1 40 .3

1 41 .6

1 43.8

1 45.9

1 47.2

148 .6

1 49 .9

.9

4 .2

A d m in is tra tiv e su p p o rt, in c lu d in g c le ric a l...............................

136.2

1 37 .5

1 38.6

1 40.0

1 40.9

1 42.3

1 43 .5

1 45 .5

1 46.9

1.0

4 .3

B lu e -c o lla r w o rk e rs ............................................................................

1 31.4

1 32.6

1 33.3

1 34.5

1 35.8

1 37 .0

137 .9

139 .2

1 40 .6

1.0

3 .5

S e rv ic e o c c u p a tio n s ..........................................................................

1 34.5

136.1

1 37.0

1 38.3

1 39 .4

140.1

141 .7

1 43.0

144 .0

.7

3 .3

G o o d s -p ro d u c in g ...............................................................................

133 .3

134 .4

135.2

136 .3

1 37 .4

138 .6

1 39 .7

1 41 .3

1 43 .0

1.2

4.1

M a n u fa c tu rin g ..................................................................................

134 .6

136 .0

136 .8

137 .9

139 .0

140.2

1 41.5

1 42 .9

1 44 .4

1.0

3 .9

S e rv ic e -p ro d u c in g ..............................................................................

135 .7

137 .8

138 .7

139.2

140 .7

1 42 .3

1 43.5

1 45 .0

1 46 .3

.9

4 .0

S e r v ic e s ..............................................................................................

1 37 .6

139.6

140 .5

1 41 .5

1 42 .3

144.1

1 45.5

146 .6

1 47 .9

.9

3 .9

H e a lth s e rv ic e s ..............................................................................

1 36.5

1 37 .6

1 37 .6

1 38.8

1 39.7

1 40.9

1 42 .5

143 .8

1 45 .3

1.0

4 .0

W o rk e rs , b y in d u s try d iv is io n :

H o s p ita ls ........................................................................................

135.1

1 36.4

137.1

138.1

1 38.8

140.1

1 41 .6

1 42 .6

1 43 .8

.8

3 .6

E d u c a tio n a l s e rv ic e s ....................................................................

1 36.5

139.1

1 40.0

140.2

1 40.6

1 43 .7

144 .7

1 45 .3

1 45 .6

.2

3 .6
3 .7

P u b lic a d m in is tra tio n ^ .....................................................................

1 33.2

1 34.8

1 35.9

1 36.9

1 37 .8

139 .5

1 41 .5

1 42.5

1 42.9

.3

N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g .............................................................................

135.1

137 .0

1 37 .8

1 38 .4

1 39 .9

141 .5

1 42 .6

1 44.2

1 45 .5

.9

4 .0

P r iv a te in d u s tr y w o r k e r s .................................................................

134 .9

136 .6

137 .4

138.1

139 .7

1 41 .0

142.2

1 43 .9

1 45 .4

1.0

4.1

E x c lu d in g s a le s o c c u p a tio n s ....................................................

134 .8

136 .3

136 .9

138 .2

1 39 .6

1 40.8

1 42.0

1 43 .5

145.1

1.1

3 .9

W h ite -c o lla r w o rk e rs ......................................................................

1 37 .0

1 39 .0

1 39.9

1 40.3

142.1

1 43.5

1 44 .8

1 46.6

1 48 .3

1.2

4 .4

E x c lu d in g s a le s o c c u p a tio n s ..................................................

1 37.5

139.1

1 39.7

1 41.0

1 42.5

1 43 .9

1 45.2

1 46.7

148 .5

1.2

4 .2

P ro fe s s io n a l s p e c ia lty a n d te c h n ic a l o c c u p a tio n s ............

137.1

1 38.7

139.7

1 40.7

1 41 .8

1 42 .6

144.1

145.1

1 47 .3

1.5

3 .9

E x e c u tiv e , a d m in itra tiv e , a n d m a n a g e ria l o c c u p a tio n s ..

1 38.7

1 40 .9

1 40 .5

1 41 .9

1 44 .3

1 4 6 .4

1 47 .6

1 49.2

1 50 .7

1.0

4 .4

W o rk e rs , b y o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p :

S a le s o c c u p a tio n s ........................................................................

135.2

1 38.8

1 41 .3

1 37.3

1 40.5

142.1

1 43 .3

146 .7

1 47 .9

.8

5 .3

A d m in is tra tiv e s u p p o rt o c c u p a tio n s , in c lu d in g c le ric a l...

1 36.7

1 37.9

1 38.9

1 40 .4

1 41 .4

1 42.7

143 .8

1 46 .0

1 47.5

1.0

4 .3

131.3

1 32 .4

1 33.2

134.3

1 35 .6

1 36 .8

137 .7

139.1

1 40 .5

1.0

3 .6

P re c is io n p ro d u c tio n , c ra ft, a n d re p a ir o c c u p a tio n s ........

1 31.2

1 32 .3

1 33 .0

1 34 .3

1 35 .6

136 .7

1 37 .5

1 38.9

1 40 .6

1.2

3 .7

M a c h in e o p e ra to rs , a s s e m b le rs , a nd in s p e c to rs ..............

1 32 .7

133 .8

134 .9

135 .7

136 .7

138 .3

1 39 .5

1 40.7

1 41 .6

.6

3 .6

T ra n s p o rta tio n a n d m a te ria l m o v in g o c c u p a tio n s ............

1 26 .4

127 .6

127 .8

129.1

131 .0

1 31 .9

1 32 .7

134.1

135 .2

.8

3 .2

H a n d le rs , e q u ip m e n t c le a n e rs , h e lp e rs , a n d la b o re rs ....

133 .7

135.1

135 .8

137 .3

1 38 .3

1 39 .4

1 40.4

1 41 .8

1 43 .6

1.3

3 .8

S e rv ic e o c c u p a tio n s .......................................................................

1 33 .0

1 34 .4

1 35 .3

1 36.7

1 37 .8

1 38.0

1 39.6

141 .0

1 42 .5

1.1

3 .4

1 33.6

1 35.2

1 36 .4

1 36.8

1 38.2

1 39 .3

140 .4

142.1

1 43 .7

1.1

4 .0

4 .2

3

W o rk e rs , b y in d u s try d ivisio n:
1 33.2

1 34 .3

1 35.2

136 .3

137 .3

138 .5

139 .7

1 41.3

1 43 .0

1.2

E x c lu d in g s a le s o c c u p a tio n s .............................................

132 .5

133 .6

1 34 .4

135 .5

136 .6

137 .8

1 38 .9

1 40.5

142.1

1.1

4 .0

W h ite -c o lla r o c c u p a tio n s .........................................................

136 .3

1 37 .4

138.2

1 39 .4

140.5

141 .7

1 43.0

1 45 .0

1 46.8

1.2

4 .5

G o o d s -p ro d u c in g .............................................................................

134 .6

135 .7

1 36 .4

1 37 .8

1 38 .8

140.1

1 41.3

1 43.2

1 44.9

1.2

4 .4

131 .3

1 32 .3

1 33.3

1 34.3

1 35.4

1 36.6

137.6

1 39.0

140 .5

1.1

3 .8

C o n s tru c tio n ..................................................................................

128.1

1 28 .5

1 29.3

1 30.7

1 31.9

1 33.0

1 33 .6

1 36.0

1 38 .0

1.5

4 .6

M a n u fa c tu rin g ................................................................................

1 34.6

1 36.0

1 36.8

1 37.9

1 39.0

1 40.2

1 41.5

1 42.9

1 44 .4

1.0

3 .9

W h ite -c o lla r o c c u p a tio n s .........................................................

1 36.8

1 38.3

1 39 .0

140.1

1 41 .4

1 42 .7

1 44.0

1 45 .8

147 .7

1.3

4 .5

1 35 .0

1 36 .3

137.1

1 38 .3

1 39 .6

1 40.8

1 42 .0

1 43 .7

1 45 .6

1.3

4 .3

133.1

1 34.3

1 35 .3

1 36.3

137.2

1 38.4

1 39.7

140 .8

1 42 .0

.9

3 .5

1 34.5

1 35.9

1 36.9

1 37.9

139.1

1 40 .4

1 41 .8

143 .0

1 44 .7

1.2

4 .0

134.9

1 36.0

1 36.8

1 38.0

1 38.7

1 39 .7

1 40 .9

142 .7

1 43.9

.8

3 .7

143 .3

1 45 .0

1 46 .5

1.0

4 .0
3 .9

E x c lu d in g s a le s o c c u p a tio n s .............................................

D u ra b le s ..........................................................................................

1 35.6

1 37 .6

1 38 .4

1 38 .9

140 .8

142.1

1 36.2

1 37 .9

1 38 .5

1 39.8

141 .4

1 42 .6

143.8

145.3

146.E

1.1

137 .0

139.2

140.1

140 .3

142 .3

143 .8

1 45 .0

1 46.9

1 48 .5

1.1

4 .4

E x c lu d in g s a le s o c c u p a tio n s .............................................

138 .4

140 .2

140 .7

142 .0

143 .7

145.1

1 46 .4

1 47.8

1 49 .6

1.2

4.1

B lu e -c o lla r o c c u p a tio n s ...........................................................

131.1

1 32 .4

1 32 .9

1 34 .4

1 35 .9

1 37 .0

1 37.8

139.1

1 40 .3

.9

3 .2

S e rv ic e o c c u p a tio n s .................................................................

1 33 .0

134 .2

135 .2

1 36 .7

1 37 .8

1 38.0

1 39 .6

141.1

1 42 .5

1.0

3 .4

1 32.8

1 34.3

135.1

1 35.4

1 36.8

1 37.5

1 37 .9

138 .5

140.C

1.1

2 .3

S e r v ic e -p ro d u c in g ............................................................................

1 30.4

1 32 .4

1 32.9

1 32 .3

1 33.7

1 34 .4

1 34 .9

1 34 .9

1 36.2

1.0

1.9

1 35.7

1 36 .5

1 37.8

1 39.2

1 40 .6

1 41 .5

141 .8

143 .2

1 44.9

1.2

3.1

1 35 .8

1 36 .7

1 38 .0

1 39 .4

141.1

141 .9

142 .2

1 4 3 .4

1 45.0

1.1

2 .8

135 .6

136 .3

137 .4

138 .9

140 .0

1 40 .9

1 41 .3

1 43.0

1 44.7

1.2

3 .4

134 .6

136 .6

137 .0

137 .7

139 .6

1 40 .7

1 42 .0

1 43.8

145.5

1.2

4 .2

E x c lu d in g s a le s o c c u p a tio n s .............................................

1 35 .6

137 .6

138 .2

1 39 .5

141.1

1 41 .8

1 43.3

1 45.2

146.8

1.1

4 .0

W h o le s a le tr a d e ........................................................................

137.1

139 .3

141 .3

1 40 .7

1 42 .3

1 44.3

1 46.5

1 47 .4

149.4

1.4

5 .0

1.2

4 .7

C o m m u n ic a tio n s ....................................................................

E x c lu d in g s a le s o c c u p a tio n s ............................................
R e tail tra d e .................................................................................

F o o d s to r e s ...............................................................................

1 37.8

139.6

140.8

1 41.9

1 43.0

1 44.8

1 46.4

1 47.9

149.7

142.1

143.5

1.0

3 .8

.5

3.1

2 .0

5 .0

1 33.3

135.2

134.8

1 36.2

1 38.3

1 38.9

139.6

1 31.5

132.2

133.0

1 33.7

1 34.3

1 35.6

136.7

1 37.8

138.5

130.5

131.7

130.5

1 31.8

132.8

133.9 |

134.9

136.7

1 3 9 .5 1

S e e fo o tn o te s a t e n d o f ta b le .


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

75

Current Labor Statistics:

Compensation & Industrial Relations

22. C ontinued— Em ploym ent Cost Index, wages and salaries, by occupation and industry group
[June 1989 = 100]

1998

1999

2000

Series
June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Percent change
3
12
months
months
ended
ended
June 2000

F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , a n d re a l e s ta te .........................................

1 3 4 .8

1 38 .1

1 3 9 .8

1 3 7 .2

1 4 2 .4

1 4 4 .5

1 4 5 .2

1 4 8 .7

1 4 9 .5

0 .5

5 .0

E x c lu d in g s a le s o c c u p a tio n s .................................................

1 3 7 .5

1 3 9 .7

1 3 9 .6

1 4 1 .0

1 4 4 .8

1 4 7 .5

1 4 8 .0

1 5 0 .2

1 5 1 .5

.9

4 .6

B a n k in g , s a v in g s a n d lo a n , a n d o th e r c r e d it a g e n c ie s .

1 4 3 .2

1 4 7 .0

1 4 4 .4

1 46.1

1 5 4 .5

1 5 9 .2

1 5 9 .6

1 6 2 .0

1 6 3 .3

.8

5 .7

In s u r a n c e .............................................................................................

1 3 4 .8

1 3 8 .7

1 3 8 .5

1 3 7 .4

1 3 9 .8

1 4 0 .2

1 4 1 .5

1 4 5 .5

1 4 6 .6

.8

4 .9

1 49 .1

1 .2

4.1

S e r v ic e s ..................................................................................................

1 3 8 .3

1 4 0 .0

1 4 0 .8

1 4 2 .2

1 4 3 .2

1 4 4 .5

1 4 6 .0

1 4 7 .4

1 3 9 .2

1 4 1 .8

1 44.1

145 4

146 3

148 5

149 8

15? n

H e a lth s e r v ic e s ................................................................................

1 3 6 .5

1 3 7 .5

1 3 7 .4

1 3 8 .7

1 3 9 .6

1 4 0 .6

1 4 2 .2

1 4 3 .5

1 4 5 .3

1 .3

4.1

H o s p it a ls ..........................................................................................

1 3 4 .7

1 3 5 .8

1 3 6 .5

1 3 7 .6

1 3 8 .3

1 3 9 .3

1 4 0 .9

1 4 1 .8

1 4 3 .3

1.1

3 .6

E d u c a tio n a l s e r v ic e s ......................................................................

1 3 9 .6

1 4 2 .8

1 4 3 .5

1 4 3 .9

1 4 4 .2

1 4 7 .5

1 4 8 .2

1 4 8 .9

1 4 9 .6

.5

3 .7

C o lle g e s a n d u n iv e r s itie s .........................................................

1 3 9 .7

1 4 2 .8

1 4 3 .6

1 44.1

1 4 4 .4

1 4 7 .2

1 4 7 .9

1 4 8 .9

1 4 9 .4

.3

3 .5

N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ............................................................................

1 3 4 .7

1 3 6 .5

1 3 7 .4

1 3 7 .9

1 3 9 .7

1 4 1 .0

1 42.1

1 4 3 .9

1 4 5 .5

1.1

4 .2

W h it e - c o lla r w o r k e r s ......................................................................

1 3 6 .8

1 3 8 .9

1 3 9 .8

1 40.1

1 4 2 .0

1 4 3 .5

1 4 4 .7

1 4 6 .5

1 4 8 .2

1 .2

4 .4
4.1

E x c lu d in g s a le s o c c u p a tio n s ................................................

138 .1

1 3 9 .8

1 4 0 .3

1 4 1 .6

1 4 3 .2

1 4 4 .6

1 4 5 .9

1 4 7 .4

1 49 .1

1 .2

B lu e - c o lla r o c c u p a t io n s ................................................................

1 2 9 .5

1 3 0 .5

1 31 .1

1 3 2 .4

1 3 4 .0

135 .1

1 3 5 .8

1 3 7 .4

1 3 8 .9

1.1

3 .7

S e r v ic e o c c u p a t io n s ......................................................................

1 3 2 .9

1 34 .1

1 35 .1

1 3 6 .5

1 3 7 .7

1 3 7 .9

1 3 9 .5

1 4 0 .9

1 4 2 .4

1.1

3 .4

State and local government workers..............................

1 3 5 .4

1 3 7 .6

1 3 8 .5

1 3 9 .0

1 3 9 .6

1 4 2 .2

1 4 3 .5

1 4 4 .3

1 4 4 .7

.3

3 .7

W h it e - c o lla r w o r k e r s ..............................................................................

1 3 5 .2

1 3 7 .6

1 3 8 .5

1 3 8 .9

1 3 9 .3

142 .1

1 4 3 .4

1 44.1

1 4 4 .5

.3

3 .7

P r o fe s s io n a l s p e c ia lty a n d te c h n ic a l..........................................

1 3 5 .6

1 3 7 .9

1 3 8 .7

1 3 8 .9

1 3 9 .4

1 4 2 .5

1 4 3 .6

1 4 4 .3

1 4 4 .7

.3

3 .8

E x e c u tiv e , a d m in is tr a tiv e , a n d m a n a g e r ia l..............................

1 4 4 .9

1 45 .1

.1

3 .3

W o r k e r s , b y o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p :

1 3 5 .6

1 3 8 .0

1 3 9 .3

1 40 .1

1 4 0 .5

1 4 2 .7

1 4 4 .3

A d m in is tr a tiv e s u p p o r t, in c lu d in g c le r ic a l................................

1 3 3 .3

1 3 5 .4

1 3 6 .5

1 3 7 .4

1 3 7 .5

1 3 9 .6

1 4 1 .7

1 4 2 .4

1 4 3 .0

.4

4 .0

B lu e - c o lla r w o r k e r s ................................................................................

1 3 3 .5

135 .1

1 3 6 .0

1 3 6 .9

1 3 7 .6

1 3 9 .4

1 4 0 .7

1 4 1 .5

1 42 .1

.4

3 .3

S e r v ic e s ....................................................................................................

1 3 5 .9

1 3 8 .4

1 3 9 .2

1 3 9 .5

1 3 9 .9

1 4 2 .9

1 4 4 .0

1 4 4 .6

1 4 4 .9

.2

3 .6

S e r v ic e s e x c lu d in g s c h o o ls 4 .........................................................

1 3 5 .5

1 3 7 .8

1 3 8 .2

1 3 9 .0

1 3 9 .6

1 42.1

1 4 3 .2

1 4 4 .3

1 4 4 .8

.3

3 .7

H e a lth s e r v ic e s ................................................................................

1 3 6 .5

1 3 8 .7

1 3 9 .2

1 3 9 .7

1 4 0 .4

1 4 2 .8

1 4 4 .2

1 4 5 .3

1 4 5 .7

.3

3 .8

H o s p it a ls ..........................................................................................

1 3 6 .5

1 3 8 .6

1 39.1

1 3 9 .7

1 4 0 .6

1 4 2 .8

1 44 .1

1 4 5 .3

1 4 5 .6

.2

3 .6

W o r k e r s , b y in d u s tr y d iv is io n :

E d u c a tio n a l s e r v ic e s .....................................................................

1 3 5 .8

1 3 8 .4

1 3 9 .3

1 3 9 .5

1 3 9 .8

1 4 2 .9

1 4 4 .0

1 4 4 .5

1 4 4 .8

.2

3 .6

S c h o o ls ............................................................................................

1 3 6 .0

1 3 8 .5

1 3 9 .5

1 3 9 .6

1 4 0 .0

1 43 .1

1 4 4 .2

1 4 4 .7

1 4 4 .9

.1

3 .5

E le m e n ta r y a n d s e c o n d a r y .................................................

1 36 .1

1 3 8 .7

1 3 9 .3

1 3 9 .5

1 3 9 .9

1 43.1

1 44 .1

1 4 4 .5

1 4 4 .6

.1

3 .4

C o lle g e s a n d u n iv e r s itie s .....................................................

1 3 5 .5

1 3 7 .7

1 3 9 .6

1 3 9 .6

1 3 9 .8

1 4 2 .6

1 4 4 .4

1 4 4 .9

1 4 5 .6

.5

4.1

P u b lic a d m in is t r a t io n 4..........................................................................

1 3 3 .2

1 3 4 .8

1 3 5 .9

1 3 6 .9

1 3 7 .8

1 3 9 .5

1 4 1 .5

1 4 2 .5

1 4 2 .9

.3

3 .7

1 C o n s is ts o f p r iv a te in d u s tr y w o r k e r s (e x c lu d in g fa r m a n d h o u s e h o ld w o rk e rs ) a n d
S ta te a n d lo c a l g o v e r n m e n t (e x c lu d in g F e d e ra l G o v e rn m e n t) w o rk e rs .

E a r n in g s in d e x , w h ic h w a s d is c o n tin u e d in J a n u a r y 1 9 8 9 .

2 C o n s is ts o f le g is la tiv e , ju d ic ia l, a d m in is tra tiv e , a n d re g u la to ry a c tiv itie s .

23.

3 T h is s e rie s h a s th e s a m e in d u s tr y a n d o c c u p a tio n a l c o v e r a g e a s th e H o u r ly

4 In c lu d e s , fo r e x a m p le , lib r a ry , s o c ia l, a n d h e a lth s e rv ic e s .

Em ploym ent Cost index, benefits, private industry workers by occupation and industry group

[June 1989 = 100]

1998

1999

2000

Percent change
3

Series
June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June.

months
ended

12
months
ended

June 2000
Private industry workers.................................................

1 4 3 .7

1 4 4 .5

1 4 5 .2

1 4 5 .8

1 4 7 .3

1 4 8 .6

1 5 0 .2

1 5 3 .8

1 5 5 .7

1.2

5 .7

W o r k e r s , b y o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p :
W h it e - c o lla r w o r k e r s ..............................................................................

1 4 5 .6

1 4 6 .6

1 4 7 .4

1 4 7 .9

1 4 9 .4

1 5 1 .0

1 5 2 .5

1 5 6 .3

1 5 8 .5

1 .4

6.1

B lu e - c o lla r w o r k e r s ................................................................................

1 4 0 .4

1 4 1 .0

1 4 1 .6

1 4 2 .2

1 4 3 .6

1 4 4 .8

1 4 6 .2

1 5 0 .0

1 5 1 .6

1.1

5 .6

G o o d s - p r o d u c in g ....................................................................................

1 4 2 .5

1 4 3 .0

1 4 3 .2

1 4 4 .3

1 4 5 .2

1 4 6 .3

1 4 8 .2

1 5 2 .3

1 5 4 .2

1.2

6 .2

S e r v ic e - p r o d u c in g ..................................................................................

1 4 3 .8

1 4 4 .9

1 4 5 .7

1 46.1

1 4 7 .9

1 4 9 .4

1 5 0 .7

1 5 4 .0

1 5 6 .0

1 .3

5 .5

W o r k e r s , b y in d u s tr y d iv is io n :

76

M a n u fa c tu r in g ...........................................................................................

1 4 2 .4

1 4 2 .6

1 4 2 .7

1 4 3 .6

1 4 4 .5

1 4 5 .7

1 4 7 .8

1 5 2 .3

1 5 3 .9

1.1

6 .5

N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g .................................................................................

1 4 3 .9

1 4 5 .0

1 4 5 .8

1 4 6 .3

1 4 8 .0

1 4 9 .4

1 5 0 .7

1 5 4 .0

156 .1

1 .4

5 .5

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

November 2000

24.

Em ploym ent Cost Index, private nonfarm workers by bargaining status, region, and area size

[June 1989 = 100]

2000

1999

1998
Series
June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Percent change
12
3
months
months
ended
ended
June 2000

COMPENSATION
Workers, by bargaining status1
U n io n ...................................................................................................................

1 3 5 .3

1 3 6 .8

1 3 7 .5

1 3 8 .0

1 3 9 .0

1 4 0 .2

1 4 1 .2

1 4 3 .0

1 4 4 .4

1 .0

3 .9

G o o d s - p r o d u c in g ......................................................................................

1 3 4 .3

1 3 5 .6

1 3 6 .5

1 3 6 .8

1 3 8 .2

1 3 9 .2

1 4 0 .8

1 4 3 .3

1 4 4 .8

1.0

4 .8

S e r v ic e - p r o d u c in g ....................................................................................

1 3 6 .2

1 3 8 .0

1 3 8 .5

1 3 9 .2

1 3 9 .7

1 4 1 .0

1 4 1 .4

1 4 2 .5

1 4 3 .9

1 .0

3 .0

M a n u f a c tu r in g ............................................................................................

1 3 4 .6

1 3 6 .0

1 3 6 .9

1 3 7 .0

1 38 .1

139 .1

1 4 1 .0

1 4 4 .5

1 4 5 .4

.6

5 .3

N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ...................................................................................

1 3 5 .3

1 3 6 .9

1 3 7 .4

1 38.1

1 3 9 .2

1 4 0 .3

1 4 0 .8

1 4 1 .7

1 4 3 .4

1 .2

3 .0

1 .2

4 .6

N o n u n io n ...........................................................................................................

1 3 7 .8

1 3 9 .3

1 40.1

1 4 0 .8

1 4 2 .5

1 4 3 .8

1 4 5 .2

1 4 7 .4

1 49 .1

G o o d s - p r o d u c in g ......................................................................................

1 3 6 .9

1 3 7 .7

1 3 8 .3

1 3 9 .7

1 4 0 .5

1 4 1 .8

1 43 .1

1 4 5 .4

1 4 7 .2

1 .2

4 .8

S e r v ic e - p r o d u c in g ....................................................................................

1 3 8 .0

1 3 9 .7

1 4 0 .6

1 41 .1

1 4 3 .0

1 4 4 .4

1 4 5 .7

1 4 8 .0

1 4 9 .6

1.1

4 .6

M a n u f a c tu r in g ............................................................................................

1 3 8 .0

1 3 8 .9

1 3 9 .4

1 4 0 .7

1 4 1 .7

1 4 3 .0

1 4 4 .4

1 4 6 .5

1 4 8 .2

1 .2

4 .6

N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ...................................................................................

1 3 7 .5

1 39.1

1 4 0 .0

1 4 0 .6

1 4 2 .4

1 4 3 .8

145 .1

1 4 7 .4

1 49 .1

1 .2

4 .7

Workers, by region1
N o r t h e a s t ..........................................................................................................

1 3 7 .0

1 3 8 .7

1 3 9 .5

1 4 0 .5

1 4 1 .5

1 4 3 .2

1 4 4 .3

1 4 6 .3

1 4 7 .6

.9

4 .3

S o u t h ..................................................................................................................

1 3 6 .4

1 3 7 .6

1 38 .1

1 39 .1

1 4 0 .7

1 4 1 .8

1 4 3 .0

1 4 5 .0

1 4 6 .7

1 .2

4 .3

M id w e s t ( f o r m e r ly N o rth C e n tr a l) ........................................................

1 3 9 .6

1 4 0 .9

1 4 1 .4

1 4 1 .7

1 4 3 .6

1 4 5 .0

1 4 6 .3

1 4 8 .9

1 5 0 .7

1 .2

4 .9

1 3 6 .6

1 3 8 .5

1 4 0 .0

1 4 0 .3

1 42 .1

1 4 3 .3

1 4 4 .7

1 4 7 .0

1 4 8 .8

1 .2

4 .7

1 3 7 .5

139 .1

1 3 9 .8

1 4 0 .4

1 4 2 .0

1 4 3 .3

1 4 4 .7

1 4 6 .9

1 4 8 .6

1 .2

4 .6

1 37.1

1 3 8 .2

1 3 9 .4

1 4 0 .5

1 4 1 .8

143 .1

1 4 3 .6

1 4 6 .0

1 4 7 .7

1 .2

4 .2

2 .8

Workers, by area size1
M e t r o p o lita n a r e a s ................................................... ...................................

WAGES AND SALARIES
Workers, by bargaining status1
U n io n ...................................................................................................................

1 3 0 .7

1 3 2 .4

1 33.1

1 3 3 .6

1 3 4 .7

1 3 5 .7

1 3 6 .5

1 3 7 .2

1 3 8 .5

.9

G o o d s - p r o d u c in g ......................................................................................

1 2 9 .4

1 3 1 .0

1 3 1 .7

1 3 2 .3

1 3 3 .8

1 3 4 .9

1 36 .1

1 3 7 .2

1 3 8 .4

.9

3 .4

S e r v ic e - p r o d u c in g ....................................................................................

1 3 2 .2

1 34.1

1 3 4 .8

1 3 5 .4

1 3 5 .8

1 3 6 .8

1 3 7 .2

1 3 7 .6

1 3 8 .9

.9

2 .3

1 3 0 .4

1 3 2 .2

1 3 3 .0

1 3 3 .6

1 3 4 .7

1 3 5 .8

1 3 7 .5

1 3 8 .8

1 3 9 .7

.6

3 .7

1 3 0 .8

1 3 2 .4

1 33 .1

1 3 3 .7

1 3 4 .6

1 3 5 .6

1 3 5 .9

1 3 6 .4

1 3 7 .8

1 .0

2 .4

N o n u n io n ...........................................................................................................

1 3 5 .7

1 3 7 .4

1 3 8 .3

1 3 9 .0

1 4 0 .7

1 4 2 .0

1 4 3 .3

1 45 .1

1 4 6 .7

1.1

4 .3

G o o d s - p r o d u c in g .....................................................................................

1 3 4 .7

1 3 5 .7

1 3 6 .5

1 3 7 .8

1 3 8 .8

1 4 0 .0

1 41 .1

1 4 2 .9

1 4 4 .7

1 .3

4 .3

S e r v ic e - p r o d u c in g ....................................................................................

1 3 5 .9

1 3 7 .9

1 3 8 .8

1 3 9 .3

1 4 1 .3

1 4 2 .6

1 4 3 .9

1 4 5 .8

1 4 7 .3

1 .0

4 .2

1 3 6 .2

1 3 7 .3

1 3 8 .2

1 3 9 .4

1 4 0 .5

1 4 1 .7

1 4 2 .9

1 4 4 .4

1 46.1

1.2

4 .0

N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ..................................................................................

1 3 5 .3

1 37 .1

1 3 8 .0

1 3 8 .6

1 4 0 .5

1 4 1 .8

1 4 3 .0

1 4 5 .0

1 4 6 .6

1.1

4 .3

M a n u f a c tu r in g .............................................................................................

Workers, by region1
N o r t h e a s t ..........................................................................................................

1 3 3 .8

1 3 5 .4

1 3 6 .4

137 .1

1 3 8 .2

1 3 9 .9

1 4 0 .9

1 4 2 .3

1 4 3 .7

1 .0

4 .0

S o u t h ..................................................................................................................

1 3 4 .9

1 3 6 .5

1 3 6 .7

1 3 7 .9

1 3 9 .4

1 4 0 .2

1 4 1 .5

1 4 3 .0

1 4 4 .6

1.1

3 .7

M id w e s t ( f o r m e r ly N o rth C e n tr a l) ........................................................

1 3 6 .0

1 3 7 .5

1 3 8 .0

1 3 8 .9

1 4 1 .0

1 4 2 .4

1 4 3 .6

1 4 5 .3

1 47 .1

1 .2

4 .3

1 3 4 .5

1 3 6 .7

1 3 8 .4

1 3 8 .2

1 4 0 .2

1 4 1 .3

1 4 2 .6

1 4 4 .7

1 4 6 .3

1.1

4 .4

1 35.1

1 3 6 .9

1 3 7 .7

1 3 8 .3

1 3 9 .9

1 4 1 .2

1 4 2 .5

1 44 .1

1 4 5 .7

1.1

4 .1

1 3 3 .4

1 3 4 .7

1 3 6 .0

1 37 .1

1 3 8 .4

1 3 9 .8

1 4 0 .2

1 4 2 .2

1 4 3 .7

1.1

3 .8

Workers, by area size1

O t h e r a r e a s ....................................................................................................

' T h e in d e x e s a re c a lc u la te d d iffe re n tly fro m th o s e fo r th e o c c u p a tio n a n d in d u s tr y g ro u p s . F o r a d e ta ile d d e s c r ip tio n o f th e in d e x c a lc u la tio n , s e e th e

Monthly Labor Review

T e c h n ic a l N o te , " E s tim a tio n p ro c e d u r e s fo r th e E m p lo y m e n t C o s t In d e x ," M a y 1 9 8 2 .


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

77

Current Labor Statistics:

Compensation & Industrial Relations

25. Percent of full-tim e employees participating in employer-provided benefit plans, and in selected features within plans,
medium and large private establishments, selected years, 1980-97
Ite m

1980

S c o p e o f s u rv e y (in 0 0 0 's )...................................................

1982

1984

1986

1988

1989

1991

1993

1995

1997

2 1 ,3 5 2

2 1 ,0 4 3

2 1 ,0 1 3

2 1 ,3 0 3

3 1 ,0 5 9

3 2 ,4 2 8

3 1 ,1 6 3

2 8 ,7 2 8

3 3 ,3 7 4

3 8 ,4 0 9

W ith m e d ic a l c a r e ................................................................

2 0,711

2 0 ,4 1 2

2 0 ,3 8 3

2 0 ,2 3 8

2 7 ,9 5 3

2 9 ,8 3 4

2 5 ,8 6 5

2 3 ,5 1 9

2 5 ,5 4 6

2 9 ,3 4 0

W ith life in s u ra n c e ..............................................................

2 0 ,4 9 8

2 0,2 01

2 0 ,1 7 2

2 0,451

2 8 ,5 7 4

3 0 ,4 8 2

2 9 ,2 9 3

2 6 ,1 7 5

2 9 ,0 7 8

3 3 ,4 9 5

W ith d e fin e d b e n e fit p la n ..................................................

1 7 ,9 3 6

1 7,6 76

17,231

1 6 ,1 9 0

1 9,5 67

2 0 ,4 3 0

1 8,3 86

1 6 ,0 1 5

1 7 ,4 1 7

1 9 ,2 0 2

N u m b e r o f e m p lo y e e s (in 0 0 0 's ):

T im e - o f f p la n s
P a rtic ip a n ts w ith :
P a id lu n c h tim e .....................................................................

10

9

9

10

11

10

8

9

A v e ra g e m in u te s p e r d a y ................................................

-

25

26

27

29

26

30

29

P a id re s t tim e ..........................................................................

75

76

73

72

72

71

67

68
26

A v e ra g e m in u te s p e r d a y ................................................

-

25

26

26

26

26

28

P a id fu n e ra l le a v e ................................................................

-

-

-

88

85

84

80

83

80

81

A v e ra g e d a y s p e r o c c u r re n c e .......................................

-

-

-

3.2

3.2

3 .3

3 .3

3.0

3 .3

3 .7

P a id h o lid a y s ...........................................................................
M v e ra y e u a y s p a r y e a r .....................................................

99

99

99

99

96

97

92

91

89

89

10.1

10.0

9.8

10.0

9 .4

9.2

10.2

9 .4

9.1

9 .3

P a id p e rs o n a l le a v e ..............................................................

20

24

23

25

24

22

21

21

22

20

A v e ra g e d a y s p e r y e a r .....................................................

-

3 .8

3 .6

3 .7

3 .3

3.1

3 .3

3.1

3 .3

3 .5

P a id v a c a tio n s ........................................................................

100

99

99

100

98

97

96

97

96

95

P a id s ic k l e a v e 1....................................................................
U n p a id m a te rn ity le a v e ......................................................

62

67

67

70

69

68

67

65

58

56

-

-

-

-

33

37

37

60

U n p a id p a te rn ity le a v e ........................................................

