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also in this issue.

Productivity:
-High-tech industries
-Aggregate bias

CPI in 2001

U.S. Department of Labor
Elaine L. Chao, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Lois L. Orr, Acting Commissioner
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MONTHLY LABOR

REVIEW _
Volume 125, Number 3
M arch 2002

Labor force experience of women from ‘Generation X’

3

These women, ages 25 to 34 years, were in the labor force in greater proportion,
had more education, and earned more than did their counterparts 25 years earlier
Marisa DiNatale and Stephanie Boraas

Productivity growth in high-tech manufacturing industries

16

Among the R&D and technology-oriented industries studied over the 1987-99 period,
information technology showed particularly strong productivity growth
Christopher Kask and Edward Sieber

Bias in aggregate productivity trends revisited

32

It is now less clear whether bias exists, but some industries
continue to show negative multifactor productivity trends
William Gullickson and Michael J. Harper

Consumer inflation lower in 2001

41

The largest annual decrease in gasoline prices occurred;
apparel prices declined and food inflation remained stable
Todd Wilson

Reports
Rankings of full-time occupations, by earnings, 2000

46

John E. Buckley

Departments
3
46
58
59
61

Labor month in review
Research summary
Precis
Book review
Current labor statistics

Editor-in-Chief: Deborah P. Klein • Executive Editor: Richard M. Devens • Managing Editor: Anna Huffman Hill • Editors: Brian I. Baker,
Bonita L. Boles, Richard Hamilton, Leslie Brown Joyner, Lawrence H. Leith • Book Reviews: Richard Hamilton • Design and Layout:
Catherine D. Bowman, Edith W. Peters • Contributor:


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Horst Brand

Labor Month in Review

The March Review
One o f the most striking features of
today’s labor market as it compares to
the labor market o f the mid-1970s is the
fact that today’s young women are ex­
pected to be much more deeply involved
in market work and to combine that work
with family responsibilities. As Marisa
DiNatale and Stephanie Boraas report,
about three-quarters of today’s 25-to 34year-old women participate in the labor
force, compared with about half in the
mid-70s. These women also work more
weeks of the year and more hours per
week. Married women aged 25 to 34,
say DiNatale and Boraas, are far more
likely to be in the labor force than were
their counterparts of 25 years ago.
William Gullickson and Michael J.
Harper update us on the research the
Bureau of Labor Statistics is carrying
out to overcome some of the difficulties
that occur in measuring aggregate pro­
ductivity. In general, the recent surge in
measures of aggregate productivity has
made the possible bias in such measures
less clearly evident, but there are still
anomalies such as negative multifactor
productivity growth in some industries.
Measurement issues remain particularly
difficult on the output side of some ser­
vice industries.
The high-technology manufacturing
sector—however defined—has enjoyed
superior productivity performance, ac­
cording to the analysis of Christopher
Kask and Edward Sieber. Between 1987
and 1999, they report, labor productiv­
ity in high-tech manufacturing increased
at almost 3 times the reasonably strong
rate recorded by the manufacturing sec­
tor as a whole.
Todd Wilson contributes the annual
summary of consumer price develop­
ments for 2001. The overall Consumer
Price Index rose 1.6 percent in 2001—
less than half the increase recorded in
2000. The commodities sub-index actu­
ally fell for the first time since 1986, but
there were higher prices for many types of
services such as rents and medical care.

2

Monthly Labor Review


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States and unemployment

September 11 and layoffs

As the Nation moved into a recession in
2001, most States experienced rising un­
employment rates. Compared with 2000,
jobless rates in 2001 were higher in 42
States and the District o f Columbia,
lower in 7 States, and unchanged in 1
State. This was the first time since 1992
that annual average unemployment
rates rose in more than half the States.
Eighteen States reported rate in­
creases of 1.0 percentage point or more.
O f these 18 States, 6 were located in the
Midwest, 5 each were in the South and
West, and 2 were in the Northeast.
North Carolina had the largest increase
(+1.9 percentage points), followed by
Michigan (+1.7 points) and South Caro­
lina (+1.5 points).
The highest unemployment rates for
2001 were in the Pacific Northwest.
Washington, Oregon, and Alaska all had
jobless rates in excess of 6 percent.
North Dakota had the lowest rate at 2.8
percent and was the only State with an
unemployment rate lower than 3 percent.
To learn more about annual average un­
employment by State, see “State and Re­
gional Unemployment, 2001 Annual Av­
erages,” news release USDL 02-97.

Reports for the weeks ended September
15 through December 29,2001, show that
there were 408 extended mass layoff
events during that period that were di­
rectly or indirectly attributed to the attacks
of September 11,2001. These layoffs in­
volved 114,711 workers. Among the work­
ers laid offbecause of the terrorist attacks,
39 percent, or 44,756 workers, had been
employed in the scheduled air transporta­
tion industry. An additional 28 percent, or
32,044 workers, had been employed in
hotels and motels
Thirty-three States reported extended
mass layoff activity related in some way
to the September 11 incidents. Fifty-four
percent of the layoff events and 56 per­
cent of the separations occurred in just
five States—California, Nevada, Illinois,
New York, and Texas. “Extended mass
layoffs” last more than 30 days and in­
volve 50 or more individuals from a
single establishment filing initial claims
for unemployment insurance during a
consecutive 5-week period. Additional
information is available in “Extended
Mass Layoffs in the Fourth Quarter of
2001,” news release USDL 02-79.

Chartbook on-line
Productivity and costs
Productivity in the nonfarm business
sector, as measured by output per hour,
rose 1.8 percent in 2001, according to
preliminary estimates released in Febru­
ary. Unit labor costs in manufacturing
grew 6.2 percent in 2001. The rise in unit
labor costs in 2001 was the result of a
7.3-percent increase in hourly compen­
sation only slightly offset by a 1.0-percent increase in labor productivity.
(These data are subject to revision.) Unit
labor costs—the cost of the labor input
required to produce one unit of output—
are computed by dividing labor costs in
nominal terms by real output. Unit labor
costs can also, however, be expressed
as the ratio of hourly compensation to
labor productivity.

March 2002

Working in the 21st Century, a book of
charts and related information about
subjects ranging from education levels
to retirement plans, is now available at
the Bureau of Labor Statistics Web site:

http://www.bls.gov/opub/working/
home.htm
□

Communications regarding the
Monthly Labor Review may be sent
to the Editor-in-Chief at the ad­
dresses on the inside front cover, or
faxed to (202) 691-5899. News re­
leases discussed in this issue are
available at:
www.bls.gov/bls.newsrels.htm

Women from ‘Generation X

The labor force experience
of women from ‘Generation X ’
Women aged 25 to 34 years in 2000 participated
in the labor force in greater proportions, were more educated,
earned more, and generally enjoyed more labor market
benefits than their counterparts 25 years earlier; moreover,
the “earnings gap between young women and men
narrowed substantially over the period
”

Marisa DiNatale
and
Stephanie Boraas

uring the 1960s and 1970s, legislation
and changing social mores dramatically
altered the choices young women had
about their futures. Girls growing up during this
period were influenced both by the conventions
of their parents’ generation and by the new op­
portunities that were becoming available to them.
In contrast, girls bom in later years grew up in an
era in which women often were expected to com­
bine market work1 with family responsibilities.
Consequently, women who were aged 25 to 34
years in 2000 had a markedly different relationship to the labor market than did their counter­
parts in 1975.
The first part of this article focuses on the
major demographic and labor market indicators
that are used to describe young women. These
indicators will be used to see how the group and
its relationship to the labor market has changed
over the past quarter century. The second part
focuses on issues facing young women in the
labor market today.2

years had completed 4 or more years of col­
lege, compared with 18 percent 25 years
earlier.

D

Young women have substantially closed
the “earnings gap” with their male coun­
terparts since 1979 (the first year for which
comparable earnings data are available
from the CPS). They earned 8 2 percent as
much as young men in 2000 for full-time
work, compared with 68 percent in 1979.
•

Married women aged 25 to 34 years—par­
ticularly those who had children—were far
more likely to be in the labor force in 2000
than 25 years earlier.

*

Young women were working more hours
and more weeks out of the year in 1999 than
were their counterparts 25 years ago; black
women were more likely than either white
or Hispanic women to work full time and
year round.

•

Nearly one million women aged 25 to 34
were displaced from a job between January
1997 and December 1999; when surveyed
in February 2000, displaced young women
were more than 4 times as likely as their
male counterparts to have left the labor
force.

•

The vast majority (83 percent) of employed
women aged 25 to 34 had health insurance

The highlights include the following:

Marisa DiNatale and
Stephanie Boraas are
economists in the Divi­
sion of Labor Force Sta­
tistics, Bureau of Labor
Statistics.


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•

About three-quarters of women aged 25 to
34 years participated in the labor force in the
year 2000, compared with a little more than
half in 1975.

•

Young women today are more highly edu­
cated than were their counterparts in 1975;
in 2000,30 percent of women aged 25 to 34

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

3

Women from 'Generation X'

Table 1.

Selected characteristics of women and men aged 25 to 34, March 1975 and 2000
Women

Men

Characteristic

Civilian noninstitutional population,
aged 25 to 34, total (in thousands).............................

1975

2000

1975

2000

15,316

19,188

14,366

18,310

86.6
11.3
5.4

79.0
14.9
14.6

88.7
9.3
5.1

81.6
12.4
15.4

20.2

10.9

17.9

13.0

45.9

28.9

36.9

32.4

16.3
17.6

30.3
29.9

19.6
25.6

25.9
28.7

76.3
23.7
10.8
12.9
6.8
5.5
.7

57.0
43.0
30.2
12.8
7.7
4.7
.4

74.6
25.4
17.1
8.2
4.6
3.5
.1

49.5
50.5
41.0
9.5
5.7
3.6
.1

76.0
23.3
52.6
27.6
24.0

59.8
18.2
41.7
25.1
40.2

Race and Hispanic origin'
W h ite ........................................................
B la c k ............................................................
Hispanic o rig in ....................................................

Education2
Less than four years of high school or less than
a high school dip lo m a ................................................
Four years of high school, no college
or high school diploma, no college..............................
1 to 3 years of college or some college or
associates d e g re e .................................................
4 or more years of college or college d e gree...............

Marital status3
Married, spouse present.............................................
Unmarried, to ta l............................................................
Never married......................................................
Other marital s ta tu s ....................................................
Divorced................................................................
S eparated...................................................................
Widowed.....................................................

Presence and age of children
With children under age18 .........................................
With children ages 6 to 17, none yo u n g e r.................
With children under age 6 .........................................
Under age 3 ............................................................
With no children under age 1 8 .........................................

1Detail for race and Hispanic-origin groups will not sum to totals because
data for the “other races” group are not presented and Hispanics may be
included in either the white or black population groups.
2 Since 1992, data on educational attainment have been based on the
“highest diploma or degree received” rather than the “number of years of school
completed.”

coverage in February 2001; about 60 percent of women in
this age group received coverage through their employers.

Indicators of change
As a group, women who were aged 25 to 34 years in 2000
differed in a number of their demographic and labor force char­
acteristics from their counterparts 25 years earlier. The sub­
sections that follow describe some of these differences.
Educational attainment. The level o f education among
women aged 25 to 34 improved dramatically between 1975 and
4

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March 2002

_
_
_
—

38.8
7.8
31.0
21.1
61.2

3
Marital status data for men in 1975 is for the total population and
includes members of the Armed Forces.
N ote : Data from 1994 forward are not directly comparable with data for
1993 and earlier years due to the CPS redesign. Dashes indicate data not
available.

2000. In those 25 years, the share of women in this age group
who had completed at least 4 years of college rose from 18 to
30 percent. At the same time, the share of men with that level of
education only edged up 3 percentage points to 29 percent.
Over the same period, the proportion of young women who
had dropped out of high school fell from 20 percent to 11
percent. (See table 1.)
While white women continued to have the most schooling
among the three major race-ethnic groups in 2000, black
women made large strides in educational attainment over this
period. In 1975, 32 percent of black women aged 25 to 34 had
completed fewer than 4 years of high school, and just 10 per­
cent had completed 4 or more years of college. In 2000, by

Table 2.

Labor force participation of women and men aged 25 to 34 by selected demographic characteristics, March
1975 and 2000

(Numbers in thousands)

Women
Characteristic

Number

Men

Participation rate

2000

1975

8,304

Number

Participation rate

2000

1975

2000

1975

2000

1975

14,787

54.2

77.1

13,692

17,091

95.3

93.3

7,054
1,083
384

11,622
2,298
1,784

53.2
62.8
46.6

76.7
80.6
63.6

12,219
1,216
686

14,097
1,984
2,658

95.9
91.2
94.1

94.4
87.7
94.1

1,260

1,141

40.8

54.7

2,371

2,053

92.3

86.0

3,753

4,124

53.3

74.3

5,155

5,559

97.2

93.7

1,434
1,858

4,592
4,930

57.5
68.9

79.0
85.9

2,638
3,528

4,474
5,005

93.8
96.0

94.3
95.4

5,648
2,656
1,325
1,331
796
486
49

7,788
6,999
4,918
2,080
1,295
734
51

48.3
73.3
80.4
67.4
76.8
57.9
48.5

71.2
84.9
84.9
84.7
87.7
81.7
63.7

10,365
3,327
2,213
1,114
626
471
18

8,765
8,326
6,704
1,623
991
612
20

97.3
89.7
88.2
92.7
92.7
92.8
91.2

96.7
90.0
89.3
93.4
94.4
92.2
84.3

With children under age 1 8 ........................................
With children aged 6 to 17, none y ou nger..................

5,281
2,147

8,054
2,739

45.4
60.0

70.1
78.4

-

6,855
1,352

-

96.5
94.6

With children under age 6 .........................................
Underage 3 ...........................................................
With no children under age 1 8 .................................

3,134
1,402
3,023

5,315
3,024
6,733

38.9
33.2
82.2

66.5
62.7
87.4

Civilian labor force, aged 25 to 3 4 ..................................

Race and Hispanic origin'
W h ite ..........................................................................
B la ck...........................................................................
Hispanic orig in.................................................................

Education2
Less than 4 years of high school or less than
a high school dip lo m a ..................................................
4 years of high school, no college or high school
diploma, no c ollege......................................................
1 to 3 years of college or some college
or associates d e gree...................................................
4 or more years of college or college d e g re e ................

Marital status
Married, spouse present...................................................
Unmarried, to ta l......................................................
Never m arried..................................................................
Other marital s ta tu s .......................................................
Divorced.....................................................................
S eparated.....................................................................
W idow ed.....................................................

Presence and age of children

1 Detail for race and Hispanic-origin groups will not sum to totals because
data for the “other races” group are not presented and Hispanics may be
included in either the white or black population groups. Since 1992, data on
educational attainment have
2 Since 1992, data on educational attainment have been based on the
“highest diploma or degree received,” rather than the “number of years of

contrast, just 13 percent of black women in this age group did
not have a high school diploma, and 17 percent had college
degrees. Among young Hispanic women in 2000, however, a
relatively high proportion (36 percent) had not completed high
school. (This compares with about half in 1975.) About 11
percent had college degrees. More than half (55 percent) of
the young Hispanic women living in the United States in 2000
were foreign bom, and these immigrants typically have less
education than their U.S.-born counterparts. In fact, half the
foreign-bom Hispanic women of this age group had not com­
pleted high school (compared with 19 percent of those bom
in the United States), and only 9 percent had a Bachelor’s
degree or more (compared with 17 percent of those bom in


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_

5,504
3,752
10,236

_

96.9
97.2
91.4

school completed.”
N ote : Data from 1994 forward are not directly comparable with data for 1993
and earlier years due to the CPS redesign. Labor force and participation rates
are for the civilian population. Dashes indicate data not available.

the United States).
The advances in educational attainment among young
women during the 25-year period were much sharper than
those of their male counterparts. In 1975, the proportion of
men with a college education exceeded that of women by a
considerable margin. By 2000 however, the proportions with
college degrees were about equal, and, in the case of whites
and Hispanics, the women were somewhat more likely to be
college graduates than were the men.
Marital status and motherhood. Over the 1975-2000 period,
trends in marriage and family formation changed consider­
ably.3 For example, women aged 25 to 34 years in 2000 were
Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

5

Women from 'Generation X'

less likely to be married than their counterparts 25 years earlier
and less likely to be mothers. In 1975, more than 3 out of 4
women in this age group were married; by 2000, the proportion
had dropped to 3 out of 5. Additionally, in 1975, just 11 percent
had never married; this proportion had nearly tripled to 30
percent in 2000.
The changing marital status of women also impacted family
formation. In 1975,76 percent of women in the 25- to 34-year
age group had children; this figure had declined to 60 percent
by 2000. Also, as the average age of childbearing rose, women
aged 25 to 34 were far less likely to have older children, but
they were nearly as likely to have children under age 3 as were
their counterparts a generation earlier.
Laborforce characteristics. Since 1975, the labor force par­
ticipation rate—the proportion of the population that is either
working or actively looking for work—of women aged 25 to 34
years has increased by about 20 percentage points. White
women had the largest increase in participation, although black
and Hispanic women also showed large gains. In contrast, the
labor force participation rate for men in the same age group
drifted down, from 95 to 93 percent, with the decline far larger
for black men than for whites. (See table 2.) The growing labor
force participation rate of women is related to a number of
factors, but perhaps the two that have had the greatest impact
are the increasing rates of educational attainment among
women and the lower propensity to marry among women aged
25 to 34. In 1975, the median age at first marriage for women
was 21.1 years; in 1998, it was 25.0 years.4
Women’s labor force participation rates are strongly corre­
lated with levels of educational attainment. In 2000,86 percent
of women in the 25- to 34-year age group with college degrees
were in the labor force, compared with only 55 percent of those
with less than a high school diploma, a difference of about 31
percentage points. Men’s participation rates also were closely

Table 3.

correlated with education levels, but the difference between
those with a college degree and those with less than a high
school diploma was less pronounced—about 95 percent of
young adult men with college degrees were in the labor force,
compared with 86 percent of those with less than a high school
education, a difference of only 9 percentage points.
Occupations. Women aged 25 to 34 work in virtually every
occupation, but they are more heavily represented in some
occupations than others. (See table 3.) Due to a change in the
way occupations were classified in the CPS, comparable data
are available only to 1983. It is still useful to examine them to
look for any trends that may have emerged over the past couple
decades.
Since 1983, women have made headway into the higher-pay­
ing executive, administrative, and managerial occupations, and
professional specialty occupations. They also have become more
likely to work in sales and service occupations. While the latter
tend to be lower-paying jobs, men aged 25 to 34 years also are
increasingly likely to work in these occupations.
Women made up 46 percent of all employed 25- to 34-yearolds in 2000 and 44 percent in 1983. They made up about 80
percent of all workers in this age group in administrative sup­
port (clerical) jobs in both years. Women also were more con­
centrated in service occupations in 2000 than they were in
1983. They accounted for about 65 percent of the total in ser­
vice occupations in 2000 and 59 percent in 1983. (See table 4.)
In contrast, women continued to represent a smaller portion of
employed 25- to 34-year-olds in manufacturing-related occu­
pations such as precision production, craft and repair, where
they made up only about 8 percent of workers in both years.
Among young workers in executive/managerial, profes­
sional, and technical occupations overall, about half were
women in 2000. While the proportions of young women in
professional specialty and technical occupations were about

Employed women and men aged 25 to 34 years by major occupation, annual averages, 1983 and 2000
Women

Men

Occupation
1983

2000

1983

2000

Number (in thousands)................................................................

12,540

14,006

16,216

16,494

Percent..........................................................................................
Executives, administrators, and m anagers..............................
Professional specialty w orkers...................................................
Technicians and related support w o rk e rs ..................................
Sales w orkers...............................................................................
Administrative support, including clerical w orkers...................
Service w orkers...........................................................................
Precision production, craft, and repair w orkers........................
Operators, fabricators, and labo rers.........................................
Farming, forestry, and fishing w o rk e rs ......................................

100.0
9.2
18.5
4.7
9.9
30.2
14.9
2.5
9.1
1.0

100.0
15.5
20.5
4.4
11.5
22.6
16.3
2.0
6.4
0.8

100.0
11.4
13.0
3.9
10.5
5.9
8.0
22.2
20.7
4.3

100.0
12.8
14.7
3.5
10.8
5.8
9.9
19.6
19.7
3.2

Total employed

6

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March 2002

Table 4.

Employed persons aged 25 to 34 by major occupation, sex, race, and Hispanic origin, 2000 annual averages

(Numbers are in thousands)

Occupation

Percent women
Total employed

Total, aged 25 to 3 4 ........................................................................
Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations.................
Professional specialty occupations....................................................
Technicians and related support occupations..................................
Sales occupations...............................................................................
Administrative support occupations, including clerical....................
Private household occupations........................................................
Protective service occupations.......................................................
Service occupations, excluding protective and household.............
Precision production, craft and repair occupations..........................
Machine operators, assemblers and inspectors...............................
Transportation and material moving occupations..............................
Handlers, equipment cleaners,helpers,laborers................................
Farming, forestry and fishing occupations........................................
N ote : Detail for the race and Hispanic-origin groups will not sum to totals
because data for the “other races” group are not presented and Hispanics are

the same in 1983, there was a considerable movement of women
into executive, administrative, and managerial occupations
over the period. Young women made up only about 38 percent
of total employment in this age group and occupation in 1983.
By 2000, the percentage had increased to 51 percent.
Nonetheless, it should be noted that, within these broad
groups, women continued to be concentrated in some fairly
traditional “women’s” occupations. For instance, in 2000,
women 16 years and older made up about 99 percent of kinder­
garten and preschool teachers, 85 percent of librarians, and 84
percent of legal assistants. These proportions were roughly
the same in 1983. In contrast, women overall are still
underrepresented in some professional occupations, although
they have made substantial inroads. For example, women have
about doubled their proportions among lawyers and engineers
since 1983—to about 30 and 10 percent, respectively—and
those proportions are even higher among younger cohorts.
While women made up more than half of the 25- to 34-yearolds employed in managerial and professional specialty occu­
pations in 2000, relatively small proportions of young black
and Hispanic women were represented in these occupations.
Black women made up about 6 percent of total employment in
both executive, administrative, and managerial occupations
and professional specialty occupations, while Hispanic
women represented just 4 percent of executive and managerial
jobs, and only 3 percent of professional jobs. In 1983, how­
ever, the corresponding figures for black and Hispanic women
were even lower.
Earnings. In 1979 (the first year for which comparable data
were available), median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage
and salary workers aged 25 to 34 were $440 for women and


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30,501
4,281
5,300
1,196
3,386
4,129
118
632
3,157
3,514
1,743
1,235
1,176
634

Total

White

Black

45.9
50.6
54.2
51.8
47.4
76.8
94.1
16.6
65.3
8.1
34.0
8.9
16.8
17.4

36.2
41.9
44.0
41.6
38.4
60.0
80.5
10.1
48.4
6.3
24.7
5.3
11.7
16.6

7.1
5.7
5.9
7.4
6.4
13.5
11.0
6.0
13.9
1.1
6.0
3.3
4.4
0.5

Hispanic
5.6
4.1
3.3
5.2
5.3
10.0
42.4
1.3
10.8
1.6
9.2
1.0
4.2
5.5

included in both the white and black population groups,

$653 for men (in 2000 inflation-adjusted dollars). During the
1980s and early 1990s, inflation-adjusted earnings of women
in this group increased slowly, while those of their male coun­
terparts decreased relatively rapidly. (See chart 1.) Since about
1993 however, changes in the earnings of men and women
have generally been of similar size and in the same direction.
Despite the upturn in earnings that occurred for both men and
women during the 1990s, men’s earnings ($603 in 2000) re­
mained below their inflation-adjusted 1979 level, while
women’s earnings ($493) rose. As a result of these movements,
young women in 2000 earned approximately 82 percent as
much as their male counterparts, compared with 67 percent in
1979.
The shrinking earnings gap has many causes, including
young women moving into higher-paying occupations, their
shift toward year-round work, their increasing educational at­
tainment, and reduced incidences of gaps in their labor force
participation. These factors likely led to a rise in the real earn­
ings of young women at the same time that young men were
experiencing declines.
Marital status and motherhood. Never-married women and
divorced women had the highest labor force participation rates
among 25- to 34-year-old women in both 1975 and 2000. Since
1975, however, the gap between these nonmarried women’s
participation rates and those for married women has narrowed
substantially. During that period, the rate for never-married
women changed little and that for divorced women grew by
about 11 percentage points. In contrast, the participation rate
for married women (spouse present) jumped by about 23 per­
centage points. (See table 2.)
In both 1975 and 2000, women aged 25 to 34 who had no

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

7

Women from 'Generation X'

Definition of contingent workers and alternative work arrangements
Contingent workers
These workers were defined as those who do not
have an explicit or implicit contract for long-term em­
ployment. To assess the impact o f altering some o f
the defining factors on the estimated size o f the con­
tingent workforce, three measures o f contingent em­
ployment were developed as follows:

Estimate 1 . This is the narrowest, measures con­
tingent workers as wage and salary workers who in­
dicated that they expected to w ork in their current
jo b for 1 year or less and who had worked for their
current em ployer for 1 year or less. Self-employed
workers, both incorporated and unincorporated, and
independent contractors are excluded from the count
o f contingent workers under estimate 1; the rationale
was that people who work for themselves, by defini­
tion, have ongoing em ploym ent arrangem ents, al­
though they may face financial risks. Individuals who
worked for temporary help agencies or contract com­
panies are considered contingent under estimate 1 only
if they expect their employment arrangement with the
temporary help or contract company to last for 1 year
o f less and they had worked for that company for 1
year o f less.
Estimate 2. This estimate expands the measure o f
the contingent work force by including the self em­
ployed— both the incorporated and unincorpo­
rated— and independent contractors who expect to
be, and had been, in such employment arrangements
for 1 year or less. In addition, temporary help and con­
tract company workers are classified as contingent un­
der estimate 2 fi they had worked and expected to work
for the customers to whom they were assigned for 1
year or less. For example, a “temp” secretary who is
sent to a different customer each week but has worked
for the same temporary help firm for more than 1 year
and expects to be able to continue with that firm indefi­

8

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March 2002

nitely is contingent under estimate 2, but not under esti­
mate 1. In contrast, a “temp” who is assigned to a single
client for more than a year and expects to be able to stay
with that client for more than a year is not counted as
contingent under either estimate.

Estimate 3. This estimate expands the count o f
contingency by removing the 1-year requirement on
both expected duration o f the job and current tenure
for wage and salary workers. Thus, the estimate ef­
fectively includes all the wage and salary workers who
do not expect their em ploym ent to last, except for
those who, for personal reasons, expect to leave jobs
that they would otherwise be able to keep. Thus, a
worker who had held a job for 5 years could be con­
sidered contingent if he or she now viewed the job as
temporary. These conditions on expected and current
tenure are not relaxed for the self employed and inde­
pendent contractors, because they were asked dif­
ferent set o f questions from wage and salary workers.
Alternative work arrangement.
The Bureau o f Labor Statistics defines four types o f
alternative work arrangements:

Independent contractors : These include consult­
ants, freelance workers, and independent contractors,
regardless o f whether or not they are wage and salary
workers or self employed.
On-call workers'. These include persons who are
called into work only when they are needed.
Temporary help agency workers : These include
workers who are paid by a tem porary help agency
but work temporarily at a client site.
Contract company workers: These workers are em­
ployees o f a contract company who usually work for
only one customer and at that customer’s work site.

children under 18 were considerably more likely to be in the
labor force than those who were mothers. However, while the
participation rate for childless women changed little over this
period, the rate for those with children under age 18 grew by
about 25 percentage points to 70 percent in 2000. In fact, the
labor force participation rate for those with children under three
years almost doubled over the period, growing from 33 per­
cent in 1975 to 63 percent in 2000.

Table 5.

While women with children were less likely to be labor force
participants than those without children, the reverse was true for
men—those with children were somewhat more likely to be in the
labor force than those without. Although labor force participa­
tion rates for women with children grew rapidly between 1975
and 2000, they still remain well below those of men with children,
suggesting that raising children continues to have a greater im­
pact on the working lives of mothers than on those of fathers.

Women aged 25 to 34 with work experience in 1975 and 1999 by race, Hispanic origin, and marital status, March
2000 status, March 2000 cps
1999

1975
Percent with work experience
Race, Hispanic origin, and
marital status

Usually worked full time
Total with
work
experience
As percent
(in
50-52
of
thousands)
Total'
weeks
population

Percent with work experience

Usually worked full time
Total with
work
Usually experience
(in
As percent
worked
50-52
Total'
of
full tim e' thousands)
weeks
population

Usually
worked
full tim e'

Total, all ra c e s .......................................

10,141

63.9

74.3

45.5

25.7

15,517

80.9

80.3

62.9

19.7

Married, spouse p re s e n t..................
Unmarried, to ta l..................................
Married spouse a b s e n t..................
W id o w e d ..........................................
D ivorced..........................................
S eparated........................................
Never m a rrie d ..................................

6,936
3,205
91
65
1,013
483
1,553

58.4
80.2
73.4
59.1
81.5
66.9
86.4

68.8
86.3
79.1
84.6
87.0
79.1
88.6

38.3
61.2
44.0
46.2
59.3
55.1
68.8

31.2
13.7
20.9
15.4
12.9
20.7
11.5

8,372
7,146
220
51
1,319
512
5,044

76.5
86.6
82.1
63.0
89.3
81.3
87.1

75.7
85.7
85.0
76.5
86.2
86.6
85.7

57.6
69.2
60.0
60.8
70.4
65.4
69.7

24.3
14.3
15.0
23.5
13.8
13.3
14.3

White, to ta l............................................

8,634

62.9

72.3

44.2

27.7

12,234

80.8

78.9

61.9

21.1

Married, spouse pre se n t..................
Unmarried, to ta l..................................
Married spouse a b s e n t..................
W id o w e d ..........................................
D ivorced..........................................
S eparated........................................
Never m a rrie d ..................................

6,170
2,463
67
46
849
296
1,205

57.3
83.2
72.0
59.7
81.6
70.3
90.5

66.8
86.4
77.6
89.1
87.3
77.0
88.4

37.0
62.3
41.8
54.3
58.5
43.2
71.1

33.3
13.6
22.4
10.9
12.7
23.0
11.6

7,188
5,046
156
33
1,086
342
3,429

76.5
87.7
83.9
57.9
89.2
79.4
88.8

74.1
85.7
82.7
69.7
86.1
86.5
85.7

56.2
69.9
57.7
57.6
71.4
63.7
70.7

25.9
14.3
17.3
30.3
13.9
13.5
14.3

Black, to ta l............................................

1,267

70.4

85.6

53.0

14.4

2,387

83.8

86.9

70.0

13.1

Married, spouse pre se n t..................
Unmarried, to ta l..................................
Married spouse a b s e n t..................
W id o w e d ..........................................
D ivorced..........................................
S eparated........................................
Never m a rrie d ..................................

615
652
22
17
149
179
285

71.6
69.4
78.6
56.7
79.3
60.9
71.3

86.2
85.0
86.4
70.6
85.9
74.4
86.7

50.4
55.4
50.0
23.5
61.7
46.2
56.8

13.8
15.0
13.6
29.4
14.1
15.6
13.3

725
1,662
37
18
181
153
1,273

82.7
84.3
75.5
78.3
88.3
86.0
83.9

86.6
87.0
91.7
88.9
87.8
89.5
86.5

73.0
68.7
59.5
66.7
66.9
71.9
68.9

13.1
13.0
10.8
11.1
12.2
10.5
13.5

Hispanic origin, to ta l.............................

-

-

-

-

-

1,844

65.7

82.2

60.0

17.8

Married, spouse p resent..................
Unmarried, to ta l..................................
Married spouse a b s e n t..................
W id o w e d ..........................................
D ivorced ..........................................
S eparated........................................
Never m a rrie d ..................................

-

-

-

-

-

1,038
806
43
11
109
94
549

60.2
74.5
71.7
64.7
77.9
65.3
76.1

80.3
84.6
83.7
90.9
87.2
86.2
83.7

55.4
66.0
67.4
54.5
62.4
59.6
67.9

19.7
15.3
16.3
9.1
12.8
12.8
16.2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

'Percents may not sum to 100 due to rounding.
N ote : Detail for the above race and Hispanic-origin groups will not sum
to totals because data for the “other races” group are not presented


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and Hispanics are included in both the white and black population groups.
Dashes indicate data not available

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

9

Women from 'Generation X'

Table 6.

Multiple jobholders by age and sex, May 1975 and May 2001
May 1975

May 2001

Multiple jobholders

Age and sex
Total
employed
Women 25 to 34 y e a rs ................................
Men 25 to 34 y e a rs ......................................

7,574
12,798

Multiple jobholders

Number

Percent of
employed

Total
employed

Number

Percent of
employed

248
850

3.3
6.6

13,680
16,215

781
901

5.7
5.6

Unemployment. In 2000, the unemployment rate for women
aged 25 to 34 was little different from that of men, 4.0 percent
compared with 3.4 percent; both rates were at their lowest
points in 25 years. (See chart 2.) A quarter of a century earlier,
however, the women’s rate exceeded the men’s by a little more
than 2 percentage points. The gap virtually disappeared in
1980 when the men’s rate shot up in response to a short but
sharp recession, while the women’s rate increased less rap­
idly. The gap has remained quite narrow ever since, although
the rate for men tends to increase more sharply during
recessionary periods than the rate for women.
In terms of employment, economic downturns typically
have a greater impact on men than women because men are
more likely to work in industries such as manufacturing and
construction that are highly sensitive to changes in the busi­
ness cycle. Women, on the other hand, tend to work in indus­
tries such as services and government, which are less respon­
sive to business cycles. Consequently, the swings that are
evident in the unemployment rate for men are more muted in
the rate for women.

while the proportion working less than 30 hours per week de­
creased to 17 percent.
Among the race-ethnic groups, black women were more
likely to work full time and year round than were white women:
about 70 percent of the young black women with work experi­
ence in 1999 worked year round, full time, compared with 62
percent for their white counterparts. The comparable propor­
tion for Hispanic women was 60 percent. In 1975, the propor­
tions were 53 percent for black women and 44 percent for white
women.
Multiplejobholding. Women aged 25 to 34 years were more
likely to hold two or more jobs in 2001 than in 1975. About 6
percent of all employed women in May 2001 held more than
one job, compared with 3 percent 25 years earlier. (See table 6.)
Interestingly, the multiple jobholding rate for men in the same
age group was lower in 2001 than in 1975. As a result, although
men were twice as likely as women to hold more than one job in
1975, there was little difference in their proportions in 2000.

Current labor market issues
Work schedules. Young women worked more throughout the
year in 1999 than in 1975.5 Table 5 shows that 81 percent of
women aged 25 to 34 worked at some time during 1999, com­
pared with 64 percent in 1975. Moreover, of those with such
work experience, about 63 percent worked full time and year
round6 in 1999, compared with less than half (46 percent) in
1975.
Average weekly hours for young women working in nonagricultural industries increased by 2.5 hours over the period,
rising from 35.4 in 1976 to 37.9 in 2000, while men’s average
weekly hours grew only slightly, from 43.2 hours in 1976 to
43.9 hours in 2000. The increase in average hours worked by
young women resulted not only from an increase in the num­
ber working full time, but also from a decrease in the propor­
tion with short workweeks and an increase in the proportion
with very long workweeks. In 1976, only about 7 percent of
young women worked 49 hours or more per week, and 21 per­
cent worked fewer than 30 hours. By 2000, the proportion work­
ing very long workweeks had nearly doubled to 13 percent,

10

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Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, additional measures of such
labor force concepts as contingent and alternative work ar­
rangements, worker displacement, and pension and health
insurance coverage were developed by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics. Although these measures did not exist in 1975, we
include a discussion of them here in order to gain a broader
picture of the labor market in which young women participate
today.
Alternative work arrangements and contingent workers In
recent years, contingent workers and those working in alter­
native arrangements have become the focus of debate. (See
the box on page 8 for BLS definitions of alternative work ar­
rangements and contingent workers.) Critics of these arrange­
ments raise concern about these jobs because often they pro­
vide lower pay and lower rates of employer-provided pension
and health care coverage than more traditional arrangements.7
Other researchers point out that these kinds of jobs may pro-

C h a rt 1.

Real median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers aged 25 to 34
years by sex, 1979-2000

2000

2000

1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
C h a rt 2.

Unemployment rates for women and men aged 25 to 34 years, 1975-2000

Percent


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Percent

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

11

Women from 'Generation X'

vide women with flexibility and convenience that may not be
available with traditional work arrangements. Also, there is
some evidence that these arrangements may provide jobs to
persons who would otherwise be unemployed.8 In addition,
as pointed out in recent B LS analyses,9 while nearly half of oncall workers and temporary help agency workers say they
would prefer regular employment, most consultants and inde­
pendent contractors seem to prefer their current arrangements.
Moreover, pay, benefits, and other aspects of these kinds of
jobs differ greatly among the various alternative arrangements.
In 1995, BLS began collecting data on the prevalence of al­
ternative work arrangements through a supplement to the Cur­
rent Population Survey (C P S ).10 Data from the supplement
clearly indicate that the incidence of such work arrangements
is not very widespread. Only about 6 percent of women aged
25 to 34 are employed in the four BLS-defmed alternative work
arrangements, the most common being independent contract­
ing. (See table 7.) In fact, since 1995, the proportion of women
aged 25 to 34 with alternative arrangements has edged down.11
Among the alternative work arrangements, perhaps the one
that has received the most attention is the temporary help
arrangement. Data from the supplement show that workers in
these jobs have the lowest median weekly earnings among all
of the arrangements, as well as the lowest rates of health and
pension benefit coverage.12 And while only a very small pro­
portion of all employed 25- to 34-year-old women were tempo­
rary help agency workers, young black and Hispanic women
were somewhat more likely than white women to be employed
in this type of arrangement; at the same time, they were some­
what less likely than white women to work as independent
contractors.
One interesting fact about independent contractors is that
Table 7.

men in the arrangement earn, on average, more than men in
traditional work arrangements. Female independent contrac­
tors, on the other hand, earn less, on average, than their
counterparts in traditional arrangements—most likely due to
the high percentage of female independent contractors who
work part time.
As seen in the box, B LS defines contingent workers as those
who do not have an explicit or implicit contract for long-term
employment. Within that group, three progressively broader
measures of contingent employment are defined, known as
estimates 1-3. The broadest measure, estimate 3, is the one
most often cited, and the statements made in this article about
contingent workers are all based on this third definition.
As with alternative work arrangements, the proportion of
25- to 34-year-old women who are contingent workers is quite
small and has been falling since the survey was first conducted
in 1995. About 4 percent of both white and black women in this
age group were contingent workers, while the comparable fig­
ure for Hispanic women was 6.5 percent. On average, contin­
gent workers have lower pay and benefit coverage than per­
sons in traditional arrangements. In addition, because they
view their jobs as short term, they may have little attachment
to their employers.
Work at home and flexible schedules. Women frequently
cope with the challenge of meeting their job and family re­
sponsibilities by selecting jobs that allow them the freedom to
change their work schedules or work locations. According to
information collected in a May 1997 CPS supplement, about 3
million women aged 25 to 34 who worked full time held jobs
that allowed flexibility in their work schedules (numbers in thou­
sands):13

Employed women aged 25-34 in alternative and traditional work arrangements and in contingent and
noncontingent arrangements by race and Hispanic origin, as a percentage of all employed women aaed
25 to 34, February 2001
**
Women
Arrangement
Total

Total employed1 ......................................
Contingent workers2 ............................
Noncontingent w orkers........................
Workers with alternative arrangements
Independent contractors.....................
On-call w orke rs....................................
Temporary help agency w orkers.........
Workers provided by contract firms ...
Workers with traditional arrangements .

White

Black

100.0
4.0
96.0

100.0
4.0
96.0

100.0
4.1
95.9

100.0

3.9

4.2

0.8

0.8

1.3

0.9
0.3
93.8

1.6
0.7
3.7

2.7
1.0
2.3

94.0

93.3

0.2
93.7

1 Detail may not sum to 100 percent due to rounding.
2 Data on contingent workers refers to those who fall under estimate 3 of
contingency. Estimate 3 is the broadest measure of contingency and includes

12

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March 2002

6.5
93.4

0.2

anyone who does not expect his/her job to last.
N ote :

Hispanic

Dash indicates data not available.

With flexible schedules
Number

Percent

Women, 25 to 34 years.... ... 10,486

2,931

28.0

Men, 25 to 34 years......... ... 14,721

4,231

28.7

Total

Interestingly, roughly equal proportions of young women and
men in this age group work flexible schedules. In addition, 25to 34-year-old women were more likely than women of other
ages to have this kind of flexibility in their jobs.14
Data from the same 1997 CPS supplement show that about
18 percent of 25- to 34-year-old women did at least some work
at home, although less than a third of those who worked at
home did so for pay—that is, in addition to their normal wages.
Women in this age group were more likely than their male coun­
terparts to work at home, and they also were more likely than
men to get paid for their at-home work. The vast majority of 25to 34-year-old women worked only partly at home, with just 4
percent reporting that they had worked exclusively from home.
Finally, among the racial and ethnic groups, 20 percent of white
women worked at home, compared with 11 percent of Hispanic
women and 8 percent of black women. (See table 8.)
Worker displacement. Nearly a million women aged 25 to 34
lost or left their jobs from January 1997 to December 1999 be­
cause their plant or company closed or moved, there was insuf­
ficient work to do, or their positions or shifts were abolished.
(See table 9.) In the latest CPS supplement on displaced workers
conducted in February 2000, workers who were displaced during
the January 1997-December 1999 period were asked questions
about their employment status in February 2000.
About 86 percent of women aged 25 to 34 who were dis­
placed were in the labor force in February 2000. This compares
with about 97 percent of their male counterparts. Women in
this age group were the most likely among all displaced female
workers to be re-employed. Moreover, of all displaced female
workers in the prime working-age group (25 to 54 years), 25-to34-year-olds were the least likely to be unemployed when sur­
veyed in February 2000. White women in this age group who
were displaced were more likely to be re-employed in February
2000 and less likely to be unemployed or not in the labor force
than either their black or Hispanic counterparts.
The fact that young women were more likely than young
men to have left the labor force after being displaced may
suggest that some women take the opportunity to begin a
family or to pursue personal goals that do not involve work for
pay during these primary child-bearing years. The movement
out of the labor market, however, comes with a price. Research
has shown that when women leave the labor force for extended
periods to pursue family responsibilities, they return to work
facing lower wages than those who remained in the labor force,
and they never quite catch up.15


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Table 8.

Persons aged 25 to 34 working on primary job in
nonagricultural industries by prevalence
of work at home, sex, and race, May 1997
Men

Women
Work at home
Number Percent

Number

Percent

13,792

100.0

16,414

100.0

2,498

18.2

2,358

14.5

1,949

14.2

2,172

13.2

549

4.0

186

1.1

White, at work
Reporting work at home

11,165
2,230

100.0
20.0

13,703
2,122

100.0
15.5

Black, at work
Reporting work at home

1,850
151

100.0
8.2

1,735
108

100.0
6.2

Hispanic origin, at w o rk .....
Reporting work at hom e...

1,434
158

100.0
11.0

2,280
133

100.0
5.8

Total, at w o rk ......................
Reporting work at hom e...
Primary job partly
at h o m e ........................
Primary job entirely
at home

N ote : Percentages are based on unpublished figures of the number of
persons who responded to the question on work at home.

Working poor. For many women, economic gains over the
past 25 years have narrowed the gap in earnings with men and
have led to more economic and financial independence.
Nonetheless, nearly 1 million young women (25 to 34 years)
were classified among the working poor in 1999. (See table 10.)
These are women who were in the labor force (working or
looking for work) for at least 27 weeks during the year, but
whose income fell below the official poverty threshold.16
Women in this age group were somewhat more likely than their
male counterparts to be among the working poor in 1999 (7
percent versus 5 percent).
Black women of this age were far more likely to be among
the working poor than were either white or Hispanic women.
Nearly 16 percent of the young black women who had been in
the labor force for at least 27 weeks in 1999 were considered to
be below the poverty level—nearly three times the rate of their
white counterparts. A little more than 10 percent of young
Hispanic women were among the working poor.
In contrast to young black women, black men in this age
group were no more likely to be among the working poor
than white men (5 percent). Hispanic men, however, were
more than twice as likely to be among the working poor as
either their white or black counterparts.
Health insurance and pension plan coverage. Monetary
earnings are only part of a worker’s compensation—health
insurance, pensions, and other benefits are important compo­
nents as well. The rising costs of health care and prescription
drugs in the United States have made health insurance a vital

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

13

Women from 'Generation X'

Table 9.

Displaced workers aged 25 to 34 who lost jobs between January 1997 and December 1999 by sex, race,
Hispanic origin, and employment status in February 2000

(Numbers in thousands)

Percent distribution by employment status in February 2000

Number
(in
thousands)

Sex and race

Total

Employed

Not in the
labor force

Unemployed

Women, to ta l..........................................
W h ite .....................................................
B la ck.....................................................
H ispanic................................................

917
715
165
122

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

75.9
78.0
70.9
63.8

9.6
9.0
9.7
16.0

14.5
13.0
19.4
20.2

Men, to ta l................................................
W h ite .....................................................
B la ck.....................................................
H ispanic................................................

1,002
822
151
159

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

84.8
84.4
89.4
82.2

11.7
12.3
10.2
13.6

3.5
3.3
0.4
4.2

N ote : Detail for the above race and Hispanic-origin groups will not sum to
totals because data for the “other races” group are not presented and Hispanics

Table 10.

are included in both the white and black population groups,

Persons aged 25 to 34 in the labor force for 27 weeks or more: Poverty status by age, sex, race, and
who were Hispanic origin, 1999

(Numbers in thousands)

Below poverty level
Age and sex

Total, 25 to 34 years ...
Men, 25 to 34 years ....
Women, 25 to 34
yea rs.........................

Total

White

Black

Hispanic
origin

Total

White

Poverty rate’

Black

Hispanic
origin

Total

White

Black

Hispanic
origin

30,695
16,728

24,839
13,865

4,096
1,899

4,178
2,558

1,835
852

1,290
707

433
93

486
315

6.0
5.1

5.2
5.1

10.6
4.9

11.6
12.3

13,967

10,975

2,197

1,620

983

582

340

172

7.0

5.3

15.5

10.6

'Number below the poverty level as a percent of the total in the labor force
for 27 weeks or more.

because data for the “other races” group are not presented and Hispanics are
included in both the white and black population groups.

N ote : Detail for the race and Hispanic-origin groups will not sum to totals

necessity for most people. The vast majority (83 percent) of
women aged 25 to 34 have health insurance from some
source.17 White women had higher rates o f coverage than
either black or Hispanic women, although the rates for whites
and blacks were quite close. (See table 11.)
About 60 percent of female wage and salary workers in the
25- to 34-year age group received health insurance on their
primary job.18 Black women were the most likely to receive
health insurance through their employer, followed by white
and Hispanic women. Less than half of all young Hispanic
women received health insurance through their main job.
Pension plans, either in the form of an employer-provided re­
tirement plan, Individual Retirement Account (IR A ), or Keogh
Plan, are essential for future financial security. About half of all
female wage and salary workers aged 25 to 34 years had a pen­
sion plan in February 2001. As with health insurance, the rates
for white and black women were quite similar, at 50 percent and 48

14

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March 2002

percent, respectively, while only 38 percent of Hispanic women
reported having a pension plan through their employer.
w o m en to d a y face many of the same career choices
and challenges as did their peers 25 years earlier. While deci­
sions about school, family, marriage, and careers often factor
into one another, it is clear that today’s young women are
making somewhat different choices. In particular, they are
spending more time at market work than their predecessors.
As a result, more women today are having to balance their
roles as wives and mothers with their jobs.
As the statistics described throughout this article indicate,
25- to 34-year-old women today are much more likely to partici­
pate in the labor force. They also are more likely to have gone to
college, to work more, and to pursue careers in higher paying
occupations. These decisions and opportunities, while render­
ing them better off financially than they were 25 years ago, also

Y oung

Table 11.

Female wage and salary workers aged 25 to 34 by health insurance coverage and pension coverage,
February 2001
Characteristic

Total

White

Total wage and salary w o rk e rs.............................

12,964

10,209

2,029

1,690

With health insurance coverage...........................
Percent of total wage and salary w o rk e rs....
With coverage through main jo b ........................
Percent of total wage and salary w orke rs....

10,775
83.1
7,766
59.9

8,555
83.8
6,068
59.4

1,622
79.9
1,233
60.8

1,160
68.6
802
47.5

With pension coverage..........................................

6,423

5,116

964

639

Percent of total wage and salary w o rk e rs....

49.5

50.1

47.5

37.8

present them with the difficult problems involved in deciding
how to prioritize their lives among work, marriage, and children.
Although women aged 25 to 34 tend to earn more— in real
terms—than they did in 1975, black and Hispanic women still

Black

Hispanic

do not have parity with white women in terms of earnings and
benefits. While these minority women have closed the gap
significantly over the past decade and a half, there is still much
progress to be made.
□

Notes
1 In this article, the term "market work" refers to jobs outside the
home, whether paid or unpaid.
2 M ost o f the data in this chapter were derived from the Current
Population Survey ( c ps ), a monthly sample survey o f households con­
ducted by the Bureau o f the Census for the Bureau o f Labor Statistics.
For more information regarding the Current Population Survey, see
C u rren t P o p u la tio n S urvey: D esig n a n d M e th o d o lo g y, Bureau o f Labor
S tatistics Technical Paper 63, March 2000. Where the cps did not
provide com plete information, other sources were used.
3 See S ta tistic a l A b s tra c t o f the U n ited S ta tes: 2 0 0 0 (Bureau o f the
Census, 2000), pp. 51-54; see also comparable tables in earlier editions.
4 Lugaila, Terry A., “Marital Status and Living Arrangements: March
1998 (U pdate),” C u r r e n t P o p u la tio n R e p o r ts , Series P 2 0 -5 1 4 (B u ­
reau o f the Census, December 1998).
5 Data on work experience come from the March supplement to the
cps in which respondents are asked questions about their work experi­
ence in the prior year.
6 Full-tim e, year-round workers are those who worked at least 50
weeks out o f the calendar year and worked full time (35 hours or more)
for the majority o f weeks that they worked.
7 See, for example, Helene J. Jorgensen, When G o o d J o b s G o B a d
(W ashington, d c , 2030 Center, 1999.)
8 See, for example, Anne E. Polivka, “Into contingent and alterna­
tive employment: by choice?” M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , October 1996,
pp. 5 5 -7 4 and Marisa DiNatale, “Characteristics o f and preference for
alternative work arrangements, 1999” M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , March
2 0 0 1 , pp. 4 7 -4 9 .
9 C o n tin g en t a n d A lte rn a tiv e E m p lo ym en t A rran gem en ts, F eb ru a ry
u s d l 0 1 -1 5 3 , (U.S. Department o f Labor) May 24, 2001.

2001,

10 The first supplem ent on Contingent and A lternative Work Ar­
rangements was conducted in February 1995. Subsequent supplements
were conducted in February o f 1997, 1999, and 2001.
11 In the February 1995 and 1997 Contingent and Alternative Work


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Arrangements supplements to the cps , 7.5 percent o f em ployed young
women were working in one o f the four alternative arrangements. In
February 1999 and in February 2001, the percentage edged down to 6.3
percent.
12 In the February 1999 supplem ent, full-tim e fem ale temporary
help agency workers age 16 and over earned a median weekly salary o f
$331 compared with $474 for wom en in traditional arrangements.
Earnings data for workers with traditional arrangements were not col­
lected in the February 2001 supplement.
13 The discussion that follows on workers with flexible schedules is
limited to those who usually work full time, because altering the begin­
ning and ending hours o f work often is a requirem ent in part-time
jobs.
14 See Lonnie Golden, “Flexible work schedules: what are we trading
o ff to get them?” M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , March 2001, pp. 5 2 -5 3 .
15 See Lori G. Kletzer and Robert W. Fairlie “The Long-Term Costs
o f Job D isplacem ent for Young Adult Workers,” unpublished manu­
script, Department o f E conom ics, U niversity o f C alifornia at Santa
Cruz. See also Joyce P. Jacobsen and Laurence M. Levin, “Effects o f
intermittent labor force attachm ent on w om en ’s earnings,” M o n th ly
L a b o r R e v ie w , September 1995, pp. 14-19.
16 For information about how poverty is determined, see P o v e r ty in
the U n ite d S ta tes: 1 9 9 9 — C u rre n t P o p u la tio n R e p o rt series P -6 0 , no.
210 (U.S. Bureau o f the Census, September 2000). For persons living
with fam ily members, the earnings thresholds used to define poverty
status are defined in terms o f total family income, including the earnings
o f other fam ily members, as w ell as incom e from other sources. For
persons living alone or with nonrelatives, the earnings thresholds are
based solely on their personal income.
17 Data on health insurance and pension coverage are from a
supplement conducted in February 2001.

cps

18 Note that others might have been offered health insurance by their
employers, but declined coverage because they were covered by a spouse’s
policy or for other reasons.

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

15

High-tech Industries

Productivity growth in ‘h ig h -te ch ’
m anufacturing industries
Among manufacturing industries employing a substantial
proportion o f research and development
and technology-oriented workers, the information
technology industries exhibited particularly strong
productivity growth over the 1987-99 period
Christopher Kask
and
Edward Sieber

Christopher Kask is
an economist in the
Office of Productiv­
ity and Technology,
Bureau of Labor
Statistics. Edward
Sieber is an econo­
mist formerly with
that office,

16

t is widely accepted that the high-technol­
ogy sector is one of the most dynamic parts
of the U.S. economy. High-tech industries
are thought o f as an important source of em­
ployment growth, profits, and innovation in
products and production processes. Accord­
ingly, the high-tech sector has been a center
o f interest, generating numerous analyses and
studies. In a 1997 M onthly Labor Review
study, for example, William Luker, Jr., and
Donald Lyons stated that “the continuing at­
tention paid to high-tech industries in recent
years seems to be rooted in the widespread
belief that the innovations they produce can
profoundly alter an economy’s mix o f firms,
industries, and jobs.” 1
The high-tech manufacturing sector, under
alternative definitions, has dominated other
manufacturing industries with respect to pro­
ductivity growth. Between 1987 and 1999, la­
bor productivity— defined as output per hour
o f labor input— increased 9.5 percent per year
in high-tech manufacturing industries.2 Over
the same period, labor productivity in the
manufacturing sector as a whole increased 3.2
percent per year. Chart 1 illustrates the dra­
matic difference between these two growth
rates.
Labor productivity relates output to the la­

I

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March 2002

bor resources used in its production. It is an
indicator o f the efficiency with which labor is
being u tiliz e d .3 H igh-tech m anufacturing’s
strong performance seems consistent with ex­
pectations, but the situation deserves a closer
look. Are all the industries in the high-tech sec­
tor recording rapid efficiency gains as measured
by growth in labor productivity? Would the
high-tech efficiency advantage be as large if in­
puts into the production process other than la­
bor were accounted for? What is happening to
costs in the high-tech sector?
This article builds upon earlier b l s work and
identifies a set o f detailed industries as repre­
senting the high-tech manufacturing sector. Pro­
ductivity developments in these industries were
examined, and a set of aggregate measures were
developed that permit comparison o f the hightech manufacturing sector with manufacturing
as a whole. In addition to labor productivity and
related measures such as output, labor hours,
employee compensation, and unit labor costs,
the analysis includes multifactor productivity, a
measure of economic efficiency that relates out­
put to combined inputs of labor hours, capital
services, and intermediate purchases.
Economic growth can occur from increases
in inputs or from advances in productivity. In­
creases in inputs impose costs on society, such

C h a rt 1.

Index of output per hour in high-tech manufacturing and total manufacturing, 1987-99

1987=100

as less leisure time, reduced current consumption, and
depletion o f resources. M ultifactor productivity growth
measures changes in output that are not attributed to the
changes in combined inputs. While measures o f labor pro­
ductivity provide valuable insights into efficiency, mea­
sures o f multifactor productivity are more useful in this
regard. By accounting for sources o f growth from addi­
tional inputs— specifically, capital and intermediate pur­
chases— m ultifactor productivity analysis more closely
measures changes in efficiency.4

Data sources and limitations
The data used for this analysis are produced by the Office
o f Productivity and Technology. The analysis of high-tech
manufacturing is based on data for industries classified at
the three-digit level in the 1987 U.S. Standard Industrial
Classification (S IC ) system.5 This data set includes labor
productivity and related measures for three- and four-digit
SIC industries for the period from 1987 through 1999. For
the 140 three-digit SIC manufacturing industries consid­
ered here, multifactor productivity and related series are
also available for the 1987-99 period.6
Data for the manufacturing sector as a whole are from
the BLS series on productivity in major sectors o f the U.S.
economy. This data set contains indexes of labor produc­
tivity and related measures for the private business, pri­
vate nonfarm business, and manufacturing sectors for the


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1987=100

1949-2001 period. Multifactor productivity measures are
available for the same sectors for 1949 through 2000, ex­
cept for manufacturing, which extends through 1999.
Data limitations at the three-digit industry level impose
some restrictions on this analysis. Although the aggregate
manufacturing data are available from 1947, the need to
compare these measures with the industry data restricts
the analysis of labor productivity to the 1987-99 period
and two subperiods: 1990 to 1995 and 1995 to 1999. Also, it
usually is advisable to analyze productivity movements
over the course of a full business cycle in order to minimize
the effects o f cyclical movements on the results. However,
the relatively short time span over which the industry data
are available does not allow us to follow this approach.7 In
addition, the three-digit level of aggregation may obscure
variation in detailed component industries. (Some o f this
variation is discussed later in this article.) Finally, accurate
measurement o f price and output series, and therefore pro­
ductivity, is particularly difficult in industries with rapidly
changing products such as those characterized by hightech manufacturing output (notably computers, semicon­
ductors, and pharmaceuticals).8

Defining high-tech manufacturing
What is the high-tech manufacturing sector? Although the
term “high tech” is used frequently, there is no consensus
on exactly which industries to include in a “high-tech sec-

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

17

High-tech Industries

tor,” and the appropriate approach to use is not apparent.
For example, one early BLS analysis of high-tech employ­
ment cites a study in which industry groups were desig­
nated as “high tech based on the perceived degree o f tech­
nical sophistication o f the product.”9A report from the Con­
gressional Office o f Technology Assessment identifies
high-tech firms as being those involved in introducing new
products and processes “through the systematic applica­
tion o f scientific and technical knowledge.” 10The Organi­
zation for Economic Cooperation and Development (O EC D )
identifies high-tech industries largely on the basis o f their
level o f research and development intensity (research and
development expenditure in relation to value added).11 In
his 1999 study o f high-tech employment, Daniel Hecker
notes that high-tech firms “devote a ‘high’ proportion of
expenditures to research and development and employ a
‘high’ proportion o f scientific, technical, and engineering
personnel.” 12
The various approaches to classifying high-tech indus­
tries fall into two broad classes: A majority of studies clas­
sify industries by the extent to which they employ certain
types o f workers or undertake certain types o f expendi­
tures (input-based criteria), while another group o f studies
focuses on the nature o f the industries’ products (outputbased criteria). Both approaches have certain advantages
as well as drawbacks. Input-based approaches have the
advantage o f resting on easily obtainable, nonsubjective
data— for example, the proportion of an industry’s workers
in technology-oriented professions or the proportion of
industry costs devoted to research and development. In
the absence o f wide agreement on the threshold propor­
tions above which an industry should be considered high
tech, however, any such choice must be considered arbi­
trary. Input-based approaches also suffer from a failure to
take account o f the products of the industry. Thus, hightech industries identified solely on the basis o f inputs may
chiefly manufacture products not commonly thought of as
high tech.
Output-based approaches generally rely on some deter­
mination o f the level o f technical sophistication embodied
in an industry’s products or the extent to which these prod­
ucts have undergone rapid change. Although following
this approach makes it more likely that the products o f the
designated industries will match popular conceptions of
high tech, the judgements about product sophistication or
rapid change on which these studies rely tend to be sub­
jective.
Considerable research interest has been directed at “in­
formation technology” industries. Three o f the manufac­
turing industries studied here— computer and office equip­
ment (SIC 357), communications equipment (SIC 366), and
electronic components and accessories (SIC 367)—fall into

18

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this category. Much of the research, however, has used
more aggregated data and focused on SIC 35, industrial
and commercial machinery and equipment and computer
equipment, and SIC 36, electronic and other electrical equip­
ment and components.13
BLS data show that productivity gains in these two in­
dustries accounted for a large share— 0.5 percentage
points per year—o f the 1.9-percent annual average rise in
nonfarm business output per hour from 1990 to 1999. Fur­
ther, information processing equipment and software rep­
resents a portion of capital, and growth in such capital
accounted for another 0.6 percentage points per year of
the growth in labor productivity. As a result, the produc­
tion o f these information technology goods and the use of
information processing equipment and software accounted
for more than half o f nonfarm business labor productivity
growth over this period.14
The results reported in this article show that, at the
three-digit SIC level, productivity growth in the informa­
tion technology industries far surpassed that in the other
high-tech industries studied. Why not, then, specify the
high-tech manufacturing sector to include only the infor­
mation technology industries? For purposes o f this analy­
sis, criteria were desired that are independent o f the indus­
try growth and productivity measures we wish to evaluate.
This, coupled with a view that high-tech manufacturing
industries may include those with advanced production
processes even though their products may not be consid­
ered high tech, led us to favor an input-based approach to
designate high-tech industries.
Previous Monthly Labor Review articles on the hightech sector have generally focused on employment in hightech industries.15 These studies have all considered the
question o f how to define the high-tech sector and have
examined alternative criteria for this purpose. In these stud­
ies and in the work of outside researchers, the use o f re­
search and development data is a common criterion for clas­
sifying high-tech industries. Indeed, the National Science
Foundation notes that “industries that rely heavily on re­
search and developm ent. . . are often referred to as hightechnology industries.”16
To arrive at a workable definition of high-tech manufac­
turing industries, we draw heavily from the Hecker analy­
sis o f high-tech employment.17 In that article, the funda­
mental criterion for including an industry in the high-tech
sector is the existence of a high proportion o f research and
development employment and “technology-oriented work­
ers.” Technology-oriented workers include engineers; life
and physical scientists; mathematical specialists; and en­
gineering, scientific, and computer managers. In H ecker’s
study, the high-tech sector contains 29 three-digit-level
industries, including a subset o f 10 “high-tech intensive”

industries. O f the 29 industries, 25 are classified in manu­
facturing and 4 are in services; o f the 10 high-tech inten­
sive industries, 2 are in services. High-tech intensive in­
dustries are those that have at least 15 research and devel­
opment workers per thousand workers and 190 technol­
ogy-oriented workers per thousand workers. These ratios
are at least 5 times the average for all industries. Although
the criteria are objective, the cut-off proportions are nec­
essarily somewhat arbitrary.
In this article, we adopt Hecker’s subset o f high-tech
intensive manufacturing industries. Because this study fo­
cuses on manufacturing industries only, we exclude the
two service-producing industries in Hecker’s group— com­
puter and data processing services (SIC 737) and research,
development, and testing services (SIC 873).18 Over the
1987-99 period, employment in our group of high-tech
manufacturing industries averaged about 16 percent of to­
tal manufacturing employment.
Table 1 shows the makeup o f the high-tech manufactur­
ing sector in terms o f both employment and value of pro­
duction. Among these industries, the electronic compo­
nents and accessories industry and the aircraft and parts
industry (sic 372) have the highest employment levels,
each accounting for nearly 20 percent o f average employ­
ment in this sector over the period. When combined with
the computer and office equipment industry, which has an
average employment share of 13.3 percent, these three in­
dustries make up more than 52 percent o f high-tech manu­
facturing employment. Not surprisingly, the same three in­
dustries account for the largest shares o f average total
production in the high-tech manufacturing sector, each
generating 13 to 16 percent o f the sector total.
The research and development and technology-oriented
employment criteria used to designate high-tech indus­
tries, applied at the three-digit SIC level o f detail, capture
industries with outputs that are commonly thought o f as
high-tech, such as electronic computers (SIC 3571) and
semiconductors (SIC 3674). The criteria also capture indus­
tries in which the production processes are high-tech even
though the outputs themselves are not often thought o f as
high tech, such as industrial inorganic and industrial or­
ganic chemicals (SICs 281 and 286). In addition, high-tech
output includes components of three-digit industries that
do not produce items normally thought o f as high tech, nor
do they use high-tech processes; such industries include
laboratory apparatus and furniture (SIC 3821) or office ma­
chines, not elsewhere classified (SIC 3579).
Although the measures for high-tech industries and total
manufacturing are drawn from different data sets, they are
very similar in concept. In most cases, discrepancies arising
from the use of different data sources or computation meth­
ods are not likely to significantly alter the comparisons.19


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Table 1.

Composition of the high-tech manufacturing
sector, 1987-99 average
Percent of sector total
based on:

SIC

281
283
286
357
366
367
372
376
381
382

Industry

Value of
production

Industrial inorganic c he m icals.........
D rug s..................................................
Industrial organic chem icals............
Computer and office equipment.....
Communications equipm ent............
Electronic components
and accessories.............................
Aircraft and pa rts..............................
Guided missiles, space vehicles,
and p a rts ...........................................
Search and navigation equipm ent...
Measuring and controlling devices...

Employment

4.0
11.8
11.6
13.5
10.3

2.9
8.5
4.9
13.3
8.8

16.0
14.6

19.9
19.4

4.6
6.7
7.0

4.6
7.5
10.1

Labor productivity
Labor productivity, as measured by output per hour, is an
important indicator of economic progress. Growth in labor
productivity measures the growth in output that is not attrib­
uted to growth in the number of hours worked. Improvements
in the well being of average workers rest largely on the growth
of labor productivity. The benefits for workers from growth in
labor productivity are reflected in rising real wages and other
compensation. Over time, trends in real labor compensation
tend to parallel trends in labor productivity. There is an expec­
tation that the recent acceleration in productivity growth in
the high-tech sector will be a source of rising compensation
and more rapid growth in standards of living. Labor produc­
tivity growth is also credited with contributing to price stabil­
ity. Changes in output prices may be influenced by changes
in compensation per unit of output (unit labor costs). With
rising productivity, higher worker compensation need not
translate into higher output prices. Increases in output per
hour offset the growth in hourly compensation and tend to
moderate price growth.
On average, labor productivity in the high-tech sector grew
9.5 percent per year from 1987 to 1999. (See table 2.) This
exceeded the labor productivity growth rate for overall manu­
facturing by 6.3 percentage points. While output grew by 8.0
percent annually, on average, hours actually declined by 1.4
percent per year from 1987 to 1999. Output in total manufac­
turing, by contrast, grew by 3.3 percent per year, on average,
and hours were unchanged.
Although the high-tech sector experienced rapid growth
in output per hour throughout the 1990s, the rate of growth
accelerated in the latter half of the decade. From 1990 to 1995,
labor productivity growth averaged 9.6 percent per year. The
strong growth was due to a rapid decline in employee hours
of 3.8 percent per year combined with output growth of 5.5
percent. The decline in hours in the high-tech sector reversed

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

19

High-tech Industries

Table 2.1

Labor productivity, multifactor productivity and related measures for high-tech industries and manufacturing

( 1987 = 100 )

Year

Output
per
hour

Output

Total
hours

Employment

Average
hours

Unit
labor
costs

Multifactor
productIvity

Output
per
unit
of
capital

Output
per unit
of inter­
mediate
pur­
chases

100.0
106.3
106.2
109.3
111.4
111.4
111.7
113.4
122.4
135.9
149.7
157.2
160.4

100.0
102.6
100.0
98.7
95.8
95.8
95.4
98.1
106.6
113.7
123.4
130.2
137.3

100.0
101.3
103.2
103.0
101.4
104.5
106.8
112.3
120.2
125.0
133.1
143.9
156.6

5.2
3.9
7.3

4.0
2.3
7.0

2.7
1.6
6.5

3.8
3.1
6.8

100.0
103.1
105.5
106.4
105.4
108.6
111.1
114.1
116.6
119.3
122.3
125.2
126.1

100.0
101.7
103.7
106.2
108.4
110.8
113.3
115.8
119.6
124.1
129.3
135.2
142.2

100.0
103.9
108.7
112.0
112.8
120.6
124.6
128.7
133.0
138.7
141.9
147.4
147.3

100.0
103.1
101.7
100.0
96.0
98.5
99.6
102.5
103.4
102.9
104.7
105.2
103.7

100.0
100.9
96.9
94.7
92.2
90.4
90.4
92.2
93.0
92.0
95.4
96.5
100.1

2.0
1.8
2.0

3.0
2.4
4.4

3.3
3.5
2.6

0.3
.7
.1

-.4
1.9

Combined
inputs

Capital

100.0
104.3
105.2
106.9
107.0
106.0
105.4
106.2
111.9
121.0
131.1
137.6
139.8

100.0
104.9
109.7
114.1
117.9
121.5
125.2
129.9
138.0
149.4
161.4
173.8
183.0

5.0
4.5
8.1

2.8
.9
5.7

100.0
101.8
99.9
99.8
98.8
100.5
101.5
104.1
106.1
107.0
110.7
113.7
117.0

Intermediate
purchases

High-tech manufacturing
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

........
........
........
........
........
........
........
........
........
........
........
........
........

100.0
107.0
108.9
114.4
120.9
131.8
142.1
156.3
181.0
204.8
229.5
256.9
296.5

100.0
107.6
109.6
112.6
112.9
116.4
119.4
127.4
147.1
169.8
199.2
226.3
251.2

100.0
100.6
100.6
98.5
93.4
88.3
84.0
81.5
81.3
82.9
86.8
88.1
84.7

100.0
100.8
100.8
98.4
93.7
88.4
83.9
81.0
80.7
82.4
85.6
87.3
84.5

100.0
99.8
99.9
100.0
99.7
99.9
100.1
100.6
100.7
100.6
101.4
100.9
100.3

100.0
99.0
100.2
101.4
101.3
98.3
93.8
86.8
76.8
69.2
62.7
57.3
52.1

100.0
103.2
104.2
105.3
105.6
109.9
113.3
119.9
131.4
140.4
152.0
164.5
179.7

Average annual percent change
1987-99...
1990-95.1995-99...

9.5
9.6
13.1

8.0
5.5
14.3

-1 .4
-3 .8
1.0

-1 .4
-3 .9
1.2

0.0

-5 .3
-5 .4
-9 .2

.1
-.1

Manufacturing
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

........
........
........
........
........
........
........
........
........
........
........
........
........

100.0
102.2
102.3
105.2
107.6
113.3
115.4
118.9
123.4
127.7
133.2
140.4
146.8

100.0
104.9
105.4
106.2
104.1
109.1
112.7
118.6
123.7
127.6
135.4
142.3
147.5

100.0
102.7
103.1
101.0
96.8
96.3
97.7
99.8
100.2
99.9
101.6
101.4
100.5

100.0
101.8
102.2
100.7
97.2
95.5
95.6
96.8
97.9
97.6
98.6
99.3
97.8

100.0
100.9
100.9
100.3
99.5
100.9
102.2
103.1
102.4
102.3
103.1
102.1
102.8

100.0
101.9
105.0
107.0
110.1
109.4
110.3
110.2
108.3
106.0
103.6
103.6
103.2

Average annual percent change
1987-99...
1990-95...
1995-99...

3.2
3.2
4.4

3.3
3.1
4.5

0.0
-.1
.1

-.2
-.6
.0

0.2
.4
.1

after 1995, and hours grew at 1.0 percent per year through
1999. Despite this reversal in hours growth, labor productiv­
ity growth accelerated to 13.1 percent per year as output
growth raced ahead to 14.3 percent per year from 1995 to
1999. While output per hour in the manufacturing sector also
grew more rapidly in the second half of the 1990s, the 4.4percent rate (up from the 1990-95 rate of 3.2 percent) was still
only about one-third of the growth rate in the high-tech sec­
tor.
This rapid growth in high-tech labor productivity masks
considerable variation in the growth rates of labor productiv­

20

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0.3
.2
-1.2

1.3
1.2
2.5

0.0

ity for the individual industries within the group. O f the 10
industries identified as high tech, only the 3 information tech­
nology industries had labor productivity growth rates in ex­
cess of the average for the group. (See table 3.) Output per
hour in the computer and office equipment industry grew 27.5
percent per year over the 1987-99 period, while in the elec­
tronic components and accessories industry, the rate of
growth was 21.8 percent per year, and in communications
equipment, it was 10.4 percent. In addition, the rate of labor
productivity growth in three other high-tech industries exceeded
the total manufacturing rate, while the rate in four high-tech in-

Table 3.

Industry

SIC

281
283
286
357
366
367
372
376
381
382

Sector growth rates and industry contributions to high-tech sector: labor productivity, multifactor productivity,
and related measures, 1987-99
Output
per
hour

Output

Hours

Employ­
ment

Total
Compen­
sation

Unit
labor
costs

Multi­
Inter­
factor Combined
Capital mediate
Inputs
product­
purchases
ivity

M anufacturing.................................................
High-tech s e c to r..................................

3.2
9.5

3.3
8.0

-1 .4

-0 .2
-1 .4

3.6
2.3

0.3
-5 .3

1.3
5.0

2.0
2.8

3.0
5.2

3.3
4.0

Industrial inorganic chemicals.....................
D ru g s .............................................................
Industrial organic chem icals.......................
Computer and office equipm ent................
Communications equipm ent.......................
Electronic components and accessories ...
Aircraft and p a rts .........................................
Guided missiles, space vehicles, & p a rts ..
Search and navigation equipm ent.............
Measuring and controlling devices.............

4.6
.4
.9
27.5
10.4
21.8
2.8
3.9
2.8
3.6

2.8
3.1
-.2
25.0
9.9
22.5
.2
-3 .3
-3 .0
3.1

-1 .7
2.7
-1.1
-1.9
-.4
.5
-2.5
-6 .9
-5 .7
-.5

-1 .8
2.7
-1 .3
-1 .8
-.4
.5
-2 .6
-6 .8
-5 .7
-.4

2.4
7.2
3.2
1.2
5.4
5.0
.6
-3 .9
-1 .8
3.2

-.4
4.0
3.4
-19.0
-4.1
-14.3
.4
-.7
1.2
.1

2.0
-2 .7
-1 .9
18.8
3.9
16.6
.8
.0
.3
.2

.7
6.0
1.7
5.2
5.8
5.1
-.6
-3 .2
-3 .3
2.9

-.6
6.0
3.1
6.2
5.3
9.0
2.5
-.3
-1 .3
3.9

2.0
7.3
1.8
7.4
9.6
5.3
-.1
-1 .8
-1 .7
5.2

0.0

dustries was less than the rate for total manufacturing.
By decomposing labor productivity in the high-tech sec­
tor, we can quantity the contributions made by the individual
industries to the sector’s productivity growth. The sum of the
industry contributions approximately equals the labor pro­
ductivity growth rate for the high-tech sector.20 Table 4 illus­
trates that, as might be expected, the computer and office
equipment and the electronic components and accessories
industries contributed the most to the sector’s productivity
growth over the 1987-99 period. Combined, these two indus­
tries accounted for nearly three-quarters o f the high-tech
sector’s labor productivity growth of 9.5 percent per year.
The computer and office equipment industry contributed 3.4
percentage points, and the electronic components and acces­
sories industry contributed 3.3 percentage points. A much
smaller but nonetheless strong contribution was made by the
communications equipment industry, which accounted for 1.0
percentage point o f the sector’s average annual growth.
These three industries are also responsible for much of the
high-tech acceleration in the second half of the 1990s. From
1990 to 1995, they accounted for more than 80 percent of the
sector’s labor productivity growth. Moreover, the contribu­
tions made by these three industries to labor productivity
growth in the sector all increased in the second half of the
1990s. Together, the three industries were responsible for
nearly 90 percent of the high-tech sector’s growth in labor
productivity from 1995 to 1999.

Output
Real output in the high-tech manufacturing sector more than
doubled over the 1987-99 period, while in overall manufactur­
ing, output increased by 48 percent. The average annual
growth rate for the period was 8.0 percent in the high-tech
sector, compared with 3.3 percent in manufacturing as a whole.


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Output growth in total manufacturing and in the high-tech
sector accelerated during the second half of the 1990s, com­
pared with the first half. In manufacturing, the average annual
growth rate of 4.5 percent from 1995 to 1999 was much faster
than the rate of 3.1 percent experienced in the earlier part of
the decade. In the high-tech sector, the acceleration was even
greater, with the rate of output growth increasing from 5.5
percent per year in the early 1990s to 14.3 percent in the latter
half of the decade.
Industry output growth varied greatly within the hightech sector. The three information technology industries
grew at a rate substantially faster than that of overall manu­
facturing. In contrast, the remaining seven high-tech in­
dustries grew slower than overall manufacturing, with three
o f the seven actually declining over the 1987-99 period.
Output in computers and office equipment grew the fast­
est, averaging 25.0 percent per year and contributing 3.1
percentage points to high-tech output growth. Electronic
components and accessories grew somewhat more slowly
(22.5 percent), but its contribution to overall growth in the
sector was greater (3.5 percentage points). Finally, in the
communications equipment industry, growth in output was
much slower than in the other two information technology
industries, but quite strong nonetheless— 9.9 percent per
year, which accounted for 1.0 percentage point o f the
growth in high-tech output.
Generally, when combining industry data to form an ag­
gregate (sectoral) output measure, industry outputs that are
used as inputs by establishments within the same industry—
in trasecto ral tran sa ctio n s— are subtracted from the
aggregate’s overall output (and intermediate inputs) in order
to avoid double counting.21 Intrasectoral transactions have
been removed from the aggregate manufacturing sector data
used here and from the data for each o f the three-digit indus­
tries we classify as high tech, but they have not been re-

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

21

High-tech Industries

Table 4.

Sector growth rates and industry contributions to high-tech sector: labor productivity, multifactor productivity
and related measures, 1987-99
Output per
hour

Output

Hours

Manufacturing................................................
High-tech sector.............................................

3.2
9.5

3.3
8.0

-1 .4

1.3
5.0

2.0
2.8

Industrial inorganic che m icals..........................
D ru g s........................................................
Industrial organic chem icals.....................................
Computer and office eq uipm en t.............................
Communications equipm ent.....................................
Electronic components and accessories................
Aircraft and pa rts....................................................
Guided missiles, space vehicles, & parts...............
Search and navigation equipm ent...........................
Measuring and controlling d e v ic e s ......................

