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MONTHLY LABOR

REVIEW
Volume 131, Number 5
May 2008

Employment characteristics of Gulf War-era II veterans in 2006:
a visual essay

3

James A. Walker

Job openings, hires, and turnover decrease in 2007

14

Although the number of job openings, hires, and separations all declined
in 2007, the labor market slowdown can be seen most in the decrease in hiring
Zhi Boon

Wage and productivity stability in U.S. manufacturing plants

24

Wages and productivity were substantially dispersed across all manufacturing
plants in 1987, but the dispersion narrowed from then until 1997
Mark C. Long, Kristin M. Dziczek, Daniel D. Luria, and Edith A. Wiarda

Departments
Labor month in review		 2
Précis		 37
Book reviews		 38
Errata: November 2007 issue		 40
Current labor statistics		 43

Editor-in-Chief: Michael D. Levi  Executive Editor: William Parks II   Managing Editor:  Leslie Brown Joyner  Editors: Brian
I. Baker, Casey P. Homan  Book Review Editor: James Titkemeyer  Design and Layout: Catherine D. Bowman, Edith W.
Peters  Contributing Editor: Lawrence H. Leith  Contributor: Horst Brand

Labor Month In Review

The May Review
Although May is often associated
with flowers following April’s showers, it also is the month that brings the
annual holiday known as Memorial
Day. This day of remembrance for the
sacrifices of America’s military began
shortly after the Civil War as “Decoration Day,” a day each year during
which supporters of the Union side
in that conflict decorated the graves
of their fallen soldiers with those May
flowers. The holiday we now know attained its current identity in the wake
of World War I as a reminder of all
the fallen from all the wars.
Each war, of course, also has survivors. Mention of the First World
War brings to mind Mr. Frank Buckles, America’s last living World War I
veteran, who is 107 years old. (If he
had been born a couple of months
earlier, he would have the remarkable
distinction of having lived in three
centuries.) There is considerable interest today in the circumstances of
those soldiers who have served since
the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on American soil. Information
on the labor market status of veterans
has long been collected as part of the
Current Population Survey (CPS),
one of the Nation’s principal sources
of timely socioeconomic data. For the
first time, as James A. Walker notes
in the visual essay that leads off this
issue, CPS data are available that allow for the separate identification of
those veterans who have served since
the September 11 attacks, or in the



Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

“Gulf War-era II” period. Previously,
all Gulf War-era veterans (including
those who served in the earlier Gulf
conflict that began in 1990) were
grouped together into one category.
Data for 2006 indicate that there
were 1.2 million veterans 18 to 54 years
old who served on active duty in this
most recent period of service. Using a
series of charts, Walker examines the
age, sex, race, educational attainment,
and employment status of these recent
vets. Throughout, he also compares their
statuses with those of the nonveteran
population of the United States.
It is clear that the U.S. economy
slowed in 2007, on the basis of a number of measures. Not surprisingly, the
labor market portion of the economy
was not insulated from this phenomenon, with job growth decelerating
and unemployment increasing. As
Zhi Boon demonstrates in her article,
BLS data show that job openings (one
measure of labor demand) and separations and hires (representative of
worker flows) all declined. The decline
in the latter measure, was particularly
reflective of the slowdown in the labor
market. In addition to analyzing national-level aggregate statistics, Boon
examines the data for a number of
specific industries and finds that several—including construction and retail trade—had declining rates of job
openings and hires; separations rates
either were static or did not exhibit
consistent trends.
Mark C. Long, Kristin M. Dziczek,
Daniel D. Duria, and Edith A. Wiarda present evidence on the stability of

wages and productivity in manufacturing plants during the 1987–97 period.
This quartet of authors argues that although plant-level wages and productivity were strongly correlated, the connection weakened during the period
under review.

Issues in Labor Statistics
The Bureau of Labor Statistics occasionally produces brief reports on
a tightly focused labor market topic
of interest. The latest Issues in Labor Statistics, available at www.bls.
gov/opub/ils/pdf/opbils65.pdf, examines job trends among residential
framing contractors. Employment in
this industry fell by nearly a quarter
over just the March 2006–March
2007 period, reflecting the abrupt
and sharp falloff in construction
activity related to troubled real estate markets. Counties in Arizona,
California, and Florida—States with
spectacular runups in real estate values during the recent boom years—
led the decline in framing contractor
industry jobs.

Department of corrections?
The MLR introduces an addition to its roster of Departments this month, designating a specific space for errata to previously
published material in the magazine. Luckily, the MLR has had to post corrections
only infrequently, but having a consistent
location for them makes sense. It is hoped
that the “corrections officials”—who shall
go nameless—won’t be kept too busy.

Visual Essay: Gulf War-Era II Veterans

Employment characteristics of Gulf War-era II
veterans in 2006: a visual essay
James A. Walker

F

ollowing the terrorist attacks of September
11, 2001, the U.S. Armed Forces entered
into a new period: Gulf War era II.1 This era
follows Gulf War era I, which extends from August 1990 to August 2001. During Gulf War era
II, troops deployed to Afghanistan, Iraq, and other
locations. A sizable number of troops were called
up from the Reserve and the National Guard. This
visual essay examines the characteristics of the 1.2
million veterans 18 to 54 years old who served in
this new era and shows how they have been faring
in the labor market after returning to civilian life.
The information to be presented was obtained
from Gulf War-era II veterans or members of
their households in 2006. Military personnel on
active duty at the time of the survey are excluded.
Data are 2006 annual averages and were collected
as part of the Current Population Survey (CPS), a
monthly survey of about 60,000 households that
provides national data on civilian employment and
unemployment.2
Gulf War-era II veterans are men and women who
served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces anywhere in the world   sometime between September

2001 and the time they were surveyed in 2006. Members of the Reserve and National Guard are counted
as veterans if they have ever been called to active duty.
Nonveterans have never served on active duty in the
U.S. military. Data about veterans who served in other
periods are not included in this essay, but are available
from the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
The 2006 data are the first annual average statistics available that separately identify Gulf War-era II
veterans. Previously, all Gulf War-era veterans (who
served since August 1990) were grouped together
into one category. Veterans who served in both Gulf
War era I and Gulf War era II are classified into the
latter category.
CPS data on veterans are of keen interest to a range
of users, including the U.S. Department of Veterans
Affairs and the U. S. Department of Labor’s Veterans’ Employment and Training Service, as well as
congressional committees, veterans’ service organizations, the news media, and academic researchers. This
essay was prepared by James A. Walker, an economist
in the Division of Labor Force Statistics, Bureau of
Labor Statistics. Phone: (202) 691-6378. E-mail:
walker.james@bls.gov.

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008 

Visual Essay: Gulf War-Era II Veterans

1. Gulf War-era II veterans are younger than nonveterans

Percent of
population

Percent of
population

100

100

90

90

80

80
g Gulf War-era II veterans

70

70

g  Nonveterans
60

60

50

50

40

40

30

30

20

20

10

10

0

18 to 24 years

25 to 34 years	35 to 44 years	45 to 54 years

55 years and older

0

Age
NOTE: Gulf War-era II veterans had served anywhere on active duty since September 2001.
SOURCE: Current Population Survey (CPS), 2006 annual averages.

• The Gulf War-era II veteran population is younger than the nonveteran population. In 2006, Gulf War-era II veter-

ans under 35 years of age—those 18 to 24 years old (24.4 percent) and 25 to 34 years old (39.8 percent)—made up
64.2 percent of the Gulf War-era II veteran population. By contrast, the under-35-year-old nonveteran population
in 2006 was 33.2 percent of the nonveteran population.

• Few Gulf War-era II veterans were 55 years or older (4.4 percent) in 2006. However, this age group accounted for
26.6 percent of the total nonveteran population. As a result, the large nonveteran population aged 55 years and older
significantly influences any comparison made between Gulf War-era II veterans and nonveterans. Therefore, the
charts that follow compare Gulf War-era II veterans aged 18 to 54 years with nonveterans in the same age group.

• The population referenced in this essay is the civilian noninstitutional population, which includes all persons

residing in any of the 50 States or the District of Columbia. The definition excludes people who live in institutions (such as nursing homes, correctional facilities, juvenile detention facilities, and long-term mental health care
facilities) and those who are currently on active duty in the Armed Forces.



Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

2. Men make up most of the Gulf War-era II veteran population

Percent of
population
aged 18–54
years

Percent of
population
aged 18–54
years
100

100

90

90
80

g Gulf War-era II veterans

80

70

g  Nonveterans

70

60

60

50

50

40

40

30

30

20

20

10

10

0

Men

Women

0

NOTE: Gulf War-era II veterans had served anywhere on active duty since September 2001.
SOURCE: Current Population Survey (CPS), 2006 annual averages.

• In 2006, 82.4 percent of Gulf War-era II veterans aged 18 to 54 years were men, compared with 47.4 percent of
nonveterans of the same age. Since September 2001, nearly 1 million men in the 18-to-54-years age group had
served in the Armed Forces and returned to civilian life.

• Women were a fairly small part of the Gulf War-era II veteran population, compared with the percentage of
women in the nonveteran population, in 2006. Specifically, almost 18 percent of Gulf War-era II veterans aged
18 to 54 years were women, compared with 52.6 percent of nonveterans. As of 2006, about 211,000 women aged
18 to 54 years had served during Gulf War era II.

• The higher proportion of men making up Gulf War-era II veterans relative to nonveterans contributes to some of
the differences in the labor market characteristics of the two groups.

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008 

Visual Essay: Gulf War-Era II Veterans

3. Blacks are overrepresented in the Gulf War-era II veteran population
Percent of
population
aged 18–54
years

Percent of
population
aged 18–54
years
100

100
90

90

g Gulf War-era II veterans

80

80

g Nonveterans

70

70

60

60

50

50

40

40

30

30

20

20

10

10

0

White

Black

Asian

Hispanic

0

NOTE: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black, and Asian) do not sum to 100 because data are not presented for all races.
Hispanics may be of any race. Gulf War-era II veterans had served anywhere on active duty since September 2001.
SOURCE: Current Population Survey (CPS), 2006 annual averages.

• The percentage of Blacks in the Gulf War-era II veteran population (17.0 percent) was larger than the percent-

age of Blacks in the nonveteran population (12.5 percent) in 2006. In contrast, Whites, Asians, and Hispanics
accounted for a lower percentage of the Gulf War-era II veteran population than their respective share of the
nonveteran population.

• Whites aged 18 to 54 years made up 76.4 percent of the Gulf War-era II veteran population, compared with 79.9
percent of the nonveteran population in 2006. About 2 percent of Gulf War-era II veterans aged 18 to 54 years were
Asian, while 5.1 percent of nonveterans in the same age group were Asian.

• In 2006, 9.9 percent of Gulf War-era II veterans aged 18 to 54 years were of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, while
Hispanics accounted for 16.0 percent of nonveterans. (Hispanics can be of any race.)

  Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

4. Almost 5 percent of Gulf War-era II veterans are foreign born

Percent of
population
aged 18–54
years
100

Percent of
population
aged 18–54
years
100

90

g Gulf War-era II veterans

90

80

g Nonveterans

80

70

70

60

60

50

50

40

40

30

30

20

20

10

10

0

U.S. born

Foreign born

0

NOTE: Gulf War-era II veterans had served anywhere on active duty since September 2001.
SOURCE: Current Population Survey (CPS), 2006 annual averages.

• In 2006, 4.5 percent of Gulf War-era II veterans aged 18 to 54 years were born outside the United States or one of its
outlying areas (such as Puerto Rico or Guam) to parents, neither of whom was a U.S citizen.

• U.S. citizens, or resident aliens with valid immigration documents, may be members of the military. Foreign-born

persons with other immigration statuses usually may not join the U.S. Armed Forces. This requirement may in
part explain why few foreign-born veterans served during the Gulf War-era II period.

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008 

Visual Essay: Gulf War-Era II Veterans

5. Two-thirds of Gulf War-era II veterans have attended college
Percent of
population
aged 18–54
years

Percent of
population
aged 18–54
years
100

100
90

g Gulf War-era II veterans

90

80

g Nonveterans

80

70

70

60

60

50

50

40

40

30

30

20

20

10

10

0

Less than high
school

High school graduate

Some college or
associate’s degree

Bachelor’s degree
or higher

0

NOTE: Gulf War-era II veterans had served anywhere on active duty since September 2001.
SOURCE: Current Population Survey (CPS), 2006 annual averages.

• About 46 percent of Gulf War-era II veterans aged 18 to 54 years had completed some college or earned an associate’s
degree by 2006, while another 19.5 percent had completed a bachelor’s degree or higher. Together, these groups made up
nearly two-thirds of Gulf War-era II veterans aged 18 to 54 years.

• By 2006, more nonveterans (26.9 percent) than Gulf War-era II veterans (19.5 percent) had completed a bachelor’s degree or higher.

• Also by 2006, fewer Gulf War-era II veterans aged 18 to 54 years had earned less than a high school diploma (2.1
percent) than did nonveterans (13.8 percent).

• In 2006, male and female Gulf War-era II veterans had similar educational attainment characteristics.

  Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

6. A smaller proportion of female Gulf War-era II veterans are employed compared with female nonveterans
Percent of
population
aged 18–54
years
100

Percent of
population
aged 18–54
years
100
g Gulf War-era II veterans

90

g Nonveterans

80

90
80

70

70

60

60

50

50

40

40

30

30

20

20

10

10

0

Total

Men

Women

0

NOTE: Gulf War-era II veterans had served anywhere on active duty since September 2001.
SOURCE:: Current Population Survey (CPS), 2006 annual averages.

• In 2006, the proportion of female Gulf War-era II veterans who were employed (65.6 percent) was smaller than the
proportion of female nonveterans who were employed (70.2 percent).

• In 2006, there was little difference between the percentage of male Gulf War-era II veterans who were employed (84.6
percent) and the percentage of male nonveterans who were employed (83.2 percent).

• The percentage of all Gulf War-era II veterans who were employed in 2006 (81.2 percent) is influenced by the high
proportion of Gulf War-era II veterans who are men. The percentage of nonveterans who are employed in 2006 (76.4
percent) consists of a more even mix of men and women.

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008 

Visual Essay: Gulf War-Era II Veterans

7. The unemployment rate of Gulf War-era II veterans is higher than that of nonveterans

Unemployment rate of
population
aged 18–54
years
8

Unemployment rate of
population
aged 18–54
years
8
g Gulf War-era II veterans
7

7

g Nonveterans

6

6

5

5

4

4

3

3

2

2

1

1

0

Total

Men

Women

0

NOTE: Gulf War-era II veterans had served anywhere on active duty since September 2001.
SOURCE:: Current Population Survey (CPS), 2006 annual averages.

• Gulf War-era II veterans aged 18 to 54 years had a higher unemployment rate (6.5 percent) than did nonveterans (4.7

percent) in 2006. The unemployment rate represents the number unemployed as a percentage of the labor force (the sum
of the number employed and the number unemployed).

• Male Gulf War-era II veterans aged 18 to 54 years had a higher unemployment rate (6.4 percent) than male nonveterans
(4.7 percent) in 2006. Likewise, female Gulf War-era II veterans aged 18 to 54 years had a higher unemployment rate
(7.1 percent) than female nonveterans in the same age group (4.7 percent).

• The unemployment rate of 18-to-54-year-old male Gulf War-era II veterans (6.4 percent) is not statistically different
from that of female Gulf War-era II veterans in the same age group (7.1 percent).

10

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

8. Gulf War-era II veterans aged 25 to 34 years have a higher unemployment rate than nonveterans

Unemployment rate of
population
aged 18–54
years

Unemployment rate of
population
aged 18–54
years

12

12
g Gulf War-era II veterans
10

10

g Nonveterans

8

8

6

6

4

4

2

2

0

18 to 24 years

25 to 34 years	35 to 44 years	45 to 54 years

0

Age
NOTE: Gulf War-era II veterans had served anywhere on active duty since September 2001.
SOURCE: Current Population Survey (CPS), 2006 annual averages.

• At 7.5 percent in 2006, the unemployment rate of Gulf War-era II veterans aged 25 to 34 years was higher than the 2006
unemployment rate of nonveterans in the same age group (4.6 percent).

• The unemployment rate of Gulf War-era II veterans aged 18 to 24 years was about the same (10.6 percent) as that of
their nonveteran peers (9.5 percent) in 2006. (The difference was not statistically significant.)

• Gulf War-era II veterans aged 35 to 44 years and 45 to 54 years had unemployment rates that were not significantly
different from those of nonveterans in the corresponding age groups (2.2 percent compared with 3.6 percent, and 2.9
percent compared with 3.1 percent, respectively).

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008 11

Visual Essay: Gulf War-Era II Veterans

9. Gulf War-era II veterans are twice as likely to be government workers than are nonveterans

Percent of
employed
aged 18–54
years

Percent of
employed
aged 18–54
years

100

100

— Self-employed and unpaid
family workers —

90

90

— Government workers —

80

80

70

70

60

60

50

50
— Private wage and salary workers —

40

40

30

30

20

20

10

10

0

0
Gulf War-era II veterans

Nonveterans

NOTE: Gulf War-era II veterans had served anywhere on active duty since September 2001.
SOURCE: Current Population Survey (CPS), 2006 annual averages.

• Gulf War-era II veterans were twice as likely to be government workers than were nonveterans of comparable ages (18 to

54 years). Among employed veterans, 26 percent worked in the public sector at the Federal, State, or local level in 2006,
compared with 13 percent of nonveterans.

• Three percent of Gulf War-era II veterans aged 18 to 54 years were self-employed in 2006, compared with 6 percent of
nonveterans in the same age group.

• Both male and female Gulf War-era II veterans had similar distributions by category of worker. However, among nonveterans, employed women were more likely than men to work for the government.

12

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

10. Gulf War-era II veterans are more likely to be employed in protective service occupations than
are nonveterans
Top 10 occupations of nonveterans

Top 10 occupations of Gulf War-era II veterans
0

2	4	

6

8

10

12

14

Protective service

Office and
administrative
support

Construction and
extraction

Sales and related

Transportation and
material moving

Management

Office and
administrative
support

Construction and
extraction

Installation,
maintenance,
and repair

Production

Sales and related

Transportation
and
material moving

Management

Education, training
and library

Production

Food preparation
and
serving related

Business and
financial operations

Healthcare
practitioner
and techincal

Computer and
mathematical

Business and
financial
operations
0

2	4	

6

8

10

12

14

Percent of employed aged 18–54 years

0

2	4	

6

8

10

12

14

0

2	4	

6

8

10

12

14

Percent of employed aged 18–54 years

NOTE: Gulf War-era II veterans had served anywhere on active duty since September 2001.
SOURCE:: Current Population Survey (CPS), 2006 annual averages.

• Gulf War-era II veterans aged 18 to 54 years were more likely to be employed in protective service occupations (9.8

percent) than were nonveterans (1.8 percent) in 2006. Protective service occupations include police and sheriff ’s patrol
officers; security guards and gaming surveillance officers; and bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers. Most Gulf War-era
II veterans working in protective service occupations were men.

• In 2006, men made up most of the veterans employed in each of the top 10 occupations of Gulf War-era II veterans.
However, women made up about a quarter of the Gulf War-era II veterans working in office and administrative support occupations. In contrast, less than 1 percent of Gulf War-era II veterans employed in construction and extraction
occupations in 2006 were women.

Notes
The designation “Gulf War era II” was developed in consultation with the Department of Veterans Affairs and the U.S.
Department of Labor’s Veterans’ Employment and Training Service.
1

2

CPS

data are available on the Internet at www.bls.gov/cps.

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008 13

Job Openings and Labor Turnover

Job openings, hires, and turnover
decrease in 2007
Although the number of job openings, hires, and separations
all declined in 2007, the current labor market slowdown
can be seen most in the decrease in hiring; at the industry level,
the job openings rate and hires rate declined in several industries,
while the separations rate was either unchanged or inconsistent,
with no discernible trend
Zhi Boon

Zhi Boon is an
economist in
the Division of
Administrative
Statistics and Labor
Turnover, Office of
Employment and
Unemployment
Statistics, Bureau of
Labor Statistics.

14

T

he U.S. labor market slowed considerably in the latter portion of 2007,
as indicated by increasing unemployment1 and slowing job growth.2 Data
from the Job Openings and Labor Turnover
Survey (JOLTS)3 also reflect a labor market
slowdown in 2007, as job openings—a measure of labor demand—and hires and separations—measures of worker flows—decreased over the year.
After reaching a low point in September
2003, the job openings level displayed an
overall upward trend through January 2007,
when it reached a post-recession high of 4.3
million openings on the last business day of
the month, the highest level since February
2001. After the January 2007 high point,
the job openings level generally trended
downward for 7 months, then fell in 3 of the
last 4 months of the year. The end-of-year
labor demand—as measured by the number
of openings on the last business day of the
year—was down as well, with 298,000 fewer
openings in 2007 than in 2006.
Trends in the 2007 hires and separations
data also reflect a labor market slowdown,
with businesses responding to weaker demand by hiring fewer workers, rather than by
laying off more workers, whereas in previous
labor market slowdowns, layoffs typically

Monthly Labor Review • May  2008

have increased.4 The hires level throughout
2007 continued the overall decreasing trend
that began after the series reached a high of
5.1 million in July 2006. The total separations level also trended downward in 2007,
although not as rapidly as hires. The total
separations level began an overall decreasing
trend after reaching a series high point in
May 2006. Quits—the largest component of
separations5—began to decrease in 2006 and
continued a decreasing trend through 2007.
As in the past, the number of quits trended
similarly to the Conference Board’s Consumer Confidence Index. (See chart 1.) The
number of layoffs and discharges—which
make up a smaller percentage of total separations than quits—finished the year at 1.8
million, unchanged from December 2006.
These three JOLTS measures—openings,
hires, and separations—capture subtle changes in employers’ and employees’ behavior and
expectations and thus provide valuable insight
into the dynamics of the U.S. labor market.
However, because the JOLTS data time series
are relatively short—they begin at the end
of 2000—the full analytical potential of the
data has not yet been realized. This article
discusses the trends in these data from 2001
to 2007, with emphasis on the changes from
2006 to 2007.

Chart 1.

Total nonfarm quits levels (Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey), seasonally adjusted,

and the Conference Board’s Consumer Confidence Index, 2001–07

Quits level (in thousands)

Consumer Confidence Index
140

3,500
Quits level

3,000

120

2,500

100

2,000

80

1,500

60
Consumer Confidence Index

1,000

40

500

20

0

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

0

NOTE:  Shaded area represents recession as designated by the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER).

Job openings
Historically, the number of job openings in the private
sector has generally trended closely with total private
sector employment, as measured by the Current Employment Statistics (CES) survey. (See charts 2 and 3.) Beginning in early 2007, however, the trends in employment
and job openings diverged, with employment continuing
to rise while job openings started to fall. These deviating
trends suggest that employers might have attempted to
reduce costs by posting fewer job openings.
Although job openings for the entire U.S. economy
and for the private sector exhibited decreases through
2007, what is seen across industries is mixed. For example, the job openings rate decreased throughout the year
in the following industries: trade, transportation, and
utilities; retail trade; and construction. Before it began
to decline, the job openings rate in construction reached
a series high of 3.0 percent in February 2007. The job
openings rate increased over the year in just one industry,
accommodation and food services, which has shown a
gradually rising rate since 2003. At 4.9 percent in September, the rate in this industry reached a high not seen

since prior to the 2001 recession. The job openings rates
in the remaining industries were little changed during
the year.
Historically, not seasonally adjusted data show that arts,
entertainment, and recreation; accommodation and food
services; and professional and business services typically
have the highest job openings rates. In 2007, however, the
information industry had the highest job openings rate
during the year, at 4.8 percent in February. The high rate
in information was not sustained, though, and by the end
of the year it had dropped to 2.2 percent.
Across the regions, the 2007 job openings rate was
highest in the West and exhibited decreasing trends in
the second half of the year in the Northeast and West.
The job openings rate was basically static over the year in
the South and Midwest regions.

Hires and quits
Similar to the job openings data, the private sector hires
and quits levels trended closely with the CES employment
level until early 2006, when the series began to diverge,
with hires and quits starting to level off as employment
Monthly Labor Review • May  2008

15

Job Openings and Labor Turnover

Chart 2.

Total private job openings (Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey) and total private
employment (Current Employment Statistics survey), seasonally adjusted, 2001–07

Job openings
(in thousands)
8,000

Employment
(in thousands)
120,000

7,000

117,500
Total private employment

6,000

115,000

5,000

112,500
Total private job openings

4,000

110,000

3,000

107,500

2,000

105,000

1,000

102,500

0

100,000
2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

NOTE:  Shaded area represents recession as designated by the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER).

Chart 3.

Total private hires (Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey) and total private employment
(Current Employment Statistics survey), seasonally adjusted, 2001–07

Hires
(in thousands)

Employment
(in thousands)

8,000

120,000

7,000

117,500
Total private employment

6,000
5,000

Total private hires

112,500

4,000

110,000

3,000

107,500

2,000

105,000

1,000

102,500

0

100,000
2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

NOTE:  Shaded area represents recession as designated by the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER).

16

115,000

Monthly Labor Review • May  2008

Chart 4.

Quits as a percentage of total separations (Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey) in total
nonfarm employment, seasonally adjusted, 2001–07
Percent
70

Percent
70

65

65

60

60

55

55

50

50

45

45

40

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

40

NOTE:  Shaded area represents recession as designated by the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER).

continued to grow. (See charts 2 and 3.) The divergence
of hires from employment, which began in the early
months of 2006, suggests that employers slowed down
their hiring, but not to the extent that it caused CES private sector employment to decline. The trend in quits began to deviate from the CES employment trend near the
end of 2005, and it began to decrease late in 2006. This
suggests that workers reacted to economic uncertainty by
holding onto their current jobs. The decreased number
of quits is consistent with the decreased number of job
openings, as fewer job openings limit the prospects of
moving to a new job.
For both hires and separations, most industries exhibited large month-to-month changes in rates but no consistent trends. Education and health services and State
and local government were both static during the year.
The hires rate in accommodation and food services exhibited a decreasing trend throughout the year—its first
decreasing trend since its post-recession low in March
2003. The hires rates in retail trade and in trade, transportation, and utilities continued their downward trends
that began in 2006, with retail trade reaching its low
point during the year in May, at 3.9 percent, the lowest
it has been since July 2003. The hires rate in professional

and business services also reached a series low point during the year in August, at 4.3 percent, the lowest it has
been since February 2004. In construction, the hires rate
reached a series low in February, at 3.6 percent.
The number of quits, which make up the majority of
total separations, showed no clear trends in any industry.
Still, in construction and in accommodation and food
services, the quits rate reached series lows. Quits as a
percentage of total separations—an indicator of employees’ confidence in their ability to change jobs—declined
in 2007 to a monthly average of 56.9 percent. In the last
4 months of the year, the series exhibited large monthto-month swings, sometimes as high as 3.9 percentage
points. (See chart 4.) Over the course of the year, as the
economy softened, the ratio fell from a high of 59 percent early in the year to a low of 54 percent later in the
year. The only industry that showed a consistent trend
through the year was professional and business services,
in which the ratio of quits to total separations declined by
12.9 percentage points. Compared with 2006, the average
monthly ratio of quits to separations in 2007 decreased
for almost all industries, most notably construction, in
which the ratio decreased by 5.3 percentage points.
Regionally, the only area that exhibited a consistent
Monthly Labor Review • May  2008

17

Job Openings and Labor Turnover

Chart 5.

Industries in which the average monthly job openings rate exceeds the average monthly hires rate,
Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey, 2007
Percent

Percent
5.0

5.0

4.0

4.0

3.0

3.0

2.0

2.0

1.0

1.0

0.0

Total nonfarm

Health care
and social
assistance

Average monthly job openings rate

Information

Finance
and
insurance

State and
local
government

0.0

Average monthly hires rate

trend in 2007 was the Midwest, where the ratio decreased
from 60 percent at the start of the year to 53 percent
at the end of the year. The ratio also declined from the
previous year in the Northeast and South regions and
showed no change in the West.

in health care and social assistance, and in State and local
government. For 2007, the information sector also exhibited potential unmet labor demand, averaging a monthly
job openings rate of 3.8 percent and a hires rate of 2.2
percent. (See chart 5.)

Unmet labor demand

Annual hires and separations

Given the reference periods for the data—job openings
data are referenced to the last business day of the month
and hires data cover the entire month—one would normally expect the hires rate to exceed the job openings rate.
Yet, in several industries the opposite occurs, indicating
that the demand for labor might be greater than the supply of labor, or that a shortage of labor exists. It appears
that employers in these industries may be having difficulty
finding qualified workers who are willing to fill the job
openings at the prevailing wage rate. Another possible
explanation for the higher openings rate in some industries is that employers are leaving vacancy announcements
open as they become more selective in the actual hiring of
employees. As in the previous year, in 2007, the job openings rate exceeded the hires rate in finance and insurance,

After increasing—although at a decreasing rate—for 3
consecutive years, the 2007 annual hires rate decreased by
1.5 percentage points to 42 percent. (See table 1; tables are
collected at the end of the article.) The largest decreases in
the annual hires rate occurred in construction, retail trade;
transportation, warehousing, and utilities; real estate and
rental and leasing; professional and business services; and
information. The largest increases in the 2007 annual hires
rate occurred in natural resources and mining; wholesale
trade; finance and insurance; and Federal Government.
The 2007 annual total separations rate decreased for the
second consecutive year—by 0.9 percentage point, to 39.7
percent. (See table 2.) The majority of industries exhibited
decreases in the annual total separations rate. Exceptions
to this were natural resources and mining; durable goods

18

Monthly Labor Review • May  2008

manufacturing; finance and insurance; and Federal Government, all of which exhibited significant increases in annual total separations rates.
Layoffs and discharges and other separations, which are
components of total separations, exhibited small changes
in their annual rates compared with their 2006 rates. (See
tables 3 and 4.) The annual layoffs and discharges rate increased 0.5 percentage point from 2006 to 2007. Compared
with the 2006 industry rates, the annual layoffs and discharges rate increased across the majority of industries with
the largest increases occurring in the following industries:
natural resources and mining; durable goods manufacturing; wholesale trade; information; finance and insurance;
and educational services. The annual other separations rate
in 2007 decreased from the previous year by 0.3 percentage

point, which equates to 359,000 other separations. A few
industries experienced an increase in the annual other separations rate from 2006 to 2007, with the most significant
increase occurring in Federal government, which increased
by 3.7 percentage points. This high rate of other separations
(which includes retirements) in the Federal Government
might be attributable to the fact that increasing numbers of
baby boomers are retiring from the Federal Government.
and separations
all decreased in 2007, but the labor market slowdown
mostly reflected the decrease in hiring. At the industry
level, the job openings rate and hires rate declined in several industries, while the separations rate was either static
or did not exhibit consistent trends in the industries.
THE LEVELS OF JOB OPENINGS, HIRES

Notes
1
James Marschall Borbely, “Household survey indicators weaken in
2007,” Monthly Labor Review, March 2008, pp. 3–18; on the Internet
at http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2008/03/art1full.pdf (visited May
15, 2008).

2
Robyn J. Richards, “Payroll employment in 2007: job growth slows,”
Monthly Labor Review, March 2008, pp. 19–31; on the Internet at http://
www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2008/03/art2full.pdf (visited May 15, 2008).

The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) provides
measures of job openings, hires, and separations on a monthly basis, by
industry and region, from December 2000 forward. JOLTS is a monthly
survey of approximately 16,000 nonfarm business establishments and
is benchmarked to the BLS Current Employment Statistics (CES) survey. Job openings are measured as the number of positions open at an
3

establishment on the last business day of the reference month. Hires
and separations are measured as the number of additions and subtractions from an establishment’s payroll for the entire month. Data by
type of separation are also available and consist of quits (voluntary separations), layoffs and discharges (involuntary separations), and other
separations (such as retirements, transfers, and death).

4
Kelly Evans, “Slower Hiring, Not Layoffs, Hurts Labor Market,”
Wall Street Journal, Feb. 13, 2008; on the Internet at http://online.wsj.
com/article/SB120285948548463683.html (visited May 15, 2008).
5
Kelly A. Clark, “The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey:
what initial data show,” Monthly Labor Review, November 2004, pp.
14–23; on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2004/11/
art2full.pdf (visited May 15, 2008).

Monthly Labor Review • May  2008

19

Job Openings and Labor Turnover

Table 1.
Table 1.

Annual hires rates and levels, Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS), 2006–07

Rate
(percent)
Levels (in thousands)
				
											
Industry and region
Percent
Change
2006
2007
2006
2007
Change
change

								

Total . .................................................................

– 1.5

– 3.4

59,158

57,778

–1,380

Percent
change

43.5

42.0

– 2.3

		 Total private..................................................
				 Natural resources and mining...........
				 Construction............................................
				 Manufacturing.........................................
					 Durable goods......................................
					 Nondurable goods..............................
				 Trade, transportation, and
					 utilities.....................................................
					 Wholesale trade...................................
					 Retail trade.............................................
					 Transportation, warehousing,
					   and utilities.........................................

47.9
35.4
58.9
30.3
28.3
33.7

46.1
– 1.8
– 3.8
54,612
53,158
39.7	 4.3
12.1	   242	   287
54.5
– 4.4
– 7.5	 4,530	 4,151
30.8	  .5	 1.7	 4,282	 4,274
27.6
–  .7
–2.5	 2,545	 2,437
36.2	 2.5	 7.4	 1,742	 1,836

48.2
27.4
58.4

44.5
– 3.7
32.4	 5.0
53.1
– 5.3

41.6

32.8

				 Information...............................................
				 Financial activities..................................
					 Finance and insurance.......................
					 Real estate and rental and
					   leasing..................................................
				 Professional and business
					 services...................................................
				 Education and health services...........
					 Educational services...........................
					 Health care and social
					   assistance............................................
				 Leisure and hospitality.........................
					 Arts, entertainment, and
					   recreation............................................
					 Accommodations and food
					   services................................................
				 Other services..........................................

31.8
30.1
25.9

26.6
– 5.2
–16.4	   965	   807
31.7	 1.6	 5.3	 2,505	 2,634
29.3	 3.4
13.1	 1,597	 1,804

41.9

38.4

62.6
33.0
29.0

57.8
– 4.8
– 7.7
10,989
10,379
32.8
– .2
– .6	 5,888	 6,009
29.9	  .9	 3.1	   842	   882

33.8
79.2

33.3
79.1

–1.5	 5,042	 5,127
–.1
10,388
10,661

85	 1.7
273	 2.6

80.1

82.5	 2.4	 3.0	 1,545	 1,631

86	 5.6

79.1
39.6

78.5
38.5

–.8	 8,843	 9,030
– 2.8	 2,152	 2,114

187	 2.1
–38
–1.8

		 Government..................................................

20.7

20.8	  .1	  .5	 4,546	 4,621

75	 1.6

				 Federal........................................................
				 State and local.........................................

24.9
20.1

32.0	 7.1
19.2
– .9

35.9
47.6
40.4
46.3

33.9
– 2.0
– 5.6	 9,102	 8,680
45.6
– 2.0
–4.2
23,327
22,616
41.2	  .8	 2.0
12,589
12,955
43.7
– 2.6
–5.6
14,140
13,527

                             Industry

– 8.8

– 3.5

– .5
– .1

– .6
– 1.1

–1,454
– 2.7
45
18.6
–379
– 8.4
–8
– .2
–108
– 4.2
94	 5.4

– 7.7
12,669
11,843
18.2	 1,618	 1,955
– 9.1	 8,964	 8,219

–826
337
–745

– 6.5
20.8
– 8.3

–21.2	 2,087	 1,669

–418

–20.0

– 8.4	   909	   831

28.5	   680	   873
–4.5	 3,866	 3,749

–158
–16.4
129	 5.1
207
13.0
–78

– 8.6

–610
–5.6
121	 2.1
40	 4.8

193
–117

28.4
–3.0

                                  Region1
				
				
				
				

Northeast..................................................
South..........................................................
Midwest.....................................................
West.............................................................

1
The four regions are defined as follows: The Northeast region
comprises Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire,
New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; the
South region comprises Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, the District of
Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi,
North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina,   Tennessee, Texas, Virginia,
and West Virginia; the Midwest region comprises Illinois, Indiana, Iowa,
Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska,   North Dakota, Ohio,

20

Monthly Labor Review • May  2008

–422
– 4.6
–711
–3.0
366	 2.9
–613
–4.3

South Dakota, and Wisconsin; the West region comprises Alaska, Arizona,
California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico,
Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
NOTE:  The annual hires rate is the number of hires during the entire
year as a percent of annual average employment. The annual hires level is
the total number of hires during the entire year.

Table 2.
Table 1.

Annual total separations rates and levels, Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS), 2006–07

Rate
(percent)
Levels (in thousands)
				
											
Industry and region
Percent
Change
2006
2007
2006
2007
Change
change

								

Total....................................................................

40.6

39.7

– 0.9

–2.2

55,199

54,641

5.1
32.0
60.6
31.4
28.3
36.6
45.8
29.3
55.7

44.1
–1.0
– 2.2
51,492
50,925
38.0	 6.0
18.8	   219	   275
56.3
– 4.3
– 7.1	 4,657	 4,285
33.2	 1.8	 5.7	 4,442	 4,612
31.0	 2.7	 9.5	 2,546	 2,734
37.1	  .5	 1.4	 1,894	 1,880
44.6
– 1.2
– 2.6
12,031
11,859
31.3	 2.0	 6.8	 1,732	 1,885
53.6
– 2.1
– 3.8	 8,559	 8,301

–558

Percent
change
–1.0

                           Industry

		 Total private...................................................

				 Natural resources and mining...........
				 Construction............................................
				 Manufacturing.........................................
					 Durable goods......................................
					 Nondurable goods..............................
				 Trade, transportation, and utilities...
					 Wholesale trade...................................
					 Retail trade.............................................
					 Transportation, warehousing,
					   and  utilities........................................

– 1.8

– 5.2	 1,739	 1,672

–567
–1.1
56
25.6
–372
–8.0
170	 3.8
188	 7.4
–14
– .7
–172
–1.4
153	 8.8
–258
–3.0

34.7

32.9

				 Information...............................................
				 Financial activities..................................
					 Finance and insurance.......................
					 Real estate and rental and leasing
				 Professional and business services....
				 Education and health services...........
					 Educational services...........................
					 Health care and social assistance....
				 Leisure and hospitality.........................
					 Arts, entertainment, and
					   recreation............................................
					 Accommodations and food
					   services................................................
				 Other services..........................................

31.1
30.6
26.2
42.9
55.9
28.5
23.3
29.5
74.5

27.2
– 3.9
–12.5	   945	   824
31.3	  .7	 2.3	 2,545	 2,603
28.4	 2.2	 8.4	 1,613	 1,746
39.7
– 3.2
– 7.5	   931	   858
54.0
– 1.9
– 3.4	 9,824	 9,709
28.0
– .5
–1.8	 5,078	 5,131
24.2	  .9	 3.9	   677	   714
28.7
– .8
–2.7	 4,403	 4,417
71.6
– 2.9
–3.9	 9,762	 9,643

–67

–3.9

71.9

71.7

– .2

– .3	 1,386	 1,419

33	 2.4

74.9
36.6

71.5
36.2

– 3.4
– .4

– 4.5	 8,379	 8,223
– 1.1	 1,988	 1,988

–156
–1.9
0	  .0

		 Government..................................................
				 Federal........................................................
				 State and local.........................................

16.9
24.0
15.9

16.7
–  .2
27.1	 3.1
15.3
–  .6

–1.2	 3,707	 3,715
12.9	   656	   739
– 3.8	 3,051	 2,978

8	  .2
83
12.7
–73
– 2.4

33.5
44.2
38.8
42.4

31.5
–2.0
–6.0	 8,483	 8,076
42.9
–1.3
– 2.9
21,661
21,289
38.1
– .7
–1.8
12,103
11,974
43.0	  .6	 1.4
12,953
13,298

-407
– 4.8
–372
–1.7
–129
–1.1
345	 2.7

–121
–12.8
58	 2.3
133	 8.2
–73
–7.8
–115
–1.2
53	 1.0
37	 5.5
14	  .3
–119
–1.2

                            Region1
				
				
				
				

Northeast..................................................
South..........................................................
Midwest.....................................................
West.............................................................

1
The four regions are defined as follows: The Northeast region
comprises Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire,
New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; the
South region comprises Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, the District of
Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi,
North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina,   Tennessee, Texas, Virginia,
and West Virginia; the Midwest region comprises Illinois, Indiana, Iowa,
Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska,   North Dakota, Ohio,

South Dakota, and Wisconsin; the West region comprises Alaska, Arizona,
California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon,
Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
NOTE:   The annual total separations rate is the number of total separations
during the entire year as a percent of annual average employment. The
annual total separations level is the total number of separations during the
entire year.

Monthly Labor Review • May  2008

21

Job Openings and Labor Turnover

Table 3.
Table 1.

Annual layoffs and discharges rates and levels, Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS), 2006–07

Rate
(percent)
Levels (in thousands)
				
											
Industry and region
Percent
Change
2006
2007
2006
2007
Change
change

								

		Total................................................................

13.8

14.3	  0.5	 3.6

18,792

Percent
change

19,674

882	 4.7

16.0	  .6	 3.9
17,578
18,505
11.8	 2.3
24.2	    65	    85
32.4	 1.4	 4.5	 2,382	 2,465
13.4	 1.4
11.7	 1,700	 1,867
13.1	 2.6
24.8	   946	 1,154
14.2
–  .5
– 3.4	   758	   717

927	 5.3
20
30.8
83	 3.5
167	 9.8
208
22.0
–41
– 5.4

14.8	  .7	 5.0	 3,709	 3,941
12.5	 2.7
27.6	   581	   752
16.5
–  .1
–  .6	 2,548	 2,552

232	 6.3
171
29.4
4	  .2

12.5	  .9	 7.8	   581	   634

53	 9.1

                              Industry

			 Total private.................................................
15.4
					 Natural resources and mining.......... 	 9.5
					 Construction.........................................
31.0
					 Manufacturing.....................................
12.0
						 Durable goods.................................
10.5
						 Nondurable goods.........................
14.7
					 Trade, transportation, and
					   utilities..................................................
14.1
						 Wholesale trade............................... 	 9.8
						 Retail trade........................................
16.6
						 Transportation, warehousing,
						   and utilities.....................................
11.6

					 Information............................................ 	 6.6	 7.8	 1.2
18.2	   199	   235
					 Financial activities............................... 	 9.3
10.3	 1.0
10.8	   774	   854
						 Finance and insurance..................
6.6
8.2
1.6
24.2
409
504
						 Real estate and rental and
						   leasing..............................................
16.7
16.3
–  .4
– 2.4	   363	   352
					 Professional and business
					   services.................................................
21.8
22.8	 1.0	 4.6	 3,822	 4,087
					 Education and health services........
7.9	 8.3	  .4	 5.1	 1,414	 1,521
						 Educational services...................... 	 9.3
11.2	 1.9
20.4	   270	   331
						 Health care and social
						   assistance........................................
7.7	 7.8	  .1	 1.3	 1,144	 1,192
					 Leisure and hospitality......................
21.4
20.8
–  .6
–2.8	 2,807	 2,797
						 Arts, entertainment, and
						   recreation........................................
40.8
40.7
–  .1
–  .2	   787	   806
						 Accommodations and food
						   services............................................
18.1
17.3
–  .8
–4.4	 2,019	 1,991
					 Other services.......................................
13.0
11.9
– 1.1
– 8.5	   705	   652
		 Government.................................................. 	 5.5	 5.3
–  .2
					 Federal..................................................... 	 6.7	 7.5	  .8
					 State and local...................................... 	 5.4	 5.0
–  .4

– 3.6	 1,215	 1,171
11.9	   184	   205
– 7.4	 1,031	   966

36
80
95

18.1
10.3
23.2

–11

– 3.0

265	 6.9
107	 7.6
61
22.6
48	 4.2
–10
– .4
19	 2.4
–28
–53

–1.4
– 7.5

–44
21
–65

– 3.6
11.4
– 6.3

                             Region1

					 Northeast...............................................

					 South.......................................................
					 Midwest..................................................
					 West..........................................................

12.7
13.2
14.1
15.4

13.0	  .3	 2.4	 3,220	 3,344
14.1	  .9	 6.8	 6,476	 6,986
14.4	  .3	 2.1	 4,404	 4,538
15.5	  .1	  .6	 4,694	 4,807

1
The four regions are defined as follows: The Northeast region
comprises Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New
Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; the South
region comprises Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, the District of Columbia,
Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North
Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina,  Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West
Virginia; the Midwest region comprises Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas,
Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska,   North Dakota, Ohio, South
Dakota, and Wisconsin; the West region comprises Alaska, Arizona,

22

Monthly Labor Review • May  2008

124	 3.9
510	 7.9
134	 3.0
113	 2.4

California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico,
Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
NOTE:  The annual layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs
and discharges during the entire year as a percent of annual average
employment. The annual layoffs and discharges  level is the total number
of layoffs and discharges  during the entire year.

Table 4.
Table 1.

Annual other separations rates and levels, Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS), 2006–07

Rate
(percent)
Levels (in thousands)
				
											
Industry and region
Percent
Change
2006
2007
2006
2007
Change
change

								

		 Total..................................................................

3.1	 2.8

– 0 .3

– 9.7	 4,227	 3,868

–359

Percent
change
– 8.5

                                Industry
			 Total private.................................................
3.1	 2.7
–  .4
–12.9	 3,563	 3,088
					 Natural resources and mining........ 	 4.5	 4.1
– .4
–8.9	    31	    30
					 Construction.........................................
3.7	 2.7
–1.0
–27.0	   285	   203
					 Manufacturing..................................... 	 2.7	 2.6
– .1
–3.7	   376	   359
						 Durable goods................................. 	 2.8	 2.6
–  .2
– 7.1	   252	   233
						 Nondurable goods......................... 	 2.4	 2.5	  .1	 4.2	   124	   125
					 Trade, transportation, and utilities..
3.8	 3.4
–  .4
–10.5	   995	   897
						 Wholesale trade...............................
3.1	 1.9
–1.2
–38.7	   183	   116
						 Retail trade........................................ 	 4.0	 3.8
–  .2
– 5.0	   615	   581
						 Transportation, warehousing,
						   and utilities………………........ 	 4.0	 3.9
–  .1
– 2.5	   199	   200
					 Information............................................ 	 2.4	 2.9	  .5
20.8	    73	    87
					 Financial activities............................... 	 2.9	 2.5
– .4
–13.8	   239	   208
					 Finance and insurance.................. 	 2.9	 2.3
– .6
–20.7	   180	   141
						 Real estate and rental and
						   leasing.............................................. 	 2.7	 3.1	  .4
14.8	    59	    68
					 Professional and business
					   services................................................. 	 4.1	 2.9
–1.2
–29.3	   727	   520
					 Education and health services........ 	 2.1	 2.1	  .0	  .0	   370	   377
						 Educational services......................
1.5	 1.4
– .1
– 6.7	    43	    41
						 Health care and social
						   assistance........................................
2.2	 2.2	  .0	  .0	   327	   335
					 Leisure and hospitality...................... 	 2.2	 2.1
– .1
– 4.5	   282	   283
						 Arts, entertainment, and
						   recreation........................................
2.0	 2.3	  .3
15.0	    39	    45
						 Accommodations and food
						   services............................................
2.2	 2.1
– .1
–4.5	   244	   242
					 Other services.......................................
3.4	 2.2
–1.2
–35.3	   183	   119
			 Government................................................ 	 3.0	 3.5	  .5
16.7	   663	   782
					 Federal..................................................... 	 6.6
10.3	 3.7
56.1	   180	   280
					 State and local......................................
2.5	 2.6	  .1	 4.0	   479	   502

–475
–13.3
–1
– 3.2
–82
–28.8
–17
–4.5
–19
– 7.5
1	  .8
–98
– 9.8
–67
–36.6
–34
–5.5
1	  .5
14
–31
–39

19.2
–13.0
–21.7

9

15.3

–207
–28.5
7	 1.9
–2
– 4.7
8	 2.4
1	  .4
6

15.4

–2
–64

– .8
–35.0

119
17.9
100
55.6
23	 4.8

                              Region1
					
					
					
					

Northeast...............................................
3.0	 2.8
–  .2
– 6.7	   757	   714
South....................................................... 	 3.2	 2.6
– .6
–18.8	 1,557	 1,285
Midwest.................................................. 	 3.0	 2.8
–  .2
–6.7	   943	   876
West.......................................................... 	 3.2	 3.2	  .0	  .0	   966	   992

1
The four regions are defined as follows: The Northeast region
comprises Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New
Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; the South
region comprises Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, the District of Columbia,
Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North
Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina,  Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West
Virginia; the Midwest region comprises Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas,
Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska,   North Dakota, Ohio, South
Dakota, and Wisconsin; the West region comprises Alaska, Arizona,

–43
–5.7
–272
–17.5
-67
– 7.1
26	 2.7

California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico,
Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
NOTE:   The annual other separations rate is the number of other
separations during the entire year as a percent of annual average
employment. The annual other separations level is the total number of
other separations during the entire year.

Monthly Labor Review • May  2008

23

Manufacturing Wage and Productivity Stability

Wage and productivity stability
in U.S. manufacturing plants
Wages and productivity were substantially dispersed across all
manufacturing plants in 1987, but the dispersion narrowed
modestly from then until 1997; the connection between a plant’s
level of productivity and its hourly wages weakened
over the same period, and many plants exhibited substantial
movements within the relative wage and productivity distributions

Mark C. Long,
Kristin M. Dziczek,
Daniel D. Luria,
and
Edith A. Wiarda

Mark C. Long is assistant
professor of public affairs at
the Daniel J. Evans School of
Public Affairs, University of
Washington, Seattle, WA; Kristin M. Dziczek is senior project
manager in the Economics
and Business Group, Center
for Automotive Research, Ann
Arbor, MI; and Daniel D. Luria
is the research director, and
Edith A. Wiarda is a senior
economist, at the Michigan
Manufacturing Technology
Center, Ann Arbor, MI. E-mail:
marklong@u.washington.edu
24

M

anufacturing plants vary considerably, even within industries.
Consequently, the “representative
plant” view of the economy, which contends
that all plants within an industry face the
same technological changes and respond
similarly, is likely mistaken.1 Previous work
using the U.S. Census Bureau’s Longitudinal Research Database2 has demonstrated
considerable plant-level heterogeneity in
productivity and wages, even within narrowly defined industries.3 Further, the data
indicate the presence of “plant effects” that
persist over time.4 The implication is that
unobserved, long-term, plant-specific factors—perhaps including the size and nature
of a plant’s capital endowment, as well as
its managerial skills and approach—play a
sizable role in determining productivity and
wage levels.
The nature of these plant-specific effects is of interest to anyone concerned with
microlevel programs aimed at improving
the performance of U.S. manufacturers.
For example, the Manufacturing Extension Partnership of the National Institute
of Standards and Technology aims to boost
the performance of the small-firm segment
of the U.S. manufacturing economy through

Monthly Labor Review • May  2008

assessment, training, and technical assistance. This and similar efforts, however, beg
important questions with regard to plants’
productivity or wage dynamics—for example, Are large improvements realistic?
How often do plants make relatively large
movements within their industry? and
Over what period of time do they effect
such movements?
This article presents evidence on the
degree of manufacturing plants’ wage and
productivity stability during the period
from 1987 to 1997. Following on the work
of Martin N. Baily, Charles Hulten, and
David Campbell, as well as that of Eric J.
Bartelsman and Phoebus J. Dhrymes, the
article examines the degree of stability
both in the total manufacturing sector and,
separately, for two-digit Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) industry groups. Baily,
Hulten, and Campbell compute plant-level
productivity transition matrices for an aggregate of 23 manufacturing industries at
the four-digit SIC level for the years 1972 to
1982.5 Bartelsman and Dhrymes compute
plant-level productivity transition matrices
for an aggregate of 3 two-digit manufacturing industries for the years 1972 to 1986.6
The analysis presented in the sections that

follow extends this literature by estimating these matrices
for all manufacturing plants and computing the matrices
for plant-level wages. In addition, several other topics are
examined: the degree of heterogeneity in wages and productivity levels within industries, the connection between
wages and productivity, and how these measures have
changed over time. The central findings to come out of
the analysis are as follows: over the period studied, (1) the
substantial dispersion of wages and productivity across all
manufacturing plants narrowed modestly; (2) the connection between a plant’s level of productivity and its hourly
wages declined; and (3) although plants’ 1987 levels of
wages and productivity were significant predictors of their
1997 levels, many plants exhibited substantial movements
within the relative wage and productivity distributions.

Theories of plant-level heterogeneity
If the “representative plant” view were correct, then all
plants within an industry should have essentially the same
productivity and wage levels. Under this model, observed
differences would be caused only by measurement error,
and there should be no persistence in relative rankings.7
However, there is much evidence to support the view that
plants are indeed heterogeneous. For example, Steven J.
Davis and John Haltiwanger find that most of the variation in employment shifts is within-sector variation, indicating that there must be plant-level heterogeneity in labor demand.8 Several models of plant dynamics have been
proposed in the literature. Following is a brief discussion
of two such models, along with some of the empirical evidence supporting them.
The plant fixed-effects model. According to this model,
each plant has a productivity level that is not associated
with the vintage of the plant. This fixed effect may be due
to managerial quality or specific locational advantages.
Whatever the cause, productivity levels would be expected to persist over time. One variant of the model is the
passive learning model of Boyan Jovanovic,9 according to
which plants are “born” with a fixed quality level that they
learn over time. Some plants learn that they have a low
level of productivity and exit the marketplace. The surviving plants would have strong productivity persistence.
The evidence for plant fixed-effect models is mixed. Mark
Doms, Timothy Dunne, and Kenneth R. Troske find that
the adoption of technology has had an insignificant effect
on labor productivity.10 Rather, plants with high wages,
high skill levels, and a productive workforce in 1977 were
more likely to adopt various technologies by 1992. The

authors give the following possible interpretation of one
of their findings: “plants at the forefront of manufacturing
technology tend to stay at the forefront.”11 This finding
supports the plant fixed-effects model and suggests that
productivity levels are indeed persistent. Baily, Hulten,
and Campbell argue that their finding of relative stability
in productivity also is evidence for the plant fixed-effects
model (and argue as well that any nonpersistence found
may be due to measurement error and random shocks).
However, on the basis of a study of the textile industry,
and using a nonparametric approach, Douglas W. Dwyer rejects the fixed-effects model and concludes that the
“‘fixed’ effects actually have a half life of approximately 10
to 20 years.”12
The active exploration model. Proposed by Richard Ericson
and Ariel Pakes in 1995, this model holds that firms can opt
to permanently raise their productivity through investment.13
Dwyer’s findings are consistent with the active exploration
model.14 Similarly, Ron Jarmin finds positive effects of manufacturing extension programs on plant productivity, showing that plants can change their levels of productivity.15
The results that follow show a fair amount of movement within the wage and productivity distributions. This
finding would be consistent with the active exploration
model, because the absence of persistence implies the
absence of a fixed effect. However, any characterization
of the observed movements as demonstrating “instability” remains in the eye of the beholder: Baily, Hulten, and
Campbell characterize their results as showing “stability”
despite the fact that they find less productivity persistence
than that found here.16

Data
The primary source of data for this article is the Census
of Manufactures, which is collected every 5 years on essentially all known establishments. The associated Longitudinal Research Database links plants across the 5-year
periods. Data for the analysis are from 1987 and 1997.
These years are convenient to study because they come at
about the same point in the business cycle.17 Of course, the
1990-91 recession occurred in the middle of this period.
Despite the fact that that recession was relatively mild, the
analysis presented herein finds a high birth and death rate
for manufacturing plants: fully one-third of the plants in
the 1987 Census of Manufactures had relocated or ceased
to exist by 1997.18 Conversely, almost 40 percent of plants
listed in the 1997 Census were new since 1987.
Individual manufacturing plants (rather than firms) are
Monthly Labor Review • May  2008

25

Manufacturing Wage and Productivity Stability

the unit of analysis presented here. Excluded are plants
that had fewer than 20 employees. Hourly wages are defined as production and nonproduction workers’ salaries
and wages, divided by production and nonproduction
workers’ hours.19 The measure of labor productivity is the
plant’s average product of labor, or Q/L, where Q denotes
the plant’s value-added output and L denotes the total
hours worked by both production and nonproduction
workers.20 The average product of labor can rise due to
an increase in the plant’s total factor productivity or an
increase in any of its factor-labor ratios (for example, its
capital-to-labor ratio).
Tables 1 and 2 present, repectively, the dispersion in
hourly wages and the dispersion in productivity by showing
the cut points for the 10th percentile, the median, and the
90th percentile for all manufacturing plants and for each
two-digit SIC industry.21 For hourly wages, there is a great
deal of heterogeneity, even within industries. Across the 20
two-digit industries, the 90th-percentile wage divided by
the 10th-percentile wage averaged 2.51 in 1987 and 2.45
in 1997. Thus, within industries, the highest paying plants
paid more than double the lowest paying plants. The decline in this ratio implies a mild reduction in heterogeneity.
Across all manufacturing plants, the standard deviation of
log hourly wages declined significantly, from 0.402 to 0.399.
Nine of the 20 industries exhibited significant declines in
the intraindustry standard deviation of log hourly wages,
while 6 showed significant increases and 5 had insignificant
changes.
This modestly declining dispersion runs counter to previous trends. For example, Linda A. Bell and Richard B.
Freeman find that interindustry wage dispersion (measured by the standard deviation of log wages) increased
between 1970 and 1987 for both manufacturing and services.22 Similarly, Davis and Haltiwanger find that, for the
period from 1963 to 1986, “between-plant wage dispersion grew for all plant classifications for production workers and for virtually all classifications for nonproduction
workers.”23 These authors argue that skill-biased technical
change could prompt high-skill workers to sort themselves
into higher skill-intensive plants, leading to widening
cross-plant wage dispersion. However, Davis and Haltiwanger also find that the pace of increasing dispersion between the 90th and the 10th percentile of the plant-wage
distribution slowed between 1982 and 1986. Finally, finding rising wage and productivity dispersion over the period
from 1975 to 1992, Dunne and colleagues24 note that the
link between widening wage and productivity dispersions
across plants is consistent with the theoretical model of
Francesco Caselli,25 as well as that of Michael Kremer and
26

Monthly Labor Review • May  2008

Eric Maskin.26 The finding of declining dispersion in the
analysis that follows is further surprising, because earnings
inequality increased during the 1990s at about the same
rate that it did during the 1980s.27
There are several ways to reconcile the seemingly contradictory evidence of widening wage inequality at the individual worker level yet declining wage dispersion across plants
during the period examined. First, there could be widening
inequality of wages within plants.28 Second, there could be
increases in the share of employment at plants that pay both
high and low wages relative to the share of employment at
plants that pay average wages. Finally, the widening inequality at the individual level could be due to changes in the
wage structure outside of manufacturing, as well as to the
decline in manufacturing’s share of total employment.
The overall compression in wages across plants can be
partially explained by an increasing share of plants in industries with less wage dispersion. The weighted average
of 1987 industry-level 90–10 ratios with each industry
weighted by its number of plants that year is 2.47. Calculating the corresponding number for 1997, with each
industry weighted by its number of plants that year, yields
an average 90–10 ratio of 2.35. However, repeating this
analysis with the standard deviation of log wages produces
an average of 0.355 under both weighting schemes.
Productivity shows an even greater amount of heterogeneity across plants. (See table 2.) Across all manufacturing
industries, the 90th-percentile productivity divided by the
10th-percentile productivity declined from 5.4 to 5.0 and
the standard deviation of log productivity declined significantly from 0.685 to 0.657. These results imply declining
productivity dispersion. However, within two-digit SIC
industries, the story is reversed: twelve of the 20 industries
exhibited significant increases in the intraindustry standard
deviation of log productivity, while 6 showed significant
decreases and 2 had insignificant changes. Thus, productivity is diverging within most two-digit industries.29

Relation of hourly wages to productivity
Earlier studies found a positive relation between plantlevel wages and productivity. 30 According to Dunne and
colleagues, “wages and productivity are strongly positively correlated in both levels and changes.”31 There are
theoretical reasons to expect this productivity-wage connection. Davis, Haltiwanger, and Scott Schuh discuss a
number of explanations of heterogeneity in productivity
and job growth across plants within industries, including
“uncertainty that surrounds the development, adoption,
distribution, marketing, and regulation of new products

Table 1.

Plant-level hourly wage dispersion, 1987 and 1997

		
1987 hourly wages

1997 hourly wages

Change, 1987–97

		
			
								
													
												
Change
										
		
in
StandStand					
90th					
90th		
90th
ard
ard
		
10th		
90th
per-		
90th
per-		
perdeviadevia- 10th		
Industry		
per- Median per- centile/		
per- Median per- centile/ 		
tion centile/
tion
		
centile		
centile 10th
centile		
centile 10th		
10th
of
of
					
per-		
			
per-		
perlog
log
					
centile					
centile		
wages centile
wages
												
ratio
													
													

		
Probability
Change
of Fin		
statistic
stand-		
for
ard
change
devia-		
in
tion
standof		
ard
log		
deviawages		
tion
of
log
wages

Ta
All manufacturing............... $8.2
SIC 20: Food and
   
kindred products ....... 8.1
SIC 21: Tobacco
manufactures . ..........
(1)
SIC 22: Textile mill products ... 7.3
SIC 23: Apparel and other
textile products ........... 6.2
SIC 24: Lumber and wood
products . ................... 7.5
SIC 25: Furniture and fixtures
7.3
SIC 26: Paper and allied
products . ................... 9.9
SIC 27: Printing and
publishing .................. 9.4
SIC 28: Chemicals and
allied products ........... 11.2
SIC 29: Petroleum and
coal products ............. 12.7
SIC 30: Rubber and
miscellaneous
plastics products . ...... 8.6
SIC 31: Leather and
leather products . ....... 6.8
SIC 32: Stone, clay,
glass, and concrete
products . ................... 9.2
SIC 33: Primary metal
industries . ................. 10.4
SIC 34: Fabricated metal
products . ................... 9.5
SIC 35: Industrial machinery
and equipment . ......... 10.8
SIC 36: Electrical and
electronic equipment .. 8.9
SIC 37: Transportation
equipment . ................ 9.4
SIC 38: Instruments and
related products . ....... 9.8
SIC 39: Miscellaneous
manufacturing
industries ................... 7.6
1

$14.3

$23.0

2.80

0.402

$8.8

$14.6

$23.4

2.66

0.399

–0.15

13.7

21.1

2.60

.297

8.0

13.1

20.5

2.56

.335

–.04

.038

.007

11.7
11.0

(1)
15.7

3.96
2.15

.404
.315

(1)
7.9

15.4
11.2

(1)
17.0

4.38
2.15

.399
.303

.42
.00

–.005
–.012

.417
.000

8.8

15.2

2.45

.377

6.1

8.5

14.8

2.43

.311

–.03

–.066

.000

12.2
11.5

18.9
18.0

2.52
2.47

.393
.367

8.2
8.5

11.9
12.4

17.4
18.6

2.12
2.19

.350
.371

–.40
–.28

–.043
.004

.000
.000

15.7

22.6

2.28

.347

10.6

15.7

22.8

2.15

.333

–.13

–.014

.004

16.0

26.0

2.77

.340

9.9

15.8

26.3

2.66

.319

–.11

–.020

.066

19.5

28.2

2.52

.375

11.4

18.8

28.0

2.46

.392

–.06

.017

.223

20.1

29.5

2.32

.348

13.0

19.4

29.5

2.27

.329

–.05

–.019

.237

13.2

19.4

2.26

.316

9.1

13.5

20.6

2.26

.331

.01

.015

.000

9.6

15.1

2.22

.506

6.8

9.5

15.4

2.26

.519

.04

.012

.398

14.9

22.0

2.39

.354

9.7

14.6

21.7

2.24

.345

–.15

–.009

.001

15.7

22.6

2.17

.388

10.7

15.7

22.8

2.13

.404

–.04

.016

.009

15.0

22.0

2.32

.380

10.3

15.0

22.1

2.15

.419

–.17

.039

.000

17.2

25.4

2.35

.371

11.5

17.2

26.1

2.27

.361

–.08

–.010

.001

14.7

23.4

2.63

.326

9.5

15.1

26.0

2.74

.323

.11

–.003

.000

15.0

23.6

2.51

.331

9.9

15.2

23.9

2.41

.317

–.10

–.013

.253

16.9

26.0

2.65

.363

10.9

18.4

29.6

2.72

.360

.06

–.004

.004

12.6

20.4

2.68

.378

8.6

13.2

20.3

2.36

.388

–.32

.010

.000

Disclosure concerns prevented the release of the 10th- and 90th-

–0.003 0.003

of the Consumer Price Index.

		
percentile values for tobacco manufactures.
NOTE: All 1987 values are converted into 1997 dollars with the use

SOURCE: 1987 and 1997 Census of Manufactures (excluding plants
with fewer than 20 employees).

Monthly Labor Review • May  2008

27

Manufacturing Wage and Productivity Stability

Table 2.

Plant-level productivity dispersion, 1987 and 1997

		
		
1987 productivity
1997 productivity
Change, 1987–97

		
Proba		
bility
Change of Fstatistic
in		
for
stand-		
change
ard
in
devia-		
standtion
ard
of		
devialog		
tion
produc-		
of
tivity
log
produc													
tivity
														
		
			
								
													
												
Change
						
Stand-				
Standin
					
90th
ard				
90th
ard
90th
		
10th		
90th
perdevia- 10th		
90th
perdevia- perIndustry		
per- Median per- centile/ tion
perMedian per- centile/ tion centile/
		
centile		
centile 10th
of
centile		
centile 10th
of
10th
					
perlog
			
perlog
per					
centile produc-				
centile produc- centile
						
tivity					
tivity ratio
													

														
														
All manufacturing..........
SIC 20: Food and
kindred
products ...............
SIC 21: Tobacco
manufactures .......
SIC 22: Textile mill
products ..............
SIC 23: Apparel and
other textile
products ...............
SIC 24: Lumber and
wood products . ....
SIC 25: Furniture and
fixtures . ................
SIC 26: Paper and
allied products ......
SIC 27: Printing and
publishing .............
SIC 28: Chemicals and
allied products ......
SIC 29: Petroleum and
coal products . .......
SIC 30: Rubber and
miscellaneous
plastics
products ...............
SIC 31: Leather and
leather
products ...............
SIC 32: Stone, clay,
glass, and
concrete
products ...............
SIC 33: Primary metal
industries . ............
SIC 34: Fabricated
metal products . ....
SIC 35: Industrial
machinery and
equipment ............
SIC 36: Electrical and
electronic
equipment ............

11.2

26.8

60.3

5.4

0.685

14.6

32.2

73.5

5.0

0.657

13.1

34.1

96.7

7.4

.785

15.3

39.0

115.0

7.5

.778

.1

–.007

.190

(1)

40.2

(1)

27.2

1.217

(1)

79.9

(1)

21.4

1.045

–5.8

–.172

.090

9.1

17.3

37.5

4.1

.569

11.1

24.0

50.1

4.5

.608

.4

.039

.000

6.6

12.3

32.7

5.0

.629

7.9

14.6

38.8

4.9

.647

.0

.018

.004

12.5

25.9

55.3

4.4

.602

13.0

24.5

48.0

3.7

.538

–.7

–.064

.000

11.8

21.2

39.5

3.3

.493

13.7

24.3

48.9

3.6

.532

.2

.040

.000

15.9

30.3

61.7

3.9

.563

19.7

37.0

76.7

3.9

.552

.0

–.012

.086

16.6

32.0

67.8

4.1

.577

18.4

33.4

68.6

3.7

.544

–.4

–.033

.000

24.6

59.7

164.8

6.7

.741

25.4

63.8

176.8

7.0

.756

.3

.015

.075

21.7

52.8

147.6

6.8

.744

24.7

77.1

215.8

8.7

.872

1.9

.128

.000

12.8

24.5

48.3

3.8

.541

16.5

31.2

65.7

4.0

.561

.2

.020

.001

9.3

17.4

35.8

3.8

.559

10.4

20.0

48.2

4.6

.623

.8

.064

.002

14.1

30.0

59.8

4.2

.585

17.1

35.9

75.5

4.4

.599

.2

.014

.047

14.8

28.6

59.2

4.0

.573

18.3

36.2

78.1

4.3

.598

.3

.025

.005

13.9

26.9

49.4

3.6

.526

17.1

31.3

59.9

3.5

.521

–.1

–.004

.159

12.6

28.3

52.8

4.2

.618

18.3

34.4

67.3

3.7

.545

–.5

–.073

.000

8.2

21.9

48.8

6.0

.734

16.3

34.3

76.4

4.7

.633

–1.3

– .100

.000

See footnotes at end of table.
28

Monthly Labor Review • May  2008

–0.3 –0.028

0.000

Table 2.

