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U.S. Department of Labor

T

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VIEW

In this issue:

Entrepreneurship and job growth
Baby-boomer retirement
Decline in the workweek


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Bureau of Labor Statistics

U.S. Department of Labor
Alexis M. Herman, Secretary
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MONTHLY LABOR

REVIEW______________________
Volume 123, Number 7
July 2000

Articles
Role of entrepreneurship in U.S. and Canadian job growth

3

Entrepreneurial activity is important to job growth,
but not as important as job expansion in existing firms
Robert W. Bednarzik

Gauging the labor force effectsofretiringbaby-boomers

17

The effects on certain occupations and industries will be substantial,
as many of the vacated jobs will require relatively high levels of skill
Arlene Dohm

On the decline in average weeklyhoursworked

26

Disproportionate employment growth and low and declining hours
in retail trade contributed to a shorter workweek in private industry
Katie Kirkland

Departments
Labor month in review
Précis
Book reviews
Current labor statistics

2
32
33
35

Editor-in-Chief: Deborah P. Klein • Executive Editor: Richard M. Devens • Managing Editor: Anna Huffman Hill • Editors: Brian I. Baker,
Bonita L. B oles, Richard Hamilton, L eslie Brown Joyner, Lawrence H. Leith • Book Reviews: Roger A. Comer, Ernestine Patterson
Leary • D esign and Layout: Catherine D. Bowm an, Edith W. Peters • Contributors: Mary Ellen Ayres


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Labor Month in Review
The July Review
“Entrepreneurship, or the creation of
a new business or enterprise, is an in­
tegral and significant activity in a
growing job market,” begins Robert
W. Bednarzik in the lead article. His
report goes on to document in some
detail the im pact of establishm ent
births (and deaths) on total U.S. em­
ployment from 1989 to 1996. In gen­
eral, the net of births over deaths con­
tributed from one-fifth to one-half of
job growth (or served to substantially
offset declines). This finding supports
and extends earlier studies that came
to similar conclusions about manufac^
turing employment.
The baby-boom generation, called
by at least one demographic wag as
“the pig in the python,” is now ap­
proaching retirement. In addition to
the impact that this massive employ­
ment exodus will have on social secu­
rity and health care, there will be con­
siderable replacement needs for work­
ers in a wide variety of industries and
occupations. The industry that will
be most affected is education, accord­
ing to Arlene Dohm’s analysis. For
example, people in this industry often
retire earlier due to the provisions of
their pension plans. Transportation,
health services, and several manufac­
turing industries also seem likely to
experience significant needs to replace
a retiring baby-boom cohort.
Katie Kirkland examines the effect
of industry shifts on measurement of
the workweek in the private sector.
She finds that the long-term decline in
the hours worked at the average pri­
vate sector job has resulted largely
from disproportionate em ploym ent
growth and declining hours in shortworkweek industries, such as retail
trade and services.

Productive computer
factories
Output per hour increased during the
1987-97 period in 108 of 120 manu-

2 Monthly Labor Rewiew

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2000

facturing industries analyzed by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics. Computer
and office equipment posted the larg­
est increase in labor productivity on
average— 25.1 percent per year. Unit
labor costs declined by an average of
17.2 percent per year in this industry.
A nnual p ro d u c tiv ity increases
and unit labor cost reductions in the
electronic com ponents and acces­
sories industry also averaged in the
double digits from 1987 through
1997. Productivity increases aver­
aged 19.8 percent per year, and unit
labor cost declines averaged 13.0
percent.
Labor productivity is measured by
output per hour. Labor productivity
for the m anufacturing sector as a
whole increased by an average of 3.0
percent per year between 1987 and
1997, according to a separate analy­
sis. Find out more in news release
USDL 0 0 -1 5 5 , “P roductivity and
C osts: M anufacturing In d u stries,
1987-1997.”

Retirees spending
more on health
insurance
R etired households spent more of
their budgets on health insurance in
1997 than in 1987. In 1997, the share
of retired households’ expenditures
devoted to health insurance was 7.4
percent, up from 5.2 percent in 1987.
The share spent on all other health
care expenses fell to 5.9 percent in
1997, from 6.6 percent in 1987.
The health insurance share thus
rose 2.2 percentage points, com ­
pared with 1.4 percentage points for
entertainm ent and 0.4 percentage
point for transportation. The re ­
maining expenditure categories gen­
erally had decreases in their spend­
ing shares from 1987 to 1997. More
inform ation can be found in Issues
in L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s : C o n su m e r
S p e n d in g D u rin g R e tir e m e n t.
(Summary 00-11, May 2000).