.2
.1
.0
3.4
1.0
3.3
.5
.1
.2
.3

.1
.3
.0
3.1
1.0
3.5
.0
-.2
-.2
.2

-.1
.2
-.1
-.3
.0
.2
-.5
-.3
-.5
.0

1
-.3
-.2
2.4
.4
2.6
.1
-.1
.0
.0

o
7
2
7
6
8

SIC

281
283
286
357
366
367
372
376
381
382

Industry

moved from the high-tech sector aggregate. This means that
the output growth rates cited here and the intermediate pur­
chases input growth rates cited later in the article are slightly
different than adjusted measures would show. Also, not re­
moving the double-counted output tends to artificially re­
duce the multifactor productivity growth rates for the hightech sector aggregate because the double-counted transac­
tions are in both the numerator and the denominator of the
productivity formula.22

Labor input
Changes in labor input, as measured by total employee
hours, reflect movements in employment and average hours
per employee.23 Because average hours in high-tech manu­
facturing were unchanged over the 1987-99 period, shifts
in labor hours in this sector were largely the result of
changes in employment levels. Employment in high-tech
manufacturing declined 15.5 percent over the period, while
hours dropped 15.3 percent.24 Thus, by 1999, the hightech manufacturing workforce had shrunk by more than
500,000 workers since 1987, and labor input had fallen by
more than one billion hours.
The rates o f decline in high-tech manufacturing labor
input varied throughout the period, with employment and
labor hours dropping sharply toward the middle portion of
the period, before reversing direction and regaining some
lost ground in the latter part o f the period. These fluctua­
tions are reflected in the data for the 1990-95 and 1995-99
subperiods. In the manufacturing sector as a whole, a slight
decline in employment combined with a small increase in
average hours resulted in essentially no change in the level
o f total labor hours from 1987 to 1999.25
Employment and total labor hours declined in most of
the industries in the high-tech manufacturing sector over

22

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March 2002

0.0

Multifactor
productivity

Combined
inputs

- 1
-1
-2
.2

the 1987-99 period. The largest declines (50 to 58 percent)
occurred in the search and navigation equipment (SIC 381)
and guided missiles, space vehicles, and parts (SIC 376)
industries. More modest declines (20 to 27 percent) oc­
curred in two o f the largest industries in the high-tech sec­
tor— aircraft and parts and computers and office equip­
ment. The smallest high-tech industry, industrial inorganic
chemicals, recorded employment and hours declines o f 19
percent.
Employment and labor hours increased in only two hightech manufacturing industries over the 1987-99 period. In
the larger o f the two, electronic components and accesso­
ries, employment increased by 5.6 percent and labor hours
increased by 6.8 percent. In the much smaller drug indus­
try (SIC 283), both employment and hours increased by
about 37 percent over the period.

Unit labor costs
Total compensation costs in the high-tech industries rose
more slowly over the period than in manufacturing as a
whole. However, when labor costs are compared on a perunit-of-output basis (unit labor costs), the high-tech manu­
facturing sector emerges with an even stronger advantage.
While unit labor costs in the manufacturing sector as a
whole increased slightly from 1987 to 1999 (0.3 percent per
year), they declined in the high-tech industries at an aver­
age annual rate of 5.3 percent.
Unit labor costs are calculated either by dividing an in­
dex of labor compensation by an index of real output, or by
dividing an index o f compensation per hour by an index o f
output per hour (labor productivity). Changes in unit labor
costs show how much labor productivity growth offsets
increases in employee compensation per hour. Thus, the
strong labor productivity gains found in high-tech manu-

percent of output growth. In contrast, input growth was
responsible for the majority o f output growth in manufac­
turing as a whole. Combined inputs growth contributed 60
percent of the 3.3-percent annual growth rate in manufac­
turing output, while 40 percent o f output growth resulted
from increases in multifactor productivity.
The more rapid input growth in the high-tech sector rela­
tive to manufacturing was due to faster growth in capital
services and intermediate purchases. Capital services in
high-tech industries grew 5.2 percent per year, compared
with 3.0 percent in total manufacturing. Intermediate pur­
chases rose 4.0 percent per year in high-tech manufactur­
ing, compared with 3.3 percent in manufacturing as a whole.
Hours fell in the high-tech sector— slightly offsetting the
effect o f more rapid increases in capital and intermediate
purchases on combined inputs—while hours in the total
manufacturing sector were unchanged. In both sectors, in­
termediate purchases’ share in the cost o f output (the value
o f intermediate purchases as a percentage o f the total value
o f output) remained about constant, while labor’s cost
share fell and capital’s cost share increased. The decline in
labor’s share and the increase in capital’s share o f costs,
Multifactor productivity
however, were more pronounced in the high-tech sector
The amount and complexity of the data calculations re­ than in manufacturing as a whole.
The pattern of multifactor productivity growth in the highquired for m ultifactor productivity measures are much
tech
manufacturing sector during the 1990s parallels that of
greater than those for labor productivity. The growth rate
high-tech
labor productivity—a strong increase in multifac­
o f multifactor productivity can be expressed as the growth
tor
productivity
during the first half of the decade was fol­
rate o f output less the growth rate o f combined inputs. The
lowed
by
an
acceleration,
led by extremely rapid output
combined inputs measure is a weighted average of labor
hours, capital services, and intermediate purchases, with growth, in the second half. From 1990 to 1995, strong capital
weights being the input’s share in the cost o f output. In growth and moderate intermediate purchases growth in the
this section, we calculate multifactor productivity for the high-tech manufacturing sector were partially offset by a sub­
stantial decline in labor hours o f 3.8 percent per year. The
high-tech sector within manufacturing.
resulting
slow growth in combined inputs, coupled with out­
As noted earlier, intrasectoral transactions have not
put
growth
of 5.5 percent per year, yielded an average highbeen removed from the high-tech manufacturing sector ag­
tech
multifactor
productivity growth rate of 4.5 percent per
gregate. In order to quantify the possible bias arising from
year
over
the
subperiod.
our inclusion o f the intrasectoral transactions, we inde­
In the second half o f the decade, rapid increases in capi­
pendently estimated multifactor productivity growth for
tal
and intermediate purchases in the high-tech sector and
the high-tech sector by aggregating industry level produc­
tivity data.26 The results indicate that the high-tech sector’s a modest increase in labor hours led to a dramatic increase
adjusted multifactor productivity growth rate may be some­ in the average annual growth rate of combined inputs, from
0.9 percent to 5.7 percent. Despite the rapid acceleration in
what higher than the rate reported in this article.27
combined
inputs, much faster growth in high-tech manu­
During the 1987-99 period, multifactor productivity in
facturing
output
led to an increase in the high-tech multi­
overall manufacturing grew 1.3 percent per year, on aver­
factor
productivity
growth rate to 8.1 percent per year over
age. (See table 2.) Over the same period, the multifactor
productivity growth rate in high-tech manufacturing was the 1995-99 period.
The overall manufacturing sector also experienced a
5.0 percent per year. Although combined inputs grew some­
substantial
acceleration in multifactor productivity growth
what faster in the high-tech industries than in manufactur­
during
the
second
half o f the 1990s. Following an average
ing as a whole, output grew more than twice as rapidly in
increase of 1.2 percent per year from 1990 to 1995, multifac­
the high-tech sector than it did in overall manufacturing.
M ultifactor productivity growth accounted for more tor productivity growth in m anufacturing m ore than
than 60 percent o f the 8.0 percent per year growth in high- doubled in the latter portion o f the decade—to 2.5 percent.
tech output. (See table 3.) Combined inputs grew 2.8 per­ The 1995-99 rate in manufacturing, however, was less than
cent per year and accounted for somewhat less than 40 a third o f the 8.1-percent rate in the high-tech sector over
facturing outweigh hourly compensation increases in that
sector, and result in a substantial decline in unit labor costs
over the period.
Unit labor cost performance varied substantially over
the period among the high-tech industries. Not surpris­
ingly, the industries with the largest increases in labor pro­
ductivity, such as computers and office equipment and elec­
tronic components and accessories, tended to have the
largest unit labor cost declines. Unit labor costs dropped
by 19.0 percent per year in computers and office equipment
and 14.3 percent per year in electronic components and
accessories over the 1987-99 period. Communications
equipment recorded a much more modest unit labor cost
decline o f 4.1 percent per year. The remaining high-tech
manufacturing industries had changes in unit labor costs
ranging from slight declines to moderate increases. The
largest increases occurred in drugs, where unit labor costs
increased 4.0 percent per year, and industrial organic chemi­
cals, which saw an average annual increase of 3.4 percent.


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Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

23

High-tech Industries

the same subperiod.
The magnitude of the acceleration in high-tech manu­
facturing output and multifactor productivity growth that
began in the mid-1990s works to obscure a more subtle
difference between the early and late halves o f the de­
cade— a marked contrast in the sources o f high-tech out­
put growth in each period. From 1990 to 1995, for example,
with combined input growth depressed by declines in la­
bor hours, more than 80 percent o f output growth resulted
from increases in multifactor productivity, and less than 20
percent was due to increases in inputs. Over the 1995-99
period, by contrast, the share o f high-tech manufacturing
output growth attributable to m ultifactor productivity
growth dropped to less than 60 percent, with combined
inputs accounting for more than 40 percent o f output
growth over the period. These proportions for the hightech sector in the second half of the 1990s are very similar
to those found in the manufacturing sector as a whole for
the subperiod.
As with labor productivity growth, multifactor produc­
tivity growth in the high-tech industries varied greatly
within the sector. In computer and office equipment and
electronic components and accessories, multifactor pro­
ductivity growth rates far exceeded the overall high-tech
sector rate. Six industries had rates o f multifactor produc­
tivity growth that were less than the rate for total manufac­
turing. Two o f the six industries experienced declines in
multifactor productivity over the period, and in one indus­
try it was unchanged.
Although most high-tech industries made some posi­
tive contribution to the high-tech sector labor productiv­
ity growth rate (the contribution o f the industrial organic
chemicals industry was so small it was negligible), this was
not true for multifactor productivity. Table 4 shows that
only the three information technology industries made sig­
nificant positive contributions to high-tech multifactor pro­
ductivity growth. Two industries had small positive effects
on the sector’s multifactor productivity growth, two had
no effect, and three industries lowered the sector’s overall
growth rate. The electronic components and accessories
industry had a multifactor productivity growth rate o f 16.6
percent per year and contributed 2.6 percentage points to
high-tech sector multifactor productivity growth from 1987
to 1999. The computer and office equipment industry had
growth o f 18.8 percent per year and contributed 2.4 per­
centage points to the sector m ultifactor productivity
growth rate. Communications equipment contributed an
additional 0.4 percentage points to the high-tech sector
multifactor productivity growth rate.
It is interesting to note that while the high-tech multi­
factor productivity growth rate for the 1987-99 period was
nearly 4 times the comparable rate for total manufacturing,

24

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March 2002

it was more than 12 times the rate for the non-high-tech
manufacturing industries. Chart 2 illustrates this point,
showing multifactor productivity growth rates o f 0.4 per­
cent per year for non-high-tech manufacturing, 1.3 percent
per year for total manufacturing, and 5.0 percent per year
for high-tech manufacturing.28

Capital services
Capital is defined as the flow of services derived from the
assets used in the production o f an industry’s or a sector’s
output. Capital increased at an average annual rate o f 5.2
percent per year in the high-tech manufacturing sector from
1987 to 1999. In the manufacturing sector as a whole, capi­
tal increased at a rate o f 3.0 percent per year over the pe­
riod. The higher growth rate o f capital input in high-tech
manufacturing is consistent with the strong output growth
found in that sector. Each o f the four broad categories o f
capital assets— equipment, structures, inventories, and
land— advanced more rapidly in the high-tech sector than
in aggregate manufacturing over the study period.29
Capital services account for a larger share o f total costs
in the high-tech manufacturing sector than in manufactur­
ing as a whole. Over the 1987-99 period, costs o f capital
services averaged 24 percent o f total costs in high-tech
manufacturing, compared with 19 percent in aggregate
manufacturing. Capital services have become increasingly
important in both high-tech and total manufacturing. In
the high-tech sector, capital services rose from 21 percent
of total costs in 1987 to 29 percent in 1999; in the aggregate
manufacturing sector, the capital cost share rose from 17
percent to 21 percent over the period.
Capital growth in both the high-tech manufacturing and
all-manufacturing sectors accelerated through the 1990s.
From 1990 to 1995, capital in high-tech manufacturing in­
creased at an average rate o f 3.9 percent per year, while in
the second half o f the decade, it increased at a rate o f 7.3
percent per year. Similarly, the rate o f capital growth in
overall manufacturing nearly doubled from the earlier to
the later subperiod, increasing from an average annual rate
o f 2.4 percent during the first half o f the decade to 4.4
percent per year during the second half.
Growth in capital services varied greatly among the hightech industries. Five high-tech industries had increases in
capital services that exceeded the increase in overall manu­
facturing, and one recorded an increase that about matched
the all-manufacturing rate. The information technology in­
dustries, where output grew most rapidly, also had some of
the largest increases in capital over the period. Electronic com­
ponents and accessories recorded growth in capital o f 9.0
percent per year, the highest rate of increase among all the
manufacturing industries for which data were available.

Chart 2.

Index of multifactor productivity in high-tech manufacturing, non-high-tech
manufacturing, and total manufacturing, 1987-99

1987=100

1987=100
200

180

160

140

120

100

80

The remaining two information technology industries,
communications equipment and computer and office equip­
ment, had capital growth rates of 5.3 and 6.2 percent per
year, respectively. Capital also increased at a rapid rate in
the drug industry (6.0 percent), despite only moderate out­
put growth that about equaled the average for total manu­
facturing. Although they essentially had flat output growth
over the period, industrial organic chemicals and aircraft
and parts had increases in capital near the all-manufactur­
ing average. Capital declined in industrial inorganic chemi­
cals; guided missiles, space vehicles and parts; and search
and navigation equipment. The latter two industries also
had substantial declines in output over the period.
Average annual output growth in the high-tech manu­
facturing sector exceeded the rate o f capital growth over
the period (8.0 percent versus 5.2 percent). As a result,
capital productivity— output per unit o f capital—rose 2.7
percent per year over the period. In the aggregate manu­
facturing sector, output growth of 3.3 percent per year and
capital growth o f 3.0 percent produced an increase in capi­
tal productivity o f just 0.3 percent per year.
The better performance o f capital productivity in hightech manufacturing developed entirely in the second half
o f the 1990s. Capital productivity in both the high-tech
and aggregate manufacturing sectors dipped toward the
middle o f the period and then rose again. From 1987 to


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1994, average capital productivity growth in aggregate
manufacturing exceeded that in the high-tech manufactur­
ing sector. From 1994 to 1999, however, capital productiv­
ity in the high-tech sector increased rapidly, while in the
aggregate manufacturing sector it stagnated.

Intermediate purchases
Intermediate purchases include the materials, purchased
services, fuels, and electricity used in the production pro­
cess. To support production in the high-tech manufactur­
ing sector, intermediate purchases inputs increased at an
average rate of 4.0 percent per year from 1987 to 1999. In
manufacturing as a whole, intermediate purchases inputs
rose an average o f 3.3 percent per year.
Although the growth o f intermediate purchases over
the entire study period (1987-99) was similar in both hightech and total manufacturing, the two sectors exhibited
very different patterns in this measure during the 1990s.
Intermediate purchases in high-tech manufacturing in­
creased only 2.3 percent per year during the first half o f the
1990s, but the rate more than tripled during the second half
(7.0 percent). Intermediate purchases growth in overall
manufacturing, by contrast, dropped from a rate o f 3.5 per­
cent per year in the first part o f the decade to 2.6 percent
per year during the second part.

Monthly Labor Review

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25

High-tech Industries

C h a rt 3.

Output per hour (labor productivity) equals multifactor productivity plus the effects
of capital and intermediate purchases, 1987-99

Average annual
percent change

Average annual
percent change
—l 12

Output per hour
Multifactor productivity

m

-

10

I l

Capital effect
Intermediate purchases effect

High-tech manufacturing

Within the high-tech sector, there is a great deal of varia­
tion with respect to intermediate purchases among the com­
ponent industries. In the five high-tech industries in which
the rate o f output growth matched or exceeded that o f over­
all manufacturing—the three information technology in­
dustries, drugs, and measuring and controlling devices (SIC
382)— intermediate purchases grew rapidly over the 1987—
99 period, at rates ranging from about 5 percent to nearly
10 percent per year. The remaining high-tech industries
had increases in intermediate purchases below the manu­
facturing sector average, and intermediate purchases de­
clined in the two industries with significant output declines
over the period: guided missiles, space vehicles and parts;
and search and navigation equipment.
Because high-tech manufacturing output increased more
rapidly than inputs o f intermediate purchases in that sec­
tor, intermediate purchases productivity rose 3.8 percent
per year from 1987 to 1999. However, within the high-tech
sector, only computer and office equipment and electronic
components and accessories had substantial increases in
intermediate purchases productivity, averaging 16.5 per­
cent and 16.3 percent per year, respectively. Among the
remaining high-tech manufacturing industries, three had
small increases (less than 1 percent per year) in intermedi­
ate purchases productivity over the period, while five had
small declines (1 to 2 percent per year).

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March 2002

Total m anufacturing

Relating multifactor and labor productivity
Multifactor productivity analysis provides additional insights
into the sources of growth in labor productivity. Changes in
the quantity of capital services per hour and changes in inter­
mediate purchases per hour are important sources o f growth
in labor productivity. The influence of capital per hour on
labor productivity is known as the capital effect. Similarly,
the effect of changes in the ratio of intermediate purchases to
labor hours on labor productivity is known as the intermedi­
ate purchases effect. The capital effect is measured as the
change in the ratio of capital to labor hours multiplied by
capital’s share in the value o f output, and the intermediate
purchases effect is equal to the change in the ratio of interme­
diate purchases to labor hours multiplied by the intermediate
purchases share in the value of output. The sum of the capital
effect, the intermediate purchases effect, and multifactor pro­
ductivity growth approximately equals the growth in labor
productivity.30
As can be seen in chart 3, among the three components of
labor productivity change, the largest contributor in the hightech sector was multifactor productivity, which accounted
for more than half (5.0 percentage points) of the 9.5-percent
average annual growth rate in labor productivity. The second
most important contributor was the intermediate purchases
effect, which accounted for nearly a third (2.7 percentage

Table 5.

High-tech manufacturing industry performance relative to all manufacturing industries, 1987-99
Multi­
factor
product­
ivity

Combined
Inputs

2

4

5

7

8

2

0

1

0

1

1

2

0

1

1

1

2

1

0

3

0

2

2

1

0

0

4

3

2

5

2

3

0

0

Output
per
hour

Quintile

Output

1

3

1

6

2

3

1

3

0

4
5

Hours

Unit
labor
costs

NOTE: For each column-head variable, the set of all 140 three-digit SIC
manufacturing industries was ranked according to each industry's average
annual percent change for the 1987-99 period. The rankings were then

points) o f the growth in labor productivity over the period.
In contrast, the intermediate purchases effect and multi­
factor productivity growth each contributed about equally to
the growth of labor productivity in the manufacturing sector
as a whole. The intermediate purchases effect and multifactor
productivity each contributed 1.3 percentage points (2.6 points
combined) to the labor productivity growth rate of 3.2 percent
per year in manufacturing.
In both manufacturing and high-tech manufacturing, the
capital effect made the smallest contribution to labor produc­
tivity growth, in each case accounting for just 15 to 20 per­
cent of the labor productivity increase. In manufacturing, the
capital effect contributed 0.6 percentage points of the aver­
age labor productivity growth of 3.2 percent per year. In the
high-tech sector, the capital effect contributed 1.6 percentage
points to the average labor productivity growth of 9.5 percent
per year. In the high-tech sector, growth in the capital-labor
ratio exceeded growth in the ratio of intermediate purchases
to labor. However, the intermediate purchases’ share in out­
put was twice that of capital and therefore resulted in a much
larger intermediate purchases effect.

H ig h -te ch industry ch a ra cte ristics
The high-tech manufacturing sector analyzed in this ar­
ticle is made up o f industries with a high proportion of
workers engaged in research and development activities
and in technology-oriented occupations. It has been dem­
onstrated that the high-tech manufacturing sector con­
trasts sharply with overall manufacturing in virtually all
measures. Yet, the high-tech sector analyzed here is made


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Inter­
mediate
purchases
per hour

Capital
per
hour

divided into quintiles, each containing about 28 industries. The first quntile
represents the most rapid growth, and the fifth quintile the slowest growth,
The number of high-tech industries in each quntile is shown in the columns.

up of industries that are far from uniform and vary widely
in their characteristics and performance. In fact, the perfor­
mance o f some o f the high-tech manufacturing industries
appears to be closer to the non-high-tech industries than it
is to other high-tech industries.
This raises the question o f whether or not the high-tech
industries have any commonalities beyond the research
and development and technology-oriented employment cri­
teria used to classify them as such. Prompted by this ques­
tion, we ranked all o f the manufacturing industries accord­
ing to their performance on each o f the key measures ana­
lyzed in this article and divided the ranked industries into
quintiles. The results of this analysis are shown in table 5,
and they illustrate that high-tech manufacturing industries
do indeed share several key characteristics and tenden­
cies.
The most striking commonality is the tendency o f hightech industries to have more rapid rates o f growth in the
ratios of intermediate purchases to labor and capital to la­
bor than do the non-high-tech industries. Conversely,
hours in the high-tech industries tended to decline more
rapidly than (or not to grow as quickly as) hours in the
non-high-tech industries. Another feature o f high-tech in­
dustries is their tendency to outperform non-high-tech
manufacturing industries in output per hour and unit labor
costs. Output per hour is more likely to grow more rapidly,
and unit labor costs are more likely to grow more slowly (or
decline more rapidly) in high-tech industries than in other
manufacturing industries.
Still, the mediocre (or sometimes poor) productivity per­
formance of some high-tech manufacturing industries is
puzzling. It is not clear why some manufacturing industries

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

27

High-tech Industries

Chart 4.

Components of labor productivity (output per hour) growth in total manufacturing
and in high-tech manufacturing industries over the 1987-99 period

Average annual
percent change

Average annual
percent change

that employ such high proportions o f research and devel­
opment workers and highly skilled, technology-oriented
workers should be experiencing such unremarkable pro­
ductivity performance over an extended period. One pos­
sible explanation involves the difficulty of accurately mea­
suring price and output movements in rapidly-changing
industries, a problem we mentioned earlier.
BLS and others have devoted particular attention to the
measurement of prices for information technology. It is pos­
sible that changes in price and/or quality are not captured
as well for some high-tech industries as others. Medical
care prices generally and pharmaceutical prices in particu­
lar have generated a lot of concern, both at BLS and among
outside researchers. Research has addressed instances
where there may have been biases in producer price in­
dexes (PPIs) for particular drugs or classes of drugs.31 Dur­
ing the 1990s, BLS made some changes in the way these
prices are handled in the indexes, but these changes were
not incorporated into the data for earlier years.32 Such bi­
ases in the PPIs would affect the productivity measures
reported here because in many cases PPIs are used to de­
flate output measures when calculating industry produc­
tivity growth.33
Another possible explanation is that, in some cases, the
skills o f research and development and technology-oriented

28

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March 2002

employees may be directed toward the marketing o f prod­
ucts or development of superficially differentiated existing
products rather than on the development o f new products
or production processes. A third possible explanation for
the poor performance o f some high-tech industries is that
the returns from the high-tech workers they employ and
the research and development they undertake are not yet
evident, but will appear in the future.
It also should be noted that two o f these high-tech in­
dustries experienced substantial output declines over the
period (guided missiles, space vehicles, and parts; and
search and navigation equipment); one experienced a very
small decline (industrial organic chemicals); and one expe­
rienced a very small increase (aircraft and parts). It can be
difficult for industries to maintain productivity growth in
the face o f flat or declining output. BLS data show that
industries with long-term declines in output are more likely
to record productivity declines than are industries in which
output is growing. Despite this disadvantage, all four of
these high-tech manufacturing industries recorded labor
productivity increases, although their performance with
respect to multifactor productivity was much less posi­
tive— only one had even a modest increase in multifactor
productivity over the period, and one had a substantial
decline. It also is worth mentioning that in three o f these

industries— aircraft and parts; guided missiles, space ve­
hicles, and parts; and search and navigation equipment— a
major underlying cause o f the output decline was unrelated
to industry performance. Following the end of the Cold War
in the late 1980s, real defense spending fell sharply. Be­
cause these three industries are significantly tied to de­
fense-related purchases, the retrenchment in spending con­
tributed to substantial contractions in their output over the
period o f this study.34
Among the 10 high-tech manufacturing industries ana­
lyzed in this study, the dramatic differences in performance
between the 3 information technology industries and the
remaining 7 industries are illustrated by chart 4, which
shows labor productivity growth and its components for
the manufacturing sector and the 10 high-tech manufactur­
ing industries. The chart depicts the three information tech­
nology industries, followed by the four industries with nega­
tive or weak output growth, and finally, the remaining three
industries. For each industry, labor productivity growth is
equal to the sum of multifactor productivity growth, the
capital effect, and the intermediate purchases effect. When
all three components of labor productivity growth are posi­
tive, the level o f the labor productivity growth rate is shown
by the total o f the bar. For the two industries with negative
multifactor productivity growth rates, the labor productivity
growth rate falls below the top of the bar because the negative
multifactor productivity component offsets the combined in­
termediate purchases and capital effects.
The chart shows that the information technology indus­
tries had extremely rapid labor productivity and multifactor
productivity growth, well above the average for manufac­
turing. The seven remaining industries, however, present a
much more mixed picture with respect to productivity per­
formance. While all had positive labor productivity growth,
only three exceeded the productivity growth rate for the
overall manufacturing sector. In addition, only one had mul­
tifactor productivity growth above the all-manufacturing
average, and two actually had substantial multifactor pro­
ductivity declines.
Among the seven non-information-technology indus­
tries in the high-tech sector, the four with weak or negative
output growth achieved positive labor productivity growth
by virtue o f reductions in labor input. The other three in­
dustries— industrial inorganic chemicals, drugs, and mea­
suring and controlling devices— all had healthy output

growth (about 3 percent per year). Two o f these, industrial
inorganic chemicals and measuring and controlling de­
vices, combined output increases with reductions in labor
input, and their resulting labor productivity growth rates
exceeded the average rate for the manufacturing sector. In
contrast, the drug industry was the only high-tech indus­
try to have a substantial increase in labor input, and it also
had among the most rapid growth in capital and intermedi­
ate purchases. Consequently, drugs recorded the most
rapid increase in combined inputs in the high-tech manu­
facturing sector. Because this rapid increase in inputs oc­
curred in combination with output growth about equal to
the manufacturing-sector average, however, labor produc­
tivity growth in this industry was below the average for
the manufacturing sector as a whole, and m ultifactor pro­
ductivity declined over the period. Perhaps this poor pro­
ductivity performance can be tied to the output price mea­
surement problem discussed previously.
IN SU M , labor and multifactor productivity growth in the
high-tech manufacturing sector were dominated by trends
in three information technology industries: computer and
office equipment; electronic components and accessories;
and communications equipment. Three o f the remaining
seven high-tech manufacturing industries performed some­
what better than total manufacturing with respect to growth
in labor productivity and unit labor costs. At the same
time, there was a markedly different use o f resources in
high-tech manufacturing industries than in total manufac­
turing. Capital services and intermediate purchases in the
high-tech sector grew more rapidly relative to labor input
than was the case in total manufacturing. Despite strong
output growth in high-tech manufacturing, employment in
the high-tech sector declined over the period, while em­
ployment in the manufacturing sector as a whole remained
essentially flat.
It should be emphasized that the results presented in
this study are sensitive to the period analyzed. Because
data for the measures analyzed are not yet available for a
full business cycle, the results reported may reflect some
cyclical influences. On the other hand, 1987 and 1999 both
were years well into the business expansions o f the 1980s
and 1990s, respectively, so cyclical influences are likely to
be small. Future analyses along these lines will benefit
from updated measures as they become available.
□

Notes
1 W illiam Luker, Jr. and Donald Lyons, “Employment shifts in hightechnology industries,” M o n th ly L a b o r R eview , June 1997, pp. 12-25.
2 This growth rate refers to h igh -tech m anufacturing industries


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classified on the basis o f em ploym ent o f certain types o f workers.
The criteria for identifying high-tech industries w ill be discussed in
detail later in this article.

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

29

High-tech Industries

3 Labor productivity measures should not be interpreted as repre­
senting the contribution of labor to production. Changes over time in
labor productivity reflect a number of factors, including substitution
of other inputs, such as capital and intermediate purchases, for labor in
the production process; changes in the organization of production;
changes in the allocation of resources between sectors; the direct and
indirect effects of research and development; and the development of
new technology.
4 Several factors may affect the multifactor productivity residual,
such as technical innovation, economies of scale, labor composition
changes (which are not accounted for in the measures analyzed here),
organizational and institutional change, fluctuations in demand, omit­
ted variables, and measurement errors.
5 Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and
Budget, S ta n d a rd In d u stria l C la ssifica tio n M an u al 1987. Data from the
1997 Economic Census of Manufactures were published primarily on
the basis of the new North American Industry Classification System
( n a ic s ); earlier censuses were published according to the Standard Indus­
trial Classification (sic) system. Implementation of n a ic s by Federal
agencies will be in phases. In order to update the three-digit industry
productivity series used in this article, b l s converted the NAics-based
manufacturing data to an sic basis, b l s will continue to publish the
productivity series on an sic basis until all the data underlying the pro­
ductivity series have been converted to a n a ic s basis.
6 Multifactor productivity and related measures for the 108 indus­
tries for which the data meet b ls publication standards were published in
M u ltifa cto r P ro d u c tiv ity M ea su re s f o r T h ree-d ig it SIC M a n u factu rin g In­
d u s tr ie s , Report 956 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, January 2002). This

article makes use of the data for all 140 three-digit manufacturing indus­
tries, including the 32 industries for which data have not been published.
7 Data limitations prevented the development of productivity series
for many industries prior to 1987. Data requirements for calculating
multifactor productivity are even greater, further constraining the in­
dustrial detail for which these series are available.
8 For a discussion of these issues, see, for example, Andrew W.
Wyckoff, “The impact of computer prices on international compari­
sons of labour productivity,” E c o n o m ics o f In n o va tio n a n d N e w Tech­
n o lo g y, Overseas Publishers Association, 1995, vol. 3, pp. 277-93; Jack
Triplett, “High-tech industry productivity and hedonic price indices,”
chapter 4 in In d u stry P ro d u c tiv ity : In tern a tio n a l C o m p a riso n a n d M e a ­
su r e m e n t Is su e s (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Devel­
opment ( o e c d ), Paris, October 1996), pp. 119-42. On the Internet at
http://www.oecd.org/dsti/sti/stat-ana/prod/; Bruce T. Grimm, “Price
Indexes for Selected Semiconductors, 1974-96," S u rvey o f C u rren t Busi­
n ess (Bureau of Economic Analysis, February 1998), pp. 8-24; Ernst R.
Berndt, Zvi Griliches, and Joshua G. Rosett, "Auditing the Producer
Price Index: Micro Evidence from Prescription Pharmaceutical Prepa­
rations," J o u rn a l o f B u sin e ss a n d E c o n o m ic S ta tis tic s , July 1993; and
William Gullickson and Michael J. Harper, "Possible measurement bias
in aggregate productivity growth,” M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , February
1999, pp. 47-67.
9 Richard W. Riche, Daniel E. Hecker, and John U. Burgan, “High
technology today and tomorrow: a small slice of the employment pie,”
M o n th ly L a b o r R e view , November 1983, pp. 50-58. (See page 51 and
footnote 1.)
10 T ech n ology, In n o v a tio n , a n d R e g io n a l E c o n o m ic D e v e lo p m e n t,

(United States Congress, Office of Technology Assessment), September
9, 1982.
11 Thomas Hatzichronoglou, “Revision of the High-Technology
Sector and Product Classification,” s r i W orkin g P a p e r s (Organization
for Economic Co-operation and Development, 1997, pp. 1-25).
12 Daniel Hecker, “High-technology employment: a broader
view,” M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , June 1999, pp. 18-28; quote, p. 19.
13 In 1999, employment in sic 357, computer and office equip­
ment, accounted for 14.2 percent of total employment in sic 35,
industrial and commercial machinery and equipment and computer

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March 2002

equipment; sic 366, com m unications equipm ent, and sic 3 6 7 , e le c ­
tronic com ponents and accessories, accounted for 8.6 percent and
2 0 .6 p ercen t, r esp ectiv e ly , o f total em p loym en t in sic 3 6 , e le c ­
tronic and other electrical equipm ent and com ponents.
14 C alcu lation s based on the data underlying Productivity and
2 0 0 1 , u s d l 0 1 - 4 5 2 (U .S . D epartm ent o f La­
bor), D ecem ber 6, 20 0 1 .

Costs, Third Quarter

15 R iche, H ecker, and Burgan, “H igh tech n ology today and to ­
morrow”; Paul H adlock, D aniel H ecker, and Joseph Gannon, “High
tech n o lo g y em ploym ent: another v ie w ,” Monthly Labor Review,
July 1991, pp. 2 6 - 3 0 ; Luker and L yons, ’’E m p loym en t sh ifts in
h ig h -te c h n o lo g y ” ; H ecker, ’’H ig h -te c h n o lo g y em p lo y m en t.”
16 N a tio n a l S c ie n c e B oard, Science and Engineering Indica­
v a , N ational S cien ce F oundation, 1998).

tors-! 9 9 8 (A rlin gton ,

17 H ecker, “H ig h -tech n o lo g y em p lo y m en t.”
18 The earlier stu d y listed o n ly eig h t separate m anu factu ring
industries because several three-digit manufacturing industries were
grouped together: industrial inorganic ch em icals and industrial or­
ganic chem icals (sic s 281 and 2 8 6 ) were com bined to form indus­
trial ch em icals; and aircraft and parts and gu id ed m issile s , space
v e h ic le s , and parts (SIC s 3 7 2 and 3 7 6 ) w ere co m b in ed to form
aerosp ace. W hen co n sid ered on its ow n (that is, w h en not co m ­
bined with industrial organic chem icals), industrial inorganic chem i­
cals m eets one but not both criteria for inclusion in the set o f hightech in ten siv e in d ustries - the proportion o f tech n o lo g y -o rien ted
workers falls sligh tly b elow the cu t-o ff proportion. For purposes o f
con sisten cy with the earlier study, how ever, this industry is never­
theless included in the high-tech manufacturing sector as defined in
this article.
19 S ee chapters 10 and 11 o f Bureau o f Labor S ta tistic s , bls

Handbook of Methods, B u lletin 2 4 9 0 , April 1997 (on the Internet
at: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/hom /hom hom e.htm ). O ne s ig n if i­
cant difference between the tw o data sets that affects the com pari­
sons o f trends in capital services in h igh -tech m anufacturing and
total m anufacturing is noted later in this article. (See footnote 2 9 .)
20 M ore p recisely , logarith m ic grow th rates are a d d itiv e. The
average annual com pound grow th rates used in th is a n a ly sis are
approxim ately equal to the logarithm ic growth rates, thus co n cep ­
tually additive, when the growth rates are “sm a ll.”
21 For a discussion o f this issue, see W illiam G ullickson, “M ea­
surem ent o f productivity growth in U .S . m anu factu ring,” Monthly
Labor Review, July 1995, pp. 1 3 -2 8 .
22 The issue o f the potential effect o f not rem oving intrasectoral
tran saction s from the h ig h -tech aggregate estim a tes is d isc u sse d
b riefly in the section on m ultifactor p roductivity.
23 Although the com position o f labor input may be influenced by
changes in factors such as training, experience, and education, the
data used in this article treat labor input as a h om ogeneous factor.
Thus, em ployee hours are w eighted equally; no d istin ction is made
between workers in different industries or with different skill levels
or wages. The effects o f changes in labor com position are included
in the productivity residual.
24 In “H ig h -te c h n o lo g y em p lo y m en t,” H eck er reported an in ­
crease o f 3 p ercent in em p loym en t in h ig h -tech in te n siv e in d u s­
tries betw een 1986 and 1996. H ow ever, H eck er’s h igh -tech inten­
sive subset includes two service-producing industries, computer and
data p rocessin g services (sic 737) and research, developm ent, and
testin g services (sic 873). I f these tw o in d ustries, w h ich recorded
em p loym en t gain s over the p eriod , are exclu d ed , the earlier b l s
stu d y ’s data also sh ow em p loym en t in h igh -tech in ten siv e m anu­
facturing industries to be falling.
25 The sm all in co m p a tib ilities in the tw o data sets used m ake
direct com parisons o f lev els o f h igh -tech and total m anufacturing
hours p roblem atic. Hours series for the industry data used to d e­
velop the high-tech sector measures are on an hours-paid b asis and

co v er o n ly e m p lo y ees, or w age and salary w orkers. H ours for the
m anu factu ring secto r as a w h ole are adjusted to an hours-w orked
b a sis and in clu d e hours w orked by proprietors and unpaid fam ily
workers in addition to those worked by wage and salary workers. See
B L S H a n d b o o k o f M e th o d s , chapters 10 and 11, for an overall d e­
scription o f the m easures. W hile these d ifferen ces may affect com ­
parisons o f the levels o f hours worked, they are not likely to sig n ifi­
cantly affect com parisons o f trends or growth rates over the period
studied g iv en that proprietors' and unpaid fam ily workers' share o f
em ploym ent is sm all in m anufacturing and there was little trend in
the ratio o f hours worked to hours paid for this period.

software as a capital asset and thus include capital services from
software. Data limitations prevent the inclusion o f software in capi­
tal services for the three-digit industry capital measures used for the
high-tech manufacturing industries. This difference could significantly
affect the comparison o f trends in high-tech manufacturing and ag­
gregate manufacturing capital input in this article. Since software has
been grow ing more rapidly than m ost other asset types over the
period studied, the likely effect o f om itting software from the indus­
try capital measures would be to bias the high-tech capital measures
downward relative to overall manufacturing.

26 See E v sey D. Dom ar, “On the m easurem ent o f tech n o lo g ica l
ch a n g e,” E c o n o m ic J o u r n a l, 1961, pp. 7 0 9 -2 9 . U sin g this m ethod,
sector m u ltifa cto r p ro d u ctivity growth is the w eigh ted sum o f the
co m p o n en t in d ustry m u ltifa cto r p ro d u ctiv ity grow th rates, w here
the w eigh ts are the ratios o f each industry’s value o f production to
the secto r’s valu e o f production (the sum o f the industries’ value o f
production is greater than the sector net value o f production, thus
the industry w eigh ts sum to more than 1).

31 S ee, for exam p le, Berndt, G rilich es, R osett, “A u d itin g the
Producer Price Index.” The pharm aceutical industry d iscu ssed in
that article is ch aracterized by rapid in n ovation and an in stitu ­
tional environm ent in w hich prices o f n ew ly introduced products
tend to increase more slow ly than prices o f estab lish ed products,
or even to decline. The authors found that the b l s producer price
index ( p p i ) for prescription pharmaceutical preparations was grow­
ing m uch m ore rap id ly than several in d ex es o f p h arm aceu tical
prices they had constructed. This occurred, in part, because o f an
underrepresentation o f new products in the p p i sam ple.

27 A D om ar a g g r e g a tio n o f co m p o n e n t in d u stry grow th rates
y ield ed a h igh -tech m ultifactor productivity growth rate o f 5.8 per­
cent per year over the period 1987 to 1998. Over the sam e period,
multifactor productivity growth in the high-tech aggregate constructed
for this article (unadjusted for intrasectoral tran saction s) averaged
5.1 percent per year. The differen ce betw een the adjusted (D om ar w eig h ted ) and unad ju sted m ultifactor growth rates, or 0 .7 percent
per year, represents an estim ate o f the bias arising from fa ilin g to
adjust the high-tech m anufacturing aggregate for intrasectoral trans­
a ctio n s.
28 The m ultifactor productivity growth rate for the “non-high-tech
sector” is a Dom ar-w eighted aggregate o f the m ultifactor productivity
growth rates o f the 130 non-high-tech m anufacturing industries. The
m ultifactor productivity growth rates o f the high-tech and non-hightech sectors are not additive.
29 In addition to equipment, structures, inventories, and land, the b l s
capital measures for the aggregate manufacturing sector treat computer


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30 See footn ote 20.

32 B e g in n in g in January 19 9 6 , the p p i program began u sin g
supplem ental sam p les in order to im prove the representation o f
new products in the pharm aceutical industry.
33 If price increases over the period studied are overstated (or
price d eclin es understated), real output and p rod u ctivity growth
w ill be understated.
34 For a d isc u s sio n , see A lliso n T h om son , “D e fen se-rela ted
em ploym ent and spending, 1 9 9 6 - 2 0 0 6 ,” M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w ,
July 1998, pp. 1 4 -3 3 . In 1987, w ith d efen se spen d in g at a postV ietnam War h igh , over h a lf o f em p loym en t in the search and
navigation equipm ent and aerospace industries— aircraft and parts
and guided m issile s, space v e h ic le s, and parts— w as d efen se-re­
lated. By 1996, the proportion o f defense-related em ploym ent in
each o f these industries had fallen sharply but rem ained substan­
tial. (See tables 3 and 4.)

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

31

Bias in aggregate productivity

Bias in aggregate productivity
trends revisited
Aggregate productivity trends were revised
upward; it is now less clear whether bias exists,
but some industries continue to show
negative multifactor productivity trends
William Gullickson
and
Michael J. Harper

lhis article updates results presented in our
February 1999 Monthly Labor Review
article, “Possible bias in aggregate produc­
tivity growth.”1 In it, we determined that manu­
facturing could account for all of the multifactor
productivity (M FP) growth during the 1979-96
period within the private business sector. The
article identified industries outside of manufac­
turing with negative MFP trends and assessed their
effects on aggregate productivity. We concluded
that the negative MFP trends seemed at least some­
what implausible and might have reflected ser­
vice output measurement problems.
This article reprises the methodology, sum­
marizes the earlier findings, and presents new re­
sults. Besides including data through 1997, the
new results reflect the comprehensive revisions
o f the National Income and Product Accounts
published by the Bureau of Economic Analysis
(BEA) in October 1999. Aggregate productivity
now is growing faster, and it is less clear that
there is an aggregate bias, but we still find nega­
tive MFP trends for some of the same industries.
For other industries, we find surprisingly low MFP
trends.
This is probably indicative of problems
William Gullickson is an
economist in the
with the measurement of some service industry
Division of Productivity
outputs. It may also reflect the rapid growth in
Research and Michael
high
tech inputs, such as computers and semi­
J. Harper is chief of that
unit in the Office of
conductors, used by these industries.
Productivity and
Technology, Bureau of
Labor Statistics.
E-mail:
gullickson_w@bls.gov
and harper_m@bls.gov

32

T

Outline of procedures
In the earlier article, we described the construc­

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tion of estimates of MFP trends at both the indus­
try and aggregate levels using available statisti­
cal agency data, m f p measures compare output
trends with the trends in several inputs. A formal
framework for MFP emerged from a 1957 paper
by Robert Solow that discussed how to separate
substitution among inputs from shifts in a pro­
duction function.2 MFP growth is designed to mea­
sure the joint influences on economic growth
o f numerous factors that people associate with
productivity, such as technological change, effi­
ciency improvements, returns to scale, and reallocation of resources. At the aggregate level, the
principal inputs are labor and capital, while at
the industry level, inputs also include materi­
als and services purchased from other industries.
Data are organized in a framework proposed by
Evsey Domar in 1961.3 Domar showed how data
on the inputs and outputs o f various industries
that buy goods and services from one another
can be used to measure industry MFP trends and
to construct and account for aggregate MFP
trends.4

Earlier findings
In the earlier article we carried out two main data
exercises. One was a “top side” exercise, which
showed that all of the private business MFP growth
between 1979 and 1996 could be accounted for
by m f p growth in manufacturing. This implied
that the rest of the private business sector had no
overall MFP growth.

I Output per hour of all persons in major U.S. sectors, compound
annual rates of change

The new results

The tables accompanying this article
correspond to the tables in the earlier
Manufacturing
Period
Business
article. Tables 1 and 2 present mea­
sures of output per hour and MFP, re­
2.2
2.8
1947-20011.............................
2.5
spectively, at the aggregate level. It has
2.7
2.0
3.3
1947-601..............................
been widely noted that the 1999 BEA
3.0
3.0
1 9 6 0 -7 3 ...............................
3.3
1.2
2.2
1 9 7 3 -7 9 ................................
1.3
revisions raised the productivity
1.7
3.2
1979-2001 ...........................
1.8
trends. The size of the “raise” varied
1.4
1 9 7 9 -9 0 ............................
1.5
2.6
by period, but it was generally between
3.2
1 9 9 0 -9 5 ............................
1.5
1.5
2.6
2.4
4.1
0.3 and 0.6 percent per year in vari­
1995-2001 ........................
ous selected periods since 1979. The
“ra
is e ” is a ttrib u ta b le to th ree
' Data for manufacturing trends begin in 1949.
changes made by BEA: the introduc­
Multifactor productivity trends in aggregate U.S. sector.
tion o f “research CPIs [Consumer
Price Indexes]” to the deflation pro­
cess; the reclassification o f software
Private
Private
Period
nonfarm
Manufacturing
as capital; and the use o f Bureau of
business
business
Labor Statistics data on banking
transactions in measuring banking
output. The BEA revisions partially
1.4
1.2
’ 1.2
1 9 4 9 -2 0 0 0 .............................
address
the issues we raised in our
1 9 4 9 -7 3 ..............................
2.1
1.9
1.5
.6
.4
1 9 7 3 -7 9 ..............................
-.6
earlier article. In the aggregate ex­
1.1
1 9 7 9 -9 0 ..............................
.5
.3
ercise worked out in the new table
1 9 9 0 -9 5 ..............................
.6
.6
1.2
1 9 9 5 -9 9 ..............................
1.2
1.1
2.5
3, now, we find nonmanufacturing
1
1 9 95-2 000..........................
1.4
1.2
contributing 0.5 percent per year to
the business mfp trend between 1990
1 Data are not available for this industry during this period.
and 1995 and 0.6 percent during the
1995-99 period. These trends are up
from zero in the earlier data pre­
sented in the Monthly Labor Review.
The second “industry exercise” constructed estimates of
Turning to the “industry exercise,” first, our method de­
MFP trends at roughly the two-digit industry level. We identi­
velops
what we call “BLS output based” MFP trends from in­
fied the goal of determining which nonmanufacturing indus­
put
and
output estimates for each industry.5 We also develop
tries had negative MFP trends. After we identified industries
what
we
call “BEA output based” MFP trends by adjusting the
with negative MFP trends, we sought to determine the extent
BLS
MFP
trends for consistency with the latest data on gross
to which each contributed to the relatively slow aggregate
output
from
the BEA “gross product originating” program.6
MFP trend. Working on the premise that o u tp u t in these
In
the
discussion
here, we emphasize the “BEA output based”
industries was measured with error, we simulated the adjust­
MFP
trends.
ment of industry o u tp u t tren d s enough to pull up the nega­
The overall increase in the MFP trend appears to be sup­
tive industry MFP tren d s to zero. This would have raised the
ported
by the revised “industry exercise,” summarized in table
aggregate MFP trend for 1979-92 by 0.44 percent.
4.7
As
in the earlier article, we caution readers that the data
In this earlier work, the industries with significant nega­
associated
with our industry exercise (presented in tables 4,
tive MFP trends, in order of their downward effects on aggre­
6,
and
7)
should
not be taken at face value. Rather, the point
gate MFP, were construction, insurance, banking, utilities, and
of
the
industry
exercise
is to help determine how weaknesses
health services. We argued that long-term negative MFP trends
in
economic
statistics
may
affect the aggregate productivity
were implausible for these industries. We did consider some
picture.
We
compare
one-digit
industry data in the “new” table
alternative measurement problems that might have led to
4
with
those
in
the
“old”
table
4 from the 1999 Monthly La­
negative mfp trends, but concluded that “.. .there is good rea­
bor
Review
article
in
the
following
tabulation, which esti­
son to suspect that bias in output quantity/price (trend) allo­
mates
BEA
and
BLS
based
output
trends:
cation is a dominant explanation....”


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Nonfarm
business

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

33

Bias in Aggregate Productivity

BEA o u tp u t b a s e d M F P tr e n d s

Farms...............................
Mining.............................
Construction.....................
Manufacturing..................
Transportation..................
Communications..............
Utilities............................
Trade ...............................
Finance, insurance,
and real estate................
Services...........................

Old,
1977-92

New,
1977-97

1.7
-1.5
-.9
.7
.2
.9
-1.1
1.2

2.3
-.8
-.9
.6
.2
.1
-.1
1.1

1.3
.2

-.5
-.5

B L S o u tp u t b a s e d M F P tr e n d s

New,
Old,
New,
New,
1977-92 1977-92 1992-97 1977-97

Farms....................
Mining..................
Construction.........
Manufacturing.......
Transportation.......
Communications....
Utilities.................
Trade ....................
Finance, insurance,
and real estate.....
Services................

1.8
-1.2
-.4
.5
.4
.4
-.3
1.1

2.1
-1.7
-.4
.5
.2
-.6
-.7
.9

1.3
1.2
-1.0
1.5
-.2
.7
-.1
.3

1.9
-1.0
-.6
.7
.1
-.3
-.5
.7

-1.2
.1

-.4

-.4
-.6

-.4
-.2

0.0

In the first two columns, four of the ten sectors (farms,
mining, utilities, and finance) have “BEA output based” mfp
trends for 1977-97 that are between 0.6 and 1.0 percent per
year higher than the trends for 1977-92 reported in the ear­

lier article. We might have expected the upward revisions to
the aggregates to carry over broadly to the industry level—
the BEA revisions tended to boost aggregate output trends
and the extension of the time period to 1997 captures 2 years
of the post-1995 productivity surge. In the final four col­
umns of the tabulation, we use the more complete “BLS output
based” data-set to examine the separate effects of revisions
and extension of the time period. It is somewhat surprising
to find MFP growing more slowly in five sectors during 1992—
97 than it did during 1977-92. This is reminiscent o f Robert
Gordon’s finding that the productivity acceleration of the late
1990s is confined to a limited number of sectors.8
Perhaps more surprising is the observation that, in the first
two columns, the “BEA output based” MFP trends for 1977—
97 are 0.7 and 0.8 percent per year lower in two sectors,
services and communications, than they were for 1977-92 in
the old data. In the same vein, there were only small trend
revisions (0.1 percent or 0 percent) for construction, manu­
facturing, transportation, and trade. MFP compares output
trends with input trends, and it occurred to us that strong
input growth may help account for some of these low MFP
trends. The first three columns of table 5 break out the BLS
MFP trends into output and input trends.
Services and communications have 4.5 percent input
growth trends. High tech inputs (information processing
equipment and software) contributed much o f this input
growth in communications, while their contribution was less
notew orthy in services.9 It is possible that there was
overinvestment in communications. However, we suspect that
the methods used to measure and price the outputs in com­
munications fail to capture quality change to the same degree
as do the methods used to measure and price the inputs they
employ. We shall return to the high tech issue shortly.
As in the earlier study, table 6 contains estimates of the

M u ltifa c to r p ro d ijc tiv ity ( m f p ) g ro w th in th e U.S. p riv a te b u s in e s s s e c to r a n d th e c o n trib u tio n s o f la b o r
c o m p o sitio n effc ic ts , m a n u fa c tu rin g

g ro w th , a n d n o n m a n u fa c tu rin g

Private
business
MFP
(1)

Private
business
labor
composition
effects
(2)

1 9 4 9 -9 9 ...............................

1.4

1 9 4 9 -7 3 ............................
1 9 7 3 -7 9 ............................
1 9 7 9 -9 0 ............................
1 9 9 0 -9 5 ............................
1 9 9 5 -9 9 ............................

2.1
.6
.5
.6
1.2

Period

34

m fp

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March 2002

m fp

g ro w th

Contributions to
private business of:

Unadjusted
private
business
MFP
(3)

Manufacturing
MFP
(4)

0.2

1.6

1.2

0.6

1.0

.2
0
.3
.4
.3

2.3
.6
.8
1.0
1.6

1.5
-.6
1.1
1.2
2.5

.8
- .3
.5
.5
1.0

1.5
.9
.3
.5
.6

Non
Manufacturing
manufacturing
(5)
(6)

Table 4.

Estimates of multifactor productivity trends in U.S. industries, selected periods

[Compound annual growth rates of MFP]

M ain sou rce o f o u tp u t e stim ates:
SIC
code

Industry

Bureau o f E co n o m ic
A nalysis

Bureau o f Labor Statistics

1947-63

1963-77

1977-97

1977-97

1 ,2

F a rm s .......................................................................

2.0

0.8

1.9

2.3

10-14
10
11,12
13
14

M in in g .......................................................................
Metal m in in g .........................................................
Coal m in in g ..........................................................
Oil and gas e x tra c tio n .........................................
Nonmetallic minerals, excluding fu e ls ..............

1.0
-

-1 .4
-1 .3
-1 .9
-1 .5
-.1

-1 .0
2.1
3.0
-2 .2
.5

-.8
2.0
2.9
-1 .8
.5

15-17

C onstruction............................................................

1.1

-1.1

-.6

-.9

20-39
24 ,25, 32 -39
2 0 -2 3 ,2 6 -3 1

M anufacturing..........................................................
Durable m anufacturing........................................
Nondurable m anufacturing.................................

.8
.6
.9

.6
.7
.5

.7
1.1
.3

.6
1.1
.2

40-47
40
41
42
44
45
46
47

Transportation.........................................................
Railroad transportation........................................
Local and interurban passenger tra n s it............
Trucking and w arehousing.................................
Water transportation............................................
Transportation by a i r ...........................................
Pipelines, excluding natural g a s ........................
Transportation service s.......................................

1.6
-

1.4
2.0
2.2
.7
1.1
1.8
1.8
-.2

.1
1.4
-.6
-.5
.7
.4
.1
.1

.2
4.7
-1 .5
.6
.9
.7
-1 .0
0

48

C om m unications.....................................................

3.2

2.4

- .3

.1

49

Electric, gas, sanitary s e rv ic e s .............................

3.5

.7

- .5

-.1

50-59
50,51
52-59

T ra d e ........................................................................
Wholesale tr a d e ...................................................
Retail tra d e ...........................................................

1.7

2.2
2.1
2.1

.7
1.6
0

1.1
1.3
1.0

60-67
60, 61 ,6 7
62
63
64
65-66

Finance, insurance, and real e s ta te .....................
Credit agencies, holding com panies.................
Security, commodity brokers..............................
Insurance c a rrie rs ...............................................
Insurance agents, brokers, and service s..........
Real e s ta te ...........................................................

.7

.6
.6
-1.1
1.5
2.8
.5

-.4
.1
.3
-2 .4
-1.1
.1

- .5
- .5
1.5
-.8
-4 .9
.1

7 -9 ,7 0 -8 9
7 -9
70
72
7 3 ,7 6
75
78
79
80
81,
83-89
82

S ervices....................................................................
Agricultural services, forestry, fis h in g ...............
Hotels and other lodging p la c e s ........................
Personal service s.................................................
Business and miscellaneous repair services....
Auto repair, services, and g a ra g e s ...................
Motion p ictu re s.....................................................
Amusement and recreation s e rv ic e s ................
Health service s.....................................................
Legal and other
professional s e rv ic e s ........................................
Educational s e rv ic e s ...........................................

.4
-

-.6
.3
.8
1.5
-.7
-1 .4
-1 .0
-.1
-1 .7

-.2
1.1
-2 .2
.2
-1 .0

- .5
.8
-1 .3
.6
-1 .0
-1 .4

-.5
-.8

contributions o f each industry’s productivity to private busi­
ness MFP. These “Domar” contributions weight each industry’s
m f p trend by a ratio indicative o f the industry’s relative
importance in the aggregate sector.10 I f all o f the underly­
ing data were assumed to be correct, the Domar contribu­
tions would be the bona fide contributions o f the industries


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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-.4
.5

.4

.4
- .6

1.0
- .6

1.0
0

-.2
.8

to aggregate productivity.
Table 6 of the article shows results to the nearest 0.1
percent and shows only those industries that make nonzero
contributions in at least one time period.11 Some industries
(construction; finance, insurance and real estate; and busi­
ness services) make negative contributions. Thus, this would

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

35

Bias in Aggregate Productivity

“ bls output based” trends in mu Itifactor productivity ( mfp), outputs and inputs, and the point contributions
of specific input categories to t he trend in input growth, 1977-97, annual rates
Trends

Point contributions to input growth

Input

Information
processing
equipment
and software

Other
capital

Labor

Intermediate
inputs

-0 .2
1.3
1.8
1.8
2.8
4.5
1.0
2.4
4.5
4.5

0.02
.29
.05
.15
.21
1.13
.45
.51
.39
.30

-0.18
.41
-.0 3
.18
.15
.68
.68
.49
.84
.29

-0 .1 6
-.2 9
.76
-.01
.72
.28
.14
.76
.73
1.97

0.14
.94
.98
1.50
1.82
2.14
.14
.91
2.32
1.86

Sector
MFP

Farm ................................................................
M in in g ..............................................................
C onstruction...................................................
M anufacturing.................................................
Transportation.................................................
C om m unications............................................
U tilitie s .............................................................
T rade................................................................
Finance, insurance, and real e s ta te ............
S ervices...........................................................

1.9
-1 .0
-.6
.7
.1
-.3
-.5
.7
-.4
-.2

Output

1.7
.3
1.2
2.5
2.9
4.2
.4
3.1
4.1
4.3

mean they appear to be pulling down aggregate MFP. MFP
is designed to measure the effects of factors such as tech­
nology, efficiency, and returns to scale. For a growing in­
dustry, MFP is unlikely to decline over long time periods.
Furthermore, we know that real output measurement is prob­
lematic in these sectors. These negative Domar contributions,
therefore, may be symptomatic of measurement problems.
As noted in our earlier work, the Domar framework allo­
cates some aggregate productivity growth to industries that
sell some of their output to other industries. Except for sales
of capital goods, these “intermediate” sales do not enter “fi­
nal demand” in the National Income and Product Accounts,
and are not counted in aggregate output. For that reason, any
error in measuring the real output trends associated with these
sales would not affect business sector productivity. Such an
error would, however, lead to the wrong story on the indus­
try allocation of productivity growth. Table 7 reports on “what
i f ’ simulations designed to isolate the effects of negative (and
presumably incorrect) output trends on the aggregate pro­
ductivity trends. The simulations, similar to those in our
earlier work, estimate what would happen if we adjusted in­
dustry output trends enough to raise the MFP of all industries
with negative measured MFP trends to zero (top panel) or
to 1 percent (bottom panel).
We focus on the third column of the top panel of table 7,
which shows the effects on raising negative “ BEA output
based” MFP trends to zero. The total effect is 0.34 on the
trend for 1977-97. In our earlier work, the effect had been
0.44 on the trend for 1977-92. Furthermore, the same four
industries contribute to the problem. Raising construction MFP
to zero (by adjusting its output) would now increase the ag­
gregate MFP trend by 0.12. This is followed by insurance

36

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March 2002

(0.08), health services (0.05), and banking (0.03). Negative
MFP in auto repair also “contributes” .03.
A little discussion of banking is in order.12 In our earlier
work, we highlighted banking, which then had an MFP trend
o f-2.3 percent per year. At the time, the BEA banking output
trends were measured, mainly, by using employment trends.
This implied there was no change in labor productivity. In
the 1999 National Income and Product Accounts revisions,
BEA adopted the b l s banking output measures, which are
based on counts of transactions. It now looks as if this change
raised banking MFP almost enough to eliminate the negative
MFP trend.13 Banks have been investing heavily in capital,
and the new output trends come much closer to accounting
for the quality adjusted input growth. Still, the relative out­
put and input trends give no indication of MFP gains.

High tech equipment
In these new data, two unexpected results emerge: first, per­
sistent and significant negative MFP trends in construction,
insurance, health, and, to a lesser extent, banking; and sec­
ond, lower MFP trends in services and communications than
those apparent in the old data. These trends were surprising,
because for this research, we have included data through the
prosperous mid-1990s.
Earlier this year, Steve Oliner and Dan Sichel point out
that high tech capital affects aggregate labor productivity
growth twice: first, when the capital is made and again, when
it is used.14 As Solow showed in 1957, wherever capital in­
put is used, it can contribute to labor productivity. As Domar
showed in 1961, the industries where capital goods are made
can experience productivity improvements and can contrib-

| Table 6. |

¡m ates o f p riva te business se cto r m u ltifa cto r p ro d u c tiv ity a n d estim ates
o f its attributions to industries, se le c te d periods
Main source of output estimates:

SIC

Estimated industry point contributions
to private sector trends

code

Bureau of Economic
Analysis

Bureau of Labor Statistics
1947-63

1963-77

1977-97

0.3

0.1

0.1

0.1

1977-97

1 ,2

F a rm s.......................................................

10-14
13

M in in g .......................................
Oil and gas e x tra c tio n .................................

.1
-

-.1
-.1

-.1
-.1

- 1
-.1

15-17

C onstruction...........................................

.2

-.2

-.1

-.1

20-39
24, 25, 32-39
2 0 -2 3 ,2 6 -3 1

M anufacturing...................................................
Durable m anufacturing................................
Nondurable
m a nufacturing..........................................

.7
.3

.6
.4

.6
.5

6
5

.5

.2

.1

.1

40-47

Transportation.....................................

.1

.1

0

.1

48

Com m unications..................................

.1

.1

0

0

49

Electric, gas, and sanitary
services................................................

.1

.1

0

0

.6
-

.7
.3
.4

.2
2
0

3
2
.2

.1

.1

o

■|

_

0
0
.1

0
-1
0

o
o
0

50-59
50,51
52-59

T ra d e ........................................................
Wholesale tra d e ....................................
Retail tra d e .....................................

60-67

Finance, insurance,
and real e s ta te .....................................
Credit agencies, holding
com panies...................................
Insurance c a rrie rs ........................................
Real e s ta te ...............................................

6 0 ,6 1 ,6 7
63
65-66

7 -9 ,7 0 -8 9
73, 76
80
81 ,8 9

S e rv ic e s ...................................
Business and professional
s e rv ic e s ...................................
Health services...................................
Legal and other
professional s e rv ic e s ...............................

Total contributions:
Private business trend derived
by “Domar” aggregation................................

Private business sector
trend estimates

mfp

__

_
-

.1

-.1

-.1

- 2

_

0
-.1

-.1
o

-1
o

0

.1

.0

1.4

.7

.7

2.4

1948-63

1963-77

1977-97

...

.6

...

(compound annual rates of change):
Published BLS estim a te s..............................

2.2

1.8

Note: Industries and sectors with absolute contributions rounding to less than 0.1 in each time period have been omitted from table (3.


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Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

37

Bias in Aggregate Productivity

ute to aggregate productivity growth. We have estimates of
each of these effects for high tech capital. In May 2001, bls
reported that increased “capital intensity” associated with the
use of information processing equipment and software in­
puts accounted for 0.9 percent of the 2.6 percent labor pro­
ductivity trend in private business during 1995-99. For this
article, a new table shows the “Domar contributions” of twodigit manufacturing industries to the private business MFP
trends.15 (See table 8.) The striking result in table 8 is that
SICs 35 and 36, where semiconductors and computers are
made, account for about half of the 1.3 percent per year MFP
trend for the entire private business sector during 1995-99
(and nearly three-fourths of the 2.5 percent trend of manu­
facturing MFP during the same period). Together, both high
tech effects— manufacture and use—account for 1.6 percent

per year of the 2.6 percent labor productivity trend during
1995-99.16 In other words, high tech capital appears to be
the dominant explanation for productivity growth in the late
1990s.
These findings rest on estimated trends for high tech in­
puts and outputs that incorporate adjustments to account for
changes in their quality.17 Many of the high tech input and
output growth rates are well up in the double-digit percent­
age range. These extraordinary trends, in turn, rest on the use
of quality adjusted price indexes in deflation. These indicate
that prices for high tech goods of constant quality have fallen
very rapidly. These price trend estimates have withstood much
scrutiny, but we must emphasize their importance for our con­
clusions. While it is likely that real output trends have been
underestimated in many or all of the service sector industries

Table 7.1 Effects on a g g re g a te MFP trends from a d justing o u tp u t trends fo r those industries th a t e x h ib it n e g a tiv e
mfp g row th a n d also a djusting input trends for industries b u yin g the outputs o f the industries w ith
n e g a tiv e MFP, 1977-97

SIC
code

Industry adjusted and the total
effects of the adjustment:

Bureau of Labor Statistics
output-based:
Private business
multifactor
productivity

Manufacturing
multifactor
productivity

Bureau of Economic Analysis
output-based:
Private business
multifactor
productivity

Manufacturing
multifactor
productivity

Adjustments sufficient to produce
zero industry MFP growth

13
15-17
41
42
48
49
6 0 ,6 1 ,6 7
63
70
7 3 ,76
75
80

Total e ffe c ts :..................................................................

0.30

-0 .14

0.34

-0.11

Oil and gas extraction.........................................................
C onstruction........................................................................
Local and interurban passenger tra n s it............................
Trucking and w arehousing.................................................
Comm unications..................................................................
Electric, gas, sanitary services..........................................
Credit agencies, and so fo r th ............................................
Insurance carriers................................................................
Hotels and other lo d g in g ....................................................
Business services................................................................
Auto repair, and so fo rth .....................................................
Health service s....................................................................

-.0 2
.08
0
.01
.01
.03
0
.09
.02
.01
.01
.05

-.0 7
0
0
-.01
0
-.0 2
0
-.01
-.01
-.0 3
0
0

-.01
.12
.01
0
0
.01
.03
.08
.01
.01
.03
.05

-.0 5
0
0
0
0
-.01
0
0
0
-.0 3
-.01
0

Total e ffe c ts :..................................................................

.68

-.2 7

.72

-.2 3

Oil and gas extraction.........................................................
C onstruction........................................................................
Local passenger tra n s it......................................................
Trucking and w are hou sin g.................................................
Comm unications..................................................................
Electric, gas, sanitary services..........................................
Credit agencies, and so fo r th ............................................
Insurance carriers................................................................
Hotels and other lo d g in g ....................................................
Business services................................................................
Auto repair, and so fo r th .....................................................
Health s e rvice s....................................................................

-.0 3
.21
.01
.02
.04
.07
0
.14
.02
.02
.04
.12

-.1 0
0
0
-.0 3
0
-.0 4
0
-.01
-.01
-.0 6
-.01
0

-.0 2
.24
.01
0
0
.06
.07
.13
.02
.02
.06
.12

-.0 9
0
0
0
0
-.0 3
-.01
-.01
0
-.0 6
-.01
0

Adjustments sufficient to produce
1 percent industry MFP growth

13
15-17
41
42
48
49
6 0 ,6 1 ,6 7
63
70
7 3 ,7 6
75
80

38

Monthly Labor Review March 2002


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T a b le

C ontributions o f m a n u fa ctu rin g industries to priva te business m u ltifa cto r p ro d u ctivity

SIC
code

Industry

1949-73

1973-79

1979-90

1990-95

1995-99

20
21
22
23
26

F o o d .................................................................................
Tobacco............................................................................
Textiles.............................................................................
A pparel.............................................................................
Paper ...............................................................................

0.09
0
.06
.02
.03

0.01
-.01
.06
.04
-.0 3

0.03
-.0 3
.03
.01
0

0.05
.02
.02
.01
0

-0.02
-.0 5
.02
.02
.03

27
28
29
30
31

P rinting.............................................................................
C hem ica ls.......................................................................
P etro le u m .......................................................................
R u b b e r.............................................................................
Leather.............................................................................

.01
.11
.03
.02
0

-.0 2
-.1 3
-.0 3
-.0 4
0

-.0 3
.04
-.01
.03
0

-.0 4
-.01
.01
.03
0

-.0 2
.04
.02
.03
0

24
25
32
33
34

Lum ber.............................................................................
Furniture..........................................................................
Stone, clay and g la s s ....................................................
Primary m etals................................................................
Fabricated m e ta ls ..........................................................

.03
.01
.02
.02
.02

.01
0
-.0 3
-.11
-.0 5

.04
.01
.02
.01
.02

-.0 2
.01
.01
.02
.03

-.01
.01
.01
.04
0

35
36
37
38
39

Industrial and commercial m a c h in e ry.........................
Electrical m a chinery......................................................
Transportation equipm ent.............................................
Instrum ents.....................................................................
Miscellaneous m anufacturing.......................................

.04
.08
.12
.03
.02

.01
.05
-.0 5
.03
-.01

.20
.13
.01
.04
.01

.16
.23
.03
0
0

.35
.34
.09
.02
.01

Total manufacturing c on tribution..................................
Private business sector multifactor productivity.........

.77
2.10

-.3 2
.60

.57
.50

.55
.60

.93
1.30

with negative mfp trends, it is also possible that the growth
trends for high tech inputs have been overestimated. While
either source of bias would tend to push service industry MFP
trends down, the two would have opposite effects on the ag­
gregate MFP trend. Underestimating service sector output
trends would bias the aggregate productivity trend downward.
Overestimating high tech input and output trends would bias
the aggregate productivity trend upward.
With the results of this article, we can neither prove that
service output growth rates are too low, nor determine that
high tech input and output growth rates are too high. We can,
however, express a concern that the “measurement playing
field” may not be level. We have very intricate means of mak­
ing quality adjustments to high tech goods, but we have few
means to make quality adjustments to service outputs.

Summary and conclusions
In our earlier work, the bottom line rested on aggregate pro­
ductivity trends that were probably downward biased. In light
o f the new evidence presented here, reaching a firm conclu­
sion about aggregate bias may be more difficult. Recent ag­
gregate productivity trends are higher now than they were


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when we published the earlier analysis. This is due to im­
provements made by BEA to the National Income and Prod­
uct Accounts (affecting the aggregate productivity trends prior
to 1995), and also to a significant speedup in productivity
growth since 1995.
In spite of the measurement improvements, it is clear that
the problem of “difficult to measure” service outputs has yet
to be resolved. In the tables, most of the MFP anomalies noted
in the earlier work remain, and several new ones have ap­
peared. There are conceptual barriers to measuring the out­
puts of some service industries. Present methods probably
still fail to capture many important quality improvements oc­
curring in these industries. If, however, the growth in high
tech capital quality is somewhat overstated, it would serve to
confuse efforts to sort out where the productivity improve­
ments really are and to assess the direction of any overall
bias in the measured productivity growth rate.
Because many of the results in the “industry exercise” may
reflect measurement problems, our ability to fully understand
the sources of productivity change may be hampered. A need
continues to exist for further scrutiny of the procedures for
measuring price, output, and quality trends in ever-changing
industries in both the service and technology sectors.
□
Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

39

Bias in Aggregate Productivity

Notes
1This earlier article is available at http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1999/

02/art4full.pdf.
2 Solow, Robert M., “Technical Change and the Aggregate Production
Function,” Review of Economics and Statistics, (1957) Vol. 39, No. 3, pp
312-20.
3 Evsey D. Domar, “On the Measurement o f Technological Change,”

Economic Journal, December 1961, pp. 709-29.
4 In an unpublished paper supplementing the earlier article, we described
an “ideal” set o f data and also a model that could use these data to calcu­
late industry and aggregate productivity in a consistent manner. Ideally
we would have (a) an annual set o f nominal input-output tables defined
consistently over time, (b) a complete set o f price indexes for each prod­
uct, and (c) complete data on real capital and labor inputs used by each
industry. All o f this would be consistent with published aggregate data on
output and inputs. O f course, the available data fall short o f this ideal.
Construction o f this data-set would be expensive, because it would in­
volve reconciling considerable amounts o f conflicting information and
estimating much incomplete information. In the econom ic censuses, in
Bureau o f Economic Analysis input-output and National Income and Prod­
uct Accounts work and in Bureau o f Labor Statistics multifactor produc­
tivity (M FP) work, however, much o f what would be needed to construct
this ideal data-set is already effectively estimated. To get the results in the
Monthly Labor Review article and the new results here, we have made
assumptions and adjustments to reconcile various data with the frame­
work we have in mind. By using many shortcuts, we have attempted to infer
what MFP trends might emerge if the ideal data-set were really constructed.
The unpublished paper also spelled out the rationale for the model used
in terms o f production functions. We had this model and these “ideal”
data in mind in formulating the industry exercise. It is important to be
able to relate real econom ic growth measurement procedures to formal
production theory. It is not the case that describing the link to theory forces
a lot o f assumptions onto the data. To the contrary, we are assuming much
in any event, and careful links to theory help us understand what it is we
are assuming, and by doing so, to guide the way to less rigid assumptions.
5 On a quinquennial basis, we estimate a full set o f inputs and outputs in
both nominal and real terms. These are based in part on input-output tables
and on industry gross output and output price series that the authors ob­
tained from the BLS O ffice o f Employment Projections (OEP). The OEP
starts with Bureau o f Economic Analysis benchmark input-output tables
and makes adjustments for “time series consistency.” At this point, the
most recent benchmark table available is for 1992. The tables in the cur­
rent paper reflect new OEP work that, in turn, reflects the 1999 compre­
hensive revisions to Bureau o f Economic Analysis National Income and
Product Accounts.
6 This involves substituting the Bureau o f Economic Analysis output
trends for BLS output trends and using the input-output data to adjust the
input trends estimates for compatibility with the Bureau o f Economic
Analysis output levels. Bureau o f Economic Analysis-based trends are
based on adjustments to BLS trends, and we never develop a full set o f
inputs and outputs consistent with Bureau o f Economic Analysis-output
based MFP trends.
7 For those unfamiliar with the Monthly Labor Review article, we will
note the major data sources used to estimate these MFP trends in table 4.
These are the 1977 and 1992 input-output tables from the Bureau o f Eco­
nomic Analysis, adjustments to these tables for consistent definitions made
by the BLS O ffice o f Employment Projections (OEP), an estimate o f the
1997 table made by the OEP and the authors using data from the 1997
Economic Censuses; Bureau o f Economic Analysis data on nominal and

40

Monthly Labor Review March 2002


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real gross output associated with their gross product originating measures;
and data on capital and labor from the data-set supporting the published
BLS MFP measures for the private business sector.
8 Gordon, Robert J., “Does the N ew Economy Measure Up to the Great
Inventions o f the Past?” J o u rn a l o f E con om ic P e rs p e c tiv e s 14 (2000)' pp
4 9 -7 4 .
9 To simplify processing, the “point contributions” o f specific input
categories to “input growth” were computed by multiplying each category’s
input quantity trend, for 1977-97, by the arithmetic mean o f its cost shares
in 1977 and 1997. Since the aggregate input growth trends are built up by
chaining quinquennial trends, the sum o f point contributions sometimes dif­
fers from the input growth rate by several tenths o f a percent.
10 The ratio is the nominal value o f the industry’s sectoral output di­
vided by the nominal value o f private business gross product originating.
The contribution o f industries to aggregate productivity growth by Domar’s
method is independent o f the form o f the MFP measures used for each.
Industry measures can be alternatively based on gross output, “sectoral
output,” or a net value-added output and, as long as the nominal values
used for weights and the inputs and outputs underlying the MFP measure
are defined consistently, industrial contributions are unaffected. The term
“sectoral output” is attributable to Frank Gollop. It expresses Domar’s
preferred concept o f an industry’s output: it includes all sales to final de­
mand plus all sales to other industries, but deducts from that the value o f
intermediate inputs purchased from within the industry in question. Note
that the scope o f the measure depends on the degree o f aggregation: as we
examine progressively more aggregate industrial sectors, successively more
intermediate inputs are excluded. As we noted in our M o n th ly L a b o r R e­
v ie w article, the sum o f these ratios is more than one because the indus­
tries sell intermediate products to one another. The intuition as to why
the weights would add up to more than one can be illustrated by the fol­
lowing example. If the productivity o f steel makers improved by 1 per­
cent, and the productivity o f automakers improved by 1 percent, then the
productivity with which the economy created cars would have increased
by more than 1 percent.
11 When contributions are added up (with more precision than shown),
these new calculations approximately replicate the published MFP trends
for the private business sector (compared in two lines near the bottom o f
the table). For 1977-97 the new detailed contributions are consistent with
an aggregate MFP trend o f 0.7.

12 Note that the category we refer to as “banks” includes private, forprofit financial institutions within SICs 60, 61, and 67. Among the more
important types of institutions in these industries are commercial banks,
savings and loans, credit agencies, bank holding companies, certain trusts,
and royalty administrators. Commercial banks accounted for about 57
percent of the employment in this category in 1995.
13 In table 4, the trend is -1 .6 percent per year from 1977-97. We also
calculated the trend for 1987-97 and this was -0 .8 percent per year.
14 Oliner, Stephen D. and Daniel E. S ic h e l, “The Resurgence o f Growth
in the Late 1990s: Is Information Technology the Story?” J o u rn a l o f E c o ­
n om ic P e rsp ectives, Fall 2000, pp. 3 -22.
15 These results are based on MFP trends that BLS publishes, and so they
are not subject to quite so many qualifications as the nonmanufacturing
estimates.
16 Oliner and Sichel found similarly large effects from both the making
and the use o f high tech items.
17 Both o f Oliner and Sichel’s effects are directly dependent on the mea­
sured growth rate o f high tech quality change.

Consumer Price Index 2001

Consumer inflation lower in 2001 :
energy and apparel prices declined
The largest annual decrease in gasoline prices since 1986
occurred in 2001; apparel prices declined fo r the fourth
consecutive year, while fo o d inflation remained the same
Todd Wilson

Todd Wilson is an
economist in the
Office of Prices and
Living Conditions,
Bureau of Labor
Statistics, e-mail:
Wilson_T@bls.gov


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

he Consumer Price Index for All Urban
Consumers ( c p i - u ) for All Items for the
U.S. city average increased 1.6 percent in
2001, down from a 3.4-percent rise during the prior
year.1 The 2001 deceleration in this index mainly
reflects lower prices for energy (household fuels
and motor fuel), apparel, and various commodi­
ties excluding food. Within the energy compo­
nent, which represents almost 8 percent of the
c p i - u , double-digit decreases in prices were re­
corded for gasoline, fuel oil, and natural gas.
Apparel prices declined for the fourth consecu­
tive year, and at an increasing rate. The declines
were widespread among the major clothing cat­
egories, including those for men’s and boys’,
women’s and girls’, and footwear.
Higher prices for many types of services, such
as owners’ equivalent rent, rent of primary resi­
dence, and medical care services were partially
offset by lower prices for many types of commodi­
ties such as gasoline, apparel, and durables, in­
cluding furniture and bedding and computers.
Commodities are generally subject to greater glo­
bal competition than services, and generally in­
crease in price less than services. Actually, in
2001, the commodities index decreased for the first
time since 1986 by 1.4 percent, following a 2.7percent increase in 2000.
The c p i - u excluding food and energy prices
(often called the core c p i - u ) increased 2.7 percent,
after rising 2.6 percent in 2000.2 Durables prices
declined 1.3 percent in 2001, following no change
in 2000. Nondurables prices decreased 1.4 per­

T

cent, after increasing 3.6 percent during 2000.
Prices for services rose 3.7 percent last year, fol­
lowing an increase of 3.9 percent during the earlier
year. (See table 1.)

Other price measures
The Producer Price Index ( p p i ) for finished goods
declined 1.8 percent in 2001. Excluding food and
energy, the p p i for finished goods rose just 0.7 per­
cent, while the PPI for intermediate materials de­
creased 1.6 percent. The PPI for crude nonfood
materials less energy decreased 9.9 percent. Raw
cotton prices decreased 46.7 percent. Wastepaper
prices decreased 28.9 percent. Iron and steel scrap
prices declined 8.5 percent.
Excluding petroleum, import prices for commodi­
ties decreased 4.4 percent in 2001, after increasing
1.3 percent in 2000, as measured by the Import Price
Index. (The p p i does not reflect changes in import
prices.) Decreasing or slightly rising import prices
in recent years have damped input costs for many
businesses in this country. Furthermore, very low
import inflation has inhibited price increases by
domestic firms facing import competition.

