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Bureau o f Labor Statistics

U.S. Department of Labor

9/11 a n
N ew Yor
econo
A borough
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b o lo up h a u a ly plp

U.S. Department of Labor
Elaine L. Chao, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Kathleen P. Utgoff, Commissioner
The Monthly Labor Review ( usps 987-800) is published
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MONTHLY LABOR

REVIEW___________________
Volume 127, Number 6
June 2004

9/11 and the New York City economy

3

T h e effect o f th e terro rist attacks w as far-reaching, extending to every borough;
h ard est h it w as th e the C ity ’s in tern ationally oriented ‘ex p o rt’ sector

Michael L. Dolfman and Solidelle F. Wasser

Labor force and unemployment: three generations of change

34

T h e im p act o f ‘b a b y -b o o m e rs’ on u n em ploym ent rates continues u nabated today;
th e sm aller n u m b ers o f ‘g en eratio n x ’e rs ’ and ‘ec h o -b o o m ers’ have had less influence

Jessica R. Sincavage

Fatal occupational injuries among foreign-born workers

42

F acto rs affectin g w o rk p lace fatal injuries am ong these w orkers include their
e m p lo y m en t in occu p atio n s and in dustries w ith inherently h igher risks o f fatalities

Katherine Loh and Scott Richardson

Worker displacement in 1999-2000

54

M any d isp laced w o rk ers fo u n d n ew jo b s
o v er th e p erio d , b u t earn in g s lo sses persisted

Ryan Helwig

Reports
Blacks, Asians, and Hispanics in the labor force: avisual essay

69

Departments
Labor month in review
Visual essay
Précis
Book review
Current labor statistics

2
69
77
78
79

Editor-in-Chief: Deborah P. Klein • Executive Editor: Richard M. Devens • Managing Editor: Anna Huffman Hill • Editors: Brian
I. Baker, Kristy S. Christiansen, Richard Hamilton, Leslie Brown Joyner • Book Reviews: Richard Hamilton • Design and Layout:
Catherine D. Bowman, Edith W. Peters • Contributor: Solidelle Fortier Wasser


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Labor in Month Review

The June Review
The overall effects of terrorist attacks of
September 11,2001, acted to intensify the
national economic recession that had
been going on for about 6 months at the
time. The direct effects of the attack were
felt most specifically and severely in a
relatively limited set of industries and city
blocks in lower Manhattan and, to a lesser,
but still measurable degree, as distance
increased. M ichael L. Dolfm an, b l s
Regional Commissioner in New York, and
Solidelle F. Wasser, senior economist in
the region, estimated those impacts on a
borough-by-borough and industry-by­
industry basis. Dolfman and Wasser have
been careful to use conservative
assumptions and to spell out their methods
and their possible limitations. Even under
these premises, the estimated impact of
September 11 on New York City’s employ­
ment and wage base was substantial.
Jessica R. Sincavage examines longer
term demographic influences on the labor
market. In the post-World War II era, three
generational groups have entered the
labor force: the baby boom bom from
1946 to 1964, the much smaller Generation
X bom from 1965 to 1975, and the echo
boom composed of the original babyboomers’ children bom from 1976 to 2001.
For the 40 years that have passed since
the oldest of the original baby boom
entered the labor force, that generation
has had profound impacts on the un­
employment rate. The two smaller gene­
rations that followed have not yet had
such an influence.
Katherine Loh and Scott Richardson
investigate the reasons that while the
share of the work force that is foreign bom
increased by 22 percent between 1996 and
2001, their share of fatal occupational
injuries increased by 43 percent. A
significant part of the answer lies in their
disproportionate representation in higher
risk occupations and industries.
Ryan Helwig summarizes the results of
the January 2002 displaced w orker
supplement. At that time, toward the end

2

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June 2004

of an extended period of economic growth
that drove unemployment rates to his­
toric lows, the incidence of displacement
was relatively low.
A visual essay on employment and
unemployment among the diverse races
and ethnicities that make up the American
labor force rounds out the issue.

Going on to college
O f the 2.7 million youth who graduated
from high school in 2003, about 1.7 million
(63.9 percent) were attending college in
October. Young women continued to be
more likely than young men to enter
co lleg es or u n iv ersities after high
school— 66.5 percent versus 61.2 percent.
The enrollment rate for Asian high
school graduates (84.1 percent) was much
higher than for white graduates (65.0
percent). Black and Hispanic graduates
were about equally likely to be college
students in the fall—58.3 and 58.6 percent,
respectively. Additional information is
available from “College Enrollment and
Work A ctivity of 2003 High School
Graduates,” news release u s d l 04-749.

Fewer IT layoffs in first
quarter 2004
In fo rm atio n tech n o lo g y -p ro d u cin g
industries accounted for 6 percent of
extended mass layoff events and 10,556
worker separations in the first quarter,
down from 11 percent of layoff events
and 28,582 separations a year earlier.
T his was the low est num ber of
separations in this industry grouping
comprising communication equipment,
com m unications services, com puter
hardware, and software and computer
services since the first quarter of 2000.
First quarter 2004 layoffs were most
numerous in communications services
and computer hardware. For more in­
formation, see “Extended Mass Layoffs
in the First Quarter of 2004,” news release
USDL 04-895.

Productivity growth in
first quarter 2004
Nonfarm business sector productivity—
as measured by output per hour— rose
at a seasonally adjusted annual rate of
3.5 percent in the first quarter of 2004.
Output increased 4.9 percent and hours
of all persons increased 1.3 percent in
the first quarter. In the fourth quarter of
2003, productivity had risen 2.5 percent,
reflecting increases in output and hours
of 4.2 and 1.6 percent, respectively. Data
are subject to rev isio n . A d d itio n al
information is available in “Productivity
and Costs, First Quarter 2004,” news
release USDL 04-817.

Employment dynamics
in third quarter 2003
From June to Septem ber 2003, the
number of job gains from opening and
ex p anding e stab lish m en ts w as 7.4
million, and the number of job losses
from closing and contracting estab ­
lishments was 7.3 million. Gross job
losses exceeded gross job gains in
goods-producing sectors, while gross
job gains surpassed gross job losses in
service-providing sectors. In the goodsproducing sector, m anufacturing job
losses exceeded job gains during the
third quarter for a net loss of 152,000jobs.
However, gross job losses in m anu­
facturing declined to 701,000 in the third
quarter of 2003, the lowest level since
the third quarter of 1992.
In the service-providing sectors, gross
job gains in education and health services
have exceeded gross job losses conti­
nuously since the beginning of the series
on Business Employment Dynamics in
September 1992. In the third quarter of
2003, this sector gained 731,000 jobs and
lost 670,000 for a net gain o f61,000jobs.
Find more in “Business Employment Dy­
namics: Third Quarter 2003,” news release
USDL 04-896.
□

Effect of 9/11 on NYC

9/11 and the New York City econom y:
A borough-by-borough analysis
The effect of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001,
on the New York City economy was far reaching and extended
to every borough of the city; hardest hit was New York’s export”
sector—the most internationally oriented part of that economy
“

Michael L. Dolfman
and
Solidelle F. Wasser

Michael L. Dolfman is
Regional
Commissioner for
Economic Analysis
and Information, New
York Regional Office,
Bureau of Labor
Statistics, New York,
New York; Solidelle F.
Wasser is a
senior economist in
the same office,
E-mail: Dolfman.
Michael@bls.gov


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he political, security, and social im ­
p lic a tio n s o f the te rro ris t atta c k of
September 11,2001, have been well docu­
mented. In New York City, the events of that day
resulted in the deaths of 2,699 workers from a
wide range of occupational backgrounds. O f the
2,198 non-rescue workers killed in the World
Trade Center, 78 percent were employed in fi­
nance, insurance, and real estate. Firefighters ac­
counted for 81 percent of the 412 fatally injured
rescue workers; 15 percent were police officers
or detectives. Thirty-six percent of the 89 indi­
viduals killed on the airplanes that crashed into
the towers were traveling on services-related
business.1
The terrorist attack also had a profound impact
on the city’s economy, its labor market dynamics,
and individual businesses. Just what the im ­
mediate and long-term economic effects of the
attack were and will be on New York City has
been the subject of some debate. This article
joins that discussion in its analysis of employ­
ment and wage data, on a borough-by-borough
basis.
The article focuses on the most salient feature
of the current city economy: the bifurcation of
its industry into “export” and “local” economic
sectors.2Examining the effect of 9/11 on each of
the boroughs makes it possible to isolate the
“export” sector, on the one hand, which identifies
New York City as a prime center of the global
economy, and the “local” sector, on the other,
which has its own distinct importance and rela­
tion to the city’s industry.

T

In what follows, trends in employment and
wage patterns based on the Bureau of Labor
Statistics (BLS) Quarterly Census of Employment
and Wages (QCEW) program are compared, on a
borough-by-borough basis, before and after the
attack to measure the extent of the losses. The
relation of these losses to the entire New York
economy completes the analysis.

Understanding the city’s economy
In order to com prehend fully the econom ic
impact of the 9/11 attack on New York, it is im­
portant to place the recent labor market economy
of the city in the context of the developmental
forces that began to emerge 30 years earlier.
Among the most noteworthy of these forces was
the international m ovem ent tow ard a global
economy.
Thirty years ago, globalization, as we currently
understand it, was beginning to emerge. Although
close to bankruptcy in the 1970s, New York was
poised to take advantage of these new p er­
spectives. Specifically, the emergence of, and
increase in, the com plexity of international
transactions raised the scale of economic growth
and stirred the need for m ultinational head­
quarters functions. In addition, the demand that
firms across all industry sectors provide specialized
services stimulated the need for financial, mar­
keting, accounting, legal, telecommunication,
insurance, computer, and management consulting
services.3

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

3

Effect of 9/11 on NYC

New York City industry has long been international, but its
role is becoming increasingly evident as the world’s economy
places a premium on the free movement of knowledge, ideas,
capital, labor, and technology, as opposed to just the exchange
and production of commodities. The new North American
Industrial Classification System ( n a ic s ) focuses on those factors
which better define the elements of the global economy;
accordingly, the NAICS figures prominently in the analysis that
follows.
Today, in analyzing the economic effects of globalization,
attention is usually directed at increases in the mobility of
capital, particularly across international borders, and at the
power of emerging information technologies. New York, by
virtue of its dual international and national orientation, was a
prime U.S. beneficiary of these global forces. The international
trade and global financial investment activities of the city
stimulated further its leadership position in marketing and
advertising, finance and banking, broadcasting, information
technology, publishing, real estate, and a host of other arenas.
In addition, recent literature on global power centers (often
called “global cities”) notes that an increase in local public
administration functions fills the gap created by weakening
national regulation.4Government employment figures in New
York reflect this increasing trend.5
By the beginning of the 21st century, New York C ity’s
economy was mature and sophisticated. The “export” sec­
tor— finance and insurance; professional, scientific, and
technical occupations; information; arts, entertainment, and
recreation; the management of companies; real estate; and
what was left of manufacturing— was focused nationally and
internationally, while the “local” market sector— adm ini­
strative and support, and waste; construction; wholesale and
retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; edu­
cational services; health care and social assistance; and
accommodation and food services— had a regional orien­
tation. Both economies made important contributions to the
city and the welfare of its citizens, but it was the “export”
sector that gave New York its special place am ong in­
ternational cities— its appeal, its reputation, its glamour, and
its wealth.
The tragic events of 9/11 had a significant impact on the
economy and labor market of New York City, and its reper­
cussions were felt throughout the country. The effects of the
attack, along with a weakening national and global economy,
helped to create an extremely volatile economic environment in
the city.
The expansion that characterized the c ity ’s economy
during the decade of the 1990s started to lose momentum
during January 2001. The dow nturn, with its subsequent
loss o f jo b s, began in May 2001 and continued beyond
D ecem ber 2002.

4

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June 2004

The discussion that follows indicates that the effect of 9/11 is
clear, unambiguous, and independent of the national recession.
In particular, the economic downturn in the city was sharper
than could have been anticipated from just the general economic
contraction.
Within the city, the attack resulted in about 430,000 lost
job months and a loss in wages of $2.8 billion.6 These lost
job months were equivalent to approximately 143,000 jobs,
each month, for 3 months. The effect of 9/11 was centered
on the city’s “export” economy, which represented 68.0
percent of all lost job months and 86.0 percent of all lost
wages.

Manhattan
In 2000, Manhattan, like the city and the Nation, was riding
a wave of economic expansion that began in the 1990s.
However, the relationship between jobs and wages in the
borough was different from that experienced in the Nation as
a whole. For the country as a whole, wages had remained
relatively flat between 1978 and 2000, while employment
growth was marked and consistent. For Manhattan, the con­
verse was true: employment growth had remained essentially
level, while wages increased substantially. Chart 1 illustrates
these distinctions, by comparing changes in average employ­
ment with changes in real wages for the United States and
for Manhattan.7
Manhattan was known for its high-paying jobs, and its rising
wages proved to be a magnet. Manhattan became unique in the
number of jobs it supported. Among the core counties of all the
Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas (CMSA’s) in the
Nation, Manhattan was the only one in which the number of
people who worked there was greater than the local resident
population.
In 2000, wage and salary employment in M anhattan ap­
proached 2.4 million workers. (See table 1.) Payroll jobs in
the borough amounted to two-thirds of all jobs in New York
City and one-sixth of the jobs in the 31 -county CMS A. Oneand-one-half million people resided in the borough, of whom
the 2000 census reported that some 600,000 worked in
Manhattan. The local resident population was thus only a
fraction of a larger economic enterprise. The following tabu­
lation gives the location of residence of the M anhattan
workforce in 2000:8
R esiden ce

N u m b er

P ercen t

6 3 1 ,1 3 2

2 6 .5

c o u n tie s ........................................

9 0 0 ,3 3 6

3 7 .8

O utside o f c i t y ..............................

8 5 0 ,6 9 8

3 5 .7

M an h a tta n .....................................
Other N e w York City


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Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

5

Effect of 9/11 on NYC

Table 1

Trends in jobs, population, and wages,
Manhattan, 2000 and 2002
C ategory

Total jo b s ...................................
Total population.........................
Total w ages...............................
Average w a g e ...........................

Number or amount
2000

2002

2,382,166
1,537,195
$172,879,553,256
$72,572

2,249,140
1,546,856
$161,029,255,538
$71,596

S ources: Job and wage data— bls qcew program; population data—
U.S. Census Bureau website http://eire.census.gov/popest/data/
counties/CO-EST2003-01 php (visited April 2003).

A look at employment distribution in Manhattan shows that
more than 40 percent of all jobs there in 2000 were in the
“export” sector— 25.7 percent were in finance and insurance
and the professional, scientific, and technical NAICS sectors alone
(see table 2)— giving support to the importance of the “export”
sector to the overall Manhattan economy. In total, “export” jobs
represented 66.4 percent of all borough wages, with the finance
and professional services sectors alone accounting for almost
half the total.
In the finance and insurance sector, yearly wages averaged
$186,097 in 2000, with wages in finance alone averaging
$206,758.9 Average wages in the professional, scientific, and
technical sector were $84,244. Within this sector, jobs in
m anagem ent and technical consulting services averaged
$ 110,073, jobs in advertising and related services $92,194, jobs
in computer systems design and related services $89,015, and
jobs in legal services $87,402. Although employment in the sec­
tor designated “management of companies” represented only 2.0
percent of all jobs, average wages were high ($158,461), and
the sector accounted for 4.3 percent of all wages. (See table 2.)
By 2002, Manhattan’s economy was in decline. Although the
borough’s population had increased slightly from the 2000
figure, total jobs declined 5.6 percent (133,026), total wages
declined 6.9 percent, and the average wage declined 1.3 percent.
(See table 1.) During the same period, the All Items Consumer
Price Index (CPI) for the New York area increased 5.2 percent,
making the decline in real wages about 6.5 percent. The effects
of this economic downturn were not shared equally across all
sectors.
Between 2000 and 2002, the M anhattan economy lost
133,026 jobs and $11,850,297,717 in wages, with 82.7 percent
of the job declines and 111.0 percent of the lost wages associated
with the “export” economy. (Increases in wages in “local”economy jobs magnified the wage loss effect registered by
“exporf’-economy jobs.) Losses in the “export” sector clearly
damaged and weakened Manhattan’s economic linkages with
the Nation and the international community, but, more im­
portantly, altered the borough’s unique character. In fact, more
than 1 out of every 4 Manhattan jobs lost came from the finance
and insurance sector alone, with another quarter lost from
professional, scientific, and technical services.

6

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June 2004

The “export” industries
Finance and insurance.

In 2002, 293,635 Manhattan jobs
were in the finance and insurance sector. (See table 2.) In fact, 9
out of 10 jobs in the sector in New York City were located in
Manhattan. The finance and insurance sector thus still accounted
for 13.1 percent of all Manhattan jobs, although now only
slightly more than 32.2 percent of Manhattan wages. Since 2000,
35,209 jobs had been lost in the sector, or 10.7 percent of its
employment base. Average wages declined 5.0 percent (10.2
percent, adjusted for increases in the CPI), to $176,837.
In finance alone, total jobs declined 11.6 percent, and the
average nominal wage fell 5.9 percent, to $194,563. However,
it appears that the job reductions recorded within the sector— as
measured by wages— may not have been proportional across
employment categories.10 Table 3 gives a breakdown of the
average monthly employment and the average wage in various
employment categories within the finance sector.

Professional, technical, and scientific occupations.

In New
York City in 2002, 89.8 percent of all jobs in the professional,
technical, and scientific sector were located in Manhattan. The
sector accounted for 11.1 percent of all Manhattan jobs and 13.6
percent of all Manhattan wages. From 2000 to 2002, the sector
lost 34,029 jobs (1 out of every 4 Manhattan jobs lost), or 12.0
percent of its job base. However, average wages rose 4.2 percent,
to $87,782. Table 3 presents the average monthly employment
and the average wage in various employment categories in the
professional, technical, and scientific services sector.
For many years, the finance industry, and Wall Street in
particular, has been Manhattan’s “hometown” industry and
driving economic force. Manhattan employment in the Sicclassified security and commodity brokers portion of this
industry had represented about 25 percent of the industry’s
nationwide employment and about 40 percent of its nationwide
payroll. Due to the size of its profits, bonuses, and employment
opportunities, analysts have suggested that the security and
commodity brokers industry has been the single most deter­
minative factor causing short-term volatility and cyclical change
in the Manhattan economy.11
Wall Street is a voracious user of legal, accounting, computer,
management consulting, printing, and other professional and
technical services. On the surface, it would appear that, as Wall
Street profits, wages, and jobs declined, the effect would be felt
across many of the categories making up the professional,
scientific, and technical sector. However, 73.5 percent of the
jobs lost in the sector were from just two categories: computer
systems design and related services (12,998 jobs) and adver­
tising and related services (12,019 jobs.)

Information.

The information sector is a key component of
the Manhattan job scene. Between 2000 and 2002, the sector
lost 23,351 jobs, or 14.4 percent of its job base. These jobs

Table 2.

Employment and wages in selected sectors, Manhattan, 2000 and 2002

Sector

Average monthly
em ploym ent

Percent of
Manhattan
em ploym ent

Percent of
total
Manhattan
wages

Total wages

Average w age

2000
Manhattan1..............................................

2,382,166

100.00

$172,879,553,256

100.00

$72,572

Finance and insurance...............................
Professional, scientific, and technical.......
Information.................................................
Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........
Management of companies.......................
Real estate, and rental and leasing..........
Manufacturing............................................
Administrative and support, and waste.....
Construction...............................................

328,844
284,138
162,336
43,689
46,728
75,492
70,022
155,661
35,489

13.80
11.93
6.82
1.83
1.96
3.17
2.94
6.53
1.49

61,196,930,733
23,936,793,191
12,942,762,903
2,238,973,870
7,404,551,085
3,990,265,709
3,107,663,164
5,940,016,975
2,282,921,413

35.40
13.85
7.49
1.30
4.28
2.31
1.80
3.44
1.32

186,097
84,244
79,728
51,248
158,461
52,857
44,381
38,160
64,328

Wholesale trad e .........................................
Retail trade.................................................
Transportation and warehousing...............
Educational services..................................
Health care and social assistance............
Accommodation and food services...........
Other services............................................
Government...............................................
Unclassified................................................

90,765
133,362
27,805
64,941
180,052
137,184
82,754
453,841
3,437

3.81
5.80
1.17
2.73
7.56
5.76
3.47
19.05
.14

6,514,702,637
4,611,290,148
1,020,559,006
2,736,363,917
7,299,087,850
3,665,478,436
2,859,744,309
20,509,510,707
135,512,831

3.77
2.67
.59
1.58
4.22
2.12
1.65

71,775
34,577
36,704
42,136
40,539
26,719
34,557
45,191
39,428

Manhattan1..............................................

2,249,140

100.00

161,029,255,538

100.00

71,596

Finance and insurance...............................
Professional, scientific, and technical.......
Information.................................................
Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........
Management of companies.......................
Real estate, and rental and leasing..........
Manufacturing............................................
Administrative and support, and waste.....
Construction...............................................

293,635
250,109
138,985
43,437
50,354
71,891
52,823
134,026
31,974

13.06
11.12
6.18
1.93
2.24
3.20
2.35
5.96
1.42

51,925,575,579
21,955,051,846
11,622,421,137
2,268,773,282
7,091,329,910
3,983,975,512
2,776,784,793
5,308,308,206
2,202,635,368

32.25
13.63
7.22
1.41
4.40
2.47
1.72
3.30
1.37

176,837
87,782
83,624
52,231
140,830
55,417
52,568
39,607

Wholesale tra d e .........................................
Retail trade.................................................
Transportation and warehousing...............
Educational services..................................
Health care and social assistance............
Accommodation and food services...........
Other services............................................
Government...............................................
Unclassified................................................

82,566
123,477
25,678
72,799
192,262
132,797
81,393
457,926
7,267

3.67
5.49
1.14
3.24
8.55
5.90
3.62
20.36
.32

6,287,160,465
4,534,139,745
1,028,589,129
3,129,007,254
8,118,447,888
3,658,016,266
3,190,752,753
21,062,145,527
384,699,699

3.90

76,147

11.86

.08

2002

1 Detailed entries do not necessarily sum to totals. (See appendix.)

represented 17.6 percent of all Manhattan jobs lost. During
the same period, despite the significant job loss, average
wages increased 4.9 percent, to $83,624. Four components
of the sector— newspaper, periodical, book, and directory
publishers; motion picture and video industries; radio and
telev isio n b roadcasting; and w ired telecom m unication
carriers— constitute 75.5 percent of the sector’s employment
base. All com ponents experienced job losses, with con­
com itant increases in average wages. Table 3 shows the
average m onthly em ploym ent and the average wage in
selected em ploym ent categories w ithin the inform ation
sector.


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Source:

68,888

2.82

36,721

.64
1.94
5.04
2.27
1.98
13.08
.24

40,057
42,981
42,226
27,546
39,202
45,995
52,938

bls qcew program.

Arts, entertainment, and recreation.

Although containing
less than 2 percent of M anhattan’s jobs, the arts, enter­
tainment, and recreation sector has always been another highprofile sector of the M anhattan economy. Looking at the
sector as a whole and using 2000 as the base, one finds that
jobs remained constant, while average wages rose 1.9 per­
cent, to $52,231. For selected categories within the sector, the
relationship between jobs and average wages demonstrated
greater variation. Table 3 gives a breakdown of the average
m onthly em ploym ent and the average wage in selected
employment categories within the arts, entertainment, and
recreation sector.

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

7

Effect of 9/11 on NYC

Employment and wages in selected "export"
sectors Manhattan, 2002
Average
monthly
em ploym ent

Sector

Average

Finance
Depository credit intermediation......
Nondepository credit intermediation ...
Activities related to credit
intermediation..................................
Securities and commodity contracts
brokerage........................................
Securities and commodity
exchanges .......................................
Other financial investment activities ....

$123,069
123,906

4,811

86,136

120,853

244,926

3,406
39,737

136,290
184,395

73,702

94,036

31,092

80,741

The “local” market sectors

19,848
9,008

72,377
65,509

Adm inistrative and support, and waste.

29,318

94,785

22,295

109,444

12,099
44,345

49,360
93,659

8,876

61,848

49,651
1,569
27,289
3,823
17,682

85,274
97,929
72,847
122,897
87,651

5,700
15,129

107,445
82,532

4,226

86,872

13,086

45,648

8,052

66,133

2,790

90,665

2,168

139,014

10,690

39,946

Information
Newspaper, periodical, book, and
directory publishers.........................
Software publishers...........................
Motion picture and video industries ...
Sound-recording industries...............
Radio and television broadcasting....
Cable and other subscription
programming....................................
Wired telecommunications carriers ...
Data-processing, hosting, and
related services................................
Arts, entertainment,
and recreation
Performing arts companies...............
Promoters of performing arts, sports,
and similar events.............................
Agents and managers for artists,
athletes, entertainers, and other
public figures....................................
Independent artists, writers, and
performers........................................
Museums, historical sites, and other
institutions........................................
Source:

8

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program.

Monthly Labor Review


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One result of globalization is the continuing
movement of manufacturing production. By 2002, jobs in the
manufacturing sector represented a scant 2.4 percent of the
borough’s employment base and had fallen to 52,823, a 24.6percent decline in just 2 years. By contrast, during the same time
frame, average wages rose 18.4 percent, to $52,568, indicating
that there were jobs (for example, fashion designers) so highly
skilled and technical that they could not be exported easily.
Two categories dominated what was left of manufacturing in
Manhattan in 2002. The garment industry— specifically, cut and
sew apparel manufacturing— accounted for 40.6 percent of all
jobs within the sector, while printing and related support activities
constituted 15.9 percent of the jobs. With 2000 as the base, jobs
in apparel manufacturing decreased by 9,626, or 31.0 percent,
while average wages increased by $10,396, or 29.0 percent, by
2002. In the printing category, jobs decreased by 1,734, or 17.1
percent, possibly an impact of the Wall Street decline. Average
wages, however, remained constant at slightly under $58,000.

42,417
24,055

Professional, scientific,
and te ch nical
Legal services....................................
Accounting, tax preparation,
bookkeeping, and payroll services...
Architectural, engineering, and
related services................................
Specialized design services.............
Computer systems design and
related services................................
Management, scientific, and technical
consulting services...........................
Scientific research and development
services............................................
Advertising and related services......
Other professional, scientific, and
technical services.............................

Manufacturing.

June 2004

In 2002, the
administrative and support, and waste sector accounted for 6.0
percent of Manhattan’s jobs. However, the sector lost 21,635
jobs between 2000 and 2002,13.9 percent of its job base. Most
of the decline was in two categories: employment services, which
lost 16,394 jobs (22.9 percent of its job base), and business
support services, which lost 2,695 jobs (19.4 percent of its base).
The employment services industry includes temporary-help
services, a job category that is cyclically related to changes in the
business climate. In contrast, investigative and security services
recorded an 8.3-percent increase in jobs (1,868) and a 10.7percent increase in average wages ($23,396) as security concerns
intensified in the post-9/11 period. During the 2000-02 period,
average wages in the administrative and support, and waste sector
increased 3.8 percent, to $39,607.

Retail trade and wholesale trade.

In 2002 Manhattan, 5.5
percent of all jobs were in the retail trade sector. From 2000 to
2002, the sector lost 9,885 jobs, or 7.4 percent of its job base.
However, during the same period, as appears to be the pattern,
average wages rose 6 1 percent, to $36,721.
Within the retail trade sector, four categories— clothing stores,
grocery stores, health and personal care establishments, and
department stores— provided more than 50 percent of the jobs.
Table 4 gives the average monthly employment and the average
wage in various employment categories in the retail trade sector.
Wholesale trade provided 3.7 percent (82,566) of all Man­
hattan jobs in 2002. The sector lost 9.0 percent of its 2000 job
base in the 2-year period. During the same time frame, average
salaries increased 6.0 percent, from $71,775 to $76,147. In the
construction sector and the transportation and warehousing

Employment and wages in selected "local"
sectors, Manhattan, 2002

Sector

Average
monthly
em ploym ent

Average
wage

6,615
13,324
12,895
28,532

$50,325
21,411
39,212
35,373

Retail trade
Electronics and appliance stores......
Grocery sto re s...................................
Health and personal care stores.......
Clothing stores...................................
Jewelry, luggage, and leather goods
stores................................................
Sporting goods and musical instrument
stores ................................................
Book, periodical, and music stores....
Office supplies, stationery, and gift
stores................................................

6,481

52,808

3,629
4,525

31,273
23,771

4,022

29,282

33,102
64,457
21,468
8,911

41,784
24,901
15,434
24,501

4,625

23,889

A ccom m odation
and food services
Traveler accommodation....................
Full-service restaurants....................
Limited-service eating places...........
Special food services.........................
Drinking places (alcoholic
beverages)........................................
S ource:

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program.

sector, which together accounted for 2 percent of all 2002
Manhattan jobs, the trend was the same: a decrease in jobs and
an increase in average wages.
I

Educational services and health care and social assist­
ance. The trend of job declines and wage increases did not
extend to all major sectors. In educational services and in health
care and social assistance, both the average num ber of jobs
and average annual wages increased betw een 2000 and
2002. In education, jobs rose 12.1 percent, to 72,799, and
average wages inched up 2.0 percent, to $42,981. In the
health care and social assistance sector, which accounted
for 8.5 percent of all 2002 M anhattan jobs, jobs increased
6.8 percent, to 12,210, and average wages rose 4.2 percent,
to $42,226.

Accommodation and fo o d services.

D uring 2002, the
accom m odation and food services sector constituted 5.9
percent of all M anhattan jobs, providing services to New
York City residents while catering to the tourist industry.
The 2-year loss of 4,387 jobs was not shared equally by all
categories w ithin the sector; the unbalanced situ atio n
pointed up the fact that New Yorkers appear to have been
patronizing, to a greater extent, lower cost lim ited-service
eating places, which saw an employment increase of 2.8
percent. Table 4 lists the average monthly em ploym ent and
the average wage in selected employment categories within
the accommodation and food services sector. Table 5 sums
up the average m onthly em ploym ent, total w ages, and
average wage for all the components of M anhattan’s “ex­
port” and “local” econom ies.

E m p lo y m e n t a n d w a g e s in th e " e x p o rt" a n d " lo c a l " se cto rs, M a n h a tta n , 2000

_____________________ .___________________________________________________________________
Sector

Average monthly em ploym ent

Total wages

“ Export” sector:1
Total..........................................................
Finance and insurance................................
Professional, scientific, and technical........
Information..................................................
Arts, entertainment, and recreation...........
Management of companies.........................
Real estate, and rental and leasing...........
Manufacturing.............................................

901,349
293,635
250,109
138,985
43,437
50,354
71,891
52,823

$101,631,381,694
51,925,575,579
21,955,051,846
11,622,421,137
2,268,773,282
7,091,329,910
3,983,975,512
2,776,784,793

$112,755
176,837
87,782
83,624
52,231
140,830
55,417
52,568

“Local” sector:1
Total..........................................................
Administrative and support, and w a ste .....
Construction................................................
Wholesale trad e ..........................................
Retail trade..................................................
Transportation and warehousing...............
Educational services...................................
Health care and social assistance.............
Accommodation and food services............
Other services.............................................
Government................................................
Unclassified.................................................

1,802,583
134,026
31,974
82,566
123,477
25,678
72,799
192,262
132,797
81,393
457,926
7,267

203,255,293,753
5,308,308,206
2,202,635,368
6,287,160,465
4,534,139,745
1,028,589,129
3,129,007,254
8,118,447,888
3,658,016,266
3,190,752,753
21,062,145,527
384,699,699

112,758
39,607
68,888
76,147
36,721
40,057
42,981
42,226
27,546
39,202
45,995
52,938

1 Detailed entries do not necessarily sum to totals. (See appendix.)


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Source:

blsqcew

Average w age

program.

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

9

Effect of 9/11 on NYC

Issues
By January 2001, 2 months before the nationally recognized
March downturn, hiring in Manhattan had begun to decline.12
Less than 9 months later, the borough was shocked by the terrorist
attack. Within 2 weeks of the September 11 attack, the destruction
of the World Trade Center and collateral office space led to the
movement to New Jersey of 3,319 Manhattan jobs, more than 80
percent of which were in the finance sector. By the end of
October, the number had risen to 17,178 jobs. By December
2002, all but 5,204 of those jobs had returned to New York.13
However, the impact of the terrorist attack went beyond such
measures and influenced the course of a recession that was already
underway. Clearly, both events influenced the economic downturn
characterized by lost jobs and wages. However, in order to gain a
clearer picture as to what took place, it is useful to separate the
economic effects of the recession from those of the attack.

Methodology
To gain a dynamic picture of employment changes, this section
presents a number of charts, each displaying a monthly time series
of over-the-year employment changes. Monthly data from
January 2000 to December 2002 summarize employment and
total pay (exclusive of benefits) of workers covered by State and
Federal unemployment insurance. Coverage is broad and is esti­
mated to include 99.7 percent of all wage and salary employees
working in the five New York City boroughs over the 3-year period.
The methodology compares employment levels in the current
month with those of the same month in the preceding year
between January 2001 and December 2002. (The 36 data points
are thus reduced to 24 in the charts.) This approach overcomes
problems associated with seasonal patterns in employment data
that are not seasonally adjusted.
The first point in each chart, January 2001, corresponds to the
beginning of the recession in New York. A trend line is inferred
from data from January 2001 to September 2001, the first 9
months of the year. (A 9-month period that includes September
2001 is used to construct the trend line, because September
employment data, under the q c e w program, would not have
included losses stemming from the terrorist attack.)
The charts are examined to see whether, beginning in October
2001, any deviation from the trend line shown took place. If so,
this deviation is considered to be related to the effect of 9/11.
The economic effects of the deviation are then calculated by
geometric methods.

A visual illustration
The trend-line analysis suggests that a distinct alteration in the
employment pattern for Manhattan— a change independent of
the 2001 recession— commenced after September 11,2001. (See
chart 2.) The duration of this disruption— that is, the influence
10

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June 2004

, of 9/11— is seen to have been 4 months, from October 2001
through January 2002. (Note that the Manhattan economy was
still losing jobs as of December 2002.)
In particular, the trend-line analysis indicates that the events
of September 11 exacerbated the already deteriorating Manhattan
economy. On the basis of the trend line for the remainder of
20001, the pace of job loss accelerated and remained gereater
than expected. By the end of the year, the acceleration in job loss
had moderated. Then, during 2002, although the rate of job loss
decelerated, Manhattan was still losing jobs in December.
The analysis further suggests that the attack caused a sharper
drop in jobs than would have been expected on the basis of the
existing downtrend. It is this difference between the actual job
loss experienced over the period from October 2001 to February
2002 and the loss predicted by the trend line that is used to gauge
the effect of the events of September 11 on the New York labor
market
Dividing the Manhattan economy into the “export” sector and
the “local” sector demonstrates the relation discussed previously.
The curve for the “export” sector shows the same 4-month 9/11
effect for Manhattan as a whole, while that for the “local” sector
indicates that the effect of 9/11 lasted for 3 months and that the entire
sector actually began to add jobs by the end of 2002. (See chart 3.)
The terrorist attack of 9/11 cost the Manhattan economy
238,725 lost job months (the equivalent of 59,681 jobs each
month for 4 months) and $2,189,929,660 in lost wages. (See
table 6.) A breakdown of specific key sectors points out the
differing effects of 9/11, in terms of lost jobs and lost wages, on
the various sectors of the Manhattan economy.
Sectors within the “export” economy, in the aggregate,
accounted for 65.1 percent of the lost job months and 88.0
percent of the lost wages, while specific sectors within the “local”
economy accounted for 34.9 percent of the lost job months and
12.0 percent of lost wages. (Note, however, that three sectors
within the “local” economy experienced gains in employment
and subsequent gains in wages that tended to dissipate the overall
effects of the economic downturn.) The finance sector was clearly
a major force in the decline in the Manhattan economy, ac­
counting for 29.3 percent of all lost job months and 55.1 percent
of all lost wages. The curve of over-the-year-changes in employ­
ment in the sector, shown in the top panel of chart 4, puts the
matter in clearer perspective.
Although growth was slowing down somewhat before the
attack, the finance sector did not actually begin to shed jobs until
September 2001,8 months after the beginning of the recession.
A steep decline in employment at that time is visible, and it is
evident that the decline did not bottom out until August 2002. As
of December 2002, jobs were still being lost.
At issue is how much of the loss should be attributed to the
effects of 9/11. Clearly, the terrorist attack had a significant
impact on the finance sector. However, other variables, such as
the decline in the American and international stock markets,

Chart 2.

Manhattan employment, over-the-year change, 2001-02
Change in
number
employed

Change in
number
employed

2002

2001

corporate scandals, the war in Afghanistan, the buildup to the
war in Iraq, and a drop in overall consumer confidence, also
exerted important influences on Manhattan’s job losses. In this
analysis, it is postulated that the effect of 9/11 on finance was 4
months, the average for the “export” sector.14 The continued
decline after January 2002 is attributed to other factors. Although
the finance sector was the dominant sector that was affected by
the terrorist attack, other sectors were as well.

Professional, scientific, and technical services. The close
relationship between this sector and the finance sector already
has been discussed, but the effect of the 9/11 terrorist attack on
the professional, scientific, and technical services sector was
markedly different from that experienced by the finance sector.
Professional, scientific, and technical services began to lose jobs
in April 2001, and the sector was already in steep decline by
September 2001. In reality, the effect of 9/11 on this sector was
marginal. (Recall that the loss of jobs in the sector was due in
large measure to the economic collapse of the computer/“dotcom industry” and declines in advertising services and thus was
related to the business cycle.) By December, just like the finance


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sector, the professional, scientific, and technical sector was still
shedding jobs and losing wages. (See chart 4, second panel.)

Accommodation and food services.

Although most food
service establishments rely heavily on local customers, Man­
hattan’s tourist industry and employment in its critical accom­
modation and food services sector were severely affected by the
9/11 attack. Job losses had begun in the sector during August
2001 and were pronounced and precipitous. The losses bottomed
out in November 2001, but still continued until September 2002,
when positive job growth was recorded. (See chart 4, third
panel.)

Government.

Following the terrorist attack, the Federal Gov­
ernment provided assistance to Manhattan and, indeed, the entire
city. Employees from Federal law en-forcement, intelligence,
immigration, economic development, and disaster assistance
agencies converged on the city, ultimately pumping just under
$98 million dollars into the Manhattan economy for expenditures
for food, lodging, and other ne-cessities. The bottom panel of
chart 4 suggests that Federal work-ers may have been on 3-month
assignment blocks.

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

11

Effect of 9/11 on NYC

Chart 3.

Manhattan "export" and "local" employment, over-the-year change, 2001-02

Change in
number
employed

Change in
number
employed
40,000

-

20,000

-

-

20,000

-40,000

-60,000

-80,000

-

Change in
number
employed

12

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2001

2002

2001

2002

June 2004

100,000

Change in
number
employed

I

Effect of 9/11 in job months and lost or gained wages over the 2000-02 period, Manhattan

____________ _

_______________
Wages, lost or gained

Job months

Sector

Total lost1.....................................................

-2 3 8 ,7 2 5

- 5 2 , 1 8 9 ,9 2 9 ,6 6 0

Finance and insurance..........................................................
Finance...............................................................................
Professional, scientific, and technical...................................
Information.............................................................................
Arts, entertainment, and recreation......................................
Management of companies...................................................
Real estate, and rental and leasing.......................................
Wholesale tra d e
Retail trade
Transportation and warehousing
Health care and social assistance........................................
Accommodation and food services
Other services

-9 6 ,0 0 0

-1 ,5 1 4 ,0 8 2 ,0 0 0
-1 ,2 0 6 ,5 5 6 ,0 0 0
- 1 1 6 ,0 3 2 ,0 0 0
- 2 2 3 ,8 2 8 ,0 0 0
- 2 4 ,1 0 3 ,5 0 0
- 3 4 ,0 3 7 ,1 0 0
—1 5 ,9 3 6 ,3 0 0

Total gained.................................................

3 2 ,2 5 0

1 2 7 ,0 4 5 ,2 5 0

Construction...........................................................................
Educational services.............................................................
Government............................................................................

2 ,7 5 0
4 ,0 0 0
2 5 ,5 0 0

1 5 ,7 2 6 ,5 0 0
1 3 ,5 7 7 ,2 5 0
9 7 ,7 4 1 ,5 0 0

...............................
...................................
...................
.................
.................................

1Detailed entries do not necessarily sum to totals. (See appendix.)
The other boroughs
With two-thirds of all New York City jobs located in Manhattan,
any study of the city’s economy will inevitably be heavily influ­
enced by developments taking place there. O f special interest in
this analysis, however, is the economic effect of 9/11 on each of
the city’s boroughs. Accordingly, in what follows, patterns of
“export” and “local” employment will be examined to determine
(1) to what extent each borough’s experience was similar or
dissimilar to Manhattan’s; (2) how each borough individually
relates to New York City as a global center; and (3) what specific
effect, if any, the terrorist attack of 9/11 had on each borough’s
economy.

Queens
In 2000, Queens, like Manhattan, the city, and, indeed, the
Nation, was in the midst of an economic boom. The job growth
that had begun in the early 1990s caused the number of jobs to
reach 480,676, a 23-year high, in 2000. Unlike the situation in
Manhattan, the relationship between employment and wages in
Queens resembled that of the Nation as a whole. From 1978 to
2000, employment had risen, while real wages had remained
relatively constant. (See chart 5.) Indeed, in terms of real wages,
the average wage in Queens in 2000 was less than it was in 1978.
(For comparison, however, note that real wages in the Nation did
not exceed 1978 levels until 1997.)
Queens had benefited from the greater labor mobility of the
global economy. M ore than 46 percent of the borough’s
population was foreign born. Between 1995 and 2000, about


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-7 0 ,0 0 0
-1 6 ,0 0 0
-3 2 ,0 0 0
- 5 ,5 0 0
- 2 ,3 5 0
- 3 ,4 5 0
-1 1 ,5 0 0
- 8 ,4 0 0
- 2 ,1 7 5
- 8 ,8 5 0
-4 5 ,5 0 0
- 6 ,0 0 0

S ource:

- 7 1 ,5 0 3 ,5 0 0
- 2 5 ,2 5 0 ,4 0 0
- 6 ,6 9 9 ,0 0 0
- 3 0 , 5 9 1 ,9 0 0
- 1 0 2 ,6 4 7 ,0 0 0
- 1 8 ,3 0 6 ,0 0 0

blsqcew

program.

175,000 people from abroad had settled in Queens. Between
2001 and 2002, the population of the borough was augmented
by approxim ately 40,000 additional foreign a rriv a ls,15
offsetting a population loss resulting from net negative
internal m igration. This influx of w orkers from another
w age stru ctu re m ay acco u n t in p art for the slu g g ish
behavior of wages in Queens: to fully realize o ne’s skills
takes tim e, even when greater opportunities for their reali­
zation exist.
Queens’ 480,676 jobs (see table 7) represented 13.3 percent
of New York City’s employment base. With the city’s two
airports— John F. Kennedy and LaGuardia—located within the
borough’s boundaries, 55.0 percent of all New York City jobs in
the transportation and warehousing sector were found in Queens.
Again unlike the situation in Manhattan, where a large per­
centage of the borough’s workers lived outside of New York City
and were attracted to Manhattan by its high wages, the percentage
of Queens workers living outside of New York City was only
20.6 percent. Those living and working in Queens constituted
61.7 percent of the borough’s workforce, and those living in other
New York City counties made up 17.7 percent of Queens’
workforce.16
An examination of employment distribution in Queens reveals
that three sectors— health care and social assistance; trans­
portation and warehousing; and retail trade (all classified as
“local” market sectors)— accounted for 44.7 percent of all
borough jobs. (See table 8.) The average wage in Queens in 2000,
$34,986, was 51.8 percent lower than the average wage in
Manhattan.

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

13

Effect of 9/11 on NYC

14

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June 2004

Chart 5.

Indexes of employment and real wages, Queens, 1978-2000

Index

ln(tex

1 9 7 8 = 100

1978 = 100

With the notable exception of scheduled air transportation—
a category within the transportation and warehouse sector—
industries in Queens were less vulnerable than those in
Manhattan to the economic effects of the national recession and
the 9/11 terrorist attack. One possible explanation for this
difference is that, in Queens, no single sector accounted for more
than 20 percent of the total wage pool.
Queens has long been the home of a major league baseball
franchise and, even longer, of the U. S. Tennis Open, both of
which contribute to an average wage of $71,075 in spectator
sports, a category within the arts, entertainment, and recreation
sector. This high average wage helped raise the average wage
for the entire sector.
Finance and insurance, though not a dominant sector in the
Queens econom y in term s o f jobs, recorded the highest
published average sector wage: $55,760, an amount 59.4
percent higher than the average borough wage. Banking
accounted for much more of the sector’s employment in
Queens than in securities-dominated Manhattan. The average
wage in Queens for the category o f securities and commodity
contract brokerage, within the finance and insurance sector,
was $86,000, 67.2 percent lower than the average wage for
the same category in M anhattan. The highest-paying detailed


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industry category in Queens was in the information sector.
By 2002, two dynamics had taken place in the labor market
economy in Queens. The first was in jobs, as average monthly
employment dropped by 9,376, or 2.0 percent. The second
was in average wages, which had risen 7.6 percent, or $2,652.
During the 2-year period from 2000 to 2002, the borough
experienced a marginal increase in population, attributed, as
noted, to immigration. Table 7 gives an overview of the job
situation, population, and wages in Queens in 2002.
The increase in average wages was shared across all sectors
except accommodation and food services, which recorded a 3.3percent decline. Once more unlike the situation in Manhattan,
where total wages had declined, total wages in Queens increased
5.5 percent during the 2-year period. Table 8 shows the
employment and wage situation for the various sectors of the
Queens economy in 2002.

Transportation and warehousing. The transportation and
warehousing sector represented 13.0 percent of the borough’s
em ploym ent base. W ithin the sector, tw o c a te g o rie s—
scheduled air transportation and support activities for air
transportation— accounted for 45.0 percent of all sector

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

15

Effect of 9/11 on NYC

Table 7.

while average wages in the category rose 18.4 percent, to $63,682.
During the same period, support activities for air transportation lost
266 jobs (4.0 percent of all jobs in the category).

Trends in jobs, population, and wages, Queens,
2000 and 2002
Number or amount

Category
Total jo b s ..............................
Total population...................
Total w ages..........................
Average w a g e .....................

2000

2002

480,676
2,229,379
$16,816,744,366
$34,986

471,376
2,237,815
$17,738,593,994
$37,638

Health care and social assistance.

Health care and social
assistance (17.7 percent of Queens employment) experienced a
2.7-percent increase in average monthly employment between
2000 and 2002.

Sources: Job and wage data— bls qcew program; population data—
U.S. Census Bureau website http://eire.census.gov/popest/data/
counties/CO-EST2003-01 php (visited April 2003).

jobs and 52.4 percent o f all sector wages.
From 2000 to 2002, 7,353 jobs in scheduled air transportation
(25.8 percent of all jobs in the category) were eliminated. The loss
represented 78.4 percent of all jobs lost in Queens over the period,
Table 8.

Construction. In 2002, 37.5 percent of all New York City
construction jobs were located in Queens; however, the sector
accounted for only 8.9 percent of the borough’s employment base.
Retail trade.

With 10.4 percent of Q ueens’ employment
base in retail trade (49,019 jobs), the sector is an important

Employment and wages in selected sectors, Queens, 2000 and 2002

A v e r a g e m o n th ly
e m p lo y m e n t

S e c to r

P e rc e n t of
Q ueens
e m p lo y m e n t

T o ta l w a g e s

P e rc e n t of
to ta l Q u e e n s
wages

A v e ra g e w a g e

2000

Queens' ................................................

4 8 0 ,6 7 6

1 0 0 .0 0

$ 1 6 ,8 1 6 ,7 4 4 ,3 6 6

1 0 0 .0 0

$ 3 4 ,9 8 6

Finance and insurance...............................
Professional, scientific, and technical.......
Information...........................................
Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........
Management of companies.......................
Real estate, and rental and leasing..........
Manufacturing............................................
Administrative and support, and waste.....
Construction...............................................

1 2 ,1 1 2
1 0 ,4 7 6
1 0 ,6 6 3
4 ,5 1 3
1 ,7 1 3
1 4 ,8 6 4
4 6 ,5 0 4
2 2 ,8 7 6
3 9 ,8 7 6

2 .5 2
2 .1 8
2 .2 2
.94
.36
3 .0 9
9 .6 7
4 .7 6
8 .3 0

6 7 5 ,3 7 1 ,0 1 6
3 7 8 ,9 1 5 ,8 7 1
4 9 4 ,7 9 2 ,2 6 0
1 9 0 ,2 3 7 ,2 4 6
9 5 ,1 8 3 ,1 4 8
4 8 4 ,3 7 8 ,1 7 1
1 ,4 8 4 ,6 3 2 ,9 7 6
5 8 2 ,4 3 5 ,4 8 7
2 ,0 2 6 ,8 0 3 ,6 2 0

4 .0 2
2 .2 5
2 .9 4
1 .1 3
.5 7
2 .8 8
8 .8 3
3 .4 6
1 2 .0 5

5 5 ,7 6 0
3 6 ,1 7 0
4 6 ,4 0 2
4 2 ,1 5 2
5 5 ,5 5 2
3 2 ,5 8 7
3 1 ,9 2 5
2 5 ,4 6 0
5 0 Ì8 2 8

Wholesale trad e .........................................
Retail trade............................................
Transportation and warehousing...............
Educational services..................................
Health care and social assistance............
Accommodation and food services...........
Other services........................................
Government................................................
Unclassified.......................................

2 4 ,5 8 0
5 0 ,6 1 7
7 1 ,7 1 7
1 7 ,6 1 2
9 2 ,7 0 6
2 6 ,4 2 9
2 0 ,9 3 7
8 ,5 9 4
1,511

5.11
1 0 .5 3
1 4 .9 2
3 .6 6
1 9 .2 9
5 .5 0
4 .3 6
1.79
.31

1 ,0 1 1 ,6 6 7 ,2 2 1
1 ,1 1 0 ,8 2 4 ,9 8 9
3 ,0 6 0 ,0 4 2 ,2 3 2
5 6 2 ,4 3 6 ,7 5 4
3 ,0 9 0 ,0 4 2 ,4 9 6
4 5 8 ,5 5 3 ,3 9 0
4 5 2 ,6 7 6 ,7 5 5
4 5 7 ,8 2 3 ,2 4 4
2 6 ,2 2 3 ,3 7 2

6 .0 2
6.61
1 8 .2 0
3 .3 4
1 8 .3 7
2 .7 3
2 .6 9
2 .7 2
.16

4 1 ,1 5 9
2 1 ,9 4 6
4 2 ,6 6 8
3 1 ,9 3 5
3 3 ,3 3 2
17*3 5 0
2 1 ,6 2 1
5 3 ,2 7 6
1 7 /3 5 6

4 7 1 ,3 0 0

1 0 0 .0 0

1 7 ,7 3 8 ,5 9 3 ,9 9 4

1 0 0 .0 0

3 7 ,6 3 8

1 3 ,0 3 7

2 .7 7

8 6 8 ,0 2 9 ,7 5 0

4 .8 9

6 6 ,5 8 3

1 0 ,3 3 8
1 0 ,2 3 3
4,381
1 ,7 6 7
1 4 ,7 7 3
3 9 ,2 7 7

2 .1 9
2 .1 7

4 0 6 ,8 7 9 ,7 7 6
4 9 5 ,8 7 1 ,9 8 3
1 9 4 ,4 8 0 ,2 0 8
1 0 6 ,4 4 7 ,4 7 2
5 1 1 ,1 1 8 ,0 4 0
1 ,3 7 6 ,5 9 0 ,8 6 7
6 3 1 ,3 9 3 ,3 6 9
2 ,3 1 6 ,2 6 0 ,9 7 7

2 .2 9

3 9 ,3 5 8

2 .8 0
1 .1 0
.60
2 .8 8
7 .7 6
3 .5 6
1 3 .0 6

4 8 ,4 5 9
4 4 ,3 8 8
6 0 ,2 4 5
3 4 ,5 9 8
3 5 *0 4 9
2 5 ,9 4 0
5 5 ,2 7 3

6 .0 2
6 .4 2
1 6 .1 7
3 .5 5
1 9 .3 9
2 .7 0
2 .7 3
2 .5 4

4 4 ,6 5 3
2 3 ,2 4 1

2002
Queens' .................................................
Finance and insurance...............................
Professional, scientific, and technical.......
Information...........................................
Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........
Management of companies.......................
Real estate, and rental and leasing..........
Manufacturing...........................................
Administrative and support, and waste.....
Construction........................................

2 4 ,3 4 0
4 1 ,9 0 6

.93
.37
3 .1 3
8 .3 3
5 .1 6
8 .8 9

Wholesale trad e .........................................
Retail trade.............................................
Transportation and warehousing...............
Educational services..................................
Health care and social assistance............
Accommodation and food services...........
Other services...........................................
Government...............................................
Unclassified...............................................

2 3 ,9 0 6
4 9 ,0 1 9
6 1 ,2 7 3
1 8 ,3 7 9
9 5 ,2 1 3
2 8 ,5 2 3
2 0 ,6 9 5
7 ,6 0 0
4 ,1 2 5

5 .0 7
1 0 .4 0
1 3 .0 0
3 .9 0
2 0 .2 0
6 .0 5
4 .3 9
1.61
.88

1 Detailed entries do not necessarily sum to totals. (See appendix.)

16

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June 2004

1 ,0 6 7 ,4 9 5 ,1 9 9
1 ,1 3 9 ,2 6 5 ,6 1 6
2 ,8 6 7 ,9 2 0 ,0 0 8
6 2 9 ,5 6 7 ,8 9 3
3 ,4 4 0 ,2 8 5 ,4 4 2
4 7 8 ,3 2 9 ,3 1 5
4 8 4 ,8 2 1 ,4 4 4
4 5 0 ,3 7 9 ,5 8 1
8 2 ,0 1 6 ,7 4 7

Source:

blsqcew

program.

.4 6

4 6 ,8 0 6
3 4 ,2 5 5
3 6 ,1 3 3
1 6 ,7 7 0
2 3 ,4 2 7
5 9 ,2 5 7
1 9 ,8 8 5

component of the borough’s economy. Within the period from
2000 to 2002, jobs in retail trade declined 3.2 percent, while
average wages increased 5.9 percent, to $23,241.

M anufacturing.

W ithin N ew York City, 28.3 percent
(39,277) of all manufacturing jobs were located in Queens.
However, the sector accounted for only 8.3 percent of the
borough’s employment base.

“Local” and “export” economies. In Queens, the local
econom y is the driving econom ic force. This group of
industries comprised 316,193 jobs, or 67.1 percent of all jobs
in Queens in 2002. Jobs had increased by 2.6 percent, or 8,098,
over 2000. By contrast, the export industries, which accounted
for 155,079 jobs in 2002, saw a decline of 10.1 percent from
2000, a loss of 17,465 jobs. In 2002, the average wage of export
jobs was $44,025,27.6 percent higher than the $34,506 average
for “local”-sector jobs.
A trend-line analysis suggests that the terrorist attack of
9/11 had a significant effect on the Queens labor market
economy. W hat most likely would have been a relatively mild

Chart 6.

turndown attributable to the national recession became a
deeper decline due to 9/11.
The overall effect of 9/11 extended for 9 months (September
through June; see chart 6), with the trough arriving during
December 2001. The Queens economy began to lose jobs in
September 2001, and the losses extended through November
2002, a 14-month period. A breakdown of specific key sectors,
given in table 9, points out the differing effects of 9/11, in terms
of lost jobs and lost wages, on the Queens economy.
The transportation and warehousing industry, which might be
considered part of the “export” economy in Queens because of
the dominance of the two airports, lost 112,000 job months and
$435,139,559 in wages, while some sectors were adding jobs
during the entire period. Also, with the high concentration of
hotels and motels at the airports, it may be that some losses in
accommodation and food services jobs were due to the terrorist
attack and the subsequent grounding of airplanes.17
The terrorist attack accounted for approximately 140,00 lost
job months (the equivalent of 15,550 jobs each month for 9
months) and about half a billion dollars in lost wages. As in
Manhattan, a single category— in the case of Queens, air
transportation—was the driving force in the downturn in the

Queens employment, over-the-year change, 2001-02
Change in
number
employed

Change in
number
employed


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

5 ,000

-5 ,0 0 0

-

10,000

-1 5 ,0 0 0

-

Monthly Labor Review

20,000

June 2004

17

Effect of 9/11 on NYC

Effect of 9/11 in job months and lost or gained wages over the 2000-02 period, Queens
______________ ________________________ ,____________________
Sector

Job months

Wages, lost or gained

Total lo s t...................................................

-1 3 9 ,8 3 5

- $ 5 1 1 ,3 1 2 ,2 9 0

Professional, scientific, and technical...................................
Arts, entertainment, and recreation.....................................
Management of companies..........................................
Manufacturing.....................................................
Administrative and support, and waste.................................
Construction............................................................
Wholesale trad e .............................................................
Retail trade..........................................................................
Transportation and warehousing...........................................
Air transportation...............................................................
Educational services.............................................................
Accommodation and food services.......................................
Other services....................................................................

- 1 ,8 0 0
- 1 ,8 0 0
-4 5 0
- 5 ,2 5 0
- 1 ,5 0 0
- 4 ,0 0 0
-7 5
- 6 ,4 0 0
-1 1 2 ,0 0 0
-8 9 ,0 0 0
- 2 ,4 0 0
- 3 ,6 0 0
-5 6 0

- 5 ,8 0 8 , 3 8 9
- 6 ,5 1 2 , 6 9 4
- 2 ,1 1 2 , 1 7 6
- 1 4 ,9 4 3 ,9 0 9
- 3 ,2 0 6 , 7 1 6
- 1 8 ,1 9 1 ,4 6 8
-2 6 8 ,1 3 7
-1 2 ,2 6 2 ,1 7 1
- 4 3 5 ,1 3 9 ,5 5 9
- 4 0 0 ,7 0 4 ,8 6 2
- 6 ,5 7 3 , 0 9 9
- 5 ,2 5 5 , 1 4 8
- 1 ,0 3 8 , 8 2 4

Total gained1..............................................

3 0 ,3 0 0

1 4 0 ,2 3 3 ,4 7 9

Finance and insurance...................................................
Information......................................................
Health care and social assistance........................................
Government...............................................................

9 ,0 0 0

5 0 ,1 5 7 ,8 6 5
2 3 ,7 8 1 ,7 0 9
1 5 ,1 5 0 ,5 2 8
5 0 ,5 1 0 ,9 3 9

1 Detailed entries do not necessarily sum to totals. (See appendix.)

borough’s economy. Air transportation contributed 63.7 percent
of all lost job months and 78.4 percent of all lost wages in Queens
that were associated with the terrorist attacks.

Brooklyn
With its 2000 population of 2,465,326, Brooklyn would rank as
the fourth-largest city in the United States were it independently
incorporated. In 2000, the borough was in the midst of one of the
most substantial periods of sustained job growth during the past
50 years. In the later portion of the 1990s, job increases were
both marked and strong, reflecting the economic vitality expe­
rienced by both the Nation and the city. By 2000, the borough
had reached the level of about 442,000 jobs, the highest job total
attained since 1978.
Although the Brooklyn economy was creating new jobs, the
wages associated with these new jobs had not demonstrated the
same upward trend. Real wages in 2000, were, in fact, lower
than they had been in 1978. (See chart 7.) In 2000, Brooklyn’s
average wage of $30,760 was 57.6 percent lower than Man­
hattan’s and 12.1 percent lower than that of Queens.
After Queens, Brooklyn was the leading destination for new
immigrants to New York City. Between 1990 and 1994 alone,
nearly 200,000 immigrants moved to the borough, with nearly
25 percent (49,741) coming from the former Soviet Union.18
Although often highly trained, these immigrants, like those
settling in Queens, tended to be employed in low-paying jobs.
Finally, Brooklyn is a borough of small businesses, with
approximately 66 percent of the borough’s business estab­
lishments employing fewer than five workers.19
18

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June 2004

6 ,0 0 0
5 ,2 0 0
1 0 ,0 0 0

Source:

blsqcew

program.

The borough’s 441,911 jobs (see table 10) represented 12.3
percent of the entire New York City job base in 2000. In terms of
New York’s employment mix, 26.3 percent of all city jobs in the
health care and social assistance sector, and 20.8 percent of all
city construction jobs were located in Brooklyn. Construction,
however, accounted for only 5.5 percent of Brooklyn’s total jobs.
Relatively few people living outside of New York City traveled
to Brooklyn to work. The Brooklyn economy served, for the most
part, the needs of its resident population. Fully 64.7 percent of
Brooklyn workers were borough residents. Those living outside
of New York City and working in Brooklyn accounted for just
11.4 percent of the borough’s workforce, while those living in
other New York City counties and working in Brooklyn com­
posed 23.9 percent of the workforce.20
In looking at employment distribution in Brooklyn, two sectors
stand out: health care and social assistance, with 30.6 percent of
the borough’s jobs, and retail trade, with 12.1 percent of the jobs.
The prominence of these two sectors underscored the importance
of the “local economy,” which, in aggregate, accounted for 78.4
percent of B rooklyn’s entire job base. This em ploym ent
distribution pattern made Brooklyn less vulnerable than Man­
hattan to the effects of an economic turndown or a terrorist attack.
However, it also contributed to the low average wages in the
borough, compared with those in Manhattan and Queens. Table
11 presents various aspects of employment and wages for the
sectors making up the Brooklyn economy in 2000.
Within sectors, there was none of the significant variation
between wages and specific jobs that existed in Manhattan. Most
Brooklyn jobs had wages between $20,000 and $50,000. In

addition, representing 53,452 of the borough’s jobs, the retail
trade sector, with an average wage of $21,203, was typically
among the lowest paying of any sector and pulled down the
borough’s average wage.
With the borough’s economy “locally focused,” Brooklyn’s
employment base changed relatively little between 2000 and
2002. At 1.0 percent, or 4,408 jobs, the loss of jobs over the 2year period was m arginal. However, w ithin the same time
fram e, a different phenom enon was taking place in regard
to wages. U nlike the situation during the 23-year period
from 1978 to 2000, when real wages were stagnant, wage
grow th in Brooklyn between 2000 and 2002 was substantial.
D uring the 2-year period, average w ages advanced 7.0
percent, to $32,903 (see table 10), while aggregate borough
wages increased 5.9 percent. The highest-paying detailed
category was found in the transportation and warehousing
sector.
Some volatility between sectors defined the labor market scene
within the borough between the years 2000 and 2002. A sectorby-sector analysis affords an insight into these dynamics. Table
11 presents the employment and wage situation for the various
sectors of the Brooklyn economy in 2002.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Health care and social assistance.

With an employment base
of 142,570 in 2002, this sector was clearly Brooklyn’s largest
employer. Within the 2-year period, jobs increased by 5.4 percent,
while the average wage of the sector rose 10.1 percent, to
$34,217, an amount 4.0 percent higher than the average borough
wage.

Retail trade.

With 12 percent of all borough jobs in 2002, the
retail trade sector was Brooklyn’s second-largest employer.
Although jobs in the sector declined 1.7 percent between 2000
and 2002, to 52,527, average sector wages rose 11.0 percent
within the same period, to $23,540. This general trend of job
losses and average wage gains was replicated throughout all
sectors.

Manufacturing.

One in 4 (25.7 percent) of all city manu­
facturing jobs was located in Brooklyn. The manufacturing sector
represented 8.1 percent of Brooklyn’s job base, the third-largest
employment sector within the borough.
As with Queens, the apparel industry was the largest employer
in the sector. Cut-and-sew apparel manufacturing represented
19.4 percent of all manufacturing jobs. Between 2000 and 2002,
Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

19

Effect of 9/11 on NYC

Table 10.

Trends in jobs, population, and wages, Brooklyn,
2000 and 2002
Number or amount

Category

2000
Total jo b s .................................
Total population.......................
Total wages.............................
Average w a g e .........................

2002

441,911
2,465,326
$13,593,175,787
$30,760

437,503
2,488,194
$14,395,292,151
$32,903

Educational services.

Sources: Job and wage data— bls qcew program; population data—U.S.
Census Bureau website http://eire.census.gov/popest/data/counties/COEST2003-01php (visited April 2003).

jobs in the sector decreased 32.0 percent, to 6,906, while wages
increased 3.6 percent, to $13,902.

Table 11.

Construction. The construction sector accounted for 5.0
percent of all borough jobs in 2002. Within the 2-year period,
jobs decreased 10.1 percent, to 21,876, while average wages
increased 7.0 percent, to $44,098.
The educational services sector
accounted for 6.0 percent of all Brooklyn jobs in 2002. With
2000 as the base, jobs within this sector increased 11.2 percent
(by 2,652), while average wages declined 2.9 percent, to $36,758.
This large increase in educational service sector jobs helped
minimize the effect of the 2-year total job loss of 4,408, which
characterized the entire Brooklyn labor market economy.

Employment and wages in selected sectors, Brooklyn, 2000 and 2002

A v e r a g e m o n th ly
e m p lo y m e n t

S e c to r

P e rc e n t of
B ro o k ly n
e m p lo y m e n t

T o tal w a g e s

P e rc e n t of
t o t a l B ro o k ly n
w ages

A v e ra g e w a g e

2000

Brooklyn'.................................................

4 4 1 ,9 1 1

1 0 0 .0 0

$ 1 3 ,5 9 3 ,1 7 5 ,7 8 7

1 0 0 .0 0

$ 3 0 ,7 6 0

Finance and insurance...............................
Professional, scientific, and technical.......
Information.................................................
Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........
Management of companies.......................
Real estate, and rental and leasing..........
Manufacturing............................................
Administrative and support, and waste.....
Construction...............................................

1 4 ,1 9 7
1 1 ,5 2 3
8 ,6 2 7
3 ,5 0 9
944
13,581
4 3 ,2 1 2
1 8 ,1 5 7

7 6 7 ,7 4 4 ,1 3 5
4 5 4 ,2 7 1 ,1 0 4
4 1 6 ,8 0 4 ,6 6 3
8 7 ,3 6 4 ,9 3 5
4 0 ,9 3 7 ,7 5 4
3 7 6 ,3 8 7 ,2 4 4
1 ,1 5 7 ,6 1 7 ,2 1 4
4 0 7 ,6 0 9 ,9 4 9
1 ,0 0 2 ,4 4 9 ,1 2 7

5 .6 5
3 .3 4
3 .0 7
.64
.30
2 .7 7
8 .5 2
3 .0 0
7 .3 7

5 4 ,0 7 8
3 9 ,4 2 2
4 8 ,3 1 4
2 4 ,8 9 6
4 3 ,3 8 5
2 7 ,7 1 5
2 6 ,7 8 9
2 2 ,4 4 9

2 4 ,3 2 5

3.21
2.61
1 .9 5
.79
.21
3 .0 7
9 .7 8
4.11
5 .5 0

4 1 ,2 1 0

Wholesale trad e .........................................
Retail trade.................................................
Transportation and warehousing...............
Educational services..................................
Health care and social assistance............
Accommodation and food services...........
Other services............................................
Government................................................
Unclassified................................................

2 3 ,8 6 8
5 3 ,4 5 2
18,811
2 2,5 91
1 3 5 ,2 3 8
1 6 ,8 9 4
19,951
5 ,5 6 5
1 ,8 2 3

5 .4 0
1 2 .1 0
4 .2 6
5 .3 4
3 0 .6 0
3 .8 2
4.51
1.26
.41

8 0 9 ,4 2 4 ,5 2 1
1 ,1 3 3 ,3 1 1 ,0 8 5
6 0 5 ,8 9 0 ,3 9 8
8 9 3 ,3 4 0 ,6 7 4
4 ,2 0 2 ,5 3 9 ,5 0 9
2 4 5 ,7 2 7 ,4 3 4
3 9 4 ,3 7 7 ,2 0 1
2 5 5 ,9 7 2 ,6 7 7
3 0 ,3 4 6 ,7 2 9

5 .9 5
8 .3 4

3 3 ,9 1 2
2 1 ,2 0 3

4 .4 6
8 .5 7
3 0 .9 2
1.81
2 .9 0
1.88
.22

3 2 ,2 1 0
3 7 ,8 6 8
3 1 ,0 7 5
1 4 ,5 4 5
1 9 ,7 6 8
4 5 ,9 9 7
1 6 ,6 5 0

Brooklyn'.................................................

4 3 7 ,5 0 3

1 0 0 .0 0

1 4 ,3 9 5 ,2 9 2 ,1 5 1

1 0 0 .0 0

3 2 ,9 0 3

Finance and insurance...............................
Professional, scientific, and technical.......
Information.................................................
Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........
Management of companies......................
Real estate, and rental and leasing..........
Manufacturing............................................
Administrative and support, and waste.....
Construction...............................................

1 4 ,1 7 9
1 1 ,5 7 0

3 .2 4
2 .6 4

7 ,7 7 6
3 ,5 4 6
1 ,0 8 8
1 3 ,4 5 7
3 5 ,5 4 6
1 8 ,2 4 4
2 1 ,8 7 6

1 .7 8
.81
.25
3 .0 8
8 .1 2
4 .1 7
5 .0 0

8 3 3 ,1 5 8 ,5 6 9
4 7 9 ,0 8 5 ,1 5 1
3 7 2 ,3 5 2 ,8 1 2
9 4 ,3 2 2 ,7 7 4
4 9 ,8 3 6 ,8 2 4
3 9 1 ,1 8 2 ,5 6 3
1 ,0 5 8 ,1 8 5 ,2 5 8
4 1 3 ,0 7 2 ,4 0 8
9 6 4 ,6 6 8 ,1 2 6

5 .7 9
3 .3 3
2 .5 9
.66
.35
2 .7 2
7 .3 5
2 .8 7

5 8 ,7 6 0
4 1 ,4 0 7
4 7 ,8 8 6
2 6 ,6 0 0
4 5 ,7 9 9
2 9 ,0 6 9
2 9 ,7 7 0
2 2 ,6 4 2

6 .7 0

4 4 ,0 9 8

Wholesale trad e .........................................
Retail trade.................................................
Transportation and warehousing...............
Educational services..................................
Health care and social assistance............
Accommodation and food services...........
Other services............................................
Government...............................................
Unclassified................................................

2 1 ,4 9 8
5 2 ,5 2 5
1 8 ,0 3 6
2 6 ,2 4 3
1 4 2 ,5 7 0
1 7 ,4 6 4
2 0 ,0 0 5
3 ,5 0 5
4 ,3 8 8

4.91
12.01
4 .1 2
6 .0 0
3 2 .5 9
3 .9 9
4 .5 7
.8 0
1 .0 0

7 7 0 ,4 5 2 ,2 6 1
1 ,2 3 6 ,4 5 2 ,0 7 1

5 .3 5
8 .5 9
4 .3 2

3 5 ,8 3 9
2 3 ,5 4 0
3 4,4 71

6 .7 0
3 3 .8 9
1.86
2 .9 4
1.33
.6 4

3 6 ,7 5 8
3 4 ,2 1 7
15,361
2 1 ,1 8 2
54,5 31
2 0 ,9 1 0

2002

Detailed entries do not necessarily sum to totals. (See appendix.)

20

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June 2004

6 2 1 ,7 2 9 ,0 5 9
9 6 4 ,6 3 7 ,8 3 2
4 ,8 7 8 ,3 0 6 ,2 9 6
2 6 8 ,2 5 1 ,3 1 5
4 2 3 ,7 4 4 ,6 6 9
1 9 1 ,1 2 2 ,1 9 7
9 1 ,7 6 0 ,2 8 4

Source:

bls qcew

program.

Administrative and support, and waste.

Within this sector, the
num ber of jobs (17,280) and the average wage ($22,497)
remained relatively constant from 2000 to 2002. However, during
the same period, the category of employment services, which
accounted for 35.9 percent of the sector’s jobs, demonstrated
explosive job growth: 23.2 percent, or 1,511 jobs. Average wages
in the category increased 19.8 percent, to $20,397, during the
same period.

“Local” and “export” economy. As noted earlier, the “local
economy” sector was the borough’s economic driving force. This
sector was composed of 350,271 jobs (80.1 percent of all Brook­
lyn jobs) in 2002, an increase of 1.2 percent (4,020 jobs), over
the 2000 figure. By contrast, the “export economy” sector
accounted for just 87,162 jobs (19.9 percent), a decrease of 8.8
percent (8,431 jobs), during the same period.
However, in 2002, the average wage in the “export” sector,
$37,610, was 18.5 percent higher than the average wage of
$31,734 for “local” sector jobs. This differential underscored
the broader influence of “export” sector jobs.
Using the trend-line methodology to analyze the Brooklyn
labor market economy in the aggregate suggests that the terrorist
attack of 9/11 had a distinct effect that was independent of the
national recession. Though clearly not as intense as that
experienced in M anhattan and Queens, this effect altered
Brooklyn’s employment pattern for some time. (See chart 8.)
The disruption, which began after September 2001, lasted for
2 months, until November 2001. It exerted two distinct influ­
ences, the same as affected the Manhattan economy. First, the
economic downturn in Brooklyn was deeper than would have
been expected just from the recession. Second, the trough of the
recession occurred earlier, in October 2001, than would have
been anticipated. (Chart 8 brings out both of these points.)
In tracing the economic downturn in Brooklyn, one sees a
pattern emerge. Job losses began in April 2001, 3 months after
the start of the recession in the city, and lasted until September
2002. In August 2001, it appeared that the borough might
experience positive job growth. However, as the chart points out,
at that time a sharp and marked economic decline overtook
Brooklyn. The falloff was attributable, in large measure, to the
terrorist attack of 9/11, which helped fuel a significant downturn
in employment. (Note that the sharp declines in employment
recorded during April, May, and June were related to specific
events in the government, health care, and transportation and
warehouse sectors.)
Chart 9 demonstrates that the “export” sector of the Brooklyn
economy was the driving force of the economic turndown in the
borough and also points out a clear 9/11 effect: the sector, which
was losing jobs in January 2001, experienced a marked and
prolonged downturn after September 2001. The terrorist attack
accounted for 27,220 lost job months (the equivalent of 9,100


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jobs each month for 3 months) and $64,776,315 in lost wages.
(See table 12.)
Unlike the situation in Manhattan and Queens, where single
job categories— that is, finance and air transportation, were the
driving forces in the economic downturns, in Brooklyn the overall
effect was influenced by multiple sectors and job categories.
Overall, compared with its effect on Manhattan and Queens, the
effect of the terrorist attack on Brooklyn’s economy was less
intense. However, it was distinct and measurable.

The Bronx
As the year 2000 began, the Bronx economy was in its 8th year
of expansion. The job count had reached a level of 213,107, the
highest number of jobs since 1978, and it was still climbing.
Mirroring the pattern for the country, this increase in jobs was
accompanied by an increase in real wages. Chart 10 shows the
trend in these two economic variables from 1978 to 2000.
The borough’s 213,107 jobs (see table 13) represented 5.9
percent of all of the jobs in New York City. In terms of employ­
ment mix, 15.6 percent of all city jobs in health care and social
assistance were located in the Bronx. This sector alone repre­
sented 37.6 percent of all jobs in the borough.
With its 2000 population of 1,332,650 (see table 13), the
Bronx was the city’s fourth-largest borough. The employmentresidence distribution pattern was similar to that recorded for
Queens and Brooklyn, with the overwhelming majority of Bronx
workers living either in the Bronx or in other city boroughs.
Specifically, 60.1 percent of the Bronx workforce resided in the
borough, 18.4 percent called other New York City counties home,
and 21.5 percent lived outside of the city.21
As regards employment distribution in the Bronx, three
sectors—health care and social assistance (37.7 percent), retail
trade (10.5 percent), and educational services (7.4 percent)—
represented 55.6 percent of all Bronx jobs. The borough’s
average salary of $32,831 was 6.7 percent higher than that of
Brooklyn, and 6.2 percent lower than that of Queens, in 2000.
As noted earlier, the Bronx’s “hometown” industry is health care,
and just as Wall Street influences Manhattan’s economic well­
being, the fortunes of health care determine the economic health
of the Bronx.
In 2000, 33.9 percent of all borough wages was generated
by the health care industry alone (not including the social
assistance industry). The industry’s average wage of $39,298
was 19.6 percent higher than the average borough wage, but
16.5 percent lower than the comparable health care wage in
Manhattan ($47,062.)
In the Bronx, the highest-paying published sector was arts,
entertainment, and recreation. However, the sector’s average
wage of $66,384 (see table 14) was skewed by the presence of a
major league sports franchise. Within sectors (excluding the arts,
entertainment, and recreation sector), the two categories with the

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

21

Effect of 9/11 on NYC

Chart 8.

Brooklyn employment, over-the-year change, 2001-02

Change in
number
employed

Change in
number
employed
6,000
4.000

2.000
0
-

2,000

-4,000

2001

Chart 9.

6,000

-

8,000

-

10,000

2002

Brooklyn export" employment, over-the-year change, 2001-02

Change in
number
employed

Change in
number
employed

2001

22

-

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June 2004

2002

Effect of 9/11 in job months and lost or gained wages, over the 2000-02 period, Brooklyn
________________________________________________ _____________________ ’_____

Sector

Job months

Wages, lost or gained

Total lo s t.................................................

-2 7 ,2 2 0

- $ 6 4 ,7 7 6 ,3 1 5

Professional, scientific, and technical...................................
Arts, entertainment, and recreation......................................
Real estate, and rental and leasing......................................
Manufacturing........................................................................
Administrative and support, and waste.................................
Construction...........................................................................
Wholesale tra d e ....................................................................
Retail trade.............................................................................
Transportation and warehousing...........................................
Educational services.............................................................
Accommodation and food services.......................................
Other services........................................................................

- 1 ,0 5 0
- 1 ,2 0 0
- 3 ,9 2 0
- 1 ,8 0 0
- 2 ,2 5 0
- 2 ,0 0 0
-4 0 0
- 4 ,5 0 0
- 3 ,7 5 0
- 1 ,7 5 0
-2 0 0
- 4 ,4 0 0

- 3 ,5 6 2 , 0 5 0
- 2 ,6 5 0 , 2 7 5
- 9 ,3 9 3 , 0 4 0
- 4 ,2 9 1 , 2 0 0
- 4 ,2 1 8 , 7 5 0
- 7 ,1 0 8 , 0 0 0
- 1 ,1 6 2 , 4 0 0
- 8 ,5 3 1 , 5 0 0
- 1 0 ,4 8 4 ,8 5 0
- 5 ,4 6 9 , 8 5 0
-2 4 8 ,4 0 0
- 7 ,6 5 6 , 0 0 0

Total gained...........................................

1 7 ,4 0 0

5 2 ,0 6 3 ,0 1 0

Finance and insurance..........................................................
Management of companies...................................................
Health care and social assistance........................................

1 ,8 0 0
400
1 5 ,2 0 0

8 ,6 9 8 ,6 8 0
1 ,7 3 7 ,1 3 0
4 1 ,6 2 7 ,2 0 0

1 Detailed entries do not necessarily sum to totals. (See appendix.)

highest average wage were in the information sector: data
processing and related services, at $67,192, and wired tele­
communications carriers, at $61,274.
In 2002, the Bronx labor market economy was unique in New
York City: the borough was the only one in the city that recorded
a growth in jobs over the 2000 job count. Over the 2-year period,
average monthly employment rose 1.3 percent, or 2,857 jobs,
while average wages rose 8.9 percent, or $2,933. Within the same
time frame, the borough also experienced a marginal increase in
population. Table 13 provides an overview of the job situation,
population, and wages in the Bronx in 2002.
The increase in average wages was shared by all sectors,
except professional, scientific, and technical occupations, which
registered a 1.9-percent decline. Two sectors— administrative
and support, and waste; and accommodation and food service—
together accounted for an increase of 1,985 jobs, or 66.6 percent
of the entire 2-year job gain.
An analysis of selected sectors, for which various employment
and wage figures are shown in table 14, provides deeper insights
into the Bronx labor market economy.

Health care and social assistance.

In this dominant sector of
the Bronx economy, the two categories of general medical and
surgical hospitals (36.8 percent) and nursing care facilities (17.8
percent) accounted for a combined 54.6 percent of all sector jobs.

Manufacturing.

In 2002,6.9 percent of all manufacturing jobs
in New York City were located in the Bronx, while the sector
itself represented 4.5 percent of the borough’s jobs. Between
2000 and 2002, the Bronx economy lost 1,348 manufacturing
jobs, or 12.3 percent of the borough’s manufacturing job base.


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program.

During the same period, average wages in the manufacturing
sector increased 8.7 percent, to $34,138.

Educational services.

With 16,240 jobs, the educational
services sector was the borough’s third-largest employment sec­
tor. Within the sector, almost half (47.8 percent) of the jobs were
in the category of colleges and universities. Between 2000 and
2002, the number of jobs remained constant (7,762), while
average wages rose 20.7 percent, to $37,159.
A trend-line analysis reveals that the terrorist attack of 9/11
did not exert any specific effect on the Bronx’s labor market
economy. Chart 11 indicates that a recordable economic
downturn began in October 2001. However, the trend follows
what would have been expected from the general economic
decline.
The 2001 recession seems to have been mild in the Bronx,
lasting for just 3 months— until January 2002— at which point
the Bronx economy started to gain jobs again. However, dividing
the Bronx into its “local economy” and “export economy”
segments underscores some important relationships.
The “local economy” sector appears not to have been influ­
enced by either the terrorist attack of 9/11 or the 2001 recession.
Except for job losses occurring in May 2001, due to specific
issues related to the health care sector, job growth in the Bronx
began in June 2001 and continued until December 2002. (See
chart 12, top panel.)
By contrast, the “export” sector of the Bronx economy was
influenced both by the 2001 recession and by the terrorist attack
of 9/11. An employment downturn commenced in February 2001
and lasted until October 2002, a period of 20 months. (See chart
12, bottom panel.)

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

23

Effect of 9/11 on NYC

Chart I0.| Indexes of employment and real wages, the Bronx, 1978-2000
Index
1978 = 100
IH-U

Index
1978 = 100
I4U

120 -

- 120

Employment

100

100

Average real wages
80

“ 80

60 -

- 60

40 -

- 40

20 -

- 20

i

i

i

i

i

i

i

i

i

_l_

1980

1982

1984

1986

1988

1990

1992

1994

1996

1998

n
U
1978

The strength of the “local economy” in the Bronx over­
shadowed the influence of the “export economy” and explains
why the effect of the terrorist attack of 9/11 was not readily
apparent. It also points out why the 2001 recession was relatively
mild in the Bronx. A sector-by-sector breakdown underscores
the differing effects of 9/11, in terms of lost jobs and lost wages,
on the Bronx economy. The terrorist attack accounted for about
20,000 lost job months (the equivalent o f5,000 jobs each month
for 4 months) and approximately $53 million in lost wages. (See
table 15.)

York’s smallest, and its 88,243 jobs represented just 2.5 percent
of the city’s job base.
Of all New York City boroughs, Staten Island was the one
with the highest percentage of its workforce living within its
borders (71.7 percent). Just 16.2 percent resided in other New
York City counties, and 12.1 percent lived outside of the city.22
As in Brooklyn and the Bronx, the Staten Island economy was
primarily “local” in nature, serving, for the most part, the needs
of its residents. Specifically, 85.9 percent of all Staten Island

Table 13.

Staten Island
For Staten Island, the 1990s was a decade of vigorous job growth.
Commencing in 1992, the borough participated in the economic
expansion that enveloped the Nation. By the year 2000, Staten
Island had reached a level of 88,243 jobs, just shy of the 24-year
high recorded in 2001 (88,289 jobs). A sustained growth in real
wages that began in 1998 accompanied the borough’s increase
in employment. Chart 13 shows the trend in employment and
real wages for Staten Island from 1978 to 2000. With a 2000
population of 443,728 (see table 16), the borough was New
24

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June 2004

0
2000

Trends in jobs, population, and wages, the
Bronx, 2000 and 2002
N u m b er or am o u n t

C a te g o ry
2000

Total jo b s ...................................
Total population........................
Total w ages..............................
Average w a g e ..........................

213,107
1,332,650
$6,996,476,345
$32,831

2002

213,107
1,332,650
$6,996,476,345
$32,831

S ources : Job and wage data— bls qcew program; population data­
li. S. Census Bureau website http://eire.census.gov/popest/data/
counties/CO-EST2003-01php (visited April 2003).

Table 14.

Employment and wages in selected sectors, the Bronx, 2000 and 2002

S e c to r

A v e r a g e m o n th ly
e m p lo y m e n t

P e rc e n t of
B ronx
e m p lo y m e n t

T o tal w a g e s

P e rc e n t of
t o t a l B ro nx
w ages

A v e r a g e wa<

2000

The Bronx1 ...........................................

2 1 3 ,1 0 7

1 0 0 .0 0

$ 6 ,9 9 6 ,4 7 6 ,3 4 5

1 0 0 .0 0

$ 3 2 ,8 3 1

Finance and insurance...............................
Professional, scientific, and technical.......
Information.................................................
Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........
Management of companies........................
Real estate, and rental and leasing..........
Manufacturing............................................
Administrative and support, and waste.....
Construction...............................................

2 ,7 5 7
2 ,9 5 9
4 ,3 4 0
2 ,9 3 0
1 ,1 7 2
1 0 ,4 2 5
1 0 ,9 6 9
6 ,9 1 4
10,791

1.29
1.39
2 .0 4
1.37
.55
4 .8 9
5 .1 5
3 .2 4

9 3 ,9 3 1 ,5 4 3
1 0 4 ,9 6 8 ,4 5 7
1 9 4 ,6 6 4 ,0 1 5
1 9 4 ,4 7 6 ,4 2 3
5 3 ,3 8 4 ,7 8 2

1.34
1 .5 0
2 .7 8
2 .7 8
.76
3 .9 6
4 .9 2
2 .1 9
7 .2 5

3 4 ,0 7 2
3 5 ,4 7 2

Wholesale tra d e .........................................
Retail trade.................................................
Transportation and warehousing...............
Educational services..................................
Health care and social assistance............
Accommodation and food services...........
Other services............................................
Government................................................
Unclassified................................................

1 0 ,3 1 8
2 2 ,2 8 6
6 ,8 9 5
1 5 ,6 9 2
8 0 ,2 2 2
9 ,4 0 9
7 ,9 4 3
5 ,0 3 6
456

4 .8 4
1 0 .4 6
3 .2 4
7 .3 6
3 7 .6 4
4 .4 2
3 .7 3
2 .3 6
.21

4 7 4 ,7 1 2 ,5 9 0
2 ,7 8 3 ,2 6 3 ,7 9 1
1 2 5 ,6 5 9 ,2 6 9
1 6 7 ,5 9 2 ,4 8 3
2 4 8 ,1 4 5 ,2 7 0
7 ,1 1 3 ,3 9 4

3 .5 5
6 .7 9
3 9 .7 8
1.80
2 .4 0
3 .5 5
.10

The Bronx1 ...........................................

2 1 5 ,9 6 4

1 0 0 .0 0

7 ,7 2 3 ,7 7 0 ,7 0 7

1 0 0 .0 0

3 5 ,7 6 4

Finance and insurance...............................
Professional, scientific, and technical.......
Information.................................................
Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........
Management of companies......................
Real estate, and rental and leasing..........
Manufacturing ............................................
Administrative and support, and waste.....
Construction...............................................

2,881
3 ,1 8 0
4,351
3 ,1 7 2

1 0 1 ,2 0 6 ,0 8 1
1 1 0 ,6 5 6 ,1 3 5
2 1 3 ,3 7 3 ,4 1 1
2 3 3 ,2 5 3 ,7 1 3
4 4 ,9 3 9 ,4 0 6
2 8 5 ,2 0 2 ,1 6 8
3 2 8 ,4 3 4 ,6 2 9
1 9 5 ,2 2 1 ,5 7 6
4 8 0 ,5 3 6 ,1 7 4

1.31
1.43
2 .7 6
3 .0 2

923
1 0 ,1 0 7
9,621
8 ,1 1 3
9 ,7 6 2

1.33
1.47
2.01
1.47
.43
4 .6 8
4 .4 5
3 .7 6
4 .5 2

.58
3 .6 9
4 .2 5
2 .5 3
6 .2 2

3 5 ,1 3 4
3 4 ,7 9 4
4 9 ,0 3 5
7 3,5 31
4 8 ,6 9 3
2 8 ,2 1 7
3 4 ,1 3 8
2 4 ,0 6 4
4 9 ,2 2 8

Wholesale trad e .........................................
Retail trade.................................................
Transportation and warehousing...............
Educational services..................................
Health care and social assistance............
Accommodation and food services...........
Other services............................................
Government................................................
Unclassified................................................

9 ,9 5 6
2 2 ,6 5 3
6 ,7 7 3
1 6 ,2 4 0
8 0 ,5 7 3
1 0 ,1 9 5
7 ,6 2 0
6 ,8 6 7
1,2 9 9

4.61
1 0 .4 9
3 .1 4
7 .5 2
37.31
4 .7 2
3 .5 3
3 .1 8
.60

4 4 5 ,1 2 1 ,0 5 5
5 2 3 ,3 2 5 ,7 9 4
2 5 8 ,2 0 0 ,9 5 8
5 5 5 ,2 3 0 ,7 4 6
3 ,0 5 5 ,3 1 2 ,0 3 5
1 4 4 ,0 5 3 ,0 0 3
1 6 7 ,5 5 5 ,0 9 2
4 3 0 ,8 9 9 ,9 5 5
2 4 ,8 6 8 ,1 3 4

5 .7 6
6 .7 8
3 .3 4
7 .1 9
3 9 .5 6
1.87
2 .1 7
5 .5 8
.32

4 4 ,7 0 8
2 3,1 01
3 8 ,1 2 4
3 4 ,1 8 9
3 7 ,9 2 0
1 4 ,1 3 0
2 1 ,9 8 8
6 2 ,7 4 9
1 9 ,1 4 3

2 7 7 ,0 1 9 ,5 2 3
3 4 4 ,4 6 5 ,2 2 7
1 5 3 ,4 2 5 ,5 5 0
5 0 7 ,5 7 9 ,9 2 7

5 .0 6

4 3 5 ,6 7 7 ,7 7 0
4 6 7 ,7 7 8 ,6 0 1
2 4 8 ,3 7 5 ,0 0 7

6 .2 3
6 .6 9

4 4 ,8 5 3
6 6 ,3 8 4
4 5 ,5 3 7
2 6 ,5 7 2
3 1 ,4 0 3
2 2 ,1 9 0
4 7 ,0 3 9
4 2 ,2 2 5
2 0 ,9 9 0
3 6 ,0 2 2
3 0,2 51
3 4 ,6 9 5
1 3 ,3 5 5
2 1 ,1 0 0
4 9,2 71
1 5 ,6 1 7

2002

Detailed entries do not necessarily sum to totals. (See appendix.)

jobs (75,764 jobs) in 2000 were associated with the “local
economy.” A look at employment distribution in Staten Island
readily reveals that four sectors— health care and social
assistance (30.1 percent), retail trade ( 16.6 percent), construction
(7.6 percent), and accom m odation and food service (6.1
percent)— accounted for 60.4 percent of all jobs and 55.6 percent
of all wages. (See table 17.)
In terms of the number of jobs, the Staten Island economy
peaked in 2001 and began to decline slightly in 2002. Between
2000 and 2002, the borough lost 754 jobs, or less than 1 percent
of its job base. This small percentage loss underscored the
buffering effect exerted by the “local economy.” However, a


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different trend was being recorded in terms of average wages,
which increased 5.7 percent, to $33,970, during the same 2-year
period. (See table 16.) The increase in average wages was shared
across all sectors except the inform ation sector and the
administrative and support, and waste sector, which recorded a
1.0-percent decline and an 8.7-percent drop, respectively.
During the 2-year period from 2000 to 2002, Staten Island’s
population increased 3.1 percent, the largest rate recorded within
all of New York City. A selected sector-by-sector analysis affords
greater insights. Table 17 gives a breakdown of various aspects
of employment and wages associated with the different sectors
of the Staten Island economy in 2002.

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

25

Effect of 9/11 on NYC

Chart 11.

Bronx employment, over-the-year change, 2001-02

Change in
number
employed

Change in
number
employed
4,000

- 3,000

-

2001

Health care and social assistance.

As in Queens, Brooklyn,
and the Bronx, this sector is Staten Island’s largest employer, in
terms of both jobs and total wages. In 2002, 5.0 percent of all
New York City jobs in health care and social assistance were
located in Staten Island.

Retail trade.

The retail trade sector was the second-largest
employment sector in Staten Island in terms of jobs and total
wages. As regards the New York City economy, 5.5 percent
of all jobs in retail trade were located in Staten Island.

Information.

The inform ation sector m ade up only 3.3
percent o f all Staten Island jobs in 2002, but these 2,907 jobs
represented a 13.0-percent decrease, or 433 jobs, from the
number of jobs the borough had in 2000. This job loss alone
accounted for 57.4 percent of all of the jobs lost in Staten
Island between 2000 and 2002.

“Local” and “ export” economy. The “export econom y”
sector represented just 14.1 percent of all Staten Island jobs

26

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-

1,000

-

2,000

2002

in 2002. During the period from 2000 to 2002, total jobs in
this sector declined 1.9 percent, to 12,247, while total wages
increased 1.1 percent, to $507,012,284, and the average wage
increased 3.9 percent, to $39,942.
W ithin the “local econom y” sector, a different pattern
emerged. Jobs remained relatively constant between 2000 and
2002 (75,764 jobs), while total wages increased 5.6 percent, to
$2,425,238,309; and the average wage increased 6.3 percent, to
$32,761. The average “local economy” wage was 26.4 percent
lower than that for the “export economy.”
A trend-line analysis indicates that the terrorist attack of 9/11
exerted just a slight effect on the Staten Island labor market
economy. The economic downturn that began in June 2001 was
mostly a result of the national recession. The borough’s recession
bottomed out in January 2002, but job losses were still being
recorded in December 2002. (See chart 14.)
The curve of the “local economy,” shown in chart 15, mirrors
somewhat that recorded for Staten Island as a whole. Job losses
began in May 2001 and continued for 13 months, until June 2002,
when the “local economy” began to add jobs.
As previously noted, job losses associated with the “export


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Monthly Labor Review

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27

Effect of 9/11 on NYC

1 E ffe c t o f 9/11 in jo b m o n th s a n d lo st o r g a in e d w a g e s o v e r th e 2 0 0 0 -0 2 p e rio d , th e Bronx

___ .___________________________________________________________
Job months

Sector

Wages, lost or gained

Total lo s t................................................

-20,375

-$53,143,260

Finance and insurance..........................................................
Professional, scientific, and technical.... ..............................
Management of companies...................................................
Real estate, and rental and leasing......................................
Manufacturing........................................................................
Wholesale trad e ....................................................................
Retail trade.............................................................................
Transportation and warehousing...........................................
Educational services.............................................................
Accommodation and food services.......................................
Other services.......................................................................

-50
-450
-250
-750
-4,675
-875
-4,400
-675
-7,500
-375
-375

-147,600
-1,328,400
-974,000
-1,729,950
-13,197,250
-3,251,225
-8,311,600
-2,117,835
-20,976,900
-424,875
-683,625

Total ga in e d'.........................................

25,525

82,189,800

Information.............................................................................
Arts, entertainment, and recreation......................................
Administrative and support, and waste.................................
Construction...........................................................................
Health care and social assistance........................................

625
300
375
900
23,250

2,470,800
1,802,100
688,875
3,565,800
73,191,000

' Detailed entries do not necessarily sum to totals. (See appendix.)

economy” were centered in the information sector. Two specific
categories— wired telecommunications carriers and telecom­
munications resellers— accounted for most of the job losses in
the sector.
The terrorist attack of 9/11 accounted for approximately 4,400
lost job months and about $17 million in lost wages in the Staten
Island economy. (See table 18.)

Caveats and conclusions
In this article, the analysis has been limited to the employment
and wages of the people who work in, and thus create, the eco­
nomic life of New York City and its boroughs. The substantial
economic implications of the destruction of buildings, other real
estate, and the city’s infrastructure, as well as the economic value
of the extensive loss of life, were not a part of the analysis.
In addition, the methodology used may have underestimated
the economic value of the losses in jobs and wages. Specifically,
(1) if economic losses are calculated beginning in September
2001, with the trend line covering 8 months instead of 9, (2) if an
economic value is placed on the jobs that were transferred to
New Jersey, and (3) if the economic effect of Manhattan’s finance
sector is extended beyond 4 months, the losses would be
substantially higher.
To place the findings in perspective, the lost wages associated
with the terrorist attacks represented around 30 percent (just over
$9 and a quarter billion) of the entire sum of lost wages reported
in New York City between 2000 and 2002. The average wage of
all jobs affected by 9/11 was $79,050, a figure higher than the
average wages recorded for any individual New York City
28

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Source:

bls qcew program.

borough. Chart 16 shows the over-the-year change in the city’s
employment from 2001 to 2002. The terrorist attack’s effect on
the city is plainly visible.
Clearly, the effect of 9/11 was centered on the city’s “export
economy,” which represented 68.0 percent of all lost job months
and 86.0 percent of all lost wages due to the attack. The average
wage for lost jobs in the “export” sector was $99,930; the
comparable figure for the “local” sector was $34,659. By
isolating the effect of 9/11 on the city’s “export economy,” and
taking into account the weakening national and global economies
at the time, it is possible to better understand the extremely un­
stable economic climate that gripped the city. Throughout the
past 30 years, the “export” sector has increased in prominence in
New York City’s economy, and it is what was damaged by the
9/11 attack.
Earlier, it was stated that there is a special quality associated
with Manhattan: the borough is the core of a “global” city. No­
where is this notion better demonstrated than in the high average
wages associated with the “global-economy” jobs that dominate
the Manhattan employment scene. In Manhattan, the economic
power of these jobs extend beyond the city’s labor market econ­
omy, influencing the economy in the borough and beyond. The
Bureau of Economic Analysis has reported that, in 1969, before
the city’s marked shift to a “global” economy, but at one of the
highest points in city employment, per capita personal income in
Manhattan was 200 percent of that of the Nation as a whole.23 By
2001, it had risen to 300 percent.
This increase in personal wealth stimulated a drive toward
cultural excellence in the New York region and also supported

a plethora of health-care, social-services, and charitable
org an izatio n s. T his co m m itm en t to eleem osynary acti­
v ities w as u n d ersco red in 2002, w hen a study o f the
nonprofit sector reported that 14.0 percent o f em ployees
w orking in the city w ork for no n p ro fit organ izations,

Table 16.

Trends in jobs, population, and wages, Staten
Island, 2000 and 2002
N u m b e r or a m o u n t

C a te g o ry

Total jo b s .................................
Total population.......................
Total w ages.............................
Average w a g e .........................

2000

2002

88,243
443,728
$2,836,893,795
$32,149

87,489
457,383
$2,972,024,434
$33,970

S ources : Job and wage data— bls qcew program; population data—
U.S. Census Bureau website http://eire.census.gov/popest/data/
counties/CO-EST2003-01php (visited April 2003).


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com pared with 9.3 percent in the N ation.24
Throughout the history of the U nited States, New York
C ity has played a special role in the N ation’s economic
development:
What proved especially remarkable was
[the city’s] irrepressible ability to master
the changes that so swiftly reshaped the
Am erican economy. Other cities passed
from importance as their role in the national
economy changed, but New York, putting
to great advantage the momentum of its
mighty commercial system, never relin­
quished its dominance.25
From throughout the region, the Nation, and the world, men
and women have been attracted to New York by its dynamism,
its opportunities, and its wealth. The “global” city has been
built on the foundation of its “export econom y.” At issue is
w hether the 9/11 terrorist attack changed the c ity ’s direc­
tion. If the “export” sector was irreparably damaged, will the
city ever be the same?
□

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

29

Effect of 9/11 on NYC

Table 17.

Employment and wages in selected sectors, Staten Island, 2000 and 2002
A v e r a g e m o n th ly
e m p lo y m e n t

S e c to r

P e rc e n t of
S ta te n Is la n d
e m p lo y m e n t

T o tal w a g e s

P e rc e n t of to ta l
S ta te n Is la n d
w ages

A v e ra g e w a g e

2000

Staten Island'.......................................