Continued—Plant-level productivity dispersion, 1987 and 1997

		
1987 productivity

1997 productivity

Change, 1987–97

		
			
								
													
												
Change
						
Stand-				
Standin
					
90th
ard				
90th
ard
90th
		
10th		
90th
perdevia- 10th		
90th
perdevia- perIndustry		
per- Median per- centile/ tion
perMedian per- centile/ tion centile/
		
centile		
centile 10th
of
centile		
centile 10th
of
10th
					
perlog
			
perlog
per					
centile produc-				
centile produc- centile
						
tivity					
tivity ratio
													

		
Probability
Change of Fin		
statistic
stand-		
for
ard
change
devia-		in
tion
standof		
ard
log		
deviaproduc-		
tion
tivity
of
log
													
produc														
tivity
SIC 37: Transportation
equipment ........... 12.8
SIC 38: Industrial
machinery and
related products ... 14.4
SIC 39: Micellaneous
manufacturing
industries . ........... 12.0

26.4

51.5

4.0

.572

15.9

33.9

69.9

4.4

.619

.4

.047

.000

31.6

60.7

4.2

.579

19.3

42.1

85.1

4.4

.598

.2

.019

.018

23.6

45.7

3.8

.547

14.4

29.0

56.6

3.9

.566

.1

.018

.022

Disclosure concerns prevented the release of the 10th- and 90thpercentile values for tobacco manufactures.			
1

NOTE: All 1987 values are converted into 1997 dollars with the use
of the NBER-CES Manufacturing Industry Database deflator for ship-

and production techniques, [which] encourages firms to
experiment with different technologies, goods, and production facilities”; “differences in entrepreneurial and
managerial ability”; variation in local input costs, which
“influence the size and type of the labor force and capital
stock”; and “slow diffusion of information about technology, distribution channels, marketing strategies, and consumer tastes.”32 This heterogeneity, particularly as it relates to the types of technology used, is likely to affect the
characteristics of plants’ workforces and thus contribute to
wage heterogeneity.
Daron Acemoglu highlights various empirical and theoretical reasons for such connections, citing Ann P. Bartel
and Frank R. Lichtenberg, who “show that firms introducing new technologies hire more skilled workers,” as
well as Marcus Mobius, and David Thesmar and Mathias
Thoenig, who “show how the size of the product market,
the degree of competitive pressure and instability facing
firms may affect the way firms choose to organize, and
therefore demand for skills.”33 Another explanation for
a connection between wages and measured productivity
could be rent sharing: a plant might have market power
and high prices, resulting in greater value added per worker, and workers might be able to capture some of the rents
from this market power in terms of higher wages. Finally,

ments at the four-digit SIC industry level.			
SOURCE: 1987 and 1997 Census of Manufactures (excluding plants
with fewer than 20 employees).

Judith K. Hellerstein, David Neumark, and Kenneth R.
Troske find that some plant-level worker characteristics
(for example, sex, race, age, and education) that are shown
to be associated with higher levels of productivity also are
associated with higher plant-level wages.34
The analysis presented in this article tests the strength
of the relation between wages and productivity (and its
stability) for manufacturing generally and by industry.
Table 3 splits each manufacturing plant that existed in
1987 into wage and productivity quintiles. The cells with
boldface entries indicate plants that were in the same wage
and productivity quintile in 1987 and are situated along
the diagonal of the table. Excluding plants with missing
wage or productivity data, 41 percent of the plants are
along this diagonal and 39 percent of the plants are one
cell away from the diagonal. Being more than one cell off
the diagonal represents a substantial difference between
the plant’s wages and its productivity. Twenty percent of
all manufacturing plants were more than one cell away
from the diagonal (shaded in gray). Thus, although pay
and productivity are positively linked, there is a great deal
of “wiggle room”: the highest paying employers and the
most productive plants are not one and the same. Indeed,
being in the top quintile of plants in productivity in 1987
implied only a 49-percent chance of being in the top quinMonthly Labor Review • May  2008

29

Manufacturing Wage and Productivity Stability

Table 3.

Relation between hourly wages and productivity at the plant level, all manufacturing plants, 1987

			
[In percent]			
1987 productivity quintile		
			
Missing
1987 wage quintile
data
			
$15.7–
$23.0–
$30.8–
< $15.7
> $43.8
			
$23.0
$30.8
$43.8		
< $10.0................................
$10.0–$12.9........................
$12.9–$15.7........................
$15.7–$19.6........................
> $19.6................................

11.3
4.4
1.8
1.1
.9

4.9
6.8
4.4
2.4
.9

1.8
4.3
6.0
5.1
2.2

1.0
2.4
4.2
6.3
5.6

.6
1.5
2.9
5.0
9.5

0.4
.3
.3
.4
.5

NOTE: Boldface indicates entry on diagonal. Shading indicates cells
that are more than one cell away from diagonal.

SOURCE: 1987 Census of Manufactures (excluding plants with fewer
than 20 employees).

tile in wages. Further, the combination of being in the top
quintile in productivity and in the bottom two quintiles
in wages is hardly rare: eleven percent of the most productive plants were in the bottom two quintiles of their
wage distribution. Likewise, 9 percent of those in the top
quintile in wages were in the bottom two quintiles of the
productivity distribution.
Table 4 repeats the preceding analysis for 1997. That
year, 41 percent of the plants were situated along the diagonal, 38 percent were one cell away from the diagonal, and
22 percent were more than one cell away from the diagonal. The increase over 1987 in the number of plants more
than one cell off the diagonal indicates that the link between productivity and wages at the plant level weakened
somewhat. To assess the strength of the wage-productivity relation more directly, table 5 shows the correlation of
plant-level wages and productivity for all manufacturing
and, separately, by two-digit industry. For all manufacturing, the correlation between wages and productivity loosened significantly (albeit modestly), falling from 0.458
to 0.449. This weakening connection appeared broadly
across industries: thirteen of the 20 industries exhibited a
significant decline in the correlation of plant-level wages
and productivity, while 3 industries showed a significant
increase and 4 had insignificant changes.

of the table and were more likely to be in the lower wage
quintiles when they entered the marketplace in 1997.
Likewise, some plants that existed in 1987 were out of
business (or had fewer than 20 employees or were not
in manufacturing) by 1997. These plants are listed in the
last column of the table. The plants that died tended to be
plants that paid lower wages in 1987. Plants that offered
wages within the top quintile in 1987 were a bit more
likely to disappear within 10 years (39 percent) than
they were to remain within the top quintile (32 percent).
In contrast, more than half of the plants whose wages
were within the bottom quintile in 1987 did not exist by
1997.
The cells with boldface entries indicate plants that were
in the same wage quintile in both 1987 and 1997. Among
the plants with valid wage data for both years, 39 percent
are along the diagonal and another 39 percent are one
cell away from the diagonal. The remaining 22 percent
(that is, those which are more than one cell away from
the diagonal) exhibited a substantial change in the plant’s
relative wages. Being in the top quintile of wages in 1987
implied a 53-percent chance of being in the top quintile
of wages in 1997 and an 11-percent chance of being in
either of the bottom two quintiles in 1997.35
Although the analysis does not consider any transition
matrix weighted by the plants’ numbers of employees, it
is possible to infer whether the results would have been
substantially different with such a matrix. It is well known
that larger plants pay higher wages.36 Thus, if the matrix
were weighted by the plants’ number of employees, it
would have more weight placed on plants shown in the
bottom right-hand corner of table 6. A comparison of the
nine cells in the bottom right-hand corner of that table
with the nine cells in the top left-hand corner reveals sim-

Wage and productivity stability
Over the 1987–97 period, instability in plants’ relative
wage positions was common. Table 6 splits manufacturing plants into 1987 and 1997 wage quintiles. Note that
some plants that existed in 1997 were not yet in business
(or had fewer than 20 employees or were not in manufacturing) in 1987. These plants are listed in the last row
30

Monthly Labor Review • May  2008

Table 4. Relation between hourly wages and productivity at the plant level, all manufacturing plants, 1997
[In percent]		

1997 productivity quintile
1997 wage quintile 		
< $20.1
			

$20.1–
$28.4

$28.4–
$37.0

Missing
$37.0–				
data
> $52.6
$52.6

				
< $10.7.................................................
11.4
4.3
1.7
1.2
1.0
0.5
$10.7–$13.4.........................................
4.1
6.7
4.3
2.7
1.8
.3
$13.4–$15.9.........................................
1.9
4.8
6.0
4.0
2.7
.3
$15.9–$19.7.........................................
1.3
2.6
5.3
5.9
4.4
.3
> $19.7.................................................
.7
1.0
2.3
5.7
9.5
.5
Missing data.......................................
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.8
		
SOURCE: 1997 Census of Manufactures (excluding plants with fewer
NOTE: Boldface indicates entry on diagonal. Shading indicates
than 20 employees).
cells
that are more than one cell away from diagonal.
		

Table 5. Correlation of hourly wages with productivity at the plant level and across industries, 1987 and 1997
Industry

1987

1997

All manufacturing....................................................................
0.458
0.449
SIC 20: Food and kindred products ..............................................
.441
.417
SIC 21: Tobacco manufactures ....................................................
.522
.560
SIC 22: Textile mill products . .......................................................
.557
.442
SIC 23: Apparel and other textile products ..................................
.629
.555
SIC 24: Lumber and wood products ..... .......................................
.537
.427
SIC 25: Furniture and fixtures ......................................................
.559
.494
SIC 26: Paper and allied products ................................................
.531
.445
SIC 27: Printing and publishing . ..................................................
.550
.581
SIC 28: Chemicals and allied products ........................................
.343
.312
SIC 29: Petroleum and coal products ..........................................
.319
.340
			
SIC 30: Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products . ................
.507
.479
SIC 31: Leather and leather products ..........................................
.516
.451
SIC 32: Stone, clay, glass, and concrete products ......................
.516
.460
SIC 33: Primary metal industries .................................................
.455
.451
SIC 34: Fabricated metal products ..............................................
.495
.469
SIC 35: Industrial machinery and equipment ...............................
.404
.486
SIC 36: Electrical and electronic equipment ................................
.405
.527
SIC 37: Transportation equipment ..............................................
.517
.439
SIC 38: Instruments and related products ...................................
.507
.478
SIC 39: Miscellaneous manufacturing industries .........................
.581
.490
1

2

Significant at the p = .01 level; two-tailed test.
Significant at the p = .10 level; two-tailed test.

ilar shares along the diagonal and nearly identical shares
two cells off the diagonal. Hence, the degree of instability
shown in table 6 is not simply a product of using an unweighted analysis.37
Table 7 repeats this analysis for productivity. As with
the wage data, the plants that died after 1987 tended to
have lower levels of productivity in 1987, and those born
after 1987 tended to have lower productivity levels in
1997. Baily, Hulten, and Campbell found that 52 percent
of the plants that died by 1977 came from the bottom two
quintiles of the 1972 total factor productivity distribution,38 and this finding is echoed here: forty-eight percent
of the plants that died by 1997 were in the bottom two
quintiles of the 1987 labor productivity distribution. By

Difference
–0.01
–.024
.038
1
–.114
1
–.074
1
–.110
1
–.065
1
–.086
1
.031
2
–.031
.020
1
1

–.028
–.065
–.056
–.003
1
–.026
1
.083
1
.122
1
–.078
2
–.03
1
–.091
1
2
1

SOURCE: 1987 and 1997 Census of Manufactures (excluding plants
with fewer than 20 employees).

contrast, 33 percent of the plants that failed to survive
came from the upper two quintiles. Many studies find that
low productivity is a strong predictor of plant death.39 Although the results presented here are consistent with this
finding, a remarkable number of high-productivity plants
also fail to survive (a point stressed by Baily, Hulten, and
Campbell as well40): plants with top-quintile productivity in 1987 are a bit more likely to disappear within 10
years (38 percent) than they are to remain within the top
quintile (31 percent).41 (In contrast, more than half of the
plants in the bottom productivity quintile in 1987 fail to
exist by 1997.)
Restricting the analysis to those plants with valid productivity data in both years permits the overall stability
Monthly Labor Review • May  2008

31

Manufacturing Wage and Productivity Stability

Table 6. Stability of hourly wages at the plant level, all manufacturing plants, 1987 and 1997		
		

[In percent]

1997 wage quintile
Dead, fewer
		
than 20
										
1987 wage quintile
employees, or
			
$10.7–
$13.4–
$15.9–		
Missing
not in
< $10.7
> $19.7
			
$13.4
$15.9
$19.7		
data
manufacturing
< $10.0......................................
$10.0–$12.9..............................
$12.9–$15.7..............................
$15.7–$19.6..............................
> $19.6......................................
Missing data............................
Not born, fewer than 20
employees, or not in
manufacturing......................

2.6
1.9
.9
.5
.2
.0

1.1
2.2
2.0
1.2
.5
.0

0.6
1.4
2.2
2.0
1.0
.0

0.4
.8
1.6
2.7
2.1
.0

.2
.5
.9
1.9
4.2
.1

0.0
.0
.0
.0
.1
.1

7.8

6.6

6.5

6.1

5.8

.4

8.4
6.3
5.6
5.3
5.1
.3
...		

NOTE: Boldface indicates entry on diagonal. Shading indicates cells
SOURCE: 1987 Census of Manufactures (excluding plants with
		
that are more than one cell away from diagonal.
fewer than 20 employees).
		

Table 7. Stability of productivity at the plant level, all manufacturing plants, 1987 and 1997		
		
[In percent]		
				

1997 productivity quintile		

								
1987 productivity quintile							
			
$20.1–
$28.4–
$37.0–		
Missing
> $52.6
< $20.1
			
$28.4
$37.0
$52.6		
data
								
< $15.7........................................... 		
$15.7–$23.0................................... 		
$23.0–$30.8................................... 		
$30.8–$43.8................................... 		
> $43.8........................................... 		
Missing data................................. 		
Not born, fewer than 20
employees, or not in
manufacturing........................... 		

2.0
1.6
1.1
8
.5
1

1.1
1.9
1.8
1.3
.7
.1

0.8
1.4
1.9
1.8
1.0
.1

0.6
1.0
1.6
2.2
1.8
.1

0.4
.6
.9
1.6
3.9
.2

0.1
.1
.1
.1
.3
.1

7.3

6.6

6.4

6.2

5.6

1.0

Dead, fewer
than 20
employees, or
not in
manufacturing
8
6.5
5.6
5.1
4.8
1.0
...		

N		
OTE: Boldface indicates entry on diagonal. Shading indicates
SOURCE: 1987 Census of Manufactures (excluding plants with
		
cells that are more than one cell away from diagonal.
fewer than 20 employees).

of the productivity of plants that remain in operation to
be evaluated. Among these plants, 35 percent are along
the diagonal of table 7, 37 percent are one cell away from
the diagonal, and 28 percent are more than one cell away
from the diagonal.42 Baily, Hulten, and Campbell computed a transition matrix for total factor productivity for
the period from 1972 to 1982.43 Their analysis showed 30
percent of the plants along the diagonal, 35 percent one
cell away from the diagonal, and another 35 percent more
than one cell away from the diagonal. These results suggest that plant-level productivity has become more stable
over time. Indeed, the percentages appear to reverse a
trend: looking at the successive 5-year periods 1972–77,
1977–82, and 1982–87, the same authors found declining
32

Monthly Labor Review • May  2008

persistence at the top of the distribution.44
It is useful to consider the differences in the methods
presented here from those of Baily, Hulten, and Campbell, to search for possible explanations of the greater productivity persistence found in this article. First, the industries included in their analysis were restricted to those in
which most plants produced a single product. As a result,
that analysis should show less productivity dispersion in
individual years and, in all likelihood, more productivity
persistence, than is found in the analysis presented here.
Thus, the inclusion of all manufacturing industries in this
article should have produced estimates of less persistence,
not more. Second, Baily, Hulten, and Campbell use only
plants that are in the smaller sample in the Annual Survey

of Manufactures, rather than utilizing the entire Census
of Manufactures. Because the plants in the Annual Survey
are typically larger, and because larger plants have more
productivity persistence (see note 42), it might be reasonable to expect more observed persistence in productivity
in their sample than in the one used here. Finally, Baily,
Hulten, and Campbell measure productivity in terms of
total factor productivity, rather than labor productivity.
However, in order for labor productivity to become more
persistent while persistence in total factor productivity
was continuing to decline, a much higher degree of stability in the distribution of the capital-labor ratios or the ratios of other factors to labor (or both) would be required.
Consequently, it is not likely that differences in sampling
or methodology have produced this article’s finding of increased productivity persistence. Rather, the results would
appear to show a true increase in persistence.45
Table 8 shows the correlations between 1987 and 1997
wages and between 1987 and 1997 productivity for all
industries and, separately, by two-digit SIC industry. The
correlation between 1987 and 1997 wages across all manufacturing plants with valid data in both years was 0.464.
Eighteen of the 20 two-digit industries had a smaller
correlation in wages across the 2 years. (The median was
0.402.) The distribution of intraindustry wage correlations is relatively tight, with an interquartile range of 0.37

to 0.42. Industrial machinery and equipment (SIC 35) had
the lowest degree of wage stability, with a correlation of
0.335.
The correlation between 1987 and 1997 productivity
across all manufacturing plants with valid data in both
years was 0.547. Seventeen of the 20 two-digit industries
had a smaller correlation in productivity across the 2 years.
(The median was 0.423.) A wider range of intraindustry
correlations was found for productivity than for wages,
which had an interquartile range in productivity correlations of 0.36 to 0.52. Leather and leather products (SIC
31) had the lowest degree of productivity stability, with a
correlation of 0.256. This finding is consistent with that
of Bartelsman and Dhrymes, who report that transition
probabilities for total factor productivity varied widely for
the 3 two-digit industries they studied (SIC’s 35, 36, and
38).46
DATA FROM THE 1987 AND 1997 CENSUS OF MANUFACTURES indicate that there is a great deal of plant-level
heterogeneity in wages and productivity, and moderate
instability of their relative positions within wage and productivity distributions. In addition, although plant-level
wages and productivity were strongly correlated, the connection weakened between 1987 and 1997 and heterogeneity declined modestly for both wages and productiv-

Table 8. Stability of hourly wages and productivity at the plant level, across manufacturing industries, 1987 and 1997
Industry
		

Correlation of
1987 and 1997
hourly wages

Correlation of
1987 and 1997
productivity

All manufacturing.....................................................................
SIC 20: Food and kindred products ..............................................
SIC 21: Tobacco manufactures .....................................................
SIC 22: Textile mill products . ........................................................
SIC 23: Apparel and other textile products ...................................
SIC 24: Lumber and wood products .............................................
SIC 25: Furniture and fixtures .......................................................
SIC 26: Paper and allied products ................................................
SIC 27: Printing and publishing . ...................................................
SIC 28: Chemicals and allied products .........................................
SIC 29: Petroleum and coal products ...........................................

0.464
.390
.742
.401
.517
.363
.442
.446
.409
.374
.366

0.547
.544
.875
.313
.376
.339
.382
.557
.458
.520
.444

SIC 30: Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products . .................
SIC 31: Leather and leather products ...........................................
SIC 32: Stone, clay, glass, and concrete products ........................
SIC 33: Primary metal industries ..................................................
SIC 34: Fabricated metal products ...............................................
SIC 35: Industrial machinery and equipment ................................
SIC 36: Electrical and electronic equipment .................................
SIC 37: Transportation equipment ................................................
SIC 38: Instruments and related products ....................................
SIC 39: Miscellaneous manufacturing industries ..........................

.370
.353
.375
.420
.351
.335
.404
.446
.409
.402

.436
.256
.516
.428
.359
.288
.260
.579
.417
.380

NOTE: Includes only plants with 20 or more employees and with
valid data in both 1987 and 1997. Plants are placed into two-digit SIC
industries on the basis of their 1987 SIC designation.

SOURCE: 1987 and 1997 Census of Manufactures (excluding plants
with fewer than 20 employees).

Monthly Labor Review • May  2008

33

Manufacturing Wage and Productivity Stability

ity over the period. These declines in the heterogeneity
of wages and productivity are contrary to previous trends
found in the literature. By contrast, consistent with the
literature, the data indicate a high birth and death rate
for manufacturing plants. Neither wages nor productivity
were very stable in those plants which survived. Indeed,
many surviving plants exhibited substantial movements
in their relative ranking within the wage and productivity distributions: twenty-two percent of plants increased
or decreased by more than one quintile within the wage
distribution, and 28 percent did so within the productivity
distribution. Thus, improvements or declines in the comparative positions of individual plants are clearly possible
and often occur during relatively short periods of time.
The degree of heterogeneity and instability at the plant
level has implications as regards the training and placement of workers. Many factory jobs have moved out of

the types of plants that tend to pay more (larger, more
urban, unionized, northern plants) and toward the types
of plants that pay less (smaller, more rural, more southern,
nonunion plants). Given this trend, it is no longer obvious that new manufacturing jobs offer better long-term
prospects, on average, for lower skilled workers than do
new jobs in services. Nonetheless, there exist pockets of
high-productivity, high-wage establishments. For those
who aim at improving the relative productivity ranking
of individual plants, these findings give promise. However, for workers, this instability weakens their prospects
of good, long-lasting employment. On the positive side,
heterogeneity in wages across plants within industries has
narrowed modestly, a trend that may have reduced somewhat the burden paid by workers for plant closings, as
some workers may have been more able to switch between
plants without great changes in their pay.

Notes
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS:

The authors would like to thank the Ford
Foundation for funding; the U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for Economic Studies, for access to the data; Anastasia Gushchina and Katie
Wise for excellent research assistance; and Peter Meyer, Wally Mullin,
Don Parsons, Dave Ribar, Larry Rosenblum, and seminar participants at
the George Washington University for helpful comments. Research for
this article was conducted while the authors were Special Sworn Status
researchers of the U.S. Census Bureau at the Washington and Michigan Research Data Centers. The article has undergone a Census Bureau
review more limited in scope than that given to official Census Bureau
publications. Research results and conclusions expressed are those of the
authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Census Bureau. The
article was screened to ensure that no confidential data were revealed.
Eric J. Bartelsman and Phoebus J. Dhrymes, “Productivity Dynamics: U.S. Manufacturing Plants, 1972–1986,” Journal of Productivity Analysis, January 1998, pp. 5–34.
1

The Longitudinal Research Database contains data on manufacturing establishments collected in 1963 and every 5 years since 1967.
Further discussion of these data and their development can be found
in George Pascoe and Robert McGuckin, “The Longitudinal Research
Database (LRD): Status and Research Possibilities,” Working Paper 88–
2 (U.S. Census Bureau, Center for Economic Studies, July 1, 1988).
2

Lucia Foster, John Haltiwanger, and C. J. Krizan, “Aggregate
Productivity Growth: Lessons from Microeconomic Evidence,” NBER
Working Paper No. 6803, November 1998.
3

Martin N. Baily, Charles Hulten, and David Campbell, “Productivity Dynamics in Manufacturing Plants,” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity: Microeconomics (Washington, DC, Brookings Institution, 1992), pp. 187–249; and Douglas W. Dwyer, “Whittling Away
at Productivity Dispersion,” CES Working Papers, CES-WP-95–5 (U.S.
Census Bureau, Office of the Chief Economist, 1995).
4

34

Monthly Labor Review • May  2008

5

Baily, Hulten, and Campbell, “Productivity Dynamics.”

6

Bartelsman and Dhrymes, “Productivity Dynamics.”

7

Baily, Hulten, and Campbell, “Productivity Dynamics.”

8
Steven J. Davis and John Haltiwanger, “Gross Job Creation, Gross
Job Destruction, and Employment Reallocation,” Quarterly Journal of
Economics, August 1992, pp. 819–63.
9
See Boyan Jovanovic, “Selection and Evolution of Industry,” Econometrica, May 1982, pp. 649-70.
10
Mark Doms, Timothy Dunne, and Kenneth R. Troske, “Workers, Wages, and Technology,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, February
1997, pp. 253–90.
11

Ibid., p. 282.

12
Douglas W. Dwyer, “Are Fixed Effects Fixed? Persistence in Plant
Level Productivity,” CES Working Papers, CES-WP-96–3 (U.S. Census
Bureau, Office of the Chief Economist, 1996).
13
Richard Ericson and Ariel Pakes, “Markov-Perfect Industry Dynamics: A Framework for Empirical Work,” Review of Economic Studies, January 1995, pp. 53–82.
14

Dwyer, “Are Fixed Effects Fixed?”

Ron Jarmin, “Manufacturing Extension and Productivity Dynamics,” CES Working Papers, CES-WP-98–8 (U.S. Census Bureau, Office of the Chief Economist, June 1998).
15

16

Baily, Hulten, and Campbell, “Productivity Dynamics.”

17
The expansion of the 1980s ran from November 1982 to July
1990, while that of the 1990s ran from March 1991 to March 2001
(National Bureau of Economic Research, on the Internet at www.nber.
org/cycles.html (visited June 19, 2003). The year 1987 was the 5th year
of the 8-year 1980s expansion, while 1997 was the 7th year of the 10year 1990s expansion.

The high rate of death is not a new finding. Andrew B. Bernard
and J. Bradford Jensen, “The Deaths of Manufacturing Plants,” NBER
Working Paper No. 9026, June 2002, note that, “Over a typical five
year period, more than 32% of U.S. manufacturing plants shut down,
accounting for more than 22% of total job destruction” (p. 2). Thus, if
anything, the death rate found in the analysis that follows is lower than
in previous periods, as it is computed over a 10-year time span. Also,
note that some of the births and deaths found would be more properly
classified as relocations. That is, some involve short-distance moves to
different facilities within the same local labor market. Census data do
not distinguish these local relocations from truly new capacity or from
shuttered plants.
18

19
Hours for nonproduction workers are imputed with the methodology presented in Timothy Dunne, Lucia Foster, John Haltiwanger,
and Kenneth Troske, “Wage and Productivity Dispersion in United
States Manufacturing: The Role of Computer Investment,” Journal of
Labor Economics, April 2004, pp. 397–429. 1987 wages are inflated into
1997 dollars by means of the Consumer Price Index. Following Baily,
Hulten, and Campbell, “Productivity Dynamics,” hourly wages (productivity) are set to “missing” if the logarithm of the plants’ wage (log
wage) or the logarithm of its productivity (log productivity) is outside
the range given by the four-digit SIC median value of log wage (log
productivity), plus or minus 2. To give a perspective on this range, median wages for all manufacturing in 1997 were $14.60. Thus, given this
median value, wages below $1.97 (that is, exp(ln($14.60) – 2)) and
wages above $107.88 (that is, exp(ln($14.60) + 2)) would be set to
“missing.” This method of trimming the data appears quite conservative. Both Kenneth R. Troske, “The Worker-Establishment Characteristics Database,” CES Working Papers, CES 95–10 (U.S. Census
Bureau, Office of the Chief Economist, June 1995, and Doms, Dunne,
and Troske, “Workers, Wages, and Technology,” match workers in the
Employment Characteristic Database to plants in the Longitudinal
Research Database and find similar average worker-reported earnings
and plant-level earnings in their samples, thus bolstering confidence
in the quality of the plant-level wage data presented in the upcoming
analysis. (The findings in the aforementioned works are discussed in
more detail in note 35.)

1987 value added is inflated into 1997 dollars with the NBER-CES
Manufacturing Industry Database deflator for shipments at the fourdigit SIC industry level.
20

21
Due to disclosure concerns, cut points were derived by averaging
the hourly wages (or productivity) of plants in the four centiles surrounding the cut point in question. For example, for the 10th-percentile cut point, plants in the 9th through 12th centiles were averaged. The
values were then rounded to the nearest dime.
22
Linda A. Bell and Richard B. Freeman, “The Causes of Increasing Interindustry Wage Dispersion in the United States,” Industrial
and Labor Relations Review, January 1991, pp. 275–87. Following Bell
and Freeman’s methodology, the analysis presented here finds that the
standard deviation of log hourly wages (weighted by the number of
employees) across four-digit SIC industries is 0.263 for 1987 and 0.261
for 1997, an insignificant decline in dispersion. Across all manufacturing, roughly 28 percent of the variation in log plant-wages is explained
by differences across four-digit SIC industries in both 1987 and 1997,

while about 72 percent of the variation in log plant-wages is explained
by differences within four-digit industries.
Steven J. Davis and John Haltiwanger, “Wage Dispersion between
and within U.S. Manufacturing Plants, 1963–86,” Brookings Papers on
Economic Activity: Microeconomics (Washington, DC, Brookings Institution, 1991) pp. 115–80; quote from p. 151.
23

24
Dunne, Foster, Haltiwanger, and Troske, “Wage and Productivity
Dispersion.”

Francesco Caselli, “Technological Revolutions,” American Economic Review, March 1999, pp. 78–102.
25

26
Michael Kremer and Eric Maskin, “Wage Inequality and Segregation by Skill,” NBER Working Paper No. 5718, August 1996.

Rebecca M. Blank and Matthew D. Shapiro, “Labor and the Sustainability of Output and Productivity Growth,” in Alan B. Krueger
and Robert M. Solow, eds., The Roaring Nineties: Can Full Employment
Be Sustained? (New York, Russell Sage Foundation, Century Foundation Press, 2001), pp. 309–66.
27

Steven J. Davis and John Haltiwanger, “Employer Size and the
Wage Structure in U.S. Manufacturing,” NBER Working Paper No.
5393, December 1995, find that 41 percent of total wage variance is accounted for within plants. However, there is no substantial evidence in
the literature for increased wage dispersion within plants. For example,
Dunne, Foster, Haltiwanger, and Troske, “Wage and Productivity Dispersion,” find no trend in within-plant wage dispersion for production
workers and a decline in within-plant wage dispersion for production
workers during the period from 1977 to 1992.
28

Across all manufacturing, roughly 35 percent of the variation in
log productivity was explained by differences across four-digit SIC industries in 1987, while 65 percent remained within four-digit industries. In 1997, the share of the variation in log productivity explained
by differences across four-digit SIC industries fell to 26.5 percent.
Changes in the industrial mix explain only part of the overall decline
in productivity dispersion: the weighted-average 90–10 ratio for 1987
productivity declines from 4.61 (with the 1987 plant distribution used
as weights) to 4.56 (with the 1997 plant distribution used as weights),
and the standard deviation of log productivity declines from 0.611 to
0.607.
29

See, for example, Dwyer, “Whittling Away,” for a discussion of
the textile industry.
30

31
Dunne, Foster, Haltiwanger, and Troske, “Wage and Productivity
Dispersion in U.S. Manufacturing,” p. 399.

Steven J. Davis, John C. Haltiwanger, and Scott Schuh, Job Creation and Destruction (Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 1996), pp. 158, 159.
32

33
Daron Acemoglu, “Technical Change, Inequality, and the Labor
Market,” Journal of Economic Literature, March 2002, pp. 7–72; quoted
material, pp. 34, 43. The works cited in Acemoglu are Ann P. Bartel
and Frank R. Lichtenberg, “The Comparative Advantage of Educated
Workers in Implementing New Technology,” Review of Economics and
Statistics, February 1987, pp. 1–11; Marcus Mobius, “The Evolution
of Work,” mimeo (Cambridge, MA, MIT, 2000); and David Thesmar
and Mathias Thoenig, “Creative Destruction and Firm Organization
Choice,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, November 2000, pp. 1201–37.
34

Judith K. Hellerstein, David Neumark, and Kenneth R. Troske,
Monthly Labor Review • May  2008

35

Manufacturing Wage and Productivity Stability

“Wages, Productivity, and Worker Characteristics: Evidence from
Plant-Level Production Functions and Wage Equations,” Journal of
Labor Economics, July 1999, pp. 409–46.
An alternative hypothesis is that average wages are in fact stable
at the plant level, but the apparent instability is caused by measurement
error. This hypothesis, however, is unlikely on the basis of the findings
in Troske, “The Worker-Establishment Characteristics Database,” and
Doms, Dunne, and Troske, “Workers, Wages, and Technology.” Both
Troske, on the one hand, and Doms, Dunne, and Troske, on the other,
match workers in the Employment Characteristic Database to plants
from the Longitudinal Research Database and find similar average
worker-reported earnings and plant-level earnings in their samples.
The workers in the Employment Characteristic Database come from
the 1990 census long form, which includes 1 in 6 households. Worker’s
reported wages come from their responses on the long form. Troske
finds that the difference between the plant’s workers’ average reported
wage and the plant’s average wage reported in the Longitudinal Research Database is less than 5 percent, on average. The correlation between the worker’s reported wages and the plant’s reported wages is
0.47 and rises by plant size, from 0.41 for plants with 25 to 49 workers
to 0.78 for plants with more than 1,000 workers. Troske notes several
reasons that perfect (unity) correlations should not be expected, even
with perfect reporting by both plants and workers. First, a worker reports the total earnings received from all of his or her employers the
previous year, while a plant’s average wages are computed by dividing
the total salary and wages the plant paid in 1990 by the number of
workers in the plant in March 1990. Second, because the sample consists of only one-sixth of the plant’s population of workers, the worker’s
sampled may be unrepresentative of all workers in the plant. This kind
of sampling error will be less pronounced in larger firms and may account, in part, for the increasing correlation between the workers’ and
the plant’s wages with plant size. Thus, it is reasonable to think that
the correlation between the two measures would be closer to 0.78 with
100-percent sampling. Further, it is likely that workers’ reports of their
earnings on the Census forms have a good deal of error that is only
partly mitigated by averaging. Hence, given all of the reasons that these
measures should not be strongly related, the fact that they do exhibit
a high correlation suggests that the underlying plant-level data are of
high quality. Furthermore, implausible wage levels have been set to
missing, as mentioned in note 19. Nonetheless, it is undoubtedly true
that some of the instability of average wages is due to some remaining
measurement error. The central argument of this paper is that measurement error is not the main cause of the instability.
35

36
Charles Brown and James Medoff, “The Employer Size-Wage
Effect,” Journal of Political Economy, October 1989, pp. 1027–59.

This conclusion differs from that of Davis and Haltiwanger, who
find that wage dispersion falls sharply with establishment size for nonproduction workers and mildly for production workers (“Employer
Size and the Wage Structure,” abstract).
37

38

Baily, Hulten, and Campbell, “Productivity Dynamics.”

39
See, for example, Bernard and Jensen, “The Deaths of Manufacturing Plants”; J. Bradford Jensen, Robert H. McGuckin, and Kevin J.
Stiroh, “The Impact of Vintage and Survival on Productivity: Evidence
from Cohorts of U.S. Manufacturing Plants,” Review of Economics and
Statistics, May 2001, pp. 323–32; and G. Steven Olley and Ariel Pakes,
“The Dynamics of Productivity in the Telecommunications Equipment Industry,” Econometrica, November 1996, pp. 1263–97.
40

36

Baily, Hulten, and Campbell, “Productivity Dynamics.”

Monthly Labor Review • May  2008

41
These percentages can be derived from entries in the fifth row
of table 7.
42
There is a strong connection among plants that have large movements in the productivity and wage distributions. For the analysis in
this article, a dummy variable was created that equals unity if a plant
moved upwards more than 20 percentage points in the wage distribution. An analogous variable was created for productivity. The correlation between the two dummy variables is 0.295. Repeating the analysis
for plants that moved downwards more than 20 percentage points in
each distribution produces a correlation of 0.298. The correlations for
plants that moved upwards more than 20 percentile points in one distribution, but downwards more than 20 percentile points in the other
distribution, are around –0.30.
In results that are not shown here, plant size is significantly (and
positively) related to productivity (controlling for a plant’s regional and
urban location, capital intensity, and county unemployment). Thus, if
the plants would have been weighted by their numbers of employees,
more of the weight of the analysis would be placed on plants in the
bottom right-hand corner of table 7. Plants falling into the nine cells
at the bottom right of table 7 exhibit slightly more stability than do
plants falling into the nine cells at the top left, as indicated by the fact
that 11.4 percent of plants at the bottom right of the table are two
cells off the diagonal, whereas 14.0 percent of plants at the top left
are two cells off the diagonal. These percentages suggest that smaller
plants have less stable productivity and that an analysis weighted by
plant size would find slightly more stability in productivity, a result
that is consistent with the findings of both Bartelsman and Dhrymes,
on the one hand, and Baily, Hulten, and Campbell, on the other. The
former conclude that “larger plants (in terms of employment) are
less likely to exit, less likely to move down the productivity rankings
and more likely to maintain their rankings, than small plants” (Bartelsman and Dhrymes, “Productivity Dynamics,” p. 23). The latter
present results with plants weighted by their employment and with
unweighted plants. The weighted plants show more persistence, making up 35 percent of plants along the diagonal in a run of weighted
plants, whereas the unweighted plants account for 30 percent of plants
along the diagonal in a run of unweighted plants. (See Baily, Hulten,
and Campbell, “Productivity Dynamics.”)
43

Baily, Hulten, and Campbell, “Productivity Dynamics.”

44
Ibid. Baily, Hulten, and Campbell argue that this declining persistence was due to powerful foreign competition arising from a strong
U.S. dollar.
45
A direct comparison of the differences between the transition
matrix calculated here and the transition matrices reported in Bartelsman and Dhrymes’s article is difficult due to numerous differences in
methodology and sampling. Those authors focus on plants in the following industries: machinery, except electrical (SIC 35); electrical and
electronic machinery, equipment, and supplies (SIC 36); and measuring, analyzing, and controlling instruments (SIC 38). Also, they limit
the sample to large plants (those with 250 or more employees in any
year between 1972 and 1987) and compute 1-year and 5-year transition matrices for total factor productivity for these plants. Finally, they
reject the hypothesis that the transition process is Markovian—that is,
that the 5-year transition matrix A5 = (A1)5. (In fact, the Markovian
process overpredicts dispersion.) Thus, no 10-year transition matrix
can be reliably projected from their 1- and 5-year transition matrices.
46

Bartelsman and Dhrymes, “Productivity Dynamics.”

Précis
Précis
Does the age at which
children start school make
a difference?
A number of journalists and academics have pondered how, if at all, the
age at which children start school
affects their lives. Not surprisingly,
evidence suggests that many parents
have posed this same question when
thinking about their own children.
In a March 2008 National Bureau of
Economic Research (NBER) working
paper entitled “Too Young to Leave
the Nest? The Effects of School
Starting Age,” economists Sandra E.
Black, Paul J. Devereux, and Kjell G.
Salvanes analyze data from Norway
and break new ground in answering
this question.
Various studies have concluded
that, on the whole, children who are
older perform slightly better on exams than younger children who are
in the same year in school. In the
NBER analysis, however, the authors
compare students of the same age by
using data from an IQ test given in
Norway for people around age 18. It
appears that, overall, people who start
school earlier perform better on the
test. In other words, when studies
compare students who are in the same
year in school, those students who
start school at an older age tend to
get higher scores; however, in studies
comparing students of the same age,
those who start school at a younger
age tend to perform better.
When young workers of the same
age are compared with each other,
those who start school at a younger
age usually have slightly higher earnings as young adults. This is most
likely because those who start school
early tend to finish school early, so, as
young adults, they have slightly more
work experience than most of their
peers. However, the gap in earnings
decreases over time and eventually

disappears around age 30.
Black and her coauthors also study
the impact of school starting age on
teen pregnancy. They find that girls
who start school at a younger age are
slightly more likely to get pregnant
when they are teenagers. One of the
main causes of this phenomenon appears to be that those who start school
at an early age end up having an older
peer group than they otherwise would.
Despite the greater likelihood of teen
pregnancy, girls who start school at a
younger age are also less likely to get
pregnant before they finish their first
12 years of school, because they finish
at a younger age. The paper concludes
that, on the basis of the evidence seen
so far, there are no strong reasons for
parents to time the births of their
children in order to make them young
or old for their class.

Contributing factors
in rising world food prices
In the past 2 years, world market food
prices have increased rapidly—as
much as 60 percent for basic food
commodities such as grains and vegetable oils. The rise in food prices has
caused great concern, especially for
the poor, who suffer the greatest hardship due to the increase. Many point
to the corresponding rise in oil prices
over the last several years as a leading
factor. In a recent report from the U.S.
Department of Agriculture’s Economic Research Service (“Global Agricultural Supply and Demand: Factors Contributing to the recent rise in
Food Commodity Prices”), economist
Ronald Trostle examines the issue and
finds some interesting results.
To provide perspective, the study
begins by establishing some basic
facts. For example, the author presents a chart showing three price
indexes—for crude oil, for all commodities, and for food commodi-

ties—from 1992 to the present. As
recently as 1999, the three indexes
were at about the same level. Since
then, however, the indexes for oil and
for all commodities have risen even
faster than the index for food. As the
author points out, when viewed in
light of the even more rapid increase
in prices for other commodities, the
rise in food prices does not seem quite
so severe. Still, because lower income
consumers around the world suffer
more immediate hardship when food
prices increase, the issue is extremely sensitive, politically and socially.
Trostle explains that several “longterm, slowly evolving trends have affected the global supply and demand”
for food (and hence, food prices).
For example, global production of
grains and oilseeds increased 2.2
percent per year between 1970 and
1990. But world production of these
food commodities has slowed since
then, dropping to an annual growth
rate of 1.3 percent. Recent developments—such as increased global
demand for biofuels feedstocks, adverse weather conditions in 2006 and
2007, increased costs of agricultural
production, the declining value of
the dollar, and rising energy prices—have exacerbated the situation
and pushed prices even higher. As a
result, “stocks of grains and oilseeds
in the world have fallen to levels that
make the global aggregate stock-touse ratio” for these food commodities the lowest it has been since 1970.
We are interested in your feedback on this column. Please let us
know what you have found most
interesting and what essential readings we may have missed. Write to
Executive Editor, Monthly Labor
Review, Bureau of Labor Statistics,
Washington, DC 20212, or e-mail,
mlr@bls.gov.
Monthly Labor Review • May 2008 37

Book Reviews
capture some of the core concerns expressed. As Lichtenstein writes, “A
American Capitalism: Social Thought central theme that runs through many
and Political Economy in the Twentieth of the contributions” is why and how
Century. Edited by Nelson Lichtenstein, capitalism was eclipsed by sociological
Philadelphia, PA, University of Penn- and political constructs encompassing
sylvania Press, 2006, 377 pp., $24.95 a “postindustrial” or even “postcapitalist” society. At the risk of oversimplipaperback/ $49.95 cloth.
fication, this theme had its origin in
In the introduction to this book, Nel- and owed its development to the idea
son Lichtenstein notes the depth of the that the socializing tendencies inhercontrast between the debates about the ent in capitalistic/industrial economies
viability of capitalism and its presumed would in time lead to social democracy
submergence within broader social based on a “social economy”—ideas
institutions that had agitated intel- associated with Arthur Schlesinger,
lectuals during the first six decades of Andrew Shonfield, and European sothe 20th century, and “the power and cialists such as Eduard Bernstein and
pervasiveness of American capitalism” Jean Jaures. The evident weakening of
at the beginning of the 21st century the power of property (documented by
with its presumed link between open the highly influential work The Modern
markets and liberal democracy that Corporation and Private Property by
Francis Fukuyama once proclaimed A.A. Berle and G.C. Means) gave imas “the only model” a state can follow. petus to the belief that a maturing corToward the end of the 20th century porate bureaucracy, directed by a class
period, Daniel Bell had announced of trained managers, would make for
“the end of ideology in the West”— a more reliable regulation of markets.
the market having been constrained The social thinkers represented in the
by a purposeful set of social and po- discussion of the “postcapitalist vision”
litical compromises. The vulnerability by Howard Brick, however, did not
of Bell’s dictum to powerful historical take into account the continued power
changes, Lichtenstein would argue as of wealth and the manifestation of this
the premise of his book, is shared by power in the ownership of vast industhe ideologies that have been uphold- trial and agricultural holdings. The “viing the “triumphalism” of 21st century sion,” as Brick notes, was part of an intellectual revolution which posited “an
capitalism.
The introduction is a thoughtful autonomous social sphere that gained
contribution to the work. The book ascendancy over mere economics.” It
itself consists of thirteen essays that can hardly be disputed that such an
deal mostly with the careers and ideas intellectual orientation ignored some
of some of the leading social thinkers of the fundamental forces underlying
of the first half of the 20th century. the American economy.
While all the essays presented in
None of these thinkers, however, offers a thorough economic analysis of the book are worth pondering, space
American capitalism. None probe limits what follows to outlining but
its transformation since the Great three of them.
Depression, or any of the policies addressing employment problems, bud- John Kenneth Galbraith. Among
getary allocations, or the prevention the sharpest critics of the culture of
mid-century America was John Kenof excessive cyclical fluctuations.
The title of the book does not quite neth Galbraith. In particular, he op-

America and capitalism

38

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

posed and even denounced consumerism: that is, the near privatization of
consumption, usually at the expense of
public expenditures that would benefit society at large, which would have
beneficial redistributive effects. Furthermore, he opposed the emphasis of
economic policy on economic growth;
for example, he argued against the tax
reduction proposed by President Kennedy in 1961 designed to spur growth
and reduce unemployment. Judging
by an essay written by Kevin Mattson,
Galbraith advanced no clear alternative to growth to deal with the employment problem. In his New Industrial State, published in the late 1960s,
Galbraith more or less synthesized his
conception of the corporation as an
institution that builds its marketing
power by influencing consumers, often with manipulative advertising. He
did not deal with the possible impact
of competition in limiting marketing
power. He introduced the concept of
technostructure: that is, a new class of
technical and professional personnel
as a social stratum, which was previously and more narrowly conceived
by Thorstein Veblen. But the autonomous nature of this stratum, insofar
as its employment is dependent upon
corporate management, is dubious; its
interests, it would seem, hinge on the
success of its employers.
Peter Drucker. That the great corporations were the driving force of
the American economy was fully realized and, in effect, accepted by John
Kenneth Galbraith; and so it was by
Peter Drucker, “the prophet of postFordism,” as the title of the essay
(by Nils Gilman) calls him. Drucker,
however, was less concerned with the
economic role of the corporation than
with what he construed as its legitimacy—its legitimization less in terms
of property rights or as provider of
goods and services, but rather in the

eyes of its employees. Drucker’s many
books have strongly influenced management strategies and organization,
but his underlying philosophy was
shaped by his experience of Nazism
in the early 1930s. (He was born and
raised in Austria and spent some time
in Germany, then decamped to England and later to the United States).
Reflecting upon the electoral success
and psychological effect of the Nazis,
Drucker came to believe that the “liberal capitalism” of the time had failed
in that it gave rise to the alienation of
masses of workers that found its response in the attraction of the Nazis.
Believing that a harmony of interests
exists between workers and managers he advocated teamwork wherever
possible, and trained the workforce to
be autonomous in all respects short
of invading the authority of management. He was not opposed to unions,
yet appeared unable (or unwilling)
to grasp the unions’ ceaseless efforts
to limit precisely such authority (for
example, the installation of labor-saving apparatus, often viewed by unions
to threaten jobs or job security). Thus,
Drucker’s conception of capitalism
did not embrace any notion that the
system could give rise to sharp clashes
of interest. Yet the legitimization of
the corporation could not really build
upon the workforce autonomy envisioned by Drucker.

Lemuel R. Boulware. In defending
corporate interests against the demands of the workforce, an unforgiving stance was adopted by Lemuel R.
Boulware. Boulware was a vice president for employee and community relations at General Electric Company
(G.E.) during the 1950s, whose ideas
and approach to labor relations are
discussed by Kimberly Phillips-Fein.
Boulware, a fervent advocate of the
“free market,” claimed that G.E.’s price
and wage policies were completely
subject to the free market, limiting or
ruling out any concessions demanded
by G.E.’s unions. Union membership
at G.E. plants soared during and after
World War II, and its wage demands
had much public support.
Boulware challenged not so much
the unions—the major one at G.E. was
the United Electrical Workers—as
their leadership. He considered the
union leaders as rivals to management;
a political threat to management’s unfettered right to make decisions. He
warned American business tirelessly
of the threat unions and the New Deal
legislation posed, calling upon businessmen to become politically active
in fighting for their interests.
In his negotiating strategy, Boulware attempted to impose contractual
conditions peremptorily, while insisting
that G.E. was subject to market forces
presumably beyond the firm’s control.

Where worker resistance could not
be broken—as at a major conflict at
the firm’s Schenectady, NY, plant—he
would close all or part of a plant, moving it to a site where a more subservient
workforce was available. These relocations were often to right-to-work States
and incurred at great cost to communities affected by such closures.
The author of the essay notes that
while the climate of public opinion
during the 1950s accepted pluralism
and the welfare state, small groups of
right-wing businessmen and conservative intellectuals were increasingly
asserting themselves.
This is an interesting book, but it
lacks a common theme and cannot
be readily summarized. The thinkers represented here proved unable
to discern (or perhaps chose to ignore) the trend for which Lemuel
Boulware so forcefully stood—the
restoration of the free market unregulated by government, with the political threat of the labor movement
reduced or eliminated. Their search,
and even vision of a broader social
interest as they defined it, obscured
the underlying realities of American
capitalism.
—Horst Brand
Economist, formerly with the
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

39

Errata
In the article “Industry output and employment projections to
2016,” which appeared on pages 53–85 in the November 2007
issue, incorrect employment data were shown for four industries: Local government enterprises except passenger transit;
Local government excluding enterprises, educational services,
and hospitals; State government enterprises; State government
excluding enterprises, educational services, and hospitals. This
affected tables 3 and 4 and the appendix. The changes to these

tables are shown in bold font.
In table 3 (pages 58–59), the employment data for Local
government excluding enterprises, educational services, and
hospitals were revised, and as a result, the industry is no longer among the fastest growing. Several industries moved up
in rank, and Office administrative services and Architectural,
engineering, and related services have been added to the industries with the fastest growing wage and salary employment.

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)XQGVWUXVWVDQGRWKHU¿QDQFLDOYHKLFOHV

)LQDQFLDODFWLYLWLHV









6114–


2WKHUHGXFDWLRQDOVHUYLFHV

(GXFDWLRQDOVHUYLFHV

























27.0

34.7

7.7

2.5

 3URPRWHUVRIHYHQWVDQGDJHQWV
/HLVXUHDQG
  DQGPDQDJHUV  KRVSLWDOLW\
5619

40

Average
annual rate
of change

Thousands of
jobs

2002

2WKHUVXSSRUWVHUYLFHV 3URIHVVLRQDODQG
EXVLQHVV VHUYLFHV

487

Scenic and sightseeing transportation......................

533

/HVVRUVRIQRQ¿QDQFLDOLQWDQJLEOH
assets (except copyrighted works)..........................

Transportation and
warehousing

5611

2I¿FHDGPLQLVWUDWLYHVHUYLFHV

Financial activities
Professional and
business services

5413

Architectural, engineering, and related services......

Professional and
business services

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

28.9

36.6

7.7

2.4

363.4

456.4

93.0

2.3

1,385.6

1,731.0

345.4

2.3

In table 4 (pages 60–61) the employment data for Local government excluding enterprises, educational services, and hospitals were revised, and as a result, the industry moved up in the

ranking for industries with the largest wage and salary employment growth.

Table 4. ,QGXVWULHVZLWKWKHODUJHVWZDJHDQGVDODU\HPSOR\PHQWJURZWKDQGGHFOLQHV±
2002

Industry description

NAICS

Sector

Thousands of jobs

Change

Average
annual rate
of change

2006

2016

2006–16

2006–16

Largest growth
)RRGVHUYLFHVDQGGULQNLQJSODFHV

/HLVXUHDQGKRVSLWDOLW\









6211–
6213



2I¿FHVRIKHDOWKSUDFWLWLRQHUV

+HDOWKFDUHDQGVRFLDO
assistance









23

&RQVWUXFWLRQ

&RQVWUXFWLRQ









0DQDJHPHQWVFLHQWL¿FDQGWHFKQLFDOFRQVXOWLQJ
 VHUYLFHV

3URIHVVLRQDODQGEXVLQHVV
 VHUYLFHV









6241

,QGLYLGXDODQGIDPLO\VHUYLFHV

+HDOWKFDUHDQGVRFLDO
assistance









622

+RVSLWDOVSULYDWH

+HDOWKFDUHDQGVRFLDO
assistance









5416

5613

3URIHVVLRQDODQGEXVLQHVV
(PSOR\PHQWVHUYLFHV  VHUYLFHV

44, 45

5HWDLOWUDGH

5HWDLOWUDGH

6232,
6233,
6239

5HVLGHQWLDOFDUHIDFLOLWLHV

+HDOWKFDUHDQGVRFLDO
assistance

NA

/RFDOJRYHUQPHQWHGXFDWLRQDOVHUYLFHV

6WDWHDQGORFDOJRYHUQPHQW

&RPSXWHUV\VWHPVGHVLJQDQGUHODWHG
3URIHVVLRQDODQGEXVLQHVV
 VHUYLFHV  VHUYLFHV

5415









































6216

+RPHKHDOWKFDUHVHUYLFHV

+HDOWKFDUHDQGVRFLDO
assistance











$PXVHPHQWJDPEOLQJDQGUHFUHDWLRQ
 LQGXVWULHV

/HLVXUHDQGKRVSLWDOLW\









/RFDOJRYHUQPHQWH[FOXGLQJHQWHUSULVHV
educational services, and hospitals...................

6WDWHDQGORFDOJRYHUQPHQW

4,071.8

4,541.9

470.1

1.1

42

Wholesale trade.....................................................

Wholesale trade

5,897.7

6,326.2

428.5

.7

523

6HFXULWLHVFRPPRGLW\FRQWUDFWVDQGRWKHU
 ¿QDQFLDOLQYHVWPHQWVDQGUHODWHGDFWLYLWLHV

Financial activities

816.3

1,192.4

376.1

3.9

5617

Services to buildings and dwellings....................

Professional and business
services

1,797.0

2,160.8

363.8

1.9

5413

Architectural, engineering, and related
services.................................................................

Professional and business
services

1,385.6

1,731.0

345.4

2.3

8131

5HOLJLRXVRUJDQL]DWLRQV

2WKHUVHUYLFHV









531

5HDOHVWDWH

)LQDQFLDODFWLYLWLHV









NA

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

41

Errata

Changes were made in the appendix (pages 75–85), to reflect the correct employment levels for the four industries.

An except from the appendix (page 84) is shown below.

$33(1',; (PSOR\PHQWDQGRXWSXWE\LQGXVWU\DQGSURMHFWHG


(PSOR\PHQW

2XWSXW

2002
NAICS

Industry

NA

NA
NA

NA

NA
NA
NA

NA

42

/RFDOJRYHUQPHQW
enterprises except
passenger transit..
/RFDOJRYHUQPHQW
KRVSLWDOV
/RFDOJRYHUQPHQW
HGXFDWLRQDO
VHUYLFHV
/RFDOJRYHUQPHQW
excluding enterprises, educational
services, and
hospitals ...............
6WDWHJRYHUQPHQW
enterprises ............
6WDWHJRYHUQPHQW
KRVSLWDOV
6WDWHJRYHUQPHQW
 HGXFDWLRQDO
 VHUYLFHV
6WDWHJRYHUQPHQW
excluding
enterprises,
educational
services,
and hospitals ........

Average
annual rate
of change

Change

Thousands of jobs

1996–
2006

2006–
16

1,347.0

173.2

80.9

1.5

















3,517.2

4,071.8

4,541.9

495.8

548.8



1996

2006

2016

1,092.9

1,266.1



1996– 2006–
2006
16

Billions of chained
2002 dollars

Average
annual
rate of
change

1996–
2006

2006–
16

1996

2006

.6

110.7

131.7

176.0

1.8

2.9































554.6

470.1

1.5

1.1











549.3

53.0

.5

1.0

.0















±

±

±

±



































1,823.5

1,875.5

1,879.3

52.0

3.8

.3

.0

124.5

134.6

179.1

.8

2.9

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

2016

Current Labor Statistics
Monthly Labor Review
May 2008

NOTE: Many of the statistics in the
following pages were subsequently
revised. These pages have not been
updated to reflect the revisions.
To obtain BLS data that reflect all revisions, see
http://www.bls.gov/data/home.htm
For the latest set of "Current Labor Statistics,"
see http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/curlabst.htm

Current Labor Statistics

Notes on current labor statistics

............... 44

Labor compensation and collective
bargaining data

Comparative indicators
1. Labor market indicators.................................................... 56
2. Annual and quarterly percent changes in
compensation, prices, and productivity.......................... 57
3. Alternative measures of wages and
compensation changes................................................... 57

30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.

Labor force data
4. Employment status of the population,
seasonally adjusted ........................................................
5. Selected employment indicators, seasonally adjusted ........
6. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted ....
7. Duration of unemployment, seasonally adjusted...............
8. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment,
seasonally adjusted ........................................................
9. Unemployment rates by sex and age,
seasonally adjusted ........................................................
10. Unemployment rates by State, seasonally adjusted............
11. Employment of workers by State,
seasonally adjusted .........................................................
12. Employment of workers by industry,
seasonally adjusted .........................................................
13. Average weekly hours by industry, seasonally adjusted......
14. Average hourly earnings by industry,
seasonally adjusted .........................................................
15. Average hourly earnings by industry.................................
16. Average weekly earnings by industry ................................
17. Diffusion indexes of employment change,
seasonally adjusted .....................................................
18. Job openings levels and rates, by industry and regions,
seasonally adjusted........................................................
19. Hires levels and rates by industry and region,
seasonally adjusted........................................................
20. Separations levels and rates by industry and region,
seasonally adjusted.........................................................
21. Quits levels and rates by industry and region,
seasonally adjusted........................................................

36.
37.
58
59
60
60

Employment Cost Index, compensation ..........................
Employment Cost Index, wages and salaries ....................
Employment Cost Index, benefits, private industry .........
Employment Cost Index, private industry workers,
by bargaining status, and region ....................................
National Compensation Survey, retirement benefits,
private industry ............................................................
National Compensation Survey, health insurance,
private industry..............................................................
National Compensation Survey, selected benefits,
private industry .............................................................
Work stoppages involving 1,000 workers or more ............

85
87
89
90
91
93
95
95

Price data

67
68
69

38. Consumer Price Index: U.S. city average, by expenditure
category and commodity and service groups................. 96
39. Consumer Price Index: U.S. city average and
local data, all items ....................................................... 99
40. Annual data: Consumer Price Index, all items
and major groups........................................................... 100
41. Producer Price Indexes by stage of processing .................. 101
42. Producer Price Indexes for the net output of major
industry groups ............................................................. 102
43. Annual data: Producer Price Indexes
by stage of processing.................................................... 103
44. U.S. export price indexes by end-use category................... 103
45. U.S. import price indexes by end-use category...... ............ 104
46. U.S. international price indexes for selected
categories of services ..................................................... 104

70

Productivity data

71

47. Indexes of productivity, hourly compensation,
and unit costs, data seasonally adjusted ......................... 105
48. Annual indexes of multifactor productivity....................... 106
49. Annual indexes of productivity, hourly compensation,
unit costs, and prices ..................................................... 107
50. Annual indexes of output per hour for select industries.... 108

61
61
62
62
63
66

71
72
72

22. Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages,
10 largest counties ........................................................ 73
23. Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, by State .. 75
24. Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment
and Wages, by ownership .............................................. 76
25. Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages,
establishment size and employment, by supersector...... 77
26. Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and
Wages, by metropolitan area ........................................ 78
27. Annual data: Employment status of the population.......... 83
28. Annual data: Employment levels by industry ................. 83
29. Annual data: Average hours and earnings level,
by industry .................................................................... 84

International comparisons data
51. Unemployment rates in 10 countries,
seasonally adjusted ........................................................ 112
52. Annual data: Employment status of the civilian
working-age population, 10 countries........................... 113
53. Annual indexes of productivity and related measures,
16 economies................................................................ 114

Injury and Illness data
54. Annual data: Occupational injury and illness.................... 116
55. Fatal occupational injuries by event or exposure ............... 118

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

43

Current Labor Statistics

Notes on Current Labor Statistics
This section of the Review presents the
principal statistical series collected and
calculated by the Bureau of Labor Statistics:
series on labor force; employment; unemployment; labor compensation; consumer,
producer, and international prices; productivity; international comparisons; and injury
and illness statistics. In the notes that follow,
the data in each group of tables are briefly
described; key definitions are given; notes
on the data are set forth; and sources of additional information are cited.

General notes
The following notes apply to several tables
in this section:
Seasonal adjustment. Certain monthly
and quarterly data are adjusted to eliminate
the effect on the data of such factors as climatic conditions, industry production schedules, opening and closing of schools, holiday
buying periods, and vacation practices, which
might prevent short-term evaluation of the
statistical series. Tables containing data that
have been adjusted are identified as “seasonally adjusted.” (All other data are not seasonally adjusted.) Seasonal effects are estimated
on the basis of current and past experiences.
When new seasonal factors are computed
each year, revisions may affect seasonally
adjusted data for several preceding years.
Seasonally adjusted data appear in tables
1–14, 17–21, 48, and 52. Seasonally adjusted
labor force data in tables 1 and 4–9 and seasonally adjusted establishment survey data
shown in tables 1, 12–14, and 17 are revised
in the March 2007 Review. A brief explanation of the seasonal adjustment methodology
appears in “Notes on the data.”
Revisions in the productivity data in table
54 are usually introduced in the September
issue. Seasonally adjusted indexes and percent changes from month-to-month and
quarter-to-quarter are published for numerous Consumer and Producer Price Index
series. However, seasonally adjusted indexes
are not published for the U.S. average AllItems CPI. Only seasonally adjusted percent
changes are available for this series.
Adjustments for price changes. Some
data—such as the “real” earnings shown in
table 14—are adjusted to eliminate the effect
of changes in price. These adjustments are
made by dividing current-dollar values by
the Consumer Price Index or the appropriate
component of the index, then multiplying
by 100. For example, given a current hourly
wage rate of $3 and a current price index
number of 150, where 1982 = 100, the hourly
rate expressed in 1982 dollars is $2 ($3/150
x 100 = $2). The $2 (or any other resulting
44

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

values) are described as “real,” “constant,” or
“1982” dollars.

Sources of information
Data that supplement the tables in this section are published by the Bureau in a variety
of sources. Definitions of each series and
notes on the data are contained in later sections of these Notes describing each set of
data. For detailed descriptions of each data
series, see BLS Handbook of Methods, Bulletin
2490. Users also may wish to consult Major
Programs of the Bureau of Labor Statistics,
Report 919. News releases provide the latest statistical information published by the
Bureau; the major recurring releases are
published according to the schedule appearing on the back cover of this issue.
More information about labor force,
employment, and unemployment data and
the household and establishment surveys
underlying the data are available in the
Bureau’s monthly publication, Employment
and Earnings. Historical unadjusted and
seasonally adjusted data from the household
survey are available on the Internet:
www.bls.gov/cps/
Historically comparable unadjusted and seasonally adjusted data from the establishment
survey also are available on the Internet:
www.bls.gov/ces/
Additional information on labor force data
for areas below the national level are provided in the BLS annual report, Geographic
Profile of Employment and Unemployment.
For a comprehensive discussion of the
Employment Cost Index, see Employment
Cost Indexes and Levels, 1975–95, BLS Bulletin 2466. The most recent data from the
Employee Benefits Survey appear in the following Bureau of Labor Statistics bulletins:
Employee Benefits in Medium and Large Firms;
Employee Benefits in Small Private Establishments; and Employee Benefits in State and Local
Governments.
More detailed data on consumer and
producer prices are published in the monthly
periodicals, The CPI Detailed Report and Producer Price Indexes. For an overview of the
1998 revision of the CPI, see the December
1996 issue of the Monthly Labor Review. Additional data on international prices appear
in monthly news releases.
Listings of industries for which productivity indexes are available may be found on
the Internet:
www.bls.gov/lpc/
For additional information on international comparisons data, see Interna-

tional Comparisons of Unemployment, Bulletin
1979.
Detailed data on the occupational injury
and illness series are published in Occupational Injuries and Illnesses in the United States,
by Industry, a BLS annual bulletin.
Finally, the Monthly Labor Review carries
analytical articles on annual and longer term
developments in labor force, employment,
and unemployment; employee compensation
and collective bargaining; prices; productivity; international comparisons; and injury
and illness data.

Symbols
n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.
n.e.s. = not elsewhere specified.
p = preliminary. To increase
the timeliness of some series,
preliminary figures are issued
based on representative but
incomplete returns.
r = revised. Generally, this revision
reflects the availability of later
data, but also may reflect other
adjustments.

Comparative Indicators
(Tables 1–3)
Comparative indicators tables provide an
overview and comparison of major bls statistical series. Consequently, although many
of the included series are available monthly,
all measures in these comparative tables are
presented quarterly and annually.
Labor market indicators include employment measures from two major surveys
and information on rates of change in
compensation provided by the Employment
Cost Index (ECI) program. The labor force
participation rate, the employment-population ratio, and unemployment rates for major
demographic groups based on the Current
Population (“household”) Survey are presented, while measures of employment and
average weekly hours by major industry sector are given using nonfarm payroll data. The
Employment Cost Index (compensation),
by major sector and by bargaining status, is
chosen from a variety of BLS compensation
and wage measures because it provides a
comprehensive measure of employer costs for
hiring labor, not just outlays for wages, and it
is not affected by employment shifts among
occupations and industries.
Data on changes in compensation, prices, and productivity are presented in table 2.
Measures of rates of change of compensation

and wages from the Employment Cost Index
program are provided for all civilian nonfarm
workers (excluding Federal and household
workers) and for all private nonfarm workers.
Measures of changes in consumer prices for
all urban consumers; producer prices by stage
of processing; overall prices by stage of processing; and overall export and import price
indexes are given. Measures of productivity
(output per hour of all persons) are provided
for major sectors.
Alternative measures of wage and compensation rates of change, which reflect the
overall trend in labor costs, are summarized
in table 3. Differences in concepts and scope,
related to the specific purposes of the series,
contribute to the variation in changes among
the individual measures.
Notes on the data
Definitions of each series and notes on the
data are contained in later sections of these
notes describing each set of data.

Employment and
Unemployment Data

4 weeks. Persons who did not look for work
because they were on layoff are also counted
among the unemployed. The unemployment
rate represents the number unemployed as a
percent of the civilian labor force.
The civilian labor force consists of all
employed or unemployed persons in the civilian noninstitutional population. Persons not
in the labor force are those not classified as
employed or unemployed. This group includes
discouraged workers, defined as persons who
want and are available for a job and who
have looked for work sometime in the past
12 months (or since the end of their last job
if they held one within the past 12 months),
but are not currently looking, because they
believe there are no jobs available or there are
none for which they would qualify. The civilian noninstitutional population comprises
all persons 16 years of age and older who are
not inmates of penal or mental institutions,
sanitariums, or homes for the aged, infirm,
or needy. The civilian labor force participation rate is the proportion of the civilian
noninstitutional population that is in the
labor force. The employment-population
ratio is employment as a percent of the civilian noninstitutional population.

(Tables 1; 4–29)

Notes on the data

Household survey data

From time to time, and especially after a decennial census, adjustments are made in the
Current Population Survey figures to correct
for estimating errors during the intercensal
years. These adjustments affect the comparability of historical data. A description of
these adjustments and their effect on the
various data series appears in the Explanatory Notes of Employment and Earnings. For
a discussion of changes introduced in January
2003, see “Revisions to the Current Population Survey Effective in January 2003” in
the February 2003 issue of Employment and
Earnings (available on the BLS Web site at
www.bls.gov/cps/rvcps03.pdf).
Effective in January 2003, BLS began
using the X-12 ARIMA seasonal adjustment
program to seasonally adjust national labor
force data. This program replaced the X-11
ARIMA program which had been used since
January 1980. See “Revision of Seasonally
Adjusted Labor Force Series in 2003,” in
the February 2003 issue of Employment and
Earnings (available on the BLS Web site at
www.bls.gov/cps/cpsrs.pdf) for a discussion
of the introduction of the use of X-12 ARIMA
for seasonal adjustment of the labor force
data and the effects that it had on the data.
At the beginning of each calendar year,
historical seasonally adjusted data usually
are revised, and projected seasonal adjustment factors are calculated for use during the

Description of the series
Employment data in this section are obtained from the Current Population Survey,
a program of personal interviews conducted
monthly by the Bureau of the Census for
the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The sample
consists of about 60,000 households selected
to represent the U.S. population 16 years of
age and older. Households are interviewed
on a rotating basis, so that three-fourths of
the sample is the same for any 2 consecutive
months.

Definitions
Employed persons include (1) all those who
worked for pay any time during the week
which includes the 12th day of the month or
who worked unpaid for 15 hours or more in a
family-operated enterprise and (2) those who
were temporarily absent from their regular
jobs because of illness, vacation, industrial
dispute, or similar reasons. A person working
at more than one job is counted only in the
job at which he or she worked the greatest
number of hours.
Unemployed persons are those who did
not work during the survey week, but were
available for work except for temporary illness
and had looked for jobs within the preceding

January–June period. The historical seasonally adjusted data usually are revised for only
the most recent 5 years. In July, new seasonal
adjustment factors, which incorporate the
experience through June, are produced for
the July–December period, but no revisions
are made in the historical data.
F OR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on
national household survey data, contact the
Division of Labor Force Statistics: (202)
691–6378.

Establishment survey data
Description of the series
Employment, hours, and earnings data in this
section are compiled from payroll records
reported monthly on a voluntary basis to
the Bureau of Labor Statistics and its cooperating State agencies by about 160,000
businesses and government agencies, which
represent approximately 400,000 individual
worksites and represent all industries except
agriculture. The active CES sample covers
approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll workers. Industries are classified in
accordance with the 2002 North American
Industry Classification System. In most
industries, the sampling probabilities are
based on the size of the establishment; most
large establishments are therefore in the
sample. (An establishment is not necessarily
a firm; it may be a branch plant, for example,
or warehouse.) Self-employed persons and
others not on a regular civilian payroll are
outside the scope of the survey because they
are excluded from establishment records.
This largely accounts for the difference in
employment figures between the household
and establishment surveys.

Definitions
An establishment is an economic unit which
produces goods or services (such as a factory
or store) at a single location and is engaged
in one type of economic activity.
Employed persons are all persons who
received pay (including holiday and sick pay)
for any part of the payroll period including
the 12th day of the month. Persons holding
more than one job (about 5 percent of all
persons in the labor force) are counted in
each establishment which reports them.
Production workers in the goodsproducing industries cover employees, up
through the level of working supervisors,
who engage directly in the manufacture or
construction of the establishment’s product.
In private service-providing industries, data
are collected for nonsupervisory workers,
which include most employees except those
Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

45

Current Labor Statistics

in executive, managerial, and supervisory
positions. Those workers mentioned in tables
11–16 include production workers in manufacturing and natural resources and mining;
construction workers in construction; and
nonsupervisory workers in all private service-providing industries. Production and
nonsupervisory workers account for about
four-fifths of the total employment on private nonagricultural payrolls.
Earnings are the payments production
or nonsupervisory workers receive during
the survey period, including premium pay
for overtime or late-shift work but excluding irregular bonuses and other special
payments. Real earnings are earnings
adjusted to reflect the effects of changes
in consumer prices. The deflator for this
series is derived from the Consumer Price
Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical
Workers (CPI-W).
Hours represent the average weekly
hours of production or nonsupervisory
workers for which pay was received, and are
different from standard or scheduled hours.
Overtime hours represent the portion of
average weekly hours which was in excess
of regular hours and for which overtime
premiums were paid.
The Diffusion Index represents the
percent of industries in which employment
was rising over the indicated period, plus
one-half of the industries with unchanged
employment; 50 percent indicates an equal
balance between industries with increasing
and decreasing employment. In line with
Bureau practice, data for the 1-, 3-, and 6month spans are seasonally adjusted, while
those for the 12-month span are unadjusted.
Table 17 provides an index on private nonfarm employment based on 278 industries,
and a manufacturing index based on 84
industries. These indexes are useful for measuring the dispersion of economic gains or
losses and are also economic indicators.