Energy and food prices
Energy. Energy prices decreased 13.0 percent in
2001, after increasing 14.2 percent during the prior
year. Last year, gasoline prices decreased 24.9 per­
cent—the largest annual decrease since 1986.
Household fuel oil prices declined 26.7 percent and

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

41

natural gas prices decreased 15.1 percent. Interestingly, the
cpi would have increased approximately one percentage point
more, had gasoline and natural gas prices been unchanged.
During 1999 and 2000, crude oil prices moved sharply higher.
By September 2000, following the reduced oil production of
the world’s leading oil producers, world crude oil prices reached
$31 per barrel, the highest level since the Persian Gulf War
period. By May 2001, the average price per gallon of gasoline
(all types) had climbed to a record $1.81. Soaring prices for oil
and its products (including gasoline and fuel oil) encouraged
increased global production of oil and its products. As world
petroleum and its products’ supplies rose in 2001, prices for
these items decreased.
A decrease in demand for crude oil also played a major role
in declining energy prices in 2001. Across the world, anemic
economic growth resulted in sluggish aggregate demand and
therefore in lower demand for crude oil. Unusually warm win­
ter weather in the United States weakened demand for fuel
oil.3 Furthermore, following the September 11 terrorist attacks,

a sharp drop in jet fuel demand resulted in a slight rise in
gasoline production.4 On a seasonally adjusted basis, the
gasoline all types index decreased 24.3 percent during the fourth
quarter of last year. By December 2001, the average price per
gallon of gasoline all types had fallen to $1.20.
Higher levels of new natural gas supplies, and lower de­
mand for them, have led to decreasing prices for residential
natural gas. Soaring natural gas prices in 2000 created incen­
tives for increased gas exploration and production, resulting
in higher-than-expected levels of gas injections into under­
ground storage. The high natural gas prices in 2000 also led to
conservation and fuel switching, for example from natural gas
to electricity. Additionally, relatively mild winter and summer
weather and sluggish economic growth reduced demand for
natural gas.5 In contrast to the other energy series, electricity
prices rose 6.1 percent last year.
Food. Food inflation remained unchanged in 2001—2.8 per­
cent. Slightly lower inflation for grocery store food, 2.6 per-

Table 1. Annual percent change in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (cpi-u), selected expenditure
categories, 1992-2001
Percent change for 12 months ended DecemberExpenditure category

relative
importance
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

All Item s....................................................
Food...................................................
Energy................................................
All items less food and energy.......
Commodities less food
and energy.....................................
All items less e n e rg y .......................

100.000
15.217
7.681
77.102

2.9
1.5
2.0
3.3

2.7
2.9
-1 .4
3.2

2.7
2.9
2.2
2.6

2.5
2.1
-1 .3
3.0

3.3
4.3
8.6
2.6

1.7
1.5
-3 .4
2.2

1.6
2.3
-8 .8
2.4

2.7
1.9
13.4
1.9

3.4
2.8
14.2
2.6

1.6
2.8
-13.0
2.7

22.768
92.319

2.5
3.0

1.6
3.1

1.4
2.6

1.7
2.9

1.1
2.9

.4
2.1

1.3
2.4

.2
2.0

.6
2.6

-.3
2.8

C om m odities........................................
Durables............................................
Furniture and bedding..................
Televisions.....................................
New veh icles................................
Personal computers
and peripheral equipm ent.........

41.828
10.573
1.064
.157
4.677

2.0
2.5
4.5
-1 .2
2.3

1.5
2.7
3.6
-1 .7
3.3

2.3
2.9
1.6
-1 .4
3.3

1.4
1.7
4.2
-4 .0
1.9

3.2
.7
1.0
-5 .3
1.8

.2
-1 .5
-.7
-4 .3
-.9

.4
-.5
1.4
-4.8
.0

2.7
-1 .2
-1 .3
-7 .3
-.3

2.7
.0
.4
-10.7
.0

-1 .4
-1 .3
-3.1
-10.8
-.1

.079

-

-

-

-

-

-

-35.8

-26.5

-22.7

-30.7

Nondurables......................................
Energy com modities.....................
Gasoline.....................................
Fuel o il........................................
Apparel...........................................
Medical care com m odities...........

31.255
3.843
3.458
.268
4.453
1.261

1.9
1.2
2.0
-3 .4
1.4
5.2

1.1
-5.1
-5.9
-4 .6
.9
3.1

2.0
5.2
6.4
.0
-1 .6
3.0

1.4
-3 .3
-4 .2
1.5
.1
1.8

4.0
13.8
12.4
23.3
-.2
2.6

.8
-6 .9
-6.1
-11.7
1.0
2.3

.7
-15.1
-15.4
-15.2
-.7
4.1

4.1
29.5
30.1
30.9
-.5
4.0

3.6
15.7
13.9
40.5
-1 .8
2.8

-1 .4
-24.5
-24.9
-26.7
-3 .2
4.4

S e rv ic e s ................................................
Shelter................................................
Rent of primary residence..........
Owners’ equivalent rent
of primary residence................
Utility natural gas service...............
Medical care service s......................
Airline fa re s .......................................
Telephone s e rvice s..........................

58.172
30.251
7.079

3.6
2.9
2.3

3.8
3.0
2.2

2.9
3.0
2.5

3.5
3.5
2.5

3.3
2.9
2.8

2.8
3.4
3.1

2.6
3.3
3.4

2.6
2.5
3.1

3.9
3.4
4.0

3.7
4.2
4.7

20.460
1.385
4.552
.923
2.150

3.0
5.1
7.0
6.6
-

3.2
5.8
5.9
17.0
-

3.3
-3.2
5.4
-9 .5
-

3.7
-3 .6
4.4
1.8
-

2.8
11.0
3.2
14.7
-

3.1
3.3
2.9
-4 .8
-

3.2
-3 .5
3.2
4.1
.3

2.4
2.1
3.6
10.9
.4

3.4
36.7
4.6
5.9
-2 .3

4.5
-15.1
4.8
-3 .9
1.3

Medical c a r e ........................................

5.813

6.6

5.4

4.9

3.9

3.0

2.8

3.4

3.7

4.2

4.7

N ote : Data are not seasonally adjusted.

42

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March 2002

Dashes Indicate data are not available.

cent, was offset by slightly higher inflation for restaurant food,
3.0 percent. Price decreases were recorded for fruits and veg­
etables, and fish and seafood. Pork, cereals and bakery prod­
ucts, and nonalcoholic beverages showed lower price in­
creases than those during 2000, while larger price increases
were recorded for beef and veal, dairy products, poultry, and
other food at home.
The fresh fruits index increased just 0.6 percent in 2001,
after increasing 0.8 percent during the prior year. Higher prices
for bananas, apples, and oranges were partially offset by a 5.8percent decrease in other fresh fruit prices. In 2001, there were
increased supplies of grapes, strawberries, melons, and pears.
Orange prices rose 12.8 percent, accompanied by a reduction
in California orange trees and poor Florida weather.
Fresh vegetable prices decreased 4.1 percent in 2001, after
rising 12.2 percent during the prior year. Prices decreased 17.8
percent for lettuce and 7.6 percent for tomatoes. For these two
items, acreages increased and supplies were plentiful.
Fish and seafood prices declined 0.1 percent last year, fol­
lowing a 1.4-percent increase in 2000. Tuna imports from Bo­
livia, Ecuador, Columbia, and Peru increased throughout 2001.
In September and October, Alaska experienced a tuna glut.
Production was better than normal for shrimp, salmon, and
catfish.
Pork inflation decelerated in 2001; after rising 5.8 percent in
2000, pork prices increased 3.7 percent last year. Hog slaugh­
ters in 2001 were practically unchanged from the previous year,
with an average 2-pound gain in dressed weights, increasing
pork production by 1 percent last year.6
Cereal and bakery product prices rose 2.4 percent in 2001,
compared with 2.6 percent in 2000. The rice index decreased
1.0 percent. Rice supplies increased last year to near-record
levels.
The index for nonalcoholic beverages increased just 1.3
percent last year, following a 1.5-percent rise in 2000. Coffee
prices declined 3.5 percent, accompanying a worldwide cof­
fee glut.
Beef and veal prices rose 6.2 percent in 2001, following a
5.5-percent rise during the previous year. Cattle herd reduc­
tions limited the supply of high quality beef, and contributed
to acceleration in beef inflation last year. These herd liquida­
tions continued for the fifth year last year, following a peak in
the herd size in January 1996. Severe winter weather and
droughts in 2001 led to another year of herd reductions. Beef
cow slaughter increased sharply. Many heifers were placed
into feedlots in preparation for slaughter, instead of being re­
tained for herd expansion. Herd reductions often increase sup­
plies of meat in the short run. The herds have apparently
been reduced so much over the last few years that last year’s
herd reductions and slaughter of heifers still resulted in over­
all lower supplies than those during the prior year. Beef prices
rose sharply during the first half of 2001, in part because of


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increased demand from the hotel-restaurant and export mar­
kets for high quality beef.7
Prices for dairy products increased 5.8 percent, after de­
creasing 0.4 percent in 2000. Average milk output per cow
was lowered by the stress of winter weather and by low sup­
plies of good forage.8
Poultry prices rose 4.4 percent last year, after increasing
2.0 percent in 2000. Broiler production was up 2.0 percent last
year after having been up 2.5 percent in 2000,9 yet broiler cold
storage stocks at the end of October had declined 16 percent
from the prior year. Broiler exports increased sharply. For the
first 10 months o f2001, broiler exports to Russia rose 72 per­
cent, versus the same period in 2000. Russia purchased more
than one-third of U.S. broiler exports—more than any other
country. For the first 10 months o f2001, turkey exports rose
12.5 percent, versus the same period in 2000, reflecting in­
creased sales to Russia and Poland.10
The other food at home index increased 2.9 percent in 2001,
following a 2.0-percent rise during the prior year. Butter prices
contributed significantly to the increase, with an 18.8-percent
rise in 2001.

Items other than food and energy
Apparel. The apparel index fell 3.2 percent in 2001, after
decreasing 1.8 percent in 2000. Each of these annual declines
was the largest since 1952. Both apparel sales volumes and
consumer confidence declined in 2000 and 2001. Demand for
apparel was down during this period, especially at depart­
ment stores and specialty clothing stores. Last year, even
discount clothiers sold fewer clothes than normal. The reces­
sion and bearish stock market led many consumers to put off
discretionary purchases such as those for clothing. Conse­
quently, retailers were forced to offer more sales prices than
usual. Additionally, the warm weather this past fall discour­
aged many consumers from purchasing cool-weather cloth­
ing.
Moreover, for the past decade, an oversupply of clothiers
and apparel merchandise has existed in this country. With
many stores offering identical clothing, apparel prices have
actually declined over the past 11 years. Between December
1990 and December 2001, the apparel index decreased 1.3 per­
cent.
In 2001, the indexes for both women’s and girls’ apparel
and men’s and boys’ apparel each decreased 4.1 percent. The
index for infants’ and toddlers’ apparel increased 0.2 percent.
Footwear prices decreased 2.6 percent. Prices for jewelry and
watches were down 0.1 percent.
Shelter. Shelter costs rose 4.2 percent last year, after increas­
ing 3.4 percent in 2000. Higher increases were calculated for
rent of primary residence, owners’ equivalent rent of primary

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

43

residence, and housing at school. The rent of primary resi­
dence index showed the largest increase in 15 years—4.7 per­
cent, compared with 4.0 percent in 2000. The owners’ equiva­
lent rent index rose 4.5 percent last year, following a 3.4-per­
cent increase during 2000, a reflection o f the boom in rent.
Hotel and motel charges decreased 0.8 percent, after rising
2.7 percent during the prior year. Before September 11, de­
mand for hotels and motels was already weak. For the 12month period ending August 2001, this index rose 1.5 percent,
versus 5.1 percent during the prior year. Following Septem­
ber 11, demand further decreased for hotels and motels, espe­
cially in New York, Las Vegas, and Orlando. (Demand de­
clined for other travel related services as well, such as airline
tickets.) From August to December, hotel and motel charges
decreased 2.4 percent, seasonally adjusted, versus a 0.4-percent decline during the same period in 2000.
Airline fares. The airline fares index decreased 3.9 percent
in 2001, after rising 5.9 percent in the previous year. Following
September 11, demand for flights decreased sharply. From
August to December, airline fares decreased 6.3 percent, not
seasonally adjusted (no seasonally adjusted data are avail­
able), versus a 4.9-percent decline during the same period in
2000. A 44.2- percent decline in jet fuel prices, as measured by
the Producer Price Index, contributed to the drop in airline
fares.
Vehicles. New vehicle prices decreased 0.1 percent in 2001,
following no change in 2000. New car prices remained un­
changed. New truck prices declined 0.1 percent. Prior to
September 11, demand for new vehicles was already down
from 2000. For the first 8 months of 2001, light truck sales
decreased 3.9 percent, compared with the same period in 2000.
New car sales decreased 5.8 percent. In an effort to encour­
age buying, manufacturers offered generous rebates and
dealerships offered generous discounting. Strong competi­
tion among vehiclemakers, an economy in recession, and a
bearish stock market all served to weaken new car and truck
sales, holding these prices flat.
During the week of and the week after the terrorist attacks,
new vehicle sales plummeted. During the final week of Sep­
tember, these sales bounced back, thanks to zero-percent and
low annual percentage rate ( a p r ) financing offered by manu­
facturers.11 For the first 9 months of 2001, new vehicle sales
decreased 5.8 percent, compared with the same period in 2000.
The zero-percent financing offers were extremely popular
among vehicle buyers, especially in October. From Septem­
ber to October, sales of new vehicles rose 33.6 percent. The
largest vehicle manufacturers continued offering such financ­
ing terms through December. Consequently, in 2001, new
vehicle sales decreased by just 1.3 percent.12
In addition to fierce competition among vehiclemakers,

44

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March 2002

the recession, and the faltering stock market, the Internet has
also served to hold new car and truck prices flat. In recent
years, consumers have become increasingly informed and
price savvy, using the Internet to compare styles, equipment
options, and prices of vehicles conveniently from their homes.
Used car and truck prices declined 1.9 percent in 2001,
after increasing 3.4 percent during the prior year.
Medical care. The medical care index increased 4.7 percent
in 2001, the highest calendar-year increase since 1994, follow­
ing a 4.2-percent advance in 2000. Higher price increases for
inpatient hospital services and for prescription drugs offset
lower price increases for services by physicians, dentists,
outpatient hospitals, and nursing homes.
The index for prescription drugs and medical supplies in­
creased 6.0 percent in 2001, compared with 3.6 percent in 2000.
In recent years, there has been a large increase in demand for
prescription drugs, in part due to increased advertising aimed
directly to consumers by pharmaceutical companies. The drug
categories which showed the strongest price gains last year
include anti-infectives, antihistamines, gastrointestinals,
cardiovasculars, estrogens/progestins and psychotherapeu­
tics. Large increases in spending on prescription drugs by
managed care plans in recent years have resulted in sharply
increasing premiums for health insurance plans during this
period.
Medical care services fees rose 4.8 percent, compared with
4.6 percent in 2000. Physicians’ service charges rose 3.5 per­
cent in 2001, compared with 3.9 percent in 2000. Physicians’
costs have escalated in part due to the cost of acquiring addi­
tional training needed to perform new procedures and to op­
erate new equipment. Fees for dental services increased 3.9
percent last year, following a 4.3-percent rise in 2000.
Hospital services charges increased 7.2 percent, follow­
ing a 6.3-percent rise during the prior year. A main factor
behind last year’s high increase in hospital services charges
is higher labor costs for nurses. Increases in nursing charges
have accelerated in recent years due to a growing shortage of
nurses. Additionally, restrictions of allowable charges and
reductions in some Medicare and Medicaid reimbursements
have led many hospitals to attempt to compensate by increas­
ing fees to private-pay patients. For a number of years, in­
vestments in improved information technology have enabled
hospitals to monitor, more completely and more frequently,
increases in charges by competing hospitals. As a result,
many hospitals have routinely raised charges throughout the
year, and in 2001, by a higher percentage than that during
2000.
Costs to hospitals for providing medical care services in­
creased, in part, due to both higher demand and higher re­
source utilization. Demand and utilization rose following the
expanded availability of new high-tech equipment used both

for diagnostics and to perform less invasive surgical proce­
dures such as laparoscopy. The increased demand was
made possible in part by the exercise of fewer restrictions by
managed care organizations over allowable medical proce­
dures during the past 2 years. Another factor leading to
higher medical provider and medical insurance costs was
the installation and upkeep, by hospitals, of new informa­
tion technology that has has raised productivity related to
billing, claims payment, internal analysis of charges, and the
scheduling o f appointments and procedures.
Miscellaneous personal services. This index was among
those that accelerated in 2001, up 5.0 percent, compared
with a 3.7-percent increase during each of the prior 2 years.
Legal service fees rose 6.5 last year. Increases in legal
fees resulted in part from higher labor costs and overhead
expenses associated with providing the following ser-

vices: attending depositions; preparing briefs; handling no
fault or uncontested divorces, wills and trusts, and driving
under the influence.
Prices for financial services increased 4.5 percent, com­
pared with a 3.7-percent rise in 2000. The increase was
largely associated with higher fees for making numerous
seasonal changes for tax return preparation, in addition to
higher fees for electronic tax filing. Banking service fees
also rose due to increases in fees for checks, overdraft
charges and safe deposit box rental fees.
The funeral expenses index increased 4.5 percent in 2001,
following a 2.5-percent rise during 2000. Higher salaries were
paid to funeral directors and staff, and prices were increased
for caskets, cremation services, memorials, cemetery lots,
crypts, grave liners, and automobile related services. Reasons
given for the increases include higher costs of commodities
and labor used to provide the services.
□

Notes
1 Annual percent changes are calculated from Decem ber to D e­
cember, unless otherwise stated.

Department o f Agriculture, Jan. 16, 2002).

2 E conom ists often exclu d e food and energy price m ovem ents
when evaluating the underlying or “core” level o f inflation. Food and
energy price m ovem ents tend to be relatively volatile in the shortto-in term ed iate term s, m aking only transitory im pacts on the All
Items CPi. Large rises in these prices are often follow ed by large de­
creases, and vice versa. Volatility in food and energy price movements,
such as that caused by unusual weather conditions, is generally selfcorrecting. Inclement weather often leads to temporary food shortages
and temporarily increased demand for household fuels. Sustained shifts
in food and energy prices, o f course, will affect overall inflation.

2002 .

3 P e tr o le u m M a r k e tin g M o n th ly (Energy Inform ation A dm in is­
tration, U .S. Department o f Energy, F e b r u a r y 2 0 0 2 ), p. viii.

11 The CPi measures a new veh icle’s cash price, reflecting any deal­
ership markups, or manufacturer rebates or concessions, or both. The
CPi does not, however, reflect any special finance offers, such as zeropercent finan cin g. In m ost cases, when zero-percent finan cin g was
offered, it was offered along with a smaller rebate than would have been
offered in the absence o f such financing.

7 L ivestock, D a ir y a n d P o u ltry , Department o f Agriculture, January

4 W hy A re G a s o lin e P r ic e s F a llin g S o R a p id ly ? (E nergy Infor­
mation Administration, U.S. Department o f Energy, November 2001).
5 S h o rt-T erm E n e r g y O u tlo o k (Energy Information Adm inistra­
tion, U.S. Department o f Energy, December 2001), pp. 6 and 7.
6 L iv e s to c k , D a ir y a n d P o u ltr y S itu a tio n a n d O u tlo o k


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

(U .S.

8 L iv e sto c k , D a ir y a n d P o u ltr y S itu a tio n a n d O u tlo o k ,
partment o f Agriculture, D ec. 27, 2001).

(U .S . D e­

9 L ivestock , D airy and Poultry Situation and O utlook (U .S . D e­
partment o f Agriculture, Jan. 16, 2002).
10 L iv e sto c k , D a ir y a n d P o u ltr y , D epartm ent o f A gricu ltu re, D e ­
cem ber 2001.

12 N ew vehicle sales figures are from A u to m o tiv e N e w s, Crain Com­
m unications Inc., September 2001 to January 2002.

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

45

Research Summary

Rankings of full-time
occupations, by
earnings, 2000
John E. Buckley

In 2000, pay averaged $ 16.66 an hour for
full-time workers in private industry and
State and local governments, according
to data from the Bureau of Labor Statis­
tics National Compensation Survey. Air­
plane pilots and navigators averaged
$95.80; physicians averaged $61.19.
These two salaried occupations topped
the list of 427 occupations arrayed by
earnings. The average number of annual
hours worked by physicians (2,175) far
surpassed those of airplane pilots and
navigators (1,197). As a result, the aver­
age annual salary estimate for physicians
was $ 133,088, compared with $ 114,673 for
airplane pilots and navigators. Because
the standard error is high for each of these
occupations (especially for physicians),
caution must be exercised in making di­
rect salary comparisons.
These results of the 2000 National
Compensation Survey are the fourth
annual findings of establishment-based
surveys in a sample of 154 metropolitan
and nonmetropolitan areas. The sample
represents the Nation’s 326 metropoli­
tan statistical areas (as defined by the
Office of Management and Budget in
1994) and the remaining portions of the
50 States. Agricultural, private house­
hold, and Federal Government workers
are not included in the National Com­
pensation Survey. 1

High- and low -paying
occupations
Top 10 percent. Of the 43 occupations
with hourly earnings in the top 10 per­
cent , 38 were in the professional major
occupational group; 4 were in the execuJohn E. Buckley is an econom ist in the D ivi­
sio n o f C o m p en sa tion D ata A n a ly sis and
Planning, Bureau o f Labor Statistics. E-mail:
B uckley_J@ bls.gov

46

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tive group, and 1 was in sales (sales en­
gineers). Of the 38 professional occupa­
tions, 22 were teaching positions, pay­
ing average hourly earnings ranging
from $54.47 for economics teachers to
$35.19 for psychology teachers. Work­
ers in 11 of these 22 teaching positions
averaged $39.07 or more an hour.
Top 20 percent. The 86 occupations in
the top 20 percent of the earnings array
were dominated by positions in the pro­
fessional and executive major occupa­
tional groups. (See table 1.) However,
workers from other major groups begin to
appear in these high-earnings deciles. For
example, the service major occupational
group is represented by public transpor­
tation attendants (with a rank of 51) and
police and detective supervisors (78)
In the precision production major
group, three occupations were ranked
in the top 20 percent - elevator install­
ers and repairers (73); supervisory
plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters
(80); and supervisory electricians and
power transmission installers (82). In the
transportation m ajor group, long­
shore workers ranked 58, with average
hourly earnings of $28.91.
Bottom 10 percent. Average hourly
earnings ranged from $9.80 to $3.99 for
full-time workers in occupations at the
bottom 10 percent of the wage ladder.
More than one-third of these 43 lowest
paying positions were in the service
major occupational group; most of the
remaining two-thirds were nearly evenly
divided among three major groups—
handlers, administrative support, and
machine operators. The low rate ($3.99
an hour)for waiters and waitresses in the
service group may be misleading; the
National Compensation Survey does not
include tips as part of wages because
employers do not pay the tips. Thus, the
rate for waiters and waitresses reflects
the absence of information on tips. As­
sistants to waiters and waitresses were
ranked 426,with average hourly earnings
of $6.16. (Rates for some other low-

March 2002

ranked occupations, such as baggage
porters and bellhops, bartenders, park­
ing lot attendants, and taxicab drivers
and chauffeurs, were similarly affected
by the absence of information on tips.)

Earnings dispersion
As seen in table 2, average hourly earn­
ings varied considerably within and
among major occupational groups. The
following tabulation highlights the per­
centage spreads within each of the nine
major occupational groups.2
P ercen t by
w h ic h h ig h e s t
p a i d o c c u p a tio n
e x c e e d s th e l o w e s t
p a i d o c c u p a tio n
M a jo r
o c c u p a tio n a l
g ro u p

Professional
and technical......
Executive...............
Sales......................
Administration
support...............
Precision
production..........
Machine
operators.............
Transportation.....
Handlers................
Service...................

w ith in e a c h o f th e
n in e m a jo r
o c c u p a tio n a l g r o u p

757
247
326
163
176
117
237
167
655

The huge spread for professional jobs
reflects the disparate jobs classified in the
professional major occupational group,
ranging from airplane pilots and naviga­
tors and physicians at the top end of the
scale to health record technologists and
technicians and substitute teachers at the
low end. When airplane pilots and navi­
gators are excluded from the professional
group, the average hourly spread drops
to 447 percent. (Likewise, excluding wait­
ers and waitresses from the service group
produces a 389-percent spread instead of
655 percent.)

Reliability of the data
The data in this article are estimates from
a scientifically selected probability

Table 1.

Hourly earnings of full-time workers and weekly and annual work hours, National Compensation Survey, 2000
Mean hours2

Hourly earnings'
Rank

Occupation
Mean

Relative
error4
(percent)

Weekly

Annud

Major
occupational
group3

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Airplane pilots and navigators...........
P hysicians..........................................
Economics te a ch e rs..........................
Physics teachers...............................
Medical science te a ch e rs.................
Law te a c h e rs ......................................
Natural science teachers, n.e.c........
Engineering tea chers.........................
Physical education teachers.............
Sociology te a ch e rs............................
Education teachers............................

$95.80
61.19
54.47
52.95
51.20
51.15
44.37
42.29
39.87
39.74
39.33

9.4
23.3
11.4
8.5
7.6
9.6
4.6
8.5
11.7
8.8
5.4

23.0
41.8
43.0
30.9
39.8
39.7
38.6
43.8
39.3
39.0
37.9

1,197
2,175
1,558
1,120
1,818
1,771
1,647
1,917
1,506
1,596
1,520

Professional
Professional
Professional
Professional
Professional
Professional
Professional
Professional
Professional
Professional
Professional

12
13
14
15
16
17

Theology te a c h e rs .............................
History te a c h e rs ................................
Lawyers...............................................
Mathematical scientists, n.e.c.........
O ptom etrists.......................................
Business, commerce and marketing
tea chers............................................
Judges .................................................
English tea chers................................
Mathematical science te a c h e rs .......
Social science teachers, n.e.c..........

39.14
39.07
38.76
38.56
38.53

5.6
8.6
6.3
21.3
4.9

39.1
34.7
39.7
40.0
39.8

1,398
1,301
2,062
1,879
2,072

Professional
Professional
Professional
Professional
Professional

38.34
37.94
37.85
37.82
37.63

8.3
7.6
9.3
6.4
5.2

38.8
39.2
37.7
38.6
39.2

1,517
2,041
1,531
1,511
1,578

Professional
Professional
Professional
Professional
Professional

Chemistry teachers............................
Biological science tea chers..............
Earth, environmental, and marine
science te a c h e rs.............................
Managers., marketing, advertising
and public relations..........................
Petroleum e n gineers..........................
Physicists and astronom ers.............
Chemical engineers............................
Political science teachers.................
Agriculture and forestry te a ch e rs....
Health specialties teachers...............

37.52
37.46

9.9
8.0

38.7
41.2

1,451
1,808

Professional
Professional

37.39

13.0

39.0

1,602

Professional

37.24
36.75
36.66
36.39
36.17
35.55
35.22

3.0
6.9
8.0
3.0
9.7
26.4
8.5

41.0
40.3
40.0
40.1
38.8
37.6
39.9

2,132
2,083
2,081
2,087
1,544
1,668
1,757

Executive
Professional
Professional
Professional
Professional
Professional
Professional

35.19
33.94
33.87
33.59
33.51
33.34
33.24
33.00

9.8
4.9
8.5
5.5
5.5
3.8
6.2
7.9

39.0
40.9
40.4
41.0
40.3
40.1
40.1
38.5

1,637
2,123
2,101
2,134
2,098
2,086
2,084
2,002

Professional
Professional
Executive
Sales
Professional
Professional
Professional
Professional

41

Psychology tea chers.........................
Electrical and electronic engineers ...
Financial m anagers............................
Sales engineers.................................
Engineers, n.e.c..................................
Aerospace engineers.........................
Nuclear engineers..............................
Actuaries.............................................
Administrators, education and
related fie ld s .....................................
Managers and administrators, n.e.c.

32.71
32.64

3.8
3.7

39.8
41.7

1,939
2,167

Executive
Executive

42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

Physicians’ assistants.......................
Chemists, except biochem ists..........
Art, drama and music teachers.........
Pharmacists........................................
Surveyors and mapping scientists....
Social work teachers..........................
Computer science tea chers..............
Teachers, special ed ucation.............
Managers, medicine and h e a lth .......
Public transportation attendants......

32.38
31.23
31.16
31.10
31.05
30.83
30.73
30.16
30.13
30.13

6.8
4.5
7.2
2.9
5.8
8.9
17.0
3.6
3.9
6.3

39.8
40.0
38.4
40.3
39.9
40.0
38.4
35.7
39.8
21.4

2,069
2,078
1,510
2,091
2,077
1,561
1,646
1,417
2,068
1,110

Professional
Professional
Professional
Professional
Professional
Professional
Professional
Professional
Executive
Service

52

Securities and financial services
sales occupations............................
Personnel and labor relations
m anagers..........................................
Geologists and geodesists...............
Computer systems analysts and
s c ie n tis ts ..........................................
Secondary school te a ch e rs..............
Econom ists.........................................
Longshore equipment operators........

30.11

11.5

39.6

2,059

Sales

29.95
29.85

10.7
8.8

41.1
40.9

2,125
2,126

Executive
Professional

29.36
29.16
29.07
28.91

2.8
1.4
5.3
5.2

40.1
37.2
39.3
39.9

2,084
1,423
2,044
2,074

Professional
Professional
Professional
Transportation

18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

53
54
55
56
57
58


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

47

Research Summary

Table 1.

Continued— Hourly earnings of full-time workers and weekly and annual work hours, National Compensation
Survey, 2000
Hourly earnings'

Rcnk

Occupation
Mean

59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96

97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105

106
107
108

48

Mean hours2

Relative
error4
(percent)

Weekly

Annual

Major
occupational
group3

Elementary school teachers.............
Metallurgical and materials
engineers..........................................
Physical scientists, n.e.c..................
Musicians and com posers................
Professional occupations, n.e.c........
Operations and systems researchers
and an alysts.....................................
A thletes...............................................
Administrators and officials, public
administration....................................
Trade and industrial teachers............
Actors and d ire cto rs..........................

$28.86

1.1

36.6

1,395

Professional

28.78
28.56
28.48
28.18

6.4
4.6
40.1
3.5

40.3
39.9
29.4
39.8

2,095
2,074
1,381
2,041

Professional
Professional
Professional
Professional

28.14
28.13

5.3
17.2

40.0
40.2

2,081
2,037

Professional
Professional

27.80
27.64
27.49

2.3
6.5
15.6

39.5
38.6
39.8

2,045
1,656
2,069

Executive
Professional
Professional

Civil engineers....................................
Managers, service organizations,
n.e .c...................................................
Dental hygienists...............................
P sychologists.....................................
Elevator installers and repairers......
Speech therapists..............................
Industrial e n gineers...........................
Teachers, n.e.c....................................
Mechanical engineers........................
Supervisors, police and detectives...

27.35

3.0

40.3

2,096

Professional

27.19
27.09
27.03
26.88
26.71
26.49
26.45
26.20
26.20

7.9
2.9
4.7
8.1
3.7
2.7
5.5
3.5
3.4

39.8
36.0
38.9
40.0
38.3
40.6
36.4
42.0
40.1

2,064
1,874
1,901
2,080
1,664
2,110
1,478
2,186
2,085

Executive
Professional
Professional
Precision production
Professional
Professional
Professional
Professional
Service occupations

25.56

8.6

38.7

2,013

Professional

25.35
25.33

6.6
4.4

40.0
39.9

2,079
2,077

Precision production
Executive

25.09
25.03

3.4
6.2

40.2
39.8

2,090
2,064

Precision production
Professional

24.93

4.8

37.8

1,658

Professional

24.85
24.81
24.59

6.9
6.6
14.5

40.0
39.4
41.1

2,079
2,045
2,138

Executive
Professional
Professional

24.37

6.2

40.0

2,076

Executive

24.22

18.9

42.5

1,658

Professional

24.22
24.03
23.93
23.92

4.7
15.5
4.6
4.0

40.6
44.0
39.3
39.4

2,112
2,290
2,041
2,048

Sales
Executive
Professional
Executive

23.85
23.76

7.2
3.8

40.1
38.2

2,074
1,773

Precision production
Professional

23.72
23.65
23.60

33.5
16.5
7.1

43.0
41.2
39.1

2,236
2,141
2,000

Executive
Precision production
Professional

Tile setters, hard and s o ft................
Underwriters........................................
Locomotive operating occupations ...
Biological and life scientists.............
A rc h ite c ts ...........................................
Computer programmers......................
Supervisors, computer equipment
operators...........................................

23.55
23.45
23.44
23.36
23.22
23.19

10.1
7.9
9.8
9.9
5.6
3.0

40.0
38.7
40.3
39.7
39.7
39.6

2,080
1,982
2,094
2,060
2,066
2,053

Precision production
Executive
Transportation
Professional
Professional
Professional

23.18

4.5

39.8

Power plant operators........................
Electrical power installers and
repairers............................................
Physical the rap ists............................

23.09

2.7

39.8

2,067
support
2,069

23.06 /
22.85

2.5
4.2

40.0
39.7

2,080
2,038

Helpers, surveyors.............................
Supervisors, plumbers, pipefitters,
and steam fitters...............................
Management analysts........................
Supervisors, electricians and power
transmission installers.....................
Medical scientists..............................
Vocational and educational
cou nselors........................................
Purchasing agents and buyers,
n.e.c...................................................
Editors and reporters.........................
Atmospheric and space scientists....
Management related occupations,
n.e.c...................................................
Foreign language teachers................
Sales representatives, mining,
manufacturing, and w holesale.........
Funeral directors................................
Urban planners....................................
Other financial o ffic e rs ......................
Supervisors, carpenters and related
w o rk e rs .............................................
Librarians............................................
Chief executives and general
administrators, public
administration....................................
Supervisors, extractive occupations
Public relations specialists...............

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

March 2002

Administrative
Precision production
Precision production
Professional

Table 1.

Continued— Hourly earnings of full-time workers and weekly and annual work hours, National Compensation
Survey, 2000
Mean hours2

Hourly earnings'
Rank

Occupation
Mean

Relative
error4
(percent)

Weekly

Annud

Major
occupational
group3

Real estate sales occupations.........
Occupational therapists....................
Supervisors, firefighters and fire
prevention occupations...................
Forestry and conservation
s c ie n tis ts ..........................................
Painters, sculptors, craft artists,
and artist print-m akers....................
Buyers, wholesale and retail trade,
except farm products.......................
Insurance sales occupations............
Personnel, training, and labor
relations specialists.........................
Sheetmetal duct installers................
Advertising and related sales
occu pation s......................................

$22.84
22.79

13.5
4.8

37.8
38.7

1,967
1,941

Sales
Professional

22.34

4.7

49.2

2,558

Service

22.29

7.3

40.2

2,091

Professional

22.07

19.8

40.1

2,083

Professional

21.91
21.80

7.0
5.6

40.5
39.7

2,107
2,066

Executive
Sales occupations

21.75
21.74

3.1
8.5

39.6
39.7

2,058
2,062

Executive
Precision production

21.73

7.4

39.5

2,054

Sales occupations

Registered n u rs e s .............................
Mining occupations, n.e.c..................
Agricultural and food scie n tists.......
Accountants and auditors.................
Archivists and curators.....................
Stevedores..........................................
Inspectors and compliance officers,
except construction.........................
Telephone line installers and
repairers............................................
Social scientists, n.e.c......................
Camera, watch, and musical
instrument repairers.........................

21.69
21.61
21.53
21.51
21.51
21.43

1.3
3.1
9.6
1.8
10.6
4.8

39.0
39.5
39.8
39.6
39.3
39.3

2,013
2,055
2,042
2,042
2,046
2,046

Professional
Precision production
Professional
Executive
Professional
Handlers

21.34

3.6

39.3

2,041

Executive

21.33
21.28

2.8
22.9

40.0
38.7

2,076
2,011

Precision production
Professional

21.28

12.7

39.0

2,030

Precision production

Construction inspectors....................
Tool and die m a kers...........................
Police and detectives, public
s e rv ic e ..............................................
Managers, properties and real
e s ta te ................................................
Brickmasons and stonem asons.......
Miscellaneous plant and system
operators, n.e.c................................
Industrial engineering technicians....
Railroad brake, signal and switch
operators...........................................

21.19
21.19

4.0
2.3

40.2
40.1

2,087
2,088

Executive
Precision production

21.01

1.5

40.0

2,074

Service

21.00
20.91

7.9
8.9

40.3
39.1

2,095
1,979

Executive
Precision production

20.91
20.89

7.1
5.5

40.0
40.4

2,065
2,102

Precision production
Professional

20.81

12.4

40.0

2,080

Transportation

137
138

Designers............................................
Aircraft engine m echanics................

20.80
20.75

6.2
5.1

39.6
40.0

2,056
2,080

Professional
Precision production

139

Plumbers, pipefitters and
steam fitters.......................................
Mechanical engineering technicians .
Aircraft mechanics except engine....
Sales occupations, other business
s e rv ic e s ............................................
Supervisors, construction trades,
n.e.c...................................................
Sales workers, motor vehicles
and b o a ts..........................................
Drywall installers................................
Supervisors, brickmasons,
stonemasons, and tilesetters..........
Stationary engineers..........................
Engineering technicians, n.e.c..........

20.74
20.69
20.69

4.8
3.8
4.2

39.7
40.3
40.0

2,065
2,095
2,080

Precision production
Professional
Precision production

20.67

7.5

40.2

2,088

Sales

20.43

4.3

40.0

2,072

Precision production

20.32
20.32

5.0
13.7

45.1
39.1

2,346
2,032

Sales
Precision production

20.26
20.16
20.12

12.9
3.6
2.9

40.0
39.9
39.8

2,080
2,074
2,069

Precision production
Precision production
Professional

19.97
19.81
19.78

3.1
4.3
9.9

40.6
39.8
40.0

2,108
2,071
2,064

Precision production
Precision production
Professional

19.77

6.5

40.0

2,080

Precision production

109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136

140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152

Supervisors, production
occu pation s......................................
E lectricians.........................................
Technical w rite rs ................................
Patternmakers and modelmakers,
m e ta l..................................................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

49

Research Summary

¡Q 3 9 B

Continued— Hourly earnings of full-time workers and weekly and annual work hours, National Compensation
aurvey, ¿uuu
Hourly earnings'

Rank

Occupation

Mean hours2
Weekly

Annual

Major
occupational
group3

Relative
Mean

error*
(percent)

153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199

50

Mechanical controls and valve
repairers............................................
Radiological technicians....................
Electronic repairers, communications
and industrial equipm ent.................
Precision inspectors, testers, and
related workers, n.e.c.......................
Technical and related occupations,
n.e .c...................................................
Carpet in s ta lle rs................................
D rafters...............................................
Adjusters and calibrators..................
Fire inspection and fire prevention
occu pation s......................................
Telephone installers and repairers....
Operating engineers...........................
Millwrights...........................................
Respiratory therapists........................
Street and door to door sales
w o rk e rs .............................................
Supervisors, painters, paperhangers
and plasterers..................................
Supervisors, financial records
processing........................................

$19.72
19.66

4.4
4.6

40.0
39.6

2,080
2,058

Precision production
Professional

19.59

2.9

39.9

2,072

Precision production

19.53

7.7

40.0

2,080

Precision production

19.42
19.41

3.3
10.2

39.7
39.6

2,055
2,061

Professional
Precision production

19.18
19.12

3.2
20.3

40.0
40.0

2,080
2,080

Professional
Precision production

19.05
18.98
18.94
18.81
18.69

7.5
3.0
6.3
5.7
2.0

41.7
40.0
40.0
40.0
39.2

2,170
2,080
1,957
2,080
2,040

Service occupations
Precision production
Transportation
Precision production
Professional

18.69

13.3

38.6

2,006

Sales

18.69

3.1

40.2

2,092

Precision production

18.57

3.4

39.5

2,052

Administrative support

18.53
18.50
18.49
18.48

4.8
17.2
8.0
4.1

39.9
42.0
39.2
40.0

2,076
2,185
2,039
2,069

Professional
Transportation
Professional
Precision production

18.44

9.9

40.2

2,090

Precision production

18.39

3.6

40.3

2,097

Administrative support

18.38
18.30

15.6
7.1

39.6
40.0

2,060
2,080

Executive
Administrative support

18.22
18.21

8.4
3.3

51.6
39.6

2,359
2,061

Transportation
Professional

Broadcast equipment operators........
Supervisors, material moving
equipment..........................................
Photographers.....................................
Chemical technicians.........................
Prekindergarten and kindergarten....
Religious workers, n.e.c.....................
Supervisors, agriculture-related
w o rk e rs .............................................
Industrial machinery repairers...........
Supervisors, motor vehicle
operators...........................................
Locksmiths and safe repairers..........

18.08

11.3

39.8

2,068

Professional

18.08
18.06
18.02
17.94
17.87

3.6
8.3
3.7
7.4
16.4

40.6
40.1
40.0
38.0
40.0

2,112
2,083
2,073
1,659
1,979

Transportation
Professional
Professional
Professional
Professional

17.81
17.80

6.9
1.8

38.7
39.9

2,012
2,074

Handlers
Precision production

17.62
17.57

5.5
5.4

42.8
40.0

2,225
2,080

Transportation
Precision production

Legal assista n ts................................
Precision grinders, filers, and tool
sharpeners........................................
Therapists, n.e.c.................................
Tool programmers, numerical control.
Supervisors, guards...........................
Managers, food servicing and lodging
establishments.................................
Precision assemblers, m e ta l.............
Plumbers, pipefitters and steamfitters
apprentices.......................................
Carpenters..........................................
Insurance adjusters, examiners,and
investigators.....................................
Clergy...................................................

17.56

3.3

39.1

2,035

Professional

17.55
17.54
17.54
17.54

6.8
4.7
4.7
7.0

40.0
39.2
40.2
38.7

2,080
2,030
2,092
1,927

Precision production
Professional
Professional
Service occupations

17.52
17.48

5.0
2.1

43.2
40.0

2,162
2,078

Executive
Precision production

17.43
17.28

13.8
3.3

39.8
39.8

2,071
2,055

Precision production
Precision production

17.20
17.17

3.8
13.2

39.1
47.1

2,033
2,450

Administrative support
Professional

Electrical and electronic technicians
Hoist and winch op e ra to rs................
Science technicians, n.e.c................
Heavy equipment m echanics............
Automobile body and related
repairers............................................
Supervisors, distribution, scheduling,
and adjusting clerks.........................
Purchasing agents and buyers,
farm products....................................
Chief communications operators......
Ship captains and mates except
fishing b o a ts .....................................
D ietitians.............................................

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

March 2002

Table 1.

Continued— Hourly earnings of full-time workers and weekly and annual work hours, National Compensation
Mean hours2

Hourly earnings'
Renk

Occupation
Mean

200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246

Relative
error4
(percent)

Weekly

Annual

Major
occupational
group3

Drillers, oil w e ll....................................
Firefighting occupations.....................
Sheriffs, bailiffs, and other law
enforcement officers........................
Cost and rate c le rk s ..........................
Supervisors, general o ffic e ...............
Data processing equipment
repairers............................................
Separating, filtering, and clarifying
machine op e ra to rs...........................
Sheet metal w o rk e rs ..........................
Crane and tower operators................
Supervisors, mechanics and
repairers............................................

$17.16
17.15

25.2
3.0

40.0
48.3

2,036
2,512

Precision production
Service occupations

17.06
17.04
16.94

2.7
13.1
3.1

39.8
40.0
39.7

2,071
2,080
2,063

Service occupations
Administrative support
Administrative support

16.85

9.4

39.8

2,067

Precision production

16.77
16.73
16.73

3.6
4.9
5.4

39.8
40.0
39.8

2,069
2,077
2,067

Machine operators
Precision production
Transportation

16.72

13.4

40.4

2,101

Precision production

Inspectors, testers, and g raders.....
Supervisors, sales occupations.......
Structural metal w o rk e rs...................
M achinists...........................................
Supervisors, handlers, equipment
cleaners, and laborers, n.e.c..........
Hand molders and shapers except
jew elers.............................................
Surveying and mapping technicians .
Mining machine operators.................
Production coordinators....................
Automobile m echanics.......................

16.68
16.59
16.58
16.58

3.5
3.7
4.6
3.8

40.4
41.4
38.9
40.0

2,103
2,154
1,981
2,079

Precision production
Sales
Precision production
Precision production

16.56

7.0

39.2

2,030

Handlers

16.52
16.44
16.30
16.28
16.26

5.6
7.2
13.3
2.8
3.9

40.0
39.8
40.0
40.0
40.3

2,080
2,071
2,080
2,076
2,096

Precision production
Professional
Precision production
Administrative support
Precision production

Concrete and terrazzo finishers........
Biological tech nicia ns........................
Clinical laboratory technologists
and technicians................................
Photoengravers and lithographers ....
Miscellaneous precision workers,
n.e.c...................................................
Mechanics and repairers, n.e.c.........
W ater and sewer treatment plant
operators...........................................
Layout w o rk e rs ...................................
Heating, air conditioning, and
refrigeration mechanics...................
Correctional institution o ffic e rs .........

16.25
16.22

12.3
5.1

37.9
39.7

1,896
2,064

Precision production
Professional

16.11
16.05

3.7
9.3

38.4
39.2

1,996
2,037

Professional
Machine operators

15.94
15.93

8.3
2.2

40.0
39.9

2,078
2,072

Precision production
Precision production

15.77
15.61

3.7
6.3

40.0
40.0

2,079
2,080

Precision production
Precision production

15.57
15.48

3.0
4.4

40.0
39.9

2,075
2,031

Precision production
Service

15.44

12.3

40.7

2,117

Sales

15.32
15.17

20.0
8.0

37.4
39.8

1,575
2,071

Precision production
Precision production

15.15
15.14
15.13
15.06

5.6
3.7
7.4
15.1

40.0
39.6
39.3
39.7

2,071
2,059
2,027
2,062

Transportation
Machine operators
Professional
Administrative support

14.97
14.93
14.89

2.7
11.4
2.7

38.9
40.0
39.6

2,024
2,079
2,053

Precision production
Precision production
Administrative support

14.89

3.5

40.0

2,081

Administrative support

14.86
14.85

4.3
5.5

39.9
39.7

2,074
2,032

Transportation
Precision production

14.84

13.7

37.8

1,854

Professional

14.81

3.5

40.0

2,079

Machine operators

14.69
14.68

4.4
4.6

39.7
39.2

2,057
2,014

Professional
Administrative support

Sales workers, furniture & home
furnishings........................................
Precision food production
occu pation s......................................
Tool and die maker apprentices........
Grader, dozer, and scrapper
operators...........................................
Production samplers and weighers ...
Social workers.....................................
Proofreaders.......................................
Dental laboratory and medical
appliance technicians......................
Office machine repairers...................
Computer operators...........................
Meter readers......................................
Miscellaneous material moving
equipment operators, n.e.c..............
Construction trades, n.e.c.................
Artists, performers, and related
workers, n.e.c...................................
Lathe and turning machine set-up
operators...........................................
Health technologists and technicians,
n.e.c...................................................
Eligibility clerks, social w e lfa re .........


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

51

Research Summary

Table 1.

Continued— Hourly earnings of full-time workers and weekly and annual work hours, National Compensation
Survey, 2000
Hourly earnings'

Rcnk

Occupation
Mean

Mean hours2

Relative
error4
(percent)

Weekly

Annual

Major
occupational
group3

247
248
249

Stenographers.....................................
Carpenter apprentices........................
Excavating and loading machine
operators...........................................

$14.66
14.66

6.0
7.7

39.3
40.0

2,042
1,979

Administrative support
Precision production

14.66

4.3

40.0

2,047

Transportation

250
251
252
253

Driver-sales w orkers..........................
Recreation w o rk e rs ............................
Welders and cutters...........................
Bus, truck, and stationary engine
mechanics.........................................
Glaziers................................................
Secretaries..........................................
Heat treating equipment operators....
R oofers...............................................
Machinery maintenance
occu pation s......................................
Furnace, kiln, and oven operators,
except fo o d .......................................

14.64
14.63
14.55

5.0
4.3
2.7

40.7
39.3
40.0

2,109
2,041
2,080

T ransportation
Professional
Machine operators

14.50
14.50
14.46
14.46
14.45

6.0
6.9
3.7
3.1
10.1

40.1
40.0
38.9
40.0
38.2

2,083
2,080
1,999
2,078
1,962

Precision production
Precision production
Administrative support
Machine operators
Precision production

14.44

3.2

39.9

2,066

Precision production

14.37

5.4

40.0

2,081

Machine operators

14.36
14.33
14.28

2.8
7.7
3.6

40.0
40.0
39.6

2,078
2,079
2,054

Machine operators
Handlers
Machine operators

14.18
14.15
14.06

7.8
2.8
8.8

40.0
39.7
40.0

2,076
2,061
2,080

Administrative support
Administrative support
Machine operators

14.02
13.99

2.7
1.3

39.5
39.3

2,047
2,040

Administrative suppo
Professional

13.99

4.3

39.6

2,007

Precision production

13.90

13.1

40.0

2,074

Machine operators

13.85
13.84

4.4
3.4

39.8
37.0

2,058
1,713

Machine operators
Transportation

13.82

3.9

39.7

2,063

Administrative support

13.78

8.6

39.9

2,074

Administrative support

13.74

14.8

40.0

2,080

Precision production

13.67
13.66
13.65

2.3
13.2
4.1

39.9
39.4
40.1

2,076
2,047
2,084

Machine operators
Precision production
Administrative support

13.56
13.56

6.9
6.3

39.8
38.2

2,068
1,981

Machine operators
Machine operators

13.52

5.5

40.7

2,117

Sales

13.41
13.38
13.34

12.2
6.2
25.2

39.9
39.2
38.3

2,076
2,040
1,972

Precision production
Administrative support
Sales

13.31
13.29
13.28

6.6
4.1
5.0

41.2
39.8
40.2

2,140
2,068
2,078

Sales
Administrative support
Sales

13.28
13.27
13.23

2.3
8.9
5.2

39.7
39.8
39.7

2,067
2,061
2,066

Administrative support
Precision production
Precision production

13.22

1.9

39.7

2,061

Administrative support

13.21

5.8

39.9

2,077

Machine operators

13.21

3.6

39.9

2,072

Transportation

254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292

52

Numerical control machine operators
Garbage collectors.............................
Printing press operators.....................
Weighers, measurers, checkers,
and sam plers.....................................
Payroll and timekeeping c le rk s .........
Rolling machine operators.................
Personnel clerks except payroll and
timekeeping.......................................
Licensed practical nurses.................
Painters, construction and
maintenance......................................
Painting and paint spraying machine
operators...........................................
Mixing and blending machine
operators...........................................
Bus drivers..........................................
Transportation ticket and reservation
a g e n ts ................................................
Material recording, scheduling, and
distribution clerks, n.e.c..................
Precision stones and metals
w o rk e rs .............................................
Fabricating machine operators,
n.e .c...................................................
Upholsterers........................................
Dispatchers.........................................
Milling and planing machine „
operators...........................................
Typesetters and com positors............
Sales workers, p a rts..........................
Cabinet makers and bench
carpenters.........................................
Classified ad c le rk s ...........................
Sales workers, a p p a re l.....................
Sales workers, hardware and building
supplies.............................................
Expeditors...........................................
Sales support occupations, n.e.c.....
Investigators and adjusters except
insurance..........................................
Insulation w orkers..............................
Tailors...................................................
Order c le rk s ........................................
Lathe and turning machine
operators...........................................
Industrial truck and tractor
equipment op erators........................

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

March 2002

Table 1.

Continued— Hourly earnings of full-time workers and weekly and annual work hours, National Compensation
Mean hours2

Hourly earnings'
Rcnk

Occupation
Mean

293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339

Relative
error4
(percent)

Weekly

Annual

Major
occupational
group3

Electrician ap pren tices.....................
Small engine repairs...........................
Forging machine operators................
Household appliance and power
tool repairers.....................................
Sailors and de ckhand s.....................
Farm equipment mechanics...............
Protective service occupations,
n.e.c..................................................

13.20
13.19
13.14

5.3
4.5
4.9

40.0
40.0
39.9

2,080
1,769
2,074

Precision production
Precision production
Machine operators

13.12
13.09
13.08

6.0
11.9
5.2

39.6
45.3
40.7

2,058
2270
2,116

Precision production
Transportation
Precision production

13.03

6.3

39.3

1,737

Service occupations

Truck d riv e rs .......................................
Metal plating machine o perators......
Production te s te rs .............................
Dental assistants...............................
Statistical c le rk s ................................
Slicing and cutting machine
operators...........................................
Grinding, abrading, buffing, and
polishing machine o p e ra to rs...........
Folding machine operators................
T y p is ts .................................................
Telephone operators...........................

12.96
12.91
12.85
12.82
12.81

2.1
3.7
3.3
9.9
5.5

41.8
39.6
40.0
38.0
39.2

2,152
2,059
2,075
1,974
2,036

Transportation
Machine operators
Machine operators
Service
Administrative support

12.81

4.5

39.9

2,073

Machine operators

12.78
12.76
12.74
12.60

3.0
3.8
1.8
3.0

40.0
39.6
88.5
39.2

2,079
2,058
1,975
2,036

Machine operators
Machine operators
Administrative support
Administrative support

Sales workers, other commodities ....
Administrative support occupations,
n.e .c....................................................
Photographic process machine
operators...........................................
Peripheral equipment op erators.......
Sheet metal worker apprentices........
Construction laborers.........................
Substitute te a c h e rs ...........................
Records clerks, n.e.c.........................
Winding and twisting machine
operators...........................................
Stock and inventory c le rk s ...............

12.52

7.2

39.7

2,066

Sales occupations

12.52

1.9

39.4

2,035

Administrative support

12.47
12.44
12.40
12.36
12.31
12.29

5.9
6.9
16.5
4.8
14.3
2.2

39.9
39.6
34.9
39.9
32.6
39.3

2,070
2,058
1,793
1,999
1,271
2,025

Machine operators
Administrative support
Precision production
Handlers
Professional
Administrative support

12.27
12.18

7.8
2.4

39.9
39.8

2,075
2,065

Machine operators
Administrative support

Bookbinders........................................
Correspondence cle rk s ......................
Crushing and grinding machine
operators...........................................
Information clerks, n.e.c...................
Punching and stamping press
operators...........................................
Miscellaneous machine operators,
n.e .c...................................................
Traffic, shipping and receiving
c le rk s .................................................
Bookkeepers, accounting and
auditing clerks..................................
G u id e s ................................................
Bill and account collectors................

12.17
12.16

2.7
3.9

39.9
39.8

2,073
2,059

Precision production
Administrative support

12.13
12.11

7.2
3.3

40.0
39.3

1,997
2,038

Machine operators
Administrative support

12.11

5.2

40.0

2,071

Machine operators

12.10

3.7

39.9

2,073

Machine operators

12.09

3.2

39.8

2,072

Administrative support

11.96
11.96
11.93

5.1
9.3
4.3

39.6
39.5
39.2

2,057
2,016
2,037

Administrative support
Service occupations
Administrative support

11.92

3.7

42.2

2,139

Service occupations

11.92

10.7

39.8

2,068

Service occupations

11.91
11.88
11.82

2.9
1.3
4.9

40.0
39.3
40.0

2,080
2,025
2,080

Machine operators
Administrative support
Precision production

11.81

3.9

39.9

2,076

Machine operators

11.78
11.76

4.0
3.9

39.6
39.9

2,058
2,073

Machine operators
Machine operators

11.68

12.3

40.0

2,005

Precision production

11.68

2.9

39.9

2,076

Machine operators

Supervisors, food preparation and
service occupations.........................
Supervisors, cleaning and building
service w orkers................................
Hand molding, casting, and forming
occu pation s......................................
General office clerks..........................
Furniture and wood finishers.............
Production inspectors, checkers
and exam iners...................................
Extruding and forming machine
operators...........................................
A ssem blers.........................................
Paving, surfacing, and tamping
equipment operators........................
Packaging and filling machine
operators...........................................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

53

Research Summary

Table 1.

Continued— Hourly earnings o f full-time workers and weekly and annual work hours, National Compensation
Survey, 2000
Hourly earnings'

Renk

Occupation
Mean

340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386

54

Automobile mechanic apprentices....
Animal caretakers except fa r m .........
Freight, stock, and material
handlers, n.e.c..................................
Dressmakers.......................................
Library c le rk s ......................................
Optical goods w o rk e rs .......................
Drilling and boring machine
operators...........................................
Health record technologists and
technicians........................................
Electrical and electronic equipment
assemblers........................................
Molding and casting machine
operators...........................................
Cementing and gluing machine
operators...........................................
Data entry ke y e rs..............................
Compressing and compacting
machine op erators...........................
Sawing machine operators................
Knitting, looping, taping, and weaving
machine o p erators...........................
Helpers, mechanics and repairers....
Health aides, except nu rsin g ............
Interview ers........................................
Miscellaneous hand working
occupations, n.e.c............................
Washing, cleaning, and pickling
machine op erators...........................
Legislators..........................................
Duplicating machine operators..........
Pest control occupations..................
Shaping and jointing machine
operators...........................................
Hand inspectors, n.e.c.......................
Billing clerks........................................
Helpers, construction trades.............
Billing, posting, and calculating
machine op erators...........................
Butchers and meat c u tte rs ...............
R eceptionists......................................
Hairdressers and cosmetologists.....
Graders and sorters except
agricultural........................................
Hand painting, coating, and
decorating occupations...................
Stock handlers and baggers.............
Food batchm akers.............................
Janitors and cle a n e rs ........................
Mail preparing and paper handling
machine op erators...........................
Shoe machine operators...................
Laborers except construction,
n.e .c...................................................
Roasting and baking machine
operators, fo o d ................................
Production helpers.............................
B a k e rs .................................................
Solders and braziers..........................
Communications equipment
operators, n.e.c...............................
Bank tellers.........................................
Mail clerks except postal s e rv ic e ....
Sales workers, s h o e s ........................

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

March 2002

Mean hours2

Relative
error*
(percent)

Weekly

Annual

Major
occupational
group3

$11.65
11.56

8.6
9.7

40.3
38.5

2,097
1,807

Precision production
Handlers

11.53
11.45
11.35
11.27

3.3
5.5
3.3
10.2

39.7
38.4
38.0
39.9

2,060
1,998
1,788
2,073

Handlers
Precision production
Administrative support
Precision production

11.22

11.2

40.0

2,079

Machine operators

11.18

9.9

39.3

2,043

Professional

11.15

4.0

40.0

2,077

Precision production

11.15

4.6

39.9

2,068

Machine operators

11.15
11.08

10.2
2.2

40.0
39.5

2,080
2,014

Machine operators
Administrative support

11.06
11.03

3.5
6.5

40.0
40.0

2,080
2,080

Machine operators
Machine operators

11.02
10.96
10.88
10.87

1.7
4.8
3.7
2.8

40.0
39.7
39.4
38.8

2,078
2,066
2,039
2,003

Machine operators
Handlers
Service
Administrative support

10.87

4.1

39.7

2,061

Machine operators

10.77

8.9

40.0

2,080

Machine operators

10.74
10.73
10.72

33.4
5.5
11.4

32.5
39.5
40.0

1,126
2,050
2,080

Executive
Administrative support
Service occupations

10.71
10.71
10.69
10.66

5.2
5.9
3.9
3.2

40.0
39.8
39.8
39.9

2,080
2,071
2,072
2,031

Machine
Machine operators
Administrative support
Handlers

10.55
10.49
10.43

7.0
4.3
2.4

35.3
40.0
39.1

1,836
2,080
2,026

Administrative support
Precision production
Administrative support

10.41

4.9

38.0

1,975

Service

10.31

3.8

39.8

2,070

Machine operators

10.30
10.28
10.26
10.25

6.1
2.6
9.8
1.4

40.0
39.8
40.0
39.4

2,079
2,059
2,077
2,037

Machine operators
Handlers
Precision production
Service

10.23
10.17

5.8
10.4

39.5
40.0

2,053
2,080

Administrative support
Machine operators

10.17

2.0

39.6

2,056

Handlers

10.14

5.6

40.0

2,080

Machine operators

10.10
9.98
9.89

3.9
10.4
7.8

39.8
35.8
40.0

2,069
1,858
2,079

Handlers
Precision production
Machine operators

9.84
9.84
9.80
9.75

11.9
2.3
6.2
12.4

39.7
39.2
38.9
39.6

2,012
2,039
2,024
2,057

Administrative support
Administrative support
Administrative support
Sales occupations

Table 1.

Continued— Hourly earnings o f full-time workers and weekly and annual work hours, National Compensation
Survey, 2000
Hourly earnings'

Rcnk

Occupation
Mean

387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427

Brickmason and stonemason
apprentices.......................................
Teachers'aides...................................
Hand packers and packagers...........
Groundskeepers and gardeners
except fa rm .......................................
Garage and service station related
occu pation s......................................
Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs.........
Guards and police except public
s e rv ic e ..............................................
Wood lathe, routing, and planing
machine op e ra to rs...........................
Textile cutting machine op erators....
Inspectors, agricultural products.....
File c le rk s ...........................................
M essengers........................................
Nursing aides, orderlies and
attendants.........................................
Motor transportation occupations,
n.e .c...................................................
Child care workers, n.e.c..................
Vehicle washers and equipment
cle a n e rs............................................
Office machine operators, n.e.c........
Service occupations, n.e.c................
Welfare service a id e s ........................
C ooks...................................................
Hotel c le rk s.........................................
Parking lot attendants........................
Helpers, extractive occupations......
Machine feeders and offbearers......
Hand cutting and trimming
occu pation s......................................
Pressing machine op e ra to rs.............
Cashiers..............................................
Textile sewing machine op erators....
Nursery w orkers.................................
Kitchen workers, food preparation ....
Sales counter c le rk s ..........................
Maids and housem en.........................
Early childhood teachers’ assistants
Food preparation occupations, n.e.c.
Laundering and dry cleaning machine
operators...........................................
Bartenders..........................................
Food counter, fountain, and related
occu pation s......................................
Attendants, amusement and
recreation facilities...........................
Baggage porters and be llhop s..........
Waiters’/W aitresses’ assistants........
Waiters and w aitresses......................

Relative
error*
(percent)

Weekly

Annual

Major
occupational
group3

$9.73
9.72
9.58

7.8
1.9
5.2

40.0
35.6
39.8

2,080
1,364
2,062

Precision production
Administrative support
Handlers

9.57

6.5

39.8

1,920

Handlers

9.50
9.41

6.1
4.6

39.1
39.7

2,032
2,062

Handlers
Transportation

9.38

2.2

39.4

2,040

Service

9.37
9.37
9.26
9.25
9.25

11.7
7.5
10.0
3.7
8.0

39.7
40.0
39.8
39.4
39.2

2,065
2,079
1,984
2,048
2,036

Machine operators
Machine operators
Handlers
Administrative support
Administrative support

9.11

1.2

38.7

2,011

Service

9.10
9.08

6.4
2.9

38.8
39.4

1,995
1,969

Transportation
Service

9.03
8.93
8.92
8.87
8.82
8.81
8.58
8.50

3.8
4.1
12.7
3.5
2.3
3.3
5.7
11.2

40.0
39.6
39.1
39.3
38.5
40.2
40.0
37.7

2,070
2,060
2,016
2,028
1,953
2,086
2,078
1,960

Handlers
Administrative support
Service
Service
Service
Administrative support
Transportation
Handlers

8.45

8.8

39.9

2,073

Handlers

8.35
8.31
8.26
8.04
8.03
8.02
7.88
7.87
7.84

8.4
4.4
1.3
4.5
3.4
2.8
3.7
2.5
5.4

40.0
39.9
39.2
39.9
40.0
38.8
39.2
37.9
37.8

2,079
2,076
2,031
2,074
1,951
1,942
2,038
1,969
1,783

Machine operators
Machine operators
Sales
Machine operators
Handlers
Service
Sales
Service
Service

7.72

1.3

38.2

1,931

Service

7.72
7.08

4.9
6.2

39.1
38.4

2,021
1,998

Machine operators
Service

7.03

4.3

36.9

1,899

Service

6.68
6.30
6.16
3.99

5.8
7.6
3.6
4.0

39.7
39.0
38.3
37.2

2,054
2,026
1,985
1,933

Service
Service
Service
Service

1 Earnings are straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees.
They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, and hazard pay. Ex­
cluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, and holidays; nonproduction
bonuses; and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers
and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours.
2 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or part-time sched­
ule based on the definition used by each establishment.
3The National Compensation Survey classifies occupations into nine major
groups. The full titles used are; (1) professional specialty and technical; (2)
executive, administrative, and managerial; (3) sales; (4) administrative sup­


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Mean hours2

port, including clerical; (5) precision production, craft, and repair; (6) machine
operators, assemblers, and inspectors; (7) transportation and material moving;
(8) handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers; and (9) service occu­
pations, except private households.
4 The relative standard error is the standard error expressed as a percent of
the estimate. It can be used to calculate a “confidence interval” around a
sample estimate.

Note: The survey covers all 50 States. Collection was conducted be­
tween June 1999 and April 2001. The average reference period was July 2000.

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

55

Research Summary

sample. There are two types o f er­
rors possible in an estim ate based
on a sample survey, sam pling and
nonsampling.
Sampling errors occur because obser­
vations come only from a sample and not
from an entire population. The sample
used for the National Compensation Sur­
vey is one of a number of possible samples
of the same size that could have been se­
lected using the sample design. Estimates
derived from the different samples would
differ from each other.
A measure of the variation among these
differing estimates is called the standard
error or sampling error. It indicates the pre­
cision with which an estimate from a par­
ticular sample approximates the average
result of all possible samples. The relative
standard error is the standard error divided
by the estimate. The relative standard er­
rors are presented for all of the occupa­
tions in table 1.
The standard error can be used to
calculate a “confidence interval” around
a sample estimate. As an example, the
mean hourly earnings for physicians
were $61.19 and a relative standard error
of 23.3 percent for this estimate. At the
90-percent level, the confidence interval
for this estimate is $37.74 to $84.64
($61.19 plus and minus 1.645 times 23.3
percent [that is, .233] = $23.45); ($61.19 +
$23.45 = $84.64; $61.19-$23.45=$37.74).
If all possible samples were selected to
estimate the population value, the inter­
val from each sample would include the
true population value approximately 90
percent of the time.
Because standard errors may some­
what affect the actual rankings, readers
are advised to view with caution the
rankings shown in this article.
Nonsampling errors also affect sur­
vey results. They can stem from many
sources, such as inability to obtain in­
formation for some establishments, dif­
ficulties with survey definitions, inabil­
ity of the respondents to provide cor­
rect information, or mistakes in record­
ing or coding the data obtained. Al­
though they are not specifically mea­

56

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sured, the nonsampling errors are ex­
pected to be minimal due to the exten­
sive training of the field economists who
gather the survey data by personal visit,
computer edits of the data, and detailed
data review.

The major occupational
groups
Following is a brief description of the nine
major occupational groups, the types of
occupations included in each group, and
a general description of the duties and
skills required to fill the positions.
Professional specialty and technical
occupations. This maj or occupational
group includes occupations concerned
with the study, application, and/or ad­
ministration of physical, mathematical,
scientific, engineering, architectural, so­
cial, medical, legal statute, biological,
behavioral, library, and/or religious laws,
principles, practices, or theories. Some
occupations are concerned with inter­
preting, informing, expressing, or pro­
moting ideas, products, and so forth by
written, artistic, sound, or physical me­
diums. Certain occupations that provide
support in all the above fields are in­
cluded in the professional group. Most
professional occupations require educa­
tional preparation.
Executive, administrative, and manage­
rial occupations. Managers plan, or­
ganize, direct, and control the major func­
tions of an industrial, commercial, or
governmental establishment or depart­
ment through subordinates who are at
the managerial or supervisory level.
Managers make decisions and establish
objectives for the department or estab­
lishment; they are generally not directly
concerned with the fabrication of prod­
ucts or with the provision of services.
They possess a knowledge of the dayto-day operation of the organization, but
do not necessarily have the detailed
knowledge required of a first line super­
visor. Most managers are classified in

March 2002

this major occupational group.
In the case of small establishments or
departments, employees who plan, or­
ganize, direct, or control major functions
may also perform functions normally
assigned to supervisors, such as super­
vising lower level employees. These em­
ployees are considered as managers.
This group also includes managementrelated workers who implement the es­
tablishment functions in support of man­
agement at the operational level. Ex­
amples of these specialized functions are
analyzing financial records and policies,
reviewing organizational structures and
methods, purchasing goods for internal
organizational use, enforcing standards
and regulations, and so forth.
Sales. Included in the sales major oc­
cupational group are occupations con­
cerned with the selling of goods and
services or property, purchasing goods
and services for resale, or conducting
wholesale and retail business. Sales rep­
resentatives or agents and sales work­
ers require knowledge of the goods or
services sold, along with the ability to
demonstrate product(s), receive pay­
ments, and perform other sales-related
activities. Supervisors who coordinate
the activities of workers who buy and
sell goods and services are included.
Sales clerks and cashiers who are prima­
rily concerned with receiving and dis­
bursing funds, and require no special
product knowledge, are also included in
this major occupational group.
Administrative support occupations, in­
cluding clerical. This major occupa­
tional group includes all of the broad
groups of occupations performing activi­
ties relating to preparing, transcribing,
systematizing, and preserving written
communications and records; collecting
accounts; gathering and distributing in­
formation; operating office machines and
electronic data processing equipment;
storing, distributing, and accounting for
stores of materials; operating telephone
switchboards, distributing mail, and de-

Highest and lowest paying ocupations within each major occupational group of the National Compensation
Survey, 2000
Major
occupational
group

Highest-paying occupation
Occupation

Lowest-paying occupation

Mean hourly
earnings

Rank

$95.80

1

Occupation

Professional and
technical

Airplane pilots and
navigators

Executive

Managers, marketing,
advertising, and public
relations

37.24

25

Legislators

Sales occupations

Sales engineers

33.59

35

Administrative support

Supervisors, computer
equipment operators

23.18

105

Precision production

Elevator installers
and repairers

26.88

73

Machine operators

Separating, filtering,
and clarifying machine
operators

16.77

206

Transportation

Longshore equipment
operators

28.91

58

Handlers

Stevedores

21.43

124

Service occupations

Public transportation
attendants

30.13

51

livering messages; and performing other
administrative and clerical support.
P recision production, craft, and
repair. This group includes occupa­
tions involved in the fabricating, process­
ing, inspecting, or repairing of material,
products, or structural units. Incumbents
must have a thorough and comprehen­
sive knowledge of processes involved in
their work, usually acquired through ap­
prenticeship or intensive training. Work­
ers must exercise considerable indepen­
dent judgment and must usually display a
high degree of manual dexterity.
Helpers are excluded from this major
occupational group, unless specifically
included. However, apprentices who are
learning a craft or trade through on-thejob training and a formal apprenticeship
training program are included, unless
specifically excluded.
Machine operators, assemblers, and
inspectors. Workers in this major oc­
cupational group set up and operate ma­
chinery, perform repetitive manual or ma­
chine operations, or tend and control
machines as part of a fairly well-defined
work routine where some independent


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Health record
technologists

Mean hourly
earnings

Rcnk

$11.18

347

10.74

360

Sales counter
clerks

7.88

417

Hotel clerks

8.81

407

Brickmason and
stonemason
apprentices

9.73

387

Laundering and dry
cleaning machine
operators

7.72

421

Parking lot
attendants

8.58

408

Nursery workers

8.03

415

Waiters and
waitresses

3.99

427

judgment or skill may be required.
Transportation and material moving
occupations. This maj or occupational
group covers workers concerned with
activities that are in immediate support
of the operation and performance of
transportation vehicles used to trans­
port people or material. It includes work­
ers involved in the operation of material
moving equipment that is stationary or
has limited range. It also includes the
supervisors of these workers.
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers,
and laborers. Workers in this major
occupational group perform unskilled,
simple duties, primarily manual, that may
be learned within a short period of time
and that require little or no independent
judgment. These occupations ordinarily
require little or no previous experience.
Duties may require moderate to strenu­
ous physical exertion.
Service occupations, except private
households. This major occupational
group includes occupations concerned
with preparing and serving food and
drinks in commercial, institutional, or

other establishments, providing lodging
and related services, providing groom­
ing, cosmetic, and other personal and
health care services for children and
adults, providing protection for people
and property, attending to the comfort
or requests of patrons of amusement and
recreation facilities, and performing
cleaning and maintenance services to
interiors of buildings. Workers in these
occupations provide personal and pro­
tective services to individuals and com­
mercial entities. An alphabetical index
of the occupations in table 1 is on the
Internet at: http://www.bls.gov/ncs/

Notes______________________
1More information on the scope of the
National Compensation Surveys is available
on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/ncs or
in National Compensation Survey: Occupa­
tional Wages in the United States, 2000, Bulle­
tin 2548 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2001).
The Internet site also provides comprehen­
sive results of the 2000 survey.
2 The spreads are calculated by dividing the
rate for the highest paying occupation by the
lowest paying occupation within a major oc­
cupational group, multiplying by 100, and
subtracting 100. For example, $95.80/ $11.18
= 8.57; 8.57x 1 0 0 - 100 = 757.

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

57

Précis

Perceiving inflation
The public does not predict inflation very
well. In fact, according to an Economic
Commentary released recently by the
Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, the
average perception of past rates of price
increase also tends to be quite wide of
the mark. Write Michael F. Bryan and
Guhan Venkatu, “... the average rate at
which respondents thought prices had
risen over the previous 12 months was
about 6.0 percent. This ‘perception’ of
inflation is more than twice the rise re­
corded by the Consumer Price Index (CPI)
over the same period (2.7 percent).”
Their data also suggest that percep­
tions of inflation vary with many demo­
graphic characteristics of the respon­
dent: higher incomes are associated
with lower estimates and predictions of
inflation, married respondents see lower
inflation than singles, whites less than
nonwhites, and so forth.
But m ost salient to Bryan and
Venkatu was the fact that men and
women— even after holding many of
these other variable constant— sub­
scribe to different ideas as to the rate of
inflation. Women, after the regressionbased adjustment, perceived current and
expected inflation to be about 2 percent­
age points higher than men did after a
similar adjustment.
None of several factors that might
explain the gap— different consumption
patterns, differing familiarity with the
CPI itself, different frequencies of shop­
ping—appeared to Bryan and Venkatu
to be large enough to explain it. So they
leave their readers with a puzzle, one
they think will make for interesting, even
“provocative” conversation.

Explaining eco n o m ic
growth
Economic growth occurs due to in­
creases in the inputs of production—

58 Monthly Labor Review March 2002

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such as labor, ca p ita l, and m ate­
rials— and in creases in effic ie n c y
o f input u se (w h ich is o ften re­
ferred to as total factor p rod u c­
t iv ity or TFP). A q u e stio n that
arises is w hich o f th e se, input or
TFP, is m ore re sp o n sib le for in ­
com e d iffer en tia ls across co u n ­
tries.

In “Technological D iffusion,
Conditional Convergence, and Eco­
nomic Growth,” (NBER Working
Paper Num ber 8713), David E.
Bloom and Jaypee Sevilla (both of
H arvard U niversity) and David
Canning (of Queen’s University of
Belfast) tackle this question. They
note that microeconomic studies
often suggest that income differ­
entials across countries are ex­
plained mostly by differences in
TFP. However, in some macroeco­
nomic studies, inputs appear to
have more of a role; such studies
may “pick up externalities to physi­
cal and human capital that appear
at the aggregate level but do not
affect private returns.”
In their study, Bloom, Sevilla, and
Canning focus on modeling the dy­
namics of TFP. Their model allows
for technology diffusion and for dif­
ferentials in TFP in the long run
across countries due to differences
in geography and institutions.
The researchers estimate their
model using data from the Penn
World Table (which displays national
accounts time series for many coun­
tries) and the International Labor Or­
ganization, among other sources.
They do not find evidence for exter­
nalities at the aggregate level. As they
observe, this “puts the emphasis in
explaining cross-country differences
in income levels on how and why TFP
varies across countries.” Their results
indicate that there is systematic varia­
tion in steady-state TFP across coun­

tries related to their geography and insti­
tutions, but that convergence to steadystate levels via technological diffusion is
slow.

Building organizational
capital
In their NBER Working Paper (Number
8722), Andrew Atkeson and Patrick J.
Kehoe report that nearly 9 percent of the
output of the manufacturing sector is not
accounted for as payments either to physi­
cal capital—structures and equipment—
or to labor. They believe this shortfall in­
dicates payments to unmeasured forms of
capital or to monopoly rents.
They argue that a substantial share of
the unaccounted-for payments goes to the
specific knowledge accumulated within
plants about the more effective use of their
technologies of production. This “orga­
nizational capital” is determined by the
vintage of the plant’s technology and the
staff’s accumulated knowledge of how to
use it.
The model used by Atkeson and Kehoe
shows that “learning is both prolonged
and substantial” and that “the aggregate
of specific productivities across a cohort
o f plants grows substantially for 20
years.” In their analysis of the data, they
suggest that about 4 percent of manufac­
turing output—nearly half the missing
piece—can plausibly be attributed to the
generally unmeasured capital that “the
turbulent and time-comsuming process of
building up a stock of organization-spe­
cific knowledge” creates.
□
We are interested in your feedback
on this column. Please let us know
what you have found most interest­
ing and what essential reading we may
have missed. Write to: Executive Edi­
tor, Monthly Labor Review, 2 Massa­
chusetts Avenue NE, Washington, DC
20212, or e-mail mlr@bls.gov

Book Reviews

New economy employment
World Employment Report 2001 : Life at
Work in the Information Economy.
Geneva, International Labour Office.
Available from ILO Publications Cen­
ter, P.O. Box 753, Waldorf, MD, 2001.
371pp. $34.95.
The bulk of the current World Employ­
ment Report is devoted to the effects of
information and communication tech­
nologies (ICT) and their institutional set­
ting upon employment, working condi­
tions, educational and training require­
ments, and the opportunities ICT appear
to offer for business enterprise and pov­
erty amelioration in developing countries.
Introductorily, however, the Report
highlights the persistent problem of
worldwide unemployment and underem­
ployment, a problem that afflicts onethird of the world’s labor force of 3 bil­
lion men and women. The estimate in­
cludes the working poor, poverty being
defined in terms of earnings of $1 per
person per day. While prospects for an
improvement in the employment situa­
tion were “bright” at the time the Report
was written, this belief assumed contin­
ued strong economic growth in the
United States “as engine for the rest of
the world.” The more recent slowdown
in growth compels modification of that
expectation.
Employment conditions have in fact
deteriorated, at least in some areas. Em­
ployment in the formal sector in Latin
America, for example, declined to 53.6
percent in 1998 (down from 57.2 percent
in 1990), as has wage employment (to 69
percent from 72 percent). Segmentation
o f the workforce remains pervasive in
the industrial countries, staffing sys­
tems being reorganized into a core of
skilled (or primary) personnel, and “pe­
ripheral” workers, such as temporaries
or subcontractors. This secondary
workforce has few if any career pros­
pects, few training opportunities, and
little if any protection against unemploy­
ment or ill health.