8 8 ,2 4 3

1 0 0 .0 0

$ 2 ,8 3 6 ,8 9 3 ,7 9 5

1 0 0 .0 0

$ 3 2 ,1 4 9

Finance and insurance...............................
Professional, scientific, and technical.......
Information.................................................
Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........
Management of companies........................
Real estate, and rental and leasing..........
Manufacturing............................................
Administrative and support, and waste.....
Construction...............................................

2 ,4 5 5
3 ,2 1 6
3 ,3 4 0
1 ,1 7 0
736
1 ,4 7 0
1 ,5 5 9
4 ,0 4 1
6 ,7 0 8

2 .7 8
3 .6 4
3 .7 8
1.33
.83
1.67
1.77
4 .5 8
7 .6 0

9 7 ,5 3 5 ,9 3 5
1 1 7 ,4 9 4 ,3 7 0
1 7 2 ,2 2 6 ,0 2 6
2 4 ,4 0 0 ,6 8 1
3 1 ,9 9 0 ,0 8 4
3 4 ,3 6 2 ,8 8 5
5 7 ,9 6 7 ,0 5 4
9 6 ,6 0 4 ,1 0 5
2 9 2 ,7 7 7 ,2 2 3

3 .4 4
4 .1 4
6 .0 7
.86
1 .1 3
1.21
2 .0 4
3.41
1 0 .3 2

3 9 ,7 3 5
3 6 ,5 3 0
5 1 ,5 6 5
2 0 ,8 5 8
4 3 ,4 9 4
2 3 ,3 7 2
3 7 ,1 7 2
2 3 ,9 0 6
4 3 ,6 4 9

Wholesale tra d e .........................................
Retail trade.................................................
Transportation and warehousing...............
Educational services..................................
Health care and social assistance............
Accommodation and food services...........
Other services............................................
Government................................................
Unclassified................................................

1 ,4 1 8
1 4,641
5 ,1 2 4
4 ,0 6 5
2 6 ,5 5 4
5 ,4 1 7
3 ,4 6 2
1 ,9 2 9
272

1.61
1 6 .5 9
5.81
4.61
3 0 .0 9
6 .1 4
3 .9 2
2 .1 9
.31

5 0 ,4 0 6 ,9 9 5
2 8 6 ,0 6 2 ,4 0 2
2 0 9 ,6 0 0 ,0 4 9
1 4 3 ,0 1 6 ,3 1 1
9 3 3 ,6 5 5 ,9 0 1
6 5 ,7 7 1 ,0 4 2
6 4 ,0 1 7 ,9 8 9
1 0 2 ,7 8 6 ,9 7 8
7 ,5 2 8 ,6 3 3

1.78
1 0 .0 8
7 .3 9
5 .0 4
32.91
2 .3 2
2 .2 6
3 .6 2
.27

3 5 ,5 4 8
1 9 ,5 3 8
4 0 ,9 0 3
3 5 ,1 8 5
3 5 ,1 6 0
1 2 ,1 4 2
1 8 ,4 9 0
5 3 ,2 9 7
2 7 ,6 9 6

Staten Island' .......................................

8 7 ,4 8 9

1 0 0 .0 0

2 ,9 7 2 ,0 2 4 ,4 3 4

1 0 0 .0 0

3 3 ,9 7 0

Finance and insurance...............................
Professional, scientific, and technical.......
Information.................................................
Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........
Management of companies........................
Real estate, and rental and leasing..........
Manufacturing ............................................
Administrative and support, and waste.....
Construction...............................................

2 ,5 8 3
3 ,3 8 6
2 ,9 0 7
1 ,2 4 6
796
1 ,4 4 2
1 ,3 2 8
3 ,4 8 9
6 ,3 5 7

2 .9 5
3 .8 7
3 .3 2
1.42
.91
1.65
1.52
3 .9 9
7 .2 7

1 0 6 ,8 4 8 ,9 6 3
1 2 5 ,9 4 8 ,4 9 3
1 4 8 ,4 3 6 ,8 7 8
2 8 ,3 7 3 ,5 6 4
4 7 ,6 8 5 ,6 2 7
3 9 ,7 3 5 ,5 5 7
4 9 ,7 1 8 ,7 5 9
7 6 ,1 4 0 ,3 4 1
3 0 5 ,0 0 8 ,2 1 2

3 .6 0
4 .2 4
4 .9 9
.95
1 .6 0
1 .3 4
1.67
2 .5 6
1 0 .2 6

4 1 ,3 6 4
3 7 ,1 9 9
5 1 ,0 5 9
2 2 ,7 6 4
5 9 ,9 1 9
2 7 ,5 6 4
3 7 ,4 2 7
2 1 ,8 2 6
4 7 ,9 7 9

Wholesale tra d e .........................................
Retail trade.................................................
Transportation and warehousing...............
Educational services..................................
Health care and social assistance............
Accommodation and food services...........
Other services............................................
Government................................................
Unclassified................................................

1,361
1 4 ,4 9 4
4 ,9 9 4
4 ,2 6 5
2 6 ,7 1 7
5 ,6 6 8
3 ,4 5 4
1 ,6 6 4
702

1 .5 6
1 6 .5 7
5.71
4 .8 7
3 0 .5 4
6 .4 8
3 .9 5
1.90
.80

5 2 ,9 5 4 ,8 0 4
3 0 5 ,9 8 8 ,3 5 2
2 2 1 ,6 7 4 ,6 6 4
1 5 0 ,3 4 4 ,7 9 1
9 9 3 ,7 5 3 ,4 1 2
7 5 ,5 7 6 ,7 0 2
6 8 ,9 5 9 ,4 2 5
1 1 0 ,1 8 2 ,6 3 8
1 6,7 7 7 ,1 5 1

1.78
1 0 .3 0
7 .4 6
5 .0 6
3 3 .4 4
2 .5 4
2 .3 2
3.71
.56

38,9 11
2 1,1 11
4 4 ,3 8 5
35,2 51
3 7 ,1 9 6
1 3 ,3 3 4
1 9 ,9 6 3
6 6 ,2 3 5
2 3 ,9 0 2

2002

1 Detailed entries do not necessarily sum to totals. (See appendix.)

Table 18.

Source:

bls qcew program.

Effect of 9/11 in job months and lost or gained wages over the 2000-02 period, Staten Island
S e c to r

J o b m o n th s

W a g e s , lo st o r g a in e d

Total lo s t......................................................

-4,405

-$17,200,960

Professional, scientific, and technical...................................
Information.............................................................................
Management of companies...................................................
Construction..........................................................................
Wholesale trad e ....................................................................
Retail trade.............................................................................
Educational services.............................................................
Other services.......................................................................

-540
-1,500
-45
-1,750
-20
-200
-300
-50

-1,701,880
-6,609,000
-426,195
-7,093,100
-62,260
-342,200
-885,525
-80,800

Total G ained'...............................................

5,060

12,374,340

Finance and insurance..........................................................
Arts, entertainment, and recreation......................................
Real estate, and rental and leasing......................................
Administrative and support, and waste.................................
Transportation and warehousing...........................................
Health care and social assistance........................................
Accommodation and food services.......................................

450
260
20
1,800
500
1,400
600

1,483,650
479,700
41,760
3,628,800
1,784,500
4,159,400
616,200

Detailed entries do not necessarily sum to totals. (See appendix.)

30

Monthly Labor Review


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June 2004

S ource :

bls qcew program .

Chart 14.

Staten Island employment, over-the-year change, 2001-02

Change in
number
employed

Change in
number
employed
2.500

2,000
1.500

1,000
500

0
-500
-

1,000

-1,500
-

January

April

July
2001

Chart 15.

October

January

April

July

October

2,000

-2,500

2002

Staten Island local11employment, over-the-year change, 2001-02

Change in
number
employed


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Change in
number
employed

2001

2002

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

31

Effect of 9/11 on NYC

Chart 16.

New York City employment, over-the-year change, 2001-02
Change in
number
employed
75,000

Change in
number
employed

50.000
25.000

0
-25,000
-50,000
-75,000
-

100,000

-125,000
-150,000
-175,000

Notes
ACKNOWLEDGMENT: The authors wish to thank the New York State
Department of Labor, Division of Research and Statistics, for its role in the

preparation of this article.
1 W ork F a ta litie s in th e N e w Y o rk-N o rth ern N e w J e r s e y A rea a n d N e w
York C ity in 2001 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, New York Information Office,
2002), press release.
2 The concept of “export” and “local” economic sectors is noted in
Masahisa Fujita, Paul Krugman, and Anthony J. Venables, T he S p a tia l
E c o n o m y : C ities, R e g io n s, a n d In te rn a tio n a l Trade (Cambridge, ma, mit
Press, 1999); see especially p. 27. The concept is described in Carol O’
Cleireacain, “The Private Economy and the Public Budget of New York
City,” in Margaret E. Crahan and Alberto Vourvoulias-Bush, eds., The C ity
a n d th e W orld: N e w Y o rk’s G lo b a l F u tu re (New York, Council on Foreign
Relations, 1997).
3 See Saskia Sassen, “Whose City Is It? Globalization and the Formation
of New Claims,” on the Internet at http://www.ifs.tu-darmstadt.de/
lopofo/ak-publikationen/sassen_whose-city.pdf (visited Sept. 22, 2003);
“Urban Economies and Fading Distances,” on the Internet at http://
www.transformaties.org/saskia_sassen.htm (visited Sept. 22,2003); and
“The Global City: Strategic Site/New Frontier,” on the Internet at http://

www.india-seminar.com/2001/503/503%20saskia% 20sassen.htm
(visited Sept. 22, 2003).

5 Over the 35 years for which there are consistent series, total Govern­
ment employment in New York City has risen 11 percent, within which
local government has increased by 23 percent. Federal Government
employment in the city has declined during the same period. (Data from
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics).

32

Monthly Labor Review

7 New York’s wages were deflated by using the Consumer Price Index
for the New York Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area. The U.S. City
Average cpi was used to deflate the national figures. The charts reflect
indexes of each of the series, based on 1978. The year 1978 was selected
because it was the last year in which coverage was extended and, therefore,
makes the series consistent to the present.
8 Data from U.S. Census Bureau website http://www.census.gov/
population/www/socdemo/journey.html (visited April 2003).
9 Here and in what follows, all averages cited are means.
10 The combination of increases in average wages and declines in
employment must be interpreted with caution. The statistical data cited do
not necessarily reflect changes in wage rates. Fluctuations in premium pay,
changes in the occupational mix, or the laying off of the most recently
hired workers in the preceding boom period may account for average
changes in wages that do not translate into changes in the compensation of
an individual worker.
11 O’ Cleireacain, “Private Economy and Public Budget,” p. 27.
12 Jason Bram, “Identification o f the Beginning of the Economic
Downturn in New York City,” in C u rre n t Iss u e s, vol. 9, no. 2, February
2003 (New York, Federal Reserve Bank of New York), pp. 2, 3.

4 Ib id .


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6 The estimates are based on highly conservative assumptions concern­
ing the date the effects of the attacks were first felt, the economic value of
jobs transferred to New Jersey, and the duration of the impact of 9/11 in
the finance sector.

June 2004

13 Data from bls Current Employment Survey. Confidentiality precludes
mentioning which particular jobs they were.
14 The presupposition of a 4-month effect on the financial sector is
conservative; the overall effect of 9/11 on New York City was 4 months,

and it is likely that the effect on the financial sector was longer.
15 U.S. Census Bureau.
16 Data from U.S. Census Bureau website http://www.census.gov/
population/www/socdemo/journey.html (visited April 2003).
17 The Bureau of Labor Statistics attempted to track major worker
displacements linked to the terrorist actions of September 11. To develop a
statistical portrait of the impact of the attacks on large-scale layoff activity,
the Bureau asked employers initiating layoffs involving at least 50 workers
whether their decision to call a layoff was directly or indirectly prompted
by the events of that day. For the 10-week period between mid-September
and mid-November, 350 mass layoffs were reported to be directly or
indirectly attributable to the attacks. The actions involved 101,781 em­
ployees. New York State had 47 such layoffs involving 10,708 workers.
Among the workers laid off, 42 percent, or 43,735, had been employed in
the scheduled air transportation industry. An additional 29 percent, or
30,399 workers, had been employed in hotels or motels.

proprietors in Kings County (Brooklyn) and 130,823 in Queens in 2000;
see “bea Regional Accounts,” on the Internet at http://www.bea.gov/bea/
regional/reis (visited June 7, 2004).
20 Data from U.S. Census Bureau website http://www.census.gov/
population/www/socdemo/journey.html (visited April 2003).
21 Data from U.S. Census Bureau website http://www.census.gov/
population/www/socdemo/journey.html (visited April 2003).
22 Data from U.S. Census Bureau website http://www.census.gov/
population/www/socdemo/journey.html (visited April 2003).
23 See “bea Regional Accounts,” on the Internet at http://www.bea.gov/

bea/regional/reis (visited June 7, 2004).
24John E. Seley and Julian Wolpert, N e w York C ity ’s N o n p r o fit S e c to r
(Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 2002); see especially p. 31.

18 Census data cited by Brooklyn Economic Development Corporation.

25 Thomas Kessner, C a p ita l C ity: N e w York C ity a n d the M e n b e h in d
A m e r ic a ’s R ise to E c o n o m ic D o m in a n c e , 1 8 6 0 -1 9 0 0 (New York, Simon &

19 The Bureau of Economic Analysis reports that there were 127,885

Shuster, 2003), p. xvi.

A ppendix : A bout the d a ta
T h e e s t a b lis h m e n t - b a s e d d ata o n e m p lo y m e n t an d w a g e s
p resen ted in th is article c o m e from the C o vered E m p lo y m en t and
W ages program , a co o p era tiv e program in v o lv in g the B ureau o f
L abor S ta tistics o f the U .S . D epartm en t o f L abor and the variou s
S ta te E m p lo y m e n t S e c u r it y A g e n c i e s . T h e N e w Y ork S ta te
D ep artm en t o f L abor E m p lo y m e n t S ecu rity A g e n c y p rovid ed data
fo r th is study.
C o v ered e m p lo y m en t p ro v id es a virtual c en su s (97.1 percent) o f
jo b s o n nonfarm p ayrolls. O n e sou rce for the data is private-industry
e m p lo y e r s’ quarterly tax reports on m on th ly em p lo y m en t, quarterly
to ta l and ta x a b le w a g e s , and c o n tr ib u tio n s. S im ila r rep orts o f
m o n th ly e m p lo y m en t and quarterly w a g e s su b m itted by the F ederal
G o v ern m en t and by State and lo ca l go v ern m en ts m ake up the other
sou rce.
E m p lo y e e s in jo b s that are e x em p t or o th erw ise not c o v ered by
u n e m p lo y m e n t in su ra n ce (u i) are n o t in c lu d e d in the C o v e re d
E m p lo y m e n t and W a ges tab u lation s. In the private sector, th ese
w orkers are w a g e and salary agricultural e m p lo y e e s, se lf-em p lo y e d
farm ers, s e lf-e m p lo y e d n on agricultural w ork ers, certain d o m estic


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w orkers, and unpaid fa m ily w orkers. A further group o f e x clu d ed
p rivate-sector w orkers is co v ered by the railroad u n em p lo y m en t
insu ran ce sy stem . In add ition , a sm all num ber o f State and lo ca l
g o v e r n m e n t w o rk ers are e x c lu d e d . C ertain ty p e s o f n o n p r o fit
e m p lo y ers, su ch as r elig io u s o rgan ization s, are g iv e n a c h o ic e o f
c o v e r a g e or e x c lu s io n in a n u m b er o f S ta te s, so data fo r their
e m p lo y e e s w ere reported to a lim ited d egree.
In accord an ce w ith bls p o licy , data p rovid ed to the B ureau in
c o n fid e n c e are u sed o n ly for s p e c ifie d sta tistica l p u rp o ses. T h e
Bureau w ith h o ld s the p u b lication o f U i-covered e m p lo y m en t and
w a g e data for any industry le v e l w h en d o in g so is n e c essa ry to
protect the identity o f coop eratin g em -p lo y ers. T otals at the industry
lev e l for the States and the N ation in clu d e the data su p p ressed w ith in
the d etailed tables.
In k eep in g w ith the p o lic y o f n o n d isclo su re, ta b les in th is article
do n ot sh o w data separately for agriculture, m in in g , and u tilities
b eca u se o f the sm all nu m ber o f reporting units in N e w York in th o se
sectors o f the econ om y.

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

33

Gen X, Baby Boomers, and Echo Boomers

The lab o r fo rce a n d u n em p lo ym en t:
th ree g eneration s of c h a n g e
The influence of the haby-hoom generation
on the U.S. unemployment rate continues unabated today;
the subsequent, smaller generation X ’ers and echo boomers
have had considerably less of an influence on the rate
Jessica R. Sincavage

Jessica R, Sincavage
is an economist in the
Commissioner's
Development
Program, Bureau of
Labor Statistics,
Washington, dc .
Email: Sincavage.
Jessica@bls.gov

34

|he post-World War II baby-boom genera­
tio n — th o se b o rn betw een 1946 and
1964— has had, and continues to have, a
tremendous impact on the American labor mar­
ket. The flow of these workers into the labor force
also has affected long-term trends in the statis­
tics used to gauge labor market conditions, par­
ticularly the unemployment rate. The groups fol­
lowing the baby boomers, popularly known as
generation X (those bom between 1965 and 1975)
and the echo-boom generation (those born be­
tween 1976 and 2001), have not yet had the same
kind of effect on labor market statistics.
This article examines the impact of all three of
these generations on the unem ploym ent rate.
The first section starts things off by summariz­
ing earlier work by Paul O. Flaim1on the influence
of the original baby boom during the 1960s, 1970s,
and 1980s. Then, employing Flaim ’s methodol­
ogy, the next section assesses the influence of
the baby boom, as well as the impact of the sub­
sequent generations, during the 1990s. Finally,
the article contrasts the demographic character­
istics of the baby-boom generation with those of
the rising young worker groups of today. The
data presented throughout are annual averages
from the monthly Current Population Survey

T

( cps).2

The baby boomers: three decades
Flaim explained the impact of the baby boomers
on the N ation’s unemployment rate by disaggre­

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gating the labor force into 22 different age-andsex groupings3and then calculating the change
in the unemployment rate due to three causal
factors: (1) that due exclusively to changes in
the incidence of unemployment among the vari­
ous age-and-sex groupings that make up the la­
bor force— in other words, changes in the unem­
ployment rate due to the cyclical and structural
changes that take place in the economy; (2) that
due exclusively to changes in the age-and-sex
composition of the labor force— in other words,
changes in the u n em p lo y m en t rate due to
changes in the relative weights of the age-andsex groups; and (3) that due to the interaction
between the preceding two components.4Flaim ’s
analysis demonstrated the following points:
• By expanding the share of the labor
force made up of young people (aged 1624) in the 1960s and 1970s, the entry of the
baby boomers into the job market exerted
upward pressure on the N ation’s overall
unem ploym ent rate. The reason is that
younger workers tend to have higher un­
employment rates than does the rest of the
workforce.
• During the 1980s, when the youngest
baby boomers had matured past age 24 and
into groups with typically lower unemploy­
ment rates, increases in their share of the
labor force (and the consequent shrinking
of the youth population), in both absolute

and relative terms, exerted downward pressure on the
overall unemployment rate.
• No significant changes in the overall unemployment
rate could be attributed to increased labor force partici­
pation among women between 1959 and 1989, because
the unem ploym ent rate for women aged 25 years and
older generally is lower than the overall unemployment
rate. In testing the hypothesis that the increasing labor
force participation among women that began picking up
speed during the m id-1960s might have had an effect on
the overall unemployment rate, Flaim concentrated on
women aged 25 and older because their labor force par­
ticipation rate increased significantly, from 36.2 percent
in 1959 to 56.0 percent in 1989.5
Looking ahead to the 1990s, Flaim projected continuing
downward pressure on the unemployment rate, due to the
aging of the baby boomers and the decreasing proportion of
younger workers in the labor force. In addition, he suggested
that there might be a decrease in the youth unemployment
rate, relative to the unemployment rate for older workers, in
the 1990s, because of the reduced competition for jobs among
the shrinking youth population. In a caveat to this sugges­
tion, Flaim cautioned that any improvements in the youth
jobless rate could be undercut by the labor m arket’s continu-

Chart 1.

ing trend toward more racial and ethnic diversity.6 These is­
sues will be addressed later in the article.
The next section focuses on defining the three genera­
tional groups whose movement through the labor force caused
changes in the unemployment rate throughout the 1980s and
1990s.

The baby boom
Chart 1 shows the annual number of births between 1940 and
2001.7 During the peak of the baby boom in 1957, the number
reached 4.3 million; it remained close to that level until 1961.
From 1946 to 1964,75.8 million people were bom in the United
States.
The oldest baby boomers began entering the labor force in
1962. (See exhibit 1.) By 1969, baby boomers composed the
entire 16- to 24-year-old population. Only by 1989 were all
members of this generation above age 24 and no longer part
of the youth population.

Generation X
The people born during the years 1961-81 are commonly re­
ferred to as generation X. For the purpose of this article, the
group is defined, more narrowly, as those born between 1965

Annual number of births in the United States, 1940-2001

Millions of births


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Millions of births
5
4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5

2
1.5

1
0.5
0

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

35

Gen X, Baby Boomers, and Echo Boomers

and 1975, a period characterized by a sharp decline in the
number o f births. One reason the baby boomers had such a
profound effect on the unemployment rate relative to the ef­
fect produced by generation X is because there is power in
numbers. Generation X simply did not have a large enough pres­
ence in the labor force during the 1980s to offset the labor market
impact of the baby boomers. Approximately 38 million people
were bom in the United States between 1965 and 1975, about
half the number bom during the baby-boom generation.

The echo-boom generation
Around 1976, when the oldest baby boomers reached their
childbearing years, the Nation began to experience, once
again, a rising trend in the annual number of births. This was
the start of the period commonly known as the echo boom.
(See chart 1 and exhibit 1.) At the height of the echo boom, in
1990, annual births reached 4.1 million. From 1976 to 2001,
98.8 million people were born in the United States.

Time line of important labor force
events, 1946-2001
1946
1962
1964
1965
1969
1975
1976
1979
1981
1989
1992
1999

The 1980s labor force and unemployment
2001
The members of generation X began entering the labor force
in the early 1980s. (See exhibit 1.) By 1989, those born to this
generation were between the ages of 16 and 24 and com­
posed 17.9 percent of the labor force. (See table 1.) The same
year, the baby boomers, who had aged to 25 to 44 years old,
made up 53.7 percent of the labor force. The high percentage
of baby boomers in the labor force was due not only to their
sizable numbers, but also to increased labor force participa­
tion within the group. As people age from youth into matu­
rity, labor force participation typically increases. In 1989, for
instance, 94.5 percent of men aged 25 to 44 years and 74.6
percent of women in the same age group were participating in
the labor force. In 1969, when these men and women com­
posed the 16- to 24-year-old age group, their labor force par­
ticipation rates had been 68.8 percent and 50.4 percent, re­
spectively. Another labor market characteristic of the 25- to
44-year-old age group is that its members typically experi­
ence a lower likelihood of unemployment than do younger
people. The unemployment rate for the baby-boomer group
was 4.5 percent in 1989, compared with 8.4 percent in 1969.8
Table 2 illustrates the effect of the baby-boom generation
on the labor force, showing the change in the unemployment
rate between 1979 and 1989, broken down into the previously
mentioned three components of the total change: changes in
the unem ploym ent rate due to the cyclical and structural
changes that take place in the economy; changes in the un­
employment rate due to changes in the relative weights of the
age-and-sex groups; and changes in the unemployment rate
due to the interaction between the preceding two compo­
nents. All other things held constant, the downward pressure

36

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..... Start of the baby boom
.. ... Oldest boomers enter the labor force at age 16
..... Baby boom ends
.. ... First members of generation X are born
.. ... Baby boomers make up the entire youth labor
force
..... Last members of generation X are born
.. ... Echo boom begins
.. ... Baby boomers continue to make up the entire
youth labor force
.. ... Oldest members of generation X enter the labor
force at age 16
.. ... Generation X makes up the entire youth labor
force
..... Oldest echo boomers enter the labor force at
age 16
..... Echo boomers make up the entire youth labor
force
.. ... Echo boom ends

exerted on the overall unemployment rate due to the chang­
ing age-and-sex composition of the labor force can be seen in
column D; this component accounted for a highly significant
portion, 0.47 of a percentage point, of the total 0.58-percentage-point difference in the overall unemployment rate be­
tween 1979 and 1989 (column B). The baby boomers exerted
such downward pressure because their relatively low agespecific unemployment rate was coupled with their relatively
large labor force representation: 53.7 percent of the total civil­
ian labor force in 1989. The entry of generation X into the
labor force did not appear to alter the downward trend of the
overall unemployment rate throughout the 1980s because the
age-specific unemployment rate of generation X ’ers carried
considerably less weight (the group accounted for just 17.9
percent of the labor force) than that of the baby boomers in
calculations of the overall unemployment rate.9

The 1990s labor force and unemployment
The echo boomers began to enter the labor force in the early
1990s and, by 1999, composed the 16- to 24-year-old age
group. (See exhibit 1.) Unlike the situation with the baby
boomers, who exerted an upward pressure on the unemploy­
ment rate when they were those ages, there is no compelling
statistical evidence that the echo-boom generation had the
same effect. Column B of table 3 shows that, between 1989
and 1999, the unemployment rate fell 1.05 percentage points.
The changing demographics of the labor force accounted for
0.24 of a percentage point of that decrease (column D), while

Unemployment rate and composition of the labor force by age and sex, annual averages, selected years,
1959-2002
[Numbers in thousands]

Table 1.

Sex a n d a g e

1979

1989

1999

2 002

3.5

5.8

5.3

4.2

5.8

15.3
8.7
4.7
3.7
4.1
4.5
4.8

11.4
5.1
1.9
1.5
1.5
1.8
2.2

15.9
8.7
4.3
2.9
2.7
2.7
3.4

15.9
8.8
4.8
3.7
3.2
3.5
2.4

14.7
7.7
3.6
2.8
2.6
2.7
3.0

18.1
10.2
5.8
4.5
4.2
4.3
3.4

13.5
8.1
5.9
5.1
4.2
4.1
2.8

13.3
6.3
4.6
3.4
2.6
2.2
2.3

16.4
9.6
6.5
4.6
3.9
3.2
3.3

14.0
8.3
5.6
3.9
3.2
2.8
2.9

13.2
7.2
4.4
3.3
2.5
2.6
3.2

14.9
9.1
5.9
4.6
3.8
3.5
3.9

1959

1969

Total, 16 years and o ld e r...........

5.5

Men:
16 to 19 years................................
20 to 24 years................................
25 to 34 years................................
35 to 44 years................................
45 to 54 years................................
55 to 64 years................................
65 years and o ld e r.........................
Women:
16 to 19 years................................
20 to 24 years................................
25 to 34 years................................
35 to 44 years................................
45 to 54 years................................
55 to 64 years................................
65 years and o ld e r.........................

U n e m p lo y m e n t r a t e

C o m p o s it io n o f t h e la b o r f o r c e

Total, 16 years and older..........

68,369

80,734

104,962

123,869

139,368

144,863

P ercent............................................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Men:
16 to 19 years................................
20 to 24 years................................
25 to 34 years................................
35 to 44 years.............. .................
45 to 54 years................................
55 to 64 years................................
65 years and o ld e r.........................

3.8
5.8
15.1
15.9
13.8
9.3
3.4

4.8
6.5
13.6
13.1
12.8
8.7
2.7

4.9
8.1
15.6
11.0
9.5
6.9
1.9

3.3
6.0
16.1
13.4
8.8
5.5
1.6

3.1
5.2
12.4
14.6
11.0
5.4
1.7

2.7
5.4
12.1
13.7
11.8
6.0
1.8

Women:
16 to 19 years................................
20 to 24 years................................
25 to 34 years................................
35 to 44 years................................
45 to 54 years................................
55 to 64 years................................
65 years and o ld e r........................

2.8
3.6
6.0
7.6
7.4
4.2
1.2

3.8
5.7
6.7
7.3
7.9
5.0
1.3

4.3
6.9
11.0
7.8
6.6
4.5
1.1

3.1
5.4
12.9
11.3
7.3
4.1
1.2

2.9
4.8
10.6
12.6
10.0
4.5
1.2

2.6
4.8
10.1
11.8
10.7
5.2
1.3

about 0.67 of a percentage point of the decrease was due to
falling age-and-sex-specific unemployment rates (column C).
Clearly, any upward pressure on the overall unemployment
rate that the entry of the echo boomers into the labor force
might have had was outweighed by the continued downward
pressure exerted by the maturing baby boomers. Throughout
the 1990s, the baby boomers were in age groups typified by
low unemployment rates, just as they had been in 1989. By
1999, they constituted the entire 35- to 54-year-old age group.
Moreover, the baby boom ers’ share of the labor force (48
percent) was triple that of the echo boomers (16 percent) and
a little more than double that of generation X (23 percent).
(See table 1; each figure is arrived at by summing the m en’s
and w om en’s shares for that age group.) In addition, eco­
nomic growth toward the end of the 1990s resulted in declines
in the age-and-sex-specific unemployment rates.
Flaim had predicted a decline in the youth unemployment


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rate relative to other age groups in the 1990s due to the con­
tinued shrinking of the youth population. Table 1, however,
shows no evidence that that ever occurred. From 1989 to 1999,
the proportion of the labor force made up of workers aged 16
to 24 years remained relatively constant, and the youth unem­
ployment rate did not decrease more significantly than the
unemployment rate of the other worker age groups. The only
pronounced decrease in labor force representation during that
period is seen among the 25- to 34-year-olds (members of
generation X), who experienced decreases in unemployment
similar to those registered by the rest of the age groups in the
labor force.

N on-baby-boom er generations
The characteristics of today’s younger workers differ from
those of their baby-boomer counterparts in several ways that
Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

37

Gen X, Baby Boomers, and Echo Boomers

Table 2.

Changes in the unemployment rate, decomposed into causal factors, 1979-89
C h a n g e s in r a t e r e la tiv e t o 1 9 7 9 —

Year

1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

U n e m p lo y m e n t
r a te
(A )

...........................................................................
...............................................................................
...............................................................................
...............................................................................
...............................................................................
............................................................................
..............................................................................
...............................................................................
...............................................................................
...............................................................................
...............................................................................

Note:

Table 3.

5.85
7.14
7.61
9.69
9.61
7.52
7.20
6.99
6.19
5.51
5.27

To tal
(B)

D u e e x c lu s iv e ly
to c h a n g e s in
a g e -a n d -s e x s p e c ific
u n e m p lo y m e n t
ra te s
(C )

0.00
1.29
1.77
3.84
3.76
1.67
1.35
1.14
.35
-.34
-.58

0.00
1.33
1.87
4.05
4.03
1.94
1.68
1.50
.73
.05
-.14

D u e e x c lu s iv e ly
to c h a n g e s in
a g e -a n d -s e x s p e c ific
la b o r fo r c e
w e ig h ts
(D)

0.00
-.05
-.10
-.16
-.21
-.26
-.30
-.33
-.37
-.41
-.47

D u e to
in te r a c tio n
(B -(C + D ))

0.00
.01
-.01
-.05
-.05
-.01
-.03
-.02
-.01
.02
.04

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Changes in the unemployment rate, decomposed Into causal factors, 1989-2002
C h a n g e s in r a t e r e la tiv e to 1 9 8 9 —

U n e m p lo y m e n t
r a te
(A )

Year

1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

To tal
(B)

D u e e x c lu s iv e ly
to c h a n g e s in
a g e - a n d sexs p e c ific
u n e m p lo y m e n t
rate s
(C )

D u e e x c lu s iv e ly
to c h a n g e s in
a g e -a n d -s e x s p e c ific
la b o r fo r c e
w e ig h ts
(D)

D u e to
In te r a c tio n
(B -(C + D ) )

...............................................................................
...............................................................................
...............................................................................
...............................................................................
...............................................................................
...............................................................................
..........................................................................
...............................................................................
..........................................................................
...............................................................................
...............................................................................

5.27
5.60
6.83
7.50
6.92
6.10
5.60
5.40
4.94
4.51
4.22

0.00
.33
1.56
2.23
1.65
.83
.33
.13
-.33
-.76
-1.05

0.00
.53
1.85
2.59
2.02
1.20
.69
.55
.09
-.36
-.67

0.00
-.03
-.09
-.14
-.16
-.18
-.19
-.22
-.24
-.23
-.24

0.00
-.18
-.20
-.22
-.21
-.19
-.18
-.20
-.18
-.17
-.14

2000 ..............................................................................
2001 ...............................................................................
2002 ...............................................................................

3.99
4.73
5.78

-1.28
-.54
.51

-.88
-.06
1.08

-.27
-.32
-.35

-.12
-.16
-.21

Note:

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

may affect the former group’s impact on the labor force and the
unemployment rate now and in the future. Among the relevant
characteristics affecting both groups are school enrollment
patterns, race and Hispanic origin, and w om en’s labor force
participation.

School enrollment and labor force participation.

Table 4
shows the percentage of the total population aged 16 to 24
years enrolled in school for selected years between 1969 and
2002.10 In 1969 and 1979, when the baby boomers composed
the entire youth population, their school enrollment rates were
46.6 percent and 42.1 percent, respectively. Note that the figure

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for 1969 may be overstated somewhat: a large proportion
(55.2 percent) of men aged 16 to 24 years were enrolled in
school that year— a proportion which may reflect the choice
of school enrollment as a way to avoid being drafted into
the military during the Vietnam War.11
Even with the high percentage of young men enrolled in
school in the late 1960s, the population composed of gen­
eration X and the echo boom in later years had higher school
enrollment rates than the baby boomers had. For example, in
1989, when the baby boomers had aged past 24 years old
and generation X alone composed the youth labor force,
the youth school enrollment rate was 47.5 percent. Then, as

I School enrollment and labor force participation rates of persons 16 to 24 years, by age and sex, October
o r s e ie c ie a

y e a rs

M en

B oth s e x e s

Year

W om en

2 0 -2 4
y e a rs

T o tal,
1 6 -2 4
y e a rs

1 6 -1 9
y ea rs

2 0 -2 4
y e a rs

T o tal,
1 6 -2 4
y e a rs

1 6 -1 9
y e a rs

2 0 -2 4
y e a rs

71.1
61.1
73.6
77.2
79.0

23.0
21.7
27.0
32.8
34.4

55.2
44.2
48.3
53.9
53.2

76.9
69.1
74.4
77.3
78.1

32.0
23.3
27.0
32.1
32.2

39.1
40.1
46.8
53.6
56.0

65.4
65.2
72.8
77.1
80.1

15.9
20.1
27.1
33.4
36.6

48.0
55.4
53.9
50.0
45.6

67.8
77.1
77.6
77.1
75.4

66.2
73.0
71.4
67.3
64.1

52.0
57.7
55.7
51.5
45.4

81.3
85.7
84.3
81.8
79.5

51.0
62.0
63.0
61.4
59.9

44.0
53.1
52.1
48.5
45.8

57.1
69.0
71.3
72.6
71.3

T o tal,
1 6 -2 4
y e a rs

1 6 -1 9
y e a rs

46.6
42.1
47.5
53.8
54.6

58.1
67.4
67.2
64.3
62.0

P e r c e n t o f p o p u la t io n e n r o lle d in s c h o o l

October:
1969 ...........................................................................
1979 ............................................................................
1989............................................................................
1999............................................................................
2002............................................................................
L a b o r f o r c e p a r t ic ip a t io n r a t e

October:
1969 ............................................................................
1979............................................................................
1989............................................................................
1999............................................................................
2002............................................................................

the echo boomers began entering the 16- to 24-year-old age
group, the number continued to increase significantly, reach­
ing 54.6 percent in 2002. (See table 4.)
Typically, youths who are enrolled in school are less likely to
be in the labor force than those who are not enrolled in school.
Table 4 shows the overall youth labor force participation rate for
selected years, as well as the labor force participation rates for
age-and-sex subsets of the youth population during the same
years. In every age-and-sex subset of the youth population, ex­
cept for women aged 20 to 24 years, the labor force participation
rate was lower in 2002 than it had been in 1979, when the baby
boomers composed the entire youth labor force. This pattern is
consistent with that of enrollment rates.
The fact that the youth groups which followed the baby
boomers were less likely to be in the labor force than their
predecessors probably helped diminish these groups’ impacts
on the unemployment rate through the 1980s and 1990s. In the
future, when these younger groups are in their prime working
years, ages 35 to 54, the school enrollment patterns they expe­
rienced, and continue to experience, could affect trends in the
overall unemployment rate. For instance, statistics show that
the more schooling a demographic group receives, the lower
is its incidence of unem ploym ent.12

Race and Hispanic origin.

The racial and ethnic composi­
tion of the combined generation X and echo-boomer popula­
tion differs somewhat from that of the baby-boomer popula­
tion. In 1999, about 13 percent of the population 16 to 34 years
was black and almost 14 percent was Hispanic. Among the 35to 54-year-old population (the baby boomers), the proportions


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were smaller: about 11 percent was black and approximately 9
percent was Hispanic.
The impact the higher proportions of blacks and Hispanics may have on labor force participation and unemployment
rates in the future is not clear. However, historically, blacks
and Hispanics are less likely to be in the labor force, and more
likely to be unemployed, than whites.13

Women.

Labor force participation rates among women aged
16 to 34 years have increased since 1979, when the baby
boomers were those ages. In 1979, the participation rate of
women 16 to 34 years was about 63 percent; by 1999, it was 70
percent. As shown in the following tabulation, this overall
difference conceals some important details:
P e rc e n t

1979

1999

T otal, 16 to 3 4 years ....
16 to 19 y e a r s .............
2 0 to 2 4 y e a r s .............

6 3 .2
5 4 .2
6 9 .0

70.1
5 1 .0
73.3

25 to 3 4 y e a r s .............

6 3 .9

7 6 .4

Perhaps reflecting rising school enrollment, the labor force par­
ticipation rate of teenage women was actually slightly lower in
1999 than in 1979. Women aged 20 to 24 years experienced a
small increase in their labor force participation during those same
years. The most dramatic difference is seen in the participa­
tion rate for women aged 25 to 34 years, a rate that was almost
13 percentage points higher in 1999 than it had been in 1979.
In 1999, the labor force participation rate of men aged 25 to
34 years was 93.3 percent. Although their female counterMonthly Labor Review

June 2004

39

Gen X, Baby Boomers, and Echo Boomers

parts have never experienced this level of labor force partici­
pation, the gap between the two sexes has decreased sub­
stantially as the labor force participation of women of the
same ages increased steadily from 1979 to 1999, while that for
men edged down.
Flaim found that the increased labor force participation of
women between the years 1959 and 1989 did not cause an in­
crease in the unemployment rate, due to the fact that unemploy­
ment rates for women 25 years and older were consistently lower
than the overall unemployment rate. In 1999, the unemployment
rate for women in that age group (3.3 percent) continued to re­
main below the overall rate (4.2 percent) as the proportion of the
labor force those women represented continued to rise (from
36.7 percent in 1989 to 38.9 percent in 1999; see table 1).

F orty years after they first began entering the labor force ,

the baby boomers continue to influence the N ation’s unem­
ployment rate. The smaller, subsequent generations have not
been able to influence the rate as dramatically as the baby
boomers have. The demographic characteristics of the current
youth population differ from those of the baby boomers. In­
creased overall school enrollment and changes in the racial and
ethnic composition of the population are defining characteris­
tics of today’s younger generations. In addition, the labor force
participation rate of women continues to rise. In the future, these
characteristics will play a role in determining how the members of
generation X and the echo-boomer generation will affect the
Nation’s labor force and unemployment rate as the baby boomers
age and leave the working-age population.
□

Notes
1See Paul O. Flaim, “Population changes, the baby boom, and the
unemployment rate,” M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , August 1990, pp. 3-10.
2 The c ps is a monthly sample survey of about 60,000 households
that provides information on demographic characteristics of the labor
force and the employment status of the civilian, noninstitutionalized
population aged 16 years and older.
3The civilian labor force was first divided by sex and then, for each
of the two sexes, was divided into 11 age groupings: 16-19 years, 2024, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49, 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, and
65 and older.
4 The interaction term was arrived at by subtracting, from the total
change in the unemployment rate, (1) the part stemming from changes in
the age-and-sex-specific rates, with the weight of the age-and-sex-specific components of the labor force held constant, and (2) the part
stemming from changes in the weights of the age-and-sex components of
the labor force, with the age-and-sex jobless rates held constant. The
interaction term tends to indicate how changes in the size of each ageand-sex group influence that group’s unemployment rate. For instance, if
the number of teenagers in the labor force grows very quickly, there will
be more teenagers competing for the same number of jobs, which will tend
to cause upward pressure on the teenage unemployment rate.
5 Most of the increase in labor force participation among women
aged 25 and older during the years 1959 to 1989 can be attributed to
women aged 25 to 54. Women aged 25 to 34 increased their labor
force participation rate from 35.3 percent in 1959 to 73.5 percent in
1989. Women aged 35 to 44 experienced a slightly smaller, but still
dramatic, increase in their labor force participation rate during those
years, from 43.4 percent in 1959 to 76.0 percent in 1989. Similarly,
70.5 percent of women aged 45 to 54 participated in the labor force in
1989, compared with only 49.0 percent in 1959.
6 In Flaim’s projections for the 1990s, he also mentioned the dif­
ficulty inherent in estimating the composition of the working popula­
tion 10 years ahead due to the uncertainty of future immigration and
emigration patterns. Upon examination o f the employment data for
those years, it appears that there was a larger increase in the percent­
age of foreign-born individuals in the U.S. labor force o f 25- to 34year-olds than in other age groups in the population between 1989 and
1999. This increase helped stabilize the population level in the 25- to
34-year-old age group. Without the increase in foreign-bom individu­
als, the population of 25- to 34-year-olds would have decreased as the

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June 2004

baby boomers left the group and entered the 35- to 44-year old age
group. The effect the baby boomers’ aging had on the unemployment
rate is not clear. People aged 35 to 44 years typically have lower
unemployment rates compared with people aged 25 to 34 years. The
baby boomers’ exit from the 25- to 34-year-old age group would have
helped to lower the unemployment rate. However, foreign-born per­
sons typically have higher unemployment rates than native-born in­
dividuals have, so a relatively large increase in the number of foreignbom individuals aged 25 to 34 years could have worked in the opposite
direction, exerting upward pressure on the unemployment rate.
7 Annual birthrates are as reported by the Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention’s National Center for Health Statistics, on the Internet at
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/. The following papers were accessed:
•
Vital Statistics o f the U n ited States, 1999, vol. I, N a ta lity , table
1- 1 .

• N a tio n a l V ital S ta tistic s R e p o rt, Aug. 4, 2003, vol. 51, no. 12,
table 1, p. 13.
8 The unemployment rates for the baby-boomer group in 1989
(now aged 25 to 44 years) were calculated with the disaggregated ageand-sex-specific unemployment rates and labor force levels listed in
table 1. The difference in the unemployment rate for the group be­
tween 1969 and 1989 also reflects differences in economic conditions
peculiar to each year. A comparison between the unemployment rate
for 25- to 44-year-olds in 1969 (2.5 percent) and that in 1989 (4.5
percent) helps to illustrate these economic differences.
9 The weight placed on the age-and-sex-specific unemployment
rates in calculating the overall rate is the percentage of the entire
labor force that the particular group represents.
10 The labor force participation rates and school enrollment rates
presented are for the month of October in each of the years shown. To
discount any effects of school enrollment during the summer months
of the year, annual averages were not used.
11 The period from 1965 to 1969 was marked by increased use of
the involuntary draft. During those years, 1,421,256 men were called
to military service through the draft— a figure considerably greater
than the 518,899 men called between the years of 1960 and 1964 and
the 306,998 men between the years 1970 and 1973, the year the draft
ended. During the Vietnam War period, a man was granted a “student
deferment if he could show that he [was] a full-time student making
satisfactory progress towards a degree.” (See Selective Service System

website, on the Internet at http://www.sss.gov.
12 See E m p lo y m e n t a n d E a r n in g s (Bureau of Labor Statistics, June
2003), table A -17, p. 43.
13 After the youth population was disaggregated into black and
nonblack youths, an analysis using the methodology described in this

article showed that the increased proportion o f blacks in the labor
force from 1979 to 1999 contributed to a 0.2-percent increase in the
youth unemployment rate over the period. After the youth popula­
tion was disaggregated into Hispanic and non-Hispanic youths, the
same analysis was conducted. The result also was a 0.2-percent in­
crease in the youth unemployment rate between 1979 and 1999, due
to the increased number of Hispanic youths in the labor force.

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Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

41

Foreign-born Worker Fatalities

Foreign-born workers: trends in fatal
occupational injuries, 1996-2001
Workplace fatalities among foreign-born workers
reflect the large influx of those workers into the U.S. workforce
and their employment in occupations and industries
with inherently higher risks of fatal injury
Katherine Loh
and
Scott Richardson

Katherine Loh
is formerly an
economist in the
Office of
Compensation and
Working Conditions;
and Scott Richardson
is a program manager
in the same office,
Bureau of Labor
Statistics. E-mail:
Richardson.Scott®
bls.gov.

42

ew immigrants who arrived in the United
States during the 1990-2001 period ac­
counted for 50.3 percent of the growth in
the Nation’s civilian labor force.1 That is, one out
of every two net new labor force participants dur­
ing this period was a new foreign immigrant. His­
torically, Current Population Survey (CPS) figures
show that foreign-bom workers, who accounted
for 1 in every 17 workers in 1960, increased their
share of the labor force to one in eight by 2000.2
As the share of foreign-born employment has
increased, so has the share of fatal occupational
injuries to foreign-born workers. Yet, while the
share of foreign-bom employment increased by
22 percent from 1996 to 20003 the share of fatal
occupational injuries for this population in­
creased by 43 percent. This increase in fatal work
injuries among foreign-bom workers occurred at
a time when the overall number of fatal occupa­
tional injuries to U.S. workers declined by 5 per­
cent. As a result, the fatality rate for foreign-bom
workers has not mirrored the improvement seen
in the overall fatality rate over this period. In
2001, the fatality rate for all U.S. workers de­
creased to a series low of 4.3 per 100,000 workers,
but the fatality rate for foreign-born workers re­
corded a series high of 5.7 per 100,000 workers.
Foreign-born workers are disproportionately
represented in occupations and industries with
higher risks of fatality.4 Lower levels of educa­
tional attainment and lack of English language
proficiency may limit employment options for
many foreign-born workers. The U.S. Census
Bureau reported that in 2000 33 percent of the
foreign-born population aged 25 and older did

N

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not have a high school diploma, compared with
13 percent of the native-born population.5 And,
according to the National Immigration Forum,
more than 40 percent of new immigrants in 1990
stated that they did not speak English w ell.6
These fractions are even higher among the Latin
American foreign-bom who represent about half
of the foreign-born workers in the United States.
Low educational attainment, lack of English pro­
ficiency, and other factors contribute to employ­
ment of many foreign-bom workers in lower pay­
ing,7higher risk jobs.8

Methods
This study examines Bureau of Labor Statistics
surveillance data from 1996 through 2001 to iden­
tify current trends in fatal work injuries among
foreign-born workers. To classify the fatal work
injury records for this study, we define the term
“foreign-born” simply as persons not born in the
United States. Persons bom in Puerto Rico, Guam,
the U.S. Virgin Islands, and other U.S. territories
were not included in the foreign-born workplace
fatality count. The foreign-born population in­
cludes legal immigrants, legal non-immigrants (for
example, refugees and persons on student or work
visas), and undocumented persons residing in
the United States.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics conducts the
Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries ( c f o i ) pro­
gram, which collects detailed information on all
work-related fatal injuries in the United States.
Included are private wage and salary workers,
public sector employees— both civilian and mili-

tary— and self-employed workers. To ensure a complete count
and to collect the required data for each case, a multiple source
document collection system is employed. Each fatality is veri­
fied using at least two source documents, such as death cer­
tificates, medical examiners or coroner reports, State and Fed­
eral W orkers’ Compensation fatality reports, news media ac­
counts, Occupational Safety and Health (osh a ) reports, or
other sources. Historically, each fatality has averaged nearly
four source documents. More than 30 data elements are col­
lected through the CFOl program. Included in the results are
demographic data such as the work status of the decedent
(wage or salary worker, or self-employed), gender, age, and
race or ethnic origin, and employment data, such as occupa­
tion and industry. Other data elements include the event or
exposure that led to the injury, the source of the injury, and the
activity and location of the worker during the time of the inci­
dent.
This study includes all fatal occupational injuries recorded
by CFOl for which the element (“foreign birth place”) was posi­
tively coded by the entry of the name of the country of birth
into the field. For some records, only the region of origin was
known, in which case that region was coded. “Unknown/not
reported” cases were those in which the “foreign birth place”
field was positively coded, but the precise country or region
of origin was not clear from the narrative entry. Such cases
were also included in the overall foreign-born worker fatality
count. The foreign birth place narratives were then alphanumerically coded into country variables, or into general regional
variables (for example, Asia, Africa, Europe, Latin America,
Oceania, and Northern America) according to Census Bureau
classifications for country and regional analysis.9
All fatality rates are expressed as number of fatalities per
100,000 employed persons. Because the fatality census does
not collect employment data, fatality rates were calculated
using estimates of employed civilian workers (aged 16 and
older) from the CPS combined with resident military figures
obtained from the Departm ent of Defense. The CPS is a
monthly random sample of 60,000 households that represents
the entire noninstitutionalized civilian population of the United
States. However, there are some limitations to these fatality
rates: 1) the rates are based on employment regardless of
hours worked; 2) the CPS classifies occupation based on the
primary job worked, which may not be the job the decedent
was performing when fatally injured; and 3) because the CPS is
a survey rather than a census, data from the CPS are subject to
sampling error. Also, CPS industry employment data were sub­
divided by m ajor industry division for wage and salary work­
ers, but not for self-employed workers. Due to this limitation,
the industry fatality rates calculated for this study as well as
all comparisons in the industry section (later presented) be­
tween shares of employment and shares of fatal work injuries
refer only to foreign-born wage and salary workers (who ac­


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count for 93 percent of all foreign-born workers).10
In addition, the CPS uses the Census Bureau definition of
“foreign-born” and “native-born,” which has a slightly differ­
ent meaning than the definition employed by the c fo i . The
Census Bureau defines foreign-born persons as those who
were not U.S. citizens at birth, and “native-born persons” as
those who were U.S. citizens at birth. The Census-defined
native-born population includes persons who were born in
one of the 50 States or the District of Columbia, persons bom
in one of the U.S. island territories, and persons born abroad
to a U.S. citizen. According to the census in 2000,0.7 percent
of the U.S. population can be classified in the latter category
of the native-born population, and as such, there may be slight
inconsistencies in the nativity classification assigned to a
fatally-injured worker by CFOl and by the CPS.11 Some error
may be introduced in the calculation of fatality rates due to
this difference.
The 1987 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system is
the basis for industry classifications for the CPS and the CFOl
during the 1996-2001 period.12 Occupations were classified
according to the Bureau of the Census’ 1990 Occupational
Classification system. All injury characteristics (type of event,
source of injury, part of body, and nature of injury) were clas­
sified using the Occupational Injury and Illness Classifica­
tion structure developed by b ls .

Foreign-born worker fatalities
During 1996-2001, there were a total of 4,751 fatal work injuries
involving foreign-born workers, accounting for 13 percent of
the fatal occupational injuries recorded in the United States.
Though foreign-born em ploym ent has increased both in
number and as a share of total U.S. employment over this
period, the foreign-born employment share has increased at a
slower rate than the foreign-born share of occupational
fatalities. (See table 1.) Even as fatal occupational injuries to
all U.S. workers have declined, workplace fatalities to foreignbom workers have been on the rise. The fatality rate for
foreign-born workers had a decreasing trend in the first half
Table 1.

Fatal occupational injuries in the United
States, 1996-2001

Year

Total........................
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

A ll w o rk e r s

N a t iv e - b o r n

F o re ig n -b o rn

36,384

31,633

4,751

6,202
6,238
6,055
6,054
5,920
5,915

5,474
5,523
5,402
5,244
5,069
4,921

728
715
653
810
851
994

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational
Injuries, 1996-2001.

Monthly Labor Review June 2004

43

Foreign-born Worker Fatalities

of the study period, but during the second half of the period,
the rate increased from 4.3 in 1998 to 5.7 in 2001. (See chart 1.)
Fatal work injuries involving foreign-born workers were
primarily concentrated in six States: California, Texas, Florida,
New York, Illinois, and New Jersey. These six States also had
the largest foreign-born populations. Sixty percent of all fa­
tally-injured foreign-bom workers were of Latin American ori­
gin, of which two-thirds were Mexican-bom. In addition, 21
percent of foreign-born fatalities involved workers of Asian
origin, and another 12 percent were of European origin.

worker fatalities (42 percent) in 2000 was disproportionately
high relative to their share of foreign-born employment (27
percent) that year.
The second largest group of fatally-injured foreign-bom
workers was originally from Asia, with 21 percent (993) of all
foreign-bom worker fatalities over the 1996-2001 period. (See
table 2.) European-born workers had the third largest share of
occupational fatalities among foreign-born workers, with one
in eight fatalities (591) to foreign-born workers, and Africanborn workers composed the fourth largest group of fatallyinjured foreign-born workers, with 156 fatalities.

Country and region of origin
Region o f origin

The share of workplace fatalities borne by
workers of each world region of origin generally resembled
their employment shares in 2000 (the only year for which for­
eign-born employment data by region of origin are available),
though some disparities were observed. (See table 2.)
Latin American-bom workers, the largest group of foreignborn workers with respect to employment, also were the larg­
est group of fatally-injured foreign-born workers with 60 per­
cent, or 2,851 fatally-injured workers. About two-thirds of fa­
tally-injured Latin American workers were born in Mexico.
Mexican-bom-worker fatalities as a share of total foreign-bom

Chart 1.

Country o f origin. Sixty-four percent of all fatalities to for­
eign-born workers occurred to those originating from just 10
countries. (See table 3.) Mexican-born-worker fatalities alone
accounted for 40 percent (1,915) of all fatalities to foreignborn workers, and fatal work injuries to M exican-born work­
ers were uniquely observed to trend upward over the dura­
tion of the 6-year period under analysis, increasing from a low
of 241 fatalities in 1996 to 422 in 2001. Three of the other nine
countries also were Latin American countries: Cuba (153 fatal
work injuries), El Salvador (129), and Guatemala (104). A n­
other three were Asian countries, including India (170), Korea
(140), and Vietnam (125). Canadian-born workers were the

Fatality rate of U.S. workers by nativity, 1996-2001

Fatality rate
per 100,000
employed

Fatality rate
per 100,000
employed

7

44

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sixth largest national group, with 125 fatalities. Poland and
Germany, the 2 European countries among the 10, had 89 fa­
talities each.

O ccupation
Among foreign-bom workers, the four occupational groups
with the highest fatality rates over the 1996-2001 period were
transportation and material moving occupations with a rate of
22.1 per 100,000, handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers and
laborers (17.1 per 100,000), protective services (11.4 per
100,000), and construction trades (11.3 per 100,000). Almost
half of all fatally-injured foreign-bom workers were employed
in those four occupations.
The share of Mexican-born workers fatally injured in farm­
ing, forestry and fishing occupations was higher than the share
for workers from all other regions of origin. Fatalities in that
occupational group represented almost a quarter of all fatal

Table2.

Share of foreign-born employment and
fatalities to workers aged 16 or older by region

R e g io n o f o rig in

Number.........................
Percent.........................
Latin America...................
Caribbean....................
Central America...........
M exico.....................
Other Central America
South Am erica............
A sia ..................................
Europe.............................
A fric a ...............................
Northern America...........

S h a re of
e m p lo y m e n t

S h a re of
fa ta litie s

16,532,000
100

851
100

51.6
9.6
34.9
27.3
7.6

61.2
7.4
48.5
42.1
6.5
5.3
22.2
10.7
3.2
2.5

7.1

26.0
14.1
2.6
2.4

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, March 2000, the Bureau of
Labor Statistics Current Population Survey and Census of Fatal
Occupational Injuries, 2000.

Table 3.

injuries sustained by Mexican-born workers. Workers em­
ployed in two other occupational groups— handlers, equip­
ment cleaners, helpers and laborers occupations and construc­
tion trades— represented another 41 percent of fatally-injured
Mexican-born workers. Fatally-injured workers from all other
Latin American countries (which include countries in Central
America other than Mexico, in the Caribbean, and in South
America) were most frequently employed as handlers, equip­
ment cleaners, helpers, or laborers, followed by transportation
and material movers, and workers in construction trades.
Fatally injured Asian-born workers were most frequently
employed in sales occupations; transportation and material
moving occupations; and executive, administrative, and mana­
gerial occupations. Three-quarters of all fatally injured A fri­
can-born workers also were employed in the same three occu­
pations, though fatalities among those employed in transpor­
tation and material moving occupations were more frequent
than sales occupations. (See table 4.)
Overall, foreign-bom workers experienced different patterns
in fatality rates than native-born workers in certain occupa­
tional groups. Foreign-bom workers in sales occupations and
handler, equipment cleaner, helper, and laborer occupations
consistently experienced a higher annual fatality rate than their
native-born counterparts, although both groups experienced
overall declining fatality rates during the 6-year period. The
fatality rate of foreign-born workers in sales occupations de­
creased from 9.2 per 100,000 in 1996 to 6.1 per 100,000 in 2001
(with a low of 4.7 per 100,000 in 1998), and the rate of their
native-born counterparts decreased from 2.8 per 100,000 to 2.0
per 100,000 (with a low of 1.9 per 100,000 in 1999 and 2000). In
handler, equipment cleaner, helper, and laborer occupations,
foreign-born workers’ fatality rate decreased from 19.8 per
100,000 in 1996 to 16.6 per 100,000 in 2001 (with a low of 14.8
per 100,000 in 2000), and the rate for native-born workers went
from 11.7 per 100,000 to 10.9 per 100,000 (with a high of 12.6 per

Fatal occupational injuries to foreign-born workers by country of origin, primary State, and primary fatal
event, 1996-2001
C o u n try

Total..............................
Mexico ....................................
India........................................
Cuba........................................
Korea.......................................
El Salvador..............................
Canada....................................
Vietnam...................................
Guatemala...............................
Germany.................................
Poland.....................................

Num ber

4,751
1,915
170
153
140
129
125
125
104
89
89

P e rc e n t

100
40.3
3.6
3.2
2.9
2.7
2.6
2.6
2.2
1.9
1.9

Note: Dash indicates that there was no primary State within the specified
category.


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P rim a ry S ta te s

CA, TX
CA, TX
CA, TX
FL
CA
CA
CA
CA, TX
CA
—

NY, IL

P rim a ry f a t a l e v e n t
( p e r c e n t in p a r e n th e s is )

Homicides (25)
Fall to lower level (19)
Homicide (65)
Homicide (29)
Homicide (60)
Fall to lower level (24)
Highway incidents (28)
Homicide (37)
Highway incidents (18)
Aircraft (17)
Falls to lower level (28)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational
Injuries, 1996-2001

Monthly Labor Review June 2004

45

Foreign-born Worker Fatalities

Percent distribution of fatal work injuries to foreign-born workers by occupation, region of origin, and overall
foreign-born fatality rate, 1996-2001
y ’
L a tin A m e r ic a
O v e r a ll

1
To tal
O c c u p a t io n

C e n t r a l A m e r ic a

f o r e ig n b o rn

T o tal

South

C a r ib b e a n

O th e r
To tal

M e x ic o

A sia

E u ro p e

A f r ic a

N orth
A m e r ic a

A m e r ic a

fo r e ig n bom
fa t a lit y
r a te

C e n tra l
A m e r ic a

Number..........................
Percent...............................
Managerial and professional
sp e cia lty................................
Executive, administrative,
and management...............
Professional specialty.......
Technical, sales, and
administrative support..........
Technicians and related
support...............................
S ales...................................
Administrative support,
including clerical...............
Service................................
Private household...............
Protective service...............
Service, o th e r.....................
Precision production, craft,
and repair...............................
Mechanics and repairers....
Construction trades............
Other precision, production,
craft, and repair................
Operators, fabricators, and
laborers..................................
Machine operators,
assemblers, and
inspectors..........................
Transportation and material
moving................................
Handlers, equipment
cleaners, helpers, and
laborers..............................
Farming, forestry,
and fishing..............................

4,751
100

2,851
100

397
100

2,257
100

1,915
100

342
100

197
100

993
100

591
100

156
100

125
100

5.1

8.2

3.8

8.1

2.5

2.5

2.9

9.1

14.4

15.7

16.0

15.2

1.8

5.5
2.7

2.5
1.3

5.3
2.8

1.8
.7

1.7
.8

2.6

_

4.6
4.6

10.7
3.7

9.3
6.4

11.5
4.5

64
8.8

2.7
1.0

14.7

6.2

20.7

3.5

3.0

6.1

8.6

40.4

10.2

29.5

11.2

3.5

1.4
12.4

.6
4.9

1.8
17.1

.4
2.7

.3
2.5

_
5.6

1.6
36.8

3.9
5.9

64

3.8

28.2

2.6
6.4

1.0
6.7
.3
1.9
4.6

.7
6.9
.2
1.9
4.7

1.8
10.8

.3
5.3

1.5
10.5

8.1

2.0
6.7

7.3

3.2

3.8
7.1

.4
6.1
.3
1.6
4.2

1.1
3.9

4.1
5.8

6.1

1.8
4.5

17
5.1

18.0
4.0
11.4

20.4
4.3
13.5

18.9
6.0
10.3

20.6
3.9
14.3

20.2
3.9
13.7

23.4
3.8
17.8

20.3
6.6
11.2

7.6
2.3
2.7

25.7
5.4
16.8

2.6

2.5

2.5

2.5

2.6

1.8

2.5

2.5

3.6

37.8

43.9

36.8

44.7

44.6

45.0

49.7

24.5

29.9

3.9

5.0

3.5

5.4

5.4

5.0

4.1

2.3

2.7

15.7

14.1

20.7

11.9

11.9

12.3

25.4

15.1

16.6

35.3

28.8

22.1

18.2

24.9

12.6

27.4

27.4

27.8

20.3

7.0

10.7

7.7

6.4

17.1

13.0

18.0

3.8

21.8

23.8

10.5

3.6

4.5

6.9

-

8.8

14.8

—

_

—

_
_

3.2

45.5

.5
1.8
.8
114
1.4
25.6
64
15.2

7.5
6.6
11.3

4.0

3.3

36.0

10.2

2.0

.

Note:
criteria.

Dash indicates no data reported or data do not meet publication

100,000 in 1998). Among farming, forestry, and fishing occu­
pations, native-born workers had a higher but roughly stable
fatality rate throughout the 6-year period, compared with for­
eign-born workers. However, foreign-born workers’ fatality
rate rose from 12.6 per 100,000 to 19.5 per 100,000 during that
period, approaching the native-born rate.

Industry
Private construction, retail trade, and transportation and pub­
lic utilities were the three industries in which fatally injured
foreign-born workers were most frequently employed. (See
table 5.)13 Nearly one in four fatally-injured foreign-bom work­
ers was employed in the construction industry. Another one
46

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Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Popul ation Surv ey and
Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, 1996-2001.

in three was employed in either retail trade or transportation
and public utilities. Of these three industries, two were also
among the industries that had the highest rates of fatality
among foreign-bom workers— construction (17.3 per 100,000)
and transportation and public utilities (15.2 per 100,000). Min­
ing (with 30.4 per 100,000) and agriculture, forestry, and fish­
ing (15.2 per 100,000) also had high fatality rates among foreign-bom workers.
The employment distribution of fatally-injured foreign-bom
workers differed considerably when dissected by region or
country of origin. Among fatally-injured Mexican-bom work­
ers, more than a third were employed in the construction in­
dustry. Another 23 percent were employed in the agriculture,
forestry, and fishing industry, followed by manufacturing (11

lie utilities, construction, and services accounting for the high­
est numbers of fatalities. Fatally-injured African-born workers
were heavily concentrated in two industries, with more than 70
percent employed in either transportation and public utilities
or retail trade. (See table 6.)
Overall, the share of fatal work injuries to foreign-bom
workers grew in those industries in which their share of em­
ployment also grew. However, in particular industries, there
were notable disparities between foreign-born workers’ share
of employment and share of fatal work injuries. Whereas for­
eign-bom workers’ share of total agriculture, forestry, and fish­
ing employment varied little around an average of 28 percent,
their share of fatal work injuries rose by 60 percent, from one in
five agriculture, forestry, and fishing fatalities in 1996 to one in
three in 2001. In manufacturing, foreign-bom w orkers’ share
of employment increased by 22 percent, from 13 percent in
1996 to 16 percent in 2001, but their share of workplace fatali­
ties increased by 46 percent over the same period, from 9 per­
cent to 14 percent. In other industries, specifically construc­
tion, transportation and public utilities, and retail trade, for­
eign-born workers’ share of fatalities was consistently higher
than their share of employment over the 6-year period. (See
chart 2.)

percent). In contrast, the 936 fatally-injured workers who were
born in Latin American countries other than Mexico were most
frequently employed in construction, transportation and pub­
lic utilities, and services. (See table 6.)
Among fatally-injured Asian-born workers, retail trade re­
corded the highest number of fatal work injuries, with almost
one out of every two killed in that sector. Fatally-injured Euro­
pean-born workers and Northern American-born workers had
similar employment distributions, with transportation and pubPercent distribution of fatal occupational
injuries by industry and nativity, 1996-2001

Table 5.

All

N a t iv e -

F o re ig n -

w o rk e rs

bo rn

b o rn

In d u s try

Number....................
Percent.....................

36,384
100

31,633
100

4,751
100

13.1
2.5
19.0
11.4

13.1
2.7
18.2
11.8

12.8
1.2
24.0
9.2

15.9
3.9
9.8

16.0
4.0
8.6

14.9
3.1
18.0

1.6
12.5
9.9

1.6
12.6
10.9

1.4
12.0
2.9

Agriculture, forestry,
and fish in g .......................
Mining..................................
Construction........................
Manufacturing....................
Transportation and
public utilities....................
Wholesale trade.................
Retail trade.........................
Finance, insurance,
and real e sta te ................
Services..............................
Government.......................

Event or exposure
Workplace homicide was the leading manner of traumatic work-

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, and
Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, 1996-2001.

Table 6.

Percent distribution of fatal occupational injuries to foreign-born workers by industry and region of origin,
1996-2001
Latin A m e r ic a

In d u stry

Number................
Percent................
Agriculture, forestry,
and fish in g ...................
Mining..............................
Construction...................
Manufacturing................
Transportation and
public utilities...............
Wholesale trade.............
Retail trade.....................
Finance, insurance,
and real e sta te ............
Services..........................
Government...................

Note:
criteria.

To tal
fo r e ig n bom

C e n t r a l A m e r ic a
T o tal

C a r ib b e a n
To tal

M e x ic o

South
A m e r ic a

A sia

A f r ic a

E u ro p e

N orth
A m e r ic a

4,751
100

2,851
100

397
100

2,257
100

1,915
100

342
100

197
100

993
100

591
100

156
100

125
100

12.8
1.2
24.0
9.2

17.8
1.6
31.4
10.4

4.0
16.4
7.8

21.4
2.0
34.2
11.0

23.4
2.2
34.2
11.0

9.9
—
34.2
11.1

4.1
—
28.9
8.1

4.3
—
5.3
5.8

6.8
—
26.1
10.3

—
—
3.8
4.5

9.6
—
20.0
8.8

14.9
3.1
18.0

11.9
3.4
9.2

19.6
3.0
22.4

9.3
3.7
6.5

8.5
3.4
6.3

14.0
5.0
7.3

25.4
—
13.7

15.2
2.6
47.6

19.3
3.0
9.8

37.2
—
34.0

31.2
—
4.8

1.4
12.0
2.9

1.2
11.0
1.6

3.3
17.9
4.0

.8
9.4
1.2

.8
8.4
1.4

___

___

15.5

14.7

2.0
13.4
3.2

1.9
13.2
8.8

10.3

—

Dash indicates no data reported or data do not meet publication


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O th e r
C e n tra l
A m e r ic a

—

—

16.8

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational
Injuries, 1996-2001.

Monthly Labor Review June 2004

47

Foreign-born Worker Fatalities

Chart 2.

Foreign-born wage and salary workers aged 16 and older, as a share of total
employment and total fatal work injuries, by industy, 1996-2001
Percent

10

15

20

25

30

Agriculture, forestry,
and fishing
Mining
Construction
Manufacturing
Transportation,
and public utilities
Wholesale trade
Retail trade
Finance, insurance,
and real estate

□ Employment share
□ Fatal work share

Services
Government

Table 7.

Percent distribution of fatal occupational injuries by event and nativity, 1996-2001
Event

Number .
Percent.
Transportation incidents............................................
Highway incidents....................................................
Pedestrian struck by vehicle, mobile equipment....
Nonhighway incidents..............................................
Assaults and violent acts .........................................
Homicides.................................................................
Self-inflicted injury...................................................
Contact with objects and equipment........................
Struck by object......................................................
Caught in or compressed by equipment or objects
Falls...............................
Falls to lower le ve l...............................................
Exposure to harmful substance or environments .
Electrocution........................................................
Fires and explosions..............................................
Source:

36,384

100
42.8
23.2
6.2
6.1

16.4
12.3
3.6
16.5
9.3
4.8
12.0
10.7
8.7
4.8
3.2

N a t iv e -b o r n

F o re ig n -b o rn

31,633
100

4,751

44.8
24.6
6.2
6.5
14.7
10.5
3.6
16.6
9.5
4.7
11.4

29.3
13.9
6.3
3.5
28.4
24.5
3.3
15.2

10.0
8.8

4.8
3.3

100

8.0

4.9
16.0
15.0
8.4
4.3
2.6

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, 1996-2001.

place death for foreign-bom workers, accounting for one out
of every four fatal injuries. The second and third most fre­
quent types of fatal events involving foreign-bom workers
were falls to a lower level (15 percent) and highway incidents
(14 percent). The distribution of fatal events for foreign-bom
workers was different than the distribution of fatal events for
all U.S. workers. (See table 7.) Overall, U.S. workers were far
48

A ll w o rk e rs

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more likely to be fatally-injured in highway incidents (23 per­
cent), followed by homicides (12 percent) and fatal falls to a
lower level (11 percent).
The 1,166 workplace homicides involving foreign-born
workers represented about a quarter of the total recorded for
all U.S. workers over the study period. One contributing fac­
tor in this high incidence of work-related homicide is the fact

place death for Mexican-born workers over the study period.
Highway incidents accounted for 657 fatal events or 14
percent of the fatal incidents involving foreign-born workers
over the study period. The number of highway-related fatali­
ties also increased, rising from a low of 84 fatalities in 1997 to a
high of 148 in 2001. Highway incidents were the most frequent
type of fatal event for workers born in Canada and Guatemala.
A total of 381 workers (8 percent) were killed as a result of
being struck by an object, primarily falling objects, and another
298 workers (6 percent) were killed as a result of being struck
by a vehicle or mobile equipment. For both of these fatal
events, the percentage of fatalities for foreign-born workers
was about the same as for all U.S. workers.
Clearly, the type of fatal events involving foreign-born
workers varied according to the decedent’s country and re­
gion of origin. The primary fatal event for workers originally
from Asia or Africa was homicide, and the primary fatal event
of Latin American-born workers was falls to a lower level. The
primary fatal events of European- and Canadian-born work-

that the foreign-born population is overwhelmingly concen­
trated in metropolitan areas,14which have three times the violent
crime rate of rural areas.15 Among the foreign-bom, workers
born in M exico recorded the highest number of fatal work­
place assaults, though fatal assaults represented only about
10 percent of the fatal events for Mexican-bom workers. Work­
place homicide was the primary fatal event for workers bom in
India, Cuba, Korea, and Vietnam. (See table 8.)
Falls to a lower level, the second most frequent type of fatal
event for foreign-born workers, accounted for 714 fatal inju­
ries. The number of fatal falls to a lower level involving foreign-bom workers increased every year from 1997 to 2001, and
the total for 2001 represented a 73-percent increase over the
total recorded in 1997. The highest number of fatal falls to a
lower level (3 in 10) involved falls from roofs. Another 19
percent were falls from scaffolding or staging, and 14 percent
were falls from ladders. H alf of the foreign-born workers who
were killed by falls to a lower level (359) were bom in Mexico,
and this fatal event was the leading manner of traumatic work­

Number and percent of fatal work injuries to foreign-born workers by country of origin (100 or more fatal
injuries) and selected events, 1996-2001

Table 8.

S e le c t e d f a t a l e v e n t ( p e r c e n t )
C o u n try

All U.S. w orkers...................................
All foreign-born workers.......................
M exico....................................................
India........................................................
Cuba........................................................
Korea.......................................................
El Salvador..............................................
Canada....................................................
Vietnam...................................................
Guatemala...............................................

S ource:

Table 9.

N um ber

P e rc e n t

36,384
4,751
1,915
170
153
140
129
125
125
104

H ig h w a y

Falls t o a

in c id e n ts

lo w e r le v e l

11
15
19
5
14
5
24
14
10
16

23
14
16
14
10
9
10
28
10
18

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

H o m ic id e s

12
25
10
65
29
60
19
6
37
14

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, 1996-2001.

Fatal occupational injuries to foreign-born workers by region of origin, primary State, and primary fatal event,
1996-2001

R e g io n o f o rig in

Total.................
Latin America......
Caribbean..........
Central America.
Mexico.............
South America...
A sia.....................
Europe................
A fric a ..................
Northern America.
Oceania...............

Num ber

P e rc e n t

4,751
2,851
397
2,257
1,915
197
993
591
156
125
18

100
60.0
8.4
47.5
40.3
4.1
20.9
12.4
3.3
2.6
.4

N ote: There were 17 fatally-injured foreign-born workers whose country
of origin was unknown or not reported. Dash indicates that there was no
primary State or event within the specified category.


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P rim a ry S ta te s

CA, TX, FL
CA, TX, FL
FL, NY
CA, TX
CA, TX
NY, FL
CA, TX
NY

Source:

P rim a ry f a t a l e v e n t
( p e r c e n t in p a r e n th e s is )

Homicide (25)
Fall to lower level (18)
Homicide (39)
Fall to lower level (19)
Fall to lower level (19)
Fall to lower level (22)
Homicide (55)
Fall to lower level (18)
Homicide (59)
Highway incidents (28)

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries,

1996-2001.

Monthly Labor Review June 2004

49

Foreign-born Worker Fatalities

ers were falls to a lower level and highway incidents, respec­
tively. (See table 9.)

ing an older population whose median age was 50.0.17

State and Census-designated region
Demographics
Employee status.

Over the 6-year study period, 3,875 fatali­
ties to wage and salary foreign-born workers were recorded, or
82 percent of all fatalities to foreign-bom workers. This worker
group experienced a fatality rate of 4.5 per 100,000— 15 percent
higher than that of native-born workers (3.9 per 100,000). Selfemployed workers composed 18 percent (876) of all fatallyinjured foreign-born workers, and had a fatality rate of 12.8 per
100,000— 13 percent higher than the rate for native-born work­
ers similarly employed.

Gender. The three most frequent fatal events for male for­
eign-born workers were homicides (23 percent), falls to lower
level (16percent), and highway incidents (14percent). Among
female workers, nearly half of all workplace fatalities were due
to homicide. Highway incidents (16 percent) and struck by
vehicle or mobile equipment (7 percent) were the second and
third m ost frequent fatal events for foreign-born women.
These differences in event patterns reflect, in part, the varying
employment patterns between foreign-bom men and women
and thus varying occupational dangers facing them. Female
workers are more concentrated in technical, administrative, and
sales occupations and service occupations and in retail trade
and services industries— industries known to have higher risk
of workplace homicide.16
Age.

Overall, about 40 percent of fatally-injured foreignborn workers were under 35 years of age, compared with 30
percent for native-born workers, reflecting differences in the
age distributions of the two populations. Within the foreignborn population, the Latin American-born segment had a me­
dian age of 32.6, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, and
nearly one out of every two fatally-injured Latin Americanborn workers was under age 35. However, only one in four
fatally injured European-born workers was under 35, reflect­

T a b le 10.

State.
Fatal work injuries in 6 States accounted for 64
percent (3,048) of all fatalities to foreign-born workers. As
mentioned earlier, those states— California, Texas, Florida, New
York, Illinois and New Jersey— were also the 6 states with the
largest foreign-born populations.18 Nearly 3 out of every 10
workplace fatalities in California and New York were incurred
by foreign-bom workers. Fatal injuries to foreign-bom workers
accounted for a quarter of all fatal occupational injuries
sustained by workers in Florida, and in Texas, that figure was
one in five.
California recorded the highest number of fatalities to for­
eign-born workers (1,037). One out of every five fatalities to
foreign-born workers occurred in California over the study
period. (See table 10.) More than a third of all fatal work inju­
ries to foreign-bom workers in the agriculture, forestry, and
fishing industry occurred in California. The region of origin of
foreign-born workers with the highest number of fatal work
injuries was Latin America, with 70 percent, or 727 fatalities, of
which 617 of those were from Mexico. Workers originally from
Asia were the second largest regional group, with 230 fatal
work injuries, or 22 percent, of the foreign-bom worker fatali­
ties in California.
Census-designated region. Even though the South did not
possess the largest share of foreign-born workers, it held the
largest share of foreign-bom worker fatalities, with 37 percent
of all fatalities to foreign-born workers over the 6-year study
period. This fact is partially the result of the South’s geo­
graphical proximity to two of the major contributors of foreignborn workers to the United States— Mexico and Cuba. The
West had the second largest number of foreign-born worker
fatalities, with almost 1,600 fatalities, 65 percent of which oc­
curred in California alone. Fatal work injuries in the agricul­
ture, forestry, and fishing industry were the primary contribu­
tor to the fatality count for foreign-born workers in the West.
(See table 11.)

F a ta l o c c u p a t io n a l in ju rie s t o a ll w o rk e r s a n d f o r e ig n - b o r n w o rk e r s b y S ta te a n d p r im a r y c o u n tr y o f o rig in , 1 9 9 6 -2 0 0 1

S ta te

A ll w o rk e rs

F o re ig n -b o rn
( p e r c e n t o f t o ta l

P rim a ry c o u n tr y o f o rig in
( p e r c e n t in p a r e n th e s is )

in p a re n th e s is )

California...............................................
Texas ....................................................
Florida...................................................
New Y o rk...............................................
Illinois....................................................
New Jersey...........................................
Source:

50

3,588
3,072
2,125
1,518
1,363
652

1,037 (29)
643 (21)
514(24)
464 (31)
212(16)
178 (27)

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, 1996-2001.

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Mexico (59)
Mexico (68)
Cuba (24), Mexico (21)
Dominican Republic (12)
Mexico (41)
Mexico (9)

Table 11.

Fatal occupational injuries to foreign-born workers by region, State, primary industry, and primary fatal
event, 1996-2001

Region and State

Northeast..................................
New York.................................
New Jersey.............................
Midwest.....................................
Illinois.....................................
South.........................................
Florida.....................................
Texas ......................................
W est..........................................
California.................................

Primary industry
(percent in parenthesis)

Number

862
464
178
519
212
1,773
514
643
1,584
1,037

Primary fatal event
(percent in parenthesis)

Construction (25)
Construction (26)
Construction (30)
Retail trade (23)
Construction (21)
Construction (31)
Construction (23)
Construction (35)
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing (20)
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing (22)

N ote : A total of 13 work-related fatalities occurred in areas that were
not attributable to a specific State or region, and are therefore not included
in the areas above.

Homicides (32)
Homicides (40)
Falls to lower level (24)
Homicides (29)
Homicide (28)
Homicides (24)
Homicides (26)
Homicides (23)
Homicides, highway incidents (both 20)
Homicides (24)

S ource : Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational
Injuries, 1996-2001

I Relative risk of fatal occupational injury among all civilian workers aged 16 and older, by occupation and
nativity, 1996-2001
[All workers = 1.00]
O c c u p a t io n

A ll w o rk e rs

N a tiv e -b o r n

Total........................................................................

1.00

0.99

1.11

Managerial and professional specialty.................................
Executive, administrative, and management..................
Professional specialty......................................................
Technical, sales, and administrative support......................
Technicians and related support......................................
S a le s ..................................................................................
Administrative support, including clerical .......................
Service...................................................................................
Private household.............................................................
Protective service.............................................................
Service, o th e r...................................................................
Precision, production, craft, and repair...............................
Mechanics and repairers...................................................
Construction trades...........................................................
Other precision, production, craft, and repair.................
Operators, fabricators, and laborers....................................
Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors............
Transportation and material moving..................................
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers....
Farming, forestry and fishing................................................

.36
.46
.27
.39
.86
.57
.12
.58
.16
2.45
.30
1.68
1.42
2.38
.98
2.55
.64
4.99
2.73
5.45

.36
.45
.27
.35
.89
.48
.12
.62
.15
2.45
.30
1.69
1.42
2.37
1.03
2.61
.69
5.01
2.54
6.01

.38
.59
.23
.76
.57
1.40
.12
.39
.18
2.48
.30
1.64
1.43
2.47
.73
2.23
.45
4.82
3.74
3.24

S ource :

F o re ig n -b o rn

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, and Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries,1996-2001.

Fatality risk
The relative fatality risk for a group of workers is calculated as
the fatality rate for that group divided by the fatality rate for all
w orkers.19 Relative risk measures how much the workplace
fatality rate of a specific worker group differs from the work­
place fatality rate of all workers.
The foreign-born workforce as a whole experienced a rela­
tive fatality risk of 1.11, compared with the relative risk of 0.99
for native-born workers. It is specifically the impact of a few
occupations— specifically sales occupations and handler,
equipment cleaner, helper, and laborer occupations— that con­
tribute to the difference between the overall workplace fatality


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experience of foreign-born workers and native-born workers.
(See table 12.)
Perhaps the most telling frame of the foreign-bom labor
scene is the fatality rates and relative risks of foreign-bom
workers by their regions of origin. (See table 13.) If the num­
bers from the year 2000 are a representative snapshot of the
foreign-born workforce and their collective workplace envi­
ronment, then a significant point arises. Based on 2000 cen­
sus and c f o i data, the occupational risks to foreign-bom work­
ers were shared unevenly by workers of different regional
groups.20 Reflecting occupational patterns as well as other
factors, workers from Latin America, Africa, and Northern
America had fatality rates higher than the overall rate of 4.3 per

Monthly Labor Review June 2004

51

Foreign-born Worker Fatalities

Table 13.

Fatality rate and relative risk by region of
origin for foreign-born workers aged 16 or
older, 2000

R e g io n o f o rig in

All w orkers..................
Total foreign b o rn ........
Latin America.....................
Caribbean..........................
Central Am erica...............
M exico...........................
Other Central America...
South Am erica.................
A sia .....................................
Europe................................
A fric a ..................................
Northern America...............

F a ta lity r a te

4.36
5.14
6.10
3.97
7.14
7.92
4.37
3.85
4.39
3.92
6.21
5.22

R e la tiv e risk

1.00
1.18
1.40
.91
1.64
1.82
1.00
.88
1.01
.90
1.42
1.20

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000; Bureau of Labor Statistics
Current Population Survey, and Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries,

2000.

100,000 for all U.S. workers in 2000.
Among Latin American-born workers, Mexican-born work­
ers faced a fatality rate of 7.92 per 100,000, and a relative risk of
1.82. Mexican-born workers experienced a higher relative fa­
tality risk than workers originally from the Caribbean, South
America, or even other countries within Central America.
Mexican-born workers represented 42 percent of fatal work
injuries to foreign-bom workers in 2000, but only 27 percent of
total foreign-bom employment that year.

Conclusion
The upward trend in workplace fatalities among foreignbom workers over the 1996-2001 period reflects the large
influx of foreign-bom workers, many of whom obtained
employment in occupations and industries with inher­
ently higher risks of fatal injury. Several factors are rel­
evant to this observation, including lower levels of edu­
cational attainment among Latin American-born work­
ers, who compose 60 percent of total foreign-born popu­
lation aged 25 and older, lower levels of English profi­
ciency, and the concentration of the foreign-born popu­
lation in metropolitan areas.21
In light of this information, in particular, the relative risk
of foreign-bom workers by their regions of origin, future
research could examine the workplace situation of these
workers, with a special emphasis on Mexican-bom work­
ers. Detailed employment data at the country-specific level
and documented over several years could be used to as­
semble a more complete and comparative profile of for­
eign-bom workers and Mexican-bom workers relative to
the U.S. workforce as a whole. Industry employment data
by employee status (class of worker) also would be ben­
eficial to the study of foreign-bom-worker fatalities. Fi­
nally, nonfatal injury data would be useful in composing a
clear picture of the overall workplace safety landscape of
foreign-bom workers.
□

Notes
1 See Andrew Sum, and others, “Immigrant Workers and the Great
American Job Machine: The Contribution of New Foreign Immigration
to National and Regional Labor Force Growth in the 1990s,”
(Northeastern University, Center for Labor Market Studies, August
2002). This study includes in its definition of foreign-bom population
those persons bom in Puerto Rico, Guam, and the U.S. Virgin Islands,
contrary to the U.S. Census Bureau practices. Although they do raise
the number of new foreign immigrants, their inclusion, as stated by the
study’s authors, “does not have a large effect on overall estimates of the
number of new foreign immigrants arriving in the U.S. during the 19902000 period, since they...[accounted] for only 2.7% of the total number
of new foreign immigrants.”
2 See Abraham T. Mosisa, “The Role of Foreign-bom Workers in
the U.S. Economy,” M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , May 2002, pp. 3-14,
available on the Internet at ww.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2002/05/

contents.htm .
3 Foreign-bom employment figures stated and used in fatality rate
calculations throughout the article, except those detailing region of
origin, were derived from unpublished employment tables from the
Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS is a monthly survey
conducted by the Bureau of the Census for the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
The data on foreign-bom employment by region of origin were obtained
from the U.S. Census Bureau. For more information, see A. Dianne
Schmidley, “Profile of the Foreign-bom Population in the United States:
2000,” C u r re n t P o p u la tio n R e p o r ts Series P23-306 (Washington, DC,
U.S. Census Bureau, December 2001). The report can also be found on
the Internet at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/p23-206.pdf.
4 See Scott Richardson and others, “Hispanic Workers in the United

52

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States: An Analysis of Employment Distributions, Fatal Occupational
Injuries, and Non-fatal Occupational Injuries and Illnesses,” in S a fe ty is
S e g u r id a d (Washington, DC, National Research Council of the National
Academies, 2003).
5 See Mosisa, Abraham, “The role of foreign-born workers in the
U.S. econom y,” M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , May 2002, pp. 3 -1 4 and
Schmidley, “Profile of the Foreign-born Population,” 2001, http://

www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/p23-206.pdf.
6 See Gregory Rodriguez, “From Newcomers to New Americans: The
Successful Integration of Immigrants into American Society”
(Washington, DC, National Immigration Forum, July 1999).
7 See Mosisa, “Role of foreign-bom workers,” 2002 and Schmidley,
“Profile of the Foreign-bom Population,” 2001, http://www.census.gov/

prod/2002pubs/p23-206.pdf.
8 See Richardson and others, “Hispanic Workers in the United
States,” 2003.
9 For a complete listing of world regional classifications, please see
the code list developed by the U.S. Census Bureau, available online at

http://ww w.census.gov/acs/w ww /U seD ata/C odeList/A CS/2000/
Pob.htm.
10 For more information about the CPS, please visit the CPS page on
the BLS Web site at www.bls.gov/cps.
11 On the Internet at:
http://www.census.gov/popuIation/

socdem o/foreign/ppl-145/tab01-l.pdf.
12 Because these data cover the 1996-2001 period, they are not
affected by the conversion to the North American Industry Classification
System (NAICS).

13 Figures stated in this section for the number or percent distribution
of fatal work injuries to foreign-bom workers represent both wage and
salary workers and self-em ployed workers. However, due to the
limitation of the employment data available from the CPS, fatality rates
in this section are calculated for wage and salary workers only. Likewise,
comparisons drawn in this section between foreign-born shares of
employment and shares of fatal work injuries are also stated for wage
and salary workers only. Wage and salary workers account for 93 percent
of all foreign-bom workers.
14 See Schmidley, “Profile of the Foreign-born Population,” 2001,

http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/p23-206.pdf,
15 See Sonia M. Pérez, “Beyond the Census: Hispanics and an
American Agenda,” (Washington, DC, National Council o f La Raza,
August 2001), available on the Internet at http://www.nclr.org/policy/

census/census_report01_part_I.pdf.
16 For more information on workplace assaults, please see Scott
Richardson and Janice Windau, “Fatal and nonfatal assaults in the
workplace, 1996 to 2000,” C lin ic s in O c c u p a tio n a l a n d E n v iro n m e n ta l
M e d ic in e , vol. 3, 2003, pp. 673-89.
17 See Schmidley, “Profile of the Foreign-born Population,” 2001,


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http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/p23-206.pdf.
18 See Schmidley, “Profile of the Foreign-born Population,” 2001

http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/p23-206.pdf.
19 For example, suppose the fatality rate over a given period for all
workers in all occupations is 5.0. If the fatality rate for all workers
employed in occupation X over the same period is 10.0, then the relative
risk of fatality for workers in that occupation is 10.0/5.0 - 2.0. In other
words, the fatality rate of workers employed in occupation X is twice as
high as the fatality rate for all workers. As another example, suppose
the fatality rate for foreign-bom workers in occupation X is 12.0. Then
their relative risk is 12.0/5.0 = 2.4.
20 Foreign-bom employment data detailing occupational employment
by world region of origin were obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau,
and can be found in the additional tables accompanying Schmidley,
“Profile o f the Foreign-born Population,” 2001 at
http://

www.census.gov/popuIation/socdemo/foreign/ppI-145/tabl6lA.pdf.
21 See Schmidley, “Profile of the Foreign-born Population,” 2001,

http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/p23-206.pdf.

Monthly Labor Review June 2004

53

Worker displacem ent
in 1999-2000
As the economic expansion of the 1990s neared its peak,
both the incidence and likelihood of job loss remained low;
many displaced workers found new jobs, but earnings losses persisted

Ryan Helwig

Ryan Helwig is an
economist in the
Division of Labor Force
Statistics, Bureau of
Labor Statistics,
e-mail:
Helwig.Ryan@bls.gov
54

ihe economic expansion that began in
1991 continued through 1999 and 2000,
peaking in March 2001, exactly 10 years
from the trough of the prior recession.1 During
1999 and 2000, nonfarm payroll employment
increased by 5.1 million jobs, and the national
u n em p lo y m en t rate fell to histo ric low s,
averaging 4.1 percent over the period.2 These
strong labor m arket conditions allowed the
incidence of job displacement to remain low.
The final years o f the 1990s expansion
brought continued job and wage gains across
the econom ic spectrum , although job loss
remained a reality for many workers. During
the 1999-2000 period, 2.0 million persons
permanently lost jobs they had held for 3 or
more years because their plant or company
closed down or moved, their positions or shifts
were abolished, or there was insufficient work
for them to do. This level of displacement was
about the same as the 1.9 m illion reported
during the 1997-98 period. The displacement
rate— the proportion of long-tenured workers
who were displaced from their jobs— was 2.5
percent in 1999-2000, the same as the 199798 rate. Despite the strongest labor market
witnessed since the inception of the survey in
1984, the displacement rate did not fall below
its all-time low of 2.4 percent from 1987-88.3
About three-fourths of long-tenured workers
who ^ s t jobs in 1999-2000 were reemployed
when surveyed in January 2002.4 The median
time spent between jobs remained low, at 5.5
weeks. As a result, relatively few of these dis­
placed workers were forced to rely on unemploy­
ment insurance to replace lost income.

T

Monthly Labor Review


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June 2004

The U.S. Department of Labor’s Employment
and Training Administration sponsors biennial
surveys of displaced workers as supplements to
the Current Population Survey ( c ps ). Using data
from the January 2002 supplemental survey, this
article examines job loss and reemployment,
focusing on characteristics of workers displaced
in 1999-2000 and their experiences following a
job loss. A time series has been constructed using
2 years of data from each survey, beginning with
the 1981-82 period (from the first survey in 1984)
and ending with the 1999-2000 period (from the
2002 survey). (See appendix for a description of
the Displaced Worker Survey.)
This article largely discusses long-tenured
workers— displaced workers who lost or left
jobs they had held for 3 or more years. The
basis for restricting the analysis to this subset
of workers is the assumption that at least 3 years
w ith the sam e em p lo y er den o tes a solid
employment relationship. Long-tenured workers
are likely to have acquired firm -specific or
other specialized skills unique to their jobs. In
other words, displaced workers are more likely
to be those who lost jobs due to labor market
conditions— not as a result of a “bad m atch”
with their employer.
W hile this article focuses on individuals
displaced during 1999-2000, the full survey
reference period for the 2002 survey includes
2001. The onset of the recession in March 2001
certainly affected the level of job displacement
and the experience of job losers. Over the full
1999-2001 reference period, 4.0 million longtenured workers lost jobs. Indeed, about half
(2.0 million) were displaced during 2001 alone.5

Characteristics of the displaced
Age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. The overall displacement
rate for persons aged 20 and older held at 2.5 percent in 19992000. Displacement rates for men (2.4 percent), women (2.6
percent), and whites (2.5 percent) were essentially unchanged
from the prior survey. The rate for blacks edged up to 3.0
percent during the period. The displacement rate for Hispanics dropped slightly to 2.0 percent, the low est rate
recorded for H ispanics in the two decades for which data are
available. (See table 1.) This low incidence of displacement
for H ispanics coincided with the low est 2-year average
unemployment rate (6.1 percent) the group has experienced.

Educational attainment. E ducational attainm ent often
determines an individual’s success in the labor market. In
general, individuals with more formal schooling have lower
unemployment rates and higher earnings than those who are
less educated. For example, among persons aged 20 and
older, the unemployment rate during 1999-2000 averaged 7.5
percent for high school dropouts, compared with 1.9 percent
for college graduates. Educational differences in displace­
ment rates, however, are not as pronounced as those for

Table 1.

unemployment rates. As the following tabulation shows,
during 1999-2000, displacem ent rates were rem arkably
similar across educational groups:
D is p la c e m e n t r a te s

1997-98
T otal, 2 0 years and o ld e r ...........................
L ess than a h igh sc h o o l d ip lo m a ..........
H igh sc h o o l graduate, no c o l l e g e .........
S o m e c o lle g e , no d e g r e e ...........................
A s s o c ia te ’s d e g r e e ........................................
C o lle g e g r a d u a te ..........................................

1999-2000

2 .5
2 .5
2 .5
2 .9
2 .6
2 .0

2.5
2 .4
2 .5
2 .9
3 .0
2 .0

Industry and occupation. Displacement rates in some major
industries remained steady during the 1999-2000 period,
while in others, workers were more likely to be displaced.
Workers in goods-producing industries— mining, construction,
and m anufacturing— continued to be affected m ore by
displacement than those in most service-producing industries.
Among goods-producing industries, construction posted
the lowest displacement rate (3.3 percent). In manufacturing,
the displacement rate rose to 4.7 percent. The increased
likelihood of displacement in 1999-2000 was felt in both
major component industries— durable and nondurable goods
manufacturing. (See table 2.)

Displacement rates of long-tenured workers by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin, 1981-2000

[Percent]

C h a r a c t e r is t ic

1 9 8 1 -8 2

1 9 8 3 -8 4

1 9 8 5 -8 6

1 9 8 7 -8 8

1 9 8 9 -9 0

1 9 9 1 -9 2 '

1 9 9 3 -9 4

1 9 9 5 -9 6

1 9 9 7 -9 8

19 9 9 - 2 0 0 (

Total, 20 years and older.........................
20 to 24 years.....................................
25 to 54 years.....................................
25 to 34 years................................
35 to 44 years................................
45 to 54 years................................
55 years and older..............................
55 to 64 years................................
65 years and o ld e r........................

3.9
4.0
4.0
5.0
3.8
3.0
3.6
3.8
3.2

3.1
2.0
3.3
3.9
3.1
2.6
3.1
3.1
2.9

3.1
1.8
3.3
3.5
3.3
3.0
2.9
3.0
2.3

2.4
2.0
2.5
2.5
2.7
2.2
2.2
2.3
1.9

3.1
2.2
3.1
3.1
3.2
3.1
3.1
3.3
2.4

3.9
2.0
3.9
3.9
4.0
3.9
4.4
4.5
3.8

3.3
2.5
3.4
3.5
3.4
3.4
3.1
3.0
3.2

2.9
1.9
2.9
2.9
3.0
3.0
3.3
3.3
3.5

2.5
1.7
2.3
2.2
2.4
2.4
3.1
3.2
2.9

2.5
1.7
2.5
2.3
2.5
2.6
2.6
2.7
2.1

Men, 20 years and older....................
Women, 20 years and o ld e r..............

4.3
3.4

3.2
2.9

3.3
2.8

2.4
2.4

3.2
2.8

4.1
3.5

3.4
3.2

2.8
3.2

2.4
2.5

2.4
2.6

3.8
4.2
3.3

3.1
3.2
2.9

3.1
3.3
2.8

2.4
2.4
2.4

3.0
3.2
2.8

3.8
4.1
3.4

3.3
3.4
3.2

3.0
2.8
3.2

2.5
2.4
2.6

2.5
2.4
2.6

4.8
5.3
4.3

3.9
4.0
3.8

3.4
4.1
2.6

2.0
1.6
2.4

3.5
3.9
3.2

3.8
3.9
3.7

3.5
4.2
2.9

2.7
2.6
2.8

2.3
2.6
2.0

3.0
3.1
2.9

4.3
4.3
4.4

3.9
3.9
3.8

3.9
4.1
3.5

2.9
2.6
3.3

4.3
4.1
4.7

4.7
5.2
3.8

3.6
3.9
3.1

4.0
3.2
5.3

3.1
2.7
3.7

2.0
1.2
3.4

T o tal

W h ite

Total, 20 years and older........................
M en.....................................................
Women ...............................................
B la c k

Total, 20 years and older........................
M en.....................................................
Women ...............................................
H is p a n ic o rig in

Total, 20 years and older.........................
M en.....................................................
Women ...............................................

1 Data, beginning with the 1991-92 period, are not directly comparable
with earlier periods due to differences in estimation methodology.
N ote : Displacement rates are calculated by dividing the number of
displaced workers in a specified worker group by a tenure-adjusted, 2-year
average estimate of employment for the same worker group. Employment


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estimates for each year were adjusted, using job-tenure data from the
January 1983, 1987, 1991, and February 1996, 1998, and 2000 c p s
supplements, to include only those workers with 3 years of tenure or more.
A 2-year average was then computed using those adjusted employment
estimates.

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

55

Displaced Workers

Table 2.

Displacement rates of long-tenured workers by industry, class of worker, and occupation of lost job, 1981-2000

[Percent]

C h a r a c t e r is t ic

Total, 20 years and older...................

1 9 8 1 -8 2

1 9 8 3 -8 4

1 9 8 5 -8 6

1 9 8 7 -8 8

1 9 8 9 -9 0

1 9 9 1 -9 2 '

1 9 9 3 -9 4

1 9 9 5 -9 6

1 9 9 7 -9 8

1 9 9 9 -2 0 0 0

3.9

3.1

3.1

2.4

3.1

3.9

3.3

2.9

2.5

2.5

Nonagricultural private wage and salary
workers..................................................
M ining.................................................
Construction.......................................
Manufacturing.....................................
Durable goods................................
Nondurable goods.........................

5.3
13.6
7.6
8.2
9.3
6.4

4.2
9.2
5.5
6.5
7.0
5.6

4.3
17.8
7.0
5.2
5.8
4.1

3.2
6.1
4.2
3.9
4.0
3.7

4.1
10.0
5.9
5.0
5.1
4.9

5.1
7.4
8.4
7.1
8.4
5.2

4.4
7.2
4.3
5.8
6.3
5.1

3.8
4.5
3.4
5.1
4.6
5.8

3.2
10.1
3.4
4.2
4.3
4.1

3.3
7.5
3.3
4.7
4.7
4.8

Transportation and public utilities......
Wholesale and retail tra d e ................
Finance, insurance, and real estate ...
Services..............................................