Notes on the data
Establishment survey data are annually
adjusted to comprehensive counts of employment (called “benchmarks”). The March
2003 benchmark was introduced in February
2004 with the release of data for January
2004, published in the March 2004 issue of
the Review. With the release in June 2003,
CES completed a conversion from the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system to
the North American Industry Classification
System (naics) and completed the transition
from its original quota sample design to a
probability-based sample design. The industry-coding update included reconstruction
of historical estimates in order to preserve
46

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

time series for data users. Normally 5 years
of seasonally adjusted data are revised with
each benchmark revision. However, with this
release, the entire new time series history for
all CES data series were re-seasonally adjusted
due to the NAICS conversion, which resulted
in the revision of all CES time series.
Also in June 2003, the CES program introduced concurrent seasonal adjustment for
the national establishment data. Under this
methodology, the first preliminary estimates
for the current reference month and the
revised estimates for the 2 prior months will
be updated with concurrent factors with each
new release of data. Concurrent seasonal
adjustment incorporates all available data,
including first preliminary estimates for
the most current month, in the adjustment
process. For additional information on all of
the changes introduced in June 2003, see the
June 2003 issue of Employment and Earnings
and “Recent changes in the national Current
Employment Statistics survey,” Monthly Labor Review, June 2003, pp. 3–13.
Revisions in State data (table 11) occurred with the publication of January 2003
data. For information on the revisions for
the State data, see the March and May 2003
issues of Employment and Earnings, and “Recent changes in the State and Metropolitan
Area CES survey,” Monthly Labor Review,
June 2003, pp. 14–19.
Beginning in June 1996, the BLS uses
the X-12-ARIMA methodology to seasonally adjust establishment survey data. This
procedure, developed by the Bureau of the
Census, controls for the effect of varying
survey intervals (also known as the 4- versus
5-week effect), thereby providing improved
measurement of over-the-month changes
and underlying economic trends. Revisions
of data, usually for the most recent 5-year
period, are made once a year coincident with
the benchmark revisions.
In the establishment survey, estimates
for the most recent 2 months are based on
incomplete returns and are published as preliminary in the tables (12–17 in the Review).
When all returns have been received, the
estimates are revised and published as “final”
(prior to any benchmark revisions) in the
third month of their appearance. Thus, December data are published as preliminary in
January and February and as final in March.
For the same reasons, quarterly establishment data (table 1) are preliminary for the
first 2 months of publication and final in the
third month. Fourth-quarter data are published as preliminary in January and February
and as final in March.
F OR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on

establishment survey data, contact the Division of Current Employment Statistics:
(202) 691–6555.

Unemployment data by State
Description of the series
Data presented in this section are obtained
from the Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program, which is conducted in
cooperation with State employment security
agencies.
Monthly estimates of the labor force,
employment, and unemployment for States
and sub-State areas are a key indicator of local economic conditions, and form the basis
for determining the eligibility of an area for
benefits under Federal economic assistance
programs such as the Job Training Partnership Act. Seasonally adjusted unemployment
rates are presented in table 10. Insofar as possible, the concepts and definitions underlying
these data are those used in the national
estimates obtained from the CPS.

Notes on the data
Data refer to State of residence. Monthly
data for all States and the District of Columbia are derived using standardized procedures
established by BLS. Once a year, estimates are
revised to new population controls, usually
with publication of January estimates, and
benchmarked to annual average CPS levels.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on data
in this series, call (202) 691–6392 (table 10)
or (202) 691–6559 (table 11).

Quarterly Census of
Employment and Wages
Description of the series
Employment, wage, and establishment data
in this section are derived from the quarterly
tax reports submitted to State employment
security agencies by private and State and
local government employers subject to State
unemployment insurance (ui) laws and from
Federal, agencies subject to the Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees
(ucfe) program. Each quarter, State agencies edit and process the data and send the
information to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
The Quarterly Census of Employment
and Wages (QCEW) data, also referred as ES202 data, are the most complete enumeration
of employment and wage information by
industry at the national, State, metropolitan
area, and county levels. They have broad
economic significance in evaluating labor

market trends and major industry developments.

Definitions
In general, the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages monthly employment data
represent the number of covered workers
who worked during, or received pay for, the
pay period that included the 12th day of
the month. Covered private industry employment includes most corporate officials,
executives, supervisory personnel, professionals, clerical workers, wage earners, piece
workers, and part-time workers. It excludes
proprietors, the unincorporated self-employed, unpaid family members, and certain
farm and domestic workers. Certain types
of nonprofit employers, such as religious
organizations, are given a choice of coverage
or exclusion in a number of States. Workers
in these organizations are, therefore, reported
to a limited degree.
Persons on paid sick leave, paid holiday,
paid vacation, and the like, are included.
Persons on the payroll of more than one
firm during the period are counted by each
ui-subject employer if they meet the employment definition noted earlier. The employment count excludes workers who earned no
wages during the entire applicable pay period
because of work stoppages, temporary layoffs,
illness, or unpaid vacations.
Federal employment data are based on
reports of monthly employment and quarterly wages submitted each quarter to State
agencies for all Federal installations with
employees covered by the Unemployment
Compensation for Federal Employees (ucfe)
program, except for certain national security
agencies, which are omitted for security reasons. Employment for all Federal agencies
for any given month is based on the number
of persons who worked during or received
pay for the pay period that included the 12th
of the month.
An establishment is an economic unit,
such as a farm, mine, factory, or store, that
produces goods or provides services. It is
typically at a single physical location and
engaged in one, or predominantly one, type
of economic activity for which a single industrial classification may be applied. Occasionally, a single physical location encompasses
two or more distinct and significant activities.
Each activity should be reported as a separate
establishment if separate records are kept
and the various activities are classified under
different NAICS industries.
Most employers have only one establishment; thus, the establishment is the
predominant reporting unit or statistical

entity for reporting employment and wages
data. Most employers, including State and
local governments who operate more than
one establishment in a State, file a Multiple
Worksite Report each quarter, in addition
to their quarterly ui report. The Multiple
Worksite Report is used to collect separate
employment and wage data for each of the
employer’s establishments, which are not
detailed on the ui report. Some very small
multi-establishment employers do not file a
Multiple Worksite Report. When the total
employment in an employer’s secondary
establishments (all establishments other
than the largest) is 10 or fewer, the employer
generally will file a consolidated report for all
establishments. Also, some employers either
cannot or will not report at the establishment
level and thus aggregate establishments into
one consolidated unit, or possibly several
units, though not at the establishment level.
For the Federal Government, the reporting unit is the installation: a single location
at which a department, agency, or other government body has civilian employees. Federal
agencies follow slightly different criteria than
do private employers when breaking down
their reports by installation. They are permitted to combine as a single statewide unit: 1)
all installations with 10 or fewer workers,
and 2) all installations that have a combined
total in the State of fewer than 50 workers.
Also, when there are fewer than 25 workers
in all secondary installations in a State, the
secondary installations may be combined and
reported with the major installation. Last, if a
Federal agency has fewer than five employees
in a State, the agency headquarters office
(regional office, district office) serving each
State may consolidate the employment and
wages data for that State with the data reported to the State in which the headquarters
is located. As a result of these reporting rules,
the number of reporting units is always larger
than the number of employers (or government agencies) but smaller than the number
of actual establishments (or installations).
Data reported for the first quarter are
tabulated into size categories ranging from
worksites of very small size to those with
1,000 employees or more. The size category
is determined by the establishment’s March
employment level. It is important to note that
each establishment of a multi-establishment
firm is tabulated separately into the appropriate size category. The total employment level
of the reporting multi-establishment firm is
not used in the size tabulation.
Covered employers in most States report
total wages paid during the calendar quarter,
regardless of when the services were performed. A few State laws, however, specify
that wages be reported for, or based on the

period during which services are performed
rather than the period during which compensation is paid. Under most State laws or
regulations, wages include bonuses, stock
options, the cash value of meals and lodging,
tips and other gratuities, and, in some States,
employer contributions to certain deferred
compensation plans such as 401(k) plans.
Covered employer contributions for
old-age, survivors, and disability insurance
(oasdi), health insurance, unemployment insurance, workers’ compensation, and private
pension and welfare funds are not reported as
wages. Employee contributions for the same
purposes, however, as well as money withheld
for income taxes, union dues, and so forth, are
reported even though they are deducted from
the worker’s gross pay.
Wages of covered Federal workers represent the gross amount of all payrolls for all
pay periods ending within the quarter. This
includes cash allowances, the cash equivalent
of any type of remuneration, severance pay,
withholding taxes, and retirement deductions. Federal employee remuneration generally covers the same types of services as for
workers in private industry.
Average annual wage per employee for
any given industry are computed by dividing total annual wages by annual average
employment. A further division by 52 yields
average weekly wages per employee. Annual
pay data only approximate annual earnings
because an individual may not be employed
by the same employer all year or may work for
more than one employer at a time.
Average weekly or annual wage is affected by the ratio of full-time to part-time
workers as well as the number of individuals
in high-paying and low-paying occupations.
When average pay levels between States and
industries are compared, these factors should
be taken into consideration. For example,
industries characterized by high proportions
of part-time workers will show average wage
levels appreciably less than the weekly pay
levels of regular full-time employees in these
industries. The opposite effect characterizes
industries with low proportions of part-time
workers, or industries that typically schedule
heavy weekend and overtime work. Average
wage data also may be influenced by work
stoppages, labor turnover rates, retroactive
payments, seasonal factors, bonus payments,
and so on.

Notes on the data
Beginning with the release of data for 2001,
publications presenting data from the Covered Employment and Wages program have
switched to the 2002 version of the North
Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

47

Current Labor Statistics

American Industry Classification System
(NAICS) as the basis for the assignment and
tabulation of economic data by industry.
NAICS is the product of a cooperative effort on the part of the statistical agencies
of the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
Due to difference in NAICS and Standard
Industrial Classification ( SIC) structures,
industry data for 2001 is not comparable to the SIC-based data for earlier years.
Effective January 2001, the program
began assigning Indian Tribal Councils and
related establishments to local government
ownership. This BLS action was in response
to a change in Federal law dealing with the
way Indian Tribes are treated under the
Federal Unemployment Tax Act. This law
requires federally recognized Indian Tribes
to be treated similarly to State and local
governments. In the past, the Covered Employment and Wage (CEW) program coded
Indian Tribal Councils and related establishments in the private sector. As a result of the
new law, CEW data reflects significant shifts
in employment and wages between the private sector and local government from 2000
to 2001. Data also reflect industry changes.
Those accounts previously assigned to civic
and social organizations were assigned to
tribal governments. There were no required
industry changes for related establishments
owned by these Tribal Councils. These
tribal business establishments continued to
be coded according to the economic activity
of that entity.
To insure the highest possible quality
of data, State employment security agencies
verify with employers and update, if necessary, the industry, location, and ownership
classification of all establishments on a 3-year
cycle. Changes in establishment classification codes resulting from the verification
process are introduced with the data reported
for the first quarter of the year. Changes
resulting from improved employer reporting
also are introduced in the first quarter. For
these reasons, some data, especially at more
detailed geographic levels, may not be strictly
comparable with earlier years.
County definitions are assigned according
to Federal Information Processing Standards
Publications as issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Areas
shown as counties include those designated
as independent cities in some jurisdictions
and, in Alaska, those areas designated by the
Census Bureau where counties have not been
created. County data also are presented for
the New England States for comparative
purposes, even though townships are the
more common designation used in New
England (and New Jersey).

48

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

The Office of Management and Budget
(OMB) defines metropolitan areas for use
in Federal statistical activities and updates
these definitions as needed. Data in this table
use metropolitan area criteria established
by OMB in definitions issued June 30, 1999
(OMB Bulletin No. 99-04). These definitions
reflect information obtained from the 1990
Decennial Census and the 1998 U.S. Census
Bureau population estimate. A complete list
of metropolitan area definitions is available
from the National Technical Information
Service (NTIS), Document Sales, 5205 Port
Royal Road, Springfield, Va. 22161, telephone 1-800-553-6847.
OMB defines metropolitan areas in terms
of entire counties, except in the six New England States where they are defined in terms of
cities and towns. New England data in this
table, however, are based on a county concept
defined by OMB as New England County
Metropolitan Areas (NECMA) because county-level data are the most detailed available
from the Quarterly Census of Employment
and Wages. The NECMA is a county-based
alternative to the city- and town-based
metropolitan areas in New England. The
NECMA for a Metropolitan Statistical Area
(MSA) include: (1) the county containing
the first-named city in that MSA title (this
county may include the first-named cities of
other MSA, and (2) each additional county
having at least half its population in the
MSA in which first-named cities are in the
county identified in step 1. The NECMA is
officially defined areas that are meant to be
used by statistical programs that cannot use
the regular metropolitan area definitions in
New England.
For additional information on the
covered employment and wage data, contact
the Division of Administrative Statistics and
Labor Turnover at (202) 691–6567.

Job Openings and Labor
Turnover Survey
Description of the series
Data for the Job Openings and Labor
Turnover Survey (JOLTS) are collected and
compiled from a sample of 16,000 business
establishments. Each month, data are collected for total employment, job openings,
hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, and other
separations. The JOLTS program covers all
private nonfarm establishments such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as Federal,
State, and local government entities in the
50 States and the District of Columbia. The
JOLTS sample design is a random sample

drawn from a universe of more than eight
million establishments compiled as part of
the operations of the Quarterly Census of
Employment and Wages, or QCEW, program.
This program includes all employers subject to
State unemployment insurance (UI) laws and
Federal agencies subject to Unemployment
Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE).
The sampling frame is stratified by ownership, region, industry sector, and size class.
Large firms fall into the sample with virtual
certainty. JOLTS total employment estimates
are controlled to the employment estimates
of the Current Employment Statistics (CES)
survey. A ratio of CES to JOLTS employment
is used to adjust the levels for all other JOLTS
data elements. Rates then are computed from
the adjusted levels.
The monthly JOLTS data series begin with
December 2000. Not seasonally adjusted
data on job openings, hires, total separations, quits, layoffs and discharges, and other
separations levels and rates are available for
the total nonfarm sector, 16 private industry
divisions and 2 government divisions based
on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), and four geographic
regions. Seasonally adjusted data on job
openings, hires, total separations, and quits
levels and rates are available for the total
nonfarm sector, selected industry sectors, and
four geographic regions.

Definitions
Establishments submit job openings infor-mation for the last business day of the
reference month. A job opening requires
that (1) a specific position exists and there
is work available for that position; and (2)
work could start within 30 days regardless
of whether a suitable candidate is found;
and (3) the employer is actively recruiting
from outside the establishment to fill the
position. Included are full-time, part-time,
permanent, short-term, and seasonal openings. Active recruiting means that the establishment is taking steps to fill a position by
advertising in newspapers or on the Internet,
posting help-wanted signs, accepting applications, or using other similar methods.
Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers,
promotions, demotions, or recall from layoffs
are excluded. Also excluded are jobs with
start dates more than 30 days in the future,
jobs for which employees have been hired but
have not yet reported for work, and jobs to be
filled by employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside
contractors, or consultants. The job openings
rate is computed by dividing the number of
job openings by the sum of employment and

job openings, and multiplying that quotient
by 100.
Hires are the total number of additions
to the payroll occurring at any time during
the reference month, including both new and
rehired employees and full-time and parttime, permanent, short-term and seasonal
employees, employees recalled to the location
after a layoff lasting more than 7 days, on-call
or intermittent employees who returned to
work after having been formally separated,
and transfers from other locations. The hires
count does not include transfers or promotions within the reporting site, employees returning from strike, employees of temporary
help agencies or employee leasing companies,
outside contractors, or consultants. The hires
rate is computed by dividing the number of
hires by employment, and multiplying that
quotient by 100.
Separations are the total number of
terminations of employment occurring at
any time during the reference month, and
are reported by type of separation—quits,
layoffs and discharges, and other separations.
Quits are voluntary separations by employees
(except for retirements, which are reported
as other separations). Layoffs and discharges
are involuntary separations initiated by the
employer and include layoffs with no intent
to rehire, formal layoffs lasting or expected
to last more than 7 days, discharges resulting
from mergers, downsizing, or closings, firings
or other discharges for cause, terminations
of permanent or short-term employees, and
terminations of seasonal employees. Other
separations include retirements, transfers
to other locations, deaths, and separations
due to disability. Separations do not include
transfers within the same location or employees on strike.
The separations rate is computed by dividing the number of separations by employment, and multiplying that quotient by 100.
The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other
separations rates are computed similarly,
dividing the number by employment and
multiplying by 100.

Notes on the data
The JOLTS data series on job openings, hires,
and separations are relatively new. The full
sample is divided into panels, with one panel
enrolled each month. A full complement of
panels for the original data series based on
the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification
(SIC) system was not completely enrolled in
the survey until January 2002. The supplemental panels of establishments needed to

create NAICS estimates were not completely
enrolled until May 2003. The data collected
up until those points are from less than a
full sample. Therefore, estimates from earlier months should be used with caution, as
fewer sampled units were reporting data at
that time.
In March 2002, BLS procedures for
collecting hires and separations data were
revised to address possible underreporting.
As a result, JOLTS hires and separations estimates for months prior to March 2002 may
not be comparable with estimates for March
2002 and later.
The Federal Government reorganization
that involved transferring approximately
180,000 employees to the new Department
of Homeland Security is not reflected in
the JOLTS hires and separations estimates
for the Federal Government. The Office of
Personnel Management’s record shows these
transfers were completed in March 2003. The
inclusion of transfers in the JOLTS definitions
of hires and separations is intended to cover
ongoing movements of workers between
establishments. The Department of Homeland Security reorganization was a massive
one-time event, and the inclusion of these
intergovernmental transfers would distort
the Federal Government time series.
Data users should note that seasonal
adjustment of the JOLTS series is conducted
with fewer data observations than is customary. The historical data, therefore, may
be subject to larger than normal revisions.
Because the seasonal patterns in economic
data series typically emerge over time, the
standard use of moving averages as seasonal
filters to capture these effects requires longer
series than are currently available. As a result,
the stable seasonal filter option is used in the
seasonal adjustment of the JOLTS data. When
calculating seasonal factors, this filter takes
an average for each calendar month after
detrending the series. The stable seasonal
filter assumes that the seasonal factors are
fixed; a necessary assumption until sufficient
data are available. When the stable seasonal
filter is no longer needed, other program features also may be introduced, such as outlier
adjustment and extended diagnostic testing.
Additionally, it is expected that more series,
such as layoffs and discharges and additional
industries, may be seasonally adjusted when
more data are available.
JOLTS hires and separations estimates
cannot be used to exactly explain net changes
in payroll employment. Some reasons why it
is problematic to compare changes in payroll
employment with JOLTS hires and separations, especially on a monthly basis, are: (1)
the reference period for payroll employment

is the pay period including the 12th of the
month, while the reference period for hires
and separations is the calendar month; and
(2) payroll employment can vary from month
to month simply because part-time and oncall workers may not always work during
the pay period that includes the 12th of the
month. Additionally, research has found that
some reporters systematically underreport
separations relative to hires due to a number of factors, including the nature of their
payroll systems and practices. The shortfall
appears to be about 2 percent or less over a
12-month period.
F OR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on
the Job Openings and Labor Turnover
Survey, contact the Division of Administrative Statistics and Labor Turnover at (202)
961–5870.

Compensation and
Wage Data
(Tables 1–3; 30–37)
The National Compensation Survey (NCS)
produces a variety of compensation data.
These include: The Employment Cost Index
(ECI) and NCS benefit measures of the incidence and provisions of selected employee
benefit plans. Selected samples of these
measures appear in the following tables. NCS
also compiles data on occupational wages and
the Employer Costs for Employee Compensation (ECEC).

Employment Cost Index
Description of the series
The Employment Cost Index (ECI) is a
quarterly measure of the rate of change in
compensation per hour worked and includes
wages, salaries, and employer costs of employee benefits. It is a Laspeyres Index that
uses fixed employment weights to measure
change in labor costs free from the influence
of employment shifts among occupations
and industries.
The ECI provides data for the civilian
economy, which includes the total private
nonfarm economy excluding private households, and the public sector excluding the
Federal government. Data are collected each
quarter for the pay period including the
12th day of March, June, September, and
December.
Sample establishments are classified by
industry categories based on the 2002 North
American Classification System (NAICS).
Within a sample establishment, specific job

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

49

Current Labor Statistics

categories are selected and classified into
about 800 occupations according to the 2000
Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)
System. Individual occupations are combined to represent one of ten intermediate
aggregations, such as professional and related
occupations, or one of five higher level aggregations, such as management, professional,
and related occupations.
Fixed employment weights are used
each quarter to calculate the most aggregate
series—civilian, private, and State and local
government. These fixed weights are also
used to derive all of the industry and occupational series indexes. Beginning with the
March 2006 estimates, 2002 fixed employment weights from the Bureau’s Occupational Employment Statistics survey were
introduced. From March 1995 to December
2005, 1990 employment counts were used.
These fixed weights ensure that changes in
these indexes reflect only changes in compensation, not employment shifts among
industries or occupations with different levels
of wages and compensation. For the series
based on bargaining status, census region
and division, and metropolitan area status,
fixed employment data are not available. The
employment weights are reallocated within
these series each quarter based on the current eci sample. The indexes for these series,
consequently, are not strictly comparable
with those for aggregate, occupational, and
industry series.

Definitions
Total compensation costs include wages,
salaries, and the employer’s costs for employee benefits.
Wages and salaries consist of earnings
before payroll deductions, including production bonuses, incentive earnings, commissions, and cost-of-living adjustments.
Benefits include the cost to employers
for paid leave, supplemental pay (including nonproduction bonuses), insurance,
retirement and savings plans, and legally
required benefits (such as Social Security,
workers’ compensation, and unemployment
insurance).
Excluded from wages and salaries and
employee benefits are such items as paymentin-kind, free room and board, and tips.

Notes on the data
The ECI data in these tables reflect the
con-version to the 2002 North American
Industry Classification System (NAICS) and
the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system. The NAICS and SOC data
50

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

shown prior to 2006 are for informational
purposes only. ECI series based on NAICS
and SOC became the official BLS estimates
starting in March 2006.
The ECI for changes in wages and salaries
in the private nonfarm economy was published beginning in 1975. Changes in total
compensation cost—wages and salaries and
benefits combined—were published beginning in 1980. The series of changes in wages
and salaries and for total compensation in
the State and local government sector and
in the civilian nonfarm economy (excluding
Federal employees) were published beginning in 1981. Historical indexes (December
2005=100) are available on the Internet:
www.bls.gov/ect/
A DDITIONAL INFORMATION on the
Employment Cost Index is available at
http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ect/home.htm or
by telephone at (202) 691–6199.

National Compensation Survey
Benefit Measures
Description of the series
NCS benefit measures of employee benefits are published in two separate reports.
The annual summary provides data on the
incidence of (access to and participation
in) selected benefits and provisions of paid
holidays and vacations, life insurance plans,
and other selected benefit programs. Data on
percentages of establishments offering major
employee benefits, and on the employer and
employee shares of contributions to medical
care premiums also are presented. Selected
benefit data appear in the following tables. A
second publication, published later, contains
more detailed information about health and
retirement plans.

Definitions
Employer-provided benefits are benefits
that are financed either wholly or partly by
the employer. They may be sponsored by a
union or other third party, as long as there
is some employer financing. However, some
benefits that are fully paid for by the employee also are included. For example, long-term
care insurance paid entirely by the employee
are included because the guarantee of insurability and availability at group premium
rates are considered a benefit.
Employees are considered as having access to a benefit plan if it is available for their
use. For example, if an employee is permitted
to participate in a medical care plan offered
by the employer, but the employee declines to

do so, he or she is placed in the category with
those having access to medical care.
Employees in contributory plans are
considered as participating in an insurance
or retirement plan if they have paid required
contributions and fulfilled any applicable
service requirement. Employees in noncontributory plans are counted as participating
regardless of whether they have fulfilled the
service requirements.
Defined benefit pension plans use predetermined formulas to calculate a retirement
benefit (if any), and obligate the employer to
provide those benefits. Benefits are generally
based on salary, years of service, or both.
Defined contribution plans generally
specify the level of employer and employee
contributions to a plan, but not the formula
for determining eventual benefits. Instead,
individual accounts are set up for participants, and benefits are based on amounts
credited to these accounts.
Tax-deferred savings plans are a type of
defined contribution plan that allow participants to contribute a portion of their salary
to an employer-sponsored plan and defer
income taxes until withdrawal.
Flexible benefit plans allow employees
to choose among several benefits, such as life
insurance, medical care, and vacation days,
and among several levels of coverage within
a given benefit.

Notes on the data
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON THE NCS
benefit measures is available at http://www.
bls.gov/ncs/ebs/home.htm or by telephone
at (202) 691–6199.

Work stoppages
Description of the series
Data on work stoppages measure the number
and duration of major strikes or lockouts
(involving 1,000 workers or more) occurring
during the month (or year), the number of
workers involved, and the amount of work
time lost because of stoppage. These data are
presented in table 37.
Data are largely from a variety of published sources and cover only establishments
directly involved in a stoppage. They do not
measure the indirect or secondary effect of
stoppages on other establishments whose
employees are idle owing to material shortages or lack of service.

Definitions
Number of stoppages: The number of

strikes and lockouts involving 1,000 workers or more and lasting a full shift or longer.
Workers involved: The number of workers directly involved in the stoppage.
Number of days idle: The aggregate
number of workdays lost by workers
involved in the stoppages.
Days of idleness as a percent of estimated working time: Aggregate workdays
lost as a percent of the aggregate number of
standard workdays in the period multiplied
by total employment in the period.

Notes on the data
This series is not comparable with the one
terminated in 1981 that covered strikes involving six workers or more.
A DDITIONAL INFORMATION on work
stop-pages data is available at http://www.
bls.gov/cba/home.htm or by telephone at
(202) 691–6199.

Price Data
(Tables 2; 38–46)
Price data are gathered by the Bureau
of Labor Statistics from retail and primary markets in the United States. Price
indexes are given in relation to a base period—December 2003 = 100 for many Producer Price Indexes (unless otherwise noted),
1982–84 = 100 for many Consumer Price
Indexes (unless otherwise noted), and 1990
= 100 for International Price Indexes.

Consumer Price Indexes
Description of the series
The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a measure
of the average change in the prices paid by
urban consumers for a fixed market basket
of goods and services. The CPI is calculated
monthly for two population groups, one
consisting only of urban households whose
primary source of income is derived from
the employment of wage earners and clerical
workers, and the other consisting of all urban
households. The wage earner index (CPI-W) is
a continuation of the historic index that was
introduced well over a half-century ago for
use in wage negotiations. As new uses were
developed for the CPI in recent years, the need
for a broader and more representative index
became apparent. The all-urban consumer
index (CPI-U), introduced in 1978, is representative of the 1993–95 buying habits of about
87 percent of the noninstitutional population
of the United States at that time, compared

with 32 percent represented in the CPI-W. In
addition to wage earners and clerical workers,
the CPI-U covers professional, managerial, and
technical workers, the self-employed, shortterm workers, the unemployed, retirees, and
others not in the labor force.
The CPI is based on prices of food, clothing, shelter, fuel, drugs, transportation fares,
doctors’ and dentists’ fees, and other goods
and services that people buy for day-to-day
living. The quantity and quality of these items
are kept essentially unchanged between major revisions so that only price changes will be
measured. All taxes directly associated with
the purchase and use of items are included
in the index.
Data collected from more than 23,000
retail establishments and 5,800 housing units
in 87 urban areas across the country are used
to develop the “U.S. city average.” Separate
estimates for 14 major urban centers are
presented in table 39. The areas listed are as
indicated in footnote 1 to the table. The area
indexes measure only the average change in
prices for each area since the base period,
and do not indicate differences in the level of
prices among cities.

Notes on the data
In January 1983, the Bureau changed the
way in which homeownership costs are
meaured for the CPI-U. A rental equivalence
method replaced the asset-price approach
to homeownership costs for that series. In
January 1985, the same change was made
in the CPI-W. The central purpose of the
change was to separate shelter costs from the
investment component of homeownership so
that the index would reflect only the cost of
shelter services provided by owner-occupied
homes. An updated CPI-U and CPI-W were
introduced with release of the January 1987
and January 1998 data.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION, contact the Division of Prices and Price Indexes:
(202) 691–7000.

Producer Price Indexes
Description of the series
Producer Price Indexes (PPI) measure average changes in prices received by domestic
producers of commodities in all stages of
processing. The sample used for calculating
these indexes currently contains about 3,200
commodities and about 80,000 quotations
per month, selected to represent the movement of prices of all commodities produced
in the manufacturing; agriculture, forestry,
and fishing; mining; and gas and electricity

and public utilities sectors. The stage-of-processing structure of PPI organizes products by
class of buyer and degree of fabrication (that
is, finished goods, intermediate goods, and
crude materials). The traditional commodity structure of PPI organizes products by
similarity of end use or material composition.
The industry and product structure of PPI
organizes data in accordance with the 2002
North American Industry Classification
System and product codes developed by the
U.S. Census Bureau.
To the extent possible, prices used in
calculating Producer Price Indexes apply to
the first significant commercial transaction
in the United States from the production
or central marketing point. Price data are
generally collected monthly, primarily by
mail questionnaire. Most prices are obtained directly from producing companies
on a voluntary and confidential basis. Prices
generally are reported for the Tuesday of
the week containing the 13th day of the
month.
Since January 1992, price changes for
the various commodities have been averaged
together with implicit quantity weights representing their importance in the total net
selling value of all commodities as of 1987.
The detailed data are aggregated to obtain
indexes for stage-of-processing groupings,
commodity groupings, durability-of-product
groupings, and a number of special composite groups. All Producer Price Index data are
subject to revision 4 months after original
publication.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION, contact the Division of Industrial Prices and
Price Indexes: (202) 691–7705.

International Price Indexes
Description of the series
The International Price Program produces
monthly and quarterly export and import
price indexes for nonmilitary goods and
services traded between the United States
and the rest of the world. The export price
index provides a measure of price change
for all products sold by U.S. residents to
foreign buyers. (“Residents” is defined as in
the national income accounts; it includes
corporations, businesses, and individuals, but
does not require the organizations to be U.S.
owned nor the individuals to have U.S. citizenship.) The import price index provides a
measure of price change for goods purchased
from other countries by U.S. residents.
The product universe for both the import
and export indexes includes raw materials,
agricultural products, semifinished manuMonthly Labor Review • May 2008

51

Current Labor Statistics

factures, and finished manufactures, including both capital and consumer goods. Price
data for these items are collected primarily
by mail questionnaire. In nearly all cases,
the data are collected directly from the exporter or importer, although in a few cases,
prices are obtained from other sources.
To the extent possible, the data gathered
refer to prices at the U.S. border for exports
and at either the foreign border or the U.S.
border for imports. For nearly all products,
the prices refer to transactions completed
during the first week of the month. Survey
respondents are asked to indicate all discounts, allowances, and rebates applicable to
the reported prices, so that the price used in
the calculation of the indexes is the actual
price for which the product was bought or
sold.
In addition to general indexes of prices
for U.S. exports and imports, indexes are also
published for detailed product categories of
exports and imports. These categories are
defined according to the five-digit level of
detail for the Bureau of Economic Analysis
End-use Classification, the three-digit level
for the Standard International Trade Classification (SITC), and the four-digit level of
detail for the Harmonized System. Aggregate
import indexes by country or region of origin
are also available.
BLS publishes indexes for selected categories of internationally traded services,
calculated on an international basis and on a
balance-of-payments basis.

Notes on the data
The export and import price indexes are
weighted indexes of the Laspeyres type. The
trade weights currently used to compute both
indexes relate to 2000.
Because a price index depends on the
same items being priced from period to
period, it is necessary to recognize when a
product’s specifications or terms of transaction have been modified. For this reason,
the Bureau’s questionnaire requests detailed
descriptions of the physical and functional
characteristics of the products being priced,
as well as information on the number of
units bought or sold, discounts, credit terms,
packaging, class of buyer or seller, and so
forth. When there are changes in either
the specifications or terms of transaction of
a product, the dollar value of each change
is deleted from the total price change to
obtain the “pure” change. Once this value is
determined, a linking procedure is employed
which allows for the continued repricing of
the item.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION, con52

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

tact the Division of International Prices:
(202) 691–7155.

Productivity Data
(Tables 2; 47–50)

Business and major sectors
Description of the series
The productivity measures relate real output
to real input. As such, they encompass a family of measures which include single-factor
input measures, such as output per hour,
output per unit of labor input, or output per
unit of capital input, as well as measures of
multifactor productivity (output per unit
of combined labor and capital inputs). The
Bureau indexes show the change in output
relative to changes in the various inputs.
The measures cover the business, nonfarm
business, manufacturing, and nonfinancial
corporate sectors.
Corresponding indexes of hourly compensation, unit labor costs, unit nonlabor
payments, and prices are also provided.

Definitions
Output per hour of all persons (labor
productivity) is the quantity of goods and
services produced per hour of labor input.
Output per unit of capital services (capital
productivity) is the quantity of goods and
services produced per unit of capital services input. Multifactor productivity is the
quantity of goods and services produced per
combined inputs. For private business and
private nonfarm business, inputs include labor
and capital units. For manufacturing, inputs
include labor, capital, energy, nonenergy
materials, and purchased business services.
Compensation per hour is total compensation divided by hours at work. Total
compensation equals the wages and salaries
of employees plus employers’ contributions
for social insurance and private benefit
plans, plus an estimate of these payments for
the self-employed (except for nonfinancial
corporations in which there are no selfemployed). Real compensation per hour
is compensation per hour deflated by the
change in the Consumer Price Index for All
Urban Consumers.
Unit labor costs are the labor compensation costs expended in the production of a
unit of output and are derived by dividing
compensation by output. Unit nonlabor
payments include profits, depreciation,
interest, and indirect taxes per unit of output.
They are computed by subtracting compensa-

tion of all persons from current-dollar value
of output and dividing by output.
Unit nonlabor costs contain all the components of unit nonlabor payments except
unit profits.
Unit profits include corporate profits
with inventory valuation and capital consumption adjustments per unit of output.
Hours of all persons are the total hours
at work of payroll workers, self-employed
persons, and unpaid family workers.
Labor inputs are hours of all persons
adjusted for the effects of changes in the
education and experience of the labor force.
Capital services are the flow of services
from the capital stock used in production. It
is developed from measures of the net stock
of physical assets—equipment, structures,
land, and inventories—weighted by rental
prices for each type of asset.
Combined units of labor and capital
inputs are derived by combining changes in
labor and capital input with weights which
represent each component’s share of total
cost. Combined units of labor, capital, energy,
materials, and purchased business services are
similarly derived by combining changes in
each input with weights that represent each
input’s share of total costs. The indexes for
each input and for combined units are based
on changing weights which are averages of
the shares in the current and preceding year
(the Tornquist index-number formula).

Notes on the data
Business sector output is an annually-weighted index constructed by excluding from real
gross domestic product (GDP) the following
outputs: general government, nonprofit
institutions, paid employees of private households, and the rental value of owner-occupied
dwellings. Nonfarm business also excludes
farming. Private business and private nonfarm business further exclude government
enterprises. The measures are supplied by
the U.S. Department of Commerce’s Bureau
of Economic Analysis. Annual estimates of
manufacturing sectoral output are produced
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Quarterly manufacturing output indexes from the
Federal Reserve Board are adjusted to these
annual output measures by the BLS. Compensation data are developed from data of the
Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Bureau
of Labor Statistics. Hours data are developed
from data of the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
The productivity and associated cost
measures in tables 47–50 describe the relationship between output in real terms and
the labor and capital inputs involved in its

production. They show the changes from
period to period in the amount of goods and
services produced per unit of input.
Although these measures relate output
to hours and capital services, they do not
measure the contributions of labor, capital,
or any other specific factor of production.
Rather, they reflect the joint effect of many
influences, including changes in technology;
shifts in the composition of the labor force;
capital investment; level of output; changes
in the utilization of capacity, energy, material,
and research and development; the organization of production; managerial skill; and
characteristics and efforts of the work force.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on this
productivity series, contact the Division of
Productivity Research: (202) 691–5606.

compensation includes payroll as well as
supplemental payments, including both
legally required expenditures and payments
for voluntary programs.
Multifactor productivity is derived by
dividing an index of industry output by an index of combined inputs consumed in producing that output. Combined inputs include
capital, labor, and intermediate purchases.
The measure of capital input represents the
flow of services from the capital stock used
in production. It is developed from measures
of the net stock of physical assets—equipment, structures, land, and inventories. The
measure of intermediate purchases is a
combination of purchased materials, services,
fuels, and electricity.

Notes on the data

Industry productivity measures
Description of the series
The BLS industry productivity indexes measure the relationship between output and
inputs for selected industries and industry
groups, and thus reflect trends in industry efficiency over time. Industry measures include
labor productivity, multifactor productivity,
compensation, and unit labor costs.
The industry measures differ in methodology and data sources from the productivity
measures for the major sectors because the
industry measures are developed independently of the National Income and Product
Accounts framework used for the major
sector measures.

Definitions
Output per hour is derived by dividing an
index of industry output by an index of labor
input. For most industries, output indexes
are derived from data on the value of industry output adjusted for price change. For
the remaining industries, output indexes are
derived from data on the physical quantity
of production.
The labor input series is based on the
hours of all workers or, in the case of some
transportation industries, on the number of
employees. For most industries, the series
consists of the hours of all employees. For
some trade and services industries, the series
also includes the hours of partners, proprietors, and unpaid family workers.
Unit labor costs represent the labor compensation costs per unit of output produced,
and are derived by dividing an index of labor
compensation by an index of output. Labor

The industry measures are compiled from
data produced by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Census Bureau, with additional
data supplied by other government agencies,
trade associations, and other sources.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on this
series, contact the Division of Industry Productivity Studies: (202) 691–5618, or visit
the Web site at: www.bls.gov/lpc/home.
htm

International Comparisons
(Tables 51–53)

Labor force and unemployment
Description of the series
Tables 51 and 52 present comparative
measures of the labor force, employment,
and unemployment approximating U.S.
concepts for the United States, Canada,
Australia, Japan, and six European countries.
The Bureau adjusts the figures for these
selected countries, for all known major
definitional differences, to the extent that
data to prepare adjustments are available.
Although precise comparability may not
be achieved, these adjusted figures provide
a better basis for international comparisons than the figures regularly published
by each country. For further information
on adjustments and comparability issues,
see Constance Sorrentino, “International
unemployment rates: how comparable are
they?” Monthly Labor Review, June 2000,
pp. 3–20, available on the Internet at www.
bls.gov/opub/mlr/2000/06/art1full.pdf.

Definitions
For the principal U.S. definitions of the labor
force, employment, and unemployment, see
the Notes section on Employment and Unemployment Data: Household survey data.

Notes on the data
Foreign country data are adjusted as closely
as possible to the U.S. definitions. Primary
areas of adjustment address conceptual differences in upper age limits and definitions of employment and unemployment,
provided that reliable data are available to
make these adjustments. Adjustments are
made where applicable to include employed
and unemployed persons above upper age
limits; some European countries do not
include persons older than age 64 in their
labor force measures, because a large portion
of this population has retired. Adjustments
are made to exclude active duty military
from employment figures, although a small
number of career military may be included
in some European countries. Adjustments
are made to exclude unpaid family workers
who worked fewer than 15 hours per week
from employment figures; U.S. concepts do
not include them in employment, whereas
most foreign countries include all unpaid
family workers regardless of the number
of hours worked. Adjustments are made
to include full-time students seeking work
and available for work as unemployed when
they are classified as not in the labor force.
Where possible, lower age limits are based
on the age at which compulsory schooling
ends in each country, rather than based on
the U.S. standard of 16. Lower age limits
have ranged between 13 and 16 over the years
covered; currently, the lower age limits are
either 15 or 16 in all 10 countries.
Some adjustments for comparability are
not made because data are unavailable for
adjustment purposes. For example, no adjustments to unemployment are usually made for
deviations from U.S. concepts in the treatment of persons waiting to start a new job
or passive jobseekers. These conceptual differences have little impact on the measures.
Furthermore, BLS studies have concluded
that no adjustments should be made for persons on layoff who are counted as employed
in some countries because of their strong
job attachment as evidenced by, for example,
payment of salary or the existence of a recall
date. In the United States, persons on layoff
have weaker job attachment and are classified
as unemployed.
The annual labor force measures are obtained from monthly, quarterly, or continuous household surveys and may be calculated
Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

53

Current Labor Statistics

as averages of monthly or quarterly data.
Quarterly and monthly unemployment rates
are based on household surveys. For some
countries, they are calculated by applying annual adjustment factors to current published
data and, therefore, are less precise indicators
of unemployment under U.S. concepts than
the annual figures.
The labor force measures may have breaks
in series over time due to changes in surveys,
sources, or estimation methods. Breaks are
noted in data tables.
For up-to-date information on adjustments and breaks in series, see the Technical
Notes of Comparative Civilian Labor Force
Statistics, 10 Countries, on the Internet at
http://www.bls.gov/fls/flscomparelf.htm,
and the Notes of Unemployment rates
in 10 countries, civilian labor force basis,
approximating U.S. concepts, seasonally
adjusted, on the Internet at http://www.bls.
gov/fls/flsjec.pdf.
F OR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on
this series, contact the Division of Foreign
Labor Statistics: (202) 691-5654 or flshelp@
bls.gov.

Manufacturing Productivity
and Labor Costs
Description of the series
Table 53 presents comparative indexes of
manufacturing output per hour (labor productivity), output, total hours, compensation
per hour, and unit labor costs for the United
States, Australia, Canada, Japan, The Republic
of Korea, Taiwan, and 10 European countries.
These measures are trend comparisons—that
is, series that measure changes over time—
rather than level comparisons. BLS does
not recommend using these series for level
comparisons because of technical problems.
BLS constructs the comparative indexes
from three basic aggregate measures—output, total labor hours, and total compensation. The hours and compensation measures
refer to employees (wage and salary earners)
in Belgium and Taiwan. For all other economies, the measures refer to all employed
persons, including employees, self-employed
persons, and unpaid family workers.

Definitions
Output. For most economies, the output
measures are real value added in manufacturing from national accounts. However,
output for Japan prior to 1970 and for the
Netherlands prior to 1960 are indexes of

54

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

industrial production. The manufacturing
value-added measures for the United Kingdom are essentially identical to their indexes
of industrial production.
For the United States, the output measure for the manufacturing sector is a
chain-weighted index of real gross product
originating (deflated value added) produced
by the Bureau of Economic Analysis of the
U.S. Department of Commerce. Most of
the other economies now also use chainweighted as opposed to fixed-year weights
that are periodically updated.
The data for recent years are based on
the United Nations System of National Accounts 1993 (SNA 93). Manufacturing is generally defined according to the International
Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC). For
the United States and Canada, it is defined
according to the North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS 97).
To preserve the comparability of the U.S.
measures with those of other economies,
BLS uses gross product originating in manufacturing for the United States. The gross
product originating series differs from the
manufacturing output series that BLS publishes in its quarterly news releases on U.S.
productivity and costs (and that underlies the
measures that appear in tables 48 and 50 in
this section). The quarterly measures are on
a “sectoral output” basis, rather than a valueadded basis. Sectoral output is gross output
less intrasector transactions.
Total hours refer to hours worked in all
economies. The measures are developed from
statistics of manufacturing employment and
average hours. For most other economies, recent years’ aggregate hours series are obtained
from national statistical offices, usually from
national accounts. However, for some economies and for earlier years, BLS calculates the
aggregate hours series using employment
figures published with the national accounts,
or other comprehensive employment series,
and data on average hours worked.
Hourly compensation is total compensation divided by total hours. Total compensation includes all payments in cash or in-kind
made directly to employees plus employer
expenditures for legally required insurance
programs and contractual and private benefit plans. For Australia, Canada, France,
and Sweden, compensation is increased
to account for important taxes on payroll
or employment. For the United Kingdom,
compensation is reduced between 1967 and
1991 to account for subsidies.
Unit labor costs are defined as the costs
of labor input required to produce one unit of
output. They are computed as compensation
in nominal terms divided by real output. Unit

labor costs can also be computed by dividing
hourly compensation by output per hour, that
is, by labor productivity.

Notes on the data
In general, the measures relate to total manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification. However, the measures for
France include parts of mining as well.
The measures for recent years may be
based on current indicators of manufacturing output (such as industrial production
indexes), employment, average hours, and
hourly compensation until national accounts
and other statistics used for the long-term
measures become available.
For additional information on these
series, go to http://www.bls.gov/news.
release/prod4.toc.htm or contact the Division of Foreign Labor Statistics: (202)
691–5654.

Occupational Injury
and Illness Data
(Tables 54–55)

Survey of Occupational Injuries
and Illnesses
Description of the series
The Survey of Occupational Injuries and
Illnesses collects data from employers about
their workers’ job-related nonfatal injuries
and illnesses. The information that employers provide is based on records that they
maintain under the Occupational Safety and
Health Act of 1970. Self-employed individuals, farms with fewer than 11 employees,
employers regulated by other Federal safety
and health laws, and Federal, State, and local government agencies are excluded from
the survey.
The survey is a Federal-State cooperative
program with an independent sample selected for each participating State. A stratified
random sample with a Neyman allocation
is selected to represent all private industries
in the State. The survey is stratified by Standard Industrial Classification and size of
employment.

Definitions
Under the Occupational Safety and Health
Act, employers maintain records of nonfatal
work-related injuries and illnesses that in-

volve one or more of the following: loss of
consciousness, restriction of work or motion,
transfer to another job, or medical treatment
other than first aid.
Occupational injury is any injury such
as a cut, fracture, sprain, or amputation that
results from a work-related event or a single,
instantaneous exposure in the work environment.
Occupational illness is an abnormal
condition or disorder, other than one resulting from an occupational injury, caused by
exposure to factors associated with employment. It includes acute and chronic illnesses
or disease which may be caused by inhalation,
absorption, ingestion, or direct contact.
Lost workday injuries and illnesses are
cases that involve days away from work, or
days of restricted work activity, or both.
Lost workdays include the number of
workdays (consecutive or not) on which the
employee was either away from work or at
work in some restricted capacity, or both,
because of an occupational injury or illness.
BLS measures of the number and incidence
rate of lost workdays were discontinued
beginning with the 1993 survey. The number
of days away from work or days of restricted
work activity does not include the day of injury
or onset of illness or any days on which the
employee would not have worked, such as a
Federal holiday, even though able to work.
Incidence rates are computed as the
number of injuries and/or illnesses or lost
work days per 100 full-time workers.

Notes on the data
The definitions of occupational injuries and
illnesses are from Recordkeeping Guidelines
for Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (U.S.
Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, September 1986).
Estimates are made for industries and employment size classes for total recordable cases,
lost workday cases, days away from work cases,
and nonfatal cases without lost workdays. These
data also are shown separately for injuries.
Illness data are available for seven categories:
occupational skin diseases or disorders, dust
diseases of the lungs, respiratory conditions
due to toxic agents, poisoning (systemic
effects of toxic agents), disorders due to
physical agents (other than toxic materials),
disorders associated with repeated trauma,
and all other occupational illnesses.
The survey continues to measure the
number of new work-related illness cases
which are recognized, diagnosed, and re-

ported during the year. Some conditions, for
example, long-term latent illnesses caused
by exposure to carcinogens, often are difficult to relate to the workplace and are not
adequately recognized and reported. These
long-term latent illnesses are believed to be
understated in the survey’s illness measure. In
contrast, the overwhelming majority of the
reported new illnesses are those which are
easier to directly relate to workplace activity
(for example, contact dermatitis and carpal
tunnel syndrome).
Most of the estimates are in the form
of incidence rates, defined as the number
of injuries and illnesses per 100 equivalent
full-time workers. For this purpose, 200,000
employee hours represent 100 employee years
(2,000 hours per employee). Full detail on the
available measures is presented in the annual
bulletin, Occupational Injuries and Illnesses:
Counts, Rates, and Characteristics.
Comparable data for more than 40 States
and territories are available from the bls
Office of Safety, Health and Working Conditions. Many of these States publish data
on State and local government employees in
addition to private industry data.
Mining and railroad data are furnished to
BLS by the Mine Safety and Health Administration and the Federal Railroad Administration. Data from these organizations are
included in both the national and State data
published annually.
With the 1992 survey, BLS began publishing details on serious, nonfatal incidents
resulting in days away from work. Included
are some major characteristics of the injured
and ill workers, such as occupation, age, gender, race, and length of service, as well as the
circumstances of their injuries and illnesses
(nature of the disabling condition, part of
body affected, event and exposure, and the
source directly producing the condition). In
general, these data are available nationwide
for detailed industries and for individual
States at more aggregated industry levels.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on occupational injuries and illnesses, contact the
Office of Occupational Safety, Health and
Working Conditions at (202) 691–6180,
or access the Internet at: http://www.bls.
gov/iif/

Census of Fatal
Occupational Injuries
The Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries

compiles a complete roster of fatal job-related injuries, including detailed data about the
fatally injured workers and the fatal events.
The program collects and cross checks fatality
information from multiple sources, including
death certificates, State and Federal workers’
compensation reports, Occupational Safety
and Health Administration and Mine Safety
and Health Administration records, medical
examiner and autopsy reports, media accounts, State motor vehicle fatality records,
and follow-up questionnaires to employers.
In addition to private wage and salary
workers, the self-employed, family members, and Federal, State, and local government workers are covered by the program.
To be included in the fatality census, the
decedent must have been employed (that is
working for pay, compensation, or profit)
at the time of the event, engaged in a legal
work activity, or present at the site of the
incident as a requirement of his or her job.

Definition
A fatal work injury is any intentional or
unintentional wound or damage to the body
resulting in death from acute exposure to
energy, such as heat or electricity, or kinetic
energy from a crash, or from the absence of
such essentials as heat or oxygen caused by a
specific event or incident or series of events
within a single workday or shift. Fatalities
that occur during a person’s commute to or
from work are excluded from the census,
as well as work-related illnesses,which can
be difficult to identify due to long latency
periods.

Notes on the data
Twenty-eight data elements are collected,
coded, and tabulated in the fatality program,
including information about the fatally
injured worker, the fatal incident, and the
machinery or equipment involved. Summary worker demographic data and event
characteristics are included in a national news
release that is available about 8 months after
the end of the reference year. The Census
of Fatal Occupational Injuries was initiated in 1992 as a joint Federal-State effort.
Most States issue summary information
at the time of the national news release.
F OR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on
the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries
contact the BLS Office of Safety, Health,
and Working Conditions at (202) 691–
6175, or the Internet at: www.bls.gov/iif/

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

55

Current Labor Statistics: Comparative Indicators

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Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional
population (household survey):

1

Labor force participation rate........................................................
Employment-population ratio........................................................
UnemployPHQWUDWH««««««««««««««««««««
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16 to 24 years...........................................................................
25 years and older....................................................................
:RPHQ««««««««««««««««««««««««
16 to 24 years...........................................................................
25 years and older....................................................................
Employment, nonfarm (payroll data), in thousands:

66.2
63.1
4.6
4.6
11.2
3.5
4.6
9.7
3.7

66.0
63.0
4.6
4.7
11.6
3.6
4.5
9.4
3.6

66.0
62.9
4.7
4.7
11.3
3.5
4.8
9.7
3.9

66.2
63.1
4.7
4.7
11.2
3.6
4.6
9.3
3.8

66.2
63.1
4.7
4.6
11.4
3.5
4.7
10.1
3.8

66.3
63.4
4.4
4.5
11.0
3.3
4.4
9.7
3.5

66.2
63.2
4.5
4.6
10.8
3.6
4.4
9.0
3.5

66.0
63.0
4.5
4.6
11.5
3.5
4.4
9.0
3.6

66.0
62.9
4.7
4.8
11.8
3.6
4.6
9.8
3.7

66.0
62.8
4.8
4.9
12.2
3.7
4.7
9.9
3.8

66.0
62.7
4.9
5.0
12.7
3.8
4.8
10.0
3.9

1

7RWDOQRQIDUP«««««««« 
Total private....................................................................... 114,113

137,626
115,423

135,647
113,748

135,910
113,996

136,528
114,472

136,982
114,899

137,310
115,167

137,625
115,423

137,837
115,610

138,078
115,759

137,838
115,462

22,531
Manufacturing«««««««««««««««««««« 14,155

22,221
13,883

22,563
14,208

22,570
14,200

22,564
14,138

22,436
14,033

22,362
13,953

22,267
13,890

22,138
13,822

21,976
13,772

21,728
13,642

Service-providing«««««««««««««««««««««««113,556

115,405

113,084

113,340

113,964

114,546

114,948

115,358

115,699

116,102

116,110

Goods-producing ««««««««««««««««««««««

Average hours:
7RWDOSULYDWH««««
Manufacturing««««««««««««««««««««
2YHUWLPH«««««««««««««««««««««



4.4



4.2



4.5



4.5



4.4



4.2



4.1



4.1



4.2

3.8

4.0

33.8

4.0

3.3

3.3

.7

.9

1.1

.6

.9

.8

1.0

.6

.8























2.5

2.4

.3

1.0

.7

.5

.4

1.0

.5

.6

1.0



(PSOR\PHQW&RVW,QGH[
Total compensation:
4

Civilian nonfarm «««««««««««««««««««««««««
3ULYDWHQRQIDUP««««««««
5

Goods-producing ««««««««««««««««««««««
5

Service-providing ««««««««««««««««««««««
State and local gRYHUQPHQW«««««««««««««««
Workers by bargaining status (private nonfarm):
8QLRQ««««««««««««««««««««««««««
1RQXQLRQ«««««««««««««««««««««««««
1

3.4

3.2

1.0

.8

.9

.7

.9

.9

.9

.6

.9
























3.2


3.2


.9


.8


.9


.6


1.0


.9


.8


.6


.9

Quarterly data seasonally adjusted.
Annual changes are December-to-December changes. Quarterly changes
are calculated using the last month of each quarter.
3
The Employment Cost Index data reflect the conversion to the 2002 North
American Classification System (NAICS) and the 2000 Standard Occupational
Classification (SOC) system. The NAICS and SOC data shown prior to 2006 are
for informational purposes only. Series based on NAICS and SOC became the
official BLS estimates starting in March 2006.
2

56

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

4

Excludes Federal and private household workers.
Goods-producing industries include mining, construction, and manufacturing. Serviceproviding industries include all other private sector industries.
5

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, household survey data reflect revised population
controls. Nonfarm data reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the North
American Industry Classification System (NAICS), replacing the Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) system. NAICS-based data by industry are not comparable with SIC
based data.

2. Annual and quarterly percent changes in compensation, prices, and productivity
Selected measures

2006

2006

2007
I

II

2007
III

IV

I

II

2008
III

IV

I

1, 2, 3

Compensation data

(PSOR\PHQW&RVW,QGH[²FRPSHQVDWLRQ
&LYLOLDQQRQIDUP
3ULYDWHQRQIDUP
(PSOR\PHQW&RVW,QGH[²ZDJHVDQGVDODULHV
&LYLOLDQQRQIDUP««««««««««««««««««
3ULYDWHQRQIDUP
Price data


















































































































































































































1

&RQVXPHU3ULFH,QGH[($OO8UEDQ&RQVXPHUV)$OO,WHPV
3URGXFHU3ULFH,QGH[
)LQLVKHGJRRGV
)LQLVKHGFRQVXPHUJRRGV
&DSLWDOHTXLSPHQW«««««««««««««««««
,QWHUPHGLDWHPDWHULDOVVXSSOLHVDQGFRPSRQHQWV««««
&UXGHPDWHULDOV
4

Productivity data
2XWSXWSHUKRXURIDOOSHUVRQV

%XVLQHVVVHFWRU
1RQIDUPEXVLQHVVVHFWRU


1RQILQDQFLDOFRUSRUDWLRQV ««««««««««««««««


$QQXDO FKDQJHV DUH 'HFHPEHUWR'HFHPEHU FKDQJHV 4XDUWHUO\ FKDQJHV DUH
FDOFXODWHG XVLQJ WKH ODVW PRQWK RI HDFK TXDUWHU &RPSHQVDWLRQ DQG SULFH GDWD DUH QRW
VHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHGDQGWKHSULFHGDWDDUHQRWFRPSRXQGHG

([FOXGHV)HGHUDODQGSULYDWHKRXVHKROGZRUNHUV
3
7KH (PSOR\PHQW &RVW ,QGH[ GDWD UHIOHFW WKH FRQYHUVLRQ WR WKH  1RUWK $PHULFDQ
&ODVVLILFDWLRQ 6\VWHP 1$,&6 DQG WKH  6WDQGDUG 2FFXSDWLRQDO &ODVVLILFDWLRQ 62&
V\VWHP7KH 1$,&6DQG62&GDWDVKRZQSULRUWRDUHIRULQIRUPDWLRQDOSXUSRVHV

RQO\ 6HULHV EDVHG RQ 1$,&6 DQG 62& EHFDPH WKH RIILFLDO %/6 HVWLPDWHV VWDUWLQJ LQ
0DUFK

$QQXDO UDWHV RI FKDQJH DUH FRPSXWHG E\ FRPSDULQJ DQQXDO DYHUDJHV 4XDUWHUO\
SHUFHQW FKDQJHV UHIOHFW DQQXDO UDWHV RI FKDQJH LQ TXDUWHUO\ LQGH[HV 7KH GDWD DUH
VHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG

2XWSXWSHUKRXURIDOOHPSOR\HHV

3. Alternative measures of wage and compensation changes
4XDUWHUO\FKDQJH
Components

)RXUTXDUWHUVHQGLQJ²

2007
I

II

2008
III

IV

I

2007
I

II

2008
III

IV

I

1

Average hourly compensation:
All persons, business sector..........................................................
All persons, nonfarm business sector...........................................
(PSOR\PHQW&RVW,QGH[²FRPSHQVDWLRQ

2.4
1.3

3.7
3.3

3.7
4.6

4.2
4.4

4.7
4.9

5.4
5.3

6.0
5.8

4.0
3.9

3.5
3.4

.9





.8





1.0





.6





.8





3.5





3.3





3.3





3.3





3.3





1.1





.7





1.0





.7





.8





3.6





3.4





3.3





3.4





3.2





2

3

Civilian nonfarm ««««««««««««««««««««««««
3ULYDWHQRQIDUP«
8QLRQ««««
1RQXQLRQ««««
State and local gRYHUQPHQW«
(PSOR\PHQW&RVW,QGH[²ZDJHVDQGVDODULHV
3

6.2
6.4

2

Civilian nonfarm ««««««««««««««««««««««««
3ULYDWHQRQIDUP«
8QLRQ««««
1RQXQLRQ««««
State and local gRYHUQPHQW«
1

Seasonally adjusted. "Quarterly average" is percent change from a
quarter ago, at an annual rate.
2

The Employment Cost Index data reflect the conversion to the 2002
North American Classification System (NAICS) and the 2000 Standard

Occupational Classification (SOC) system. The NAICS and SOC GDWD VKRZQ
prior to 2006 are for informational purposes only. Series based on NAICS
and SOC became the official BLS estimates starting in March 2006.
3

([FOXGHV)HGHUDODQGSULYDWHKRXVHKROGZRUNHUV

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

57

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

4. Employment status of the population, by sex, age, race, and Hispanic origin, monthly data seasonally adjusted
>1XPEHUVLQWKRXVDQGV@
Employment status

2007

Annual average
2006

2007

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

2008
Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

TOTAL
&LYLOLDQQRQLQVWLWXWLRQDO
1

population ……………………. 228,815
Civilian labor force.............. 151,428
66.2
Participation rate...........
Employed........................ 144,427
Employment-pop63.1
ulation ratio 2……………
7,001
Unemployed...................
4.6
Unemployment rate.....
Not in the labor force........ 77,387

231,867 231,034 231,253 231,480 231,713 231,958 232,211 232,461 232,715 232,939 233,156 232,616 232,809 232,995
153,124 152,884 152,542 152,776 153,085 153,182 152,886 153,506 153,306 153,828 153,866 153,824 153,374 153,784
66.0
66.2
66.0
66.0
66.1
66.0
65.8
66.0
65.9
66.0
66.0
66.1
65.9
66.0
146,047 146,145 145,713 145,913 146,087 146,045 145,753 146,260 146,016 146,647 146,211 146,248 145,993 145,969
63.0
7,078
4.6
78,743

63.3
6,738
4.4
78,150

63.0
6,829
4.5
78,711

63.0
6,863
4.5
78,704

63.0
6,997
4.6
78,628

63.0
7,137
4.7
78,776

62.8
7,133
4.7
79,325

62.9
7,246
4.7
78,955

62.7
7,291
4.8
79,409

63.0
7,181
4.7
79,111

62.7
7,655
5.0
79,290

62.9
7,576
4.9
78,792

62.7
7,381
4.8
79,436

62.6
7,815
5.1
79,211

Men, 20 years and over
&LYLOLDQQRQLQVWLWXWLRQDO
1

population ……………………. 102,145
Civilian labor force.............. 77,562
75.9
Participation rate...........
Employed........................ 74,431
Employment-pop72.9
ulation ratio 2……………
3,131
Unemployed...................
4.0
Unemployment rate.....
Not in the labor force……… 24,584

103,555 103,143 103,248 103,361 103,477 103,598 103,723 103,847 103,973 104,087 104,197 103,866 103,961 104,052
78,596
78,410
78,428
78,497
78,503
78,619
78,526
78,689
78,664
79,075
79,004
78,864
78,748
78,838
75.9
76.0
76.0
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.7
75.8
75.7
76.0
75.8
75.9
75.7
75.8
75,337
75,286
75,279
75,343
75,292
75,324
75,274
75,332
75,274
75,834
75,499
75,427
75,362
75,197
72.8
3,259
4.1
24,959

73.0
3,124
4.0
24,733

72.9
3,149
4.0
24,820

72.9
3,154
4.0
24,864

72.8
3,212
4.1
24,973

72.7
3,295
4.2
24,979

72.6
3,252
4.1
25,197

72.5
3,357
4.3
25,158

72.4
3,389
4.3
25,309

72.9
3,240
4.1
25,012

72.5
3,505
4.4
25,193

72.6
3,437
4.4
25,002

72.5
3,386
4.3
25,213

72.3
3,641
4.6
25,214

Women, 20 years and over
&LYLOLDQQRQLQVWLWXWLRQDO
1

population ……………………. 109,992
Civilian labor force.............. 66,585
60.5
Participation rate...........
Employed........................ 63,834
Employment-pop58.0
ulation ratio 2……………
2,751
Unemployed...................
4.1
Unemployment rate.....
Not in the labor force……… 43,407

111,330 110,964 111,057 111,157 111,259 111,367 111,479 111,590 111,703 111,805 111,903 111,739 111,822 111,902
67,516
67,446
67,077
67,318
67,481
67,566
67,616
67,795
67,623
67,776
67,866
67,982
67,816
68,159
60.6
60.8
60.4
60.6
60.7
60.7
60.7
60.8
60.5
60.6
60.6
60.8
60.6
60.9
64,799
64,859
64,479
64,710
64,828
64,792
64,826
65,033
64,827
64,980
64,912
65,098
64,950
65,055
58.2
2,718
4.0
43,814

58.5
2,588
3.8
43,517

58.1
2,597
3.9
43,980

58.2
2,608
3.9
43,839

58.3
2,653
3.9
43,778

58.2
2,774
4.1
43,801

58.2
2,790
4.1
43,863

58.3
2,762
4.1
43,795

58.0
2,796
4.1
44,080

58.1
2,796
4.1
44,029

58.0
2,954
4.4
44,037

58.3
2,885
4.2
43,756

58.1
2,865
4.2
44,006

58.1
3,104
4.6
43,743

16,982
7,012
41.3
5,911

16,927
7,028
41.5
6,000

16,948
7,037
41.5
5,954

16,962
6,961
41.0
5,860

16,977
7,100
41.8
5,968

16,993
6,997
41.2
5,930

17,009
6,744
39.7
5,653

17,024
7,021
41.2
5,895

17,040
7,020
41.2
5,914

17,048
6,977
40.9
5,832

17,056
6,996
41.0
5,801

17,012
6,978
41.0
5,724

17,027
6,810
40.0
5,681

17,041
6,787
39.8
5,717

34.8
1,101
15.7
9,970

35.4
1,027
14.6
9,900

35.1
1,082
15.4
9,911

34.5
1,101
15.8
10,001

35.2
1,133
16.0
9,877

34.9
1,067
15.3
9,996

33.2
1,092
16.2
10,264

34.6
1,126
16.0
10,003

34.7
1,105
15.7
10,020

34.2
1,145
16.4
10,071

34.0
1,196
17.1
10,059

33.6
1,254
18.0
10,034

33.4
1,130
16.6
10,216

33.5
1,070
15.8
10,254

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years
&LYLOLDQQRQLQVWLWXWLRQDO
1
population ……………………. 16,678
7,281
Civilian labor force..............
43.7
Participation rate...........
6,162
Employed........................
Employment-pop36.9
ulation ratio 2……………
1,119
Unemployed...................
15.4
Unemployment rate.....
Not in the labor force……… 9,397

White3
&LYLOLDQQRQLQVWLWXWLRQDO
1

population ……………………. 186,264
Civilian labor force.............. 123,834
66.5
Participation rate...........
Employed........................ 118,833
Employment-pop63.8
ulation ratio 2……………
5,002
Unemployed...................
4.0
Unemployment rate.....
Not in the labor force……… 62,429

188,253 187,704 187,843 187,993 188,148 188,312 188,479 188,644 188,813 188,956 189,093 188,787 188,906 189,019
124,935 124,852 124,433 124,639 124,918 124,945 124,596 125,316 125,151 125,430 125,460 125,340 124,940 125,190
66.4
66.5
66.2
66.3
66.4
66.3
66.1
66.4
66.3
66.4
66.3
66.4
66.1
66.2
119,792 120,065 119,505 119,711 119,835 119,713 119,340 119,992 119,883 120,194 119,889 119,858 119,534 119,574
63.6
5,143
4.1
63,319

64.0
4,787
3.8
62,852

63.6
4,928
4.0
63,410

63.7
4,928
4.0
63,355

63.7
5,083
4.1
63,230

63.6
5,232
4.2
63,368

63.3
5,256
4.2
63,883

63.6
5,324
4.2
63,329

63.5
5,268
4.2
63,662

63.6
5,235
4.2
63,526

63.4
5,571
4.4
63,633

63.5
5,482
4.4
63,447

63.3
5,406
4.3
63,966

63.3
5,616
4.5
63,829

27,485
17,496
63.7
16,051

27,346
17,418
63.7
15,979

27,385
17,483
63.8
16,048

27,422
17,405
63.5
15,939

27,459
17,456
63.6
15,989

27,498
17,593
64.0
16,172

27,541
17,524
63.6
16,176

27,584
17,483
63.4
16,046

27,627
17,430
63.1
15,946

27,666
17,453
63.1
15,980

27,704
17,538
63.3
15,961

27,640
17,713
64.1
16,090

27,675
17,632
63.7
16,169

27,709
17,702
63.9
16,116

58.4
1,445
8.3
9,989

58.4
1,439
8.3
9,928

58.6
1,435
8.2
9,902

58.1
1,466
8.4
10,017

58.2
1,467
8.4
10,003

58.8
1,421
8.1
9,905

58.7
1,347
7.7
10,017

58.2
1,437
8.2
10,101

57.7
1,483
8.5
10,197

57.8
1,473
8.4
10,212

57.6
1,577
9.0
10,165

58.2
1,623
9.2
9,927

58.4
1,463
8.3
10,043

58.2
1,586
9.0
10,007

Black or African American3
&LYLOLDQQRQLQVWLWXWLRQDO
1
population ……………………. 27,007
Civilian labor force.............. 17,314
64.1
Participation rate...........
Employed........................ 15,765
Employment-pop58.4
ulation ratio 2……………
1,549
Unemployed...................
8.9
Unemployment rate.....
Not in the labor force……… 9,693

6HHIRRWQRWHVDWHQGRIWDEOH

58

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

&RQWLQXHG²(PSOR\PHQWVWDWXVRIWKHSRSXODWLRQE\VH[DJHUDFHDQG+LVSDQLFRULJLQPRQWKO\GDWDVHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status

2007

Annual average
2006

2008

2007

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

31,383
21,602
68.8
20,382

31,055
21,368
68.8
20,257

31,147
21,436
68.8
20,263

31,238
21,434
68.6
20,197

31,329
21,460
68.5
20,245

31,423
21,613
68.8
20,345

31,520
21,781
69.1
20,578

64.9
1,220
5.6
9,781

65.2
1,111
5.2
9,687

65.1
1,173
5.5
9,711

64.7
1,237
5.8
9,804

64.6
1,216
5.7
9,869

64.7
1,269
5.9
9,809

65.3
1,204
5.5
9,738

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

31,617
21,872
69.2
20,619

31,714
21,778
68.7
20,554

31,809
21,872
68.8
20,623

31,903
21,888
68.6
20,517

31,643
21,698
68.6
20,320

31,732
21,755
68.6
20,401

31,820
21,775
68.4
20,269

65.2
1,253
5.7
9,745

64.8
1,224
5.6
9,936

64.8
1,249
5.7
9,938

64.3
1,371
6.3
10,016

64.2
1,378
6.3
9,946

64.3
1,354
6.2
9,977

63.7
1,507
6.9
10,045

+LVSDQLFRU/DWLQR
HWKQLFLW\
Civilian noninstitutional
1
population ……………………. 30,103
Civilian labor force.............. 20,694
68.7
Participation rate...........
Employed........................ 19,613
Employment-pop65.2
ulation ratio 2……………
1,081
Unemployed...................
5.2
Unemployment rate.....
Not in the labor force ………… 9,409
1

The population figures are not seasonally adjusted.
Civilian employment as a percent of the civilian noninstitutional population.
3
Beginning in 2003, persons who selected this race group only; persons who
selected more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, persons who
reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main
race.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white and black or African American) do not
sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. In addition, persons whose
ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race and, therefore, are classified
by ethnicity as well as by race. Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population
controls used in the household survey.