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ICT and the analysis of their employ­
ment effects lies at the core of the Re­
port. The first question its writers ask is
whether ICT defines, or helps to define,
a “New Economy.” Just what is this
“New Economy?” Does it hold the prom­
ise of full employment that the writers
postulate, provided there be a “good
match” between technology, institu­
tions, and policies? A detailed exposi­
tion of the concept is provided by the
January 2001 Economic Report o f the
President (Washington, U.S. Govern­
ment Printing Office). The entire Eco­
nomic Report, including each of its chap­
ters, is framed in terms of the New
Economy. It is characterized, according
to the Council of Economic Advisors
who wrote the Economic Report, by
“rapid productivity growth, rising in­
comes, low employment, and moderate
inflation.” These have resulted from
“mutually reinforcing advances in tech­
nologies, business practices, and eco­
nomic policies.” Indeed, despite more
recent downward revisions, the trend in
productivity growth steeped between
1995 and 2000 to an average annual rate
of 2.7 percent, which compares with a
rate of 1.5 percent for the preceding 22
years. However, the more recent steep
in the trend rate still runs below that for
the earlier post-World War II period, say,
for 1950-72, which was 3.1 percent—
“golden years,” as some remember the
period—but a “new economy” was not
then proclaimed.
The Economic Report o f the Presi­
dent does not deal explicitly with the
employment effects of ICT innovations.
It does mention, however, that manu­
facturing firms have “embedded” infor­
mation technology in their production
processes, and it cites significant pro­
ductivity advances—not all o f them
necessarily attributable to such technol­
ogy—in the making of machine tools and
steel. We might add that even as the
index of manufacturing production rose
32 percent between 1995 and 2000, to
its highest level for the post-World War
II period, manufacturing employment re­

mained virtually unchanged, also run­
ning well below its 1979 peak.
The World E m ploym ent R eport
does not deal extensively with embed­
ded ICT. It is more centrally con­
cerned with the opportunities gener­
ated by the knowledge and informa­
tion processing services offered by
ICT. It does mention, however, that
the integration of world financial mar­
kets by ICT gave rise to “massive job
destruction” in consequence of its role
during the financial crisis in SouthEast and East Asia, Brazil, and the Rus­
sian Federation in the late 1990s. It
may be objected that, when the em­
ployment effects o f the financial cri­
ses of earlier periods are recalled, it is
institutions, not technology, that have
been lain at the root o f resultant job
destruction.
The theme that informs much of the
Report is competitive pressures, and
these pressures unquestionably affect
the quality of work and of working con­
ditions in ICT firms, to which the Report
devotes some lengthy sections. Con­
siderations o f competitiveness often
decide the balance between the upgrad­
ing of skills so that the worker may per­
form multitask work, and downgrading
to single-task tending of an ICT device
(for example, data entry). ICT also facili­
tates the externalizing of work that, it
would seem, reinforces the polarity be­
tween multitask and single-task work
just mentioned. Thus, subcontracting
and outsourcing permit companies “to
take advantage of lower terms and con­
ditions prevailing in different sectors and
countries, and to avoid commitments to
develop fair and integrated employment
systems negotiated for direct employ­
ees.” Employers also engage temporary
workers when they encounter demand
fluctuations. Where healthcare insur­
ance, pension rights, or childcare are
linked to employment—rather than be­
ing citizen rights, as they are in some
countries— standard employment con­
tracts do not cover temporary workers,
let alone subcontractors.

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

59

Book Reviews

Heightened intensity has character­
ized much ICT work, and has led to “the
application of just-in-time principles to
all phases of such work” so that “un­
productive time” is banished, “zero de­
lay” established. Zero delay is enforced
or reinforced by monitoring devices per­
mitting constant surveillance, thus driv­
ing slack from the work processes by
also enabling the number of operations
per unit of time or of clients served to be
counted, or certain behavioral charac­
teristics (for example, tone of voice) to
be scanned.
Trade unions appear, on balance, to
lack the strength to help remedy such
quality-of-work problems. The fiercely
competitive environment in which ICT
firms operate has “an unsettling rather
than an empowering effect on most work­
ers.” A dominant concern is employment
insecurity. Although historically unions
have to an extent mitigated this prob­
lem, and have enhanced workers’ sense
of empowerment and productivity, mem­
bership has tended to decline, especially
among younger workers. More gener­
ally, jobs in telecommunications have
dropped worldwide—by 10 percent in
the United States between 1983 and 1999,

60

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by more than one-half in Great Britain,
and more than one-quarter in Germany.
In many countries, privatization has
spelled loss of civil service status, hence
of job protection, for the employees in­
volved. Such jobs were unusually
unionized, and their privatization weak­
ened the unions.
An exam ple o f the d ifficulties
unions—or more generally, employee
representation—face are call centers
(10,000 of which exist in the European
Union alone). They offer “a curious para­
dox.” The “call center model is often
scarcely distinguishable from the
Taylorist organization of work, not of the
1970s, but of the 1930s,” and should be
fertile ground for organizing. Evidently,
it is not. A key reason cited by spokes­
persons of one international union, and
quoted in the Report, is that “new tech­
nologies used for surveillance and con­
trol reduce the amount of social interac­
tion between workers in the workplace,
and this undermines union activity, as
well as workers’ capacity to organize...”
Like previous work by ILO, the Re­
port discusses the job-creating and jobdestroying effects of ICT, albeit without
coming to any definitive conclusion.

March 2002

Productivity in the manufacture o f com ­
puters and other electronic equipment
has resulted in significant job losses.
ICT-related services, by contrast, have
generated large numbers o f jobs; and
ICT employment in the United States rep­
resents about 6 percent o f total em ploy­
ment. ICT services, however, are “trad­
able,” and w ill be increasingly located
in countries offering lower labor costs,
provided connectivity exists and En­
glish is mastered (at least by manage­
ment). Tradability also affects higher
value ICT services. The salary o f a sys­
tems designer in India, for example, runs
to less than one-quarter o f his Ameri­
can counterpart; o f a project leader to
little more than one-half; o f a quality as­
surance specialist to about one-third.
Tradability— which is, o f course, also
conditioned upon m eeting the n eces­
sary educational requirements— is likely
to vastly intensify worldwide com peti­
tion in ICT services, and m odify their
expansion potential domestically.

—Horst Brand
Economist,
formerly with the Bureau
of Labor Statistics

C u rre n t L a b o r S ta tis tic s

N otes on labor sta tistic s

62

Labor com p ensa tion and co lle c tive
bargaining data— continued

74

28. Employment Cost Index, private nonfarm workers,
by bargaining status, region, and area s iz e ....................
29. P articipants in b en efit plans, m ed iu m and large f ir m s .....
30. Participants in benefits plans, small firms
and government.....................................................................
31. Work stoppages involving 1,000 workers or m ore...........

C om pa rative indicators
1. Labor market indicators.............................
2. Annual and quarterly percent changes in
compensation, prices, and productivity
3. Alternative measures of wages and
compensation changes............................

75
75

Labor fo rc e data
4. Employment status of the population,
seasonally adjusted..........................................................
5. Selected employment indicators,
seasonally adjusted..........................................................
6. Selected unemployment indicators,
seasonally adjusted..........................................................
7. Duration of unemployment,
seasonally adjusted..........................................................
8. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment,
seasonally adjusted..........................................................
9. Unemployment rates by sex and age,
seasonally adjusted..........................................................
10. Unemployment rates by States,
seasonally adjusted..........................................................
11. Employment of workers by States,
seasonally adjusted..........................................................
12. Employment of workers by industry,
seasonally adjusted..........................................................
13. Average weekly hours by industry,
seasonally adjusted..........................................................
14. Average hourly earnings by industry,
seasonally adjusted..........................................................
15. Average hourly earnings by industry.................................
16. Average weekly earnings by industry................................
17. Diffusion indexes of employment change,
seasonally adjusted..........................................................
18. Establishment size and employment covered under ui,
private ownership, by major industry...........................
19. Annual data establishment, employment, and wages,
covered unless ui and ucfe, by ownership...................
20. Annual data: Establishments, employment,
and wages covered under ui and ucfe, by State...........
21. Annual data: Employment and average annual pay of
ui- and uCFE-covered workers, by largest counties......
22. Annual data: Employment status of the population.......
23. Annual data: Employment levels by industry..................
24. Annual data: Average hours and earnings level,
by industry.....................................................................

104
105

Price data
76
77
78
79
79
80
81
81
82
84
85
86
87
88

89
90
91
92
96
97
97

La b o r c o m p e nsa tio n and collective
bargaining data
25. Employment Cost Index, compensation,
by occupation and industry group................................. 98
26. Employment Cost Index, wages and salaries,
by occupation and industry group................................. 100
27. Employment Cost Index, benefits, private industry'....... 101


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102
103

32. Consumer Price Index: U.S. city average, by expenditure
category and commodity and service groups................ 106
33. Consumer Price Index: U.S. city average and
local data, all items............................................................ 109
34. Annual data: Consumer Price Index, all items
and major groups................................................................110
35. Producer Price Indexes bystage of processing....................I l l
36. Producer Price Indexes for the net output of major
industry groups..................................................................112
37. Annual data: Producer Price Indexes
by stage of processing....................................................... 113
38. U.S. export price indexes by Standard International
Trade Classification.......................................................... 114
39. U.S. import price indexes by Standard International
Trade Classification.......................................................... 115
40. U.S. export price indexes by end-usecategory................... 116
41. U.S. import price indexes by end-usecategory................... 117
42. U.S.international price indexes for selected
categories of services......................................................... 117

Prod uctivity data
43. Indexes of productivity, hourly compensation,
and unit costs, data seasonally adjusted......................... 118
44. Annual indexes of multifactor productivity........................ 119
45. Annual indexes of productivity, hourly compensation,
unit costs, and prices........................................................ 120
46. Annual indexes of output per hour for selected
industries............................................................................ 121

International c om parisons data
47. Unemployment rates in nine countries,
data seasonally adjusted....................................................124
48. Annual data: Employment status of the civilian
working-age population, 10 countries............................. 125
49. Annual indexes of productivity and related measures,
12 countries........................................................................ 126

Injury and illness data
50. Annual data: Occupational injury and illness
incidence rates.................................................................. 127
51. Fatal occupational injuries by event or exposure..............129

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

61

Notes on Current Labor Statistics

This section of the Review presents the prin­
cipal statistical series collected and calcu­
lated by the Bureau of Labor Statistics:
series on labor force; employment; unem­
ployment; labor compensation; consumer,
producer, and international prices; produc­
tivity; international comparisons; and injury
and illness statistics. In the notes that follow,
the data in each group of tables are briefly
described; key definitions are given; notes
on the data are set forth; and sources of addi­
tional information are cited.

General notes
The following notes apply to several tables
in this section:
Seasonal adjustment. Certain monthly
and quarterly data are adjusted to eliminate
the effect on the data of such factors as cli­
matic conditions, industry production sched­
ules, opening and closing of schools, holi­
day buying periods, and vacation practices,
which might prevent short-term evaluation
o f the statistical series. Tables containing
data that have been adjusted are identified as
“seasonally adjusted.” (All other data are not
seasonally adjusted.) Seasonal effects are es­
timated on the basis o f past experience.
When new seasonal factors are computed
each year, revisions may affect seasonally
adjusted data for several preceding years.
Seasonally adjusted data appear in tables
1-14,16-17,43, and 47. Seasonally adjusted
labor force data in tables 1 and 4-9 were re­
vised in the February 2002 issue of the Re­
view. Seasonally adjusted establishment sur­
vey data shown in tables 1,12-14 and 16-17
were revised in the July 2001 Review and
reflect the experience through March 2001. A
brief explanation of the seasonal adjustment
methodology appears in “Notes on the data.”
Revisions in the productivity data in table
49 are usually introduced in the September
issue. Seasonally adjusted indexes and per­
cent changes from month-to-month and
quarter-to-quarter are published for numer­
ous Consumer and Producer Price Index se­
ries. However, seasonally adjusted indexes
are not published for the U.S. average AllItems CPI. Only seasonally adjusted percent
changes are available for this series.
Adjustments for price changes. Some
data—such as the “real” earnings shown in
table 14—are adjusted to eliminate the ef­
fect of changes in price. These adjustments
are made by dividing current-dollar values
by the Consumer Price Index or the appro­
priate component of the index, then multi­
plying by 100. For example, given a current
hourly wage rate of $3 and a current price
index number of 150, where 1982 = 100, the

62
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hourly rate expressed in 1982 dollars is $2
($3/150 x 100 = $2). The $2 (or any other
resulting values) are described as “real,”
“constant,” or “1982” dollars.

Sources of information
Data that supplement the tables in this sec­
tion are published by the Bureau in a variety
of sources. Definitions of each series and
notes on the data are contained in later sec­
tions of these Notes describing each set of
data. For detailed descriptions of each data
series, see B L S Handbook o f Methods, Bul­
letin 2490. Users also may wish to consult
Major Programs o f the Bureau ofLabor Sta­
tistics, Report 919. News releases provide
the latest statistical information published by
the Bureau; the major recurring releases are
published according to the schedule appear­
ing on the back cover of this issue.
More information about labor force, em­
ployment, and unemployment data and the
household and establishment surveys under­
lying the data are available in the Bureau’s
monthly publication, Employment and Earn­
ings. Historical unadjusted and seasonally
adjusted data from the household survey are
available on the Internet:

http://www.bls.gov/cps/
Historically comparable unadjusted and sea­
sonally adjusted data from the establishment
survey also are available on the Internet:

http://www.bls.gov/ces/
Additional information on labor force data
for areas below the national level are pro­
vided in the BLS annual report, Geographic
Profile o f Employment and Unemployment.
For a comprehensive discussion of the
Employment Cost Index, see Employment
Cost Indexes and Levels, 1975-95, BLS Bul­
letin 2466. The most recent data from the
Employee Benefits Survey appear in the fol­
lowing Bureau of Labor Statistics bulletins:
Employee Benefits in Medium and Large
Firms; Employee Benefits in Small Private
Establishments; and Employee Benefits in
State and Local Governments.
More detailed data on consumer and pro­
ducer prices are published in the monthly
periodicals, The C P I Detailed Report and
Producer Price Indexes. For an overview of
the 1998 revision of the CPI, see the Decem­
ber 1996 issue of the Monthly Labor Review.
Additional data on international prices ap­
pear in monthly news releases.
Listings of industries for which produc­
tivity indexes are available may be found on
the Internet:

http://www.bls.gov/lpc/
For additional information on interna­
tional comparisons data, see International

March 2002

Comparisons o f Unemployment, BLS Bulle­
tin 1979.
Detailed data on the occupational injury
and illness series are published in Occupa­
tional Injuries and Illnesses in the United
States, by Industry, a BLS annual bulletin.
Finally, the Monthly Labor Review car­
ries analytical articles on annual and longer
term developments in labor force, employ­
ment, and unemployment; employee com­
pensation and collective bargaining; prices;
productivity; international comparisons; and
injury and illness data.

Symbols
n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified,
n.e.s. = not elsewhere specified.
p = preliminary. To increase the time­
liness of some series, preliminary
figures are issued based on repre­
sentative but incomplete returns,
r = revised. Generally, this revision
reflects the availability o f later
data, but also may reflect other ad­
justments.

Comparative Indicators
(Tables 1-3)
Comparative indicators tables provide an
overview and comparison of major bls sta­
tistical series. Consequently, although many
of the included series are available monthly,
all measures in these comparative tables are
presented quarterly and annually.
Labor market indicators include em­
ployment measures from two major surveys
and information on rates of change in com­
pensation provided by the Employment Cost
Index (ECl) program. The labor force partici­
pation rate, the employment-to-population
ratio, and unemployment rates for major de­
mographic groups based on the Current
Population (“household”) Survey are pre­
sented, while measures of employment and
average weekly hours by major industry sec­
tor are given using nonfarm payroll data. The
Employment Cost Index (compensation), by
major sector and by bargaining status, is cho­
sen from a variety of bls compensation and
wage measures because it provides a com­
prehensive measure of employer costs for
hiring labor, not just outlays for wages, and
it is not affected by employment shifts among
occupations and industries.
Data on changes in compensation, prices,
and productivity are presented in table 2.
Measures o f rates o f change o f compensa-

tion and wages from the Employment Cost
Index program are provided for all civil­
ian nonfarm workers (excluding Federal
and household workers) and for all private
nonfarm workers. Measures o f changes in
consumer prices for all urban consumers;
producer prices by stage o f processing;
overall prices by stage of processing; and
overall export and import price indexes are
given. Measures of productivity (output per
hour of all persons) are provided for major
sectors.

Alternative measures of wage and com­
pensation rates of change, which reflect the
overall trend in labor costs, are summarized
in table 3. Differences in concepts and scope,
related to the specific purposes of the series,
contribute to the variation in changes among
the individual measures.

Notes on the data
Definitions of each series and notes on the
data are contained in later sections of these
notes describing each set of data.

Employment and
Unemployment Data
(Tables 1; 4-24)

Household survey data
Description of the series
E mployment data in this section are ob­
tained from the Current Population Survey,
a program of personal interviews conducted
monthly by the Bureau of the Census for the
Bureau of Labor Statistics. The sample con­
sists of about 60,000 households selected to
represent the U.S. population 16 years of age
and older. Households are interviewed on a
rotating basis, so that three-fourths of the
sample is the same for any 2 consecutive
months.

Definitions
Employed persons include (1) all those who
worked for pay any time during the week
which includes the 12th day of the month or
who worked unpaid for 15 hours or more in
a family-operated enterprise and (2) those
who were temporarily absent from their regu­
lar jobs because of illness, vacation, indus­
trial dispute, or similar reasons. A person
working at more than one job is counted only
in the job at which he or she worked the
greatest number of hours.
Unemployed persons are those who did
not work during the survey week, but were
available for work except for temporary ill­
ness and had looked for jobs within the pre­
ceding 4 weeks. Persons who did not look


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for work because they were on layoff are
also counted among the unemployed. The
unemployment rate represents the num­
ber unemployed as a percent of the civilian
labor force.
The civilian labor force consists of all
employed or unemployed persons in the
civilian noninstitutional population. Persons
not in the labor force are those not classified
as employed or unemployed. This group
includes discouraged workers, defined as
persons who want and are available for a job
and who have looked for work sometime in
the past 12 months (or since the end of their
last job if they held one within the past 12
months), but are not currently looking,
because they believe there are no jobs
available or there are none for which they
would qualify. The civilian noninstitu­
tional population comprises all persons 16
years of age and older who are not inmates
of penal or mental institutions, sanitariums,
or homes for the aged, infirm, or needy. The
civilian labor force participation rate is the
proportion of the civilian noninstitutional
population that is in the labor force. The
employment-population ratio is employ­
ment as a percent o f the civilian nonin­
stitutional population.

Notes on the data
From time to time, and especially after a
decennial census, adjustments are made in
the Current Population Survey figures to
correct for estimating errors during the
intercensal years. These adjustments affect
the comparability of historical data. A de­
scription of these adjustments and their ef­
fect on the various data series appears in the
Explanatory Notes o f Employment and
Earnings.
Labor force data in tables 1 and 4-9 are
seasonally adjusted. Since January 1980,
national labor force data have been season­
ally adjusted with a procedure called X -ll
arim a which was developed at Statistics
Canada as an extension of the standard X11 method previously used by bls . A de­
tailed description of the procedure appears
in the X -ll A R IM A Seasonal Adjustment
Method, by Estela Bee Dagum (Statistics
Canada, Catalogue No. 12-564E, January
1983).
At the beginning of each calendar year,
historical seasonally adjusted data usually
are revised, and projected seasonal adjust­
ment factors are calculated for use during
the January-June period. The historical sea­
sonally adjusted data usually are revised for
only the most recent 5 years. In July, new
seasonal adjustment factors, which incorpo­
rate the experience through June, are pro­
duced for the July-December period, but no
revisions are made in the historical data.

F or ad dition al inform ation on na­
tional household survey data, contact the
Division of Labor Force Statistics: (202)
691-6378.

Establishment survey data
Description of the series
E mployment , hours , and earnings data

in this section are compiled from payroll
records reported monthly on a voluntary ba­
sis to the Bureau of Labor Statistics and its
cooperating State agencies by about 300,000
establishments representing all industries
except agriculture. Industries are classified
in accordance with the 1987 Standard In­
dustrial Classification (SIC) Manual. In most
industries, the sampling probabilities are
based on the size of the establishment; most
large establishments are therefore in the
sample. (An establishment is not necessar­
ily a firm; it may be a branch plant, for ex­
ample, or warehouse.) Self-employed per­
sons and others not on a regular civilian
payroll are outside the scope o f the sur­
vey because they are excluded from estab­
lishment records. This largely accounts for
the difference in employment figures be­
tween the household and establishment
surveys.

Definitions
An establishment is an economic unit which
produces goods or services (such as a fac­
tory or store) at a single location and is en­
gaged in one type of economic activity.
Employed persons are all persons who
received pay (including holiday and sick
pay) for any part o f the payroll period in­
cluding the 12th day of the month. Per­
sons holding more than one job (about 5
percent o f all persons in the labor force)
are counted in each establishment which
reports them.
Production workers in manufacturing
include working supervisors and nonsupervisory workers closely associated with pro­
duction operations. Those workers men­
tioned in tables 11-16 include production
workers in manufacturing and mining; con­
struction workers in construction; and
nonsupervisory workers in the following in­
dustries: transportation and public utilities;
wholesale and retail trade; finance, insur­
ance, and real estate; and services. These
groups account for about four-fifths of the
total employment on private nonagricultural payrolls.
Earnings are the payments production
or nonsupervisory workers receive during
the survey period, including premium pay
for overtime or late-shift work but exclud-

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

63

Current Labor Statistics
ing irregular bonuses and other special
payments. Real earnings are earnings
adjusted to reflect the effects of changes in
consumer prices. The deflator for this series
is derived from the Consumer Price Index
for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical
Workers (CPI-W).
Hours represent the average weekly
hours of production or nonsupervisory work­
ers for which pay was received, and are dif­
ferent from standard or scheduled hours.
Overtime hours represent the portion of av­
erage weekly hours which was in excess of
regular hours and for which overtime premi­
ums were paid.
The Diffusion Index represents the
percent of industries in which employment
was rising over the indicated period, plus
one-half of the industries with unchanged
employment; 50 percent indicates an equal
balance between industries with increasing
and decreasing employment. In line with Bu­
reau practice, data for the 1-, 3-, and 6-month
spans are seasonally adjusted, while those
for the 12-month span are unadjusted. Data
are centered within the span. Table 17 pro­
vides an index on private nonfarm employ­
ment based on 356 industries, and a manu­
facturing index based on 139 industries.
These indexes are useful for measuring the
dispersion of economic gains or losses and
are also economic indicators.

Notes on the data
Establishment survey data are annually ad­
justed to comprehensive counts of employ­
ment (called “benchmarks”). The latest ad­
justment, which incorporated March 2000
benchmarks, was made with the release of
May 2001 data, published in the July 2001
issue o f the Review. Coincident with the
benchmark adjustment, historical seasonally
adjusted data were revised to reflect updated
seasonal factors. Unadjusted data from April
2000 forward and seasonally adjusted data
from January 1997 forward are subject to
revision in future benchmarks.
In addition to the routine benchmark re­
visions and updated seasonal factors intro­
duced with the release o f the May 2000
data, all estimates for the wholesale trade
division from April 1998 forward were re­
vised to incorporate a new sample design.
This represented the first major industry
division to convert to a probability-based
sample under a 4-year phase-in plan for the
establishment survey sample redesign
project. For additional information, see the
the June 2000 issue of Employment and
Earnings.
Revisions in State data (table 11) occurred
with the publication of January 2000 data.
Beginning in June 1996, the BLS uses the
X-12 arim a methodology to seasonally ad­
just establishment survey data. This proce­
64

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dure, developed by the Bureau of the Cen­
sus, controls for the effect of varying sur­
vey intervals (also known as the 4- versus
5-week effect), thereby providing improved
measurement of over-the-month changes and
underlying economic trends. Revisions of
data, usually for the most recent 5-year pe­
riod, are made once a year coincident with
the benchmark revisions.
In the establishment survey, estimates
for the most recent 2 months are based on
incomplete returns and are published as pre­
liminary in the tables ( 12-17 in the Review).
When all returns have been received, the es­
timates are revised and published as “final”
(prior to any benchmark revisions) in the
third month o f their appearance. Thus, De­
cember data are published as preliminary in
January and February and as final in March.
For the same reasons, quarterly establish­
ment data (table 1) are preliminary for the
first 2 months of publication and final in the
third month. Thus, fourth-quarter data are
published as preliminary in January and
February and as final in March.
F or additional information on estab­
lishment survey data, contact the Division
of Monthly Industry Employment Statis­
tics: (202) 691-6555.

Unemployment data by
State
Description of the series
Data presented in this section are obtained
from the Local Area Unemployment Statis­
tics (laus ) program, which is conducted in
cooperation with State employment secu­
rity agencies.
Monthly estimates of the labor force,
employment, and unemployment for States
and sub-State areas are a key indicator of lo­
cal economic conditions, and form the basis
for determining the eligibility of an area for
benefits under Federal economic assistance
programs such as the Job Training Partner­
ship Act. Seasonally adjusted unemployment
rates are presented in table 10. Insofar as
possible, the concepts and definitions under­
lying these data are those used in the national
estimates obtained from the CPS.

Notes on the data
Data refer to State of residence. Monthly data
for all States and the District of Columbia are
derived using standardized procedures
established by bls . Once a year, estimates are
revised to new population controls, usually
with publication of January estimates, and
benchmarked to annual average CPS levels.
F or additional information on data in
this series, call (202) 691-6392 (table 10) or
(202) 691-6559 (table 11).

March 2002

Covered employment and
wage data (ES-202)
Description of the series
E mployment, wage, and establishment data

in this section are derived from the quar­
terly tax reports submitted to State em­
ployment security agencies by private and
State and local government employers sub­
ject to State unemployment insurance (ui)
laws and from Federal, agencies subject to
the Unemployment Compensation for
Federal Employees ( u cfe ) program. Each
quarter, State agencies edit and process the
data and send the information to the Bu­
reau o f Labor Statistics.
The Covered Employment and Wages
data, also referred as ES-202 data, are
the most complete enumeration o f em­
ployment and wage information by in­
dustry at the national, State, metropoli­
tan area, and county levels. They have
broad economic significance in evaluat­
ing labor market trends and major in­
dustry developments.

Definitions
In general, es -2 0 2 monthly employment
data represent the number o f covered
workers who worked during, or received
pay for, the pay period that included the
12th day of the month. Covered private
industry employment includes most cor­
porate officials, executives, supervisory
personnel, professionals, clerical workers,
wage earners, piece workers, and part-time
workers. It excludes proprietors, the un­
incorporated self-employed, unpaid fam­
ily members, and certain farm and domes­
tic workers. Certain types o f nonprofit
employers, such as religious organizations,
are given a choice of coverage or exclusion
in a number of States. Workers in these
organizations are, therefore, reported to a
limited degree.
Persons on paid sick leave, paid holi­
day, paid vacation, and the like, are in­
cluded. Persons on the payroll o f more
than one firm during the period are
counted by each ui-subject employer if
they meet the em ployment definition
noted earlier. The employment count ex­
cludes workers who earned no wages
during the entire applicable pay period
because o f work stoppages, temporary
layoffs, illness, or unpaid vacations.
Federal employment data are based
on reports o f monthly employment and
quarterly wages submitted each quarter
to State agencies for all Federal installa-

tions with em ployees covered by the
Unemployment Com pensation for Fed­
eral Em ployees ( ucfe ) program, except
for certain national security agencies,
which are omitted for security reasons.
Employment for all Federal agencies for any
given month is based on the number of per­
sons who worked during or received pay for
the pay period that included the 12th of the
month.
An establishment is an economic unit,
such as a farm, mine, factory, or store, that
produces goods or provides services. It is
typically at a single physical location and
engaged in one, or predominantly one, type
of economic activity for which a single in­
dustrial classification may be applied. Occa­
sionally, a single physical location encom­
passes two or more distinct and significant
activities. Each activity should be reported
as a separate establishment if separate records
are kept and the various activities are classi­
fied under different four-digit sic codes.
Most employers have only one establish­
ment; thus, the establishment is the predomi­
nant reporting unit or statistical entity for
reporting employment and wages data. Most
employers, including State and local govern­
ments who operate more than one establish­
ment in a State, file a Multiple Worksite Re­
port each quarter, in addition to their quar­
terly ui report. The Multiple Worksite Re­
port is used to collect separate employment
and wage data for each of the employer’s es­
tablishments, which are not detailed on the ui
report. Some very small multi-establishment
employers do not file a Multiple Worksite
Report. When the total employment in an
employer’s secondary establishments (all
establishments other than the largest) is 10
or fewer, the employer generally will file a
consolidated report for all establishments. Also,
some employers either cannot or will not re­
port at the establishment level and thus aggre­
gate establishments into one consolidated unit,
or possibly several units, though not at the
establishment level.
For the Federal Government, the reporting
unit is the installation: a single location at
which a department, agency, or other govern­
ment body has civilian employees. Federal agen­
cies follow slightly different criteria than do
private employers when breaking down their
reports by installation. They are permitted to
combine as a single statewide unit: 1) all instal­
lations with 10 or fewer workers, and 2) all
installations that have a combined total in the
State of fewer than 50 workers. Also, when
there are fewer than 25 workers in all second­
ary installations in a State, the secondary in­
stallations may be combined and reported with
the major installation. Last, if a Federal agency


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has fewer than five employees in a State, the
agency headquarters office (regional office,
district office) serving each State may con­
solidate the employment and wages data for
that State with the data reported to the State
in which the headquarters is located. As a
result of these reporting rules, the number of
reporting units is always larger than the num­
ber of employers (or government agencies)
but smaller than the number of actual estab­
lishments (or installations).
Data reported for the first quarter are tabulated into size categories ranging from
worksites of very small size to those with
1,000 employees or more. The size category
is determined by the establishment’s March
employment level. It is important to note
that each establishment of a multi-establish­
ment firm is tabulated separately into the
appropriate size category. The total employ­
ment level of the reporting multi-establish­
ment firm is not used in the size tabulation.
Covered employers in most States report
total wages paid during the calendar quarter,
regardless of when the services were per­
formed. A few State laws, however, specify
that wages be reported for, or based on the
period during which services are performed
rather than the period during which compen­
sation is paid. Under most State laws or regu­
lations, wages include bonuses, stock options,
the cash value of meals and lodging, tips and
other gratuities, and, in some States, employer
contributions to certain deferred compensa­
tion plans such as 401(k) plans.
Covered employer contributions for oldage, survivors, and disability insurance
( o a s d i ), health insurance, unemployment in­
surance, workers’ compensation, and private
pension and welfare funds are not reported
as wages. Employee contributions for the
same purposes, however, as well as money
withheld for income taxes, union dues, and
so forth, are reported even though they are
deducted from the worker’s gross pay.
Wages of covered Federal workers rep­
resent the gross amount of all payrolls for all
pay periods ending within the quarter. This
includes cash allowances, the cash equiva­
lent of any type of remuneration, severance
pay, withholding taxes, and retirement de­
ductions. Federal employee remuneration
generally covers the same types of services
as for workers in private industry.
Average annual wages per employee for
any given industry are computed by divid­
ing total annual wages by annual average em­
ployment. A further division by 52 yields
average weekly wages per employee. Annual
pay data only approximate annual earnings
because an individual may not be employed
by the same employer all year or may work

for more than one employer at a time.

Average weekly or annual pay is af­
fected by the ratio of full-time to part-time
workers as well as the number of individuals
in high-paying and low-paying occupations.
When average pay levels between States and
industries are compared, these factors should
be taken into consideration. For example, in­
dustries characterized by high proportions
of part-time workers will show average wage
levels appreciably less than the weekly pay
levels of regular full-time employees in these
industries. The opposite effect characterizes
industries with low proportions of part-time
workers, or industries that typically sched­
ule heavy weekend and overtime work. Aver­
age wage data also may be influenced by work
stoppages, labor turnover rates, retroactive
payments, seasonal factors, bonus payments,
and so on.
Notes on the data
To insure the highest possible quality of data,
State employment security agencies verify
with employers and update, if necessary, the
industry, location, and ownership classifica­
tion of all establishments on a 3-year cycle.
Changes in establishment classification codes
resulting from the verification process are in­
troduced with the data reported for the first
quarter of the year. Changes resulting from
improved employer reporting also are intro­
duced in the first quarter. For these reasons,
some data, especially at more detailed geo­
graphic levels, may not be strictly compa­
rable with earlier years.
The 1999 county data used to calculate
the 1999-2000 changes were adjusted for
changes in industry and county classification
to make them comparable to data for 2000.
As a result, the adjusted 1999 data differ to
some extent from the data available on the
Internet at:

http://www.bls.gov/cew/home.htm.
County definitions are assigned accord­
ing to Federal Information Processing Stan­
dards Publications as issued by the National
Institute of Standards and Technology. Areas
shown as counties include those designated
as independent cities in some jurisdictions
and, in Alaska, those areas designated by the
Census Bureau where counties have not been
created. County data also are presented for
the New England States for comparative pur­
poses, even though townships are the more
common designation used in New England
(and New Jersey).
For additional information on the cov­
ered employment and wage data, contact the
Division of Administrative Statistics and La­
bor Turnover at (202) 691-6567.

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March 2002

65

Current Labor Statistics

C ompensation and wage data are gathered
by the Bureau from business establishments,
State and local governments, labor unions,
collective bargaining agreements on file with
the Bureau, and secondary sources.

wages and compensation. For the bargaining
status, region, and metropolitan/non-metropolitan area series, however, employment
data by industry and occupation are not
available from the census. Instead, the 1980
employment weights are reallocated within
these series each quarter based on the cur­
rent sample. Therefore, these indexes are not
strictly comparable to those for the aggre­
gate, industry, and occupation series.

Employment Cost Index

Definitions

Description of the series

Total compensation costs include wages,

Compensation and
Wage Data
(Tables 1-3; 25-31)

The Employment Cost Index (ECl) is a quar­
terly measure of the rate of change in com­
pensation per hour worked and includes
wages, salaries, and employer costs of em­
ployee benefits. It uses a fixed market
basket of labor—similar in concept to the
Consumer Price Index’s fixed market basket
of goods and services—to measure change
over time in employer costs of employing
labor.
Statistical series on total compensation
costs, on wages and salaries, and on benefit
costs are available for private nonfarm work­
ers excluding proprietors, the self-employed,
and household workers. The total compensa­
tion costs and wages and salaries series are
also available for State and local government
workers and for the civilian nonfarm economy,
which consists of private industry and State
and local government workers combined. Fed­
eral workers are excluded.
The Employment Cost Index probability
sample consists of about 4,400 private non­
farm establishments providing about 23,000
occupational observations and 1,000 State
and local government establishments provid­
ing 6,000 occupational observations selected
to represent total employment in each sec­
tor. On average, each reporting unit provides
wage and compensation information on five
well-specified occupations. Data are col­
lected each quarter for the pay period includ­
ing the 12th day of March, June, September,
and December.
Beginning with June 1986 data, fixed em­
ployment weights from the 1980 Census of
Population are used each quarter to
calculate the civilian and private indexes and
the index for State and local governments.
(Prior to June 1986, the employment
weights are from the 1970 Census of Popu­
lation.) These fixed weights, also used to
derive all of the industry and occupation
series indexes, ensure that changes in these
indexes reflect only changes in compensa­
tion, not employment shifts among indus­
tries or occupations with different levels of

66

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salaries, and the employer’s costs for em­
ployee benefits.
Wages and salaries consist of earnings
before payroll deductions, including produc­
tion bonuses, incentive earnings, commis­
sions, and cost-of-living adjustments.
Benefits include the cost to employers
for paid leave, supplemental pay (includ­
ing nonproduction bonuses), insurance, retire­
ment and savings plans, and legally required
benefits (such as Social Security, workers’ com­
pensation, and unemployment insurance).
Excluded from wages and salaries and em­
ployee benefits are such items as payment-in­
kind, free room and board, and tips.

Notes on the data
The Employment Cost Index for changes in
wages and salaries in the private nonfarm
economy was published beginning in 1975.
Changes in total compensation cost—wages
and salaries and benefits combined—were
published beginning in 1980. The series of
changes in wages and salaries and for total
compensation in the State and local govern­
ment sector and in the civilian nonfarm
economy (excluding Federal employees) were
published beginning in 1981. Historical in­
dexes (June 1981=100) are available on the
Internet:

http://www.bls.gov/ect/
F or ad d itio n a l inform ation on the

Employment Cost Index, contact the Office
of Compensation Levels and Trends: (202)
691-6199.

Employee Benefits Survey
Description of the series
Employee benefits data are obtained from
the Employee Benefits Survey, an annual
survey of the incidence and provisions of
selected benefits provided by employers.
The survey collects data from a sample of
approximately 9,000 private sector and
State and local government establishments.

March 2002

The data are presented as a percentage of em­
ployees who participate in a certain benefit, or
as an average benefit provision (for example,
the average number of paid holidays provided
to employees per year). Selected data from the
survey are presented in table 25 for medium
and large private establishments and in table
26 for small private establishments and State
and local government.
The survey covers paid leave benefits
such as holidays and vacations, and personal,
funeral, jury duty, military, family, and sick
leave; short-term disability, long-term dis­
ability, and life insurance; medical, dental,
and vision care plans; defined benefit and
defined contribution plans; flexible benefits
plans; reimbursement accounts; and unpaid
family leave.
Also, data are tabulated on the inci­
dence o f several other benefits, such as
severance pay, child-care assistance, well­
ness programs, and employee assistance
programs.

Definitions
Employer-provided benefits are benefits
that are financed either wholly or partly by
the employer. They may be sponsored by a
union or other third party, as long as there is
some employer financing. However, some
benefits that are fully paid for by the em­
ployee also are included. For example, long­
term care insurance and postretirement life
insurance paid entirely by the employee are
included because the guarantee of insurabil­
ity and availability at group premium rates
are considered a benefit.
Participants are workers who are covered
by a benefit, whether or not they use that benefit.
If the benefit plan is financed wholly by
employers and requires employees to complete
a minimum length of service for eligibility, the
workers are considered participants whether or
not they have met the requirement. If workers
are required to contribute towards the cost of
a plan, they are considered participants only
if they elect the plan and agree to make the
required contributions.
Defined benefit pension plans use pre­
determined formulas to calculate a retirement
benefit (if any), and obligate the employer to
provide those benefits. Benefits are generally
based on salary, years of service, or both.
Defined contribution plans generally
specify the level of employer and employee
contributions to a plan, but not the formula
for determining eventual benefits. Instead,
individual accounts are set up for partici­
pants, and benefits are based on amounts
credited to these accounts.
Tax-deferred savings plans are a type of

defined contribution plan that allow par­
ticipants to contribute a portion of their sal­
ary to an employer-sponsored plan and defer
income taxes until withdrawal.
Flexible benefit plans allow employees
to choose among several benefits, such as
life insurance, medical care, and vacation
days, and among several levels of coverage
within a given benefit.

Definitions

(Tables 2; 32^12)

buying habits o f about 87 percent o f the
noninstitutional population o f the United
States at that time, compared with 32 per­
cent represented in the CPi-w. In addition to
wage earners and clerical workers, the CPi-u
covers professional, managerial, and techni­
cal workers, the self-employed, short-term
workers, the unemployed, retirees, and oth­
ers not in the labor force.
The CPI is based on prices of food, cloth­
ing, shelter, fuel, drugs, transportation fares,
doctors’ and dentists’ fees, and other goods
and services that people buy for day-to-day
living. The quantity and quality o f these
items are kept essentially unchanged between
major revisions so that only price changes
will be measured. All taxes directly associ­
ated with the purchase and use of items are
included in the index.
Data collected from more than 23,000 re­
tail establishments and 5,800 housing units
in 87 urban areas across the country are used
to develop the “U.S. city average.” Separate
estimates for 14 major urban centers are pre­
sented in table 33. The areas listed are as
indicated in footnote 1 to the table. The area
indexes measure only the average change in
prices for each area since the base period, and
do not indicate differences in the level o f
prices among cities.

P rice data are gathered by the Bureau

Notes on the data

Number of stoppages: The number of
strikes and lockouts involving 1,000 work­
ers or more and lasting a full shift or longer.
Workers involved: The number of
workers directly involved in the stoppage.
Number of days idle: The aggregate
number o f workdays lost by workers in­
volved in the stoppages.

Notes on the data

Days of idleness as a percent of estimated
working time: Aggregate workdays lost as a

Surveys of employees in medium and large
establishments conducted over the 1979-86
period included establishm ents that
employed at least 50, 100, or 250 workers,
depending on the industry (most service
industries were excluded). The survey
conducted in 1987 covered only State and
local governm ents with 50 or more
employees. The surveys conducted in 1988
and 1989 included medium and large
establishments with 100 workers or more in
private industries. All surveys conducted
over the 1 9 7 9 -8 9 period excluded
establishments in Alaska and Hawaii, as well
as part-time employees.
Beginning in 1990, surveys of State and
local governments and small private
establishments were conducted in evennumbered years, and surveys of medium and
large establishments were conducted in oddnumbered years. The small establishment
survey includes all private nonfarm
establishments with fewer than 100 workers,
while the State and local government survey
includes all governments, regardless of the
number of workers. All three surveys include
full- and part-time workers, and workers in all
50 States and the District of Columbia.
F or a d d itio n a l inform ation on the
Employee Benefits Survey, contact the Of­
fice o f Compensation Levels and Trends on
the Internet: http://www.bls.gov/ebs/

percent of the aggregate number of standard
workdays in the period multiplied by total
employment in the period.

Work stoppages
Description of the series
Data on work stoppages measure the num­
ber and duration o f major strikes or lockouts
(involving 1,000 workers or more) occurring
during the month (or year), the number of
workers involved, and the amount of work
time lost because of stoppage. These data are
presented in table 27.
Data are largely from a variety of pub­
lished sources and cover only establishments
directly involved in a stoppage. They do
not measure the indirect or secondary effect
o f stoppages on other establishments whose
employees are idle owing to material short­
ages or lack of service.


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Notes on the data
This series is not comparable with the one
terminated in 1981 that covered strikes in­
volving six workers or more.
F or additional information on work
stoppages data, contact the Office of Com­
pensation and Working Conditions: (202)
691-6282, or the Internet:

http:/www.bls.gov/cba/

Price Data

o f Labor Statistics from retail and pri­
mary markets in the United States. Price
indexes are given in relation to a base pe­
riod— 1982 = 100 for many Producer Price
Indexes, 1982-84 = 100 for many Con­
sumer Price Indexes (unless otherwise
noted), and 1990 = 100 for International
Price Indexes.

Consumer Price Indexes
Description of the series
The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a mea­
sure of the average change in the prices paid
by urban consumers for a fixed market bas­
ket of goods and services. The CPI is calcu­
lated monthly for two population groups,
one consisting only of urban households
whose primary source of income is derived
from the employment o f wage earners and
clerical workers, and the other consisting of
all urban households. The wage earner index
(CPI-W) is a continuation o f the historic in­
dex that was introduced well over a halfcentury ago for use in wage negotiations. As
new uses were developed for the CPI in re­
cent years, the need for a broader and more
representative index became apparent. The
all-urban consumer index (CPI-U), introduced
in 1978, is representative of the 1993-95

In January 1983, the Bureau changed the
way in which homeownership costs are
meaured for the CPI-U. A rental equivalence
method replaced the asset-price approach
to homeownership costs for that series. In
January 1985, the same change was made in
the CPi-w. The central purpose of the change
was to separate shelter costs from the in­
vestment component of home-ownership so
that the index would reflect only the cost o f
shelter services provided by owner-occu­
pied homes. An updated CPi-u and CPi-w
were introduced with release o f the January
1987 and January 1998 data.
F or a d d ition al inform ation on con­
sumer prices, contact the Division o f Con­
sumer Prices and Price Indexes: (202)
691-7000.

Producer Price Indexes
Description of the series
Producer Price Indexes (PPI) measure av­
erage changes in prices received by domestic
producers o f commodities in all stages of
processing. The sample used for calculating
these indexes currently contains about 3,200
commodities and about 80,000 quotations

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

67

Current Labor Statistics

per month, selected to represent the move­
ment of prices of all commodities produced
in the manufacturing; agriculture, forestry,
and fishing; mining; and gas and electricity
and public utilities sectors. The stage-ofprocessing structure o f p pi organizes
products by class o f buyer and degree of
fabrication (that is, finished goods, inter­
mediate goods, and crude materials). The
traditional commodity structure of ppi or­
ganizes products by similarity o f end use
or material composition. The industry and
product structure o f ppi organizes data in
accordance with the Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) and the product code
extension of the sic developed by the U.S.
Bureau of the Census.
To the extent possible, prices used in
calculating Producer Price Indexes apply
to the first significant commercial transac­
tion in the United States from the produc­
tion or central marketing point. Price data
are generally collected monthly, primarily
by mail questionnaire. Most prices are ob­
tained directly from producing companies
on a voluntary and confidential basis. Prices
generally are reported for the Tuesday of
the week containing the 13th day of the
month.
Since January 1992, price changes for the
various commodities have been averaged
together with implicit quantity weights
representing their importance in the total net
selling value of all commodities as of 1987.
The detailed data are aggregated to obtain
indexes for stage-of-processing groupings,
commodity groupings, durability-of-product
groupings, and a number of special composite
groups. All Producer Price Index data are
subject to revision 4 months after original
publication.
F or ad d itio n a l inform ation on pro­
ducer prices, contact the Division o f In­
dustrial Prices and Price Indexes: (202)
691-7705.

International Price Indexes
Description of the series
The International Price Program produces
monthly and quarterly export and import
price indexes for nonmilitary goods and ser­
vices traded between the United States and
the rest of the world. The export price index
provides a measure of price change for all
products sold by U.S. residents to foreign
buyers. (“Residents” is defined as in the na­
tional income accounts; it includes corpora­
tions, businesses, and individuals, but does
not require the organizations to be U.S.
owned nor the individuals to have U.S. citi­

68

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zenship.) The import price index provides a
measure of price change for goods purchased
from other countries by U.S. residents.
The product universe for both the import
and export indexes includes raw materials,
agricultural products, semifinished manufac­
tures, and finished manufactures, including
both capital and consumer goods. Price data
for these items are collected primarily by mail
questionnaire. In nearly all cases, the data are
collected directly from the exporter or im­
porter, although in a few cases, prices are
obtained from other sources.
To the extent possible, the data gathered
refer to prices at the U.S. border for exports
and at either the foreign border or the U.S.
border for imports. For nearly all products,
the prices refer to transactions completed dur­
ing the first week of the month. Survey re­
spondents are asked to indicate all discounts,
allowances, and rebates applicable to the re­
ported prices, so that the price used in the
calculation of the indexes is the actual price for
which the product was bought or sold.
In addition to general indexes of prices for
U.S. exports and imports, indexes are also
published for detailed product categories of
exports and imports. These categories are
defined according to the five-digit level of
detail for the Bureau of Economic Analysis
End-use Classification, the three-digit level
for the Standard Industrial Classification
(SITC), and the four-digit level of detail for the
Harmonized System. Aggregate import
indexes by coun-try or region of origin are
also available.
bls publishes indexes for selected catego­
ries o f internationally traded services, calcu­
lated on an international basis and on a balance-of-payments basis.

Notes on the data
The export and import price indexes are
weighted indexes of the Laspeyres type. The
trade weights currently used to compute both
indexes relate to 2000.
Because a price index depends on the same
items being priced from period to period, it is
necessary to recognize when a product’s
specifications or terms of transaction have
been modified. For this reason, the Bureau’s
questionnaire requests detailed descriptions of
the physical and functional characteristics of
the products being priced, as well as informa­
tion on the number of units bought or sold,
discounts, credit terms, packaging, class of
buyer or seller, and so forth. When there are
changes in either the specifications or terms of
transaction of a product, the dollar value of
each change is deleted from the total price
change to obtain the “pure” change. Once this

March 2002

value is determined, a linking procedure is em­
ployed which allows for the continued repric­
ing of the item.
F or additional information on inter­
national prices, contact the Division of Inter­
national Prices: (202) 691-7155.

Productivity Data
(Tables 2; 43-46)

Business sector and major
sectors
Description of the series
The productivity measures relate real output
to real input. As such, they encompass a fam­
ily of measures which include single-factor
input measures, such as output per hour, out­
put per unit of labor input, or output per
unit of capital input, as well as measures of
multifactor productivity (output per unit of
combined labor and capital inputs). The Bu­
reau indexes show the change in output rela­
tive to changes in the various inputs. The
measures cover the business, nonfarm busi­
ness, manufacturing, and nonfinancial corpo­
rate sectors.
Corresponding indexes of hourly compen­
sation, unit labor costs, unit nonlabor pay­
ments, and prices are also provided.

Definitions
Output per hour of all persons (labor pro­
ductivity) is the quantity o f goods and ser­
vices produced per hour of labor input. Out­
put per unit of capital services (capital
productivity) is the quantity of goods and
services produced per unit of capital ser­
vices input. Multifactor productivity is the
quantity of goods and services produced per
combined inputs. For private business and pri­
vate nonfarm business, inputs include labor
and capital units. For manufacturing, inputs
include labor, capital, energy, non-energy ma­
terials, and purchased business ser-vices.
Compensation per hour is total com­
pensation divided by hours at work. Total
compensation equals the wages and salaries
of employees plus employers’ contributions
for social insurance and private benefit plans,
plus an estimate of these payments for the
self-employed (except for nonfinancial cor­
porations in which there are no self-em­
ployed). Real compensation per hour is
compensation per hour deflated by the
change in the Consumer Price Index for All
Urban Consumers.

Unit labor costs are the labor compensa­
tion costs expended in the production of a unit
of output and are derived by dividing com­
pensation by output. Unit nonlabor pay­
ments include profits, depreciation,
interest, and indirect taxes per unit of out­
put. They are computed by subtracting
compensation of all persons from current-dollar value of output and dividing by output.
Unit nonlabor costs contain all the
components of unit nonlabor payments ex­
cept unit profits.
Unit profits include corporate profits
with inventory valuation and capital con­
sumption adjustments per unit of output.
Hours of all persons are the total hours
at work of payroll workers, self-employed
persons, and unpaid family workers.
Labor inputs are hours of all persons ad­
justed for the effects of changes in the edu­
cation and experience of the labor force.
Capital services are the flow of services
from the capital stock used in production. It
is developed from measures of the net stock
o f physical assets— equipment, structures,
land, and inventories— weighted by rental
prices for each type of asset.
Combined units of labor and capital
inputs are derived by combining changes in
labor and capital input with weights which
represent each component’s share of total
cost. Combined units of labor, capital, energy,
materials, and purchased business services are
similarly derived by combining changes in each
input with weights that represent each input’s
share of total costs. The indexes for each input
and for combined units are based on changing
weights which are averages of the shares in the
current and preceding year (the Tornquist
index-number formula).

Notes on the data
Business sector output is an annually-weighted
index constructed by excluding from real gross
domestic product ( g d p ) the following outputs:
general government, nonprofit institutions,
paid employees of private households, and the
rental value of owner-occupied dwellings.
Nonfarm business also excludes farming. Pri­
vate business and private nonfarm business
further exclude government enterprises. The
measures are supplied by the U.S. Depart­
ment of Commerce’s Bureau of Economic
Analysis. Annual estimates of manufacturing
sectoral output are produced by the Bureau of
Labor Statistics. Quarterly manufacturing out­
put indexes from the Federal Reserve Board
are adjusted to these annual output measures
by the b l s . Compensation data are developed
from data of the Bureau of Economic Analysis
and the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Hours data


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are developed from data of the Bureau of La­
bor Statistics.
The productivity and associated cost
measures in tables 43-46 describe the rela­
tionship between output in real terms and
the labor and capital inputs involved in its
production. They show the changes from pe­
riod to period in the amount of goods and
services produced per unit of input.
Although these measures relate output to
hours and capital services, they do not mea­
sure the contributions of labor, capital, or any
other specific factor of production. Rather,
they reflect the joint effect of many influences,
including changes in technology; shifts in the
composition of the labor force; capital invest­
ment; level of output; changes in the utiliza­
tion of capacity, energy, material, and research
and development; the organization of produc­
tion; managerial skill; and characteristics and
efforts of the work force.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION On this
productivity series, contact the Division of
Productivity Research: (202) 691-5606.

Industry productivity
measures

production workers), the hours of all persons
(paid employees, partners, proprietors, and
unpaid family workers), or the number of em­
ployees, depending upon the industry.
Unit labor costs represent the labor
compensation costs per unit of output pro­
duced, and are derived by dividing an index
of labor compensation by an index o f out­
put. Labor compensation includes pay­
roll as well as supplemental payments, in­
cluding both legally required expenditures
and payments for voluntary programs.
Multifactor productivity is derived by
dividing an index of industry output by an
index of the combined inputs consumed in
producing that output. Combined inputs
include capital, labor, and intermediate pur­
chases. The measure of capital input used
represents the flow of services from the
capital stock used in production. It is devel­
oped from measures of the net stock of
physical assets— equipment, structures,
land, and inventories. The measure o f in­
termediate purchases is a combination of
purchased materials, services, fuels, and
electricity.

Notes on the data

Description of the series
The b l s industry productivity data
supplement the measures for the business
economy and major sectors with annual
measures of labor productivity for selected
industries at the three- and four-digit levels
o f the Standard Industrial Classification
system. In addition to labor productivity,
the industry data also include annual
measures o f compensation and unit labor
costs for three-digit industries and measures
of multifactor productivity for three-digit
manufacturing industries and railroad
transportation. The industry measures differ
in methodology and data sources from the
productivity measures for the major sectors
because the industry measures are developed
independently of the National Income and
Product Accounts framework used for the
major sector measures.

Definitions
Output per hour is derived by dividing an index
of industry output by an index of labor input.
For most industries, output indexes are de­
rived from data on the value of industry out­
put adjusted for price change. For the remain­
ing industries, output indexes are derived from
data on the physical quantity of production.
The labor input series consist of the hours
of all employees (production workers and non­

The industry measures are compiled from
data produced by the Bureau of Labor Statis­
tics and the Bureau of the Census, with addi­
tional data supplied by other government
agencies, trade associations, and other
sources.
For most industries, the productivity
indexes refer to the output per hour of all
employees. For some trade and services in­
dustries, indexes of output per hour of all
persons (including self-employed) are con­
structed. For some transportation indus­
tries, only indexes of output per employee
are prepared.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on this se­
ries, contact the Division of Industry Pro­
ductivity Studies: (202) 691-5618.

international Comparisons
(Tables 47-49)

Labor force and
unemployment
Description of the series
Tables 47 and 48 present comparative meas­
ures of the labor force, employment, and unemployment— approximating U.S. con­
cepts— for the United States, Canada, Aus­
tralia, Japan, and several European countries.

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Current Labor Statistics

The unemployment statistics (and, to a
lesser extent, employment statistics) pub­
lished by other industrial countries are not,
in most cases, comparable to U.S. unemploy­
ment statistics. Therefore, the Bureau ad­
justs the figures for selected countries, where
necessary, for all known major definitional
differences. Although precise comparability
may not be achieved, these adjusted figures
provide a better basis for international com­
parisons than the figures regularly published
by each country. For further information on
adjustments and comparability issues, see
Constance Sorrentino, “International unem­
ployment rates: how comparable are they?”
Monthly Labor Review, June 2000, pp. 3-20.

Definitions
For the principal U.S. definitions of the labor
force, employment, and unemployment, see
the Notes section on Employment and Unem­
ployment Data: Household survey data.

Notes on the data
The adjusted statistics have been adapted to
the age at which compulsory schooling ends
in each country, rather than to the U.S. stan­
dard of 16 years of age and older. Therefore,
the adjusted statistics relate to the popula­
tion aged 16 and older in France, Sweden, and
the United Kingdom; 15 and older in Austra­
lia, Japan, Germany, Italy from 1993 onward,
and the Netherlands; and 14 and older in Italy
prior to 1993. An exception to this rule is
that the Canadian statistics for 1976 onward
are adjusted to cover ages 16 and older,
whereas the age at which compulsory school­
ing ends remains at 15. The institutional
population is included in the denominator of
the labor force participation rates and em­
ployment-population ratios for Japan and
Germany; it is excluded for the United States
and the other countries.
In the U.S. labor force survey, persons on
layoff who are awaiting recall to their jobs
are classified as unemployed. European and
Japanese layoff practices are quite different
in nature from those in the United States;
therefore, strict application of the U.S. defi­
nition has not been made on this point. For
further information, see Monthly Labor Re­
view, December 1981, pp. 8-11.
The figures for one or more recent years
for France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands,
and the United Kingdom are calculated using
adjustment factors based on labor force sur­
veys for earlier years and are considered pre­
liminary. The recent-year measures for these
countries, therefore, are subject to revision
whenever data from more current labor force
70

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surveys become available.
There are breaks in the data series for the
United States (1990,1994,1997,1998,1999,
2000), Canada (1976) France (1992), Ger­
many (1991), Italy (1991, 1993), the Neth­
erlands (1988), and Sweden (1987).
For the United States, the break in series
reflects a major redesign of the labor force
survey questionnaire and collection method­
ology introduced in January 1994. Revised
population estimates based on the 1990 cen­
sus, adjusted for the estimated undercount,
also were incorporated. In 1996, previously
published data for the 1990-93 period were
revised to reflect the 1990 census-based
population controls, adjusted for the un­
dercount. In 1997, revised population con­
trols were introduced into the household sur­
vey. Therefore, the data are not strictly
conparable with prior years. In 1998, new
composite estimation procedures and minor
revisions in population controls were intro­
duced into the household survey. Therefore,
the data are not strictly comparable with data
for 1997 and earlier years. See the Notes sec­
tion on Employment and Unemployment
Data of this Review.
BLS recently introduced a new adjusted
series for Canada. Beginning with the data
for 1976, Canadian data are adjusted to more
closely approximate U.S. concepts. Adjust­
ments are made to the unemployed and labor
force to exclude: (1) 15-year-olds; (2) pas­
sive jobseekers (persons only reading news­
paper ads as their method of job search); (3)
persons waiting to start a new job who did
not seek work in the past 4 weeks; and (4)
persons unavailable for work due to personal
or family responsibilities. An adjustment is
made to include full-tine students looking for
full-time work. The impact of the adjust­
ments was to lower the annual average unem­
ployment rate by 0.1-0.4 percentage point
in the 1980s and 0.4-1.0 percentage point in
the 1990s.
For France, the 1992 break reflects the
substitution of standardized European Union
Statistical Office ( e u r o s t a t ) unemployment
statistics for the unemployment data esti­
mated according to the International Labor
Office ( i l o ) definition and published in the
Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD) annual yearbook and
quarterly update. This change was made be­
cause the e u r o s t a t data are more up-to-date
than the OECD figures. Also, since 1992, the
e u r o s t a t definitions are closer to the U.S.
definitions than they were in prior years. The
impact of this revision was to lower the un­
employment rate by 0.1 percentage point in
1992 and 1993, by 0.4 percentage point in
1994, and 0.5 percentage point in 1995.
For Germany, the data for 1991 onward

March 2002

refer to unified Germany. Data prior to 1991
relate to the former West Germany. The im­
pact of including the former East Germany
was to increase the unemployment rate from
4.3 to 5.6 percent in 1991.
For Italy, the 1991 break reflects a revi­
sion in the method of weighting sample data.
The impact was to increase the unemploy­
ment rate by approximately 0.3 percentage
point, from 6.6 to 6.9 percent in 1991.
In October 1992, the survey methodol­
ogy was revised and the definition of unem­
ployment was changed to include only those
who were actively looking for a job within
the 30 days preceding the survey and who
were available for work. In addition, the
lower age limit for the labor force was raised
from 14 to 15 years. (Prior to these changes,
b l s adjusted Italy’s published unemploy­
ment rate downward by excluding from the
unemployed those persons who had not
actively sought work in the past 30 days.)
The break in the series also reflects the incor­
poration of the 1991 population census re­
sults. The impact of these changes was to
raise Italy’s adjusted unemployment rate by
approximately 1.2 percentage points, from
8.3 to 9.5 percent in fourth-quarter 1992.
These changes did not affect employment
significantly, except in 1993. Estimates by
the Italian Statistical Office indicate that em­
ployment declined by about 3 percent in
1993, rather than the nearly 4 percent indi­
cated by the data shown in table 44. This
difference is attributable mainly to the incor­
poration of the 1991 population benchmarks
in the 1993 data. Data for earlier years have
not been adjusted to incorporate the 1991
census results.
For the Netherlands, a new survey ques­
tionnaire was introduced in 1992 that allowed
for a closer application o f i l o guidelines.
e u r o s t a t has revised the Dutch series back
to 1988 based on the 1992 changes. The 1988
revised unemployment rate is 7.6 percent;
the previous estimate for the same year was

9.3 percent.
There have been two breaks in series in
the Swedish labor force survey, in 1987 and
1993. Adjustments have been made for the
1993 break back to 1987. In 1987, a new
questionnaire was introduced. Questions
regarding current availability were added
and the period o f active workseeking was
reduced from 60 days to 4 weeks. These
changes lowered Sweden’s 1987 unem­
ployment rate by 0.4 percentage point,
from 2.3 to 1.9 percent. In 1993, the mea­
surement period for the labor force sur­
vey was changed to represent all 52 weeks
o f the year rather than one week each
month and a new adjustment for popula­
tion totals was introduced. The impact

was to raise the unemployment rate by measures for the United Kingdom are essen­
approximately 0.5 percentage point, from tially identical to their indexes of industrial
7.6 to 8.1 percent. Statistics Sweden re­ production.
The 1977-97 output data for the United
vised its labor force survey data for 1987—
States are the gross product originating (value
92 to take into account the break in 1993.
The adjustment raised the Swedish unem­ added) measures prepared by the Bureau of
ployment rate by 0.2 percentage point in Economic Analysis of the U.S. Department of
1.987 and gradually rose to 0.5 percentage Commerce. Comparable manufacturing out­
put data currently are not available prior to
point in 1992.
Beginning with 1987, b l s has adjusted the 1977.
U.S. gross product originating is a chainSwedish data to classify students who also
sought work as unemployed. The impact of type annual-weighted series. (For more in­
this change was to increase the adjusted un­ formation on the U.S. measure, see Robert E.
employment rate by 0.1 percentage point in Yuskavage, “Improved Estimates of Gross
1987 and by 1.8 percentage points in 1994, Product by Industry, 1959-94,” Survey o f
Current Business, August 1996, pp. 133when unemployment was higher. In 1998,
the adjusted unemployment rate had risen 55.) The Japanese value added series is based
from 6.5 to 8.4 percent due to the adjustment upon one set of fixed price weights for the
years 1970 through 1997. Output series for
to include students.
The net effect o f the 1987 and 1993 the other foreign economies also employ
changes and the BLS adjustment for students fixed price weights, but the weights are up­
seeking work lowered Sweden’s 1987 unem­ dated periodically (for example, every 5 or
10 years).
ployment rate from 2.3 to 2.2 percent.
To preserve the comparability of the U.S.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on this se­
ries, contact the Division of Foreign Labor measures with those for other economies, b l s
uses gross product originating in manufac­
Statistics: (202) 691-5654.
turing for the United States for these com­
parative measures. The gross product origi­
nating series differs from the manufacturing
Manufacturing productivity
output series that b l s publishes in its news
and labor costs
releases on quarterly measures of U.S. pro­
ductivity and costs (and that underlies the
Description of the series
measures that appear in tables 43 and 45 in
Table 49 presents comparative indexes of
this section). The quarterly measures are on
manufacturing labor productivity (output per
a “sectoral output” basis, rather than a valuehour), output, total hours, compensation per
added basis. Sectoral output is gross output
hour, and unit labor costs for the United
less intrasector transactions.
States, Canada, Japan, and nine European
Total labor hours refers to hours worked
countries. These measures are trend compari­
in all countries. The measures are developed
sons— that is, series that measure changes
from statistics of manufacturing employment
over time— rather than level comparisons.
and average hours. The series used for France
There are greater technical problems in com­
(from 1970 forward), Norway, and Sweden
paring the levels of manufacturing output
are official series published with the national
among countries.
accounts. Where official total hours series are
BLS constructs the comparative indexes
not available, the measures are developed by
from three basic aggregate measures—output,
b l s using employment figures published with
total labor hours, and total compensation.
the national accounts, or other comprehen­
The hours and compensation measures refer
sive employment series, and estimates of an­
to all employed persons (wage and salary
nual hours worked. For Germany, BLS uses
earners plus self-employed persons and un­
estimates of average hours worked developed
paid family workers) in the United States,
by a research institute connected to the Min­
Canada, Japan, France, Germany, Norway,
istry of Labor for use with the national ac­
and Sweden, and to all employees (wage and
counts employment figures. For the other
salary earners) in the other countries.
countries, b l s constructs its own estimates
of average hours.
Definitions
Denmark has not published estimates of
average hours for 1994—97; therefore, the BLS
Output, in general, refers to value added in measure of labor input for Denmark ends in
1993.
manufacturing from the national accounts of
Total compensation (labor cost) includes
each country. However, the output series
all payments in cash or in-kind made directly
for Japan prior to 1970 is an index of indus­
to employees plus employer expenditures for
trial production, and the national accounts


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legally required insurance programs and con­
tractual and private benefit plans. The mea­
sures are from the national accounts of each
country, except those for Belgium, which are
developed by b l s using statistics on employ­
ment, average hours, and hourly compensa­
tion. For Canada, France, and Sweden, com­
pensation is increased to account for other sig­
nificant taxes on payroll or employment. For
the United Kingdom, compensation is reduced
between 1967 and 1991 to account for em­
ployment-related subsidies. Self-employed
workers are included in the all-employed-per­
sons measures by assuming that their hourly
compensation is equal to the average for wage
and salary employees.

Notes on the data
In general, the measures relate to total manu­
facturing as defined by the International Stan­
dard Industrial Classification. However, the
measures for France (for all years) and Italy
(beginning 1970) refer to mining and manu­
facturing less energy-related products, and
the measures for Denmark include mining and
exclude manufacturing handicrafts from 1960
to 1966.
The measures for recent years may be
based on current indicators of manufacturing
output (such as industrial production in­
dexes), employment, average hours, and
hourly compensation until national accounts
and other statistics used for the long-term
measures become available.
F o r a d d i t i o n a l in f o r m a t i o n on this se­
ries, contact the Division of Foreign Labor
Statistics: (202) 691-5654.

O ccupational Injury
and Illness Data
(Tables 50-51)

Survey of Occupational
Injuries and Illnesses
Description of the series
The Survey of Occupational Injuries and Ill­
nesses collects data from employers about their
workers’ job-related nonfatal injuries and ill­
nesses. The information that employers pro­
vide is based on records that they maintain un­
der the Occupational Safety and Health Act of
1970. Self-employed individuals, farms with
fewer than 11 employees, employers regulated
by other Federal safety and health laws, and

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

71

Current Labor Statistics

Federal, State, and local government agencies
are excluded from the survey.
The survey is a Federal-State coopera­
tive program with an independent sample
selected for each participating State. A strati­
fied random sample with aNeyman alloca­
tion is selected to represent all private in­
dustries in the State. The survey is stratified
by Standard Industrial Classification and
size of employment.

Definitions
Under the Occupational Safety and Health
Act, employers maintain records of nonfatal
work-related injuries and illnesses that in­
volve one or more of the following: loss of
consciousness, restriction of work or motion,
transfer to another job, or medical treatment
other than first aid.
Occupational injury is any injury such as
a cut, fracture, sprain, or amputation that re­
sults from a work-related event or a single, in­
stantaneous exposure in the work environment.
Occupational illness is an abnormal con­
dition or disorder, other than one resulting from
an occupational injury, caused by exposure to
factors associated with employment. It in­
cludes acute and chronic illnesses or disease
which may be caused by inhalation, absorp­
tion, ingestion, or direct contact.
Lost workday injuries and illnesses are
cases that involve days away from work, or
days of restricted work activity, or both.
Lost workdays include the number of
workdays (consecutive or not) on which
the employee was either away from work
or at work in some restricted capacity, or
both, because o f an occupational injury or
illness. BLS measures of the number and
incidence rate of lost workdays were dis­
continued beginning with the 1993 survey.
The number o f days away from work or
days of restricted work activity does not
include the day of injury or onset of illness
or any days on which the employee would
not have worked, such as a Federal holiday,
even though able to work.
Incidence rates are computed as the
number o f injuries and/or illnesses or lost
work days per 100 full-time workers.

Notes on the data
The definitions of occupational injuries and
illnesses are from Recordkeeping Guidelines
for Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (U.S.
Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics, September 1986).
Estimates are made for industries and em­
ployment size classes for total recordable cases,

72

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lost workday cases, days away from work
cases, and nonfatal cases without lost work­
days. These data also are shown separately for
injuries. Illness data are available for seven cat­
egories: occupational skin diseases or disorders,
dust diseases of the lungs, respiratory condi­
tions due to toxic agents, poisoning (systemic
effects of toxic agents), disorders due to physi­
cal agents (other than toxic materials), disor­
ders associated with repeated trauma, and all
other occupational illnesses.
The survey continues to measure the num­
ber of new work-related illness cases which
are recognized, diagnosed, and reported during
the year. Some conditions, for example, long­
term latent illnesses caused by exposure to
carcinogens, often are difficult to relate to the
workplace and are not adequately recognized
and reported. These long-term latent illnesses
are believed to be understated in the survey’s
illness measure. In contrast, the overwhelming
majority of the reported new illnesses are
those which are easier to directly relate to
workplace activity (for example, contact der­
matitis and carpal tunnel syndrome).
Most of the estimates are in the form of
incidence rates, defined as the number of inju­
ries and illnesses per 100 equivalent full-time
workers. For this purpose, 200,000 employee
hours represent 100 employee years (2,000
hours per employee). Full detail on the avail­
able measures is presented in the annual bulle­
tin, Occupational Injuries and Illnesses:
Counts, Rates, and Characteristics.
Comparable data for more than 40 States
and territories are available from the b l s Of­
fice of Safety, Health and Working Condi­
tions. Many of these States publish data on
State and local government employees in ad­
dition to private industry data.
Mining and railroad data are furnished to
BLS by the Mine Safety and Health Adminis­
tration and the Federal Railroad Administra­
tion. Data from these organizations are in­
cluded in both the national and State data
published annually.
With the 1992 survey, b l s began pub­
lishing details on serious, nonfatal incidents
resulting in days away from work. Included
are some major characteristics of the injured
and ill workers, such as occupation, age, gen­
der, race, and length of service, as well as the
circumstances of their injuries and illnesses
(nature of the disabling condition, part of
body affected, event and exposure, and the
source directly producing the condition). In
general, these data are available nationwide
for detailed industries and for individual
States at more aggregated industry levels.
F o r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on occu­
pational injuries and illnesses, contact the Of­
fice of Occupational Safety, Health and Work­

March 2002

ing Conditions at (202) 691-6180, or access
the Internet at:

http://www.bls.gov/iip/

Census of Fatal
Occupational Injuries
The Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries
compiles a complete roster of fatal job-re­
lated injuries, including detailed data about
the fatally injured workers and the fatal
events. The program collects and cross
checks fatality information from multiple
sources, including death certificates, State
and Federal workers’ compensation reports,
Occupational Safety and Health Administra­
tion and Mine Safety and Health Adminis­
tration records, medical examiner and au­
topsy reports, media accounts, State motor
vehicle fatality records, and follow-up ques­
tionnaires to employers.
In addition to private wage and salary
workers, the self-employed, family members,
and Federal, State, and local government
workers are covered by the program. To be
included in the fatality census, the decedent
must have been employed (that is working
for pay, compensation, or profit) at the time
of the event, engaged in a legal work activity,
or present at the site of the incident as a re­
quirement of his or her job.

Definition
A fatal work injury is any intentional or un­
intentional wound or damage to the body re­
sulting in death from acute exposure to energy,
such as heat or electricity, or kinetic energy
from a crash, or from the absence of such es­
sentials as heat or oxygen caused by a specific
event or incident or series of events within a
single workday or shift. Fatalities that occur
during a person’s commute to or from work
are excluded from the census, as well as workrelated illnesses, which can be difficult
to identify due to long latency periods.

Notes on the data
Twenty-eight data elements are collected,
coded, and tabulated in the fatality program,
including information about the fatally in­
jured worker, the fatal incident, and the ma­
chinery or equipment involved. Summary
worker demographic data and event charac­
teristics are included in a national news re­
lease that is available about 8 months after
the end of the reference year. The Census of

Fatal Occupational Injuries was initiated in
1992 as a joint Federal-State effort. Most
States issue summary information at the time

of the national news release.
on the
Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries con­
F o r a d d it io n a l in f o r m a t io n

tact the b l s Office o f Safety, Health, and
Working Conditions at (202) 691-6175, or
the Internet at: http://www.bls.gov/iip/

Bureau of Labor Statistics internet
The Bureau of Labor Statistics World Wide Web site on the Internet contains a range of
data on consumer and producer prices, employment and unemployment, occupational com­
pensation, employee benefits, workplace injuries and illnesses, and productivity. The
homepage can be accessed using any Web browser:
http://www.bls.gov
Also, some data can be accessed through anonymous F T P or Gopher at
stats.bls.gov


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Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

73

Current Labor Statistics:

Com parative Indicators

1. Labor market indicators
Selected indicators

2000

2001

1999

2000

IV

I

II

2001
III

IV

I

II

III

IV

E m p lo ym e n t data

Employment status of the civilian noninstitutionalized
population (household survey):1
Labor force participation rate...................................................
Employment-population ratio....................................................
Unemployment rate....................................................
Men.......................................................................
16 to 24 years......................................................................
25 years and over................................................................
Women............................................................
16 to 24 years......................................................................
25 years and over................................................................
Employment, nonfarm (payroll data), in thousands:1
Total...........................................................................
Private sector.....................................................................
Goods-producing.................................................................
Manufacturing...................................................................
Service-producing................................................................

67.2
64.5
4.0
3.9
9.7
2.8
4.1
8.9
3.2
131,759
111,079
25,709
18,469
106,050

66.9
63.8
4.8
4.8
11.4
3.6
4.7
9.7
3.7

67.1
64.3
4.1
4.0
10.3
2.9
4.2
9.4
3.1

67.3
64.6
4.0
3.9
9.7
2.8
4.2
9.5
3.1

67.3
64.6
4.0
3.9
9.7
2.8
4.1
9.0
3.2

132,212
111,339
25,121
17,698
107,090

129,783
109,507
25,524
18,482
104,259

130,984
110,456
25,704
18,504
105,280

131,854
110,917
25,711
. 18,510
106,143

34.5
41.6
4.6

34.2
40.7
3.9

34.5
41.7
4.7

34.5
41.8
4.7

34.5
41.8
4.7

4.1
4.4

4.1
4.2

.9
.9

1.3
1.5

1.0
1.2

67.0
64.3
4.1
3.9
9.8
2.8
4.2
8.5
3.3
131,927
111,293
25,732
18,487
106,195

67.1
64.4
4.0
4.0
9.6
2.9
4.0
8.4
3.0

67.2
64.4
4.2
4.2
10.6
3.1
4.1
8.7
3.3

66.9
63.9
4.5
4.6
11.2
3.4
4.3
9.2
3.4

66.8
63.6
4.8
4.9
11.5
3.7
4.8
10.0
3.7

66.9
63.1
5.6
5.7
12.7
4.4
5.5
10.6
4.4

132,264
111,669
25,704
18,378
106,560

132,559
111,886
25,621
18,188
106,938

34.4
41.5
4.5

34.3
41.1
4.3

34.3
41.0
4.1

34.2
40.8
3.9

34.1
40.7
4.0

34.1
40.5
3.8

1.0
.9

.7
.7

1.3
1.4

.9
1.0

1.2
.9

.8
.8

132,483
111,702
25,310
17,882
107,173

132,358
111,385
24,991
17,556
107,367

131,502
110,480
14,590
17,174
106,912

Average hours:
Private sector.........................................................................
Manufacturing......................................................................
Overtime...........................................................
E m p lo ym e n t C o st In d e x2

Percent change in the ECI, compensation:
All workers (excluding farm, household and Federal workers).....
Private industry workers.........................................................
Goods-producing3.............................................................

4.4

3.8

1.0

1.6

1.2

.9

.6

1.3

.9

.7

.8

Service-producing3............................................................
State and local government workers.......................................

4.4
3.0

4.3
4.2

.8
1.0

1.4
.6

1.2
.3

1.0
1.3

.7
.7

1.4
.9

1.0
.6

1.0
2.1

.8
.6

Workers by bargaining status (private industry):
Union....................................................................
Nonunion..................................................................................

4.0
4.4

4.2
4.1

.7
1.0

1.3
1.5

1.0
1.2

1.2
1.0

.5
.7

.7
1.5

1.1
1.0

1.0
.9

1.4
.7

1 Quarterly data seasonally adjusted.
2 Annual changes are December-to-December changes. Quarterly changes are calculated using the last month of each quarter.
3 Goods-producing industries include mining, construction, and manufacturing. Service-producing industries include all other private sector industries.

74

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March 2002

2. Annual and quarterly percent changes in compensation, prices, and productivity
Selected measures

2000

1999

2001

2000

IV

1

II

2001
III

IV

1

II

III

IV

Compensation data1,2
Employment Cost Index— compensation (wages,
salaries, benefits):
Civilian nonfarm..................................................................
Private nonfarm..............................................................
Employment Cost Index— wages and salaries:
Civilian nonfarm................................................................
Private nonfarm..............................................................

4.1
4.4

4.1
4.2

0.9
.9

1.3
1.5

1.0
1.2

1.0
.9

0.7
.7

1.3
1.4

0.9
1.0

1.2
.9

0.8
.8

3.8
3.9

3.7
3.8

.8
.9

1.1
1.2

1.0
1.0

1.1
1.0

.6
.6

1.1
1,2

.9
1.0

1.0
.8

.7
.8

1.6

3.4

-.2

1.7

.7

.8

.2

1.3

1.0

.2

-.9

3.5
4.3
1.2
4.0
31.1

-1.8
-2.4
1.0
-.2
-8.8

.1
-.2
1.2
8.0
-3.5

1.5
1.9
.1
1.8
9.0

1.8
1.3
.1
1.4
-6.0

.6
.8
-7.2
1.0
2.1

.4
.1
1.1
-.3
9.4

.9
1.2
-.1
.2
-3.5

.8
1.0
-7.1
.6
-6.6

-.3
-.3
-.1
-1.0
-12.0

-3.2
-4.3
.1
-3.6
-12.2

Business sector....................................................................
Nonfarm business sector......................................................

3.4
3.3

1.8
1.8

7.4
7.8

-.1
.0

7.7
6.7

1.2
1.6

3.0
2.3

-.2
-.1

2.2
2.1

.7
1.1

3.4
3.5

Nonfinancial corporations4...................................................

3.1

-

3.5

2.8

5.6

2.6

.7

.5

3.3

.9

-

Price data1
Consumer Price Index (All Urban Consumers): All Items.....
Producer Price Index:
Finished goods....................................................................
Finished consumer goods................................................
Capital equipment.............................................................
Intermediate materials, supplies, and components.............
Crude materials....................................................................

Productivity data3
Output per hour of all persons:

1 Annual changes are December-to-December changes. Quarterly changes are
calculated using the last month of each quarter. Compensation and price data are not
seasonally adjusted, and the price data are not compounded.

cent changes reflect annual rates of change in quarterly indexes. The
data are seasonally adjusted.
4 Output per hour of all employees.

2 Excludes Federal and private household workers.
3 Annual rates of change are computed by comparing annual averages. Quarterly per-

3. Alternative measures of wage and compensation changes
Q uarterly average
C om ponents

2000
IV

Average hourly compensation:1
All persons, business sector........................................................
All persons, nonfarm business sector.........................................

Four quarters ending

2001
I

II

2000
III

IV

IV

2001
I

II

III

IV

9.5
8.9

5.1
4.9

5.2
4.7

3.3
3.7

2.3
2.3

7.9
7.8

7.6
7.3

6.6
6.5

5.8
5.5

4.0
3.9

.7
.7
.5
.7
.7

1.3
1.4
.7
1.5
.9

.9
1.0
1.1
1.0
.6

1.2
.9
1.0
.9
2.1

.8
.8
1.4
.7
.6

4.1
4.4
4.0
4.4
3.0

4.1
4.2
3.4
4.3
3.3

3.9
4.0
3.5
4.2
3.6

4.1
4.0
3.4
4.1
4.4

4.1
4.2
4.2
4.1
4.2

.6
.6
.9
.6
.7

1.1
1.2
.6
1.2
.7

.9
1.0
1.1
.9
.5

1.0
.8
1.0
.8
1.9

.7
.8
1.6
.7
.5

3.8
3.9
3.4
4.0
3.3

3.8
3.8
3.6
3.9
3.5

3.7
3.8
3.8
3.7
3.7

3.6
3.6
3.6
3.6
3.9

3.7
3.8
4.4
3.6
3.6

Employment Cost Index— compensation:
Civilian nonfarm2..........................................................................
Private nonfarm.........................................................................
Union........................................................................................
Nonunion.................................................................................
State and local governments.....................................................
Employment Cost Index— wages and salaries:
Civilian nonfarm2...........................................................................
Private nonfarm.........................................................................
Union........................................................................................
Nonunion..................................................................................
State and local governments.....................................................

