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U.S. Department of Labor


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

H*

O R

Bureau o f Labor Statistics

Why size class
methodology
analyses of
net and gross
job flows

U.S. Department of Labor
Elaine L. Chao, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Kathleen P. Utgoff, Commissioner
The Monthly Labor Review (usps 987-800) is published
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MONTHLY LABOR

REVIEW
Volume 127, Number 7
July 2004

Why size class matters in net and gross job flows

3

Data from the Business Employment Dynamics program
produce different portraits of employment growth
Cordelia Okolie

Self-employment in the United States: an update

13

Self employment continues to be highest among men, whites, older workers,
and in agriculture, construction, and services industries

Steven Hippie

Self-employment trends among older U.S. workers

24

The downward trends in self-employment rates may be reversed
or halted as the baby-boomers approach retirement

Lynn A. Karoly and Julie Zissimopoulos

Trends in job demands among older workers, 1992-2002

48

Over the period, the share of workers ages 55 to 60
increased in jobs that required little physical effort

Richard W. Johnson

Departments
Labor month in review
Regional trends— Multiple jobholding; Educational attainment
Précis
Book review
Current labor statistics

2
57
62
63
65

Editor-in-Chief: Deborah P. Klein • Executive Editor: Richard M. Devens • Managing Editor: Anna Huffman Hill • Editors: Brian
I. Baker, Kristy S. Christiansen, Richard Hamilton, Leslie Brown Joyner • Book Reviews: Richard Hamilton • Design and Layout:
Catherine D. Bowman, Edith W. Peters • Contributor: Constance Sorrentino


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Labor Month in Review

The July Review

Information sector
productivity

Job creation and job losses are among
the most visible indications of a dynamic
economy. The recently-introduced b l s
d a ta on B u sin e ss E m p lo y m e n t
Dynamics promise to shed a great deal
of light on the details underlying the
d y n a m ism th a t p e rv a d e s the U .S .
econom y. C ordelia O kolie uses the
Business Employment Dynamics data to
exam ine the effect o n e ’s choice of
method for determining the size class of
an e s ta b lis h m e n t m ak es in u n d e r­
stan d in g the re la tiv e in flu en ces of
sm aller and larger businesses on job
creation. To facilitate additional analysis
of these issues, b l s plans to release
research series using the three m ost
widely used methods of assigning an
establishm ent to a particular size class.
S te v e n H ip p ie u p d a te s the p re ­
valence and ch aracteristics o f selfem p lo y m en t in the A m erican labor
market. The proportion of workers who
are self-employed in an unincorporated
business has fallen steadily since the
first measurement was taken in 1948, but
there were still more than 10 million such
workers in 2003.
L ynn A. K aro ly and Ju lie
Zissimopoulos follow with a look at selfem p lo y m en t am ong older w orkers.
Noting that rates of self-em ploym ent
ten d to rise w ith age, K aro ly and
Z is s im o p o u lo s s u g g e st th a t the
dem ographics of an aging population
may slow or even halt or reverse the
trend away from working for oneself.
Richard W. Johnson looks at older
w orkers from the perspective o f the
demands placed on them by their jobs.
Although the physical demands of work
have declined, Johnson finds that, “the
rigors of employment remain daunting
for many older adults.” The balance
between the rigors of employment and
the need for income will have important
consequences for retirement policy.

2
Monthly Labor Review

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July 2004

Productivity, as measured by output per
hour, increased in all but one of the
information industries in 2002. In the
detailed four- and five-digit information
industries, the majority of the gains were
greater than 4 percent. D ouble-digit
p ro d u ctiv ity grow th (11.2 percent)
occurred in wireless telecom m unica­
tions carriers. The one inform ation
in d u stry to re g iste r a p ro d u c tiv ity
decline was motion picture and video
exhibition.
All of the information industries except
motion picture and video exhibition saw
reductions in unit labor costs. Unit labor
costs fell 16.9 percen t in w ireless
telecom m unications carriers and 9.7
percent in software publishers. Additional
information is available from “Productivity
and Costs in Selected Service-Providing
and M ining Industries, 2002,” news
release u s d l 04-1061.

Em ployee benefits
F rin g e b e n e fits v ary w id ely by
geographic, establishment, and worker
characteristics. For example, the number
of days of paid vacations workers get
each year typically increases the longer
workers remain on the job. The vacation
benefit also varied by a worker’s union or
nonunion status. For example, at 1 year of
service, union and nonunion workers were
eligible for almost the same number of
days, whereas, after 25 years of service,
union w orkers enjoyed 6 more paid
v acatio n days than did nonunion
workers.
Access to retirement benefits varied
by the characteristics of the em ployer’s
e s ta b lish m e n t. W orkers in g o o d sproducing industries, for example, are
more likely to have access to retirement
benefits than are workers in service­
p ro v id in g in d u stries. In ad d itio n ,

w orkers in m edium -sized and large
private establishments (those with 100
employees or more) enjoyed a higher
rate of access to retirement benefits than
did th e ir c o u n te rp a rts in sm a lle r
establishments.
Workers in m edium -sized to large
establishments also had greater access
to medical care benefits. Seventy-two
percent of employees in establishments
with 100 or more workers had access to
a medical care plan. In contrast, fewer
th an h a lf o f em p lo y e e s in sm all
establishm ents had access to such a
plan.
Access to many benefits may also
depend on a w o rk e r’s o ccu p atio n .
Workers in service occupations had far
less access to life insurance in March
2003 than did white-collar or blue-collar
workers. At 56 percent, workers in white
co llar o ccu p atio n s had the h ig h est
access rate to life insurance. Access to
life insurance among blue-collar workers
was 53 percent. Among service workers,
the rate was just 29 percent.
A w orker’s wage rate is also related
to access to b e n e fits . W o rk ers in
occupations averaging $15 an hour or
more were in a much better position with
respect to access to benefits than were
those in occupations averaging under
$15 in March 2003. The difference was
particularly striking in rates of access
to long-term disability insurance. Only
17 percent of those earning under $15
h ad a c c e s s to su ch c o v e ra g e ,
com pared w ith h a lf of those in the
higher earnings category. W ith regard
to short-term disability insurance, 29
percent of those earning less than $15
per hour had access to this benefit,
while 53 percent of those earning more
than $15 per hour had access. Learn
m o re a b o u t th e fa c to rs a ffe c tin g
benefits in “N ational C om pensation
Survey: Em ployee Benefits in Private
Industry in the U nited States, M arch
2003,” Summary 04-02.
□

Size Class and Job Flows

Why size class m ethodology m atters
in analyses of net and gross jo b flows
Net and gross job flow statistics by size class are produced
with data from the B usiness E m ploym ent D ynam ics program ;
alternative methodologies fo r defining size classes
yield sharply different pictures o f employment growth
Cordelia Okolie

ne of the m ost interesting and often
asked questions in empirical economics
is whether small businesses create the
m ost jobs. A nsw ering this question requires
longitudinal establishment microdata and is an
ideal application for the new Business Em ­
ployment Dynamics data series produced by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics. Although it is often
argued that small businesses are the fountain­
head of job creation and the engine of economic
growth, this view is not universally accepted,
largely because of differences in the methodology
used to construct net and gross job flow statistics.
Using different methodologies, this article calcu­
lates net and gross job flow statistics by size class,
with the aim of showing how alternative method­
ologies can produce sharply different portraits of
employment growth.

O

M ethodology issues

Cordelia Okolie is an
econom ist in the
O ffice of Employment
an d U nem ploym ent
Statistics, Bureau of
Labor Statistics,
Washington, d c .
E-mail:
Okolie_C@bls.gov


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Three methodology issues influence the calcu­
lation and interpretation of business employment
dynamic statistics by size class: (1) how estab­
lishments should be classified into size classes
in the construction o f net and gross job flow sta­
tistics, (2) the appropriate measure to use in the
denominator in the calculation of net and gross
job flow rates, and (3) whether there are differ­
ences in the statistics if the establishment or the
firm is the unit of analysis.1

Defining size classes.

With cross-sectional
microdata, defining size classes for establishments

is straightforward. For example, an establishment
with 3 employees is classified into the category “ 1
to 4 employees,” and an establishment with 11
employees is classified into the category “ 10 to 19
employees.” By contrast, defining size classes with
longitudinal microdata is more difficult. For in­
stance, if an establishment grows from 3 em ­
ployees in the previous quarter to 11 employees in
the current quarter, in which size category does it
belong?
In the gross job flows literature, there are three
methodologies for defining size classes: (1) in
base sizing, establishments are classified into
size categories on the basis of their size in the
previous quarter; (2) in end sizing, establish­
ments are classified into size categories on the
basis of their size in the current quarter; and (3)
in mean sizing, establishments are classified into
size categories on the basis of their average size
during the previous and current quarters. In the
earlier example in which an establishment grows
from 3 employees in the previous quarter to 11
employees in the current quarter, the base-sizing
methodology would classify that establishment into
the “ 1 to 4 employees” category, whereas the end­
sizing methodology would classify it into the “ 10
to 19 em ployees” category. The m ean-sizing
methodology would classify the establishment into
the “5 to 9 employees” category, because the aver­
age size during the two quarters is 7 (3 +11, divided
by 2).
The m e th o d o lo g y o f c la s s ify in g e s ta b ­
lishments into size categories can have large
effects on business employment dynamics sta-

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

3

Size Class and Job Flows

tistics. For establishments that are growing and that move
from one size class category to another, base sizing results
in sta tistic s w hich indicate that em ploym ent grow th is
coming from sm aller establishm ents, whereas end sizing
results in statistics which indicate that employment growth is
com ing from larger establishm ents. Similarly, for estab­
lishments that are contracting and that move from one size
class category to another, base sizing results in statistics
which indicate that em ploym ent decline is com ing from
larger establishm ents, w hereas end sizing results in sta­
tistics w hich indicate that em ploym ent decline is coming
from sm aller establishm ents. E co n o m ists refer to this
sta tistic a l phenom enon as the “re g re ssio n fa lla c y ” or
“regression-to-the-m ean” bias.2

Calculating rates. A nother m ethodological issue is the
question of how to compute rates of net and gross job flows.
That is, should previous-quarter employment, current-quarter
employment, or an average of the two be used in the de­
nominator of the rate? An example will help illustrate the
difference between the methods. Suppose employment in­
creases from 1 to 2 and then declines back to 1. A conventional
growth rate that uses previous-quarter employment in the
denominator would yield a 100-percent increase followed by
a 50-percent decrease. Even though the employment changes
in levels sum to zero (a one-employee increase followed by a
one-employee decrease), the percentages do not sum to zero.
In fa c t, u sin g p re v io u s -q u a rte r e m p lo y m e n t in the
denom inator results in the sum o f the percentages being
greater than zero; the sum would be less than zero if currentquarter em ploym ent w ere used in the denom inator. In
con trast, if average em ploym ent w ere used in the d e­
nominator, the growth rate in this example would be a 67percent increase [(2 - 1)/1.5 = 0.67] followed by a 67-percent
decrease. The example illustrates the fact that using average
employment in the denominator results in rates that are equal
in magnitude, but opposite in sign. (That is, the rates are
symmetric.)
Unit o f analysis: establishment or firm? An establishment is
typically defined as an economic unit, such as a factory or store,
that produces goods or provides services. An establishment is
usually a physical location and is engaged in one, or predom­
inantly one, type of economic activity. In contrast, a firm is defined
as an aggregation of establishments under common ownership
by a corporate parent. Establishment- and firm-level data will be
identical for firms composed of a single legal entity and thus
operating a single establishment. However, the size class distri­
bution of employment differs at the establishment level com­
pared with the firm level, because defining employment for a
m ultiestablishm ent firm involves aggregating m ultiple
establishments into a single larger firm. The methodological
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July 2004

question raised in this article is whether there is a difference
in net and gross job flow statistics if the establishment or the
firm is used as the unit of analysis. Job flows should be less
when the firm is the unit of analysis, because gains and losses
of different establishments within a multiestablishment firm
can offset each other.

Data and definitions
In w hat follow s, net and gross job flows are com puted
under all of the various combinations of methodologies. Net
and gross job flow statistics are calculated for establishments
classified into size categories based on base sizing, mean siz­
ing, and end sizing. The statistics are presented as levels and
also as rates, with three possible denom inators: previousquarter employment, mean employment, and current-quarter
employment. Also calculated in the article are net and gross
job flow statistics at both the establishm ent level and the
firm level.
The analysis uses data from the bls Business Employment
Dynamics program to calculate the net and gross job flow
statistics. The new Business Employment Dynamics program
is an extension of the Quarterly Census of Em ployment and
Wages ( q c e w ) program. The data gathered in the q c e w
program are a comprehensive and accurate source of em­
ploym ent and w ages, and provide a virtual census (98
percent) of employees on nonfarm payrolls. The QCEW data
are derived from quarterly Unemployment Insurance (U l)
administrative microdata that all employers subject to State
ui laws are required to submit. The establishment-level micro­
data in the QCEW program are then linked across time to
create a longitudinal data set that can be used to measure
establishment openings, expansions, contractions, and clos­
ings on a quarterly basis for the entire U.S. economy. This
longitudinal establishment-level microdata is the foundation
for the b l s Business Employment Dynamics program. The
net and gross job flow statistics produced from the program
are calculated from existing q c e w m icrodata w ithout
additional data collection efforts or additional respondent
burden.3
Before discussing the results of the size class analysis, it is
important to provide definitions of several terms that are used in
discussing job flow estimates. Establishment estimates are
estimates generated at the ui reporting-unit level, whereas firm
estimates are estimates generated at the employer identification
number level. Employer identification numbers are assigned to
employers by the Internal Revenue Service to identify legal
taxpaying business entities. In general, a firm operating in mul­
tiple States will have a separate ui account for each State, but
will have one employer identification number covering all of its
establishments across the Nation.

Gross job gains are defined as the summation of employment
gains from expanding establishments and opening estab­
lishments. Gross job losses are defined as the summation of
employment losses from contracting establishments and closing
establishm ents. Net employment growth is the difference
between gross job gains and gross job losses and is also the
difference between employment levels in the current and pre­
vious quarters.
The statistics presented in this article use employment for the
first and second quarters of 2000 and are not seasonally adjust­
ed. Employment for the quarter is measured for the pay period
that includes the 12th for the final month of the quarter. To be
consistent with the scope of the establishments included in the
Business Employment Dynamics program publications, private
household workers, establishments in the public sector, and
establishments located in Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands are
excluded from the analysis in this article. The aggregate net and
gross job flow statistics presented herein replicate the official
statistics (not seasonally adjusted) from the b l s Business Em­
ployment Dynamics program.
Before turning to the analysis, one caveat should be made
perfectly clear. The empirical work presented in this article uses
one quarter of longitudinal establishment microdata (employ­
ment growth from March 2000 to June 2000) to analyze how net
and gross job flows are affected by various methodologies. It is
not clear how methodology effects might interact with sea­
sonality and cyclicality effects; thus, using different quarters of
microdata may change the methodological and economic conclu­
sions the article reaches.

Results: net employment change
Establishment-level net employment growth.

Table 1 re­
ports net employment growth statistics at the establishment
level, calculated under the three alternative measures of em­
ployer size and the three alternative methods of calculating rates.
The top third of the table uses the base-size method for cate­
gorizing establishments into size classes, the middle third uses
the mean-size method, and the bottom third uses the end-size
classification m ethod. The three colum ns reporting net
employment growth as rates rather than levels use previousquarter, mean-quarter, and current-quarter employment in the
denominator.4
The first observation of note from the table is that the
method used to classify establishments into size classes has
substantial effects on the measurement of net employment
growth. The base-size statistics in the top third of the table
and the end-size statistics in the bottom third provide dif­
feren t p ic tu re s o f em p lo y m en t grow th by size class,
particularly for the smallest establishments. For example, for
the smallest size category, 1 to 4 employees, the base-size
statistic shows a net gain of more than 1 million jobs, whereas


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the end-size statistic indicates a net loss of more than 300,000
jobs.
The base-size and end-size statistics for the largest es­
tablishments also differ. For example, the base-size statistic
shows that establishments with 500 to 999 employees had a
net loss of 5,982 jobs, whereas the end-size statistic reveals a
net gain of 285,743 jobs. Similarly, the base-size statistic
indicates that establishments with 1,000 or more employees
created 29,615 net jobs, in contrast to the end-size statistic,
which shows that such establishments created 342,036 net
jobs.
Clearly, the base-size and end-size statistics present sharply
different portraits of net employment growth. These divergent
outcomes are consistent with regression-to-the-mean effects:
the base-size statistics indicate that the smallest establishments
have substantial net job gains, while the end-size statistics
indicate that the smallest establishments have sizable net job
losses. The mean-size statistics in the middle of table 1 show a
net employment growth profile that is between the base-size
and the end-size profiles. The profile of net employment growth,
by size class and for alternative methodologies, is graphed in
chart 1.
With regard to the rates, the statistics given in table 1 show
that the three different methods of calculating rates lead to only
slight differences in the magnitude of net employment growth.
For example, the middle third of the table shows that the net
growth rate of establishments with 1 to 4 employees is 6.4 percent
with previous-quarter employment in the denominator, 6.2
percent with mean employment in the denominator, and 6.0
percent with current-quarter employment in the denominator.
For the largest size categories, the three methodologies result in
a difference of only one-tenth of one percentage point in the net
employment growth rates. Relative to the differences resulting
from alternative size classification methodologies, using alter­
native employment measures in the denominator of the net
employment change rate calculations has small effects regarding
how net employment growth is measured.
Calculated under mean sizing and with mean-quarter em­
ployment in the denominator, the net employment growth
rates are monotonically declining with size. Establishments
with 1 to 4 employees have a net growth rate of 6.2 percent,
and establishments with 1,000 or more employees have a 1.5percent net growth rate. Thus, during the period from March
2000 to June 2000, smaller establishments have a higher net
growth rate than larger establishments have. In addition to
the caveat that this finding may not hold for other quarters,5
it is important to keep in mind the distinction between rates
and levels. The levels implied by a small percentage of a large
base could exceed the levels implied by a large percentage of
a small base. For example, for establishments with 100 to 249
employees, a 2.2-percent net growth rate results in 401,843
new jobs, whereas, for establishments with 5 to 9 employees,

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

5

Size Class and Job Flows

Table 1. Establishment-level net employment growth, by size class, March 2000 to June 2000
Em ploym ent

N e t e m p lo y m e n t grow th

N u m b e r of e m p lo y e e s
M a rc h 2000

June 2000

Base size class:
T o ta l........................................
1 to 4 ............................................
5 to 9 ............................................
10 to 1 9 ........................................
20 to 4 9 ........................................
50 to 9 9 ........................................
100 to 249 ....................................
250 to 499 ....................................
500 to 999 ....................................
1,000 or m o re ..............................

107,672,227
6,416,104
8,536,938
11,435,844
17,852,421
14,204,271
17,888,617
10,685,404
7, 962,572
12,690,056

111,115,514
7,492,719
9,096,884
11,989,228
18,493,078
14,540,138
18,118,502
10,708,704
7,956,590
12,719,671

3,443,287
1,076,615
559,946
553,384
640,657
335,867
229,885
23,300
-5,982
29,615

3.2
16.8
6.6
4.8
3.6
2.4
1.3
.2
-.1
.2

3.2
15.5
6.4
4.7
3.5
2.3
1.3
.2
-.1
.2

3.1
14.4
6.2
4.6
3.5
2.3
1.3
.2
-.1
.2

Mean size class:
T o ta l........................................
1 to 4 ............................................
5 to 9 ............................................
10 to 1 9 ........................................
20 to 4 9 ........................................
50 to 9 9 ........................................
100 to 249 ....................................
250 to 499 ....................................
500 to 999 ....................................
1,000 or m o re ..............................

107,672,227
6,195,311
8,538,574
11,494,948
17,937,339
14,275,241
17,963,618
10,643,839
7, 947,198
12,676,159

111,115,514
6,589,831
8,936,083
11,997,377
18,631,953
14,760,229
18,365,461
10,884,222
8,077,217
12,873,141

3,443,287
394,520
397,509
502,429
694,614
484,988
401,843
240,383
130,019
196,982

3.2
6.4
4.7
4.4
3.9
3.4
2.2
2.3
1.6
1.6

3.2
6.2
4.6
4.3
3.8
3.3
2.2
2.2
1.6
1.5

3.1
6.0
4.4
4.2
3.7
3.3
2.2
2.2
1.6
1.5

End size class:
Total ........................................
1 to 4 ............................................
5 to 9 ............................................
10 to 1 9 ........................................
20 to 4 9 ........................................
50 to 9 9 ........................................
100 to 249 ....................................
250 to 499 ....................................
500 to 999 ....................................
1,000 or m o re ..............................

107,672,227
6,783,156
8,475,384
11,345,563
17,776,005
14,180,981
17,869,045
10,614,761
7, 929,750
12,697,582

111,115,514
6,473,174
8,726,219
11,788,778
18,542,280
14,792,541
18,546,738
10,990,673
8,215,493
13,039,618

3,443,287
-309,982
250,835
443,215
766,275
611,560
677,693
375,912
285,743
342,036

3.2
-4 .6
2.9
3.9
4.3
4.3
3.8
3.5
3.6
2.7

3.2
-4 .7
2.9
3.8
4.2
4.2
3.7
3.5
3.5
2.7

3.1
-4 .8
2.9
3.8
4.1
4.1
3.7
3.4
3.5
2.6

1Calculated with previous-quarter employment in the denominator.
2Calculated with mean-quarter employment in the denominator.

a 4.6-percent growth rate produces 397,509 new jobs.

Firm-level net employment growth.

Table 2 reports net
em ploym ent growth statistics at the firm level, calculated
under the three alternative measures o f employer size and the
three alternative methods of calculating rates. The main
results regarding how alternative methodologies affect calcu­
lations o f the net employment growth of establishments also
hold for calculations of the net employment growth of firms.
Specifically, the method used to classify firms into size classes
has substantial effects on net employment growth statistics,
and the method used to calculate rates has relatively small
effects. For the smallest establishments and the smallest firms,
the base-size and end-size net growth statistics differ sys­
tematically in both magnitude and sign. The base-size and endsize estimates for the largest establishments and the largest firms
also yield different results with respect to the magnitude of net
job gains attributable to these businesses.
As mentioned earlier, the employment distributions differ
6 Monthly Labor Review

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Change

P ercen t'

P ercen t2

P e rc e n t3

3Calculated with current-quarter employment in the denominator.

for establishments as opposed to firms. For example, in June
2000, establishm ents with 1,000 or more em ployees ac­
counted for slightly more than 13 million employees, whereas
firms with 1,000 or more employees accounted for more than
41 million employees. In terms of percentages, 12 percent of
jobs were in establishments with 1,000 or more employees,
whereas 37 percent of jobs were in firms with 1,000 or more
em ployees. Could this difference in the distribution of
employment by size class affect the net employment growth
statistics? Using the statistics from the m ean-size m eth­
odology of classifying establishments and firms into size
categories, chart 2 graphs the net employment growth by
size class for establishments and for firms. The chart shows
that, for most size categories, net job growth measured at the
establishment level is somewhat higher than net job growth
measured at the firm level. However, these small differences
may be accounted for in the largest firm size category; that is,
firms with 1,000 or more employees grew by 529,759 jobs,
whereas establishments with 1,000 or more employees grew

Chart 1.

Establishment-level net employment growth, by size class, using alternative size class
methodologies, March 2000 to June 2000

Net change
in employment

Net change
in employment

Size class

by 196,982 jobs. The obvious conclusion, based upon chart 2, is
that using the establishment, rather than the firm, as the unit of
analysis does affect how we interpret the net employment
growth attributable to small businesses compared with that of
large businesses.

Results: gross job flows
Establishment-level gross job flows.

The statistics in tables 1
and 2 report how employment grew from March 2000 to June
2000. This change in employment is the net result of the millions
of business establishments in the U.S. economy changing their
specific employment levels. Statistics on gross job gains and
gross job losses decompose the net establishment growth sta­
tistic in such a way that one can observe the underlying dy­
nam ics resulting from establishm ent openings and ex ­
pansions, as opposed to that stemming from establishment
contractions and closings.
Establishment-level gross job flow statistics are reported in
table 3. Similar to tables 1 and 2, table 3 reports gross job gains
and gross job losses with the use of the base-size method, the
mean-size method, and the end-size method for classifying
establishments into size classes. All percentages reported in


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table 3 use mean-quarter employment in the denominator.
One immediate conclusion from the table is that the magnitude
of the gross job flow statistics is substantially larger than that of
the net employment growth statistics. The net employment
change of 3,443,287 jobs between March 2000 and June 2000 is
the result of gross gains of 10,306,902 jobs in expanding and
opening establishments and gross losses of 6,863,615 jobs in
contracting and closing establishments. Expressed in per­
centages, the net employment growth rate of 3.2 percent
(rounded) is the difference of the gross job gain rate of 9.4
percent and the gross job loss rate of 6.3 percent. The relatively
large gross job flow statistics indicate a substantial amount
of “churning” underlying net employment growth.6
By definition, because the sum of gross job gains and gross
job losses equals net employment growth, the substantial effects
of alternative size classification methodologies on the net
employment growth statistics also will affect the gross job gain
and loss statistics. The gross job gains for the smallest estab­
lishments are almost twice as high when calculated with the
base-size methodology (1.7 million) as when calculated with the
end-size methodology (911,000). Similarly, the gross job losses
for the smallest establishments are almost twice as high when
calculated with the end-size methodology (1.2 million) as

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

7

Size Class and Job Flows

Table 2. Firm-level net employment growth, by size class, March 2000 to June 2000
Em ploym ent

N et e m p lo y m e n t grow th

N u m b e r of e m p lo y e e s
M a rc h 2000

June 2000

Change

P ercen t'

P ercen t2

P ercen t3

Base size class:
T o ta l......................................
1 to 4 ...........................................
5 to 9 ...........................................
10 to 1 9 .......................................
20 to 4 9 .......................................
50 to 9 9 .......................................
100 to 249 ...................................
250 to 499 ...................................
500 to 999 ...................................
1,000 or m o re .............................

107,672,227
5,298,827
6,446,111
8,048,243
11,670,622
8,926,325
11,274,986
7,955,188
7,536,968
40,514,957

111,115,514
6,199,132
6,912,377
8,512,151
12,215,929
9,218,794
11,537,905
8,050,794
7,596,981
40,871,451

3,443,287
900,305
466,266
463,908
545,307
292,469
262,919
95,606
60,013
356,494

3.2
17.0
7.2
5.8
4.7
3.3
2.3
1.2
.8
.9

3.2
15.7
7.0
5.6
4.6
3.2
2.3
1.2
.8
.9

3.1
14.5
6.7
5.4
4.5
3.2
2.3
1.2
.8
.9

Mean size class:
Total ......................................
1 to 4 ...........................................
5 to 9 ...........................................
10 to 1 9 .......................................
20 to 4 9 .......................................
50 to 9 9 .......................................
100 to 249 ...................................
250 to 499 ...................................
500 to 999 ...................................
1,000 or m o re .............................

107,672,227
5,097,751
6,448,735
8,081,625
11,722,143
8,954,323
11,346,789
7,936,870
7,556,513
40,527,478

111,115,514
5,469,221
6,822,652
8,522,480
12,314,797
9,359,883
11,724,154
8,121,182
7,723,908
41,057,237

3,443,287
371,470
373,917
440,855
592,654
405,560
377,365
184,312
167,395
529,759

3.2
7.3
5.8
5.5
5.1
4.5
3.3
2.3
2.2
1.3

3.2
7.0
5.6
5.3
4.9
4.4
3.3
2.3
2.2
1.3

3.1
6.8
5.5
5.2
4.8
4.3
3.2
2.3
2.2
1.3

End size class:
T o ta l......................................
1 to 4 ...........................................
5 to 9 ...........................................
10 to 1 9 .......................................
20 to 4 9 .......................................
50 to 9 9 .......................................
100 to 249 ...................................
250 to 499 ...................................
500 to 999 ..................................

107,672,227
5,541,802
6,345,319
7,923,764
11,634,857
8,921,007
11,362,907
7,906,094
7,517,396

111,115,514
5,349,199
6,640,041
8,377,792
12,301,435
9,397,704
11,859,807
8,185,199
7,760,933

3,443,287
-192,603
294,722
454,028
666,578
476,697
496,900
279,105
243,537

3.2
-3 .5
4.6
5.7
5.7
5.3
4.4
3.5
3.2

3.2
-3 .5
4.5
5.6
5.6
5.2
4.3
3.5
3.2

3.1
-3 .6
4.4
5.4
5.4
5.1
4.2
3.4
3.1

1,000 or m o re .............................

40,519,081

41,243,404

724,323

1.8

1.8

1.8

1Calculated with previous-quarter employment in the denominator.

3Calculated with current-quarter employment in the denominator.

2Calculated with mean-quarter employment in the denominator.

when calculated with the base-size methodology (668,000).
These differences in both the gross job gain and the gross
job loss statistics resulting from different size classification
methodologies help explain why alternative methodologies
have such a substantial effect on the net employment growth
statistics for the smallest establishments (a gain of 1,076,615
jobs compared with a loss of 309,982 jobs). For all size classes,
the mean-size methodology shows gross job flows that are
between the base-size and end-size flows.
The gross job gain and gross job loss statistics by size
class, computed under different methodologies, are depicted
in charts 3 and 4. The base-size and end-size statistics show
sharply different pictures of gross job flows by size class and
emphasize how important differences in methodology are in
examining longitudinal employment statistics. The high net
employment growth of the smallest establishments computed
under base sizing is the net result of both higher gross job

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July 2004

gains and lower gross job losses relative to gross job flow
statistics computed under alternative methodologies.
One additional finding in table 3 warrants mention: the gross
job gain rates and the gross job loss rates both monotonically
decline with employer size, regardless of the method used to
categorize employers by size class. This means that small
establishments gain and lose jobs at a much higher rate than
do large establishments. However, caution is advised when
these statistics are used to discuss job creation. First, finding
that small establishments have a higher gross job gain rate
than large establishments have is not equivalent to affirming
that small establishments have more gross job gains. For
example, from the mean size class portion of table 3, es­
tablishments with 1 to 4 employees have a gross job gain rate
of 20.9 percent, and establishments with 10 to 19 employees
have a gross job gain rate of 12.4 percent. But establishments
with 1 to 4 employees have gross job gains of 1.335 million
jobs, while establishments with 10 to 19 employees have

I Establishment- and firm-level net employment growth, using mean-size methodology,
■ March 2000 to June 2000
Net change
in employment

Net change
in employment

Size class

gross job gains of 1.453 million jobs. Second, it is important
to keep in mind the distinction between gross job gains and
net job gains, because, although small establishments have a
high gross job gain rate, they also have a high gross job loss
rate.

Firm-level gross job flows.

Firm -level gross job flow
statistics are reported in table 4. A lthough m any of the
conclusions about net and gross job flows at the firm level
are qualitatively similar to the conclusions from the analysis
of establishment-level statistics, one quantitative difference
w arrants m ention. As noted earlier, a com parison of the
statistics produced by the mean size class calculations in
tables 3 and 4 shows that the net employment growth of the
largest em ployers (with 1,000 or m ore em ployees) varies
with w hether establishments or firms are the unit of analysis
(196,982 net jobs, compared with 529,759 net jobs). The
num ber o f gross jobs gained and gross jobs lost by the
largest em ployers also varies as a function of w hether the
establishm ent or the firm is the unit o f analysis. Estab­
lishm ents with 1,000 or more employees had 510,331 gross


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job gains, whereas firms with 1,000 or more employees had
1,374,207 gross job gains. As reflected in the relative sim ­
ilarity of the gross job gain rates, this difference betw een
the establishm ent-level gross job flows and the firm -level
gross job flow s is attributable to the difference in the
distribution of em ploym ent in establishm ents as opposed
to firms.
U s in g m ic r o d a t a f r o m t h e n e w

bls

B u s in e s s

E m p l o y m e n t D y n a m ic s p r o g r a m , th is a rtic le has

reviewed some of the core m ethodological issues involved
in estim ating net and gross job flows by size class. Some
significant findings from the review are as follows: (1)
base-sizing and end-sizing methods produce system atically
different pictures of job flows, particularly for the sm allest
em ployers; (2) the m easure used in the denom inator to
calculate job flow rates has relatively sm all effects on the
net em ploym ent growth statistics; and (3) the contribution
of large em ployers to net em ploym ent grow th depends
upon w hether the unit of analysis is the establishm ent or
the firm.

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

9

Size Class and Job Flows

Establishment-level gross job flows, by size class, March 2000 to June 2000

Level

P ercen t

N u m b e r of e m p lo y e e s
N et
e m p lo ym en t
grow th

Gross
jo b
gains

Gross
job
losses

N et
em p lo y m e n t
g ro w th 1

Gross
jo b
g a in s1

Gross
jo b
losses1

Base size class:
Total .......................................
1 to 4 ...........................................
5 to 9 ...........................................
10 to 1 9 .......................................
20 to 4 9 .......................................
50 to 9 9 .......................................
100 to 249 ...................................
250 to 499 ..................................
500 to 999 ...................................
1,000 or m o re .............................

3,443,287
1,076,615
559,946
553,384
640,657
335,867
229,885
23,300
-5,982
29,615

10,306,902
1,744,771
1,355,212
1,490,750
1,890,515
1,199,079
1,229,324
604,134
361,229
431,888

6,863,615
668,156
795,266
937,366
1,249,858
863,212
999,439
580,834
367,211
402,273

3.2
15.5
6.4
4.7
3.5
2.3
1.3
.2
-.1
.2

9.4
25.1
15.4
12.7
10.4
8.3
6.8
5.7
4.5
3.4

6.3
9.6
9.0
8.0
6.9
6.0
5.6
5.4
4.6
3.2

Mean size class:
Total .......................................
1 to 4 ...........................................
5 to 9 ...........................................
10 to 1 9 .......................................
20 to 4 9 .......................................
50 to 9 9 .......................................
100 to 249 ...................................
250 to 499 ...................................
500 to 999 ...................................
1,000 or m o re .............................

3,443,287
394,520
397,509
502,429
694,614
484,988
401,843
240,383
130,019
196,982

10,306,902
1,335,401
1,280,702
1,453,232
1,920,906
1,315,253
1,342,194
710,309
438,574
510,331

6,863,615
940,881
883,193
950,803
1,226,292
830,265
940,351
469,926
308,555
313,349

3.2
6.2
4.6
4.3
3.8
3.3
2.2
2.2
1.6
1.5

9.4
20.9
14.7
12.4
10.5
9.1
7.4
6.6
5.5
4.0

6.3
14.7
10.1
8.1
6.7
5.7
5.2
4.4
3.9
2.5

End size class:
Total .......................................
1 to 4 ...........................................
5 to 9 ...........................................
10 to 1 9 .......................................
20 to 4 9 .......................................
50 to 9 9 .......................................
100 to 249 ...................................
250 to 499 ...................................
500 to 999 ...................................
1,000 or m o re .............................

3,443,287
-309,982
250,835
443,215
766,275
611,560
677,693
375,912
285,743
342,036

10,306,902
911,039
1,147,300
1,411,638
1,968,567
1,386,546
1,506,673
801,911
544,439
628,789

6,863,615
1,221,021
896,465
968,423
1,202,292
774,986
828,980
425,999
258,696
286,753

3.2
-4.7
2.9
3.8
4.2
4.2
3.7
3.5
3.5
2.7

9.4
13.8
13.3
12.2
10.8
9.6
8.3
7.4
6.7
4.9

6.3
18.4
10.4
8.4
6.6
5.4
4.6
3.9
3.2
2.2

1Calculated with mean-quarter employment In the denominator.

The B L S Business Em ploym ent Dynam ics program is
dedicated to the developm ent and publication of a wide
variety of measures that reveal the underlying movements in
business and employment. As a part of the extension of this
work, the Bureau plans to release a research or development
series of historical size class data in the fall o f 2004, using the

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July 2004

three alternative sizing methods described in this article. The
publication of this series is intended to stimulate a review of
the issues, methods, and concepts behind measuring em ­
ployment change by size. The Bureau will be soliciting com­
ments from the user community prior to introducing a formal
publication-ready series of size class data.
□

Chart 3.

Establishment-level gross job gains, by size class, using alternative size class
methodologies, March 2000 to June 2000
Gross job
gains

Gross job
gains

Size class

Chart 4.

Establishment-level gross job losses, by size class, using alternative size class
methodologies, March 2000 to June 2000
Gross job
losses

Gross job
losses


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Size class

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

11

Size Class and Job Flows

Table 4.

Firm-level gross job flows, by size class, March 2000 to June 2000
Level

N u m b e r of e m p lo y e e s

N et
e m p lo y m e n t
grow th

Gross
jo b
gains

P e rc e n t
Gross
job
losses

N et
em p lo ym en t
g row th’

Gross
jo b
gains'

Gross
jo b
losses'

Base size class
T o ta l..........................................
1 to 4 ..............................................
5 to 9 ...............................................
10 to 1 9 ..........................................
20 to 4 9 ..........................................
50 to 9 9 ..........................................
100 to 249 ......................................
250 to 499 ......................................
500 to 999 ......................................
1,000 or m o re ................................

3,443,287
900,305
466,266
463,908
545,307
292,469
262,919
95,606
60,013
356,494

8,790,144
1,444,044
1,076,583
1,122,870
1,348,045
819,127
835,774
481,083
374,043
1,288,575

5,346,857
543,739
610,317
658,962
802,738
526,658
572,855
385,477
314,030
932,081

3.2
15.7
7.0
5.6
4.6
3.2
2.3
1.2
.8
.9

8.0
25.1
16.1
13.6
11.3
9.0
7.3
6.0
4.9
3.2

4.9
9.5
9.1
8.0
6.7
5.8
5.0
4.8
4.2
2.3

Mean size class:
T otal...............................................
1 to 4 ..............................................
5 to 9 ...............................................
10 to 1 9 ..........................................
20 to 4 9 ..........................................
50 to 9 9 ..........................................
100 to 249 ......................................
250 to 499 ......................................
500 to 999 ......................................
1,000 or m o re ................................

3,443,287
371,470
373,917
440,855
592,654
405,560
377,365
184,312
167,395
529,759

8,790,144
1,125,150
1,027,239
1,092,129
1,358,373
892,330
928,021
539,231
453,464
1,374,207

5,346,857
753,680
653,322
651,274
765,719
486,770
550,656
354,919
286,069
844,448

3.2
7.0
5.6
5.3
4.9
4.4
3.3
2.3
2.2
1.3

8.0
21.3
15.5
13.2
11.3
9.7
8.0
6.7
5.9
3.4

4.9
14.3
9.8
7.8
6.4
5.3
4.8
4.4
3.7
2.1

End size class:
T o tal..............................................
1 to 4 ..............................................
5 to 9 ...............................................
10 to 1 9 ..........................................
20 to 4 9 ..........................................
50 to 9 9 ..........................................
100 to 249 ......................................
250 to 499 ......................................
500 to 999 ......................................
1,000 or m o re ................................

3,443,287
-192,603
294,722
454,028
666,578
476,697
496,900
279,105
243,537
724,323

8,790,144
769,315
941,674
1,089,876
1,431,125
960,106
1,024,722
591,823
489,258
1,492,245

5,346,857
961,918
646,952
635,848
764,547
483,409
527,822
312,718
245,721
767,922

3.2
-3.5
4.5
5.6
5.6
5.2
4.3
3.5
3.2
1.8

8.0
14.1
14.5
13.4
12.0
10.5
8.8
7.4
6.4
3.7

4.9
17.7
10.0
7.8
6.4
5.3
4.5
3.9
3.2
1.9

1Calculated with mean-quarter employment In the denominator.

Notes
1 One other issue that has been raised in the gross job flows literature
is the definition of a small business. This article presents its statistics
using b l s standard size class categories. Users can then aggregate
categories in the manner they wish to for various definitions of the
term s m a l l b u s i n e s s .
2 For more information on regression-to-the-mean bias, see Steven
J. Davis, John C. Haltiwanger, and Scott Schuh, J o b C r e a t i o n a n d
D e s t r u c t i o n (Cambridge, m a , m it Press, 1996), especially chapter 4;
and M ilton Friedman, “Do Old Fallacies Ever D ie?” J o u r n a l o f
E c o n o m i c L i t e r a t u r e , December 1992, pp. 2129-32.
3 For more information about the Business Employment Dynamics
program, see James R. Spletzer, R. Jason Faberman, Akbar Sadeghi, David
M. Talan, and Richard L. Clayton, “Business Employment Dynamics,”
M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , April 2004, pp. 29-42. The Business Employment

12 Monthly Labor Review

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July 2004

Dynamics program website is www.bls.gov/bdm.
4 A technical point warrants mention. Establishment births in June
2000 are not in the database in March 2000, and establishment deaths
are not in the database in June 2000. Thus, base-size employment is
defined for openings as of June 2000, and end-size employment is
defined for closings as of March 2000. To calculate the mean size of
openings and closings, employment in the quarter in which the unit
was not present was set to zero.
5 This finding of monotonically declining (not seasonally adjusted)
net employment growth rates does not hold for the other quarters in
calendar-year 2000.
6 For further analysis and discussion of this topic, see Spletzer and
others, “Business Employment Dynamics.”

Self-employment In the U.S.

S elf-em ploym ent in the
United States: an u p d ate
Self-employment continues to be an important source
o f jobs in the United States; as in the past,
the incidence o f self-employment continues to be highest
among men, whites, older workers,
and in agriculture, construction, and services industries

Steven Hippie

Steven Hippie is an
econom ist in the
Division of Labor Force
Statistics, Bureau of
Labor Statistics,
E-mail:
Hipple.Steve@bls.gov


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o llo w in g a lo n g -term d e c lin e , the
proportion of total employment made up
of self-employed workers has leveled
off in recent years. In 2003,10.3 million work­
ers were self-employed. The self-employment
rate— the proportion of total employment made
up of the self-employed— was 7.5 percent, up
slightly from the rate in 2002. Reflecting the
protracted shift away from agricultural selfemployment, the vast majority (90.8 percent)
of the self-employed in 2003 were in nonagricultural industries; in contrast, this proportion
was 56.7 percent in the late-1940s.
Information on employment and unemploy­
ment is available from the Current Population
Survey ( c p s ) . 1 In addition to classifying em­
ployment by occupation and industry, the c p s
subdivides employment by class of worker—
that is, wage and salary employment, self-em­
ployment, and unpaid family work.
This article discusses the c p s measurement
of self-employment, addresses historical trends
in self-employment, and provides an overview
of characteristics of the self-employed.

F

How are the self-employed
measured in the cps ?
Since January 1994, employed respondents in
the monthly c p s have been asked the following
question: “Last month, were you employed by
government, by a private company, a nonprofit

organization, or were you self-employed?”
Individuals in the c p s who respond that they
were employed by government, a private com­
pany, or a nonprofit organization are classified
as wage and salary workers. Individuals who
respond that they are self-employed are asked:
“Is this business incorporated?” Individuals
who respond “yes” are classified as wage and
salary workers and are treated as employees of
their own businesses. The “no” responses are
classified as unincorporated self-employed—
the measure that typically appears in Bureau of
Labor Statistics publications.
Although the basic questions to determine
class of worker status have undergone few
changes since 1948, there is a break in series
that took effect in 1967. Prior to that year, there
was no question on incorporation of a business
for the self-employed. Beginning in 1967, in­
dividuals identified as incorporated self-em ­
ployed were classified as wage and salary work­
ers. As table 1 shows, there was a substantial
decline in self-employment beginning in 1967
due to the fact that these individuals were now
classified as wage and salary workers. Other
changes were implemented with the redesign of
the c p s in 1994.2 Furthermore, in 2003, the c p s
adopted the 2002 North A m erican Industry
C lassification System ( n a i c s ) and the 2000
Standard Occupational Classification (soc) sys­
tem. The switch to these new classification sys­
tems affects comparability of the estimates of
Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

13

Self-employment in the U.S.

employment by class of worker.3
Table 2 shows data on incorporated self-employment since
1989. The proportion of total employment composed of the
incorporated self-employed was nearly unchanged at 3.0 per­
cent during the 1989-93 period; the implementation of the
redesign o f the c p s in 1994 caused the proportion to increase
to 3.5 percent.4 Since 1994, the rate o f incorporated selfemployment has ranged between 3.2 and 3.6 percent. Esti­
mates of incorporated self-employment are available prior to
1989. These data show that incorporation has become in­
creasingly com m on over time, rising from 1.5 million in
March 1976 to 2.1 million in 1979 and 2.8 million in 1982;
as a proportion of total employment, the rates rose from 1.8
percent to 2.2 percent to 2.8 percent over these points in time.
The move toward incorporation is a function of many com­
plex factors. Workers will typically incorporate their busi­
ness for traditional benefits of the corporate structure, in­
cluding limited liability, tax considerations, and the enhanced
opportunity to raise capital through the sale of stocks and
bonds.
Table 1.

Trends in self-employment
The proportion of individuals who are self-employed has
fallen steadily since the late-1940s. (See table 1.) Several
reasons could explain the overall decline in self-employment
over the period. The most obvious reason is the overall de­
cline in agricultural employment, an area in which a large
proportion of em ploym ent com prises the self-employed.
This decrease in self-employment in agriculture is primarily
due to the disappearance of small farms, the rise of large
farming operations, and enhanced productivity in the agri­
cultural sector. A second explanation is the increase in the
likelihood of businesses to incorporate— often for tax pur­
poses. This would result in a decrease in the self-employed
because in the official statistics workers in these firms are
now classified as wage and salary workers. For instance,
between 1990 and 2003, the proportion of nonagricultural
employment made up of the unincorporated self-employed
declined from 7.5 to 6.9 percent, while the proportion of non­
farm employment composed of the incorporated self-em-

Unincorporated self-employment, annual averages, selected years, 1948-2003

[In thousands]

All industries

N o n a g ric u ltu ra l industries

A g ric u ltu re

Y ear
Total
e m p lo y e d

Selfe m p lo y e d

P ercen t

Total
e m p lo y e d

Selfe m p lo y e d

P ercen t

Total
e m p lo y e d

Selfe m p lo y e d

P ercen t

1 9 4 8 ..................
1 9 5 0 ..................
1 9 5 5 ...................
1960 ..................
1 9 6 5 ..................

58,343
58,918
62,170
65,778
71,088

10,775
10,359
9,577
9,098
8,394

18.5
17.6
15.4
13.8
11.8

50,714
51,758
55,722
60,318
66,726

6,110
6,019
5,851
6,303
6,097

12.0
11.6
10.5
10.4
9.1

7,629
7,160
6,450
5,458
4,361

4,665
4.340
3,726
2,795
2.297

61.1
60.6
57.8
51.2
52.7

1966 ..................
19671.................
1 9 7 0 ...................
1 9 7 5 ...................
1 9 8 0 ..................
1985 ..................

72,895
74,372
78,678
85,846
99,303
107,150

8,127
7,170
7,031
7,427
8,642
9,269

11.1
9.6
8.9
8.7
8.7
8.7

68,915
70,527
75,215
82,438
95,938
103,971

5,991
5,174
5,221
5,705
7,000
7,811

8.7
7.3
6.9
6.9
7.3
7.5

3,979
3,844
3.463
3.408
3,365
3,179

2,136
1,996
1,810
1,722
1,642
1,458

53.7
51.9
52.3
50.5
48.8
45.9

1990 ...................
19942 .................
1 9 9 5 ..................
1 9 9 6 ..................
1 9 9 7 ..................
1998 ..................
1999 ..................

118,793
123,060
124,900
126,708
129,558
131,463
133,488

10,097
10,648
10,482
10,489
10,513
10,303
10,087

8.5
8.7
8.4
8.3
8.1
7.8
7.6

115,570
119,651
121,460
123,264
126,159
128,085
130,207

8,719
9,003
8,902
8,971
9,056
8,962
8,790

7.5
7.5
7.3
7.3
7.2
7.0
6.8

3,223
3.409
3,440
3,443
3,399
3,378
3,281

1,378
1,645
1,580
1,518
1,457
1.341
1.297

42.8
48.3
45.9
44.1
42.9
39.7
39.5

2000 34 ..............
20014 .................
20024 .................
20034..................

136,891
136,933
136,485
137,736

10,215
10,109
9,926
10,295

7.5
7.4
7.3
7.5

134,427
134,635
134,174
135,461

9,205
9,121
8,923
9,344

6.8
6.8
6.7
6.9

2.464
2,299
2,311
2,275

1,010

41.0
43.0
43.4
41.8

988
1,003
951

1 Prior to 1967, estimates of the self-employed included persons who
operated their own incorporated businesses, not specifically identified until
that year.

3 Data for 2000-03 have been revised to incorporate Census 2000
population controls.

2 Data for 1994 are not directly comparable with data for earlier years
due to a major redesign of the cps .

4 Data for nonagricultural and agricultural industries are not directly
comparable due to adoption of the North American Industry Classification
System (naics) and the Standard Occupational Classification (soc) system.

14
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July 2004

Table 2.

Incorporated self-employment, annual averages, 1989-2003

[In thousands]

Y ear

Total
e m p lo y e d

In c o rp o ra te d
s e lf-e m p lo y e d

A g ric u ltu re

N o n a g ric u ltu ra l industries

All industries

P ercen t

Total
e m p lo y e d

In c o rp o ra te d
s e lf-e m p lo y e d

P ercen t

Total
e m p lo y e d

In c o rp o ra te d
selfe m p lo y e d

P ercen t

1 9 8 9 ................
1 9 9 0 ................
1991 ................
1 9 9 2 ................
1 9 9 3 ................
19941...............

117,342
118,793
117,718
118,492
120,259
123,060

3,444
3,463
3,379
3,519
3,555
4,246

2.9
2.9
2.9
3.0
3.0
3.5

114,142
115,570
114,449
115,245
117,144
119,651

3,311
3,332
3,253
3,371
3,399
4,049

2.9
2.9
2.8
2.9
2.9
3.4

3,199
3,223
3,269
3,247
3,115
3,409

133
131
126
148
156
197

4.2
4.1
3.9
4.6
5.0
5.8

1995 ................
1 9 9 6 ................
1 9 9 7 ................
1998 ................
1 9 9 9 ................

124,900
126,708
129,558
131,463
133,488

4,224
4,080
4,341
4,290
4,303

3.4
3.2
3.4
3.3
3.2

121,460
123,264
126,159
128,085
130,207

4,011
3,917
4,142
4,099
4,116

3.3
3.2
3.3
3.2
3.2

3,440
3,443
3,399
3,378
3,281

213
163
199
191
187

6.2
4.7
5.9
5.7
5.7

20002 3 ............
20013 ...............
20023...............
20033................

136,891
136,933
136,485
137,736

4,458
4,452
4,608
4,956

3.3
3.3
3.4
3.6

134,427
134,635
134,174
135,461

4,316
4,313
4,476
4,810

3.2
3.2
3.3
3.6

2,464
2,299
2,311
2,275

142
139
132
146

5.8
6.0
5.7
6.4

1 Data for 1994 are not directly comparable with data for earlier years
due to a major redesign of the cps and the introduction of 1990 censusbased population controls, adjusted for the estimated undercount.
2 Data for 20 00-03 have been revised to incorporate Census 2000

ployed rose from 2.9 to 3.6 percent over the same period.
Research carried out by Marilyn E. M anser and Garnett
Picott compared the contribution of self-employment to net
job creation in Canada and the United States. The authors
found that, during the 1980s, the role of self-employment
within the two countries was somewhat similar. During the
1990s, however, self-employment accounted for essentially
none of the net job creation in the United States, whereas the
majority of net employment growth in Canada over the same
period was composed of self-employed workers.5
G enerally, during labor m arket contractions, m ost la­
bor force groups are im pacted negatively and experience
a decline in em ploym ent. This procyclical response cer­
tainly affects m any o f the self-em ployed, as their busi­
nesses fail when profits decline or disappear. However, a
com peting countercyclical effect could result if laid-off
wage and salary w orkers m ust rely on what was formerly
“m o o n lig h tin g ” self-em ploym ent or possibly enter the
ranks o f the self-em ployed.
Recent analysis conducted by Ellen R. Rissman used data
from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth ( n l s y ) and,
based on the model formulated in her study, found that flows
into self-employment occur during recessions and flows out
of self-employment occur during economic expansions.6
Additional research carried out by Daniel Aaronson, Ellen
R. Rissman, and Daniel G. Sullivan concluded that a large


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population controls.
3 Data are not directly comparable due to adoption of the North American
Industry Classification System ( naics ) and the Standard Occupational
Classification (soc) system.

proportion of the increase in self-employment since the be­
ginning of the most recent recession is due to unincorporated
firms emerging during weak economic conditions.7
Indeed, there has been an increase in the proportion of
nonagricultural employment made up of the self-employed
since the end of the most recent recession.8 Between early
2002 and mid-2004, labor market conditions continued to be
somewhat sluggish, and, over this period, nonagricultural
self-employment rose slightly from 6.5 percent to 6.8 per­
cent of total nonagricultural employment.9 (See chart 1.)

Characteristics of the seif-employed
Demographics. In 2003, older workers were more likely to
be self-employed than younger workers.10 (See tables 3 and
4.) (The following analysis will primarily focus on the unin­
corporated self-employed; in most cases the patterns exhib­
ited by the incorporated self-employed are very similar.) The
self-employment rate for workers age 65 and older was 19.1
percent, in contrast with only about 2.0 percent for their coun­
terparts age 16 to 19 and age 20 to 24. Younger workers
rarely have acquired the capital and managerial skills needed
to start a business, whereas many older workers may be able
to obtain these resources through their own efforts or through
access to available credit. Furthermore, older workers who
have retired from wage and salary jobs may become selfMonthly Labor Review

July 2004

15

Self-employment in the U.S.

Chart 1. Nonagricultural self-employment as a percent of total nonagricultural employment,
1990-2004, seasonally adjusted
Percent

Percent

employed to supplement their retirement income.
Recent research conducted by Julie Zissimopoulos and
Lynn A. Karoly examined factors associated with transitions
into self-em ploym ent am ong older individuals. Using
longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, the
authors analyzed the impact of a person’s health, wealth,
access to employer-provided benefits, and other factors such
as availability of a flexible work schedule on their wage and
salary job. The authors concluded that the likelihood of
future groups of older workers to enter self-employment at
the same rates as those observed in their study will be affected
by economic conditions, individual wealth, and other fac­
tors such as possible changes to the Social Security system
and other social insurance program s and technological
advances.11
S elf-em ploym ent is m ore com m on am ong m en than
women. In 2003, 8.8 percent of men were self-employed,
compared with 6.0 percent of women. Self-employed men
are more likely than their female counterparts to be employed
in industries— construction, for example— that have a large
proportion of self-employed workers.
W hites were more likely than blacks or Hispanics to op­
erate their own businesses. In 2003, the self-employment
16

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2004

rate for whites was 8.0 percent, while the rates for blacks or
African Americans and Hispanics or Latinos were 4.1 per­
cent and 5.5 percent, respectively. The rate for Asians was
6.9 percent.
Michael Hout and Harvey S. Rosen used the General So­
cial Survey to study how family background affects the prob­
ability of being self-employed. The authors found that blacks
have lower rates of self-employment than whites partly be­
cause of their differing family structures. Also, within each
family type, blacks had lower self-employment rates than
whites. Hout and Rosen contend that there is no indication
that the rates of self-employment between blacks and whites
will converge in the near future.12
Other research carried out by Robert W. Fairlie and Bruce
D. Meyer examined trends in white and black male self-em­
ployment in nonagricultural industries from 1910 to 1997.
The authors found that self-em ploym ent rates declined
through 1970 and then rose. With regard to white males,
trends in business ownership were due to falling rates within
industries, ending in 1970, and then counterbalanced by a
continued shift towards industries with a large proportion of
self-employed workers. Blacks were much less likely than
whites to be self-employed over the 1910-97 period. In their

Table 3.

Unincorporated self-employed, incorporated self-employed, and wage and salary workers by sex and
U n in c o rp o ra te d s e lf-e m p lo y e d

W a g e a n d s a la ry w o rke rs '

In c o rp o ra te d s e lf-e m p lo y e d

C h a ra c te ris tic
Total

M en

W o m en

Total

M en

W o m en

Total

M en

W o m en

Age

Total, 16 years and older:
Thousands ............................
Percent...................................
16 to 19 y e a rs .........................
20 to 24 y e a rs .........................
25
35
45
55
65

to 34 y e a rs .........................
to 44 y e a rs .........................
to 54 y e a rs .........................
to 64 y e a rs .........................
years and o ld e r.................

10,295
100.0
.9
2.6

6,430
100.0
1.0
2.8

3,865
100.0
.7
2.3

4,956
100.0
.2
1.0

3,626
100.0
.2
.9

1,330
100.0
.5
1.2

122,358
100.0
4.7
10.7

63,236
100.0
4.5
10.8

59,123
100.0
5.0
10.6

15.6
26.4
27.1
18.8
8.5

15.3
25.4
27.2
19.1
9.2

16.2
28.0
27.0
18.3
7.5

11.6
28.7
30.8
20.5
7.2

11.5
29.0
30.6
19.9
7.8

12.0
27.8
31.4
22.0
5.6

23.0
25.1
22.5
11.1
2.7

24.1
25.4
21.7
10.7
2.7

21.8
24.8
23.4
11.6
2.8

88.2
5.8
3.9
9.3

88.7
5.6
3.5
10.2

87.3
6.1
4.4
7.7

90.1
4.1
4.6
5.5

90.5
4.2
4.2
5.4

88.9
3.9
5.9
5.9

82.2
11.4
4.2
13.2

83.6
10.0
4.3
15.2

80.7
12.9
4.1
11.0

87.2
12.8
6.4
6.4

86.6
13.4
6.4
7.0

88.1
11.9
6.3
5.6

87.0
13.1
8.6
4.5

86.8
13.2
8.6
4.6

87.3
12.8
8.6
4.1

85.5
14.5
5.5
9.0

83.4
16.6
5.6
11.0

87.8
12.2
5.4
6.8

9,936
100.0

6,186
100.0

3,750
100.0

4,896
100.0

3,586
100.0

1,310
100.0

103,454
100.0

53,553
100.0

49,901
100.0

10.6

12.7

7.3

4.9

5.1

4.4

9.9

11.8

7.8

30.6
17.0
8.5
32.1
11.2

30.5
18.5
11.1
32.0
10.6

R a c e a n d H isp anic or
Latino e th n ic ity

W h ite ........................................
Black or African A m erica n....
A s ia n ........................................
Hispanic or La tino..................
C o u n try of birth
a n d U.S. citizen ship status

U.S. b o rn ..................................
Foreign-born...........................
U.S. c itiz e n ............................
Not a U.S. c itiz e n .................
E d u c a tio n a l a tta in m e n t

Total, 25 years and older:
Thousands ............................
Percent...................................
Less than a high school
d ip lo m a .................................
High school graduates,
no c o lle g e ............................
Some college, no d e g re e .....
Associate d e g re e ....................
College g ra d u a te s .................
Advanced d e g re e ...............

31.4
18.3
8.5
31.2
12.3

32.4
17.7
7.1
30.1
12.2

29.7
19.2
10.8
33.0
12.5

’ Data exclude the incorporated self-employed.
N ote : Detail for the above race and Hispanic or Latino groups w ill not sum

to total because data for the “other races” group are not presented and

study, Fairlie and Meyer argue that, absent continuing forces
holding back self-employment among blacks, a simple intergenerational model suggests a rapid convergence of black
and white rates of self-employment.13
Workers who were natives of the United States were some­
what more likely than the foreign-born to be self-employed.
The self-employment rate for U.S. citizens was 7.6 percent,
compared with 6.7 percent for the foreign-born.14 Foreignborn workers who were naturalized citizens had a higher
probability of being self-employed than their counterparts
who were noncitizens; the self-employment rate for natural­


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

23.0
18.3
7.4
46.3
17.9

23.0
17.6
7.0
47.3
18.8

23.1
20.2
8.6
43.6
15.5

30.5
17.8
9.8
32.1
10.9

Hispanics or Latinos are included in both the white and black population
groups. Detail for other characteristics may not sum to totals due to
rounding. In addition, data exclude unpaid family workers.

ized citizens was 8.3 percent, in contrast with 5.6 percent for
noncitizens. Among the foreign-born— both naturalized citi­
zens and noncitizens combined— natives of South Korea had
the highest probability of owning their own business; about
one in every five of these workers were self-employed.
Self-employed workers were found at both ends of the
educational spectrum. Among workers age 25 and older,
those with either an advanced degree or with less than a high
school diploma had relatively high self-employment rates—
9.2 percent. The probability of being a business owner was
somewhat lower for workers with an associate degree, high
Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

17

Self-employment in the U.S.

Self-employment rates by sex and selected characteristics, 2003 annual averages
S e lf-e m p lo y m e n t rates'
C h a ra c te ris tic

Unincor p o ra te d s e lf-e m p lo y e d

Total

M en

In c o rp o ra te d s e lf-e m p lo y e d

W o m en

Total

M en

W o m en

Age

Total, 16 years and o ld e r.........................
16 to 19 y e a rs ......................................
20 to 24 y e a rs ....................................
25 to 34 y e a rs ....................................
35 to 44 y e a rs ......................................
45 to 54 y e a rs ........................................
55 to 64 y e a rs ...............................
65 years and o ld e r...................................

7.5
1.5
2.0
5.3
7.8
8.7
11.7
19.1

8.8
2.2
2.5
5.9
8.7
10.5
14.1
22.8

6.0
.9
1.4
4.6
6.7
6.8
9.0
14.3

3.6
.2
.4
1.9
4.1
4.8
6.1
7.8

4.9
.2
.5
2.5
5.6
6.7
8.3
10.9

2.1
2
3
12
2.3
27
37
3.7

8.0
4.1
6.9
5.5

9.2
5.3
7.4
6.3

6.4
3.0
6.3
4.3

3.9
1.4
4.0
1.6

5.3
2.2
4.9
1.9

23
7
2.9
1.1

7.6
6.7
8.3
5.6

9.1
7.3
9.6
5.9

6.0
5.8
6.8
5.0

3.7
3.3
5.4
1.9

5.1
4.0
7.3
2.2

2 1
22
3.2
1.3

8.4

R a c e a n d H isp anic or Latino eth n ic ity

W h ite ..........................................
Black or African A m erican.........................
A s ia n ..................................................
Hispanic or La tin o ..............................
C o u n try of birth
a n d U.S. citizen ship status

U.S. b o rn .........................................
Foreign-born.........................................
U.S. c itiz e n ...........................................
Not a U.S. c itiz e n .........................................
E d u c a tio n a l a tta in m e n t

Total, 25 years and o ld e r..........................
Less than a high school
d ip lo m a ..............................................
High school graduates,
no c o lle g e ...................................
Some college, no d e g re e ..........................
Associate d e g re e ......................................
College g ra d u a te s .........................................
Advanced d e g re e ..............................

9.8

6.8

4.1

5.7

2.4

9.2

10.8

6.4

2.1

2.5

1.4

8.7
8.6
7.5
8.0
9.2

10.4
10.1
8.4
9.0
10.2

6.7
7.0
6.6
6.9
7.8

3.1
4.2
3.2
5.9
6.5

4.3
5.8
4.8
8.2
9.1

1.8
2.6
1.9
3.2
3.4

'Self-employment rates are calculated by dividing the number of self-employed workers in a specified worker group by total employment iri the same
worker group.

school graduates with no college, and workers with some
college but no degree.
Among the incorporated self-employed, the rate of selfemployment for individuals with advanced degrees (6.5 per­
cent) was more than three times the rate for their counter­
parts with less than a high school diploma— 2.1 percent.
Employment among the incorporated self-employed tends to
be concentrated in those occupations— management, profes­
sional and related occupations— in which a large proportion
of workers have advanced degrees. For instance, above-av­
erage incorporated self-employment rates were found among
dentists (40.1 percent); veterinarians (30.9 percent); physi­
cians and surgeons (18.3 percent); and lawyers, judges, mag­
istrates, and other judicial workers (11.5 percent).
Tables 5 and 6 show trends in nonagricultural self-em­
ployment rates since 1989 for self-employed workers and
18

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2004

incorporated business owners by sex, race, H ispanic or
Latino ethnicity, and age. Over this period, the incidence of
self-employment has consistently been more common among
men, whites, and older workers. However, the rates of selfemployment among most of the unincorporated groups have
been falling, whereas the incidence of self-em ploym ent
among the vast majority of the incorporated groups has been
rising.

Work schedules and multiple jobholding. In terms of work
schedules, about one in every three of the nonagricultural
self-employed worked part time— that is, 1 to 34 hours per
week. There were, however, differences between men and
women. Only about one-fourth of all self-employed men
worked part time, compared with nearly half of their female
counterparts.

Table 5. | Incidence of unincorporated self-employment in nonagricultural industries by sex, race, Hispanic or Latino
ethnicity, and age, annual averages, 1989-2003
[Percent]

Y ear

Total

M en

W o m en

W hite

B lack or
A frican
A m e ric a n

1989 ........
1 9 9 0 ........
1991 ........
1992 ........
1 9 9 3 ........

7.5
7.5
7.7
7.4
7.6

9.0
8.9
9.2
9.1
9.4

5.8
5.9
6.0
5.6
5.6

8.0
8.0
8.2
7.9
8.1

3.3
3.6
3.7
3.5
3.5

19941.......
1 9 9 5 ........
1996 ........
1997 ........
1998 ........

7.5
7.3
7.3
7.2
7.0

8.7
8.4
8.3
8.2
8.0

6.2
6.1
6.1
6.0
5.8

8.0
7.8
7.8
7.6
7.5

3.6
3.7
3.6
3.4
3.4

1999 ........
20 002 3 ....
20013.......
20023 .......
20033.......

6.8
6.8
6.8
6.7
6.9

7.8
7.8
7.7
7.6
8.0

5.6
5.7
5.7
5.6
5.7

7.2
7.2
7.2
7.1
7.3

3.5
4.1
3.9
3.9
4.0

Asian

H ispanic
or
Latino

16 to
19
years

20 to
24
years

25 to
34
ye ars

35 to
44
years

4 5 to
54
ye a rs

55 to
64
ye a rs

65
ye ars
and
o ld er

5.9
5.4
5.3
5.0
5.4

1.2
1.1
1.0
1.3
1.1

2.3
2.3
2.3
2.1
2.1

5.8
5.9
6.0
5.6
5.8

8.4
8.5
8.6
8.0
8.2

9.7
9.9
10.2
9.8
9.8

11.6
11.9
11.7
11.5
12.2

19.8
19.0
19.9
19.6
19.8

5.2
4.8
5.1
5.0
4.7

2.1
1.8
1.2
1.2
.8

2.2
2.2
2.3
2.1
2.0

5.6
5.4
5.3
5.1
4.9

8.0
7.7
7.7
7.7
7.6

9.4
9.3
9.3
9.0
8.9

12.1
11.4
11.1
11.7
11.2

20.0
19.4
19.3
19.8
18.5

5.0
4.8
5.2
5.2
5.5

.9
1.4
1.4
1.5
1.5

2.1
2.0
2.2
2.1
1.9

4.9
4.9
4.7
4.9
5.0

7.2
7.4
7.2
7.0
7.4

8.5
8.6
8.3
8.2
8.2

10.7
10.6
10.7
9.9
10.5

17.7
16.9
16.6
15.3
15.3

-

_
-

_
6.7
6.4
5.7
6.8

1 Data, beginning in 1994, are not directly comparable with data for earlier
years due to a major redesign of the cps and the introduction of censusbased population controls, adjusted for the estimated undercount.

3
Data are not directly comparable due to adaptation of the North
A m erican Industry C lassificatio n System ( naics ) and the Standard
Occupational Classification (soc) system.

2 Data not directly comparable due to incorporation of Census 2000
population controls.

N ote : Dash indicates data not available.

Table 6. Incidence of incorporated self-employment in nonagricultural industries by sex, race, Hispanic or Latino
ethnicity, and age, annual averages, 1989-2003
[Percent]

Y ear

Total

M en

W om en

W hite

Black
or
Asian
A frican
A m e ric a n

1 9 8 9 .......
1990 .......
1991 .......
1992 ......
1 9 9 3 .......

2.9
2.9
2.8
2.9
2.9

4.2
4.2
4.1
4.3
4.2

1.3
1.4
1.3
1.4
1.4

3.2
3.1
3.1
3.2
3.2

0.5
.7
.6
.5
.5

19941.....
1 9 9 5 .......
1996 .......
1 9 9 7 .......
1998 .......

3.4
3.3
3.2
3.3
3.2

4.6
4.5
4.5
4.6
4.5

2.0
2.0
1.7
1.8
1.8

3.7
3.6
3.5
3.6
3.5

.9
.9
.9
.8
.9

1 9 9 9 .......
20002 3 ...
20013......
20023 .....
20033 .....

3.2
3.2
3.2
3.3
3.6

4.4
4.5
4.4
4.7
4.9

1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
2.0

3.4
3.5
3.4
3.6
3.9

1.0
1.2
1.2
1.1
1.4

-

_
-

-

3.5
4.2
4.1
4.0

1 Data, beginning in 1994, are not directly comparable with data for
earlier years due to a major redesign of the cps and the introduction of
census-based population controls, adjusted for the estimated undercount.
2 Data not directly comparable due to incorporation of Census 2000
population controls.


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5 5 to
64
years

65
ye ars
and
o ld er

25 to
34
years

35 to
44
years

4 5 to
54
ye ars

0.3
.3
.3
.3
.3

1.6
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.5

3.7
3.5
3.5
3.4
3.4

4.6
4.8
4.6
4.9
4.6

5.0
4.9
5.0
5.4
5.5

7.2
7.0
6.8
7.2
7.1

.9
.7
.1
.1
.1

.7
.7
.5
.3
.3

1.9
1.9
1.8
1.8
1.7

3.8
3.7
3.6
3.7
3.7

5.0
4.8
4.7
4.9
4.5

6.1
5.9
5.6
5.9
6.1

8.5
7.9
7.3
8.2
7.7

.1
.1
.1
.1
.2

.3
.3
.4
.3
.4

1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.9

3.6
3.7
3.7
3.7
4.1

4.4
4.5
4.4
4.6
4.7

5.7
5.7
5.7
6.0
6.1

7.8
7.7
7.5
7.7
7.7

16 to
19
years

20 to
24
years

1.4
1.1
1.1
1.2
1.4

0.1
.1
.1
.1
.1

1.4
1.5
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.6

H ispanic
or
Latino

3
Data are not directly comparable due to adaptation of the North
A m erican Ind ustry C lassificatio n System ( naics ) and the S tandard
Occupational Classification (soc) system.
N ote : Dash indicates data not available.

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

19

Self-employment in the U.S.

The following tabulation shows the percent distribution
of hours at work and average weekly hours for nonagricultural self-employed workers in 2003:
H o u rs w o rked p e r w eek

B o th sexes

M en

W om en

T otal at w ork (in th o u s a n d s )....
P e rc e n t d is trib u tio n .....................

8,750
100.0

5,422
100.0

3,328
100.0

1 to 14 h o u r s .................................
15 to 34 h o u r s ..............................
35 hours o r m o r e ..........................
35 to 40 h o u r s ............................
41 to 48 h o u r s ............................
49 hours o r m o r e .......................

10.3
23.2
66.5
32.2
6.9
21A

A verage w eekly h o u r s ................

38.4

6.7
19.0
74.3
35.0
7.7
31.6
41.3

16.1
30.0
53.9
27.6
5.7
20.6
33.8

Among the self-employed, men were much more likely
than women to put in a long workweek; for instance, 31.6
percent of m en worked 49 hours or more per week, in con­
trast with 20.6 percent of women. The average workweek
for men was nearly 8 hours longer than that for women (41.3
hours versus 33.8 hours).
Since 1994, monthly data on multiple jobholding have
been available from the c p s . In the survey, a quarter of re­
spondents are asked questions about the occupation, indus­
try, and class of worker of their secondary job. In 2003, 1.5
million workers were classified as wage and salary on their
main job and self-employed on their secondary job; these
workers, however, made up a small proportion of total em­
ployment— only 1.1 percent. As is the case with total mul­
tiple jobholding, this proportion has declined steadily since
the mid-1990s.

Industry and occupation
Industry. The probability of being self-employed was high­
est for workers in agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting;
construction; “other services”; and, professional and busi­
ness services. (See table 7.)
Specific industries within agriculture, forestry, fishing, and
hunting that had high rates of self-employment included ani­
mal production (52.9 percent) and crop production (38.1
percent). Within the “other services” sector, self-employ­
ment rates were highest for barber shops (48.8 percent), per­
sonal and household goods repair and maintenance (43.1
percent), nail salons and other personal care services (41.8
percent), and beauty salons (33.5 percent). In the profes­
sional and business services sector, the proportion of em­
ploym ent made up of business owners was highest in offices
of other health care practitioners (39.4 percent); specialized
design services (36.9 percent); other schools, institution, and
education services (32.6 percent); landscaping services (29.4
percent); and child day care services (29.4 percent).

20
Monthly Labor Review

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2004

Occupation. The self-employed are widely distributed across
occupations. (See table 7.) Occupational categories that had
the highest self-employment rates were construction and ex­
traction; management, business, and financial; and sales and
related occupations.
Construction and extraction occupations with relatively
high self-employment rates included carpet, floor, and tile
installers and finishers (33.4 percent); painters, construction
and maintenance (26.5 percent); and drywall installers, ceil­
ing tile installers, and tapers (23.1 percent). Specific occu­
pations within the management, business, and financial cat­
egory with large proportions of business owners included
management analysts (27.8 percent); construction managers
(25.1 percent); property, real estate, and community associa­
tion managers (21.8 percent); and tax preparers (19.1 per­
cent). Within the sales and related occupations category, selfemployment rates were highest for door-to-door sales work­
ers, street vendors, and related workers (49.9 percent); real
estate brokers and agents (29.4 percent); and first line supervisors/managers of retail sales workers (15.7 percent).
A number of jobs in the professional and related occupa­
tions category lend themselves to business ownership. For
instance, the rate of self-employment was very high for art­
ists and related workers (46.9 percent); writers and authors
(46.8 percent); musicians, singers, and related workers (43.0
percent); and photographers (38.3 percent).

Regions
In 2003, the likelihood of being a business owner was high­
est in the western region. The self-employment rate in the
West was 8.9 percent, compared with 7.4 percent in the
South, 6.9 percent in the Midwest, and 6.6 percent in the
Northeast.15 (See table 8.)
By far, the largest proportion of foreign-born workers was
in the West; nearly one in every four workers in this region
was foreign-born. Among the foreign-born, the self-employ­
ment rate for individuals in the West (7.7 percent) was aboveaverage, and higher than the rates for their counterparts in
the South (6.7 percent), Northeast (6.0 percent), and M id­
west (4.7 percent).
As is the case for the entire Nation, men were more likely
than women to be self-employed in every region. Among the
incorporated self-employed, the disparity in self-employment
rates was even greater; in every region, men were at least
twice as likely as women to own their own business.

Presence of paid employees
Beginning in January 1995, two questions were added to the
to provide information on the self-employed that would
allow these individuals to be classified as employers, or alcps

Table 7. Self-employment rates by sex, occupation and industry, 2003 annual averages
[Percent]
S e lf-e m p lo y m e n t ra te s 1

O c c u p a tio n a n d industry

In c o rp o ra te d s e lf-e m p lo y e d

U n in c o rp o ra te d s e lf-e m p lo y e d

Total

M en

W o m en

6.0

3.6

4.9

2.1

11.3
14.9
7.9
5.9
7.2
10.7
1.1

6.2
8.7
4.8
9.0
4.5
9.3
2.0

5.8
9.7
2.9
1.1
3.5
6.0
1.5

8.8
12.9
5.0
1.5
5.8
8.7
.9

2.7
5.3
1.3
.9
2.3
3.2
1.7

12.6
6.4
16.5
7.7

12.7
7.5
16.3
7.8

11.0
2.5
23.7
6.9

3.3
1.6
4.3
2.0

3.3
1.7
4.3
2.1

2.2
.9
4.7
.9

3.8
3.2
4.5

4.0
3.1
4.8

3.3
3.6
2.5

1.2
.9
1.6

1.4
1.1
1.6

.6
.5
1.0

Total, age 16 and o ld e r...................................................

7.5

8.8

6.0

3.6

4.9

2.1

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and h u nting.......................
M in in g .................................................................................
C onstruction......................................................................
M anufacturing....................................................................
Durable g o o d s .................................................................
Nondurable g o o d s ..........................................................
Wholesale and retail tra d e ...............................................
Wholesale tra d e ...............................................................
Retail tra d e ......................................................................
Transportation and public u tilitie s ....................................
Inform ation.........................................................................
Financial a c tiv itie s ............................................................
Professional and business se rv ic e s ...............................
Education and health s e rv ic e s ........................................
Leisure and hospitality......................................................
Other s e rv ic e s ...................................................................

41.8
1.7
16.9
1.9
1.9
2.0
6.0
5.3
6.2
5.1
4.1
7.6
13.7
4.0
5.9
15.7

40.9
1.5
17.6
1.9
1.9
1.7
5.6
5.5
5.6
6.0
4.8
10.4
14.8
4.1
6.9
16.6

44.3
5.1
10.9
2.1
1.8
2.5
6.5
4.9
6.8
2.5
3.2
5.3
12.3
4.0
4.9
14.9

6.4
4.2
7.2
2.1
2.3
1.8
4.4
6.3
3.9
2.5
2.9
4.9
7.1
1.5
2.8
4.4

6.0
4.0
6.9
2.4
2.5
2.3
5.7
7.0
5.2
2.9
3.8
7.6
8.9
3.8
3.6
6.2

7.6
2.0
10.1
1.4
1.6
1.0
2.9
4.8
2.6
1.5
1.7
2.7
4.7
.7
2.1
2.7

Total

M en

Total, age 16 and o ld e r...................................................

7.5

8.8

Management, professional, and related occupations ...
Management, business, and financial occupations ....
Professional and related occu pation s..........................
Service occu pation s.........................................................
Sales and office occ u p a tio n s ..........................................
Sales and related occupations......................................
Office and administrative support occupations...........
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance
occupations....................................................................
Farming, fishing, and forestry occu pation s.................
Construction and extraction occupations.....................
Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations.....
Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations....................................................................
Production occupations..................................................
Transportation and material moving o ccu pation s.......

8.7
12.3
6.2
7.7
5.5
10.0
1.8

W o m en

O c c u p a tio n

Industry

1Self-employment rates are calculated by dividing the number of self-employed workers in a specified worker group by total employment in the same
worker group.

ternatively, persons who worked on their own account. Spe­
cifically, the unincorporated self-employed were asked if they
had any paid employees, and if so, the number of employees
they usually employed. Table 9 shows data on the presence
of paid employees from 1995-2003. The estimates show
that the incidence of employment of other individuals in selfemployed business is uncommon. Indeed, in 2003, only 16.9
percent o f the self-employed had paid employees. Interest­
ingly, this proportion had declined from 20.7 percent in 1995.
O f the 1.7 million with employees in 2003, over three-


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

fourths had just 1 to 4 employees; the share with more than
20 was very small— less than 4 percent. These proportions
were fairly consistent over the 1995-2003 period.16 Men
were about twice as likely as women to have paid employ­
ees. In 2003, about 1 in every 5 self-employed men had
employees, compared with 1 in every 10 women. For both
groups, the proportions have declined slightly since the data
were first collected in 1995. In terms of number of employ­
ees, the pattern between men and women was very similar,
and about the same as for all self-employed workers.

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

21

Self-employment In the U.S.

Table 8.

Self-employment rates by sex, region and census division, 2003 annual averages

[Percent]
S e lf-e m p lo y m e n t rates'
C e n s u s r e g io n a n d division

U n in c o rp o ra te d s e lf-e m p lo y e d

In c o rp o ra te d s e lf-e m p lo y e d

Total

M en

W o m en

Total

M en

Total, United S ta te s .......................

7.5

8.8

6.0

3.6

4.9

2.1

N o rth e a s t......................................
New E ngland..............................
Middle A tlantic............................

6.6
7.5
6.3

7.9
8.9
7.5

5.2
6.0
4.9

3.6
3.4
3.7

5.2
5.0
5.3

1.9
1.8
2.0

M idw e st.........................................
East North C e n tra l.....................
West North C e n tra l....................

6.9
6.1
8.6

7.9
6.9
10.1

5.8
5.3
7.0

3.6
3.5
3.7

5.0
4.9
5.2

1.9
1.9
2.1

S o u th .............................................
South A tla n tic .............................
East South C e n tra l.....................
West South C e n tra l...................

7.4
6.6
7.6
8.7

9.0
7.9
9.3
10.6

5.6
5.1
5.6
6.4

3.7
4.4
2.9
3.1

5.1
6.2
4.1
4.0

2.2
2.4
1.7
2.0

W e s t...............................................
Mountain .....................................
P acific..........................................

8.9
8.0
9.3

10.0
8.7
10.6

7.6
7.2
7.8

3.4
4.8
2.8

4.4
6.2
3.6

2.2
3.1
1.8

W o m en

'Self-employment rates are calculated by dividing the number of self-employed workers in a specified worker group by total employment in the same
worker group.

Table 9.

Self-employed workers by sex and presence and number of paid employees, annual averages, 1995-2003
C h a ra c te ris tic

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

Total, age 16 and older (thousands).......
Percent with no paid em ployees.......
Percent with paid em ployees............

10,409
79.3
20.7

10,580
79.6
20.4

10,501
79.6
20.4

10,355
79.6
20.4

10,053
80.6
19.4

9,949
80.9
19.1

9,855
80.9
19.1

9,627
82.0
18.0

10,319
83.1
16.9

Total with paid employees
(thousands)....................................
P ercent...........................................
1 -4 em ployees....................................
5 -9 em ployees....................................
10-19 em ployees...............................
20 or more em ployee s.......................

2,159
100.0
78.6
13.8
5.2
2.3

2,155
100.0
76.7
15.4
5.3
2.6

2,143
100.0
74.2
17.1
5.8
2.9

2,115
100.0
77.2
14.6
6.0
2.3

1,954
100.0
75.7
14.9
5.1
4.2

1,900
100.0
74.3
15.5
5.9
4.4

1,883
100.0
77.4
13.2
6.5
3.0

1,737
100.0
74.4
15.9
5.6
4.1

1,743
100.0
76.7
14.4
5.3
3.7

Men, age 16 and older (th ousa nds).......
Percent with no paid em ployees......
Percent with paid em ployees............

6,556
74.5
25.5

6,646
75.0
25.0

6,596
75.4
24.6

6,517
75.6
24.5

6,299
76.6
23.4

6,186
77.1
22.9

6,106
76.7
23.3

5,978
78.2
21.8

6,427
79.7
20.3

Total with paid employees
(thousands)....................................
P ercent...........................................
1-4 em ployees....................................
5 -9 em ployees....................................
10-19 em ployees...............................
20 or more em ployee s.......................

1,673
100.0
78.3
14.0
5.1
2.5

1,662
100.0
76.8
15.6
4.9
2.8

1,625
100.0
74.5
17.4
5.1
3.0

1,594
100.0
77.4
14.3
6.0
2.3

1,471
100.0
76.0
14.8
4.7
4.5

1,418
100.0
74.8
14.5
6.1
4.7

1,424
100.0
76.5
14.1
6.3
3.1

1,301
100.0
74.8
15.6
5.3
4.2

1,307
100.0
75.5
15.1
5.3
4.0

Women, age 16 and older (thousands)..
Percent with no paid em ployees.......
Percent with paid em ployees............

3,853
87.4
12.6

3,934
87.5
12.5

3,905
86.7
13.3

3,838
86.4
13.6

3,754
87.1
12.9

3,763
87.2
12.8

3,749
87.7
12.3

3,649
88.0
12.0

3,892
88.8
11.2

Total with paid employees
(thousands)....................................
P ercent...........................................
1 -4 em ployees....................................
5 -9 em ployees....................................
10-19 em ployees...............................
20 or more em ployee s.......................

486
100.0
79.8
12.8
5.8
1.9

492
100.0
76.6
14.6
6.7
2.0

519
100.0
73.2
16.4
7.9
2.3

522
100.0
76.4
15.3
5.7
2.3

483
100.0
74.7
15.5
6.4
3.5

483
100.0
72.7
18.4
5.4
3.5

460
100.0
80.2
10.2
7.0
2.6

437
100.0
73.2
16.7
6.6
3.2

437
100.0
79.9
12.1
5.3
2.7

N ote : The estimates shown above use sample weights based on
population controls developed from the 1990 Census. The 2003 estimates
use sampling based on population controls developed from Census 2000.
In addition, the 2003 estimates use revised classification and editing
systems for class of worker, industry, and occupation.These estimates were

22
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July 2004

tabulated using the outgoing rotation groups only. Because the sample for
these tabulations is limited to one quarter of the full cps sample, estimates
of the unincorporated self-employed may not exactly match estimates
derived from the full sample. The reliability also will be less than the
reliability of the estimates based on the full cps sample.

many years, the rate of selfemployment in the United States has edged up recently. Al­
though self-employment was much more common in the late1940s, it still accounts for a substantial proportion of total
employment in 2003. The reduced incidence of self-employ­
ment is largely due to the decline in the importance of agri­
culture and unpaid family work over the post-World War II
period and the accompanying rise in incorporated self-em­
ploym ent and wage and salary work or “paid employment.”
In 2003, self-employed workers were more likely to be

A f t e r s t e a d il y d e c l in in g f o r

men, white, and older. Workers in agriculture, construction,
and services had the greatest likelihood of being self-em­
ployed. As is the case with their industry distribution, busi­
ness owners are concentrated in a wide range of occupations
ranging from professional, sales, and construction occupa­
tions. Data from the c p s also show that most self-employed
workers do not have paid employees and, of those who do,
most employ few workers. In addition, self-employed men
were about twice as likely as their female counterparts to
have paid employees.
□

Notes
A c k n o w l e d g m e n t : The author thanks Kenneth W. Robertson for
tabulating the data on self-employed workers by presence and number of
paid employees.

1 The Current Population Survey ( cps ) is a monthly sample survey of
about 60,000 households that provides information on the demographic
characteristics o f the labor force and em ployment status o f the
noninstitutional population age 16 years and older.
2 For more information on the impact of the cps redesign on the selfemployment estimates, see Anne E. Polivka and Stephen M. Miller, “The
c ps after the Redesign:
Refocusing the Economic Lens,” in John
Haltiwanger, Marilyn Manser, and Robert Topel, eds., L a b o r S ta tis tic s
M e a s u r e m e n t I s s u e s (National Bureau of Economic Research, Studies in
Income and Wealth Volume 60) pp. 249-86.
3 For a detailed explanation of changes to the cps , see Mary Bowler,
Randy E. Ilg, Stephen Miller, Ed Robison, and Anne Polivka,“Revisions
to the Current Population Survey Effective in January 2003,” E m p lo y m e n t
a n d E a r n in g s (Bureau of Labor Statistics, February 2003).
4 As with total employment, the 1994 increase was particularly
pronounced among women. See Polivka and Miller, “The cps after the
Redesign,” pp. 275-77.
5 See Marilyn E. Manser and Garnett Picot, “The role of selfemployment in U.S. and Canadian job growth,” M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w ,
April 1999, pp. 10-25.
6 See Ellen R. Rissman, “Self-employment as an Alternative to
Unemployment,” Working Paper Number 34, Fourth Quarter 2003 (Federal
Reserve Bank of Chicago, 2003).
7 See Daniel Aaronson, Ellen R. Rissman, and Daniel Sullivan,
“Assessing the jobless recovery,” E c o n o m ic P e r s p e c tiv e s , Second Quarter
2004 (Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, 2004), pp. 6-9.
8 The National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc., the generally
recognized arbiter of business cycle dates, has designated November 2001
as the trough of the recession that began in March 2001.
9 Aaronson, Rissman, and Sullivan suggest that many of the new
enterprises that emerged during the most recent economic downturn will
disappear as labor market conditions in the wage and salary sector improve.
See Aaronson and others, “Assessing the jobless recovery,” p. 9.
10 For a comprehensive overview of self-employment among older
workers see Lynn A. Karoly and Julie Zissimopoulos, “Self-Employment
and the 50+ Population,” aarp Public Policy Institute Issue Paper, March
2004. In addition, see Lynn A. Karoly and Julie Zissimopoulos, “SelfEmployment Trends and Patterns Among Older U.S. Workers,” rand Labor


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and Population Working Paper, w r -1 3 6 , December 2 0 0 3 , on the Internet
at http://www.rand.org/publications/WRAVR136/.
11 See Julie Zissimopoulos and Lynn A. Karoly, “Transitions to SelfEmployment at Older Ages: The Role of Wealth, Health, Health Insurance,
and Other Factors,” rand Labor and Population Working Paper, w r -135,
December 2003, on the Internet at http://www.rand.org/publications/
WR/WR135/. For additional research on this topic, see Donald Bruce,
Douglas Holtz-Eakin, and Joseph Quinn, “Self-employment and Labor
Market Transitions at Older Ages,” Working Paper 2000-13 (Center for
Retirement Research at Boston College, December 2000).
12 See Michael Hout and Harvey S. Rosen, “Self-employment, Family
Background, and Race,” J o u r n a l o f H u m a n R e s o u r c e s , fall 2000, pp. 67092.
13 See Robert W. Fairlie and Bruce D. Meyer, “Trends in SelfEmployment Among White and Black Men During the Twentieth
Century,” J o u r n a l o f H u m a n R e s o u r c e s , fall 2000, pp. 643-69.
14 Beginning in 1994, questions on nativity and U.S. citizenship
status were added to the basic monthly c p s . Respondents are asked to
name their country of birth. Those who said that they were born in the
United States, Puerto Rico, or another U.S. territory, or that they were
born abroad of an American parent, or parents, are classified as U.S.
natives. Individuals who provided another response are classified as
foreign-born.
15 The four census regions of the United States are Northeast, South,
Midwest, and West. Within the Northeast, the New England division
includes Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode
Island, and Vermont; and the Middle Atlantic division includes New Jersey,
New York, and Pennsylvania. Within the South, the South Atlantic
division includes Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia,
Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia;
the East South Central division includes Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi,
and Tennessee; and the West South Central division includes Arkansas,
Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas. Within the Midwest, the East North
Central division includes Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin;
the West North Central division includes Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota,
Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. Within the West,
the Mountain division includes Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana,
Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; the Pacific division includes
Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.
16 The February 2001 Contingent and Alternative Work Arrangements
Supplement to the cps collected data on presence of employees from both
unincorporated and incorporated self-employed workers. Roughly 3 in
every 5 of the 3.9 million incorporated self-employed workers had paid
employees. Of this group, 40.9 percent employed 1 to 4 workers, while
15.7 percent had 20 or more employees.

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

23

Self-Employment— Older Work HH
:

S e lf-e m p lo y m e n t
a m o n g o ld e r U.S. w o rkers
The 1990s showed a downward trend in self-employment rates,
however, the fact that self-employment rates rise at older ages
and that the baby-boom cohort is approaching retirement
suggests that demographics alone may halt or reverse that trend
ccording to published and unpublished
data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics,
14.4 million U. S. workers, or 10.5 percent
o f th e w o rk fo rc e , w ere se lf-e m p lo y e d in
incorporated or unincorporated businesses in
2002. O f those self-employed, middle aged or
older w orkers constitute a disproportionate
share because rates of self-employment rise with
age. For example, in 2002, workers age 45 and
older represented 38 percent of the workforce in
total, but they made up 54 percent of the selfemployed (in unincorporated businesses only).
Some of these older workers have been selfemployed for much or all of their working careers
while others have made the transition to selfemployment later in their careers, often as part of
the transition to retirement.
Although self-employment is an important
labor force phenomenon among individuals at
older ages, there is a paucity of studies that
examine the patterns of self-employment among
older U.S. workers. The studies that do exist are
largely confined to younger workers or analyses
of the self-employed workforce as a whole, with
only a few efforts that focus on how patterns
may differ at older ages. With the leading edge
of the baby-boom cohort reaching retirem ent
years, the rising rates of self-employment with
age suggest that it is important to have a solid
understanding of who is self-employed at older
ages and how patterns of self-employment may
be changing over time.

A

Lynn A. Karoly is a senior
econom ist
and Julie Zissimopoulos is
an econom ist a t RAND.
E-mail:
Lynn_Karoly@ rand.org
Julie_Zissimopoulos@rand.org

24
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This article helps to fill a gap in the
research by focusing on self-em ployed
workers age 50 and older. In particular, it
describes the overall trend in rates of selfem ploym ent am ong the population as a
whole and for those age 50 and older, and
exam ines the characteristics of the selfemployed, particularly those in middle-age
and older and com pares them with their
wage and salary counterparts. It begins by
reviewing trends in self-employment rates
evident in published and unpublished data
series. It also reviews prior studies of the
characteristics of the self-employed, with a
p a rtic u la r fo cu s on an a ly se s o f o ld er
workers. Next it analyzes the trends in selfem ploym ent rates based on the C urrent
Population Survey (CPS) for workers age 50
and older. This article examines trends using
alternative definitions, as well as changes in
the characteristics of older self-employed
w orkers over tim e. It continues w ith a
descriptive analysis using cross-sectional
data from the 1998 Health and Retirement
Study (HRS98) on workers age 51 and older,
examining detailed characteristics of the selfemployed in total and for subgroups and by
whether they became self-employed before
or after age 5 0 .1
This study relies on two primary sources
of com plem entary data: cross-sectional
time-series data from the annual CPS from

1968 to 2002 and cross-sectional data from the Health and
Retirem ent Study from 1998. Conducted by the Census
Bureau, the CPS is a nationally representative survey of the
U.S. noninstitutionalized civilian population and serves as
the source of official statistics on self-employment. For this
study, the CPS is used to provide information on trends in
self-employment rates in general and for the population age
50 and older. The CPS provides data on demographic and
employment characteristics of the self-employed over time.
Beginning in 1992, the Health and Retirement Study has
c o n d u c te d b ie n n ia l in te rv ie w s w ith a n a tio n a lly r e ­
presentative cohort of individuals born between 1931 and
1941 and their spouses.2 Additional cohorts have been added
over time so that starting with the 1998 survey wave (HRS98),
the sample is representative of all cohorts born prior to 1947
and their spouses. The HRS98 data— with their more detailed
information on economic and health status— provide an even
richer portrait of self-employed workers age 51 and older than
what is available using the CPS.