2

6HOHFWHGHPSOR\PHQWLQGLFDWRUVPRQWKO\GDWDVHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG
[In thousands]
Annual average

2007

Selected categories
2006

2007

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

2008

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Characteristic
Employed, 16 years and older.. 144,427 146,047 146,145 145,713 145,913 146,087 146,045 145,753 146,260 146,016 146,647 146,211 146,248 145,993 145,969
Men....................................... 77,502
78,254
78,297
78,293
78,277
78,243
78,237
78,066
78,229
78,177
78,604
78,260
78,157
78,113
77,948
67,792
67,849
67,420
67,637
67,845
67,808
67,687
68,030
67,838
68,043
67,951
68,091
67,880
68,021
Women............................…… 66,925
Married men, spouse
present................................

45,700

46,314

46,505

46,466

46,472

46,448

46,307

46,193

46,235

46,189

46,339

46,213

46,063

46,136

45,961

35,272

35,832

36,174

36,009

36,126

36,111

35,938

35,794

35,712

35,449

35,689

35,565

35,536

35,648

35,749

4,162

4,401

4,285

4,371

4,469

4,311

4,332

4,517

4,499

4,401

4,513

4,665

4,769

4,884

4,914

2,658

2,877

2,786

2,854

2,952

2,803

2,751

2,955

2,991

2,788

3,008

3,174

3,247

3,291

3,323

1,189

1,210

1,217

1,238

1,248

1,197

1,210

1,175

1,166

1,215

1,223

1,236

1,163

1,222

1,362

reasons……………………… 19,591

19,756

20,033

19,919

19,610

20,076

19,957

19,779

19,812

19,337

19,539

19,526

19,613

19,348

19,409

4,071

4,317

4,206

4,301

4,391

4,210

4,259

4,466

4,397

4,302

4,453

4,577

4,677

4,790

4,797

2,596

2,827

2,741

2,830

2,893

2,736

2,711

2,916

2,922

2,745

2,981

3,120

3,174

3,231

3,238

1,178

1,199

1,203

1,232

1,246

1,198

1,205

1,152

1,153

1,207

1,205

1,219

1,149

1,216

1,354

reasons.................………… 19,237

19,419

19,624

19,550

19,192

19,734

19,569

19,469

19,451

19,157

19,224

19,225

19,296

19,019

19,072

Married women, spouse
present................................
Persons at work part time1
All industries:
Part time for economic
reasons…………………….…
Slack work or business
conditions………….........
Could only find part-time
work………………………
Part time for noneconomic
Nonagricultural industries:
Part time for economic
reasons…………………….…
Slack work or business
conditions........................
Could only find part-time
work………………………
Part time for noneconomic

1

Excludes persons "with a job but not at work" during the survey period for such reasons as vacation, illness, or industrial disputes.

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population controls used in the household survey.

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

59

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

6HOHFWHGXQHPSOR\PHQWLQGLFDWRUVPRQWKO\GDWDVHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG
[Unemployment rates]
Annual average

2007

Selected categories
2006

2007

2008

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Characteristic
Total, 16 years and older............................
Both sexes, 16 to 19 years.....................
Men, 20 years and older.........................
Women, 20 years and older...................

4.6
15.4
4.0
4.1

4.6
15.7
4.1
4.0

4.4
14.6
4.0
3.8

4.5
15.4
4.0
3.9

4.5
15.8
4.0
3.9

4.6
16.0
4.1
3.9

4.7
15.3
4.2
4.1

4.7
16.2
4.1
4.1

4.7
16.0
4.3
4.1

4.8
15.7
4.3
4.1

4.7
16.4
4.1
4.1

5.0
17.1
4.4
4.4

4.9
18.0
4.4
4.2

4.8
16.6
4.3
4.2

5.1
15.8
4.6
4.6

White, total 1………………………………
Both sexes, 16 to 19 years................
Men, 16 to 19 years........................
Women, 16 to 19 years..................
Men, 20 years and older....................
Women, 20 years and older..............

4.0
13.2
14.6
11.7
3.5
3.6

4.1
13.9
15.7
12.1
3.7
3.6

3.8
13.3
14.6
11.8
3.4
3.4

4.0
13.3
14.4
12.1
3.5
3.5

4.0
13.9
15.2
12.5
3.5
3.4

4.1
14.2
16.3
12.0
3.6
3.5

4.2
13.8
15.5
12.0
3.8
3.6

4.2
14.4
16.5
12.2
3.8
3.7

4.2
14.3
16.4
12.2
3.9
3.5

4.2
14.0
15.9
12.0
3.8
3.6

4.2
14.7
17.8
11.8
3.7
3.7

4.4
14.4
16.8
12.1
3.9
4.0

4.4
15.6
19.0
12.3
3.9
3.8

4.3
14.4
17.1
11.8
3.9
3.8

4.5
13.2
14.7
11.7
4.1
4.1

Black or African American, total 1………
Both sexes, 16 to 19 years................
Men, 16 to 19 years........................
Women, 16 to 19 years..................
Men, 20 years and older....................
Women, 20 years and older..............

8.9
29.1
32.7
25.9
8.3
7.5

8.3
29.4
33.8
25.3
7.9
6.7

8.3
24.7
25.7
23.8
8.9
6.2

8.2
30.6
34.3
27.1
8.3
6.0

8.4
30.1
35.4
24.8
8.2
6.7

8.4
31.0
33.5
28.7
8.3
6.4

8.1
27.0
31.1
23.5
7.6
6.9

7.7
31.2
33.2
29.4
6.8
6.5

8.2
28.9
33.9
24.2
7.5
7.1

8.5
27.9
36.0
20.1
8.2
7.1

8.4
29.7
34.6
24.9
7.9
7.0

9.0
34.7
39.5
30.1
8.4
7.0

9.2
35.7
41.3
28.5
8.3
7.3

8.3
31.7
32.6
30.9
7.9
6.5

9.0
31.3
38.9
25.4
8.4
7.5

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity………………
Married men, spouse present................
Married women, spouse present...........
Full-time workers...................................
Part-time workers..................................

5.2
2.4
2.9
4.5
5.1

5.6
2.5
2.8
4.6
4.9

5.2
2.5
2.6
4.4
4.5

5.5
2.5
2.7
4.4
5.0

5.8
2.6
2.8
4.4
4.9

5.7
2.4
2.7
4.5
4.7

5.9
2.7
2.9
4.6
5.1

5.5
2.5
3.1
4.6
4.9

5.7
2.5
2.9
4.7
4.7

5.6
2.6
2.9
4.7
5.0

5.7
2.6
3.0
4.6
5.0

6.3
2.7
3.1
4.9
5.6

6.3
2.7
3.1
4.8
5.4

6.2
2.7
3.1
4.8
5.0

6.9
2.8
3.3
5.0
5.3

Educational attainment2
Less than a high school diploma................

6.8

7.1

6.9

7.1

6.7

6.8

7.2

6.7

7.5

7.4

7.6

7.6

7.7

7.3

8.2

High school graduates, no college 3………
Some college or associate degree………..

4.3
3.6

4.4
3.6

4.1
3.5

4.1
3.6

4.5
3.4

4.1
3.5

4.5
3.6

4.4
3.7

4.6
3.4

4.6
3.5

4.5
3.3

4.7
3.7

4.6
3.6

4.7
3.7

5.1
3.8

Bachelor's degree and higher 4…………….

2.0

2.0

1.8

1.8

2.0

2.0

2.1

2.1

2.0

2.1

2.2

2.2

2.1

2.1

2.1

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

1

Beginning in 2003, persons who selected this race group only; persons who

selected more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, persons who
reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main
race.
2

Data refer to persons 25 years and older.

'XUDWLRQRIXQHPSOR\PHQWPRQWKO\GDWDVHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG
[Numbers in thousands]
Weeks of
unemployment
Less than 5 weeks...........................
5 to 14 weeks..................................
15 weeks and over..........................
15 to 26 weeks.............................
27 weeks and over.......................
Mean duration, in weeks...................
Median duration, in weeks...............

Annual average
2006
2,614
2,121
2,266
1,031
1,235
16.8
8.3

2007
2,542
2,232
2,303
1,061
1,243
16.8
8.5

2007
Mar.
2,338
2,156
2,183
976
1,207
17.2
8.6

Apr.
2,442
2,147
2,259
1,066
1,193
17.0
8.6

May
2,467
2,187
2,236
1,099
1,137
16.6
8.3

June
2,505
2,140
2,296
1,136
1,159
16.8
8.3

July
2,496
2,220
2,402
1,091
1,311
17.3
8.9

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population controls used in the household survey.

60

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

2008

Aug.
2,610
2,201
2,375
1,124
1,252
16.9
8.6

2,537
2,330
2,392
1,112
1,280
16.6
8.9

2,508
2,454
2,367
1,052
1,315
17.0
8.7

2,633
2,157
2,398
1,014
1,384
17.2
8.7

2,793
2,330
2,520
1,182
1,338
16.6
8.4

Jan.
2,634
2,396
2,503
1,124
1,380
17.5
8.8

Feb.
2,639
2,396
2,377
1,079
1,299
16.8
8.4

Ma
2,
2,
2,
1,
1,
1

8QHPSOR\HGSHUVRQVE\UHDVRQIRUXQHPSOR\PHQWPRQWKO\GDWDVHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason for
unemployment
Job losers1…………………….…
On temporary layoff..............
Not on temporary layoff........
Job leavers..............................
Reentrants...............................
New entrants...........................

Annual average
2006

2007

2007

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

2008

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

3,321
921
2,400
827
2,237
616

3,515
976
2,539
793
2,142
627

3,240
865
2,375
755
2,143
600

3,316
1,019
2,297
749
2,169
599

3,375
997
2,379
768
2,149
557

3,418
862
2,555
810
2,125
628

3,629
983
2,646
823
2,082
602

3,632
981
2,652
794
2,076
603

3,622
963
2,660
839
2,154
685

3,731
1,064
2,668
790
2,103
709

3,609
979
2,630
783
2,160
669

3,857
975
2,882
798
2,343
697

3,796
1,040
2,756
830
2,201
667

3,854
971
2,883
769
2,112
648

4,154
1,056
3,098
781
2,117
681

47.4
13.2
34.3
11.8
32.0
8.8

49.7
13.8
35.9
11.2
30.3
8.9

48.1
12.8
35.3
11.2
31.8
8.9

48.5
14.9
33.6
11.0
31.7
8.8

49.3
14.6
34.7
11.2
31.4
8.1

49.0
12.4
36.6
11.6
30.4
9.0

50.8
13.8
37.1
11.5
29.2
8.4

51.1
13.8
37.3
11.2
29.2
8.5

49.6
13.2
36.4
11.5
29.5
9.4

50.9
14.5
36.4
10.8
28.7
9.7

50.0
13.6
36.4
10.8
29.9
9.3

50.1
12.7
37.5
10.4
30.4
9.1

50.7
13.9
36.8
11.1
29.4
8.9

52.2
13.2
39.0
10.4
28.6
8.8

53.7
13.7
40.1
10.1
27.4
8.8

2.1
.5
1.4
.4

2.2
.5
1.4
.4

2.2
.5
1.4
.4

2.2
.5
1.4
.4

2.4
.5
1.4
.4

2.4
.5
1.4
.4

2.4
.5
1.4
.4

2.4
.5
1.4
.5

2.3
.5
1.4
.4

2.5
.5
1.5
.5

2.5
.5
1.4
.4

2.5
.5
1.4
.4

2.7
.5
1.4
.4

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Percent of unemployed
Job losers1…………………….…
On temporary layoff...............
Not on temporary layoff.........
Job leavers...............................
Reentrants................................
New entrants............................
Percent of civilian
labor force
2.2
2.3
Job losers1…………………….…
.5
.5
Job leavers...............................
1.5
1.4
Reentrants................................
.4
.4
New entrants............................
1
Includes persons who completed temporary jobs.

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population controls used in the household survey.

8QHPSOR\PHQWUDWHVE\VH[DQGDJHPRQWKO\GDWDVHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG
[Civilian workers]
Sex and age

Annual average

2007

2007

Mar.

Total, 16 years and older..................
16 to 24 years...............................
16 to 19 years............................
16 to 17 years.........................
18 to 19 years.........................
20 to 24 years............................
25 years and older........................
25 to 54 years.........................
55 years and older..................

4.6
10.5
15.4
17.2
14.1
8.2
3.6
3.8
3.0

4.6
10.5
15.7
17.5
14.5
8.2
3.6
3.7
3.1

4.4
9.8
14.6
16.3
13.6
7.6
3.5
3.5
3.1

4.5
10.2
15.4
16.6
15.0
7.8
3.5
3.6
3.0

4.5
10.1
15.8
16.8
15.3
7.4
3.5
3.6
3.2

4.6
10.6
16.0
17.0
15.7
8.1
3.5
3.6
3.1

4.7
10.6
15.3
17.0
14.0
8.5
3.7
3.8
3.2

4.7
10.8
16.2
18.6
14.6
8.4
3.6
3.8
3.2

4.7
11.0
16.0
18.6
14.3
8.8
3.7
3.8
3.1

4.8
10.8
15.7
17.5
14.3
8.6
3.7
3.8
3.1

4.7
10.7
16.4
19.0
14.4
8.0
3.7
3.8
3.0

5.0
11.8
17.1
19.6
15.4
9.4
3.9
4.1
3.2

Men, 16 years and older.................
16 to 24 years.............................
16 to 19 years..........................
16 to 17 years.......................
18 to 19 years.......................
20 to 24 years..........................
25 years and older......................
25 to 54 years.......................
55 years and older................

4.6
11.2
16.9
18.6
15.7
8.7
3.5
3.6
3.0

4.7
11.6
17.6
19.4
16.5
8.9
3.6
3.7
3.2

4.5
10.6
16.1
17.7
15.0
8.2
3.5
3.5
3.3

4.6
11.0
16.5
17.5
16.4
8.6
3.5
3.5
3.2

4.6
11.4
17.5
18.7
17.1
8.7
3.5
3.5
3.4

4.7
11.9
18.0
18.5
18.5
9.3
3.4
3.5
3.1

4.7
11.5
16.9
19.3
15.4
9.2
3.6
3.7
3.4

4.7
11.6
18.0
21.7
15.2
8.9
3.6
3.7
3.4

4.9
12.2
18.3
21.9
16.2
9.5
3.7
3.8
3.3

4.9
12.0
18.1
19.0
16.8
9.3
3.7
3.8
3.1

4.7
11.8
19.5
21.4
17.8
8.6
3.6
3.7
3.1

Women, 16 years and older...........
16 to 24 years.............................
16 to 19 years..........................
16 to 17 years…………………
18 t0 19 years…………………
20 to 24 years..........................
25 years and older......................
25 to 54 years.......................
55 years and older 1…………

4.6
9.7
13.8
15.9
12.4
7.6
3.7
3.9

4.5
9.4
13.8
15.7
12.5
7.3
3.6
3.8

4.3
8.9
13.1
15.0
12.1
6.9
3.4
3.5

4.4
9.3
14.2
15.7
13.5
6.9
3.5
3.7

4.4
8.6
14.1
15.0
13.2
5.9
3.6
3.8

4.4
9.2
13.9
15.6
12.6
6.8
3.6
3.7

4.6
9.6
13.6
14.8
12.6
7.7
3.8
3.9

4.6
10.0
14.4
15.5
13.9
7.9
3.7
3.9

4.5
9.8
13.7
15.6
12.3
7.9
3.7
3.8

4.6
9.6
13.3
16.1
11.6
7.7
3.7
3.9

2.9

3.0

2.8

2.5

2.7

3.2

3.5

3.4

3.0

3.0

1

Apr.

May

June

July

2008

2006

Feb.

Mar.

4.9
11.7
18.0
20.4
15.9
8.7
3.8
3.9
3.2

4.8
11.3
16.6
18.3
15.5
8.9
3.8
3.9
3.2

5.1
11.3
15.8
18.6
14.0
9.3
4.0
4.2
3.4

5.1
12.8
19.8
22.1
18.4
9.8
3.8
4.0
3.2

5.1
13.1
21.8
24.0
19.5
9.4
3.8
4.0
3.2

4.9
12.5
18.7
20.5
18.0
9.9
3.7
3.8
3.2

5.2
12.5
17.8
22.0
15.2
10.3
4.0
4.1
3.3

4.6
9.4
13.4
17.1
10.7
7.4
3.8
4.0

4.9
10.7
14.4
17.3
12.3
8.8
3.9
4.1

4.7
10.1
14.2
17.2
12.1
8.0
3.8
3.9

4.7
9.9
14.5
16.2
12.8
7.7
3.8
4.0

5.0
10.0
13.8
15.5
12.8
8.1
4.1
4.2

2.8

2.9

3.4

3.3

3.4

Data are not seasonally adjusted.

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population controls used in the household survey.

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

61

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

10. Unemployment rates by State, seasonally adjusted
Feb.
2007

State

Jan.

Feb.

2007p

2008p

Feb.
2007

State

Jan.

Feb.

2007p

2008p

Alabama............................…………………
Alaska........................................................
Arizona............................……………………
Arkansas....................................................
California............................…………………

3.3
6.0
3.8
5.3
5.0

4.0
6.4
4.3
5.6
5.9

3.7
6.5
4.0
5.0
5.7

Missouri………………………………………
Montana.....................................................
Nebraska............................…………………
Nevada......................................................
New Hampshire............................…………

4.9
3.1
3.0
4.5
3.8

5.5
3.2
2.9
5.5
3.5

5.4
3.3
2.8
5.5
3.7

Colorado....................................................
Connecticut............................………………
Delaware...................................................
District of Columbia............................……
Florida........................................................

3.8
4.4
3.4
5.7
3.7

4.2
4.8
3.8
6.2
4.6

4.4
5.0
3.7
5.9
4.6

New Jersey................................................
New Mexico............................………………
New York...................................................
North Carolina............................……………
North Dakota.............................................

4.3
3.8
4.4
4.5
3.2

4.5
3.1
5.0
4.9
3.2

4.8
3.2
4.4
5.0
3.1

Georgia............................…………………
Hawaii........................................................
Idaho............................………………………
Illinois.........................................................
Indiana............................……………………

4.2
2.4
2.8
4.8
4.8

4.9
3.1
2.8
5.6
4.5

5.1
3.2
2.8
5.5
4.6

Ohio............................………………………
Oklahoma..................................................
Oregon............................……………………
Pennsylvania.............................................
Rhode Island............................……………

5.5
4.3
5.0
4.3
4.9

5.5
3.7
5.5
4.8
5.7

5.3
3.1
5.4
5.0
5.9

Iowa............................………………………
Kansas.......................................................
Kentucky............................…………………
Louisiana...................................................
Maine............................……………………

3.7
4.2
5.7
3.8
4.6

3.6
3.8
5.2
4.0
4.9

3.5
3.7
5.3
3.7
4.8

South Carolina............................…………
South Dakota.............................................
Tennessee............................………………
Texas.........................................................
Utah............................………………………

5.8
3.1
4.5
4.5
2.4

6.1
2.6
4.9
4.3
3.0

5.5
2.6
5.3
4.1
3.0

Maryland............................…………………
Massachusetts...........................................
Michigan............................…………………
Minnesota..................................................
Mississippi............................………………

3.6
4.7
7.0
4.6
6.5

3.5
4.5
7.1
4.5
6.0

3.4
4.4
7.2
4.5
5.9

Vermont............................…………………
Virginia.......................................................
Washington............................………………
West Virginia.............................................
Wisconsin............................………………
Wyoming....................................................

4.0
2.9
4.5
4.6
5.1
2.8

4.2
3.4
4.5
4.4
4.9
2.7

4.3
3.5
4.5
4.6
4.9
2.7

S

 SUHOLPLQDU\

(PSOR\PHQWRIZRUNHUVRQQRQIDUPSD\UROOVE\6WDWHVHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG
State

Feb.
2007

Jan.

Feb.

2007p

2008p

State

Feb.
2007

Jan.

Feb.

2007p

2008p

Alabama............................………… 2,172,723 2,219,890 2,200,729
351,035
353,272
353,820
Alaska.............................................
Arizona............................…………… 3,010,361 3,082,619 3,072,395
Arkansas........................................ 1,366,264 1,375,982 1,362,946
California............................………… 18,072,125 18,302,584 18,265,472

Missouri……………………………… 3,027,704
Montana.........................................
498,906
Nebraska............................…………
978,095
Nevada........................................... 1,318,488
New Hampshire............................…
737,255

3,036,487
504,888
992,923
1,373,827
742,753

3,022,999
503,164
987,017
1,375,301
741,570

Colorado......................................... 2,679,674
Connecticut............................……… 1,853,581
Delaware........................................
441,316
District of Columbia........................
325,289
Florida............................................ 9,087,015

2,760,343
1,885,686
445,016
328,786
9,265,344

2,757,905
1,885,306
444,460
331,457
9,214,354

New Jersey.....................................
New Mexico............................……
New York........................................
North Carolina............................…
North Dakota..................................

4,473,995
941,572
9,500,054
4,509,873
364,049

4,491,173
946,227
9,600,082
4,547,236
369,749

4,507,678
946,789
9,535,376
4,533,112
368,192

Georgia............................………… 4,780,141
Hawaii.............................................
651,170
Idaho............................……………
748,956
Illinois............................................. 6,652,517
Indiana............................…………… 3,223,478

4,863,849
653,607
758,745
6,787,869
3,223,395

4,858,478
650,325
755,321
6,803,601
3,225,479

Ohio............................………………
Oklahoma.......................................
Oregon............................……………
Pennsylvania..................................
Rhode Island............................……

5,965,171
1,729,291
1,920,105
6,291,170
578,259

5,975,755
1,733,970
1,948,098
6,360,948
574,627

5,975,058
1,716,673
1,941,418
6,346,067
571,207

Iowa............................………………
Kansas...........................................
Kentucky............................…………
Louisiana........................................
Maine............................……………

1,657,565
1,477,196
2,044,669
1,988,085
704,559

1,673,534
1,483,811
2,053,397
2,012,256
709,579

1,669,152
1,481,041
2,044,719
2,008,002
706,422

South Carolina............................… 2,128,729 2,145,926 2,127,399
South Dakota..................................
440,666
443,042
444,269
Tennessee............................……… 3,018,831 3,060,117 3,054,171
Texas.............................................. 11,442,320 11,613,234 11,561,928
Utah............................……………… 1,342,480 1,392,838 1,390,886

Maryland............................…………
Massachusetts...............................
Michigan............................…………
Minnesota.......................................
Mississippi............................………

2,973,697
3,412,140
5,042,089
2,931,980
1,309,259

2,989,488
3,422,236
5,004,864
2,935,691
1,332,723

2,993,920
3,408,908
5,001,682
2,930,172
1,320,341

Vermont............................…………
355,530
Virginia........................................... 4,028,343
Washington............................……… 3,374,278
West Virginia..................................
808,000
Wisconsin............................……… 3,093,084
Wyoming........................................
285,513

NOTE: Some data in this table may differ from data published elsewhere because of the continual updating of the database.
S

 SUHOLPLQDU\

62

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

354,487
4,093,068
3,460,973
812,102
3,083,485
291,142

352,633
4,090,813
3,455,631
811,692
3,100,477
291,433

(PSOR\PHQWRIZRUNHUVRQQRQIDUPSD\UROOVE\LQGXVWU\PRQWKO\GDWDVHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG
[In thousands]
Industry

Annual average
2006

TOTAL NONFARM................. 136,086
TOTAL PRIVATE........................ 114,113

2007

2007
Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

2008

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.p

Mar.p

137,623 137,310 137,356 137,518 137,625 137,682 137,756 137,837 137,977 138,037 138,078 138,002 137,919 137,838
115,420 115,167 115,195 115,332 115,423 115,512 115,544 115,610 115,715 115,759 115,745 115,666 115,557 115,462

22,531

22,221

22,362

22,300

22,272

22,267

22,242

22,176

22,138

22,101

22,049

21,976

21,907

21,816

21,728

684
64.4
619.7
134.5
1
220.3
Mining, except oil and gas ……
78.0
Coal mining……………………
Support activities for mining……
264.9
7,691
Construction................................
Construction of buildings........... 1,804.9
985.1
Heavy and civil engineering……
Speciality trade contractors....... 4,901.1
Manufacturing.............................. 14,155
Production workers................ 10,137
8,981
Durable goods...........................
6,355
Production workers................
558.8
Wood products..........................
509.6
Nonmetallic mineral products
464.0
Primary metals..........................
Fabricated metal products......... 1,553.1
1,183.2
Machinery……….....................
Computer and electronic

723
60.8
662.1
146.0
224.5
77.6
291.6
7,614
1,761.0
1,001.2
4,851.9
13,884
9,979
8,816
6,257
519.7
503.4
456.0
1,563.3
1,188.2

715
62.2
653.2
142.8
221.7
77.2
288.7
7,694
1,796.1
1,007.5
4,889.9
13,953
9,997
8,863
6,266
525.7
506.1
459.5
1,561.1
1,186.6

718
61.9
656.3
143.0
223.3
77.4
290.0
7,660
1,777.2
1,005.9
4,876.5
13,922
9,987
8,847
6,266
523.1
503.6
459.3
1,561.7
1,184.3

719
60.7
658.4
143.8
224.0
76.8
290.6
7,643
1,773.6
1,003.9
4,865.7
13,910
9,992
8,832
6,267
522.5
505.5
458.3
1,559.6
1,186.1

721
61.2
659.6
144.8
225.0
76.9
289.8
7,656
1,778.1
1,008.1
4,870.1
13,890
9,980
8,816
6,257
520.4
505.5
454.3
1,563.3
1,189.6

726
59.9
666.3
146.3
225.4
77.4
294.6
7,632
1,765.3
1,002.3
4,863.9
13,884
9,985
8,817
6,258
523.4
504.4
456.4
1,564.2
1,192.5

727
59.5
667.2
147.0
226.4
77.6
293.8
7,605
1,751.2
999.0
4,854.7
13,844
9,956
8,792
6,239
518.5
501.2
452.7
1,562.8
1,187.5

727
59.7
667.4
147.3
226.7
78.0
293.4
7,589
1,749.4
998.8
4,840.3
13,822
9,958
8,778
6,245
513.1
501.0
451.6
1,565.0
1,186.2

727
59.1
667.8
148.9
226.9
78.1
292.0
7,577
1,736.6
999.5
4,841.3
13,797
9,934
8,761
6,232
511.8
500.9
451.5
1,568.0
1,189.0

735
59.9
675.0
152.3
226.0
78.7
296.7
7,520
1,716.4
999.0
4,804.8
13,794
9,944
8,763
6,242
509.0
499.5
452.6
1,565.6
1,189.9

739
60.6
677.9
153.1
225.2
78.3
299.6
7,465
1,702.4
993.8
4,768.4
13,772
9,933
8,739
6,220
507.2
496.4
452.2
1,562.7
1,191.0

744
60.7
683.2
154.5
227.0
78.6
301.7
7,426
1,690.2
984.6
4,750.8
13,737
9,922
8,718
6,214
503.5
494.4
452.3
1,560.9
1,193.8

744
60.2
684.0
153.8
225.7
78.7
304.5
7,382
1,673.0
977.6
4,731.8
13,690
9,879
8,685
6,182
498.6
492.2
451.4
1,557.1
1,191.7

750
59.5
690.0
155.0
225.9
78.9
309.1
7,336
1,665.6
975.1
4,695.5
13,642
9,847
8,651
6,155
493.6
487.7
451.6
1,555.6
1,195.7

products 1……………………… 1,307.5
Computer and peripheral

1,271.9

1,284.5

1,277.6

1,275.0

1,270.8

1,268.3

1,265.6

1,260.5

1,256.5

1,260.5

1,257.6

1,256.3

1,251.9

1,255.1

GOODS-PRODUCING………………
Natural resources and
mining…………..……….......……
Logging....................................
Mining..........................................
Oil and gas extraction……………

equipment..............................
Communications equipment…

196.2
136.2

186.9
128.6

188.7
129.0

188.8
128.1

187.8
127.2

185.5
127.4

186.2
127.5

186.1
128.5

185.9
128.5

185.1
128.1

185.5
129.5

185.4
129.0

184.9
129.5

185.9
128.7

186.0
129.6

Semiconductors and
electronic components..........
Electronic instruments……….

457.9
444.5

444.5
444.0

451.9
444.9

448.2
443.8

447.3
445.2

446.0
444.5

443.7
443.1

439.9
442.5

437.4
442.0

435.8
441.9

437.0
443.0

434.9
443.7

433.5
444.3

429.7
442.9

428.7
446.9

Electrical equipment and
appliances...............................
Transportation equipment.........

432.7
1,768.9

427.2
1,710.9

427.8
1,728.2

428.2
1,725.3

427.7
1,716.1

427.1
1,711.6

427.7
1,704.7

426.1
1,705.7

426.0
1,706.1

427.2
1,689.3

426.6
1,693.5

423.8
1,684.7

421.6
1,678.1

420.8
1,672.0

419.9
1,648.1

Furniture and related
products.....……………………… 560.1
Miscellaneous manufacturing
643.7
Nondurable goods.....................
5,174
Production workers................
3,782
Food manufacturing.................. 1,479.4

534.5
641.0
5,068
3,723
1,481.3

539.4
644.2
5,090
3,731
1,479.7

539.8
644.0
5,075
3,721
1,475.0

538.7
642.4
5,078
3,725
1,480.5

534.4
638.9
5,074
3,723
1,484.9

536.1
639.5
5,067
3,727
1,488.8

533.0
638.8
5,052
3,717
1,480.6

530.6
637.6
5,044
3,713
1,476.0

528.3
638.2
5,036
3,702
1,478.6

527.0
638.8
5,031
3,702
1,477.9

523.8
639.9
5,033
3,713
1,486.3

520.4
636.4
5,019
3,708
1,483.2

516.0
633.3
5,005
3,697
1,482.7

511.8
631.8
4,991
3,692
1,477.9

Beverages and tobacco
products…………………………
Textile mills………………………
Textile product mills...................
Apparel………………………….
Leather and allied products.......
Paper and paper products.........

194.2
195.0
166.7
232.4
36.8
470.5

195.7
169.9
158.4
213.0
33.9
460.6

195.6
175.3
160.2
219.0
34.6
461.2

195.9
172.6
159.8
217.5
33.9
461.4

196.2
171.2
158.3
215.3
33.9
461.0

197.9
170.5
158.1
212.2
33.8
460.3

197.0
168.1
157.1
212.8
33.1
459.8

196.1
166.4
156.9
211.3
33.3
459.1

195.7
164.8
156.3
209.2
34.0
459.0

195.2
164.9
155.9
206.8
33.7
459.2

194.3
164.9
157.2
206.4
34.1
458.6

192.0
163.0
155.7
204.8
33.7
460.3

191.1
162.0
154.0
202.0
34.5
459.0

189.3
161.4
153.0
200.6
33.5
457.8

191.0
158.4
153.3
198.4
33.5
457.9

Printing and related support
activities…………………………
Petroleum and coal products.....
Chemicals..................................
Plastics and rubber products..

634.4
113.2
865.9
785.5

624.2
113.4
862.9
754.0

628.1
114.3
862.6
759.2

625.4
114.0
860.5
759.2

624.7
116.0
862.4
758.5

624.3
114.2
863.3
754.3

623.3
112.5
862.5
752.4

621.0
112.5
864.2
750.2

623.0
112.9
864.3
748.4

622.2
112.6
860.7
745.9

622.0
112.1
860.5
743.0

619.5
111.7
862.0
744.2

620.1
112.2
861.2
739.7

614.6
112.5
861.0
738.7

614.4
111.9
860.4
733.8

SERVICE-PROVIDING...................

113,556

115,402 114,948 115,056 115,246 115,358 115,440 115,580 115,699 115,876 115,988 116,102 116,095 116,103 116,110

PRIVATE SERVICEPROVIDING……………………… 91,582
Trade, transportation,
and utilities................................
Wholesale trade.........................
Durable goods…………………..
Nondurable goods……………

26,276
5,904.5
3,074.8
2,041.3

93,199

92,805

92,895

93,060

93,156

93,270

93,368

93,472

93,614

93,710

93,769

93,759

93,741

93,734

26,608
6,028.3
3,130.7
2,069.3

26,584
5,984.0
3,107.6
2,054.7

26,571
5,999.8
3,117.6
2,055.8

26,593
6,011.7
3,127.2
2,058.1

26,600
6,030.0
3,135.2
2,066.3

26,617
6,040.7
3,140.2
2,069.2

26,640
6,047.1
3,141.9
2,072.7

26,649
6,055.6
3,143.4
2,078.5

26,644
6,069.8
3,147.4
2,086.5

26,693
6,075.0
3,152.4
2,086.6

26,658
6,072.9
3,145.0
2,089.3

26,631
6,067.3
3,138.0
2,090.9

26,579
6,057.6
3,127.3
2,088.4

26,560
6,054.1
3,127.8
2,087.8

Electronic markets and
agents and brokers……………

788.5
828.4
821.7
826.4
826.4
828.5
831.3
832.5
833.7
835.9
836.0
838.6
838.4
841.9
838.5
Retail trade................................. 15,353.3 15,490.7 15,519.9 15,487.0 15,500.3 15,483.9 15,489.1 15,502.3 15,487.3 15,469.1 15,513.1 15,487.8 15,472.2 15,428.8 15,409.5
Motor vehicles and parts
dealers 1………………………
Automobile dealers..................

1,909.7
1,246.7

1,913.1
1,245.3

1,912.1
1,242.8

1,916.9
1,246.8

1,916.4
1,247.1

1,913.9
1,245.7

1,911.9
1,244.7

1,914.7
1,245.6

1,916.0
1,246.6

1,911.9
1,247.4

1,911.0
1,244.9

1,909.3
1,244.6

1,910.2
1,244.0

1,905.1
1,236.2

1,903.6
1,235.0

Furniture and home
furnishings stores....................

586.9

581.0

580.5

581.5

580.5

578.1

577.7

579.2

576.2

577.3

584.9

584.5

579.9

575.9

570.4

Electronics and appliance
stores.......................................

541.1

543.7

547.6

550.3

546.5

543.9

545.0

542.7

540.1

537.1

542.6

540.4

534.3

533.6

533.9

See notes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

63

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

&RQWLQXHG²(PSOR\PHQWRIZRUNHUVRQQRQIDUPSD\UROOVE\LQGXVWU\PRQWKO\GDWDVHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG
[In thousands]
2007

Industry

2008

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.p

Mar.p

1,318.0
2,835.1

1,317.8
2,839.4

1,313.7
2,845.3

1,307.3
2,847.1

1,315.6
2,852.2

1,291.9
2,856.0

1,285.4
2,859.6

1,279.9
2,871.9

1,271.6
2,871.9

1,266.0
2,880.1

1,258.5
2,885.7

1,249.3
2,888.4

985.2
864.6

988.1
862.3

987.5
863.2

987.7
862.2

985.6
861.5

989.4
860.8

990.1
864.2

991.0
862.0

998.6
859.1

999.9
850.5

1,000.6
853.8

993.5
854.2

993.8
855.4

Clothing and clothing
accessories stores …………………1,486.5

1,492.4

1,493.6

1,489.7

1,496.7

1,501.5

1,502.4

1,500.9

1,524.5

1,508.6

1,498.2

1,496.3

1,499.2

Sporting goods, hobby,
book, and music stores…………… 651.2
General merchandise stores1………3,033.5
Department stores………………… 1,592.2
Miscellaneous store retailers……… 869.2
Nonstore retailers…………………… 435.6

654.0
2,984.9
1,581.7
867.4
436.1

656.4
2,994.3
1,585.8
868.0
436.7

656.2
2,987.6
1,581.0
869.8
435.8

660.5
2,987.0
1,580.1
871.3
437.5

661.8
2,978.9
1,573.0
869.7
435.8

665.1
2,976.5
1,570.5
873.3
435.5

664.0
2,975.8
1,568.5
869.0
435.1

664.0
2,968.2
1,560.6
868.3
440.1

661.6
2,976.7
1,568.4
866.3
446.5

667.2
2,971.1
1,564.3
869.4
441.4

661.9
2,955.7
1,543.3
865.3
443.1

656.6
2,951.7
1,536.6
864.2
443.0

Transportation and
warehousing................................. 4,530.4
Air transportation…………….……… 487.2
Rail transportation……...…………… 236.1
Water transportation………...………
63.5
Truck transportation………..……… 1,451.5

4,532.8
493.1
235.1
62.8
1,447.0

4,527.6
484.2
235.1
63.4
1,450.2

4,531.8
493.0
233.8
64.5
1,445.2

4,533.0
493.4
234.4
65.0
1,437.4

4,535.4
494.6
234.4
65.1
1,438.2

4,551.2
494.5
234.6
65.0
1,440.6

4,548.7
495.2
234.0
64.9
1,433.6

4,549.0
503.0
233.8
65.0
1,428.7

4,539.9
502.1
232.5
64.4
1,423.1

4,534.5
504.7
233.8
63.8
1,422.5

4,535.5
508.2
233.7
62.5
1,417.4

4,539.2
507.7
233.9
61.6
1,421.2

Mar.
Building material and garden
supply stores................................ 1,317.9
Food and beverage stores............. 2,836.0
Health and personal care
stores………………………………
Gasoline stations……………………

Transit and ground passenger
transportation………...……………
Pipeline transportation………...……

406.1
40.1

407.3
39.6

407.3
39.9

405.3
39.9

411.0
40.0

413.3
40.1

417.8
40.1

417.4
40.3

411.5
40.6

411.8
40.8

411.9
40.6

413.5
40.9

414.1
41.0

Scenic and sightseeing
transportation…….…………………

29.1

29.0

28.8

28.6

28.9

29.3

29.8

30.3

30.9

31.3

31.0

31.5

31.5

Support activities for
transportation………………..……
Couriers and messengers……...……
Warehousing and storage…………
Utilities………………………….………......
Information…………………...….

578.9
582.1
655.8
550.0
3,030

581.1
580.2
657.6
551.3
3,034

580.8
578.3
659.6
553.5
3,037

583.0
579.8
658.7
554.5
3,033

583.7
580.1
659.1
554.3
3,027

583.7
579.2
657.5
555.1
3,024

586.5
580.3
662.0
554.8
3,031

589.9
577.9
665.2
556.1
3,027

589.2
584.4
661.9
555.5
3,022

587.1
588.1
658.7
557.1
3,018

584.9
585.5
655.8
557.1
3,014

585.9
586.0
655.9
557.0
3,016

585.9
584.3
658.0
557.4
3,013

Publishing industries, except
Internet…………………...…………

902.2

900.5

901.4

899.4

898.7

897.0

893.7

894.6

892.2

889.7

889.2

886.8

883.3

Motion picture and sound
recording industries……...………… 380.7
Broadcasting, except Internet..
327.4

385.4
327.9

385.2
326.6

384.4
326.4

377.9
325.1

376.3
325.2

384.3
327.0

380.5
324.8

376.3
325.0

376.3
321.9

372.9
323.0

380.1
322.1

383.0
322.4

Internet publishing and
broadcasting………………...………
Telecommunications………….…… 1,031.3

1,028.6

1,027.8

1,027.1

1,026.6

1,025.1

1,024.4

1,023.6

1,026.4

1,026.8

1,025.3

1,022.0

1,019.9

268.7
123.1
8,315
6,145.7

271.1
124.6
8,322
6,155.4

270.3
125.7
8,317
6,153.0

272.8
126.3
8,331
6,165.8

272.3
127.6
8,312
6,148.4

273.1
128.8
8,294
6,136.0

273.2
130.0
8,283
6,124.5

272.6
129.5
8,260
6,115.5

273.5
129.3
8,252
6,111.2

273.0
130.5
8,244
6,106.2

274.2
131.2
8,231
6,102.2

272.3
131.9
8,227
6,104.4

21.4

21.4

21.7

21.4

20.8

21.1

20.9

20.8

20.7

20.7

20.7

20.9

21.0

related activities 1………………… 2,917.4
Depository credit

2,898.1

2,896.9

2,886.4

2,892.3

2,870.4

2,856.7

2,844.8

2,834.3

2,829.2

2,825.0

2,820.4

2,812.7

intermediation 1…………………… 1,820.5
Commercial banking..…………… 1,347.1

1,814.7
1,338.6

1,818.8
1,343.9

1,818.2
1,343.0

1,823.8
1,346.7

1,825.8
1,347.3

1,831.0
1,350.1

1,829.3
1,350.1

1,823.4
1,344.7

1,824.6
1,345.9

1,821.5
1,342.2

1,823.3
1,344.9

1,822.5
1,343.6

840.8

840.8

846.2

849.5

851.2

852.6

853.2

855.0

856.9

856.7

859.2

862.5

865.4

Insurance carriers and
related activities………………...… 2,295.9

2,298.2

2,303.2

2,308.4

2,314.2

2,315.4

2,317.0

2,315.3

2,315.6

2,316.8

2,313.9

2,311.1

2,318.5

87.7

87.2

87.4

87.3

87.3

88.9

88.2

88.6

88.0

87.8

87.4

87.3

86.8

Real estate and rental
and leasing………………………..… 2,169.9
Real estate……………………….… 1,499.4
Rental and leasing services………
641.9

2,168.9
1,497.7
642.8

2,166.2
1,497.2
640.0

2,163.8
1,494.7
639.2

2,165.4
1,493.8
641.4

2,163.3
1,493.9
638.9

2,157.7
1,489.8
637.8

2,158.6
1,489.1
639.7

2,144.7
1,477.1
637.4

2,140.6
1,476.4
633.6

2,138.0
1,471.4
635.2

2,128.6
1,466.0
631.0

2,122.4
1,459.9
630.4

ISPs, search portals, and
data processing………..…………
Other information services…………

267.0
121.8
8,333
Financial activities………………..…
Finance and insurance……………..…6,163.2
Monetary authorities—
central bank…………………..……
Credit intermediation and

Securities, commodity
contracts, investments……………

Funds, trusts, and other
financial vehicles…………….……

Lessors of nonfinancial
intangible assets………………..…

28.6

28.4

29.0

29.9

30.2

30.5

30.1

29.8

30.2

30.6

31.4

31.6

32.1

Professional and business
services…………………………...…

17,875

17,903

17,938

17,935

17,958

17,979

18,000

18,070

18,079

18,131

18,101

18,073

18,029

services1…………………………… 7,569.6
Legal services……………..……… 1,177.3

7,598.1
1,179.5

7,627.8
1,180.7

7,645.4
1,178.5

7,664.2
1,173.7

7,688.0
1,174.2

7,729.7
1,178.6

7,759.3
1,179.7

7,784.8
1,175.2

7,820.5
1,173.9

7,819.2
1,173.0

7,829.2
1,174.9

7,830.9
1,172.3

923.2

926.8

932.5

938.6

947.8

954.0

964.5

971.3

979.4

993.3

992.3

991.9

988.7

Architectural and engineering
services…………………………… 1,422.0

1,424.6

1,429.8

1,433.6

1,436.5

1,439.0

1,443.2

1,451.1

1,453.9

1,460.4

1,460.5

1,463.0

1,461.0

Professional and technical

Accounting and bookkeeping
services……………………………

.

See notes at end of table

64

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

&RQWLQXHG²(PSOR\PHQWRIZRUNHUVRQQRQIDUPSD\UROOVE\LQGXVWU\PRQWKO\GDWDVHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG
[In thousands]
Industry

Annual average

2007

2008

2006

2007

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.p

Mar.p

1,284.6

1,359.8

1,338.9

1,345.4

1,353.5

1,358.3

1,366.8

1,371.2

1,375.5

1,380.0

1,387.5

1,391.4

1,391.6

1,393.5

1,393.1

886.4

952.8

928.3

942.0

943.8

945.4

946.6

956.3

967.2

974.8

985.1

994.3

989.2

992.7

998.3

1,810.9

1,846.0

1,838.2

1,839.4

1,842.3

1,842.6

1,845.0

1,849.2

1,854.7

1,860.9

1,850.0

1,847.8

1,845.5

1,844.7

1,842.6

Administrative and waste
services…………………………… 8,398.3
Administrative and support

8,453.6

8,467.2

8,465.4

8,468.1

8,446.8

8,448.6

8,441.3

8,415.3

8,449.6

8,444.1

8,462.8

8,436.2

8,398.6

8,355.0

8,096.7
3,600.9
2,605.1
805.5

8,113.7
3,649.5
2,637.0
810.2

8,111.6
3,637.4
2,626.9
806.6

8,113.0
3,629.7
2,614.6
806.2

8,090.8
3,602.5
2,603.3
804.1

8,092.2
3,584.6
2,596.5
805.5

8,083.4
3,570.2
2,589.4
803.8

8,057.4
3,533.0
2,565.1
802.7

8,092.2
3,567.7
2,592.0
798.5

8,081.4
3,563.9
2,583.7
798.9

8,099.3
3,566.9
2,578.5
803.7

8,070.8
3,562.1
2,574.6
797.4

8,036.1
3,531.6
2,536.8
796.6

7,991.2
3,486.8
2,511.8
795.5

Computer systems design
and related services…………
Management and technical
consulting services……………
Management of companies
and enterprises……..……….....

services 1……………………… 8,050.2
Employment services 1……… 3,680.9
Temporary help services…… 2,637.4
792.9
Business support services……
Services to buildings
and dwellings…………………

1,801.4

1,851.2

1,833.3

1,842.9

1,846.8

1,851.4

1,854.9

1,858.0

1,863.2

1,866.3

1,861.1

1,872.0

1,861.3

1,859.7

1,853.2

Waste management and
remediation services………….

348.1

356.9

353.5

353.8

355.1

356.0

356.4

357.9

357.9

357.4

362.7

363.5

365.4

362.5

363.8

17,826
2,900.9

18,327
2,949.1

18,153
2,920.3

18,211
2,926.3

18,247
2,928.2

18,314
2,952.9

18,360
2,962.7

18,422
2,981.3

18,451
2,967.7

18,490
2,974.9

18,522
2,975.5

18,568
2,984.5

18,617
3,003.4

18,665
3,009.6

18,708
3,016.8

Educational and health
services………………...……….
Educational services…….………

Health care and social
assistance……….……………… 14,925.3 15,377.6 15,232.8 15,284.9 15,319.2 15,361.4 15,396.8 15,440.8 15,483.0 15,515.1 15,546.7 15,583.2 15,613.6 15,655.0 15,691.1
Ambulatory health care
services 1……………………… 5,285.8
Offices of physicians…………… 2,147.8
Outpatient care centers………
492.6
Home health care services……
865.6
Hospitals………………………… 4,423.4

5,477.1
2,204.0
507.1
913.3
4,517.3

5,416.0
2,185.6
504.3
899.4
4,481.0

5,438.5
2,192.2
505.7
902.4
4,488.4

5,451.8
2,196.0
505.0
904.9
4,499.6

5,462.1
2,194.8
505.2
911.7
4,513.4

5,484.7
2,204.7
505.0
917.7
4,524.2

5,504.4
2,211.7
507.2
923.0
4,533.4

5,523.1
2,219.1
509.3
925.2
4,541.6

5,547.3
2,226.1
511.4
930.3
4,549.7

5,554.8
2,232.2
511.0
929.1
4,558.8

5,566.0
2,235.6
513.0
930.9
4,572.4

5,581.7
2,240.8
511.5
934.7
4,579.3

5,600.0
2,248.2
512.0
939.5
4,592.8

5,614.0
2,252.0
511.4
943.4
4,604.3

2,952.0
1,600.8
2,431.2
849.2
13,474

2,935.0
1,595.7
2,400.8
842.0
13,351

2,945.8
1,601.4
2,412.2
846.5
13,375

2,945.9
1,597.7
2,421.9
847.8
13,428

2,955.3
1,597.6
2,430.6
849.1
13,461

2,954.9
1,602.2
2,433.0
847.7
13,476

2,960.0
1,604.8
2,443.0
850.7
13,494

2,962.8
1,604.3
2,455.5
857.4
13,552

2,963.1
1,603.1
2,455.0
853.3
13,604

2,967.5
1,605.9
2,465.6
856.7
13,628

2,971.2
1,608.2
2,473.6
857.1
13,635

2,974.6
1,608.8
2,478.0
859.2
13,644

2,979.9
1,613.3
2,482.3
858.6
13,660

2,982.2
1,609.1
2,490.6
861.6
13,677

Nursing and residential
care facilities 1………………… 2,892.5
Nursing care facilities………… 1,581.4
Social assistance 1……………… 2,323.5
Child day care services………
818.3
Leisure and hospitality………..
13,110
Arts, entertainment,
and recreation……….…….……

1,928.5

1,977.5

1,967.5

1,959.3

1,970.8

1,975.0

1,968.8

1,970.5

1,985.3

1,996.4

2,001.4

2,010.3

2,016.1

2,019.1

2,020.7

Performing arts and
spectator sports…………………

398.5

412.4

405.6

403.3

409.2

412.1

405.8

409.2

414.3

419.0

426.4

429.9

429.5

431.0

432.1

Museums, historical sites,
zoos, and parks…………………

123.8

130.2

127.8

128.2

129.6

130.6

131.9

131.1

131.6

131.9

131.6

131.5

132.6

131.7

132.6

1,406.3

1,434.9

1,434.1

1,427.8

1,432.0

1,432.3

1,431.1

1,430.2

1,439.4

1,445.5

1,443.4

1,448.9

1,454.0

1,456.4

1,456.0

Amusements, gambling, and
recreation………………………

Accommodations and
food services…………………… 11,181.1 11,496.3 11,383.0 11,415.9 11,457.6 11,486.1 11,507.0 11,523.6 11,567.0 11,607.5 11,626.8 11,624.7 11,628.0 11,640.7 11,656.7
Accommodations………………. 1,832.1
1,856.4 1,856.6 1,855.9 1,856.3 1,853.2 1,853.6 1,844.1 1,856.4 1,863.6 1,870.3 1,858.1 1,854.9 1,854.4 1,851.9
Food services and drinking
places…………………………… 9,349.0
Other services……………………… 5,438
Repair and maintenance……… 1,248.5
Personal and laundry services
1,288.4

9,639.9
5,491
1,257.0
1,305.2

9,526.4
5,479
1,254.7
1,303.0

9,560.0
5,486
1,256.3
1,305.6

9,601.3
5,495
1,261.0
1,307.8

9,632.9
5,496
1,261.3
1,304.3

9,653.4
5,501
1,257.8
1,307.9

9,679.5
5,497
1,259.6
1,305.7

9,710.6
5,495
1,262.5
1,304.4

9,743.9
5,496
1,260.1
1,303.4

9,756.5
5,506
1,258.0
1,309.7

9,766.6
5,507
1,255.5
1,306.9

9,773.1
5,508
1,252.9
1,306.6

9,786.3
5,517
1,255.2
1,306.4

9,804.8
5,520
1,253.4
1,308.9

Membership associations and
organizations…………………… 2,901.2
Government..................................
Federal........................................
Federal, except U.S. Postal
Service....................................
U.S. Postal Service………………
State...........................................
Education................................
Other State government..........
Local...........................................
Education................................
Other local government...........

2,928.8

2,921.1

2,924.2

2,925.9

2,930.8

2,935.4

2,931.2

2,927.6

2,932.8

2,938.0

2,944.4

2,948.9

2,955.6

2,957.9

21,974
2,732

22,203
2,727

22,143
2,729

22,161
2,729

22,186
2,727

22,202
2,720

22,170
2,726

22,212
2,724

22,227
2,721

22,262
2,722

22,278
2,728

22,333
2,735

22,336
2,717

22,362
2,725

22,376
2,727

1,962.6
769.7
5,075
2,292.5
2,782.0
14,167
7,913.0
6,253.8

1,964.6
762.3
5,125
2,318.4
2,806.6
14,351
7,976.6
6,374.5

1,963.8
765.0
5,114
2,313.9
2,799.9
14,300
7,959.2
6,340.4

1,964.5
764.7
5,117
2,316.0
2,801.2
14,315
7,961.8
6,353.6

1,962.3
764.6
5,119
2,314.7
2,804.2
14,340
7,976.6
6,363.7

1,957.0
762.5
5,126
2,319.7
2,806.2
14,356
7,973.7
6,382.4

1,964.3
761.6
5,123
2,313.8
2,808.8
14,321
7,938.2
6,382.5

1,963.4
760.6
5,123
2,313.6
2,809.5
14,365
7,972.0
6,393.4

1,961.4
759.3
5,138
2,327.7
2,810.3
14,368
7,970.6
6,397.5

1,963.5
758.3
5,138
2,325.9
2,812.4
14,402
7,994.6
6,406.9

1,966.7
761.7
5,131
2,314.3
2,816.5
14,419
7,999.6
6,419.2

1,972.3
763.1
5,153
2,332.5
2,820.9
14,445
8,016.5
6,428.2

1,977.3
739.7
5,159
2,335.1
2,824.0
14,460
8,018.0
6,441.5

1,982.9
741.6
5,158
2,332.9
2,824.9
14,479
8,031.9
6,447.5

1,986.3
740.8
5,160
2,335.0
2,824.9
14,489
8,036.9
6,451.7

1

Includes other industries not shown separately.
NOTE: See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.
p = preliminary.

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

65

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

13. Average weekly hours of production or nonsupervisory workers1 on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry, monthly
data seasonally adjusted
Annual average
Industry

2006

2007

2007
Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

2008

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.p

Mar.p

TOTAL PRIVATE…………………………

33.9

33.8

33.9

33.8

33.8

33.9

33.8

33.8

33.8

33.8

33.8

33.8

33.7

33.7

33.8

GOODS-PRODUCING………………………

40.5

40.6

40.6

40.5

40.5

40.7

40.6

40.6

40.6

40.6

40.7

40.5

40.4

40.4

40.5

Natural resources and mining……………

45.6

45.9

46.0

45.8

45.8

46.0

45.9

45.7

46.2

46.0

46.2

45.8

45.7

45.7

46.2

Construction…………………………………

39.0

39.0

39.1

38.9

38.9

39.1

38.9

38.8

38.9

39.0

39.1

39.0

38.8

38.7

38.9

Manufacturing……………………..............
Overtime hours..................................

41.1
4.4

41.2
4.2

41.2
4.3

41.1
4.2

41.1
4.1

41.4
4.3

41.4
4.2

41.3
4.2

41.4
4.2

41.2
4.1

41.3
4.1

41.1
4.0

41.1
4.0

41.1
4.0

41.2
4.0

Durable goods..…………………............
Overtime hours..................................
Wood products.....................................
Nonmetallic mineral products...............
Primary metals.....................................
Fabricated metal products...................
Machinery…………………………………
Computer and electronic products……
Electrical equipment and appliances…
Transportation equipment....................
Furniture and related products………..
Miscellaneous manufacturing..............

41.4
4.4
39.8
43.0
43.6
41.4
42.4
40.5
41.0
42.7
38.8
38.7

41.5
4.2
39.4
42.3
42.9
41.6
42.6
40.6
41.2
42.8
39.2
38.9

41.4
4.3
39.5
42.5
43.2
41.6
42.3
40.4
41.0
42.9
39.0
38.6

41.3
4.2
39.6
42.3
43.0
41.5
42.5
40.6
41.0
42.3
38.9
38.7

41.3
4.1
39.5
42.2
42.8
41.4
42.3
40.4
41.0
42.9
39.0
38.6

41.6
4.4
39.7
42.4
43.3
41.6
42.6
40.5
41.6
43.4
39.1
39.1

41.6
4.2
39.9
42.6
43.2
41.7
42.5
40.3
41.4
43.3
39.2
39.2

41.7
4.2
39.6
42.8
43.0
41.7
42.6
40.6
41.2
43.1
39.7
39.4

41.6
4.2
39.7
42.7
42.6
41.9
42.7
40.6
41.2
42.8
39.4
39.7

41.5
4.1
39.5
42.6
42.6
41.7
42.9
40.6
40.7
42.7
39.1
39.0

41.5
4.1
39.0
42.9
42.7
41.7
42.9
40.9
41.2
42.6
38.9
38.8

41.3
4.0
39.2
41.5
42.2
41.6
42.9
40.5
41.6
42.1
39.1
38.8

41.4
4.1
39.0
42.2
42.5
41.6
43.1
40.4
41.4
42.6
38.3
39.0

41.4
4.1
39.0
42.1
42.4
41.7
43.0
40.5
41.1
42.9
38.2
38.8

41.4
4.1
38.5
43.0
42.8
41.7
42.8
40.9
41.2
42.4
38.7
39.2

Nondurable goods..................................
Overtime hours..................................
Food manufacturing............................…
Beverage and tobacco products..........
Textile mills………………………………
Textile product mills……………………
Apparel.................................................
Leather and allied products..................
Paper and paper products………………

40.6
4.4
40.1
40.8
40.6
39.8
36.5
38.9
42.9

40.8
4.1
40.7
40.8
40.3
39.7
37.2
38.1
43.2

40.8
4.3
41.0
40.7
40.4
39.4
36.7
37.9
43.1

40.9
4.2
40.6
41.3
40.2
39.9
37.2
37.7
43.0

40.8
4.1
40.6
40.6
40.3
39.7
37.3
38.9
42.8

40.9
4.2
40.6
40.9
40.5
40.4
37.8
38.0
43.0

40.9
4.1
40.8
40.7
40.2
40.8
37.5
37.5
43.0

40.8
4.1
40.6
41.0
39.9
39.9
37.2
37.7
43.1

40.9
4.1
40.7
40.8
40.4
39.9
37.2
37.9
43.2

40.8
4.1
40.8
40.6
40.2
39.2
36.6
37.7
43.3

40.9
4.1
40.6
40.5
39.9
39.1
36.9
38.1
43.7

40.8
4.0
40.4
40.8
40.2
39.9
37.5
39.1
44.0

40.6
3.9
40.5
40.5
38.7
38.6
36.7
38.2
44.0

40.6
3.9
40.6
40.1
38.8
39.3
36.8
38.2
43.9

40.7
3.9
40.8
40.0
38.7
39.2
36.9
38.6
43.7

Printing and related support
activities.............................................
Petroleum and coal products……………
Chemicals…………………………………
Plastics and rubber products……………

39.2
45.0
42.5
40.6

39.1
44.2
41.9
41.3

39.2
44.6
41.9
40.9

39.3
44.6
42.1
41.2

39.1
44.4
42.0
41.1

39.1
44.4
42.0
41.5

38.8
44.0
42.2
41.5

39.1
43.7
42.1
41.3

38.9
43.4
42.0
41.6

38.8
42.9
41.7
41.7

39.0
43.8
42.1
42.1

38.8
44.0
41.5
41.4

38.4
43.8
41.6
41.1

38.2
43.6
41.4
41.2

38.6
43.4
41.9
41.1

PRIVATE SERVICEPROVIDING………………………………

32.5

32.4

32.5

32.4

32.5

32.5

32.4

32.4

32.4

32.4

32.4

32.4

32.4

32.3

32.4

Trade, transportation, and
utilities.......……………….......................
Wholesale trade........……………….......
Retail trade…………………………………
Transportation and warehousing…………
Utilities………………………………………
Information…………………………………
Financial activities…………………………

33.4
38.0
30.5
36.9
41.4
36.6
35.7

33.3
38.2
30.2
36.9
42.4
36.5
35.9

33.4
38.2
30.2
37.1
42.5
36.7
36.0

33.3
38.1
30.2
36.8
42.4
36.6
35.9

33.3
38.4
30.1
36.9
42.4
36.4
35.9

33.4
38.3
30.2
36.9
42.5
36.3
36.0

33.2
38.1
30.1
36.8
42.6
36.6
35.9

33.3
38.2
30.1
36.9
42.4
36.4
35.8

33.3
38.2
30.2
36.9
42.5
36.5
35.7

33.2
38.1
30.1
36.7
42.2
36.2
35.7

33.3
38.1
30.2
36.8
42.5
36.2
35.8

33.3
38.3
30.1
36.8
42.8
36.3
35.8

33.4
38.4
30.2
36.6
43.1
36.3
35.8

33.3
38.2
30.1
36.7
42.8
36.2
35.8

33.4
38.4
30.1
36.8
43.4
36.5
35.8

Professional and business
services……………………………………
Education and health services……………
Leisure and hospitality……………………
Other services……………........................

34.6
32.5
25.7
30.9

34.8
32.6
25.5
30.9

34.8
32.6
25.6
31.1

34.7
32.6
25.6
31.0

34.8
32.6
25.6
31.1

34.8
32.6
25.6
30.9

34.8
32.6
25.3
30.9

34.7
32.6
25.4
30.8

34.8
32.6
25.4
30.9

34.8
32.6
25.4
30.8

34.7
32.6
25.3
30.9

34.8
32.6
25.3
30.8

34.7
32.6
25.3
30.8

34.6
32.6
25.3
30.8

34.8
32.7
25.3
30.9

1

Data relate to production workers in natural resources and mining and
manufacturing, construction workers in construction, and nonsupervisory workers
in the service-providing industries.

66

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

NOTE: See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark
revision.
p = preliminary.

14. Average hourly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers1 on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry,
monthly data seasonally adjusted
Annual average

2007

Industry
TOTAL PRIVATE
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&RQVWDQW  GROODUV«««««

2008

2006

2007

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.p

Mar.p














































GOODS-PRODUCING...............................































Natural resources and mining...............
Construction...........................................
Manufacturing.........................................
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'XUDEOHJRRGV«««««««««««
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PRIVATE SERVICE-PRIVATE SERVICE3529,',1*««««««.































Trade,transportation, and
XWLOLWLHV«««««««««««««
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Information..............................................
Financial activities..................................

























































































































Professional and business
services.................................................































Education and health
services.................................................
Leisure and hospitality..........................
Other services.........................................































































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Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

67

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

15. Average hourly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers1 on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry
Annual average

2007

Industry
2006
TOTAL PRIVATE……………………………… $16.76
Seasonally adjusted…………………….
–

June

July

2008

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.p Mar.p

2007

Mar.

Apr.

May

$17.42
–

$17.24
17.24

$17.36
17.29

$17.30 $17.32 $17.44 $17.42 $17.64 $17.60 $17.63 $17.75 $17.80 $17.85 $17.93
17.34 17.41 17.47 17.51 17.57 17.59 17.64 17.70 17.75 17.81 17.87

GOODS-PRODUCING......................................

18.02

18.67

18.38

18.51

18.62

18.70

18.72

18.81

18.91

18.86

18.88

18.96

18.90

18.94

19.04

Natural resources and mining……………..

19.90

20.96

20.86

20.94

20.86

20.80

20.87

20.97

20.93

21.02

20.99

21.68

21.96

21.87

22.25

Construction.…………..................................

20.02

20.95

20.55

20.64

20.85

20.92

21.02

21.13

21.32

21.25

21.26

21.38

21.24

21.35

21.44

Manufacturing…………………………………… 16.81

17.26

17.09

17.21

17.21

17.28

17.22

17.31

17.39

17.34

17.42

17.51

17.53

17.55

17.60

Durable goods..…………………..................
Wood products .........................................
Nonmetallic mineral products ………………
Primary metals .........................................
Fabricated metal products …....................
Machinery …………..………………………
Computer and electronic products ...........
Electrical equipment and appliances ........
Transportation equipment ........................
Furniture and related products .................
Miscellaneous manufacturing ...................

17.68
13.39
16.59
19.36
16.17
17.20
18.94
15.54
22.41
13.80
14.36

18.19
13.67
16.93
19.66
16.53
17.72
19.95
15.94
23.02
14.32
14.66

18.02
13.58
16.91
19.38
16.36
17.70
19.57
15.96
22.65
14.30
14.57

18.11
13.59
16.82
19.72
16.41
17.71
19.77
15.99
22.90
14.38
14.39

18.14
13.60
16.98
19.63
16.49
17.63
19.88
16.09
22.89
14.35
14.42

18.23
13.71
17.15
19.70
16.46
17.60
19.96
16.10
23.17
14.40
14.74

18.10
13.62
17.04
19.85
16.52
17.82
20.08
16.09
22.67
14.36
14.82

18.27
13.61
16.88
19.72
16.58
17.69
20.06
16.03
23.33
14.31
14.77

18.35
13.65
16.94
19.83
16.61
17.79
20.20
16.10
23.42
14.36
14.78

18.30
13.81
16.94
19.81
16.69
17.68
20.28
15.80
23.20
14.36
14.70

18.36
13.82
17.05
19.69
16.70
17.74
20.22
15.68
23.41
14.35
14.72

18.46
13.88
16.94
19.73
16.82
17.95
20.33
15.73
23.46
14.50
15.00

18.43
13.90
16.99
20.04
16.77
17.72
20.51
15.70
23.34
14.38
14.91

18.50
13.82
16.86
19.99
16.78
17.81
20.60
15.73
23.48
14.37
14.95

18.53
13.91
16.78
20.21
16.86
17.87
20.81
15.66
23.47
14.42
15.04

Nondurable goods………………………......
Food manufacturing ...........................……
Beverages and tobacco products .............

15.33
13.13
18.18

15.67
13.54
18.49

15.47
13.36
18.46

15.66
13.49
18.43

15.62
13.52
18.58

15.64
13.52
18.20

15.74
13.57
18.61

15.69
13.61
17.78

15.77
13.65
18.40

15.71
13.61
18.69

15.83
13.63
19.54

15.90
13.70
19.69

15.99
13.87
19.55

15.93
13.74
19.64

16.01
13.82
19.60

12.55
11.86
10.65
11.44
18.01
15.80
24.11
19.60
14.97

13.00
11.78
11.05
12.04
18.43
16.15
25.26
19.56
15.38

12.81
11.83
10.79
11.83
18.17
15.88
24.77
19.46
15.23

13.00
11.72
10.92
11.88
18.48
16.01
25.11
19.72
15.35

12.89
11.70
11.01
11.87
18.46
15.92
24.87
19.53
15.31

12.98
11.83
10.96
11.98
18.47
16.00
24.54
19.62
15.40

13.13
11.89
11.15
12.18
18.68
16.19
25.12
19.70
15.31

13.21
11.74
11.12
12.10
18.30
16.28
25.43
19.47
15.45

13.16
11.73
11.17
12.24
18.54
16.37
25.95
19.52
15.45

12.93
11.75
11.16
12.10
18.50
16.48
24.92
19.35
15.41

13.06
11.67
11.20
12.50
18.47
16.33
26.95
19.52
15.49

13.13
11.75
11.28
12.12
18.71
16.65
25.52
19.57
15.65

13.29
11.68
11.43
12.78
18.78
16.51
26.55
19.46
15.56

13.35
11.62
11.46
12.68
18.61
16.49
26.51
19.40
15.58

13.45
11.80
11.25
12.81
18.70
16.67
27.25
19.34
15.73

Textile mills ..............................................
Textile product mills .................................
Apparel .....................................................
Leather and allied products ………………
Paper and paper products …………………
Printing and related support activities…...
Petroleum and coal products ………………
Chemicals ……………………………………
Plastics and rubber products ....................
PRIVATE SERVICEPROVIDING …………………………………….

16.42

17.10

16.95

17.07

16.95

16.96

17.10

17.05

17.31

17.27

17.31

17.45

17.52

17.58

17.66

Trade, transportation, and
utilities…….……..........................................
Wholesale trade ………………………………
Retail trade ……………………………………
Transportation and warehousing ……………
Utilities ………..…..….………..………………

15.39
18.91
12.57
17.28
27.40

15.79
19.59
12.76
17.73
27.87

15.63
19.26
12.71
17.48
27.68

15.79
19.54
12.82
17.53
27.82

15.67
19.29
12.73
17.51
27.70

15.74
19.44
12.75
17.74
27.47

15.89
19.70
12.84
17.90
27.70

15.81
19.58
12.78
17.84
27.73

16.00
19.85
12.91
17.96
28.27

15.94
19.75
12.85
17.89
28.44

15.84
19.89
12.70
17.94
28.17

15.89
20.10
12.64
18.04
28.61

16.02
20.01
12.78
18.08
28.62

16.08
20.03
12.82
18.14
28.61

16.15
20.05
12.90
18.18
28.82

Information………………………………….....

23.23

23.94

23.73

23.95

23.81

23.71

23.77

23.85

24.22

24.15

24.11

24.34

24.44

24.44

24.58

Financial activities……..………....................

18.80

19.64

19.48

19.65

19.53

19.53

19.66

19.65

19.88

19.79

19.83

19.97

19.96

20.07

20.18

19.13

20.13

19.88

20.12

19.95

19.96

20.26

20.01

20.34

20.19

20.33

20.67

20.65

20.77

20.96

services………………………………………… 17.38

Professional and business
services…………………………………………
Education and health
18.11

17.91

17.92

17.95

18.02

18.18

18.20

18.33

18.33

18.42

18.51

18.61

18.58

18.61

Leisure and hospitality ………………………

9.75

10.41

10.23

10.31

10.33

10.30

10.33

10.39

10.53

10.61

10.67

10.77

10.73

10.82

10.80

Other services…………………......................