4.1
3.7
1.4
2.3

3.8
3.1
1.3
2.1

3.1
4.3
3.5
2.3

1.8
3.6
2.8
1.7

3.6
3.9
3.5
2.1

4.4
4.7
5.5
2.9

4.3
4.6
4.7
2.8

3.8
4.3
3.5
2.5

2.5
3.4
3.3
2.2

2.7
3.1
3.7
2.5

Agricultural wage and salary workers....
Government workers...............................

5.4
1.2

9.7
.6

4.1
.4

2.5
.4

3.2
.4

3.8
1.1

3.4
1.3

2.2
1.4

4.0
.7

1.7
.5

White-collar occupations2 .......................
Managerial and professional specialty ...
Executive, administrative, and
managerial........................................
Professional specialty.......................
Technical, sales, and administrative
support..................................................
Technicians and related support.......
Sales occupations..............................
Administrative support, including
cle rica l..............................................

2.6
2.1

2.1
1.8

2.6
2.1

2.1
1.8

2.7
2.3

3.7
3.6

3.3
2.9

2.9
2.3

2.4
2.3

2.4
2.1

2.5
1.7

2.4
1.2

2.8
1.4

2.5
1.1

3.4
1.3

4.8
2.4

3.5
2.4

2.7
2.0

2.9
1.6

2.7
1.6

3.0
3.3
3.7

2.4
2.9
2.8

3.1
3.0
3.2

2.5
2.2
2.7

3.1
3.2
2.9

3.7
3.7
3.6

3.7
3.4
3.4

3.6
3.6
3.8

2.5
2.5
2.7

2.7
2.7
2.9

2.5

2.0

3.1

2.4

3.2

3.8

3.9

3.5

2.3

2.6

Service occupations...............................
Protective services............................
Other service occupations................

2.0
1.3
2.1

1.8
1.9
1.7

1.9
.5
2.2

1.5
.6
1.6

1.6
1.2
1.7

2.1
.8
2.3

1.8
0.6
2.1

2.1
2.0
2.2

1.4
.8
1.6

1.4
.9
1.6

Blue-collar occupations3.........................
Precision production, craft, and repair...
Mechanics and repairers...................
Construction trades............................
Other precision production
occupations......................................
Operators, fabricators, and laborers.....
Machine operators, assemblers, and
inspectors.........................................
Transportation and material moving
occupations......................................
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers,
and laborers.....................................
Farming, forestry, and fish in g ................

7.3
6.2
4.8
5.3

5.7
4.5
3.8
4.0

4.7
3.9
2.1
4.1

3.3
2.7
2.1
2.4

4.5
4.2
3.4
4.2

5.3
5.1
3.7
5.5

4.2
3.4
3.3
2.2

3.5
3.1
3.1
2.4

3.1
2.7
2.0
2.8

3.3
2.8
2.1
1.6

8.5
8.2

5.6
6.7

5.5
5.5

3.7
3.8

5.1
4.8

6.4
5.5

4.7
5.0

3.8
3.8

3.6
3.5

5.1
3.7

9.6

8.1

5.9

4.5

6.2

6.7

5.5

4.9

4.0

4.8

5.7

3.7

4.8

3.1

3.6

4.1

4.1

2.1

2.1

3.0

8.0
.9

7.6
2.1

5.2
1.6

3.0
.8

3.0
1.5

4.9
1.4

5.4
.8

3.9
1.4

4.3
1.8

2.7
.5

In d u s tr y a n d c la s s o f w o r k e r

O c c u p a t io n

' Data beginning with the 1991-92 period are not directly comparable with
earlier periods due to differences in estimation methodology.
2 W hite-collar occupations are made up of the “ managerial and
professional specialty” and “technical, sales, and administrative support”
categories.
3 Blue-collar occupations are the sum of the “precision production, craft,
and repair” and “operators, fabricators, and laborers” categories.

56

Monthly Labor Review


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June 2004

NOTE: Displacement rates are calculated by dividing the number of
displaced workers in a specified worker group by a tenure-adjusted, 2-year
average estimate of employment for the same worker group. Employment
estimates for each year were adjusted, using job-tenure data from the
January 1983, 1987, 1991, and February 1996, 1998, and 2000 Current
Population Survey (c p s ) supplements, to include only those workers with 3
years of tenure or more. A 2-year average was then computed using those
adjusted employment estimates.

In the service-producing industries, displacem ent rates
were up to 3.7 percent in finance, insurance, and real estate
and up to 2.5 percent in services. The services industry, how­
ever, continued to have the lowest displacement rate among
nonagricultural industries in the private sector.
In the early 1980s, displacem ent among blue-collar
workers was significantly higher than among their white-collar
counterparts.6 Over the past 2 decades, however, the dif­
ference in displacem ent rates for these two groups has
narrowed. In 1999 and 2000, blue-collar workers again had a
higher rate of job loss (3.3 percent) compared with whitecollar workers (2.4 percent).

Tenure on the lost job. During the 1999-2000 period, 4.7
million workers were displaced, regardless of their tenure on
the lost job. Nearly three-fifths of these displaced workers
had less than 3 years of tenure before losing their job. As in
prior displacem ent surveys, long-tenured w orkers were
generally less likely to lose a job. (See table 3.)
The displacement rate for those with less than 3 years of ex­
perience with their employer was 5.3 percent— more than twice
the rate for their more experienced counterparts (2.5 percent).
The job loss rate during 1999-2000 was lowest (1.6 percent) for
workers who had tenure of 20 years or more with their employer.

The displacement experience
Reason for job loss. About one-half of the 2.0 million longtenured workers displaced during 1999-2000 lost their job
because their plant or company closed or moved. As in prior sur­
veys, plant or company closings contributed the most to worker
displacement. About 3 in 10 workers reported their position or
shift had been abolished. The remaining 20 percent of displaced
workers cited insufficient work for their lost job. (See table 4.)
These proportions have changed little across recent surveys.
Table 3.

Displaced workers with less education were more likely to
cite plant or company closings as the reason for losing their
job in 1999 or 2000. By contrast, displaced college graduates
more often attributed job losses to having their position
abolished. Research conducted by Henry S. Farber shows an
increase in the share of more-educated displaced workers who
cited a position or shift abolishment as the reason for job loss
during the 1990s.7 Farber finds this consistent with reports of
significant job loss among white-collar workers during the
early and mid-1990s.

Weeks without work. Displaced workers who found a new
job were asked how long they went without work. The strong
labor market of 1999 and 2000 again kept the duration of job
search relatively low. In the 2002 survey, the median period
between jobs for these 1.6 million displaced workers was 5.5
weeks, little changed from the prior survey. (See table 5.)
Other findings from the 2002 survey show that displaced
workers aged 55 and older spent the most time without work—
7.2 weeks, 2 weeks more than their counterparts aged 25-54.
The median duration for women (7.7 weeks) was longer than
that for men (4.1 weeks).
Displaced workers with more education typically spent less
time without a job than those with less education. College grad­
uates spent 5.6 weeks without a job, compared with a median
10.5 weeks for displaced workers without a high school diploma.
Long-tenured displaced workers in construction and in
transportation and public utilities spent the least time between
jobs— 2.2 weeks and 2.3 weeks, respectively. By contrast,
displaced workers whose last job was in finance, insurance, or
real estate were without work for the longest median duration—
8.2 weeks. Workers displaced from manufacturing jobs spent
a median 6.5 weeks without work. In manufacturing and in
finance, insurance, and real estate, nearly one-third of displaced
workers spent 15 or more weeks without work. (See table 6.)

Displacement rates by tenure on the lost job, 1981-2000

[Percent]

T e n u re o n t h e lo st jo b

Total displaced, age 20 years and older....
Less than 3 years..................................
3 years or m ore.....................................
3 to 4 ye a rs .........................................
5 to 9 ye a rs .........................................
10 years or m ore .................................
10 to 14 ye a rs...................................
15 to 19 ye a rs..................................
20 years or m o re ..............................

1 9 8 1 -8 2

5.7
8.9
3.9
5.8
4.4
2.6
3.1
2.5
2.0

1 9 8 3 -8 4

4.1
5.7
3.1
4.3
3.5
' 2.2
2.7
2.1
1.7

1 9 8 5 -8 6

4.0
5.4
3.1
4.0
3.6
2.3
2.6
2.2
2.1

1 Data, beginning with the 1991-92 period, are not directly comparable
with earlier periods due to differences in estimation methodology.
Note: Displacement rates are calculated by dividing the number of
displaced workers in a specified worker group by a tenure-adjusted, 2-year


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1 9 8 7 -8 8

3.2
4.7
2.4
3.5
2.6
1.7
1.9
1.6
1.5

1 9 8 9 -9 0

1 9 9 1 -9 2 '

1 9 9 3 -9 4

1 9 9 5 -9 6

1 9 9 7 -9 8

4.3
6.5
3.1
4.4
3.3
2.2
2.5
2.5
1.7

4.9
6.6
3.9
5.7
4.3
2.8
3.0
2.7
2.7

4.4
6.5
3.3
5.0
3.2
2.5
2.6
2.5
2.4

3.9
5.5
2.9
3.7
3.3
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.1

3.4
5.0
2.5
3.1
2.5
2.1
2.0
2.4
1.9

1 9 9 9 -2 0 0 0

3.7
5.3
2.5
3.2
2.8
1.9
1.9
2.2
1.6

average estimate of employment for the same worker group. Employment
estimates for each year were adjusted, using job-tenure data from the
January 1983, 1987, 1991, and February 1996, 1998, and 2000 Current
Population Survey (cps) supplements.

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

57

Displaced Workers

Table 4.

Long-tenured displaced workers who lost jobs in 1999 or 2000, by age, sex, educational attainment, and reason
for job loss
P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n

A g e , s e x , a n d e d u c a t io n a l a t t a i n m e n t

D is p la c e d w o rk e r s

P la n t o r c o m p a n y
c lo s e d d o w n
or m o v e d

(in th o u s a n d s )

Total, 20 years and older.................................................
20 to 24 ye a rs..............................................................
25 to 54 ye a rs..............................................................
25 to 34 years..........................................................
35 to 44 years..........................................................
45 to 54 years..........................................................
55 years and o ld e r.......................................................
55 to 64 years..........................................................
65 years and older...................................................

2,005
50
1,584
352
639
593
371
303
68

Men, 20 years and o ld e r.................................................
Women, 20 years and older............................................

P o sitio n o r shift

In s u ffic ie n t w o rk

a b o lis h e d

1,071
933

52.1
(1)
51.8
56.0
50.5
50.6
51.2
52.8
(’)
48.5
56.2

20.3
17.0

29.2
(’)
29.4
27.8
27.5
32.2
32.3
34.0
O
31.3
26.8

176
665
450
218
345
150

59.8
55.0
55.9
52.0
42.2
41.2

27.5
24.4
14.5
17.4
14.2
8.6

12.7
20.6
29.6
30.6
43.6
50.1

18.8
(’)
18.9
16.2
21.9
17.2
16.4
13.9
o

E d u c a t io n a l a t t a i n m e n t

Less than a high school diplom a....................................
High school graduates, no college..................................
Some college, no degree................................................
Associate’s degree..........................................................
Bachelor’s degree...........................................................
Advanced degree............................................................

1 Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.
Note: Data refer to persons who had 3 or more years of tenure on a job
they had lost or left between January 1999 and December 2000 because

Table 5.

their plant or company closed or moved, there was insufficient work for them
to do, or their positions or shifts were abolished.

Long-tenured displaced workers who found new jobs by weeks without work, age, sex, educational attainment,
and employment status in January 2002

C h a r a c t e r is t ic

T o tal w h o
fo u n d jo b s
(in th o u s a n d s )

W e e k s w ith o u t w o r k b e f o r e fin d in g a jo b
Less t h a n
5 w eeks

5 t o 14
w eeks

15 to 2 6
w eeks

2 7 to 5 2
w eeks

52 w eeks
or m o re

M e d ia n w e e k s
w ith o u t w o rk

Total, 20 years and older.............
25 to 54 ye a rs...........................
25 to 34 years......................
35 to 44 years......................
45 to 54 years......................
55 years and o ld e r...................

1,604
1,336
311
549
474
230

785
656
136
281
238
107

360
306
84
136
86
43

225
202
56
63
83
21

170
135
30
52
53
32

64
37
5
17
14
27

5.5
5.2
6.6
4.3
4.5
7.2

Employed..................................
Unemployed..............................
Not in the labor force................

1,433
104
68

713
41
31

315
24
21

209
12
4

149
17
5

47
10

4.7
8.3

7

O

883
795
57
29

467
424
26
16

207
186

100
88
11

80
71
9

29
26

4.1
4.0

1

0

0

2

(’)
(’)

720
636
45
38

318
288
14
15

153
129
14
10

125
120
1
4

90
78
7
5

109
505
371
177
315
126

38
260
183
83
153
67

36
116
74
48
60
26

23
59
50
19
58
16

53
46
25
31
9

M en

Men, 20 years and o ld e r...........
Employed..............................
Unemployed .........................
Not in the labor force...........

10
11

W om en

Women, 20 years and older.......
Employed..............................
Unemployed.........................
Not in the labor force...........

34
21

7.7
7.2

9
4

(’)

6
17
18

10.5
4.4
4.8
5.8
5.6
4.0

n

E d u c a t io n a l a t t a i n m e n t

Less than a high school diploma...
High school graduates, no college
Some college, no degree.............
Associate’s degree.......................
Bachelor’s degree..........................
Advanced degree...........................

1 Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.
Note: Data refer to persons who had 3 or more years of tenure on a job
they had lost or left between January 1999 and December 2000 because

58

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June 2004

6

2
13
8

their plant or company closed or moved, there was insu fficie n t work for
them to do, or their positions or shifts were abolished.

R eceipt o f unem ploym ent insurance.

The re c e ip t of
unemployment insurance (ui) among displaced workers over
the last 2 decades appears cyclical, varying with the econ­
om y’s overall condition. With the economic expansion of
the 1990s entering its 9th and 1Oth consecutive years in 1999
and 2000, relatively few displaced workers used ui.
A b o u t 45 p e rc e n t o f the 2.0 m illio n lo n g -ten u red
displaced w orkers in 1999-2000 used ui to replace some
lost incom e follow ing job loss, and one-fifth of those who
received ui reported they had exhausted their benefits.
Table 6.

B oth p ro p o rtio n s are the lo w e st re c o rd e d sin c e the
inception of the Displaced W orker Supplem ent in the early
1980s. (See table 7.) This low er incidence of ui receipt
reflects the relativ ely few w eeks th at m ost disp laced
workers went w ithout work and a high reem ploym ent rate.
As one would expect, displaced w orkers who spent more
time betw een jobs were more reliant upon unem ploym ent
insurance and more likely to exhaust their benefits. Over
tw o-thirds of those who spent a year or m ore betw een their
old and new jobs exhausted their benefits. (See table 8.)

Long-tenured displaced workers who found new jobs by weeks without work, industry, class of worker, and
occupation of the lost job
T o tal w h o
fo u n d jo b s
(in th o u s a n d s )

Total, 20 years and o ld e r....................

W e e k s w ith o u t w o rk b e f o r e fin d in g a jo b
Less th a n
5 w eeks

5 to 14
w eeks

15 to 2 6
w eeks

2 7 to 5 2
w eeks

52 w eeks
or m o re

M e d ia n w e e k s
w ith o u t w o rk

1,604

785

360

225

170

64

5.5

1,522
19
99
466
272
194
101
108
207
154
371
170

732
6
62
209
132
77
55
58
96
66
181
87

353
4
22
113
69
44
13
14
53
38
96
46

214
5
9
71
34
36
18
11
20
32
50
16

162
0
4
50
32
18
15
13
31
13
37
18

61
4
2
23
5
19
0
12
7
5
7
3

5.7
2.2
6.5
5.2
9.9
2.3
4.2
6.1
8.2
5.0
4.4

7
63

4
45

1
5

0
11

0
2

2
0

(’)

493

224

125

75

53

16

6.2

311
184

122
102

88
38

61
15

26
27

14
2

7.8
3.6

112
17
41

61
6
32

65
0
22

21
4
13

5.0
(’)
5.7

In d u s try a n d c la s s o f w o r k e r

Nonagricultural private wage and salary
workers.............................................
Mining..............................................
Construction....................................
Manufacturing.................................
Durable goods.............................
Nondurable goods......................
Transportation and public utilities ...
Wholesale trade..............................
Retail trade......................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate ..
Services..........................................
Professional services.................
Agricultural wage and salary workers ....
Government workers...........................

n

n

O c c u p a t io n

Managerial and professional specialty
Executive, administrative, and
managerial....................................
Professional specialty....................
Technical, sales, and administrative
support.............................................
Technicians and related support....
Sales occupations...........................
Administrative support, including
clerical.........................................

510
58
213

251
31
105

240

115

54

23

43

5

5.1

Service occupations............................
Protective services..........................
Other service occupations.............

88
14
73

45
5
40

27
6
20

9
0
9

5
3
2

2
0
2

4.4
(’)

214
61
50

108
27
37

47
8
6

29
10
6

24
14
1

6
2
0

4.4
(')
(’ )

Precision production, craft, and
repair................................................
Mechanics and repairers...............
Construction trades........................
Other precision production
occupations.................................

O

103

45

32

13

9

4

6.0

Operators, fabricators, and laborers ...
Machine operators, assemblers,
and inspectors.............................
Transportation and material moving
occupations.................................
Handlers, equipment cleaners,
helpers, and laborers.................

281

151

44

50

20

16

3.9

160

75

21

35

14

15

8.4

79

59

11

2

6

1

1.6

41

16

12

13

0

0

(’ )

Farming, forestry, and fishing ...........

4

1

1

0

0

2

(’)

1 Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.
NOTE: Data refer to persons who had 3 or more years of tenure on a job
they had lost or left between January 1999 and December 2000 because


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their plant or company closed or moved, there was insufficient work
for them to do, or their positions or shifts were abolished.

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

59

Displaced Workers

Loss o f health insurance. Many workers rely on employerprovided health insurance coverage. As a result, those who
lose or leave a job may experience a period without health
insurance. Nearly 3 in 4 workers displaced during 1999-2000
had been covered by an employer-provided health plan on
the job they lost. (See table 9.)
Among displaced workers whose health insurance had
been provided by their employer, 80 percent were covered by
some group health insurance plan in January 2002.8 The
likelihood of having health insurance at the time of the survey
largely depended on the em ploym ent status of displaced
Table 7.

workers. About 86 percent of those employed in January 2002
had group health insurance, compared with only 48 percent
of those who were unemployed. The coverage rate for unem ­
ployed persons was much lower than that recorded in the 2000
survey.

After displacement
Employment status. The reemployment rate— the proportion
of long-tenured displaced workers employed at the time of
the survey— was 74 percent in January 2002, about the same

Long-tenured displaced workers by receipt and exhaustion of unemployment insurance benefits and
employment status at the time of the survey

[Numbers in thousands]
1981-82
Characteristic

Total, 20 years and
older...........................
Received benefits1 ..
Exhausted
benefits............

1983-84

1989-90

1987-88
Displaced
workers

Percent

Displaced
workers

1,623
929

100.0
57.2

2,192
1,301

Displaced
workers

Percent

Displaced
workers

Percent

Displaced
workers

2,361
1,725

100.0
73.1

1,920
1,223

100.0
63.7

1,996
1,239

(2)
1,363
851

(2)
100.0
62.4

668

33.5

451

27.8

733

33.4

1,533
931

100.0
60.7

1,278
701

100.0
54.9

1,600
902

100.0
56.4

(2)
240
176

(2)
100.0
73.3

443

28.9

277

21.7

424

26.5

192
146

100.0
76.0

124
88

100.0
71.0

293
210

100.0
71.7

(2)
100.0
61.8

105

54.7

60

48.4

161

54.9

271
162

100.0
59.8

221
140

100.0
63.3

299
189

100.0
63.2

(2)

120

44.3

114

51.6

148

49.5

980

41.5

Employed..................
Received benefits ...
Exhausted
benefits............

1,517
1,072

100.0
70.7

469

30.9

Unemployed..............
Received benefits ...
Exhausted
benefits............

480
405

100.0
84.4

326

67.9

Not in the labor force ...
Received benefits ...
Exhausted
benefits............

364
248

100.0
68.1

(2)
317
196

185

50.8

(2)

I
1993-94

1991-92

Total, 20 years and
o ld e r.......................
Received benefits1 ..
Exhausted
benefits............

1985-86

Displaced
workers

Percent

2,816
1,746

100.0
62.0

Displaced
workers

2,445
1,302

Percent

100.0
62.1

1997-98

1995-96

Percent

100.0
53.3

Displaced
workers

2,238
1,142

Percent

100.0
59.4

1999-2000

Percent

Displaced
workers

Percent

Displaced
workers

Percent

100.0
51.0

1,920
883

100.0
46.0

2,005
897

100.0
44.7

878

31.2

687

28.1

619

27.7

437

22.8

419

20.9

Employed..................
Received benefits ...
Exhausted
benefits............

2,113
1,267

100.0
60.0

1,920
1,002

100.0
52.2

1,846
911

100.0
49.3

1,496
636

100.0
42.5

1,487
613

100.0
41.2

499

23.6

468

24.4

448

24.3

251

16.8

233

15.7

Unemployed.............
Received benefits ...
Exhausted
benefits............

313
241

100.0
77.0

177
117

100.0
66.1

114
74

100.0
64.9

108
75

100.0
69.4

210
118

100.0
56.2

185

59.1

79

44.6

43

37.7

52

48.1

79

37.6

Not in the labor force.
Received benefits ...
Exhausted
benefits............

390
238

100.0
61.0

348
183

100.0
52.6

278
157

100.0
56.5

316
172

100.0
54.4

308
166

100.0
53.9

194

49.7

140

40.2

128

46.0

134

42.4

107

34.7

1 Data will not sum to totals or 100 percent because the numbers of
displaced workers who reported that they did not receive benefits or did not
answer are not shown separately.
2 Data not available.

60

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June 2004

NOTE: Data refer to persons who had 3 or more years of tenure on a
job they had lost or left during the survey reference period because their
plant or company closed or moved, there was insufficient work for them to
do, or their positions or shifts were abolished._______________________

Table 8.

Long-tenured displaced workers by receipt and exhaustion of unemployment insurance benefits, and weeks
without work before finding a new job, 1999-2000
P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n
W e e k s w ith o u t w o rk

To tal

R e c e iv e d b e n e fits

(in th o u s a n d s )
To tal

E x h a u s te d b e n e fits

D id n o t r e c e iv e
u n e m p lo y m e n t
in s u r a n c e

Total who found jo b s ......................................................

1,593

42.2

17.1

57.7

Less than 5 weeks..........................................................
5 to 14 weeks.................................................................
15 to 26 w eeks...............................................................
27 to 51 weeks...............................................................
52 weeks or m o re ..........................................................

781
355
223
102
131

16.4
58.2
68.1
86.0
75.6

4.9
6.9
27.3
59.0
67.2

83.6
41.8
31.9
14.0
24.4

Note: Data refer to persons who had 3 or more years of tenure on a job
they had lost or left between January 1999 and December 2000 because

Table 9.

their plant or company closed or moved, there was insufficient work for
them to do, or their positions or shifts were abolished.

Long-tenured displaced workers by incidence of group health insurance coverage on lost and current job, and
by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and employment status in January 2002
C o v e r e d b y a g r o u p h e a lt h
in s u r a n c e p la n o n lo st jo b ( ')
C h a r a c t e r is t ic

To tal
(in th o u s a n d s )

Total
(in th o u s a n d s )

P e rc e n t c o v e r e d b y a n y
g r o u p h e a lt h in s u r a n c e
p la n in J a n u a r y 2 0 0 2
Yes

No

N ot c o v e re d
o n lo st jo b

Total, 20 years and older.................................................
Employed......................................................................
Unemployed..................................................................
Not in the labor force....................................................

2,005
1,487
210
308

1,457
1,108
146
203

79.7
85.6
47.9
69.5

20.0
14.0
52.1
29.6

537
372
60
105

Men, 20 years and o ld e r.................................................
Employed......................................................................
Unemployed..................................................................
Not in the labor fo rce ....................................................

1,071
824
130
118

795
625
90
80

82.8
88.6
51.1
71.3

17.0
11.2
48.9
26.3

266
192
35
38

Women, 20 years and older............................................
Employed.......................................................................
Unemployed..................................................................
Not in the labor fo rce ....................................................

933
663
80
190

662
483
56
123

76.0
81.8
(2)
68.3

23.6
17.6
(2)
31.7

271
180
25
67

1,678
907
770

1,226
679
547

80.5
83.9
76.4

19.1
15.8
23.0

441
217
223

261
128
134

177
88
89

78.0
80.7
75.3

22.0
19.3
25.8

84
39
44

152
53
99

80
27
53

73.8
(2)
(2)

27.5
(2)
(2)

72
26
46

W h ite 3

Total, 20 years and older.................................................
M en................................................................................
Women................................................. .........................
B la c k 3

Total, 20 years and o ld e r..................................................
M en................................................................................
Women...........................................................................
H is p a n ic o r ig in 3

Total, 20 years and o ld e r..................................................
M en................................................................................
Women...........................................................................

' Health insurance coverage excludes Medicare or Medicaid. Detail will
not sum to totals or 100 percent because a small number of respondents did
not know about their coverage on their past and/or current job.
2 Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.
3 Detail for the above race and Hispanic-origin groups will not sum to
totals because data for the “other races” group are not presented, and


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Hispanics are included in both the white and black population groups.
Note: Data refer to persons who had 3 or more years of tenure on a job
they had lost or left between January 1999 and December 2000 because
their plant or company closed or moved, there was insufficient work for them
to do, or their positions or shifts were abolished.

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

61

Displaced Workers

1

Long-tenured displaced workers by age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, and employment status in January 2002

P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n b y e m p lo y m e n t s ta tu s in J a n u a r y 2 0 0 2
D is p la c e d w o rk e r s
(in th o u s a n d s )

C h a r a c t e r is t ic

E m p lo y e d

U n e m p lo y e d

N o t in t h e
la b o r fo r c e

15.4

Total, 20 years and older.................................................
20 to 24 ye a rs..............................................................
25 to 54 ye a rs..............................................................
25 to 34 years..........................................................
35 to 44 years..........................................................
45 to 54 years..........................................................
55 years and o ld e r.......................................................
55 to 64 years..........................................................
65 years and older...................................................

2,005
50
1,584
352
639
593
371
303
68

74.2

10.5

C)

(’ )

(’ )

78.4
80.2
79.8
75.8
56.8
64.4

11.1
9.3
12.0
11.2
8.2
7.6

10.5
10.6
8.2
13.0
35.0
27.7

(’)

n

Men, 20 years and o ld e r.................................................
Women, 20 years and older............................................

1,071
933

76.9
71.0

12.1
8.6

11.0
20.4

1,678
907
770

75.1
78.8
70.7

9.8
11.2
8.1

15.1
10.0
21.2

261
128
134

68.7
66.2
71.1

14.3
15.1
13.5

17.0
18.6
15.4

152
53
99

69.6
(')
67.4

18.2
(’)
15.1

12.2
(1)
17.5

O

J

W h ite 2

Total, 20 years and older.................................................
M en................................................................................
Women...........................................................................
B la c k 2

Total, 20 years and older.................................................
M en................................................................................
Women...........................................................................
H is p a n ic o r ig in 2

Total, 20 years and older.................................................
M en................................................................................
Women...........................................................................

1Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.
2Detail for the above race and Hispanic-origin groups will not sum to totals
because data for the “other races” group are not presented, and Hispanics
are included in both the white and black population groups.

Note: Data refer to persons who had 3 or more years of tenure on a
job they had lost or left between January 1999 and December 2000 because
their plant or company closed or moved, there was insufficient work for
them to do, or their positions or shifts were abolished.

as in the prior survey. The share of displaced workers who
were unem ployed when surveyed was nearly 11 percent,
almost double the proportion measured in the 2000 survey.
(See table 10.)
Overall, labor market conditions were weak in January
2002 following the recession that ended in November 2001.9
The employment-population ratio declined from 64.3 percent
when the recession began in March 2001 to 62.7 percent in
January 2002. The national unemployment rate rose from
4.3 percent to 5.6 percent over the same period. Thus, at the
time of the survey, displaced workers faced a labor market
characterized by significantly diminished labor demand.
Compared with the prior (Feb. 2000) survey, displaced
workers across the major demographic groups experienced
declines in reemployment rates and increased likelihood of
unemployment when surveyed in January 2002. Men were
again m ore likely than wom en to be reem ployed. The
reemployment rate for men was 77 percent, compared with
71 percent for women. Blacks and Hispanics who had lost
jobs during 1999 or 2000 had similar reemployment rates in
January 2002, about 69 percent and 70 percent, respectively.
The reem ploym ent rate for blacks was down nearly 18
percentage points from the 2000 survey; the rate for Hispanics

was down 7 percentage points. The proportions of black and
Hispanic job losers who were unemployed in January 2002
increased significantly to 14 and 18 percent, respectively.
Older displaced workers were most likely to have left the
labor force following displacement. Among displaced workers
aged 55 and older, 35 percent were not in the labor force.
Following a job loss, this exit from the labor force among many
older individuals likely reflects a decision to retire.10

62

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June 2004

Moving to another area. After losing a job, some displaced
workers move to another area to search for work or to take
another job. Among long-tenured workers displaced during
1999 or 2000, only 8 percent had moved for one of these
reasons. Overall, those who moved to find work had the same
reemployment rate as those who did not move. (See table 11.)

The new jobs
Switching industries and occupations. To find work following
job loss, many displaced workers enter a new industry or pursue
an entirely new line of work. One-half of all long-tenured
workers displaced in 1999 or 2000 and reemployed in January
2002 had switched to a new major industry. (See table 12.)

Table 11.

Long-tenured displaced workers by age, sex, and whether they moved to a different city or county to find or
take another job, January 2002

[Numbers in thousands]
N o n m o v e rs

M o v e rs

A g e a n d sex
To tal

E m p lo y e d in
J a n u a ry 2002

P e rc e n t

1,847
1,449
357

1,370
1,143
202

74.2
78.9
56.6

158
135
14

117
99
9

74.1
73.3
(’)

967
776
177

743
631
104

76.8
81.3
58.8

105
96
8

81
73
8

77.1
76.0
(’)

880
673
180

627
511
98

71.3
75.9
54.4

53
39
5

36
26
1

(')
f)
(’)

E m p lo y e d in
J a n u a ry 200 2

To tal

P e rc e n t

T o tal

Total, 20 years and o ld e r...................................
25 to 54 years..................................................
55 years and older...........................................
M en

Total, 20 years and o ld e r...................................
25 to 54 years................................................
55 years and older...........................................
W om en

Total, 20 years and o ld e r...................................
25 to 54 years..................................................
55 years and older...........................................

'Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.
Note: Data refer to persons who had 3 or more years of tenure on a job
they had lost or left between January 1999 and December 2000 because

Table 12.

their plant or company closed or moved, there was insufficient work for them
to do, or their positions or shifts were abolished.

Long-tenured displaced workers by industry of lost job and percent reemployed in the same industry or in the
services industry, January 2002

[Numbers in thousands]
In d u s try o f lo st jo b

To tal

Total, nonagricultural private wage and salary workers .
M ining..............................................................
Construction..........................................................
Manufacturing..........................................................
Durable goods................................................
Nondurable go o d s ......................................................
Transportation and public utilities..................................
Wholesale trade........................................................
Retail tra d e .........................................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate.............................
Services....................................................

1,893
27
121
619
376
244
131
119
249
170
453

'Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.
Note. Data refer to persons who had 3 or more years of tenure on a job
they had lost or left between January 1999 and December 2000 because

Ind u stry sw itching varies across the m ajor sectors.
W orkers displaced from jobs in construction and in the
services industry were most likely to be reemployed in the
same industry. In fact, about two-thirds of those who lost
jobs in services were reemployed in that same industry when
surveyed in 2002. By contrast, only one in five workers
displaced from jobs in the wholesale trade industry remained
in that sector upon reemployment.
Em ploym ent grow th during 1999 and 2000 was con­
centrated in the service sector.11 Employment in the services
industry increased by 4.0 million during this period. Onethird of all reemployed displaced workers were employed in


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T o tal r e e m p l o y e d

1,413
19
82
445
263
182
84
108
174
138
363

P e r c e n t in
th e s a m e
In d u s try

49.9
O
58.5
46.1
40.3
29.7
35.7
21.3
48.3
49.3
66.4

P e r c e n t in
t h e s e r v ic e s
in d u s try

33.8
(')
17.1
24.9
28.1
20.3
28.6
21.3
21.3
16.7
66.4

their plant or company closed down or moved, there was insufficient work
for them to do, or their positions or shifts were abolished

the services industry in January 2002.
Displaced workers are less likely to switch their occupation
following job loss than they are to change industries. Sixty
percent of these reemployed individuals worked in the same
major occupational group in January 2002. (See table 13.)
Across different industries, many occupations require specific
knowledge or skills, leading many who have lost jobs to
search for work in a similar occupation. Displaced whitecollar workers are more likely to stay in the same occupation
than blue-collar workers— 64 versus 53 percent, respectively.
Among the 1.5 million long-tenured workers who lost jobs
in 1999 or 2000 and who were reemployed in January 2002,
Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

63

Displaced Workers

9 percent had taken a service job. Displaced blue-collar workers
were more likely to switch to a service job than their whitecollar counterparts.

Earnings. O f the 2.0 million long-tenured workers displaced
during 1999-2000, 92 percent lost full-tim e jobs. W hen
surveyed in January 2002, about 62 percent of them were once
again working in full-time wage and salary jobs, 8 percent
Table 13.

held part-time jobs, and 6 percent were self-employed or
working as unpaid family workers. One-quarter of these
displaced workers were either unemployed or no longer in
the labor force when surveyed. (See table 14.)
Among displaced workers who were reemployed in full­
time jobs in January 2002, half reported earning at or above
what they had earned on the lost job, and half reported earning
less than what they had earned previously. After losing a job

Long-tenured displaced workers by occupation of lost job and percent reemployed in the same occupation or
in service occupations, January 2002

[Numbers in thousands]
P e r c e n t in t h e
s a m e o c c u p a t io n

P e r c e n t in

O c c u p a t io n o f lo st jo b

To tal

T o tal r e e m p l o y e d

Total, 20 years and older.................................................
White-collar occupations1 ............................................
Managerial and professional specialty...................
Executive, administrative, and managerial.........
Professional specialty..........................................
Technical, sales, and administrative support.........
Technicians and related support.........................
Sales occupations................................................
Administrative support, including clerical...........

2,005
1,194
596
373
223
598
72
249
277

1,487
930
469
300
170
461
53
196
212

60.1
63.7
68.7
48.3
71.2
58.6
(2)
51.0
50.0

9.0
4.8
1.9
2.3
1.2
7.8
(2)
8.2
4.7

s e r v ic e o c c u p a t io n s

Service occupations.....................................................

124

85

64.7

64.7

Blue-collar occupations1 ..............................................
Precision production, craft, and repair...................
Operators, fabricators, and laborers......................

646
267
379

454
219
235

53.1
44.3
61.3

7.5
8.2
6.8

Farming, forestry, and fish in g ......................................

11

6

(2)

(2)

1See text footnote for a definition of the white- and blue-collar occupations.
2Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.
Note: Data refer to persons who had 3 or more years of tenure on a job

Table 14.

they had lost or left between January 1999 and December 2000 because
their plant or company closed down or moved, there was insufficient work
for them to do, or their positions or shifts were abolished.

Median weekly earnings of long-tenured displaced full-time wage and salary workers on their lost jobs and on
jobs held at the time of the survey

[Numbers in thousands]
R e e m p lo y e d in f u ll- t im e w a g e a n d s a la r y jo b s

S u rv e y d a t e
a n d re fe re n c e
p e r io d fo r jo b loss

D is p la c e d
fu ll-tim e
w ag e and
s a la ry
w o rk e rs

E a rn in g s r e la tiv e
to t h o s e o f lo st jo b
P art
t im e

To tal
who
T o t a l1
reported
earnings

B elo w ,
A t le a s t
but
20
w ith in
p e rce n t
20
b e lo w
p e rc e n t

E qu al
or
above,
but
w ith in
20
p e rce n t

M e d ia n w e e k ly
e a r n in g s on :

A t le a s t
20
p e rce n t
above

Lost
jo b

Job
h e ld
at
s u rve y
d a te

P e rc e n t
change

Selfe m p lo y e d
and
u n p a id
fa m ily
w o rk e rs

Un­
e m p lo y e d

N o t in
th e
la b o r
fo r c e

January:
1984,1981-82 ....

2,157

151

1,135

1,023

33.7

17.5

27.0

21.8

$340

$293

-13.8

114

446

309

1986,1983-84 ....

1,798

122

1,087

1,086

26.5

13.9

27.1

32.5

329

330

0.3

90

233

266

1988,1985-86 ....

1,855

111

1,187

1,105

32.9

14.8

29.3

23.0

412

353

-14.3

143

179

235

1990,1987-88 ....

1,464

83

995

878

27.2

18.8

25.1

28.9

416

391

-6.0

92

115

179

1992,1989-90 ....

2,011

131

1,201

1,088

31.1

17.1

28.1

23.7

439

410

-6.6

149

275

252

February:
1994,1991-92 ....

2,563

201

1,536

1,386

34.4

17.8

28.4

19.4

553

473

-14.5

210

295

322

1996,1993-94 ....

2,167

143

1,396

1,245

33.7

19.8

25.2

21.3

539

461

-14.5

184

156

288

1998,1995-96 ....

2,011

188

1,358

1,192

26.1

19.3

30.2

24.4

558

535

-4.1

122

104

240

2000,1997-98 ....

1,738

109

1,171

1,005

23.7

15.7

34.5

26.1

567

565

-.4

89

101

269

January:
2002,1999-2000 .

1,853

141

1,140

948

26.4

22.9

30.7

20.0

695

645

-7.2

103

205

264

11ncludes some workers who did not report earnings on the lost job.
NOTE: Data refer to persons who had 3 or more years of tenure on a job

64

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June 2004

they lost or left because their plant or company closed or moved, there was
insufficient work for them to do, or their positions or shifts were abolished.

Table 15.

Median weekly earnings of long-tenured displaced full-time wage and salary workers on their lost jobs
and on jobs held in January 2002, by age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, and educational attainment

[Numbers in thousands]

___________________________________ ______________________
Reemployed in full-time wage and salary jobs in January 2002
E a rn in g s r e la tiv e
to th o s e o f lo st jo b

C h a ra c te ris tic

Total, 20 years and
o ld e r............................
20 to 24 years...........
25 to 54 ye a rs...........
25 to 34 ye a rs........
35 to 44 ye a rs........
45 to 54 ye a rs........
55 to 64 ye a rs...........
65 years and o ld e r....
Men, 20 years and
older...........................
Women, 20 years and
older...........................

D is p la c e d
fu ll-tim e
w age and
s a la ry
w o rk e rs

P art
tim e

1,853
35
1,478
334
590
554
286
54

141
4
88
21
53
14
37
12

1,140
16
993
229
393
370
131
0

948
10
842
208
342
294
95
0

26.4
(2)
26.4
21.2

1,033

42

676

820

99

1,541
873
669

To tal
who
T o ta l1 rep o rted A t le a s t
20
earnings p e r c e n t
b e lo w

E qu al
B elo w ,
or
A t le a s t
but
above,
20
w ith in
but
p e rce n t
20
w ith in
above
p e rce n t
20
p e rce n t

M e d ia n w e e k ly
e a r n in g s o n :

Job
h e ld
P e rc e n t
in
change
J a n u a ry
2002

Lost
jo b

Selfe m p lo y e d
and
Un­
u n p a id
e m p lo y e d
fa m ily
w o rk e rs

N o tin
th e
la b o r
fo r c e

34.0
29.5
0

22.9
(2)
21.6
19.7
24.3
19.7
26.3
0

30.7
(2)
31.1
28.4
31.9
32.3
29.5
0

20.0
(2)
20.9
30.8
20.8
13.9
14.7
0

$695
(2)
697
570
708
783
720
0

$645
(2)
650
618
686
635
662
0

-7.2
(2)
-6.7
8.4
-3.1
-18.9
-8.1
0

103
0
80
19
24
37
21
2

205
4
171
28
77
67
23
7

264
12
146
37
43
65
74
33

559

25.0

22.9

32.2

19.9

779

721

-7.2

79

125

112

463

390

28.2

23.1

28.5

20.3

590

527

-10.7

24

80

153

115
36
78

964
590
374

807
486
321

26.4
24.9
28.7

21.8
23.7
19.0

30.4
30.0
30.8

21.4
21.4
21.5

722
811
605

670
745
558

-7.2
-8.1
-7.8

89
65
24

159
97
62

215
85
130

251
124
127

24
6
18

143
69
74

111
58
54

26.1
(2)
(2)

29.7
(2)
(2)

36.0
(2)
(2)

8.1
(2)
(2)

536
(2)
(2)

454
(2)
(2)

-15.3
(2)
(2)

6
6
0

37
19
18

40
24
16

143
53
90

19
7
12

78
29
48

71
25
46

(2)
(2)
(2)

(2)
(2)
(2)

(2)
(2)
(2)

(2)
(2)
(2)

(2)
(2)
(2)

(2)
(2)
(2)

(2)
(2)
(2)

3
3
0

28
13
15

16
1
15

167

27

v 67

53

(2)

(2)

(2)

(2)

(2)

(2)

(2)

7

27

39

616

40

351

288

27.8

28.1

24.3

19.8

607

555

-8.6

13

111

100

419
201
311
139

33
15
20
5

273
143
207
98

240
121
177
68

31.3
32.2
20.3
(2)

21.7
18.2
22.0
(2)

26.3
33.1
33.9
(2)

20.8
16.5
23.7
(2)

615
704
998
(2)

571
715
962
(2)

-7.2
-1.6
-3.6
(2)

18

28
12
24
2

67
24
20
14

23.1

W h ite 3

Total, 20 years and
older...........................
M e n ............................
Women.......................
B la c k 3

Total, 20 years and
older...........................
M e n ............................
Women.......................
H is p a n ic o rig in 3

Total, 20 years and
older...........................
M e n ............................
Women.......................
E d u c a tio n a l a t ta in m e n t

Less than a high school
diploma.....................
High school graduates,
no college.................
Some college, no
degree.......................
Associate’s degree.......
Bachelor’s degree........
Advanced degree.........

11ncludes 192,000 who did not report earnings on their lost job.
2Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.
3Detail for the above race and Hispanic-origin groups will not sum to
totals because data for the “other races” group are not presented and
Hispanics are included in both the white and black population groups.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

7
39
19

Note: Data refer to persons who had 3 or more years of tenure on a
job they had lost or left between January 1999 and December 2000 because
their plant or company closed or moved, there was insufficient work for
them to do, or their positions or shifts were abolished.

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

65

Displaced Workers

Table 16.

Median weekly earnings of long-tenured displaced full-time wage and salary workers on their lost jobs
and on jobs held in January 2002, by industry and class of worker of lost job

[Numbers in thousands]
R e e m p lo y e d in f u ll-tim e w a g e a n d s a la r y jo b s in J a n u a r y 2 0 0 2
E a rn in g s r e la tiv e
t o th o s e o f lo st jo b

In d u s try a n d class
of w o rk e r of
lost jo b

D is p la c e d
fu ll-tim e
P art
w age and
t im e
s a la ry
w o rk e rs

T o tal
who
T o tal' rep o rted A t le a s t
20
e arnings
p e rce n t
b e lo w

M e d ia n w e e k ly
e a r n in g s on :

E qu al
B elo w ,
or
A t le a s t
but
above,
20
w ith in
but
p e rce n t
20
w ith in
above
p e rce n t
20
p e rc e n t

Lost
jo b

Job
h e ld
P e rc e n t
in
change
J a n u a ry
2002

Selfe m p lo y e d
and
U n­
u n p a id
e m p lo y e d
fa m ily
w o rk e rs

N o t in
th e
la b o r
fo r c e

Total, 20 years and
o ld e r............................

1,853

141

1,140

948

26.4

22.9

30.7

20.0

$695

$645

-7.2

103

205

264

Nonagricultural private
wage and salary
workers.....................
Mining.........................
Construction..............
Manufacturing...........
Durable goods........
Nondurable goods...

1,767
27
116
607
370
237

130
0
2
28
18
10

1,096
15
73
379
213
165

917
15
65
312
169
143

27.0
(2)
(2)
33.3
29.0
38.5

23.1
(2)
(2)
27.6
26.6
28.7

29.7
(2)
(2)
20.2
22.5
17.5

20.2
(2)
(2)
18.9
21.9
15.4

694
(2)
(2)
662
716
614

643
(2)
(2)
571
597
511

-7.3
(2)
(2)
-13.7
-16.6
-16.8

100
4
7
28
26
2

196
4
34
51
35
16

244
4
0
121
78
43

128
75

8
8

68
40

54
36

(2)
(2)

(2)
(2)

(2)
(2)

(2)
(2)

(2)
(2)

(2)
(2)

(2)
(2)

5
5

26
16

21
6

52

0

27

18

(2)

(2)

(2)

(2)

(2)

(2)

(2)

0

10

15

327
116
210

31
12
19

196
74
123

163
56
106

25.2
(2)
33.0

14.7
(2)
18.9

44.8
(2)
34.9

15.3
(2)
13.2

662
(2)
595

606
(2)
533

-8.5
(2)
-10.4

27
19
7

36
9
27

37
3
34

162
394

18
39

109
257

92
215

19.6
25.6

23.9
20.5

38.0
29.8

18.5
24.2

787
692

716
715

-9.0
3.3

9
21

12
30

14
47

186
196

18
20

118
132

102
107

33.3
19.6

17.6
24.3

29.4
31.8

19.6
24.3

680
671

688
711

1.2
6.0

10
10

7
23

32
10

17
58

6
4

2
38

2
31

(2)
(2)

(2)
(2)

(2)
(2)

(2)
(2)

(2)
(2)

(2)
(2)

(2)
(2)

3
0

0
5

6
11

Transportation and
public utilities........
Transportation........
Communications and
other public
utilities................
Wholesale and retail
tra d e .......................
Wholesale trad e .....
Retail trade.............
Finance, insurance,
and real estate.......
Services....................
Professional
services...............
Other services........
Agricultural wage and
salary w orkers..........
Government workers....

'Includes 192,000 who did not report earnings on their lost job.
2Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.
Note: Data refer to persons who had 3 or more years of tenure on a job

in 1999 or 2000, median weekly earnings for these reem­
ployed persons fell 7 percent.12 One-quarter of this group
reported their earnings on the new job were 20 percent or
more below those on the job they lost.
In an analysis of earnings losses incurred by displaced
workers over the full survey reference period (1999-2001),
Farber not only emphasizes the decline in earnings on the new
job compared with the old, but also measures the foregone
earnings increases many workers might have received had
they not been displaced.13 Using a control group of nondisplaced workers, Farber estimates an average wage gain of
nearly 7 percent in the 1999-2001 period. When combined
with the average earnings decline from the lost job to the new,

66

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June 2004

they had lost or left between January 1999 and December 2000 because
their plant or company closed or moved, there was insufficient work for
them to do, or their positions or shifts were abolished.

Farber finds that the overall earnings decline associated with
displacement increased in the 1990s from a low of 5.5 percent
in the mid-1990s to a high of 15.2 percent in 1999-2001.
Given the relatively strong wage growth since the mid-1990s,
he attributes a greater share of the overall earnings effect to
the foregone earnings component.
Older displaced workers who were reemployed in 2002
experienced steep declines in their median weekly earnings.
Persons aged 45 to 54 saw their earnings decline by 19
percent, and those aged 55 to 64 lost 8 percent at the median.
(See table 15 on page 65.) Younger displaced workers
received better pay in their new jobs, with median weekly
earnings up 8 percent. Men and women had similar median

earnings losses following displacement. Earnings for blacks
declined by 15 percen t, about tw ice the earnings loss
experienced by whites (7 percent).
R eem p lo y ed d isp laced w o rkers across m ost m ajor
industries experienced earnings losses. Workers displaced
from manufacturing found jobs with median weekly earnings
nearly 14 percent below those on their former job. One-third
had jobs in which earnings were 20 percent or more below
what they earned previously. Those who lost jobs in finance,
insurance, and real estate, as well as those who lost wholesale
or retail trade jobs, saw their median earnings decline by 9
percent upon reemployment. (See table 16 on page 66.)
T he peak in econom ic activity in 1999-2000 contributed

to the strongest labor m arket conditions in 30 years. The
incidence and likelihood o f job loss rem ained low. In
1 9 9 9 -2 0 0 0 , 2 .0 m illio n lo n g -te n u re d w o rk ers w ere
displaced from their jobs, about the same level reported
during 1997-98 (1.9 million). The overall displacement rate

held at 2.5 percent for a second consecutive 2-year survey
p e rio d . W h ile th e se m e a su re s in d ic a te th e re w ere
relatively few job losers in 1999-2000, the displacement
rate did not fall below the rate experienced during the
economic expansion of the late-1980s.
O f long-tenured workers who lost jobs in 1999 or 2000,
about three-quarters were reem ployed when surveyed in
January 2002. Displaced workers who found a new job spent
relatively few weeks without work— 5.5 weeks at the median,
about the same as in the prior survey. With little time between
jobs, a relatively small proportion of displaced workers used
unemployment insurance benefits.
The 2001 recession brought an increased incidence of job
displacement. While the official end to the recession preceded
the January 2002 survey date, the labor market in early 2002
was characterized by continued job loss and decreasing labor
demand. These labor market conditions certainly affected
the ability of displaced workers to find new jobs and contrib­
uted to overall earnings losses upon reemployment.
□

Notes
1The National Bureau of Economic Research ( n b e r ) , generally viewed
as the arbiter of business cycle dates, designated March 1991 as the trough
of the recession that began in July 1990.

Worker Supplement to the C P S , see David S. Evans and Linda S. Leighton,
“Retrospective Bias in the Displaced Worker Surveys,” J o u r n a l o f H u m a n
R eso u rc e s, spring 1995, pp. 386-396.

2 Data on nonfarm payroll employment are derived from the Current
Employment Statistics ( C E S ) Survey, a monthly sample survey that collects
information on employment, hours, and earnings from about 400,000
business establishments. The unemployment rate is derived from the
Current Population Survey ( C P S ) , a sample survey of about 60,000
households, conducted monthly by the Census Bureau for the Bureau of
Labor Statistics ( B L S ) . The C P S collects information about the demographic
characteristics and employment status of the civilian noninstitutional
population aged 16 years and older.

6 For the purposes of this analysis, blue-collar occupations are defined
as the sum of the “precision production, craft, and repair” and “operators,
fabricators, and laborers” categories. The white-collar occupations are
made up of the “managerial and professional specialty” and “technical,
sales, and administrative support” categories.

3 Displacement rates are calculated by dividing the number of
displaced workers in a specified worker group by a tenure-adjusted, 2year average estimate of employment for the same worker group.
Employment estimates for each year were adjusted using job-tenure data
from the January 1983, 1987, 1991, and February 1996, 1998, and 2000
c p s supplements, to include only those workers with 3 years of tenure or
more. A 2-year average was then computed using those adjusted
employment estimates.
4 Reemployment rates and other measures concerning a worker’s
current employment status may not be strictly comparable between the
2002 and 2000 surveys. In 2002, the survey was conducted in January
and, in 2000, it was done in February. Between January and February of
each year, there is usually a large seasonal increase in employment. Hence,
it is possible that reemployment rates as measured in any given January
may be lower than those measured in February because of this seasonal
employment pattern. However, in the January 2002 data, it is not possible
to disentangle the effects of the seasonal pattern on the data from cyclical
or other economic factors.
5 Estimates of worker displacement in the year immediately preceding
the survey date should be analyzed with caution. Research suggests a
significant “recall bias” among survey respondents who are asked to report
the year in which they were displaced. There is evidence to suggest that
displacement may be overstated in the year closest to the survey data, in
this case, 2001. For more information on recall bias in the Displaced


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7 See Henry S. Farber, “Job Loss in the United States, 1981-2001,”
Working Paper 9707 (National Bureau of Economic Research, May
2003).
8 In the survey, the question concerning health insurance on the lost job
specifically relates to receiving coverage from the former employer and
excludes any other sources. The question posed to respondents about
current health insurance coverage (at the time of the survey) relates to health
insurance coverage from a n y source.
9 The n b e r designated November 2001 as the trough of the recession
that began in March 2001. However, although the recession officially
ended in late-2001, labor market conditions continued to weaken well into
2002.
10 Sewin Chan and Ann Huff Stevens, in their analysis of Health and
Retirement Study ( h r s ) data, found that a job displacement for an older
worker led to a significant increase in the likelihood of retirement. See
Sewin Chan and Ann Huff Stevens, “How Does Job Loss Affect the Timing
of Retirement?” Working Paper 8780 (National Bureau of Economic
Research, February 2002).
11 For a comprehensive overview of jobs in the services industry,
see Joseph R. Meisenheimer II, “The services industry in the ‘good’ versus
‘bad’ jobs debate,” M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , February 1998, pp. 22-47.
12 Note that the impact of decreases are somewhat understated, and the
impact of increases overstated, as the earnings data are not adjusted for
inflation.
13 Farber, “Job Loss in the United States,” May 2003.

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

67

Displaced Workers

Appendix: survey methods and d ata limitations
T h e d a ta p r e s e n te d in th is a r tic le w e r e c o ll e c t e d th r o u g h a
su p p lem en t to the January 2 0 0 2 C urrent P op u lation S u rvey ( c p s ), a
m o n th ly su rvey o f abou t 6 0 ,0 0 0 h o u se h o ld s that p rovid es b asic data
o n e m p lo y m en t and u n em p lo y m en t for the n ation. T h e p u rp ose o f
th is su p p le m en t w a s to o b ta in in fo r m a tio n on the n u m b er and
c h a r a c te r istic s o f p e r so n s w h o had b een d isp la c e d (a s d e fin e d
b e lo w ) from their jo b s o v e r the prior 3 calend ar years.
T h e first q u estio n ask ed o f su rvey resp on d en ts aged 2 0 and older
w a s, “D u rin g the last 3 calend ar years, that is, January 1999 through
D e ce m b e r 2 0 0 1 , d id (y o u /n a m e ) lo se a jo b , or lea v e o n e because:
(h is/h er/y o u r) plant or co m p an y c lo s e d or m o v e d , (h is/h er/you r)
p o sitio n or sh ift w a s a b o lish ed , in su fficien t w ork, or another sim ilar
r e a s o n ? ” I f th e a n s w e r to th at q u e s tio n w a s “ y e s ,” th e n th e
r e s p o n d e n t w a s a s k e d to i d e n t if y w h ic h r e a s o n , a m o n g th e
fo llo w in g , b est d escrib ed the reason for the jo b loss:
•
•

•
•

P lan t or co m p an y c lo s e d d o w n or m o v e d
P lan t or co m p an y op eratin g but lo st jo b b e c a u se of:
In su fficien t w ork
P o sitio n or sh ift ab o lish ed
S e a so n a l jo b co m p lete d
S e lf-o p era ted b u sin e ss fa ile d
S o m e other reason

R esp o n d en ts w h o p rovid ed o n e o f the first three reason s— plant
or c o m p a n y c lo s e d or m o v e d , in su ffic ien t w ork, or p o sitio n or sh ift
a b o lis h e d — w e r e c la s s if ie d as d is p la c e d an d a sk e d a d d itio n a l
q u estio n s a b ou t the lo st jo b , in clu d in g h o w m an y years they had
w o rk ed for their em p loyer; the year the jo b w as lost; the earn in gs,
in d u str y , an d o c c u p a tio n o f th e lo s t jo b ; and w h e th e r h e a lth
in su r a n c e had b e e n p r o v id e d . O th er q u e s tio n s w e r e a sk ed to
d eterm in e w h a t occu rred b efo re and after the jo b lo ss, su ch as: W as
the resp o n d en t n o tified o f the u p co m in g d ism issa l? H o w lon g did
h e /s h e g o w ith o u t w o rk ? D id h e /s h e r e c e iv e u n e m p lo y m e n t
b en efits? A n d, if so , w ere the b en efits used up? D id the p erson m ove
to another lo ca tio n after the job lo ss to take or lo o k for another job?
In fo rm a tio n a lso w a s c o lle c te d abou t current health insu ran ce
c o v e r a g e (other than m ed icare and m ed ica id ) and current earn in gs
for th o se e m p lo y ed in January 2 0 0 2 . M o st data p resen ted here refer
to w ork ers w h o lo st or left jo b s in w h ic h th ey had w ork ed for 3 or
m o re years.
T h ere are sev era l im portant d iffe re n c es b e tw e en the February
1 9 9 4 , 1 9 9 6 , 1 9 9 8 , and 2 0 0 0 su rv ey s, and su rv ey s co n d u cted every
oth er January from 1 9 8 4 to 19 9 2 , in the c o u n tin g o f d isp la ce d
w ork ers that render the data n ot strictly com parable:
1)

2)

68

In January 1 9 9 4 , there w a s a m ajor ch a n g e m ade to the cps —
the im p lem en ta tio n o f a r ed esig n ed su rvey qu estion n aire and
c o lle c t io n m e th o d o lo g y . (F o r m ore in fo r m a tio n o n th e se
c h a n g e s , s e e “R e v is io n s in the C urrent P o p u la tio n S u rv e y
E f f e c t i v e J a n u a ry 1 9 9 4 ” in th e F eb ru a ry 1 9 9 4 is s u e o f
E m p lo y m e n t a n d E a rn in g s. S e e a lso “O verh au lin g the Current
P o p u la tio n Su rvey: a sp ec ia l is s u e ,” M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w ,
S ep tem b er 1 9 9 3 , p p .3 - 3 3 .)
T h e r e fe r e n c e p e r io d u s e d w h e n a s k in g q u e s tio n s a b o u t
d isp la ce m en t w a s sh orten ed from “the prior 5 yea rs” in earlier
su rv ey s to “the prior 3 calen d ar y ea rs” in su rveys con d u cted
sin c e F ebruary 1 994. T h is w as d o n e b e c a u se the r elia b ility o f
the data appears to decrease as the len gth o f the referen ce period

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June 2004

3)

4)

5)

6)

7)

in c r e a se s.
F or e x a m p le , in the January 1 9 9 2 su rv ey , the
num ber o f d isp la cem en ts in the first 2 years— that is, 19 8 7 and
19 8 8 — w ere m arkedly lo w e r than w h en th o se 2 years w ere the
third and fourth years o f the referen ce p eriod in the January
19 9 0 su rvey, a clear in d ication o f reca ll p rob lem s in the y ears
farthest from the su rvey date.
T h is article a lso e x c lu d e s d isp la ce m en ts that occu rred in the
year c lo s e s t to the su rvey date. T h is w a s d o n e to red u ce the
lik e lih o o d o f in clu d in g p erso n s w h o , h a v in g lo st th eir jo b s
rela tiv ely recen tly, w ere co u n ted as d isp la ce d w h en their jo b
lo s s e s e v en tu a lly p rove to b e tem porary rather than perm anent.
D isp la c e d w orkers w h o cited o n e o f the three d isp la ce m en t
r e a s o n s f o r j o b l o s s , a n d t h e n r e s p o n d e d la t e r in th e
qu estion n aire that their “c la s s o f w ork er” o n their lo st jo b w a s
s e lf-e m p lo y e d , w e re e x c lu d e d from th e c o u n t o f d isp la c e d
w orkers in the su rveys co n d u cted sin c e 19 9 4 , w h erea s th ey
had b een in clu d ed in prior on es.
In the su rveys co n d u cted sin c e February 199 4 , resp o n d en ts
w h o rep orted that they had lo st their jo b s in the year c lo s e s t to
the su rvey date (for ex a m p le, 2001 in the January 2 0 0 2 su rv ey ),
and e x p e cte d to be reca lled w ith in the n ex t 6 m on th s, w ere left
o u t o f th e c o u n t o f d is p la c e d w o rk ers. In e a rlier su r v e y s,
resp on d en ts w ere n ot ask ed d irectly abou t their e x p e cta tio n o f
recall.
B e tw e e n 1 9 9 4 and 2 0 0 0 , d is p la c e d w o r k e r s u r v e y s w e r e
co n d u cted in February, w h ereas the fiv e p rev io u s su rv ey s, and
the m ost recen t, w ere con d u cted in January. In 1994, the su rvey
w a s p o s tp o n e d 1 m o n th to h e lp e a s e th e tr a n sitio n o f the
r ed esig n ed su rvey and c o lle c tio n m e th o d o lo g y that o ccu rred
in January 1994. A ls o , the referen ce p eriod s in the 1 9 9 4 ,1 9 9 6 ,
1998, 2 0 0 0 , and 2 0 0 2 su rveys w ere the prior three calend ar
years, for ex a m p le, 19 9 9 , 2 0 0 0 , and 2001 in the January 2 0 0 2
survey. Prior to the 1 9 9 4 survey, th o se lo sin g jo b s in the w e ek s
o f January prior to the su rvey w ere co u n ted as d isp la ced .
D isp la c e d w ork er su rv e y s co n d u cte d prior to th e F ebruary
1 9 9 4 su rvey a lso are n ot c o m p le te ly com p arab le to th o se from
1 9 9 4 forw ard b e ca u se the earlier su rveys w ere n ot adju sted for
su p p lem en t n on resp on se. (It sh ou ld b e n oted that su p p lem en t
n on resp o n se w a s m u ch lo w e r in D isp la c e d W orker S u rv ey s
c o n d u cted prior to 1 9 9 6 .) A p rop ortion o f the p e o p le w h o
co m p lete the b asic CPS q u estion n aire on labor fo rce statu s do
n ot p r o v id e a isa b le r esp o n ses to the su p p lem en tary q u estio n s.
R esp o n d en ts m ay c h o o se to an sw er n o n e o f the su p p lem en t
q u estio n s, or th ey m ay n ot p ro vid e a n sw ers to k ey q u estio n s
w ith in the su p p lem en t. R e w e ig h tin g is o n e o f the m eth o d s
h isto rica lly u sed to adjust for su ch su p p lem en t n on resp o n se.
It accou n ts for m issin g in form ation b y in crea sin g the w e ig h ts
a s s ig n e d to th e in d iv id u a ls fro m w h o m in fo r m a tio n w a s
ob tain ed . C urrently, the C en su s B ureau c a lc u la tes su p p lem en t
w e ig h ts for all CPS su p p lem en tal q u estion n aires.

D u ring and after the ad m in istration o f the F ebruary 1 9 9 6 and
1998 D isp la c e d W orker S u rv ey s, qu ality a ssessm e n t resea rch w a s
con d u cted as part o f the B u rea u ’s o n g o in g effort to im p ro v e the
q u a lity o f its su r v e y s. F or m o re in fo r m a tio n o n th e r esea r ch
con d u cted on the February 19 9 6 survey, se e Jam es L . E sp o sito and
S y lv ia F isher, “A S u m m ary o f Q u a lity -A sse ssm e n t R esea rch C on ­
d u cted on the 1996 D isp la ced -W o rk er/Job -T en u re/O ccu p a tio n a lM obility Supplem ent,” bls Statistical N ote N um ber 43.


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A visual essay:
Blacks, Asians, and Hispanics
in the civilian labor force
• Labor market problems
Blacks were more likely to experience
long-term unemployment

• Labor force participation
A greater percentage of Hispanics
were either working or looking for work

•

Mothers in the labor force
For mothers with children under 18 years old,
blacks were more likely to be in the labor force

• Employment ratios
Employment-population ratios for blacks
continue to be lower

•

Managerial and professional employment
Blacks and Hispanics are still less likely
to hold these types of jobs

• Unemployment
Blacks and Hispanics are disproportionately represented

• Duration of job search
Average duration of unemployment
for jobless Hispanics was much shorter

• Educational attainment
Hispanic workers are far less likely
to have completed high school

• Weekly earnings
Earnings of full-time workers
were higher for Asians

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

69

A Visual Essay

•

•

Although blacks made up just
12 percent of the U.S. labor
force in 2003, they were more
likely than other groups to ex­
perience labor m arket prob­
lems. For instance, they ac­
counted for 20 percent of the
unemployed and 24 percent of
the long-term unem ployed
(persons unemployed for 15
weeks or longer).

1.

Selected labor force characteristics of black or African-American workers
In 2003, blacks
or African Americans
were:
0

Percent
10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

12 percent
o f the labor force
14 percent o f those
working part time
for economic reasons
20 percent
o f the unemployed

Also, blacks were a dispropor­
tionate share of the marginally
attached— persons who were
available for work and had
searched for work during the
prior 12 months but who were
not currently looking for work.

24 percent
o f the long-term
unemployed
21 percent
o f marginally
attached workers
0

Percent

•

Asians made up about 4 per­
cent of the labor force, and
similar proportions of the un­
em ployed and other catego­
ries of persons experiencing
various kinds of labor market
difficulty.

2.

Selected labor force characteristics of Asian workers
In 2003,
Asians were:

Percent
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

4 percent
o f the labor force
3 percent o f those
working part time
for economic reasons
4 percent
o f the unemployed
5 percent
o f the long-term
unemployed
6 percent
o f marginally
attached workers

Percent

70

Monthly Labor Review


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June 2004

H isp a n ic s or L a tin o s a c ­
counted for 13 percent of the
lab o r force. H isp an ics or
Latinos were disproportion­
ately likely to work part time
for econom ic reasons; they
generally are somewhat less
likely to experience labor mar­
ket difficulties than blacks.
F o r ex a m p le , H isp a n ic or
Latino workers accounted for
14 percent of the long-term unem p lo y ed (p e rso n s u n e m ­
ployed 15 weeks or longer) in
2003, just more than half the
proportion accounted for by
blacks.

3.

Selected labor force characteristics of Hispanic or Latino workers
In 2003,
Hispanics or Latinos
were:

Percent
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

13 percent
o f the labor force
22 percent o f those
working part time
for economic reasons
16 percent
o f the unemployed
14 percent
o f the long-term
unemployed
15 percent
o f marginally
attached workers

Percent

In 2003, the labor force partici­
pation rate— the percent of
persons 16 years and older
who are working or looking for
work— was 64.3 percent for
blacks; this com pares with
68.3 percent of all Hispanics or
Latinos. The rates for whites
and Asians were 66.5 and 66.4
percent, respectively.


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4.

Blacks or African Americans continue to be less likely to participate in the
labor force than whites, Asians, and Hispanics or Latinos

Percent

Percent

NOTE: Beginning in 2003, data by race include persons who selected that specific group only. Prior to 2003,
persons who reported more than one race group were included in the group they identified as their main race. Persons
of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity are those who specifically identified themselves as Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino. In
addition, persons whose ethnicity are identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race and, therefore, are classified
by ethnicity as well as race. Data by Hispanic or Latino origin for 2003 also are not strictly comparable with data
for prior years.

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

71

A Visual Essay

•

In 2003, as in the past, black
mothers with children under 18
years were more likely than
white mothers to be in the la­
bor force— 78 percent com ­
pared with 70 percent. In con­
trast, Hispanic or Latino moth­
ers were less likely than black
or white mothers to be labor
force participants. About 67
percent of Asian mothers were
lab o r force p a rtic ip a n ts in
2003.

5.

Black or African-American mothers have the highest labor force
participation rates
CH Blacks CD Hispanics
CD Asians CD Whites

Percent

Percent

Age o f youngest child
NOTE: 2003 annual averages.

•

•

72

Overall, the foreign born are
more likely than the native bom
to participate in the U.S. labor
force. Among non-Hispanic
blacks, non-Hispanic Asians,
and Hispanics or Latinos, the
participation rates for the for­
eign bom were higher than for
th e ir n a tiv e -b o rn c o u n te r­
p a rts— and in the case o f
blacks, much higher. In con­
trast, foreign-born, non-His­
panic whites were less likely
than their native-born counter­
parts to be labor force partici­
pants. This is partly because
foreign-bom whites are older
than are the other groups.
Hispanics or Latinos were the
largest share of foreign-born
persons in the labor force— 48.4
percent. They are followed by
non-Hispanic Asians (21.8 per­
cent), non-Hispanic whites (20.2
percent), and non-H ispanic
blacks (8.4 percent).

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June 2004

6.

Labor force participation rates for the foreign born tend to be higher than
for the native born
Percent

Percent

100

80

60

40

20

0
Total

B¿ack’ .
A¿ ian> .
non-Hispanic non-Hispanic
or Latino
or Latino

NOTE: 2003 annual averages.

Hispanic
Qr Latjno

White’
non-Hispanic
or Latino

In 2003, the em ploym entpopulation ratio (the propor­
tion of the population that is
employed) was 57.4 percent for
blacks, com pared with 63.1
p e rc e n t fo r H isp a n ic s or
Latinos, and 63.0 percent for
whites. The rate for Asians
was 62.4 percent.

7.

Blacks or African Americans are less likely to be employed than whites,
Asians, and Hispanics or Latinos

Percent

Percent

Since 1993, the employmentpopulation ratio was up by
about 2 percentage points for
blacks and by nearly 4 percent­
age points for H ispanics or
Latinos, compared with a gain
of 0.3 percentage point for
whites.
Across all race and ethnicity
groups, employment-popula­
tion ratios declined following
the 2001 recession.

B la c k s and H isp a n ic s or
Latinos are som ewhat more
likely to work in managerial and
professional jobs than in the
past. Still, in 2003, they are
m ore likely than w hites or
Asians to work in service and
pro d u ctio n , tran sp o rtatio n ,
and material moving occupa­
tions. Hispanics or Latinos are
more likely to work in natural
resources, construction, and
maintenance occupations.


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NOTE: Beginning in 2003, data by race include persons who selected that specific group only. Prior to 2003,
persons who reported more than one race group were included in the group they identified as their main race.
Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity are those who specifically identified themselves as Spanish, Hispanic, or
Latino. In addition, persons whose ethnicity are identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race and, therefore,
are classified by ethnicity as well as race. Data by Hispanic or Latino origin for 2003 also are not strictly compa­
rable with data for prior years.

8.

Blacks or African Americans and Hispanics or Latinos have made some
in-roads into managerial and professional jobs
D Production, transportation, and material moving D Service
□ Natural resources, construction, and maintenance!!] Managerial, professional, and related
Q Sales and office

Percent

Percent

100

100
17.0

90

12.3
4.0

80

19.7

70

90

11.0

6.9
22.5

12.6

17.4

80
-

60

60
16.0
50
40
30
20

2 2 .0

50
15.0

23.1
-

45.2

_

70

25.9

26.3

24.0
35.5

26.6

30

-

20

10

-

16.8

10 -

40
-

0

n

Blacks

Asians

Hispanics

Whites

NOTE: 2003 annual averages.

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

73

A Visual Essay

•

The unem ploym ent rate for
blacks generally has been at
least twice the rate for whites.

•

The jobless rate for Hispanic
or Latino workers, while higher
than that for w hites, is less
than that for blacks.

•

The rate for Asians is slightly
higher than that for whites.

9.

The unemployment rates for blacks or African Americans and Hispanics or
Latinos have remained consistently higher than that for whites

Percent

Percent

NOTE: Beginning in 2003, data by race include persons who selected that specific group only. Prior to
2003, persons who reported more than one race group were included in the group they identified as their main race.
Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity are those who specifically identified themselves as Spanish, Hispanic, or
Latino. In addition, persons whose ethnicity are identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race and, therefore,
are classified by ethnicity as well as race. Data by Hispanic or Latino origin for 2003 also are not strictly compa­
rable with data for prior years.

•

In 2003, unemployed blacks
had spent an average of 22.7
weeks looking for work but not
finding any, while unemployed
Asians had spent 23.9 weeks
looking. The average duration
of unemployment for jobless
whites (18.0 weeks) and Hispanics or Latinos (15.9 weeks)
was much shorter.

10.

Unemployed blacks or African Americans and Asians have been searching
for jobs longer than whites and Hispanics or Latinos

Weeks

Weeks

Blacks

Asians

Hispanics

Average duration o f unemployment
NOTE: 2003 annual averages.

74

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Whites

Education is an important pre­
dictor of labor market outcomes.
The more education a worker
has, the more likely he or she is
to be in the labor force and the
less likely to be unemployed.
Overall, about 9 out of 10 of
both white and black workers,
age 25 and older, had at least a
high school diplom a. This
compares with about 6 in 10
Hispanic or Latino workers.
More than half of Asian work­
ers are college graduates, com­
pared with 33 percent of white
workers, 23 percent of blacks,
and 14 percent of Hispanics or
Latinos.

11.

Hispanic or Latino workers are far less likely to have completed high
school than white, black or African-American, or Asian workers

El Less than a high school diploma
El High school graduates, no college
E Some college or associate degree
E Bachelor’s degree and higher

Percent

0

20

40

60

80

100

0

20

40

60

80

100

Blacks

Asians

Hispanics

Whites

Percent

NOTE:

The unem ploym ent rate of
blacks with a college degree
(4.5 percent) is about 9 per­
centage points less than the
rate for those who were high
school dropouts. By contrast,
the unem ploym ent rate for
H ispanic or L atino college
g ra d u a te s (4.1 p e rc e n t) is
about 4 points below that of
Hispanic or Latino high school
dropouts.


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12.

2003 annual averages. Data are for employed persons age 25 and older.

Regardless of race or ethnicity, the higher the education level, the lower
the unemployment rate
Percent
10

20

15
13.9

9.5

Less than a high school diploma

8.2

17.8
9.3
High school graduates, no college

5.6
5.9
4.8

Some college or associate degree

5.9
5.7

E
E
E
E

7.9

RT

Blacks
Asians
Hispanics
Whites

] 4 .5
14.4
4.1

Bachelor’s degree and higher
2.8

10

15

20

Percent

NOTE:

2003 annual averages. Data are for unemployed persons age 25 and older.

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

75

A Visual Essay

•

M edian weekly earnings for
wage and salary workers who
usu ally w ork full tim e are
higher for Asians and whites
than for blacks and Hispanics
or Latinos.

•

The d isp a ritie s are larg est
among men, though Asian and
white women also earn consid­
erably more than black and
Hispanic or Latino women.

13.

Earnings of blacks or African Americans and Hispanics or Latinos tend to
be lower than those of Asians and whites, with the largest disparity among
men

NOTE: 2003 annual averages. Median usual weekly earnings o f full-time wage
and salary workers.

•

•

Education pays regardless of
race or ethnicity. Among full­
time workers age 25 and older,
college graduates earn sub­
stantially more than do high
school graduates and m ore
than twice as much as high
school dropouts.

14.

W hites earn more than blacks
and Hispanics or Latinos at
every level of education.

High school graduates, no college

Education pays for everyone, regardless of race or ethnicity

$0

$200

$400

$600

$800

$1,000

$1,200

$0

$200

$400

$600

$800

$1,000

$1,200

Less than a high school diploma

Some college or associate degree

Bachelor’s degree and higher

NOTE: 2003 annual averages. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and
salary workers age 25 years and older.

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P re c is

Effects of new work
practices on workers
The notion that increased w orker in­
volvement in workplace decisions im­
proves both the organization’s perfor­
mance and the lives of its employees has
been around for some time. More par­
ticularly, these “new work practices”—
including quality circles, self-directed
teams, and the application of total qual­
ity management (TQM) principles— have
gained prominence in the United States
since the recessions of the early 1980s
and the concurrent increase in competi­
tion from Japan.
Since then, the subject has been stud­
ied extensively. Most recently, the edi­
tors of Industrial Relations devoted their
January 2004 issue to the effects of new
work practices on employees. Their in­
troduction surveys the recent literature
on worker involvement and its effect on
wages. The results vary considerably, but
in general, “the effect is a small increase
in wages after companies introduce new
work systems with higher employee in­
volvement.” The January 200'4 Industrial
Relations also includes nine articles deal­
ing with the effects of various workerinvolvem ent program s on such o u t­
comes as wages, worker satisfaction, and
workplace safety and health. Two of the
articles are summarized below.
In an article entitled, “How Workers
Fare When Employers Innovate,” Sandra
E. Black and coauthors found “evidence
that employers do appear to compensate
at least some of their workers for engag­
ing in high-performance workplace prac­
tices.” In addition, however, they also
found “a significant association between
[such] practices and increased wage in­
equality.” Finally, when these authors
looked at “the relationship between or­
ganizational structure and employment
changes,” they found that certain new
programs— self-managed teams, for ex­
am ple— led to reduced em ploym ent,
w hile o th er p ro g ram s— such as in ­
creased worker rotation— were associ­
ated with fewer employment reductions.


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Mark D. Brenner and others examined
the relationship between “flexible” work
practices and occupational safety and
health and found some rather disturbing
results: “a positive, statistically signifi­
cant, and quantitatively sizable relation­
ship between cumulative trauma disor­
ders and the use of quality circles and
just-in-time production.” The case-study
literature provides some possible expla­
nations for the trend, including “reduced
cycle times, speedups, ill-fitting parts,
increased worker responsibility, and re­
duced worker empowerment.” The au­
thors caution that the link is not com­
pletely clear, and that further research is
needed to gain better understanding of
their findings.

Actual and preferred
working hours
How free are w orkers to choose the
number of hours they work each week?
Traditional labor market theory holds that
labor supply is flexible and that workers
choose to work as many or as few hours
as they prefer. In the March 2004 issue of

British Journal o f Industrial Relations,
René Bôheim and Mark R Taylor argue
that workers actually are fairly constrained
in their working hours; many would prefer
to work a different number of hours per
week than they actually do. Moreover,
workers often must change employers—
or at least change jobs with the same
em p lo y er— to m ove clo ser to their
preferred number of hours. The authors
conclude that such labor market rigidities
hinder the welfare of workers.
The hours that individuals work each
week affects employee job satisfaction,
motivation, and retention. Working hours
are determined by a combination of em­
ployer and employee preferences, tech­
nological factors, labor relations, and the
business cycle. As a result, some work­
ers may need to change jobs or employ­
ers to attain their preferred number of
hours, or what Bôheim and Taylor call
their “desired level of labour supply.”

Changing jobs is costly, however, and
workers cannot always find jobs with
the number of hours they want to work—
whether the new job is with a different
or the same employer.
Boheim and Taylor analyze data from
the British H ousehold Panel Survey
(BHPS), an annual survey of 5,500 Brit­
ish households that tracks respondents
over time. Respondents were asked if
they would prefer to work the same,
fewer, or more hours per week than they
currently work, assuming their hourly
rate would remain the same regardless
of their hours. The authors define those
who prefer to work more hours as “un­
der-employed,” and those who prefer to
work fewer hours as “over-employed.”
Those working the number of hours they
prefer are considered “unconstrained in
their labour supply.” The data show that
among full-time workers, nearly 37 per­
cent of men and 41 percent of women
would prefer to work fewer hours at their
current wage rate than they were work­
ing at the time of the survey. Much
smaller proportions of men and women—
7 and 4 percent, respectively— would
prefer to work more hours.
The data also show that the under­
employed are more likely to increase their
hours over time— usually by changing
jobs— while the overemployed are less
lik ely to do so. C o n v ersely , the
overemployed are more likely (the un­
deremployed less likely) to reduce their
hours over time. Finally, the data indi­
cate that underemployed workers show
greater job mobility— both within and
between employers— and that all work­
ers have some ability to change the num­
bers of hours they work each week in
alignment with their preferences. It’s
more difficult for overemployed work­
ers— especially women— to reduce their
hours, and sometimes they must leave
the labor force to accomplish their goal.
Still, the evidence suggests that work­
ers can, over time, adjust their hours,
although they may have to change jobs
to do so, which is costly to both the
employee and the employer.
□
Monthly Labor Review

June 2004 77

Book Review

Young Am erican wom en
The Am erican Woman 2003-2004:
Daughters o f a Revolution— Young
Women Today. Edited by Cynthia B.
Costello, Vanessa R. Wight, and Anne
J. S to n e. N ew Y ork, P a lg ra v e
MacMillan, 2003,413 pp., $75/cloth;
$24.95/paperback.
This ninth edition o f American Woman,
of the W omen’s Research and Educa­
tion Institute series, focuses on daugh­
ters of the feminist revolution, women
between the ages of 25 and 34. Those
who would dispute this recent dating of
the revolution, recall such grandmother
pioneers as Betty Friedan or Simone de
Beauvoir. Even great-grandm others,
those of the 1921 success in achieving
the vote, might question this omission
of their struggle.
The “baby-boomer” claim, however,
is substantiated by the impressive mar­
shaling of Current Population Survey
and o th e r s ta tis tic s th a t e sta b lish
wom en’s place in the current workforce.
Marisa DiNatale and Stephanie Boraas
describe a changed employment land­
scape that finds three-quarters of the
wom en’s age group between 25 and 34
in the labor force, compared to a little
more than half their number in 1975. The
com m itm ent o f young women to the
world of work outside the home is fur­
ther substantiated by their statistics on
w om en’s educational preparation for
careers, resulting in a narrowing earn­
ings gap between men and women, and
the growing labor force participation of
women with young children.
The dilemma faced by many daugh­
ters is the competition of their career
preparation for the very years that a

78

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June 2004

woman by nature is most able to bear
children. Subtly, by allowing a mother
and daughter of Hispanic background
to sp eak fo r th e m se lv e s, C y n th ia
Costello exposes the costs exacted by
today’s wider occupational choice. Hav­
ing selected “minority” women who, as
the statistical evidence reveals, are more
typical of today’s workforce than that of
a generation ago, Costello illustrates
some losses facing modem women. The
mother in this family has worked steadily
at an outside job, but her children were
fully cared for by relatives. The picture
is not one of hardship, but rather that of
a mother who enjoyed working at a paid
job but one that required little advanced
preparation and no sacrifice o f her
children’s well-being. The daughter’s
career will impose the responsibility of
her making a decision to move away from
her social and geographic community for
further education and, when she marries,
a further decision with her husband
about having children and when to have
them. The statistics show women mar­
rying later and having their first child at
a later age than their mothers.
Implied in some of the collection’s
critical argument is lack of community
support for enabling women with chil­
dren to establish themselves in careers.
Chapters on elected officials show that
the wom en’s caucus in the Congress has
been effective in alleviating such barri­
ers to women’s full participation in the
American economy as discrimination
and sexual harassment. There are, how­
ever, fewer women elected officials than
m ight be expected from the fact that
women are a voting majority. Perhaps
this dearth of women legislators ac­
counts for the slower change in policy
landscape compared with that in em ­

ployment. Quality childcare provision
and extended maternity leave are not so
easily available in the United States as
in countries where wom en’s paid work
outside the home is accepted as com­
monplace. As is obvious in the above
case of Hispanic women, reliance on
family support for childcare may limit oc­
cupational op p o rtu n ities for young
women and may account in part for the
number of young working women who
are poor. Lani Luciano’s article observes
that in the 25-34 year-old age group,
about 13 percent of the women are poor
with an additional 4.4 percent ‘near poor.’
It is to be noted that, despite sub­
stantial gains in equal opportunity, there
is one profession that remains legally re­
stricted in employing women: the mili­
tary. Its increasing im portance as an
employer could well result in limiting op­
portunities for women, especially among
minorities who account for about half
the D efense D e p a rtm e n t’s e n listed
women.
Many challenges face this genera­
tion of women, but this collection of ar­
ticles shows a vastly changed and im ­
proved world for working women. The
collection of six articles by experts on
each topic is arranged around a narra­
tive presentation supported by substan­
tial statistical evidence for the analyses.
Space does not allow comment on each
topic here. Suffice it to state that the
authors have indeed provided a richly
well organized information source for
policymakers and for all serious stu­
dents of today’s workforce.
— Solidelle Fortier Wasser
Bureau of Labor Statistics,
New York region

Current Labor Statistics

N otes on lab o r statistics

80

C o m p a ra tiv e indicators
1. L abor m arket in d ic a to r s .................................................................
2. A n nu al and quarterly percent ch an ges in
co m p en sa tio n , prices, and p r o d u c tiv ity ............................
3. A ltern ative m easures o f w a g es and
co m p en sa tio n c h a n g e s ................................................................

93
94
94

Labor c o m p e n s a tio n a n d c o lle c tiv e
barg ain ing d a ta
E m p loym en t C ost Index, co m p en sa tio n ....................................... 123
E m p loym en t C ost In dex, w a g e s and s a la r ie s............. ........... 125
E m p loym en t C o st In dex, b en efits, private in d u str y ......... 126
E m p loym en t C ost In dex, private nonfarm w orkers,
by bargaining status, region , and area s i z e ......................... 127
34. Participants in b en efit plan s, m edium and large f i r m s ....... 128
35. Participants in b en efits plan s, sm all firm s
and g o v e r n m e n t............................................................................. 129
36. W ork stop p ages in v o lv in g 1,0 0 0 w orkers or m o r e ............. 130

30.
31.
32.
33.

Labor fo rc e d a ta
Price d a ta

4 . E m p lo y m en t status o f the population,
sea so n a lly a d ju s te d .....................................................................
5. S e lec ted e m p lo y m en t indicators,
sea so n a lly a d ju s te d .....................................................................
6. S e lec ted u n em p lo ym en t indicators,

95

sea so n a lly a d ju s te d .....................................................................
7. D uration o f u n em p loym en t,

97

local data, all i t e m s ....................................................................... 134
39. A nnual data: C on su m er P rice In dex, all item s

sea so n a lly a d ju s te d .....................................................................
8. U n em p lo y e d persons by reason for u n em p loym en t,

97

and m ajor g r o u p s.......................................................................... 135
40. P roducer P rice In d exes by stage o f p r o c e s s in g ..................... 136

sea so n a lly a d ju s te d .....................................................................
9. U n em p lo y m en t rates by se x and age,

98

sea so n a lly a d ju s te d .....................................................................
10. U n em p lo y m en t rates by States,

98

sea so n a lly a d ju s te d .....................................................................
11. E m p lo y m en t o f w orkers by States,

99

sea so n a lly a d ju s te d .....................................................................
12. E m p lo y m en t o f w orkers by industry,

99

sea so n a lly a d ju s te d .....................................................................
13. A verage w eek ly hours by industry,

100

96

sea so n a lly a d j u s t e d ..................................................................... 103
14. A vera g e hourly earn in gs by industry,
sea so n a lly a d ju ste d ...................................................................... 104
15. A vera g e hourly earn in gs by in d u str y ........................................ 105
16. A verage w e ek ly earn in gs by in d u str y ...................................... 106
17. D iffu sio n in d ex es o f em p lo y m en t ch an ge,
sea so n a lly a d ju s te d ..................................................................... 107
18. Job o p en in g s le v e ls and rates, by industry and region s,
sea so n a lly adju sted........................................................................ 108
19. H ires le v e ls and rates by industry and region,
sea so n a lly adju sted......................................................................... 108
2 0 . Separations le v e ls and rates by industry and region,
sea so n a lly adju sted......................................................................... 109
2 1 . Q uits le v e ls and rates by industry and region ,
sea so n a lly adju sted.........................................................................
2 2 . Q uarterly C en su s o f E m p loym en t and W ages,

109

37. C on su m er P rice Index: U .S . city average, by expenditure
category and co m m od ity and service g r o u p s .................... 131
38. C on su m er P rice Index: U .S . city average and

41 . P roducer P rice In d exes for the net output o f m ajor
industry g r o u p s ............................................................................. 137
42 . A nnual data: P roducer P rice In d exes
by stage o f p r o c e s s in g ................................................................ 138
4 3 . U .S . export p rice in d ex es by Standard International
Trade C la s s ific a tio n .................................................................... 138
44 . U .S . im port price in d exes by Standard International
Trade C la s s ific a tio n .................................................................... 139
45. U .S . export price in d exes by en d -u se c a te g o r y ..................... 140
46. U .S . im port p rice in d exes by en d -u se c a t e g o r y .................... 140
47. U .S . international price in d exes for selected
categories o f s e r v ic e s ................................................................... 140

Productivity d a ta
48. In d exes o f productivity, hourly com p en sation ,
and unit co sts, data sea so n a lly a d ju s te d ............................
49 . A nnual in d exes o f m ultifactor p r o d u ctiv ity ..........................
50 . A nnual in d exes o f productivity, hou rly com p en sation ,
unit co sts, and p r i c e s ..................................................................
5 1 . A nnual in d exes o f output per hour for se lec t
in d u str ies..........................................................................................

141
141
142
143

International com parisons d a ta

10 largest c o u n t ie s .................. ..................................................... 110
2 3 . Q uarterly C en su s o f E m p loym en t and W ages, by State .. 113

5 2 . U n em p lo y m en t rates in nin e countries,
data sea so n a lly a d ju sted ............................................................ 146

2 4 . A n nu al data: Q uarterly C en su s o f E m p loym en t
and W ages, by o w n e r s h ip ...............................;....................... 114
2 5 . Annual data: Quarterly C ensus o f E m ploym ent and W ages,
esta b lish m en t siz e and em p loym en t, by su persector ... 115

5 3 . A nnual data: E m p loym en t status o f the civ ilia n
w ork in g-age pop ulation, 10 cou n tries................................... 147
54 . A nnual in d exes o f produ ctivity and related m easures,
12 cou n tries..................................................................................... 148

2 6 . A n nu al data: Q uarterly C en su s o f E m p loym en t and
W ages, by m etropolitan a r e a ................................................... 116
2 7 . A nnual data: E m p loym en t status o f the p o p u la tio n ......... 121
2 8 . A nnual data: E m p loym en t le v e ls by in d u str y ...................... 121
2 9 . A n nu al data: A verage hours and earnings lev el,
by ind ustry......................................................................................... 122


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Injury a n d Illness d a ta
55. A nnual data: O ccu p ation al injury and illn ess
in cid en ce rates.................................................................................. 149
56 . Fatal occu p ation al injuries by ev en t or e x p o su re................. 151

Monthly Labor Review June 2004

79

Notes on Current Labor Statistics

T h is se c tio n o f the R e v ie w presents the prin­
cip a l sta tistica l series c o lle c te d and c a lc u ­
la ted by th e B u rea u o f L a b o r S ta tistic s:
series o n labor force; em p loym en t; u n em ­
p lo y m en t; labor co m p en sation ; con su m er,
producer, and intern ation al p rices; p rod u c­
tivity; international com p arison s; and injury
and illn e ss sta tistics. In the n o tes that f o l­
lo w , th e data in e a ch grou p o f ta b les are
b riefly d escrib ed ; k ey d e fin itio n s are given ;
n o tes o n the data are set forth; and sou rces
o f a d d ition al in form ation are cited .

General notes
T h e fo llo w in g n o tes ap p ly to several tab les
in th is section :

Seasonal adjustment. C ertain m on th ly
and quarterly data are adju sted to elim in a te
the e ffe c t o n the data o f su ch factors as c li­
m a t ic c o n d i t i o n s , in d u s tr y p r o d u c t io n
sc h e d u le s, o p e n in g and c lo s in g o f sc h o o ls,
h o lid a y b u y in g p erio d s, and va ca tio n prac­
tice s, w h ich m ig h t p reven t short-term ev a lu ­
ation o f the statistical series. T ables con tain ­
in g data that h a v e b een adju sted are id en ti­
fie d as “ se a so n a lly ad ju sted .” (A ll other
data are n o t se a so n a lly ad ju sted .) S ea so n a l
e ffe c ts are estim a ted on the b a sis o f current
and p ast e x p e rien ce s. W h en n e w season al
fa ctors are c o m p u ted e a ch year, r ev isio n s
m ay a ffec t se a so n a lly adju sted data for s e v ­
eral p r eced in g y ears.
S e a so n a lly adjusted data appear in tables
1 - 1 4 , 1 7 - 2 1 , 4 8 , and 5 2 . S e a so n a lly ad ­
ju sted labor fo rce data in tab les 1 and 4 - 9
w ere r ev ise d in the F ebruary 2 0 0 4 issu e o f
the R e v ie w . S e a so n a lly adju sted e sta b lish ­
m en t su rv ey data sh o w n in tab les 1, 1 2 -1 4 ,
and 17 w ere r ev ise d in the M arch 2 0 0 4 R e ­
view . A b r ief ex p la n a tio n o f the season al
a d ju stm en t m e th o d o lo g y appears in “N o te s
o n the d ata.”
R e v is io n s in th e p r o d u c tiv ity d ata in
ta b le 5 4 are u su a lly introduced in the S e p ­
tem b er issu e. S e a so n a lly adjusted in d ex es
and p ercen t ch a n g es from m o n th -to-m on th
and quarter-to-quarter are p u b lish ed for n u ­
m ero u s C o n su m er and P rod ucer P rice In­
d ex series. H ow ev er, sea so n a lly adjusted in ­
d e x e s are n ot p u b lish ed for the U .S . aver­
a g e A ll-Ite m s CPI. O n ly se a so n a lly adju sted
p ercen t c h a n g es are a va ila b le for this series.
Adjustments for price changes. S o m e
data— su ch as the “real” earn in gs sh o w n in
ta b le 14— are adju sted to elim in a te the e f ­
fe c t o f c h a n g es in price. T h ese adju stm ents
are m ad e by d iv id in g current-dollar va lu es
b y the C o n su m er P rice In dex or the appro­
priate co m p o n e n t o f the in d ex, then m u lti­
p ly in g by 1 00. For ex a m p le, g iv e n a current
h ou rly w a g e rate o f $3 and a current p rice

80

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June 2004

in d ex num ber o f 150, w h ere 1982 = 100,
the h ou rly rate e x p r essed in 1982 d ollars is
$ 2 ($ 3 /1 5 0 x 100 = $ 2 ). T h e $ 2 (or any other
r esu ltin g v a lu e s) are d e sc r ib ed as “r e a l,”
“co n sta n t,” or “ 1 9 8 2 ” dollars.

Sources of information
D ata that su p p lem en t the tab les in this s e c ­
tion are p u b lish ed by the B ureau in a vari­
ety o f sou rces. D efin itio n s o f each series and
n o tes on the data are co n ta in ed in later s e c ­
tio n s o f th ese N o te s d escrib in g ea ch set o f
data. F or d eta iled d escrip tion s o f each data
series, se e b l s H a n d b o o k o f M e th o d s, B u l­
letin 2 4 9 0 . U sers a lso m ay w ish to co n su lt
M a jo r P ro g ra m s o f th e B u reau o f L a b o r S ta ­
tis tic s , R ep ort 9 1 9 . N e w s r elea ses p rovid e
the la test statistical in form ation p u b lish ed
by the Bureau; the m ajor recurring r elea ses
are p u b lish ed accord in g to the sc h e d u le ap­
pearin g on the back co v er o f this issu e.
M ore inform ation abou t labor force, e m ­
p lo y m en t, and u n em p lo y m en t data and the
h o u seh o ld and estab lish m en t su rveys under­
ly in g the data are ava ila b le in the B u rea u ’s
m o n t h ly p u b lic a t io n , E m p lo y m e n t a n d
E a rn in g s. H istorical unadjusted and se a so n ­
ally adju sted data from the h o u se h o ld sur­
v e y are a v a ila b le o n the Internet:

tion al com p a riso n s data, se e In te rn a tio n a l
C o m p a r is o n s o f U n e m p lo y m e n t, B u lle tin
1979.
D e ta ile d data on the occu p a tio n a l injury
and illn e ss series are p u b lish ed in O c c u p a ­
tio n a l In ju rie s a n d Illn e s s e s in th e U n ite d
S ta tes, b y In d u stry, a BLS annual b u lletin .
F in ally, the M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w car­
ries an alytical articles on annual and lo n g er
term d e v e lo p m en ts in labor fo rce, e m p lo y ­
m ent, and u n em p loym en t; e m p lo y e e c o m ­
p en sation and c o lle c tiv e bargaining; prices;
p r o d u c tiv ity ; in te rn a tio n a l c o m p a r is o n s;
and injury and illn e ss data.

Symbols
n .e .c . =
n .e .s. =
p =

r

=

n ot e lsew h e re c la s sifie d ,
not e ls e w h e r e sp ec ifie d .
prelim inary. To in crease the tim e ­
lin e s s o f so m e series, prelim in ary
fig u res are issu ed b ased o n repre­
sen ta tiv e but in c o m p lete returns,
r ev ise d . G en era lly , th is r e v isio n
r e fle c ts the a v a ila b ility o f later
data, but a lso m ay r e fle c t oth er
adju stm ents.

Com parative Indicators

http ://w ww.bls.gov/cps/
H istorically com parable unadjusted and sea ­
son ally adjusted data from the estab lish m en t
su rvey a lso are ava ila b le on the Internet:

http ://w ww.bls.gov/ces/
A d d ition al in form ation on labor fo rce data
for areas b e lo w the n ation al le v e l are pro­
v id e d in the bls annual report, G e o g r a p h ic
P ro file o f E m p lo y m e n t a n d U n em p lo ym en t.
For a co m p r eh en siv e d isc u ssio n o f the
E m p lo y m en t C o st In dex, see E m p lo y m en t
C o s t In d ex es a n d L e v e ls, 1 9 7 5 - 9 5 , bls B u l­
letin 2 4 6 6 . T h e m o st recen t data from the
E m p lo y e e B e n e fits Su rvey appear in the fo l­
lo w in g B ureau o f L abor S ta tistics bulletin s:
E m p lo y e e B e n e fits in M e d iu m a n d L a rg e
F irm s; E m p lo y e e B e n e fits in S m a ll P r iv a te
E s ta b lis h m e n ts; and E m p lo y e e B e n e fits in
S ta te a n d L o c a l G o v ern m e n ts.
M ore detailed data o n con su m er and pro­
du cer p rices are p u b lish ed in the m on th ly
p e r io d ic a ls, T h e c p i D e ta ile d R e p o r t and
P r o d u c e r P r ic e In d ex es. For an o v e r v ie w o f
the 1998 r ev isio n o f the cpi, se e the D e c e m ­
ber 19 9 6 issu e o f the M o n th ly L a b o r R e ­
v ie w . A d d ition al data on international prices
appear in m on th ly n e w s relea ses.
L istin g s o f ind ustries for w h ic h p rod u c­
tivity in d ex e s are ava ila b le m ay b e fou n d
on the Internet:

http ://www.bls.gov/lpc/
For ad d ition al in form ation on intern a­

(T ables 1 -3 )
C o m p arative in d icators ta b les p ro v id e an
o v e r v ie w and com p a riso n o f m ajor bls sta­
tistical series. C on seq u en tly, alth ou gh m any
o f the in clu d ed series are ava ila b le m on th ly,
all m easu res in th ese com p arative ta b les are
presen ted quarterly and annually.
Labor market indicators in clu d e e m ­
p lo y m en t m easu res from tw o m ajor su rv ey s
and in form ation on rates o f c h a n g e in c o m ­
p e n s a tio n p r o v id e d b y th e E m p lo y m e n t
C o st In dex (ECi) program . T h e labor fo rce
p articipation rate, the em p lo y m en t-p o p u la ­
tion ratio, and u n em p lo y m en t rates for m a ­
jor d em ograp h ic groups b ased on the Cur­
rent P o p u lation (“h o u se h o ld ”) S u rv ey are
presen ted , w h ile m easu res o f e m p lo y m en t
and average w e e k ly hours by m ajor in d u s­
try sector are g iv e n u sin g non farm p ayroll
data. T he E m p loym en t C ost In dex (co m p en ­
sation ), by m ajor sector and b y b argain in g
sta tu s, is c h o s e n fr o m a v a r ie ty o f BLS
c o m p e n sa tio n and w a g e m e a su r es b e c a u se
it p r o v id e s a c o m p r e h e n s iv e m e a su r e o f
e m p lo y e r c o s t s fo r h ir in g lab or, n o t ju s t
o u tla y s fo r w a g e s , an d it is n o t a ffe c te d
b y e m p lo y m e n t sh ifts a m o n g o c c u p a tio n s
and in d u str ies.
D a ta o n changes in com pensation,
prices, and productivity are p resen ted in

table 2. M ea su res o f rates o f ch a n g e o f c o m ­
p en sa tio n and w a g e s from the E m p lo y m en t
C o st In d ex program are p rov id ed for all c i­
v ilia n n on farm w orkers (e x clu d in g Federal
and h o u se h o ld w ork ers) and for all private
n on farm w ork ers. M easu res o f ch a n g es in
c o n su m er p r ice s for all urban con su m ers;
p rodu cer p rices b y stage o f p rocessin g; over­
a ll p r ic e s b y sta g e o f p r o c e s sin g ; and o v e r ­
a ll e x p o r t a n d im p o r t p r ic e in d e x e s are
g iv e n . M ea su res o f p ro d u ctiv ity (ou tp u t per
h o u r o f all p e r so n s ) are p r o v id e d fo r m ajor
s e c to r s.