-

-

-

-

16

18

26

53

U n p a id fa m ily l e a v e ............................................................

-

_

_

_

_

84

93

97

97

97

95

90

92

77

76
85

_

_

_

In s u r a n c e p la n s
P a rtic ip a n ts in m e d ic a l c a re p la n s ....................................

83

82

P e rc e n t o f p a rtic ip a n ts w ith c o v e ra g e fo r:
H o m e h e a lth c a r e ...............................................................

-

-

46

66

76

75

81

86

78

E x te n d e d c a re fa c ilitie s ....................................................

58

62

62

70

79

80

80

82

73

78

P h y s ic a l e x a m .....................................................................

-

-

8

18

28

28

30

42

56

63

P e rc e n t o f p a rtic ip a n ts w ith e m p lo y e e
c o n trib u tio n re q u ire d for:
S e lf c o v e r a g e ......................................................................

26

27

36

43

44

47

51

61

67

69

A v e ra g e m o n th ly c o n trib u tio n ......................................

-

-

$ 1 1 .9 3

$ 1 2 .8 0

$ 1 9 .2 9

$ 25.31

$ 2 6 .6 0

$ 3 1 .5 5

$ 3 3 .9 2

$ 3 9 .1 4

F a m ily c o v e r a g e .................................................................
M v e ra y b m u m m y u u m riu u u u ri......................................

46

51

58

63

64

66

69

76

78

80

-

-

$ 3 5 .9 3

$ 4 1 .4 0

$ 6 0 .0 7

$ 7 2 .1 0

$ 9 6 .9 7

$ 1 0 7 .4 2

$ 1 1 8 .3 3

$ 1 3 0 .0 7

P a rtic ip a n ts in life in s u ra n c e p la n s ...................................

96

96

96

96

92

94

94

91

87

87

69

72

74

72

78

71

71

76

77

74

10

8

P e rc e n t o f p a rtic ip a n ts w ith:
A c c id e n ta l d e a th a n d d is m e m b e rm e n t
in s u ra n c e ..............................................................................

-

64

64

59

49

42

44

41

37

33

40

43

47

48

42

45

40

41

42

43

in s u ra n c e p la n s .....................................................................

54

51

51

49

46

43

45

44

P a rtic ip a n ts in s h o rt-te rm d is a b ility p la n s 1....................

_

_

_

_

_

_

53

55

84

84

82

76

63

63

59

56

52

50

N o rm a l re tire m e n t p rio r to a g e 6 5 ................................

55

58

63

64

59

62

55

52

52

52
95

R e tire e p ro te c tio n a v a ila b le .............................................
P a rtic ip a n ts in lo n g -te rm d is a b ility
in s u ra n c e p la n s ...................................................................
P a rtic ip a n ts in s ic k n e s s a n d a c c id e n t

_

_

R e tir e m e n t p la n s
p a r tic ip a n ts in o e tin e o b e n e tit p e n s io n p la n s ..............
P e rc e n t o f p a rtic ip a n ts w ith :

E a rly re tire m e n t a v a ila b le ................................................

98

97

97

98

98

97

98

95

96

A d h o c p e n s io n in c re a s e in la st 5 y e a rs ....................

-

-

47

35

26

22

7

6

4

10

T e rm in a l e a r n in g s fo r m u la .............................................

53

52

54

57

55

64

56

61

58

56

B e n e fit c o o rd in a te d w ith S o c ia l S e c u rity ....................

45

45

56

62

62

63

54

48

51

49

P a rtic ip a n ts in d e fin e d c o n trib u tio n p la n s .......................

-

-

-

60

45

48

48

49

55

57

-

-

-

33

36

41

44

43

54

55

P a rtic ip a n ts in p la n s w ith ta x - d e fe rre d s a v in g s
a r r a n g e m e n ts ........................................................................
O th e r b e n e f its
E m p lo y e e s e lig ib le fo r:
F le x ib le b e n e fits p la n s ........................................................

-

-

-

2

5

9

10

12

12

13

R e im b u rs e m e n t a c c o u n ts 2................................................

-

-

-

5

12

23

36

52

38

32

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

5

7

P re m iu m c o n v e rs io n p la n s ................................................
T h e d e fin itio n s fo r p a id s ic k le a v e a n d s h o rt-te rm
a c c id e n t in s u ra n c e ) w e re c h a n g e d fo r th e 1 9 9 5 su rv e y .

d is a b ility (p re v io u s ly s ic k n e s s a n d
P aid s ic k le a v e n o w in c lu d e s o nly

p la n s th a t s p e c ify e ith e r a m a x im u m n u m b e r o f d a y s p e r y e a r o r u n lim ite d d a ys.

S h o rt-

fits a t le ss th a n fu ll pay.

2 P rio r

to

1995, re im b u rs e m e n t a c c o u n ts in c lu d e d

te r m s d is a b ility n o w in c lu d e s all in s u re d , s e lf-in s u re d , a n d S ta te -m a n d a te d p la n s a v a ila b le

d o lla rs.

o n a p e r-d is a b ility b a s is , a s w e ll a s th e u n fu n d e d p e r-d is a b ility p la n s p re v io u s ly re p o rte d as

ta b u la te d s e p a ra te ly .

A lso,

re im b u rs e m e n t a c c o u n ts th a t w e re

s ic k le a v e . S ic k n e s s a n d a c c id e n t in s u ra n c e , re p o rte d in y e a rs p rio r to th is su rv e y , in clu d e d
o n ly in s u re d , s e lf-in s u re d , a n d S ta te -m a n d a te d p la n s p ro v id in g p e r-d is a b ility b e n e ­

78

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

November 2000

p re m iu m

c o n v e rs io n

p la n s, w h ic h

s p e c ific a lly a llo w m e d ic a l p la n p a rtic ip a n ts to p a y re q u ire d p la n p re m iu m s w ith p re ta x

N o t e : D ash in d ic a te s d a ta n o t a v a ila b le .

p a rt o f fle x ib le

b e n e fit p la n s w e re


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

26. Percent of full-tim e em ployees participating in em ployer-provided benefit plans, and in selected features
within plans, small private establishments and State and local governments, 1987, 1990, 1992, 1994, and 1996
State and local governments

Small private establishments

Item

1994

1992

1990

1987

1996

1994

1992

1990

32,466

34,360

3 5,910

3 9,816

10,321

12,972

12,466

12,907

N u m b er o f em p lo ye es (in 000's):
W ith m edical c a re .............................................................

22,402

2 4,396

2 3,536

2 5,599

9,599

12,064

11,219

11,192

W ith life insu ra n ce ............................................................

2 0,778

2 1,990

2 1,955

2 4,635

8,773

11,415

11,095

11,194

W ith d efine d b en efit p la n ...............................................

6,493

7,559

5,480

5,8 8 3

9,599

11,675

10,845

11,708

-

S cop e o f su rve y (in 0 0 0 's )................................................

T im e -o ff p la n s
P articipants with:
Paid lunch tim e ...................................................................

8

9

-

-

17

11

10

A verag e m inutes p e r d a y ..............................................

37

37

-

-

34

36

34

-

Paid rest tim e ......................................................................

48

49

-

-

58

56

53

-

A verag e m in ute s p er d a y ..............................................

27

26

Paid fun e ra l le a v e ..............................................................

47

50

50

51

56

63

65

62

3.0

3.1

3.0

3.7

3.7

3.7

3.7

-

29

-

29

29

A verage d ays p e r o c c u rre n c e .....................................

2.9

Paid h o lid a ys.......................................................................

84

82

82

80

81

74

75

73

A verag e d a y s p e r y e a r1.................................................
Paid person al le a ve ...........................................................

9.5

9.2

7.5

7.6

10.9

13.6

14.2

11.5

11

12

13

14

38

39

38

38

A verag e d ays p er y e a r..................................................

2.8

2.6

2.6

3.0

2.7

2.9

2.9

3.0

Paid v a c a tio n s .....................................................................

88

88

88

86

72

67

67

66

Paid sick le a v e 2................................................................

47

53

50

50

97

95

95

94

U npaid lea ve .......................................................................

17

18

-

-

57

51

59

-

U npaid p ate rn ity le a v e .....................................................

8

7

47

48

30

33

44

93

69

71

66

64

93

93

90

87

U npaid fam ily le a v e ...........................................................
In s u ra n c e p la n s
P articip an ts in m edical ca re p la n s ...................................
P ercen t o f particip an ts w ith co ve ra g e for:
H om e h ealth c a re ............................................................

79

80

-

-

E xtended ca re fa cilitie s..................................................

83

84

-

-

Physical e x a m ..................................................................

26

28

84

87

76

82

78

79

84

81

36

36

47

55

P ercen t o f particip an ts w ith em ployee
co ntrib utio n required for:
S elf c o v e ra g e ...................................................................

42

47

52

52

35

38

43

47

A verage m o n th ly c o n trib u tio n ....................................

$ 25.13

$36.51

$ 40.97

$ 42.63

$15.74

$ 25 .53

$ 28 .97

$ 3 0 .2 0

67

73

76

75

71

65

72

71

A verag e m o n th ly c o n trib u tio n ....................................

$10 9.3 4

$15 0.5 4

$15 9.6 3

$18 1.5 3

$ 71.89

$ 11 7.5 9

$ 13 9.2 3

$ 1 4 9 .7 0

P articip an ts in life insurance p la n s .................................

64

64

61

62

85

88

89

87

78

76

79

77

67

67

74

64

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

2

19

25

20

13

55

45

46

46

19

23

20

22

31

27

28

30

6

26

26

-

14

21

22

21

-

-

-

-

-

20

22

15

15

93

90

N orm al re tirem en t p rior to age 6 5 ..............................

54

50

-

47

92

89

92

92

E arly re tirem ent a va ila b le ............................................

95

95

-

92

90

88

89

87

F am ily c o v e ra g e .............................................................

P ercen t o f particip an ts w ith:
A ccidental d eath a nd d ism em be rm e n t
in su ra n ce ..........................................................................
R etiree pro te ction a va ila b le ...........................................
P articipants in lon g -term d isability
insurance p la n s ................................................................
P articip an ts in sickne ss a nd accident
Insurance p la n s ..................................................................
P articip an ts in sh ort-te rm d isa b ility p la n s 2...................

29

-

R e tire m e n t p la n s
P articipants in d efined ben efit pension p la n s .............

87

91

P ercent o t particip an ts with:

Ad hoc p ension increa se in last 5 y e a rs ..................

7

4

-

-

33

16

10

13

T e rm in al e arnin gs fo rm u la ...........................................

58

54

-

53

100

100

100

99

B enefit co ordin ate d w ith S ocial S e cu rity.................

49

46

-

44

18

8

10

49

P articip an ts in define d contrib utio n p la n s ....................

31

33

34

38

9

9

9

9

17

24

23

28

28

45

45

24

P articipants in p la n s w ith tax-de ferre d savings
a rra n g e m e n ts ...................................................................
O th e r b e n e fits
E m p lo ye es eligible for:
F lexible b en efits p la n s .....................................................

1

2

3

4

5

5

5

5

R e im b urse m e n t a c cou nts 3...........................................

8

14

19

12

5

31

50

64

7

P rem ium conve rsio n pla n s .........................................

,

-

-

1 M e tho d s used to ca lcu late th e a verag e n um be r o f paid h olidays w e re revised

sick leave. S ickne ss and accid e nt insurance, re p orte d in y e a rs p rio r to th is

in 1994 to co un t partial d ays m ore precisely. Average h olidays fo r 1994 are

survey,

not c o m p ara b le w ith th o se re ported In 1990 and 1992.

p ro viding per-disa bility ben efits at less tha n full pay.

2 Th e definition s fo r paid sick leave and sh ort-te rm d isability (previously

3 P rior to 1996, re im b ursem e n t accou nts included p re m ium co nve rsio n p la n s,

sickness and accid e nt insurance) w e re ch an ge d fo r th e 1996 survey. Paid sick

w hich

leave n ow includes o nly plans th a t specify eith er a m axim um n um be r o f days

p re m ium s w ith p re ta x dollars. Also, re im b ursem e n t accou nts tha t w e re p art of

p er ye ar o r unlim ited days. S ho rt-te rm d isability n ow inclu de s all insured, self-

flexible b en efit p la n s w e re tab u la ted separately.

included

sp ecifically

only

allo w

insured,

m edical

se lf-insured,

plan

and

S ta te-m a nd a te d

p articip a n ts to

p ay

re q uire d

p la n s

plan

insured, and S ta te-m a nd a te d plans available on a per-disa bility basis, as well
as th e u nfunded per-disa bility pla n s pre vio u sly reported as

N o t e : Dash indicates d a ta not a vailable.

Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

79

Current Labor Statistics:

Compensation & Industrial Relations

27. Work stoppages involving 1,000 workers or more
Measure

Annual totals
1998

1999

1999
Apr.

May

June

July

2000

Aug.

Sept.

Nov.

Oct.

Dec.

Jan.p

Feb.p

Mar.p

Apr.p

2

6

N u m b e r o f s to p p a g e s :
B e g in n in g in p e r io d ......................................

34

17

2

3

2

1

1

2

0

1

0

0

1

In e ff e c t d u r in g p e r io d ...............................

34

21

4

6

6

6

3

5

2

2

1

1

2

B e g in n in g in p e r io d (in t h o u s a n d s ) ....

387

73

1 9 .0

9 .6

2 .2

1 .7

1 1 .0

19.1

.0

2 .0

.0

.0

1 7 .0

5 .7

2 6 .7

In e ff e c t d u r in g p e r io d (in th o u s a n d s ) .

387

80

2 3 .4

2 2 .0

2 1 .6

1 6 .3

1 5 .4

3 4 .5

10.1

5 .0

3 .0

3 .0

2 0 .0

2 5 .7

2 9 .7

N u m b e r (in t h o u s a n d s ) .............................

5 ,1 1 6

1 ,9 9 5

2 7 2 .4

3 1 4 .8

3 0 9 .4

2 6 6 .4

1 1 8 .8

1 7 6 .2

6 7.1

6 3 .6

6 3 .0

6 0 .0

2 9 8 .0

3 2 7 .6

2 7 2 .2

P e r c e n t o f e s tim a te d w o r k in g t im e 1....

.0 2

.01

.01

.01

.01

.01

.01

(2)

(2)

<*>

(2)

.01

.01

.01

W o r k e r s in v o lv e d :

D a y s id le :

Ô

' A g r ic u ltu r a l a n d g o v e r n m e n t e m p lo y e e s a re In c lu d e d In th e to ta l e m p lo y e d a n d to ta l w o rk in g tim e ; p riv a te h o u s e h o ld , fo r e s try , a n d fis h e ry e m p lo y e e s a re e x c lu d e d .
th e m e a s u r e m e n t o f id le n e s s a s a p e r c e n ta g e o f th e to ta l tim e w o rk e d is fo u n d in " 'T o ta l e c o n o m y ' m e a s u re s o f s trik e id le n e s s ,"
2 L e s s th a n 0 .0 0 5 .
p = p r e lim in a r y .

80

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

November 2000

Monthly Labor Review,

A n e x p la n a tio n o f

O c to b e r 1 9 6 8 , p p . 5 4 - 5 6 .

28.

Consumer Price Indexes for All Urban Consumers and for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers: U.S. city average,
by expenditure category and com m odity or service group

[1982-84 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
Series

Annual average
1998

1999

1999
Sept.

Oct.

2000

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept

CONSUMER PRICE INDEX
FOR ALL URBAN CONSUMERS
163.0

1 66 6

All item s (1967 = 1 00 ).................................................

488.3

499.0

502.9

503.9

504.1

504.1

505.5

508.4

512.5

512.9

513.3

516.1

517.2

517.6

520.3

F ood and b e v e ra g e s ...................................................

161.1

164.6

165.1

165.5

165.7

165.9

166.6

166.8

167.1

167.2

167.8

167.9

168.7

169.2

169.4

160.7

164.1

164.6

165.1

165.2

165.4

166.1

166.3

166.5

166 6

167 3

188 6

Fruits and ve g e ta b le s ...........................................

161.1

164.2

164.5

165.1

165.1

165.4

166.3

166.3

166.4

166.5

167.5

167 3

181.1

185.0

185.2

185.2

184.8

185.9

185.6

186.0

186.1

187.2

188.6

187.7

189.6

189.9

147.3

147.9

149.2

149.2

150.5

149.8

150.2

151.3

152.4

152.9

153.9

154.9

155.8

156.8

158.7

164.1

164.6

150.8

159.6

160.4

160.9

159.1

160.6

159.6

159.5

161.0

161.6

204.5

208.4

203.0

201.7

201.6

160.5

203.1

202.6 202.2 201.2

162.1

198.2

204.3

199.9

201.0

202.5

204.6

N o na lcoh o lic b eve ra ge s and beverage
m a te ria ls ...............................................................

133.0

134.3

134.2

134.6

133.9

134.7

137.1

138.4

138.5

137.6

137.3

137.5

138.5

138.2

138.0

O the r foo d s at h o m e .............................................

150.8

153.5

153.9

153.7

153.0

153.3

154.3

154.4

155.1

154.0

155.4

156.2

156.6

156.9

156.7

150.2

152.3

153.5

153.3

152.1

152.3

154.8

154.4

154.6

152.4

153.7

F ats and o ils ..........................................................

146.9

148.3

148.5

149.0

145.3

145.1

147.0

145.6

145.9

144.8

147.0

146.6

148.1

148.9

148.7

O the r fo o d s ............................................................

165.5

168.9

169.2

168.7

169.0

169.4

169.8

170.5

171.6

170.7

172.1

173.4

173.5

173.7

173.4

102.6

104.9

105.3

104.3

103.9

105.7

104.3

106.4

107.0

105.2

106.4

108.4

108.8

109.5

107.7

161.1

165.1

165.8

166.2

166.5

166.8

167.2

167.6

167.9

168.1

168.3

168.6

169.1

169.5

170.0

101.6

105.2

106.4

106.8

106.9

106.9

107.5

107.9

107.9

108.0

108.1

108.1

108.7

109.3

110.0

165.7

169.7

170.7

170.5

171.2

* 7 1 .8

172.4

173.0

173.5

173.6

173.8

174.4

175.2

175.6

175.5

O th e r m isce lla n eo us fo o d s1,2.......................
F ood aw ay from h o m e 1...........................................
O th e r food aw ay from h om e 1,2..........................
A lcoh olic b e v e ra g e s..................................................
H o usin g..........................................................................

160.4

163.9

165.2

165.0

164.9

164.8

165.8

166.9

167.6

167.6

167.8

169.4

170.4

170.7

171.4

S h e lte r..........................................................................

182.1

187.3

188.3

188.5

188.6

188.6

189.8

190.7

191.8

191.8

192.0

192.9

193.7

194.3

194.6

18^ 3

18° 3

183 5

181 °

Lodging a w ay from h o m e ....................................

109.0

112.3

113.8

113.1

108.5

105.8

111.3

115.1

120.9

119.4

117.5

120.5

122.8

123.0

118.1

O w n ers' equ ivale nt rent o f prim ary residence3

187.8

192.9

193.9

194.2

194.9

195.2

195.7

196.1

196.4

196.8

197.2

197.7

198.2

198.8

199.9

179 1

102.2 102.1 102.2

T e na n ts' and household insurance1,2...............

99.8

101.3

102.3

102.6

103.1

103.8

103.9

104.2

104.0

104.2

Fuels and u tilitie s..................................................

128.5

128.8

132.7

130.3

130.0

129.6

129.9

132.9

131.8

131.7

132.4

138.9

141.3

140.9

143.8

F u els.......................................................................

113.7

113.5

117.6

115.0

114.6

114.1

114.3

117.6

116.3

116.1

116.8

124.0

126.5

125.9

129.1

Fuel oil a nd o th e r fu e ls .....................................

90.0

91.4

93.9

97.6

100.7

106.3

114.4

147.2

130.1

G as (piped) a nd e le ctricity...............................

121.2

120.9

125.3

122.0

121.4

120.3

119.8

120.6

102.4

102.4

120.9

120.8 120.8

120.7

121.6
121.0 122.0

130.2

133.0

132.4

134.8
129.0

123.7

133.7

126.6

126.7

127.0

126.6

126.4

126.4

127.0

127.2

127.9

128.2

128.1

128.1

128.6

128.6

A p p a re l..........................................................................

133.0

131.3

131.8

134.6

133.6

130.1

126.8

129.2

132.5

133.3

132.2

128.3

124.5

125.3

130.4

M e n 's and boys' a p p a rel......................................

131.8

131.1

130.5

134.0

133.2

131.5

129.2

130.0

131.5

131.6

132.6

129.4

126.4

126.8

129.1

126.0

123 3
129.9

132.4

132.6

133.0

133.3

133.1

133.9

132.3

131.7

130.5

128.1

126.7

127.4

154.7

H ousehold furnish ing s and ope ra tio n s..............

126.1

129.0

128 0

126 7

T ra n s p o rta tio n ...............................................................

141.6

144.4

146.5

147.3

147.6

148.3

148.3

149.7

153.4

152.9

153.1

155.7

155.0

153.2

P rivate tra n s p o rta tio n ...............................................

137.9

140.5

142.9

143.3

143.6

144.4

144.4

145.6

149.2

148.7

148.8

151.4

150.6

148.6

150.4

N ew and used m o tor ve hicles2...........................

100.1

100.1 100.1

100.5

100.9

101.1 100.8

100.3

100.4

100.8 101.0 100.8 100.6

100.4

100.4

N e w ve h ic le s .........................................................

143.4

142.9

141.6

142.3

143.1

143.6

143.3

143.0

143.3

143.5

143.3

142.9

142.5

141.9

141.4

Used c a rs and tru c k s 1.........................................
M o tor fu e l.................................................................

150.6

152.0

155.7

156.4

155.0

153.9

153.0

154.0

155.4

155.7

155.3

155.2

156.2

100.7

110.3

109.3

118.1

131.7

128.7

128.3

139.0

136.1

128.4

135.2

G aso line (all ty p e s )..............................................

91.6

100.1

112.2 112.6

153.0

92.2

110.0

156.1

109.7

109.4

108.7

111.5

111.9

117.3

130.9

127.9

127.6

138.3

135.4

127.7

134.3

M o tor ve hicle p arts and equ ipm en t...................

101.1

100.5

100.6

100.5

101.2 100.8 100.8

100.9

101.4

101.0 101.1 101.2

101.5

101.5

101.7

M o tor ve hicle m ainte na nce and re p air..............

167.1

171.9

172.8

173.2

173.6

175.2

175.7

175.9

177.2

178.2

178.7

173.8

174.6

176.3

176.8

P ublic tra n s p o rta tio n .................................................

190.3

197.7

194.7

201.5

202.2 201.2

199.5

204.2

209.8

209.2

210.4

212.6

213.7

215.7

213.0

M edical c a re ...................................................................

242.1

250.6

252.3

252.8

253.3

254.2

255.5

257.0

258.1

258.8

259.4

260.5

261.4

262.6

263.1

M edical ca re co m m o d itie s......................................

221.8

230.7

233.1

233.2

233.7

234.6

235.2

235.5

236.3

237.0

237.5

238.2

238.6

239.2

239.4

M edical ca re s e rvices...............................................

246.8

255.1

256.6

257.1

257.7

258.5

260.1

262.0

222.2

263.2

263.9

264.4

265.6

266.7

268.0

268.7

Professional s e rv ic e s .............................................

229.2

230.4

230.9

231.4

231.7

233.1

234.9

236.1

236.6

237.1

237.9

238.3

238.9

239.3

Hospital and related s e rvices ..............................

287.5

299.5

302.1

302.9

303.9

306.3

308.4

310.5

311.5

312.7

313.5

315.6

318.1

321.3

322.5

101.1
101.1

102.1

102.3

102.5

102.9

102.9

103.1

103.7

103.9

103.8

R e cre atio n 2...................................................................
V ide o and a u d io 1,2..................................................
Education and c o m m u nica tion2...............................
Education2..................................................................

100.3

101.7
101.8 101.9 102.0
100.1 100.1 100.1 100.1
101.2 101.9 102.1 102.2 102.3

102.1

107.0

109.4

109.6

109.3

109.3

100.8 100.9 100.3 101.3
102.7
102.2 102.0 101.8 101.8
110.2 110.6 110.6 110.7 110.9

100.7

100.5

103.4
101.5
101.5
111.5

101.6
102.0 102.8
111.8 113.0

114.9

101.3

101.5
102.9

E ducational boo ks and su pp lie s.......................

250.8

261.7

267.0

269.0

255.7

256.0

273.9

278.3

276.9

276.7

276.8

277.5

278.1

280.2

284.8

T u itio n, o th e r school fees, and child c a re .......

294.2

308.4

315.3

315.9

316.3

316.3

317.3

318.0

318.3

318.7

319.2

320.9

321.7

325.4

330.8

C o m m u n ica tion 1,2....................................................

98.7

96.0

95.3

95.3

95.9

95.9

96.0

94.7

94.3

93.8

93.7

92.6

93.3

93.7

92.1

Inform ation and Inform ation p ro cessin g 1,2.....

98.5

95.5

94.7

94.7

95.3

95.4

95.5

94.1

93.6

93.1

93.0

91.8

92.5

93.0

91.3

T e lep ho n e s e rvice s1,2......................................

100.7

100.1

99.6

99.8

100.6

100.7

100.9

99.4

98.9

98.6

98.5

97.2

98.2

98.9

97.0

39.9

30.5

29.8

29.3

28.7

28.2

28.2

28.0

27.6

27.2

26.7

26.6

26.0

25.7

25.0

Inform ation and inform ation processing
o th e r tha n tele ph o ne services1,4................
P ersonal c o m p uters and peripheral
e q u ip m e n t1,2..............................................

78.2

53.5

50.9

49.7

48.2

47.0

47.2

46.4

45.1

44.2

42.7

42.4

41.2

40.3

3 8.9

O the r g oo ds and se rv ic e s ...........................................

237.7

258.3

257.6

262.6

263.2

263.0

263.0

264.7

266.7

268.0

271.9

270.2

269.6

272.2

274 .7

T o ba cco and sm oking p ro du cts.............................

274.8

355.8

350.1

373.8

373.3

369.8

369.1

375.1

383.0

387.3

404.4

393.5

388.5

400.7

408.0

Personal c a re 1............................................................

156.7

161.1

161.4

161.8

162.4

162.8

162.9

163.4

163.8

164.3

164.8

165.1

165.4

165.7

166.6

P ersonal ca re p ro d u c ts 1.......................................

148.3

152.3

153.0

153.4

153.3

152.5

152.8

152.6

153.5

153.4

153.0

153.6

153.7

154.3

Personal ca re s e rvice s1.......................................|

166.0

151.8
171.4

171.9

172.1

172.9

173.9

174.3

174.9

175.6

176.2

176.2

177.3

177.9

178.2

179.9


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

81

Current Labor Statistics:

Price Data

28. Continued— Consumer Price Indexes for All Urban Consumers and for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers: U.S. city average,
by expenditure category and com m odity or service group
[ 1 9 8 2 - 8 4 = 1 0 0 , u n le s s o th e r w is e in d ic a te d ]

Series

Annual average
1998

M isce lla n eo us p ersonal services..

234.7

1999
243.0

2000

1999

Sept.
244.6

O ct
245.6

Nov.
246.0

Dec.
246.6

Jan.
247.6

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

248.9

249.4

250.9

May
251.7

June
252.0

July
252.9

Aug.
253.6

Sept.
254.0

C o m m o d ity a nd service group:
C o m m o d itie s.................................................................

141.9

144.4

145.8

146.4

146.2

146.1

146.2

147.4

149.2

149.3

149.2

149.7

149.3

148.6

150.3

F ood and b e v e ra g e s .................................................

161.1

164.6

165.1

165.5

165.7

165.9

166.6

166.8

167.1

167.2

167.8

167.9

169.4

169.2

169.4
138.8

C o m m o d itie s less foo d and b e ve ra ge s................

130.5

132.5

134.3

134.9

134.6

134.4

134.0

135.7

138.4

138.4

138.0

138.6

137.7

136.4

N o n d u ra ble s less foo d and beve ra ge s..............

132.6

137.5

141.0

141.9

141.3

140.9

140.5

143.9

148.5

148.5

147.6

149.1

147.5

145.6

149.8

A p p a re l...................................................................

133.0

131.3

131.8

134.6

133.6

130.1

126.8

129.2

132.5

133.3

132.2

128.3

124.5

125.3

130.4

N ond u ra ble s less food, beverages,

124.8

and a p p a re l..........................................................

137.4

146.0

151.2

151.2

150.7

152.1

153.1

157.2

162.7

162.3

161.5

165.8

165.4

162.0

197.2

D u ra b le s....................................................................

127.6

126.0

125.7

125.9

126.0

125.9

125.7

125.3

125.6

125.6

125.8

125.4

125.2

124.7

124.8

S e rv ic e s ..........................................................................

184.2

188.8

190.1

190.2

190.5

190.5

191.4

192.2

193.1

193.3

193.6

195.0

196.1

197.0

197.2

R ent of sh elter3.........................................................
T ra n spo ra tation s e rv ic e s ........................................

189.6

195.0

196.1

196.3

196.3

196.3

197.6

198.5

199.7

199.8

199.9

200.8

201.7

202.7

202.6

187.9

190.7

189.9

191.9

192.7

192.8

193.0

193.7

195.0

195.2

195.7

196.1

196.5

197.4

197.2

O th e r s e rv ic e s...........................................................

216.9

223.1

224.5

225.1

226.0

226.5

227.4

227.4

227.8

228.0

228.4

228.7

229.9

231.3

231.5

S pecial indexes:
All item s less fo o d .....................................................

163.4

167.0

168.5

168.8

168.8

168.8

169.2

170.3

171.9

172.0

172.1

173.2

173.5

173.5

174.6

A ll item s less s h e lte r................................................

157.2

160.2

161.6

162.0

162.1

162.1

162.3

163.3

164.8

164.9

165.1

166.0

166.2

166.0

167.4

All item s less m edical c a re .....................................

158.6

162.0

163.2

163.6

163.6

163.6

164.0

164.9

166.3

166.4

166.5

167.5

167.8

167.9

168.8

C o m m o d itie s less fo o d ...........................................

132.0

134.0

135.8

136.3

136.1

135.9

135.6

137.2

139.9

139.9

139.4

140.1

139.2

138.0

140.3

N ond u ra ble s less fo o d ............................................

134.6

139.4

142.8

143.7

143.1

142.8

142.4

145.7

150.1

150.1

149.3

150.7

149.3

147.5

151.5

N ond u ra ble s less food and a pp arel.....................

139.2

147.5

152.3

152.3

151.9

153.2

154.2

158.0

163.0

162.7

161.9

166.0

165.7

162.6

166.2

N o nd u ra ble s..............................................................

146.9

151.2

153.2

154.0

153.7

153.6

153.7

155.6

158.1

158.2

158.0

158.8

158.4

157.6

160.0

S ervice s less rent o f sh elter3................................

191.8

195.8

197.3

197.4

197.9

198.0

198.6

199.2

199.9

200.2

200.9

202.9

204.2

205.0

205.7

S ervice s less m edical c a re se rvices....................

178.4

182.7

183.9

184.1

184.3

184.3

185.1

185.8

186.7

186.9

187.2

188.6

189.6

190.5

190.7

E n e rg y.........................................................................

102.9

106.6

113.2

111.6

111.2

112.2

112.5

116.7

122.2

120.7

121.0

129.6

129.7

125.9

130.6

All item s less e n e rg y ................................................

170.9

174.4

175.1

175.7

175.8

175.7

176.2

176.8

177.7

178.0

178.1

178.2

178.5

179.1

179.6

All item s less foo d and e ne rg y............................

173.4

177.0

177.7

178.3

178.4

178.2

178.7

179.4

180.4

180.7

180.8

180.8

181.1

181.7

182.3

C o m m o d itie s less foo d and e ne rg y................

143.2

144.1

144.6

145.3

145.0

144.2

143.6

144.2

145.3

145.9

145.5

144.5

143.8

143.7

145.1

E nergy co m m o d itie s.........................................

92.1

100.0

109.1

109.1

108.7

111.8

112.8

120.6

131.7

128.4

127.9

137.6

135.0

127.9

135.2

S ervice s less e n e rg y ...........................................

190.6

195.7

196.6

197.2

197.5

197.7

198.7

199.5

200.5

200.7

200.9

201.6

202.5

203.5

203.5

C O N S U M E R P R IC E IND EX FOR U R B A N
W A G E E A R N E R S A N D C L E R IC A L W O R K E R S
All ite m s............................................................................

159.7

163.2

164.7

165.0

165.1

165.1

165.5

166.4

167.8

167.9

168.1

169.1

169.3

169.3

170.4

All item s (1967 = 1 00 )...................................................

475.6

486.2

490.5

491.5

491.7

491.8

492.9

495.6

499.7

500.1

500.7

503.8

504.4

504.2

507 .6

F ood and b e v e ra g e s....................................................

160.4

163.8

164.3

164.7

164.9

165.2

165.9

166.1

166.4

166.5

167.2

167.3

168.0

168.6

168.8

F o o d ................................................................................

160.0

163.4

163.9

164.4

164.5

164.7

165.4

165.6

165.9

166.0

166.7

166.8

167.6

189.9

168.3

F ood at h o m e .............................................................

160.0

163.0

163.5

164.0

164.0

164.2

165.1

165.1

165.3

165.4

166.4

166.3

167.3

156.8

168.1

C e re als and b ake ry p ro d u cts...............................

180.9

184.7

185.0

185.0

184.5

185.7

185.5

185.8

185.9

186.9

188.4

187.3

189.2

161.0

188.4

M eats, p oultry, fish, and e gg s ..............................

147.0

147.6

148.9

148.8

150.1

149.4

149.8

150.8

152.0

152.5

153.5

154.6

155.4

202.5

156.6

D airy and related p ro d u c ts '..................................

150.4

159.4

158.4

164.0

164.6

161.9

159.9

160.4

158.7

160.2

159.3

159.4

160.5

138.2

161.6

F ru its and ve g e ta b le s............................................

197.0

201.8

201.6

201.0

199.8

202.8

207.0

201.7

200.5

200.5

203.1

198.9

200.0

201.5

203 .6

N o na lcoh o lic b eve ra g e s and beverage
m a te ria ls................................................................

131.8

133.2

133.0

133.4

132.7

133.5

136.0

137.6

137.8

136.7

136.4

136.7

137.5

137.4

137.1

O the r foo d s a t h o m e ...............................................

150.2

152.8

153.3

152.9

152.3

152.7

153.7

153.8

154.5

153.4

154.9

155.6

156.0

156.2

156.1

S ug a r and s w e e ts.................................................

150.1

152.2

153.3

153.2

152.0

152.3

154.8

154.3

154.5

152.3

153.6

153.9

154.2

154.4

154.4

Fats and o ils ...........................................................

146.5

147.9

148.1

148.6

144.9

144.7

146.8

145.2

145.7

144.5

146.9

146.4

147.9

148.6

148.5

O th e r fo o d s .............................................................