14.77

15.42

15.35

15.43

15.38

15.36

15.39

15.43

15.58

15.55

15.61

15.75

15.74

15.78

15.85

1 Data relate to production workers in natural resources and mining and
manufacturing, construction workers in construction, and nonsupervisory
workers in the service-providing industries.

68

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

16. Average weekly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers1 on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry
Industry

Annual average
2006

727$/35,9$7(««««««« $567.87
Seasonally adjusted..........
_

2007

2007
Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

2008

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec

Jan.

Feb.p

Mar.p

$589.72
_

$580.99
584.44

$588.50
584.40

$583.01
586.09

$588.88
590.20

$596.45
590.49

$592.28
591.84

$603.29
593.87

$594.88
594.54

$594.13
596.23

$605.28
598.26

$592.74
598.18

$596.19
600.20

$606.03
604.01

730.16

757.06

742.55

744.10

755.97

766.70

758.16

769.33

777.20

771.37

770.30

771.67

756.00

751.92

769.22

907.95

961.78

947.04

954.86

955.39

963.04

957.93

962.52

979.52

981.63

969.74

992.94

988.20

986.34 1,016.83

781.21

816.06

795.29

792.58

819.41

830.52

828.19

836.75

842.14

841.50

829.14

825.27

805.00

800.63

825.44

691.02

711.36

702.40

705.61

707.33

717.12

704.30

718.37

725.16

717.88

722.93

728.42

716.98

714.29

723.36

732.00
532.99
Wood products .........................
712.71
Nonmetallic mineral products....
Primary metals…………………… 843.59
668.98
Fabricated metal products.........
Machinery………………………… 728.84

754.12
539.10
716.79
843.28
687.13
753.99

746.03
532.34
706.84
837.22
678.94
750.48

746.13
536.81
709.80
847.96
679.37
752.68

751.00
541.28
719.95
838.20
682.69
745.75

763.84
553.88
737.45
853.01
686.38
749.76

743.91
546.16
729.31
849.58
682.28
753.79

763.69
543.04
732.59
844.02
693.04
750.06

770.70
548.73
735.20
848.72
699.28
761.41

763.11
548.26
730.11
841.93
700.98
762.01

763.78
534.83
731.45
842.73
701.40
762.82

771.63
546.87
696.23
844.44
708.12
780.83

759.32
530.98
696.59
851.70
695.96
763.73

758.50
523.78
686.20
847.58
693.01
762.27

767.14
531.36
713.15
867.01
703.06
766.62

766.96

809.19

790.63

796.73

801.16

812.37

801.19

812.43

828.20

827.42

833.06

841.66

822.45

826.06

851.13

636.95
957.65

656.58
985.57

651.17
973.95

655.59
970.96

656.47
668.15
986.56 1,010.21

659.69
658.83
666.54
943.07 1,012.52 1,011.74

649.38
992.96

652.29
671.67
999.61 1,006.43

649.98
638.64
994.28 1,002.60

643.63
997.48

535.90

561.03

554.84

555.07

553.91

568.80

562.91

576.69

572.96

561.48

559.65

578.55

545.00

541.75

555.17

manufacturing..........................

555.90

569.98

563.86

554.02

556.61

580.76

573.53

581.94

588.24

574.77

571.14

589.50

580.00

575.58

592.58

Nondurable goods.......................

621.97
525.99

639.99
550.65

629.63
541.08

638.93
540.95

634.17
546.21

639.68
547.56

639.04
552.30

641.72
556.65

651.30
566.48

644.11
560.73

653.78
562.92

656.67
561.70

646.00
556.19

638.79
546.85

648.41
556.95

741.34
509.39
472.24
389.20
445.47
772.39

753.80
524.47
467.96
411.52
459.43
795.20

745.78
520.09
468.47
398.15
451.91
775.86

774.06
525.20
467.63
407.32
450.25
792.79

761.78
519.47
460.98
411.77
465.30
790.09

758.94
526.99
481.48
416.48
457.64
796.06

761.15
519.95
477.98
413.67
450.66
799.50

739.65
524.44
468.43
412.55
453.75
788.73

747.04
536.93
468.03
414.41
462.67
813.91

751.34
515.91
457.08
410.69
458.59
806.60

787.46
521.09
457.46
415.52
478.75
816.37

793.51
539.64
478.23
423.00
484.80
834.47

778.09
514.32
449.68
416.05
484.36
826.32

769.89
512.64
454.34
420.58
480.57
805.81

778.12
521.86
464.92
417.38
499.59
811.58

618.92

632.08

625.67

629.19

617.70

620.80

621.70

638.18

644.98

644.37

640.14

654.35

630.68

629.92

645.13

GOODS-PRODUCING……………
Natural resources
and mining«««««««««
CONSTRUCTION
Manufacturing……………………
Durable goods……………………

Computer and electronic
products..................................
Electrical equipment and
appliances...............................
Transportation equipment………
Furniture and related
products………………………..
Miscellaneous

Food manufacturing...................
Beverages and tobacco
products..................................
Textile mills………………………
Textile product mills……………
Apparel……………………………
Leather and allied products.......
Paper and paper products…….
Printing and related
support activities………………
Petroleum and coal

products………………………… 1,085.50 1,115.24 1,089.88 1,119.91 1,106.72 1,099.39 1,117.84 1,106.21 1,144.40 1,074.05 1,204.67 1,099.91 1,157.58 1,134.63 1,166.30
819.99
815.37
834.16
818.31
822.08
823.46
819.69
821.79
801.09
823.74
818.03
809.54
801.22
810.35
Chemicals………………………… 833.67
Plastics and rubber
products…………………………
PRIVATE SERVICEPROVIDING…………....................
Trade, transportation,
and utilities………………………
Wholesale trade......…………......
Retail trade…………………………

608.41

635.15

622.91

633.96

627.71

642.18

624.65

635.00

647.36

642.60

652.13

657.30

639.52

637.22

644.93

532.78

554.78

547.49

556.48

547.49

551.20

560.88

554.13

567.77

557.82

559.11

570.62

558.89

564.32

573.95

514.34
718.63
383.02

526.38
748.90
385.20

517.35
729.95
380.03

525.81
754.24
385.88

520.24
738.81
381.90

527.29
744.55
387.60

535.49
758.45
392.90

529.64
747.96
388.51

542.40
768.20
396.34

529.21
752.48
386.79

525.89
757.81
382.27

535.49
779.88
385.52

525.46
758.38
379.57

529.03
759.14
380.75

537.80
773.93
387.00

Transportation and
warehousing……………………… 636.97
654.83
643.26
645.10
642.62
656.38
664.09
663.65
668.11
656.56
661.99
678.30
650.88
654.85
667.21
Utilities……………………………… 1,135.34 1,182.17 1,168.10 1,182.35 1,177.25 1,170.22 1,180.02 1,175.75 1,215.61 1,208.70 1,194.41 1,221.65 1,222.07 1,218.79 1,242.14
Information…………………………

850.42

873.63

863.77

883.76

857.16

858.30

884.24

870.53

896.14

874.23

872.78

893.28

877.40

879.84

902.09

Financial activities………………… 672.21

705.29

695.44

719.19

693.32

699.17

717.59

699.54

721.64

702.55

705.95

726.91

708.58

716.50

730.52

Professional and
business services………………

662.27

700.15

687.85

706.21

692.27

696.60

709.10

696.35

715.97

702.61

705.45

727.58

704.17

714.49

735.70

Education and Education and
health services…………………… 564.94

590.18

580.28

585.98

581.58

585.65

598.12

593.32

603.06

595.73

600.49

607.13

604.83

603.85

608.55

Leisure and hospitality………….

250.34

265.45

258.82

264.97

263.42

266.77

271.68

270.14

269.57

268.43

266.75

272.48

262.89

269.42

273.24

Other services……………………… 456.50

476.80

474.32

478.33

476.78

476.16

480.17

478.33

484.54

478.94

480.79

488.25

480.07

482.87

489.77

1 Data relate to production workers in natural resources and mining and manufacturing,

127(6HH1RWHVRQWKHGDWDIRUDGHVFULSWLRQRIWKHPRVWUHFHQWEHQFKPDUNUHYLVLRQ

construction workers in construction, and nonsupervisory workers in the service-

'DVKLQGLFDWHVGDWDQRWDYDLODEOH

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Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

69

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

'LIIXVLRQLQGH[HVRIHPSOR\PHQWFKDQJHVHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG
[In percent]
Timespan and year

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug. Sept. Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Private nonfarm payrolls, 278 industries
Over 1-month span:
2003...............................................
2004..............................................
2005..............................................
2006…………………………………
2007…………………………………

50.5
52.2
65.1
51.6
45.4

50.5
60.6
60.9
51.8
41.4

64.1
54.2
64.4
52.7
48.0

62.6
58.2
59.3
51.1

61.7
55.8
53.3
56.6

58.9
58.2
52.7
50.4

56.0
58.0
60.4
52.2

50.0
61.3
58.9
51.6

56.9
54.7
53.5
56.4

56.9
53.6
55.8
54.6

51.3
62.4
57.1
48.2

51.8
54.7
56.0
48.5

Over 3-month span:
2003...............................................
2004..............................................
2005..............................................
2006…………………………………
2007…………………………………

54.4
52.2
67.2
58.4
46.7

52.9
55.5
66.2
54.7
42.7

57.3
57.5
66.6
55.3
41.4

63.5
60.8
65.5
54.7

68.8
58.9
60.6
56.2

66.6
61.9
58.2
53.3

61.3
60.4
56.0
53.1

56.4
63.9
58.9
54.7

57.7
61.1
55.7
58.4

59.5
54.4
56.4
56.8

61.9
54.9
57.1
54.7

54.6
61.3
58.4
52.4

Over 6-month span:
2003...............................................
2004..............................................
2005..............................................
2006…………………………………
2007…………………………………

50.0
54.6
63.1
59.1
51.5

51.6
57.3
64.4
56.4
49.8

55.3
56.8
67.2
57.5
44.9

60.9
57.5
67.0
56.8

63.7
57.5
64.4
58.8

65.1
58.2
66.4
58.2

65.1
64.4
61.5
56.2

63.9
62.8
61.7
58.0

60.4
62.0
60.4
58.2

61.7
59.3
59.7
57.1

58.2
61.5
60.8
54.6

56.0
62.0
56.0
53.8

Over 12-month span:
2003...............................................
2004..............................................
2005..............................................
2006…………………………………
2007…………………………………

40.5
60.6
67.2
62.6
53.8

42.3
60.8
65.1
59.1
54.6

45.1
59.7
65.5
60.4
51.8

48.9
58.9
62.6
58.9

51.3
58.0
64.8
59.5

58.2
60.0
66.4
58.4

57.5
60.9
64.4
57.5

55.7
63.3
64.4
58.8

57.3
60.4
66.2
61.7

58.8
58.9
65.1
60.4

60.6
59.5
64.4
59.9

60.8
61.7
65.5
57.7

Manufacturing payrolls, 84 industries
Over 1-month span:
2003...............................................
2004..............................................
2005..............................................
2006…………………………………
2007…………………………………

43.5
36.3
57.7
47.6
40.5

47.6
48.8
45.8
35.7
28.6

47.0
42.9
54.8
30.4
39.3

63.7
44.6
48.8
29.8

50.6
42.3
38.1
37.5

51.2
35.1
53.0
39.3

58.3
38.1
50.6
41.7

42.9
47.0
44.0
33.3

42.9
45.8
36.3
40.5

48.2
46.4
40.5
45.2

42.3
47.0
38.1
44.6

39.9
47.0
39.3
36.3

Over 3-month span:
2003...............................................
2004..............................................
2005..............................................
2006…………………………………
2007…………………………………

41.1
38.1
54.8
33.9
35.7

40.5
39.3
52.4
28.6
27.4

43.5
42.3
47.6
32.1
28.0

56.5
44.6
48.8
27.4

58.9
36.3
44.6
29.8

61.3
37.5
50.6
32.7

57.7
33.3
42.9
31.0

47.0
39.9
47.6
34.5

46.4
45.8
36.3
32.1

41.7
41.7
37.5
39.3

44.6
38.7
32.1
44.0

38.7
49.4
34.5
41.7

Over 6-month span:
2003...............................................
2004..............................................
2005..............................................
2006…………………………………
2007…………………………………

29.2
33.9
42.9
34.5
34.5

31.5
38.1
45.2
27.4
33.9

32.7
35.1
50.6
23.8
33.3

44.6
36.9
47.6
27.4

49.4
32.1
48.2
31.5

54.8
32.1
47.6
34.5

59.5
41.7
46.4
33.3

56.0
35.7
48.8
31.0

51.2
36.3
43.5
29.2

51.8
36.9
41.7
35.1

44.0
37.5
38.7
34.5

38.7
42.3
29.8
32.7

Over 12-month span:
2003...............................................
2004..............................................
2005..............................................
2006…………………………………
2007…………………………………

13.1
44.6
44.6
39.3
29.8

14.3
43.5
40.5
36.3
29.8

13.1
41.7
40.5
36.9
29.2

20.2
40.5
39.3
28.6

23.2
36.3
39.3
29.8

35.7
35.1
44.6
26.2

36.9
32.1
41.7
26.8

38.1
33.9
42.3
29.2

36.9
32.7
46.4
30.4

44.0
33.3
48.2
29.8

44.6
33.3
45.2
33.3

44.6
38.1
44.0
33.9

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70

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

6HHWKH'HILQLWLRQVLQWKLVVHFWLRQ6HH1RWHVRQWKHGDWD
IRUDGHVFULSWLRQRIWKHPRVWUHFHQWEHQFKPDUNUHYLVLRQ
'DWDIRUWKHWZRPRVWUHFHQWPRQWKVDUHSUHOLPLQDU\

!(:_R_`U^Y^Wc\UfU\cQ^TbQdUcRiY^TecdbiQ^TbUWY_^cUQc_^Q\\iQTZecdUT
1

Levels (in thousands)
Industry and region

2007
Sept.

Total2………………………………………………

Oct.

Percent
2008

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

2007
p

Feb.

Mar.

Sept.

Oct.

2.9

2008

Nov.

2.8

Dec.

2.8

Jan.

2.8

Mar.p

Feb.

4,080

4,044

3,972

3,974

3,889

3,799

3,733

2.7

2.7

2.6

2
Total private …………………………………

3,637

3,597

3,520

3,526

3,449

3,350

3,293

3.1

3.0

3.0

3.0

2.9

2.8

2.8

Construction………………………………

128

150

138

140

133

123

94

1.7

1.9

1.8

1.8

1.8

1.6

1.3

Manufacturing……………………………

314

303

303

305

286

239

252

2.2

2.2

2.2

2.2

2.0

1.7

1.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities………

679

644

648

667

643

598

566

2.5

2.4

2.4

2.4

2.4

2.2

2.1

Professional and business services……

673

758

685

706

752

699

722

3.6

4.0

3.7

3.7

4.0

3.7

3.9

Education and health services…………

712

704

713

698

680

737

715

3.7

3.7

3.7

3.6

3.5

3.8

3.7

Leisure and hospitality……………………

663

614

591

574

515

530

520

4.7

4.3

4.2

4.0

3.6

3.7

3.7

443

448

454

446

439

450

441

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

1.9

2.0

1.9

2.3

Industry

Government…………………………………
Region 3
Northeast…………………………………

594

657

629

644

662

576

614

2.3

2.5

2.4

2.4

2.5

2.2

South………………………………………

1,641

1,629

1,620

1,574

1,536

1,485

1,390

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.1

3.0

2.9

2.7

Midwest……………………………………

787

747

755

779

749

766

789

2.4

2.3

2.3

2.4

2.3

2.4

2.4

1,054

1,014

957

988

966

954

943

3.3

3.2

3.0

3.1

3.0

3.0

3.0

West………………………………………
1

Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal
adjustment of the various series.
2

Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other
services, not shown separately.
3

Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey,
New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas,
Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland,
Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia,

West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri,
Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California,
Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, Wyoming.
NOTE: The job openings level is the number of job openings on the last business day of the
month; the job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month
as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
P

= preliminary.

+LUHVOHYHOVDQGUDWHVE\LQGXVWU\DQGUHJLRQVHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG
Levels1 (in thousands)
Industry and region

2007
Sept.

Total2……………………………………………… 4,700

Oct.

Percent
2008

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

2007
Mar.p

4,914

4,672

4,717

4,639

4,586

4,547

Sept.
3.4

Oct.
3.6

2008

Nov.
3.4

Dec.
3.4

Jan.
3.4

Feb.

Mar.p

3.3

3.3

Industry
Total private 2…………………………………

4,325

4,552

4,305

4,314

4,227

4,203

4,159

3.7

3.9

3.7

3.7

3.7

3.6

3.6

Construction………………………………

336

331

351

335

319

349

362

4.4

4.4

4.7

4.5

4.3

4.7

4.9

Manufacturing……………………………

352

396

353

350

326

285

313

2.5

2.9

2.6

2.5

2.4

2.1

2.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities………

977

1,018

946

970

916

882

905

3.7

3.8

3.5

3.6

3.4

3.3

3.4

Professional and business services……

799

855

902

851

897

780

856

4.4

4.7

5.0

4.7

5.0

4.3

4.7

Education and health services…………

453

517

527

460

516

522

498

2.5

2.8

2.8

2.5

2.8

2.8

2.7

Leisure and hospitality……………………

888

924

846

880

824

868

802

6.6

6.8

6.2

6.4

6.0

6.4

5.9

359

373

349

390

394

387

385

1.6

1.7

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.7

1.7

2.8

Government…………………………………
Region 3
Northeast…………………………………

689

653

761

770

767

713

714

2.7

2.5

3.0

3.0

3.0

2.8

South………………………………………

1,844

1,924

1,828

1,802

1,814

1,769

1,710

3.7

3.9

3.7

3.6

3.6

3.6

3.4

Midwest……………………………………

1,093

1,097

1,027

1,045

998

944

966

3.5

3.5

3.3

3.3

3.2

3.0

3.1

West………………………………………

1,048

1,216

1,018

1,067

1,058

1,186

1,167

3.4

3.9

3.3

3.4

3.4

3.8

3.8

1

Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal
adjustment of the various series.

2

Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other
services, not shown separately.

Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri,
Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona,
California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah,
Washington, Wyoming.

3

Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New
York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware,
District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi,
North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia;

NOTE: The hires level is the number of hires during the entire month; the hires rate is
the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
p

= preliminary.

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

71

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

7RWDOVHSDUDWLRQVOHYHOVDQGUDWHVE\LQGXVWU\DQGUHJLRQVHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG
1

Levels (in thousands)
Industry and region

Percent

2007
Sept.

2

Total ………………………………………………

Oct.

2008

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

2007
p

Mar.

Sept.

Oct.

3.2

2008

Nov.

3.3

Dec.

3.4

Jan.

3.2

Mar.p

Feb.

4,456

4,594

4,640

4,408

4,477

4,503

4,378

3.2

3.3

3.2

Total private 2…………………………………

4,168

4,314

4,367

4,107

4,188

4,224

4,103

3.6

3.7

3.8

3.5

3.6

3.7

3.6

Construction………………………………

355

355

322

331

311

329

349

4.7

4.7

4.3

4.4

4.2

4.5

4.8

Manufacturing……………………………

374

393

400

325

348

350

310

2.7

2.9

2.9

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities………

950

1,010

1,065

981

1,005

957

932

3.6

3.8

4.0

3.7

3.8

3.6

3.5

Professional and business services……

824

935

878

814

790

861

797

4.6

5.2

4.9

4.5

4.4

4.8

4.4

Education and health services…………

414

434

423

417

447

459

459

2.2

2.3

2.3

2.2

2.4

2.5

2.5

Leisure and hospitality……………………

730

761

799

803

800

854

774

5.4

5.6

5.9

5.9

5.9

6.2

5.7

290

286

286

295

290

278

271

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.2

1.2

2.8

Industry

Government…………………………………
Region 3
Northeast…………………………………

635

652

860

635

697

770

732

2.5

2.5

3.3

2.5

2.7

3.0

South………………………………………

1,786

1,764

1,709

1,712

1,699

1,673

1,633

3.6

3.5

3.4

3.4

3.4

3.4

3.3

Midwest……………………………………

983

994

974

980

975

902

867

3.1

3.2

3.1

3.1

3.1

2.9

2.8

1,038

1,186

1,117

1,117

1,107

1,167

1,126

3.4

3.8

3.6

3.6

3.6

3.8

3.6

West………………………………………

1
Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal
adjustment of the various series.

Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska,
North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California,
Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington,
Wyoming.

2
Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other
services, not shown separately.
3

Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New
York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware,
District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi,
North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia;

NOTE: The total separations level is the number of total separations during the entire
month; the total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire
month as a percent of total employment.
p

= preliminary

4XLWVOHYHOVDQGUDWHVE\LQGXVWU\DQGUHJLRQVHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG
Levels1 (in thousands)
Industry and region

2007
Sept.

2

Total ………………………………………………

Oct.

Percent
2008

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

2007
Mar.p

Sept.
1.7

Oct.
1.9

2008

Nov.
1.8

Dec.
1.8

Jan.
1.8

Feb.

Mar.p

2,396

2,648

2,501

2,494

2,493

2,522

2,376

1.8

1.7

Total private 2…………………………………

2,253

2,508

2,361

2,358

2,355

2,384

2,253

1.9

2.2

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.1

2.0

Construction………………………………

132

137

116

119

113

133

105

1.7

1.8

1.5

1.6

1.5

1.8

1.4

Manufacturing……………………………

183

199

187

182

183

187

160

1.3

1.4

1.4

1.3

1.3

1.4

1.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities………

549

588

572

590

598

532

538

2.1

2.2

2.1

2.2

2.2

2.0

2.0

Professional and business services……

405

479

398

367

351

492

377

2.2

2.7

2.2

2.0

1.9

2.7

2.1

Education and health services…………

253

264

269

258

276

271

283

1.4

1.4

1.5

1.4

1.5

1.5

1.5

Leisure and hospitality……………………

440

545

557

561

525

539

530

3.2

4.0

4.1

4.1

3.8

3.9

3.9

146

144

140

137

138

135

117

.7

.6

.6

.6

.6

.6

.5

1.3

Industry

Government…………………………………
Region

3

Northeast…………………………………

306

338

367

312

358

410

326

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.2

1.4

1.6

South………………………………………

1,003

1,088

996

1,008

1,045

1,021

1,003

2.0

2.2

2.0

2.0

2.1

2.1

2.0

Midwest……………………………………

524

524

529

521

502

475

449

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.6

1.6

1.5

1.4

West………………………………………

575

691

607

632

583

632

591

1.9

2.2

2.0

2.0

1.9

2.0

1.9

1

Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal
adjustment of the various series.
2

Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other
services, not shown separately.
3
Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New
York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware,
District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi,
North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West
Virginia;

72

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri,
Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona,
California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon,
Utah, Washington, Wyoming.
NOTE: The quits level is the number of quits during the entire month; the quits
rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total
employment.
p

= preliminary.

22. Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages: 10 largest counties, third quarter 2007.

County by NAICS supersector

Establishments,
third quarter
2007
(thousands)

Average weekly wage1

Employment
September
2007
(thousands)

Percent change,
September
2006-072

Third
quarter
2007

Percent change,
third quarter
2006-072

United States3 ..............................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

9,012.8
8,721.6
124.7
895.5
361.4
1,916.9
144.3
871.8
1,484.6
825.8
726.7
1,162.9
291.2

136,246.9
114,790.8
1,931.5
7,774.4
13,845.4
26,299.2
3,033.1
8,123.2
18,017.6
17,506.6
13,562.6
4,433.8
21,456.1

0.9
.9
1.7
-1.0
-2.2
1.2
.0
-.7
1.7
2.9
1.9
1.2
1.0

$818
810
820
876
987
707
1,274
1,200
998
775
348
531
859

4.3
4.5
7.8
5.7
4.3
3.2
4.6
5.9
6.4
3.6
4.2
4.1
3.2

Los Angeles, CA ..........................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

401.9
397.9
.5
14.3
15.2
55.3
8.8
25.2
43.4
28.2
27.1
179.8
4.0

4,191.6
3,626.2
12.7
160.4
444.7
811.9
216.3
243.7
608.9
480.4
401.1
246.0
565.4

.4
.1
5.0
-.9
(4)
-.1
8.5
-2.6
-.3
1.8
1.8
.0
2.3

925
901
1,095
945
961
765
1,520
1,483
1,051
851
518
439
1,080

3.4
3.1
-8.3
5.4
(4)
2.0
-.3
(4)
6.3
(4)
2.8
5.8
(4)

Cook, IL ........................................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

138.0
136.6
.1
12.1
7.1
27.6
2.5
15.8
28.2
13.6
11.6
13.8
1.4

2,541.5
2,232.8
1.3
98.2
237.2
472.2
58.4
215.4
441.6
369.2
240.0
95.0
308.7

.0
.2
-7.7
-1.6
-1.9
-.9
.6
-1.5
.9
1.6
2.2
.7
-.9

961
958
1,063
1,207
981
776
1,402
1,547
1,179
843
430
691
985

3.3
3.6
3.5
5.5
3.0
-.5
9.1
7.8
3.1
3.7
4.6
3.0
2.3

New York, NY ...............................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

118.0
117.7
.0
2.3
3.1
22.1
4.4
18.7
24.6
8.6
11.2
17.4
.3

2,350.3
1,906.7
.1
35.8
37.5
248.2
135.6
380.0
482.2
283.3
208.5
87.2
443.5

2.0
2.3
-1.9
6.9
-4.7
1.7
1.0
2.0
2.3
2.0
3.3
1.5
.7

1,544
1,667
1,749
1,461
1,158
1,124
1,916
3,047
1,769
1,011
728
889
1,014

8.7
9.6
11.8
5.3
3.0
4.3
4.5
16.3
8.6
4.8
6.1
3.7
1.5

Harris, TX .....................................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

95.1
94.5
1.5
6.6
4.6
21.7
1.3
10.5
18.9
10.0
7.3
11.0
.5

2,028.0
1,783.4
78.4
151.5
182.2
424.7
32.8
120.7
341.2
214.7
176.2
58.4
244.6

3.8
4.3
(4)
5.5
3.5
3.9
2.6
2.0
4.9
5.4
3.2
3.9
.6

1,015
1,027
2,580
968
1,290
901
1,258
1,256
1,156
824
366
595
922

6.7
7.1
(4)
6.1
7.7
6.0
9.1
7.3
7.5
1.7
2.2
7.6
3.1

Maricopa, AZ ................................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

99.3
98.6
.5
10.6
3.6
21.6
1.6
12.7
21.8
9.7
7.2
7.2
.7

1,825.1
1,605.3
8.5
165.8
132.2
374.9
30.4
148.6
316.8
198.9
177.6
50.1
219.9

.2
-.1
2.9
-7.6
-3.7
2.0
-.7
-2.4
.3
4.4
1.4
2.2
2.8

822
811
723
834
1,116
777
1,030
1,024
825
879
387
570
908

3.8
4.1
6.0
3.9
3.2
3.5
.4
.0
9.1
5.5
5.7
5.2
1.2

See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

73

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

22. Continued—Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages: 10 largest counties, second quarter 2007.

County by NAICS supersector

Establishments,
second quarter
2007
(thousands)

June
2007
(thousands)

Percent change,
June
2006-072

Second
quarter
2007

Percent change,
second quarter
2006-072

Orange, CA ..................................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

94.7
93.3
.2
7.1
5.4
17.8
1.4
11.4
19.2
9.8
7.0
14.0
1.4

1,519.5
1,363.2
6.2
105.6
177.1
278.2
30.1
128.1
274.6
139.6
175.1
48.4
156.3

-1.0
-1.3
-6.8
-3.5
(4)
.4
-2.2
-7.7
(4)
2.9
1.7
-.4
1.1

$952
939
588
1,016
1,150
892
1,340
1,445
1,000
833
410
561
1,062

3.4
2.8
10.7
7.2
(4)
(4)
7.5
(4)
(4)
3.3
5.1
4.1
6.7

Dallas, TX .....................................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

67.6
67.1
.6
4.4
3.2
15.0
1.7
8.7
14.4
6.6
5.2
6.4
.5

1,492.6
1,330.0
7.1
84.1
144.2
307.2
48.6
145.7
274.3
144.7
131.2
40.6
162.5

3.2
3.2
-4.7
4.4
-.4
2.3
-4.6
2.8
5.9
6.6
3.6
1.2
2.9

1,011
1,022
2,879
935
1,202
974
1,371
1,331
1,108
968
430
602
920

5.4
5.4
-1.1
1.4
8.1
6.1
7.3
5.2
5.8
6.8
2.6
2.9
5.0

San Diego, CA .............................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

91.7
90.4
.8
7.2
3.2
14.6
1.3
9.9
16.4
8.0
6.9
22.1
1.3

1,334.7
1,108.8
11.6
90.9
102.4
219.8
37.5
81.5
217.9
127.1
163.6
56.6
225.9

.2
-.1
-4.1
-6.5
(4)
.3
.5
-3.3
.6
(4)
2.8
1.1
1.7

890
868
540
916
1,190
730
1,873
1,108
1,076
812
389
482
996

4.8
4.7
4.0
6.3
6.6
5.8
1.7
3.5
6.0
4.1
3.5
2.8
4.8

King, WA ......................................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

75.9
75.4
.4
6.8
2.5
14.8
1.8
7.0
12.9
6.3
6.0
16.7
.5

1,182.2
1,027.6
3.3
72.9
112.0
219.5
75.8
76.4
188.1
120.6
113.7
45.4
154.6

2.9
3.3
3.4
11.0
1.9
2.0
5.0
-1.0
4.4
2.7
3.9
.9
.6

1,028
1,033
1,224
1,002
1,386
903
1,829
1,272
1,180
812
427
571
995

3.8
3.5
1.4
6.5
.8
6.1
4.1
3.3
1.1
4.5
2.4
7.9
6.0

Miami-Dade, FL ............................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

85.9
85.6
.5
6.2
2.6
23.1
1.5
10.4
17.3
8.9
5.7
7.6
.3

1,002.1
868.2
9.2
53.5
48.0
252.6
20.7
71.6
136.4
135.4
101.8
35.7
133.9

1.0
.8
.3
1.5
-1.7
.9
-.7
-.9
-1.5
3.1
1.3
1.9
2.4

814
788
496
841
735
747
1,163
1,161
949
796
458
525
969

3.8
3.7
6.0
-1.1
1.9
2.3
4.6
5.6
7.5
4.6
2.5
5.8
4.8

1

Average weekly wages were calculated using unrounded data.

2

Percent changes were computed from quarterly employment and pay data
adjusted for noneconomic county reclassifications. See Notes on Current Labor
Statistics.
3

74

Average weekly wage1

Employment

Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

Virgin Islands.
4

Data do not meet BLS or State agency disclosure standards.

NOTE: Includes workers covered by Unemployment Insurance (UI) and
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) programs. Data are
preliminary.

23. Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages: by State, second quarter 2007.

State

Establishments,
second quarter
2007
(thousands)

Average weekly wage1

Employment
June
2007
(thousands)

Percent change,
June
2006-07

Second
quarter
2007

Percent change,
second quarter
2006-07

United States2 ...................................

8,945.9

137,018.2

1.2

$820

4.6

Alabama ............................................
Alaska ...............................................
Arizona ..............................................
Arkansas ...........................................
California ...........................................
Colorado ...........................................
Connecticut .......................................
Delaware ...........................................
District of Columbia ...........................
Florida ...............................................

120.1
21.1
158.9
82.7
1,291.3
179.4
112.5
29.1
31.9
604.8

1,965.4
325.8
2,612.4
1,186.5
15,832.5
2,326.9
1,714.2
430.2
683.2
7,894.2

1.1
-.5
1.2
.3
.8
2.2
.9
.0
.8
.2

697
832
786
639
935
832
1,033
870
1,357
743

3.6
5.6
4.4
4.2
5.4
4.8
6.4
2.2
4.3
3.2

Georgia .............................................
Hawaii ...............................................
Idaho .................................................
Illinois ................................................
Indiana ..............................................
Iowa ..................................................
Kansas ..............................................
Kentucky ...........................................
Louisiana ...........................................
Maine ................................................

270.4
38.6
57.1
358.6
158.2
93.4
85.7
109.8
119.9
50.0

4,091.5
631.2
679.1
5,956.3
2,933.4
1,518.6
1,370.7
1,828.2
1,880.2
619.6

1.4
1.4
3.0
.8
.5
.9
2.0
1.7
3.2
.6

792
736
626
874
702
664
702
700
711
658

6.5
4.2
2.3
4.4
2.6
3.9
4.8
4.2
4.1
4.1

Maryland ...........................................
Massachusetts ..................................
Michigan ............................................
Minnesota .........................................
Mississippi .........................................
Missouri .............................................
Montana ............................................
Nebraska ...........................................
Nevada ..............................................
New Hampshire ................................

164.0
210.1
257.1
170.7
69.7
174.7
42.3
58.7
74.7
49.0

2,584.9
3,300.7
4,252.9
2,730.9
1,137.4
2,764.6
449.8
930.9
1,297.9
643.7

.7
1.2
-1.4
.0
.9
.8
1.7
1.6
1.0
.7

899
1,008
807
834
609
727
611
654
776
823

5.3
4.8
2.9
5.6
3.6
3.4
6.3
3.5
3.7
6.3

New Jersey .......................................
New Mexico ......................................
New York ..........................................
North Carolina ...................................
North Dakota .....................................
Ohio ..................................................
Oklahoma ..........................................
Oregon ..............................................
Pennsylvania .....................................
Rhode Island .....................................

278.1
53.7
576.8
251.0
25.1
290.5
99.1
130.8
338.7
36.1

4,066.7
833.3
8,688.8
4,090.5
347.7
5,384.6
1,538.5
1,761.6
5,740.3
492.9

.4
1.1
1.3
3.0
1.5
-.1
1.6
1.7
1.1
.3

989
686
1,020
718
619
740
665
742
802
774

4.3
5.2
5.9
4.1
4.7
3.4
4.1
4.5
4.6
2.5

South Carolina ..................................
South Dakota ....................................
Tennessee ........................................
Texas ................................................
Utah ..................................................
Vermont ............................................
Virginia ..............................................
Washington .......................................
West Virginia .....................................
Wisconsin ..........................................

115.8
30.1
140.7
548.7
86.3
24.7
227.4
216.7
48.7
158.2

1,917.4
404.3
2,768.7
10,296.1
1,233.7
306.6
3,731.5
2,989.8
717.1
2,845.8

3.0
2.1
.7
3.4
4.4
-.5
1.0
2.7
.3
.4

665
590
729
827
698
698
859
835
659
709

2.9
4.8
3.6
5.9
6.6
5.0
4.4
4.6
3.6
3.7

Wyoming ...........................................

24.4

288.3

3.3

739

8.0

Puerto Rico .......................................
Virgin Islands ....................................

56.9
3.4

1,020.7
46.9

-1.6
3.4

460
707

6.0
4.1

1
2

Average weekly wages were calculated using unrounded data.

Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico
or the Virgin Islands.

NOTE: Includes workers covered by Unemployment Insurance (UI)
and Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE)
programs. Data are preliminary.

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

75

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

24. Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, by ownership
Year

Average
establishments

Average
annual
employment

Total annual wages
(in thousands)

Average annual wage
per employee

Average
weekly
wage

Total covered (UI and UCFE)
1997 ..................................................
1998 ..................................................
1999 ..................................................
2000 ..................................................
2001 ..................................................
2002 ..................................................
2003 ..................................................
2004 ..................................................
2005 ..................................................
2006 ..................................................

7,369,473
7,634,018
7,820,860
7,879,116
7,984,529
8,101,872
8,228,840
8,364,795
8,571,144
8,784,027

121,044,432
124,183,549
127,042,282
129,877,063
129,635,800
128,233,919
127,795,827
129,278,176
131,571,623
133,833,834

$3,674,031,718
3,967,072,423
4,235,579,204
4,587,708,584
4,695,225,123
4,714,374,741
4,826,251,547
5,087,561,796
5,351,949,496
5,692,569,465

$30,353
31,945
33,340
35,323
36,219
36,764
37,765
39,354
40,677
42,535

$584
614
641
679
697
707
726
757
782
818

$30,058
31,676
33,094
35,077
35,943
36,428
37,401
38,955
40,270
42,124

$578
609
636
675
691
701
719
749
774
810

$30,064
31,762
33,244
35,337
36,157
36,539
37,508
39,134
40,505
42,414

$578
611
639
680
695
703
721
753
779
816

$32,521
33,605
34,681
36,296
37,814
39,212
40,057
41,118
42,249
43,875

$625
646
667
698
727
754
770
791
812
844

$29,134
30,251
31,234
32,387
33,521
34,605
35,669
36,805
37,718
39,179

$560
582
601
623
645
665
686
708
725
753

$42,732
43,688
44,287
46,228
48,940
52,050
54,239
57,782
59,864
62,274

$822
840
852
889
941
1,001
1,043
1,111
1,151
1,198

UI covered
1997 ..................................................
1998 ..................................................
1999 ..................................................
2000 ..................................................
2001 ..................................................
2002 ..................................................
2003 ..................................................
2004 ..................................................
2005 ..................................................
2006 ..................................................

7,317,363
7,586,767
7,771,198
7,828,861
7,933,536
8,051,117
8,177,087
8,312,729
8,518,249
8,731,111

118,233,942
121,400,660
124,255,714
127,005,574
126,883,182
125,475,293
125,031,551
126,538,579
128,837,948
131,104,860

$3,553,933,885
3,845,494,089
4,112,169,533
4,454,966,824
4,560,511,280
4,570,787,218
4,676,319,378
4,929,262,369
5,188,301,929
5,522,624,197

Private industry covered
1997 ..................................................
1998 ..................................................
1999 ..................................................
2000 ..................................................
2001 ..................................................
2002 ..................................................
2003 ..................................................
2004 ..................................................
2005 ..................................................
2006 ..................................................

7,121,182
7,381,518
7,560,567
7,622,274
7,724,965
7,839,903
7,963,340
8,093,142
8,294,662
8,505,496

102,175,161
105,082,368
107,619,457
110,015,333
109,304,802
107,577,281
107,065,553
108,490,066
110,611,016
112,718,858

$3,071,807,287
3,337,621,699
3,577,738,557
3,887,626,769
3,952,152,155
3,930,767,025
4,015,823,311
4,245,640,890
4,480,311,193
4,780,833,389

State government covered
1997 ..................................................
1998 ..................................................
1999 ..................................................
2000 ..................................................
2001 ..................................................
2002 ..................................................
2003 ..................................................
2004 ..................................................
2005 ..................................................
2006 ..................................................

65,352
67,347
70,538
65,096
64,583
64,447
64,467
64,544
66,278
66,921

4,214,451
4,240,779
4,296,673
4,370,160
4,452,237
4,485,071
4,481,845
4,484,997
4,527,514
4,565,908

$137,057,432
142,512,445
149,011,194
158,618,365
168,358,331
175,866,492
179,528,728
184,414,992
191,281,126
200,329,294

Local government covered
1997 ..................................................
1998 ..................................................
1999 ..................................................
2000 ..................................................
2001 ..................................................
2002 ..................................................
2003 ..................................................
2004 ..................................................
2005 ..................................................
2006 ..................................................

130,829
137,902
140,093
141,491
143,989
146,767
149,281
155,043
157,309
158,695

11,844,330
12,077,513
12,339,584
12,620,081
13,126,143
13,412,941
13,484,153
13,563,517
13,699,418
13,820,093

$345,069,166
365,359,945
385,419,781
408,721,690
440,000,795
464,153,701
480,967,339
499,206,488
516,709,610
541,461,514

Federal government covered (UCFE)
1997 ..................................................
1998 ..................................................
1999 ..................................................
2000 ..................................................
2001 ..................................................
2002 ..................................................
2003 ..................................................
2004 ..................................................
2005 ..................................................
2006 ..................................................

52,110
47,252
49,661
50,256
50,993
50,755
51,753
52,066
52,895
52,916

NOTE: Data are final. Detail may not add to total due to rounding.

76

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

2,810,489
2,782,888
2,786,567
2,871,489
2,752,619
2,758,627
2,764,275
2,739,596
2,733,675
2,728,974

$120,097,833
121,578,334
123,409,672
132,741,760
134,713,843
143,587,523
149,932,170
158,299,427
163,647,568
169,945,269

25. Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, establishment size and employment, private ownership, by
supersector, first quarter 2006
Size of establishments
Industry, establishments, and
employment

Total

Fewer than
5 workers1

5 to 9
workers

10 to 19
workers

20 to 49
workers

50 to 99
workers

100 to 249
workers

250 to 499
workers

500 to 999
workers

1,000 or
more
workers

Total all industries2
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

8,413,125
111,001,540

5,078,506
7,540,432

Natural resources and mining
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

123,076
1,631,257

69,188
111,354

23,230
153,676

15,106
203,446

9,842
296,339

3,177
216,952

1,783
267,612

516
177,858

175
115,367

59
88,653

Construction
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

861,030
7,299,087

558,318
823,891

141,743
929,155

84,922
1,140,245

52,373
1,565,409

15,118
1,027,718

6,762
994,696

1,358
454,918

337
220,788

99
142,267

Manufacturing
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

362,959
14,098,486

137,311
240,304

61,852
415,575

55,135
757,991

53,364
1,662,309

25,712
1,798,423

19,573
3,006,794

6,423
2,207,979

2,469
1,668,696

1,120
2,340,415

Trade, transportation, and utilities
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

1,880,255
25,612,515

999,688
1,663,203

380,100
2,529,630

245,926
3,293,292

158,053
4,772,401

53,502
3,695,250

33,590
5,001,143

7,071
2,419,416

1,796
1,166,322

529
1,071,858

Information
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

142,974
3,037,124

81,209
113,399

21,094
140,632

16,356
223,171

13,313
411,358

5,553
384,148

3,568
544,418

1,141
392,681

512
355,421

228
471,896

Financial activities
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

836,365
8,102,371

541,333
874,114

151,952
1,002,449

80,853
1,068,474

40,558
1,206,411

12,146
832,505

6,245
936,343

1,890
655,392

928
641,926

460
884,757

Professional and business services
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

1,403,142
17,162,560

948,773
1,333,479

192,581
1,265,155

121,585
1,639,285

80,222
2,431,806

30,997
2,148,736

20,046
3,038,221

5,849
1,995,309

2,169
1,469,170

920
1,841,399

Education and health services
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

787,747
16,838,748

375,326
684,886

175,191
1,163,519

112,455
1,512,272

72,335
2,177,055

26,364
1,835,664

18,400
2,754,731

4,106
1,400,469

1,832
1,282,903

1,738
4,027,249

Leisure and hospitality
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

699,767
12,633,387

270,143
430,588

118,147
796,935

128,663
1,802,270

131,168
3,945,588

38,635
2,583,745

10,459
1,475,115

1,602
540,014

648
437,645

302
621,487

Other services
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

1,121,269
4,326,368

912,768
1,087,667

118,306
771,276

56,724
747,842

24,734
718,557

5,570
377,961

2,629
388,231

418
139,473

99
63,337

21
32,024

1

Includes establishments that reported no workers in March 2006.

2

Includes data for unclassified establishments, not shown separately.

1,392,481
919,182
636,264
216,815
123,061
30,375
9,219,319 12,406,793 19,195,647 14,903,811 18,408,166 10,383,792

10,965
5,476
7,421,575 11,522,005

NOTE: Data are final. Detail may not add to total due to rounding.

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

77

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

26. Average annual wages for 2005 and 2006 for all covered
workers1 by metropolitan area
Average annual wages3
Metropolitan area2
2006

Percent
change,
2005-06

Metropolitan areas4 ..............................................................

$42,253

$44,165

4.5

Abilene, TX ............................................................................
Aguadilla-Isabela-San Sebastian, PR ...................................
Akron, OH ..............................................................................
Albany, GA ............................................................................
Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY ..............................................
Albuquerque, NM ...................................................................
Alexandria, LA .......................................................................
Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ ....................................
Altoona, PA ............................................................................
Amarillo, TX ...........................................................................

27,876
18,717
37,471
31,741
39,201
35,665
30,114
38,506
29,642
31,954

29,842
19,277
38,088
32,335
41,027
36,934
31,329
39,787
30,394
33,574

7.1
3.0
1.6
1.9
4.7
3.6
4.0
3.3
2.5
5.1

Ames, IA ................................................................................
Anchorage, AK ......................................................................
Anderson, IN ..........................................................................
Anderson, SC ........................................................................
Ann Arbor, MI ........................................................................
Anniston-Oxford, AL ..............................................................
Appleton, WI ..........................................................................
Asheville, NC .........................................................................
Athens-Clarke County, GA ....................................................
Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta, GA .....................................

33,889
41,712
31,418
29,463
45,820
31,231
34,431
30,926
32,512
44,595

35,331
42,955
32,184
30,373
47,186
32,724
35,308
32,268
33,485
45,889

4.3
3.0
2.4
3.1
3.0
4.8
2.5
4.3
3.0
2.9

Atlantic City, NJ .....................................................................
Auburn-Opelika, AL ...............................................................
Augusta-Richmond County, GA-SC ......................................
Austin-Round Rock, TX .........................................................
Bakersfield, CA ......................................................................
Baltimore-Towson, MD ..........................................................
Bangor, ME ............................................................................
Barnstable Town, MA ............................................................
Baton Rouge, LA ...................................................................
Battle Creek, MI .....................................................................

36,735
29,196
34,588
43,500
34,165
43,486
30,707
35,123
34,523
37,994

38,018
30,468
35,638
45,737
36,020
45,177
31,746
36,437
37,245
39,362

3.5
4.4
3.0
5.1
5.4
3.9
3.4
3.7
7.9
3.6

Bay City, MI ...........................................................................
Beaumont-Port Arthur, TX .....................................................
Bellingham, WA .....................................................................
Bend, OR ...............................................................................
Billings, MT ............................................................................
Binghamton, NY ....................................................................
Birmingham-Hoover, AL ........................................................
Bismarck, ND .........................................................................
Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford, VA ................................
Bloomington, IN .....................................................................

33,572
36,530
31,128
31,492
31,748
33,290
39,353
31,504
32,196
30,080

35,094
39,026
32,618
33,319
33,270
35,048
40,798
32,550
34,024
30,913

4.5
6.8
4.8
5.8
4.8
5.3
3.7
3.3
5.7
2.8

Bloomington-Normal, IL .........................................................
Boise City-Nampa, ID ............................................................
Boston-Cambridge-Quincy, MA-NH ......................................
Boulder, CO ...........................................................................
Bowling Green, KY ................................................................
Bremerton-Silverdale, WA .....................................................
Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT .........................................
Brownsville-Harlingen, TX .....................................................
Brunswick, GA .......................................................................
Buffalo-Niagara Falls, NY ......................................................

39,404
34,623
54,199
49,115
31,306
36,467
71,095
24,893
30,902
35,302

41,359
36,734
56,809
50,944
32,529
37,694
74,890
25,795
32,717
36,950

5.0
6.1
4.8
3.7
3.9
3.4
5.3
3.6
5.9
4.7

Burlington, NC .......................................................................
Burlington-South Burlington, VT ............................................
Canton-Massillon, OH ...........................................................
Cape Coral-Fort Myers, FL ....................................................
Carson City, NV .....................................................................
Casper, WY ...........................................................................
Cedar Rapids, IA ...................................................................
Champaign-Urbana, IL ..........................................................
Charleston, WV .....................................................................
Charleston-North Charleston, SC ..........................................

31,084
38,582
32,080
35,649
38,428
34,810
37,902
33,278
35,363
33,896

32,835
40,548
33,132
37,065
40,115
38,307
38,976
34,422
36,887
35,267

5.6
5.1
3.3
4.0
4.4
10.0
2.8
3.4
4.3
4.0

Charlotte-Gastonia-Concord, NC-SC ....................................
Charlottesville, VA .................................................................
Chattanooga, TN-GA .............................................................
Cheyenne, WY ......................................................................
Chicago-Naperville-Joliet, IL-IN-WI .......................................
Chico, CA ..............................................................................
Cincinnati-Middletown, OH-KY-IN .........................................
Clarksville, TN-KY .................................................................
Cleveland, TN ........................................................................
Cleveland-Elyria-Mentor, OH .................................................

43,728
37,392
33,743
32,208
46,609
30,007
40,343
29,870
32,030
39,973

45,732
39,051
35,358
35,306
48,631
31,557
41,447
30,949
33,075
41,325

4.6
4.4
4.8
9.6
4.3
5.2
2.7
3.6
3.3
3.4

Coeur d’Alene, ID ..................................................................
College Station-Bryan, TX .....................................................
Colorado Springs, CO ...........................................................
Columbia, MO ........................................................................
Columbia, SC ........................................................................
Columbus, GA-AL ..................................................................
Columbus, IN .........................................................................
Columbus, OH .......................................................................
Corpus Christi, TX .................................................................
Corvallis, OR .........................................................................

28,208
29,032
37,268
31,263
33,386
31,370
38,446
39,806
32,975
39,357

29,797
30,239
38,325
32,207
35,209
32,334
40,107
41,168
35,399
40,586

5.6
4.2
2.8
3.0
5.5
3.1
4.3
3.4
7.4
3.1

See footnotes at end of table.

78

2005

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

26. Average annual wages for 2005 and 2006 for all covered
workers1 by metropolitan area — Continued
Average annual wages3
Metropolitan area2

Percent
change,
2005-06

2005

2006

Cumberland, MD-WV ............................................................
Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX ............................................
Dalton, GA .............................................................................
Danville, IL .............................................................................
Danville, VA ...........................................................................
Davenport-Moline-Rock Island, IA-IL .....................................
Dayton, OH ............................................................................
Decatur, AL ............................................................................
Decatur, IL .............................................................................
Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach, FL .........................

$28,645
45,337
32,848
31,861
28,449
35,546
37,922
33,513
38,444
29,927

$29,859
47,525
33,266
33,141
28,870
37,559
39,387
34,883
39,375
31,197

4.2
4.8
1.3
4.0
1.5
5.7
3.9
4.1
2.4
4.2

Denver-Aurora, CO ................................................................
Des Moines, IA ......................................................................
Detroit-Warren-Livonia, MI ....................................................
Dothan, AL .............................................................................
Dover, DE ..............................................................................
Dubuque, IA ...........................................................................
Duluth, MN-WI .......................................................................
Durham, NC ...........................................................................
Eau Claire, WI .......................................................................
El Centro, CA .........................................................................

45,940
39,760
46,790
30,253
33,132
32,414
32,638
46,743
30,763
29,879

48,232
41,358
47,455
31,473
34,571
33,044
33,677
49,314
31,718
30,035

5.0
4.0
1.4
4.0
4.3
1.9
3.2
5.5
3.1
0.5

Elizabethtown, KY .................................................................
Elkhart-Goshen, IN ................................................................
Elmira, NY .............................................................................
El Paso, TX ............................................................................
Erie, PA .................................................................................
Eugene-Springfield, OR .........................................................
Evansville, IN-KY ...................................................................
Fairbanks, AK ........................................................................
Fajardo, PR ...........................................................................
Fargo, ND-MN .......................................................................

30,912
35,573
32,989
28,666
32,010
32,295
35,302
39,399
20,011
32,291

32,072
35,878
33,968
29,903
33,213
33,257
36,858
41,296
21,002
33,542

3.8
0.9
3.0
4.3
3.8
3.0
4.4
4.8
5.0
3.9

Farmington, NM .....................................................................
Fayetteville, NC .....................................................................
Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers, AR-MO ...............................
Flagstaff, AZ ..........................................................................
Flint, MI ..................................................................................
Florence, SC ..........................................................................
Florence-Muscle Shoals, AL ..................................................
Fond du Lac, WI ....................................................................
Fort Collins-Loveland, CO .....................................................
Fort Smith, AR-OK .................................................................

33,695
30,325
34,598
30,733
37,982
32,326
28,885
32,634
36,612
29,599

36,220
31,281
35,734
32,231
39,409
33,610
29,518
33,376
37,940
30,932

7.5
3.2
3.3
4.9
3.8
4.0
2.2
2.3
3.6
4.5

Fort Walton Beach-Crestview-Destin, FL ..............................
Fort Wayne, IN ......................................................................
Fresno, CA ............................................................................
Gadsden, AL ..........................................................................
Gainesville, FL .......................................................................
Gainesville, GA ......................................................................
Glens Falls, NY ......................................................................
Goldsboro, NC .......................................................................
Grand Forks, ND-MN .............................................................
Grand Junction, CO ...............................................................

32,976
34,717
32,266
28,438
32,992
33,828
31,710
28,316
28,138
31,611

34,409
35,641
33,504
29,499
34,573
34,765
32,780
29,331
29,234
33,729

4.3
2.7
3.8
3.7
4.8
2.8
3.4
3.6
3.9
6.7

Grand Rapids-Wyoming, MI ..................................................
Great Falls, MT ......................................................................
Greeley, CO ...........................................................................
Green Bay, WI .......................................................................
Greensboro-High Point, NC ...................................................
Greenville, NC .......................................................................
Greenville, SC .......................................................................
Guayama, PR ........................................................................
Gulfport-Biloxi, MS .................................................................
Hagerstown-Martinsburg, MD-WV .........................................

36,941
28,021
33,636
35,467
34,876
31,433
34,469
23,263
31,688
33,202

38,056
29,542
35,144
36,677
35,898
32,432
35,471
24,551
34,688
34,621

3.0
5.4
4.5
3.4
2.9
3.2
2.9
5.5
9.5
4.3

Hanford-Corcoran, CA ...........................................................
Harrisburg-Carlisle, PA ..........................................................
Harrisonburg, VA ...................................................................
Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford, CT .............................
Hattiesburg, MS .....................................................................
Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton, NC ..............................................
Hinesville-Fort Stewart, GA ...................................................
Holland-Grand Haven, MI ......................................................
Honolulu, HI ...........................................................................
Hot Springs, AR .....................................................................

29,989
39,144
30,366
50,154
28,568
30,090
30,062
36,362
37,654
27,024

31,148
39,807
31,522
51,282
30,059
31,323
31,416
36,895
39,009
27,684

3.9
1.7
3.8
2.2
5.2
4.1
4.5
1.5
3.6
2.4

Houma-Bayou Cane-Thibodaux, LA ......................................
Houston-Baytown-Sugar Land, TX ........................................
Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH ...........................................
Huntsville, AL .........................................................................
Idaho Falls, ID .......................................................................
Indianapolis, IN ......................................................................
Iowa City, IA ..........................................................................
Ithaca, NY ..............................................................................
Jackson, MI ...........................................................................
Jackson, MS ..........................................................................

33,696
47,157
31,415
42,401
29,795
39,830
34,785
36,457
35,879
33,099

38,417
50,177
32,648
44,659
31,632
41,307
35,913
38,337
36,836
34,605

14.0
6.4
3.9
5.3
6.2
3.7
3.2
5.2
2.7
4.5

See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

79

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

26. Average annual wages for 2005 and 2006 for all covered
workers1 by metropolitan area — Continued
Average annual wages3
Metropolitan area2
2006

Jackson, TN ...........................................................................
Jacksonville, FL .....................................................................
Jacksonville, NC ....................................................................
Janesville, WI ........................................................................
Jefferson City, MO .................................................................
Johnson City, TN ...................................................................
Johnstown, PA .......................................................................
Jonesboro, AR .......................................................................
Joplin, MO .............................................................................
Kalamazoo-Portage, MI .........................................................

$33,286
38,224
24,803
34,107
30,991
29,840
29,335
28,550
29,152
36,042

$34,477
40,192
25,854
36,732
31,771
31,058
29,972
28,972
30,111
37,099

3.6
5.1
4.2
7.7
2.5
4.1
2.2
1.5
3.3
2.9

Kankakee-Bradley, IL ............................................................
Kansas City, MO-KS ..............................................................
Kennewick-Richland-Pasco, WA ...........................................
Killeen-Temple-Fort Hood, TX ...............................................
Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol, TN-VA ............................................
Kingston, NY ..........................................................................
Knoxville, TN .........................................................................
Kokomo, IN ............................................................................
La Crosse, WI-MN .................................................................
Lafayette, IN ..........................................................................

31,802
39,749
38,453
30,028
33,568
30,752
35,724
44,462
31,029
35,176

32,389
41,320
38,750
31,511
35,100
33,697
37,216
45,808
31,819
35,380

1.8
4.0
0.8
4.9
4.6
9.6
4.2
3.0
2.5
0.6

Lafayette, LA .........................................................................
Lake Charles, LA ...................................................................
Lakeland, FL ..........................................................................
Lancaster, PA ........................................................................
Lansing-East Lansing, MI ......................................................
Laredo, TX .............................................................................
Las Cruces, NM .....................................................................
Las Vegas-Paradise, NV .......................................................
Lawrence, KS ........................................................................
Lawton, OK ............................................................................

34,729
33,728
32,235
35,264
38,135
27,401
28,569
38,940
28,492
28,459

38,170
35,883
33,530
36,171
39,890
28,051
29,969
40,139
29,896
29,830

9.9
6.4
4.0
2.6
4.6
2.4
4.9
3.1
4.9
4.8

Lebanon, PA ..........................................................................
Lewiston, ID-WA ....................................................................
Lewiston-Auburn, ME ............................................................
Lexington-Fayette, KY ...........................................................
Lima, OH ...............................................................................
Lincoln, NE ............................................................................
Little Rock-North Little Rock, AR ...........................................
Logan, UT-ID .........................................................................
Longview, TX .........................................................................
Longview, WA ........................................................................

30,704
29,414
31,008
36,683
32,630
32,711
34,920
25,869
32,603
33,993

31,790
30,776
32,231
37,926
33,790
33,703
36,169
26,766
35,055
35,140

3.5
4.6
3.9
3.4
3.6
3.0
3.6
3.5
7.5
3.4

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, CA .............................
Louisville, KY-IN ....................................................................
Lubbock, TX ..........................................................................
Lynchburg, VA .......................................................................
Macon, GA .............................................................................
Madera, CA ...........................................................................
Madison, WI ...........................................................................
Manchester-Nashua, NH .......................................................
Mansfield, OH ........................................................................
Mayaguez, PR .......................................................................

46,592
37,144
30,174
32,025
33,110
29,356
38,210
45,066
32,688
19,597

48,680
38,673
31,977
33,242
34,126
31,213
40,007
46,659
33,171
20,619

4.5
4.1
6.0
3.8
3.1
6.3
4.7
3.5
1.5
5.2

McAllen-Edinburg-Pharr, TX ..................................................
Medford, OR ..........................................................................
Memphis, TN-MS-AR ............................................................
Merced, CA ............................................................................
Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Miami Beach, FL ..............................
Michigan City-La Porte, IN .....................................................
Midland, TX ...........................................................................
Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis, WI ....................................
Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI ...........................
Missoula, MT .........................................................................

25,315
30,502
39,094
30,209
40,174
30,724
38,267
40,181
45,507
29,627

26,712
31,697
40,580
31,147
42,175
31,383
42,625
42,049
46,931
30,652

5.5
3.9
3.8
3.1
5.0
2.1
11.4
4.6
3.1
3.5

Mobile, AL ..............................................................................
Modesto, CA ..........................................................................
Monroe, LA ............................................................................
Monroe, MI ............................................................................
Montgomery, AL ....................................................................
Morgantown, WV ...................................................................
Morristown, TN ......................................................................
Mount Vernon-Anacortes, WA ...............................................
Muncie, IN .............................................................................
Muskegon-Norton Shores, MI ................................................

33,496
34,325
29,264
39,449
33,441
31,529
31,215
31,387
32,172
33,035

36,126
35,468
30,618
40,938
35,383
32,608
31,914
32,851
30,691
33,949

7.9
3.3
4.6
3.8
5.8
3.4
2.2
4.7
-4.6
2.8

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach, SC ....................
Napa, CA ...............................................................................
Naples-Marco Island, FL .......................................................
Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro, TN .................................
New Haven-Milford, CT .........................................................
New Orleans-Metairie-Kenner, LA .........................................
New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island, NY-NJ-PA ......
Niles-Benton Harbor, MI ........................................................
Norwich-New London, CT .....................................................
Ocala, FL ...............................................................................

26,642
40,180
38,211
38,753
43,931
37,239
57,660
35,029
42,151
30,008

27,905
41,788
39,320
41,003
44,892
42,434
61,388
36,967
43,184
31,330

4.7
4.0
2.9
5.8
2.2
14.0
6.5
5.5
2.5
4.4

See footnotes at end of table.

80

Percent
change,
2005-06

2005

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

26. Average annual wages for 2005 and 2006 for all covered
workers1 by metropolitan area — Continued
Average annual wages3
Metropolitan area2

Percent
change,
2005-06

2005

2006

Ocean City, NJ ......................................................................
Odessa, TX ............................................................................
Ogden-Clearfield, UT .............................................................
Oklahoma City, OK ................................................................
Olympia, WA ..........................................................................
Omaha-Council Bluffs, NE-IA ................................................
Orlando, FL ............................................................................
Oshkosh-Neenah, WI ............................................................
Owensboro, KY .....................................................................
Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA ...................................

$31,033
33,475
31,195
33,142
36,230
36,329
36,466
38,820
31,379
44,597

$31,801
37,144
32,890
35,846
37,787
38,139
37,776
39,538
32,491
45,467

2.5
11.0
5.4
8.2
4.3
5.0
3.6
1.8
3.5
2.0

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville, FL ........................................
Panama City-Lynn Haven, FL ...............................................
Parkersburg-Marietta, WV-OH ..............................................
Pascagoula, MS ....................................................................
Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent, FL ...........................................
Peoria, IL ...............................................................................
Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD ................
Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ ...............................................
Pine Bluff, AR ........................................................................
Pittsburgh, PA ........................................................................

38,287
31,894
30,747
34,735
32,064
39,871
46,454
40,245
30,794
38,809

39,778
33,341
32,213
36,287
33,530
42,283
48,647
42,220
32,115
40,759

3.9
4.5
4.8
4.5
4.6
6.0
4.7
4.9
4.3
5.0

Pittsfield, MA ..........................................................................
Pocatello, ID ..........................................................................
Ponce, PR .............................................................................
Portland-South Portland-Biddeford, ME ................................
Portland-Vancouver-Beaverton, OR-WA ...............................
Port St. Lucie-Fort Pierce, FL ................................................
Poughkeepsie-Newburgh-Middletown, NY ............................
Prescott, AZ ...........................................................................
Providence-New Bedford-Fall River, RI-MA ..........................
Provo-Orem, UT ....................................................................

35,807
27,686
19,660
35,857
41,048
33,235
38,187
29,295
37,796
30,395

36,707
28,418
20,266
36,979
42,607
34,408
39,528
30,625
39,428
32,308

2.5
2.6
3.1
3.1
3.8
3.5
3.5
4.5
4.3
6.3

Pueblo, CO ............................................................................
Punta Gorda, FL ....................................................................
Racine, WI .............................................................................
Raleigh-Cary, NC ..................................................................
Rapid City, SD .......................................................................
Reading, PA ..........................................................................
Redding, CA ..........................................................................
Reno-Sparks, NV ...................................................................
Richmond, VA ........................................................................
Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA .................................

30,165
31,937
37,659
39,465
28,758
36,210
32,139
38,453
41,274
35,201

30,941
32,370
39,002
41,205
29,920
38,048
33,307
39,537
42,495
36,668

2.6
1.4
3.6
4.4
4.0
5.1
3.6
2.8
3.0
4.2

Roanoke, VA .........................................................................
Rochester, MN .......................................................................
Rochester, NY .......................................................................
Rockford, IL ...........................................................................
Rocky Mount, NC ..................................................................
Rome, GA ..............................................................................
Sacramento--Arden-Arcade--Roseville, CA ...........................
Saginaw-Saginaw Township North, MI ..................................
St. Cloud, MN ........................................................................
St. George, UT ......................................................................

32,987
41,296
37,991
35,652
30,983
33,896
42,800
36,325
31,705
26,046

33,912
42,941
39,481
37,424
31,556
34,850
44,552
37,747
33,018
28,034

2.8
4.0
3.9
5.0
1.8
2.8
4.1
3.9
4.1
7.6

St. Joseph, MO-KS ................................................................
St. Louis, MO-IL .....................................................................
Salem, OR .............................................................................
Salinas, CA ............................................................................
Salisbury, MD ........................................................................
Salt Lake City, UT ..................................................................
San Angelo, TX .....................................................................
San Antonio, TX ....................................................................
San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos, CA ...................................
Sandusky, OH .......................................................................

30,009
39,985
31,289
36,067
32,240
36,857
29,530
35,097
43,824
32,631

31,253
41,354
32,764
37,974
33,223
38,630
30,168
36,763
45,784
33,526

4.1
3.4
4.7
5.3
3.0
4.8
2.2
4.7
4.5
2.7

San Francisco-Oakland-Fremont, CA ...................................
San German-Cabo Rojo, PR .................................................
San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA ..................................
San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo, PR .........................................
San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles, CA ........................................
Santa Barbara-Santa Maria-Goleta, CA ................................
Santa Cruz-Watsonville, CA ..................................................
Santa Fe, NM ........................................................................
Santa Rosa-Petaluma, CA ....................................................
Sarasota-Bradenton-Venice, FL ............................................

58,634
18,745
71,970
23,952
33,759
39,080
38,016
33,253
40,017
33,905

61,343
19,498
76,608
24,812
35,146
40,326
40,776
35,320
41,533
35,751

4.6
4.0
6.4
3.6
4.1
3.2
7.3
6.2
3.8
5.4

Savannah, GA .......................................................................
Scranton--Wilkes-Barre, PA ..................................................
Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA ..............................................
Sheboygan, WI ......................................................................
Sherman-Denison, TX ...........................................................
Shreveport-Bossier City, LA ..................................................
Sioux City, IA-NE-SD .............................................................
Sioux Falls, SD ......................................................................
South Bend-Mishawaka, IN-MI ..............................................
Spartanburg, SC ....................................................................

34,104
32,057
46,644
35,067
32,800
31,962
31,122
33,257
34,086
35,526

35,684
32,813
49,455
35,908
34,166
33,678
31,826
34,542
35,089
37,077

4.6
2.4
6.0
2.4
4.2
5.4
2.3
3.9
2.9
4.4

See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

81

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

26. Average annual wages for 2005 and 2006 for all covered
workers1 by metropolitan area — Continued
Average annual wages3
Metropolitan area2
2006

Spokane, WA .........................................................................
Springfield, IL .........................................................................
Springfield, MA ......................................................................
Springfield, MO ......................................................................
Springfield, OH ......................................................................
State College, PA ..................................................................
Stockton, CA ..........................................................................
Sumter, SC ............................................................................
Syracuse, NY .........................................................................
Tallahassee, FL .....................................................................

$32,621
39,299
36,791
30,124
30,814
34,109
35,030
27,469
36,494
33,548

$34,016
40,679
37,962
30,786
31,844
35,392
36,426
29,294
38,081
35,018

4.3
3.5
3.2
2.2
3.3
3.8
4.0
6.6
4.3
4.4

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL ..................................
Terre Haute, IN ......................................................................
Texarkana, TX-Texarkana, AR ..............................................
Toledo, OH ............................................................................
Topeka, KS ............................................................................
Trenton-Ewing, NJ .................................................................
Tucson, AZ ............................................................................
Tulsa, OK ...............................................................................
Tuscaloosa, AL ......................................................................
Tyler, TX ................................................................................

36,374
30,597
31,302
35,848
33,303
52,034
35,650
35,211
34,124
34,731

38,016
31,341
32,545
37,039
34,806
54,274
37,119
37,637
35,613
36,173

4.5
2.4
4.0
3.3
4.5
4.3
4.1
6.9
4.4
4.2

Utica-Rome, NY .....................................................................
Valdosta, GA .........................................................................
Vallejo-Fairfield, CA ...............................................................
Vero Beach, FL ......................................................................
Victoria, TX ............................................................................
Vineland-Millville-Bridgeton, NJ .............................................
Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC .....................
Visalia-Porterville, CA ............................................................
Waco, TX ...............................................................................
Warner Robins, GA ...............................................................

30,902
25,712
38,431
32,591
34,327
36,387
34,580
28,582
32,325
36,762

32,457
26,794
40,225
33,823
36,642
37,749
36,071
29,772
33,450
38,087

5.0
4.2
4.7
3.8
6.7
3.7
4.3
4.2
3.5
3.6

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV ...............
Waterloo-Cedar Falls, IA .......................................................
Wausau, WI ...........................................................................
Weirton-Steubenville, WV-OH ...............................................
Wenatchee, WA .....................................................................
Wheeling, WV-OH .................................................................
Wichita, KS ............................................................................
Wichita Falls, TX ....................................................................
Williamsport, PA ....................................................................
Wilmington, NC ......................................................................

55,525
33,123
33,259
30,596
27,163
29,808
35,976
29,343
30,699
31,792

58,057
34,329
34,438
31,416
28,340
30,620
38,763
30,785
31,431
32,948

4.6
3.6
3.5
2.7
4.3
2.7
7.7
4.9
2.4
3.6

Winchester, VA-WV ...............................................................
Winston-Salem, NC ...............................................................
Worcester, MA .......................................................................
Yakima, WA ...........................................................................
Yauco, PR .............................................................................
York-Hanover, PA ..................................................................
Youngstown-Warren-Boardman, OH-PA ...............................
Yuba City, CA ........................................................................
Yuma, AZ ...............................................................................

33,787
36,654
41,094
27,334
17,818
36,834
32,176
32,133
27,168

34,895
37,712
42,726
28,401
19,001
37,226
33,852
33,642
28,369

3.3
2.9
4.0
3.9
6.6
1.1
5.2
4.7
4.4

1 Includes workers covered by Unemployment
Insurance (UI) and Unemployment Compensation
for Federal Employees (UCFE) programs.
2 Includes data for Metropolitan Statistical
Areas (MSA) as defined by OMB Bulletin No.
04-03 as of February 18, 2004.