BLS data on self-employment
Employment data, analyzed and published by BLS through
the m onthly c p s , are the official source o f data on selfem ploym ent in the United States. Each month, the CPS
records the employment status and class of employment for

Chart 1.

Trends in self-employment rate, 1970-2002

Percent of work force
self-employed

SOURCE:

the civilian noninstitutional population age 16 and older.
Individuals w ho report they are em ployed during the
reference week are asked about their employment class for
their main job: “Were you employed by a government, by a
private company, a nonprofit organization, or were you selfemployed (or working in a family business)?”3 If the answer
is self-em ployed, respondents are further asked “Is this
business incorporated?” Those who respond they are selfemployed in an incorporated business, along with those who
work for government, a private company or a nonprofit
organization are all classified as wage and salary workers.
The self-employed in incorporated businesses are considered
to be wage and salary workers because legally they are
employees of their own business.4 The self-employed are
therefore defined only as those who report they work for
themselves in an unincorporated business for their main job.
Chart 1 plots the trend in annual average self-employment
rates in total and separately for the self-employed in the
agricultural and nonagricultural sectors as tabulated by BLS
for all workers age 16 and older. It shows the official series
from 1970 onwards including only the self-em ployed in
unincorporated business, as well as the series, available since
1989, th at can be c o n stru c te d fro m p u b lish e d and
unpublished data for the incorporated and unincorporated
self-employed.
In 2002,14.4 million workers or 10.5 percent of the workforce

Percent of work force
self-employed

P u blishe d and u n p u b lis h e d ho u se h o ld da ta from the C P S re ported by B LS in ta b le 58 0 of the 2001 ed itio n of th e S ta tis tic a l

A b s t r a c t o f th e U n it e d S ta te s , in ta b le 12 on the Interne t at: h ttp ://w w w .b ls.g 0 v /cp s/h 0 m e .h tm # e m p s ta t, and in an un p u b lish e d tab u la tio n

pro v id e d by BLS staff.


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M onthly Labor Review

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2004

25

Self-Employment—Older Workers

Table 1. Self-employment rates by sex and age, 2002
[Numbers in thousands]

Total em p lo y m e n t
C h a ra c te ris tic
Total

A gricultural e m p lo y m e n t

Selfe m p lo y e d

Selfe m p lo y e d
(p e rc e n t)

Total

Selfe m p lo y e d

Selfe m p lo y e d
(p e rc e n t)

N onagricultural e m p lo y m e n t

Total

Selfe m p lo y e d

Selfe m p lo y e d
(p e rc e n t)

All w o rk e rs ...........................

136,485

9,756

7.1

3,340

1,266

37.9

133,145

8,490

6.4

Workers age 45 and older:
4 5 -5 4 .................................
5 5 -6 4 .................................
65 and o ld e r.....................

31,281
15,674
4,306

2,728
1,736
830

8.7
11.1
19.3

631
426
304

306
265
223

48.5
62.2
73.4

30,650
15,248
4,002

2,422
1,471
607

7.9
9.6
15.2

All m e n ..................................

72,904

6,068

8.3

2,474

944

38.2

70,430

5,124

7.3

Men age 45 and older:
4 5 -5 4 .................................
5 5 -6 4 .................................
65 and o ld e r.....................

16,418
8,378
2,455

1,727
1,100
569

10.5
13.1
23.2

443
310
227

221
188
169

49.9
60.6
74.4

15,975
8,068
2,228

1,506
912
400

9.4
11.3
18.0

All w om e n.............................

63,583

3,689

5.8

867

323

37.3

62,716

3,366

5.4

Women age 45 and older:
4 5 -5 4 .................................
5 5 -6 4 .................................
65 and o ld e r.....................

14,864
7,296
1,850

1,001
637
261

6.7
8.7
14.1

189
115
77

85
77
54

45.0
67.0
70.1

14,675
7,181
1,773

916
560
207

6.2
7.8
11.7

N ote :

Self-employed are those In unincorporated businesses only.

S ource :

Household data from the

cps

were self-em ployed in incorporated and unincorporated
businesses. O f the total, 1.5 million were employed in the
agricultural sector, while the remaining 12.9 million worked in
nonagricultural industries. Nearly one in three or 4.6 million
w orkers were in incorporated businesses, in contrast to
unincorporated businesses. This is the segment of the selfemployed workforce that is considered to be “wage and salary”
workers in the official tabulations of self-employment by BLS.
Chart 1 illustrates that there has been a slight downward
trend in self-employment rates since the 1994 peak of 14.9
m illion self-em ployed incorporated and unincorporated
workers (or 12.1 percent of the workforce).5 This pattern is
evident for both the agricultural and nonagricultural sectors,
and for the broad and narrow definitions of self-employment.
This recent decline reverses the prior slight upward trend in
self-employment in the nonagricultural sector since the mid1970s.6 Self-employment was an important source of net job
creation in the 1980s, however, in the 1990s, self-employment
did not contribute to net employment growth.7 At the same
tim e, there has been an increase in the share of selfemployment in incorporated business. In 1989, 25.6 percent
of self-employed workers were incorporated, compared with
32.0 percent in 2002.
Self-em ploym ent rates are considerably higher in the
agricultural sector, compared with the nonagricultural sector.8
The share o f the agricultural w orkforce that was selfemployed in unincorporated businesses, which stood at 52

26
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Statistics in E m plo ym ent a n d Earnings, June 2003, table 15, p.205.

reported by Bureau of Labor

July 2004

percent in 1970, has steadily declined to 39 percent in 2001.
The share of the nonagricultural workforce that is selfemployed in unincorporated business also decreased from
7.5 percent in 1991 to 6.5 percent in 2001. Self-employment
rates within both the nonagricultural and agricultural sectors
are higher when w orkers in incorporated business are
included (about a third of self-employed workers), but the
downward trend is evident for the broader measure of selfemployment as well.
Table 1 shows self-employment rates by age and sex in 2002
based on the official measure of self-employment (which
excludes the self-employed in incorporated businesses).9
Among all workers, self-employment rates are higher for men
than for women (8.3 percent versus 5.8 percent in total), and
increase with age (a finding verified in a number of studies).10 At
ages 45 to 54, 8.7 percent of all workers are self-employed
compared with 11.1 percent for those ages 55 to 64 and 19.3
percent for those age 65 and older. These age patterns hold for
both men and women, and are evident for both agricultural and
nonagricultural employment. As a result, middle-aged and older
workers are overrepresented among the self-employed.

Prior research
Detailed characteristics.

Prior research has relied on data
from the CPS and other sources to examine the characteristics
of the self-employed workforce.11 In addition to self-employ-

ment being more prevalent for men than women and in­
creasing with age (as noted above), prior studies document
th at rates o f self-em p lo y m en t ty p ically increase with
schooling levels (although rates can be relatively high for
those with the least education), and that they are highest
among currently married persons and lowest for the never
m arried.12 On average, self-employed men work more hours
and weeks per year than their wage and salary counterparts.
Blacks and Hispanics tend to be underrepresented among
the self-employed, although there is tremendous variability
in rates among detailed race and ethnic groups.13
As noted earlier, self-employment rates are higher in the
agricultural sector, but they are also relatively high in
construction as well. Rates are especially low in mining,
manufacturing, and transportation and public utilities. The
self-employed have lower rates of health insurance coverage
through their own job, and higher rates of coverage through
a spouse.14The self-employed also make up to three-quarters
of those who work at home for pay, a combination that is
more prevalent among w o m en .15
Overall, the self-employed tend to have higher rates of job
satisfaction than their wage and salary counterparts.16 A
comparison of various earnings measures shows, however,
that the typical self-employed male has lower initial earnings
and lower earnings growth, implying a 35-percent gap with
his wage and salary counterpart after 10 years.17 After
considering alternative explanations, Barton H. Hamilton
concludes that the self-em ployed derive nonpecuniary
benefits from self-employment, such as the opportunity to
“be your own boss.” 18

Patterns and distributions.

A num ber o f studies also
docum ent changes in patterns of self-em ploym ent in the
United States over the past several decades.19 For example,
Theresa Devine documents that the share of women in selfemployment increased during the late 1970s and 1980s, from
23.7 percent in 1975 to 32.3 percent in 1990.20 The increase in
female self-employment rates is evident for most detailed race
and ethnic groups identified in the decennial Census.21
According to Yannis Georgellis and Howard Wall, the
broad in d u stria l and o ccu p atio n d istrib u tio n o f selfemployed workers did not change much for men between
1987 and 1997, whereas the distribution for women changed
more, with a tendency toward convergence with the patterns
of male self-employment.22 At the same time, female selfem ployed w orkers on average earn less than their male
counterparts, which is explained by several factors including
their distribution across occupations and industries, smaller
capital stocks, fewer hours of work, and lower levels of selfemployment experience.23

International comparisons.

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Cross-national comparisons of

self-em ploym ent rates show that the incidence of selfemployment is higher in Canada than in the United States
and lower in many other developed countries, compared with
the United States. The gap in rates of self-employment in
Canada and the United States has increased over the 1990s.24
In C anada, betw een 1989 and 1997, the overall selfemployment rate increased from 14 to 18 percent, while the
U.S. rate remained fairly constant at about 10 percent through
1996.25 Outside of Canada, rates of self-employment in most
industrialized countries have been trending downward.26 For
example, among the o e c d countries, only Portugal, New
Zealand, and the United Kingdom show increases in selfemployment rates in recent decades. A recent study of new
entrepreneurial activity, defined as efforts at new business
creation or expansion of an existing business, ranked the
United States and Canada along with Israel as having the
highest rates of entrepreneurship, compared with France,
Japan, and Finland, which ranked the lowest.27

Older entrepreneurs. Although the phenomenon of selfemployment in general has received attention, relatively little
research has been devoted to studying self-em ploym ent
among those in middle and late life. As noted earlier, analyses
of self-employment rates by age indicate higher rates of selfemployment among mature and older workers compared with
younger workers, even for those working past age 65.28 As
documented by Victor Fuchs using data from the Retirement
History Survey, the increased prevalence of self-employment
among men at older ages was due to shifts from wage and
salary work into self-em ploym ent as well as differential
propensity to retire by class of worker in the late 1960s and
early 1970s.29
Joseph Quinn notes that self-employment at older ages
may be a form of partial retirement, with self-employment
offering greater flexibility in hours and wages to accommodate
tastes for leisure and the Social Security earnings test.30
A lthough inform ative, these two studies rely upon the
Retirement History Survey, which provides a perspective on
the cohort of workers reaching retirement in the late 1960s
and 1970s. These studies were also primarily interested in
self-employment among older men.

Definitions of self-employment using the

cps

To analyze current rates of self-em ploym ent, detailed
characteristics, and trends in self-employment among older
workers, we rely on annual data from the March Annual
Demographic File of the CPS from 1968 to 2002. The March
CPS provides detailed dem ographic and labor m arket
information for individuals in about 60,000 households.31 The
CPS is the source of household data on em ploym ent and
unemployment, as well as the primary source of data for the

M onthly Labor Review

July

2004

27

Self-Employment—Older Workers

trends in self-employment rates.32 Thus, it provides a baseline
for identifying trends and describing the characteristics of
m iddle-aged and older self-em ployed w orkers. Basic
demographic information in the CPS includes age, sex, race,
education, and marital status. For those who are employed in
the reference week, there is information for the main job on
class of worker (wage and salary versus self-employed),
industry, occupation, and usual weekly hours.33 Similar
information on job characteristics is available for the longest
job worked in the last calendar year. Wage and salary income,
self-employment income, and income from other sources for
the prior year are also available.
We discuss the comparability of data from the CPS over
time because of changes in data collection methods. Most
im portantly, the CPS questionnaire first introduced the
distinction between the self-employed in incorporated versus
unincorporated business in 1967. In the published statistics
from 1967 onw ard, the self-em ployed in incorporated
business are counted as wage and salary workers, not as
self-employed. Starting with the micro data files in either
1976 (for employment in the prior year) or 1989 (for current
employment), we can separately identify the self-employed
in incorporated business, and we can identify the broader
group of self-employed (incorporated plus unincorporated)
not identified in the published statistics after 1967. For the
public use files between 1968 and 1975 or between 1968 and
1988, the code for self-employed in the reference week or in
the p rio r year in clu d es only those in u n in co rp o rated
businesses.

The CPS also underwent a major redesign beginning in
January 1994. Estimates from Marilyn E. Manser and Garnett
Picot suggest that this revision increased the number of selfemployed in total and their share of total employment due to
the changes in questionnaire wording.34 This affected the
incidence of self-employment based on the reference week
questions, and also likely affected the incidence of selfemployment based on the longest job last year. (We discuss
the implications of this change for our time series analysis in
a later section.)
Other changes in the CPS over time may affect trends in
self-employment rates. The CPS public use data files include
two versions for the March 1988 file, one that used the same
processing system as in 1987 and earlier years, and the other
that used the new processing system implemented in 1989
and beyond. In the time series analyses (discussed later), we
have generated results using both files and plotted one trend
line from 1968 to 1988 and another from 1988 to 2002. In most
cases, the impact on self-employment levels and rates is small.
This suggests that our comparisons of the characteristics of
the self-em ploym ent before and after this change in the
processing system are not likely to be significantly affected.
Given the potential differences in definitions of selfem ploym ent based on the CPS, we analyze several al­
ternatives and examine the comparability across definitions.
In particular, as shown in exhibit 1, our first definition, C l,
replicates the official definition by defining self-employment
as those who are self-em ployed in unincorporated busi­
nesses in the reference week (that is, current employment) in

S elf-em p lo ym en t definitions based on the CPS
Self-employment definition
Cl

C2

Current employment in main job: self-employed
in unincorporated business
Current employment in main job: self-employed
in incorporated or unincorporated business

March CPS survey years

1968-2002

Reference years

1968-2002

1989-2002

1989-2002

1968-2002

1967-2001

C3

Longest job in calendar (last) year: self-employed
in unincorporated business

C4

Longest job calendar (last) year: self-employed in
incorporated or unincorporated business

1976-2002

1975-2001

Employment calendar (last) year: self-employed in
incorporated or unincorporated business in longest
job last year or had any reported self-employment
income in the last year

1976-2002

1975-2001

C5

28
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Table 2. Self-employment rates in 2001 for all workers and workers age 50 and older, based on alternative definitions
in the CPS
[Numbers in thousands]

S e lf-e m p lo y e d a g e
5 0 a n d o ld e r

S e lf-e m p lo y e d
a g e 16 a n d o ld e r

N um ber

P ercen t

P ercen t
of selfe m p lo y e d
a g e 50 an d
older

39.6

S e lf-e m p lo y m e n t definition
N um ber

P ercen t

Cl

Currently self-employed in main job, unincorporated..................................

3,866

12.0

9,759

7.2

C2

Currently self-employed in main job, unincorporated or incorporated......

5,536

17.2

13,884

10.3

39.9

C3

Self-employed in longest job during calendar year, unincorporated..........

3,766

9.9

9,316

6.2

40.4

C4

Self-employed in longest job during calendar year, unincorporated..........
or incorporated

5,642

14.9

13,362

9.1

42.2

C5

Self-employed in longest job during calendar year, unincorporated
or incorporated, or any self-employment income during calendar y e a r ....

6,417

16.9

16,815

11.2

38.2

NOTES: Sample is civilian noninstitutionalized workers age 16 and older
and civilian noninstitutionalized workers age 50 and older. See exhibit 1 for
definitions of self-em ploym ent. Numbers and percentages have been
calculated using cps sampling weights.

the main job. This definition can be calculated from 1968 to
2002. The C2 definition adds the self-em ployed in the
reference week in incorporated businesses to C l so it is a
more inclusive definition. The difference between C2 and C l
is the number of incorporated self-employed. As seen in
exhibit 1, C2 is only available starting in 1989, the first year
the CPS public use file separately codes those who are selfem ployed during the reference week in an incorporated
business.
The next two definitions, C3 and C4, parallel those for C l
and C2 for the longest job in the prior calendar year with C3
available for the longer time series (that is, for the March
surveys from 1968 to 2002), and C4 available for the March
surveys from 1976 onwards. Finally, definition C5 augments
the group identified in C4 by adding in those who also report
any self-employment income in the prior year. This would
potentially identify workers who were self-employed at some
time in the prior year but not necessarily on the longest job
(for example, on a secondary job or a job held for a shorter
part of the year). For C3 to C5, because the reference period is
for the prior calendar year, we note in exhibit 1 that the
reference year for employment is the year prior to the March
survey year.
Table 2 shows the number of self-employed and rates of
self-employment among workers age 50 and older in 2001
based on these alternative definitions.35 For comparison,
counts and rates are also calculated for all workers age 16
and older, and the share of the self-employed work force age
50 and older is shown in the last column. Regardless of the
definition, rates of self-employment are higher among older
workers, compared with the workforce as a whole and older
workers make up approximately 38 percent to 42 percent of


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SOURCE: Authors’ calculations using March cps from 2001 (C1-C2)and

2002 (C3-C5).

the self-employed workforce. For example, in 2001,5.5 million
workers age 50 and older were self-em ployed in an un­
incorporated or incorporated business in their main job during
the reference week (definition C2). This represents 17.2
percent of the age 50 older workforce. Based on the same
definition, the self-employment rate of the workforce as a
whole was 10.3 percent. Consequently, although those age
50 and older made up 24 percent of the workforce in 2001,
they made up 40 percent of the self-employed in the same
year.
For workers age 50 and older in 2001,12.0 percent are selfemployed based on definition C l which replicates the official
b l s definition. Including the self-employed in incorporated
businesses adds another 1.7 m illion older self-employed
workers and increases the rate of self-employment by 5.2
percentage points (definition C2). W hen self-employment is
defined based on the longest job in the prior calendar year,
the rate is always lower than it is for the current job (compared
C3 versus Cl or C4 versus C2). For example, in 2001, definition
C3, which is most comparable to C l , shows a smaller number
of unincorporated self-employed age 50 and older in the
longest job for the calendar year compared with the estimate
based on the main job for the survey week (3.8 million versus
3.9 million), and the rate is lower as well (9.9 versus 12.0
percent). This is consistent with the expectation that a
snapshot (or reference week) for the year will show a higher
fraction in self-employment than would be the case when
considering the longest job for the calendar year since the
former group includes those who will be self-employed for a
short spell.
Definition C5 potentially captures those with short spells
of self-employment because it includes those who report any
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Self-Employment—Older Workers

Table 3. Trend in self-employment for workers age 50 and older, based on the CPS, using five alternative definitions,
1968-2002
[Numbers in thousands]

S e lf-e m p lo y m e n t status in re fe re n c e w e e k
Year

S e lf-e m p lo y m e n t status for c a le n d a r y e a r

C l :U n inco rp orate d

C 2: C l + in c o rp o ra te d

C 3: U n in c o rp o ra te d

C 4: C 3 + in c o rp o ra te d

N um ber

N um ber

P ercen t

N um ber

N um ber

P ercen t

P ercen t

C5: C 4 + a n y selfe m p lo y e d in c o m e

P ercen t

N um ber

1968

3,389

16.0

_

_

3,998

15.8

1969

3,401

15.6

-

-

3,747

14.7

-

-

-

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977

3,329
3,304
3,232
3,211
3,178
3,079
2,933
2,983

15.2
15.2
14.7
14.7
14.4
14.4
13.7
13.9

_

_

15.0
14.3
14.8
14.1
13.6
12.8
12.9
13.0

_

_

_

-

3,851
3,708
3,814
3,678
3,502
3,198
3,244
3,341

_

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

3,730
3,845
4,024

14.9
15.3

4,495
4,682

17.9
18.6

1978
1979

3,112
3,148

14.1
14.0

3,379
3,382

13.1
13.1

4,214
4,269

15.7
16.3
16.5

4,932
5,046
4,851

19.3
19.5
18.7

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1988

3,165
3,173
3,096
3,119
2,949
3,015
2,974
2,978
3,200

14.1
14.0
14.0
14.4
13.4
13.6
13.6
13.4
14.2

12.6
12.9
13.1
12.7
12.5
12.7
12.5
13.4
13.7

4,224
4,310
4,454
4,268
4,380
4,422
4,366
4,719
4,779

16.1
16.6
17.4
16.7
17.0
17.2
16.9
18.1
18.2

4,739
4,869
5,074
4,834
4,972
5,041
5,035
5,274
5,487

18.1
18.8
19.8
19.0
19.3
19.6
19.5
20.2
20.9

(revised)
1989

3,201
3,219

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

P ercen t

—

-

-

-

-

-

-

—

-

-

-

-

3,298
3,345
3,343
3,232
3,207
3,276
3,242
3,510
3,585

14.1
13.8

4,367
4,448

19.3
19.1

3,581
3,638

13.3
13.5

4,887
4,887

18.2
18.1

5,698
5,719

21.2
21.2

3,331
3,330
3,300
3,315
3,581
3,531
3,669
3,831
3,619
3,640

14.2
14.3
13.9
13.7
14.7
14.0
14.3
13.9
12.7
12.2

4,539
4,474
4,641
4,677
5,054
5,086
4,986
5,408
5,323
5,232

19.4
19.2
19.6
19.4
20.7
20.1
19.4
19.6
18.6
17.6

3,742
3,599
3,704
3,810
3,660
2,892
2,833
3,813
3,914
3,874

13.7
13.1
13.2
13.5
12.7
9.9
9.2
11.9
11.8
11.1

4,901
4,928
5,138
5,262
5,082
5,046
5,591
5,582
5,491
5,589

17.9
17.9
18.3
18.7
17.7
17.3
18.1
17.4
16.5
16.1

5,710
5,692
5,885
5,837
5,778
5,747
6,383
6,360
6,203
6,243

20.9
20.7
21.0
20.7
20.1
19.7
20.6
19.8
18.7
17.9

3,827
3,866
3,722

12.2
12.0
11.0

5,550
5,536
5,567

17.8
17.2
16.4

3,968
3,766

11.1
9.9

5,561
5,642

15.6
14.9

6,489
6,417

18.2
16.9

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

N otes : Sample is civilian noninstitutionalized workers age 50 and
older. See exhibit 1 for definitions of self-employment. Numbers and
percentages have been calculated using cps sampling weights. Dash

self-employment income even through their longest job for
the year was in the wage and salary class. This definition
results in the highest absolute size of the self-employed
workforce age 50 and older although the rate in 2001 is slightly
below that based on definition C2. A comparison of C4
versus C5 indicates that in 2001,775,000 workers age 50 and
older or 12 percent of those defined as self-employed using
definition C5 were self-employed workers in a secondary job
or in a part-year job of shorter duration than their longest
wage and salary job.

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—

—

_

—

indicates data not available.
S ource : Authors’ calculations using March

Time trends based on the

cps

from 1968 to 2002.

cps

Given the relatively long time-series of micro data available in
the c p s , it is particularly well suited for examining trends in
self-employment for the subset of middle-aged and older
workers. We begin by calculating the number and percent
self-employed for all civilian workers age 50 and older from
1968 to 2002 using definitions C l to C5.36 Table 3 reports the
weighted number of self-employed and the corresponding
self-em ploym ent rate for the five definitions. The self-

employment rates for the five definitions are also plotted in
chart 2.37
A comparison over time for unincorporated self-employed
w orkers on the m ain job (C l) and unincorporated plus
incorporated w orkers on the m ain job (C2) shows the
absolute size of the self-employed workforce age 50 and older
peaked in 2001 and 2002 at 3.9 and 5.6 million workers,
respectively although the rate of self-employment peaked for
both measures in 1994 at 14.7 percent and 20.7 percent,
respectively.38 Consistent with the published data discussed
in the data section, the share of self-employed older workers
in incorporated businesses increased steadily over time from
slightly more than 1 in 4 workers (26.7 percent) in 1988 to
about 1 in 3 workers (33.1 percent) in 2002 (calculations based
on C l and C2).
As seen in c h a rt 2, the 1 9 6 8 -2 0 0 0 series for the
unincorporated self-employed (C l) shows a fluctuating selfemployment rate within a broader downward trend. From
1968 to about 1976 there was a decline (from 16.0 to 13.7
percent), followed by an increase to 1983 (reaching 14.4
percent). From 1983 to 1993, there was a slight downward
trend again (from 14.4 to 13.7 percent), and then a sharper
decline thereafter to the lowest level ever in 2002 at 11.0
p erce n t. The m ore in c lu siv e se lf-e m p lo y m e n t series
(definition C2) mirrors this general pattern for the years it is
available which indicates that the rate of self-employment in
incorporated businesses rem ained fairly steady over this
period, ranging from 5.2 percent in 1988 to 5.4 percent in 2002.
For C l and C2 (and the difference between C2 and C l), there
is evidence of a discrete increase in 1994 consistent with the
impact of the CPS revisions to the monthly labor force questions
implemented in that year. Manser and Picot cite a BLS study that
compared CPS self-employment rates for the workforce as a
whole using both old and new methods, which found that that
the net effect of the changes was to raise self-employment rates
by about 6 percent.39For C 1, assuming the 6 percent adjustment
factor can be applied to the workforce age 50 and older, the level
of self-employment in 1994 that would be consistent with prior
years would be 3.4 million unincorporated self-employed
workers (13.8 percent) versus the estimated level of 3.6 million
workers (14.7 percent) shown in table 3 and chart 2.40 By 2002,
instead of 3.7 million workers (11.0 percent), the consistent
series would be adjusted downward to 3.5 million workers
(10.3 percent). Similar adjustments could be applied to C2.
Thus, the decline over time would be even larger than what is
shown in chart 2. To the extent that the revised procedures
implemented in 1994 and later surveys do a better job at
capturing the number of self-employed, the absolute and
percent figures in table 3 prior to 1994 need to be adjusted
upw ards. R eg ard less, the basic po in t rem ains that a
consistent self-em ploym ent series would show a steeper
decline over time than the one evident in chart 2.


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Table 3 and chart 2 also report the trends in the rate of selfemployment based on employment in the entire calendar year.
In all years where a comparison can be made, the rate of selfemployment among older workers is always lower based on
C3 than C l . The same is true for the comparison of C4 and C2
for the broader definition of self-employment. In all years
that C5 is available, this definition results in the highest
absolute size of the self-employed workforce age 50 and older
although the self-em ploym ent rate is close to the broad
definition based on reference w eek em ploym ent (C2),
especially after 1994.
These three series based on employment in the calendar
year (C3 to C5) do not show the discrete jum p in 1994
associated with C l and C2. M anser and Picott note that it is
not known what the approximate adjustment factor should
be for the self-employment series based on questions specific
to the March Annual Demographic File about employment
last year. At the same time, there is a noticeable dip in C3 in
1995 and 1996 (based on March survey years 1996 and 1997),
but it is not evident in C4 and C5. This suggests there was
some questionnaire or coding change for those two survey
years that resulted in more self-employed workers being
cla ssifie d as in co rp o rated self-em p lo y ed than in the
surrounding years. We have yet to ascertain the source of
this discrepancy.
The longer time series available for the self-employed in
the longest job for the calendar year (C3 and C4) provides an
even more dramatic picture of the increase in the share of
self-employment among older workers that is in incorporated
versus unincorporated businesses. As seen in chart 2, the
gap between the C3 and C4 series (lighter solid versus lighter
dotted lines) widens at a faster rate between 1975 (when the
C4 series begins) and 1984. Overall, between 1975 and 2001,
the share of incorporated self-employed more than doubled,
increasing from 14.3 percent to 33.3 percent. The increasing
trend in incorporated self-em ploym ent m eans that the
broader definition of self-employment in the calendar year
(C4), which extend farther back in time than the counterpart
for current employment (C2), shows a modest upward trend
in self-employment rates from the mid-1970s to the mid-1990s,
in contrast to the flatter trend line for the narrow definitions
(Cl and C3) during this same period. Since the mid-1990s,
when self-employment rates were falling for both definitions
C2 and C4, the rates of self-employment in incorporated
businesses rem ained fairly steady so the decline resulted
from falling rates of unincorporated self-employment.
Thus, using the broader definition of self-employment,
C4, reveals (1) an upward trend in self-employment rates from
the m id-1970s to the m id-1990s for workers age 50 and older
due to growth in the rate of self-employment in incorporated
businesses; and (2) a downward trend in self-employment
rates among older workers since the mid-1990s due to a

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Self-Employment—Older Workers

Chart 2.

Trend in self-employment for workers age 50 and older, based on the CPS, using five
definitions of self employment, 1968-2002

Percent of work force
self-employed

Percent of work force
self-employed

NOTE: Sample is civilian noninstitutionalized workers age 50 and older. See exhibit 1 for definitions of self-employment. Percentages
have been calculated using CPS sampling weights.
SOURCE: Authors’ calculations using March CPS from 1968 to 2002.

Chart 3.

Trend in self-employment for workers age 50 and older, based on the CPS by sector,
1968-2002

Percent of self-employed
nonagriculture

Percent of self-employed
agriculture

NOTE: Sample is civilian noninstitutionalized workers age 50 and older. See exhibit 1 for definitions of self-employment. Percentages
have been calculated using CPS sampling weights.
S ource : Authors’ calculations using March CPS from 1968 to 2002.

32
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d eclin in g rate o f self-e m p lo y m e n t in u n in co rp o rated
b u sin esses.41 O ver the entire period, the share of selfem ploym ent in incorporated business increased steadily,
albeit at a slower rate during the 1990s. The similarity in
trends for C2 and C4 (when they are available) suggests that
definition C2 captures the trends in a broad definition of selfem ploym ent that includes both those self-em ployed in
in c o rp o ra te d and u n in c o rp o ra te d b u sin e sse s. As we
proceed, this will be our preferred definition although we
continue to make some comparisons with C l because this
corresponds to the official definition of self-employment (and
it is available for a longer time series).
We also lim it our subsequent analysis of CPS data to
workers age 50 and older in the nonagricultural sector. As
noted in the data section, rates of self-em ploym ent are
considerably higher in the agricultural sector, compared with
the nonagricultural sector. Self-em ployed workers in the
agriculture sector consist prim arily of farm ers or farm
managers, as well as gardeners or those in forestry or fishery
occupations. A small fraction represents other occupations
providing services to farm businesses such as bookkeepers,
truckdrivers, or even pilots. Given the potential differences
between the agricultural and nonagricultural sectors, chart 3
plots the trends in the rates o f self-em ploym ent using
definitions C l and C2 only for workers age 50 and older in the
agricultural and nonagricultural sectors (on the right and left
axes, respectively). As expected, rates of self-employment
are higher by a factor of 5 to 6 in the agricultural sector,
compared with the nonagricultural sector. For example, in
2002, 14.8 percent o f all nonagricultural workers age 50 and
older were self-employed in unincorporated or incorporated
businesses (definition C2), compared with a 72.4-percent rate
of self-employment among agricultural workers in the same
age group.
Self-employment rates in agriculture for workers age 50
and older, evident in chart 3 show a long-term downward
trend (one that would be even sharper with a correction for
the discontinuity in the series in 1994), punctuated by cyclical
swings. The pattern for C2 in the agriculture sector mirrors
that for C l when both series are available, indicating the time
trends are largely due to changing rates of self-employment
in unincorporated businesses.
T he d o w n w a rd tre n d in se lf-e m p lo y m e n t in the
nonagricultural sector, notable since the early- to mid-1990s,
is less dramatic, in part, because the rate is lower. Again, the
recent trend is due to falling rates of unincorporated selfemployment accompanied by steady rates of incorporated
self-employment (compare C l and C2 in chart 3). Note that
while agricultural unincorporated self-employment rates fell
even during the 1970s and 1980s (definition C l in chart 3), the
rates were steady or increasing somewhat in the nonagricultural
sector. Given the unusual patterns evident for the agricultural


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sector, and its small share in the economy overall, the next
section focuses on nonagricultural self-employment.

Characteristics based on the

cps

The cps data provide an opportunity to determine how the
characteristics of the self-employed age 50 and older have
changed over time. We tabulate the basic characteristics of
the self-employed (sex, age distribution, race and ethnicity,
marital status, education, weekly hours, full- versus part-time
status, occupation, industry, and incorporation status) for
four points in time dated by the March survey year: 1969,
1979,1990, and 2001. These years correspond with equivalent
points in the business cycle (all peak years) and therefore
provide a similar basis for comparison that controls to some
extent for the state of the economy.
This analysis is based on our two preferred definitions of
self-employment, specifically C2 and C l . Because the C2 time
series is only available for our peak years for 1990 and 2001,
we begin by considering the more narrow definition of selfemployment, which can be examined for all four peak years.
For the two points in time when both series are available, we
can examine the sensitivity of the characteristics of the selfe m p lo y ed age 50 and o ld e r to the c o m p o sitio n by
incorporated versus unincorporated status. In addition to
tabulating the distribution of the characteristics of older selfemployed workers, we also generate the equivalent dis­
tribution for wage and salary workers in the same age group
so the two groups of workers can be compared.42
T ables 4 and 5 p re se n t our re s u lts , sh o w in g the
characteristics of self-employed workers age 50 and older
using definition C l (table 4) or C2 (table 5). The characteristics
for the wage and salary group corresponding to C l, labeled
W l, is reported in table 4 and the characteristics for the wage
and salary group W2, the counterpart to C2, is reported in table
5. Most characteristics are reported as percent distribution with
the exception of hours, which is an average. The percent change
for each characteristic from the available starting year to the
ending year is also shown. Several patterns emerge from the
characteristics tabulated in the two tables.

Patterns by gender.

As of 2001, men are overrepresented
among self-employed older workers (61 percent based on C l
and 65 percent based on C2) to an even greater extent than
for wage and salary workers (52 percent for W 1 and 51 percent
for W2). The fact that the share of male workers is even
higher using C2 than C l indicates that men are even more
d o m in an t am ong the se lf-e m p lo y e d in in c o rp o ra te d
b u sin e sse s, co m p ared w ith th o se in u n in c o rp o ra te d
businesses. Even so, there has been a substantial shift away
from male dominance in the self-employed ranks. For example,
table 4 shows that in 1969, 73 percent of the self-employed

Monthly Labor Review

July

2004

33

Self-Employment—Older Workers

Table 4. Characteristics of unincorporated self-employed workers and wage and salary workers age 50 and older In the
cps,

selected years

[In percent, unless otherwise noted]__________

S e lf-e m p lo y e d w o rkers a g e 5 0 a n d o ld e r ( C l )
1969

1979

1990

2001

Sample size (num ber)...........................

1,657

1,571

1,620

1,407

Men .........................................................

73.1

72.3

66.1

61.3

Age group
50 to 5 4 ...............................................
55 to 5 9 ...............................................
60 to 6 4 ...............................................
65 to 6 9 ...............................................
70 and o lde r........................................

27.5
27.0
21.5
12.8
11.2

32.6
25.4
19.6
11.1
11.3

31.6
26.9
20.3
11.7
9.5

35.9
25.6
16.1
10.6
11.7

Race/ethnicity
White non-H ispanic...........................
Black non-H ispanic...........................
Hispanic...............................................
O ther....................................................

-

93.0
4.0
1.8
1.2

88.4
4.2
4.4
2.9

Marital status
Married.................................................
W idow ed.............................................
D ivorce d.............................................
S eparated...........................................
Never m a rried.....................................

80.7
.9
10.5
3.0
4.9

80.2
1.5
8.6
5.7
4.0

Education level
Less than high s cho ol.......................
High scho ol.........................................
Some c o lleg e......................................
College graduate and h ig h e r............

45.5
26.3
12.6
15.6

W eekly hours (in h o u rs ).......................
Full-time...................................................
Occupation
Executive, administrative,
managerial.......................................
Professional spe cia lty.......................
Technicians and s u p p o rt..................
S ales....................................................
Administrative s u p p o rt......................
Private h o useho ld.............................
Protective s e rv ic e .............................
Other s e rv ic e .....................................
Farming, forestry, fis h e rie s ..............
Precision production, craft, re p a ir...
Machine operators, assemblers,
re p a ire rs ...........................................
Transportation and material moving .
Handlers, equipment cleaners,
helpers, la b o re rs .............................
Industry
M in in g ..................................................
C o n s tru c tio n ......................................
M a nufa cturing....................................
Transportation, public u tilitie s ..........
Trade....................................................
Finance, insurance, real esta te .......
Other s e rv ic e s ...................................
Public adm inistration.........................
Incorporated self-em ployed.................

P ercen t
change

P ercen t
change

1969

1979

1990

2001

-

12,929

12,255

11,925

12,588

-

-16.1

60.8

57.8

54.0

51.8

-14.7

30.7
-5 .0
-25.0
-17.1
4.3

37.4
30.7
19.9
7.5
4.4

37.5
32.3
19.3
6.9
4.0

37.9
29.3
19.4
8.5
5.0

44.4
28.4
15.4
6.5
5.3

18.7
-7 .6
-22.7
-13.6
20.0

84.0
6.8
5.1
4.1

-9 .7
70.5
182.4
252.1

-

86.8
8.7
3.0
1.6

83.0
9.3
5.0
2.8

79.7
9.5
7.1
3.8

-8 .2
9.3
137.8
140.8

77.0
1.9
7.5
9.9
3.6

75.5
1.3
4.8
12.8
5.6

-6 .4
37.8
-54.4
328.0
14.2

74.5
2.1
12.0
4.8
6.6

75.2
2.2
10.5
6.4
5.7

72.9
2.2
9.0
11.2
4.7

70.7
2.0
6.1
15.3
5.9

-5.1
-5 .6
-48.9
221.2
-11.3

32.1
29.9
16.2
21.8

20.6
33.2
19.0
27.2

11.6
26.3
27.2
34.9

-74.5
-.2
115.9
124.3

49.9
29.4
10.3
10.4

33.0
37.0
14.9
15.0

20.7
38.1
18.3
22.9

9.6
33.0
26.0
31.4

-80.8
12.3
152.8
201.7

44.0
66.9

40.9
64.4

39.2
59.4

38.3
59.1

-12.9
-11.8

39.3
77.1

38.4
73.9

38.3
72.3

39.2
74.4

-.4
-3 .6

45.9
15.3
.4
6.7
1.3
.8
.0
9.7
.7
14.3

32.3
16.2
.3
14.5
2.7
.9
.2
9.2
.3
17.1

17.4
16.1
1.3
26.0
3.6
.1
.1
12.3
0.6
16.4

20.6
18.1
.8
23.3
4.8
.0
.4
11.3
.4
14.2

-55.2
18.6
104.0
246.5
279.7
-1 00.0
17.2
-37.3
-.6

12.5
9.6
1.7
7.7
14.5
4.2
1.6
10.2
.7
14.0

14.8
11.8
1.3
8.2
17.0
2.3
1.8
11.5
.6
12.2

14.9
14.3
2.3
11.2
17.6
1.5
1.9
11.0
.4
10.8

18.0
17.5
3.0
10.9
15.7
.9
1.8
9.4
.4
9.7

44.7
82.8
75.8
41.3
8.5
-79.6
13.6
-7 .7
-41.9
-30.8

1.9
2.7

2.8
3.3

1.8
3.4

1.9
4.1

.2
49.1

14.6
5.1

11.5
4.2

6.9
4.5

5.5
4.7

-62.4
-7.1

.4

.2

.9

.2

-63.8

3.7

2.8

2.7

2.5

-31.4

.3
10.8
4.9
3.2
33.6
6.0
41.2
.0
.0

.4
13.4
4.3
3.5
30.7
9.8
37.9
.0
.0

.3
12.0
5.4
3.6
24.9
10.4
43.4
.0
.0

.3
11.2
3.7
4.5
19.6
11.8
49.0
.0
.0

-.7
3.5
-24.9
42.9
-41.6
95.4
18.7

.9
5.2
29.4
7.0
17.7
4.6
27.9
7.4
-

.8
5.2
26.8
6.7
17.0
6.1
30.1
7.3
-

.5
5.1
20.6
6.9
17.2
7.3
36.1
6.3
-

.4
4.9
16.8
7.8
16.1
6.8
40.5
6.6
-

-50.3
-5 .0
-42.8
12.0
-8 .7
46.4
45.1
-10.4
-

N otes : Sample is civilian noninstitutionalized workers age 50 and
above who are either self-employed in an unincorporated business in their
main job during the reference week (definition C1) or are wage and salary
workers in their main job during the reference week (definition W1 which
includes the self-employed in incorporated businesses). Dash indicates

34
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W a g e a n d sa la ry w orkers a g e 5 0 a n d o ld e r (W l)

July 2004

-

-

data not available or percent change not applicable.

S ource :

and 2001.

Authors’ calculations using March

cps

from 1969,1979,1990,

age 50 and older were men, compared with 61 percent in 2001
(based on C l). This shift was especially pronounced between
1979 and 1990 when about half of the percentage point drop
over the three decades covered by our data occurred. This
pattern is also evident for the shorter time series available for
definition C2 (from 1990 to 2001; table 5), although it is less
dramatic than what occurred in the prior decade. This pattern
is consistent with trends reported elsewhere in the literature
as summarized earlier.

time series. This change is more pronounced among all selfemployed workers, compared with their wage and salary
counterparts based on definition C l, but the reverse is true
based on definition C2.

Educational attainment.

Comparisons by age. As already noted, the self-employed
on average are older than their wage and salary counterparts
and this is evident in the age distributions reported in tables
4 and 5. Table 4 shows that the self-employed age 50 and
older became younger, with an increased share between 1969
and 2001 in the 50- to 54-year-old age group (based on C l).
The same pattern is evident for wage and salary workers
(based on W 1) and for the short time series available for C2
and W2. (See table 5.) Thus, the shifting age composition
among the self-employed mirrors the overall demographic
shifts in the labor force over this period.

In 2001, the self-employed age 50
and older— using either definition C l or C2— had a higher
proportion of college educated workers, compared with their
wage and salary counterparts. The share was higher for C2
than C l demonstrating that the incorporated self-employed
are even more educated than those who are unincorporated.
Over time, the composition of the workforce has shifted
tow ard higher levels of educational attainm ent, a trend
reflected in the pattern for both the self-employed and wage
and salary workers age 50 and older. It is interesting to note
that by 2001, the self-employed in unincorporated businesses
had a h ig h er share o f high school d ro pouts th an the
comparable wage and salary group (11.6 versus 9.6 percent),
whereas the reverse was true in 1969 (45.5 versus 49.9
percent). This pattern does not hold after accounting for
workers in incorporated businesses.

Race and ethnicity.

Information on the combination of race
and ethnicity is only available starting in the March 1976 CPS
so the series begins with 1979 in tables 4 and 5. Using
definitions C l and C2 we find evidence, consistent with
studies o f the self-em ployed as a whole, that blacks and
Hispanics are underrepresented among older self-employed
workers, compared with wage and salary workers, whereas
w hites and those in the residual “ o th er” category are
overrepresented. As with gender, w hites have an even
greater share using C2 than C l , indicating they are even more
likely to be among the incorporated self-employed. (See tables
4 and 5.) Over time, the share of minorities in the ranks of the
self-employed has increased for workers age 50 and older,
mirroring a pattern for the wage and salary workforce. The
percent change in the minority group shares is somewhat
more pronounced for the self-employed, in part because the
rates started so low.

Hours o f work.

Another stylized fact in the literature is that
the self-employed tend to work more hours than wage and
salary w orkers. A lthough this was true in 1969, using
definition C l , when older self-employed workers worked an
average of 4.7 more hours per week (44.0 versus 39.3 hours),
by 2001 older self-employed workers reported on average 1
hour less per week than their wage and salary counterparts
(38.3 versus 39.2 hours). This is a dramatic convergence in
hours, all due to a steady decline in work hours for the selfemployed, compared with almost no change for wage and
salary workers. On average, older workers in incorporated
businesses work more hours than those in unincorporated
businesses so the average hours using definition C2 exceeds
that based on C 1. The shorter time series for C2 shows some
convergence in hours between the self-employed and wage
and salary workers, but the self-employed still work slightly
more in 2001 (about 1 hour more per week).

Marital status.

Full time versus part time.

As discussed in the literature, the selfemployed as a whole are more likely to be married, compared
with their wage and salary counterparts, and this pattern is
evident for those age 50 and older as well. For example, in
2001, 76 percent of the self-employed in unincorporated
businesses age 50 and older were married, a rate that increases
to 79 percent for those in incorporated and unincorporated
businesses (again indicating that self-employed workers in
incorporated businesses are m ore likely to be m arried,
compared with their unincorporated counterparts). Over time,
there has been a decrease in the likelihood that the selfemployed are married particularly based on C l with the longer


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Even though average hours for the
self-employed tended to be higher, at least in the past, the fraction
working full-time— defined as 35 or more hours per week— is
lower, indicating a more bipolar distribution of workers reporting
both low and high hours. In 2001, 59 percent of older selfemployed workers in unincorporated businesses worked 35 or
more hours per week, compared with 74 percent of wage and
salary workers in the same age group. Self-employed workers in
incorporated businesses report a higher propensity for full-time
work. Overall, the rates of full-time employment, like average
hours, have been declining over time for older workers, more
sharply for the self-employed.

M onthly Labor Review

July

2004

35

Self-Employment—Older Workers

Table 5.

Characteristics of unincorporated and incorporated self-employed workers and wage and salary workers
age 50 and older based on the c p s , 1990 and 2001

[In percent unless otherwise noted]
S e lf-e m p lo y e d w o rkers a g e 50
a n d o ld e r in u n in c o rp o ra te d
a n d in c o rp o ra te d businesses
C h a ra c te ris tic

W a g e a n d sa lary w orkers a g e
5 0 a n d o ld e r
(W2)

(C2)

1990

2001

P ercen t
change

1990

2001

P ercen t
change

Sample size (num ber)..........................

2,312

2,103

-

11,233

11,892

Men ........................................................

69.4

65.4

-5 .9

52.6

50.5

-3.9

Age group
50 to 5 4 ..............................................
55 to 5 9 .............................................
60 to 6 4 .............................................
65 to 6 9 .............................................
70 and o ld e r.......................................

32.2
25.7
20.9
11.8
9.4

36.1
26.1
16.0
10.3
11.5

12.0
1.8
-23.7
-13.0
23.2

38.1
29.7
19.2
8.2
4.7

44.8
28.5
15.4
6.3
5.0

17.6
^ .1
-19.8
-23.2
5.1

Race/ethnicity
White non-H ispanic..........................
Black no n-H ispa nic..........................
Hispanic..............................................
O th e r..................................................

89.5
3.6
3.8
3.0

86.1
5.5
4.1
4.3

-3 .8
52.2
5.7
42.0

82.4
9.7
5.1
2.7

79.0
9.9
7.4
3.7

-4.1
2.1
43.0
35.3

Marital status
Married................................................
W idow ed............................................
D ivorce d............................................
S eparated..........................................
Never m a rried....................................

79.3
1.7
6.8
8.7
3.4

79.2
1.3
4.2
10.9
4.4

-.1
-25.4
-37.9
24.6
28.7

72.2
2.3
9.2
11.6
4.8

69.7
2.0
6.3
15.8
6.1

-3 .4
-10.8
-31.5
36.5
28.2

Education level
Less than high s c h o o l......................
High scho ol........................................
Some co lle g e .....................................
College graduate and h ig h e r...........

16.8
32.7
19.8
30.8

9.0
25.9
25.8
39.3

-46.0
-20.9
30.3
27.8

21.5
38.5
18.1
21.9

9.9
33.4
26.2
30.4

-53.8
-13.1
44.8
38.6

Weekly hours (in h o u rs )......................
Full-time..................................................

40.6
64.1

40.0
64.4

-1 .5
.5

38.0
72.1

38.9
74.3

2.5
3.0

23.6
15.5
1.2
26.3
4.7
.1
.1
9.4
.4
13.7

27.7
16.8
.6
23.2
5.4
.0
.3
8.2
.4
12.3

17.3
8.1
-53.1
-11.8
15.1
-100.0
171.3
-12.3
-15.0
-9 .6

13.5
14.3
2.4
10.2
18.2
1.5
2.0
11.5
.4
11.0

16.6
17.7
3.1
10.2
16.3
.9
1.9
9.9
.4
9.8

23.0
23.4
32.0
-.4
-10.7
-40.9
-3 .8
-13.8
-4 .9
-11.3

1.4
2.9

1.5
3.3

7.7
12.5

7.3
4.7

5.8
4.9

-21.4
3.6

.7

.3

-50.3

2.9

2.6

-9.1

.4
11.6
6.8
3.6
27.5
10.3
39.8
.0
29.8

.3
11.4
5.9
5.0
21.3
11.3
44.7
.0
32.9

-17.1
-1 .9
-13.0
38.4
-22.4
9.3
12.5

.5
4.7
21.2
7.1
16.2
7.1
36.4
6.7

.4
4.5
17.2
7.9
15.6
6.6
40.8
7.0

-14.8
^ .1
-19.1
11.2
-3 .4
-7 .6
11.9
3.8
~

Occupation
Executive, administrative,
managerial......................................
Professional s p e c ia lty .....................
Technicians and s u p p o rt.................
S a le s ..................................................
Administrative su p p o rt......................
Private ho u se h o ld ............................
Protective s e rv ic e ............................
Other se rv ic e .....................................
Farming, forestry, fis h e rie s .............
Precision production, craft, re p a ir..
Machine operator, assemblers,
repairers.........................................
Transportation and material moving
Handlers, equipment cleaners,
helpers, laborers..........................
Industry
M inin g.................................................
C onstruction......................................
M anufacturing...................................
Transportation, public u tilitie s .........
Trade...................................................
Finance, insurance, real e s ta te .....
Other s e rv ic e s .................................
Public adm inistration........................
Incorporated self-em ployed................

N otes : Sample is civilian noninstitutionalized workers age 50 and older
who are either self-employed in an unincorporated or incorporated business
in their main job during the reference week (definition C2) or are wage and
salary workers in their main job during the reference week (W2). Means and

36
M onthly Labor Review

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2004

-

-

10.2

percentage distributions have been calculated using cps sampling weights.
Dash indicates data not available or percent change not applicable.
S ource :

Authors’ calculations using March

cps

from 1990 and 2001.

Occupation and industry. The occupational and industrial
composition of the self-employed workforce age 50 and older
differs from those in wage and salary employment in ways
that are consistent with patterns reported elsewhere in the
literature. In 2001, older self-em ployed w orkers were
overrepresented in managerial and professional specialties,
sales, other service occupations, and precision production,
craft and repair occupations (which includes the construction
trad es). In d u stries u n d errep resen ted am ong the selfemployed age 50 and older include mining, manufacturing,
transportation and public utilities, and public administration.
They are overrepresented in construction, trade, and other
services. A comparison of the occupation distribution using
definition C2 versus C l shows an even higher fraction in the
former group in executive and managerial positions, indicating
the overrepresentation of this occupational group among the
incorporated self-employed. The industrial composition is
more similar for C l and C2 than is the case for the occupational
distribution. Over time, the occupational distribution shifted
somewhat differently for the self-employed, compared with
that for wage and salary workers. For example, the share in
executive and managerial occupations declined for the selfemployed (based on definition C l) at the same time that it
increased among the wage and salary workforce. The reverse
pattern holds for precision production, craft and repair
occupations.
Incorporated status.

The measure of incorporation status
is only relevant for definition C2 (table 5) and shows,
consistent with the time trends earlier discussed, that the
share of total self-employment among older workers, that is,
individuals in incorporated businesses, increased from 30
percent to 33 percent.

The Health and Retirement Study
Although the CPS has the advantage of a relatively long time
series for examining patterns and trends in self-employment
among older w orkers, the H ealth and R etirem ent Study
provides extremely rich data on the cohort of older workers
age 51 and older in 1998. These data can be used to sup­
plement the portrait of older self-employed workers that we
glean from the CPS, providing more detail on their health and
economic status and job characteristics.
The Health and Retirem ent Study, when appropriately
weighted, is a nationally representative, longitudinal survey
of middle-aged and older Americans. The study is a biennial
survey that began in 1992 with a sample of the noninstitutional
population born between January 1,1931 and December 31,
1941 and their spouses or partners, with oversamples of
blacks, persons of Hispanic origin, and residents of Florida.
Several other cohorts have been added to the Health and
Retirement Study over time. In 1998, interviews that began in


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1993 with the cohort born prior to January 1,1924, known as
the “ a h e a d ” (Assets and Health Dynamics of the Oldest
Old) sample, were merged with the Health and Retirement
Study. Two additional cohorts were added in 1998: the cohort
bom between January 1,1924 and December 31,1930 (known
as the “Children of the Depression Era” or “ c o d a ” sample),
and the cohort born between January 1,1942 and December
31, 1947 (known as the “War Babies” sample). For this
analysis, we use the 1998 wave of the Health and Retirement
Study (HRS98) as a cross-sectional survey, focusing on the
sample of those age 51 and older in 1998 (that is, all cohorts
born up through 1947).
Key demographic variables in the Health and Retirem ent
Study are sim ilar to those available in the CPS. In term s of
em ploym ent outcom es, workers are asked w hether they
are currently self-em ployed in their m ain job, how long
they have been self-em ployed (that is, tenure on the
current job) and the em ploym ent status of a previous job
lasting 5 years or m ore. R etired workers are asked about
the em ploym ent status of previous jobs. The respondents’
answers are used to determ ine who is self-em ployed, and
who transitioned into self-em ploym ent before and after
age 50. Respondents in the Health and R etirem ent Study
are also asked about jobs other than their m ain job and if
the second job is in self-em ploym ent. U nlike in the CPS, in
the Health and Retirem ent Study the distinction betw een
incorporated and unincorporated self-em ploym ent is not
made, although interview ers in the H ealth and Retirem ent
Study are instructed to classify individuals who w ork in a
business they own as self-em ployed.
The Health and Retirement Study is extremely rich in terms
of a number of other characteristics available for the study
population. This includes inform ation about job ch ar­
acteristics, income and its sources, wealth from various
sources (for example, pensions, Social Security, housing, and
other financial assets),43 health status, access to health in­
surance coverage, retirement expectations, and a similar array
of characteristics for the resp o n d en t’s spouse. This in­
formation allows for a detailed analysis of the characteristics
of the self-employed. Comparable data are also available for
the wage and salary workforce as well.
There are several alternative definitions of self-em ­
ployment that can be analyzed in the Health and Retirement
Study. The appendix provides a comparison between the
five d efinitions used for the CPS and four alternative
definitions based on the Health and Retirement Study. This
analysis shows that a definition of self-employment in the
Health and Retirement Study, based on reported current selfemployment in the primary job (defined as HI in the appendix),
is most comparable with the CPS definition that captures
current self-employment in unincorporated and incorporated
businesses (definition C2). Thus, using this definition, we
find that 22.7 percent or 6.4 million workers age 51 and older
M onthly Labor Review

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2004

37

Self-Employment—Older Workers

in 1998 were self-employed in their primary job. (See the
appendix for a comparison of self-employment rates across
the two surveys.)

Characteristics based on the

hrs

The extremely rich data in the Health and Retirement Study
allow us to go beyond the d escriptive analysis that is
possible using the characteristics available in the CPS. Using
the HRS98 sam ple o f w orkers age 51 and older and our
preferred definition of self-employment in the Health and
Retirem ent Study (those workers who state they are selfemployed in their primary job in the reference week), we
compare the characteristics of self-employed workers to wage
and salary workers, and for the self-employed, we compare
the characteristics of male and female workers. We also
compare the characteristics o f self-employed workers age 51
and older by whether they became self-em ployed before
versus at or after age 50 based on retrospective employment
information.44 This allows us to contrast the characteristics
of those who are more likely to be considered career selfem ployed versus those who made the transition to selfemployment in later life. (As noted in the appendix table A1,
23 percent o f workers age 51 and older are self-employed in
their primary job, of these, 32 percent became self-employed
at age 50 or older.)
Table 6 shows the dem ographic, income and wealth,
health, employment, and spouse characteristics for the six
groups: wage and salary workers, self-employed workers,
male self-employed, female self-employed, self-employed
before age 50, and self-employed at or after age 50.

Demographic characteristics.

Consistent with the data in
tables 4 and 5 for the CPS, the demographic characteristics
reveal that, compared with wage and salary workers, selfemployed workers (age 51 and older) are older, more likely to
be w hite, m ale, m arried, and to have at least a college
education. Thirty-five percent of the older self-employed
w orkers are w om en, and the m ost striking differences
between older female and male self-employed workers are
their education levels and m arital status. Self-employed
women age 51 and older are 8 percentage points less likely to
have some college education or more, and 3 percentage
points more likely to be a high-school drop-out than selfemployed men. They are also approximately 16 percentage
points less likely to be married. Notably, nearly 16 percent of
older female self-employed workers are widowed, compared
with few er than 4 percent for their self-em ployed male
counterparts. Female self-employed workers are also younger
than the men, and more racially diverse. Workers who become
self-employed at age 50 or older are much older than workers
self-employed before age 50, and are more likely to be female.

38
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Income and wealth.

Self-employed workers age 51 and older
have higher household income and wealth than wage and
salary workers. M ean household income for older selfemployed workers is $101,183, compared with $66,191 for
wage and salary workers, although at the medians, household
income is more similar between the two groups: $56,103 and
$50,200 respectively. The average capital income for the selfemployed (income primarily from self-employment, other
businesses, and assets) is more than six times that for wage
and salary workers, while their financial wealth is more than
three times the wealth of wage and salary workers. The gap
in the wealth stock or income flow from the wealth stock is as
large or larger at the median. Similar patterns exist when
considering subcom ponents of w ealth, such as housing
wealth or assets in ir a or Keogh accounts, or wealth less
business assets. In each case, older self-employed workers
have higher asset levels, although the gap is smaller when
medians are considered compared with means. Some of the
difference in the wealth measure reported in table 6 may be
reduced after accounting for differences in pension wealth
which is likely to be greater for wage and salary workers.
Older self-employed men have higher household income
and wealth than self-em ployed women regardless of the
income and wealth measure. Likewise, with one exception,
workers who become self-employed at age 50 or older have
consistently low er household incom e and w ealth than
workers who become self-employed before age 50. The one
exception is assets in ir a or Keogh accounts which are higher
at the mean and median for those who become self-employed
at or after age 50. Such accounts are often the result of rolling
over defined contribution pension plan balances from prior
jobs, a course of action that may be more prevalent among
those who become self-employed later in their career. The
overall higher financial asset levels for the long-term selfemployed may reflect greater wealth accumulation for career
self-em ployed workers, com pared with wage and salary
workers who transition to self-employment later in their labor
market careers. Alternatively, wealth may be lower for more
recently self-em ployed w orkers because part o f their
accumulated wealth was invested in their business. We are not
able to differentiate between these two explanations. Similar to
wage and salary workers, workers who become self-employed at
or after age 50 may also have higher pension wealth than those
who were self-employed before age 50 so that the overall wealth
levels available at retirement may be closer to that of workers
who become self-employed before age 50.

Health status.

As seen in table 6, the self-employed age 51
and older are drawn from both the very healthy and those
who have a work-limiting disability. Approximately 57 percent
of self-employed workers report being in excellent or very
good health, compared with 53 percent of wage and salary

Table 6. Characteristics of self-employed in primary job in 1998 for workers age 51 and older based on Health
and Retirement Study
[In percent, unless otherwise indicated]

Class of w o rke r

S e lf-e m p lo y e d

S e lf-e m p lo y e d

C h a ra c te ris tic
W age

S e lf-e m p lo y e d

Men

W om en

B efore a g e 50

A t or a fte r
a g e 50

Sample size (n um ber)................................ .......

5,779

1,694

1,092

602

1,129

547

M en........................................................................
Age group
51 to 5 3 ...............................................................
54 to 5 6 ...............................................................
57 to 5 9 ...............................................................
60 to 6 2 ...............................................................
63 to 6 5 ...............................................................
66 to 6 8 ...............................................................
69 and o ld e r........................................................

50.3

65.1

100.0

0.0

68.3

58.6

27.3
24.8
16.4
11.9
7.1
4.6
7.9

19.4
19.3
13.6
11.5
8.6
7.7
20.0

17.5
17.6
13.7
12.1
9.2
8.2
21.6

22.8
22.5
13.3
10.4
7.4
6.8
16.9

22.7
20.7
14.7
11.5
8.2
5.9
16.4

12.0
16.5
11.2
11.7
9.7
11.6
27.3

Race
White non-H ispanic...........................................
Black no n-H ispa nic...........................................
Hispanic...............................................................
O ther....................................................................

81.8
9.2
6.6
2.3

88.9
5.2
3.8
2.2

89.8
4.8
3.3
2.2

87.3
5.8
4.7
2.2

89.7
4.7
3.7
1.9

87.8
6.3
3.2
2.7

Marital status
Married.................................................................
W idow ed..............................................................
Separated/divorced...........................................
Never m a rried.....................................................

72.5
7.9
16.0
3.6

76.6
7.6
12.6
3.1

82.2
3.4
11.0
3.3

66.3
15.5
15.5
2.8

76.9
9.1
12.0
2.1

76.6
6.9
13.0
3.6

Education
High-school d ro p o u t..........................................
G E D .....................................................................
High-school g ra d u a te ........................................
Some colleg e......................................................
College graduate and h ig h e r............................

14.4
4.4
32.6
23.7
24.9

14.6
3.1
27.1
23.6
31.5

13.6
3.1
25.5
21.8
36.1

16.6
3.3
30.2
26.8
23.1

14.2
3.3
28.1
23.0
31.4

14.8
2.9
24.5
25.6
32.1

Income and wealth (in dollars)
Total household income (m e a n ).......................
Total household income (m edian )....................

$66,191
50,200

$101,183
56,103

$108,123
60,532

$88,246
46,732

$114,736
60,532

$70,759
48,022

Wage earnings (m ean)...................................
Wage earnings (m edian )...............................
Household capital income (m ean)...............
Household capital income (m edian)............

33,783
26,000
9,996
500

14,236
0
61,782
27,221

18,478
0
68,734
32,144

6,327
0
48,822
17,000

15,408
0
75,198
33,997

11,834
0
31,595
12,112

Total financial wealth (m e a n )...........................
Total financial wealth (m e d ia n )........................
Housing wealth (m ean)..................................
Housing wealth (m edian)..............................
IRA/Keogh account wealth (m e a n ).............
IRA/Keogh account wealth (m e d ia n )..........
Total wealth less business assets
(m ean)............................................................
Total wealth less business assets
(m edian)........................................................

238,857
119,000
80,006
60,000
37,667
0

740,765
312,000
148,360
86,000
70,381
0

786,403
345,000
163,438
90,000
74,756
5,000

655,686
249,000
120,251
80,000
62,227

0

888,370
366,660
164,586
90,000
15,408
0

409,990
213,500
112,652
75,000
64,386
3,500

224,348

554,344

595,847

476,972

635,361

369,560

116,000

248,200

267,000

205,000

267,800

194,000

19.2
34.0
32.4
12.3
2.1
8.4

25.4
31.2
27.4
13.2
2.9
15.0

24.6
32.2
28.5
11.7
3.0
13.1

26.9
29.3
25.4
15.9
2.6
18.4

25.5
30.8
27.7
13.3
2.7
14.1

25.2
32.8
26.5
12.3
3.3
16.5

95.2
3.4
1.4

95.0
3.9
1.1

95.5
3.7
.8

94.0
4.4
1.6

95.2
3.5
1.3

94.6
4.9
.5

67.4
60.6

34.3
12.4

37.2
15.4

27.9
8.3

40.6
14.7

17.6
7.5

Health status
E xcellent..............................................................
Very g o o d ............................................................
G oo d....................................................................
Fair........................................................................
P o o r.....................................................................
Health condition limits w o rk ...............................
Activities of daily living (adls)
0 .........................................................................
1 ...........................................................................
2 or m o re .............................................................
Job characteristics
Covered by employer health in s u ra n c e ..........
Has pension on current jo b ..............................


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39

Self-Employment—Older Workers

Continued—Characteristics of self-employed in primary job in 1998 for workers age 5 and older based
on Health and Retirement Study
[In percent, unless otherwise Indicated]

Class of w o rk e r

Characteristic
Job characteristics (continued)
Pension type on current jo b .............................
Defined benefit (DB) pension o n ly ................
Defined contribution (DC) pension o n ly ........
Both DB and DC p e n s io n ...............................
Doesn’t know pension ty p e ............................
Had pension on previous j o b ...........................
Job requires a lot of physical effort
All/almost all the tim e ........................................
Most of the tim e .................................................
Some of the tim e ...............................................
None/almost none of tim e ................................
Full-time on main jo b .............................................
Hold second jo b .....................................................
Second job in same c la s s................................
Retirement expectations (mean) .........................
Probability of working full-time after age 62 ...
Probability of working full-time after age 65 ...

S e lf-e m p lo y e d
Men

S e lf-e m p lo y e d

W om en

B efore a g e 50

A t or after
a g e 50

W age

S e lf-e m p lo y e d

34.7
37.8
24.9
2.5
49.1

19.0
63.3
11.7
6.0
48.4

21.5
54.9
11.4
12.2
54.9

7.1
80.8
10.7
1.4
35.9

16.6
65.9
12.4
5.1
44.4

29.5
52.2
8.5
9.8
55.7

17.8
14.8
30.3
37.1
74.3
10.8
52.8

18.3
16.1
27.6
38.1
53.5
10.8
61.8

18.8
17.5
27.6
36.2
59.5
11.7
64.9

17.4
13.5
27.6
41.5
42.2
9.2
54.5

19.0
16.1
29.1
35.8
59.0
11.7
60.2

17.0
16.0
23.8
43.2
41.2
9.2
66.3

47.0
26.0

56.0
42.0

63.0
48.0

47.0
32.0

57.0
43.0

54.0
38.0

Occupation
Executive, administrative, m anagerial............
Professional s p e c ia lty ......................................
S a le s ...................................................................
Administrative s u p p o rt......................................
Private ho u se h o ld .............................................
Protective s e rv ic e .............................................
Other s e rv ic e .....................................................
Farming, forestry, fis h e rie s ..............................
Precision production, craft, re p a ir..................
Operators, assemblers, repairers, laborers ...
Industry
A gricultural.........................................................
Mining and construction....................................
Manufacturing.....................................................
Transportation....................................................
Wholesale and retail tra d e ...............................
Finance, insurance, real e s ta te .......................
Business/repair s e rv ic e s ..................................
Personal s e rv ic e s .............................................
Entertainm ent.....................................................
Professional services........................................
Public adm inistration.........................................

15.8
18.0
9.1
18.2
.9
2.2
11.2
1.4
9.8
13.4

16.4
19.4
20.3
5.1
2.9
.1
8.0
9.1
11.6
7.0

19.5
19.9
19.0
1.6
.2
.1
2.4
13.0
15.3
9.1

10.7
18.4
22.8
11.6
8.1
.0
18.5
1.9
4.9
3.1

16.8
19.5
20.0
5.5
2.2
.0
5.9
11.1
12.7
6.5

16.0
19.2
21.4
4.1
4.6
.2
12.5
4.5
9.4
8.3

1.4
4.3
18.3
7.7
15.7
6.2
6.1
3.3
2.0
29.3
5.8

9.6
9.8
7.5
3.3
16.8
11.7
12.8
9.3
2.3
16.5
.5

12.7
14.1
7.9
3.9
14.6
11.5
14.6
2.3
2.0
15.9
.6

3.9
1.8
6.7
2.3
20.7
12.0
9.3
22.4
2.9
17.7
.3

11.5
11.1
8.3
3.3
16.0
12.2
11.1
7.3
2.6
16.2
.3

5.2
6.9
5.8
3.5
18.2
10.4
16.9
13.4
1.6
17.4
.9

Reason for leaving previous j o b .........................
No previous jo b ..................................................
Business closed ................................................
Laid off/let g o .....................................................
Poor health/disabled.........................................
Family c a re .........................................................
Better jo b ............................................................
Q u it......................................................................
R etired.................................................................
Respondent’s family m o ved .............................
Sold business (o w n )..........................................
O th e r...................................................................

35.9
10.9
9.2
2.3
3.4
13.9
10.1
9.4
3.5
.4
1.0

33.0
7.2
7.9
3.2
2.8
14.2
11.5
16.1
3.0
.4
.8

32.1
7.7
8.1
3.2
.6
16.3
10.5
18.4
2.3
.3
.6

34.6
6.3
7.6
3.3
7.0
10.2
13.3
11.8
4.3
.6
1.1

40.7
7.5
5.5
3.2
2.9
16.2
11.3
8.8
2.7
.5
.8

14.5
6.7
13.4
3.4
2.6
10.1
12.1
32.9
3.6
.0
.8

57.0

58.0

57.0

60.0

57.0

60.0

15.2
4.8
33.0
23.0
24.1

12.8
2.7
30.9
26.0
27.5

10.9
2.6
33.9
28.4
24.3

17.4
2.9
24.1
20.7
35.0

12.3
2.1
30.1
27.2
28.3

12.9
4.2
33.3
24.0
25.6

Spouse characteristics
Spouse age (m ean)...........................................
E duca tion...........................................................
High-school dropout.......................................
GED..................................................................
High-school graduate.....................................
Some c o lle g e ..................................................
College graduate and high er.........................

40
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|

Table 6. Continued—Characteristics of self-employed in primary job in 1998 for workers age 51 and older based
on Health and Retirement Study
[In percent, unless otherwise Indicated]

S e lf-e m p lo y e d

Class of w o rk e r

S e lf-e m p lo y e d

C h a ra c te rtis c
W age

Spouse characteristics (continued)
Health status
E xcellent.........................................................
Very g o o d ........................................................
Good.................................................................
F a ir...................................................................
Poor..................................................................
Working for p a y ..................................................
Self-employed.....................................................
Covered by employer health in s u ra n c e ..........
Has pension........................................................

16.9
3 2 .7
3 1 .2
13.9
5 .3
6 6 .2
9 .5
4 5 .6
58 .0

S e lf-e m p lo y e d

workers. The fraction reporting fair or poor health is also
slightly higher for the self-employed. In addition, the selfemployed are approximately 7 percentage points more likely
to say that their health limits their work, compared with thenwage and salary counterparts. The two groups have similar
numbers of limitations with eating, bathing, dressing, getting
out of bed, or walking across a room (measures of activities of
daily living). Comparing self-employed women and men, we
find more self-employed women report being in fair or poor
health (a difference of 4 percentage points) and more report
having a health condition that limits their work (a difference
of 5 percentage points). The frequency of reporting limitations
with activities o f daily living is also slightly higher for female
self-employed workers. Although the overall health status of
self-employed workers before and after age 50 is similar,
workers who become self-employed at age 50 or older are
slightly more likely to have a health condition that limits their
work.
Table 6 also compares the
em ploym ent characteristics across older wage and salary
w orkers and the various groups o f older self-em ployed
workers. In terms of employee benefits, health insurance and
pension access is considerably different between the selfemployed and wage and salary workers: 34 percent of the
self-employed versus 67 percent of wage and salary workers
have health insurance coverage, and 12 percent versus 61
percent respectively have pension coverage on the current
job. At the same time, pension coverage on the prior job is
alm ost identical for the two groups. Am ong those with
pension coverage on the current job, the self-employed are
more likely to participate in a defined contribution plan than a
defined benefit plan. Among the self-employed, women have


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22.1
3 3 .9
2 7 .3
13.4
3 .4
5 9 .7

2 2 .0
33.1
2 7 .8
12.9
4 .2
64.2
2 6 .9
4 4 .8
4 3 .4

NO TES: Sample is self-employed workers age 51 and older using
definition H1 (See exhibit A-1). Means and percentages have been calculated
using Health and Retirement Study sampling weights.

Employment characteristics.

M en

2 0 .5
4 0 .0
4 3 .5

SOURCE:

W om en

2 2 .0
3 1 .3
2 9 .0
11.9
5 .9
7 4 .7
4 1 .6
5 6 .4
43.1

Before a g e 50

A t or after
a g e 50

17.6
35.1
2 9 .8
12.4

24.1
3 2 .5
27.1
12.8
3 .6
6 6 .3
2 9 .4
4 7 .0
4 3 .0

5.1
60.1
2 1 .5
4 0 .6
4 3 .3

Authors’ calculations using Health and Retirement Study

1 9 9 8 ( hrs 9 8 ).

lower health insurance coverage and lower pension coverage
on both the current and prior job. Among those with pension
coverage, defined contribution plans or both defined benefit
and defined contribution plans are considerably m ore
com m on for w om en than m en (92 versus 66 percent).
Although the more recently self-employed have lower health
and pension coverage on the current job, they have higher
pension coverage on the prior job. This suggests that
pension coverage on a prior wage and salary job might
facilitate the transition to self-employment later in life.
In terms of work effort, self-employed workers age 51 and
older are only slightly more likely than wage and salary
workers of the same age to have a job that requires a lot of
physical effort all or most of the time. Among the selfemployed, physical effort associated with the job is lower for
women than men, and for those who become self-employed
after age 50. It is striking to note that the self-employed are
much more likely to report working part-time (less than 35
hours per week) on their main job, particularly self-employed
women and workers who become self-employed at age 50 or
older. At the same time, the self-employed are equally likely
as wage and salary workers to hold a second job, although
second jobs are somewhat more likely to be in the same class
of employment for the self-employed (that is, a second wage
and salary job for wage and salary workers, and a second
self-employment job for the self-employed). Men and those
self-employed before age 50 are somewhat more likely to have
a second job but, among the self-employed with second jobs,
the rates of self-employment are higher for men and those
self-employed at or after age 50 than for those who become
self-employed before age 50.
It may be the case that self-employed workers age 51 and
older reduce hours rather than retire from the labor force or
M onthly Labor Review

July

2004

41

Self-Employment—Older Workers

wage and salary workers become self-employed in order to
work part-time. Indeed, compared with wage and salary
workers, self-employed workers have a higher probability of
w orking full-tim e at age 62 and age 65— a m easure of
retirement expectations— particularly self-employed men and
the longer term self-employed. This suggests that transitions
to self-employment later in the career may be part of the
retirement process.

Occupation and industry composition. With regards to
occupation and industry, consistent with our earlier analysis
of the CPS, older self-employed workers are more likely to
have an occupation of farming and to be in the agricultural
sector than wage and salary w orkers, particularly male
workers who becom e self-em ployed before age 50. The
occupation and industry distributions of male and female
self-employed workers show a number of differences, with
women more likely to be self-employed in clerical and other
services occupations, and in the trade and personal services
sectors. Those who become self-employed later in their career
are more concentrated in segments of the services sector
rather than in agriculture or mining/construction.
Employment history.

The Health and Retirement Study asks
resp o n d en ts, age 51 and older, about the reason they
departed from their prior job. The responses, tabulated in
table 6, reveal that, compared with their wage and salary
counterparts, self-employed workers are less likely to have
left a prior job involuntarily (for example, due to layoffs,
firin g s, or business closures) and m ore likely to have
experienced a voluntary departure (quit or retired). Notably,
16 percent o f self-em ployed w orkers retired from their
previous job, compared with 9 percent of wage and salary
workers. Among self-employed workers after age 50, the
percentage rises to 33 percent. This group is also more likely
than wage and salary workers to have been laid off. Selfemployed men are more likely to report leaving a prior job for
a better jo b or having had retired com pared with selfemployed women.

Spouses’ characteristics. F inally, table 6 reports the
characteristics of the spouses of the wage and salary and
self-employed workers age 51 and older in terms of age,
education, health and health insurance, and some employment
characteristics. Spouses o f the self-em ployed, like selfemployed workers themselves, are more likely to be college
educated and are healthier than spouses of wage and salary
workers. Overall the spouses of self-employed workers are
only slightly less likely to be working. Some self-employment
is likely to be family-owned businesses: 27 percent of selfemployed workers have spouses who are also self-employed,
a rate that exceeds that for the spouses of wage and salary

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workers. Despite the differential class of em ploym ent,
spouses of the self-employed and of wage and salary workers
are about equally likely to be covered by employer health
insurance. At the same time, consistent with this differential,
the spouse of a self-employed worker is less likely to have a
pension than the spouse of a wage and salary worker.
Among older self-em ployed workers, the spouses of
fem ale w orkers are m ore polarized in their education
distribution, with a higher fraction in both the lowest and
highest education levels, but spousal health is quite similar.
The husbands of self-employed women are more likely to be
working, to be self-employed, and to be covered by employer
health insurance than the wives of self-employed men. Rates
of pension coverage are almost identical. The contrasts in
the characteristics of the spouses of workers who become
self-employed before and after age 50 are not as sharp. There
is some indication that, com pared with individuals who
become self-employed before age 50, persons who become
self-employed at or after age 50 have older spouses (expected
given that the self-employed after age 50 are more likely to be
women and are older themselves), have worse health, and are
less likely to be working at all or to be self-employed.

Conclusions
Given the importance of self-employment at older ages— both
relative to the ranks of the self-employed as a whole and relative
to the wage and salary workforce at older ages— it is important
to have a solid understanding of the characteristics of this
segment of the workforce and how those characteristics may be
changing over time. The aging of the workforce as the babyboom cohort approaches retirem ent will alm ost certainly
influence the size and characteristics of the self-employed
workforce. Although the overall trend in self-employment rates
has been downward in the past decade, the fact that selfemployment rates rise at older ages and that the population is
aging suggests that demographics alone may halt or reverse
that trend. At the same time, we also know that a growing share
of those who are self-employed do so through an incorporated
business. The fact that this form of business organization is
not officially tracked as a form of self-employment in U.S.
labor force statistics may conceal changes in underlying rates
of self-employment, particularly among older workers, where
up to one-third are in incorporated businesses. Future
research can help deepen our understanding of this important
labor force phenomenon.
Our two data sources— cross-sectional time-series data
from the CPS and cross-sectional data from the Health and
Retirement Study— reveal that older self-employed workers
exhibit many of the same characteristics found for the selfemployed more generally. Among workers age 51 and older,
self-employed workers, compared with their wage and salary

counterparts, are older; are more likely to be male, white,
married, and college educated; and more likely to be healthier,
but to have a health condition that limits work. Self-employed
workers are also more likely to be working part-time and to
have a fam ily -b u sin ess or a spouse w ho is also selfemployed. The differences in the age distribution, health
status, and work effort among older self-employed workers
versus their wage and salary counterparts suggest that the
self-employed at older ages are able to work longer even
despite poorer health, and to work with more flexibility in
hours. Thus, self-employed workers may be better able to
accommodate their changing preferences for work versus
leisure as they make the transition to retirement.
A t the sam e tim e, older self-em ployed w orkers are
financially better off than workers in the wage and salary

class as measured by household income and wealth, but are
less likely to have a pension and health insurance on their
current job. Those who become self-employed after age 50
— about one third of older self-employed workers— also have
lower levels of income and wealth and lower rates of pension
and health coverage, compared with those who become selfemployed earlier in their career. Women, whose share of selfemployment among older workers has been growing over
time, also exhibit lower income, asset, and employee benefit
levels than their male counterparts who are self-employed.
Future research could help identify the implications of selfemploym ent for the retirem ent income security of older
workers, especially self-employed women and older workers
who make the transition to self-employment later in their
careers.
□

Notes
cknow ledgm ent:
The authors would like to thank Sara Rix and Jules
Lichtenstein at AARP for valuable discussions and comments. Patricia
St. Clair and Rachel Louie at r a n d provided expert programming
assistance. The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from
AARP under contract 1002686-0C -000.

A

1 We recognize that our analysis o f the c p s and the Health and
Retirement Study uses slightly different age groups (50 and older
from the C P S and 5 1 and older from the Health and Retirement Study),
but the difference is not analytically significant. In the appendix, we
compare the level and rate of self-employment for both data sources
for workers in the same age cohort (that is, age 51 and older).
2 F. Thomas Juster, and Richard Suzman, “An Overview of the
Health and Retirement Study,” J o u r n a l o f H u m a n R e s o u r c e s , 1995,
pp. S7-S56.
3 The parenthetical phrase is asked only o f households that
responded to an earlier question that they run a family business as a
way of identifying unpaid family workers.
4 This approach differs from that followed in many other countries
(for example, Canada) where owners of incorporated businesses are
also classified as self-employed. This latter approach is consistent
with the 1993 International Classification of Status in Employment
( i c s e - 9 3 ) standards set by the International Labour Organization. The
United States is one of only a handful of countries that deviates from
the standard in the treatment of the self-employed. See Peter Elias,
“Status in Employment: A World Survey of Practices and Problems,”
1LO B u lle tin o f L a b o u r S t a t is tic s , No. 11-19, 2000.
5 The upward jump in self-employment rates between 1993 and
1994 evident in chart 1 across all the series (and especially the ones
that include the incorporated self-employed) is due, in part, to changes
in the c p s implemented in 1994. See Marilyn E. Manser and Garnett
Picot, “The role of self-employment in U.S. and Canadian job growth,
M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w , April 1999, pp. 10-25. This change in the
series is discussed later in the text.
6 David M. Blau, “A Time-Series Analysis of Self-Employment in
the United States,” T h e J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c a l E c o n o m y , June 1987, pp.
4 4 5 -6 7 .


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7 Manser and Picot, “The role o f self-em ploym ent,” 1999, pp.
1 0 -2 5 .
8 The discussion that follows is based on tabulations using data
from the sources cited in table 1.
9 Our analysis of c p s microdata allows us to look at self-employment
rates for the older workforce using a definition that includes the selfemployed in incorporated businesses.
10 See, for example, Theresa Devine, “Characteristics o f selfemployed women in the United States,” M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , March
1994, pp. 20-34; Manser and Picot, “The role of self-employment,”
1999, pp. 10-25; Yannis Georgellis, and Howard J. Wall, “Who Are
the Self-Em ployed?” F e d e r a l R e s e r v e B a n k o f S t. L o u i s R e v i e w ,
November/December 2000, pp. 15-23; and Steven Haider and D.
Loughran, “Elderly Labor Supply: Work or Play?” r a n d d r u - 2 5 8 2 ,
Santa Monica, ca, 2001.
11 Another strand of the self-employment literature considers the
factors that lead individuals to choose self-employment over wage
and salary work, as well as the determinants of transitions to selfemployment. For a review of that literature, see Julie Zissimopoulos
and Lynn A. Karoly, “Transitions to Self-Employment at Older Ages:
The Role of Wealth, Health, Health Insurance, and Other Factors,”
paper presented at the 2003 annual m eetings o f the Population
Association of America, April 2003.
12 Devine, “Characteristics of self-employed women,” 1994, pp.
20-34; John E. Bregger, “Measuring self-employment in the United
States,” M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w , January/February 1996, pp. 3-9;
Robert W. Fairlie, E th n i c a n d R a c i a l E n tr e p r e n e u r s h i p : A S tu d y o f
H is to r ic a l a n d C o n te m p o r a r y D if f e r e n c e s (New York, Garland, 1996);
Manser and Picot, “The role of self-employment,” 1999, pp. 10-25;
and Yannis and Wall, “Who Are the Self-Employed?” 2000, pp. 1523.
13 Fairlie, E t h n i c a n d R a c i a l E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p : A S t u d y o f
H is to r ic a l a n d C o n te m p o r a r y D if f e r e n c e s (New York, Garland, 1996);
Robert W. Fairlie and Bruce D. Meyer, “The Ethnic and Racial
Character o f Self-E m ploym ent,” n b e r Working Paper No. 4791
(National Bureau of Economic Research, 1994); and Robert W. Fairlie
and Bruce D. M eyer, “Ethnic and Racial Self-Em ploym ent

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43

Self-Employment—Older Workers

Differences and Possible Explanations,”
Autumn 1996, pp. 757-93.

Jou rn al o f H um an R esou rces,

30 Joseph Quinn, “Labor Force Participation Patterns of Older SelfEmployed Workers,” S o c ia l S e c u r ity B u lle tin , April 1980, pp. 17-28.

14 Barton H. Hamilton, “Does Entrepreneurship Pay? An Empirical
Analysis o f th e Returns of Self-Employment,” T h e J o u r n a l o f P o l itic a l
E c o n o m y , June 2000, pp. 604-31.

31 The sample size for the Annual Demographic File increased
beginning with the March 2001 survey, although the public use file we use
for March 2001 is based on the old sampling scheme. (For detail, see on the
Internet: www.bls.census.gov/cps/ads/data_dissem_letterng.htm.) The
sample for the March 2002 file is about 50 percent larger than that of the
prior year. To minimize potential discontinuities in the data series, we
expect to use the 2001 public use file for the sample that replicates what
was used in earlier surveys.

15 William G. Deming, “Work at home: data from the c p s ,” M o n th ly
February 1994, pp. 14-20; and Linda N. Edwards, and
Elizabeth Field-Hendrey, “Home-Based Work and Women’s Labor
Force D ecisions,” J o u r n a l o f L a b o r E c o n o m i c s , January 2002, pp.
1 7 0-200.
L a b o r R e v ie w ,

16 David G. Blanchfiower and Andrew J. Oswald, “What Makes an
Entrepreneur?” J o u r n a l o f L a b o r E c o n o m ic s , January 1998, pp. 2 6 60; and David G. Blanchfiower, Andrew J. Oswald, and Alois Stulzer,
“Latent Entrepreneurship across N ation s,” E u r o p e a n E c o n o m i c
R e v ie w , May 2001, pp. 680-691; and Greg Hundley, “Why and When
are the Self-Employed More Satisfied with Their Work?” I n d u s t r i a l
R e l a t i o n s , April 2001, pp. 293-316.
17 Hamilton, “Does Entrepreneurship Pay?” 2000, pp. 604-31.
18 Hamilton, “Does Entrepreneurship Pay?” 2000, pp. 604-31.
19 Devine, “Characteristics of self-employed women,” 1994, pp.
20-34; Fairlie and Meyer, “The Ethnic and Racial Character of SelfEmployment,” 1994; Fairlie, E th n i c a n d R a c i a l E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p ,
1996; Manser and Picot, “The role of self-employment,” 1999; and
Georgellis and Wall, “Who Are the Self-Employed?” 2000, pp. 1523.
20 Devine, “Characteristics of Self-Employed Women,” 1994, pp.
2 0 -3 4 .
21 Fairlie and Meyer, “The Ethnic and Racial Character o f SelfEm ploym ent,” 1994.
22 Georgellis, and Wall, “Who Are the Self-Employed?” 2000, pp.
1 5 -2 3 .
23 Greg Hundley, “Why Women Earn Less Than Men in SelfEmployment,” J o u r n a l o f L a b o r R e s e a r c h , Fall 2001, pp. 817-29.
24 Manser and Picot, “The role o f self-em ploym ent,” 1999, pp.
1 0 -2 5 .
25 Data presented earlier in chart 1 show that after 1996, the last
year in the Manser and Picot (“The role of self-employment,” 1999,
pp. 10-25) analysis, there was a decline in self-employment rates for
the United States.
26 David G. Blanchfiower, “Self-Employment in o e c d Countries,”
September 2000, pp. 471-506; and Yuji Genda,
and Ryo Kambayashi, “Declining Self-Employment in Japan,” J o u r n a l
o f th e J a p a n e s e a n d I n t e r n a t i o n a l E c o n o m ie s , March 2002, pp. 7 3 91.
L a b o u r E c o n o m ic s ,

11 Robert W. Bednarzik, “The role of entrepreneurship in U.S. and
European job growth,” M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , July 2000, pp. 3-16.

28 Haider and Loughran, “Elderly Labor Supply,” 2001, and Doreen
Duchesne, “Seniors at Work,” P e r s p e c t i v e s o n L a b o u r a n d I n c o m e
( C a n a d a ) , Summer 2002, pp. 33-44.
29 Victor R. Fuchs, “Self-Em ploym ent and Labor Force Par­
ticipation of Older M ales,” Journal o f Human Resources, Summer
1982, 3 3 9-57.

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32 Our estimates will not exactly replicate the published figures
presented in the bls data section because the official data are based on
annual averages from the monthly cps surveys. We rely on the March
data for our analysis because the monthly surveys do not include the
supplemental information available only in the March interview (for
example, on employment in the prior year, and income and income
sources in the prior year).
33 For one-fourth o f the sample starting in 1994, the c p s also
provides information on the class of worker for secondary jobs, if
any, held during the reference week.
34 Manser and Picot, “The role o f self-employment,” 1999, pp.
1 0 -2 5 .
35 The last year of data available for all five series is 2001.
36 In the case of definitions Cl and C2, those who report they are
with a job but not at work (for example, they may be absent for
reasons of illness or vacation) in the reference week are also counted
as employed. These individuals do not report their weekly hours, so
this information is missing for this part of the sample.
37 As discussed earlier in the article, only definitions Cl and C3 (the
self-employed in unincorporated businesses) are available for the full
time series, whereas the other definitions can be calculated starting in
1975 (C4 and C5) or 1989 (C2), given the way class of worker is coded
in the CPS public use files. In addition, series C3 to C5 end in 2001
because they are based on data for the prior calendar year.
38 As discussed later in the article, this peak in 1994 may be an
artifact of the change in the survey questionnaire in that year.
39 Manser and Picot, “The role o f self-employment,” 1999, pp.
1 0 -2 5 .
40 Note that this adjustment means the change from 1993 to 1994
is from 13.7 to 13.8 percent versus 13.7 to 14.7 percent.
41 Although self-employment rates are lower on average for the
workforce as a whole, compared with workers age 50 and older, a
similar time series analysis for all workers age 16 and older shows the
same general patterns for the entire workforce as what is observed for
workers age 50 and older. For all workers, the pattern since the mid1990s is one of decreasing rates of self-employment, due largely to a
declining rate of self-employment in unincorporated businesses. From
the m id-1970s to the m id-1990s, self-em ploym ent rates in
unincorporated and incorporated businesses increased due to a growth
in the latter form of business organization.
42 In addition to the self-employed and wage and salary workers,
our sample of workers during the reference week includes those who
report they work without pay in a family business. These workers are
treated as a residual class of workers in official employment statistics
and represent less than 1 percent of the workforce.

43 Computation of Social Security wealth and pension wealth is
available only for researchers with restricted data permission. These data
are currently available for the original Health and Retirement Study
cohort only rather than the full 1998 cross-section examined here.
44 In particular, we rely on several sources o f retrospective
information. Individuals currently not working are asked about his or
her last job and whether they were self-employed. These individuals

A ppend ix:

are also asked about jobs lasting 5 years or more in a job history
segment and self-employment is identified for those prior “long”
jobs. Health and Retirement Study respondents working at the time of
the interview are also asked about employment status on previous
jobs lasting 5 years or more. In addition, for the Health and Retirement
Study 1931-41 birth cohort, we look prospectively over the panel
from 1992 to 1998 to determine if there was other self-employment
prior to when they are observed in 1998.

C om parison of self-em p loym ent definitions in the CPS a n d H ealth a n d
Retirem ent Study

This appendix provides a comparison of self-employment
levels and rates based on alternative definitions of selfemployment in the c p s and h r s . For the CPS, we use the same
five m easures of self-employment defined in exhibit 1. As
with the CPS, we consider definitions in the Health and
Retirement Study based on both employment in the reference
week and in the prior year.
Exhibit A1 provides a summary of the four measures of
self-em ploym ent we consider based on the H ealth and
Retirem ent Study. Because the Health and Retirement Study
distinguishes self-employment status for current employment
for both a primary and secondary job, we define H I as current
self-em ploym ent in the primary job only and H2 as selfemployment in the primary or secondary job. H I is closest to
C l or possibly C2 depending on how the self-employed in
incorporated businesses are classified in the Health and
Retirement Study. The difference between HI and H2 captures
“moonlighters,” those who work in self-employment only as
a secondary job, in addition to a main job in the wage and
salary class. To account for the possibility that some Health

Exhibit A l.

and Retirement Study respondents who are self-employed in
an incorporated business would classify themselves as wage
and salary workers, we also use information in the Health and
Retirement Study about business ownership to potentially
identify these individuals. Thus, definition H3 expands the
group classified as self-employed in H2 by adding in those
who report they own a business. H3 is therefore potentially
equivalent to C2, the more expansive CPS definition of the
self-employed. It is also possible, however, that H3 would
overestimate the number of self-employed to the extent that
individuals own businesses that they do not work in. Finally,
H4 is based on reported self-employment income in the prior
year, a definition that parallels C5 for the CPS. Again, however,
if the self-employed in incorporated businesses report their
labor income as wage and salary income, these definitions
may not be equivalent.
Table A 1 shows the weighted estimates for the number of
self-employed workers and the self-employment rate for the
Health and Retirement Study 1998 cross-section of civilian
noninstitutionalized workers age 51 and older for each of the

Self-em ploym ent definitions based on the Health and Retirement Study

Self-employment definition

Health and Retirement Study survey
and reference years

H 1.

Current employment: self-employed in primary job

1992.1994.1996.1998.2000

H2.

Current employment: self-employed in primary
or secondary job

1992.1994.1996.1998.2000

Current employment: self-employed in primary
or secondary job; or current assets: own business(es)

1992.1994.1996.1998.2000

Employment last year: any self-employment income

1992.1994.1996.1998.2000

H3.

H4.


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Self-Employment—Older Workers

Table A l.

Self-employment rates in 1998 for workers age 51 and older based on alternative definitions in the Health
and Retirement Study and the Current Population Survey

[Numbers in thousands]

S e lf-e m p lo y e d
Survey a n d d e fin ition of s e lf-e m p lo y e d
N um ber

P ercen t

S a m p le size

Health and Retirement Study:
H1
H2
H3
H4

Currently self-employed in primary j o b ..........................
Currently self-employed in primary or secondary jo b .............
Currently self-employed in primary or secondary job or currently own business(es)....
Any self-employment income in last y e a r..............

6,378
7,484
8,844
6,898

22.7
26.4
31.2
24.8

7,473
7,535
7,535
7,433

3,330
4,908
3,533
5,164

13.0
19.1
12.2
17.8

12,735
12,735
14,383
14,383

5,864

20.3

14,383

Current Population Survey:
Cl
C2
C3
C4
C5

Currently self-employed in main job, unincorporated......................
Currently self-employed in main job, unincorporated or incorporated........
Self-employed in longest job during calendar year, unincorporated..........................
Self-employed in longest job during calendar year, unincorporated or incorporated ....
Self-employed in longest job during calendar year, unincorporated or incorporated,
or any self-employment income during calendar y e a r.................