165.4

168.8

169.2

168.5

168.8

169.4

169.8

170.5

171.6

170.7

172.2

173.4

173.5

173.6

173.5

O th e r m isce lla n eo us fo o d s 1,2........................

102.6

104.6

105.1

103.8

103.4

105.2

103.9

106.2

106.7

104.7

106.1

108.0

108.4

109.0

107.5

F ood aw ay fro m h o m e 1 ..........................................

161.1

165.0

165.8

166.1

166.5

166.8

167.1

167.6

167.9

168.1

168.3

168.6

169.1

169.5

170.0

108.5

108.4

108.8

109.6

110.4

O th e r food a w ay fro m h om e '2...........................

101.6

105.1

106.2

106.6

106.8

106.9

107.4

107.8

107.8

108.3

A lcoholic b e v e ra g e s ...................................................

164.6

168.8

169.8

169.5

170.4

171.0

171.6

172.2

172.8

172.9

172.9

173.6

174.4

174.7

174.4

H o usin g ............................................................................

156.7

160.0

161.3

161.0

161.1

161.1

161.8

162.7

163.2

163.3

163.6

165.2

166.1

166.6

167.3

S h e lte r..........................................................................

176.6

181.6

182.6

182.8

183.1

183.3

184.1

184.8

185.6

185.8

186.1

186.8

187.5

188.4

188.7

R ent o f prim a ry re sid e n ce ....................................

171.7

177.1

178.0

178.4

179.3

179.9

180.3

180.7

181.2

181.4

181.8

182.3

183.1

184.1

184.8

Lodging aw ay from h om e2...................................

109.0

122.2

113.8

113.1

108.4

105.7

110.8

114.5

119.9

118.7

117.8

120.9

123.1

122.5

118.3

O w n ers' equ ivale nt rent o f prim ary residence3

171.1

175.7

176.5

176.8

177.4

177.8

178.2

178.6

178.8

179.1

179.5

180.0

180.4

181.3

181.9

T e na n ts' and househ o ld insurance1'2................

100.0

101.6

102.5

102.4

102.3

102.4

102.6

102.8

103.3

104.0

104.1

104.4

104.2

104.4

Fuels and u tilitie s ...................................................

128.4

128.7

132.6

130.1

129.8

129.2

129.5

132.0

131.2

131.1

131.9

138.7

141.0

140.4

143.4

F uels.........................................................................

113.3

113.0

117.2

114.4

114.0

113.5

113.6

116.3

115.4

115.2

116.0

123.3

125.7

125.0

128.2

129.6

123.0

120.9

120.2

120.1

120.1

133.1

102.6

Fuel oil a nd o th e r fu e ls .....................................

90.3

91.7

93.9

97.7

100.7

106.0

114.0

144.5

G as (piped) and e le ctricity...............................

120.8

120.4

124.9

121.5

120.9

119.8

119.4

120.1

120.2

120.5

121.6

129.9

132.5

131.8

134.4

H ousehold fu rnish ing s and o pe ra tio n s..............

125.0

124.7

124.8

124.5

124.2

124.2

124.5

124.6

125.3

125.6

125.5

125.3

125.7

125.7

126.1

A p p a re l...........................................................................

131.6

130.1

130.5

133.1

132.3

129.0

125.9

127.9

131.0

131.8

130.9

127.3

123.6

124.0

128.7

M e n 's and boys' a p p a re l........................................

131.4

131.2

130.3

134.0

133.3

131.6

129.3

129.9

131.5

131.5

132.7

129.5

126.6

126.8

128.8

W om en • and girls' a p p a re l..................................

123.9

121.3

123.3

126.0

124.4

119.8

114.2

118.0

123.5

124.3

122.1

117.4

112.2

113.2

121.5

Infants' and tod d le rs' a p p arel1.............................

126.7

130.3

131.4

134.1

134.3

134.8

134.9

134.7

135.7

134.1

133.4

132.0

129.8

128.4

129.0

F o o tw e a r....................................................................

128.7

126.2

125.1

126.6

126.9

124.2

122.3

122.6

124.7

127.1

126.6

124.6

120.9

121.5

124.8

T ra n sp o rta tio n ................................................................

140.5

143.4

146.0

146.6

146.9

147.6

147.7

149.1

152.9

152.2

152.5

155.5

154.4

152.3

154.2

P rivate tra n s p o rta tio n ...............................................

138.0

140.7

143.6

143.9

144.2

145.0

145.1

146.4

150.1

149.5

149.7

152.8

151.6

149.3

151.4

N e w and used m o tor ve hicles2............................

100.3

100.4

100.7

101.2

101.5

101.5

101.2

100.7

100.8

101.2

101.5

101.4

101.1

100.9

101.0

82

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

November 2000

28. Continued— Consumer Price Indexes for All Urban Consumers and for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers: U.S. city average,
by expenditure category and commodity or service group
[ 1 9 8 2 - 8 4 = 1 0 0 , u n le s s o th e r w is e in d ic a te d ]

1998

1999

2000

1999

Annual average

Series

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

N e w v e h ic le s ............................................................

144.6

144.0

142.8

143.5

144.3

144.7

144.5

144.2

144.5

144.7

144.5

144.1

143.7

143.1

1 42 .5

U s e d c a rs a n d tru c k s 1...........................................

152.0

153.3

157.0

157.7

157.3

156.3

155.3

154.4

154.4

155.4

156.8

157.1

156.6

156 .5

1 57 .5

M o to r fu e l....................................................................

92.2

100.8

110.6

110.0

109.5

112.3

112.9

118.6

132.0

128.5

128.5

140.1

136.2

128.0

1 35 .3

G a s o lin e (all t y p e s )................................................

9 1.7

100.2

110.0

109.4

108.9

111.7

112.3

117.9

131.2

127.8

127.9

139.4

135.5

127 .3

1 34 .6

M o to r v e h ic le p a rts a n d e q u ip m e n t.....................

100.5

100.0

9 9.9

9 9.8

100.6

100.2

100.3

100.5

100.9

100.6

100.5

1 00.5

100.8

100 .7

1 00 .9

M o to r v e h ic le m a in te n a n c e a n d re p a ir..............

168.2

173.3

174.3

174.7

175.1

175.2

176.1

176.6

177.2

177.4

177.8

178.3

178.7

179 .6

180 .2

P u b lic tra n s p o rta tio n ...................................................

187.1

193.1

190.7

196.3

197.0

196.0

194.8

198.8

203 .4

2 02 .9

2 0 3 .9

2 0 5 .5

2 06 .9

2 0 8 .7

2 0 6 .4

M e d ic a l c a re ......................................................................

2 41 .4

2 49 .7

2 51.4

2 51 .9

2 52 .5

2 53 .2

2 54 .5

2 56 .2

2 5 7 .3

2 58 .0

2 58 .5

2 5 9 .7

2 6 0 .6

2 6 1 .7

2 6 2 .2

M e d ica l c a re c o m m o d itie s ........................................

2 18 .6

2 26 .8

2 29.0

229.1

2 29 .5

2 30 .2

2 30 .7

2 31 .0

2 31 .8

232 .4

2 32 .9

2 3 3 .7

2 34 .2

2 3 4 .6

2 3 5 .0

M e d ica l c a re s e rv ic e s .................................................

2 46 .6

2 54 .9

2 56.4

2 57 .0

2 57 .6

2 58 .4

2 59 .9

2 61 .9

263.1

2 63 .8

264 .4

2 6 5 .6

2 6 6 .6

2 6 7 .9

2 6 8 .5

P ro fe s s io n a l s e rv ic e s ..............................................

2 2 3 .7

2 30 .8

2 32 .0

2 3 2 .5

233.1

2 33 .4

2 34 .8

2 36 .7

2 38 .0

2 3 8 .6

2 39 .0

2 3 9 .9

2 4 0 .3

2 4 0 .9

2 4 1 .3

2 83 .6

2 95 .5

2 98.2

2 98 .9

2 99.8

302.1

304.1

306.4

3 07 .5

3 08.7

3 09 .5

3 11 .7

3 14 .2

317.1

3 1 8 .2

100.9

101.3

101.0

101.1

101.0

101.2

101.4

101.6

102.0

102.0

102.3

102.5

102 .7

102 .9

102 .8

101.1

100.5

9 9.8

9 9.9

9 9.9

99.8

100.2

100.4

100.6

100.0

101.0

101.2

100.9

101 .3

101.1

100.4

101.5

102.1

102.3

102.5

102.5

103.0

102.5

102.2

102.1

102.1

101.7

102.2

103.0

1 02 .8

R e c re a tio n 2......................................................................
2
E d u c a tio n 2....................................................................

102.1

107.2

109.5

109.7

109.4

109.4

110.5

110.9

111.0

111.1

111.3

111.8

112.1

113.2

115.1

E d u c a tio n a l b o o k s a n d s u p p lie s ........................

253.1

264.1

2 69 .9

2 71 .8

2 56 .5

2 56 .9

2 76 .6

2 8 1 .3

2 80.0

2 7 9 .9

2 80 .0

2 8 0 .9

2 8 1 .5

2 8 3 .6

2 8 8 .6

T u itio n , o th e r sc h o o l fee s, a nd c h ild c a re .......

2 88 .5

3 02 .8

309 .5

3 10.0

3 10.4

310 .4

311 .7

3 12 .7

3 12 .8

3 13.4

3 13 .8

3 15 .4

3 16.2

3 19 .2

3 2 4 .7

99.1

96.9

96.2

9 6.3

9 6.9

97.0

97.1

9 5.7

9 5.3

9 4.8

9 4.7

9 3.6

9 4.3

9 4 .8

93.1

In fo rm a tio n a n d in fo rm a tio n p ro c e s s in g 1,2.....

9 9.0

96.5

9 5.8

9 5.9

9 6.6

96.6

96.7

9 5.3

9 4.8

94.4

9 4.3

93.0

9 3.9

9 4.4

9 2 .6

T e le p h o n e s e rv ic e s 1,2.......................................

100.7

100.2

9 9.7

100.0

100.8

100.9

101.1

9 9.6

99.1

9 8.8

9 8.7

97.4

98.4

99.1

97.1

41.2

31.6

3 0.3

2 9.9

2 9.3

2 9 .3

28.9

2 8.6

2 8.2

2 7.6

2 7 .5

27.0

2 6.6

26.1

2 5 .9

In fo rm a tio n a n d in fo rm a tio n p ro ce ssin g
o th e r th a n te le p h o n e s e rv ic e s 1 4.................
P e rs o n a l c o m p u te rs a n d p erip h era l
12
O th e r g o o d s a n d s e rv ic e s .............................................

7 7.9

53.1

49.4

48.1

4 6.9

4 6.9

45.7

4 4.5

4 3 .6

42.0

4 1 .8

4 0.7

3 9.8

39.1

3 8 .5

236.1

2 6 1 .9

2 6 7 .3

2 67 .9

2 67.4

2 67 .3

2 69 .3

2 71 .7

2 7 3 .3

2 78 .0

2 75 .4

2 7 4 .5

2 7 7 .9

2 7 6 .8

2 8 0 .9

2 74 .8

3 56.2

374 .4

374 .0

370.4

3 69.7

3 75 .7

3 83 .6

387 .8

4 04 .9

3 93 .7

3 88.7

4 0 0 .9

3 94 .2

4 0 8 .2

P e rs o n a l c a re 1.............................................................

156.8

161.3

161.9

162.6

163.0

163.1

163.5

163.9

164.3

164.6

164.9

165.3

165.5

166.1

1 66.5

P e rs o n a l c a re p ro d u c ts 1........................................

149.3

152.5

153.7

154.1

154.0

153.1

153.4

153.2

154.1

153.9

153.4

154.0

154.1

155 .0

155.1

166.3

171.7

172.4

173.2

174.4

174.7

175.3

176.1

176.6

176.6

177.7

178.3

178.6

1 79 .7

1 80.3

2 34 .0

243.1

2 44 .5

2 4 5 .5

2 4 5 .9

2 46 .7

2 47 .6

2 48 .9

2 49 .4

2 50 .4

2 51 .2

2 51.4

2 52 .2

2 5 3 .0

2 5 3 .4

M is c e lla n e o u s p e rs o n a l s e rv ic e s ........................
C o m m o d ity a n d s e rv ic e g ro up :
C o m m o d itie s ...................................................................

141.8

144.7

146.3

146.8

146.6

146.6

146.6

147.8

149.8

149.9

149.9

150.6

150.1

149 .3

1 51.0

160.4

163.8

164.3

164.7

164.9

165.2

165.9

166.1

166.4

166.5

167.2

167.3

168.0

168 .6

1 68.8

130.6

133.2

135.4

165.9

135.6

135.4

135.1

136.8

139.6

139.6

139.3

1 40.3

139.2

137 .7

1 40.2

N o n d u ra b le s le s s fo o d a nd b e v e ra g e s ..............

132.1

138.1

142.1

142.9

142.2

142.0

141.7

145.1

150.2

150.2

149.4

1 51.5

149.7

147.2

1 51.8

A p p a r e l......................................................................

131.6

130.1

130.5

133.1

132.3

129.0

125.9

127.9

131.0

131.8

130.9

1 27.3

123.6

124.0

1 28.7

1 69.3

N o n d u ra o ie s le s s fo o d , b eve ra ge s,
137.0

147.2

153.2

153.1

152.5

153.9

155.0

159.3

165.7

165.2

164.4

169.6

168.7

164 .6

D u ra b le s .......................................................................

127.3

126.0

126.1

126.3

126.4

126.3

126.0

125.6

125.8

126.0

126.2

1 25.9

125.6

125.2

1 25 .3

S e rv ic e s .............................................................................

181.0

185.3

186.6

186.7

187.1

187.2

187.9

188.5

189.2

189.4

189.8

191.2

192.2

193.0

1 93.4

R e n t of s h e lte r3...........................................................
T ra n s p o ra ta tio n s e rv ic e s .........................................

170.1

174.9

175.8

176.1

176.3

176.5

177.3

178.0

178.7

178.9

179.2

1 79.9

180.6

181 .5

1 81 .7

185.4

187.9

187.3

189.0

189.8

189.9

190.2

190.8

191.8

192.0

192.4

1 92.6

193.0

193 .8

1 93 .7

O th e r s e rv ic e s .............................................................

2 13 .7

2 19 .6

2 2 0 .9

2 21 .6

2 22 .3

2 22 .9

2 23 .8

2 23 .7

2 24 .0

2 24.2

2 2 4 .6

2 2 4 .7

2 2 5 .9

2 2 7 .3

2 2 7 .3

1 70.7

S p e c ia l In d e xe s:
159.5

163.1

164.7

165.0

165.1

165.1

165.4

166.4

168.0

168.2

168.3

169.5

169.6

169.4

A ll ite m s le ss s h e lte r..................................................

155.0

158.1

159.7

160.1

160.1

160.1

160.3

161.3

162.8

163.0

163.1

164.3

164.3

163 .9

165.4

A ll ite m s le s s m e d ic a l c a re ......................................

155.8

159.2

160.7

161.0

161.1

161.1

161.4

162.3

163.6

163.8

164.0

165.0

165.1

165 .0

1 66.2

C o m m o d itie s le s s fo o d .............................................

132.0

134.6

136.7

137.2

137.0

136.8

136.5

138.2

141.0

141.0

140.7

141.7

140.6

139.1

1 41 .6

N o n d u ra b le s le s s fo o d ..............................................

134.1

140.0

143.8

144.6

144.0

143.8

143.6

146.8

151.7

151.7

150.9

152.9

151.2

148 .9

153 .3

N o n d u ra b le s le s s fo o d a n d a p p a re l......................

138.7

148.4

154.0

153.8

153.4

154.7

155.8

159.8

165.7

165.3

164.5

169.4

168.7

164 .9

169.2
160 .8

N o n d u ra b le s .................................................................

146.5

151.3

153.6

154.3

154.0

154.0

154.2

156.0

158.8

158.9

158.8

159.9

159.4

158 .3

S e rv ic e s le s s re n t o f s h e lte r3.................................

170.7

174.1

175.5

175.4

175.8

175.9

176.4

176.9

177.4

177.7

178.2

180.2

181.3

181 .9

182 .5

S e rv ic e s le s s m e d ic a l c a re s e rv ic e s ....................

175.4

179.5

180.7

180.8

181.1

181.2

181.9

182.4

183.1

183.3

183.7

185.1

186.0

186 .6

187 .2

E n e rg y ............................................................................

102.1

106.1

113.1

111.4

111.0

112.1

112.5

116.7

122.9

121.0

121.5

130.9

130.1

125 .7

1 30 .9

A ll ite m s le ss e n e rg y .................................................

167.6

171.1

171.8

172.4

172.6

172.5

172.8

173.3

174.1

174.5

174.6

174.6

174.9

175 .3

176 .0

A ll ite m s le s s fo o d a n d e n e rg y ............................

169.6

173.1

173.9

174.5

174.7

174.5

174.8

175.3

176.2

176.7

176.7

176.6

176.8

177 .2

178.0

C o m m o d itie s le s s fo o d a n d e n e rg y .................

142.7

144.3

145.0

145.7

145.4

144.6

144.1

144.6

145.6

146.4

146.0

145.0

144.5

144 .2

145 .7

9 2.3

100.3

109.7

109.4

109.1

112.1

113.1

120.4

132.0

128.3

128.3

139.1

135.4

127 .7

135.4

S e rv ic e s le s s e n e rg y ............................................

187.7

192.6

193.4

194.0

194.4

194.7

195.5

196.2

196.9

197.1

197.5

198.0

198.8

199 .5

2 0 0 .0

1 N o t s e a s o n a lly a d ju s te d .

4 In d e xes on a D e ce m b e r 1988 = 100 base.

2 In d e x e s on a D e c e m b e r 1997 = 100 b ase .

-

D ata not availab le.

3 In d e x e s on a D e c e m b e r 1982 = 100 b ase.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

No t e : Index applies to a month as a whole, not to any specific date.

Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

83

Current Labor Statistics:

Price Data

29. Consumer Price Index: U.S. city average and available local area data: all items
[1982-84 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]

All Urban Consumers

Pricing
sched-

Area

ule1
M

U .S . c ity a v e r a g e ...........................................................................

Aug.
167.1

Urban Wage Earners

2000

1999

Sept
1 6 7 .9

May
1 7 1 .3

June

July

1 7 2 .4

Aug.

1 7 2 .8

2000

1999

Sept.

Aug.

1 72 .8

1 7 3 .7

1 6 3 .8

Sept.

May

June

July

Aug.

1 64 .7

168.1

1 69 .2

1 6 9 .4

Sept.

1 6 9 .3

1 7 0 .4

R e g io n a n d a re a s iz e 2
N o rth e a s t u r b a n ......................................................................................

M

174.1

1 7 4 .8

1 78 .2

1 79 .0

1 7 9 .8

1 7 9 .9 '

1 8 0 .7

1 7 0 .9

1 7 1 .9

1 7 5 .3

1 7 5 .9

1 7 6 .7

1 7 6 .6

1 7 7 .6

S iz e A — M o re th a n 1 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0 .....................................................

M

175.1

1 7 5 .7

1 79 .0

1 7 9 .7

1 8 0 .5

1 8 0 .8 '

1 8 1 .7

1 7 1 .0

1 7 1 .8

1 75 .0

1 7 5 .7

1 7 6 .5

176.1

1 7 7 .7

M

1 0 4 .3

105.1

1 0 7 .3

1 0 7 .7

1 0 8 .2

1 0 8 .0

1 0 8 .3

1 03 .8

1 04 .7

1 0 6 .9

1 0 7 .3

1 0 7 .7

1 0 7 .4

1 0 7 .9

M

1 6 3 .2

1 6 4 .3

1 6 7 .4

1 6 9 .7

1 6 8 .8

1 68 .2

1 70 .0

1 59 .4

1 60 .6

1 6 3 .8

1 66 .2

165.1

1 6 4 .3

1 6 6 .4

M

1 6 4 .8

1 6 5 .7

1 6 9 .0

1 7 1 .3

1 7 0 .5

1 70 .0

1 7 1 .5

1 60 .2

161.1

1 6 4 .5

1 6 6 .9

1 6 5 .9

1 6 5 .3

1 6 7 .0

M

1 04 .2

105.1

1 0 6 .9

1 0 8 .4

1 0 7 .7

107.1

1 0 8 .6

1 04 .0

104.1

1 07 .0

1 0 8 .7

1 0 7 .7

1 0 6 .9

1 0 8 .7

S iz e D — N o n m e tro p o lita n (le s s th a n 5 0 ,0 0 0 )........................

M

1 5 7 .7

1 5 8 .6

1 6 1 .4

163.1

1 6 3 .2

1 6 2 .5

1 6 4 .5

156.1

157.1

1 6 0 .0

1 6 1 .8

1 6 1 .7

1 6 0 .9

1 6 3 .0

S o u th u r b a n ............................................................................................

M

1 6 2 .6

1 63 .2

1 6 6 .6

1 6 7 .5

1 68 .0

1 68 .0

1 6 8 .5

1 6 0 .6

1 6 1 .5

1 6 4 .9

1 6 5 .8

1 6 6 .3

166.1

1 6 6 .8
166.1

S iz e B /C — 5 0 ,0 0 0 to 1 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0 ® ...............................................

S iz e A — M o re th a n 1 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0 .....................................................
S iz e B /C — 5 0 ,0 0 0 to 1 ,5 0 0 ,0 00 ® ...............................................

S iz e A — M o re th a n 1 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0 .....................................................

M

1 6 1 .9

1 6 2 .7

166.1

1 67 .2

1 6 7 .9

1 6 7 .9

1 6 8 .4

1 5 9 .5

1 6 0 .4

1 6 3 .7

1 65 .0

1 6 6 .7

1 6 6 .5

S iz e B /C — 5 0 ,0 0 0 to 1 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0 ® ...............................................

M

1 04 .4

1 0 4 .8

107.1

1 0 7 .6

1 0 7 .8

1 07 .8

108.1

1 04 .0

1 0 4 .6

1 0 7 .0

1 0 7 .4

1 0 7 .6

1 0 7 .5

1 0 7 .9

S iz e D— N o n m e tro p o lita n (le s s th a n 5 0 ,0 0 0 )......................

M

1 63 .7

164.1

1 67 .0

167.1

1 6 7 .7

1 6 7 .8

1 68 .2

164.1

1 6 4 .8

1 6 7 .9

168.1

1 6 8 .6

1 6 8 .7

1 6 9 .2

W e s t u r b a n ..............................................................................................

M

1 6 9 .5

1 70 .0

1 7 3 .9

1 7 4 .3

1 7 5 .2

1 7 5 .9

1 7 6 .6

1 6 5 .3

1 6 5 .8

1 6 9 .6

1 6 9 .9

1 7 0 .8

1 7 1 .2

172.1

S iz e A — M o re th a n 1 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0 .....................................................

M

1 7 0 .5

1 71 .2

1 7 5 .4

1 7 5 .8

1 76 .8

1 7 7 .6

1 7 8 .4

1 6 4 .7

1 6 5 .3

1 6 9 .3

1 6 9 .6

1 7 0 .6

1 7 1 .2

172.1

S iz e B /C — 5 0 ,0 0 0 to 1 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0 ® ................................................

M

1 05 .2

1 05 .2

1 0 7 .3

1 0 7 .7

108.1

1 08 .3

1 0 8 .8

105.1

105.1

107.1

1 0 7 .4

1 0 7 .9

1 0 8 .0

1 0 8 .6

S iz e c la s s e s :
A5
B /C ®........................................................................................................
D ..............................................................................................................

M

1 5 1 .6

1 5 2 .2

1 5 5 .4

1 5 6 .4

1 56 .8

1 57 .0

1 5 7 .8

150.1

1 5 0 .8

1 5 4 .0

155.1

1 5 5 .4

1 5 5 .4

1 5 6 .4

M

1 0 4 .5

1 9 5 .0

107.1

1 0 7 .8

1 0 7 .9

1 0 7 .8

1 0 8 .3

104.1

1 0 4 .8

1 0 7 .0

1 0 7 .7

1 0 7 .7

1 0 7 .4

1 0 8 .2

M

163.1

1 6 3 .7

1 66 .8

1 6 7 .5

1 67 .8

1 67 .6

1 6 8 .7

162.1

1 63 .0

166.1

1 6 6 .8

1 6 7 .0

166 8

167 9

1 6 9 .2

S e le c t e d lo c a l a r e a s 6
M

1 6 9 .3

1 6 9 .7

1 7 3 .5

1 7 6 .0

1 74 .6

1 7 3 .7

1 7 4 .8

1 6 3 .5

164.1

1 6 7 .9

1 7 0 .4

1 6 8 .9

1 6 8 .0

L o s A n g e le s - R iv e r s id e - O r a n g e C o u n ty , C A .............................

M

1 6 6 .3

1 67 .2

171.1

1 7 1 .0

1 7 1 .7

1 7 2 .2

1 7 3 .3

1 5 9 .8

1 6 0 .7

1 6 4 .4

1 6 4 .3

1 6 5 .0

1 6 5 .3

1 6 6 .3

N e w Y o rk , N Y - N o r th e r n N J - L o n g Is la n d , N Y - N J - C T - P A . .

M

1 7 7 .6

1 7 8 .2

1 8 1 .3

1 82 .0

1 82 .8

183.1

1 8 4 .4

1 73 .2

1 7 3 .9

1 7 6 .9

1 7 7 .6

1 7 8 .4

1 7 8 .5

1 7 9 .9

1 7 5 .2

1 8 0 .5

C le v e la n d - A k r o n , O H ..........................................................................

1

-

1 68 .3

-

1 7 0 .5

-

1 5 6 .4

1 5 8 .9

D a lla s - F t W o rth , T X .............................................................................

1

1 59 .6

163.1

1 0 5 .3

1 0 6 .6

1

W a s h in g to n - B a ltim o r e , D C - M D - V A - W V 7 ................................

D e t r o it- A n n A r b o r - F lin t, M l...............................................................

S e a ttle - T a c o m a - B r e m e r to n , W A ..................................................

1 6 4 .2

1 83 .2
-

1 5 9 .8

1

-

2

1 6 5 .9

2

1 64 .2

2

1 4 8 .9

2

1 6 2 .3

2
2
2

P h ila d e lp h ia - W ilm in g to n - A tla n tic C ity , P A - N J - D E - M D ......

1 7 6 .8
-

173.1

1 0 5 .4

1 66 .2
-

-

1 7 0 .9

-

1 6 8 .0
-

-

1 7 6 .6

-

179.1
-

1 F o o d s , fu e ls , a n d s e v e r a l o th e r ite m s p ric e d e v e ry m o n th In all a re a s ; m o s t o th e r g o o d s
a n d s e rv ic e s p ric e d a s in d ic a te d :

-

1 79 .2

M O -K S ;

1 6 6 .9

1 08 .4

154.1

1 7 3 .5
1 7 3 .4

1 7 1 .3

-

1 8 4 .3

-

-

1 0 8 .7

-

172.1

1 7 1 .9

1 63 .2

170.1

1 70 .0

1 5 8 .7

1 5 4 .4

1 5 4 .3

1 4 7 .9

1 68 .4

1 6 8 .4

1 60 .0

1 7 7 .5

1 7 7 .4

1 7 2 .6

1 8 1 .7

1 8 1 .7

1 70 .0

1 8 0 .3

1 80 .2

1 68 .8

M ilw a u k e e -R a c in e ,

W l;

1 8 2 .3
-

166 2
-

-

1 6 5 .8

-

-

M in n e a p o lis - S t.

-

P a u l,

176.1

1 6 4 .6

-

165 8
-

177.1

1 7 5 .2

177 8

1 7 4 ..5

1 7 5 .4

M N -W I;

1 0 8 .7

153.1

1 6 5 .7
-

1 6 9 .6

153 1

-

1 6 2 .8
166 8

1 0 8 .2

1 68 9
-

183 2
-

1 6 0 .5

P itts b u rg h ,

PA;

-

-

P o rt-

la n d -S a le m , O R -W A ; S t L o u is, M O -IL ; S a n D ie g o , C A ; T a m p a - S t. P e te rs b u r g -C le a rw a te r ,

M — E v e ry m o n th .

FL.

1—

J a n u a r y , M a rc h , M a y , J u ly , S e p te m b e r, a n d N o v e m b e r.

7

In d e x e s on a N o v e m b e r 1 9 9 6 = 1 00 b a se .

2—

F e b r u a ry , A p ril, J u n e , A u g u s t, O c to b e r, a n d D e c e m b e r.

-

D a ta n o t a v a ila b le .

2 R e g io n s d e fin e d a s th e fo u r C e n s u s re g io n s .
3 In d e x e s o n a D e c e m b e r 1 9 9 6 = 1 00 b a se .

NOTE:

4 T h e "N o r th C e n tr a l" re g io n h a s b e e n re n a m e d th e "M id w e s t" re g io n b y th e C e n s u s B u re a u .

in d e x h a s a s m a lle r s a m p le s iz e a n d is, th e re fo re , s u b je c t to s u b s ta n tia lly m o re s a m p lin g a n d

It is c o m p o s e d o f th e s a m e g e o g ra p h ic e n titie s .

o th e r m e a s u re m e n t e rro r.

In a d d itio n , th e fo llo w in g m e tro p o lita n a re a s a re p u b lis h e d s e m ia n n u a lly a n d a p p e a r In

ta b le s 3 4 a n d 3 9 o f th e J a n u a r y a n d J u ly Is s u e s o f th e CPI

Detailed Report:

A n c h o ra g e , A K ;

C in c in n a ti-H a m ilto n , O H - K Y - I N ; D e n v e r- B o u ld e r-G re e le y , C O ; H o n o lu lu , H I; K a n s a s C ity,

84

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

November 2000

E a c h lo c a l

A s a re s u lt, lo c a l a re a in d e x e s s h o w g re a te r v o la tility th a n th e

n a tio n a l Ind e x, a lth o u g h th e ir lo n g -te rm tre n d s a re s im ila r.

5 In d e x e s o n a D e c e m b e r 1 9 8 6 = 1 00 b a s e .
6

L o c a l a re a C P I in d e x e s a re b y p ro d u c ts o f th e n a tio n a l C P I p ro g ra m .

T h e re fo re , th e B u re a u o f L a b o r

S ta tis tic s s tro n g ly u rg e s u s e rs to c o n s id e r a d o p tin g th e n a tio n a l a v e ra g e C P I fo r u s e in th e ir
e s c a la to r c la u s e s . In d e x a p p lie s to a m o n th a s a w h o le , n o t to a n y s p e c ific d a te .

30.

Annual data: Consumer Price Index, U.S. c ity average, a ll items and m ajor groups

[1982-84 = 100]___________________________________ ____________________________________________

Series

1992

1991

1994

1993

1995

1996

1999

1998

1997

C o n s u m e r P ric e In d e x fo r A ll U rb a n C o n s u m e rs :
A ll ite m s :
In d e x ...............................................................................................

1 3 6 .2

1 4 0 .3

1 4 4 .5

1 4 8 .2

1 5 2 .4

1 5 6 .9

1 6 0 .5

1 6 3 .0

1 6 6 .6

P e r c e n t c h a n g e .........................................................................

4 .2

3 .0

3 .0

2 .6

2 .8

3 .0

2 .3

1 .6

2 .2

I n d e x ...............................................................................................

1 3 6 .8

1 3 8 .7

1 4 1 .6

1 4 4 .9

1 4 8 .9

1 5 3 .7

1 5 7 .7

1 61 .1

1 6 4 .6

P e r c e n t c h a n g e .........................................................................

3 .6

1 .4

2.1

2 .3

2 .8

3 .2

2 .6

2 .2

2 .2

1 3 3 .6

1 3 7 .5

1 4 1 .2

1 4 4 .8

1 4 8 .5

1 5 2 .8

1 5 6 .8

1 6 0 .4

1 6 3 .9

4 .0

2 .9

2 .7

2 .5

2 .6

2 .9

2 .6

2 .3

2 .2

In d e x ...............................................................................................

1 2 8 .7

1 3 1 .9

1 3 3 .7

1 3 3 .4

1 3 2 .0

1 3 1 .7

1 3 2 .9

1 3 3 .0

1 3 1 .3

P e r c e n t c h a n g e .........................................................................

3 .7

2 .5

1 .4

-.2

- 1 .0

-.2

.9

.1

-1 .3

In d e x ...............................................................................................

1 2 3 .8

1 2 6 .5

1 3 0 .4

1 3 4 .3

139 .1

1 4 3 .0

1 4 4 .3

1 4 1 .6

1 4 4 .4

P e r c e n t c h a n g e .........................................................................

2 .7

2 .2

3.1

3 .0

3 .6

2 .8

0 .9

-1 .9

2 .0

In d e x ..............................................................................................

1 7 7 .0

190 .1

2 0 1 .4

2 1 1 .0

2 2 0 .5

2 2 8 .2

2 3 4 .6

2 4 2 .1

2 5 0 .6

P e r c e n t c h a n g e .........................................................................

8 .7

7 .4

5 .9

4 .8

4 .5

3 .5

2 .8

3 .2

3 .5

In d e x ..............................................................................................

1 7 1 .6

1 8 3 .3

1 9 2 .9

1 9 8 .5

2 0 6 .9

2 1 5 .4

2 2 4 .8

2 3 7 .7

2 5 8 .3

P e r c e n t c h a n g e .........................................................................

7 .9

6 .8

5 .2

2 .9

4 .2

4.1

4 .4

5 .7

8 .7

In d e x ..............................................................................................

1 3 4 .3

1 3 8 .2

1 42 .1

1 4 5 .6

1 4 9 .8

1 54 .1

1 5 7 .6

1 5 9 .7

1 6 3 .2

P e r c e n t c h a n g e .........................................................................

4.1

2 .9

2 .8

2 .5

2 .9

2 .9

2 .3

1 .3

2 .2

F o o d a n d b e v e ra g e s :

H o u s in g :

P e r c e n t c h a n g e .........................................................................
A p p a re l:

T r a n s p o rta tio n :

M e d ic a l c a re :

O th e r g o o d s a n d s e rv ic e s :

C o n s u m e r P ric e In d e x fo r U rb a n W a g e E a rn e rs
a n d C le ric a l W o rk e rs :
A ll ite m s :


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

85

Current Labor Statistics:

31.

Price Data

Producer Price Indexes, by stage of processing

[1982 = 100]

Grouping

Annual average
1998

1999

1999

2000

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Finished goods...................................

1 3 0 .7

1 3 3 .0

1 3 4 .7

135.1

1 3 4 .9

1 3 4 .9

1 3 4 .7

1 36 .0

1 3 6 .8

1 3 6 .7

1 3 7 .5

1 3 8 .4

1 3 8 .3

138.1

1 3 9 .2

F in is h e d c o n s u m e r g o o d s .............................

1 2 8 .9

1 3 2 .0

1 3 4 .6

1 3 4 .5

1 3 4 .3

1 3 4 .3

1 3 3 .9

1 3 5 .7

1 3 6 .7

1 3 6 .5

1 3 7 .6

1 3 8 .8

1 3 8 .6

1 3 8 .5

1 3 9 .9

F in is h e d c o n s u m e r fo o d s .............................