82

Percent
change,
2005-06

2005

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

3 Each year’s total is based on the MSA
definition for the specific year. Annual changes
include differences resulting from changes in
MSA definitions.
4 Totals do not include the six MSAs within
Puerto Rico.

27. Annual data: Employment status of the population
>1XPEHUVLQWKRXVDQGV@
Employment status
Civilian noninstitutional population...........
Civilian labor force............................……
Labor force participation rate...............
Employed............................…………
Employment-population ratio..........
Unemployed............................………
Unemployment rate........................
Not in the labor force............................…
1

1997
203,133
136,297
67.1
129,558
63.8
6,739
4.9
66,837

19981
205,220
137,673
67.1
131,463
64.1
6,210
4.5
67,547

19991
207,753
139,368
67.1
133,488
64.3
5,880
4.2
68,385

20001
212,577
142,583
67.1
136,891
64.4
5,692
4
69,994

20011
215,092
143,734
66.8
136,933
63.7
6,801
4.7
71,359

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

217,570
144,863
66.6
136,485
62.7
8,378
5.8
72,707

221,168
146,510
66.2
137,736
62.3
8,774
6
74,658

223,357
147,401
66
139,252
62.3
8,149
5.5
75,956

226,082
149,320
66
141,730
62.7
7,591
5.1
76,762

228,815
151,428
66.2
144,427
63.1
7,001
4.6
77,387

231,867
153,124
66
146,047
63
7,078
4.6
78,743

Not strictly comparable with prior years.

28. Annual data: Employment levels by industry
>,QWKRXVDQGV@
Industry

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Total private employment............................…

103,113

106,021

108,686

110,996

110,707

108,828

108,416

109,814

111,899

114,184

115,717

Total nonfarm employment……………………
Goods-producing............................………
Natural resources and mining.................
Construction............................……………
Manufacturing............................…………

122,776
23,886
654
5,813
17,419

125,930
24,354
645
6,149
17,560

128,993
24,465
598
6,545
17,322

131,785
24,649
599
6,787
17,263

131,826
23,873
606
6,826
16,441

130,341
22,557
583
6,716
15,259

129,999
21,816
572
6,735
14,510

131,435
21,882
591
6,976
14,315

133,703
22,190
628
7,336
14,226

136,174
22,570
684
7,689
14,197

137,969
22,378
722
7,624
14,032

Private service-providing..........................
79,227
Trade, transportation, and utilities..........
24,700
Wholesale trade............................……… 5,663.90
Retail trade............................………… 14,388.90
Transportation and warehousing.........
4,026.50
Utilities............................………………
620.9
3,084
Information............................……………
7,178
Financial activities............................……
Professional and business services……
14,335
Education and health services…………
14,087
11,018
Leisure and hospitality……………………
Other services……………………………
4,825

81,667
25,186
5,795.20
14,609.30
4,168.00
613.4
3,218
7,462
15,147
14,446
11,232
4,976

84,221
25,771
5,892.50
14,970.10
4,300.30
608.5
3,419
7,648
15,957
14,798
11,543
5,087

86,346
26,225
5,933.20
15,279.80
4,410.30
601.3
3,631
7,687
16,666
15,109
11,862
5,168

86,834
25,983
5,772.70
15,238.60
4,372.00
599.4
3,629
7,807
16,476
15,645
12,036
5,258

86,271
25,497
5,652.30
15,025.10
4,223.60
596.2
3,395
7,847
15,976
16,199
11,986
5,372

86,599
25,287
5,607.50
14,917.30
4,185.40
577
3,188
7,977
15,987
16,588
12,173
5,401

87,932
25,533
5,662.90
15,058.20
4,248.60
563.8
3,118
8,031
16,395
16,953
12,493
5,409

89,709
25,959
5,764.40
15,279.60
4,360.90
554
3,061
8,153
16,954
17,372
12,816
5,395

91,615
26,231
5,897.60
15,319.30
4,465.80
548.5
3,055
8,363
17,552
17,838
13,143
5,432

93,339
26,472
6,005.30
15,382.00
4,531.20
553.5
3,087
8,446
17,920
18,377
13,565
5,472

19,909

20,307

20,790

21,118

21,513

21,583

21,621

21,804

21,990

22,252

Government……………………………………

19,664

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

83

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

29. Annual data: Average hours and earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers on nonfarm
payrolls, by industry
Industry

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Private sector:
Average weekly hours.......…….................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars).........................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)........................

34.5
12.51
431.86

34.5
13.01
448.56

34.3
13.49
463.15

34.3
14.02
481.01

34
14.54
493.79

33.9
14.97
506.72

33.7
15.37
518.06

33.7
15.69
529.09

33.8
16.13
544.33

33.9
16.76
567.87

33.8
17.41
589.36

Goods-producing:
Average weekly hours.............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars).......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................

41.1
13.82
568.43

40.8
14.23
580.99

40.8
14.71
599.99

40.7
15.27
621.86

39.9
15.78
630.04

39.9
16.33
651.61

39.8
16.8
669.13

40
17.19
688.17

40.1
17.6
705.31

40.5
18.02
729.87

40.5
18.64
755.73

Natural resources and mining
Average weekly hours............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars).....................
Construction:

46.2
15.57
720.11

44.9
16.2
727.28

44.2
16.33
721.74

44.4
16.55
734.92

44.6
17
757.92

43.2
17.19
741.97

43.6
17.56
765.94

44.5
18.07
803.82

45.6
18.72
853.71

45.6
19.9
908.01

45.9
20.99
962.54

Average weekly hours............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars).....................
Manufacturing:

38.9
15.67
609.48

38.8
16.23
629.75

39
16.8
655.11

39.2
17.48
685.78

38.7
18
695.89

38.4
18.52
711.82

38.4
18.95
726.83

38.3
19.23
735.55

38.6
19.46
750.22

39
20.02
781.04

38.9
20.94
814.83

Average weekly hours............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars).....................
Private service-providing:

41.7
13.14
548.22

41.4
13.45
557.12

41.4
13.85
573.17

41.3
14.32
590.65

40.3
14.76
595.19

40.5
15.29
618.75

40.4
15.74
635.99

40.8
16.15
658.59

40.7
16.56
673.37

41.1
16.8
690.83

41.2
17.23
710.51

Average weekly hours..………................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars).......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................

32.8
12.07
395.51

32.8
12.61
413.5

32.7
13.09
427.98

32.7
13.62
445.74

32.5
14.18
461.08

32.5
14.59
473.8

32.4
14.99
484.81

32.3
15.29
494.22

32.4
15.74
509.58

32.5
16.42
532.84

32.4
17.09
554.47

Trade, transportation, and utilities:
Average weekly hours.............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars).......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................
Wholesale trade:

34.3
11.9
407.57

34.2
12.39
423.3

33.9
12.82
434.31

33.8
13.31
449.88

33.5
13.7
459.53

33.6
14.02
471.27

33.6
14.34
481.14

33.5
14.58
488.42

33.4
14.92
498.43

33.4
15.4
514.61

33.4
15.82
528.22

Average weekly hours.........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Retail trade:

38.8
14.41
559.39

38.6
15.07
582.21

38.6
15.62
602.77

38.8
16.28
631.4

38.4
16.77
643.45

38
16.98
644.38

37.9
17.36
657.29

37.8
17.65
667.09

37.7
18.16
685

38
18.91
718.3

38.2
19.56
747.7

Average weekly hours.........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Transportation and warehousing:
Average weekly hours.........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Utilities:
Average weekly hours.........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Information:
Average weekly hours.........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Financial activities:

38.8
14.41
559.39

38.6
15.07
582.21

38.6
15.62
602.77

38.8
16.28
631.4

38.4
16.77
643.45

38
16.98
644.38

37.9
17.36
657.29

37.8
17.65
667.09

37.7
18.16
685

38
18.91
718.3

30.2
12.8
747.7

39.4
13.78
542.55

38.7
14.12
546.86

37.6
14.55
547.97

37.4
15.05
562.31

36.7
15.33
562.7

36.8
15.76
579.75

36.8
16.25
598.41

37.2
16.52
614.82

37
16.7
618.58

36.9
17.28
637.14

37
17.76
656.95

42
20.59
865.26

42
21.48
902.94

42
22.03
924.59

42
22.75
955.66

41.4
23.58
977.18

40.9
41.1
40.9
41.1
41.4
42.4
23.96
24.77
25.61
26.68
27.42
27.93
979.09 1,017.27 1,048.44 1,095.90 1,136.08 1,185.08

36.3
17.14
622.4

36.6
17.67
646.52

36.7
18.4
675.32

36.8
19.07
700.89

36.9
19.8
731.11

36.5
20.2
738.17

36.2
21.01
760.81

36.3
21.4
777.05

36.5
22.06
805

36.6
23.23
850.81

36.4
23.92
871.03

Average weekly hours.........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Professional and business services:
Average weekly hours.........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Education and health services:
Average weekly hours.........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Leisure and hospitality:
Average weekly hours.........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Other services:
Average weekly hours.........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................

35.7
13.22
472.37

36
13.93
500.95

35.8
14.47
517.57

35.9
14.98
537.37

35.8
15.59
558.02

35.6
16.17
575.51

35.5
17.14
609.08

35.5
17.52
622.87

35.9
17.94
645.1

35.8
18.8
672.4

35.9
19.66
706.01

34.3
13.57
465.51

34.3
14.27
490

34.4
14.85
510.99

34.5
15.52
535.07

34.2
16.33
557.84

34.2
16.81
574.66

34.1
17.21
587.02

34.2
17.48
597.56

34.2
18.08
618.87

34.6
19.12
662.23

34.8
20.15
700.96

32.2
12.56
404.65

32.2
13
418.82

32.1
13.44
431.35

32.2
13.95
449.29

32.3
14.64
473.39

32.4
15.21
492.74

32.3
15.64
505.69

32.4
16.15
523.78

32.6
16.71
544.59

32.5
17.38
564.95

32.6
18.03
587.2

26
7.32
190.52

26.2
7.67
200.82

26.1
7.96
208.05

26.1
8.32
217.2

25.8
8.57
220.73

25.8
8.81
227.17

25.6
9
230.42

25.7
9.15
234.86

25.7
9.38
241.36

25.7
9.75
250.11

25.5
10.41
265.03

32.7
11.29
368.63

32.6
11.79
384.25

32.5
12.26
398.77

32.5
12.73
413.41

32.3
13.27
428.64

32
13.72
439.76

31.4
13.84
434.41

31
13.98
433.04

30.9
14.34
443.37

30.9
14.77
456.6

30.9
15.22
470.05

NOTE: Data reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), replacing the Standard Industrial Classification
(SIC) system. N AICS-based data by industry are not comparable with SIC-based data.

84

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

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6HHIRRWQRWHVDWHQGRIWDEOH

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

85

Current Labor Statistics: Compensation & Industrial Relations

&RQWLQXHG²(PSOR\PHQW&RVW,QGH[FRPSHQVDWLRQE\RFFXSDWLRQDQGLQGXVWU\JURXS
[December 2005 = 100]

6HULHV

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3HUFHQWFKDQJH
PRQWKV
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HQGHG

0DU
:KROHVDOHWUDGH«««««««««««««««««
5HWDLOWUDGH«««««««««««««««««««
Transportation and warehousing«««««««««
8WLOLWLHV«««««««««««««««««««««
,QIRUPDWLRQ«««««««««««««««««««
)LQDQFLDODFWLYLWLHV««««««««««««««««
)LQDQFHDQGLQVXUDQFH«««««««««««««
Real estate and rental and leasing««««««««
3URIHVVLRQDODQGEXVLQHVVVHUYLFHV«««««««««
(GXFDWLRQDQGKHDOWKVHUYLFHV«««««««««««
(GXFDWLRQVHUYLFHV«««««««««««««««
+HDOWKFDUHDQGVRFLDODVVLVWDQFH««««««««
+RVSLWDOV««««««««««««««««««
Leisure and hospitality««««««««««««««
$FFRPPRGDWLRQDQGIRRGVHUYLFHV««««««««
2WKHUVHUYLFHVH[FHSWSXEOLFDGPLQLVWUDWLRQ«««««

100.3
100.6

107.8

101.2


101.1
101.0
100.7

101.3
100.6
100.5
101.4

100.8
101.2

109.3

101.8


102.2
101.8
101.5

102.0
101.3
101.4
102.7

102.4
101.9

110.1

102.1


102.9
103.2
103.2

103.2
102.4
102.5
103.6

102.9
102.7

110.4

102.5


103.5
104.1
104.2

103.9
103.7
104.0
104.0

103.7
102.9

102.8

104.2


104.7
105.1
104.5

105.0
105.3
105.8
105.7

104.6
103.9

104.7

104.6


105.9
105.7
104.9

105.6
106.0
106.4
106.1

104.2
105.1

105.0

105.4


106.9
106.9
106.7

106.5
107.5
108.1
107.1

105.3
106.1

105.6

105.6


107.5
107.7
107.5

107.3
108.1
108.6
107.6

105.7
106.6

106.5

106.8


109.0
108.6
108.1

108.2
109.0
109.5
108.7

0.4
.5

.9

1.1


1.4
.8
.6

.8
.8
.8
1.0

1.9
3.6

3.6

2.5


4.1
3.3
3.4

3.0
3.5
3.5
2.8

6WDWHDQGORFDOJRYHUQPHQWZRUNHUV««««««««««

100.5

100.9

103.2

104.1

105.1

105.7

107.6

108.4

108.9

.5

3.6

Workers by occupational group
ManagHPHQWSURIHVVLRQDODQGUHODWHG«««««««««
3URIHVVLRQDODQGUHODWHG««««««««««««««
6DOHVDQGRIILFH«««««««««««««««««««
2IILFHDQGDGPLQLVWUDWLYHVXSSRUW««««««««««
6HUYLFHRFFXSDWLRQV«««««««««««««««««

100.3
100.2
100.9
101.0
100.6

100.8
100.8
101.5
101.6
101.2

103.3
103.4
103.3
103.5
103.1

104.0
104.0
104.1
104.2
104.5

104.9
104.8
105.6
105.7
105.4

105.4
105.3
106.2
106.4
106.3

107.5
107.5
107.9
108.2
108.0

108.3
108.2
108.6
108.9
109.1

108.8
108.6
108.8
109.3
109.7

.5
.4
.2
.4
.5

3.7
3.6
3.0
3.4
4.1

Workers by industry
(GXFDWLRQDQGKHDOWKVHUYLFHV««««««««««««
(GXFDWLRQVHUYLFHV«««««««««««««««
6FKRROV«««««««««««««««««««
Elementary and secondaryVFKRROV««««««
+HDOWKFDUHDQGVRFLDODVVLVWDQFH«««««««««
+RVSLWDOV«««««««««««««««««««

100.3

100.2
100.2
101.3
100.9

100.8

100.5
100.5
102.9
101.3

103.7

103.5
103.6
105.1
103.3

104.3

104.1
104.2
105.7
104.3

104.8

104.6
104.7
107.1
105.6

105.3

104.9
105.0
107.6
106.3

107.5

107.4
107.4
108.6
107.5

108.2

108.0
108.0
109.3
108.2

108.6

108.4
108.3
110.1
109.2

.4

.4
.3
.7
.9

3.6

3.6
3.4
2.8
3.4

100.6

101.2

102.4

103.8

105.6

106.6

108.0

109.1

109.7

.5

3.9

3

Public administration «««««««««««««««
1

Cost (cents per hour worked) measured in the Employment Cost Index consists of
wages, salaries, and employer cost of employee benefits.
2
Consists of private industry workers (excluding farm and household workers) and
State and local government (excluding Federal Government) workers.
3
Consists of legislative, judicial, administrative, and regulatory activities.

86

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

NOTE: The Employment Cost Index data reflect the conversion to the 2002 North
American Classification System (NAICS) and the 2000 Standard Occupational
Classification (SOC) system. The NAICS and SOC data shown prior to 2006 are for
informational purposes only. Series based on NAICS and SOC became the official BLS
estimates starting in March 2006.

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Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

87

Current Labor Statistics: Compensation & Industrial Relations

&RQWLQXHG²(PSOR\PHQW&RVW,QGH[ZDJHVDQGVDODULHVE\RFFXSDWLRQDQGLQGXVWU\JURXS
[December 2005 = 100]

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3HUFHQWFKDQJH
PRQWKV
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0DU
:KROHVDOHWUDGH«««««««««««««««««
5HWDLOWUDGH«««««««««««««««««««
Transportation and warehousing«««««««««
8WLOLWLHV«««««««««««««««««««««
,QIRUPDWLRQ«««««««««««««««««««
)LQDQFLDODFWLYLWLHV««««««««««««««««
)LQDQFHDQGLQVXUDQFH«««««««««««««
Real estate and rental and leasing««««««««
3URIHVVLRQDODQGEXVLQHVVVHUYLFHV«««««««««
(GXFDWLRQDQGKHDOWKVHUYLFHV«««««««««««
(GXFDWLRQVHUYLFHV«««««««««««««««
+HDOWKFDUHDQGVRFLDODVVLVWDQFH««««««««
+RVSLWDOV««««««««««««««««««
Leisure and hospitality««««««««««««««
$FFRPPRGDWLRQDQGIRRGVHUYLFHV««««««««
2WKHUVHUYLFHVH[FHSWSXEOLFDGPLQLVWUDWLRQ«««««

100.2
100.5

100.8

101.3


101.0
100.7
100.7

100.9
100.6
100.5
101.3

100.7
100.9

102.1

102.3


102.3
101.6
101.4

101.8
101.3
101.3
102.6

102.7
101.9

103.0

102.5


103.0
103.0
103.1

102.9
102.3
102.2
103.4

103.0
102.8

103.5

102.8


103.5
104.0
104.1

103.7
103.7
103.8
103.8

103.8
103.1

104.3

104.7


104.8
104.8
104.2

104.6
105.7
106.0
105.7

104.8
104.2

105.5

104.9


105.9
105.6
104.6

105.4
106.4
106.5
106.1

104.0
105.1

106.1

106.0


106.7
106.9
106.4

106.5
108.1
108.4
107.3

105.2
106.1

106.8

105.9


107.5
107.7
107.4

107.2
108.8
109.0
107.9

105.2
106.4

108.0

107.2


109.1
108.6
107.9

108.2
109.7
110.0
109.2

0.0
.3

1.1

1.2


1.5
.8
.5

.9
.8
.9
1.2

1.3
3.2

3.5

2.4


4.1
3.6
3.6

3.4
3.8
3.8
3.3

6WDWHDQGORFDOJRYHUQPHQWZRUNHUV««««««««««

100.3

100.8

102.8

103.5

104.1

104.6

106.4

107.1

107.7

.6

3.5

Workers by occupational group
ManagHPHQWSURIHVVLRQDODQGUHODWHG«««««««««
3URIHVVLRQDODQGUHODWHG««««««««««««««
6DOHVDQGRIILFH«««««««««««««««««««
2IILFHDQGDGPLQLVWUDWLYHVXSSRUW««««««««««
6HUYLFHRFFXSDWLRQV«««««««««««««««««

100.2
100.2
100.6
100.7
100.3

100.7
100.7
101.2
101.4
100.8

102.9
103.0
102.6
102.7
102.4

103.5
103.6
103.2
103.4
103.9

104.0
103.9
104.5
104.7
104.5

104.3
104.2
104.8
105.0
105.2

106.3
106.3
106.3
106.5
106.5

107.0
107.0
107.0
107.3
107.7

107.6
107.5
107.4
107.8
108.3

.6
.5
.4
.5
.6

3.5
3.5
2.8
3.0
3.6

Workers by industry
(GXFDWLRQDQGKHDOWKVHUYLFHV««««««««««««
(GXFDWLRQVHUYLFHV«««««««««««««««
6FKRROV«««««««««««««««««««
Elementary and secondaryVFKRROV««««««
+HDOWKFDUHDQGVRFLDODVVLVWDQFH«««««««««
+RVSLWDOV«««««««««««««««««««

100.2

100.1
100.0
101.0
100.9

100.7

100.4
100.3
103.0
101.4

103.1

103.0
103.0
104.8
103.1

103.6

103.4
103.4
105.5
104.4

104.0

103.6
103.6
106.6
105.7

104.2

103.9
103.8
107.2
106.5

106.3

106.1
106.0
108.2
107.6

107.1

106.8
106.6
109.2
108.6

107.5

107.2
106.9
110.1
109.8

.4

.4
.3
.8
1.1

3.4

3.5
3.2
3.3
3.9

100.5

101.1

102.0

103.5

104.5

105.2

106.4

107.4

108.2

.7

3.5

2

Public administration «««««««««««««««
1

Consists of private industry workers (excluding farm and household workers) and
State and local government (excluding Federal Government) workers.
2
Consists of legislative, judicial, administrative, and regulatory activities.
NOTE: The Employment Cost Index data reflect the conversion to the 2002 North

88

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

American Classification System (NAICS) and the 2000 Standard Occupational
Classification (SOC) system. The NAICS and SOC data shown prior to 2006 are for
informational purposes only. Series based on NAICS and SOC became the official
BLS estimates starting in March 2006.

(PSOR\PHQW&RVW,QGH[EHQHILWVE\RFFXSDWLRQDQGLQGXVWU\JURXS
[December 2005 = 100]

6HULHV

Mar.

June

Sept.


Dec.

Mar.

June



Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

Percent change
3 months
ended

12 months
ended

Mar. 2008
Civilian workers………………………………………………….

100.9

101.6

102.8

103.6

104.0

105.1

106.1

106.8

107.6

0.7

3.5

Private industry workers………………………………………… 101.0

101.7

102.5

103.1

103.2

104.3

105.0

105.6

106.5

.9

3.2

Workers by occupational group
Management, professional, and related………………………
Sales and office…………………………………………………
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance…………
Production, transportation, and material moving……………

101.3
100.8
101.1
100.1

101.8
101.6
102.7
101.0

102.8
102.0
103.5
101.6

103.4
102.9
104.0
102.0

103.8
103.4
103.4
101.2

104.9
104.3
104.8
102.4

105.6
105.2
105.3
102.7

106.0
106.0
105.9
103.7

107.3
106.5
106.5
104.4

1.2
.5
.6
.7

3.4
3.0
3.0
3.2

Service occupations……………………………………………

101.5

102.2

103.0

103.6

104.2

105.1

106.0

106.7

107.6

.8

3.3

Goods-producing………………………………………………
99.6
Manufacturing………………………………………………… 99.0
Service-providing……………………………………………… 101.5

100.4
99.7
102.3

101.3
100.5
103.0

101.7
100.8
103.7

100.9
99.6
104.1

102.2
101.0
105.2

102.4
100.7
106.0

103.2
101.7
106.6

104.0
102.3
107.6

.8
.6
.9

3.1
2.7
3.4

101.3

104.1

105.2

107.0

108.0

110.3

111.0

111.4

.4

4.1

Workers by industry

State and local government workers…………………………

100.7

NOTE: The Employment Cost Index data reflect the conversion to
the 2002 North American Classification System (NAICS) and the 2000
Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system. The NAICS and
SOC data shown prior

to 2006 are for informational purposes only. Series based on NAICS and SOC became the official
BLS estimates starting in March 2006.

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

89

Current Labor Statistics: Compensation & Industrial Relations

33. Employment Cost Index, private industry workers by bargaining status and region
[December 2005 = 100]
2006
Series

Mar.

June

Sept.

2007
Dec.

Mar.

June

2008

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

Percent change
3 months
ended

12 months
ended

Mar. 2008
COMPENSATION
Workers by bargaining status1
Union………………………………………………………………… 100.5
Goods-producing…………………………………………………
99.9
Manufacturing…………………………………………………
99.3
Service-providing………………………………………………… 101.0

101.8
101.2
100.1
102.2

102.4
101.8
100.5
102.9

103.0
102.2
100.8
103.6

102.7
101.5
99.2
103.7

103.9
102.8
100.0
104.7

104.4
103.1
100.0
105.4

105.1
104.0
101.0
106.0

105.9
104.6
101.4
107.0

0.8
.6
.4
.9

3.1
3.1
2.2
3.2

Nonunion……………………………………………………………
Goods-producing…………………………………………………
Manufacturing…………………………………………………
Service-providing…………………………………………………

100.9
100.5
100.3
101.0

101.7
101.4
101.3
101.8

102.6
102.0
101.7
102.7

103.2
102.5
102.1
103.4

104.2
103.3
102.8
104.4

105.1
104.2
103.7
105.3

105.9
104.8
104.1
106.2

106.5
105.4
104.6
106.8

107.5
106.5
105.6
107.7

.9
1.0
1.0
.8

3.2
3.1
2.7
3.2

Workers by region1
Northeast……………………………………………………………
South…………………………………………………………………
Midwest………………………………………………………………
West…………………………………………………………………

100.9
101.0
100.7
100.6

101.8
101.6
101.7
101.8

102.5
102.8
102.3
102.5

103.3
103.5
102.8
103.0

104.0
104.3
103.3
104.2

105.1
105.3
104.2
104.9

106.2
106.1
104.6
105.7

106.8
106.7
105.3
106.5

107.4
107.8
106.0
107.8

.6
1.0
.7
1.2

3.3
3.4
2.6
3.5

Workers by bargaining status1
Union…………………………………………………………………
Goods-producing…………………………………………………
Manufacturing…………………………………………………
Service-providing…………………………………………………

100.3
100.5
100.6
100.1

101.2
101.6
101.2
100.9

101.7
101.9
101.4
101.6

102.3
102.3
101.7
102.2

102.8
102.7
102.0
102.9

103.7
103.6
102.5
103.8

104.4
104.3
102.9
104.6

104.7
104.3
102.6
104.9

105.5
105.2
103.4
105.8

.8
.9
.8
.9

2.6
2.4
1.4
2.8

Nonunion……………………………………………………………
Goods-producing…………………………………………………
Manufacturing…………………………………………………
Service-providing…………………………………………………

100.8
100.7
100.7
100.8

101.8
101.9
101.8
101.7

102.7
102.4
102.0
102.7

103.3
103.0
102.5
103.4

104.5
104.2
103.6
104.6

105.3
105.0
104.2
105.4

106.2
105.8
104.9
106.3

106.9
106.4
105.5
107.0

107.9
107.7
106.6
107.9

.9
1.2
1.0
.8

3.3
3.4
2.9
3.2

Workers by region1
Northeast……………………………………………………………
South…………………………………………………………………
Midwest………………………………………………………………
West…………………………………………………………………

100.8
101.0
100.4
100.7

101.7
101.6
101.4
102.1

102.5
102.9
102.0
102.7

103.1
103.6
102.6
103.2

104.0
104.6
103.6
104.8

105.0
105.6
104.4
105.4

106.1
106.5
105.0
106.2

106.6
107.0
105.6
107.0

107.5
108.1
106.3
108.3

.8
1.0
.7
1.2

3.4
3.3
2.6
3.3

WAGES AND SALARIES

1
The indexes are calculated differently from those for the
occupation and industry groups. For a detailed description of
the index calculation, see the Monthly Labor Review Technical
Note, "Estimation procedures for the Employment Cost Index,"
May 1982.

90

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

NOTE: The Employment Cost Index data reflect the conversion to the 2002 North American
Classification System (NAICS) and the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system. The
NAICS and SOC data shown prior to 2006 are for informational purposes only. Series based on NAICS
and SOC became the official BLS estimates starting in March 2006.

34. National Compensation Survey: Retirement benefits in private industry by
access, participation, and selected series, 2003–2007
Series

Year
2003

2004

2005

2007 1

2006

All retirement
Percentage of workers with access
All workers………………………………………………………

57

59

60

60

White-collar occupations 2 ……………………………………

67

69

70

69

-

-

-

-

-

76
64

Management, professional, and related ……………….

61

Sales and office ……………………………………………

-

-

-

-

Blue-collar occupations 2………………………………………

59

59

60

62

-

-

-

-

-

61

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance...…

-

-

-

-

65

Service occupations……………………………………………

Production, transportation, and material moving…...…

28

31

32

34

36

Full-time…………………………………………………………

67

68

69

69

70

Part-time………………………………………………………

24

27

27

29

31

Union……………………………………………………………

86

84

88

84

84

Non-union………………………………………………………

54

56

56

57

58

Average wage less than $15 per hour……...………………

45

46

46

47

47

Average wage $15 per hour or higher……...………………

76

77

78

77

76

Goods-producing industries…………………………………

70

70

71

73

70

Service-providing industries…………………………………

53

55

56

56

58

Establishments with 1-99 workers……………………………

42

44

44

44

45

Establishments with 100 or more workers…………………

75

77

78

78

78

All workers………………………………………………………

49

50

50

51

51

White-collar occupations 2 ……………………………………

59

61

61

60

-

-

-

-

-

69
54

Percentage of workers participating

Management, professional, and related ……………….
Sales and office ……………………………………………

-

-

-

-

Blue-collar occupations 2………………………………………

50

50

51

52

-

-

-

-

-

51

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance…...

-

-

-

-

54

Service occupations……………………………………………

Production, transportation, and material moving…...…

21

22

22

24

25

Full-time…………………………………………………………

58

60

60

60

60

Part-time………………………………………………………

18

20

19

21

23

Union……………………………………………………………

83

81

85

80

81

Non-union………………………………………………………

45

47

46

47

47

Average wage less than $15 per hour……...………………

35

36

35

36

36

Average wage $15 per hour or higher……...………………

70

71

71

70

69

Goods-producing industries…………………………………

63

63

64

64

61

Service-providing industries…………………………………

45

47

47

47

48

Establishments with 1-99 workers……………………………

35

37

37

37

37

Establishments with 100 or more workers…………………

65

67

67

67

66

Take-up rate (all workers) 3……………………………………

-

-

85

85

84

20

21

22

21

21

23

24

25

23

-

-

-

-

-

29
19

Defined Benefit
Percentage of workers with access
All workers………………………………………………………
2
White-collar occupations ……………………………………

Management, professional, and related ……………….
Sales and office ……………………………………………
2
Blue-collar occupations ………………………………………

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance...…

-

-

-

-

24

26

26

25

-

-

-

-

-

26
26

Production, transportation, and material moving…...…

-

-

-

-

Service occupations……………………………………………

8

6

7

8

8

Full-time…………………………………………………………

24

25

25

24

24

Part-time………………………………………………………

8

9

10

9

10

Union……………………………………………………………

74

70

73

70

69

Non-union………………………………………………………

15

16

16

15

15

Average wage less than $15 per hour……...………………

12

11

12

11

11

Average wage $15 per hour or higher……...………………

34

35

35

34

33

Goods-producing industries…………………………………

31

32

33

32

29

Service-providing industries…………………………………

17

18

19

18

19

9

9

10

9

9

34

35

37

35

34

Establishments with 1-99 workers……………………………
Establishments with 100 or more workers…………………
See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008 91

Current Labor Statistics: Compensation & Industrial Relations

&RQWLQXHG²1DWLRQDO&RPSHQVDWLRQ6XUYH\5HWLUHPHQWEHQHILWVLQSULYDWHLQGXVWU\
E\DFFHVVSDUWLFLSDWLRQDQGVHOHFWHGVHULHV±
Year

Series
2003

2004

2005

2007 1

2006

Employee Contribution Requirement
Employee contribution required…………………………
Employee contribution not required………………………
Not determinable……………………………………………

-

-

61
31
8

61
33
6

65
35
0

Percent of establishments
Offering retirement plans……………………………………
Offering defined benefit plans………………………………
Offering defined contribution plans……………………….

47
10
45

48
10
46

51
11
48

48
10
47

46
10
44

1

The 2002 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) replaced the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)
System. Estimates for goods-producing and service-providing (formerly service-producing) industries are considered comparable.
Also introduced was the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) to replace the 1990 Census of Population system.
Only service occupations are considered comparable.

2

The white-collar and blue-collar occupation series were discontinued effective 2007.

3

The take-up rate is an estimate of the percentage of workers with access to a plan who participate in the plan.

Note: Where applicable, dashes indicate no employees in this category or data do not meet publication criteria.

92

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

1DWLRQDO&RPSHQVDWLRQ6XUYH\+HDOWKLQVXUDQFHEHQHILWVLQSULYDWHLQGXVWU\
E\DFFHVVSDUWLFSDWLRQDQGVHOHFWHGVHULHV
Year

Series
2003

2004

2005

2007

2006

1

Medical insurance
Percentage of workers with access
All workers…………………………………………………………………………

60

69

70

71

White-collar occupations 2 ………………………………………………………

65

76

77

77

-

-

-

-

-

85
71

Management, professional, and related …………………………………
Sales and office………………………………………………………………
2
Blue-collar occupations ………………………………………………………

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance………………………

71

-

-

-

-

64

76

77

77

-

-

-

-

-

76

Production, transportation, and material moving…………………………

-

-

-

-

78

Service occupations……………………………………………………………

38

42

44

45

46

Full-time…………………………………………………………………………

73

84

85

85

85

Part-time…………………………………………………………………………

17

20

22

22

24

Union………………………………………………………………………………

67

89

92

89

88

Non-union…………………………………………………………………………

59

67

68

68

69

Average wage less than $15 per hour…………………………………………

51

57

58

57

57

Average wage $15 per hour or higher…………………………………………

74

86

87

88

87

Goods-producing industries……………………………………………………

68

83

85

86

85

Service-providing industries……………………………………………………

57

65

66

66

67

Establishments with 1-99 workers………………………………………………

49

58

59

59

59

Establishments with 100 or more workers……………………………………

72

82

84

84

84

All workers…………………………………………………………………………

45

53

53

52

52

White-collar occupations 2 ………………………………………………………

50

59

58

57

-

-

-

-

-

67
48

Percentage of workers participating

Management, professional, and related …………………………………
Sales and office………………………………………………………………
Blue-collar occupations 2………………………………………………………
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance………………………

-

-

-

-

51

60

61

60

-

-

-

-

-

61

Production, transportation, and material moving…………………………

-

-

-

-

60

Service occupations……………………………………………………………

22

24

27

27

28

Full-time…………………………………………………………………………

56

66

66

64

64

Part-time…………………………………………………………………………

9

11

12

13

12

Union………………………………………………………………………………

60

81

83

80

78

Non-union…………………………………………………………………………

44

50

49

49

49

Average wage less than $15 per hour…………………………………………

35

40

39

38

37

Average wage $15 per hour or higher…………………………………………

61

71

72

71

70

Goods-producing industries……………………………………………………

57

69

70

70

68

Service-providing industries……………………………………………………

42

48

48

47

47

Establishments with 1-99 workers………………………………………………

36

43

43

43

42

Establishments with 100 or more workers……………………………………

55

64

65

63

62

-

-

75

74

73

All workers…………………………………………………………………………

40

46

46

46

46

White-collar occupations 2 ………………………………………………………

47

53

54

53

-

-

-

-

-

62
47

3

Take-up rate (all workers) ………………………………………………………
Dental
Percentage of workers with access

Management, professional, and related …………………………………
Sales and office………………………………………………………………
2
Blue-collar occupations ………………………………………………………

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance………………………

-

-

-

-

40

47

47

46

-

-

-

-

-

43

Production, transportation, and material moving…………………………

-

-

-

-

49

Service occupations……………………………………………………………

22

25

25

27

28

Full-time…………………………………………………………………………

49

56

56

55

56

Part-time…………………………………………………………………………

9

13

14

15

16

Union………………………………………………………………………………

57

73

73

69

68

Non-union…………………………………………………………………………

38

43

43

43

44

Average wage less than $15 per hour…………………………………………

30

34

34

34

34

Average wage $15 per hour or higher…………………………………………

55

63

62

62

61

Goods-producing industries……………………………………………………

48

56

56

56

54

Service-providing industries……………………………………………………

37

43

43

43

44

Establishments with 1-99 workers………………………………………………

27

31

31

31

30

Establishments with 100 or more workers……………………………………

55

64

65

64

64

See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

93

Current Labor Statistics: Compensation & Industrial Relations

35. Continued—National Compensation Survey: Health insurance benefits in
private industry by access, particpation, and selected series, 2003-2007
Year

Series
2003

2004

2005

2007

2006

1

Percentage of workers participating
All workers……………………………………………………………………………

32

37

36

36

White-collar occupations 2 ………………………………………………………

37

43

42

41

-

Management, professional, and related ……………………………………

-

-

-

-

51
33

Sales and office…………………………………………………………………
2
Blue-collar occupations …………………………………………………………

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance…………………………

36

-

-

-

-

33

40

39

38

-

-

-

-

-

36

Production, transportation, and material moving……………………………

-

-

-

-

38

Service occupations………………………………………………………………

15

16

17

18

20

Full-time……………………………………………………………………………

40

46

45

44

44

Part-time……………………………………………………………………………

6

8

9

10

9

Union………………………………………………………………………………

51

68

67

63

62

Non-union…………………………………………………………………………

30

33

33

33

33

Average wage less than $15 per hour…………………………………………

22

26

24

23

23

Average wage $15 per hour or higher…………………………………………

47

53

52

52

51

Goods-producing industries………………………………………………………

42

49

49

49

45

Service-providing industries………………………………………………………

29

33

33

32

33

Establishments with 1-99 workers………………………………………………

21

24

24

24

24

Establishments with 100 or more workers………………………………………

44

52

51

50

49

3
Take-up rate (all workers) …………………………………………………………

-

-

78

78

77

Percentage of workers with access………………………………………………

25

29

29

29

29

Percentage of workers participating………………………………………………

19

22

22

22

22

Percentage of workers with access………………………………………………

-

-

64

67

68

Percentage of workers participating………………………………………………

-

-

48

49

49

Percent of estalishments offering healthcare benefits …………………......…

58

61

63

62

60

Vision care

Outpatient Prescription drug coverage

Percentage of medical premium paid by
Employer and Employee
Single coverage
Employer share……………………………………………………………………

82

82

82

82

81

Employee share…………………………………………………………………

18

18

18

18

19

Family coverage
Employer share……………………………………………………………………

70

69

71

70

71

Employee share…………………………………………………………………

30

31

29

30

29

1

The 2002 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) replaced the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)
System. Estimates for goods-producing and service-providing (formerly service-producing) industries are considered comparable.
Also introduced was the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) to replace the 1990 Census of Population system.
Only service occupations are considered comparable.

2

The white-collar and blue-collar occupation series were discontinued effective 2007.

3

The take-up rate is an estimate of the percentage of workers with access to a plan who participate in the plan.

Note: Where applicable, dashes indicate no employees in this category or data do not meet publication criteria.

94

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

1DWLRQDO&RPSHQVDWLRQ6XUYH\3HUFHQWRIZRUNHUVLQSULYDWHLQGXVWU\
ZLWKDFFHVVWRVHOHFWHGEHQHILWV
Year

Benefit
2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Life insurance……………………………………………………

50

51

52

52

58

Short-term disabilty insurance…………………………………

39

39

40

39

39

Long-term disability insurance…………………………………

30

30

30

30

31

Long-term care insurance………………………………………

11

11

11

12

12

Flexible work place………………………………………………

4

4

4

4

5

Flexible benefits………………………………………………

-

-

17

17

17

Dependent care reimbursement account…………..………

-

-

29

30

31

Healthcare reimbursement account……………………...…

-

-

31

32

33

Health Savings Account………………………………...………

-

-

5

6

8

Employee assistance program……………………….…………

-

-

40

40

42

Section 125 cafeteria benefits

Paid leave
Holidays…………………………………………...……………

79

77

77

76

77

Vacations……………………………………………..………

79

77

77

77

77

Sick leave………………………………………..……………

-

59

58

57

57

Personal leave…………………………………………..……

-

-

36

37

38

Family leave
Paid family leave…………………………………………….…

-

-

7

8

8

Unpaid family leave………………………………………..…

-

-

81

82

83

Employer assistance for child care…………………….………

18

14

14

15

15

Nonproduction bonuses………………………...………………

49

47

47

46

47

Note: Where applicable, dashes indicate no employees in this category or data do not
meet publication criteria.

:RUNVWRSSDJHVLQYROYLQJZRUNHUVRUPRUH
Annual average

2007

Measure
2006
Number of stoppages:
Beginning in period.............................
In effect during period…......................

2007

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

2008

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.p







2
3

3
4

0
0

2
2

1
1

1
1

5
6

3
3

1
2

2
4

0
1

2
3

2
4

Workers involved:
Beginning in period (in thousands)…..

In effect during period (in thousands)… 




7.8
9.6

5.5
12.0

.0
.0

4.0
4.0

1.1
1.1

1.0
1.0

108.3
108.3

41.7
41.7

10.5
14.2

6.5
20.7

.0
10.5

6.2
16.7

5.7
11.9

Days idle:
Number (in thousands)….................... 



142.8

101.1

.0

19.6

6.6

9.0

261.5

73.9

284.0

254.8

220.5

148.8

140.9

.01

0

0

0

0

0

0

.01

0

.01

.01

.01

.01

0

1

Percent of estimated working time ……

.01

1
Agricultural and government employees are included in the total employed
and total working time; private household, forestry, and fishery employees are
excluded. An explanation of the measurement of idleness as a percentage of
the total time

worked is found in "Total economy measures of strike idleness," Monthly Labor Review ,
October 1968, pp. 54–56.
NOTE:

p = preliminary.

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

95

Current Labor Statistics: Compensation & Industrial Relations

38. Consumer Price Indexes for All Urban Consumers and for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers:
U.S. city average, by expenditure category and commodity or service group
[1982–84 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
Annual average

Series

2006
CONSUMER PRICE INDEX
FOR ALL URBAN CONSUMERS
All items..........................................................................
All items (1967 = 100).....................................................
Food and beverages......................................................
Food..................…........................................................
Food at home…..........................................................
Cereals and bakery products…................................
Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs…...............................

201.6
603.9
195.7
195.2
193.1
212.8
186.6

1
Dairy and related products ……….………………………… 181.4
Fruits and vegetables…............................................ 252.9
Nonalcoholic beverages and beverage

materials….............................................................
Other foods at home…..............................................
Sugar and sweets…................................................
Fats and oils…........................................................
Other foods…..........................................................
Other miscellaneous foods

1,2

……….…………………

2008

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

207.342
621.106
203.300
202.916
201.245
222.107
195.616

205.352
615.145
200.869
200.403
198.766
218.458
192.508

206.686
619.140
201.292
200.820
199.020
220.494
193.665

207.949
622.921
202.225
201.791
200.334
220.939
195.886

208.352
624.129
202.885
202.441
200.950
222.605
197.175

208.299
623.970
203.533
203.121
201.401
223.297
196.690

207.917
622.827
204.289
203.885
202.126
223.981
197.204

208.490
624.543
205.279
204.941
203.193
223.372
198.323

208.936
625.879
206.124
205.796
204.333
224.691
198.474

210.177
629.598
206.563
206.277
204.745
225.668
198.616

210.036
629.174
206.936
206.704
205.208
226.461
198.755

211.080
632.301
208.837
208.618
207.983
228.661
200.035

211.693
634.139
209.462
209.166
208.329
233.389
199.688

213.528
639.636
209.692
209.385
208.203
236.261
199.775

194.770 185.724 185.821 187.266 191.435 197.899 201.739 203.541 205.319 205.959 205.299 206.905 208.166 206.171
262.628 263.910 261.967 264.710 258.337 254.616 252.845 259.100 263.648 268.407 272.482 279.072 272.129 268.446

147.4
169.6
171.5
168.0
185.0

153.432
173.275
176.772
172.921
188.244

113.9

115.105 114.331 115.310 114.692 116.101 115.017 116.072 114.628 114.850 115.396 115.267 115.162 118.182 117.321

1

Food away from home ……….………………………………… 199.4
1,2
Other food away from home ……….…………………… 136.6
Alcoholic beverages…................................................. 200.7
Housing.......................................................................... 203.2
Shelter...............…...................................................... 232.1
Rent of primary residence…..................................... 225.1
Lodging away from home……………………………… 136.0
3

2007

2007

206.659
144.068
207.026
209.586
240.611
234.679

153.894
171.819
174.633
170.851
186.962
204.082
141.366
205.663
208.080
238.980
232.495

151.799
172.633
175.932
169.817
188.103
204.725
143.155
206.166
208.541
239.735
232.980

152.869
172.657
175.453
171.495
187.921
205.233
143.160
206.599
208.902
239.877
233.549

153.104
173.790
176.665
171.581
189.353
205.934
143.157
207.383
210.649
240.980
234.071

153.384
174.440
178.235
173.691
189.518
206.931
144.785
207.624
211.286
242.067
234.732

154.791
174.686
178.256
174.251
189.781
207.756
145.376
208.264
211.098
242.238
235.311

155.007
174.201
178.172
174.105
189.076
208.805
146.752
208.408
210.865
241.990
236.058

155.545
174.695
177.236
176.050
189.695
209.275
146.074
209.126
210.701
242.405
237.135

154.299
173.963
178.600
175.327
188.340
209.854
146.628
209.018
210.745
242.207
238.169

153.648
174.057
178.631
176.068
188.325
210.233
145.814
208.704
210.933
242.372
239.102

157.863
176.085
180.193
181.813
190.037
211.070
146.649
210.425
212.244
243.871
239.850

157.805
177.863
180.588
184.878
192.064
211.878
148.385
212.044
213.026
244.786
240.325

158.089
178.238
182.214
182.808
192.597
212.537
148.564
212.407
214.389
245.995
240.874

142.813 142.247 144.832 144.112 148.622 153.016 150.236 144.480 143.172 136.703 133.545 140.176 144.092 149.434

238.2

246.235 244.602 244.993 245.236 245.690 246.149 246.815 247.487 248.075 248.876 249.532 250.106 250.481 250.966

116.5
194.7
177.1
234.9
182.1
127.0
119.5
114.1
110.7

117.004
200.632
181.744
251.453
186.262
126.875
118.998
112.368
110.296

117.333
196.414
177.635
236.863
182.624
127.655
122.582
113.685
116.911

117.559
196.393
177.515
240.090
182.283
127.423
122.934
115.190
117.118

116.386
198.574
179.798
241.473
184.737
127.309
121.452
114.342
114.444

117.106
206.199
188.040
241.589
193.911
127.361
117.225
110.869
107.826

116.577
206.140
187.624
245.680
193.184
126.894
113.500
109.568
101.291

116.926
204.334
185.453
246.542
190.710
126.520
114.439
109.032
103.237

116.783
204.264
185.306
252.580
190.158
126.193
119.535
112.380
110.973

116.640
200.836
181.509
261.745
185.337
126.233
121.846
114.953
113.402

116.997
202.161
182.725
291.845
184.753
126.252
121.204
114.807
112.166

117.003
203.006
183.516
299.296
185.155
126.066
118.257
112.026
109.418

117.435
204.796
185.107
306.937
186.475
126.515
115.795
110.691
104.367

117.622
205.795
185.994
308.269
187.376
126.753
117.839
112.917
106.340

117.701
209.221
189.693
332.139
190.105
127.423
120.881
114.994
110.645

116.5
123.5
180.9
177.0

113.948
122.374
184.682
180.778

117.996
123.505
180.346
176.468

115.489
123.672
185.231
181.478

113.632
123.041
189.961
186.376

111.546
120.602
189.064
185.175

108.759
119.375
187.690
183.619

110.221
120.329
184.480
180.408

113.611
123.183
184.532
180.586

117.149
124.675
184.952
180.919

117.339
125.005
190.677
186.839

113.779
122.258
189.984
186.134

113.861
121.148
190.839
186.978

115.750
122.377
190.520
186.571

116.037
124.407
195.189
191.067

2
New and used motor vehicles ……….…………………… 95.6
New vehicles…....................................................... 137.6
1
Used cars and trucks ……….……………………………… 140.0
Motor fuel….............................................................. 221.0
Gasoline (all types)….............................................. 219.9
Motor vehicle parts and equipment…....................... 117.3
Motor vehicle maintenance and repair….................. 215.6
Public transportation...............…................................. 226.6
Medical care................................................................... 336.2
Medical care commodities...............…........................ 285.9
Medical care services...............…............................... 350.6
Professional services…............................................ 289.3
Hospital and related services…................................ 468.1
2
Recreation ……….………………………………………….……… 110.9
1,2
Video and audio ……….……………………………………… 104.6
2
Education and communication ……….……………………… 116.8

94.303
136.254
135.747
239.070
237.959
121.583
222.963
230.002
351.054
289.999
369.302
300.792
498.922
111.443
102.949
119.577

94.493
137.228
134.382
220.515
219.473
120.485
221.160
225.893
347.172
286.940
365.164
298.990
490.104
111.244
102.886
118.231

94.307
136.963
134.363
242.944
241.897
120.714
221.508
227.567
348.225
288.349
366.070
299.248
492.110
111.481
103.181
118.301

93.981
136.295
134.481
265.781
264.830
120.990
221.999
228.251
349.087
288.661
367.127
299.700
494.122
111.659
103.560
118.787

93.842
135.820
135.067
260.655
259.686
120.885
222.553
233.389
349.510
288.508
367.758
300.052
494.916
111.563
103.416
118.734

93.961
135.415
136.024
252.909
251.883
121.514
223.487
235.767
351.643
290.257
370.008
301.131
499.400
111.347
102.779
119.025

94.121
135.204
137.138
238.194
237.108
121.730
224.019
233.112
352.961
291.164
371.461
302.259
501.026
111.139
102.311
120.311

93.985
134.927
137.142
239.104
237.993
122.292
224.302
230.694
353.723
291.340
372.432
302.410
504.206
111.400
102.759
121.273

94.201
135.344
136.950
239.048
237.819
123.017
224.939
232.725
355.653
292.161
374.750
303.532
510.006
111.753
103.157
121.557

94.562
136.250
136.616
262.282
260.943
123.487
225.672
233.758
357.041
293.201
376.250
303.780
515.359
111.842
102.719
121.409

94.754
136.664
136.943
258.132
256.790
123.928
226.120
233.408
357.661
293.610
376.940
304.784
515.677
111.705
102.691
121.506

94.834
136.827
137.203
260.523
259.338
124.282
227.732
234.334
360.459
295.355
380.135
306.529
523.313
112.083
102.986
121.762

94.581
136.279
137.248
259.242
257.845
125.225
228.731
235.724
362.155
296.130
382.196
307.928
527.971
112.365
103.171
121.766

94.318
135.727
137.225
278.739
276.497
126.325
229.765
242.929
363.000
297.308
382.872
308.726
528.968
112.731
103.548
121.832

Owners' equivalent rent of primary residence ………
1,2

Tenants' and household insurance ……….…………
Fuels and utilities…..................................................
Fuels...............….....................................................
Fuel oil and other fuels…......................................
Gas (piped) and electricity….................................
Household furnishings and operations…..................
Apparel ..........................................................................
Men's and boys' apparel…........................................
Women's and girls' apparel…...................................
1

Infants' and toddlers' apparel ……….……………………
Footwear…...............................................................
Transportation................................................................
Private transportation...............…...............................

2
Education ……….………………………………………….……… 162.1
Educational books and supplies….......................... 388.9

Tuition, other school fees, and child care…............
1,2

Communication ……….………………………………………
1,2
Information and information processing
……….…
1,2
Telephone services ……….……………………………
Information and information processing
other than telephone services

1,4

……….……………

468.1
84.1

171.388 168.114 168.152 168.403 168.601 169.490 172.873 175.486 176.339 176.717 176.927 177.440 177.460 177.407
420.418 413.665 414.217 414.694 415.635 418.394 427.425 430.114 431.432 431.606 434.352 437.822 439.052 439.906
494.079 484.532 484.601 485.337 485.868 488.382 498.071 505.924 508.449 509.605 510.016 511.301 511.253 511.013
83.367 83.122 83.203 83.772 83.594 83.553 83.655 83.690 83.659 83.250 83.282 83.396 83.391 83.502

81.7
95.8

80.720
98.247

80.601
97.514

80.683
97.617

81.151
98.491

80.880
98.485

80.840
98.570

80.944
98.813

80.976
98.882

80.946
99.031

80.519
98.775

80.546
98.792

80.642
98.906

80.638
98.837

80.752
99.031

12.5

10.597

10.860

10.869

10.787

10.597

10.528

10.487

10.477

10.385

10.204

10.215

10.229

10.253

10.246

Personal computers and peripheral
1,2

120.9
321.7
519.9

108.411 114.035 113.827 111.582 108.550 107.439 106.575 105.806 104.336 100.104 100.000 100.998 100.545 100.359
333.328 331.144 331.743 332.785 333.378 333.415 333.325 334.801 335.680 336.379 337.633 339.052 340.191 341.827
554.184 550.021 547.663 549.703 552.314 553.987 555.217 559.636 560.626 561.967 566.696 572.684 575.227 574.890

1
Personal care ……….………………………………………….… 190.2
1
Personal care products ……….…………………………… 155.8
1
Personal care services ……….…………………………… 209.7

195.622 194.390 195.058 195.641 195.835 195.704 195.521 196.202 196.763 197.156 197.643 198.112 198.716 199.982
158.285 158.592 158.657 158.594 158.771 158.457 157.788 157.643 158.381 158.561 158.236 158.201 157.677 158.440
216.559 215.091 215.380 216.228 215.860 216.720 217.028 217.589 217.887 218.604 219.656 219.932 220.848 222.752

equipment ……….…………………………………
Other goods and services..............................................
Tobacco and smoking products...............…...............

6HHIRRWQRWHVDWHQGRIWDEOH

96

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

&RQWLQXHG²&RQVXPHU3ULFH,QGH[HVIRU$OO8UEDQ&RQVXPHUVDQGIRU8UEDQ:DJH(DUQHUVDQG&OHULFDO:RUNHUV
86FLW\DYHUDJHE\H[SHQGLWXUHFDWHJRU\DQGFRPPRGLW\RUVHUYLFHJURXS
[1982–84 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
Annual average
2006
2007
Mar.

Series
Miscellaneous personal services...............…....

Apr.

May

June

2007
July Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

2008
Feb.

Mar.

313.6 324.984 321.299 323.321 324.661 325.259 324.579 325.566 327.783 328.056 328.610 329.908 332.183 333.826 335.427

Commodity and service group:
Commodities...........…............................................
Food and beverages….........................................
Commodities less food and beverages….............
Nondurables less food and beverages…............
Apparel ….........................................................
and apparel….................................................
Durables…..........................................................
Services…..............................................................
3

Rent of shelter ……….……………………………………
Transportation services…....................................
Other services…..................................................
Special indexes:
All items less food…............................................
All items less shelter…........................................
All items less medical care…...............................
Commodities less food….....................................
Nondurables less food….....................................
Nondurables less food and apparel….................
Nondurables….....................................................
3

Services less rent of shelter ……….…………………
Services less medical care services…................
Energy…..............................................................
All items less energy…........................................
All items less food and energy….......................
Commodities less food and energy…..............
Energy commodities......................................
Services less energy…....................................

164.0 167.509 165.710 167.777 169.767 168.921 167.938 166.955 167.952 168.664 171.043 170.511 171.179 171.530 173.884
195.7
145.9
176.7
119.5

203.300
147.515
182.526
118.998

200.869
146.037
178.548
122.582

201.292
148.749
184.555
122.934

202.225
151.136
190.075
121.452

202.885
149.669
187.249
117.225

203.533
148.016
183.947
113.500

204.289
146.317
180.480
114.439

205.279
147.289
182.902
119.535

206.124
147.924
184.091
121.846

206.563
151.067
190.560
121.204

206.936
150.162
188.635
118.257

208.837
150.303
188.692
115.795

209.462
150.530
189.420
117.839

209.692
153.682
196.185
120.881

216.3 226.224 217.451 227.113 237.116 235.097 231.983 225.694 226.509 227.026 238.067 236.735 238.389 238.297 247.546
114.5
238.9
241.9
230.8
277.5

112.473
246.848
250.813
233.731
285.559

113.163
244.671
249.087
232.200
282.431

112.989
245.265
249.877
232.217
283.271

112.637
245.793
250.055
231.777
284.541

112.375
247.450
251.200
233.202
284.656

112.177
248.331
252.358
234.632
284.859

112.036
248.555
252.530
234.563
286.492

111.746
248.700
252.272
234.322
288.469

111.889
248.878
252.713
235.458
289.307

112.103
248.974
252.495
236.449
289.592

112.093
249.225
252.669
236.504
289.945

112.300
250.648
254.239
237.347
290.905

112.094
251.527
255.199
237.929
291.406

112.059
252.817
256.470
239.556
292.218

202.7 208.098 206.195 207.680 208.991 209.353 209.179 208.607 209.100 209.478 210.846 210.610 211.512 212.136 214.236
191.9
194.7
148.0
178.2
213.9
186.7
253.3
229.6
196.9
203.7
205.9
140.6
223.0
244.7

196.639
200.080
149.720
184.012
223.411
193.468
260.764
236.847
207.723
208.925
210.729
140.053
241.018
253.058

194.482
198.179
148.240
180.197
215.400
190.212
257.864
234.809
196.929
207.850
209.923
141.056
222.620
251.026

196.062
199.512
150.894
185.861
224.126
193.570
258.261
235.378
207.265
208.243
210.311
140.995
243.957
251.714

197.783
200.779
153.228
191.064
233.150
196.916
259.262
235.870
219.071
208.400
210.316
140.518
265.562
252.050

197.913
201.178
151.825
188.463
231.414
195.749
261.677
237.565
221.088
208.636
210.474
139.589
260.739
252.955

197.408
201.042
150.225
185.382
228.641
194.326
262.284
238.357
217.274
208.980
210.756
138.757
253.696
253.998

196.803
200.598
148.591
182.170
223.057
192.869
262.588
238.507
209.294
209.399
211.111
138.895
239.885
254.491

197.708
201.159
149.541
184.450
223.802
194.616
263.243
238.604
209.637
210.000
211.628
139.828
241.120
254.706

198.171
201.544
150.180
185.610
224.338
195.646
263.109
238.657
207.588
210.714
212.318
140.501
241.642
255.385

199.998
202.770
153.234
191.668
234.241
199.253
263.599
238.671
219.009
210.888
212.435
140.547
265.420
255.549

199.734
202.600
152.344
189.844
233.014
198.422
263.966
238.894
217.506
210.890
212.356
140.014
261.976
255.785

200.609
203.569
152.531
190.000
234.667
199.346
265.311
240.201
219.465
211.846
213.138
139.845
264.660
257.220

201.110
204.136
152.799
190.781
234.736
200.030
266.154
241.004
219.311
212.545
213.866
140.324
263.508
258.098

203.217
205.992
155.881
197.167
243.109
203.767
267.567
242.310
230.505
213.420
214.866
141.056
283.362
259.249

CONSUMER PRICE INDEX FOR URBAN
WAGE EARNERS AND CLERICAL WORKERS
All items....................................................................

197.1 202.767 200.612 202.130 203.661 203.906 203.700 203.199 203.889 204.338 205.891 205.777 206.744 207.254 209.147

All items (1967 = 100)...............................................
Food and beverages................................................

587.2
194.9
194.4
192.2
213.1
186.1
180.9
251.0

Food..................…..................................................
Food at home…....................................................
Cereals and bakery products…..........................
Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs….........................
1
Dairy and related products ……….…………………
Fruits and vegetables…......................................
Nonalcoholic beverages and beverage
materials….......................................................
Other foods at home….......................................
Sugar and sweets….........................................
Fats and oils…..................................................
Other foods…...................................................
1,2
Other miscellaneous foods ……….……………
1
Food away from home ……….……………………………
1,2
Other food away from home ……….………………
Alcoholic beverages…...........................................
Housing....................................................................
Shelter...............…................................................
Rent of primary residence…...............................
2
Lodging away from home ……….……………………
3
Owners' equivalent rent of primary residence …
1,2
Tenants' and household insurance ……….……
Fuels and utilities…...........................................
Fuels...............…..............................................
Fuel oil and other fuels…................................
Gas (piped) and electricity…..........................
Household furnishings and operations…............
Apparel ...................................................................
Men's and boys' apparel….................................
Women's and girls' apparel….............................
1

Infants' and toddlers' apparel ……….………………
Footwear….........................................................
Transportation..........................................................
Private transportation...............….........................
2

New and used motor vehicles ……….………………
See footnotes at end of table.

603.982
202.531
202.134
200.273
222.409
195.193
194.474
260.484

597.561
200.056
199.589
197.735
218.799
192.013
185.095
261.627

602.083
200.488
200.009
197.989
220.926
193.089
185.326
260.068

606.643
201.478
201.043
199.355
221.259
195.331
186.948
262.669

607.374
202.185
201.722
200.059
223.009
196.660
191.235
256.565

606.759
202.823
202.409
200.569
223.663
196.323
198.027
252.703

605.267
203.610
203.207
201.321
224.220
196.844
201.598
251.575

607.324
204.584
204.241
202.351
223.895
197.980
203.464
257.223

608.662
205.428
205.082
203.442
224.897
198.146
205.100
261.774

613.287
205.763
205.451
203.741
225.941
198.325
205.850
265.736

612.948
206.141
205.855
204.141
226.696
198.489
205.149
269.533

615.828
208.055
207.794
206.870
229.105
199.686
206.652
275.843

617.345
208.674
208.317
207.242
233.915
199.141
207.750
268.954

622.985
208.927
208.571
207.196
236.764
199.484
205.660
266.030

146.7 152.786 153.329 150.995 152.173 152.501 152.829 154.152 154.501 154.873 153.610 152.883 157.130 157.456 157.488
169.1
170.5
168.7
185.2
114.2
199.1
136.2
200.6

172.630
175.323
173.640
188.405
115.356
206.412
143.462
207.097

171.183
173.248
172.005
187.026
114.402
203.838
141.119
205.729

171.898
174.459
170.574
188.165
115.432
204.519
142.991
206.342

172.024
174.084
172.401
188.049
115.035
205.046
143.031
206.636

173.049
175.073
172.222
189.456
116.366
205.691
143.018
207.767

173.727
176.736
174.109
189.667
115.355
206.657
144.439
207.647

173.997
176.664
174.872
189.941
116.348
207.533
144.938
208.253

173.463
176.458
175.039
189.110
114.584
208.578
145.783
208.286

174.215
176.248
176.683
189.987
115.378
209.037
144.764
209.176

173.393
176.845
176.101
188.657
115.803
209.518
145.233
208.958

173.511
177.051
176.736
188.646
115.658
209.931
144.454
208.934

175.572
178.902
182.307
190.364
115.658
210.776
145.625
210.473

177.442
179.740
185.292
192.430
118.828
211.517
146.924
212.507

177.713
181.033
183.706
192.832
117.754
212.193
147.188
212.748

198.5
224.8
224.2
135.3
216.0
116.8

204.795
232.998
233.806
142.339
223.175
117.366

203.203
231.315
231.634
141.335
221.704
117.653

203.588
231.957
232.126
144.370
222.062
117.945

204.033
232.181
232.690
143.880
222.264
116.828

205.711
233.040
233.188
148.948
222.671
117.503

206.183
233.848
233.855
153.107
223.093
116.912

206.054
234.169
234.457
149.919
223.693
117.287

206.050
234.275
235.175
143.727
224.321
117.142

205.916
234.812
236.259
142.666
224.811
116.982

206.288
235.069
237.288
136.244
225.548
117.370

206.638
235.480
238.216
133.179
226.151
117.396

207.692
236.550
238.955
139.825
226.703
117.740

208.268
237.158
239.419
143.046
227.057
117.921

209.388
237.965
239.932
148.110
227.488
117.999

193.1
174.4
234.0
180.2
122.6
119.1
114.0
110.3
118.6
123.1

198.863
179.031
251.121
184.357
122.477
118.518
112.224
110.202
116.278
122.062

194.963
175.303
236.103
181.092
123.134
122.021
113.921
116.275
120.167
122.870

194.974
175.223
239.516
180.803
122.881
122.475
115.103
116.826
117.530
123.339

197.052
177.372
241.052
183.103
122.786
120.931
113.986
114.316
115.555
122.983

204.396
185.178
241.249
191.771
122.826
116.389
110.739
107.422
113.427
120.367

204.272
184.725
245.633
191.010
122.550
113.157
109.580
101.709
110.906
119.278

202.397
182.518
246.382
188.511
122.190
114.146
108.556
103.960
112.879
119.831

202.304
182.357
252.684
187.963
121.820
118.986
111.981
110.847
115.896
122.846

198.796
178.539
261.972
183.172
122.039
121.536
114.710
113.623
119.670
124.372

200.151
179.777
292.098
182.781
122.031
120.920
114.784
112.165
119.897
124.649

200.831
180.379
298.656
183.066
121.880
118.126
112.487
109.375
116.419
122.029

202.663
182.025
306.087
184.522
122.322
115.866
111.494
104.456
116.323
121.137

203.584
182.823
307.599
185.324
122.547
117.883
113.592
106.512
118.442
122.408

206.861
186.315
329.271
188.143
123.184
120.809
115.808
110.712
118.990
124.343

180.3 184.344 179.541 184.930 190.265 189.205 187.606 184.147 184.361 184.639 190.761 189.967 190.918 190.639 195.710
177.5 181.496 176.695 182.156 187.595 186.374 184.684 181.218 181.495 181.717 187.951 187.159 188.093 187.762 192.740
94.7
93.300 93.365 93.234 93.000 92.917 93.042 93.229 93.118 93.268 93.529 93.733 93.842 93.664 93.455

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

97

Current Labor Statistics: Price Data

&RQWLQXHG²&RQVXPHU3ULFH,QGH[HVIRU$OO8UEDQ&RQVXPHUVDQGIRU8UEDQ:DJH(DUQHUVDQG&OHULFDO:RUNHUV86FLW\
DYHUDJHE\H[SHQGLWXUHFDWHJRU\DQGFRPPRGLW\RUVHUYLFHJURXS
[1982–84 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
Annual average
Series

2006

New vehicles…............................................
1

Used cars and trucks ……….……………………
Motor fuel…...................................................
Gasoline (all types)…..................................
Motor vehicle parts and equipment…............
Motor vehicle maintenance and repair….......
Public transportation...............….....................
Medical care.......................................................
Medical care commodities...............…............
Medical care services...............…...................
Professional services….................................
Hospital and related services….....................
2

Recreation ……….………………………………………
Video and audio

1,2

……….……………………………
2

Education and communication ……….……………
2

2007

2008

2007
Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

138.6 137.415 138.315 138.077 137.535 137.060 136.663 136.414 136.129 136.509 137.372 137.736 137.931 137.445 136.910
140.8
221.6
220.7
116.9
218.1
225.0

136.586
239.900
238.879
121.356
225.535
228.531

135.203
221.011
220.052
120.170
223.683
224.973

135.192
243.574
242.613
120.367
224.086
226.521

135.320
266.737
265.874
120.709
224.623
227.024

135.917
261.679
260.799
120.666
225.172
231.549

136.880
253.893
252.957
121.350
226.090
233.390

137.999
239.097
238.100
121.584
226.636
231.082

137.996
240.271
239.252
122.144
226.881
229.148

137.798
240.040
238.906
122.830
227.472
231.182

137.457
263.248
262.013
123.302
228.267
231.999

137.791
259.032
257.792
123.786
228.692
231.363

138.052
261.531
260.457
124.416
230.255
232.594

138.094
260.402
259.112
125.238
231.349
233.979

138.070
279.975
277.842
126.330
232.344
240.729

335.7
279.0
351.1
291.7
463.6

350.882
282.558
370.111
303.169
493.740

346.946
279.762
365.827
301.339
485.074

348.109
281.216
366.870
301.599
487.336

348.801
281.502
367.696
301.979
488.523

349.145
280.862
368.384
302.346
489.292

351.346
282.662
370.696
303.481
493.563

352.704
283.379
372.261
304.677
495.191

353.571
283.712
373.306
304.841
498.533

355.719
284.517
375.899
306.072
505.077

357.165
285.475
377.498
306.300
510.836

357.745
285.913
378.119
307.333
510.961

360.710
287.703
381.507
309.169
518.853

362.329
288.335
383.510
310.426
523.654

363.069
289.254
384.149
311.259
524.534

108.2 108.572 108.461 108.680 108.905 108.681 108.403 108.179 108.495 108.793 108.805 108.702 109.046 109.315 109.742
103.9 102.559 102.363 102.690 103.137 103.001 102.358 101.923 102.427 102.833 102.465 102.523 102.839 103.028 103.525
113.9 116.301 115.161 115.280 115.830 115.746 115.980 116.981 117.707 117.891 117.686 117.782 118.097 118.079 118.155

Education ……….………………………………………
Educational books and supplies…..............

160.3 169.280 166.341 166.441 166.667 166.758 167.527 170.635 173.060 173.700 174.016 174.276 175.134 175.118 175.101
390.7 423.730 417.027 417.583 417.791 418.705 421.529 431.089 433.670 434.800 434.979 437.391 441.207 441.927 442.639

Tuition, other school fees, and child care…

453.3 477.589 469.224 469.472 470.148 470.329 472.395 480.960 488.199 490.061 491.022 491.554 493.797 493.672 493.546
86.0 85.782 85.408 85.523 86.140 85.999 86.015 86.148 86.184 86.182 85.807 85.834 85.935 85.919 86.016

1,2

Communication ……….……………………………
1,2
Information and information processing …
1,2

Telephone services ……….…………………
Information and information processing
other than telephone services

1,4

……….…

84.3

83.928

83.645

83.760

84.304

84.095

84.111

84.248

84.283

84.282

83.894

83.917

84.008

83.992

84.091

95.9

98.373

97.625

97.738

98.610

98.603

98.721

98.964

99.024

99.149

98.874

98.887

98.988

98.931

99.090

13.0

11.062

11.292

11.322

11.243

11.062

11.001

10.965

10.958

10.877

10.710

10.722

10.737

10.754

10.745

Personal computers and peripheral
1,2

equipment ……….………………………
Other goods and services..................................
Tobacco and smoking products...............…....
1

Personal care ……….…………………………………

121.0 108.164 113.533 113.486 111.305 108.367 107.371 106.531 105.713 104.366 100.257 100.000 101.067 100.582 100.265
330.9 344.004 341.719 342.057 343.096 343.939 344.221 344.214 345.800 346.742 347.427 348.830 350.630 351.979 353.351
521.6 555.502 551.161 548.812 550.888 553.538 555.366 556.517 561.092 562.134 563.435 568.410 574.724 577.359 576.910
188.3 193.590 192.411 193.075 193.595 193.858 193.792 193.598 194.160 194.769 195.122 195.467 195.885 196.564 197.803

1

155.7 158.268 158.528 158.578 158.566 158.739 158.445 157.813 157.654 158.408 158.579 158.407 158.167 157.877 158.730

1

209.8 216.823 215.318 215.658 216.489 216.174 217.040 217.354 217.822 218.149 218.897 219.945 220.324 221.338 223.043
314.1 326.100 322.090 324.252 325.617 326.572 326.135 327.235 329.329 329.706 330.258 330.850 333.154 334.868 336.476

Personal care products ……….…………………
Personal care services ……….…………………
Miscellaneous personal services...............…
Commodity and service group:
Commodities...........….......................................
Food and beverages…....................................
Commodities less food and beverages…........
Nondurables less food and beverages…......
Apparel …...................................................