N otes : Sample is all civilian noninstitutionalized workers age 51 and
older. Numbers and percentages have been calculated using Health and
Retirement Study ( hrs ) and cps sampling weights.

four definitions. H I provides the most narrow definition,
with an estimated 22.7 percent of older workers (or 6.4 million)
classified as self-employed in their primary job in 1998. H2
includes the self-employed in HI plus workers who moonlight
in self-employment through a secondary job, bringing the
self-employment rate to 26.4 percent. Thus, about 4.3 percent
of the older workforce or 1.1 million workers are estimated to
moonlight in self-employment. Including individuals who
report owning one or more businesses in definition H3 brings
the self-employment rate up to 31.2 percent; more than 8
percentage points higher than the narrow definition H I. As
noted earlier, this d efinition is likely to include some
individuals who do not contribute labor to the business they
own and might therefore not be considered self-employed
according to traditional definitions of employment status.
Finally, H4 provides an estimated self-employment rate of
24.8 percent, a result close to, but slightly less than that
provided by H2.
Table A 1 also provides weighted estimates of the number
of self-employed and the self-employment rates for the c p s
using a cohort of workers equivalent to that for the Health
and Retirem ent Study. Specifically, the CPS sample consists
of civilian noninstitutionalized workers age 51 and older in
March 1998, with data on self-em ploym ent status in the
March 1998 reference week for definitions C l and C2 and for

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S o u r c e : Authors’ calculations using h rs 9 8 (H1-H4), March 1998 cps

(C1-C5).

calendar year 1997 for definitions C3 to C5. Definitions C 1
and C3, which include only unincorporated workers, are
considerably below those for the Health and Retirem ent
Study. This suggests that the Health and Retirement Study
base definition, H I, does include both self-em ployed in
u n in co rp o rated and in co rp o rated b u sin esses. The C2
definition in the CPS for the reference week is conceptually
the most equivalent to H I, and comes closest to matching
the base Health and Retirement Study definition H I , but it is
still lower by about 3.5 percentage points. The absolute size
of the self-employed workforce according to C2 is also lower
than HI by almost 1.5 million workers. Definitions H2 to H4
in the Health and Retirement Study are clearly more expansive
in defining older workers as self-employed than any of the
CPS definitions. Although we might expect H4 and C5 to be
comparable based on their definitions, C5 falls short of H4 by
almost 6 percentage points and 1.1 million workers. Thus,
the m ost com parable definitions betw een the tw o data
sources are HI for the Health and Retirement Study and C2
for the c p s . Both refer to self-employment for the survey
reference week in the main or prim ary job, and capture
in d iv id u als in both in co rp o rated and u n in co rp o rated
businesses.1 Thus, in the analyses provided in the text, we
rely on H I as our preferred definition of self-employment in
the Health and Retirement Study.

Note to the appendix
1 For the characteristics that are common across the Health and
Retirement Study and c p s , we have compared the distributions for
the various measures o f self-em ploym ent in the two surveys. A
comparison across tables 5 and 6 shows similar distributions based
on definitions C2 and H I. There is some indication that the c ps
d efin ition C2 generates a higher proportion o f men, younger


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workers within the age range, workers in the residual “other” race/
ethnicity category, married workers, more educated workers, and
individuals working full tim e. H ow ever, these differen ces are
probably due in part to sampling errors. The occupational and
industrial distributions may differ to some extent as well because of
different coding schemes.

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M onthly Labor Review

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2004

47

Job Demands Am ong Older Worl

Trends in job dem ands
am o n g older workers, 1992-2002
Employment increases among older adults could relieve some o f the
demographic pressures created by population aging, but only if older
workers are physically able to perform their job responsibilities;
the share o f workers ages 55 to 60 in jobs that never require much
physical effort increased 18 percent between 1992 and 2002
Richard W. Johnson

Richard W. Johnson
is a senior research
associate in the
Incom e and Benefits
Policy Center
a t the Urban Institute
in Washington, DC.
E-mail:
RJohnson@
ui.urban.org

he aging of the population raises concerns
about the N ation’s ability to support fu­
ture retirees, whose numbers will soar
once members of the “baby-boom” cohort begin
reaching old age in coming years. If current em­
ployment patterns persist, there will be fewer
workers in the future available to produce goods
and services, threatening standards of living for
Americans of all ages. As long as job demands
do not force many older workers into retirement,
increasing employment among older adults could
relieve these demographic pressures. This ar­
ticle explores the ability of the labor force to ac­
commodate older adults by examining recent
trends in job demands among older workers.
Once the oldest baby-boom ers reach age 65
in 2011, the population will begin to age rap ­
idly. The U.S. Census Bureau predicts that
betw een 2000 and 2040, the num ber of A m eri­
cans ages 65 and older will more than double,
to 77 m illion, while the number of prime w ork­
ing-age adults, betw een the ages of 25 and 54,
will increase by only 12 percent.1 As a result,
the num ber of prim e w orking-age adults per
elderly American will fall over the next 40 years
from 3.5 to 1.8. The number of dependent chil­
dren will also grow relatively rapidly over the
next 40 years, com pounding the pressures on
working adults. In 2040, the number of A m eri­
cans under 18 and ages 65 and older, who have
been less likely to work, will exceed the num ­
ber of prime w orking-age adults by 21 percent.
In 2000, by contrast, prime working-age adults
outnum bered dependent children and elderly
adults by 14 percent.

T

48 Monthly Labor Review

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2004

The growing imbalance between working age
adults and elderly persons is reducing the num­
ber of workers who can finance retirement ben­
efits for older Americans. Both Social Security
and Medicare are funded primarily on a pay-asyou-go basis, with payroll taxes on workers fi­
nancing benefits received by retirees. According
to the latest official projections, outlays will be­
gin to exceed revenues for Medicare in 2011 and
for Social Security in 2018.2 More fundamentally,
the aging of the population reduces the number
of workers available to produce the goods and
services that the economy needs. Without dra­
matic increases in productivity or changes in
employment patterns, the looming worker short­
age will reduce per-capita output and lower living
standards.3
Higher employment rates among older adults
could relieve these pressures, by increasing the
labor force and reducing claims on retirement
benefits. The average retirement age has been
falling over most of the past century— despite
improvements in health and life expectancy that
could allow individuals to work until older
ages4— although the trend seems to have leveled
off and even reversed in recent years.5 Congress
has increased the age at which retirees qualify for
full Social Security benefits, which could encour­
age older workers to remain in the labor force.
The legislation slowly raises the normal retire­
ment age from 65 to 67 (for workers born after
1959, who will reach age 67 after 2026). Some
experts have proposed that Congress increase
the normal retirement age to 67 more quickly,6 in­
crease it to age 70,7 or tie the retirement age to

changes in life expectancy.8 Others have advocated removing
some of the legal impediments to work at older ages.9 For
example, many older workers preitr to reduce their work hours
gradually, but Federal law prohibits employers from paying
retirement benefits to active employees, even if they work
only part time.
Job demands also encourage early retirement. Studies have
found that workers in blue collar jobs tend to retire before
workers in white collar jobs,10 and that workers in physically
demanding jobs are less likely to remain in the labor force after
the initial receipt of Social Security benefits.11 Other studies
have found that physical job demands and stress are impor­
tant predictors of early retirement.12
The decline of the manufacturing sector over the past half
century and the growing computerization of the workplace
have likely reduced physical job demands, potentially enabling
more older adults to remain at work. Between 1950 and 2000,
the share of jobs in the goods-producing sector— which in­
cludes the construction and mining industries as well as manu­
facturing— fell from 41 percent to 20 percent; virtually all em­
ployment growth between 2000 and 2010 is expected to come
from the services-producing sector.13 In addition, the share of
workers using computers increased from 24 percent in 1984 to
54 percent in 2001.14
In fact, fewer jobs appear to require physical strength now
than they did in the past. Between 1950 and 1996, the share of
workers in jobs that required them to lift more than 50 pounds
occasionally and 25 pounds frequently fell from 20 percent to
less than 8 percent.15 These estimates, based on job data from
the 1977 edition of the Dictionary o f Occupational Titles
matched with worker data from the Current Population Sur­
vey, understate the true decline in the number of demanding
jobs. They do not account for the possibility that jobs classi­
fied as physically demanding based on 1977 job ratings be­
came less strenuous in later years. An important limitation of
this research, however, is that it provides no direct evidence
on how job demands faced by older workers have changed
over time.
Although the physical demands of work appear to be de­
clining, there is some evidence that jobs are now more timeconsuming and stressful than they used to be.16 These non­
physical demands may push some older workers into retire­
ment, even when their jobs do not require physical strength or
stamina.

Methods
This study measures recent trends in job demands at older
ages by comparing self-reported job characteristics among
older workers in 1992 and 2002. The data come from the
Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally representa­
tive survey of older Americans conducted by the University


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

of Michigan for the National Institute on Aging. The survey
began in 1992 with interviews of 9,761 Americans born be­
tween 1931 and 1941, and was expanded in 1998 to include
1,967 respondents in the 1942 to 1947 birth cohort. Every
other year, the survey collects detailed information on a wide
range of subjects, including basic demographic information,
detailed health status, and employment characteristics. The
survey oversam ples A frican A m ericans, H ispanics, and
Florida residents, but includes sample weights used to ad­
just the estimates so that they represent the underlying na­
tional population.
At each wave, the survey asks employed respondents
about their job requirements. Respondents report how often
(all or almost all of the time, most of the time, some of the time,
or none or almost none of the time) their jobs require “lots” of
physical effort; lifting heavy loads; stooping, kneeling, or
crouching; good eyesight; intense concentration or atten­
tion; skill in dealing with other people; and work with comput­
ers. In addition, the survey asks workers whether they agree
(strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree) that
their job requires them “to do more difficult things than it
used to” and that it “involves a lot of stress.” The wording of
the questions about job requirements was identical in 1992
and 2002.
This study uses the HRS to compute the share of workers
ages 55 to 60 in 1992 and 2002 who report particular job de­
mands all or almost all of the time and none or almost none of
the time, as well as the share who strongly agree and strongly
disagree that their jobs have become more difficult or that
they are stressful. It computes the percentage point differ­
ences between the 1992 and 2002 shares and uses t-tests to
determine whether these differences are statistically signifi­
cant. The relative percent change in the observed differences
is also computed. The analysis compares changes in job
demands by gender and educational attainment brought on
by economic structural shifts over the past 10 years.
In addition, the study examines the demographics, health,
and industry of older workers in jobs that require substantial
physical effort all or almost all of the time and those in jobs
that never require much physical effort. Workers in physi­
cally demanding jobs may face special difficulty delaying re­
tirement if they have health problems. Measures of health
include self-rated overall health status (excellent or very good,
good, and fair or poor); whether a doctor has diagnosed the
respondent with arthritis or rheumatism; whether the respon­
dent reports being troubled often by pain; and the presence
of serious medical conditions (defined as a history of heart
problems, diabetes, chronic lung disease, cancer, and stroke).
Because the aim is to measure serious medical conditions that
could force workers to drop out of the labor force, the analy­
sis only includes cases of chronic lung disease that limit ev­
eryday activities such as employment or household chores;

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

49

Job Demands am ong Older Workers

cases of cancer for which the respondent receives at least
periodic medical checkups (suggesting that the cancer is not
completely cured); and cases of stroke that continue to cause
health problems for respondents, such as muscle weakness or
difficulty speaking. The analysis also identifies respondents
whose arthritis limits their activities in 2002. (The survey did
not collect information on the severity of arthritis in 1992.)
Table 1 compares the characteristics of h r s respondents
ages 55 to 60 in 1992 and 2002. Members of the later cohort
completed significantly more schooling than those from the
earlier cohort. Between 1992 and 2002, the share of adults in
their late 50s who did not graduate from high school fell by 11
percentage points, while the share who completed 4 or more
years o f college increased by 11 percentage points— to 29
percent of the population. The prevalence of serious medical
conditions increased over the past decade among adults in
their late 50s, because more adults had diabetes in 2002 than in
1992. Significantly more older adults reported being troubled

often by pain and suffering from arthritis in 2002 than in 1992,
although fewer than half of the arthritis cases were serious
enough to limit everyday activities. Overall health status did
not change significantly during the period.
The sample for the analyses consists of 3,125 workers in
1992 and 1,124 workers in 2002. Consistent with other evi­
dence that many workers are now delaying retirement,17 the
share of employed adults ages 55 to 60 in the h r s increased
from 67 percent in 1992 to 70 percent in 2002.

Results
Table 2 describes job characteristics for all workers ages 55 to
60. In 2002,18 percent of older workers reported that their jobs
require lots of physical effort all or almost all of the time, while
about twice as many older workers (38 percent) reported that
their jobs never or almost never require much physical effort.
About 6 out of 10 workers said they never lift heavy loads on

C h a r a c t e r is t ic s o f a d u lts a g e s 5 5 t o 6 0 , 1 9 9 2 a n d 2 0 0 2
— _____________________________________ _ _ ____________________

^

1992
(p ercent)

C haracteristic

2002
(p ercent)

P ercentage
point
d iffe re n c e

P ercent
ch a n g e

Education:
Did not complete high scho ol.........................
High school g ra d u a te ...........................................
Some college, but less than 4 y e a rs .........................
Completed 4 years of c o lle g e .........................

23.5
39.6
18.8
18.1

12.1
34.0
24.5
29.3

’-11.4
'-5 .6
15.7
111.3

—48.5
-14.1
30.5
62.6

6.0
10.4
83.7

7.0
10.4
82.6

1.0
.0
-1.1

17.5
0.4
-1 .3

50.9
27.4
21.7

51.3
28.1
20.6

0.4
.8
-1 .2

.8
2.8
-5 .4

27.2
14.3
11.0
3.5
4.2
1.4
41.2
-

29.8
13.8
14.7
3.4
4.1
1.7
45.1
19.5

22.6
-.4
13.6
-.1
-.1
.3
'3.9

9.6
-3.1
33.1
-2 .9
-2 .4
21.4
9.4

Often troubled by p a in ..................................

24.6

30.3

15.8

23.5

E m ployed.........................................

66.6

70.1

23.5

5.2

4,886

1,634

Race:
Hispanic......................................................
Non-Hispanic b la c k .....................................
Non-Hispanic white and o th e r................
Self-reported health status:
Excellent or very g o o d .....................
G ood...........................................
Fair or p o o r......................................
Medical conditions:
Any serious medical conditions3...............................
Heart pro b le m s .....................................
D iabetes......................................
Chronic lung disease that limits a c tiv itie s ...........
History of cancer, continues to see d o c to r...............
History of stroke that continues to cause problems
A rth ritis ..........................................
Arthritis that limits activities................................

Number of observations..................................
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

i

' S ignificant at the 1-percent level.
2 Significant at the 5-percent level.
3 Serious medical conditions include heart problems, chronic lung
disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes.

50 Monthly Labor Review

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2004

N ote : Estimates are weighted to account for the sampling design of the
Health and Retirement Study. Dash indicates data not available.
S ource . Author s estimates from the Health and Retirement Study ( h r s ).

A ', 1 S e lf- r e p o r te d jo b c h a r a c te r is tic s o f w o r k e r s a g e s 5 5 to 6 0 , 1992 a n d 2 0 0 2

C h a ra c te ris tic

1992 (p e rc e n t)

2002 (p e rc e n t)

P e rc e n ta g e
point
d iffe re n c e

P e rc e n t c h a n g e

J o b re q u ire m e n ts a p p ly
all or alm o s t all of th e tim e

20.3
8.1
13.0
52.3
46.8
62.1
18.6

18.3
9.1
15.7
66.5
54.5
71.8
40.7

-2 .0
1.0
22.7
M4.2
’ 7.7
'9.7
122.1

-9 .9
12.3
20.8
27.2
16.5
15.6
118.8

32.0
56.1
37.1
3.5
3.1
3.5
54.2

37.7
60.1
40.8
4.5
3.1
2.1
26.9

’5.7
24.0
23.7
1.0
.0
2- 1 .4
’27.3

17.8
7.1
10.0
28.6
.0
-40.0
-50.4

11.6
17.5

15.5
20.6

'3.9
23.1

33.6
17.7

More difficult now than it was in the p a s t...............
Involves a lot of s tre s s .............................................

7.4
5.3

5.8
3.4

3-1 .6
1-1 .9

-21.6
-35.8

Number of observations.............................................

3,125

1,124

Lots of physical e ffo rt................................................
Lifting heavy lo a d s .....................................................
Stooping, kneeling, or c ro u c h in g .............................
Good eyesight..............................................................
Intense concentration.................................................
Skill in dealing with other p e ople..............................
Work with co m p u te rs..................................................
J o b re q u ire m e n ts a p p ly
n o n e or a lm o s t n o n e of th e tim e

Lots of physical e ffo rt................................................
Lifting heavy lo a d s .....................................................
Stooping, kneeling, or cro u c h in g .............................
Good eyesight..............................................................
Intense concentration.................................................
Skill in dealing with other p e ople..............................
Work with co m p u te rs ..................................................
Strongly a g r e e w ith de scriptions
of c u rre n t jo b

More difficult now than it was in the p a s t...............
Involves a lot of s tre s s .............................................
Strongly d is a g re e w ith descriptions
of cu rre n t jo b

1 Significant at the 1-percent level.
2 Significant at the 5-percent level.
3Significant at the 10-percent level.

N ote : Estimates are weighted to account for the sampling design of
the Health and Retirement Study (HRS).
S ource : Author’s estimates from the Health and Retirement Study

(HRS).

the job, and about 4 out of 10 said their jobs never require them
to stoop, kneel, or crouch. Only 9 percent reported that their
jobs always require them to lift heavy loads, and 16 percent
said their jobs always involve stooping, kneeling, or crouching.
Although only a minority of older adults work in physically
demanding jobs, most older workers face intense non-physi­
cal demands on the job. About 55 percent reported in 2002
that their jobs always require intense concentration; 72 per­
cent reported that their jobs always require skill in dealing with
other people; 41 percent reported that they always work with
computers; and 67 percent reported that their jobs always re­
quire good eyesight. In addition, about 1 out of 5 older work­
ers strongly agreed that their jobs involve a lot of stress, and
about 1 out of 6 strongly agreed that their jobs have become
more difficult than they were in the past.


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In general, the share of older workers reporting that their
jobs entail physical demands all or almost all of the time did
not change much over the past 10 years, while the share re­
porting virtually no physical demands on the job increased
significantly. For example, the share with jobs that never re­
quire substantial amounts of physical effort jumped 6 percent­
age points between 1992 and 2002, an increase of 18 percent in
relative terms. The share with jobs that never require heavy
lifting and the share with jobs that never involve stooping,
kneeling, or crouching both increased by 4 percentage points.
But the share of older workers with jobs that require heavy
lifting all or almost all of the time and that involve regular
stooping, kneeling, or crouching also increased over the pe­
riod— although the difference is significant only for jobs with
stooping, kneeling, and crouching requirements. The propor-

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

51

Job Demands am ong Older Workers

tion reporting that their jobs alw ays require substantial
amounts of physical effort declined by 2 percentage points,
but the difference is not significant.
Non-physical job demands appear to have increased be­
tween 1992 and 2002. The proportion of older workers claim­
ing that their jobs require intense concentration all or almost
all of the time increased 8 percentage points (or 17 percent in
relative terms), and the share claiming that their jobs always
require skill in dealing with other people increased 10 percent­
age points (or 16 percent in relative terms). In addition, the
share who strongly agree that their jobs have become more
difficult than they were in the past rose by 4 percentage points
(or about one-third), while those that involve a lot of stress
increased by 3 percentage points (or more than one-sixth).
Computer use more than doubled over the period, perhaps
accounting for the 14-percentage-point jump between 1992
and 2002 in the share of older workers whose jobs always
require good eyesight.
Table 3 shows self-reported job dem ands for older w ork­
ers by gender. W omen are significantly m ore likely than
m en to report that their jobs never involve lifting heavy

[—■

loads, but there are no significant differences betw een m en
and women in the share reporting substantial am ounts of
physical effort. N on-physical job demands appear to be
more intense for women than for men. L arger shares of
women than men report that their jobs require good eye­
sight, intense concentration, and w ork with com puters.
Women also report more job stress than m en, but the dif­
ferences are significant only in 1992.
Between 1992 and 2002, the share of older workers report­
ing that they never exert substantial amounts of physical ef­
fort on the job or never lift heavy loads increased significantly
for men, but not for women. Older men, however, generally
experienced sharper gains in non-physical job demands than
women. The share of older men in jobs that require good
vision increased by 17 percentage points; the share in jobs
that require intense concentration increased by 8 percentage
points; the share in jobs that have become more difficult over
time increased by 5 percentage points; and the share in stress­
ful jobs increased by 3 percentage points. As a result, the job
demands faced by men and women were more similar in 2002
than they were 10 years earlier.

S e lf- r e p o r te d j o b c h a r a c t e r is t ic s o f w o r k e r s a g e s 5 5 t o 6 0 b y g e n d e r , 1992 a n d 2 0 0 2
-----------------P ercentage
point
C h a ra c te ris tic
1992 (p e rce n t)
2002 (p e rce n t)
d iffe re n c e

P ercent c h a n g e

Men
Lots of physical effort all or almost all of the tim e ...................
Lots of physical effort none or almost none of the tim e .............
Lift heavy loads all or almost all of the tim e ...........................
Lift heavy loads none or almost none of the tim e ........................
Stoop, kneel, or crouch all or almost all of the tim e ...................
Stoop, kneel, or crouch none or almost none of the tim e ..........
Good eyesight all or almost all of the tim e .................................
Intense concentration all or almost all of the tim e ...................
Work with computers all or almost all of the time ........................
Strongly agree that job is more difficult now than in the p a s t....
Strongly agree that job involves a lot of stre s s ...........................
Number of ob servatio ns...................................................

20.0
30.7
9.1
52.3
14.6
35.2
44.8
44.9
13.6
10.7
15.5
1,632

19.2
38.7
9.8
56.8
15.2
42.1
62.2
52.9
35.3
15.6
18.3
606

-0 .8
18.0
0.7
34.5
.6
16.9
'17.4
'8.0
121.7
’4.9
2.8

-4 .0
26.1
7.7
8.6
4.1
19.6
38.8
17.8
159.3
45.8
18.1

20.6
33.6
47.0
460.4
411.3
439.2
460.6
448.9
424.2
12.6
419.7
1,493

17.3
36.5
8.2
464.0
16.2
39.2
471.3
56.3
446.9
15.5
23.2
518

-3 .3
2.9
1.2
3.6
24.9
.0
110.7
7 .4
122.7
2.9
3.5

-16.0
8.6
17.1
6.0
43.4
.0
17.7
15.1
93.8
23.0
17.8

W om en
Lots of physical effort all or almost all of the tim e ................
Lots of physical effort none or almost none of the tim e .............
Lift heavy loads all or almost all of the tim e ...............................
Lift heavy loads none or almost none of the tim e ........................
Stoop, kneel, or crouch all or almost all of the tim e ................
Stoop, kneel, or crouch none or almost none of the tim e ..........
Good eyesight all or almost all of the tim e ........................
Intense concentration all or almost all of the t im e ......................
Work with computers all or almost all of the tim e ........................
Strongly agree that job is more difficult now than in the p a s t....
Strongly agree that job involves a lot of stre s s ...........................
Number of observations.........................................

1 Significant at the 1-percent level.
2 Significant at the 5-percent level.
3 Significant at the 10-percent level.
4 Significantly differs (at the 5-percent level) from male workers.

52 Monthly Labor Review

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2004

N ote : Estimates are weighted to account for the sampling design of the
Health and Retirement Survey.
S ource : Author’s estimates from the Health and Retirement Survey
(HRS).

Table 4 compares self-reported job demands for older work­
ers by education. Not surprisingly, physical job demands fall
significantly with educational attainment. For example, in 2002,
28 percent of older workers who did not attend college re­
ported that their jobs require lots of physical effort all or al­
most all of the time, compared with only 8 percent of college
graduates. Older workers who completed 4 or more years of
college are more likely than those who never attended college
to report that their jobs are stressful, require intense concen­
tration, involve work with computers, and have become more
difficult than they were in the past. However, the differences
in terms of job stress and concentration demands are signifi­
cant only in 1992.
The decline in physical job demands that occurred over the
past decade was confined to college graduates. The share of
older workers who never need to exert much physical effort on
the job increased by 8 percentage points among those who
completed 4 or more years of college, while falling (insignifi­
cantly) among those who did not graduate from college. Non­
Table 4.

physical job demands increased for all educational groups,
however. For example, between 1992 and 2002, the share of
older workers with jobs that require intense concentration al­
most all of the time increased by 7 percentage points for each
educational group. Within educational groups, the share of
older workers in jobs that involve a lot of stress did not change
significantly over the period. The overall increase in the share
of older workers in stressful jobs resulted from the rise in edu­
cational attainment among older workers (college-educated
workers are more likely to face stress on the job than workers
with less education).
Table 5 compares the characteristics of older workers in
jobs that require substantial amounts of physical effort all or
almost all of the time and those in jobs that never require
much physical effort, for 1992 and 2002. Workers in physi­
cally demanding jobs have significantly less education than
workers in non-physically demanding jobs. For example, the
share of older workers who did not complete high school is
more than four times as high in jobs that always require sub-

Self-reported job characteristics of workers ages 55 to 60 by education, 1992 and 2002
C h a rac teristic

1992 (p e rc e n t)

2002 (p e rc e n t)

P e rc e n ta g e
point
d iffe re n c e

P e rc e n t c h a n g e

N o c o lle g e

Lots of physical effort all or almost all of the tim e ......................
Lots of physical effort none or almost none of the tim e ............
Good eyesight all or almost all of the tim e ..................................
Intense concentration all or almost all of the tim e .....................
Work with computers all or almost all of the tim e ........................
Strongly agree that job is more difficult now than in the past ...
Strongly agree that job involves a lot of s tre s s ..........................
Number of observations...............................................................

26.6
23.3
52.6
45.7
15.2
10.1
15.1
1,893

28.1
21.6
68.4
53.1
28.6
11.3
17.8
459

1.5
-1 .7
’ 15.8
’7.4
’ 13.4
1.2
2.7

5.6
-7 .3
30.0
16.2
88.2
11.9
17.9

414.3
439.7
51.1
44.5
425.5
12.9
419.4
622

417.1
438.9
66.3
51.0
443.8
417.9
22.7
291

2.8
-.8
’ 15.2
36.5
'18.3
35.0
3.3

19.6
-2 .0
29.7
14.6
71.8
38.8
17.0

49.0
448.4
52.6
452.0
421.4
414.5
422.3
610

47.6
456.1
64.2
58.9
452.6
418.8
22.3
374

-1 .4
27.7
’ 11.6
26.9
’31.2
34.3
.0

-15.6
15.9
22.1
13.3
145.8
29.7
.0

S o m e c o lle g e , bu t less th a n 4 ye ars

Lots of physical effort all or almost all of the tim e .....................
Lots of physical effort none or almost none of the tim e ............
Good eyesight all or almost all of the tim e ..................................
Intense concentration all or almost all of the tim e ................. .
Work with computers all or almost all of the tim e ........................
Strongly agree that job is more difficult now than in the past ...
Strongly agree that job involves a lot of s tre s s ..........................
Number of observations...............................................................
4 or m o re y e a rs of c o lle g e

Lots of physical effort all or almost all of the tim e ......................
Lots of physical effort none or almost none of the tim e ............
Good eyesight all or almost all of the tim e ..................................
Intense concentration all or almost all of the tim e ......................
Work with computers all or almost all of the tim e ........................
Strongly agree that job is more difficult now than in the past ...
Strongly agree that job involves a lot of s tre s s ..........................
Number of observations...............................................................
' Significant at the 1- percent level.
2 Significant at the 5-percent level.
3 Significant at the 10-percent level.

N ote : Estimates are weighted to account for the sampling design of the
Health and Retirement Study (HRS).
S ource : Author’s estimates from the Health and Retirement Study
(HRS).

4 Significantly differs (at the 5-percent level) from workers who did not
attend college.


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Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

53

Job Demands am ong Older Workers

stantial amounts of physical effort than in jobs that never
require much physical effort. Blacks and Hispanics also ac­
count for a disproportionate share of older workers in physi­
cally demanding jobs.
In 2002, almost two-thirds of older workers in jobs that al­
ways require lots of physical effort are in the manufacturing,
mining, construction, agriculture, transportation, and trade
industries, which account for only one-third of older workers
in jobs that never require much physical effort.

Relatively few older workers in jobs with virtually no physi­
cal demands reported health problems that could force them to
retire early. Only 17 percent of workers in jobs that impose
virtually no physical demands are troubled frequently by pain,
and only 8 percent describe their overall health as fair or poor.
They are also significantly more likely to describe their health
as excellent or very good than workers in physically demand­
ing jobs. But differences across job types in the share of older
workers in fair or poor health were small and insignificant in

Table 5. Characteristics of workers ages 55 to 60, by physical demands of jobs, 1992 and 2002.
1992

C h a ra c te ris tic

A m o u n t of tim e jo b
requires p h y s ic a l effort
(p e rc e n t)
N eve r

2002
P e rc e n ta g e
point
d iffe re n c e

P ercen t
d iffe re n c e

Alw ays

A m o u n t of tim e jo b
requires p h y s ic a l effort
(p e rc e n t)
N eve r

P e rc e n ta g e
P ercen t
point
d iffe re n c e
d iffe re n c e

A lw ays

Gender:
M a le......................................
Female..................................

50.3
49.7

51.8
48.2

1.5
-1 .5

3.0
-3 .0

55.1
44.9

56.3
43.7

1.2
-1 .2

2.2
-2 .7

8.3
34.0

36.1
40.0

127.8
36.0*

334.9
17.6

3.2
19.8

14.5
47.0

111.3
’27.2

353.1
137.4

25.3

14.4

'-10.9

-43.1

27.2

24.6

-2 .6

-9.6

32.5

9.6

1-22.9

-70.5

49.8

13.9

1-35.9

-72.1

Education:
Did not complete
high s c h o o l........................
High school g ra d u a te .........
Some college, but less
than 4 y e a rs ......................
Completed 4 years
of c o lle g e ...........................
Race:
Hispanic...............................
Non-Hispanic b la c k ............
Non-Hispanic white
and o th e r...........................

3.0
6.7

7.0
13.5

14.0
16.8

133.3
101.5

5.8
5.9

8.3
12.3

12.5
16.4

43.1
108.5

90.3

79.5

'-10.8

-12.0

88.3

79.4

'-8 .9

-10.1

Self-reported health status:
Excellent or very g o o d .......
G oo d.....................................
Fair or p o o r..........................

65.6
25.2
9.2

49.4
33.4
17.2

’-16.2
'8.2
18.0

-24.7
32.5
87.0

68.6
23.4
8.0

53.4
35.7
10.9

'-15.2
112.3
2.9

-22.2
52.6
36.3

22.2
34.6

21.8
41.1

-.4
26.5

-1 .8
18.8

22.8
34.6

19.6
46.3

-3.2
’ 11.7

-14.0
33.8

Any serious medical
co n d itio n s..........................
A rth ritis ....................................
Arthritis that limits
a c tiv itie s ..............................
Often troubled by p a in ...........

_

_

13.6

21.3

’7.7

56.6

10.8
17.4

14.4
28.5

3.6
«11.1

33.3
63.8

Industry:
M anufacturing.....................
Mining, construction,
agriculture..........................
S e rv ic e s ..............................
Transportation.....................
Trade.....................................
Fire, insurance,
and real e s ta te .................
Public adm inistration..........

17.0

21.0

24.0

23.5

15.8

21.4

35.6

35.4

3.5
37.0
7.5
12.1

16.3
36.7
5.2
15.0

’ 12.8
-.3
3-2 .3
2.9

365.7
-.8
-30.7
24.0

3.3
49.0
5.3
7.8

13.7
34.8
10.2
16.8

110.4
1-14.2
34.9
19.0

315.2
-29.0
92.5
115.4

14.3
8.6

3.5
2.3

1-10.8
1-6 .3

-75.5
-73.3

12.0
6.9

1.0
2.0

’-11.0
1-4 .9

-91.7
-70.0

Number of observations.........

946

686

417

213

1 Significant at the 1-percent level.

N ote : Serious medical conditions include heart problems, chronic lung

2 Significant at the 5-percent level.

disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes. Estimates are weighted to account
for the hrs sampling design.

3 Significant at the 10-percent level.

54 Monthly Labor Review

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S ource: Author’s estimates from the Health and Retirement Study (hrs).

2002. These differences have narrowed substantially since
1992, when workers in physically demanding jobs were almost
twice as likely to report being in fair or poor health than those
in less physically demanding jobs. In 2002, only 11 percent of
workers ages 55 to 60 in physically demanding jobs described
their health as fair or poor, down from 17 percent in 1992, sug­
gesting that more older workers in physically rigorous jobs
may now be able to remain at work and delay retirement. How­
ever, more workers in physically demanding jobs are now
troubled by pain and suffer from arthritis, which could lead to
early retirement. In 2002,29 percent of workers in physically
demanding jobs reported chronic pain, and 46 percent reported
arthritis— although only 14 percent reported that their arthritis
was serious enough to limit everyday activities.

Conclusions
The findings show that the share of older workers facing virtu­
ally no physical demands on the job increased significantly in
the 1990s. Nearly 2 out of 5 workers ages 55 to 60 reported in
2002 that their jobs almost never required much physical effort.
In combination with health status improvements in middle age
and beyond,18 reductions in physical job demands suggest
that more workers are now able to delay retirement and work
until older ages than in the past. Higher levels of employment
among older adults would help restore balance to the Medi­
care and Social Security systems and ease the demographic
pressures that threaten to slow economic growth and lower
standards of living in the coming decades.

The study also found evidence, however, that the level of
non-physical job demands faced by older workers has in­
creased significantly over the past decade. Jobs held by older
workers increasingly require intense concentration, skill in
dealing with other people, and good eyesight, and thus are
becoming more difficult and stressful. Although older work­
ers are now better educated than they were only a few years
ago, these cognitive job demands may lead some to retire early.
Despite recent overall declines in the physical demands of
work and potential improvements in the capacity to work at
older ages, the rigors of employment remain daunting for many
older adults. Nearly 1 in 5 workers ages 55 to 60 report that
their jobs almost always require substantial physical effort.
The reduction in physical job demands between 1992 and 2002
was limited to jobs that require physical effort only some of
the time. The share of older workers who report that their jobs
always impose physical demands did not fall significantly over
the past decade. Moreover, many workers in physically de­
manding jobs— who are disproportionately people of color
and low educated adults— suffer from health problems that
further complicate their ability to remain in the labor force.
More than 1 in 4 reports being troubled by pain often; 1 in 5
has serious medical conditions; and 1 in 7 has arthritis severe
enough to limit everyday activities. Consequently, many of
these workers will be unable to remain at work through their
late 60s. When devising ways to encourage older adults to
delay retirement and remain at work, policymakers should pro­
vide an adequate safety net for those adults whose demand­
ing jobs and health problems force them to retire early.
□

Notes

A CKNOW LEDGM ENT: The author gratefully acknowledges valuable
comments from Cori Uccello on an earlier draft of the article. The
opinions expressed here are those of the author and do not necessarily
reflect the views of the Urban Institute, its board, or its sponsors.

1 See U.S. Census Bureau,

U .S . S u m m a r y : 2 0 0 0 ,

on the Internet at

http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kprof00-us.pdf (visited
June 15, 2004); and U.S. Census Bureau,

P r o je c tio n s o f th e T o ta l R e s i­
d e n t P o p u la tio n b y 5 - Y e a r A g e G r o u p s a n d S e x w ith S p e c ia l A g e C a t ­
e g o r i e s : M i d d l e S e r i e s , 2 0 2 5 t o 2 0 4 5 , ” on the Internet at http://

www.census.gov/population/projections/nation/summary/np-t3f.pdf (visited June 15, 2004).
2 Board of Trustees, OASDI,

2 0 0 4 A n n u a l R e p o r t o f th e B o a r d o f
T r u s te e s o f th e F e d e r a l O ld -A g e a n d S u r v iv o r s I n su ra n c e a n d D is a b ility
I n s u r a n c e T r u s t F u n d s (Washington, DC, OASDI Board of Trustees,
2004); and Board of Trustees, Medicare, 2 0 0 4 A n n u a l R e p o r t o f th e
F e d e r a l H o s p i t a l I n s u r a n c e a n d F e d e r a l S u p p le m e n ta r y M e d i c a l I n ­
s u r a n c e T r u s t F u n d s (Washington, DC, Medicare Board of Trustees,

2004).
3 Henry J. Aaron, Barry P. Bosworth, and Gary Burtless, C a n A m e r ic a
A f f o r d to G r o w O ld ? P a y i n g f o r S o c i a l S e c u r i t y (Washington, DC,
Brookings Institution Press, 1989).


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4 Dora Costa, T h e E v o l u t i o n o f R e t i r e m e n t : A n A m e r i c a n E c o ­
n o m i c H i s t o r y 1 8 8 0 - 1 9 9 0 (Chicago, University o f Chicago Press,

1998).
5 Joseph F. Quinn, “Retirement Trends and Patterns among Older
American Workers,” in Stuart H. Altman and David Shactman, eds.,
P o l i c i e s f o r a n A g in g S o c i e t y (Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University
Press, 2002), pp. 293-315.
6 See Gary Burtless and Joseph F. Quinn, “Retirement Trends and
Policies to Encourage Work among Older Americans,” in Peter P.
Budetti, Richard V. Burkhauser, Janice M. Gregory and Allan Hunt, eds.,
E n s u rin g

H e a lth

an d In com e

S e c u r ity f o r

a n A g in g

W o rk fo rc e

(Kalamazoo, MI, The W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research,
2001) pp. 375-415.
7 See National Commission on Retirement Policy, C a n A m e r i c a
A f f o r d to R e tir e ? T h e R e tir e m e n t S e c u r ity C h a lle n g e F a c in g You a n d
th e N a t i o n ,
on the Internet at http://ww w.csis.org/retire/

ncrpbroc.pdf (visited June 15, 2004).
8 See 1994-1996 Advisory Council on Social Security, R e p o r t o f th e
1 9 9 4 - 1 9 9 6 A d v i s o r y C o u n c il o n S o c i a l S e c u r i t y V o lu m e 1 : F in d in g s
on the Internet at http://www.ssa.gov/history/reports/adcouncil/report/toc.htm (visited June 15, 2004).

a n d R e c o m m e n d a tio n s ,

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

55

Job Demands am ong Older Workers

9 See Rudolph G. Penner, Pamela Perun, and Eugene Steuerle,

L egal

15 Social Security Administration,

I n c r e a s i n g th e R e t ir e m e n t A g e :

a n d I n s t i t u t i o n a l I m p e d i m e n t s to P a r t i a l R e t i r e m e n t a n d P a r t- T im e
W o rk b y O ld e r W o r k e r s (Washington, DC, The Urban Institute, 2002).

E f f e c t o n O l d e r W o r k e r s in P h y s i c a l l y D e m a n d i n g O c c u p a t i o n s o r
III H e a l t h (Washington, DC, U.S. Social Security Administration,

10 Alan L. Gustman and Thomas L. Steinmeier, “A Disaggregated,
Structural Analysis o f Retirement by Race, Difficulty o f Work, and
Health,” R e v ie w o f E c o n o m ic s a n d S ta tis tic s , August 1986, pp. 509-13;
and Cori E. Uccello, F a c t o r s I n f lu e n c in g R e t ir e m e n t: T h e ir I m p l i c a ­
tio n s f o r R a is in g th e R e t ir e m e n t A g e , AARP Public Policy Institute Pa­
per N o . 9810 (Washington, DC, AARP, 1998).

1986); and Eugene Steuerle, Christopher Spiro, and Richard W.
Johnson, C a n A m e r i c a n s W o r k L o n g e r ? S t r a i g h t T a lk o n S o c i a l
S e c u r i t y a n d R e t i r e m e n t P o l i c y N o . 5 (Washington, DC, The Urban
Institute, 1999).

11 Karen C. Holden, “Physically Demanding Occupations, Health,
and Work After Retirement: Findings from the New Beneficiary Sur­
vey,” S o c ia l S e c u r ity B u lle tin , November 1988, pp. 3-15.
12 Randall K. Filer and Peter A. Petri, “A Job-Characteristics Theory
of Retirement,” R e v ie w o f E c o n o m ic s a n d S ta tis tic s , February 1988, pp.
123-28; and Mark D. Hayward, William R. Grady, Melissa A. Hardy, and
David Sommers, “Occupational Influences on Retirement, Disability,
and Death,” D e m o g r a p h y , August 1989, pp. 393-409.
13 Jay M. Berman, “Industry Output and Employment Projections to
2010,” M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , November 2001, pp. 39-56; and Lois M.
Plunkert, “The 1980s: A Decade of Job Growth and Industry Shifts,”
M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , September 1990, pp. 3-16.
14 Leora Friedberg, “The Impact of Technological Change on Older
Workers: Evidence From Data on Computer Use,” I n d u s t r i a l a n d L a ­
b o r R e l a t i o n s R e v i e w , January 2003, pp. 511-29; and Steven Hippie
and Karen Kosanovich, “Computer and Internet Use at Work in 2001,”
M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , February 2003, pp. 26-35.

56 Monthly Labor Review

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July 2004

16 See James T. Bond, Ellen Galinsky, and Jennifer E. Swanberg,
(New York, Families
and Work Institute, 1997); National Institute on Occupational Safety
and Health, S tr e s s a t W o r k , on the Internet at http://w w w .cdc.gov/
niosh/stressw k.htm l (visited June 15, 2004); and Juliet B. Schor,
O v e r w o r k e d A m e r ic a n : T h e U n e x p e c te d D e c li n e o f L e is u r e (New York,
Basic Books, 1992). Other evidence, however, indicates that hours of
work have not changed much since the mid-1970s; see Phillip L.
Rones, Randy E. Ilg, and Jennifer M. Gardner, “Trends in Hours of
Work Since the Mid-1970s,” M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , April 1997, pp.
3 -1 4 .
1 9 9 7 N a tio n a l S tu d y o f th e C h a n g in g W o r k fo r c e

17 Quinn, “Retirement Trends and Patterns among Older American
Workers.”
18 Eileen M. Crimmins, Sandra L. Reynolds, and Yasuhiko Saito,
“Trends in Health and Ability to Work Among the Older Working-Age
Population,” J o u r n a l o f G e r o n t o l o g y : S o c i a l S c ie n c e s , January 1999,
pp. S31-S40; and Kenneth G. Manton and XiLiang Gu, “Changes in the
Prevalence of Chronic Disability in the United States Black and Nonblack
Population above age 65 from 1982 to 1999,” P r o c e e d i n g s o f th e
N a tio n a l A c a d e m y o f S c ie n c e s , November 2001, pp. 6354—59.

Regional Trends

Educational attainm ent
of the labor force
and jobless rates, 2003
Thomas J. Krolik

tates differ rather widely in the edu­
cational attainment of their work­
forces. The Current Population Survey
(CPS), a m onthly sam ple survey of
60,000 households, provided data on
the labor force ages 25 and older in
2003 for four categories of educational
attainment— those with less than a high
school diplom a; those w ith a high
school diploma but no college; those
with some college or an associate de­
gree; and those with a bachelor’s degree
and higher.

S

Labor force composition
In 2003, Texas had the greatest share of
persons with less than a high school di­
ploma in its labor force (17.3 percent),
followed by California (14.7 percent).
Of the 13 States where persons without
a high school diploma accounted for a
greater share of the labor force than the
U .S . a v e r a g e o f 1 0 .2 p e r c e n t, 8 w e re

located in the South and 4 were in the
West. All four of the States along the
M exican border were included in this
group. Two Great Plains States— M in­
nesota and N orth D akota— had the
smallest shares of persons in this least
educated category, each less than 5 per­
cent. (See table 1.)
The share of the workforce with a
bachelor’s degree and higher was great­
est in M assachusetts (43.5 percent).
Maryland and New Jersey were the only
other States in which those who com ­
pleted college constituted more than 40
percent of the labor force. However, in
the District of Columbia, these highly
Thomas J. Krolik is an economist in the Division
of Local Area Unemployment Statistics, Office
of Employment and Unemployment Statistics,
Bureau of Labor Statistics.
E-mail: Krolik.Thomas@bls.gov


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

educated workers accounted for about
55 percent of the labor force. Of the 17
States in which the share of labor force
participants with a bachelor’s degree
and higher was above the U.S. average
of 32 percent, nearly half were located
in the Northeast region of the country.
At the other extreme, fewer than 1 in 4
labor force participants in Arkansas, In­
diana, Mississippi, Nevada, West Vir­
g in ia, and W yom ing w ere co lleg e
graduates. In every State of the East
South Central and West South Central
divisions, persons with a bachelor’s de­
gree and higher made up less than 30
percent of the labor force.
The proportion of labor force par­
ticipants who completed high school
but never attended college ranged from
21.8 percent in California to 43.5 per­
cent in West Virginia. Shares of the
workforce with some college or an as­
sociate degree ranged from slightly
more than 21 percent in New Jersey and
Pennsylvania to just more than 36 per­
cent in Wyoming. For both of these in­
te rm e d ia te e d u c atio n al a ttain m en t
groups, the District of Columbia had
lower shares than any State: only 19.3
percent were high school graduates with
no college, and 16.4 percent had some
college or an associate degree.

Unemployment rates
Nationwide, the unemployment rate for
persons 25 years and older with less
than a high school diploma was 8.8 per­
cent in 2003. The jobless rates for these

persons were above the U.S. average in
25 States and the District of Columbia
and below it in 24 States. The Pacific
division States in which unemployment
was highest for persons 25 years and
older also reported the highest rates for
the least educated group: Alaska, Or­
egon, and Washington each recorded
rates of more than 12 percent. O f the 12
other States in which persons who never
completed high school had jobless rates
of at least 10 percent, 4 were located in
the East North Central division and 3
were in the Mountain division. In the
District of Columbia, persons with less
than a high school diploma had an un­
employment rate slightly higher than 15
percent. Meanwhile, New Hampshire
(3.9 percent) and Delaware (4.6 per­
cent) reported the lowest jobless rates
for the least educated w orker group;
both States had overall rates well be­
low the national average. (See table 2.)
College graduates 25 years and older
had a slightly higher than 3-percent un­
employment rate in the United States.
The range of jobless rates across States
for this group was the narrowest of the
educational attainment categories. M is­
sissippi and South Dakota, at 1.2 per­
cent each, registered the lowest jobless
rates for college graduates. Six other
States— half of which were located in
the low unemployment West North Cen­
tral division— had rates below 2 percent
for the most educated category. Oregon,
by a wide margin, reported the highest
jobless rate for college graduates, 4.8
percent. The next highest rates were

Census divisions
New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode
Island, Vermont; Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania; South
Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North
Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia; East South Central: Ala­
bama, Kentucky, Mississippi, Tennessee; West South Central: Arkansas, Loui­
siana, Oklahoma, Texas; East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio,
Wisconsin; West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska,
North Dakota, South Dakota; Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana,
Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, Wyoming; Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii,
Oregon, Washington.

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

57

Regional Trends

Table 1.

Educational attainment of civilian labor force 25 years and older by State, 2003 annual averages

[Percent distribution]

Less th a n a high
schoo l d ip lo m a

A re a

High school
g ra d u a te s ,
no c o lle g e

S om e c o lle g e
or a s s o c ia te
d e g re e

B a c h e lo r’s d e g r e e
a n d highe r

United S ta te s ....................................................................
A la bam a.................................................................................
A la s k a ....................................................................................
A riz o n a ...................................................................................
Arkansas ................................................................................
C alifornia................................................................................
C olorado.................................................................................
C onnecticut............................................................................
D elaw a re................................................................................
District of C olum bia...............................................................
F lo rid a ....................................................................................

10.2
10.6
6.0
12.2
11.0
14.7
8.8
6.9
9.1
9.1
10.0

30.5
34.1
30.9
25.8
37.3
21.8
25.3
29.9
34.9
19.3
30.5

27.4
27.9
34.0
31.6
29.1
28.9
26.4
23.7
25.0
16.4
29.0

32.0
27.4
29.1
30.4
22.6
34.7
39.6
39.4
31.0
55.1
30.5

G eorgia...................................................................................
H aw aii.....................................................................................
Id a h o .......................................................................................
Illin o is .....................................................................................
In d ia n a ....................................................................................
Io w a .........................................................................................
Kansas ...................................................................................
Kentucky.................................................................................
Louisiana................................................................................
M aine......................................................................................

12.7
5.6
8.6
9.1
8.9
6.2
6.6
9.2
14.0
6.0

32.3
30.3
31.7
30.3
39.6
34.6
29.3
37.6
35.6
38.0

26.5
31.1
34.2
27.6
26.7
29.5
29.8
27.2
25.0
27.3

28.5
33.0
25.4
33.0
24.8
29.7
34.4
25.9
25.4
28.7

M a ry la n d ................................................................................
M assachusetts......................................................................
M ichigan.................................................................................
M innesota...............................................................................
M ississippi..............................................................................
M issou ri..................................................................................
M o n ta n a .................................................................................
N ebraska................................................................................
Nevada ...................................................................................
New H am pshire.....................................................................

8.3
6.6
6.9
4.7
12.1
6.5
5.8
6.5
13.0
5.5

27.8
28.2
33.9
25.6
33.3
31.8
33.8
32.0
33.2
30.8

23.2
21.7
31.4
33.6
31.7
30.1
30.2
32.5
28.9
26.6

40.7
43.5
27.8
36.0
22.8
31.5
30.2
29.1
24.9
37.1

New Jersey.............................................................................
New M exico............................................................................
New Y o rk ................................................................................
North C aro lina .......................................................................
North D akota.........................................................................
O h io .........................................................................................
O klahom a...............................................................................
Oregon ...................................................................................
Pennsylvania.........................................................................
Rhode Is la n d .........................................................................

8.3
11.9
10.1
11.8
4.8
7.1
8.7
9.3
6.8
11.1

30.6
30.6
31.0
31.7
30.7
37.5
32.8
27.0
39.8
30.1

21.1
30.6
22.9
27.6
35.2
26.2
29.8
34.8
21.3
24.3

40.1
26.8
36.0
28.8
29.4
29.1
28.7
29.0
32.1
34.5

South C a ro lin a ......................................................................
South D a k o ta ........................................................................
Tennessee..............................................................................
Texas ......................................................................................
U ta h .........................................................................................
V erm ont..................................................................................
V irg in ia ...................................................................................
W ashing ton............................................................................
West V irg in ia .........................................................................
W isconsin...............................................................................
W y o m in g ................................................................................

11.0
6.0
9.8
17.3
8.4
6.0
9.1
7.3
9.1
6.4
6.0

33.5
34.5
35.3
27.1
26.9
34.9
28.3
25.8
43.5
35.3
35.2

27.9
31.6
25.4
27.2
34.3
23.2
24.8
32.8
25.1
30.4
36.1

27.6
27.9
29.4
28.4
30.4
35.9
37.8
34.1
22.2
27.9
22.7

posted by California, Colorado, and
Massachusetts, all 3.9 percent, followed
by Washington, 3.8 percent, and New
Jersey and New York, 3.7 percent each.
Unemployment rates tend to be lower
58
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July 2004

for the more educated worker groups.
However, this generalization did not
hold for all States in 2003. Most nota­
bly, only college graduates had dis­
tinctly lower unemployment rates than

any other educational groups in Dela­
ware and New Hampshire; differences
among those States’ rates for the three
lesser educated categories were not sta­
tistically significant at a 90-percent con-

Table 2.

Unemployment rates by educational attainment of the civilian labor force 25 years and older
by State, 2003 annual averages

[Percent]

Less th a n a high
schoo l d ip lo m a

High school
g ra d u a te s ,
n o c o lle g e

S o m e c o lle g e
or a s s o c ia te
d e g re e

B a c h e lo r’s d e g r e e
a n d h ig h e r

A re a

Total

United S ta te s ..........................
A la bam a.......................................
A la s k a ..........................................
A riz o n a .........................................
A rka n s a s ......................................
C alifornia......................................
C olorado.......................................
C onnecticut..................................
D elaw are......................................
District of C olum bia.....................
F lo rid a ..........................................

4.8
4.2
6.3
4.5
4.3
5.6
4.9
4.4
3.4
6.2
4.2

8.8
11.0
12.3
9.9
7.8
8.6
8.1
8.0
4.6
15.3
7.2

5.5
5.1
8.8
4.4
5.0
6.7
4.9
6.0
3.5
8.4
4.3

4.8
3.3
5.6
3.8
3.3
5.4
5.3
4.0
4.0
8.4
4.5

3.1
1.7
3.2
2.9
2.7
3.9
3.9
2.7
2.8
3.4
2.7

G eorgia.........................................
H aw aii...........................................
Id a h o .............................................
Illin o is ...........................................
Indiana..........................................
Io w a ...............................................
Kansas .........................................
Kentucky.......................................
Louisiana......................................
M aine............................................

3.8
3.5
4.5
5.6
4.1
3.4
4.2
4.4
5.1
4.0

5.4
6.2
11.0
11.4
9.6
8.3
9.3
6.2
8.6
9.5

5.0
4.9
4.9
6.5
4.1
4.0
5.5
5.3
6.1
4.9

3.4
2.3
3.8
5.8
4.1
3.3
3.6
4.3
3.8
3.3

2.0
2.2
2.9
3.1
2.1
1.8
2.6
2.6
3.0
2.4

M a ry la n d ......................................
M assachusetts............................
M ichigan.......................................
Minnesota........................................
M ississippi....................................
M issou ri........................................
M o n ta n a .......................................
N ebraska......................................
Nevada .........................................
New H am pshire...........................

3.4
4.9
6.2
4.0
4.9
4.5
3.6
2.9
4.5
3.4

5.4
8.8
11.6
7.3
8.0
9.5
11.7
10.6
6.6
3.9

4.0
5.3
7.9
5.2
5.5
5.1
4.5
2.6
4.7
4.2

3.3
5.4
5.7
4.3
5.7
4.6
2.7
2.8
4.0
3.5

2.5
3.9
3.5
2.5
1.2
2.6
1.8
1.5
3.3
2.6

New Jersey...................................
New M exico..................................
New Y o rk ......................................
North C aro lina.............................
North D akota ...............................
O h io ...............................................
O klahom a.....................................
Oregon .........................................
Pennsylvania...............................
Rhode Is la n d ...............................

4.9
5.0
5.3
5.1
2.7
4.9
4.5
6.7
4.6
4.6

9.5
7.5
10.3
10.0
9.8
10.0
7.8
12.4
7.4
9.2

5.2
5.8
5.2
5.8
3.9
5.9
4.7
6.6
5.4
5.1

5.2
5.5
5.5
4.9
3.2

3.7
2.6
3.7
2.6
1.7
2.8
3.4
4.8
2.5
3.1

South C a ro lin a ............................
South D a k o ta ..............................
Tennessee....................................
Texas ............................................
U ta h ..............................................
V erm ont........................................
Virginia .........................................
W ashington..................................
West V irg in ia ...............................
W isconsin.....................................
W yo m in g ......................................

5.1
2.8
4.7
5.5
4.1
3.7
3.0
6.2
4.9
4.6
3.0

10.6
7.4
8.3
7.9
9.2
6.4
6.8
12.4
9.9
10.4
10.1

5.4
3.1
5.3
6.0
4.2
4.2
3.3
6.8
5.4
5.7
3.4

fidence level. In 11 States, jobless rates
for persons with some college or an as­
sociate degree appeared to be higher
than for those who just completed high
school, although in no State was such a
difference statistically significant. For
a handful of States, having a bachelor’s


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degree appeared to confer no significant
reduction in group joblessness beyond
having some college or an associate
degree.
The inability to discern clear pat-terns
of incremental jobless rate declines as
educational attainment increased may

4.4
4.3
6.8
5.2
4.1
5.0
2.8
5.5
5.4

4.4
4.1
2.8
6.9
4.2
3.8
2.1

2.7
1.2
2.0
3.5
2.4
2.6
2.1
3.8
2.5
2.7
1.8

have resulted partly from the relatively
small CPS sample sizes. However, local
labor market conditions, demographic
differences, and the interaction between
the two likely contributed to the varia­
tion across States in aggregate jobless
rates by educational attainment.
□
Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

59

Regional Trends

Multiple jobholding
in States, 2003

Utah experienced the largest increases
in multiple jobholding rates (+1.2 per­
centage points each), followed by Loui­
siana (+0.9 point). Another four States
had over-the-year increases of +0.7
point, and three had increases of +0.6
point.
While the national rate was the same
as a year earlier, it was still 0.9 percent­
age point lower than in 1996, when it
began edging downward from a peak of
6.2 percent. Over that 8-year span, 45
States and the District of Columbia ex­
perienced decreases in multiple jobholding rates. The largest declines over
this tim e period w ere in W isconsin
(-2 .6 points), Missouri (-2.5 points),
Massachusetts (-2.3 points), and Iowa
(-2 .2 points). O nly one S tate e x ­
p e rie n c e d an in crease in m u ltip le
jobholding greater than 0.4 percentage
p o in t o ver th is sp an — U tah (+1.1
points).
Overall, 29 States had higher rates
than the national average, 19 States and

Jim Campbell
n 2003, States were about evenly split
between those reporting lower m ul­
tiple jobholding rates than a year ear­
lier and those that had higher rates: 24
States and the District of Columbia re­
corded decreases, 22 States had in ­
creases, and 4 States had no change.
The national multiple jobholding rate
was unchanged in 2003 at 5.3 percent,
after edging downward every year since
1996. The largest over-the-year de­
creases in the States were posted in Con­
necticut (-1 .0 percentage point), N e­
braska and Oklahoma (-0.9 point each),
and Maryland (-0.8 point). Idaho and

I

Jim Campbell is an economist in the Division of
Local Area Unemployment Statistics, Bureau of
Labor Statistics.
E-mail: Campbell.Jim@bls.gov

the D istrict of Colum bia had low er
rates, and 2 States matched the national
rate. The States with relatively high
multiple job-holding rates were concen­
trated in the northern half of the coun­
try. All seven States in the West North
Central division continued to register
multiple jobholding rates above that of
the Nation, with North Dakota and N e­
braska again recording the highest rates,
9.7 and 9.4 percent, respectively. The
northernmost States in the Mountain,
New England, and Pacific divisions
also had relatively high rates. The high
m u ltiple jo b h o ld in g rates in m any
States, particularly in the relatively less
populous Plains States, generally coin­
cided with above-average incidence of
both part-time employment and agricul­
tural employment.
In contrast, seven of the eight States
composing the southern border of the
United States had multiple jobholding
rates below the national figure. Eleven
of the 16 States in the South region plus

Multiple jobholders as a percentage of total employment by State, 2002 and 2003 annual averages
State

State

2002

2003

United S ta te s ..............................
A la b a m a ........................................
A la s k a ............................................
A rizona...........................................
A rkansas........................................

5.3
3.8
7.5
5.8
5.3

5.3
4.0
7.7
5.5
6.0

M issou ri..........................................
M ontana..........................................
N ebraska........................................
N eva d a ...........................................
New H am pshire.............................

5.9
8.8
10.3
4.5
6.5

6.5
8.5
9.4
3.9
6.2

C a lifo rn ia .......................................
C o lo ra d o ........................................
C onnecticut....................................
D elaw are........................................
District of C o lu m b ia ......................

4.5
5.7
5.9
4.7
5.2

4.5
6.2
4.9
4.3
5.0

New Jerse y.....................................
New M e xico....................................
New Y ork.........................................
North C aro lin a ...............................
North D a ko ta .................................

4.1
5.2
4.8
4.9
9.2

4.7
5.2
4.2
4.8
9.7

F lo rida............................................
G eo rgia..........................................
H a w a ii............................................
Idaho ............................................
Illinois ............................................

3.9
3.8
8.2
6.9
4.7

4.0
3.9
7.6
8.1
4.6

O h io .................................................
O klahom a.......................................
O regon............................................
Pennsylvania.................................
Rhode Is la n d .................................

5.9
6.5
6.0
5.6
6.2

6.2
5.6
5.9
5.5
6.4

Ind ia n a ...........................................
Iowa ............................................
K ansas...........................................
K entucky........................................
Lo u isia n a .......................................

6.1
8.1
8.1
5.7
3.7

5.4
7.5
8.6
5.8
4.6

South C arolina...............................
South D akota.................................
Tennessee ......................................
Texas ..............................................
U ta h ................................................

4.4
89
4.7
4.7
7.8

5.1
86
5.3
4.8
9.0

Maine ............................................
M a ryland........................................
Massachusetts..............................
M ic h ig a n ........................................
M innesota......................................
M ississipp i.....................................

7.2
6.7
4.9
5.5
9.2
5.0

7.9
5.9
4.9
5.3
8.5
4.9

V erm ont..........................................
V irg in ia ...........................................
W ashington.....................................
West V irg in ia .................................
W isconsin.......................................
W yom ing.........................................

8.9
5.3
5.8
3.9
7.6
8.7

8.9
5.0
6.1
4.6
7.3
8.3

60
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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2004

2002

2003

Multiple jobholding rates by State, 2003 annual averages
U.S. rate = 5.3 percent

7.5 percent or more
5.0 - 7.4 percent
4.9 percent or less
SOURCE: Current Population Survey

the District of Columbia reported m ul­
tiple jobholding rates below the na­
tional rate. Among the seven States


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

with rates of 4.5 percent or lower, four
were in the South. The low est m ul­
tiple jobholding rates were recorded in

Georgia and Nevada, 3.9 percent each,
and Alabama and Florida, 4.0 percent
each.
□

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

61

Precis

The Fed reports
The annual reports of the regional Fed­
eral Reserve Banks are a valuable but
quite probably underutilized resource for
economists, business analysts, and other
professionals in related fields. As insti­
tutions that are run as businesses, the
regional banks are required to provide a
great deal of financial information, in­
co m e s ta te m e n ts , b a la n c e sh e e ts,
auditor’s certifications, and so forth. The
12 regional banks together reported in­
comes before distribution totaling just
over $23 billion in 2003, with the bulk
of the distribution going to the Treasury
as interest on Federal Reserve Notes.
As is frequently the case in annual re­
ports, m any o f the Federal R eserve
Banks use the opportunity to do some
community relations and to present in­
formation about developments in some
of the firm ’s m ajor lines of business.
W hile outreach activities rated only a
paragraph in the 2003 report from the
Board o f G overnors in W ashington,
some of the regional banks, out closer
to the coal face, devoted significant sec­
tions to community affairs and outreach.
The Federal Reserve Bank of Bos­
ton devoted several pages of its report
to extolling the work its community af­
fairs staff has been doing “with nonprofit
organizations, public schools, and other
academic institutions to share expertise
and enhance economic understanding
with all our audiences.” In St. Louis, the
annual report outlines a six-point plan to
enhance and extend their outreach efforts.
The bullets ranged from conducting addi­
tional research on local economic issues
to adding staff to the community affairs
department to establishing a new satellite
bank exam ining office in one o f the
region’s smaller cities.
At the extreme for this theme in the
reports, the Federal Reserve Bank of
A tlanta’s distinctively designed report
was en titled Grassroots and, in the
w ords o f the b a n k ’s president, Jack
Guynn, “explores how the F ed’s grass­
roots foundation not only remains rel­
62 Monthly Labor Review July 2004

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

evant today but actually enhances how
we perform our core functions of mon­
etary policy, bank supervision, and pay­
ment services as well as the educational
mission that is increasingly important for
a public policy organization in today’s
complex and rapidly changing world.”
Payment services, such as clearing
checks and other financial instruments,
is a significant line of business for the
Federal Reserve Banks. New legislation
and new technologies affecting the pay­
ments system were thus featured in sev­
eral of the Banks’ reports. According to
C h icag o Fed p re sid e n t M ichael H.
Moskow, “The move toward electronic
payments has also had a significant im ­
pact on our day-to-day check processing
operations. In 2003, our check revenue
fell short of its targets.” The Federal Re­
serve Banks of Boston, Kansas City, and
St. Louis cited some of the operational
consolidation the Federal Reserve Sys­
tem as a whole is undertaking to reduce
check processing costs. However, the
Boston bank, along with several others,
saw the im plementation of the Check
Clearing in the 21 st Century Act (Check
21) as having the potential to “increase
efficiency in the payments system and
encourage banks to provide innovative
services to their customers.” Check 21
requires banks to accept electronic im­
ages in place of the original paper check.
This allows electronic workflows to re­
place much of the physical transporta­
tion and shuffling of bits of paper. Ac­
cording to the Federal Reserve Bank of
Philadelphia report, the benefits of this
may include increased efficiencies, lower
costs, expedited collection and return of
checks, more deposit options, and ex­
tended deposit hours.
Monetary policy is a function of the
Federal Reserve System that many of this
Review’s readers would have thought of
before check cashing. As the President
of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York
states in his spare annual report letter, “As
a central bank, our principal focus must
be to get monetary policy decisions right
and to help ensure that monetary policy

is appropriately calibrated to achieve
sustained growth and price stability.”
Two of the Banks— Kansas City and
R ichm ond— prom inently feature an
analysis of monetary policy issues in
their annual reports. The Federal Re­
serve Bank of Kansas City had even
sponsored a 3-day symposium on “Mon­
etary Policy and Uncertainty: Adapting
to a Changing Economy.” The Federal
Reserve Bank of Richmond report con­
tained an essay by its president and a
senior vice president on inflation target­
ing and how it might support the F ed’s
credibility in its policies to sustain stable
prices and low inflation.
One of the most interesting and valu­
able features in the Federal Reserve
Banks’ annual reports has been essays—
commissioned from eminent economists
or written by the B anks’ own profes­
sional research staffs— on general eco­
nomic topics. In 2003, the most preva­
lent essay topic was innovation and pro­
ductivity. The Federal Reserve Bank of
Dallas builds on previous annual report
essays on the microeconomic forces that
raise productivity and, in 2003, focus
on the impact broader forces such as
competition, reorganization, and trade
have on productivity growth. The Fed­
eral Reserve Bank of Minneapolis com­
missioned economist Robert E. Lucas,
Jr., to survey the growth of productivity
and output through the whole range of
economic history, focusing on what he
calls “the initial phase of the industrial
revolution, the years from 1800 to the
end of the colonial age in 1950,” and
the current phase with its emphasis on
the rapid d iffusion of inform ation,
knowledge, and skill.
The Federal Reserve Banks of Cleve­
land and San Francisco take somewhat
different cuts at innovation as the source
of productivity growth and economic
prosperity. The Cleveland bank’s report
stresses the individual and corporate
need for the flex ib ility to em brace
change, while San Francisco’s empha­
sizes the roles of technological and or­
ganizational innovation.
□

Book Review

N onstandard work
N onstandard Work in D eveloped
Economies: Causes and Conse­
quences. By Susan Houseman and
MachikoOsawa,eds. Kalamazoo, mi,
W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment
Research, 2003, 513 pp., $70/cloth;
$26/paperback.
This informative collection of studies
uses an interdisciplinary and compara­
tive approach to explore why nonstand­
ard work arrangements have grown in
many developed countries and the im­
plications o f these arrangem ents for
workers. The papers were originally pre­
sented at a 2000 conference sponsored
by the Japan Foundation and the Upjohn
Institute.
Nonstandard work refers to jobs that
are not full-time paid employment of un­
limited duration. Nonstandard work
takes multiple forms, and each chapter
of the volume is careful to indicate the
form(s) being considered and the dif­
ferences across countries in their defi­
nitions. Most chapters focus on parttime work, one of the most well enumer­
ated forms of nonstandard work. In ad­
dition, various types of temporary or lim­
ited-duration employment are covered,
known in Europe as “fixed-term con­
tracts” and in the United States as “con­
tingent work.” Several chapters also
deal with trends in forms of self-employ­
ment, such as contract workers provided
to a particular client or independent con­
tractors who have few or no employees.
These types of employment come within
the BLS concept of “alternative work ar­
rangem ents.”
O f the 12 chapters in the book, 10 of
them, excluding the first and last one,
can be viewed in three groups. The first
group consists of six papers that explore
the developm ent of nonstandard em ­
ployment on mainly a paired-country
basis. Hoffmann and Walwei study the
rapid growth in nonstandard em ploy­
ment in Germany and Denmark; Fagan


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

and Ward contrast the N etherlands,
which has had rapid growth in both parttime and temporary employment, with
Great Britain, which has had much slower
growth in these forms. Italy and Spain,
countries similar in their high unemploy­
ment and relatively highly regulated la­
bor m arkets, are shown by Cebriàn,
Moreno, Samek and others to have quite
different nonstandard employment pat­
terns. Two chapters compare the United
States with another country: limited
growth of nonstandard work arrange­
ments in the United States is contrasted
with a rapid evolution in France and Ja­
pan, by Carré and by Houseman and
Osawa, respectively. Finally, Gustafsson, Kenjoh, and Wetzels explore em­
ployment choices and pay differences
among four European countries: Great
Britain, Germany, the Netherlands, and
Sweden.
Women in nonstandard employment
are the focus of two chapters in the next
grouping. Nagase concentrates on Japa­
nese mothers who work, while Cassirer
considers nonstandard work arrange­
m ents am ong wom en in the U nited
States. Furthermore, several of the first
group of papers emphasize the fact that
women in all countries covered are dis­
proportionately involved in nonstand­
ard forms of work, particularly part-time
and temporary jobs.
The final grouping consists of two
chapters that consider laws pertaining
to nonstandard employment. Schomann
and Schomann discuss European Union
( e u ) regulation of nonstandard employ­
ment, while Kojima and Fujikawa com­
pare and contrast employment law in
Japan and the United States. These two
chapters provide an essential legal back­
ground that aids in understanding the
crucial role that laws play in the phe­
nomenon of nonstandard employment.
The legal movement in the e u is toward
guaranteeing the same benefits and pro­
tections to workers in nonstandard ac­
tivities as to those in regular full-time
positions, with the Netherlands leading

the way. By contrast, Japan and the
United States lack such movement to­
ward parity.
The introductory and concluding
chapters serve as excellent bookends to
the three groups of studies. Houseman
and Osawa’s introductory chapter is a
fine overview of the volume, while the
final chapter by Kalleberg and Reynolds
tests the conventional wisdom on work­
ers’ attitudes toward nonstandard work
arrangements, based upon the 1997 In­
ternational Social Survey Program mod­
ule on “work orientations.” W hen con­
trolling for demographic characteristics
and occupations, their analysis finds, for
most countries, surprisingly few statis­
tically significant differences between
workers in standard and nonstandard
positions in their attitudes and behav­
iors (such as absenteeism) toward their
work. Admittedly speculative explana­
tions rather than hard evidence are given
for these findings.
What are the consequences of non­
standard work for workers? The studies
in this volume reveal that, in most coun­
tries, workers in part-time and temporary
positions often are concentrated in lowskilled, low-paid jobs with little job secu­
rity. An important question left largely
unanswered is to what extent nonstand­
ard work becomes a transition phase to
standard work. We are told only that there
is little mobility between “regular” and
“nonregular” positions in Japan, while in
Spain, over a long timeframe, temporary
workers typically settle into permanent
jobs. Apparently, the data on job flows
from nonstandard to standard work are
scant, pointing out a need for such data
in order to explore the extent to which
nonstandard workers become “trapped”
in this form of employment.
Various aspects of nonstandard work
in the Netherlands are covered in sev­
eral chapters, and together they provide
an interesting portrait of this country.
The Netherlands presents a unique pro­
file— it is a country with low unemploy­
ment rates, high job growth, and the larg-

M onthly Labor Review

July 2004

63

Book Reviews

est part-time sector of the countries stud­
ied. Indeed, according to Gustafsson,
Kenjoh, and Wetzels, the Netherlands
has been called “the first part-tim e
economy in the world.” Almost 40 per­
cent of employed persons work part time,
compared with an EU average of 18 per­
cent. The Netherlands is the only e u
country in which the majority of em ­
ployed women and a sizable minority of
men are now working part time in their
core working years, and with relatively
few doing so on an involuntary basis.
We learn in the Fagan and Ward chapter
that the Dutch government actively pro­
moted the expansion of part-time work
as a means to job-intensive growth be­
ginning in the 1980s through a combina­
tion of subsidies and public employment
policies, inform ation cam paigns, and
legislation to extend equal treatment to
part-time employees. Schomann and
Schom ann trace the evolution of the
Dutch legal framework for each form of
n o n sta n d a rd e m p lo y m e n t, w h ile
Gustafsson and others add some histori­
cal and com parative perspective, de­
scribing how the country moved from
the “Dutch Disease” of the 1970s to the
“Dutch M iracle” of the 1990s, and con­
trasting the Netherlands with three other
E uropean countries that have taken
quite different paths. K alleberg and
Reynolds reveal that Dutch part-time
workers have jobs that they perceive as
paying less and having fewer opportu­
nities for promotion than those of full­
time workers.
The example of the Netherlands dem­
onstrates how nonstandard work con­
ditions need not be “contingent” in the

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sense of precarious or uncertain. Indeed,
nonstandard jobs have become virtually
standard in the Netherlands, in many
respects. The Dutch model is, however,
not easily transferable to other countries.
Fagan and Ward argue that this model is
dependent on a number of economic and
political conditions, including “an inclu­
sive welfare state regime, centrally insti­
tutionalized collective bargaining mech­
anisms involving a powerful trade union
movement, high wage and productivity
levels, and a large pool of available
women outside the labor market.” They
also note that the situation for Dutch
nonstandard w orkers is not w ithout
some negative aspects: “the extension
of equal treatment to marginal part-time
workers (those working fewer than 12
hours a week) has been slow .. ..and parttime work is still mainly a female under­
taking, thus reinforcing gender segrega­
tion of the labor market.”
The U.S. experience is in sharp con­
trast with the Netherlands, many other
European countries, and Japan in terms
o f levels and trends in nonstandard
work. Most nonstandard forms of work
have been fixtures of the U.S. labor mar­
ket for many years, whereas they are
m ore recent phenom ena in Europe.
Houseman and Osawa show that in 1998
temporary and part-time workers com­
prised about 20 percent of total U.S.
employment, while the proportions were
much higher in other countries: for ex­
ample, the Netherlands (50 percent),
Sweden (40 percent), the United King­
dom and Spain (around 30 percent), and
Japan (25 percent). The U.S. propor­
tions have been rather stable since the

1980s, with full-time jobs (albeit, some
being nonstandard) accounting for most
of the strong employment gains charac­
terizing the U.S. labor market in the 1980s
and 1990s. In Japan, mobility of regular
workers in the “lifetime employment sys­
tem ” is alm ost nonexistent, but that
country has long had a “peripheral” or
nonstandard segment of the labor force
that gives its system some flexibility. In
Ja p a n ’s econom ic dow nturn o f the
1990s, the nonstandard work force be­
came more pronounced as the lifetime
system came under increased pressure.
Temporary agency employment in Japan
is expected to grow rapidly due to a 1999
law substantially deregulating this sec­
tor. Europe has a lengthy tradition of
regulated labor markets; for instance,
before the 1980s, temporary agencies
were generally illegal and layoffs were
rare due to legal constraints. Labor
markets were deregulated beginning in
the 1980s, and in the 1990s nonstand­
ard forms of work accounted for most, if
not all, of the meager job growth in most
European countries.
The chapters of Nonstandard Work
in Developed Countries are consistently
well written and, taken together, provide
an in-depth analysis of historical, legal,
cultural, economic, and institutional fac­
tors operating in each country that help
to explain their diverse experiences with
regard to nonstandard work.

— Constance Sorrentino
Division of Foreign Labor Statistics,
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Notes on labor statistics

...

66

Comparative indicators
1. L abor m arket in d ic a to r s .................................
2. A nnual and quarterly percent changes in
com pensation, prices, and productivity
3. A lternative m easures o f w ages and
com pensation c h a n g e s ................................

79
80
80

Labor compensation and collective
bargaining data
30.
31.
32.
33.

E m ploym ent C ost Index, com pensation.................................
E m ploym ent C ost Index, w ages and sa la rie s ......................
E m ploym ent C ost Index, benefits, p rivate in d u s try .......
E m ploym ent C ost Index, private nonfarm w orkers,
by bargaining status, region, and area s i z e ......................
34. Participants in b enefit plans, m edium and large f i r m s .....
35. Participants in benefits plans, sm all firm s
and g o v e rn m e n t........................................................................
36. W ork stoppages involving 1,000 w orkers or m o r e ...........

112
114
115
116
117
118
119

Labor force data
4. E m ploym ent status o f the population,
seasonally a d ju s te d ................................................................. 81
5. S elected em ploym ent indicators,
seasonally a d ju s te d ................................................................. 82
6. S elected unem ploym ent indicators,
seasonally a d ju s te d ................................................................. 83
7. D uration o f unem ploym ent,
seasonally a d ju s te d .................................................................. 83
8. U nem ployed persons by reason for unem ploym ent,
seasonally a d ju s te d ................................................................. 84
9. U nem ploym ent rates by sex and age,
seasonally a d ju s te d ................................................................. 85
10. U nem ploym ent rates by States,
seasonally a d ju s te d .................................................................. 86
11. E m ploym ent o f w orkers by States,
seasonally a d ju s te d .................................................................. 87
12. E m ploym ent o f w orkers by industry,
seasonally a d ju s te d ................................................................. 88
13. A verage w eekly hours by industry,
seasonally a d ju s te d ................................................................. 91
14. A verage hourly earnings by industry,
seasonally a d ju s te d ................................................................... 92
15. A verage hourly earnings by in d u s try ...................................... 93
16. A verage w eekly earnings by in d u s try .................................... 94
17. D iffusion indexes o f em ploym ent change,
seasonally a d ju s te d .................................................................. 95
18. Job openings levels and rates, by industry and regions,
seasonally ad ju sted .................................................................... 96
19. H ires levels and rates by industry and region,
seasonally adjusted..................................................................... 97
20. Separations levels and rates by industry and region,
seasonally adju sted ..................................................................... 98
21. Q uits levels and rates by industry and region,
seasonally adju sted ..................................................................... 99
22. Q uarterly C ensus o f E m ploym ent and W ages,
10 largest c o u n tie s .................................................................... 100
23. Q uarterly C ensus o f E m ploym ent and W ages, by State .. 102
24. A nnual data: Q uarterly C ensus o f E m ploym ent
and W ages, by o w n e rs h ip ...................................................... 103
25. A nnual data: Q uarterly C ensus o f E m ploym ent and Wages,
establishm ent size and em ploym ent, by supersector ... 104
26. A nnual data: Q uarterly C ensus o f E m ploym ent and
W ages, by m etropolitan a r e a ................................................. 105
27. A nnual data: E m ploym ent status o f the p o p u la tio n .......... 110
28. A nnual data: E m ploym ent levels by in d u s try ...................... 110
29. A nnual data: A verage hours and earnings level,
by in d u stry .................................................................................... 111


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Price data
37. C onsum er Price Index: U .S. city average, by expenditure
category and com m odity and service g r o u p s ...................
38. C onsum er Price Index: U .S. city average and
local data, all i t e m s ...................................................................
39. A nnual data: C onsum er P rice Index, all item s
and m ajor g ro u p s .......................................................................
40. P roducer Price Indexes by stage o f p ro c e s s in g ....................
41. P roducer Price Indexes for the net o utput o f m ajor
industry g ro u p s .........................................................................
42. A nnual data: P roducer Price Indexes
by stage o f p ro c e s sin g .............................................................
43. U .S. export price indexes by S tandard International
T rade C la s s ific a tio n .................................................................
44. U .S. im port price indexes by Standard International
T rade C la s s ific a tio n .................................................................
45. U .S. export price indexes by end-use c a te g o ry ....................
46. U.S. im port price indexes by end-use c a te g o ry ..................
47. U .S. international price indexes for selected
categories o f se rv ic e s...............................................................

120
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
131

Productivity data
48. Indexes o f productivity, hourly com pensation,
and unit costs, data seasonally a d ju s te d ...........................
49. A nnual indexes o f m u ltifactor p ro d u c tiv ity ..........................
50. A nnual indexes o f productivity, hourly com pensation,
unit costs, and p r i c e s ..............................................................
51. A nnual indexes o f output p er hour for select
in d u s trie s.....................................................................................

132
133
134
135

International comparisons data
52. U nem ploym ent rates in nine countries,
data seasonally a d ju s te d ......................................................... 138
53. A nnual data: E m ploym ent status o f the civilian
w orking-age population, 10 countries................................. 139
54. A nnual indexes o f productivity and related m easures,
12 co u n tries................................................................................ 140

Injury and Illness data
55. A nnual data: O ccupational injury and illness
incidence rates..............................................................................141
56. Fatal occupational injuries by event o r ex p o su re................ 143

M onthly Labor Review

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65

Notes on Current Labor Statistics

T his section o f the R eview p resents the p rin ­
cipal statistical series collected and calc u ­
la te d by th e B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tistic s:
series on labor force; em ploym ent; u n em ­
p lo y m en t; la b o r com pensation; consum er,
producer, and international prices; p ro d u c ­
tivity; international com parisons; and injury
and illness statistics. In the notes th at fo l­
low , the d a ta in e ach g ro u p o f ta b le s are
briefly described; key defin itio n s are given;
n otes on the data are set forth; and sources
o f a d d itio n al inform ation are cited.

General notes
T h e fo llo w in g notes apply to several tables
in this section:
Seasonal adjustment. C ertain m onthly
and qu arterly data are adjusted to elim inate
the effect on the data o f such factors as c li­
m a tic c o n d it io n s , in d u s tr y p r o d u c tio n
schedules, open in g and closing o f schools,
holiday buying periods, and v acation p ra c ­
tices, w hich m ight prev en t short-term ev alu ­
ation o f the statistical series. T ables co n tain ­
ing d ata th at have been adjusted are id en ti­
fied as “ seaso n ally a d ju ste d .” (A ll o th er
d ata are not seasonally adjusted.) S easonal
effects are estim ated on the basis o f current
and p a st ex p erien ces. W hen new seasonal
facto rs are com p u ted each year, revisions
m ay affect seasonally adjusted data for sev­
eral preced in g years.
S easonally adjusted data appear in tables
1 -1 4 , 1 7 -2 1 , 48, and 52. S e aso n ally a d ­
ju s te d lab o r force data in tables 1 and 4 -9
w ere revised in the F ebruary 2 0 0 4 issue o f
the R eview . S easonally adjusted estab lish ­
m en t survey data show n in tables 1, 12-14,
and 17 w ere rev ised in the M arch 2 0 0 4 R e­
view. A b rie f explanation o f the seasonal
ad ju stm en t m ethodology appears in “ N otes
on the d a ta .”
R e v isio n s in th e p ro d u c tiv ity d a ta in
tab le 54 are usually introduced in the S ep­
tem b er issue. S easonally adju sted indexes
and p erc e n t changes from m on th -to -m o n th
and q u arter-to -q u arter are pu b lish ed for n u ­
m erous C o n su m er and P ro d u cer P rice In ­
dex series. H ow ever, seasonally adjusted in ­
dex es are not p u b lish ed fo r the U .S. aver­
age A ll-Item s CPI. O nly seasonally adjusted
p ercen t changes are available fo r this series.
Adjustments for price changes. Som e
data— such as the “re a l” earnings show n in
table 14— are adju sted to elim inate the e f­
fect o f changes in price. T hese adjustm ents
are m ade by div id in g c u rren t-d o llar values
by the C o n su m er P rice Index o r the ap p ro ­
priate c o m p o n en t o f the index, then m u lti­
plying by 100. F o r exam ple, given a current
hourly w age rate o f $3 and a cu rren t price

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index n u m b er o f 150, w here 1982 = 100,
the h ourly rate expressed in 1982 dollars is
$2 ($3/150 x 100 = $2). T he $2 (or any other
re su ltin g v alues) are d escrib ed as “ re a l,”
“co n sta n t,” o r “ 1982” dollars.

Sources of information
D ata that supplem ent the tables in this sec­
tion are p u b lish ed by the B ureau in a v a ri­
ety o f sources. D efinitions o f each series and
notes on the data are contained in later sec­
tions o f these N otes d escribing each set o f
data. F o r d etailed descriptions o f each data
series, see b l s H andbook o f M ethods, B u l­
letin 2490. U sers also m ay w ish to consult
M ajor Program s o f the Bureau o f L abor Sta­
tistics, R e p o rt 919. N ew s releases provide
the latest statistical inform ation published
by the B ureau; the m ajo r recurring releases
are pu b lish ed according to the schedule ap ­
pearing on the b ack co v er o f this issue.
M ore inform ation about labor force, em ­
p loym ent, and unem p lo y m en t data and the
household and establishm ent surveys under­
lying the d ata are available in the B u re a u ’s
m o n th ly p u b lic a tio n , E m p lo y m e n t a n d
Earnings. H istorical u nadjusted and season­
ally adjusted data from the hou seh o ld sur­
vey are available on the Internet:

tional com parisons data, see International
C om parison s o f U nem ploym ent, B u lle tin
1979.
D etailed data on the o ccu p atio n al injury
and illness series are pu b lish ed in O ccupa­
tional Injuries an d Illn esses in the U nited
States, by Industry, a BLS annual bulletin.
Finally, the M onthly L abor R eview car­
ries analytical articles on annual and longer
term d ev elopm ents in labor force, e m p lo y ­
m ent, and unem ploym ent; em ployee c o m ­
pen satio n and collectiv e bargaining; prices;
p ro d u c tiv ity ; in te rn a tio n a l c o m p a riso n s ;
and injury and illness data.

Symbols
n.e.c. = not elsew here classified,
n.e.s. = not elsew here specified.
p = p relim inary. To increase the tim e ­
liness o f som e series, prelim in ary
figures are issued based on re p re ­
sentative but incom plete returns.
r = rev ised . G en erally , this rev isio n
re fle c ts th e a v a ila b ility o f la te r
d ata, b u t also m ay re fle c t o th e r
adjustm ents.

C o m p a ra tiv e Indicators

http ://www.bls.gov/cps/
H istorically com parable unadjusted and sea­
sonally adjusted data from the establishm ent
survey also are available on the Internet:

http://www.bls.gov/ces/
A dditional inform ation on labor force data
fo r areas below the national level are p ro ­
vid ed in the bls annual report, G eograph ic
P rofde o f E m ploym ent an d U nem ploym ent.
F o r a co m prehensive discussion o f the
E m p lo y m en t C o st Index, see E m ploym ent
C ost Indexes an d L evels, 1 9 7 5 -9 5 , BLS B u l­
letin 2466. T he m o st recen t data from the
E m ployee B enefits Survey appear in the fol­
low ing B ureau o f L ab o r S tatistics bulletins:
E m ployee B enefits in M edium a n d Large
F irm s; E m ployee B enefits in Sm all P rivate
E stablishm ents; and E m ployee Benefits in
State an d L ocal G overnm ents.
M ore detailed data on consum er and p ro ­
du cer prices are pu b lish ed in the m onthly
p e rio d ic a ls, The CPI D e ta ile d R ep o rt and
P rodu cer P rice Indexes. F o r an overview o f
the 1998 rev isio n o f the CPI, see the D ecem ­
b er 1996 issue o f the M onthly L abor R e­
view . A dditional data on international prices
app ear in m onthly new s releases.
L istings o f industries for w hich p ro d u c­
tivity indexes are available m ay be found
on the Internet:

http://www.bls.gov/lpc/
F o r add itio n al in fo rm atio n on in tern a­

(Tables 1-3)
C o m p arativ e in d icato rs tab les p ro v id e an
overview and com p ariso n o f m ajo r bls sta­
tistical series. C onsequently, although m any
o f the included series are available m onthly,
all m easures in these co m p arativ e tables are
p resen ted quarterly and annually.
Labor market indicators include em ­
plo y m en t m easures from tw o m ajo r surveys
and inform ation on rates o f ch ange in c o m ­
p e n s a tio n p ro v id e d b y th e E m p lo y m e n t
C ost Index (ECi) program . T he labor force
particip atio n rate, the em p lo y m en t-p o p u la­
tion ratio, and u n em p lo y m en t rates for m a­
jo r dem ographic groups based on the C u r­
ren t P o p u latio n (“ h o u seh o ld ”) S urvey are
presented, w hile m easures o f em ploym ent
and average w eekly hours by m ajo r in d u s­
try sector are given using nonfarm payroll
data. T he E m ploym ent C ost Index (com pen­
sation), by m ajor sector and by b arg ain in g
s ta tu s , is c h o s e n fro m a v a rie ty o f bls
c o m p e n sa tio n an d w age m e a su re s b e c a u se
it p ro v id e s a c o m p re h e n siv e m e a s u re o f
e m p lo y e r co sts fo r h irin g lab o r, n o t ju s t
o u tla y s fo r w a g e s, an d it is n o t a ffe c te d
by e m p lo y m e n t sh ifts am o n g o c c u p a tio n s
an d in d u strie s.
D a ta o n changes in com pensation,
prices, and productivity are p resen ted in

tab le 2. M easures o f rates o f change o f c o m ­
p en satio n and w ages from the E m p lo y m en t
C o st Index program are p ro v id ed fo r all c i­
v ilian nonfarm w o rk ers (excluding F ederal
and household w orkers) and for all p rivate
nonfarm w orkers. M easu res o f changes in
co n su m e r p ric e s fo r all u rb an co n su m ers;
p ro d u cer p rices by stage o f processing; over­
all p ric e s by sta g e o f p ro c e s sin g ; an d o v e r­
a ll e x p o rt a n d im p o rt p ric e in d e x e s are
given. M e a su re s o f p ro d u c tiv ity (o u tp u t per
h o u r o f a ll p e rs o n s) are p ro v id e d fo r m a jo r
se c to rs.

A lternative m easures o f wage and
compensation rates of change, w hich re ­
flect the overall trend in labor costs, are sum ­
m arized in tab le 3. D ifferences in concepts
and scope, related to the specific purposes
o f the series, co n trib u te to the variatio n in
ch an g es am ong the individual m easures.

Notes on the data
D efin itio n s o f each series and notes on the
d ata are c o n tain ed in later sections o f these
n o tes describ in g each set o f data.

Em ploym ent a n d
U nem p loym ent D ata
(T ables 1; 4 -2 9 )

Household survey data

n o t w ork du ring the survey w eek, bu t w ere
available fo r w ork e x cep t for tem porary ill­
ness and had looked for jo b s w ithin the p re ­
ceding 4 w eeks. P ersons w ho did not look
for w ork because they w ere on layoff are also
counted am ong the unem ployed. The unem­
ployment rate represents the num ber unem ­
ployed as a percent o f the civilian labor force.
T he civilian labor force consists o f all
em ployed or u nem ployed persons in the ci­
vilian noninstitutional population. Persons
not in the labor force are those not c lassi­
fied as em ployed o r unem ployed. T his group
includes disco u rag ed w orkers, d e fin e d as
persons w ho w ant and are available for a
jo b and w ho have looked fo r w ork so m e­
tim e in the p ast 12 m onths (or since the end
o f th eir last jo b if they held one w ithin the
p ast 12 m onths), but are no t currently look­
ing, because they believe there are no jo b s
available o r there are none fo r w hich they
w o u ld q u a lify . T h e civilian noninstitu­
tional population com prises all persons 16
years o f age and o ld er w ho are not inm ates
o f penal o r m ental institutions, sanitarium s,
o r hom es fo r the aged, infirm , o r needy. T he
civilian labor force participation ra te is
th e p r o p o r tio n o f th e c iv i li a n n o n i n ­
stitu tio n a l p o p u la tio n th a t is in the la b o r
force. T he employment-population ratio is
e m p lo y m e n t as a p e rc e n t o f the c iv ilia n
n oninstitutional population.

Notes on the data

Description of the series
E m p lo y m e n t d a ta in th is se c tio n are o b ­
ta in ed from the C u rre n t P o p u latio n Survey,
a p rogram o f perso n al interview s conducted
m onthly by the B ureau o f the C ensus fo r the
B ureau o f L ab o r S tatistics. T he sam ple co n ­
sists o f ab o u t 6 0 ,000 h o u seholds selected to
re p re se n t the U .S . p o p u latio n 16 y ears o f
age and older. H ouseholds are interview ed
on a ro tatin g b asis, so th at th ree-fo u rth s o f
the sam ple is the sam e fo r any 2 co n secu ­
tive m onths.

Definitions
Employed persons in clu d e (1) all th o se
w ho w o rk ed fo r pay any tim e d u rin g the
w eek w h ich in clu d es the 12th day o f the
m o n th or w ho w orked unpaid for 15 hours
o r m ore in a fam ily -o p erated enterprise and
(2) those w ho w ere tem porarily absent from
th e ir reg u lar jo b s because o f illness, v a c a ­
tion, industrial dispute, o r sim ilar reasons.
A p erso n w orking at m ore than one jo b is
co u n ted o nly in the jo b at w h ich he o r she
w orked the g reatest n u m b er o f hours.
Unemployed persons are those w ho did


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From tim e to tim e, and especially after a d e­
cennial census, adjustm ents are m ade in the
C u rren t P op u latio n S urvey figures to cor­
r e c t f o r e s t im a ti n g e r r o r s d u r i n g th e
intercensal years. T hese adjustm ents affect
the com parability o f historical data. A d e­
scription o f these adjustm ents and th eir e f­
fect on the v arious data series appears in the
E x p la n a to ry N o te s o f E m p lo y m e n t an d
Earnings. F o r a discussion o f changes in­
troduced in January 2003, see “R evisions
to the C urrent P op u latio n S urvey E ffective
in January 20 0 3 ” in the F ebruary 2003 is­
sue o f Em ploym ent an d Earnings (available
on the bls W eb site at: http://www.bls.gov/

X-12 arima for seasonal adjustment o f the
labor force data and the effects that it had
on the data.
A t the begin n in g o f each cale n d ar year,
h istorical seasonally ad ju sted d ata usually
are revised, and p ro jected seasonal a d ju st­
m en t factors are c a lc u lated fo r use during
the Ja n u a ry -Ju n e period. T he h isto rical sea­
sonally adjusted data u sually are rev ised for
only the m ost recen t 5 years. In July, new
seasonal adjustm ent factors, w hich in co rp o ­
rate the ex p erien ce th ro u g h Ju n e, are p ro ­
duced for the J u ly -D e c e m b e r period, bu t no
revisions are m ade in the h isto rical data.
F or additional information o n n a ­
tio n a l h o u se h o ld survey d a ta , c o n ta c t the
D iv isio n o f L a b o r F o rc e S tatistics: (202)
6 9 1 -6 3 7 8 .