1 3 4 .3

135.1

1 3 6 .7

1 3 5 .8

1 3 5 .4

1 3 5 .6

1 3 5 .0

1 3 6 .0

1 36 .0

1 3 7 .3

1 38 .0

1 3 7 .3

1 3 7 .4

1 3 6 .9

137.1

F in s h e d c o n s u m e r g o o d s
e x c lu d in g fo o d s .............................................

1 2 6 .4

1 3 0 .5

1 3 3 .5

1 3 3 .7

1 3 3 .6

1 3 3 .6

1 3 3 .3

1 3 5 .4

1 3 6 .8

1 3 6 .0

1 3 7 .2

1 3 9 .2

1 3 9 .0

1 3 9 .0

1 4 0 .8

N o n d u ra b le g o o d s le s s fo o d ....................

1 2 2 .2

1 2 7 .9

1 3 2 .8

1 3 1 .5

1 3 1 .6

1 3 1 .7

1 3 1 .4

1 3 4 .3

1 3 6 .4

1 3 5 .3

1 3 6 .9

1 3 9 .9

1 3 9 .7

1 3 9 .9

1 4 2 .7

D u ra b le g o o d s ...............................................

1 3 2 .9

1 3 3 .0

1 3 1 .2

1 3 4 .9

1 3 4 .6

1 3 4 .4

134.1

1 3 3 .9

1 3 3 .8

1 3 3 .9

1 3 4 .0

1 3 3 .6

1 3 3 .2

1 3 2 .7

1 3 2 .5

C a p ita l e q u ip m e n t...........................................

1 3 7 .6

1 3 7 .6

1 3 6 .7

1 3 8 .5

1 3 8 .3

1 3 8 .3

1 3 8 .4

1 3 8 .5

1 3 8 .5

1 3 8 .5

1 3 8 .7

1 3 8 .5

1 3 8 .6

1 3 8 .4

1 3 8 .4

Intermediate materials,
supplies, and components.................

1 2 3 .0

1 2 3 .2

1 2 5 .3

1 2 5 .0

1 2 5 .2

1 2 5 .4

1 2 5 .9

1 2 6 .9

1 2 7 .8

1 2 8 .0

1 2 8 .3

1 2 9 .7

130.1

1 2 9 .9

1 3 1 .0

M a te r ia ls a n d c o m p o n e n ts
fo r m a n u fa c tu r in g ..............................................

126.1

1 2 4 .6

1 2 5 .4

1 2 5 .9

1 2 5 .9

1 2 5 .9

1 2 6 .4

1 2 7 .0

1 2 7 .6

1 28 .2

1 2 8 .4

1 2 8 .6

1 2 9 .0

1 2 8 .6

1 2 8 .5

M a te r ia ls fo r fo o d m a n u fa c tu rin g ................

1 2 3 .2

1 2 0 .8

1 2 2 .0

1 22 .2

1 2 0 .9

1 1 8 .2

1 1 7 .6

1 1 7 .5

118.1

1 1 9 .6

1 2 0 .6

1 2 0 .7

1 2 0 .5

119.1

1 1 8 .9

M a te ria ls fo r n o n d u ra b le m a n u fa c tu rin g ..

1 2 6 .7

1 2 4 .9

1 2 6 .5

1 2 7 .7

1 2 7 .8

1 2 8 .2

1 2 8 .6

1 2 9 .7

1 3 1 .3

1 3 2 .3

1 33 .2

1 3 3 .6

1 3 3 .9

1 3 5 .0

1 3 4 .2

M a te ria ls fo r d u r a b le m a n u fa c tu rin g .........

1 2 8 .0

125.1

1 26 .2

1 2 6 .5

1 2 6 .7

1 2 7 .2

1 2 8 .6

1 2 9 .6

1 2 9 .7

1 3 0 .0

1 2 9 .6

1 2 9 .3

1 2 9 .3

129.1

1 2 9 .4

C o m p o n e n ts fo r m a n u fa c tu rin g ....................

1 2 5 .9

1 2 5 .7

1 2 5 .7

1 2 5 .7

1 2 5 .7

1 2 5 .8

1 2 5 .9

1 2 5 .9

1 2 6 .0

126.1

1 2 6 .0

126.1

1 2 6 .2

1 2 6 .2

1 2 6 .3

M a te r ia ls a n d c o m p o n e n ts
fo r c o n s tr u c tio n ..................................................

1 4 6 .8

1 4 8 .9

1 4 9 .6

149.1

1 4 9 .4

1 4 9 .8

1 5 0 .4

1 5 0 .8

1 5 1 .3

1 5 1 .6

151.1

1 5 0 .9

1 5 0 .5

1 5 0 .3

1 5 0 .3

P ro c e s s e d fu e ls a n d lu b ric a n ts ......................

81.1

8 4 .6

9 2 .5

8 9 .3

9 0 .2

9 0 .6

9 1 .5

9 4 .8

9 7 .4

9 5 .7

9 6 .7

1 0 3 .2

1 0 3 .9

1 0 4 .6

1 1 0 .0

C o n ta in e r s ...............................................................

1 4 0 .8

1 42 .5

1 4 5 .7

1 4 6 .3

1 4 6 .5

1 4 6 .5

1 47 .2

1 4 7 .2

148.1

1 5 1 .6

1 5 2 .8

1 5 3 .3

1 5 3 .3

153.1

1 5 3 .5

S u p p lie s ...................................................................

1 3 4 .8

1 3 4 .2

1 3 4 .4

1 3 4 .8

1 35 .0

135.1

1 3 5 .2

1 3 5 .6

1 3 6 .0

1 3 6 .4

1 3 6 .6

137.1

1 3 7 .3

1 3 6 .9

1 3 7 .3

Crude materials for further
processing.......................................

9 6 .8

9 8 .2

1 0 7 .3

1 0 4 .0

1 0 9 .2

1 0 3 .5

1 0 5 .8

1 1 0 .3

1 1 2 .9

1 1 1 .3

1 1 5 .4

1 2 1 .9

1 2 0 .8

1 1 9 .2

1 2 4 .8

F o o d s tu ffs a n d fe e d s tu ffs ..................................

1 0 3 .9

9 8 .7

100.1

9 8 .8

9 9 .5

9 6 .9

9 6 .5

9 7 .6

1 0 1 .4

1 0 3 .4

1 0 4 .6

1 0 1 .8

9 9 .4

9 5 .4

9 7 .6

C r u d e n o n fo o d m a te r ia ls ...................................

8 8 .4

9 4 .3

1 0 8 .3

1 0 3 .8

1 1 1 .9

1 0 4 .3

1 0 8 .3

115.1

1 1 6 .7

1 1 2 .7

1 1 8 .6

1 3 1 .4

131.1

1 3 1 .2

139.1

F in is h e d g o o d s , e x c lu d in g fo o d s ....................

1 2 9 .5

1 3 2 .3

1 3 4 .0

1 3 4 .7

1 3 4 .7

1 3 4 .6

1 3 4 .5

1 3 5 .9

1 3 6 .9

1 3 6 .4

1 3 7 .2

1 3 8 .6

1 3 8 .4

1 3 8 .4

1 3 9 .6

F in is h e d e n e rg y g o o d s .......................................

75.1

7 8 .8

8 5 .8

8 3 .5

8 3 .6

8 3 .6

8 3 .8

8 7 .5

9 0 .9

8 9 .2

9 1 .5

9 7 .0

9 6 .2

9 6 .3

1 0 0 .6

F in is h e d g o o d s le s s e n e r g y .............................

141.1

1 4 3 .0

143.1

1 44 .2

1 44 .0

1 44 .0

1 4 3 .6

1 4 4 .3

1 4 4 .3

1 4 4 .6

1 45 .0

1 4 4 .6

1 4 4 .7

1 4 4 .5

1 4 4 .6

F in is h e d c o n s u m e r g o o d s le s s e n e rg y ........

1 4 2 .5

1 45 .2

1 4 5 .8

1 4 6 .6

1 4 6 .3

1 4 6 .4

1 4 5 .8

1 4 6 .7

1 4 6 .7

1 47 .2

1 4 7 .6

147.1

1 4 7 .2

1 4 7 .0

147.1

F in is h e d g o o d s le s s fo o d a n d e n e rg y ......... .

1 4 3 .7

146.1

1 4 5 .7

1 4 7 .5

1 4 7 .4

1 4 7 .4

1 47 .0

1 4 7 .5

1 4 7 .5

1 4 7 .5

1 4 7 .8

1 4 7 .5

1 4 7 .5

1 4 7 .4

1 4 7 .5

F in is h e d c o n s u m e r g o o d s le s s fo o d
a n d e n e r g y ............................................................

1 4 7 .7

1 5 1 .7

1 5 1 .7

1 5 3 .6

1 5 3 .4

1 5 3 .4

1 5 2 .8

1 5 3 .6

1 5 3 .6

1 5 3 .5

1 5 3 .8

1 5 3 .4

1 5 3 .5

1 5 3 .4

1 5 3 .6

C o n s u m e r n o n d u ra b le g o o d s le s s fo o d
a n d e n e r g y .........................................................

159.1

1 6 6 .3

1 6 7 .9

168.1

1 68 .2

1 68 .2

1 6 7 .3

1 6 9 .0

169.1

1 6 8 .9

1 6 9 .4

1 6 9 .0

1 6 9 .4

1 6 9 .8

1 7 0 .3

a n d fe e d s ...............................................................

1 2 3 .4

1 2 3 .9

1 2 6 .0

1 2 5 .7

1 2 6 .0

1 26 .2

1 2 6 .8

1 27 .8

1 2 8 .8

1 2 8 .9

1 29 .2

1 3 0 .7

1 3 1 .0

1 3 1 .0

132.1

In te rm e d ia te fo o d s a n d fe e d s ..........................

1 16 .2

111.1

1 1 1 .8

1 1 2 .4

1 1 1 .6

1 0 9 .7

1 0 9 .3

1 1 0 .0

1 1 1 .0

1 11 .9

1 1 3 .2

1 1 3 .5

1 1 2 .7

1 1 0 .2

1 1 1 .2

Special groupings:

In te rm e d ia te m a te r ia ls less, fo o d s

In te rm e d ia te e n e rg y g o o d s ..............................

8 0 .8

8 4 .6

92.1

8 9 .0

8 9 .9

9 0 .3

9 1 .2

9 4 .5

97.1

9 5 .4

9 6 .5

1 0 2 .9

1 0 3 .6

1 0 4 .3

1 0 9 .6

In te rm e d ia te g o o d s le s s e n e rg y .....................

1 3 2 .4

1 3 1 .7

1 3 2 .5

1 3 2 .9

1 3 3 .0

1 3 3 .0

1 3 3 .5

1 3 3 .9

1 3 4 .5

135.1

1 3 5 .2

1 3 5 .5

1 3 5 .7

1 3 5 .3

1 3 5 .4

In te rm e d ia te m a te r ia ls le s s fo o d s
a n d e n e r g y ............................................................

1 3 3 .5

133.1

1 3 3 .9

1 34 .2

1 3 4 .4

1 3 4 .6

135.1

1 3 5 .5

136.1

1 3 6 .6

1 3 6 .7

1 3 6 .9

1 3 7 .2

1 3 7 .0

1 3 7 .0

C r u d e e n e rg y m a te r ia ls ......................................

6 8 .6

7 8 .5

9 5 .4

8 8 .7

9 8 .9

8 7 .9

9 2 .0

1 00 .2

1 0 2 .5

9 7 .9

1 0 5 .8

1 2 2 .9

1 2 3 .4

1 2 4 .2

1 3 4 .3

C r u d e m a te r ia ls le s s e n e r g y ............................

1 1 3 .6

1 0 7 .9

1 1 0 .0

1 0 9 .8

1 1 0 .5

1 0 9 .5

1 1 0 .2

1 1 1 .5

114.1

115.1

1 1 5 .8

1 1 3 .3

1 1 0 .9

1 0 7 .4

109.1

C r u d e n o n fo o d m a te r ia ls le s s e n e rg y ..........

142.1

1 3 5 .2

139.1

1 4 1 .7

1 4 2 .6

1 46 .0

1 4 9 .8

1 5 1 .3

1 5 0 .9

1 4 9 .2

1 4 8 .5

1 4 6 .8

1 4 4 .2

1 4 2 .3

1 4 2 .6

86

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

November 2000

32.

Producer Price Indexes for the net output of major industry groups

[December 1984 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]

Industry

SIC

Annual average
1998

_

Total mining industries..............................

1999

1999
Sept.

Oct.

2000

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

7 0.8

78.0

9 1.5

87.7

95.1

86.7

8 9.5

9 5.8

9 8.9

95.7

100.0

113 .8

114.8

115.4

122 .6

10

73.2

7 0.3

70.4

76.3

73.4

72.6

73.9

7 5.3

7 3.3

71.8

71.7

73.7

7 2.8

72.8

7 3 .6

12

8 9.5

8 7.3

85.9

86.0

86.1

85.4

85.3

8 4.7

84.8

85.9

8 6.0

85.0

85.4

8 3 .5

8 3 .9

13

6 8.3

78.5

96.9

91.2

101.6

90.4

94.2

102.6

107.0

102.7

108.3

127.1

128.3

129.6

1 39 .3

138.0

14

M in in g a n d q u a rry in g o f n o n m e ta llic
m in e ra ls , e x c e p t fu e ls ..........................................

132.2

134.0

134.3

134.4

134.4

134.4

135.0

135.3

135.7

136.7

137 .5

136.8

138.4

137.9

-

Total manufacturing industries...................

126.2

128.3

129.7

130.2

130.3

130.5

130.8

132.2

132.9

132.6

133.4

134.0

133.6

133.4

134 .6

20

F o o d a n d k in d re d p ro d u c ts ...................................

126.3

126.3

127.5

127.5

127.1

126.7

126.7

127.2

127.4

128.1

129.1

129.1

1 29.3

128.2

128.4

21

T o b a c c o m a n u fa c tu re s ..........................................

243.1

3 25 .7

3 44.5

3 44.4

3 44 .5

3 45 .0

3 29.4

3 48 .6

3 47 .3

3 41 .8

347.1

3 42.2

3 4 2 .3

3 50 .5

3 5 0 .5

22

T e x tile m ill p ro d u c ts ................................................

118.6

116.3

115.9

116.1

115.9

116.1

116.2

116.4

116.5

116.5

116 .3

116.2

116.8

116.8

116 .7

23

A p p a re l a n d o th e r fin is h e d p ro d u cts
124.8

125.3

125.6

125.6

125.4

125.3

125.2

125.2

125.6

125.7

125.6

125.5

125.8

125.6

125 .6

24

L u m b e r a n d w o o d p ro d u cts,
e x c e p t fu r n itu re ......................................................

157.0

161.8

163.1

160.0

159.6

160.6

161.4

161.6

162.1

161.7

#####

158.4

157.2

155.8

155 .4

25

F u rn itu re a n d fix tu re s ..............................................

139.7

141.3

141.8

142.0

142.0

142.1

142.4

142.5

143.0

143.2

143.3

143.5

1 43.7

143.6

1 43 .5

26

P a p e r a n d a llie d p ro d u c ts .....................................

136.2

136.4

138.7

139.9

140.2

140.4

141.0

141.5

143.2

145.4

146.9

147.2

1 47.3

147.3

1 47 .6

m a d e fro m fa b ric s a n d s im ila r m a te ria ls .......

27

P rin tin g , p u b lis h in g , a n d a llie d in d u s trie s .........

174.0

177.6

178.1

178.6

179.1

179.2

180.4

180.8

181.1

182.0

181.7

182 .9

183.0

183.1

183 .2

28

C h e m ic a ls a n d a llie d p ro d u c ts ............................

148.7

149.7

151.0

152.8

153.0

152.9

153.6

154.5

155.2

155.5

156.9

157.1

158.0

157.5

158 .4

29

P e tro le u m re fin in g a n d re la te d p ro d u c ts ..........

6 6.3

76.8

90.2

87.0

89.5

91.8

94.0

104.1

111.0

105.6

111.4

118.0

112.6

112.8

30

R u b b e r a n d m is c e lla n e o u s p la stics pro du cts.

122.1

122.2

122.8

122.9

123.3

123.4

123.5

123.5

123.5

123.7

123.3

123 .9

124.8

125.0

124 .9

31

L e a th e r a n d le a th e r p ro d u c ts ...............................

137.1

136.5

136.9

137.0

137.0

137.0

137.5

137.5

137.4

137.6

137.5

137.4

1 37.5

138.0

1 38 .3

124 .8

32

S to n e , c la y , g la s s , a n d c o n c re te p ro d u c ts ......

129.3

132.6

133.2

133.6

133.7

133.5

134.4

134.6

134.7

135.0

134.8

134.9

1 34.9

134.6

134 .9

33

P rim a ry m e ta l in d u s trie s .......................................

120.9

115.8

116.4

117.1

117.1

117.4

118.6

119.5

120.0

120.3

120.5

120.1

1 19.9

120.1

120 .5

34

F a b ric a te d m e ta l p ro d u cts,
e x c e p t m a c h in e ry a n d tra n s p o rta tio n
tra n s p o rta tio n e q u ip m e n t...................................

35
36

129.1

129.2

129.4

129.6

129.7

129.9

130.0

130.3

130.4

130.3

130.5

130.3

130.4

130 .5

117.7

117.3

117.1

117.1

117.1

117.0

117.1

117.3

117.4

117.4

117.5

117.6

117.6

117.5

1 35 .5

E le c tric a l a n d e le c tro n ic m a ch in e ry,
e q u ip m e n t, a n d s u p p lie s .....................................

37
38

128.7

110.4

109.5

109.2

109.1

109.1

108.9

108.7

108.6

108.6

108.6

108.6

108.0

108.6

108.1

1 26 .5

133.6

134.5

132.6

136.7

136.2

136 2

1 36 3

136 5

136 4

136 5

136 1

135.5

136.0

135.6

1 30 .7

126.0

125.7

124.9

125.2

125.3

125.6

126.0

126.2

126.0

126.0

126.3

126.5

126.5

126.6

120 .6

129.7

130.3

130.0

130.4

130.2

130.5

130.7

131.1

130.8

130.9

131.3

130.7

131.0

131.1

126 .6

111.6

114.8

115.8

115.5

115.5

115.8

116.5

117.0

118.1

118.2

118.8

119.4

118.8

120.1

1 20 .9

132.3

135.3

135.2

135.2

135.2

135.2

135.2

135.2

135.2

135.2

135.2

135 2

135 2

1 35 2

1 35 4

128.1

M e a s u rin g a n d c o n tro llin g instrum e n ts;
p h o to g ra p h ic , m e d ica l, a nd optical
g o o d s ; w a tc h e s a n d c lo c k s ................................

39

M is c e lla n e o u s m a n u fa c tu rin g ind u stries
in d u s trie s (1 2 /8 5 - 1 0 0 )......................................

135.2

Service industries:
42

M o to r fre ig h t tra n s p o rta tio n
a n d w a re h o u s in g (0 6 /9 3 - 1 0 0 ).........................

43
44

W a te r tra n s p o rta tio n (1 2 /9 2 - 1 0 0 )....................

105.6

113.0

117.3

116.7

116.7

116.1

116.4

117.0

117.8

118.6

119.8

123.2

124.8

45

T ra n s p o rta tio n b y a ir (1 2 /9 2 - 1 0 0 )....................

124.5

130.8

131.8

133.1

133.4

134.2

141.0

141.6

144.3

145.4

149.6

147.5

147.6

148.3

1 51 .3

46

P ip e lin e s, e x c e p t n a tu ra l q a s (1 2 /9 2 = 100)....

99.2

9 8.3

98.3

98.3

98.2

98.2

102.1

101.9

101.9

101.9

101.9

102.0

1 02.5

102.5

102 .4


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

126 .6

87

Current Labor Statistics:

33.

Price Data

Annual data: Producer Price Indexes, by stage o f processing

[1982 = 100]

Index

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

Finished goods
T o t a l.........................................................................................................

1 2 1 .7

1 2 3 .2

1 2 4 .7

1 2 5 .5

1 2 7 .9

1 3 1 .3

1 3 1 .8

1 3 0 .7

1 3 3 .0

F o o d s ..................................................................................................

1 24.1

1 2 3 .3

1 2 5 .7

1 2 6 .8

1 2 9 .0

1 3 3 .6

1 3 4 .5

1 3 4 .3

135 .1

E n e r g y .................................................................................................

78.1

7 7 .8

7 8 .0

7 7 .0

78.1

8 3 .2

8 3 .4

7 5.1

7 8 .8

O t h e r .....................................................................................................

1 31 .1

1 3 4 .2

1 3 5 .8

1 37.1

1 4 0 .0

1 4 2 .0

1 4 2 .4

1 4 3 .7

146 .1

Intermediate materials, supplies, and
components
T o t a l........................................................................................................

1 1 4 .4

1 1 4 .7

1 1 6 .2

1 1 8 .5

1 2 4 .9

1 2 5 .7

1 2 5 .6

1 2 3 .0

1 2 3 .2

F o o d s ...................................................................................................

1 1 5 .3

1 1 3 .9

1 1 5 .6

1 1 8 .5

1 1 9 .5

1 2 5 .3

1 2 3 .2

1 2 3 .2

1 2 0 .8

E n e r g y .................................................................................................

8 5.1

8 4 .3

8 4 .6

8 3 .0

8 4.1

8 9 .8

8 9 .0

8 0 .8

8 4 .3

O t h e r ...................................................................................................

1 2 1 .4

1 2 2 .0

1 2 3 .8

1 27 .1

1 3 5 .2

1 3 4 .0

1 3 4 .2

1 3 3 .5

1 33.1

9 8 .2

Crude materials for further processing
T o t a l........................................................................................................

1 0 1 .2

1 0 0 .4

1 0 2 .4

1 0 1 .8

1 0 2 .7

1 1 3 .8

1 11 .1

9 6 .8

F o o d s ..................................................................................................

1 0 5 .5

1 05 .1

1 0 8 .4

1 0 6 .5

1 0 5 .8

1 2 1 .5

1 1 2 .2

1 0 3 .9

9 8 .7

E n e r g y .................................................................................................

8 0 .4

7 8 .8

7 6 .7

72.1

6 9 .4

8 5 .0

8 7 .3

6 8 .6

7 8 .5

O t h e r ....................................................................................................

9 7 .5

9 4 .2

9 4.1

9 7 .0

1 0 5 .8

1 0 5 .7

1 0 3 .5

8 4 .5

9 1.1

88

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

November 2000

34.

U.S. export price indexes by Standard International Trade Classification

[1995 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
SITC
Rev. 3

1999

Industry
Sept.

Oct.

2000

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

0

Food and live animals................................................

8 6 .6

8 6 .4

8 6 .3

8 5 .6

8 6 .3

8 6 .9

8 6 .8

8 7 .5

8 8 .3

8 7 .5

8 5 .8

8 3 .6

8 5 .9

01

M e a t a n d m e a t p re p a ra tio n s ......................................................

9 7 .5

9 7 .4

9 7 .7

1 0 0 .9

100.1

9 8 .0

9 9 .4

1 02 .2

105.1

1 09 .5

1 0 8 .4

1 0 3 .7

1 0 5 .2

04

C e re a ls a n d c e re a l p re p a ra tio n s ..............................................

7 2 .7

6 9 .5

70.1

6 8 .5

7 1 .0

74.1

7 4 .4

7 4 .0

7 5 .0

7 1 .6

6 6 .8

6 4 .0

6 7 .8

05

V e g e ta b le s , fru it, a n d n u ts , p re p a re d fre s h o r d ry .............

9 4 .3

9 6 .6

9 4 .3

9 1 .2

9 0 .9

8 9 .0

8 8 .6

9 0 .6

90.1

8 7 .8

9 1 .2

8 8 .5

9 2 .0

2

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels......................

7 7 .7

78.1

7 7 .8

7 8 .9

8 0 .0

8 2 .2

8 3 .2

8 4 .2

8 5 .2

8 4 .4

8 2 .9

8 2 .9

8 3 .7

21

H id e s , s k in s , a n d fu rs k in s , ra w .................................................

8 6 .5

8 8 .6

8 7 .8

9 0 .5

91.1

8 9 .5

8 7 .7

8 5 .5

8 6 .5

8 6 .7

8 9 .7

9 5 .4

1 0 0 .5

22

O ils e e d s a n d o le a g in o u s fru its ..................................................

8 5 .0

8 2 .3

78.1

7 9 .6

8 0 .5

8 4 .8

8 6 .0

8 8 .3

89.1

8 6 .3

8 0 .3

7 8 .0

8 3 .8

24

C o rk a n d w o o d .................................................................................

8 2 .8

8 3 .5

8 3 .8

8 5 .0

8 6 .4

8 6 .5

8 7 .2

8 7 .4

8 6 .7

8 6 .7

8 6 .5

8 8 .4

8 7 .0
90 7

25

7 5 .2

77.1

78 7

80 9

84 3

88 3

90 0

93 8

99 0

97 6

95 9

91 R

26

6 4 .4

6 4 .5

6 3 .4

6 2 .5

6 1 .2

65 7

68 6

68 9

69 0

69 6

67 7

70 7

7? P

27

9 3 .3

93.1

9 3 .8

94.1

9 4 .3

9 4 .0

9 3 .5

9 3 .0

93 0

93 3

93 3

93 1

91 5

28

M e ta llife ro u s o re s a n d m e ta l s c ra p .........................................

7 3 .5

75.1

7 7 .3

7 8 .4

8 0 .0

8 0 .7

8 0 .9

8 0 .4

7 9 .6

7 8 .2

7 8 .0

7 8 .8

7 8 .5
1 6 6 .8

3

Mineral fuels, lubricants, and related products...........

1 1 5 .3

1 1 9 .5

1 2 1 .4

1 2 6 .6

1 2 9 .5

1 3 8 .5

152.1

1 37 .2

1 4 2 .3

1 4 4 .9

1 5 1 .3

1 4 7 .6

32

C o a l, c o k e , a n d b riq u e tte s ..........................................................

9 7 .6

9 7 .6

9 7 .6

9 7 .5

96.1

96.1

96.1

9 4 .7

9 4 .5

9 3 .8

9 3 .8

93.1

93.1

33

P e tro le u m , p e tro le u m p ro d u c ts , a n d re la te d m a te ria ls ...

1 2 8 .6

1 31 .3

1 3 3 .4

140.1

1 4 3 .6

1 5 9 .6

1 79 .2

1 5 2 .0

163.1

1 6 8 .2

1 7 8 .4

1 7 2 .3

2 0 4 ,2

4

Animal and vegetable oils, fats, and waxes................

7 8 .8

8 1 .9

7 9 .0

7 8 .0

7 5 .8

7 4 .3

7 0 .8

7 1 .6

70.1

67.1

6 4 .6

6 3 .2

6 1 .8

5

Chemicals and related products, n.e.s.......................

9 2 .3

9 3 .3

9 3 .3

9 3 .6

9 3 .8

9 4 .2

9 4 .4

9 5 .8

9 5 .8

9 5 .5

9 5 .3

9 4 .6

94.1

54

M e d ic in a l a n d p h a rm a c e u tic a l p ro d u c ts ................................

9 9 .8

9 9 .8

9 9 .8

1 0 0 .3

1 00 .2

1 0 0 .4

1 00 .2

9 9 .9

1 0 0 .0

9 9 .7

1 0 0 .4

1 0 0 .3

100.1
1 0 3 .3

55

E s s e n tia l o ils ; p o lis h in g a n d c le a n in g p re p a ra tio n s ..........

102.1

1 0 2 .3

1 0 3 .5

1 03 .4

1 0 3 .4

1 0 3 .3

1 03 .0

1 0 3 .2

103.1

1 0 2 .9

1 0 3 .0

1 0 2 .9

57

P la s tic s in p rim a ry fo rm s (1 2 /9 2 = 1 0 0 )................................

92.1

9 4 .4

9 4 .9

9 5 .0

9 4 .8

9 4 .8

9 5 .5

9 7 .7

9 8 .4

98.1

9 7 .0

9 5 .4

93.1

58

P la s tic s in n o n p r im a r y fo rm s (1 2 /9 2 = 1 0 0 ).........................

9 7 .6

9 7 .9

9 7 .8

9 8 .0

9 7 .8

9 8 .6

100.1

1 00 .2

9 9 .8

9 9 .3

9 9 .4

9 9 .4

9 9 .3

59

C h e m ic a l m a te r ia ls a n d p ro d u c ts , n .e .s ............................... .

9 9 .2

9 8 .9

9 8 .8

99.1

9 9 .2

9 9 .9

9 9 .6

9 9 .4

9 9 .3

99.1

9 9 .3

9 9 .3

9 9 .2

6

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by materials...

9 7 .5

9 7 .8

9 8 .0

9 8 .3

9 8 .3

9 9 .0

9 9 .7

9 9 .9

100.1

1 0 0 .4

1 0 0 .6

101.1

101.1

62

R u b b e r m a n u fa c tu re s , n .e .s .......................................................

1 0 6 .9

1 0 8 .2

1 08 .2

1 0 8 .5

1 0 4 .7

1 0 3 .7

1 0 3 .6

1 0 3 .7

1 0 4 .6

1 0 4 .4

1 0 4 .8

1 0 4 .7

1 0 4 .7

64

P a p e r, p a p e r b o a rd , a n d a rtic le s o f p a p e r, p ulp ,
a n d p a p e r b o a r d .............................................................................

8 6 .3

8 7 .2

8 7 .6

8 7 .2

8 7 .6

8 7 .8

8 8 .4

89.1

9 0 .5

8 9 .8

9 0 .2

9 0 .2

8 9 .8

66

N o n m e ta llic m in e ra l m a n u fa c tu re s , n .e .s ..............................

106.1

1 06 .0

1 06 .0

1 0 5 .8

1 0 5 .8

1 06 .0

1 0 6 .2

1 0 6 .4

1 0 6 .4

1 0 6 .5

1 0 6 .3

1 0 6 .3

1 0 5 .6

68

N o n fe rro u s m e ta ls ..........................................................................

8 8 .0

9 0 .2

9 0 .7

9 2 .3

9 3 .4

9 8 .8

1 0 1 .9

1 0 0 .3

98.1

100.1

1 0 2 .3

1 0 6 .0

1 0 6 .2

7

Machinery and transport equipment...........................

9 7 .2

9 7 .4

9 7 .5

9 7 .2

9 7 .4

9 7 .3

9 7 .3

9 7 .3

9 7 .4

9 7 .3

9 7 .3

9 7 .3

9 7 .3

71

P o w e r g e n e r a tin g m a c h in e ry a n d e q u ip m e n t......................

110.1

1 10 .2

1 11 .0

1 11 .0

1 1 1 .8

1 1 1 .8

1 1 1 .8

1 1 1 .9

1 12 .0

1 1 2 .0

1 1 2 .2

1 1 2 .3

1 1 2 .3

72

M a c h in e ry s p e c ia liz e d fo r p a rtic u la r in d u s trie s ..................

1 0 5 .9

1 06 .0

106.1

1 04 .7

1 06 .2

1 0 6 .3

106.1

1 06 .2

1 06 .2

1 0 6 .5

1 0 6 .5

1 0 6 .5

1 0 6 .4

74

G e n e ra l in d u s tria l m a c h in e s a n d p a rts , n .e .s .,
a n d m a c h in e p a r ts .......................................................................

1 07 .6

1 0 7 .7

1 0 7 .7

1 0 7 .9

1 0 7 .5

1 0 7 .6

1 08 .0

1 08 .2

1 08 .2

1 0 8 .2

1 0 8 .3

1 0 8 .3

1 0 8 .4

75

C o m p u te r e q u ip m e n t a n d o ffic e m a c h in e s ...........................

7 0 .2

7 0 .5

7 0 .4

7 0 .2

70.1

6 8 .7

6 8 .7

6 8 .5

6 8 .5

6 8 .2

68.1

6 7 .7

6 7 .7

76

T e le c o m m u n ic a tio n s a n d s o u n d re c o rd in g a n d
re p ro d u c in g a p p a r a tu s a n d e q u ip m e n t...............................

9 6 .9

9 6 .6

9 6 .6

9 6 .7

9 6 .4

9 7 .0

9 6 .6

9 6 .4

9 7 .0

9 6 .9

9 6 .7

9 6 .7

9 6 .8

77

E le c tric a l m a c h in e ry a n d e q u ip m e n t.......................................

8 7 .6

8 7 .4

8 7 .3

8 6 .7

8 6 .4

8 6 .6

8 6 .3

8 6 .4

8 6 .3

8 5 .7

8 5 .6

8 5 .7

8 5 .6

R o a d v e h ic le s ...................................................................................

1 0 2 .4

103.1

103.1

103.1

1 03 .5

1 0 3 .6

1 04 .0

1 0 3 .9

1 0 3 .9

1 0 3 .9

1 0 3 .9

1 0 3 .9

1 0 4 .0

Professional, scientific, and controlling
instruments and apparatus......................................

1 0 5 .4

1 0 5 .5

1 0 5 .6

1 0 5 .3

1 05 .2

1 05 .4

1 05 .7

1 0 5 .7

1 0 5 .7

1 0 5 .8

1 0 6 .4

1 0 6 .4

1 0 6 .5

78
87


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

89

Current Labor Statistics:

35.

Price Data

U.S. im port price indexes by Standard International Trade Classification

[1995 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]

SITC

1999

Industry

Rev. 3

Sept.

Aug.

Sept.

9 1 .0

9 2 .4

9 4 .7

9 3 .7

9 3 .6

93.1

9 4 .0

9 2 .3

9 1 .3

9 1 .4

9 1 .6

9 1 .2

01

M e a t a n d m e a t p re p a ra tio n s ......................................................

9 9 .4

9 8 .4

9 7 .7

9 8 .4

9 7 .8

9 8 .2

99.1

1 00 .2

1 00 .2

99.1

98.1

9 8 .9

9 8 .9

03

F is h a n d c ru s ta c e a n s , m o llu s k s , a n d o th e r
a q u a tic in v e rte b r a te s ..................................................................

103.1

1 0 5 .0

1 0 7 .5

1 0 6 .8

1 0 6 .8

1 0 7 .9

1 0 8 .0

1 1 1 .0

1 0 9 .6

109.1

1 1 0 .5

113.1

1 1 2 .0

05

V e g e ta b le s , fru it, a n d n u ts , p re p a re d fre s h o r d ry .............

1 0 1 .6

9 6 .5

9 7 .2

1 0 3 .6

1 02 .0

102.1

1 0 1 .2

1 0 0 .7

9 6 .8

9 5 .7

9 7 .2

9 7 .5

9 7 .8

07

C o ffe e , te a , c o c o a , s p ic e s , a n d m a n u fa c tu re s

24

June

July

th e r e o f ..............................................................................................

6 1 .4

6 2 .0

6 6 .0

7 0 .6

6 7 .2

6 4 .7

6 1 .0

61.1

5 9 .8

5 9 .5

5 6 .8

5 5 .8

5 4 .7

Beverages and tobacco.............................................