165.7
194.9
148.7
182.6
119.1

169.554
202.531
150.865
189.507
118.518

167.350
200.056
148.836
184.604
122.021

169.746
200.488
152.034
191.650
122.475

172.126
201.478
154.964
198.237
120.931

171.216
202.185
153.367
195.053
116.389

170.252
202.823
151.724
191.603
113.157

169.122
203.610
149.781
187.515
114.146

170.141
204.584
150.795
189.981
118.986

170.865
205.428
151.448
191.230
121.536

173.489
205.763
155.011
198.661
120.920

172.952
206.141
154.086
196.636
118.126

173.711
208.055
154.345
196.910
115.866

174.083
208.674
154.603
197.606
117.883

176.727
208.927
158.156
205.166
120.809

Nondurables less food, beverages,
and apparel…............................................
Durables…....................................................
Services….........................................................
3

Rent of shelter ……….………………………………
Transporatation services…............................
Other services….............................................

226.1 237.858 227.564 238.898 250.737 248.347 244.695 237.329 238.345 238.798 251.442 249.863 251.751 251.621 262.252
114.6 112.640 113.107 112.945 112.686 112.485 112.425 112.362 112.114 112.241 112.413 112.450 112.688 112.560 112.549
234.1 241.696 239.586 240.106 240.672 242.241 242.901 243.118 243.436 243.572 243.906 244.275 245.484 246.154 247.197
216.6 224.617 222.970 223.590 223.833 224.655 225.455 225.760 225.867 226.393 226.636 227.035 228.071 228.660 229.443
230.6 233.420 232.332 232.218 231.542 232.623 233.737 233.831 233.868 234.848 235.874 236.020 236.883 237.426 238.496
268.2 275.218 272.474 273.342 274.697 274.670 274.766 276.015 277.702 278.404 278.513 278.783 279.780 280.199 281.017

Special indexes:
All items less food….......................................
All items less shelter…...................................
All items less medical care…..........................
Commodities less food…...............................
Nondurables less food…................................
Nondurables less food and apparel…............
Nondurables…...............................................
3

Services less rent of shelter ……….……………
Services less medical care services…...........
Energy…........................................................
All items less energy…...................................
All items less food and energy…..................
Commodities less food and energy…........
Energy commodities.................................
Services less energy…...............................

98

1

Not seasonally adjusted.

2

Indexes on a December 1997 = 100 base.

3

Indexes on a December 1982 = 100 base.

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

197.5
189.2
191.3
150.6
183.8
223.0
189.5

202.698
193.940
196.564
152.875
190.698
234.201
196.772

200.616
191.591
194.481
150.856
185.979
224.712
193.028

202.335
193.443
195.998
153.999
192.687
235.083
196.887

203.955
195.463
197.543
156.872
198.945
245.886
200.781

204.121
195.489
197.783
155.339
195.988
243.806
199.476

203.750
194.913
197.504
153.730
192.714
240.471
198.000

203.011
194.109
196.949
151.846
188.873
233.817
196.266

203.638
195.018
197.629
152.837
191.210
234.745
198.017

204.015
195.440
198.022
153.499
192.442
235.233
199.075

205.783
197.479
199.565
156.977
199.471
246.726
203.087

205.575
197.174
199.431
156.073
197.551
245.286
202.222

206.371
198.113
200.329
156.365
197.892
247.136
203.268

206.877
198.592
200.800
156.670
198.660
247.188
203.933

209.055
200.904
202.713
160.152
205.843
256.899
208.101

224.7
225.3
196.8
198.0
199.2
141.1
223.0
239.9

230.876
232.195
208.066
203.002
203.554
140.612
241.257
247.888

228.479
230.221
196.940
201.948
202.816
141.482
222.509
245.923

228.811
230.708
207.932
202.300
203.154
141.450
244.148
246.539

229.694
231.253
220.348
202.489
203.163
141.011
266.260
246.894

231.965
232.848
221.832
202.582
203.132
140.019
261.460
247.606

232.367
233.415
217.795
202.849
203.310
139.352
254.282
248.434

232.450
233.562
209.441
203.319
203.710
139.557
240.247
248.977

232.982
233.839
209.933
204.037
204.363
140.491
241.692
249.398

232.628
233.850
207.885
204.797
205.107
141.236
241.955
250.127

233.029
234.115
219.861
205.066
205.355
141.254
265.598
250.546

233.314
234.468
218.104
205.155
205.377
140.815
261.928
250.925

234.576
235.557
220.163
205.991
205.992
140.696
264.633
252.103

235.258
236.154
219.983
206.588
206.605
141.238
263.601
252.756

236.483
237.201
231.533
207.296
207.406
141.973
283.359
253.589



,QGH[HVRQD'HFHPEHU EDVH

127(,QGH[DSSOLHGWRDPRQWKDVDZKROHQRWWRDQ\VSHFLILFGDWH

&RQVXPHU3ULFH,QGH[86FLW\DYHUDJHDQGDYDLODEOHORFDODUHDGDWDDOOLWHPV
[1982–84 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
Pricing

All Urban Consumers
2007

schedule1
U.S. city average……………………………………………

Oct.

Nov.

Urban Wage Earners

2008
Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

2007
Mar.

Oct.

Nov.

2008
Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

M

208.936 210.177 210.036 211.080 211.693 213.528 204.338 205.891 205.777 206.744 207.254 209.147

Northeast urban……….………………………………………….………

M

221.951 223.356 223.425 224.325 225.213 226.926 218.151 219.871 220.146 221.065 221.702 223.209

Size A—More than 1,500,000...........................................

M

224.636 225.766 225.688 226.310 227.411 229.087 219.275 220.710 220.824 221.492 222.315 223.795

M

130.761 132.049 132.323 133.301 133.511 134.611 131.080 132.485 132.856 133.766 133.893 134.846

M

199.455 200.762 200.227 201.427 201.896 203.723 194.384 196.056 195.493 196.617 197.110 198.989

M

200.927 202.012 201.519 202.830 203.347 205.141 194.843 196.343 195.839 196.963 197.549 199.378

M

127.349 128.392 128.040 128.753 128.922 130.121 126.879 128.129 127.740 128.561 128.695 129.922

Region and area size2

3

Size B/C—50,000 to 1,500,000 ……….…………………………
4

Midwest urban ……….………………………………………….…………
Size A—More than 1,500,000...........................................
3

Size B/C—50,000 to 1,500,000 ……….…………………………
Size D—Nonmetropolitan (less than 50,000)………….....

M

195.054 196.569 195.819 196.708 197.596 199.472 193.074 194.907 194.099 194.850 195.774 197.864

South urban…….…..............................................................

M

202.155 203.437 203.457 204.510 205.060 206.676 199.319 200.849 200.850 201.814 202.291 204.044

Size A—More than 1,500,000...........................................

M

204.779 205.698 206.078 207.221 207.605 209.065 202.906 203.991 204.370 205.304 205.588 207.336

M

128.600 129.556 129.368 129.937 130.351 131.442 127.265 128.407 128.206 128.767 129.144 130.243

3

Size B/C—50,000 to 1,500,000 ……….…………………………
Size D—Nonmetropolitan (less than 50,000)………….....

M

200.712 202.550 202.878 204.524 205.189 206.933 200.942 202.913 203.333 204.954 205.523 207.600

West urban…….…...............................................................

M

213.917 214.904 214.733 215.739 216.339 218.533 208.304 209.629 209.488 210.342 210.816 213.159

Size A—More than 1,500,000...........................................

M

217.314 218.196 218.020 219.036 219.799 221.997 210.025 211.268 211.095 212.040 212.614 214.954

M

129.866 130.581 130.481 131.328 131.538 132.896 129.419 130.356 130.309 130.935 131.148 132.640

M
M
M

191.324 192.224 192.140 193.045 193.685 195.314 189.471 190.680 190.622 191.461 191.982 193.702
128.869 129.848 129.718 130.431 130.728 131.892 128.103 129.268 129.156 129.830 130.092 131.273
200.941 202.525 202.333 203.200 203.803 205.730 199.275 201.016 200.867 201.685 202.292 204.422

Chicago–Gary–Kenosha, IL–IN–WI…………………………..
Los Angeles–Riverside–Orange County, CA……….…………

M
M

206.696 207.821 207.155 208.757 209.526 211.542 199.558 200.887 200.217 201.525 202.497 204.742
218.696 219.943 219.373 220.918 221.431 223.606 211.259 212.844 212.282 213.825 214.231 216.493

New York, NY–Northern NJ–Long Island, NY–NJ–CT–PA…

M

228.552 229.504 229.395 229.869 231.020 233.122 222.624 223.716 223.873 224.557 225.281 226.951

Boston–Brockton–Nashua, MA–NH–ME–CT……….…………

1

– 230.689

– 231.980

– 233.084

– 230.440

– 231.291

– 232.656

Cleveland–Akron, OH……………………………………………

1

– 197.726

– 199.686

– 202.500

– 188.488

– 190.115

– 192.995

Dallas–Ft Worth, TX…….………………………………………

1

– 196.465

– 197.079

– 198.596

– 198.521

– 199.407

– 201.892

Washington–Baltimore, DC–MD–VA–WV ……….………………

1

– 135.151

– 136.293

– 138.090

– 134.844

– 135.826

– 137.544

Atlanta, GA……………………..…………………………………

2

201.938

– 202.751

– 204.166

– 200.714

– 202.034

– 203.473

Detroit–Ann Arbor–Flint, MI……………………………………

2

201.786

– 200.201

– 202.378

– 196.237

– 195.866

– 197.670

–

Houston–Galveston–Brazoria, TX………………………………

2

184.922

– 186.246

– 187.585

– 183.426

– 184.975

– 185.904

–

Miami–Ft. Lauderdale, FL……………...………………………

2

215.159

– 217.319

– 219.082

– 213.454

– 215.561

– 216.971

–

Philadelphia–Wilmington–Atlantic City, PA–NJ–DE–MD……

2

218.929

– 219.025

– 220.935

– 218.061

– 218.791

– 220.718

–

San Francisco–Oakland–San Jose, CA…….…………………

2

217.949

– 218.485

– 219.612

– 213.133

– 214.204

– 214.913

–

Seattle–Tacoma–Bremerton, WA………………...……………

2

218.427

– 218.966

– 221.728

– 213.107

– 214.024

– 216.332

–

3

Size B/C—50,000 to 1,500,000 ……….…………………………
Size classes:
5

A ……….………………………………………….…………..……………
3
B/C ……………………….….………………………………………….…
D…………….…………......................................................
Selected local areas 6

7

–

1
Foods, fuels, and several other items priced every month in all areas; most other
goods and services priced as indicated:
M—Every month.
1—January, March, May, July, September, and November.
2—February, April, June, August, October, and December.

Report :
Anchorage,
AK;
Cincinnatti,
OH–KY–IN;
Kansas
City,
MO–KS;
Milwaukee–Racine, WI; Minneapolis–St. Paul, MN–WI; Pittsburgh, PA; Port-land–Salem,
OR–WA; St Louis, MO–IL; San Diego, CA; Tampa–St. Petersburg–Clearwater, FL.

2

Regions defined as the four Census regions.

3

Indexes on a December 1996 = 100 base.

NOTE: Local area CPI indexes are byproducts of the national CPI program. Each local
index has a smaller sample size and is, therefore, subject to substantially more sampling
and other measurement error. As a result, local area indexes show greater volatility than
the national index, although their long-term trends are similar. Therefore, the Bureau of
Labor Statistics strongly urges users to consider adopting the national average CPI for use
in their escalator clauses. Index applies to a month as a whole, not to any specific date.
Dash indicates data not available.

4

The "North Central" region has been renamed the "Midwest" region by the Census
Bureau. It is composed of the same geographic entities.
5
6

Indexes on a December 1986 = 100 base.

In addition, the following metropolitan areas are published semiannually and
appear in tables 34 and 39 of the January and July issues of the CPI Detailed

7

Indexes on a November 1996 = 100 base.

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

99

Current Labor Statistics: Price Data

40. Annual data: Consumer Price Index, U.S. city average, all items and major groups
[1982–84 = 100]
Series
Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers:
All items:
Index..................……...............................................
Percent change............................……………………
Food and beverages:
Index................…….................................................
Percent change............................……………………
Housing:
Index....………………...............................................
Percent change............................……………………
Apparel:
Index........................…….........................................
Percent change............................……………………
Transportation:
Index........................………......................................
Percent change............................……………………
Medical care:
Index................…….................................................
Percent change............................……………………
Other goods and services:
Index............…….....................................................
Percent change............................……………………
Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners
and Clerical Workers:
All items:
Index....................……………...................................
Percent change............................……………………

100

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

160.5
2.3

163.0
1.6

166.6
2.2

172.2
3.4

177.1
2.8

179.9
1.6

184.0
2.3

188.9
2.7

195.3
3.4

201.6
3.2

207.342
2.8

157.7
2.6

161.1
2.2

164.6
2.2

168.4
2.3

173.6
3.1

176.8
1.8

180.5
2.1

186.6
3.3

191.2
2.5

195.7
2.4

203.300
3.9

156.8
2.6

160.4
2.3

163.9
2.2

169.6
3.5

176.4
4.0

180.3
2.2

184.8
2.5

189.5
2.5

195.7
3.3

203.2
3.8

209.586
3.1

132.9
.9

133.0
.1

131.3
–1.3

129.6
–1.3

127.3
–1.8

124.0
–2.6

120.9
–2.5

120.4
–.4

119.5
–.7

119.5
.0

118.998
-0.4

144.3
0.9

141.6
–1.9

144.4
2.0

153.3
6.2

154.3
0.7

152.9
–.9

157.6
3.1

163.1
3.5

173.9
6.6

180.9
4.0

184.682
2.1

234.6
2.8

242.1
3.2

250.6
3.5

260.8
4.1

272.8
4.6

285.6
4.7

297.1
4.0

310.1
4.4

323.2
4.2

336.2
4.0

351.054
4.4

224.8
4.4

237.7
5.7

258.3
8.7

271.1
5.0

282.6
4.2

293.2
3.8

298.7
1.9

304.7
2.0

313.4
2.9

321.7
2.6

333.328
3.6

157.6
2.3

159.7
1.3

163.2
2.2

168.9
3.5

173.5
2.7

175.9
1.4

179.8
2.2

184.5
5.1

191.0
1.1

197.1
3.2

202.767
2.9

41. Producer Price Indexes, by stage of processing
[1982 = 100]
Grouping
Finished goods....……………………………
Finished consumer goods.........................
Finished consumer foods........................

Annual average
2006

2007

2007
Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

2008
Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.p Jan.p Feb.p Mar.p

160.4
166.0
156.7

166.6
173.5
167.0

164.1
170.2
166.3

165.9
172.7
166.8

167.5
174.8
166.8

167.2
174.4
166.3

168.5
176.2
166.4

166.1
173.0
166.3

167.4
174.8
168.4

168.6
175.9
169.7

171.4
179.4
169.5

170.4
178.2
172.2

171.9
180.0
174.5

172.2
180.2
173.8

175.4
184.4
175.9

excluding foods.....................................
Nondurable goods less food.................
Durable goods......................................
Capital equipment...................................

169.2
182.6
136.9
146.9

175.6
191.7
138.3
149.5

171.2
185.2
138.2
149.1

174.5
190.4
137.7
149.1

177.6
195.0
137.7
149.1

177.2
194.5
137.7
149.0

179.7
198.1
137.6
149.1

175.3
191.8
137.2
149.0

177.0
194.6
136.7
148.9

177.9
194.5
139.8
150.6

182.9
201.5
140.2
151.0

180.1
197.9
139.5
150.7

181.7
200.0
140.0
151.3

182.4
200.7
140.4
152.0

187.3
207.9
140.4
152.1

Intermediate materials,
supplies, and components........…………

164.0

170.7

166.6

169.1

171.1

172.0

173.6

171.5

172.2

172.2

176.2

175.7

177.6

178.8

184.1

for manufacturing......................................
Materials for food manufacturing..............
Materials for nondurable manufacturing...
Materials for durable manufacturing.........
Components for manufacturing................

155.9
146.2
175.0
180.5
134.5

162.4
161.4
184.0
189.8
136.3

158.7
155.5
176.3
186.3
135.8

160.6
157.5
177.7
192.9
136.0

162.8
160.6
182.9
195.0
136.0

163.6
163.0
184.9
194.8
136.2

164.5
163.6
187.1
195.1
136.4

163.4
164.5
185.0
191.8
136.5

163.3
166.6
186.0
189.1
136.5

164.4
166.3
189.4
189.0
136.6

166.1
166.6
195.1
188.6
136.7

166.3
169.8
195.1
188.1
136.8

168.3
174.2
199.5
189.2
137.3

169.8
177.2
201.3
192.2
137.7

172.5
180.3
204.3
199.6
138.1

Materials and components
for construction.........................................
Processed fuels and lubricants...................
Containers..................................................
Supplies......................................................

188.4
162.8
175.0
157.0

192.5
173.9
180.3
161.7

191.2
164.6
178.1
160.4

192.1
171.6
179.2
160.7

192.8
176.2
179.6
160.8

193.1
178.1
179.7
161.4

193.5
183.0
180.2
161.9

193.5
175.3
180.5
162.0

193.2
178.4
181.0
162.3

193.2
175.5
182.3
163.0

193.2
189.7
183.2
163.9

193.4
186.3
183.4
164.6

194.1
188.3
184.4
166.5

195.5
188.4
185.6
168.0

197.2
205.7
185.9
169.5

Crude materials for further
processing.......................…………………
Foodstuffs and feedstuffs...........................
Crude nonfood materials............................

184.8
119.3
230.6

207.1
146.7
246.3

202.1
142.0
241.5

204.2
143.7
243.9

208.0
148.1
246.6

209.7
148.4
249.6

210.3
150.0
249.2

202.8
147.8
237.6

204.6
151.9
237.4

211.8
150.0
252.0

225.6
152.9
274.1

229.0
158.5
275.4

236.4
162.5
285.3

245.5
164.5
300.0

265.6
168.0
333.1

Special groupings:
Finished goods, excluding foods................
Finished energy goods...............................
Finished goods less energy........................
Finished consumer goods less energy.......
Finished goods less food and energy.........

161.0
145.9
157.9
162.7
158.7

166.2
156.3
162.8
168.7
161.7

163.2
147.4
162.1
167.8
161.0

165.3
155.4
162.2
168.0
161.0

167.4
161.9
162.4
168.3
161.3

167.1
160.9
162.3
168.2
161.3

168.8
166.4
162.4
168.3
161.4

165.8
155.6
162.5
168.4
161.5

166.9
159.7
163.0
169.2
161.5

168.1
159.1
164.7
170.8
163.2

171.6
170.4
164.9
171.0
163.6

169.6
163.8
165.5
172.0
163.5

170.9
166.3
166.7
173.4
164.3

171.5
166.3
167.1
173.8
165.1

174.9
177.5
167.9
174.8
165.4

and energy................................................
Consumer nondurable goods less food

166.7

170.0

169.0

169.0

169.5

169.6

169.7

170.0

170.0

171.8

172.2

172.2

173.0

174.1

174.4

and energy..............................................

191.5

197.0

194.9

195.4

196.5

196.7

197.1

197.9

198.3

199.0

199.3

200.0

201.2

202.7

203.5

Intermediate materials less foods
and feeds..................................................
Intermediate foods and feeds.....................
Intermediate energy goods.........................
Intermediate goods less energy..................

165.4
135.2
162.8
162.1

171.5
154.4
174.6
167.6

167.5
149.8
164.0
165.2

170.0
151.0
170.5
166.7

172.1
151.6
176.7
167.6

172.9
154.5
179.2
168.1

174.5
155.9
184.2
168.8

172.3
156.3
177.0
168.1

172.9
158.2
179.5
168.2

172.9
159.6
177.4
168.9

177.0
161.4
191.1
170.2

176.3
164.6
187.8
170.4

178.0
170.4
190.2
172.1

179.1
174.7
190.9
173.4

184.4
179.8
208.1
175.5

and energy................................................

163.8

168.4

166.2

167.7

168.6

169.0

169.6

168.8

168.9

169.5

170.8

170.9

172.3

173.5

175.3

Crude energy materials..............................
Crude materials less energy.......................
Crude nonfood materials less energy.........

226.9
152.3
244.5

232.8
182.6
282.6

224.7
179.3
284.5

226.5
181.6
288.4

233.0
183.7
282.8

238.0
183.6
281.5

236.8
185.5
284.0

221.7
183.8
284.7

219.9
188.3
289.9

237.7
187.4
292.8

267.1
189.2
289.9

268.3
194.1
291.7

275.9
201.1
309.0

291.5
205.3
320.2

330.5
210.7
332.2

Finished consumer goods

Materials and components

Finished consumer goods less food

Intermediate materials less foods

p = preliminary.

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008 101

Current Labor Statistics: Price Data

3URGXFHU3ULFH,QGH[HVIRUWKHQHWRXWSXWRIPDMRULQGXVWU\JURXSV
>'HFHPEHU XQOHVVRWKHUZLVHLQGLFDWHG@
NAICS

2007

Industry
Mar.
Total mining industries (December 1984=100).............................

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

2008
Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec. p Jan. p Feb.p Mar.p

210.6
252.4
153.7
175.5

214.1
257.1
158.2
172.1

221.1
268.2
159.1
172.8

222.6
270.9
159.3
171.2

222.3
269.6
162.4
168.9

212.5
254.1
160.8
168.6

214.3
256.2
162.2
169.7

228.3
279.6
162.4
168.5

249.3
314.8
161.3
168.7

249.5
315.9
161.2
164.9

256.2
323.4
168.4
167.5

263.8
334.1
171.7
168.7

290.0
375.6
175.6
170.0

160.1
155.8
108.5
107.7
101.4
149.3
106.8
114.5
106.3
237.2

162.2
156.9
109.1
107.4
101.6
149.7
107.0
114.7
106.6
259.3

163.8
158.7
109.2
107.6
101.5
149.6
107.0
114.8
106.5
274.3

163.7
160.3
109.3
107.8
101.4
149.4
107.5
115.2
106.5
268.2

164.9
160.4
109.2
108.4
101.5
149.4
108.4
115.4
106.7
283.1

163.0
160.3
109.9
108.6
101.5
149.9
107.8
115.6
106.8
258.0

163.7
160.8
110.3
108.7
101.3
150.0
107.2
116.1
107.0
267.4

164.5
160.7
111.1
108.9
101.5
150.4
106.5
117.1
107.1
266.9

168.0
161.4
111.1
109.1
101.5
150.5
106.1
117.8
107.2
305.5

166.9
162.8
111.2
109.3
101.5
151.1
106.1
118.0
107.4
288.4

168.4
165.8
112.0
110.4
101.6
151.4
105.3
118.4
107.9
295.3

169.4
167.8
112.8
110.8
101.8
152.6
105.4
119.1
108.1
297.1

173.4
170.2
112.6
110.3
102.0
152.5
105.8
119.6
108.1
336.4




(December 1984=100)………………………………….…………
Chemical manufacturing (December 1984=100)…………………… 199.4
149.4
Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

201.1
149.4

201.9
149.8

202.8
149.9

203.6
150.4

204.9
151.3

205.0
151.2

206.4
151.6

209.2
152.2

210.4
153.2

214.0
154.6

215.7
155.8

216.9
156.5









Primary metal manufacturing (December 1984=100)………………
Fabricated metal product manufacturing (December 1984=100)…
Machinery manufacturing………………………..……………………
Computer and electronic products manufacturing…………………
Electrical equipment, appliance, and components manufacturing
Transportation equipment manufacturing……………………………
Furniture and related product manufacturing

187.2
161.3
111.7
95.1
119.7
104.8
165.2

194.1
161.9
112.0
95.1
120.5
104.5
165.5

197.1
162.5
112.1
94.7
121.8
104.4
165.7

196.4
162.2
112.0
94.6
122.1
104.4
165.9

196.4
162.3
112.1
94.1
123.0
104.4
165.6

192.1
162.9
112.3
93.5
123.6
104.2
165.7

188.8
162.8
112.5
93.3
123.7
103.8
165.9

188.6
163.3
112.7
93.1
124.2
106.3
166.1

188.9
163.7
113.0
92.8
124.5
106.6
166.6

188.6
164.3
113.1
92.6
124.4
106.0
166.4

190.2
164.6
113.8
92.3
125.1
106.2
167.2

194.4
165.8
114.4
92.6
126.1
106.6
167.8

202.9
167.8
114.8
92.8
128.4
106.3
167.8



Miscellaneous manufacturing………………………………………… 106.8

106.8

107.1

107.0

106.9

107.0

107.1

107.2

107.5

107.7

108.7

109.1

109.3

114.9
115.8
101.8
122.1
66.1
128.7

115.7
115.7
97.9
122.2
71.1
130.5

115.6
115.2
110.2
123.0
86.1
129.5

116.2
116.2
112.4
123.1
86.5
127.7

115.6
116.5
111.6
123.6
81.6
123.1

114.9
119.6
109.8
124.3
71.3
128.3

116.0
119.0
107.8
123.9
73.7
126.0

115.3
120.1
111.1
123.5
78.0
130.2

116.1
121.1
114.9
123.8
73.7
125.7

118.0
119.0
89.3
123.8
66.6
134.7

116.3
122.8
85.2
124.3
66.0
133.6

118.9
120.6
87.9
124.0
59.5
135.5

118.8
122.2
88.0
125.9
61.1
134.3

Air transportation (December 1992=100)…………………………… 181.5
Water transportation…………………………………………………… 111.4
Postal service (June 1989=100)……………………………………… 164.7

182.4
111.4
164.7

177.8
111.5
175.4

185.9
111.7
175.4

188.0
113.6
175.5

189.1
114.7
175.5

180.5
115.3
175.5

187.2
117.2
175.5

189.4
116.5
175.5

187.1
116.4
175.5

191.4
118.2
175.5

192.4
120.5
175.5

197.2
120.8
175.5

124.5

125.4

129.9

131.6

130.8

129.3

127.2

126.6

127.4

127.1

128.4

129.7

122.4
106.7
123.6
157.3
113.4
111.5

122.2
106.7
123.6
157.4
113.7
111.5

122.0
106.4
123.6
157.4
113.7
112.2

122.1
107.2
123.6
157.6
113.9
112.5

122.2
107.0
123.8
158.1
114.9
112.9

122.2
107.7
123.9
158.0
115.7
113.2

122.9
107.6
124.1
158.2
115.8
113.5

122.9
107.7
125.1
161.3
116.4
113.9

121.5
106.7
125.3
161.9
116.5
114.3

122.7
106.7
125.3
161.9
117.0
114.6

122.8
107.8
125.5
162.1
117.0
114.8

122.9
107.9
125.7
162.0
117.3
116.1

121.0
106.8
125.6
162.7
117.6
118.2

107.8
102.5
99.7
100.2
117.3
105.8
111.4
103.4
116.7
152.8
109.8

108.0
101.1
100.4
100.1
118.1
105.9
111.4
103.6
117.0
153.0
110.6

108.2
101.6
100.7
100.4
118.7
106.0
110.4
104.0
114.1
153.3
110.9

108.1
101.8
101.0
100.3
118.6
106.8
110.8
103.7
114.4
153.4
111.4

108.2
98.7
102.2
100.4
120.5
106.2
111.1
103.8
121.2
153.7
112.2

108.4
98.7
101.3
100.4
120.4
107.9
111.1
103.2
122.3
153.8
112.6

108.4
99.6
102.0
100.4
121.1
109.0
110.7
102.9
117.2
154.3
112.4

108.5
101.0
101.8
100.3
121.4
108.5
110.5
103.5
118.9
154.8
113.1

108.5
102.3
101.2
100.5
124.2
108.5
110.5
106.1
118.4
155.1
112.9

108.5
103.6
100.7
100.4
123.0
110.0
109.9
105.6
119.1
155.1
113.0

109.3
101.6
100.6
100.3
119.2
110.2
110.0
108.1
120.9
159.4
115.3

109.4
102.3
100.8
100.6
117.1
107.8
110.1
106.1
120.9
160.1
114.2

110.4
103.2
100.8
100.6
118.4
107.9
110.6
107.2
121.6
160.6
113.0

139.4
105.1
121.2
100.5
105.3
106.6
139.1

139.7
105.1
121.3
101.2
105.3
107.2
140.7

139.8
105.1
121.4
101.0
105.4
107.2
141.1

140.1
105.1
121.6
101.4
105.4
107.2
143.1

140.3
105.1
121.8
101.1
105.5
107.3
147.1

140.8
105.1
121.9
101.0
105.5
107.9
147.2

140.7
105.1
122.0
100.9
106.8
108.9
145.0

140.8
105.1
122.4
102.5
106.9
108.9
145.8

140.8
105.1
122.3
101.7
107.1
109.5
144.7

140.8
105.1
122.2
100.2
108.7
108.4
143.7

138.8
105.0
121.9
97.3
107.5
110.6
144.8

139.1
105.0
122.3
97.3
108.2
112.2
142.9

140.0
105.2
122.5
98.7
107.7
112.1
144.2














Oil and gas extraction (December 1985=100) .............................
Mining, except oil and gas……………………………………………
Mining support activities………………………………………………
Total manufacturing industries (December 1984=100)................
Food manufacturing (December 1984=100)…………………………
Beverage and tobacco manufacturing...........................................
Textile mills....................................................................................
Apparel manufacturing………………………………...………………
Leather and allied product manufacturing (December 1984=100)
Wood products manufacturing………………………………………
Paper manufacturing.....................................................................
Printing and related support activities...........................................
Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

(December 1984=100)………….…………………………………

(December 1984=100)………………………………………………

Retail trade







Motor vehicle and parts dealers………………………………………
Furniture and home furnishings stores………………………………
Electronics and appliance stores……………………………………
Health and personal care stores………………………………………
Gasoline stations (June 2001=100)…………………………………
Nonstore retailers………………………………………………………
Transportation and warehousing





Utilities


Utilities…………………………………………………………………… 124.4
Health care and social assistance








Office of physicians (December 1996=100)…………………………
Medical and diagnostic laboratories…………………………………
Home health care services (December 1996=100)…………………
Hospitals (December 1992=100)……………………………………
Nursing care facilities…………………………………………………
Residential mental retardation facilities………………………………
Other services industries














Publishing industries, except Internet ………………………………
Broadcasting, except Internet…………………………………………
Telecommunications……………………………………………………
Data processing and related services………………………………
Security, commodity contracts, and like activity……………………
Lessors or nonresidental buildings (except miniwarehouse)………
Offices of real estate agents and brokers……………………………
Real estate support activities…………………………………………
Automotive equipment rental and leasing (June 2001=100)………
Legal services (December 1996=100)………………………………
Offices of certified public accountants………………………………
Architectural, engineering, and related services

(December 1996=100)………………………………………………

Advertising agencies……………………………………………………

Employment services (December 1996=100)………………………

Travel agencies…………………………………………………………

Janitorial services………………………………………………………

Waste collection…………………………………………………………

Accommodation (December 1996=100)……………………………
S SUHOLPLQDU\

102

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

43. Annual data: Producer Price Indexes, by stage of processing
> @
Index

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Finished goods
7RWDO
)RRGV«««««««««««««
(QHUJ\«««««««««««««««««
2WKHU«««««««««««««
























































Intermediate materials, supplies, and
components
7RWDO
)RRGV«««««««««««««««««
(QHUJ\««««««««««««
2WKHU«««««««««««««















































































































Crude materials for further processing
7RWDO
)RRGV«««««««««««««
(QHUJ\«««««««««««««««««
2WKHU«««««««««««««

86H[SRUWSULFHLQGH[HVE\HQGXVHFDWHJRU\
[2000 = 100]
2007

Category
Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

2008
Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

ALL COMMODITIES……………....................................

114.7

115.2

115.5

116.0

116.1

116.3

116.7

117.6

118.7

119.3

120.7

121.9

123.7

Foods, feeds, and beverages……………...……………
Agricultural foods, feeds, and beverages….............
Nonagricultural (fish, beverages) food products……

146.9
149.2
128.0

145.3
146.8
133.9

145.1
147.0
129.8

148.6
151.0
128.5

149.2
151.5
130.2

151.4
153.7
132.2

157.8
160.8
133.0

164.1
167.6
134.2

165.9
169.8
133.1

171.1
175.2
136.1

180.5
185.0
142.0

188.6
193.8
144.7

195.7
201.3
148.2

Industrial supplies and materials……………...………… 145.5

147.2

148.3

149.0

148.6

148.8

148.8

150.5

153.9

154.1

157.1

159.2

165.5

Agricultural industrial supplies and materials…........

127.3

126.9

125.1

128.7

138.6

137.4

140.0

142.7

144.9

144.7

146.0

150.6

159.3

Fuels and lubricants…...............................…………

188.8

198.6

199.1

201.1

202.9

197.4

200.9

204.8

224.7

222.8

232.1

225.6

249.2

Nonagricultural supplies and materials,
excluding fuel and building materials…………...…
Selected building materials…...............................…

143.5
112.7

144.3
112.9

145.7
113.3

146.1
113.9

144.6
114.1

145.7
114.0

145.0
114.4

146.5
114.2

147.9
113.8

148.5
113.7

150.9
113.3

154.1
113.8

158.2
114.1

Capital goods……………...…………………………….… 99.2
Electric and electrical generating equipment…........ 106.0
Nonelectrical machinery…...............................……… 92.8

99.3
106.5
92.7

99.5
106.4
92.9

99.6
106.5
92.9

99.7
106.6
93.1

99.8
106.7
93.1

99.9
106.7
93.1

100.1
107.1
93.2

100.3
107.2
93.4

100.6
107.5
93.6

100.9
107.7
93.7

101.3
107.9
93.9

101.2
108.2
93.7

Automotive vehicles, parts, and engines……………...

105.9

106.0

106.0

106.1

106.2

106.2

106.3

106.5

106.5

106.7

106.9

107.0

107.2

Consumer goods, excluding automotive……………... 104.8
Nondurables, manufactured…...............................… 105.0
Durables, manufactured…………...………..........…… 103.4

105.4
105.7
103.9

105.7
106.4
104.0

105.8
106.7
103.7

106.1
107.0
104.0

106.3
107.2
104.2

106.2
107.0
104.2

106.4
107.4
104.2

106.8
108.0
104.4

107.3
108.2
105.2

107.3
108.1
105.2

107.4
108.2
105.5

107.6
108.5
105.3

Agricultural commodities……………...…………………
Nonagricultural commodities……………...……………

142.9
113.2

142.8
113.6

146.7
113.8

149.0
113.7

150.5
113.8

156.8
113.8

162.8
114.4

165.0
115.4

169.3
115.7

177.5
116.6

185.5
117.3

193.2
118.8

145.0
112.6

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

103

Current Labor Statistics: Price Data

86LPSRUWSULFHLQGH[HVE\HQGXVHFDWHJRU\
[2000 = 100]
2007

Category
Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

2008

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

ALL COMMODITIES……………....................................

115.9

117.5

118.6

120.0

121.5

121.1

121.8

123.6

127.5

127.3

129.2

129.5

133.2

Foods, feeds, and beverages……………...……………
Agricultural foods, feeds, and beverages….............
Nonagricultural (fish, beverages) food products……

124.6
135.1
101.3

126.3
137.6
100.9

127.4
139.1
101.2

127.8
139.5
101.5

129.4
141.4
102.7

130.1
142.1
103.2

131.8
144.4
103.5

133.2
146.5
103.2

133.4
147.1
102.5

134.4
148.3
103.0

138.1
153.1
104.3

137.7
152.5
104.4

141.6
156.9
106.9

Industrial supplies and materials……………...………… 169.8

176.4

180.5

185.6

190.9

188.5

190.7

197.2

212.8

211.3

218.2

218.7

233.2

Fuels and lubricants…...............................…………
Petroleum and petroleum products…………...……

209.6
213.6

222.1
228.2

228.2
234.3

238.2
245.6

249.8
260.3

244.0
256.4

250.0
264.4

262.4
277.7

294.8
312.2

290.3
306.7

301.9
319.6

299.4
314.8

325.8
343.8

Paper and paper base stocks…...............................

111.5

110.6

110.6

110.8

110.3

110.7

111.2

112.2

108.0

109.2

112.5

113.4

114.1

Materials associated with nondurable
supplies and materials…...............................………
Selected building materials…...............................…
Unfinished metals associated with durable goods…
Nonmetals associated with durable goods…...........

124.0
111.4
202.9
101.8

124.5
111.4
209.4
101.6

125.1
111.2
217.1
101.7

125.4
113.1
219.7
101.6

126.6
116.9
215.1
102.1

127.3
116.5
215.3
102.2

128.2
116.9
209.1
102.5

131.4
115.7
211.0
103.0

133.7
115.6
214.8
103.3

135.3
116.0
217.2
103.8

143.6
115.9
215.3
105.4

146.6
113.8
224.4
105.9

148.0
114.0
241.9
105.1

Capital goods……………...…………………………….… 91.1
Electric and electrical generating equipment…........
104.3
Nonelectrical machinery…...............................……… 87.2

90.9
104.9
86.9

91.1
105.2
87.0

91.3
105.7
87.2

91.6
105.8
87.4

91.8
106.4
87.6

91.9
106.5
87.7

92.0
106.8
87.7

92.1
107.5
87.7

92.2
107.9
87.7

91.9
107.7
87.4

92.0
108.7
87.4

92.1
109.3
87.5

Automotive vehicles, parts, and engines……………...

104.4

104.5

104.6

104.7

104.8

105.0

105.2

105.6

106.2

106.8

107.1

107.3

107.5

Consumer goods, excluding automotive……………...
101.3
Nondurables, manufactured…...............................… 104.1
Durables, manufactured…………...………..........…… 98.3
Nonmanufactured consumer goods…………...……… 102.2

101.3
104.1
98.2
102.3

101.3
104.3
98.1
102.4

101.4
104.3
98.2
102.6

101.7
104.8
98.3
103.1

102.0
104.9
98.8
103.4

102.1
105.0
98.8
103.4

102.2
105.1
99.0
103.3

102.4
105.3
99.2
103.3

102.6
105.5
99.3
103.8

103.1
106.5
99.6
104.0

103.5
106.8
100.0
104.1

103.9
107.4
100.3
104.2

86LQWHUQDWLRQDOSULFH,QGH[HVIRUVHOHFWHGFDWHJRULHVRIVHUYLFHV
[2000 = 100, unless indicated otherwise]
2006

Category
Mar.

June

2007

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

2008

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

Import air freight……………...........................................
Export air freight……………...……………………………

129.7
113.6

135.2
115.9

133.1
117.9

131.2
116.7

130.7
117.0

132.3
117.0

134.2
119.8

141.8
127.1

144.4
131.4

Import air passenger fares (Dec. 2006 = 100)……………
Export air passenger fares (Dec. 2006 = 100)…............

114.9
130.8

136.7
139.3

130.9
142.4

125.4
137.3

122.9
140.2

144.6
147.3

140.2
154.6

135.3
155.7

131.3
156.4

104

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

,QGH[HVRISURGXFWLYLW\KRXUO\FRPSHQVDWLRQDQGXQLWFRVWVTXDUWHUO\GDWDVHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG
[1992 = 100]

2005

,WHP
I

II

2006
III

IV

I

II

2007
III

IV

I

II

2008
III

IV

I

%XVLQHVV
Output per hour of all persons........................................
Compensation per hour…………………………….………
Real compensation per hour………………………………
Unit labor costs…...............................……………………
Unit nonlabor payments…………...………..........………
Implicit price deflator………………………………………

134.3
161.4
120.2
120.2
128.1
123.1

134.3
161.6
119.6
120.4
129.8
123.9

135.9
164.1
119.5
120.8
132.1
125.0

135.5
165.4
119.3
122.0
133.0
126.1

136.3
168.3
120.8
123.4
133.0
127.0

136.7
168.1
119.6
123.0
136.6
128.0

136.1
168.7
118.9
123.9
136.7
128.7

136.5
173.5
122.7
127.1
132.0
128.9

136.8
176.1
123.5
128.7
132.8
130.2

138.1
177.1
122.8
128.3
135.4
130.9

140.3
178.7
123.1
127.4
137.1
131.0

140.6
180.4
122.7
128.3
137.3
131.7

141.3
182.2
122.6
129.0
137.9
132.3

133.4
160.3
119.4
120.2
129.6
123.6

133.5
160.8
119.0
120.5
131.3
124.5

135.0
163.2
118.9
120.9
133.8
125.6

134.5
164.3
118.5
122.1
134.7
126.8

135.2
167.0
119.9
123.5
134.9
127.7

135.7
167.0
118.8
123.1
138.8
128.9

135.1
167.6
118.1
124.0
138.6
129.4

135.6
172.5
122.0
127.2
133.4
129.5

136.1
175.2
122.8
128.8
133.8
130.6

137.0
175.8
121.9
128.4
136.4
131.3

139.0
177.2
122.0
127.5
137.9
131.3

139.6
179.2
121.9
128.4
137.8
131.9

140.4
181.2
121.9
129.1
138.5
132.6

141.0
158.0
117.7
111.8
112.1
111.0
151.2
121.8
115.3

141.9
158.5
117.2
111.5
111.7
111.0
160.8
124.4
115.9

141.3
160.8
117.1
113.9
113.8
114.4
146.6
123.0
116.9

142.1
161.8
116.7
113.5
113.9
112.3
158.8
124.7
117.5

142.8
163.8
117.6
114.1
114.8
112.3
164.0
126.1
118.5

141.9
163.9
116.7
115.2
115.5
114.2
164.8
127.7
119.6

142.7
164.6
116.0
114.9
115.3
114.0
172.8
129.7
120.1

143.0
169.3
119.8
117.4
118.4
114.7
150.4
124.3
120.3

143.5
171.4
120.2
118.2
119.5
114.9
154.7
125.5
121.5

144.2
172.4
119.5
118.3
119.5
115.0
158.5
126.7
121.9

145.3
173.6
119.5
118.2
119.5
114.7
154.3
125.3
121.4

145.6
175.1
119.1
119.0
120.3
115.5
147.3
124.0
121.5

–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–

170.0
166.2
123.8
97.7

172.0
168.0
124.3
97.7

172.9
170.4
124.1
98.6

172.8
168.7
121.7
97.6

172.6
172.4
123.8
99.9

172.7
170.5
121.3
98.7

174.5
171.6
120.9
98.4

175.4
177.4
125.5
101.1

177.0
181.7
127.4
102.7

178.7
181.6
125.9
101.6

180.6
181.9
125.2
100.7

182.5
183.8
125.0
100.7

184.3
186.8
125.7
101.4

1RQIDUPEXVLQHVV
Output per hour of all persons........................................
Compensation per hour…………………………….………
Real compensation per hour………………………………
Unit labor costs…...............................……………………
Unit nonlabor payments…………...………..........………
Implicit price deflator………………………………………
1RQILQDQFLDOFRUSRUDWLRQV
Output per hour of all employees...................................
Compensation per hour…………………………….………
Real compensation per hour………………………………
Total unit costs…...............................……………………
Unit labor costs.............................................................
Unit nonlabor costs......................................................
Unit profits......................................................................
Unit nonlabor payments…………...………..........………
Implicit price deflator………………………………………
0DQXIDFWXULQJ
Output per hour of all persons........................................
Compensation per hour…………………………….………
Real compensation per hour………………………………
Unit labor costs…...............................……………………
127('DVKLQGLFDWHVGDWDQRWDYDLODEOH

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

105

Current Labor Statistics: Productivity Data

48. Annual indexes of multifactor productivity and related measures, selected years
> XQOHVVRWKHUZLVHLQGLFDWHG@
Item

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Private business
3URGXFWLYLW\
Output per hour of all persons......……………..............
87.4
Output per unit of capital services……………………… 104.6
Multifactor productivity……………………………………
93.7
Output…...............................………………………….……
79.2

90.0
104.7
95.3
82.8

91.7
104.9
96.2
87.2

94.3
103.5
97.5
91.5

97.2
102.3
98.7
96.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

102.8
96.0
100.1
100.5

107.1
94.8
101.8
102.0

111.2
95.6
104.4
105.2

114.5
97.5
107.0
109.7

116.8
98.6
108.8
113.8

118.0
99.1
109.4
117.4

120.2
98.1
110.1
120.1

88.8
75.7
84.4
83.6

90.7
79.1
86.9
85.9

94.2
83.2
90.6
87.4

96.4
88.4
93.9
91.1

99.0
94.1
97.5
95.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

98.6
104.6
100.3
107.0

97.2
107.6
100.2
112.9

97.0
110.0
100.7
116.3

98.4
112.5
102.5
117.4

100.2
115.4
104.6
118.4

102.8
118.5
107.4
119.1

103.8
122.3
109.2
122.3

3URGXFWLYLW\
Output per hour of all persons........……………………… 88.2
Output per unit of capital services……………………… 105.6
Multifactor productivity……………………………………
94.5
Output…...............................………………………….……
79.3

90.5
105.5
95.9
82.8

92.0
105.3
96.5
87.2

94.5
103.9
97.8
91.5

97.3
102.5
98.8
96.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

102.7
96.0
100.1
100.5

107.1
94.7
101.8
102.1

111.0
95.4
104.3
105.2

114.2
97.3
106.8
109.6

116.4
98.3
108.6
113.7

117.6
98.7
109.0
117.4

119.7
97.9
109.7
120.1

88.2
75.0
83.9
83.5

90.2
78.5
86.4
85.8

93.9
82.7
90.3
87.3

96.2
88.1
93.6
91.0

99.0
93.9
97.4
94.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

98.7
104.7
100.5
107.0

97.2
107.8
100.2
113.1

97.1
110.3
100.8
116.4

98.6
112.7
102.6
117.4

100.4
115.6
104.7
118.4

103.1
118.9
107.6
119.1

104.1
122.8
109.4
122.4

3URGXFWLYLW\
Output per hour of all persons...…………………………
Output per unit of capital services………………………
Multifactor productivity……………………………………
Output…...............................………………………….……

79.8
98.7
90.8
80.3

82.7
98.0
91.2
83.1

87.3
100.6
93.8
89.2

92.0
100.7
95.9
93.8

96.1
100.4
96.7
97.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

101.6
93.5
98.7
94.9

108.6
92.3
102.4
94.3

115.3
93.2
105.2
95.2

117.9
95.4
108.0
96.9

123.5
98.9
108.4
100.4

125.0
100.2
110.1
102.3

–
–
–
–

Inputs:
Hours of all persons.....................................................
Capital services…………...………..........………….……
Energy……………….……….........................................
Nonenergy materials....................................................
Purchased business services.......................................
Combined units of all factor inputs…………...………...

100.6
81.4
113.7
78.9
88.8
88.5

100.4
84.8
110.4
86.0
88.5
91.1

102.2
88.7
108.2
92.9
92.1
95.1

101.9
93.2
105.4
97.7
95.0
97.8

101.3
97.0
105.5
102.6
100.0
100.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

93.5
101.5
90.6
93.3
100.7
96.2

86.8
102.1
89.3
88.4
98.2
92.1

82.6
102.1
84.4
87.7
99.1
90.5

82.2
101.6
84.0
87.3
97.0
89.7

81.3
101.5
91.6
92.4
104.5
92.7

81.8
102.0
86.6
91.5
106.6
92.9

–
–
–
–
–
–

Inputs:
Labor input...................................................................
Capital services…………...………..........………….……
Combined units of labor and capital input………………
Capital per hour of all persons.......................……………
Private nonfarm business

Inputs:
Labor input...................................................................
Capital services…………...………..........………….……
Combined units of labor and capital input………………
Capital per hour of all persons......…………………………
Manufacturing [1996 = 100]

127('DVKLQGLFDWHVGDWDQRWDYDLODEOH

106

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

49. Annual indexes of productivity, hourly compensation, unit costs, and prices, selected years
> @
Item

1962

1972

1982

1992

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Business
Output per hour of all persons........................................
Compensation per hour…………………………….………
Real compensation per hour………………………………
Unit labor costs…...............................……………………
Unit nonlabor payments…………...………..........………
Implicit price deflator………………………………………

52.9
15.1
65.2
28.5
26.1
27.6

71.2
26.7
83.3
37.4
35.7
36.8

80.1
63.6
90.6
79.4
70.1
75.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

112.8
125.8
108.1
111.5
109.4
110.7

116.1
134.7
112.0
116.0
107.2
112.7

119.1
140.3
113.5
117.9
110.0
114.9

123.9
145.3
115.7
117.3
114.2
116.1

128.7
151.2
117.7
117.5
118.3
117.8

132.4
156.9
119.0
118.5
124.7
120.8

135.0
163.2
119.7
120.9
130.8
124.5

136.4
169.6
120.5
124.4
134.6
128.2

139.0
178.1
123.0
128.2
135.7
131.0

55.9
15.6
67.3
27.8
25.8
27.1

73.1
26.9
84.0
36.8
34.9
36.1

80.8
63.9
91.1
79.1
69.3
75.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

112.5
125.2
107.6
111.3
110.9
111.1

115.7
134.2
111.6
116.0
108.7
113.3

118.6
139.5
112.8
117.7
111.6
115.4

123.5
144.6
115.1
117.1
116.0
116.7

128.0
150.4
117.1
117.5
119.6
118.3

131.6
155.9
118.2
118.5
125.5
121.1

134.1
162.1
118.9
120.9
132.4
125.1

135.4
168.5
119.7
124.5
136.4
128.9

137.9
176.9
122.2
128.3
136.5
131.3

60.4
17.4
75.1
27.3
28.7
23.4
54.5
31.7
29.7

74.2
28.8
90.0
37.5
38.8
33.9
54.1
39.3
39.0

83.1
66.5
94.7
80.4
80.0
81.3
75.2
79.7
79.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

117.9
124.2
106.7
104.0
105.3
100.4
129.1
108.0
106.2

122.5
133.0
110.6
107.4
108.6
104.2
108.7
105.4
107.5

124.7
138.6
112.1
111.6
111.2
112.6
82.2
104.5
108.9

129.7
143.6
114.3
110.7
110.7
110.8
98.0
107.4
109.6

134.6
149.5
116.4
111.0
111.0
111.1
109.9
110.7
110.9

139.6
153.9
116.7
110.0
110.3
109.3
144.8
118.8
113.1

141.6
159.8
117.2
112.7
112.9
112.2
154.4
123.5
116.4

142.6
165.4
117.5
115.4
116.0
113.8
162.9
126.9
119.7

144.6
173.1
119.6
118.4
119.7
115.0
153.7
125.4
121.6

–
–
–
–
–
–

–
–
–
–
–
–

–
–
–
–
–
–

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

133.7
123.5
106.1
92.4
102.9
99.5

139.1
134.7
112.0
96.9
103.5
101.4

141.2
137.8
111.5
97.6
102.0
100.6

151.0
147.8
117.7
97.9
100.3
99.5

160.4
158.2
123.2
98.7
102.9
101.5

163.9
161.5
122.4
98.5
110.2
106.4

171.9
168.3
123.5
97.9
121.1
113.5

173.8
173.0
122.8
99.5
126.2
117.4

179.7
182.3
125.9
101.4
–
–

Nonfarm business
Output per hour of all persons........................................
Compensation per hour…………………………….………
Real compensation per hour………………………………
Unit labor costs…...............................……………………
Unit nonlabor payments…………...………..........………
Implicit price deflator………………………………………
Nonfinancial corporations
Output per hour of all employees...................................
Compensation per hour…………………………….………
Real compensation per hour………………………………
Total unit costs…...............................……………………
Unit labor costs.............................................................
Unit nonlabor costs......................................................
Unit profits......................................................................
Unit nonlabor payments…………...………..........………
Implicit price deflator………………………………………
Manufacturing
Output per hour of all persons........................................
Compensation per hour…………………………….………
Real compensation per hour………………………………
Unit labor costs…...............................……………………
Unit nonlabor payments…………...………..........………
Implicit price deflator………………………………………
'DVKLQGLFDWHVGDWDQRWDYDLODEOH

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

107

Current Labor Statistics: Productivity Data

50. Annual indexes of output per hour for selected NAICS industries, 1987-2006
[1997=100]
NAICS

Industry

21
211
2111
212
2121
2122


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1998

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2000

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2002

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2004

2005

2006

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Utilities

Manufacturing

108

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

50. Continued - Annual indexes of output per hour for selected NAICS industries, 1987-2006
[1997=100]
NAICS

1987

1990

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006







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Industry

88.2
83.0
81.0
64.8
79.7

85.4
79.5
84.7
70.2
84.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

114.9
99.0
102.0
101.3
100.6

104.4
95.6
102.8
104.8
93.8

98.5
96.6
101.3
106.0
96.4

101.8
98.6
101.0
104.4
97.9

99.0
106.9
115.2
125.1
96.8

107.1
113.6
118.2
130.4
93.9

104.7
110.6
132.0
164.9
88.6

119.3
118.9
135.5
163.1
90.8

116.5
116.3
134.3
163.5
86.1







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81.4
87.3
85.4



86.5
87.1
89.0



100.0
100.0
100.0



101.2
101.3
103.5



104.5
103.0
110.9



103.6
104.8
121.1



107.4
104.8
120.7



116.7
110.9
125.0



116.3
114.4
133.1



123.9
113.4
142.0



128.6
116.9
147.6



131.8
119.7
152.7







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86.3


88.7


85.4


84.8


100.0


100.0


99.9


100.5


108.0


105.2


105.9


114.3


110.3


113.5


113.4


115.5


113.2


125.4


107.6


126.0


114.1


131.8


116.6


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76.9
75.5
91.0
82.3


79.2
81.3
86.5
87.7


100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0


99.6
100.9
101.9
102.9


104.2
101.0
99.6
104.7


108.2
105.5
99.9
111.5


108.8
107.3
96.7
109.0


114.8
116.1
106.5
116.6


115.7
118.3
111.6
125.2


114.6
125.3
111.2
127.0


116.3
136.5
112.5
134.1


117.1
135.5
117.7
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0HWDOZRUNLQJPDFKLQHU\««««««««««««
7XUELQHDQGSRZHUWUDQVPLVVLRQHTXLSPHQW«««

75.1
87.0
84.0
85.1


81.6
95.7
90.6
86.5


100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0


95.1
106.3
106.2
99.1


105.8
110.0
110.2
100.3


130.0
101.3
107.9
106.1


105.8
94.5
110.8
103.3


117.6
97.8
118.6
112.7


117.0
104.7
130.0
115.2


126.5
106.5
132.8
117.1


122.4
115.1
137.1
127.3


135.3
122.3
133.4
128.3








2WKHUJHQHUDOSXUSRVHPDFKLQHU\««««««««
&RPSXWHUDQGHOHFWURQLFSURGXFWV««««««««
&RPSXWHUDQGSHULSKHUDOHTXLSPHQW«««««««
&RPPXQLFDWLRQVHTXLSPHQW««««««««««
$XGLRDQGYLGHRHTXLSPHQW««««««««««

83.5
30.1
11.9
39.8


86.8
34.5
14.7
48.4


100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0


103.7
118.4
140.4
107.1


106.0
149.5
195.9
135.4


113.7
181.8
235.0
164.1


110.5
181.4
252.2
152.9


117.9
188.0
297.4
128.2


128.1
217.2
373.4
143.1


127.1
244.3
415.1
148.4


138.4
259.6
543.3
143.7


143.8
282.2
715.7
178.2




3346



6HPLFRQGXFWRUVDQGHOHFWURQLFFRPSRQHQWV«««
(OHFWURQLFLQVWUXPHQWV«««««««««««««
Magnetic media manufacturing and reproduction«
(OHFWULFDOHTXLSPHQWDQGDSSOLDQFHV«««««««
(OHFWULFOLJKWLQJHTXLSPHQW«««««««««««

19.8
70.2
85.7
75.5
91.1

21.9
78.5
83.7
76.2
88.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

125.8
102.3
106.4
103.9
104.4

173.9
106.7
108.9
106.6
102.7

232.2
116.7
105.8
111.5
102.0

230.0
119.3
99.8
111.4
106.7

263.1
118.1
110.4
113.3
112.4

321.6
125.3
126.1
117.2
111.4

360.0
145.4
142.6
123.3
122.7

381.6
146.6
142.1
130.0
130.3

380.4
150.6
137.7
129.4
136.7







+RXVHKROGDSSOLDQFHV«««««««««««««
(OHFWULFDOHTXLSPHQW««««««««««««««
2WKHUHOHFWULFDOHTXLSPHQWDQGFRPSRQHQWV«««
7UDQVSRUWDWLRQHTXLSPHQW«««««««««««
0RWRUYHKLFOHV««««««««««««««««

73.3
68.7
78.8
81.6
75.4

76.5
73.6
76.1
83.1
85.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

105.2
100.2
105.8
109.7
113.4

104.0
98.7
114.7
118.0
122.6

117.2
99.4
119.7
109.4
109.7

124.6
101.0
113.1
113.6
110.0

132.3
101.8
114.0
127.4
126.0

146.7
103.4
116.2
137.5
140.7

159.6
110.8
115.6
134.9
142.1

164.5
118.5
121.6
140.9
148.4

173.2
118.1
115.7
142.4
163.8







0RWRUYHKLFOHERGLHVDQGWUDLOHUV««««««««
0RWRUYHKLFOHSDUWV««««««««««««««
$HURVSDFHSURGXFWVDQGSDUWV«««««««««
5DLOURDGUROOLQJVWRFN«««««««««««««
6KLSDQGERDWEXLOGLQJ«««««««««««««

85.0
78.7
87.2
55.6
95.5

75.9
76.0
89.1
77.6
99.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

102.9
104.9
119.1
103.3
99.3

103.1
110.0
120.8
116.5
112.0

98.8
112.3
103.4
118.5
121.9

88.7
114.8
115.7
126.1
121.5

105.4
130.5
118.6
146.1
131.0

109.8
137.0
119.0
139.8
133.9

110.7
138.0
113.2
131.5
138.7

114.2
144.1
125.0
137.3
131.7

110.9
143.7
117.9
148.0
127.3







2WKHUWUDQVSRUWDWLRQHTXLSPHQW«««««««««
)XUQLWXUHDQGUHODWHGSURGXFWV«««««««««
+RXVHKROGDQGLQVWLWXWLRQDOIXUQLWXUH«««««««
2IILFHIXUQLWXUHDQGIL[WXUHV«««««««««««
2WKHUIXUQLWXUHUHODWHGSURGXFWV«««««««««

73.7
84.8
85.2
85.8
86.3

62.9
85.9
88.2
82.2
88.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

111.5
102.0
102.2
100.0
106.9

113.8
101.6
103.1
98.2
102.0

132.4
101.4
101.9
100.2
99.5

140.2
103.4
105.5
98.0
105.0

150.9
112.6
111.8
115.9
110.2

163.0
117.0
114.7
125.2
110.0

168.3
118.4
113.6
130.7
121.3

184.1
125.0
120.8
134.9
128.3

197.8
127.8
124.0
134.4
130.8





0LVFHOODQHRXVPDQXIDFWXULQJ««««««««««
0HGLFDOHTXLSPHQWDQGVXSSOLHV««««««««
2WKHUPLVFHOODQHRXVPDQXIDFWXULQJ«««««««

81.1
76.3
85.4

87.0
82.9
90.5

100.0
100.0
100.0

105.2
109.0
102.1

107.8
111.1
105.0

114.7
115.5
113.6

116.6
120.7
111.8

124.2
129.1
118.0

132.7
138.9
124.7

134.9
139.5
128.6

144.6
148.5
137.8

149.8
152.8
143.2








:KROHVDOHWUDGH«««««««««««««««

'XUDEOHJRRGV««««««««««««««««
62.3
0RWRUYHKLFOHVDQGSDUWV«««««««««««« 74.5
)XUQLWXUHDQGIXUQLVKLQJV«««««««««««

/XPEHUDQGFRQVWUXFWLRQVXSSOLHV«««««««« 109.1
&RPPHUFLDOHTXLSPHQW««««««««««««
28.0


67.5
78.6

108.4
34.2


100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0


107.1
106.4

105.4
125.6


119.2
120.4

109.3
162.2


125.1
116.7

107.7
182.2


129.0
120.0

116.6
218.4


140.2
133.4

123.9
265.2


146.7
137.6

133.0
299.5


161.5
143.5

139.4
353.2


167.3
146.7

140.2
401.0


175.8
165.7

136.7
441.1








0HWDOVDQGPLQHUDOV«««««««««««««« 101.7
(OHFWULFJRRGV««««««««««««««««
42.8
82.2
+DUGZDUHDQGSOXPELQJ««««««««««««
0DFKLQHU\DQGVXSSOLHV««««««««««««
74.1
0LVFHOODQHRXVGXUDEOHJRRGV«««««««««« 89.8
1RQGXUDEOHJRRGV««««««««««««««


103.1
50.3
88.0
81.5
90.5


100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0


100.9
105.9
101.8
104.3
100.8


94.0
127.5
104.4
102.9
113.7


93.9
152.8
103.7
105.5
114.7


94.4
147.6
100.5
102.9
116.8


96.3
159.5
102.6
100.3
124.6


97.4
165.7
103.9
103.4
119.6


106.3
194.1
107.3
112.4
135.0


103.2
204.1
104.9
118.8
133.5


99.9
225.6
105.8
123.3
119.8


Wholesale trade

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

109

Current Labor Statistics: Productivity Data

50. Continued - Annual indexes of output per hour for selected NAICS industries, 1987-2006
[1997=100]
NAICS

Industry

1987

1990

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006







3DSHUDQGSDSHUSURGXFWV«««««««««««
'UXJJLVWV JRRGV«««««««««««««««
$SSDUHODQGSLHFHJRRGV«««««««««««
*URFHU\DQGUHODWHGSURGXFWV««««««««««
)DUPSURGXFWUDZPDWHULDOV««««««««««

85.6
70.7

87.9


81.0
80.6

96.2


100.0
100.0

100.0


98.4
94.2

101.1


100.1
93.1

101.0


100.9
85.9

102.4


104.6
84.9

101.9


116.6
89.8

98.6


119.7
100.2

104.9


130.9
105.8

104.1


139.0
112.3

104.3


137.2
119.8

105.1









&KHPLFDOV«««««««««««««««««« 90.4
3HWUROHXP««««««««««««««««««
84.4
$OFRKROLFEHYHUDJHV«««««««««««««« 99.3
0LVFHOODQHRXVQRQGXUDEOHJRRGV«««««««« 111.2
(OHFWURQLFPDUNHWVDQGDJHQWVDQGEURNHUV«««« 64.3
(OHFWURQLFPDUNHWVDQGDJHQWVDQGEURNHUV«««« 64.3

101.1
109.8
110.0
109.0
74.3
74.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

97.1
88.5
106.5
105.4
102.4
102.4

93.3
102.9
105.6
106.8
112.4
112.4

87.9
138.1
108.4
115.0
120.1
120.1

85.3
140.6
106.4
111.9
110.7
110.7

89.1
153.6
106.8
106.1
109.8
109.8

92.2
151.1
107.9
109.8
104.1
104.1

91.2
163.2
103.1
120.7
97.0
97.0

87.9
152.5
104.8
124.2
87.3
87.3

89.0
157.7
107.5
126.8
93.6
93.6







5HWDLOWUDGH«««««««««««««««««
0RWRUYHKLFOHDQGSDUWVGHDOHUV«««««««««
$XWRPRELOHGHDOHUV««««««««««««««
2WKHUPRWRUYHKLFOHGHDOHUV««««««««««
$XWRSDUWVDFFHVVRULHVDQGWLUHVWRUHV«««««


78.3
79.2
70.6
71.8


82.7
84.1
69.7
79.0


100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0


106.4
106.5
109.6
105.1


115.1
116.3
114.8
107.6


114.3
113.7
115.3
108.4


116.0
115.5
124.6
101.3


119.9
117.2
133.6
107.7


124.3
119.5
133.8
115.1


127.3
124.7
143.3
110.1


127.0
123.8
135.1
115.9


129.8
126.8
136.3
115.8







)XUQLWXUHDQGKRPHIXUQLVKLQJVVWRUHV««««««
)XUQLWXUHVWRUHV««««««««««««««««
+RPHIXUQLVKLQJVVWRUHV««««««««««««
(OHFWURQLFVDQGDSSOLDQFHVWRUHV««««««««
%XLOGLQJPDWHULDODQGJDUGHQVXSSO\VWRUHV««««

75.1
77.3
71.3
38.0
75.8

79.0
84.8
71.0
47.7
79.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

104.1
104.3
104.1
122.6
107.4

110.8
107.5
115.2
150.6
113.8

115.9
112.0
121.0
173.7
113.3

122.4
119.7
126.1
196.7
116.8

129.3
125.2
134.9
233.5
120.8

134.6
128.8
142.6
292.7
127.1

146.7
139.2
156.8
334.1
134.5

151.4
143.4
161.9
369.6
134.9

162.6
155.5
172.6
416.2
143.6


4442




%XLOGLQJPDWHULDODQGVXSSOLHVGHDOHUV«««««« 77.6
66.9
Lawn and garden equipment and supplies stores«
)RRGDQGEHYHUDJHVWRUHV««««««««««« 110.8
*URFHU\VWRUHV«««««««««««««««« 111.1
6SHFLDOW\IRRGVWRUHV««««««««««««« 138.5

81.6
69.0
107.4
106.9
127.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

108.3
102.3
99.9
99.6
100.5

115.3
105.5
101.9
102.5
96.4

115.1
103.1
101.0
101.1
98.5

116.7
118.4
103.8
103.3
108.2

121.3
118.3
104.7
104.8
105.3

127.5
125.7
107.2
106.7
112.2

134.0
140.1
112.9
112.2
120.3

134.9
135.6
118.3
117.1
127.7

142.9
150.1
122.1
119.2
153.3







%HHUZLQHDQGOLTXRUVWRUHV««««««««««
+HDOWKDQGSHUVRQDOFDUHVWRUHV««««««««
+HDOWKDQGSHUVRQDOFDUHVWRUHV««««««««
*DVROLQHVWDWLRQV«««««««««««««««
*DVROLQHVWDWLRQV«««««««««««««««

93.6


83.9
83.9

97.6


84.2
84.2

100.0


100.0
100.0

104.6


106.7
106.7

99.1


110.7
110.7

105.7


107.7
107.7

107.1


112.9
112.9

110.1


125.1
125.1

117.0


119.9
119.9

127.8


122.2
122.2

141.8


124.6
124.6

148.8


121.8
121.8







&ORWKLQJDQGFORWKLQJDFFHVVRULHVVWRUHV«««««
&ORWKLQJVWRUHV««««««««««««««««
6KRHVWRUHV«««««««««««««««««
-HZHOU\OXJJDJHDQGOHDWKHUJRRGVVWRUHV«««
6SRUWLQJJRRGVKREE\ERRNDQGPXVLFVWRUHV««

66.3
67.1
65.3

74.9

69.8
70.0
70.8

82.3

100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

106.3
108.7
94.2

107.9

114.0
114.2
104.9

114.0

123.5
125.0
110.0

121.1

126.4
130.3
111.5

127.1

131.3
136.0
125.2

127.6

138.9
141.8
132.5

131.5

139.1
140.9
124.8

151.1

147.8
153.1
132.9

164.8

163.3
169.9
149.3

175.3







6SRUWLQJJRRGVDQGPXVLFDOLQVWUXPHQWVWRUHV««
%RRNSHULRGLFDODQGPXVLFVWRUHV«««««««
*HQHUDOPHUFKDQGLVHVWRUHV««««««««««
'HSDUWPHQWVWRUHV««««««««««««««
2WKHUJHQHUDOPHUFKDQGLVHVWRUHV«««««««

73.2

73.5



82.2

75.1



100.0

100.0



111.5

105.3



119.8

113.4



129.4

120.2



134.5

124.8



136.0

129.1



141.1

136.9



166.0

140.7



181.7

145.0



203.1

152.3









0LVFHOODQHRXVVWRUHUHWDLOHUV««««««««««
)ORULVWV«««««««««««««««««««
2IILFHVXSSOLHVVWDWLRQHU\DQGJLIWVWRUHV«««««
8VHGPHUFKDQGLVHVWRUHV«««««««««««
2WKHUPLVFHOODQHRXVVWRUHUHWDLOHUV«««««««

65.1

61.4
64.5
68.3

69.5

66.4
70.4
75.0

100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0

108.9

111.5
119.1
105.3

111.3

119.2
113.4
103.0

114.1

127.3
116.5
104.4

112.6

132.3
121.9
96.9

119.1

141.5
142.0
94.4

126.1

153.9
149.7
99.9

130.8

172.8
152.6
96.9

142.0

187.9
159.5
103.5

159.3

215.5
166.6
118.5






1RQVWRUHUHWDLOHUV«««««««««««««««
(OHFWURQLFVKRSSLQJDQGPDLORUGHUKRXVHV««««
9HQGLQJPDFKLQHRSHUDWRUV««««««««««
'LUHFWVHOOLQJHVWDEOLVKPHQWV««««««««««

50.7
39.4

70.8

54.7
43.4

74.1

100.0
100.0

100.0

114.3
120.2

101.9

128.9
142.6

104.2

152.2
160.2

122.5

163.6
179.6

127.9

182.1
212.7

135.0

195.5
243.6

127.0

215.5
273.0

130.3

218.4
285.2

121.5

256.3
337.1

135.6








$LUWUDQVSRUWDWLRQ«««««««««««««««
81.1
/LQHKDXOUDLOURDGV««««««««««««««

*HQHUDOIUHLJKWWUXFNLQJORQJGLVWDQFH«««««« 85.7
8VHGKRXVHKROGDQGRIILFHJRRGVPRYLQJ«««« 106.7
863RVWDOVHUYLFH««««««««««««««
90.9
863RVWDOVHUYLFH««««««««««««««
90.9

77.5

89.2
112.6
94.2
94.2

100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

97.6

99.4
91.0
101.6
101.6

98.2

99.1
96.1
102.8
102.8

98.1

101.9
94.8
105.5
105.5

91.9

103.2
84.0
106.3
106.3

102.1

107.0
81.6
106.4
106.4

112.8

110.7
86.2
107.8
107.8

126.9

110.7
88.6
110.0
110.0

135.5

113.2
88.3
111.2
111.2

142.5

112.3
87.0
111.3
111.3







&RXULHUVDQGPHVVHQJHUV««««««««««« 148.3
:DUHKRXVLQJDQGVWRUDJH«««««««««««
:DUHKRXVLQJDQGVWRUDJH«««««««««««
*HQHUDOZDUHKRXVLQJDQGVWRUDJH«««««««

5HIULJHUDWHGZDUHKRXVLQJDQGVWRUDJH««««««
-

138.5

-

100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

112.6
106.4
106.4

97.9

117.6
107.7
107.7

103.4

121.9
109.3
109.3

95.4

123.4
115.3
115.3

85.4

131.1
122.1
122.1

87.2

134.0
124.8
124.8

92.3

126.8
122.5
122.5

99.3

125.1
124.9
124.9

97.5

128.6
122.3
122.3

88.5

511


Publishing industries, except internet
64.1
1HZVSDSHUERRNDQGGLUHFWRU\SXEOLVKHUV«««« 105.0

67.1
95.5

100.0
100.0

116.1
103.9

116.3
104.1

117.1
107.7

116.6
105.8

117.2
104.7

126.4
109.5

130.7
106.6

136.5
107.6

142.7
110.8

Retail trade

Transportation and warehousing

Information

110

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

50. Continued - Annual indexes of output per hour for selected NAICS industries, 1987-2006
[1997=100]
NAICS

1987

1990

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006







6RIWZDUHSXEOLVKHUV«««««««««««««« 10.2
90.7
0RWLRQSLFWXUHDQGYLGHRH[KLELWLRQ«««««««
%URDGFDVWLQJH[FHSWLQWHUQHW«««««««««« 99.5
5DGLRDQGWHOHYLVLRQEURDGFDVWLQJ«««««««« 98.1
&DEOHDQGRWKHUVXEVFULSWLRQSURJUDPPLQJ«««« 105.6

Industry

28.5
109.2
98.2
97.7
100.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

134.8
99.8
100.8
91.5
136.2

129.2
101.8
102.9
92.6
139.1

119.2
106.5
103.6
92.1
141.2

117.4
101.6
99.2
89.6
128.1

122.1
99.8
104.0
95.1
129.8

138.1
100.4
107.9
94.6
146.0

160.6
103.6
112.5
96.6
158.7

173.7
102.4
117.7
100.9
164.6

177.0
105.7
125.5
109.5
169.9





56.9
:LUHGWHOHFRPPXQLFDWLRQVFDUULHUV«««««««
:LUHOHVVWHOHFRPPXQLFDWLRQVFDUULHUV««««««
75.6
&DEOHDQGRWKHUSURJUDPGLVWULEXWLRQ«««««« 

66.0
70.4


100.0
100.0


107.7
110.5


116.7
145.2


122.7
152.8


116.7
191.9


124.1
217.9


130.5
242.6


131.7
292.2


138.2
381.9


146.2
435.9




&RPPHUFLDOEDQNLQJ«««««««««««««


























60.3
77.0


68.5
97.1


100.0
100.0


115.4
113.2


120.9
129.4


121.7
134.9


113.5
133.3


114.0
130.3


115.8
148.5


136.6
154.5


145.1
144.2


162.2
176.4

82.9
90.0
90.2

98.1

76.2
93.8
99.4

95.9

100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

107.6
111.4
98.2

124.8

105.8
106.8
98.0

109.8

100.9
107.6
102.0

108.9

94.4
111.0
100.1

102.2

111.4
107.6
100.5

97.6

110.0
112.6
100.5

104.1

99.9
118.3
107.8

93.0

103.6
120.8
115.4

93.5

99.7
119.1
116.2

95.3


75.1


94.3

100.0

100.0

86.8

95.3

93.2

98.6

89.8

101.0

99.6

102.1

116.8

105.6

115.4

118.8

119.8

116.6

115.9

121.5

122.9

115.6

-

-

100.0
100.0
100.0

118.8
117.2
121.4

124.7
121.4
129.7

131.9
127.4
139.9

135.3
127.7
148.3

137.6
123.1
163.3

140.8
128.6
160.0

140.8
130.7
153.5

137.9
126.0
154.0

140.1
128.2
156.3

Finance and insurance
Real estate and rental and leasing




3DVVHQJHUFDUUHQWDO«««««««««««««
7UXFNWUDLOHUDQG59UHQWDODQGOHDVLQJ«««««
9LGHRWDSHDQGGLVFUHQWDO«««««««««««







7D[SUHSDUDWLRQVHUYLFHV««««««««««««
$UFKLWHFWXUDOVHUYLFHV«««««««««««««
(QJLQHHULQJVHUYLFHV«««««««««««««
$GYHUWLVLQJDJHQFLHV«««««««««««««
3KRWRJUDSK\VWXGLRVSRUWUDLW««««««««««





(PSOR\PHQWSODFHPHQWDJHQFLHV««««««««
7UDYHODJHQFLHV«««««««««««««««
-DQLWRULDOVHUYLFHV«««««««««««««««





0HGLFDODQGGLDJQRVWLFODERUDWRULHV«««««««
0HGLFDOODERUDWRULHV««««««««««««««
'LDJQRVWLFLPDJLQJFHQWHUV«««««««««««




$PXVHPHQWDQGWKHPHSDUNV«««««««««
%RZOLQJFHQWHUV«««««««««««««««












































7UDYHOHUDFFRPPRGDWLRQ«««««««««««« 85.1
)RRGVHUYLFHVDQGGULQNLQJSODFHV«««««««

)XOOVHUYLFHUHVWDXUDQWV««««««««««««
92.1
/LPLWHGVHUYLFHHDWLQJSODFHV«««««««««« 96.5
89.9
6SHFLDOIRRGVHUYLFHV«««««««««««««
'ULQNLQJSODFHVDOFRKROLFEHYHUDJHV«««««« 

81.9

99.4
103.6
99.8


100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0


100.1

100.9
101.2
100.6


105.6

100.8
100.4
105.2


111.8

103.0
102.0
115.0


107.6

103.6
102.5
115.3


112.1

104.4
102.7
114.9


114.4

104.2
105.4
117.6


120.4

104.8
106.8
118.0


115.0

105.6
107.8
119.2


111.8

108.6
111.2
116.4








$XWRPRWLYHUHSDLUDQGPDLQWHQDQFH««««««« 85.9
+DLUQDLODQGVNLQFDUHVHUYLFHV««««««««
83.5
)XQHUDOKRPHVDQGIXQHUDOVHUYLFHV««««««« 103.7
'U\FOHDQLQJDQGODXQGU\VHUYLFHV«««««««« 97.1
3KRWRILQLVKLQJ««««««««««««««««
95.8

89.9
82.1
98.4
94.8
107.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

103.6
108.6
106.8
100.1
69.3

106.1
108.6
103.3
105.0
76.3

109.4
108.2
94.8
107.6
73.8

108.9
114.6
91.8
110.9
81.2

103.7
110.4
94.6
112.5
100.5

104.1
119.7
95.7
103.8
100.5

112.0
125.0
92.9
110.6
102.0

111.9
129.9
93.2
120.5
112.4

112.8
122.3
99.7
119.6
114.4

Professional and technical services

Administrative and waste services

Health care and social assistance

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

Accommodation and food services

Other services

NOTE: Dash indicates data are not available.