A lternative m easures of wage and
compensation rates of change, w h ic h re­
fle c t the o vera ll trend in labor co sts, are su m ­
m arized in table 3. D iffe r e n c e s in c o n c ep ts
and sc o p e , related to the sp e c ific p u rp oses
o f the series, contrib ute to the variation in
c h a n g e s a m o n g the in d ivid u al m easu res.

Notes on the data
D e fin itio n s o f e a ch series and n o tes on the
data are c o n ta in ed in later se c tio n s o f th ese
n o te s d escrib in g ea ch set o f data.

Employment and
Unemploym ent Data
(T ab les 1; 4 - 2 9 )

Household survey data

n ot w ork during the su rvey w eek , but w ere
ava ila b le for w ork e x ce p t for tem porary ill­
n ess and had lo o k ed for jo b s w ith in the p re­
c ed in g 4 w e ek s. P erson s w h o did n ot lo o k
for w ork b ecau se they w ere on la y o ff are also
cou n ted am on g the u n em p loyed . The unem­
ployment rate represents the num ber u n em ­
p lo y ed as a percent o f the civ ilia n labor force.
T h e civilian labor force co n sists o f all
e m p lo y ed or u n em p lo y ed person s in the c i­
v ilia n n on institutional p op u lation . P erson s
not in the labor force are th ose not c la s s i­
fied as em p lo y ed or u n em p loyed . T h is group
in clu d es d isco u ra g ed w ork ers, d e fin e d as
person s w h o w an t and are availab le for a
jo b and w h o h ave lo o k e d for w ork so m e ­
tim e in the past 12 m on th s (or sin c e the end
o f their last jo b if th ey h eld o n e w ith in the
past 12 m on th s), but are n ot currently lo o k ­
in g, b e ca u se th ey b e lie v e there are no jo b s
ava ila b le or there are n on e for w h ich they
w o u ld q u a lify . T h e civilian noninstitu­
tional population co m p rises all p erson s 16
years o f age and o ld er w h o are n ot inm ates
o f p en al or m ental in stitu tion s, san itarium s,
or h o m es for the aged , infirm , or n eedy. T h e
civilian labor force participation rate is
th e p r o p o r t io n o f th e c i v i l i a n n o n i n ­
stitu tio n a l p o p u la tio n that is in the labor
force. T he employment-population ratio is
e m p lo y m e n t as a p e r ce n t o f the c iv ilia n
n on in stitu tion al pop u lation .

Notes on the data

Description of the series
E m ploym ent data in this section are o b ­
tain ed from the C urrent P op u la tio n S u rvey,
a program o f p erson al in terv iew s con d u cted
m o n th ly by the B ureau o f the C en su s for the
B ureau o f L abor S ta tistics. T h e sam p le c o n ­
sists o f abou t 6 0 ,0 0 0 h o u se h o ld s se lec ted to
rep resen t the U .S . p o p u la tio n 16 years o f
a g e and older. H o u seh o ld s are in terv iew ed
o n a rotatin g b a sis, so that three-fourths o f
the sa m p le is the sa m e for any 2 c o n se c u ­
tiv e m on th s.

Definitions

From tim e to tim e, and e sp e c ia lly after a d e ­
cen n ia l cen su s, adju stm ents are m ade in the
Current P op u lation S u rvey fig u res to cor­
r e c t fo r e s t i m a t i n g e r r o r s d u r in g th e
in tercen sal years. T h e se adju stm ents a ffect
the com p arab ility o f h istorical data. A d e ­
scrip tion o f th ese adju stm ents and their e f­
fe ct o n the variou s data series appears in the
E x p la n a to r y N o t e s o f E m p lo y m e n t a n d
E a rn in g s. For a d isc u ssio n o f ch a n g es in­
troduced in January 2 0 0 3 , see “R e v isio n s
to the Current P op u lation S u rvey E ffe ctiv e
in January 2 0 0 3 ” in the February 2 0 0 3 is ­
su e o f E m p lo y m en t a n d E a rn in g s (a vailab le
on the BLS W eb site at: http://www.bls.gov/

Employed persons in c lu d e (1 ) all th o se

cps/rvcps03.pdf).

w h o w o rk ed fo r p ay any tim e du rin g the
w e e k w h ic h in c lu d e s the 12th d ay o f the
m o n th or w h o w ork ed unpaid for 15 hours
or m ore in a fa m ily -o p era ted en terp rise and
(2 ) th o se w h o w ere tem p orarily ab sen t from
their regu lar jo b s b e ca u se o f illn e ss , v a c a ­
tio n , industrial d isp u te, or sim ilar reason s.
A p erson w o rk in g at m ore than o n e jo b is
co u n ted o n ly in the jo b at w h ic h h e or sh e
w o rk ed the grea test num ber o f hours.
Unemployed persons are th o se w h o did

E ffe ctiv e in January 2 0 0 3 , BLS b egan u s­
ing th e X-12 arima seasonal adjustm ent pro­
gram to season ally adjust national labor force
data. T his program replaced the x-n arima
program w h ich had been used since January
1980. S ee “R evision o f S eason ally Adjusted
Labor F o rc e S e r ie s in 2 0 0 3 ,” in the F e b ­
r u a ry 2 0 0 3 i s s u e o f E m p l o y m e n t a n d
E a r n in g s (a v a ila b le o n the BLS W eb site
at http:www.bls.gov/cps/cpsrs.pdf) for a
d isc u ssio n o f the introd u ction o f the u se o f


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

X-12 arima for seasonal adjustment of the
labor force data and the effects that it had
on the data.
A t the b eg in n in g o f e a ch calen d ar year,
h istorical se a so n a lly adju sted data u su a lly
are r ev ised , and projected sea so n a l adju st­
m en t factors are calcu la ted for u se during
the Janu ary-Ju ne period . T h e h isto rica l se a ­
so n a lly adju sted data u su a lly are r ev ise d for
o n ly the m o st recen t 5 years. In July, n e w
season al adjustm ent factors, w h ic h in co rp o ­
rate the e x p e rien ce through June, are pro­
d u ced for the J u ly -D e c e m b e r p eriod , but no
r ev isio n s are m ad e in the h isto rica l data.
F or additional information o n n a ­
tio n a l h o u se h o ld su rv ey data, c o n ta c t the
D iv is io n o f L ab or F o rce S ta tistics: (2 0 2 )
6 9 1 -6 3 7 8 .

Establishment survey data
Description of the series
E m p lo y m e n t, h ou rs, and ea rn in g s data in
th is s e c tio n are c o m p ile d fr o m p a y r o ll
record s reported m on th ly on a volu n tary ba­
sis to the B ureau o f L abor S ta tistics and its
c o o p e r a tin g S ta te a g e n c ie s b y a b o u t
1 6 0 .0 0 0 b u sin e sse s and g o v ern m en t a g e n ­
c i e s , w h ic h r e p r e s e n t a p p r o x i m a t e ly
4 0 0 .0 0 0 in d ivid u al w o rk sites and rep resent
all ind ustries e x c e p t agriculture. T h e a ctiv e
CES sam p le co v er s ap p roxim ately on e-th ird
o f all non farm p ayroll w orkers. In du stries
are c la s sifie d in accord an ce w ith the 2 0 0 2
N orth A m erican Industry C la ssifica tio n S y s ­
tem . In m o st in d u stries, the sa m p lin g prob­
a b ilities are b ased on the siz e o f the esta b ­
lis h m e n t; m o s t la rg e e s ta b lis h m e n ts are
therefore in the sam p le. (A n e sta b lish m en t
is n ot n e c essa rily a firm ; it m ay b e a branch
plant, for exam ple, or w arehouse.) S elf-em ­
p lo y ed persons and others not on a regular
civ ilia n payroll are ou tsid e the sco p e o f the
survey b ecau se they are exclu d ed from estab­
lish m en t records. T h is largely accou n ts for
the difference in em p loym en t figures betw een
the h ou seh old and estab lish m en t su rveys.

Definitions
A n establishm ent is an e c o n o m ic u n it
w h ic h p rod u ces g o o d s or se r v ic e s (su ch as
a factory or store) at a sin g le lo ca tio n and is
e n g a g ed in o n e ty p e o f e c o n o m ic activity.
Employed persons are all p erso n s w h o
r e c e iv e d p ay (in c lu d in g h o lid a y and sic k
p ay) for any part o f the p ayroll p erio d in ­
c lu d in g the 12th day o f the m onth . P erso n s
h o ld in g m ore than o n e jo b (ab ou t 5 percen t
o f all person s in the labor fo r ce ) are co u n ted

Monthly Labor Review June 2004

81

Current Labor Statistics

in e a ch esta b lish m en t w h ic h reports them .
Production workers in the g o o d s-p ro d u c in g in d u s tr ie s c o v e r e m p l o y e e s , up
through the le v e l o f w ork in g su p ervisors,
w h o e n g a g e d irectly in the m anu factu re or
co n stru ctio n o f the e sta b lish m e n t’s product.
In private serv ice-p ro v id in g ind ustries, data
are c o lle c te d for n o n su p erv iso ry w orkers,
w h ic h in clu d e m o st e m p lo y e e s e x ce p t th ose
in e x e c u tiv e , m an agerial, and su p ervisory
p o s it io n s . T h o s e w o r k e rs m e n tio n e d in
ta b les 1 1 -1 6 in clu d e p rod u ction w orkers in
m a n u fa ctu rin g and natural reso u r ce s and
m in in g; co n stru ctio n w orkers in co n stru c­
tion; and n o n su p erv isory w orkers in all pri­
v a te se r v ic e-p ro v id in g ind ustries. P rod u c­
tio n and n o n su p erv iso ry w ork ers a ccou n t
for about fo u r-fifth s o f the total em p lo y m en t
o n private non agricultural p ayrolls.
Earnings are th e p a y m e n ts p ro d u ctio n
o r n o n su p e rv iso r y w o rk ers r e c e iv e du rin g
th e su rv e y p erio d , in c lu d in g p rem iu m p ay
fo r o v e r tim e or la te -s h ift w ork bu t e x c lu d ­
in g irr eg u la r b o n u s e s an d o th e r s p e c ia l
p a y m e n ts. Real earnings are ea rn in g s ad ­
ju s te d to r e fle c t the e ffe c ts o f c h a n g e s in
c o n su m e r p r ice s. T h e d efla to r for th is s e ­
r ie s is d e r iv e d from the C o n su m e r P rice In­
d e x fo r U rban W a g e E arners and C lerica l
W ork ers (CPi-W).
Hours r e p r e se n t th e a v e r a g e w e e k ly
h o u r s o f p r o d u c tio n or n o n s u p e r v is o r y
w orkers for w h ic h pay w as r eceiv ed , and are
d ifferen t from standard or sch ed u led hours.
Overtime hours represent the portion o f av ­
era g e w e e k ly hou rs w h ic h w as in e x c e s s o f
regu lar hours and for w h ic h ov ertim e p re­
m iu m s w ere paid.
T h e Diffusion Index rep resen ts the per­
cen t o f ind ustries in w h ich em p lo y m en t w as
risin g o v er the in d ica ted p eriod , p lu s on eh a lf o f the in d u stries w ith u n ch an ged e m ­
p lo y m en t; 5 0 p ercen t in d icates an equal bal­
a n ce b etw een ind ustries w ith in creasin g and
d ecrea sin g em p lo y m en t. In lin e w ith B ureau
p ra ctice, data for the 1-, 3 -, and 6 -m o n th
sp ans are se a so n a lly adju sted, w h ile th o se
for the 12-m o n th span are un adjusted. T able
17 p r o v id e s an in d ex on p rivate n on farm
e m p lo y m en t b a sed on 2 7 8 ind ustries, and a
m anu factu ring in d ex b ased o n 8 4 industries.
T h e se in d ex e s are u sefu l for m easu rin g the
d isp ersio n o f e c o n o m ic g a in s or lo s s e s and
are a lso e c o n o m ic ind icators.

Notes on the data
E sta b lish m en t su rv ey data are ann ually ad­
ju sted to co m p r eh en siv e co u n ts o f e m p lo y ­
m en t ( c a lle d “ b e n c h m a r k s”). T h e M arch
2 0 0 3 b enchm ark w a s in trod u ced in Febru­
ary 2 0 0 4 w ith the r elea se o f data for Janu­
ary 2 0 0 4 , p u b lish ed in the M arch 2 0 0 4 is­

82

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June 2004

su e o f the R eview . W ith the relea se in June
2 0 0 3 , CES c o m p leted a c o n v e rsio n from the
Standard Industrial C la ssific a tio n (SIC) s y s ­
tem to the N orth A m erican Industry C la ss i­
fica tio n S y stem (naics) and c o m p leted the
transition from its origin al qu ota sam p le d e ­
sig n to a p ro b a b ility-b ased sam p le d esig n .
T h e in d u stry-cod in g update in clu d ed r eco n ­
struction o f h istorical estim a tes in order to
p reserve tim e series for data u sers. N or­
m ally 5 years o f sea so n a lly adjusted data are
r e v is e d w ith e a c h b e n c h m a r k r e v is io n .
H ow ever, w ith th is relea se, the entire n ew
tim e se r ie s h isto ry for all CES data series
w ere r e-sea so n a lly adjusted due to the naics
c o n v e rsio n , w h ic h resu lted in the r ev isio n
o f all CES tim e series.
A ls o in June 2 0 0 3 , the CES program in ­

third m on th o f their appearance. T h u s, D e ­
cem b er data are p u b lish ed as prelim in ary in
January and February and as fin al in M arch.
For the sam e reason s, quarterly e sta b lish ­
m en t data (tab le 1) are p relim inary for the
first 2 m on th s o f p u b lica tio n and fin al in the
third m onth . F ourth-quarter data are p u b ­
lish e d as prelim in ary in January and F eb ru­
ary and as fin a l in M arch.
F or additional information o n e sta b ­
lish m en t su rvey data, co n ta ct the D iv is io n
o f C u rren t E m p lo y m e n t S ta tistic s: (2 0 2 )

691-6555.

Unemployment data by
State
Description of the series

troduced concurrent season al adjustm ent for
the n ation al esta b lish m en t data. U n d er this
m eth od olo gy, the first prelim inary estim ates
for the current referen ce m onth and the re­
v ise d e stim a tes for the 2 prior m on th s w ill
b e u p d ated w ith co n cu rren t fa c to r s w ith
ea ch n e w relea se o f data. C on cu rren t se a ­
son al adju stm ent incorp orates all a vailab le
data, in clu d in g first prelim inary estim a tes
for the m ost current m onth, in the adjustm ent
process. For additional inform ation on all o f
the changes introduced in June 20 0 3 , see the
June 2003 issu e o f E m ploym en t a n d E arn in gs
and “R ecen t changes in the national Current
E m ploym ent Statistics survey,” M on th ly L a ­
b o r R eview , June 2 0 0 3 , pp. 3 -1 3 .
R e v is io n s in S tate data (ta b le 11) o c ­
curred w ith the p u b lication o f January 2 0 0 3
data. For in form ation on the r ev isio n s for
the State data, se e the M arch and M ay 2 0 0 3
issu e s o f E m p lo y m e n t a n d E a rn in g s, and
“R e ce n t ch a n g es in the State and M etro p o li­
tan A rea CES su rvey,” M o n th ly L a b o r R e ­
v ie w , June 2 0 0 3 , pp. 1 4 -1 9 .
B e g in n in g in June 1996, the bls u ses the
x - 12-arima m e th o d o lo g y to se a so n a lly ad­
ju st esta b lish m en t su rvey data. T h is p ro c e ­
dure, d e v e lo p ed by the Bureau o f the C e n ­

su s, con trols for the e ffe c t o f varyin g sur­

D ata p resen ted in this se c tio n are ob ta in ed
from the L o ca l A rea U n em p lo y m e n t S ta tis­
tics (LAUS) program , w h ic h is c o n d u cted in
coop eration w ith State e m p lo y m en t secu rity
a g e n c ie s.
M o n th ly e stim a te s o f th e lab o r fo r ce ,
em p lo y m en t, and u n em p lo y m en t for States
and su b -S tate areas are a k ey in d icator o f
lo ca l e co n o m ic co n d itio n s, and form the ba­
sis for d eterm in in g the e lig ib ility o f an area
for b en efits under F ed eral e c o n o m ic a s s is ­
ta n ce p rogram s su ch as the Job T ra in in g
P artnership A ct. S e a so n a lly adju sted u n em ­
p lo y m e n t rates are p resen ted in ta b le 10.
In so fa r as p o s s ib le , th e c o n c e p ts an d d e f i­
n itio n s u n d e r ly in g t h e s e d ata are th o s e
u s e d in th e n a tio n a l e s t im a te s o b ta in e d
from th e CPS.

Notes on the data
D ata refer to State o f resid en ce . M o n th ly
data for all S tates and the D istrict o f C o ­
lu m b ia are d erived u sin g stan dardized p ro ­
ced u res e sta b lish e d by bls . O n c e a year,
estim ates are rev ised to n ew p op u lation c o n ­
trols, u su a lly w ith p u b lica tio n o f January
estim a tes, and ben ch m ark ed to annual aver­
ag e CPS le v e ls.

v e y intervals (a lso k n ow n as the 4- versu s
5 -w e e k e ffe c t), thereb y p rovid in g im p roved
m e a su r em e n t o f o v e r-th e -m o n th c h a n g e s
and u n d erlyin g e c o n o m ic trends. R e v isio n s

For additional information on data in
this series, call (202) 691-6392 (table 10)
or (202) 691-6559 (table 11).

o f data, u su a lly for the m o st recen t 5 -year
period, are m ade o n ce a year co in cid en t w ith
the benchm ark r ev isio n s.

Quarterly Census of
Employment and Wages

In the estab lish m en t survey, estim ates for
the m o st recen t 2 m on th s are b ased on in­
c o m p lete returns and are p u b lish ed as pre­
lim inary in the tables ( 1 2 - 1 7 in th e R e view ).
W h en all returns h a v e b een receiv ed , the e s ­
tim ates are r ev ised and p u b lish ed as “fin a l”
(prior to any b enchm ark rev isio n s) in the

Description of the series
E m p lo y m en t, w a g e , and esta b lish m en t data
in th is s e c tio n are d e r iv e d from th e q u ar­
terly tax r ep o rts su b m itte d to S ta te e m ­
p lo y m e n t se c u r ity a g e n c ie s by p riv a te and
State and lo ca l g o v ern m en t e m p lo y e r s su b-

j e c t to S ta te u n e m p lo y m e n t in su ra n ce (ui)
la w s an d fro m F ed er a l, a g e n c ie s su b je ct
to th e U n e m p lo y m e n t C o m p e n sa tio n for
F ed er a l E m p lo y e e s ( u c f e ) p rogram . E a ch
quarter, S ta te a g e n c ie s e d it and p r o c ess the
d ata and se n d th e in fo rm a tio n to the B u ­
reau o f L abor S ta tistics.
T h e Q uarterly C e n su s o f E m p lo y m en t
and W ages (QCEW) data, a lso referred as e s 2 0 2 data, are the m o st c o m p lete enu m eration
o f em p lo y m en t and w a g e in form ation by in­
dustry at the n a tio n a l, State, m etrop olitan
area, and county lev els. T hey have broad e c o ­
nom ic sig n ifica n ce in evalu atin g labor mar­
ket trends and m ajor industry d evelop m en ts.

Definitions
In gen eral, the Q uarterly C en su s o f E m p lo y ­
m en t and W a g es m o n th ly e m p lo y m en t data
rep resen t the n u m ber o f covered workers
w h o w o rk ed during, or r ec eiv e d p ay for, the
p ay p erio d that in clu d ed the 12th day o f the
m onth . Covered private industry employ­
ment in clu d es m o st corp orate o ffic ia ls, e x ­
e cu tiv e s, su p ervisory p erson n el, p r o fe ssio n ­
a ls, c le ric a l w o rk ers, w a g e earn ers, p ie c e
w ork ers, and part-tim e w orkers. It e x c lu d e s
p r o p r ieto r s, th e u n in c o rp o ra te d s e lf - e m ­
p lo y e d , unpaid fa m ily m em b ers, and certain
farm and d o m e stic w ork ers. C ertain typ es
o f non profit e m p lo y ers, su ch as relig io u s or­
g a n iza tio n s, are g iv e n a c h o ic e o f c o v era g e
or e x c lu s io n in a nu m ber o f S tates. W orkers
in th e se o r g a n iz a tio n s are, th e r efo r e, r e ­
ported to a lim ited d egree.
P erso n s on paid sick le a v e , paid h olid ay,
paid v acation , and the lik e, are inclu ded. Per­
so n s o n the p ay ro ll o f m ore than on e firm
during the p eriod are cou n ted by ea ch uisu b ject e m p lo y er if they m e et the e m p lo y ­
m en t d e fin itio n n oted earlier. T h e e m p lo y ­
m en t co u n t e x clu d es w orkers w h o earned no
w a g e s du rin g the entire ap p licab le p ay p e ­
riod b e c a u se o f w ork sto p p a g es, tem porary
la y o ffs, illn e ss , or unpaid va ca tio n s.
Federal employment data are b ased on
reports o f m o n th ly e m p lo y m en t and quar­
terly w a g e s su b m itted e a ch quarter to State
a g e n c ie s for all F ed eral in sta lla tio n s w ith
e m p lo y e e s c o v ered b y the U n em p lo y m e n t
C om p en sa tio n for Federal E m p lo y ees ( u c f e )
program , e x ce p t for certain n ational se c u ­
rity a g e n c ie s, w h ich are o m itted for security
rea so n s. E m p lo y m e n t for all F ed eral a g en ­
c ie s for any g iv e n m on th is b a sed on the
n u m ber o f p erso n s w h o w ork ed during or
receiv ed pay for the pay period that inclu ded
the 12th o f the m onth.
A n establishment is an e co n o m ic unit,
su ch as a farm , m in e, factory, or store, that
p ro d u ces g o o d s or p ro v id es se r v ic es. It is


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ty p ic a lly at a sin g le p h y sica l lo ca tio n and
en g a g e d in o n e, or p red om in an tly o n e, typ e
o f e co n o m ic a ctivity for w h ich a sin g le in ­
dustrial c la ssific a tio n m ay be app lied. O c ­
casion ally, a sin g le p h ysical location e n c o m ­
p a sse s tw o or m ore d istin ct and sig n ifica n t
a c tiv ities. E ach activ ity sh ou ld be reported
as a s e p a r a te e s t a b lis h m e n t i f s e p a r a te
rec o rd s are k e p t an d th e v a r io u s a c t iv i ­
t ie s are c la s s if ie d u n d er d iffe r e n t n a ic s
in d u str ie s.
M o st em p lo y ers have o n ly on e esta b lish ­
m ent; thus, the estab lish m en t is the pred om i­
nant reporting unit or statistical entity for
reporting em p lo y m en t and w a g es data. M ost
em p loyers, in clu d in g State and lo ca l gov ern ­
m en ts w h o operate m ore than o n e e sta b lish ­
m en t in a State, file a M u ltip le W orksite R e ­
port each quarter, in add ition to their quar­
terly ui report. T he M u ltip le W orksite R e ­
port is u sed to c o lle c t separate em p lo y m en t
and w a g e data for e a ch o f the e m p lo y e r ’s
estab lish m en ts, w h ich are n ot d etailed o n the
ui report. S o m e very sm all m u lti-esta b lish ­
m e n t e m p lo y e r s d o n o t f i le a M u ltip le
W orksite R eport. W h en the total e m p lo y ­
m en t in an e m p lo y e r ’s secon d ary e sta b lish ­
m ents (all estab lish m en ts other than the larg­
est) is 10 or few er, the em p lo y er g en erally
w ill file a co n so lid a ted report for all estab ­
lish m en ts. A lso , so m e em p lo y ers eith er can ­
not or w ill n ot report at the estab lish m en t
lev e l and thus aggregate estab lish m en ts into
o n e co n so lid a te d unit, or p o s sib ly several
units, th ou gh n ot at the esta b lish m en t lev e l.
For the Fed eral G overn m en t, the report­
ing unit is the installation: a sin g le lo ca ­
tion at w h ich a departm ent, agen cy, or other
g o v ern m en t b od y has c iv ilia n e m p lo y e e s.
Federal agen cies fo llo w sligh tly different cri­
teria than do private e m p lo y ers w h en break­
ing d o w n their reports by in stallation . T h ey
are perm itted to co m b in e as a sin g le state­
w id e unit: 1) all installations w ith 10 or few er
w orkers, and 2) all in stallation s that h a v e a
co m b in ed total in the State o f fe w er than 5 0
w orkers. A lso , w h en there are fe w er than 25
w orkers in all secon d ary in stallation s in a
S tate, the seco n d a ry in sta lla tio n s m ay b e
co m b in ed and reported w ith the m ajor in­
stallation. Last, if a Federal agen cy has few er
than fiv e e m p lo y e e s in a State, the a gen cy
headquarters o ffic e (region al o ffic e , district
o ffic e ) servin g each State m ay c o n so lid a te
the em p loym en t and w a g es data for that State
w ith the data reported to the State in w h ich
the headquarters is located . A s a resu lt o f
th ese reporting rules, the num ber o f report­
ing units is alw a y s larger than the num ber
o f em p lo y ers (or g overn m en t a g e n c ie s) but
sm aller than the num ber o f actual e sta b lish ­
m ents (or in stallation s).

D ata rep orted for th e first quarter are
tabu lated into size ca teg o r ie s ran gin g from
w o rk sites o f very sm all s iz e to th o se w ith
1,0 0 0 e m p lo y e e s or m ore. T h e s iz e ca teg o ry
is d eterm in ed by the e sta b lish m e n t’s M arch
em p loym en t lev e l. It is im portant to note that
ea ch esta b lish m en t o f a m u lti-esta b lish m en t
firm is tabulated sep arately in to the app ro­
priate s iz e category. T h e total e m p lo y m en t
le v e l o f the rep orting m u lti-esta b lish m e n t
firm is n ot u sed in the s iz e tabu lation .
C overed em p lo y ers in m o st States report
total wages paid during the calen d ar quar­
ter, regardless o f w h en the serv ices w ere per­
form ed . A fe w State la w s, h o w ev er, sp e c ify
that w a g e s be rep orted for, or b ased o n the
p eriod during w h ic h se r v ic es are p erform ed
rather than the p eriod during w h ic h c o m ­
p en sation is paid. U n d er m o st State la w s or
reg u lation s, w a g e s in clu d e b o n u ses, sto ck
op tio n s, the ca sh v a lu e o f m ea ls and lo d g ­
in g, tips and other gratu ities, and, in so m e
States, em p lo y er con trib u tion s to certain d e ­
ferred c o m p en sa tio n plan s su ch as 4 0 1 (k )
plan s.
C o vered em p lo y er con trib u tion s for o ld a g e , s u r v iv o r s , an d d is a b ility in su r a n c e
( o a s d i ) , health insu ran ce, u n em p lo y m en t in­
surance, w ork ers’ com p en sation , and private
p en sio n and w elfa re fu n d s are n ot reported
as w a g e s. E m p lo y e e con trib u tion s for the
sam e p u rp oses, h o w ev er, as w e ll as m o n ey
w ith h eld for in co m e ta x es, u n ion d u es, and
so forth, are reported e v e n th ou gh they are
d ed u cted from the w o rk er’s g ro ss pay.
Wages of covered Federal workers rep­
resen t the g ro ss am oun t o f all p a y ro lls for
all pay p eriod s en d in g w ith in the quarter.
T h is in c lu d e s c a sh a llo w a n c e s , th e c a sh
eq u ivalen t o f any typ e o f rem u neration, s e v ­
eran ce pay, w ith h o ld in g ta x es, and retire­
m ent d ed u ction s. F ed eral e m p lo y e e rem u ­
neration gen era lly c o v er s the sam e ty p es o f
se r v ic es as for w ork ers in private industry.
Average annual wage per e m p lo y e e for
any g iv e n industry are co m p u ted b y d iv id ­
ing total annual w a g es b y annual average e m ­
p lo y m en t. A further d iv isio n by 5 2 y ie ld s
average w e ek ly w a g es per em p lo y ee. A nnual
pay data o n ly app roxim ate annual earn in gs
b e ca u se an in d ivid u al m ay n ot b e e m p lo y ed
by the sam e e m p lo y er all year or m ay w ork
for m ore than o n e em p lo y er at a tim e.
Average weekly or annual wage is a f­
fe cte d by the ratio o f fu ll-tim e to part-tim e
w orkers as w e ll as the nu m ber o f in d iv id u ­
als in h ig h -p a y in g and lo w -p a y in g o c cu p a ­
tio n s. W h en a v e ra g e p a y le v e ls b e tw e e n
States and ind u stries are com p ared , th ese
factors sh ou ld be taken into con sid era tio n .
F or e x a m p le , in d u stries c h a ra cterized by
h igh proportions o f part-tim e w ork ers w ill

Monthly Labor Review June 2004

83

Current Labor Statistics

sh o w avera g e w a g e le v e ls ap p reciab ly less
than the w e e k ly p ay le v e ls o f regu lar fu ll­
tim e e m p lo y e e s in th ese ind ustries. T h e o p ­
p o s ite e ffe c t ch a ra cterizes in d u stries w ith
lo w proportions o f part-tim e w ork ers, or in ­
dustries that ty p ica lly sch ed u le h eavy w e e k ­
en d and o v ertim e w ork. A verage w a g e data
a lso m ay be in flu e n c ed by w ork stop p ages,
labor turnover rates, retroactive p aym en ts,
sea so n a l factors, b on us p aym en ts, and so on.

Notes on the data
B e g in n in g w ith the r elea se o f data for 2 0 0 1 ,
p u b lica tio n s p resen tin g data from the C o v ­
ered E m p lo y m en t and W ages program h ave
sw itc h e d to the 2 0 0 2 v e rsio n o f the N orth
A m e ric a n In du stry C la s s ific a tio n S y s te m
(NAICS) as the b a sis for the a ssig n m en t and
ta b u la tio n o f e c o n o m ic data by ind ustry.
NAICS is the p rodu ct o f a co o p e ra tiv e effort
o n the part o f the sta tistical a g e n c ie s o f the
U n ited S tates, C anada, and M e x ic o . D u e to
d ifferen ce in n a ic s and Standard Industrial
C la ss ific a tio n (SIC) structures, industry data
for 2 0 0 1 is n ot com p arab le to the S ic-b a sed
data for earlier years.
E ffe c tiv e January 2 0 0 1 , the program b e ­
gan a ssig n in g Indian Tribal C o u n cils and re­
la ted e sta b lish m e n ts to lo c a l g o v e rn m en t
o w n ersh ip . T h is BLS a ction w as in resp o n se
to a c h a n g e in F ed eral law d ea lin g w ith the
w a y Indian T ribes are treated under the F ed ­
eral U n em p lo y m e n t Tax A ct. T h is law re­
q u ires fed era lly r ec o g n ize d Indian T ribes to
be treated sim ila rly to State and lo ca l g o v ­
ern m en ts. In the past, the C o v ered E m p lo y ­
m en t and W age (CEW) program co d ed Indian
Tribal C o u n c ils and related estab lish m en ts
in the p rivate sector. A s a result o f the n ew
law , CEW data r eflec ts sig n ifica n t sh ifts in
e m p lo y m en t and w a g e s b etw een the private
secto r and lo ca l g o v ern m en t from 2 0 0 0 to
2 0 0 1 . D ata a lso r eflec t industry c h a n g es.
T h o se a cco u n ts p r e v io u sly a ssig n ed to c iv ic
and s o c ia l o rg a n iza tion s w ere a ssig n ed to
tribal g o v ern m en ts. T here w ere no required
industry ch a n g es for related esta b lish m en ts
o w n ed by th ese Tribal C ou n cils. T h ese tribal
b u s in e s s e s ta b lis h m e n ts c o n tin u e d to be
c o d e d a cco rd in g to the e c o n o m ic a ctiv ity o f
that entity.
To in su re the h ig h e st p o s s ib le q u ality
o f data, State e m p lo y m e n t secu rity a g e n ­
c ie s v e r ify w ith e m p lo y e r s and u p d ate, if
n e c essa ry , the ind ustry, lo c a tio n , and o w n ­
ersh ip c la s s ific a tio n o f all esta b lish m e n ts
o n a 3 -y e a r c y c le . C h a n g e s in e s ta b lis h ­
m en t c la s sific a tio n c o d e s resu ltin g from the
v e rific a tio n p r o c ess are in trod u ced w ith the
data reported for the first quarter o f the year.

84

Monthly Labor Review


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June 2004

C h an ges resu ltin g from im p roved em p lo y er
rep o rtin g a lso are in tro d u ced in the first
quarter. F or th e se rea so n s, so m e data, e s ­
p e c ia lly at m ore d e ta ile d g e o g ra p h ic le v ­
e ls , m a y n ot b e strictly co m p a ra b le w ith
earlier years.
C ou n ty d efin itio n s are a ssig n ed a ccord ­
ing to F ed eral In form ation P ro c essin g S tan ­
dards P u b lica tio n s as issu ed by the N ation al
Institute o f Standards and T ech n ology. A r­
eas sh o w n as co u n ties in clu d e th o se d e s ig ­
nated as ind ep en d en t c itie s in so m e ju ris­
d ictio n s and, in A lask a, th ose areas d e s ig ­
nated by the C en su s B ureau w h ere cou n ties
have n ot b een created . C ou nty data a lso are
p resen ted for the N e w E n glan d States for
com p arative p u rp oses, e v en th ou gh to w n ­
sh ip s are the m ore com m o n d esign ation used
in N e w E n glan d (and N e w Jersey).
T h e O ffic e o f M an agem en t and B u d get
( o m b ) d e fin e s m etrop olitan areas for u se in
F ed er a l s ta tistic a l a c tiv itie s an d u p d ates
th ese d efin ition s as n eed ed . D ata in this table
u se m etropolitan area criteria esta b lish ed by
o m b in d e fin itio n s issu e d Jun e 3 0 , 1 9 9 9
( o m b B u lletin N o . 9 9 -0 4 ). T h ese d efin itio n s
r eflec t in form ation ob tain ed from the 1990
D e ce n n ia l C en su s and the 1998 U .S . C e n ­
su s B ureau p op u lation estim ate. A c o m p lete
lis t o f m etrop olitan area d efin itio n s is a v a il­
ab le from the N a tion al T ech n ical In form a­
tion S e r v ic e ( n t is ), D o cu m en t S a le s, 5 2 0 5
P ort R o y a l R oad , S p rin g fie ld , Va. 2 2 1 6 1 ,
telep h o n e 1 -8 0 0 -5 5 3 -6 8 4 7 .
OMB d e fin e s m etrop olitan areas in term s
o f en tire c o u n tie s, e x c e p t in the six N e w
E n glan d S tates w h ere th ey are d e fin e d in
term s o f c ities and tow n s. N e w E nglan d data
in this table, h o w ev er, are b ased on a cou n ty
c o n c ep t d e fin e d by OMB as N e w E n glan d
C o u n ty M etr o p o lita n A r ea s ( n e c m a ) b e ­
cau se c o u n ty -le v el data are the m ost d etailed
ava ila b le from the Q uarterly C en su s o f E m ­
p loym en t and W ages. T he n e c m a is a countyb ased alternative to the city - and tow n -b ased
m etro p o lita n areas in N e w E n g la n d . T h e
n e c m a for a M etrop olitan S tatistical A rea
( m s a ) include: (1 ) the cou n ty con tain in g the
first-n am ed city in that MSA title (this cou n ty
m ay in clu d e the first-n am ed c itie s o f other
m s a , and (2 ) ea ch ad d ition al cou n ty h avin g
at lea st h a lf its p o p u la tio n in the m s a in
w h ich first-n am ed c itie s are in the cou n ty
id en tified in step 1. T h e n e c m a is o ffic ia lly
d efin ed areas that are m eant to be u sed by
statistical program s that cannot use the reg u ­
lar m e tr o p o lita n area d e fin itio n s in N e w
E nglan d.
F o r a d d it io n a l in f o r m a t io n on the
co v ered em p lo y m en t and w a g e data, con tact
the D iv isio n o f A d m in istrative Statistics and
L abor T urnover at (2 0 2 ) 6 9 1 - 6 5 6 7 .

Job Openings and Labor
Turnover Survey
Description of the series
Data for the Job Openings and Labor Turn­
over Survey ( jo l t s ) are c o lle cte d and c o m ­
p iled from a sam p le o f 1 6 ,0 0 0 b u sin ess e s ­
tablish m ents. E ach m onth, data are c o llected
for total em p lo y m en t, jo b o p e n in g s, hires,
quits, la y o ffs and d isch arges, and other sep a­
rations. T he jo l t s program covers all private
non farm e sta b lish m e n ts su ch as fa cto ries,
o ffic e s, and stores, as w e ll as F ederal, State,
and local govern m en t en tities in the 5 0 States
and the D istr ic t o f C o lu m b ia . T h e jo l t s
sam ple design is a random sam ple drawn from
a u n iverse o f m ore than eig h t m illio n estab­
lish m en ts co m p iled as part o f the operations
o f the Q uarterly C en su s o f E m p loy m en t and
W ages, or q c e w , program . T h is program in­
clu d es all em p loyers su bject to State u n em ­
p lo y m e n t insu ran ce (u i) la w s and F ed eral
agen cies subject to U n em p loym en t C o m p en ­
sation for Federal E m p lo y ees (UCFE).
T he sam pling fram e is stratified by ow n er­
ship, region, industry sector, and size class.
Large firm s fall into the sam ple w ith virtual
certainty, jolts total em ploym ent estim ates are
controlled to the em ploym en t estim ates o f the
Current E m ploym ent Statistics ( c e s ) survey.
A ratio o f c e s to jo l t s em p loym en t is used to
adjust the lev els for all other jo l t s data e le ­
m ents. R ates then are com puted from the ad­
justed levels.
T he m onthly jo l ts data series begin w ith
D ecem ber 2 0 0 0 . N o t season ally adjusted data
on job openin gs, hires, total separations, quits,
layoffs and discharges, and other separations
levels and rates are available for the total n on ­
farm sector, 16 private industry d ivisio n s and
2 govern m en t d ivision s based on the North
A m e ric a n In du stry C la s s ific a tio n S y s te m
( n a ic s ), and four geographic regions. S ea so n ­
ally adjusted data on job openin gs, hires, total
separations, and quits levels and rates are avail­
able for the total nonfarm sector, selected in­
dustry sectors, and four geographic regions.

Definitions
E stab lish m en ts su b m it job openings infor­
m ation for the last b u sin e ss day o f the refer­
e n c e m onth. A jo b o p en in g req uires that ( 1)
a sp e c ific p o sitio n e x is ts and there is w ork
a v a ila b le for that p o sitio n ; and (2 ) w o rk
c o u ld start w ith in 3 0 d a y s r e g a r d le s s o f
w h eth er a su itab le can d id ate is foun d; and
(3 ) the e m p lo y er is a c tiv e ly recru itin g from
o u tsid e the esta b lish m en t to fill the p o sitio n .
Included are fu ll-tim e, part-tim e, perm anent,

sh ort-term , and sea so n a l o p e n in g s. A c tiv e
recru itin g m ean s that the esta b lish m en t is
tak in g step s to fill a p o sitio n by advertisin g
in n e w sp a p er s or o n the Internet, p o stin g
h elp -w a n ted sig n s, a ccep tin g ap p lication s,
or u sin g oth er sim ila r m eth od s.
Jobs to be fille d o n ly by internal transfers,
p ro m o tio n s, d em o tio n s, or recall from lay­
o ffs are exclud ed . A lso e xclu d ed are job s w ith
start dates m ore than 3 0 d ays in the future,
jo b s for w h ic h e m p lo y ee s h ave been hired
but h a v e not y e t reported for w ork, and job s
to b e fille d by e m p lo y e e s o f tem porary help
a g e n c ie s, e m p lo y ee lea sin g co m p an ies, o u t­
sid e co n tr a cto r s, or c o n su lta n ts. T h e jo b
o p en in g s rate is co m p u ted by d ivid in g the
num ber o f jo b o p en in g s by the sum o f e m ­
p lo y m en t and jo b o p en in g s, and m u ltip lyin g
that qu o tien t by 100.
Hires are the total num ber o f add ition s to
the p ayroll occu rrin g at any tim e during the
referen ce m onth , in clu d in g both n e w and re­
hired e m p lo y e e s and fu ll-tim e and part-tim e,
p erm a n en t, sh o rt-term and s e a so n a l e m ­
p lo y e e s , e m p lo y ee s recalled to the location
after a la y o ff lasting m ore than 7 days, onca ll or interm ittent e m p lo y ee s w h o returned
to w ork after havin g b een form ally separated,
and transfers from other location s. T h e hires
co u n t d o e s n ot in clu d e transfers or p rom o­
tio n s w ith in the rep orting site, e m p lo y e e s
returning from strike, e m p lo y ee s o f tem p o­
rary h elp a g e n c ie s or e m p lo y ee leasin g c o m ­
p a n ies, o u tsid e contractors, or consu ltan ts.
T h e hires rate is com p u ted by d ivid in g the
num ber o f h ires by em p loym en t, and m u lti­
p ly in g that qu o tien t by 100.
Separations are the total num ber o f term i­
nations o f em p loym en t occurring at any tim e
during the reference m onth, and are reported
by type o f separation— quits, layoffs and dis­
charges, and other separations. Q uits are v o l­
untary separations by em p lo y ees (except for
retirements, which are reported as other separa­
tions). L ayoffs and discharges are involuntary
separations initiated by the em ployer and in­
clu de layoffs with n o intent to rehire, formal
layoffs lasting or exp ected to last m ore than 7
d a y s , d isc h a r g e s r esu ltin g from m erg ers,
d ow n sizin g, or clo sin g s, firings or other dis­
charges for cause, term inations o f perm anent
or short-term em p lo y ees, and term inations o f
seasonal em p loyees. Other separations include
retirements, transfers to other locations, deaths,
and separations du e to disability. Separations
d o not include transfers w ithin the sam e loca­
tion or em p lo y ees o n strike.
T h e sep aration s rate is co m p u ted by d i­
v id in g the num ber o f separations by e m p lo y ­
m ent, and m u ltip ly in g that q u otien t by 100.
T h e q u its, la y o ffs and d isch a rg es, and other
sep a ra tio n s rates are c o m p u te d sim ilarly,


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d iv id in g the nu m b er by e m p lo y m e n t and
m u ltip ly in g by 100.

Notes on the data
T h e jo l t s data series on jo b o p en in g s, hires,
and separations are rela tiv ely new . T h e fu ll
sam p le is d ivid ed into pan els, w ith o n e panel
en rolled ea ch m onth. A fu ll co m p lem en t o f
p a n els for the origin al data series b ased on
the 1987 Standard Industrial C la ssifica tio n
(sic) sy stem w as n ot c o m p lete ly en rolled in
the su rvey until January 2 0 0 2 . T h e su p p le­
m ental p an els o f e sta b lish m en ts n eed ed to
create n a ic s estim a tes w ere n ot c o m p lete ly
en rolled until M ay 2 0 0 3 . T h e data c o lle c te d
up until th ose p oin ts are from less than a
fu ll sam p le. T h erefore, estim a tes from ear­
lier m on th s sh ou ld b e u sed w ith cau tion , as
fe w er sam p led units w ere reporting data at
that tim e.
In M arch 2 0 0 2 , b l s proced ures for c o l­
lecting hires and separations data w ere revised
to address p o ssib le underreporting. A s a re­
sult, jo l t s hires and separations estim ates for
m onths prior to M arch 2 0 0 2 m ay not be c o m ­
parable w ith estim a tes for M arch 2 0 0 2 and
later.
T h e Federal G o vern m en t reorgan ization
that in v o lv e d tran sferrin g a p p ro x im a te ly
1 8 0 ,0 0 0 e m p lo y e e s to the n e w D epartm en t
o f H om elan d S ecu rity is not reflected in the
jo l t s hires and separations estim ates for the
F ed eral G overn m en t. T h e O ffic e o f P erso n ­
n el M an -agem en t’s record sh o w s th ese trans­
fers w ere c o m p lete d in M arch 2 0 0 3 . T h e
in clu sio n o f transfers in the jo l t s defin ition s
o f hires and separations is in tended to co v er
o n g o in g m o v em en ts o f w orkers b etw een e s ­
tab lish m en ts. T he D epartm en t o f H om elan d
Secu rity reorgan ization w as a m a ssiv e o n e ­
tim e even t, and the in c lu sio n o f th ese inter­
g o v e rn m en ta l tran sfers w o u ld d isto rt the
Fed eral G overn m en t tim e series.
D ata users sh ould note that season al ad­
justm en t o f the jo l t s series is condu cted w ith
few er data ob servation s than is custom ary.
T he historical data, therefore, m ay be sub­
je ct to larger than norm al revision s. B eca u se
the season al patterns in e co n o m ic data series
ty p ically em erge over tim e, the standard use
o f m ovin g averages as season al filters to cap­
ture th ese effects requires lon ger series than
are currently availab le. A s a result, the stable
season al filter op tion is used in the season al
adjustm ent o f the jo l t s data. W hen calcu lat­
ing season al factors, this filter takes an aver­
age for each calendar m onth after detrending
the series. T he stable season al filter assu m es
that the season al factors are fixed ; a n e c e s­
sary assum ption until su fficien t data are avail­

able. W h en the stab le season al filter is no
lon ger n eed ed , other program features a lso
m ay be introduced, su ch as outlier adjustm ent
and exten ded diagn ostic testing. A dditionally,
it is ex p ected that m ore series, su ch as la y ­
o ffs and discharges and additional industries,
m ay be sea so n a lly adjusted w h en m ore data
are availab le.
JOLTS hires and separations estim ates ca n ­
not be u sed to ex a ctly ex p la in net c h a n g es in
payroll em p loym en t. S o m e reasons w h y it is
problem atic to com pare ch an ges in payroll
em p loym en t w ith jo l ts hires and separations,
e sp e c ia lly on a m on th ly b asis, are: (1 ) the
referen ce period for p ayroll em p lo y m en t is
th e p a y p er io d in c lu d in g th e 12th o f the
m onth, w h ile the referen ce period for hires
and separations is the calend ar m onth; and
(2) payroll em p loym en t can vary from m onth
to m onth sim p ly b ecau se part-tim e and on call w orkers m ay n ot a lw ays w ork during the
p ay p e r io d that in c lu d e s th e 12th o f th e
m onth. A d dition ally, research has fou n d that
so m e rep orters sy s te m a tic a lly underreport
sep aration s r ela tiv e to h ires d u e to a n u m ­
ber o f fa cto rs, in c lu d in g the nature o f their
p ayroll sy s te m s and p ra ctices. T h e sh ortfall
app ears to b e abou t 2 p ercen t or le s s o v e r a
12 -m o n th p eriod .

C om pensation a n d
W a g e D ata
(T ables 1 -3 ; 3 0 - 3 6 )
C o m p en sa tio n and w a g e d data are gathered
by the B ureau from b u sin ess estab lish m en ts,
State and lo ca l g o v ern m en ts, labor u n ion s,
c o lle c t iv e b a rg a in in g a g r ee m en ts o n f ile
w ith the B ureau, and secon d ary sou rces.

Employment Cost Index
Description of the series
T h e Employment Cost Index (ECi) is a
quarterly m easure o f the rate o f c h a n g e in
co m p en sa tio n per hour w ork ed and in clu d es
w a g e s, salaries, and e m p lo y er c o sts o f e m ­
p lo y e e b e n e f it s . It u s e s a f i x e d m a rk et
b ask et o f labor— sim ilar in c o n c ep t to the
C on su m er P rice In d e x ’s fix e d m arket b a s­
k e t o f g o o d s an d s e r v ic e s — to m e a su r e
ch a n g e o v er tim e in em p lo y er c o sts o f e m ­
p lo y in g labor.
Statistical series on total c o m p en sa tio n
c o sts, on w a g e s and salaries, and on b en efit
c o s t s are a v a ila b le fo r p r iv a te n o n fa rm
w orkers exclu d in g proprietors, the se lf-e m ­
p lo y e d , and h o u se h o ld w orkers. T h e total

Monthly Labor Review June 2004

85

Current Labor Statistics

com p en sation co sts and w a g es and salaries
series are also availab le for State and local
govern m en t w orkers and for the civilian non ­
farm econ om y, w h ich con sists o f private in­
dustry and State and local govern m en t w ork­
ers com bined. Federal workers are exclud ed .
T h e E m p lo y m en t C o st In dex p robab ility
sa m p le c o n sists o f a bou t 4 ,4 0 0 private n o n ­
farm esta b lish m en ts p rovid in g about 2 3 ,0 0 0
o ccu p a tio n a l o b serv a tio n s and 1 ,0 0 0 State
and lo ca l g o v ern m en t esta b lish m en ts p ro­
v id in g 6 ,0 0 0 o ccu p a tio n a l o b serv a tio n s s e ­
lected to rep resent total em p lo y m en t in each
sector. O n av era g e, e a ch rep orting unit pro­
v id e s w a g e and c o m p en sa tio n in form ation
o n fiv e w e ll-s p e c ifie d occu p a tio n s. D ata are
c o lle c te d e a ch quarter for the pay p eriod in ­
c lu d in g the 12th d ay o f M arch, June, S e p ­
tem ber, and D ecem b er.
B e g in n in g w ith Jun e 1 9 8 6 data, fix e d
e m p lo y m en t w e ig h ts from the 198 0 C en su s
o f P o p u la t io n are u s e d e a c h q u a rter to
c a lc u la te th e c iv ilia n and p rivate in d ex e s
and the in d ex for State and lo ca l g o v e rn ­
m en ts. (P rior to June 1 9 8 6 , the em p lo y m en t
w e ig h ts are from the 1 9 7 0 C en su s o f P o p u ­
la tio n .) T h e se fix e d w e ig h ts, a lso u sed to
d er iv e a ll o f the ind ustry and o c cu p a tio n
series in d ex e s, ensu re that ch a n g es in th ese
in d ex e s r eflec t o n ly c h a n g e s in c o m p e n sa ­
tion , n o t e m p lo y m en t sh ifts a m on g in d u s­
tries or o c cu p a tio n s w ith d ifferen t le v e ls o f
w a g e s and c o m p en sa tio n . For the bargain­
in g sta tu s, r e g io n , and m e tr o p o lita n /n o n m etro p o lita n area se r ie s, h o w ev er, e m p lo y ­
m en t data by industry and o ccu p a tio n are
n o t a v a ila b le from the c en su s. In stead, the
1 9 8 0 e m p lo y m en t w e ig h ts are reallocated
w ith in th ese series ea ch quarter b ased o n the
current sa m p le. T h erefore, th ese in d ex es are
n o t strictly com p a ra b le to th o se for the a g ­
g reg a te, industry, and occu p a tio n series.

Definitions
Total compensation c o sts in clu d e w a g e s,
sa la ries, and the e m p lo y e r ’s c o sts for e m ­
p lo y e e b en efits.
Wages and salaries c o n sist o f earn in gs
b e fo r e p a y ro ll d e d u ctio n s, in c lu d in g p ro­
d u ctio n b o n u ses, in cen tiv e earn in gs, c o m ­
m issio n s , and c o s t-o f-liv in g adju stm ents.
Benefits in clu d e the c o st to em p lo y ers
for p aid le a v e , su p p lem en ta l p ay (in c lu d ­
ing nonproduction bon uses), insurance, retire­
m ent and savin gs plans, and legally required
b en efits (su ch as S o cia l Security, w ork ers’
com pensation, and u nem ploym ent insurance).
E x clu d ed from w a g e s and salaries and
e m p lo y e e b e n e fits are su ch item s as p a y ­
m en t-in -k in d , free room and board, and tips.

86

Monthly Labor Review


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June 2004

Notes on the data
T h e E m p lo y m en t C o st In dex for ch a n g es in
w a g e s and salaries in the private nonfarm
e c o n o m y w a s p u b lish ed b eg in n in g in 1975.
C h an ges in total co m p en sation co st— w a g es
and salaries and b en efits co m b in ed — w ere
p u b lish ed b eg in n in g in 1980. T h e series o f
c h a n g es in w a g e s and salaries and for total
co m p en sa tio n in the State and lo ca l g o v e rn ­
m e n t se c to r and in th e c iv ilia n n o n fa rm
e c o n o m y (e x c lu d in g F ed era l e m p lo y e e s )
w ere p u b lish ed b eg in n in g in 1981. H isto ri­
ca l in d ex e s (June 1 9 8 1 = 1 0 0 ) are ava ila b le
on the Internet:

http ://www.bls.gov/ect/
F o r a d d it i o n a l in f o r m a t io n o n the
E m p lo y m en t C ost In d ex, co n tact the O ffic e
o f C o m p en sa tio n L e v els and Trends: (2 0 2 )
6 9 1 -6 1 9 9 .

Employee Benefits Survey
Description of the series
Employee benefits data are ob tain ed from
the E m p lo y e e B e n e fits S u rvey, an annual
su rvey o f the in cid en ce and p r o v isio n s o f
se le c te d b en efits p r o v id e d by e m p lo y e r s.
T h e su rvey c o lle c ts data from a sam p le o f
ap p roxim ately 9 ,0 0 0 private sector and State
and local govern m en t e sta b lish m e n ts. T h e
data are presen ted as a p ercen tage o f e m ­
p lo y e e s w h o participate in a certain benefit,
or as an average b en efit p rovision (for e x ­
am ple, the average num ber o f paid h o lid a y s
p rovid ed to e m p lo y e e s per year). S e le c te d
data from the su rvey are p resen ted in table
3 4 for m edium and large private e sta b lish ­
m ents and in table 35 for sm all private estab­
lish m en ts and State and local governm ent.
T h e su rv ey c o v e r s p aid le a v e b e n e fits
su ch as holid ays and vacation s, and personal,
fun eral, jury duty, m ilitary, fam ily, and sick
leave; short-term disab ility, lon g-term d is­
ab ility, and life insurance; m ed ica l, dental,
and v isio n care plans; d efin ed b e n e fit and
d e fin e d con trib u tion plans; fle x ib le b en efits
plans; reim b u rsem en t accou nts; and unpaid
fa m ily lea v e.
A l s o , d ata are ta b u la te d o n th e i n c i­
d e n c e o f se v e r a l o th e r b e n e f it s , su c h as
sev era n ce pay, ch ild -ca re assista n ce, w e ll­
n e s s p ro g ra m s, and e m p lo y e e a s s is ta n c e
program s.

Definitions
Employer-provided benefits are b en efits
that are fin a n ced eith er w h o lly or partly by
the em p loyer. T h ey m ay be sp on sored b y a

u n ion or other third party, as lo n g as there is
so m e e m p lo y er fin a n cin g . H o w ev er, so m e
b en efits that are fu lly paid for by the e m ­
p lo y e e a lso are in clu d ed . For ex a m p le, lo n g ­
term care insu ran ce and p ostretirem en t life
insu ran ce p aid en tirely by the e m p lo y e e are
in clu d ed b eca u se the guarantee o f insu rab il­
ity and a v a ila b ility at group prem iu m rates
are c o n sid ered a b en efit.
Participants are w o rk ers w h o are c o v ­
ered b y a b e n e fit, w h eth er or n o t th ey u se
that b e n e fit. I f the b e n e fit p lan is fin a n c e d
w h o lly by e m p lo y e r s and req u ires e m p lo y ­
e e s to c o m p le te a m in im u m len g th o f ser­
v ic e for e lig ib ility , the w o rk ers are c o n s id ­
ered p articip an ts w h eth er or n ot th e y h a v e
m e t th e r eq u ire m en t. I f w o r k e r s are r e ­
q u ired to co n trib u te to w a rd s th e c o s t o f a
p lan , th ey are c o n sid e r e d p a rticip a n ts o n ly
i f th ey e le c t the plan and a gree to m a k e the
req u ired c o n trib u tio n s.
Defined benefit pension plans u se p re­
d eterm in ed form u las to ca lc u la te a retire­
m en t b en efit ( if an y), and o b lig a te the e m ­
p lo y e r to p rovid e th o se b e n e fits. B e n e fits
are gen era lly b ased on salary, years o f ser­
v ic e , or both.

Defined contribution plans g e n e ra lly
sp ec ify the le v e l o f e m p lo y er and e m p lo y e e
con trib u tion s to a plan , but n ot the form u la
for determ in in g e v en tu a l b e n e fits. In stead,
in d ivid u al a ccou n ts are set up for p artici­
pan ts, and b e n e fits are b a sed o n am ou n ts
cred ited to th ese accou n ts.
Tax-deferred savings plans are a typ e
o f d e fin e d con trib u tion plan that a llo w par­
ticip an ts to contrib ute a p ortion o f their sa l­
ary to an em p lo y er-sp o n so red plan and d e ­
fer in co m e taxes until w ithd raw al.
Flexible benefit plans a llo w e m p lo y e e s
to c h o o se a m on g sev era l b e n e fits, su ch as
life insu ran ce, m ed ica l care, and v a ca tio n
d ays, and a m on g sev era l le v e ls o f c o v er a g e
w ith in a g iv e n b en efit.

Notes on the data
S u rv e y s o f e m p lo y e e s in m ed iu m and large
e s ta b lis h m e n ts c o n d u c te d o v e r th e 1 9 7 9 —
8 6 p erio d in c lu d e d e sta b lish m e n ts that e m ­
p lo y e d at le a s t 5 0 , 1 0 0 , or 2 5 0 w o r k e rs,
d e p e n d in g on the in d u stry (m o s t s e r v ic e
in d u stries w e re e x c lu d e d ). T h e su rv e y c o n ­
d u cte d in 1 9 8 7 c o v e r e d o n ly S ta te and l o ­
c a l g o v e r n m e n ts w ith 5 0 or m o re e m p lo y ­
e e s . T h e su r v e y s c o n d u c te d in 1 9 8 8 and
1 9 8 9 in c lu d e d m ed iu m and large e s ta b lis h ­
m e n ts w ith 1 0 0 w o rk ers or m ore in p riv a te
in d u str ies. A ll s u r v e y s c o n d u c te d o v e r the
1 9 7 9 - 8 9 p e r io d e x c lu d e d e s ta b lis h m e n ts

in A la sk a and H a w a ii, as w e ll as p a rt-tim e
e m p lo y e e s .
B e g in n in g in 1 9 9 0 , su rveys o f S tate and
lo ca l g o v ern m en ts and sm all private esta b ­
lis h m e n ts w e r e c o n d u c te d in e v e n -n u m ­
b ered y ea rs, and su rv e y s o f m ed iu m and
large e sta b lish m en ts w ere con d u cted in oddnu m b ered yea rs. T h e sm a ll e sta b lish m en t
su rv ey in c lu d e s all p rivate nonfarm estab ­
lis h m e n ts w ith fe w e r than 1 0 0 w o rk ers,
w h ile the State and lo ca l go v ern m en t sur­
v e y in clu d es all g o v ern m en ts, regard less o f
the num ber o f w ork ers. A ll three su rveys in­
c lu d e f u l l - a n d p a r t-tim e w o r k e r s , and
w o rk ers in a ll 5 0 S ta tes and the D istr ict o f
C o lu m b ia .
F or additional information o n the
E m p lo y e e B e n e fits S u rvey, co n tact the O f­
f ic e o f C o m p en sa tio n L e v e ls and T rends on
the Internet:

http://www.bls.gov/ebs/

Work stoppages
Description of the series
D ata o n w ork sto p p a g es m easu re the n u m ­
ber and duration o f m ajor strikes or lo c k ­
o u ts (in v o lv in g 1 ,0 0 0 w orkers or m ore) o c ­
curring during the m onth (or year), the n u m ­
ber o f w orkers in v o lv ed , and the am oun t o f
w ork tim e lo st b e c a u se o f stop p age. T h ese
data are p resen ted in table 36.
D ata are largely from a variety o f pu b­
lis h e d so u r c e s an d c o v e r o n ly e s ta b lis h ­
m en ts d irectly in v o lv ed in a stop p age. T h ey
d o n o t m ea su re th e in d irect or secon d ary
e ffe c t o f sto p p a g es on other estab lish m en ts
w h o se e m p lo y e e s are id le o w in g to m aterial
sh o rta g es or la ck o f serv ice.

Definitions
Number of stoppages:

T h e n u m b er o f
strikes and lo ck o u ts in v o lv in g 1,0 0 0 w ork ­
ers or m ore and la stin g a fu ll sh ift or longer.
W orkers involved: T h e n u m b e r o f
w ork ers d irectly in v o lv ed in the stop p age.
Number of days idle: T h e aggregate
n u m b er o f w o rk d a y s lo st b y w ork ers in ­
v o lv e d in the sto p p a g es.

Days of idleness as a percent of estimated
working time: A ggregate w orkdays lost as a
percent o f the aggregate num ber o f standard
w orkdays in the period m ultiplied by total em ­
p loym en t in the period.

Notes on the data
T h is series is n ot com p arab le w ith the on e
term inated in 1981 that c o v er ed strikes in­
v o lv in g six w orkers or m ore.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

F or additional information on w ork
sto p p a g es data, con tact the O ffic e o f C o m ­
p en sa tio n and W orking C on d ition s: (2 0 2 )
6 9 1 - 6 2 8 2 , or the Internet:

http :/w ww.bls.gov/cba/

Price Data
(T ables 2; 3 7 - 4 7 )
P r ic e d a ta are g a th e r e d b y th e B u r e a u
o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s fro m r e ta il an d p ri­
m ary m arkets in the U n ited S tates. P rice in ­
d e x e s are g iv e n in rela tio n to a b a se p e ­
riod— D ecem b er 2 0 0 3 = 100 for m any P ro­
d u c e r P r ic e I n d e x e s ( u n le s s o t h e r w is e
n o te d ), 1 9 8 2 - 8 4 = 1 0 0 fo r m a n y C o n ­
s u m e r P r ic e I n d e x e s ( u n le s s o t h e r w is e
n o te d ), and 1 9 9 0 = 100 for International
P rice In d exes.

Consumer Price Indexes
Description of the series
T h e Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a m ea ­
sure o f the average ch an ge in the p rices paid
by urban co n su m ers for a fix e d m arket b a s­
k et o f g o o d s and se r v ic es. T h e cpi is c a lc u ­
lated m on th ly for tw o p op u lation groups,
o n e c o n sistin g o n ly o f urban h o u se h o ld s
w h o se prim ary sou rce o f in co m e is d erived
from the em p lo y m en t o f w a g e earners and
clerical w orkers, and the other c o n sistin g o f
all urban h ou seh o ld s. T h e w a g e earner in ­
d ex (CPI-W) is a con tin u ation o f the historic
in d ex that w as introduced w e ll ov er a halfcen tury ago for use in w a g e n eg o tia tio n s.
A s n e w u ses w ere d e v e lo p ed for the CPI in
recen t years, the n eed for a broader and m ore
rep resen tative in d ex b ecam e apparent. T he
all-urban con su m er ind ex (CPI-U), introduced
in 197 8 , is rep resen tative o f the 1 9 9 3 -9 5
b u yin g habits o f about 87 percent o f the nonin stitu tion al p op u lation o f the U n ited States
at that tim e, com p ared w ith 32 percen t rep­
resen ted in the CPi-w. In add ition to w a g e
earners and clerica l w orkers, the CPI-U c o v ­
ers p ro fessio n a l, m an agerial, and tech n ical
w o r k e r s , th e s e lf - e m p l o y e d , sh o rt-te rm
w orkers, the u n em p lo y ed , retirees, and o th ­
ers n ot in the labor force.
T h e cpi is b ased on p rices o f fo o d , c lo th ­
in g, shelter, fu el, drugs, transportation fares,
d o c to r s’ and d e n tists’ fe e s , and other g o o d s
and se r v ic es that p e o p le buy for d a y -to-d ay
liv in g . T h e qu an tity and q u a lity o f th ese
item s are k ep t e s s e n tia lly u n ch a n g ed b e ­
tw e e n m ajor r e v isio n s so that o n ly p rice
ch a n g es w ill be m easured . A ll taxes directly
a s s o c ia te d w ith th e p u rch a se and u se o f
item s are in clu d ed in the in d ex.

D ata c o lle c te d from m ore than 2 3 ,0 0 0 re­
tail esta b lish m en ts and 5 ,8 0 0 h o u sin g units
in 87 urban areas across the country are u sed
to d e v e lo p the “U .S . city a v e ra g e .” Separate
estim a tes for 14 m ajor urban cen ters are pre­
sen ted in tab le 38. T h e areas listed are as in ­
d icated in fo o tn o te 1 to the tab le. T h e area
in d ex e s m easu re o n ly the average c h a n g e in
p rices for e a ch area sin c e the b a se p eriod ,
and do n ot in d icate d iffe re n c es in the le v e l
o f p rices a m on g c ities.

Notes on the data
In January 19 8 3 , the B u reau c h a n g ed the
w a y in w h ic h h o m e o w n e r s h ip c o s t s are
m eaured for the CPI-U. A rental e q u iv a len ce
m eth od rep laced the asset-p rice approach to
h o m e o w n e r s h ip c o s t s fo r th at s e r ie s . In
January 1985, the sam e ch a n g e w a s m ade in
the CPi-w. T h e central p u rp ose o f the ch a n g e
w as to separate shelter c o sts from the in v est­
m en t c o m p o n en t o f h o m e o w n er sh ip so that
the ind ex w o u ld r eflect o n ly the c o st o f sh e l­
ter s e r v ic e s p r o v id e d by o w n e r -o c c u p ie d
h o m e s. A n updated cpi-u and cpi-w w ere
introduced w ith r elea se o f the January 198 7
and January 1998 data.
For additional information, co n ta ct
the D iv is io n o f P rices and P rice In d exes:
(2 0 2 ) 6 9 1 - 7 0 0 0 .

Producer Price Indexes
Description of the series
Producer Price Indexes

(P P i) m easu re a v ­
erage c h a n g es in p rices r ec eiv e d by d o m e s­
tic produ cers o f c o m m o d itie s in all sta g es
o f p ro cessin g . T h e sa m p le u sed for c a lc u ­
lating th ese in d ex es currently con tain s about
3 ,2 0 0 c o m m o d itie s and abou t 8 0 ,0 0 0 q u o ­
tations per m onth , s e le c te d to rep resent the
m o v em en t o f p rices o f all c o m m o d itie s p ro­
du ced in the m anufacturing; agriculture, for­
estry, and fish in g; m in in g; and g as and e le c ­
tricity and p u b lic u tilities sectors. T h e stageo f - p r o c e s s in g stru ctu re o f ppi o r g a n iz e s
products by cla ss o f buyer and d egree o f fab ­
rication (that is, fin ish ed g o o d s , in term ed i­
ate g o o d s, and crude m aterials). T h e tradi­
tio n a l c o m m o d ity stru ctu re o f ppi o r g a ­
n iz e s p ro d u cts by sim ila r ity o f en d u s e or
m a ter ia l c o m p o s itio n . T h e in d u str y an d
p r o d u c t structure o f ppi o rg an izes data in
accordance with the 2 0 0 2 North A m erican In­
dustry C la ss ific a tio n S y stem and p rod u ct
cod es d evelop ed by the U .S . C ensus Bureau.
To the exten t p o ssib le , p rices u sed in c a l­
culatin g P rod ucer P rice In d ex es app ly to the
first sig n ifica n t c o m m ercia l transaction in
the U n ited S tates from the p ro d u ctio n or

Monthly Labor Review June 2004

87

Current Labor Statistics

cen tral m ark etin g p oin t. P rice data are g e n ­
era lly c o lle c te d m on th ly, prim arily by m ail
q u estio n n a ire. M o st p rices are ob tain ed d i­
rectly from pro d u cin g co m p a n ies on a v o l­
untary and co n fid e n tia l b a sis. P rices g en er­
a lly are reported for the T u esd ay o f the w e ek
co n ta in in g the 13th day o f the m onth.
S in c e January 1 9 9 2 , p rice c h a n g e s for
the various co m m o d ities have been averaged
to g eth er w ith im p lic it quantity w e ig h ts rep ­
resen tin g their im p ortan ce in the total net
s e llin g v a lu e o f all c o m m o d itie s as o f 1987.
T h e d eta iled data are aggregated to obtain
in d e x e s for sta g e -o f-p r o c e ssin g g rou p in gs,
c o m m o d ity g r o u p in g s, d u ra b ility-of-p rod uct gro u p in g s, and a num ber o f sp ecia l c o m ­
p o site groups. A ll P rod ucer P rice In dex data
are su b ject to rev isio n 4 m on th s after o r ig i­
nal p u b lica tio n .
For additional information, co n tact
the D iv is io n o f Industrial P rices and P rice
In d exes: (2 0 2 ) 6 9 1 - 7 7 0 5 .

International Price Indexes
Description of the series
T h e International Price Program produ ces
m o n th ly and quarterly ex p o rt and im port
p rice in d ex e s for n o n m ilitary g o o d s and ser­
v ic e s traded b e tw e en the U n ited S tates and
th e rest o f th e w o r ld . T h e e x p o r t p r ice in ­
d e x p r o v id e s a m ea su r e o f p r ice c h a n g e
fo r a ll p r o d u cts s o ld b y U .S . r e s id e n ts to
fo r e ig n b u y e r s. ( “R e s id e n t s ” is d e fin e d as
in th e n a tio n a l in c o m e a c c o u n ts ; it in ­
c lu d e s c o r p o r a tio n s , b u s in e s s e s , and in d i­
v id u a ls , b u t d o e s n o t req u ire th e o r g a n i­
z a tio n s to b e U .S . o w n e d nor th e in d iv id u ­
a ls to h a v e U .S . c it iz e n s h ip .) T h e im p ort
p r ic e in d e x p r o v id e s a m e a su r e o f p rice
c h a n g e fo r g o o d s p u rc h a sed from o th er
c o u n tr ie s b y U .S . r es id e n ts.
T h e produ ct u n iv erse for b oth the im port
and ex p o rt in d e x e s in clu d es raw m aterials,
agricultural p rod u cts, se m ifin is h e d m an u ­
fa ctu res, and fin ish ed m anu factu res, in clu d ­
in g both cap ital and co n su m er g o o d s. P rice
data fo r th ese item s are c o lle c te d prim arily
by m a il q u estio n n a ire. In n early all c a se s,
the data are c o lle c te d directly from the e x ­
porter or im porter, a lth ou gh in a fe w c a se s,
p rices are ob ta in ed from other sou rces.
To the ex ten t p o ssib le , the data gathered
refer to p rices at the U .S . border for exp orts
and at e ith er th e fo r e ig n b ord er or the U .S .
b o rd er fo r im p o r ts. F or n ea rly all p r o d ­
u c ts, th e p r ic e s refer to tr a n sa c tio n s c o m ­
p le te d d u rin g th e first w e e k o f th e m o n th .
S u r v e y r e s p o n d e n ts are a sk ed to in d ic a te
a ll d is c o u n ts , a llo w a n c e s , and r eb a tes a p ­
p lic a b le to th e rep o rted p r ic e s, so that th e

88

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June 2004

p rice u sed in the c a lc u la tio n o f th e in d e x e s
is th e actu a l p r ice for w h ic h th e p ro d u ct
w a s b o u g h t or so ld .
In ad d ition to gen eral in d ex es o f p rices
for U .S . exp orts and im p orts, in d ex e s are
a lso p u b lish ed for d eta iled p rodu ct c a te g o ­
ries o f exp orts and im ports. T h e se c a te g o ­
ries are d efin ed accord in g to the fiv e -d ig it
le v e l o f d etail for the Bureau o f E co n o m ic
A n a ly s is E n d -u se C la ssific a tio n , the threed ig it le v e l for the Standard In tern ation al
Trade C la ssific a tio n (SITC), and the four­
d ig it lev e l o f detail for the H arm on ized S y s ­
tem . A g g r eg a te im port in d ex e s b y country
or reg io n o f orig in are a lso availab le.

publishes indexes for selected cat­
egories o f internationally traded services,
calculated on an international basis and on
a balance-of-payments basis.

factor input m easu res, su ch as ou tp u t per
hour, output per unit o f labor input, or o u t­
put per unit o f capital input, as w e ll as m e a ­
sures o f m ultifactor p rod u ctivity (ou tp u t per
unit o f co m b in ed labor and cap ital inputs).
T h e Bureau in d ex es sh o w the ch a n g e in ou t­
put relative to ch a n g es in the variou s inputs.
T he m easu res c o v e r the b u sin e ss, non farm
b u sin e ss, m an u factu rin g, and n o n fin a n cia l
corp orate sectors.
C o r re sp o n d in g in d e x e s o f h o u rly c o m ­
p e n s a tio n , u n it la b or c o s ts , u n it n o n la b o r
p a y m e n ts, and p r ic e s are a lso p r o v id e d .

Definitions

bls

Notes on the data
T h e e x p o rt and im p ort p rice in d e x e s are
w eig h ted in d ex es o f the L asp eyres type. T he
trade w e ig h ts cu rren tly u sed to co m p u te
b oth in d ex e s relate to 2 0 0 0 .
B e c a u se a p rice in d ex d ep en d s o n the
sam e item s b ein g priced from p eriod to p e ­
riod , it is n e c essa ry to r e c o g n iz e w h en a
p ro d u ct’s sp ec ific a tio n s or term s o f transac­
tion h ave been m o d ified . For this reason, the
B u reau ’s qu estion naire req uests d etailed d e ­
sc r ip tio n s o f th e p h y sic a l and fu n ctio n a l
ch aracteristics o f the produ cts b e in g priced,
as w e ll as in fo rm a tio n on the nu m b er o f
units bou gh t or so ld , d iscou n ts, cred it term s,
p a ck a g in g , c la ss o f bu yer or seller, and so
forth. W h en there are ch a n g es in eith er the
sp ec ific a tio n s or term s o f transaction o f a
product, the d ollar v a lu e o f ea ch ch an ge is
d eleted from the total p rice ch a n g e to o b ­
tain the “pu re” ch an ge. O n ce this v a lu e is
determ ined, a lin k in g procedure is em p lo y ed
w h ic h a llo w s for the co n tin u ed rep ricin g o f
the item .
For additional information, co n ta ct
the D iv isio n o f International P rices: (2 0 2 )
6 9 1 -7 1 5 5 .

Productivity Data
(T ables 2; 4 8 - 5 1 )

Business and major sectors
Description of the series
T h e p rod u ctivity m easu res relate real o u t­
put to real input. A s su ch , they en co m p a ss a
fa m ily o f m easu res w h ich in clu d e s in g le ­

Output per hour of all persons (lab or p ro­
d u ctiv ity ) is the quantity o f g o o d s and ser­
v ic e s p roduced per hour o f labor input. Out­
put per unit of capital services (capital pro­
d u ctiv ity ) is the quantity o f g o o d s and ser­
v ic e s p rod u ced per unit o f cap ital se r v ic es
input. Multifactor productivity is the quan­
tity o f g o o d s and serv ices p rodu ced per c o m ­
b in ed inp uts. F or p rivate b u sin e ss and pri­
vate nonfarm b u sin e ss, inputs in clu d e labor
and capital units. F or m anu factu ring, inputs
inclu de labor, capital, energy, n on en ergy m a­
terials, and pu rch ased b u sin e ss serv ices.
Compensation per hour is total c o m p en ­
sation d iv id e d by hou rs at w ork. Total c o m ­
p en sa tio n eq u als the w a g e s and sa laries o f
e m p lo y ee s plu s e m p lo y er s’ contrib utions for
so c ia l insu ran ce and private b e n e fit p lan s,
p lu s an estim a te o f th ese p a y m en ts for the
s e lf-e m p lo y e d (e x c e p t for n o n fin a n cia l co r­
p o ra tio n s in w h ic h there are n o s e lf - e m ­
p lo y e d ). Real compensation per hour is
c o m p e n s a t io n p e r h o u r d e f la t e d b y th e
ch a n g e in the C on su m er P rice In d ex fo r A ll
U rban C on su m ers.
Unit labor costs are the labor c o m p e n ­
sation c o sts ex p e n d e d in the p rod u ctio n o f a
unit o f outp ut and are d erived by d iv id in g
c o m p e n sa tio n b y ou tp u t. Unit nonlabor
payments in c lu d e p r o fits , d e p r e c ia tio n ,
interest, and ind irect ta x es per unit o f o u t­
put. T h ey are com p u ted by subtracting c o m ­
p en sation o f all p erson s from current-dollar
v a lu e o f outp ut and d iv id in g by output.
Unit nonlabor costs c o n ta in a ll the
c o m p o n en ts o f unit n on lab or p aym en ts e x ­
cep t unit profits.
Unit profits in c lu d e co rp o ra te p r o fits
w ith in v e n to r y v a lu a tio n and c a p ita l c o n ­
su m p tio n a d ju stm e n ts p er u n it o f o u tp u t.
Hours of all persons are the total hours
at w ork o f p ayroll w ork ers, se lf-e m p lo y e d
p erson s, and unpaid fa m ily w orkers.
Labor inputs are hou rs o f all p erso n s ad­
ju sted for the e ffe c ts o f c h a n g es in the ed u ­
cation and ex p e rien ce o f the labor fo rce.

Capital services are the flo w o f serv ices
from the cap ital sto ck u sed in prod u ction . It
is d e v e lo p e d from m ea su res o f the net sto ck
o f p h y sica l a ssets— eq u ip m en t, structures,
land, and in v en to ries— w e ig h te d by rental
p rices fo r e a ch ty p e o f a sset.

m ent; the organization o f production; m ana­
gerial sk ill; and ch aracteristics and efforts
o f the w ork force.
For additional information o n this
prod u ctivity series, con tact the D iv isio n o f
P rod u ctivity R esearch: (2 0 2 ) 6 9 1 - 5 6 0 6 .

Combined units of labor and capital
inputs are d eriv ed by co m b in in g ch a n ges in
labor and cap ital input w ith w e ig h ts w h ich
rep resen t e a ch c o m p o n e n t’s share o f total
cost. C om b in ed units o f labor, capital, energy,
m aterials, and purchased b usiness services are
sim ilarly d erived by co m b in in g ch an ges in
ea ch input w ith w eig h ts that represent each
input’s share o f total costs. T he ind exes for
each input and for com bined units are based
on changing w eights w h ich are averages o f the
shares in the current and preceding year (the
Tom quist index-num ber formula).

Notes on the data
B u s i n e s s s e c to r o u tp u t is an a n n u a lly w e ig h te d in d ex co n stru cted by e x c lu d in g
from real g r o ss d o m e stic produ ct (GDP) the
fo llo w in g outputs: general govern m en t, non ­
profit in stitu tion s, paid e m p lo y ee s o f private
h o u se h o ld s, and the rental v a lu e o f ow n ero c cu p ied d w e llin g s. N on farm b u sin ess a lso
e x c lu d e s farm in g. P rivate b u sin e ss and pri­
v a te n on farm b u sin e ss further e x c lu d e g o v ­
ern m en t en terp rises. T h e m easu res are su p­
p lied by the U .S . D epartm ent o f C o m m erce’s
B ureau o f E c o n o m ic A n a ly sis. A n n u al e sti­
m a tes o f m an u factu rin g sectoral outp ut are
p ro d u ced by the B ureau o f L abor S tatistics.
Q u a rterly m a n u fa ctu rin g o u tp u t in d e x e s
from the F ed eral R eserv e B oard are adjusted
to th ese annual o utp ut m easu res by the bls .
C o m p en sa tio n data are d e v e lo p ed from data
o f the B ureau o f E c o n o m ic A n a ly sis and the
B ureau o f L abor S ta tistics. H ours data are
d e v e lo p e d from data o f the B ureau o f Labor
S ta tistics.
T h e p r o d u c tiv ity and a s s o c ia te d c o s t
m ea su res in ta b les 4 8 - 5 1 d escrib e the rela­
tio n sh ip b e tw e en o utp ut in real term s and
the labor and capital inputs in v o lv ed in its
produ ction. T h ey sh o w the ch an ges from p e ­
riod to p erio d in the am oun t o f g o o d s and
se r v ic e s p ro d u ced per unit o f input.
A lth o u g h th ese m ea su res relate outp ut to
hou rs and cap ital se r v ic es, th ey do not m e a ­
sure the con trib u tio n s o f labor, cap ital, or
a n y o th e r s p e c if ic fa c to r o f p r o d u ctio n .
Rather, th ey r eflec t the jo in t e ffe c t o f m any
in flu e n c e s , in c lu d in g c h a n g e s in te c h n o l­
o g y ; sh ifts in the c o m p o sitio n o f the labor
force; cap ital in v estm en t; le v e l o f output;
c h a n g e s in the u tiliza tio n o f cap acity, e n ­
ergy, m a terial, and research and d e v e lo p ­


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Industry productivity
measures
Description of the series
T h e bls industry prod u ctivity in d ex e s m e a ­
sure the rela tio n sh ip b e tw e en ou tp u t and
inputs for se le c te d ind ustries and industry
groups, and thus r eflec t trends in industry
e ffic ie n c y o v er tim e. Industry m easu res in ­
c lu d e labor p rod u ctivity, m u ltifa cto r p ro­
d u c tiv ity , c o m p e n s a tio n , and u n it la b o r
c o sts.
T h e industry m easu res d iffer in m eth ­
o d o lo g y and data sou rces from the p rod u c­
tiv ity m ea su res for the m ajor se c to r s b e ­
ca u se the industry m easu res are d e v e lo p ed
in d ep en d en tly o f the N a tion al In co m e and
P rod uct A cco u n ts fram ew ork u sed for the
m ajor secto r m easures.

r ep resen ts th e f lo w o f s e r v ic e s fro m the
cap ital stock u sed in p rod u ction . It is d e ­
v e lo p ed from m easu res o f the n et sto ck o f
p h y s ic a l a s s e t s — e q u ip m e n t, str u c tu r e s ,
land, and in v en to ries. T h e m easu re o f in­
termediate purchases is a co m b in a tio n o f
p u rch a sed m a ter ia ls, s e r v ic e s , f u e ls , and
electricity.

Notes on the data
T h e industry m easu res are c o m p ile d from
data p rod u ced by the B ureau o f L abor S ta­
tistics and the B ureau o f the C e n su s, w ith
ad d ition al data su p p lied by oth er g o v e r n ­
m en t a g e n c ie s, trade a sso cia tio n s, and other
sou rces.
F or m o s t in d u str ie s, th e p r o d u c tiv ity
in d e x e s refer to the ou tp u t p er h ou r o f all
e m p lo y e e s. F or so m e trade and se r v ic e s in ­
d u stries, in d e x e s o f ou tp u t p er h ou r o f a ll
p erso n s (in c lu d in g se lf-e m p lo y e d ) are c o n ­
stru cted . F or s o m e tr a n sp o rta tio n in d u s­
tries, o n ly in d e x e s o f ou tp u t p er e m p lo y e e
are prepared .

FORadditional information on this s e ­
ries, con tact the D iv isio n o f Industry P ro­
d u ctiv ity Studies: (2 0 2 ) 6 9 1 - 5 6 1 8 .

Definitions
Output per hour is d erived by d iv id in g an
in d ex o f industry outp ut by an in d ex o f la­
bor input. For m o st ind ustries, output in ­
d e x e s are d erived from data on the v a lu e o f
industry output adju sted for p rice ch an ge.
For the rem aining ind ustries, output in d ex es
are d erived from data on the p h y sica l qu an­
tity o f produ ction.
The

labor input se r ie s c o n s is t o f the

hours o f all e m p lo y e e s (p rod u ction w orkers
and n on p rod u ction w ork ers), the hours o f
all p erson s (paid e m p lo y e e s, partners, pro­
prietors, and unpaid fa m ily w ork ers), or the
num ber o f e m p lo y e e s, d ep en d in g up on the
industry.

Unit labor costs r ep re se n t th e la b o r
c o m p e n sa tio n c o s ts p er un it o f ou tp u t p ro­
d u ced , and are d erived by d iv id in g an in d ex
o f labor co m p en sa tio n by an in d ex o f o u t­
put.

Labor compensation in clu d es p ayroll

as w e ll as su p p lem en tal p aym en ts, in clu d ­
in g both leg a lly required exp en d itu res and
p aym en ts for volun tary program s.

Multifactor productivity is d erived by
d iv id in g an in d ex o f industry outp ut by an
in d ex o f the co m b in ed inputs co n su m ed in
p rod u cin g that output.

Combined inputs

in clu d e cap ital, labor, and interm ediate pur­
ch a se s. T h e m easure o f capital input u sed

International Comparisons
(T ables 5 2 - 5 4 )

Labor force and
unemployment
Description of the series
T ables 5 2 and 53 p resen t com p arative m ea s­
ures o f the labor fo r ce , e m p lo y m en t, and
u n em p lo y m en t— a p p roxim atin g U .S . c o n ­
cep ts— for the U n ited S ta tes, C anada, A u s­
tralia, Japan, and sev era l E urop ean c o u n ­
tries. T h e u n em p lo y m e n t sta tistics (and, to
a lesse r exten t, e m p lo y m en t sta tistics) p u b ­
lish ed by oth er industrial cou n tries are not,
in m o st c a se s, co m p arab le to U .S . u n em ­
p lo y m e n t sta tistics. T h erefore, the B ureau
adjusts the fig u r es for s e le c te d cou n tries,
w h ere n ecessary, for all k n o w n m ajor d e fi­
nition al d iffe re n c es. A lth o u g h p r e cise c o m ­
p arability m ay n ot b e a c h iev e d , th ese ad­
ju sted figu res p rovid e a better b asis for in ­
tern a tio n a l c o m p a r is o n s than the fig u r e s
regu larly p u b lish e d b y e a ch cou n try. F or
fu rth er in fo r m a tio n o n a d ju stm e n ts an d
c o m p a r a b i li t y i s s u e s , s e e C o n s t a n c e
S o rren tin o , “In tern ation al u n e m p lo y m e n t
rates: h o w com p arab le are th e y ? ” M o n th ly
L a b o r R e v ie w , June 2 0 0 0 , pp. 3 - 2 0 .

Monthly Labor Review June 2004

89

Current Labor Statistics

Definitions
For the p rincip al U .S . d e fin itio n s o f the la­
bor force, employment, and unemploy­
ment, se e the N o te s sectio n on E m p loym en t
and U n em p lo y m e n t Data: H o u se h o ld sur­
v e y data.

Notes on the data
T h e adju sted sta tistics h ave b een adapted to
the a g e at w h ich co m p u lso ry sc h o o lin g en d s
in e a ch country, rather than to the U .S . stan­
dard o f 16 y ears o f a ge and older. T h ere­
fo r e , th e a d ju ste d s ta tis tic s rela te to the
p o p u la tio n a g ed 16 and o ld e r in F ran ce,
S w e d e n , and the U n ited K in gd om ; 15 and
o ld er in A u stralia, Japan, G erm any, Italy
fro m 1 9 9 3 o n w a rd , and the N eth erlan d s;
and 14 and o ld er in Italy prior to 199 3 . A n
e x c e p tio n to this rule is that the Canadian
sta tistics for 1 9 7 6 onw ard are adju sted to
c o v e r a g e s 16 and older, w h ereas the ag e at
w h ic h co m p u lso r y sc h o o lin g en d s rem ains
at 15. T h e in stitu tio n a l p o p u la tio n is in ­
c lu d ed in the d en o m in ator o f the labor force
p articipation rates and e m p lo y m en t-p o p u la ­
tio n ratios for Japan and G erm any; it is e x ­
clu d e d for the U n ited States and the other
co u n tries.
In the U .S . labor fo rce survey, person s
o n la y o f f w h o are a w a itin g recall to their
jo b s are c la s sifie d as u n em p loyed . E uropean
and J a p an ese la y o ff p ractices are qu ite d if­
feren t in nature from th o se in the U n ited
S tates; th erefo re, strict a p p lica tio n o f the
U .S . d e fin itio n has n ot b een m ade on this
p o in t. F or further in form ation , se e “U n e m ­
p lo y m e n t, la b o r fo r c e tren d s, and la y o f f
p ra ctices in 10 c o u n tr ies,” M o n th ly L a b o r
R e v ie w , D e ce m b e r 1 98 1 , pp. 3 - 1 2 .
T h e fig u r es for o n e or m ore recen t years
for F ran ce, G erm any, Italy, the N eth erlan d s,
and the U n ited K in g d om are c a lcu la ted u s­
in g a d ju stm en t factors b ased on labor force
su rv ey s fo r earlier y ears and are co n sid ered
p relim inary. T h e recen t-year m easu res for
th ese co u n tries, th erefore, are su b ject to re­
v isio n w h en ev e r data from m ore current la­
bor fo rce su rv ey s b e c o m e a vailab le.
T here are breaks in the data series for the
U n ite d S ta te s ( 1 9 9 0 , 1 9 9 4 , 1 9 9 7 , 1 9 9 8 ,
1 9 9 9 , 2 0 0 0 ), C anada (1 9 7 6 ) France (1 9 9 2 ),
G erm a n y ( 1 9 9 1 ) , Italy ( 1 9 9 1 , 1 9 9 3 ), the
N eth erla n d s (1 9 8 8 ), and S w ed en (1 9 8 7 ).
F or the U n ited S tates, the break in series
r eflec ts a m ajor red esig n o f the labor force
su rv ey q u estio n n a ire and c o lle c tio n m eth ­
o d o lo g y in tro d u ced in January 1 9 9 4 . R e ­
v is e d p o p u la tio n e s tim a te s b a s e d o n th e
1 9 9 0 c e n s u s , a d ju ste d fo r th e e stim a te d
u n d e rc o u n t, a ls o w e re in c o rp o ra te d . In

90

Monthly Labor Review


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1 9 9 6 , p r e v io u s ly p u b lish e d d ata fo r th e
1 9 9 0 -9 3 p eriod w ere r ev ised to r eflec t the
199 0 c en su s-b a se d pop u lation con trols, ad­
ju sted for the un dercount. In 1997, r ev ised
p op u lation con trols w ere introduced into the
h o u se h o ld survey. T h erefore, the data are
n ot strictly con p arab le w ith prior years. In
1998, n e w c o m p o site estim ation p roced ures
and m inor r ev isio n s in p op u lation con trols
w ere introduced into the h o u seh o ld survey.
T h erefore, the data are n ot strictly co m p a ­
rable w ith data for 1997 and earlier years.
S e e the N o te s se c tio n on E m p lo y m en t and
U n em p lo y m e n t D ata o f this R e v ie w .
bls recen tly introduced a n ew adjusted
series for C anada. B e g in n in g w ith the data
fo r 1 9 7 6 , C a n a d ia n d ata are ad ju sted to
m ore c lo s e ly ap p roxim ate U .S . c o n c ep ts.
A d ju stm en ts are m ade to the u n em p lo y ed
and labor force to exclu d e: (1 ) 15-year-olds;
(2 ) p a s siv e jo b see k e rs (p erson s o n ly read­
ing n ew sp ap er ads as their m eth od o f jo b
search); (3 ) p erson s w a itin g to start a n e w
jo b w h o d id n ot se e k w ork in the p ast 4
w eek s; and (4 ) p erson s u n availab le for w ork
du e to p erson al or fa m ily r esp o n sib ilities.
A n adju stm ent is m ad e to in clu d e fu ll-tim e
stu d en ts lo o k in g for fu ll-tim e w ork . T h e
im p act o f the adju stm ents w as to lo w er the
annual average u n em p lo y m en t rate by 0 .1 0 .4 p ercen tage p oin t in the 1 9 8 0 s and 0.4—
1.0 p ercen tage p oin t in the 1990s.
F or F ra n ce, th e 1 9 9 2 b reak r e fle c ts th e
s u b s t it u t io n o f s ta n d a r d iz e d E u r o p e a n
U n io n S ta tistic a l O ffic e (Eurostat) u n em ­
p lo y m e n t s ta tistic s for th e u n e m p lo y m e n t
d ata e stim a te d a c c o r d in g to th e In tern a­
tio n a l L ab or O f f ic e (ILO) d e fin itio n and
p u b lis h e d in th e O r g a n iz a tio n fo r E c o ­
n o m ic C o o p e r a t io n a n d D e v e l o p m e n t
(OECD) an n u al y e a r b o o k and qu arterly u p ­
d a te. T h is c h a n g e w a s m ad e b e c a u s e th e
EUROSTAT d ata are m o re u p -to -d a te than
th e OECD fig u r e s . A ls o , s in c e 1 9 9 2 , th e
EUROSTAT d e fin itio n s are c lo s e r to th e U .S .
d e fin itio n s than th ey w e r e in p rior y ea rs.
T h e im p a c t o f th is r e v is io n w a s to lo w e r
th e u n e m p lo y m e n t rate b y 0.1 p e r c e n ta g e
p o in t in 1 9 9 2 and 1 9 9 3 , b y 0 .4 p e r c e n t­
a g e p o in t in 1 9 9 4 , an d 0 .5 p e r c e n t a g e
p o in t in 1 9 9 5 .
F or G erm any, the data for 1991 onw ard
refer to u n ified G erm any. D ata prior to 1991
relate to the form er W est G erm any. T h e im ­
pact o f in clu d in g the form er E ast G erm any
w as to in crease the u n em p loym en t rate from
4 .3 to 5 .6 percent in 1991.
F or Ita ly , th e 1991 b reak r e fle c ts a re­
v is io n in th e m e th o d o f w e ig h tin g sa m p le
data. T h e im p a ct w a s to in c r e a se th e u n ­
e m p lo y m e n t rate b y a p p r o x im a te ly 0 .3
p e r c e n ta g e p o in t, from 6 .6 to 6 .9 p ercen t
in 1 9 9 1 .

June 2004

In O ctob er 199 2 , the su rvey m e th o d o l­
o g y w a s r ev ise d and the d e fin itio n o f u n em ­
p lo y m en t w as ch an ged to in clu d e o n ly th o se
w h o w ere a c tiv e ly lo o k in g for a jo b w ith in
the 3 0 d a y s p reced in g the su rvey and w h o
w ere a v a ila b le for w ork . In ad d itio n , the
low er age lim it for the labor force w a s raised
from 14 to 15 years. (Prior to th ese ch a n g es,
BLS ad ju sted I ta ly ’s p u b lish e d u n e m p lo y ­
m en t rate d ow n w ard by e x c lu d in g from the
u n e m p lo y e d th o s e p e r so n s w h o h a d n o t
a c tiv e ly so u g h t w ork in the p ast 3 0 d a y s.)
T h e break in the series a lso reflec ts the in ­
corp oration o f the 1991 p o p u la tio n c en su s
resu lts. T h e im p act o f th ese c h a n g e s w a s to
raise Ita ly ’s adju sted u n em p lo y m e n t rate by
ap p roxim ately 1.2 p ercen ta g e p o in ts, from
8 .3 to 9.5 p ercen t in fourth-quarter 1 9 9 2 .
T h ese ch a n g es d id n ot a ffec t e m p lo y m en t
sig n ifica n tly , e x c e p t in 19 9 3 . E stim a tes by
the Italian Statistical O ffic e in d icate that em ­
p lo y m e n t d e c lin e d by ab o u t 3 p e r ce n t in
1993, rather than the nearly 4 p ercen t in d i­
cated by the data sh o w n in tab le 5 2 . T h is
d ifferen ce is attributable m a in ly to the in ­
corp oration o f the 1991 p o p u la tio n b e n c h ­
m arks in the 1993 data. D ata for earlier years
h ave n ot b een adju sted to in corp orate the
1991 cen su s resu lts.
For the N eth erlan d s, a n e w su rv ey q u e s­
tion n aire w a s in trod u ced in 1 9 9 2 that a l­
lo w e d for a c lo se r ap p lica tio n o f ilo g u id e ­
lin es. EUROSTAT has r ev ise d the D u tch s e ­
r ie s b a c k to 1 9 8 8 b a s e d o n th e 1 9 9 2
c h a n g es. T h e 1988 r ev ise d u n em p lo y m en t
rate is 7 .6 percent; the p rev io u s estim a te for
the sam e year w a s 9 .3 p ercen t.
T here h a v e b een tw o breaks in series in
the S w e d is h labor fo rce su rvey, in 1 9 8 7 and
199 3 . A d ju stm en ts h a v e b een m ad e for the
1993 break b ack to 198 7 . In 19 8 7 , a n e w
q u estion n aire w as introduced. Q u estio n s re­
garding current av a ila b ility w ere ad d ed and
the p eriod o f a c tiv e w o r k see k in g w a s re­
d u c e d fro m 6 0 d a y s to 4 w e e k s . T h e s e
ch a n g es lo w ered S w e d e n ’s 1987 u n em p lo y ­
m en t rate by 0 .4 p ercen tage p oin t, from 2.3
to 1.9 percent. In 1993, the m easu rem en t p e ­
riod for the labor fo rce su rvey w as c h a n g ed
to rep resent all 5 2 w e ek s o f the yea r rather
than o n e w e ek ea ch m on th and a n e w ad­
ju stm en t for p o p u la tio n to ta ls w a s in tro ­
d u ced . T h e im p act w a s to raise the u n em ­
p lo y m en t rate by ap p roxim ately 0.5 p ercent­
a ge p oin t, from 7 .6 to 8.1 p ercen t. S ta tistics
S w ed en r ev ise d its labor fo rce su rv ey data
for 1 9 8 7 - 9 2 to take into acco u n t the break
in 1993. T h e adju stm ent raised the S w e d is h
u n em p lo y m en t rate by 0 .2 p ercen ta g e p oin t
in 198 7 and gradually ro se to 0.5 p ercen t­
ag e p o in t in 1992.
B e g in n in g w ith 1 9 8 7 , bls has adju sted
the S w e d is h data to c la s sify stu d en ts w h o

a lso so u g h t w ork as u n em p lo y ed . T h e im ­
pact o f this c h a n g e w a s to in crease the ad­
ju sted u n em p lo y m e n t rate by 0.1 p ercen t­
a g e p o in t in 1 9 8 7 and by 1.8 p e rcen ta g e
p o in ts in 1 9 9 4 , w h en u n em p lo y m e n t w as
higher. In 1998, the adjusted u n em p lo y m en t
rate had risen from 6 .5 to 8 .4 p ercen t du e to
the adju stm ent to in clu d e stu dents.
T h e n e t e f fe c t o f th e 1 9 8 7 and 1993
c h a n g e s and th e bls a d ju stm e n t for stu ­
d e n ts s e e k i n g w o r k lo w e r e d S w e d e n ’s
1 9 8 7 u n e m p lo y m e n t rate from 2 .3 to 2 .2
p ercen t.
For additional information on th is
series, co n ta ct the D iv is io n o f F oreign L a­
bor S tatistics: (2 0 2 ) 6 9 1 - 5 6 5 4 .

Manufacturing productivity
and labor costs
Description of the series
T able 5 4 presen ts co m p arative in d ex e s o f
m anufacturing labor productivity (output per
hour), output, total hou rs, co m p en sa tio n per
hour, and u n it labor c o s ts for the U n ited
S tates, C an ada, Japan, and n in e E uropean
co u n tries. T h e se m ea su res are trend c o m ­
p a r i s o n s — th a t i s , s e r ie s th a t m e a s u r e
ch a n g es o v er tim e— rather than le v e l c o m ­
p a riso n s. T h ere are greater tech n ica l prob­
lem s in co m p a rin g the le v e ls o f m an u fac­
turing o utp ut a m o n g co u n tries.
bls con stru cts the co m p arative in d ex es
from three b a sic ag g reg ate m easu res— o u t­
put, total labor hours, and total c o m p e n sa ­
tion. T h e hours and co m p en sa tio n m easures
refer to all e m p lo y ed person s (w a g e and sa l­
ary earners p lu s se lf-e m p lo y e d p erson s and
unpaid fa m ily w orkers) in the U n ited States,
C anada, Japan, F ran ce, G erm any, N orw ay,
and S w ed en , and to all e m p lo y ee s (w age and
salary earners) in the other cou n tries.