1 Seasonally adjusted. "Quarterly average" is percent change from a quarter ago, at an annual rate.
2 Excludes Federal and household workers.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

75

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

4. Employment status ot the population, by sex, age, race, and Hispanic origin, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status

Annual average

2001

2002

2000

2001

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

209,699
140,863
67.2
135,208

211,864
141,815
66.9
135,073

210,889
141,757
67.2
135,870

211,026
141,622
67.1
135,734

211,171
141,869
67.2
135,808

211,348
141,734
67.1
135,424

211,525
141,445
66.9
135,235

211,725
141,468
66.8
135,003

211,921
141,651
66.8
135,106

212,135
141,380
66.6
134,408

212,357
142,068
66.9
135,004

212,581
142,280
66.9
134,615

212,767
142,279
66.9
134,253

212,927
141,390
66.8
134,055

213,089
141 390
66 4
133,468

64.5
5,665
4.0
68,836

63.8
6,742
4.8
70,050

64.4
5,887
4.2
68,934

64.3
5,888
4.2
69,275

64.3
6,061
4.3
69,304

64.1
6,310
4.5
69,592

63.9
6,210
4.4
70,254

63.8
6,465
4.6
70,370

63.8
6,545
4.64.6
70,147

63.4
6,972
4.9
70,785

63.6
7,064
5.0
70,167

63.3
7,665
5.4
70,279

63.1
8,026
5.6
70,523

63.0
8,259
5.8
70,523

62.6
7 922

92,580
70,930
76.6
68,580

93,659
71,590
76.4
68,587

93,184
71,374
76.6
68,825

93,227
71,289
76.5
68,766

93,285
71,300
76.4
68,619

93,410
71,541
76.6
68,720

93,541
71,468
76.3
68,698

93,616
71,429
76.3
68,535

93,708
71,500
76.3
68,610

93,810
71,523
76.2
68,388

93,917
71,805
76.5
68,696

94,015
71,940
76.5
68,486

94,077
71,935
76.5
68,204

94,161
71,988
76.5
68,276

94,228
71 534
75 9
67,818

74.1
2,252

73.2
2,102

73.9
2,132

73.8
2,157

73.6
2,150

73.6
2,105

73.4
2,168

73.2
2,057

73.2
2,035

72.9
2,129

83.1
2,138

72.8
2,132

72.5
2,082

72.5
2,141

72.0
2 207

66,328
2,350
3.3

66,485
3,003
4.2

66,693
2,549
3.6

66,609
2,523
3.5

66,469
2,681
3.8

66,615
2,821
3.9

66,530
2,770
3.9

66,478
2,894
4.1

66,575
2,890
4.0

66,259
3,135
4.4

66,558
3,109
4.3

66,354
3,454
4.8

66,122
3,731
5.2

66,135
3,712
5.2

65 611
3 716
5.2

population1....................... 101,078
Civilian labor force............
61,565
Participation rate........
60.9
Employed...................... 59,352
Employment-pop58.7
ulation ratio2............
Agriculture..................
818
Nonagrlcultural
industries................. 58,535
Unemployed..................
2,212
Unemployment rate....
3.6

102,060
62,148
60.9
59,596

101,643
62,071
61.1
59,869

101,686
62,130
61.1
59,869

101,779
62,331
61.2
60,089

101,870
61,102
61.0
59,758

101,938
62,068
60.9
59,716

102,023
61,961
60.7
59,555

102,067
62,103
60.8
59,640

102,165
62,142
60.8
59,526

102,277
62,222
60.8
59,463

102,371
62,269
60.8
59,302

102,438
62,321
60.8
59,288

102,492
62,481
61.0
59,205

102,550
62,056
60.5
59,102

58.4
82

58.9
835

58.9
824

59.0
811

58.7
827

58.6
816

58.4
772

58.4
784

58.3
781

58.1
823

57.9
842

57.9
852

57.8
859

57.6
824

58,779
2,551
4.1

59,034
2,202
3.5

59,045
2,261
3.6

59,278
2,242
3.6

58,931
2,344
3.8

58,900
2,352
3.8

58,783
2,406
3.9

58,856
2,463
4.0

58,745
2,616
4.2

58,640
2,759
4.4

58,460
2,967
3.8

58,436
3,303
4.9

58,346
3,276
5.2

58,277
2 954
4.8

16,042
8,369
52.2
7,276

16,146
8,077
50.0
6,889

16,063
8,312
51.7
7,176

16,113
8,203
50.9
7,099

16,108
8,238
51.1
7,100

16,068
8,091
50.4
6,946

16,046
7,909
49.3
6,821

16,086
8,078
50.2
6,913

16,145
8,048
49.8
6,856

16,161
7,715
47.7
6,494

16,163
8,041
49.7
6,845

16,195
8,071
49.8
6,827

16,252
8,023
49.4
6,761

16,275
7,845
48.2
6,574

16,310
7,800
47 8
6,548

45.4
235

42.7
225

44.7
202

44.1
152

44.1
202

43.2
235

42.5
209

43.0
215

42.5
236

40.2
216

42.3
220

42.2
229

41.6
220

40.4
246

40.1
241

7,041
1,093
13.1

6,664
1,187
14.7

6,974
1,136
13.7

6,947
1,104
13.5

6,898
1,138
13.8

6,711
1,145
13.2

6,612
1,088
13.8

6,698
1,165
14.4

6,620
1,192
14.8

6,278
1,221
15.8

6,625
1,106
14.9

6,598
1,244
15.4

6,541
1,262
15.7

6,328
1,271
16.2

6,307
1 252
16.1

population1....................... 174,428
Civilian labor force............. 117,574
Participation rate........
67.4
Employed...................... 113,475
Employment-population ratio2............
65.1
Unemployed..................
4,099
Unemployment rate....
3.5

175,888
118,144
67.2
113,220

175,246
118,097
67.4
114,015

175,362
118,143
67.4
113,902

175,416
118,194
67.4
113,853

175,533
118,014
67.3
113,434

175,653
117,714
67.0
113,185

175,789
117,854
67.0
113,037

175,924
117,986
67.1
113,237

176,069
117,813
66.9
112,703

176,220
118,274
67.1
113,147

176,372
118,506
67.2
112,878

176,500
118,566
67.2
112,652

176,607
118,403
67.0
112,388

176,713
117,759
66 6
111,876

64.4
4,923
4.2

65.0
4,240
3.6

64.9
4,364
3.7

64.9
4,384
3.7

64.6
4,640
3.9

64.4
4,541
3.9

64.4
4,728
4.0

64.3
4,810
4.1

64.0
5,073
4.3

64.2
5,127
4.3

64.0
5,628
4.7

63.8
5,914
5.0

63.6
6,015
5.1

63.3
5 883
5.0

25,559
16,719
65.4
15,270

25,382
16,754
66.0
15,387

25,412
25,441
16,660
16,750
65.6
65.8
15,407 ' 15,341

25,472
16,678
65.5
15,304

25,501
16,644
65.3
15,311

25,533
16,739
65.6
15,330

25,565
16,685
65.3
15,337

25,604
16,720
65.3
15,210

25,644
16,827
65.6
15,339

25,686
16,748
65.2
15,144

25,720
16,687
64.9
15,040

25,752
16,833
65.4
15,122

25,785
16,769
65 0
15,119

60.1
1,374
8.2

60.0
1,333
8.0

60.0
1,409
8.4

60.0
1,348
8.1

59.4
1,510
9.0

59.8
1,488
8.8

59.0
1,604
9.6

58.5
1,647
9.9

58.7
1,711
10.2

58.6
1,650
9.8

TO TAL

Civilian noninstitutional
population1......................
Civilian labor force............
Participation rate.......
Employed.....................
Employment-population ratio2...........
Unemployed.................
Unemployment rate...
Not in the labor force......
M en, 20 y e a rs a n d o v e r

Civilian noninstitutional
population1......................
Civilian labor force............
Participation rate........
Employed......................
Employment-population ratio2............
Agriculture..................
Nonagrlcultural
industries................
Unemployed..................
Unemployment rate....
W o m e n , 20 y e a rs a n d o v e r

Civilian noninstitutional

B o th se xe s, 16 t o 19 ye a rs

Civilian noninstitutional
population1.......................
Civilian labor force.............
Participation rate........
Employed......................
Employment-population ratio2............
Agriculture..................
Nonagrlcultural
industries.................
Unemployed..................
Unemployment rate....
W h ite

Civilian noninstitutional

B la c k

Civilian noninstitutional
population1........................
Civilian labor force.............
Participation rate........
Employed......................
Employment-population ratio2............
Unemployed..................
Unemployment rate....

25,218
16,603
65.8
15,334
60.8
1,269
7.6

59.7
1,450
8.7 I

60.6
1,367
8.2

60.6
1,253
7.5

See footnotes at end of table.

76

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

March 2002

60.3
1,409
8.4

4. Continued— Employment status of the population, by sex, age, race, and Hispanic origin, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]_________________________________
Employment status

Annual average

2001

2002

2000

2001

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

22,393
15,368
68.6
14,492

23,122
15,751
68.1
14,714

22,769
15,609
68.6
14,682

22,830
15,652
68.6
14,682

22,889
15,739
68.8
14,760

22,957
15,730
68.5
14,738

23,021
15,656
68.0
14,684

23,090
15,602
67.6
14,574

23,157
15,753
68.0
14,776

23,222
15,788
68.0
14,771

23,288
15,811
67.9
14,785

23,351
15,956
68.3
14,824

23,417
15,932
68.0
14,751

23,478
16,013
68.2
14,753

23.54Î
15,986
67.Î
14.70C

64.7
876
5.7

63.6
1,037
6.6

65.5
927
5.9

64.3
970
6.2

64.5
979
6.2

64.2
992
6.3

63.8
972
6.2

63.1
1,028
6.6

63.8
977
6.2

63.6
1,017
6.4

63.5
1,026
6.5

63.5
1,132
7.1

63.0
1,181
7.4

62.8
1,260
7.9

62.'
1,288
8.1

H is p a n ic o rig in

Civilian noninstitutional
Civilian labor force............
Participation rate........
Employed.....................
Employment-population ratio2............
Unemployed.................
Unemployment rate....

1 The population figures are not seasonally adjusted.
2 Civilian employment as a percent of the civilian noninstitutional population.

NOTE: Detail for the above race and Hispanic-origin groups will not sum to total:
becausedata for the "other races" groups are not presented and Hispanics are included ir
both the white and black population groups.

5. Selected employment indicators, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
Selected categories

Annual average

2001

2002

2000

2001

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

135,208
72,293
62,915

135,073
72,080
62,992

135,870
72,492
63,378

135,734
72,348
63,386

135,808
72,271
63,537

135,424
72,272
63,152

135,235
72,131
63,104

135,003
72,012
62,991

145,106
72,093
63,013

134,408
71,705
62,703

135,004
72,177
62,827

134,615
71,871
62,744

134,253
71,570
62,683

134,055
71,577
62,478

133,468
71,114
62,354

43,368

43,243

43,304

43,372

43,385

43,459

43,633

43,357

43,264

43,143

43,099

42,983

42,861

42,772

42,823

33,708

33,613

33,932

33,959

34,007

33,699

33,692

33,466

33,571

33,685

33,604

33,227

33,330

33,209

33,174

8,387

8,364

8,391

8,380

8,144

2,179

8,335

2,513

1,558

8,328

8,274

8,256

8,331

8,458

8,396

1,884
1,233
27

1,971
1,186
27

1,843
1,281
29

1,909
1,224
34

1,899
1,220
44

1,957
1,208
34

1,803
1,193
32

1,798
‘ 152
23

1,852
1,239
29

1,882
1,278
24

1,898
1,290
26

1,865
1,276
12

1,879
1,313
27

1,917
1,311
49

123,235
19,127
104,108
803
103,305
8,594
101

124,128
18,953
105,175
862
104,313
8,661
112

123,916
19,073
104,843
833
104,010
8,608
130

123,767
19,089
104,678
858
103,820
8,749
128

123,406
18,928
104,478
809
103,669
8,597
99

123,530
19,068
10,442
795
103,667
8,540
111

123,069
18,934
104,135
760
103,375
8,720
102

123,204
18,999
104,205
790
103,415
8,568
98

122,685
19,150
103,535
814
102,721
8,503
111

123,186
19,290
103,896
804
103,092
8,556
101

122,710
19,223
103,487
867
102,620
8,505
95

122,507
19,172
103,335
790
102,545
8,507
77

122,196
19,183
103,013
736
102,277
8,524
92

122,145
19,047
103,098
725
102,373
8,213
97

3,190

3,672

3,288

3,277

3,221

3,277

3,388

3,649

3,571

3,389

4,148

4,329

4,206

4,267

3,973

1,927

2,355

2,029

2,049

1,965

2,188

2,205

2,276

2,174

2,115

2,796

2,983

2,796

2,809

2,549

C h a ra c te ris tic

Employed, 16 years and over..
Men...................................
Women..............................
Married men, spouse
present.............................
Married women, spouse
present.............................
Women who maintain
families.............................
C la ss o f w o rk e r

Agriculture:
Wage and salary workers....
2,034
Self-employed workers.......
1,233
Unpaid family workers.........
38
Nonagricultural industries:
Wage and salary workers.... 123,128
Government.......................
19,053
Private Industries............... 104,076
Private households.......
890
Other............................ 103,186
Self-employed workers......
8,674
Unpaid family workers.......
101
P e rso n s a t w o rk p a rt tim e 1

All industries:
Part time for economic
reasons............................
Slack work or business
conditions....................
Could only find part-time
work............................
Part time for noneconomic
reasons...........................
Nonagricultural industries:
Part time for economic
reasons............................
Slack work or business
conditions.....................
Could only find part-time
work............................
Part time for noneconomic
reasons..........................

944

1,007

934

925

916

895

921

1,008

1,011

952

1,064

1,108

1,121

1,161

1,089

18,722

18,707

18,696

18,974

18,711

18,698

18,634

18,482

18,812

19,011

18,798

18,644

18,587

18,540

18,201

3,045

3,529

3,172

3,137

3,064

3,120

3,231

3,556

3,425

32,346

4,015

4,222

4,017

4,119

3,781

1,835

2,266

1,955

1,970

1,869

2,011

2,101

2,215

2,111

2,025

2,704

2,898

2,679

2,717

2,448

924

989

935

904

891

883

899

990

993

927

1,045

1,082

1,096

1,138

1,068

18,165
18,177
18,139
18,560
18,162
18,166
18,097
18.066
18,283
18,485
1 Excludes persons "with a job but not at work" during the survey period for such reasons as vacation, illness, or industrial disputes.

18,232

18.065

18,007

17.960

17,717


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

77

Current Labor Statistics:

6.

Labor Force Data

Selected unemployment indicators, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[Unemployment rates]
Selected categories

Annual average
2000

2001

2001

2002

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan

Characteristic
Total, 16 years and over..........................
Both sexes, 16 to 19 years...................
Men, 20 years and over.......................
Women, 20 years and over..................

4.0
13.1
3.3
3.6

4.8
14.7
4.2
4.1

4.2
13.7
3.6
3.5

4.2
13.5
3.5
3.6

4.3
13.8
3.8
3.6

4.5
14.2
3.9
3.8

4.4
13.6
3.9
3.8

4.6
14.4
4.1
3.9

4.6
14.8
4.0
4.0

4.9
15.8
4.4
4.2

5.0
14.9
4.3
4.4

5.4
15.4
4.8
4.8

5.6
15.7
5.2
4.9

5.8
16.2
5.2
52.0

5.6
16.1
52
4.8

White, total...........................................
Both sexes, 16 to 19 years..............
Men, 16 to 19 years......................
Women, 16 to 19 years................
Men, 20 years and over...................
Women, 20 years and over.............

3.5
11.4
12.3
10.4
2.8
3.1

4.2
12.7
13.8
11.4
3.7
3.6

3.6
11.7
13.1
10.2
3.1
3.0

3.7
11.2
12.7
9.6
3.1
3.3

3.7
11.7
12.3
11.0
3.3
3.1

3.9
11.9
12.9
10.9
3.4
3.4

3.9
12.0
13.3
10.7
3.4
3.4

4.0
12.7
14.3
11.0
3.6
3.4

4.1
13.2
13.8
12.6
3.5
3.5

4.3
13.8
15.1
12.4
3.8
3.6

4.3
12.7
13.6
11.7
3.8
3.8

4.7
23.1
14.7
11.5
4.4
4.1

5.0
13.5
15.8
11.1
4.7
4.2

5.1
13.7
14.6
12.8
4.6
4.5

5.0
14.2
13.7
14.6
4.7
4.2

Black, total............................................
Both sexes, 16 to 19 years..............
Men, 16 to 19 years......................
Women, 16 to 19 years................
Men, 20 years and over...................
Women, 20 years and over..............

7.6
24.7
26.4
23.0
7.0
6.3

8.7
29.0
30.5
27.5
8.0
7.0

8.2
27.5
27.3
27.6
7.0
6.9

7.5
28.1
31.1
25.1
6.7
5.9

8.4
28.3
28.7
28.0
8.2
6.3

8.2
30.5
33.5
27.7
8.1
5.9

8.0
25.7
30/0
21.5
7.6
6.4

8.4
28.0
6.0
25.7
7.8
6.7

8.1
26.6
28.1
25.2
7.9
6.2

9.0
30.1
31.4
28.7
8.8
7.0

8.8
28.5
430.8
26.1
7.8
7.7

9.6
30.2
31.2
29.1
8.2
8.5

9.9
32.1
31.6
32.6
8.7
8.4

10.2
33.4
32.0
34.8
9.1
8.7

9.8
30.7
32.1
29.0
89
8.4

Hispanic origin, total..........................

5.7

6.6

5.9

6.2

6.2

6.3

6.2

6.6

6.2

6.4

6.5

7.1

7.4

7.9

8.1

Married men, spouse present............
Married women, spouse present.......
Women who maintain families...........
Full-time workers................................
Part-time workers...............................

2.0
2.7
5.9
3.9
4.8

2.7
3.1
6.6
4.7
5.1

2.3
2.6
6.4
4.0
4.9

2.3
2.6
6.0
4.0
4.8

2.4
2.7
6.1
4.1
4.9

2.5
2.8
6.3
4.3
5.3

2.6
2.9
6.2
4.3
4.8

2.6
3.0
6.3
4.5
5.2

2.7
2.9
6.3
4.5
5.1

2.8
3.1
6.8
4.8
5.4

2.8
3.3
7.1
5.0
4.6

3.1
3.6
6.8
5.4
5.5

3.3
3.6
8.0
5.6
5.6

3.4
3.7
8.0
5.8
5.6

3.5
34
79
5.7
5.2

4.1
3.9
6.4
3.6
3.4
4.0
3.1
5.0
2.3
3.8
2.1
7.5

5.1
4.7
7.3
5.2
5.3
5.1
4.1
5.6
2.8
4.6
2.2
9.7

4.2
2.2
6.7
4.1
4.0
4.4
2.9
4.9
2.3
3.9
2.2
9.0

4.4
4.5
6.8
4.5
4.1
4.9
3.0
5.1
2.4
4.1
1.6
9.2

4.5
4.0
6.4
4.8
4.7
4.9
3.2
5.3
2.5
4.1
2.1
11.1

4.6
4.8
6.9
4.6
4.4
4.9
4.0
5.2
2.6
4.1
2.2
9.4

4.6
4.9
6.7
4.8
4.8
4.8
3.6
5.2
2.4
4.2
2.0
8.4

4.8
5.9
6.9
5.0
5.0
4.9
4.1
5.4
2.6
4.4
2.1
9.5

4.8
3.9
7.1
5.2
5.0
5.5
3.4
5.3
3.1
4.4
2.1
10.5

5.2
4.7
7.6
5.7
5.8
5.4
3.6
5.6
2.7
4.9
2.1
10.0

5.2
5.0
7.8
5.6
5.8
5.4
3.9
5.9
2.8
4.8
2.2
7.6

5.8
5.8
8.3
6.0
6.5
5.3
6.0
6.1
2.8
5.5
2.3
9.0

6.0
5.3
8.9
6.4
6.9
5.5
6.1
6.4
3.6
5.4
2.4
9.3

6.2
6.1
8.9
6.8
7.2
6.1
6.1
7.1
3.0
5.5
2.4
9.6

5.9
5.9
9.4
6.6
7.0
5.9
62
6.3
2.2
5.4
23
10.3

6.4
3.5

7.3
4.2

6.7
3.7

7.4
3.7

6.8
3.8

6.7
3.8

6.7
3.9

6.9
3.9

6.8
4.1

7.3
4.3

7.7
4.3

7.8
4.6

8.1
5.0

8.8
4.9

8.1
52

2.7
1.7

3.3
2.3

2.9
1.6

2.7
1.6

2.7
1.9

2.9
2.2

3.0
2.1

3.1
2.1

3.1
22.2

3.3
2.2

3.5
2.5

3.9
2.7

4.2
2.9

4.3
3.1

4.2
2.9

Industry
Nonagricultural wage and salary
workers.............................................
Mining................................................
Construction..........................................
Manufacturing.......................................
Durable goods...................................
Nondurable goods.............................
Transportation and public utilities.........
Wholesale and retail trade...................
Finance, insurance, and real estate.....
Services................................................
Government workers................................
Agricultural wage and salary workers......
Educational attainment1
Less than a high school diploma...............
High school graduates, no college............
Some college, less than a bachelor’s
degree...............................................
College graduates......................................
1 Data refer to persons 25 years and over.

78

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

March 2002

7.

Duration of unemployment, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[Numbers in thousands]
Weeks of
unem ploym ent

15 weeks and over.........................
27 weeks and over......................

8.

Annual average
2000

2001

2001

2002

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

2,543
1,803
1,309
665
644

2,833
2,163
1,746
949
787

2,631
1,940
1,357
709
648

2,749
1,737
1,466
778
688

2,698
1,967
1,510
814
696

2,822
1,976
1,507
781
726

2,714
2,021
1,503
862
641

2,809
2,098
1,571
843
728

2,647
2,170
1,630
948
682

2,955
2,152
1,798
980
818

2,807
2,366
1,907
1,084
823

3,084
2,522
2,042
1,136
906

3,090
2,573
2,317
1,207
1,110

3,024
2,724
2,410
1,295
1,115

2,978
2,586
2,546
1,418
1,127

12.6
5.9

13.2
6.8

12.6
5.9

12.8
6.0

12.8
6.4

12.6
6.0

12.4
6.4

12.9
6.3

12.7
6.7

13.2
6.6

13.3

13.0
7.4

14.4
7.6

14.5
8.2

14.6
8.8

Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[Numbers in thousands]
Reason fo r
unem ploym ent
Job losers1.....................................
On temporary layoff....................
Not on temporary layoff..............
Job leavers.....................................
Reentrants......................................
New entrants...................................

Annual average
2000

2001

2,492
842
1,650
775
1,957
431

3,428
1,044
2,379
832
2,029
453

2001

2002

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

2,762
1,002
1,760
813
1,921
439

2,856
950
1,906
815
1,900
387

2,995
988
2,007
803
1,908
410

3,020
1,023
1,997
776
1,991
456

3,132
1,055
2,077
818
1,827
467

3,249
990
2,259
807
1,921
470

3,294
1,020
2,274
791
1,948
442

3,438
1,071
2,367
877
2,162
488

3,595
1,114
2,481
819
2,102
466

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

4,297
1,288
3,009
880
2,113
466

4,501
1,157
3,344
848
2,197
497

4,492
1,107
3,385
908
2,361
495

4,354
1,124
3,231
879
2,191
479

Percent of unemployed
Job losers1.....................................
On temporary layoff....................
Not on temporary layoff...............
Job leavers.....................................
Reentrants......................................
New entrants...................................

44.1
14.9
29.2
13.7
34.6
7.6

50.8
15.6
35.3
12.3
30.1
6.7

46.5
16.9
32.0
13.7
32.4
7.4

47.9
15.9
32.0
13.7
31.9
6.5

49.0
16.2
32.8
13.1
31.2
6.7

48.4
16.4
32.0
12.4
31.9
7.3

50.2
16.9
33.3
13.1
29.3
7.5

50.4
15.4
35.0
12.5
29.8
7.3

50.9
15.8
35.1
12.2
30.1
6.8

49.4
15.4
34.0
12.6
31.0
7.0

51.5
16.0
35.5
11.7
30.1
6.7

55.4
16.6
38.8
11.3
27.2
6.0

56.0
14.4
41.6
10.5
27.3
6.2

54.4
13.4
41.0
11.0
28.6
6.0

55.1
14.2
40.9
11.1
27.7
6.1

1.8
.6
1.4
.3

2.4
.6
1.4
.3

1.9
.6
1.4
.3

2.0
.6
1.3
.3

2.1
.6
1.3
.3

2.1
.5
1.4
.3

2.2
.6
1.3
.3

2.3
.6
1.4
.3

2.3
.6
1.4
.3

2.4
.6
1.5
.3

2.5
.6
1.5
.3

3.0
.6
1.5
.3

3.2
.6
1.5
.3

3.2
.6
1.7
.3

3.1
.6
1.5
.3

Percent of civilian
labor force
Job losers1......................................
Job leavers......................................
Reentrants......................................
New entrants...................................

1 Includes persons who completed temporary jobs.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

79

Current Labor Statistics:

9.

Labor Force Data

Unemployment rates by sex and age, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[Civilian workers]
Sex and age

Annual average
2000

2001

2001
Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

2002

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Total, 16 years and over.................
16 to 24 years..............................
16 to 19 years..........................
16 to 17 years........................
18 to 19 years........................
20 to 24 years..........................
25 years and over.......................
25 to 54 years........................
55 years and over.................

4.0
9.3
13.1
15.4
11.5
7.1
3.0
3.1
2.6

4.8
10.6
14.7
17.1
13.2
8.3
3,7
3.8
3.0

4.2
9.5
13.7
16.6
11.5
7.2
3.1
3.2
2.7

4.2
9.5
13.5
16.9
11.0
7.3
3.2
3.2
2.8

4.3
9.9
13.8
5.9
12.2
7.7
3.2
3.3
2.7

4.5
10.3
14.2
16.7
12.6
8.2
3.4
3.4
2.7

4.4
10.0
13.8
15.8
12.5
7.9
3.4
3.5
2.6

4.6
10.4
14.4
16.5
13.0
8.2
3.5
3.6
2.8

4.6
10.2
14.8
19.0
12.4
7.7
3.5
3.7
2.9

4.9
11.3
15.8
18.6
14.4
8.9
3.8
3.9
3.1

5.0
10.8
14.9
16.6
13.9
8.6
3.8
3.9
3.2

5.4
11.5
15.4
17.4
14.2
9.3
4.2
4.4
3.4

5.6
11.7
15.7
17.5
14.8
9.5
4.4
4.6
3.5

5.8
11.9
16.2
18.8
14.8
9.6
4.5
4.7
4.0

5.6
11.9
16.1
17.0
15.2
9.7
4.4
4.7
3.5

Men, 16 years and over................
16 to 24 years............................
16 to 19 years.........................
16 to 17 years.....................
18 to 19 years.....................
20 to 24 years........................
25 years and over.....................
25 to 54 years.....................
55 years and over...............

3.9
9.7
14.0
16.8
12.2
7.3
2.8
2.9
2.7

4.8
11.4
15.9
18.8
14.1
8.9
3.6
3.7
3.3

4.2
10.2
14.8
19.0
11.9
7.7
3.1
3.1
2.9

4.2
10.6
15.0
18.4
12.9
8.1
3.0
3.1
2.8

4.4
10.9
14.3
16.2
12.7
8.9
3.2
3.2
3.0

4.6
10.9
15.1
18.7
12.9
8.6
3.4
3.5
2.9

4.5
11.0
15.4
17.9
13.9
8.7
3.3
3.4
2.9

4.7
11.6
15.8
18.5
14.2
9.3
3.4
3.5
3.0

4.7
10.7
15.6
19.1
13.4
8.1
3.6
3.6
3.1

5.1
12.3
17.4
21.9
15.0
9.5
3.8
3.9
3.3

5.0
1.5
16.0
18.7
14.5
9.1
3.7
3.8
3.3

5.5
12.4
17.2
20.3
15.1
9.8
4.2
4.3
3.7

5.9
13.0
17.7
20.4
16.2
10.5
4.5
4.6
4.1

5.8
12.8
17.2
20.0
15.6
10.5
4.5
4.5
4.2

5.8
12.5
16.3
17.6
15.1
10.6
4.4
4,7
3.8

Women, 16 years and over...........
16 to 24 years............................
16 to 19 years........................
16 to 17 years.....................
18 to 19 years.....................
20 to 24 years........................
25 years and over.....................
25 to 54 years.....................

4.1
8.9
12.1
14.0
10.8
7.0
3.2
3.3

4.7
9.7
13.4
15.3
12.2
7.5
3.7
3.8

4.1
8.8
12.5
14.0
11.1
6.7
3.2
3.3

4.1
8.3
11.9
15.3
8.8
6.3
3.4
3.4

4.2
8.9
13.3
15.6
11.6
6.4
3.2
3.4

4.3
9.7
13.2
14.5
12.2
7.8
3.3
3.4

4.3
8.8
12.1
13.8
11.0
7.0
3.4
3.6

4.4
9.2
13.0
14.4
11.8
7.0
3.5
3.7

4.6
9.7
14.0
18.8
11.3
7.3
3.5
3.7

4.8
10.3
14.1
15.4
13.7
8.2
3.8
3.9

5.0
10.1
13.6
14.3
13.3
8.1
4.0
4.0

5.3
10.5
13.6
14.5
13.3
8.7
4.2
4.4

5.4
10.3
13.7
14.5
13.3
8.3
4.4
4.7

5.8
11.0
15.1
17.6
14.0
8.7
4.6
4.8

5.4
11.3
15.8
16.4
15.2
8.7
4.3
4.6

55 years and over...............

2.6

2.7

2.4

2.7

2.3

2.5

2.4

2.6

2.6

2.8

3.2

3.2

2.8

3.7

3.0

80

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

March 2002


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

10. Unemployment rates by State, seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2000

State
Alabama...................................................

California..................................................

Kansas......................................................

Nov.

Dec.

2001”

2001p

Dec.
2000

State

Nov.

Dec.

2001p

2001p

4.3
4.7
2.9
4.4
2.8

5.0
4.6
3.3
6.7
4.0

4.9
4.7
3.4
6.9
3.9

5.1
4.0
3.4
6.4
6.0

3.7
4.6
4.3
4.2
2.9

4.8
5.1
5.6
6.5
2.9

4.8
5.1
5.7
6.5
3.1

4.5
5.7
5.3
5.9
5.1

4.5
5.6
5.5
6.0
5.1

3.9
3.0
4.7
4.3
4.2

4.7
4.4
7.7
5.0
4.9

4.8
4.7
7.8
5.1
6.0

2.9
4.0
4.6
6.0
3.4

3.7
4.5
6.1
6.5
4.3

3.7
4.4
6.2
6.7
4.3

4.2
2J5
4.1
3.9
3.5

5.9
3.6
4.8
5.6
5.2

6.1
4.0
5.0
5.7
5.9

3.9
2.6

4.4
4.4

4.4
4.4

3.4
5.1

3.9
6.3

4.0
6.5

3.0
2.2
5.5
5.4
3.9
3.8

4.2
4.5
7.2
4.6
4.9
4.1

4.3
4.5
7.4
4.6
4.9
4.2

4.7
6.6
3.8
4.6
4.7

5.9
6.1
5.6
5.4
6.1

6.0
6.0
5.8
5.5
6.1

2.7
2.3
4.0
6.3
3.8

4.9
3.9
3.3
6.8
5.6

3.6
4.2
4.8
4.8
3.3

Michigan...................................................

Missouri

New Hampshire.......................................

South Dakota............................................

Utah..........................................................

Washington...............................................

Wyoming...................................................
p = preliminary
Dash indicates data not available.

11.

Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by State, seasonally adjusted

[In thousands]________________________________________________________________________
Dec.
2000

Nov.

Dec.

2001p

2001p

1,927.4
285.8
2,270.0
1,156.2
14,682.8

1,905.6
290.5
2,252.6
1,149.9
14,644.2

1,903.7
291.4
2,247.1
1,147.5
14,656.2

Connecticut.................................
Delaware......................................
District of Columbia.....................
Florida.........................................

2,246.0
1,694.2
420.9
657.7
7,158.4

22.3.3
1,672.4
418.4
649.3
7,187.6

2,205.0
1,672.1
418.5
649.6
7,166.3

North Dakota...............................

Georgia.......................................
Hawaii..........................................
Idaho...........................................
Illinois..........................................
Indiana.........................................

3,972.1
557.4
566.2
6,039.5
2,967.8

3,906.6
546.0
569.3
5,969.4
2,915.4

Maine...........................................

1,477.0
1,347.4
1,827.2
1,941.8
608.1

Massachusetts............................

State

Alaska..........................................
Arizona.......................................
Arkansas......................................

Kansas........................................

Minnesota...................................

State
Missouri......................................

Dec.
2000

Nov.

Dec.

2001p

2001p

2,743.0
386.8
908.8
1,045.2
629.4

2,707.1
390.0
911.4
1,046.8
624.3

2,695.2
390.3
908.8
1,049.6
624.6

4,024.6
752.5
8,691.1
3,933.5
328.5

4,020.0
757.4
8,574.5
3,882.6
330.9

4,023.3
758.1
8,568.5
3,881.6
331.0

3,899.2
545.5
568.9
5,958.0
2,911.0

5,606.6
1,503.5
Oregon......................................... 1617.8“
Pennsylvania...............................
5,709.8
480.3

5,539.6
1,516.2
1,582.4
5,666.5
477.6

5,534.5
1,516.2
1,580.1
5,663.1
477.9

1,465.2
1,360.6
1,819.0
1,921.6
608.3

1,462.8
1,363.1
1,818.5
1,936.9
608.1

South Carolina.............................
South Dakota...............................

1,853.1
378.0
2,722.2
9,526.9
1,087.1

1,834.8
377.8
2,706.3
9,449.6
1,075.6

1,827.8
376.3
2,706.9
9,437.0
1,073.7

2,472.0
3,358.4

2,470.4
3,312.1

2,692.7
1,144.1

2,653.4
1,130.8

2,469.9
3,307.1
2,648.4
1,125.5

301.5
3,550.8
2,731.1
737.7
2,834.3
241.6

297.7
3,504.9
2,667.8
733.6
2,816.0
246.2

297.4
3,501.9
2,655.6
734.6
2,817.5
245.9

New Hampshire..........................
New Jersey..................................

Texas...........................................
Utah............................................

Virginia.........................................
Washington.................................
West Virginia................................
Wyoming......................................

p = preliminary. Dash indicates data not available.
NOTE: Some data in this table may differ from data published elsewhere because of the continual updating of the data base.

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

81

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

12. Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by industry, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[In thousands]

Industry
TOTAL.........................
PRIVATE SECTOR............
GOODS-PRODUCING...........
Mining'...............................
Metal mining.......................
Oil and gas extraction..........
Nonmetallic minerals,
except fuels.....................
Construction.......................
General building contractors.
Heavy construction, except
building............................
Special trades contractors....
Manufacturing.....................
Production workers.......
Durable goods...................
Production workers........
Lumber and wood products.
Furniture and fixtures.........
Stone, clay, and glass
products.........................
Primary metal industries.....
Fabricated metal products...
Industrial machinery and
equipment.......................
Computer and office
equipment.....................
Electronic and other electrical
equipment.........................
Electronic components and
accessories......................
Transportation equipment.....
Motor vehicles and
equipment........................
Aircraft and parts................
Instruments and related
products............................
Miscellaneous manufacturing
industries............................
Nondurable goods...............
Production workers..........
Food and kindred products....
Tobacco products.................
Textile mill products..............
Apparel and other textile
products.............................
Paper and allied products......
Printing and publishing..........
Chemicals and allied products
Petroleum and coal products..
Rubber and miscellaneous
plastics products.................
Leather and leather products..
SERVICE-PRODUCING..............
Transportation and public
utilities................................
Transportation.........................
Railroad transportation..........
Local and interurban
passenger transit.................
Trucking and warehousing.....
Water transportation..............
Transportation by air.............
Pipelines, except natural gas..
Transportation services.........
Communications and public
utilities..................................
Communications....................
Electric, gas, and sanitary
services..............................
Wholesale trade.......................
Retail trade...............................
Building materials and garden
supplies................................
General merchandise stores.....
Department stores.................

Annual average

2001

2000

2001

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

131,739
111,079
25,709
543
41
311

132,212
111,339
25,121
563
36
337

132,428
111,799
25,633
550
39
325

Dec.p

Jan.p

132,595
111,915
25,627
555
39
328

132,654
111,943

132,489
111,742

132,530
111,760

132,431
111,603

132,449
111,517

132,395
111,390

132,230
111,249

131,427
110,421

25,421
560
37
335

25,324
564
37
339

25,186
565
35
340

25,122
567
34
341

24,963
569
35
342

24,888
569
35
342

131,321
110,260
24,453
564
33
336

131,195
110,132

25,602
557
38
331

131,782
110,784
24,746
569
35
340

114

113
5,861
1,554

111

113
6,880
1,555

113
6,929
1,552

113

112

112

112

113

113

113

6,852
1,548

6,881
1,556

6,864
1,551

113
6,867
1,554

112

6,826
1,538

6,861
1,557

6,871
1,562

6,852
1,560

6,851
1,561

6,850
1,559

112
6,787
1,550

921
4,367

930
4,395

938
4,439

915
4,389

923
4,402

925
4,388

935
4,378

932
4,372

932
4,377

933
4,359

942
4,348

944
4,348

18,257
12,394

18,192
12,323

928
4,309

18,116
12,254

18,009
12,166

17,879
12,066

17,757
11,956

17,688
11,900

17,533
11,782

17,448
11,706

17,325
11,626

17,159
11,500

17,039
11,405

16,929
11,325

10,941
7,358
799
548

10,870
7,308
800
543

10,778
7,235
797
540

10,692
7,157

10,523
7,022

789
505

10,240
6,805
784
499

10,158
6,744

793
519

10,460
6,970
794
513

10,363
6,897

798
532

10,624
7,102
797
531

780
499

10,053
6,670
781
498

6,698
1,528
901
4,269

82

24,278
562
31
337

18,469
12,628

629
4,378
17,698
11,922

11,138
7,591
832
558

10,638
7,122
795
527

11,031
7,462
806
552

10,997
7,415
799
549

579
698
1,537

571
651
1,479

579
681
1,526

578
679
1,514

578
671
1,509

577
667
1,503

574
660
1,488

572
654
1,478

569
648
1,478

568
643
1,468

567
638
1,464

566
633
1,454

562
619
1,435

559
613
1,428

554
601
1,416

2,120

2,014

2,117

2,105

2,084

2,072

2,054

2,031

2,007

1,980

1,965

1,943

1,917

1,892

1,870

361

355

369

370

369

367

366

357

353

348

344

342

339

335

327

1,719

1,612

1,735

1,726

1,715

1,684

1,656

1,624

1,589

1,565

1,551

1,529

1,499

1,474

1,459

682
1,849

647
1,747

714
1,772

711
1,786

702
1,775

686
1,768

670
1,757

650
1,749

634
1,752

618
1,750

613
1,735

601
1,714

591
1,706

583
1,696

572
1,660

1,013
465

933
463

952
462

967
464

956
465

950
464

939
465

931
465

936
466

931
465

919
465

903
463

903
456

901
452

878
440

852

859
385
385
7,059
4,800

870

871

871

866

865

865

865

858

851

849

843

839

836

393
7,226
4,932
1,684
32
505

390

391

387

389

7,175
4,896

7,101
4,831

7,065
4,799

388
7,064
4,798

379

7,195
4,908

390
7,139
4,858

7,010
4,760

382
6,988
4,736

381
6,962
4,729

376
6,919
4,695

378
6,881
4,661

378
6,876
4,655

1,686
31
496

1,687
32
494

1,687
32
489

1,684
33
480

1,685
33
472

1,680
33
471

1,674
35
465

1,682
33
459

1,689
33
454

1,691
33
446

1,682
32
442

1,685
33
440

394
7,331
5.038
1,684
34
528
633
657
1,547
1.038
127

1,685
33
473

599
651
1,534
1,039
127

595
645
1,529
1,039
127

590
642
1,524
1,039
126

581
641
1,512
1,036
128

579
639
1,502
1,033
127

567
635
1,495
1,033
128

571
632
1,489
1,039
128

554
628
1,483
1,035
127

551
629
1,473
1,031
128

542
628
1,465
1,027
128

533
627
1,452
1,024
127

531
624
1,444
1,021
127

535
624
1,435
1,018
128

987

71

565
635
1,492
1,033
127
954
64
64

967
66
107,068

957
64

920

919

107,245

107,327

941
61
107,342

927
59

107,206

947
62
107,432

935
60

106,795

973
68
107,052

953
64

107,091

979
68
106,968

959
65

106,050

107,036

106,850

106,868

106,917

7,019
4,529
236

7.070
7.070
4,531
227

7,106
4,580
229

7,123
4,591
231

7,127
4,591
230

7,119
4,576
230

7,130
4,584
230

7,118
4,571
227

7,108
4,561
226

7,082
4,539
226

7,070
4,528
226

7,016
4,472
225

6,952
4,414
224

6,915
4,387
227

6,897
4,376
226

476
1,856
196
1,281
14
471

481
1,854
203
1,288
14
464

479
201
1,312
14
477

480
1,870
200
1,318
14
478

480
1,872
201
1,316
13
479

477
1,864
202
1,313
14
476

483
1,867
203
1,315
14
472

483
1,867
201
1,310
14
469

485
1,863
203
1,304
14
466

486
1,844
203
1,303
14
463

482
1,838
205
1,300
14
463

479
1,832
206
1,264
14
452

480
1,830
204
1,221
14
441

485
1,832
206
1,189
14
434

486
1,829
203
1,187
14
431

2.490
1,639

2,540
1,692

2,526
1,679

2,532
1,685

2,536
1,690

2,543
1,696

2,546
1,699

2,547
1,700

2,547
1,700

2,543
1,695

2,542
1,695

2,544
1,695

2,538
1,689

2,528
1,683

2,521
1,673

851
7,024

847

847

847

846

847

847

847

847

848

847

849

849

7,014

845

7,067

7,064

848

7,053

7,038

7,022

7,017

7,010

6,988

6,971

23,307

23,488

23,472

6,934

23,530

23,546

23,561

23,606

23,583

23,536

23,422

6,941
23,424

6,938

23,415

7,066
23,457

23,365

23,406

1,016
2,837
2.491

1,010
2,792
2,447

1,007
2,789
2,448

1,007
2,807
2,462

1,006
2,797
2,451

999
2,804
2,459

1,006
2,821
2,473

1,014
2,818
2,471

1,008
2,810
2,458

1,014
2,800
2,449

1,013
2,793
2,450

1,012
2,784
2,422

1,010
2,778
2,420

1,013
2,755
2,410

1,021
2,720
2,378

1,011

68

1,868

See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

24,577
567
34
339

March 2002

12.

Continued— Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by Industry, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[In thousands]__________
Industry

Annual average
2000

2001

2001
Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.p

Jan.p

3,521

3,542

3,538

3,548

3,550

3,562

3,553

3,544

3,536

3,531

3,538

3,542

3,539

3,535

3,522

2,412
1,114
1,193

2 429
1,130
1,219

2 424
1,124
1,221

2,424
1,124
1,227

2,420
1,124
1,228

2,421
1,122
1,226

2,428
1,126
1,231

2,431
1,128
1,227

2,435
1,131
1,219

2,441
1,133
1,224

2,435
1,133
1,224

2,429
1,134
1,208

2,430
1,137
1,203

2,428
1,141
1,192

2,432
1,145
1,222

1,134
8,114

1 140
8,215

8,157

1,146
8,171

1,147
8,158

1,140
8,213

1,136
8,216

1,136
8,241

1,137
8,310

1,137
8,280

1,138
8,242

1,136
8,187

1,136
8,198

1,143
8,209

1,139
8,211

Automotive dealers and
New and used car dealers.....
Apparel and accessory stores..
Furniture and home furnishings
stores...................................
Eating and drinking places......
Miscellaneous retail
establishments.....................

2002
July

3,080

3,142

3,132

3,142

3,151

3,165

3,155

3,150

3,151

3,156

3,153

3,144

3,130

3,100

3,139

Finance, Insurance, and
real estate.............................
Finance...................................
Depository institutions............
Commercial banks..............
Savings institutions.............
Nondepository institutions......
Security and commodity

7 560
3,710
2,029
1,430
253
681

7 623
3,759
2,036
1 423
256
701

3,738
2 024
1 418
253
678

7,609
3,748
2,025
1,417
254
683

7,618
3,755
2,028
1,418
254
686

7,626
7,644
3,761
3,770
2,032 . 2,037
1,421
1,426
255
255
691
697

7,631
3,767
2,041
1,428
256
699

7,618
3,755
2,039
1,426
255
703

7,623
3,758
2,037
1,423
255
709

7,633
3,758
2,039
1,423
256
706

7,634
3,761
2,041
1,427
257
712

7,638
3,772
2,045
1,428
259
717

7,632
3,774
2,044
1,427
260
728

7,636
3,777
2,046
1,429
262
731

748

763

777

781

781

780

776

Holding and other investment
offices..................................
Insurance...............................
Insurance carriers.................
Insurance agents, brokers,

766

755

755

755

750

751

741

741

251
2,346
1,589

259
2 355
1,596

1,588

259
2,351
1,592

260
2,353
1,593

258
2,356
1,596

260
2,358
1,598

261
2,356
1,598

258
2,357
1,599

257
2,357
1,598

258
2,362
1,601

258
2,361
1,602

259
2,356
1,597

258
2,352
1,594

259
2,352
1,595

757
1,504

759
1,510

1,510

759
1,510

760
1,510

760
1,509

760
1,516

758
1,508

758
1,506

759
1,508

761
1,513

759
1,512

759
1,510

758
1,506

757
1,507

40,460
832
1,914
1,251
9,858
994
3,887
3,487

41,023
801
1,912
1 275
9,627
1,001
3,531
3,142

40,984
1,952
1 261
9,888
1,007
3,779
3,372

41,020
821
1,957
1,261
9,851
1,007
3,731
3,339

41,073
828
1,960
1,265
9,822
1,007
3,694
3,293

40,993
824
1,944
1,267
9,729
1,009
3,600
3,202

41,078
834
1,935
1,277
9,702
1,013
3,590
3,198

41,085
833
1,920
1,279
9,666
1,008
3,556
3,161

41,046
834
1,922
1,281
9,592
998
3,517
3,127

41,129
837
1,912
1,284
9,588
997
3,521
3,113

41,134
838
1,913
1,284
9,581
997
3,488
3,106

40,995
841
1,862
1,281
9,467
995
3,378
3,005

40,889
840
1,852
1,271
9,356
996
3,282
2,913

40,957
845
1,845
1,294
9,346
992
3,252
2,894

40,981
843
1,849
1,294
9,316
984
3,234
2,878

2,095

2,193

2,176

2,186

2,195

2,199

2,200

2,205

2,202

2,194

2,200

2,201

2,189

2,189

2,188

1,248
366
594

1,302
362
592

1,291
365
600

1,291
365
600

1,298
364
605

1,300
364
601

1,309
363
587

1,303
361
602

1,312
360
595

1,307
362
589

1,306
363
586

1,298
362
582

1,305
360
584

1,304
359
580

1,308
359
589

Real estate.............................
Services’ ................................
Hotels and other lodging places
Personal services....................
Business services....................
Services to buildings..............
Personnel supply services......
Help supply services............
Computer and data
processing services.............
Auto repair services
and parking...........................
Miscellaneous repair services....
Motion pictures........................
Amusement and recreation
services................................

1,728

1,771

1,769

1,772

1,775

1,764

1,787

1,768

1,772

1,777

1,766

1,781

1,762

1,777

1,771

Health services........................
Offices and clinics of medical
doctors.................................
Nursing and personal care
facilities................................
Hospitals................................
Home health care services.....
Legal services..........................
Educational services................
Social services.........................
Child day care services..........
Residential care.....................
Museums and botanical and
zoological gardens................
Membership organizations.......
Engineering and management
services................................
Engineering and architectural
services...............................
Management and public
relations..............................

10,197

10,497

10,211

10,236

10,259

10,280

10,296

10,329

10,354

10,384

10,408

10,431

10,458

10,483

10,501

Government..............................
Federal....................................
Federal, except Postal
Service................................
State.......................................
Education...............................
Other State government........
Local.......................................
Education...............................
Other local government..........

1,924

1,979

1,953

1,958

1,962

1,967

1,973

1,981

1,983

1,990

1,992

1,993

2,000

2,002

2,007

1,795
3,990
643
1,010
2,325
2,903
712
806

1,822
4,095
650
1,026
2,420
305‘
749
843

1,806
4,035
646
1,017
2,363
2,985
732
827

1,808
4,045
645
1,020
2,375
2,997
734
829

1,811
4,055
648
1,022
2,384
3,009
739
831

1,816
4,062
646
1,021
2,388
3,023
743
835

1,814
4,071
645
1,027
2,431
3,039
745
842

1,821
4,086
648
1,027
2,426
3,056
756
845

1,823
4,098
647
1,026
2,432
3,048
760
847

1,825
4,114
653
1,028
2,452
3,076
765
848

1,830
4,124
655
1,030
2,446
3,085
756
851

1,834
4,135
655
1,030
2,436
3,096
757
854

1,837
4,149
657
1,030
2,439
3,100
755
855

1,842
4,158
659
1,031
2,457
33,105
757
853

1,846
4,166
661
1,030
2,471
3,121
755
960

106
2,475

110
2,498

109
2,487

110
2,487

110
2,489

109
2,489

110
2,496

111
2,501

111
2,493

111
2,503

112
2,509

112
2,505

110
2,505

110
2,506

110
2,504

3,419

3,525

3,496

3,504

3,510

3,517

3,512

3,529

3,540

3,544

3,533

3,538

3,543

3,541

3,543

1,017

1,060

1,046

1,050

1,052

1,053

1,057

1,059

1,064

1,067

1,067

1,069

1,065

1,063

1,064

1,090

1,123

1,119

1,123

1,125

1,124

1,121

1,124

1,119

1,123

1,122

1,124

1,127

1,125

1,134

20,681
2,777

20,873
2,616

20,629
2,613

20,680
2,615

20,711
2,613

20,747
2,615

20,770
2,612

20,828
2,621

20,932
2,626

21,005
2,622

20,981
2,627

20,998
2,625

21,006
2,607

21,061
2,615

21,063
2,608

1,917
4,785
2,032
2,753
13,119
7,440
5,679

1,767
4,880
2,088
2,792
13,377
7,567
5,810

1,755
4,800
2,028
2,772
13,216
7,468
5,748

1,756
4,825
2,048
2,777
13,240
7,479
5,761

1,754
4,836
2,055
2,781
13,262
7,492
5,770

1,756
4,847
2,065
2,782
13,285
7,495
5,790

1,754
4,854
2,066
2,788
13,304
7,512
5,792

1,772
4,881
2,089
2,792
13,326
7,515
5,811

1,772
4,909
2,117
2,792
13,397
7,575
5,822

1,774
4,913
2,122
2,791
13,470
7,650
5,820

1,776
4,931
2,129
2,802
13,423
7,595
5,828

1,779
4,919
2,107
2,812
13,454
7,607
5,847

1,777
4,916
2,109
2,907
13,843
7,630
5,853

1,775
4,928
2,112
2,816
13,518
7,642
5,876

1,776
4,928
2,115
2,813
13,527
7,641
5,886

' Includes other industries not shown separately.
p = preliminary.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

83

Current Labor Statistics:

13.

Labor Force Data

Average weekly hours of production or nonsupervisory workers on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry, monthly
data seasonally adjusted
Industry

Annual average
2000

2001

2001
Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

2002

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.p Jan.p

P R IV A T E S E C T O R ......................................

34.5

34.2

34.4

34.3

34.3

34.2

34.2

34.2

34.2

34.0

34.1

34.0

34.1

34.1

34.0

G O O D S -P R O D U C IN G .....................................

41.0

40.3

40.5

40.3

40.5

40 6

40.5

40.4

40.5

40.3

40 2

40 0

40 0

40 1

40 3

M IN IN G ................................................................

43.1

43.4

43.1

43.2

43 8

440

43 9

43 3

43 3

43 4

43 5

43 1

43 2

43 1

42 9

M A N U F A C T U R IN G .........................................

41.6
4.6

40 7
3.9

41 0
4.2

40 9
3.9

41 0
4.1

41 0
3.9

40 7
3.9

40 7
3.9

40 8
4.0

40 7
4.1

40 6
3.9

40 5
3.8

40 3
3.7

40 fi
3.8

40 fi
3.9

42.1
4.7
41.0
40.0
43.1
44.9

41.0
3.9
40.3
36.9
43.6
43.6

41.3
4.1
39.8
39.2
43.0
43.8

41.1
3.9
40.1
39.1
42.8
43.2

41.3
4.0
40.3
39.1
43.7
43.4

41.3
3.9
40.1
39.3
43.2
44.3

41 0
3.9
40.6
38.6
43.9
43 5

40 9
3.9
40.4
38.4
44.0
43 9

41 2
4.0
41.1
39.7
44.0
44 1

41 1
4.1
40.9
39.7
43.9
43 7

40 9
3.8
41.1
38.8
44.0
43.7

40 7
3.7
40.6
38.3
43.9
43.2

40 4
3.6
40.5
38.4
43.8
42.6

40 9
3.8
40.7
38.9
43.6
43.9

40 fi
3.8
40.1
40.0
44.4
43.3

46.0
42.6

44.5
41.3

44.7
41.7

44.4
41.7

44.4
41.9

45.4
42.0

44.6
41.4

45.1
41.2

44.7
41 6

44.6
41.5

45.5
41.2

44/0
41 0

43.3
40 7

43.8
41 3

43.8
41 3

42.2

40.7

41.5

41.0

41.2

41.3

40.7

40.4

40.8

40.2

40.3

40.4

39.9

40.1

40.1

41.1
43.4
44.4
41.3
39.0

39.4
41.9
42.7
40.6
37.9

40.3
42.0
42.1
41.0
38.3

40.3
42.0
42.0
41.1
38.2

40.1
42.0
42.3
41.0
38.2

39.8
42.4
43.3
41.0
38.2

39.1
42.4
43.6
41.0
37.9

39.3
41.9
43.0
40.8
38.4

38.9
42.2
43.0
40.8
38.4

39.1
42.8
44.6
40.4
38.2

39.1
41.5
42.3
41.1
37.6

39.0
41.3
41.9
40.7
37.5

38.8
41.3
42.2
40.3
37.1

39.3
41.8
43.1
40.5
37.8

38.4
42.7
44.5
40.1
37.5

40.8
4.4
41.7
41.2
37.8
42.5

40.3
4.0
41.1
40.0
37.3
41.7

40.6
4.3
41.3
40.7
37.6
41.9

40.4
4.0
41.1
40.4
37.6
41.7

40.5
4.1
41.2
40.5
37.5
41.8

40.5
3.9
41.3
40.3
38.0
42.0

40.3
4.0
41.1
40.3
37.8
41.6

40.4
3.9
41.2
40.4
37.5
41.7

40.3
4.0
40.9
39.7
37.7
41.9

40.1
4.1
41.1
39.8
36.9
41.2

40.2
4.1
41.0
39.8
36.9
41.6

40.2
4.1
41.1
39.7
36.8
41.5

40.0
3.9
40.8
39.5
36.9
41.3

40.2
4.0
40.9
40.0
37.3
41.5

40.0
4.0
40.7
40.0
36.9
41.4

Printing and publishing......................
Chemicals and allied products...........
Rubber and miscellaneous
plastics products...............................
Leather and leather products.............

38.3
42.5

38.1
42.3

38.4
42.6

38.4
42.3

38.6
42.3

38.2
42.6

38.0
42.4

38.0
42.2

38.2
42.7

38.0
42.1

38.1
42.2

38.0
42.3

37.8
42.0

37.9
41.9

41.4
37.5

41.7
36.4

41.0
36.9

40.9
36.4

41.0
36.1

40.8
36.6

40.6
35.9

40.7
36.2

40.6
35.7

40.5
36.4

40.8
36.3

40.5
36.0

40.7
36.6

41.2
37.5

37.5
42.0
40.9
38.1
32.6

S E R V IC E -P R O D U C IN G ...................................

32.8

32.7

32.9

32.8

32.8

32.7

32.7

32.8

32.6

32.6

32.6

32.6

32.6

32.7

32.6

Overtime hours..................................
Overtime hours................................
Lumber and wood products...............
Furniture and fixtures.........................
Stone, clay, and glass products.........
Blast furnaces and basic steel
products..........................................
Industrial machinery and equipment...
Electronic and other electrical
equipment........................................
Transportation equipment..................
Motor vehicles and equipment.........
Instruments and related products......
N o n d u ra b le g o o d s .......................................

Overtime hours.................................
Food and kindred products................
Textile mill products...........................
Apparel and other textile products.....
Paper and allied products..................

T R A N S P O R T A T IO N A N D
P U B L IC U T IL IT IE S .....................................

38.6

38.1

38.7

38.5

38.3

38.1

38.1

38.1

37.8

37.8

37.6

37.8

38.8

38.0

37.6

W H O L E S A L E T R A D E ...................................

38.5

38.2

38.3

38.1

38.3

38.2

38.2

38.3

38.2

38.3

38.3

38.1

38.2

38.3

38.2

R E T A IL T R A D E .................................................

28.9

28.8

29.1

28.9

28.8

28.8

28.8

28.7

28.6

28.6

28.7

28.7

28.8

28.9

28.8

p = preliminary.
NOTE: See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.

84

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

March 2002

14. Average hourly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry,
seasonally adjusted
Industry

Annual average

2001

2002

2000

2001

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

P R IV A T E S E C T O R (in c u r re n t d o lla rs )..

$13.75

$14.33

$14.03

$14.11

$14.17

$14.21

$14.24

$14.31

$14.34

$14.40

$14.45

$14.47

$14.54

$14.59

G o o d s - p r o d u c in g ........................................

15.40

15.93

15.67

15.74

15.79

15.78

15.86

15.90

15.93

16.01

16.04

16.05

16.05

16.15

16.24

Mining.................................................
Construction........................................
Manufacturing.....................................
Excluding overtime.........................

17.24
17.88
14.38
13.62

17.65
18.33
14.84
14.15

17.49
18.28
14.54
13.83

17.52
18.30
14.63
13.94

17.55
18.33
14.66
13.96

17.53
18.15
14.72
14.04

17.54
18.22
14.78
14.09

17.73
18.28
14.81
14.13

17.74
18.26
14.86
14.18

17.69
18.35
14.93
14.24

17.67
18.36
14.96
14.28

17.73
18.38
14.97
14.31

17.85
18.46
15.05
14.38

17.80
18.58
15.10
14.41

17.84
18.55
15.13
14.43

S e rv ic e - p r o d u c in g .......................................

13.24

13.85

13.54

13.62

13.68

13.73

13.76

13.84

13.87

13.93

13.98

14.01

14.07

14.13

14.12

Transportation and public utilities......
Wholesale trade..................................
Retail trade..........................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate....
Services..............................................

16.22
15.20
9.46
15.07
13.91

16.89
15.80
9.82
15.84
14.61

16.51
15.53
9.64
15.44
14.25

16.64
15.60
9.69
15.55
14.35

16.68
15.68
9.72
15.61
14.40

16.74
15.74
9.74
15.64
14.48

16.76
15.70
9.79
15.74
14.49

16.91
15.86
9.83
15.86
14.54

16.88
15.84
9.84
15.91
14.61

16.95
15.81
9.87
15.99
14.71

17.02
15.95
9.87
16.01
14.76

17.09
15.89
9.91
16.05
14.81

17.23
15.91
9.98
16.07
14.87

17.23
16.04
9.99
16.16
14.94

17.26
16.07
9.99
16.16
14.93

7.86

8.00

7.90

7.92

7.95

7.94

7.93

7.95

8.00

8.03

8.02

8.06

8.11

8.16

-

Dec.p Jan.p
$14.59

P R IV A T E S E C T O R (in c o n s t a n t (1982)
d o lla r s ) ...............................................................

p = preliminary. Dash indicates data not available.
Note : See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

85

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

15. Average hourly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry
Industry

Annual average

2001

2002

2000

2001

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.p

Jan.p
$14.67

P R IV A T E S E C T O R ........................................

$13.75

$14.33

$14.10

$14.16

$14.19

$14.27

$14.22

$14.22

$14.27

$14.28

$14.51

$14.50

$14.56

$14.64

M IN IN G ................................................................

17.24

17.65

17.67

17.61

17.57

17.60

17.49

17.59

17.67

17.53

17.67

17.70

17.79

17.90

18.03

C O N S T R U C T IO N ............................................

17.88

18.33

18.17

18.16

18.30

18.07

18.17

18.21

18.32

18.43

18.50

18.55

18.51

18.65

18.48

M A N U F A C T U R IN G ........................................

14.38

14.84

14.59

14.61

14.65

14.74

14.75

14.79

14.84

14.89

15.01

14.97

15.07

15.19

15.17

D u ra b le g o o d s ..............................................

14.82
11.93
11.73
14.53
16.42

15.28
12.25
12.21
15.03
16.96

14.98
12.13
11.92
14.65
16.66

15.03
12.08
12.03
14.68
16.58

15.09
12.08
12.04
14.79
16.63

15.14
12.13
12.07
14.96
16.90

15.19
12.16
12.09
15.03
16.82

15.24
12.19
12.15
15.13
16.96

15.25
12.32
12.24
15.12
17.11

15.37
12.37
12.29
15.17
17.06

15.49
12.45
12.35
15.22
17.27

15.45
12.34
12.39
15.20
17.12

15.55
12.41
12.40
15.16
17.31

15.68
12.37
12.56
15.23
17.26

15.64
12.36
12.60
15.35
17 21

19.82
13.87

20.43
14.26

20.16
13.99

20.05
14.03

20.00
14.08

20.37
14.11

20.26
14.23

20.39
14.25

20.48
14.27

20.63
14.34

20.91
14.42

20.55
14.33

20.75
14.44

20.61
14.63

20.68
14.56

15.55

15.91

15.73

15.74

15.77

15.74

15.79

15.82

15.90

15.96

16.05

16.09

16.15

16.33

16 34

13.80
18.45
18.79
14.43
11.63

14.53
19.01
19.36
14.87
12.19

14.07
18.57
18.77
14.64
11.98

14.16
18.68
18.91
14.60
11.98

14.26
18.76
19.02
14.73
12.05

14.39
18.77
19.13
14.80
12.04

14.38
18.83
19.18
14.75
12.10

14.51
18.90
19.25
14.81
12.07

14.59
18.80
19.04
14.98
12.12

14.72
19.08
19.39
15.00
12.23

14.84
19.31
19.68
15.06
12.37

14.78
19.37
19.82
15.00
12.27

14.87
19.51
19.96
15.03
12.46

15.01
19.65
20.19
15.16
12.67

14.97
19.49
19.99
15.20
12.58

13.69
12.50
21.57
11.16
9.30
16.25

14.17
12.88
22.28
11.35
9.47
16.86

12.97
12.70
21.34
11.32
9.39
16.53

13.97
12.65
21.49
11.27
9.36
16.54

13.97
12.68
22.63
11.31
9.46
16.56

14.12
12.79
22.59
11.30
9.44
16.74

14.07
12.83
23.01
11.29
9.39
16.72

14.11
12.86
23.17
11.32
9.45
16.90

14.23
12.93
23.63
11.37
9.40
16.99

14.17
12.87
21.90
11.39
9.44
16.87

14.31
12.95
21.70
11.40
9.56
17.12

14.28
12.91
21.71
11.34
9.49
17.11

14.37
13.11
22.32
11.43
9.58
17.13

14.45
13.21
22.21
11.52
9.47
17.17

14.47
113.11
21.87
11.61
9.73
17.23

14.40
18.15
22.00

14.82
18.59
22.09

14.59
18.34
22.10

14.64
18.41
22.21

14.69
18.33
21.83

14.75
18.64
22.09

14.75
18.52
21.83

14.74
18.55
21.78

14.83
18.69
22.02

14.87
18.54
22.20

15.01
18.86
22.27

14.96
18.70
22.36

14.93
18.74
22.38

15.04
18.81
21.95

15.06
18.93
21.79

12.85
10.18

13.39
10.31

13.24
10.51

13.31
10.35

13.19
10.46

13.33
10.37

13.30
10.26

13.30
10.30

13.38
10.25

13.44
10.35

13.51
10.25

13.48
10.21

13.53
10.09

13.67
10.25

13.68
10.22

P U B L IC U T IL IT IE S .......................................

16.22

16.89

16.56

16.68

16.65

16.78

16.70

16.83

16.89

16.97

17.07

17.09

17.23

17.26

17.30

W H O L E S A L E T R A D E ....................................

15.20

15.80

15.56

15.62

15.58

15.86

15.66

15.77

15.88

15.75

16.03

15.85

15.91

16.16

16.09

R E T A IL T R A D E ................................................

9.46

9.82

9.69

9.72

9.74

9.78

9.78

9.77

9.77

9.79

9.92

9.93

9.98

9.99

10.05

15.07

15.84

15.45

15.63

15.67

15.81

15.74

15.75

15.85

15.84

16.05

15.96

16.04

16.21

16.18

13.91

14.61

14.39

14.47

14.48

14.58

14.46

14.39

14.46

14.46

14.78 I 14.80

14.92

15.09

15.08

Lumber and wood products...............
Furniture and fixtures........................
Stone, clay, and glass products.........
Primary metal industries....................
Blast furnaces and basic steel
products..........................................
Fabricated metal products.................
Industrial machinery and equipment...
Electronic and other electrical
equipment........................................
Transportation equipment..................
Motor vehicles and equipment.........
Instruments and related products......
Miscellaneous manufacturing............
N o n d u r a b le g o o d s .......................................

Food and kindred products................
Tobacco products..............................
Textile mill products...........................
Apparel and other textile products.....
Paper and allied products..................
Printing and publishing.......................
Chemicals and allied products...........
Petroleum and coal products.............
Rubber and miscellaneous
plastics products...............................
Leather and leather products.............
T R A N S P O R T A T IO N A N D

F IN A N C E , IN S U R A N C E ,
A N D R E A L E S T A T E ....................................
S E R V IC E S .......................................................

p = preliminary.
Note : See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.

86

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

March 2002

16. Average weekly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry
2002

2000

Annual average
Industry

Nov.

Dec.p

Jan.p

$503.62
499.66
282.30

$492.91
492.91
275.83

2000

2001

Dec.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

$474.38

$490.09

272.16

273.64

$480.17
479.83
272.51

$481.44
483.97
270.62

$482.46
486.03
270.89

$486.61
485.98
271.70

$484.90
487.01
269.39

$489.17
489.40
271.46

$493.74
490.43
275.22

$491.23
489.60
273.82

$497.69
492.75
275.88

$493.00
491.98
274.50

$495.04
495.81
276.10

743.04

766.01

747.20

751.95

757.27

765.60

769.56

768.68

772.18

764.31

777.48

773.49

764.97

771.49

760.87

736.30

732.73

720.04

714.30

711.48

PRIVATE SECTOR

m in in g ...........................................

CONSTRUCTION...........................

702.68

718.54

694.56

682.82

702.52

695.70

728.62

728.40

740.13

739.04

598.21
343.21

603.99
337.24

607.34
344.69

591.71
332.61

597.72
335.61

588.13
328.38

600.33
333.52

603.43
334.87

598.05
333.36

607.51
338.63

615.41
341.14

609.28
339.24

613.35
342.08

627.35
351.65

612.87
342.96

623.92

626.48

620.20

607.11

624.31

626.36

617.63

633.24

639.74

631.91

636.00

652.29

636.55

496.13
474.90

630.09
486.01
476.01

613.22

489.13
469.20

473.54
461.95

483.20
467.15

483.99
457.45

497.34
462.22

498.57
468.99

502.66
481.03

509.64
491.60

517.92
489.06

504.71
478.25

503.85
479.88

502.33
501.14

490.69
501.48

626.24
737.26

655.31
739.46

624.13
735.93

610.69
716.26

631.53
718.42

638.79
730.08

665.83
731.67

670.26
744.54

669.82
742.57

676.58
743.82

686.42
766.79

674.88
737.87

668.56
747.79

664.03
768.07

664.66
746.91

911.72
590.86

909.14
588.94

890.62
596.01

882.20
580.84

884.00
585.73

920.72
567.22

899.54
589.12

919.59
589.95

919.55
582.22

920.10
595.11

959.77
598.43

900.09
590.40

908.85
594.93

902.72
617.39

895.44
596.96

656.21

657.54

662.44

648.49

651.30

628.03

644.23

640.71

640.77

640.00

648.42

648.43

649.23

669.53

658.50

MANUFACTURING

Lumber and wood products......
Stone, clay, and glass

Blast furnaces and basic
Fabricated metal products.......
Industrial machinery and
Electronic and other electrical
567.18
800.73

572.48
796.52

585.22
807.50

566.40
775.22

568.97
789.80

554.02
765.82

559.38
804.04

570.24
799.47

558.80
765.16

577.02
814.72

584.70
809.09

584.39
807.73

580.85
818.52

603.40
841.02

574.85
824.43

834.28

826.67

826.47

786.66

808.35

791.98

840.08

839.30

780.64

858.98

844.27

840.37

852.29

890.38

873.56

595.96
453.57

606.70
462.00

621.72
460.88

605.90
454.04

605.40
461.52

594.96
450.30

602.48
458.59

602.77
463.49

605.19
458.14

606.00
468.41

618.97
467.59

609.00
462.58

610.22
464.76

624.59
483.99

611.04
466.72

558.55

571.05

569.98

560.20

561.59

559.15

564.21

568.63

569.20

571.05

582.42

576.91

589.99

589.56

577.35

521.25
877.90
459.79

529.37
893.43
454.00

528.74
892.16
462.07

509.80
831.66
449.67

513.54
893.89
458.06

510.32
885.53
444.09

522.18
906.59
454.99

528.55
956.92
458.46

528.84
952.29
444.57

535.39
878.19
456.74

543.90
885.36
458.28

538.35
881.43
540.20

544.07
899.50
454.91

549.54
917.27
466.56

529.64
846.37
464.40

351.54
690.63

353.23
703.06

353.25
705.93

352.87
683.10

355.70
687.24

346.45
688.01

355.88
690.54

357.21
701.35

349.68
708.48

350.22
695.04

350.85
722.46

348.28
715.20

354.46
717.75

365.31
726.29

355.15
716.77

551.52
771.38
932.80

564.64
786.36
943.24

564.41
788.67
952.64

557.78
778.74
957.25

565.57
773.53
936.51

554.60
790.34
965.33

556.08
783.40
910.31

557.17
782.81
934.36

563.54
790.59
953.47

568.03
778.68
954.60

577.89
797.78
955.38

571.47
791.01
936.88

573.31
794.58
935.48

577.54
799.43
906.54

561.74
793.17
886.84

Leather and leather products...

531.99
381.75

544.97
375.28

543.84
382.65

543.05
373.64

538.15
375.51

529.20
369.17

539.98
370.39

543.97
378.01

535.20
360.80

544.32
379.85

556.61
377.20

548.64
369.60

553.38
373.33

574.14
385.40

559.51
385.29

TRANSPORTATION AND
P U B L IC UTILITIES....................

626.09

643.51

638.06

637.18

362.70

641.00

632.93

642.91

650.27

646.56

648.66

646.00

649.57

661.06

643.56

E TRADE..................

585.20

603.56

596.71

590.44

592.04

607.44

598.59

603.99

611.38

603.23

620.36

603.89

607.76

623.78

609.81

RETAIL TRADE............................ .

273.39

282.82

278.89

276.05

276.62

281.66

280.69

283.33

288.22

286.85

285.70

283.01

284.43

291.71

281.40

FINANCE, INSURANCE,
AND REAL ESTATE.................. .

547.04

547.99

553.05

567.37

564.12

580.23

565.78

570.15

581.70

571.82

589.04

571.37

577.44

594.91

579.24

SERVICES.....................................

454.86

477.75

467.16

471.72

472.05

476.77

469.95

471.99

478.63

474.29

483.31

479.52

484.90

496.46

485.58

Transportation equipment........
Motor vehicles and
Instruments and related
Miscellaneous manufacturing...

Food and kindred products......

Apparel and other textile

Chemicals and allied products.
Petroleum and coal products...
Rubber and miscellaneous

W HOI FRAI

p = preliminary.
NOTE: See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision. Dash indicates data not available.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

87

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

17. Diffusion indexes of employment change, seasonally adjusted
[In percent]
Timespan and year

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov

Dec.

Private nonfarm payrolls, 356 industries
Over 1-month span:
1998.............................................
1999.............................................
2000.............................................
2001.............................................
2002.............................................
Over 3-month span:
1998.............................................
1999.............................................
2000.............................................
2001..............................................
2002..............................................

63.2
55.1
55.7
53.7
50.1

56.2
59.6
59.3
50.4
-

59.3
52.8
61.0
55.8
-

60.2
57.2
54.2
45.0
-

58.9
58.2
47.7
46.6
-

57.1
54.2
60.5
44.3
-

55.4
57.1
57.8
45.5
-

58.4
54.4
55.1
43.9

54.8
55.2
52.0
44.1
-

55.0
57.9
54.8
38.7

58.2
59.9
55.1
38.7

56.4
56.8
54.2
41.2

65.3
60.8
61.6
51.7

64.6
58.5
61.9
48.6
-

65.7
55.8
56.2
49.2
-

62.2
58.1
55.1
42.5
-

57.9
57.9
57.9
42.4
-

57.5
57.2
61.5
40.5
-

58.4
59.2
56.4
39.9
-

59.1
59.8
54.1
38.8
-

59.2
59.1
53.3
35.8

59.3
61.0
55.7
35.0

59.2
60.6
53.3
38.1

60.6
62.3
51.8

59.9
64.9
54.2

-

_

-

66.1
57.8
63.3
54.1
-

Over 6-month span:
1998..............................................
1999..............................................
2000..............................................
2001..............................................
2002..............................................

70.4
59.8
63.5
52.0
-

67.4
59.8
60.6
50.6
-

65.0
58.2
62.6
48.6
-

62.5
60.3
63.7
45.3
-

63.6
56.7
61.5
44.1
-

60.5
59.2
55.5
38.5
-

59.2
61.8
56.1
37.1
-

58.6
60.8
58.6
35.6
-

57.9
62.2
54.2
34.4
-

59.6
61.2
54.8
35.4

Over 12-month span:
1998..............................................
1999..............................................
2000..............................................
2002..............................................

69.7
61.2
62.5
-

67.6
60.2
63.0
-

67.4
58.2
61.8
-

66.0
60.8
59.5
-

64.0
60.8
58.4
-

62.7
61.6
56.8
-

61.9
62.2
55.7
-

62.0
61.3
56.5
-

60.9
63.9
54.2
-

59.3
63.0
53.4

60.8
61.3
53.0

58.8
60.9
51.8

Manufacturing payrolls, 139 industries
Over 1-month span:
1998..............................................
1999..............................................
2000..............................................
2001..............................................
2002..............................................

57.4
46.9
44.9
37.9
40.8

51.5
44.5
56.6
32.4
-

53.7
43.0
55.5
41.5
-

53.3
42.3
46.7
31.3
-

43.8
50.4
41.2
29.4
-

48.2
39.3
54.8
33.1
-

38.2
51.5
53.7
39.0
-

51.5
39.3
38.6
27.6
-

41.9
45.2
34.6
36.0
-

41.5
46.3
41.5
29.4
-

41.2
53.3
43.8
25.7

43.4
46.7
44.1
28.7

Over 3-month span:
1998..............................................
1999..............................................
2000..............................................
2001..............................................
2002..............................................

59.6
41.2
50.0
28.3
-

59.6
39.0
54.0
29.4
-

55.9
38.2
52.9
24.6
-

50.4
41.8
42.3
26.5
-

46.7
40.8
43.0
22.4
-

37.9
45.2
48.5
24.6
-

41.5
39.0
48.2
21.0
-

41.5
45.2
33.6
19.9
-

41.9
40.8
28.7
19.9
-

38.2
44.9
30.5
21.0
-

36.8
46.3
39.0
17.3

40.8
46.0
35.7
21.7

Over 6-month span:
1998..............................................
1999..............................................
2000..............................................
2001..............................................
2002..............................................

63.2
36.0
51.5
26.8
-

54.4
38.2
44.5
25.4
-

50.4
37.5
48.5
19.9
-

40.4
41.2
55.1
20.6
-

44.5
36.8
43.8
20.2
-

40.1
39.7
34.9
15.1
-

37.5
43.0
33.5
13.2

36.4
41.5
34.6
14.0

34.9
46.0
30.1
11.8

40.1
40.4
29.4
15.8

37.1
46.3
25.0

34.2
51.5
27.9

Over 12-month span:
1998..............................................
1999..............................................
2000..............................................
2001..............................................1
2002..............................................|

54.8
38.6
46.3
19.1
-

52.2
34.6
45.2
16.5
-

51.8
32.4
41.2
14.7
-

46.7
36.0
37.9
16.2
-

40.4
37.9
33.8
15.1
-

40.1
39.0
31.3
12.1
-

38.2
40.1
31.3
14.0
-

Dash indicates data not available.
NOTE: Figures are the percent of industries with employment
increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged
employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance
between industries with inceasing and decreasing employment.

88
Monthly Labor Review

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

March 2002

-

-

_

-

-

-

37.5
40.4
31.3

36.4
44.5
27.6

34.6
46.0
25.4

35.7
44.9
24.3

34.2
44.5
21.3

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

Data for the 2 most recent months shown in each span are
preliminary. See the "Definitions" in this section. See "Notes on
the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark
revision.

18. Establishment size and employment covered under Ul, private ownership, by major industry division, first quarter 2000
S iz e o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts
I n d u s try , e s ta b lis h m e n ts , a n d
e m p lo y m e n t

T o ta l

F e w e r th a n
5 w o rk e rs '

5 to 9
w o rk e rs

10 t o 19
w o rk e r s

20 t o 49
w o rk e r s

5 0 t o 99
w o rk e r s

100 t o 2 4 9
w o rk e r s

250 t o 499
w o rk e r s

5 0 0 t o 999
w o rk e r s

1,000 o r
m o re
w o rk e r s

T o ta l, a ll in d u s tr ie s 2

Establishments, first quarter
Employment, March ..........

7,531,330
108,195,174

4,413,181
6,831,146

1,302,488
8,615,974

850,411
11,471,927

590,662
17,878,154

206,415
14,212,796

119,172
17,895,603

31,311
10,658,780

11,713
7,965,372

5,977
12,665,422

200,289
1,702,493

123,880
179,158

37,646
248,989

22,736
302,599

11,179
326,510

2,875
196,681

1,473
216,628

370
126,181

106
69,476

24
36,271

27,284
524,514

14,102
22,082

4,323
28,959

3,728
51,183

3,202
97,241

1,023
69,762

591
89,714

214
74,836

76
52,916

25
37,821

747,563
6,310,456

477,549
703,310

126,844
831,405

76,253
1,024,819

46,543
1,389,870

13,242
898,785

5,748
846,893

1,053
347,400

272
182,357

59
85,617

405,838
18,433,795

147,029
251,154

67,385
453,397

61,150
842,691

61,487
1,922,360

30,568
2,144,676

24,264
3,739,308

8,646
2,977,743

3,598
2,446,323

1,711
3,656,143

A g ric u ltu r e , fo re s tr y , a n d fis h in g

Establishments, first quarter .....
Employment, March ..................
M in in g

Establishments, first quarter .....
Employment, March ..................
C o n s tr u c tio n

Establishments, first quarter ......
Employment, March ..................
M a n u fa c tu rin g

Establishments, first quarter ..... .
Employment, March ..................
T ra n s p o rta tio n a n d p u b lic u t ilit ie s

Establishments, first quarter ......
Employment, March .................. .