1 1 2 .2

1 1 1 .5

1 1 1 .5

1 1 2 .0

1 1 1 .2

1 1 1 .4

1 1 1 .7

1 1 1 .9

1 1 2 .4

1 1 3 .0

1 1 2 .5

1 1 4 .5

1 1 6 .4

B e v e ra g e s ..........................................................................................

109.1

1 0 8 .5

1 0 8 .5

1 08 .7

1 0 7 .9

1 0 8 .2

1 0 8 .5

1 0 8 .7

1 0 9 .4

110.1

1 0 9 .4

1 1 1 .7

1 1 3 .9

9 1 .7

9 0 .8

9 0 .3

9 2 .2

9 3 .6

9 4 .7

9 4 .3

9 3 .8

9 1 .9

9 0 .7

9 0 .7

8 9 .6

8 8 .8

C o rk a n d w o o d .................................................................................

1 2 1 .7

1 1 6 .7

1 1 4 .9

1 1 8 .7

1 1 7 .7

1 1 7 .0

1 1 8 .6

1 1 7 .6

1 1 2 .9

110.1

1 0 7 .0

102.1

9 9 .5

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels......................

25

P u lp a n d w a s te p a p e r...................................................................

6 6 .0

6 3 .9

6 6 .8

6 8 .2

7 0 .5

7 2 .0

7 2 .4

75.1

7 7 .0

80.1

8 0 .7

8 1 .4

8 2 .0

28

M e ta llife ro u s o re s a n d m e ta l s c ra p .........................................

9 4 .3

9 8 .4

9 8 .0

9 9 .0

1 0 1 .4

1 0 5 .7

1 0 4 .0

1 0 1 .7

9 9 .6

1 0 0 .7

1 0 1 .3

1 0 2 .2

1 0 1 .6

29

C r u d e a n im a l a n d v e g e ta b le m a te ria ls , n .e .s ......................

111.1

112.1

1 0 6 .5

1 1 1 .9

121.1

1 2 4 .3

1 1 1 .9

110.1

1 0 6 .7

9 2 .7

1 0 1 .8

1 0 1 .3

1 0 3 .0

3

Mineral fuels, lubricants, and related products...........

1 2 6 .5

1 28 .0

1 3 4 .7

1 41 .2

1 4 5 .2

1 6 5 .7

1 65 .4

1 4 8 .5

1 5 4 .3

1 7 2 .0

1 7 0 .4

1 7 1 .2

1 9 3 .0

33

P e tro le u m , p e tro le u m p ro d u c ts , a n d re la te d m a te ria ls ...

1 2 5 .7

1 2 7 .4

1 3 2 .6

1 4 1 .4

146.1

1 67.9

1 6 6 .6

147.1

1 5 4 .2

1 7 1 .0

1 6 8 .2

168.1

1 9 2 .3

34

G a s , n a tu ra l a n d m a n u fa c tu re d ................................................

1 42 .2

141.1

1 6 1 .5

1 50 .2

1 4 7 .8

1 6 1 .4

1 7 0 .5

1 7 1 .5

1 6 7 .5

1 9 5 .4

2 03.1

2 12 .1

2 1 8 .0

5

Chemicals and related products, n.e.s.......................

9 1 .3

9 1 .8

92.1

9 2 .0

9 2 .2

9 2 .7

9 2 .8

9 3 .4

9 4 .3

94.1

9 5 .5

9 5 .5

9 4 .9

52

In o rg a n ic c h e m ic a ls .......................................................................

8 6 .6

8 7 .2

8 7 .7

8 8 .0

8 8 .3

8 9 .0

8 8 .8

8 9 .8

9 0 .7

9 1 .5

9 2 .5

9 2 .6

9 2 .5

53

D y in g , ta n n in g , a n d c o lo rin g m a te ria ls ...................................

9 0 .2

9 0 .6

9 1 .4

8 9 .7

8 8 .9

8 9 .3

8 8 .4

8 8 .0

8 7 .4

86.1

8 7 .6

89.1

8 7 .0

54

M e d ic in a l a n d p h a rm a c e u tic a l p ro d u c ts ................................

9 7 .0

9 7 .4

9 7 .8

9 7 .3

9 8 .2

9 8 .2

9 7 .3

9 7 .3

9 7 .3

9 6 .8

9 7 .5

9 7 .3

9 6 .7

55

E s s e n tia l o ils ; p o lis h in g a n d c le a n in g p re p a ra tio n s ..........

9 2 .3

9 1 .8

9 2 .3

9 0 .2

8 9 .6

8 9 .6

8 9 .7

8 9 .4

8 9 .9

8 9 .6

8 9 .9

8 9 .3

8 8 .8

57

9 3 .8

9 3 .8

9 3 .9

9 4 .0

9 3 .7

9 3 .0

9 3 .9

9 3 .9

9 4 .0

9 4 .3

9 5 .5

9 5 .4

9 5 .3

58

7 7 .9

7 8 .9

7 9 .4

7 9 .7

7 9 .3

7 9 .0

8 0 .4

8 0 .3

8 0 .8

8 0 .8

8 1 .5

8 0 .9

8 0 .8

1 00 .0

1 0 1 .6

1 0 0 .6

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .9

9 9 .7

1 0 0 .2

1 0 0 .3

1 0 1 .4

59

C h e m ic a l m a te ria ls a n d p ro d u c ts , n .e .s ................................

98.1

9 8 .6

9 8 .4

9 9 .5

6

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by materials....

9 2 .6

9 3 .3

9 3 .9

9 3 .9

9 4 .5

9 5 .5

9 8 .0

9 7 .5

97.1

9 7 .6

9 8 .0

9 8 .8

98.1

62

R u b b e r m a n u fa c tu re s , n .e .s .......................................................

9 5 .0

9 4 .9

9 4 .4

9 4 .4

9 2 .7

9 2 .8

9 2 .3

9 2 .4

9 2 .5

9 1 .8

92.1

9 1 .9

9 1 .8

64

P a p e r, p a p e r b o a rd , a n d a rtic le s o f p a p e r, p ulp ,
8 3 .7

8 4 .4

8 7 .4

8 6 .2

8 6 .6

8 6 .9

87.1

8 8 .8

8 9 .6

89.1

8 9 .5

8 9 .4

9 1 .5

66

N o n m e ta llic m in e ra l m a n u fa c tu re s , n .e .s ..............................

101.1

1 0 1 .2

1 0 1 .6

1 01 .2

1 0 0 .8

1 0 1 .2

1 0 0 .8

1 0 0 .9

1 0 0 .7

1 0 0 .5

1 0 0 .9

1 0 1 .0

1 0 0 .9

68

N o n fe rro u s m e ta ls ...........................................................................

91.1

9 4 .8

9 5 .4

9 5 .6

9 8 .9

1 04 .4

115.1

1 1 0 .3

1 0 6 .9

1 1 0 .7

1 1 2 .5

1 1 8 .6

1 1 4 .8

69

M a n u fa c tu re s o f m e ta ls , n .e .s ...................................................

9 5 .8

9 5 .6

9 5 .9

9 5 .9

9 5 .7

96.1

96.1

9 5 .9

9 5 .9

9 5 .7

9 5 .8

9 5 .7

9 5 .7

7

Machinery and transport equipment...........................

72
74

G e n e ra l in d u s tria l m a c h in e s a n d p a rts , n .e .s .,

75

C o m p u te r e q u ip m e n t a n d o ffic e m a c h in e s ..........................

76

T e le c o m m u n ic a tio n s a n d s o u n d re c o rd in g a n d

77
78
85

F o o tw e a r .............................................................................................

88

P h o to g ra p h ic a p p a ra tu s , e q u ip m e n t, a n d s u p p lie s ,
a n d o p tic a l q o o d s , n .e .s ............................................................

90

May

9 1 .5

2

Feb.

Apr.

Dec.

Food and live animals................................................

11

Jan.

Mar.

Nov.

0

1

Oct.

2000

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

8 9 .9

8 9 .9

8 9 .8

8 9 .7

8 9 .8

8 9 .8

8 9 .6

8 9 .7

8 9 .8

8 9 .6

8 9 .6

8 9 .5

8 9 .3

9 7 .6

9 7 .8

9 8 .2

9 7 .8

9 7 .7

9 7 .9

9 7 .3

97.1

9 7 .0

96.1

9 6 .7

9 6 .6

9 5 .9

9 7 .4

9 7 .3

9 7 .3

9 7 .0

9 7 .0

9 6 .7

9 7 .0

9 6 .9

9 6 .7

9 6 .2

9 6 .7

9 6 .4

9 6 .0

6 1 .6

6 1 .4

6 1 .4

6 1 .7

6 1 .5

6 1 .4

6 1 .0

6 0 .5

6 0 .2

6 0 .0

5 9 .9

5 9 .9

5 9 .7

87.1

8 6 .0

8 5 .9

8 5 .6

8 5 .2

8 5 .2

8 4 .9

8 4 .5

8 4 .7

8 4 .6

8 4 .2

8 4 .2

8 4 .2

8 2 .5

8 2 .6

8 2 .2

82.1

8 2 .4

8 2 .2

8 2 .2

8 3 .0

8 3 .5

8 3 .3

8 2 .9

8 2 .8

8 2 .8

1 0 2 .2

1 0 2 .4

1 0 2 .4

1 0 2 .3

1 0 2 .4

1 0 2 .6

1 0 2 .6

1 0 2 .7

1 0 2 .7

1 0 2 .8

1 0 2 .8

1 0 2 .7

1 0 2 .6

1 0 0 .8

1 0 0 .8

1 0 0 .8

1 0 0 .8

1 0 0 .8

1 0 0 .9

1 0 0 .7

1 0 0 .5

1 0 0 .7

1 0 0 .3

1 0 0 .9

1 0 1 .0

1 0 0 .9

9 1 .4

9 2 .2

9 2 .5

9 2 .5

9 2 .2

9 1 .7

9 1 .8

9 1 .8

9 1 .9

9 1 .6

9 2 .5

92.1

9 1 .4

November 2000

36.

U.S. export price indexes by end-use category

[1995 = 100]

1999

Category

2000

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

Sept.

Oct.

ALL COMMODITIES................................................

9 4 .8

95.1

9 5 .3

9 5 .2

9 5 .4

9 5 .8

9 6 .3

9 6 .2

9 6 .4

9 6 .3

F o o d s , fe e d s , a n d b e v e r a g e s ...............................................

8 7 .6

8 7 .4

8 6 .7

8 6 .0

8 6 .3

8 7 .2

87.1

8 7 .8

8 8 .3

8 7.1

A g r ic u ltu r a l fo o d s , f e e d s , a n d b e v e r a g e s .....................

8 6 .7

8 6 .4

8 5 .6

8 4 .9

8 5 .4

8 6 .0

8 6 .2

8 7.1

8 7 .7

8 6 .2

N o n a g r ic u ltu r a l (fis h , b e v e ra g e s ) fo o d p r o d u c ts ......

9 8 .2

9 9 .7

9 9 .2

9 9 .5

9 8 .3

1 0 0 .9

9 7 .8

9 7 .0

9 6 .6

9 8 .1

I n d u s tr ia l s u p p lie s a n d m a t e r ia ls ..........................................

8 9 .5

9 0 .4

9 1.1

9 1 .7

9 2.1

9 3 .6

9 5 .2

9 4 .6

9 5 .2

A g r ic u ltu r a l in d u s tr ia l s u p p lie s a n d m a te r ia ls .............

7 6 .6

7 7 .5

7 6 .6

7 6 .7

7 5 .2

7 6 .9

7 7 .7

7 8 .2

7 8 .2

F u e ls a n d lu b r ic a n t s ................................................................

1 1 1 .8

1 1 4 .4

1 1 5 .9

1 2 0 .4

1 2 2 .7

1 3 1 .3

1 4 3 .6

1 2 7 .8

1 3 2 .9

1 3 5 .6

July

Aug.

Sept.

9 6 .3

9 6 .0

9 6 .5

85.1

8 2 .8

8 5 .3

8 4 .0

8 1 .3

8 4 .3

9 7 .9

9 9 .7

9 8 .1

9 5 .2

9 5 .6

9 5 .4

9 6 .6

7 8 .2

7 7 .9

8 0 .3

8 1 .8

1 4 1 .2

1 3 7 .9

1 5 5 .4

N o n a g r ic u ltu r a l s u p p lie s a n d m a te ria ls ,
e x c lu d in g fu e l a n d b u ild in g m a te r ia ls ..........................

8 7 .5

8 8 .3

89.1

8 9 .3

8 9 .7

9 0 .4

9 1 .0

9 1 .9

9 2.1

9 1 .9

9 1 .9

9 1 .6

9 1 .3

S e le c te d b u ild in g m a t e r ia ls .................................................

8 7 .4

8 7 .8

8 7 .7

8 8 .6

8 9 .2

8 9 .5

90.1

9 0 .4

9 0 .0

8 9 .9

8 9 .6

9 0 .5

8 9 .4

96.1

9 6 .2

9 6 .3

9 6 .0

96.1

9 6 .0

9 6 .0

96.1

9 6.1

9 6.1

96.1

96.1

9 6 .1

9 8 .3

9 8 .3

9 8 .4

9 8 .5

9 8 .3

9 8 .8

9 8 .8

9 8 .7

9 8 .9

9 9 .2

9 9 .0

9 9 .5

9 9 .5

E le c tric a n d e le c tr ic a l g e n e r a tin g e q u ip m e n t .............
N o n e le c tr ic a l m a c h in e r y ......................................................

9 2 .4

9 2 .4

9 2 .5

92.1

92.1

9 1 .9

9 1 .8

9 1 .9

9 1 .9

9 1 .7

9 1 .6

9 1 .6

9 1 .5

1 0 3 .3

1 0 4 .0

1 0 3 .9

1 0 3 .8

1 0 3 .9

1 0 3 .8

1 0 4 .2

1 0 4 .2

1 0 4 .2

1 04.1

1 0 4 .4

1 0 4 .4

1 0 4 .4

C o n s u m e r g o o d s , e x c lu d in g a u to m o tiv e ..........................

1 0 1 .9

1 0 2 .2

1 0 2 .2

1 0 2 .4

1 0 2 .4

1 0 2 .5

1 0 2 .3

1 0 2 .4

1 0 2 .4

1 0 2 .3

1 0 2 .4

1 0 2 .4

1 02 .1

N o n d u r a b le s , m a n u f a c tu r e d ..............................................

1 02.1

1 0 2 .4

1 0 2 .5

1 0 2 .9

1 0 2 .8

1 0 2 .6

1 0 2 .4

1 0 2 .3

1 0 2 .4

1 02 .1

1 0 2 .3

1 0 2 .3

1 0 2 .0

D u ra b le s , m a n u f a c tu r e d .......................................................

1 0 0 .7

1 0 0 .8

1 0 0 .9

1 0 0 .8

1 0 1 .0

1 0 1 .4

1 0 1 .0

1 0 1 .3

1 0 1 .3

1 0 1 .3

1 0 1 .5

1 0 1 .4

1 0 1 .4

A g r ic u ltu r a l c o m m o d it ie s ..........................................................

8 4 .6

8 4 .5

8 3 .7

83.1

8 3 .2

8 4 .0

8 4 .4

8 5.1

8 5 .6

8 4 .4

8 2 .6

8 0 .9

8 3 .5

N o n a g r ic u ltu r a l c o m m o d it ie s ..................................................

9 5 .9

9 6 .3

9 6 .6

9 6 .6

9 6 .8

9 7 .2

9 7 .6

9 7 .4

9 7 .7

9 7 .6

9 7 .8

9 7 .7

9 8 .0


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

91

Current Labor Statistics:

37.

Price Data

U.S. im port price indexes by end-use category

[1995 = 100]

2000

1999

Category
Sept.

Nov.

Oct.

Jan.

Dec.

Feb.

Apr.

Mar.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

ALL COMMODITIES................................................

9 5 .2

9 5 .4

9 6 .2

9 6 .8

9 7 .2

9 9 .2

9 9 .3

9 7 .9

9 8 .3

9 9 .6

9 9 .6

9 9 .8

1 0 1 .3

F o o d s , fe e d s , a n d b e v e r a g e s .................................................

9 2 .3

9 1 .6

9 3 .0

9 4 .8

9 3 .6

9 3 .3

9 2 .5

9 3 .3

9 1 .9

9 1.1

9 1.1

9 1 .5

9 0 .9

A g r ic u ltu r a l fo o d s , fe e d s , a n d b e v e r a g e s .....................

8 7 .6

86.1

8 7 .2

8 9 .8

8 8 .4

8 7 .6

8 6 .6

8 6 .7

8 5 .2

8 4.1

8 3 .7

8 3 .2

8 2 .4

N o n a g r ic u ltu r a l (fis h , b e v e ra g e s ) fo o d p r o d u c ts .......

1 0 4 .9

1 0 6 .3

1 0 8 .2

1 0 7 .7

1 0 7 .2

1 08.1

1 0 8 .3

1 1 0 .8

1 0 9 .8

1 0 9 .7

1 1 0 .5

1 1 3 .4

1 1 3 .4

In d u s tr ia l s u p p lie s a n d m a te r ia ls ..........................................

1 03.1

1 0 4 .3

1 0 6 .9

1 0 9 .4

1 1 1 .0

1 1 8 .6

1 1 9 .8

1 1 4 .3

1 1 5 .9

1 2 1 .8

1 2 1 .7

1 2 2 .4

1 2 8 .9

F u e ls a n d lu b r ic a n t s ..............................................................

1 2 6 .0

128 .1

1 3 4 .3

1 4 0 .7

1 4 4 .2

1 6 4 .7

1 6 3 .7

1 4 7 .7

1 5 3 .3

1 7 0 .6

1 6 9 .0

1 7 0 .0

1 9 1 .4

P e tr o le u m a n d p e tr o le u m p r o d u c ts ............................

1 2 5 .2

1 2 7 .3

1 3 2 .5

1 4 0 .9

1 4 5 .8

1 6 7 .5

1 6 6 .2

1 4 7 .4

1 5 4 .0

1 7 0 .4

1 6 7 .7

1 6 7 .8

1 9 1 .5

P a p e r a n d p a p e r b a s e s t o c k s ............................................

7 8 .4

7 8 .5

8 1 .8

8 1 .2

82.1

8 2 .8

8 3.1

8 5 .6

8 6 .8

8 7 .0

8 7 .5

8 7 .6

8 9 .9

M a t e r ia ls a s s o c ia te d w ith n o n d u ra b le
s u p p lie s a n d m a t e r ia ls ........................................................

8 7 .7

8 8 .3

8 8 .8

8 9.1

8 9 .2

8 9 .7

9 0 .4

9 1 .2

9 2.1

9 1 .7

9 2 .7

9 2 .8

9 2 .3

S e le c te d b u ild in g m a t e r ia ls ................................................

1 1 3 .4

1 1 0 .0

1 0 8 .3

111 .1

1 1 0 .5

110 .1

1 12.1

1 1 1 .9

1 09.1

1 0 5 .0

1 0 3 .4

1 0 0 .2

9 8 .6

U n fin is h e d m e ta ls a s s o c ia te d w ith d u r a b le g o o d s ..

8 9 .7

9 3 .0

9 4 .4

9 4 .8

9 7 .4

1 0 0 .3

1 07.1

1 0 4 .3

1 0 2 .0

1 0 5 .0

1 0 6 .5

1 0 9 .5

1 0 6 .2

N o n m e ta ls a s s o c ia te d w ith d u r a b le g o o d s .................

8 7 .3

8 7 .5

8 7 .5

8 7 .4

8 7 .2

8 8 .0

8 7 .6

8 7 .8

8 7 .8

8 7 .0

8 7 .7

8 7 .5

8 7 .2

8 2 .0

8 1 .9

8 1 .8

8 1 .7

8 1 .7

8 1 .6

8 1 .3

8 1 .4

8 1 .2

8 0 .9

8 0 .9

8 0 .7

8 0 .6

9 1 .6

9 1 .7

9 1 .8

9 1.1

9 1 .8

9 1 .8

92.1

9 3 .9

9 4 .2

9 4 .3

9 4.1

9 3 .7

9 3 .5

7 8 .8

7 8 .6

7 8 .5

7 8 .4

7 8 .3

7 8 .2

7 7 .9

7 7 .7

7 7 .5

77.1

7 7.1

7 7 .0

7 6 .8

1 0 1 .9

1 0 2 .0

1 0 2 .0

1 0 2 .0

1 02.1

1 0 2 .2

1 0 2 .2

1 0 2 .3

1 0 2 .6

1 0 2 .7

1 0 2 .9

1 0 2 .7

1 0 2 .5

9 7 .7

9 7 .5

9 7 .6

9 7 .5

9 7 .5

9 7 .4

9 7.1

97.1

9 7 .0

9 6 .5

9 6 .8

9 6 .8

9 6 .7

1 0 0 .8

1 0 0 .5

1 0 0 .7

1 0 0 .6

1 0 0 .4

1 0 0 .4

1 0 0 .3

1 0 0 .3

1 00.1

9 9 .5

9 9 .8

1 0 0 .0

9 9 .8

D u ra b le s , m a n u f a c tu r e d ......................................................

9 4 .2

94.1

9 4 .2

9 4.1

9 4.1

9 3 .8

9 3 .5

9 3 .4

9 3 .4

9 3 .2

9 3 .4

9 3 .2

9 3 .1

N o n m a n u fa c tu r e d c o n s u m e r g o o d s ...............................

9 9 .9

1 0 0 .0

9 8 .8

9 9 .8

1 0 1 .5

1 0 2 .0

1 00.1

1 0 0 .3

9 9 .7

9 8 .0

9 9 .5

9 9 .2

9 9 .6

E le c tr ic a n d e le c tr ic a l g e n e r a tin g e q u ip m e n t .............

C o n s u m e r g o o d s , e x c lu d in g a u to m o tiv e .........................

38.

U.S. international price Indexes for selected categories of services

[1990 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]

1998

Category

Dec.

2000

1999
Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

A ir fr e ig h t ( in b o u n d ) ( 9 /9 0 - 1 0 0 ) ............................................

8 7 .4

8 8 .0

8 6 .2

8 7 .9

9 0 .7

8 8 .9

8 8 .4

8 8 .5

A ir f r e ig h t (o u tb o u n d ) ( 9 /9 2 - 1 0 0 ) .........................................

9 5 .2

9 2 .7

9 2 .8

9 2 .7

9 1 .7

9 1 .7

9 2 .8

9 2 .6

A ir p a s s e n g e r f a r e s (U .S . c a r r ie r s ) ..........................................

1 03.1

1 0 4 .5

1 1 2 .3

1 1 4 .2

1 0 6 .8

1 0 7 .3

1 1 3 .3

1 1 5 .5

A ir p a s s e n g e r f a r e s ( fo re ig n c a r r ie r s ) ....................................

1 01.1

9 8 .9

1 0 6 .3

1 0 8 .6

1 0 2 .2

1 0 2 .6

1 0 7 .9

1 09.1

O c e a n lin e r f r e ig h t ( in b o u n d ) .....................................................

1 0 4 .2

1 0 2 .6

1 3 3 .7

1 4 8 .0

1 3 9 .4

1 3 6 .3

1 4 3 .0

1 4 2 .8

92

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

November 2000

39.

Indexes o f productivity, hourly com pensation, and unit costs, quarterly data seasonally adjusted

[1992 = 100]

___________________________________________________________________________________

Quarterly indexes
1997

Item
II

III

1999

1998
IV

I

II

III

IV

2000

I

II

III

IV

I

II

B u s in e s s
1 0 7 .3

1 0 8 .3

1 0 8 .5

1 0 9 .7

1 1 0 .0

1 1 0 .6

1 1 1 .6

1 1 2 .6

1 1 2 .8

1 1 4 .2

1 1 6 .3

1 1 6 .7

1 1 8 .6

1 1 2 .3

1 1 3 .5

1 1 5 .3

117 .1

1 1 8 .5

1 2 0 .0

1 2 1 .4

1 2 3 .0

1 2 4 .5

126 .1

1 2 7 .3

1 2 8 .4

1 3 0 .4

9 9 .8

1 0 0 .4

1 0 1 .5

1 0 2 .9

1 0 3 .8

1 0 4 .7

1 0 5 .5

1 0 6 .4

1 0 6 .9

1 0 7 .6

1 0 7 .8

1 0 7 .7

1 0 8 .5

1 0 4 .7

1 0 4 .8

1 0 6 .3

1 0 6 .7

1 0 7 .7

1 0 8 .5

1 0 8 .8

1 0 9 .3

1 1 0 .4

1 1 0 .5

1 0 9 .5

1 1 0 .0

1 1 0 .0

1 1 8 .0

1 1 8 .5

1 1 6 .8

1 1 6 .4

115 .1

1 1 4 .6

1 1 4 .6

115 .1

1 14.1

1 1 4 .3

1 1 6 .8

1 1 8 .2

1 2 0 .2

1 0 9 .6

1 0 9 .9

1 1 0 .2

1 1 0 .3

1 1 0 .5

1 1 0 .7

1 1 0 .9

1 1 1 .4

1 1 1 .8

1 1 1 .9

1 1 2 .2

1 1 3 .0

1 1 3 .7

N o n fa rm b u s in e s s
107 .1

1 0 8 .0

1 08.1

1 0 9 .3

1 0 9 .8

1 1 0 .3

1 1 1 .2

1 1 2 .0

1 12.1

1 1 3 .6

1 1 5 .8

1 1 6 .3

1 1 8 .0

1 1 2 .0

1 1 3 .0

1 1 4 .7

1 1 6 .4

1 1 7 .9

1 1 9 .4

1 2 0 .8

122 .1

1 2 3 .6

1 2 5 .2

1 2 6 .5

1 2 7 .8

1 2 9 .4

9 9 .5

1 0 0 .0

1 0 1 .0

1 0 2 .3

1 0 3 .2

1 0 4 .2

1 0 4 .9

1 0 5 .7

1 06.1

1 0 6 .8

1 0 7 .2

1 0 7 .2

1 0 7 .7

1 0 4 .5

1 0 4 .7

1 06.1

1 0 6 .5

1 0 7 .5

1 0 8 .3

1 0 8 .5

1 0 9 .0

1 1 0 .2

1 1 0 .3

1 0 9 .3

1 0 9 .8

1 0 9 .7

1 1 8 .8

1 1 9 .5

1 1 7 .8

1 1 7 .4

1 1 6 .3

1 1 5 .8

1 1 5 .8

1 1 6 .7

1 1 5 .7

1 16 .1

1 1 8 .6

1 20.1

1 2 2 .1

1 0 9 .7

1 10.1

1 1 0 .4

1 1 0 .5

1 1 0 .7

1 1 1 .0

1 1 1 .2

1 1 1 .8

1 1 2 .2

1 1 2 .4

1 1 2 .7

1 1 3 .6

1 1 4 .2

1 0 9 .3

1 1 0 .8

1 1 1 .6

1 1 2 .3

1 1 3 .4

1 1 4 .9

1 1 5 .8

1 17 .1

1 1 8 .2

1 1 9 .7

1 2 1 .5

1 2 2 .3

1 2 3 .8

1 11 .1

1 12.1

1 1 3 .7

1 1 5 .2

1 1 6 .6

1 1 8 .0

1 1 9 .3

1 2 0 .9

1 2 2 .4

1 2 4 .0

1 2 5 .3

1 26.1

1 2 7 .8

9 8 .7

9 9 .2

1 00.1

1 0 1 .2

1 02 .1

1 0 3 .0

1 0 3 .7

1 0 4 .6

1 05.1

1 0 5 .8

106 .1

1 0 5 .8

1 0 6 .3

1 0 1 .6

1 01.1

1 0 1 .5

1 0 2 .0

1 0 2 .3

1 02.1

1 0 2 .6

1 0 2 .5

1 0 3 .0

1 0 3 .2

1 0 3 .0

1 03 .1

1 0 3 .4

1 0 1 .6

1 0 1 .2

1 0 1 .9

1 0 2 .6

1 0 2 .8

1 0 2 .7

1 0 3 .0

1 0 3 .2

1 0 3 .5

1 0 3 .6

1 03 .1

1 03 .1

1 0 3 .2

1 0 1 .4

1 0 0 .8

1 0 0 .4

1 0 0 .5

1 0 0 .9

1 0 0 .2

1 0 1 .6

1 0 0 .7

1 0 1 .4

1 02.1

1 0 2 .5

1 0 3 .3

1 0 3 .8

1 5 5 .3

1 6 0 .3

1 5 6 .5

1 5 0 .4

1 4 7 .2

1 5 1 .4

1 4 4 .5

1 4 9 .7

1 4 7 .5

1 4 3 .3

1 4 5 .7

1 5 0 .9

1 5 5 .7

N o n fin a n c ia l c o r p o r a tio n s

1 15.1

1 1 6 .0

1 1 4 .7

1 1 3 .2

1 1 2 .7

1 1 3 .3

1 1 2 .5

1 1 3 .2

1 1 3 .2

1 1 2 .6

1 1 3 .5

1 1 5 .4

1 1 7 .0

1 06.1

1 06.1

106.1

1 06.1

1 06.1

1 0 6 .2

1 0 6 .2

1 0 6 .5

1 0 6 .7

1 0 6 .6

1 0 6 .6

1 0 7 .2

1 0 7 .8

1 1 6 .3

1 1 8 .7

120 .1

1 2 1 .3

1 2 2 .7

1 25.1

1 2 6 .8

1 2 8 .9

1 3 0 .4

1 3 1 .9

135 .1

1 3 7 .7

1 3 9 .5

1 1 0 .5

1 1 1 .5

1 1 3 .3

1 1 5 .2

1 1 6 .6

1 18.1

1 1 9 .4

1 2 0 .7

1 2 2 .4

1 24 .1

1 2 5 .5

1 2 7 .0

1 2 8 .0

98.1

9 8 .6

9 9 .8

1 0 1 .2

1 02.1

1 0 3 .0

1 0 3 .7

1 0 4 .4

1 05 .1

1 0 5 .9

1 0 6 .4

1 0 6 .5

1 0 6 .5

9 5 .0

9 3 .9

9 4 .4

9 5 .0

9 5.1

9 4 .4

94.1

9 3 .6

9 3 .8

9 4.1

9 2 .9

9 2 .2

9 1 .7

M a n u fa c tu r in g

- Data not available.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

93

Current Labor Statistics:

40.

Productivity Data

Annual indexes of m ultifactor productivity and related measures, selected years

[1996 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]

1960

Item

1970

1980

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Private business
P r o d u c tiv ity :
O u t p u t p e r h o u r o f a ll p e r s o n s ................................................

4 5 .6

6 3 .0

7 5 .8

9 0 .2

9 1 .3

9 4 .8

9 5 .4

9 6 .6

9 7 .3

1 0 0 .0

1 0 2 .0

O u t p u t p e r u n it o f c a p ita l s e r v ic e s ........................................

1 1 0 .4

1 11 .1

1 0 1 .5

9 9 .3

96.1

9 7 .7

9 8 .5

1 0 0 .3

9 9 .7

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .5

1 00 .1

M u ltifa c to r p r o d u c t iv it y ................................................................

6 5 .2

8 0 .0

8 8 .3

9 5 .3

9 4 .4

9 6 .6

9 7.1

9 8.1

9 8 .4

1 0 0 .0

1 01.1

1 0 2 .6

O u t p u t ....................................................................................................

2 7 .5

4 2 .0

5 9 .4

8 3 .6

8 2 .6

8 5 .7

8 8 .5

9 2 .8

9 5 .8

1 0 0 .0

1 0 5 .2

1 1 0 .6

1 0 4 .8

In p u ts :
L a b o r in p u t .......................................................................................

5 4 .0

6 1 .0

7 1 .9

8 9 .4

8 8 .3

8 9 .3

9 1 .8

9 5 .6

9 8 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 3 .7

1 0 6 .4

C a p ita l s e r v ic e s ..............................................................................

2 4 .9

3 7 .8

5 8 .6

8 4 .2

8 6 .0

8 7 .7

8 9 .8

9 2 .6

9 6 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 4 .7

1 1 0 .4

C o m b in e d u n its o f la b o r a n d c a p ita l in p u t ........................

4 2 .3

5 2 .4

6 7 .3

8 7 .7

8 7 .5

8 8 .8

9 1.1

9 4 .6

9 7 .3

1 0 0 .0

1 0 4 .0

1 0 7 .7

C a p ita l p e r h o u r o f a ll p e r s o n s ..................................................

4 1 .3

5 6 .7

7 4 .7

9 0 .8

9 5 .0

9 7 .0

9 6 .8

9 6 .3

9 7 .6

1 0 0 .0

1 0 1 .5

1 0 4 .7

1 0 4 .5

Private nonfarm business
P r o d u c tiv ity :
O u t p u t p e r h o u r o f a ll p e r s o n s ................................................

4 8 .7

6 4 .9

7 7 .3

9 0 .3

9 1 .4

9 4 .8

9 5 .3

9 6 .5

9 7 .5

1 0 0 .0

1 0 1 .7

O u t p u t p e r u n it o f c a p ita l s e r v ic e s ........................................

1 20.1

1 1 8 .3

1 0 5 .7

1 0 0 .0

9 6 .6

9 7 .9

9 8 .8

1 0 0 .3

9 9 .9

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .2

9 9 .8

M u lt if a c to r p r o d u c t iv it y ................................................................

6 9.1

8 2 .6

9 0 .5

9 5 .6

9 4 .7

9 6 .6

9 7.1

9 8.1

9 8 .6

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .9

1 0 2 .4

O u t p u t ....................................................................................................

2 7 .2

4 1 .9

5 9 .6

8 3 .5

8 2 .5

8 5 .5

8 8 .4

9 2 .6

9 5 .8

1 0 0 .0

1 05 .1

1 1 0 .6

In p u ts :
L a b o r in p u t .......................................................................................

50.1

5 9 .3

7 0 .7

8 9 .2

8 8 .0

8 9 .0

9 1 .8

9 5 .4

9 7 .8

1 0 0 .0

1 0 3 .8

1 0 6 .6

C a p ita l s e r v ic e s ..............................................................................

2 2 .6

3 5 .5

5 6 .4

8 3 .5

8 5 .4

8 7 .3

8 9 .5

9 2 .3

9 5 .9

1 0 0 .0

1 0 4 .9

1 1 0 .8

3 9 .3

5 0 .7

6 5 .9

8 7 .3

8 7.1

8 8 .4

9 1 .0

9 4 .4

9 7 .2

1 0 0 .0

1 0 4 .2

1 0 8 .0

C a p ita l p e r h o u r o f a ll p e r s o n s ..................................................

4 0 .5

5 4 .8

73.1

9 0 .3

9 4 .7

9 6 .8

9 6 .5

9 6 .3

9 7 .6

1 0 0 .0

1 0 1 .5

1 0 4 .7

1 2 4 .3

Manufacturing (1992 = 100)
P r o d u c tiv ity :
O u t p u t p e r h o u r o f a ll p e r s o n s ...............................................