Definitions
Output, in gen era l, refers to v a lu e added in
m an u factu rin g from the n ational accou n ts
o f e a ch country. H o w ev er, the output s e ­
ries for Japan prior to 1970 is an in d ex o f
industrial p rod u ctio n , and the nation al a c­
co u n ts m ea su res for the U n ited K in gd om
are e sse n tia lly id en tica l to their in d ex e s o f
industrial produ ction.
T h e 1 9 7 7 - 9 7 outp ut data for the U n ited
S ta te s are th e g r o ss p rod u ct o r ig in a tin g
(v a lu e a d d ed ) m e a su r es prepared by the
Bureau o f E c o n o m ic A n a ly s is o f the U .S .
D e p a r tm e n t o f C o m m e r c e . C o m p a ra b le
m an u factu ring output data currently are not


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ava ila b le prior to 1977.
U .S . gross product originating is a chaintyp e an n u a l-w eig h ted series. (For m ore in ­
form ation on the U .S . m easure, see R obert
E . Y u s k a v a g e , “ Im p r o v e d E s tim a te s o f
G ross P rod uct by Industry, 1 9 5 9 - 9 4 ,” Su r­
v e y o f C u rre n t B u sin e ss, A u g u st 1996, pp.
1 3 3 -5 5 .) T h e Japan ese v a lu e add ed series
is b ased upon on e set o f fix e d p rice w eig h ts
for the years 197 0 through 1997. O utput
series for the other fo reig n e c o n o m ie s a lso
e m p lo y fix e d p rice w e ig h ts, but the w eig h ts
are updated p erio d ica lly (for ex a m p le, e v ­
ery 5 or 10 years).
To preserve the com parability o f the U .S .
m easu res w ith th o se for other e c o n o m ie s,
BLS u ses gross product origin atin g in m anu­
facturing for the U n ited States for these c o m ­
parative m easures. T h e g ross product o rig i­
natin g series d iffers from the m anufactur­
ing output series that bls p u b lish es in its
n ew s relea ses on quarterly m easures o f U .S .
prod u ctivity and c o sts (and that u n d erlies
the m easu res that appear in tab les 48 and
5 0 in this sectio n ). T h e quarterly m easu res
are on a “ sectoral outp ut” b asis, rather than
a valu e-ad d ed basis. Sectoral output is gross
outp ut le s s intrasector transactions.
Total labor hours refers to hours w orked
in all cou n tries. T he m easu res are d e v e l­
o p ed from statistics o f m anu factu ring e m ­
p loym en t and average hours. T h e series used
for F rance (from 197 0 forw ard ), N orw ay,
and S w e d e n are o ffic ia l se r ie s p u b lish ed
w ith the national accou n ts. W here o fficia l
total hours series are not availab le, the m ea ­
sures are d e v e lo p ed by bls u sin g e m p lo y ­
m ent figu res p u b lish ed w ith the national ac­
counts, or other com p reh en sive em p loym en t
s e r ie s , an d e s t i m a t e s o f a n n u a l h o u r s
w ork ed . For G erm any, bls u ses estim a tes
o f a verage hou rs w ork ed d e v e lo p e d by a
research institute co n n ected to the M in istry
o f L abor for u se w ith the n ational accou n ts
em p loym en t figures. For the other countries,
bls con stru cts its o w n estim a tes o f average
hours.
A n hours series is n ot ava ila b le for D e n ­
m ark after 1993; th erefo re, the bls m e a ­
sure o f labor inp ut for D en m ark en d s in
199 3 .
Total compensation (labor cost) in ­
clu d es all p aym en ts in cash or in -k in d m ade
directly to e m p lo y ee s p lu s em p lo y er e x p e n ­
ditures for leg a lly required insu ran ce pro­
~ gram s and contractual and private b en efit
plan s. T he m easu res are from the national
a ccou n ts o f ea ch country, e x ce p t th ose for
B e lg iu m , w h ich are d e v e lo p ed by BLS u sin g
statistics o n em p loym en t, average hours, and
hou rly co m p en sa tio n . For C anada, France,
and S w ed en , co m p en sa tio n is in creased to
a ccou n t for other sig n ifica n t taxes on p a y ­

roll or e m p lo y m en t. F or the U n ite d K in g ­
d om , com p en sation is reduced b etw een 1967
and 1991 to accou n t for em p loym en t-rela ted
su b s id ie s. S e lf-e m p lo y e d w ork ers are in ­
clu ded in the all-em p loyed -p erson s m easures
by assu m in g that their h ou rly co m p en sa tio n
is eq u al to the a verage for w a g e and salary
e m p lo y ee s.

Notes on the data
In general, the m easures relate to total m anu­
fa ctu rin g as d e fin e d b y th e In tern a tio n a l
Standard Industrial C lassification . H ow ever,
the m easu res for F rance (for all y ears) and
Italy (b egin n in g in 1970) refer to m in in g and
m anu factu ring less en ergy-related produ cts,
and the m easu res for D en m ark in clu d e m in ­
in g and e x c lu d e m anu factu ring han dicrafts
from 196 0 to 1966.
T h e m easu res for recen t years m ay be
b ased on current in d icators o f m anu factu r­
ing output (su ch as industrial p rod u ction in ­
d e x e s ) , e m p lo y m e n t, a v e ra g e h o u rs, and
hou rly co m p en sation until national accou n ts
and oth er sta tistics u sed for the lon g-term
m easu res b e c o m e availab le.
For additional information on this s e ­
ries, con tact the D iv is io n o f F o reig n Labor
Statistics: (2 0 2 ) 6 9 1 - 5 6 5 4 .

O ccupational Injury
and Illness Data
(T ables 5 5 - 5 6 )

Survey of Occupational
Injuries and Illnesses
Description of the series
T he Survey o f O ccupational Injuries and Ill­
n e sses c o lle cts data from em p lo y ers about
their w orkers’ job-related nonfatal injuries and
illn esses. The inform ation that em ployers pro­
vid e is based on records that they m aintain un­
der the O ccupational Safety and H ealth A ct o f
1970. S elf-em p loyed individuals, farms w ith
few er than 11 em p loyees, em ployers regulated
by other Federal safety and health law s, and
Federal, State, and local governm ent a gen cies
are exclud ed from the survey.
T h e su rvey is a F ed eral-S tate co o p era ­
tiv e program w ith an in d ep en d en t sa m p le
selected for each p articipating State. A strati­
fied random sa m p le w ith a N ey m a n a llo c a ­
tion is se le c te d to rep resent all p rivate in ­
du stries in the State. T h e su rvey is stratified

Monthly Labor Review June 2004

91

Current Labor Statistics
by Standard In d u strial C la s s ific a tio n and
siz e o f em p lo y m en t.

Definitions
U n d er the O ccu p a tio n a l S a fety and H ealth
A ct, e m p lo y ers m ain tain record s o f n on fatal w ork -rela ted injuries and illn e s s e s that
in v o lv e o n e or m ore o f the fo llo w in g : lo ss
o f c o n sc io u sn e s s, restriction o f w ork or m o ­
tio n , tra n sfer to a n o th er jo b , or m e d ic a l
treatm ent oth er than first aid.
Occupational injury is any injury su ch
as a cu t, fracture, sp rain, or am p u tation that
r e s u lt s fr o m a w o r k - r e la t e d e v e n t or a
s in g le , in sta n ta n eo u s e x p o su re in th e w ork
en v iro n m en t.
Occupational illness is an abnorm al c o n ­
d ition or disorder, other than on e resulting
from an o ccu p ation al injury, cau sed by e x ­
p osu re to fa ctors a sso cia te d w ith e m p lo y ­
m ent. It in clu d es acute and chronic illn e sses
or d isea se w h ich m ay be cau sed by inhala­
tion, absorption, in g estion , or direct contact.
Lost workday injuries and illnesses are
c a se s that in v o lv e d a y s aw ay from w ork , or
d a y s o f restricted w ork a ctivity, or both.
Lost workdays in clu d e the num ber o f
w ork d ays (c o n se cu tiv e or not) on w h ich the
e m p lo y ee w a s eith er aw ay from w ork or at
w ork in so m e restricted capacity, or both, b e ­
cau se o f an occu pational injury or illn ess, bls
m easu res o f the num ber and in cid en ce rate
o f lo st w orkd ays w ere d iscon tin u ed b eg in ­
nin g w ith the 1993 survey. T h e num ber o f
da ys a w ay from w ork or d ays o f restricted
w ork activ ity d o es not in clu d e the day o f in­
jury or o n set o f illn ess or any days on w h ich
the e m p lo y ee w o u ld n ot h ave w orked, su ch
as a F ed era l h o lid a y , e v e n th ou gh ab le to
work.

Incidence rates are c o m p u te d as th e
n u m ber o f injuries and/or illn e ss e s or lost
w o rk d a y s per 100 fu ll-tim e w orkers.

Notes on the data
T h e d e fin itio n s o f o ccu p a tio n a l injuries and
illn e s s e s are fro m R e c o r d k e e p in g G u id e ­
lin e s f o r O c c u p a tio n a l I n ju r ie s a n d I l l ­
n e ss e s (U .S . D epartm en t o f Labor, B ureau
o f L abor S ta tistics, S ep tem b er 1 986).
E stim ates are m ade for industries and em ­
p lo y m e n t s iz e c la s se s for total record ab le
ca ses, lo st w orkday cases, days aw ay from
w ork ca ses, and nonfatal cases w ithout lost
w orkdays. T h ese data also are sh ow n sepa­
rately for injuries. Illness data are available for
sev en categories: occupational skin d iseases
or disorders, dust d iseases o f the lun gs, respi­
ratory conditions due to toxic agents, p o ison ­
ing (sy stem ic effects o f toxic agents), disor­
ders due to p h ysical agents (other than toxic

92

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June 2004

m aterials), disorders associated w ith repeated
trauma, and all other occupational illnesses.
T he survey continues to m easure the num ­
ber o f n ew w ork-related illn ess cases w h ich
are recognized, diagn osed , and reported dur­
ing the year. S om e conditions, for exam ple,
long-term latent illn esses caused by exposure
to carcinogens, often are difficu lt to relate to
the w orkplace and are not adequately recog­
n ized and reported. T h ese long-term latent ill­
n esses are b elieved to be understated in the
su rvey’s illness m easure. In contrast, the over­
w h elm in g m ajority o f the reported n ew ill­
n esses are those w h ich are easier to directly
relate to workplace activity (for exam ple, con­
tact derm atitis and carpal tunnel syndrom e).
M ost o f the estim ates are in the form o f in­
cidence rates, defined as the number o f injuries
and illnesses per 100 equivalent full-tim e work­
ers. For this purpose, 200 ,0 0 0 em p loyee hours
represent 100 em p loyee years (2,000 hours per
em ployee). Full detail on the available m ea­
sures is presented in the annual bulletin, O ccu­
p a tio n a l Injuries a n d Illnesses: Counts, R ates,
a n d C haracteristics.
Com parable data for m ore than 4 0 States
and territories are available from the BLS O f­
fice o f Safety, H ealth and W ork in g C o n d i­
tion s. M any o f these States publish data on
State and local governm ent em p loyees in ad­
dition to private industry data.
M in in g and railroad data are furnished to
bls by the M in e Safety and H ealth A d m in is­
tration and the Federal Railroad Adm inistra­
tion. D ata from th ese organizations are in­
cluded in both the national and State data pub­
lished annually.
W ith the 1992 survey, BLS began publish­
ing details on serious, nonfatal incidents re­
sulting in days aw ay from work. Included are
som e major characteristics o f the injured and
ill workers, su ch as occupation, age, gender,
race, and length o f service, as w ell as the cir­
cum stan ces o f their injuries and illn esses (na­
ture o f the disabling condition, part o f body
affected, even t and exposure, and the source
directly producing the condition). In general,
these data are availab le nationw id e for d e­
tailed industries and for individual States at
m ore aggregated industry levels.

For additional information on occu pa­
tion al injuries and illn e ss e s , co n tact the O f­
f ic e o f O c c u p a tio n a l S a fe ty , H ea lth and
W orking C o n d itio n s at (2 0 2 ) 6 9 1 - 6 1 8 0 , or
a c ce ss the Internet at:

http ://www.bls.gov/iif/

Census of Fatal
Occupational Injuries
T h e C en su s o f Fatal O ccu p ation al Injuries
c o m p ile s a c o m p lete roster o f fatal jo b -r e ­

lated injuries, in clu d in g d eta iled data abou t
th e fa ta lly in ju red w o rk ers an d th e fa ta l
e v e n ts . T h e p ro g ra m c o ll e c t s an d c r o s s
c h e ck s fatality in form ation from m u ltip le
so u rces, in clu d in g death c er tific a tes, State
and F ederal w o rk ers’ c o m p en sa tio n reports,
O ccup ation al S afety and H ealth A d m in istra ­
tion and M in e S a fety and H ealth A d m in is­
tration record s, m e d ica l ex a m in er and au­
to p sy reports, m ed ia acco u n ts, S tate m otor
v e h ic le fatality record s, and fo llo w -u p q u es­
tion n aires to e m p lo y ers.
In a d d itio n to p r iv a te w a g e an d sa la r y
w o r k e rs, th e s e lf - e m p lo y e d , fa m ily m e m ­
b e r s, an d F e d e r a l, S ta te , an d lo c a l g o v ­
e rn m en t w o r k e r s are c o v e r e d b y th e p r o ­
g ram . T o b e in c lu d e d in th e f a ta lity c e n ­
s u s , th e d e c e d e n t m u s t h a v e b e e n e m ­
p lo y e d (th a t is w o r k in g fo r p a y , c o m p e n ­
sa tio n , or p r o fit) at th e tim e o f th e e v e n t,
e n g a g e d in a l e g a l w o r k a c t i v i t y , o r
p r e se n t at th e s ite o f th e in c id e n t as a r e ­
q u ir e m e n t o f h is or h e r jo b .

Definition
A fatal work injury is any in ten tion al or u n ­
in ten tion al w o u n d or d am age to the b o d y re­
sulting in death from acute exposure to energy,
su ch as heat or electricity, or kinetic energy
from a crash, or from the absen ce o f su ch e s­
sentials as heat or o x y g e n cau sed by a sp ecific
even t or incident or series o f even ts w ithin a
sin gle workday or shift. Fatalities that occur
during a p erson ’s com m u te to or from work
are exclu d ed from the cen su s, as w ell as w orkr e la te d i ll n e s s e s , w h ic h c a n b e d if f ic u lt
to identify due to lon g latency p erio d s.

Notes on the data
T w e n ty -e ig h t data e le m e n ts are c o lle c te d ,
co d ed , and tabulated in the fatality program ,
in clu d in g inform ation abou t the fa ta lly in ­
jured worker, the fatal in cid en t, and the m a ­
ch in ery or eq u ip m en t in v o lv e d . Su m m ary
w orker d em ograp h ic data and e v en t ch arac­
teristics are in clu d ed in a n ation al n e w s re­
lea se that is ava ila b le about 8 m o n th s after
the end o f the referen ce year. T h e C en su s o f
Fatal O ccu p ation al In juries w a s initiated in
1992 as a jo in t F ed eral-S tate effo rt. M o st
S ta tes is s u e su m m ary in fo r m a tio n at the
tim e o f the n ation al n e w s relea se.
F or additional information o n the
C en su s o f Fatal O ccu p ation al Injuries c o n ­
tact the bls O ffic e o f S a fety , H ealth , and
W orking C on d ition s at (2 0 2 ) 6 9 1 - 6 1 7 5 , or
the Internet at:

http ://www.bls.gov/iifr

1. Labor market indicators
Selected indicators

2002

2002

2003
1

II

2003
III

IV

I

2004

II

III

IV

1

E m p lo y m e n t d a ta

Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional
population (household survey):1
Labor force participation rate................................................

66.6

66.2

66.6

66.7

66.6

66.5

66.3

66.4

66.2

Employment-population ratio.......................................

66.1

66.0

62.7

62.3

62.8

62.8

62.8

62.5

62.4

62.3

62.1

62.3

62.2

Unemployment rate.........................................
Men..................................................
16 to 24 years.....................................................
25 years and older.........................................
Women.....................................................
16 to 24 years...........................................
25 years and older........................................

5.8

6.0

5.6

5.9

5.8

5.9

5.8

6.1

6.1

5.9

5.6

5.9

6.3

5.7

6.0

5.9

6.1

6.1

6.5

6.4

6.1

5.7

12.8

13.4

12.9

12.8

13.1

12.5

12.6

14.0

13.8

13.1

12.5

4.7

5.0

4.5

4.8

4.7

4.9

5.0

5.2

5.1

4.9

4.5

5.6

5.7

5.5

5.7

5.6

5.7

5.5

5.7

5.8

5.6

5.6

11.1

11.4

11.0

11.2

10.9

11.4

11.2

11.8

11.5

10.9

11.1

4.6

4.6

4.4

4.8

4.6

4.6

4.5

4.6

4.7

4.6

4.5

Employment, nonfarm (payroll data), in thousands:1
Total nonfarm...........................................
Total private..............................................
Goods-producing.................................
Manufacturing......................................
Service-providing.............................

130,341

129,932

130,448

130,389

130,287

130,248

130,047

129,878

129,820

130,005

130,327

108,828

108,356

109,046

108,895

108,736

108,654

108,428

108,309

108,260

108,457

108,780

22,557

21,817

22,867

22,638

22,466

22,252

22,025

21,848

21,718

21,677

21,706

15,259

14,524

15,504

15,347

15,197

14,979

14,775

14,570

14,410

14,337

14,311

107,789

108,115

107,581

107,751

107,821

107,995

108,022

108,030

108,102

108,328

108,621

Average hours:
Total private.............................................
Manufacturing...............................................
Overtime................................................

33.9

33.7

33.8

33.9

33.9

33.8

33.8

33.7

33.6

33.7

33.8

40.5

40.4

40.3

40.6

40.4

40.4

40.4

40.2

40.2

40.6

41.0

4.2

4.2

4.0

4.3

4.3

4.2

4.2

4.1

4.1

4.4

4.6

14

E m p lo y m e n t C o s t In d e x 2

Percent change in the ECI, compensation:
All workers (excluding farm, household and Federal workers).....

3.4

3.8

1.0

.9

.9

.6

1.4

.8

1.1

5

3.2

4.0

1.1

1.1

.6

.4

1.7

.8

1.0

.4

1.5

Goods-producing3................................

3.7

4.0

1.2

.9

.6

.9

1.8

.9

.7

.5

2.3

Service-providing3..................................

3.1
4.1

4.0
3.3

1.1
.6

1.2
.4

.6
2.2

.2
.9

1.5
.7

.8
.4

1.1
1.7

.5

.7

Private industry workers....................................

State and local government workers
Workers by bargaining status (private industry):
Union..................................................
Nonunion...........................................

4.2

4.6

1.1

1.0

1.2

.9

1.6

3.2

3.9

1.1

1.1

,5|

.4

1.6

Quarterly data seasonally adjusted.
2 Annual changes are December-to-December changes. Quarterly changes are calculated

1

5

1.2

1.0

.7

2.8

.8

1.0

.4

1.3

Note : Beginning in January 2003, household survey data reflect revised population
controls. Nonfarm data reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the North American

using the last month of each quarter.

Industry Classification System (n a ic s ), replacing the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)

3 Goods-producing industries include mining, construction, and manufacturing. Service­

system. NAics-based data by industry are not comparable with sic-based data.

providing industries include all other private sector industries.


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June 2004

93

Current Labor Statistics: Comparative Indicators

2. Annual and quarterly percent changes in compensation, prices, and productivity
I

II

2004

2003

2002

2003

2002

Selected measures

IV

III

I

III

II

IV

I

C o m p e n s a t io n d a t a 1’2

Employment Cost Index— compensation (wages,
salaries, benefits):
Civilian nonfarm.........................................................................

3.4

3.8

1.0

0.9

0.9

0.6

1.4

0.8

1.1

0.5

1.4

Private nonfarm....................................................................

3.2

4.0

1.1

1.1

.6

.4

1.7

.8

1.0

.4

1.5

Employment Cost Index— wages and salaries:
Civilian nonfarm.......................................................................

2.9

2.9

.9

.8

.7

.4

1.0

.6

.9

.3

.6

Private nonfarm....................................................................

2.7

3.0

.9

1.0

.4

.3

1.1

.7

.8

.4

.7

2.3

2.3

.7

.5

.6

-.1

1.8

- .3

-.2

-.2

1.2

P r ic e d a t a 1

Consumer Price Index (All Urban Consumers): All Items.....
Producer Price Index:
Finished goods...........................................................................

3.2

3.2

1.1

.2

.2

-.1

3.7

-.8

.3

.0

1.2

Finished consumer goods.....................................................

4.2

4.2

1.5

.4

.0

-.3

2.4

1.8

.3

.0

1.5

Capital equipment...................................................................

.4

.4

2.9

-.3

- .7

.6

.6

-.6

-.1

.0

.6

Intermediate materials, supplies, and components...............

4.6

4.6

.9

1.1

1.1

.1

6.5

-2.1

-.1

.0

2.5

Crude materials...........................................................................

25.2

25.2

8.0

37.1

1.9

6.5

28.0

-10.6

3.4

14.4

6.0

4.9

4.5

8.4

1.5

4.9

2.0

3.5

7.2

8.7

1.8

4.6

5.0

4.4

9.8

.7

4.5

2.3

3.4

6.2

9.5

2.5

3.8

5.1

5.8

4.6

6.0

4.9

4.9

2.4

9.7

9.5

4.3

2.3

P r o d u c t iv ity d a ta 3

Output per hour of all persons:
Business sector...........................................................................

1

Annual changes are December-to-December changes.

Quarterly changes are

3 Annual rates of change are computed

by comparing annual averages.

calculated using the last month of each quarter. Compensation and price data are not

Quarterly percent changes reflect annual rates of change in quarterly indexes.

seasonally adjusted, and the price data are not compounded.

The data are seasonally adjusted.

2

Excludes Federal and private household workers.

4 Output per hour of all employees.

3. Alternative measures of wage and compensation changes
Four quarters ending—

Quarter change

I
Average hourly compensation:1
All persons, business sector..............................................................
All persons, nonfarm business sector..............................................

IV

III

II

I

I

2004

2003

2004

2003

Components

III

II

IV

I

4.8
4.0

5.3
4.9

4.1
4.7

3.8
4.2

5.9
4.6

2.6
2.5

3.4
3.1

4.1
4.0

4.5
4.5

4.8
4.6

1.4
1.7
1.6
1.6
.7

.8
.8
1.2
.8
.4

1.1
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.7

.5
.4
.7
.4
.5

1.4
1.5
2.8
1.3
.7

3.9
3.8
4.7
3.6
4.2

3.7
3.5
5.0
3.3
4.1

3.9
4.0
4.8
3.8
3.6

3.8
4.0
4.6
3.9
3.3

3.8
3.9
5.7
3.6
3.3

1.0
1.1
.5
1.2
.4

.6
.7
.7
.7
.3

.9
.8
.6
.9
1.0

.3
.4
.6
.2
.4

.6
.7
.6
.7
.4

2.9
3.0
3.3
2.9
3.1

2.7
2.6
3.0
2.5
3.1

2.9
3.0
2.6
3.1
2.3

2.9
3.0
2.4
3.1
2.1

2.5
2.6
2.5
2.6
2.1

Employment Cost Index— compensation:
Civilian nonfarm ..................................................................................
Union..................................................................................................
Nonunion...........................................................................................
State and local governments...........................................................
Employment Cost Index—wages and salaries:
Civilian nonfarm ..................................................................................

Nonunion..........................................................................................
State and local governments...........................................................

1 Seasonally adjusted. "Quarterly average" is percent change from a quarter ago, at an annual rate.
2 Excludes Federal and household workers.

94

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June 2004

4. Employment status of the population, by sex, age, race, and Hispanic origin, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]_____________
Employment status

Annual average
2002

2003

2004

2003

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

221,168
146,510
66.2
137,736

220,540
146,377
66.4
137,578

220,768
146,462
66.3
137,505

221,014
146,917
66.5
137,673

221,252
146,652
66.3
137,604

221,507
146,622
66.2
137,693

221,779
146,610
66.1
137,644

222,039
146,892
66.2
138,095

222,279
147,187
66.2
138,533

222,509
146,878
66.0
138,479

222,161
146,863
66.1
138,566

222,357
146,471
65.9
138,301

222,550
146,650
65.9
138,298

222,757
146,741
65.9
138,576

62.3
8,774
6.0
74,658

62.3
8,799
6.0
74,163

62.3
8,957
6.1
74,306

62.3
9,245
6.3
74,097

62.2
9,048
6.2
74,600

62.2
8,929
6.1
74,884

62.1
8,966
6.1
75,168

62.2
8,797
6.0
75,147

62.3
8,653
5.9
75,093

62.2

62.4
8,297
5.6
75,298

62.2

8,398
5.7
75,631

8,170
5.6
75,886

62.1
8,352
5.7
75,900

62.2
8,164
5.6
76,016

99,170
74,871
75.5
71,118

TO TAL

Civilian noninstitutional
population1......................... 217,570
Civilian labor force............ . 144,863
Participation rate........
66.6
Employed....................... 136,485
Employment-pop­
62.7
ulation ratio2............
Unemployed..................
8,378
Unemployment rate...
5.8
Not in the labor force.......
72,707
M en, 20 yea rs a n d o ver

Civilian noninstitutional
population1.........................
Civilian labor force.............
Participation rate........
Employed.......................
Employment-pop­

96,439

98,272

97,979

98,083

98,196

98,304

98,434

98,568

98,696

98,814

98,927

98,866

98,966

99,065

73,630
76.3
69,734

74,623
75.9
70,415

74,510
76.0
70,290

74,523
76.0
70,182

74,675
76.0
70,190

74,660
75.9
70,269

74,682
75.9
70,324

74,905
76.0
70,596

74,942
75.9
70,726

75,188
76.1
70,964

75,044
75.9
71,099

75,171
76.0
71,329

74,797
75.6
70,969

75,018
75.7
71,128

ulation ratio2.............
Unemployed..................
Unemployment rate...
Not in the labor force........

72.3
3,896
5.3
22,809

71.7
4,209
5.6
23,649

71.7
4,220
5.7
23,469

71.6
4,341
5.8
23,560

71.5
4,485
6.0
23,521

71.5
4,391
5.9
23,644

71.4
4,358
5.8
23,751

71.6
4,309
5.8
23,663

71.7
4,216
5.6
23,754

71.8
4,224
5.6
23,620

71.9
3,945
5.3
23,882

72.1

71.7

71.8

3,842
5.1
23,694

3,828
5.1
24,168

3,890
5.2
24,047

71.7
3,753
5.0
24,299

population1..........................
Civilian labor force.............
Participation rate.........
Employed........................
Employment-pop-

105,136

106,800

106,510

106,839

106,957

107,080

107,197

107,131

107,216

107,299

107,389

64,632
60.7
61,343

64,989
60.9
61,610

64,835
60.7
61,479

64,836
60.6
61,467

64,608
60.3
61,191

64,899
60.5
61,524

107,303
64,917
60.5
61,597

107,404

64,716
60.6
61,402

106,613
64,699
60.7
61,397

106,724

63,648
60.5
60,420

64,846
60.4
61,521

64,515
60.2
61,260

64,629
60.3
61,456

64,687
60.3
61,373

64,785
60.3
61,571

ulation ratio2.............
Unemployed...................
Unemployment rate....
Not in the labor force........

57.5
3,228
5.1
41,488

57.5
3,314
5.1
42,083

57.6
3,289
5.1
41,878

27.6
3,302
5.1
41,914

57.7
3,379
5.2
41,735

57.5
3,356
5.2
42,004

57.5
3,369
5.2
42,121

57.1
3,417
5.3
42,472

57.4
3,375
5.2
42,299

57.4
3,320
5.1
42,387

57.3
3,326
5.1
42,558

57.2
3,255
5.0
42,617

57.3
3,172
4.9
42,587

57.2
3,314
5.1
42,613

57.3
3,215
5.0
42,604

15,994

16,096

16,051

16,072

16,095

16,109

16,116

16,131

16,145

16,162

16,175

16,186

16,198

7,170
44.5
5,919

7,235
45.1
5,945

7,240
45.0
5,926

7,254
45.1
5,873

7,157
44.4
5,856

7,104
44.1
5,902

7,097
44.0
5,857

7,051
43.7
5,846

7,082
43.8
5,972

16,178
6,987
43.2
5,859

16,164

7,585
47.4
6,332

7,177
44.4
5,977

7,045
43.6
5,875

6,945
42.9
5,797

7,085
43.7
5,888

39.6
1,253
16.5
8,409

36.8
1,251
17.5
8,926

37.0
1,290
17.8
8,816

36.9
1,314
18.1
8,832

36.5
1,381
19.0
8,841

36.4
1,301
18.2
8,952

36.6
1,202
16.9
9,012

36.3
1,240
17.5
9,034

36.2
1,205
17.1
9,094

37.0
1,109
15.7
9,080

36.2
1,128
16.1
9,191

37.0
1,200
16.7
8,987

36.3
1,170
16.6
9,130

35.8
1,148
16.5
9,240

36.3
1,197
16.9
9,113

population1.......................... 179,783
Civilian labor force.............. 120,150
Participation rate........
66.8
Employed........................ 114,013
Employment-pop63.4
ulation ratio2..............
Unemployed...................
6,137
Unemployment rate....
5.1
Not in the labor force......... 59,633

181,292

180,873
120,514
66.6
114,220

181,021

181,184

181,341

121,041
66.5
114,783

182,185
120,751
66.3
114,678

120,723
66.4
114,765

182,001
120,540
66.2
114,602

182,252

120,645
66.5
114,086

181,871
120,736
66.4
114,535

182,001

120,816
66.7
114,222

181,696
120,411
66.3
114,015

181,879

120,470
66.6
113,978

181,512
120,658
66.5
114,156

182,032

120,546
66.5
114,235

120,542
66.2
114,433

120,675
66.2
114,712

63.0
6,311
5.2
60,746

63.1
6,294
5.2
60,359

63.0
6,491
5.4
60,551

63.0
6,594
5.5
60,368

62.9
6,559
5.4
60,696

62.9
6,502
5.4
60,854

62.8
6,397
5.3
61,285

63.0
6,200
5.1
61,135

63.1
6,258
5.2
60,991

62.9
6,073
5.0
61,434

63.1
5,958
4.9
61,156

63.0
5,938
4.9
61,460

62.8
6,109
5.1
61,579

62.9
5,963
4.9
61,577

25,578

25,686

25,587

25,624

25,664

25,702

25,742

25,784

25,825

25,867

25,967

16,521
64.6
14,739

16,614
64.8
14,838

16,655
64.9
14,729

16,563
64.4
14,727

16,585
64.4
14,771

166,677
64.7
14,826

16,589
64.2
14,696

16,365
63.2
14,679

16,602
64.2
14,886

25,900
16,404
63.3
14,804

25,932

16,526
64.3
14,739

25,860
16,524
63.9
14,812

25,894

16,565
64.8
14,872

16,595
64.0
14,909

16,485
63.5
14,878

58.1
1,693
10.2
9,013

57.4
1,787
10.8
9,161

57.6
1,782
10.8
9,066

57.9
1,776
10.7
9,011

57.4
1,926
11.6
9,009

57.3
1,836
11.1
9,139

57.4
1,813
10.9
9,127

57.5
1,851
11.1
9,107

56.9
1,893
11.4
9,236

57.3
1,712
10.4
9,336

56.7
1,686
10.3
9,529

57.5
1,736
10.5
9,265

57.2
1,600
9.8
9,495

57.2
1,686
10.2
9,337

57.3
1,607
9.7
9,482

W o m en , 20 yea rs a n d o v er

Civilian noninstitutional

B o th s e x e s , 1 6 to 19 y e a r s

Civilian noninstitutional
population1..........................
Civilian labor force..............
Participation rate.........
Employed........................
Employment-pop­
ulation ratio2.............
Unemployed...................
Unemployment rate....
Not in the labor force.........
W h it e 3

Civilian noninstitutional

B la c k o r A fric a n A m e r ic a n 3

Civilian noninstitutional
population1..........................
Civilian labor force..............
Participation rate.........
Employed........................
Employment-population ratio2..............
Unemployed...................
Unemployment rate....
Not in the labor force.........
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

95

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

4. Continued—Employment status of the population, by sex, age, race, and Hispanic origin, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status

Annual average

2004

2003

2002

2003

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

25,963
17,943
69.1
16,590

27,551
18,813
68.3
17,372

27,191
18,779
68.8
17,350

27,391
18,763
68.5
17,247

27,494
18,840
68.5
17,290

27,597
18,770
68.0
17,247

27,701
18,843
68.0
173 83

27,808
18,877
67.9
17,456

27,913
18,940
67.9
17,556

28,016
19,125
68.3
17,709

28,116
19,035
67.7
17,784

27,619
18,811
68.1
17,441

27,705
18,693
67.5
17,303

27,791
19,010
68.4
17,596

27,879
19,064
68.4
17,693

63.9
1,353
7.5
8,020

63.1
1,441
7.7
8,738

63.6
1,428
7.6
8,512

63.0
1,516
8.1
8,628

62.9
1,550
8.2
8,654

62.5
1,523
8.1
8,828

62.8
1,460
7.8
8,858

62.8
1,421
7.5
8,931

62.9
1,383
7.3
8,974

63.2
1,416
7.4
8,891

63.3
1,250
6.6
9,082

63.2
1,370
7.3
8,807

62.5
1,389
7.4
9,012

63.3
1,414
7.4
8,781

63.5
1,371
7.2
8,815

Hispanic or Latino
ethnicity
Civilian noninstltutional
Civilian labor force..............
Participation rate.........
Employment-popUnemployed...................
Unemployment rate...
Not In the labor force.........

1 The population figures are not seasonally adjusted.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white and black or African American) do not sum

2 Civilian employment as a percent of the civilian nonlnstitutlonal population.

to totals because data are not presented for all races. In addition, persons whose ethnicity Is
Identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race and, therefore, are classified by ethnicity as

3 Beginning in 2003, persons who selected this race group only; persons who selected
more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, persons who reported more

well as by race. Beginning In January 2003, data reflect revised population controls used In the
household survey.

than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race.

5. Selected employment indicators, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
Selected categories

2004

2003

Annual average

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

138,479
74,085
64,394

138,566
74,343
64,223

138,301
73,901
64,400

138,298
74,006
64,292

138,576
74,053
64,523

45,152

45,431

45,490

45,128

45,043

44,735

34,585

34,502

34,256

34,339

2002

2003

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

136,845
72,903
63,582

137,736
73,332
64,404

137,578
73,150
64,427

137,505
73,049
64,456

137,673
73,124
64,548

137,604
73,149
64,455

137,693
73,263
64,431

137,644
73,488
64,155

138,095
73,643
64,452

138,533
73,915
64,618

44,116

44,653

44,525

44,476

44,459

44,747

44,659

44,566

44,684

C h a r a c te r is tic

Employed, 16 years and over..

Married men, spouse
Married women, spouse
34,155

34,695

34,634

34,494

34,627

34,648

34,684

34,612

34,993

35,076

35,034

4,213

4,701

4,758

4,610

4,615

4,661

4,498

4,896

4,800

4,880

4,788

4,714

4,437

4,733

4,574

2,788

3,118

3,172

3,069

3,136

3,113

3,063

3,185

3,030

3,226

3,205

2,996

2,865

3,011

2,819

1,427

1,439

19,006

19,000

P e r s o n s a t w o r k p a rt tim e '

All industries:
Part time for economic
Slack work or business
Could only find part-time
1,124

1,279

1,255

1,264

1,266

1,296

1,201

1,334

1,356

1,350

1,295

1,380

1,347

18,843

19,014

18,933

19,703

19,382

19,089

19,482

19,021

18,935

19,110

18,561

18,905

18,900

4,119

4,596

4,643

4,498

4,500

4,568

4,404

4,794

4,690

4,782

4,727

4,613

4,328

4,622

4,471

2,911

2,778

2,927

2,756

Part time for noneconomic
Nonagricultural industries:
Part time for economic
Slack work or business
2,726

3,052

3,098

3,012

3,064

3,071

2,989

3,127

2,964

3,153

3,144

1,114

1,264

1,249

1,236

1,244

1,273

1,191

1,335

1,349

1,353

1,279

1,399

1,340

1,414

1,431

18,487

18,658

18,571

18,653

18,930

18,651

19,016

18,633

18,628

18,752

18,367

18,636

18,691

18,693

18,664

Could only find part-time
Part time for noneconomic
reasons.............................

1 Excludes persons "with a job but not at work" during the survey period for such reasons as vacation, illness, or Industrial disputes.
NOTE:

96

Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population controls used in the household survey.

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June 2004

6. Selected unemployment indicators, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[Unemployment rates]________________________________________________________
Annual average
Selected categories

2002

2003

2003

2004

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

Characteristic
5.8
16.5
5.3
5.1

6.0
17.5
5.6
5.1

6.0
17.8
5.7
5.1

6.1
18.1
5.8
5.1

6.3
19.0
6.0
5.2

6.2
18.2
5.9
5.2

6.1
16.9
5.8
5.2

6.1
17.5
5.8
5.3

6.0
17.1
5.6
5.2

5.9
15.7
5.6
5.1

5.7
16.1
5.3
5.1

5.6
16.7
5.3
5.0

5.6
16.6
5.1
4.9

5.7
16.5
5.2
5.1

5.6
16.9
5.0
5.0

5.1
14.5
15.9
13.1
4.7
4.4

5.2
15.2
17.1
13.3
5.0
4.4

5.2
15.3
17.4
13.2
5.0
4.3

5.4
15.3
17.1
13.6
5.2
4.5

5.5
16.2
17.6
14.8
5.3
4.4

5.4
15.7
17.9
13.3
5.3
4.4

5.4
15.1
16.5
13.7
5.3
4.4

5.3
15.1
17.6
12.6
5.0
4.5

5.1
14.3
15.9
12.6
4.9
4.4

5.2
14.3
16.8
11.5
5.0
4.4

5.0
14.8
16.3
13.1
4.7
4.3

4.9
14.1
14.0
14.2
4.5
4.4

4.9
15.2
15.5
14.9
4.5
4.2

5.1
14.8
16.2
13.3
4.7
4.4

4.9
15.7
17.9
13.3
4.5
4.2

Men, 16 to 19 years.........................
Women, 16 to 19 years...................
Men, 20 years and older....................
Women, 20 years and older...............

10.2
29.8
31.3
28.3
9.5
8.8

10.8
33.0
36.0
30.3
10.3
9.2

10.8
32.9
37.1
29.3
10.4
9.1

10.7
35.8
41.1
31.3
11.0
8.0

11.6
38.5
36.5
40.3
11.0
9.6

11.1
35.1
37.1
33.4
10.3
9.6

10.9
29.8
27.8
31.5
10.5
9.7

11.1
32.7
34.2
31.4
11.0
9.2

11.4
37.3
40.9
33.2
10.5
9.8

10.4
28.9
32.5
25.7
10.1
9.1

10.3
27.3
28.4
26.5
9.3
9.7

10.5
32.5
42.1
25.8
9.6
9.1

9.8
25.1
29.6
21.9
9.4
8.8

10.2
29.4
36.6
22.8
9.2
9.3

9.7
28.3
30.9
26.1
9.3
8.7

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity....................

7.5

7.7

7.6

8.1

8.2

8.1

7.8

7.5

7.3

7.4

6.6

7.3

7.4

7.4

7.2

Married men, spouse present................
Married women, spouse present..........
Full-time workers.....................................
Part-time workers.....................................

3.6
3.7
5.9
5.2

3.8
3.7
6.1
5.5

3.8
3.7
6.1
5.4

3.9
3.7
6.2
5.6

4.3
3.9
6.4
5 .9

3.9
3.9
6.3
5.5

3.9
3.9
6.2
5.3

3.8
3.9
6.2
5.7

3.8
3.8
6.1
5.5

3.7
3.8
6.1
5.1

3.3
3.9
5.8
5.3

3.3
3.7
5.7
5.4

3.4
3.6
5.6
5.2

3.2
3.7
5.8
5.4

3.1
3.7
5.6
5.3

Less than a high school diploma................

8.4

8.8

8.5

9.1

9.4

8.8

9.3

8.7

8.8

8.5

8.1

8.8

8.5

8.8

8.7

High school graduates, no college3............
Some college or associate degree.............

5.3
4.5

5.5
4.8

5.7
4.7

5.5
4.9

5.7
4.9

5.5
5.0

5.4
4.7

5.4
4.8

5.5
4.8

5.4
4.8

5.5
4.5

4.9
4.5

5.0
4.4

5.3
4.7

5.2
4.1

Bachelor's degree and higher4....................

2.9

3.1

3.1

3.1

3.1

3.1

3.1

3.2

3.1

3.1

3.0

2.9

2.9

2.9

2.9

Total, 16 years and older.............................
Men, 20 years and older..........................
Women, 20 years and older....................
White, total1...............................................
Both sexes, 16 to 19 years................
Men, 16 to 19 years.........................
Women, 16 to 19 years...................
Men, 20 years and older....................
Women, 20 years and older..............
Black or African American, total1...........

Educational attainment2

Beginning in 2003, persons who selected this race group only; persons who

3 Includes high school diploma or equivalent.

selected more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, persons who

4 Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the
main race.

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population controls used in the

2 Data refer to persons 25 years and older.

7.

household survey.

D u r a tio n o f u n e m p l o y m e n t , m o n th ly d a t a s e a s o n a lly a d ju s t e d

[Numbers in thousands]
Weeks of
unemployment

Annual average
2002

2003

2004

2003
Apr.

May

June

2,815
2,625

3,033
2,617
3,294
1,380
1,914

2,937
2,787

19.6
11.7

5 to 14 weeks.....................................
15 weeks and over............................

2,893
2,580
2,904

15 to 26 weeks...............................
27 weeks and over.........................

1,369
1,535

2,785
2,612
3,378
1,442
1,936

Mean duration, in weeks..................

16.6

19.2

19.4

19.2

Median duration, in weeks...............

9.1

10.1

10.1

10.1

3,318
1,399
1,919

3,510
1,500
2,010

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

2,739
2,698
3,559
1,598
1,961

2,735
2,630
3,561
1,561
2,001

2,749
2,736
3,511
1,438
2,073

2,733
2,585
3,478
1,460
2,018

2,622
2,556
3,484

2,627

2,612
2,394

2,468
2,412
3,274

2,589
2,414

1,448
2,036

2,450
3,403
1,513
1,890

3,365
1,467
1,898

1,403
1,871

3,320
1,332
1,988

2,792
2,369
2,969
1,170
1,800

19.3

19.2

19.6

19.4

20.0

19.6

19.8

20.3

20.1

19.7

10.1

10.0

10.1

10.3

10.4

10.4

10.7

10.3

10.3

9.5

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population controls used in the household survey.


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Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

97

Current Labor Statistics:

8.

Labor Force Data

Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[Numbers in thousands]
Reason for
unemployment
Job losers1.........................................
On temporary layoff......................
Not on temporary layoff.................
Job leavers.........................................
Reentrants.........................................
New entrants......................................

Annual average
2002

2003

4,607
1,124
3,483
866
2,368
536

4,838
1,121
3,717
818
2,477
641

2003

2004

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

4,851
1,112
3,739
818
2,517
633

5,021
1,197
3,824
778
2,506
635

4,972
1,177
3,795
890
2,646
642

4,947
1,173
3,774
798
2,522
661

4,939
1,092
3,847
790
2,530
650

4,947
1,110
3,837
836
2,436
684

4,877
1,097
3,780
789
2,518
653

4,719
1,055
3,664
931
2,440
619

4,618
1,060
3,558
783
2,366
694

4,382
1,028
3,353
804
2,509
681

4,323
1,064
3,258
827
2,424
676

4,607
1,040
3,567
836
2,424
627

4,399
994
3,405
822
2,314
645

P e r c e n t o f u n e m p lo y e d

Job losers1..........................................
On temporary layoff......................
Not on temporary layoff.................
Job leavers.........................................
Reentrants.........................................
New entrants......................................

55.0

55.1

55.0

56.2

54.3

55.4

55.4

55.6

55.2

54.2

54.6

52.3

52.4

54.2

53.8

13.4
41.6
10.3
28.3
6.4

12.8
42.4
9.3
28.2
7.3

12.6
42.4
9.3
28.5
7.2

13.4
42.8
8.7
28.0
7.1

12.9
41.5
9.7
28.9
7.0

13.1
42.3
8.9
28.2
7.4

12.3
43.2
8.9
28.4
7.3

12.5
43.1
9.4
27.4
7.7

12.4
42.8
8.9
28.5
7.4

12.1
42.1
10.7
28.0
7.1

12.5
42.0
9.3
28.0
8.2

12.3
40.0
9.6
30.0
8.1

12.9
39.8
10.0
29.4
8.2

12.2
42.0
9.8
28.5
7.4

12.1
41.6
10.1
28.3
7.9

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.4

3.4

3.4

3.4

3.4

3.3

3.2

3.1

3.0

3.0

3.1

3.0

.6
1.6
.4

.6
1.7
.4

.6
1.7
.4

.5
1.7
.4

.6
1.8
.4

.5
1.7
.5

.5
1.7
.4

.6
1.7
.5

.5
1.7
.4

.6
1.7

.5
1.6
.4

.5
1.7
.5

.6
1.7
.5

.6
1.7
.4

.6
1.6
.4

P e r c e n t o f c iv ilia n
l a b o r fo r c e

Job losers1.........................................
Job leavers.........................................
Reentrants..........................................
New entrants......................................

1 Includes persons who completed temporary jobs.
NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population controls used in the household survey.

9.

Unemployment rates by sex and age, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[Civilian workers]
Sex and age

Annual average
2002

2003

2003
Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

Total, 16 years and older..................
16 to 24 years................................
16 to 19 years.............................
16 to 17 years..........................
18 to 19 years..........................
20 to 24 years.............................
25 years and older........................
25 to 54 years..........................
55 years and older..................

5.8
12.0
16.5
18.8
15.1
9.7
4.6
4.8
3.8

6.0
12.4
17.5
19.1
16.4
10.0
4.8
5.0
4.1

6.0
12.6
17.8
18.9
17.3
10.0
4.9
5.0
4.1

6.1
12.9
18.1
18.8
18.1
10.4
4.9
5.0
4.4

6.3
13.3
19.0
21.1
17.4
10.5
5.1
5.2
4.4

6.2
12.9
18.2
20.3
16.8
10.4
5.0
5.1
4.2

6.1
12.4
16.9
18.8
15.7
10.2
5.0
5.1
4.1

6.1
12.8
17.5
19.3
16.2
10.6
4.9
5.1
4.0

6.0
12.3
17.1
20.2
15.2
10.1
4.9
5.1
3.8

5.9
12.1
15.7
17.5
14.7
10.4
4.8
5.0
3.9

5.7
11.7
16.1
18.3
14.7
9.6
4.7
4.9
3.9

5.6
12.0
16.7
18.2
15.7
9.8
4.5
4.7
3.7

5.6
11.8
16.6
17.6
15.7
9.5
4.5
4.7
3.8

5.7
11.8
16.5
19.4
14.5
9.6
4.6
4.9
3.8

5.6
11.6
16.9
20.2
14.7
9.2
4.5
4.6
3.8

Men, 16 years and older.................
16 to 24 years..............................
16 to 19 years...........................
16 to 17 years.......................
18 to 19 years.......................
20 to 24 years...........................
25 years and older......................
25 to 54 years........................
55 years and older................

5.9
12.8
18.1
21.1
16.4
10.2
4.7
4.8
4.1

6.3
13.4
19.3
20.7
18.4
10.6
5.0
5.2
4.4

6.3
13.7
20.2
21.3
19.6
10.7
5.1
5.2
4.6

6.5
14.1
20.3
21.5
19.9
11.3
5.2
5.3
4.7

6.7
14.1
19.9
23.2
17.9
11.5
5.4
5.4
5.3

6.6
14.4
20.4
22.3
19.0
11.6
5.2
5.3
4.6

6.4
12.9
17.6
20.6
15.6
10.7
5.2
5.4
4.4

6.4
14.1
19.6
22.1
18.2
11.7
5.0
5.2
4.2

6.2
13.2
18.7
20.4
17.9
10.8
5.0
5.2
4.0

6.2
13.4
18.3
18.3
18.1
11.2
5.0
5.2
4.1

5.8
12.6
17.4
18.4
16.9
10.4
4.7
4.9
4.0

5.7
12.7
17.5
19.3
16.2
10.5
4.5
4.7
3.6

5.7
12.2
17.2
19.4
15.7
10.0
4.5
4.7
3.7

5.8
12.6
18.3
22.3
15.8
10.1
4.6
4.8
3.8

5.7
12.8
19.1
23.4
16.5
10.0
4.4
4.5
3.9

Women, 16 years and older...........
16 to 24 years..............................
16 to 19 years...........................
16 to 17 years........................
18 to 19 years........................
20 to 24 years...........................
25 years and older......................
25 to 54 years.......................

5.6
11.1
14.9
16.6
13.8
9.1
4.6
4.8

5.7
11.4
15.6
17.5
14.2
9.3
4.6
4.8

5.6
11.4
15.5
16.8
14.9
9.3
4.6
4.7

5.7
11.7
16.0
16.3
16.3
9.5
4.6
4.7

5.9
12.4
18.2
19.1
16.8
9.5
4.7
4.9

5.7
11.3
15.9
18.3
14.5
9.0
4.7
4.9

5.8
11.8
16.2
17.0
15.8
9.7
4.7
4.8

5.8
11.4
15.2
16.5
14.1
9.5
4.7
4.9

5.7
11.3
15.4
20.1
12.5
9.3
4.7
4.9

5.5
10.7
13.0
16.6
11.1
9.6
4.6
4.8

5.6
10.7
14.7
18.2
12.2
8.8
4.6
5.0

5.6
11.3
15.9
17.1
15.2
8.9
4.6
4.8

5.5
11.2
16.0
15.9
15.6
8.9
4.4
4.5

5.6
10.8
14.7
16.9
13.0
8.9
4.6
4.9

5.4
10.3
14.5
17.3
12.6
8.3
4.6
4.7

55 years and older1...............

3.6

3.7

3.4

3.6

3.7

4.2

4.5

3.8

3.4

3.5

3.5

4.1

3.9

3.5

3.3

1 Data are not seasonally adjusted.
NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population controls used in the household survey.

98

2004
Sept.

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10. Unemployment rates by State, seasonally adjusted
State

Mar.

Feb.

Mar.

>003

2004p

2004p

State

Mar.

Feb.

Mar.

2003

2004p

2004”

Alabama...................
Alaska......................
Arizona.....................
Arkansas..................
California.................

5.7
8.0
5.9
5.9
6.8

5.6
7.3
5.2
5.5
6.3

5.9
7.1
4.9
5.4
6.6

Missouri.........................................................
Montana.........................................................
Nebraska.......................................................
Nevada..........................................................

5.6
4.7
4.1
5.3
4.4

5.1
4.0
3.7
4.4
4.1

5.0
4.2
3.6
4.4
4.0

Colorado..................
Connecticut.............
Delaware..................
District of Columbia.
Florida......................

6.1
5.7
4.6
6.9
5.3

5.5
4.8
3.4
6.2
4.7

4.9
4.9
3.8
6.9
4.9

New Jersey...................................................

North Carolina..............................................
North Dakota.................................................

6.1
6.1
6.3
6.4
4.1

5.4
5.6
6.3
6.0
3.1

5.2
5.6
6.5
5.2
2.9

Georgia....................
Hawaii......................
Idaho........................
Illinois.......................
Indiana.....................

4.9
4.1
5.6
6.6
5.0

3.8
4.2
4.8
6.2
5.3

3.6
3.8
4.6
6.0
5.3

Oklahoma.....................................................
Oregon...........................................................
Pennsylvania................................................
Rhode Island................................................

6.3
5.4
8.2
5.8
5.5

5.9
4.9
7.1
5.1
5.2

5.7
4.8
7.2
5.3
5.6

Iowa..........................
Kansas.....................
Kentucky..................
Louisiana.................
Maine........................

4.3
5.4
6.2
6.6
4.9

4.1
4.9
5.3
5.8
4.9

4.1
4.7
5.5
5.5
4.9

6.5
3.4
5.5
6.8
5.9

6.3
3.2
5.0
6.1
4.7

6.7
3.3
5.0
6.2
4.8

Maryland..................
Massachusetts........
Michigan..................
Minnesota................
Mississippi...............

4.7
5.9
7.0
4.9
6.4

4.0
5.4
6.6
4.7
5.5

4.0
5.1
6.9
4.8
4.2

4.5
4.2
7.5
6.3
5.8
4.5

3.7
3.4
6.2
5.5
5.2
3.5

3.6
3.5
6.1
5.4
5.1
3.4

South Carolina..............................................
South Dakota................................................
Tennessee....................................................
Texas.............................................................

Virginia...........................................................
Washington...................................................
West Virginia.................................................
Wisconsin......................................................
Wyoming........................................................

p = preliminary

11. Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by State, seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State
A la b a m a ..........................
A la s k a ...............................
A r iz o n a .............................
A r k a n s a s .........................
C a lifo r n ia .........................
C o l o r a d o .........................
C o n n e c t ic u t ...................
D e la w a r e .........................
D istr ic t o f C o lu m b ia .
F lo r id a ...............................
G e o r g ia ............................
H a w a ii...............................
I d a h o ..................................
Illin o is................................
I n d ia n a .............................
I o w a ...................................
K a n s a s .............................
K e n tu c k y .........................
L o u is ia n a ........................
M a in e .................................
M a r y la n d .........................
M a s s a c h u s e t t s ...........
M ic h ig a n ..........................
M in n e s o t a ......................
M is s is s ip p i.....................

Mar.

Feb.

Mar.

2003

2004p

2004p

2,130,916 2,157,291
342,877
328,593
269 2,750,158
1,267,956
1,310,617
17,428,726 17,587,953

State

2,160,958 Missouri..........................................
342,640
2,751,015 Nebraska.........................................
1,310,860
17,560,426 New Hampshire.............................
New Jersey.....................................

Mar.

Feb.

Mar.

2003

2004p

2004p

3,005,407
471,099
972,354
1,134,859
713,045

2,999,517
480,983
984,683
1,175,833
725,981

3,007,441
477,827
983,505
1,180,046
725,380

4,364,753
890,469
9,332,650
4,190,928
346,070

4,402,120
898,011
9,293,378
4,194,636
347,786

4,404,401
901,082
9,327,631
4,195,882
348,407

5,906,415
1,694,648
1,863,657
6,199,874
570,425

5,863,019
1,701,566
1,870,502
6,213,429
563,213

5,863,019
1,699,927
1,870,706
6,239,658
566,066

2,466,517
1,809,364
415,783
303,961
8,127,808

2,507,776
1,796,019
421,871
305,516
8,283,980

2,485,480
1,786,692
424,848
304,800
8,313,270

4,381,821
611,287
690,723
6,314,937
3,178,605

4,397,561
625,040
699,600
6,393,442
3,188,354

4,394,506
628,019
702,283
6,376,281
3,195,174

Oregon.............................................
Pennsylvania.................................
Rhode Island..................................

1,625,075
1,429,137
1,950,147
2,030,954
689 010

1,629,423
1,464,316
1,978,457
2,042,711
698,093

1,622,172
1,463,333
1,987,641
2,024,696
693,740

1,985,738
2,039,500
2,050,615
South Carolina...............................
423,380
423,356
422,475
South Dakota..................................
2,943,391
2,929,619
Tennessee...................................... 2,907,766
Texas............................................... 10,862,723 10,962,587 10,965,114
1,200,145
Utah.................................................
1,176,825
1,198,946

2,901,059
3,431,801
5,018,270
2,917,444
1,304,689

2,936,486
3,413,982
5,071,417
2,950,534
1,314,005

2,940,075
3,402,429
5,075,216
2,952,851
1,303,140

New York........................................
North Carolina...............................
North Dakota...................................
Ohio.................................................

Virginia............................................
Washington.....................................
West Virginia...................................
Wisconsin.......................................
Wyoming.........................................

350,271
3,763,025
3,129,758
790,036
3,065,184
275,361

353,723
3,833,452
3,172,398
797,643
3,119,374
277,717

353,869
3,828,659
3,183,952
796,070
3,109,940
276,911

p = preliminary.
NOTE: Some data in this table may differ from data published elsewhere because of the continual updating of the data base.

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

99

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

12. Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by industry, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]

_____________________________________________
A n n u a l a v e ra g e

2003

2004

In d u s try
2002

2003

T O T A L N O N F A R M ..................

130,341

129,931

129,901

129,873

129,859

T O T A L P R IV A T E ...........................

108.828
22,557

108.356
21,817

108.304
21,880

108.332
21,859

108.292
21,805

583
70.4
512.2
121.9

571
68.5
502.3
122.9

568
68.4
499.9
122.3

570
68.7
501.6
122.9

210.6

202.7

74.4
179.8

70.4
176.8

201.9
70.8
175.7

202.6
70.6
176.1

G O O D S - P R O D U C IN G .......................

A p r.

M ay

June

J u ly

Aug.

S e p t.

129,814

129,789

129,856

129,944

130,027

130,035

130,194

108.253
21,744

108.209
21,712

108.317
21,697

108.384
21,674

108.483
21,686

108.491
21,668

108.667
21,696

573
69.7
503.2
123.7

571
68.2
502.7
123.5

569
67.5
501.8
123.2

568
67.4
500.8
123.6

569
67.9
501.5
124.1

571
67.6
503.4
123.9

570
65.9
504.3
124.6

203.3

204.3

203.6

201.6

202.1

202.4

70.9
176.2

71.6
174.9

70.7
175.0

69.2
175.6

69.6
175.3

69.5
177.1

202.0
69.8
177.7

O ct

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

M a r .p

A p r .p

130,277

130,614

130,902

108.738
21,684

109.048
21,766

109.328
21,808

570
65.1
505.1
126.9

572
64.2
508.1
128.9

580
66.2
513.7
129.9

583
66.4
516.9
131.1

200.0

200.6

202.7

69.6
178.2

70.2
178.6

70.5
181.1

204.5
71.4
181.3

N a tu r a l r e s o u r c e s a n d
m in in g .................................................

Logging...................................
Mining.........................................
Oil amd gas extraction............
Minina. exceDt oil and aas1.....
Coal minina............................
Support activities for mining....
C o n s tr u c tio n .....................................

6,716

6,722

6,689

6,715

6,718

6,721

6,739

6,754

6,754

6,771

6,774

6,812

6,791

6,856

6,874

Construction of buildinas.........
Heaw and civil enaineerlna....
Speciality trade contractors.....

1.574.8
930.6
4.210.4
15,259

1.575.9
910.7
4.235.5
14,525

1.578.1
900.0
4.211.3
14,623

1.578.5
905.2
4.230.8
14,574

1.572.3
907.3
4.238.8
14,514

1.566.4
910.6
4.244.1
14,452

1.570.0
913.9
4.255.5
14,404

1.577.7
915.2
4.260.9
14,375

1.579.4
910.8
4.263.7
14,351

1.583.9
918.8
4.268.6
14,344

1.585.1
920.7
4.268.4
14,324

1.593.3
928.0
4.290.2
14,314

1.590.9
924.0
4.276.5
14,321

1.606.2
926.8
4.322.8
14,330

1.603.5
928.2
4.342.6
14,351

10.766
9,483

10.200
8,970

10.263
9,025

10.233
8,993

10.181
8,958

10.136
8,908

10.104
8,886

10.077
8,867

10.058
8,854

10.048
8,874

10.044
8,868

10.035
8,869

10.038
8,882

10.044
8,889

10.066
8,909

6.529
554.9
516.0
509.4
1.548.5
1.229.5

6.157
536.1
492.6
476.7
1.478.4
1.153.5

6.188
537.8
494.1
485.8
1.487.6
1.161.2

6.168
536.1
494.8
481.3
1.480.6
1.155.2

6.142
533.3
494.8
475.8
1.474.4
1.149.9

6.104
532.4
760.8
472.1
1.468.4
1.145.5

6.099
528.9
490.2
470.6
1.465.6
1.140.8

6.077
531.8
488
466.3
1.461.1
1.139.4

6.066
533.4
486.6
463.4
1.461.3
1.137.0

6.089
536.3
489.7
464.1
1.468.1
1.142.5

6.079
536.6
487.5
464.6
1.471.2
1.140.4

6.081
536.3
492.7
432.2
1.471.8
1.138.7

6.088
538.4
490.5
462.2
1.476.6
1.141.2

6.091
538.2
492.3
461.6
1.475.5
1.144.9

6.109
538.1
494.2
462.1
1.485.1
1.148.9

1.507.2

1.360.9

1.377.5

1.366.4

1.359.3

1.348.7

1.343.8

1.339.2

1.332.8

1.334.4

1.332.2

1.333.2

1.333.9

1.334.6

1.334.8

250.0
185.8

225.7
157.0

231.1
158.7

228.4
157.4

227.3
156.3

224.0
155.8

222.5
155.0

221.9
154.1

219.3
1 53.9

219.1
154.4

217.8
153.0

219.4
154.8

219.0
154.8

218.6
154.9

218.1
154.7

524.5
450.0

461.8
429.3

468.6
430.9

464.3
429.0

461.5
426.9

457.9
424.7

456.2
425.2

453.3
425.5

449.4
425.1

451.2
425.2

451.3
425.3

450.2
423.7

451.4
423.3

451.4
424.4

452.9
423.1

496.5
1,828.9

459.9
1,775.4

465.7
1,772.3

461.0
1,780.1

459.7
1,775.0

457.7
1,759.8

453.8
1,766.5

452.1
1,765.6

450.8
1,765.5

450.9
1,766.5

451.2
1,762.7

449.8
1,760.6

448.6
1,766.5

446.9
1,768.3

445.7
1,769.5

604.1
688.3

573.5
662.8

574.6
668.7

572.5
665.2

571.1
664.3

572.6
660.2

568.1
657.9

568.0
655.9

568.2
655.2

568.9
652.7

569.3
651.9

571.3
652.0

571.2
653.0

574.7
652.3

577.1
653.0

5,775
4,239

5,555
4,043

5,598
4,075

5,581
4,065

5,556
4,039

5,544
4,032

5,518
4,005

5,508
4,000

5,497
3,992

5,470
3,959

5,456
3,965

5,445
3,954

5,439
3,950

5,441
3,953

5,442
3,957

1,525.7

1,518.7

1,517.3

1,517.2

1,517.8

1,522.1

1,523.8

1,526.0

1,528.2

1,508.3

1,506.3

1,500.7

1,502.4

1,502.0

1,501.7

207.4
290.9
194.6
359.7
50.2
546.6

200.6
260.3
179.8
312.7
45.2
519.0

200.6
270.4
184.8
321.7
46.3
523.0

201.0
265.6
182.7
318.5
45.7
520.9

2..04
262.9
181.6
313.2
44.2
519.2

200.7
256.9
178.7
307.5
44.9
516.3

201.0
251.8
170.7
304.0
44.3
515.1

200.2
250.2
173.7
299.8
44.2
513.8

201.0
247.0
172.6
299.7
43.7
513.3

198.3
245.1
175.2
297.7
44.1
511.7

198.3
241.0
174.3
297.7
44.3
510.3

197.7
239.2
176.9
296.1
44.6
509.8

195.9
237.3
176.6
297.1
44.8
508.0

196.4
237.2
179.4
296.8
45.0
508.7

196.1
236.1
180.8
296.6
45.3
508.7

706.6
118.1
927.5

680.0
114.6
7.9

683.7
115.5
913.9

683.8
115.5
912.0

682.2
114.8
907.9

681.1
114.6
908.2

678.8
113.8
905.4

676.2
112.9
902.7

673.3
112.6
899.1

673.1
112.0
897.6

670.1
112.4
895.9

667.6
114.3
893.7

665.0
112.9
894.7

662.5
112.8
894.7

660.6
111.9
895.6

M a n u fa c tu r in g ..................................

Production workers..............
D u ra b le g o o d s ...............................

Production workers..............
Wood Droducts.........................
Nonmetallic mineral products
Primary metals.........................
Fabricated metal Droducts......
Machinery................................
ComDuter and electronic
nrrwii irts1
Computer and peripheral
equipment............................
Communications equipment..
Semiconductors and
electronic components........
Electronic instruments...........
Electrical equipment and
appliances..............................
Transportation equipment......
Furniture and related
products.................................
Miscellaneous manufacturing
N o n d u ra b le g o o d s .......................

Production workers..............
Food manufacturing................
Beverages and tobacco
products.................................
Textile mills..............................
Textile product mills.................
Apparel.....................................
Leather and allied products....
Paper and paper products......
Printing and related support
activities..................................
Petroleum and coal products...
Chemicals.................................
Plastics and rubber products..
S E R V IC E -P R O V ID IN G ......................

848.0

815.9

820.7

818.0

811.8

813.1

808.8

808.4

806.3

806.5

805.8

804.8

803.9

805.9

808.1

107,784

108,114

108,021

108,014

108,054

108,070

108,077

108,159

108,270

108,341

108,367

108,498

108,593

108,848

109,094

86,271

86,538

86,424

86,473

86,487

86,509

82,497

86,620

86,710

86,797

86,823

86,971

87,054

87,282

87,520

25,497
5,652.3
3,007.9
2,015.0

25,275
5,605.0
2,949.2
2,002.1

25,326
5,625.8
2,958.1
2,013.1

25,302
5,618.4
2,953.4
2,009.7

25,266
5,608.6
2,948.4
2,005.1

25,225
5,596.8
2,942.5
2,001.6

25,225
5,589.0
2,936.2
1,997.9

25,252
5,585.1
2,932.1
1,995.9

25,272
5,581.6
2,932.0
1,992.4

25,261
5,592.7
2,943.9
1,989.2

25,211
5,598.4
2,945.8
1,991.8

25,312
5,611.4
2,954.9
1,993.7

25,331
5,612.2
2,953.8
1,994.5

25,408
5,624.3
2,962.5
1,995.4

25,436
5,630.4
2,966.5
1,995.0

655.3

655.1

652.7

651.9

6657.1

657.2

659.6

660.8

662.8

663.9

666.4

668.9

P R IV A T E S E R V IC E ­
P R O V ID IN G .....................................
T r a d e , tr a n s p o r ta tio n ,
a n d u t ilitie s .....................................
W h o le s a le tr a d e ............................

Durable goods.........................
Nondurable goods..................
Electronic markets and
agents and brokers...............
R e ta il tr a d e ......................................

Motor vehicles and parts
dealers’ ................................
Automobile dealers................
Furniture and home
furnishings stores..................
Electronics and appliance
stores......................................

629.4

654.3

654.6

15.025.1

14.911.5

14.929.4

1,879.4
1,252.8

1,883.5
1,255.1

1,875.9
1,249.8

1,880.1
1,252.4

1,881.7
1,254.8

1,883.7
1,256.9

538.7

542.9

543.8

541.2

543.1

540.1

538.0

539.7

540.2

544.8

547.2

546.4

544.5

544.5

545.4

525.3

511.9

513.3

512.2

511.3

507.2

507.4

506.7

506.5

512.8

511.9

509.3

508.2

511.8

514.4

See notes at end of table.

100

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June 2004

14.917.4 14.908.0

14.896.5 14.911.6 14.926.8 14.948.1
1,883.5
1,257.0

1,889.8
1,259.7

1,889.7
1,259.6

14.921.7 14.876.0 14.944.8 14.963.0
1,892.9
1,258.9

1,893.7
1,259.5

1,895.4
1,261.3

1,900.9
1,262.9

15.009.2 15.032.6
1,908.4
1,265.5

1,914.3
1,267.6

12. Continued—Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by industry, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]___________________________
A n n u a l a v e ra g e

2003

2004

In d u s try
2002

2003

A p r.

M ay

June

J u ly

Aug.

S e p t.

O c t.

Nov.

D ec.

Jan.

Feb.

M a r .p

A p r .p

1,176.5
2,881.6

1,191.1
2,840.9

1,180.5
2,853.2

1,182.1
2,856.5

1,187.4
2,847.3

1,188.3
2,835.6

1,194.7
2,833.6

1,203.4
2,829.4

1,204.0
2,838.7

1,210.0
2,821.4

1,209.5
2,813.9

1,221.4
2,826.3

1,231.4
2,831.3

1,242.1
2,835.2

1,252.5
2,829.6

938.8
895.9

943.1
879.9

940.3
884.7

940.3
883.8

943.2
882.6

941.4
877.9

941.0
881.4

943.1
877.9

948.3
873.8

951.6
875.2

952.6
871.1

954.1
875..1

954.9
871.8

958.2
872.3

957.9
870.1

1,312.5

1,296.7

1,303.4

1,296.6

1,293.1

1,294.0

1,294.8

1,295.6

1,302.6

1,297.1

1,301.0

1,304.3

1,311.3

1,320.6

1,324.6

661.3
2,812.0
1,684.0
959.5
443.7

645.0
2,815.2
1,618.8
934.1
427.5

649.0
2,816.8
1,618.8
938.7
429.8

648.0
2,811.8
1,613.5
936.3
428.5

644.8
2,811.2
1,612.2
934.7
427.6

644.1
2,820.4
1,613.7
934.0
429.8

642.5
2,834.9
1,622.3
931.9
427.9

642.8
2,839.9
1,623.7
931.7
426.8

642.0
2,842.9
1,623.5
933.5
425.9

641.6
2,826.4
1,612.6
930.9
417.3

633.2
2,793.4
1,601.3
924.4
424.1

635.9
2,822.7
1,603.4
929.6
424.3

636.8
2,822.5
1,602.7
924.6
424.8

636.0
2,828.5
1,606.8
926.2
425.4

634.7
2,838.9
1,613.2
924.8
425.4

4,223.6
563.5
217.8
52.6
1,339.3

4,176.7
527.3
215.4
52.5
1,328.0

4,187.7
537.1
215.4
52.7
1,322.0

4,185.8
532.6
215.2
53.4
1,322.0

4,171.6
523.0
216.0
53.1
1,324.6

4,153.6
513.8
216.1
53.1
1,324.3

4,148.4
512.4
213.8
52.9
1,329.6

4,160.8
511.8
215.6
51.5
1,328.7

4,162.9
506.1
215.2
52.5
1,329.3

4,168.0
511.5
215.5
50.9
1,335.7

4,157.0
512.9
215.5
50.0
1,338.7

4,175.9
510.2
215.4
50.6
1,343.6

4,175.8
511.6
215.7
48.8
1,344.1

4,193.3
513.3
216.0
49.0
1,345.7

4,191.9
515.2
216.1
50.1
1,349.6

380.8
41.7

380.3
40.0

383.2
40.9

381.1
40.8

378.3
40.4

372.8
40.1

371.2
39.5

380.7
39.3

389.2
39.0

385.7
38.7

385.0
38.8

382.3
38.3

380.1
38.2

379.7
38.0

375.8
38.0

25.6

28.0

27.6

28.5

29.1

29.1

28.9

28.9

29.0

28.7

29.4

28.7

29.7

30.1

30.0

516.3
566.6
522.3

514.8
570.5
523.5

515.4
566.5
522.4

514.3
565.0
522.6

512.4
564.7
524.2

578.1

578.8

578.9

579.2

578.9

511.6
559.0
516.1
579.3

514.1
566.9
525.8
580.2

515.5
567.7
524.4

582.8

517.1
569.4
520.6
577.8

512.2
566.7
521.2

580.8

520.7
569.0
522.5
580.7

513.4
569.5
521.4

U t ilitie s ...............................................

524.7
560.9
516.7
596.2

580.0

518.5
571.5
531.5
581.3

518.4
567.2
531.5
581.5

In fo r m a tio n ......................................

3,395

3,198

3,214

3,203

3,194

3,188

3,174

3,175

3,166

3,172

3,175

3,163

3,169

3,169

3,171

964.1

926.4

932.4

928.8

926.4

922.7

922.0

919.3

918.0

918.4

917.4

914.0

915.1

916.0

916.3

387.9
334.1

376.1
327.0

371.6
327.1

374.8
326.7

374.2
326.3

376.6
326.5

369.9
325.5

375.4
327.6

373.4
326.0

382.7
327.0

385.2
329.5

379.7
329.7

382.7
331.8

380.5
333.5

383.0
334.3

33.7
1,186.5

30.0
1,082.6

29.9
1,095.4

29.1
1,088.3

29.5
1,082.0

30.1
1,075.3

30.0
1,071.3

30.1
1,069.4

29.9
1,065.2

30.4
1,062.2

30.4
1,061.2

30.8
1,061.3

31.9
1,058.2

32.0
1,056.9

32.5
1,055.2

441.0
47.3

407.5
48.1

409.5
47.3

407.6
47.8

405.4
48.0

402.6
48.2

400.1
47.8

7,995
5,936.8

7,996
5,936.8

8,004
5,945.6

7,985
5,922.7

7,981
5,916.5

7,981
5,917.1

401.1
48.0
7,989
5,924.7

4.01.4
48.5
7,994
5,930.5

400.8
49.2

7,988
5,933.8

404.8
48.3
7,990
5,930.2

402.6
48.2

7,974
5,920.5

407.9
47.8
7,987
5,934.8

408.0
47.5

7,847
5,817.3

408.6
48.6
7,968
5,919.4

8,002
5,936.8

23.4

22.7

22.8

22.8

22.7

22.7

22.6

22.6

22.5

22.5

22.5

22.4

22.4

22.4

22.4

related activities1.................
Depository credit

2,686.0

2,785.6

2,777.0

2,796.9

2,797.6

2,802.6

2,806.0

2,808.1

2,801.0

2,790.3

2,783.3

2,785.3

2,787.2

2,794.5

2,798.4

intermediation1....................
Commercial bankina............
Securities, commodity
contracts, investments..........
Insurance carriers and
related activities.....................
Funds, trusts, and other
financial vehicles...................
Real estate and rental
and leasing...............................
Real estate...............................
Rental and leasing services....
Lessors of nonfinanclal
intangible assets....................

1,733.0
1,278.1

1,752.1

1,748.0

1,752.2
1,281.5

1,755.1
1,283.2

1,757.9
1,283.6

1,758.1
1.280.5

1,758.7
1,280.4

1,762.6

1,283.9

1,760.1
1,284.4

1,757.1

1.280.0

1,752.0
1,281.7

1,756.0

1,281.1

1,763.8
1,284.5

1,764.6
1.286.2

789.4

764.4

762.6

761.1

760.7

760.4

758.7

761.7

762.0

769.1

771.9

773.8

778.2

781.0

780.1

2,233.2

2,266.1

2,274.2

2,271.7

2,271.3

2,269.7

2,268.7

2,271.9

2,264.7

2,261.2

2,258.1

2,255.8

2,257.4

2,253.4

2,256.9

85.4

81.7

82.8

82.3

81.5

81.4

80.8

81.3

80.0

79.6

80.7

79.8

79.5

79.2

79.0

2,029.8
1,352.9
649.1

2,053.6
1,384.4
640.8

2,048.8
1,382.2
638.9

2,051.9
1,383.0
640.4

2,053.8
1,382.4
642.8

2,057.8
1,385.3
643.9

2,058.8
1,386.6
643.4

2,057.9
1,388.8
639.8

2,060.2
1,390.6
639.9

2,062.7
1,394.5
639.0

2,064.0
1,395.7
638.3

2,063.6
1,397.7
636.0

2,064.5
1,400.2
634.2

2,063.0
1,401.9
631.5

2,064.9
1,405.6
630.2

27.6

28.4

27.7

28.5

28.6

28.6

28.8

29.3

29.7

29.2

30.0

29.9

30.1

29.6

29.1

15,976

15,999

15,897

15,943

15,967

16,021

15,998

16,051

16,070

16,114

16,159

16,172

16,196

16,250

16,373

6,675.6
1,115.3

6,623.5
1,136.8

6,631.3
1,138.3

6,616.7
1,136.9

6,606.5
1,137.4

6,585.7
1,135.0

6,578.1
1,133.8

6,606.3
1,136.6

6,624.1
1,140.4

6,647.9
1,142.9

6,669.3
1,140.5

6,657.9
1,138.7

6,658.1
1,139.2

6,688.3
1,138.8

6,701.5
1,141.4

837.3

815.6

818.1

808.8

802.0

800.7

800.7

802.5

801.5

810.6

826.6

815.2

813.3

820.0

820.6

1,246.1

1,228.0

1,227.5

1,225.1

1,220.8

1,224.6

1,222.0

1,230.1

1,230.9

1,233.9

1,235.2

1,230.9

1,240.0

1,247.2

1,254.4

Building material and garden
supply stores.........................
Food and beverage stores.....
Health and personal care
stores....................................
Gasoline stations....................
Clothing and clothing
accessories stores...............
Sporting goods, hobby,
book, and music stores.........
General merchandise storesl.
Department stores................
Miscellaneous store retailers..
Nonstore retailers....................
T ra n s p o r ta tio n a n d
w a r e h o u s in g ................................

Air transportation....................
Rail transportation...................
Water transportation...............
Truck transportation................
Transit and ground passenger
transportation........................
Pipeline transportation............
Scenic and sightseeing
transportation........................
Support activities for
transportation........................
Couriers and messengers......
Warehousing and storage

Publishing industries, except
Internet...................................
Motion picture and sound
recording industries...............
Broadcasting, except Internet..
Internet publishing and
broadcasting..........................
Telecommunications...............
ISPs, search portals, and
data processing.....................
Other Information services......
Financial activities.....................
Finance and insurance..............
Monetary authorities—
central bank...........................
Credit intermediation and

1,278.9

1,283.5

P ro fe s s io n a l a n d b u s in e s s
s e r v ic e s .............................................

Professional and technical
services1...................................
Legal services........................
Accounting and bookkeeping
services................................
Architectural and engineering
services................................
See notes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

101

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

12. Continued—Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by industry, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]

_______________________________________
A n n u a l a v e ra g e

2003

2004

In d u s try
2002

2003

A p r.

M ay

June

J u ly

Aug

1,152.8

1,108.3

1,117.9

1,115.1

1,112.4

1,100.7

1,094.5

734.4

747.3

741.5

743.2

741.6

742.5

1,705.4

1,675.5

1,679.1

1,677.5

1,374.9

7,595.2

7,698.3

7,586.6

7,648.7

7,685.9

services1..............................

7,276.8

73,764.0

7,262.8

7,325.9

Employment services1.........

3,246.5

3,336.2

3,229.3

3,276.1

2.193.7
756.6

2.243.2
747.4

2.159.1
746.8

1.606.1

1.631.7

318.3

321.9

16,199
2,642.8

Computer systems design
and related services...........
Management and technical
consulting services..............
Management of companies
and enterprises........................
Administrative and waste
services....................................

S e p t.

O c t.

Nov.

D ec.

Jan.

Feb.

M a r .p

A p r .p

1,103.3

1,107.0

1,105.7

1,105.7

1,104.6

1,099.8

1,102.8

1,098.9

744.2

749.3

755.6

760.6

764.0

765.4

767.9

774.2

781.9

1,680.3

1,671.4

1,671.7

1,669.1

1,671.6

1,670.2

1,675.1

1,675.6

1,675.6

1,681.0

7,754.7

7,748.1

7,773.1

7,776.3

7,794.5

7,819.2

7,838.5

7,862.4

7,886.1

7,990.3

7,364.8

7,426.5

7,427.0

7,451.6

7,456.0

7,473.7

7,496.3

7,517.5

7,539.6

7,562.9

7,665.4

3,314.6

3,369.6

3,366.2

3,389.1

3,402.0

3,427.6

3,461.3

3,473.8

3,493.8

3,494.4

3,554.5

2,199.7
748.3

2.235.4
747.8

2.248.8
744.2

2.262.3
748.7

2.287.2
753.2

2.291.7
753.2

2.319.4
746.7

2.355.3
745.1

2,344.3
739.0

2,370.4
739.8

2,384.3
744.7

2.419.6
747.5

1,621.5

1,628.8

1.634.8

1.643.8

1.648.4

1.645.2

1.639.6

1.639.4

1,635.9

1,637.1

1,639.5

1.649.0

1.678.8

323.8

322.8

321.1

328.2

321.1

321.5

320.3

320.8

322.9

321

322.8

323.2

324.9

16,577
2,688.5

16,538
2,687.1

16,564
2,692.0

16,576
2,677.7

16,568
2,676.4

16,591
2,673.9

16,672
2,689.1

16,678
2,707.7

16,705
2,723.1

16,731
2,728.0

16,746
2,729.3

16,764
2,727.4

16,805
2,731.4

16,836
2,733.1

13,555.7

13,888.0

13,851.0

13,872.3

13,898.4

13,891.3

13,916.8

13,933.3

13,970.0

13,981.5

14,003.2

14,017.1

14,036.8

14,073.2

14,103.2

4,633.2
1,967.8
413.0
679.8

4,776.0
2,003.8
423.1
727.1

4,751.8
1,992.1
422.4
722.9

4,763.2
1,996.3
422.8
725.7

4,777.3
2,001.0
425.0
729.7

4,783.4
2,004.6
422.8
732.0

4,791.9
2,007.1
423.5
733.7

4,792.8
2,008.2
422.9
732.8

4,812.8
2,018.5
423.3
737.7

4,818.7
2,023.3
426.4
735.7

4,831.0
2,030.0
425.0
739.9

4,840.3
2,032.3
427.8
740.2

4,855.3
2,034.4
431.1
741.5

4,868.0
2,043.5
429.9
743.9

4,884.8
2,046.9
432.7
747.9

4,159.6

4,252.5

4,244.1

4,249.7

4,259.8

4,247.4

4,260.2

4,264.4

4,268.9

4,278.1

4,283.9

4,287.8

4,284.1

4,296.0

4,299.7

Administrative and suDDort

Temporary helD services.....
Business suDDort services....
Services to buildinas
and dwellinas......................
Waste management and
remediation services............
E d u c a tio n a l a n d h e a lth
s e r v ic e s ............................................

Educational services.................
Health care and social
assistance................................
Ambulatory health care
Offices of physicians............
Outpatient care centers........
Home health care services....
Hospitals..................................
Nursina and residential
rtarft fanilitias1
Nursina care facilities............

2,743.3

2,784.3

2,781.4

2,784.6

2,786.7

2,784.2

2,787.7

2,789.3

2,794.2

2,792.8

2,793.0

2,792.1

2,791.1

2,797.8

2,802.6

1.573.2
2,019.7

1.582.8
2,075.2

1.582.3
2,073.7

1.583.9
2,074.8

1.586.1
2,074.6

1.582.8
2,076.3

1.580.5
2,080.0

1.583.1
2,086.8

1.585.2
2,094.1

1.584.1
2,091.9

1.581.7
2,095.3

1.580.3
2,096.9

1.578.7
2,106.3

1.582.0
2,111.4

1.583.9
2,116.1

744.1
11,986
Arts, entertainment,
and recreation..........................
1,782.6
Performing arts and
spectator sports.....................
363.7
Museums, historical sites,
zoos, and parks.....................
114.0
Amusements, gambling, and
recreation...............................
1,305.0
Accommodations and
food services........................... 10,203.2

760.5
12,128

757.9
12,084

758.2
12,078

756.5
12,097

761.1
12,118

764.5
12,117

765.8
12,126

771.6
12,147

766.3
12,178

770
12,192

766.3
12,218

772.2
12,229

773.4
12,263

773
12,299

1,801.0

1,792.9

1,794.3

1,792.1

1,797.7

1,795.0

1,794.4

1,796.9

1,799.4

1,795.2

1,801.4

1,796.7

1,795.0

1,790.3

370.2

377.3

370.9

366.6

366.2

366.7

372.0

369.6

371.7

368.8

369.4

366.5

362.6

359.4

Social assistance’...................
Child day care services.........

L e is u re a n d h o s p ita lity ...............

Accommodations.....................
Food services and drinking
places....................................
O th e r s e r v ic e s ..................................

Repair and maintenance.........
Personal and laundry services
Membership associations and
organizations.........................
Federal.......................................
Federal, except U.S. Postal
Service...................................
U.S. Postal Service..................
State..........................................
Education..............................
Other State government.......
Local..........................................
Education..............................
Other local government.........

114.1

113.3

114.3

114.3

114.6

114.5

113.4

114.2

113.3

113.1

113.4

113.7

114.1

115.1

1,316.6

1,302.3

1,309.1

1,311.2

1,316.9

1,313.8

1,309.0

1,313.1

1,314.4

1,313.3

1,318.6

1,316.5

1,318.3

1,315.8

10,324.4

10,283.8
1,751.1

10,305.1
1,756.0

10,319.9
1,762.5

10,331.7

10,350.4

10,378.9

1,765.2

10,290.7
1,759.4

10,321.8

1,778.6

1,755.0

1,739.1

1,733.7

1,751.7

10,396.3
1,763.0

10,416.5
1,752.1

10,432.3
1,754.4

10,467.8
1,756.7

10,508.8
1,763.8

8,424.6
5,372
1,246.9
1,257.2

8,559.2
5,393
1,236.2
1,258.2

8,531.3
5,397
1,235.9
1,260.1

8,562.7
5,396
1,235.2
1,259.9

8,549.1
5,399
1,238.9
1,258.5

8,557.4
5,394
1,238.7
1,258.8

8,566.8
5,396
1,242.4
1,257.3

8,592.6
5,390
1,240.4
1,252.7

8,616.7
5,387
1,237.6
1,254.6

8,627.2
5,382
1,234.4
1,254.1

8,633.3
5,374
1,228.5
1,250.2

8,664.4
5,379
1,233.5
1,251.2

8,677.9
5,376
1,230.5
1,247.6

8,711.1
5,393
1,238.9
1,255.8

8,745.0
5,403
1,238.5
1,256.3

2,867.8

2,898.0

2,901.0

2,901.1

2,902.0

2,896.3

2,895.9

2,896.5

2,895.2

2,893.9

2,895.7

2,894.5

2,898.3

2,898.3

2,908.0

21,513
2,767

21,575
2,756

21,597
2,768

21,541
2,769

21,567
2,763

21,561
2,758

21,580
2,750

21,539
2,747

21,560
2,736

21,544
2,723

21,544
2,720

21,527
2,715

21,539
2,716

21,566
2,717

21,574
2,717

1,923.8
842.4
5,029
2,242.8
2,786.3
13,718
7,654.4
6,063.2

1,947.0
809.1
5,017
2,266.4
2,750.7
13,802
7,699.1
6,104.0

1,952.5
815.2
5,020
2,259.7
2,720.4
13,809
7,700.6
6,107.9

1,953.9
815.2
5,013
2,256.5
2,756.4
13,759
7,657.2
6,102.0

1,949.6
813.0
4,996
2,247.9
2,748.0
13,808
7,707.1
6,101.1

1,947.8
810.2
4,990
2,249.0
2,740.8
13,813
7,721.2
6,091.5

1,942.2
808.0
4,997
2,258.7
2,738.2
13,833
7,742.4
6,090.1

1,942.1
804.8
5,019
2,278.8
2,740.4
13,773
7,673.9
6,099.3

1,932.9
803.3
5,031
2,290.4
2,740.4
13,793
7,687.0
6,105.9

1,924.9
798.1
5,023
2,282.5
2,740.0
13,798
7,684.5
6,113.1

1,928.9
791.4
5,027
2,285.7
2,740.9
13,797
7,687.1
6,109.7

1,921.5
793.1
5,007
2,268.0
2,738.9
13,805
7,692.2
6,112.7

1,923.8
791.7
5,018
2,279.6
2,738.4
13,805
7,694.3
6,110.8

1,927.2
789.9
5,026
2,286.4
2,739.1
13,823
7,708.6
6,114.1

1,929.7
787.7
5,030
2,290.9
2,738.6
13,827
7,711.2
6,115.8

1 Includes other Industries not shown separately,

102

Classification System (naics ), replacing the Standard Industrial Classification (sic) system.

p = preliminary.

NAics-based data by industry are not comparable with sic-based data. See "Notes on the

NOTE: Data reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the North American industry

data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision, preliminary.

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June 2004

13. Average weekly hours of production or nonsupervisory workers1on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry, monthly
data seasonally adjusted
Industry

2003

Annual average
2002

2003

2004

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.p Apr.p

33.9

33.7

33.6

33.7

33.7

33.6

33.6

33.6

33.7

33.8

33.6

33.8

33.8

33.7

33.7

39.9

39.8

39.4

39.7

39.8

39.6

39.7

39.8

39.9

40.1

39.9

40.2

40.3

40.2

40.0

43.2

43.6

43.3

43.8

43.6

43.3

43.6

43.6

43.7

43.9

43.6

44.5

44.1

44.3

44.2

38.4

38.4

37.8

38.5

38.4

38.3

38.5

38.4

38.4

38 5

38 1

38 5

38 5

88 7

38 3

40.5
4.2

40.4
4.2

40 1
4.0

40 2
4.1

40.3
4.1

40 1
4.1

40 2
4.1

40 4
4.2

40 5

40 8

40 6

41 0

41 0

40 0

40 fi

4.3

4.5

4.5

4.5

4.6

4.6

4.5

40.8
4.3
40.4
42.2
42.3
40.7
40.8
40.4
40.6
41.9
38.9
38.4

40.3
4.0
40.0
41.9
42.1
40.3
40.5
40.1
40.1
41.1
38.0
38.0

40.5
4.1
39.9
42.3
42.3
40.6
40.6
40.5
40.3
41.2
38.4
38.1

40.7
4.1
40.3
42.1
42.0
40.6
40.9
40.4
40.8
41.4
38.9
38.4

40.5
4.1
40.7
41 8
41.7
40.5
40.4
40.5
40.5
41.3
38.9
38.3

40.5
4.2
40.4
42.1
41.9
40.5
40.7
41.0
40.6
40.7
39.1
38.1

40.8
4.3
40.4
41.9
42.2
40.7
41.0
40.6
40.6
42.0
39.1
38.3

40.9
4.4
40.6
42.1
42.3
40.8
40.9
40.7
40.9
41.9
39.1
38.3

41.3
4.7
41.2
42.4
42.7
40.9
41.1
40.7
40.8
42.7
39.9
38.9

41.2
4.7
41.0
42.3
42.7
40.8
41.1
40.4
40.7
42.7
39.7
38.5

41.5
4.7
40.9
42 5
43.1
41.2
41.8
40.8
41.1
42.8
39.7
39.0

41.5
4.8
41.1
42 5

41 3
4.8
40.9
42 9

41 1
4.7
40.9
42 5

Primary metals.......................................
Fabricated metal products...................
Machinery...............................................
Computer and electronic products......
Electrical equipment and appliances..
Transportation equipment....................
Furniture and related products............
Miscellaneous manufacturing..............

40.8
4.2
39.9
42.0
42.4
40.6
40.5
39.7
40.1
42.5
39.2
38.6

43.0
41.2
41.8
41.2
40.7
42.9
39.4
38.7

43.0
41.0
41.6
40.7
40.7
42.8
39.5
38.5

43.1
41.0
41.4
40.6
40.4
42.3
39.4
38.2

Nondurable goods...................................
Overtime hours....................................
Food manufacturing..............................
Beverage and tobacco products.........
Textile mills............................................
Textile product mills.............................
Apparel....................................................

40.1
4.2
39.6
39.4
40.6
39.2
36.7

39.8
4.1
39.3
39.1
39.1
39.6
35.6

39.7
4.1
39.3
39.5
39.0
38.5
35.6

39.6
3.9
39.3
39.0
38.5
39.1
35.4

39.7
3.9
39.3
38.8
38.8
39.0
35.1

39.4
4.0
39.1
38.4
37.7
39.8
34.6

39.6
3.6
39.2
38.8
38.7
40.0
34.8

39.8
4.1
39.3
39.1
39.0
40.7
35.1

39.9
4.1
39.3
38.8
39.1
40.4
35.8

40.1
4.3
39.2
39.9
40.0
40.0
36.2

39.9
4.2
39.1
39.1
39.7
39.8
35.8

40.2
4.3
39.5
39.6
40.0
39.4
35.7

40.3
4.3
39.4
40.3
40.0
39.9
36.2

40.1
4.2
39.2
39.6
40.2
38.8
36.2

39.9
4.3
38.9
39.6
39.3
38.4
36.1

Leather and allied products.................
Paper and paper products...................
Printing and related support
activities................................................
Petroleum and coal products...............
Chemicals...............................................
Plastics and rubber products...............

37.5
41.8

39.3
42.1

39.3
41.5

39.2
41.3

38.8
41.4

39.7
41.2

38.9
41.2

38.4
41.2

38.9
41.5

39.3
41 ..9

40.3
41.8

39.8
41.9

39.5
42.0

39.6
41.9

39.5
41.8

38.4
43.0
42.3
40.6

38.2
44.5
42.4
40.4

37.9
44.0
42.3
39.9

37.9
43.9
42.1
40.3

38.2
44.2
42.2
40.1

38.0
44.0
42.0
40.1

38.0
44.4
42.3
40.3

38.2
44.2
42.2
40.5

38.5
44.9
42.0
40.6

38.4
45.6
42.7
40.7

38.2
44.2
42.5
40.4

38.6
43.8
42.9
40.8

38.6
44.1
43.2
40.9

38.4
43.6
43.0
40.9

38.4
43.5
43.0
40.7

32.5

32.4

32.3

32.4

32.3

32.2

32.3

32.3

32.3

32.4

32.2

32.4

32.4

32.3

32.4

T O T A L P R IV A T E .............................................
G O O D S - P R O D U C I N G ........................................
N a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s a n d m i n in g ....................

Overtime hours....................................
Durable goods.........................................
Overtime hours....................................
Wood products......................................

P R IV A T E S E R V IC E P R O V I D I N G .....................................................
T r a d e , tra n s p o r ta tio n , a n d
u t i l i t i e s ..................................................................

33.6

33.5

33.5

33.5

33.5

33.4

33.5

33.5

33.6

33.6

33.5

33.6

33.7

33.5

33.5

Wholesale trade.......................................

38.0

37.8

37.7

37.9

37.8

37.9

37.8

38.0

38.0

37.9
31.0

38.0
30.9

37.9

37.9

36.9

37.2

30.8
36.9

Retail trade...............................................

30.9

30.9

30.9

30.8

30.8

37.8
30.7

30.9

30.9

30.9

30.9

37.8
30.8

Transportation and warehousing.........

36.8

36.9

36.5

36.6

36.6

36.9

36.9

36.9

37.1

37.0

36.7

30.8

Utilities.......................................................

40.9

41.1

41.0

40.9

41.0

41.0

41.0

40.4

41.0

41.4

40.8

40.8

41.0

41.1

36.9
41.1

I n f o r m a t i o n .............................................................

36.5

36.2

36.2

36.3

36.3

36.3

36.2

36.1

36.1

36.3

36.2

36.2

36.3

36.2

36.2

F in a n c ia l a c t iv i t i e s ...........................................

35.6

35.5

35.5

35.6

35.5

35.5

35.5

35.4

35.5

35.5

35.3

35.7

35.5

35.5

35.6

s e r v i c e s .................................................................

34.2

34.1

34.0

34.2

34.1

34.1

33.9

33.9

34.0

34.1

33.8

34.1

34.2

34.0

34.1

E d u c a t io n a n d h e a lth s e r v ic e s .................

32.4

32.3

32.3

32.3

32.3

32.3

32.4

32.3

32.3

32.4

32.4

32.4

32.4

32.4

32.4

25.8

25.6

25.6

25.7

25.5

25.4

25 5

25 5

25 6

25 7

25 6

25 7

25 8

25 7

25 7

32.0

31.4

31.4

31.4

31.4

31.3

31.3

31.2

31.3

31.2

31.0

31.1

31.1

31.1

31.1

1 Data relate to production workers in natural resources and mining and manu­

NOTE:

Data reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the North American

facturing, construction workers in construction, and nonsupervisory workers in the

Industry Classification System (NAics), replacing the Standard industrial Classification

P r o f e s s io n a l a n d b u s in e s s

O t h e r s e r v i c e s ......................................................

service-providing industries,

(SIC) system. NAiCS-based data by industry are not comparable with Sic-based data.

p = preliminary.

See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

103

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

14. Average hourly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers1on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry,
monthly data seasonally adjusted
Industry

2003

Annual average

2004

2002

2003

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.p

Apr.p

$15.59

T O T A L P R IV A T E

Current dollars...............................

$14.95

$15.35

$15.25

$15.31

$15.34

$15.40

$15.41

$15.41

$15.43

$15.46

$15.45

$15.49

$15.52

$15.54

Constant (1982) dollars.................

8.24

8.27

8.23

8.28

8.29

8.31

8.28

8.25

8.28

8.23

8.30

8.27

8.27

8.24

8.25

G O O D S - P R O D U C IN G ......................................

16.33

16.80

16.71

16.76

16.79

16.81

16.86

16.91

16.90

16.94

16.97

17.00

17.06

17.09

17.14
18.06

N a tu r a l r e s o u r c e s a n d m in in g ................

17.19

17.58

17.60

17.47

17.52

17.57

17.62

17.66

17.72

17.79

17.91

17.95

18.01

18.07

C o n s t r u c t io n .....................................................

18.52

18.95

18.90

18.95

18.97

15.97

19.01

19.05

19.06

19.06

19.04

19.11

19.17

19.22

M a n u f a c t u r in g ..................................................

15.74

15.64

15.68

15.72

15.73

15.79

15.84

15.83

15.89

15.93

15.94

16.02

Excluding overtime...........................

15.29
14.54

19.18
15.99

14.96

14.90

14.92

14.96

14.96

15.02

15.06

15.03

15.06

15.09

15.11

15.14

15.17

16.08
15.24

Durable goods.......................................

16.02

16.46

16.35

16.39

16.43

16.50

16.57

16.54

16.58

16.64

16.63

16.68

16.70

16.76

Nondurable goods.................................

14.15

14.63

14.54

14.58

14.61

16.43
14.65

14.68

14.70

14.72

14.79

14.81

14.85

14.89

14.93

15.01

14.56

14.96

14.86

14.92

14.95

15.02

15.02

15.01

15.03

15.06

15.05

15.08

15.10

15.13

15.17

14.57

P R IV A T E S E R V IC E P R O V ID IN G ........................................................
T r a d e ,t r a n s p o r t a t io n , a n d

14.02

14.34

14.24

14.30

14.35

14.39

14.40

14.38

14.41

14.44

14.41

14.45

14.49

14.50

Wholesale trade....................................

16.98

17.36

17.29

17.23

17.37

17.43

17.44

17.47

17.47

17.46

17.53

17.54

17.55

17.61

Retail trade............................................
Transportation and warehousing........

11.67

11.90

11.81

11.87

11.91

17.40
11.94

11.95

11.94

11.95

11.97

11.95

11.95

11.98

11.99

12.02

15.76

16.25

16.33

16.31

16.32

16.35

16.33

16.53

16.71

24.59

24.80

24.99

24.96

25.17

25.36

25.13

16.46
25.32

16.52

24.76

16.26
24.72

16.36

23.96

16.15
24.44

16.20

Utilities....................................................

25.35

25.38

25.42

In f o r m a t io n .........................................................

20.20

21.01

20.89

21.01

20.98

21.18

21.22

21.21

21.21

21.10

20.99

21.15

21.24

21.27

F in a n c ia l a c t iv i t i e s .........................................

16.17

17.13

16.95

17.02

17.16

17.41

17.39

17.27

17.29

17.30

17.30

17.35

17.32

17.42

21.38
17.48

16.81

17.20

17.20

17.21

17.16

17.20

17.20

17.19

17.25

17.29

17.25

17.24

17.25

17.27

17.30
15.95

u t i l i t i e s .............................................................

P r o fe s s io n a l a n d b u s in e s s
s e r v ic e s .............................................................
E d u c a tio n a n d h e a lth

15.21

15.64

15.45

15.56

15.61

15.64

15.73

15.77

15.90

15.94

8.76

8.73

8.75

8.76

8.78

8.78

8.78

8.82

15.81
8.84

15.87

8.58

15.69
8.77

15.70

L e is u r e a n d h o s p it a lit y ................................

8.85

8.86

8.87

8.88

O t h e r s e r v ic e s ..................................................

13.72

13.84

13.78

13.82

13.82

13.82

13.82

13.81

13.80

13.81

13.80

13.84

13.84

13.86

13.83

s e r v ic e s .............................................................

104

1 Data relate to production workers in natural resources and mining and manufac­

NOTE:

turing, construction workers in construction, and nonsupervisory workers in the

Classification System (NAICS), replacing the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system,

service-providing industries,

based data by industry are not comparable with SIC-based data. See "Notes on the data" for a

p = preliminary.

description of the most recent benchmark revision.

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June 2004

Data

reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the

North American industry
n a ic s

15. Average hourly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers' on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry
Industry
TOTAL PRIVATE...................................
Seasonally adjusted.......................

Annual average
2002

2003

2003

2004

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.p Apr.p

$15.27
15.31

$15.30
15.34

$15.29
15.40

$15.31
15.41

$15.44
15.41

$15.42
15.41

$15.52
15.43

$15.48
15.45

$15.56
15.49

$15.60
15.52

$15.55
15.54

$15.59
15.59

$14.95

$15.35

15.18

15.47

$15.27
15.25

GOODS-PRODUCING................................