315,413
6,678,516

174,645
272,380

49,173
325,334

36,475
498,572

30,720
945,800

12,952
895,012

7,913
1,190,459

2,127
726,615

892
618,630

516
1,205,714

664,094
6,947,770

400,335
621,924

110,091
729,753

77,321
1,046,983

52,153
1,565,359

15,187
1,035,060

7,019
1,035,170

1,478
496,350

414
274,988

96
142,183

1,458,626
22,807,395

623,529
1,154,942

329,260
2,204,569

235,941
3,190,042

179,053
5,437,335

57,988
3,943,391

26,380
3,880,016

4,982
1,659,975

1,169
764,056

324
573,069

671,294
7,379,831

438,402
714,292

114,349
751,197

62,141
826,817

35,549
1,065,116

11,618
797,168

6,025
912,396

1,799
621,570

898
615,246

513
1,076,029

2,890,313
37,110,557

1,879,338
2,772,133

451,715
2,967,673

271,168
3,643,823

169,867
5,102,854

60,864
4,225,937

39,727
5,980,102

10,640
3,627,319

4,286
2,939,641

2,708
5,851,075

W h o le s a le tra d e

Establishments, first quarter ......
Employment, March ...................
R e ta il tra d e

Establishments, first quarter
Employment, March ..........
F in a n c e , in s u ra n c e , a n d re a l e s ta te

Establishments, first quarter .......
Employment, March ....................
S e rv ic e s

Establishments, first quarter
Employment, March ..........

' Includes establishments that reported no workers in March 2000.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding.
2 Includes data for nonclassifiable establishments, not shown separately.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

89

Current Labor Statistics:

19.

Labor Force Data

Annual data: establishments, employment, and wages covered under Ul and UCFE by ownership
Year

A v e ra g e
e s ta b lis h m e n ts

A v e ra g e
annual
e m p lo y m e n t

T o ta l a n n u a l w a g e s
(in th o u s a n d s )

A v e ra g e a n n u a l
wages
p e r e m p lo y e e

A v e ra g e
w e e k ly
wage

T o ta l c o v e re d (Ul a n d UC FE)

1991 .................................................
1992 .................................................
1993..................................................
1994..................................................
1995..................................................
1996 .................................................
1997.................................................
1998.................................................
1999 .................................................
2000.................................................

6,382,523
6,532,608
6,679,934
6,826,677
7,040,677
7,189,168
7,369,473
7,634,018
7,820,860
7,879,116

106,884,831
107,413,728
109,422,571
112,611,287
115,487,841
117,963,132
121,044,432
124,183,549
127,042,282
129,877,063

$2,626,972,030
2,781,676,477
2,884,472,282
3,033,676,678
3,215,921,236
3,414,514,808
3,674,031,718
3,967,072,423
4,235,579,204
4,587,708,584

$24,578
25,897
26,361
26,939
27,846
28,946
30,353
31,945
33,340
35,323

$473
498
507
518
536
557
584
614
641
679

$24,335
25,622
26,055
26,633
27,567
28,658
30,058
31,676
33,094
35,077

$468
493
501
512
530
551
578
609
636
675

$24,178
25,547
25,934
26,496
27,441
28,582
30,064
31,762
33,244
35,337

$465
491
499
510
528
550
578
611
639
680

$27,132
27,789
28,643
29,518
30,497
31,397
32,521
33,605
34,681
36,296

$522
534
551
568
586
604
625
646
667
698

$24,595
25,434
26,095
26,717
27,552
28,320
29,134
30,251
31,234
32,387

$473
489
502
514
530
545
560
582
601
623

$32,609
35,066
36,940
38,038
38,523
40,414
42,732
43,688
44,287
46,228

$627
674
710
731
741
777
822
840
852
889

Ul c o v e re d

1991 ..................................................
1992.................................................
1993..................................................
1994..................................................
1995..................................................
1996 .................................................
1997..................................................
1998..................................................
1999 .................................................
2000..................................................

6,336,151
6,485,473
6,632,221
6,778,300
6,990,594
7,137,644
7,317,363
7,586,767
7,771,198
7,828,861

103,755,832
104,288,324
106,351,431
109,588,189
112,539,795
115,081,246
118,233,942
121,400,660
124,255,714
127,005,574

$2,524,937,018
2,672,081,827
2,771,023,411
2,918,684,128
3,102,353,355
3,298,045,286
3,553,933,885
3,845,494,089
4,112,169,533
4,454,966,824

Private industry covered
1991..................................................
1992..................................................
1993..................................................
1994..................................................
1995 ..................................................
1996..................................................
1997..................................................
1998..................................................
1999 ..................................................
2000..................................................

6,162,684
6,308,719
6,454,381
6,596,158
6,803,454
6,946,858
7,121,182
7,381,518
7,560,567
7,622,274

89,007,096
89,349,803
91,202,971
94,146,344
96,894,844
99,268,446
102,175,161
105,082,368
107,619,457
110,015,333

$2,152,021,705
2,282,598,431
2,365,301,493
2,494,458,555
2,658,927,216
2,837,334,217
3,071,807,287
3,337,621,699
3,577,738,557
3,887,626,769

State government covered
1991 ..................................................
1992 ..................................................
1993 ..................................................
1994..................................................
1995..................................................
1996 ..................................................
1997..................................................
1998 ..................................................
1999 ..................................................
2000..................................................

58,499
58,801
59,185
60,686
60,763
62,146
65,352
67,347
70,538
65,096

4,005,321
4,044,914
4,088,075
4,162,944
4,201,836
4,191,726
4,214,451
4,240,779
4,296,673
4,370,160

$108,672,127
112,405,340
117,095,062
122,879,977
128,143,491
131,605,800
137,057,432
142,512,445
149,011,194
158,618,365

Local government covered
1991 ..................................................
1992..................................................
1993..................................................
1994..................................................
1995..................................................
1996 ..................................................
1997..................................................
1998..................................................
1999 ..................................................
2000..................................................

114,936
117,923
118,626
121,425
126,342
128,640
130,829
137,902
140,093
141,491

10,742,558
10,892,697
11,059,500
11,278,080
11,442,238
11,621,074
11,844,330
12,077,513
12,339,584
12,620,081

$264,215,610
277,045,557
288,594,697
301,315,857
315,252,346
329,105,269
345,069,166
365,359,945
385,419,781
408,721,690

F e d e ra l G o v e rn m e n t c o v e re d (UC FE)

1991 ..................................................
1992..................................................
1993..................................................
1994.................................................
1995..................................................
1996 ..................................................
1997..................................................
1998 ..................................................
1999 ..................................................
2000..................................................

46,372
47,136
47,714
48,377
50,083
51,524
52,110
47,252
49,661
50,256

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding.

90

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

March 2002

3,128,999
3,125,404
3,071,140
3,023,098
2,948,046
2,881,887
2,810,489
2,782,888
2,786,567
2,871,489

$102,035,012
109,594,650
113,448,871
114,992,550
113,567,881
116,469,523
120,097,833
121,578,334
123,409,672
132,741,760

20.

Annual data: establishments, employment, and wages covered under Ul and UCFE, by State

S ta te

2000

2000

7,879,116

58,256

2000

2000

2000

2000

change

change

chan ge

change

Total United States ......................................

2000

1999-

1999-

1999-

1999-

2000

A v e ra g e w e e k ly
wa<

T o ta l a n n u a l w a g e s
(in th o u s a n d s )

A v e ra g e a n n u a l
e m p lo y m e n t

A v e ra g e
e s ta b lis h m e n ts

129,877,063

2,834,781

$4,587,708,584

$352,129,380

$679

$38

54,538,027
9,685,341
72,417,033
29,761,939
612,318,313

1,970,401
532,709
6,772,271
1,520,062
71,430,084

558
676
627
506
792

18
22
40
18
69

112,328
18,820
115,171
72,240
1,026,568

454
32
2,589
406
-33,271

1,877,963
275,607
2,220,712
1,130,891
14,867,006

6,911
6,674
70,174
17,750
472,932

148,479
107,787
24,751
28,409
444,731

6,278
1,696
584
1,474
9,134

2,186,656
1,674,728
406,350
637,292
7,060,986

81,404
22,363
4,210
21,588
216,337

81,273,035
76,176,856
14,845,185
33,753,742
215,780,400

9,292,033
5,650,414
707,255
2,423,907
17,731,492

715
875
703
1,019
588

57
54
27
40
32

Indiana...........................................................

225,040
34,027
45,399
322,324
152,846

6,628
1,564
1,128
2,721
-1,089

3,883,005
553,185
563,193
5,940,772
2,936,634

88,250
15,440
20,785
90,253
29,778

132,853,189
16,942,944
15,600,825
226,012,936
91,086,141

10,161,751
921,218
1,474,196
13,664,320
3,800,930

658
589
533
732
596

36
16
32
34
19

Maine .............................................................

97,091
80,477
107,740
118,216
44,865

2,479
1,036
2,403
1,549
956

1,443,394
1,313,742
1,762,949
1,869,219
590,818

12,412
14,945
31,482
21,317
17,005

40,312,331
38,571,763
50,774,667
52,131,235
16,344,365

1,743,623
2,164,568
2,669,580
1,838,194
916,386

537
565
554
536
532

19
26
20
13
15

Mississippi......................................................

146,559
187,391
260,885
155,711
63,970

1,117
344
2,244
4,932
229

2,405,510
3,275,135
4,585,211
2,608,543
1,137,304

58,631
83,493
82,445
57,751
-1,880

87,548,876
145,184,150
169,702,272
92,377,120
28,665,889

6,606,334
16,396,342
8,726,750
6,959,859
879,567

700
852
712
681
485

37
76
24
37
16

New Hampshire ............................................

163,080
38,349
51,838
48,126
45,924

2,303
1,585
4
194
494

2,677,110
379,094
882,918
1,017,902
606,543

31,687
7,855
16,308
41,975
15,318

84,020,093
9,202,211
24,449,709
32,853,744
21,069,920

4,745,993
567,364
1,370,028
2,392,271
2,067,493

604
467
533
621
668

28
20
21
21
50

270,384
47,987
529,103
222,234
23,297

-15,337
693
4,797
7,270
240

3,877,572
717,243
8,471,416
3,862,782
309,223

85,195
16,339
178,874
58,413
3,263

169,355,641
19,722,105
384,241,451
120,007,446
7,632,602

13,725,235
1,311,285
34,472,229
7,922,007
365,713

840
529
872
597
475

51
24
61
30
18

280,988
89,298
109,050
315,284
33,327

1,073
1,368
-1,296
13,267
621

5,513,217
1,452,166
1,608,069
5,558,076
467,602

62,090
29,357
32,067
98,602
10,766

179,218,763
39,191,626
52,703,467
189,058,210
15,250,760

8,080,924
2,464,854
4,049,166
10,557,733
1,011,495

625
519
630
654
627

21
23
36
25
28

Utah ...............................................................

109,370
27,145
125,247
489,795
66,144

-1,993
437
-51
8,425
2,282

1,820,138
364,119
2,667,230
9,289,286
1,044,143

27,993
8,334
40,186
272,645
26,519

51,289,516
9,030,727
81,495,110
324,579,638
30,518,822

2,664,765
574,920
4,055,765
27,952,132
2,131,853

542
477
588
672
562

20
20
21
39
26

Virginia...........................................................
Washington...................................................
West Virginia.................................................
Wisconsin......................................................
W yoming........................................................

23,870
192,745
221,150
46,830
145,871
20,861

805
3,212
9,010
21
977
238

296,462
3,427,954
2,706,462
686,622
2,736,054
230,857

8,473
100,832
62,732
6,014
44,603
5,892

8,571,976
120,567,926
100,381,521
18,461,154
83,980,263
6,195,607

624,326
10,689,950
5,904,038
752,890
4,294,806
425,897

556
676
713
517
590
516

25
41
26
17
21
23

52,371
3,255

202
32

1,026,175
42,349

23,785
1,411

19,306,364
1,173,955

709,126
104,996

362
533

5
31

March 2002

91

California........................................................

Connecticut....................................................
District of Columbia.......................................
Florida............................................................
Georgia..........................................................

Maryland........................................................
Michigan.........................................................

New Je rsey...................................................

North Carolina................................................
North Dakota..................................................

Oregon...........................................................
Rhode Island..................................................
South C arolina..............................................
South D akota................................................

Virgin Islands ...............................................

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

21. Annual data: Employment and average annual pay for all workers
covered under Ul and UCFE in the 316 largest U.S. counties
A v e ra g e a n n u a l p a y

E m p lo y m e n t
C o u n ty 1
2000

92

2000

P e rc e n t
change,
199 9-2 0 0 0 2

United States4 .................. 129,877,063

2.2

-

35,323

5.9

Jefferson, A L ...................
Madison, A L .....................
Mobile, A L ........................
Montgomery, A L ..............
Tuscaloosa, A L ................
Anchorage, AK ................
Maricopa, A Z ...................
Pima, A Z ..........................
Pulaski, A R ......................
Sebastian, A R ..................

384,662
154,356
169,469
131,988
76,499
129,700
1,544,971
328,426
243,157
75,197

.6
1.7
-.1
.2
.8
2.0
3.6
3.1
.4
1.1

256
186
291
285
244
164
48
77
272
228

34,026
35,837
28,623
28,894
29,064
36,659
35,110
29,194
30,799
27,011

3.9
5.0
2.4
3.2
2.5
2.7
7.8
3.5
3.8
4.8

Washington, A R ...............
Alameda, CA ...................
Contra Costa, CA ............
Fresno, CA ......................
Kern, C A ..........................
Los Angeles, C A ..............
Marin, C A .........................
Monterey, C A ...................
Orange, C A ......................
Placer, CA .......................

80,045
696,242
336,691
322,759
238,250
4,098,154
111,645
164,646
1,394,414
107,182

3.3
3.0
3.1
1.9
2.1
1.7
2.1
2.5
3.6
8.9

61
84
78
169
153
187
154
118
49
3

26,408
45,091
42,318
26,162
28,572
39,651
42,600
29,962
39,247
33,386

3.8
9.8
3.7
4.8
5.7
4.9
8.5
5.1
4.8
5.3

Riverside, C A ...................
Sacramento, C A ..............
San Bernardino, C A .........
San Diego, C A .................
San Francisco, C A ...........
San Joaquin, C A ..............
San Luis Obispo, C A .......
San Mateo, C A ................
Santa Barbara, CA ..........
Santa Clara, C A ...............

469,467
573,942
528,437
1,195,116
609,138
201,070
94,883
378,494
176,901
1,030,633

5.3
2.6
3.0
3.0
3.7
3.1
3.6
5.3
3.0
6.1

12
107
85
86
43
79
50
13
87
9

29,136
37,732
29,901
37,535
57,532
29,237
28,096
67,051
32,566
76,213

4.7
7.2
3.8
8.1
12.0
4.7
6.2
30.4
8.2
24.7

Santa Cruz, C A ................
Solano, CA ......................
Sonoma, C A ....................
Stanislaus, C A .................
Tulare, CA .......................
Ventura, C A .....................
Yolo, CA ..........................
Adams, C O ......................
Arapahoe, C O ..................
Boulder, C O .....................

101,833
117,217
190,946
160,948
132,986
287,611
84,565
144,806
284,236
179,719

3.3
3.7
3.1
1.7
3.6
3.4
1.5
3.6
3.9
8.2

62
44
80
188
51
57
201
52
38
4

35,819
31,670
35,715
28,201
23,750
37,069
33,438
33,428
46,254
45,564

15.5
8.4
11.3
4.4
4.6
9.1
3.3
4.8
7.8
13.9

Denver, C O ......................
El Paso, C O .....................
Jefferson, CO ..................
Larimer, C O .....................
Fairfield, C T .....................
Hartford, C T .....................
New Haven, C T ...............
New London, C T ..............
New Castle, DE ...............
Washington, DC ..............

469,137
237,739
210,519
119,155
427,557
501,562
367,343
123,039
281,920
637,292

3.2
3.4
2.6
5.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
.6
-.7
3.5

69
58
108
16
229
230
231
257
301
54

44,343
33,039
36,195
32,394
61,156
43,656
38,355
36,757
40,491
52,964

11.6
7.7
5.2
7.9
8.5
6.2
5.4
3.8
4.5
4.1

Alachua, FL .....................
Brevard, F L ......................
Broward, F L .....................
Collier, FL ........................
Duval, FL .........................
Escambia, F L ...................
Hillsborough, FL ..............
Lee, FL ............................
Leon, FL ..........................
Manatee, F L ....................

117,658
181,314
644,192
103,264
434,219
125,666
588,792
162,304
141,978
<5 )

2.5
3.3
3.3
6.9
4.1
1.0
2.5
4.4
2.2
<6)

119
63
64
6
32
235
120
25
142
( 6)

26,155
32,101
33,234
29,962
32,777
26,709
31,707
28,148
29,249
( è)

3.9
7.2
6.5
6.9
4.6
4.5
4.8
6.4
4.1
( 5)

Marion, FL .......................
Mlami-Dade, F L ...............
Orange, FL ......................
Palm Beach, F L ...............
Pinellas, F L ......................
Polk, FL ...........................
Sarasota, F L ....................
Seminole, FL ...................
Volusia, F L .......................
Bibb, GA ..........................

83,319
980,394
611,469
481,395
436,390
183,222
( 5)
139,610
141,652
88,790

1.7
2.3
3.2
4.1
4.2
2.6
( 5)
4.6
1.4
-1.2

189
135
70
33
29
109
( 5)
23
207
308

24,953
33,333
31,123
35,233
31,263
27,881
( è)
30,835
25,079
29,299

3.3
3.9
4.6
7.3
5.4
3.5
( 5)
6.9
5.5
3.2

Chatham, G A ...................
Clayton, G A .....................
Cobb, G A .........................

122,785
116,368
301,183

1.3
-.6
1.3

214
296
215

29,650
36,774
38,792

1.9
6.7
5.4

See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

P e rc e n t
change,
1999 -2 0 0 0 2

R anked by
p e rc e n t
change,
19 9 9 -20 003

March 2002


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

21. Continued— Annual data: Employment and average annual pay for
all workers covered under Ul and UCFE in the 316 largest U.S.
counties
A v e ra g e a n n u a l p a y

E m p lo y m e n t
C o u n ty 1
2000

P e rc e n t
change,
19 9 9 -20 002

R anked by
p e rc e n t
ch a n g e ,
1999 -20 003

P e rc e n t
change,
1999 -2 0 0 0 2

2000

Dekalb, G A ......................
Fulton, GA .......................
Gwinnett, G A ...................
Muscogee, G A .................
Richmond, GA .................
Honolulu, H I.....................
Ada, ID .............................

310,659
754,368
281,654
98,315
106,260
407,935
177,741

-.6
2.7
4.1
-.1
-.6
2.6
6.5

297
103
34
292
298
110
8

38,614
47,060
39,051
27,744
28,592
31,874
34,460

4.9
8.5
6.0
3.7
3.6
2.8
10.0

Champaign, IL .................
Cook, IL ...........................
Du Page, IL ......................
Kane, Tl ...........................
Lake, I L ............................
McHenry, IL .....................
McLean, IL .......................
Madison, I L ......................
Peoria, IL .........................
Rock Island, IL .................

90,429
2,687,795
582,352
193,410
310,689
87,258
84,324
94,550
102,801
80,273

2.8
1.3
1.7
2.9
3.1
1.9
.6
.4
.1
.8

96
216
190
91
81
170
258
273
287
245

29,183
42,898
42,570
32,173
42,620
32,007
34,254
28,974
31,387
33,525

4.2

5.8
3.6
.1
6.7
2.0
4.1
2.9
1.6
4.5

St. Clair, I L .......................
Sangamon, I L ..................
Will, IL ..............................
Winnebago, I L .................
Allen, IN ...........................
Elkhart, IN ........................
Hamilton, IN .....................
Lake,IN ...........................
Marion, IN ........................
St. Joseph, I N ..................

89,963
144,286
142,355
143,760
189,425
122,468
77,452
199,421
605,903
129,558

2.2
4.4
3.5
.5
.3
.6
3.0
-.6
1.6
.5

143
26
55
265
281
259
88
299
194
266

26,878
34,764
32,313
31,499
32,279
30,339
37,931
31,564
36,473
29,657

2.6
1.7
2.1
2.0
3.0
2.3
7.9
4.0
3.2
3.5

Tippecanoe, IN ................
Vanderburgh, IN ..............
Linn, IA ............................
Polk, I A ............................
Scott, I A ...........................
Johnson, K S ....................
Sedgwick, KS ..................
Shawnee, K S ...................
Wyandotte, K S .................
Fayette, K Y ......................

77,377
109,904
121,968
263,940
87,113
287,797
249,846
100,223
79,746
172,031

1.1
.7
2.1
1.3
-.4
2.8
.0
2.4
1.8
1.8

232
251
155
217
295
97
289
130
177
178

31,083
29,569
34,097
33,666
29,067
37,247
32,696
29,375
34,592
30,713

4.0
3.2
4.9
2.5
3.9
6.7
2.9
3.2
2.9
3.8

Jefferson, K Y ...................
Caddo, L A ........................
Calcasieu, LA ..................
East Baton Rouge, L A .....
Jefferson, LA ...................
Lafayette, LA ...................
Orleans, L A ......................
Cumberland. M E ..............
Anne Arundel, MD ...........
Baltimore, M D ..................

439,103
119,449
83,976
246,434
214,680
114,059
263,551
166,757
194,018
358,117

1.4
.3
.1
2.7
-.7
2.3
1.9
3.7
5.3
1.2

208
282
288
104
302
136
171
45
14
222

33,334
28,767
28,226
29,257
28,051
29,911
31,694
30,752
35,461
34,119

3.9
3.2
.9
1.6
2.1
5.5
1.3
1.1
7.3
4.7

Frederick, M D ..................
Howard, M D .....................
Montgomery, M D .............
Prince Georges, M D ........
Baltimore City, M D ...........
Barnstable, M A ................
Bristol, MA .......................
Essex, MA .......................
Hampden, M A ..................
Middlesex, M A .................

77,323
128,678
447,314
303,262
386,411
88,589
221,539
305,382
204,303
846,931

4.9
3.2
5.0
3.3
.8
3.7
1.3
2.5
1.9
3.1

22
71
20
65
246
46
218
121
172
82

30,847
37,897
43,708
37,060
38,579
29,726
30,785
39,154
32,220
52,091

5.9
5.1
5.8
6.9
4.5
.0
4.6
8.8
4.8
11.8

Norfolk, M A ......................
Plymouth, MA ..................
Suffolk, MA ......................
Worcester, M A .................
Genesee, M l....................
Ingham, M l.......................
Kalamazoo, M l.................
Kent, M l ...........................
Macomb, M l.....................
Oakland, Ml .....................

325,018
166,482
608,285
321,131
165,297
174,315
118,342
347,707
337,504
768,629

2.4
1.3
3.3
2.5
-1.4
2.0
-.1
1.6
.3
1.0

131
219
66
122
313
165
293
195
283
236

43,368
33,931
56,699
37,657
36,324
34,963
32,675
33,996
40,904
44,500

10.4
6.3
11.6
10.8
1.4
5.6
2.3
2.6
3.5
4.2

Ottawa, Ml .......................
Saginaw, M l.....................
Washtenaw, M l................
Wayne, Ml .......................
Anoka, M N .......................
Dakota, M N ......................
Hennepin, M N ..................
Olmsted, M N ....................

118,711
95,474
195,624
866,282
108,989
153,364
874,693
82,670

1.8
-.8
.5
1.2
3.8
2.6
2.1
3.9

179
304
267
223
40
111
156
39

31,947
34,672
40,182
42,440
33,928
34,362
43,816
36,104

3.5
2.5
5.3
3.5
4.5
4.7
7.1
3.1

See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

93

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

21. Continued— Annual data: Employment and average annual pay for
all workers covered under Ul and UCFE In the 316 largest U.S.
counties
E m p lo y m e n t
C o u n ty 1
2000

A v e ra g e a n n u a l p a y

P e rc e n t
ch a n g e ,
1999 -2 0 0 0 2

R anked b y
p e rc e n t
change,
1 9 9 9-2 0003

2000

P e rc e n t
change,
19 9 9 -2 0 0 0 2

Ramsey, M N ....................
St. Louis, M N ...................

332,929
94,926

1.6
1.4

196
209

39,069
28,903

5.8
4.6

Steams, M N .....................
Harrison, M S ....................
Hinds, M S ........................
Boone, MO ......................
Clay, M O ..........................
Greene, M O .....................
Jackson, M O ....................
St. Charles, M O ...............
St. Louis, M O ...................
St. Louis City, M O ............

76,292
89,745
136,949
75,785
84,159
142,508
393,761
95,799
646,858
250,878

3.1
.4
-1.2
2.8
.0
2.4
.4
3.2
.8
.4

83
274
309
98
290
132
275
72
247
276

27,584
25,442
30,578
27,361
32,207
26,971
36,056
29,515
38,145
38,612

4.2
4.8
4.6
3.1
6.4
3.2
6.2
3.8
5.6
4.1

Douglas, NE ....................
Lancaster, N E ..................
Clark, NV .........................
Washoe, NV ....................
Hillsborough, NH .............
Rockingham, NH .............
Atlantic, NJ ......................
Bergen, N J .......................
Burlington, N J ..................
Camden, N J .....................

330,128
146,433
697,575
189,102
193,796
129,494
140,141
448,513
180,165
199,768

2.1
1.8
5.3
3.2
2.7
4.1
-.2
.5
.8
-1.1

157
180
15
73
105
35
294
268
248
307

32,356
28,511
32,131
32,748
39,212
35,823
31,068
46,306
37,597
35,130

4.1
3.9
3.4
4.4
9.1
9.8
3.4
7.0
4.7
3.2

Essex, NJ ........................
Gloucester, N J .................
Hudson, N J ......................
Mercer, NJ .......................
Middlesex, N J ..................
Monmouth, NJ .................
Morris, NJ ........................
Ocean, N J ........................
Passaic, N J ......................
Somerset, N J ...................

363,942
86,667
238,388
210,031
392,427
233,285
275,499
129,093
177,364
173,571

1.6
.7
3.4
3.3
.6
2.5
2.8
2.5
.6
4.1

197
252
59
67
260
123
99
124
261
36

44,653
32,055
47,427
44,658
46,487
39,695
60,487
30,447
37,759
54,781

3.5
2.8
10.2
5.2
5.8
5.4
19.0
4.6
2.0
5.1

Union, N J .........................
Bernalillo, NM ..................
Albany, N Y .......................
Bronx, N Y ........................
Broome, N Y .....................
Dutchess, N Y ...................
Erie, N Y ...........................
Kings, N Y .........................
Monroe, NY .....................
Nassau, N Y .....................

237,176
307,705
230,962
212,982
99,613
109,949
459,828
441,916
399,602
598,538

2.2
2.6
1.4
2.2
1.2
1.9
1.0
2.3
.9
1.6

144
112
210
145
224
173
237
137
242
198

45,282
30,184
35,795
32,850
29,658
36,065
31,489
30,760
35,423
40,023

4.9
4.1
6.1
2.7
3.6
2.2
3.0
3.7
1.8
4.4

New York, N Y ..................
Niagara, N Y .....................
Oneida, N Y ......................
Onondaga, N Y .................
Orange, N Y ......................
Queens, N Y .....................
Richmond, NY .................
Rockland, N Y ...................
Suffolk, N Y .......................
Westchester, N Y ..............

2,382,175
78,186
110,684
252,476
119,571
480,676
88,245
106,361
578,401
405,440

3.2
.2
1.4
.7
1.6
1.3
1.9
1.4
2.3
2.3

74
286
211
253
199
220
174
212
138
139

72,572
31,112
27,300
32,499
29,357
34,986
32,149
37,264
37,862
47,066

10.3
3.7
3.4
3.4
4.6
4.4
4.2
4.3
6.6
8.3

Buncombe, NC ................
Catawba, NC ...................
Cumberland, N C ..............
Durham, N C .....................
Forsyth, NC .....................
Gaston, N C ......................
Guilford, N C .....................
Mecklenburg, N C .............
New Hanover, N C ............
Wake, NC ........................

106,036
101,321
109,858
167,191
181,619
77,176
279,889
514,223
87,019
383,705

.5
2.6
1.2
2.9
1.8
-3.6
.6
3.8
.4
3.3

269
113
225
92
181
314
262
41
277
68

27,652
28,210
26,112
49,359
34,011
28,335
32,216
40,538
28,560
35,377

3.8
4.0
3.9
12.6
6.3
4.0
2.5
5.4
4.3
7.4

Cass, N D .........................
Butler, O H ........................
Cuyahoga, O H .................
Franklin, OH ....................
Hamilton, O H ...................
Lake, OH .........................
Lorain, OH .......................
Lucas, O H ........................
Mahoning, OH .................
Montgomery, OH .............

81,823
126,189
817,572
701,913
566,965
102,320
105,988
238,450
112,531
303,352

2.2
2.6
.9
2.2
.8
1.5
2.3
.6
-.6
.4

146
114
243
147
249
202
140
263
300
278

27,801
31,502
36,520
34,970
37,598
30,735
32,013
32,255
25,966
34,532

4.1
1.7
4.2
4.6
3.9
2.1
1.9
2.3
3.0
2.6

Stark, O H .........................
Summit, O H .....................

175,535
266,001

1.7
.4

191
279

28,505
32,735

2.1
4.2

See footnotes at end of table.

94 Monthly Labor Review

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

March 2002


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

21. Continued— Annual data: Employment and average annual pay for
all workers covered under Ul and UCFE in the 316 largest U.S.
counties
A v e ra g e a n n u a l p a y

E m p lo y m e n t
C o u n ty 1
2000

P e rc e n t
change,
1999 -2 0 0 0 2

R anked by
p e rc e n t
change,
1 99 9-2 0003

2000

P e rc e n t
change,
1999 -2 0 0 0 2

Trumbull, OH ...................
Oklahoma, O K .................
Tulsa, O K .........................
Clackamas, OR ...............
Lane, O R .........................
Mahon, OR ......................
Multnomah, OR ...............
Washington, OR ..............

94,382
414,239
340,671
133,065
139,710
127,558
453,274
224,033

-1.3
2.9
2.5
2.2
1.1
2.0
2.1
4.3

311
93
125
148
233
166
158
27

32,785
29,216
31,157
32,482
27,877
28,116
36,796
44,459

1.0
4.6
3.7
4.0
3.5
2.9
6.2
13.4

Allegheny, P A ..................
Berks, P A .........................
Bucks, P A ........................
Chester, P A .....................
Cumberland, P A ..............
Dauphin, P A ....................
Delaware, P A ...................
Erie, PA ...........................
Lackawanna, P A ..............
Lancaster, P A ..................

711,068
168,068
244,317
216,777
123,998
172,465
212,540
131,700
98,383
218,280

1.2
1.8
2.5
2.5
-1.3
2.1
1.0
2.5
-.7
1.8

226
182
126
127
312
159
238
128
303
183

36,727
32,007
34,059
43,762
32,811
33,680
36,828
28,368
27,663
30,809

2.5
3.3
3.4
6.9
3.2
2.2
5.5
1.8
7.5
4.6

Lehigh, P A .......................
Luzerne, P A .....................
Montgomery, P A ..............
Northampton, P A .............
Philadelphia, P A ..............
Westmoreland, P A ...........
York, PA ..........................
Providence, R l.................
Charleston, S C ................
Greenville, SC .................

171,175
143,066
481,011
87,846
668,793
134,436
167,757
290,809
182,793
233,062

2.0
2.2
2.3
3.0
1.5
1.0
2.2
1.7
1.3
2.6

167
149
141
89
203
239
150
192
221
115

35,274
27,855
43,810
30,767
39,700
27,992
30,926
33,410
27,680
31,281

2.5
2.7
6.5
3.1
4.5
1.3
3.3
4.0
4.8
4.0

Horry, S C .........................
Lexington, S C ..................
Richland, S C ....................
Spartanburg, S C ..............
Minnehaha, S D ................
Davidson, T N ...................
Hamilton, T N ....................
Knox, T N ..........................
Rutherford, T N .................
Shelby, T N .......................

99,124
81,341
207,508
119,791
105,837
434,901
188,161
202,688
76,993
500,255

1.7
2.0
.6
.5
3.2
1.5
1.8
3.4
2.5
1.0

193
168
264
270
75
204
184
60
129
240

22,883
27,505
29,627
30,596
28,212
34,863
30,574
30,090
31,132
34,357

5.4
3.5
4.1
3.4
3.7
5.4
4.0
4.1
3.6
2.5

Bell, T X ............................
Bexar, T X .........................
Brazoria, T X .....................
Cameron, T X ...................
Collin, T X .........................
Dallas, TX ........................
Denton, TX ......................
El Paso, T X ......................
Fort Bend, TX ..................
Galveston, T X ..................

87,850
648,942
75,417
109,115
167,956
1,567,626
119,722
251,557
87,763
86,844

2.1
2.2
2.8
5.4
5.9
4.2
3.7
1.5
2.4
-1.0

160
151
100
11
10
30
47
205
133
306

25,193
29,923
34,367
21,553
40,509
44,381
29,298
25,069
35,801
29,518

4.1
5.2
3.3
2.6
5.8
7.7
4.0
3.2
5.1
4.0

Harris, TX ........................
Hidalgo, T X ......................
Jefferson, TX ...................
Lubbock, TX ....................
Mc Lennan, T X ................
Montgomery, T X ..............
Nueces, T X ......................
Potter, TX ........................
Smith, T X .........................
Tarrant, TX ......................

1,840,442
163,443
120,815
115,422
98,076
76,865
142,309
75,572
83,353
703,025

2.8
7.1
1.1
1.9
1.0
5.0
.8
.7
2.8
3.5

101
5
234
175
241
21
250
254
102
56

41,869
21,671
31,277
26,297
27,034
32,119
28,187
26,552
29,509
35,438

7.7
2.7
.8
6.3
2.1
9.7
4.7
2.8
3.6
5.0

Travis, TX ........................
Williamson, T X .................
Davis, U T .........................
Salt Lake, U T ...................
Utah, U T ..........................
Weber, UT .......................
Chittenden, V T .................
Arlington, V A ....................
Chesterfield, V A ...............
Fairfax, V A .......................

538,193
76,588
84,640
531,240
142,369
86,404
95,343
157,906
107,932
537,647

5.1
9.5
3.2
2.6
4.5
.4
5.1
4.1
2.1
6.7

17
2
76
116
24
280
18
37
161
7

41,332
50,415
27,711
32,192
27,891
26,644
34,288
52,846
31,880
51,576

7.0
-4.5
7.2
5.0
5.0
2.5
4.2
7.1
3.5
10.3

Henrico, VA .....................
Loudoun, V A ....................
Prince William, V A ...........
Alexandria, V A .................
Chesapeake, V A ..............
Newport News, VA ..........
Norfolk, VA ......................

165,617
87,265
78,209
91,818
81,294
93,607
145,197

2.4
11.9
4.3
5.1
2.1
1.8
.3

134
1
28
19
162
185
284

36,138
54,141
28,986
42,101
26,069
30,261
32,179

5.8
3.6
5.5
6.1
4.2
5.4
4.9

See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

95

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

21. Continued— Annual data: Employment and average annual pay for
all workers covered under Ul and UCFE in the 316 largest U.S.
counties
E m p lo y m e n t
C o u n ty 1
200 0

A v e ra g e a n n u a l p a y

P e rc e n t
change,
199 9-2 0 0 0 2

R anked by
p e rc e n t
ch a n g e ,
1999 -2 0 0 0 3

2000

P e rc e n t
change,
199 9-2 0 0 0 2

Richmond, V A ..................
Roanoke City, V A ............
Virginia Beach, V A ...........

166,923
75,894
165,610

1.4
3.0
3.6

213
90
53

38,635
29,487
25,414

5.1
4.6
4.4

Clark, WA ........................
King, W A ..........................
Pierce, W A .......................
Snohomish, W A ...............
Spokane, W A ...................
Thurston, W A ...................
Yakima, W A .....................
Kanawha, W V ..................
Brown, W l........................
Dane, W l..........................

113,910
1,162,290
241,654
209,557
188,843
84,277
94,233
112,920
142,359
274,353

1.5
2.7
4.2
-1.2
2.9
1.6
1.9
.7
2.1
2.6

206
106
31
310
94
200
176
255
163
117

32,163
47,459
29,854
35,091
29,760
31,745
23,237
30,156
31,538
32,817

6.0
3.0
4.2
3.6
7.9
6.9
3.7
3.1
2.9
5.5

Milwaukee, Wl .................
Outagamie, W l.................
Racine, W l.......................
Waukesha, W l .................
Winnebago, W l................

528,837
94,364
79,160
222,877
90,256

.5
2.9
-.9
1.2
2.2

271
95
305
227
152

34,744
30,769
32,536
35,767
33,622

3.1
4.4
-.6
5.2
2.7

San Juan, PR ..................

327,187

3.8

42

21,312

3.5

1 Includes areas not officially designated as
counties.
See Notes on Current Labor
Statistics.

4 Totals for the United States do not include
data for Puerto Rico.
5 Data are not available for release.

2 Percent changes were computed from
annual employment and pay data adjusted for
noneconomic county reclassifications.
See
Notes on Current Labor Statistics.
3 Rankings
for
percent
change
in
employment are based on the 314 counties that
are comparable over the year.

22.

Note: Data pertain to workers covered by
Unemployment
Insurance
(Ul)
and
Unemployment Compensation for Federal
Employees (UCFE) programs. The 315 U.S.
counties comprise 70.8 percent of the total
covered workers in the United States

Annual data: Em ployment status o f the population

[Numbers in thousands]
E m ploym ent status

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

Civilian noninstitutional population..........
Civilian labor force................................
Labor force participation rate.............

192,805
128,105
66.4

194,838
129,200
66.3

196,814
131,056
66.6

198,584
132,304
66.6

200,591
133,943
66.8

203,133
136,297
67.1

205,220
137,673
67.1

207,753
139,368
67.1

209,699
140,863
67.2

211,864
141,815
66.9

Employed.........................................
Employment-population ratio.........

118,492
61.5
3,247
115,245

120,259
61.7
3 115
117 144

123,060
62.5
3 409
119 651

124,900
62.9
3 440
121 460

126,708
63.2
3 443
123 264

129,558
63.8
3 399
126 159

131,463
64.1
3 373
128 085

133,488
64.3
3 281
130 207

135,208
64.5
3 305
131 903

135,073
63.8

131 929

9,613
7.5
64,700

8 940
6.9
65,638

7 996
6.1
65,758

7 404
5.6
66,280

7 236
54
66,647

6 739

6 210

5 655

6 74?

49
66,837

45
67,547

5 880
4,2

40
68,836

48
70,050

Not in the labor force.............................

Monthly Labor Review

96

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

March 2002

68,385

23. Annual data: Employment levels by industry
[In thousands]
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

Total employment........................................
Private sector............................................
Goods-producing...................................
Mining.................................................
Construction.......................................
Manufacturing.....................................

108,601
89,956
23,231
635
4,492
18,104

110,713
91,872
23,352
610
4,668
18,075

114,163
95,036
23,908
601
4,986
18,321

117,191
97,885
24,265
581
5,160
18,524

119,608
100,189
24,493
580
5,418
18,495

122,690
103,133
24,962
596
5,691
18,675

125,865
106,042
25,414
590

18,805

128,916
108,709
25,507
539
6,415
18,552

131,759
111,079
25,709
543
6,698
18,469

132,213
111,341
25,122
563
6,861
17,698

Service-producing.................................
Transportation and public utilities.......
Wholesale trade.................................
Retail trade..........................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate....

85,370
5,718
5,997
19,356
6,602
29,052

87,361
5,811
5,981
19,773
6,757
30,197

90,256
5,984
6,162
20,507
6,896
31,579

92,925
6,132
6,378
21,187
6,806
33,117

95,115
6,253
6,482
21,597
6,911
34,454

97,727
6,408
6,648
21,966
7,109
36,040

100,451
6,611
6,800
22,295
7,389
37,533

103,409
6,834
6,911
22,848
7,555
39,055

106,050
7,019
7,024
23,307
7,560
40,460

107,092
7,070
7,014
23,488
7,624
41,024

18,645
2,969
4,408
11,267

18,841
2,915
4,488
11,438

19,128
2,870
4,576
11,682

19,305
2,822
4,635
11,849

19,419
2,757
4,606
12,056

19,557
2,699
4,582
12,276

19,823

20,206
2,669
4,709
12,829

20,681
2,777
4,785
13,119

20,873
2,616
4,880
13,377

Industry

Federal............................................
Local................................................

6,020

2,686

4,612
12,525

Note : See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.

24. Annual data: Average hours and earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers on nonfarm
payrolls, by industry______________________________________________________________
Industry

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2000

1999

2001

P riv a te s e c to r:

Average weekly hours..............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)........................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................

385.86

34.5
11.43
394.34

34.4
11.82
406.61

34.6
12.28
424.89

34.6
12.78
442.19

34.5
13.24
456.78

34.5
13.75
474.38

34.2
14.33
490.09

44.3
14.60
646.78

44.8
14.88
666.62

44.7
15.30
683.91

45.3
15.62
707.59

45.4
16.15
733.21

43.9
16.91
742.35

43.2
17.05
736.56

43.1
17.24
743.04

43.4
17.65
766.01

38.0
14.15
537.70

38.5
14.38
553.63

38.9
14.73
573.00

38.9
15.09
587.00

39.0
15.47
603.33

39.0
16.04
625.56

38.9
16.61
646.13

39.1
17.19
672.13

39.3
17.88
702.68

39.2
18.33
718.54

41.0
11.46
469.86

41.4
11.74
486.04

42.0
12.07
506.94

41.6
12.37
514.59

41.6
12.77
531.23

42.0
13.17
553.14

41.7
13.49
562.53

41.7
13.90
579.63

41.6
14.38
598.21

40.7
14.84
603.99

38.3
13.43
514.37

39.3
13.55
532.52

39.7
13.78
547.07

39.4
14.13
556.72

39.6
14.45
572.22

39.7
14.92
592.32

39.5
15.31
604.75

38.7
15.69
607.20

38.6
16.22
626.09

38.1
16.89
643.51

38.2
11.39
435.10

38.2
11.74
448.47

38.4
12.06
463.10

38.3
12.43
476.07

38.3
12.87
492.92

38.4
13.45
516.48

38.3
14.07
538.88

38.3
14.58
558.80

38.5
15.20
585.20

38.2
15.80
603.56

28.8
7.12
205.06

28.8
7.29
209.95

28.9
7.49
216.46

28.8
7.69
221.47

28.8
7.99
230.11

28.9
8.33
240.74

29.0
8.74
253.46

29.0
9.09
263.61

28.9
9.46
273.39

28.8
9.82
282.82

35.8
10.82
387.36

35.8
11.35
406.33

35.8
11.83
423.51

35.9
12.32
442.29

35.9
12.80
459.52

36.1
13.34
481.57

36.4
14.07
512.15

36.2
14.62
529.24

36.3
15.07
547.04

36.3
15.83
574.63

32.5
10.54
342.55

32.5
10.78
350.35

32.5
11.04
358.80

32.4
11.39
369.04

32.4
11.79
382.00

32.6
12.28
400.33

32.6
12.84
418.58

32.6
13.37
435.86

32.7
13.91
454.86

32.7
14.61
477.75

34.4
10.57
363.61

34.5
10.83
373.64

43.9
14.54
638.31

34.7

11.12

M in in g :

Average weekly hours............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)....................
C o n s tr u c tio n :

Average weekly hours............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)......................
M a n u fa c tu rin g :

Average weekly hours............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)......................
T ra n s p o rta tio n a n d p u b lic u t ilitie s :

Average weekly hours............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars).....................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)....................
W h o le s a le tra d e :

Average weekly hours...........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)....................
R e ta il tra d e :

Average weekly hours............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars).....................
F in a n c e , in s u ra n c e , a n d re a l e s ta te :

Average weekly hours............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars).....................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)....................
S e rv ic e s :

Average weekly hours............................................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)....................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

97

Current Labor Statistics:

25.

Compensation & Industrial Relations

Employment Cost Index, compensation,1by occupation and industry group

[June 1989 = 100]
1999

2000

2001

Series
Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Percent change
12
3
m onths
m onths
ended
ended
Dec. 2001

C iv ilia n

workers2..............................................................

144.6

146.5

148.0

149.5

150.6

152.5

153.8

155.6

156.8

146.3
145.3
148.6
146.1
140.6
144.8

148.4
146.7
150.5
148.6
142.7
146.0

149.9
148.3
151.9
150.1
144.1
147.1

151.5
150.0
153.7
151.8
145.6
148.5

152.5
151.3
154.6
152.8
146.5
150.0

154.4
153.2
156.6
155.3
148.2
152.0

156.0
154.3
158.6
156.8
149.3
153.3

157.7
156.7
159.6
158.8
151.1
155.0

158.9
157.5
161.2
160.0
152.0
156.9

142.5
143.6
145.3
146.5
144.3
145.0
145.8
144.4
144.7

144.9
146.0
147.1
148.0
145.9
146.3
146.5
145.7
146.6

146.6
147.5
148.4
149.3
147.5
147.7
146.8

148.0
148.7
150.1
151.2
149.0
149.5
149.7

148.8
149.3
151.1
152.4
150.7
151.3
150.6

150.7
151.3
153.0
154.3
152.5
153.2
151.7

152.2
152.6
155.4
155.4
154.6
155.6
152.2

146.1
148.0

146.9
149.6

148.3
150.7

150.6
152.6

151.9
154.0

153.3
153.3
156.4
158.1
156.7
158.2
156.1
153.8
156.0

154.4
154.6
157.6
159.0
158.3
160.0
156.6
155.2
157.2

Excluding sales occupations..........................................

144.6
144.5

146.8
146.5

148.5
148.2

149.9
149.8

150.9
150.9

153.0
153.0

154.5
154.4

155.9
156.0

157.2
160.9

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers.........................................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................
Professional specialty and technical occupations..........
Executive, adminitrative, and managerial occupations..
Sales occupations..........................................................
Administrative support occupations, including clerical...
Blue-collar workers..........................................................
Precision production, craft, and repair occupations......
Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors...........
Transportation and material moving occupations..........
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers....

146.9
147.3
146.7
149.1
145.3
146.2
140.5
140.6
141.4
135.2
144.4

149.3
149.4
148.4
151.1
148.9
149.0
142.6
142.3
144.0
137.5
146.4

151.1
151.3
150.7
152.7
150.3
150.6
144.1
144.1
145.0
138.6
148.1

152.6
152.9
152.2
154.4
151.2
152.3
145.5
145.8
146.0
139.9
149.4

153.6
154.1
153.7
155.3
151.4
153.4
146.4
146.7
146.8
141.1
150.4

155.7
156.5
156.3
157.3
152.3
156.1
148.2
148.7
148.3
142.6
152.2

157.4
158.1
157.5
159.4
154.5
157.7
149.3
149.7
149.1
143.9
153.4

158.7
159.6
159.2
160.2
155.0
159.5
151.0
151.8
150.4
145.6
154.9

160.1
160.9
160.3
161.8
156.7
160.8
151.9
152.5
151.5
146.3
156.5

Service occupations.........................................................

142.6

143.9

145.4

146.6

148.1

150.0

151.3

152.6

154.8

143.1

145.3

146.9

148.4

149.5

151.4

152.7

154.3

155.5

142.5
141.8
145.5
143.9
140.7
138.7
143.6
145.8
143.8
142.1
144.0
142.8

144.8
144.2
148.1
146.5
142.8
140.8
146.0
148.2
146.2
144.4
146.5
144.9

146.6
145.9
150.1
148.4
144.4
143.2
147.5
150.2
148.2
145.6
148.3
146.0

147.9
147.2
151.3
149.6
145.8
145.1
148.7
151.4
149.3
146.7
149.4
147.5

148.8
148.2
151.9
150.5
146.8
146.7
149.3
151.5
149.7
147.8
150.1
147.7

150.7
150.1
154.5
153.0
148.2
148.2
151.3
154.2
152.2
149.1
151.8
150.4

152.1
151.5
156.5
155.0
149.3
150.3
152.6
156.0
154.0
150.0
153.1
151.6

153.1
152.5
156.8
155.3
150.8
151.7
152.2
156.0
153.8
151.3
154.0
152.0

154.4
153.7
158.1
156.5
151.9
153.0
154.6
156.9
154.5
152.7
155.3
153.2

145.3
145.9
147.0
148.3
139.8
142.4
142.3
139.5
146.1
146.0
146.1
143.5
144.3
148.5
147.4
140.7
138.3
138.1

147.4
147.7
149.3
150.3
141.8
143.6
143.9
140.4
148.6
148.4
148.9
145.6
146.4
150.0
149.6
143.2
139.7
140.1

149.1
149.4
151.0
152.1
143.1
145.1
145.7
141.8
150.9
150.9
151.0
147.3
148.1
151.8
151.1
144.8
141.0
142.5

150.6
151.1
152.6
153.9
144.5
146.3
147.4
142.8
153.5
153.9
152.9
148.3
149.6
152.1
152.7
146.2
142.2
143.4

151.7
152.2
153.7
155.1
145.3
147.9
148.3
143.9
154.1
154.7
153.4
149.4
150.6
154.4
154.9
146.6
144.4
144.5

153.8
154.6
155.8
157.5
147.7
149.6
150.5
145.4
157.3
158.3
156.0
151.0
152.6
155.1
156.9
148.7
147.3
146.1

155.3
156.0
157.4
159.1
148.7
150.8
152.4
146.9
159.8
161.1
158.1
152.6
153.9
157.8
158.5
149.7
149.4
148.2

156.9
157.8
159.0
160.9
150.9
152.2
153.5
148.2
160.7
162.8
158.1
153.7
155.4
158.6
160.0
150.9
149.7
149.7

158.2
159.0
160.3
162.2
151.0
154.2
155.5
151.1
161.5
163.4
159.1
155.5

0.8

4.1

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers...........................................................
Professional specialty and technical................................
Executive, adminitrative, and managerial........................
Administrative support, including clerical.........................
Blue-collar workers............................................................
Service occupations...........................................................
Workers, by industry division:
Goods-producing................................................................
Manufacturing...................................................................
Service-producing..............................................................
Services............................................................................
Health services...............................................................
Hospitals.......................................................................
Educational services.......................................................

3

Public administration ........................................................
Nonmanufacturing..............................................................
P riv a te in d u s tr y w o r k e r s ................................................................

4

Production and nonsupervisory occupations ................
Workers, by industry division:
Goods-producing..............................................................

Construction....................................................................
Manufacturing.................................................................

Nondurables...................................................................

Transportation.............................................................
Public utilities...............................................................

Wholesale and retail trade.............................................
Wholesale trade...........................................................

Food stores................................................................
See footnotes at end of table.

98

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

March 2002

159.5
160.6
153.2
150.9
151.7

.8
.5

1.0
.8
.6
1.2
.8
.8
.8
.6
1.0
1.1
.3
.9

.8
.8
1.0
.8
.8

4.2
4.1
4.3
4.7
3.8
4.6
3.8
3.5
4.3
4.3
5.0
5.8
4.0
4.7
4.3
4.2
4.2

1.0

4.2
4.4
4.3
4.2
3.5
4.8
3.8
4.0
3.2
3.7
4.1

1.4

4.5

.7

1.0
1.1
.8
.6
.5
.7
.5

.8
,8
.8
.8
.8
.7
.9

.8
.6
.6
.9

.8
.8
.8
.8
.8
.8
.3
1.3
1.3

2.0
.5
.4

6
1.2
.6
.4
1.5

.8

1.3

4.0
3.8
3.7
4.1
4.0
3.5
4.3
3.5
3.6
3.3
3.3
3.5
3.7
4.3
45
4.3
4.6
4.2
4.3
49
5.0
4.8
5.6
37
4.1
3.3
3.7
4.5
4.5
5.0

25. Continued— Employment Cost Index, compensation,1 by occupation and industry group
[June 1989 = 100]
2001

2000

1999
Series
Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Percent change
12
3
m onths
m onths
ended
ended
Dec. 2001

0.2
.2
- . 6.

Finance, insurance, and real estate...............................

148.3

152.0

153.1

155.2

155.7

157.9

159.5

160.9

161,3

Excluding sales occupations.....................................
Banking, savings and loan, and other credit agencies.
Insurance......................................................................
Services..........................................................................

Colleges and universities...........................................

151.6
159.8
145.8
147.6
151.9
144.2
144.6
153.0
153.3

154.2
162.7
149.9
149.4
154.2
145.8
145.8
154.0
154.6

155.5
164.2
151.3
151.2
156.3
147.5
147.5
154.9
155.5

157.4
165.8
154.8
152.9
157.5
149.0
149.2
158.8
158.6

158.4
166.5
155.2
154.1
158.4
150.6
151.1
159.9
159.2

161.2
170.8
157.6
156.5
160.5
152.7
153.5
162.3
162.2

163.1
172.7
159.3
157.8
163.0
154.7
155.9
162.6
162.6

164.7
175.4
159.9
160.0
165.2
156.8
158.4
166.4
166.2

165.0
174.5
161.3
161.0
166.2
158.4
160.3
167.6
167.5

Nonmanufacturing..........................................................
White-collar workers.....................................................
Excluding sales occupations....................................
Blue-collar occupations................................................
Service occupations.....................................................

144.5
146.9
148.1
138.7
142.3

146.7
149.2
150.2
140.6
143.5

148.4

150.0

157.5
159.1
148.1
150.7

156.3
159.0
160.9
150.2
152.1

157.6

152.6
153.8
143.9
146.3

153.1
155.8
157.5
146.9
149.5

154.7

151.0
152.0
142.3
145.1

151.1
153.7
155.1
144.8
147.8

.8
.8

160.5
162.3
150.6
154.1

.9
.9
.3
1.3

S ta te a n d lo c a l g o v e rn m e n t w o rk e r s ..........................................

144.6

145.5

145.9

147.8

148.9

150.3

151.2

154.3

155.2

144.0
143.2
146.1
145.0
142.5

144.9
144.1
147.0
145.9
143.7

145.3
144.5
147.2
146.5
144.2

147.3
146.6
149.2
148.3
145.9

148.3
147.4
150.7
149.4
147.2

149.5
148.4
152.4
150.7
148.6

150.4
149.2
153.7
151.6
149.0

153.7
152.8
156.4
154.2
151.5

154.4
153.2
157.6
155.6
153.2

144.5
143.8
145.8
146.3
144.4
144.7
144.1
146.5
144.4

145.2
145.2
147.3
147.9
145.0
145.3
144.5
147.4
145.7

145.5
145.8
147.9
148.4
145.2
145.5
144.7
147.6
146.1

148.0
147.6
150.0
150.7
147.9
148.2
147.3
150.5
146.9

148.9
148.8
151.6
152.0
148.7
149.0
148.1
151.7
148.3

149.9
150.1
152.1
152.2
149.6
149.9
148.5
153.7
150.6

150.6
151.9
154.4
154.7
150.1
150.5
149.0
154.3
151.9

154.4
154.5
157.1
157.4
154.1
154.4
152.8
153.8
151.9

154.9
156.1
158.5
159.1
154.5
154.8
153.1
159.6
155.2

Health services.............................................................
Hospitals.....................................................................

.9

.6
.6
1.0
1.2
.7

3.6
4.2
4.7
3.9
4.5
4.9
5.2

6.1
4.8
5.2

4.3
4.4
4.6
4.0
4.3

.6

4.2

.5
.3

4.1
3.9
4.6
4.1
4.1

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers...........................................................
Professional specialty and technical................................
Executive, administrative, and managerial.......................
Administrative support, including clerical.........................

.8

.9

1.1

Workers, by industry division:
Services...........................................................................

0

Services excluding schools ...........................................
Health services.............................................................
Hospitals...................................................................
Schools.....................................................................
Elementary and secondary.....................................
Colleges and universities........................................

Public administration3.......................................................
1 Cost (cents per hour worked) measured in the Employment Cost Index consists of
wages, salaries, and employer cost of employee benefits.

2 Consists of private industry workers (excluding farm and household workers) and
State and local government (excluding Federal Government) workers.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1.0
.3

1.0
1.0
1.1
.3
.3
.4
.9

3 Consists of legislative, judicial, administrative, and regulatory activities.
4 This series has the same Industry and occupational coverage as the

4.0
4.9
4.6
6.7
4.2
3.9
3.4
5.2
4.7

Hourly

Earnings Index, which was discontinued in January 1989.

5 Includes, for example, library, social, and health services.

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

99

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

26. Employment Cost Index, wages and salaries, by occupation and industry group
[June 1989 = 100]

_______________________________________
1999

2000

2001

Percent change
3
12
m onths
m onths
ended
ended

Series
Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Mar.

Dec.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Dec. 2001
C iv ilia n w o r k e r s 1..................................................................................

142.5

144.0

145.4

147.0

147.9

149.5

150.8

152.3

153.4

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers...........................................................
Professional specialty and technical................................
Executive, adminitrative, and managerial........................
Administrative support, including clerical.........................
Blue-collar workers............................................................
Service occupations...........................................................

144.6
144.0
147.2
143.5
137.9
141.7

146.2
144.9
148.6
145 5
139.2
143.0

147.6
146.4
149 9
146 9
140
144.0

149.2
148.3
151
148 5
142 0
145.7

150.2
149.6
152 4
149
142 9
147.1

151.7
151.1
154 0
151 fi
144 7
148.6

153.1
152.155
152 7
14fi
149.7

154.5
154.2
1fifi 7
fi

154

155.6
155.1
168

151.2

Workers, by industry division:
Goods-producing................................................................
Manufacturing..................................................................
Service-producing..............................................................
Services............................................................................
Health services...............................................................
Hospitals.......................................................................
Educational services.......................................................

139.7
141.5
143.5
145.5
142.5
141.6
144.7

141.3
142.9
145.0
146.6
143.8
142.6
145.3

143.0
144.4
146.3
147.9
145.3
143.8
145.6

144.3
145.7
148.0
149.9
146.7
145.6
148.9

145.3
146.5
148.9
151.0
148.3
147.3
149.6

147.0
148.5
150.5
152.6
149.8
148.8
150.5

147,6
150.0
151.7
153.6
151.8
151.2
151.0

Public administration ........................................................
Nonmanufacturing..............................................................

141.5
142.6

142.5
144.2

142.9
145.5

144.6
147.2

146.1
148.1

147.6
149.7

P riv a te in d u s tr y w o r k e r s ................................................................

Excluding sales occupations..........................................

142.2
142.0

143.9
143.5

145.4
145.1

146.8
146.5

147.7
147.6

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers.........................................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................
Professional specialty and technical occupations..........
Executive, adminitrative, and managerial occupations..
Sales occupations..........................................................
Administrative support occupations, including clerical...
Blue-collar workers..........................................................
Precision production, craft, and repair occupations......
Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors...........
Transportation and material moving occupations..........
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers....

144.8
145.2
144.1
147.6
143.3
143.8
137.7
137.5
139.5
132.7
140.4

146.6
146.7
145.1
149.2
146.7
146.0
139.1
138.9
140.7
134.1
141.8

148.3
148.5
147.3
150.7
147.9
147.5
140.5
140.6
141.6
135.2
143.6

149.7
149.9
148.6
152.3
149.0
149.1
141.9
142.0
142.9
136.5
145.0

Service occupations.........................................................

139.6

141.0

142.5

140.4

142.1

Construction...................................................................
Manufacturing.................................................................
White-collar occupations..............................................
Excluding sales occupations.....................................
Blue-collar occupations................................................
Durables.........................................................................
Nondurables...................................................................

139.7
138.9
143.0
141.3
137.6
133.6
141.5
144.0
142.0
139.7
141.8
140.9

Service-producing..............................................................
Excluding sales occupations.....................................
White-collar occupations..............................................
Excluding sales occupations.....................................
Blue-collar occupations................................................
Service occupations.....................................................
Transportation and public utilities..................................
Transportation..............................................................
Public utilities................................................................
Communications........................................................
Electric, gas, and sanitary services..........................
Wholesale and retail trade.............................................
Excluding sales occupations.....................................
Wholesale trade...........................................................
Excluding sales occupations.....................................
Retail trade...................................................................
General merchandise stores......................................
Food stores.................................................................

143.3
143.8
145.0
146.4
137.8
139.6
137.9
134.9
141.8
142.2
141.3
142.0
143.3
146.5
146.4
139.6
136.7
134.9

2

3

Production and nonsupervisory occupations ................
Workers, by industry division:
Goods-producing..............................................................
Excluding sales occupations.....................................
White-collar occupations..............................................

See footnotes at end of table.

100

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

March 2002

0.7

3.7

.6

.7

3.6
3.7

153.0

1.2

4.0

149.5
150.7
153.4
156.2
153.7
15.5
154.6

150.5
151.7
154.5
157.1
155.5
155.5
155.1

.7
.7
.7

148.7
149.7

150.3
152.6

151.6
153.8

149.4
149.5

150.9
150.8

152.1
152.2

153.3
153.3

150.6
151.1
150.2
153.0
148.7
150.1
142.8
142.8
143.7
137.6
146.2

152.3
153.0
152.1
154.7
149.2
152.3
144.6
144.6
145.6
139.5
148.0

153.8
154.4
153.2
156.5
151.5
153.6
145.9
145.7
146.9
140.7
149.8

154.8
155.7
154.8
157.2
151.2
155.3
147.5
147.7
148.1
142.1
151.0

156.1
156.9
155.9
158.6
152.6
156.5
148.3
148,4
149.0
142.8
152.4

.5
.9

143.5

144.9

146.4

147.5

148.7

150.6

1.3

143.7

145.0

146.0

147.7

149.0

150.3

151.5

141.3
140.5
145.0
143.2
139.0
136.0
142.9
145.8
143.7
140.8
143.0
142.7

143.0
142.1
146
144.9
140 5
138.0
144.4
147.7
145.6
142.0
144.7
143.9

144.3
143 4
147 9
146.0
142 0
139.4
145.7
148.7
146.6
143.4
146.1
145.0

145.2
144
148 7
147.2
143 1
140.7
146.5
149.2
147.5
144.6
147.3
145.4

147.0
146 3
150 5
148 9
144 7
142.1
148.5
151.1
149.9
146.4
149.0
147.5

148.6
147
152 3
150 5
14fi
143.9
150.0
152.7
150.5
147.8
150.5
149.0

149.5
148 7
162 fi
160
147 4
145.1
150.7
152.8
150.5
149.1
151.5
149.3

150.5
14Q 7
163 fi

145.0
145.3
146.9
147.8
139.1
141.1
138.5
134.9
143.2
143.4
143.0
143.8
145.2
147.4
147.9
142.1
137.8
136.7

146.5
146.9
148.5
149.6
140.3
142.5
140.0
136.2
144.9
145.0
144.7
145.5
146.8
149.4
149.7
143.5
138.5
139.5

147.9
148.3
150.0
151.2
141.6
143.5
141.3
137.4
146.4
146.7
145.9
146.4
148.2
149.6
151.3
144.8
139.7
140.2

148.9
149.4
150.9
152.3
142.2
144.8
142.3
138.6
147.1
147.4
146.6
147.4
149.0
151.6
153.2
145.2
142.2
141.6

150.5
151.3
152.5
154.3
144.3
146.1
143.7
139.8
148.7
149.2
148.1
148.4
150.7
151.6
154.9
146.9
143.8
143.3

151.9
152.6
154.0
155.6
145.3
147.2
145.7
141.6
151.0
151.8
149.9
150.1
151.9
154.5
156.5
147.8
145.5
144.5

153.2
154.2
155.2
157.2
147.5
148.4
146.7
142.6
152.0
153.3
150.4
150.6
153.1
154.1
157.4
148.8
145.7
145.7

6

8

6

6

6

8
0

8
1

8

1

146.3
151.7
153.3
151.0
150.3
152.6
150.2
154.5
155.5
156.5
158.6
148.1
150.2
149.2
145.7
153.6
155.2
151.7
152.1
-

154.8
157.9
150.7
146.5
146.7

.6
1.2
1.3
.3
.9

.8
.8
.7

.8
.8
.7
.9
.9

.8

.5
.5

.6

3.6
3.5
3.6
4.0
4.9
5.6
3.7
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.9
3.7
3.8
3.8
3.7

2.6
4.3
3.9
3.9
3.7
38
4.2
3.9

.8

3.8

.7

3.7

.8
.7
.3
.3

.8
.7

.6
.8
.8
.8
.9
.4

1.2
1.7

2.2
1.1
1.2
.9

1.0
-

.5
.3
1.3
.5
.7

4.0
3.5
2.7
2.4
3.9
3.6
3.3
3.8
4.1
3.7
4.1
4.1
3.7
4.8
5.1
4.4
5.3
3.5
3.2
-

2.1
3.1

2.8
3.0
3.6

26.

Continued— Employment Cost Index, wages and salaries, by occupation and industry group

[June 1989 = 100]_________________________________________________________________________________________
1999

Percent change
12
3
m onths
m onths
ended
ended

2001

2000

Series
Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Mar.

Dec.

June

Dec.

Sept.

Dec. 2001

Colleges and universities...........................................

145.2
148.0
159.6
141.5
146.0
149.8
142.2
140.9
148.2
147.9

148.7
150.2
162.0
145.5
147.4
152.0
143.5
141.8
148.9
148.9

149.5
151.5
163.3
146.6
149.1
154.1
145.3
143.3
149.6
149.4

151.7
153.3
165.0
150.7
150.6
155.3
146.6
144.9
153.4
152.5

151.7
154.1
165.7
150.8
151.8
156.0
148.1
146.8
154.3
152.9

153.9
156.6
169.4
152.4
153.8
158.2
149.8
148.5
155.4
154.1

154.6
157.6
170.8
153.3
155.0
160.8
151.8
151.0
156.1
155.0

155.8
159.1
173.2
153.6
157.1
162.8
153.6
153.3
159.6
158.4

156.0
159.1
171.7
155.0
158.2
163.7
155.4
155.4
160.5
159.6

Nonmanufacturing..........................................................
White-collar workers.....................................................
Excluding sales occupations....................................
Blue-collar occupations................................................
Service occupations.....................................................

142.1
144.7
145.9
135.8
139.5

143.9
146.5
147.4
137.4
140.9

145.5
148.2
149.1
138.9
142.4

146.9
149.6
150.7
140.3
143.4

147.9
150.6
151.9
140.9
144.7

149.5
152.3
153.9
142.8
146.0

150.9
153.8
155.3
143.9
147.1

152.2
155.0
156.9
145.8
148.2

S ta te a n d lo c a l g o v e rn m e n t w o rk e r s ..........................................

143.5

144.3

144.7

147.2

148.3

150.2

151.2

143.4
143.6
144.3
141.7
140.7

144.1
144.3
144.9
142.4
141.5

144.5
144.7
145.1
143.0
142.1

147.1
147.4
147.3
145.0
143.9

148.0
148.2
148.8
146.2
145.1

149.0
149.1
150.1
147.0
146.0

144.0

144.6

144.9

147.9

148.7

Schools.....................................................................
Elementary and secondary.....................................
Colleges and universities........................................

143.2
144.2
144.1
144.0
144.2
144.1
144.4

144.3
145.3
145.3
144.5
144.7
144.5
144.9

144.8
145.7
145.6
144.8
144.9
144.6
145.6

146.7
147.7
147.7
148.0
148.1
147.9
148.3

147.9
149.3
149.2
148.7
148.9
148.5
149.5

Public administration ........................................................

141.5

142.5

142.9

Finance, insurance, and real estate...............................
Excluding sales occupations.....................................
Banking, savings and loan, and other credit agencies.
Insurance......................................................................
Services..........................................................................
Business services........................................................
Health services.............................................................
Hospitals.....................................................................

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers...........................................................
Professional specialty and technical................................
Executive, administrative, and managerial......................
Administrative support, including clerical.........................
Workers, by industry division:
Services............................................................................
Services excluding schools...........................................
Health services.............................................................
Hospitals...................................................................

1 Consists of private industry workers (excluding farm and household workers) and
State and local government (excluding Federal Government) workers.

2.:

.6
.8

3.:
3.i
.:
4.:
4:
4.:
5.'
4.
4..

153.5
156.4
158.3
146.4
150.1

.9
.9
.9
.4
1.3

3.:
3.'
4.:
3.'
3.

154.3

155.2

.5

3.i

149.8
149.8
151.5
147.6
146.5

152.7
153.0
153.9
149.8
149.1

153.3
153.4
155.1
150.9
150.8

.4
.3

3.i
3.:
4.:
3.:
3.'

149.5

150.2

153.7

154.2

149.1
149.9
149.5
149.5
149.7
149.0
151.4

150.7
151.9
151.8
150.0
150.2
149.5
151.8

153.2
154.2
154.2
153.6
153.8
152.8
156.5

154.9
155.8
155.7
154.0
154.1
153.1
156.7

-.9
.9
.7

2

.6
1.2
1.4

.8

.7

1.1
.3

3.

1.1
1.0
1.0

4.
4,
4..
3.i
3.:
3.
4.;

.3

.2
.2
.1

148.7
150.3
151.6
.9
3.:
146.1
147.6
series has the same industry and occupational coverage as the Hourl\
Earnings index, which was discontinued in January 1989.
144.6

3 This

2 Consists of legislative, judicial, administrative, and regulatory activities.

27.

0.1
.0

4 Includes, for example, library, social, and health services.

Employment Cost Index, benefits, private industry workers by occupation and industry group

[June 1989 = 100]_________________________________________________________________________________________
1999

2000

2001

Series
Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Mar.

Dec.

June

Sept.

Dec.

150.2

153.8

155.7

157.5

158.6

161.5

163.2

165.2

166.7

0.9

5.1

152.5
146.2

156.3
150.0

158.5
151.6

160.4
153.1

161.5
154.1

165.2
155.7

167.4
156.7

169.5
158.3

171.2
159.2

1.0
.6

6.0

148.2
150.7
147.8
150.7

152.3
154.0
152.3
154.0

154.2
156.0
153.9
156.1

155.7
157.9
154.9
158.1

156.2
159.4
154.8
159.7

158.5
162.6
157.1
162.9

159.6
164.6
157.9
164.9

160.8
167.1
158.5
167.4

162.6
168.4
160.4
168.6

1.1
.8
1.2
.8

4.1
5.6
3.6
5.7

Workers, by occupational group:

Workers, by industry division:


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Percent change
12
3
m onths
m onths
ended
ended
Dec.

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

3.3

101

Current Labor Statistics:

28.

Labor Force Data

Employment Cost Index, private nonfarm workers by bargaining status, region, and area size

[June 1989 = 100]
1999

2000

2001

Series
Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Percent change
3
12
m onths
m onths
ended
ended
Dec. 2001

C O M P E N S A T IO N
W o rk e rs , b y b a r g a in in g s t a tu s 1

Union.......................................................................................
Goods-producing.................................................................
Service-producing...............................................................
Manufacturing......................................................................
Nonmanufacturing..............................................................

141.2
140.8
141.4
141.0
140.8

143.0
143.3
142.5
144.5
141.7

144.4
144.8
143.9
145.4
143 4

146.1
146.8
145.2
147.1
145 0

146.9
147.3
146.4
147.4
146 2

147.9
147.9
147.6
147.9
147 3

149.5
149.3
149.5
148.8
149 4

151.0
150.6
151.2
149.9
151

1

153.1
151.6
154.2
151.4
1S3 S

Nonunion.................................................................................
Goods-producing.................................................................
Service-producing...............................................................
Manufacturing......................................................................

145.2
143.1
145.7
144.4
145.1

147.4
145.4
148.0
146.5
147.4

149.1
147.2
149.6
148.2
149.1

150.6
148.4
151.2
149.2
150.7

151.6
149.3
152.3
149.9
151.8

153.8
151.6
154.4
152.4
153.9

155.3
153.1
155.9
153.7
155.4

156.7
154.0
157.5
154.4
157.0

157.8
155.3
158.6
155.5
158.2

144.3
143.0
146.3
144.7

146.3
145.0
148.9
147.0

147.6
146.7
150.7
148.8

149.3
147.6
152.2
150.8

150.3
148.6
153.3
151.8

151.6
151.1
154.8
154.3

153.7
152.3
156.0
156.0

155.2
153.5
157.4
157.6

156.3
154.6
158.6
159.4

.7
.7

.8
1.1

4.0
4.0
3.5
5.0

144.7
143.6

146.9
146.0

148.6
147.7

150.1
148.8

151.0
150.3

153.1
152.1

154.6
153.7

156.0
154.8

157.4
155.6

.9
.5

4.2
3.5

Union.......................................................................................
Goods-producing.................................................................
Service-producing...............................................................
Manufacturing......................................................................

136.5
136.1
137.2
137.5
135.9

137.2
137.2
137.6
138.8
136 4

138.5
138.4
138.9
139.7
137.8

140.0
140.2
140.1
141.4
139 2

141.2
141.3
141.5
142.6
140 4

142.1
142.4
142.2
143.9
141 1

143.7
144.2
143.7
145.5
142 7

145.1
145.3
145.4
146.7
144 3

147.4
146.3
148.9
148.0
147 1

1.6

Nonunion.................................................................................
Goods-producing.................................................................
Service-producing................................................................
Manufacturing......................................................................
Nonmanufacturing..............................................................

143.3
141.1
143.9
142.9
143.0

145.1
142.9
145.8
144.4
145.0

146.7
144.7
147.3
146.1
146.6

148.1
145.8
148.7
147.2
148.0

149.0
146.8
149.6
148.0
148.9

150.8
148.8
151.4
150.1
150.7

152.2
150.3
152.7
151.6
152.0

153.4
151.1
154.1
152.2
153.3

154.4
152.1
155.1
153.1
154.4

140.9
141.5
143.6
142.6

142.3
143.0
145.3
144.7

143.7
144.6
147.1
146.3

145.3
145.3
148.6
148.2

146.0
146.3
149.6
149.2

147.3
148.3
150.9
151.3

149.2
149.3
152.3
152.9

150.6
150.2
153.6
154.3

151.7
151.2
154.7
156.0

.7
.7
.7

1.1

3.9
3.3
3.4
4.6

142.5
140.2

144.1
142.2

145.7
143.7

147.1
144.7

148.0
146.0

149.8
147.4

151.2
148.8

152.4
149.7

153.7
150.5

.9
.5

3.9
3.1

1.4

.8
2.0
1.0

4.2
3.1
5.3
2.7

U5

.7

.8
.7
.7

.8

4.1
4.0
4.1
3.7
4.2

W o rk e rs , b y r e g io n 1

Northeast................................................................................
South......................................................................................
Midwest (formerly North Central)...........................................
West.......................................................................................
W o rk e rs , b y a re a s iz e 1

Metropolitan areas..................................................................
Other areas............................................................................
W A G E S A N D S A L A R IE S
W o rk e rs , b y b a rg a in in g s t a tu s 1

.7
2.4
.9
19
.7
.7

.6
.6
.7

4.4
3.5
5.2
3.8
3.6
3.6
3.7
3.4
3.7

W o rk e rs , b y r e g io n 1

Northeast................................................................................
South......................................................................................
Midwest (formerly North Central)...........................................
West.......................................................................................
W o rk e rs , b y a re a s iz e 1

Metropolitan areas..................................................................
Other areas.............................................................................

1

The indexes are calculated differently from those for the occupation and industry groups. For a detailed description of the index calculation, see the Monthly Labor Review
Technical Note, "Estimation procedures for the Employment Cost Index," May 1982.

102

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

March 2002

29. Percent of full-time employees participating in employer-provided benefit plans, and in selected features within plans,
medium and large private establishments, selected years, 1980-97
Scope of survey (in 000's).......................................
Number of employees (in 000’s):
With medical care.................................................
With life insurance................................................
With defined benefit plan......................................

1984

1982

1980

Ite m

1988

1986

1993

1 99 1

1989

1997

1995

21,352

21,043

21,013

21,303

31,059

32,428

31,163

28,728

33,374

38,409

20,711
20,498
17,936

20,412

17,676

20,383
20,172
17,231

20,238
20,451
16,190

27,953
28,574
19,567

29,834
30,482
20,430

25,865
29,293
18,386

23,519
26,175
16,015

25,546
29,078
17,417

29,340
33,495
19,202

9
25
76
25
-

9
26
73
26
-

10

11

10

8

27
72
26

-

-

99

26
71
26
84
3.3
97
9.2

30
67
28
80
3.3
92

24
3.8
99
67

99
9.8
23
3.6
99
67

29
72
26
85
3.2
96
9.4
24
3.3
98

-

-

-

-

-

-

20,201

T im e -o ff p la n s

Participants with:
Paid lunch time......................................................
Average minutes per day.....................................
Paid rest time........................................................
Average minutes per day.....................................
Paid funeral leave.................................................
Average days per occurrence..............................
Paid holidays.........................................................
Average days per year........................................
Paid personal leave...............................................
Average days per year........................................
Paid vacations.......................................................
Unpaid maternity leave.........................................
Unpaid paternity leave...........................................
Unpaid family leave..............................................

10
75
99

10.1
20
-

100
62
-

10.0

88

3.2
99

10.0
25
3.7

100
70

69
33
16

22

3.1
97

68
37
18

9
29

68

26
83
3.0
91
9.4

10.2
21

21

3.1
97

3.3
96
67
37
26

65
60
53

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

80
3.3
89
9.1

81
3.7
89
9.3

3.3
96
58

3.5
95
56

22
_

20

_

_

-

93

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

84

97

97

97

95

90

92

83

82

77

76

58

62

46
62

66

70
18

76
79
28

75
80
28

81
80
30

82
42

78
73
56

85
78
63

26

27
51
-

43
$12.80
63
$41.40

44
$19.29
64
$60.07

47
$25.31

46
-

36
$11.93
58
$35.93

$72.10

51
$26.60
69
$96.97

61
$31.55
76
$107.42

67
$33.92
78
$118.33

69
$39.14
80
$130.07

96

96

96

96

92

94

94

91

87

87

69

_

72

_

74

72

10

78

64

64

59

49

44

76
5
41

77
7
37

74

-

71
7
42

71

_

33

40

43

47

48

42

45

40

41

42

43

54

51

51

49

46

43

45

44

-

-

-

-

-

53

55

In s u ra n c e p la n s

Participants in medical care plans............................
Percent of participants with coverage for:
Home health care................................................

8

86

Percent of participants with employee
contribution required for:
Average monthly contribution.............................
Family coverage.................................................
Average montniy contribution.............................
Percent of participants with:
Accidental death and dismemberment
insurance............................................................
Retiree protection available...................................
Participants in long-term disability

8

66

6

6

Participants in sickness and accident

1

Participants in short-term disability plans ...............
R e tire m e n t p la n s

Participants in defined benefit pension plans..........
Percent of participants with:
Early retirement available....................................

Participants in plans with tax-deferred savings
arrangements......................................................