4 1 .8

5 4 .2

70.1

9 2 .8

9 5 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 1 .9

1 0 5 .0

1 0 9 .0

1 1 2 .8

117 .1

1 2 4 .3

1 1 6 .5

1 0 0 .9

1 0 1 .6

9 7 .5

1 0 0 .0

1 01 .1

1 0 4 .0

1 0 5 .0

1 0 4 .5

1 0 5 .6

1 0 6 .5

M u ltifa c to r p r o d u c t iv it y ................................................................

7 2 .7

8 4 .4

8 6 .6

9 9 .3

9 8 .3

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .4

1 0 2 .6

1 0 5 .0

1 06 .1

1 0 9 .8

1 1 3 .2

O u t p u t ....................................................................................................

3 8 .5

5 6 .5

7 5 .3

9 7 .3

9 5 .4

1 0 0 .0

1 0 3 .3

1 0 8 .7

1 1 3 .4

1 1 6 .9

1 2 3 .5

1 3 0 .7

In p u ts :
H o u r s o f a ll p e r s o n s ....................................................................

9 2 .0

1 0 4 .2

1 0 7 .5

1 0 4 .8

1 0 0 .4

1 0 0 .0

1 0 1 .4

1 0 3 .6

1 0 4 .0

1 0 3 .7

1 0 5 .5

1 0 5 .2

C a p ita l s e r v ic e s ..............................................................................

3 0 .9

4 8 .5

7 4 .7

9 5 .8

9 7 .9

1 0 0 .0

1 0 2 .2

1 0 4 .5

1 0 8 .0

1 1 1 .9

1 1 6 .9

1 2 2 .8

E n e r g y .................................................................................................

5 1 .3

8 5 .4

9 2 .5

9 9 .9

100 .1

1 0 0 .0

1 0 3 .7

1 0 7 .3

1 0 9 .5

1 0 7 .0

1 0 3 .9

1 0 9 .2

3 8 .2

4 4 .8

7 5 .0

9 2 .5

9 3 .6

1 0 0 .0

1 0 5 .7

1 1 1 .3

1 1 2 .8

1 2 0 .4

1 2 0 .4

1 2 7 .2

P u r c h a s e d b u s in e s s s e r v ic e s ..................................................

2 8 .2

4 8 .8

7 3 .7

9 2 .5

9 2.1

1 0 0 .0

1 0 3 .0

1 05 .1

1 1 0 .0

1 0 8 .9

1 1 4 .2

1 1 6 .8

C o m b in e d u n its o f a ll f a c to r in p u ts .......................................

5 2 .9

6 7 .0

8 7 .0

9 8 .0

9 7 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 2 .9

1 0 6 .0

1 0 7 .9

1 1 0 .2

1 1 2 .5

1 1 5 .5

-

94

D a ta n o t a v a ila b le .

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

November 2000

41.

Annual indexes of productivity, hourly com pensation, unit costs, and prices, selected years

[1992 = 100]

Item

1960

1970

1980

1989

1990

1991

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

Business
O u t p u t p e r h o u r o f a ll p e r s o n s ...................................................

4 8 .8

6 7 .0

8 0 .4

9 3 .9

9 5 .2

9 6 .3

1 0 0 .5

1 0 1 .9

1 0 2 .6

1 0 5 .4

1 0 7 .6

1 1 0 .5

C o m p e n s a tio n p e r h o u r ................................................................

1 3 .7

2 3 .5

5 4 .2

8 5 .8

9 0 .7

9 5 .0

1 0 2 .5

1 0 4 .5

1 0 6 .7

1 10.1

1 1 3 .3

1 1 9 .3

1 2 5 .2

R e a l c o m p e n s a tio n p e r h o u r ......................................................

6 0 .0

7 8 .9

8 9 .5

9 5 .9

9 6 .5

9 7 .5

9 9 .9

9 9 .7

9 9 .3

9 9 .7

1 0 0 .4

1 0 4 .3

1 0 7 .3

1 1 4 .0

U n it la b o r c o s ts ..................................................................................

2 8 .0

3 5.1

6 7 .4

9 1 .3

9 5 .3

9 8 .7

1 0 1 .9

1 0 2 .6

1 04.1

1 0 4 .5

1 0 5 .3

1 0 7 .9

1 0 9 .9

U n it n o n la b o r p a y m e n t s ................................................................

2 5 .2

3 1 .6

6 1 .5

9 1 .8

9 3 .9

9 7 .0

1 0 2 .5

1 0 6 .4

1 0 9 .4

1 1 3 .3

1 17 .1

1 1 5 .2

1 1 5 .1

I m p lic it p r ic e d e f la t o r .......................................................................

2 7 .0

3 3 .9

6 5 .2

9 1 .5

9 4 .8

98.1

1 0 2 .2

1 0 4 .0

1 0 6 .0

1 0 7 .7

1 0 9 .7

1 1 0 .6

1 1 1 .8

1 1 3 .4

Nonfarm business
O u t p u t p e r h o u r o f a ll p e r s o n s ...................................................

5 1 .9

6 8 .9

8 2 .0

9 4 .2

9 5 .3

9 6 .4

1 0 0 .5

1 0 1 .8

1 0 2 .8

1 0 5 .4

1 0 7 .3

1 1 0 .2

C o m p e n s a tio n p e r h o u r ................................................................

1 4 .3

2 3 .7

5 4 .6

8 5 .8

9 0 .5

9 5 .0

1 0 2 .2

1 0 4 .3

1 0 6 .6

1 0 9 .8

1 1 2 .9

1 1 8 .6

1 2 4 .4

R e a l c o m p e n s a t io n p e r h o u r ......................................................

6 2 .8

7 9 .5

9 0 .0

9 5 .9

9 6 .3

9 7 .5

9 9 .6

9 9 .5

9 9 .2

9 9 .5

1 0 0 .0

1 0 3 .8

1 0 6 .5

U n it la b o r c o s ts ..................................................................................

2 7 .5

3 4 .4

6 6 .5

91.1

9 5 .0

9 8 .5

1 0 1 .7

1 0 2 .5

1 0 3 .7

1 0 4 .2

1 05 .1

1 0 7 .7

1 0 9 .7

U n it n o n la b o r p a y m e n t s ................................................................

2 4 .6

3 1 .3

6 0 .5

9 1 .3

9 3 .6

97.1

1 0 3 .0

1 0 6 .9

1 1 0 .4

1 1 3 .5

1 1 8 .0

1 1 6 .3

1 1 6 .8

Im p lic it p r ic e d e f la t o r ......................................................................

2 6 .5

3 3 .3

6 4 .3

9 1 .2

9 4 .5

9 8 .0

1 0 2 .2

1 04 .1

1 06.1

1 0 7 .6

1 0 9 .8

1 1 0 .8

1 1 2 .3

Nonfinancial corporations

R e a l c o m p e n s a tio n p e r h o u r ......................................................

5 5 .4

7 0 .4

81.1

9 4 .6

9 5 .4

9 7 .6

1 0 0 .8

1 0 3 .2

1 0 4 .3

1 0 7 .6

1102

1 1 4 .2

1 1 9 .2

1 5 .6

2 5 .3

5 6 .4

8 6 .2

9 0 .8

9 5 .2

1 02.1

1 0 4 .3

106 2

1 09 .1

1 1 2 .0

1 1 7 .4

123 2

6 8 .3

8 4 .7

9 3.1

9 6 .3

9 6 .6

9 7 .8

9 9 .6

9 9 .5

9 8 .9

9 8 .8

9 9 .3

1 0 2 .7

1 0 5 .5

2 6 .8

3 4 .8

6 8 .4

92 0

95 9

98 8

101 0

101 1

102 0

101 2

101 4

10? ?

10? 9

U n it la b o r c o s ts ...............................................................................

2 8.1

3 5 .9

6 9 .6

9 1.1

9 5 .2

9 7 .5

1 0 1 .3

1 0 1 .0

1 0 1 .9

1 0 1 .4

1 0 1 .6

1 0 2 .8

1 0 3 .4

U n it n o n la b o r c o s ts .......................................................................

2 3 .3

3 1 .9

6 5.1

9 4 .6

9 8 .0

102 .1

1 0 0 .2

1 0 1 .3

1 0 2 .2

1 0 0 .6

1 0 0 .8

1 0 0 .8

1 0 1 .7

U n it p r o fit s ............................................................................................

5 0 .2

4 4 .4

6 8 .8

9 7 .3

9 4 .3

9 3 .0

1 1 3 .2

1 3 1 .7

1 3 9 .0

1 5 2 .2

1 5 6 .7

1 4 8 .3

1 4 6 .5

U n it n o n la b o r p a y m e n t s ................................................................

3 0 .2

3 5.1

6 6 .0

9 5 .3

9 7.1

9 9 .7

1 0 3 .5

1 0 9 .0

1 1 1 .6

1 1 3 .8

1 1 5 .0

1 1 2 .9

1 1 3 .1

Im p lic it p r ic e d e f la t o r ......................................................................

2 8 .8

3 5 .6

6 8 .4

9 2 .5

9 5 .8

9 8 .3

102 .1

1 0 3 .7

1 05 .1

1 0 5 .5

1 06 .1

1 06 .1

1 0 6 .6

4 1 .9

5 4 .3

7 0 .3

9 0 .5

9 2 .9

9 5 .0

1 0 2 .0

1 0 5 .2

1 0 9 .3

1 13 .1

1 1 7 .6

1 2 3 .9

1 3 1 .6

1 4 .9

2 3 .7

5 5 .6

8 6 .6

9 0 .8

9 5 .6

102 7

1 0 5 .6

1 0 7 .9

1 0 9 .3

1114

117 3

123 2

Manufacturing
O u t p u t p e r h o u r o f a ll p e r s o n s ...................................................

R e a l c o m p e n s a t io n p e r h o u r ......................................................

6 5 .2

7 9 .5

9 1 .7

9 6 .8

9 6 .6

9 8.1

1 0 0 .2

1 0 0 .8

1 0 0 .4

9 9 .0

9 8 .8

1 0 2 .6

1 0 5 .5

U n it la b o r c o s ts ..................................................................................

3 5 .5

4 3 .7

7 9.1

9 5 .8

9 7 .7

1 0 0 .6

1 0 0 .7

1 0 0 .4

9 8 .7

9 6 .6

9 4 .8

9 4 .6

9 3 .6

U n it n o n la b o r p a y m e n t s ................................................................

2 6 .8

2 9 .4

8 0 .2

9 5 .4

9 9 .6

9 8 .9

1 0 1 .0

1 0 2 .9

1 0 7 .2

1 10 .1

1 0 9 .7

1 0 4 .6

-

Im p lic it p r ic e d e f la t o r ......................................................................

3 0 .2

3 4 .9

7 9 .8

9 5 .5

9 8 .9

9 9 .6

1 0 0 .9

1 0 1 .9

1 0 3 .9

1 0 4 .9

1 0 3 .9

1 0 0 .7

-

-

D a ta n o t a v a ila b le .


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

95

Current Labor Statistics:

42.

Productivity Data

Annual indexes of output per hour for selected 3-digit SIC industries

[1987= 100]
In d u s tr y

S IC

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

M in in g
C o p p e r o r e s .........................................................................

102

109.2

106.6

1 02 .7

1 00 .5

115 .2

118.1

1 26 .0

117 .2

1 16 .5

1 18 .9

1 17 .5

G o ld a n d s ilv e r o re s ...........................................................

104

101 .5

113 .3

1 22 .3

1 27 .4

141 .6

1 59.8

160 .8

144.2

138 .3

1 59 .0

1 86 .3

B itu m in o u s c o a l a n d lig n ite m in in g ..............................

122

111 .7

1 17 .3

118.7

1 22 .4

133.0

141 .2

148.1

155 .9

168.0

176.6

C ru d e p e tro le u m a n d n a tu ra l g a s .................................

131

101 .0

9 8 .0

9 7 .0

9 7 .9

102.1

105 .9

112.4

119 .4

123 .9

125.2

1 28 .7

C ru s h e d a n d b ro k e n s to n e .............................................

142

101 .3

9 8 .7

102 .2

9 9 .8

105 .0

103 .6

108 .7

105 .4

107.2

114 .0

1 11 .9

M e a t p ro d u c ts .......................................................................

201

100.1

9 9.2

97.1

9 9 .6

104 .6

104 .3

101.2

102 .3

9 7 .4

103 .2

_

D a iry p ro d u c ts .....................................................................

202

1 08 .4

1 07 .7

1 07 .3

1 08 .3

1 11 .4

109 .6

1 11 .8

116 .4

116 .0

119 .5

_

1 87 .3

M a n u fa c tu r in g

P re s e rv e d fru its a n d v e g e ta b le s ..................................

203

9 7 .0

9 7 .8

9 5 .6

9 9.2

1 00 .5

1 06 .8

1 07.6

109.1

109.2

1 11 .8

_

G ra in m ill p ro d u c ts ..............................................................

204

1 01.3

1 07.6

1 05 .4

1 04.9

1 07.8

1 09.2

1 08 .4

1 15 .4

108 .0

118 .7

_

B a k e ry p ro d u c ts ..................................................................

205

9 6 .8

96.1

9 2 .7

9 0 .6

9 3 .8

9 4 .4

9 6 .4

9 7 .3

9 5 .6

9 9 .3

-

S u g a r a n d c o n fe c tio n e ry p ro d u c ts ...............................

206

9 9 .5

1 01 .8

103.2

1 02.0

9 9 .8

1 04 .5

106.2

1 08.3

1 13 .8

117.1

F a ts a n d o ils ..........................................................................

207

1 08 .9

1 16 .4

118.1

120.1

114.1

1 12 .6

1 11 .8

1 20.3

110.1

120 .0

_

B e v e ra g e s .............................................................................

208

106 .0

112 .7

117.7

120 .5

127 .6

127 .0

130.8

1 34 .3

1 35.7

1 36 .3

_

M is c e lla n e o u s fo o d a n d k in d re d p ro d u c ts .................

209

107 .0

9 9 .3

9 9 .3

101 .6

101 .6

105 .3

101 .0

103.1

109 .2

1 03 .9

_

C ig a r e tte s ..............................................................................

211

1 01.2

109 .0

113.2

107 .6

111 .6

1 06 .5

126 .6

142 .9

147 .2

1 47.2

-

B ro a d w o v e n fa b ric m ills , c o tto n ....................................

221

9 9 .6

9 9.8

103.1

111.2

1 10.3

117.8

122.1

1 34.0

137 .3

1 30 .9

B ro a d w o v e n fa b ric m ills, m a n m a d e .............................

222

9 9 .2

1 06.3

1 11.3

1 16.2

1 26.2

1 31.7

1 42.5

1 45.3

1 47.6

1 61 .9

_

N a rro w fa b ric m ills ..............................................................

224

1 08.4

9 2 .7

9 6 .5

9 9 .6

1 12.9

1 11.4

120.1

1 18 .9

1 26.3

1 07 .7

_

K n ittin g m ills ..........................................................................

225

9 6 .3

1 08.0

1 07.5

114.1

1 19.5

128.1

1 34 .3

1 38 .6

1 50.5

150.2

.

T e x tile fin is h in g , e x c e p t w o o l..........................................

226

9 0 .3

8 8 .7

8 3 .4

7 9 .9

7 8 .6

7 9 .3

8 1 .2

7 8 .5

7 9.2

9 4 .0

-

C a rp e ts a n d ru g s .................................................................

227

98.6

9 7 .8

9 3 .2

89.2

1 00 .3

96.1

97.1

9 5 .8

1 00.2

Y a rn a n d th r e a d m ills .........................................................

228

102.1

1 04.2

1 10.2

1 11 .4

119.6

1 26.6

1 30.7

1 37 .4

1 4 7 .4

1 55 .5

_

M is c e lla n e o u s te x tile g o o d s ............................................

229

1 01.6

109.1

1 09.2

1 04.6

1 06.5

1 10.4

1 18.5

1 23.7

123.1

1 17 .9

_

9 3 .3

M e n 's a n d b o y s ’ s u its a n d c o a ts ...................................

231

105.1

9 7 .7

9 3 .9

9 0 .2

8 9 .0

9 7 .4

9 7 .7

9 2 .5

9 7 .4

1 30 .3

_

M e n 's a n d b o y s ' fu r n is h in g s ............................................

2 32

100.1

100.1

102.1

1 08.4

109.1

1 08.4

1 11.7

1 23 .4

1 34 .7

1 52 .4

-

W o m e n 's a n d m is s e s ' o u te rw e a r...................................

233

1 01 .4

9 6.8

104.1

1 04 .3

1 09 .4

1 21.8

1 27 .4

1 35.5

1 41 .6

1 51.5

W o m e n 's a n d c h ild re n 's u n d e rg a rm e n ts ....................

234

1 05 .4

9 4 .6

102.1

113 .6

1 17.4

1 24.5

1 38 .0

1 61.3

1 74.5

1 96 .3

_

H a ts, c a p s , a n d m illin e ry ..................................................

235

9 9 .0

9 6 .4

8 9.2

91.1

9 3 .6

8 7 .2

7 7 .7

8 4 .3

82.2

8 3 .5

_

M is c e lla n e o u s a p p a re l a n d a c c e s s o rie s ....................

238

1 01 .3

8 8 .4

9 0 .6

9 1 .8

9 1 .3

9 4 .0

105 .5

116.8

120.1

1 05.2

.

M is c e lla n e o u s fa b ric a te d te x tile p ro d u c ts ..................

239

9 6 .6

9 5.7

9 9 .9

1 00 .7

1 07 .5

1 08 .5

107 .8

109 .2

1 05 .6

1 17.0

-

L o g g in g ...................................................................................

241

9 3 .7

8 9 .4

8 6 .3

8 6 .0

9 6 .2

8 8.6

8 7 .8

8 6 .0

8 5 .4

7 1 .9

S a w m ills a n d p la n in g m ills ...............................................

2 42

1 00.7

9 9 .6

9 9 .8

1 02.6

108.1

1 01.9

103.3

1 10.2

115 .6

1 17.5

_

M illw o rk , p ly w o o d , a n d s tru c tu ra l m e m b e rs ..............

9 8 .0

9 8 .0

9 9 .9

9 7 .0

9 4 .5

9 2 .7

9 2 .4

8 9 .9

_

243

9 8 .8

97.1

W o o d c o n ta in e rs ..................................................................

244

103.1

1 08.8

111.2

113.1

1 09.4

100.1

1 00.9

106.1

1 06 .7

106 .6

_

W o o d b u ild in g s a n d m o b ile h o m e s ..............................

245

9 7 .8

9 8 .8

103.1

1 03.0

103.1

1 03.8

9 8.3

9 7 .0

9 6 .7

101.1

-

M is c e lla n e o u s w o o d p ro d u c ts ........................................

249

9 5 .9

1 02 .4

107 .7

110 .5

114 .2

1 15 .3

111 .8

1 15.4

1 14 .4

123.1

H o u s e h o ld fu r n itu re ............................................................

251

9 9 .4

102 .0

104 .5

107.1

110 .5

110 .6

112 .5

116 .9

121 .6

1 21 .8

_

O ffic e fu r n itu re .....................................................................

2 52

9 4 .3

9 7 .5

9 5 .0

94.1

102 .5

103.2

100 .5

101.1

1 06 .4

1 17 .9

_

P u b lic b u ild in g a n d re la te d fu r n itu re ............................

253

109 .6

113 .7

119 .8

120.2

1 40 .6

161 .0

1 57 .4

173 .3

181 .5

186 .5

_

P a rtitio n s a n d fix tu re s ........................................................

254

9 5 .7

9 2 .4

9 5 .6

9 3 .0

1 02 .7

1 07 .4

9 8 .9

1 01.2

9 7 .5

121 .4

-

M is c e lla n e o u s fu r n itu re a n d fix tu re s .............................

259

1 03.6

1 01.9

1 03.5

102.1

9 9 .5

1 03.6

104.7

110 .0

1 13.2

102 .2

P u lp m ills .............................................................................

261

9 9 .6

1 07 .4

1 16.7

1 28.3

1 37.3

1 22.5

1 28.9

1 31.9

1 32 .6

1 04 .4

_

P a p e r m ills .............................................................................

2 62

1 03 .9

1 03.6

1 02.3

99.2

1 03 .3

1 02.4

110.2

1 18 .6

1 11 .6

107 .0

_

P a p e rb o a rd m ills ..................................................................

263

1 05 .5

1 01 .9

1 00.6

1 01 .4

1 04 .4

1 08 .4

1 14.9

1 19 .5

1 18 .0

1 24.2

_

P a p e rb o a rd c o n ta in e rs a n d b o x e s ................................

265

9 9 .7

1 01 .5

1 01.3

1 03 .4

1 05.2

1 07.9

1 08 .4

105.1

1 06 .3

110.1

-

M is c e lla n e o u s c o n v e rte d p a p e r p ro d u c ts ..................

267

101.1

1 01.6

1 01 .4

1 05.3

1 05.5

1 07 .9

110 .6

1 13 .3

1 13 .6

1 21 .7

N e w s p a p e rs ...........................................................................

271

9 6 .9

9 5 .2

9 0 .6

8 5 .8

8 1 .5

7 9 .4

7 9 .9

7 9 .0

7 7 .4

7 9 .0

P e rio d ic a ls ..............................................................................

272

9 7 .9

9 8 .3

9 3 .9

8 9 .5

9 2 .9

8 9 .5

8 1 .9

8 7 .8

89.1

100.1

B o o k s .......................................................................................

273

99.1

94.1

9 6.6

100.8

9 7 .7

103 .5

103 .0

101 .6

9 9 .3

102 .2

_
_

M is c e lla n e o u s p u b lis h in g .................................................

274

9 6 .7

8 9 .0

9 2 .2

9 5 .9

105 .8

104 .5

9 7 .5

9 4.8

9 3 .6

1 14 .5

-

109 .2

C o m m e rc ia l p rin tin g ...........................................................

_

275

100 .0

101.1

102 .5

102 .0

108 .0

106 .9

106 .5

107.2

1 08 .3

M a n ifo ld b u s in e s s fo r m s ...................................................

276

9 8 .7

8 9 .7

9 3 .0

89.1

9 4 .5

91.1

8 2 .0

7 6.9

7 5.2

7 8 .9

G re e tin g c a rd s ....................................................................

277

100.1

109.1

1 00 .6

9 2 .7

9 6 .7

9 1 .4

8 9 .0

9 2 .5

9 0 .8

9 2.2

B la n k b o o k s a n d b o o k b in d in g ..........................................

278

9 5 .6

9 4 .2

9 9 .4

96.1

1 03 .6

9 8 .7

1 05 .4

108 .7

114 .5

1 15 .3

_
_
_

P rin tin g tra d e s e r v ic e s .......................................................

279

9 9 .9

9 4 .3

9 9 .3

1 00 .6

1 12 .0

1 15 .3

1 11 .0

116 .7

126 .2

124 .2

-

In d u s tria l in o rg a n ic c h e m ic a ls ........................................

281

105.7

1 04.3

1 06.8

1 09.7

1 09.7

105.6

1 02.3

116.1

109 .3

110.1

P la s tic s m a te ria ls a n d s y n th e tic s ...................................

282

9 8 .8

9 9.7

1 00 .9

1 00.0

1 07.5

1 12.0

1 25.3

1 28 .3

125 .3

1 33 .8

D r u g s .......................................................................................

283

1 01 .0

102 .8

103 .8

1 04.5

9 9 .5

9 9 .9

1 04.9

1 08.7

112.1

1 12 .6

S o a p s , c le a n e rs , a n d to ile t g o o d s .................................

284

102 .0

100 .6

103 .8

1 05 .3

1 04 .4

1 08.7

1 11 .2

1 18.6

1 20 .9

1 30 .4

_
_
_

P a in ts a n d a llie d p ro d u c ts ................................................

285

1 01 .4

103 .3

106 .3

104.3

1 02.9

108.8

1 16 .7

1 18.0

1 25 .6

127 .2

-

S e e fo o tn o te s a t e n d o f ta b le .

96

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

November 2000

42. Continued-Annual indexes of output per hour for selected 3-digit SIC industries
[1987= 100]

Industry

SIC

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

In d u s tr ia l o rg a n ic c h e m ic a ls ............................................

286

1 0 9 .9

1 1 0 .4

1 0 1 .4

9 5 .8

9 4 .6

9 2 .2

9 9 .9

9 8 .6

9 9 .0

1 1 2 .9

A g r ic u ltu r a l c h e m ic a ls .........................................................

287

1 0 3 .7

1 0 4 .3

1 0 4 .7

9 9 .5

9 9 .5

1 0 3 .8

1 0 5 .0

1 0 8 .5

1 1 0 .0

1 2 0 .4

-

M is c e lla n e o u s c h e m ic a l p ro d u c ts ..................................

289

9 5 .4

9 5 .2

9 7 .3

96.1

1 0 1 .8

107.1

1 0 5 .7

1 0 7 .8

110.1

1 2 0 .2

-

P e tro le u m re fin in g ................................................................

291

A s p h a lt p a v in g a n d ro o fin g m a te ria ls ..........................

295

1 0 5 .3

1 0 9 .6

9 8 .3

9 5 .3

1 0 9 .2
9 8 .0

1 0 6 .6
94.1

1 1 1 .3
1 0 0 .4

120.1

1 2 3 .8

1 3 2 .3

1 4 2 .0

1 4 9 .2

1 0 8 .0

1 0 4 .9

1 1 1 .2

113.1

1 2 0 .8

M is c e lla n e o u s p e tro le u m a n d c o a l p ro d u c ts ............

299

9 8 .4

1 0 1 .9

9 4 .8

9 0 .6

1 0 1 .5

1 0 4 .2

9 6 .3

8 7 .4

87.1

9 7 .2

_

T ire s a n d in n e r tu b e s ..........................................................

301

1 0 2 .9

1 0 3 .8

1 03 .0

1 0 2 .4

1 0 7 .8

1 1 6 .5

124.1

131.1

1 3 8 .8

1 4 8 .5

-

H o s e a n d b e ltin g a n d g a s k e ts a n d p a c k in g ..............

305

1 0 3 .7

9 6 .3

96.1

9 2 .4

9 7 .8

9 9 .7

1 0 2 .7

1 0 4 .6

1 0 7 .4

1 1 2 .5

-

F a b r ic a te d ru b b e r p ro d u c ts , n .e .c ..................................

306

1 0 4 .2

1 0 5 .5

1 09 .0

1 0 9 .9

1 1 5 .2

123.1

119.1

1 2 1 .5

1 2 1 .0

1 2 5 .4

-

M is c e lla n e o u s p la s tic s p ro d u c ts , n .e .c ........................

308

1 0 0 .5

1 0 1 .8

1 0 5 .7

1 0 8 .2

1 1 4 .4

1 1 6 .7

1 2 0 .7

1 2 0 .9

1 2 4 .7

130.1

-

1 1 3 .0

117.1

126.1

1 2 9 .5

-

F o o tw e a r, e x c e p t r u b b e r..................................................

314

1 0 1 .3

101.1

101.1

9 4 .4

1 0 4 .2

1 0 5 .2

L u g g a g e ....................................................................................

316

9 3 .7

1 0 4 .8

1 0 6 .2

1 0 0 .3

9 0 .7

8 9 .5

9 2 .3

9 0 .5

1 1 0 .6

1 3 6 .4

-

H a n d b a g s a n d p e rs o n a l le a th e r g o o d s .......................

317

9 8 .5

93.1

9 6 .5

9 8 .7

1 1 1 .2

9 7 .8

8 6 .8

8 1 .8

8 3 .2

1 0 9 .7

321

9 1 .9

9 0 .7

8 4 .5

8 3 .6

9 2 .7

9 7 .7

9 7 .6

9 9 .6

1 0 1 .5

1 0 7 .6

_

1 0 2 .3

1 0 8 .9

1 0 8 .7

1 1 2 .9

1 1 5 .7

1 2 1 .4

1 2 8 .2

-

G la s s a n d g la s s w a re , p re s s e d o r b lo w n .....................

322

1 0 0 .6

1 00 .2

1 04 .8

P ro d u c ts o f p u r c h a s e d g la s s ...........................................

323

9 5 .9

90.1

9 2 .6

9 7 .7

1 0 1 .5

1 0 6 .2

1 0 5 .9

106.1

1 2 2 .0

1 2 5 .3

C e m e n t, h y d r a u lic ................................................................

324

1 03 .2

1 1 0 .2

1 1 2 .4

1 0 8 .3

115.1

1 1 9 .9

1 2 5 .6

1 2 4 .3

1 2 8 .7

133.1

-

S tr u c tu ra l c la y p ro d u c ts ......................................................

325

9 8 .8

103.1

1 0 9 .6

1 0 9 .8

1 1 1 .4

1 0 6 .8

1 1 4 .0

1 1 2 .6

1 1 9 .6

116.1

326

9 9 .6

97.1

9 8 .6

9 5 .8

9 9 .5

1 0 0 .3

1 0 8 .4

1 0 9 .3

1 1 9 .3

116.1

_

327

1 0 0 .8

1 0 2 .4

1 0 2 .3

1 0 1 .2

1 0 2 .5

1 0 4 .6

1 0 1 .5

1 0 4 .5

1 0 7 .3

1 0 9 .2

-

C o n c r e te , g y p s u m , a n d p la s te r p ro d u c ts ....................

-

329

1 03 .0

9 5 .5

9 5 .4

9 4 .0

1 0 4 .3

1 0 4 .5

1 0 6 .3

1 0 7 .8

1 1 0 .4

1 1 2 .7

331

1 1 2 .6

1 08 .0

1 0 9 .6

1 0 7 .8

117.1

1 3 3 .5

1 4 2 .4

1 4 2 .7

155.1

1 6 0 .9

_

Iro n a n d s te e l fo u n d r ie s .....................................................

332

1 04 .0

1 0 5 .4

106.1

1 0 4 .5

1 0 7 .2

112.1

1 1 3 .0

1 1 2 .7

1 1 6 .2

1 2 1 .7

-

P rim a ry n o n fe r ro u s m e ta ls ...............................................

333

1 0 7 .8

106.1

1 0 2 .3

1 1 0 .7

1 0 1 .9

1 0 7 .9

1 0 5 .3

1 1 1 .0

1 1 0 .8

1 1 6 .0

-

N o n fe rro u s ro llin g a n d d ra w in g ......................................

335

9 5 .5

9 3 .6

9 2 .7

9 1 .0

9 6 .0

9 8 .3

1 0 1 .2

9 9 .2

1 0 4 .0

1 1 2 .3

-

M is c e lla n e o u s n o n m e ta llic m in e ra l p ro d u c ts ............

N o n fe rro u s fo u n d r ie s (c a s tin g s ).....................................

336

1 0 2 .6

105.1

1 0 4 .0

1 0 3 .6

1 0 3 .6

1 0 8 .5

112.1

1 1 7 .8

1 2 2 .3

1 2 6 .4

-

M is c e lla n e o u s p rim a ry m e ta l p ro d u c ts .......................

339

1 0 6 .6

1 0 5 .0

1 1 3 .7

109.1

1 1 4 .5

1 1 1 .3

1 3 4 .5

1 5 2 .2

1 4 9 .6

1 4 0 .9

-

M e ta l c a n s a n d s h ip p in g c o n ta in e rs .............................

341

1 0 6 .5

1 0 8 .5

1 1 7 .6

1 2 2 .9

1 2 7 .8

1 3 2 .3

1 4 0 .9

1 4 4 .2

1 5 5 .2

1 6 0 .8

-

C u tle ry , h a n d to o ls , a n d h a r d w a re ..................................

342

9 7 .8

1 01 .7

9 7 .3

9 6 .8

100.1

1 0 4 .0

1 0 9 .2

1 1 1 .3

1 1 8 .2

113.1

-

P lu m b in g a n d h e a tin g , e x c e p t e le c tric .........................

343

1 0 3 .7

1 0 1 .5

1 0 2 .6

1 02 .0

9 8 .4

1 0 2 .0

109.1

1 0 9 .2

1 1 8 .6

1 2 7 .2

-

F a b r ic a te d s tru c tu ra l m e ta l p ro d u c ts ............................

344

1 0 0 .4

9 6 .9

9 8 .8

1 0 0 .0

1 0 3 .9

1 0 4 .8

1 0 7 .7

1 0 5 .8

1 0 6 .5

1 1 0 .0

S c re w m a c h in e p ro d u c ts , b o lts , e tc .............................

345

9 8 .5

96.1

96.1

9 7 .9

1 0 2 .3

1 0 4 .4

1 0 7 .2

1 0 9 .7

1 1 0 .2

1 5 1 .3

-

M e ta l fo r g in g s a n d s ta m p in g s .........................................

346

1 0 1 .5

9 9 .8

9 5 .6

9 2 .9

1 0 3 .7

1 0 8 .7

1 0 8 .5

1 0 9 .3

1 1 3 .6

1 2 0 .2

-

M e ta l s e rv ic e s , n .e .c ............................................................

347

1 0 8 .3

1 0 2 .4

1 0 4 .7

9 9 .4

1 1 1 .6

1 2 0 .6

1 2 3 .0

1 2 7 .7

1 2 8 .4

1 2 3 .5

O rd n a n c e a n d a c c e s s o rie s , n .e .c ..................................

348

9 7 .7

8 9 .8

82.1

8 1 .5

8 8 .6

8 4 .6

8 3 .6

8 7 .6

8 7 .5

1 0 0 .5

-

M is c e lla n e o u s fa b ric a te d m e ta l p ro d u c ts ...................

349

1 01 .4

9 5 .9

9 7 .5

9 7 .4

101.1

1 0 2 .0

1 0 3 .2

1 0 6 .6

1 0 8 .3

1 0 6 .2

-

E n g in e s a n d tu r b in e s ..........................................................

351

1 0 6 .8

1 1 0 .7

1 0 6 .5

1 0 5 .8

1 0 3 .3

1 0 9 .2

1 2 2 .3

1 2 2 .7

1 3 6 .6

1 3 4 .2

-

1 1 6 .5

1 1 2 .9

1 1 3 .9

1 1 8 .6

1 2 5 .0

1 3 4 .7

1 3 7 .2

1 4 1 .0

-

F a rm a n d g a r d e n m a c h in e ry ...........................................

352

1 0 6 .3

1 1 0 .7

C o n s tr u c tio n a n d re la te d m a c h in e ry ............................

353

1 0 6 .5

1 0 8 .3

1 0 7 .0

99.1

1 0 2 .0

1 0 8 .2

1 1 7 .7

122.1

1 2 3 .3

1 3 1 .8

-

M e ta lw o rk in g m a c h in e ry ....................................................

354

1 01 .0

1 0 3 .5

101.1

9 6 .4

1 0 4 .3

1 0 7 .4

1 0 9 .9

1 1 4 .8

1 1 4 .9

1 1 8 .6

-

S p e c ia l in d u s tr y m a c h in e ry ..............................................

355

1 0 4 .6

1 0 8 .3

1 0 7 .5

1 0 8 .3

1 0 6 .0

1 1 3 .6

1 2 1 .2

1 3 2 .3

1 3 4 .0

130.1

-

G e n e ra l in d u s tr ia l m a c h in e ry ...........................................