Establishment survey data
Description of the series
E m p lo y m en t, h o u rs, and ea rn in g s d a ta in
th is s e c tio n a re c o m p ile d fro m p a y ro ll
records rep o rted m onthly on a voluntary b a ­
sis to the B ureau o f L a b o r S tatistics and its
c o o p e r a t in g S ta te a g e n c i e s b y a b o u t
160.000 b u sin esses and go v ern m en t ag en ­
c ie s , w h ic h r e p r e s e n t a p p r o x i m a t e ly
400.000 individual w orksites and rep resen t
all industries ex c e p t agriculture. T he active
CES sam ple covers ap proxim ately o n e-th ird
o f all nonfarm payroll w orkers. Industries
are classified in accordance w ith th e 2002
N orth A m erican Industry C lassification Sys­
tem . In m ost industries, the sam pling p ro b ­
abilities are based on the size o f the esta b ­
lish m e n t; m o s t la rg e e s ta b lis h m e n ts are
therefore in the sam ple. (A n estab lish m en t
is not n ecessarily a firm ; it m ay be a b ran ch
plant, for exam ple, or w arehouse.) Self-em ­
ployed persons and others not on a regular
civilian payroll are outside the scope o f the
survey because they are excluded from estab­
lishm ent records. T his largely accounts for
the difference in em ploym ent figures betw een
the household and establishm ent surveys.

cps/rvcps03.pdf).

Definitions

E ffective in January 2003, BLS began u s­
ing the X-12 arima seasonal adjustm ent pro­
gram to seasonally adjust national labor force
data. This program replaced the X-ii arima
program w hich had been used since January
1980. See “Revision o f Seasonally A djusted
Labor F o rc e S e rie s in 2 0 0 3 ,” in the F e b ­
r u a r y 2 0 0 3 is s u e o f E m p lo y m e n t a n d
E arn in gs (a v a ila b le on th e bls W eb site
at http:www.bls.gov/cps/cpsrs.pdf) fo r a
discussion o f the introduction o f the use o f

A n establishm ent is an e c o n o m ic u n it
w hich p roduces goods o r services (such as
a factory o r store) at a single location and is
engaged in one type o f econom ic activity.
Employed persons are all persons w ho
re c e iv e d pay (in c lu d in g h o lid a y an d sick
pay) fo r any p a rt o f the payroll p erio d in­
cluding the 12th day o f the m onth. P ersons
holding m ore than one jo b (about 5 percen t
o f all persons in the labor force) are counted

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Current Labor Statistics

in each estab lish m en t w hich rep o rts them .
Production workers in the goods-prod u c in g in d u s trie s c o v e r e m p lo y e e s , up
th ro u g h th e level o f w orking supervisors,
w ho en g ag e directly in the m anufacture or
con stru ctio n o f the esta b lish m e n t’s product.
In priv ate serv ice-p ro v id in g industries, data
are c o llected fo r no n su p erv iso ry w orkers,
w h ich include m o st em ployees except those
in e x ecu tiv e, m an ag erial, and supervisory
p o s itio n s . T h o se w o rk e rs m e n tio n e d in
tables 1 1-16 include p ro d u ctio n w orkers in
m a n u fa c tu rin g and n atu ral re so u rc e s and
m ining; co n stru ctio n w orkers in c o n stru c­
tion; and no n su p erv iso ry w orkers in all p ri­
vate serv ice-p ro v id in g industries. P ro d u c ­
tio n and n o n su p e rv iso ry w orkers acco u n t
fo r about four-fifths o f the total em ploym ent
on priv ate nonag ricu ltu ral payrolls.
Earnings are th e p a y m e n ts p ro d u c tio n
o r n o n su p e rv iso ry w o rk ers re c e iv e during
th e su rv ey p e rio d , in c lu d in g p re m iu m pay
fo r o v e rtim e o r la te -sh ift w o rk b u t e x c lu d ­
in g ir re g u la r b o n u s e s a n d o th e r sp e c ia l
p a y m e n ts. Real earnings are earn in g s ad ­
ju s te d to re fle c t the effe c ts o f c h a n g e s in
c o n su m e r p rices. T h e d e fla to r fo r th is se ­
rie s is d e riv e d fro m the C o n su m e r P rice In ­
dex fo r U rb a n W age E a rn e rs and C lerical
W orkers (CPi-W).
Hours re p re s e n t th e a v e ra g e w e e k ly
h o u rs o f p ro d u c tio n o r n o n s u p e rv is o ry
w orkers for w hich pay w as received, and are
d ifferen t from standard o r scheduled hours.
Overtime hours represent the portion o f av­
erag e w eekly hours w h ich w as in excess o f
re g u la r hours and fo r w h ich overtim e p re ­
m ium s w ere paid.
T he Diffusion Index rep resen ts the per­
cen t o f industries in w hich em ploym ent w as
risin g o v er the indicated period, plus oneh a lf o f the industries w ith u nchanged e m ­
ploym ent; 50 p ercen t indicates an equal bal­
ance b etw een industries w ith increasing and
decreasing em ploym ent. In line w ith B ureau
p ractice, d ata fo r the 1-, 3-, and 6 -m onth
spans are seasonally adjusted, w hile those
fo r the 12-m onth span are unadjusted. T able
17 p ro v id e s an index on p riv ate n onfarm
em p lo y m en t b ased on 278 industries, and a
m anufacturing index based on 84 industries.
T h ese indexes are useful fo r m easuring the
d isp ersio n o f econom ic gains or losses and
are also econom ic indicators.

Notes on the data
E sta b lish m e n t survey data are annually ad­
ju s te d to co m p reh en siv e counts o f em p lo y ­
m e n t (c a lle d “ b e n c h m a rk s” ). T h e M a rc h
2003 b en ch m a rk w as introduced in F eb ru ­
ary 2 0 0 4 w ith the release o f data fo r Jan u ­
ary 2004, p u b lish ed in the M arch 20 0 4 is­

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sue o f the Review. W ith the release in June
2003, ces com pleted a c onversion from the
S tandard Industrial C lassificatio n (SIC) sys­
tem to the N orth A m erican Industry C lassi­
ficatio n System (naics) and com pleted the
transition from its o riginal quota sam ple d e­
sign to a pro b ab ility -b ased sam ple design.
T he industry-coding update included reco n ­
struction o f h istorical estim ates in o rd er to
p reserve tim e series fo r data users. N or­
m ally 5 years o f seasonally adjusted data are
re v is e d w ith e a c h b e n c h m a rk re v is io n .
H ow ever, w ith this release, the entire new
tim e series histo ry fo r all ces d ata series
w ere re-seasonally adjusted due to the naics
conversion, w hich resu lted in the revision
o f all ces tim e series.
A lso in June 2003, the ces program in ­
troduced concurrent seasonal adjustm ent for
the national estab lish m en t data. U n d er this
m ethodology, the first prelim inary estim ates
fo r the cu rren t referen ce m onth and the re ­
vised estim ates fo r the 2 p rio r m onths w ill
be u p d a te d w ith c o n c u rre n t fa c to rs w ith
each new release o f data. C o n cu rren t sea­
sonal ad ju stm en t incorporates all available
data, including first prelim inary estim ates
fo r the m ost current month, in the adjustm ent
process. F or additional inform ation on all o f
the changes introduced in June 2003, see the
June 2003 issue o f Employment and Earnings
and “R ecent changes in the national C urrent
Em ploym ent Statistics survey,” M onthly La­
bor Review, June 2003, pp. 3 -1 3 .
R e v isio n s in S tate data (table 11) o c ­
curred w ith the pub licatio n o f January 2003
data. F o r inform ation on the rev isio n s for
the State data, see the M arch and M ay 2003
issues o f E m ploym ent an d E arnings, and
“R ecen t changes in the State and M etro p o li­
tan A rea CES survey,” M onthly L abor R e­
view , June 2003, pp. 14-19.
B eginning in June 1996, the bls uses the
X-12-ARIMA m ethodology to seasonally ad ­
ju s t estab lish m en t survey data. T his p ro ce­
dure, developed by the B ureau o f the C en ­
sus, controls fo r the effect o f varying sur­
vey intervals (also know n as the 4- versus
5 -w eek effect), thereby providing im proved
m e a su re m e n t o f o v e r-th e -m o n th c h an g es
and u nderlying econom ic trends. R evisions
o f data, usually fo r the m o st re c e n t 5 -year
period, are m ade once a year coincident w ith
the b enchm ark revisions.
In the establishm ent survey, estim ates for
the m ost recen t 2 m onths are based on in ­
co m p lete returns and are p ublished as p re­
lim inary in the tables (1 2 -1 7 in the Review).
W hen all returns h ave b een received, the e s­
tim ates are revised and p ublished as “ fin a l”
(prior to any ben ch m a rk revisions) in the

th ird m onth o f their appearance. T hus, D e ­
cem b er d ata are p u b lish ed as p relim in ary in
January and F ebruary and as final in M arch.
F o r the sam e reasons, quarterly esta b lish ­
m en t data (table 1) are prelim inary for the
first 2 m onths o f p u b licatio n and final in the
th ird m onth. F o u rth -q u a rte r data are p u b ­
lished as p relim in ary in Jan u ary and F e b ru ­
ary and as final in M arch.
For additional information on e sta b ­
lish m en t survey data, c o n tac t the D ivision
o f C u rre n t E m p lo y m e n t S ta tistic s: (202)
6 9 1 -6 5 5 5 .

Unemployment data by
State
Description of the series
D ata p resen ted in this section are o b tained
from the L ocal A rea U n e m p lo y m en t S tatis­
tics (laus ) program , w hich is co n d u cte d in
cooperation w ith State em p lo y m en t security
agencies.
M o n th ly e stim a te s o f th e la b o r fo rce,
em ploym ent, and u n em p lo y m en t fo r States
and sub-S tate areas are a key in d icato r o f
local econom ic conditions, and form the b a ­
sis for determ ining the elig ib ility o f an area
fo r benefits u nder F ed eral econom ic a ssis­
ta n c e p ro g ra m s su ch as th e Jo b T ra in in g
P artn ersh ip A ct. S easo n ally adju sted u n e m ­
p lo y m e n t rates are p re se n te d in tab le 10.
In s o fa r as p o ss ib le , th e c o n c e p ts a n d d e fi­
n itio n s u n d e rly in g th e s e d a ta a re th o s e
u se d in th e n a tio n a l e s tim a te s o b ta in e d
fro m th e cps .

Notes on the data
D ata refer to S tate o f resid en ce. M onthly
data fo r all S tates and the D istrict o f C o ­
lum bia are d eriv ed using stan d ard iz ed p ro ­
ced u res e sta b lish e d by bls . O n ce a year,
estim ates are revised to new population co n ­
trols, usually w ith p u b lic a tio n o f Jan u ary
estim ates, and b en ch m a rk ed to annual av er­
age cps levels.

For additional information on data in
this series, call (202) 6 9 1 -6 3 9 2 (table 10)
or (202) 6 9 1 -6 5 5 9 (table 11).

Quarterly Census of
Employment and Wages
Description of the series
E m ploym ent, w age, and e stab lish m en t d ata
in th is se c tio n are d e riv e d fro m th e q u a r­
te rly tax re p o rts s u b m itte d to S ta te e m ­
p lo y m e n t se c u rity a g e n c ie s by p riv a te an d
S tate and lo cal g o v e rn m e n t em p lo y ers sub-

je c t to S ta te u n e m p lo y m e n t in s u ra n c e (ui)
la w s an d fro m F e d e ra l, a g e n c ie s su b je c t
to th e U n e m p lo y m e n t C o m p e n sa tio n fo r
F e d e ra l E m p lo y e e s ( ucfe ) p ro g ra m . E a c h
q u arter, S tate ag e n c ie s e d it and p ro c e ss the
d a ta an d se n d th e in fo rm a tio n to the B u ­
reau o f L ab o r S tatistics.
T he Q u arterly C en su s o f E m p lo y m en t
and W ages (QCEW) d ata, also referred as es 202 data, are the m o st co m p lete enum eration
o f em p lo y m en t and w age inform ation by in­
d u stry at the natio n al, State, m etropolitan
area, and county levels. They have broad eco­
nom ic significance in evaluating labor m ar­
ket trends and m ajor industry developm ents.

Definitions
In general, the Q uarterly C ensus o f E m ploy­
m en t and W ages m onthly e m p lo y m en t data
re p re se n t the n u m b e r o f covered workers
w ho w o rk ed during, o r receiv ed pay for, the
pay p erio d that included the 12th day o f the
m onth. Covered private industry employ­
ment includes m o st co rp o rate officials, ex ­
ecutives, supervisory personnel, p ro fessio n ­
als, cleric a l w o rk ers, w age earn ers, p iece
w orkers, and p art-tim e w orkers. It excludes
p ro p rie to rs , th e u n in c o rp o ra te d s e lf-e m ­
ployed, unpaid fam ily m em bers, and certain
farm and dom estic w orkers. C ertain types
o f n o n p ro fit em ployers, such as religious or­
gan iza tio n s, are given a ch o ice o f coverage
o r ex clu sio n in a nu m b er o f States. W orkers
in th e se o rg a n iz a tio n s are, th e re fo re , r e ­
po rted to a lim ited degree.
P erso n s on paid sick leave, p aid holiday,
paid v acation, and the like, are included. P er­
sons on the payroll o f m ore than one firm
during the perio d are co u n ted by each uisubject em p lo y er if they m eet the e m p lo y ­
m en t d e fin itio n noted earlier. T he e m p lo y ­
m en t count excludes w orkers w ho earned no
w ages d u rin g the entire applicable pay p e­
rio d because o f w ork stoppages, tem porary
layoffs, illness, o r unpaid v acations
Federal employment data are based on
rep o rts o f m onthly e m p lo y m en t and quar­
terly w ages subm itted each q u arter to State
ag en cies fo r all F ed eral in stallatio n s w ith
em p lo y ees co vered by the U nem ploym ent
C om pensation for F ederal E m ployees ( ucfe )
program , ex cep t fo r certain national secu ­
rity agencies, w hich are om itted for security
reasons. E m p lo y m en t fo r all F ederal ag en ­
cies fo r any given m o n th is based on the
n u m b er o f persons w ho w orked during or
received pay for the pay period that included
the 12th o f the m onth.
A n establishment is an econom ic unit,
such as a farm , m ine, factory, o r store, that
p ro d u ces goods o r p rovides services. It is


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typically at a single p hysical location and
engaged in one, o r predom inantly one, type
o f econom ic activity fo r w hich a single in ­
d ustrial classificatio n m ay be applied. O c­
casionally, a single physical location encom ­
passes tw o o r m ore d istin ct and significant
activities. E ach activity should be reported
as a s e p a ra te e s ta b lis h m e n t if s e p a ra te
re c o rd s are k e p t a n d th e v a rio u s a c tiv i­
tie s a re c la s s ifie d u n d e r d iffe re n t naics
in d u s trie s .
M ost em ployers have only one estab lish ­
m ent; thus, the establishm ent is the p redom i­
nant rep o rtin g un it o r statistical entity for
reporting em ploym ent and w ages data. M ost
em ployers, including State and local g overn­
m ents w ho operate m ore than one estab lish ­
m en t in a State, file a M ultiple W orksite R e ­
po rt each quarter, in addition to th eir q uar­
terly ui report. T he M ultiple W orksite R e ­
p o rt is used to collect separate em p lo y m en t
and w age data for each o f the e m p lo y e r’s
establishm ents, w hich are not detailed on the
ui report. Som e very sm all m u lti-estab lish ­
m e n t e m p lo y e rs d o n o t file a M u ltip le
W orksite R eport. W hen the total e m p lo y ­
m ent in an e m p lo y e r’s secondary estab lish ­
m ents (all establishm ents o ther than the larg­
est) is 10 or few er, the em p lo y er g enerally
w ill file a co nsolidated report for all esta b ­
lishm ents. A lso, som e em ployers either can ­
n o t o r w ill no t report at the establishm ent
level and thus aggregate establishm ents into
one co n solidated unit, o r possibly several
units, though no t at the estab lish m en t level.
F o r the F ederal G overnm ent, the re p o rt­
ing unit is the installation: a single lo ca­
tion at w hich a d epartm ent, agency, o r other
g o v ern m en t body has c iv ilian em ployees.
Federal agencies follow slightly different cri­
teria than do p rivate em ployers w hen b reak ­
ing dow n th eir reports by installation. T hey
are perm itted to com bine as a single state­
w ide unit: 1) all installations w ith 10 or few er
w orkers, and 2) all installations that have a
com bined total in the State o f few er than 50
w orkers. A lso, w hen there are few er than 25
w orkers in all secondary installations in a
S tate, the seco n d ary in sta lla tio n s m ay be
com bined and rep o rted w ith the m ajo r in­
stallation. L ast, if a Federal agency has few er
than five em ployees in a State, the agency
h eadquarters office (regional office, district
office) serving each S tate m ay consolidate
the em ploym ent and w ages data for that State
w ith the data rep o rted to the State in w hich
the headquarters is located. A s a re su lt o f
these reporting rules, the n um ber o f re p o rt­
ing units is alw ays larger than the n um ber
o f em ployers (or gov ern m en t agencies) but
sm aller than the n um ber o f actual e stab lish ­
m ents (or installations).

D ata re p o rte d fo r the first q u a rte r are
tabulated into size cate g o ries ra n g in g from
w orksites o f very sm all size to those w ith
1,000 em ployees or m ore. T he size category
is d eterm ined by the e sta b lish m e n t’s M arch
em ploym ent level. It is im portant to note that
each estab lish m en t o f a m u lti-estab lish m en t
firm is tabulated sep arately into the ap p ro ­
priate size category. T he total e m p lo y m en t
level o f the rep o rtin g m u lti-e sta b lish m e n t
firm is no t used in the size tabulation.
C overed em ployers in m o st S tates rep o rt
total wages paid during the c ale n d ar q u ar­
ter, regardless o f w hen the services w ere per­
form ed. A few S tate law s, how ever, specify
that w ages be rep o rted for, o r based on the
period during w hich services are perfo rm ed
rath er than the p erio d d u rin g w h ich c o m ­
p en satio n is paid. U n d er m o st State law s or
regulations, w ages in clu d e bonuses, stock
options, the cash value o f m eals and lo d g ­
ing, tips and other gratu ities, and, in som e
States, em ployer contributions to certain d e­
ferred com p en satio n p lans such as 401(k)
plans.
C overed e m p lo y er co ntributions fo r olda g e , su rv iv o rs , a n d d is a b ility in s u ra n c e
( oasdi), health insurance, u n em ploym ent in ­
surance, w o rk ers’ com pensation, and private
pension and w elfare funds are n o t reported
as w ages. E m ployee c o n trib u tio n s for the
sam e purposes, how ever, as w ell as m oney
w ithheld for incom e taxes, union dues, and
so forth, are rep o rted ev en th o u g h they are
deducted from the w o rk e r’s gross pay.
Wages of covered Federal workers rep ­
resen t the gross am o u n t o f all p ay ro lls for
all pay perio d s ending w ith in the quarter.
T h is in c lu d e s c a sh a llo w a n c e s, th e c a sh
equivalent o f any type o f rem uneration, sev­
eran ce pay, w ith h o ld in g tax es, and re tire ­
m ent deductions. F ederal em ployee re m u ­
n eratio n generally covers the sam e types o f
services as fo r w orkers in p riv ate industry.
Average annual wage p er em ployee for
any given industry are com p u ted by d iv id ­
ing total annual w ages by annual average em ­
ploym ent. A fu rth er d ivision by 52 yields
average w eekly w ages per em ployee. A nnual
pay d ata only ap proxim ate annual earnings
because an individual m ay not be em ployed
by the sam e em p lo y er all y ear o r m ay w ork
fo r m ore than one em p lo y er at a tim e.
Average weekly or annual wage is af­
fected by the ratio o f full-tim e to p art-tim e
w orkers as w ell as the nu m b er o f in d iv id u ­
als in high -p ay in g and lo w -paying o c cu p a­
tio n s. W h en a v e ra g e pay le v e ls b e tw e e n
States and in d u stries are co m p ared , these
factors should be taken into co nsideration.
F o r ex a m p le , in d u strie s c h a ra c te riz e d by
high proportions o f p art-tim e w orkers w ill

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show av erage w age levels appreciably less
than the w eekly pay levels o f reg u lar fu ll­
tim e em p lo y ees in these industries. T he o p ­
p o site effect ch aracterizes industries w ith
low proportions o f p art-tim e w orkers, o r in ­
dustries th at typically schedule heavy w eek­
end and o v ertim e w ork. A verage w age data
also m ay be in flu en ced by w ork stoppages,
lab o r tu rn o v er rates, retro activ e paym ents,
seasonal factors, bonus paym ents, and so on.

Notes on the data
B eg in n in g w ith the release o f data for 2001,
p u b licatio n s p resen tin g data from the C o v ­
ered E m p lo y m en t and W ages program have
sw itched to the 2002 version o f the N orth
A m e ric a n In d u stry C la ssific a tio n S y stem
(NAICS) as the basis for the assignm ent and
ta b u la tio n o f ec o n o m ic d a ta by industry.
NAICS is the p ro d u c t o f a coop erativ e effort
on the p a rt o f the statistical agencies o f the
U nited S tates, C anada, and M exico. D ue to
differen ce in NAICS and S tandard Industrial
C lassificatio n (SIC) structures, industry data
fo r 2001 is n o t com p arab le to the sic -b a se d
d a ta fo r e a rlie r years.
E ffective January 2001, the program b e­
gan assigning Indian T ribal C ouncils and re ­
lated e sta b lish m e n ts to local g o v e rn m e n t
o w nership. T his BLS action w as in response
to a change in F ed eral law dealing w ith the
w ay Indian T ribes are treated under the F ed ­
eral U n em p lo y m en t Tax A ct. T his law re ­
quires federally reco g n ized Indian T ribes to
be treated sim ilarly to State and local g o v ­
ernm ents. In the past, the C overed E m p lo y ­
m ent and W age (CEW) program coded Indian
T ribal C ouncils and related establishm ents
in the priv ate sector. A s a resu lt o f the new
law, cew data reflects sig n ifican t shifts in
e m p lo y m en t and w ages betw een the private
sector and local go v ern m en t from 2000 to
2001. D ata also re fle c t industry changes.
T hose accounts previously assigned to civic
and social o rg anizations w ere assigned to
tribal governm ents. T here w ere no required
industry changes for related establishm ents
ow ned by these T ribal C ouncils. T hese tribal
b u sin e ss e s ta b lish m e n ts c o n tin u e d to be
co ded according to the econom ic activity o f
th at entity.
To in su re th e h ig h e st p o ssib le q u ality
o f d a ta , S tate e m p lo y m e n t secu rity a g e n ­
c ies v e rify w ith em p lo y e rs an d u p d ate, if
necessary , the industry, lo catio n , an d o w n ­
ersh ip c la ssific a tio n o f all esta b lish m e n ts
on a 3 -y e a r cy cle . C h an g es in e sta b lish ­
m en t classific a tio n codes resu ltin g from the
v erific a tio n p ro cess are intro d u ced w ith the
data reported fo r the first qu arter o f the year.

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C hanges resulting from im proved em p lo y er
re p o rtin g also are in tro d u c e d in th e first
quarter. F o r th ese reaso n s, som e d ata, e s­
p e c ia lly a t m ore d e ta ile d g eo g rap h ic le v ­
els, m ay n o t be stric tly c o m p a ra b le w ith
e a rlie r years.
C ounty defin itio n s are assigned a cco rd ­
ing to F ederal In form ation P rocessing S tan ­
dards P u b licatio n s as issued by the N ational
Institute o f S tandards and T echnology. A r­
eas show n as counties include those d e sig ­
nated as independent cities in som e ju ris ­
dictions and, in A laska, those areas d e sig ­
nated by the C ensus B ureau w here counties
have no t been created. C ounty d ata also are
p resen ted for the N ew E ngland S tates for
co m p arativ e purposes, even though to w n ­
ships are the m ore com m on designation used
in N ew E ngland (and N ew Jersey).
T he O ffice o f M anag em en t and B udget
(omb) defines m etropolitan areas fo r use in
F e d e ra l s ta tis tic a l a c tiv itie s an d u p d a te s
these definitions as needed. D ata in this table
use m etropolitan area criteria established by
OMB in d e fin itio n s issu e d Ju n e 30, 1999
(omb B ulletin N o. 99-04). T hese definitions
re flect inform ation obtained from the 1990
D ecennial C ensus and the 1998 U .S. C en ­
sus B ureau popu latio n estim ate. A com plete
list o f m etropolitan area definitions is av a il­
able from the N ational T echnical In fo rm a­
tion S ervice ( ntis), D ocum ent Sales, 5205
P o rt R oyal R oad, S p rin g field , Va. 22161,
telephone 1-800-553-6847.
OMB defines m etropolitan areas in term s
o f en tire c o u n ties, e x cep t in the six N ew
E n g lan d S tates w here they are d efin ed in
term s o f cities and tow ns. N ew E ngland data
in this table, how ever, are based on a county
co n cep t defin ed by omb as N ew E n g lan d
C o u n ty M e tro p o lita n A reas ( necma ) b e ­
cause county-level data are the m ost detailed
available from the Q uarterly C ensus o f E m ­
ploym ent and W ages. T he necma is a countybased alternative to the city- and tow n-based
m e tro p o lita n areas in N ew E n g lan d . T he
necma fo r a M etropolitan S tatistical A rea
(msa) include: (1) the county containing the
first-nam ed city in that msa title (this county
m ay include the first-nam ed cities o f other
msa , and (2) each additional county having
at least h a lf its p o p u la tio n in the msa in
w hich first-n am e d cities are in the county
identified in step 1. T he necma is officially
defined areas that are m eant to be used by
statistical program s that cannot use the regu­
la r m e tro p o lita n area d e fin itio n s in N ew
E ngland.
F or additional information on the
covered em ploym ent and w age data, contact
the D ivision o f A dm inistrative Statistics and
L abor T u rn o v er at (202) 6 9 1 -6 5 6 7 .

Job Openings and Labor
Turnover Survey
Description of the series
D ata for the Job Openings and Labor Turn­
over Survey (jolts) are collected and com ­
piled from a sam ple o f 16,000 business es­
tablishm ents. E ach m onth, data are collected
for total em ploym ent, jo b openings, hires,
quits, layoffs and discharges, and other sepa­
rations. T he jolts program covers all private
nonfarm estab lish m en ts such as facto ries,
offices, and stores, as w ell as Federal, State,
and local g overnm ent entities in the 50 S tates
an d th e D istric t o f C o lu m b ia . T h e JOLTS
sam ple design is a random sam ple draw n from
a universe o f m ore than eight m illion estab­
lishm ents com piled as part o f the operations
o f the Q uarterly C ensus o f E m ploym ent and
W ages, o r qcew , program . T his program in­
cludes all em ployers subject to State unem ­
p lo y m en t insurance (ui) law s and F ederal
agencies subject to U nem ploym ent C om pen­
sation for F ederal E m ployees (UCFE).
The sam pling fram e is stratified by ow ner­
ship, region, industry sector, and size class.
Large firm s fall into the sam ple w ith virtual
certainty, jolts total em ploym ent estim ates are
controlled to the em ploym ent estim ates o f the
C urrent Em ploym ent Statistics (ces) survey.
A ratio o f ces to jolts em ploym ent is used to
adjust the levels for all other jolts data ele­
ments. R ates then are com puted from the ad­
justed levels.
The m onthly jolts data series begin w ith
D ecem ber 2000. N ot seasonally adjusted data
on job openings, hires, total separations, quits,
layoffs and discharges, and other separations
levels and rates are available for the total non­
farm sector, 16 private industry divisions and
2 governm ent divisions based on the N orth
A m erican In d u stry C la ssific a tio n S ystem
(NAICS), and four geographic regions. Season­
ally adjusted data on jo b openings, hires, total
separations, and quits levels and rates are avail­
able for the total nonfarm sector, selected in­
dustry sectors, and four geographic regions.

Definitions
E stablishm ents subm it job openings in fo r­
m ation fo r the last business day o f the re fe r­
ence m onth. A jo b opening req u ires th at (1)
a specific p osition exists and there is w ork
a v a ila b le fo r th a t p o sitio n ; an d (2) w ork
c o u ld sta rt w ith in 30 d ay s re g a rd le ss o f
w hether a suitable can d id a te is found; and
(3) the em p lo y er is actively recru itin g from
outside the establishm ent to fill the position.
Included are full-tim e, part-tim e, perm anent,

sh o rt-term , and seasonal o p enings. A ctive
recru itin g m eans th a t the e stab lish m en t is
taking steps to fill a p o sitio n by advertising
in n ew sp ap ers o r on the In tern et, postin g
h e lp -w an ted signs, accep tin g applications,
o r usin g o th er sim ilar m ethods.
Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers,
prom otions, dem otions, or recall from lay­
offs are excluded. A lso excluded are jobs w ith
start dates m ore than 30 days in the future,
jo b s fo r w hich em ployees have been hired
but have no t yet reported fo r w ork, and jobs
to be filled by em ployees o f tem porary help
agencies, em ployee leasing com panies, out­
sid e c o n tra c to rs, o r c o n su lta n ts. T h e jo b
openings rate is com puted by dividing the
n um ber o f jo b openings by the sum o f em ­
plo y m en t and jo b o penings, and m ultiplying
th at qu o tien t by 100.
Hires are the total num ber o f additions to
the payroll occurring at any tim e during the
reference m onth, including both new and re ­
hired em ployees and full-tim e and part-tim e,
p e rm a n e n t, s h o rt-te rm an d se a so n a l e m ­
ployees, em ployees recalled to the location
after a layoff lasting m ore than 7 days, oncall o r in term ittent em ployees w ho returned
to w ork after having been form ally separated,
and transfers from o ther locations. T he hires
count does not include transfers o r p rom o­
tions w ith in the rep o rtin g site, em ployees
returning from strike, em ployees o f tem po­
rary help agencies or em ployee leasing com ­
panies, outside contractors, o r consultants.
T he hires rate is com puted by dividing the
num ber o f hires by em ploym ent, and m u lti­
plying that quotient by 100.
Separations are the total num ber o f term i­
nations o f em ploym ent occurring at any tim e
during the reference m onth, and are reported
by type o f separation— quits, layoffs and dis­
charges, and other separations. Q uits are vol­
untary separations by em ployees (except for
retirements, which are reported as other separa­
tions). Layoffs and discharges are involuntary
separations initiated by the em ployer and in­
clude layoffs w ith no intent to rehire, form al
layoffs lasting or expected to last m ore than 7
d a y s, d isc h a rg e s re s u ltin g fro m m erg ers,
dow nsizing, or closings, firings o r other dis­
charges for cause, term inations o f perm anent
o r short-term em ployees, and term inations o f
seasonal employees. O ther separations include
retirem ents, transfers to other locations, deaths,
and separations due to disability. Separations
do n ot include transfers w ithin the sam e loca­
tion or em ployees on strike.
T he sep aratio n s rate is co m puted by d i­
viding the n um ber o f separations by em ploy­
m ent, and m ultip ly in g that qu o tien t by 100.
T he quits, layoffs and discharges, and o ther
se p a ra tio n s ra te s are c o m p u te d sim ilarly,


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d iv id in g the n u m b er by e m p lo y m e n t and
m ultiplying by 100.

Notes on the data
T he JOLTS data series on jo b o penings, hires,
and separations are relativ ely new. T he full
sam ple is divided into panels, w ith one panel
enrolled each m onth. A full co m plem ent o f
p anels for the original data series based on
the 1987 S tandard Industrial C lassification
(sic ) system w as n o t com pletely enrolled in
the survey until January 2002. T he su p p le­
m ental panels o f establishm ents n eeded to
create naics estim ates w ere no t com pletely
en ro lled until M ay 2003. T he data collected
up until those points are from less than a
full sam ple. T herefore, estim ates from ear­
lier m onths should be used w ith caution, as
few er sam pled units w ere reporting data at
th at tim e.
In M arch 2002, BLS procedures for col­
lecting hires and separations data w ere revised
to address possible underreporting. A s a re ­
sult, jolts hires and separations estim ates for
m onths prior to M arch 2002 m ay not be com ­
parable w ith estim ates fo r M arch 2002 and
later.
T he F ederal G o v ern m en t reorganization
th a t in v o lv e d tra n sfe rrin g a p p ro x im a te ly
180,000 em ployees to the new D epartm ent
o f H om eland S ecurity is not reflected in the
JOLTS hires and separations estim ates for the
F ederal G overnm ent. T he O ffice o f P e rso n ­
nel M an ag em en t’s record show s these tran s­
fers w ere com p leted in M arch 2003. T he
inclusion o f transfers in the jolts definitions
o f hires and separations is intended to cover
ongoing m ovem ents o f w orkers betw een es­
tablishm ents. T he D epartm ent o f H om eland
S ecurity reorganization w as a m assive o n e ­
tim e event, and the inclusion o f these inter­
g o v e rn m e n ta l tra n sfe rs w o u ld d is to rt the
F ederal G o v ern m en t tim e series.
D ata users should note that seasonal ad­
justm ent o f the jolts series is conducted w ith
few er data observations than is custom ary.
T he historical data, therefore, m ay be sub­
je c t to larger than norm al revisions. B ecause
the seasonal patterns in econom ic data series
typically em erge over tim e, the standard use
o f m oving averages as seasonal filters to cap­
ture these effects requires longer series than
are currently available. As a result, the stable
seasonal filter option is used in the seasonal
adjustm ent o f the jolts data. W hen calculat­
ing seasonal factors, this filter takes an aver­
age for each calendar m onth after detrending
the series. T he stable seasonal filter assum es
that the seasonal factors are fixed; a neces­
sary assum ption until sufficient data are avail-

able. W hen the stable seasonal filter is no
longer needed, other program features also
m ay be introduced, such as o utlier adjustm ent
and extended diagnostic testing. A dditionally,
it is expected that m ore series, such as lay­
offs and discharges and additional industries,
m ay be seasonally adjusted w hen m ore data
are available.
JOLTS hires and separations estim ates can ­
not be used to exactly explain net changes in
payroll em ploym ent. Som e reasons w hy it is
problem atic to com pare changes in payroll
em ploym ent w ith jolts hires and separations,
especially on a m onthly basis, are: (1) the
reference period for payroll em ploym ent is
th e pay p e rio d in c lu d in g th e 12th o f the
m onth, w hile the reference period for hires
and separations is the calendar m onth; and
(2) payroll em ploym ent can vary from m onth
to m onth sim ply because p art-tim e and oncall w orkers m ay not alw ays w ork during the
pay p e rio d th a t in c lu d e s th e 12th o f th e
m onth. A dditionally, research has found that
som e re p o rte rs sy ste m a tic a lly u n d e rre p o rt
sep aratio n s re la tiv e to h ire s d u e to a n u m ­
b er o f facto rs, in c lu d in g the n a tu re o f th e ir
pay ro ll sy stem s and p ractices. T he shortfall
a p p ears to be ab o u t 2 p e rc e n t o r less o v e r a
12 -m o n th p eriod.
For additional information on the Job
O penings and L abor T urnover Survey, co n ­
tact the D ivision o f A dm inistrative S tatistics
and L abor T urnover at (202) 961-5870.

Compensation and
Wage Data
(Tables 1 -3 ; 3 0 -3 6 )
C o m pensation and w aged data are gathered
by the B ureau from b usiness establishm ents,
State and local g o v ernm ents, labor unions,
c o lle c tiv e b a rg a in in g a g re e m e n ts on file
w ith the B ureau, and secondary sources.

Employment Cost Index
Description of the series
T h e Employment Cost Index (ECI) is a
qu arterly m easure o f the rate o f change in
com pensation p er h our w orked and includes
w ages, salaries, and em p lo y er costs o f e m ­
p lo y e e b e n e fits . It u se s a fix e d m a rk e t
b asket o f labor— sim ilar in co n cep t to the
C o n su m er P rice In d e x ’s fixed m ark et b a s­
k e t o f g o o d s a n d s e r v ic e s — to m e a s u re
change o v er tim e in em p lo y er costs o f e m ­
ploying labor.
S tatistical series on total com p en satio n

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

71

Current Labor Statistics

c o sts, on w ag es an d sa la rie s, a n d on b e n ­
e fit co sts are a v a ila b le fo r p riv a te n o n fa rm
w orkers exclu d in g p ro p rieto rs, the self-em ­
p loyed, and h o u se h o ld w o rk ers. T he total
co m p en satio n co sts and w ages and salaries
series are also availab le fo r S tate and local
g o v e rn m e n t w o rk e rs and fo r the c iv ilia n
n o n farm econom y, w h ich co n sists o f p ri­
vate in d u stry and State and local g o v e rn ­
m ent w o rk ers com bined. F ed eral w orkers
are excluded.
T he E m p lo y m en t C o st Index probability
sam ple consists o f about 4 ,400 private n o n ­
farm establishm ents providing about 23,000
o c c u p atio n al o b serv atio n s and 1,000 State
and local g o v ern m en t estab lish m en ts p ro ­
v id in g 6 ,000 occu p atio n al ob serv atio n s se­
lected to rep resen t total em p lo y m en t in each
sector. O n average, each reporting un it p ro ­
vides w age and com p en satio n inform ation
on five w ell-sp ecified occupations. D ata are
c o llected each q u arter fo r the pay period in ­
c lu d in g the 12th day o f M arch, June, S ep ­
tem ber, and D ecem ber.
B e g in n in g w ith Ju n e 1986 data, fixed
em p lo y m en t w eights from the 1980 C ensus
o f P o p u la tio n a re u se d e a c h q u a rte r to
c a lc u la te th e civ ilia n and p riv ate indexes
and the index fo r S tate and local g o v ern ­
m ents. (P rio r to June 1986, the em p lo y m en t
w eights are from the 1970 C ensus o f P o p u ­
lation.) T h ese fix ed w eights, also used to
d e riv e all o f th e in d u stry and o ccu p atio n
series indexes, ensure that changes in these
indexes re flect only chan g es in c o m p en sa­
tion, not em p lo y m en t shifts am ong in d u s­
tries o r occu p atio n s w ith d ifferen t levels o f
w ages and com pensation. F o r the b arg ain ­
ing sta tu s, re g io n , an d m etro p o lita n /n o n m e tro p o litan area series, how ever, e m p lo y ­
m en t d ata by industry and occu p atio n are
not availab le from the census. Instead, the
1980 em p lo y m en t w eights are reallo cated
w ithin these series each quarter based on the
cu rren t sam ple. T herefore, these indexes are
not strictly com p arab le to those fo r the ag ­
g reg ate, industry, and o ccupation series.

Definitions
Total compensation costs include w ages,
salaries, and the e m p lo y e r’s costs fo r em ­
plo y ee benefits.
Wages and salaries co n sist o f earnings
b efo re p a y ro ll d e d u c tio n s, in clu d in g p ro ­
du ctio n bonuses, incentive earn in g s, c o m ­
m issions, and c o st-o f-liv in g adjustm ents.
Benefits include the co st to em ployers
fo r p aid leave, su p p lem en tal pay (in clu d ­
ing nonproduction bonuses), insurance, retire­
m ent and savings plans, and legally required

72
Monthly Labor Review

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2004

benefits (such as Social Security, w o rk ers’
com pensation, and unem ploym ent insurance).
E x clu d ed from w ages and salaries and
em ployee b en efits are such item s as p a y ­
m ent-in-kind, free room and board, and tips.

Notes on the data
T he E m p lo y m en t C o st Index fo r changes in
w ages and salaries in the private nonfarm
econom y w as p ublished beginning in 1975.
C hanges in total com pensation cost— w ages
and salaries and benefits com bined— w ere
pu b lish ed begin n in g in 1980. T he series o f
changes in w ages and salaries and fo r total
com pensation in the State and local g o v e rn ­
m e n t se c to r an d in the c iv ilia n n o n fa rm
ec o n o m y (e x c lu d in g F e d e ra l em p lo y e e s)
w ere pu b lish ed beginning in 1981. H isto ri­
cal indexes (June 1981=100) are available
on the Internet:

http ://www.bls.gov/ect/
F or additional information on th e
E m p lo y m en t C ost Index, c o n tac t the O ffice
o f C o m pensation L evels and T rends: (202)
6 9 1 -6 1 9 9 .

Employee Benefits Survey
Description of the series
Employee benefits data are o b tained from
the E m ployee B enefits Survey, an annual
survey o f the incidence and p rovisions o f
selected benefits p ro v id e d by e m p lo y e rs.
T he survey collects data from a sam ple o f
ap proxim ately 9 ,000 private sector and State
and local governm ent estab lish m en ts. T he
data are p resen ted as a p ercentage o f em ­
p loyees w ho particip ate in a certain benefit,
or as an average benefit provision (for ex­
am ple, the average num ber o f paid holidays
p ro v id ed to em ployees per year). S elected
data from the survey are p resented in table
34 for m edium and large private e sta b lish ­
m ents and in table 35 fo r small private estab­
lishm ents and State and local governm ent.
T he survey co v ers p aid leav e b en efits
such as holidays and vacations, and personal,
funeral, ju ry duty, m ilitary, fam ily, and sick
leave; short-term disability, long-term d is­
ability, and life insurance; m edical, dental,
and vision care plans; defined b en efit and
defined contrib u tio n plans; flexible benefits
plans; reim b u rsem en t accounts; and unpaid
fam ily leave.
A lso , d a ta are ta b u la te d o n th e in c i­
d e n c e o f s e v e ra l o th e r b e n e fits , su c h as
severance pay, child-care assistance, w e ll­
n e ss p ro g ra m s, an d e m p lo y e e a ss ista n c e
program s.

Definitions
Employer-provided benefits are b en efits
th at are financed eith e r w holly o r partly by
the em ployer. T hey m ay be sponsored by a
union o r o th er th ird party, as long as there is
som e em p lo y er financing. H ow ever, som e
benefits th at are fully p aid fo r by th e e m ­
ployee also are included. F o r exam ple, long­
term care insurance and p o stretirem en t life
insurance paid en tirely by the em p lo y ee are
included because the guarantee o f in su rab il­
ity and availability at g roup p rem ium rates
are co n sid ered a benefit.
Participants are w o rk ers w ho are c o v ­
e re d by a b e n e fit, w h e th e r o r n o t th ey use
th a t b en efit. If the b e n e fit p la n is fin a n c e d
w holly by e m p lo y e rs and re q u ire s e m p lo y ­
ees to co m p le te a m in im u m le n g th o f ser­
v ice fo r elig ib ility , the w o rk ers are c o n sid ­
ered p a rtic ip a n ts w h e th e r o r n o t th ey h av e
m e t th e re q u ire m e n t. I f w o rk e rs are r e ­
q u ired to c o n trib u te to w ard s th e c o st o f a
p lan , they are c o n sid e re d p a rtic ip a n ts o n ly
if they e le c t th e p lan and ag ree to m ak e the
re q u ire d c o n trib u tio n s.
Defined benefit pension plans use p re ­
d eterm ined form ulas to c a lc u late a re tire ­
m en t b en efit (if any), and ob lig ate the e m ­
p lo y er to pro v id e th o se benefits. B enefits
are g enerally based on salary, years o f ser­
vice, o r both.
Defined contribution plans g e n erally
specify the level o f em p lo y er and em ployee
con trib u tio n s to a plan, bu t n o t the form ula
fo r determ in in g ev en tu a l benefits. Instead,
individual accounts are set up fo r p a rtic i­
p an ts, and b en efits are based on am ounts
cred ited to these accounts.
Tax-deferred savings plans are a type
o f defin ed con trib u tio n plan th a t allow p ar­
ticip an ts to co n trib u te a po rtio n o f th eir sal­
ary to an em p lo y er-sp o n so red p lan and d e­
fer incom e taxes until w ithdraw al.
Flexible benefit plans allo w em p lo y ees
to choose am ong several b en efits, such as
life insurance, m edical care, and v acation
days, and am ong several levels o f co verage
w ithin a given benefit.

Notes on the data
S u rv ey s o f e m p lo y e e s in m e d iu m and large
e s ta b lish m e n ts c o n d u c te d o v e r th e 1979—
86 p e rio d in c lu d e d e sta b lish m e n ts th a t em ­
p lo y e d a t le a s t 5 0 , 100, o r 2 5 0 w o rk e rs,
d e p e n d in g on th e in d u s try (m o st se rv ic e
in d u stries w ere ex clu d e d ). T h e su rv ey c o n ­
d u c te d in 1987 c o v e re d o n ly S ta te a n d lo ­
c al g o v e rn m e n ts w ith 50 o r m o re e m p lo y -

e e s. T h e su rv e y s c o n d u c te d in 1988 and
1989 in c lu d e d m ed iu m an d larg e e sta b lish ­
m e n ts w ith 100 w o rk e rs o r m o re in p riv a te
in d u s trie s. A ll su rv e y s c o n d u c te d o v e r th e
1 9 7 9 -8 9 p e rio d e x c lu d e d e s ta b lish m e n ts
in A la sk a an d H a w a ii, as w e ll as p a rt-tim e
e m p lo y e e s.
B eg in n in g in 1990, surveys o f State and
local go v ern m en ts and sm all priv ate esta b ­
lish m e n ts w e re c o n d u c te d in e v e n -n u m ­
b ered y e a rs, and su rv ey s o f m ed iu m and
large establishm ents w ere conducted in oddn u m b ered years. T he sm all e stab lish m en t
survey includes all p riv ate nonfarm esta b ­
lish m e n ts w ith fe w e r th a n 100 w o rk e rs,
w hile the S tate and local gov ern m en t sur­
vey includes all g o v ernm ents, reg ard less o f
the n u m b er o f w orkers. A ll three surveys in­
c lu d e fu ll- a n d p a rt-tim e w o rk e rs , an d
w o rk e rs in all 5 0 S tates and th e D istric t o f
C o lu m b ia.
F or additional information on th e
E m p lo y ee B en efits Survey, co n tac t the O f­
fice o f C o m p en satio n L evels and Trends on
the Internet:

http://www.bls.gov/ebs/

Notes on the data
T his series is not com parable w ith the one
term in ated in 1981 that covered strikes in­
volving six w orkers or m ore.
F or additional information on w ork
stoppages data, co n tac t the O ffice o f C o m ­
pen satio n and W orking C onditions: (202)
6 9 1 -6 2 8 2 , o r the Internet:

http :/www.bls.gov/cba/

Price Data
(T ables 2; 3 7 -4 7 )
P ric e d a ta a re g a th e r e d by th e B u re a u
o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s fro m re ta il a n d p r i­
m ary m arkets in the U nited States. Price in­
dexes are given in relation to a base period—
D ecem ber 2003 = 100 for m any P roducer
Price Indexes (unless otherw ise noted), 1982—
84 = 100 for m any C onsum er Price Indexes
(unless otherw ise noted), and 1990 = 100 for
International Price Indexes.

Consumer Price Indexes

Work stoppages

Description of the series

Description of the series

T he Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a m e a ­
sure o f the average change in the p rices paid
by urban consum ers fo r a fixed m arket b a s­
ket o f goods and services. T he CPI is ca lc u ­
lated m onthly fo r tw o po p u latio n groups,
one c o n sistin g o nly o f u rb an h o u se h o ld s
w hose prim ary source o f incom e is derived
from the em ploym ent o f w age earners and
clerical w orkers, and the o th er co nsisting o f
all urban households. T he w age earn er in ­
dex (CPi-W) is a co ntinuation o f the historic
index that w as introduced w ell o ver a halfcentury ago for use in w age negotiations.
A s new uses w ere developed fo r the cpi in
recent years, the need for a broader and m ore
rep resen tativ e index becam e apparent. T he
all-urban consum er index (CPI-U), introduced
in 1978, is rep resen tativ e o f the 1993-95
buying habits o f about 87 p ercent o f the noninstitutional po p u latio n o f the U nited S tates
at that tim e, com pared w ith 32 percen t rep ­
resen ted in the CPi-w. In addition to w age
earners and clerical w orkers, the CPI-U c o v ­
ers professional, m anagerial, and technical
w o rk e rs , th e s e lf-e m p lo y e d , sh o rt-te rm
w orkers, the unem ployed, retirees, and o th ­
ers not in the lab o r force.
T he cpi is b ased on p rices o f food, clo th ­
ing, shelter, fuel, drugs, transportation fares,
d o c to rs’ and d e n tists’ fees, and other goods
and services th at peo p le buy fo r day-to-day
liv in g . T he q u an tity and q u ality o f th ese
item s are k e p t esse n tia lly u n c h a n g e d be-

D ata on w ork stoppages m easure the n u m ­
b er and du ratio n o f m ajo r strikes o r lo c k ­
outs (involving 1,000 w orkers o r m ore) o c­
curring during the m onth (or year), the num ­
ber o f w orkers involved, and the am ount o f
w o rk tim e lost b ecause o f stoppage. T hese
data are p resen ted in tab le 36.
D ata are largely from a v ariety o f p u b ­
lish e d so u rc e s and c o v e r only e s ta b lis h ­
m ents directly involved in a stoppage. T hey
do n o t m easu re the in d irect o r secondary
effect o f stoppages on o th er establishm ents
w hose em p lo y ees are idle ow ing to m aterial
shortages o r lack o f service.

Definitions
Number of stoppages:

T he num ber o f
strikes and lockouts involving 1,000 w o rk ­
ers o r m ore and lasting a full shift o r longer.
Workers involved: T h e n u m b e r o f
w orkers directly involved in the stoppage.
Number of days idle: T h e aggregate
n u m b e r o f w o rk d ay s lo st by w o rk ers in ­
vo lv ed in the stoppages.

Days of idleness as a percent of estimated
working time: A ggregate w orkdays lost as a
percent o f the aggregate num ber o f standard
w orkdays in the period m ultiplied by total em ­
ploym ent in the period.


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tw e e n m a jo r re v isio n s so th a t o n ly p ric e
changes w ill be m easured. A ll taxes directly
a ss o c ia te d w ith th e p u rc h a s e an d u se o f
item s are included in the index.
D ata collected from m ore than 23,000 re ­
tail estab lish m en ts and 5 ,8 0 0 h o u sin g units
in 87 u rban areas across the country are used
to develop the “U .S. city a v e ra g e .” S eparate
estim ates for 14 m ajo r urban centers are p re ­
sented in table 38. T he areas listed are as in­
d icated in fo o tn o te 1 to the table. T he area
indexes m easure only the av erag e c h ange in
prices fo r each area since th e b ase period,
and do n o t indicate differen ces in the level
o f prices am ong cities.

Notes on the data
In January 1983, the B u reau chan g ed the
w ay in w h ic h h o m e o w n e rs h ip c o sts are
m eaured fo r the cpi-u . A ren tal eq u ivalence
m ethod replaced the a sset-p rice ap proach to
h o m e o w n e rs h ip c o sts fo r th a t s e rie s. In
January 1985, the sam e change w as m ade in
the CPi-w. T he central p urpose o f the change
w as to separate shelter costs from the invest­
m en t co m p o n en t o f hom eo w n ersh ip so that
the index w ould re flect only the c o st o f sh el­
te r serv ices p ro v id e d by o w n e r-o c c u p ie d
hom es. A n u p d ated cpi-u and cpi-w w ere
introduced w ith release o f the January 1987
and January 1998 data.
For additional information, co n tac t
the D ivision o f P rices and P ric e Indexes:
(202) 6 9 1 -7 0 0 0 .

Producer Price Indexes
Description of the series
Producer Price Indexes (PPi) m easure av ­
erage changes in p rices receiv ed by d o m e s­
tic p roducers o f co m m o d ities in all stages
o f p rocessing. T h e sam ple used fo r c alc u ­
lating these indexes currently contains about
3,200 com m odities and ab o u t 80,000 q u o ­
tations p er m onth, selected to rep resen t the
m o v em en t o f prices o f all co m m o d ities p ro ­
duced in the m anufacturing; agriculture, fo r­
estry, and fishing; m ining; and gas and e le c ­
tricity and public utilities sectors. T he stageo f-p ro c e s s in g s tru c tu re o f PPI o rg a n iz e s
products by class o f buyer and degree o f fab ­
ricatio n (that is, fin ish ed goods, in term ed i­
ate goods, and crude m aterials). T he tra d i­
tio n a l c o m m o d ity s tru c tu re o f PPI o rg a ­
n iz e s p ro d u c ts by s im ila rity o f e n d u se o r
m a te ria l c o m p o s itio n . T h e in d u s try a n d
p ro d u c t structure o f PPI organizes data in
accordance w ith the 2002 N orth A m erican In­
du stry C la ssific a tio n S y stem and p ro d u c t
codes developed by the U .S. C ensus Bureau.

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

73

Current Labor Statistics

To the ex ten t possible, prices used in c al­
culatin g P ro d u cer P rice Indexes apply to the
first sig n ifican t com m ercial transaction in
th e U n ited S tates from the p ro d u c tio n o r
central m ark etin g point. P rice data are g e n ­
erally c o llected m onthly, p rim arily by m ail
q u estio n n aire. M o st p rices are o b tained d i­
rectly from p ro d u cin g com panies on a v o l­
untary and con fid en tial basis. P rices gen er­
ally are reported fo r the T uesday o f the w eek
c o n tain in g the 13th day o f the m onth.
S ince Jan u ary 1992, p rice changes for
the various com m odities have been averaged
to g eth er w ith im plicit quantity w eights re p ­
resen tin g th eir im portance in the total net
selling valu e o f all co m m o d ities as o f 1987.
T he d etailed data are ag g reg ated to obtain
indexes fo r stag e-o f-p ro cessin g groupings,
c o m m o d ity gro u p in g s, d u rab ility -o f-p ro d uct groupings, and a nu m b er o f special co m ­
p osite groups. A ll P ro d u cer P rice Index data
are su b ject to rev isio n 4 m onths after o rig i­
nal publication.
For additional information, co n tac t
the D ivision o f Industrial P rices and P rice
Indexes: (202) 6 9 1 -7 7 0 5 .

International Price Indexes
Description of the series
T he International Price Program produces
m o n th ly and q u arterly ex p o rt and im p o rt
price indexes for nonm ilitary goods and ser­
vices trad ed betw een the U nited S tates and
th e re s t o f th e w o rld . T h e e x p o rt p ric e in ­
dex p ro v id e s a m e a su re o f p ric e c h a n g e
fo r a ll p ro d u c ts so ld by U .S . re s id e n ts to
fo re ig n b u y e rs . (“ R e s id e n ts ” is d e fin e d as
in th e n a tio n a l in c o m e a c c o u n ts ; it in ­
c lu d e s c o rp o ra tio n s , b u sin e sse s , an d in d i­
v id u a ls, b u t d o e s n o t re q u ire the o rg a n i­
z a tio n s to be U .S . o w n e d n o r the in d iv id u ­
als to h a v e U .S . c itiz e n s h ip .) T h e im p o rt
p ric e in d e x p ro v id e s a m e a su re o f p ric e
c h a n g e fo r g o o d s p u rc h a s e d fro m o th e r
c o u n trie s by U .S . re s id e n ts .
T he p ro d u ct universe fo r both the im port
and ex p o rt indexes includes raw m aterials,
ag ric u ltu ra l p ro d u cts, sem ifin ish ed m an u ­
factures, and finished m anufactures, includ­
ing both cap ital and consum er goods. P rice
data fo r these item s are collected prim arily
by m ail q u estio n n aire. In nearly all cases,
the d a ta are co llected directly from the ex ­
p o rte r o r im porter, although in a few cases,
prices are ob tain ed from o th er sources.
To the ex ten t p ossible, the data gathered
refer to p rices at the U .S. b o rd er fo r exports
an d at e ith e r th e fo re ig n b o rd e r o r the U .S.
b o rd e r fo r im p o rts. F o r n e a rly all p ro d ­
u cts, th e p ric e s re fe r to tra n sa c tio n s com -

74
Monthly Labor Review

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2004

p le te d d u rin g th e firs t w eek o f th e m o n th .
S u rv e y re s p o n d e n ts are a sk e d to in d ic a te
all d is c o u n ts, a llo w a n c e s, and re b a te s a p ­
p lic a b le to th e re p o rte d p ric e s, so th a t th e
p rice u sed in the c a lc u la tio n o f the in d ex es
is the a c tu a l p ric e fo r w h ich th e p ro d u c t
w as b o u g h t o r sold.
In addition to general indexes o f prices for
U .S. exports and im ports, indexes are also
published for detailed product categories o f
exports and im ports. These categories are de­
fined according to the five-digit level o f detail
for the Bureau o f Econom ic A nalysis End-use
Classification, the three-digit level for the Stan­
dard International Trade Classification (SITC),
and the four-digit level o f detail for the H ar­
m onized System. Aggregate im port indexes by
country or region o f origin are also available.

put to real input. A s such, they enco m p a ss a
fam ily o f m easures w h ich include sin g le ­
facto r input m easures, such as o u tp u t p er
hour, o utput p er un it o f labor input, o r o u t­
p u t p er un it o f cap ital input, as w ell as m e a ­
sures o f m u ltifacto r productivity (output per
un it o f co m bined lab o r and cap ital inputs).
T he B ureau indexes show the change in o u t­
put relative to changes in the various inputs.
T he m easures co v er the business, nonfarm
business, m anufacturing, and no n fin an cial
co rp o rate sectors.
C o rre s p o n d in g in d e x e s o f h o u rly c o m ­
p e n sa tio n , u n it la b o r c o sts, u n it n o n la b o r
p a y m e n ts, an d p ric e s are a lso p ro v id e d .

bls publishes indexes for selected cat­
egories o f internationally traded services,
calculated on an international basis and on
a balance-of-payments basis.

Output per hour of all persons (lab o r p ro ­
ductivity) is the quantity o f g o od s and ser­
vices produced per h our o f labor input. Out­
put per unit of capital services (capital p ro ­
ductivity) is the qu an tity o f good s and ser­
vices pro d u ced p er un it o f cap ital services
input. Multifactor productivity is the q uan­
tity o f goods and services produced per com ­
bined inputs, F o r priv ate b u sin ess and p ri­
vate nonfarm business, inputs include labor
and capital units. F o r m anufacturing, inputs
include labor, capital, energy, n onenergy m a­
terials, and p u rchased b u sin ess services.
Compensation per hour is total com pen­
sation d iv id ed by hours at w ork. T otal c o m ­
p en satio n equals the w ages and salaries o f
em ployees plus e m p lo y ers’ contributions for
social insurance and priv ate b en efit plans,
plus an estim ate o f these p ay m en ts fo r the
self-em ployed (ex cep t fo r n o n fin an cial co r­
p o ra tio n s in w h ich th ere are no se lf-e m ­
ployed). Real compensation per hour is
c o m p e n s a tio n p e r h o u r d e fla te d by th e
change in the C o n su m er P rice Index fo r A ll
U rban C onsum ers.
Unit labor costs are th e la b o r c o m p e n ­
sa tio n c o sts e x p e n d e d in th e p ro d u c tio n
o f a u n it o f o u tp u t and are d eriv ed by d iv id ­
ing com pensation by output. Unit nonlabor
payments in c lu d e p ro fits , d e p re c ia tio n ,
interest, and in d ire c t ta x e s p e r u n it o f o u t­
p u t. T h e y are c o m p u te d by s u b tra c tin g
c o m p e n s a tio n o f all p e rso n s fro m c u rre n td o lla r v a lu e o f o u tp u t an d d iv id in g by o u t­
p u t.
Unit nonlabor costs c o n ta in a ll th e
co m ponents o f unit n o n lab o r p ay m en ts ex ­
cep t un it profits.
Unit profits in c lu d e c o rp o ra te p ro fits
w ith in v e n to ry v a lu a tio n an d c a p ita l c o n ­
su m p tio n a d ju s tm e n ts p e r u n it o f o u tp u t.
Hours of all persons are the total hours
at w ork o f payroll w orkers, self-em p lo y ed
persons, and unpaid fam ily w orkers.

Notes on the data
T he e x p o rt and im p o rt p ric e in d ex es are
w eighted indexes o f the L aspeyres type. T he
trad e w eig h ts c u rre n tly u sed to co m p u te
both indexes relate to 2000.
B ecau se a p ric e index d ep en d s on the
sam e item s being priced from period to p e ­
rio d , it is n ecessary to re c o g n iz e w hen a
p ro d u c t’s specifications or term s o f tran sac­
tion have been m odified. F o r this reason, the
B u reau ’s questionnaire requests detailed de­
scrip tio n s o f th e p h y sic a l and fu n c tio n a l
ch aracteristics o f the p roducts being priced,
as w ell as inform ation on the num ber o f units
bought or sold, discounts, credit terms, pack­
aging, class o f buyer or seller, and so forth.
W hen there are changes in either the specifi­
cations or term s o f transaction o f a product,
the dollar value o f each change is deleted from
the total price change to obtain the “p ure”
change. O nce this value is determ ined, a link­
ing procedure is em ployed w hich allows for
the continued repricing o f the item.
For additional information, co n tac t
the D ivision o f International P rices: (202)
6 9 1 -7 1 5 5 .

Productivity D ata
(T ables 2; 4 8 -5 1 )

Business and major sectors
Description of the series
T he productivity m easures relate real o u t­

Definitions

Labor inputs are hours o f all persons ad­
ju s te d for the effects o f ch an g es in the ed u ­
catio n and ex p erien ce o f the lab o r force.
Capital services are the flow o f services
from the c ap ital stock used in p roduction. It
is d ev elo p e d from m easures o f the n et stock
o f p h y sical assets— equipm ent, structures,
land, and inventories— w eig h ted by rental
p rices fo r each type o f asset.

force; cap ital investm ent; level o f output;
changes in the u tilization o f capacity, e n ­
ergy, m aterial, and research and d e v e lo p ­
m ent; the o rganization o f production; m an a­
gerial skill; and characteristics and efforts
o f the w ork force.
F or additional information on this
productivity series, contact the D ivision o f
P roductivity R esearch: (202) 6 9 1 -5 6 0 6 .

ducing that output. Combined inputs in­
clude capital, labor, and interm ediate p u r­
chases. T he m easure o f capital input re p ­
resen ts the flow o f services from the capital
stock used in pro d u ctio n . It is dev elo p e d
from m easures o f the n et stock o f p hysical
assets— equipm ent, structures, land, and in­
v en to ries. T he m e a su re o f intermediate
purchases is a c o m b in atio n o f pu rch ased
m aterials, services, fuels, and electricity.

Industry productivity
measures

Notes on the data

Combined units of labor and capital
inputs are d eriv ed by com bining changes in
labor and c ap ital input w ith w eights w hich
re p re se n t e ach c o m p o n e n t’s share o f total
cost. C om bined units o f labor, capital, energy,
m aterials, and purchased business services are
sim ilarly derived by com bining changes in
each input w ith w eights that represent each
input’s share o f total costs. T he indexes for
each input and for com bined units are based
on changing weights w hich are averages o f the
shares in the current and preceding year (the
T om quist index-num ber form ula).

Notes on the data
B u s in e s s s e c to r o u tp u t is an a n n u a lly w e ig h te d index c o n stru c te d by e x clu d in g
from real gross dom estic p ro d u ct (GDP) the
follow ing outputs: general governm ent, non­
profit institutions, p aid em ployees o f private
hou seh o ld s, and the rental v alu e o f ow nero ccupied d w ellings. N onfarm business also
ex clu d e s farm ing. P riv ate business and p ri­
vate nonfarm business fu rth er exclude g o v ­
e rn m en t enterprises. T he m easures are su p ­
plied by the U .S. D epartm ent o f C om m erce’s
B ureau o f E conom ic A nalysis. A nnual esti­
m ates o f m an u factu rin g sectoral o u tp u t are
p ro d u ced by the B ureau o f L ab o r Statistics.
Q u a rte rly m a n u fa c tu rin g o u tp u t in d e x e s
from the F ederal R eserve B oard are adjusted
to these annual o u tp u t m easures by the BLS.
C o m pensation data are d eveloped from data
o f the B ureau o f E conom ic A nalysis and the
B ureau o f L ab o r S tatistics. H ours data are
dev elo p e d from data o f the B ureau o f L abor
S tatistics.
T h e p ro d u c tiv ity an d a s s o c ia te d c o st
m easures in tables 4 8 -5 1 describe the re la ­
tionship betw een o u tp u t in real term s and
the labor and cap ital inputs involved in its
production. T hey show the changes from p e­
rio d to period in the am o u n t o f goods and
services p ro d u ced p er un it o f input.
A lthough these m easures relate o u tp u t to
hours and cap ital services, they do not m e a ­
sure the co n trib u tio n s o f labor, capital, or
any o th e r s p e c ific fa c to r o f p ro d u c tio n .
R ather, they re flect the jo in t effect o f m any
in flu en ces, in c lu d in g ch an g es in te c h n o l­
ogy; shifts in the com position o f the labor


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Description of the series
T he bls industry productivity indexes m e a ­
sure the re la tio n sh ip b etw een o u tp u t and
inputs fo r selected industries and industry
groups, and thus re flect trends in industry
efficiency o ver tim e. Industry m easures in ­
clu d e lab o r pro d u ctiv ity , m u ltifa c to r p ro ­
d u c tiv ity , c o m p e n s a tio n , a n d u n it la b o r
costs.
T he industry m easures d iffer in m eth ­
odology and data sources from the pro d u c­
tiv ity m easu res fo r the m ajo r secto rs b e ­
cause the industry m easures are d eveloped
independently o f the N ational Incom e and
P ro d u ct A ccounts fram ew ork used fo r the
m ajor sector m easures.

T he industry m easures are c o m p iled from
data p ro d u ced by the B u reau o f L a b o r S ta­
tistics and the C ensus B u reau , w ith a d d i­
tional data su p p lied by o th e r g o v ern m en t
a g e n c ie s , tra d e a s s o c ia tio n s , a n d o th e r
sources.
FORADDITIONAL INFORMATION on this se­
ries, co n tac t the D ivision o f Industry P ro ­
ductiv ity S tudies: (202) 6 9 1 -5 6 1 8 .

International Com parisons
(Tables 5 2 -5 4 )

Labor force and
unemployment
Description of the series

Definitions
Output per hour is derived by dividing an
index o f industry o u tp u t by an index o f la ­
b o r input. F or m ost industries, output in­
dexes are d erived from data on the value o f
industry o utput adjusted for price change.
F o r the rem aining industries, output indexes
are derived from data on the physical qu an ­
tity o f production.
T he labor input series is b ased on the
hours o f all w orkers or, in the case o f som e
transportation industries, on the nu m b er o f
em ployees. F or m o st industries, the series
consists o f the hours o f all em ployees. F or
som e trade and services industries, the se­
ries also includes the hours o f partners, p ro ­
prietors, and unpaid fam ily w orkers.
Unit labor costs re p re s e n t th e la b o r
c o m p e n sa tio n c o sts p e r u n it o f o u tp u t p ro ­
duced, and are derived by dividing an index
o f labor co m pensation by an index o f o u t­
put. Labor compensation includes payroll
as w ell as supplem ental paym ents, includ­
ing both legally req u ired expenditures and
paym ents for voluntary program s.
Multifactor productivity is derived by
dividing an index o f industry o u tp u t by an
index o f com bined inputs consum ed in pro-

T ables 52 and 53 p resen t com parative m eas­
ures o f the lab o r force, e m p lo y m en t, and
u n e m p lo y m e n t a p p ro x im a tin g U .S . c o n ­
cepts fo r the U nited S tates, C anada, A u stra­
lia, Japan, and six E u ro p ean countries. T he
labor force statistics published by other indus­
trial countries are not, in m ost cases, com pa­
rable to U .S. concepts. Therefore, the B ureau
adjusts the figures for selected countries, for
all known m ajor definitional differences, to the
extent that data to prepare adjustm ents are
available. A lthough precise com parability may
not be achieved, these adjusted figures pro­
vide a better basis for international com pari­
sons than the figures regularly published by
each country. F or further inform ation on ad­
ju s tm e n ts an d c o m p a ra b ility is su e s, see
C onstance Sorrentino, “International unem ­
ploym ent rates: how com parable are they?”
M onthly L abor Review, June 2000, pp. 3 -2 0
(a v a ila b le on the BLS W eb site at http://

w w w .bls.gov/opub/m lr/2000/06/
artlfulLpdf).

Definitions
F o r the principal U .S. defin itio n s o f the la ­
b o r force, em ploym ent, and unem ploym ent,
see the N otes section on E m p lo y m en t and

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Current Labor Statistics

U n e m p lo y m e n t D ata: H o u se h o ld su rv ey
data.

Notes on the data
The fo re ig n c o u n try d a ta are a d ju s te d as
closely as possible to U.S. concepts, w ith the
exception o f low er age limits and the treatm ent
o f layoffs. T hese adjustm ents include, but are
not lim ited to: including older persons in the
labor force by im posing no upper age limit,
a d d in g u n e m p lo y e d s tu d e n ts to th e
unem ployed, excluding the military and family
w orkers w orking few er than 15 hours from the
em ployed, and excluding persons engaged in
passive jo b search from the unem ployed.
D ata for the U n ited S tates relate to the
population 16 years o f age and older. The U.S.
co ncept o f the w orking age population has
no u p p e r age lim it. T he a d ju ste d to U .S.
concepts statistics have been adapted, insofar
as possible, to the age at w hich com pulsory
sc h o o lin g e n d s in e a c h co u n try , an d the
S w e d ish s ta tistic s h av e b e e n a d ju s te d to
include persons older than the S w edish upper
age lim it o f 64 years. T he adjusted statistics
p resen ted here relate to the population 16
years o f age and o lder in France, Sw eden,
and the U nited K ingdom ; 15 years o f age and
older in A ustralia, Japan, G erm any, Italy, and
the N etherlands. A n exception to this rule is
th at the C anadian statistics are adjusted to
c o v e r the p o p u latio n 16 years o f age and
older, w hereas the age at w hich com pulsory
schooling ends rem ains at 15 years. In the labor
force p a rticip atio n rates and em ploym entp o p u la tio n ra tio s, th e d e n o m in a to r is the
c iv ilia n n o n in s titu tio n a liz e d w o rk in g age
population, except that the institutionalized
w orking age population is included in Japan
and Germ any.
In th e U n ite d S ta te s, th e u n e m p lo y e d
include persons w ho are not em ployed and
w ho w ere actively seeking w ork during the
reference period, as w ell as persons on layoff.
P ersons w aiting to start a new jo b w ho w ere
actively seeking w ork during the reference
period are counted as unem ployed under U.S.
concepts; if they w ere not actively seeking
w ork, they are not counted in the labor force.
In som e c o u n trie s, p e rso n s on la y o ff are
classified as em ployed due to their strong jo b
attachm ent. N o adjustm ent is m ade for the
c o u n trie s th a t c la ssify th o se on la y o ff as
em ployed. In the U nited States, as in A ustralia
and Japan, passive jo b seekers are not in the
labor force; jo b search m ust be active, such
as p la c in g o r a n sw e rin g a d v e rtise m e n ts ,
contacting em ployers directly,or registering
w ith an em ploym ent agency (sim ply reading
ads is n ot enough to qualify as active search).
C anada and the E uropean countries classify

76
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p a s s iv e jo b s e e k e r s as u n e m p lo y e d . A n
adjustm ent is m ade to exclude them in Canada,
but not in the E uropean countries w here the
phenom enon is less prevalent. Persons waiting
to start a new jo b are co unted am ong the
unem ployed for all other countries, w hether
or not they w ere actively seeking work.
T he figures for one or m ore recent years
for France, G erm any, and the N etherlands are
calculated using adjustm ent factors based on
labor force surveys for earlier years and are
c o n sid e re d p re lim in a ry . T h e re c e n t y e a r
m easures for these countries are therefore
subject to revision w henever m ore current
labor force surveys becom e available.
T here are breaks in series for the U nited
States (1 9 9 4 ,1 9 9 7 ,1 9 9 8 ,1 9 9 9 ,2 0 0 0 ,2 0 0 3 ),
A ustralia (2001), and G erm any (1999).
F or the U nited States, beginning in 1994,
data are not strictly com parable for prior years
b e c a u s e o f th e in tro d u c tio n o f a m a jo r
redesign o f the labor force survey question­
n a ire a n d c o lle c tio n m e th o d o lo g y . T h e
redesign effect has been estim ated to increase
th e o v e r a ll u n e m p lo y m e n t r a te by 0.1
percentage point. O ther breaks noted relate
to changes in population controls that had
virtually no effect on unem ploym ent rates.
F or a description o f all the changes in the
U .S. labor force survey over tim e and their
im pact, see H istorical C om parability in the
“ H ousehold D ata” section o f the bls p ubli­
cation Em ploym ent and Earnings (available
on the bls W eb site at http://www.bls.gov/

F or additional information o n th is
s e rie s , c o n ta c t th e D iv is io n o f F o re ig n
L a b o r S ta t is ti c s : (2 0 2 ) 6 9 1 - 5 6 5 4 o r

flshelp@bls.gov

Manufacturing productivity
and labor costs
Description of the series
T able 5 4 p resen ts co m p arativ e indexes o f
m anufacturing labor productivity (output per
hour), output, total hours, com pensation per
hour, and unit labor costs for the U nited States,
Canada, Japan, and nine E uropean countries.
These m easures are trend com parisons— that
is, series that m easure changes over tim e—
rather than level comparisons. There are greater
technical problem s in com paring the levels o f
m anufacturing output am ong countries.
bls constructs the co m p arativ e indexes
from three basic aggregate m easures— o u t­
put, total lab o r hours, and total c o m p en sa­
tion. T he hours and com pensation m easures
refer to all em ployed persons (w age and sal­
ary earners plus self-em p lo y ed p erso n s and
unpaid fam ily w orkers) in the U nited States,
C anada, Japan, F rance, G erm any, N orw ay,
and Sw eden, and to all em ployees (w age and
salary earners) in the o th er countries.

Definitions

cps/eetech_me thods.pdf).
F or A ustralia, the 2001 break reflects the
introduction in A pril 2001 o f a redesigned
labor force survey that allow ed for a closer
a p p lic a tio n o f In te rn a tio n a l L a b o r O ffice
guidelines for the definitions o f labor force
statistics. T he A ustralian B ureau o f Statistics
revised their data so there is no break in the
em ploym ent series. H ow ever, the reclassi­
fic a tio n o f p e rso n s w ho h ad n o t activ ely
looked for w ork because they were w aiting to
begin a new jo b from “not in the labor force”
to “unem ployed” could only be incorporated
for A pril 2001 forward. This reclassification
d iv e rg e s fro m th e U .S . d e fin itio n w h ere
persons w aiting to start a new jo b but not
actively seeking w ork are not counted in the
labor force. The im pact o f the reclassification
w as an increase in the unem ploym ent rate by
0.1 percentage point in 2001.
F or G erm any, the 1999 break reflects the
incorporation o f an im proved m ethod o f data
c a lc u la tio n an d a c h a n g e in c o v e ra g e to
persons living in private households only.
F o r further qualifications and h istorical
data, see C om parative Civilian L abor Force
Statistics, Ten Countries, on the BLS W eb site
at http .7/www.bls.gov/fls/flslforc.pdf

Output, in g eneral, refers to value added in
m an ufacturing from the natio n al accounts
o f each country. H ow ever, the o u tp u t se­
ries fo r Japan p rio r to 1970 is an index o f
industrial pro d u ctio n , and the natio n al ac­
counts m easures fo r the U n ited K ingdom
are essentially id en tical to th e ir indexes o f
industrial production.
T he 1 9 7 7 -9 7 o u tp u t data fo r the U n ited
S tates are th e g ro ss p ro d u c t o rig in a tin g
(v alu e a d d ed ) m e a su re s p re p a re d by the
B ureau o f E conom ic A n aly sis o f the U .S.
D e p a rtm e n t o f C o m m e rc e . C o m p a ra b le
m anufacturing output data currently are not
available p rio r to 1977.
U .S. gross pro d u ct originating is a chaintype an n u al-w eig h ted series. (F or m ore in­
form ation on the U .S. m easure, see R o b ert
E. Yuskavage, “ Im proved E stim ates o f G ross
P ro d u ct by Industry, 1 9 5 9 -9 4 ,” Survey o f
Current B usiness, A u g u st 1996, pp. 133—
55.) The Japanese value added series is based
upon one set o f fix ed price w eights fo r the
years 1970 th ro u g h 1997. O u tp u t series for
the o th e r fo reig n e co n o m ies also em p lo y
fixed price w eights, but the w eig h ts are up­
dated periodically (for exam ple, every 5 o r 10
years).

To preserve the com parability o f the U.S.
m easures w ith those fo r o th er econom ies,
BLS uses gross p ro d u ct originating in m an u ­
facturing for the U nited States for these com ­
p arativ e m easures. T he gross p ro d u ct orig i­
nating series differs from the m an u factu r­
ing o u tp u t series th at b l s pu b lish es in its
new s releases on quarterly m easures o f U .S.
productivity and costs (and that underlies the
m easu res th at a p p ear in tables 48 and 50 in
this section). T h e quarterly m easures are on
a “ sectoral output” basis, rather than a valuead ded basis. S ectoral o u tp u t is gross output
less in trasec to r transactions.
Total labor hours refers to hours w orked
in all co u n tries. T he m easures are d ev el­
oped from statistics o f m anu factu rin g em ­
ploym ent and average hours. T he series used
fo r F ran ce (from 1970 forw ard), N orw ay,
and Sw eden are official series p ublished w ith
the natio n al accounts. W here official total
h o u rs series are n o t available, the m easures
are developed by b l s using em ploym ent fig­
ures p u b lish ed w ith the national accounts,
o r o th er co m p reh en siv e e m p lo y m en t series,
and estim ates o f annual hours w orked. F or
G erm an y , b l s u se s e stim a te s o f a v e ra g e
hours w o rk ed d ev elo p e d by a research in ­
stitu te co n n ected to the M inistry o f L abor
fo r use w ith the n atio n al accounts e m p lo y ­
m en t figures. F o r the o th er countries, BLS
c o n s tru c ts its o w n e stim a te s o f a v e ra g e
hours.
A n h o u rs series is n o t availab le for D e n ­
m a rk a fte r 1993; th e re fo re , the BLS m e a ­
su re o f la b o r in p u t fo r D e n m a rk en d s in
1993.
Total compensation (labor cost) in ­
cludes all p ay m en ts in cash o r in-kind m ade
directly to em ployees plus e m p lo y er ex p en ­
ditures fo r legally req u ired insurance p ro ­
gram s and con tractu al and priv ate benefit
plans. T he m easures are from the national
acco u n ts o f each country, ex cep t those for
B elgium , w h ich are dev elo p e d by BLS using
statistics on em ploym ent, average hours, and
hourly co m p en satio n . F o r C anada, F rance,
and S w eden, com p en satio n is increased to
acco u n t fo r o th er sig n ifican t taxes on p a y ­
roll o r em ploym ent. F o r the U n ited K in g ­
dom , com pensation is reduced betw een 1967
and 1991 to account for em ploym ent-related
su b sid ie s. S e lf-e m p lo y e d w o rk ers are in ­
cluded in the all-em ployed-persons m easures
by assum ing th at th eir h ourly com pensation
is equal to the av erage fo r w age and salary
em ployees.

Notes on the data
In general, the m easures relate to total m anu­
fa c tu rin g as d e fin e d by the In te rn a tio n a l


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Standard Industrial C lassification. H ow ever,
the m easures for F rance (for all years) and
Italy (beginning in 1970) refer to m ining and
m anufacturing less en ergy-related products,
and the m easures for D enm ark include m in ­
ing and exclude m anufacturing h andicrafts
from 1960 to 1966.
T he m easures fo r recen t years m ay be
based on current indicators o f m an u factu r­
ing o u tp u t (such as industrial production in ­
d e x e s), e m p lo y m e n t, a v e ra g e h o u rs, and
hourly com pensation until national accounts
and o th er statistics u sed for the long-term
m easures becom e available.
F o r a d d i t i o n a l in f o r m a t i o n on this se­
ries, contact the D ivision o f F oreign L abor
S tatistics: (202) 6 9 1 -5 6 5 4 .

Occupational Injury
and Illness Data
(T ables 5 5 -5 6 )

Survey of Occupational
Injuries and Illnesses
Description of the series
T he Survey o f O ccupational Injuries and Ill­
nesses collects data from em ployers about
their w orkers’ job-related nonfatal injuries and
illnesses. The inform ation that em ployers pro­
vide is based on records that they m aintain un­
der the O ccupational Safety and H ealth A ct o f
1970. Self-em ployed individuals, farm s w ith
few er than 11 em ployees, em ployers regulated
by other Federal safety and health laws, and
Federal, State, and local governm ent agencies
are excluded from the survey.
T he survey is a F ederal-S tate co o p era­
tive program w ith an ind ep en d en t sam ple
selected fo r each participating State. A strati­
fied random sam ple w ith a N eym an allo ca­
tion is selected to rep resen t all private in­
dustries in the State. T he survey is stratified
by S tan d ard In d u stria l C la ssific a tio n and
size o f em ploym ent.

Definitions
U n d er the O ccupational Safety and H ealth
A ct, em ployers m aintain records o f n o n fa­
tal w ork-related injuries and illnesses that
involve one o r m ore o f the follow ing: loss
o f consciousness, restrictio n o f w ork or m o ­
tio n , tra n s fe r to a n o th e r jo b , o r m e d ic a l
treatm en t o th er than first aid.

Occupational injury is any injury su ch
as a cut, fractu re, sprain, o r am p u tatio n th at
re s u lts fro m a w o rk -re la te d e v e n t o r a
single, in sta n ta n e o u s ex p o su re in th e w o rk
e n v iro n m en t.
Occupational illness is an abnorm al con­
dition or disorder, other than one resulting
from an occupational injury, caused by ex ­
posure to factors asso ciate d w ith em p lo y ­
m ent. It includes acute and chronic illnesses
or disease w hich m ay be caused by inhala­
tion, absorption, ingestion, o r d irect contact.
Lost workday injuries and illnesses are
cases that involve days aw ay from w ork, or
days o f restricted w ork activity, o r both.
Lost workdays include the nu m b er o f
w orkdays (consecutive o r not) on w hich the
em ployee w as either aw ay from w ork or at
w ork in som e restricted capacity, o r both, b e­
cause o f an occupational injury or illness, b l s
m easures o f the num ber and incidence rate
o f lost w orkdays w ere discontinued begin­
ning w ith the 1993 survey. T he n um ber o f
days aw ay from w ork or days o f restricted
w ork activity does not include the day o f in­
ju ry or onset o f illness o r any days on w hich
the em ployee w ould not have w orked, such
as a F ed eral holiday, even th o u g h able to
w ork.
Incidence rates are c o m p u te d as the
n u m b er o f injuries an d /o r illnesses o r lost
w ork days p er 100 fu ll-tim e w orkers.

Notes on the data
T he d efin itio n s o f occu p atio n al inju ries and
illn e sse s are fro m R ecordkeepin g G u id e­
lin es f o r O c c u p a tio n a l In ju ries a n d I ll­
nesses (U .S. D ep artm en t o f L abor, B ureau
o f L ab o r S tatistics, S ep tem b er 1986).
Estim ates are m ade for industries and em ­
p lo y m en t size classes fo r total reco rd ab le
cases, lost w orkday cases, days aw ay from
w ork cases, and nonfatal cases w ithout lost
w orkdays. T hese data also are show n sepa­
rately for injuries. Illness data are available for
seven categories: occupational skin diseases
or disorders, dust diseases o f the lungs, respi­
ratory conditions due to toxic agents, poison­
ing (system ic effects o f toxic agents), disor­
ders due to physical agents (other than toxic
m aterials), disorders associated w ith repeated
traum a, and all other occupational illnesses.
The survey continues to m easure the num ­
ber o f new w ork-related illness cases w hich
are recognized, diagnosed, and reported dur­
ing the year. Som e conditions, for exam ple,
long-term latent illnesses caused by exposure
to carcinogens, often are difficult to relate to
the w orkplace and are not adequately recog­
nized and reported. These long-term latent ill-

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Current Labor Statistics

nesses are believed to be understated in the
survey’s illness measure. In contrast, the over­
w helm ing m ajority o f the reported new ill­
nesses are those w hich are easier to directly
relate to w orkplace activity (for exam ple, con­
tact derm atitis and carpal tunnel syndrom e).
M ost o f the estim ates are in the form o f
incidence rates, defined as the num ber o f in­
ju ries and illnesses p er 100 equivalent full­
tim e w orkers. F o r this purpose, 200,000 em ­
ployee hours represent 100 em ployee years
(2,000 hours p er em ployee). Full detail on
the available m easures is presented in the an­
nual bulletin, O ccupational Injuries and Ill­
nesses: Counts, R ates, an d C haracteristics.
C om parable data for m ore than 40 States
and territories are available from the BLS O f­
fice o f Safety, H ealth and W orking C o n d i­
tions. M any o f these States publish data on
State and local governm ent em ployees in ad­
dition to private industry data.
M ining and railroad data are furnished to
BLS by the M ine Safety and H ealth A dm inis­
tration and the Federal Railroad A dm inistra­
tion. D ata from these organizations are in­
cluded in both the national and State data pub­
lished annually.
W ith the 1992 survey, b l s began publish­
ing details on serious, nonfatal incidents re­
sulting in days aw ay from w ork. Included are
som e m ajor characteristics o f the injured and
ill w orkers, such as occupation, age, gender,
race, and length o f service, as well as the cir­
cum stances o f their injuries and illnesses (na­
ture o f the disabling condition, part o f body
affected, event and exposure, and the source
directly producing the condition). In general,
these data are available nationwide for detailed

78
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industries and for individual States at m ore
aggregated industry levels.
F o r a d d i t i o n a l in f o r m a t io n on occupa­
tional injuries and illnesses, contact the O f­
fic e o f O c c u p a tio n a l S afety , H e a lth an d
W orking C onditions at (202) 6 9 1 -6 1 8 0 , or
access the In tern et at:

http://www.bls.gov/iify

Census of Fatal
Occupational Injuries
T he C ensus o f F atal O ccu p atio n al Injuries
com piles a com plete ro ster o f fatal jo b -re ­
lated injuries, including detailed data about
the fa ta lly in ju re d w o rk ers and th e fatal
e v e n ts . T h e p ro g ra m c o lle c ts an d c ro ss
ch eck s fatality in form ation from m ultiple
sources, including d eath certificates, State
and Federal w o rk e rs’ com pensation reports,
O ccupational Safety and H ealth A dm inistra­
tion and M ine Safety and H ealth A dm inis­
tration records, m edical ex am in er and au ­
topsy reports, m edia accounts, S tate m otor
vehicle fatality records, and follow -up q u es­
tionnaires to em ployers.
In a d d itio n to p riv a te w a g e an d sa la ry
w o rk e rs, th e s e lf-e m p lo y e d , fa m ily m e m ­
b e rs , an d F e d e ra l, S ta te , a n d lo c a l g o v ­
e rn m e n t w o rk e rs are c o v e re d by th e p ro ­
g ra m . To b e in c lu d e d in th e fa ta lity c e n ­
su s , th e d e c e d e n t m u s t h a v e b e e n e m ­
p lo y e d (th a t is w o rk in g fo r p ay, c o m p e n ­
s a tio n , o r p ro fit) a t th e tim e o f th e e v e n t,
e n g a g e d in a le g a l w o rk a c t i v i t y , o r
p re s e n t at th e site o f th e in c id e n t as a r e ­
q u ire m e n t o f h is o r h e r jo b .

Definition
A fatal work injury is any intentional o r un­
intentional w ound o r dam age to the b ody re­
sulting in death from acute exposure to energy,
such as heat or electricity, or kinetic energy
from a crash, or from the absence o f such es­
sentials as heat or oxygen caused by a specific
event or incident or series o f events w ithin a
single w orkday or shift. Fatalities that occur
during a p erson’s com m ute to o r from w ork
are excluded from the census, as w ell as w orkre la te d illn e s s e s , w h ic h c a n be d if fic u lt
to identify due to long latency periods.

Notes on the data
T w enty-eight data elem en ts are co llected ,
coded, and tabulated in the fatality program ,
including in form ation about the fatally in ­
ju re d w orker, the fatal incident, and the m a­
ch in ery o r eq u ip m en t involved. S um m ary
w orker d em ographic data and ev en t ch a ra c ­
teristics are included in a national new s re ­
lease th at is available about 8 m onths after
the end o f the referen ce year. T he C ensus o f
F atal O ccupational In ju ries w as in itiated in
1992 as a jo in t F ed eral-S ta te effort. M ost
S tates issu e su m m ary in fo rm a tio n a t the
tim e o f the national new s release.
F o r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the
C ensus o f Fatal O ccupational Injuries con­
tact the b l s O ffice o f Safety, H ealth, and
W orking C onditions at (202) 6 9 1 -6 1 7 5 , or
the Internet at:

http://www.bls.gov/iii/

1. Labor market indicators
2002

2003

1

IV

III

II

1

IV

III

II

I

2004

2003

2002
Selected indicators
E m p lo y m e n t d a ta

Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional
population (household survey):1
Labor force participation rate..........................................................
Employment-population ratio..........................................................

66.6
62.7

66.2
62.3

66.6
62.8

Unemployment rate.........................................................................

5.8
5.9
12.8
4.7

6.0
6.3
13.4

5.6
5.7
12.9

Men................................................................................................
16 to 24 years..............................................................................
25 years and older......................................................................
Women..........................................................................................
16 to 24 years.............................................................................
25 years and older......................................................................

5.6
11.1
4.6

4.5

5.0
5.7
11.4

5.5
11.0
4.4

4.6

66.1

66.0

62.3

62.2
5.6
5.7
12.5

5.1

5.9
6.1
13.1
4.9

5.8
11.5
4.7

5.6
10.9
4.6

5.6
11.1
4.5

66.7

66.6

66.5

62.8

62.5

66.3
62.4

66.4

62.8
5.9
6.0
12.8
4.8

5.8
5.9
13.1
4.7

5.9
6.1
12.5
4.9

5.8
6.1
12.6
5.0

6.1
6.5
14.0
5.2

6.1
6.4
13.8

5.7

5.6
10.9
4.6

5.5
11.2
4.5

5.7

11.2
4.8

5.7
11.4
4.6

62.3

11.8
4.6

66.2
62.1

4.5

Employment, nonfarm (payroll data), in thousands:1
130,005
108,457

130,327

21,677

21,706

14,570

21,718
14,410

14,337

14,311

108,030

108,102

108,328

108,621

130,389
108,895

130,287

130,248
108,654

130,047

129,878

129,820

108,736

108,428

108,309

108,260

22,466
15,197

22,252
14,979

22,025

21,848

15,504

22,638
15,347

14,775

107,581

107,751

107,821

107,995

108,022

130,341

129,932

130,448

108,828

108,356

109,046

Goods-producing.......................................................................

22,557

22,867

Manufacturing.........................................................................

15,259

21,817
14,524

Service-providing.......................................................................

107,789

108,115

108,780

Average hours:
Total private...................................................................................
Manufacturing.............................................................................

33.9
40.5

33.7
40.4

Overtime...................................................................................

4.2

4.2

33.8

33.9

40.3
4.0

40.6

33.9
40.4

33.8
40.4

33.8
40.4

4.3

4.3

4.2

4.2

33.7
40.2
4.1

33.6
40.2
4.1

33.7
40.6
4.4

33.8
41.0
4.6

E m p lo y m e n t C o s t In d e x 2

Percent change in the ECI, compensation:
All workers (excluding farm, household and Federal workers)....

3.4

3.8

1.0

1.7

.8

1.0

.5
.4

1.4

1.1

.6
.4

1.1

4.0

.9
.6

.8

3.2

.9
1.1

1.4

Private industry workers...............................................................
Goods-producing3....................................................................

3.7

4.0

1.2

.9

.6

.9

1.8

.9

.7

.5

2.3

Service-providing3...................................................................
State and local government workers

3.1
4.1

4.0
3.3

1.1
.6

1.2
.4

.6
2.2

.2
.9

1.5
.7

.8
.4

1.1
1.7

.5
.5

1.1
.7

Workers by bargaining status (private industry):
Union...............................................................................................

4.2

4.6
3.9

1.0
1.1

.9
.4

1.6
1.6

1.2

3.2

1.1
1.1

1.2

Nonunion.........................................................................................

1.0
1.0

.7
.4

2.8
1.3

.5

.8

1.5

1 Quarterly data seasonally adjusted.

No te : Beginning in January 2003, household survey data reflect revised population

2 Annual changes are December-to-December changes. Quarterly changes are calculated

controls. Nonfarm data reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the North American

using the last month of each quarter.
3 Goods-producing industries include mining, construction, and manufacturing. Service­

Industry Classification System (NAICS), replacing the Standard Industrial Classification <sic>
system. NAics-based data by industry are not comparable with sic-based data.

providing industries include all other private sector industries.


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79

Current Labor Statistics:

Comparative Indicators

2. Annual and quarterly percent changes in compensation, prices, and productivity
Selected m easures

2002

2003

2002

I

II

2003
III

IV

I

II

2004
III

IV

I

C o m p e n s a t io n d a t a 1,2

Employment Cost Index— compensation (wages,
salaries, benefits):
Civilian nonfarm.................................................
Private nonfarm...........................................................
Employment Cost Index— wages and salaries:
Civilian nonfarm......................................................
Private nonfarm......................................................

3.4

3.8

1.0

0.9

0.9

0.6

1.4

0.8

1.1

0.5

1.4

3.2

4.0

1.1

1.1

.6

.4

1.7

.8

1.0

.4

1.5

2.9

2.9

.9

.8

.7

.4

1.0

.6

.9

.3

.6

2.7

3.0

.9

1.0

.4

.3

1.1

.7

.8

.4

.7

2.3

2.3

.7

.5

.6

-.1

1.8

-.3

-.2

-.2

1.2

P r ic e d a t a 1

Consumer Price Index (All Urban Consumers): All Items......
Producer Price Index:
Finished goods........................................
Finished consumer goods..................................................
Capital equipment..................................................................
Intermediate materials, supplies, and components...............
Crude materials.............................................................