84

84

82

76

63

63

59

56

52

50

55
98

58
97

59
98
26
55
62

52
96

52
95

22

6

4

10

64
63

55
98
7
56
54

52
95

52
45

64
98
35
57
62

62
97

53
45

63
97
47
54
56

61
48

58
51

56
49

60

45

48

48

49

55

57

33

36

41

44

43

54

55

S

1C
36

12

52

13
32
7

_

-

-

-

_

_
_

_
_
_

O th e r b e n e fits

Employees eligible for:

Premium conversion plans....................................
definitions for paid sick leave and short-term disability (previously sickness and
accident insurance) were changed for the 1995 survey. Paid sick leave now Includes only
plans that specify either a maximum number of days per year or unlimited days. Shortterms disability now includes all insured, self-insured, and State-mandated plans available
on a per-disability basis, as well as the unfunded per-dlsability plans previously reported as
sick leave. Sickness and accident insurance, reported in years prior to this survey, included
only insured, self-insured, and State-mandated plans providing per-disability bene-

1 The


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2
5

5

12

23

12

38
5

2 Prior

to 1995, reimbursement accounts included premium conversion plans, which
specifically allow medical plan participants to pay required plan premiums with pretax
dollars. Also, reimbursement accounts that were part of flexible benefit plans were
tabulated separately.
Note: Dash Indicates data not available.

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

103

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

30. Percent of full-time employees participating in employer-provided benefit plans, and in selected features
within plans, small private establishments and State and local governments, 1987, 1990, 1992, 1994, and 1996
Small private establishments

Item
1990

1992

1994

State and local governments
1987

1996

1990

1992

1994

32,466

34,360

35,910

39,816

10,321

12,972

12,466

12,907

22,402
20,778
6,493

24,396
21,990
7,559

23,536
21,955
5,480

25,599
24,635
5,883

9,599
8,773
9,599

12,064
11,415
11,675

11,219
11,095
10,845

11,192
11,194
11,708

50
3.1
82

51
3.0
80

17
34
58
29
56
3.7
81

10

Average days per occurrence..............................
Paid holidays........................................................

9
37
49
26
50
3.0
82

11

37
48
27
47
2.9
84

36
56
29
63
3.7
74

62
3.7
73

1

9.5

9.2

7.5
13

7.6
14
30

10.9
38
27
72
97

13.6
39
?9
67
95

34
53
29
65
3.7
75
14.2
38
?Q
67
95

57
30

51
33

59
44

Number of employees (in 000’s):
With medical care................................................
With life insurance................................................
T im e -o ff p la n s

Participants with:
Paid lunch time......................................................
Average minutes per day....................................
Paid rest time........................................................
Average minutes per day....................................

Average days per year .......................................
Paid personal leave...............................................
Paid vacations.......................................................
Unpaid leave.........................................................

8

11
2.8
88

12
26
88

26
88

47

53

50

17

18
7

8

_

Unpaid family leave...............................................

86
50

_

11.5
38
3n

66
94

47

48

71

66

64

93

93

90

87

79
83
26

80
84
28

-

-

76
78
36

82
79
36

87
84
47

84
81
55

42
$25.13
67
$109.34

47
$36.51
73
$150.54

52
$40.97
76
$159.63

52
$42.63
75
$181.53

35
$15.74
71
$71.89

38
$25.53
65
$117.59

43
$28.97
72
$139.23

$30.20
71
$149.70

64

64

61

62

85

88

89

87

78

76

79

77

67

67

74

64

19

25

13

55

45

46

46

22

31

27

28

30

14

21

22

21

93

In s u ra n c e p la n s

Participants in medical care plans...........................
Percent of participants with coverage for:
Home health care................................................

69

Percent of participants with employee
contribution required for:
Average monthly contribution............................
Average monthly contribution.............................
Percent of participants with:
Accidental death and dismemberment
insurance...........................................................
Retiree protection available..................................
Participants in long-term disability

1

19
Participants in sickness and accident

2

6

1

23

2
20
20

26

26

1

1

1

1

2

29

Participants in short-term disability plans ...............
R e tire m e n t p la n s

Participants in defined benefit pension plans..........
Percent of participants with:
Normal retirement prior to age 65........................
Early retirement available...................................
Ad hoc pension increase in last 5 years..............
Terminal earnings formula..................................
Benefit coordinated with Social Security...............

20

22

15

15

93

90

87

91

54
95
7
58
49

50
95
4
54
46

-

47
92
53
44

92
90
33

89

92
89

10
100
10

92
87
13
99
49

Participants in defined contribution plans.................
Participants in plans with tax-deferred savings
arrangements......................................................

31

33

34

38

9

9

9

9

17

24

23

28

28

45

45

24

3
19

4

12

5
5

5
31

5
50

5
64

100
18

88
16
100
8

O th e r b e n e fits

Employees eligible for:
Flexible benefits plans..........................................

3

Reimbursement accounts ...................................
Premium conversion plans ..................................

1
8

2
14

7

1 Methods used to calculate the average number of paid holidays were revised
in 1994 to count partial days more precisely. Average holidays for 1994 are
not comparable with those reported in 1990 and 1992.

2 The

definitions for paid sick leave and short-term disability (previously
sickness and accident insurance) were changed for the 1996 survey. Paid sick
leave now includes only plans that specify either a maximum number of days
per year or unlimited days. Short-term disability now includes all insured, selfinsured, and State-mandated plans available on a per-disability basis, as well
as the unfunded per-disability plans previously reported as sick leave.

104

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

March 2002

Sickness and accident insurance, reported in years prior to this survey,
included only insured, self-insured, and State-mandated plans providing perdisability benefits at less than full pay.

3

Prior to 1996, reimbursement accounts included premium conversion plans,
which specifically allow medical plan participants to pay required plan
premiums with pretax dollars. Also, reimbursement accounts that were part of
flexible benefit plans were tabulated separately.
NOTE: Dash indicates data not available.

31. Work stoppages involving 1,000 workers or more
2001

2000
Measure
2000

2001

Number of stoppages:
Beginning in period...........................
In effect during period.......................

39
40

29
30

Workers involved:
Beginning in period (in thousands)....
In effect during period (in thousands).

394
397

102

99

Dec.

Jan.p

Feb.p

Mar.p

Apr.p

3

1
2

1
1

3
4

4
5

8.7
10.3

2.0
4.7

1.2
1.2

7.8
9.0

19.4
20.7

58.9

37.1

3.6

33.4

230.5

0

Days idle:
20,419

1,151

.00

.01

Mayp

Junep

7

8
22.1
23.4

201.6
.01

3
5
4.7
9.0
73.2

Julyp

2
3

Aug.p Sept.p
3
4

Oct.p

Nov.p

2

1

3

4

0
1

2
2
6.0
6.0

3.3

5.8
6.9

3.0
4.1

24.9
29.0

.0
1.6

62.1

71.5

55.7

316.4

11.2

2.2

Dec.p

55.0

.01

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
.06
(2)
I2)
0
(2)
Percent of estimated workina time1....
Agricultural and government employees are included in the total employed and total working time; private household, forestry, and fishery employees are excluded. An explanation of
the measurement of idleness as a percentage of the total time worked is found in " Total economy’ measures of strike idleness,’’ Monthly Labor Review, October 1968, pp. 54-56.

1

2Less than 0.005.
p = preliminary.
NOTE: Dash indicates data not available.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

M o n th ly La b o r R eview

M a rc h 2002

105

Current Labor Statistics:

Price D a ta

32. Consumer Price Indexes for All Urban Consumers and for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers: U.S. city average,
by expenditure category and commodity or service group
_________________________

[1982-84 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]

Annual average

Series

2000

2001

2001
Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

2002

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

CONSUMER PRICE INDEX
FOR A L L URBAN CONSUMERS

All items...............................................................
All items (1967 = 100)...........................................
Food and beverages............................................
Food............................................................
Food at home....................................................
Cereals and bakery products...........................
Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs..........................

1

Dairy and related products .............................
Nonalcoholic beverages and beverage
materials......................................................
Other foods at home........................................
Sugar and sweets..........................................
Other foods...................................................

1,2

Other miscellaneous foods .......................
Food away from home .......................................
Other food away from home ........................
Alcoholic beverages...........................................
Housing...............................................................
Shelter..............................................................
Rent of primary residence................................
Lodging away from home.................................

1

1,2

Owners’ equivalent rent of primary residence3....
Tenants' and household insurance ...............
Fuels and utilities............................................
Fuels.............................................................

1,2

Gas (piped) and electricity............................
Household furnishings and operations..............
Apparel...............................................................
Men's and boys' apparel...................................
Women's and girls' apparel..............................

1

Infants’ and toddlers’ apparel ..........................
Footwear.........................................................
Transportation......................................................
Private transportation.........................................

2

New and used motor vehicles .........................
New vehicles.................................................

1

Used cars and trucks ....................................
Motor fuel........................................................
Gasoline (all types)........................................
Motor vehicle parts and equipment...................
Motor vehicle maintenance and repair..............
Public transportation..........................................
Medical care.........................................................
Medical care commodities.................................
Medical care services........................................
Professional services.......................................
Hospital and related services............................

2

Recreation .........................................................

1’2

Video and audio ............................................
Education and communication ............................
Education .................................................
Educational books and supplies......................
Tuition, other school fees, and child care........

2

2

1,2

Communication .............................................
Information and information processing1, .......
Telephone services ..................................
Information and information processing

1,2

1,4

other than teleDhone services .................
Personal computers and peripheral

1,2

equipment .........................................
Other goods and services.....................................
Tobacco and smoking products..........................

1

Personal care ...................................................
Personal care products ..................................
Personal care services ...................................

1
1

172.2
515.8
168.4
167.8
167.9
188.3
154.5

177.1
530.4
173.6
173.1
173.4
193.8
161.3

175.1
524.5
171.4
170.9
171.3
191.1
158.0

175.8
526.7

160.7
204.6

167.1

176.9
529.9
172.4
171.9
172.2
192.5
160.7

177.7
532.2
172.9
172 5
172.8
193.2
160.8

178.0
533.3
173.4
173 0
173 3
194.2
161.7

177.5
531.6
174.0
173 5
173,9

177.5
531.8
174.4
173 Q

178.3
534.0
174.6

177.7
532.2

171.8
171.3
171.8
191.9
159.5

176.2
528.0
172.2
171.7
172.0
191.9
160.1

194.9
162.3

195.9
162.4

212.2 212.6

163.6

163.6
211.5

163.2
211.5

163.4
213.3

164.7
213.1

211.8

166.9

168.3
210.7

168.9
208.8

137.8
155.6
154.0
147.4
172.2

139.2
159.6
155.7
155.7
176.0

139.4
157.8
155.7
153.0
173.8

139.9
157.9
155.8
152.6
174.0

139.5
158.6
155.7
153.1
175.1

138.9
157.6
154.0
151.5
174.4

138.1
159.6
155.8
154.7
176.4

138.6
159.5
155.7
156 7
175.7

138.9
160.4
156.1
157
176.8

140.0
161.0
156.1
158 5
177.6

107.5

108.9

108.7

173.9
113.4
179.3
176.4

108.4
172.3

108.5
172.7

178.1
175.4
199.2
190.2

108.8
173.1
112.4
178.5
175.9
199.6
191.0

107.7

169.0
109.0
174.7

109.0
171.4
111.3
177.2
174.1
196.4
188.2
114.1
202.4

109.6
174.1
113.8
179.7

204.2

204.9

105.5
149.7
135.1
134.4
141.6
129.1

106.8
151.3
136.8
131.9
143.8
128.9
129.8
129.1
122.3

169.6
193.4
183.9
117.5
198.7
103.7
137.9

200.6
192.1
118.6
206.3
106.2
150.2
135.4
129.3
142.4
129.1
127.3
125.7
119.3
129.2
123.0
154.3
150.0

106

M o n th ly La b o r R eview

111.6 111.8

177.8
175.4
198.9
189.6
124.2
203.6
105.4
150.8
136.3
138.1
142.6
129.1

121.8 120.0

105.0
153.8
139.8
149.1
145.7
128.8
125.4
125.5
115.5
127.4
121.4
154.4
150.3
102.3
143.7
160.4
126.6
125.8
103.6
180.6

143.3
160.4
127.5
126.8
104.0
181.5

101.9
142.8
159.9
124.1
123.3
104.7
181.7

210.6 210.2 212.1 210.0

142.7
159.7
133.6
132.8
104.2
181.9
208.3

267.1
242.3
273.0
242.6
328.5
104.1

268.9
243.8
274.9
244.1
331.0
104.3

270.0
244.9
275.9
244.8
332.8
104.3

102.5

272.8
247.6
278.8
246.5
338.3
104.9
101.5
105.2

103.9

104.0

104.3

270.8
245.7
276.8
245.6
333.6
105.0
101.7
104.1

112.5
279.9
324.0
93.6
92.8
98.5

118.5
295.9
341.1
93.3
92.3
99.3

115.8
289.2
333.3
93.3
92.4
98.8

116.0
290.4
333.7
93.2
92.2
98.7

116.1
290.8
334.0
93.7
92.7
99.4

116.1
290.8
334.1
93.3
92.3
99.0

104.0
116.4
290.7
335.0
92.9
91.8
98.7

25.9

21.3

23.2

22.9

22.5

22.1

41.1
271.1
394.9

29.5
282.6
425.2

35.0
275.9
404.3

33.9
277.2
408.5

32.4
277.7
407.7

165.6
153.7
178.1

170.5
155.1
184.3

168.2
155.3
181.6

168.6
155.3
181.9

169.1
155.7
182.2

122.8
129.7
128.0
128.2
129.6
129.7
121.5
130.6
123.8
153.3
149.1

100.8
142.8
155.8
129.3
128.6
101.5
177.3
209.6
260.8
238.1
266.0
237.7
317.3
103.3

101.0

101.3
142.1
158.7
124.7
124.0
104.8
183.5

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

171.8
111.4
177.7
174.7
197.6
188.9
119.1
105.4

M a rc h 2002

105.1
152.3
138.0
144.6
144.0
129.1
128.4
126.6

121.0
129.3

122.6
154.9
150.7

102.2

132.2
127.5
127.8

131.9
128.2
127.0

1316.0
125.2
153.9
149.7

131.4
124.9
156.1
152.1

101.2 101.6 101.6

101.8

130.6
124.4
159.2
155.3
101.4
142.3
159.1
146.8
146.0
104.4
182.5
209.3
271.4
246.6
277.3
245.8
335.1
105.0

8

179.1
177.3
200.7
191.6
123.7
205.7

177.6
201.4
192.3
124.0
206.3

109.5
174.7
114.3
180.0
178.0
202.4
193.1
125.2
207.3

107.0
155.7
141.6
129
149.4
129.2

106.6
154.8
140.5
123
148.6
129.2

106.6
152.7
138.0
??
146.0
129.1

173.6

112.6

6

126.3
125.8
117.5
127.3

122.1
158.3
154.0

176.7
5292.0
175.2

177.1
530.6
176.2

195.1
162.4

195.2
163.5

194.9
162.7

195.3
162.0

196.7
162.1

212.1

169.4

170.8
213.5

171.2
212.9

170.8
214.4

169.9
224.8

139.2
160.2
156.6

139.9
160.9
156.4

139.5
160.3
154.9

18.5
160.9
156.1

139.5
161.3
158.4

176.2

177.0

177.6

108.9
175.1
115.3
180.4
177.4

108.9

110.6

175.6
115.4
180.8
176.7
202.4
194.7
114.5
209.0

175.8
115.5
181.2
176.9
202.9
195.5

202.0
193.9
116.8
208.1

122.5

121.4

111.6 112.1

106.7
150.6
135.7
195 3
143.1
129.4
126.8
123.7
120.3

124.5
121.3
154.4
149.9

126.3
121.9
153.3
148.8

129.3
122.9
155.5
151.2

8 1 1

122.6 122.6

101.1 100.8
141.7
158.9
142.0
141.3
104.4
182.7
216.3

175.3

177.4
531.3
175.2

100.5
140.3
158.0
121.9

111.6
210.1

211.6

106.9
144.6
129.1

106.9
143.5
127.8

106.3
142.2
126.2

106.4
141.5
125.3

135.9
129.0

134.7
129.1

129.5
127.5

132.4
128.7
120.4

122.1

128.0
127.4
119.4

133.5
128.9
123.7
114.8

109.7

131.5
124.9
152.3
148.1

132.4
123.7
150.2
146.1

128.5

125.0
117.1
148.6
144.4

122.8 120.8

120.6
148.5
144.3

101.6 101.0

101.3
142.6
157.4
104.5
103.8
105.8
186.4
205.1
276.7
250.6
283.0
248.8
347.1
105.5
101.4

143.5
157.2
96.1
95.4
105.8
186.4
204.8
277.3
251.6
283.5
248.9
348.3
105.3

107.0

106.9

122.0 122.6

307.2
351.5
93.6
92.5
99.9

122.3
304.7
352.0
93.3
92.2
99.6

20.3

20.2

27.8
283.3
424.6

26.7
287.8
444.0

171.2
154.7
185.2

171.9
155.5
185.5

104.9
184.0
213.7
274.4
249.1
280.5
247.7
341.2
105.1
101.7

104.8

105.8

101.3
106.6

116.9
293.9
336.2
93.1
92.1
99.0

117.2
295.1
337.2
93.6
92.5
99.6

119.5
298.0
343.9
93.5
92.4
99.6

121.7
305.4
350.0
93.1
92.0
99.2

21.7

21.4

21.3

20.7

31.7
277.7
424.2

30.4
281.3
418.7

29.8
281.2
421.0

29.3
285.8
441.2

169.6
155.8
183.4

169.5
153.2
184.1

170.0
154.6
184.1

170.7
155.1
184.8

101.6

177.4
108.9
176.4
115.5
181.8
177.6
204.5
197.0
113.1

100.2 100.6

141.2
158.3
125.6
124.9
105.1
183.4
216.1
273.1
248.5
278.9
246.8
337.9
105.0
101.7

272.5
248.1
278.3
246.5
336.6
104.8
101.3
104.4

177.9
108.5
176.0
115.5
180.9
176.9
203.2
196.4
108.0
210.9

121.2

140.2
157.3
131.4
130.7
105.2
185.1
212.7
275.0
249.6
281.0
247.9
342.6
105.2

141.0
157.8
116.3
115.6
105.5
186.0
209.1
275.9
250.2
282.0
248.4
344.8
105.3
101.3
107.1

122.2

142.7
155.6
97.9
97.2
106.2
187.1
205.8
279.6
252.6
286.2
250.6
353.1
105.7

101.2 102.1
294.7
352.2
93.4

107.2

92.3
99.6

303.0
353.2
93.4
92.2
100.3

20.0

19.8

19.4

26.4
285.6
429.9

25.8
289.2
446.7

25.3
286.4
431.7

24.6
287.2
432.8

172.3
155.4
185.9

172.6
155.4
186.8

172.6
155.4
186.4

173.2
155.2
186.3

32. Continued— Consumer Price Indexes for All Urban Consumers and for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers: U.S. city
average, by expenditure category and commodity or service group
[1982-84 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]____________________________________
Annual average

Series

2000

2001

2001
Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

252.3

263.1

257.3

258.6

149.2
168.4
137.7
147.4
129.6

150.7
173.6
137.2
147.1
127.3

150 0
171 4
137.4
146.4
125.4

162.5
125.4
195.3

163.4
124.6
203.4

163.2
125.9

200.2 201.0 201.8

201.3
196.1
229.9

208.9
201.9
238.0

204.5
199.1
234.1

205.7
200.3
234.8

173 0
165.7
167.3
139.2
149.1
162.9
158.2

177
169.7
171.9
138.9
149.1
164.1
160.6

175 9
168
170.1
139.0
148.3
163.9
159.1

176
169 1
170.8
139.7
149.6
164.3
160..0

202.9
188.9
124.6
178.6
181.3
144.9
129.5

202.1

212.3
196.6
129.3
183.5
186.1
145.3
125.2
209.6

193.6
132.5
181.0
183.5
144.8
128.6
205.7

210.5
194.3
132.0
181.8
184.4
145.9
129.1
206.8

195.1
129.5
182.6
185.3
146.2
125.4
207.7

195.2
133.1
182.9
185.6
146.6
133.8
208.0

All items.............................................................
All items (1967 = 100).........................................

163.2
486.2

173.5
516.8

171.7
511.6

172.4
513.4

172.6
514.2

Food and beverages..........................................

163.8
163.4
163.0
184.7
147.6
159.4

173.0
172.5
172.4
193.6
161.2
167.1

170.8
170.3
170.3
190.9
157.9

171.2
170.8
170.8
191.7
159.2

173.5
516.7
171.9
171.4
171.3
192.2
160.7
163.5
211.7

Commodity and service group:

Commodities less food and beverages............
Apparel.....................................................
Nondurables less food, beverages,
and apparel..............................................
Durables......................................................
Services..........................................................
Transportation services...............................
Other services...............................................
Special indexes:

All items less medical care.............................
Commodities less food..................................
Nondurables less food...................................
Nondurables less food and apparel................
Nondurables..................................................
Services less medical care services...............
Energy..........................................................
All items less energy.....................................
All items less food and energy.....................
Commodities less food and energy.............
Energy commodities................................
Services less energy..................................

8

6

210.0

May

June

2002

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

259.5

260.2

261.0

261.8

263.2

265.5

266.4

267.3

268.0

268.5

270.4

150
171
138.1
147 7
128.4

150 7
172
138.0
147 9
132.2

151 9
172 4
139.7
151 0
131.9

15? 9
17? 9
140.8
15? 5
129.8

139.4

136.5

135.4

138.0

136.1

134.6

132.3

131.6

126.3

122.6 122.6

126.8

129.5

128.0

123.7

120.4

163.7
125.9

161.9
125.5

167.0
125.4

172.0
124.9
202.5

170.4
124.5
204.0

164.5
124.2

167.5
123.4
204.9

160.4
123.6
204.7

156.2
124.2

151.6
124.3

204.5

162.1
123.6
205.2

205.1

207.8
200.4
236.4

209.0

209.7

210.8

210.3

210.8

236.7

237.7

202.7
239.4

240.6

203.4
241.4

205.3
211.7
204.5
241.9

152.6
123.6
206.3
213 0
205.2
242.9

6
8

6

2

207.2

201.9
207.4

235.4

236.2

200.2 200.1
177 1
169 2
171.2
139.6
149.8
162.7
160.3

202.0 202.6

202.8

211.3
204.2
241.9

177.4
171.8
141.2
152.8
167.4
162.0

210.6 210.6

172.6
142.4
155.1
172.0
163.6

172.9
141.0
153.1
170.6
162.7

172.3
138.2
148.3
165.2
160.3

172.3
137.2
146.9
163.0
159.7

173.0
139.7
151.5
168.0
162.3

172.4
137.8
148.1
161.5
160.8

172.0
136.4
145.1
157.7
159.1

211.4
195.7
140.1
182.9
185.5
145.7
145.6
208.4

213.3
197.2
140.5
183.3
185.9
144.9
141.1
209.4

213.7
197.8
132.4
183.6
186.2
144.4
125.6

214.0
198.4
129.4
184.1
186.6
143.8

213.9
198.1
132.5
184.5
187.1
145.2
131.0

213.0
197.8
185.1
187.6
145.6
116.9
211.7

2133
198.2
116.0
185.4
188.1
146.0
105.8
212.3

174.4
519.4

174.6
520.0

173.8
517.6

174.8
520.6

172.8
172 4
172.4
193.9
161.4

174.0

173.7
517.3
174.5

168.3
209.5

194.7
162.6
171.2
211.5

195.1
161.8

166.9
210.5

173.8
173 4
173 3
195.6
162.0
168.9
208.0

174.0
518.3
174.8

172.9
515.0

172.3
171.9
171.8
192.9
160.6
164.7
211.5

173.8
517.8
173.4
173
173.0
194.5
162.1

212.8

196.7
162.0
169.7
223.2

137.8
159.1
155.5
156.4
176.0

138.0
160.0
156.0
157.4
177.2

138.7
159.7
154.7
155.1
177.8

137.7
160.5
155.9
156.5
178.3

138.8
161.0
158.5
158.0
177.9

108.0
173.5

109.9
174.0
114.0
179.2
173.3
195.0
191.7
123.7
187.5
106.7
154.4
139.5
123.1
147.8
125.8
121.9
122.9

109.0
176.0
115.8
180.5
172.9
197.7
195.7
108.8
191.7

109.3
176.4
115.8
181.4
173.4
198.7
196.3
113.2
192.3
106.4
140.8
124.2
113.0
131.4
125.0
116.6

122.0
210.1 211.2 211.2

122.1

171.3
134.1
140.9
153.4
156.8
213 2
198.3
111.4
185.2
187.8
144.7
97.6

212.6

171.7
133.5
140.5
154.5
157.0
213 9
199.2
111.7
185.7
188.2
143.7
99.3
213.8

CO NSUMER PRICE INDEX FOR URBAN
W AG E EARNERS AND C LERICA L WORKERS

Cereals and bakery products........................
Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs.......................
Dairy and related products ..........................
Fruits and vegetables...................................
Nonalcoholic beverages and beverage
materials....................................................
Other foods at home.....................................
Sugar and sweets.......................................
Fats and oils...............................................
Other foods.................................................

1

1,2

Other miscellaneous foods ....................
Food away from home ....................................
Other food away from home .....................
Alcoholic beverages........................................
Housing............................................................
Shelter...........................................................
Rent of primary residence.............................

1

1,2

2

Lodginq away from home ............................
Owners’ equivalent rent of primary residence
Tenants’ and household Insurance ............
Fuels and utilities.........................................
Fuels..........................................................
Fuel oil and other fuels..............................
Gas (piped) and electricity.........................
Household furnishings and operations...........
Apparel.............................................................
Men's and boys' apparel................................
Women's and girls’ apparel...........................

1,2

3

1

Infants’ and toddlers’ apparel .......................
Footwear......................................................
Transportation...................................................
Private transportation.....................................

2

New and used motor vehicles ......................
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

201.8

210.8

163.8
210.9

210.1

171.6
171.1
171.1
191.7
160.0
163.1
209.8

133.2
152.8
152.2
147.9
168.8

138.4
159.1
155.6
155.4
176.3

138.7
157.3
155.4
152.8
174.0

139.3
157.3
155.6
152.4
174.1

138.8
158.2
155.6
153.0
175.4

138.2
157.1
153.7
151.4
174.6

104.6
165.0
105.1
168.8
160.0
181.6
177.1

109.1
173.8
113.6
178.8
172.1
194.5
191.5
118.4
187.6
106.4
149.5
134.2
129.2
141.5
125.8
126.1
125.8
117.3
130.9
123.1
153.6
150.8
101.9

108.5
171.4
111.5
176.5
170.2
190.6
187.7
113.8
184.1

108.5
171.8

108.5
172.3

108.4
172.7

177.0
170.5
191.5
188.3
118.5
184.5

177.2
171.0
192.6
189.0
123.8
185.2

177.6
171.0
192.9
189.6

105.2
153.2
138.6
150.1
144.8
125.7
124.1
125.8
113.2
129.0
121.5
154.0
151.2

105.3
151.5
136.6
145.0
143/0
125.9
127.0
126.9
118.4
131.0
122.4
154.5
151.7

102.9

102.8

105.6
149.9
134.8
138.0
141.5
125.9
130.6
127.6
125.2
133.3
125.2
153.3
150.5
102.5

122.2

175.7

101.6
128.7
113.0
91.7
120.4
124.7
130.1
131.2
121.3
130.3
126.2
143.4
140.7
100.4

163.5

111.6 111.8 112.0

121.2
185.7
105.8
148.8
133.6
133.9
140.4
126.0
130.5
128.3
124.7
133.2
125.2
155.8
153.2
102.4

137.2
159.1
155.8
154.3
176.5
108.7
173.1
112.5
178.0
171.7
193.5
190.4
119.9
186.3
106.9
150.8
135.7
131.5
142.9
125.7
128.5
129.2

120.2
132.0
124.5
159.2
156.6

102.0

112.8

178.4
173.0
194.4
191.0
123.2
187.0
107.2
155.2
140.5
129.2
148.5
125.9
125.2
126.3
115.6
128.6

122.1

157.9
155.1
101.7

0

139.3
160.5
156.1
158.0
177.9
109.7
174.7
114.4
179.7
173.5
195.9
192.4
124.4
188.5
106.8
152.2
137.0
121.5
145.2
125.7

121.6
121.6
110.2 110.1

126.2
121.4
153.4
150.4
101.4

128.3

122.0
152.5
149.5

101.0

173 4
194.8
162.3
169.4

174 3
195.1
163.2

138.4
159.8
156.2
158.1
176.5
109.2
175.0
115.6
180.1
173.2
196.0
193.3
116.8
189.2

139.2
160.4
156.2
159.1
177.3

170.8

211.0 212.2

106.8
150.1
134.7
125.3
142.2
126.0
125.6
123.7
118.3
131.1
123.0
155.1
152.3
100.7

M o n th ly La b o r R eview

109.5
175.6
115.7
180.5
172.5
196.6
194.0
114.8
190.0
107.0
144.0
127.9
121.4
135.0
125.5
128.3
127.3

120.2
133.5
124.9
151.4
148.6

101.1

110.8
175.8
115.8
180.8
172.8
197.2
194.9

111.8
190.9
107.1
142.8
126.7
118.5
133.7
125.6
127.2
127.3
118.0
134.3
124.2
149.2
146.4
101.7

174.6

170.6

106.3
141.5
125.2
112.7
132.5
125.4
123.0
122.7
113.5
130.3

173.2
515.0
175.7

121.0

147.4
144.5

108.5
126.7
117.7
147.5
144.6

102.0

101.3

121.0

M a rc h 2002

107

Current Labor Statistics:

32.

Price D a ta

Continued— Consumer Price Indexes for All Urban Consumers and for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers: U.S. city
average, by expenditure category and commodity or service group

[1982-84 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]_________________
Annual average

Series

2000
New vehicles..................................

1

Used cars and trucks .....................
Motor fuel................................
Gasoline (all types)....................................
Motor vehicle parts and equipment...............
Motor vehicle maintenance and repair..........
Public transportation.......................................
Medical care.......................................
Medical care commodities..............................
Medical care services................................
Professional services...................................
Hospital and related services........................

2

Recreation ..............................
Video and audio ...............................

1'2

2

Education and communication .......................
Education .................................
Educational books and supplies..................
Tuition, other school fees, and child care....

2

1,2

Communication ...........................
Information and information processing ....
Telephone services .............................
Information and information processing

1,2

1,2

1,4

other than telephone services .........
Personal computers and peripheral

1,2

equipment .....................................
Other goods and services..................................
Tobacco and smoking products.....................

1

Personal care ...................................
Personal care products ........................
Personal care services ...............................
Miscellaneous personal services..................
Commodity and service group:
Commodities.........................................
Food and beverages...................................
Commodities less food and beverages.........
Nondurables less food and beverages...........
Apparel......................................
Nondurables less food, beverages,
and apparel...........................................
Durables.........................................
Services...........................................

1
1

3

Rent of shelter ..................................
Transporatation services....................
Other services.....................................
Special indexes:
All items less food.................................
All items less shelter..........................
All items less medical care..........................
Commodities less food.........................
Nondurables less food........................
Nondurables less food and apparel.................
Nondurables......................................

3

Services less rent of shelter ..........................
Services less medical care services................
Energy...........................................
All items less energy...............................
All items less food and energy......................
Commodities less food and energy.............
Energy commodities..............................
Services less energy............................

2001

M o n th ly La b o r R eview

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

2002

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

143.2

144.8

144.5

143.8

143.8

143.4

142.7

142.3

141.4

141.3

142.1

143.8

144.7

143.8

157.1

161.7

161.7

158.1

132.4
131.7
104.4
186.7
207.0
273.9
244.6
280.7
250.1
338.3

116.2
115.5
104.7
187.5
203.7
274.9
245.2
281.7
250.5
340.5

158.3
104.4
103.8
105.0
187.8
200.4

96.3
95.7
104.9
187.9

156.5
98.2
97.6
105.3
188.6

271.8
242.7
278.5
248.7
333.8
103.6
100.9

159.3
124.9
124.2
104.3
185.0
209.5
272.0
243.6
278.5
249.0
333.5
103 7

158.7

259.9
233.6
265.S
239.6
313.2
102.4
100.7

160.0
142.1
141.1
103.6
184.4
209.5
271.5
243.2
278.0
248.7
332.0
103.5
100.7

158.2

127.8
127.1
103.4
183.1
205.8
268.1
239.1
274.7
246.4
326.6
103.1

160.2
147.4
146.7
103.6
184.1
203.5
270.4
241.7
277.0
248.0
330.6
103.7

159.0

126.9
126.2
103.0
182.1
204.3
266.3
237.8
272.8
244.9
323.9
103.0

161.1
124.1
123.4
104.0
183.3
204.2
269.1
240.2
275.7
247.0
328.3
103.0

160.9

129.5
128.8
100.9
178.8
203.4

159.8
124.9
124.2
104.0
185.1
204.9

200.1 201.0

275.6
245.6
282.6
250.9
342.7

276.2
246.7
283.0
251.0
343.6

278.5
247.6
285.7
252.8
348.2

102.7

134.0
133.3
103.5
183.4
202.7
269.9
241.0
276.5
247.8
329.1
103.7

100.8 101.2 101.0 101.2 101.1

122.0
121.3
104.1
185.6
207.7
273.4
244.1
280.2
249.9
337.0
103 9

-

101.1 101.0 100fi

105.3

104.0

104.1

104.4

104.2

104.1

104.5

104.9

105.8

106.5

107.1

106.9

106.9

283.3
318.2
94.6

118.7
299.9
334.7
94.5

116.0
292.9
327.0
94.4

116.2
294.1
327.4
94.4

116.3
294.7
327.9
94.8

116.4
294.7
328.2
94.4

116.7
294.5
329.1
94.0

117.2
298.2
330.3
94.3

117.6
299.3
331.3
94.8

119.6
302.2
337.3
94 7

121.7
309.8
342.9
94 3

122.3
311.7
344.4

122.3
308.9
344.9

122.1
297.3
345.2

122.7
305.2
346.2

94.1
98.7

93.8
99.4

93.8
99.0

93.7
98.9

94.1

93.8
99.2

93.4
98.8

93.6
99.2

94.0
99.7

94.0
99.8

93.6
99.4

94.2

99.5

100.1

93.8
99.7

93.9
99.9

94.0
100.4

26.8

22.1

24.0

23.8

23.3

22.8

22.4

22.2

22.0

21.5

21.2

21.0

20.8

20.6

20.1

40.5
276.5
395.2

29.1
289.5
426.1

34.3
281.5
404.6

33.4
283.2
409.2

31.8
283.5
408.5

29.9
286.8
419.8

29.4
287.9
421.6

28.7
293.8
441.9

27.4
290.0
425.6

26.6
295.5
444.7

165.5
154.2
178.6
251.9

170.3
155.7
184.9
262.8

168.1
155.7
182.1
257.0

168.5
155.7
182.4
258.4

169.0
155.9
182.8
258,3

31.1
288.2
424.8
169.4
156.0
183.9
260.0

169.3
153.8
184.7
260.7

169.9
155.4
184.8
261.6

170.6
155.9
185.4
263.2

170.9
155.5
185.9
264.9

171.4
156.1
186.1
265.6

26.1
292.4
430.9
171.9
156.1
186.5
266.8

25.5
297.3
448.3
172.3
156.1
187.4
267.5

172.3
156.0
187.1
268.0

155.9
187.0
269.8

149.8
167.7
139.0
149.1
128.3

151.4
173.0
138.7
149.0
126.1

150.8
170.8
138.8
148.1
124.1

151.4
171.2
139.5
149.4
127.0

151.4
171.6
139.3
149.3
130.6

152.8
171.9
141.2
153.1
130.5

153.9
172.3
142.6
156.2
128.5

153.0
172.8
141.1
153.6
125.2

151.2
173.4
138.0
148.2
121.9

150.5
173.8
136.9
146.5

121.6

152.5
174.0
139.8
152.0
125.6

151.2
174.8
137.4
147.4
128.3

150.1
174.5
135.9
144.2
127.2

148.4
174.6
133.4
139.4
123.0

148.3
175.7
132.7
138.9
119

165.3
125.8
191.6

166.3
125.3
199.6

166.0
126.6
196.6

166.5
126.6
197.2

164.4
126.2

176.3
125.5
198.7

174.1
125.2

167.3
124.8

164.8
124.3

171.4
124.1

162.7
124.3

200.1 200.6 201.2 201.1 201.0

158.2
124.8
201.4

153.1
124.9
201.7

154.2
124.1

197.8

170.5
126.0
198.0

180.5
192.9
225.9

187.3
199.1
233.7

183.6
196.0
229.9

184.4
197.2
230.6

185.5
197.2
231.2

185.8
197.2
231.9

186.3
197.6
232.2

187.2
198.9
232.6

187.8
199.5
233.6

188.7
199.8
235.1

188.7

189.9
202.3
237.2

190.4

235.9

189.3
200.9
236.8

237.3

191.4
203.4
238.3

169.1
163.8
164.7
140.4
150.7
165.4
158.9

173.6
167.6
169.1
140.2
150.8
166.7
161.4

171.9
166.5
167.4
140.3
149.9
166.3
159.9

172.5
167.0
168.0
141.0
151.1
166.8
160.8

172.8
167.0
168.2
140.8
151.1
164.9
160.9

173.8
168.0
169.1
142.7
154.7
170.5
163.0

174.7
169.1
170.0
144.1
157.6
175.9
164.8

174.9
169.0
170.2
142.6
155.3
173.9
163.8

173.9
167.8
169.4
139.6
150.1
167.7
161.2

173.7
167.5
169.3
138.5
148.5
165.4
160.5

174.9
168.8
170.3
141.3
153.8
171.5
163.5

173.8
167.6
169.5
139.0
149.4
163.5
161.5

173.4
166.9
169.1
137.6
146.4
159.5
159.7

172.5
165.7
168.3
135.1
141.8
154.7
157.3

172.7
165.8
168.5
134.5
141.8
154.7
157.5

180.1
185.4
124.8
175.1
177.1
145.4
129.7
198.7

188.5
193.1
128.7
179.8
181.7
146.1
125.3
206.0

186.6
190.3
131.8
177.4
179.3
145.5
128.5

186.9
190.8
131.3
178.2
180.1
146.2
129.1
203.1

187.0
191.4
128.6
178.8
180.9
146.8
125.1
204.0

187.0
191.6
132.9
179.2
181.3
147.3
134.2
204.41

187.8
192.3
140.6
179.2
181.2
146.4
146.6
204.8

189.6
193.6
140.3
179.5
181.4
145.6
141.5
205.71

189.9
194.2
131.3
179.8
181.7
145.4
125.0
206.3

190.1
194.7
128.6
180.1
181.9
144.6

189.9
194.6
132.6
180.7
182.6
146.0
132.1
207.6

189.0
194.4

189.3
194.8
114.8
181.8
183.8
146.9
105.5
209.0

189.2
195.0

189.8
195.7
110.5
181.6
183.6
144.4
99.2
210.4

112.8

202.2

122.1

207.31

200.1

121.2
181.3
183.2
146.3
116.7
208.3

4Indexes on a December 1988 = 100 base.

2
3

108

Feb.

143.9

’ Not seasonally adjusted.
Indexes on a December 1997 = 100 base.
Indexes on a December 1982 = 100 base.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2001
Jan.

Dash indicates data not available.
Note.- Index applied to a month as a whole, not to any specific date.

M a rc h 2002

1

25.0
293.3
432.9

202.6

110.0
181.5
183.5
145.6
97.5
209.41

107.1

24.3
294.0
433.5
172.7

6

202.5

33.

Consumer Price Index: U.S. city average and available local area data: all items

[1982-84 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]_______________________________
Pricing
Area

ule1
U.S. city average........................................................

Urban Wage Earners

All Urban Consumers
2001

schedAug.

Sept.

2002

Oct.

Nov.

Dec

2001

Jan.

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

2002

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

M

177.5

178.3

177.7

177.4

176.7

177.1

173.8

174.8

174.0

173.7

172.9

173.2

M
M
M

185.1
186.5
110.5
173.0
174.8
110.3
166.8

185.1
186.5
110.4

185.0
186.3

184.9
186.2
110.5
172.1
174.1
109.5
166.2

181.7
182.2
109.8
168.9
169.8

181.9
182.4
109.9
170.8
171.3

181.0
181.1
109.9
167.6
168.7
109.2

181.4
181.6

172.6
174.5

184.2
185.4
10.3
171.9
173.8
109.6
165.5
170.3
171.7
108.9
167.7
181.6

181.8
182.0

174.6
176.1

185.0
186.1
110.9
172.5
174.2

2

Region and area size
Northeast urban................................................................
Size A— More than 1,500,000........................................
Size B/C— 50,000 to 1.500.0003....................................
Midwest urban .................................................................
Size A— More than 1,500,000........................................

4

Size B/C— 50,000 to 1,500,0003..................................
Size D— Nonmetropolitan (less than 50,000).................
South urban....................................................................
Size A— More than 1,500,000........................................
Size B/C— 50,000 to 1,500,0003....................................
Size D— Nonmetropolitan (less than 50,000).................
West urban.................................................................
Size A— More than 1,500,000........................................
Size B/C— 50,000 to 1,500,000®..............................

M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M

171.5
172.3
109.8
170.1
181.9

110.6

111.6 110.0 110.0
168.8
172.2
173.2

110.2

111.2
111.2

169.7
182.5
111.7
111.7

166.9
171.7
173.1
109.7
169.9
182.5

166.3
171.0
172.2
109.4
168.9
182.3

112.1 112.0 111.6
112.1 112.0 111.6

170.6
171.7
109.2
168.6
182.4
111.9
111.9

170.8

161.1
109.7
169.8

177.4
178.1

177.9
177.1

187.8

187.3

110.1 111.8

168.4
169.4
109.7

164.9

167.1

164.9

181.8
181.9
110.5
168.2
169.1
109.8
164.1

169.4
169.8
109.3
170.7
176.9
177.4

170.3
170.9

169.8
170.7
109.4
170.8
177.8
178.0

169.0
169.6
109.0
169.9
177.6
177.7

110.0

110.2

110.1
167.7
168.8
109.2

163.3
168.1
169.0
108.5
168.3
176.8
176.9

163.9
168.3
169.0
108.6
169.2
177.4
177.7
111.4

110.8

170.8
177.6
178.1
111.4

111.8 111.8 111.2

161.6
109.9
170.5

160.1
109.8
170.0

160.9

160.3

171.1

170.4

160.0
109.9
169.7

159.4
109.3
168.5

159.7
109.4
169.2

177.9
178.9

172.0
71.1

173.7
171.5

171.9
171.0

171.2
170.7

171.7
169.7

171.6
171.5

188.5

183.5

183.6

183.3

183.3

182.8

Size classes:

5

M
M
M

161.9

162.5

171.2

172.0

162.0
110.3
171.5

Chicago-Gary-Kenosha, IL—IN—Wl...................................
Los Angeles-Riverside-Orange County, CA.....................

M
M

178.1
178.4

179.7
178.8

178.1
178.3

New York, NY-Northern NJ-Long Island, NY-NJ-CT-PA..

M

188.1

188.0

Boston-Brockton-Nashua, MA-NH-ME-CT.....................
Cleveland-Akron, OH...............................................
Dallas-Ft Worth, TX.........................................................

1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

-

187.8
-

-

192.7
174.6
172.8
111.7

176.9
175.1
158.6
173.5
182.8

-

191.0
186.8

-

A ........................................................................
B/C .............................................................
D..................................................................

3

110.2 110.8

161.7

110.2

110.6 110.0

6

Selected local areas

7

Washinqton-Baltimore, DC-MD-VA-WV .........................
Atlanta, GA................................................................
Detroit-Ann Arbor-Flint, Ml...............................................
Houston-Galveston-Brazoria, TX.....................................
Miaml-Ft. Lauderdale, FL................................................
Philadelphia-Wilmington-Atlantic City, PA-NJ-DE-MD.....
San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose, CA.............................
Seattle-Tacoma-Bremerton, WA.....................................

-

176.7
174.8
159.4
174.2
182.9
191.7
187.9

1 Foods, fuels, and several other items priced every month In all areas; most other goods
and services priced as indicated:
M— Every month.
1— January, March, May, July, September, and November.
2—
February, April, June, August, October, and December.
2 Regions defined as the four Census regions.
3 Indexes on a December 1996 = 100 base.
4 The "North Central" region has been renamed the "Midwest" region by the Census Bureau.
It is composed of the same geographic entitles.

6 Indexes on a December 1986 = 100 base.
6 In addition, the following metropolitan areas

are published semiannually and appear In
tables 34 and 39 of the January and July Issues of the CPI Detailed Report: Anchorage, AK;
Cinclnnati-Hamllton, OH-KY-IN; Denver-Boulder-Greeley, CO; Honolulu, HI; Kansas City,


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

192.7
172.3
171.5
110.9
-

-

-

174.8
173.5
157.1
173.1
179.9
190.6
186.1

192.9
171.4

_

170.6
110.9
_
_

_
_

-

192.0
166.5
172.6

-

111.6

-

174.2
169.4
157.0
170.9
182.0
186.7
181.5

_

169.6
169.1
157.8
171.7
182.3
187.5
183.1

_

_
_
_
_

-

-

191.9
164.0
171.1
110.7
_
_
_
_

_
_
-

_

_
-

172,0
167.9
155.2
170.5
179.2
186.5
181.1

183.5
191.8
162.8
170.0
110.5

_
_
_
_

_

_
-

MO-KS; Milwaukee-Racine, Wl; Mlnneapolls-St. Paul, MN-WI; Pittsburgh, PA; Port-land-Salem,
OR-WA; St Louis, MO-IL; San Diego, CA; Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL.
7 Indexes on a November 1996 = 100 base.
Dash indicates data not available.
NOTE: Local area CPI indexes are byproducts of the national CPI program. Each local index has
a smaller sample size and is, therefore, subject to substantially more sampling and other
measurement error. As a result, local area indexes show greater volatility than the national index,
although their long-term trends are similar. Therefore, the Bureau of Labor Statistics strongly
urges users to consider adopting the national average CPI for use in their escalator clauses.
Index applies to a month as a whole, not to any specific date.

M o n th ly L a b o r R eview

M a rc h 2002

109

C urrent Labor Statistics:

34.

Price D a ta

Annual data: Consumer Price Index, U.S. city average, all items and major groups

[ 1982-84 = 100]_______________________________________________________________________________________________

1992

Series
Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers:
All items:
Index........................................................................
Percent change.......................................................
Food and beverages:
Index........................................................................
Percent change.......................................................
Housing:
Index........................................................................
Percent change.......................................................
Apparel:
Index........................................................................
Percent change.......................................................
Transportation:
Index........................................................................
Percent change.......................................................
Medical care:
Index........................................................................
Percent change.......................................................
Other goods and services:
Index........................................................................
Percent change.......................................................
Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners
and Clerical Workers:
All items:
Index........................................................................
Percent change.......................................................

M o n th ly L a b o r R eview
110

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

140.3
3.0

144.5
3.0

148.2

152.4

156.9
3.0

160.5
2.3

163.0

166.6

172.2
3.4

177.1

138.7
1.4

141.6

2.1

144.9
2.3

148.9

153.7
3.2

157.7

161.1

164.6

168.4
2.3

173.6
3.1

137.5
2.9

141.2
2.7

144.8
2.5

148.5

152.8
2.9

156.8

160.4
2.3

163.9

2.2

169.6
3.5

176.4
4.0

131.9
2.5

133.7
1.4

133.4

-.2

132.0
-

131.7

132.9
.9

133.0

131.3
-1.3

129.6
-1.3

127.3
-

126.5

2.2

130.4
3.1

134.3
3.0

139.1
3.6

143.0

144.3
0.9

141.6
-1.9

144.4

153.3

154.3
0.7

190.1
7.4

201.4
5.9

211.0

220.5
4.5

228.2
3.5

234.6

4.8

2.8

242.1
3.2

250.6
3.5

260.8
4.1

272.8
4.6

183.3

192.9
5.2

198.5
2.9

206.9
4.2

215.4
4.1

224.8
4.4

237.7
5.7

258.3
8.7

271.1
5.0

282.6
4.2

138.2
2.9

142.1

145.6
2.5

149.8
2.9

154.1
2.9

157.6
2.3

159.7
1.3

163.2

168.9
3.5

173.5
2.7

6.8

M a rc h 2002

2.8

2.6

2.8
2.8

2.6
1.0

-.2

2.8

2.6

2.6

1.6

2.2

.1

2.2
2.2

2.0

2.2

6.2

2.8

1.8

35.

Producer Price Indexes, by stage of processing

[1982 = 100]

Grouping

Annual average
2000

Finished goods......................................

2001

2001

2002

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

138.0
138.2
137.2

140.7
141.5
141.3

141.2
141.9
138.4

141.5
142.5
139.5

141.0
141.9
140.9

141.7
142.7
141.6

142.5
143.8
141.8

142.1
143.3
141.9

140.7
141.5
141.2

141.1
142.0
142.6

141.7
142.9
142.9

139.6
139.9
141.8

139.7
138.4
140.5

Finshed consumer goods
excluding foods....................................
Nondurable goods less food...............
Durable goods.....................................
Capital equipment..................................

137.2
136.8
140.4

137.5
137.3
141.1

138.4
138.7
133.9
138.8

141.4
142.8
133.9
139.7

143.3
144.9
135.2
140.2

143.6
145.9
134.2
139.7

142.1
143.8
134.1
139.7

142.9
144.9
134.2
140.0

144.5
147.3
133.8
139.7

143.7
146.5
133.2
139.6

141.4
143.1
133.2
139.8

141.6
143.5
133.0
139.5

142.7
145.1
133.2
139.4

139.0
139.2
134.4
139.8

137.3
136.8
134.5
139.9

135.1
134.0
133.9
139.7

135.5
134.5
134.0
139.6

Intermediate materials,
supplies, and components...................

129.2

128.7

131.5

131.3

130.8

130.6

131.2

131.4

130.3

129.8

130.1

127.6

126.7

Materials and components
for manufacturing.....................................
Materials for food manufacturing............
Materials for nondurable manufacturing..
Materials for durable manufacturing.......
Components for manufacturing...............

125.4

125.6

128.1
119.2
132.6
129.0
126.2

127.4
124.3
131.8
125.2
126.3

128.6
120.4
135.0
127.2
126.4

128.8
120.3
136.1
127.0
126.2

128.9
122.3
135.8
126.7
126.4

128.7
122.3
135.2
126.0
126.6

128.6
124.6
134.2
126.9
126.4

128.3
125.7
133.4
126.5
126.4

127.5
126.1
131.9
125.3
126.2

126.9
128.1
130.1
124.6
126.2

126.6
127.5
129.9
124.2
125.9

125.9
126.1
128.7
123.4
125.9

125.2
123.9
127.4
125.9

124.7
122.5
126.2
122.5
126.0

124.9
122.7
126.5

150.7

150.6
104.5
153.1
138.6

149.6
111.4
153.0
138.9

150.0
109.9
153.0
138.5

150.2
106.9
152.8
138.7

150.4
105.9
153.2
139.0

151.6
108.1
153.9
139.0

151.7
154.1
138.8

151.0
106.8
153.6
138.8

151.0
106.0
153.2
138.7

150.8
108.4
153.0
138.6

150.4
97.4
152.4
138.3

150.3
94.7
152.2
138.3

149.0
89.3
152.2
138.1

150.3
90.4
152.5
138.3

130.4

121.3
106.2
127.3

155.0
105.3
183.5

133.2
104.5
148.2

131.5
108.9
142.2

132.9
109.1
144.5

130.9
110.3
140.4

109.7
127.4

116.1
109.6
116.3

113.4
108.9
112.4

108.0
108.5
103.8

97.7
104.7
89.4

104.8
98.3
105.5

94.8
96.4
90.2

98.1
99.5
93.6

Finished goods, excluding foods...............
Finished energy goods.............................
Finished goods less energy.......................
Finished consumer goods less energy......
Finished goods less food and energy........

138.1
94.1
144.9
147.4
148.0

140.4
96.8
147.5
150.8
150.0

141.9
101.9
146.7
149.4
150.0

142.0
103.6
146.6
149.5
149.4

140.9
99.7
147.1
150.2
149.5

141.6

142.0
102.7
147.6
150.9
149.9

140.5
97.0
147.5
150.7
149.9

140.5
97.8
147.7
151.1
149.7

141.3

147.5
150.6
149.8

142.6
104.1
147.7
151.6
150.0

147.9
151.4
149.8

138.8
90.1
147.9
151.3
150.4

137.7
85.5
147.7
151.0
150.6

136.1
80.7
147.6
150.9
150.4

Finished consumer goods less food
and energy...............................................

136.3
81.7
147.6
151.0
150.3

154.0

156.9

156.5

155.9

156.1

156.4

156.9

156.7

156.8

156.6

156.8

157.5

Consumer nondurable goods less food
and energy............................................

157.8

157.6

157.5

169.8

175.1

173.2

173.2

173.5

174.0

175.4

175.5

175.5

175.3

175.6

175.8

176.4

176.4

176.1

Intermediate materials less foods
and feeds..........................................
Intermediate foods and feeds....................
Intermediate energy goods........................
Intermediate goods less energy................

130.1
111.7
101.7
135.0

130.5
115.9
104.1
135.1

132.4
115.1
110.9
135.8

132.3
113.6
109.5
135.8

131.7
114.1
106.4
136.0

131.6
114.0
105.5
136.0

132.1
114.9
107.6
136.1

132.3
116.3
109.7
135.9

131.0
117.1
106.3
135.3

130.4
119.4
105.6
134.9

130.7
118.7
107.9
134.7

128.2
117.3
97.1
134.2

127.3
115.5
94.3
133.7

Intermediate materials less foods
and energy.....................................

126.0
114.3
89.0
133.4

126.3
113.9
90.0
133.4

136.6

136.4

122.1

122.8
112.2

Finished consumer goods......................
Finished consumer foods.....................

Materials and components
for construction........................................
Processed fuels and lubricants.................
Containers..................................................
Supplies..................................................

Crude materials for further
processing...........................................
Foodstuffs and feedstuffs..........................
Crude nonfood materials............................

102.0
151.6
136.9

120.6
100.2

110.2

122.8

122.8

124.6

122.6

Special groupings:

Crude energy materials..............................
Crude materials less energy......................
Crude nonfood materials less energy........


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

111.7
145.2

130.6

101.2

100.1

137.1

137.3

137.4

137.4

137.5

137.2

136.5

136.0

135.8

135.3

134.9

134.6

134.7

193.4
113.7
138.7

148.3
112.4
136.1

141.0
115.2
134.6

145.2
114.3
130.8

139.8
115.3
130.9

123.1
114.8
130.6

109.0
114.3
129.4

104.2
113.6
128.4

93.1
113.3
128.5 I

75.2
109.8
125.8

96.5
104.8
124.5

76.7
103.4
124.2

81.0
105.9
125.4

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

111

Current Labor Statistics:

36.

Price Data

Producer Price Indexes for the net output of major industry groups

[December 1984 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]

SIC

10
12
13
14

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

35
36
37
38

39

Annual average

Industry

2000

2001

2002

2001
Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.
100.4

92.6

69.6
89.9
109.4

70.6
92.5
98.3

Sept.

Oct.

Total mining industries.................................

113.5

114.9

170.8

138.2

130.7

132.2

127.5

115.5

103.4

Metal mining...................................................
Coal mining (12/85 = 100)..............................
Oil and gas extraction (12/85 = 100)..............
Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
minerals, except fuels..................................

73.8
84.8
126.8

70.6
91.3
128.4

73.5
83.6
224.3

72.4
90.8
159.4

73.1
90.3
149.3

70.0
90.6
151.5

71.4
92.2
144.9

71.0
87.7
129.6

70.4
90.9
112.9

137.0

141.0

139.3

140.1

140.8

140.8

140.7

141.8

141.6

141.2

141.4

141.9

Total manufacturing industries.....................

133.5
128.5
345.8
116.7

134.5
132.8
386.1
116.9

134.7
130.1
372.4
117.4

134.7
130.4
372.4
117.9

134.6
131.7
372.3
117.0

135.4
132.5
372.1
117.0

136.3
133.2
391.2
117.1

136.0
133.8
391.7
117.2

134.6
133.9
391.1
116.9

134.8
134.7
391.0
116.6

135.6
134.7
391.1
116.5

133.6
133.9
391.1
116.2

125.7

125.8

125.7

125.7

125.7

125.9

125.8

125.7

125.9

126.1

125.9

125.9

158.1
143.3
145.8

156.1
145.1
146.2

153.2
144.2
147.4

153.8
144.3
147.0

154.5
144.8
147.0

154.7
144.7
147.0

160.5
144.9
146.9

161.3
145.2
146.8

158.2
145.3
146.4

157.5
145.2
145.4

156.9
145.3
145.5

182.9

186.8

187.2

187.6

188.4

188.8

188.4

188.6

188.9

160.4
112.5
126.0
139.1
134.4
118.5

161.6

124.6
137.9
134.6
119.8

188.6
158.4
105.3
125.9
141.2
136.0
116.1

126.1
140.6
135.0
118.0

161.9
107.3
126.8
140.9
135.4
117.4

161.4
114.1
127.4
142.8
135.6
116.8

160.4
120.9
126.6
142.9
136.0
116.9

160.0
116.9
126.4
142.6
135.7
116.5

158.8
103.8
126.5
141.9
135.9
116.1

156.3
106.8
126.0
142.1
135.9
115.8

130.3

131.0

130.6

130.7

130.8

131.2

131.1

131.1

131.1

117.5

117.9

117.7

117.8

117.8

118.0

118.0

118.1

108.3
136.8

107.0
137.8

107.7
138.7

107.6
137.6

107.5
137.9

107.5
138.1

107.4
137.4

126.2

127.2

126.9

127.1

126.9

126.9

130.9

132.3

131.7

131.9

132.3

119.4
135.2

123.1
143.4
130.5
157.3

121.9
141.3
125.8
154.7
109.1

122.5
141.3
127.8
154.0
109.1

122.6
141.3
126.8
155.4
108.9

Food and kindred products.............................
Tobacco manufactures...................................
Textile mill products........................................
Apparel and other finished products
made from fabrics and similar materials......
Lumber and wood products,
except furniture.............................................
Furniture and fixtures.....................................
Paper and allied products...............................
Printing, publishing, and allied industries.......
Chemicals and allied products.......................
Petroleum refining and related products........
Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products.
Leather and leather products.........................
Stone, clay, glass, and concrete products.....
Primary metal industries.................................
Fabricated metal products,
except machinery and transportation
equipment............................

Electrical and electronic machinery,
equipment, and supplies..............................
Transportation................................................
Measuring and controlling instruments;
photographic, medical, and optical
goods; watches and clocks..........................
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries
industries (12/85 - 100)...............................

156.7

112.8

112.0

78.8
70.4
92.7
79.7

Nov.
93.2

Dec.
67.8
91.8
79.1

81.6
69.7
94.6
84.0

141.8

141.4

142.3

132.8
132.4
398.3
116.2

131.4
131.8
398.3
116.1

131.7
131.5
391.7
116.5

125.9

125.4

125.3

154.3
145.8
145.1

153.8
145.8
144.4

153.3
145.5
144.7

154.3
145.6
144.2

188.8

189.2

192.0

156.0
93.8
125.6
141.0
136.7
114.7

189.6
155.4
87.2
125.3
140.2
137.1
114.3

189.5

156.4
115.4
125.2
141.3
136.4
115.2

154.0
75.3
125.4
140.0
136.8
114.0

153.6
77.9
125.6
140.3
136.9
113.7

131.1

131.1

131.0

131.0

131.1

131.1

118.1

118.0

117.8

117.7

117.8

117.8

117.8

107.3
137.1

106.9
137.3

106.4
137.2

106.4
137.2

106.5
138.5

106.6
138.5

106.6
137.9

107.2
137.7

127.3

127.4

127.2

127.4

127.5

127.1

127.6

127.8

128.2

132.2

132.5

132.5

132.7

132.3

132.6

132.6

132.1

132.3

132.5

122.7
141.3
125.9
155.4
108.9

123.0
141.3
125.6
156.4
109.0

123.2
141.3
130.3
156.6
109.0

123.3
145.4
131.8
157.6
110.9

123.4
145.4
132.0
159.1

123.6
145.4
140.9
158.6
111.3

123.8
145.4
134.0
159.8
111.5

124.0
145.4
131.2
158.5
111.3

123.3
145.4
129.7
155.3
111.3

123.4
145.4
129.6
158.0

68.1
95.5
98.8

78.0

Jan.

Service industries:
42
43
44
45
46

Motor freight transportation
and warehousing (06/93 - 100)....................
Water transportation (12/92 = 100)................

122.6

Pipelines, except natural qas (12/92 - 100)....

147.7
102.3

112
Monthly Labor Review

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

March 2002

110.2

111.2

111.2

37.

Annual data: Producer Price Indexes, by stage of processing

[1982 = 100]
Index

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001p

Finished goods
Total..............................................................................
Foods..........................................................................
Energy..........................................................................
Other............................................................................

123.2
123.3
77.8
134.2

124.7
125.7
78.0
135.8

125.5
126.8
77.0
137.1

127.9
129.0
78.1
140.0

131.3
133.6
83.2
142.0

131.8
134.5
83.4
142.4

130.7
134.3
75.1
143.7

114.7
113.9
84.3

122.0

116.2
115.6
84.6
123.8

118.5
118.5
83.0
127.1

124.9
119.5
84.1
135.2

125.7
125.3
89.8
134.0

125.6
123.2
89.0
134.2

123.0
123.2
80.8
133.5

100.4
105.1
78.8
94.2

102.4
108.4
76.7
94.1

106.5
72.1
97.0

102.7
105.8
69.4
105.8

113.8
121.5
85.0
105.7

111.1
112.2

96.8
103.9

87.3
103.5

84.5

133.0
135.1
78.8
146.1

138.0
137.2
94.1
148.0

140.7
141.3
96.8
150.0

123.2

129.2
119.2
101.7
136.6

129.7
124.3
104.1
136.4

120.6
100.2
122.1

121.3
106.2

Intermediate materials, supplies, and
components
Total...............................................................................
Foods...........................................................................
Energy..........................................................................
Other...........................................................................

120.8
84.3
133.1

Crude materials for further processing
Total...............................................................................
Foods..........................................................................
Energy..........................................................................
Other...........................................................................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

101.8

68.6

Monthly Labor Review

98.2
98.7
78.5
91.1

118.0

March 2002

122.8
101.8

113

Current Labor Statistics:

Price Data

38. U.S. export price indexes by Standard International Trade Classification
[2000 = 100]

2001

Industry
Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

0 Food and live animals.......................
1
Meat and meat preparations............................
4
Cereals and cereal preparations......................
5
Vegetables, fruit, and nuts, prepared fresh or dry

103.3

101.9

102.5

101.2

101.1

101.8 102.6
105.7

96.9

107.9
97.9

106.2
104.3
97.4

106.1

106.7
96.2

101.9
105.2
104.2
99.8

98.6

101.7

2 Crude materials, inedible, except fuels.............
Oilseeds and oleaginous fruits...............
4
Cork and wood................................
5
Pulp and waste paper.....................
Textile fibers and their waste..........................
3
Metalliferous ores and metal scrap...............

98.7
100.4
98.1
93.9

96.0
94.5
96.1
90.1
97.6
92.0

94.5
89.7
94.1

94.1

97.7
93.4
97.1
91.5
101.9
95.0

93.5
92.6

93.3
91.0
93.1
82.3
92.5
91.6

92.6
95.6
92.8
80.6
90.9
91.0

92.4
102.5
93.4
78.2
90.4
87.8

105.8
98.8
104.2

107.1
98.8
106.5

102.4
99.3

104.8
106.4
102.7

106.8
106.6
106.1

103.2
106.9

98.4
99.6

98.7
99.2

95.5
97.4
99.0

98.5
99.4
99.9
96.5
97.3
99.1

97.8
97.6
99.1

98.1
99.6
99.8
96.1
97.6
99.3

96.9
99.5
99.7
94.9
97.0
98.9

96.2
99.5
99.7
93.9
97.4
99.1

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by materials....

100.9

100.4

99.9

99.7

Rubber manufactures, n.e.s......................
Paper, paperboard, and articles of paper, pulp,
and paperboard....................................
Nonmetallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s.......................
Nonferrous metals.......................

100.1

100.0

100.2
100.4

99.7

99.8

98.4
99.8
104.9

98.1
100.3

98.0
100.4

100.8 100.8 101.0 101.1

100.5

100.4

100.3

102.3
100.3

102.3
100.3

102.3
100.3

97.8

101.3
97.7

101.3
96.9

101.3
95.9

99.8
99.2

99.8
98.7

99.7
98.7

99.8
98.3

2

3

Mineral fuels, lubricants, and related products.........
Coal, coke, and briquettes.....................
Petroleum, petroleum products, and related materials...

Chemicals and related products, n.e.s........................
I

i

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products.......
Essential oils; polishing and cleaning preparations........
Plastics in primary form s........................
Plastics in nonprimary forms................
Chemical materials and products, n.e.s.........................

Machinery and transport equipment......................
Power generating machinery and equipment.......
Machinery specialized for particular industries...............
General industrial machines and parts, n.e.s.,
and machine parts........................
Computer equipment and office machines..............
Telecommunications and sound recording and
reproducing apparatus and equipment........................
Electrical machinery and equipment.........
Road vehicles...............................

Professional, scientific, and controlling
| instruments and apparatus....................

114

2002

Jan.

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

March 2002

101.1
110.1

101.6

100.1

99.1

102.6 102.6

99.0

100.1

100.0

107.3

106.3

100.2

100.3

102.5
100.4

0.2

100.2

100.6
102.6 102.0
100.6 100.5

100.6 100.8 101.0
99.3

98.3

99.8
99.1

99.8
99.2

100.2 100.1
100.7

88.2

101.6 100.0

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

103.3
107.8
106.4

102.7
107.8
103.9

100.9
99.2
105.2
99.7

101 1
97 8

91.1
104.3
92.9
76.6
89.3

89.5
99.0
90.2
77.3
87.7
85.1

87.1
89.8
89.7
77.7
84.5
82.7

89.1
88.7
77 4
82
81.4

90 9
87 9
77 2
84 n
81.3

91.6
87.8
75.8
85.3
83.4

96.7
106.8
93.7

97.5
107.9
95.2

103.3
108.8
103.6

93.4
108.9
88.4

3
108.9
80.9

88

82 4
108
74.6

86.8
109.5
80.1

94.9

94.1

93.8

99.1
91.2
98.0
98.7

99.0
90.0
96.9
98.7

93
100 9
98 9
88.5
95
98.7

Q
100 9
98
5

97.2
99.0

93.8
100.9
99.0
89.2
95.9
98.6

97.6

92.1
101.1
97.1
85.4
95.6
7.8

99.5

99.1

98.4

98.2

97.3

96.6

99.8

100.5

100 5

96.7
100 9

100.4

97.4

95.1

95 2
101.4
81.8

95 2
101 7
83.1

95.2
101.4
85.3

105.2
100.7

102.6 102.2

101.8

98.0

100.2 100.2 100.2 100.2

100.8 100.8 100.6 100.8

July

100.9

106.4
104.5
102.4

86.2

100.8 102.1

100.2 100.8 101.1
99.1

88.6

101.0 101.0 100.6

107 2
100.5

888
0

6

8

Jan.
102.6
92.8
108.3
110.9
86.8

8

28

86

8

97.3

95.1

95.6

93.0

90.2

86.9

100.2 100.0 100.0
102.4
102.8 103.0

99.7

99.7

103.1

104.1
100 5

99.6
104 0
100 5

101.9
94 2

101 7
92 9

102.1

97.0

99.6

99.5

101.8 101.8

95.1

101.1

99.5

100.6

99.4

94.8

101.9
94.8

101.8

95.6
99.8
97.8
100.3

98.7
97.7

98.5
97.6

98.0
95.9
100.3

98 0
95.9

100.2

97 7
95.9
100.3

97.9
94.9
100.3

100.9

101.0

100.9

100.9

100.8

100.2 100.2

100.8 I 100.8

94.6

92.4

39.

U.S. import price indexes by Standard International Trade Classification

[2000 = 100]
SITC
Rev. 3

2001

Industry
Jan.

0 Food and live animals.................................................. 100.6
01 Meat and meat preparations........................................... 97.2
03
05
07

1

Fish and crustaceans, mollusks, and other
aquatic invertebrates....................................................
Vegetables, fruit, and nuts, prepared fresh or dry..........
Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices, and manufactures
thereof...........................................................................

Beverages and tobacco...............................................

11 Beverages.......................................................................
2 Crude materials, inedible, except fuels.......................
24
25
28
29

97.7
106.7

Feb.

100.9

98.4

97.3

102.2

104.4

106.3

96.2
102.3

110.1

91.2
102.9

101.1

88.7

89.6

87.4

86.9

88.0

100.6

100.7

1006 1020
100.8 101.0 102.7
100 4

95.1

94.9

95.1

94.7

95.1

109.3

108.9

113.5

114.8

90.0
97.6

87.0
98.4

98.2

86.3
98.5

84.6
99.1

100.2
100.9

6 Manufactured goods classified chiefly by materials.... 101.0

94.5

91.3

108.2
83.5
04 4
80.8

109.6
79.3
03 1
81.0

112.2
77.3
0? ft

105.1
76.8

97.5
78.0

Q1 fi

RQ ft

83.8

93.4

93.1

96.0

92.2

94.4
84.4
82.8

72 3
73.0
65.7

55 n
63.0
75.9

61 ?
59.8
68.7

64 n
62.7
70.5

98.8
99.4
97.1
97.5
99.8
99.8

97.8
98.9
96.8
97.3
99.7
99.8

97.5
97.6
97.1
97.0

97.7
97.0
97.8
97.0

99.7
102.9

87.1
93 9
92.9
90.4
89.3
97.4

85 8
86.8
77.8
98.3
98.1
96.3
97.0
99.7
99.7
99.3
99.0

105.4

103.8
100.9

103.6

102.4
99.9

100.7
99.1

99.1
99.4

98.2
99.4

98.0
99.0

96.8
98.8

95.0
98.7

104.7
99.6
99.6

103.7
99.7
96.1

102.7
99.4
95.3

101.7
99.3
91.0
99.3

99.7

96.7
98.4

99.3
99.4
95.6
99.0
98.1

85 6
86.1
80.9

102.1

100.1

92.6
84.8

102.6 102.6

96.6

102.1

100.0

103.2

89.9
91.7
77.7

102.4

95.8

101.1

101.1

103.1

102.4

96.4

101.1

101.5
99.8

77.5

102.4

100.8 101.1
105.3
101.4

78.5

102.4

102.8
122.1

98.4
98.0
95.7
97.3
98.1
100.5
100.7
99.0

96.7
98.7

82.3
105.4

77.2

102.2 101.6 100.5
104.0
101.2 100.1
100.8 100.2 98.1
96.9
99.0

82.9
99.3

m ? fi

102.4
107.2
101.4
97.5
99.7

97.8
99.3

82.8
101.5

77.3

90.8
86.5
119.1

98.0
98.0
100.9

95.5
105.4

m ? 7

90.2
85.8
119.0

101.2 102.2

94.8
109.8

80.1

104.9
92.4
95 5
94.9

108.2

118.0

1 -? 0

94.7
98.3
96 5
86.5

107.8

Jan.

78.8

89.8
102.5
96
92.0

93.1
90.0
113.7

Dec.

10? 1

89.8
105.6
99.4
108.6

92.0
154.3

Nov.

81.2

98.1

100.1

Oct.

101 7

95.0

6

86.8

Sept.

85.8

94.5

88.0

Aug.

101 7

97.5

101.6 102.2

90.9

100.1

100.1

99.8
100.9
97.8

98.6
100.7
96.0

101.6

101.1

99.2

98.6

94.8
98.7

93.8
98.5

97.8

92.0
97.9

97.4

99.9
99.1
83.4
99.3

99.3
99.3
82.2
99.3

98.6
97.5
78.7
99.7

97.6
97.2
73.7
99.5

96.1
97.5
73.8
99.0

95.0
97.2
76.4
99.0

92.4

92.4

103.5
99.9
111.3
99.1

103.6
99.9
104.6
99.3
99.2
99.7

98.7

99.3

99.2
99.8

99.5

98.5
99.2

98.5
99.1

98.2
98.5

98.1
98.6

98.0
99.1

98.0
99.2

97.9
99.0

97.7
98.7

97.5
98.5

99.6
97.1

99.6
96.3

99.3
95.7

98.8
94.1

98.3
93.9

98.2
93.6

98.0
92.1

97.8
91.7

98.0
90.0

98.7
89.1

98.1
89.0

88.8

97.8

98.0

98.4
99.3

98.2
99.0

98.1
99.9

97.3
99.3
99.9

97.1
99.2
99.7

97.2
98.8
99.8

97.3
98.9
99.7

97.1
98.7
88.7

96.8
98.6

96.4
98.6

95.6
97.6

100.1

100.2

96.3
97.0
100.3

100.2 100.1

100.0

96.5
98.7
100.3

100.1

100.5

100.4

99.9

99.9

100.3

99.4

97.9

97.9

98.2

98.6

98.5

98.4

97.6

100.0
108.7
99.7

100.1

7 Machinery and transport equipment............................
72
Machinery specialized for particular industries...............
74
General industrial machines and parts, n.e.s.,
and machine parts.........................................................
75
Computer equipment and office machines.....................
76
Telecommunications and sound recording and
reproducing apparatus and equipment........................
77
Electrical machinery and equipment...............................
78
Road vehicles..................................................................

100.1

100.1

85

Footwear.........................................................................

100.3

100.4

100.1
100.8

100.4

Photographic apparatus, equipment, and supplies,
and optical goods, n.e.s................................................

99.9

99.9

99.7

98.9


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

96.0
106.2

101.1

5 Chemicals and related products, n.e.s........................
52
Inorganic chemicals........................................................
53
Dying, tanning, and coloring materials...........................
54
Medicinal and pharmaceutical products.........................
55
Essential oils; polishing and cleaning preparations........
57
Plastics in primary forms.................................................
58
Plastics in nonprimary forms...........................................
59
Chemical materials and products, n.e.s.........................

88

90.7

July

95.9

104.3
90.8
195.3

69

93.0

2002

June

100.9

3 Mineral fuels, lubricants, and related products...........
33
Petroleum, petroleum products, and related materials...
34
Gas, natural and manufactured.......................................

66
68

May

97.8

107.5
99.2
96.1

Rubber manufactures, n.e.s............................................
Paper, paperboard, and articles of paper, pulp,
and paperboard............................................................
Nonmetallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s........................
Nonferrous metals...........................................................
Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.........................................

Apr.

99.9

Cork and wood................................................................
Pulp and waste paper.....................................................
Metalliferous ores and metal scrap................................
Crude animal and vegetable materials, n.e.s.................

62
64

Mar.

99.4

100.0 100.1

98.8

98.5

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

88.6

115

Current Labor Statistics:

40.

Price Data

U.S. export price indexes by end-use category

[2000 = 100]

2002

2001

Category
Jan.
A L L C O M M O D IT IE S .................................................................

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

100.3
100.2 100.0 99.9 99.6 99.4
102.1 100.2 101.0 100.2 99.8 100.4
102.2 100.4 101.2 100.6 100.6 101.2

July
99.0

Aug.
98.8

Sept.
99.0

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

98.3

97.8

97.6

97.5

102.6 102.6 101.2
102.2
104.0
103.6

100.6
101.6

100.4

98.8

99.4

97.0

92.7

92.6

101.7
102.4
94.8

90.2

92.9

91.9

99.7
100.7
90.9

90.4

101.7
102.5
94.3

Industrial supplies and materials................................

100.0

99.9

98.9

98.7

98.0

97.2

95.5

94.8

95.2

93.6

92.3

91.4

91.4

Agricultural industrial supplies and materials..........

103.9

104.2

101.7

101.7

102.1

99.3

98.5

97.2

96.8

93.8

92.1

93.3

92.3

Fuels and lubricants.................................................
Nonagricultural supplies and materials,
excluding fuel and building materials....................
Selected building materials......................................

104.2

105.6

100.3

103.9

106.0

102.8

96.9

97.6

103.2

93.6

88.5

83.5

85.0

99.1
99.0

98.8
98.4

98.5
97.5

97.8
96.8

96.5
96.3

96.1
97.0

94.9
97.0

94.0
96.8

93.8
95.5

93.4
95.1

92.8
94.4

92.3
94.1

92.2
94.2

Capital goods.............................................................
Electric and electrical generating equipment..........
Nonelectrical machinery.........................................

100.3

100.6
100.9
99.7

100.5
101.3
99.5

100.4
101.7
99.4

100.3
101.7
99.1

100.2 100.0 100.0 99.7 99.7
101.8 101.5 101.6 101.6 101.6

99.7

100.4
101.3
99.8

98.9

98.6

98.6

98.2

98.1

99.4
101.5
97.7

99.1
102.3
97.2

Automotive vehicles, parts, and engines...................

100.3

100.2

100.3

100.5

100.5

100.4

100.5

100.5

100.4

100.5

100.4

100.5

100.8

Consumer goods, excluding automotive...................

99.8
99.7

99.7
99.2

99.6
99.0

99.5
98.9

99.4
98.9
99.9

99.4
99.0

99.5
98.9

99.5
98.9

99.7
99.1
100.4

99.7
99.0

100.6

99.8
99.1
100.5

99.9
99.1
100.5

99.4
98.1
100.7

102.5
98.6

100.7
98.1

99.2
97.7

Foods, feeds, and beverages.....................................
Agricultural foods, feeds, and beverages................
Nonagricultural (fish, beverages) food products.....

Durables, manufactured.........................................
Agricultural commodities............................................
Nonagricultural commodities.....................................

116

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

100.8

100.1
102.5

100.1

100.0 100.2 100.2
100.2 100.2 100.1
101.0 101.3 100.8 100.8 100.9 101.8 102.8
100.1 99.9 99.8 99.5 99.3 98.8 98.5

March 2002

100.2 100.8
97.3

97.2

41.

U.S. import price indexes by end-use category

[2000 = 100]

2001

Category
Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

2002

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

97.6

96.1

96.0

95.9

ALL COMMODITIES.....................................................

100.5

99.9

98.3

97.8

98.0

Foods, feeds, and beverages....................................
Agricultural foods, feeds, and beverages...............
Nonagricultural (fish, beverages) food products.....

99.1
99.5
98.2

98.0
98.4
97.0

98 9

101.0

96
98.4
92.9

95 4

94 4

Q4 5

Q5 n

94.5

97 0
98.9
3.1

97.0
92.2

96.7
89.7

96.9
89.5

102.8 101.1

96.0

95.4

96.5

95.5

91.4

Fuels and lubricants................................................
Petroleum and petroleum products.....................

104.9
93.1

100.5
93.3

91.1
87.2

90.4

86.2

93.4
90.3

90.9
89.4

Paper and paper base stocks.................................
Materials associated with nondurable
supplies and materials..........................................
Selected building materials......................................
Unfinished metals associated with durable goods...
Nonmetals associated with durable goods.............

104.6

104.8

104.4

104.6

102.2 100.0

102.5
91.0

102.7
91.7
104.2
101.4

102.8 102.2

Capital goods.............................................................
Electric and electrical generating equipment..........
Nonelectrical machinery.........................................

98
99.8
98.5

Industrial supplies and materials...............................

Automotive vehicles, parts, and engines...................
Consumer goods, excluding automotive....................
Nondurables, manufactured...................................
Durables, manufactured..........................................
Nonmanufactured consumer goods........................

42.