356

1 0 5 .9

1 0 1 .5

1 0 1 .5

1 0 1 .6

1 0 1 .6

1 0 4 .8

1 0 6 .7

1 0 9 .0

1 0 9 .4

110.1

-

R e frig e ra tio n a n d s e rv ic e m a c h in e ry ............................

358

102.1

1 0 6 .0

1 0 3 .6

1 0 0 .7

1 0 4 .9

1 0 8 .6

1 1 0 .7

1 1 2 .7

1 1 4 .7

1 1 4 .8

-

In d u s tria l m a c h in e ry , n .e .c ................................................

359

1 0 6 .5

107.1

1 0 7 .3

1 09 .0

1 17 .0

1 1 8 .5

1 2 7 .4

1 3 8 .8

1 4 1 .4

1 2 9 .7

-

E le c tric d is tr ib u tio n e q u ip m e n t........................................

361

1 0 5 .4

1 0 5 .0

1 0 6 .3

1 0 6 .5

1 1 9 .6

1 22 .2

1 3 1 .8

1 4 3 .0

1 4 3 .9

1 4 3 .9

-

E le c tric a l in d u s tria l a p p a r a tu s ..........................................

362

1 0 4 .6

1 0 7 .4

1 0 7 .7

107.1

117.1

1 3 2 .9

1 3 4 .9

1 5 0 .8

1 5 4 .3

1 6 3 .9

H o u s e h o ld a p p lia n c e s .......................................................

363

1 0 3 .0

1 0 4 .7

1 0 5 .8

1 0 6 .5

1 1 5 .0

1 2 3 .4

1 3 1 .4

1 2 7 .3

1 2 7 .4

138.1

-

E le c tric lig h tin g a n d w irin g e q u ip m e n t.........................

364

1 0 1 .9

1 0 0 .2

9 9 .9

9 7 .5

1 0 5 .7

1 0 7 .8

1 1 3 .4

1 1 3 .7

1 1 6 .9

1 2 1 .4

-

C o m m u n ic a tio n s e q u ip m e n t.............................................

366

1 1 0 .5

1 07 .2

1 2 1 .4

1 2 4 .5

1 4 6 .7

1 5 0 .3

1 6 6 .0

1 7 0 .9

1 9 0 .3

2 2 1 .0

-

M is c e lla n e o u s e le c tric a l e q u ip m e n t & s u p p lie s ........

369

1 0 2 .8

9 9 .6

9 0 .6

9 8 .6

1 0 1 .3

1 0 8 .2

1 1 0 .5

114.1

123.1

1 2 4 .6

-

M o to r v e h ic le s a n d e q u ip m e n t........................................

371

1 03 .2

1 0 3 .3

1 0 2 .4

9 6 .6

1 0 4 .2

1 0 6 .2

1 0 8 .8

1 0 6 .7

1 0 7 .2

1 1 6 .5

-

372

1 0 0 .6

9 8 .2

9 8 .9

1 08 .2

1 1 2 .4

1 1 5 .2

1 0 9 .6

1 0 7 .8

1 1 3 .0

1 1 4 .0

S h ip a n d b o a t b u ild in g a n d re p a irin g ............................

373

9 9 .4

9 7 .6

1 0 3 .7

9 6 .3

1 0 2 .7

1 0 6 .2

1 0 3 .8

9 8 .0

9 9 .2

1 0 4 .3

-

R a ilro a d e q u ip m e n t.............................................................

374

1 1 3 .5

1 3 5 .3

141.1

1 4 6 .9

1 4 7 .9

1 5 1 .0

1 5 2 .5

1 5 0 .0

1 4 8 .3

1 8 3 .2

-

M o to r c y c le s , b ic y c le s , a n d p a r ts ...................................

375

9 2 .6

9 4 .6

9 3 .8

9 9 .8

1 0 8 .4

1 3 0 .9

125.1

1 2 0 .3

1 2 5 .5

1 2 0 .5

-

G u id e d m is s ile s , s p a c e v e h ic le s , p a r ts .......................

376

104.1

1 1 0 .6

1 1 6 .5

1 1 0 .5

1 1 0 .5

122.1

1 1 8 .9

1 2 1 .0

1 2 9 .4

1 2 6 .6

-

S e a rc h a n d n a v ig a tio n e q u ip m e n t................................

381

1 0 4 .8

1 0 5 .8

1 1 2 .7

1 1 8 .9

122.1

129.1

132.1

1 4 9 .5

1 4 2 .2

1 4 8 .9

-

M e a s u rin g a n d c o n tro llin g d e v ic e s ...............................

382

1 0 3 .9

102.1

1 0 7 .0

1 1 3 .9

1 2 1 .0

1 2 5 .2

1 3 5 .0

1 4 7 .8

1 5 1 .9

1 4 4 .3

-

M e d ic a l in s tr u m e n ts a n d s u p p lie s ................................

384

1 0 5 .2

1 0 7 .9

1 1 6 .9

1 1 8 .7

1 2 3 .5

1 2 7 .3

1 2 6 .7

1 3 1 .5

1 3 9 .8

1 4 6 .3

-

O p h th a lm ic g o o d s .................................................................

385

1 1 2 .6

1 2 3 .3

1 2 1 .2

125.1

1 4 4 .5

1 5 7 .8

1 6 0 .6

1 6 7 .2

1 8 8 .2

2 0 2 .6

-

P h o to g ra p h ic e q u ip m e n t & s u p p lie s .............................

386

1 0 5 .6

1 1 3 .0

1 0 7 .8

1 1 0 .2

1 1 6 .4

1 2 6 .9

1 3 2 .7

1 2 9 .5

1 2 8 .7

1 2 1 .6

-

S e e fo o tn o te s a t e n d o f ta b le .


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

97

Current Labor Statistics:

Productivity Data

42. Continued-Annual indexes of output per hour for selected 3-digit SIC industries
[1987 = 100]
Industry

SIC

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

J e w e lr y , s ilv e r w a r e , a n d p la te d w a r e ...........................

391

1 00 .1

1 0 2 .9

9 9 .3

9 5 .8

9 6 .7

9 6 .7

9 9 .5

1 0 0 .2

1 0 2 .6

M u s ic a l I n s t r u m e n ts ..............................................................

393

1 0 1 .8

96.1

9 7.1

9 6 .9

9 6 .0

9 5 .6

8 8 .7

8 6 .9

7 8 .8

8 3 .9

-

T o y s a n d s p o r tin g g o o d s .....................................................

394

1 0 4 .8

1 0 6 .0

1 08 .1

1 0 9 .7

1 0 4 .9

1 1 4 .2

1 0 9 .7

1 1 3 .6

1 1 9 .9

1 3 9 .6

_

P e n s , p e n c ils , o ffic e , a n d a r t s u p p lie s ..........................

395

1 0 8 .3

1 1 2 .9

1 1 8 .2

1 1 6 .8

1 1 1 .3

1 1 1 .6

1 2 9 .9

1 3 5 .2

1 44.1

1 2 7 .7

_

C o s tu m e je w e lr y a n d n o t io n s ...........................................

396

1 0 2 .0

9 3 .8

1 0 5 .3

1 0 6 .7

1 1 0 .8

1 1 5 .8

1 2 9 .0

1 4 3 .7

1 4 2 .2

1 19 .1

_

M is c e lla n e o u s m a n u f a c tu r e s .............................................

399

1 02 .1

1 0 0 .9

1 0 6 .5

1 0 9 .2

1 0 9 .5

1 0 7 .7

106 .1

1 08.1

1 1 2 .8

1 0 9 .3

-

4213

1 3 0 .1

1 1 7 .2

Transportation
i ru c K in g , e x c e p i lo c a l
u . o . p o s x a i s e r v ic e
M ir tr a n s p o r t a t io n

........................................................

...............................................................
..................................................................

1 0 5 .2

1 0 9 .3

111 .1

1 1 6 .9

1 2 3 .4

1 2 6 .6

1 2 9 .5

1 2 5 .4

1 3 0 .9

1 3 2 .4

431

9 9 .9

9 9 .7

1 0 4 .0

1 0 3 .7

1 0 4 .5

1 07.1

1 0 6 .6

1 0 6 .5

1 0 4 .7

1 0 8 .3

1 0 9 .5

4 5 1 2 ,1 3 ,2 2 (p ts .)

9 9 .5

9 5 .8

9 2 .9

9 2 .5

9 6 .9

1 0 0 .2

1 0 5 .7

1 0 8 .6

1 1 1 .6

1 11 .1

1 0 8 .5

utilities
T e le p h o n e c o m m u n ic a t io n s ...............................................

481

1 0 6 .2

1 1 1 .6

1 1 3 .3

1 1 9 .8

1 2 7 .7

1 3 5 .5

1 4 2 .2

1 48.1

1 5 9 .5

1 6 0 .9

1 7 1 .2

R a d io a n d t e le v is io n b r o a d c a s tin g .................................

483

1 03 .1

1 0 6 .2

1 0 4 .9

1 06.1

1 0 8 .3

1 0 6 .7

1 10 .1

1 0 9 .6

1 0 5 .8

1 01 .1

1 0 0 .8

C a b le a n d o th e r p a y T V s e r v ic e s ...................................

484

1 0 2 .0

9 9 .7

9 2 .5

8 7 .5

8 8 .3

8 6 .7

8 5 .6

8 6 .7

8 4 .4

8 7 .6

8 8 .0

E le c tr ic u tilit ie s ..........................................................................

4 9 1 ,3 (p t.)

1 0 4 .9

1 0 7 .7

1 10 .1

1 1 3 .4

1 1 5 .2

1 2 0 .6

1 2 6 .8

1 3 5 .0

1 5 0 .5

1 4 6 .5

1 5 7 .2

G a s u tilit ie s ................................................................................

4 9 2 ,3 (p t.)

1 0 8 .3

1 1 1 .2

1 0 5 .8

1 0 9 .6

1 11.1

1 2 1 .8

1 2 5 .6

1 37 .1

1 5 8 .6

1 4 5 .9

1 5 3 .4

i raae
L u m b e r a n d o th e r b u ild in g m a te r ia ls d e a le r s ...........

521

1 0 1 .0

9 9.1

1 0 3 .6

1 0 1 .3

1 0 5 .4

1 1 0 .5

1 1 8 .3

1 1 7 .6

1 2 1 .7

1 2 2 .2

1 3 3 .0

P a in t, g la s s , a n d w a llp a p e r s t o r e s ..................................

523

1 0 2 .8

1 0 1 .7

1 0 6 .0

9 9 .4

1 0 6 .5

1 1 4 .7

1 3 0 .2

1 3 5 .3

1 4 0 .2

1 4 3 .8

1 6 6 .0

H a r d w a r e s t o r e s .......................................................................

525

1 0 8 .6

1 1 5 .2

1 1 0 .5

1 0 2 .5

1 0 7 .2

1 0 5 .8

1 1 2 .7

1 0 8 .5

1 12 .1

1 1 1 .2

1 2 5 .3

R e ta il n u r s e r ie s , la w n a n d g a r d e n s u p p ly s to r e s ....

526

1 0 6 .7

1 0 3 .4

8 3 .9

8 8 .5

1 0 0 .4

1 0 6 .6

1 1 6 .6

1 1 7 .2

1 3 6 .6

1 28 .1

1 3 6 .1

D e p a r t m e n t s t o r e s ..................................................................

5 31

9 9 .2

9 7 .0

9 4 .2

9 8 .2

1 0 0 .9

1 0 5 .7

1 0 8 .6

1 1 0 .9

1 1 8 .4

1 2 3 .5

1 2 9 .4

V a r ie t y s t o r e s .............................................................................

533

1 0 1 .9

1 2 4 .4

1 5 1 .2

1 5 4 .2

1 6 7 .7

1 8 4 .7

190 .1

2 0 3 .2

2 2 9 .2

2 4 7 .6

2 6 2 .5

M is c e lla n e o u s g e n e r a l m e r c h a n d is e s to r e s ..............

539

1 0 0 .8

1 0 9 .8

1 1 6 .4

1 2 1 .8

1 36 .1

1 5 9 .7

1 6 0 .9

1 6 3 .9

1 6 4 .9

1 6 8 .2

1 8 9 .9

G r o c e r y s t o r e s ..........................................................................

541

9 8 .9

9 5 .4

9 4 .6

9 3 .7

9 3 .3

9 2 .8

9 2 .5

9 1 .2

8 9 .4

8 9 .2

9 0 .2

M e a t a n d fis h (s e a fo o d ) m a r k e ts .....................................

542

9 9 .0

9 7 .6

9 6 .8

8 8 .4

9 5 .8

9 3 .7

91.1

8 9.1

8 1.1

8 4 .7

8 9 .9

R e ta il b a k e r ie s ..........................................................................

546

8 9 .8

8 3 .3

8 9 .7

9 4 .7

9 4 .0

8 6 .5

8 7 .2

8 6 .8

8 1 .7

7 5 .4

6 5 .0

1 0 8 .0

N e w a n d u s e d c a r d e a le r s ..................................................

551

1 0 3 .4

1 0 2 .5

1 06 .1

1 04 .1

1 0 6 .5

1 0 7 .6

1 0 8 .7

1 07 .1

1 0 8 .2

1 0 7 .8

A u to a n d h o m e s u p p ly s t o r e s ...........................................

553

1 0 3 .2

1 0 1 .6

1 0 2 .7

9 9 .0

1 0 0 .0

9 8 .7

1 0 2 .6

1 0 5 .7

1 0 4 .6

1 0 4 .2

1 0 7 .0

G a s o lin e s e r v ic e s t a t io n s .....................................................

554

1 0 3 .0

1 0 5 .2

1 0 2 .6

1 0 4 .3

1 0 9 .7

1 1 5 .2

1 2 0 .4

1 2 6 .3

1 25 .1

1 2 5 .0

1 3 0 .6

M e n 's a n d b o y s ' w e a r s t o r e s .............................................

561

1 0 6 .0

1 0 9 .6

1 1 3 .7

1 1 9 .2

1 1 8 .2

1 1 5 .5

1 1 7 .9

1 1 7 .5

1 2 5 .7

1 3 2 .2

1 4 5 .5

W o m e n 's c lo th in g s t o r e s .....................................................

562

9 7 .8

9 9 .5

1 0 1 .5

1 0 3 .0

1 1 2 .2

1 1 8 .4

1 1 9 .3

1 2 8 .5

1 4 2 .3

1 4 5 .8

1 5 4 .8

F a m ily c lo th in g s t o r e s ...........................................................

565

1 0 2 .0

1 0 4 .9

1 0 4 .5

1 0 6 .4

1 1 1 .7

1 1 4 .5

1 2 0 .4

1 3 3 .8

1 3 8 .8

1 42 .1

1 4 5 .6

S h o e s t o r e s ................................................................................

566

1 0 2 .7

1 0 7 .2

1 06 .1

1 05.1

1 1 1 .5

1 1 3 .2

1 2 6 .3

1 3 4 .5

1 4 6 .9

1 4 3 .5

1 3 6 .4

M is c e lla n e o u s a p p a r e l a n d a c c e s s o r y s to r e s ...........

569

9 6 .3

9 5 .2

8 8 .6

7 8 .8

89.1

9 2 .9

1 0 0 .4

122 .1

1 27 .1

1 18.1

1 3 1 .0

F u r n itu r e a n d h o m e fu r n is h in g s s to r e s ..........................

571

9 8 .6

1 0 0 .9

1 0 1 .8

1 0 1 .5

1 0 8 .4

1 0 7 .6

1 0 8 .8

1 1 2 .0

1 1 8 .6

1 1 9 .4

1 2 1 .6

H o u s e h o ld a p p lia n c e s t o r e s ...............................................

572

9 8 .5

1 0 3 .5

1 0 2 .8

1 0 5 .2

1 1 3 .9

1 1 7 .0

1 2 1 .2

1 3 8 .7

1 4 1 .8

1 5 5 .5

1 8 4 .5

2 5 8 .9

R a d io , te le v is io n , c o m p u te r , a n d m u s ic s to r e s ........

573

1 1 8 .6

1 1 4 .6

1 1 9 .6

1 2 8 .3

1 3 7 .8

1 5 2 .7

1 7 7 .0

1 9 6 .7

2 0 4 .6

2 1 5 .1

E a tin g a n d d r in k in g p la c e s ..................................................

5 81

1 0 2 .8

1 0 2 .2

1 0 4 .0

1 03.1

1 0 2 .5

1 0 2 .8

1 01 .1

1 0 0 .9

9 9 .5

1 0 0 .5

1 0 1 .1

D r u g a n d p r o p r ie ta r y s t o r e s ...............................................

5 91

1 0 1 .9

1 0 2 .5

1 0 3 .6

1 0 4 .7

1 0 3 .6

1 0 5 .4

1 0 5 .7

1 0 6 .9

1 0 9 .6

1 1 5 .4

1 1 7 .7

L iq u o r s t o r e s ...............................................................................

592

9 8 .2

101 .1

1 0 5 .2

1 0 5 .9

1 0 8 .4

1 0 0 .7

9 9.1

1 0 3 .7

1 1 2 .8

1 0 8 .9

1 1 3 .9

U s e d m e r c h a n d is e s t o r e s ....................................................

593

1 0 5 .3

1 0 4 .9

1 0 0 .3

9 8 .6

1 1 0 .4

1 12 .1

1 1 5 .4

1 1 7 .3

1 2 9 .8

1 3 8 .0

1 5 8 .4

M is c e lla n e o u s s h o p p in g g o o d s s to r e s ..........................

594

1 0 0 .7

1 0 4 .2

1 0 4 .2

1 0 5 .0

1 0 2 .7

1 0 6 .5

1 1 1 .9

1 1 7 .8

1 2 0 .0

1 2 3 .7

1 3 1 .5

N o n s to r e r e t a ile r s .....................................................................

596

1 0 5 .6

1 1 0 .8

1 0 8 .8

1 0 9 .3

1 22.1

1 2 7 .5

1 4 3 .3

1 46 .1

1 6 5 .5

1 7 7 .2

1 9 3 .5

F u e l d e a le r s ........................................................................

598

9 5 .6

9 2 .0

8 4 .4

8 5 .3

8 4 .4

9 2 .7

1 0 0 .7

1 1 4 .2

1 1 5 .8

1 1 3 .4

1 1 2 .0

R e ta il s to r e s , n .e . c ..................................................................

599

1 0 5 .9

1 03.1

1 1 3 .7

1 0 3 .2

1 1 1 .6

1 1 7 .3

1 2 5 .0

1 2 6 .2

1 3 9 .5

1 4 7 .3

1 5 7 .6

C o m m e r c ia l b a n k s ..................................................................

602

1 0 2 .8

1 0 4 .8

1 0 7 .7

110 .1

1 1 1 .0

1 1 8 .5

1 2 1 .7

1 2 6 .4

1 2 9 .7

1 3 3 .0

1 3 3 .0

H o te ls a n d m o t e ls ...................................................................

701

9 7 .6

9 5 .0

96.1

9 9.1

1 0 7 .8

1 0 6 .2

1 0 9 .6

110 .1

1 0 9 .7

1 0 7 .9

1 0 8 .8

L a u n d r y , c le a n in g , a n d g a r m e n t s e r v ic e s ...................

721

9 7 .2

9 9 .7

1 0 1 .8

9 9 .2

9 8 .3

9 8 .9

1 0 4 .0

1 0 5 .5

1 0 8 .7

1 0 8 .0

1 1 3 .5

P h o to g r a p h ic s tu d io s , p o r tr a it ...........................................

722

1 00 .1

9 4 .9

9 6 .6

9 2 .8

9 7 .7

1 0 5 .9

1 1 7 .4

1 2 9 .3

1 2 6 .6

1 3 3 .7

1 5 3 .4

B e a u ty s h o p s .............................................................................

723

9 5.1

9 9 .6

9 6 .8

9 4 .8

9 9 .6

9 5 .7

9 9 .8

1 0 3 .5

1 0 6 .3

1 0 7 .5

1 0 8 .4

1 5 3 .0

Finance ana services

B a r b e r s h o p s .............................................................................

724

1 0 8 .8

1 1 1 .6

1 0 0 .2

94.1

112 .1

1 2 0 .8

1 1 7 .7

1 1 4 .6

1 2 7 .6

1 4 9 .0

F u n e r a l s e r v ic e s a n d c r e m a t o r ie s ...................................

726

1 0 2 .5

9 7 .9

9 0 .9

8 9 .5

1 0 3 .2

9 8 .2

1 0 3 .8

9 9 .7

9 7.1

1 0 1 .3

1 0 7 .0

A u t o m o tiv e r e p a ir s h o p s .......................................................

753

1 0 5 .7

1 08.1

1 0 6 .9

9 8 .7

1 0 3 .3

1 0 4 .0

1 1 2 .3

1 1 9 .5

1 14.1

1 1 5 .2

1 2 1 .2

M o tio n p ic tu r e t h e a te r s .........................................................

783

1 07.1

1 1 4 .3

1 1 5 .8

1 1 6 .0

1 1 0 .8

1 0 9 .8

1 0 6 .5

1 0 1 .4

1 0 0 .5

9 9 .8

1 0 1 .3

R e fe r s t o o u t p u t p e r e m p lo y e e .

n .e .c . = n o t e ls e w h e r e c la s s ifie d

R e fe r s to o u p u t p e r fu ll- tim e e q u iv a le n t e m p lo y e e y e a r o n fis c a l b a s is .

98

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

November 2000

- D a ta n o t a v a ila b le .

43. Unemployment rates, approximating U.S. concepts, in nine countries, quarterly data
seasonally adjusted

1998

III

1999

1999

1998

Annual average

Country

I

IV

III

II

IV

II

I

U n ite d S ta te s .................................................

4 .5

4 .2

4 .5

4 .4

4 .3

4 .3

4 .2

4.1

4.1

4 .0

C a n a d a .............................................................

8 .3

7 .6

8 .2

8.1

7 .9

7 .8

7 .6

7 .0

6 .8

6 .7

A u s tr a lia ...........................................................

8 .0

7 .2

8.1

7 .7

7 .5

7 .4

7.1

7 .0

6 .8

6 .7

J a p a n ................................................................

4.1

4 .7

4 .3

4 .5

4 .7

4 .8

4 .8

4 .7

4 .9

4 .8

F r a n c e ...............................................................

1 1 .9

1 1 .2

1 1 .8

1 1 .6

1 1 .5

1 1 .4

1 1 .3

1 0 .9

1 0 .2

9 .8

9 .3

8 .7

9.1

8 .9

8 .8

8 .8

8 .8

8 .7

8 .4

8 .3

1 2 .0

1 1 .5

1 2 .0

1 2 .0

1 1 .8

1 1 .7

1 1 .5

1 1 .2

1 1 .2

1 0 .8

8 .4

7.1

8 .5

7 .6

7.1

6 .9

7.1

7.1

6 .8

6 .0

6 .3

6.1

6 .3

6 .2

6 .2

6.1

5 .9

5 .9

5 .8

U n ite d K in g d o m ............................................
1

u n e m p lo y m e n t u n d e r U .S . c o n c e p ts th a n th e a n n u a l fig u re s .

Q u a rte rly ra te s a re fo r th e fir s t m o n th o f th e q u a rte r.

o n th e d a t a " fo r in fo rm a tio n o n b re a k s in s e rie s .
N O TE:
c a lc u la te d

Q u a rte rly fig u re s fo r F ra n c e , G e r m a n y , a n d th e U n ite d K in g d o m

a n d h is to ric a l d a ta , s e e

b y a p p ly in g a n n u a l a d ju s tm e n t fa c to rs to c u r r e n t p u b lis h e d

Countries, 1959-1998

d a ta , a n d th e re fo r e s h o u ld


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

b e v ie w e d a s le s s p re c is e

5 .5
S e e N o te s

F o r fu r th e r q u a lific a tio n s

Comparative Civilian Labor Force Statistics, Ten

(B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s , O c t. 2 2 , 1 9 9 9 ) .

in d ic a to rs o f

Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

99

Current Labor Statistics:

International Comparison

44. Annual data: Employment status of the w orking-age population, approxim ating U.S. concepts, 10 countries
[ N u m b e r s in t h o u s a n d s ]

Employment status and country

1990

1991 | 1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

Civilian labor force
U nited S ta te s 1.....................................................
C a n a d a .............................................................................

125,840

126,346

128,105

129,200

131,056

132,304

133,943

136,297

137,673

139,368

14,241

14,330

14,362

14,505

14,627

14,750

14,900

15,153

15,418

15,721

8,444

8,490

8,562

8,619

8,776

9,001

9,127

9,221

9,347

9,470

65,040

6 5,470

6 5,780

6 5,990

66,450

6 7,200

6 7,240

6 7,100
2 5,590

A u s tra lia ..................................................................
J a p a n ..................................................................................

63,050

6 4,280

F ra n c e ...........................................................................

2 4,300

24,4 90

2 4,550

24,6 50

2 4,7 60

24,8 20

2 5,090

2 5,180

2 5,360

G e rm a n y 2..................................................................

2 9,410

39,130

3 9,040

39,140

39,210

3 9,100

3 9,180

39,450

39,430

Ita ly ...............................................................................................

2 2,6 70

2 2,940

2 2,9 10

2 2,570

2 2,450

2 2,460

22,5 70

2 2,680

2 2,960

N e th e rla n d s ........................................................

6,6 4 0

6,750

6,950

7,090

7,190

7,270

7,370

7,530

7,720

S w e d e n ................................................................

4 ,597

4,591

4 ,520

4,443

4,418

4 ,460

4 ,459

4,418

4,4 0 2

4,4 3 0

2 8,730

2 8,6 10

2 8,410

2 8,310

2 8,280

2 8,480

2 8,620

2 8,760

2 8,870

2 9,090

U n ite d K in g d o m .................................................................

2 3,1 30

_

Participation rate3
U n ite d S ta te s 1..............................................................

66.5

66.2

66.4

66.3

66.6

66.6

66.8

67.1

67.1

67.1

C a n a d a ...........................................................................

67.1

66.5

65.7

65.4

65.2

64.9

64.7

64.9

65.1

65.6

A u s tra lia ..........................................................................

64.6

64.1

63.9

63.6

63.9

64.6

64.6

64.3

64.4

64.2

J a p a n ...................................................................................

62.6

63.2

63.4

63.3

63.1

62.9

63.0

63.2

62.8

62.4

F ra n c e .........................................................................................

56.0

5 6.0

55.8

55.6

5 5.5

55.2

55.5

55.3

55.4

55.7

G e rm a n y 2.............................................................................

55.3

58.9

58.3

58.0

5 7.6

5 7.3

57.4

57.6

57.6

-

Ita ly .....................................................................................

47.2

47.7

47.5

47.9

47.3

47.1

47.1

47.2

47.6

47.8

N e th e rla n d s ................................................................................

56.1

56.5

57.8

58.5

59.0

59.3

59.8

60.7

62.0

S w e d e n .......................................................................................

67.4

67.0

65.7

64.5

63.7

64.1

64.0

63.3

62.8

63.2

U n ited K in g d o m .........................................................................

64.1

63.7

63.1

62.8

62.5

62.7

62.7

62.8

62.7

62.9

Employed
U n ite d S ta te s 1.........................................................................
C a n a d a .........................................................................................

118,793

117,718

118,492

120,259

123,060

124,900

126,708

129,558

131,463

13,084

12,851

12,760

12,858

13,112

13,357

13,463

13,774

14,140

A u s tra lia ...............................................................................
J a p a n ...............................................................................

133,488
14,531

7,859

7,676

7,637

7,680

7,921

8,235

8,344

8,429

8,597

8,785

6 1,710

6 2,920

6 3,620

63,8 10

6 3,860

63,890

6 4,200

64,900

6 4,450

6 3,930
2 2,760

F ra n c e .......................................................................

2 2,100

2 2,140

2 1,9 90

2 1,740

2 1,7 10

2 1,890

21,9 60

2 2,060

2 2,390

G e rm a n y 2..........................................................................

2 7,9 50

3 6,920

36,420

3 6,030

35,890

35,900

3 5,680

3 5,540

3 5,720

-

Ita ly ..........................................................................................

2 1,080

2 1,3 60

2 1,230

2 0,2 70

19,940

19,820

19,920

19,990

2 0,210

2 0,4 60

N e th e rla n d s ................................................................

6,230

6,3 5 0

6,560

6,620

6 ,670

6,760

6,900

7,130

7,410

S w e d e n .................................................................

4 ,513

4,4 4 7

4 ,265

4 ,028

3,992

4 ,056

4 ,019

3,973

4,0 3 4

4,1 1 7

2 6,7 40

2 6,090

2 5,5 30

2 5,340

2 5,550

2 6,0 00

2 6,2 80

2 6,740

2 7,0 50

2 7,3 30

U n ite d K in g d o m ......................................................................

_

Employment-population ratio4
U n ite d S ta te s 1....................................................................
C a n a d a .........................................................................................
A u s tra lia .......................................................................................

62.8

61.7

61.5

61.7

62.5

62.9

63.2

63.8

64.1

64.3

61.7

59.7

58.4

58.0

58.4

58.8

5 8.5

59.0

5 9.7

60.6

60.1

5 7.9

57.0

57.7

59.1

59.1

58.8

59.2

59.6

J a p a n ............................................................................................

61.3

61.8

62.0

61.7

61.3

60.9

60.9

61.0

60.2

5 9.4

F ra n c e ..........................................................................................

50.9

50.6

49.9

4 9.0

48.7

48.7

4 8:5

48.4

48.9

49.6

G e rm a n y 2....................................................................................

52.6

55.5

54.4

53.4

52.8

52.6

52.2

51.9

52.2

-

Ita ly ................................................................................................

43.9

4 4.5

44.0

43.0

42.0

41.5

41.6

41.6

41.9

42.3

52.6

53.2

N e th e rla n d s ................................................................................

56.6

_

5 4.5

54.7

5 4.7

55.1

55.9

57.5

5 9.5

S w e d e n ...........................................................................

66.1

64.9

62.0

5 8.5

57.6

58.3

5 7.7

56.9

57.6

58.7

U nited K in g d o m ........................................................

59.6

58.0

56.7

56.2

56.5

57.2

57.6

58.3

58.7

59.1

Unemployed
U n ite d S ta te s 1...........................................................
C a n a d a ........................................................................................
A u s tra lia ...................................................................................

7,047

8 ,628

9,613

8,940

7,996

7,404

7,236

6,739

6,210

6,210

1,157

1,480

1,602

1,647

1,515

1,393

1,437

1,379

1,277

1,190

5 85

814

925

939

856

766

783

791

750

685

J a p a n .......................................................................

1,340

1,360

1,420

1,660

1,920

2 ,100

2,250

2,3 0 0

2 ,7 9 0

3,170

F ra n c e ......................................................................

2 ,210

2,3 5 0

2 ,560

2 ,910

3 ,050

2 ,920

3,130

3,1 2 0

2,9 8 0

2,8 3 0

G e rm a n y 2........................................................

1,460

2,210

2 ,620

3,110

3,320

3 ,200

3 ,500

3,910

3,710

-

1,590

1,580

1,680

2 ,300

2 ,510

2,640

2,6 5 0

2 ,690

2,7 5 0

2,6 7 0

410

400

390

470

520

510

4 70

400

310

84

144

255

415

426

404

440

445

368

313

1,990

2 ,520

2 ,880

2,9 7 0

2,730

2,480

2,3 4 0

2,020

1,820

1,760

N e th e rla n d s ....................................................
S w e d e n ..........................................................
U n ite d K in g d o m ................................................

Unemployment rate
U nited S ta te s 1......................................................

5.6

6.8

7.5

6.9

6.1

5.6

5.4

4.9

4.5

C a n a d a ............................................................................

8.1

10.3

11.2

11.4

10.4

9.4

9.6

9.1

8.3

7.6

A u s tra lia .............................................................

6.9

9.6

10.8

10.9

9.7

8.5

8.6

8.6

8.0

7.2

J a p a n .......................................................................

2.1

2.1

2.2

2.5

2.9

3.2

3.4

3.4

4.1

4.7

4.2

F ra n c e .............................................................

9.1

9.6

10.4

11.8

12.3

11.8

12.5

12.4

11.8

11.1

G e rm a n y 2....................................................................

5.0

5.6

6.7

7.9

8.5

8.2

8.9

9.9

9.4

9.0
11.5

Ita ly ..........................................................................

7.0

6.9

7.3

10.2

11.2

11.8

11.7

11.9

12.0

N e th e rla n d s ..............................................................

6.2

5.9

5.6

6.6

7.2

7.0

6.4

5.3

4.0

S w e d e n .............................................................................

1.8

3.1

5.6

9.3

9.6

9.1

9.9

10.1

8.4

7.1

U n ite d K in g d o m .....................................................................

6.9

8.8

10.1

10.5

9.7

8.7

8.2

7.0

6.3

6.1

D a ta fo r 1994 a re n o t d ire c tly c o m p ara b le w ith d a ta fo r 1993 and e arlie r years. For
a d d itio n a l in fo rm a tio n , se e th e b ox note u nd er "E m p lo ym en t and U n em plo ym e nt D ata"

3 L abor force a s a p ercen t o f th e w o rkin g-a g e population.
4 E m p lo ym e n t a s a p e rce n t o f th e w o rkin g -a g e p opulation.

in th e n o te s to th is se ction.
2

D a ta fro m 1991 o n w a rd re fe r to u nified G erm a ny. S ee

Force Statistics, Ten Countries, 1959-1998,

Comparative Civilian Labor No t e :

O cto b e r 22, 1999, on th e Internet at

http://stats.bls.gov/flsdata.htm.

100

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

S ee "N ote s on th e data " fo r info rm a tion on b re aks in se ries fo r the United

S tates, France, G erm a ny, Italy, th e N e the rla nd s, and S w e de n.
d a ta not available.

November 2000

Dash ind icate s


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

45.

Annual indexes of manufacturing productivity and related measures, 12 countries

[1 9 9 2 = 100]

Item and country

1960

1980

1970

1988

1989

1990

1991

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

Output per hour
United States..........................................................
Canada....................................................................
Japan.......................................................................
Belgium...................................................................
Denmark..................................................................
France.....................................................................
Germany..................................................................
Italy..........................................................................
Netherlands............................................................
Norway....................................................................
Sweden...................................................................
United Kingdom......................................................