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

111

Current Labor Statistics: Productivity Data & International Comparisons

8QHPSOR\PHQWUDWHVDSSUR[LPDWLQJ86FRQFHSWVFRXQWULHVVHDVRQDOO\DGMXVWHG
[Percent]
2005

&RXQWU\

2005

2006

I

II

2006

III

IV

I

II

2007

III

IV

I

II

III

United States………

5.1

4.6

5.3

5.1

5.0



4.7

4.7

4.7

4.5

4.5

4.5

4.7

Canada………………

6.0

5.5

6.2

6.0

6.0



5.7

5.5

5.6

5.4

5.4

5.2

5.2
4.3

Australia………………

5.1

4.8

5.1

5.1

5.0



5.0

4.9

4.7

4.6

4.5

4.3

Japan…………………

4.5

4.2

4.6

4.4

4.4



4.3

4.2

4.2

4.1

4.0

3.8

-

France………………

9.9

9.7

9.8

9.9

9.9



10.0

9.8

9.6

9.4

9.1

9.0

-

Germany……………

11.2

10.4

11.5

11.4

11.1



11.0

10.6

10.1

9.7

9.2

9.0

-

7.8

6.9

7.9

7.8

7.7



7.3

6.9

6.7

6.5

6.2

6.1

-

Italy……………………
Netherlands…………

5.2

4.4

5.6

5.3

5.0



4.8

4.3

4.2

4.2

4.0

3.6

-

Sweden………………

7.7

7.0

6.3

7.7

7.6



7.3

7.3

6.7

6.5

6.3

5.9

5.8

United Kingdom……

4.8

5.5

4.7

4.8

4.8



5.3

5.5

5.6

5.5

5.5

5.4

-

NOTE: Dash indicates data not available.
Quarterly figures for Italy and quarterly and monthly figures for France, Germany, and the
Netherlands are calculated by applying annual adjustment factors to current published data
and therefore should be viewed as less precise indicators of unemployment under U.S.
concepts than the annual figures. Quarterly and monthly figures for Sweden are BLS
seasonally adjusted estimates derived from Swedish not seasonally adjusted data.
There are breaks in series for Germany (2005) and Sweden (2005). For details on breaks
in series, see the technical notes of the report Comparative Civilian Labor Force Statistics,
Ten Countries, 1960-2006 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, October 12, 2007), available on the
Internet at http://www.bls.gov/fls/flscomparelf.htm.

112

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

For further qualifications and historical annual data, see the full report, also available
at this site. For monthly unemployment rates, as well as the quarterly and annual
rates published in this table, see the report Unemployment rates in ten countries,
civilian labor force basis, approximating U.S. concepts, seasonally adjusted, 19952007,
(Bureau of Labor Statistics), available on the Internet at
ftp://ftp.bls.gov/pub/special.requests/ForeignLabor/flsjec.txt .
Unemployment rates may differ between the two reports mentioned, because the
former is updated on a bi-annual basis, whereas the latter is updated monthly and
reflects the most recent revisions in source data.

52. Annual data: employment status of the working-age population, approximating U.S. concepts, 10 countries
[Numbers in thousands]

Employment status and country
Civilian labor force

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

137,673
15,135
9,339
67,240
25,434
39,752
23,004
7,744
4,401
28,474

139,368
15,403
9,414
67,090
25,791
39,375
23,176
7,881
4,423
28,777

142,583
15,637
9,590
66,990
26,099
39,302
23,361
8,052
4,482
28,952

143,734
15,891
9,744
66,860
26,393
39,459
23,524
8,199
4,522
29,085

144,863
16,366
9,893
66,240
26,646
39,413
23,728
8,345
4,537
29,337

146,510
16,733
10,079
66,010
26,851
39,276
24,020
8,379
4,557
29,559

147,401
16,955
10,221
65,770
26,937
39,711
24,084
8,439
4,571
29,791


































67.1
65.1
64.3
63.2
55.6
57.3
47.3
61.1
63.2
62.5

67.1
65.4
64.3
62.8
56.0
57.7
47.7
61.8
62.8
62.5

67.1
65.9
64.0
62.4
56.3
56.9
47.9
62.5
62.7
62.8

67.1
66.0
64.4
62.0
56.6
56.7
48.1
63.4
63.7
62.9

66.8
66.1
64.4
61.6
56.7
56.7
48.3
64.0
63.6
62.7

66.6
67.1
64.3
60.8
56.8
56.4
48.5
64.7
63.9
62.9

66.2
67.7
64.6
60.3
56.8
56.0
49.1
64.6
63.8
63.0

66.0
67.7
64.6
60.0
56.6
56.4
49.1
64.8
63.6
63.0
















56.6
58.2









56.7





United States……………………………………………… 129,558
Canada……………………………………………………
13,637
Australia……………………………………………………
8,444
Japan………………………………………………………
64,900
France……………………………………………………
22,176
Germany…………………………………………………
35,508
Italy………………………………………………………… 20,169
Netherlands………………………………………………
7,189
Sweden……………………………………………………
3,969
United Kingdom…………………………………………
26,413

131,463
13,973
8,618
64,450
22,597
36,059
20,370
7,408
4,033
26,686

133,488
14,331
8,762
63,920
23,080
36,042
20,617
7,605
4,110
27,051

136,891
14,681
8,989
63,790
23,714
36,236
20,973
7,813
4,222
27,368

136,933
14,866
9,086
63,460
24,167
36,350
21,359
8,014
4,295
27,599

136,485
15,223
9,264
62,650
24,312
36,018
21,666
8,114
4,303
27,813

137,736
15,586
9,480
62,510
24,373
35,615
21,972
8,069
4,293
28,075

139,252
15,861
9,668
62,640
24,354
35,604
22,124
8,052
4,271
28,372


































63.8
59.6
59.0
61.0
49.1
51.6
41.9
57.7
56.8
58.2

64.1
60.4
59.3
60.2
49.7
52.3
42.2
59.1
57.6
58.5

64.3
61.3
59.6
59.4
50.4
52.1
42.6
60.3
58.3
59.1

64.4
62.0
60.3
59.0
51.4
52.2
43.2
61.5
60.0
59.4

63.7
61.9
60.0
58.4
51.9
52.2
43.8
62.6
60.4
59.5

62.7
62.4
60.2
57.5
51.8
51.5
44.3
62.9
60.6
59.6

62.3
63.1
60.7
57.1
51.5
50.8
44.9
62.2
60.1
59.8

62.3
63.3
61.1
57.1
51.1
50.6
45.1
61.8
59.4
60.0
















51.2
52.2









51.8





6,739
1,248
759
2,300
2,940
3,907
2,584
423
445
1,987

6,210
1,162
721
2,790
2,837
3,693
2,634
337
368
1,788

5,880
1,072
652
3,170
2,711
3,333
2,559
277
313
1,726

5,692
956
602
3,200
2,385
3,065
2,388
239
260
1,584

6,801
1,026
658
3,400
2,226
3,110
2,164
186
227
1,486

8,378
1,143
629
3,590
2,334
3,396
2,062
231
234
1,524

8,774
1,147
599
3,500
2,478
3,661
2,048
310
264
1,484

8,149
1,093
553
3,130
2,583
4,107
1,960
387
300
1,419


































4.9
8.4
8.3
3.4
11.7
9.9
11.4
5.6
10.1
7.0

4.5
7.7
7.7
4.1
11.2
9.3
11.5
4.4
8.4
6.3

4.2
7.0
6.9
4.7
10.5
8.5
11.0
3.5
7.1
6.0

4.0
6.1
6.3
4.8
9.1
7.8
10.2
3.0
5.8
5.5

4.7
6.5
6.8
5.1
8.4
7.9
9.2
2.3
5.0
5.1

5.8
7.0
6.4
5.4
8.8
8.6
8.7
2.8
5.2
5.2

6.0
6.9
5.9
5.3
9.2
9.3
8.5
3.7
5.8
5.0

5.5
6.4
5.4
4.8
9.6
10.3
8.1
4.6
6.6
4.8


































United States……………………………………………… 136,297
Canada……………………………………………………
14,884
Australia……………………………………………………
9,204
Japan………………………………………………………
67,200
France……………………………………………………
25,116
Germany…………………………………………………
39,415
Italy………………………………………………………… 22,753
Netherlands………………………………………………
7,612
Sweden……………………………………………………
4,414
United Kingdom…………………………………………
28,401

Participation rate1
United States………………………………………………
Canada……………………………………………………
Australia……………………………………………………
Japan………………………………………………………
France……………………………………………………
Germany…………………………………………………
Italy…………………………………………………………
Netherlands………………………………………………
Sweden……………………………………………………
United Kingdom…………………………………………

Employed

Employment-population ratio2
United States………………………………………………
Canada……………………………………………………
Australia……………………………………………………
Japan………………………………………………………
France……………………………………………………
Germany…………………………………………………
Italy…………………………………………………………
Netherlands………………………………………………
Sweden……………………………………………………
United Kingdom…………………………………………

Unemployed
United States………………………………………………
Canada……………………………………………………
Australia……………………………………………………
Japan………………………………………………………
France……………………………………………………
Germany…………………………………………………
Italy…………………………………………………………
Netherlands………………………………………………
Sweden……………………………………………………
United Kingdom…………………………………………

Unemployment rate
United States………………………………………………
Canada……………………………………………………
Australia……………………………………………………
Japan………………………………………………………
France……………………………………………………
Germany…………………………………………………
Italy…………………………………………………………
Netherlands………………………………………………
Sweden……………………………………………………
United Kingdom…………………………………………
1

Labor force as a percent of the working-age population.

2

Employment as a percent of the working-age population.

NOTE: Dash indicates data not available.
There are breaks in series for the United States (1998, 1999, 2000, 2003, 2004), Australia
(2001), Germany (1999, 2005), the Netherlands (2000), and Sweden (2005). For further
qualifications and historical annual data, see the BLS report Comparative

Civilian
Labor
Force
Statistics,
10
Countries
(on
the
Internet
at
http://www.bls.gov/fls/flscomparelf.htm). Unemployment rates may differ from those
in the BLS report Unemployment rates in 10 countries, civilian labor force basis,
approximating U.S. concepts, seasonally adjusted
(on the Internet at
http://www.bls.gov/fls/flsjec.pdf), because the former is updated semi-annually,
whereas the latter is updated monthly and reflects the most recent revisions in source
data.

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008 113

Current Labor Statistics: International Comparisons

53. Annual indexes of manufacturing productivity and related measures, 16 economies
[1992 = 100]
Measure and economy

1980

1990

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Output per hour
United States………………………
Canada………………………….……
Australia…………………….………
Japan…………………………………
Korea…………………………..……
Taiwan………………………………
Belgium…………………………...…
Denmark……………………………
France………………………………
Germany………………………...……
Italy……………………………...……
Netherlands…………………...……
Norway………………………………
Spain………………………………..
Sweden……………………………..
United Kingdom……………….……

68.4
74.0
68.5
63.6
–
49.1
65.4
82.0
66.0
77.2
75.3
70.8
78.5
67.3
78.3
57.3

93.5
94.7
92.4
94.4
82.7
89.8
96.8
98.5
95.3
99.0
97.3
98.0
98.3
93.1
96.4
90.1

102.8
104.5
104.5
101.7
108.3
101.3
102.5
100.3
101.8
101.0
102.8
103.7
99.9
101.8
107.8
104.1

108.2
110.4
107.0
103.3
118.1
105.2
107.9
112.7
109.5
108.5
107.6
113.3
99.9
104.9
118.9
106.7

112.3
111.7
106.4
111.0
129.7
112.9
112.7
112.7
114.9
110.2
111.1
117.7
98.7
108.6
126.3
105.0

116.7
111.2
112.3
116.1
142.6
121.5
114.3
109.0
115.5
113.3
112.5
120.3
101.6
107.2
130.5
104.1

121.7
116.3
115.4
120.2
160.8
126.5
125.5
117.7
122.3
119.9
113.3
120.7
101.8
108.3
142.4
105.1

130.1
121.8
118.5
121.3
179.3
132.7
127.1
117.1
128.7
120.4
112.5
124.2
99.2
110.2
150.8
106.4

136.7
127.0
119.7
124.5
199.4
140.9
125.9
119.0
134.4
123.4
112.5
129.3
102.7
112.1
164.7
111.6

147.1
134.7
128.1
131.2
216.4
148.4
130.5
123.2
143.7
132.0
116.1
138.6
105.9
113.2
175.9
117.2

148.6
131.8
131.4
128.4
214.8
155.1
131.8
123.4
146.0
135.4
116.6
139.2
108.8
115.8
170.9
122.2

164.4
134.1
137.1
133.1
235.8
169.0
136.2
124.2
152.0
136.7
114.8
143.5
111.9
116.3
189.6
125.7

174.8
134.4
140.1
142.2
252.2
174.5
139.5
129.3
158.7
141.6
112.1
146.5
121.6
119.2
205.0
132.1

185.3
136.5
142.3
152.1
281.2
183.2
145.8
136.8
162.3
146.8
110.4
156.3
128.8
121.4
226.8
140.0

189.4
141.7
143.7
162.0
300.4
196.5
150.3
138.3
169.2
152.3
110.3
161.7
133.3
123.3
241.0
145.0

193.2
141.6
144.1
165.1
332.7
209.9
153.6
145.4
175.4
163.1
111.8
166.8
137.7
126.6
255.2
151.5

Output
United States…………………..…… 73.6
Canada……………………………… 85.6
Australia……………………………… 89.8
Japan………………………………… 60.8
Korea………………………………… 28.6
Taiwan……………………………… 45.4
Belgium……………………………… 78.2
Denmark…………………………… 92.0
France……………………………… 88.3
Germany…………………………… 85.3
Italy…………………………………… 81.0
Netherlands………………………… 77.7
Norway……………………………… 105.7
Spain……………………………….. 78.6
Sweden……………………………… 92.4
United Kingdom…………………… 87.3

98.2
106.7
104.2
97.1
88.1
91.0
101.0
101.7
100.5
99.1
100.5
98.3
101.7
98.4
110.7
105.3

104.2
105.4
103.8
96.3
105.1
100.9
97.0
97.0
96.6
92.0
97.6
99.4
102.0
96.1
102.0
101.4

112.2
113.5
109.1
94.9
117.1
106.9
101.4
107.5
100.7
94.9
104.1
104.7
104.7
97.8
117.8
106.2

117.3
118.7
108.5
98.9
130.8
112.7
104.2
112.7
105.2
94.0
109.1
108.6
105.2
101.5
133.3
107.9

121.6
120.3
111.9
103.0
139.2
118.7
104.6
107.5
105.2
92.0
107.8
110.2
109.4
104.0
137.7
108.6

129.0
127.8
114.5
105.6
146.0
125.5
113.2
116.3
110.1
96.1
109.6
111.7
114.1
110.7
148.4
110.6

137.7
134.3
117.8
100.1
134.5
129.5
115.1
117.2
115.4
97.2
109.9
115.5
113.3
117.4
160.7
111.3

143.7
145.5
117.5
99.7
163.7
139.0
115.2
118.2
119.3
98.2
109.6
119.8
113.2
124.1
175.8
112.3

152.7
160.1
123.1
104.9
191.5
149.2
120.1
122.5
124.8
104.8
112.9
127.8
112.6
129.6
190.2
115.0

144.2
153.9
121.9
99.1
195.7
138.1
120.1
122.5
126.0
106.6
111.8
127.6
111.8
133.7
185.8
113.5

148.2
155.2
127.8
97.6
210.5
150.4
119.2
119.0
125.9
104.4
110.4
127.7
111.2
133.5
197.5
110.5

149.9
154.0
130.1
102.8
222.2
158.4
117.6
115.7
128.3
105.1
107.8
126.2
114.9
135.2
207.1
110.7

158.2
157.5
130.1
108.8
246.8
173.8
121.9
117.5
129.4
108.9
106.4
130.6
121.4
136.0
226.2
113.0

159.8
160.1
130.3
114.4
264.3
185.3
121.6
113.8
131.2
110.4
103.7
130.6
126.8
137.4
236.6
111.6

164.5
158.5
128.7
119.4
286.5
198.7
124.9
120.0
133.2
116.9
107.6
133.7
132.4
141.3
248.8
113.2

Total hours
United States……………………… 107.6
Canada……………………………… 115.8
Australia……………………………… 131.1
Japan………………………………… 95.5
Korea………………………………… –
Taiwan……………………………… 92.4
Belgium……………………………… 119.7
Denmark…………………………… 112.1
France……………………………… 133.8
Germany…………………………… 110.5
Italy…………………………………… 107.6
Netherlands………………………… 109.8
Norway……………………………… 134.7
Spain……………………………….. 116.7
Sweden……………………………… 118.0
United Kingdom…………………… 152.3

104.9
112.6
112.7
102.9
106.4
101.4
104.3
103.3
105.5
100.1
103.3
100.4
103.4
105.7
114.8
116.9

101.3
100.9
99.3
94.7
97.1
99.6
94.7
96.8
94.8
91.1
95.0
95.9
102.1
94.4
94.7
97.4

103.7
102.8
102.0
91.9
99.2
101.7
94.0
95.4
91.9
87.5
96.8
92.5
104.8
93.2
99.1
99.5

104.4
106.3
101.9
89.1
100.9
99.8
92.4
100.0
91.6
85.3
98.2
92.3
106.6
93.5
105.6
102.7

104.2
108.1
99.7
88.8
97.6
97.7
91.5
98.6
91.0
81.3
95.8
91.6
107.7
97.0
105.6
104.4

106.0
109.9
99.2
87.9
90.8
99.2
90.2
98.8
90.1
80.1
96.7
92.6
112.1
102.2
104.3
105.2

105.8
110.2
99.4
82.5
75.0
97.6
90.5
100.1
89.7
80.8
97.7
93.0
114.2
106.5
106.5
104.6

105.1
114.5
98.2
80.0
82.1
98.7
91.5
99.4
88.7
79.6
97.4
92.7
110.3
110.7
106.7
100.6

103.8
118.9
96.0
80.0
88.5
100.5
92.1
99.4
86.8
79.4
97.2
92.2
106.4
114.4
108.1
98.1

97.0
116.7
92.8
77.2
91.1
89.0
91.2
99.3
86.3
78.7
95.9
91.7
102.7
115.4
108.7
92.9

90.1
115.8
93.2
73.3
89.3
89.0
87.5
95.8
82.8
76.4
96.2
89.0
99.3
114.8
104.2
88.0

85.7
114.6
92.8
72.3
88.1
90.8
84.3
89.5
80.8
74.3
96.1
86.2
94.4
113.4
101.1
83.8

85.4
115.4
91.4
71.5
87.8
94.9
83.6
85.9
79.7
74.2
96.4
83.5
94.2
112.1
99.7
80.7

84.4
112.9
90.7
70.6
88.0
94.3
80.9
82.3
77.5
72.5
94.1
80.8
95.1
111.5
98.2
77.0

85.1
112.0
89.3
72.3
86.1
94.6
81.3
82.5
75.9
71.7
96.2
80.2
96.1
111.6
97.5
74.7

90.5
89.2
87.5
90.6
68.0
85.2
90.1
93.6
88.5
89.4
87.7
89.8
92.3
79.9
87.9
88.7

102.0
101.2
105.2
102.7
115.9
105.9
104.8
102.4
104.3
106.2
105.7
104.4
101.5
109.4
97.4
104.5

105.3
104.1
106.1
104.7
133.1
111.1
105.6
106.0
108.0
111.0
107.3
108.9
104.5
113.4
99.9
107.0

107.3
106.6
113.5
108.3
161.6
120.2
108.6
108.2
110.7
117.0
112.0
111.8
109.2
118.3
105.3
108.9

109.3
108.2
121.7
109.1
188.1
128.2
110.6
112.6
112.5
122.5
120.0
113.8
113.8
121.1
113.5
108.7

112.2
110.9
126.0
112.7
204.5
132.1
114.7
116.5
116.3
124.9
124.1
116.4
118.8
124.0
119.6
112.3

118.7
116.6
128.4
115.5
222.7
137.1
116.5
119.6
117.2
126.7
123.3
121.4
125.8
124.9
124.2
121.2

123.4
119.0
132.9
115.4
223.9
139.6
118.0
122.6
121.0
129.6
125.6
125.7
133.0
124.7
128.1
128.3

134.7
123.0
140.2
114.7
239.1
142.3
120.1
125.0
127.0
136.3
128.7
132.1
140.5
126.6
133.0
133.8

137.8
126.3
149.2
116.2
246.7
151.4
126.4
130.9
130.6
140.6
134.0
138.1
148.9
131.6
139.4
140.7

147.8
130.5
156.0
117.0
271.6
146.7
131.9
136.5
136.9
144.0
137.5
146.1
157.9
135.4
146.9
149.0

158.2
135.8
162.7
114.5
285.0
149.1
135.8
145.7
141.0
147.2
141.6
151.9
164.3
142.2
153.5
156.9

161.5
139.8
171.7
115.5
325.5
151.6
138.7
151.3
144.6
148.0
145.7
158.1
169.7
147.1
157.6
165.1

168.3
146.6
182.2
116.5
351.5
158.2
143.5
161.7
143.7
149.8
150.2
161.3
177.7
152.8
163.0
172.3

172.4
149.4
192.7
114.9
375.5
161.5
146.5
166.7
147.5
155.9
152.9
165.8
185.8
157.4
169.2
184.2

Hourly compensation
(national currency basis)
United States………………………
Canada………………………………
Australia………………………………
Japan…………………………………
Korea…………………………………
Taiwan………………………………
Belgium………………………………
Denmark……………………………
France………………………………
Germany……………………………
Italy……………………………………
Netherlands…………………………
Norway………………………………
Spain………………………………..
Sweden………………………………
United Kingdom……………………
See notes at end of table.

114

55.9
47.4
–
58.6
–
29.6
52.5
44.5
36.7
53.6
30.6
59.8
39.0
28.0
37.4
35.8

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

&RQWLQXHG²$QQXDOLQGH[HVRIPDQXIDFWXULQJSURGXFWLYLW\DQGUHODWHGPHDVXUHVHFRQRPLHV
Measure and economy

1980

1990

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Unit labor costs
(national currency basis)
United States……………………… 81.8
Canada……………………………… 64.1
Australia……………………………… –
Japan………………………………… 92.1
Korea………………………………… 44.4
Taiwan……………………………… 60.3
Belgium……………………………… 80.3
Denmark…………………………… 54.3
France……………………………… 55.6
Germany…………………………… 69.4
Italy…………………………………… 40.7
Netherlands………………………… 84.5
Norway……………………………… 49.7
Spain……………………………….. 41.5
Sweden……………………………… 47.7
United Kingdom…………………… 62.4

96.7
94.2
94.6
95.9
82.1
94.9
93.0
95.0
92.8
90.3
90.2
91.7
93.9
85.8
91.2
98.5

99.2
96.9
100.6
101.0
107.0
104.6
102.3
102.2
102.4
105.2
102.9
100.7
101.6
107.4
90.4
100.4

97.3
94.3
99.2
101.4
112.7
105.6
97.9
94.1
98.6
102.4
99.8
96.2
104.6
108.1
84.0
100.2

95.5
95.4
106.6
97.6
124.6
106.5
96.4
96.0
96.3
106.2
100.8
95.0
110.7
108.9
83.4
103.7

93.7
97.3
108.4
94.0
131.9
105.5
96.8
103.3
97.4
108.2
106.6
94.6
112.0
112.9
87.0
104.4

92.2
95.4
109.2
93.8
127.1
104.5
91.4
98.9
95.0
104.2
109.5
96.5
116.7
114.5
84.0
106.8

91.2
95.7
108.4
95.2
124.2
103.4
91.6
102.1
91.0
105.2
109.6
97.7
126.7
113.4
82.3
113.9

90.3
93.7
111.0
92.7
112.3
99.1
93.7
103.0
90.0
105.1
111.7
97.3
129.5
111.2
77.7
115.0

91.6
91.3
109.4
87.4
110.5
95.9
92.0
101.4
88.4
103.3
110.9
95.3
132.7
111.8
75.6
114.2

92.7
95.8
113.6
90.5
114.8
97.6
95.9
106.1
89.4
103.8
114.9
99.2
136.8
113.6
81.6
115.1

89.9
97.4
113.8
87.9
115.2
86.8
96.9
109.9
90.1
105.3
119.8
101.8
141.0
116.4
77.5
118.6

90.5
101.0
116.1
80.5
113.0
85.5
97.3
112.7
88.9
104.0
126.3
103.7
135.1
119.3
74.9
118.8

87.2
102.4
120.7
76.0
115.8
82.7
95.1
110.6
89.1
100.8
132.0
101.2
131.7
121.2
69.5
117.9

88.9
103.4
126.8
71.9
117.0
80.5
95.5
116.9
85.0
98.3
136.2
99.8
133.3
124.0
67.7
118.8

89.3
105.5
133.7
69.6
112.8
76.9
95.4
114.6
84.1
95.6
136.7
99.4
134.9
124.3
66.3
121.6

Unit labor costs
(U.S. dollar basis)
United States……………………… 81.8
Canada……………………………… 66.3
Australia……………………………… –
Japan………………………………… 51.5
Korea………………………………… 57.3
Taiwan……………………………… 42.1
Belgium……………………………… 88.3
Denmark…………………………… 58.1
France……………………………… 69.6
Germany…………………………… 59.6
Italy…………………………………… 58.5
Netherlands………………………… 74.8
Norway……………………………… 62.6
Spain……………………………….. 59.3
Sweden……………………………… 65.7
United Kingdom…………………… 82.2

96.7
97.5
100.5
83.9
90.7
88.7
89.5
92.7
90.2
87.3
92.7
88.5
93.3
86.2
89.7
99.5

99.2
90.7
93.0
115.3
104.2
99.6
95.1
95.1
95.7
99.3
80.6
95.2
88.9
86.3
67.5
85.3

97.3
83.4
98.7
125.8
109.6
100.4
94.2
89.4
94.1
98.6
76.3
93.0
92.1
82.6
63.4
86.9

95.5
84.0
107.4
131.7
126.5
101.1
105.2
103.5
102.2
115.8
76.2
104.1
108.6
89.5
68.0
92.7

93.7
86.3
115.4
109.5
128.6
96.7
100.4
107.6
100.7
112.3
85.2
98.6
107.7
91.3
75.6
92.3

92.2
83.2
110.4
98.3
105.3
91.3
82.1
90.4
86.2
93.8
79.2
86.9
102.3
80.0
64.0
99.0

91.2
77.9
92.7
92.2
69.6
77.5
81.1
92.0
81.7
93.4
77.7
86.6
104.3
77.7
60.3
106.9

90.3
76.2
97.5
103.3
74.0
77.2
79.6
89.0
77.4
89.4
75.7
82.7
103.1
72.9
54.7
105.3

91.6
74.3
86.5
102.8
76.7
77.2
67.7
75.6
65.8
76.2
65.1
70.2
93.6
63.5
48.0
98.0

92.7
74.8
79.8
94.3
69.7
72.6
68.4
76.9
64.6
74.2
65.5
70.9
94.5
62.6
46.0
93.8

89.9
74.9
84.1
89.0
72.3
63.2
73.0
84.2
68.7
79.5
72.1
76.8
109.8
67.7
46.4
100.9

90.5
87.2
103.0
88.0
74.4
62.5
87.8
103.4
81.2
94.0
91.0
93.7
118.6
83.1
54.0
109.9

87.2
95.1
120.9
89.0
79.3
62.4
94.3
111.5
89.5
100.1
104.5
100.4
121.4
92.8
55.1
122.4

88.9
103.2
131.5
82.8
89.7
63.0
94.7
117.7
85.4
97.8
107.9
99.1
128.6
95.0
52.8
122.5

89.3
112.4
137.0
75.8
92.8
59.5
95.5
116.5
85.3
95.9
109.3
99.7
130.8
96.1
52.4
126.9

NOTE: Data for Germany for years before 1993 are for the former West Germany. Data for 1993 onward are for unified Germany. Dash indicates data not available.

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008 115

Current Labor Statistics: Injury and Illness Data

1

54. Occupational injury and illness rates by industry, United States
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers 3

Industry and type of case 2

1989

1

1990

1991

1992

1993

4

1994

4

1995

4

1996

4

1997

4

1998

4

1999

4

2000

4

2001

4

5

PRIVATE SECTOR

8.6
4.0
78.7

8.8
4.1
84.0

8.4
3.9






8.5
3.8
–

8.4
3.8
–

8.1
3.6
–

7.4
3.4
–

7.1
3.3
–



±



±



±



±

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing
Total cases ............................………………………….
Lost workday cases.....................................................
Lost workdays........………...........................................

10.9
5.7
100.9

11.6
5.9
112.2

10.8
5.4






11.2
5.0
–

10.0
4.7
–

9.7
4.3
–

8.7
3.9
–

8.4
4.1
–



±



±



±



±

Mining
Total cases ............................………………………….
Lost workday cases.....................................................
Lost workdays........………...........................................

8.5
4.8
137.2

8.3
5.0
119.5

7.4
4.5






6.8
3.9
–

6.3
3.9
–

6.2
3.9
–

5.4
3.2
–

5.9
3.7
–



±



±



±



±

Construction
Total cases ............................………………………….
Lost workday cases.....................................................
Lost workdays........………...........................................

14.3
6.8
143.3

14.2
6.7
147.9

13.0
6.1






12.2
5.5
–

11.8
5.5
–

10.6
4.9
–

9.9
4.5
–

9.5
4.4
–



±



±



±



±

General building contractors:
Total cases ............................………………………….
Lost workday cases.....................................................
Lost workdays........………...........................................

13.9
6.5
137.3

13.4
6.4
137.6

12.0
5.5






11.5
5.1
–

10.9
5.1
–

9.8
4.4
–

9.0
4.0
–

8.5
3.7
–



±



±



±



±

Heavy construction, except building:
Total cases ............................………………………….
Lost workday cases.....................................................
Lost workdays........………...........................................

13.8
6.5
147.1

13.8
6.3
144.6


6.0






11.1
5.1
–

10.2
5.0
–

9.9
4.8
–

9.0
4.3
–

8.7
4.3
–



±



±



±



±

Special trades contractors:
Total cases ............................………………………….
Lost workday cases.....................................................
Lost workdays........………...........................................

14.6
6.9
144.9

14.7
6.9
153.1

13.5
6.3






12.8
5.8
–

12.5
5.8
–

11.1
5.0
–

10.4
4.8
–

10.0
4.7
–



±



±



±



±

Manufacturing
Total cases ............................………………………….
Lost workday cases.....................................................

13.1
5.8

13.2
5.8

12.7
5.6




12.1
5.3

12.2
5.5

11.6
5.3

10.6
4.9

10.3
4.8













Lost workdays........………...........................................

113.0

120.7





–

–

–

–

–

±

±

±

±

Total cases ............................………………………….
Lost workday cases.....................................................
Lost workdays........………...........................................

14.1
6.0
116.5

14.2
6.0
123.3

13.6
5.7






13.1
5.4
–

13.5
5.7
–

12.8
5.6
–

11.6
5.1
–

11.3
5.1
–



±



±

±
±
±



±

Lumber and wood products:
Total cases ............................…………………………
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost workdays........………........................................

18.4
9.4
177.5

18.1
8.8
172.5

16.8
8.3






15.9
7.6
–

15.7
7.7
–

14.9
7.0
–

14.2
6.8
–

13.5
6.5
–



±



±



±



±

Furniture and fixtures:
Total cases ............................…………………………
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost workdays........………........................................

16.1
7.2
–

16.9
7.8
–

15.9
7.2
±





14.6
6.5
–

15.0
7.0
–

13.9
6.4
–

12.2
5.4
–

12.0
5.8
–



±



±



±



±

Stone, clay, and glass products:
Total cases ............................…………………………
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost workdays........………........................................

15.5
7.4
149.8

15.4
7.3
160.5

14.8
6.8






13.8
6.3
–

13.2
6.5
–

12.3
5.7
–

12.4
6.0
–

11.8
5.7
–



±



±



±



±

Primary metal industries:
Total cases ............................…………………………
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost workdays........………........................................

18.7
8.1
168.3

19.0
8.1
180.2

17.7
7.4






17.0
7.3
–

16.8
7.2
–

16.5
7.2
–

15.0
6.8
–

15.0
7.2
–



±



±



±





Fabricated metal products:
Total cases ............................…………………………
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost workdays........………........................................

18.5
7.9
147.6

18.7
7.9
155.7

17.4
7.1






16.2
6.7
–

16.4
6.7
–

15.8
6.9
–

14.4
6.2
–

14.2
6.4
–



±



±



±



±

Industrial machinery and equipment:
Total cases ............................…………………………
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost workdays........………........................................

12.1
4.8
86.8

12.0
4.7
88.9

11.2
4.4






11.1
4.2
–

11.6
4.4
–

11.2
4.4
–

9.9
4.0
–

10.0
4.1
–



±



±



±



±

Electronic and other electrical equipment:
Total cases ............................…………………………
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost workdays........………........................................

9.1
3.9
77.5

9.1
3.8
79.4

8.6
3.7






8.3
3.5
–

8.3
3.6
–

7.6
3.3
–

6.8
3.1
–

6.6
3.1
–



±



±



±



±

Transportation equipment:
Total cases ............................…………………………
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost workdays........………........................................

17.7
6.8
138.6

17.8
6.9
153.7

18.3
7.0






18.5
7.1
–

19.6
7.8
–

18.6
7.9
–

16.3
7.0
–

15.4
6.6
–



±



±



±



±

Instruments and related products:
Total cases ............................…………………………
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost workdays........………........................................

5.6
2.5
55.4

5.9
2.7
57.8

6.0
2.7






5.6
2.5
–

5.9
2.7
–

5.3
2.4
–

5.1
2.3
–

4.8
2.3
–



±



±



±



±

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries:
Total cases ............................…………………………
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost workdays........………........................................

11.1
5.1
97.6

11.3
5.1
113.1

11.3
5.1






10.0
4.6
–

9.9
4.5
–

9.1
4.3
–

9.5
4.4
–

8.9
4.2
–



–



–



–



–

Total cases ............................………………………….
Lost workday cases.....................................................
Lost workdays........………...........................................
5

Durable goods:

See footnotes at end of table.

116

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

&RQWLQXHG²2FFXSDWLRQDOLQMXU\DQGLOOQHVVUDWHVE\LQGXVWU\8QLWHG6WDWHV
Industry and type of case2

,QFLGHQFHUDWHVSHUZRUNHUV 
1989 1

1990

1991

1993 4 1994 4 1995 4 1996 4 1997 4 1998 4 1999 4 2000 4 2001 4

1992

Nondurable goods:
Total cases ............................…………………………..…
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost workdays........………...............................................

11.6
5.5
107.8

11.7
5.6
116.9

11.5
5.5






10.7
5.0
–

10.5
5.1
–

9.9
4.9
–

9.2
4.6
–



–




Food and kindred products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..
Lost workday cases......................................................
Lost workdays........………............................................

18.5
9.3
174.7

20.0
9.9
202.6

19.5
9.9






17.6
8.9
–

17.1
9.2
–

16.3
8.7
–

15.0
8.0
–



–




Tobacco products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..
Lost workday cases......................................................
Lost workdays........………............................................

8.7
3.4
64.2

7.7
3.2
62.3

6.4
2.8






5.8
2.3
–

5.3
2.4
–

5.6
2.6
–

6.7
2.8
–



–




Textile mill products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..
Lost workday cases......................................................
Lost workdays........………............................................

10.3
4.2
81.4

9.6
4.0
85.1

10.1
4.4






9.7
4.1
–

8.7
4.0
–

8.2
4.1
–

7.8
3.6
–

Apparel and other textile products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..
Lost workday cases......................................................
Lost workdays........………............................................

8.6
3.8
80.5

8.8
3.9
92.1

9.2
4.2






9.0
3.8
–

8.9
3.9
–

8.2
3.6
–

Paper and allied products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..
Lost workday cases......................................................
Lost workdays........………............................................

12.7
5.8
132.9

12.1
5.5
124.8

11.2
5.0






9.9
4.6
–

9.6
4.5
–

Printing and publishing:
Total cases ............................…………………………..
Lost workday cases......................................................
Lost workdays........………............................................

6.9
3.3
63.8

6.9
3.3
69.8

6.7
3.2






6.9
3.1
–

Chemicals and allied products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..
Lost workday cases......................................................
Lost workdays........………............................................

7.0
3.2
63.4

6.5
3.1
61.6

6.4
3.1






Petroleum and coal products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..
Lost workday cases......................................................
Lost workdays........………............................................

6.6
3.3
68.1

6.6
3.1
77.3

6.2
2.9


Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..
Lost workday cases......................................................
Lost workdays........………............................................

16.2
8.0
147.2

16.2
7.8
151.3

Leather and leather products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..
Lost workday cases......................................................
Lost workdays........………............................................

13.6
6.5
130.4

7UDQVSRUWDWLRQDQGSXEOLFXWLOLWLHV
Total cases ............................…………………………..…
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost workdays........………...............................................



±



±



±



±



±



±





±



±



±



–



±



±



±



±

7.4
3.3
–



–








±



±



±

8.5
4.2
–

7.9
3.8
–



–



±



±



±



±

6.7
3.0
–

6.4
3.0
–

6.0
2.8
–



–



±



±



±



±

5.9
2.7
–

5.7
2.8
–

5.5
2.7
–

4.8
2.4
–



–



±



±



±



±





5.2
2.5
–

4.7
2.3
–

4.8
2.4
–

4.6
2.5
–



–



±



±



±



±

15.1
7.2






13.9
6.5
–

14.0
6.7
–

12.9
6.5
–

12.3
6.3
–



–



±



±



±



±

12.1
5.9
152.3

12.5
5.9






12.1
5.5
–

12.0
5.3
–

11.4
4.8
–

10.7
4.5
–



–



±



±



±



±

9.2
5.3
121.5

9.6
5.5
134.1

9.3
5.4






9.5
5.4
–

9.3
5.5
–

9.1
5.2
–

8.7
5.1
–



–



±



±



±



±

:KROHVDOHDQGUHWDLOWUDGH
Total cases ............................…………………………..…
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost workdays........………...............................................

8.0
3.6
63.5

7.9
3.5
65.6

7.6
3.4






8.1
3.4
–

7.9
3.4
–

7.5
3.2
–

6.8
2.9
–



–



±



±



±



±

Wholesale trade:
Total cases ............................…………………………..…
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost workdays........………...............................................

7.7
4.0
71.9

7.4
3.7
71.5

7.2
3.7






7.8
3.7
–

7.7
3.8
–

7.5
3.6
–

6.6
3.4
–



–



±



±



±



±

Retail trade:
Total cases ............................…………………………..…
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost workdays........………...............................................

8.1
3.4
60.0

8.1
3.4
63.2

7.7
3.3






8.2
3.3
–

7.9
3.3
–

7.5
3.0
–

6.9
2.8
–



–



±



±



±



±

)LQDQFHLQVXUDQFHDQGUHDOHVWDWH
Total cases ............................…………………………..…
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost workdays........………...............................................

2.0
.9
17.6

2.4
1.1
27.3

2.4
1.1






2.9
1.2
–

2.7
1.1
–

2.6
1.0
–

2.4
.9
–



–



±



±



±



±

6HUYLFHV
Total cases ............................…………………………..…
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost workdays........………...............................................

5.5
2.7
51.2

6.0
2.8
56.4

6.2
2.8






6.7
2.8
–

6.5
2.8
–

6.4
2.8
–

6.0
2.6
–



–



–



–



–



–





1
Data for 1989 and subsequent years are based on the Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1987 Edition. For this reason, they are not strictly comparable with data
for the years 1985–88, which were based on the Standard Industrial Classification
Manual, 1972 Edition, 1977 Supplement.

N = number of injuries and illnesses or lost workdays;
EH = total hours worked by all employees during the calendar year; and
200,000 = base for 100 full-time equivalent workers (working 40 hours per week, 50 weeks
per year).

2
Beginning with the 1992 survey, the annual survey measures only nonfatal injuries and
illnesses, while past surveys covered both fatal and nonfatal incidents. To better address
fatalities, a basic element of workplace safety, BLS implemented the Census of Fatal
Occupational Injuries.

4
Beginning with the 1993 survey, lost workday estimates will not be generated. As of 1992,
BLS began generating percent distributions and the median number of days away from work
by industry and for groups of workers sustaining similar work disabilities.
5

Excludes farms with fewer than 11 employees since 1976.

3

The incidence rates represent the number of injuries and illnesses or lost workdays per
100 full-time workers and were calculated as (N/EH) X 200,000, where:

NOTE: Dash indicates data not available.

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008 117

Current Labor Statistics: Injury and Illness Data

55. Fatal occupational injuries by event or exposure, 1996-2005
20053

1996-2000
(average)

2001-2005
(average)2

All events ...............................................................

6,094

5,704

5,734

100

Transportation incidents ................................................
Highway ........................................................................
Collision between vehicles, mobile equipment .........
Moving in same direction ......................................
Moving in opposite directions, oncoming ..............
Moving in intersection ...........................................
Vehicle struck stationary object or equipment on
side of road .............................................................
Noncollision ...............................................................
Jack-knifed or overturned--no collision .................
Nonhighway (farm, industrial premises) ........................
Noncollision accident ................................................
Overturned ............................................................
Worker struck by vehicle, mobile equipment ................
Worker struck by vehicle, mobile equipment in
roadway ..................................................................
Worker struck by vehicle, mobile equipment in
parking lot or non-road area ....................................
Water vehicle ................................................................
Aircraft ...........................................................................

2,608
1,408
685
117
247
151

2,451
1,394
686
151
254
137

2,493
1,437
718
175
265
134

43
25
13
3
5
2

264
372
298
378
321
212
376

310
335
274
335
277
175
369

345
318
273
340
281
182
391

6
6
5
6
5
3
7

129

136

140

2

171
105
263

166
82
206

176
88
149

3
2
3

Assaults and violent acts ...............................................
Homicides .....................................................................
Shooting ....................................................................
Suicide, self-inflicted injury ............................................

1,015
766
617
216

850
602
465
207

792
567
441
180

14
10
8
3

Contact with objects and equipment ............................
Struck by object ............................................................
Struck by falling object ..............................................
Struck by rolling, sliding objects on floor or ground
level .........................................................................
Caught in or compressed by equipment or objects .......
Caught in running equipment or machinery ..............
Caught in or crushed in collapsing materials ................

1,005
567
364

952
560
345

1,005
607
385

18
11
7

77
293
157
128

89
256
128
118

94
278
121
109

2
5
2
2

Falls ..................................................................................
Fall to lower level ..........................................................
Fall from ladder .........................................................
Fall from roof .............................................................
Fall to lower level, n.e.c. ...........................................

714
636
106
153
117

763
669
125
154
123

770
664
129
160
117

13
12
2
3
2

Exposure to harmful substances or environments .....
Contact with electric current ..........................................
Contact with overhead power lines ...........................
Exposure to caustic, noxious, or allergenic substances
Oxygen deficiency .........................................................

535
290
132
112
92

498
265
118
114
74

501
251
112
136
59

9
4
2
2
1

Fires and explosions ......................................................
Fires--unintended or uncontrolled .................................
Explosion ......................................................................

196
103
92

174
95
78

159
93
65

3
2
1

Event or exposure1

Number

Percent

1 Based on the 1992 BLS Occupational Injury and Illness Classification Manual.
2 Excludes fatalities from the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks.
3 The BLS news release of August 10, 2006, reported a total of 5,702 fatal work injuries for calendar year
2005. Since then, an additional 32 job-related fatalities were identified, bringing the total job-related fatality
count for 2005 to 5,734.
NOTE: Totals for all years are revised and final. Totals for major categories may include subcategories not
shown separately. Dashes indicate no data reported or data that do not meet publication criteria. N.e.c. means
"not elsewhere classified."
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, in cooperation with State, New York City,
District of Columbia, and Federal agencies, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries.

118

Monthly Labor Review • May 2008

COMPENSATION AND WORKING CONDITIONS

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Profiles of Significant Collective Bargaining Disputes in 2007
by Jeffrey L. Schildkraut
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Originally Posted: May 22, 2008
Twenty-one work stoppages that began in 2007 and two major work stoppages that continued from 2006 idled a total of
189,000 workers and resulted in 1.3 million workdays of idleness.1 This article profiles the issues involved in the three most
significant stoppages of 2007 as measured by days of idleness and number of workers involved. The three work stoppages,
in total, represent nearly half (47 percent) of the workers idled and 55 percent of the days idle for all major work stoppages
involving 1,000 or more workers in 2007.2

Alliance Of Motion Picture And Television Producers And The Writers Guild Of America East And West
The work stoppage involving the Alliance of Motion Picture and Television Producers (AMPTP) and the Writers Guild of
America East and West was the largest work stoppage in 2007 in terms of days of idleness, with 409,500 days idle during
2007. There were 10,500 workers involved in the stoppage, which lasted more than 3 months.3
The major issue between the two sides involved writer compensation and residuals--such as subsequent payments for a
show that airs in syndication or is offered in Digital Video Disk (DVD) format--for projects delivered by digital media. Digital
media outlets include DVD formatted releases and "new media" releases--those made available on the Internet and mobile
devices. The work stoppage ceased production of all scripted television programs, and union members received significant
publicity regarding their efforts to receive additional compensation from digital media sales outlets.4
The work stoppage ended on February 12, 2008, with 93 percent of union members voting to ratify the 3-year agreement,
which ends May 1, 2011.5 The new agreement provides Writers Guild members a larger share of compensation via digital
media sources and union jurisdiction over projects created for these media. Under the agreement, writers will be paid a fixed
residual of about $1,300 for network prime-time programs streamed over the Internet. In the third year of their contract, the
writers will receive 2 percent of distributor’s revenue from online Web streams; this had been a major demand of the Writers
Guild. Furthermore, residuals for original material produced for "new media" outlets will be paid at 1.2 percent of gross
receipts after an initial exempt viewing period. Writers’ minimum compensation levels will also increase at least 3 percent per
year over the 3-year contract.6

General Motors Corporation And The United Auto Workers
A work stoppage involving the General Motors Corporation and the United Auto Workers was the largest work stoppage in
2007 in terms of the number of workers involved. It was the second largest work stoppage in terms of days of idleness.
On September 24, 2007, a strike began that involved 74,000 United Auto Workers at General Motors nationwide. The
workers went on strike over job security concerns and retiree health care costs. The strike was the first nationwide work
stoppage for General Motors since 1970. The work stoppage affected 82 domestic General Motors assembly plants for 2 full
days.7
On September 26, 2007, an agreement was reached on a 4-year contract, and workers returned to work the same day. The
union ratified the contract in October with 65-percent approval.8 Under the new contract, General Motors will establish an
independent trust, called a Voluntary Employee Beneficiary Association (VEBA), to pay for retiree health care. General
Motors will provide initial funding for the VEBA and make additional payments to maintain solvency, while the United Auto
Workers will manage the fund. Employees will be required to make quarterly fund contributions.
General Motors also agreed to a moratorium on outsourcing positions for the duration of the contract and made commitments
to building current and future cars and trucks at existing facilities. Under the new contract, wages for new non-assembly-line

Page 1

COMPENSATION AND WORKING CONDITIONS

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

employees will start at $14 to $16 per hour, markedly lower than those of assembly line workers, who will start at $28.12 per
hour. General Motors agreed to change 3,000 temporary workers to permanent status with full-time wages. The average
hourly worker is expected to receive more than $13,000 in additional wages during the contract period.9

Navistar International Truck And Engine Corporation And The United Auto Workers
A work stoppage between Navistar International Truck and Engine Corporation and the United Auto Workers was the third
largest work stoppage in 2007 in terms of idleness, with 133,200 days idle during 2007. The work stoppage began on
October 23, 2007, with the union members citing job security concerns and unfair labor practices for shifting truck production
both overseas and to nonunion plants in the United States.10 The work stoppage involved 3,700 workers in nine production
facilities in Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Georgia, and Texas.11
The work stoppage ended on December 16, 2007, when 71 percent of union members voted to approve a new 3-year labor
contract.12 Under the new contract, which will expire on October 1, 2010, Navistar agreed not to outsource union positions for
3 years except by mutual agreement, but the company will have the flexibility to close one facility in case of changing
business conditions. The new contract provided workers a $2,500 lump-sum payment at ratification, a 3-percent lump-sum
payment on October 1, 2008, and a 3-percent lump-sum payment on October 1, 2009. Other agreement provisions included
pension upgrades, health care protections for active and retired workers, and health and safety improvements to identify and
control hazards leading to work-related injuries. The United Auto Workers also agreed to drop all unfair labor practice
charges previously filed with the National Labor Relations Board.
Jeffrey L. Schildkraut
Economist, Division of Compensation Data Analysis and Planning, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Telephone: 202-691-6199; E-mail: Schildkraut.Jeffrey@bls.gov

Notes
1 For more information on work stoppages in 2007, see Major Work Stoppages in 2007, USDL 08-0202 (U.S. Department of Labor), February
13, 2008; available on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/news.release//pdf/wkstp.pdf.
2 For information about methodology and a glossary of terms, see "Work Stoppages: Description of Terms," on the Internet at http://
www.bls.gov/wsp/cbaws-m.htm.
3 The estimate of the number of workers includes those involved in or affected by the strike through the bargaining union. The number of work
stoppage days idle is based on total Federal workdays lost in calendar year 2007. Days lost during 2008 will be accounted for in the major
work stoppages estimates for 2008. Estimates of the number of union workers listed on payrolls at the time of a work stoppage are available
for the most recent month in "CES Strike Report," on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/ces/cesstrk.htm.
4 See Michael Cieply, "Both Sides in Writers’ Strike See New-Media Future at Stake," New York Times (online), December 1, 2007; available
on the Internet at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/01/business/media/01strike.html.
5 See Michael White and Andy Fixmer, "Hollywood Writers Return to Work After Ending Strike" (Update3), Bloomberg.com, February 13,
2008; available on the Internet at http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601103&sid=aKdwR9oC54WM&refer=us.
6 Details of the agreement regarding residuals for original and for re-made materials are included in "Summary of the Tentative 2008 WGA
Theatrical and Television Basic Agreement," Writers Guild of America, February 12, 2008; available on the Internet at http://www.wga.org/
subpage_member.aspx?id=2772.
7 See Sharon Silke Carty, James L. Healey, and Chris Woodyard, "UAW strike comes as a shock," USA Today, September 24, 2007;
available on the Internet at http://www.usatoday.com/money/autos/2007-09-24-uaw-gm_N.htm.
8 See Sharon Terlep, "GM union workers ratify pact," The Detroit News, October 11, 2007; available on the Internet at http://
www.detnews.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20071011/AUTO01/710110344/1361/UPDATE.
9 See Sharon Silke Carty and James L. Healey, "GM-UAW reach tentative deal; strike ends," USA Today, September 25, 2007; available on
the Internet at http://www.usatoday.com/money/autos/2007-09-25-uaw-wed_N.htm.
10 See "UAW Members at Indy Navistar Plant on Strike," Indiana News, October 24, 2007; available on the Internet at http://
www.theindychannel.com/news/14408814/detail.html.
11 See "UAW Members Ratify New Three-Year Contract With International Truck and Engine Corporation," BNET Business Network,
December 16, 2007; available on the Internet at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2007_Dec_16/ai_n21157337.

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12 United Auto Workers, News Release, Monday, December 17, 2007; available on the Internet at http://www.uaw.org/news/newsarticle.cfm?
ArtId=460.

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BLS Resumes Estimation of Sample Errors for Benefits Measures
by Omolola E. Ojo and Jonathan J. Lisic
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Originally Posted: May 22, 2008
Standard errors for the estimates in the National Compensation Survey (NCS) benefits publications have not been available
to data users since the integration of the NCS sample. To provide a reliability measure for data users, the BLS is resuming
production of standard errors for benefits estimates using Fay’s method of Balanced Repeated Replication (BRR).
Employee benefits measures are one of the four key products derived from the integrated National Compensation Survey
(NCS) sample. These measures cover the incidence and detailed provisions of selected employee benefit plans. Incidence
data are presented as the percentage of employees who have access to, or participate in, a broad selection of benefits.
Provisions data are available for certain benefits, such as paid vacations and holidays, disability insurance (short-term and
long-term), life and health insurance, and retirement plans.1 This article briefly describes the integrated NCS sample; it also
discusses the motivation for estimating sample errors and reviews the methodology used to produce sample errors for the
NCS benefits data.
The integrated NCS sample provides data for the Employment Cost Index (ECI), the Employer Costs for Employee
Compensation (ECEC) program, the estimates of wages by area and occupation, and the NCS benefits publications. The
sample covers civilian workers in private industry establishments and in State and local governments across all 50 states and
the District of Columbia. Data are collected from a multistage probability sample consisting of the following three stages: 1) a
probability sample of geographic areas, 2) a probability sample of establishments within sampled areas, and 3) a probability
sample of occupations within sampled establishments.2
Because the benefits measures are derived from a probability sample, they are subject to sampling errors. Sampling errors
are the differences between results computed from a sample and those computed from all units within a given population.
The statistical value calculated to measure sampling errors is called the standard error3. Until recently, of the four previously
mentioned products that use the NCS integrated sample, the NCS benefits program was the only one for which BLS had not
produced standard error estimates. Starting in May 2008, BLS resumed producing standard errors for its benefits
publications.
Standard errors for the estimates in the NCS benefits publications have not been available to data users since the integration
of the NCS sample. Prior to integration, standard errors for benefit measures were computed from a representative portion of
the survey estimates and illustrated as a curve fitted to the standard errors using regression techniques. Chart 1 shows the
generalized standard errors for the 1995 estimates of benefits in medium and large private establishments.4 For example, if a
1995 estimate was 55 percent, chart 1 shows that the standard error for the estimate is 2.2 percent.
With the standard error known, one can then compute a confidence interval around an estimate. A confidence interval
estimates a range of values that are likely to include the true population value. This likelihood is given as a percentage and
generally is referred to as the "confidence level." The NCS, for example, uses a 90-percent confidence level. Using the earlier
example, the 90-percent confidence interval for a 55-percent estimate with a standard error of 2.2 percent would range from
51.38 percent to 58.62 percent.5 This means that if all possible samples were selected to estimate the population value, the
interval from each sample would include the true population value approximately 90 percent of the time.
Due to considerable changes in sampling methodology, the prior method and program used to calculate standard errors for
benefit products is no longer applicable. Calculating standard errors for BLS benefit measures is difficult due to the multistage
design of the sample and the multiple levels of data (establishment, plan type, and occupation). All standard error estimation
systems currently used in the NCS use Fay’s method of Balanced Repeated Replication (BRR). Fay’s method is desirable
because of its computational efficiency and ease of application to the complex NCS sample design. In general, the BRR
method for standard error calculations is to calculate the estimate of interest from the full sample as well as from a number of

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subsamples. The standard error for the full sample is then calculated using the variation among estimates of the subsamples.
With many replication methods, a part of the sample is lost due to a weight of zero being applied during the process, which
produces a biased, but consistent, estimator. Fay’s method of Balanced Repeated Replication makes less extreme
modifications to the weights for the constructed replicates.6
Using Fay’s Method of Balanced Repeated Replication involves four steps. In the first step, the sample is partitioned into S
variance strata. Benefit products use the same variance strata as other national NCS products. The second step is to divide
the sample units in each stratum into two Primary Sample Units (PSUs). The third step is to use the PSUs to construct R
replicate weights, where the number of replicates is greater than or equal to the number of strata S defined earlier. These
replicate weights are constructed by choosing either PSU1 or PSU2 and increasing the chosen PSU’s weight by a proportion
k, while decreasing the other PSU’s weight by the same proportion. Let k = 0.5. Sample observations within the chosen PSU
are weighted by 1.5, and units in the other PSU are weighted by 0.5. Finally, the fourth step is to generate a full sample
estimate using full sample weights, and to generate replicate estimates using replicate weights. The sum of the squared
differences between the estimate from the full sample Ŷ, and the R replicates Ŷr, can then be formulated to calculate the
standard error as follows:7

For the analysis presented in this article, we applied this method to previously released data from the NCS benefits program
and assessed the quality of the results.
The initial investigation focused on percentage estimates published in the March 2006 summary of employee benefits in
private industry.8 Because the size of the standard error depends upon the size of the estimate, nonpercentage estimates will
have greater variation. In an attempt to include as many estimates as possible while maintaining consistency, this analysis
includes only percentage estimates. Nonetheless, standard errors for nonpercentage estimates are calculated and will be
available for this and future employee benefits products. Fortunately, nonpercentage estimates made up a relatively small
amount of the total number of estimates in the March 2006 summary. The present analysis utilized 3,657 estimates from the
summary. The remaining estimates were either nonpercentage estimates or percentage estimates with a standard error of
zero (for example, estimates of 100 percent have a standard error of zero).9
Chart 2 illustrates the distribution of the standard errors in the present analysis. The first four columns show that about 80
percent of the estimates have a standard error that is greater than zero and less than 2 percent. For example, the NCS
estimate for all workers with access to medical care benefits in the March 2006 summary was 70.56 percent. The calculated
standard error for this estimate is 0.75 percent. Thus, the 90-percent confidence interval ranges from 69.33 to 71.79.
Furthermore, about 3 percent of the estimates have a standard error that is greater than or equal to 5. These observations
provide insight into the quality of the estimates of the NCS benefit products. With such a large percent of total estimates
having small standard errors, it is unlikely that there would be a large difference between the estimated values and the actual
population being represented.
Further investigation showed that most of the larger standard errors--those greater than or equal to 5--are for estimates with
a lower number of contributing observations. The standard errors for estimates of all employees are generally small
compared with those for subdomains, especially census divisions. Estimates for census divisions accounted for
approximately 90 percent of the estimates with standard errors that were greater than or equal to 5. For example, the
standard error on the percent of all employees in the Nation with access to medical care benefits is 0.75 percent, compared
with 5.76 percent for employees in the East South Central census division. There was no statistical difference for employees
with access to medical benefits among the census divisions.
The quality and utility of an estimate is directly dependent upon the measure of its standard error. Without this measure,
there is no way to gauge the validity of any conclusions drawn from the data. This investigation into the standard errors of the

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NCS benefit incidence and provisions products appears to support the soundness of the estimates. The National
Compensation Survey program intends to apply these standard error calculation methods to future NCS benefit products,
beginning with the publication of National Compensation Survey: Retirement Benefits in State and Local Governments in the
United States, 2007, available on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/sp/ebsm0008.pdf.10 The standard errors will
provide users of BLS benefit measures with a sound measure of reliability to use when they employ the data in their
individual practices.
Omolola E. Ojo
Mathematical Statistician, NCS Estimation and Review Branch, Statistical Methods Group, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Telephone: (202) 691-6113; E-mail: Ojo.L@bls.gov
Jonathan J. Lisic
Mathematical Statistician, NCS Estimation and Review Branch, Statistical Methods Group, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Telephone: (202) 691-6115; E-mail: Lisic.Jonathan@bls.gov

Notes
1 For more technical information on sampling and estimation for the National Compensation Survey, see "National Compensation Measures,"
in BLS Handbook of Methods (online version); available on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/opub/hom/pdf/homch8.pdf.
2 For further details on the National Compensation Survey sample, see "Sample Allocation and Selection for the National Compensation
Survey," on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/ore/pdf/st020150.pdf.
3 See "National Compensation Measures," BLS Handbook of Methods.
4 Employee Benefits in Medium and Large Private Establishments, 1995, Bulletin 2496 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, April 1998); available on
the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/sp/ebbl0015.pdf; for information on the reliability of the estimates, see appendix A, pp. 162-64.
5 In other words, for this example, in a normal distribution, the 90-percent confidence interval would be computed as 55 ± (1.645 × 2.2) = 51.38
to 58.62. For a detailed explanation of confidence interval formulas, see Robert V. Hogg and Allen T. Craig, "Confidence Intervals for Means,"
in Introduction to Mathematical Statistics (Prentice Hall, 1995), pp. 268-76.
6 For a detailed technical discussion on Fay’s method of Balanced Repeated Replication (BRR), see "Estimating Variance in the National
Compensation Survey, Using Balanced Repeated Replication," on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/ore/pdf/st010110.pdf; also, "Comparison
of Variance Estimation Methods for the National Compensation Survey," on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/ore/pdf/st990290.pdf.
7 Ibid.
8 "National Compensation Survey: Employee Benefits in Private Industry in the United States, March 2006," Summary 06-05 (Bureau of Labor
Statistics, August 2006); available on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/sp/ebsm0004.pdf.
9 Standard errors for the estimates contained in National Compensation Survey: Employee Benefits in Private Industry in the United States,
2006, are available by calling the BLS Office of Compensation and Working Conditions at 202-691-6199 (E-mail: NCSInfo@bls.gov).
10 National Compensation Survey: Retirement Benefits in State and Local Governments in the United States, 2007, Summary 08-03 (Bureau
of Labor Statistics, May 2008); available on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/sp/ebsm0008.pdf.

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Data for Chart 2. Standard error distributions, benefits incidence and provisions summary, March 2006
Standard error

Percent

0 < S < 0.5

17.5006836204539

0.5 d S < 1.0

31.7746786983867

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Standard error

Percent

1.0 d S < 1.5

19.1960623461854

1.5 d S < 2.0

10.4183757178015

2.0 d S < 2.5

7.68389390210555

2.5 d S < 3.0

4.59392945036916

3.0 d S < 4.0

3.99234345091605

4.0 d S < 5.0

1.91413727098715

S e 5.0

2.92589554279464

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20212-0001 | www.bls.gov/OPUB | Telephone: 1-202-691-5200 | Contact Us

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