102.8

100.4

8

6

6

101.4

91.8

97.8
89.2

97.8
87.8

99.5
86.4

98.3

100.2

91.0

91.0

84.3

79.9

77.6

79.2

84.8
84.6

86.0
86.1

86.1
86.7

72.9
73.4

65.7
63.6

61.6
59.9

64.6
63.1

98.0

95.1

93.9

93.1

92.3

90.7

91.7

98.6
103.0
91.4

98.0
102.9
87.4

100.2

97.9
103.7
87.1
100.4

98.0
99.9
85.1
99.9

96.7
96.1
82.1
98.9

96.2
92.9
82.1
99.0

96.2
93.1
83.4
98.5

100.6 100.1

98 7

98 n

97 8

86.8

98
99.6
98.2

102.1

97.1

96.9

96.7

96.2

101.3
96.0

101.4
95.6

101.4
95.4

101.2

98.0

100.2 100.1

100.1

100.0

99.8

99.8

99.7

99.6

99.9

100.1

100.0 100.1

99.8

99.5

99.5

99.2

99.2

99.4
99.3

99.1
98.2

99.3
99.8
98.9
99.2

98.6
97.6

98.6
97.4

99.1
99.6
98.7
97.9

98.9
99.6
98.4
95.8

99.7
99.8
99.6
99.7

99.7
99.8
99.5
101.7

101.6 101.8 101.8 101.6

100.2 100.1

100.0
99.0
99.6

Jan.

91.4

94.2
100.9

93.6

Dec.

92.3

111.1

93.9
96.9

Nov.

93.7

100.1

91.9
99.5

101.6 101.2

100.3

Oct.

100.0 100.0

95.3

98.8
99.6
98.3
95.7

87.1

100.6 100.0
94.9

98.7
99.7
98.0
96.4

94.7
99.9
98.8
99.8
98.1
95.8

U.S. international price Indexes for selected categories of services

[2000 = 100]____________________

Category

1999
Dec.

Air freight (inbound)......................................................
Air freight (outbound).....................................................

102.8

Air passenger fares (U.S. carriers)...............................
Air passenger fares (foreign carriers)...........................
Ocean liner freight (inbound).........................................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2000
Mar.

June

100.1

2001

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

100.2

97.9

100.3

100.2
100.2

100.1

95.1
98.0

94.9
97.6

95.2
97.9

101.2
102.1

103.1
103.2

99.9
97.6

101.9
100.7

106.4
103.8

107.6

103.5

98.1

93.6

99.2

100.7
99.2

95.3
96.7
98.7

95.8
97.1
96.6

101.3

101.1

99.0

101.0

102.8

Monthly Labor Review

100.8

110.2

March 2002

100.8

117

Current Labor S tatistics:

43.

Productivity Data

Indexes of productivity, hourly compensation, and unit costs, quarterly data seasonally adjusted

[1992 = 100]

1998

Item

IV

1999
I

II

2000
III

IV

1

II

2001
III

IV

I

II

III

IV

Business
Output per hour of all persons.......................................
Compensation per hour................................................
Real compensation per hour.........................................
Unit labor costs..............................................................
Unit nonlabor payments................................................
Implicit price deflator.....................................................

111.9

121.8

105.8
108.8
114.3

112.7
123.1
106.6
109.2
114.5

10.8 111.2

112.4
124.4
106.9
110.7

112.6
111.4

113.3
126.1
107.5
111.3
112.3
111.7

115.3
127.3
107.7
110.4
114.8

112.0

114.2
112.9

112.7
125.1
106.8

113.8
126.6
107.1

113.8
128.7
107.9

115.3
129.3
108.4

112.2

117.5
132.1

117.8
134.3

113.5
115.1
113.5

114.0
113.8
113.9

110.0 110.8

118.7
137.4
112.5
115.8

118.6
139.1

112.8

114.4

117.3
111.7
115.2

117.2
133.6

117.8
136.5

117.8
138.1

114.0
115.3
114.5

115.8
113.4
114.9

117.2
113.1
115.7

119.8
132.7
108.7

119.9
134.5
109.1
111.4

107.8
120.5

109.3

112.0

121.1

119.3
140.9
113.4
118.1
111.5
115.7

119.5
142.1
114.1
118.9
111.7
116.2

118.4
139.7
112.4
118.0
112.9
116.1

118.7
141.0
113.2
118.7
112.9
116.1

141.8
114.0
117.9
113.9
116.4

121.2

-

142.9
114.9
119.1

112.0

115.8

Nonfarm business
Output per hour of all persons.......................................
Compensation per hour................................................
Real compensation per hour.........................................
Unit labor costs..............................................................
Unit nonlabor payments................................................
Implicit price deflator.....................................................

111.5

112.2 111.8
122.2 123.5

105.3
108.6
115.4

105.8
109.0
116.0
111.5

106.1
110.4
114.2

111.8

112.1

114.0

116.5
112.5

115.9
113.5

116.7
131.2
109.2
112.5
116.7
114.0

113.3
117.9
102.4
103.9
104.1
103.3
137.7

114.5
119.1
103.1
103.7
104.1

114.7
120.4
103.5
104.5
104.9
103.4
135.4

115.4
121.9
104.0
105.4
105.6
105.0
128.0

116.4
123.2
104.2
105.6
105.8
105.1
131.3

118.8
127.6
106.1
107.1
107.4
106.5
139.3
114.8
109.8

119.6
129.7
107.0
108.1
108.5
107.1
135.8
114.4
110.5

137.2
128.6
107.0
93.8

138.3 .2'138.3
131.9
135.9
108.8
111.3
95.4
97.6

121.1
111.1

111.1

110.2 112.1

110.2 111.8

112.0

Nonfinancial corporations
Output per hour of all employees..................................
Real compensation per hour.........................................
Unit labor costs............................................................
Unit nonlabor costs......................................................
Unit nonlabor payments................................................
Implicit price deflator.....................................................

102.8

106.7

141.6
112.7
106.9

125.9
119.1
103.4
94.6

127.6
119.8
103.7
93.9

112.1

107.1

107.4

107.8

117.2
125.0
104.8
106.5
106.6
106.2
135.1
113.6
108.9

128.3

129.6
123.0
104.9
94.9

132.7
124.5
105.4
93.8

135.2
126.3
105.9
93.4

111.6

110.8 111.8

110.0
110.8 112.2
111.0

110.9

111.1

120.9
136 5
109.9
112 5
112.9

111.2
107.4

138 1
110.9
114.0
114.0
114.2
99.6
110.4

109.8
111.4

110.2
112.0 112.8

138.3
137.9

138.1
140.0

99.7

101.3

120.2

_
_
-

Manufacturing
Output per hour of all persons.......................................
Real compensation per hour.........................................
Unit labor costs..............................................................

118

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

March 2002

121.2
104.2
94.4

111.8 112.6

139.0
141.2
113.4
101.5

140.4
142.0
114.2

101.2

44.

Annual indexes of multifactor productivity and related measures, selected years

[1996 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
Item

1960

1970

1980

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

Private business
Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons....................................
Output per unit of capital services..............................
Multifactor productivity.................................................
Output............................................................................
Inputs:
Labor input..................................................................
Capital services...........................................................
Combined units of labor and capital input..................
Capital per hour of all persons......................................

45.6
110.4
65.2
27.5

63.0

80.0
42.0

75.8
101.5
88.3
59.4

90.2
99.3
95.3
83.6

54.0
24.9
42.3
41.3

61.0
37.8
52.4
56.7

71.9
58.6
67.3
74.7

89.4
84.2
87.7
90.8

48.7

64.9
118.3
82.6
41.9

77.3
105.7
90.5
59.6

39.3
40.5

59.3
35.5
50.7
54.8

70.7
56.4
65.9
73.1

41.8
124.3
72.7
38.5

54.2
116.5
84.4
56.5

70.1
100.9

101.6

75.3

99.3
97.3

92.0
30.9
51.3
38.2
28.2
52.9

104.2
48.5
85.4
44.8
48.8
67.0

107.5
74.7
92.5
75.0
73.7
87.0

104.8
95.8
99.9
92.5
92.5
98.0

111.1

91.3
96.1
94.4
82.6

94.8
97.7
96.6
85.7

95.4
98.5
97.1
88.5

96.6
100.3
98.1
92.8

97.3
99.7
98.4
95.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

88.3

89.3
87.7

95.6
92.6
94.6
96.3

98.0
96.0
97.3
97.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

102.0

104.8

104.8

105.2

100.1
102.6
110.6

100.1
102.6
110.6

103.7
104.7
104.0
101.5

106.4
110.4
107.7
104.7

106.4
110.4
107.7
104.7

101.7

104.5
99.8
102.4

104.5
99.8
102.4

110.6

110.6

106.6

106.6

100.5

101.1

87.5
95.0

88.8
97.0

91.8
89.8
91.1
96.8

91.4
96.6
94.7
82.5

94.8
97.9
96.6
85.5

95.3
98.8
97.1
88.4

96.5
100.3
98.1
92.6

97.5
99.9
98.6
95.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.9
105.1

89.2
83.5
87.3
90.3

88.0
85.4
87.1
94.7

89.0
87.3
88.4
96.8

91.8
89.5
91.0
96.5

95.4
92.3
94.4
96.3

97.8
95.9
97.2
97.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

103.8
104.9
104.2
101.5

110.8

110.8

108.0
104.7

108.0
104.7

92.8

95.0
97.5
98.3
95.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

101.9

101.1

105.0
104.0

112.8

100.4
103.3

102.6
108.7

109.0
105.0
105.0
113.4

117.1
105.6
109.8
123.5

124.3
106.5
113.2
130.7

124.3
106.5
113.2
130.7

100.4
97.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

101.4

103.6
104.5
107.3
111.3
105.1
106.0

104.0
108.0
109.5

103.7
111.9
107.0
120.4
108.9

105.2

105.2

122.8

122.8

107.9

110.2

105.5
116.9
103.9
120.4
114.2
112.5

109.2
127.2
116.8
115.5

109.2
127.2
116.8
115.5

86.0

Private nonfarm business
Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons....................................
Output per unit of capital services..............................
Multifactor productivity................................................
Output............................................................................
Inputs:
Labor input..................................................................
Capital services...........................................................
Combined units of labor and capital input..................
Capital per hour of all persons......................................

120.1
69.1
27.2
50.1

22.6

90.3

100.0
95.6
83.5

100.2

Manufacturing (1992 = 100)
Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons.....................................
Output per unit of capital services..............................
Multifactor productivity................................................
Output............................................................................
Inputs:
Hours of all persons.....................................................
Capital services...........................................................
Energy.........................................................................
Nonenergy materials....................................................
Purchased business services......................................
Combined units of all factor inputs..............................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

86.6

100.1
93.6
92.1
97.0

102.2
103.7
105.7
103.0
102.9

112.8
110.0

104.5
106.1
116.9

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

119

Current Labor S tatistics:

45.

Productivity Data

Annual indexes of productivity, hourly compensation, unit costs, and prices, selected years

[1992 = 100]
Item

1960

1970

1980

1990

1991

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

Business
Output per hour of all persons.......................................
Compensation per hour................................................
Real compensation per hour.........................................
Unit labor costs..............................................................
Unit nonlabor payments................................................
Implicit price deflator.....................................................

48.8
13.7
60.0
28.0
25.2
27.0

67.0
23.5
78.9
35.1
31.6
33.9

80.4
54.2
89.4
67.4
61.5
65.2

95.2
90.7
96.5
95.3
93.9
94.8

96.3
95.0
97.5
98.7
97.0
98.1

51.9
14.3
62.8
27.5
24.6
26.5

68.9
23.7
79.5
34.4
31.3
33.3

82.0
54.6
90.0
66.5
60.5
64.3

95.3
90.5
96.3
95.0
93.6
94.5

96.4
95.0
97.5
98.5
97.1
98.0

55.4
15.6
68.3
26.8
28.1
23.3
50.2
30.2
28.8

70.4
25.3
84.7
34.8
35.9
31.9
44.4
35.1
35.6

81.1
56.4
93.1
68 4
69.6
65.1

97.7
95.3
97.8
98.8
97.5

68.4

95.4
90.8
96.7
95.9
95.2
98.0
94.3
97.1
95.8

41.8
14.9
65.2
35.6
26.8
30.2

54.2
23.7
79.5
43.8
29.3
34.9

70.1
55.6
91.7
79.3
80.2
79.8

92.8
90.8
96.6
97.8
99.7
99.0

100.5
102.5
99.9
101.9
102.5

102.2

101.9
104.5
99.7

102.6
106.4
104.0

102.6

105.4

106.7
99.3
104.1
109.4
106.0

110.1

107.8
113.5

99.7
104.5
113.3
107.7

105.3
117.1
109.7

100.6

110.8
119.6
104.6
108.0
115.1

113.8
125.1
107.1
109.9
115.1

110.6

111.8

110.4
119.0
104.0
107.7
116.3

113.2
124.2
106.4
109.7
116.8
112.3

Nonfarm business
Output per hour of all persons......................................
Compensation per hour................................................
Real compensation per hour.........................................
Unit labor costs..............................................................
Unit nonlabor payments................................................
Implicit price deflator.....................................................

100.5

102.2
99.6
101.7
103.0

102.2

101.8

102.8

104.3
99.5
102.5
106.9
104.1

106.6
99.2
103.7
110.4
106.1

105.4
109.8
99.4
104.2
113.5
107.6

107.5
113.1

103.1
104.2
99.4

104.2
106.2
98.8

107.5
109.0
98.7

101.1
101.0

102.0

101.2

108.4
110.3
97.8
101.5

112.3
115.9
101.3

100.9
156.9
115.2
106.2

101.2

100.2
105.2
118.0
109.8

110.8

Nonfinancial corporations
Output per hour of all employees.................................
Compensation per hour................................................
Real compensation per hour.........................................
Unit labor costs............................................................
Unit nonlabor costs......................................................
Unit profits.....................................................................
Unit nonlabor payments................................................
Implicit price deflator.....................................................

68.8
66.0

100.7

102.0
99.5

101.0
101.3

102.1

100.2

93.0
99.7
98.3

113.2
103.5

102.1

101.3
131.7
109.0
103.7

95.0
95.6
98.1

101.9
102.7

105.0
105.6

100.6

100.2
100.8

100.7

99.0
99.6

100.9
100.9

101.9

101.4

102.2

100.6

139.0
105.1

152.2
113.8
105.5

109.0
107.9
100.4
99.0
106.9
103.9

109.3
99.0
96.9
109.9
104.9

111.6

101.8

116.2

121.1

148.9
113.4
106.6

103.7
103.7
104.2
102.5
147.6
114.0
107.4

124.3
117.3

122.0

102.6
103.2

Manufacturing
Output per hour of all persons.......................................
Compensation per hour................................................
Real compensation per hour.........................................
Unit labor costs..............................................................
Unit nonlabor payments................................................
Implicit price deflator.....................................................
Dash indicates data not available.

120

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

March 2002

100.8
102.8
102.0

112.8

117.1
111.4
98.8
95.1
109.6
104.0

102.6
94.4
104.4
100.5

129.6
104.5
94.1
105.5

101.1

46.

Annual indexes of output per hour for selected 3-digit SIC industries

[1987 = 100]

Industry
Mining
Copper ores............................................................
Gold and silver ores................................................
Bituminous coal and lignite mining.........................
Crude petroleum and natural gas...........................
Crushed and broken stone.....................................

Manufacturing
Meat products.........................................................
Dairy products.........................................................
Preserved fruits and vegetables.............................
Grain mill products..................................................
Bakery products......................................................
Sugar and confectionery products.........................
Fats and oils...........................................................
Beverages...............................................................
Miscellaneous food and kindred products..............
Cigarettes................................................................
Broadwoven fabric mills, cotton..............................
Broadwoven fabric mills, manmade.......................
Narrow fabric mills...................................................
Knitting mills...........................................................
Textile finishing, except wool..................................

SIC

102
122
131
142

201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209

211
221
222
224
225
226
227
228
229
232
233

Women's and children's undergarments................
Hats, caps, and millinery.........................................
Miscellaneous apparel and accessories................
Miscellaneous fabricated textile products..............
Sawmills and planing mills.....................................

234
235
238
239
242

Millwork, plywood, and structural members...........
Wood containers.....................................................
Wood buildings and mobile homes........................
Miscellaneous wood products...............................
Household furniture................................................

243
244
245
249
251

Public building and related furniture......................
Partitions and fixtures.............................................
Miscellaneous furniture and fixtures......................

252
253
254
259
261

Miscellaneous publishing.......................................

Blankbooks and bookbinding.................................

Plastics materials and synthetics...........................

Soaps, cleaners, and toilet goods.........................

Agricultural chemicals...........................................
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

105.5

126.0
160.8
148.1
112.4
108.7

117.2
144.2
155.9
119.4
105.4

116.5
138.3
168.0
123.9
107.2

118.9
158.5
176.6
125.2

118.3
187.6
188.0
127.4

105.0

118.1
159.8
141.2
105.9
103.6

112.6

110.2

99.6
108.3
99.2
104.9
90.6

104.6
111.4
100.5
107.8
93.8

104.3
109.6
106.8
109.2
94.4

101.2
111.8

102.3
116.4
109.1
115.4
97.3

97.4
116.0
109.2
108.0
95.6

102.5
119.3
110.7
118.2
99.1

102.3
119.3
117.8
126.2

100.8

130.4
107.5

103.2
118.1
117.0
99.2
113.2

102.0
120.1
120.0

99.8
114.1
127.1
101.5

104.5

106.2

108.3
120.3
133.5
102.9
142.9

113.8

116.7

110.1

120.2

135.0
109.1
147.2

135.5
104.1
147.2

123.0
137.3
136.4
112.7
152.2

130.0
156.1
132.4
116.3
135.8

103.1
111.3
96.5
107.5
83.4

111.2

137.3
147.6
126.3
150.3
79.2

131.2
162.2

136.2
168.6
117.7
135.9
99.1

138.7
171.9
122.4
144.8

93.2

100.3
150.4
118.7
162.1
149.9

102.3
153.0
174.7
151.9

97.8
169.5
127.0
187.0
174.5

208.9
87.1
101.4
119.2
116.9

216.4
99.5
107.7
117.2
118.7

293.0
108.7
105.8
129.2
125.4

89.1
106.2
100.3
123.4
121.3

91.3
106.6
99.2
131.2
125.8

90.7
105.0
96.8
141.3
128.7

113.1
207.6
125.6
121.9

115.2
141.6
133.0

102.2
97.1
107.3
95.6
105.4
92.7

110.2
109.2

102.1
104.1

102.1
89.2
90.6
99.9
99.8
98.0

111.2
103.1
107.7
104.5
95.0
119.8
95.6
103.5
116.7

262
263
265
267
271

102.3

272
273
274
275
276

93.9
96.6
92.2
102.5
93.0

277
278
279
281
282

100.6

283
284
285
286
287

103.8
103.8
106.3
101.4
104.7

100.6
101.3
101.4
90.6

99.4
99.3
106.8
100.9

I

1991

100.5
127.4
122.4
97.9
99.8

102.7
122.3
118.7
97.0

104

Carpets and rugs....................................................
Yarn and thread mills..............................................
Miscellaneous textile goods...................................
Men's and boys' furnishings...................................
Women's and misses' outerwear............................

Paperboard mills....................................................
Paperboard containers and boxes........................
Miscellaneous converted paper products.............

1990

102.1

107.6
108.4
96.4

112.6

111.8

111.6

126.4
105.2
106.5

130.1
100.9
126.6

110.3
126.2
112.9
119.3
78.6

117.8
131.7
111.4
127.9
79.3

122.1

116.2
99.6
114.0
79.9

134.1
81.2

134.0
145.3
118.9
138.3
78.5

89.2
111.4
104.6
108.4
104.3

96.1
119.6
106.5
109.1
109.4

97.1
126.6
110.4
108.4

95.8
137.4
123.7
123.4
135.5

100.2

121.8

93.3
130.7
118.5
111.7
127.4

113.7
91.1
91.8
100.7

124.5
87.2
94.0
108.5
101.9

138.0
77.7
105.5
107.8
103.3

161.3
84.3
116.8
109.2

174.5
82.2

102.6

117.4
93.6
91.3
107.5
108.1

98.0
113.1
103.0
110.5
107.1

99.9
109.4
103.1
114.2
110.5

97.0

94.5
100.9
98.3

92.7
106.1
97.0
115.4
116.9

92.4
106.7
96.7
114.4

94.1

102.5
140.6
102.7
99.5
137.3

101.1

106.4
181.5
97.5
113.2
132.6

118.3
214.9

101.7
107.6

120.2
93.0

102.1
128.3

100.1
103.8
115.3

110.6
103.2
161.0
107.4
103.6
122.5

142.5

120.1

111.8
112.5
100.5
157.4
98.9
104.7
128.9

110.2

99.2
101.4
103.4
105.3
85.8

103.3
104.4
105.2
105.5
81.5

102.4
108.4
107.9
107.9
79.4

89.5

89.1

92.9
97.7
105.8
108.0
94.5

89.5
103.5
104.5
106.9
91.1

81.9
103.0
97.5
106.5
82.0

92.7
96.1

96.7
103.6

89.0
105.4

100.6

112.0

109.7

100.0

109.7
107.5

91.4
98.7
115.3
105.6

104.5
105.3
104.3
95.8
99.5

99.5
104.4
102.9
94.6
99.5

100.8
95.9

102.0

112.0
99.7
108.7
108.8
92.2
103.8

114.9
108.4

110.6
79.9

111.0
102.3
125.3
104.6

111.2
116.7
99.9
105.0

110.2

173.3

101.2
110.0
131.9
118.6
119.5
105.1
113.3
79.0
87.8

101.6
94.8
107.2
76.9

147.4
123.1
134.7
141.6

120.1
105.6
115.6

121.6

110.8
138.0
94.3

121.1
110.7
82.3

120.1

200.0
192.2
132.3
104.8

102.2
114.1

120.0

101.0

86.6

109.8
210.9
127.0
122.7
88.4

114.9
127.8
113.5
122.9
83.6

122.7
131.0
113.5
127.3
86.3

111.6

112.0

118.0
106.3
113.6
77.4

126.7
109.7
119.5
79.0

89.1
99.3
93.6
108.3
75.2

100.1
102.6

115.0

114.5
108.8
77.9

119.5
109.9
76.7

115.1
105.4
128.3
115.2
73.6

92.2
114.2
123.3
116.8
135.4

104.2
116.4
126.7
145.8
142.2

103.9
123.3
120.5
170.7
145.7

104.3
122.7
126.8
105.7
117.5

104.8
116.8
125.6
111.3
106.9

92.5
108.7
116.7
109.3
128.3

90.8
114.5
126.2

108.7
118.6
118.0
98.6
108.5

112.5
120.9
125.6
99.0

112.4
126.4
126.4

110.0

119.8

110.1
125.3

Monthly Labor Review

111.2

101.0

March 2002

121

Current Labor S tatistics:

Productivity Data

46. Continued— Annual indexes of output per hour for selected 3-digit SIC industries
[1987 = 100]__________________________________
Industry

SIC

Miscellaneous chemical products...........................
Petroleum refining..................................................
Asphalt paving and roofing materials.....................
Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products..........
Tires and inner tubes.............................................

289
291
295
299
301

97.3
109.2
98.0
94.8
103.0

96.1
106.6
94.1
90.6
102.4

111.3
100.4
101.5
107.8

108.0
104.2
116.5

Hose and belting and gaskets and packing...........
Fabricated rubber products, n.e.c.........................
Miscellaneous plastics products, n.e.c..................
Footwear, except rubber........................................
Flat glass................................................................

305
306
308
314
321

96.1
109.0
105.7
84.5

92.4
109.9
108.3
94.4
83.6

97.8
115.2
114.4
104.2
92.7

99.7
123.1
116.7
105.2
97.7

Glass and glassware, pressed or blown................
Products of purchased glass..................................
Cement, hydraulic...................................................
Structural clay products.........................................
Pottery and related products..................................

322
323
324
325
326

104.8
92.6
112.4
109.6
98.6

102.3
97.7
108.3
109.8
95.8

108.9
101.5
115.1
111.4
99.5

108.7
106.2
119.9
106.8
100.3

112.9
105.9
125.6
114.0
108.4

115.7
106.1
124.3
109.3

128.7
119.6
119.3

Concrete, gypsum, and plaster products..............
Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral products..........
Blast furnace and basic steel products..................
Iron and steel foundries.........................................
Primary nonferrous metals.....................................

327
329
331
332
333

102.3
95.4
109.7
106.1
102.3

101.2
94.0
107.8
104.5
110.7

102.5
104.3
117.0
107.2
101.9

104.6
104.5
133.6

101.5
106.3
142.4
113.0
105.3

104.5
107.8
142.6
112.7

107.3
110.4
147.5
116.2

111.0

Nonferrous rolling and drawing..............................
Nonferrous foundries (castings).............................
Miscellaneous primary metal products..................
Metal cans and shipping containers.......................
Cutlery, handtools, and hardware...........................

335
336
339
341
342

92.7
104.0
113.7
117.6
97.3

91.0
103.6
109.1
122.9
96.8

96.0
103.6
114.5
127.8

100.1

98.3
108.5
111.3
132.3
104.0

Plumbing and heating, except electric...................
Fabricated structural metal products......................
Metal forgings and stampings.................................
Metal services, n.e.c...............................................
Ordnance and accessories, n.e.c...........................

343
344
346
347
348

102.6

102.0
100.0

98.4
103.9
103.7

104.8
108.7

Miscellaneous fabricated metal products...............
Engines and turbines..............................................
Farm and garden machinery..................................
Construction and related machinery.......................
Metalworking machinery.........................................

349
351
352
353
354

97.5
106.5
116.5
107.0

Special industry machinery....................................
General industrial machinery..................................
Computer and office equipment.............................
Refrigeration and service machinery......................
Industrial machinery, n.e.c.....................................

355
356
357
358
359

107.5
101.5
138.1
103.6
107.3

Electric distribution equipment...............................
Electrical industrial apparatus
Household appliances............................................
Electric lighting and wiring equipment...................
Communications equipment...................................

361
362
363
364
366

Electronic components and accessories................
Miscellaneous electrical equipment & supplies......
Motor vehicles and equipment...............................
Aircraft and parts....................................................
Ship and boat building and repairing......................

1990

101.1

98.8
95.6
104.7
82.1

101.1

1991

92.9
99.4
81.5
97.4
105.8
112.9
99.1
96.4

1992

101.8

111.6
88.6

1993
107.1

120.1

112.1
107.9

102.0
120.6
84.6

1994

1995

1996

110.1

155.7
124.7
98.5
144.2

128.1
169.5
115.7
90.7
145.5

113.5
125.3
129.9
121.4
107.6

112.7
132.3
133.8
110.9
114.0

114.0
140.8
141.2
131.6
127.7

128.3
125.1
133.1
111.9
123.2

135.2

143.6
134.0
139.6
124.0

107.6
114.6
155.0

112.8
114.7
151.0

110.8

120.8
112.0

125.8

114.4
114.6
148.9
126.2
131.2

134.5
140.9
109.2

99.2
117.8
152.2
144.2
111.3

104.0
122.3
149.6
155.2
118.2

111.3
127.0
136.2
160.3
114.6

115.2
131.5
140.0
163.8
115.7

122.7
130.8
150.4
160.3
123.9

109.1
107.7
108.5
123.0
83.6

109.2
105.8
109.3
127.7
87.6

118.6
106.5
113.6
128.4
87.5

127.3
111.9

120.2
124.4
93.7

130.3
112.7
125.9
127.3
96.6

126.9
112.7
130.3
127.9
92.2

107.7
136.9
141.2
132.5
119.2

111.5
145.9
148.5
137.5
119.8

110.3
151.2
125.5
137.2
123.5

125.1

87.4
131.1

142.0
113.1
87.1
138.8

102.7
119.1

104.6
121.5

120.8

121.0

121.0

113.0
97.6

117.1
99.6

101.2
112.1

111.2

112.6

107.4
124.7
126.1
101.5
121.4

122.0

102.0

103.3
113.9

109.2
118.6
108.2
107.4

103.2
122.3
125.0
117.7
109.9

106.6
122.7
134.7
114.8

108.3
136.6
137.2
123.3
114.9

121.2
106.7
328.6
110.7
127.4

132.3
109.0
469.4
112.7
138.8

134.0
109.4
681.3
114.7
141.4

143.0
150.8
127.3
113.7

275.3

102.0

122.1

108.3

106.0

101.6

149.6
100.7
109.0

195.7
104.9
117.0

113.6
104.8
258.6
108.6
118.5

106.3
107.7
105.8
99.9
123.8

106.5
107.1
106.5
97.5
129.1

119.6
117.1
115.0
105.7
154.9

132.9
123.4
107.8
163.0

131.8
134.9
131.4
113.4
186.4

200.6

143.9
154.3
127.4
116.9
229.5

367
369
371
372
373

133.4
90.6
102.4
98.9
103.7

154.7
98.6
96.6
108.2
96.3

189.3
101.3
104.2
112.3
102.7

217.9
108.2
106.2
115.2
106.2

274.1
110.5
108.8
109.6
103.8

401.5
114.1
106.7
107.9
98.0

514.9
123.1
107.2
113.0
99.2

Railroad equipment................................................
Motorcycles, bicycles, and parts.............................
Guided missiles, space vehicles, parts..................
Search and navigation equipment.........................
Measuring and controlling devices.........................

374
375
376
381
382

141.1
93.8
116.5
112.7
106.4

146.9
99.8
110.5
118.9
113.1

147.9
108.4
110.5

151.0
130.9

122.1

150.0
120.3

119.9

129.1
124.0

152.5
125.1
118.9
132.1
133.8

Medical instruments and supplies...........................
Ophthalmic goods...................................................
Photographic equipment & supplies.......................
Jewelry, silverware, and plated ware......................
Musical instruments................................................

384
385
386
391
393

116.9

121.2

118.7
125.1

107.8
99.3
97.1

95.8
-96.9

123.5
144.5
116.4
96.7
96.0

127.3
157.8
126.9
96.7
95.6

126.7
160.6
132.7
99.5
88.7

See footnotes at end of table.

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March 2002

122.1

122.2

1999

120.6

107.8
132.3

101.1

104.3

1998

120.3
149.2
123.1
96.5
149.1

105.7
123.8
104.9
96.3
124.1

101.6

110.2

1997

131.7

122.0
134.1
114.8
127.1

121.1

120.8

110.0

111.2

960.2
115.0
129.3

1350.6
121.4
127.5

139.3
111.4
1840.2
123.2
134.3

142.8
164.2
142.9

147.5
162.3
150.3
129.2
276.0

146.6
162.9
150.2
132.4
327.1

613.4
128.3
116.3
114.7
105.3

768.0
135.3
125.2
140.1

107.0
140.7
136.5
139.6

102.0

112.6

149.5
146.4

148.3
125.5
129.4
142.2
150.5

184.2
120.4
136.5
149.5
142.4

189.1
127.7
142.4
149.1
143.5

205.1
121.4
158.2
139.7
152.9

131.5
167.2
129.5

139.8
188.2
128.7

100.2

102.6

86.9

78.8

147.4
196.3
121.5
114.2
82.9

158.6
199.1
124.8
113.1
81.4

160.2
229.5
147.2
133.9
86.4

121.0

121.8

46. Continued— Annual indexes of output per hour for selected 3-digit SIC industries
[1987 = 100]

Industry

SIC

Toys and sporting goods........................................
Pens, pencils, office, and art supplies....................
Costume jewelry and notions.................................
Miscellaneous manufactures..................................

394
395
396
399

1990

1991

1992

1996

1994
109.7
129.9
129.0
106.1

113.6
135.2
143.7
108.1

119.9
144.1
142.2

150.3
129.5
106.6
105.7
142.2

108.1
118.2
105.3
106.5

109.7
116.8
106.7
109.2

104.9
111.3

114.2

110.8

115.8
107.7

118.5

127.8
116.9
103.7
92.5

139.6
123.4
104.5
96.9

145.4
126.6
107.1

119.8
106.1
87.6
113.4
109.6

127.7
108.3
88.5
115.2

135.5
106.7
85.3

109.5

1995

1993

111.6

111.1
104.0
92.9

100.2

481
483
484
491,3 (pt.)
492,3 (pt.)

113.3
104.9
92.6

Lumber and other building materials dealers.........
Paint, glass, and wallpaper stores.........................
Hardware stores.....................................................
Retail nurseries, lawn and garden supply stores....
Department stores..................................................

521
523
525
526
531

104.3
106.8
115.3
84.7
96.8

102.3
100.4
108.7
89.3

106.4
107.6
115.2

102.0

Variety stores..........................................................
Miscellaneous general merchandise stores...........

533
539
541
542
546

154.4
118.6
96.6
98.9
91.2

158.8
124.8
96.3
90.8
96.7

110.1
105.8

111.1

120.6
121.8

110.1
83.4
126.8
125.6

124.0
129.3
150.2

112.8

156.2
125.4
106.5
108.6

167.0
130.9
104.7

169.8
132.4
108.3

111.1

111.6

173.3
129.9
109.7
110.7

182.3
131.6
110.3
108.3

148.1
109.6
84.5
135.0
137.1

159.5
105.8
81.9
146.5
145.9

160.9

121.6

121.8

133.5
119.5
136.4
123.5

134.8
119.0
127.5
128.8

238.4
167.6
92.1
86.4
75.9

Trade

Meat and fish (seafood) markets............................

211.3
167.3
93.9
94.4
83.0

142.3
163.2
149.3
151.2
147.4

257.7
170.3
91.7
90.8
67.6

268.7
185.7
92.2
95.7

68.1

319.5
195.2
95.4
99.3
83.8

109.1
108.2
126.1
129.8
154.2

108.8
108.1
126.1
136.3
157.3

108.7
113.0
133.9
145.2
176.1

111.9
116.0
140.6
154.6
190.5

109.7
105.3

111.2

122.3
123.6

115.9
119.5
130.0

121.1
121.8
130.4

108.1
109.1
127.2
121.4
139.9

121.1

111.5
107.8
105.4
106.7
129.8

118.6
115.5
113.9
115.5
139.9

121.5
117.3
113.3
118.0
154.5

127.7
130.7
114.7
121.5
179.1

141.8
139.2
117.4
138.4
199.3

146.9
151.9
123.6
140.7
208.1

150.2
148.4
124.2
153.5
218.4

153.1
145.0
127.2
181.4
260.3

156.5
151.1
134.1
183.9
314.6

581
591
592
593
594

104.5
106.3
105.9
103.0
107.2

103.8
108.0
106.9
102.3
109.0

103.4
107.6
109.6
115.7
107.5

103.8
109.5

102.1

102.0
111.1

100.6

101.6

102.0

119.7
109.9
140.3
129.1

125.6
116.5
163.6
138.8

104.3
129.8
114.6
181.9
145.2

596
598
599

111.1
84.5
114.5

112.5
85.3
104.0

602
701
721
722
723

107.7
96.2
102.3
98.2
97.5

724
726
753
783

100.7
91.2
107.9
118.1

565
566
571
572
573

107.8
107.9
104.6
104.3

Eating and drinking places....................................
Drug and proprietary stores...................................

Finance and services

Funeral services and crematories.........................
Automotive repair shops........................................
Motion picture theaters..........................................

197.4
164.8
95.4
95.7
85.3

134.2
163.5
137.8
133.7
135.5

108.6

Family clothing stores............................................
Shoe stores.............................................................
Furniture and homefurnishings stores...................
Household appliance stores...................................
Radio, television, computer, and music stores......

Laundry, cleaning, and garment services.............
Photographic studios, portrait...............................

191.5
164.2
96.0
97.7
86.5

81.5
162.7
145.0

84.7
150.5
158.6

101.8

100.8

106.7
103.6
103.0
115.6
106.6

Commercial banks..................................................

173.7
140.4
96.5
99.2
96.5

121.2

189.1

170.3
100.7
83.5
160.1
144.4

101.1

107.4

551
553
554
561
562

Fuel dealers...........................................................

117.0
113.4

117.8
130.9
115.5
117.4
115.9

111.2

101.6
110.2

New and used car dealers.....................................
Auto and home supply stores.................................
Gasoline service stations........................................
Men’s and boy’s wear stores..................................
Women's clothing stores........................................

Used merchandise stores.....................................
Miscellaneous shopping goods stores..................

118.9
127.8

105.4

111.4
114.2
113.9
107.1
110.4

101.2

1999

131.6
132.5
131.2
108.5

Utitlities
Telephone communications...................................
Radio and television broadcasting.........................
Cable and other pay TV services............................
Electric utilities........................................................
Gas utilities..............................................................

1998

125.7
127.5
118.0
109.4

Transportation
4011
Railroad transportation............................................
4213
Trucking, except local1 ..........................................
431
U.S. postal service2 ...............................................
Air transportation 1 ................................................ . 4512,13,22 (pts.)

1997

' Refers to output per employee

104.9

100.2
104.8
121.9

101.8

100.1

116.8
111.5

119.5
117.1

120.6
123.1

113.9
113.8
132.7
125.3

126.5
84.2
112.5

132.2
91.8
118.1

149.0
99.0
125.8

152.4
111.4
127.0

173.3
112.4
140.2

186.5
109.0
147.8

208.0
105.8
157.3

222.2

110.1

111.0

121.7
109.9
105.0
108.3

126.4
110.5
106.6
116.2
104.8

135.2
113.5

109.8
110.7
107.6

133.0
108.2
109.0
114.1
108.5

132.6

108.0
99.3
95.8
100.9

118.5
106.5
99.9

129.7

99.3
99.9
92.1
95.8

110.5

105.1
113.3

94.9
89.9

113.2
103.8
105.1
114.8

128.8
97.6
116.1
104.1

150.4
101.9
117.2
103.4

157.4
104.2
124.9
106.1

138.0
99.7
127.6
110.5

100.1
118.2

101.8

109.9

97.0

101.1

121.9
98.7
105.7
113.8

118.8
104.3
114.3
110.4

104.7

115.7

100.2
121.6
105.0

110.0

111.6
116.2

121.6

115.1
161.0

121.8

n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified

* Refers to ouput per full-time equivalent employee year on fiscal basis.


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March 2002

123

Current Labor Statistics:

International Comparison

47. Unemployment rates, approximating U.S. concepts, in nine countries, quarterly data
seasonally adjusted
Annual average
Country

1999

2000

1999
I

II

2000
III

IV

I

II

III

IV

United States.......

4.2

4.0

4.3

4.3

4.2

4.1

4.0

4.0

4.1

4.0

Canada................

6.8

5.8

7.1
7.5
4.7
11.4

7.1
7.4
4.8
11.3

6.8

6.2

7.1
4.8

7.0
4.7

6.0
6.8
4.8
10.2

5.8
6.7
4.7
9.7

5.8
6.3
4.7
9.6

5.7
6.5
4.8
9.2

8.8
11.8

8.8

8.4
11.3
6.7
5.8

8.3

10.8
6.0

8.2
10.6

8.1
10.1

5.6
5.4

5.2
-

7.2
4.7

France1................
Germany1............
Italv1,2..................
Sweden1..............

United Kingdom1...

11.2
8.7
11.5
7.1

6.1

6.6
4.8
9.7
8.3
10.7
5.9
-

7.1

6.2

11.7
7.0

6.1

1Preliminary for 2000 for Japan, France, Germany (unified), Italy,
and Sweden and for 1999 onward for the United Kingdom.
2Quarterly rates are for the first month of the quarter.
NOTE: Quarterly figures for France and Germany are
calculated by applying annual adjustment factors to current
published data, and therefore should be viewed as less precise in­

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March 2002

11.2
8.8
11.5
7.1
5.9

10.8
8.7

11.2
7.1
5.9

5.5

dicators of unemployment under U.S. concepts than the annual
figures. See "Notes on the data" for Information on breaks in
series. For further qualifications and historical data, see
Comparative Civilian Labor Force Statistics, Ten Coun­
tries, 1959-2000 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, Mar. 16, 2001).
Dash indicates data not available.

48. Annual data: Employment status of the working-age population, approximating U.S. concepts, 10 countries
[Numbers in thousands]____________________________
Employment status and country

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

United States .............................................................
Canada.......................................................................
Australia......................................................................
Japan..........................................................................

126,346

128,105

131,056
14,387
8,776
65,780

133,943

14,500
9,001
65,990

14,650
9,127
66,450

136,297
14.936
9,221
67,200

137,673
15,216
9,347
67,240

139,368
15,513
9,470
67,090

140,863

14,168
8,562
65,040

129,200
14,299
8,619
65,470

132,304

14,128
8,490
64,280

France.........................................................................

24,470
39,130

24,570
39,040

24,640
39,140

24,780
39,210

24,830
39,100

25,090
39,180

25,210
39,480

25,540
39,520

25,860
39,630

Italy.............................................................................
Netherlands................................................................
Sweden.......................................................................
United Kingdom...........................................................

22,940
6,780
4,591
28,610

22,910
6,940
4,520
28,410

22,570
7,050
4,443
28,310

22,450
7,200
4,418
28,280

22,460
7,230
4,460
28,480

22,570
7,440
4,459
28,620

22,680
7,510
4,418
28,760

22,960
7,670
4,402
28,870

23,130
7,750
4,430
29,090

C iv ilia n la b o r fo rc e

1

15,745
9,682
66,990
_

_
_
-

P a rtic ip a tio n ra te 3

1InitoH .Qtatoc^
Canada........................................................................
Australia......................................................................
Japan..........................................................................
France.........................................................................
fiormant/^
Italy..............................................................................
Netherlands.................................................................
Sweden.......................................................................
United Kinadom...........................................................

66.2
66.7
64.1
63.2
55.9
58.9
47.7
56.8
67.0
63.7

66.4
65.9
63.9
63.4
55.8
58.3
47.5
57.7
65.7
63.1

66.3
65.5
63.6
63.3
55.6
58.0
47.9
58.2
64.5
62.8

66.6

66.6

66.8

65.2
63.9
63.1
55.5
57.6
47.3
59.0
63.7
62.5

64.9
64.6
62.9
55.3
57.3
47.1
58.9
64.1
62.7

64.7
64.6
63.0
55.5
57.4
47.1
60.3
64.0
62.7

67.1
65.0
64.3
63.2
55.3
57.7
47.2
60.6
63.3
62.8

67.1
65.4
64.4
62.8
55.7
57.7
47.6
61.4
62.8
62.7

67.1
65.8
64.2
62.4
56.0
57.9
47.8
61.5
63.2
62.9

67.2
65.9
64.7
62.0
_
_
_

E m p lo y e d

1

United States .............................................................
Canada........................................................................
Australia......................................................................
Japan...........................................................................

117,718
12,747
7,676
62,920

118,492
12,672
7,637
63,620

France.........................................................................
Mormon
Italy..............................................................................
Netherlands.............................................................
Sweden.......................................................................
United Kingdom...........................................................

22 120

22020

36,920
21.360
6,380
4,447
26,090

36,420
21,230
6,540
4,265
25,530

»2

120,259
12,770
7,680
63,810
21 740
36,030
20,270
6,590
4,028
25,340

123,060
13,027
7,921
63,860
720
35,890
19,940
6,680
3,992
25,550

124,900
13,271
8,235
63,890

126,708
13,380
8,344
64,200

129,558
13,705
8,429
64,900

35,900
19,820
6,730
4,056
26,000

35,680
19,920
6,970
4,019
26,280

35,570
19,990
7,110
3,973
26,740

21

131,463
14,068
8,597
64,450

133,488
14,456
8,785
63,920

135,208
14,827
9,043
63,790

35,830

36,170
20,460
7,490
4,117
27,330

_
_
_
_

20,210
7,360
4,034
27,050

_

E m p lo y m e n t-p o p u la tio n ra tio 4

1

United States .............................................................
Canada........................................................................
Australia.......................................................................
Japan...........................................................................
France.........................................................................

2

Germany ....................................................................
Italy........................................................
Netherlands.................................................................
Sweden........................................................................
United Kinadom...........................................................

61.7
60.2
57.9
61.8
50.6
55.5

61.5
58.9
57.0
62.0
50.0
54.4

58.5
56.6
61.7
49.0
53.4

62.5
59.0
57.7
61.3
48.7
52.8

62.9
59.4
59.1
60.9
48.8
52.6

59.1
59.1
60.9
48.5
52.2

63.8
59.7
58.8
61.0
48.5
52.0

64.1
60.4
59.2
60.2
49.1
52.3

64.3
61.3
59.6
59.4
49.8
52.8

44.5
53.4
64.9
58.0

44.0
54.4
62.0
56.7

43.0
54.4
58.5
56.2

42.0
54.8
57.6
56.5

41.5
54.9
58.3
57.2

41.6
56.5
57.7
57.6

41.6
57.4
56.9
58.3

41.9
58.9
57.6
58.7

42.3
59.4
58.7
59.1

61.7

63.2

64.5
62.1
60.4
59.0
_

_
_
_

U n e m p lo y e d

1

8,628
1,381
814
1,360
2,350

Germany ....................................................................

2,210

9,613
1,496
925
1,420
2,550
2,620

8,940
1.530
939
1,660
2,900
3,110

7,996
1,359
856
1,920
3,060
3,320

Netherlands.................................................................
Sweden...................................................................
United Kingdom...........................................................

1,580
400
144
2,520

1,680
390
255
2,880

2,300
460
415
2,970

2,510
520
426
2,730

United States .............................................................
Canada........................................................................
Australia.......................................................................
Japan........................................................................
France.........................................................................

2

7,404

2,920
3,200

7,236
1,271
783
2,250
3,130
3,500

6,739
1,230
791
2,300
3,130
3,910

2,640
510
404
2,480

2,650
470
440
2,340

2,690
400
445

1,229
766

2,100

2,020

6,210
1,148
750
2,790
3,020
3,690

5,880
1,058
685
3,170
2,890
3,460

5,655
918
638
3,200
_
-

2,750
310
368
1,820

2,670
260
313
1,760

_
_
-

_

U n e m p lo y m e n t rate

1

United States .............................................................
Canada........................................................................
Australia.......................................................................
Japan...........................................................................
France..........................................................................

2

Germany ....................................................................

6.8

7.5

9.8
9.6

2.1

10.6
10.8
2.2

9.6
5.6

10.4
6.7

6.9
5.9
3.1

7.3
5.6
5.6

6.1

6.9
10.7
10.9
2.5
7.9

9.4
9.7
2.9
12.3
8.5

10.2

11.2

11.8

5.6
8.5
8.5
3.2

11.8
8.2
11.8

5.4
8.7

4.9

4.5

4.2

7.5

6.8

8.6

8.2
8.6

3.4
12.5
8.9

3.4
12.4
9.9

11.7
6.3
9.9

11.9
5.3

8.0
4.1
11.8
9.3

12.0

7.2
4.7

11.2
8.7

6.6

4.8
9.7
-

10.7
6.5
7.2
7.1
4.0
9.3
9.6
9.1
8.4
5.9
10.5
9,7
8.7
7.0
6.3
' Data for 1994 are not directly comparable with data for 1993 and earlier years. For
Labor force as a percent of the working-age population.
additional information, see the box note under "Employment and Unemployment
Employment as a percent of the working-age population.
Data" in the notes to this section.
NOTE: See Notes on the data for information on breaks in series for the United
States, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Sweden.
Data from 1991 onward refer to unified Germany. See Comparative Civilian Labor
Dash indicates data are not available,
Force Statistics, Ten Countries, 1959-2000, Mar. 16, 2001, on the Internet at

Netherlands.................................................................
Sweden........................................................................
United Kingdom...........................................................

8.8

10.1

8.2

3
4

10.1

11.5
3.4
7.1

4.0
5.8

_

6.1

2

h ttp ://s ta ts .b ls .g o v /fls d a ta .h tm .


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

p = preliminary.

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

125

Current Labor Statistics:

49.

International Comparison

Annual indexes of manufacturing productivity and related measures, 12 countries

[1992 = 100]

Item and country

I960

1970

1980

1988

1989

1990

1991

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

Output per hour
38.7
14.0
18.0
29.9

21.8
29.2
20.2
18.6
36.7
27.3
31.2

56.6
38.0
32.9
52.7
43.0
52.0
37.9
38.1
57.8
52.2
44.7

70.5
75.1
63.9
65.4
90.3
66.5
77.2
65.9
69.2
76.7
73.1
56.1

96.9
90.9
84.8
92.0
94.1
87.5
91.5
86.7
93.7
92.1
90.5
82.3

95.7
93.7
89.5
96.9
99.6
91.9
94.6
89.4
97.1
94.6
93.2

75.8

103.2

102.4

59.9
78.2
91.3
88.7
85.3
80.4
77.4
103.6
90.7
87.2

84.6
93.3

92.2
90.9
94.5
92.8
105.3
109.8
101.4

90.2
99.1
104.3
97.2
94.0
98.1
96.9
101.3
110.9
105.4

106.6

107.1

135.0
124.0
155.3

101.5
107.2
105.4
99.3
108.9
99.0
114.3
121.4
123.2

102.3
104.7
105.8
99.3
109.7
99.8
107.1
119.0
122.3

55.6
47.7
58.6
52.5
49.6
40.8
53.6
28.4
64.4
39.0
37.3
33.2

84.0
77.8
79.2
81.1
82.9
81.6
79.1
69.3
87.7
83.3
71.8
67.7
86.7
85.2
93.4

93.3
86.5
79.9
93.6
90.4
79.4
82.2
86.7
83.6
92.4
77.0
79.0
82.9
76.9
75.6
83.2

86.2

96.9
95.7
95.4
96.8
99.1
93.5
99.0
92.5
98.6
96.6
94.6
88.3

97.8
95.3
99.4
99.1
99.6
96.9
99.0
95.2
99.6
97.5
95.5
92.2

102.1
104.5
100.5
102.5
104.5

107.3
109.9

101.8
108.4

100.6 108.5
101.6 110.1

102.9
101.4

100.6
107.3
104.0

105.6
112.7
101.4
119.4
106.8

113.8
109.3
113.2

117.0
109.5
115.8
115.5

114.5
113.2
109.3
117.7

115.0
116.8
109.5
119.7

121.9
104.8

124.5
103.2

118.4
118.1

121.3
119.8
106.7
105.1
109.7
104.6
93.5
105.6
108.4

111.0

121.1
112.8
121.4
122.4

122.6

127.0
112.5
120.4
123.6

134.8
115.2
124.1
124.5

124.0
126.7

122.4
111.5
125.7
103.0
133.0
104.0

111.1

128.9
128.5
112.9

127.8
103.9
135.6
104.6

103.9
139.5
109.2

127.7
128.1

133.5
133.1

131.1
108.2

109.7
96.3
108.3
114.1
115.7
138.6
109.6

111.5
100.9
110.3
116.6
117.6
144.6
109.9

102.0 102.0

Output
34.2
10.7
30.7
40.8
31.0
41.5
21.9
31.7
56.5
45.9
67.7

60.6
38.8
57.6

68.0

64.1
70.9
45.8
59.5
89.1
80.7
90.3

86.0 110.1 112.6
100.8

101.6
108.6
96.3

101.0
102.7
99.1
99.1
99.6

98.3
99.0
101.4
100.7
101.7
99.8
102.3
99.2

100.1 100.6
100.2 98.3
110.1 104.1
105.3
100.0

103.5
104.6
96.0
97.0
99.0
95.7
92.5
96.4
98.2
102.7
101.9
101.4

111.1
113.2
95.4
101.4
109.3
100.3
95.2

100.6

111.1 103.6
109.9
111.8
112.6 115.3

139.3
141.3
103.9
113.8
111.5
114.2

104.2
106.7
117.1
106.1

104.2
114.7
104.9
95.3
107.2
107.8
109.0
128.4
107.8

103.6
103.0
93.7
93.6

104.0
106.4
92.0
92.0

103.7
109.4
92.2
91.0

105.5
113.5
91.5
89.8

105.2
118.3

92.4
86.5
96.7
92.4
105.2
98.1
99.4

91.6
84.2
98.0
91.6
106.9
105.3
102.9

91.0
80.1
96.5
90.5
107.9
105.3
104.8

89.5
78.7
97.1
90.8
112.3
104.2
105.4

89.9
79.6
99.3
91.2
113.2
106.6
105.0

109.8
108.0
100.5

105.6
100.4
106.7
106.1

107.9
103.6
109.5
109.2

109.3

111.4
106.7
113.9
115.2

117.3

123.2

115.8
116.0

117.7
116.0

105.6
112.3
107.8
108.2
104.4
99.8
106.5

108.4
118.5

113.0
128.0
125.4
115.8
118.7
119.7
111.4

114.9
128.9
123.0
118.3
126.2
123.3
117.0

119.3
130.8
126.5

92.0
95.9
93.8
93.3

92.4
98.8
96.2
93.7

91.4
98.1
94.9
93.4
108.9
92.6

92.2
115.2
90.0
107.1

92.5
121.5
90.9
111.9

92.0
83.6
98.3
83.7
93.1
83.6
94.1
81.3
83.0

92.4
80.5
93.1
83.0
92.6
83.2
90.3
78.6
82.0

102.2

110.1

102.2

111.4
114.0
150.7
109.7

Total hours
92.1
88.3
76.3
170.7
136.5
142.3
142.3
108.7
170.6
154.0
168.3
217.3

104.4
107.1
102.3
174.7
129.0
149.0
136.3
120.9
156.2
154.3
154.7

202.1

107.5
114.6
93.8
119.7

101.1

133.3
110.5

122.0
111.8

121.2 120.2
99.8
100.8

104.8
113.5
100.9
104.3
103.7
105.9

100.1

107.7
101.5
103.7
116.4
119.2

100.4
103.9

102.0
101.5
102.1
103.0
103.3
104.2

101.4

100.1
95.6
94.7
94.8
95.1
91.0
93.6
96.9

101.0
100.8 102.1
109.0
108.5

94.9
97.5

90.8
89.5
90.7
90.1
92.7
90.6
89.4
84.4
90.8
92.3
87.8
80.9

95.6
94.7
95.9
97.3
95.9
96.2
92.1
93.6
95.2
97.5
95.5
90.5

102.7
99.6
104.6
104.8
104.6
103.0
106.1
107.5
103.7
101.5
97.2
104.3

93.6
87.9
84.9
91.1
92.2
85.1
84.6

93.7
92.3
95.0
93.0
93.6
96.8
90.3
91.3
92.1
95.6
92.8
91.6

97.7
99.7
96.5
98.1
96.3
99.3
93.1
98.4
95.5

90.5
89.8
86.3
72.3
72.6
77.6
73.0
76.2
75.5
82.9
76.8
78.5

93.7
95.6
83.1
89.5
91.3
94.1
87.3
93.8
88.9
95.0
91.3
92.5

86.1

90.5

103.3
122.7
83.8
91.5

88.6
79.5
98.6

Compensation per hour
14.9
9.9
4.3
5.4
4.6
4.3

8.1
1.6

23.7
17.0
16.5
13.7
13.3
10.3
20.7
4.7

6.4
4.7
4.1
3.1

20.2
11.8
10.7
6.3

25.6
30.9
30.1
15.4
19.5
27.8
7.9
34.4
12.9
15.0
9.8

30.1
43.3
41.7
25.2
24.0
39.8
12.4
52.9
20.4
14.1

78.8
63.2
91.7
80.3
55.0
61.3
69.4
43.1
93.0
50.8
51.0
59.1

32.0
10.9
19.4
13.5

34.8
15.3
27.0
20.3
23.0
17.1
24.4
25.7
17.8
23.1
19.2

78.8
65.3
51.3
88.3
58.9
76.8
59.6
62.0
82.3
63.9
70.3
77.8

86.6
82.5
84.2
85.9
87.7

86.0
83.2
75.9
88.5
87.2
79.4
72.9

112.8
110.6
109.2
106.3
107.4

102.8
110.9
112.0
110.2
125.2
120.3
113.2
113.6
114.2
108.2

110.8 110.8

133.4
127.4

122.6

Unit labor costs: National currency basis

20.6

88.1
88.2

90.5

88.0
94.0
88.7

88.1

100.0
100.0
98.2

100.6
97.6
104.1
102.3

100.1
102.4
104.5
104.4
102.3
100.9
90.6
100.3

98.5
94.3
104.9
97.9
93.0
97.3

102.0
102.1
96.0
102.9
83.6
99.7

94.8
95.5

100.1
96.4
93.8
94.7
104.7
103.2
94.0
107.1
87.2
102.5

93.5
95.9
95.8
95.6
100.9
95.9
107.2
109.9
94.6
111.4
91.7
104.8

102.0 102.8
92.2
92.7
104.6
101.8 101.8
112.4
110.8 112.0
128.5
91.3
112.3

Unit labor costs: U.S. dollar basis

21.1
10.4
15.6
16.0
11.3
16.9
15.6

86.1
75.4
82.9

97.7
105.1
90.9
92.3
90.8
93.1
87.5
97.6
89.8
95.7
96.3
98.2

100.6
91.4
118.8
95.1
93.2
95.6
98.6
81.8
96.8
88.3
67.7
85.3

98.5
83.4
130.1
94.2
88.3
92.9
98.2
78.1
92.8
90.7
63.1
86.5

94.8
84.1
135.1
105.2

101.1
100.6
114.1
78.0
103.0
105.0
71.2
91.6

93.5
85.0
111.7
99.3
105.0
99.2
111.3
87.8
98.6
107.1
79.7
92.6

126

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

86.6
75.9

101.1 100.0 102.2
68.6 66.6 64.3
102.8
99.3
105.0

NOTE: Data for Germany for years before 1992 are for the former West Germany. Data for 1992 onward are for unified Germany. Dash indicates data not available.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

91.4
79.8
105.7
79.3
94.1
79.6

50.

Occupational injury and illness rates by industry,1United States
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers3
Industry and type of case
PR IV ATE SE CTO R5

Total cases......................................... .....................................
Lost workday cases...................................................................
Lost workdays...........................................................................

1988

1989 1 1990

8.6

4.0
76.1

4.0
78.7

4.1
84.0

10.9
5.6

10.9
5.7
100.9

11.6
5.9
112.2

5.1
152.1

8.5
4.8
137.2

14.6

14.3

A g ric u ltu re , fo re s try , a n d fis h in g 5

Total cases..............................................................................
Lost workday cases...................................................................
Lost workdays................................................. ..........................
M in in g

Total cases..............................................................................
Lost workday cases...................................................................
Lost workdays.....................,.....................................................

8.8

8.6

101.8
8.8

1992

1991

148.1

12.0

12.2

5.5
132.0

5.4
142.7

9.9
4.5

9.5
4.4

"
11.5
5.1

10.9
5.1

9.8
4.4

9.0
4.0

8.5
3.7

9.9
4.8

9.0
4.3

8.7
4.3

11.1

10.4
4.8
-

10.0

5.0
-

'

12.8

168.3

5.8
-

"
12.5
5.8
-

12.7
5.6
121.5

12.5
5.4
124.6

12.1

12.2

11.6

10.6

. 5.3
-

5.5
-

5.3
-

4.9
-

13.6
5.7
122.9

13.4
5.5
126.7

13.1
5.4

13.5
5.7

12.8

11.6

5.6

5.1

16.8
8.3
172.0

16.3
7.6
165.8

15.9
7.6

15.7
7.7

14.9
7.0

16.9
7.8
“

15.9
7.2

14.8
128.4

_

"
15.0
7.0

13.9
6.4

_

'
14.6
6.5

15.4
7.3
160.5

14.8

13.6

13.8
6.3

"
13.2
6.5

“
12.3
5.7

'
17.0
7.3
“

16.8
7.2

16.5
7.2

144.0

16.2
6.7
-

16.4
6.7
-

15.8
6.9
-

11.1

11.1

11.6

11.2

4.2
87.7

4.2
-

4.4
-

4.4
-

8.4
3.6
81.2

8.0

8.0

3.7
83.0

3.5

3.6

7.6
3.3

18.7
7.1
186.6

18.5
7.1

19.6
7.8

14.2
5.9

14.1

14.2

6.0

116.5

123.3

18.4
9.4
177.5

18.1

8.8

172.5

6.8

6.1

17.5
7.1
175.5
16.8

18.7

19.0

161.3

168.3

180.2

18.8

18.5
7.9
147.6

18.7
7.9
155.7

17.4
7.1
146.6

11.2
4.4
86.6
8.6

6.6

12.1
4.8
86.8

4.7
88.9

3.3
64.6

9.1
3.9
77.5

9.1
3.8
79.4

18.0
7.0
166.1
.C
2.7
64.4

6

5.S
2.7
65.3

5.6
2.5

11.0

10.7
5.0
108.2

10.(

4.7
82.8

8.0

12.0

6.1

152.2

19.4

8.1

6.6

156.0
17.7
7.4
169.1

17.7

17.7

Lost workday cases................................................................
Lost workdays........................................................................
Instruments and related products:

134.2

138.6

17.E
6.9
153.7

Lost workday cases................................................................
Lost workdays................................................................ .......
Miscellaneous manufacturlnq Industries:

51.5

5.6
2.5
55.4

5.6
2.7
57.8

Lost workday cases................................................................
Lost workdays.......................................................................

4.9

13.8

Durable goods:
Total cases...............................................................................
Lost workday cases...................................................................
Lost workdays............................................................................

Lost workday cases................................................................
Lost workdays........................................................................
Transportation equipment:

10.6

5.5

5.0

13.2
5.8
120.7

Lost workdays........................................................................
Electronic and other electrical equipment:

11.8

5.5

10.2

13.1
5.8
113.0

12.1

12.2

5.1
“

13.1
5.7
107.4

138.8

4.4
2.7
“

11.1

Total cases...............................................................................
Lost workday cases...................................................................
Lost workdays............................................................................

Industrial machinery and equipment:

4.9
2.9

5.4
165.8

M a n u fa c tu rin g

8.0

5.9
3.7

12.1

12.8
6.0
13.5
6.3
151.3

8.1

5.4
3.2

13.1
5.8
161.9

6.1

14.7
6.9
153.1

8.2

3.9
-

13.0

14.6
6.9
144.9

15.5
7.4
149.8

6.3
3.9
-

6.2

3.9
-

6.8

14.7
7.0
141.1

16.0
7.5
141.0

7.3
3.4
“

7.3
4.1
204.7

160.1

16.1
7.2

7.9
3.9
-

7.4
4.5
129.6

13.8
6.3
144.6

16.6
7.3
115.7

8.4
4.1

8.3
5.0
119.5

13.8
6.5
147.1

189.1

8.7
3.9
-

10.0

5.0
-

13.4
6.4
137.6

10.0

9.7
4.3
-

11.2

5.4
126.9

13.9
6.5
137.3

19.5

4.7
-

11.6

5.4
108.3

15.1
7.0
162.3

Lumber and wood products:
Total cases............................................................................
Lost workday cases................................................................
Lost workdays........................................................................
Furniture and fixtures:
Total cases............................................................................
Lost workday cases.................................................................
Lost workdays........................................................................
Stone, clay, and qlass products:
Total cases............................................................................
Lost workday cases.................................................................
Lost workdays........................................................................
Primary metal industries:
Total cases...........................................................................
Lost workday cases................................................................
Lost workdays........................................................................
Fabricated metal products:
T otal cases...........................................................................
Lost workday cases................................................................
Lost workdays........................................................................

6.3
3.0
“

10.8

14.0
6.4
132.2

111.1

6.7
3.1
-

8.4
3.8
-

143.3

6.0

7.1
3.3
“

8.5
3.8
-

142.2

6.8

7.4
3.4

8.9
3.9
93.8

14.2
6.7
147.9

6.8

6.6

6.1
2.6
11.5
5.1
91.0

6.8

11.1
5.1
97.6

8.1
3.6

8.4
3.9
86.5

C o n s tru c tio n

Total cases..............................................................................
Lost workday cases...................................................................
Lost workdays............................................................................
General building contractors:
Total cases..............................................................................
Lost workday cases...................................................................
Lost workdays............................................................................
Heavy construction, except buildina:
Total cases..............................................................................
Lost workday cases...................................................................
Lost workdays............................................................................
Special trades contractors:
Total cases..............................................................................
Lost workday cases...................................................................
Lost workdays............................................................................

1993 4 1994 4 1995 4 1996 4 1997 4 1998 4 1999 4

11.3
5.1
113.1

5.1
104.0

4.6

8.8

8.6

4.0

4.2

8.4
3.9

8.0

8.2

3.7

4.1

7.8
3.8

9.1
4.1

8.9
4.4

10.3
4.8

9.7
4.7

9.2
4.6

11.3
5.1

10.7
5.0

14.2

6.8

13.5
6.5

13.2

6.8

13.0
6.7

12.2

12.0

5.4

5.8

11.4
5.7

11.5
5.9

12.4

11.8
5.7

11.8
6.0

10.7
5.4

15.0

15.0
7.2

14.0
7.0

12.9
6.3

14.4

14.2
6.4
-

13.9
6.5
-

10.C
4.1

9.5
4.0

8.5
3.7

4.7
“

6.0
6.8
6.2
9.9
4.0
-

10.1
4.8

12.6
6.0
-

6.8

6.6

5.9

3.1

2.8

5.7

3.1

18.6
7.9

16.0
7.0

15.4

14.6

13.7
6.4

5.5
2.7

5.0
2.4

5.1
2.3

4.6
2.3

4.C
1.9

4.0

9.5
4.5

9.1
4.3

9.5
4.4

8.9
4.2

8.1
3.9

8.4
4.0

March 2002

127

6.6

6.6

2.8

1.8

See footnotes at end of table.


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Monthly Labor Review

Current Labor Statistics:

Injury and Illness

50. Continued— Occupational injury and illness rates by industry,1United States
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers3

Industry and type of case

1988

Nondurable goods:
Total cases.............................................................................

............................................

Lost workdays
Food and kindred products:
Total cases.........................................................................
Lost workday cases
Lost workdays

.....................................
..........................................
Tobacco products:
Total cases............................................
Lost workday cases.....................................
Lost workdays......................................................................
Textile mill products:
Total cases.........................................................................
Lost workday cases..............................................................
Lost workdays.......................................................................
Apparel and other textile products:
Total cases.........................................................................
Lost workday cases...........................................................
Lost workdays......................................................................
Paper and allied products:
Total cases........................................................................
Lost workday cases...............................................................
Lost workdays......................................................................
Printinq and publishing:
Total cases
Lost workday cases
Lost workdays
Chemicals and allied products:
Total cases
Lost workday cases
Lost workdays
Petroleum and coal products:
Total cases
Lost workday cases.............................................................
Lost workdays.......................................................................
Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products:
Total cases
Lost workday cases
Lost workdays
Leather and leather products:
Total cases
Lost workday cases
Lost workdays

11.6

1991

1992

11.4
54
101.7

11.7

11.5

11.3

55
107.8

116.9

119.7

121.8

18.5
9.2
169 7

18.5
9.3
174 7

20.0
9.9
202.6

19.5
9.9
207.2

18.8
9.5
211.9

9.3
2.9
53.0

8.7
3.4
64.2

7.7
3.2
62.3

52.0

9.6
4.0
78.8

10.3
4.2
81.4

9.6
4.0
85.1

3.5

8.1
68.2

3.8
80.5

13.1
5.9
124.3

12.7
5.8
132.9

3.2
59.8

fi fi

6.4

2.8
10.1

6.0
2.4
42.9

1993 4 1994 4 1995 4 1996 4 1997 4 1998 4 1999 4

8.8

8.2

10.7
5.0

10.5
5.1

9.9
4.9

9.2
4.6

17.6
8.9

17.1
9.2

16.3
8.7

15.0

14.5

8.0

13.6
7.5

12.7
7.3

5.8
2.3

5.3
2.4

5.6

2.8

6.7
-

5.9
2.7
-

6.4
3.4
-

2.2

7.8
3.6
-

6.7
3.1
_

7.4
3.4
_

6.4
3.2
_

-

-

2.6
-

8.2

8.0

7.8

AO
*

5.5
_

4.4
88.3

9.9
4.2
87.1

9.7
4.1
-

8.7
4.0
-

4.1
-

3.9
92.1

9.2
4.2
99.9

9.5
4.0
104.6

9.0
3.8
-

8.9
3.9
-

3.6
-

7.4
3.3
_

7.0
3.1
-

6.2
2.6

2.8

12.1

11.2

11.0

5.5
124.8

5.0
122.7

5.0
125.9

9.9
4.6
-

9.6
4.5
-

8.5
4.2
-

7.9
3.8
-

7.3
3.7

7.1
3.7

7.0
3.7

6.9
3.3
63.8

6.9
3.3
69.8

6.7
3.2
74.5

7.3
3.2
74.8

6.9
3.1

6.7
3.0

6.4
3.0

6.0
2.8
-

5.7
2.7

7.0
3.3
59.0

7.0
3.2
63.4

6.5
3.1
61.6

6.4
3.1
62.4

6.0
2.8

5.7

5.5
2.7

4.8
2.4

4.8
2.3

7.0
3.2
68.4

6.6
68.1

3.1
77.3

6.2
2.9
68.2

71.2

16.3

16.2

142.9

147.2

16.2
7.8
151.3

15.1
7.2
150.9

153.3

11.4
5.6
128.2

13.6
6.5
130.4

5.9
152.3

12.5
5.9
140.8

8.9
5.1
118.6

9.2
5.3
121.5

9.6
5.5
134.1

9.3
5.4
140.0

7.8
3.5
60.9

3.6
63.5

7.9
3.5
65.6

7.6
3.8
69.2

7.7
4.0
71.9

7.4
3.7
71.5

.............................................
......................................
........................................
.............................................
......................................
......................................
............................................

............................................
......................................
...........................................
............................................
......................................
.......................................

1989 1 1990

6.6

8.1

8.6

3.3

8.0

8.8

6.6

12.1

64.2
5.9

-

5.9
2.7

-

-

2.8
-

8.2

-

-

-

_
_

-

-

_

5.4

5.8

_

5.0

2.8
_

2.6

4.2

4.4
2.3

2.1
_

_

5.2
2.5
-

4.7
2.3
-

4.8
2.4

4.6
2.5

4.3

3.9

4.1

13.9
6.5

-

14.0
6.7
-

12.9
6.5

12.3
6.3

11.9
5.8
-

11.2
5.8
_

10.1
5.5
_

12.1

12.1

5.4
128.5

12.0

5.5
-

5.3
-

11.4
4.8
-

10.7
4.5
-

10.6

9.8
4.5
-

10.3
5.0
-

9.1
5.1
144.0

9.5
5.4
-

9.3
5.5
-

9.1
5.2
-

8.7
5.1
-

8.2

7.3
4.3
-

7.3
4.4
_

7.6
3.4
72.0

8.4
3.5
80.1

3.4
-

7.9
3.4
-

7.5
3.2
-

2.9
-

7.2
3.7
79.2

7.6
3.6
82.4

7.8
3.7
-

7.7
3.8
-

7.5
3.6
_

3.4
_

2.8
14.5

6.8

-

-

-

2.2
_

4.3
-

1.8
_

1.8

T ra n s p o rta tio n a n d p u b lic u tilitie s

Total cases......................................................................
Lost workday cases...............................................................
Lost workdays..........................................................................
W holesa le and re ta il tra d e

Total cases.........................................................................
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost workdays.....................................................................
Wholesale trade:
Total cases...............................................................
Lost workday cases..................................................................
Lost workdays.......................................................
Retail trade:
Total cases..................................................................
Lost workday cases..............................................................
Lost workdays.........................................................................
Fina nce, in su ra n ce , a n d real e state

Total cases..........................................................................
Lost workday cases.......................................................
Lost workdays...............................................................

8.0

7.9
3.4
57.6

8.1

8.1

3.4
60.0

3.4
63.2

7.7
3.3
69.1

8.7
3.4
79.2

3.3
-

7.9
3.3
-

7.5
3.0
-

2.0

2.0

2.4

2.4

2.9

2.9

2.7

.9
17.2

.9
17.6

2.6
1.0

5.4

5.5
2.7
51.2

S e rvices

Total cases.............................................................................
Lost workday cases.................................................................
Lost workdays..........................................................................

2.6
47.7

1

Data for 1989 and subsequent years are based on the Standard Industrial Class­
ification Manual, 1987 Edition. For this reason, they are not strictly comparable with data
for the years 1985-88, which were based on the Standard Industrial Classification
Manual, 1972 Edition, 1977 Supplement.

2

Beginning with the 1992 survey, the annual survey measures only nonfatal injuries and
illnesses, while past surveys covered both fatal and nonfatal incidents. To better address
fatalities, a basic element of workplace safety, BLS implemented the Census of Fatal
Occupational Injuries.

3 The incidence rates represent the number of injuries and illnesses or lost workdays per
100 full-time workers and were calculated as (N/EH) X 200,000, where:

128

Monthly Labor Review


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March 2002

8.1

1.1

27.3

1.1

24.1

6.0
2.8

6.2
2.8

56.4

60.0

1.2

8.2

1.2

1.1

6.8
6.6

2.8

2.8

2.8

6.4

6.0
2.6

-

-

-

-

68.6

6.5

6.5
3.2
_

6.5
3.3

6.3
3.3

6.5
2.7
_

2.5

.9

.7
.5

1.8
.8

5.6
2.5
-

5.2
2.4
-

-

7.1
3.0

6.7

2.7

6.8

-

-

2.8

2.9
-

2.4
.9
-

6.1

6.7
3.0
_

6.9

2.8

32.9

-

4.8
-

2.2

6.5

6.1

4.9

2.2

N = number of injuries and illnesses or lost workdays;
EH - total hours worked by all employees during the calendar year; and
200,000 - base for 100 full-time equivalent workers (working 40 hours per week, 50
weeks per year).

4

Beginning with the 1993 survey, lost workday estimates will not be generated. As of
1992, BLS began generating percent distributions and the median number of days away
from work by industry and for groups of workers sustaining similar work disabilities.
Excludes farms with fewer than 11 employees since 1976.
Dash indicates data not available.

5


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51. Fatal occupational injuries by event or exposure, 1994-2000
F a ta litie s
E ve n t o r e x p o s u re

1

2000

1994-98

19992

A v e ra g e

N um ber

P e rc e n t

N um ber

100

6,280

6,054

5,915

Transportation incidents...............................................................
Highway incident...........................................................................
Collision between vehicles, mobile equipment..........................
Moving in same direction........................................................
Moving in opposite directions, oncoming................................
Moving in intersection.............................................................
Vehicle struck stationary object or equipment............................
Noncollision incident................. .................................................
Jackknifed or overturned— no collision...................................
Nonhighway (farm, industrial premises) incident..........................
Overturned.................................................................................
Aircraft........................ ........................................................... ......
Worker struck by a vehicle............................................................
Water vehicle incident...................................................................
Railway..........................................................................................

2,640
1,374
662
113
240
136
272
368
280
387
215
304
382
104
78

2,618
1,496
714
129
270
161
334
390
322
352
206
228
377

2,571
1,363
694
136
243
153
279
356
304
399
213
280
370
84
71

43
23

Assaults and violent acts..............................................................

1,168
923
748

929
677
533

16

107
215

909
651
509
62
80
218

220

4

984
564
364
60
281
148
124

1,030
585
358
55
302
163
129

1,005
570
357
61
294
157
123

17

686

721
634
96
153
92
70

734
659

480
256
128
29

48
93
74

2

Total.................................. ...................................................

Shooting....................................................................................
Stabbing....................................................................................
Other, including bombing..........................................................
Self-inflicted injuries.......................................................................

68

C o n ta c t w ith o b je c ts a n d e q u ip m e n t.....................................................

Struck by object............................................................................
Struck by falling object...............................................................
Struck by flying object................................................................
Caught in or compressed by equipment or objects......................
Caught in running equipment or machinery...............................
Caught in or crushed in collapsing materials...............................
F a lls .................................................................................................

609
Fall from ladder......................................................................... .

101

Fall on same level.........................................................................

146
89
53

102
56

66

78

110
150
85
56

12
2
4
3
5

6

5
7
4
5

6
1
1

11
9

1
1

10
6
1
5
3

2
12
11
2
3

2
1

8

Oxygen deficiency........................................................................
Drowning, submersion...............................................................

96
77

533
280
125
51
108
55
92
75

F ire s a n d e x p lo s io n s ...................................................................................

199

216

177

3

21

27

19

-

583
322
136
45
118

E x p o s u re to h a rm fu l s u b s ta n c e s o r e n v ir o n m e n ts ...................

Contact with overhead power lines............................................
Contact with temperature extremes..............................................
Exposure to caustic, noxious, or allergenic substances...............

66

O th e r e v e n ts o r e x p o s u re s 3..........................................................

1 Based

on the 1992 BLS Occupational Injury and Illness

3

100

4

2
-

2
1
1

Includes the category "Bodily reaction and exertion."

Classification Structures.

2

The BLS news release issued August 17, 2000, reported a
total of 6,023 fatal work injuries for calendar year 1999. Since
then, an additional 31 job-related fatalities were identified,
bringing the total job-related fatality count for 1999 to 6,054.

NOTE: Totals for major categories may include sub­
categories not shown separately. Percentages may not add to
totals because of rounding. Dash indicates less than 0.5
percent.

Monthly Labor Review

March 2002

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http://www.bls.gov/ebs/
http://www.bls.gov/ect/
http://www.bls.gov/ncs/
http://www.bls.gov/iif/
http://www.bls.gov/iif/
http://www.bls.gov/cba/

ocltinfo@bls.gov
ocltinfo@bls.gov
ocltinfo@bls.gov
ocltinfo@bls.gov
oshstaff@bls.gov
cfoistaff@bls.gov
cbainfo@bls.gov

Productivity
Labor
Industry
Multifactor

http ://www.bls.go v/lpc/
http://www.bls.gov/lpc/
http://www.bls.gov/mfp/

dprweb@bls.gov
dipsweb@bls.gov
dprweb@bls.gov

Projections
Employment
Occupation

http://www.bls.gov/emp/
http://www.bls.gov/oco/

oohinfo@bls.gov
oohinfo@bls.gov

International
http://www.bls.gov/fls/

flshelp@bls.gov

Regional centers
Atlanta
Boston
Chicago
Dallas
Kansas City
New York
Philadelphia
San Francisco


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

http://www.bls.gov/ro4/
http://www.bls.gov/rol/
http://www.bls.gov/ro5/
http://www.bls.gov/ro6/
http://www.bls.gov/ro7/
http://www.bls.gov/ro2/
http://www.bls.gov/ro3/
http://www.bls.gov/ro9/
Other Federal statistical agencies
http ://www. fedstats.go v/

BLSinfoAtlanta@bls.gov
BLSinfoBoston@bls.gov
BLSinfoChicago@bls.gov
BLSinfoDallas@bls.gov
BLSinfoKansasCity@bls.gov
BLSinfoNY@bls.gov
BLSinfoPhiladelphia@bls.gov
BLSinfoSF@bls.gov

r m r

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U.S. DEPARTMENT-OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Postal Square Building, Rm. 2850
Av'"' 2 Massachusetts Ave., NE
* "Washington, DC 20212-0001
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Periodicals
Postage and Fees Paid
U.S. Department of Laffer
USPS 987-800 ~
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Official Business
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Penalty for Private Use, $300
Address Service Requested

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Schedule of release dates for BLS statistical series

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tk

Series

Release
date

Period
covered

Employment situation

March 7

4th quarter

Productivity and costs

March 8

February

Release
date

April 5

Period
covered

Release
tvdate

Period
covered

March

May 7

1st quarter

1; 4-24

March

May 3

April

4

2; 43-46

“ T --------------April

MLR table
number

U.S. Import and Export
Price Indexes

March 14

February

April 11

March

May 9

Producer Price Indexes

March 15

February

April 12

March

May 10

Qonsumer Price indexes

March 21

February

April 16

March

May 15

A p ri

%

MarCft21

February

April 16

May 15

April

■Ait:

#

•,

Beal earnings

Employment Cost Indexes
Jfot


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

38-42

%
*

N*
V

A p r!

k

2; 3 5 -%
2; 32-34

%

14, 16

T

if

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April 25 j.

March
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/
1st quarter

f

1-3; 25-2?

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