3.2

3.2

1.1

.2

.2

-.1

3.7

-.8

.3

.0

1.2

4.2

4.2

1.5

.4

.0

-.3

2.4

1.8

.3

.0

1.5

.4

.4

2.9

- .3

-.7

.6

.6

-.6

-.1

.0

.6

4.6

4.6

.9

1.1

1.1

.1

6.5

-2.1

-.1

.0

2.5

25.2

25.2

8.0

37.1

1.9

6.5

28.0

-10.6

3.4

14.4

6.0

4.6

P r o d u c t iv ity d a t a 3

Output per hour of all persons:
Business sector...........................................................

4.9

4.5

8.4

1.5

4.9

2.0

3.5

7.2

8.7

1.8

Nonfarm business sector................................................

5.0

4.4

9.8

.7

4.5

2.3

3.4

6.2

9.5

2.5

3.8

Nonfinancial comorations4.....................

5.1

5.8

4.6

6.0

4.9

4.9

2.4

9.7

9.5

4.3

2.3

1 Annual changes are December-to-December changes.

Quarterly changes are

3 Annual rates of change are computed

by comparing annual averages.

calculated using the last month of each quarter. Compensation and price data are not

Quarterly percent changes reflect annual rates of change in quarterly indexes.

seasonally adjusted, and the price data are not compounded.

The data are seasonally adjusted.

2 Excludes Federal and private household workers.

3.

4 Output per hour of all employees.

Alternative measures of wage and compensation changes
Q uarter change
Com ponents

Four quarters ending—

2003
I

Average hourly compensation:1
All persons, business sector....................................
All persons, nonfarm business sector....................................

II

2004
III

IV

I

2003
I

II

2004
III

IV

I

4.8
4.0

5.3
4.9

4.1
4.7

3.8
4.2

5.9
4.6

2.6
2.5

3.4
3.1

4.1
4.0

4.5
4.5

4.8
4.6

1.4
1.7
1.6
1.6
.7

.8
.8
1.2
.8
.4

1.1
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.7

.5
.4
.7
.4
.5

1.4
1.5
2.8
1.3
.7

3.9
3.8
4.7
3.6
4.2

3.7
3.5
5.0
3.3
4.1

3.9
4.0
4.8
3.8
3.6

3.8
4.0
4.6
3.9
3.3

3.8
3.9
5.7
3.6
3.3

1.0
1.1

.6
.7
.7
.7
.3

.9
.8
.6
.9
1.0

.3
.4
.6
.2
.4

.6
.7

2.9
3.0
3.3
2.9
3.1

2.7
2.6
3.0
2.5
3.1

2.9
3.0
2.6
3.1
2.3

2.9
3.0
2.4
3.1
2.1

2.5
2.6
2.5
2.6
2.1

Employment Cost Index—compensation:
Civilian nonfarm2.............................................
Private nonfarm..................................................................
Union........................................................
Nonunion...................................................................................
State and local governments............................................
Employment Cost Index— wages and salaries:
Civilian nonfarm2................................................
Private nonfarm....................................................................
Union....................................................................
Nonunion........................................................
State and local governments.....................................

.5
1.2
.4

Seasonally adjusted. "Quarterly average" is percent change from a quarter ago, at an annual rate.
2 Excludes Federal and household workers.

80
Monthly Labor Review

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

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.6
.7
.4

4.

Employment status of the population, by sex, age, race, and Hispanic origin, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[Numbers in thousands]__________________ ______________ _________________________________________________ _________________ _
Em ploym ent status
2003

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

population1........................... 217,570
Civilian labor force.............. 144,863
66.6
Participation rate.........
Employed......................... 136,485
Employment-pop62.7

221,168

220,768
146,462
66.3
137,505

221,014
146,917
66.5
137,673

221,252

221,507

221,779

222,357

222,550

222,757

222,967

146,610
66.1
137,644

222,509
146,878
66.0
138,479

222,161

146,622
66.2
137,693

222,039
146,892
66.2
138,095

222,279

146,652
66.3
137,604

146,863
66.1
138,566

146,471
65.9
138,301

146,650
65.9
138,298

146,741
65.9
138,576

146,974
65.9
138,772

62.3

62.3

62.3

62.2

62.2

62.1

62.2

62.3

62.2

62.4

62.2

62.1

8,378
5.8
72,707

8,774
6.0
74,658

8,957
6.1
74,306

9,245
6.3
74,097

9,048
6.2
74,600

8,929
6.1
74,884

8,966
6.1
75,168

8,797
6.0
75,147

8,653
5.9
75,093

8,398
5.7
75,631

8,297
5.6
75,298

8,170
5.6
75,886

8,352
5.7
75,900

62.2
8,164
5.6
76,016

8,203
5.6
75,993

2002
TOTAL
Civilian noninstitutional

Unemployed....................
Unemployment rate....
Not in the labor force........

146,510
66.2
137,736

147,187
66.2
138,533

62.2

Men, 20 years and over
Civilian noninstitutional
population1...........................
Civilian labor force...............
Participation rate.........
Employed.........................
Employment-pop-

96,439

98,272

98,083

98,196

98,304

98,434

98,568

98,696

98,814

98,927

98,866

98,966

99,065

99,170

99,279

73,630
76.3
69,734

74,623
75.9
70,415

74,523
76.0
70,182

74,675
76.0
70,190

74,660
75.9
70,269

74,682
75.9
70,324

74,905
76.0
70,596

74,942
75.9
70,726

75,188
76.1
70,964

75,044
75.9
71,099

75,171
76.0
71,329

74,797
75.6
70,969

75,018
75.7
71,128

74,871
75.5
71,118

75,048
75.6
71,162

71.9

71.7

72.3

71.7

71.5

71.4

71.6

71.7

4,391
5.9
23,644

4,358
5.8
23,751

4,309
5.8
23,663

4,216
5.6
23,754

3,945
5.3
23,882

72.1
3,842
5.1
23,694

3,828
5.1
24,168

71.8
3,890
5.2
24,047

71.7

4,485
6.0
23,521

71.8
4,224
5.6
23,620

71.7

4,209
5.6
23,649

71.6
4,341
5.8
23,560

71.5

3,896
5.3
22,809

3,753
5.0
24,299

3,886
5.2
24,231

population1........................... 105,136
Civilian labor force............... 63,648
60.5
Participation rate.........
60,420
Employed.........................
Employment-pop57.5
ulation ratio2.............
3,228
Unemployed....................
5.1
Unemployment rate....
41,488
Not in the labor force........

106,800

106,613

106,724

106,839

106,957

107,080

107,197

107,303

107,404

107,131

107,216

107,299

107,389

107,483

64,716
60.6
61,402

64,699
60.7
61,397

64,989
60.9
61,610

64,835
60.7
61,479

64,836
60.6
61,467

64,608
60.3
61,191

64,899
60.5
61,524

64,917
60.5
61,597

64,846
60.4
61,521

64,515
60.2
61,260

64,629
60.3
61,456

64,687
60.3
61,373

64,785
60.3
61,571

64,813
60.3
61,721

57.5

27.6
3,302
5.1
41,914

57.7

57.1

57.4

57.4

57.3

57.2

57.3

57.2

57.3

57.4

3,379
5.2
41,735

57.5
3,356
5.2
42,004

57.5

3,314
5.1
42,083

3,369
5.2
42,121

3,417
5.3
42,472

3,375
5.2
42,299

3,320
5.1
42,387

3,326
5.1
42,558

3,255
5.0
42,617

3,172
4.9
42,587

3,314
5.1
42,613

3,215
5.0
42,604

3,092
4.8
42,670

15,994

16,096

16,072

16,131
7,097
44.0
5,857

16,162

16,178

16,164

16,175

16,186

16,198

16,205

7,240
45.0
5,926

16,109
7,157
44.4
5,856

16,145

7,170
44.5
5,919

16,095
7,254
45.1
5,873

16,116

7,585
47.4
6,332

7,051
43.7
5,846

7,082
43.8
5,972

6,987
43.2
5,859

7,177
44.4
5,977

7,045
43.6
5,875

6,945
42.9
5,797

7,085
43.7
5,888

7,113
43.9
5,888

39.6

36.8

36.4

36.6

36.3

36.3

1,301
18.2
8,952

1,202
16.9
9,012

37.0
1,200
16.7
8,987

35.8

1,381
19.0
8,841

36.3
1,240
17.5
9,034

36.3

1,251
17.5
8,926

36.9
1,314
18.1
8,832

36.5

1,253
16.5
8,409

1,170
16.6
9,130

1,148
16.5
9,240

1,197
16.9
9,113

1,225
17.2
9,092

179,783

181,292

181,021

181,184

181,341

181,512

120,150
66.8
114,013

120,546
66.5
114,235

120,470
66.6
113,978

120,816
66.7
114,222

120,645
66.5
114,086

120,658
66.5
114,156

ulation ratio2.............
Unemployed....................
Unemployment rate....
Not in the labor force.........

Women, 20 years and over
Civilian noninstitutional

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years
Civilian noninstitutional
Civilian labor force..............

7,104
44.1
5,902

Employment-population ratio2.............
Unemployed....................
Unemployment rate...
Not in the labor force........

36.2

37.0

36.2

1,205
17.1
9,094

1,109
15.7
9,080

1,128
16.1
9,191

181,696

181,871

182,032

182,185

181,879

182,001

182,001

182,252

182,384

120,411
66.3
114,015

120,736
66.4
114,535

121,041
66.5
114,783

120,751
66.3
114,678

120,723
66.4
114,765

120,540
66.2
114,602

120,542
66.2
114,433

120,675
66.2
114,712

120,984
66.3
114,976

White3
Civilian noninstitutional

Employment-pop-

Unemployment rate...
Not in the labor force........

63.0

63.4

63.0

63.0

62.9

62.8

63.0

63.1

62.9

63.1

63.0

62.8

6,311
5.2
60,746

6,491
5.4
60,551

63.0
6,594
5.5
60,368

62.9

6,137
5.1
59,633

6,559
5.4
60,696

6,502
5.4
60,854

6,397
5.3
61,285

6,200
5.1
61,135

6,258
5.2
60,991

6,073
5.0
61,434

5,958
4.9
61,156

5,938
4.9
61,460

6,109
5.1
61,579

62.9
5,963
4.9
61,577

6,008
5.0
61,400

25,578

25,686

25,624

25,664

25,702

25,742

25,784

25,825

25,860

25,894

25,867

25,900

25,932

25,967

26,002

16,565
64.8
14,872

16,526
64.3
14,739

16,614
64.8
14,838

16,655
64.9
14,729

16,563
64.4
14,727

16,585
64.4
14,771

166,677
64.7
14,826

16,589
64.2
14,696

16,524
63.9
14,812

16,365
63.2
14,679

16,602
64.2
14,886

16,404
63.3
14,804

16,595
64.0
14,909

16,485
63.5
14,878

16,442
63.2
14,818

58.1
1,693
10.2
9,013

57.4

57.9
1,776
10.7
9,011

57.4

56.9
1,893
11.4
9,236

57.3
1,712
10.4
9,336

1,686
10.3
9,529

57.5
1,736
10.5
9,265

57.2
1,600
9.8
9,495

57.2

1,813
10.9
9,127

57.5
1,851
11.1
9,107

56.7

1,926
11.6
9,009

57.3
1,836
11.1
9,139

57.4

1,787
10.8
9,161

1,686
10.2
9,337

57.3
1,607
9.7
9,482

57.0
1,624
9.9
9,560

Black or African American3
Civilian noninstitutional

Participation rate........
Employment-pop-

Unemployment rate..
Not in the labor force.......


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

81

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

4. Continued—Employment status of the population, by sex, age, race, and Hispanic origin, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status

Annual average

2003

2004

2002

2003

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

25,963
17,943
69.1
16,590

27,551
18,813
68.3
17,372

27,391
18,763
68.5
17,247

27,494
18,840
68.5
17,290

27,597
18,770
68.0
17,247

27,701
18,843
68.0
173 83

27,808
18,877
67.9
17,456

27,913
18,940
67.9
17,556

28,016
19,125
68.3
17,709

28,116
19,035
67.7
17,784

27,619
18,811
68.1
17,441

27,705
18,693
67.5
17,303

27,791
19,010
68.4
17,596

27 879
19,064
68 4
17,693

27,968
19 313
69 1

63.9
1,353
7.5
8,020

63.1
1,441
7.7
8,738

63.0
1,516
8.1
8,628

62.9
1,550
8.2
8,654

62.5
1,523
8.1
8,828

62.8
1,460
7.8
8,858

62.8
1,421
7.5
8,931

62.9
1,383
7.3
8,974

63.2
1,416
7.4
8,891

63.3
1,250
6.6
9,082

63.2
1,370
7.3
8,807

62.5
1,389
7.4
9,012

63.3
1,414
74
8,781

63 5
1 371
7?
8,815

64 ?
1,355

Hispanic or Latino
ethnicity
Civilian noninstitutional
ooDulation1.........................
Civilian labor force..............
Participation rate.........
Employed........................
Employment-population ratio2.............
Unemployed...................
Unemployment rate....
Not in the labor force..........

The population figures are not seasonally adjusted.

17,958

8,654

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white and black or African American) do not sum
to totals because data are not presented for all races. In addition, persons whose ethnicity is
identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race and, therefore, are classified by ethnicity as
well as by race. Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population controls used in the
household survey.

Civilian employment as a percent of the civilian noninstitutional population.
Beginning in 2003, persons who selected this race group only; persons who selected
more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, persons who reported more
than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race.

5. Selected employment indicators, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]____________
Selected categories

Annual iverage

2003

2004

2002

2003

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

136,845
72,903
63,582

137,736
73,332
64,404

137,505
73,049
64,456

137,673

137,604

137,693
73,263
64,431

137,644
73,488
64,155

138,095
73,643
64,452

138,533
73,915
64,618

44,116

44,653

44,476

44,459

44,659

44,566

44,684

34,155

34,695

34,494

34,627

34,684

34,612

34,993

4,213

4,701

4,610

4,615

2,788

3,118

3,069

3,136

3,113

1,124

1,279

1,264

1,266

1,296

18,843

19,014

19,703

19,382

19,089

19,482

4,119

4,596

4,498

4,500

4,568

4,404

4,794

4,690

2,726

3,052

3,012

3,064

3,071

2,989

3,127

2,964

1,114

1,264

1,236

1,244

1,273

1,191

1,335

1,349

18,487

18,658

18,653

18,930

18,651

19,016

18,633

18,628

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

138,479
74,085
64,394

138,566
74,343
64,223

138,301
73,901
64,400

138,298
74,006
64,292

138,576
74,053
64,523

138,772
74,035
64,737

45,152

45,431

45,490

45,128

45,043

44,735

44,723

35,076

35,034

34,585

34,502

34,256

34,339

34,522

May

C h a r a c te r is tic

Employed, 16 years and over..
Women...............................
Married men, spouse
present.........................

64,548

Married women, spouse
P e r s o n s a t w o r k p a rt t im e 1

All Industries:
Part time for economic
reasons..............................
Slack work or business
conditions.......................
Could only find part-time

4,498

4,896

4,800

4,880

4,788

4,714

4,437

4,733

4,574

4,665

3,063

3,185

3,030

3,226

3,205

2,996

2,865

3,011

2,819

2,853

1,334

1,356

1,350

1,295

1,380

1,347

1,427

1,439

1,467

19,021

18,935

19,110

18,561

18,905

18,900

19,006

19,000

19,621

4,782

4,727

4,613

4,328

4,622

4,471

4,605

3,153

3,144

2,911

2,778

2,927

2,756

2,812

1,353

1,279

1,399

1,340

1,414

1,431

1,476

18,752

18,367

18,636

18,691

18,693

18,664

19,220

Part time for noneconomic
Nonagricultural industries:
Part time for economic
Slack work or business
Could only find part-time
Part time for noneconomic
reasons.............................

Excludes persons "with a job but not at work" during the survey period for such reasons as vacation, illness, or industrial disputes.

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population controls used in the household survey.

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6.

Selected unemployment indicators, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[Unemployment rates]

2002

2003

2004

2003

Annual average
Selected categories

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

M ay

C h ara cteristic
Total, 16 years and older.............................
Both sexes, 16 to 19 years.....................
Men, 20 years and older..........................
Women, 20 years and older....................

5.8
16.5
5.3
5.1

6.0
17.5
5.6
5.1

6.1
18.1
5.8
5.1

6.3
19.0
6.0
5.2

6.2
18.2
5.9
5.2

6.1
16.9
5.8
5.2

6.1
17.5
5.8
5.3

6.0
17.1
5.6
5.2

5.9
15.7
5.6
5.1

5.7
16.1
5.3
5.1

5.6
16.7
5.3
5.0

5.6
16.6
5.1
4.9

5.7
16.5
5.2
5.1

5.6
16.9
5.0
5.0

5.6
17.2
5.2
4.8

White, total1...............................................

5.1
14.5
15.9
13.1
4.7
4.4

5.2
15.2
17.1
13.3
5.0
4.4

5.4
15.3
17.1
13.6
5.2
4.5

5.5
16.2
17.6
14.8
5.3
4.4

5.4
15.7
17.9
13.3
5.3
4.4

5.4
15.1
16.5
13.7
5.3
4.4

5.3
15.1
17.6
12.6
5.0
4.5

5.1
14.3
15.9
12.6
4.9
4.4

5.2
14.3
16.8
11.5
5.0
4.4

5.0
14.8
16.3
13.1
4.7
4.3

4.9
14.1
14.0
14.2
4.5
4.4

4.9
15.2
15.5
14.9
4.5
4.2

5.1
14.8
16.2
13.3
4.7
4.4

4.9
15.7
17.9
13.3
4.5
4.2

5.0
15.7
18.6
12.7
4.7
4.1

Men, 16 to 19 years........................
Women, 16 to 19 years...................
Men, 20 years and older....................
Women, 20 years and older............

10.2
29.8
31.3
28.3
9.5
8.8

10.8
33.0
36.0
30.3
10.3
9.2

10.7
35.8
41.1
31.3
11.0
8.0

11.6
38.5
36.5
40.3
11.0
9.6

11.1
35.1
37.1
33.4
10.3
9.6

10.9
29.8
27.8
31.5
10.5
9.7

11.1
32.7
34.2
31.4
11.0
9.2

11.4
37.3
40.9
33.2
10.5
9.8

10.4
28.9
32.5
25.7
10.1
9.1

10.3
27.3
28.4
26.5
9.3
9.7

10.5
32.5
42.1
25.8
9.6
9.1

9.8
25.1
29.6
21.9
9.4
8.8

10.2
29.4
36.6
22.8
9.2
9.3

9.7
28.3
30.9
26.1
9.3
8.7

9.9
32.5
30.3
34.1
9.3
8.4

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity....................

7.5

7.7

8.1

8.2

8.1

7.8

7.5

7.3

7.4

6.6

7.3

7.4

7.4

7.2

7.0

Married men, spouse present................

3.6
3.7
5.9
5.2

3.8
3.7
6.1
5.5

3.9
3.7
6.2
5.6

4.3
3.9
6.4
5 .9

3.9
3.9
6.3
5.5

3.9
3.9
6.2
5.3

3.8
3.9
6.2
5.7

3.8
3.8
6.1
5.5

3.7
3.8
6.1
5.1

3.3
3.9
5.8
5.3

3.3
3.7
5.7
5.4

3.4
3.6
5.6
5.2

3.2
3.7
5.8
5.4

3.1
3.7
5.6
5.3

3.1
3.3
5.7
5.2

8.4

8.8

9.1

9.4

8.8

9.3

8.7

8.8

8.5

8.1

8.8

8.5

8.8

8.7

8.8

Some college or associate degree............

5.3
4.5

5.5
4.8

5.5
4.9

5.7
4.9

5.5
5.0

5.4
4.7

5.4
4.8

5.5
4.8

5.4
4.8

5.5
4.5

4.9
4.5

5.0
4.4

5.3
4.7

5.2
4.1

5.0
4.0

Bachelor's degree and higher4...................

2.9

3.1

3.1

3.1

3.1

3.1

3.2

3.1

3.1

3.0

2.9

2.9

2.9

2.9

2.9

Men, 16 to 19 years.........................
Women, 16 to 19 years...................
Men, 20 years and older....................
Women, 20 years and older...............
Black or African American, total1...........

Part-time workers....................................
E ducational a ttainm ent2
High school graduates, no college3...........

1 Beginning in 2003, persons who selected this race group only; persons who

3 Includes high school diploma or equivalent,

selected more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, persons who

4 includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees,

reported more than one race were included In the group they Identified as the

7.

main race.

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population controls used in the

2 Data refer to persons 25 years and older.

household survey.

Duration of unemployment, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[Numbers in thousands]
W eeks of
unem ploym ent

2002
2,893
2,580
2,904
1,369
1,535

Median duration, in weeks...............

16.6
9.1

2003

May

June

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

2,749
2,736

2,733
2,585

2,627

2,612
2,394

2,792
2,369

2,707

1,561
2,001

3,478
1,460
2,018

1,898

2,468
2,412
3,274
1,403
1,871

2,589
2,414

3,511
1,438
2,073

2,622
2,556
3,484
1,448
2,036

3,320
1,332
1,988

2,969
1,170
1,800

19.2
10.0

19.6

19.4
10.3

20.0
10.4

19.6
10.4

19.8
10.7

20.3
10.3

20.1
10.3

19.7

10.1

July

Aug.
2,735
2,630
3,561

3,033
2,617

2,937
2,787

3,294
1,380
1,914

3,510
1,500
2,010

2,739
2,698
3,559
1,598
1,961

19.2

19.2

10.1

10.1

19.6
11.7

19.3
10.1

2,785
2,612
3,378
1,442
1,936

2004

2003

Annual average

Sept.

2,450
3,403
1,513
1,890

3,365
1,467

9.5

2,376
3,077
1,288
1,789
20.0
10.0

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population controls used in the household survey.


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Current Labor Statistics:

8.

Labor Force Data

Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[Numbers in thousands]
Reason for
unem ploym ent
Job losers1.........................................
On temporary layoff......................
Not on temporary layoff................
Job leavers........................................
Reentrants.........................................
New entrants......................................

Annual average
2002

2003

2003

2004

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

4,972
1,177
3,795
890
2,646
642

4,947
1,173
3,774
798
2,522
661

4,939
1,092
3,847
790
2,530
650

4,947
1,110
3,837
836
2,436
684

4,877
1,097
3,780
789
2,518
653

4,719
1,055
3,664
931
2,440
619

4,618
1,060
3,558
783
2,366
694

4,382
1,028
3,353
804
2,509
681

4,323
1,064
3,258
827
2,424
676

4,607
1,040
3,567
836
2,424
627

4,399
994
3,405
822
2,314
645

4,211
926
3,286
846
2,438
713

4,607
1,124
3,483
866
2,368
536

4,838
1,121
3,717
818
2,477
641

5,021
1,197
3,824
778
2,506
635

55.0

55.1

56.2

54.3

55.4

55.4

55.6

55.2

54.2

54.6

52.3

52.4

54.2

53.8

51.3

13.4
41.6
10.3
28.3
6.4

12.8
42.4
9.3
28.2
7.3

13.4
42.8
8.7
28.0
7.1

12.9
41.5
9.7
28.9
7.0

13.1
42.3
8.9
28.2
7.4

12.3
43.2
8.9
28.4
7.3

12.5
43.1
9.4
27.4
7.7

12.4
42.8
8.9
28.5
7.4

12.1
42.1
10.7
28.0
7.1

12.5
42.0
9.3
28.0
8.2

12.3
40.0
9.6
30.0
8.1

12.9
39.8
10.0
29.4
8.2

12.2
42.0
9.8
28.5
7.4

12.1
41.6
10.1
28.3
7.9

11.3
40.0
10.3
29.7
8.7

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.4

3.4

3.4

3.4

3.3

3.2

3.1

3.0

3.0

3.1

3.0

2.9

.6
1.6
.4

.6
1.7
.4

.5
1.7
.4

.6
1.8
.4

.5
1.7
.5

.5
1.7
.4

.6
1.7
.5

.5
1.7
.4

.6
1.7
.4

.5
1.6
.5

.5
1.7
.5

.6
1.7
.5

.6
1.7
.4

.6
1.6
.4

.6
1.7
.5

P e r c e n t o f u n e m p lo y e d

Job losers1.........................................
On temporary layoff......................
Not on temporary layoff................
Job leavers.........................................
Reentrants.........................................
New entrants......................................
P e r c e n t o f c iv ilia n
la b o r fo r c e

Job losers1..........................................
Job leavers.........................................
Reentrants..........................................
New entrants......................................

1 Includes persons who completed temporary jobs.
NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population controls used in the household survey.

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9.

Unemployment rates by sex and age, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[Civilian workers]
Annual average

2004

2003

S ex and age
2002

2003

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Apr.

Mar.

May

Total, 16 years and older..................
16 to 24 years................................
16 to 19 years.............................
16 to 17 years..........................
18 to 19 years..........................
20 to 24 years.............................
25 years and older.........................

5.8
12.0
16.5
18.8
15.1
9.7
4.6
4.8
3.8

6.0
12.4
17.5
19.1
16.4
10.0
4.8
5.0
4.1

6.1
12.9
18.1
18.8
18.1
10.4
4.9
5.0
4.4

6.3
13.3
19.0
21.1
17.4
10.5
5.1
5.2
4.4

6.2
12.9
18.2
20.3
16.8
10.4
5.0
5.1
4.2

6.1
12.4
16.9
18.8
15.7
10.2
5.0
5.1
4.1

6.1
12.8
17.5
19.3
16.2
10.6
4.9
5.1
4.0

6.0
12.3
17.1
20.2
15.2
10.1
4.9
5.1
3.8

5.9
12.1
15.7
17.5
14.7
10.4
4.8
5.0
3.9

5.7
11.7
16.1
18.3
14.7
9.6
4.7
4.9
3.9

5.6
12.0
16.7
18.2
15.7
9.8
4.5
4.7
3.7

5.6
11.8
16.6
17.6
15.7
9.5
4.5
4.7
3.8

5.7
11.8
16.5
19.4
14.5
9.6
4.6
4.9
3.8

5.6
11.6
16.9
20.2
14.7
9.2
4.5
4.6
3.8

5.6
12.1
17.2
21.6
14.7
9.7
4.4
4.5
3.9

Men, 16 years and older.................
16 to 24 years..............................
16 to 19 years...........................

5.9
12.8
18.1
21.1
16.4
10.2
4.7
4.8
4.1

6.3
13.4
19.3
20.7
18.4
10.6
5.0
5.2
4.4

6.5
14.1
20.3
21.5
19.9
11.3
5.2
5.3
4.7

6.7
14.1
19.9
23.2
17.9
11.5
5.4
5.4
5.3

6.6
14.4
20.4
22.3
19.0
11.6
5.2
5.3
4.6

6.4
12.9
17.6
20.6
15.6
10.7
5.2
5.4
4.4

6.4
14.1
19.6
22.1
18.2
11.7
5.0
5.2
4.2

6.2
13.2
18.7
20.4
17.9
10.8
5.0
5.2
4.0

6.2
13.4
18.3
18.3
18.1
11.2
5.0
5.2
4.1

5.8
12.6
17.4
18.4
16.9
10.4
4.7
4.9
4.0

5.7
12.7
17.5
19.3
16.2
10.5
4.5
4.7
3.6

5.7
12.2
17.2
19.4
15.7
10.0
4.5
4.7
3.7

5.8
12.6
18.3
22.3
15.8
10.1
4.6
4.8
3.8

5.7
12.8
19.1
23.4
16.5
10.0
4.4
4.5
3.9

5.8
13.0
19.1
23.3
16.6
10.3
4.6
4.7
4.1

16 to 17 years........................
18 to 19 years........................
20 to 24 years...........................
25 years and older......................
25 to 54 years........................

5.6
11.1
14.9
16.6
13.8
9.1
4.6
4.8

5.7
11.4
15.6
17.5
14.2
9.3
4.6
4.8

5.7
11.7
16.0
16.3
16.3
9.5
4.6
4.7

5.9
12.4
18.2
19.1
16.8
9.5
4.7
4.9

5.7
11.3
15.9
18.3
14.5
9.0
4.7
4.9

5.8
11.8
16.2
17.0
15.8
9.7
4.7
4.8

5.8
11.4
15.2
16.5
14.1
9.5
4.7
4.9

5.7
11.3
15.4
20.1
12.5
9.3
4.7
4.9

5.5
10.7
13.0
16.6
11.1
9.6
4.6
4.8

5.6
10.7
14.7
18.2
12.2
8.8
4.6
5.0

5.6
11.3
15.9
17.1
15.2
8.9
4.6
4.8

5.5
11.2
16.0
15.9
15.6
8.9
4.4
4.5

5.6
10.8
14.7
16.9
13.0
8.9
4.6
4.9

5.4
10.3
14.5
17.3
12.6
8.3
4.6
4.7

5.3
11.1
15.3
20.1
12.7
9.0
4.2
4.4

55 years and older1...............

3.6

3.7

3.6

3.7

4.2

4.5

3.8

3.4

3.5

3.5

4.1

3.9

3.5

3.3

3.3

18 to 19 years........................
25 years and older......................
25 to 54 years.......................
55 years and older................
Women, 16 years and older...........
16 to 24 years......... .....................

1 Data are not seasonally adjusted.
NOTE: Beginning In January 2003, data reflect revised population controls used in the household survey.


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July 2004

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Current Labor Statistics:

10.

Labor Force Data

Unemployment ratesby State, seasonally adjusted
State

Apr.

Mar.

Apr.

2003

2004p

2004p

State

Alabama..................
Alaska......................
Arizona....................
Arkansas..................
California..................

5.9
8.0
5.9
5.9
6.8

5.9
7.1
4.9
5.4
6.6

5.8
7.1
5.4
5.6
6.2

Missouri
Montana........................................................
Nebraska.......................................................
Nevada................................................
New Hampshire...........................................

Colorado..................
Connecticut..............
Delaware..................
District of Columbia.
Florida.......................

6.2
5.6
4.4
7.1
5.3

4.9
4.9
3.8
6.9
4.9

5.1
4.5
3.8
7.3
4.6

New Jersey...................................................
New Mexico..................................................
New York........................................
North Carolina..............................................
North Dakota...............................

Georgia....................
Hawaii.......................
Idaho.........................
Illinois........................
Indiana......................

4.9
4.2
5.6
6.6
5.1

3.6
3.8
4.6
6.0
5.3

3.8
3.6
4.4
6.1
4.9

Iowa...........................
Kansas.....................
Kentucky...................
Louisiana..................
Maine........................

4.4
5.4
6.3
6.7
5.0

4.1
4.7
5.5
5.5
4.9

Maryland...................
Massachusetts........
Michigan...................
Minnesota.................
Mississippi................

4.5
5.8
7.2
4.9
6.8

4.0
5.1
6.9
4.8
4.2

p = preliminary

86
Monthly Labor Review

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2004

Apr.

Mar.

Apr.

2003

2004p

2004p

5.7
4.6
4.1

5.0
4.2
3.6

4.3

4.0

3.9

6.0
6.2
fi 3

5.2
5.6

5.3
5.6

6.6
3*9

5.2

5.3

Ohio...............................................................
Oklahoma.....................................................
Oregon...........................................................
Pennsylvania.................................................
Rhode Island.................................................

6.2
5.6
8.6
5.8
5.5

5.7
4.8
7.2
5.3
5.6

5.8
4.7
6.7
5.3
5.7

3.9
4.6
5.3
5.9
4.3

South Carolina..............................................
South Dakota................................................
Tennessee.....................................................
Texas.............................................................
Utah................................................................

6.7
3.5
5.7
6.9
5.8

6.7
3.3
5.0
6.2
4.8

6.8
2.8
4.9
6.0
4.5

4.0
4.8
6.1
4.1
5.0

Vermont........................................................
Virginia...........................................................
Washington...................................................
West Virginia.................................................
Wisconsin......................................................
Wyoming........................................................

4.7
4.3
7.7
6.4
5.7
4.5

3.6
3.5
6.1
5.4
5.1
3.4

3.6
3.4
6.3
5.2
4.6
3.4

fi ft

4.7
4.6
3.5


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

11. Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by State, seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State
Alabam aAlaska.....
Arizona....
Arkansas.
California.

Apr.

Mar.

Apr.

2003

2004p

2004p

State

2,160,958
2,139,050
329,732
342,640
2,684,474
2,751,015
1,266,270
1,310,860
17,445,986 17,560,426

2,164,325
343,784
2,764,623
1,316,531
17,555,009

Apr.

Mar.

Apr.

2003

2004p

2004p

Missouri.............
Montana............
Nebraska...........
Nevada...............
New Hampshire.

3,016,435
473,266
974,140
1,135,650
714,349

3,007,441
477,827
983,505
1,180,046
725,380

3,011,621
477,047
985,113
1,185,219
726,806

Colorado...................
Connecticut..............
Delaware.... .............
District of Columbia.
Florida......................

2,473,287
1,806,963
416,199
302,701
8,137,200

2,485,480
1,786,692
424,848
304,800
8,316,702

2,504,533
1,781,552
426,492
303,555
8,334,257

New Jersey.....
New Mexico....
New York.........
North Carolina.
North Dakota....

4,364,436
892,417
9,322,356
4,213,370
345,697

4,404,401
901,082
9,327,631
4,195,882
348,407

4,419,474
903,978
9,298,492
4,204,768
348,744

Georgia.
Hawaii...
Idaho....
Illinois_
Indiana..

4,396,610
613,726
691,096
6,318,284
3,180,363

4,394,506
628,019
702,283
6,376,281
3,195,174

4,394,284
628,698
699,140
6,379,201
3,178,349

Ohio...............
Oklahoma......
Oregon..........
Pennsylvania.
Rhode Island.

5,918,039
1,695,807
1,864,311
6,188,339
571,896

5,863,019
1,699,927
1,870,706
6,239,658
566,066

5,869,471
1,698,005
1,897,601
6,252,824
569,573

Iowa.........
Kansas....
KentuckyLouisiana.
Maine.....

1,618,375
1,430,330
1,954,104
2,033,206
690,107

1,622,172
1,463,333
1,987,641
2,024,696
693,740

1,619,147
1,461,127
1,986,556
2,021,662
695,520

South Carolina.
South Dakota...
Tennessee.......
Texas................
Utah..................

Maryland..........
Massachusetts.
Michigan..........
Minnesota........
Mississippi........

2,902,428
3,428,694
5,027,753
2,920,439
1,312,424

2,940,075
3,402,429
5,075,216
2,952,851
1,303,140

2,944,154
3,391,600
5,034,612
2,944,674
1,311,606

Vermont.........
Virginia.........
W ashingtonWest Virginia.
Wisconsin.....
Wyoming.

2,048,364
1,994,782
2,050,615
423,599
422,475
423,906
2,929,619
2,910,671
2,927,998
10,899,044 10,947,606 10,965,114
1,200,145
1,179,508
1,199,939
349,829
3,769,044
3,134,809
791,951
3,071,628
276,738

353,869
3,828,659
3,183,952
796,070
3,109,940
276,911

352,656
3,836,210
3,217,896
796,317
9,101,654
277,559

p = preliminary.
N o t e : Some data in this table may differ from data published elsewhere because of the continual updating of the data base.

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

87

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

12. Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by industry, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]___________________________
Industry

Annual average
2002

2003

2003
May

June

July

Aug.

2004

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.p

May.p

T O T A L N O N F A R M .................

130,341

129,931

129,873

129,859

129,814

129,789

129,856

129,944

130,027

130,035

130,194

130,277

130,630

130,954

131,189

T O T A L P R IV A T E ...........................

108.828
22,557

108.356
21,817

108.332
21,859

108,292
21,805

108.253
21,744

108.209
21,712

108.317
21,697

108,384
21,674

108.483
21,686

108.491
21,668

108.667
21,696

108.738
21,684

109,077
21,778

109,382
21,822

109.645
21,888

583
70.4
512.2
121.9

571
68.5
502.3
122.9

570
68.7
501.6
122.9

573
69.7
503.2
123.7

571
68.2
502.7
123.5

569
67.5
501.8
123.2

568
67.4
500.8
123.6

569
67.9
501.5
124.1

571
67.6
503.4
123.9

570
65.9
504.3
124.6

570
65.1
505.1
126.9

572
64.2
508.1
128.9

581
65.9
514.9
130.0

585
66.7
518.5
131.0

588
65.6
522.7
132.2

210.6

202.7
70.4
176.8

202.6

203.3

204.3

203.6

201.6

202.1

202.4

202.0

200.0

200.6

202.8

205.2

70.6
176.1

70.9
176.2

71.6
174.9

70.7
175.0

69.2
175.6

69.6
175.3

69.5
177.1

69.8
177.7

69.6
178.2

70.2
178.6

70.6
182.1

71.8
182.3

207.3
72 7
183.2

G O O D S - P R O D U C IN G .......................
N a tu r a l r e s o u r c e s a n d
m in in g ................................................

Logging..................................
Mining........................................
Oil and gas extraction.............
Minina. exceDt oil and aas1....
Coal minina............................
Support activities for mining...

74.4
179.8

C o n s tr u c tio n .....................................

6,716

6,722

6,715

6,718

6,721

6,739

6,754

6,754

6,771

6,774

6,812

6,791

6,853

6,872

6,911

Construction of buildinas.........
Heavy and civil enqineerina....
Sredalitv trade contractors....

1.574.8
930.6
4.210.4
15,259

1.575.9
910.7
4.235.5
14,525

1.578.5
905.2
4.230.8
14,574

1,572.3
907.3
4.238.8
14,514

1.566.4
910.6
4.244.1
14,452

1.570.0
913.9
4.255.5
14,404

1.577.7
915.2
4.260.9
14,375

1.579.4
910.8
4.263.7
14,351

1,583.9
918.8
4.268.6
14,344

1.585.1
920.7
4.268.4
14,324

1.593.3
928.0
4.290.2
14,314

1,590.9
924.0
4.276.5
14,321

1.607.6
926.8
4.318.9
14,344

1.609.8
924.7
4.337.3
14,365

1.620.2
924.5
4.366.2
14,389

10,766
9,483

10.200
8,970

10,233
8,993

10,181
8,958

10,136
8,908

10.104
8,886

10.077
8,867

10.058
8,854

10.048
8,874

10,044
8,868

10.035
8,869

10.038
8,882

10.058
8,889

10,085
8,924

10.110
8,946

Production workers..............
Wood products........................
Nonmetallic mineral products
Primary metals........................
Fabricated metal products......
Machinery.................................
Computer and electronic

6.529
554.9
516.0
509.4
1,548.5
1,229.5

6.157
536.1
492.6
476.7
1.478.4
1,153.5

6.168
536.1
494.8
481.3
1.480.6
1.155.2

6,142
533.3
494.8
475.8
1.474.4
1,149.9

6.104
532.4
760.8
472.1
1.468.4
1.145.5

6,099
528.9
490.2
470.6
1.465.6
1,140.8

6.077
531.8
488
466.3
1,461.1
1.139.4

6,066
533.4
486.6
463.4
1.461.3
1,137.0

6.089
536.3
489.7
464.1
1.468.1
1.142.5

6.079
536.6
487.5
464.6
1.471.2
1.140.4

6.081
536.3
492.7
432.2
1.471.8
1.138.7

6.088
538.4
490.5
462.2
1.476.6
1.141.2

6.101
539.7
493.2
462.0
1.478.5
1,145.1

6.126
540
497.8
462.5
1.486.7
1.152.0

6.148
544.2
501.6
464.1
1.494.7
1.153.2

products1..............................
Computer and peripheral
equipment.............................
Communications equipment..
Semiconductors and
electronic components........
Electronic instruments..........
Electrical equipment and
appliances..............................
Transportation equipment......
Furniture and related
products............................. .
Miscellaneous manufacturing

1,507.2

1,360.9

1,366.4

1,359.3

1,348.7

1,343.8

1,339.2

1,332.8

1,334.4

1,332.2

1,333.2

1,333.9

1,338.0

1,339.7

1,344.0

250.0
185.8

225.7
157.0

228.4
157.4

227.3
156.3

224.0
155.8

222.5
155.0

221.9
154.1

219.3
1 53.9

219.1
154.4

217.8
153.0

219.4
154.8

219.0
154.8

218.6
155.0

218.1
155.1

218.0
155.6

524.5
450.0

461.8
429.3

464.3
429.0

461.5
426.9

457.9
424.7

456.2
425.2

453.3
425.5

449.4
425.1

451.2
425.2

451.3
425.3

450.2
423.7

451.4
423.3

452.1
426.8

453.4
427.5

455.8
429.7

496.5
1,828.9

459.9
1,775.4

461.0
1,780.1

459.7
1,775.0

457.7
1,759.8

453.8
1,766.5

452.1
1,765.6

450.8
1,765.5

450.9
1,766.5

451.2
1,762.7

449.8
1,760.6

448.6
1,766.5

446.8
1,769.1

446.5
1,768.8

446.4
1,767.8

604.1
688.3

573.5
662.8

572.5
665.2

571.1
664.3

572.6
660.2

568.1
657.9

568.0
655.9

568.2
655.2

568.9
652.7

569.3
651.9

571.3
652.0

571.2
653.0

573.4
653.0

576.5
653.0

576.2
653.5

5,775
4,239

5,555
4,043

5,581
4,065

5,556
4,039

5,544
4,032

5,518
4,005

5,508
4,000

5,497
3,992

5,470
3,959

5,456
3,965

5,445
3,954

5,439
3,950

5,445
3,957

5,441
3,959

5,443
3,962

1,525.7

1,518.7

1,517.2

1,517.8

1,522.1

1,523.8

1,526.0

1,528.2

1,508.3

1,506.3

1,500.7

1,502.4

1,504.5

1,502.7

1,503.8

207.4
290.9
194.6
359.7
50.2
546.6

200.6
260.3
179.8
312.7
45.2
519.0

201.0
265.6
182.7
318.5
45.7
520.9

2..04
262.9
181.6
313.2
44.2
519.2

200.7
256.9
178.7
307.5
44.9
516.3

201.0
251.8
170.7
304.0
44.3
515.1

200.2
250.2
173.7
299.8
44.2
513.8

201.0
247.0
172.6
299.7
43.7
513.3

198.3
245.1
175.2
297.7
44.1
511.7

198.3
241.0
174.3
297.7
44.3
510.3

197.7
239.2
176.9
296.1
44.6
509.8

195.9
237.3
176.6
297.1
44.8
508.0

197.2
237.1
179.7
294.3
44.8
508.8

197.8
235.8
180.1
292.7
44.6
507.0

197.7
236.0
181.7
290.1
44.5
506.9

706.6
118.1
927.5

680.0
114.6
7.9

683.8
115.5
912.0

682.2
114.8
907.9

681.1
114.6
908.2

678.8
113.8
905.4

676.2
112.9
902.7

673.3
112.6
899.1

673.1
112.0
897.6

670.1
112.4
895.9

667.6
114.3
893.7

665.0
112.9
894.7

664.4
113.1
894.9

663.6
112.6
896.4

665.8
113.3
894.2

M a n u fa c tu r in g .................................

Production workers..............
D u r a b le g o o d s ...............................

N o n d u ra b le g o o d s .......................

Production workers..............
Food manufacturing.................
Beverages and tobacco
products..................................
Textile mills..............................
Textile product mills.................
Apparel......................................
Leather and allied products....
Paper and paper products......
Printing and related support
activities..................................
Petroleum and coal products...
Chemicals.................................
Plastics and rubber products..
S E R V IC E -P R O V ID IN G ......................

848.0

815.9

818.0

811.8

813.1

808.8

808.4

806.3

806.5

805.8

804.8

803.9

806.3

807.5

809.4

107,784

108,114

108,014

108,054

108,070

108,077

108,159

108,270

108,341

108,367

108,498

108,593

108,852

109,132

109,301

86,271

86,538

86,473

86,487

86,509

82,497

86,620

86,710

86,797

86,823

86,971

87,054

87,299

87,560

87,757

25,497
5,652.3
3,007.9
2,015.0

25,275
5,605.0
2,949.2
2,002.1

25,302
5,618.4
2,953.4
2,009.7

25,266
5,608.6
2,948.4
2,005.1

25,225
5,596.8
2,942.5
2,001.6

25,225
5,589.0
2,936.2
1,997.9

25,252
5,585.1
2,932.1
1,995.9

25,272
5,581.6
2,932.0
1,992.4

25,261
5,592.7
2,943.9
1,989.2

25,211
5,598.4
2,945.8
1,991.8

25,312
5,611.4
2,954.9
1,993.7

25,331
5,612.2
2,953.8
1,994.5

25,415
5,623.5
2,963.4
1,995.3

25,448
5,632.5
2,967.5
1,996.3

25,485
5,636.1
2,968.4
1,996.9

654.3

655.3

655.1

652.7

651.9

6657.1

657.2

659.6

660.8

662.8

663.9

664.8

668.7

670.8

14.921.7 14.876.0 14.944.8 14.963.0 15.013.0 15.037.1

15.054.7

P R IV A T E S E R V IC E P R O V ID IN G .....................................
T r a d e , tr a n s p o r ta tio n ,
a n d u t ilitie s ......................................
W h o le s a le tr a d e ............................

Durable goods.........................
Nondurable goods..................
Electronic markets and
agents and brokers...............
R e ta il tr a d e ......................................

629.4
15.025.1

14.911.5 14.917.4 14.908.0 14.896.5 14.911.6 14.926.8 14.948.1

Motor vehicles and parts
dealers1.................................
Automobile dealers................
Furniture and home
furnishings stores...................
Electronics and appliance
stores......................................

1,879.4
1,252.8

1,883.5
1,255.1

1,880.1
1,252.4

1,881.7
1,254.8

1,883.7
1,256.9

1,883.5
1,257.0

1,889.8
1,259.7

1,889.7
1,259.6

1,892.9
1,258.9

1,893.7
1,259.5

1,895.4
1,261.3

1,900.9
1,262.9

1,906.9
1,263.9

1,910.9
1,264.7

1,912.0
1,263.6

538.7

542.9

541.2

543.1

540.1

538.0

539.7

540.2

544.8

547.2

546.4

544.5

544.8

544.5

545.0

525.3

511.9

512.2

511.3

507.2

507.4

506.7

506.5

512.8

511.9

509.3

508.2

511.7

514.1

513.1

See notes at end of table.

88
Monthly Labor Review

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2004

12.

Continued-Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by industry, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[In thousands]
2003

Annual average

2004

Industry
2002

2003

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.p

M a/

1,176.5
2,881.6

1,191.1
2,840.9

1,182.1
2,856.5

1,187.4
2,847.3

1,188.3
2,835.6

1,194.7
2,833.6

1,203.4
2,829.4

1,204.0
2,838.7

1,210.0
2,821.4

1,209.5
2,813.9

1,221.4
2,826.3

1,231.4
2,831.3

1,243.5
2,838.9

1,247.3
2,839.9

1,250.3
2,845.9

938.8
895.9

943.1
879.9

940.3
883.8

943.2
882.6

941.4
877.9

941.0
881.4

943.1
877.9

948.3
873.8

951.6
875.2

952.6
871.1

954.1
875..1

954.9
871.8

958.2
873.0

957.9
872.4

958.4
872.5

1,312.5

1,296.7

1,296.6

1,293.1

1,294.0

1,294.8

1,295.6

1,302.6

1,297.1

1,301.0

1,304.3

1,311.3

1,321.8

1,328.0

1,333.5

661.3
2,812.0
1,684.0
959.5
443.7

645.0
2,815.2
1,618.8
934.1
427.5

648.0
2,811.8
1,613.5
936.3
428.5

644.8
2,811.2
1,612.2
934.7
427.6

644.1
2,820.4
1,613.7
934.0
429.8

642.5
2,834.9
1,622.3
931.9
427.9

642.8
2,839.9
1,623.7
931.7
426.8

642.0
2,842.9
1,623.5
933.5
425.9

641.6
2,826.4
1,612.6
930.9
417.3

633.2
2,793.4
1,601.3
924.4
424.1

635.9
2,822.7
1,603.4
929.6
424.3

636.8
2,822.5
1,602.7
924.6
424.8

636.5
2,824.4
1,604.9
926.9
427.4

635.8
2,831.0
16.7
927.9
429.8

636.7
2,830.2
1,606.5
927.3
431.7

4,223.6
563.5
217.8
52.6
1,339.3

4,176.7
527.3
215.4
52.5
1,328.0

4,185.8
532.6
215.2
53.4
1,322.0

4,171.6
523.0
216.0
53.1
1,324.6

4,153.6
513.8
216.1
53.1
1,324.3

4,148.4
512.4
213.8
52.9
1,329.6

4,160.8
511.8
215.6
51.5
1,328.7

4,162.9
506.1
215.2
52.5
1,329.3

4,168.0
511.5
215.5
50.9
1,335.7

4,157.0
512.9
215.5
50.0
1,338.7

4,175.9
510.2
215.4
50.6
1,343.6

4,175.8
511.6
215.7
48.8
1,344.1

4,197.0
512.9
216.0
49.2
1,346.4

4,196.5
513.3
216.3
50.6
1,352.2

4,212.2
513.6
216.3
50.9
1,354.3

380.8
41.7

380.3
40.0

381.1
40.8

378.3
40.4

372.8
40.1

371.2
39.5

380.7
39.3

389.2
39.0

385.7
38.7

385.0
38.8

382.3
38.3

380.1
38.2

380.5
38.1

372.3
38.1

382.8
38.3

25.6

28.0

28.5

29.1

29.1

28.9

28.9

29.0

28.7

29.4

28.7

29.7

31.4

31.1

31.1

524.7
560.9
516.7

516.3
566.6
522.3

520.7
569.0
522.5

517.1
569.4
520.6

513.4
569.5
521.4

512.2
566.7
521.2

515.4
566.5
522.4

514.3
565.0
522.6

512.4
564.7
524.2

511.6
559.0
516.1

515.5
567.7
524.4

518.5
572.1
531.9

519.1
570.9
532.6

519.8
574.3
530.8

U tilitie s ..............................................

596.2

580.8

580.7

577.8

578.1

578.8

578.9

579.2

578.9

579.3

514.1
566.9
525.8
580.2

580.0

581.2

582.1

582.1

In fo r m a tio n ......................................

3,395

3,198

3,203

3,194

3,188

3,174

3,175

3,166

3,172

3,175

3,163

3,169

3,169

3,173

3,177

964.1

926.4

928.8

926.4

922.7

922.0

919.3

918.0

918.4

917.4

914.0

915.1

915.3

916.3

915.4

373.4
326.0

382.7
327.0

385.2
329.5

379.7
329.7

382.7
331.8

381.2
333.0

385.7
333.3

390.1
335.4

Building material and garden
supply stores..........................
Food and beverage stores......
Health and personal care
stores.....................................
Gasoline stations.....................
Clothing and clothing
accessories stores...............
Sporting goods, hobby,
book, and music stores.........
General merchandise storesl.
Department stores................
Miscellaneous store retailers...
Nonstore retailers....................
T ra n s p o r ta tio n a n d
w a r e h o u s in g ................................

Air transportation.....................

Truck transportation................
Transit and ground passenger
transportation........................
Pipeline transportation............
Scenic and sightseeing
transportation........................
Support activities for
transportation.........................
Couriers and messengers......
Warehousing and storage

Publishing industries, except
Internet...................................
Motion picture and sound
recording industries...............
Broadcasting, except Internet..
Internet publishing and
broadcasting..........................
Telecommunications...............
ISPs, search portals, and
data processing.....................
Other information services.....
F in a n c ia l a c t iv itie s .........................

Finance and insurance..............
Monetary authorities—
central bank..........................

387.9
334.1

376.1
327.0

374.8
326.7

374.2
326.3

376.6
326.5

369.9
325.5

375.4
327.6

33.7
1,186.5

30.0
1,082.6

29.1
1,088.3

29.5
1,082.0

30.1
1,075.3

30.0
1,071.3

30.1
1,069.4

29.9
1,065.2

30.4
1,062.2

30,4
1,061.2

30.8
1,061.3

31.9
1,058.2

31.9
1,055.0

32.5
1,051.9

33.0
1,047.7

441.0
47.3

407.5
48.1

407.9
47.8

408.0
47.5

409.5
47.3

407.6
47.8

405.4
48.0

404.8
48.3

402.6
48.2

402.6
48.2

400.1
47.8

401.1
48.0

403.7
48.6

404.0
49.6

405.5
49.6

7,847
5,817.3

7,974
5,920.5

7,987
5,934.8

7,988
5,933.8

7,995
5,936.8

7,996
5,936.8

8,004
5,945.6

7,990
5,930.2

7,985
5,922.7

7,981
5,916.5

7,981
5,917.1

7,989
5,924.7

8,003
5,933.0

8,015
5,947.7

8,032
5,950.8

23.4

22.7

22.8

22.7

22.7

22.6

22.6

22.5

22.5

22.5

22.4

22.4

22.3

22.3

21.8

2,686.0

2,785.6

2,796.9

2,797.6

2,802.6

2,806.0

2,808.1

2,801.0

2,790.3

2,783.3

2,785.3

2,787.2

2,793.8

2,802.1

2,805.3

1,733.0

1,752.1

1,757.9

1,760.1

1,758.1

1,757.1

1,758.7

1,762.6

1,762.8

1,765.0

1,765.8

1,281.5

1,755.1
1.283.2

1,756.0

1.281.1

1,752.0
1.281.7

1,752.2

1.278.1

1.283.9

1.283.6

1.284.4

1.280.5

1.278.9

1.280.4

1.283.5

1.284.1

1.285.0

1.284.7

789.4

764.4

761.1

760.7

760.4

758.7

761.7

762.0

769.1

771.9

773.8

778.2

780.8

781.0

784.0

2,257.1

2,259.5

2,261.6

Credit intermediation and
related activities1................
DeDositorv credit
Commercial bankina...........
Securities, commodity
contracts, investments..........
Insurance carriers and
related activities....................
Funds, trusts, and other

2,233.2

2,266.1

2,271.7

2,271.3

2,269.7

2,268.7

2,271.9

2,264.7

2,261.2

2,258.1

2,255.8

2,257.4

85.4

81.7

82.3

81.5

81.4

80.8

81.3

80.0

79.6

80.7

79.8

79.5

79.0

78.8

78.1

2.029.8
1.352.9
649.1

2,053.6
1,384.4
640.8

2,051.9
1,383.0
640.4

2,053.8
1,382.4
642.8

2,057.8
1,385.3
643.9

2,058.8
1,386.6
643.4

2,057.9
1,388.8
639.8

2,060.2
1,390.6
639.9

2,062.7
1,394.5
639.0

2,064.0
1,395.7
638.3

2,063.6
1,397.7
636.0

2,064.5
1,400.2
634.2

2,069.5
1,405.8
634.1

2,071.6
1,409.2
633.2

2,081.2
1,417.0
635.1

27.6

28.4

28.5

28.6

28.6

28.8

29.3

29.7

29.2

30.0

29.9

30.1

29.6

29.2

29.1

15,976

15,999

15,943

15,967

16,021

15,998

16,051

16,070

16,114

16,159

16,172

16,196

16,237

16,363

16,429

6,675.6
1,115.3

6,623.5
1,136.8

6,616.7
1,136.9

6,606.5
1,137.4

6,585.7
1,135.0

6,578.1
1,133.8

6,606.3
1,136.6

6,624.1
1,140.4

6,647.9
1,142.9

6,669.3
1,140.5

6,657.9
1,138.7

6,658.1
1,139.2

6,679.8
1,138.4

6,701.4
1,141.9

6,707.1
1,143.4

837.3

815.6

808.8

802.0

800.7

800.7

802.5

801.5

810.6

826.6

815.2

813.3

812.8

818.5

807.5

1,246.1

1,228.0

1,225.1

1,220.8

1,224.6

1,222.0

1,230.1

1,230.9

1,233.9

1,235.2

1,230.9

1,240.0

1,246.4

1,254.1

1,258.0

Real estate and rental
Real estate..............................
Rental and leasing services....
Lessors of nonfinandal
intangible assets...................
P ro fe s s io n a l a n d b u s in e s s

Professional and technical
Legal services......................
Accounting and bookkeeping
services..............................
Architectural and engineering
services...............................
See notes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

89

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

12. Continued—Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by industry, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
Industry

Annual average

Computer systems design
and related services..........
Management and technical
consulting services...........
Management of companies
and enterprises........................
Administrative and waste

2003

2004

2002

2003

May

June

July

Aug

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

1,152.8

1,108.3

1,115.1

1,112.4

1,100.7

1,094.5

1,103.3

1,107.0

1,105.7

1,105.7

1,104.6

1,099.8

1,103.5

1,103.5

1,109.2

734.4

747.3

743.2

741.6

742.5

744.2

749.3

755.6

760.6

764.0

765.4

767.9

774.0

780.9

785.3

1,705.4

1,675.5

1,677.5

1,374.9

1,680.3

1,671.4

1,671.7

1,669.1

1,671.6

1,670.2

1,675.1

1,675.6

1,676.6

1,679.7

1,683.3

7,595.2

7,698.3

7,648.7

7,685.9

7,754.7

7,748.1

7,773.1

7,776.3

7,794.5

7,819.2

7,838.5

7,862.4

7,880.1

7,982.3

8,038.4

Apr.p

May”

Administrative and suDDort
services1..............................

7,276.8 73,764.0

7,325.9

7,364.8

7,426.5

7,427.0

7,451.6

7,456.0

7,473.7

7,496.3

7,517.5

7,539.6

7,556.8

7,657.0

7,713.6

Employment services1.........

3,246.5

3,336.2

3,276.1

3,314.6

3,369.6

3,366.2

3,389.1

3,402.0

3,427.6

3,461.3

3,473.8

3,493.8

3,492.3

3,553.7

3,591.3

TemDorarv help services....
Business suDDort services....
Services to buildinas
and dwellinas......................
Waste management and

2.193.7
756.6

2.243.2
747.4

2.199.7
748.3

2.235.4
747.8

2.248.8
744.2

2.262.3
748.7

2.287.2
753.2

2.291.7
753.2

2.319.4
746.7

2.355.3
745.1

2.344.3
739.0

2.370.4
739.8

2.380.3
746.0

2.423.8
748.6

2.453.3
751.6

1.606.1

1.631.7

1.628.8

1.634.8

1.643.8

1.648.4

1.645.2

1.639.6

1.639.4

1.635.9

1.637.1

1.639.5

1.646.2

1.674.5

1.685.2

318.3

321 9

322.8

321.1

328.2

321.1

321.5

320.3

320.8

322.9

321

322.8

323.3

325.3

324.8

16,199
2,642.8

16,577
2,688.5

16,564
2,692.0

16,576
2,677.7

16,568
2,676.4

16,591
2,673.9

16,672
2,689.1

16,678
2,707.7

16,705
2,723.1

16,731
2,728.0

16,746
2,729.3

16,764
2,727.4

16,813
2,736.0

16,854
2,740.8

16,893
2,745.1

13,555.7

13,888.0

13,872.3

13,898.4

13,891.3

13,916.8

13,933.3

13,970.0

13,981.5

14,003.2

14,017.1

14,036.8

14,077.1

14,113.1

14,147.9

4,633.2
1,967.8
413.0
679.8

4,776.0
2,003.8
423.1
727.1

4,763.2
1,996.3
422.8
725.7

4,777.3
2,001.0
425.0
729.7

4,783.4
2,004.6
422.8
732.0

4,791.9
2,007.1
423.5
733.7

4,792.8
2,008.2
422.9
732.8

4,812.8
2,018.5
423.3
737.7

4,818.7
2,023.3
426.4
735.7

4,831.0
2,030.0
425.0
739.9

4,840.3
2,032.3
427.8
740.2

4,855.3
2,034.4
431.1
741.5

4,868.0
2,043.5
430.3
743.8

4,883.6
2,046.1
432.2
748.4

4,897.7
2,049.6
435.2
752.2

4,159.6

4,252.5

4,249.7

4,259.8

4,247.4

4,260.2

4,264.4

4,268.9

4,278.1

4,283.9

4,287.8

4,284.1

4,298.0

4,305.1

4,314.7

2,743.3

2,784.3

2,784.6

2,786.7

2,784.2

2,787.7

2,789.3

2,794.2

2,792.8

2,793.0

2,792.1

2,791.1

2,798.4

2,802.8

2,804.8

1.573.2
2,019.7

1.582.8
2,075.2

1.583.9
2,074.8

1.586.1
2,074.6

1.582.8
2,076.3

1.580.5
2,080.0

1.583.1
2,086.8

1.585.2
2,094.1

1.584.1
2,091.9

1.581.7
2,095.3

1.580.3
2,096.9

1.578.7
2,106.3

1.582.1
2,112.7

1.584.0
2,121.6

1.584.8
2,130.7

744.1
11,986

760.5
12,128

758.2
12,078

756.5
12,097

761.1
12,118

764.5
12,117

765.8
12,126

771.6
12,147

766.3
12,178

770
12,192

766.3
12,218

772.2
12,229

773.7
12,271

777.6
12,303

779.8
12,332

1,801.0

1,794.3

1,792.1

1,797.7

1,795.0

1,794.4

1,796.9

1,799.4

1,795.2

1,801.4

1,796.7

1,798.7

1,791.1

1,791.6

370.2

370.9

366.6

366.2

366.7

372.0

369.6

371.7

368.8

369.4

366.5

364.6

361.4

358.7

114.1

114.3

114.3

114.6

114.5

113.4

114.2

113.3

113.1

113.4

113.7

114.2

114.6

115.4

1,316.6

1,309.1

1,311.2

1,316.9

1,313.8

1,309.0

1,313.1

1,314.4

1,313.3

1,318.6

1,316.5

1,319.9

1,315.1

1,317.5

10,324.4

10,283.8

10,305.1

10,319.9

10,321.8

10,331.7

10,350.4

10,378.9

10,396.3

10,416.5

10,432.3

10,511.8

10,540.3

1,778.6

1,765.2

1,751.1

1,756.0

1,762.5

1,755.0

1,739.1

1,733.7

1,751.7

1,763.0

1,752.1

1,754.4

10,742.0
1,753.4

1,758.5

1,758.9

8,424.6
5 372
1,246.9
1,257.2

8,559.2
5 393
1,236.2
1,258.2

8,562.7
5 396
1,235.2
1,259.9

8,549.1
5,399
1,238.9
1,258.5

8,557.4
5,394
1,238.7
1,258.8

8,566.8
5,396
1,242.4
1,257.3

8,592.6
5,390
1,240.4
1,252.7

8,616.7
5,387
1,237.6
1,254.6

8,627.2
5,382
1,234.4
1,254.1

8,633.3
5,374
1,228.5
1,250.2

8,664.4
5,379
1,233.5
1,251.2

8,677.9
5,376
1,230.5
1,247.6

8,718.6
5,391
1,239.4
1,255.9

8,753.3
5,404
1,238.2
1,260.5

8,781.4
5,409
1,238.3
1,267.5

2,867.8

2,898.0

2,901.1

2,902.0

2,896.3

2,895.9

2,896.5

2,895.2

2,893.9

2,895.7

2,894.5

2,898.3

2,895.2

2,904.8

2,903.1

21,513
2,767

21,575
2,756

21,541
2,769

21,567
2,763

21,561
2,758

21,580
2,750

21,539
2,747

21,560
2,736

21,544
2,723

21,544
2,720

21,527
2,715

21,539
2,716

21,553
2,710

21,572
2,727

21,544
2,706

1,923.8
842.4
5,029
2,242.8
2,786.3
13,718
7,654.4
6,063.2

1,947.0
809.1
5,017
2,266.4
2,750.7
13,802
7,699.1
6,104.0

1,953.9
815.2
5,013
2,256.5
2,756.4
13,759
7,657.2
6,102.0

1,949.6
813.0
4,996
2,247.9
2,748.0
13,808
7,707.1
6,101.1

1,947.8
810.2
4,990
2,249.0
2,740.8
13,813
7,721.2
6,091.5

1,942.2
808.0
4,997
2,258.7
2,738.2
13,833
7,742.4
6,090.1

1,942.1
804.8
5,019
2,278.8
2,740.4
13,773
7,673.9
6,099.3

1,932.9
803.3
5,031
2,290.4
2,740.4
13,793
7,687.0
6,105.9

1,924.9
798.1
5,023
2,282.5
2,740.0
13,798
7,684.5
6,113.1

1,928.9
791.4
5,027
2,285.7
2,740.9
13,797
7,687.1
6,109.7

1,921.5
793.1
5,007
2,268.0
2,738.9
13,805
7,692.2
6,112.7

1,923.8
791.7
5,018
2,279.6
2,738.4
13,805
7,694.3
6,110.8

1,921.1
789.1
5,023
2,283.2
2,739.7
13,820
7,704.7
6,114.8

1,939.5
787.3
5,019
2,278.3
2,740.6
13,826
7,710.9
6,115.4

1,920.6
785.1
5,011
2,267.9
2,742.7
13,827
7,710.6
6,116.0

E d u c a tio n a l a n d h e a lth
s e r v ic e s ............................................

Educational services.................
Health care and social
assistance................................
Ambulatory health care
services1..............................
Offices of physicians.............
Outpatient care centers.........
Home health care services....
Hospitals..................................
Nursina and residential
carp fori I¡tips1
Nursina care facilities...........
Social assistance1...................
Child day care services.........
L e is u re a n d h o s p ita lity ...............

Arts, entertainment,
and recreation..........................
1,782.6
Performing arts and
spectator sports.....................
363.7
Museums, historical sites,
zoos, and parks.....................
114.0
Amusements, gambling, and
recreation...............................
1,305.0
Accommodations and
food services........................... 10,203.2
Accommodations.....................
Food services and drinking
places.....................................
Repair and maintenance.........
Personal and laundry services
Membership associations and
organizations.........................
G o v e r n m e n t........................................

Federal.......................................
Federal, except U.S. Postal
Service....................................
U.S. Postal Service...................
State..........................................
Education...............................
Other State government.......
Local..........................................
Education...............................
Other local government.........

1 Includes other industries not shown separately,
p = preliminary.

NAiCS-based data by industry are not comparable with SIC-based data. See "Notes on the

NOTE: Data reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the North American industry

90
Monthly Labor Review

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Classification System (NAICS), replacing the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system.

July 2004

data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision, preliminary.

13.

Average weekly hours of production or nonsupervisory workers1on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry, monthly
data seasonally adjusted
Industry

2002
T O T A L P R IV A T E .............................................
G O O D S - P R O D U C I N G ........................................

2003

Annual average
2003

2004

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

A pr.p

Mayp

33.9

33.7

33.7

33.7

33.6

33.6

33.6

33.7

33.8

33.6

33.8

33.8

33.8

33.7

33.8

39.9

39 8

39 7

39 8

39 6

39 7

39 8

39 9

40 1

39 9

40 P

40 3

40 P

40 0

40 P

N a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s a n d m in in g ....................

43.2

43.6

43.8

43.6

43.3

43.6

43.6

43.7

43.9

43.6

44.5

44.1

44.2

44.3

44.2

C o n s t r u c t i o n ........................................................

38.4

38.4

38.5

38 4

38 3

38 5

38 4

38 4

38 5

38 1

38 5

38 5

38 fi

38 P

38 3

40.5
4.2

40.4
4.2

40 2
4.1

40 3
4.1

40 1
4.1

40 2
4.1

40 4

40 5

40 8

40 fi

41 0

41 0

40 9

40 7

Overtime hours....................................

4.2

4.3

4.5

4.5

4.5

4.6

4.6

4.5

41 1
4.6

40.8
4.2
39.9
42.0
42.4
40.6
40.5
39.7
40.1
42.5
39.2
38.6

40.8
4.3
40.4
42.2
42.3
40.7
40.8
40.4
40.6
41.9
38.9
38.4

40.5
4.1
39.9
42.3
42.3
40.6
40.6
40.5
40.3
41.2
38.4
38.1

40.7
4.1
40.3
42.1
42.0
40.6
40.9
40.4
40.8
41.4
38.9
38.4

40.5
4.1
40.7
41.8
41.7
40.5
40.4
40.5
40.5
41.3
38.9
38.3

40 5
4.2
40.4
42.1
41.9
40.5
40 7
41.0
40.6
40.7
39.1
38 1

40.8
4.3
40.4
41.9
42.2
40.7
41.0
40.6
40.6
42.0
39.1
38.3

40.9
4.4
40.6
42.1
42.3
40.8
40 9
40.7
40.9
41.9
39.1
38 3

41 3
4.7
41.2
42 4
42.7
40.9
41 1
40.7
40.8
42.7
39.9
38 9

41 2
4.7
41.0
42 3
42.7
40.8
41 1
40.4
40.7
42.7
39.7
38 5

41 5
4.7
40.9
42 5
43.1
41.2
41 8
40.8
41.1
42.8
39.7
39 0

41 5
4.8
41.1
42 5
43.0
41.2
41,8

41 4
4.8
41.0
42 9
43.2
41.1
41 7
40.7
40.8
42.8
39.6
38 7

41 P
4.7
41.0
42 3
43.1
41.0
41 fi

41 fi

40.5
40.8
42.4
39.5
38 3

40.7
41.6
42.7
39.9
38 a

40.1
4.2
39.6
39.4
40.6
39.2
36.7

39.8
4.1
39.3
39.1
39.1
39.6
35.6

39.6
3.9
39.3
39.0
38.5
39.1
35.4

39.7
3.9
39.3
38.8
38.8
39.0
35.1

39.4
4.0
39.1
38.4
37.7
39.8
34.6

39 6
3.6
39.2
38.8
38.7
40.0
34.8

39 8
4.1
39.3
39.1
39.0
40.7
35.1

39 9
4.1
39.3
38.8
39.1
40.4
35.8

40.1
4.3
39.2
39.9
40.0
40.0
36.2

39 9
4.2
39.1
39.1
39.7
39.8
35.8

40 2
4.3
39.5
39.6
40.0
39.4
35.7

4CL3
4.3
39.4
40.3
40.0
39.9
36.2

40 1

40 0

40 3

4.3
39.1
39.6
39.5
38.3
35.9

4.4
39.7
39.2
40.1
38.6
36.1

37.5
41.8

39.3
42.1

39.2
41.3

38.8
41.4

39.7
41.2

38.9
41.2

38.4
41.2

38.9
41.5

39.3
41..9

40.3
41.8

39.8
41.9

39.5
42.0

4.3
39.3
39.4
40.2
38.8
36.3
39.4
41.8

39.1
41.9

38.5
42.5

38.4
43.0
42.3
40.6

38.2
44.5
42.4
40.4

37.9
43.9
42.1
40.3

38.2
44.2
42.2
40.1

38.0
44.0
42.0
40.1

38.0
44.4
42.3
40.3

38.2
44.2
42.2
40.5

38.5
44.9
42.0
40.6

38.4
45.6
42.7
40.7

38.2
44.2
42.5
40.4

38.6
43.8
42.9
40.8

38.6
44.1
43.2
40.9

38.4
43.7
43.0
40.9

38.4
43.9
43.0
40.7

38.6
45.1
42.9
40.9

32.5

32.4

32.4

32.3

32.2

32.3

32.3

32.3

32.4

32.2

32.4

32.4

32.4

32.3

32.4

u t i l i t i e s ..................................................................

33.6

33.5
37.9

33.4

33.5

33.5

33.6

33.6

33.5

33.6

33.7

33.6

33.5

33.6

38.0

33.5
37.8

33.5

Wholesale trade.......................................

37.8

37.9

37.8

38.0

38.0

37.8

37.9

38.0

38.0

38.0

37.8
30.8

Overtime hours....................................
Wood products......................................
Primary metals.......................................
Fabricated metal products...................
Computer and electronic products.....
Electrical equipment and appliances..
Transportation equipment....................
Furniture and related products............

Overtime hours....................................
Food manufacturing............................. .
Beverage and tobacco products.........
Textile mills............................................
Textile product mills.............................
Apparel...................................................
Leather and allied products.................
Paper and paper products...................
Printing and related support
activities................................................
Petroleum and coal products...............
Chemicals...............................................
Plastics and rubber products...............

41.2
40.7
42.9
39.4
38 7

4.8
41.4
41 6
43.5
41.3
4P P

P R IV A T E S E R V IC E P R O V I D I N G .....................................................
T r a d e , tr a n s p o r t a t io n , a n d

Retail trade...............................................

30.9

30.9

30.8

30.8

37.8
30.7

30.9

30.9

30.9

30.9

30.8

31.0

30.9

30.8

30.7

Transportation and warehousing.........

36.8

36.9

36.6

36.6

36.9

36.9

36.9

37.1

37.0

36.7

36.9

37.2

36.9

36.9

37.2

Utilities.......................................................

40.9

41.1

40.9

41.0

41.0

41.0

40.4

41.0

41.4

40.8

40.8

41.0

41.2

41.2

41.4

I n f o r m a t i o n ............................................................

36.5

36.2

36.3

36.3

36.3

36.2

36.3

36.2

36.2

36.3

36.3

36.3

36.4

35.5

35.6

35 5

35 5

35 5

36.1
35.4

36.1

35.6

35.5

35.5

35.3

35.7

35.5

35.5

35.6

35.8
34 2

P r o f e s s io n a l a n d b u s in e s s

34.2

34.1

34.2

34.1

34.1

33.9

33.9

34.0

34.1

33 8

34 1

34 2

34 1

34 1

32.4

32.3

32.3

32.3

32.3

32.4

32.4

32.4

32.4

32.4

32.4

32.4

25.6

25.5

32.3
25.4

32.4

25.8

32.3
25.7

25.5

25.5

25.6

25.7

25.6

25.7

25.8

25.7

25 7

25 7

32.0

31.4

31.4

31.4

31.3

31.3

31.2

31.3

31.2

31.0

31.1

31.1

31.2

31.1

31.1

1 Data relate to production workers In natural resources and mining and manu­

NOTE:

Data reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the North American

facturing, construction workers In construction, and nonsupervisory workers in the

Industry Classification System (NAics), replacing the Standard industrial Classification

E d u c a t io n a n d h e a lt h s e r v ic e s ..................

O t h e r s e r v i c e s ......................................................

service-providing industries.

(SIC) system. NAics-based data by Industry are not comparable with sic-based data.
See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.

p = preliminary.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

91

Current Labor Statistics;

Labor Force Data

14. Average hourly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers' on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry,
monthly data seasonally adjusted
2003

Annual average

2004

Industry
2002

2003

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.p

M ayp

T O T A L P R IV A T E

Current dollars...............................

$14.95

$15.35

$15.31

$15.34

$15.40

$15.41

$15.41

$15.43

$15.46

$15.45

$15.49

$15.52

$15.55

$15.59

$15.63

Constant (1982) dollars.................

8.24

8.27

8.28

8.29

8.31

8.28

8.25

8.28

8.23

8.30

8.27

8.27

8.24

8.25

8.21

G O O D S - P R O D U C IN G .....................................

16.33

16.80

16.76

16.79

16.81

16.86

16.91

16.90

16 94

16 97

17 00

17 06

17 0ft

17 13

N a tu r a l r e s o u r c e s a n d m in in g ................

17.19

17.58

17.47

17.52

17.57

17 62

17 66

17 91

17 96

1ft 01

1ft 10

1ft Oft

18 95

18 95

18 97

15 97

19 01

19 05

17 72
19 06

17 79

18 52

19 06

19 04

19 11

19 1ft

19 17

1Q ?0

1ft 10

M a n u f a c t u r in g ..................................................

15.29

15.74

15.68

15.72

15.73

15.79

15.84

15.83

15.89

15.93

15.94

15.99

16.01

16.08

Excluding overtime...........................

14.54

14.96

14.92

14.96

14.96

15.02

15.06

15.03

15.06

15.09

15.11

15.14

15.16

15.24

15.23

Durable goods.......................................

16.02

16.46

16.39

16.43

16.43

16.50

16.57

16.54

16.58

16.64

16.63

16.68

16.69

16.75

16.75

Nondurable goods.................................

14.15

14.63

14.58

14.61

14.65

14.68

14.70

14.72

14.79

14.81

14.85

14.89

14.93

15.00

15.02

14.56

14.96

14.92

14.95

15.02

15.02

15.01

15.03

15.06

15.05

15.08

15.10

15.13

15.17

15.22

14.02

14.34

14.30

14.35

14.39

14.40

14.38

14.41

14.44

14.41

14.45

14.49

14.50

14.57

14.60

16.98
11.67

17.36

17.23

17.37

17.40

17.43

17.44

17.47

17.47

17.46

17.53

17.54

17.54

17.60

17.63

11.90

11.87

11.91

11.94

11.95

11.94

11.95

11.97

11.95

11.95

11.98

11.99

12.01

12.04
16. 76

16.08

P R IV A T E S E R V IC E P R O V ID IN G ........................................................
T r a d e ,t r a n s p o r t a t io n , a n d
u t i l i t i e s .............................................................

Wholesale trade....................................
Retail trade............................................
Transportation and warehousing........

15.76

16.25

16.20

16.26

16.36

16.33

16.31

16.32

16.35

16.33

16.46

16.52

16.53

16.71

Utilities....................................................

23.96

24.76

24.59

24.72

24.80

24.99

24.96

25.17

25.36

25.13

25.32

25.35

25.38

25.67

25.51

In f o r m a t io n .........................................................

20.20

21.01

21.01

20.98

21.22

21.21

21.21

17.13

17.02

17.16

17.39

17.27

17.29

20.99
17.30

21.15
17.35

21.24
17.32

21.25
17.41

21.36

16.17

21.10
17.30

21.29

F in a n c ia l a c t iv it ie s .........................................

21.18
17.41

17.46

17.53

16.81

17.20

17.21

17.16

17.20

17.20

17.19

17.25

17.29

17.25

17.24

17.25

17.27

17.29

17.36

P r o fe s s io n a l a n d b u s in e s s
s e r v ic e s ..............................................................
E d u c a tio n a n d h e a lth
s e r v ic e s ..............................................................

15.21

15.64

15.56

15.61

15.64

15.69

15.70

15.73

15.77

15.81

15.87

15.90

15.96

15.99

L e is u r e a n d h o s p it a lit y ...............................

8.58

8.76

8.75

8.76

8.78

8.77

8.78

8.78

8.82

8.84

8.85

8.86

8.87

8.86

16.05
8.87

O t h e r s e r v ic e s ..................................................

13.72

13.84

13.82

13.82

13.82

13.82

13.81

13.80

13.81

13.80

13.84

13.84

13.87

13.84

13.85

1 Data relate to production workers in natural resources and mining and manufac­

NOTE:

turing, construction workers in construction, and nonsupervisory workers in the

Classification System (NAICS), replacing the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system, naics

Data

reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the

North American industry

service-providing industries,

based data by industry are not comparable with SIC-based data. See "Notes on the data" for a

p = preliminary.

description of the most recent benchmark revision.

92
Monthly Labor Review

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2004

15.

Average hourly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers1on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry
Annual average

2004

2003

Industry
2002

2003

May

June

July

Aug

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

A pr.p

M ay.p

$15.27
15.31

$15.30
15.34

$15.29
15.40

$15.31
15.41

$15.44
15.41

$15.42
15.41

$15.52
15.43

$15.48
15.45

$15.56
15.49

$15.60
15.52

$15.55
15.55

$15.59
15.59

$15.63
15.63

T O T A L P R IV A T E ..........................................

$14.95

$15.35

Seasonally adjusted.......................

15.18

15.47

G O O D S - P R O D U C I N G .......................................

16.33

16.8

16.72

16.78

16.85

16.92

17.01

16.95

16.98

17.03

16.94

16.95

17.00

17.09

17.10

N a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s a n d m i n in g ................

17.19

17.58

17.39

17.44

17.53

17.52

17.69

17.69

17.15

17.97

18.00

18.05

18.17

18.14

18.06

C o n s t r u c t i o n ......................................................

18.52

18.95

18.86

18.91

19.00

19.08

19.19

19.13

19.08

19.19

19.01

19.07

19.07

19.15

19.14

M a n u f a c t u r i n g ...................................................

15.29

15.74

15.64

15.69

15.68

15.76

15.87

15.81

15.92

16.05

15.98

15.99

16.01

16.07

16.04

16.02
12.33
15.40

16.35
12.58
15.74
17.95
14.93
16.20
16.58
14.21

16.41
12.70
15.70
18.05
14.92
16.30
16.78
14.29

16.32
12.81
15.83
18.26
15.00
16.36
16.79
14.31

16.48
12.77
15.81
18.13
15.04
16.32
16.81
14.45

16.62
12.83
15.84
18.30
15.09
16.40
16.77
14.49

16.55
12.82
15.95
18.25
15.03
16.35
16.77
14.37

16.64
12.95
15.99
18.32
15.06
16.49
16.78
14.54

16.78
12.93
15.98
18.39
15.23
16.62
16.85
14.68

16.66
12.90
16.03
18.39
15.20
16.53
16.81
14.50

16.68
12.91
16.00
18.36
15.18
16.50
16.92
14.58

16.69
12.93
16.02

17.68
14.68
15.92
16.20
13.98

16.46
12.71
15.77
18.13
15.01
16.30
16.68
14.35

18.33
15.25
16.49
16.93
14.68

16.72
13.00
16.19
18.52
15.21
16.53
17.01
14.80

16.70
13.02
16.15
18.42
15.19
16.53
17.11
14.82

Transportation equ ipm ent.................
Furniture and related products.........

20.64
12.61
12.91

21.25
12.98
13.30

21.08
12.89
13.20

21.21
12.95
13.14

20.76
12.97
13.26

21.29
13.04
13.27

21.56
13.10
13.42

21.35
13.01
13.47

21.48
13.08
13.53

21.74
13.08
13.60

21.38
12.95
13.68

21.37
12.92
13.75

21.34
12.96
13.78

21.36
13.09
13.70

21.27
13.05
13.76

Nondurable goods.................................
Food m anufacturing...........................
Beverages and tobacco products ....

14.15
12.55
17.73

14.63
12.80
17.96

14.54
12.74
18.09

14.56
12.73
17.70

14.71
12.84
17.86

14.65
12.80
17.75

14.73
12.90
17.73

14.67
12.77
18.05

14.80
12.91
18.64

14.88
12.95
18.58

14.89
12.91
18.88

14.88
12.87
18.76

14.90
12.89
19.13

15.01
12.96
19.60

14.98
12.94
19.53

Wood p roducts....................................
Nonmetallic mineral p roducts...........
Primary m e ta ls ....................................
Fabricated metal p roducts................
M achin ery............................................
Computer and electronic products ...
Electrical equipment and appliances

Textile m ills .........................................

11.73

12.00

11.95

11.93

11.97

11.95

12.07

12.02

12.08

12.21

12.11

12.13

12.09

12.23

12.09

Textile product m ills ...........................

10.96
9.10

11.24
9.56

11.12
9.49

11.16
9.47

11.28
9.68

11.46
9.75

11.47
9.77

11.37
9.69

11.35
9.71

11.44
9.80

11.45
9.74

11.40
9.58

11.37
9.60

11.33
9.71

11.26
9.54

Leather and allied p roducts.............
Paper and paper p roducts................

11.00
16.85

11.67
17.32

11.66
17.25

11.55
17.20

11.52
17.45

11.67
17.33

11.63
17.41

11.83
17.44

11.87
17.58

11.90
17.60

11.94
17.63

11.76
17.55

11.64
17.59

11.65
17.84

11.50
17.91

Printing and related support activities

14.93

15.37

15.25

15.25

15.39

15.36

15.46

15.41

15.48

15.56

15.53

15.57

15.61

15.54

15.50

23.04

23.64

23.29

23.45

23.14

22.96

23.45

23.63

24.00

24.06

24.13

24.32

24.82

24.48

24.42

17.97

18.52

18.44

18.53

18.51

18.60

18.66

18.66

18.77

18.79

18.83

18.85

18.87

19.02

19.06

13.55

14.18

14.11

14.20

14.38

14.27

14.30

14.19

14.27

14.47

14.43

14.45

14.45

14.58

14.56

14.56

14.96

14.88

14.90

14.87

14.88

15.00

15.01

15.13

15.07

15.19

15.24

15.16

15.20

15.24

u t i l i t i e s .................................................................

14.02

14.34

14.29

14.33

14.32

14.32

14.42

14.38

14.44

14.31

14.50

14.58

14.53

14.64

14.64

Wholesale tra d e ....................................

16.98

17.36

17.27

17.36

17.33

17.35

17.41

17.42

17.56

17.46

17.56

17.60

17.47

17.60

17.68

Retail tra d e ............................................
Transportation and w arehousing.......

11.67

11.90

11.87

11.90

11.89

11.89

11.99

11.91

11.92

11.87

11.98

12.04

12.03

12.08

12.07

15.76

16.25

24.81

16.31
25.23

25.50

16.33
25.26

16.46
25.38

16.58

24.63

16.31
25.15

16.40

24.59

16.35
24.64

16.33

23.96

16.25
24.76

16.15

U tilitie s....................................................

25.29

16.51
25.36

16.73
25.69

25.56

20.20

21.01

20.92

20.92

21.01

21.11

21.35

21.25

21.28

21.10

21.21

21.28

21.17

21.24

21.35

16.17

17.13

17.00

17.19

17.29

17.34

17.27

17.25

17.42

17.26

17.35

17.47

17.37

17.45

17.65

16.81

17.20

17.15

17.20

17.07

17.00

17.11

17.13

17.41

17.29

17.38

17.47

17.28

17.26

17.45

15.99

C hem icals............................................

P R IV A T E S E R V IC E P R O V I D I N G ........................................................
T ra d e , tr a n s p o r ta tio n , a n d

F in a n c ia l a c t iv i t i e s .........................................

16.73

P r o f e s s io n a l a n d b u s in e s s
s e r v i c e s ...............................................................
E d u c a t io n a n d h e a lth
s e r v i c e s .............................................................

15.21

15.64

15.51

15.54

15.62

15.68

15.71

15.73

15.79

15.86

15.94

15.95

15.94

15.99

L e is u r e a n d h o s p i t a l i t y ..............................

8.58

8.76

8.74

8.71

8.68

8.68

8.78

8.78

8.83

8.94

8.89

8.92

8.89

8.84

8.86

O t h e r s e r v i c e s ...................................................

13.72

13.84

13.82

13.80

13.72

13.75

13.82

13.78

13.85

13.88

13.89

13.90

13.85

13.87

13.90

Data relate to production workers in natural resources and mining and

NOTE: Data reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the North American Industry

manufacturing, construction workers in construction, and nonsupervisory workers in

Classification System (NAiCS), replacing the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)

the service-providing industries.

system. NAics-based data by industry are not comparable with sic-based data. See


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

"Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

93

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

16. Average weekly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers1on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry
Industry

T O T A L P R IV A T E ...........................

Annual average

2004

2003

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.p

M a/

$506.07

$517.36

-

-

$513.07
515.95

$521.73
516.96

$515.27
517.44

$519.01
517.78

$520.33
517.78

$519.65
519.99

$527.68
522.55

$520.13
519.12

$518.15
523.56

$527.28
524.58

$520.93
525.59

$522.27
525.38

$531.42
528.29

651.61

669.23

665.46

672.88

665.58

678.49

685.50

681.39

684.29

682.90

674.21

674.61

681.70

678.47

690.84

Seasonally adjusted........
G O O D S -P R O D U C IN G .......................

2003

2002

N a tu ra l r e s o u rc e s
a n d m in in g ........................................

741.97

766.83

765.16

772.59

757.30

772.63

780.13

778.36

784.55

781.70

784.80

786.98

797.66

794.53

798.25

C o n s tr u c tio n ......................................

711.82

727.11

731.77

737.49

741.00

753.66

752.25

744.16

730.76

714.34

712.88

711.31

732.29

721.96

740.72

M a n u fa c tu r in g ...................................

618.75

636.07

628.73

635.45

620.93

633.55

647.50

643.47

655.90

662.87

650.39

652.39

653.21

652.44

659.24

Durable goods.............................

652.97

671.53

663.81

672.81

651.17

669.09

684.74

680.21

692.22

703.08

688.06

688.88

690.97

687.19

694.72

Wood products........................
Nonmetallic mineral products...
Primary m etas..........................
Fabricated meta products.......
Machinery..................................
Computer and electronic
products...................................
Eléctrica equipment and
appliances................................
Transportation equipment........
Furniture and related
products..................................
Miscellaneous
manufacturing.........................

492.00
646.91
749.32
596.38
645.55

513.92
665.11
767.63
610.33
664.79

505.72
673.67
761.08
606.16
659.34

520.70
673.53
761.71
608.74
669.93

521.37
666.44
750.49
598.50
651.13

519.74
675.09
754.21
609.12
660.96

526.03
676.37
777.75
617.18
672.40

525.62
679.47
771.98
616.23
667.08

537.43
681.17
785.93
621.98
682.69

531.42
669.56
799.97
635.09
696.38

517.29
663.64
796.29
626.24
689.30

521.56
664.00
787.64
623.90
691.35

524.96
680.85
790.02
625.25
690.93

530.40
684.84
800.06
620.27
987.65

544.24
681.53
801.71
627.35
700.87

642.87

674.68

668.17

681.27

669.92

685.85

684.22

684.22

693.01

695.91

680.81

695.41

690.74

683.80

694.67

560.24
877.87

582.68
890.32

569.82
874.82

587.32
888.70

568.11
824.17

582.34
870.76

588.29
918.46

592.04
905.24

601.96
925.79

616.56
950.04

594.50
915.06

591.95
916.77

596.01
917.62

599.40
905.66

613.55
914.61

494.01

505.23

491.11

505.05

504.53

513.78

518.76

508.69

523.20

528.43

510.23

505.17

510.62

517.06

518.09

499.13

510.69

502.94

505.89

501.23

505.59

515.33

515.90

530.38

533.12

532.15

533.50

534.66

524.71

533.89

Nondurable goods.......................

566.84

582.65

574.33

579.49

575.16

581.61

593.62

588.27

600.88

602.64

594.11

595.20

596.00

595.90

602.20

Food manufacturing..................
Beverages and tobacco
products...................................
Textile mills...............................
Textile product mills..................
Apparel.....................................
Leather and allied products......
Paper and paper products.......
Printing and related
support activities.....................
Petroleum and coal
products...................................
Chemicals..................................
Plastics and rubber
products...................................

496.91

502.61

498.13

500.29

499.48

506.88

517.29

505.69

515.11

514.12

504.78

499.36

498.84

497.66

511.13

698.39
476.52
429.01
333.66
412.99
705.62

702.75
469.47
445.08
340.22
458.26
719.21

710.94
461.27
432.57
336.90
457.07
707.25

699.15
464.08
440.82
337.13
452.76
712.08

692.97
440.50
446.69
332.02
449.28
713.71

694.03
462.47
459.55
339.30
451.63
710.53

707.43
475.56
467.98
341.95
445.43
726.00

707.56
469.98
458.21
348.84
462.55
727.25

751.19
485.62
456.27
356.36
465.30
743.63

722.76
490.84
464.46
352.80
485.52
751.52

728.77
485.61
447.70
343.82
471.63
738.70

737.27
486.41
450.30
345.84
464.52
731.84

744.16
490.85
441.16
350.40
464.44
731.74

780.08
484.31
435.07
347.76
460.18
745.71

771.44
486.02
432.38
346.30
441.60
755.80

573.05

587.42

573.40

577.98

578.66

585.22

599.85

597.91

603.72

602.17

593.25

597.89

600.99

593.63

593.65

990.88
759.53

1,052.97
784.56

1,003.80
776.32

1,043.53
785.67

1,022.79
771.87

1,007.94
784.92

1,045.87
793.05

1,068.08
785.59

1,099.20
808.99

1,061.05
806.09

1,068.96
804.04

1,074.94
816.21

1,079.67
811.41

1,062.43
814.06

1,091.57
815.77

549.85

572.23

570.04

573.68

566.57

572.23

583.44

578.95

586.50

596.16

585.86

588.12

589.56

594.86

595.50

472.88

484.00

479.14

487.23

481.79

485.09

483.00

484.82

493.24

485.25

484.56

496.82

486.64

487.92

496.82

a n d u tilitie s .......................................

471.27

481.10

478.72

487.22

484.02

485.45

485.95

483.17

486.63

480.82

477.05

488.43

482.40

486.05

493.37

Wholesale trade...........................

644.38

657.12

652.81

664.89

653.34

659.30

658.10

661.96

676.06

659.99

656.74

670.56

658.62

665.28

675.38

Retail trade..................................

360.81

367.28

365.60

373.66

373.35

373.35

371.69

366.83

365.94

367.97

361.80

368.42

365.71

367.23

372.96

P R IV A T E S E R V IC E P R O V ID IN G ..........................................
T ra d e , tra n s p o r ta tio n ,

Transportation and
warehousing..............................

579.75

597.79

589.48

601.25

603.32

604.21

606.73

603.47

615.00

602.58

597.50

613.46

604.27

610.65

625.70

Utilities.........................................

979.09

1,016.94

1,003.27

1,012.29

1,007.78

1,017.21

1,026.12

1,039.48

1,068.45

1,028.08

1,032.97

1,039.42

1,039.76

1,053.29

1,055.63

In fo r m a tio n ..........................................

738.17

761.13

753.12

767.76

762.66

768.40

770.74

769.25

783.10

761.71

763.56

776.72

760.00

764.64

775.01

F in a n c ia l a c t iv itie s ...........................

575.51

608.87

600.10

622.28

610.34

613.84

607.90

608.93

628.86

607.55

612.10

630.67

611.42

615.99

637.17

574.66

586.68

584.82

596.84

580.38

579.70

578.32

580.71

597.16

582.67

583.97

602.72

587.52

588.57

603.77

P ro fe s s io n a l a n d
b u s in e s s s e r v ic e s ..........................
E d u c a tio n a n d
h e a lth s e r v ic e s ...............................

492.74

505.76

497.87

505.05

504.53

508.03

505.86

506.51

516.33

512.28

514.86

519.97

513.27

516.48

519.68

L e is u r e a n d h o s p ita lity ..................

221.26

224.35

222.87

227.33

226.55

228.28

222.13

223.89

226.05

225.29

221.36

230.14

225.80

224.81

224.54

O th e r s e r v ic e s ....................................