16.33

16.8

16.66

16 72

16.78

16.85

16.92

17.01

16.95

16.98

17.03

16.94

16.95

17.00

17.09

Natural resources and mining.............

17.19

17.58

17.68

17.39

17.44

17.53

17.52

17.69

17.69

17.15

17.97

18.00

18.05

18.15

18.13

Construction.............................................

18.52

18.95

18.84

18.86

18.91

19.00

19.08

19.19

19.13

19.08

19.19

19.01

19.07

19.06

19.14

M anufacturing...........................................

15.29

15.74

15.63

15.64

15.69

15.68

15.76

15.87

15.81

15.92

16.05

15.98

15.99

16.01

16.07

Durable goods.......................................
Wood products....................................
Nonmetallic mineral products...........
Primary m etals....................................
Fabricated metal products................
Machinery............................................
Computer and electronic products ...
Electrical equipment and appliances

16.02
12.33
15.40
17.68
14.68
15.92
16.20
13.98

16.46
12.71
15.77
18.13
15.01
16.30
16.68
14.35

16.32
12.49
15.69
18.05
14.95
16.17
16.62
14.26

16.35
12.58
15.74
17.95
14.93
16.20
16.58
14.21

16.41
12.70
15.70
18.05
14.92
16.30
16.78
14.29

16.32
12.81
15.83
18.26
15.00
16.36
16.79
14.31

16.48
12.77
15.81
18.13
15.04
16.32
16.81
14.45

16.62
12.83
15.84
18.30
15.09
16.40
16.77
14.49

16.55
12.82
15.95
18.25
15.03
16.35
16.77
14.37

16.64
12.95
15.99
18.32
15.06
16.49
16.78
14.54

16.78
12.93
15.98
18.39
15.23
16.62
16.85
14.68

16.66
12.90
16.03
18.39
15.20
16.53
16.81
14.50

16.68
12.91
16.00
18.36
15.18
16.50
16.92
14.58

16.69
12.93
16.03
18.34
15.25
16.50
16.92
14.69

16.72
12.99
16.33
18.54
15.22
16.51
17.11
14.80

Transportation equipment.................
Furniture and related products........
Miscellaneous manufacturing..........

20.64
12.61
12.91

21.25
12.98
13.30

20.95
12.89
13.20

21.08
12.89
13.20

21.21
12.95
13.14

20.76
12.97
13.26

21.29
13.04
13.27

21.56
13.10
13.42

21.35
13.01
13.47

21.48
13.08
13.53

21.74
13.08
13.60

21.38
12.95
13.68

21.37
12.92
13.75

21.34
12.95
13.77

21.33
13.06
13.59

Nondurable goods.................................
Food manufacturing...........................
Beverages and tobacco products ....

14.15
12.55
17.73

14.63
12.80
17.96

14.55
12.75
17.86

14.54
12.74
18.09

14.56
12.73
17.70

14.71
12.84
17.86

14.65
12.80
17.75

14.73
12.90
17.73

14.67
12.77
18.05

14.80
12.91
18.64

14.88
12.95
18.58

14.89
12.91
18.88

14.88
12.87
18.76

14.90
12.90
19.24

15.02
13.00
19.90

Textile mills..........................................

11.73

12.00

11.95

11.95

11.93

11.97

11.95

12.07

12.02

12.08

12.21

12.11

12.13

12.09

12.21

Textile product mills...........................
Apparel................................................

10.96
9.10

11.24
9.56

11.12
9.46

11.12
9.49

11.16
9.47

11.28
9.68

11.46
9.75

11.47
9.77

11.37
9.69

11.35
9.71

11.44
9.80

11.45
9.74

11.40
9.58

11.37
9.60

11.15
9.71

Leather and allied products.............
Paper and paper products................

11.00
16.85

11.67
17.32

11.72
17.25

11.66
17.25

11.55
17.20

11.52
17.45

11.67
17.33

11.63
17.41

11.83
17.44

11.87
17.58

11.90
17.60

11.94
17.63

11.76
17.55

11.68
17.59

11.73
17.86

Printing and related support activitie;

14.93

15.37

15.33

15.25

15.25

15.39

15.36

15.46

15.41

15.48

15.56

15.53

15.57

15.63

15.53

Petroleum and coal products...........

23.04

23.64

23.86

23.29

23.45

23.14

22.96

23.45

23.63

24.00

24.06

24.13

24.32

24.83

24.69

Chemicals............................................

17.97

18.52

18.34

18.44

18.53

18.51

18.66

18.77

18.79

18.83

18.85

18.83

19.04

13.55

14.18

14.09

14.11

14.20

14.38

18.60
14.27

18.66

Plastics and rubber products...........

14.30

14.19

14.27

14.47

14.43

14.45

14.46

14.60

PRIVATE SERVICEPR O VID IN G ...............................................

14.56

14.96

14.91

14.88

14.90

14.87

14.88

15.00

15.01

15.13

15.07

15.19

15.24

15.16

15.20

utilities......................................................

14.02

14.34

14.32

14.29

14.33

14.32

14.32

14.42

14.38

14.44

14.31

14.50

14.58

14.54

14.62

Wholesale tra d e ....................................

16.98

17.36

17.29

17.27

17.36

17.33

17.35

17.41

17.42

17.56

17.46

17.56

17.60

17.48

17.61

Retail tra d e............................................

11.67

11.90

11.89

11.87

11.90

11.89

11.89

11.99

11.91

11.92

11.87

11.98

12.04

12.04

12.08

Transportation and warehousing.......

15.76

16.25

16.17

16.15

16.25

16.35

16.33

16.31

16.31

16.40

16.33

16.46

16.58

16.52

16.74

Utilities....................................................

23.96

24.76

24.54

24.59

24.63

24.64

24.81

25.15

25.23

25.50

25.26

25.38

25.29

25.36

25.31

20.20

21.01

20.89

20.92

20.92

21.01

21.11

21.35

21.25

21.28

21.10

21.21

21.28

21.19

21.35

16.17

17.13

16.96

17.00

17.19

17.29

17.34

17.27

17.25

17.42

17.26

17.35

17.47

17.38

17.48

16.81

17.20

17.19

17.15

17.20

17.07

17.00

17.11

17.13

17.41

17.29

17.38

17.47

17.29

17.27

15.96

Trade, transportation, and

Financial activities...................................
Professional and business
services....................................................
Education and health
services...................................................

15.21

15.64

15.48

15.51

15.54

15.62

15.68

15.71

15.73

15.79

15.86

15.94

15.95

15.93

Leisure and ho s p itality.........................

8.58

8.76

8.71

8.74

8.71

8.68

8.68

8.78

8.78

8.83

8.94

8.89

8.92

8.89

8.86

Other services...........................................

13.72

13.84

13.82

13.82

13.80

13.72

13.75

13.82

13.78

13.85

13.88

13.89

13.90

13.85

13.87

Data relate to production workers in natural resources and mining and

NOTE: Data reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the North American Industry

manufacturing, construction workers in construction, and nonsupervisory workers in

Classification System (NAICS), replacing the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)

the service-providing industries.

system. NAiCS-based data by industry are not comparable with SIC-based data. See


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

"Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

105

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

16. Average weekly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers1on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry
A n n u a l a v e ra g e

2003

2004

In d u s try
2002

2003

A p r.

M ay

June

J u ly

Aug.

S e p t.

O c t.

Nov.

D ec.

Jan.

Feb.

M a r .p

A p r .p

$506.07

$517.36

-

-

$510.02
512.40

$513.07
515.95

$521.73
516.96

$515.27
517.44

$519.01
517.78

$520.33
517.78

$519.65
519.99

$527.68
522.55

$520.13
519.12

$518.15
523.56

$527.28
524.58

$520.93
523.70

$520.71
525.38

651.61

669.23

654.74

665.46

672.88

665.58

678.49

685.50

681.39

684.29

682.90

674.21

674.61

681.70

678.47

741.97
711.82

766.83
727.11

760.24

765.16

786.98

730.76

712.88

711.31

798.60
731.90

795.91

752.25

781.70
714.34

784.80

753.66

778.36
744.16

784.55

731.77

757.30
741.00

780.13

706.50

772.59
737.49

772.63

C o n s tr u c tio n ......................................
M a n u fa c tu r in g ...................................

618.75

636.07

623.64

628.73

635.45

620.93

633.55

647.50

643.47

655.90

662.87

650.39

652.39

653.21

650.84

Durable goods.............................

652.97

671.53

656.06

663.81

672.81

651.17

669.09

684.74

680.21

692.22

703.08

688.06

688.88

690.97

687.19

Wood products.........................
Nonmetallic mineral products...
Primary metals..........................
Fabricated metal products.......
Machinery..................................
Computer and electronic
products...................................
Electrical equipment and
appliances................................
Transportation equipment.......
Furniture and related
products...................................
Miscellaneous
manufacturing.........................

492.00
646.91
749.32
596.38
645.55

513.92
665.11
767.63
610.33
664.79

498.35
655.84
761.71
599.50
653.27

505.72
673.67
761.08
606.16
659.34

520.70
673.53
761.71
608.74
669.93

521.37
666.44
750.49
598.50
651.13

519.74
675.09
754.21
609.12
660.96

526.03
676.37
777.75
617.18
672.40

525.62
679.47
771.98
616.23
667.08

537.43
681.17
785.93
621.98
682.69

531.42
669.56
799.97
635.09
696.38

517.29
663.64
796.29
626.24
689.30

521.56
664.00
787.64
623.90
691.35

524.96
681.28
790.45
625.25
689.70

529.99
692.39
800.93
620.98
685.17

T O T A L P R IV A T E ...........................

Seasonally adjusted........
G O O D S - P R O D U C IN G .......................
N a tu ra l re s o u rc e s
a n d m in in g .........................................

721.58

642.87

674.68

661.48

668.17

681.27

669.92

685.85

684.22

684.22

693.01

695.91

680.81

695.41

690.34

691.24

560.24
877.87

582.68
890.32

570.40
865.24

569.82
874.82

587.32
888.70

568.11
824.17

582.34
870.76

588.29
918.46

592.04
905.24

601.96
925.79

616.56
950.04

594.50
915.06

591.95
916.77

596.41
917.62

592.00
902.26

494.01

505.23

488.53

491.11

505.05

504.53

513.78

518.76

508.69

523.20

528.43

510.23

505.17

510.23

514.56

499.13

510.69

500.28

502.94

505.89

501.23

505.59

515.33

515.90

530.38

533.12

532.15

533.50

532.90

519.14

Nondurable goods.......................

566.84

582.65

574.73

574.33

579.49

595.20

596.00

596.29

494.70

498.13

500.29

505.69

600.88
515.11

594.11

502.61

593.62
517.29

602.64

496.91

581.61
506.88

588.27

Food manufacturing..................
Beverages and tobacco
products...................................
Textile mills...............................
Textile product mills.................
Apparel.......................................
Leather and allied products......
Paper and paper products.......
Printing and related
support activities.....................
Petroleum and coal
products...................................
Chemicals..................................
Plastics and rubber
products...................................

575.16
499.48

514.12

504.78

499.36

499.23

496.60

698.39
476.52
429.01
333.66
412.99
705.62

702.75
469.47
445.08
340.22
458.26
719.21

701.90
472.03
429.23
336.78
466.46
712.43

710.94
461.27
432.57
336.90
457.07
707.25

699.15
464.08
440.82
337.13
452.76
712.08

692.97
440.50
446.69
332.02
449.28
713.71

694.03
462.47
459.55
339.30
451.63
710.53

707.43
475.56
467.98
341.95
445.43
726.00

707.56
469.98
458.21
348.84
462.55
727.25

751.19
485.62
456.27
356.36
465.30
743.63

722.76
490.84
464.46
352.80
485.52
751.52

728.77
485.61
447.70
343.82
471.63
738.70

737.27
486.41
450.30
345.84
464.52
731.84

752.28
492.06
441.16
350.40
467.20
733.50

784.06
483.52
430.39
353.44
465.68
744.76

573.05

587.42

579.47

573.40

577.98

578.66

585.22

599.85

597.91

603.72

602.17

593.25

597.89

603.32

594.80

990.88
759.53

1,052.97
784.56

1,049.84
773.95

1,003.80
776.32

1,043.53
785.67

1,022.79
771.87

1,007.94
784.92

1,045.87
793.05

1,068.08
785.59

1,099.20
808.99

1,061.05
806.09

1,068.96
804.04

1,074.94
816.21

1,080.11
811.57

1,064.14
811.10

549.85

572.23

562.19

570.04

573.68

566.57

572.23

583.44

578.95

586.50

596.16

585.86

588.12

589.97

594.22

472.88

484.00

478.61

479.14

487.23

481.79

485.09

483.00

484.82

493.24

485.25

484.56

496.82

486.64

487.92

a n d u tilitie s .......................................

471.27

481.10

475.42

478.72

487.22

484.02

485.45

485.95

483.17

486.63

480.82

477.05

488.43

482.73

485.38

Wholesale trade..........................
Retail trade..................................
Transportation and
warehousing..............................
Utilities.........................................

644.38
360.81

657.12
367.28

648.38
363.83

652.81
365.60

664.89
373.66

653.34

658.10
371.69

661.96
366.83

676.06
365.94

659.99
367.97

656.74

373.35

659.30
373.35

361.80

670.56
368.42

657.25
366.02

663.90
367.23

579.75
979.09

597.79
1,016.94

583.74
1,008.59

589.48
1,003.27

601.25
1,012.29

603.32
1,007.78

604.21
1,017.21

606.73
1,026.12

603.47
1,039.48

615.00
1,068.45

602.58
1,028.08

597.50
1,032.97

613.46
1,039.42

604.63
1,037.22

611.01
1,035.18

P R IV A T E S E R V IC E P R O V ID IN G ..........................................
T r a d e , tr a n s p o r ta tio n ,

In fo r m a tio n ..........................................

738.17

761.13

749.95

753.12

767.76

762.66

768.40

770.74

769.25

783.10

761.71

763.56

776.72

760.72

766.47

F in a n c ia l a c t iv itie s ..........................

575.51

608.87

596.99

600.10

622.28

610.34

613.84

607.90

608.93

628.86

607.55

612.10

630.67

611.78

617.04

574.66

586.68

584.46

584.82

596.84

580.38

579.70

578.32

580.71

597.16

582.67

583.97

602.72

587.86

587.18

P ro fe s s io n a l a n d
b u s in e s s s e r v ic e s .........................
E d u c a tio n a n d
h e a lth s e r v ic e s ................................

492.74

505.76

496.91

497.87

505.05

504.53

508.03

505.86

506.51

516.33

512.28

514.86

519.97

512.95

513.91

L e is u re a n d h o s p ita lity .................

221.26

224.35

220.36

222.87

227.33

226.55

228.28

222.13

223.89

226.05

225.29

221.36

230.14

225.81

225.04

O th e r s e r v ic e s ....................................

439.76

434.49

429.80

431.18

436.08

430.81

433.13

431.18

431.31

434.89

430.28

429.20

433.68

427.97

427.20

1 Data relate to production workers in natural resources and mining and manufacturing,

Industry Classification System ( n a ic s ), replacing the Standard Industrial Classification (sic)

construction workers In construction, and nonsupervisory workers In the service­

system. NAics-based data by industry are not comparable with sic-based data. See "Notes on

providing industries.

the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.

NOTE:

Dash indicates data not available, p = preliminary.

106

Data reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the North American

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June 2004


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

17. Diffusion indexes of employment change, seasonally adjusted
[In percent]______________________________________________________
Timespan and year

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug. Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Private nonfarm payrolls, 278 Industries
Over 1-month span:
2000..................................................

61.9

62.9

63.3

59.5

46.9

61.7

63.1

52.5

51.5

53.4

56.8

53.8

2001..................................................

52.2

47.8

50.4

34.4

41.4

39.2

37.1

38.8

38.3

32.4

36.7

34.9

2002..................................................

40.1

35.1

41.0

41.5

41.7

47.8

44.1

44.1

42.8

39.0

38.7

34.5

2003..................................................

41.2

35.1

38.1

41.4

42.8

40.1

40.5

39.7

49.3

46.0

51.1

49.1

2004..................................................

52.3

56.1

64.0

61.7

2000..................................................

69.2

66.2

67.8

68.3

60.1

58.1

56.3

61.5

56.5

53.2

52.9

56.8

2001..................................................

52.7

50.4

50.4

43.5

38.8

34.9

36.2

37.9

34.7

35.3

30.8

32.0

2002..................................................

34.0

37.4

35.1

36.2

36.7

39.4

39.9

40.8

38.7

37.1

34.4

34.7

2003..................................................

36.5

32.6

36.3

35.1

40.5

42.6

37.4

35.4

40.1

45.5

50.5

51.1

2004..................................................

54.0

55.2

59.9

64.0

54.0

Over 3-month span:

Over 6-month span:
2000..................................................

67.3

69.1

75.2

72.5

67.4

67.8

66.7

60.8

59.0

55.0

59.7

2001..................................................

51.8

50.0

51.8

47.3

43.5

41.5

38.1

35.4

32.2

33.1

31.5

31.1

2002..................................................

29.5

30.0

31.1

31.1

31.7

37.1

37.2

39.0

34.7

36.5

35.3

33.3

2003..................................................

33.6

31.1

31.7

31.7

33.5

37.8

36.2

36.5

40.5

39.4

42.6

41.7

2004..................................................

48.9

54.1

58.5

61.5

2000..................................................

70.9

69.2

69.8

71.0

70.0

70.3

70.3

65.6

63.8

62.1

59.5

59.5

73.2
53.4

71.0

2001..................................................

49.3

48.6

45.0

43.3

43.9

39.9

37.8

37.1

34.9

Over 12-month span:

2002..................................................

33.6

31.7

30.2

30.4

30.2

29.1

32.0

31.3

30.0

29.5

32.9

34.7

2003..................................................

34.5

31.5

32.9

33.5

36.2

34.4

34.7

33.1

37.6

37.4

33.1

35.4

2004..................................................

37.8

43.2

47.1

51.3

41.1

Manufacturing payrolls, 84 industries
Over 1-month span:
2000..................................................

48.2

58.3

50.0

50.0

41.1

57.1

60.7

28.6

25.0

35.1

39.9

2001..................................................

22.6

22.0

21.4

16.1

15.5

23.2

13.7

14.3

19.0

17.9

14.9

10.1

2002..................................................

21.4

18.5

23.8

35.1

29.8

32.7

40.5

28.0

31.0

11.9

15.5

17.9

2003..................................................

26.2

15.5

22.6

13.7

26.2

25.0

28.0

26.2

27.4

28.6

51.2

45.8

2004..................................................

42.9

55.4

51.8

55.4

Over 3-month span:
2000..................................................

53.6

53.6

56.0

54.8

44.0

44.0

51.2

47.6

32.7

25.0

23.2

38.7

2001..................................................

35.7

21.4

16.1

14.3

13.1

13.7

11.9

8.9

8.3

13.1

8.9

10.1

2002..................................................

9.5

10.1

11.3

17.9

17.3

19.0

28.0

22.0

23.8

15.5

6.5

4.8

2003..................................................

13.7
48.8

13.1
51.8

16.7

10.1
54.2

13.1

14.9

16.1

16.1

16.1

24.4

27.4

41.7

27.4

2004..................................................

53.6

Over 6-month span:
2000..................................................

44.0

52.4

55.4

57.7

47.6

51.8

56.0

45.2

39.3

34.5

32.1

2001..................................................

22.0

23.8

22.0

20.8

14.3

13.7

14.3

10.1

10.7

5.4

7.1

4.8

2002..................................................

6.5

8.9

7.7

8.3

7.7

14.3

14.9

10.7

12.5

10.1

8.9

8.9

8.9

13.1

8.9

13.1

13.1

16.7

19.0

19.6

33.3

2003..................................................

11.3

9.5

6.0

7.1

2004..................................................

28.6

36.9

44.0

52.4

Over 12-month span:
2000..................................................

41.7

39.3

47.0

50.0

46.4

52.4

51.8

49.4

46.4

40.5

35.1

2001..................................................

29.8

32.1

20.8

19.0

13.1

12.5

10.7

11.9

11.9

10.1

8.3

6.0

2002..................................................

7.1

6.0

6.0

6.5

7.1

3.6

4.8

6.0

7.1

4.8

8.3

2003..................................................
2004..................................................

10.7

6.0

6.5

5.4

8.3

9.5

9.5

9.5

4.8
10.7

11.9

9.5

11.3

9.5

19.0

17.3

26.2

NOTE: Figures are the percent of industries with employment
increasing plus one-half of the Industries with unchanged
employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance
between industries with increasing and decreasing
employment.

See the "Definitions" in this section. See "Notes on the data" for
a description of the most recent benchmark revision.
Data

for the

two

most

recent

Monthly Labor Review

months

are

preliminary.

June 2004

107

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

18. Job openings levels by industry and region, seasonally adjusted
Levels (in thousands)
Industry and region

2003
Apr.

Total2....................................................................

Nov.

Rates
2003

2004
Dec.

Jan.

Mar.

Feb.

Apr.p

Apr.

Nov.

2004
Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.p

2,807

2,952

3,062

2,868

2,906

3,079

3,091

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.2

2.2

2.3

2.3

Total private2.................................................

2,430

2,593

2,719

2,518

2,534

2,740

2,733

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.3

2.3

2.5

2.4

Construction............................................

100

89

110

106

99

113

112

1.5

1.3

1.6

1.5

1.4

1.6

1.6

Manufacturing.........................................

183

221

234

233

226

232

259

1.2

1.5

1.6

1.6

1.6

1.6

1.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities........

439

513

520

430

458

524

518

1.7

2.0

2.0

1.7

1.8

2.0

2.0
2.9

I n d u s tr y

Professional and business services....

460

499

594

501

491

502

494

2.8

3.0

3.5

3.0

2.9

3.0

Education and health services.............

569

551

520

549

551

559

566

3.3

3.2

3.0

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.3

Leisure and hospitality...........................

337

364

399

368

383

370

368

2.7

2.9

3.2

2.9

3.0

2.9

2.9

Government...................................................

371

358

351

350

364

353

357

1.7

1.6

1.6

1.6

1.7

1.6

1.6

2.2

R e g io n 3

1

Northeast.................................................

509

526

541

476

500

569

559

2.0

2.1

2.1

1.9

2.0

2.2

South.........................................................

1,071

1,154

1,204

1,132

1,112

1,176

1,201

2.3

2.5

2.6

2.4

2.4

2.5

2.5

Midwest....................................................

616

655

666

679

680

663

659

2.0

2.1

2.1

2.2

2.2

2.1

2.1

West..........................................................

608

621

649

586

632

655

672

2.1

2.1

2.2

2.0

2.2

2.2

2.3

Kansas,

Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska

Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal

M id w e s t;

Illinois, Indiana, Iowa,

adjustment of the various series.

North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin;

2

Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington

Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other

Wyoming.

services, not shown separately.
3

N o rth e a s t:

Alaska, Arizona, California

W e s t:

Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey,
Alabama, Arkansas,

NOTE: The job openings level is the number of job openings on the last business day o

Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland,

the month; the job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day o

Mississippi, North Carolina,

the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.

New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont;

Oklahoma,

S o u th :

South Carolina,

Tennessee,

Texas,

p = preliminary.

Virginia, West Virginia;

19. Hires levels by industry and region, seasonally adjusted
Levels1(in thousands)
Industry and region

2003
Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

□l

Dec.

<

Total2....................................................................

Nov.

a

Apr.

Rates
2003

2004
Apr.

Nov.

2004
Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.p

3,911

4,135

4,216

4,106

4,103

4,603

4,358

3.0

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.5

Total private2.................................................

3,610

3,843

3,923

3,800

3,772

4,256

4,044

3.3

3.5

3.6

3.5

3.5

3.9

3.7

Construction............................................

357

397

404

358

382

437

409

5.3

5.9

6.0

5.3

5.6

6.4

6.0
2.4

3.3

In d u s tr y

Manufacturing.........................................

282

345

340

349

355

361

349

1.9

2.4

2.4

2.4

2.5

2.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities........

838

875

913

957

945

1,009

1,028

3.3

3.5

3.6

3.8

3.7

4.0

4.0

Professional and business services....

624

613

650

708

529

713

600

3.9

3.8

4.0

4.4

3.3

4.4

3.7

Education and health services.............

419

436

427

416

447

444

459

2.5

2.6

2.5

2.5

2.7

2.6

2.7

Leisure and hospitality...........................

656

776

753

715

766

810

754

5.4

6.4

6.2

5.9

6.3

6.6

6.1

Government...................................................

303

302

300

295

323

343

306

1.4

1.4

1.4

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.4

Region3

1

Northeast.................................................

646

717

792

722

689

744

772

2.6

2.9

3.2

2.9

2.8

3.0

3.1

South.........................................................

1,499

1,508

1,517

1,585

1,608

1,781

1,567

3.3

3.3

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.9

3.4

Midwest....................................................

886

925

897

921

953

1,040

975

2.9

3.0

2.9

3.0

3.1

3.4

3.1

West..........................................................

919

924

992

883

876

1,029

1,089

3.2

3.3

3.5

3.1

3.1

3.6

3.8

Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the Independent seasonal

Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota,

adjustment of the various series.

Wisconsin; W e s t: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana,

2 Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other

Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, Wyoming.

services, not shown separately.
3 N o rth e a s t:

Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New

York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont; S o u th : Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware,

NOTE: The hires level Is the number of hires during the entire month; the hires rate
is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.

District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi,
North Carolina,

Oklahoma,

South Carolina,

Tennessee,

Virginia; M id w e s t : Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas,

108

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June 2004

Texas,

Virginia,

West

p = preliminary.

20. Total separations levels by industry and region, seasonally adjusted
Levels1 (in thousands)
Industry and region

2003
Apr.

Total2....................................................................

Rates
2003

2004

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.p

3,975

3,797

4,022

3,968

4,073

4,134

4,029

Total private2.................................................

3,740

3,543

3,723

3,716

3,807

3,868

3,785

Construction............................................

411

372

391

436

400

392

391

Apr.

2004

Nov.

3.1

Jan.

Dec.

Mar.

Feb.
3.1

Apr.p

2.9

3.1

3.0

3.2

3.5

3.3

3.4

3.4

3.5

3.5

3.5

6.1

5.5

5.8

6.4

5.9

5.7

5.7

3.1

In d u s t r y

Manufacturing.........................................

391

330

343

323

355

377

364

2.7

2.3

2.4

2.3

2.5

2.6

2.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities........

867

856

968

936

899

978

958

3.4

3.4

3.8

3.7

3.5

3.8

3.8

Professional and business services....

568

542

575

572

590

597

589

3.6

3.4

3.6

3.5

3.6

3.7

3.6

Education and health services.............

387

372

330

389

388

382

385

2.3

2.2

2.0

2.3

2.3

2.3

2.3

Leisure and hospitality...........................

699

678

723

709

727

715

671

5.8

5.6

5.9

5.8

5.9

5.8

5.5

Government...................................................

231

259

269

258

268

284

251

1.1

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.3

1.2

R e g io n 3

Northeast.................................................

643

622

687

712

688

666

720

2.6

2.5

2.8

2.9

2.8

2.7

2.9

South........................................................

1,533

1,438

1,518

1,505

1,499

1,612

1,486

3.3

3.1

3.3

3.3

3.3

3.5

3.2

902

881

901

903

929

938

864

2.9

2.9

2.9

2.9

3.0

3.0

28

889

858

898

896

941

1,003

955

3.1

3.0

3.2

3.2

3.3

3.5

3.3

West.........................................................

Illinois, Indiana, Iowa,

Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraski

' Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment

M id w e s t:

of the various series.

North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin; W e s t: Alaska, Arizona, Californi;

2

Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other

3 N o rth e a s t:

Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washingtor
Wyoming.

services, not shown separately.
Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New

York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont;
District of Columbia, Florida,

Georgia,

S o u th :

Kentucky,

Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware,

Louisiana,

Maryland,

Mississippi,

NOTE: The total separations level is the number of total separations during the entir
month; the total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entir
month as a percent of total employment.

North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia;

p = preliminary.

21. Quits levels by industry and region, seasonally adjusted
Levels1(in thousands)
Industry and region

2003
Apr.

Total2....................................................................

Nov.

Rates
2003

2004
Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.p

Apr.

Nov.

2004
Dec.

Jan.

Mar.

Feb.

Apr.p

2,048

2,104

2,131

2,118

2,178

2,271

2,225

1,933

1,999

2,010

2,002

2,051

2,144

2,096

1.8

1.8

1.9

1.8

1.9

2.0

1.9

106

158

171

148

133

154

163

1.6

2.3

2.5

2.2

2.0

2.3

2.4

1.6

1.6

1.6

1.6

1.7

1.7

1.7

In d u s t r y

Total private2.................................................

Manufacturing.........................................

151

166

178

165

169

176

188

1.0

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities........

491

491

534

530

493

530

530

1.9

1.9

2.1

2.1

1.9

2.1

2.1

Professional and business services....

280

261

256

261

302

309

307

1.8

1.6

1.6

1.6

1.9

1.9

1.9

Education and health services.............

230

225

212

237

234

252

248

1.4

1.3

1.3

1.4

1.4

1.5

1.5

Leisure and hospitality...........................

436

463

462

428

447

465

420

3.6

3.8

3.8

3.5

3.7

3.8

3.4

Government...................................................

113

100

119

116

126

129

127

.5

.5

.6

.5

.6

.6

.6

R e g io n 3

297

301

315

288

319

314

381

1.2

1.2

1.3

1.2

1.3

1.3

1.5

South.........................................................

817

869

894

852

867

957

872

1.8

1.9

1.9

1.9

1.9

2.1

1.9

456

466

465

513

455

474

467

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.7

1.5

1.5

1.5

West..........................................................

472

464

436

475

520

565

517

1.7

1.6

1.5

1.7

1.8

2.0

1.8

Indiana,

Iowa,

Kansas,

1 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment

Midwest:

of the various series.

Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin; W e s t: Alaska, Arizona,

2

California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah,

Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other

N o rth e a s t:

Michigan,

Minnesota,

Missouri,

Washington, Wyoming.

services, not shown separately.
3

Illinois,

Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New

York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont;
District of Columbia, Florida,

Georgia,

S o u th :

Kentucky,

Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware,

Louisiana,

Maryland,

Mississippi,

North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia;


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

NOTE: The quits level is the number of quits during the entire month; the quits rate
is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
p = preliminary.

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

109

Current Labor Statistics:

22.

Labor Force Data

Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages: 10 largest counties, third quarter 2003.

C o u n ty b y N A IC S s u p e r s e c to r

E s ta b lis h m e n ts ,
th ird q u a rte r
2003
(t h o u s a n d s )

S e p te m b e r

A v e ra g e w e e k ly w a g e 1

2003

P e rc e n t c h a n g e ,
S e p te m b e r

T h ird
q u a rte r

P e rc e n t c h a n g e ,
th ird q u a r te r

(t h o u s a n d s )

2 0 0 2 -0 3 2

2003

2 0 0 2 -0 3 2

United States3 ...................................................................................
Private industry ............................................................................
Natural resources and mining ................................................
Construction .............................................................................
Manufacturing ..........................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities..........................................
Information ...............................................................................
Financial activities....................................................................
Professional and business services.......................................
Education and health services...............................................
Leisure and hospitality ............................................................
Other services..........................................................................
Government ..................................................................................

8,291.0
8,025.1
124.5
808.3
379.4
1,860.9
146.3
762.7
1,325.5
729.3
668.9
1,070.2
265.9

128,546.3
107,849.8
1,764.8
6,925.2
14,401.2
25,023.5
3,137.8
7,865.6
16,008.4
15,777.6
12,436.1
4,264.2
20,696.5

-0.4
-.5
-.9
.2
-5.1
-.7
-4.7
1.9
-.4
2.3
1.2
-.2
.1

$704
696
607
744
854
623
1,100
999
823
674
305
462
750

3.1
3.1
2.4
1.5
3.9
2.5
6.0
6.7
3.0
3.2
2.3
2.2
3.3

Los Angeles, CA ..............................................................................
Private industry ............................................................................
Natural resources and mining ................................................
Construction .............................................................................
Manufacturing ..........................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities..........................................
Information ...............................................................................
Financial activities....................................................................
Professional and business services.......................................
Education and health services...............................................
Leisure and hospitality ............................................................
Other services..........................................................................
Government ..................................................................................

349.2
345.3
.6
12.9
17.9
53.9
9.2
22.9
39.9
26.4
25.2
136.3
3.9

4,007.2
3,445.6
12.2
135.2
489.9
769.8
190.6
235.7
568.7
449.5
373.2
220.1
561.6

-.6
-.5
1.2
-.1
-7.8
-.7
-5.3
1.0
1.0
2.0
3.9
4.7
-1.2

792
773
809
795
810
682
1,337
1,190
873
729
463
394
915

3.7
3.3
10.1
1.4
4.5
2.7
3.1
7.0
3.3
2.8
5.9
2.6
6.1

Cook, I L ..............................................................................................
Private industry ............................................................................
Natural resources and mining ................................................
Construction .............................................................................
Manufacturing ..........................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities..........................................
Information ...............................................................................
Financial activities....................................................................
Professional and business services.......................................
Education and health services ...............................................
Leisure and hospitality ............................................................
Other services..........................................................................
Government ..................................................................................

126.0
124.9
.1
10.4
7.9
26.7
2.5
13.7
25.9
12.2
10.5
12.6
1.2

2,529.5
2,209.1
1.5
102.8
266.1
479.7
65.3
220.1
404.2
347.3
222.5
95.2
320.4

-1.2
-1.4
.7
1.3
-5.9
-1.3
-5.9
.3
-3.1
1.1
2.7
-2.1
-.2

835
826
916
1,032
850
695
1,175
1,252
1,010
736
362
615
<4)

2.7
2.1
3.4
-.2
1.9
.0
5.6
5.1
1.9
4.4
1.7
1.3
(4)

New York, N Y ....................................................................................
Private industry ............................................................................
Natural resources and mining ................................................
Construction .............................................................................
Manufacturing ..........................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities..........................................
Information ...............................................................................
Financial activities....................................................................
Professional and business services.......................................
Education and health services...............................................
Leisure and hospitality ............................................................
Other services..........................................................................
Government ..................................................................................

111.7
111.5
.0
2.2
3.5
22.3
4.4
16.8
22.7
7.8
10.0
15.9
.2

2,184.9
1,747.2
.1
31.5
47.1
234.2
128.8
348.8
426.3
263.8
177.5
80.2
437.7

-1.6
-1.3
15.0
-2.1
-8.9
.0
-5.5
-2.7
-1.5
1.3
1.0
.2
-2.7

1,239
1,305
971
1,300
956
960
1,588
2,099
1,438
897
624
751
975

3.2
2.8
-11.4
4.6
1.9
2.6
5.5
2.7
1.8
7.7
4.9
4.0
4.8

Harris, T X ..........................................................................................
Private industry ............................................................................
Natural resources and mining ................................................
Construction .............................................................................
Manufacturing ..........................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities..........................................
Information ...............................................................................
Financial activities....................................................................
Professional and business services.......................................
Education and health services...............................................
Leisure and hospitality ............................................................
Other services..........................................................................
Government ..................................................................................

88.3
87.9
1.2
6.4
4.7
20.9
1.4
9.3
16.9
8.7
6.5
10.4
.4

1,823.7
1,584.2
61.2
140.6
165.2
389.5
34.0
112.1
277.3
187.1
156.6
56.8
239.5

-1.6
-1.9
(4)
-3.5
-6.0
-3.1
-4.3
1.5
-3.4
1.1
.6
-3.7
.9

824
828
1,811
791
1,011
761
1,022
1,038
913
758
318
503
794

2.4
1.8
(4)
.5
3.7
.8
2.1
6.7
2.4
2.3
-1.2
1.0
6.1

Maricopa, A Z .....................................................................................
Private industry ............................................................................
Natural resources and mining ................................................
Construction.............................................................................
Manufacturing ..........................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities..........................................
Information ...............................................................................
Financial activities....................................................................
Professional and business services.......................................
Education and health services...............................................
Leisure and hospitality ............................................................
Other services..........................................................................
Government ..................................................................................

80.4
79.9
.5
8.4
3.3
18.6
1.6
9.3
17.9
7.5
5.6
5.7
.5

1,571.3
1,357.4
7.6
131.1
125.2
316.0
36.3
132.3
254.6
157.6
149.4
44.2
213.9

1.1
1.3
-3.3
3.4
-6.5
.0
-3.1
3.8
2.1
6.6
1.4
-2.7
.3

699
696
499
692
999
683
826
878
677
742
341
480
716

3.4
3.1
.6
1.6
4.0
2.7
-.6
7.9
3.2
4.2
3.0
1.7
4.5

See footnotes at end of table.

110

E m p lo y m e n t

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June 2004

22. Continued—Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages: 10 largest counties, third quarter 2003.

t h ir d q u a r te r
2003
(t h o u s a n d s )

Harris T X .............................................................................................

King WA ..............................................................................................

2003

P e rc e n t c h an g e ,
S e p te m b e r

T h ir d
q u a r te r

P e rc e n t c h an g e ,
t h ir d q u a r te r

(th o u s a n d s )

2 0 0 2 -0 3 2

2003

2 0 0 2 -0 3 2

S e p te m b e r

67.4
66.9
.5
4.5
3.5
15.5
1.8
8.4
13.8
6.1
5.0
6.7
.4

1,438.9
1,281.6
6.5
76.1
145.2
316.8
63.8
139.6
232.6
131.2
126.7
40.6
157.3

-2.4
-2.8
(4)
-1.8
-6.0
-4.1
-6.8
.8
-4.3
3.2
-.9
-3.3
1.5

$861
868
2,365
776
964
851
1,185
1,099
937
817
399
553
(4)

2.4
2.7
(4)
2.2
2.0
4.2
.9
6.5
1.4
2.8
3.6
-2.6
(4)

88.1
86.7
.3
6.4
6.1
17.4
1.5
9.6
17.4
9.1
6.6
12.3
1.4

1,426.5
1,289.3
6.0
85.0
180.0
266.4
34.1
127.0
258.7
125.9
160.7
45.4
137.2

1.1
1.9
-20.1
2.7
-4.9
1.1
-3.6
12.3
2.7
7.6
.4
2.2
-5.3

812
807
563
872
940
755
1,089
1,354
821
736
356
491
859

5.3
5.2
15.8
4.6
8.2
3.3
2.6
11.4
.4
1.1
5.3
1.9
7.5

84.4
83.0
.9
6.4
3.6
14.2
1.4
8.8
14.8
7.5
6.5
18.9
1.4

1,256.7
1,045.4
11.8
82.1
105.3
208.2
36.8
81.5
203.0
121.1
143.0
52.3
211.3

.9
1.6
-2.7
5.5
-5.9
1.5
1.0
6.7
.4
2.8
2.9
5.4
-2.4

761
739
462
778
986
639
1,500
993
864
687
348
431
870

4.2
4.2
1.1
1.6
5.3
2.9
29.5
6.4
1.5
3.5
3.9
.2
4.1

88.3
87.7
.5
7.1
2.8
16.1
1.7
6.4
13.0
6.1
5.8
28.2
.6

1,095.4
943.7
3.5
56.9
103.7
217.1
68.6
77.8
158.5
107.3
102.1
48.3
151.8

-.7
-.8
-5.4
-1.9
-8.3
-.9
.0
3.7
-.4
1.8
1.7
-.6
-.3

962
977
1,047
864
1,115
780
2,979
1,097
996
704
396
450
869

5.4
5.5
25.2
-.3
-4.4
4.3
16.8
10.4
5.7
4.0
2.1
1.1
4.4

79.9
79.6
.5
4.9
2.9
23.5
1.7
8.2
15.9
7.9
5.3
7.5
.3

965.2
814.6
7.8
41.5
51.2
240.1
27.6
65.2
131.6
122.9
89.6
34.2
150.7

.1
.1
2.2
5.4
-6.3
-2.0
-7.5
1.4
1.6
2.2
2.7
-2.0
.4

682
670
430
694
613
637
923
972
776
716
387
428
748

(4)
3.6
2.6
2.4
2.9
2.9
1.7
8.6
1.2
6.2
5.4
2.4
(4)

1 Average weekly wages were calculated using unrounded data.
2 Percent changes were computed from quarterly employment and pay data
adjusted for noneconomic county reclassifications. See Notes on Current Labor
Statistics.
3 Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

A v e r a g e w e e k ly w a g e 1

E m p lo y m e n t

E s ta b lis h m e n ts ,
C o u n t y b y N A IC S s u p e r s e c to r

Virgin Islands.
4

Data do not meet BLS or State agency disclosure standards.

NOTE: Includes workers covered by Unemployment Insurance (Ul) and
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) programs. Data are
preliminary.

Monthly Labor Review

June

2004

111

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

22. Continued—Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages: 10 largest counties, third quarter 2003.
E m p lo y m e n t

E s t a b lis h m e n ts ,
C o u n t y b y N A IC S s u p e r s e c to r

th ir d q u a r te r
2003
(t h o u s a n d s )

P e rc e n t c h a n g e ,
S e p te m b e r

T h ir d
q u a r te r

P e rc e n t c h an g e ,

2003
(t h o u s a n d s )

2 0 0 2 -0 3 2

2003

2 0 0 2 -0 3 2

th ir d q u a r t e r

Harris, T X ....................................................
Private industry ......................................
Natural resources and m ining.........
Construction.......................................
Manufacturing ....................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ...
Information .........................................
Financial activities.............................
Professional and business services
Education and health services ........
Leisure and hospitality .....................
Other services...................................
Government ...........................................

67.4
66.9
.5
4.5
3.5
15.5
1.8
8.4
13.8
6.1
5.0
6.7
.4

1,438.9
1,281.6
6.5
76.1
145.2
316.8
63.8
139.6
232.6
131.2
126.7
40.6
157.3

-2.4
-2.8
(4)
-1.8
-6.0
-4.1
-6.8
.8
-4.3
3.2
-.9
-3.3
1.5

(4 )

(4 )

Orange, C A .................................................
Private industry ......................................
Natural resources and mining .........
Construction.......................................
Manufacturing ...................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ...
Information .........................................
Financial activities.............................
Professional and business services
Education and health services ........
Leisure and hospitality .....................
Other services ...................................
Government ...........................................

88.1
86.7
.3
6.4
6.1
17.4
1.5
9.6
17.4
9.1
6.6
12.3
1.4

1,426.5
1,289.3
6.0
85.0
180.0
266.4
34.1
127.0
258.7
125.9
160.7
45.4
137.2

1.1
1.9
-20.1
2.7
-4.9
1.1
-3.6
12.3
2.7
7.6
.4
2.2
-5.3

812
807
563
872
940
755
1,089
1,354
821
736
356
491
859

5.3
5.2
15.8
4.6

San Diego, CA ...........................................
Private industry ......................................
Natural resources and mining .........
Construction.......................................
Manufacturing ...................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ...
Information .........................................
Financial activities.............................
Professional and business services
Education and health services ........
Leisure and hospitality .....................
Other services....................................
Government ...........................................

84.4
83.0
.9
6.4
3.6
14.2
1.4
8.8
14.8
7.5
6.5
18.9
1.4

1,256.7
1,045.4
11.8
82.1
105.3
208.2
36.8
81.5
203.0
121.1
143.0
52.3
211.3

.9
1.6
-2.7
5.5
-5.9
1.5
1.0
6.7
.4
2.8
2.9
5.4
-2.4

761
739
462
778
986
639
1,500
993
864
687
348
431
870

4.2
4.2
1.1
1.6
5.3
2.9
29.5
6.4
1.5
3.5
3.9

King, WA .....................................................
Private industry ......................................
Natural resources and mining .........
Construction.......................................
Manufacturing ....................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ...
Information.........................................
Financial activities.............................
Professional and business services
Education and health services........
Leisure and hospitality .....................
Other services....................................
Government ............................................

88.3
87.7
.5
7.1
2.8
16.1
1.7
6.4
13.0
6.1
5.8
28.2
.6

1,095.4
943.7
3.5
56.9
103.7
217.1
68.6
77.8
158.5
107.3
102.1
48.3
151.8

-.7
-.8
-5.4
-1.9
-8.3
-.9
.0
3.7
-.4
1.8
1.7
-.6
-.3

962
977
1,047
864
1,115
780
2,979
1,097
996
704
396
450
869

5.4
5.5
25.2
-.3
-4.4
4.3
16.8
10.4
5.7
4.0
2.1
1.1
4.4

Miami-Dade, F L ..........................................
Private industry
...................................
Natural resources and mining .........
Construction .......................................
Manufacturing ....................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ...
Information .........................................
Financial activities.............................
Professional and business services
Education and health services........
Leisure and hospitality ......................
Other services....................................
Government ...........................................

79.9
79.6
.5
4.9
2.9
23.5
1.7
8.2
15.9
7.9
5.3
7.5
.3

965.2
814.6
7.8
41.5
51.2
240.1
27.6
65.2
131.6
122.9
89.6
34.2
150.7

.1
.1
2.2
5.4
-6.3
-2.0
-7.5
1.4
1.6
2.2
2.7
-2.0
.4

682
670
430
694
613
637
923
972
776
716
387
428
748

1 Average weekly wages were calculated using unrounded data.
2 Percent changes were computed from quarterly employment and pay data
adjusted for noneconomic county reclassifications. See Notes on Current Labor
Statistics.
3 Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the

112

A v e r a g e w e e k ly w a g e 1

S e p te m b e r

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June

2004

$861

868
2,365
776
964
851
1,185
1,099
937
817
399
553

2.4
2.7
(4 )

2.2
2.0
4.2
.9
6.5
1.4

2.8
3.6
- 2.6

8.2
3.3

2.6
11.4
.4
1.1
5.3
1.9
7.5

.2
4.1

(4)

3.6
2.6
2.4
2.9
2.9
1.7

8.6
1.2

6.2
5.4
2.4
(4 )

Virgin Islands.
4 Data do not meet BLS or State agency disclosure standards.
NOTE: Includes workers covered by Unemployment Insurance (Ul) and
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) programs. Data are
preliminary.

23.

Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages: by State, third quarter 2003.

S ta te

t h ir d q u a r te r
2003
(th o u s a n d s )

A v e r a g e w e e k ly w a g e 1

E m p lo y m e n t

E s ta b lis h m e n ts ,

2003

P e rc e n t c h an g e ,
S e p te m b e r

T h ir d
q u a r te r

P e rc e n t c h an g e ,
th ir d q u a r te r

(th o u s a n d s )

2 0 0 2 -0 3

2003

2 0 0 2 -0 3

S e p te m b e r

United States2 ......................................

8,291.0

128,546.3

-0.4

$704

3.1

Alabam a................................................
Alaska ...................................................
Arizona..................................................
Arkansas...............................................
California...............................................
Colorado ...............................................
Connecticut..........................................
Delaw are...............................................
District of Columbia.............................
Florida...................................................

111.6
19.7
125.9
75.0
1,166.8
161.1
108.9
26.8
29.7
499.3

1,825.3
308.4
2,269.0
1,130.5
14,923.9
2,124.4
1,627.4
406.1
650.1
7,234.3

-.6
1.5
1.3
-.3
-.3
-1.6
-1.4
-.3
-.4
1.5

607
730
659
541
797
744
869
753
1,123
627

3.1
3.1
3.5
2.9
3.9
4.5
3.1
3.9
5.6
3.6

G eorgia.................................................
Flawaii...................................................
Id a h o .....................................................
Illinois....................................................
Indiana..................................................
Iowa ......................................................
Kansas ..................................................
Kentucky ...............................................
Louisiana...............................................
M a in e ....................................................

245.6
37.2
48.2
324.8
151.5
90.1
82.6
105.6
117.1
47.0

3,811.1
567.3
590.4
5,738.7
2,848.1
1,414.4
1,287.9
1,727.7
1,853.4
603.7

-.2
1.3
.5
-1.2
-.7
-.4
-1.5
.1
.1
.2

684
648
547
751
627
580
594
594
579
577

2.5
3.5
2.1
2.6
2.1
3.4
2.6
3.1
2.8
2.9

Maryland ...............................................
Massachusetts.....................................
Michigan................................................
Minnesota ............................................
Mississippi............................................
Missouri.................................................
M ontana................................................
Nebraska...............................................
N evada..................................................
New Flampshire ..................................

149.2
205.2
251.6
158.3
65.5
165.9
42.3
55.0
58.7
46.6

2,448.6
3,163.9
4,349.2
2,597.8
1,102.5
2,633.8
401.9
876.8
1,096.9
612.1

.4
-1.8
-2.0
-.7
-.9
-.6
.9
.0
3.7
.3

763
860
730
730
521
636
507
580
675
689

4.1
3.6
2.4
4.3
3.6
2.6
3.5
3.0
4.5
2.8

New Jerse y ..........................................
New Mexico .........................................
New York .............................................
North Carolina......................................
North D akota........................................
Ohio ......................................................
Oklahoma.............................................
O regon..................................................
Pennsylvania........................................
Rhode Island........................................

262.9
50.2
548.9
226.0
23.8
293.6
91.3
117.9
326.5
34.6

3,883.2
754.6
8,224.3
3,743.5
320.6
5,310.6
1,410.9
1,588.5
5,495.6
481.9

.3
.9
-.7
-.8
1.1
-1.1
-2.3
-.9
-.7
1.2

852
565
846
629
527
658
560
653
692
677

3.5
2.7
2.9
2.6
4.8
1.7
3.9
3.2
3.1
3.7

South C arolina.....................................
South D a ko ta.......................................
Tennessee ...........................................
Texas ....................................................
Utah ......................................................
Vermont ................................................
Virginia..................................................
Washington..........................................
West Virginia........................................
Wisconsin.............................................

124.7
27.9
128.1
500.5
72.5
24.0
201.0
238.2
47.0
156.4

1,773.4
368.1
2,617.6
9,222.7
1,048.6
297.8
3,429.9
2,705.8
683.3
2,710.0

-.2
.2
-.1
-.7
.2
.1
.3
.4
-.8
-.3

580
512
631
693
588
598
724
753
533
624

2.5
2.2
3.8
2.2
2.3
2.7
3.6
3.7
2.3
3.1

Wyoming ...............................................

22.0

249.9

1.4

562

3.5

43.5
3.2

971.0
41.2

-1.1
-1.6

410
563

5.1
-.5

Puerto R ic o ..........................................
Virgin Islands .......................................

1 Average weekly wages were calculated using unrounded data.
2 Totals for the United States do not Include data for Puerto Rico
or the Virgin Islands.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

NOTE: Includes workers covered by Unemployment Insurance (Ul)
and Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE)
programs. Data are preliminary.

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

113

Current Labor Statistics:

24.

Labor Force Data

Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, by ownership
A v e ra g e

Year

e s t a b lis h m e n ts

A v era g e

T o ta l a n n u a l w a g e s

annual
e m p lo y m e n t

(in t h o u s a n d s )

A v e ra g e a n n u al w ag e
p e r e m p lo y e e

A v era g e
w e e k ly
w age

T o ta l c o v e r e d (U l a n d U C F E )

1 9 9 3 .....................................................
1 9 9 4 .....................................................
1995 ......................................................
1996 ...................................................
1 9 9 7 ......................................................
1 9 9 8 ......................................................
1999 ......................................................
2000 ....................................................
2001 ......................................................
2 0 0 2 ......................................................

6,679,934
6,826,677
7,040,677
7,189,168
7,369,473
7,634,018
7,820,860
7,879,116
7,984,529
8,101,872

109,422,571
112,611,287
115,487,841
117,963,132
121,044,432
124,183,549
127,042,282
129,877,063
129,635,800
128,233,919

$2,884,472,282
3,033,676,678
3,215,921,236
3,414,514,808
3,674,031,718
3,967,072,423
4,235,579,204
4,587,708,584
4,695,225,123
4,714,374,741

$26,361
26,939
27,846
28,946
30,353
31,945
33,340
35,323
36,219
36,764

$507
518
536
557
584
614
641
679
697
707

$26,055
26,633
27,567
28,658
30,058
31,676
33,094
35,077
35,943
36,428

$501
512
530
551
578
609
636
675
691
701

$25,934
26,496
27,441
28,582
30,064
31,762
33,244
35,337
36,157
36,539

$499
510
528
550
578
611
639
680
695
703

$28,643
29,518
30,497
31,397
32,521
33,605
34,681
36,296
37,814
39,212

$551
568
586
604
625
646
667
698
727
754

$26,095
26,717
27,552
28,320
29,134
30,251
31,234
32,387
33,521
34,605

$502
514
530
545
560
582
601
623
645
665

$36,940
38,038
38,523
40,414
42,732
43,688
44,287
46,228
48,940
52,050

$710
731
741
777
822
840
852
889
941
1,001

Ul c o v e re d

1 9 9 3 ......................................................
1 9 9 4 ......................................................
1 9 9 5 ......................................................
1996 ....................................................
1 9 9 7 ......................................................
1 9 9 8 ......................................................
1999 ......................................................
2000 ......................................................
2001 ......................................................
2 0 0 2 ......................................................

6,632,221
6,778,300
6,990,594
7,137,644
7,317,363
7,586,767
7,771,198
7,828,861
7,933,536
8,051,117

106,351,431
109,588,189
112,539,795
115,081,246
118,233,942
121,400,660
124,255,714
127,005,574
126,883,182
125,475,293

$2,771,023,411
2,918,684,128
3,102,353,355
3,298,045,286
3,553,933,885
3,845,494,089
4,112,169,533
4,454,966,824
4,560,511,280
4,570,787,218

P r iv a te in d u s tr y c o v e r e d

1 9 9 3 ......................................................
1994 ......................................................
1995 ......................................................
1996 ......................................................
1 9 9 7 ......................................................
1 9 9 8 ......................................................
1999 ......................................................
2000 ......................................................
2001 ......................................................
2002 ......................................................

6,454,381
6,596,158
6,803,454
6,946,858
7,121,182
7,381,518
7,560,567
7,622,274
7,724,965
7,839,903

91,202,971
94,146,344
96,894,844
99,268,446
102,175,161
105,082,368
107,619,457
110,015,333
109,304,802
107,577,281

$2,365,301,493
2,494,458,555
2,658,927,216
2,837,334,217
3,071,807,287
3,337,621,699
3,577,738,557
3,887,626,769
3,952,152,155
3,930,767,025

S ta te g o v e r n m e n t c o v e r e d

1 9 9 3 ......................................................
1994 ......................................................
1995 ......................................................
1996 ......................................................
1997 ......................................................
1998 ......................................................
1999 ......................................................
2000 ......................................................
2001 ......................................................
2002 ......................................................

59,185
60,686
60,763
62,146
65,352
67,347
70,538
65,096
64,583
64,447

4,088,075
4,162,944
4,201,836
4,191,726
4,214,451
4,240,779
4,296,673
4,370,160
4,452,237
4,485,071
^

1 9 9 3 ......................................................
1994 ......................................................
1995 ......................................................
1996 ......................................................
1 9 9 7 ......................................................
1 9 9 8 ......................................................
1999 ......................................................
2000 ......................................................
2001 ......................................................
2002 ......................................................

118,626
121,425
126,342
128,640
130,829
137,902
140,093
141,491
143,989
146,767

$117,095,062
122,879,977
128,143,491
131,605,800
137,057,432
142,512,445
149,011,194
158,618,365
168,358,331
175,866,492

L o cal g o v e rn m e n t c o ve red

11,059,500
11,278,080
11,442,238
11,621,074
11,844,330
12,077,513
12,339,584
12,620,081
13,126,143
13,412,941

$288,594,697
301,315,857
315,252,346
329,105,269
345,069,166
365,359,945
385,419,781
408,721,690
440,000,795
464,153,701

F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t c o v e r e d (U C F E )

1 9 9 3 ......................................................
1 9 9 4 ......................................................
1 9 9 5 ......................................................
1996 ......................................................
1997 ......................................................
1998 ......................................................
1999 ......................................................
2000 ......................................................
2001 ......................................................
2002 ......................................................

47,714
48,377
50,083
51,524
52,110
47,252
49,661
50,256
50,993
50,755

3,071,140
3,023,098
2,948,046
2,881,887
2,810,489
2,782,888
2,786,567
2,871,489
2,752,619
2,758,627

$113,448,871
114,992,550
113,567,881
116,469,523
120,097,833
121,578,334
123,409,672
132,741,760
134,713,843
143,587,523

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Data reflect the movement of Indian Tribal Council establishments from private industry to
the public sector. See Notes on Current Labor Statistics.

114

Monthly Labor Review


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June 2004

25. Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, establishment size and employment, private ownership, by
supersector, first quarter 2003
S iz e o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts
In d u s t r y , e s t a b lis h m e n ts , a n d
e m p lo y m e n t

T o ta l

F e w e r th a n

5 to 9

10 to 19

2 0 to 4 9

5 0 to 9 9

1 0 0 to 2 4 9

2 5 0 to 4 9 9

5 00 to 999

5 w o rk e rs 1

w o rke rs

w o rke rs

w o rke rs

w o rke rs

w o rk e rs

w o rk e rs

w o rk e rs

1 ,0 0 0 o r
m o re
w o rk e rs

T o t a l a ll In d u s t r i e s 2

Establishments, first quarter ...................
Employment, March .................................

7,933,974
105,583,548

4,768,812
7,095,128

1,331,834
8,810,097

872,241
11,763,253

597,662
18,025,655

203,030
13,970,194

115,598
17,299,058

28,856
9,864,934

10,454
7,090,739

5,487
11,664,490

124,527
1,526,176

72,088
110,155

23,248
153,629

14,773
198,895

9,226
275,811

2,893
198,122

1,593
241,559

501
171,063

161
108,563

44
68,379

795,029
6,285,841

523,747
746,296

129,201
846,521

76,215
1,021,722

46,096
1,371,071

12,837
872,274

5,604
823,846

1,006
338,107

262
172,944

61
93,060

381,159
14,606,928

148,469
252,443

65,027
436,028

57,354
788,581

54,261
1,685,563

25,927
1,815,385

19,813
3,043,444

6,506
2,245,183

2,565
1,732,368

1,237
2,607,933

1,851,662
24,683,356

992,180
1,646,304

378,157
2,514,548

239,637
3,204,840

149,960
4,527,709

51,507
3,564,316

31,351
4,661,898

6,681
2,277,121

1,619
1,070,141

570
1,216,479

147,062
3,208,667

84,906
112,409

20,744
138,076

16,130
220,618

13,539
416,670

5,920
410,513

3,773
576,674

1,223
418,113

575
399,366

252
516,228

753,064
7,753,717

480,485
788,607

135,759
892,451

76,733
1,017,662

39,003
1,162,498

11,743
801,140

6,195
934,618

1,794
620,183

883
601,549

469
935,009

1,307,697
15,648,435

887,875
1,230,208

180,458
1,184,745

111,532
1,501,470

73,599
2,232,506

28,471
1,969,466

17,856
2,707,203

5,153
1,762,251

1,919
1,307,870

834
1,752,716

720,207
15,680,834

338,139
629,968

164,622
1,092,329

103,683
1,392,099

65,173
1,955,861

24,086
1,679,708

17,122
2,558,300

3,929
1,337,188

1,761
1,220,921

1,692
3,814,460

657,359
11,731,379

260,149
411,192

110,499
744,144

118,140
1,653,470

122,168
3,683,448

34,166
2,285,550

9,718
1,372,780

1,609
545,304

599
404,831

311
630,660

1,057,236
4,243,633

851,231
1,037,360

116,940
761,518

56,238
740,752

24,235
703,957

5,451
371,774

2,561
376,832

454
150,421

109
71,453

17
29,566

N a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s a n d m in in g

Establishments, first quarter ...................
Employment, March .................................
C o n s t r u c t io n

Establishments, first quarter ...................
Employment, March .................................
M a n u f a c t u r in g

Establishments, first quarter ...................
Employment, March .................................
T r a d e , t r a n s p o r t a t io n , a n d u tilitie s

Establishments, first quarter ...................
Employment, March .................................
In f o r m a t io n

Establishments, first quarter ...................
Employment, March .................................
F in a n c ia l a c t iv it ie s

Establishments, first quarter ...................
Employment, March .................................
P r o f e s s io n a l a n d b u s in e s s s e r v ic e s

Establishments, first quarter ...................
Employment, March .................................
E d u c a t io n a n d h e a lth s e r v ic e s

Establishments, first quarter ...................
Employment, March .................................
L e is u r e a n d h o s p it a lit y

Establishments, first quarter ...................
Employment, March .................................
O t h e r s e r v ic e s

Establishments, first quarter ...................
Employment, March .................................

1 Includes establishments that reported no workers In March 2003.

NOTE: Details may not add to totals due to rounding. Data are only produced for
first quarter. Data are preliminary.

2 Includes data for unclassified establishments, not shown separately.


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Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

115

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

26. Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, by
metropolitan area, 2001-02
A v e ra g e a n n u a l w age"

M e tr o p o lita n a r e a '

Boston-Worcester-Lawrence-Lowell-Brockton,

See footnotes at end of table.

116

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June 2004

M A -N H ............

P e rc e n t
change,
2 0 0 1 -0 2

2 00 1

2002

$37,908

$38,423

1.4

25,141
32,930
28,877
35,355
31,667
26,296
33,569
26,869
27,422
37,998

25,517
34,037
29,913
35,994
32,475
27,300
34,789
27,360
28,274
39,112

1.5
3.4
3.6
1.8
2.6
3.8
3.6
1.8
3.1
2.9

37,582
26,486
32,652
28,511
28,966
40,559
31,268
25,753
30,626
40,831

39,220
27,547
33,020
28,771
29,942
41,123
32,201
26,405
31,743
39,540

4.4
4.0
1.1
.9
3.4
1.4
3.0
2.5
3.6
-3.2

30,106
37,495
27,850
31,025
30,321
31,798
27,724
31,140
44,701
27,889

31,192
38,718
28,446
32,028
31,366
32,577
28,284
32,627
45,185
28,553

3.6
3.3
2.1
3.2
3.4
2.4
2.0
4.8
1.1
2.4

28,351
31,187
34,519
27,116
28,013
35,111
31,624
45,766
44,310
35,655

28,515
31,832
35,940
27,993
28,855
36,133
31,955
45,685
44,037
36,253

.6
2.1
4.1
3.2
3.0
2.9
1.0
-.2
-.6
1.7

31,525
22,142
25,755
32,054
34,363
29,020
28,264
34,649
30,488
28,887

33,775
22,892
26,051
32,777
35,169
29,689
28,886
34,730
31,995
29,993

7.1
3.4
1.1
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.2
.2
4.9
3.8

31,530
37,267
32,427
29,981
27,579
42,685
26,499
36,050
25,567
35,514

32,136
38,413
33,328
30,631
28,827
43,239
27,190
37,168
26,940
36,102

1.9
3.1
2.8
2.2
4.5
1.3
2.6
3.1
5.4
1.7

34,391
28,490
29,904
28,412
35,028
29,361
35,525
25,504
42,706
25,465

34,681
29,135
30,721
29,207
36,144
30,168
36,766
26,704
43,000
26,116

.8
2.3
2.7
2.8
3.2
2.7
3.5
4.7
.7
2.6


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

26. Continued—Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and
Wages, by metropolitan area, 2001-02
A v e ra g e a n n u al w a g e 2

M e tr o p o lita n a r e a 1

2001

2002

P erc en t
change,

2001-02

2.7

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island, IA -IL..............
Dayton-Springfleld, O H ......................................
Daytona Beach, F L ............................................
Decatur, A L .........................................................
Decatur, I L ..........................................................
Denver, C O .........................................................
Des Moines, I A ...................................................
Detroit, Ml ............................................................
Dothan, A L ..........................................................
Dover, D E ............................................................

$31,275
33,619
25,953
30,891
33,354
42,351
34,303
42,704
28,026
27.754

$32,118
34,327
26,898
30,370
33.215
42,133
35,641
43,224
29,270
29,818

3.6
-1.7
-.4
-.5
3.9
1.2
4.4
7.4

Dubuque, IA ........................................................
Duluth-Superior, MN-WI ...................................
Dutchess County, N Y ........................................
Eau Claire, Wl ....................................................
El Paso, T X .........................................................
Elkhart-Goshen, I N ............................................
Elmira, NY ..........................................................
Enid, OK ..............................................................
Erie, PA ...............................................................
Eugene-Sprlngfleld, O R ....................................

28,402
29,415
38,748
27,680
25,847
30,797
28,669
24,836
29,293
28,983

29,208
30,581
38,221
28,760
26,604
32.427
29.151
25.507
29,780
29.427

2.8
4.0
-1.4
3.9
2.9
5.3
1.7
2.7
1.7
1.5

Evansville-Henderson, IN -K Y ...........................
Fargo-Moorhead, N D -M N .................................
Fayetteville, NC ..................................................
Fayetteville-Sprlngdale-Rogers, AR ...............
Flagstaff, A Z -U T .................................................
Flint, M l ................................................................
Florence, A L .......................................................
Florence, S C .......................................................
Fort Collins-Loveland, C O ................................
Fort Lauderdale, F L ...........................................

31,042
27,899
26,981
29.940
25,890
35,995
25,639
28,800
33,248
33,966

31.977
29.053
28,298
31,090
26,846
36.507
26,591
29,563
34.215
34,475

3.0
4.1
4.9
3.8
3.7
1.4
3.7

Fort Myers-Cape Coral, F L ...............................
Fort Pierce-Port St. Lucie, F L ..........................
Fort Smith, AR -O K .............................................
Fort Walton Beach, F L .......................................
Fort Wayne, IN ...................................................
Fort Worth-Arlington, T X ...................................
Fresno, CA .........................................................
Gadsden, A L .......................................................
Gainesville, F L ....................................................
Galveston-Texas City, T X .................................

29,432
27,742
26.755
26,151
31,400
36,379
27,647
25,760
26,917
31,067

30,324
29.152
27,075
27,242
32.053
37,195
28,814
26.214
27,648
31,920

3.0
5.1

Gary, IN ...............................................................
Glens Falls, N Y .............................................................
Goldsboro, N C ....................................................
Grand Forks, N D -M N .........................................
Grand Junction, C O ...........................................
Grand Raplds-Muskegon-Holland, Ml ............
Great Falls, M T ...................................................
Greeley, C O ........................................................
Green Bay, W l ....................................................
Greensboro-WInston-Salem-High Point, NC

31,948
27,885
25,398
24,959
27,426
33,431
24,211
30,066
32,631
31,730

32,432
28,931
25,821
25,710
28,331
34.214
25,035
31,104
33,698
32,369

1.5
3.8
1.7
3.0
3.3
2.3
3.4
3.5
3.3

Greenville, NC ....................................................
Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson, S C ...........
Hagerstown, M D ................................................
Hamllton-Middletown, O H .................................
Harrisburg-Lebanon-Carlisle, P A .....................
Hartford, C T ........................................................
Hattiesburg, M S ..................................................
Hickory-Morganton-Lenoir, N C ........................
Honolulu, H I ........................................................
Houma, L A ..........................................................

28,289
30.940
29,020
32,325
33,408
43,880
25,145
27,305
32,531
30,343

29,055
31,726
30,034
32,985
34,497
44,387
26,051
27,996
33.978
30,758

2.7
2.5
3.5

Houston, T X ........................................................
Huntlngton-Ashland, W V-KY-O H.....................
Huntsville, A L ......................................................
Indianapolis, I N ...................................................
Iowa City, IA .......................................................
Jackson, Ml ........................................................
Jackson, M S .......................................................
Jackson, T N ........................................................
Jacksonville, F L .................................................
Jacksonville, N C ................................................

42,784
27,478
36,727
35,989
31,663
32,454
29,813
29,414
32,367
21,395

42,712
28,321
38,571
36,608
32,567
33,251
30,537
30,443
33,722
22,269

-.2
3.1
5.0
1.7
2.9
2.5
2.4
3.5
4.2
4.1

2.1

2.6

2.9
1.5

1.2

4.2
2.1

2.2
4.2
1.8
2.7
2.7

2.0

2.0

3.3
1.2

3.6
2.5
4.4
1.4

See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

117

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

26. Continued—Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and
Wages, by metropolitan area, 2001-02
A v e ra g e a n n u a l w a g e 2

Metropolitan area1
2002

Jamestown, NY ....................................................... .....................
Janesville-Beloit, Wl .....................................................................
Jersey City, NJ .............................................................................
Johnson City-Kingsport-Bristol, TN-VA ....................................
Johnstown, P A ..............................................................................
Jonesboro, A R ..............................................................................
Joplin, MO .....................................................................................
Kalamazoo-Battle Creek, M l .......................................................
Kankakee, IL ..................................................................................
Kansas City, M O -K S .....................................................................

$25,913
31,482
47,638
28,543
25,569
25,337
26,011
32,905
29,104
35,794

$26,430
32,837
49,562
29,076
26,161
26,165
26,594
34,237
30,015
36,731

2.0
4.3
4.0
1.9
2.3
3.3
2.2
4.0
3.1
2.6

Kenosha, W l ..................................................................................
Killeen-Temple, T X .......................................................................
Knoxville, TN .................................................................................
Kokomo, I N ....................................................................................
La Crosse, W I-M N ........................................................................
Lafayette, LA .................................................................................
Lafayette, I N ..................................................................................
Lake Charles, L A ..........................................................................
Lakeland-Winter Haven, F L ........................................................
Lancaster, P A ................................................................................

31,562
26,193
30,422
39,599
27,774
29,693
31,484
29,782
28,890
31,493

32,473
27,299
31,338
40,778
28,719
30,104
31,700
30,346
29,505
32,197

2.9
4.2
3.0
3.0
3.4
1.4
.7
1.9
2.1
2.2

Lansing-East Lansing, M l ............................................................
Laredo, T X .....................................................................................
Las Cruces, N M ............................................................................
Las Vegas, N V -A Z ........................................................................
Lawrence, K S ................................................................................
Lawton, O K ....................................................................................
Lewiston-Auburn, ME ..................................................................
Lexington, K Y ................................................................................
Lima, OH .......................................................................................
Lincoln, NE ....................................................................................

34,724
24,128
24,310
32,239
25,923
24,812
27,092
31,593
29,644
29,352

35,785
24,739
25,256
33,280
26,621
25,392
28,435
32,776
30,379
30,614

3.1
2.5
3.9
3.2
2.7
2.3
5.0
3.7
2.5
4.3

Little Rock-North Little Rock, A R ................................................
Longview-Marshall, T X ................................................................
Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA ....................................................
Louisville, KY-IN ...........................................................................
Lubbock, TX ..................................................................................
Lynchburg, V A ..............................................................................
Macon, G A .....................................................................................
Madison, W l ...................................................................................
Mansfield, O H ................................................................................
McAllen-Edinburg-Mission, TX ...................................................

30,858
28,029
40,891
33,058
26,577
28,859
30,595
34,097
28,808
22,313

31,634
28,172
41,709
33,901
27,625
29,444
31,884
35,410
30,104
23,179

2.5
.5
2.0
2.6
3.9
2.0
4.2
3.9
4.5
3.9

Medford-Ashland, O R ..................................................................
Melbourne-Titusville-Palm Bay, F L ............................................
Memphis, TN-AR-MS ..................................................................
Merced, C A ....................................................................................
Miami, F L .......................................................................................
Middlesex-Somerset-Hunterdon, NJ .........................................
Milwaukee-Waukesha, W l ...........................................................
Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI .....................................................
Missoula, MT .................................................................................
Mobile, A L ......................................................................................

27,224
32,798
34,603
25,479
34,524
49,950
35,617
40,868
26,181
28,129

28,098
33,913
35,922
26,771
35,694
50,457
36,523
41,722
27,249
28,742

3.2
3.4
3.8
5.1
3.4
1.0
2.5
2.1
4.1
2.2

Modesto, C A ..................................................................................
Monmouth-Ocean, NJ .................................................................
Monroe, L A ....................................................................................
Montgomery, AL ...........................................................................
Myrtle Beach, S C ..........................................................................
Naples, F L .....................................................................................
Nashville, TN .................................................................................
Nassau-Suffolk, N Y ......................................................................
New Haven-Brldgeport-Stamford-Waterbury-Danbury, CT ....

29,591
37,056
26,578
29,150
28,374
24,029
30,839
33,989
39,662
52,198

30,769
37,710
27,614
30,525
29,017
24,672
31,507
35,036
40,396
51,170

4.0
1.8
3.9
4.7
2.3
2.7
2.2
3.1
1.9
-2.0

New London-Norwich, CT ...........................................................
New Orleans, LA ..........................................................................
New York, N Y ................................................................................
Newark, NJ ....................................................................................
Newburgh, NY-PA ........................................................................
Norfolk-Virginia Beach-Newport News, VA-NC .......................
Oakland, CA ..................................................................................
Ocala, F L .......................................................................................
Odessa-Midland, T X .....................................................................
Oklahoma City, O K .......................................................................

38,505
31,089
59,097
47,715
29,827
29,875
45,920
26,012
31,278
28,915

38,650
32,407
57,708
48,781
30,920
30,823
46,877
26,628
31,295
29,850

.4
4.2
-2.4
2.2
3.7
3.2
2.1
2.4
.1
3.2

See footnotes at end of table.

118

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Percent
change,
2001-02

2001

June 2004


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

26. Continued—Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and
Wages, by metropolitan area, 2001-02
Average annual wage2
Metropolitan area1
Percent
change,
2001-02

2001

2002

Olympia, W A .................................................................................
Omaha, NE-IA ..............................................................................
Orange County, CA .....................................................................
Orlando, F L ....................................................................................
Owensboro, KY ............................................................................
Panama City, F L ...........................................................................
Parkersburg-Marietta, WV-OH ...................................................
Pensacola, F L ...............................................................................
Peoria-Pekin, I L ............................................................................
Philadelphia, PA -N J.....................................................................

$32,772
31,856
40,252
31,276
27,306
26,433
27,920
28,059
33,293
40,231

$33,765
33,107
41,219
32,461
28,196
27,448
29,529
28,189
34,261
41,121

3.0
3.9
2.4
3.8
3.3
3.8
5.8
.5
2.9
2.2

Phoenix-Mesa, A Z ........................................................................
Pine Bluff, AR ...............................................................................
Pittsburgh, P A ...............................................................................
Pittsfield, M A ..................................................................................
Pocatello, ID ..................................................................................
Portland-Vancouver, OR-WA .....................................................
Providence-Warwick-Pawtucket, Rl ..........................................
Provo-Orem, UT ...........................................................................
Pueblo, C O ....................................................................................

35,514
27,561
35,024
31,561
24,621
32,327
37,285
33,403
28,266
27,097

36,045
28,698
35,625
32,707
25,219
33,309
37,650
34,610
28,416
27,763

1.5
4.1
1.7
3.6
2.4
3.0
1.0
3.6
.5
2.5

Punta Gorda, F L ...........................................................................
Racine, Wl .....................................................................................
Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, N C ...............................................
Rapid City, S D ..............................................................................
Reading, PA .................................................................................
Redding, CA .................................................................................
Reno, N V .......................................................................................
Richland-Kennewick-Pasco, W A ...............................................
Richmond-Petersburg, V A ..........................................................
Riverside-San Bernardino, CA ...................................................

25,404
33,319
38,691
25,508
32,807
28,129
34,231
33,370
35,879
30,510

26,119
34,368
39,056
26,434
33,912
28,961
34,744
35,174
36,751
31,591

2.8
3.1
.9
3.6
3.4
3.0
1.5
5.4
2.4
3.5

Roanoke, VA .................................................................................
Rochester, M N ..............................................................................
Rochester, N Y ..............................................................................
Rockford, I L ...................................................................................
Rocky Mount, NC .........................................................................
Sacramento, CA ...........................................................................
Saginaw-Bay City-Midland, Ml ...................................................
St. Cloud, MN ...............................................................................
St. Joseph, M O .............................................................................
St. Louis, M O -IL............................................................................

30,330
37,753
34,327
32,104
28,770
38,016
35,429
28,263
27,734
35,928

31,775
39,036
34,827
32,827
28,893
39,354
35,444
29,535
28,507
36,712

4.8
3.4
1.5
2.3
.4
3.5
.0
4.5
2.8
2.2

Salem, OR .....................................................................................
Salinas, C A ....................................................................................
Salt Lake City-Ogden, U T ...........................................................
San Angelo, TX ............................................................................
San Antonio, TX ...........................................................................
San Diego, C A ..............................................................................
San Francisco, C A ........................................................................
San Jose, C A .................................................................................
San Luis Obispo-Atascadero-Paso Robles, CA ......................
Santa Barbara-Santa Maria-Lompoc, C A .................................

28,336
31,735
31,965
26,147
30,650
38,418
59,654
65,931
29,092
33,626

29,210
32,463
32,600
26,321
31,336
39,305
56,602
63,056
29,981
34,382

3.1
2.3
2.0
.7
2.2
2.3
-5.1
-4.4
3.1
2.2

Santa Cruz-Watsonville, C A .......................................................
Santa Fe, NM ...............................................................................
Santa Rosa, C A ............................................................................
Sarasota-Bradenton, FL ..............................................................
Savannah, GA ..............................................................................
Scranton-Wilkes-Barre-Hazleton, P A .....................................
Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, W A .....................................................
Sharon, PA ....................................................................................
Sheboygan, Wl .............................................................................
Sherman-Denison, T X .................................................................

35,022
30,671
36,145
27,958
30,176
28,642
45,299
26,707
30,840
30,397

35,721
32,269
36,494
28,950
30,796
29,336
46,093
27,872
32,148
30,085

2.0
5.2
1.0
3.5
2.1
2.4
1.8
4.4
4.2
-1.0

Shreveport-Bossier City, LA .......................................................
Sioux City, IA -N E ..........................................................................
Sioux Falls, SD .............................................................................
South Bend, IN .............................................................................
Spokane, W A .................................................................................
Springfield, IL .................................................................................
Springfield, M O .............................................................................
Springfield, MA .............................................................................
State College, P A .........................................................................
Steubenville-Weirton, O H -W V ....................................................

27,856
26,755
28,962
30,769
29,310
36,061
27,338
32,801
29,939
28,483

28,769
27,543
29,975
31,821
30,037
37,336
27,987
33,972
30,910
29,129

3.3
2.9
3.5
3.4
2.5
3.5
2.4
3.6
3.2
2.3

See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

119

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

26. Continued—Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and
Wages, by metropolitan area, 2001-02
A v e ra g e an n u al w a g e 2

Metropolitan area'
Percent
change,
2001-02

2001

2002

Stockton-Lodi, C A .........................................................................
Sumter, S C ....................................................................................
Syracuse, N Y .................................................................................
Tacoma, W A ..................................................................................
Tallahassee, F L ............................................................................
Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL ......................................
Terre Haute, I N .............................................................................
Texarkana, TX-Texarkana, A R ...................................................
Toledo, OH ....................................................................................
Topeka, K S ....................................................................................

$30,818
24,450
32,254
31,261
29,708
31,678
27,334
26,492
32,299
30,513

$31,958
24,982
33,752
32,507
30,895
32,458
28,415
27,717
33,513
31,707

3.7
2.2
4.6
4.0
4.0
2.5
4.0
4.6
3.8
3.9

Trenton, N J ....................................................................................
Tucson, AZ ....................................................................................
Tulsa, O K .......................................................................................
Tuscaloosa, A L ..............................................................................
Tyler, TX ........................................................................................
Utica-Rome, N Y ............................................................................
Vallejo-Fairfield-Napa, C A ...........................................................
Ventura, C A ...................................................................................
Victoria, T X ....................................................................................
Vineland-Millville-Bridgeton, N J ..................................................

46,831
30,690
31,904
29,972
30,551
27,777
33,903
37,783
29,068
32,571

47,969
31,673
32,241
30,745
31,050
28,500
34,543
38,195
29,168
33,625

2.4
3.2
1.1
2.6
1.6
2.6
1.9
1.1
.3
3.2

Visalia-Tulare-Porterville, CA .....................................................
Waco, T X .......................................................................................
Washington, DC-MD-VA-W V......................................................
Waterloo-Cedar Falls, I A .............................................................
Wausau, W l ...................................................................................
West Palm Beach-Boca Raton, F L ............................................
Wheeling, WV-OH ........................................................................
Wichita, K S ....................................................................................
Wichita Falls, T X ...........................................................................
Williamsport, P A ...........................................................................

24,732
28,245
47,589
29,119
29,402
35,957
26,282
32,983
25,557
27,801

25,650
28,885
48,430
29,916
30,292
36,550
26,693
33,429
26,387
27,988

3.7
2.3
1.8
2.7
3.0
1.6
1.6
1.4
3.2
.7

Wilmington-Newark, D E -M D .......................................................
Wilmington, N C .............................................................................
Yakima, W A ...................................................................................
Yolo, CA .........................................................................................
York, PA .........................................................................................
Youngstown-Warren, OH ............................................................
Yuba City, C A ................................................................................
Yuma, A Z .......................................................................................

42,177
29,287
24,204
35,352
31,936
28,789
27,781
22,415

43,401
29,157
24,934
35,591
32,609
29,799
28,967
23,429

2.9
-.4
3.0
.7
2.1
3.5
4.3
4.5

Aguadilla, P R .................................................................................
Arecibo, PR ...................................................................................
Caguas, P R ...................................................................................
Mayaguez, P R ..............................................................................
Ponce, PR .....................................................................................
San Juan-Bayamon, P R ..............................................................

18,061
16,600
18,655
17,101
17,397
20,948

19,283
18,063
19,706
17,500
18,187
21,930

6.8
8.8
5.6
2.3
4.5
4.7

1 Includes data for Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA) and Primary Metropolitan Statistical Areas
(PMSA) as defined by OMB Bulletin No. 99-04. In the New England areas, the New England County
Metropolitan Area (NECMA) definitions were used.
2 Each year’s total is based on the MSA definition for the specific year.
differences resulting from changes in MSA definitions.

Annual changes include

3 Totals do not include the six MSAs within Puerto Rico.
NOTE: Includes workers covered by Unemployment Insurance (Ul) and Unemployment Compensation
for Federal Employees (UCFE) programs.

120

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June 2004

27.

Annual data: Employment status of the population

[Numbers in thousands]____________________________________
Employment status

1993

19941

1995

1996

19971

19981

19991

20001

2001

2002

2003

Civilian noninstitutional population...........

194,838

196,814

198,584

200,591

203,133

205,220

207,753

212,577

215,092

217,570

221,168

Civilian labor force...................................

129,200

131,056

132,304

133,943

136,297

137,673

139,368

142,583

143,734

144,863

146,510

Labor force participation rate...............

66.3

66.6

66.6

66.8

67.1

67.1

67.1

67.1

66.8

66.6

66.2

Employed.............................................

120,259

123,060

124,900

126,708

129,558

131,463

133,488

136,891

136,933

136,485

137,736

Employment-population ratio.........

61.7

62.5

62.9

63.2

63.8

64.1

64.3

64.4

63.7

62.7

62.3

Unemployed........................................

8,940

7,996

7,404

7,236

6,739

6,210

5,880

5,692

6,801

8,378

8,774

Unemployment rate.........................

6.9

6.1

5.6

5.4

4.9

4.5

4.2

4.0

4.7

5.8

6.0

Not in the labor force...............................

65,638

65,758

66,280

66,647

66,836

67,547

68,385

69,994

71,359

72,707

74,658

' Not strictly comparable with prior years.

28.

Annual data: Employment levels by industry

[In thousands]
Industry

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

Total private employment...............................

91,855

95,016

97,866

100,169

103,113

106,021

108,686

110,996

110,707

108,828

108,356

Total nonfarm employment............................

110,844

117,298
23,156
641
5,274
17,241

128,993
24,465

131,785
24,649

5,536
17,237

5,813
17,419

125,930
24,354
645
6,149
17,560

130,341

23,410
637

122,770
23,886
654

131,826

22,219
666
4,779
16,744

114,291
22,774
659
5,095
17,021

119,708

Goods-producing..........................................
Natural resources and mining.................
Construction...............................................
Manufacturing...........................................

598
6,545
17,322

599
6,787
17,263

23,873
606
6,826
16,441

22,557
583
6,716
15,259

129,931
21,817
571
6,722
14,525

Private service-providing............................
Trade, transportation, and utilities..........
Wholesale trade......................................
Retail trade.............................................

72,242
23,128
5,247.3
13,490.8
3,701.0

74,710
23,834
5,433.1
13,896.7

81,667
25,186
5,795.2
14,609.3

84,221
25,771

86,346

86,834

5,892.5
14,970.1

26,225
5,933.2
15,279.8

3,837.8
666.2
2,843
6,827
12,844
13,289
10,501
4,572

4,026.5
620.9
3,084
7,178
14,335
14,087
11,018
4,825

4,168.0
613.4
3,218
7,462
15,147
14,446
11,232
4,976

4,300.3
608.5
3,419
7,648
15,957
14,798
11,543
5,087

4,410.3
601.3
3,631
7,687
16,666
15,109
11,862
5,168

25,983
5,772.7
15,238.6
4,372.0
599.4
3,629
7,807
16,476
15,645
12,036
5,258

86,271
25,497
5,652.3
15,025.1

689.3
2,738
6,867
12,174
12,807
10,100
4,428

76,759
24,239
5,522.0
14,142.5
3,935.3
639.6
2,940
6,969
13,462
13,683
10,777
4,690

79,227
24,700
5,663.9
14,388.9

Financial activities...................................
Professional and business services.....
Education and health services...............
Leisure and hospitality............................
Other services..........................................

69,636
22,378
5,093.2
13,020.5
3,553.8
710.7
2,668
6,709
11,495
12,303
9,732
4,350

Government.....................................................

18,989

19,275

19,432

19,539

19,664

19,909

20,307

20,790

21,118

Transportation and warehousing.........
Utilities....................................................
Information................................................

86,538

4,223.6
596.2
3,395
7,847
15,976
16,199
11,986
5,372

25,275
5,605.6
14,911.5
4,176.7
580.8
3,198
7,974
15,997
16,577
12,125
5,393

21,513

21,575

No t e : Data reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), replacing the Standard Industrrial Classification (SIC)
system. NAiCS-based data by industry are not comparable with sic-based data. See "Notes on the data” for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.


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Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

121

Current Labor Statistics:

29.

Labor Force Data

Annual data: Average hours and earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers on nonfarm
payrolls, by industry
Industry

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

P r iv a te s e c to r :

Average weekly hours...................................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)..........................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars).........................

34.3
11.03
378.40

34.5
11.32
390.73

34.3
11.64
399.53

34.3
12.03
412.74

34.5
12.49
431.25

34.5
13.00
448.04

34.3
13.47
462.49

34.3
14.00
480.41

34.0
14.53
493.20

33.9
14.95
506.07

33.7
15.35
517.36

40.6
12.28
498.82

41.1
12.63
519.58

40.8
12.96
528.62

40.8
13.38
546.48

41.1
13.82
568.43

40.8
14.23
580.99

40.8
14.71
599.99

40.7
15.27
621.86

39.9
15.78
630.04

39.9
16.33
651.61

39.8
16.80
669.23

44.9
14.12
634.77

45.3
14.41
653.14

45.3
14.78
670.32

46.0
15.10
695.07

46.2
15.57
720.11

44.9
16.20
727.28

44.2
16.33
721.74

44.4
16.55
734.92

44.6
17.00
757.92

43.2
17.19
741.97

43.6
17.58
766.83

38.4
14.04
539.81

38.8
14.38
558.53

38.8
14.73
571.57

38.9
15.11
588.48

38.9
15.67
609.48

38.8
16.23
629.75

39.0
16.80
655.11

39.2
17.48
685.78

38.7
18.00
695.89

38.4
18.52
711.82

38.4
18.95
727.11

41.1
11.70
480.80

41.7
12.04
502.12

41.3
12.34
509.26

41.3
12.75
526.55

41.7
13.14
548.22

41.4
13.45
557.12

41.4
13.85
573.17

41.3
14.32
590.65

40.3
14.76
595.19

40.5
15.29
618.75

40.4
15.74
636.07

32.5
10.60
345.03

32.7
10.87
354.97

32.6
11.19
364.14

32.6
11.57
376.72

32.8
12.05
394.77

32.8
12.59
412.78

32.7
13.07
427.30

32.7
13.60
445.00

32.5
14.16
460.32

32.5
14.56
472.88

32.4
14.96
484.00

34.1
10.55
359.33

34.3
10.80
370.38

34.1
11.10
378.79

34.1
11.46
390.64

34.3
11.90
407.57

34.2
12.39
423.30

33.9
12.82
434.31

33.8
13.31
449.88

33.5
13.70
459.53

33.6
14.02
471.27

33.6
14.34
481.10

38.5
12.57
484.46

38.8
12.93
501.17

38.6
13.34
515.14

38.6
13.80
533.29

38.8
14.41
559.39

38.6
15.07
582.21

38.6
15.62
602.77

38.8
16.28
631.40

38.4
16.77
643.45

38.0
16.98
644.38

37.8
17.36
657.12

30.7
8.36
484.46

30.9
8.61
501.17

30.8
8.85
515.14

30.7
9.21
533.29

30.9
9.59
559.39

30.9
10.05
582.21

30.8
10.45
602.77

30.7
10.86
631.40

30.7
11.29
643.45

30.9
11.67
644.38

30.9
11.90
657.12

38.9
12.71
494.36

39.5
12.84
507.27

38.9
13.18
513.37

39.1
13.45
525.60

39.4
13.78
542.55

38.7
14.12
546.86

37.6
14.55
547.97

37.4
15.05
562.31

36.7
15.33
562.70

36.8
15.76
579.75

36.8
16.25
597.79

42.1
17.95
756.35

42.3
18.66
789.98

42.3
19.19
811.52

42.0
19.78
830.74

42.0
20.59
865.26

42.0
21.48
902.94

42.0
22.03
924.59

42.0
22.75
955.66

41.4
23.58
977.18

40.9
23.96
979.09

41.1
24.76
1,016.94

36.0
14.86
535.25

36.0
15.32
551.28

36.0
15.68
564.98

36.4
16.30
592.68

36.3
17.14
622.40

36.6
17.67
646.52

36.7
18.40
675.32

36.8
19.07
700.89

36.9
19.80
731.11

36.5
20.20
738.17

36.2
21.01
761.13

35.5
11.36
403.02

35.5
11.82
419.20

35.5
12.28
436.12

35.5
12.71
451.49

35.7
13.22
472.37

36.0
13.93
500.95

35.8
14.47
517.57

35.9
14.98
537.37

35.8
15.59
558.02

35.6
16.17
575.51

35.5
17.13
608.87

34.0
11.96
406.20

34.1
12.15
414.16

34.0
12.53
426.44

34.1
13.00
442.81

34.3
13.57
465.51

34.3
14.27
490.00

34.4
14.85
510.99

34.5
15.52
535.07

34.2
16.33
557.84

34.2
16.81
574.66

34.1
17.20
586.68

32.0
11.21
359.08

32.0
11.50
368.14

32.0
11.80
377.73

31.9
12.17
388.27

32.2
12.56
404.65

32.2
13.00
418.82

32.1
13.44
431.35

32.2
13.95
449.29

32.3
14.64
473.39

32.4
15.21
492.74

32.3
15.64
505.76

25.9
6.32
163.45

26.0
6.46
168.00

25.9
6.62
171.43

25.9
6.82
176.48

26.0
7.13
185.81

26.2
7.48
195.82

26.1
7.76
202.87

26.1
8.11
211.79

25.8
8.35
215.19

25.8
8.58
221.26

25.6
8.76
224.25

32.6
9.90
322.69

32.7
10.18
332.44

32.6
10.51
342.36

32.5
10.85
352.62

32.7
11.29
368.63

32.6
11.79
384.25

32.5
12.26
398.77

32.5
12.73
413.41

32.3
13.27
428.64

32.0
13.72
439.76

31.4
13.84
434.49

G o o d s - p r o d u c in g :

Average weekly hours................................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars).......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................
N a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s a n d m in in g

Average weekly hours...............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars).....................
C o n s t r u c t io n :

Average weekly hours.......................................... .
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars).....................
M a n u f a c t u r in g :

Average weekly hours...............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars).....................
P r iv a t e s e r v i c e - p r o v id in g :

Average weekly hours................................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)........................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................
T r a d e , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , a n d u tilitie s :

Average weekly hours................................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)........................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................
W h o le s a l e tr a d e :

Average weekly hours............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)....................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
R e ta il t r a d e :

Average weekly hours............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
T r a n s p o r t a t io n a n d w a r e h o u s in g :

Average weekly hours............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)....................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
U t ilitie s :

Average weekly hours............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)....................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
In f o r m a t io n :

Average weekly hours............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)....................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
F i n a n c ia l a c t iv it ie s :

Average weekly hours............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)....................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
P r o f e s s io n a l a n d b u s in e s s s e r v ic e s :

Average weekly hours............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)....................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
E d u c a t io n a n d h e a lth s e r v ic e s :

Average weekly hours............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)....................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
L e is u r e a n d h o s p it a lity :

Average weekly hours............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)....................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)...................
O t h e r s e r v ic e s :

Average weekly hours............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)....................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)...................

NOTE: Data reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), replacing the Standard Industrial Classification
(SIC) system. NAiCS-based data by industry are not comparable with SIC-based data.

122

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June 2004

30.

Employment Cost Index, compensation,1 by occupation and industry group

[June 1989 = 100)

Mar.

Series

June

2004

2003

2002
Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

Percent change
3 months

12 months

ended

ended

Mar. 2004
158.4

159.9

161.3

162.2

164.5

165.8

167.6

168.4

170.7

1.4

3.8

160.5
158.5
163.7
162.0
153.7
158.4

162.1
159.3
165.6
163.3
155.1
159.4

163.5
161.4
166.3
164.9
156.4
161.3

164.3
162.4
166.7
166.1
157.5
162.2

166.7
164.1
171.1
168.3
159.8
164.1

167.9
165.0
172.0
170.0
161.4
165.0

169.9
167.0
174.0
171.7
162.9
166.8

170.7
168.0
174.9
172.5
163.7
167.9

172.7
170.2
175.8
175.3
166.9
169.7

1.2
1.3
.5
1.6
2.0
1.1

3.6
3.7
2.7
4.2
4.4
3.4

Goods-producing......................................................................
Manufacturing.........................................................................
Service-producing.....................................................................
Services...................................................................................
Health services.....................................................................
Hospitals..............................................................................
Educational services............................................................

156.3
156.6
159.1
160.2
160.5
162.3
157.1

157.7
158.1
160.7
161.1
161.8
163.8
157.4

158.7
159.1
162.2
163.2
163.1
165.7
161.6

169.2
160.5
162.8
163.9
164.5
167.6
162.8

164.6
165.4
166.2
166.3
167.6
170.8
164.2

165.8
166.5
168.2
168.5
169.3
173.1
166.9

166.8
167.1
169.1
169.5
170.7
174.8
167.6

170.4
171.7
170.8
171.2
173.0
176.8
168.5

2.3
2.8
1.0
1.0
1.3
1.1
.5

4.5
4.7
3.5
3.6
4.0
4.1
3.0

Public administration3.............................................................
Nonmanufacturing....................................................................

156.5

157.5

160.2

161.7

163.1
164.0
165.0
165.3
166.4
169.9
163.6
163.4

164.3

167.3

168.1

170.1

1.2

4.1

158.7

160.2

161.7

162.4

164.5

165.8

167.8

168.6

170.4

1.1

3.6

158.9
159.0

160.7
160.5

161.6
161.6

162.3
162.4

165.0
165.1

166.4
166.6

168.1
168.1

168.8
169.0

171.4
171.6

1.5
1.5

3.9

White-collar workers...............................................................
Excluding sales occupations............................................
Professional specialty and technical occupations...........
Executive, adminitrative, and managerial occupations..
Sales occupations................................................................
Administrative support occupations, including clerical...
Blue-collar workers................................................................
Precision production, craft, and repair occupations.......
Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors............
Transportation and material moving occupations...........
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers....

161.9
162.8
161.5
164.4
157.7
162.8
153.6
153.7
153.6
148.7
158.7

163.8
164.3
162.5
166.6
161.6
164.2
155.1
155.7
154.7
149.6
159.9

164.6
165.3
163.6
167.0
161.6
165.6
156.3
156.9
155.4
151.0
161.4

165.2
165.9
164.4
167.2
161.9
166.7
157.3
157.8
156.7
151.8
162.9

168.1
169.1
166.5
172.1
163.5
169.0
159.7
160.0
159.9
153.2
164.9

169.4
170.4
167.7
173.1
165.1
170.9
161.4
162.0
161.1
155.1
166.8

171.2
172.1
169.4
175.0
167.2
172.3
162.8
163.1
162.6
156.7
168.6

172.0
173.0
170.5
175.9
167.1
173.2
163.6
164.2
163.2
156.9
169.5

174.2
175.3
173.4
176.8
169.2
176.1
166.9
167.1
168.7
158.5
171.7

1.3
1.3
1.7
.5
1.3
1.7
2.0
1.8
3.4
1.0
1.3

3.6
3.7
4.1
2.7
3.5
4.2
4.5
4.4
5.5
3.5
4.1

Service occupations...............................................................

156.4

157.4

159.0

159.8

161.7

162.6

163.8

164.3

166.9

1.2

3.2

157.1

158.7

159.7

160.5

162.6

164.1

165.7

166.6

169.3

1.6

4.1

156.2
155.5
160.1
158.4
153.6
154.1
156.6
159.1
156.7
154.6
156.9
156.0

157.6
156.9
161.9
160.2
154.8
155.2
158.1
161.1
158.6
155.8
158.3
157.5

158.6
157.9
162.9
161.1
155.9
156.3
159.1
162.2
159.6
156.7
158.9
159.2

160.1
159.2
164.3
162.3
157.3
157.9
160.5
163.3
160.7
158.3
160.6
160.3

163.0
162.4
167.8
166.3
159.9
159.1
164.0
167.1
165.1
161.6
164.4
163.1

164.5
163.8
169.2
167.5
161.5
161.1
165.4
168.7
166.4
162.8
165.5
164.9

165.7
165.0
170.1
168.5
162.9
162.3
166.5
169.5
167.4
164.1
166.6
166.0

166.5
165.9
170.5
169.2
163.9
163.3
167.1
169.6
167.8
165.1
167.3
166.6

170.3
169.8
173.5
172.2
168.1
164.6
171.7
173.2
171.3
170.4
172.4
170.4

2.3
2.4
1.8
1.8
2.6
.8
2.8
2.1
2.1
3.2
3.0
2.3

4.5
4.6
3.4
3.5
5.1
3.5
4.7
3.7
3.8
5.4
4.9
4.5

159.9
160.9
162.1
164.1
153.2
155.9
157.3
152.5
163.9
166.0
161.3
156.5
157.5
161.9
162.3
153.5
152.4
152.9

161.8
162.4
164.0
165.6
155.2
157.0
158.9
153.9
165.5
166.1
164.8
159.5
160.0
166.3
164.4
155.6
154.2
154.5

162.7
163.5
164.7
166.5
156.6
158.5
160.8
155.4
168.2
169.0
167.2
159.6
160.3
165.9
166.1
156.0
156.1
156.3

163.1
164.0
165.1
167.0
156.9
159.3
161.7
156.1
169.2
170.1
168.1
159.7
160.4
166.7
167.2
155.8
155.1
156.3

165.6
166.6
167.9
169.9
158.7
161.1
163.2
157.8
170.5
171.3
169.5
161.3
161.8
169.5
168.4
156.6
156.4
157.5

167.0
168.0
169.2
171.3
160.8
162.0
165.4
158.9
174.2
175.5
172.6
162.5
162.7
171.3
169.9
157.4
159.2
158.6

168.8
169.7
171.2
173.1
162.2
163.2
166.5
159.4
176.4
178.4
173.8
164.3
165.0
172.0
171.2
159.9
161.2
159.3

169.7
170.6
172.0
174.2
162.6
164.3
167.0
159.6
177.0
179.0
174.6
165.0
165.9
172.0
171.3
161.0
165.6
160.3

171.6
172.5
174.1
176.2
164.1
166.1
169.8
162.0
180.4
182.2
178.2
166.3
167.4
173.8
173.7
162.1
165.8
162.1

1.1
1.1
1.2
1.1
.9
1.1
1.7
1.5
1.9
1.8
2.1
.8
.9
1.0
1.4
.7
.1
1.1

3.6
3.5
3.7
3.7
3.4
3.1
4.0
2.7
5.8
6.4
5.1
3.1
3.5
2.5
3.1
3.5
6.0
2.9

C i v ilia n w o r k e r s 2 .........................................................................................