-

38.7
14.0
18.0
29.9
21.8
29.2
20.2
18.6
36.7
27.3
31.2

-

56.6
38.0
32.9
52.7
43.0
52.0
37.9
38.1
57.8
52.2
44.7

108.5
107.9
105.6
112.7
101.4
119.4
106.8

113.8
111.0
109.3
113.2
114.5
111.2
109.3
117.7
102.0
121.9
104.8

117.0
109.5
115.8
115.5
115.0
115.1
109.5
119.7
102.0
124.5
103.2

121.1
112.8
121.4
122.4
122.6
121.8
111.5
125.7
103.0
133.0
104.0

127.0
112.5
120.4
122.6
124.0
127.1
111.1
127.8
103.9
135.6
104.6

134.8
115.2
120.4
122.6
128.9
127.1
112.9
127.8
103.9
139.5
109.2

70.5
75.1
63.9
65.4
90.3
66.5
77.2
65.9
69.2
76.7
73.1
56.1

96.9
90.9
84.8
92.0
94.1
87.5
91.5
86.7
93.7
92.1
90.5
82.3

95.7
93.7
89.5
96.9
99.6
91.9
94.6
89.4
97.1
94.6
93.2
86.2

96.9
95.7
95.4
96.8
99.1
93.5
99.0
92.5
98.6
96.6
94.6
88.3

97.8
95.3
99.4
99.1
99.6
96.9
101.9
95.2
99.6
97.5
95.5
92.2

102.1
104.5
100.5
102.5
104.3
100.6
100.6
102.9
101.4
100.6
107.3
104.0

107.3
109.9
101.8
108.4

Output
United States..........................................................
Canada....................................................................
Japan.......................................................................
Belgium...................................................................
Denmark.................................................................
France.....................................................................
Germany.................................................................
Italy..........................................................................
Netherlands............................................................
Norway....................................................................
Sweden...................................................................
United Kingdom......................................................

34.2
10.7
30.7
40.8
31.0
41.5
21.9
31.7
56.5
45.9
67.7

60.6
38.8
57.6
68.0
64.1
70.9
45.8
59.5
89.1
80.7
90.3

75.8
86.0
59.9
78.2
91.3
88.7
85.3
80.4
77.4
103.6
90.7
87.2

103.2
110.1
84.6
93.3
100.8
92.2
90.9
94.5
92.8
105.3
109.8
101.4

102.4
112.6
90.2
99.1
104.3
97.2
94.0
98.1
96.9
101.3
110.9
105.4

101.6
108.6
96.3
101.0
102.7
99.1
99.1
99.6
100.1
100.2
110.1
105.3

98.3
99.0
101.4
100.7
101.7
99.8
102.8
99.2
100.6
98.3
104.1
100.0

103.5
104.0
96.0
97.0
99.0
95.7
91.8
96.4
98.2
102.7
101.9
101.4

111.1
113.2
95.4
101.4
109.3
100.3
93.5
102.2
104.2
106.7
117.1
106.1

118.4
118.1
100.6
104.2
114.7
104.9
93.7
107.2
107.8
109.0
128.4
107.8

121.3
119.8
106.7
105.1
109.7
104.6
92.5
105.6
108.4
110.1
131.1
108.2

127.7
128.1
111.1
109.9
112.6
109.7
95.8
108.3
114.1
115.7
138.6
109.6

133.5
133.1
103.6
111.8
115.3
111.5
100.7
110.3
116.6
117.6
144.6
109.9

139.3
141.3
103.9
113.8
111.5
114.2
103.6
111.4
103.6
114.0
150.7
109.7

92.1
88.3
76.3
170.7
136.5
142.3
142.3
108.7
170.6
154.0
168.3
217.3

104.4
107.1
102.3
174.7
129.0
149.0
136.3
120.9
156.2
154.3
154.7
202.1

107.5
114.6
93.8
119.7
101.1
133.3
110.5
122.0
111.8
135.0
124.0
155.3

106.6
120.2
99.8
101.5
107.2
105.4
99.3
108.9
99.0
114.3
121.4
123.2

107.1
113.5
100.8
102.3
104.7
105.8
99.3
109.7
99.8
107.1
119.0
122.3

104.8
111.9
100.9
104.3
103.7
105.9
100.1
107.7
101.5
103.7
116.4
119.2

100.4
103.8
102.0
101.5
102.1
103.0
100.9
104.2
101.0
100.8
109.0
108.5

101.4
102.6
95.6
94.7
94.8
95.1
91.3
93.6
96.9
102.1
94.9
97.5

103.6
106.6
93.7
93.6
92.4
86.7
96.7
92.4
105.2
98.1
99.4

104.0
109.1
92.0
92.0
91.6
84.3
98.0
91.6
106.9
105.3
102.9

103.7
112.0
92.2
91.0
91.0
80.4
96.5
90.5
107.9
105.3
104.8

105.5
115.4
91.5
89.8
89.5
78.6
97.1
90.8
112.3
104.2
105.4

105.2
119.0
86.1
90.5
89.9
79.3
99.3
91.2
113.2
106.6
105.0

103.3
119.0
83.8
91.5
88.6
79.3
98.6
91.2
109.8
108.0
100.5

14.9
9.9
4.3
5.4
4.6
4.3
8.1
1.6
6.4
4.7
4.1
3.1

23.7
17.0
16.5
13.7
13.3
10.3
20.7
4.7
20.2
11.8
10.7
6.3

55.6
47.4
58.6
52.5
49.6
40.8
53.6
28.4
64.4
39.0
37.3
33.2

84.0
77.4
79.2
81.1
82.9
81.6
79.1
69.3
87.7
83.3
71.8
67.7

86.6
82.5
84.2
85.9
87.7
86.0
83.2
75.9
88.5
87.2
79.4
72.9

90.8
88.3
90.7
90.1
92.7
90.6
89.4
84.4
90.8
92.3
87.8
80.9

95.6
95.0
95.9
97.3
95.9
96.2
95.1
93.6
95.2
97.5
95.4
90.5

102.7
103.0
104.6
104.8
104.6
103.0
105.9
107.5
103.7
101.5
97.2
104.3

105.6
103.7
106.7
106.1
105.6
111.7
107.8
108.2
104.4
99.8
106.5

107.9
106.0
109.5
109.2
108.4
117.7
112.8
110.6
109.2
106.3
107.4

109.3
105.1
110.9
110.4
110.2
123.7
120.3
113.2
113.6
114.2
108.2

111.4
108.2
113.9
114.2
113.0
126.6
125.4
115.8
118.7
119.7
111.4

117.3
111.2
115.8
115.8
114.9
127.6
123.0
118.3
126.2
123.3
117.0

123.2
113.0
117.7
116.3
119.3
127.6
126.5
118.3
133.4
127.4
122.6

25.6
30.9
30.1
15.4
19.5
27.8
7.9
34.4
12.9
15.0
9.8

30.1
43.3
41.7
25.2
24.0
39.8
12.4
52.9
20.4
20.6
14.1

78.8
63.2
91.7
80.3
55.0
61.2
69.4
43.1
93.0
50.8
51.0
59.1

86.7
85.2
93.4
88.1
88.2
93.3
86.5
79.9
93.6
90.4
79.4
82.2

90.5
88.0
94.0
88.7
88.1
93.6
87.9
84.9
91.1
92.2
85.1
84.6

93.7
92.3
95.0
93.0
93.6
96.8
90.3
91.3
92.1
95.6
92.8
91.6

97.7
99.7
96.5
98.1
96.3
99.3
93.3
98.4
95.5
100.0
100.0
98.2

100.6
97.6
104.1
102.3
100.1
102.4
105.3
104.4
102.3
100.9
90.6
100.3

98.5
94.3
104.9
97.9
93.0
97.3
103.6
102.1
96.0
102.9
83.6
99.7

94.8
95.5
100.1
96.4
93.8
94.7
105.9
103.2
94.0
107.1
87.2
102.5

93.5
95.9
95.8
95.6
100.9
95.9
107.5
109.9
94.6
111.4
91.7
104.8

92.0
95.9
93.8
93.3
102.0
92.2
103.9
112.4
92.2
115.2
90.0
107.1

92.4
98.8
96.2
93.7
102.8
92.7
100.4
110.8
92.5
121.5
90.9
111.9

91.4
98.1
94.9
93.4
108.9
92.6
100.4
112.0
92.5
128.5
91.3
112.3

78.8
65.3
51.3
88.3
58.9
76.8
59.6
62.0
82.3
63.9
70.3
77.8

86.7
83.6
92.4
77.0
79.0
82.9
76.9
75.6
83.2
86.1
75.4
82.9

90.5
89.8
86.3
72.3
72.6
77.6
73.0
76.2
75.5
82.9
76.8
78.5

93.7
95.6
83.1
89.5
91.3
94.1
87.3
93.8
88.9
95.0
91.3
92.5

97.7
105.1
90.9
92.3
90.8
93.1
87.8
97.6
89.8
95.7
96.3
98.2

100.6
91.4
118.8
95.1
93.2
95.6
99.4
81.8
96.8
88.3
67.7
85.3

98.5
83.4
130.1
94.2
88.3
92.9
99.8
78.1
92.8
90.7
63.1
86.5

94.8
84.1
135.1
105.2
101.1
100.6
115.5
78.0
103.0
105.0
71.2
91.6

93.5
85.0
111.7
99.3
105.0
99.2
111.6
87.8
98.6
107.1
79.7
95.6

92.0
83.6
98.3
83.7
93.1
83.6
93.5
81.3
83.0
101.1
68.6
99.3

92.4
80.5
93.1
83.0
92.6
83.2
89.1
78.6
82.0
100.0
66.6
105.0

91.4
79.8
105.7
79.3
94.1
79.6
89.1
75.9
82.0
102.2
64.3
102.8

-

-

Total hours
United States..........................................................
Canada...................................................................
Japan.......................................................................
Belgium...................................................................
Denmark..................................................................
France.....................................................................
Germany..................................................................
Italy..........................................................................
Netherlands............................................................
Norway....................................................................
Sweden...................................................................
United Kingdom......................................................

Compensation per hour
United States..........................................................
Canada....................................................................
Japan.......................................................................
Belgium...................................................................
Denmark..................................................................
Germany..................................................................
Italy..........................................................................
Netherlands............................................................
Norway....................................................................
Sweden...................................................................
United Kingdom......................................................

Unit labor costs: National currency basis
Canada....................................................................
Japan......................................................................
Belgium...................................................................
Denmark..................................................................
France.....................................................................
Germany................................................................
Italy..........................................................................

Sweden...................................................................
United Kingdom......................................................

Unit labor costs: U.S. dollar basis
United States..........................................................
Canada...................................................................
Japan......................................................................
Denmark..................................................................
France.....................................................................
Germany................................................................
Italy.........................................................................

United Kingdom.....................................................

-

32.0
10.9
19.4
13.5
21.1
10.4
15.6
16.0
11.3
16.9
15.6

-

34.8
15.3
27.0
20.3
23.0
17.1
24.4
25.7
17.8
23.1
19.2

- Data not available.

Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

101

Current Labor Statistics:

46.

Injury and Illness

O ccupational injury and illness rates by industry,1 United States
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers3

maustry ana type or case

1987

1988

1989 1

1990

1991

1992

1993 4 1994 4 1995 4 1996 4 1997 4 1998 4

PRIVATE SECTOR5
Total c a s e s ...........................................................................................

8.3

8.6

8.6

8.8

8.4

8.9

8.5

8.4

8.1

7.4

7.1

6.7

Lost workday cases.............................................................................
Lost workdays.......................................................................................

3.8

4.0

4.0

4.1

3.9

3.9

3.8

3.8

3.6

3.4

3.3

3.1

69.9

76.1

78.7

84.0

86.5

93.8

-

-

-

-

-

Total c a s e s ...........................................................................................
Lost workday cases.............................................................................

11.2

10.9

10.9

11.6

10.8

11.6

11.2

10.0

9.7

8.7

8.4

7.9

5.7

5.6

5.7

5.9

5.4

5.4

5.0

4.7

4.3

3.9

4.1

3.9

Lost workdays.......................................................................................

94.1

101.8

100.9

112.2

108.3

126.9

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing5

-

Mining
Total c a s e s ...........................................................................................
Lost workday cases.............................................................................

7.3

6.8

6.3

6.2

5.4

5.9

4.9

4.9

5.1

4.8

5.0

4.5

4.1

3.9

3.9

3.9

3.2

3.7

Lost workdays.......................................................................................

2.9

144.0

152.1

137.2

119.5

129.6

2 04.7

8.5

8.8

8.5

8.3

7.4

Construction
Total c a s e s ...........................................................................................
Lost workday cases.............................................................................

14.7

14.3

14.2

13.0

13.1

12.2

11.8

10.6

9.9

9.5

8.8

6.8

6.8

6.8

6.7

6.1

5.8

5.5

5.5

4.9

4.5

4.4

4.0

Lost workdays.......................................................................................

135.8

142.2

143.3

147.9

148.1

161.9

General building contractors:
Total c a s e s ...........................................................................................

14.2

14.0

13.9

13.4

12.0

12.2

11.5

10.9

9.8

9.0

8.5

8.4

6.5

6.4

6.5

6.4

5.5

5.4

5.1

5.1

4.4

4.0

3.7

3.9

134.0

132.2

137.3

137.6

132.0

142.7

Lost workday cases.............................................................................
Lost workdays.......................................................................................

14.6

-

Heavy construction, except building:
14.5

15 1

13 8

Lost workday cases.............................................................................

6.4

7.0

6.5

6.3

6.0

5.4

5.1

5.0

4.8

4.3

4.3

Lost workdays.......................................................................................

139.1

162.3

147.1

144.6

160.1

165.8

-

-

-

-

-

14 7
5.8

5.8

5.0

4.8

4.7

4.1

8.2
4.1

Special trades contractors:
15.0

14.7

14 6

Lost workday cases..............................................................................

7.1

7.0

6.9

6.9

6.3

6.1

Lost workdays.......................................................................................

135.7

141.1

144.9

153.1

151.3

168.3

Total c a s e s ...........................................................................................

11.9

13.1

13.1

13.2

12.7

12.5

12.1

12.2

11.6

10.6

10.3

9.7

Lost workday cases..............................................................................
Lost workdays.......................................................................................

5.3

5.7

5.8

5.8

5.6

5.4

5.3

5.5

5.3

4.9

4.8

4.7

95.5

107.4

113.0

120.7

121.5

124.6

Total c a s e s ...........................................................................................
Lost workday cases.............................................................................

12.5

14.2

14.1

14.2

13.4

13.1

13.5

12.8

11.6

11.3

10.7

5.4

5.9

6.0

6.0

5.7

5.5

5.4

5.7

5.6

5.1

5.1

5.0

Lost workdays........................................................................................

96.8

111.1

116.5

123.3

122.9

126.7

-

-

9.1

-

-

Manufacturing

-

Durable goods:
13.6

Lumber and wood products:
Total c a s e s ........................................................................................

18.9

16.3

15.9

15.7

14.9

14.2

13.5

13.2

Lost workday cases...........................................................................
Lost workdays....................................................................................

9.6

10.0

9.4

8.8

8.3

7.6

7.6

7.7

7.0

6.8

6.5

6.8

176.5

189.1

177.5

172.5

172.0

165.8

-

-

Furniture and fixtures:
Total c a s e s ........................................................................................

15.4

16.6

16.1

16.9

15.9

14.8

14.6

15.0

13.9

12.2

12.0

11.4

Lost workday cases...........................................................................

6.7

7.3

7.2

7.8

7.2

6.6

6.5

7.0

6.4

5.4

5.8

5.7

Lost workdays....................................................................................

103.6

115.7

-

-

128.4

-

-

-

19.5

18.4

18.1

16.8

Stone, clay, and glass products:
Total c a s e s ........................................................................................
Lost workday cases...........................................................................

14.9

13.6

13.8

13.2

12.3

12.4

11.8

11.8

7.1

7.5

7.4

7.3

6.8

6.1

6.3

6.5

5.7

6.0

5.7

6.0

Lost workdays....................................................................................

135.8

141.0

149.8

160.5

156.0

152.2

-

-

-

-

Primary metal industries:
Total c a s e s ........................................................................................
Lost workday cases.........................................................................

17.0

19.4

18.7

19.0

17.7

17.5

17.0

16.8

16.5

15.0

15.0

14.0

7.4

8.2

8.1

8.1

7.4

7.1

7.3

7.2

7.2

6.8

7.2

Lost workdays....................................................................................

7.0

145.8

161.3

168.3

180.2

169.1

175.5

-

-

-

-

-

Fabricated metal products:
Total c a s e s .......................................................................................
Lost workday cases...........................................................................
Lost workdays................................................................................

17.0

16.0

18.8

15.5

18.5

15.4

18.7

14.8

17.4

16.8

16.2

16.4

15.8

14.4

14.2

13.9

7.2

8.0

7.9

7.9

7.1

6.6

6.7

6.7

6.9

6.2

6.4

6.5

121.9

138.8

147.6

155.7

146.6

144.0

-

-

-

-

-

Industrial machinery and equipment:
Total c a s e s ........................................................................................

11.3

12.1

12.1

12.0

11.2

11.1

11.1

11.6

11.2

9.9

10.0

Lost workday cases...........................................................................
Lost workdays.....................................................................................

9.5

4.4

4.7

4.8

4.7

4.4

4.2

4.2

4.4

4.4

4.0

4.1

4.0

72.7

82.8

86.8

88.9

86.6

87.7

-

-

-

-

-

Electronic and other electrical equipment:
Total c a s e s ........................................................................................

7.2

8.0

9.1

9.1

8.6

8.4

8.3

8.3

7.6

6.8

6.6

5.9
2.8

Lost workday cases...........................................................................

3.1

3.3

3.9

3.8

3.7

3.6

3.5

3.6

3.3

3.1

3.1

Lost workdays....................................................................................

5 5.9

64.6

77.5

79.4

83.0

81.2

-

-

-

-

-

Transportation equipment:
Total c a s e s ........................................................................................
Lost workday cases...........................................................................

13.5

17.7

17.7

17.8

18.3

18.7

18.5

19.6

18.6

16.3

15.4

14.6

5.7

6.6

6.8

6.9

7.0

7.1

7.1

7.8

7.9

7.0

6.6

Lost workdays....................................................................................

6.6

105.7

134.2

-

-

-

Instruments and related products:
Total c a s e s ........................................................................................
Lost workday cases...........................................................................
Lost workdays....................................................................................

138.6

153.7

166.1

186.6

-

-

5.8

6.1

5.6

5.9

6.0

5.9

5.6

5.9

5.3

5.1

4.8

4.0

2.4

2.6

2.5

2.7

2.7

2.7

2.5

2.7

2.4

2.3

2.3

1.9

43.9

51.5

55.4

57.8

64.4

65.3

-

-

-

-

-

Miscellaneous manufacturing Industries:
Total c a s e s ........................................................................................

10.7

10.7

10.0

9.9

9.1

9.5

8.9

Lost workday cases...........................................................................
Lost workdays.....................................................................................

8.1

4.6

5.1

5.1

5.1

5.1

5.0

4.6

4.5

4.3

4.4

4.2

3.9

81.5

91.0

97.6

113.1

104.0

108.2

-

-

-

-

-

11.3

S ee fo o tn o te s a t e nd o f table.

102

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

November 2000

11.1

11.3

11.3

46.

Continued— O ccupational injury and illness rates by industry,1United States
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers3
Industry and type of case2

1987

1988

19891 1990

1991

1992

19934 19944 19954 19964 19974 19984

N o nd u ra b le goods:
11.3

10.7

10.5

9.9

9.2

8.8

8.2

5.1

5.4

5.5

5.6

5.5

5.3

5.0

5.1

4.9

4.6

4.4

4 .3

93.5

101.7

107.8

116.9

119.7

121.8

T o ta l c a s e s .................................................................... .

17.7

18.5

18.5

20.0

19.5

18.8

17.6

17.1

16.3

15.0

14.5

13.6

L ost w o rk d a y c a s e s ......................................................

8.6

9.2

9.3

9.9

9.9

9.5

8.9

9.2

8.7

8.0

8.0

7 .5

L ost w o rk d a y s .................................................................

153.7

169.7

174.7

202.6

207.2

211 .9

11.1

T o ta l c a s e s .........
L ost w o rk d a y c a s e s ..........................................................
L ost w o rk d a y s ....................................................................

11.4

11.7

11.6

11.5

F ood a nd k indred products:

T o b a c c o products:
T o ta l c a s e s .....................................................................

8.6

9.3

8.7

7.7

6.4

6.0

5.8

5.3

5.6

6.7

5.9

6.4

L ost w o rk d a y c a s e s ......................................................

2.5

2.9

3.4

3.2

2.8

2.4

2.3

2.4

2.6

2.8

2.7

3.1

L ost w o rk d a y s .................................................................

46.4

53.0

64.2

62.3

52.0

42.9

T e x tile m ill products:
T o ta l c a s e s ....................................................................

9.0

9.6

10.3

9.6

10.1

9.9

9.7

8.7

8.2

7.8

6.7

6.7

L ost w o rk d a y c a s e s ......................................................

3.6

4.0

4.2

4.0

4.4

4.2

4.1

4.0

4.1

3.6

3.1

3.4

L ost w o rk d a y s .................................................................

65.9

78.8

81.4

85.1

88.3

87.1

A p p a re l a nd o th e r textile products:
T o ta l c a s e s ....................................................................

7.4

8.1

8.6

8.8

9.2

9.5

9.0

8.9

8.2

7.4

7.0

6.2

L ost w o rk d a y c a s e s ......................................................

3.1

3.5

3.8

3.9

4.2

4.0

3.8

3.9

3.6

3.3

3.1

2 .6

L ost w o rk d a y s .................................................................

59.5

68.2

80.5

92.1

99.9

104.6

P a p e r and allied products:
T o ta l c a s e s ....................................................................

12.8

13.1

12.7

12.1

11.2

11.0

9.9

9.6

8.5

7.9

7.3

7.1

L ost w o rk d a y c a s e s ......................................................

5.8

5.9

5.8

5.5

5.0

5.0

4.6

4.5

4.2

3.8

3.7

3.7

125.9

L ost w o rk d a y s .................................................................

122.3

124.3

132.9

124.8

122.7

P rintin g a nd p ublishing:
T o ta l c a s e s ....................................................................

6.7

6.6

6.9

6.9

6.7

7.3

6.9

6.7

6.4

6.0

5.7

5 .4

L ost w o rkd a y c a s e s ......................................................

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.3

3.2

3.2

3.1

3.0

3.0

2.8

2.7

2 .8

L ost w o rk d a y s .................................................................

55.1

59.8

63.8

69.8

74.5

74.8

C h e m ic a ls and allied products:
T o ta l c a s e s ....................................................................

7.0

7.0

7.0

6.5

6.4

6.0

5.9

5.7

5.5

4.8

4.8

4.2

L ost w o rk d a y c a s e s ......................................................

3.1

3.3

3.2

3.1

3.1

2.8

2.7

2.8

2.7

2.4

2.3

2.1

L ost w o rk d a y s .................................................................

58.8

59.0

63.4

61.6

62.4

64.2

P e tro le u m and coal products:
T o ta l c a s e s ....................................................................

7.3

7.0

6.6

6.6

6.2

5.9

5.2

4.7

4.8

4.6

4.3

3.9

L ost w o rk d a y c a s e s ......................................................

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.1

2.9

2.8

2.5

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.2

1.8

L ost w o rk d a y s .................................................................

65.9

68.4

68.1

77.3

68.2

71.2

R u b b e r and m isce lla n eo us plastics products:
T o ta l c a s e s ....................................................................

15.9

16.3

16.2

16.2

15.1

14.5

13.9

14.0

12.9

12.3

11.9

11.2

L o st w o rk d a y c a s e s ......................................................

7.6

8.1

8.0

7.8

7.2

6.8

6.5

6.7

6.5

6.3

5 .8

5 .8

L ost w o rk d a y s .................................................................

130.8

142.9

147.2

151.3

150.9

153.3

L e a th e r a nd leather products:
T o ta l c a s e s ....................................................................

12.4

11.4

13.6

12.1

12.5

12.1

12.1

12.0

11.4

10.7

10.6

9.8

L ost w o rk d a y c a s e s ......................................................

5.8

5.6

6.5

5.9

5.9

5.4

5.5

5.3

4.8

4.5

4.3

4.5

L ost w o rk d a y s .................................................................

114.5

128.2

130.4

152.3

140.8

128.5

T ra n s p o rta tio n a n d p u b lic u tilitie s
T o ta l c a s e s ........................................................................

8.4

8.9

9.2

9.6

9.3

9.1

9.5

9.3

9.1

8.7

8.2

7.3

L ost w o rk d a y c a s e s ..........................................................

4.9

5.1

5.3

5.5

5.4

5.1

5.4

5.5

5.2

5.1

4.8

4 .3

L ost w o rk d a y s ....................................................................

108.1

118.6

121.5

134.1

140.0

144.0

W h o le s a le a n d re ta il tra d e
8.4

8.1

7.9

7.5

6.8

6.7

6.5

L ost w o rk d a y c a s e s ..........................................................

3.4

3.5

3.6

3.5

3.4

3.5

3.4

3.4

3.2

2.9

3.0

2 .8

L ost w o rk d a y s ....................................................................

56.1

60.9

63.5

65.6

72.0

80.1

W h o le sa le trade:
T o ta l c a s e s .................................................... ..................

7.4

7.6

7.7

7.4

7.2

7.6

7.8

7.7

7.5

6.6

6.5

6.5

3.7

3.8

4.0

3.7

3.7

3.6

3.7

3.8

3.6

3.4

3.2

3.3

64.0

69.2

71.9

71.5

79.2

82.4

7.7

T o ta l c a s e s .......................................................................

L ost w o rk d a y c a s e s ..........................................................
L ost w o rk d a y s ...................................................................
R etail tra de :
T o ta l c a s e s .......................................................................
L ost w o rk d a y c a s e s ..........................................................
L ost w o rk d a y s ...................................................................

7.8

7.9

8.0

7.6

7.8

7.9

8.1

8.1

7.7

8.7

8.2

7.9

7.5

6.9

6.8

6.5

3.3

3.4

3.4

3.4

3.3

3.4

3.3

3.3

3.0

2.8

2.9

2 .7

52.9

57.6

60.0

63.2

69.1

79.2

F in a n c e , in s u ra n c e , a n d re a l e s ta te
2.9

2.9

2.7

2.6

2.4

2.2

1.9

L ost w o rk d a y c a s e s .........................................................

.9

.9

.9

1.1

1.1

1.2

1.2

1.1

1.0

.9

0.9

0 .7

L ost w o rk d a y s ...................................................................

14.3

17.2

17.6

27.3

24.1

32.9

2.0

T o ta l c a s e s .......................................................................

2.0

2.4

2.0

2.4

S e rv ic e s
T o ta l c a s e s .......................................................................

5.5

7.1

6.7

6.5

6.4

6.0

5.6

5.2

L ost w o rk d a y c a s e s .........................................................

2.7

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.8

3.0

2.8

2.8

2.8

2.6

2.5

2.4

45.8

47.7

51.2

56.4

60.0

68.6

-

-

“

L ost w o rk d a y s ...................................................................
1 D a ta to r 1989 and su bse qu e nt ye ars are based on th e

ification Manual,

Standard Industrial Class­

1987 E dition. For th is reason, th e y a re not strictly co m p ara b le w ith data

fo r th e y e a rs 1 9 8 6 -8 8 , w h ich w e re based on th e

Manual,

5.4

Standard Industrial Classification

1972 Edition, 1977 S upplem ent.

2 B e g in n in g w ith th e 1992 survey, th e a nn ua l su rve y m e a sure s only n onfatal injuries and

5.5

6.2

6.0

N = n um be r o f injuries and illnesses or lost w o rkd ays;
EH = tota l hours w o rke d by all em p lo ye es d urin g th e ca le n d a r year; and
2 00 ,00 0 = base fo r 100 full-tim e equ ivale nt w o rke rs (w orkin g 40 hou rs p e r w e ek, 50
w e eks p e r year).
4 Beginning w ith th e 1993 survey, lost w o rk d a y e stim ate s w ill not be gen erate d . A s of

illn e sses, w h ile p ast su rve ys co vered both fatal and nonfatal incidents. T o b e tte r a ddress

1992, BLS beg an gen eratin g p ercen t d istrib u tio ns and th e m e dian n um b e r o f d a y s a w a y

fata litie s, a b asic e le m e n t o f w o rkp lace safety, BLS im plem ente d th e C e nsus o f Fatal

fro m w o rk by industry and fo r g ro up s of w o rk e rs su sta inin g sim ilar w o rk d isabilities.

O cc u p a tio n a l Injuries.
3 T h e in c id ence ra tes re p rese n t th e n um be r o f injuries and illnesses or lost w o rkd ays per

5 E xcludes farm s with fe w e r tha n 11 e m p lo ye es since 1976.
-

D ata not available.

100 full-tim e w o rk e rs and w e re calculated as (N /EH) X 2 00 ,00 0, w here:


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

November 2000

103

Current Labor Statistics:

Injury and Illness

47. Fatal occupational injuries by event or exposure, 1993-98
Fatalities
Event or exposure1

1993-97

19972

Average

Number

1998
Number

Percent

T o ta l..................................................................................................................

6 ,3 3 5

6 ,2 3 8

6 ,0 2 6

100

Transportation incidents..........................................................

2 ,6 1 1

2 ,6 0 5

2 ,6 3 0

44

H ig h w a y in c id e n t ....................................................................................................

1 ,3 3 4

1 ,3 9 3

1 ,431

24

C o llis io n b e tw e e n v e h ic le s , m o b ile e q u ip m e n t ..................................

652

640

701

12

M o v in g in s a m e d ir e c tio n ..........................................................................

109

103

118

2

M o v in g in o p p o s ite d ir e c tio n s , o n c o m in g ..........................................

234

230

271

4

M o v in g in in t e r s e c t io n .................................................................................

132

142

142

2

V e h ic le s t r u c k s ta tio n a ry o b je c t o r e q u ip m e n t...................................

249

282

306

5
6

N o n c o llis io n in c id e n t .......................................................................................

360

387

373

J a c k k n ife d o r o v e r tu r n e d — n o c o llis io n ..............................................

267

298

300

5

N o n h ig h w a y (fa r m , in d u s tr ia l p re m is e s ) in c id e n t..................................

388

377

384

6

O v e r tu r n e d ............................................................................................................

214

216

216

4

A ir c r a f t ........................................................................................................................

315

261

223

4

W o r k e r s t r u c k b y a v e h ic le ..............................................................................

373

367

413

7

W a t e r v e h ic le in c id e n t .........................................................................................

106

109

1 12

2

R a ilw a y .......................................................................................................................

83

93

60

1

Assaults and violent acts.........................................................

1 ,241

1 ,111

960

16

H o m ic id e s .................................................................................................................

995

860

709

12

S h o o tin g ................................................................................................................

810

708

569

9

S ta b b in g ................................................................................................................

75

73

61

1

O th e r , in c lu d in g b o m b in g .............................................................................

110

79

79

1

S e lf- in flic te d in ju r ie s .............................................................................................

215

216

223

4

Contact with objects and equipment.......................................

1 ,0 0 5

1 ,0 3 5

941

16

S tr u c k b y o b je c t .....................................................................................................

573

579

517

9

S tr u c k b y f a llin g o b je c t ....................................................................................

369

384

317

5

S tr u c k b y fly in g o b je c t .....................................................................................

65

54

58

1

C a u g h t in o r c o m p r e s s e d b y e q u ip m e n t o r o b je c ts .............................

290

320

266

4

C a u g h t in r u n n in g e q u ip m e n t o r m a c h in e r y .........................................

153

189

129

2

C a u g h t in o r c r u s h e d in c o lla p s in g m a te r ia ls ..........................................

124

118

140

2

Falls..........................................................................................

668

716

702

12

5 91

653

623

10

F a ll fr o m la d d e r ..................................................................................................

94

116

111

F a ll f r o m r o o f .......................................................................................................

139

154

156

3

F a ll f r o m s c a ffo ld , s t a g in g .............................................................................

83

87

97

2

F a ll t o lo w e r le v e l..................................................................................................

2

F a ll o n s a m e le v e l.................................................................................................

52

44

51

1

Exposure to harmful substances or environments...........................

586

554

572

9

C o n t a c t w ith e le c t r ic c u r r e n t.............................................................................

320

298

334

6

C o n t a c t w ith o v e r h e a d p o w e r lin e s ..........................................................

128

138

153

3

C o n t a c t w ith te m p e r a t u r e e x tr e m e s .............................................................

43

40

46

1

E x p o s u r e t o c a u s tic , n o x io u s , o r a lle rg e n ic s u b s ta n c e s ....................

120

123

104

2

In h a la tio n o f s u b s t a n c e s ................................................................................

70

59

48

1

O x y g e n d e f ic ie n c y .................................................................................................

101

90

87

1

D r o w n in g , s u b m e r s io n ....................................................................................

80

72

75

1

Fires and explosions...............................................................

199

196

205

3

Other events or exposures3......................................................

26

21

16

-

1

B a s e d o n th e

1992

BLS O c c u p a tio n a l In ju ry a n d

Illn e s s

3

In c lu d e s th e c a te g o r y "B o d ily r e a c tio n a n d e x e r tio n ."

C la s s ific a tio n S tr u c tu r e s .
2

T h e BLS n e w s re le a s e is s u e d A u g u s t 1 2 , 1 9 9 8 , re p o rte d a

t o ta l o f 6 ,2 1 8 f a ta l w o r k in ju rie s f o r c a le n d a r y e a r 1 9 9 7 .
th e n ,

an

a d d itio n a l

20

jo b - r e la te d

fa ta litie s

w e re

S in c e

id e n tifie d ,

b r in g in g t h e to ta l jo b - r e la te d fa ta lity c o u n t f o r 1 9 9 7 to 6 ,2 3 8 .

104

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

NOTE:

T o ta ls

fo r

m a jo r

c a te g o r ie s

c a te g o r ie s n o t s h o w n s e p a ra te ly .
to ta ls

because

p e rc e n t.

November 2000

o f ro u n d in g .

m ay

in c lu d e

sub­

P e r c e n ta g e s m a y n o t a d d to

D ash

in d ic a te s

le s s

th a n

0 .5

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Schedule of release dates fo r BLS statistical series
Series

Release
date

Period
covered

Release
date

Period
covered

Release
date

Period
covered

Employment situation

N ovem ber 3

O c to b e r

D e ce m b e r 8

N o ve m b e r

J a n u a ry 5

D e ce m b e r

Productivity and costs

N ovem ber 2

3rd q u a rte r

D e ce m b e r 6

3rd q u a rte r

U.S. Import and Export
Price Indexes

N ovem ber 8

O c to b e r

D e ce m b e r 13

N o ve m b e r

J a n u a ry 11

D e ce m b e r

3 4 -3 8

Producer Price Indexes

N ovem ber 9

O c to b e r

D e c e m b e r 14

N o ve m b e r

J a n u a ry 12

D e ce m b e r

2; 3 1 -3 3

Consumer Price indexes

N o v e m b e r 16

O c to b e r

D e c e m b e r 15

N o ve m b e r

J a n u a ry 17

D e ce m b e r

2; 2 8 -3 0

Real earnings

N o v e m b e r 16

O c to b e r

D e ce m b e r 15

N o ve m b e r

J a n u a ry 17

D e ce m b e r

14, 16

J a n u a ry 25

4th q u a rte r

1 -3 ; 2 1 -2 4

Employment Cost Indexes


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MLR table
number
1; 4 - 2 0
2 ;3 9 -4 2