439.76

434.49

431.18

436.08

430.81

433.13

431.18

431.31

434.89

430.28

429.20

433.68

428.73

428.58

435.07

1 Data relate to production workers in natural resources and mining and manufacturing,

Industry Classification System (NAICS), replacing the Standard Industrial Classifification (SIC)

construction workers in construction, and nonsupervisory workers in the service­

system. NAics-based data by industry are not comparable with sic-based data. See "Notes on

providing industries.

the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.

NOTE:

Dash indicates data not available, p = preliminary.

Data reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the North American

94
Monthly Labor Review

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2004


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

17. Diffusion indexes of employment change, seasonally adjusted
[In percent]
Tim espan and year

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Private nonfarm payrolls, 278 industries
Over 1-month span:
2000..................................................

61.9

62.9

63.3

59.5

46.9

61.7

63.1

52.5

51.5

53.4

56.8

2001..................................................

52.2

47.8

50.4

34.4

41.4

39.2

37.1

38.8

38.3

32.4

36.7

53.8
34.9

2002..................................................

40.1

35.1

41.0

41.5

41.7

47.8

44.1

44.1

42.8

39.0

38.7

34.5

2003..................................................

41.2

35.1

38.1

41.4

42.8

40.1

40.5

39.7

49.3

46.0

51.1

49.1

2004..................................................

52.3

56.1

68.7

67.6

64.6

56.8

Over 3-month span:
2000..................................................

69.2

66.2

67.8

68.3

60.1

58.1

56.3

61.5

56.5

53.2

52.9

2001..................................................

52.7

50.4

50.4

43.5

38.8

34.9

36.2

37.9

34.7

35.3

30.8

32.0

2002..................................................

34.0

37.4

35.1

36.2

36.7

39.4

39.9

40.8

38.7

37.1

34.4

34.7

42.6

37.4

35.4

40.1

45.5

50.5

51.1

54.0

2003..................................................

36.5

32.6

36.3

35.1

40.5

2004..................................................

54.0

55.2

62.8

70.0

74.8

Over 6-month span:
2000..................................................

67.3

69.1

75.2

72.5

67.4

67.8

66.7

60.8

59.0

55.0

59.7

2001..................................................

51.8

50.0

51.8

47.3

43.5

41.5

38.1

35.4

32.2

33.1

31.5

31.1

2002..................................................

29.5

30.0

31.1

31.1

31.7

37.1

37.2

39.0

34.7

36.5

35.3

33.3

37.8

36.2

36.5

40.5

39.4

42.6

41.7

2003..................................................

33.6

31.1

31.7

31.7

33.5

2004..................................................

48.9

54.1

59.6

64.7

68.3

Over 12-month span:
2000..................................................

70.9

69.2

73.2

71.0

69.8

71.0

70.0

70.3

70.3

65.6

63.8

62.1

2001..................................................

59.5

59.5

53.4

49.3

48.6

45.0

43.3

43.9

39.9

37.8

37.1

34.9

2002..................................................

33.6

31.7

30.2

30.4

30.2

29.1

32.0

31.3

30.0

29.5

32.9

34.7

2003..................................................

34.5

31.5

32.9

33.5

36.2

34.4

34.7

33.1

37.6

37.4

33.1

35.4

2004..................................................

37.8

43.2

47.3

50.7

54.3

41.1

Manufacturing payrolls, 84 industries
Over 1-month span:
2000..................................................

48.2

58.3

50.0

50.0

41.1

57.1

60.7

28.6

25.0

35.1

39.9

2001..................................................

22.6

22.0

21.4

16.1

15.5

23.2

13.7

14.3

19.0

17.9

14.9

10.1

2002..................................................

21.4

18.5

23.8

35.1

29.8

32.7

40.5

28.0

31.0

11.9

15.5

17.9

25.0

28.0

26.2

27.4

28.6

51.2

45.8

2003..................................................

26.2

15.5

22.6

13.7

26.2

2004..................................................

42.9

55.4

60.1

66.1

60.7

Over 3-month span:
2000..................................................

53.6

53.6

56.0

54.8

44.0

44.0

51.2

47.6

32.7

25.0

23.2

38.7

2001..................................................

35.7

21.4

16.1

14.3

13.1

13.7

11.9

8.9

2002..................................................

10.1
13.1

11.3
16.7

17.9
10.1

17.3
13.1

19.0

28.0

22.0

13.1
15.5

8.9
6.5

10.1
4.8

2003..................................................

9.5
13.7

8.3
23.8

14.9

16.1

16.1

16.1

24.4

27.4

41.7

2004..................................................

48.8

51.8

59.5

66.1

69.0

Over 6-month span:
2000..................................................

44.0

52.4

55.4

57.7

47.6

51.8

56.0

45.2

39.3

34.5

32.1

27.4

2001..................................................

22.0

23.8

22.0

20.8

14.3

13.7

14.3

10.1

10.7

5.4

7.1

4.8

2002..................................................

6.5

8.9

7.7

8.3

7.7

14.3

14.9

10.7

12.5

10.1

8.9

8.9

2003..................................................

11.3

9.5

6.0

7.1

8.9

13.1

8.9

13.1

13.1

16.7

19.0

19.6

2004..................................................

28.6

36.9

46.4

56.5

60.1

2000..................................................

41.7

50.0

46.4

52.4

46.4

40.5

35.1

33.3

20.8

19.0

13.1

12.5

51.8
10.7

49.4

29.8

39.3
32.1

47.0

2001..................................................

11.9

11.9

10.1

8.3

6.0

2002..................................................

7.1

6.0

6.0

6.5

7.1

3.6

4.8

6.0

4.8

7.1

4.8

8.3

2003..................................................

10.7

6.0

6.5

5.4

8.3

9.5

9.5

9.5

10.7

11.9

9.5

11.3

2004..................................................

9.5

19.0

16.7

26.2

31.5

Over 12-month span:

NOTE: Figures are the percent of industries with employment
increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged
employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance
between industries with increasing and decreasing
employment.

See the "Definitions" in this section. See "Notes on the data" for
a description of the most recent benchmark revision.
Data

for

the

two

most

recent

months

Monthly Labor Review

are

preliminary.

July 2004

95

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

18. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted
Levels (in thousands)
Industry and region

2003
May

Total2....................................................................

Rates

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

2004

2003

2004
Apr.

M ayp

May

Dec.

Jan.

Mar.

Feb.

Apr.

M ayp

2,723

3,062

2,868

2,906

3,079

3,135

3,104

2.1

2.3

2.2

2.2

2.3

2.3

2.3

2,370

2,719

2,518

2,534

2,740

2,778

2,727

2.1

2.4

2.3

2.3

2.5

2.5

2.4

90

110

106

99

113

105

98

1.3

1.6

1.5

1.4

1.6

1.5

1.4

M anufacturing.........................................

180

234

233

226

232

251

231

1.2

1.6

1.6

1.6

1.6

1.7

1.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities........

422

520

430

458

524

531

522

1.6

2.0

1.7

1.8

2.0

2.0

2.0

Professional and business services....

461

594

501

491

502

518

521

2.8

3.5

3.0

2.9

3.0

3.1

3.1

Education and health services.............

563

520

549

551

559

576

556

3.3

3.0

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.3

3.2

326

399

368

383

370

376

387

2.6

3.2

2.9

3.0

2.9

3.0

3.0

350

351

350

364

353

354

375

1.6

1.6

1.6

1.7

1.6

1.6

1.7

In d u s t r y

Total private2.................................................

Government...................................................
R e g io n 3

South.........................................................

W est.........................................................

1

513

541

476

500

569

560

515

2.0

2.1

1.9

2.0

2.2

2.2

2.0

1,026

1,204

1,132

1,112

1,176

1,191

1,195

2.2

2.6

2.4

2.4

2.5

2.5

2.5

591

666

679

680

663

692

6,679

1.9

2.1

2.2

2.2

2.1

2.2

2.1

607

649

586

632

655

694

734

2.1

2.2

2.0

2.2

2.2

2.4

2.5

Kansas,

Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska,

Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal

M id w e s t:

Illinois, Indiana,

Iowa,

adjustment of the various series.

North Dakota, Ohio, South

2

Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington,

Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other

N o rth e a s t:

W e s t:

Alaska, Arizona, California,

Wyoming.

services, not shown separately.
3

Dakota, Wisconsin;

Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey,
Alabama, Arkansas,

NOTE: The job openings level is the number of job openings on the last business day of

Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland,

the month; the job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of

Mississippi,

the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.

New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont;

North Carolina,

Oklahoma,

South Carolina,

Tennessee,

Texas,

p = preliminary.

Virginia, West Virginia;

Monthly Labor Review
96

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

S o u th :

July 2004

19. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted
Levels (in thousands)
Industry and region

2003
May

Total2....................................................................

Rates
2003

2004

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

M ayp

3,958

4,216

4,106

4,103

4,603

4,398

4,173

Total private2.................................................

3,652

3,923

3,800

3,772

4,256

4,090

Construction............................................

430

404

358

382

437

421

May

2004

Dec.

3.0

3.2

3,907

3.4

405

6.4

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

M ayp

3.2

3.2

3.5

3.6

3.5

3.5

3.9

3.7

3.6

6.0

5.3

5.6

6.4

6.1

5.9
2.3

3.4

3.2

I n d u s tr y

M anufacturing.........................................

305

340

349

355

361

354

332

2.1

2.4

2.4

2.5

2.5

2.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities........

837

913

957

945

1,009

1,032

927

3.3

3.6

3.8

3.7

4.0

4.1

3.6

Professional and business services....

527

650

708

529

713

609

624

3.3

4.0

4.4

3.3

4.4

3.7

3.8

Education and health services.............

425

427

416

447

444

460

452

2.6

2.5

2.5

2.7

2.6

2.7

2.7

Leisure and hospitality...........................

686

753

715

766

810

766

725

5.7

6.2

5.9

6.3

6.6

6.2

5.9

Government...................................................

307

300

295

323

343

300

268

1.4

1.4

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.4

1.2

R e g io n 3

1

Northeast.................................................

675

792

722

689

744

810

695

2.5

3.2

2.9

2.8

3.0

3.2

2.8

South.........................................................

1,468

1,517

1,585

1,608

1,781

1,582

1,612

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.9

3.4

3.5

Midwest....................................................

881

897

921

953

1,040

991

941

2.9

2.9

3.0

3.1

3.4

3.2

3.0

W est..........................................................

927

992

883

876

1,029

1,093

944

3.3

3.5

3.1

3.1

3.6

3.8

3.3

Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal

Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota,

adjustment of the various series.

Wisconsin; W e s t: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana,

2 Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other

Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, Wyoming.

services, not shown separately.
3 N o rth e a s t:

Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New

York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont; S o u th : Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware,

NOTE: The hires level is the number of hires during the entire month; the hires rate
is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.

District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi,
North Carolina,

Oklahoma,

South Carolina,

Virginia; M id w e s t : Illinois, Indiana, Iowa,


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Tennessee,

Texas,

Virginia,

West

p = preliminary.

Kansas,

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

97

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

20. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted
Rates

Levels (in thousands)
Industry and region

2003
May

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

M ayp

3,736

4,022

3,968

4,073

4,134

4,088

4,003

Total private2.................................................

3,456

3,723

3,716

3,807

3,868

3,843

3,745

Construction............................................

364

391

436

400

392

391

360

M anufacturing.........................................

375

343

323

355

377

353

375

Trade, transportation, and utilities........

784

968

936

899

978

1,013

Professional and business services....

437

575

572

590

597

Education and health services.............

410

330

389

388

382

Leisure and hospitality..........................

700

723

709

727

715

267

269

258

268

284

Total2....................................................................

2004

2003

2004

May

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

3.1

3.0

3.1

3.2

3.4

3.4

3.5

5.4

5.8

6.4

5.9

2.6

2.4

2.3

2.5

903

3.1

3.8

3.7

606

571

2.7

3.6

386

375

2.5

679

697

245

257

Mar.

M ayp

3.1

3.1

3.5

3.5

3.4

5.7

5.7

5.7

2.6

2.5

2.6

3.5

3.8

4.0

3.5

3.5

3.6

3.7

3.7

3.5

2.0

2.3

2.3

2.3

2.3

2.2

5.8

5.9

5.8

5.9

5.8

5.5

5.6

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.3

1.1

1.2

2.6

2.9

3.2

Apr

In d u s try

Government...................................................
R e g io n 3

697

687

712

688

666

716

644

2.8

2.8

2.9

2.8

2.7

2.9

1,337

1,518

1,505

1,499

1,612

1,524

1,483

2.9

3.3

3.3

3.3

3.5

3.3

3.2

848

901

903

929

938

877

837

2.8

2.9

2.9

3.0

3.0

2.8

2.7

867

898

896

941

1,003

959

1,001

3.1

3.2

3.2

3.3

3.5

3.4

3.5

W est.........................................................

Illinois, Indiana, Iowa,

Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraskr

’ Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment

M id w e s t:

of the various series.

North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin; W e s t: Alaska, Arizona, Californii

2

Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washingtor

Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other

Wyoming.

services, not shown separately.
3 N o rth e a s t:

Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New

York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont;
District of Columbia, Florida,

Georgia,

S o u th :

Kentucky,

Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware,

Louisiana,

Maryland,

Mississippi,

North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia;

Monthly Labor Review
98

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

NOTE: The total separations level is the number of total separations during the entir
month; the total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entir
month as a percent of total employment.
p = preliminary.

July

2004

21. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted
Levels1 (in thousands)
Industry and region

2003
May

Total2....................................................................

Rates

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

2004

2003

2004
Apr.

M ayp

May

Jan.

Dec.

2,014

2,131

2,118

2,178

2,271

2,278

2,152

Total private2.................................................

1,889

2,010

2,002

2,051

2,144

2,151

2,014

1.7

1.9

Construction............................................

134

171

148

133

154

149

139

2.0

2.5

1.5

1.6

Mar.

Feb.

1.6

Apr.

M ayp

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.8

1.9

2.0

2.0

1.8

2.2

2.0

2.3

2.2

2.0

1.6

In d u s try

Manufacturing.........................................

149

178

165

169

176

189

167

1.0

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.3

1.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities........

475

534

530

493

530

563

520

1.9

2.1

2.1

1.9

2.1

2.2

2.0
1.6

Professional and business services....

240

256

261

302

309

323

257

1.5

1.6

1.6

1.9

1.9

2.0

Education and health services.............

228

212

237

234

252

245

220

1.4

1.3

1.4

1.4

1.5

1.5

1.3

Leisure and hospitality...........................

439

462

428

447

465

429

454

3.6

3.8

3.5

3.7

3.8

3.5

3.7

Government...................................................

120

119

116

126

129

129

130

.6

.6

.5

.6

.6

.6

.6

R e g io n 5

Northeast.................................................

311

315

288

319

314

390

312

1.2

1.3

1.2

1.3

1.3

1.6

1.2

South........................................................

798

894

852

867

957

888

851

1.7

1.9

1.9

1.9

2.1

1.9

1.8

M idwest....................................................

459

465

513

455

474

479

473

1.5

1.5

1.7

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

W est.........................................................

426

436

475

520

565

524

518

1.5

1.5

1.7

1.8

2.0

1.8

1.8

Indiana,

Iowa,

Kansas,

Illinois,

Michigan,

Minnesota,

Missouri,

1 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment

M id w e s t:

of the various series.

Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin; W e s t: Alaska, Arizona,

2

California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah,

Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other

Washington, Wyoming.

services, not shown separately.
3

N o rth e a s t:

Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New

York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont;
District of Columbia, Florida,

Georgia,

S o u th :

Kentucky,

Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware,

Louisiana,

Maryland,

North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia,


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Mississippi,

West Virginia;

NOTE: The quits level is the number of quits during the entire month; the quits rate
is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
p = preliminary.

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

99

Current Labor Statistics:

22.

Labor Force Data

Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages: 10 largest counties, fourth quarter 2003.

C o u n t y b y N A IC S s u p e r s e c to r

E s t a b lis h m e n ts ,
fo u r th q u a r te r
2003

E m p lo y m e n t
D ecem ber

A v e r a g e w e e k ly w a g e 1

P e rc e n t ch an g e ,
Decem ber
2 0 0 2 -0 3 2

F o u rth
q u a r te r
2003

P e rc e n t c h an g e ,
fo u r th q u a r te r
2 0 0 2 -0 3 2

(th o u s a n d s )

2003
(t h o u s a n d s )

Private industry ..............................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..................................................
C o nstruction...............................................................................
Manufacturing ............................................................................
Trade, transportation, and u tilitie s ...........................................
Information ..................................................................................
Financial a c tiv itie s .....................................................................
Professional and business s e rv ic e s ........................................
Education and health services ................................................
Leisure and hospitality ..............................................................
Other s e rv ic e s ............................................................................
Government ....................................................................................

8,314.1
8,048.7
123.7
804.9
376.8
1,853.6
145.2
767.0
1,329.4
732.2
669.9
1,080.6
265.3

129,341.5
108,215.1
1,557.8
6,689.5
14,307.8
25,957.3
3,165.9
7,874.7
16,113.2
15,974.0
12,042.8
4,274.1
21,126.3

0.0
.0
.1
1.2
-4.2
-.3
-4.0
1.2
.6
2.1
1.7
-.1
-.2

$767
769
703
837
943
665
1,139
1,138
945
731
335
494
757

3.6
3.9
4.9
2.3
6.7
3.4
3.9
5.9
3.8
3.8
3.4
3.1
2.4

Los Angeles, CA ................................................................................
Private industry ..............................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..................................................
C onstruction ...............................................................................
Manufacturing ............................................................................
Trade, transportation, and u tilitie s ...........................................
Information .................................................................................
Financial a c tiv itie s .....................................................................
Professional and business s e rv ic e s ........................................
Education and health services ................................................
Leisure and hospitality ..............................................................
Other s e rv ic e s ............................................................................
Government ....................................................................................

356.0
352.2
.6
12.9
17.8
53.9
9.2
23.0
40.1
26.6
25.6
142.1
3.8

4,075.3
3,486.3
11.0
133.9
485.2
794.6
194.9
237.9
575.0
456.5
375.9
220.7
589.0

-.5
-.2
.7
-1.1
-7.1
-1.2
-2.0
.9
1.6
1.9
5.6
3.5
-2.3

903
898
955
883
900
735
1,627
1,258
1,043
820
766
422
930

4.2
4.2
16.9
1.7
6.5
2.7
5.2
7.0
3.7
3.9
6.5
5.0
3.3

Cook, I L ................................................................................................
Private industry ..............................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..................................................
C o nstruction...............................................................................
Manufacturing ............................................................................
Trade, transportation, and u tilitie s ...........................................
Information ..................................................................................
Financial a c tiv itie s .....................................................................
Professional and business s e rv ic e s ........................................
Education and health services ................................................
Leisure and hospitality ..............................................................
Other s e rv ic e s ............................................................................
Government ....................................................................................

126.7
125.5
.1
10.5
7.9
26.7
2.5
13.8
26.1
12.3
10.5
12.6
1.2

2,539.8
2,221.9
1.3
96.7
265.7
499.4
66.1
219.4
405.5
350.8
217.7
95.1
317.9

-1.2
-.9
-3.6
.0
-5.1
-.8
-4.1
-.8
-1.3
1.0
2.8
-2.0
-3.1

922
929
1,037
1,169
975
753
1,164
1,471
1,206
791
375
655
871

3.0
3.2
3.2
-.8
6.3
.4
.1
8.1
4.1
3.7
-.3
3.0
.9

New York, N Y ......................................................................................
Private industry ................................. .............................................
Natural resources and mining ..................................................
C o nstruction...............................................................................
Manufacturing ............................................................................
Trade, transportation, and u tilitie s...........................................
Information .................................................................................
Financial a c tiv itie s .....................................................................
Professional and business se rvice s........................................
Education and health services ................................................
Leisure and hospitality ..............................................................
Other s e rv ic e s ............................................................................
Government ....................................................................................

111.9
111.7
.0
2.2
3.5
22.1
4.3
16.7
22.6
7.8
10.1
16.0
.2

2,253.6
1,800.4
.1
30.0
46.6
247.6
130.6
352.0
439.7
273.8
188.2
82.9
453.2

-1.0
-.6
.0
-4.5
-4.9
-1.2
-5.1
-2.0
.5
2.4
.4
-1.1
-2.2

1,480
1,623
1,197
1,567
1,290
1,164
1,751
3,034
1,702
918
787
871
912

7.2
8.1
-6.5
3.4
6.4
5.5
7.9
16.1
2.6
7.6
6.1
6.1
.1

Harris, T X .............................................................................................
Private industry ..............................................................................
Natural resources and m in in g ..................................................
C onstruction ...............................................................................
Manufacturing ............................................................................
Trade, transportation, and u tilitie s...........................................
Information .................................................................................
Financial a c tiv itie s .....................................................................
Professional and business s e rv ic e s ........................................
Education and health services ................................................
Leisure and hospitality ..............................................................
Other se rv ic e s ............................................................................
Government ....................................................................................

89.4
89.0
1.2
6.3
4.7
21.1
1.4
9.7
17.0
8.8
6.5
10.3
.4

1,841.5
1,595.2
62.5
135.5
164.0
403.2
33.8
113.1
279.0
188.3
155.2
56.3
246.3

-.9
-1.2
8.7
-5.0
-4.9
-2.1
-3.9
1.7
-1.7
1.5
.7
-3.1
1.1

906
929
2,185
919
1,106
821
1,098
1,181
1,073
812
335
539
759

2.1
2.1
-.9
2.6
2.3
1.0
.4
4.9
3.2
1.8
-.9
.4
3.1

Maricopa, A Z .......................................................................................
Private industry ..............................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..................................................
C o nstruction...............................................................................
Manufacturing ............................................................................
Trade, transportation, and u tilitie s...........................................
Information ..................................................................................
Financial a c tiv itie s .....................................................................
Professional and business s e rv ic e s ........................................
Education and health services ................................................
Leisure and hospitality ..............................................................
Other s e rv ic e s ............................................................................
Government ....................................................................................

80.9
80.5
.5
8.4
3.3
18.6
1.6
9.5
18.1
7.6
5.6
5.7
.5

1,621.2
1,401.8
9.8
131.7
128.0
336.4
36.6
133.3
261.5
160.5
155.8
44.7
219.4

<4)
2.2
-2.6
5.9
-2.5
1.5
-4.1
1.5
4,2
5.6
.8
-2.6
1.6

757
755
545
779
1,050
712
872
933
776
842
364
500
766

4.0
3.9
4.4
2.1
8.2
3.2
.5
3.7
3.5
5.0
2.8
2.2
3.7

United States3 .....................................................................................

See footnotes at end of table.

100
Monthly Labor Review

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2004

22. Continued—Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages: 10 largest counties, fourth quarter 2003.

C o u n t y b y N A IC S s u p e r s e c to r

fo u r t h q u a r te r
2003
(t h o u s a n d s )

A v e r a g e w e e k ly w a g e 1

E m p lo y m e n t

E s t a b lis h m e n ts ,

D ecem ber

P e rc e n t ch an g e ,

F o u r th

2003

D ecem ber

q u a r te r

P e rc e n t c h an g e ,
fo u r t h q u a r t e r

(t h o u s a n d s )

2 0 0 2 -0 3 2

2003

2 0 0 2 -0 3 2

Dallas, T X .............................................................................................
Private industry ...............................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..................................................
C o nstruction................................................................................
Manufacturing ............................................................................
Trade, transportation, and u tilitie s ...........................................
Information ..................................................................................
Financial a c tiv itie s ......................................................................
Professional and business s e rv ic e s ........................................
Education and health services .................................................
Leisure and hospitality ..............................................................
Other s e rv ic e s ............................................................................
Government ....................................................................................

68.6
68.2
.5
4.5
3.5
15.8
1.9
8.6
14.0
6.3
5.2
6.7
.4

1,450.8
1,294.6
6.8
73.0
144.9
326.1
64.0
140.0
237.7
131.4
127.5
40.5
156.2

-1.4
-1.4
-20.5
-2.2
-3.1
-3.3
-5.1
1.2
.0
2.4
.0
-3.4
-1.8

$952
970
2,680
909
1,075
898
1,272
1,215
1,152
887
432
587
800

4.3
4.8
22.7
5.5
6.8
5.2
8.7
2.9
4.2
2.7
4.3
2.8
-.1

Orange, C A ..........................................................................................
Private industry ...............................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..................................................
C o nstruction................................................................................
Manufacturing ............................................................................
Trade, transportation, and u tilitie s ...........................................
Information ..................................................................................
Financial a c tiv itie s ......................................................................
Professional and business s e rv ic e s ........................................
Education and health s e rv ic e s .................................................
Leisure and hospitality ..............................................................
Other s e rv ic e s ............................................................................
Government ....................................................................................

88.8
87.4
.3
6.4
6.1
17.3
1.5
9.7
17.4
9.1
6.6
12.9
1.4

1,436.6
1,305.5
6.1
85.5
179.9
278.8
33.8
127.8
261.0
126.6
159.9
46.0
131.1

1.3
2.1
8.3
4.4
-3.0
.6
-4.4
9.9
1.0
6.1
2.5
6.3
-5.7

874
875
579
969
1,036
802
1,152
1,354
942
849
358
518
859

5.3
5.2
.2
5.9
11.4
2.7
5.3
6.2
2.8
3.7
3.8
3.0
6.0

San Diego, CA ....................................................................................
Private industry ...............................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..................................................
Construction ................................................................................
Manufacturing ............................................................................
Trade, transportation, and u tilitie s ...........................................
Inform ation..................................................................................
Financial a c tiv itie s ......................................................................
Professional and business s e rv ic e s........................................
Education and health services .................................................
Leisure and hospitality ..............................................................
Other s e rv ic e s ............................................................................
Government ....................................................................................

85.3
83.9
.9
6.4
3.6
14.2
1.4
8.8
14.9
7.6
6.5
19.5
1.3

1,278.2
1,060.2
11.0
81.1
105.4
220.4
36.7
81.6
208.1
122.6
141.5
51.6
218.0

1.3
1.5
-5.4
4.7
-4.2
2.2
-4.5
4.8
1.5
1.6
3.5
1.8
.1

815
809
491
869
1,129
655
1,582
1,058
989
778
346
449
843

2.6
2.5
1.0
.7
11.5
.9
-2.0
.4
2.8
5.7
2.4
2.7
2.9

King, WA ..............................................................................................
Private industry ..............................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..................................................
C o nstruction................................................................................
Manufacturing ............................................................................
Trade, transportation, and u tilitie s...........................................
Inform ation..................................................................................
Financial a c tiv itie s ......................................................................
Professional and business s e rv ic e s ........................................
Education and health s e rv ic e s .................................................
Leisure and hospitality ..............................................................
Other s e rv ic e s ............................................................................
Government ....................................................................................

81.6
81.0
.4
6.2
2.7
14.8
1.5
6.1
11.7
5.9
5.4
26.4
.6

1,100.6
945.5
2.8
53.4
101.9
225.5
69.2
77.5
158.3
108.3
100.5
48.1
155.1

.2
.1
-11.3
-.4
-8.2
1.1
.8
2.4
.7
1.5
2.9
1.2
1.0

935
944
1,109
921
1,176
804
1,829
1,114
1,160
746
390
463
882

.2
-.3
.8
1.4
-2.1
2.6
-15.7
3.5
8.4
4.8
3.7
.4
3.6

Miami-Dade, F L ...................................................................................
Private industry ...............................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..................................................
C o nstruction................................................................................
Manufacturing ............................................................................
Trade, transportation, and u tilitie s ...........................................
Inform ation..................................................................................
Financial a c tiv itie s ......................................................................
Professional and business s e rv ic e s ........................................
Education and health services .................................................
Leisure and hospitality ..............................................................
Other s e rv ic e s ............................................................................
Government ........................................... :.......................................

80.2
79.9
.5
4.9
2.8
23.2
1.7
8.2
15.9
7.8
5.3
7.5
.3

980.8
827.5
9.9
40.7
49.4
247.2
28.5
65.5
132.0
123.4
92.8
34.5
153.3

-.5
-.7
-1.8
.3
-9.8
-1.7
-3.2
.7
-.2
1.4
2.1
-1.8
.5

765
742
421
788
695
689
990
1,062
948
748
432
450
886

3.5
3.6
4.0
2.7
5.8
4.2
1.7
-1.1
5.2
2.3
9.9
3.0
2.8

1 Average weekly wages were calculated using unrounded data.
2 Percent changes were computed from quarterly employment and pay data
adjusted for noneconomic county reclassifications. See Notes on Current Labor
Statistics.
3 Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Virgin Islands.
4 Data do not meet BLS or State agency disclosure standards.
NOTE: Includes workers covered by Unemployment Insurance (Ul) and
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) programs. Data are
preliminary.

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

101

Current Labor Statistics:

23.

Labor Force Data

Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages: by State, fourth quarter 2003.
E m p lo y m e n t

E s t a b lis h m e n ts ,
S ta te

fo u r th q u a r te r
2003
(th o u s a n d s )

D ecem ber

A v e r a g e w e e k ly w a g e 1

P e rc e n t ch an g e ,

F o u r th

P erc en t ch an g e ,

2003

D ecem ber

q u a r te r

fo u r th q u a r te r

(t h o u s a n d s )

2 0 0 2 -0 3

2003

2 0 0 2 -0 3

United States2 ......................................

8,314.1

129,341.5

0.0

$767

3.6

A la b a m a ................................................
A la s k a ...................................................
A rizo n a ..................................................
A rka n sa s...............................................
C a lifo rn ia ...............................................
Colorado ...............................................
C o nnecticut..........................................
D e law are...............................................
District of C o lu m b ia .............................
F lo rid a ...................................................

111.8
20.0
126.9
75.2
1,190.8
160.0
109.1
27.1
30.0
504.1

1,838.1
282.7
2,352.1
1,133.6
14,922.3
2,134.6
1,648.9
408.4
654.8
7,424.5

-.1
1.1
2.2
.5
.0
-1.1
-.7
.5
-.4
.8

657
746
710
587
869
784
992
825
1,238
685

4.0
1.1
3.8
4.1
3.8
2.0
3.8
5.0
3.9
3.8

G e o rg ia .................................................
Hawaii ...................................................
Id a h o .....................................................
Illin o is ....................................................
In d ia n a ..................................................
Iowa ......................................................
Kansas ..................................................
Kentucky ...............................................
Lou isia na...............................................
M a in e ....................................................

245.6
37.4
48.5
325.7
152.1
90.6
82.2
105.7
114.0
47.4

3,845.6
583.0
577.5
5,738.7
2,852.2
1,418.5
1,298.3
1,740.6
1,870.9
595.8

.2
1.3
.6
-1.2
-.3
.0
-.9
.3
.5
.7

734
678
579
827
675
626
631
645
628
631

2.8
3.7
1.8
3.2
3.5
4.7
2.8
3.5
2.4
4.6

Maryland ...............................................
M assachusetts.....................................
M ichigan................................................
Minnesota ............................................
M ississippi.............................................
M issouri.................................................
M o n ta n a ................................................
N e bra ska...............................................
Nevada ..................................................
New Hampshire ..................................

150.4
206.6
251.3
159.0
65.6
165.4
42.0
55.3
60.3
47.0

2,466.4
3,154.6
4,365.8
2,591.9
1,108.1
2,633.6
396.6
884.4
1,111.2
614.9

.7
-1.9
-1.1
-.5
.4
-.7
1.1
.6
4.4
.6

831
954
806
777
559
676
549
613
721
788

3.6
5.2
3.9
3.2
3.7
2.4
4.0
3-2
5.1
4.0

New J e rs e y ..........................................
New Mexico .........................................
New York ..............................................
North C a ro lin a ......................................
North D a k o ta ........................................
Ohio ......................................................
O klaho m a.............................................
O re g o n ..................................................
Pennsylvania........................................
Rhode Is la n d ........................................

268.1
50.4
550.3
227.8
24.0
294.2
91.6
118.8
326.9
34.7

3,912.8
757.1
8,379.2
3,759.6
317.6
5,322.4
1,423.4
1,579.8
5,524.5
480.5

.1
1.4
-.4
-.1
.9
-.7
-1.3
.2
-.2
1.2

945
612
959
679
563
713
597
694
750
738

3.4
4.1
5.2
4.5
4.3
3.8
4.2
3.3
4.7
5.1

South C a ro lin a .....................................
South D a k o ta .......................................
Tennessee ...........................................
Texas ....................................................
Utah .......................................................
Vermont ................................................
V irg in ia ..................................................
W ashington..........................................
West V irg in ia ........................................
W iscon sin.............................................

108.4
28.1
128.4
505.3
73.9
24.1
202.6
222.7
47.2
157.6

1,781.0
365.4
2,648.0
9,300.1
1,066.2
300.7
3,477.5
2,654.7
685.2
2,715.4

.3
.3
.4
-.3
1.2
.3
1.2
1.0
.1
.0

623
559
689
754
630
661
786
759
587
683

3.1
4.1
4.2
3.1
2.3
5.1
5.2
1.3
2.1
4.1

W y o m in g ...............................................

22.0

241.6

1.7

616

4.1

Puerto Rico ..........................................
Virgin Islands .......................................

50.2
3.2

1,074.1
42.5

3.5
-.2

450
629

4.7
2.4

1 Average weekly wages were calculated using unrounded data.
2 Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico
or the Virgin Islands.

102
Monthly Labor Review

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2004

NOTE: Includes workers covered by Unemployment Insurance (Ul)
and Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE)
programs. Data are preliminary.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

24. Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, by ownership
Year

A v e ra g e
e s ta b lis h m e n ts

A v era g e
annual
e m p lo y m e n t

T o ta l a n n u a l w a g e s

A v e ra g e a n n u a l w a g e

(in t h o u s a n d s )

p e r e m p lo y e e

A v e ra g e
w e e k ly
w age

T o ta l c o v e r e d (U l a n d U C F E )

1 9 9 3 ......................................................
1994 ......................................................
1 9 9 5 ......................................................
1996 ......................................................
1 9 9 7 ......................................................
1 9 9 8 ......................................................
1999 ......................................................
2 0 0 0 ......................................................
2001 ......................................................
2002 ......................................................

6,679,934
6,826,677
7,040,677
7,189,168
7,369,473
7,634,018
7,820,860
7,879,116
7,984,529
8,101,872

109,422,571
112,611,287
115,487,841
117,963,132
121,044,432
124,183,549
127,042,282
129,877,063
129,635,800
128,233,919

$2,884,472,282
3,033,676,678
3,215,921,236
3,414,514,808
3,674,031,718
3,967,072,423
4,235,579,204
4,587,708,584
4,695,225,123
4,714,374,741

$26,361
26,939
27,846
28,946
30,353
31,945
33,340
35,323
36,219
36,764

$507
518
536
557
584
614
641
679
697
707

$26,055
26,633
27,567
28,658
30,058
31,676
33,094
35,077
35,943
36,428

$501
512
530
551
578
609
636
675
691
701

$25,934
26,496
27,441
28,582
30,064
31,762
33,244
35,337
36,157
36,539

$499
510
528
550
578
611
639
680
695
703

$28,643
29,518
30,497
31,397
32,521
33,605
34,681
36,296
37,814
39,212

$551
568
586
604
625
646
667
698
727
754

$26,095
26,717
27,552
28,320
29,134
30,251
31,234
32,387
33,521
34,605

$502
514
530
545
560
582
601
623
645
665

$36,940
38,038
38,523
40,414
42,732
43,688
44,287
46,228
48,940
52,050

$710
731
741
777
822
840
852
889
941
1,001

Ul c o v e re d

1993 ......................................................
1994 ......................................................
1 9 9 5 ......................................................
1996 ......................................................
1 9 9 7 ......................................................
1 9 9 8 ......................................................
1999 ......................................................
2 0 0 0 ......................................................
2001 ......................................................
2 0 0 2 ......................................................

6,632,221
6,778,300
6,990,594
7,137,644
7,317,363
7,586,767
7,771,198
7,828,861
7,933,536
8,051,117

106,351,431
109,588,189
112,539,795
115,081,246
118,233,942
121,400,660
124,255,714
127,005,574
126,883,182
125,475,293

$2,771,023,411
2,918,684,128
3,102,353,355
3,298,045,286
3,553,933,885
3,845,494,089
4,112,169,533
4,454,966,824
4,560,511,280
4,570,787,218

P r iv a te in d u s tr y c o v e r e d

1 9 9 3 ......................................................
1 9 9 4 ......................................................
1 9 9 5 ......................................................
1996 ......................................................
1 99 7......................................................
1 9 9 8 ......................................................
1999 ......................................................
2000 ......................................................
2001 ......................................................
2 0 0 2 ......................................................

6,454,381
6,596,158
6,803,454
6,946,858
7,121,182
7,381,518
7,560,567
7,622,274
7,724,965
7,839,903

91,202,971
94,146,344
96,894,844
99,268,446
102,175,161
105,082,368
107,619,457
110,015,333
109,304,802
107,577,281

$2,365,301,493
2,494,458,555
2,658,927,216
2,837,334,217
3,071,807,287
3,337,621,699
3,577,738,557
3,887,626,769
3,952,152,155
3,930,767,025

S ta te g o v e r n m e n t c o v e r e d

1 9 9 3 ......................................................
1 9 9 4 ......................................................
1 9 9 5 ......................................................
1 9 9 6 ......................................................
1997 ......................................................
1998 ......................................................
1999 ......................................................
2000 .......................................................
2001 ......................................................
2002 ......................................................

59,185
60,686
60,763
62,146
65,352
67,347
70,538
65,096
64,583
64,447

4,088,075
4,162,944
4,201,836
4,191,726
4,214,451
4,240,779
4,296,673
4,370,160
4,452,237
4,485,071

$117,095,062
122,879,977
128,143,491
131,605,800
137,057,432
142,512,445
149,011,194
158,618,365
168,358,331
175,866,492

L o cal g o v e rn m e n t c o ve red

1 9 9 3 ......................................................
1994 ......................................................
1995 ......................................................
1996 ......................................................
1 9 9 7 ......................................................
1 9 9 8 ......................................................
1999 ......................................................
2000 ......................................................
2001 ......................................................
2002 ......................................................

118,626
121,425
126,342
128,640
130,829
137,902
140,093
141,491
143,989
146,767

11,059,500
11,278,080
11,442,238
11,621,074
11,844,330
12,077,513
12,339,584
12,620,081
13,126,143
13,412,941

$288,594,697
301,315,857
315,252,346
329,105,269
345,069,166
365,359,945
385,419,781
408,721,690
440,000,795
464,153,701

F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t c o v e r e d (U C F E )

1 9 9 3 ......................................................
1994 ......................................................
1 9 9 5 ......................................................
1996 ......................................................
1 9 9 7 ......................................................
1998 ......................................................
1999 ......................................................
2000 ......................................................
2001 ......................................................
2002 ......................................................

47,714
48,377
50,083
51,524
52,110
47,252
49,661
50,256
50,993
50,755

3,071,140
3,023,098
2,948,046
2,881,887
2,810,489
2,782,888
2,786,567
2,871,489
2,752,619
2,758,627

$113,448,871
114,992,550
113,567,881
116,469,523
120,097,833
121,578,334
123,409,672
132,741,760
134,713,843
143,587,523

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Data reflect the movement of Indian Tribal Council establishments from private industry to
the public sector. See Notes on Current Labor Statistics.

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

103

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

25. Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, establishment size and employment, private ownership, by
supersector, first quarter 2003
S iz e o f e s t a b lis h m e n ts
I n d u s t r y , e s t a b lis h m e n ts , a n d
e m p lo y m e n t

T o ta l

F e w e r th a n

5 to 9

1 0 to 1 9

2 0 to 4 9

5 0 to 9 9

1 0 0 to 2 4 9

2 5 0 to 4 9 9

5 0 0 to 9 9 9

5 w o rk e rs 1

w o rk e rs

w o rk e rs

w o rk e rs

w o rk e rs

w o rk e rs

w o rk e rs

w o rk e rs

1 ,0 0 0 o r
m o re
w o rk e rs

T o t a l a ll in d u s t r i e s 2

Establishments, first quarter ..........
Employment, March ........................

7,933,974
105,583,548

4,768,812
7,095,128

1,331,834
8,810,097

872,241
11,763,253

597,662
18,025,655

203,030
13,970,194

115,598
17,299,058

28,856
9,864,934

10,454
7,090,739

5,487
11,664,490

124,527
1,526,176

72,088
110,155

23,248
153,629

14,773
198,895

9,226
275,811

2,893
198,122

1,593
241,559

501
171,063

161
108,563

44
68,379

795,029
6,285,841

523,747
746,296

129,201
846,521

76,215
1,021,722

46,096
1,371,071

12,837
872,274

5,604
823,846

1,006
338,107

262
172,944

61
93,060

381,159
14,606,928

148,469
252,443

65,027
436,028

57,354
788,581

54,261
1,685,563

25,927
1,815,385

19,813
3,043,444

6,506
2,245,183

2,565
1,732,368

1,237
2,607,933

1,851,662
24,683,356

992,180
1,646,304

378,157
2,514,548

239,637
3,204,840

149,960
4,527,709

51,507
3,564,316

31,351
4,661,898

6,681
2,277,121

1,619
1,070,141

570
1,216,479

147,062
3,208,667

84,906
112,409

20,744
138,076

16,130
220,618

13,539
416,670

5,920
410,513

3,773
576,674

1,223
418,113

575
399,366

252
516,228

753,064
7,753,717

480,485
788,607

135,759
892,451

76,733
1,017,662

39,003
1,162,498

11,743
801,140

6,195
934,618

1,794
620,183

883
601,549

469
935,009

1,307,697
15,648,435

887,875
1,230,208

180,458
1,184,745

111,532
1,501,470

73,599
2,232,506

28,471
1,969,466

17,856
2,707,203

5,153
1,762,251

1,919
1,307,870

834
1,752,716

720,207
15,680,834

338,139
629,968

164,622
1,092,329

103,683
1,392,099

65,173
1,955,861

24,086
1,679,708

17,122
2,558,300

3,929
1,337,188

1,761
1,220,921

1,692
3,814,460

657,359
11,731,379

260,149
411,192

110,499
744,144

118,140
1,653,470

122,168
3,683,448

34,166
2,285,550

9,718
1,372,780

1,609
545,304

599
404,831

311
630,660

1,057,236
4,243,633

851,231
1,037,360

116,940
761,518

56,238
740,752

24,235
703,957

5,451
371,774

2,561
376,832

4S4
150,421

109
71,453

17
29,566

N a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s a n d m in in g

Establishments, first quarter ..........
Employment, March ........................
C o n s t r u c t io n

Establishments, first quarter ..........
Employment, March ........................
M a n u f a c t u r in g

Establishments, first quarter ..........
Employment, March ........................
T r a d e , tr a n s p o r t a t io n , a n d u tilitie s

Establishments, first quarter ..........
Employment, March .........................
In f o r m a t io n

Establishments, first quarter ..........
Employment, March ........................
F in a n c ia l a c t iv it ie s

Establishments, first quarter ..........
Employment, March .........................
P r o f e s s io n a l a n d b u s in e s s s e r v ic e s

Establishments, first quarter ..........
Employment, March .........................
E d u c a t io n a n d h e a lth s e r v ic e s

Establishments, first quarter ...........
Employment, March ..........................
L e is u r e a n d h o s p it a lit y

Establishments, first quarter .......... .
Employment, March .........................
O t h e r s e r v ic e s

Establishments, first quarter .......... .
Employment, March ..........................

1 Includes establishments that reported no workers in March 2003.
2 Includes data for unclassified establishments, not shown separately.

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NOTE: Details may not add to totals due to rounding. Data are only produced for
first quarter. Data are preliminary.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

26. Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, by
metropolitan area, 2001-02
A v e ra g e a n n u al w a g e 2

M e tr o p o lita n a r e a '
2001

2002

P e rc e n t
change,
2 0 0 1 -0 2

Metropolitan areass ...................................................................

$37,908

$38,423

1.4

Abilene, T X ....................................................................................
Akron, O H ......................................................................................
Albany, GA ....................................................................................
Albany-Schenectady-Troy, N Y ...................................................
Albuquerque, N M ..........................................................................
Alexandria, L A ..............................................................................
Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA .............................................
Altoona, P A ....................................................................................
Amarillo, T X ...................................................................................
Anchorage, A K .............................................................................

25,141
32,930
28,877
35,355
31,667
26,296
33,569
26,869
27,422
37,998

25,517
34,037
29,913
35,994
32,475
27,300
34,789
27,360
28,274
39,112

1.5
3.4
3.6
1.8
2.6
3.8
3.6
1.8
3.1
2.9

Ann Arbor, Ml ...............................................................................
Anniston, AL ..................................................................................
Appleton-Oshkosh-Neenah, W l ..................................................
Asheville, N C .................................................................................
Athens, GA ....................................................................................
Atlanta, G A ....................................................................................
Atlantic-Cape May, N J .................................................................
Auburn-Opelika, A L ......................................................................
Augusta-Aiken, G A -S C ................................................................
Austin-San Marcos, T X ................................................................

37,582
26,486
32,652
28,511
28,966
40,559
31,268
25,753
30,626
40,831

39,220
27,547
33,020
28,771
29,942
41,123
32,201
26,405
31,743
39,540

4.4
4.0
1.1
.9
3.4
1.4
3.0
2.5
3.6
-3.2

Bakersfield, C A .............................................................................
Baltimore, M D ................................................................................
Bangor, M E ....................................................................................
Barnstable-Yarmouth, M A ...........................................................
Baton Rouge, LA ..........................................................................
Beaumont-Port Arthur, T X ...........................................................
Bellingham, W A ............................................................................
Benton Harbor, Ml ........................................................................
Bergen-Passaic, N J ......................................................................
Billings, M T ....................................................................................

30,106
37,495
27,850
31,025
30,321
31,798
27,724
31,140
44,701
27,889

31,192
38,718
28,446
32,028
31,366
32,577
28,284
32,627
45,185
28,553

3.6
3.3
2.1
3.2
3.4
2.4
2.0
4.8
1.1
2.4

Biloxi-Gulfport-Pascagoula, M S ..................................................
Binghamton, NY ...........................................................................
Birmingham, A L ............................................................................
Bismarck, N D .................................................................................
Bloomington, I N ............................................................................
Bloomington-Normal, I L ...............................................................
Boise City, I D .................................................................................
Boston-Worcester-Lawrence-Lowell-Brockton, MA-NH .........
Brazoria, TX~...................................................................................

28,351
31,187
34,519
27,116
28,013
35,111
31,624
45,766
44,310
35,655

28,515
31,832
35,940
27,993
28,855
36,133
31,955
45,685
44,037
36,253

.6
2.1
4.1
3.2
3.0
2.9
1.0
-.2
-.6
1.7

Bremerton, W A .............................................................................
Brownsville-Harlingen-San Benito, TX ......................................
Bryan-College Station, T X ...........................................................
Buffalo-Niagara Falls, N Y ............................................................
Burlington, V T ................................................................................
Canton-Massillon, OH .................................................................
Casper, W Y ...................................................................................
Cedar Rapids, I A ..........................................................................
Champaign-Urbana, I L ................................................................
Charleston-North Charleston, S C ..............................................

31,525
22,142
25,755
32,054
34,363
29,020
28,264
34,649
30,488
28,887

33,775
22,892
26,051
32,777
35,169
29,689
28,886
34,730
31,995
29,993

7.1
3.4
1.1
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.2
.2
4.9
3.8

Charleston, WV ............................................................................
Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock Hill, N C -S C ........................................
Charlottesville, V A ........................................................................
Chattanooga, T N -G A ...................................................................
Cheyenne, WY .............................................................................
Chicago, IL ....................................................................................
Chico-Paradise, C A ......................................................................
Cincinnati, O H -K Y -IN ...................................................................
Clarksville-Hopkinsville, T N -K Y ..................................................
Cleveland-Lorain-Elyria, O H .......................................................

31,530
37,267
32,427
29,981
27,579
42,685
26,499
36,050
25,567
35,514

32,136
38,413
33,328
30,631
28,827
43,239
27,190
37,168
26,940
36,102

1.9
3.1
2.8
2.2
4.5
1.3
2.6
3.1
5.4
1.7

Colorado Springs, CO .................................................................
Columbia, M O ...............................................................................
Columbia, SC ...............................................................................
Columbus, G A -A L.........................................................................
Columbus, OH ..............................................................................
Corpus Christi, TX ........................................................................
Corvallis, OR .................................................................................
Cumberland, MD-WV ..................................................................
Dallas, T X ......................................................................................
Danville, V A ...................................................................................

34,391
28,490
29,904
28,412
35,028
29,361
35,525
25,504
42,706
25,465

34,681
29,135
30,721
29,207
36,144
30,168
36,766
26,704
43,000
26,116

.8
2.3
2.7
2.8
3.2
2.7
3.5
4.7
.7
2.6

See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

105

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

26. Continued—Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and
Wages, by metropolitan area, 2001 02
A v e ra g e a n n u a l w a g e 2

M e t r o p o lita n a r e a 1

2001

2002

P e rc e n t
change,

2001-02

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island, IA -IL .............
Dayton-Springfleld, O H ....................................
Daytona Beach, F L ...........................................
Decatur, A L .........................................................
Decatur, I L ..........................................................
Denver, C O .........................................................
Des Moines, IA ..................................................
Detroit, M l ...........................................................
Dothan, A L ..........................................................
Dover, D E ...........................................................

$31,275
33,619
25,953
30,891
33,354
42,351
34,303
42,704
28,026
27.754

$32,118
34,327
26,898
30,370
33.215
42,133
35,641
43,224
29,270
29,818

2.7
2.1
3.6
-1.7
-.4
-.5
3.9
1.2
4.4
7.4

Dubuque, I A ........................................................
Duluth-Superior, MN-WI ..................................
Dutchess County, N Y .......................................
Eau Claire, Wl ...................................................
El Paso, T X .........................................................
Elkhart-Goshen, I N ...........................................
Elmira, NY ..........................................................
Enid, OK .............................................................
Erie, PA ..............................................................
Eugene-Springfield, O R ....................................

28,402
29,415
38,748
27,680
25,847
30,797
28,669
24,836
29,293
28,983

29,208
30,581
38,221
28,760
26,604
32.427
29.151
25.507
29,780
29.427

4.0
-1.4
3.9
2.9
5.3
1.7
2.7
1.7
1.5

Evansville-Henderson, IN -K Y .........................
Fargo-Moorhead, N D -M N ................................
Fayetteville, NC .................................................
Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers, AR ..............
Flagstaff, A 2 -U T ................................................
Flint, M l ...............................................................
Florence, AL ......................................................
Florence, S C ......................................................
Fort Collins-Loveland, C O ...............................
Fort Lauderdale, F L ..........................................

31,042
27,899
26,981
29.940
25,890
35,995
25,639
28,800
33,248
33,966

31.977
29.053
28,298
31,090
26,846
36.507
26,591
29,563
34.215
34,475

Fort Myers-Cape Coral, F L ..............................
Fort Pierce-Port St. Lucie, F L ..........................
Fort Smith, A R -O K .............................................
Fort Walton Beach, F L ......................................
Fort Wayne, IN .................................................. .
Fort Worth-Arllngton, T X ...................................
Fresno, CA .........................................................
Gadsden, A L .......................................................
Gainesville, F L ....................................................
Galveston-Texas City, T X .................................

29,432
27,742
26.755
26,151
31,400
36,379
27,647
25,760
26,917
31,067

30,324
29.152
27,075
27,242
32.053
37,195
28,814
26.214
27,648
31,920

3.0
5.1
1.2
4.2
2.1
2.2
4.2
1.8
2.7
2.7

Gary, IN ...............................................................
Glens Falls, N Y ...................................................
Goldsboro, N C ....................................................
Grand Forks, N D -M N .........................................
Grand Junction, C O ...........................................
Grand Raplds-Muskegon-Holland, Ml ............
Great Falls, M T ...................................................
Greeley, C O .........................................................
Green Bay, W l ....................................................
G reensboro-W inston-Salem -High Point, NC

31,948
27,885
25,398
24,959
27,426
33,431
24,211
30,066
32,631
31,730

32,432
28,931
25,821
25,710
28,331
34.214
25,035
31,104
33,698
32,369

1.5
3.8
1.7
3.0
3.3
2.3
3.4
3.5
3.3
2.0

Greenville, NC ....................................................
Greenvllle-Spartanburg-Anderson, S C ...........
Hagerstown, M D .................................................
Hamilton-MIddletown, O H .................................
Harrisburg-Lebanon-Carlisle, P A .....................
Hartford, C T .........................................................
Hattiesburg, M S ..................................................
Hickory-Morganton-Lenolr, N C ........................
Honolulu, H I .........................................................
Houma, L A ...........................................................

28,289
30.940
29,020
32,325
33,408
43,880
25,145
27,305
32,531
30,343

29,055
31,726
30,034
32,985
34,497
44,387
26,051
27,996
33.978
30,758

2.7
2.5
3.5
3.3
1.2
3.6
2.5
4.4
1.4

Houston, T X .........................................................
Huntington-Ashland, W V-KY -O H .....................
Huntsville, A L ......................................................
Indianapolis, I N ...................................................
Iowa City, IA .......................................................
Jackson, Ml .........................................................
Jackson, M S .......................................................
Jackson, T N .........................................................
Jacksonville, F L ..................................................
Jacksonville, N C .................................................

42,784
27,478
36,727
35,989
31,663
32,454
29,813
29,414
32,367
21,395

42,712
28,321
38,571
36,608
32,567
33,251
30,537
30,443
33,722
22,269

3.1
5.0
1.7
2.9
2.5
2.4
3.5
4.2
4.1

See footnotes at end of table.

106
Monthly Labor Review

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2004

2.8

3.0
4.1
4.9
3.8
3.7
1.4
3.7

2.6
2.9
1.5

2.0

-.2


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

26. Continued—Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and
Wages, by metropolitan area, 2001-02
A v e ra g e a n n u al w a g e :

M e tr o p o lita n a r e a '
P e rc e n t
change,
2 0 0 1 -0 2

2 00 1

2002

Jamestown, NY ............................................................................
Janesville-Beloit, W l ....................................................................
Jersey City, NJ .............................................................................
Johnson City-Kingsport-Bristol, TN-VA ....................................
Johnstown, P A ..............................................................................
Jonesboro, A R ..............................................................................
Joplin, MO .....................................................................................
Kalamazoo-Battle Creek, M l.......................................................
Kankakee, I L ..................................................................................
Kansas City, M O -K S ....................................................................

$ 2 5 ,9 1 3
3 1 ,4 8 2
4 7 ,6 3 8
2 8 ,5 4 3
2 5 ,5 6 9
2 5 ,3 3 7
2 6 ,0 1 1
3 2 ,9 0 5
2 9 ,1 0 4
3 5 ,7 9 4

$ 2 6 ,4 3 0
3 2 ,8 3 7
4 9 ,5 6 2
2 9 ,0 7 6
2 6 ,1 6 1
2 6 ,1 6 5
2 6 ,5 9 4
3 4 ,2 3 7
3 0 ,0 1 5
3 6 ,7 3 1

Kenosha, W l ..................................................................................
Killeen-Temple, T X .......................................................................
Knoxville, TN .................................................................................
Kokomo, I N ....................................................................................
La Crosse, W I-M N ........................................................................
Lafayette, LA .................................................................................
Lafayette, IN ..................................................................................
Lake Charles, L A ..........................................................................
Lakeland-Winter Haven, F L ........................................................
Lancaster, P A ...............................................................................

3 1 ,5 6 2
2 6 ,1 9 3
3 0 ,4 2 2
3 9 ,5 9 9
2 7 ,7 7 4
2 9 ,6 9 3
3 1 ,4 8 4
2 9 ,7 8 2
2 8 ,8 9 0
3 1 ,4 9 3

3 2 ,4 7 3
2 7 ,2 9 9
3 1 ,3 3 8
4 0 ,7 7 8
2 8 ,7 1 9
3 0 ,1 0 4
3 1 ,7 0 0
3 0 ,3 4 6
2 9 ,5 0 5
3 2 ,1 9 7

2 .2

Lansing-East Lansing, M l ............................................................
Laredo, T X .....................................................................................
Las Cruces, N M ............................................................................
Las Vegas, N V -A Z ........................................................................
Lawrence, K S ...............................................................................
Lawton, O K ....................................................................................
Lewiston-Auburn, M E ..................................................................
Lexington, K Y ................................................................................
Lima, OH .......................................................................................
Lincoln, NE ....................................................................................

3 4 ,7 2 4
2 4 ,1 2 8
2 4 ,3 1 0
3 2 ,2 3 9
2 5 ,9 2 3
2 4 ,8 1 2
2 7 ,0 9 2
3 1 ,5 9 3
2 9 ,6 4 4
2 9 ,3 5 2

3 5 ,7 8 5
2 4 ,7 3 9
2 5 ,2 5 6
3 3 ,2 8 0
2 6 ,6 2 1
2 5 ,3 9 2
2 8 ,4 3 5
3 2 ,7 7 6
3 0 ,3 7 9
3 0 ,6 1 4

3.1
2 .5
3 .9
3 .2
2 .7
2 .3
5 .0
3 .7
2 .5
4 .3

Little Rock-North Little Rock, A R ................................................
Longview-Marshall, T X ................................................................
Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA ....................................................
Louisville, KY-1N ...........................................................................
Lubbock, TX ..................................................................................
Lynchburg, V A ..............................................................................
Macon, G A .....................................................................................
Madison, W l...................................................................................
Mansfield, O H ...............................................................................
McAllen-Edinburg-Mission, TX ...................................................

3 0 ,8 5 8
2 8 ,0 2 9
4 0 ,8 9 1
3 3 ,0 5 8
2 6 ,5 7 7
2 8 ,8 5 9
3 0 ,5 9 5
3 4 ,0 9 7
2 8 ,8 0 8
2 2 ,3 1 3

3 1 ,6 3 4
2 8 ,1 7 2
4 1 ,7 0 9
3 3 ,9 0 1
2 7 ,6 2 5
2 9 ,4 4 4
3 1 ,8 8 4
3 5 ,4 1 0
3 0 ,1 0 4
2 3 ,1 7 9

2 .5
.5

Medford-Ashland, O R ..................................................................
Melbourne-Titusville-Palm Bay, F L ............................................
Memphis, TN-AR-MS ..................................................................
Merced, C A ............................................................................... .
Miami, F L .......................................................................................
Middlesex-Somerset-Hunterdon, NJ .........................................
Milwaukee-Waukesha, W l ...........................................................
Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI .....................................................
Missoula, M T .................................................................................
Mobile, A L ......................................................................................

2 7 ,2 2 4
3 2 ,7 9 8
3 4 ,6 0 3
2 5 ,4 7 9
3 4 ,5 2 4
4 9 ,9 5 0
3 5 ,6 1 7
4 0 ,8 6 8
2 6 ,1 8 1
2 8 ,1 2 9

2 8 ,0 9 8
3 3 ,9 1 3
3 5 ,9 2 2
2 6 ,7 7 1
3 5 ,6 9 4
5 0 ,4 5 7
3 6 ,5 2 3
4 1 ,7 2 2
2 7 ,2 4 9
2 8 ,7 4 2

3 .2
3 .4
3 .8
5.1
3 .4

Modesto, C A ..................................................................................
Monmouth-Ocean, NJ .................................................................
Monroe, L A ....................................................................................
Montgomery, A L ...........................................................................
Muncie, IN .....................................................................................
Myrtle Beach, S C ..........................................................................
Naples, FL .....................................................................................
Nashville, TN .................................................................................
Nassau-Suffolk, N Y ......................................................................
New Haven-Bridgeport-Stamford-Waterbury-Danbury, CT ....

2 9 ,5 9 1
3 7 ,0 5 6
2 6 ,5 7 8
2 9 ,1 5 0
2 8 ,3 7 4
2 4 ,0 2 9
3 0 ,8 3 9
3 3 ,9 8 9
3 9 ,6 6 2
5 2 ,1 9 8

3 0 ,7 6 9
3 7 ,7 1 0
2 7 ,6 1 4
3 0 ,5 2 5
2 9 ,0 1 7
2 4 ,6 7 2
3 1 ,5 0 7
3 5 ,0 3 6
4 0 ,3 9 6
5 1 ,1 7 0

New London-Norwich, CT ...........................................................
New Orleans, LA ..........................................................................
New York, N Y ................................................................................
Newark, N J ....................................................................................
Newburgh, NY-PA ........................................................................
Norfolk-Virginia Beach-Newport News, V A -N C .......................
Oakland, C A ..................................................................................
Ocala, F L .......................................................................................
Odessa-Midland, T X ....................................................................
Oklahoma City, O K .......................................................................

3 8 ,5 0 5
3 1 ,0 8 9
5 9 ,0 9 7
4 7 ,7 1 5
2 9 ,8 2 7
2 9 ,8 7 5
4 5 ,9 2 0
2 6 ,0 1 2
3 1 ,2 7 8
2 8 ,9 1 5

3 8 ,6 5 0
3 2 ,4 0 7
5 7 ,7 0 8
4 8 ,7 8 1
3 0 ,9 2 0
3 0 ,8 2 3
4 6 ,8 7 7
2 6 ,6 2 8
3 1 ,2 9 5
2 9 ,8 5 0

2.0
4 .3
4 .0
1 .9
2 .3
3 .3

2.2
4 .0
3.1
2 .6
2 .9
4 .2
3 .0
3 .0
3 .4
1 .4
.7
1 .9

2.1

2.0
2 .6
3 .9

2.0
4 .2
3 .9
4 .5
3 .9

1.0
2 .5

2.1
4.1

2.2
4 .0

1.8
3 .9

4.7
2 .3
2 .7

2.2
3.1
1 .9

-2.0
.4
4 .2
- 2 .4

2.2
3 .7
3 .2

2.1
2 .4

.1
3 .2

See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

107

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

26. Continued—Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and
Wages, by metropolitan area, 2001-02
Average annual w age11
M etropolitan area1
Percent
change,
2001-02

2001

2002

Olympia, W A ..................................................................................
Omaha, NE-IA ...............................................................................
Orange County, C A ......................................................................
Orlando, F L ....................................................................................
Owensboro, KY ............................................................................
Panama City, F L ...........................................................................
Parkersburg-Marietta, WV-OH ...................................................
Pensacola, F L ................................................................................
Peoria-Pekin, I L ............................................................................
Philadelphia, P A -N J......................................................................

$32,772
31,856
40,252
31,276
27,306
26,433
27,920
28,059
33,293
40,231

$33,765
33,107
41,219
32,461
28,196
27,448
29,529
28,189
34,261
41,121

3.0
3.9
2.4
3.8
3.3
3.8
5.8
.5
2.9
2.2

Phoenix-Mesa, A Z ........................................................................
Pine Bluff, AR ................................................................................
Pittsburgh, P A ................................................................................
Pittsfield, M A ..................................................................................
Pocatello, I D ..................................................................................
Portland, M E ..................................................................................
Portland-Vancouver, OR-WA .....................................................
Providence-Warwick-Pawtucket, Rl ..........................................
Provo-Orem, UT ...........................................................................
Pueblo, C O ....................................................................................

35,514
27,561
35,024
31,561
24,621
32,327
37,285
33,403
28,266
27,097

36,045
28,698
35,625
32,707
25,219
33,309
37,650
34,610
28,416
27,763

1.5
4.1
1.7
3.6
2.4
3.0
1.0
3.6
.5
2.5

Punta Gorda, F L ...........................................................................
Racine, W l .....................................................................................
Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, N C ................................................
Rapid City, S D ...............................................................................
Reading, PA ..................................................................................
Redding, CA ..................................................................................
Reno, N V .......................................................................................
Richland-Kennewick-Pasco, W A ................................................
Richmond-Petersburg, V A ...........................................................
Riverside-Sän Bernardino, CA ...................................................

25,404
33,319
38,691
25,508
32,807
28,129
34,231
33,370
35,879
30,510

26,119
34,368
39,056
26,434
33,912
28,961
34,744
35,174
36,751
31,591

2.8
3.1
.9
3.6
3.4
3.0
1.5
5.4
2.4
3.5

Roanoke, VA .................................................................................
Rochester, M N ...............................................................................
Rochester, N Y ...............................................................................
Rockford, I L ...................................................................................
Rocky Mount, NC .........................................................................
Sacramento, C A ...........................................................................
Saginaw-Bay City-Midland, Ml ...................................................
St. Cloud, MN ................................................................................
St. Joseph, M O ..............................................................................
St. Louis, M O -IL ............................................................................

30,330
37,753
34,327
32,104
28,770
38,016
35,429
28,263
27,734
35,928

31,775
39,036
34,827
32,827
28,893
39,354
35,444
29,535
28,507
36,712

4.8
3.4
1.5
2.3
.4
3.5
.0
4.5
2.8
2.2

Salem, O R .....................................................................................
Salinas, C A ....................................................................................
Salt Lake City-Ogden, U T .............................. .............................
San Angelo, TX ............................................................................
San Antonio, TX ...........................................................................
San Diego, C A ...............................................................................
San Francisco, C A ........................................................................
San Jose, C A .................................................................................
San Luis Obispo-Atascadero-Paso Robles, C A ......................
Santa Barbara-Santa Maria-Lompoc, C A .................................

28,336
31,735
31,965
26,147
30,650
38,418
59,654
65,931
29,092
33,626

29,210
32,463
32,600
26,321
31,336
39,305
56,602
63,056
29,981
34,382

3.1
2.3
2.0
.7

Santa Cruz-Watsonville, C A .......................................................
Santa Fe, NM ................................................................................
Santa Rosa, C A ............................................................................
Sarasota-Bradenton, F L ..............................................................
Savannah, G A ...............................................................................
Scranton-W ilkes-Barre-Hazleton, P A ......................................
Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, W A .....................................................
Sharon, PA ....................................................................................
Sheboygan, Wl ..............................................................................
Sherm’a n-Denison, T X .................................................................

35,022
30,671
36,145
27,958
30,176
28,642
45,299
26,707
30,840
30,397

35,721
32,269
36,494
28,950
30,796

2.0
5.2
1.0
3.5
2.1

2 9 ,3 3 6

2 .4

Shreveport-Bossier City, LA .......................................................
Sioux City, IA -N E ..........................................................................
Sioux Falls, S D .............................................................................
South Bend, IN ..............................................................................
Spokane, W A .................................................................................
Springfield, I L .................................................................................
Springfield, M O ..............................................................................
Springfield, M A .............................................................................
State College, P A .........................................................................
Steubenville-Weirton, O H -W V ....................................................

27,856
26,755
28,962
30,769
29,310
36,061
27,338
32,801
29,939
28,483

See footnotes at end of table.

108
Monthly Labor Review

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2004

2 .2

2.3
-5.1
-4.4
3.1
2 .2

46,093
27,872
32,148
30,085

-1.0

28,769
27,543
29,975
31,821
30,037
37,336
27,987
33,972
30,910
29,129

2.9
3.5
3.4
2.5
3.5
2.4
3.6
3.2
2.3

1.8
4.4
4 .2

3 .3


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

26. Continued—Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and
Wages, by metropolitan area, 2001-02
Average annual wages

M e tr o p o lita n a r e a 1
P e rc e n t
change,
2 0 0 1 -0 2

2 00 1

2002

Stockton-Lodi, C A .........................................................................
Sumter, S C ....................................................................................
Syracuse, N Y ................................................................................
Tacoma, W A ..................................................................................
Tallahassee, F L ............................................................................
Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL .....................................
Terre Haute, I N .............................................................................
Texarkana, TX-Texarkana, A R ...................................................
Toledo, OH ....................................................................................
Topeka, K S ....................................................................................

$30,818
24,450
32,254
31,261
29,708
31,678
27,334
26,492
32,299
30,513

$31,958
24,982
33,752
32,507
30,895
32,458
28,415
27,717
33,513
31,707

3.7
2.2
4.6
4.0
4.0
2.5
4.0
4.6
3.8
3.9

Trenton, N J ....................................................................................
Tucson, AZ ....................................................................................
Tulsa, O K .......................................................................................
Tuscaloosa, A L .............................................................................
Tyler, T X ........................................................................................
Utlca-Rome, N Y ............................................................................
Vallejo-Fairfield-Napa, C A ..........................................................
Ventura, C A ...................................................................................
Victoria, T X ....................................................................................
Vineland-Millville-Bridgeton, N J ..................................................

46,831
30,690
31,904
29,972
30,551
27,777
33,903
37,783
29,068
32,571

47,969
31,673
32,241
30,745
31,050
28,500
34,543
38,195
29,168
33,625

2.4
3.2
1.1
2.6
1.6
2.6
1.9
1.1
.3
3.2

Visalia-Tulare-Porterville, C A .....................................................
Waco, T X .......................................................................................
Washington, DC-MD-VA-W V......................................................
Waterloo-Cedar Falls, I A .............................................................
Wausau, W l ...................................................................................
West Palm Beach-Boca Raton, F L ............................................
Wheeling, WV-OH ........................................................................
Wichita, K S ....................................................................................
Wichita Falls, T X ...........................................................................
Williamsport, P A ...........................................................................

24,732
28,245
47,589
29,119
29,402
35,957
26,282
32,983
25,557
27,801

25,650
28,885
48,430
29,916
30,292
36,550
26,693
33,429
26,387
27,988

3.7
2.3
1.8
2.7
3.0
1.6
1.6
1.4
3.2
.7

Wilmington-Newark, D E -M D .......................................................
Wilmington, N C .............................................................................
Yakima, W A ...................................................................................
Yolo, CA ........................................................................................
York, PA ........................................................................................
Youngstown-Warren, OH ............................................................
Yuba City, C A ...............................................................................
Yuma, A Z .......................................................................................

42,177
29,287
24,204
35,352
31,936
28,789
27,781
22,415

43,401
29,157
24,934
35,591
32,609
29,799
28,967
23,429

2.9
-.4
3.0
.7
2.1
3.5
4.3
4.5

Aguadllla, P R ................................................................................
Arecibo, PR ...................................................................................
Caguas, PR ...................................................................................
Mayaguez, P R ..............................................................................
Ponce, PR .....................................................................................
San Juan-Bayamon, P R ..............................................................

18,061
16,600
18,655
17,101
17,397
20,948

19,283
18,063
19,706
17,500
18,187
21,930

6.8
8.8
5.6
2.3
4.5
4.7

1 Includes data for Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA) and Primary Metropolitan Statistical Areas
(PMSA) as defined by OMB Bulletin No. 99-04. In the New England areas, the New England County
Metropolitan Area (NECMA) definitions were used.
2 Each year’s total is based on the MSA definition for the specific year.
differences resulting from changes in MSA definitions.
3 Totals do not Include the six

Annual changes include

MSAs within Puerto Rico.

NOTE: Includes workers covered by Unemployment Insurance (Ul) and Unemployment Compensation
for Federal Employees (UCFE) programs.

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

109

Current Labor Statistics:

27.

Labor Force Data

Annual data: Employment status of the population

[Numbers in thousands]_______
Em ploym ent status

1993

19941

1995

1996

19971

19981

19991

20001

2001

2002

2003

Civilian noninstitutional population...........

194,838

196,814

198,584

200,591

203,133

205,220

207,753

212,577

215,092

217,570

221,168

Civilian labor force...................................

129,200

131,056

132,304

133,943

136,297

137,673

146,510

66.6

66.6

66.8

67.1

67.1

142,583
67.1

144,863

66.3

139,368
67.1

143,734

Labor force participation rate...............

66.8

66.6

66.2

Employed.............................................

120,259

123,060

124,900

126,708

129,558

131,463

133,488

136,891

136,933

136,485

137,736

Employment-population ratio.........

61.7

62.5

62.9

63.2

63.8

64.1

64.3

64.4

63.7

62.7

62.3

Unemployed.......................................

8,940

7,996

7,404

7,236

6,739

6,210

5,880

5,692

6,801

8,378

8,774

Unemployment rate.........................

6.9

6.1

5.6

5.4

4.9

4.5

4.2

4.0

4.7

5.8

6.0

Not in the labor force...............................

65,638

65,758

66,280

66,647

66,836

67,547

68,385

69,994

71,359

72,707

74,658

1 Not strictly comparable with prior years.

28.

Annual data: Employment levels by industry

[In thousands]
Industry

1993

1994

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

Total private employment...............................

91,855

95,016

97,866

100,169

103,113

106,021

108,686

110,996

110,707

108,828

108,356

Total nonfarm employment............................

110,844

119,708
23,410
637
5,536
17,237

122,770
23,886
654

125,930
24,354

128,993
24,465
598
6,545
17,322

131,785

22,219
666
4,779
16,744

114,291
22,774

117,298

Goods-produclng..........................................
Natural resources and mining.................
Construction...............................................
Manufacturing...........................................

131,826
23,873
606
6,826
16,441

130,341
22,557
583
6,716
15,259

129,931
21,817

Private service-providing............................
Trade, transportation, and utilities..........
Wholesale trade......................................
Retail trade.............................................
Transportation and warehousing........
Utilities.....................................................
Information...............................................

69,636
22,378
5,093.2
13,020.5
3,553.8
710.7
2,668
6,709
11,495

79,227

84,221
25,771
5,892.5
14,970.1
4,300.3
608.5
3,419
7,648
15,957
14,798

86,346
26,225
5,933.2
15,279.8
4,410.3
601.3
3,631
7,687
16,666
15,109

86,834

86,271
25,497

86,538
25,275
5,605.6
14,911.5
4,176.7

11,862

4,976

11,543
5,087

19,909

20,307

Financial activities...................................
Professional and business services......
Education and health services...............
Leisure and hospitality............................
Other services..........................................

12,303
9,732
4,350

G overnment.....................................................

18,989

659
5,095
17,021
72,242
23,128
5,247.3
13,490.8
3,701.0

1995

23,156
641
5,274
17,241
74,710
23,834

5,813
17,419

689.3
2,738
6,867
12,174
12,807

666.2
2,843
6,827
12,844
13,289

76,759
24,239
5,522.0
14,142.5
3,935.3
639.6
2,940
6,969
13,462
13,683

10,100
4,428

10,501
4,572

10,777
4,690

11,018
4,825

19,275

19,432

19,539

19,664

5,433.1
13,896.7
3,837.8

24,700
5,663.9
14,388.9
4,026.5
620.9
3,084
7,178
14,335
14,087

645
6,149
17,560
81,667
25,186
5,795.2
14,609.3
4,168.0
613.4
3,218
7,462
15,147
14,446
11,232

24,649
599
6,787
17,263

25,983
5,772.7
15,238.6
4,372.0
599.4
3,629
7,807
16,476
15,645

5,652.3
15,025.1
4,223.6
596.2
3,395
7,847
15,976

16,577

5,168

16,199
11,986
5,372

20,790

21,118

21,513

21,575

system. NAics-based data by industry are not comparable with sic-based data. See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.

110

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

580.8
3,198
7,974
15,997

12,036
5,258

N o t e : Data reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the North American Industry Classification System (naics), replacing the Standard Industrrial Classification (SIC)


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

571
6,722
14,525

12,125
5,393

29. Annual data: Average hours and earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers on nonfarm
payrolls, by industry
Industry

199 3

199 4

199 5

199 6

19 9 7

1 99 8

1 99 9

Private sector:
Average weekly hours.................................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)..........................
Average weekly earnings (In dollars)........................

34.3
11.03
378.40

34.5
11.32
390.73

34.3
11.64
399.53

34.3
12.03
412.74

34.5
12.49
431.25

34.5
13.00
448.04

34.3
13.47
462.49

34.3
14.00
480.41

34.0
14.53
493.20

33.9
14.95
506.07

33.7
15.35
517.36

Goods-producing:
Average weekly hours...............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)........................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................

40.6
12.28
498.82

41.1
12.63
519.58

40.8
12.96
528.62

40.8
13.38
546.48

41.1
13.82
568.43

40.8
14.23
580.99

40.8
14.71
599.99

40.7
15.27
621.86

39.9
15.78
630.04

39.9
16.33
651.61

39.8
16.80
669.23

44.9
14.12
634.77

45.3
14.41
653.14

45.3
14.78
670.32

46.0
15.10
695.07

46.2
15.57
720.11

44.9
16.20
727.28

44.2
16.33
721.74

44.4
16.55
734.92

44.6
17.00
757.92

43.2
17.19
741.97

43.6
17.58
766.83

38.4
14.04
539.81

38.8
14.38
558.53

38.8
14.73
571.57

38.9
15.11
588.48

38.9
15.67
609.48

38.8
16.23
629.75

39.0
16.80
655.11

39.2
17.48
685.78

38.7
18.00
695.89

38.4
18.52
711.82

38.4
18.95
727.11

41.1
11.70
480.80

41.7
12.04
502.12

41.3
12.34
509.26

41.3
12.75
526.55

41.7
13.14
548.22

41.4
13.45
557.12

41.4
13.85
573.17

41.3
14.32
590.65

40.3
14.76
595.19

40.5
15.29
618.75

40.4
15.74
636.07

32.5
10.60
345.03

32.7
10.87
354.97

32.6
11.19
364.14

32.6
11.57
376.72

32.8
12.05
394.77

32.8
12.59
412.78

32.7
13.07
427.30

32.7
13.60
445.00

32.5
14.16
460.32

32.5
14.56
472.88

32.4
14.96
484.00

34.1
10.55
359.33

34.3
10.80
370.38

34.1
11.10
378.79

34.1
11.46
390.64

34.3
11.90
407.57

34.2
12.39
423.30

33.9
12.82
434.31

33.8
13.31
449.88

33.5
13.70
459.53

33.6
14.02
471.27

33.6
14.34
481.10

38.5
12.57
484.46

38.8
12.93
501.17

38.6
13.34
515.14

38.6
13.80
533.29

38.8
14.41
559.39

38.6
15.07
582.21

38.6
15.62
602.77

38.8
16.28
631.40

38.4
16.77
643.45

38.0
16.98
644.38

37.8
17.36
657.12

Average weekly hours...........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)....................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................

30.7
8.36
484.46

30.9
8.61
501.17

30.8
8.85
515.14

30.7
9.21
533.29

30.9
9.59
559.39

30.9
10.05
582.21

30.8
10.45
602.77

30.7
10.86
631.40

30.7
11.29
643.45

30.9
11.67
644.38

30.9
11.90
657.12

Transportation and warehousing:
Average weekly hours...........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)....................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................

38.9
12.71
494.36

39.5
12.84
507.27

38.9
13.18
513.37

39.1
13.45
525.60

39.4
13.78
542.55

38.7
14.12
546.86

37.6
14.55
547.97

37.4
15.05
562.31

36.7
15.33
562.70

36.8
15.76
579.75

36.8
16.25
597.79

Utilities:
Average weekly hours...........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)....................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)...................

42.1
17.95
756.35

42.3
18.66
789.98

42.3
19.19
811.52

42.0
19.78
830.74

42.0
20.59
865.26

42.0
21.48
902.94

42.0
22.03
924.59

42.0
22.75
955.66

41.4
23.58
977.18

40.9
23.96
979.09

41.1
24.76
1,016.94

Natural resources and mininq
Average weekly hours..............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars).....................
Construction:
Average weekly hours...............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars).....................
Manufacturing:
Average weekly hours...............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars).....................

2000

2001

2002

2003

Private service-providing:
Average weekly hours................................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars).......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................
Trade, transportation, and utilities:
Average weekly hours................................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars).......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................
Wholesale trade:
Average weekly hours...........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Retail trade:

Information:
Average weekly hours............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)....................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)...................
Financial activities:
Average weekly hours...........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)....................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)...................

36.0
14.86
535.25

36.0
15.32
551.28

36.0
15.68
564.98

36.4
16.30
592.68

36.3
17.14
622.40

36.6
17.67
646.52

36.7
18.40
675.32

36.8
19.07
700.89

36.9
19.80
731.11

36.5
20.20
738.17

36.2
21.01
761.13

35.5
11.36
403.02

35.5
11.82
419.20

35.5
12.28
436.12

35.5
12.71
451.49

35.7
13.22
472:37

36.0
13.93
500.95

35.8
14.47
517.57

35.9
14.98
537.37

35.8
15.59
558.02

35.6
16.17
575.51

35.5
17.13
608.87

Professional and business services:
Average weekly hours...........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)....................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)...................

34.0
11.96
406.20

34.1
12.15
414.16

34.0
12.53
426.44

34.1
13.00
442.81

34.3
13.57
465.51

34.3
14.27
490.00

34.4
14.85
510.99

34.5
15.52
535.07

34.2
16.33
557.84

34.2
16.81
574.66

34.1
17.20
586.68

Education
Average
Average
Average

and health services:
weekly hours...........................................
hourly earnings (in dollars)....................
weekly earnings (in dollars)...................

32.0
11.21
359.08

32.0
11.50
368.14

32.0
11.80
377.73

31.9
12.17
388.27

32.2
12.56
404.65

32.2
13.00
418.82

32.1
13.44
431.35

32.2
13.95
449.29

32.3
14.64
473.39

32.4
15.21
492.74

32.3
15.64
505.76

Leisure and hospitality:
Average weekly hours...........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)....................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)...................

25.9
6.32
163.45

26.0
6.46
168.00

25.9
6.62
171.43

25.9
6.82
176.48

26.0
7.13
185.81

26.2
7.48
195.82

26.1
7.76
202.87

26.1
8.11
211.79

25.8
8.35
215.19

25.8
8.58
221.26

25.6
8.76
224.25

Other services:
Average weekly hours...........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)....................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)...................

32.6
9.90
322.69

32.7
10.18
332.44

32.6
10.51
342.36

32.5
10.85
352.62

32.7
11.29
368.63

32.6
11.79
384.25

32.5
12.26
398.77

32.5
12.73
413.41

32.3
13.27
428.64:

32.0
13.72
439.76

31.4
13.84
434.49

No t e : Data reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), replacing the Standard Industrial Classification
(SIC) system. NMCS-based data by industry are not comparable with SIC-based data.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

111

Current Labor Statistics: Compensation & Industrial Relations

30.

Employment Cost Index, compensation,1by occupation and industry group

[June 1989 = 100]
2002
Series

Mar.

June

2003

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

2004

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

Percent change
3 m onths

12 m onths

ended

ended

Mar. 2004
158.4

159.9

161.3

162.2

164.5

165.8

167.6

168.4

170.7

1.4

3.8

160.5
158.5
163.7
162.0
153.7
158.4

162.1
159.3
165.6
163.3
155.1
159.4

163.5
161.4
166.3
164.9
156.4
161.3

164.3
162.4
166.7
166.1
157.5
162.2

166.7
164.1
171.1
168.3
159.8
164.1

167.9
165.0
172.0
170.0
161.4
165.0

169.9
167.0
174.0
171.7
162.9
166.8

170.7
168.0
174.9
172.5
163.7
167.9

172.7
170.2
175.8
175.3
166.9
169.7

1.2
1.3
.5
1.6
2.0
1.1

3.6
3.7
2.7
4.2
4.4
3.4

Goods-producing......................................................................
M anufacturing.........................................................................
Service-producing....................................................................
Services...................................................................................
Health services.....................................................................
Hospitals..............................................................................
Educational services............................................................

156.3
156.6
159.1
160.2
160.5
162.3
157.1

157.7
158.1
160.7
161.1
161.8
163.8
157.4

158.7
159.1
162.2
163.2
163.1
165.7
161.6

169.2
160.5
162.8
163.9
164.5
167.6
162.8

163.1
164.0
165.0
165.3
166.4
169.9
163.6

164.6
165.4
166.2
166.3
167.6
170.8
164.2

165.8
166.5
168.2
168.5
169.3
173.1
166.9

166.8
167.1
169.1
169.5
170.7
174.8
167.6

170.4
171.7
170.8
171.2
173.0
176.8
168.5

2.3
2.8
1.0
1.0
1.3
1.1
.5

4.7
3.5
3.6
4.0
4.1
3.0

Public administration3.............................................................
Nonmanufacturing....................................................................

156.5

157.5

160.2

161.7

163.4

164.3

167.3

168.1

170.1

1.2

4.1

158.7

160.2

161.7

162.4

164.5

165.8

167.8

168.6

170.4

1.1

3.6

160.7
160.5

161.6
161.6

162.3
162.4

165.0
165.1

166.4
166.6

168.1
168.1

168.8
169.0

171.4
171.6

1.5
1.5

3.9

Excluding sales occupations..............................................

158.9
159.0

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers..............................................................
Excluding sales occupations............................................
Professional specialty and technical occupations...........
Executive, adminitrative, and managerial occupations..
Sales occupations................................................................
Administrative support occupations, including clerical...
Blue-collar workers................................................................
Precision production, craft, and repair occupations.......
Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors............
Transportation and material moving occupations...........
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers....

161.9
162.8
161.5
164.4
157.7
162.8
153.6
153.7
153.6
148.7
158.7

163.8
164.3
162.5
166.6
161.6
164.2
155.1
155.7
154.7
149.6
159.9

164.6
165.3
163.6
167.0
161.6
165.6
156.3
156.9
155.4
151.0
161.4

165.2
165.9
164.4
167.2
161.9
166.7
157.3
157.8
156.7
151.8
162.9

168.1
169.1
166.5
172.1
163.5
169.0
159.7
160.0
159.9
153.2
164.9

169.4
170.4
167.7
173.1
165.1
170.9
161.4
162.0
161.1
155.1
166.8

171.2
172.1
169.4
175.0
167.2
172.3
162.8
163.1
162.6
156.7
168.6

172.0
173.0
170.5
175.9
167.1
173.2
163.6
164.2
163.2
156.9
169.5

174.2
175.3
173.4
176.8
169.2
176.1
166.9
167.1
168.7
158.5
171.7

1.3
1.3
1.7
.5
1.3
1.7
2.0
1.8
3.4
1.0
1.3

3.6
3.7
4.1
2.7
3.5
4.2
4.5
4.4
5.5
3.5
4.1

C iv ilia n w o r k e r s 2 .........................................................................................

Workers, by occupational group:
W hite-collar workers.................................................................
Professional specialty and technical...................................
Executive, adminitrative, and managerial...........................
Administrative support, including clerical...........................
Blue-collar workers..................................................................
Service occupations.................................................................
Workers, by industry division:

P r iv a t e i n d u s t r y w o r k e r s ......................................................................

4.5

3.9

Service occupations...............................................................

156.4

157.4

159.0

159.8

161.7

162.6

163.8

164.3

166.9

1.2

3.2

Production and nonsupervisory occupations4..................

157.1

158.7

159.7

160.5

162.6

164.1

165.7

166.6

169.3

1.6

4.1

Workers, by industry division:
Goods-producing....................................................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................
White-collar occupations..................................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................
Blue-collar occupations.....................................................
Construction..........................................................................
M anufacturing.......................................................................
White-collar occupations..................................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................
Blue-collar occupations....................................................
Durables................................................................................
Nondurables.........................................................................

156.2
155.5
160.1
158.4
153.6
154.1
156.6
159.1
156.7
154.6
156.9
156.0

157.6
156.9
161.9
160.2
154.8
155.2
158.1
161.1
158.6
155.8
158.3
157.5

158.6
157.9
162.9
161.1
155.9
156.3
159.1
162.2
159.6
156.7
158.9
159.2

160.1
159.2
164.3
162.3
157.3
157.9
160.5
163.3
160.7
158.3
160.6
160.3

163.0
162.4
167.8
166.3
159.9
159.1
164.0
167.1
165.1
161.6
164.4
163.1

164.5
163.8
169.2
167.5
161.5
161.1
165.4
168.7
166.4
162.8
165.5
164.9

165.7
165.0
170.1
168.5
162.9
162.3
166.5
169.5
167.4
164.1
166.6
166.0

166.5
165.9
170.5
169.2
163.9
163.3
167.1
169.6
167.8
165.1
167.3
166.6

170.3
169.8
173.5
172.2
168.1
164.6
171.7
173.2
171.3
170.4
172.4
170.4

2.3
2.4
1.8
1.8
2.6
.8
2.8
2.1
2.1
3.2
3.0
2.3

4.5
4.6
3.4
3.5
5.1
3.5
4.7
3.7
3.8
5.4
4.9
4.5

159.9
160.9
162.1
164.1
153.2
155.9
157.3
152.5
163.9
166.0
161.3
156.5
157.5
161.9
162.3
153.5
152.4
152.9

161.8
162.4
164.0
165.6
155.2
157.0
158.9
153.9
165.5
166.1
164.8
159.5
160.0
166.3
164.4
155.6
154.2
154.5

162.7
163.5
164.7
166.5
156.6
158.5
160.8
155.4
168.2
169.0
167.2
159.6
160.3
165.9
166.1
156.0
156.1
156.3

163.1
164.0
165.1
167.0
156.9
159.3
161.7
156.1
169.2
170.1
168.1
159.7
160.4
166.7
167.2
155.8
155.1
156.3

165.6
166.6
167.9
169.9
158.7
161.1
163.2
157.8
170.5
171.3
169.5
161.3
161.8
169.5
168.4
156.6
156.4
157.5

167.0
168.0
169.2
171.3
160 8
162.0
165.4
158.9
174.2
175.5
172.6
162.5
162.7
171.3
169.9
157.4
159.2
158.6

168.8
169.7
171 2
173.1
162 2
163.2
166.5
159.4
176.4
178.4
173.8
164.3
165.0
172.0
171.2
159.9
161.2
159.3

169.7
170.6
172.0
174.2
162 6
164.3
167.0
159.6
177.0
179.0
174.6
165.0
165.9
172.0
171.3
161.0
165.6
160.3

171.6
172.5
174.1
176.2
164 1
166.1
169.8
162.0
180.4
182.2
178.2
166.3
167.4
173.8
173.7
162.1
165.8
162.1

1.1
1.1
1.2
1.1
9

3.6
3.5
37
3.7
34
3.1
4.0
2.7
5.8
6.4
5.1
3.1
3.5
2.5
3 1
3.5
6.0
2.9

Service-producing...................................................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................

Transportation....................................................................
Public utilities......................................................................
Communications.............................................................
Electric, gas, and sanitary services.............................
Wholesale and retail trade..................................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................
Wholesale trade.................................................................
Retail trade.........................................................................
General merchandise stores..........................................
Food stores.......................................................................
See footnotes at end of table.

112

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2004

1.1
1.7
1.5
1.9
1.8
2.1
.8
.9
1.0
1.4
.7
.1
1.1

30. Continued—Employment Cost Index, compensation,1by occupation and industry group
[June 1989 = 100]

Series

Mar.

June

2004

2003

2002
Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

P ercent change
3 m onths

12 m onths

ended

ended

Mar. 2004
Finance, insurance, and real estate..................................

165.2

167.3

168.0

168.5

176.7

178.3

180.2

180.9

182.5

0.9

3.3

Excluding sales occupations.........................................
Banking, savings and loan, and other credit agencies.
Insurance.............................................................................
Services.................................................................................
Business services..............................................................
Health services...................................................................
Hospitals...........................................................................
Educational services..........................................................
Colleges and universities...............................................

169.8
182.1
164.0
162.6
166.3
160.6
162.8
168.5
168.1

171.3
184.2
166.1
163.7
166.6
162.0
164.5
169.0
168.4

172.1
184.6
167.1
164.9
167.2
163.2
166.2
173.5
172.0

173.1
185.3
167.9
165.4
167.5
164.4
168.1
175.2
173.7

182.0
204.3
172.1
167.1
168.5
166.5
170.8
176.3
174.5

184.0
206.3
173.9
168.4
169.2
167.9
171.9
177.1
175.4

1,853.0
207.6
175.1
170.4
171.9
169.4
173.9
180.2
178.4

186.1
209.0
176.2
171.4
172.6
170.8
175.9
181.3
179.4

186.6
207.2
177.8
173.5
174.8
173.3
178.1
183.1
181.2

.3
- .9
.9
1.2
1.3
1.5
1.3
1.0
1.0

2.5
1.4
3.3
3.8
3.7
4.1
4.3
3.9
3.8

Nonmanufacturing................................................................

159.3

161.1

162.0

162.5

164.9

166.4

168.1

169.0

170.9

1.1

3.6

White-collar workers..........................................................
Excluding sales occupations.......................................
Blue-collar occupations.....................................................
Service occupations..........................................................

162.2
164.2
152.2
155.9

164.1
165.7
154.0
156.9

164.8
166.6
155.4
158.4

165.3
167.1
155.9
159.2

168.0
170.0
157.5
161.1

169.3
171.4
159.7
162.0

171.2
173.2
161.1
163.2

172.1
174.2
161.7
162.4

174.1
176.2
163.4
166.0

1.2
1.1
1.1
1.1

3.6
3.6
3.7
3.0

S t a t e a n d lo c a l g o v e r n m e n t w o r k e r s ..............................................

156.1

156.7

160.1

161.5

162.6

163.2

165.9

166.8

168.0

.7

3.3

155.2
153.6
159.5
156.9
154.0

155.7
154.1
159.6
158.0
154.7

159.3
158.1
162.3
161.0
158.4

160.7

161.7

162.2

166.8

160.2
165.3
163.8
161.3

160.8
165.7
164.4
161.7

164.9
163.4
168.0
167.9
163.6

165.7

159.4
163.8
162.4
159.8

164.1
169.1
168.5
165.2

165.1
170.1
170.4
166.7

.7
.6
.6
1.1
.9

3.2
3.1
2.9
4.0
3.3

2.9

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers.................................................................
Professional specialty and technical...................................
Executive, administrative, and managerial.........................

Workers, by industry division:
Services...................................................................................
5
Services excluding s c h o o ls ................................................
Health services...................................................................
Hospitals..........................................................................
Educational services.........................................................
Schools............................................................................
Elementary and secondary.........................................
Colleges and universities............................................
Public administration3.............................................................

155.5

155.9

159.7

160.9

161.8

162.3

164.9

165.7

166.5

.5

157.9

158.7

161.0

162.8

164.0

164.2

166.8

168.2

169.4

.7

3.3

160.4
160.7
154.8
155.1
153.4
160.0

161.4
161.8
155.1
155.4
153.6
160.4

163.5
164.1
159.2
159.6
157.7
164.7

165.5
166.2
160.3
160.7
158.8
165.8

166.4
167.0
161.1
161.4
159.4
167.0

166.7
167.3
161.7
162.0
160.0
167.5

169.5
170.3
164.3
164.7
163.0
169.2

171.0
171.4
165.0
165.3
163.7
170.0

172.2
172.4
165.7
166.0
164.4
170.7

.7
.6
.4
.4
.4
.4

3.5
3.2
2.9
2.9
3.1
2.2

156.5

157.9

160.2

161.7

163.4

164.3

167.3

168.1

170.1

1.2

4.1

1 Cost (cents per hour worked) measured in the Employment Cost Index consists of
wages, salaries, and employer cost of employee benefits.
2 Consists of private Industry workers (excluding farm and household workers) and
State and local government (excluding Federal Government) workers.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

3 Consists of legislative, judicial, administrative, and regulatory activities.
4 This series has the same industry and occupational coverage as the Hourly
Earnings index, which was discontinued in January 1989.
5 Includes, for example, library, social, and health services.