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers.................................................................
Professional specialty and technical...................................
Executive, adminitrative, and managerial...........................
Administrative support, including clerical............................
Blue-collar workers..................................................................
Service occupations.................................................................
Workers, by industry division:

P r iv a t e in d u s t r y w o r k e r s .....................................................................

Excluding sales occupations..............................................

3.9

Workers, by occupational group:

4

Production and nonsupervisory occupations ..................
Workers, by industry division:
Goods-producing....................................................................

Construction............. .............................................................
Manufacturing.......................................................................

Durables................................................................................

Service-producing...................................................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................

Public utilities.....................................................................

Wholesale and retail trade..................................................
Wholesale trade.................................................................

Food stores......................................................................
See footnotes at end of table.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

June

2004

123

Current Labor Statistics:

Compensation & Industrial Relations

30. Continued—Employment Cost Index, compensation,1 by occupation and industry group
[June 1989 = 100)
2002
Series

Mar.

June

2003

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

2004

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

Percent change
3 months

12 months

ended

ended

Mar. 2004
Finance, insurance, and real estate.................................

165.2

167.3

168.0

168.5

176.7

178.3

180.2

180.9

182.5

0.9

3.3

Excluding sales occupations.........................................
Banking, savings and loan, and other credit agencies.
Insurance............................................................................
Services..................................................................................
Business services..............................................................
Health services...................................................................
Hospitals...........................................................................
Educational services.........................................................
Colleges and universities................................................

169.8
182.1
164.0
162.6
166.3
160.6
162.8
168.5
168.1

171.3
184.2
166.1
163.7
166.6
162.0
164.5
169.0
168.4

172.1
184.6
167.1
164.9
167.2
163.2
166.2
173.5
172.0

173.1
185.3
167.9
165.4
167.5
164.4
168.1
175.2
173.7

182.0
204.3
172.1
167.1
168.5
166.5
170.8
176.3
174.5

184.0
206.3
173.9
168.4
169.2
167.9
171.9
177.1
175.4

1,853.0
207.6
175.1
170.4
171.9
169.4
173.9
180.2
178.4

186.1
209.0
176.2
171.4
172.6
170.8
175.9
181.3
179.4

186.6
207.2
177.8
173.5
174.8
173.3
178.1
183.1
181.2

.3
-.9
.9
1.2
1.3
1.5
1.3
1.0
1.0

2.5
1.4
3.3
3.8
3.7
4.1
4.3
3.9
3.8

Nonmanufacturing...............................................................

159.3

161.1

162.0

162.5

164.9

166.4

168.1

169.0

170.9

1.1

3.6

White-collar workers..........................................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................
Blue-collar occupations.....................................................
Service occupations..........................................................

162.2
164.2
152.2
155.9

164.1
165.7
154.0
156.9

164.8
166.6
155.4
158.4

165.3
167.1
155.9
159.2

168.0
170.0
157.5
161.1

169.3
171.4
159.7
162.0

171.2
173.2
161.1
163.2

172.1
174.2
161.7
162.4

174.1
176.2
163.4
166.0

1.2
1.1
1.1
1.1

3.6
3.6
3.7
3.0

State and local government workers..............................

156.1

156.7

160.1

161.5

162.6

163.2

165.9

166.8

168.0

.7

3.3

155.2
153.6
159.5
156.9
154.0

155.7
154.1
159.6
158.0
154.7

159.3
158.1
162.3
161.0
158.4

160.7

161.7

162.2

164.9

165.7

159.4
163.8
162.4
159.8

160.2
165.3
163.8
161.3

160.8
165.7
164.4
161.7

163.4
168.0
167.9
163.6

164.1
169.1
168.5
165.2

166.8
165.1
170.1
170.4
166.7

.7
.6
.6
1.1
.9

3.2
3.1
2.9
4.0
3.3

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers.................................................................
Professional specialty and technical...................................
Executive, administrative, and managerial.........................
Administrative support, including clerical...........................
Blue-collar workers..................................................................
Workers, by industry division:
Services....................................................................................

155.5

155.9

159.7

160.9

161.8

165.7

166.5

157.9

158.7

161.0

162.8

164.0

162.3
164.2

164.9

Services excluding schools5................................................
Health services...................................................................
Hospitals...........................................................................
Educational services..........................................................
Schools.............................................................................
Elementary and secondary.........................................
Colleges and universities............................................

166.8

168.2

169.4

.5
.7

3.3

160.4
160.7
154.8
155.1
153.4
160.0

161.4
161.8
155.1
155.4
153.6
160.4

163.5
164.1
159.2
159.6
157.7
164.7

165.5
166.2
160.3
160.7
158.8
165.8

166.4
167.0
161.1
161.4
159.4
167.0

166.7
167.3
161.7
162.0
160.0
167.5

169.5
170.3
164.3
164.7
163.0
169.2

171.0
171.4
165.0
165.3
163.7
170.0

172.2
172.4
165.7
166.0
164.4
170.7

.7
.6
.4
.4
.4
.4

3.5
3.2
2.9
2.9
3.1
2.2

Public administration3.............................................................

156.5

157.9

160.2

161.7

163.4

164.3

167.3

168.1

170.1

1.2

4.1

1 Cost (cents per hour worked) measured in the Employment Cost Index consists of
wages, salaries, and employer cost of employee benefits.
2 Consists of private industry workers (excluding farm and household workers) and
State and local government (excluding Federal Government) workers.

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June 2004

3 Consists of legislative, judicial, administrative, and regulatory activities.
4 This series has the same industry and occupational coverage as the Hourly
Earnings index, which was discontinued in January 1989.
5 Includes, for example, library, social, and health services.

2.9

31.

Employment Cost Index, wages and salaries, by occupation and industry group

[June 1989 = 100]
2002

2004

2003

Series
Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

Percent change
3 months

12 months

ended

ended

Mar. 2004
154.8

156.1

157.2

157.8

159.3

160.3

161.8

162.3

163.3

0.6

2.5

White-collar workers.................................................................
Professional specialty and technical...................................
Executive, adminitrative, and managerial...........................
Administrative support, including clerical...........................
Blue-collar workers..................................................................
Service occupations.................................................................

157.0
155.6
160.7
157.3
149.7
154.2

158.4
156.2
162.6
158.4
151.0
155.1

159.6
158.0
163.5
159.6
151.9
"56.2

160.1
158.6
163.8
160.6
152.6
156.9

161.9
159.3
167.9
161.8
153.8
158.0

162.9
160.1
169.0
163.1
154.8
158.7

164.5
161.8
170.5
164.3
155.8
159.8

165.1
162.5
171.2
164.9
156.3
160.6

166.1
163.8
171.4
166.3
157.3
161.2

.6
.8
.1
.8
.6
.4

2.6
2.8
2.1
2.8
2.3
2.0

Workers, by industry division:
Goods-producing......................................................................
Manufacturing.........................................................................
Service-producing.....................................................................
Services...................................................................................
Health services.....................................................................
Hospitals..............................................................................
Educational services............................................................

151.8
153.1
155.9
158.1
157.3
157.2
155.3

153.1
154.5
157.2
158.8
158.5
158.6
155.6

153.9
155.4
156.4
160.7
159.6
160.3
159.3

155.1
156.5
158.8
161.1
160.9
162.2
160.1

156.3
158.0
160.5
161.9
162.0
163.5
160.4

157.5
159.0
161.4
162.8
163.2
164.4
160.7

158.3
159.7
163.0
164.7
164.7
166.3
162.7

160.6
160.1
163.6
165.4
165.9
167.7
163.2

159.9
161.3
164.6
166.5
167.7
169.0
163.6

.8
.7
.6
.7
1.1
.8
.2

2.3
2.1
2.6
2.8
3.5
3.4
2.0

152.5
155.0

153.4
156.4

154.8
157.5

155.8
158.0

157.2
159.6

158.0
160.5

159.4
162.1

160.0
162.7

161.1
163.7

.7
.6

2.5
2.6

Excluding sales occupations..............................................

154.7
154.9

156.3
156.1

157.0
157.0

157.5
157.9

159.3
159.4

160.4
160.5

161.7
161.7

162.3
162.4

163.4
163.5

.7
.7

2.6
2.6

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers..............................................................
Excluding sales occupations............................................
Professional specialty and technical occupations...........
Executive, adminitrative, and managerial occupations..
Sales occupations................................................................
Administrative support occupations, including clerical...
Blue-collar workers................................................................
Precision production, craft, and repair occupations.......
Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors............
Transportation and material moving occupations...........
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers....

157.7
158.6
156.7
161.3
153.6
158.2
149.6
149.2
150.5
144.8
154.2

159.4
160.0
157.4
163.6
157.0
159.2
150.9
151.0
151.6
145.2
155.1

160.0
169.8
158.2
164.3
156.9
160.3
151.7
151.8
152.0
146.3
156.0

160.4
160.8
158.5
164.5
156.8
161.3
152.4
152.3
153.2
146.9
157.2

162.6
163.6
159.5
169.1
158.1
162.6
153.6
153.4
154.7
147.8
158.4

163.8
164.8
160.5
170.3
159.3
164.0
154.6
154.7
155.3
149.0
159.0

165.3
166.2
162.1
171.8
161.6
165.1
155.6
155.5
156.8
149.8
159.9

165.9
167.0
163.0
172.5
161.1
165.7
156.1
156.2
156.9
149.8
160.6

167.1
168.1
164.7
172.7
162.6
167.2
157.2
157.1
158.6
150.4
161.8

.7
.7
1.0
.1
.9
.9
.7
.6
1.1
.4
.7

2.8
2.8
3.3
2.1
2.8
2.8
2.3
2.4
2.5
1.8
2.1

Service occupations...............................................................

152.0

152.8

153.9

154.4

155.5

156.1

157.1

157.8

158.4

.4

1.9

Production and nonsupervisory occupations3..................

152.7

154.0

154.7

155.2

156.4

157.4

158.8

159.4

160.7

.8

2.7

151.7
150.9
155.0
152.9
149.6
147.0
153.1
154.9
152.3
151.7
153.9
151.9

153.1
152.2
156.6
154.5
150.7
148.2
154.4
156.6
153.9
152.8
155.3
153.1

153.9
153.0
157.9
155.4
151.5
149.0
155.4
157.7
155.0
153.5
156.0
154.4

155.0
154.0
158.6
156.3
152.6
150.2
156.5
158.6
155.9
154.7
157.3
155.2

156.3
155.4
160.0
158.0
153.8
150.6
158.0
160.1
157.7
156.3
158.8
156.6

157.4
156.5
161.4
159.2
154.8
152.4
159.0
161.6
158.9
156.9
159.7
157.8

158.3
157.4
161.9
159.9
155.9
153.6
159.7
162.0
159.5
157.9
160.6
158.3

158.7
158.0
162.1
160.4
156.4
154.0
160.1
162.1
160.0
158.5
160.9
158.7

159.9
159.2
163.2
161.5
157.7
155.1
161.3
163.3
161.2
159.8
161.9
160.4

.8
.8
.7
.7
.8
.7
.7
.7
.8
.8
.6
1.1

2.3
2.4
2.0
2.2
2.5
3.0
2.1
2.0
2.2
2.2
2.0
2.4

156.1
157.2
158.2
160.4
149.4
151.6
150.5
147.4
154.3
155.3
153.0
153.0
157.2
159.4
150.9
147.9
148.0

157.7
158.5
159.9
161.6
151.1
152.4
152.1
148.6
156.4
157.1
155.5
155.7
161.3
161.2
152.7
148.9
148.9

158.4
159.3
160.5
162.5
151.8
153.5
153.4
149.6
158.2
159.6
156.5
155.5
160.4
162.6
152.9
150.1
150.1

158.6
159.6
160.7
162.8
152.0
154.1
154.1
150.1
159.3
160.7
157.4
155.5
161.0
163.7
152.7
149.2
150.3

160.6
161.7
163.0
165.3
153.2
155.1
154.8
150.5
160.4
161.9
158.6
156.7
163.4
163.9
153.1
149.8
151.0

161.7
162.8
164.1
166.5
154.3
155.6
155.6
150.6
162.1
163.4
160.4
157.5
164.7
165.2
153.8
152.0
151.6

163.3
164.2
166.0
168.2
155.1
156.6
156.0
150.4
163.4
165.4
161.0
159.2
164.8
165.7
156.3
153.1
152.2

163.9
165.0
166.6
169.0
155.4
157.4
156.5
150.8
164.1
165.9
161.8
159.5
165.3
166.3
156.5
153.6
152.8

165.0
166.0
167.8
170.2
156.2
158.0
157.6
151.7
165.3
167.0
163.3
160.3
166.2
167.8
157.3
154.1
153.8

.7
.6
.7
.7
.5
.4
.7
.6
.7
.7
.9
.5
.5
.9
.5
.3
.7

2.7
2.7
2.9
3.0
2.0
1.9
1.8
.8
3.1
3.2
3.0
2.3
1.7
2.4
2.7
2.9
1.9

C iv ilia n w o r k e r s 1.........................................................................................

Workers, by occupational group:

Public administration2.............................................................
Nonmanufacturing....................................................................
P r iv a t e i n d u s t r y w o r k e r s .....................................................................

Workers, by industry division:
Goods-producing....................................................................

Construction..........................................................................
Manufacturing.......................................................................

Public utilities.....................................................................
Communications............................................................
Electric, gas, and sanitary services.............................
Wholesale and retail trade..................................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................
Wholesale trade................................................................

Food stores......................................................................
See footnotes at end of table.


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June

2004

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Current Labor Statistics: Compensation & Industrial Relations

31. Continued—Employment Cost Index, wages and salaries, by occupation and industry group
[June 1989 = 100]____________________
2002

2003

2004

Series
Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

Percent change
3 months

12 months

ended

ended

Mar. 2004
Finance, insurance, and real estate.................................
Excluding sales occupations.........................................
Banking, savings and loan, and other credit agencies.
Insurance............................................................................
Services..............................................................................
Business services..............................................................
Health services...................................................................
Hospitals...........................................................................
Educational services.........................................................
Colleges and universities...............................................

160.3
164.5
181.2
157.1
159.5
164.0
157.3
157.1
161.2
159.9

162.0
165.7
182.8
158.6
160.3
164.0
158.4
158.6
161.2
159.9

162.4
166.1
182.7
159.6
161.5
164.6
159.9
160.2
165.2
163.1

162.6
167.3
183.9
159.1
161.7
164.8
160.7
162.1
166.5
164.3

171.1
176.7
206.4
161.6
162.8
165.6
161.9
163.6
167.1
164.4

172.4
178.5
208.7
163.0
164.0
166.4
163.2
164.6
167.5
165.1

174.1
179.2
209.1
163.9
165.9
169.1
164.6
166.5
170.3
167.6

174.5
210.2
164.5
164.5
166.7
169.8
135.8
167.9
171.0
168.4

175.2
179.2
206.7
165.1
168.1
171.0
167.8
169.4
171.9
169.5

0.4
-.3
-1 .7
.4
.8
.7
1.2
.9
.5
.7

2.4
1.4
.1
2.2
3.3
3.3
3.6
3.5
2.9
3.1

Nonmanufacturing................................................................
White-collar workers..........................................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................
Blue-collar occupations.....................................................
Service occupations..........................................................

155.0
158.0
160.1
147.5
151.4

156.5
159.6
161.3
149.0
152.3

157.2
160.2
162.1
149.8
153.4

157.5
160.5
162.5
150.2
154.0

159.4
162.8
164.9
151.1
155.0

160.5
163.9
166.1
152.4
155.5

162.1
165.7
167.7
153.4
156.5

162.6
166.3
168.5
153.8
157.3

163.7
167.5
169.7
154.7
157.9

.7
.7
.7
.6
.4

2.7
2.9
2.9
2.4
1.9

S t a t e a n d lo c a l g o v e r n m e n t w o r k e r s .............................................

156.1

156.7

160.1

161.5

162.6

163.2

165.9

166.8

168.0

.4

2.1

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers.................................................................
Professional specialty and technical...................................
Executive, administrative, and managerial.........................
Administrative support, including clerical...........................
Blue-collar workers...........................................................

153.9
153.6
156.6
151.9
151.6

154.4
154.1
156.8
152 8
152.1

157.4
157.5
159.0
155 1
154.5

158.4
158.4
160.1
155 n
155.1

158.9
158.8
160.9
155 Q
156.2

159.2
159.1
161.0

161.0
161.0
162.5

161.5
161.4
163.3

.4
.4
.1
.6

2.0
2.1
1.6

156.5

157.6

158.3

162.1
162.1
163.5
160.4
I vjü.y

Workers, by industry division:
Services....................................................................................

154.6

155.0

158.4

159.2

159.5

159.8

161.6

162.1

162.6

.3

1.9

Services excluding schools4.........................................
Health services...................................................................
Hospitals...........................................................................
Educational services..........................................................
Schools.............................................................................
Elementary and secondary.........................................
Colleges and universities............................................

156.7
157.8
157.7
154.2
154.3
153.4
156.8

157.3
158.6
158.8
154.5
154.6
153.6
157.3

159.1
160.5
160.6
158.1
158.3
157.4
160.7

160.3
162.2
162.5
158.9
159.0
158.1
161.6

161.4
162.9
163.1
159.1
159.2
158.2
162.1

161.8
163.5
163.8
159.3
159.5
158.5
162.1

163.2
165.1
165.5
161.2
161.4
160.6
163.5

164.5
166.7
166.7
161.6
161.8
160.9
164.0

165.1
167.4
167.4
162.0
162.1
161.3
164.3

.4
.4
.4
.2
.2
.2
.2

2.3
2.8
2.6
1.8
1.8
2.0
1.4

Public administration2.............................................................

152.5

153.4

154.8

155.8

157.2

158.0

159.4

160.0

161.1

.7

2.5

Consists of private industry workers (excluding farm and household workers) and
State and local government (excluding Federal Government) workers.
Consists of legislative, judicial, administrative, and regulatory activities.

32.

3 This series has the same industry and occupational coverage as the Hourly
Earnings index, which was discontinued in January 1989.
4 includes, for example, library, social, and health services.

Employment Cost Index, benefits, private industry workers by occupation and industry group

[June 1989 = 100]_________________
2002

2003

2004

Series
Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

Percent change
3 months

12 months

ended

ended

Mar. 2004
169.3

171.6

173.1

174.6

179.6

182.0

184.3

185.8

192.2

3.4

7.0

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers.................................................................
Blue-collar workers..................................................................

173.5
162.2

176.1
164.0

177.2
166.2

178.5
167.8

183.6
172.7

185.5
176.1

187.7
178.4

189.2
179.9

194.4
188.3

2.7
4.7

5.9
9.0

Workers, by industry division:
Goods-producing......................................................................
Service-producing.....................................................................
Manufacturing............................................................................
Nonmanufacturing....................................................................

165.8
170.7
163.7
171.1

167.4
173.3
165.5
173.5

168.8
174.9
166.8
175.2

171.0
175.9
168.9
176.3

178.0
179.9
176.9
180.3

180.2
182.3
179.0
182.8

182.3
184.7

183.8
186.2
182.3
186.7

193.7
190.6
194.4
190.9

5.4
2.4
6.6
2.2

8.8
5.9
9.9
5.9

P r iv a te in d u s t r y w o r k e r s .......................................................................

126

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June 2004

181.1
185.1

33.

Employment Cost Index, private nonfarm workers by bargaining status, region, and area size

[June 1989 = 100]

Series
Mar.

June

2004

2003

2002

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

Percent change
3 months

12 months

ended

ended

Mar. 2004
COMPENSATION
Workers, by bargaining status'
Union................................................................................................
Goods-producing........................................................................
Service-producing......................................................................
Manufacturing.............................................................................
Nonmanufacturing......................................................................

154.8
153.4
156.0
153.4
155.0

156.3
154.7
157.6
154.6
156.6

158.1
156.2
159.9
155.9
158.8

159.5
157.8
161.1
157.9
159.9

162.1
161.4
162.6
162.3
161.4

164.1
163.4
164.6
163.8
163.7

165.7
164.7
166.5
165.0
165.5

166.8
165.9
167.5
166.3
166.5

171.4
172.3
170.2
175.0
168.8

2.8
3.9
1.6
5.2
1.4

5.7
6.8
4.7
7.8
4.6

Nonunion.........................................................................................
Goods-producing........................................................................
Service-producing......................................................................
Manufacturing.............................................................................
Nonmanufacturing.....................................................................

159.6
157.2
160.3
157.6
159.9

161.4
158.6
162.2
159.1
161.7

162.5
159.5
162.9
160.1
162.4

162.8
160.8
163.3
161.3
162.9

165.4
163.6
165.9
164.5
165.4

166.8
164.9
167.2
165.8
166.7

168.4
166.1
169.0
166.9
168.5

169.1
166.7
169.8
167.3
139.3

171.3
169.7
171.6
170.6
171.1

1.3
1.8
1.1
2.0
1.1

3.6
3.7
3.4
3.7
3.4

158.3
156.2
161.1
160.4

159.9
157.6
162.2
162.9

160.5
158.9
163.5
163.8

161.3
159.0
164.6
165.0

163.8
160.6
169.0
167.3

165.2
161.6
170.4
169.5

166.9
163.2
171.7
171.4

167.9
163.9
172.5
172.2

170.2
166.4
174.7
175.3

1.4
1.5
1.3
1.8

3.9
3.6
3.4
4.8

159.1
157.5

160.9
158.5

161.8
160.0

162.5
169.8

165.2
163.5

166.6
165.0

168.3
166.1

169.1
166.9

171.5
170.2

1.4
2.0

3.8
4.1

Union................................................................................................
Goods-producing........ .....................».........................................
Service-producing......................................................................

148.4
147.2
150.0
149.0
148.1

149.8
158.6
151.4
150.2
149.6

151.3
150.0
152.9
151.6
151.1

152.5
151.2
154.1
153.1
152.1

153.3
152.4
154.6
154.6
152.5

154.3
153.9
155.1
155.9
153.5

155.3
154.8
156.3
156.7
154.6

156.2
155.4
157.3
157.1
155.6

157.2
156.3
158.5
158.1
156.6

.6
.6
.8
.6
.6

2.5
2.6
2.5
2.3
2.7

Nonunion.........................................................................................
Goods-producing.......................................................................
Service-producing.....................................................................

155.9
153.5
156.7
154.7
155.9

157.5
154.8
158.3
156.1
157.5

158.1
155.5
158.9
156.8
158.1

158.5
156.6
159.0
157.8
158.3

160.4
157.8
161.2
159.3
160.4

161.5
158.9
162.3
160.2
161.5

163.0
159.7
164.0
160.9
163.1

163.4
160.1
164.5
161.3
163.7

164.6
161.4
165.6
162.6
164.7

.7
.8
.7
.8
.6

2.6
2.3
2.7
2.1
2.7

153.5
152.5
157.1
156.4

154.9
153.6
158.5
158.7

155.1
154.7
159.2
159.3

155.7
154.6
160.2
160.1

157.3
155.3
164.1
161.3

158.4
156.1
165.0
163.1

160.0
157.4
166.1
164.7

160.9
157.9
166.5
165.2

162.0
159.1
166.9
166.8

.7
.8
.2
1.0

3.0
2.4
1.7
3.4

155.1
151.7

156.7
152.6

157.4
153.8

157.9
154.8

159.6
156.8

160.7
158.0

162.2
158.9

162.7
159.5

163.8
160.8

.7
.8

2.6
2.6

Workers, by region'
Northeast........................................................................................
South...............................................................................................

Workers, by area size'
Metropolitan areas.........................................................................

WAGES AND SALARIES
Workers, by bargaining status'

Workers, by region'
Northeast.......................................................................................
South...............................................................................................

Workers, by area size'

Other areas....................................................................................

’ The indexes are calculated differently from those for the occupation and industry groups. For a detailed description of the index calculation, see the Monthly Labor Review
Technical Note, "Estimation procedures for the Employment Cost Index," May 1982.


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Monthly Labor Review

June

2004

127

Current Labor Statistics:

Compensation & Industrial Relations

34. Percent of full-time employees participating in employer-provided benefit plans, and in selected features within plans,
medium and large private establishments, selected years, 1980-97
Ite m

1980

Scope of survey (in 000's)............................................
Number of employees (in 000's):
With medical care..............................................
With life insurance......................................................
With defined benefit plan...........................................

1982

1984

1986

1988

1989

1991

1993

1995

1997

21,352

21,043

21,013

21,303

31,059

32,428

31,163

28,728

33,374

38,409

20,711
20,498
17,936

20,412
20,201
17,676

20,383
20,172
17,231

20,238
20,451
16,190

27,953
28,574
19,567

29,834
30,482
20,430

25,865
29,293
18,386

23,519
26,175
16,015

25,546
29,078
17,417

29,340
33,495
19,202

10
75
-

9
25
76
25
-

9
26
73
26
-

99
10.0

99
9.8

10
27
72
26
88
3.2
99
10.0

11
29
72
26
85
3.2
96
9.4

8
30
67
28
80
3.3
92
10.2

9
29
68
26
83
3.0
91
9.4

80
3.3
89
9.1

81
3.7
89
9.3

23
3.6

25
3.7

24
3.3

10
26
71
26
84
3.3
97
9.2
22
3.1

21
3.3

21
3.1

22
3.3

20
3.5

99

100

98

97

96

97

96

95

67
-

70
_

69
33
16

68
37
18

67
37
26

65
60
53

58

56

84

93

T im e - o f f p la n s

Participants with:
Paid lunch time...........................................................
Average minutes per day.........................................
Paid rest time..............................................................
Average minutes per day.........................................
Paid funeral leave.......................................................
Average days per occurrence..................................
Paid holidays...............................................................
Average days per year.............................................

-

Paid personal leave.....................................................
Average days per year.............................................

99
10.1
20
-

Paid vacations.............................................................

100

24
3.8
99

Paid sick leave 1..........................................................
Unpaid maternity leave..............................................
Unpaid paternity leave................................................
Unpaid family leave....................................................

62
-

67
-

_

_

97

97

97

95

90

92

83

82

77

76

58

62

-

-

46
62
8

66
70
18

76
79
28

75
80
28

81
80
30

86
82
42

78
73
56

85
78
63

26
46

27
51

43
$12.80
63
$41.40

44
$19.29
64
$60.07

47
$25.31
66
$72.10

51
$26.60
69
$96.97

61
$31.55
76
$107.42

67
$33.92
78
$118.33

69
$39.14
80
$130.07

_

_

In s u r a n c e p la n s

Participants in medical care plans...............................
Percent of participants with coverage for:
Home health care......................................................
Extended care facilities............................................
Physical exam...........................................................
Percent of participants with employee
contribution required for:
Self coverage............................................................
Average monthly contribution................................
Family coverage........................................................
Average monthly contribution................................
Participants in life insurance plans..............................
Percent of participants with:
Accidental death and dismemoerment
insurance...................................................................
Survivor income benefits...........................................
Retiree protection available.......................................
Participants in long-term disability
insurance plans..........................................................
Participants in sickness and accident
insurance plans...........................................................
Participants in short-term disability plans ' .................

-

-

36
$11.93
58
$35.93

96

96

96

96

92

94

94

91

87

87

69

72

74

-

-

-

-

64

64

72
10
59

78
8
49

71
7
42

71
6
44

76
5
41

77
7
37

74
6
33

40

43

47

48

42

45

40

41

42

43

54

51

51

49

46

43

45

44

_

_

_

53

55

84

84

82

76

63

63

59

56

52

50

55
98
53
45

58
97
-

64
98
35
57
62

59
98
26

52
45

63
97
47
54
56

62

62
97
22
64
63

55
98
7
56
54

52
95
6
61
48

52
96
4
58
51

52
95
10
56
49

-

-

_

60

45

48

48

49

55

57

-

-

-

33

36

41

44

43

54

55

-

-

-

2
5

5

9

10

13

23

36

12
52

12

12

38

32
7

-

_

_

R e tir e m e n t p la n s

Participants in defined benefit pension plans............
Percent of participants with:
Normal retirement prior to age 65...........................
Early retirement available.........................................
Ad hoc pension increase in last 5 years..................
Terminal earnings formula........................................
Benefit coordinated with Social Security.................
Participants in defined contribution plans...................
Participants in plans with tax-deferred savings
arrangements..........................................................

55

O th e r b e n e fits

Employees eligible for:
Flexible benefits plans.................................................
Reimbursement accounts2.........................................
Premium conversion plans.........................................

The definitions for paid sick leave and short-term disability (previously sickness and

5
fits at less than full pay.

accident insurance) were changed for the 1995 survey. Paid sick leave now includes only

2 Prior to 1995, reimbursement accounts included premium conversion plans, which

plans that specify either a maximum number of days per year or unlimited days. Short-

specifically allow medical plan participants to pay required plan premiums with pretax

terms disability now includes all insured, self-insured, and State-mandated plans available

dollars.

on a per-disability basis, as well as the unfunded per-disability plans previously reported as

tabulated separately.

Also, reimbursement accounts that were part of flexible benefit plans were

sick leave. Sickness and accident insurance, reported in years prior to this survey, included
only insured, self-insured, and State-mandated plans providing per-disability bene­

128

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June 2004

NOTE: D a s h i n d ic a t e s d a t a n o t a v a ila b le .

35. Percent of full-time employees participating in employer-provided benefit plans, and in selected features
within plans, small private establishments and State and local governments, 1987, 1990, 1992, 1994, and 1996
State and local governments

Small private establishments

Item

1994

1992

1990

1987

1996

1994

1992

1990

10,321

12,972

12,466

12,907

9,599
8,773
9,599

12,064
11,415
11,675

11,219
11,095
10,845

11,192
11,194
11,708

11
36
56
29
63
3.7
74

10
34
53
29
65
3.7
75

62
3.7
73

13.6
39
2.9
67

14.2
38
2.9
67

11.5
38
3.0
66

32,466

34,360

35,910

39,816

22,402
20,778
6,493

24,396
21,990
7,559

23,536
21,955
5,480

25,599
24,635
5,883

8
37
48
27
47
2.9
84

9
37
49
26
50
3.0
82

50
3.1
82

51
3.0
80

17
34
58
29
56
3.7
81

9.5
11
2.8
88

9.2
12
2.6
88

7.5
13
2.6
88

7.6
14
3.0
86

10.9
38
2.7
72

47

53

50

50

97

95

95

94

17
8

18
7

57
30

51
33

59
44

-

_

_

93

Number of employees (in 000's):

T im e - o ff p la n s

Participants with:

_
_
_

_

_
_
_

_
_

_

_
-

_

_

47

48

69

71

66

64

93

93

90

87

79
83
26

80
84
28

_

76
78
36

82
79
36

87
84
47

84
81
55

42
$25.13
67

47
$36.51
73

52
$40.97
76

52
$42.63
75

35
$15.74
71

38
$25.53
65

43
$28.97
72

47
$30.20
71

$109.34

$150.54

$159.63

$181.53

$71.89

$117.59

$139.23

$149.70

64

64

61

62

85

88

89

87

78
1
19

76
1
25

79
2
20

77
1
13

67
1
55

67
1
45

74
1
46

64
2
46

19

23

20

22

31

27

28

30

6

26

26

14

21

22

21

15

93

90

87

91

47
92
53
44

92
90
33
100
18

89
88
16
100
8

92
89
10
100
10

92
87
13
99
49

In s u ra n c e p la n s

Percent of participants with coverage for:

_
_

_

Percent of participants with employee
contribution required for:

Percent of participants with:
Accidental death and dismemberment

Participants in long-term disability
Participants in sickness and accident
29
R e tire m e n t p la n s

20

22

15

54
95
7
58
49

50
95
4
54
46

31

33

34

38

9

9

9

9

17

24

23

28

28

45

45

24

Percent of participants with:

_
_
_
_

Participants in plans with tax-deferred savings

O th e r b e n e fits

Employees eligible for:
1

2

3

4

5

5

5

5

8

14

19

12

5

31

50

64

Premium conversion plans ....................................

_

7

-

1 Methods used to calculate the average number of paid holidays were revised

Sickness and accident insurance, reported in years prior to this survey,

in 1994 to count partial days more precisely. Average holidays for 1994 are

included only insured, self-insured, and State-mandated plans providing per-

not comparable with those reported in 1990 and 1992.

disability benefits at less than full pay.

2 The definitions for paid sick leave and short-term disability (previously

3 Prior to 1996, reimbursement accounts included premium conversion plans,

sickness and accident insurance) were changed for the 1996 survey. Paid sick

which specifically allow medical plan participants to pay required plan

leave now includes only plans that specify either a maximum number of days

premiums with pretax dollars. Also, reimbursement accounts that were part of

per year or unlimited days. Short-term disability now includes all Insured, self-

flexible benefit plans were tabulated separately.

insured, and State-mandated plans available on a per-disabllity basis, as well
as the unfunded per-disability plans previously reported as sick leave.


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Note : Dash indicates data not available.

Monthly Labor Review

June

2004

129

Current Labor Statistics:

Compensation & Industrial Relations

36. Work stoppages involving 1,000 workers or more
A n n u a l to ta ls

2003p

M e as u re
2 00 2

2003p

A pr.

M ay

Ju n e

J u ly

A ug.

2004p
S ept.

O ct.

N ov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

M ar.

A p r.

Number of stoppages:
Beginning in period..............................

19

14

1

1

1

0

3

0

5

0

0

0

1

1

0

In effect during period.........................

20

15

1

1

1

1

3

2

5

3

2

1

2

1

1

Workers involved:
Beginning in period (in thousands)....

46

129.2

4.0

1.3

4.0

.0

8.2

.0

82.2

.0

.0

130.5

4.0

1.3

4.0

4.0

8.2

3.2

82.2

70.5

61.3

6.5
66.5

2.2

47

8.0
76.7

.0

In effect during period (in thousands).

2.2

2.2

6,596

4,091.2

40.0

7.8

16.0

12.0

35.9

51.3

1,168.5

1,219.0

1,473.4

1,203.9

1,146.5

44.0

26.4

____Û

.01

.00

.00

___ Û___ Û___ Û

.04

.04

.05

.05

.05

.05

.0

.0

Days idle:
Number (in thousands).......................
Percent of estimated workina time'....

1 Agricultural and government employees are included in the total employed and total
working time; private household, forestry, and fishery employees are excluded. An

Monthly Labor R eview , October 1968, pp.54-56.

2 Less than 0.005.

explanation of the measurement of idleness as a percentage of the total time worked
is found in "Total economy measures of strike idleness,"

130

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June 2004

NOTE: Dash indicates data not available. P = preliminary.

37. Consumer Price Indexes for All Urban Consumers and for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers: U.S. city average,
by expenditure category and commodity or service group
[1982-84 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]

2002

2003

2004

2003

Annual average
Series

Apr.

May

July

Aug.

Sept.

Nov.

Oct.

Dec.

Jan

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

C O N S U M E R P R IC E IN D EX
FO R A LL U RB AN CO NSUM ERS

All items......................................................................
All items (1967- 100)................................................

179.9
538.8

184.0
551.1

183.8
550.5

183.5
549.7

183.9
550.9

184.6
553.0

185.2
554.7

185.0
554.3

184.5
552.7

184.3
552.1

184.2
554.9

186.2
557.9

187.4
561.5

188.0
563.2

Food and beverages.................................................

176.8
176.2
175.6
198.0
162.1

180.5
180.0
179.4
202.8
169.3

179.0
178.4
177.3
201.9
165.2

179.4
178.8
177.8
203.0
164.7

180.3
179.7
178.9
204.5
168.2

180.9
180.4
179.7
204.5
169.7

181.3
180.7
180.1
203.5
171.1

182.2
181.7
181.5
203.1
174.0

182.9
182.4
182.4
202.5
179.3

184.7
180.0
184.1
202.9
181.1

184.3
183.8
184.0
203.9
179.9

184.5
184.1
184.0
204.4
179.7

184.9
184.4
184.3
204.8
179.5

185.0
184.5
184.1
205.5
179.2

168.1
220.9

167.9
225.9

165.8
221.3

165.4
226.2

164.7
226.6

167.5
224.9

170.3
224.4

171.8
226.3

171.2
227.5

173.0
232.4

172.4
232.4

172.1
229.7

171.9
230.1

174.0
228.3

139.2
160.8
159.0
155.4
177.1

139.8
162.6
162.0
157.4
178.8

140.5
162.1
161.4

140.3
162.1
162.3
157.6
177.8

138.4
167.7
162.7
156.3
179.0

139.7
163.2
162.5
157.7
179.4

139.2
163.1
162.3
157.6
179.4

140.5
163.0
162.5
159.7
178.7

137.9
162.0
161.7
157.3
177.9

139.3
163.0
161.0
157.7
179.6

140.7
162.8
163.0
160.7
178.0

141.4
163.7
163.9
162.3
178.9

140.8
165.1
163.3
166.2
180.4

139.7
165.0
162.6
166.2
180.4

Other miscellaneous foods1,2..........................

109.2

110.3

110.4

110.1

111.3

109.9

111.0

110.7

109.0

109.8

109.1

109.5

111.7

110.5

Food away from home ...........................................
12
Other food away from home ' ............................
Alcoholic beverages.................................................
Housing.....................................................................

178.3
117.7
183.6

182.1

181.5
120.5
186.7

182.2
121.3
187.2

182.6
121.4
187.1

182.8
121.8
187.9

183.3

121.3
187.2

181.1
120.4
186.4

122.3
188.1

183.8
122.7
188.6

184.3
122.9
188.7

184.9
123.9
189.4

185.5
124.0
189.9

185.8
124.1
190.8

186.2
124.7
191.8

180.3
208.1

184.8
213.1

184.1
212.1

184.5
212.8

185.9
213.8

186.1
214.3

185.8
213.8

185.7
214.7

185.1
214.2

185.1
213.1

186.3
215.2

187.0
216.0

187.9
217.8

188.4
218.4

199.7
118.3
214.7

205.5
119.3
219.9

204.5
118.7
218.9

204.9
121.4
219.1

205.6
124.8
219.6

206.1
125.1
220.1

206.6
118.5
220.7

206.9
120.9
221.4

207.5
115.0
221.9

205.5
119.3
219.9

208.3
117.2
222.6

208.8
120.0
222.9

209.2
128.1
223.3

209.7
129.1
223.9

108.7
143.6
127.2
115.5
134.4
128.3

114.8
154.5
138.2
139.5
145.0
126.1

114.2
153.1
136.8
147.9
143.0
127.2

114.3
153.7
137.5
137.0
144.5
126.3

115.6
159.4
143.6
130.5
151.6
126.1

115.8
159.2
143.0
130.7
151.0
125.5

115.9
159.6
143.4
130.5
151.5
125.2

116.0
155.0
138.2
131.4
145.6
125.1

114.3
152.9
135.7
134.8
142.6
124.9

114.8
154.5
138.7
139.1
145.0
124.7

114.8
156.3
139.2
149.9
145.5
125.3

115.0
156.9
139.5
155.1
145.5
125.7

115.1
155.2
137.6
152.5
143.5
125.7

115.7
155.6
138.0
149.6
144.2
125.6

124.0
121.7
115.8

120.9
118.0
113.1

123.9
120.8
117.8

122.5
119.5
115.5

116.2
113.8
106.1

117.2
113.4
107.9

122.0
117.3
115.5

124.8
120.8
118.8

123.1
121.4
115.7

119.0
118.0
110.9

115.8
115.5
105.7

118.6
117.1
110.3

123.5
119.8
117.6

124.3
120.3
118.7

Infants' and toddlers' apparel1..............................
Footwear..............................................................
Transportation...........................................................
Private transportation.............................................

126.4
121.4
152.9
148.8

122.1
119.6
157.6
153.6

123.4
119.9
159.3
155.5

123.6
119.7
157.2
153.1

117.9
117.5
156.8
152.4

120.8
117.8
158.3
154.1

124.1
120.3
159.4
155.4

125.2
121.8
157.1
153.0

123.0
121.0
155.7
151.7

119.2
118.5
154.7
150.8

117.7
115.9
157.0
153.2

119.3
117.0
158.8
154.9

121.9
120.1
160.5
156.6

120.5
121.0
161.8
157.9

New and used motor vehicles2............................

99.2
140.0
152.0
116.6
116.0
106.9
190.2
207.4

97.8
138.7
148.4
140.6
139.9
107.7
194.6
207.2

97.4
138.1
147.9
131.3
130.6
107.8
194.9
211.6

96.5
137.7
145.7
130.6
130.0
107.6
196.0
216.7

96.0
136.8
143.3
139.0
138.4
107.9
195.7
213.8

95.1
136.4
139.0
147.1
146.5
107.7
196.2
211.2

94.6
136.5
135.1
136.6
136.0
107.9
196.9
211.3

94.6
137.5
132.0
131.2
130.6
107.9
197.2
207.9

94.4
138.0
131.0
127.8
127.2
107.8
198.0
205.6

94.3
138.0
130.8
136.7
136.1
108.0
198.2
206.3

94.4
138.3
131.0
143.1
142.5
108.0
198.2
208.1

94.2
137.9
131.2
150.5
149.8
107.8
198.5
209.9

94.1
137.6
131.3
155.9
155.3
107.9
198.6
211.5

285.6
256.4
292.9
253.9
367.8

96.5
137.9
142.9
135.8
135.1
107.8
195.6
209.3
297.1
262.8
306.0
261.2
394.8

298.4
264.1
307.2
261.7
398.6

299.2
264.9
308.2
262.2
399.6

107.7

107.7

300.8
264.0
310.6
263.0
405.6
107.8

107.7

303.6
265.5
313.8
262.5
409.7
107.9

306.0
266.7
316.6
268.0
412.5
108.4

307.5
267.3
318.4
269.7
413.8
108.8

308.3
268.5
319.2
270.6
413.6

107.7

299.9
264.7
309.1
263.0
400.7
107.6

302.1
265.0
311.9
261.2
407.0

107.5

295.5
261.8
304.2
261.1
388.9
107.6

297.6
263.6
306.4
260.9
394.7

106.2

294.6
261.6
303.1
259.8
388.7
107.4

102.6

103.6

103.8

103.8

103.7

103.7

103.5

103.5

103.8

103.3

103.6

104.1

104.3

104.7

.
2
Education and communication ...............................

107.9

109.8

109.0

108.6

108.9

110.1

110.9

110.9

110.8

110.9

111.1

111.2

111.1

110.9

Educational books and supplies.........................

126.0
317.6

134.4
335.4

131.2
332.3

131.4
332.5

132.6
335.0

136.2
338.5

138.7
338.2

139.1
339.7

139.0
336.0

139.4
342.8

140.1
345.4

140.4
348.6

140.6
348.9

140.7
349.5

362.1
92.3

362.1
89.7

377.1
90.5

377.7
89.8

381.2
89.4

392.1
89.0

400.0
88.6

401.1
88.4

401.2
88.2

401.7
88.2

403.6
88.1

404.2
88.1

404.7
87.7

404.9
87.4

90.8

87.8

88.6

87.9

87.5

87.0

86.7

86.4

86.2

86.2

86.1

85.4

98.3

98.7

98.1

98.1

97.8

97.4

97.1

97.2

97.2

97.0

86.1
97.1

85.7

99.7

96.7

96.5

18.3

16.1

16.7

16.4

16.0

15.7

15.6

15.6

15.4

15.3

15.3

15.2

15.2

15.0

22.2
293.2
461.5

17.6
298.7
469.0

18.7
298.1
467.9

' 18.0
298.1
465.6

17.2
299.2
469.1

16.7
299.6
471.8

16.3
299.9
468.7

16.5
300.2
469.5

16.3
300.0
469.1

16.2
300.2
470.4

16.2
301.4
473.0

16.0
302.3
472.6

15.8
303.1
473.6

15.9
303.6
473.3

179.0
153.4

179.7

180.4

153.8

154.5

180.9
154.5

194.3

194.6

195.2

195.8

Cereals and bakery products................................
Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs...............................
Fruits and vegetables...........................................
Nonalcoholic beverages and beverage
Other foods at home.............................................
Suqar and sweets...............................................
Other foods.........................................................

Shelter....................................................................
Rent of primary residence....................................
Lodging away from home.....................................
Owners’ equivalent rent of primary residence3....
12
Tenants' and household insurance ’ ...................

Fuel oil and other fuels.....................................
Gas (piped) and electricity................................
Household furnishings and operations.................
Apparel.....................................................................
Men's and boys' apparel.......................................
Women's and girls' apparel.................................

Motor vehicle parts and equipment......................
Motor vehicle maintenance and repair.................
Public transportation..............................................
Medical care.............................................................
Medical care commodities......................................
Medical care services.............................................
Professional services...........................................
2

Tuition, other school fees, and child care..........
Communication1,2
12
Information and information processing ' .........
Telephone services1,2.....................................
Information and information processing
other than telenhone services1'4
Personal computers and peripheral
equipment1,2............................................

156.1
178.5

Personal care1.......................................................

174.7

178.0

177.7

177.9

178.4

178.4

179.0

154.7
188.4

153.5
193.2

154.1

153.6

154.2

153.5

179.0
153.4

179.1

Personal care products1.....................................

153.6

192.5

193.0

193.2

193.9

195.4

195.6

153.2
194.2

Personal care services1.....................................

109.0

181.3
154.5
196.1

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

June

2004

131

Current Labor Statistics:

Price Data

37. Continued—Consumer Price Indexes for All Urban Consumers and for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers: U.S. city
average, by expenditure category and commodity or service group
[1 9 8 2 -8 4 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]____________

Series
Miscellaneous personal services...................

Annual average
2002

2003

2003
Apr. ! May

June

July

Aug,

2004
Sept,

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

274.4

283.5

282.0

282.7

283.8

284.1

284.3

285.3

285.8

287.0

287.1

288.8

290.4

291.6

292.7

151.2
180.5
134.5
149.7
120.9

152.2
179.0
136.7
152.3
123.9

150.9
179.4
134.6
148.9
122.5

150.4
180.2
133.6
147.4
119.5

150.0
180.3
132.9
146.6
116.2

150.9
180.9
133.9
149.2
117.2

152.0
181.3
135.4
153.1
122.0

151.4
182.2
134.1
151.2
124.8

150.9
182.9

Commodities less food and beverages............
Nondurables less food and beverages...........
Apparel.........................................................

149.7
176.8
134.2
145.1
124.0

132.9
149.0
123.1

150.4
184.1
131.7
146.7
119.0

151.1
184.3
132.6
148.4
115.8

152.3
184.5
134.2
151.4
118.6

153.7
184.9
136.0
155.3
123.5

154.3
185.0
136.9
157.2
124.3

Nondurables less food, beverages,
and apparel..................................................
Durables.........................................................

162.2
121.4

171.5
117.5

173.9
119.2

169.2
118.5

168.6
118.0

169.2
117.4

173.0
116.7

176.4
115.7

171.6
115.2

169.1
115.1

167.7
115.0

172.3
115.1

175.6
115.3

179.1
115.1

181.7
115.0

Services................................................................

209.8

216.5

215.1

215.9

216.8

217.6

218.0

218.1

218.4

217.9

217.9

219.1

219.9

221.0

221.5

Rent of shelter3...................
Transporatation services.................................
Other services...................................................

216.7
209.1
246.4

221.9
216.3
254.4

220.8
215.3
252.5

221.5
216.3
252.8

221.7
217.1
253.0

222.6
218.0
253.7

223.1
217.2
255.5

222.6
216.8
257.0

223.5
218.9
257.2

223.0
218.6
257.3

222.9
217.7
257.4

224.1
218.7
258.4

224.9
219.3
259.2

226.8
219.7
259.5

227.4
220.0
259.7

All items less food.............................................
All Items less shelter.........................................
All items less medical care...............................
Commodities less food......................................
Nondurables less food......................................
Nondurables less food and apparel.................
Nondurables.....................................................

180.5
170.8
174.3
136.0
147.4
163.3
161.1

184.7
174.6
178.1
136.5
151.9
172.1

184.3
174.1
177.7
136.5
151.1
169.9
164.3

184.5
174.3
177.9
135.5
151.1
169.4
163.9

184.6
174.2
178.0
134.9
149.0
170.0
163.5

185.3
175.0
178.7
135.9
151.5
173.4
165.2

186.0
176.0
179.2
137.3
155.2
. 176.6
167.4

185.6
175.5
179.1
136.1
153.3
172.2
166.8

184.9
174.9
178.5
135.0
151.3
170.0
166.1

184.4
174.7
178.2
133.8
149.2
168.8
165.4

185.5
175.6
179.1
134.7
150.8
173.0
166.4

186.6
176.7
180.1
136.3
153.7
176.1
168.1

188.0
177.6
181.3
138.0
157.5
179.4

165.3

184.7
174.7
178.0
138.6
154.3
174.2
165.9

188.6
178.2
181.8
138.9
159.3
181.7
171.4

Services less rent of shelter3...........................
Services less medical care services................
Energy...............................................................
All items less energy.........................................
All items less food and energy.......................
Commodities less food and energy..............
Energy commodities...................................
Services less energy.....................................

217.5

226.4

224.6

225.5

227.2

228.4

229.2

228.4

208.7
136.5
190.6
193.2
140.9
136.7
223.8

207.5
138.1
190.2
193.1
142.5
141.7
222.5

208.2
134.0
190.3
193.2
141.7
132.3
223.1

209.1
136.5
190.3
193.0
140.8
130.9
223.5

210.3
140.6
190.8
193.5
139.7
139.2
224.9

210.3
144.6
191.0
193.6
140.2
146.9
224.9

228.7
210.5
136.9
191.7
194.3
140.4
137.0
225.8

228.2

202.5
121.7
187.7
190.5
143.7
117.1
217.5

228.0
209.8
136.8
190.5
193.2
139.9
131.3
224.3

209.9
133.1
191.6
193.9
139.9
132.1
225.6

209.9
131.8
191.5
193.6
139.0
129.0
225.5

229.7
211.0
137.4
191.9
194.0
138.5
138.2
226.6

230.6
211.7
140.6
192.7
194.9
139.3
144.6
227.5

230.7
212.7
143.1
193.7
196.1
140.3
151.3
228.9

213.2
145.9
194.1
196.5
140.5
156.3
229.4

All items..................................................................
All items (1967 = 100).......................................

175.9
523.9

179.8
535.6

179.8
535.5

179.4
534.3

179.6
534.3

179.6
535.0

180.6
537.1

181.0
539.2

180.7
538.2

180.2
536.7

179.9
536.0

180.9
538.7

181.9
541.7

182.9
544.8

183.5
546.5

Food and beverages............................................

176.1
176.5
175.1
198.0
162.0

179.9
179.4
178.5
202.8
169.2

178.3
177.7
176.4
201.8
165.2

178.7
178.1
176.8
202.9
164.6

179.5
178.9
177.9
203.7
167.0

179.6
179.1
178.0
204.4
168.2

180.2
179.7
178.8
204.5
169.5

180.7
180.2
179.4
203.5
170.9

181.7
181.2
180.7
203.2
173.8

182.4
181.9
181.6
202.4
179.2

183.6
183.1
183.3
202.4
181.0

183.8
183.3
183.2
203.8
179.9

184.0
183.5
183.2
204.4
179.7

184.4
183.8
183.5
204.9
179.6

184.5
183.9
183.3
205.5
179.1

Dairy and related products1...........................
Fruits and vegetables.......................................
Nonalcoholic beverages and beverage
materials........................................................
Other foods at home........................................
Sugar and sweets...........................................
Fats and oils...................................................
Other foods.....................................................

167.2
222.9

167.6
224.3

165.6
220.0

165.1
224.3

163.5
225.7

164.4
225.3

167.0
223.8

170.2
223.4

171.7
224.9

171.0
225.3

172.7
229.7

172.2
229.7

171.7
227.5

171.3
227.8

173.6
225.5

138.6
160.4
158.8
155.3
177.6

139.1
162.2
161.6
157.4
179.2

139.6
161.7
160.9
156.2
179.0

139.7
161.7
162.1
157.6
187.1

139.6
163.0
162.4
156.5
180.5

137.5
162.3
162.3
156.2
179.4

138.9
162.6
162.1
157.7
179.7

138.5
162.8
162.1

137.3
161.6
161.4

157.6
180.0

139.8
162.5
162.1
159.6
179.0

157.3
178.3

138.6
162.5
160.5
157.7
180.0

140.0
162.3
162.4
160.7
178.4

140.8
163.3
163.2
162.2
179.4

140.1
164.7
162.6
166.0
180.8

139.1
164.6
161.9
166.1
180.8

Other miscellaneous foods1,2.................

109.7

110.8

110.9

110.5

112.1

111.6

110.0

111.3

111.2

109.5

110.3

109.6

110.1

112.2

111.0

Food away from home1....................................

178.2

181.0

181.4

181.7

182.7

121.3
186.8

121.6
186.9

122.0
187.7

123.1
188.9

184.8
123.6
189.5

123.8
190.0

185.6
123.8
191.2

186.1

120.8
186.8

183.7
122.9
188.8

185.3

120.8
186.6

183.3
122.5
188.1

184.2

118.1
183.3

182.1
121.4
187.0

182.4

Other food away from home1,2.......................
Alcoholic beverages...........................................
Housing..................................................

182.0
121.5
187.1

124.3
192.1

180.4
206.9

179.7

180.0
206.4

180.9
206.5

181.4
207.2

181.6
207.7

181.6
207.6

181.3

205.9

208.3

180.9
208.2

181.0
208.2

182.1
209.2

182.6
209.8

183.2
211.0

211.5

205.3
125.2
199.9

205.8

206.1
121.7
201.0

206.6
116.2
201.4

207.0
113.4

207.4

208.9

201.7

208.0
121.1
202.3

208.4

119.8
200.4

128.8
202.7

129.8
203.1

115.8
159.1
142.3
129.4
150.6
121.0
121.0
116.5
114.5

116.0
154.3
137.0
130.7
144.6
120.9
123.9
120.0
118.2

114.4
152.3
134.7
134.4
141.9
120.7
122.6
121.1
115.3

114.4
153.0
135.4
136.2
142.5
120.4
118.7
117.8
110.5

149.6
144.7
121.0
115.7
115.6
105.5

115.1
156.2
138.3
154.5
144.7
121.4
118.3
117.4
109.8

115.2
154.7
136.6
152.0
142.9
121.4
122.9
120.0
117.4

116.0
155.1
137.0
148.9
143.5
121.3
123.8
120.6
118.4

126.5
119.6
158.1
155.3

127.7
121.1
155.4
152.5

125.0
120.4
153.6
150.8

121.4
117.8
152.5
149.7

120.1
115.6
154.9
152.2

122.2
116.4
156.8
154.0

125.2
118.6
158.5
155.7

123.4
119.6
159.9
157.1

94.4

93.5

93.1

92.8

92.7

92.8

92.6

92.6

Commodity and service group:
Commodities.......................................................
Food and beverages.....................................

Special indexes:

170.3

231.1

C O N S U M E R P R IC E IN D E X F O R U R B A N
W A G E E A R N E R S A N D C L E R IC A L W O R K E R S

Food......................................................................
Food at home.....................................................
Cereals and bakery products..........................
Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs.........................

Shelter.................................................
Rent of primary residence...............................

175.7
201.9
199.0
118.4

204.7

203.7
119.0
198.8

204.1

204.4

204.8

122.2
199.0

122.6
199.0

125.0
199.4
115.4
158.9
142.4

Owners' equivalent rent of primary residence3

195.1

119.8
199.7

Tenants' and household insurance1,2..............
Fuels and utilities.............................................
Fuels................................................................
Fuel oil and other fuels................................
Gas (piped) and electricity...........................
Household furnishings and operations............
Apparel.................................................................
Men's and boys' apparel...................................
Women's and girls' apparel..............................

108.7
142.9
126.1
115.0
133.4
124.4
123.1
121.7
114.6

114.7
153.9
137.0
138.7
144.1
121.9
120.0
117.5
112.1

114.0
152.4
135.7
146.9
142.3
122.8
122.8
120.4
116.4

114.0
153.0
136.3
136.1
143.5
122.0
121.5
119.1
114.2

115.0
158.6
142.2
131.6
150.3
121.9
118.7
116.2
110.4

129.6
150.6
121.9
115.2
113.4
105.0

115.7
158.7
141.9
129.6
150.1
121.4
116.1
112.9
106.9

Infants' and toddlers' apparel1..............
Footwear...........................................................
Transportation......................................................
Private transportation.........................................

128.6
121.2
151.8
149.0

124.1
119.1
156.3
153.5

125.5
119.8
158.5
155.9

125.7
119.9
156.2
153.3

122.9
118.5
155.7
152.8

120.3
116.9
155.5
152.5

122.9
117.2
157.1
154.2

New and used motor vehicles2........................

99.4

96.0

97.7

96.9

96.9

96.3

Lodqinq away from home2...............................

See footnotes at end of table.

132

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June

2004

95.71

118.5
202.1
114.9
155.6
138.0

183.6

37. Continued—Consumer Price Indexes for All Urban Consumers and for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers: U.S. city
average, by expenditure category and commodity or service group
[1982-84 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]____________________________________
Annual average
Series

2002

2003

2004

2003
Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

New vehicles...................................................

141.1

139.0

139.7

139.1

138.4

137.7

137.9

137.6

137.8

138.7

139.2

139.2

139.5

139.0

138.7

Used cars and trucks1....................................

152.8

143.7

149.2

148.7

148.1

146.4

144.0

139.8

135.9

132.8

131.7

131.6

131.7

132.0

132.1

Motor fuel...........................................................

117.0

136.1

140.8

131.5

130.4

130.9

139.4

147.5

136.9

131.5

128.1

137.1

143.6

150.9

156.5

Gasoline (all types).........................................

116.4

135.5

140.2

130.9

129.8

130.4

138.9

147.0

136.4

130.9

127.6

136.6

143.0

150.3

155.8

Motor vehicle parts and equipment.................

106.1

107.3

107.1

107.2

107.1

107.0

107.3

107.2

107.5

107.5

107.3

107.6

107.6

107.4

107.5

Motor vehicle maintenance and repair............

191.7

196.5

196.8

197.7

197.3

197.9

200.1

200.3

200.4

208.5

210.8

212.8

210.5

208.4

198.9
205.8

199.9

203.0

198.6
208.7

199.8

202.6

197.3
206.0

196.3

Public transportation...........................................

203.6

204.6

206.2

208.0

209.4

Medical care...........................................................

284.6

296.3

293.7

294.6

295.5

296.7

297.4

298.3

299.1

300.1

301.4

302.8

305.4

306.9

307.7

Medical care commodities..................................

251.1

257.4

256.2

256.4

256.7

258.2

258.6

259.4

259.2

258.5

259.4

259.8

260.9

261.5

262.5

Medical care services.........................................

305.9
263.4

303.0
261.9

304.1

306.3
264.1

307.9

309.1

310.6

311.9

313.8

316.8

263.3

305.1
263.5

307.0

Professional services........................................

292.5
256.0

264.4

265.2

265.2

266.5

267.8

363.2

391.2

384.9

385.0

388.1

390.9

395.8

397.5

402.4

403.4

405.9

270.6
408.7

273.2

Hospital and related services...........................

263.9
394.2

318.6
272.3
409.9

409.8

Recreation2...........................................................

104.6

105.5

105.4

105.5

105.5

105.6

105.7

105.5

105.4

105.6

105.5

105.6

106.2

106.5

106.7

102.0

102.9

103.0

103.0

102.9

102.9

102.9

102.7

102.8

103.0

102.5

102.7

103.2

103.5

103.9

Education and communication2...........................

107.6

109.0

108.4

108.0

107.8

108.2

109.1

109.7

109.7

109.6

109.7

109.8

110.0

109.8

109.6

Education2..........................................................
Educational books and supplies....................

125.9
318.5

133.8
336.5

130.9
333.4

131.1
333.6

131.8

132.3

137.8
339.6

138.1
340.6

138.0
337.5

138.0
343.8

139.4

336.3

135.5
339.6

139.1

335.5

346.1

349.5

139.6
349.9

139.7
350.4

Tuition, other school fees, and child care......
12

354.8

377.3

368.8

369.3

390.1

390.2

390.7

392.8

393.3

393.8

394.1

92.0

91.3

372.6
90.9

389.2

91.2

371.1
90.7

382.1

93.7

90.5

90.2

89.9

89.8

89.7

89.6

89.6

89.3

89.0

Information and information processing1,2....

92.7

89.9

90.7

90.0

89.6

89.6

89.1

89.1

88.5

88.4

88.3

88.2

88.2

87.9

87.5

Telephone services1,2.................................
Information and information processing

99.9

98.5

98.9

98.3

97.7

98.3

98.0

97.6

97.3

97.4

97.4

97.2

97.3

96.9

96.7

19.0

16.7

17.4

17.0

16.8

16.5

16.3

16.1

16.2

15.9

15.8

15.8

15.8

15.7

15.5

14

319.4

other than telephone services ' ..............
Personal computers and peripheral
12

21.8

17.3

18.5

17.8

16.9

16.9

16.3

16.0

16.2

16.0

15.9

15.8

15.7

15.5

15.6

Other goods and services.....................................

302.0

307.0

306.4

306.0

306.0

307.5

308.0

307.9

308.2

307.7

308.1

309.3

310.0

310.8

311.3

Tobacco and smoking products.........................

463.2

470.5

469.8

464.8

464.8

470.5

473.2

469.9

470.7

470.2

471.5

473.8

473.2

474.2

474.1

Personal care1....................................................

174.1

177.0

176.7

176.9

177.2

177.5

177.4

177.9

178.0

177.7

177.8

177.4

179.1

179.7

180.1

155.5

154.2

154.6

154.2

154.4

154.8

154.3

154.0

154.1

153.8

154.2

154.3

155.0

155.0

155.1

189.1

193.9

193.2

193.6

193.5

193.9

194.6

196.1

196.3

194.8

194.9

195.1

195.7

196.3

196.6

Miscellaneous personal services....................
Commodity and service group:

274.0

283.3

281.6

282.4

283.9

284.0

284.4

285.2

285.6

286.7

286.6

288.4

290.2

291.6

292.9

Commodities.........................................................

150.4

151.8

176.1

179.9

153.0
178.3

151.6
178.7

151.1
179.5

150.7
179.6

152.7
180.7

151.9
181.7

151.3
182.4

150.7
183.6

151.5
183.8

152.7
184.0

154.1
184.4

154.8
184.5

Nondurables less food and beverages............
Apparel...........................................................
Nondurables less food, beverages,

135.5

135.8

138. .2

136.0

135.0

134.2

151.6
180.2
135.4

136.7

135.2

133.8

132.5

133.5

135.2

137.0

138.0

147.0
123.1

152.1
120.0

154.8
122.8

151.1
121.5

149.6
118.7

148.7
115.2

151.7
116.1

155.9
121.0

153.6
123.9

151.4

151.0
115.7

154.3

158.4

122.6

149.0
118.7

118.3

122.9

160.5
123.8
187.0

165.3

175.6

172.3

173.0

177.4

181.2

175.7

172.9

171.6

176.5

180.2

184.1

121.8

117.4

178.3
119.4

173.0

Durables............................................................

118.8

118.3

117.6

116.9

115.5

114.7

114.2

114.0

114.0

1142.0

114.0

113.9

Services................................................................

205.9

212.6

211.3

212.0

212.9

213.6

214.0

214.3

214.4

214.1

214.2

215.3

216.0

216.7

217.1

Transporatation services...................................

194.5
207.7

199.2
216.2

199.5
217.4

200.0
216.8

199.9
216.8

200.6
219.0

200.5
218.8

200.6
218.0

201.4
219.1

202.0
219.7

248.5

198.8
216.1
246.8

198.9
216.7

241.6

198.3
215.0
246.8

247.2

247.9

249.3

250.6

250.7

250.7

250.9

251.8

252.6

203.2
220.0
252.9

203.7
220.2
253.0

175.8

179.7
171.9

180.0
172.2

179.5
171.7

179.6
171.5

179.2

180.2

171.6

182.6
174.7

174.5

175.0

174.7

172.5
175.6

181.4
173.7

183.2

172.6
175.6

171.9

174.5

181.0
173.3
176.0

179.7

174.8

180.3
172.3
175.2

180.4

174.8

179.5
171.4
174.4

176.6

177.6

178.2

137.7
154.2

137.9

136.9
151.8

136.1

137.2

137.0
155.7

135.8

151.0

138.6
157.9

153.7

134.5
151.4

137.1
156.4

138.9
160.4

139.9
162.4

Special indexes:
175.3

All items less medical care................................

168.3
171.1

Commodities less food......................................
Nondurables less food......................................

137.3
149.2
166.1

175.9

140.0
156.8
178.4

173.5

181.1

176.1

173.6

172.1

176.9

180.2

184.0

186.6

Nondurables.......................................................

161.4

166.4

167.1

165.3

172.8
164.9

151.0
177.5

164.6

166.4

168.8

168.1

167.3

166.6

167.8

169.5

171.8

173.0

193.1

201.3

199.7

200.4

202.2

202.8

203.1

203.7

203.2

202.7

202.9

204.1

204.9

204.9

205.2

198.9
120.9
183.6

205.2
135.9
186.1

204.0
137.7

204.7
133.2

205.2
135.6

206.2
135.9

206.5
132.4

185.9

187.0

187.0

207.6
136.9
187.2

208.8
143.0
188.7

209.2
146.0

185.9

206.6
131.1
186.9

208.2
140.2

185.9

206.8
144.2
186.4

206.9
136.3

185.8

206.6
140.0
186.2

185.6

187.9

188.0

188.0

187.7

187.7

188.1

188.6

188.4

144.4

143.0
141.7

142.2

140.3
131.4

140.2

140.3

139.7

189.1
139.0

132.3

141.3
131.0

188.3
138.2

137.2

132.1

144.7

151.5

140.1
156.7

219.0

219.6

219.8

220.5

221.3

222.1

222.1

136.8
222.1

138.3

220.2

139.5
221.0

147.2

Services less energy.....................................

17.3
213.9

141.1
136.8

188.0
141.1

190.1

Commodities less food and energy..............

187.9
140.1

223.1

223.9

224.9

225.3

Services less medical care services................
Energy................................................................

1 Not seasonally adjusted.
2 Indexes on a December 1997 = 100 base.

153.2
173.5

135.5
153.3

187.9

140.0

189.0
190.4

4 Indexes on a December 1988 - 1 0 0 base.
Dash indicates data not available.
NOTE: Index applied to a month as a whole, not to any specific date.

3 Indexes on a December 1982 - 100 base.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

June

2004

133

Current Labor Statistics:

38.

Price Data

Consumer Price Index: U.S. city average and available local area data: all items

[1982-84 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
Pricing
sched­
ule1
U.S. city average................................................................

All Urban Consumers
Nov.

Urban Wage Earners

2004

2003
Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

M

184.5

184.3

185.2

M

195.1

194.9

195.9

196.8

M

197.3

197.1

197.9

198.6

186.2

2003

Mar.
187.4

Apr.

Nov.

188.0

180.2

198.6

199.4

200.7

201.4

2004

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

179.9

180.9

181.9

191.9

191.7

192.6

193.6

195.1

195.7

192.8

192.7

193.3

194.3

195.9

196.3

182.9

183.5

Region and area size2
Northeast urban...........................................
Size A— More than 1,500,000......................................
Size B/C— 50,000 to 1,500,0003.....................
Midwest urban4.............................................
Size A— More than 1,500,000.......................................
Size B/C— 50,000 to 1.500.0003.....................
Size D— Nonmetropolitan (less than 50,000)...................

M

115.3

115.0

116.0

116.6

117.4

118.1

115.4

115.2

116.1

116.7

117.5

118.1

M

178.9

178.4

179.4

180.2

181.0

181.5

173.9

173 .4

174.5

175.3

175.8

176.3

M

181.4

180.9

181.8

182.5

183.1

183.7

175.7

175.1

176.2

176.9

177.2

177.9

M

113.6

113.3

114.1

114.7

115.2

115.6

112.7

112.4

113.3

113.8

114.2

114 6

M

171.4

171.5

171.8

173.0

174.1

173.9

169.1

169.1

169.4

170.6

171.4

171.2

M

177.5

177.5

178.2

179.1

180.1

180.9

174.3

174.2

175.0

175.8

176.7

177.6

Size A— More than 1,500,000..............................................

M

179.1

179.2

179.8

180.8

181.8

182.5

176.4

176.4

177.1

178.0

178.9

179.7

Size B/C— 50,000 to 1.500.0003..............................
Size D— Nonmetropolitan (less than 50,000)....................

M

113.3

113.3

113.8

114.3

114.9

115.6

111.9

111.8

112.3

112.7

113.4

114.0

South urban.........................................................................

M

175.4

175.1

175.3

176.8

177.7

178.7

174.5

174.2

174.6

176

176.9

177.8

M

188.5

188.3

189.4

190.8

192.2

192.3

183.5

183.3

184.3

185.7

187.1

187.3

Size A— More than 1,500,000..............................................

M

191.0

190.6

191.7

193.2

194.5

194.6

184.4

183.9

185.0

186.5

187.9

188.2

Size B/C— 50,000 to 1,500,0003.................................

M

114.9

115.2

116.0

117.0

117.9

117.8

114.6

114.8

115.4

116.4

117.2

117.2

M
M

168.9
113.9
176.6

168.7
113.8
176.5

169.4
114.6
176.9

170.4
115.2
177.9

171.5
115.9
178.9

172.0
116.3
179.3

167.1
113.0
174.5

166.8
112.9
174.3

167.6
113.6
174.8

168.6
114.2
175.8

169.6
114.9
176.7

170.0
115.3
177.2

180.6

West urban....................................................................

Size classes:
A5.......................................................
B/C3.................................................
D..................................................................................

M

Selected local areas6
Chicago-Gary-Kenosha, IL -IN -W I........................................

M

185.6

185.5

185.4

186.4

186.3

187.2

179.1

178.8

179.0

179.9

179.7

Los Angeles-Riverside-Orange County, CA.........................

M

187.1

187.0

188.5

190.1

191.5

191.9

180.5

180.2

181.7

186.4

184.9

185.2

New York, NY-Northern NJ-Long Island, N Y -N J-C T -P A ..

M

199.4

199.3

199.9

201.1

203.4

204.0

194.7

194.6

194.9

198.2

198.5

207.4

Boston-Brockton-Nashua, M A -N H -M E -C T ........................

1

206.5

-

208.4

-

208.7

_

205.6

_

206.8

196.3
_

Cleveland-Akron, O H................................................................

1

177.6

-

178.4

-

180.0

-

168.3

-

169.8

_

171.0

Dallas-Ft Worth, TX..................................................................

1

175.9

-

175.7

-

177.7

-

175.6

-

175.7

-

177.6

Washinqton-Baltimore, DC-M D -V A -W V 7..................

1

116.7

-

117.1

-

118.1

-

116.1

-

116.5

-

117.6

Atlanta, GA..................................................................................

2

-

179.0

-

180.8

-

182.3

_

176.6

-

178.7

_
-

Detroit-Ann Arbor-Flint, M l......................................................

2

-

181.3

-

183.4

-

184.7

-

175.9

_

178.1

Houston-Galveston-Brazoria, TX............................................

2

-

164.1

-

168.5

-

169.7

-

162.2

_

165.7

Miami-Ft. Lauderdale, FL.........................................................

2

-

181.6

-

183.6

-

185.2

-

178.9

_

180.8

Philadelphia-Wilmington-Atlantic City, P A -N J-D E -M D ......

2

-

189.0

-

191.4

_

194.8

_

189.0

-

191.2

San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose, CA.................................

2

-

195.3

-

198.1

-

198.3

_

191.1

_

Seattle-Tacoma-Bremerton, W A............................................

2

-

191.0

-

193.5

-

194.3

-

185.3

-

’ Foods, fuels, and several other items priced every month in all areas; most other
goods and services priced as indicated:

_

_
180.0
179.3
166.8

_

182.6

194.1

_
_

194.7

187.8

_

189.1

194.0

Report: Anchorage, AK; Cincinnatti, O H -KY-IN; Kansas City, MO-KS; Milwaukee-Racine,
Wl; Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-W I; Pittsburgh, PA; Port-land-Salem, OR-WA; St Louis,

M— Every month.

MO-IL; San Diego, CA; Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL.

1— January, March, May, July, September, and November.

7 Indexes on a November 1996 = 100 base.

2— February, April, June, August, October, and December.
2 Regions defined as the four Census regions.

NOTE: Local area CPI indexes are byproducts of the national CPI program. Each local

3 Indexes on a December 1996 = 100 base.

index has a smaller sample size and is, therefore, subject to substantially more sampling

4 The "North Central" region has been renamed the "Midwest" region by the

and other measurement error. As a result, local area indexes show greater volatility than

Census Bureau. It is composed of the same geographic entities.

the national index, although their long-term trends are similar. Therefore, the Bureau of
Labor Statistics strongly urges users to consider adopting the national average CPI for use

5 Indexes on a December 1986 = 100 base.
6 In addition, the following metropolitan areas are published semiannually and

in their escalator clauses. Index applies to a month as a whole, not to any specific date.

appear in tables 34 and 39 of the January and July issues of the CPI Detailed
Dash indicates data not available.

134

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June

2004

39.

Annual data: Consumer Price Index, U.S. city average, all items and major groups

[1982-84 = 100]
Series

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers:
All items:
144.5
3.0

148.2
2.6

152.4
2.8

156.9
3.0

160.5
2.3

163.0
1.6

166.6
2.2

172.2
3.4

177.1
2.8

179.9
1.6

184.0
2.3

141.6
2.1

144.9
2.3

148.9
2.8

153.7
3.2

157.7
2.6

161.1
2.2

164.6
2.2

168.4
2.3

173.6
3.1

176.8
1.8

180.5
2.1

141.2
2.7

144.8
2.5

148.5
2.6

152.8
2.9

156.8
2.6

160.4
2.3

163.9
2.2

169.6
3.5

176.4
4.0

180.3
2.2

184.8
2.5

133.7
1.4

133.4
-.2

132.0
-1 .0

131.7
-.2

132.9
.9

133.0
.1

131.3
-1 .3

129.6
-1 .3

127.3
-1 .8

124.0
-2 .6

120.9
-2 .5

130.4
3.1

134.3
3.0

139.1
3.6

143.0
2.8

144.3
0.9

141.6
-1 .9

144.4
2.0

153.3
6.2

154.3
0.7

152.9
- .9

157.6
3.1

201.4
5.9

211.0
4.8

220.5
4.5

228.2
3.5

234.6
2.8

242.1
3.2

250.6
3.5

260.8
4.1

272.8
4.6

285.6
4.7

297.1
4.0

192.9
5.2

198.5
2.9

206.9
4.2

215.4
4.1

224.8
4.4

237.7
5.7

258.3
8.7

271.1
5.0

282.6
4.2

293.2
3.8

298.7
1.9

142.1
2.8

145.6
2.5

149.8
2.9

154.1
2.9

157.6
2.3

159.7
1.3

163.2
2.2

168.9
3.5

173.5
2.7

175.9
1.4

179.8
2.2

Food and beverages:

Housing:

Apparel:

Transportation:

Medical care:

Other goods and services:

Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners
and Clerical Workers:
All items:
Percent change.............................................................


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2003

2002

2001

Monthly Labor Review

June

2004

135

Current Labor Statistics:

40.

Price Data

Producer Price Indexes, by stage of processing

[1982 = 100]
Grouping

Annual average
2002

2003

2003

2004

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.p

Feb.p

Mar.1

Apr.p

Finished consumer goods........................
Finished consumer foods........................

138.9
139.4
140.1

143.3
145.3
145.9

142.1
143.8
144.0

142.0
143.7
144.6

143.0
145.0
145.2

143.0
145.1
144.9

143.7
145.9
146.3

144.0
146.4
148.0

145.5
147.7
151.0

144.5
146.5
150.1

144.5
146.7
150.3

145.4
147.7
148.0

Finshed consumer goods
excluding foods......................................
Nondurable goods less food................
Durable goods........................................
Capital equipment....................................

145.3
147.6
148.0

146.2
148.7
150.3

147.3
150.2
152.5

138.8
139.8
133.0
139.1

144.7
148.4
133.1
139.5

143.5
146.9
132.5
139.1

143.0
146.3
132.4
139.0

144.6
148.9
131.8
138.9

144.8
149.2
131.7
138.9

145.4
150.0
131.8
139.2

145.5
150.4
131.1
138.9

146.2
149.4
135.6
140.8

144.8
147.6
135.0
140.5

145.0
148.2
134.3
140.2

147.2
151.3
134.7
140.8

147.1
151.3
134.3
140.8

147.7
152.0
134.8
141.1

148.9
154.0
134.3
141.0

F in is h e d g o o d s .....................................................

In te r m e d ia te m a te r ia ls ,
s u p p lie s , a n d c o m p o n e n t s .......................... .

127.8

133.7

133.0

132.5

133.5

133.7

134.1

134.1

134.1

134.1

134.5

136.1

137.1

137.9

Materials and components
for manufacturing.......................................
Materials for food manufacturing..............
Materials for nondurable manufacturing...
Materials for durable manufacturing.........
Components for manufacturing................

139.8

126.1
123.2
129.2
124.7
126.1

129.7
134.4
137.2
127.9
125.9

129.4
129.6
137.6
126.7
126.0

129.3
130.8
137.0
128.8
126.1

129.6
134.2
137.4
126.8
126.0

129.2
133.3
136.3
127.1
125.8

129.8
135.5
137.5
127.5
125.8

129.8
137.4
136.4
128.6
125.8

130.5
141.8
137.5
129.5
125.8

130.7
141.6
137.2
130.5
125.8

130.9
140.7
137.9
131.2
125.8

131.8
138.5
140.2
132.3
125.9

133.2
138.9
141.1
137.0
126.2

134.1
141.1
141.7
140.0
126.2

135.9
146.1
143.2
143.5
127.0

Materials and components
for construction...........................................
Processed fuels and lubricants...................
Containers.....................................................
Supplies.........................................................

151.3
96.3
152.1
138.9

153.6
112.6
153.7
141.5

152.9
110.8
154.0
141.3

152.9
108.0
153.9
141.5

153.0
112.1
154.1
141.5

153.6
113.7
153.8
141.5

153.7
114.5
153.6
141.2

155.0
113.7
153.5
141.7

155.2
111.5
153.2
141.9

155.6
110.3
153.4
142.6

155.6
111.7
153.5
142.8

155.9
116.5
153.9
143.3

158.3
116.3
153.8
143.8

160.7
116.3
154.1
144.8

163.6
118.1
154.3
146.4

108.1
99.5
111.4

135.3
113.5
148.2

128.0
107.0
140.6

130.9
111.0
142.4

136.5
110.4
152.8

132.6
107.6
148.2

131.3
111.5
142.7

134.7
119.0
142.8

138.3
128.1
141.1

137.0
125.7
141.4

141.1
124.7
149.5

144.7
116.8
162.1

148.3
121.0
164.9

149.7
130.8
159.8

154.1
135.1
164.1

Finished goods, excluding foods................
Finished energy goods................................
Finished goods less energy.........................
Finished consumer goods less energy.......
Finished goods less food and energy.........

138.3
88.8
147.3
150.8
150.2

142.4
102.0
149.0
153.1
150.5

141.5
100.0
148.2
152.1
150.0

141.1
98.9
148.3
152.3
150.0

142.2
103.1
148.3
152.4
149.8

142.2
103.4
148.2
152.3
149.8

142.7
104.7
148.7
152.8
149.9

142.7
105.2
149.0
153.3
149.7

143.8
103.2
151.4
156.1
152.0

142.8
100.4
151.0
155.5
151.7

142.8
101.0
150.9
155.5
151.4

144.5
106.2
150.5
154.7
151.7

144.4
105.7
150.5
154.7
151.7

144.9
107.0
151.3
155.7
152.0

145.7
109.3
152.0
156.7
152.2

C r u d e m a te r ia ls f o r f u r t h e r
p r o c e s s in g ...........................................................

Foodstuffs and feedstuffs............................
Crude nonfood materials.............................
S p e c ia l g r o u p in g s :

Finished consumer goods less food
and energy.................................................

157.6

157.9

157.4

157.4

157.1

157.1

157.2

157.0

159.5

159.2

159.0

159.1

159.1

159.3

159.7

Consumer nondurable goods less food
and energy...............................................

177.5

177.9

177.5

177.6

177.7

177.8

178.0

177.8

178.6

178.5

178.9

178.6

179.1

179.0

180.2

Intermediate materials less foods
and feeds....................................................
Intermediate foods and feeds.....................
Intermediate energy goods......................... .
Intermediate goods less energy.................

128.5
115.5
95.9
134.5

134.2
125.9
111.9
137.7

133.7
121.2
110.1
137.3

133.1
122.8
107.1
137.5

134.0
125.1
111.3
137.6

134.2
124.4
113.0
137.4

134.6
125.0
114.3
137.5

134.5
128.4
112.8
138.0

134.4
131.9
110.7
138.5

134.2
134.8
109.5
138.8

134.7
134.1
110.9
139.0

136.4
132.4
115.5
139.7

137.4
132.5
115.3
141.0

138.2
136.4
115.3
142.1

139.8
143.0
117.1
144.0

Intermediate materials less foods
and energy.................................................

135.8

138.5

138.4

138.5

138.4

138.3

138.4

138.7

139.0

139.2

139.5

140.3

141.6

142.6

144.2

Crude energy materials...............................
Crude materials less energy.......................
Crude nonfood materials less energy.........

102.0
108.7
135.7

147.2
123.4
152.5

138.8
117.0
146.7

141.4
120.0
146.5

156.2
119.4
146.3

148.7
118.0
148.8

139.7
121.7
151.8

138.2
128.2
155.5

134.3
135.9
159.5

132.5
135.5
164.8

141.8
136.2
170.1

156.7
132.5
177.5

156.7
138.2
187.2

147.1
146.6
192.2

156.3
147.8
185.3

136

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June

2004

41. Producer Price Indexes for the net output of major industry groups
[December 2003 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
2004

2003
NAICS

Industry

_
211
212
213
-

311
312
313
315
316
321
322
323
324
325
326
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
339

Dec.

Jan.p

Feb.p

Mar.p

Apr.p

T o t a l m in in g in d u s t r ie s ( D e c e m b e r 1 9 8 4 = 1 0 0 )..................................................

129.0

141.6

139.5

133.9

138.5

Oil and gas extraction(December 1985=100)...........................................
Mining, except oil and gas............................................................................
Mining support activities...............................................................................

155.1
100.0
100.0

177.0
101.4
102.0

172.4
103.6
100.6

161.3
105.0
100.9

168.6
107.1
99.9

137.7
141.1
100.0
100.0
100.0

138.9
139.5
100.7

140.2
142.1
100.4

100.5
100.0

139.3
139.9
100.9
100.3
99.9

100.3
99.9

141.8
145.8
101.7
100.5
100.0

143.4
100.0
100.0
100.0

144.0
99.2
99.7
100.4

143.2
102.5
99.6
100.3

143.8
105.7
99.4
100.6

143.5
108.1
100.0
101.1

117.5
165.3
128.8
121.4
133.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
147.6
100.0

131.3
167.1
128.8
123.6
134.4
100.4
99.9
100.3
100.3
147.3
100.4

130.7
167.7
129.9
128.1
135.3
100.6
99.9
100.8
100.1
147.8

141.5
169.2
130.1
136.9
138.6
101.3
100.1
102.7
100.1

100.9

134.3
168.6
129.7
131.7
136.6
101.0
99.8
101.6
100.3
148.5
100.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
47.9
100.0

100.2
99.9
105.1
99.9
43.6
101.3

100.4
99.9
102.7
99.2
43.3
102.7

101.4
100.2
103.4
99.1
55.1
119.1

101.7
100.6
94.1
98.7
52.6
108.6

162.7
100.0
155.0

163.0
99.7
155.0

163.7
98.7
155.0

162.8
98.9
155.0

162.1
99.7
155.0

100.0

101.3

102.0

101.1

102.0

112.8
100.0
119.0
137.6
100.0
100.0

113.6
100.3
119.4
139.9
101.0
99.8

114.1
99.8
119.5
139.5
101.5
99.9

114.0
99.9
119.6
139.7
101.8
99.9

114.3
100.0
119.7
140.3
101.6
99.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.7
98.0
100.5
99.8
101.8

101.1
98.4
100.0
100.2
101.7

101.2
100.0
99.8
100.1
101.5

101.5
100.8
100.2
100.2
101.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
109.1
126.5
100.0

100.9
100.0
100.5
107.7
127.2
101.5

99.4
100.2
100.3
110.5
132.1
101.3

99.0
100.3
101.6
106.7
131.8
101.1

101.8
100.9
101.6
105.4
131.9
101.2

125.3
100.0
112.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
120.5

126.2
100.0
111.8
99.9
100.1
100.0
121.3

126.6
99.5
112.0
100.7
100.4
100.8
121.5

126.7
99.8
112.5
100.5
100.6
100.8
125.2

126.6
99.9
114.0
98.6
100.5
101.9
124.0

T o t a l m a n u f a c t u r e d in d u s tr ie s (D e c e m b e r 1 9 8 4 = 1 0 0 1 ................................

Food manufacturing (December 1984-100).............................................
Beverage and tobacco manufacturing........................................................
Textile mills......................................................................................................
Apparel manufacturing...................................................................................
Leather and allied product manufacturing (December 1984-100).........
Wood products manufacturing.....................................................................
Paper manufacturing......................................................................................
Printing and related support activities.........................................................
Petroleum and coal products manufacturing (December 1984=100)....
Chemical manufacturing (December 1984-100)......................................
Plastics and rubber products manufacturing (December 1984=100)....
Primary metal manufacturing (December 1984-100)..............................
Fabricated metal product manufacturing (December 1984-100)...........
Machinery manufacturing..............................................................................
Computer and electronic products manufacturing....................................
Electrical equipment, appliance, and components manufacturing.........
Transportation equipment manufacturing..................................................
Furniture and related product manufacturing(December 1984=100)....
Miscellaneous manufacturing......................................................................

149.1
101.1

R e ta il tr a d e

441
442
443
446
447
454

Motor vehicle and parts dealers..................................................................
Furniture and home furnishings stores.......................................................
Electronics and appliance stores.................................................................
Health and personal care stores.................................................................
Gasoline stations (June 2001=100)............................................................
Nonstore retailers...........................................................................................
T r a n s p o r t a t io n a n d w a r e h o u s e d

481
483
491

Air transportation (December 1992=100)..................................................
Water transportation.......................................................................................
Postal service (June 1989=100)..................................................................
U t ilit ie s

221

Utilities............................................................................................................
H e a lt h c a r e a n d s o c ia l a s s is t a n c e

6211
6215
fi?16
622
6231
62321

Office of physicians (December 1996-100)..............................................
Medical and diagnostic laboratories............................................................
Hospitals (December 1992=100).................................................................
Nursing care facilities...................................................................................
Residential mental retardation facilities.....................................................
O t h e r s e r v ic e s i n d u s tr ie s

511
515
517
filfiP
523

Publishing industries, except Internet .....................................................
Broadcasting, except Internet............................................................. .........

Security, commodity contracts, and like activity........................................

5312
5313

Offices of real estate agents and brokers.................................................

5321
5411
541211

Automotive equipment rental and leasing (June 2001=100).................
Legal services (December 1996=100)......................................................

5413
54181
5613
55151
55172
5521
721

Architectural, engineering, and related services

Employment services (December 1996-100)..........................................

Accommodation (December 1996-100)....................................................

NOTE: Data reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the North American Industry Classification System
(NAICS), replacing the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

June

2004

137

Current Labor Statistics:

42.

Price Data

Annual data: Producer Price Indexes, by stage of processing

[1982 = 100]
In d e x

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

F in is h e d g o o d s

Total.....................................................................
Foods.......................................................
Energy........................................................
Other.......................................................

124.7
125.7
78.0
135.8

125.5
126.8
77.0
137.1

127.9
129.0
78.1
140.0

116.2
115.6
84.6
123.8

118.5
118.5
83.0
127.1

124.9
119.5
84.1
135.2

102.4
108.4
76.7
94.1

101.8
106.5
72.1
97.0

102.7
105.8
69.4
105.8

.__ _

133.0
135.1
78.8

138.0
137.2
94.1
148.0

140.7
141.3
96.8
150.0

138.9
140.1
88.8
150.2

143.3
146.0
102.0
150.5

123.2

129.7
124.3
104.1
136.4

127.8
123.3
95.9
135.8

133.7
134.4
111.9
138.5

121.3
106.2
122.8
101.8

108.1
99.5
102.0
101.0

135.3
113.5
147.5
116.8

In t e r m e d i a t e m a t e r ia ls , s u p p lie s , a n d
c o m p o n e n ts

Total..........................................................
Foods...........................................................................
Energy................................................
Other..................................................................

1oO .O

84.3
133.1

129.2
119.2
101.7
136.6

84.5

98.7
78.5
91.1

120.6
100.2
122.1
118.0

1¿ .0 .0

125.3

C r u d e m a t e r ia ls f o r fu r t h e r p r o c e s s in g

Total...............................................................
Foods.................................................................
Energy....................................................
Other................................................................

43.

121.5
85.0
105.7

103.5

U.S. export price indexes by Standard International Trade Classification

[2000 =

100]

S IT C

2003

Industry

R ev. 3

2004

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

0 F o o d a n d liv e a n im a ls ...................................................................
01
Meat and meat preparations.............................................
04
Cereals and cereal preparations......................................
05
Vegetables, fruit, and nuts, prepared fresh or dry..........

105.5
97.9
120.0
96.0

108.0
101.5
124.2
96.9

107.5
102.9
118.5
99.6

107.1
104.6
115.4
101.2

107.6
108.9
115.7
99.7

2 C r u d e m a te r ia ls , in e d ib le , e x c e p t fu e ls ................................
22
Oilseeds and oleaginous fruits.........................................
24
Cork and wood.................................................
25
Pulp and waste paper......................................................
26
Textile fibers and their waste...........................................
28
Metalliferous ores and metal scrap..................................

103.6
118.9
91.3
90.4
106.0
107.8

104.5
127.4
91.0
89.9
104.2
105.8

103.9
122.7
90.4
90.1
103.2
109.0

103.9
124.8
90.6
85.5
106.2
112.3

3 M in e ra l fu e ls , lu b r ic a n ts , a n d re la te d p r o d u c ts ................
32
Coal, coke, and briquettes................................................
33
Petroleum, petroleum products, and related materials...

107.5
111.9
102.8

102.5
112.2
96.4

107.6
112.1
102.7

5 C h e m ic a ls a n d re la te d p ro d u c ts , n .e .s ..................................
54
Medicinal and pharmaceutical products...........................
55
Essential oils; polishing and cleaning preparations.........
57
Plastics in primary forms.........................................
58
Plastics in nonprimary forms..........................................
59
Chemical materials and products, n.e.s...........................

101.4
103.9
95.3
100.5
98.4
101.5

100.9
103.9
95.2
97.6
98.5
100.9

100.8
104.8
97.3
96.6
98.8
101.6

6 M a n u fa c tu r e d g o o d s c la s s ifie d c h ie fly b y m a te ria ls .....
62
64
66
68

Rubber manufactures, n.e.s........................................
Paoer. DaDerboard, and articles of DaDer, p u Id .
and DaDerboard......................................................
Nonmetallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s........................
Nonferrous metals..........................................

7 M a c h in e r y a n d t r a n s p o rt e q u ip m e n t......................................
71
72
74
75
76
77
78

Power generating machinery and equipment..................
Machinery specialized for particular industries................
General industrial machines and parts, n.e.s.,
and machine parts...........................................
Computer equipment and office machines......................
Telecommunications and sound recording and
reproducing apparatus and equipment..........................
Electrical machinery and equipment................................
Road vehicles......................................................

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

112.1
117.2
124.2
101.4

112.2
123.5
119.4
103.2

115.2
125.6
125.6
102.8

116.5
123.0
130.8
103.2

117.0
122.8
131.6
103.1

119.8
124.3
135.0
108.4

122.4
125.6
139.3
110.0

125.9
124.6
147.3
109.1

102.3
109.2
90.9
85.3
107.0
117.8

106.2
121.1
91.6
88.8
109.6
119.9

111.2
136.7
92.0
90.8
121.4
121.1

116.3
150.9
92.5
91.9
128.5
129.6

116.9
152.5
93.7
91.7
121.2
136.6

120.2
157.2
94.5
91.7
123.7
148.9

122.2
160.9
95.6
92.5
122.2
156.8

128.5
181.6
96.5
94.2
122.0
169.7

132.8
197.1
97.6
98.9
117.3
177.6

109.8
111.2
105.9

114.9
111.2
113.0

108.7
111.6
104.2

108.2
111.6
104.1

106.3
111.6
101.2

110.7
112.9
106.2

120.5

119.3

123.0

123.2

116.8

114.7

120.1

119.8

99.6
105.8
97.5
95.1
98.4
102.0

100.0
105.5
97.6
94.8
98.4
101.9

100.3
105.4
98.2
95.4
98.2
101.9

100.7
105.9
98.9
95.5
98.3
102.4

100.9
106.5
99.4
95.8
97.1
102.5

101.4
105.8
100.1
96.5
97.2
102.6

102.9
105.4
104.3
98.3
96.8
105.0

104.1
105.3
104.2
101.2
97.2
105.4

105.2
105.3
104.3
102.3
97.9
105.4

106.2
105.3
104.2
102.3
98.1
106.3

99.8

99.7

100.0

99.9

100.0

100.2

100.3

100.7

100.8

101.7

103.1

104.2

105.9

108.6

108.5

110.1

110.1

109.5

109.2

109.2

109.5

109.9

110.4

111.0

111.1

113.0

96.9
100.3
82.0

97.3
100.3
79.4

98.3
100.4
80.3

98.5
100.4
79.8

98.3
100.2
80.9

98.3
99.5
81.6

97.4
99.5
81.9

97.9
99.7
83.4

97.6
99.8
84.5

97.9
99.7
85.9

97.8
99.6
90.9

97.9
99.7
94.0

98.7
99.5
98.2

98.5

98.5

97.8

97.9

97.7

97.7

97.8

97.9

98.0

98.2

98.3

107.1
102.4

107.2
102.6

98.0
107.4
103.2

97.9

107.1
102.5

107.4
103.2

107.5
103.1

107.9
103.1

108.5
103.3

108.7
103.4

109.3
103.9

109.4
104.0

109.4
104.2

108.6
105.1

102.2
88.8

102.2
88.9

102.4
88.1

102.5
88.2

102.5
88.0

102.6
87.8

102.6
87.9

102.8
88.0

102.8
88.6

103.3
87.7

103.3
88.3

103.5
88.9

103.8
89.1

94.2
92.1
101.1

94.1
92.0
101.0

93.8
89.7
101.1

93.4
89.8
101.3

93.4
89.8
101.3

93.3
89.4
101.4

92.8
88.6
101.5

92.2
88.2
101.6

92.0
88.1
101.5

92.6
88.0
101.7

92.5
88.1
101.9

92.5
88.4
101.8

92.6
88.2
102.2

101.6

101.9

102.2

102.4

102.3

102.2

102.1

102.3

102.3

102.2

102.3

102.3

102.2

87 P r o fe s s io n a l, s c ie n tific , a n d c o n tro llin g
in s t r u m e n t s a n d a p p a r a tu s ......................................................

138

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June

2004

44.

U.S. import price indexes by Standard International Trade Classification

[ 2000 =

100]

S IT C

Industry

R ev. 3

2003
Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

2004
Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

0 F o o d a n d liv e a n im a ls ....................................................................

101.6

99.8

99.4

100.2

99.5

100.0

100.3

100.0

101.0

102.2

104.6

105.5

106.2

Meat and meat preparations.............................................
Fish and crustaceans, mollusks, and other
aquatic invertebrates.......................................................
Vegetables, fruit, and nuts, prepared fresh or dry...........
Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices, and manufactures
thereof..............................................................................

108.8

110.3

102.9

106.6

108.2

112.8

115.2

117.2

120.4

117.7

117.7

120.7

121.8

84.3
108.5

83.4
103.9

81.3
108.9

83.5
106.9

82.3
105.5

82.2
105.0

79.8
106.4

79.3
108.9

79.2
109.4

78.2
112.3

79.9
115.7

83.1
111.8

84.7
110.2

100.5

99.1

94.8

95.3

96.6

98.6

95.5

93.1

96.0

100.1

101.9

101.7

103.7

1 B e v e r a g e s a n d to b a c c o ................................................................

104.5

104.6

103.9

104.1

104.0

104.0

104.3

104.4

104.4

104.7

105.0

105.1

105.2

Beverages..........................................................................

103.6

103.8

103.7

104.0

103.9

103.9

104.2

104.2

104.3

104.9

105.2

105.2

105.4

2 C r u d e m a te r ia ls , in e d ib le , e x c e p t fu e ls .................................

98.4

98.8

99.5

100.7

100.5

106.1

104.2

104.5

107.9

109.5

114.1

120.2

122.9

93.4
92.6
99.5
102.3

94.0
95.3
99.3
103.5

94.4
95.3
99.7
104.9

100.1
93.6
100.3
99.4

99.3
91.9
102.9
96.8

113.0
90.4
103.7
95.7

106.2
90.8
104.3
95.1

103.2
91.9
108.7
94.8

108.0
92.8
115.3
99.6

108.9
93.3
124.2
98.9

115.7
91.9
134.1
99.5

123.5
95.4
146.9
99.7

128.1
100.8
146.4
99.3

Petroleum, petroleum products, and related materials...

101.6
98.6
120.5

96.0
92.6
119.0

101.7
97.6
130.1

106.0
103.4
121.5

106.5
105.6
108.8

101.5
99.4
114.4

101.3
100.1
106.2

103.3
102.3
106.6

108.2
106.9
113.9

117.3
114.0
138.0

117.6
114.5
137.1

120.9
120.1
123.6

119.8
119.2
121.8

5 C h e m ic a ls a n d re la te d p ro d u c ts , n .e .s .................................
52
Inorganic chemicals...........................................................
Dying, tanning, and coloring materials.............................
53
54
Medicinal and pharmaceutical products..........................
Essential oils; polishing and cleaning preparations........
55
Plastics in primary forms...................................................
57
Plastics in nonprimary forms............................................
58
Chemical materials and products, n.e.s.................. ........
59

100.4
107.5
97.8
101.5
99.2
99.5
100.6
96.7

99.0
105.8
98.0
101.2
98.9
101.7
100.8
93.2

100.1
106.4
98.0
102.5
99.4
106.1
100.8
92.3

100.0
105.4
98.0
103.1
99.0
104.3
101.3
93.3

99.2
106.0
98.3
102.5
91.8
103.1
101.4
91.9

99.2
105.4
97.7
101.9
91.6
102.7
101.4
91.8

100.2
108.8
98.1
102.3
91.2
105.6
101.7
92.3

100.8
111.9
99.0
103.4
91.6
105.6
101.7
93.1

101.1
114.0
99.6
103.4
91.6
105.5
101.8
93.3

103.0
119.3
99.9
107.2
92.7
104.4
102.1
94.3

103.6
120.6
99.6
107.7
93.3
105.2
102.4
94.9

104.0
120.5
99.6
107.8
93.7
106.9
102.6
95.9

103.9
115.8
100.6
107.1
93.4
105.8
102.4
95.9

01
03
05
07

11

24
25
28
29

Cork and wood...................................................................

Crude animal and vegetable materials, n.e.s..................

3
33
34

6 M a n u fa c tu r e d g o o d s c la s s ifie d c h ie fly b y m a te ria ls .....

94.1

93.7

94.4

94.9

95.4

95.7

96.5

97.4

97.8

98.9

101.2

103.4

105.5

62
64

Rubber manufactures, n.e.s.............................................
Paper, paperboard, and articles of paper, pulp,

99.2

99.1

99.2

98.6

98.5

98.5

98.5

98.6

98.8

99.0

99.2

99.5

99.7

66
68
69

Nonmetallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s........................
Nonferrous metals...... .......................................................
Manufactures of metals, n.e.s..........................................