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

113

Current Labor Statistics:

Compensation & Industrial Relations

31. Employment Cost Index, wages and salaries, by occupation and industry group
[June 1989 = 100] __________________
2002

2003

2004

Series
Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

Percent change
3 months

12 m onths

ended

ended

Mar. 2004
Civilian workers1................................................

154.8

156.1

157.2

157.8

159.3

160.3

161.8

162.3

163.3

0.6

2.5

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers...............................................................
Professional specialty and technical...................................
Executive, adminitratlve, and managerial..........................
Administrative support, Including clerical...........................
Blue-collar workers...........................................................
Service occupations.................................................................

157.0
155.6
160.7
157.3
149.7
154 2

158.4
156.2
162.6
158.4
151.0
155.1

159.6
158.0
163.5
159.6
151.9
'56.2

160.1
158.6
163.8
160.6
152.6
156.9

161.9
159.3
167.9
161.8
153.8
158.0

162.9
160.1
169.0
163.1
154.8
158.7

164.5
161.8
170.5
164.3
155.8
159.8

165.1
162.5
171.2
164.9
156.3
160.6

166.1
163.8
171.4
166.3
157.3

.6
.8
.1
.8
.6

2.6
2.8
2.1
2.8
2.3
2.0

Workers, by industry division:
Goods-producing.....................................................................
Manufacturing.......................................................................
Service-producing....................................................................
Services...................................................................................
Health services...........................................................
Hospitals.............................................................................
Educational services...........................................................

151.8
153.1
155.9
158.1
157.3
157.2
155.3

153.1
154.5
157.2
158.8
158.5
158.6
155.6

153.9
155.4
156.4
160.7
159.6
160.3
159.3

155.1
156.5
158.8
161.1
160.9
162.2
160.1

156.3
158.0
160.5
161.9
162.0
163.5
160.4

157.5
159.0
161.4
162.8
163.2
164.4
160.7

158.3
159.7
163.0
164.7
164.7
166.3
162.7

160.6
160.1
163.6
165.4
165.9
167.7
163.2

159.9
161.3
164.6
166.5
167.7
169.0
163.6

.8
.7
.6
.7
1.1
.8
.2

2.3
2.1
2.6
2.8
3.5
3.4
2.0

Public administration2.............................................................
Nonmanufacturing....................................................................

152.5
155.0

153.4
156.4

154.8
157.5

155.8
158.0

157.2
159.6

158.0
160.5

159.4
162.1

160.0
162.7

161.1
163.7

.7
.6

2.5
2.6

Private industry w orkers..........................................................
Excluding sales occupations..............................................

154.7
154.9

156.3
156.1

157.0
157.0

157.5
157.9

159.3
159.4

160.4
160.5

161.7
161.7

162.3
162.4

163.4
163.5

.7
.7

2.6
2.6

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers...............................................................
Excluding sales occupations............................................
Professional specialty and technical occupations...........
Executive, adminitrative, and managerial occupations..
Sales occupations................................................................
Administrative support occupations, including clerical...
Blue-collar workers................................................................
Precision production, craft, and repair occupations.......
Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors............
Transportation and material moving occupations...........
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers....

157.7
158.6
156.7
161.3
153.6
158.2
149.6
149.2
150.5
144.8
154.2

159.4
160.0
157.4
163.6
157.0
159.2
150.9
151.0
151.6
145.2
155.1

160.0
169.8
158.2
164.3
156.9
160.3
151.7
151.8
152.0
146.3
156.0

160.4
160.8
158.5
164.5
156.8
161.3
152.4
152.3
153.2
146.9
157.2

162.6
163.6
159.5
169.1
158.1
162.6
153.6
153.4
154.7
147.8
158.4

163.8
164.8
160.5
170.3
159.3
164.0
154.6
154.7
155.3
149.0
159.0

165.3
166.2
162.1
171.8
161.6
165.1
155.6
155.5
156.8
149.8
159.9

165.9
167.0
163.0
172.5
161.1
165.7
156.1
156.2
156.9
149.8
160.6

167.1
168.1
164.7
172.7
162.6
167.2
157.2
157.1
158.6
150.4
161.8

.7
.7
1.0
.1
.9
.9
.7
.6
1.1
.4
.7

2.8
2.8
3.3
2.1
2.8
2.8
2.3
2.4
2.5
1.8
2.1

Service occupations...............................................................

152.0

152.8

153.9

154.4

155.5

156.1

157.1

157.8

158.4

.4

1.9

Production and nonsupervisory occupations3..................

152.7

154.0

154.7

155.2

156.4

157.4

158.8

159.4

160.7

.8

2.7

Workers, by industry division:
Goods-producing....................................................................
Excluding sales occupations.........................................
White-collar occupations..................................................
Excluding sales occupations.........................................
Blue-collar occupations.....................................................
Construction..........................................................................
M anufacturing.......................................................................
W hite-collar occupations...................................................
Excluding sales occupations.........................................
Blue-collar occupations.....................................................
Durables.................................................................................
Nondurables..................................................................

151.7
150.9
155.0
152.9
149.6
147.0
153.1
154.9
152.3
151.7
153.9
151.9

153.1
152.2
156.6
154.5
150.7
148.2
154.4
156.6
153.9
152.8
155.3
153.1

153.9
153.0
157.9
155.4
151.5
149.0
155.4
157.7
155.0
153.5
156.0
154.4

155.0
154.0
158.6
156.3
152.6
150.2
156.5
158.6
155.9
154.7
157.3
155.2

156.3
155.4
160.0
158.0
153.8
150.6
158.0
160.1
157.7
156.3
158.8
156.6

157.4
156.5
161.4
159.2
154.8
152.4
159.0
161.6
158.9
156.9
159.7
157.8

158.3
157.4
161.9
159.9
155.9
153.6
159.7
162.0
159.5
157.9
160.6
158.3

158.7
158.0
162.1
160.4
156.4
154.0
160.1
162.1
160.0
158.5
160.9
158.7

159.9
159.2
163.2
161.5
157.7
155.1
161.3
163.3
161.2
159.8
161.9
160.4

.8
.8
.7
.7
.8
.7
.7
.7
.8
.8
.6
1.1

2.3
2.4
2.0
2.2
2.5
3.0
2.1
2.0
2.2
2.2
2.0
2.4

Service-producing....................................................................
Excluding sales occupations.........................................
White-collar occupations...................................................
Excluding sales occupations.........................................
Blue-collar occupations.....................................................
Service occupations...........................................................
Transportation and public utilities......................................
Transportation.....................................................................
Public utilities......................................................................
Communications.............................................................
Electric, gas, and sanitary services..............................
Wholesale and retail trade..................................................
Excluding sales occupations.........................................
Wholesale trade................................................................
Excluding sales occupations.........................................
Retail trade..........................................................................
General merchandise stores..........................................
Food stores.......................................................................

156.1
157.2
158.2
160.4
149.4
151.6
150.5
147.4
154.3
155.3
153.0
153.0
157.2
159.4
150.9
147.9
148.0

157.7
158.5
159.9
161.6
151.1
152.4
152.1
148.6
156.4
157.1
155.5
155.7

158.4
159.3
160.5
162.5
151.8
153.5
153.4
149.6
158.2
159.6
156.5
155.5

158.6
159.6
160.7
162.8
152.0
154.1
154.1
150.1
159.3
160.7
157.4
155.5

160.6
161.7
163.0
165.3
153.2
155.1
154.8
150.5
160.4
161.9
158.6
156.7

161.7
162.8
164.1
166.5
154.3
155.6
155.6
150.6
162.1
163.4
160.4
157.5

163.3
164.2
166.0
168.2
155.1
156.6
156.0
150.4
163.4
165.4
161.0
159.2
_

163.9
165.0
166.6
169.0
155.4
157.4
156.5
150.8
164.1
165.9
161.8
159.5
_

165.0
166.0
167.8
170.2
156.2
158.0
157.6
151.7
165.3
167.0
163.3
160.3
_

.7
.6
.7
.7
.5
.4
.7
.6
.7
.7
.9
.5

2.7
2.7
2.9
3.0
2.0
1.9
1.8
.8
3.1
3.2
3.0
2.3

164.8
165.7
156.3
153.1
152.2

165.3
166.3
156.5
153.6
152.8

166.2
167.8
157.3
154.1
153.8

.5
.9
.5
.3
.7

1.7
2.4
2.7
2.9
1.9

See footnotes at end of table.

114

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2004

-

161.3
161.2
152.7
148.9
148.9

-

160.4
162.6
152.9
150.1
150.1

-

161.0
163.7
152.7
149.2
150.3

-

163.4
163.9
153.1
149.8
151.0

-

164.7
165.2
153.8
152.0
151.6 J

_

_

31.

Continued—Employment Cost Index, wages and salaries, by occupation and industry group

[June 1989 = 100]
P ercent change

2004

2003

2002

3 m onths

12 m onths

ended

ended

Series
Mar.

Sept.

June

Dec.

Mar.

Sept.

June

Dec.

Mar.

Mar. 2004
Finance, insurance, and real estate..................................
Excluding sales occupations.........................................
Banking, savings and loan, and other credit agencies.
Insurance.............................................................................
Services.................................................................................
Business services..............................................................
Health services...................................................................
Hospitals...........................................................................
Educational services..........................................................
Colleges and universities...............................................

160.3
164.5
181.2
157.1
159.5
164.0
157.3
157.1
161.2
159.9

162.0
165.7
182.8
158.6
160.3
164.0
158.4
158.6
161.2
159.9

162.4
166.1
182.7
159.6
161.5
164.6
159.9
160.2
165.2
163.1

162.6
167.3
183.9
159.1
161.7
164.8
160.7
162.1
166.5
164.3

171.1
176.7
206.4
161.6
162.8
165.6
161.9
163.6
167.1
164.4

172.4
178.5
208.7
163.0
164.0
166.4
163.2
164.6
167.5
165.1

174.1
179.2
209.1
163.9
165.9
169.1
164.6
166.5
170.3
167.6

174.5
210.2
164.5
164.5
166.7
169.8
135.8
167.9
171.0
168.4

175.2
179.2
206.7
165.1
168.1
171.0
167.8
169.4
171.9
169.5

0.4
-.3
-1 .7
.4
.8
.7
1.2
.9
.5
.7

2.4
1.4
.1
2.2
3.3
3.3
3.6
3.5
2.9
3.1

Nonmanufacturlng................................................................
White-collar workers..........................................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................
Blue-collar occupations.....................................................
Service occupations..........................................................

155.0
158.0
160.1
147.5
151.4

156.5
159.6
161.3
149.0
152.3

157.2
160.2
162.1
149.8
153.4

157.5
160.5
162.5
150.2
154.0

159.4
162.8
164.9
151.1
155.0

160.5
163.9
166.1
152.4
155.5

162.1
165.7
167.7
153.4
156.5

162.6
166.3
168.5
153.8
157.3

163.7
167.5
169.7
154.7
157.9

.7
.7
.7
.6
.4

2.7
2.9
2.9
2.4
1.9

S t a t e a n d lo c a l g o v e r n m e n t w o r k e r s .............................................

156.1

156.7

160.1

161.5

162.6

163.2

165.9

166.8

168.0

.4

2.1

153.9
153.6
156.6
151.9
151.6

154.4
154.1
156.8
152.8
152.1

157.4
157.5
159.0
155.1
154.5

158.4
158.4
160.1
156.0
155.1

158.9
158.8
160.9
156.9
156.2

159.2
159.1
161.0
157.2
156.5

161.0
161.0
162.5
159.1
157.6

161.5
161.4
163.3
159.5
158.3

162.1
162.1
163.5
160.4
158.9

.4
.4
.1
.6
.4

2.0
2.1
1.6
2.2
1.7

154.6

155.0

158.4

159.2

159.5

159.8

161.6

162.1

162.6

.3

1.9

160.3
162.2
162.5
158.9
159.0
158.1
161.6

161.4
162.9
163.1
159.1
159.2
158.2
162.1

161.8
163.5
163.8
159.3
159.5
158.5
162.1

163.2
165.1
165.5
161.2
161.4
160.6
163.5

164.5
166.7
166.7
161.6
161.8
160.9
164.0

165.1
167.4
167.4
162.0
162.1
161.3
164.3

.4
.4
.4
.2
.2
.2
.2

2.3
2.8
2.6
1.8
1.8
2.0
1.4

155.8

157.2

158.0

159.4

160.0

161.1

•7

2.5

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers.................................................................
Professional specialty and technical...................................
Executive, administrative, and managerial........................

Workers, by industry division:
Services...................................................................................

Elementary and secondary.........................................
Colleges and universities...........................................

156.7
157.8
157.7
154.2
154.3
153.4
156.8

157.3
158.6
158.8
154.5
154.6
153.6
157.3

159.1
160.5
160.6
158.1
158.3
157.4
160.7

Public administration2............................................................

152.5

153.4

154.8

Services excluding schools4................................................
Health services...................................................................
Hospitals..........................................................................

1 Consists of private industry workers (excluding farm and household workers) and
State and local government (excluding Federal Government) workers.

Earnings index, which was discontinued in January 1989.

2 Consists of legislative, judicial, administrative, and regulatory activities.

32.

3 This series has the same industry and occupational coverage as the Hourly
4 Includes, for example, library, social, and health services.

Employment Cost Index, benefits, private industry workers by occupation and industry group

[June 1989 = 100]
2004

2003

2002

P ercent change
3 m onths

12 m onths

ended

ended

Series
Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

Mar. 2004
P r iv a t e in d u s t r y w o r k e r s .......................................................................

169.3

171.6

173.1

174.6

179.6

182.0

184.3

185.8

192.2

3.4

7.0

173.5
162.2

176.1
164.0

177.2
166.2

178.5
167.8

183.6
172.7

185.5
176.1

187.7
178.4

189.2
179.9

194.4
188.3

2.7
4.7

5.9
9.0

165.8
170.7
163.7
171.1

167.4
173.3
165.5
173.5

168.8
174.9
166.8
175.2

171.0
175.9
168.9
176.3

178.0
179.9
176.9
180.3

180.2
182.3
179.0
182.8

182.3
184.7
181.1
185.1

183.8
186.2
182.3
186.7

193.7
190.6
194.4

5.4
2.4
6.6
2.2

8.8
5.9
9.9
5.9

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers.................................................................

Workers, by industry division:
Goods-producing......................................................................
Service-producing.....................................................................
Manufacturing...........................................................................
Nonmanufacturing....................... ............................................


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190.9

Monthly Labor Review

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115

Current Labor Statistics:

33.

Compensation & Industrial Relations

Employment Cost Index, private nonfarm workers by bargaining status, region, and area size

[June 1989 = 100]
2002

2003

2004

Series
Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

Percent change
3 m onths

12 m onths

ended

ended

Mar. 2004
COMPENSATION
W orkers, by bargainin g s ta tu s 1
Union......................................................................................
Goods-producing.......................................................................
Service-producing................................................................
Manufacturing........................................................................
Nonmanufacturing.....................................................................

154.8
153.4
156.0
153.4
155.0

156.3
154.7
157.6
154.6
156.6

158.1
156.2
159.9
155.9
158.8

159.5
157.8
161.1
157.9
159.9

162.1
161.4
162.6
162.3
161.4

164.1
163.4
164.6
163.8
163.7

165.7
164.7
166.5
165.0
165.5

166.8
165.9
167.5
166.3
166.5

171.4
172.3
170.2
175.0
168.8

2.8
3.9
1.6
5.2
1.4

5.7
6.8
4.7
7.8
4.6

Nonunion........................................................................
Goods-producing........................................................................
Service-producing......................................................................
Manufacturing............................................................................
Nonmanufacturing.....................................................................

159.6
157.2
160.3
157.6
159.9

161.4
158.6
162.2
159.1
161.7

162.5
159.5
162.9
160.1
162.4

162.8
160.8
163.3
161.3
162.9

165.4
163.6
165.9
164.5
165.4

166.8
164.9
167.2
165.8
166.7

168.4
166.1
169.0
166.9
168.5

169.1
166.7
169.8
167.3
139.3

171.3
169.7
171.6
170.6

1.3
1.8
1.1
2.0

3.6
3.7
3.4
3.7
3.4

158.3
156.2
161.1
160.4

159.9
157.6
162.2
162.9

160.5
158.9
163.5
163.8

161.3
159.0
164.6
165.0

163.8
160.6
169.0
167.3

165.2
161.6
170.4
169.5

166.9
163.2
171.7
171.4

167.9
163.9
172.5
172.2

170.2
166.4
174.7
175.3

1.4
1.5
1.3
1.8

3.9
3.6
3.4
4.8

159.1
157.5

160.9
158.5

161.8
160.0

162.5
169.8

165.2
163.5

166.6
165.0

168.3
166.1

169.1
166.9

171.5
170.2

1.4
2.0

3.8
4.1

Union............................................................................................
Goods-producing.......................................................................
Service-producing......................................................................
Manufacturing.............................................................................
Nonmanufacturing.....................................................................

148.4
147.2
150.0
149.0
148.1

149.8
158.6
151.4
150.2
149.6

151.3
150.0
152.9
151.6
151.1

152.5
151.2
154.1
153.1
152.1

153.3
152.4
154.6
154.6
152.5

154.3
153.9
155.1
155.9
153.5

155.3
154.8
156.3
156.7
154.6

156.2
155.4
157.3
157.1
155.6

157.2
156.3
158.5
158.1
156.6

.6
.6
.8
.6
.6

2.5
2.6
2.5
2.3
2.7

Nonunion.........................................................................................
Goods-producing.......................................................................
Service-producing......................................................................
Manufacturing.............................................................................
Nonmanufacturing......................................................................

155.9
153.5
156.7
154.7
155.9

157.5
154.8
158.3
156.1
157.5

158.1
155.5
158.9
156.8
158.1

158.5
156.6
159.0
157.8
158.3

160.4
157.8
161.2
159.3
160.4

161.5
158.9
162.3
160.2
161.5

163.0
159.7
164.0
160.9
163.1

163.4
160.1
164.5
161.3
163.7

164.6
161.4
165.6
162.6
164.7

.7
.8
.7
.8
.6

2.6
2.3
2.7
2.1
2.7

153.5
152.5
157.1
156.4

154.9
153.6
158.5
158.7

155.1
154.7
159.2
159.3

155.7
154.6
160.2
160.1

157.3
155.3
164.1
161.3

158.4
156.1
165.0
163.1

160.0
157.4
166.1
164.7

160.9
157.9
166.5
165.2

162.0
159.1
166.9
166.8

.7
.8
.2
1.0

3.0
2.4
1.7
3.4

155.1
151.7

156.7
152.6

157.4
153.8

157.9
154.8

159.6
156.8

160.7
158.0

162.2
158.9

162.7
159.5

163.8
160.8

.7
.8

2.6
2.6

W orkers, by re g io n 1
Northeast...........................................................................
South.......................................................................................
Midwest (formerly North Central)...............................................
W est.............................................................................................
W orkers, by area size1
Metropolitan areas........................................................................
Other areas....................................................................................
W AGES AND SALARIES
W orkers, by bargainin g s ta tu s 1

W orkers, by re g io n 1
Northeast........................................................................................
South...............................................................................................
Midwest (formerly North Central)................................................
W est....................................................................................
W orkers, by area size1
Metropolitan areas........................................................................
Other areas.....................................................................................

1 The indexes are calculated differently from those for the occupation and Industry groups. For a detailed description of the Index calculation, see the Monthly Labor Review
Technical Note, "Estimation procedures for the Employment Cost Index," May 1982.

116
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34. Percent of full-time employees participating in employer-provided benefit plans, and in selected features within plans,
medium and large private establishments, selected years, 1980-97____________________________________________
Item

1984

1982

1980

1991

1989

1988

1986

199 7

1995

1993

21,352

21,043

21,013

21,303

31,059

32,428

31,163

28,728

33,374

38,409

20,711
20,498
17,936

20,412
20,201
17,676

20,383
20,172
17,231

20,238
20,451
16,190

27,953
28,574
19,567

29,834
30,482
20,430

25,865
29,293
18,386

23,519
26,175
16,015

25,546
29,078
17,417

29,340
33,495
19,202

10

9
25
76
25

9
26
73
26

11
29
72
26
85
3.2
96
9.4

10
26
71
26
84
3.3
97
9.2

8
30
67
28
80
3.3
92
10.2

9
29
68
26
83
3.0
91
9.4

80
3.3
89
9.1

81
3.7
89
9.3

24
3.3

22
3.1

21
3.3

21
3.1

22
3.3

20
3.5

Number of employees (in 000's):

Time-off plans
Participants with:

99
10.1

99
10.0

99
9.8

10
27
72
26
88
3.2
99
10.0

20

24
3.8

23
3.6

25
3.7

100

99

99

100

98

97

96

97

96

95

62

67

67

70

69
33
16

68
37
18

67
37
26

65
60
53

58

56

84

93

75

_

_

_

_

_
_

Insurance plans
97

97

97

95

90

92

83

82

77

76

58

62

46
62
8

66
70
18

76
79
28

75
80
28

81
80
30

86
82
42

78
73
56

85
78
63

26

27

46

51

36
$11.93
58
$35.93

43
$12.80
63
$41.40

44
$19.29
64
$60.07

47
$25.31
66
$72.10

51
$26.60
69
$96.97

61
$31.55
76
$107.42

67
$33.92
78
$118.33

69
$39.14
80
$130.07

96

96

96

96

92

94

94

91

87

87

69

72

74

64

64

72
10
59

78
8
49

71
7
42

71
6
44

76
5
41

77
7
37

74
6
33

40

43

47

48

42

45

40

41

42

43

54

51

51

49

46

43

45

44
53

55

Percent of participants with coverage for:

Percent of participants with employee
contribution required for:

Percent of participants with:
Accidental death and dismemberment

Participants in long-term disability
Participants in sickness and accident

Retirement plans
84

84

82

76

63

63

59

56

52

50

55
98

58
97

53
45

52
45

63
97
47
54
56

64
98
35
57
62

59
98
26
55
62

62
97
22
64
63

55
98
7
56
54

52
95
6
61
48

52
96
4
58
51

52
95
10
56
49

60

45

48

48

49

55

57

41

44

43

54

55

Percent of participants with:

Participants in plans with tax-deferred savings
36

33
Other benefits
Employees eligible for:

_
_

_

2

5

9

10

12

12

13

5

12

23

36

52

38
5

32
7

_

_

Premium conversion plans........................................
1 The definitions for paid sick leave and short-term disability (previously sickness and

less than full pay.

accident insurance) were changed for the 1995 survey. Paid sick leave now includes only

2 Prior to 1995, reimbursement accounts included premium conversion plans, which

plans that specify either a maximum number of days per year or unlimited days. Short-

specifically allow medical plan participants to pay required plan premiums with pretax

terms disability now includes all insured, self-insured, and State-mandated plans available

dollars.

on a per-disability basis, as well as the unfunded per-disability plans previously reported as

tabulated separately.

Also, reimbursement accounts that were part of flexible benefit plans were

sick leave. Sickness and accident insurance, reported in years prior to this survey, included
only insured, self-insured, and State-mandated plans providing per-disability benefits at


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Monthly Labor Review

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2004

117

Current Labor Statistics:

Compensation & Industrial Relations

35. Percent of full-time employees participating in employer-provided benefit plans, and in selected features
within plans, small private establishments and State and local governments, 1987, 1990, 1992, 1994, and 1996
Sm all private establishm ents

Item
1990

1992

1994

State and local governm ents
1996

1987

1990

1992

1994

Scope of survey (In 000's).............................................

32,466

34,360

35,910

39,816

10,321

12,972

12,466

12,907

Number of employees (in 000's):
With medical care........................................................
With life insurance.......................................................
With defined benefit plan............................................

22,402
20,778
6,493

24,396
21,990
7,559

23,536
21,955
5,480

25,599
24,635
5,883

9,599
8,773
9,599

12,064
11,415
11,675

11,219
11,095
10,845

11,192
11,194
11,708

T im e-off plans
Participants with:
Paid lunch tim e.............................................................
Average minutes per day..........................................
Paid rest tim e................................................................
Average minutes per day........................................
Paid funeral leave.........................................................
Average days per occurrence..................................
Paid holidays................................................................

8
37
48
27
47
2.9
84

9
37
49
26
50
3.0
82

-

_
_

50
3.1
82

11
36
56
29
63
3.7
74

10
34
53
29
65
3.7
75

_
_
_
_

51
3.0
80

17
34
58
29
56
3.7
81

62
3.7
73

Averaqe days per year1.............................................
Paid personal leave......................................................
Average days per year..............................................
Paid vacations..............................................................

9.5
11
2.8
88

9.2
12
2.6
88

7.5
13
2.6
88

7.6
14
3.0
86

10.9
38
2.7
72

13.6
39
2.9
67

14.2
38
2.9
67

11.5
38
3.0
66

Paid sick leave 2..........................................

47

53

50

50

97

95

95

94

Unpaid leave..................................................................
Unpaid paternity leave..............................................
Unpaid family leave......................................................

17
8
-

18
7
-

_
47

_

51
33
-

59
44

48

57
30
-

Insurance plans
Participants in medical care plans................................
Percent of participants with coverage for:
Home health care........................................................
Extended care facilities.............................................
Physical exam.............................................................

69

71

66

64

93

93

90

87

79
83
26

80
84
28

-

_
-

-

-

76
78
36

82
79
36

87
84
47

84
81
55

Percent of participants with employee
contribution required for:
Self coverage..............................................................
Average monthly contribution.................................
Family coverage.........................................................

42
$25.13
67

47
$36.51
73

52
$40.97
76

52
$42.63
75

35
$15.74
71

38
$25.53
65

43
$28.97
72

47
$30.20
71

Average monthly contribution.................................

$109.34

$150.54

$159.63

$181.53

$71.89

$117.59

$139.23

$149.70

Participants in life insurance plans..............................
Percent of participants with:
Accidental death and dismemberment
insurance.....................................................................
Survivor income benefits.............................................
Retiree protection available........................................
Participants in long-term disability
insurance plans............................................................
Participants in sickness and accident
insurance plans...........................................................

64

64

61

62

85

88

89

87

78
1
19

76
1
25

79
2
20

77
1
13

67
1
55

67
1
45

74
1
46

64
2
46

19

23

20

22

31

27

28

30

6

26

26

14

21

22

21

_

_

_

29

_

20

22

15

15

93

90

87

91

50
95
4
54
46

-

92
90
33
100
18

89
88
16
100
8

92
89
10
100
10

92
87
13
99
49

Participants in short-term disability plans 2.................

-

-

-

93

R etirem ent plans
Participants in defined benefit pension plans............
Percent of participants with:
Normal retirement prior to age 65............................
Early retirement available..........................................
Ad hoc pension increase in last 5 years..................
Terminal earnings formula.........................................
Benefit coordinated with Social Security.................
Participants in defined contribution plans....................
Participants in plans with tax-deferred savings
arrangements...............................................................

54
95
7
58
49

-

47
92

-

-

-

53
44

-

31

33

34

38

9

9

9

9

17

24

23

28

28

45

45

24

O ther benefits
Employees eligible for:
Flexible benefits plans..................................................
Reimbursement accounts 3..........................................
Premium conversion plans .......................................

1

2

3

4

5

5

5

5

8

14

19

12

5

31

50

64

7

1 Methods used to calculate the average number of paid holidays were revised

Sickness and accident insurance, reported In years prior to this survey,

in 1994 to count partial days more precisely. Average holidays for 1994 are

included only insured, self-insured, and State-mandated plans providing per-

not comparable with those reported in 1990 and 1992.

disability benefits at less than full pay.

2 The definitions for paid sick leave and short-term disability (previously

3 Prior to 1996, reimbursement accounts Included premium conversion plans,

sickness and accident insurance) were changed for the 1996 survey. Paid sick

which specifically allow medical plan participants to pay required plan

leave now includes only plans that specify either a maximum number of days

premiums with pretax dollars. Also, reimbursement accounts that were part of

per year or unlimited days. Short-term disability now includes all Insured, self-

flexible benefit plans were tabulated separately.

insured, and State-mandated plans available on a per-disabllity basis, as well
as the unfunded per-disability plans previously reported as sick leave.

118
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July 2004

No t e : Dash indicates data not available.

36. Work stoppages involving 1,000 workers or more
Annual totals
2002

2003p

2004p

2003p

Measure

June

May

Aug.

July

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

Jan.

Dec.

Mar.

Feb.

Apr.

May

Number of stoppages:
Beginning in period...............................

19

14

1

1

0

3

0

5

0

0

0

1

1

0

2

In effect during period..........................

20

15

1

1

1

3

2

5

3

2

1

2

1

1

2

Workers involved:
Beginning in period (in thousands)....

46

129.2

1.3

4.0

.0

8.2

.0

82.2

8.0

.0

.0

6.5

2.2

.0

103.0

In effect during period (in thousands).

47

130.5

1.3

4.0

4.0

8.2

3.2

82.2

76.7

70.5

61.3

66.5

2.2

2.2

103.0

6,596

4,091.2

7.8

16.0

12.0

35.9

51.3

1,168.5

1,219.0

1,473.4

1,203.9

1,146.5

44.0

26.4

204.0

.01

.00

(2)

(2)

(2)

.04

.04

.05

.05

.05

.05

.00

.00

.01

Days idle:

Percent of estimated workina time1.... _______
'

CL

Agricultural and government employees are included In the total employed and total

working time; private household, forestry, and fishery employees are excluded. An

Monthly Labor Review , October 1968, pp.54-56.

2

Less than 0.005.

explanation of the measurement of idleness as a percentage of the total time worked
is found in "Total economy measures of strike idleness,"


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Monthly Labor Review

July

2004

119

Current Labor Statistics:

Price Data

37. Consumer Price Indexes for All Urban Consumers and for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers: U.S. city average,
by expenditure category and commodity or service group
[1 9 8 2 -8 4 = 100, unless oth e rw is e in dicated]
An nua a v e ra g e

2003

S e ries
2002
CONSUMER PRICE INDEX
FOR ALL URBAN CONSUMERS
All items.....................................
All items (1967= 100)............................

2003

M ay

July

Aug.

S ept.

2004
O ct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan

Feb.

M ar.

A p r.

M ay

179.9
538.8

184.0
551.1

183.5
549.7

183.9
550.9

184.6
553.0

185.2
554.7

185.0
554.3

184.5
552.7

184.3
552.1

184.2
554.9

186.2
557.9

187.4
561.5

188.0
563.2

189.1
566.4

Food...................................................
Food at home...............................
Cereals and bakery products.................
Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs................

176.8
176.2
175.6
198.C
162.1

180.5
180.0
179.4
202.8
169.3

179.4
178.8
177.8
203.0
164.7

180.3
179.7
178.9
204.5
168.2

180.9
180.4
179.7
204.5
169.7

181.3
180.7
180.1
203.5
171.1

182.2
181.7
181.5
203.1
174.0

182.9
182.4
182.4
202.5
179.3

184.7
180.0
184.1

184.3
183.8
184.0

184.9
184.4
184.3

185.0
184.5
184.1

202.9
181.1

203.9
179.9

184.5
184.1
184.0
204.4
179.7

204.8
179.5

205.5
179.2

186.5
186.1
186.6
206.1
181.1

Dairy and related products’ ....
Fruits and vegetables..........................

168.1
220.9

167.9
225.9

165.4
226.2

164.7
226.6

167.5
224.9

170.3
224.4

171.8
226.3

171.2
227.5

173.0
232.4

172.4
232.4

172.1
229.7

171.9
230.1

174.0
228.3

Nonalcoholic beverages and beverage
materials..........................................
Other foods at home.....................................
Sugar and sweets.................................
Fats and oils..........................................
Other foods..................................................

185.9
231.7

139.2
160.6
159.0
155.4
177.1

139.8
162.6
162.0
157.4

138.4
167.7
162.7
156.3
179.0

139.7
163.2
162.5
157.7
179.4

139.2
163.1
162.3
157.6
179.4

140.5
163.0
162.5
159.7
178.7

137.9
162.0
161.7
157.3
177.9

139.3
163.0
161.0
157.7
179.6

140.7
162.8
163.0
160.7

178.8

140.3
162.1
162.3
157.6
177.8

141.4
163.7
163.9
162.3
178.9

140.8
165.1
163.3
166.2
180.4

139.7
165.0
162.6
166.2
180.4

169.9
165.4
163.5
169.4
180.1

109.2

110.3

110.1

111.3

109.9

111.0

110.7

109.0

109.8

109.1

109.5

111.7

110.5

110.8

178.3
117.7
183.6

182.1
121.3
187.2

181.5
120.5
186.7

182.2
121.3
187.2

182.6
121.4
187.1

182.8
121.8
187.9

183.3
122.3
188.1

183.8
122.7
188.6

184.3
122.9
188.7

184.9
123.9
189.4

185.5
124.0
189.9

186.2
124.7
191.8

186.7
124.8
191.7

180.3
208.1

184.8
213.1

184.5
212.8

185.9
213.8

186.1
214.3

185.8
213.8

185.7
214.7

185.1
214.2

185.1
213.1

186.3
215.2

187.0
216.0

185.8
124.1
190.8
187.9
217.8

188.4
218.4

188.9
218.7

199.7
118.3
214.7

205.5
119.3
219.9

204.9
121.4
219.1

205.6
124.8

206.6
118.5
220.7

206.9
120.9
221.4

207.5
115.0

209.7
129.1

210.2
128.2

222.6

208.8
120.0
222.9

209.2
128.1

221.9

205.5
119.3
219.9

208.3
117.2

219.6

206.1
125.1
220.1

223.3

223.9

224.3

108.7
143.6
127.2
115.5
134.4
128.3

114.8
154.5
138.2
139.5
145.0
126.1

114.3
153.7
137.5
137.0
144.5
126.3

115.6
159.4
143.6
130.5
151.6
126.1

115.8
159.2
143.0
130.7

116.0
155.0
138.2
131.4
145.6
125.1

114.3
152.9
135.7

114.8
154.5
138.7

151.0
125.5

115.9
159.6
143.4
130.5
151.5
125.2

134.8
142.6
124.9

139.1
145.0
124.7

114.8
156.3
139.2
149.9
145.5
125.3

115.0
156.9
139.5
155.1
145.5
125.7

115.1
155.2
137.6
152.5
143.5
125.7

115.7
155.6
138.0
149.6
144.2
125.6

116.1
158.1
140.4
150.4
146.8
125.4

124.0
121.7
115.8

120.9
118.0
113.1

122.5
119.5
115.5

116.2
113.8
106.1

117.2
113.4
107.9

122.0
117.3
115.5

124.8
120.8
118.8

123.1
121.4
115.7

119.0
118.0
110.9

115.8
115.5
105.7

118.6
117.1
110.3

123.5
119.8
117.6

124.3
120.3
118.7

123.4
120.3
116.9

126.4

122.1

120.8

124.1

125.2

117.7

119.3

121.9

117.8
158.3
154.1

120.3
159.4
155.4

121.8
157.1
153.0

118.5
154.7
150.8

115.9
157.0
153.2

117.0
158.8
154.9

120.1
160.5
156.6

120.5
121.0
161.8
157.9

118.1

117.5
156.8
152.4

123.0
121.0
155.7
151.7

119.2

119.6
157.6
153.6

123.6
119.7
157.2
153.1

117.9

121.4
152.9
148.8

96.5
137.9
142.9
135.8
135.1
107.8
195.6
209.3

94.6
136.5
135.1
136.6
136.0
107.9
196.9
211.3

94.6
137.5
132.0
131.2
130.6
107.9
197.2
207.9

138.0
131.0
127.8
127.2
107.8
198.0
205.6

94.3
138.0
130.8
136.7
136.1
108.0
198.2
206.3

94.4

136.8
143.3
139.0
138.4
107.9
195.7
213.8

95.1
136.4
139.0
147.1
146.5
107.7
196.2
211.2

94.4

138.1
147.9
131.3
130.6
107.8
194.9
211.6

96.5
137.7
145.7
130.6
130.0
107.6
196.0
216.7

96.0

138.3
131.0
143.1
142.5
108.0
198.2
208.1

94.2
137.9

Gasoline (all types)....................................
Motor vehicle parts and equipment......................
Motor vehicle maintenance and repair..........
Public transportation...................................

99.2
140.0
152.0
116.6
116.0
106.9
190.2
207.4

Medical care...........................................
Medical care commodities.................................
Medical care services.......................
Professional services.................................
Hospital and related services.................................

285.6
256.4
292.9
253.9
367.8

297.1
262.8
306.0
261.2
394.8

295.5
261.8
304.2
261.1
388.9

297.6
263.6
306.4
260.9
394.7

298.4
264.1
307.2
261.7
398.6

299.2
264.9
308.2
262.2
399.6

299.9
264.7
309.1
263.0
400.7

300.8
264.0
310.6
263.0
405.6

302.1
265.0
311.9
261.2
407.0

303.6
265.5
313.8
262.5
409.7

306.0
266.7
316.6
268.0
412.5

Recreation2

106.2

107.5

107.6

107.7

107.7

107.7

107.6

107.8

107.7

107.9

108.4

102.6

103.6

103.8

103.7

103.7

103.5

103.5

103.8

103.3

103.6

104.1

Food and beverages............................

Other miscellaneous foods1'2
Food away from home’ .............
Other food away from home1,2..............
Alcoholic beverages.........................
Housing.........................................
Shelter............................................
Rent of primary residence.........................
Lodging away from home......................................
Owners’ equivalent rent of primary residence3 ..
Tenants' and household insurance1,2
Fuels and utilities............................................
Fuels................................................
Fuel oil and other fuels.....................................
Gas (piped) and electricity..................................
Household furnishings and operations..................
Apparel..........................................................
Men's and boys' apparel.............................
Women's and girls' apparel.................................
Infants' and toddlers' apparel’
Footwear......................................
Transportation.............................................
Private transportation.......................................
New and used motor vehicles2
New vehicles.............................................
Used cars and trucks’ ...........
Motor fuel................................................

Video and audio1'2

97.4

178.0

94.1

120.3
165.2
161.5

131.2
150.5
149.8
107.8
198.5
209.9

137.6
131.3
155.9
155.3
107.9
198.6
211.5

94.0
137.4
131.8
170.5
169.8
107.9
199.0
210.7

307.5
267.3
318.4
269.7

308.3
268.5
319.2
270.6

309.0
269.1
319.8
270.9

413.8

413.6

414.6

108.8

109.0

108.8

104.3

104.7

104.6

107.9

109.8

108.6

108.9

110.1

110.9

110.9

110.8

110.9

111.1

111.2

111.1

110.9

110.6

126.0
317.6

134.4
335.4

131.4
332.5

132.6
335.0

136.2
338.5

138.7
338.2

139.1
339.7

139.0
336.0

140.1
345.4

140.4
348.6

140.6
348.9

140.7
349.5

140.9
349.6

362.1
92.3

362.1
89.7

377.7
89.8

381.2
89.4

392.1
89.0

400.0
88.6

401.1
88.4

401.2
88.2

139.4
342.8
401.7
88.2

403.6
88.1

404.2
88.1

404.7
87.7

404.9
87.4

405.6
86.9

90.8

87.8

87.9

87.5

87.0

86.7

86.4

86.2

86.2

86.1

86.1

85.7

85.4

84.8

Telephone services1'2.........
Information and information processing

99.7

98.3

98.1

98.1

97.8

97.4

97.1

97.2

97.2

97.0

97.1

96.7

96.5

95.9

other than telenhone services1,4
Personal computers and peripheral

18.3

16.1

16.4

16.0

15.7

15.6

15.6

15.4

15.3

15.3

15.2

15.2

15.0

14.9

Education and communication2... .
Education2...............................
Educational books and supplies........................
Tuition, other school fees, and child care...........
Communication1,2
Information and information processinq1,2

equipment1,2....................................
Other goods and services..........................................
Tobacco and smoking products...................

22.2

17.6

18.0

17.2

16.7

16.3

16.5

16.3

16.2

16.2

16.0

15.8

15.9

15.7

293.2
461.5

298.7
469.0

298.1
465.6

299.2
469.1

299.6
471.8

299.9
468.7

300.2
469.5

300.0
469.1

300.2
470.4

301.4
473.0

302.3
472.6

303.1
473.6

303.6
473.3

303.8
473.5

174.7
154.7

178.0

178.4

179.7

180.4

180.9

181.3

181.4

153.5

153.6

179.0
153.2

179.0

154.2

179.0
153.4

179.1

153.5

177.9
153.6

178.4

Personal care products1...................

153.4

153.8

154.5

154.5

154.5

154.6

Personal care services1.......

188.4

193.2

193.0

193.2

193.9

195.4

195.6

194.2

194.3

194.6

195.2

195.8

196.1

196.6

Personal care1.....................

See footnotes at end of table.

120
Monthly Labor Review

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July

2004

37. Continued—Consumer Price Indexes for All Urban Consumers and for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers: U.S. city
average, by expenditure category and commodity or service group
[1 9 8 2 -8 4 = 100, unless otherw ise indicated]______________

2002

Apr.

2003

2004

2003

Annual average
Series

June

July

Sept.

284.3

283.8

Miscellaneous personal services..

Aug.

Oct.

Nov.

285.8

287.0

151.4

Commodity and service group:

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

288.8

290.4

291.6

Apr.

May

176.8
134.2
145.1
124.0

151.2
180.5
134.5
149.7
120.9

152.2
179.0
136.7
152.3
123.9

150.4
180.2
133.6
147.4
119.5

150.0
180.3
132.9
146.6
116.2

150.9
180.9
133.9
149.2
117.2

152.0
181.3
135.4
153.1
122.0

182.2
134.1
151.2
124.8

150.9
182.9
132.9
149.0
123.1

150.4
184.1
131.7
146.7
119.0

151.1
184.3
132.6
148.4
115.8

152.3
184.5
134.2
151.4
118.6

153.7
184.9
136.0
155.3
123.5

154.3
185.0
136.9
157.2
124.3

156.0
186.5
138.6
160.9
123.4

162.2
121.4

171.5
117.5

173.9
119.2

168.6
118.0

169.2
117.4

173.0
116.7

176.4
115.7

171.6
115.2

169.1
115.1

167.7
115.0

172.3
115.1

175.6
115.3

179.1
115.1

181.7
115.0

188.2
114.8

209.8

216.5

215.1

216.8

217.6

218.0

218.1

218.4

217.9

217.9

219.1

219.9

221.0

221.5

221.9

216.7
209.1
246.4

221.9
216.3
254.4

220.8
215.3
252.5

221.7
217.1
253.0

222.6
218.0
253.7

223.1
217.2
255.5

222.6
216.8
257.0

223.5
218.9
257.2

223.0
218.6
257.3

222.9
217.7
257.4

224.1
218.7
258.4

224.9
219.3
259.2

226.8
219.7
259.5

227.4
220.0
259.7

227.7
220.0
259.6

180.5
170.8
174.3
136.0
147.4

184.7
174.6
178.1
136.5
151.9
172.1
165.3

184.7
174.7
178.0
138.6
154.3
174.2
165.9

184.5
174.3
177.9
135.5
151.1
169.4
163.9

184.6
174.2

185.3
175.0
178.7

186.0
176.0
179.2
137.3
155.2
176.6
167.4

185.6
175.5
179.1
136.1
153.3
172.2
166.8

184.9
174.9
178.5
135.0
151.3
170.0
166.1

184.4
174.7
178.2
133.8
149.2
168.8
165.4

185.5
175.6
179.1
134.7

188.0
177.6
181.3
138.0
157.5
179.4
170.3

188.6
178.2
181.8
138.9
159.3
181.7
171.4

189.6
179.6
182.9

150.8
173.0
166.4

186.6
176.7
180.1
136.3
153.7
176.1
168.1

217.5

226.4

224.6

227.2

228.0

228.4

229.2

228.7

228.2

228.4

207.5
138.1
190.2
193.1
142.5
141.7
222.5

209.1
136.5
190.3
193.0
140.8
130.9
223.5

209.8
136.8
190.5
193.2
139.9
131.3
224.3

210.3
140.6
190.8
193.5
139.7
139.2
224.9

210.3
144.6
191.0
193.6
140.2
146.9
224.9

210.5
136.9
191.7
194.3
140.4
137.0
225.8

209.9
133.1
191.6
193.9
139.9
132.1
225.6

209.9
131.8
191.5
193.6
139.0
129.0
225.5

230.6
211.7
140.6
192.7
194.9
139.3
144.6
227.5

212.7
143.1
193.7
196.1
140.3
151.3
228.9

231.1
213.2
145.9
194.1
196.5
140.5
156.3
229.4

231.7

208.7
136.5
190.6
193.2
140.9
136.7
223.8

229.7
211.0
137.4
191.9
194.0
138.5
138.2
226.6

230.7

202.5
121.7
187.7
190.5
143.7
117.1
217.5

175.9
523.9

179.8
535.6

179.8
535.5

179.6
534.3

179.6
535.0

180.6
537.1

181.0
539.2

180.7
538.2

180.2
536.7

179.9
536.0

180.9
538.7

181.9
541.7

182.9
544.8

183.5
546.5

184.7
550.2

176.1
176.5
175.1
198.0
162.0

179.9
179.4

180.7
180.2
179.4

181.7
181.2
180.7

203.5
170.9

203.2
173.8

183.6
183.1
183.3
202.4
181.0

183.8
183.3
183.2

204.5
169.5

182.4
181.9
181.6
202.4
179.2

203.8
179.9

184.0
183.5
183.2
204.4
179.7

184.4

178.0
204.4
168.2

180.2
179.7
178.8

201.8
165.2

179.5
178.9
177.9
203.7
167.0

179.6
179.1

178.5
202.8
169.2

178.3
177.7
176.4

183.8
183.5
204.9
179.6

184.5
183.9
183.3
205.5
179.1

186.0
185.6
185.8
206.0
181.1

167.2
222.9

167.6
224.3

165.6
220.0

163.5
225.7

164.4
225.3

167.0
223.8

170.2
223.4

171.7
224.9

171.0
225.3

172.7
229.7

172.2
229.7

171.7
227.5

171.3
227.8

173.6
225.5

186.1
228.9

138.6
160.4
158.8
155.3
177.6

139.1
162.2
161.6
157.4
179.2

139.6
161.7
160.9
156.2
179.0

139.6
163.0
162.4
156.5
180.5

137.5
162.3
162.3
156.2
179.4

138.9
162.6
162.1
157.7
179.7

138.5
162.8
162.1
157.6
180.0

139.8
162.5
162.1
159.6
179.0

137.3
161.6
161.4
157.3
178.3

138.6
162.5
160.5
157.7
180.0

140.0
162.3
162.4
160.7
178.4

140.8
163.3
163.2
162.2
179.4

140.1
164.7
162.6
166.0
180.8

139.1
164.6
161.9
166.1
180.8

139.3
165.1
162.9
169.4
180.5

109.7

110.8

110.9

112.1

111.6

110.0

111.3

111.2

109.5

110.3

109.6

110.1

112.2

111.0

111.2

178.2
118.1
183.3

182.0

181.0
120.8
186.6

181.7

182.4

183.3
122.5
188.1

184.2
123.1
188.9

185.3
123.8
190.0

185.6
123.8
191.2

186.6

122.9
188.8

184.8
123.6
189.5

186.1

121.6
186.9

182.7
122.0
187.7

183.7

121.3
186.8

182.1
121.4
187.0

124.3
192.1

124.6
192.0

149.7

Nondurables less food, beverages,

Special indexes:

163.3
161.1

178.0
134.9
149.0
170.0
163.5

135.9
151.5
173.4
165.2

140.6
162.8
187.7
174.1
213.6
154.1
194.3
196.5
140.2
170.1
229.6

C O N S U M E R P R IC E IN D E X F O R U R B A N
W A G E E A R N E R S A N D C L E R IC A L W O R K E R S

All items (1967 - 100).............................................

Nonalcoholic beverages and beverage

12

Owners' equivalent rent of primary residence3
12

New and used motor vehicles2.......................

121.5
187.1

175.7

180.4

201.9

206.9

179.7
205.9

180.9
206.5

181.4
207.2

181.6
207.7

181.6
207.6

181.3
208.3

180.9
208.2

181.0
208.2

182.1
209.2

182.6
209.8

183.2
211.0

183.6
211.5

184.1
211.8

199.0

204.7

203.7

204.4

204.8

205.3

205.8

208.0

208.4

208.9

209.4

119.0

125.0

125.2

198.8

199.4

199.9

119.8
200.4

118.5

195.1

122.6
199.C

207.0
113.4

207.4

119.8
199.7

206.1
121.7

206.6

118.4

201.7

202.1

121.1
202.3

128.8
202.7

129.8
203.1

203.6

108.7
142.9
126.1
115.0
133.4
124.4
123.1
121.7
114.6

114.7
153.9
137.0
138./’
144.1
121.9
120.C
117.5
112.1

114.0
152.4
135.7
146.9
142.3
122.E
122.E
120.4
116.4

115.0
158.6
142.2
131.6
150.3
121.9
118.7
116.2
110./

115.4
158.9
142.4
129.6
150.6
121.9
115.2
113/
105.C

115.7
158.7
141.9
129.6
150.1
121.4
116.1
112.9
106.9

115.8
159.1
142.C
129.4
150.6
121.6
121.C
116.;
114.!

116.0
154.3
137.0
130.7
144.6
120.9
123.9
120.0
118.2

114.4
152.3
134.7
134.4
141.9
120.7
122.E
121.1
115/

114.4
153.0
135.4
136.2
142 /
120.4
118.7
117.E
110/

114.9
155.6
138.C
149.6
144.7
121 .C
115.7
115/
105/

115.1
156.2
138.3
154 /
144.7
121./
118/
117./
109/

115.2
154.7
136.6
152.C
142.9
121.4
122.9
120.C
117./

116.0
155.1
137.0
148.9
143.5
121.3
123.6
120.6
118.4

116.4
157.4
139.3
149.6
146.1
121.1
122.8
120.3
116.7

128.6
121.2
151.8
149.0

124.1

125.5
119.E
158.;
155.9

122.2
u s .;
155.'
152.E

120.3
116/
155.!
152..

122/
117.2
157.
154.2

126.:
119.6
158.
155.

127.7
121.1
155.4
152.5

125.C
120./
153/
150/

121./
117/
152/
149/

120.
115/
154/
152/

122/
116./
156/
154/

125/
118/
158/
155/

123.4

119.1
156/
153."

119/
159/
157.1

120.9
119.0
163.6
160.9

99.4

96.C

977

96/

96.

95."

94.4

93.5

93.

92/

92/

92/

92/

92/

92.5

Monthly Labor Review

July

2004

121

201.0

116.2
201.4

128.2

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Current Labor Statistics:

Price Data

37. Continued Consumer Price Indexes for All Urban Consumers and for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers: U.S. city
average, by expenditure category and commodity or service group
[1982-84 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
Annua average

2003

Series
2002

2003

May

June

July

Aug.

2004

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

New vehicles..............................................

141.1

139.C

139.1

138.¿

137."

137.6

137.6

137.6

138."

139.2

139.2

139.6

139.C

138.7

138.5

Used cars and trucks1................................
Motor fuel......................................................

152.6

143.7

148."

148.1

146.4

144.C

139.6

135.6

132.6

131.7

131.6

131.'

132.C

132.1

132.6

117.C
116.4

136.1
135.5

139.4

147.6
147.C
107.2

131.5
130.6

143.6
143.C

171.1
170.4

107.5
198.6
208.7

107.5
198.6
205.6

Medical care.......................................................

150.6
150.6
107.4
200.:
208.C

156.5
155.6

Motor vehicle maintenance and repair........
Public transportation.......................................

128.1
127.6
107.2

137.1

138.6
107.C
197.2
210.6

136.6
136.4

107.3
197.3
206.0

130.4
129.6
107.1

130.6
130.4

106.1
191.7
202.6

131.5
130.E
107.2
196.5

107.5
200.4
209.4

107.5
200.8
208.8

284.6

Medical care commodities..............................
Medical care services.....................................
Professional services....................................

251.1
292.5
256.0

296.3
257.4
305.9
263.4

Hospital and related services.......................

363.2

Gasoline (all types).................................... .
Motor vehicle parts and equipment.............

Recreation2
Video and audio1,2
Education and communication2........................
Education2......................................................
Educational books and supplies.................
Tuition, other school fees, and child care..
Communication1,2..........................................
Information and information processing1,2..

208.5
294.6
256.4
304.1

196.6
210.6
295.5
256.7

107.C
197.7
212.6

197.6
208.4

199.6
203.6

136.6
107.6
199.9
204.6

107.6
200.1
206.2

296.7

297.4

298.2

299.1

300.1

301.4

302.6

305.4

306.9

307.7

308.4

258.2

259.4

259.2

259.4

261.5

397.5

267.8
405.9

316.8
270.6
408.7

318.6
272.3

395.8

311.9
266.5
403.4

262.5
319.4
273.2

263.3

309.1
265.2

259.8
313.8

260.9

307.9
264.4

258.5
310.6
265.2
402.4

409.9

409.8

391.2

263.3
385.0

305.1
263.5
388.1

390.9

258.6
307.0
263.9
394.2

104.6

105.5

105.5

105.5

105.6

105.7

105.5

105.4

105.6

105.5

105.6

106.2

106.5

106.7

106.6

102.0

102.9

103.0

102.9

102.9

102.9

102.7

102.8

103.0

102.5

102.7

103.2

103.5

103.9

103.9

306.3
264.1

320.0
273.5
410.7

107.6

109.0

108.0

107.8

108.2

109.1

109.7

109.7

109.6

109.7

109.8

110.0

109.8

109.6

109.2

125.9
318.5

133.8
336.5

131.1
333.6

131.8
335.5

132.3
336.3

135.5
339.6

137.8
339.6

138.1
340.6

138.0
337.5

138.0
343.8

139.1
346.1

139.4
349.5

139.6
349.9

139.7
350.4

139.9
350.4

354.8
93.7

377.3
91.2

369.3

371.1
90.7

372.6
90.9

382.1
90.5

389.2
90.2

390.1
89.9

390.2
89.8

390.7
89.7

392.8
89.6

393.3
89.6

393.8
89.3

394.1

394.6
88..4

91.3

89.0

92.7

89.9

90.0

89.6

89.6

89.1

89.1

88.5

88.4

88.3

88.2

88.2

87.9

87.5

Telephone services1,2..............................
Information and information processing

99.9

87.0

98.5

98.3

97.7

98.3

98.0

97.6

97.3

97.4

97.4

97.2

97.3

96.9

96.7

96.1

other than telenhone services1,4...........
Personal computers and peripheral

19.0

16.7

17.0

16.8

16.5

16.3

16.1

16.2

15.9

15.8

15.8

15.8

15.7

15.5

15.4

equipment1,2.....................................
Other goods and services..................................

21.8

17.3

17.8

16.9

16.9

16.3

16.0

16.2

16.0

15.9

15.8

15.7

302.0
463.2

15.5

15.6

307.0

15.4

306.0

306.0

307.5

308.0

307.9

308.2

Tobacco and smoking products......................

307.7

308.1

309.3

310.0

310.8

470.5

311.3

311.5

464.8

464.8

470.5

473.2

469.9

470.7

470.2

471.5

473.8

473.2

474.2

Personal care1..................................................

474.1

174.1

474.4

177.0

176.9

177.2

177.5

177.4

177.9

178.0

177.7

177.8

177.4

179.1

179.7

180.1

Personal care products1...............................

155.5

180.2

154.2

154.2

154.4

154.8

154.3

154.0

154.1

153.8

155.1

155.1

193.9

193.6

193.5

193.9

194.6

196.1

196.3

194.8

195.1

155.0
195.7

155.0

189.1

154.2
194.9

154.3

Personal care services1................................
Miscellaneous personal services.................
Commodity and service group:

196.3

196.6

197.1

274.0

283.3

282.4

283.9

284.0

284.4

285.2

285.6

286.7

286.6

288.4

290.2

291.6

292.9

293.1

151.6
180.2
135.4

152.7
180.7

151.9
181.7

151.3
182.4

150.7
183.6

151.5
183.8

152.7
184.0

154.1
184.4

135.2

133.8
151.4

133.5
151.0
115.7

135.2
154.3
118.3

137.0
158.4

154.8
184.5
138.0

156.7
186.0

136.7

176.5
114.0

180.2

184.1

1142.0

114.0

Commodities.......................................................

150.4

151.8

Food and beverages........................................

176.1

151.6
178.7

151.1
179.5

150.7
179.6

Commodities less food and beverages...........
Nondurables less food and beverages.........
Apparel.........................................................
Nondurables less food, beverages,

135.5

136.0
151.1

135.0

147.0
123.1

179.9
135.8
152.1
120.0

121.5

149.6
118.7

134.2
148.7
115.2

151.7
116.1

155.9
121.0

153.6
123.9

122.6

132.5
149.0
118.7

and apparel................................................
Durables..........................................................

165.3
121.8

175.6
117.4

173.0
118.8

172.3
118.3

173.0

177.4

117.6

116.9

181.2
115.5

175.7
114.7

172.9
114.2

171.6
114.0

Services..............................................................

205.9

212.6

212.0

212.9

213.6

214.0

214.3

214.4

214.1

214.2

215.3

216.0

216.7

217.1

217.6

Rent of shelter3................................................
Transporatation services.................................
Other services..................................................

194.5
207.7

199.2
216.2
248.5

198.8
216.1

198.9
216.7

199.5
217.4

200.0
216.8
249.3

200.6
218.0
250.9

251.8

252.6

203.2
220.0
252.9

203.7
220.2

247.9

200.5
218.8
250.7

202.0
219.7

247.2

200.6
219.0
250.7

201.4
219.1

246.8

199.9
216.8
250.6

203.9
220.3
252.7

179.7
171.9

179.5
171.4

179.5

179.6

180.3

181.0

180.4

179.7

179.2

180.2

181.4

182.6

183.2

184.4

171.7

171.5

173.3

172.6

171.9

171.6

172.5

173.7

174.7

175.3

174.8
137.7

174.4
137.9

174.5
136.9

174.5
136.1

172.3
175.2
137.2

176.0
138.6

175.0
135.8

174.7

175.6
135.5

176.6
137.1

177.6
138.9

178.2
139.9

154.2

153.2
173.5

151.8

153.3

156.4

160.4

162.4

141.8
166.4

172.8

151.0
173.5

175.6
137.0
155.7

176.8
179.4

165.3

164.9

164.6

186.6
173.0

175.9

241.6

Special indexes:
All items less food............................................

175.8

All items less shelter........................................

168.3
171.1

All items less medical care..............................
Commodities less food....................................

137.3

Nondurables less food.....................................

149.2
166.1

Nondurables less food and apparel................
Nondurables.............................................

161.4

175.9
166.4

151.0

134.5
151.4

176.1

173.6

172.1

176.9

180.2

184.0

168.1

167.3

166.6

167.8

169.5

171.8

204.9
208.2
140.2
187.9

204.9

205.2

205.8

208.8
143.0
188.7

189.1
139.0
144.7
223.9

190.1
140.0
151.5
224.9

209.2
146.0
189.0
190.4
140.1
156.7
225.3

209.7
154.5
189.3
190.4
139.9
170.7
225.5

200.4

202.2

202.8

203.1

203.7

203.2

202.7

202.9

204.1

204.7
133.2

205.2
135.6

185.6
144.4

185.9
187.7
141.3
131.0
219.8

206.9
136.3
187.0
188.6
140.3
137.2
222.1

206.5
132.4
187.0

All items less food and energy...........
Commodities less food and energy..
Energy commodities.......................
Services less energy........................

185.9
188.0
142.2
132.3
219.6

206.8
144.2
186.4
188.1
140.2
147.2
221.3

206.6
131.1
186.9
188.0
141.1

207.6
136.9

183.6

206.2
135.9
185.9
187.7

206.6
140.0

All items less energy............................

205.2
135.9
186.1
187.9

136.8
222.1

138.3
223.1

186.2
187.9
140.1
139.5
221.0

188.4
139.7
132.1
222.1

187.2
188.3
138.2

193.5

Indexes on a December 1988 = 100 base.
Dash indicates data not available.
No t e Index applied to a month as a whole, not to any specific date.

Indexes on a December 1997 = 100 base.
Indexes on a December 1982 = 100 base.

122
Monthly Labor Review

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

253.0

168.8

201.3

Not seasonally adjusted.

194.5
113.9

177.5

198.9
120.9

17.3
213.9

187.0
113.9

166.4

153.7

193.1

140.3
131.4
220.5

122.8

157.9
181.1

Services less rent of s helte r..............
Services less medical care services....
Energy...................................................

141.1
136.8
220.2

122.9

140.0
164.7

160.5
123.8

July

2004

38. Consumer Price Index: U.S. city average and available local area data: all items

sched-

2003

ule1

Dec.

U.S. city average.................................................................

M

Urban W age Earners

All Urban C onsum ers

Pricing

2004
Jan.

184.3

185.2

186.2

187.4

188.0

189.1

179.9

180.9

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

2004

2003

May

181.9

182.9

183.5

184.7

R egion and area size2
Northeast urban..........................................................................

M

194.9

195.9

196.8

198.6

199.4

199.9

191.7

192.6

193.6

195.1

195.7

196.4

Size A— More than 1,500,000..............................................

M

197.1

197.9

198.6

200.7

201.4

202.0

192.7

193.3

194.3

195.9

196.3

197.1

Size B/C— 50,000 to 1,500,000s.........................................

M

115.0

116.0

116.6

117.4

118.1

118.3

115.2

116.1

116.7

117.5

118.1

118.4

Midwest urban ...........................................................................
Size A— More than 1,500,000..............................................

M

178.4

179.4

180.2

181.0

181.5

182.9

173 .4

174.5

175.3

175.8

176.3

177.8

M

180.9

181.8

182.5

183.1

183.7

185.0

175.1

176.2

176.9

177.2

177.9

179.4

Size B/C— 50,000 to 1,500,000s.........................................
Size D— Nonmetropolitan (less than 50,000)................

M

113.3

114.1

114.7

115.2

115.6

116.4

112.4

113.3

113.8

114.2

114.6

115.5

M

171.5

171.8

173.0

174.1

173.9

176.0

169.1

169.4

170.6

171.4

171.2

173.2

South urban................................................................................

M

177.5

178.2

179.1

180.1

180.9

182.0

174.2

178.2

179.1

180.1

180.9

178.9

Size A— More than 1,500,000..............................................

M

179.2

179.8

180.8

181.8

182.5

183.4

176.4

177.1

178.0

178.9

179.7

180.8

Size B/C— 50,000 to 1,500,000s.........................................
Size D— Nonmetropolitan (less than 50,000)....................

M

113.3

113.8

114.3

114.9

115.6

116.4

111.8

112.3

112.7

113.4

114.0

114.8

M

175.1

175.3

176.8

177.7

178.7

179.4

174.2

174.6

176

176.9

177.8

179

West urban.................................................................................

M

188.3

189.4

190.8

192.2

192.3

193.4

183.3

184.3

185.7

187.1

187.3

188.6

Size A— More than 1,500,000..............................................

M

190.6

191.7

193.2

194.5

194.6

195.9

183.9

185.0

186.5

187.9

188.2

189.6

Size B/C— 50,000 to 1,500,000s.........................................

M

115.2

116.0

117.0

117.9

117.8

118.2

114.8

115.4

116.4

117.2

117.2

117.8

M
M
M

168.7
113.8
176.5

169.4
114.6
176.9

170.4
115.2
177.9

171.5
115.9
178.9

172.0
116.3
179.3

172.9
117.0
180.9

166.8
112.9
174.3

167.6
113.6
174.8

168.6
114.2
175.8

169.6
114.9
176.7

170.0
115.3
177.2

171.2
116.0
178.8

C hicago-G ary-Kenosha, IL—IN—W l........................................
Los Angeles-R iverside-O range County, CA........................

M

185.5

185.4

186.4

186.3

187.2

188.7

178.8

179.0

188.5

190.1

191.5

191.9

193.3

180.2

181.7

184.9

180.6
185.2

182.2

187.0

179.9
186.4

179.7

M

New York, NY-Northern NJ-Long Island, N Y -N J-C T -P A .

M

199.3

199.9

201.1

203.4

204.0

204.4

194.6

194.9

196.3

198.2

198.5

199.1

4

Size classes:
.5
B/C3..........................................................................................
Selected local areas6

186.8

Boston-Brockton-Nashua, M A -N H -M E -C T ........................

1

-

208.4

-

208.7

-

181.3

-

206.8

-

207.4

-

207.9

Cléveland-Akron, OH................................................................

1

-

-

180.0

-

179.1

-

169.8

-

171.0

-

172.6

Dallas Ft Worth TX..................................................................

1

_

178.4

177.7

-

118.9

-

175.7

-

177.6

-

179.5

Washinqton-Baltimore, D C -M D -V A -W V 7............................

1

-

118.1

-

118.9

-

116.5

-

117.6

-

118.4

Atlanta, G A..................................................................................

2

179.0

2

181.3

-

2

164.1

2

181.6

_
-

Houston-G alveston-Brazoria, TX...........................................
Philadelphia-W ilmington-Atlantic City, P A -N J-D E -M D ....

2

189.0

San Francisco-O akland-San Jose, CA .............................................

2

195.3

Seattle-Tacom a-Brem erton, W A ...........................................................

2

191.0

1 Foods, fuels, and several other items priced every month In all areas; most other
goods and services priced as Indicated:

175.7

_

117.1

-

-

180.8

-

182.3

-

176.6

-

178.7

-

180.0

183.4

_

184.7

-

175.9

-

178.1

-

179.3

168.5

-

169.7

-

162.2

-

165.7

-

166.8

-

183.6

-

185.2

-

178.9

-

180.8

-

182.6

-

191.4

-

194.8

-

189.0

-

191.2

-

194.0

-

198.1

-

198.3

191.1

194.3

185.3

_
-

193.5

-

194.1

194.7

187.8

189.1

Wl;

Mlnneapolis-St. Paul, M N-W I; Pittsburgh, PA; Port-land-Salem, O R-W A; St Louis,

M— Every month.

MO-IL; San Diego, CA; Tam pa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL.

1—

January, March, May, July, September, and November.

7

2—

February, April, June, August, October, and December.

2 Regions defined as the four Census regions.
3 Indexes on a December 1996 = 100 base.
4 The "North Central" region has been renamed the "Midwest" region by the
Census Bureau. It Is composed of the same geographic entitles.

_

Report: Anchorage, AK; C incinnati, O H -K Y -IN ; Kansas City, M O-KS; Mllwaukee-Racine,

Indexes on a November 1996 = 100 base.

NOTE: Local area CPI indexes are byproducts of the national CPI program. Each local
index has a smaller sample size and is, therefore, subject to substantially more sampling
and other measurement error. As a result, local area indexes show greater volatility than
the national index, although their long-term trends are similar. Therefore, the Bureau of
Labor Statistics strongly urges users to consider adopting the national average CPI for use

5 Indexes on a December 1986 = 100 base.

in their escalator clauses. Index applies to a month as a whole, not to any specific date.

6 In addition, the following metropolitan areas are published semiannually and
appear in tables 34 and 39 of the January and July Issues of the. CPI Detailed


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Dash indicates data not available.

Monthly Labor Review

July

2004

123

Current Labor Statistics:

Price Data

39. Annual data: Consumer Price Index, U.S. city average, all items and major groups
[1982-84 = 100]

___________________________________________________
1993

Series
Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers:
All items:
Index...............................................................................
Percent change .............................................................
Food and beverages:
Index................................................................................
Percent change.............................................................
Housing:
Index...............................................................................
Percent change.............................................................
Apparel:
Index................................................................................
Percent change.............................................................
Transportation:
Index...............................................................................
Percent change.............................................................
Medical care:
Index................................................................................
Percent change.............................................................
Other goods and services:
Index................................................................................
Percent change.............................................................
Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners
and Clerical Workers:
All items:
Index...............................................................................
Percent change.............................................................

124

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1994

1995

144.5
3.0

148.2

152.4

2.6

2.8

141.6

144.9
2.3

148.9

2.1
141.2
2.7

144.8
2.5

148.5

133.7
1.4

133.4

-.2

130.4
3.1

1996

1997

1998

1999

156.9
3.0

160.5
2.3

163.0

166.6

1.6

2.2

153.7
3.2

157.7

161.1

164.6

2.6

2.2

2.2

152.8
2.9

156.8

160.4
2.3

163.9

132.0
-1 .0

131.7

132.9
.9

133.0

134.3
3.0

139.1
3.6

143.0

144.3
0.9

201.4
5.9

211.0

220.5
4.5

228.2
3.5

234.6

4.8

192.9
5.2

198.5
2.9

206.9
4.2

142.1

145.6
2.5

149.8
2.9

July 2004

2.8

2.8
2.6

2000

2001

2002

2003

172.2
3.4

177.1

179.9

2.8

1.6

184.0
2.3

168.4
2.3

173.6
3.1

176.8

180.5

1.8

2.1

169.6
3.5

176.4
4.0

180.3

2.2

2.2

184.8
2.5

131.3
-1 .3

129.6
-1 .3

127.3
-1 .8

124.0
-2 .6

120.9
-2 .5

141.6
-1 .9

144.4

153.3

2.0

6.2

154.3
0.7

152.9
-.9

157.6
3.1

2.8

242.1
3.2

250.6
3.5

260.8
4.1

272.8
4.6

285.6
4.7

297.1
4.0

215.4
4.1

224.8
4.4

237.7
5.7

258.3
8.7

271.1
5.0

282.6
4.2

293.2
3.8

298.7
1.9

154.1
2.9

157.6
2.3

159.7
1.3

163.2

168.9
3.5

173.5
2.7

175.9
1.4

179.8

-.2
2.8

2.6

.1

2.2

2.2

40. Producer Price Indexes, by stage of processing
[ 1982 =

100]_______________________________________ ____
2002

2003

2004

2003

Annual average
Grouping

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec,

Jan.p

Feb.p

Mar.p

Apr.p

145.4
147.8
148.1

145.3
147.6
148.0

146.2
148.7
150.3

147.3
150.2
152.5

May'
149.1
152.6
155.3

Finished goo ds............................................
Finished consumer goods.........................
Finished consumer foods........................

138.9
139.4
140.1

143.3
145.3
145.9

142.0
143.7
144.6

143.0
145.0
145.2

143.0
145.1
144.9

143.7
145.9
146.3

144.0
146.4
148.0

145.5
147.7
151.0

144.5
146.5
150.1

144.5
146.7
150.3

Finshed consumer goods
excluding foods......................................
Nondurable goods less food................ .
Durable goods........................................
Capital equipment....................................

138.8
139.8
133.0
139.1

144.7
148.4
133.1
139.5

143.0
146.3
132.4
139.0

144.6
148.9
131.8
138.9

144.8
149.2
131.7
138.9

145.4
150.0
131.8
139.2

145.5
150.4
131.1
138.9

146.2
149.4
135.6
140.8

144.8
147.6
135.0
140.5

145.0
148.2
134.3
140.2

147.4
151.7
134.3
140.5

147.1
151.3
134.3
140.8

147.7
152.0
134.8
141.1

148.9
154.0
134.3
141.0

151.1
157.0
134.8
141.1

interm ediate materials,
supplies, and com ponents.......................

127.8

133.7

132.5

133.5

133.7

134.1

134.1

134.1

134.1

134.5

136.2

137.1

137.9

139.8

141.9

Materials and components
for manufacturing.......................................
Materials for food manufacturing..............
Materials for nondurable manufacturing...
Materials for durable manufacturing........
Components for manufacturing................

126.1
123.2
129.2
124.7
126.1

129.7
134.4
137.2
127.9
125.9

129.3
130.8
137.0
128.8
126.1

129.6
134.2
137.4
126.8
126.0

129.2
133.3
136.3
127.1
125.8

129.8
135.5
137.5
127.5
125.8

129.8
137.4
136.4
128.6
125.8

130.5
141.8
137.5
129.5
125.8

130.7
141.6
137.2
130.5
125.8

130.9
140.7
137.9
131.2
125.8

131.9
138.4
140.2
132.9
125.9

133.2
138.9
141.1
137.0
126.2

134.1
141.1
141.7
170.0
126.2

135.9
146.1
143.2
143.5
127.0

137.3
151.6
144.5
146.2
127.4

Materials and components
for construction..........................................
Processed fuels and lubricants..................
Containers.....................................................
Supplies........................................................

151.3
96.3
152.1
138.9

153.6

152.9
108.0
153.9
141.5

153.0

153.7
114.5
153.6
141.2

155.0
113.7
153.5
141.7

155.2
111.5
153.2
141.9

155.6
110.3
153.4
142.6

155.6
111.7
153.5
142.8

156.2
116.8
153.9
143.2

158.3
116.3
153.8
143.8

160.7
116.3
154.1
144.8

163.6
118.1
154.3
146.4

166.2

154.1
141.5

153.6
113.7
153.8
141.5

108.1
99.5
111.4

135.3
113.5
148.2

130.9

132.6
107.6
148.2

131.3
111.5
142.7

134.7
119.0
142.8

138.3
128.1
141.1

137.0
125.7
141.4

141.1
124.7
149.5

147.8
117.1
167.3

148.3

121.0

142.4

136.5
110.4
152.8

164.9

149.7
130.8
159.8

154.1
135.1
164.1

159.6
142.1
168.3

138.3

142.4

102.0

147.3
150.8
150.2

149.0
153.1
150.5

141.1
98.9
148.3
152.3
150.0

142.2
103.1
148.3
152.4
149.8

142.2
103.4
148.2
152.3
149.8

142.7
104.7
148.7
152.8
149.9

142.7
105.2
149.0
153.3
149.7

143.8
103.2
151.4
156.1
152.0

142.8
100.4
151.0
155.5
151.7

142.8

88.8

150.9
155.5
151.4

144.5
106.0
150.6
154.9
151.8

144.4
105.7
150.6
154.7
151.7

144.9
107.0
151.3
155.7
152.0

145.7
109.3
152.0
156.7
152.2

147.2
113.7
152.9
158.1
152.5

Finished consumer goods less food
and energy.................................................

157.6

157.9

157.4

157.1

157.1

157.2

157.0

159.5

159.2

159.0

159.4

159.1

159.3

159.7

160.1

Consumer nondurable goods less food
and energy.................. ...........................

177.5

177.9

177.6

177.7

177.8

178.0

177.8

178.6

178.5

178.9

179.7

179.1

179.0

180.2

180.6

128.5
115.5
95.9
134.5

134.2
125.9
111.9
137.7

133.1

134.0
125.1
111.3
137.6

134.2
124.4
113.0
137.4

134.6
125.0
114.3
137.5

134.5
128.4

134.4
131.9
110.7
138.5

134.2
134.8
109.5
138.8

134.7
134.1
110.9
139.0

136.5
132.2
115.8
169.8

137.4
132.5
115.3
141.0

138.2
136.4
115.3
142.1

139.8
143.0
117.1
144.0

141.7
147.6

144.2

145.5

156.3
147.8
185.3 |

165.3
151.0
178.3

112.6
153.7
141.5

112.1

Crude m aterials fo r further
processing.................................................
Foodstuffs and feedstuffs...........................
Crude nonfood materials............................
Special groupings:
Finished goods, excluding foods...............
Finished energy goods...............................
Finished goods less energy........................
Finished consumer goods less energy.....
Finished goods less food and energy.......

111.0

Intermediate materials less foods
and feeds...................................................
Intermediate foods and feeds...................
Intermediate energy goods........................
Intermediate goods less energy................

122.8
107.1
137.5

112.8
138.0

101.0

Intermediate materials less foods
and energy................................................

135.8

138.5

138.5

138.4

138.3

138.4

138.7

139.0

139.2

139.5

140.4

141.6

142.6

Crude energy materials.............................
Crude materials less energy......................
Crude nonfood materials less energy......

102.0

147.2
123.4
152.5

141.4

108.7
135.7

120.0

156.2
119.4
146.3

148.7
118.0
148.8

139.7
121.7
151.8

138.2
128.2
155.5

134.3
135.9
159.5

132.5
135.5
164.8

141.8
136.2
170.1

163.5
133.3
179.3

156.7
138.2
187.2

147.1
146.6
192.2


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

146.5

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

122.1
156.8
147.2

121.1
145.5

125

Current Labor Statistics:

Price Data

41. Producer Price Indexes for the net output of major industry groups
[December 2003 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
2003

NA IC S

2004

Industry
Dec.
-

211
212
213
-

311
312
313
315
316
321
322
323
324
325
326
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
339

Jan.

Feb.p

M ar.p

A pr.p

M ayp

T o t a l m in in g in d u s tr ie s (D e c e m b e r 1 9 8 4 = 1 0 0 ) ..................................................

129.0

144.6

139.5

133.9

138.5

145.0

Oil and gas extraction(December 1985=100)..........................................
Mining, except oil and gas............................................................................
Mining support activities................................................................................

155.1

181.1
103.3

172.4
103.6

101.2

100.6

161.3
105.0
100.9

168.6
107.1
99.9

180.1
107.5
100.5

138.9
139.3
101.4
100.4
99.9

139.3
139.9
100.9
100.3
99.9

140.2
142.1
100.4
100.3
99.9

141.8
145 8
101.7
100.5

143.4
148 9

143.3
99.3
99.3

143.2
102.5
99.6
100.3

143.8
105.7
99.4
100 6

131.5
167.0
128.9
124.0
134.6
100.3
99.8

130.7
167.7
129.9
128.1
135.3

134.3
168.6
129.7
131.7
136.6

100.6
99.9

100.2
100.2

100.8
100.1

147.4
100.5

147.8
100.9

101.6
99.5
101.4
99.6
45.5
102.9

100.4
99.9
102.7
99.2
43.3
102.7

155.0

163 3
99.0
155.0

100.0
112.8
100.0

T o t a l m a n u f a c t u r in a in d u s t r ie s ( D e c e m b e r 1 9 8 4 = 1 0 0 ) ...............................

Food manufacturing (December 1984-100).............................................
Beverage and tobacco manufacturing........................................................
Textile mills......................................................................................................
Apparel manufacturing..................................................................................
Leather and allied product manufacturing (December 1984=100).........
Wood products manufacturing.....................................................................
Paper manufacturing......................................................................................
Printing and related support activities.........................................................
Petroleum and coal products manufacturing (December 1984=100)....
Chemical manufacturing (December 1984-100).......................................
Plastics and rubber products manufacturing (December 1984=100)....
Primary metal manufacturing (December 1984-100)..............................
Fabricated metal product manufacturing (December 1984=100)...........
Machinery manufacturing..............................................................................
Computer and electronic products manufacturina....................................
Electrical equipment, appliance, and components manufacturing.........
Transportation equipment manufacturing...................................................
Furniture and related product manufacturing(December 1984=100)....

100.0
100.0
137.7
141.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
143.4

100.0

101.2
100.8
100.0

143.5
108.1

110.2

100.0
101.1

100.9
100 9
152.3
170.1
130.6
141.3
140.7

101.0

141.5
169.2
130.1
136.9
138.6
101.3

99.8

100.1

101.6

102.7

100.3
148.5

149.1

100.8

101.1

99.9
103.5
100.4
150.9
100 9

101.4

101.7

103 3

100.2

100.6

101.1

103.4
99.1
55.1
119.1

94.1
98.7
52.6
108.6

95.8
98.3
50.3
106.3

163.7
98.7
155.0

162 8
98.9
155.0

162 1
99.7
155.0

162 2

101.7

102.0

101.1

102.0

103.3

114.0
99.9
119.6
139.7

114.2
99.8
119.7
140.7

100.0
100.0

101.2
100.1

114.1
99.8
119.5
139.5
101.5
99.9

114.3

119.0
137.6

114.1
100.3
119.5
139.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.9
97.8
100.4
99.9

101.1

109.1
126.5

107.9
131.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
117.5
165.3
128.8
121.4
133.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
147.6

100.0

100.2

100.1

143.6

101.6

R e ta il tr a d e

441
442
443
446
447
454

Furniture and home furnishings stores......................................................
Electronics and appliance stores.................................................................
Health and personal care stores.................................................................
Gasoline stations (June 2001-100)............................................................
Nonstore retailers..........................................................................................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
47.9

100.0

T r a n s p o r t a t io n a n d w a r e h o u s in a

481
483
491

162 7
Water transportation........................................................................................
Postal service (June 1989=100)..................................................................

100.0

100.3
155.0

U t ilit ie s

221

Utilities..............................................................................................................
H e a lt h c a r e a n d s o c ia l a s s is t a n c e

6211
6215
6216
622
6231
62321

Office of physicians (December 1996-100)...............................................
Medical and diagnostic laboratories............................................................
Home health care services (December 1996=100)..................................
Hospitals (December 1992=100).................................................................
Nursing care facilities.....................................................................................
Residential mental retardation facilities......................................................

100.0
119.7
140.3

101.8

101.6

99.9

99.9

101.2
100.0

101.5

101.6
100.6

O t h e r s e r v ic e s in d u s tr ie s

511
515
517
5182
523
53112
5312
5313
5321
5411
541211
5413
54181
5613
56151
56172
5621
721

Publishing industries, except Internet ......................................................
Broadcasting, except Internet......................................................................
Telecommunications......................................................................................
Data processing and related services.........................................................
Security, commodity contracts, and like activity........................................
Lessors or nonresidental buildings (except miniwarehouse)...................
Offices of real estate agents and brokers...................................................
Real estate support activities........................................................................
Automotive equipment rental and leasing (June 2001=100)...................
Legal services (December 1996-100)........................................................
Offices of certified public accountants.........................................................
Architectural, engineering, and related services
(December 1996=100)..............................................................................
Advertising agencies......................................................................................
Employment services (December 1996=100)............................................
Travel agencies..............................................................................................
Janitorial services..........................................................................................
Waste collection..............................................................................................
Accommodation (December 1996=100).....................................................

126

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2004

100.1
101.5

99.1

99.4

100.0
100.1

100.2

99.0
100.3

100.9

102.3
100.9

101.6

101.6

102.0

106.7
131.8

105.4
131.9

101.1

101.2

104.4
131.8
101.3

126.7
99.8
112.5
100.5

126.6
99.9
114.0
98.6
100.5
101.9
124.0

100.0

100.8
125.7
99.6

126.6
99.5

120.5

101.4
102.4
99.9
100.7
102.3

100.0
100.2

125.3

100.0
112.1
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.8
100.2
100.2
101.8
101.8

101.7

101.8

100.3
110.5
132.1
101.3

NOTE: Data reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the North American Industry Classification System

(NAICS), replacing the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system.

98.4

99.8

112.1

112.0

99.0
100.3

100.7
100.4

100.8
122.2

100.8

100.6
100.8

121.5

125.2

126.3

100.1
113.4
98.3
100.5
101.9
125.0

42. Annual data: Producer Price Indexes, by stage of processing
Index

1 99 3

19 9 4

199 5

199 6

1 99 7

1 99 9

19 9 8

2000

Finished goods
124.7
125.7
78.0
135.8

125.5
126.8
77.0
137.1

127.9
129.0
78.1
140.0

131.3
133.6
83.2
142.0

131.8
134.5
83.4
142.4

130.7
134.3
75.1
143.7

116.2
115.6
84.6
123.8

118.5
118.5
83.0
127.1

124.9
119.5
84.1
135.2

125.7
125.3
89.8
134.0

125.6
123.2
89.0
134.2

123.0
123.2
80.8
133.5

102.4
108.4
76.7
94.1

101.8

102.7
105.8
69.4
105.8

113.8
121.5
85.0
105.7

111.1
112.2

96.8
103.9

87.3
103.5

68.6

140.7
141.3
96.8
150.0

138.9
140.1

143.3
146.0

88.8

102.0

150.2

150.5

123.2

129.2
119.2
101.7
136.6

129.7
124.3
104.1
136.4

127.8
123.3
95.9
135.8

133.7
134.4
111.9
138.5

120.6
100.2
122.1

121.3
106.2

108.1
99.5

122.8
101.8

102.0
101.0

135.3
113.5
147.5
116.8

120.8
84.3
133.1


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

84.5

2003

138.0
137.2
94.1
148.0

Crude materials for further processing

Other...................................................................................

2002

133.0
135.1
78.8
146.1

intermediate materials, supplies, and
components

106.5
72.1
97.0

2001

98.2
98.7
78.5
91.1

118.0

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

127

Current Labor Statistics:

Price Data

43. U.S. export price indexes by Standard International Trade Classification
[2000 = 100] __________
S IT C

0
01
04
05

2
22

2003

Industry

R ev. 3

May
F o o d a n d liv e a n im a ls ...................

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

108.0

Meat and meat preparations....
Cereals and cereal preparations..........
Vegetables, fruit, and nuts, prepared fresh or dry
C r u d e m a te r ia ls , in e d ib le , e x c e p t fu e ls .....

101.6
124.2
96.9

102.9
118.5
99.6

104 fi
127.4

103.9
122.7

101.2

99.7

117.2
124.2
101.4

2004
Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

112.2

115.2
125.6
125.6

116.5
123.0
130.8
103.2

117.0
131.6
103.1

119.9
125.0
135.2
108.4

122.5
126.1
139.6

110.1

125.4
124.1
>47.7
109.1

125.9
123.1
146.0
112.7

122.3
160.9
95.6
92.5

132.9
197.1
97.7
98.8
115.9
177.3

131.7
199.0
98.3
115.0
166.0

123.1

134.8

123.5
119.4
103.2

111.2

103.9

102.8
116.3
150.9
92.5
91.9
128.5
129.6

136.6

156.8

128.7
181.6
96.5
94.2
121.9
169.7

106.3

110.7

120.5

111 6
101.2

119.3

123.0

106.2

116.8

114.7

120.1

119.8

135.0

101.4
105.8

102.9
105.4
104.3
98.3
96.8
105.0

104.0
105.3
104.2
100.9
97.2
105.2

104.9
105.3
104.3

105.6
105.4
104.2

102.1

102.1

97.8
104.9

97.5
105.3

105.8
105.4
104.2
103.1
96.9
106.0

89.9
104.2
105.8

90.1
103.2
109.0

106.2
112.3

107.0
117.8

3 M in e ra l fu e ls , lu b ric a n ts , a n d re la te d p ro d u c ts
32
Coal, coke, and briquettes..........
33
Petroleum, petroleum products, and related materials...

102 5
111.9
96.4

107.6

109.8

114.9

112.1

108.2

111.6

111.6

102.7

105.9

113.0

104.2

104.1

5 C h e m ic a ls a n d re la te d p r o d u c ts , n .e .s .................................
54
Medicinal and pharmaceutical products
55
Essential oils; polishing and cleaning preparations
57
Plastics in primary form s..........
58
Plastics in nonprimary forms..........
59
Chemical materials and products, n.e.s

100.9
103.9
95.2
97.6
98.5
100.9

100.8

99.6
105.8
97.5

100.0

100.3

97.6

101.6

102.0

101.9

98.2
95.4
98.2
101.9

100.7
105.9
98.9
95.5
98.3
102.4

100.9
106.5
99.4
95.8
97.1
102.5

100.0
110.1

99.9

100.0

110.1

6
62
64

66
68

M a n u fa c tu r e d g o o d s c la s s ifie d c h ie fly b y m a te ria ls

Rubber manufactures, n.e.s....
Paper. Daoerboard, and articles of DaDer, duId.
and Daoerboard...............
Nonmetallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s........................
Nonferrous metals.................

7 M a c h in e r y a n d t r a n s p o rt e q u ip m e n t.......
71
72
74
75
76
77
78

Power generating machinery and equipment
Machinery specialized for particular industries..
General industrial machines and parts, n.e.s.,
and machine parts...................
Computer equipment and office machines...........
Telecommunications and sound recording and
reproducing apparatus and equipment............
Electrical machinery and equipment
Road vehicles....................

91.6

99.7
108.9
97.3
100.3
79.4

104.8
97.3
96.6
98.8

100.4

100.4
i9.0

100.2

109.6
119.9

136.7
92.0
90.8
121.4

121.1

121.2

100.1
96.5
97.2

102.6

128

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2004

122.2

100.0

100.2

100.3

100.7

100.8

101.7

103.0

104.1

105.7

106.6

109.2

109.2

109.5

109.9

110.4

110.9

110.4

110.7

110.4

98.3
99.5
81.6

97.4
99.5
81.9

97.9
99.7
83.4

97.6
99.8
84.5

97.9
99.7
85.9

97.8
99.6
90.9

97.9
99.7
94.1

98.5
99.5
98.5

99.1
99.1
98.7

98.5

97.8

98.0

97.9

97.9

97.7

97.7

97.8

97.9

98 1

107 1
102.4

98.3

98.4

107.2

98.4

107.4
103.2

107.4
103.2

107.5

107.9
103.1

108.5
103.3

108.7
103.4

109.3
103.9

109.4
104.0

109.4
104.2

108.6
105.2

108.6
105.6

102.2

102.4

88.1

88.2

102.6

88.9

88.0

102.6

102.8
88.6

103.3
87.7

88.2

104.0
88.4

104.5

87.9

102.8
88.0

103.5

87.8

88.6

104.6
88.5

94 1
92.0

93.8
89.7

93.4
89.8

93.4

93.3
89.4

92.6

92.5

102.6

101.0

92.8

92.2

92.0

88.6

88.2
101.6

88.1

88.0

101.5

88.6
101.8

92.5
88.5

101.7

92.5
88.3
101.9

92.6
88.5

101.5

102.2

102.2

102.1

102.3

102.3

102.2

102.3

102.3

102.0

101.9

87 P r o fe s s io n a l, s c ie n tific , a n d c o n tro llin g
in s tr u m e n ts a n d a p p a r a tu s .................

120.2
157.2
94.5
91.7
123.7
148.9

Oilseeds and oleaginous fruits.......
Cork and wood..................
Pulp and waste paper..........
Textile fibers and their waste............................................
Metalliferous ores and metal scrap..................................

24
25
26
28

116.9
152.5
93.7
91.7

122.8

101.9

102.2

102.4

102.3

102.2

44. U.S. import price indexes by Standard International Trade Classification
2004

2003

SITC
R ev.

Industry

3

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

0 F o o d a n d liv e a n im a ls ....................................................................

99.8

99.4

100.2

99.5

100.0

100.3

100.0

101.0

102.2

104.7

105.4

106.4

106.2

Meat and meat preparations............................................
Fish and crustaceans, mollusks, and other
aquatic invertebrates.......................................................
Vegetables, fruit, and nuts, prepared fresh or dry...........
Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices, and manufactures
thereof.............................................. ...............................

110.3

102.9

106.6

108.2

112.8

115.2

117.2

120.4

117.7

118.0

120.5

121.8

125.4

83.4
103.9

81.3
108.9

83.5
106.9

82.3
105.5

82.2
105.0

79.8
106.4

79.3
108.9

79.2
109.4

78.2
112.3

80.0
115.7

83.3
111.3

85.0
109.4

83.9
106.2

99.1

94.8

95.3

96.6

98.6

95.5

93.1

96.0

100.1

101.9

101.7

103.5

102.5

01
03
05
07

1 B e v e r a g e s a n d to b a c c o .................................................................

104.6

103.9

104.1

104.0

104.0

104.3

104.4

104.4

104.7

105.0

105.3

105.3

105.5

Beverages..........................................................................

103.8

103.7

104.0

103.9

103.9

104.2

104.2

104.3

104.9

105.2

105.5

105.5

105.8

104.5

107.9

109.5

114.1

119.9

122.6

126.7

11

2 C r u d e m a te r ia ls , in e d ib le , e x c e p t fu e ls .................................

98.8

99.5

100.7

100.5

106.1

104.2

Cork and wood...................................................................
Pulp and waste paper.......................................................
Metalliferous ores and metai scrap..................................
Crude animal and vegetable materials, n.e.s..................

94.0
95.3
99.3
103.5

94.4
95.3
99.7
104.9

100.1
93.6
100.3
99.4

99.3
91.9
102.9
96.8

113.0
90.4
103.7
95.7

106.2
90.8
104.3
95.1

103.2
91.9
108.7
94.8

108.0
92.8
115.3
99.6

108.9
93.3
124.2
98.9

115.7
91.9
134.6
99.5

123.3
95.4
147.9
99.7

127.8
100.8
147.8
99.3

139.0
103.4
143.1
102.1

3 M in e ra l fu e ls , lu b r ic a n ts , a n d re la te d p ro d u c ts ................
Petroleum, petroleum products, and related materials...
33

96.0
92.6
119.0

101.7
97.6
130.1

106.0
103.4
121.5

106.5
105.6
108.8

101.5
99.4
114.4

101.3'
100.1
106.2

103.3
102.3
106.6

108.2
106.9
113.9

117.3
114.0
138.0

117.7
114.5
137.1

120.6
119.9
122.9

120.6
119.7
123.3

132.3
132.2
129.3

5 C h e m ic a ls a n d re la te d p ro d u c ts , n .e .s .................................
Inorganic chemicals...........................................................
52
Dying, tanning, and coloring materials.............................
53
Medicinal and pharmaceutical products...........................
54
Essential oils; polishing and cleaning preparations.........
55
Plastics in primary forms...................................................
57
Plastics in nonprimary forms.............................................
58
Chemical materials and products, n.e.s...........................
59

99.0
105.8
98.0
101.2
98.9
101.7
100.8
93.2

100.1
106.4
98.0
102.5
99.4
106.1
100.8
92.3

100.0
105.4
98.0
103.1
99.0
104.3
101.3
93.3

99.2
106.0
98.3
102.5
91.8
103.1
101.4
91.9

99.2
105.4
97.7
101.9
91.6
102.7
101.4
91.8

100.2
108.8
98.1
102.3
91.2
105.6
101.7
92.3

100.8
111.9
99.0
103.4
91.6
105.6
101.7
93.1

101.1
114.0
99.6
103.4
91.6
105.5
101.8
93.3

103.0
119.3
99.9
107.2
92.7
104.4
102.1
94.3

103.4
120.6
99.7
107.7
93.3
105.2
102.4
94.9

103.8
120.5
99.5
107.8
93.7
106.9
102.9
95.8

103.4
115.9
100.3
107.1
93.5
105.5
102.7
995.5

103.1
114.7
100.3
106.7
93.4
105.7
102.5
95.2

6 M a n u fa c tu r e d g o o d s c la s s ifie d c h ie fly b y m a te ria ls ....

93.7

94.4

94.9

95.4

95.7

96.5

97.4

97.8

98.9

101.4

103.5

105.6

107.1

62
64

Rubber manufactures, n.e.s.............................................
Paper, paperboard, and articles of paper, pulp,

99.1

99.2

98.6

98.5

98.5

98.5

98.6

98.8

99.0

99.2

99.7

99.9

99.8

66

Nonmetallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s.......................

69

Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.........................................

93.2
97.5
75.8
97.6

93.5
97.9
78.1
98.3

93.2
97.9
78.0
98.2

94.9
97.8
79.1
98.4

94.5
97.8
80.7
98.5

94.7
97.9
82.0
98.7

94.2
98.1
85.1
99.1

93.7
98.1
87.7
99.5

94.1
98.5
92.3
99.7

94.5
98.9
97.0
100.3

94.9
99.0
102.6
101.1

94.6
99.3
105.8
102.3

95.7
99.4
107.3
102.5

24
25
28
29

7 M a c h in e r y a n d tr a n s p o r t e q u ip m e n t.....................................

95.7

95.8

95.7

95.6

95.5

95.3

95.4

95.3

95.4

95.5

95.5

95.3

95.3

72
74

Machinery specialized for particular industries...............
General industrial machines and parts, n.e.s.,

100.6

101.4

102.6

102.5

102.2

102.4

103.3

103.6

104.9

106.4

106.7

106.5

106.7

75
76

Computer equipment and office machines.....................
Telecommunications and sound recording and
reproducing apparatus and equipment........................

100.0
82.1

100.8
81.8

100.8
80.6

100.4
80.6

100.2
80.5

100.4
78.6

100.9
78.5

101.2
78.2

101.8
78.0

102.5
78.0

103.1
77.7

103.3
76.3

103.1
76.3

89.4
95.2
100.7

89.3
95.4
100.7

88.7
96.1
100.7

88.8
96.0
100.7

88.6
96.0
100.6

87.7
95.9
101.3

87.5
96.0
101.4

86.7
95.3
101.6

86.4
95.4
101.9

85.4
95.7
101.9

85.1
95.7
102.0

85.0
95.2
102.2

85.0
95.4
102.3

99.7

100.0

99.9

99.8

99.9

100.0

100.1

100.1

100.5

100.5

100.6

100.6

100.5

99.3

100.0

100.1

99.6

99.2

99.3

99.8

99.9

99.9

100.3

100.0

99.4

99.4

78

Road vehicles....................................................................

88

Photographic apparatus, equipment, and supplies,
and optical qoods, n.e.s................................................


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

July

2004

129

Current Labor Statistics:

Price Data

45. U.S. export price indexes by end-use category
[2000 = 100]_______________
2003

Category
May

June

July

2004

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

99.7

99.5

99.4

99.4

99.8

100.0

100.5

100.8

101.5

102.2

103.0

103.7

104.0

111.8
112.1
110.2

111.3
111.2
113.1

110.8
111.0
109.3

109.4
109.5
109.5

115.3
116.3
106.5

117.2
118.4
105.6

121.4
122.8
107.5

122.4
123.8
108.5

123.1
124.6
109.5

125.6
127.2
110.7

130.4
132.3
111.7

134 8
137.0
113.4

135 3
133 n

99.4

100.1

99.6

100.0

100.2

101.0

101.7

102.5

105.1

106.4

108.1

109.3

110.2

Agricultural Industrial supplies and materials..........

103.5

104.4

104.7

105.5

107.3

113.3

119.0

117.5

118.6

116.6

117.2

114.9

114.1

Fuels and lubricants.............................
Nonagrlcultural supplies and materials,
excluding fuel and building materials......................
Selected building materials.....................

94.5

97.0

97.0

100.4

97.6

97.5

96.4

99.0

106.1

106.5

108.9

110.4

118.5

100.2
96.5

100.7
96.3

100.0
97.5

100.1
98.0

100.5
98.4

101.1
98.8

101.7
99.1

102.5
99.5

104.7
98.7

106.4
100.9

108.1
102.3

109.5
103.2

109 6
103.5

98.3
101.5
95.5

97.6
101.6
94.5

97.7
101.8
94.6

97.7
101.6
94.5

97.5
101.7
94.3

97.3
101.7
93.9

97.3
101.7
93.9

97.5
101.7
94.1

97.5
102.0
93.9

97.8
101.9
94.3

98.0
102.0
94.5

98.1
101.5
94.6

98 1
101 3

101.5

101.6

101.8

101.8

101.8

101.9

101.9

101.8

101.9

102.0

101.9

102.1

102.1

99.4
98.5
99.9

99.6
98.8
100.1

99.6
98.8
100.2

99.4
98.7
99.9

99.4
98.5
100.1

99.8
99.0
100.3

100.0
99.4
100.3

99.9
99.2
100.3

100.2
99.9
100.1

100.1
99.9
100.0

100.1
99.8
100.1

100 3
99.9
100.5

100 3
99 9

110.6
98.8

110.0
98.7

109.9
98.6

108.8
98.7

114.7
98.6

117.5
98.7

122.2
98.8

122.7
99.1

123.5
99.8

125.3
100.4

129.6
100.9

133.1
101.4

133 7
101.6

A L L C O M M O D IT I E S ........................................

Foods, feeds, and beverages..........................
Agricultural foods, feeds, and beverages................
Nonagrlcultural (fish, beverages) food products.....
Industrial supplies and materials.......................

Capital goods...............................................
Electric and electrical generating equipment...........
Nonelectrical machinery..................................
Automotive vehicles, parts, and engines...............
Consumer goods, excluding automotive......................
Nondurables, manufactured.....................
Durables, m anufactured................................
Agricultural commodities...........................
Nonagricultural commodities...............................

130
Monthly Labor Review

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July

2004

113.9

94.6

100.7

46.

U.S. import price indexes by end-use category

[2000 = 100]
2004

2003
Category
May

June

Aug.

July

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

A L L C O M M O D IT I E S ......................................................................

95.3

96.2

96.7

96.7

96.2

96.3

96.8

97.5

99.0

99.4

100.2

100.4

102.0

Foods, feeds, and beverages.......................................
Agricultural foods, feeds, and beverages.................
Nonagricultural (fish, beverages) food products.....

101.3
107.5
87.7

100.7
107.1
86.6

101.5
107.7
88.0

101.3
107.6
87.4

101.8
108.3
87.6

101.9
109.0
86.3

102.4
109.7
86.0

103.2
110.9
86.0

103.7
112.0
85.1

105.3
113.4
87.2

105.9
112.9
90.1

107.2
114.2
91.6

106.9
114.3
90.4

Industrial supplies and materials...................................

95.3

98.2

100.2

100.5

98.9

99.5

100.7

103.6

108.5

110.0

112.7

113.8

120.2

Fuels and lubricants.....................................................

94.9
91.5

100.3
96.4

103.9
101.4

104.2
103.2

99.4
97.2

100.1
98.8

102.0
100.9

107.2
106.0

116.5
113.7

117.0
114.3

120.1
119.9

120.0
119.4

131.6
131.7

94.1

94.1

93.6

94.7

94.0

94.0

93.9

93.9

94.1

94.2

95.5

96.5

98.3

102.5
96.2
89.9
97.3

103.0
96.7
92.2
98.2

102.9
101.8
92.2
97.9

102.3
102.7
92.9
97.3

102.5
110.3
93.4
97.5

103.4
109.5
94.4
97.7

104.2
108.1
96.4
98.1

104.4
108.0
99.2
98.2

104.7
106.8
104.5
98.5

104.8
113.7
109.5
99.2

105.4
118.5
144.8
99.3

105.0
120.3
122.8
99.4

104.8
123.7
129.0
99.7

93.6
96.1
92.2

93.8
96.6
92.3

93.8
96.8
92.3

93.6
96.6
92.1

93.5
95.8
92.1

93.0
96.2
91.4

93.3
96.5
91.6

92.9
96.8
91.1

93.1
97.4
91.2

93.1
97.9
91.2

93.1
98.0
91.2

92.6
97.5
90.5

92.7
97.6
90.6

100.6

100.6

100.6

100.6

100.5

101.2

101.2

101.4

101.6

101.7

101.8

101.9

101.9

97.9
99.8
96.2
95.6

98.1
99.8
96.5
95.2

98.1
99.9
96.3
95.7

97.9
99.8
96.2
95.6

97.9
99.7
96.2
95.7

97.9
99.8
96.1
95.8

98.1
100.0
96.2
95.8

98.1
100.1
96.2
96.2

98.6
101.1
96.3
95.9

98.7
101.2
96.3
96.2

98.7
101.2
96.3
96.4

98.6
101.0
96.3
96.4

98.5
100.9
96.2
97.3

Materials associated with nondurable
supplies and materials...............................................
Selected building materials........................................
Unfinished metals associated with durable goods..

Consumer goods, excluding automotive.....................
Durables, manufactured.............................................
Nonmanufactured consumer goods..........................

47.

U.S. international price Indexes for selected categories of services

[2000 = 100, unless indicated otherwise]_________________________________________
Category

Dec.

Mar.

June

2004

2003

2002

2001

Sept.

Mar.

Dec.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

Air freight (inbound)............................................................
Air freight (outbound)..........................................................

95.1
97.8

93.9
95.9

98.3
98.4

100.3
97.3

105.9
95.4

108.8
97.2

109.4
95.4

112.5
95.5

112.9
94.9

116.2
96.2

Inbound air passenger fares (Dec. 2003 - 100)............
Outbound air passenger fares (Dec. 2003 - 100)).......
Ocean liner freight (inbound)............................................

92.8

91.7

90.3

93.5

93.3

94.0

116.1

116.2

100.0
100.0
117.7

105.1
99.3
118.9

NOTE: Dash indicates data not available.


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Current Labor Statistics:

48.

Productivity Data

Indexes of productivity, hourly compensation, and unit costs, quarterly data seasonally adjusted

[1 9 9 2 = 100]

Item

2001

2002

2003

2004

1

II

III

IV

I

II

III

IV

I

II

116.8
138.2
112.5
118.2
107.1
114.1

117.7
139.1
112.4
118.2
109.6
115.0

118.2
140.1
112.9
118.6
109.5
115.2

120.4
141.5
114.2
117.6
112.0
115.5

122.8
121.8
114.1
115.5
115.0
115.3

123.3
142.6
113.7
115.7
115.8
115.7

124.7
143.1
113.5
114.7
117.9
115.9

125.4
143.8
113.5
114.7
119.3
116.5

126.4
145.5
113.8
115.1
120.0
116.9

128.6
147.4
115.1
114.6
121.5
117.2

131.3
148.9
115.6
113.4
124.6
117.6

131.9
150.3
116.4
113.9
124.8
118.0

133.5
152.4
117.1
114.2
125.9
118.6

Output per hour of all persons.............
Compensation per hour.........................
Real compensation per hour................
Unit labor costs.......................................
Unit nonlabor payments.........................
Implicit price deflator..............................

116.4
137.5
111.9
118.1
108.6
114.6

117.3
138.3
111.7
117.9
111.2
115.5

117.8
139.3
112.3
118.3
111.0
115.6

119.8
140.7
113.5
117.5
113.4
116.0

122.6
141.1
113.5
115.1
116.9
115.8

122.8
141.9
113.2
115.6
117.6
116.3

124.2
142.4
112.9
114.6
119.9
116.6

124.9
143.2
113.0
114.6
121.3
117.1

126.0
144.6
113.1
114.8
122.2
117.5

127.9
146.3
114.2
114.4
123.4
117.7

130.8
148.0
114.9
112.8
126.5
118.1

131.6
149.5
115.9
113.6
126.1
118.2

132.8
151.2
116.1
113.9
127.4
118.9

Nonfinancial corporations
Output per hour of all employees.................
Compensation per hour................................
Real compensation per hour........ ...............
Total unit costs................................................
Unit labor costs.............................................
Unit nonlabor costs......................................
Unit profits........................................................
Unit nonlabor payments................................
Implicit price deflator.....................................

121.3
135.0
109.9
110.5
111.3
108.2
90.9
103.6
108.7

121.9
136.2
110.1
111.3
111.8
109.8
91.2
104.8
109.5

122.7
137.7
111.0
112.0
112.2
111.3
87.2
104.9
109.8

125.0
139.0
112.1
111.3
111.2
111.4
96.4
107.4
109.9

126.4
138.1
111.1
111.0
109.3
111.9
105.3
110.1
109.5

128.3
139.6
111.3
109.6
108.8
111.5
112.3
111.7
109.8

129.8
140.6
111.6
109.2
108.3
111.5
111.8
111.6
109.4

131.4
142.0
112.1
109.0
108.1
111.3
116.2
112.6
109.6

132.2
143.3
112.1
109.0
108.4
110.7
114.0
111.6
109.5

135.3
145.3
113.5
107.6
107.4
108.0
130.7
114.1
109.6

138.4
147.1
114.1
106.6
106.3
107.4
143.4
117.0
109.9

139.8
148.5
115.0
106.5
106.2
107.5
147.4
118.2
110.2

140.6
150.3
115.4
107.1
106.9
107.8
147.1
118.3
110.7

135.0
138.6
112.9
102.7

136.0
137.4
111.0
101.0

137.3
137.5
110.8
100.1

140.5
139.7
112.7
99.4

144.0
141.1
113.5
98.0

146.3
143.3
114.3
97.9

148.5
144.6
114.7
97.4

149.5
146.5
115.7
98.0

151.4
149.0
116.5
98.4

152.6
151.2
118.0
99.0

156.4
153.2
118.8
98.0

158.2
155.8
119.6
98.5

159.3
158.1
121.4
99.2

III

IV

1

Business
Output per hour of all persons.....
Compensation per hour................
Real compensation per hour........
Unit labor costs...............................
Unit nonlabor payments................
Implicit price deflator.....................
Nonfarm business

Manufacturing
Output per hour of all persons..........
Compensation per hour.....................
Real compensation per hour.............
Unit labor costs....................................

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49.

Annual indexes of multifactor productivity and related measures, selected years

[1996 = 100]
Item

1980

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

P r iv a te b u s in e s s

Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons........................................
Output per unit of capital services.................................
Multifactor productivity.....................................................
O utput....................................................................................
Inputs:
Labor input..........................................................................
Capital services.................................................................
Combined units of labor and capital input....................
Capital per hour of all persons..........................................

75.8
103.3
88.8
59.4

90.2
99.7
95.5
83.6

91.3
96.5
94.5
82.6

94.8
98.0
96.7
85.7

95.4
98.7
97.1
88.5

96.6
100.4
98.2
92.8

97.3
99.8
98.4
95.8

102.2
100.3
101.2
105.2

105.0
99.3
102.5
110.5

107.7
98.2
103.4
115.7

111.0
96.6
105.0
120.4

112.4
92.8
103.9
120.2

71.9
57.6
67.0
73.4

89.4
83.8
87.5
90.4

88.3
85.7
87.4
94.6

89.3
87.5
88.7
96.8

91.8
89.7
91.1
96.6

95.6
92.5
94.6
96.2

98.0
96.0
97.3
97.5

103.5
104.9
104.0
101.9

106.1
111.3
107.9
105.8

109.0
117.9
110.9
109.7

110.1
124.5
114.7
114.8

109.5
129.6
115.7
121.1

77.3
107.6
91.0
59.6

90.3
100.4
95.8
83.5

91.4
97.0
94.8
82.5

94.8
98.2
96.7
85.5

95.3
99.0
97.2
88.4

96.5
100.4
98.2
92.6

97.5
100.0
98.6
95.8

102.0
100.0
101.0
105.1

104.7
99.0
102.2
110.5

107.1
97.6
102.9
115.7

110.3
95.9
104.4
120.2

111.6
92.0
103.3
120.1

70.7
55.4
65.5
71.8

89.2
83.2
87.2
89.9

87.9
85.1
87.0
94.3

89.0
87.0
88.4
96.5

91.8
89.4
91.0
96.3

95.4
92.2
94.3
96.1

97.8
95.8
97.2
97.6

103.6
105.1
104.1
101.9

106.4
111.7
108.1
105.8

109.5
118.5
112.4
109.7

110.6
125.4
115.2
115.0

110.1
130.5
116.3
121.3

62.0
97.2
81.2
64.3

82.2
97.5
93.3
83.2

84.1
93.6
92.4
81.5

88.6
95.9
94.0
85.5

90.2
96.9
95.1
88.3

93.0
99.7
97.3
92.9

96.5
100.6
99.2
96.9

103.8
101.4
103.1
105.6

108.9
101.7
105.7
110.5

114.0
101.7
108.7
114.7

118.3
101.0
111.3
117.4

119.7
95.1
110.3
112.1

103.7
66.1
86.1
63.9
65.8
79.2

101.1
85.3
93.1
77.5
84.7
89.1

96.9
87.1
93.2
78.5
84.6
88.3

96.5
89.1
93.1
83.5
92.0
90.9

97.8
91.1
96.6
86.5
92.9
92.8

99.9
93.2
99.9
90.3
96.0
95.5

100.4
96.4
102.3
93.1
100.4
97.7

101.7
104.1
97.5
101.9
103.9
102.4

101.5
108.7
100.6
107.5
103.1
104.6

100.7
112.8
102.9
107.9
105.4
105.5

99.2
116.2
104.3
106.9
106.5
105.5

99.6
117.9
98.9
105.5
97.7
101.6

P r iv a te n o n f a r m b u s in e s s

Productivity:

Multifactor productivity.....................................................
O utput....................................................................................
Inputs:
Labor input..........................................................................
Capital services.................................................................

M a n u fa c tu r in g

Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons.......................................
Output per unit of capital services.................................
Multifactor productivity.....................................................
O utput....................................................................................
Inputs:
Hours of all persons.........................................................
Capital services.................................................................
Energy.................................................................................
Purchased business services.........................................
Combined units of all factor inputs................................


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Current Labor Statistics:

Productivity Data

50. Annual indexes of productivity, hourly compensation, unit costs, and prices, selected years
[1992= 100]___________________
Ite m

196 0

19 7 0

1 98 0

199 0

199 5

199 6

1997

19 9 8

199 9

2000

2001

2002

2003

Business
Output per hour of all persons..........................................
Compensation per hour.............................................
Real compensation per hour.............................................
Unit labor costs............................................................
Unit nonlabor payments........................................
Implicit price deflator.................................................

48.7
13.8
60.5
28.4
24.9
27.1

66.0
23.5
78.4
35.6
31.5
34.1

51.6
14.4
63.0
27.9
24.3
26.6

79.0
54.0
88.9
68.4
61.3
65.8

94.4
90.5
96.1
95.9
93.9
95.1

101.7
106.0
98.9
104.3
108.2
105.7

111.9
107.4

67.7
23.6
78.8
34.9
31.1
33.5

80.3
54.2
89.2
67.5
60.4
64.9

94.4
90.3
95.9
95.6
93.6
94.9

102.1
106.0
98.9
103.8
109.2
105.8

104.7
109.4
99.4
104.5
112.1
107.3

106.4
112.8
100.3
106.0
114.6
109.1

109.2
119.4
104.7

56.6
16.1
70.3
26.9
28.4
23.0
49.5
30.1
28.9

70.4
25.6
85.3
35.1
36.3
31.7
43.7
34.9
35.9

81.0
57.0
93.8
68.8
70.4
64.5
66.5
65.1
68.6

95.5
91.0
96.7
95.4
95.3
97.1
96.7
97.0
95.9

103.4
105.4
98.3
101.8
102.0
101.3
136.9
110.8
104.9

107.1
108.4
98.5
100.9
101.2
99.9
149.9
113.3
105.3

109.8
111.7
99.3
101.2
101.7
99.8
154.4
114.4
105.9

112.8
117.9
103.4

109.9
106.3

108.7
106.9

41.8
14.9
65.0
35.6
26.8
30.2

54.2
23.7
79.2
43.8
29.3
35.0

70.1
55.6
91.4
79.3
80.2
79.9

92.9
90.1
95.7
97.0
101.1
99.5

110.1
107.7
100.5
97.8
107.6
103.9

113.9
109.9
99.8
96.5
110.4
105.2

117.9
112.0
99.7
95.0
110.5
104.6

123.5
118.8
104.2
96.2
104.1
101.1

104.5
109.5
99.5

106.5
113.0
100.5

i uy.o

«uy.o

115.7
134.2
111.6
116.0
107.2
112.7

118.3
139.7
113.0
118.1
109.5
114.9

124.0
147.8
113.7
115.2
117.0
115.8

129.6
147.9
115.1
114.1
123.0
117.4

115.3
133.7
111.2

117.8
138.9
112.4
118.0
111.1
115.4

123.6
142.1
113.2
115.0
119.0
116.4

129.1
147.0
114.4
113.9
124.8
117.9

122.7
137.0
110.8
111.2
111.6
... -

128.9
140.1
111.5
109.4
108.6
111.5
111.4
111.5
109.6

136.3
145.9
113.5
107.4
107.0
108.4
134.2
115.3
109.8

147.1
143. 8
114.5
97.8

154.6
151.9
118.2
98.2

Nonfarm business
Output per hour of all persons..........................................
Compensation per hour..............................................
Real compensation per hour.............................................
Unit labor costs....................................................................
Unit nonlabor payments.............................................
Implicit price deflator................................................

110.8

108.8
113.3

Nonfinancial corporations
Output per hour of all employees...................................
Compensation per hour.....................................................
Real compensation per hour.............................................
Total unit costs...................................................
Unit labor costs.............................................................
Unit nonlabor costs...........................................................
Unit profits.................................................................
Unit nonlabor payments..................................................

116.4
131.7
I uy.o
108.0

104.5
99.9

91.4
108.1

109.5

128.2
123.8
106.3

134.2
135.0

137.1
138.3
- ^«

105.0
101.8

107.0
104.6

105.8
103.9

Manufacturing
Output per hour of all persons..........................................
Compensation per hour.....................................................
Real compensation per hour.............................................
Unit labor costs...........................................................
Unit nonlabor payments..................................................
Implicit price deflator..........................................................
Dash indicates data not available.

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-

51. Annual indexes of output per hour for selected naics industries, 1990-2002
[1997=100]

NAICS

Industry

21
211
212
2121
2122
2123

Mining..........................................................................
Oil and gas extraction...............................................
Mining, except oil and gas........................................
Coal mining.................................................................
Metal ore mining........................................................
Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying.............

2211
2212

Power generation and supply...................................
Natural gas distribution..............................................

3111
3112
3113
3114
3115

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

Mining
86.0
78.4
79.3
68.1
79.9
92.3

86.8
78.8
80.0
69.3
82.7
89.5

95.2
81.9
86.8
75.3
91.7
96.1

96.2
85.1
89.9
79.9
102.2
93.6

99.6
90.3
93.0
83.9
104.1
96.9

101.8
95.5
94.0
88.2
98.5
97.3

101.7
98.9
96.0
94.9
95.3
97.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

103.4
101.6
104.6
106.5
109.5
101.3

111.1
107.9
105.9
110.3
112.7
101.2

109.5
115.2
106.8
115.8
124.4
96.2

107.7
117.4
109.0
114.4
131.8
99.3

112.3
119.3
111.7
112.2
143.9
103.8

71.2
71.4

73.8
72.7

74.2
75.8

78.7
79.8

83.0
82.1

88.6
89.0

95.5
96.1

100.0
100.0

103.8
99.1

104.1
103.1

107.0
113.1

106.4
110.0

102.4
114.9

Animal food.................................................................
Grain and oilseed milling...........................................
Sugar and confectionery products..........................
Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty........
Dairy products............................................................

90.1
89.0
91.0
86.4
90.8

89.3
91.2
93.8
89.7
92.1

90.2
91.1
90.5
90.7
95.4

90.2
93.8
92.5
93.8
93.9

87.3
94.7
94.0
94.9
95.4

94.0
99.1
94.3
97.1
98.7

87.5
91.3
98.2
98.2
98.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

109.4
107.5
104.0
106.8
99.1

109.5
114.2
107.1
108.4
94.5

109.7
112.5
111.9
109.8
96.0

127.2
117.3
109.9
117.0
96.2

-

3116
3117
3118
3119
3121

Animal slaughtering and processing.......................
Seafood product preparation and packaging.........
Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing.........................
Other food products...................................................
Beverages..................................................................

94.5
117.5
92.6
91.9
86.5

96.8
112.0
92.3
93.5
90.1

101.5
115.3
95.6
95.9
93.8

100.9
113.9
96.0
102.8
93.2

97.4
114.1
96.7
100.3
97.7

98.5
108.4
99.7
101.3
99.6

94.3
116.2
97.7
103.0
101.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

99.9
117.0
103.8
106.9
98.5

100.3
130.2
105.4
108.8
92.4

101.9
137.6
105.3
110.2
90.6

102.7
147.3
106.3
103.2
91.7

3122
3131
3132
3133
3141

Tobacco and tobacco products...............................
Fiber, yarn, and thread mills.....................................
Fabric mills.................................................................
Textile and fabric finishing mills...............................
Textile furnishings mills............................................

81.4
73.9
75.0
81.7
88.2

77.3
74.7
77.7
80.4
88.6

79.6
80.1
81.5
83.7
93.0

73.7
84.6
85.0
86.0
93.7

89.8
87.2
91.9
87.8
90.1

97.5
92.0
95.8
84.5
92.5

99.4
98.7
98.0
85.0
93.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

98.1
102.2
103.9
100.6

98.0
102.6
110.2
104.0
106.8

100.0
110.5
109.1
109.7
106.9

-

9 9 .9

92.1
104.6
109.8
101.7
101.2

3149
3151
3152
3159
3161

Other textile product millsv
Apparel knitting mills..................................................
Cut and sew apparel.................................................
Accessories and other apparel................................
Leather and hide tanning and finishing..................

91.1
85.6
70.1
100.9
60.8

90.0
88.7
72.0
97.3
56.6

92.0
93.2
73.1
98.7
76.7

90.3
102.5
76.6
99.0
83.1

94.5
104.3
80.5
104.6
75.9

95.9
109.5
85.5
112.4
78.6

96.3
121.9
90.5
112.6
91.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

97.0
96.6
104.0
110.8
98.0

110.4
102.0
118.8
103.3
101.6

110.4
110.2
127.7
104.9
110.0

105.0
108.4
131.7
114.8
109.7

-

3162
3169
3211
3212
3219

Footwear.....................................................................

77.1
102.5
79.2
102.3
105.4

74.7
100.2
81.6
107.4
104.7

83.1
97.0
86.1
114.7
104.0

81.7
94.3
82.6
108.9
103.0

90.4
80.0
85.1
105.8
99.3

95.6
73.2
91.0
101.8
100.4

103.4
79.7
96.2
101.2
100.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.9
109.2
100.8
105.6
101.5

116.8
100.4
105.4
105.4

124.1
107.6
106.5
100.5
104.0

142.7
114.1
109.0
105.0
104.6

88.1
93.5
95.4
75.8
90.1

92.3
93.7
101.3
78.9
89.4

92.9
96.3
100.1
84.5
89.9

97.6
97.6
98.3
85.6
95.1

102.0
97.2
98.8
90.1
92.3

97.6
98.3
99.6
94.8
90.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

103.1
102.7
100.5
102.1
102.5

111.4
101.5
103.5
107.8
114.7

115.7
101.9
104.9
113.2
118.4

117.5
101.0
105.6
112.2
111.0

105.5
98.8
92.9
99.1
96.6

108.8
87.6
94.6
98.8
91.1

108.1
91.4
93.4
98.5
99.2

103.8
91.1
97.4
102.1
102.7

Utilities

Manufacturing

Sawmills and wood preservation.............................
Plywood and engineered wood products................

9 9 .9

3221
3222
3231
3241
3251

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills..........................
Printing and related support activities.....................
Petroleum and coal products...................................
Basic chemicals..........................................................

88.5
90.5
96.6
76.7
91.4

3252
3253
3254
3255
3256

Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers...........................
Agricultural chemicals...............................................
Pharmaceuticals and medicines..............................
Paints, coatings, and adhesives..............................
Soap, cleaning compounds, and toiletries.............

75.8
84.6
91.4
85.1
83.2

74.7
81.0
92.6
85.9
84.2

80.6
81.3
88.2
87.6
83.4

83.8
85.6
88.1
90.9
86.9

93.5
87.4
92.4
94.1
88.6

95.9
90.7
96.3
92.7
93.9

93.3
92.1
98.3
95.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

3259
3261
3262
3271
3272

Other chemical products and preparations............
Plastics products.......................................................
Rubber products.............................. ..........................
Clay products and refractories.................................

76.6
84.7
83.0
89.2
80.0

78.0
86.3
83.8
87.5
79.1

84.7
90.3
84.9
91.5
84.3

90.6
91.9
90.4
91.9
86.1

92.6
94.4
90.3
96.6
87.5

94.4
94.5
92.8
97.4
88.8

94.2
97.0
94.4
102.6
96.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

99.4
103.5
100.5
101.3
102.7

109.2
109.3
101.4
103.5
108.6

120.0
111.2
103.9
103.6
109.7

111.3
113.3
104.2
97.6
105.2

3273
3274
3279
3311
3312

Cement and concrete products...............................
Lime and gypsum products......................................
Other nonmetallic mineral products.......................
Iron and steel mills and ferroalloy production........
Steel products from purchased steel......................

94.8
84.1
79.8
69.6
83.8

93.7
82.7
81.4
67.2
86.4

94.8
88.5
90.2
74.1
89.9

96.5
90.1
89.3
81.7
95.9

95.0
87.8
90.5
87.2
100.0

98.2
88.8
91.7
89.7
100.5

100.6
92.4
96.5
94.1
100.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

103.5
113.1
98.8
101.7
100.3

104.1
102.7
95.5
106.5
94.2

100.4
97.0
95.6
108.5
96.4

97.1
100.1
96.8
106.7
97.1

Foundries...................................................................
Forging and stamping...............................................
Cutlery and hand tools..............................................

91.9
95.6
85.3
88.6
85.1

93.3
95.8
84.5
86.5
85.4

96.8
98.8
85.8
91.7
87.2

96.0
101.8
89.8
94.6
91.7

100.3
105.1
91.4
93.7
94.4

96.8
102.9
93.1
94.2
97.8

95.9
105.7
96.2
97.6
104.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

101.1
111.2
101.6
103.7
100.0

104.3
108.9
104.9
110.9
107.8

97.8
103.1
104.0
121.3
105.8

96.9
100.5
109.3
121.8
110.2

Hardware....................................................................
Spring and wire products........................................
Machine shops and threaded products.................

87.8
90.4
84.4
85.2
78.8

89.1
92.6
83.8
88.4
79.8

92.5
95.3
86.9
90.9
87.2

93.4
94.8
89.6
95.3
86.9

95.1
100.5
95.7
91.5
91.6

94.2
100.7
102.6
102.8
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

101.1
101.3
101.0
111.6
99.3

101.8
98.9
106.5
112.9
103.9

101.0
97.7
115.8
114.6
107.2

100.7
98.2
114.6
110.6
107.2

Monthly Labor Review

July

2004

3313
3314
3315
3321
3322
3323
3324
3325
3326
3327


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

93.9
97.8
97.3
99.5
98.7 I

9 9 .9

“
-

_
-

-

—

_
—
“
-

—

_
-

_
_
”

_
_
-

135

Current Labor Statistics:

Productivity Data

51. Continued—Annual indexes of output per hour for selected naics industries, 1990-2002
[1997=100]
NAICS

In d u s try

3328
3329
3331
3332
3333

Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals.......
Other fabricated metal products.............................
Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery
Industrial machinery..................................................
Commercial and service industry machinery........

81.6
86.7
82.8
80.6
91.4

78.1
85.9
77.2
81.1
89.6

86.9
90.6
79.6
79.5
96.5

91.9
92.1
84.1
84.9
101.7

96.5
95.0
91.0
90.0
101.2

102.8
97.1
95.6
97.9
103.0

102.9
98.9
95.9
98.8
106.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

101.7
102.3
104.2
94.4
107.5

101.5
100.2
95.0
105.2
111.2

105.9
100.8
101.0
129.7
101.4

105.1
98.2
99.5
104.6
94.4

3334
3335
3336
3339

HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment
Metalworking machinery..........................................
Turbine and power transmission equipment.........
Other general purpose machinery..........................

88.8
85.3
85.1
85.9

88.2
82.3
84.6
85.2

90.8
89.3
81.2
85.1

93.8
89.3
84.8
89.8

97.3
94.0
93.3
91.5

96.6
99.1
92.1
94.6

97.8
98.1
97.9
95.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

106.6
99.1
106.4
103.2

110.4
100.5
113.3
105.6

108.3
106.4
117.1
113.0

110.8
102.0
130.2
109.4

-

3341

Computer and peripheral equipment......................

14.3

15.8

20.6

27.9

35.9

51.3

72.6

100.0

138.6

190.3

225.4

237.0

-

3342
3343
3344
3345
3346

Communications equipment.....................................
Audio and video equipment.....................................
Semiconductors and electronic components........
Electronic instruments..............................................
Magnetic media manufacturing and reproduction

47.3
75.5
21.4
76.0
86.6

49.3
82.8
24.5
80.5
91.2

59.3
92.1
29.6
83.1
93.0

62.1
98.8
34.1
85.8
96.8

70.1
108.5
43.1
88.8
106.1

74.6
140.0
63.4
96.8
106.7

84.3
104.7
81.8
97.7
103.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

102.7
103.1
125.2
101.3
105.4

134.0
116.2
174.5
105.1
106.8

165.5
123.3
233.3
114.3
104.0

155.2
126.3
231.6
116.1
98.6

-

3351
3352
3353
3359
3361

Electric lighting equipment.......................................
Household appliances..............................................
Electrical equipment..................................................
Other electrical equipment and components.........
Motor vehicles............................................................

87.3
76.4
73.6
75.3
86.0

88.5
76.4
72.7
74.2
82.4

93.6
82.4
78.9
81.6
91.2

90.8
88.9
85.8
86.8
89.8

94.5
95.0
89.0
89.4
90.3

92.2
92.7
98.1
92.0
88.6

95.6
93.1
100.2
96.0
91.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

103.8
105.1
99.8
105.5
113.3

102.5
104.3
98.9
114.8
123.3

101.9
117.5
100.6
120.5
110.4

105.4
122.6
101.0
113.5
108.7

3362
3363
3364
3365
3366

Motor vehicle bodies and trailers.............................
Motor vehicle parts....................................................
Aerospace products and parts.................................
Railroad rolling stock................................................
Ship and boat building..............................................

75.8
75.7
87.7
77.2
99.6

71.8
74.5
92.1
80.0
92.6

88.3
82.4
94.1
81.1
98.5

96.3
88.5
98.2
82.3
101.3

97.7
91.8
93.8
83.1
99.0

97.3
92.3
93.7
82.0
93.1

98.4
93.1
98.1
80.9
94.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

102.7
104.8
118.5
102.9
100.3

103.1
110.4
118.0
116.0
112.2

98.4
112.7
101.0
117.7
120.1

99.4
114.8
114.7
124.7
119.8

3369
3371
3372
3379
3391
3399

Other transportation equipment..............................
Household and institutional furniture......................
Office furniture and fixtures......................................
Other furniture-related products..............................
Medical equipment and supplies.............................
Other miscellaneous manufacturing........................

62.6
87.6
80.8
88.1
81.2
90.1

62.0
88.2
78.8
88.6
83.1
90.6

88.4
92.9
86.2
88.4
88.1
90.0

99.8
93.8
87.9
90.5
91.1
92.3

93.4
94.1
83.4
93.6
90.8
93.0

93.1
97.1
84.3
94.5
95.0
96.0

99.8
99.5
85.6
96.7
100.0
99.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

110.8
102.7
100.1
107.2
108.9
101.9

113.3
103.7
98.5
102.5
109.6
105.2

130.9
102.5
100.2
100.1
114.2
112.9

146.9
106.1
97.1
105.3
119.0
110.9

1990

1991

199 2

1993

1994

1995

1996

199 7

199 8

1999

20 0 0

2001

2002

-

_
_
.

-

_
_

_
-

_
_

_
_
-

W h o le s a le tr a d e

42
423
4231
4232
4233

Wholesale trade........................................................
Durable goods............................................................
Motor vehicles and parts..........................................
Furniture and furnishings..........................................
Lumber and construction supplies..........................

77.8
65.7
76.6
82.4
115.0

79.1
66.1
73.3
87.2
113.2

86.2
75.0
82.2
92.0
119.6

89.5
80.5
88.0
95.8
113.9

91.3
84.5
94.1
93.3
111.9

93.3
88.9
93.6
96.8
103.6

96.2
94.0
94.9
97.0
103.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

104.4
105.6
104.7
97.5
102.9

110.9
115.3
119.8
100.8
104.8

114.1
119.6
114.0
105.5
101.7

117.1
120.3
114.1
105.4
108.6

123.6
127.7
121.7
101.8
119.2

4234
4235
4236
4237
4238

Commercial equipment.............................................
Metals and minerals..................................................
Electric goods............................................................
Hardware and plumbing...........................................
Machinery and supplies............................................

33.8
101.6
46.8
88.8
78.9

37.3
102.6
47.6
86.5
74.2

48.2
109.1
51.4
95.6
79.7

56.2
111.7
59.1
94.3
84.3

60.5
110.1
68.2
101.3
85.4

74.7
101.2
79.3
98.0
89.7

88.4
102.7
87.8
99.1
93.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

118.2
102.4
105.9
103.5
104.2

141.1
96.0
126.2
107.8
101.4

148.9
99.2
151.7
111.1
104.1

164.9
102.2
148.1
102.6
102.7

189.4
102.2
161.2
107.9
100.2

4239
424
4241
4242
4243

Miscellaneous durable goods..................................
Nondurable goods......................................................
Paper and paper products........................................
Druggists' goods........................................................
Apparel and piece goods..........................................

89.5
98.4
81.0
81.8
103.9

96.6
99.8
85.5
86.6
103.3

112.1
103.2
96.5
91.8
100.1

113.2
103.0
97.2
89.3
97.7

106.1
101.8
101.5
92.8
103.8

99.2
99.7
99.0
95.4
92.2

101.0
99.2
96.5
98.3
99.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

101.8
102.8
100.4
99.6
104.1

112.6
104.1
105.5
101.7
103.5

116.7
103.5
105.5
96.8
102.7

116.1
106.9
109.0
101.2
102.4

125.5
112.6
120.2
116.0
111.5

4244
4245
4246
4247
4248

Grocery and related products..................................
Farm product raw materials......................................
Chemicals....................................................................
Petroleum....................................................................
Alcoholic beverages...................................................

96.4
80.6
107.3
97.3
109.4

98.2
85.9
106.6
107.0
111.2

103.6
85.9
112.5
118.3
107.4

105.1
84.0
110.0
119.1
105.6

103.3
80.4
110.5
115.8
105.9

103.0
87.7
102.1
108.7
102.5

99.8
90.6
100.0
105.9
104.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

101.9
100.4
99.3
115.0
109.7

103.6
114.2
98.0
112.0
110.1

105.2
119.0
95.8
112.5
111.0

109.4
120.0
93.6
116.5
111.6

111.8
135.4
96.9
126.0
117.3

4249
425
42511
42512

Miscellaneous nondurable goods...........................
Electronic markets and agents and brokers...........
Business to business electronic markets................
Wholesale trade agents and brokers......................

107.3
70.7
70.4
70.8

98.2
73.6
72.6
74.0

93.9
81.5
80.3
82.3

97.5
85.9
84.8
86.8

94.8
88.0
88.3
88.4

96.2
91.1
90.5
91.8

98.7
95.7
95.3
96.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

101.7
104.6
103.5
104.8

99.6
114.4
121.7
110.5

106.2
124.1
141.3
115.7

104.2
131.3
169.4
114.2

97.0
132.6
205.0
109.3

44-45
441
4411
4412
4413

Retail trade.................................................................
Motor vehicle and parts dealers..............................
Automobile dealers....................................................
Other motor vehicle dealers.....................................
Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores.................

83.2
89.7
92.1
69.0
85.0

83.3
88.3
90.8
71.7
84.0

86.8
92.6
94.8
78.3
89.1

89.4
94.0
96.0
84.1
90.6

92.8
96.9
98.0
90.2
95.4

94.7
97.0
97.2
91.0
97.9

97.7
98.8
98.9
97.7
98.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

104.3
102.7
102.7
105.9
105.7

110.3
106.4
106.4
113.0
110.0

114.2
107.2
106.6
108.6
112.0

117.4
110.0
109.1
112.6
109.3

122.7
109.7
106.0
116.4
115.8

442
4421
4422
443
444

Furniture and home furnishings stores...................
Furniture stores.........................................................
Home furnishings stores...........................................
Electronics and appliance stores.............................
Building material and garden supply stores............

80.7
82.1
78.5
46.0
81.8

81.1
83.5
77.6
49.2
80.2

88.1
89.0
86.8
56.9
84.0

88.3
89.0
87.2
65.5
88.0

90.4
88.9
92.1
77.6
93.7

94.1
92.5
95.9
89.2
93.7

99.4
97.8
101.3
95.0
97.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

101.7
102.1
101.3
122.9
106.7

109.6
108.2
111.4
152.2
112.3

115.7
114.8
116.8
177.7
113.1

118.5
121.1
115.6
199.1
115.8

125.1
128.6
121.4
240.0
119.9

R e ta il tr a d e

136

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2004

51. Continued - Annual indexes of output per hour for selected NAICS industries, 1990-2002
[1997=100]
NAICS

In d u s try

4441
4442
445
4451
4452

Building material and supplies dealers..................
Lawn and garden equipment and supplies stores
Food and beverage stores.......................................
Grocery stores...........................................................
Specialty food stores................................................

83.2
74.5
107.1
106.5
122.9

80.7
77.5
106.6
106.6
115.0

84.7
80.2
106.9
106.7
111.4

4453

Beer, wine and liquor stores.....................................

100.1

100.2

101.0

94.4

446
447
448

Health and personal care stores.............................
Gasoline stations.......................................................
Clothing and clothing accessories stores...............

92.0
84.8
69.5

91.6
85.7
70.5

90.7
88.5
75.3

91.9
92.8
78.9

4481

Clothing stores...........................................................

68.9

71.4

77.1

79.2

81.9

90.1

4482
4483
451
4511
4512

Shoe stores................................................................
Jewelry, luggage, and leather goods stores...........
Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores...
Sporting goods and musical instrument stores....
Book, periodical, and music stores.........................

73.7
68.6
80.8
77.1
89.0

73.1
64.5
85.6
82.8
91.8

78.2
65.0
83.8
79.8
92.5

79.2
77.1
84.0
80.6
91.6

88.3
85.0
87.2
83.9
94.5

93.7
94.1
93.0
92.3
94.5

452
4521
4529
453
4531

General merchandise stores...................................
Department stores....................................................
Other general merchandise stores.........................
Miscellaneous store retailers...................................
Florists........................................................................

75.3
84.0
61.4
70.6
75.1

79.0
88.3
64.8
68.0
75.9

83.0
91.6
69.7
74.2
85.1

88.5
95.0
77.8
79.1
91.4

90.6
95.1
82.6
87.0
85.4

92.2
94.7
87.6
89.5
83.5

4532
4533
4539
454
4541
4542
4543

Office supplies, stationery and gift stores...............
Used merchandise stores.........................................
Other miscellaneous store retailers.........................
Nonstore retailers......................................................
Electronic shopping and mail-order houses...........
Vending machine operators.....................................
Direct selling establishments...................................

64.6
84.9
79.6
54.4
43.5
97.1
70.0

66.3
83.1
69.2
55.0
46.7
95.4
67.6

71.5
89.7
74.7
63.4
50.6
95.1
82.1

75.8
88.9
80.5
66.7
58.3
92.8
79.7

87.5
87.3
89.7
73.8
62.9
94.1
89.2

481
482111
48412
491

Transportation and warehousing
Air transportation.......................................................
Line-haul railroads....................................................
General freight trucking, long-distance..................
U.S. Postal service....................................................

77.5
69.8
88.5
96.1

78.2
75.3
92.4
95.8

81.4
82.3
97.5
96.5

84.7
85.7
95.6
99.0

5111
5112
51213
5151
5152
5171
5172
5175

Information
Newspaper, book, and directory publishers...........
Software publishers...................................................
Motion picture and video exhibition.........................
Radio and television broadcasting..........................
Cable and other subscription programming...........
Wired telecommunications carriers.........................
Wireless telecommunications carriers....................
Cable and other program distribution.....................

97.4
28.6
109.4
96.1
98.8
64.8
76.3
99.1

96.1
30.6
108.9
97.8
94.3
68.4
73.8
94.3

95.8
42.7
104.1
102.8
96.0
74.5
85.6
95.9

52211

Finance and insurance
Commercial banking..................................................

80.5

83.2

532111
53212

Real estate and rental and leasing
Passenger car rental................................................
I ruck, trailer and rv rental and leasing..................

89.8
70.7

541213
54181

Tax preparation services...........................................
Advertising agencies..................................................

7211
722
7221
7222
7223
7224

Accomodation and food services
Traveler accommodations........................................
Food services and drinking places..........................
Full-service restaurants............................................
Limited-service eating places..................................
Special lood services................................................
Drinking places, alcoholic beverages.....................

1990

1991

199 2

1993
89.1
81.5
105.4
105.9
107.6

1994
94.8
86.9
104.3
104.9
104.5

1995

1996

1 99 7

94.8
87.0
102.5
103.0
101.1

97.6
97.1
100.3
100.8
95.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

92.9

96.2

103.1

91.8
96.8
83.3

93.0
99.7
91.2

95.7
99.4
97.9

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

107.6
101.2
99.9
100.3
95.0

113.7
103.5
103.7
104.3
99.6

113.8
108.2
105.1
104.9
105.6

115.3
119.4
107.6
107.5
110.8

119.8
121.2
110.3
110.3
114.2

100.0

105.8

99.8

111.1

110.4

111.8

100.0
100.0
100.0

104.1
105.6
105.4

106.9
110.6
112.8

111.4
106.5
120.3

112.7
109.8
123.5

118.8
117.5
129.0

97.1

100.0

106.7

113.3

120.9

125.2

132.7

102.4
97.3
94.7
92.5
99.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

97.8
107.0
108.7
112.9
101.0

104.9
118.3
114.9
120.4
104.7

109.6
128.0
121.1
128.3
108.0

115.8
122.5
125.4
130.4
116.0

120.0
121.5
132.9
137.9
123.8

96.9
98.4
94.3
95.0
96.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

105.0
100.6
113.4
108.3
101.2

113.1
104.5
129.8
109.8
117.3

119.9
106.3
145.9
111.3
116.0

124.2
104.0
162.1
108.4
108.6

130.5
104.7
177.5
115.6
120.7

90.9
90.2
90.5
80.9
71.9
89.3
94.7

91.8
97.4
98.0
91.6
84.4
96.9
102.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

113.0
113.5
105.0
111.3
118.2
114.1
96.2

118.0
109.8
101.6
125.4
141.5
118.1
96.3

124.1
115.7
99.6
142.8
159.8
127.1
104.3

125.1
115.0
93.2
146.9
177.5
110.4
98.7

140.3
121.4
92.8
169.6
209.8
113.3
110.2

90.8
88 6
98.1
98.5

95.3
92 0
95.4
98.3

98.8
98 4
95.7
96.7

100.0
100 0
100.0
100.0

97.6
102.1
99.1
101.4

98.2
105.5
102.0
102.4

98.2
114.3
105.5
104.9

91.9
121.9
104.2
106.1

103.2
131.9
109.4
107.0

95.3
51.7
104.6
101.4
93.6
79.7
94.8
93.5

93.0
64.6
103.4
106.0
92.0
85.1
97.1
91.9

93.5
73.0
99.9
106.1
94.4
90.6
98.3
94.2

92.7
88.0
100.0
104.1
93.7
97.5
103.0
93.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

104.5
115.9
99.9
99.1
129.3
105.5
114.2
95.7

108.5
113.0
102.0
99.4
133.2
112.7
134.3
94.5

110.1
103.9
106.5
98.4
135.7
119.9
139.0
90.4

106.4
101.9
104.7
94.3
125.3
121.0
172.7
87.6

108.1
106.7
104.4
100.4
131.4
130.6
192.0
93.5

83.3

90.3

92.9

96.0

99.3

100.0

98.0

101.5

104.2

101.6

103.8

97.8
71.7

104.4
69.5

106.1
75.8

107.9
82.0

101.1
90.3

108.9
96.7

100.0
100.0

101.2
93.7

113.1
97.8

112.0
95.9

112.1
93.6

113.3
91.4

92.4
105.0

84.7
99.7

99.5
111.9

119.1
111.3

119.9
106.8

96.2
101.4

92.1
102.1

100.0
100.0

105.1
95.8

99.2
110.1

91.8
116.6

78.2
116.7

92.1
123.9

82.9
102.9
99.1
103.3
107.2
125.7

85.4
102.3
98.3
103.3
106.9
121.2

92.9
101.7
97.5
102.7
106.4
121.5

93.0
102.3
97.7
105.6
103.8
112.7

97.0
100.8
97.8
103.6
101.1
102.6

99.2
100.6
96.6
104.7
99.3
104.4

100.1
99.2
96.3
102.2
97.6
102.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
101.2
100.0
102.4
102.1
100.0

103.6
101.1
99.2
102.5
106.0
99.4

107.7
103.5
100.8
105.1
111.7
100.4

102.0
103.7
100.8
106.6
108.4
98.2

104.1
104.9
102.0
107.1
108.1
107.2

92.8
81.6
96.1
95.6
117.3

86.5
79.8
94.3
93.2
115.6

90.0
85.6
104.7
94.9
116.2

91.2
84.3
100.4
93.8
123.6

96.7
88.7
103 6
95.9
124.9

102.9
92.4
100 4
98.8
114.7

98.9
97.1
97 9
101.6
103.2

100.0
100.0
100 0
100.0
100.0

105.0
102.7
103 8
105.0
99.4

106.9
103.6
100 4
109.5
106.9

108.6
103.0
94.5
113.7
107.6

109.3
109.5
93.9
121.1
115.0

103.7
104.2
90.9
120.2
133.6

July

2004

Professional, scientific, and technical services

8111
81211
81221
8123
81292

Other services (except public administration)
Automotive repair and maintenance.......................
Hair, nail and skin care services..............................
Drycleaning and laundry services...........................
Photofinishing............................................................

No te : Dash indicates data are not available.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

137

Current Labor Statistics:

International Comparison

52. Unemployment rates, approximating U.S. concepts, in nine countries, quarterly data
seasonally adjusted
Annual average
Country

2002

United States
Canada
Australia
Japan

5.8
7.0
6.4
5.4

2003

2002
III

II

2003
IV

6.0
6.9
6.1
5.3

5.8
6.9
6.4
5.4

5.7
7.0
6.3
5.5

II

1
5.9
6.9
6.2
5.4

5.8
6.7
6.2
5.4

2004
III

6.1
6.9
6.2
5.4

IV
6.1
7.2
6.1
5.2

1
5.9
6.8
5.8
5.1

5.6
6.7
5.7
5.0

France

8.7

9.3

8.6

8.7

8.9

9.0

9.2

9.4

9.4

9.4

Germany

8.6

9.3

8.5

8.7

8.9

9.2

9.4

9.4

9.3

9.2

Italy1

9.1

8.8

9.2

9.1

9.0

9.0

8.8

8.7

8.6

8.6

Sweden2
United Kingdom

5.1
5.2

5.8
5.0

5.0
5.2

5.1
5.2

5.2
5.1

5.2
5.1

5.6
5.0

5.8
5.0

6.2
4.9

6.6
4.8

1 Preliminary data for 2003.
2

Preliminary data for 2003.

figures.
Quarterly rates are for the first series.

month of the quarter.
NOTE:
calculated

For

further

qualifications

and

historical

data,

see

Com parative Civilian Labor Force Statistics, Ten Countries, 1959-

Quarterly figures for France and Germany are
by applying

See "Notes on the data" for information on breaks in

annual adjustment factors to

current

2 0 0 3 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, Feb. 11,2004), on the Internet at

http://www.bls.gov/fls/home.htm

published data, and therefore should be viewed as less precise

Monthly and quarterly unemployment rates, updated monthly, are

indicators of unemployment under U.S. concepts than the annual

also on this site.

138 Monthly Labor Review

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2004

53. Annual data: employment status of the working-age population, approximating U.S. concepts, 10 countries
[Numbers in thousands]
—

m?

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

128,105
14,177

129,200

131,056

132,304

133,943

136,297

142,583

143,734

144,863

14,308

14,400

14,517

14,669

14,958

137,673
15,237

139,368

Canada.............................................................................

15,536

15,789

16,027

16,475

Australia...........................................................................

8,557

8,613

8,770

8,995

9,115

9,204

9,339

9,414

9,590

9,752

9,907

Japan................................................................................

65,040

65,470

65,780

65,990

66,450

67,200

67,240

67,090

66,990

66,870

66,240

France..............................................................................
Germany..........................................................................

24,440

24,480

24,760

24,750

25,010

25,130

25,460

25,790

26,070

26,350

26,590

39,010

39,102

39,074

38,980

39,142

39,415

39,754

39,375

39,302

39,459

39,413

Italy...................................................................................

22,910

22,570

22,450

22,460

22,570

22,680

22,960

23,130

23,340

23,540

23,750

Em ploym ent status and country
Civilian labor force
United States...................................................................

Netherlands......................................................................

6,920

7,010

7,150

7,210

7,300

7,540

7,620

7,850

8,150

8,340

8,300

Sweden.............................................................................

4,520

4,444

4,418

4,460

4,459

4,418

4,402

4,430

4,489

4,530

4,544

United Kingdom..............................................................

28,336

28,165

28,149

28,157

28,260

28,417

28,479

28,769

28,930

29,053

29,288

Participation rate1
United States...................................................................

66.4

66.3

66.6

66.6

66.8

67.1

67.1

67.1

67.1

66.8

66.6

Canada.............................................................................

65.9

65.5

65.2

64.9

64.7

65.0

65.4

65.8

65.9

66.0

66.8

Australia...........................................................................

63.9

63.5

63.9

64.5

64.6

64.3

64.3

64.0

64.4

64.4

64.4

Japan................................................................................

63.4

63.3

63.1

62.9

63.0

63.2

62.8

62.4

62.0

61.6

60.8

France..............................................................................

55.6

55.4

55.5

55.4

55.6

55.5

55.9

56.3

56.6

56.8

57.0

Germany..........................................................................

58.2

57.8

57.4

57.1

57.1

57.3

57.7

56.8

56.6

56.6

56.3

Italy...................................................................................

47.5

47.9

47.3

47.1

47.1

47.2

47.6

47.8

48.1

48.3

48.6

Netherlands......................................................................
Sweden.............................................................................

57.5

57.9

58.6

58.8

59.2

60.8

61.1

62.6

64.5

65.8

65.0

65.7

64.1

64.0

63.3

62.8

62.8

63.8

63.7

64.0

63.1

64.5
62.7

63.7

United Kingdom..............................................................

62.6

62.4

62.4

62.6

62.5

62.8

62.9

62.7

62.9

United States...................................................................

118,492

120,259

131,463

13,271

14,068

136,891
14,827

136,933
14,997

Australia...........................................................................
Japan................................................................................

7,660

7,699

7,942

8,256

8,364

13,705
8,444

133,488
14,456

136,485

12,770

126,708
13,380

129,558

12,672

123,060
13,027

124,900

Canada.............................................................................

8,618

8,762

8,989

9,091

63,620

63,810

63,860

63,890

64,200

64,900

64,450

63,920

63,790

63,470

62,650

France..............................................................................

22,000

21,710

21,750

21,960

22,040

22,170

22,600

23,050

23,690

24,140

24,280

Em ployed
15,325
9,271

Germany..........................................................................

36,390

35,989

35,756

35,780

35,637

35,508

36,061

36,042

36,236

36,350

36,018

Italy...................................................................................

21,230

20,270

19,940

19,820

19,920

19,990

20,210

20,460

20,840

21,270

21,580

Netherlands......................................................................

6,550

6,570

6,660

6,730

6,860

7,160

7,320

7,600

7,910

8,130

8,070

Sweden............................................................................

4,265

4,028

3,992

4,056

4,019

3,973

4,034

4,117

4,229

4,303

4,310

United Kingdom..............................................................

25,570

25,242

25,429

25,718

25,964

26,433

26,696

27,048

27,350

27,570

27,768

United States...................................................................

61.5

61.7

62.5

62.9

63.2

64.3

64.4

63.7

62.7

58.9

58.5

59.0

59.4

59.1

63.8
59.7

64.1

Canada.............................................................................

60.4

61.3

62.1

61.9

62.4

Em ploym ent-population ratio2

Australia...........................................................................

57.2

56.8

57.8

59.2

59.3

59.0

59.3

59.6

60.3

60.1

60.3

Japan................................................................................
France..............................................................................

62.0

61.7
49.1

60.9
49.1

60.9
49.0

61.0
49.0

60.2
49.7

59.4

59.0
51.4

58.4

57.5
52.0

53.2

61.3
49.0
52.6

52.4

51.6
41.6

52.3
41.9

52.2

51.5

42.3

52.2
42.9

43.6

44.1

Germany..........................................................................

50.1
54.2

Italy...................................................................................

44.0

43.0

42.0

41.5

52.0
41.6

50.3

Netherlands......................................................................
Sweden............................................................................

54.5
62.0

54.2

54.6

54.9

55.7

57.8

58.7

59.9

62.6

64.2

63.2

58.5

57.6

58.3

57.7

56.9

57.6

58.4

60.1

60.5

60.7

United Kingdom..............................................................

57.0

56.2

56.5

57.0

57.4

58.2

58.6

59.1

59.4

59.5

59.6

United States...................................................................

9,613

8,940

7,996

7,404

7,236

6,739

6,210

5,880

5,692

6,801

8,378

Canada............................................................................

1,539

1,373

1,246

1,289

1,252

1,169

1,080

962

1,031

1,150

Australia...........................................................................

1,505
897

914

829

739

751

759

721

652

602

661

636

Japan................................................................................

1,420

1,660

1,920

2,100

2,250

2,300

2,790

3,170

3,200

3,400

3,590

52.0

52.0

Unem ployed

France..............................................................................

2,430

2,770

2,920

2,800

2,970

2,960

2,870

2,740

2,380

2,210

2,310

Germany..........................................................................

2,620

3,113

3,318

3,200

3,505

3,907

3,693

3,333

3,065

3,110

3,396

Italy...................................................................................

1,680

2,300

2,510

2,640

2,650

2,690

2,750

2,670

2,500

2,270

2,160

Netherlands......................................................................

370

440

490

480

440

370

300

Sweden.............................................................................

255

416

426

404

440

445

368

250
313

240
260

210
227

230
234

United Kingdom...............................................................

2,762

2,916

2,716

2,439

2,297

1,985

1,783

1,721

1,580

1,483

1,520

Unem ploym ent rate
United States......................... ..........................................

7.5

6.9

6.1

5.6

5.4

4.9

4.5

4.2

4.0

4.7

5.8

Canada.............................................................................

10.6

10.8

9.5

8.6

8.8

8.4

7.7

7.0

6.1

6.4

7.0

Australia...........................................................................

10.5

10.6

9.4

8.2

8.2

8.3

7.7

6.9

6.3

6.8

Japan................................................................................

2.2

2.5

2.9

3.2

3.4

3.4

4.1

4.7

4.8

5.1

6.3
5.4

France..............................................................................

9.9

11.3

11.8

11.3

11.9

11.8

11.3

10.6

9.1

8.4

8.7

Germany..........................................................................

6.7

9.3

8.5

8.6

11.9

12.0

11.5

7.8
10.7

7.9

11.8

9.0
11.7

9.9

7.3

8.5
11.2

8.2

Italy...................................................................................

8.0
10.2

9.6

9.1

Netherlands......................................................................

5.3

6.3

6.9

6.7

6.0

4.9

3.9

3.2

2.9

2.5

2.7

Sweden............................................................................

5.6

9.4

9.6

9.1

9.9

10.1

8.4

7.1

5.8

5.0

5.1

United Kingdom..............................................................

9.7

10.4

9.6

8.7

8.1

7.0

6.3

6.0

5.5

5.1

5.2

1' Labor force as a percent of the working-age population.

For further qualifications and historical data, see Comparative Civilian Labor Force

2' Employment as a percent of the working-age population.

Statistics, Ten Countries, 1959-2003 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1959-2002 (Bureau

Note : See notes on the data for information on breaks in series.

of Labor Statistics, June 23, 2004), on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/fls/home.htm


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

139

Current Labor Statistics:

International Comparison

5 4 . A n n u a l in d e x e s o f m a n u fa c tu r in g p r o d u c tiv ity a n d r e la t e d m e a s u re s , 12 c o u n trie s
[1992 = 100]
Item and co u ntry

1960

1970

1980

1990

1991

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

O utput per hour
United States..........................................................
Canada....................................................................
Japan.......................................................................
Belgium....................................................................
Denmark..................................................................
France......................................................................
Germany..................................................................
Italy...........................................................................
Netherlands.............................................................
Norway.....................................................................
Sweden....................................................................
United Kingdom.......................................................

37.8
13.8
18.0
28.1
19.9
29.2
24.6
18.8
37.6
27.3
30.0

54.9
37.5
32.9
49.4
39.0
52.0
46.2
38.5
59.1
52.2
43.2

70.5
72.9
63.2
65.4
86.2
61.6
77.2
78.6
69.1
77.9
73.1
54.4

96.9
93.4
94.4
96.8
99.1
93.9
99.0
96.6
98.7
98.1
94.6
89.2

97.9
95.3
99.0
99.1
99.5
97.0
98.3
96.1
99.0
98.2
95.5
93.8

102.1
105.8
101.7
102.5
99.3
101.0
101.8
101.2
102.0
99.6
107.3
103.9

108.9
109.6
104.8
113.1
99.6
117.8
108.5

33.4
10.7
30.7
44.4
30.0
41.5
23.0
31.9
57.7
45.9
67.5

58.9
39.2
57.6
73.9
57.7
70.9
48.1
59.8
91.0
80.7
90.2

75.8
83.6
60.4
78.2
94.4
81.6
85.3
84.4
76.9
104.9
90.7
87.2

101.6
106.0
97.1
101.0
102.8
99.1
99.1
99.4
99.0
101.4
110.1
105.4

98.3
99.0
102.0
100.7
101.5
99.8
102.3
99.3
99.8
99.0
104.1
100.1

103.5
105.9
96.3
97.0
95.6
95.7
92.4
96.5
97.7
101.7
101.9
101.5

92.1
88.3
77.8
170.7
157.8
140.3
142.3
93.5
169.8
153.6
168.3
224.6

104.4
107.1
104.4
174.7
149.5
147.8
136.3
104.0
155.5
153.9
154.7
208.8

107.5
114.6
95.6
119.7
109.6
132.5
110.5
107.4
111.2
134.7
124.0
160.5

104.8
113.5
102.9
104.3
103.7
105.6
100.1
102.9
100.3
103.4
116.4
118.1

100.4
103.9
103.1
101.5
102.1
102.9
104.1
103.3
100.8
100.8
109.0
106.6

101.4
100.1
94.7
94.7
96.2
94.7
90.8
95.4
95.8
102.1
94.9
92.7

92.1
86.8
97.7
92.4
105.0
99.4
97.9

14.9
10.0
4.3
5.4
3.8
4.3
8.1
1.8
6.2
4.7
4.1
2.9

23.7
17.1
16.4
13.7
11.1
10.5
20.7
5.3
19 4
11.8
10.7
6.1

55.6
47.5
58.5
52.5
45.0
41.2
53.6
30.4
60 5
39.0
37.3
32.1

90.8
88.3
90.6
90.1
92.7
90.9
89.4
87.6
89 fi
92.3
87.8
82.9

95.6
95.0
96.5
97.3
96.0
96.4
91.5
94.2

102.7
102.0
102.7
104.8
103.0
103.1
106.4
105.7

97.5
95.5
93.8

26.4
31.3
30.1
13.6
21.7
27.8
7.5
32.9
12.6
15.0
9.8

31.1
43.8
41.7
22.4
26.8
39.8
11.9
50.4
20.0
20.6
14.1

78.8
65.2
92.6
80.3
52.2
67.0
69.4
38.7
87.6
50.0
51.0
59.0

93.7
94.6
95.9
93.0
93.5
96.8
90.3
90.7
91.1
94.2
92.9
92.9

32.9
11.0
19.4
12.0
23.4
10.4
14.3
15.3
11.0
16.9
15.6

36.0
15.5
27.0
18.0
25.7
17.1
22.3
24.5
17.4
23.1
19.1

78.8
67.4
51.8
88.3
55.9
83.9
59.6
55.7
77.5
62.9
70.2
77.7

93.7
98.0
83.9
89.5
91.2
94.1
87.3
93.3
87.9
93.6
91.3
93.8

107.3
110.8
103.3
108.4

121.3
113.5
121.0
125.5
_

126.5
115.5
121.2
126.9
_

133.7
122.1
126.7
125.5
_

142.1
129.3
135.9
130.8
_

142.7
127.0
135.9
132.6
_

155.9
130.5
139.5
141.7
_

114.4
112.3
107.9
117.3
100.7
124.5
106.5

117.0
109.7
116.1
116.3
_
114.7
114.7
108.3
119.3
102.5
129.5
105.8

121.7
120.4
110.3
121.4
102.0
141.0
107.7

127.9
122.0
110.8
124.1
99.9
149.5
109.2

133.0
121.4
110.6
127.0
103.6
162.7
114.4

143.2
127.0
113.6
132.7
106.6
175.5
121.9

148.0
127.8
115.9
132.3
108.9
170.3
126.4

152.1
131.0
114.3
133.1
110.9
184.3
127.6

111.1
114.1
94.9
101.4
105.6
100.3
95.1
102.4
104.5
104.6
117.0
106.2

118.4
119.6
98.9
104.2
111.6
104.9
95.2
107.2
108.2
107.3
131.9
107.8

121.3
119.6
103.0
105.9
106.7
104.6
92.5
105.4
108.9
110.3
136.4
108.7

127.9
127.7
106.5
112.7
115.2
109.7
95.7
108.8
111.6
114.2
146.5
110.7

133.1
133.9
100.2
114.4
115.7
115.0
97.7
110.7
114.9
113.7
158.3
111.4

139.5
144.9
101.9
114.4
117.7
118.7
95.8
110.3
117.6
113.6
172.5
112.2

146.1
159.2
109.2
119.9
122.1
124.3
100.1
113.7
122.8
112.8
188.3
114.9

137.3
153.6
105.5
120.4
127.5
128.0
99.9
114.6
121.7
113.4
183.1
1134.0

139.8
158.0
103.4
121.6
127.8
128.1
99.6
113.8
119.7
112.6
189.3
109.4

103.6
103.0
91.9
93.6

104.0
106.4
89.1
92.0

105.4
112.4
88.0
89.8

105.2
115.9
82.7
90.2

104.4
118.7
80.4
91.2
_

102.8
123.1
80.3
91.7
_

96.3
120.9
77.7
90.8
_

89.7
121.1
74.2
85.8
_

91.7
84.8
99.4
92.3
106.6
105.9
101.2

103.6
109.0
88.7
91.0
91.2
80.6
97.3
91.2
107.6
105.3
102.8

90.2
79.5
98.6
91.9
112.0
103.9
102.8

89.9
80.1
99.9
92.6
113.7
105.9
101.9

89.2
78.9
99.8
92.6
109.6
106.0
98.1

86.8
78.8
100.1
92.5
105.9
107.3
94.3

86.5
78.2
98.9
91.9
104.1
107.5
89.8

84.2
76.1
99.5
89.9
101.6
102.7
85.7

105.6
103.7
104.7
106.1
106.5
111.8
106.8

107.9
106.0
108.3
109.2
110.4
117.6
111.3

109.4
107.0
109.1
111.1
112.2
123.3
119.0

111.5
109.3
112.6
115.2
111.8
125.7
123.0

117.4
111.7
115.4
117.0
-

122.1
115.8
114.8
118.5
_

131.1
119.6
113.7
120.6
_

134.3
123.8
114.5
127.2
_

140.6
126.8
122.8
136.5
_

112.7
127.6
122.2

116.6
130.6
124.2

123.4
137.4
127.8

128.2
142.0
132.4

132.4
145.5
135.6

101.5
97.4
105.1

104.4
99.8
108.0

109.2
106.8
109.5

113.6
115.2
111.3

118.7
121.0
116.1

125.7
125.6
123.1

133.0
130.3
130.4

140.5
136.8
137.7

148.2
143.8
144.2

157.2
149.2
149.2

97.6
99.6
97.5
98.1
96.5
99.3
93.1
98.0
95.7
99.2
100.0
99.9

100.6
96.4
101.0
102.3
103.7
102.0
104.5
104.5
102.4
101.9
90.8
100.6

98.5
93.6
101.4
97.9
96.2
97.8
102.0
101.9
96.4
104.8
84.7
99.6

94.8
94.3
97.5
96.4
96.4
96.5
104.7
103.2
95.6
108.4
85.8
102.8

93.5
97.5
94.0
95.5
103.2
97.8
107.5
109.8
95.9
110.8
89.0
105.2

91.9
96.2
93.0
91.8
99.4
91.9
104.5
111.4
96.5
116.4
85.8
107.8

92.8
96.7
95.2
92.2
102.8
88.1
104.6
110.3
98.3
125.7
84.0
112.7

91.3
94.9
90.6
94.4
103.7
87.6
107.6
112.3
99.1
128.4
80.1
114.0

92.3
92.5
83.6
92.2
101.8
86.2
108.1
112.5
99.5
131.9
77.9
113.0

94.1
97.4
84.4
95.9
101.3
86.6
111.2
114.2
105.0
136.1
84.4
114.2

90.2
97.1
88.0
96.4
102.1
87.1
111.1
118.7
109.7
141.8
80.9
116.9

97.6
105.1
91.8
92.3
91.0
93.1
87.5
97.3
90.0
95.0
96.3
100.0

100.6
90.3
115.3
95.1
96.5
95.3
98.7
81.8
96.9
89.2
67.8
85.6

98.5
82.8
125.8
94.2
91.4
93.4
98.2
77.9
93.2
92.3
64.0
86.3

94.8
83.0
131.6
105.2
104.0
102.5
114.2
78.0
104.8
106.4
70.0
91.8

93.5
86.4
109.5
99.1
107.5
101.2
111.6
87.7
100.0
106.6
77.3
93.0

91.9
84.0
97.4
82.4
90.8
83.3
94.0
80.6
87.0
102.1
65.4
99.9

92.8
78.8
92.2
81.6
92.6
79.1
92.9
78.2
87.2
103.5
61.5
105.7

91.3
77.2
101.0
80.2
89.5
75.3
91.5
76.2
84.3
102.2
56.4
104.4

92.3
75.3
98.4
67.8
76.0
64.2
79.7
66.1
73.3
93.0
49.5
96.9

94.1
76.0
88.0
68.4
73.4
62.6
79.5
65.1
75.0
94.0
47.6
93.0

90.2
74.8
89.1
72.6
78.2
66.4
83.9
71.4
82.8
110.3
48.5
99.4

-

113.8
112.4
111.0
113.2
-

Output
United States...........................................................
Canada.....................................................................
Japan.......................................................................
Belgium....................................................................
Denmark...................................................................
France......................................................................
Germany..................................................................
Italy...........................................................................
Netherlands.............................................................
Norway.....................................................................
Sweden....................................................................
United Kingdom.......................................................
Total hours
United States............................................................
Canada.....................................................................
Japan........................................................................
Belgium....................................................................
Denmark...................................................................
France......................................................................
Germany...................................................................
Italy...........................................................................
Netherlands.............................................................
Norway.....................................................................
Sweden.....................................................................
United Kingdom.......................................................

-

-

-

-

Compensation per hour
United States...........................................................
Canada.....................................................................
Japan........................................................................
Belgium....................................................................
Denmark...................................................................
France......................................................................
Germany..................................................................
Italy...........................................................................
Norway.....................................................................
Sweden.....................................................................
United Kingdom.......................................................
Unit labor costs: National currency basis
United States...........................................................
Canada.....................................................................
Japan........................................................................
Belgium.....................................................................
Denmark...................................................................
France......................................................................
Germany...................................................................
Italy...........................................................................
Netherlands.............................................................
Norway.....................................................................
Sweden.....................................................................
United Kingdom.......................................................
Unit labor costs: U.S. dollar basis
United States...........................................................
Canada.....................................................................
Japan........................................................................
Belgium.....................................................................
Denmark...................................................................
France.......................................................................
Germany...................................................................
Italy...........................................................................
Netherlands.............................................................
Norway......................................................................
Sweden.....................................................................
United Kingdom.......................................................

NOTE: Data for Germany for years before 1991 are for the former West Germany. Data for 1991 onward are for unified Germany. Dash indicates data not available.

140

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2004

55. Occupational injury and illness rates by industry,1United States
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers3
Industry and type of case

1989 1

1990

1991

1992

1993 4 1994 4 1995 4 1996 4 1997 4 1998 4 1999 4 2000 4 2001 4

PRIVATE SECTOR5
T otal cases.......................................................................................
Lost workday cases...........................................................................
Lost workdays....................................................................................

8.6
4.0
78.7

8.8
4.1
84.0

8.4
3.9
86.5

8.9
3.9
93.8

8.5
3.8

8.4
3.8

8.1
3.6

7.4
3.4

-

-

-

Agriculture, forestry, and fish in g 5
Total case s.......................................................................................
Lost workday cases...........................................................................
Lost workdays....................................................................................

10.9
5.7
100.9

11.6
5.9
112.2

10.8
5.4
108.3

11.6
5.4
126.9

11.2
5.0
-

10.0
4.7
-

Mining
Total cases.......................................................................................
Lost workday cases...........................................................................
Lost workdays....................................................................................

8.5
4.8
137.2

8.3
5.0
119.5

7.4
4.5
129.6

7.3
4.1
204.7

6.8
3.9
-

14.3
6.8
143.3

14.2
6.7
147.9

13.0
6.1
148.1

13.1
5.8
161.9

13.9
6.5
137.3

13.4
6.4
137.6

12.0
5.5
132.0

13.8
6.5
147.1

13.8
6.3
144.6

14.6
6.9
144.9

C onstruction
Total cases.......................................................................................
Lost workday cases...........................................................................
General building contractors:
Total cases.......................................................................................

Heaw construction, exceot buildina:
Total case s.......................................................................................

6.7
3.1

6.3
3.0

6.1
3.0

5.7
2.8

-

7.1
3.3
-

-

-

-

-

9.7
4.3
-

8.7
3.9
-

8.4
4.1
-

7.9
3.9
-

7.3
3.4
-

7.1
3.6
-

7.3
3.6
-

6.3
3.9
-

6.2
3.9
-

5.4
3.2
-

5.9
3.7
-

4.9
2.9
-

4.4
2.7
-

4.7
3.0
-

4.0
2.4
-

12.2
5.5

11.8
5.5

10.6
4.9

9.9
4.5

9.5
4.4

8.8
4.0

8.6
4.2

8.3
4.1

7.9
4.0

12.2
5.4
142.7

11.5
5.1

10.9
5.1

9.8
4.4

9.0
4.0

8.5
3.7

8.4
39

8.0
3.7

7.8
39

6.9
3.5

12.8
6.0
160.1

12.1
5.4
165.8

11.1
5.1

10.2
5.0

9.9
4.8

9.0
4.3

8.7
4.3

8.2
41

7.8
38

7.6
37

7.8
40

14.7
6.9
153.1

13.5
6.3
151 3

13.8
6.1
168.3

12.8
5.8

12.5
5.8

11.1
5.0

10.4
4.8

10.0
4.7

9.1
4.1

8.9
4.4

8.6
4.3

8.2
4.1

13.1
5.8
113.0

13.2
5.8
120.7

12.7
5.6
121 5

12.5
5.4
124 6

12.1
5.3

12.2
5.5

11.6
5.3

10.6
4.9

10.3
4.8

9.7
47

9.2
46

9.0
45

8.1
41

14.1
6.0
116.5

14.2
6.0
123.3

13.6
5.7
122.9

13.4
5.5
126 7

13.1
5.4

13.5
5.7

12.8
5.6

11.6
5.1

11.3
5.1

10.7
5.0

10.1
48

18.4
9.4
177.5

18.1
8.8
172.5

16.8
8.3
172.0

16.3
7.6
165.8

15.9
7.6

15.7
7.7

14.9
7.0

14.2
6.8

13.5
6.5

13.2
6.8

13.0
6.7

12.1
6.1

10.6
5.5

16.1
7.2

16.9
7.8

15.9
7.2

14.8
6.6
128.4

14.6
6.5

15.0
7.0

13.9
6.4

12.2
5.4

12.0
5.8

11.4
57

11.5
5.9

11.2
59

11.0
57

15.5
7.4
149.8

15.4
7.3
160.5

14.8
6.8
156.0

13.6
6.1
152.2

13.8
6.3

13.2
6.5

12.3
5.7

12.4
6.0

11.8
5.7

11.8
60

10.7
54

10.4
55

10.1
51

18.7
8.1
168.3

19.0
8.1
180.2

17.7
7.4
169.1

17.5
7.1
175.5

17.0
7.3

16.8
7.2

16.5
7.2

15.0
68

15.0
7.2

14.0
70

12.9
63

12.6
63

10.7
53
11.1

18.5
7.9
147.6

18.7
7.9
155.7

17.4
7.1
146.6

16.8
6.6
144.0

16.2
6.7

16.4
6.7

15.8
6.9

14.4
6.2

14.2
6.4

13.9
65

12.6
60

11.9
55

ii.i
53

12.1
4.8
86.8

12.0
4.7
88.9

11.2
4.4
86.6

11.1
4.2
87.7

11.1
4.2

11.6
4.4

11.2
4.4

9.9
4.0

10.0
4.1

9.5
40

8.5
37

8.2
36

11.0
6.0

9.1
3.9
77.5

9.1
3.8
79.4

8.6
3.7
83.0

8.4
3.6
81.2

8.3
3.5

8.3
3.6

7.6
3.3

6.8
3.1

6.6
3.1

5.9
2.8

5.7
2.8

5.7
2.9

5.0
2.5

17.7
6.8
138.6

17.8
6.9
153.7

18.3
7.0
166 1

18.7
7.1
186 6

18.5
7.1

19.6
7.8

18.6
7.9

16.3
7.0

15.4

14.6

6.6

6.6

13.7
6.4

13.7
6.3

12.6
6.0

5.6
2.5
55.4

5.9
2.7
57.8

6.0
2.7
64.4

5.9
2.7
65.3

5.6
2.5

5.9
2.7

5.3
2.4

5.1
2.3

4.8
2.3

4.0
1.9

4.0
18

4.5

2.2

4.0
2.0

11.1
5.1
97.6

11.3
5.1
113.1

11.3
5.1
104.0

10.7
5.0
108.2

10.0
4.6

9.9
4.5

9.1
4.3

9.5
4.4

8.9
4.2

8.1
3.9

8.4
4.0

7.2
3.6

6.4
3.2

Monthly Labor Review

July

SDeclal trades contractors:

M anufacturing
Total cases.......................................................................................

Durable goods:
Total case s.......................................................................................

Lumber and wood products:
Total cases....................................................................................
Lost workday cases.......................................................................
Furniture and fixtures:
Total cases....................................................................................

Stone, clav. and alass products:
Total cases....................................................................................

Primary metal Industries:
Total cases....................................................................................

Fabricated metal products:
Total cases....................................................................................

Industrial machinery and equipment:
Total cases....................................................................................

Electronic and other electrical eauioment:
Total cases....................................................................................
Lost workday cases........................................................................
Transportation eauioment:
Total cases....................................................................................

Instruments and related products:
Total cases....................................................................................
Lost workdays................................................................................
Miscellaneous manufacturing Industries:
Total cases....................................................................................
Lost workdays................................................................................

-

8.8
43

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2004

141

Current Labor Statistics:

Injury and Illness

55. Continued—Occupational injury and illness rates by industry,1United States
In cid en ce rates p er 100 w o rk e rs 3
In d u s try a n d ty p e o f c a s e
1989

1

1990

1991

1992

1993 4

1994 4

1995 4

1996 4

1997 4

1998 4

1999

4

2000 4

2001 4

Nondurable goods:
Total case s.......................................................................................
Lost workday cases...........................................................................
Lost workdays....................................................................................

11.6
5.5
107.8

11.7
5.6
116.9

11.5
5.5
119.7

11.3
5.3
121.8

10.7
5.0
-

10.5
5.1
-

9.9
4.9
-

9.2
4.6
-

8.8
4.4
-

8.2
4.3
-

7.8
4.2
-

7.8
4.2
-

6.8
,3.8
-

Food and kindred products:
Total c a se s....................................................................................
Lost workday cases........................................................................
Lost workdays.................................................................................

18.5
9.3
174.7

20.0
9.9
202.6

19.5
9.9
207.2

18.8
9.5
211.9

17.6
8.9
-

17.1
9.2
-

16.3
8.7
-

15.0
8.0
-

14.5
8.0
-

13.6
7.5
-

12.7
7.3
-

12.4
7.3
-

10.9
6.3
-

Tobacco products:
Total case s....................................................................................
Lost workday cases........................................................................
Lost workdays.................................................................................

8.7
3.4
64.2

7.7
3.2
62.3

6.4
2.8
52.0

6.0
2.4
42.9

5.8
2.3
-

5.3
2.4
-

5.6
2.6
-

6.7
2.8
-

5.9
2.7
-

6.4
3.4
-

5.5
2.2
-

6.2
3.1
-

6.7
4.2
-

Textile mill products:
Total case s ....................................................................................
Lost workday cases........................................................................
Lost workdays.................................................................................

10.3
4.2
81.4

9.6
4.0
85.1

10.1
4.4
88.3

9.9
4.2
87.1

9.7
4.1
-

8.7
4.0
-

8.2
4.1
-

7.8
3.6
-

6.7
3.1
-

7.4
3.4
-

6.4
3.2
-

6.0
3.2
-

5.2
2.7
-

ADDarel and other textile products:
Total case s ....................................................................................
Lost workday cases........................................................................
Lost workdays.................................................................................

8.6
3.8
80.5

8.8
3.9
92.1

9.2
4.2
99.9

9.5
4.0
104.6

9.0
3.8
-

8.9
3.9
-

8.2
3.6
-

7.4
3.3
-

7.0
3.1
-

6.2
2.6
-

5.8
2.8
-

6.1
3.0
-

5.0
2.4
-

Paper and allied products:
Total case s....................................................................................
Lost workday cases........................................................................
Lost workdays.................................................................................

12.7
5.8
132.9

12.1
5.5
124.8

11.2
5.0
122.7

11.0
5.0
125.9

9.9
4.6
-

9.6
4.5
-

8.5
4.2
-

7.9
3.8
-

7.3
3.7
-

7.1
3.7
-

7.0
3.7
-

6.5
3.4
-

6.0
3.2
-

Printino and oublishino:
Total case s....................................................................................
Lost workday cases........................................................................
Lost workdays.................................................................................

6.9
3.3
63.8

6.9
3.3
69.8

6.7
3.2
74.5

7.3
3.2
74.8

6.9
3.1
-

6.7
3.0
-

6.4
3.0
-

6.0
2.8
-

5.7
2.7
-

5.4
2.8
-

5.0
2.6
-

5.1
2.6
-

4.6
2.4
-

Chemicals and allied products:
Total case s....................................................................................
Lost workday cases........................................................................
Lost workdays.................................................................................

7.0
3.2
63.4

6.5
3.1
61.6

6.4
3.1
62.4

6.0
2.8
64.2

5.9
2.7
-

5.7
2.8
-

5.5
2.7
-

4.8
2.4
-

4.8
2.3
-

4.2
2.1
-

4.4
2.3
-

4.2
2.2
-

4.0
2.1
-

Petroleum and coal products:
Total case s....................................................................................
Lost workday cases........................................................................
Lost workdays.................................................................................

6.6
3.3
68.1

6.6
3.1
77.3

6.2
2.9
68.2

5.9
2.8
71.2

5.2
2.5
-

4.7
2.3
-

4.8
2.4
-

4.6
2.5
-

4.3
2.2
-

3.9
1.8
-

4.1
1.8
-

3.7
1.9
-

2.9
1.4
-

Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products:
Total case s....................................................................................
Lost workday cases........................................................................
Lost workdays.................................................................................

16.2
8.0
147.2

16.2
7.8
151.3

15.1
7.2
150.9

14.5
6.8
153.3

13.9
6.5
-

14.0
6.7
-

12.9
6.5
-

12.3
6.3
-

11.9
5.8
-

11.2
5.8
-

10.1
5.5
-

10.7
5.8
-

8.7
4.8
-

Leather and leather products:
Total case s....................................................................................
Lost workday cases........................................................................
Lost workdays.................................................................................

13.6
6.5
130.4

12.1
5.9
152.3

12'.5
5.9
140.8

12.1
5.4
128.5

12.1
5.5
-

12.0
5.3
-

11.4
4.8
-

10.7
4.5
-

10.6
4.3
-

9.8
4.5
-

10.3
5.0
-

9.0
4.3
-

8.7
4.4

9.2
5.3
121.5

9.6
5.5
134.1

9.3
5.4
140.0

9.1
5.1
144.0

9.5
5.4
-

9.3
5.5
-

9.1
5.2
-

8.7
5.1
-

8.2
4.8
-

7.3
4.3
-

7.3
4.4
-

6.9
4.3
-

6.9
4.3
-

Total case s.......................................................................................
Lost workday cases...........................................................................
Lost workdays....................................................................................

8.0
3.6
63.5

7.9
3.5
65.6

7.6
3.4
72.0

8.4
3.5
80.1

8.1
3.4
-

7.9
3.4
-

7.5
3.2
-

6.8
2.9
-

6.7
3.0
-

6.5
2.8
-

6.1
2.7
-

5.9
2.7
-

6.6
2.5
-

Wholesale trade:
Total case s.......................................................................................
Lost workday cases...........................................................................
Lost workdays....................................................................................

7.7
4.0
71.9

7.4
3.7
71.5

7.2
3.7
79.2

7.6
3.6
82.4

7.8
3.7
-

7.7
3.8
-

7.5
3.6
-

6.6
3.4
-

6.5
3.2
-

6.5
3.3
-

6.3
3.3
-

5.8
3.1
-

5.3
2.8
-

Retail trade:
Total cases.......................................................................................
Lost workday cases...........................................................................
Lost workdays....................................................................................

8.1
3.4
60.0

8.1
3.4
63.2

7.7
3.3
69.1

8.7
3.4
79.2

8.2
3.3
-

7.9
3.3
-

7.5
3.0
-

6.9
2.8
-

6.8
2.9
-

6.5
2.7
-

6.1
2.5
-

5.9
2.5
-

5.7
2.4
-

2.0
.9
17.6

2.4
1.1
27.3

2.4
1.1
24.1

2.9
1.2
32.9

2.9
1.2
-

2.7
1.1
-

2.6
1.0
-

2.4
.9
-

2.2
.9
-

.7
.5
-

1.8
.8
-

1.9
.8
-

1.8
.7
-

5.5
2.7
51.2

6.0
2.8
56.4

6.2
2.8
60.0

7.1
3.0
68.6

6.7
2.8
-

6.5
2.8
-

6.4
2.8
-

6.0
2.6
-

5.6
2.5
-

5.2
2.4

4.9
2.2
-

4.9
2.2
-

4.6
2.2
-

-

Transportation and public utilities
Total cases.......................................................................................
Lost workday cases...........................................................................
Lost workdays....................................................................................

Wholesale and retail trade

Finance, insurance, and real estate
Total case s.......................................................................................
Lost workday cases...........................................................................
Lost workdays....................................................................................

Services
Total case s.......................................................................................
Lost workday cases...........................................................................
Lost workdays....................................................................................

1 Data for 1989 and subsequent years are based on the Standard Industrial Class­

-

N = number of injuries and illnesses or lost workdays;

ification Manual, 1987 Edition. For this reason, they are not strictly comparable with data

EH = total hours worked by all employees during the calendar year; and

for the years 1985-88, which were based on the Standard Industrial Classification

200,000 = base for 100 full-time equivalent workers (working 40 hours per week, 50 weeks

Manual, 1972 Edition, 1977 Supplement.

per year).

2 Beginning with the 1992 survey, the annual survey measures only nonfatal injuries and

4 Beginning with the 1993 survey, lost workday estimates will not be generated. As of 1992,

illnesses, while past surveys covered both fatal and nonfatal incidents. To better address

BLS began generating percent distributions and the median number of days away from work

fatalities, a basic element of workplace safety, BLS implemented the Census of Fatal

by industry and for groups of workers sustaining similar work disabilities.

Occupational Injuries.

5 Excludes farms with fewer than 11 employees since 1976.

3 The incidence rates represent the number of injuries and illnesses or lost workdays per
100

full-time

workers

and

were

calculated

142
Monthly Labor Review

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

as

(N/EH)

July 2004

X

200,000,

where:

NOTE: Dash indicates data not available.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

56. Fatal occupational injuries by event or exposure, 1997-2002
Fatalities
Event or exposure1

2002

1997-2001

20012

average

Num ber

N um ber

Percent

Total..............................................................................................

6 036

fi 91fi

T r a n s p o r t a t io n in c id e n t s ...................................................................................

2,593
1,421
697
126
254
148
300
369
300
368
202
P4R

2,381
1,372
035
155

43
25

202

4

326
373
31P

6
7

0

322
164

6
3

382
99
68

2,524
1,409
727
142
257
138
297
339
273
326
158
247
383
90
62

356
71
64

6
1
1

964
709
567
64
78
221

908
643
509
58
76
230

840
609
469
58
82
199

15
11
8
1
1
4

995
562
352
58
290
156
126

962
553

873

16

343
60
266
144
122

303
38
231
110
116

5
1
4
2
2

737
654
111
155
91
61

810
700
123
159
91
84

714
634
126
143
87
63

13
11
2
3
2
1

529
291
134
41
106
52
89
71

499
285
124
35
96
49
83
59

538
289
122
60
98
49
90
60

10
5
2
1
2
1
2
1

F ir e s a n d e x p l o s i o n s ..........................................................................................

197

188

165

3

O th e r e v e n ts o r e x p o s u r e s 3............................................................ .................

21

24

13

-

Highway incident..................................................................................
Collision between vehicles, mobile equipment............................
Moving in same direction.............................................................
Moving in opposite directions, oncoming...................................
Moving in intersection...................................................................
Vehicle struck stationary object or equipment.............................
Noncollision incident........................................................................
Jackknifed or overturned— no collision......................................
Nonhighway (farm, industrial premises) incident............................
Overturned.........................................................................................
Aircraft.......................................................................................
Worker struck by a vehicle.................................................................
Water v e h ic le .......................................................................................
Rail vehicle.........................................................................................
A s s a u lts a n d v io le n t a c t s .................................................................................

Homicides.............................................................................................
Shooting.............................................................................................
Stabbing.............................................................................................
Other, including bombing................................................................
Self-inflicted injuries.............................................................................
C o n t a c t w ith o b je c ts a n d e q u ip m e n t .........................................................

Struck by object....................................................................................
Struck by falling object.....................................................................
Struck by flying object.......................................................................
Caught in or compressed by equipment or objects........................
Caught in running equipment or machinery..................................
Caught in or crushed in collapsing materials...................................
F a lls ...........................................................................................................

Fall to lower level.................................................................................
Fall from ladder.................................................................................
Fall from roof.....................................................................................
Fall from scaffold, staging................................................................
Fall on same level.......................................................................
E x p o s u r e to h a r m fu l s u b s t a n c e s o r e n v ir o n m e n t s ..........................

Contact with electric current................................................................
Contact with overhead power lines................................................
Contact with temperature extremes..................................................
Exposure to caustic, noxious, or allergenic substances.................
Inhalation of substances...................................................................
Oxygen deficiency................................................................................
Drowning, submersion.....................................................................

1 Based on the 1992 bls Occupational Injury and Illness
Classification Structures.
The bls news release issued Sept. 25, 2002, reported a
total of 5,900 fatal work injuries for calendar year 2001. Since

r

3 Totals for 2001 exclude fatalities from the September 11
terrorist attacks.
3 Includes the category "Bodily reaction and exertion."

Note :

Totals

for

major categories

may include sub-

then, an additional 15 job-related fatalities were identified,

categories not shown separately. Percentages may not add

bringing the total job-related fatality count for 2001 to 5,915.

to totals because of rounding. Dash indicates less than 0.5
percent.

Monthly Labor Review

July 2004

143

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I

Schedule of release dates for BLS statistical series
R e le a se

P eriod

R e le a se

P eriod

R e le a se

P eriod

d a te

c o v e red

d ate

c o v e red

d a te

c o v e re d

July 2

June

August 6

July

September 3

July 14

June

August 12

July

September 9

August

43-47

P ro d u c e r P ric e In d exes

July 15

June

August 13

July

September 10

August

2 ;4 0-42

C o n s u m e r P ric e in d exes

July 16

June

August 17

July

September 16

August

2;3 7 -3 9

R eal e a rn in g s

July 16

June

August 17

July

September 16

August

14-16, 29

E m p lo y m e n t C o s t In d e x e s

July 29

2nd quarter

S e rie s

E m p lo y m e n t s itu a tio n
U .S. Im p o rt an d E x p o rt
P ric e In d e x e s

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M L R ta b le
num ber

"""*A u g u s t * ■— ^ 4 - 2 9

1-3; 30-33
August 10

2nd quarter

September 2

2nd quarter

2;48-51