93.6
97.6
78.5
97.5

93.2
97.5
75.8
97.6

93.5
97.9
78.1
98.3

93.2
97.9
78.0
98.2

94.9
97.8
79.1
98.4

94.5
97.8
80.7
98.5

94.7
97.9
82.0
98.7

94.2
98.1
85.1
99.1

93.7
98.1
87.7
99.5

94.1
98.5
92.3
99.7

94.5
98.8
97.0
100.0

94.9
98.9
102.6
100.8

95.0
99.3
106.0
101.9

7 M a c h in e r y a n d tr a n s p o r t e q u ip m e n t......................................
72
74
75
76

95.8

95.7

95.8

95.7

95.6

95.5

95.3

95.4

95.3

95.4

95.5

95.5

95.3

100.6

100.6

101.4

102.6

102.5

102.2

102.4

103.3

103.6

104.9

106.4

106.7

106.5

100.0
82.8

100.0
82.1

100.8
81.8

100.8
80.6

100.4
80.6

100.2
80.5

100.4
78.6

100.9
78.5

101.2
78.2

101.8
78.0

102.5
78.0

103.2
77.8

103.3
76.9

89.5
95.5
100.6

89.4
95.2
100.7

89.3
95.4
100.7

88.7
96.1
100.7

88.8
96.0
100.7

88.6
96.0
100.6

87.7
95.9
101.3

87.5
96.0
101.4

86.7
95.3
101.6

86.5
95.4
101.9

85.4
95.7
101.9

85.1
95.7
102.0

84.9
95.1
102.2

General industrial machines and parts, n.e.s.,

Telecommunications and sound recording and
reproducing apparatus and equipment.........................

77
78
85

Footwear.............................................................................

99.6

99.7

100.0

99.9

99.8

99.9

100.0

100.1

100.1

100.5

100.5

100.5

100.4

88

Photographic apparatus, equipment, and supplies,
and optical goods, n.e.s.................................................

99.6

99.3

100.0

100.1

99.6

99.2

99.3

99.8

99.9

99.9

100.3

100.0

99.7


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

June

2004

139

Current Labor Statistics:

45.

Price Data

U.S. export price indexes by end-use category

[2000 = 100]

2003

Category
Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

2004
Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

A L L C O M M O D IT I E S .....................................................................

99.6

99.7

99.5

99.4

99.4

99.8

100.0

100.5

100.8

101.5

102.2

103.1

103.7

Foods, feeds, and beverages.......................................
Agricultural foods, feeds, and beverages.................
Nonagricultural (fish, beverages) food products.....

108.5
108.6
108.0

111.8
112.1
110.2

111.3
111.2
113.1

110.8
111.0
109.3

109.4
109.5
109.5

115.3
116.3
106.5

117.2
118.4
105.6

121.4
122.8
107.5

122.4
123.8
108.5

123.1
124.6
109.5

125.7
127.2
111.2

130.5
132.3
112.5

134.7
136.8
114.8

Industrial supplies and materials..................................

109.4

100.1

99.4

100.1

99.6

100.0

100.2

101.0

101.7

102.5

105.1

106.5

108.3

Agricultural industrial supplies and materials...........

104.6

103.5

104.4

104.7

105.5

107.3

113.3

119.0

117.5

118.6

116.6

117.2

115.7

Fuels and lubricants.....................................................
Nonagricultural supplies and materials,
excluding fuel and building materials......................
Selected building materials.........................................

96.3

94.5

97.0

97.0

100.4

97.6

97.5

96.4

99.0

106.1

106.5

108.9

110.3

100.7
96.6

100.2
96.5

100.7
96.3

100.0
97.5

100.1
98.0

100.5
98.4

101.1
98.8

101.7
99.1

102.5
99.5

104.7
98.7

106.5
100.8

108.3
102.1

109.7
103.0

Capital goods...................................................................
Electric and electrical generating equipment...........
Nonelectrical machinery.............................................

98.3
101.5
95.6

98.3
101.5
95.5

97.6
101.6
94.5

97.7
101.8
94.6

97.7
101.6
94.5

97.5
101.7
94.3

97.3
101.7
93.9

97.3
101.7
93.9

97.5
101.7
94.1

97.5
102.0
93.9

97.8
101.9
94.2

98.0
102.1
94.5

98.1
101.7
94.5

Automotive vehicles, parts, and engines.....................

101.6

101.5

101.6

101.8

101.8

101.8

101.9

101.9

101.8

101.9

102.0

102.0

102.2

Consumer goods, excluding automotive......................
Nondurables, manufactured.......................................
Durables, manufactured..............................................

99.3
98.5
99.8

99.4
98.5
99.9

99.6
98.8
100.1

99.6
98.8
100.2

99.4
98.7
99.9

99.4
98.5
100.1

99.8
99.0
100.3

100.0
99.4
100.3

99.9
99.2
100.3

100.2
99.9
100.1

100.1
99.9
100.0

100.1
99.8
100.1

100.2
99.8
100.5

Agricultural commodities.................................................
Nonagricultural commodities..........................................

107.9
99.0

110.6
98.8

110.0
98.7

109.9
98.6

108.8
98.7

114.7
98.6

117.5
98.7

122.2
98.8

122.7
99.1

123.5
99.8

125.3
100.4

129.6
101.0

133.0
101.4

Jan.

Feb.

46. U.S. import price indexes by end-use category
[2000

=

100]

_______________________________________________

2003

Category
Apr.

May

2004

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Nov.

Oct.

Dec.

Mar.

Apr.

A L L C O M M O D IT I E S ......................................................................

96.0

95.3

96.2

96.7

96.7

96.2

96.3

96.8

97.5

99.0

99.4

100.2

100.4

Foods, feeds, and beverages.......................................
Agricultural foods, feeds, and beverages................
Nonagricultural (fish, beverages) food products.....

102.5
108.9
88.4

101.3
107.5
87.7

100.7
107.1
86.6

101.5
107.7
88.0

101.3
107.6
87.4

101.8
108.3
87.6

101.9
109.0
86.3

102.4
109.7
86.0

103.2
110.9
86.0

103.7
112.0
85.1

105.2
113.4
86.9

105.9
113.1
89.8

107.2
114.3
91.1

Industrial supplies and materials..................................

97.6

95.3

98.2

100.2

100.5

98.9

99.5

100.7

103.6

108.5

109.9

112.8

113.6

Fuels and lubricants....................................................
Petroleum and petroleum products.......................

99.3
96.3

94.9
91.5

100.3
96.4

103.9
101.4

104.2
103.2

99.4
97.2

100.1
98.8

102.0
100.9

107.2
106.0

116.5
113.7

116.9
114.2

120.3
120.1

119.4
119.1

Paper and paper base stocks....................................
Materials associated with nondurable
supplies and materials...............................................
Selected building materials........................................
Unfinished metals associated with durable goods..
Nonmetals associated with durable goods..............

93.5

94.1

94.1

93.6

94.7

94.0

94.0

93.9

93.9

94.1

94.2

95.4

96.8

103.5
95.4
91.7
97.1

102.5
96.2
89.9
97.3

103.0
96.7
92.2
98.2

102.9
101.8
92.2
97.9

102.3
102.7
92.9
97.3

102.5
110.3
93.4
97.5

103.4
109.5
94.4
97.7

104.2
108.1
96.4
98.1

104.4
108.0
99.2
98.2

104.7
106.8
104.5
98.5

104.9
113.6
109.2
99.2

105.7
118.7
114.5
99.4

105.3
120.4
123.1
99.7

Capital goods...................................................................
Electric and electrical generating equipment...........
Nonelectrical machinery.............................................

93.8
95.6
92.5

93.6
96.1
92.2

93.8
96.6
92.3

93.8
96.8
92.3

93.6
96.6
92.1

93.5
95.8
92.1

93.0
96.2
91.4

93.3
96.5
91.6

92.9
96.8
91.1

93.1
97.4
91.2

93.1
98.0
91.2

93.2
98.2
91.2

92.7
98.1
90.6

Automotive vehicles, parts, and engines.....................

100.5

100.6

100.6

100.6

100.6

100.5

101.2

101.2

101.4

101.6

101.7

101.8

101.9

Consumer goods, excluding automotive......................

97.9

97.9

98.1

98.1

Nondurables, manufactured......................................
Durables, manufactured..............................................
Nonmanufactured consumer goods..........................

99.9
96.1
95.6

99.8
96.2
95.6

99.8
96.5
95.2

99.9
96.3
95.7

97.9
99.8
96.2
95.6

97.9
99.7
96.2
95.7

97.9
99.8
96.1
95.8

98.1
100.0
96.2
95.8

98.1
100.1
96.2
96.2

98.6
101.1
96.3
95.9

98.7
101.2
96.2
96.2

98.6
101.2
96.2
96.4

98.6
101.1
96.3
96.4

47. U.S. international price Indexes for selected categories of services
[2000 = 100, unless indicated otherwise]______________________________________
2001

Category

2002

Dec.
Air freight (inbound)............................................................
Air freight (outbound)..........................................................
Inbound air passenger fares (Dec. 2003 = 100)............
Outbound air passenger fares (Dec. 2003 = 100)).......
Ocean liner freight (inbound)............................................
NOTE: Dash indicates data not available.

140

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June

2004

Mar.

95.1
97.8
-

92.8

June

93.9
95.9
-

91.7

2003
Sept.

98.3
98.4

Dec.

Mar.

100.3
97.3

105.9
95.4

_

_

90.3

93.5

June

2004

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

108.8
97.2

109.4
95.4

112.5
95.5

112.9
94.9

116.2
96.2

-

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

100.0
100.0
117.7

105.1
99.3
118.9

93.3

94.0

116.1

116.2

48.

Indexes of productivity, hourly compensation, and unit costs, quarterly data seasonally adjusted

[1992 = 100]
2002

2001

Item

IV

1

118.2
140.1
112.9
118.6
109.5
115.2

120.4
141.5
114.2
117.6
112.0
115.5

122.8
121.8
114.1
115.5
115.0
115.3

117.3
138.3
111.7
117.9
111.2
115.5

117.8
139.3
112.3
118.3
111.0
115.6

119.8
140.7
113.5
117.5
113.4
116.0

121.3
135.0
109.9
110.5
111.3
108.2
90.9
103.6
108.7

121.9
136.2
110.1
111.3
111.8
109.8
91.2
104.8
109.5

122.7
137.7
111.0
112.0
112.2
111.3
87.2
104.9
109.8

135.0
138.6
112.9
102.7

136.0
137.4
111.0
101.0

137.3
137.5
110.8
100.1

I

II

116.8
138.2
112.5
118.2
107.1
114.1

117.7
139.1
112.4
118.2
109.6
115.0

116.4
137.5
111.9
118.1
108.6
114.6

III

II

2004

2003
IV

1

131.3
148.9
115.6
113.4
124.6
117.6

131.9
150.3
116.4
113.9
124.8
118.0

133.5
152.4
117.1
114.2
125.9
118.6

127.9
146.3
114.2
114.4
123.4
117.7

130.8
148.0
114.9
112.8
126.5
118.1

131.6
149.5
115.9
113.6
126.1
118.2

132.8
151.2
116.1
113.9
127.4
118.9

132.2
143.3
112.1
109.0
108.4
110.7
114.0
111.6
109.5

135.3
145.3
113.5
107.6
107.4
108.0
130.7
114.1
109.6

138.4
147.1
114.1
106.6
106.3
107.4
143.4
117.0
109.9

139.8
148.5
115.0
106.5
106.2
107.5
147.4
118.2
110.2

140.6
150.3
115.4
107.1
106.9
107.8
147.1
118.3
110.7

151.4
149.0
116.5
98.4

152.6
151.2
118.0
99.0

156.4
153.2
118.8
98.0

158.2
155.8
119.6
98.5

159.3
158.1
121.4
99.2

III

IV

1

II

123.3
142.6
113.7
115.7
115.8
115.7

124.7
143.1
113.5
114.7
117.9
115.9

125.4
143.8
113.5
114.7
119.3
116.5

126.4
145.5
113.8
115.1
120.0
116.9

128.6
147.4
115.1
114.6
121.5
117.2

122.6
141.1
113.5
115.1
116.9
115.8

122.8
141.9
113.2
115.6
117.6
116.3

124.2
142.4
112.9
114.6
119.9
116.6

124.9
143.2
113.0
114.6
121.3
117.1

126.0
144.6
113.1
114.8
122.2
117.5

125.0
139.0
112.1
111.3
111.2
111.4
96.4
107.4
109.9

126.4
138.1
111.1
111.0
109.3
111.9
105.3
110.1
109.5

128.3
139.6
111.3
109.6
108.8
111.5
112.3
111.7
109.8

129.8
140.6
111.6
109.2
108.3
111.5
111.8
111.6
109.4

131.4
142.0
112.1
109.0
108.1
111.3
116.2
112.6
109.6

140.5
139.7
112.7
99.4

144.0
141.1
113.5
98.0

146.3
143.3
114.3
97.9

148.5
144.6
114.7
97.4

149.5
146.5
115.7
98.0

III

Business

Nonfarm business

Nonfinancial corporations

Manufacturing

49.

Annual indexes of multifactor productivity and related measures, selected years

[1996 = 100]
Ite m

1980

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

P r iv a te b u s in e s s

Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons........................................
Output per unit of capital services.................................
Multifactor productivity.....................................................
Output....................................................................................
Inputs:
Labor input.........................................................................
Capital services.................................................................
Combined units of labor and capital input....................
Capital per hour of all persons..........................................

75.8
103.3
88.8
59.4

90.2
99.7
95.5
83.6

91.3
96.5
94.5
82.6

94.8
98.0
96.7
85.7

95.4
98.7
97.1
88.5

96.6
100.4
98.2
92.8

97.3
99.8
98.4
95.8

102.2
100.3
101.2
105.2

105.0
99.3
102.5
110.5

107.7
98.2
103.4
115.7

111.0
96.6
105.0
120.4

112.4
92.8
103.9
120.2

71.9
57.6
67.0
73.4

89.4
83.8
87.5
90.4

88.3
85.7
87.4
94.6

89.3
87.5
88.7
96.8

91.8
89.7
91.1
96.6

95.6
92.5
94.6
96.2

98.0
96.0
97.3
97.5

103.5
104.9
104.0
101.9

106.1
111.3
107.9
105.8

109.0
117.9
110.9
109.7

110.1
124.5
114.7
114.8

109.5
129.6
115.7
121.1

77.3
107.6
91.0
59.6

90.3
100.4
95.8
83.5

91.4
97.0
94.8
82.5

94.8
98.2
96.7
85.5

95.3
99.0
97.2
88.4

96.5
100.4
98.2
92.6

97.5
100.0
98.6
95.8

102.0
100.0
101.0
105.1

104.7
99.0
102.2
110.5

107.1
97.6
102.9
115.7

110.3
95.9
104.4
120.2

111.6
92.0
103.3
120.1

70.7
55.4
65.5
71.8

89.2
83.2
87.2
89.9

87.9
85.1
87.0
94.3

89.0
87.0
88.4
96.5

91.8
89.4
91.0
96.3

95.4
92.2
94.3
96.1

97.8
95.8
97.2
97.6

103.6
105.1
104.1
101.9

106.4
111.7
108.1
105.8

109.5
118.5
112.4
109.7

110.6
125.4
115.2
115.0

110.1
130.5
116.3
121.3

62.0
97.2
81.2
64.3

82.2
97.5
93.3
83.2

84.1
93.6
92.4
81.5

88.6
95.9
94.0
85.5

90.2
96.9
95.1
88.3

93.0
99.7
97.3
92.9

96.5
100.6
99.2
96.9

103.8
101.4
103.1
105.6

108.9
101.7
105.7
110.5

114.0
101.7
108.7
114.7

118.3
101.0
111.3
117.4

119.7
95.1
110.3
112.1

103.7
66.1
86.1
63.9
65.8
79.2

101.1
85.3
93.1
77.5
84.7
89.1

96.9
87.1
93.2
78.5
84.6
88.3

96.5
89.1
93.1
83.5
92.0
90.9

97.8
91.1
96.6
86.5
92.9
92.8

99.9
93.2
99.9
90.3
96.0
95.5

100.4
96.4
102.3
93.1
100.4
97.7

101.7
104.1
97.5
101.9
103.9
102.4

101.5
108.7
100.6
107.5
103.1
104.6

100.7
112.8
102.9
107.9
105.4
105.5

99.2
116.2
104.3
106.9
106.5
105.5

99.6
117.9
98.9
105.5
97.7
101.6

June

2004

P r iv a te n o n f a r m b u s in e s s

Productivity:

Multifactor productivity.....................................................
Output....................................................................................
Inputs:
Labor input.........................................................................
Capital services.................................................................

M a n u fa c tu r in g

Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons.......................................
Output per unit of capital services.................................
Multifactor productivity.....................................................
Output....................................................................................
Inputs:
Hours of all persons.........................................................
Capital services.................................................................
Energy.................................................................................
Purchased business services.........................................
Combined units of all factor inputs................................


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Monthly Labor Review

141

Current Labor Statistics:

50.

Productivity Data

Annual indexes of productivity, hourly compensation, unit costs, and prices, selected years

[1992 = 100]
Item

1960

1970

1980

1990

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

Business
Output per hour of all persons..........................................
Compensation per hour.....................................................
Real compensation per hour.............................................
Unit labor costs....................................................................
Unit nonlabor payments.....................................................
Implicit price deflator...........................................................

48.7
13.8
60.5
28.4
24.9
27.1

23.5
78.4
35.6
31.5
34.1

79.0
54.0
88.9
68.4
61.3
65.8

94.4
90.5
96.1
95.9
93.9
95.1

101.7
106.0
98.9
104.3
108.2
105.7

104.5
109.5
99.5
104.8
111.9
107.4

106.5
113.0
100.5
106.1
113.9
109.0

109.3
119.7
105.0
109.5
109.9
109.7

51.6
14.4
63.0
27.9
24.3
26.6

67.7
23.6
78.8
34.9
31.1
33.5

80.3
54.2
89.2
67.5
60.4
64.9

94.4
90.3
95.9
95.6
93.6
94.9

1 0 2 .1

104.7
109.4
99.4
104.5

106.4

109.2
119.4
104.7
109.3
110.9
109.9

1 1 2 .2

56.6
16.1
70.3
26.9
28.4
23.0
49.5
30.1
28.9

70.4
25.6
85.3
35.1
36.3
31.7
43.7
34.9
35.9

81.0
57.0
93.8

95.5
91.0
96.7
95.4
95.3
97.1
96.7
97.0
95.9

103.4
105.4
98.3

1 1 2 .8

116.4
123.3
105.9
104.6
106.0

41.8
14.9
65.0
35.6
26.8
30.2

54.2
23.7
79.2
43.8
29.3
35.0

70.1
55.6
91.4
79.3
80.2
79.9

6 6 .0

112.4
125.4
107.8

115.7
134.2

1 1 1 .6

116.0
107.2
112.7

109.2
110.7

1 1 1 .6

118.3
139.7
113.0
118.1
109.5
114.9

124.0
147.8
113.7
115.2
117.0
115.8

129.6
147.9
115.1
114.1
123.0
117.4

117.8
138.9
112.4
118.0

123.6
142.1
113.2
115.0
119.0
116.4

129.1
147.0
114.4
113.9
124.8
117.9

128.9
140.1
111.5
109.4
108.6
111.5
111.4
111.5
109.6

136.3
145.9
113.5
107 4
107.0
108.4
134.2
115.3
109.8

147.1
143 .8
114.5
97.8

154.6
151.9
118.2
98.2

Nonfarm business
Output per hour of all persons...........................................
Compensation per hour.....................................................
Real compensation per hour.............................................
Unit labor costs....................................................................
Unit nonlabor payments.....................................................
Implicit price deflator...........................................................

106.0
98.9
103.8
109.2
105.8

1 1 2 .1

107.3

1 1 2 .8

100.3
106.0
114.6
109.1

124.9
107.3
111.3
1 1 0 .8
1 1 1 .1

115.3
133.7
1 1 1 .2

116.0
108.8
113.3

1 1 1 .1

115.4

Nonfinancial corporations
Output per hour of all employees.....................................
Compensation per hour.....................................................
Real compensation per hour.............................................
Unit labor costs..................................................................
Unit nonlabor costs...........................................................
Unit profits............................................................................
Unit nonlabor payments.....................................................
Implicit price deflator...........................................................

6 8 .8

70.4
64.5
66.5
65.1
6 8 .6

1 0 1 .8

107.1
108.4
98.5
100.9

1 0 2 .0

1 0 1 .2

101.3
136.9

99.9
149.9
113.3
105.3

1 1 0 .8

104.9

109.8
111.7
99.3
1 0 1 .2

101.7
99.8
154.4
114.4
105.9

117.9
103.4
103.2
104.5
99.9
137.5
109.9
106.3

1 0 1 .0

129.8
108.7
106.9

1 2 0 .6

131.7
109.5
108.0
109.2
104.8
109.3
106.1
108.1

122.7
137.0
1 1 0 .8
1 1 1 .2
1 1 1 .6
1 1 0 .2

91.4
105.2
109.5

Manufacturing
Output per hour of all persons..........................................
Compensation per hour.....................................................
Real compensation per hour.............................................
Unit labor costs....................................................................
Unit nonlabor payments.....................................................
Implicit price deflator...........................................................
Dash indicates data not available.

142

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June

2004

92.9
90.1
95.7
97.0
1 0 1 .1

99.5

1 1 0 .1

107.7
100.5
97.8
107.6
103.9

113.9
109.9
99.8
96.5
110.4
105.2

117.9
1 1 2 .0

99.7
95.0
110.5
104.6

123.5
118.8
104.2
96.2
104.1

128.2
123.8
106.3
96.6
105.0

1 0 1 .1

1 0 1 .8

134.2
135.0
112.3

137.1
138.3
1 1 1 .8

1 0 0 .6

1 0 0 .8

107.0
104.6

105.8
103.9

-

-

-

-

51. Annual indexes of output per hour for selected NAICS industries, 1990-2001
[1997=100]____________________________________________________________________________________

NAICS

Industry

21

Mining.......................................................................

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

95.4
81.9

96.3
85.1
89.9
79.9

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

1 0 1 .8

1 0 1 .8

1 0 0 .0

103.5

1 1 1 .1

95.5
94.0

98.9
96.0
94.9
95.3
97.1

1 0 0 .0

1 0 1 .6

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

104.6
106.5
109.5

107.9
105.9
110.3
112.7

1 0 0 .0

1 0 1 .2

1 0 0 .0

2000

2001

Mining
211
212
2121
2122

2123

Oil and gas extraction..............................................
Mining, except oil and gas......................................
Coal mining...............................................................
Metal ore mining.......................................................
Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying.............

79.9
92.3

86.9
78.8
80.0
69.3
82.7
89.5

75.3
91.7
96.1

1 0 2 .2

93.6

99.6
90.3
93.0
83.9
104.1
96.9

71.2
71.4

73.8
72.7

74.1
75.8

78.7
79.8

83.0
82.2

8 8 .6

89.0

95.5
96.1

8 6 .1

78.4
79.3
6 8 .1

8 6 .8

8 8 .2

98.5
97.3

1 0 0 .0

1 0 1 .2

109.2
114.5
106.8
115.8
124.4
96.2

107.4
116.6
109.0
114.4
131.8
99.4

103.8
99.1

104.1
103.1

107.0
113.4

1 1 0 .2

109.4
107.6
104.0
106.8
99.2

109.5
114.1
107.2
108.5
94.5

109.7
112.5
109.9
96.1

127.2
117.4
109.8
117.2
96.3

99.9
117.0
103.6
107.0
98.6

100.4
130.2
105.5
108.8
92.4

101.9
137.6
105.2
110.3
90.7

147.3
106.2
103.4
91.8

Utilities
2211
2212

Power generation and supply.................................
Natural gas distribution...........................................

1 0 0 .0

106.4

Manufacturing
3111
3112
3113
3114
3115

Grain and oilseed milling.........................................
Sugar and confectionery products.........................
Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty........
Dairy products...........................................................

90.1
89.0
91.0
86.4
90.9

89.3
91.3
93.8
89.7
92.1

90.2
91.2
90.6
90.7
95.5

90.2
94.0
92.6
93.9
94.0

87.3
94.8
93.9
95.0
95.5

94.0
99.1
94.2
97.2
99.0

87.5
91.4
98.3
98.2
98.2

3116
3117
3118
3119
3121

Animal slaughtering and processing......................
Seafood product preparation and packaging....
Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing........................
Other food products.................................................
Beverages.................................................................

94.6
117.5
92.6
92.0
86.5

97.0

1 0 1 .6

1 0 1 .0

115.3
95.4
96.0
93.7

113.9
96.0
102.9
93.1

98.7
108.4
99.7
1 0 1 .2

94.4
116.2
97.8
103.1

1 0 0 .0

1 1 2 .0

97.6
114.1
96.7
100.3
97.7

99.6

1 0 1 .2

1 0 0 .0

3122
3131
3132
3133
3141

Tobacco and tobacco products..............................
Fiber, yarn, and thread mills....................................
Fabric mills................................................................
Textile and fabric finishing mills.............................
Textile furnishings mills...........................................

81.4
73.9
75.0
81.7

77.3
74.7
77.7
80.4

73.7
84.6
85.0

8 8 .1

8 8 .6

79.6
80.1
81.5
83.7
92.8

89.8
87.2
91.9
87.8
90.0

97.5
92.0
95.8
84.5
92.5

99.4
98.7
98.0
85.0
93.2

3149
3151
3152
3159
3161

Other textile product mills.......................................
Apparel knitting mills................................................
Cut and sew apparel................................................
Accessories and other apparel...............................
Leather and hide tanning and finishing..................

91.1
85.6
70.1
100.9
60.8

89.9
88.7
72.0
97.3
56.6

92.0
93.5
73.2
98.7
76.7

76.6
99.0
83.1

94.7
104.5
80.4
104.6
75.9

95.8
109.5
85.5
112.4
78.6

3162
3169
3211
3212
3219

Footwear....................................................................
Other leather products.............................................
Sawmills and wood preservation............................
Plywood and engineered wood products..............
Other wood products...............................................

77.1
102.5
79.2
102.3
105.4

74.7

83.1
97.0

81.7
94.3
82.6
109.1
103.0

90.4
80.0
85.1
105.8
99.2

3221
3222
3231
3241
3251

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills..........................
Converted paper products......................................
Printing and related support activities....................
Petroleum and coal products..................................
Basic chemicals........................................................

88.5
90.4
96.7
76.7
91.5

93.5
95.4
75.8
90.2

92.6
96.3

3252
3253
3254
3255
3256

Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers...........................
Agricultural chemicals..............................................
Pharmaceuticals and medicines.............................
Paints, coatings, and adhesives.............................
Soap, cleaning compounds, and toiletries...........

75.7
84.6
91.4
85.1
83.2

74.8
81.0
92.7
85.9
84.2

3259
3261
3262
3271
3272

Other chemical products and preparations..........
Plastics products......................................................
Rubber products.......................................................
Clay products and refractories................................
Glass and glass products.......................................

76.6
84.7
83.0
89.2
80.0

78.0
86.3
83.9
87.4
79.3

84.7
90.4
84.8
91.5
84.5

90.6
91.7
90.3
91.8

3273
3274
3279
3311
3312

Cement and concrete products...............................
Lime and gypsum products.....................................
Other nonmetallic mineral products.......................
Iron and steel mills and ferroalloy production.....
Steel products from purchased stee.......................

95.0
84.1
79.8
69.6
83.7

93.7
82.7
81.4
67.2
8 6 .2

94.9
88.5
90.2
74.1
89.6

96.5
90.1
89.3
81.7
95.8

3313
3314
3315
3321
3322

Alumina and aluminum production.........................
Other nonferrous metal production........................
Foundries..................................................................
Forging and stamping..............................................
Cutlery and hand tools.............................................

91.9
95.7
85.1

96.8
98.7
85.7
91.7
87.2

96.0

85.1

93.3
95.8
84.4
86.5
85.4

3323
3324
3325
3326
3327

Architectural and structural metals.........................
Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers.................

87.8
90.4
84.4
85.2
78.8

89.2
92.6
83.8
88.4
79.6

92.6
95.3
86.9
90.9
87.2

Spring and wire products.........................................
Machine shops and threaded products..................

8 8 .6

92.2
93.6
90.0

1 0 0 .2

81.6
107.4
104.7
8 8 .1

8 6 .1

114.7
104.2

8 6 .0

93.7
90.2

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

98.1

1 0 0 .0

1 0 2 .2

1 0 0 .0

103.9

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .6

92.1
104.6
109.8
101.7

1 0 0 .0

99.9

1 0 1 .2

1 0 2 .0

1 1 0 .2

104.0
106.6

90.7

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

1 1 0 .8

118.8
103.3

91.5

1 0 0 .0

98.0

1 0 1 .6

1 1 0 .0

95.6
73.2
91.0

103.4
79.7
96.2

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

100.9
109.2

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .8

124.1
107.6
106.5

1 0 1 .8

1 0 1 .2

1 0 0 .0

105.6

100.3

100.7

1 0 0 .0

1 0 1 .6

116.8
100.4
105.4
99.9
105.3

97.4
97.5
98.4
85.7
95.2

101.9
97.0
98.8
90.2
92.4

97.4
98.2
99.6
94.8
90.1

1 0 0 .0

103.0
102.5
100.5

93.4
87.4
92.4
94.1
8 8 .6

95.9
90.7
96.3
92.7
93.9

93.3
92.1
99.9
98.3
95.7

92.6
94.4
90.2
96.6
87.6

94.4
94.4
92.9
97.3
88.7

94.2
97.0
94.3
102.7
96.7

95.0
87.8
90.5
87.2

98.2
8 8 .8

91.7
89.7

1 0 0 .0

89.7
94.6
91.7

100.3
105.1
91.4
93.7
94.4

93.4
94.8
89.6
95.3
86.9

95.1
100.5
95.7
91.5
91.5

80.7
81.3

83.8
85.6

8 8 .1

8 8 .1

87.6
83.4

90.9
87.0

84.6
90.0

8 6 .1

1 0 1 .8

110.5

1 0 0 .0

110.5
109.1
109.7
106.9

1 1 2 .6

1 0 0 .2

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

98.0

110.5
110.4
127.8
104.9

92.2
93.5
101.4
79.1
89.5

96.3

1 0 0 .6

104.0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 2 .2

1 0 0 .0

102.7

111.3
101.5
103.5
108.0
114.8

1 0 0 .0

105.4
98.8
92.9
99.1
96.6

108.9
87.6
94.6
98.8
91.2

108.1
91.4
93.4
98.5
99.3

99.4
103.4
100.5

109.2
109.3
101.4
103.4
108.6

111.3
103.8
103.5
109.8

104.3
102.7
95.5
106.5
94.0

100.4
97.0
95.6
108.5
96.1
97.8
103.1
103.8
121.3
105.8

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

115.6
1 0 1 .8

105.0
113.2
118.4

1 2 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 1 .1

1 0 0 .0

1 0 2 .6

1 0 0 .6

1 0 0 .0

92.4
96.5
94.1

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

103.4
113.1
98.8
101.7

1 0 0 .2

1 0 0 .2

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .2

96.8
103.0
93.1
94.2
97.8

95.9
105.6
96.2
97.6
104.4

1 0 0 .0

1 0 1 .1

1 0 0 .0

1 1 1 .1

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

101.5
103.7

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

104.3
108.8
104.7
110.9
107.8

93.8
97.8
97.3
99.5
98.8

94.2
100.7

1 0 0 .0

1 0 1 .0

1 0 1 .8

1 0 1 .0

1 0 0 .0

101.3

98.9
106.5
112.9
103.8

97.7
115.8
114.6
107.3

1 0 0 .0

1 0 2 .6

1 0 0 .0

1 0 1 .0

1 0 2 .8

1 0 0 .0

1 1 1 .6

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

99.3

1 0 2 .8

1 0 2 .6

97.0
96.6
104.0

1 0 2 .6

1 2 2 .0

1 1 2 .1

105.0
108.2
131.8
114.8
109.7
142.7
114.1
109.0
104.8
104.7
117.2
100.9
105.7
1 1 2 .2
1 1 1 .0

103.8
91.1
97.3
1 0 2 .1
1 0 2 .6

111.3
113.1
104.1
97.6
105.2
97.1
1 0 0 .1

96.8
106.7
97.0
96.9
100.5
109.4
1 2 1 .8
1 1 0 .2

100.7
98.2
114.6
1 1 0 .6

107.4

See note at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

June

2004

143

Current Labor Statistics:

51.

Productivity Data

Continued—Annual indexes of output per hour for selected NAICS industries, 1990-2001

[1997 = 100]

NAICS

Industry

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

3328

Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals

1990
81.6

77.9

86.7

91.7

96.4

1 0 2 .6

1 0 2 .8

1 0 0 .0

101.5

101.3

105.8

104.7

3329
3331
3332
3333

Other fabricated metal products
Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery
Industrial machinery
Commercial and service industry machinery

8 6 .6

85.9
77.3
81.1
89.8

90.5
79.6
79.5
96.6

92.0
84.1
84.9
101.9

94.9
91.0
90.0

98.7
96.0
98.8
106.5

1 0 0 .0

1 0 2 .2

1 0 0 .2

100.7

1 0 0 .0

104.3
94.4
107.8

95.1
105.2
111.3

1 0 1 .2

1 0 1 .2

97.0
95.7
97.9
103.2

98.0
99.5
104.6
94.4

3334
3335
3336
3339
3341

HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment
Metalworking machinery
Turbine and power transmission equipment
Other general purpose machinery
Computer and peripheral equipment

8 8 .8

8 8 .2

85.3
85.0

82.2
84.4
85.2
15.8

90.8
89.3
81.2
85.2
2 0 .6

93.8
89.2
84.7
89.9
27.9

97.3
93.9
93.2
91.5
35.9

96.6
98.9
92.0
94.5
51.2

97.8
98.1
97.8
95.0
72.6

106.6
99.0
106.4
103.1
138.7

110.4
100.4
113.2
105.6
190.3

108.3
106.4
116.9
113.0
225.2

130.1
109.4
237.0

3342
3343
3344
3345
3346

Communications equipment
Audio and video equipment
Semiconductors and electronic components
Electronic instruments
Magnetic media manufacturing and reproduction

47.3
75.5
21.4
76.0

49.3
82.8
24.5
80.4
91.2

59.3
92.1
29.6
83.0
93.0

62.1
98.8
34.1
85.8
96.8

70.1
108.5
43.1
106.1

74.6
140.0
63.4
96.7
106.7

84.3
104.7
81.8
97.6
103.8

1 0 0 .0

102.7
103.1
125.3
101.3
105.4

134.0
116.2
174.5
105.0
106.8

165.5
123.3
233.3
114.2
104.0

155.2
126.3
231.6
116.0
98.6

3351
3352
3353
3359
3361

Electric lighting equipment
Household appliances
Electrical equipment
Other electrical equipment and components
Motor vehicles

87.2
76.5
73.5
75.3

93.7
82.4
78.7
81.7
91.2

90.7
89.0
85.7
86.9
89.8

94.5
95.1
88.9
89.5
90.2

92.1
92.8
98.0
92.1

95.4
93.3

1 0 0 .0

8 6 .0

88.4
76.6
72.7
74.3
82.4

8 8 .6

95.9
91.0

103.7
105.2
99.6
105.6
113.2

102.4
104.4
98.8
115.1
123.2

3362
3363
3364
3365
3366

Motor vehicle bodies and trailers
Motor vehicle parts
Aerospace products and parts
Railroad rolling stock
Ship and boat building

75.9
75.7
87.7
77.2
99.7

71.7
74.7
92.0
80.0
92.7

8 8 .2

96.3

82.6
94.0
81.1
98.6

8 8 .6

97.8
91.8
93.7
83.1
99.0

97.2
92.4
93.7
82.0
93.2

98.5
93.1
98.0
80.9
94.1

102.5
104.8
118.5
102.9
100.3

103.2
110.5
118.1
116.0
112.3

3369
3371
3372
3379
3391
3399

Other transportation equipment
Household and institutional furniture
Office furniture and fixtures
Other furniture-related products
Medical equipment and supplies
Other miscellaneous manufacturing

62.6
87.7
80.9

93.3
93.9
83.4
93.6
90.8
93.1

92.8
97.0
84.5
94.5
95.0
96.0

99.8
99.4
85.6
96.7

1 0 0 .0

1 1 0 .6

8 8 .1

1 0 0 .0

113.1
103.5
98.5
102.5
109.6
105.3

114.2
113.1

42
423
4231
4232
4233

Wholesale trade
Durable goods
Motor vehicles and parts
Furniture and furnishings
Lumber and construction supplies

78.3
65.6
76.6
82.4
115.0

1 1 1 .6

114.7

116.6
119.8

1 2 1 .2

73.3
87.2
113.2

91.4
84.2
94.1
93.3

4234
4235
4236
4237
4238

Commercial equipment
Metals and minerals
Electric goods
Hardware and plumbing
Machinery and supplies

32.7
108.1
47.4
96.3
76.2

36.1
109.1
48.2
93.3
72.0

46.6
116.0
51.9

4239
424
4241
4242
4243

Miscellaneous durable goods
Nondurable goods
Paper and paper products
Druggists' goods
Apparel and piece goods

91.8
98.2
81.3
84.7
104.9

98.7
99.6
85.7
89.2
104.2

114.1
103.0
96.8
93.9
100.7

4244
4245
4246
4247
4248

ürocery and related products
Farm product raw materials
Chemicals
Petroleum
Alcoholic beverages

96.6
75.9
107.3
97.4
109.4

98.4
80.9
106.7
107.1

103.8
80.9

4249
42511
42512

Miscellaneous nondurable goods
Business to business electronic markets
Wholesale trade agents and brokers

107.2
69.2
71.2

82.9
80.6
91.6

8 6 .0

14.3

8 6 .6

1991

62.1
78.8

8 8 .1

8 8 .6

81.2
90.2

83.1
90.7

88.3
92.8
86.3
88.4
8 8 .1

90.0

98.1
82.3
101.4
99.7
93.7
8 8 .0

90.5
91.1
92.3

8 8 .8

1 0 0 .1

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

102.5
100.3
107.2
108.9

99.6

1 0 0 .0

1 0 2 .1

93.1
88.5
93.6
96.8
103.6

95.9
93.5
94.9
97.0
102.9

1 0 0 .0

104.8
106.3
104.7
97.5
102.9

104.9

72.1
103.8
79.6

85.3
104.0

1 0 0 .0

8 8 .0

1 0 0 .0

105.8
84.1

1 0 1 .0

1 0 0 .6

1 0 0 .0

8 8 .8

93.4

1 0 0 .0

122.4
102.4
105.9
103.5
104.2

150.2
96.0
126.2
107.8
101.4

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

2000

129.7
1 0 1 .6

2001

1 1 0 .8
1 0 2 .0

1 0 1 .8

105.4

117.6

1 2 2 .6

1 0 0 .6

100.9
113.7
108.9

1 2 0 .6

110.4
98.6
1 1 2 .6
1 0 1 .0

117.7
1 2 0 .1

131.0
1 0 2 .6
1 0 0 .2
1 0 0 .1

99.4
114.7
114.8
124.7
119.9
146.9
106.1
97.1
105.3
119.0
110.9

Wholesale trade
79.5
6 6 .1

86.5
75.0
82.2
92.0
119.6

1 0 2 .6

77.8

89.6
80.4
8 8 .0

95.9
113.9
54.3
117.4
59.6
99.8
82.6

1 1 2 .0

58.4
114.3
6 8 .6

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

114.9

107.3

1 0 0 .0

1 0 2 .8

1 0 1 .6

97.5
90.9
98.2

101.7
94.2
104.2

99.6
99.1
96.4
92.5

101.4
99.2
96.6
98.8
99.1

1 0 0 .0

105.2
80.0

103.3
77.5

103.0
85.7

99.9
89.6

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .8

1 0 0 .0

1 0 1 .8

1 1 2 .6

1 0 0 .0

1 0 2 .8

1 0 0 .0

100.5
99.6
104.1

104.1
105.6
101.7
103.5

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 1 2 .6

1 1 0 .1

1 1 0 .6

1 0 2 .2

1 0 0 .1

1 0 0 .0

119.2
105.5

115.9
105.9

108.7
102.4

105.9
104.4

1 0 0 .0

1 1 1 .2

118.3
107.4

98.1
70.7
74.5

93.8
78.5
83.5

97.5
83.1
87.3

94.8
89.2

98.7
94.3
97.8

1 0 0 .0

8 6 .8

96.1
89.1
92.9

84.0
90.7
75.6
86.3

87.5
92.9
94.6
82.6
91.4

90.2
94.2
95.8
87.7
92.4

93.5
97.1
97.9
92.9
97.0

95.0
97.2
97.1
93.0
99.0

98.0
98.9
98.9
98.6
98.8

81.7
83.5
79.0
48.4
80.7

8 8 .8

88.9
88.4
56.1
84.6

88.9
89.0
88.5
64.7
88.5

90.8
88.9
93.2
77.0
94.2

94.4
92.5
96.6

99.5
97.8
101.7
94.7
97.8

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

101.9
100.4
99.3
115.0
109.6
101.7
104.3
104.9

103.6
114.3
98.0

114.0
105.5
101.7

116.6
119.7
114.1
105.4
108.6

160.6
99.1
151.7

158.9
101.9
148.1

1 1 1 .1

1 0 2 .6

104.1

102.7

116.7
103.5
105.5
96.8

116.1
106.9
109.0
1 0 1 .2

1 0 2 .6

102.4

105.2
119.0
95.8
108.9

109.4
1 2 0 .1

1 1 0 .0

1 1 1 .0

93.7
108.4
111.5

99.6
123.4
110.5

106.2
143.3
116.5

104.2
168.9
114.2

1 1 2 .0

Retail trade
44-45
441
4411
4412
4413

Retail trade
Motor vehicle and parts dealers
Automobile dealers
Other motor vehicle dealers
Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

83.8
90.1
91.9
72.7
87.3

442
4421
4422
443
444

Furniture and home furnishings stores
Furniture stores
Home furnishings stores
Electronics and appliance stores
Building material and garden supply stores

81.3
82.1
79.9
45.1
82.3

See note at end of table.

144

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June

2004

8 8 .8

8 8 .8

94.1

1 0 0 .0

104.3

1 1 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 2 .6

106.4
106.4
113.0

114.4
107.4
106.9
108.6

1 1 0 .0

1 1 2 .0

117.4
109.1
108.0
112.4
109.3

109.5
108.2

115.5
114.8
116.6
180.1
113.1

116.5
119.2
113.5
202.7
115.7

1 0 0 .0

1 0 2 .6

1 0 0 .0

106.0
105.7

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

101.7

1 0 0 .0

1 0 2 .1

1 0 0 .0

101.3
123.8
106.7

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

1 1 1 .2

153.6
1 1 2 .2

51. Continued—Annual indexes of output per hour for selected NAICS industries, 1990-2001
[1997=100]

NAICS

Industry

4441
4442
445
4451
4452

Building material and supplies dealers..................
Lawn and garden equipment and supplies stores
Food and beverage stores.......................................
Grocery stores...........................................................
Specialty food stores................................................

83.6
75.6
108.8
107 9
141.4

81 1
78.6
108.3
108 0
132.3

4453

Beer, wine and liquor stores...................................

1 0 0 .1

1 0 0 .2

1 0 1 .0

94.4

446
447
448

Health and personal care stores.............................
Gasoline stations.......................................................
Clothing and clothing accessories stores..............

92.9
88.5
70.2

92.3
89.3
71.1

91.3
92.2
75.9

92.6
95.9
79.4

4481

Clothing stores...........................................................

69.8

72.2

78.0

80.0

4482
4483
451
4511
4512

Shoe stores................................................................
Jewelry, luggage, and leather goods stores........
Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores
Sporting goods and musical instrument stores
Book, periodical, and music stores........................

73 7

73 1
64.5

8 6 .8

78 2
65.0
84.1
82.4
87.4

452
4521
4529
453
4531

General merchandise stores...................................
Department stores....................................................
Other general merchandise stores..........................
Miscellaneous store retailers...................................
Florists........................................................................

75.3
84.1
61.5
75.2

79.0
88.3
64.8
65.4
76.0

4532
4533
4539
454
4541

Office supplies, stationery and gift stores..........
Used merchandise stores........................................
Other miscellaneous store retailers.........................
Nonstore retailers.....................................................
Electronic shopping and mail-order houses..........

62.0
80.8
75.7
55.3
43.5

4542
4543

Vending machine operators......................................
Direct selling establishments...................................

481
482111
48412
491

Air transportation.......................................................
Line-haul railroads....................................................
General freight trucking, long-distance..................
U.S. Postal service....................................................

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

85 2
81.5
108.8

89 6

95 3

95 1

97 R

82.6
106.8

87.7
105.3

87.7
103.1

97.6
100.7

108 4

107 0

105 7

1 03 5

128 7

121 0

114 1

107 3

QR R

92.9

96.2

103.1

1 0 0 .0

105.8

99.8

92.3
99.1
83.7

93.1
101.5
91.6

95.7
100.3
98.1

1 0 0 .0

106.9

1 0 0 .0

1 1 0 .6

1 0 0 .0

103.9
105.6
105.4

82.5

90.7

97.4

1 0 0 .0

79 ?

Rfi 3

93 7

77.1
84.7
83.0

85.0
88.4

8 8 .1

91.4

94.1
92.7
92.3
93.5

97.3
95.4
93.9
98.2

1 0 0 .0

8 6 .8

83.0
91.6
69.6
74.0
85.1

88.5
95.0
77.9
80.4
91.4

90.6
95.1
82.7
87.8
85.4

92.1
94.5
87.5
89.5
83.5

96.9
98.3
94.5
95.6
96.1

63.5
79.0
65.9
56.2
46.7

71.8
87.8
74.5
62.2
50.6

77.9
81.4
66.5
58.3

89.2
86.9
90.3
75.3
62.9

90.9
89.9
90.6
80.1
71.9

93.4
96.9
97.8
91.5
84.4

1 0 0 .0

97.6
83.2

95.8
80.0

95.1
87.4

92.8
87.2

94.1
99.9

89.3
98.4

96.9
105.4

1 0 0 .0

77.5
69.8
88.5
96.1

78.2
75.3
92.5
95.8

81.4
82.3
97.5
96.5

84.7
85.7
95.6
99.0

90.8
98.1
98.5

95.3
92.0
95.4
98.3

98.8
98.4
95.7
96.7

95.8
44.2
113.0

94.9
68.5
107.8
102.4
96.8

92.8
79.1
105.8
106.1
95.4

93.3
83.2
101.5
106.3
98.1

92.8
93.7

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .8

103.1
96.2

6 8 .6

81.2
79.6
84.4

6 8 .0

8 6 .1

85.6

8 8 .6

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

101.3
99.9

103.7
103.6

108.5
105.1

2001

mn n
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

119.7
107.7

mn n
1 1 1 .1

110.4
112.4
1 1 0 .0

112.9

111.5
106.5
120.3

106.7

113.4

120.9

125.3

107.7
108.2

1 0 0 .0

1 1 2 .2

124.1
124.4
131.4

1 0 0 .0

1 0 1 .2

119.2
114.1
119.6
104.1

128.6

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

105.1

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .8

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

113.5
106.8

1 0 0 .0

1 0 1 .2

113.0
104.3
129.6
107.7
117.3

1 2 0 .8

129.2
105.7
1 2 0 .1

106.5
146.2
109.2
115.6

123.7

1 1 0 .8

124.3
104.1
162.6
107.7
1 2 1 .1

1 0 0 .0

1 1 1 .1

1 0 0 .0

111.3
103.6
113.4
118.2

114.6
105.9
100.3
126.6
141.5

114.1
96.7

119.8
92.2

131.2
1 1 0 .0

115.0
105.5

97.6

91.9
123.1
103.3
106.1

110.3

107.6
109.4
104.6
98.2
91.7

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 2 2 .0
1 1 2 .6

97.2
155.0
159.8

136.1
103.6
84.4
161.8
177.5

Transportation and warehousing
8 8 .6

1 0 0 .0

1 0 2 .1

98.2
107.5

1 0 0 .0

99.1
101.4

102.4

98.2
115.4
105.2
104.9

109.4
115.5

1 1 1 .1

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 2 .1

Information
5111
5112
51213
5151
5152

Newspaper, book, and directory publishers........
Software publishers...................................................
Motion picture and video exhibition........................
Radio and television broadcasting..........................
Cable and other subscription programming........

97.2
41.3
113.5
100.9
102.1

97.6

95.3
61.6
108.2
103.2
99.3

5171
5172

Wired telecommunications carriers.........................
Wireless telecommunications carriers...................

65.5
76.0

70.8
73.5

76.8
85.6

81.7
94.8

85.8
97.1

90.6
98.3

97.5
103.0

80.7

83.2

83.4

90.2

92.7

95.9

89.8
72.2

97.8
73.1

104.4
70.9

106.1
76.2

107.9
83.0

101.1

79.8

74.5

86.1

89.5

1 0 2 .8

1 0 0 .2

108.7

103.4
99.7
104.0
107.2
125.7

1 0 2 .2

1 0 1 .6

98.2
103.1
106.8

97.4

98.2
104.0

1 2 1 .2

106.3
121.4

105.5
102.4
97.8
105.7
103.8
112.7

92.8
81.6
96.1
95.5
117.3

86.5
79.8
94.3
93.2
115.6

90.0
85.6
104.7
94.9
116.2

91.2
84.3
100.4
93.8
123.6

101.1

1 0 0 .0

105.1
115.7
99.8

1 0 2 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .6

1 0 1 .8

1 0 0 .0

100.1

99.4

106.5
103.4
95.9

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

106.9
114.2

114.6
133.9

122.3
138.2

124.3
171.6

99.1

1 0 0 .0

98.4

101.5

105.1

102.3

108.9
97.1

1 0 0 .0

102.1

91.2

1 0 0 .0

104.7

114.4
108.8

113.3
104.8

113.4
102.9

90.1

8 8 .6

96.5

1 0 0 .0

94.3

1 1 1 .2

116.7

118.1

108.0

1 0 2 .6

107.2
100.9
96.9
105.0
99.3
104.5

105.4
99.4
96.5
102.5
97.6
102.4

96.7
88.7
103.6
95.7
124.9

102.9
92.4
100.4
98.9
114.7

98.9
97.1
97.9
101.5
103.2

1 0 0 .0

Finance and insurance
52211

Commercial banking.................................................

Real estate and rental
and leasing
532111
53212

Passenger car rental.................................................
Truck, trailer and RV rental and leasing.................

Professional, scientific, and technical
services
Advertising agencies.................................................
54181
7211
722
7221
7222
7223
7224

Accomodation and food services
Traveler accommodations........................................
Food services and drinking places..........................
Full-service restaurants............................................
Limited-service eating places..................................
Special food services................................................
Drinking places, alcoholic beverages.....................

1 0 2 .6

101.1

101.1

1 0 0 .0

100.3
101.3

1 0 0 .0

100.1

1 0 0 .0

102.7

1 0 0 .0

102.1

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

107.1
104.4

103.2
104.9

101.1

101.1

1 0 0 .0

101.7
99.4
103.5
106.0
99.4

107.0
111.7
100.3

109.2
108.4
98.1

105.3
102.7
103.8
105.0
99.4

106.6
103.7
100.5
109.5
106.8

108.1
102.9
94.4
114.1
107.4

109.3
107.9
93.7
120.7
113.6

1 0 2 .2

Other services
(except public administration)
8111
81211
81221
8123
81292

Automotive repair and maintenance.......................
Hair, nail and skin care services..............................
Funeral homes and funeral services......................
Drycleaning and laundry services...........................
Photofinishing.............................................................

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

N o te : Data reflect the conversion to the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), replacing the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system. NAics-based data by
industry are not comparable to the Sic-based data.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

June

2004

145

Current Labor Statistics:

52.

Productivity Data

Unemployment rates, approximating U.S. concepts, in nine countries, quarterly data
seasonally adjusted
2002

Annual average
Country

2002

2003

I

2003
III

II

IV

I

II

IV

III

United States.......

5.8

6 .0

5.7

5.8

5.7

5.9

5.8

6 .1

6 .1

5.9

Canada..................

7.0
6.4
5.4
8.7

6.9

6.9
6.4
5.4

7.0
6.3
5.5

6.9

6.7

6.9

7.2

6 .8

6 .2

6 .2

6 .2

6 .1

5.3
9.2

7.1
6.7
5.4
8.5

8 .6

8 .8

5.4
8.9

5.4
9.0

5.4
9.2

5.2
9.3

5.8
5.1
9.3

8 .6

9.3

8.3

8.5

8.7

8.9

9.2

9.4

9.4

9.3

9.1

8 .8

9.2

9.2

9.1

9.0

9.0

8 .8

8.7

8 .6

5.1
5.2

6.3
5.0

5.2
5.1

5.0
5.2

5.1
5.2

5.2
5.1

5.7
5.1

6 .0

5.0

6.3
5.0

4.9

Jaoan 1 ...................
France1 ..................
Germany................

Sweden 1 ................
United Kinadom...
1 Preliminary

6 .1

data for 2003.

figures. See "Notes on the data" for information on breaks in

Preliminary data for 2003. Quarterly rates are for the first series.

2

NOTE:

For

further

qualifications

and

historical

data,

see

Com parative Civilian Labor Force Statistics, Ten Countries, 1959-

month of the quarter.
Quarterly figures for France and Germany are

calculated

6 .8

by applying annual adjustment factors to current

2 0 0 2 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, Feb. 11,2004), on the Internet at
h tt p ://w w w .b ls .g o v /fls /h o m e .h tm

published data, and therefore should be viewed as less precise

Monthly and quarterly unemployment rates, updated monthly, are

indicators of unemployment under U.S. concepts than the annual

also on this site.

146

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June

2004

53.

Annual data: employment status of the working-age population, approximating U.S. concepts, 10 countries

[Numbers in thousands]

Employment status and country
Civilian labor force

-----S5Ü?

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

United States................................................................
Canada..........................................................................

128,105
14,177

129,200
14,308

131,056
14,400

132,304
14,517

133,943
14,669

136,297

137,673
15,237

139,368
15,536

142,583
15,789

143,734
16,027

Australia.........................................................................
Japan.............................................................................

8,557

8,613

8,771

8,995

9,115

14,958
9,204

9,339

9,466

9,678

9,817

144,863
16,475
9,964

65,040

65,470

65,780

65,990

66,450

67,200

67,240

67,090

66,870

66,240

24,440
39,010
22,910

24,480

24,670

24,750

25,010

25,450

25,800

39,100
22,570

39,070
22,450

38,980
22,460

39,140
22,570

25,130
39,420
22,680

66,990
26,070

39,750
22,960

39,380
23,130

39,300
23,340

26,350
39,460
23,540

39,440
23,750

France...........................................................................
Germany........................................................................
Italy.................................................................................

26,590

Netherlands..................................................................
Sweden..........................................................................

6,920

7,010

7,300

7,540

7,620

7,760

8,130

8 ,2 1 0

8,400

4,444

7,150
4,418

7,210

4,520

4,460

4,459

4,418

4,402

4,430

4,530

4,544

United Kingdom............................................................

28,336

28,168

28,147

28,151

28,253

28,413

28,469

28,761

4,489
28,928

29,053

29,290

Participation rate1
United States.................................................................

66.4

66.3

6 6 .6

6 6 .6

6 6 .8

67.1

67.1

67.1

67.1

6 6 .8

6 6 .6

Canada..........................................................................

65.9

65.5

65.2

64.9

64.7

65.4

65.8

65.9

6 6 .0

6 6 .8

Australia.........................................................................
Japan.............................................................................
France...........................................................................

63.9
63.4
55.6

63.5
63.3
55.4

64.3
62.8

64.2
62.4

64.7

57.7

55.6
57.1

57.3

55.9
57.7

56.3
57.7

62.0
56.6
57.4

64.7
61.6
56.8
57.4

64.7
60.8

58.2

64.6
62.9
55.4
57.1

64.6
63.0

Germany........................................................................

63.9
63.1
55.5
57.4

65.0
64.3
63.2

Italy.................................................................................

47.5
57.5
65.7

47.9

47.3

47.1

47.1

47.2

47.6

Netherlands..................................................................
Sweden..........................................................................

57.9

58.6
63.7

58.8
64.1

59.2

60.8

61.1

47.8
61.9

48.1
64.4

62.6

62.4

62.8
62.5

63.8

63.1

63.3
62.6

62.8

United Kingdom............................................................

64.0
62.4

64.8
63.7

62.8

62.9

62.7

126,708
13,380
8,364

129,558
13,705

131,463
14,068

133,488

136,891
14,827

136,933
14,997

8,444

8,618

14,456
8,808

9,068

9,157

9,334

64,200

64,900

64,450

63,920

63,790

63,470

62,650

22,170

22,580

23,070
36,040

23,690

24,140

24,280

36,060

36,350

2 0 ,2 1 0

20,460

36,240
20,840

21,270

36,040
21,580

7,320
4,034

7,510
4,117
27,037

7,910
4,229
27,344

4,303
27,568

64.5
62.7

55.5

48.3

57.0
57.1
48.6
65.8
64.0
62.9

Employed
United States.................................................................
Canada..........................................................................

118,492
12,672

120,259
12,770

123,060
13,027

124,900
13,271

Australia.........................................................................
Japan..............................................................................

7,660
63,620

7,699

7,942

63,810

63,860

8,256
63,890

France...........................................................................

2 2 ,0 0 0

21,710

21,750

21,950

Germany........................................................................

36,390

22,040
35,640

21,230
6,550

35,760
19,940

35,780

Italy.................................................................................

35,990
20,270

19,820

19,920

35,510
19,990

6,570
4,028
25,242

6,660
3,992
25,424

6,730

6,860

7,160

4,056
25,709

4,019

3,973
26,426

62.5
59.0

62.9

63.2

63.8

64.1

64.3

64.4

59.4

59.1

59.7

60.4

61.3

62.1

63.7
61.9

59.2

59.0

Netherlands...................................................................
Sweden..........................................................................
United Kingdom............................................................

4,265
25,570

25,953

26,682

8 ,0 1 0

136,485
15,325

8,170
4,310
27,770

Employment-population ratio2
United States.................................................................

61.5

61.7

Canada..........................................................................

58.9
57.2

58.5
56.8
61.7

57.8
61.3

Australia.........................................................................
Japan..............................................................................
France............................................................................
Germany........................................................................
Italy................................................................................
Netherlands...................................................................
Sweden..........................................................................
United Kingdom.............................................................

62.0

60.9
49.1

59.3
60.9

61.0

59.3
60.2

59.8
59.4

60.6
59.0

60.4
58.4

49.0

49.0

49.6

50.4

51.4

52.4
41.5
54.9

52.0
41.6
55.7

51.6
41.6
57.8

52.3
41.9
58.7

58.3

57.7

57.6
58.5

52.8
42.3
59.9
58.4

52.9
42.9
62.6
60.1

52.0
52.9
43.6
63.2

59.1

59.4

50.1
54.2
44.0
54.5

49.1

49.0

53.2
43.0
54.2

52.6
42.0

62.0
57.0

58.5
56.2

56.5

57.0

57.3

56.9
58.2

9,613
1,505
897

8,940

7,996

7,404

7,236

6,739

6 ,2 1 0

5,880

5,692

1,539
914
1,660
2,770

1,373
829

1,246
739

1,252

1,169

2 ,1 0 0

2,920
3,320

2,800

760
2,300
2,960

721
2,790
2,870
3,690

1,080
658
3,170

962
611

1,920

1,289
751
2,250

54.6
57.6

60.5
59.5

62.7
62.4
60.6
57.5
52.0
52.2
44.1
64.0
60.7
59.6

Unemployed
United States.................................................................
Canada..........................................................................
Australia.........................................................................
Japan..............................................................................
France...........................................................................
Germany........................................................................
Italy................................................................................
Netherlands...................................................................
Sweden..........................................................................
United Kingdom.............................................................

1,420
2,430
2,620
1,680

3,110
2,300

370
255
2,762

440
416
2,918

2,510
490
426

3,200
2,640
480
404

2,719

2,442

2,970
3,510
2,650

3,910
2,690

440
440
2,300

370
445
1,986

4.9
8.4

2,750
300
368
1,786

2,740
3,330
2,670
250

3,200
2,380
3,070
2,500

6,801
1,031
661
3,400
2 ,2 1 0

3,110
2,270

8,378
1,150
629
3,590
2,310
3,400
2,160

220

200

313
1,724

260
1,584

227

230
234

1,486

1,520

4.2
7.0

4.0

4.7

5.8

6.1

6.4
6.7

7.0
6.3
5.4

Unemployment rate
United States.................................................................

7.5

6.9

Canada..........................................................................
Australia.........................................................................
Japan..............................................................................

1 0 .6

1 0 .8

10.5

1 0 .6

2 .2

France............................................................................
Germany........................................................................

9.9
6.7

2.5
11.3

Italy................................................................................
Netherlands...................................................................
Sweden..........................................................................

7.3
5.3

United Kingdom.............................................................
1

5.6
9.7

Labor force as a percent of the working-age population.

6 .1

5.6

5.4

9.5
9.4

8 .6

8 .8

8 .2

8 .2

2.9

3.2

3.4

1 1 .8

11.3

8 .0

8.5

8 .2

1 0 .2

1 1 .2

1 1 .8

11.9
9.0
11.7

6.3
9.4

6.9

6.7

9.6
9.7

9.1
8.7

8.1

10.4

4.5
7.7
7.7

7.0

6.3

4.1

4.7

4.8

1 1 .8

11.3

1 0 .6

9.3

6 .0

9.9
11.9
4.9

8.5
11.5
3.2

9.1
7.8
10.7
2.7

2.4

9.1
2.7

9.9

1 0 .1

5.8
5.5

5.0

5.1

5.1

5.2

8.3
3.4

7.0

1 2 .0

3.9
8.4
6.3

7.1
6 .0

7.9
9.6

8.7
8 .6

For further qualifications and historical data, see Comparative Civilian Labor Force

2' Employment as a percent of the working-age population.

Statistics, Ten Countries, 1959-2002 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1959-2002 (Bureau

No te : See notes on the data for information on breaks in series.

of Labor Statistics, Feb. 11,2004), on the Internet at h ttp ://w w w .b ls .g o v /fls /h o m e .h tm


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

5.1
8.4

Monthly Labor Review

June

2004

147

Current Labor Statistics:

54.

International Comparison

Annual indexes of manufacturing productivity and related measures, 12 countries

[1992= 100]
1960

It e m a n d c o u n t r y

1970

1980

1990

1991

1993

1994

1995

1997

1996

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

O u tp u t pe r h o u r

United States.........................................................
Canada.................................................................
Japan....................................................................
Belgium.................................................................
Denmark...............................................................
France...................................................................
Germany...............................................................
Italy........................................................................
Netherlands..........................................................
Norway..................................................................
Sweden.................................................................
United Kingdom....................................................

-

-

70.5
72.9
63.2
65.4

96.9
93.4
94.4
96.8
99.1
93.9
99.0
96.6
98.7
98.1
94.6
89.2

97.9
95.3
99.0
99.1
99.5
97.0
98.3
96.1
99.0
98.2
95.5
93.8

1 0 1 .6

98.3
99.0

37.8
13.8
18.0
28.1
19.9
29.2
24.6
18.8
37.6
27.3
30.0

54.9
37.5
32.9
49.4
39.0
52.0
46.2
38.5
59.1
52.2
43.2

61.6
77.2
78.6
69.1
77.9
73.1
54.4

33.4
10.7
30.7
44.4
30.0
41.5
23.0
31.9
57.7
45.9
67.5

58.9
39.2
57.6
73.9
57.7
70.9
48.1
59.8
91.0
80.7
90.2

75.8
83.6
60.4
78.2
94.4
81.6
85.3
84.4
76.9
104.9
90.7
87.2

92.1
88.3
77.8
170.7
157.8
140.3
142.3
93.5
169.8
153.6
168.3
224.6

104.4
107.1
104.4
174.7
149.5
147.8
136.3
104.0
155.5
153.9
154.7
208.8

107.5
114.6
95.6
119.7
109.6
132.5
110.5
107.4
134.7
124.0
160.5

102.9
100.3
103.4
116.4
118.1

14.9

23.7
17.1
16.4
13.7

55.6
47.5
58.5
52.5
45.0
41.2
53.6
30.4
60.5
39.0
37.3
32.1

90.8
88.3
90.6
90.1
92.7
90.9
89.4
87.6
89.8
92.3
87.8
82.9

95.6
95.0
96.5
97.3
96.0
96.4
91.5
94.2
94.8
97.5
95.5
93.8

93.7
94.6
95.9
93.0
93.5
96.8
90.3
90.7
91.1
94.2
92.9
92.9

97.6
99.6
97.5
98.1
96.5
99.3
93.1
98.0
95.7
99.2

93.7
98.0
83.9
89.5
91.2
94.1
87.3
93.3
87.9
93.6
91.3
93.8

8 6 .2

1 0 2 .1

107.3

105.8
101.7
102.5
99.3

1 1 0 .8

113.8
112.4

103.3
108.4

113.2

-

1 1 1 .0
-

117.0
109.7
116.1
116.3
-

121.3
113.5

126.5
115.5

1 2 1 .0

1 2 1 .2

125.5
121.7
120.4
110.3
121.4

126.9
127.9

108.9
109.6
104.8
113.1
99.6
117.8
108.5

114.4
112.3
107.9
117.3
100.7
124.5
106.5

114.7
114.7
108.3
119.3
102.5
129.5
105.8

103.5
105.9
96.3
97.0
95.6
95.7
92.4
96.5
97.7
101.7
101.9
101.5

1 1 1 .1

118.4
119.6
98.9
104.2
104.9
95.2
107.2
108.2
107.3
131.9
107.8

121.3
119.6
103.0
105.9
106.7
104.6
92.5
105.4
108.9
110.3
136.4
108.7

101.4

103.6
103.0
91.9
93.6
92.1

104.0
106.4
89.1
92.0
91.7
84.8
99.4
92.3
106.6
105.9

103.6
109.0
88.7
91.0
91.2
80.6
97.3
91.2
107.6
105.3

105.4
112.4

1 0 1 .2

1 0 2 .8

1 0 2 .8

107.9
106.0
108.3
109.2
110.4
117.6
111.3

109.4
107.0
109.1

111.5
109.3

1 0 1 .0
1 0 1 .8
1 0 1 .2
1 0 2 .0

99.6
107.3
103.9

1 0 2 .0

141.0
107.7

133.7
1 2 2 .1

1 2 2 .0

126.7
125.5
133.0
121.4

1 1 0 .8

1 1 0 .6

124.1
99.9
149.5
109.2

127.0
103.6
162.7
114.4

133.1
133.9

139.5
144.9
101.9
114.4
117.7
118.7
95.8
110.3
117.6
113.6
172.5

142.1
129.3
135.9
130.8
143.2
127.0
113.6
132.7
106.6
175.5
121.9

142.7
127.0
135.9
132.6
148.0
127.8
115.9
132.3
108.9
170.3
126.4

155.9
130.5
139.5
141.7
152.1
131.0
114.3
133.1
110.9
184.3
127.6

146.1
159.2
109.2
119.9

137.3
153.6
105.5
120.4
127.5
128.0

139.8
158.0
103.4

O u tp u t

United States........................................................
Canada.................................................................
Japan....................................................................
Belgium.................................................................
Denmark...............................................................
France..................................................................
Germany...............................................................
Italy.......................................................................
Netherlands..........................................................
Norway.................................................................
Sweden.................................................................
United Kingdom....................................................

106.0
97.1

1 0 2 .0

1 1 0 .1

100.7
101.5
99.8
102.3
99.3
99.8
99.0
104.1

105.4

1 0 0.1

104.8
113.5
102.9
104.3
103.7
105.6

100.4
103.9
103.1
101.5

1 0 1 .0
1 0 2 .8

99.1
99.1
99.4
99.0
101.4

114.1
94.9
101.4
105.6
100.3
95.1
102.4
104.5
104.6
117.0
106.2

1 1 1 .6

127.9
127.7
106.5
112.7
115.2
109.7
95.7
108.8
1 1 1 .6

114.2
146.5
110.7

1 0 0 .2

114.4
115.7
115.0
97.7
110.7
114.9
113.7
158.3
111.4

1 1 2 .2

1 2 2 .1

124.3
1 0 0.1

113.7
1 2 2 .8
1 1 2 .8

188.3
114.9

99.9

114.6
121.7
113.4
183.1
1134.0

1 2 1 .6

127.8
128.1
99.6
113.8
119.7
1 1 2 .6

189.3
109.4

T o ta l hours

United States........................................................
Canada.................................................................
Japan....................................................................
Belgium.................................................................
Denmark...............................................................
Germany...............................................................
Italy.......................................................................
Netherlands..........................................................
Norway.................................................................
Sweden.................................................................
United Kingdom....................................................

1 1 1 .2

1 0 0 .1

1 0 2.1

102.9
104.1
103.3
1 0 0 .8
1 0 0 .8

109.0
106.6

1 0 0.1

94.7
94.7
96.2
94.7
90.8
95.4
95.8
1 0 2 .1

94.9
92.7

8 6 .8

97.7
92.4
105.0
99.4
97.9

8 8 .0

89.8
90.2
79.5
98.6
91.9
1 1 2 .0

103.9

105.2
115.9
82.7
90.2
89.9
80.1
99.9

92.6
113.7
105.9
101.9

104.4
118.7
80.4
91.2
89.2
78.9
99.8
92.6
109.6
106.0
98.1

1 0 2 .8

123.1
80.3
91.7
86.8

78.8
1 0 0 .1

92.5
105.9
107.3
94.3

96.3
120.9
77.7
90.8
86.5
78.2
98.9
91.9
104.1
107.5
89.8

89.7
1 2 1 .1

74.2
85.8
84.2
76.1
99.5
89.9
1 0 1 .6

102.7
85.7

C o m p e n s atio n p er h our

Canada.................................................................
Japan....................................................................
Belgium.................................................................
Denmark...............................................................

1 0 .0

Germany...............................................................
Italy.......................................................................
Netherlands..........................................................
Norway.................................................................
Sweden................................................................
United Kingdom....................................................

8.1

U n it la b o r co sts:

4.3
5.4
3.8
4.3
1.8
6 .2

11.1

10.5
20.7
5.3
19.4

4.7
4.1
2.9

1 1 .8

26.4
31.3
30.1
13.6
21.7
27.8
7.5
32.9

31.1
43.8
41.7
22.4
26.8
39.8
11.9
50.4

1 2 .6

2 0 .0

15.0
9.8

2 0 .6

14.1

78.8
65.2
92.6
80.3
52.2
67.0
69.4
38.7
87.6
50.0
51.0
59.0

32.9

36.0
15.5
27.0
18.0
25.7
17.1
22.3
24.5
17.4
23.1
19.1

78.8
67.4
51.8
88.3
55.9
83.9
59.6
55.7
77.5
62.9
70.2
77.7

10.7
6.1

102.7
1 0 2 .0

102.7
104.8
103.0
103.1
106.4
105.7
104.5
101.5
97.4
105.1

105.6
103.7
104.7
106.1
106.5
1 1 1 .8

106.8
109.0
104.4
99.8
108.0

1 1 2 .1

109.2
106.8
109.5

1 1 1.1

-

1 1 2 .6

115.2
-

1 1 2 .2

1 1 1 .8

123.3
119.0
114.4
113.6
115.2
111.3

125.7
123.0
117.2
118.7
1 2 1 .0

116.1

117.4
111.7
115.4
117.0
112.7
127.6
1 2 2 .2
1 2 2 .0

125.7
125.6
123.1

1 2 2 .1

115.8
114.8
118.5
116.6
130.6
124.2
126.0
133.0
130.3
130.4

Germany..............................................................
Italy.......................................................................
Netherlands..........................................................
Norway.................................................................
United Kingdom....................................................
U n it la b o r c o sts:

123.4
137.4
127.8
132.0
140.5
136.8
137.7

140.6
126.8
1 2 2 .8

136.5
132.4
145.5
135.6
146.0
157.2
149.2
149.2

1 0 0 .6

96.4
1 0 1 .0

102.3
103.7
1 0 2 .0

1 0 0 .0

104.5
104.5
102.4
101.9
90.8

99.9

1 0 0 .6

97.6
105.1
91.8
92.3
91.0
93.1
87.5
97.3
90.0
95.0
96.3

1 0 0 .6

98.5
93.6
101.4
97.9
96.2
97.8
1 0 2 .0

94.8
94.3
97.5
96.4
96.4
96.5
104.7
103.2
95.6
108.4
85.8

101.9
96.4
104.8
84.7
99.6

1 0 2 .8

98.5
82.8
125.8
94.2
91.4
93.4
98.2
77.9
93.2
92.3
64.0
86.3

94.8
83.0
131.6
105.2
104.0
102.5
114.2
78.0
104.8
106.4
70.0
91.8

93.5
97.5
94.0
95.5
103.2
97.8
107.5
109.8
95.9
1 1 0 .8

89.0
105.2

91.9

96.2
93.0
91.8
99.4
91.9
104.5
111.4
96.5
116.4
85.8
107.8

92.8
96.7
95.2
92.2
1 0 2 .8
8 8 .1

104.6
110.3
98.3
125.7
84.0
112.7

91.3
94.9
90.6
94.4
103.7
87.6
107.6
112.3
99.1
128.4
80.1
114.0

92.3
92.5
83.6
92.2
1 0 1 .8

94.1
97.4
84.4
95.9
101.3

90.2
97.1
8 8 .0

96.4
1 0 2 .1

8 6 .2

8 6 .6

87.1

108.1
112.5
99.5
131.9
77.9
113.0

1 1 1 .2

1 1 1 .1

114.2
105.0
136.1
84.4
114.2

118.7
109.7
141.8
80.9
116.9

94.1
76.0

90.2
74.8
89.1
72.6
78.2
66.4
83.9
71.4
82.8
110.3
48.5
99.4

U.S. dollar basis

United States........................................................
Canada.................................................................
Japan...................................................................
Belgium................................................................
Denmark..............................................................
Germany..............................................................
Italy......................................................................
Netherlands..........................................................
Norway.................................................................
United Kingdom...................................................

1 1 .0

19.4
1 2 .0

23.4
10.4
14.3
15.3
1 1 .0

16.9
15.6

1 0 0 .0

90.3
115.3
95.1
96.5
95.3
98.7
81.8
96.9
89.2
67.8
85.6

93.5
86.4
109.5
99.1
107.5
1 0 1 .2
1 1 1 .6

87.7
1 0 0 .0

106.6
77.3
93.0

91.9
84.0
97.4
82.4
90.8
83.3
94.0
80.6
87.0
1 0 2 .1

65.4
99.9

92.8
78.8
92.2
81.6
92.6
79.1
92.9
78.2
87.2
103.5
61.5
105.7

91.3
77.2
1 0 1 .0

80.2
89.5
75.3
91.5
76.2
84.3
1 0 2 .2

56.4
104.4

NOTE: Data for Germany for years before 1991 are for the former West Germany. Data for 1991 onward are for unified Germany. Dash indicates data not available.

148

1 2 0 .6

134.3
123.8
114.5
127.2
128.2
142.0
132.4
138.9
148.2
143.8
144.2

National currency basis

Canada.................................................................
Japan...................................................................
Belgium................................................................
Denmark...............................................................

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

131.1
119.6
113.7

June

2004

92.3
75.3
98.4
67.8
76.0
64.2
79.7
6 6 .1

73.3
93.0
49.5
96.9

8 8 .0

68.4
73.4
62.6
79.5
65.1
75.0
94.0
47.6
93.0

55.

Occupational injury and illness rates by industry,1 United States
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers3
Industry and type of case

1989 1

1990

1991

1992

19934 19944 1995 4 1996 4 1997 4 1998 4 1999 4 2000 4 2001 4

P R IV A T E S E C T O R 5

7
3.1
-

6.3

6 1

3.0
-

3.0
-

2 .8

7.9

7.3
34

7.1
3 fi

7.3

3 .9

4.9

4.4

4.7

4.0

8 .8

8 .6

4.0

4.2

8.3
4.1

7.9
4.0

8 .0
3 ,7

7.8
3.9

6.9

8 .2

7.8
38

7.6
3.7

7.8

9.1

8.9

8 .6

8 .2

9.7

9.2

9.0

8.1

13.5
6,5

13.2

13.0
6*7

1 2 .1

1 0 .6

6 8

1 2 .2

1 2 .0

11.5
5.9
-

1 1 .0

5.8
-

11.4
5.7
-

1 1 .2

5.4
-

5.9
-

5.7
-

12.3
5.7

12.4

1 1 .8

1 1 .8

10.7

10.4

6 0

57

6 ,0

16.5
72

15.0

15.0
7.2

14.0
70

12.9

1 2 .6

71
3.3
-

8 .6

8 .8

4.0
78.7

4.1
84.0

8.4
3.9
86.5

8.9
3.9
93.8

8.5
3.8
-

8.4
3.8

10.9
5.7
100.9

1 1 .6

1 0 .8

1 1 .6

1 1 .2

1 0 .0

5.9

54
126.9

5.0

4.7

9.7
43

8.7
39

8.4
41

1 1 2 .2

5.4
108.3

8.5
4.8
137.2

8.3
5.0
119.5

7.4
4.5
129.6

7.3
41
204.7

6 .8

6.3
39

6 .2

3.9

39

5.4
32

5.9
37

14.3

13.0

1 1 .8

1 0 .6

5.5

5.5

4.9

9.9
4.5

9.5
4.4

148.1

13.1
5.8
161.9

1 2 .2

143.3

14.2
6.7
147.9

13.9
6.5
137.3

13.4
6.4
137.6

1 2 .0

1 2 .2

54
142.7

11.5
5.1

10.9
51

9.8
44

9.0
40

8.5
37

8.4

5.5
132.0

3 .9

13.8
6.5
147.1

13.8
6.3
144.6

1 2 .8

1 2 .1

ii.i
5.1

1 0 .2

50

9.9
48

9.0
43

8.7
43

160.1

14.6
6.9
144.9

14.7
6.9
153.1

13.5
6.3
151.3

13.8

1 2 .8

5.8

12.5
5.8

ii.i
5.0

10.4
48

1 0 .0

6 1

168.3

13.1
5.8
113.0

13.2
5.8
120.7

12.7
5.6
121.5

12.5
54
124.6

1 2 .1

1 2 .2

1 1 .6

1 0 .6

5.3

55

53

49

10.3
48

14.1

14.2

13 1
54

13 5
57

6

51

116.5

123.3

13 4
55
126.7

11 6

6 .0

13 6
5.7
122.9

12 8

6 .0

18.4
9.4
177.5

16.3
76
165.8

15.7
77

14.9
70

14.2
6 8

172.5

16.8
8.3
172.0

15.9
76

Lost workdays...............................................................................
Furniture and fixtures:
Total cases...................................................................................
Lost workday cases......................................................................
Lost workdays...............................................................................

16.1
7.2
-

16.9
7.8
-

15.9
7.2

14.8

14.6
6.5
-

15.0
7.0
-

13.9
6.4
-

15.5
7.4
149.8

15.4
7.3
160.5

14.8

13.6

6 .8

6.1

13.8
6.3

13.2
6.5

16.8
72

Lost workday cases.........................................................................
Lost workdays..................................................................................

8 1

3.6
-

74
3.4

6

-

A g r ic u ltu r e , fo re s try , a n d fis h in g 5

Total cases.....................................................................................

M in in g

Total cases.....................................................................................

C o n s tru c tio n

Total cases.....................................................................................
Lost workday cases..........................................................................
General building contractors:
T otal cases.....................................................................................

Heaw construction, except building:
Total cases.....................................................................................

Special trades contractors:
Total cases.....................................................................................

6 .8

6.1

6 .0

54
165.8

47

M a n u fa c tu rin g

Total cases.....................................................................................

Durable goods:

Lumber and wood products:
Total cases...................................................................................

Stone, clav. and alass products:
Total cases...................................................................................

Primary metal industries:
Total cases...................................................................................

18.7

8 .8

6 .6

128.4

156.0

152.2

180.2

17.7
7.4
169.1

17.5
71
175.5

17.0
73

168.3
18.5
7.9
147.6

18.7
7.9
155.7

17.4
7.1
146.6

16.8

16.2
6.7

16.4
6.7

15.8
6.9

8.1

Fabricated metal products:
Total cases...................................................................................
Lost workday cases......................................................................

18.1

5

19.0
8.1

6 .6

6 8

11 3
51

1 0 .1

10.7
1 1 .1

14.4

14.2
6.4

13.9
6.5

1 2 .6
6 .0

11.9
5.5

1 1 .1

6 .2

10.0

9.5
4.0

8.5

8.2

1 1,0

5.3

144.0

Industrial machinery and equipment:
Total cases...................................................................................

12.1

12.0

11.2

11.1

11.1

11.6

11.2

9 .9

4.8

4 4

4 4

40

8 6 .6

42
87.7

42

8 6.8

4.7
88.9

4 .4

Lost workdays...............................................................................

9.1
3.9
77.5

9.1
3.8
79.4

8.4
3.6
81.2

8.3
3.5

8.3
3.6

7.6
33

6.8

6 .6

5.9

5.7

5.7

5.0

3.7
83.0

31

31

2 8

2 8

2 9

2 5

17.7

18.3
7.0
166.1

18.7
7.1
186.6

18.5
7.1

19.6
7.8

18.6
7.9

16.3
7.0

15.4

14.6

13.7

13.7

1 2.6

6.6

6 6

6 4

6 3

6 0

138.6

17.8
6.9
153.7

5.6
2.5
55.4

5.9
2.7
57.8

6.0

5.9
2.7
65.3

5.6
2.5

5.9
2.7

5.3
2.4

5.1
2.3

4.8
2.3

4.0
1.9

4.0

4.5

4.0

2.7
64.4

1.8

2.2

2 .0

ii.i

11.3
5.1
113.1

11.3
5.1
104.0

10.7
5.0
108.2

10.0

9.1
4.3

9.5
4.4

8.9
4.2

8.1

8.4
40

7.2

39

3 6

6.4
32

Electronic and other electrical eaulpment:
Total cases...................................................................................

Transportation eauioment:
Total cases...................................................................................

6.8

Instruments and related products:
Total cases...................................................................................
Lost workday cases......................................................................
Miscellaneous manufacturinq Industries:
T otal cases...................................................................................
Lost workdays...............................................................................

5.1
97.6

8.6

_

4.6

9.9
4.5

See footnotes at end of table.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

June 2004

149

Current Labor Statistics:

Injury and Illness

55. Continued—Occupational injury and illness rates by industry,1 United States
Incidence rates per 100 workers3
Industry and type of case

1989 1

Nondurable goods:
Total cases....................................................................................
Lost workday cases.........................................................................
Lost workdays..................................................................................

5.5
107.8

Food and kindred products:
Total cases..................................................................................
Lost workday cases......................................................................
Lost workdays...............................................................................

18.5
9.3
174.7

Tobacco Droducts:
Total cases..................................................................................
Lost workday cases......................................................................
Lost workdays...............................................................................
Textile mill products:
Total cases..................................................................................
Lost workday cases......................................................................
Lost workdays...............................................................................

1991

1992

9.2
4.6

-

9.9
4.9
-

17.6
8.9

17.1
9.2

-

-

5.8
2.3
-

5.3
2.4

4.4
88.3

9.9
4.2
87.1

9.7
4.1
-

8.7
4.0
-

9.2
4.2
99.9

9.5
4.0
104.6

9.0
3.8

8.9
3.9

10.5
5.1

-

18.8
9.5
211.9

6.4

6 .0

2 .8

2.4
42.9

11.5
5.5
119.7

1 2 1 .8

2 0 .0

2 0 2 .6

19.5
9.9
207.2

8.7
3.4
64.2

7.7
3.2
62.3

52.0

10.3
4.2
81.4

9.6
4.0
85.1

8 .6

8 .8

3.8
80.5

3.9
92.1

9.9

11.3
5.3

1 0 .1

-

16.3
8.7

15.0

14.5

8 .0

8 .0

-

-

-

13.6
7.5
“

5.6

6.7

2 .6

2 .8

6.4
3.4

-

5.9
2.7
-

7.8
3.6
-

6.7
3.1
-

7.4
3.4

7.4
3.3

7.0
3.1
-

-

4.1
8 .2

3.6
-

-

-

5.0
125.9

9.9
4.6
-

8.5
4.2

7.9
3.8

-

-

6.7
3.2
74.5

7.3
3.2
74.8

6.9
3.1
-

6.7
3.0
-

6.4
3.0
-

2 .8

6.5
3.1
61.6

6.4
3.1
62.4

6 .0

5.9
2.7

5.7

5.5
2.7

4.8
2.4

64.2

"

-

-

-

6 .6

6 .6

6 .2

5.9

3.3

3.1
77.3

2.9

2 .8

5.2
2.5

4.8
2.4

6 8 .2

71.2

-

4.7
2.3
-

16.2
7.8
151.3

15.1
7.2
150.9

14.5

13.9
6.5

14.0
6.7

-

-

1 2 .1

1 1 .2

1 1 .0

5.5
124.8

5.0
122.7

Printina and publishing:
Total cases..................................................................................
Lost workday cases......................................................................
Lost workdays..............................................................................

6.9
3.3
63.8

6.9
3.3
69.8

Chemicals and allied products:
Total cases..................................................................................
Lost workday cases.....................................................................
Lost workdays..............................................................................

7.0
3.2
63.4

6 8 .1

16.2
8 .0

147.2

Leather and leather products:
Total cases..................................................................................
Lost workday cases.....................................................................
Lost workdays..............................................................................

8 .2

4.3
“

8 .2

2 .8

6 .8

153.3

2 .8

6 .0

-

7.3
3.7
5.7
2.7
-

2000 4 2001 4

1 99 9 4

8 .8

9.6
4.5
-

12.7
5.8
132.9

Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products:
Total cases..................................................................................
Lost workday cases.....................................................................
Lost workdays...............................................................................

-

1 99 8 4

4.4
-

-

Paper and allied products:
Total cases..................................................................................
Lost workday cases.....................................................................
Lost workdays..............................................................................

Petroleum and coal products:
T otal cases..................................................................................
Lost workday cases.....................................................................
Lost workdays..............................................................................

1993 4 1994 4 19954 1996 4 19974
10.7
5.0

11.7
5.6
116.9

1 1 .6

Apparel and other textile products:
Total cases..................................................................................
Lost workday cases.....................................................................
Lost workdays..............................................................................

1990

7.8
4.2
-

7.8
4.2
-

6 .8

3.8
-

12.7
7.3

12.4
7.3

10.9
6.3

-

-

-

5.5

6 .2

2 .2

3.1
-

-

6 .0

-

6.4
3.2
-

6 .2

5.8

6.1

2 .6

2 .8

3.0
-

7.1
3.7

7.0
3.7

-

-

-

3.2
-

6.5
3.4
-

5.4

5.0

5.1

2 .8

2 .6

2 .6

6.7
4.2
5.2
2.7
5.0
2.4
6 .0

3.2
4.6
2.4

-

-

-

4.8
2.3
-

4.2

4.4
2.3

4.2

4.0

2 .2

2 .1

-

-

4.6
2.5

4.3

3.9

4.1

2 .2

1 .8

1 .8

-

-

-

-

-

12.9
6.5
-

12.3
6.3

11.9
5.8

1 1 .2

1 0 .1

-

-

10.7
4.5

1 0 .6

4.3

9.8
4.5

2 .1

-

-

3.7
1.9

2.9
1.4
-

-

8.7
4.8

-

10.7
5.8
~

10.3
5.0

9.0
4.3

8.7
4.4

-

-

-

-

5.8

5.5

13.6
6.5
130.4

5.9
152.3

12.5
5.9
140.8

5.4
128.5

5.5

5.3

11.4
4.8

-

-

-

-

-

9.2
5.3
121.5

9.6
5.5
134.1

9.3
5.4
140.0

9.1
5.1
144.0

9.5
5.4

9.3
5.5
-

9.1
5.2

8.7
5.1

4.8

7.3
4.3

7.3
4.4

6.9
4.3

-

-

-

-

-

-

6.9
4.3
-

8 .0

7.9
3.5
65.6

7.6
3.4
72.0

8.4
3.5
80.1

7.9
3.4

7.5
3.2

2.9

-

-

2.5
-

7.7
3.8

7.5
3.6

1 2 .1

1 2 .1

1 2 .1

1 2 .0

T ra n s p o rta tio n a n d p u b lic u tilitie s

Total cases....................................................................................
Lost workday cases........................................................................
Lost workdays.................................................................................

-

8 .2

W h o le s a le a n d re tail tra d e

Total cases....................................................................................
Lost workday cases........................................................................
Lost workdays.................................................................................

3.6
63.5

Wholesale trade:
Total cases....................................................................................

8.1

3.4
7.8
3.7

6 .8

-

6.7
3.0
-

6.5

6.1

2 .8

-

2.7
-

5.9
2.7
-

6.5
3.2
-

6.5
3.3
-

6.3
3.3
-

5.8
3.1
-

5.3

6.5
2.7

6.1

2.5

5.9
2.5

5.7
2.4

-

-

1.8

1.9

1 .8

.8

.8

.7

-

-

7.4
3.7
71.5

7.2
3.7
79.2

7.6
3.6
82.4

7.7
3.3
69.1

8.7
3.4
79.2

7.9
3.3
-

7.5
3.0
-

6.9

6 .8

3.3
-

2 .8

2.9

2.9

Lost workdays.................................................................................

7.7
4.0
71.9

Retail trade:
Total cases....................................................................................
Lost workday cases........................................................................
Lost workdays.................................................................................

8.1

8.1

3.4
60.0

3.4
63.2

6 .6

3.4
-

8 .2

-

F in a n c e , in s u ra n c e , a n d real e s ta te

Total cases....................................................................................
Lost workday cases........................................................................
Lost workdays.................................................................................

2 .0

2.4

.9

1.1

17.6

27.3

5.5
2.7
51.2

2 .8

56.4

2.9

2.7

2 .6

2.4

1 .2

1 .2

1.1

1 .0

.9

2.2
.9

.7
.5

32.9

-

-

-

-

-

7.1
3.0

6.7

6.5

6.4

6 .0

2 .8

2 .8

2 .8

2 .8

2 .6

5.6
2.5

5.2
2.4

60.0

6 8 .6

2.4

1.1
24.1

6 .6

2 .8

-

S e rv ic e s

Total cases....................................................................................
Lost workday cases........................................................................
Lost workdays.................................................................................
1

6 .0

Data for 1989 and subsequent years are based on the Standard Industrial Class­

4.9

4.9

4.6

2.2

2.2

2.2

-

N = number of injuries and illnesses or lost workdays;

ification Manual, 1987 Edition. For this reason, they are not strictly comparable with data

EH - total hours worked by all employees during the calendar year; and

for the years 1985-88, which were based on the Standard Industrial Classification

200,000 - base for 100 full-time equivalent workers (working 40 hours per week, 50 weeks

Manual, 1972 Edition, 1977 Supplement.

per year).

2

Beginning with the 1992 survey, the annual survey measures only nonfatal injuries and

4

Beginning with the 1993 survey, lost workday estimates will not be generated. As of 1992,

illnesses, while past surveys covered both fatal and nonfatal incidents. To better address

BLS began generating percent distributions and the median number of days away from work

fatalities, a basic element of workplace safety, BLS implemented the Census of Fatal

by industry and for groups of workers sustaining similar work disabilities.

Occupational Injuries.
3

5

Excludes farms with fewer than 11 employees since 1976.

The incidence rates represent the number of injuries and illnesses or lost workdays per

100

150

6 .2

full-time

workers

and

were

calculated

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

as

(N/EH)

June 2004

X

200,000,

where:

NOTE: Dash indicates data not available.

56. Fatal occupational injuries by event or exposure, 1997-2002
F a ta litie s
E v en t o r e x p o s u re 1

1 99 7-2 001

20 012

a v e ra g e

Num ber

Total...............................................................................................

2002

Num ber

P e rc e n t

036

5 915

5 524

100

2,593
1,421
697
126
254
148
300
369
300
368

2,524
1,409
727
142
257
138
297
339
273
326
158
247

2,381
1,372
635
155

43
25

202

4
3

383
90
62

356
71
64

908
643
509
58
76
230

840
609
469
58
82
199

995
562
352
58
290
156
126

962
553
343
60
266
144

873
506

16
g

303
38
231

4

110

2

122

116

2

Falls...........................................................................................................
Fall to lower level..................................................................................
Fall from ladder..................................................................................
Fall from roof......................................................................................
Fall from scaffold, staging...............................................................
Fall on same level................................................................................

737
654
155
91
61

810
700
123
159
91
84

714
634
126
143
87
63

Exposure to harmful substances or environments.....................
Contact with electric current................................................................
Contact with overhead power lines................................................
Contact with temperature extremes..................................................
Exposure to caustic, noxious, or allergenic substances................
Inhalation of substances..................................................................
Oxygen deficiency................................................................................
Drowning, submersion.....................................................................

529
291
134
41
106
52
89
71

499
285
124
35
96
49
83
59

538
289

10

122

2

Fires and exp losions...........................................................................

197

188

165

3

24

13

-

6

Transportation incidents.....................................................................
Highway incident...................................................................................
Moving in same direction..............................................................
Moving in opposite directions, oncoming...................................
Moving in intersection...................................................................
Vehicle struck stationary object or equipment.............................
Noncollision incident.........................................................................
Jackknifed or overturned— no collision......................................
Nonhighway (farm, industrial premises) incident............................
Overturned..........................................................................................

202

248
382
99

Worker struck by a vehicle.................................................................
Water vehicle........................................................................................
Rail vehicle............................................................................................

68

Assaults and violent acts....................................................................
Homicides..............................................................................................
Shooting.............................................................................................
Stabbing.............................................................................................
Other, including bombing................................................................
Self-inflicted injuries..............................................................................

964
709
567
64
78
221

Contact with objects and equipment...............................................
Struck by object....................................................................................
Struck by falling object.....................................................................
Caught in or compressed by equipment or objects........................
Caught in running equipment or machinery..................................
Caught in or crushed in collapsing materials...................................

111

Other events or exposures 3 ................................................................
1

Based on the 1992 BLS Occupational Injury and Illness

Classification Structures.
2

The BLS news release issued Sept. 25, 2002, reported a

total of 5,900 fatal work injuries for calendar year 2001. Since

21
3

3

145
326
373

6

312
322
164
1 Q2

6
6

3
6
1
1

15
11
8
1
1

4

5

13
11
2

3
2
1

5

60
98
49
90
60

1
2
1
2
1

Totals for 2001 exclude fatalities from the September 11

terrorist attacks.
4

Includes the category "Bodily reaction and exertion."
N o te :

Totals

for

major categories

may include sub­

then, an additional 15 job-related fatalities were identified,

categories not shown separately. Percentages may not add

bringing the total job-related fatality count for 2001 to 5,915.

to totals because of rounding. Dash indicates less than 0.5


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June 2004

151

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O ffice or topic
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Information services

In tern et address
http://www.bls.gov/
http://www.bls.gov/opub/

E-mail

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Employment and unemployment
Employment, hours, and earnings:
National
State and local
Labor force statistics:
National
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Ul-covered employment, wages
Occupational employment
Mass layoffs
Longitudinal data
Job openings and labor turnover

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Compensation and working conditions
National Compensation Survey:
Employee benefits
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http://www.bls.gov/ncs/
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Projections
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The Lawrence R. Klein Award winners
The Lawrence R. Klein Award trustees
selected the authors of three M o n th ly L a b o r
R e v i e w articles as winners of the 35th
annual Klein Award. The awards were
presented at the Bureau of Labor Statistics
annual awards ceremony on May 20.
The award for best R e v ie w article by bls
authors went to Gary Martin and Vladimir
Kats, economists in the Division of Foreign
Labor Statistics, for “Families and work in
transition in 12 countries, 1980-2001,” in
the September issue. Winner for the best
article by an author outside of bls went to
Charles J. Muhl, an attorney with the
N ational Labor Relations Board in
Chicago, Illinois, for “Workplace e-mail
and Internet use: employees and employers
beware,” in the February issue. The trustees
also selected an article with both an inside
and outside author: “Exploring low-wage
labor with the National Compensation
Survey,” in the November/December issue,
by Jared Bernstein, an economist at the
Economic Policy Institute in Washington,
d c , and Maury Gittleman, a research
economist in the Office of Compensation
and Working Conditions.
An honorable mention went to Jonathan
Weinhagen, an economist in the Office of
Prices and Living Conditions, for
“Consumer gasoline prices: an empirical
investigation,” in the July issue.

The winners
Since the Lawrence R. Klein Award was established in 1969,101 authors of 78 articles
have been honored. Here is a list of the winning authors:
1970

Mollie Orshansky

1971

Hyman B. Kaitz

1972

1990

Bruce W. Klein and
Philip L. Rones
Mark S. Littman

Janice Neipert Hedges
Denis Johnston

1991

Constance Sorrentino
James R. Wetzel

1973

Peter Henle
T. Aldrich Finegan

1992

Jill Craven
Allan Gochenour

1974

Robert W. Fisher
Jonathan Grossman

1993

1975

John F. Early
Joseph Mire

Joseph R. Meisenheimer II
Murray Gendell
Jacob S. Siegel

1994

1976

Curtis L. Gilroy
Nicholas A. Ashford

William J. Wiatrowski
Robert W. Bednarzik

1995

1977

Constance Sorrentino
Rita M. Maldonado

1978

William V. Deutermann, Jr.
H.M. Douty

Craig Howell,
Frank Congelio, and
Ralph Yatsko
Paul Ryscavage

1996

1979

Morris J. Newman
Fred Best

Laura Freeman
Bart Van Ark

1997

Anne E. Polivka

1980

Paul O. Flaim

1998

1981

Norman Bowers
Philip L. Rones
Robert L. Bach and
Jennifer B. Bach

Mark Mittelhauser
Jared Bernstein and
Lawrence Mishel
Robert I. Lerman

1999

Jerry Light and
Thomas Shevlin
Michael C. Wolfson and
Brian B. Murphy

2000

Edwin R. Dean
Lucy P. Elderidge
William Gullickson and
Michael J. Harper
Phillip N. Cohen and
Suzanne M. Bianchi

2001

Gary Martin
Katheryn Parker Boudett,
Richard J. Mumane, and
John B. Willett

2002

Daniel E. Hecker
William J. Carrington and
Bruce C. Fallick

2003

Marisa DiNatale and
Stephanie Boraas
Harriet B. Presser and
Barbara Altman
Elizabeth T. Hill
Charles J. Muhl

2004

Gary Martin and
Vladimir Kats
Charles J. Muhl
Jared Bernstein and
Maury Gittleman

1982

George D. Stamas
Peter Finn

1983

Paul O. Flaim
Norman Bowers
Paul S. Adler

1984

Richard W. Riche, Daniel E.
Hecker, and John U. Burgan
Koji Taira
Michele M. Hoyman and
Lamont E. Stallworth

About the Award. The Klein Award was

established by Lawrence R. Klein, editorin-chief of the M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w from
1946 until his retirement in 1968. Instead
of accepting a retirement gift, Klein donated
it and matched the amount collected to
initiate the award. The purpose of the award
is to encourage R e v ie w articles that exhibit
originality of ideas or method of analysis,
adhere to principles of scientific inquiry,
and are well written. Each winning article
carries a cash prize.
Members of the Klein Award board of
trustees are Howard Rosen, president;
Ronald Kutscher, secretary-treasurer;
Jerome Mark; Ellen Sehgal; William G.
Barron; Kenneth V. Dalton; and Deborah
Klein, ex officio.
Contributions to the fund may be sent to
M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , Klein Award Fund,
Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, DC
20212.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1985

Richard J. McDonald
H.M. Douty

1986

Neal H. Rosenthal
Helen Ginsburg

1987

Ronald E. Kutscher and
Valerie A. Personick
Sheldon Danziger and
Peter Gottschalk

1988

Sharon R. Cohany
Michael W. Horrigan
Barry Alan Mirkin

1989

Michael W. Horrigan and
Steven E. Haugen
Robert Blanchfield and
William Marsteller
Olivia S. Mitchell

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B u rea u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s

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Schedule of release dates for BLS statistical series
Period
covered

August 10

2nd quarter

June

August 6

July

1;4-29

July 14

June

August 12

July

43-47

May

July 15

June

August 13

July

2;40-42

June 15

May

July 16

June

August 17

July

2; 37-39

June 15

May

July 16

June

August 17

July

14

July 29

2nd quarter

Release
date

Release
date

Productivity and costs

June 3

Employment situation

June 4

May

July 2

U.S. Import and Export
Price Indexes

June 10

May

Producer Price Indexes

June 11

Consumer Price indexes
Real earnings
Employment Cost Indexes


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

MLR table
number

Release
date

Period
covered

Series

Period
covered

2;48-51

1-3; 30-33