Vietnam-era veterans
in the labor force
In September 1999, 79.7 percent of
male veterans of the Vietnam era were
in the labor force. Nearly 90 percent
of male Vietnam-era veterans were be­
tween 45 and 64 years of age in Sep­
tember 1999. Their nonveteran peers
had a labor force participation rate
similar to that of the veterans: 81.3
percent.
The participation rate for veterans
with a service-connected disability
was much lower than for nondisabled
vets. About 12 percent of male Viet­
nam-era veterans reported having a
service-connected disability; their la­
bor force participation rate was 55.8
percent in September 1999, compared
with 83.7 percent for vets without a
disability. Learn more in news release
USDL 00-165, “Employment Situation
of Vietnam-Era Veterans.”

Longer workweeks
at the top?
More than 60 percent of net employ­
ment growth during the 1990s were
among managers and professionals,
jobs in which long workweeks are con­
sidered typical. Many observers be­
lieved that managers and profession­
als were working even longer weeks
than in the past.
It is true that a substantial share of
these workers put in very long weeks.
Nearly 3 in 10 managers and profes­
sionals worked 49 hours a week or
more in 1999, compared with roughly
2 in 10 for all nonfarm occupations.
H ow ever, w eekly h o u r av e rag e s
through 1999 show that the workweek
for managers and professionals had
actually stayed around 42 hours for
the entire 1990s decade. More infor­
mation can be found in Issues in La­
bor Statistics: Are M anagers and
Professionals Really Working More?
(Summary 00-12, May 2000).
□

Entrepreneurship and Job Growth

The role of entrepreneurship
in U.S. and European job growth
Entrepreneurial activity, which is higher
in the United States than in Europe,
is important to job growth, but not as important
as job expansions in existing firms

Robert W. Bednarzik

Robert W, Bednarzik is
a senior economist
at the Bureau of
International Labor
Affairs, U.S. Depart­
ment of Labor.


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ntrepreneurship, or the creation of a new
business or enterprise, is an integral and
significant activity in a growing job mar­
ket. Just as new establishments are created, some
existing ones expand, contract, or dissolve op­
erations altogether. Countries that have the ca­
pacity and wherewithal to accommodate high
rates of business formation and dissolution will
be best positioned to compete in world markets.
To examine and monitor this process, govern­
ment agencies in the United States and Eurostat
from the European Union have collected data on
the births and deaths of establishments.1 Until
recently, U.S. establishment-based longitudinal
data were available only on the manufacturing
sector. However, new longitudinal data on the
births and deaths of establishments in both the
United States and Europe are available. For the
United States, the new data series, referred to as
the Longitudinal Establishment and Enterprise
Microdata ( l e e m ) , provides information on the
services sector as well as the manufacturing sec­
tor. The Census Bureau collects the data for the
U.S. Small Business Administration.2 European
Union data are collected by its “statistical arm,”
Eurostat, which developed a special data bank
from existing statistical administrative data on
small- and medium-size enterprises ( s m es ) in 1994
and 1995. In addition, the Global Enterprise Moni­
tor project collected comparable data, using a
very small sample of 10 industrialized countries
to measure the level of entrepreneurship and to
study the relationship between business creation

E

and economic growth internationally. The results
of the survey show a wide lead in the number of
new businesses created in the United States.3
Although the Establishm ent and Enterprise
Microdata and the Eurostat data on small- and
medium-sized enterprises are not comparable,
they each shed light on the nature and magni­
tude of a very important component of job cre­
ation—entrepreneurship. This article uses the
Establishment and Enterprise Microdata and the
international databases to determine the role of
entrepreneurship in job growth for the United
States and Europe.
The crux of the article examines the births,
deaths, expansions, and contractions of estab­
lishments by size and industry to determine the
net effects on job growth in the 1990s. The focus
is on service sector industries, which led employ­
ment growth in the United States. Beginning with
a description of the data, this article notes that
some incompatibilities suggest that it is better to
analyze U.S. data separately from European Union
data. The article also provides a sectoral over­
view of the U.S. and European Union job markets
to set in perspective the role of entrepreneurship
in job creation. The results from the Global Entre­
preneurship Monitor project conclude the article.

Tracking and counting
Since 1991, the U.S. Small Business Administra­
tion has contracted with the Census Bureau to
produce comprehensive and timely data of U.S.

Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

3

Entrepreneurship and Job Growth

businesses by establishment size. This led to the develop­
ment of the Establishment and Enterprise Microdata file that
consists of data on all U.S. private-sector, nonfarm establish­
ments with employees. Data from this series do not include
self-employed individuals, but they do track employment lev­
els (size), payroll, and firm affiliation for more than 11 million
establishments that existed at some time during the 1989-96
period. It is the first nationwide, high-quality longitudinal da­
tabase that covers the vast majority of employer businesses
from all sectors of the economy.4 The basic unit of this file is
an establishment—defined as a single physical location at
which business is conducted or services or industrial opera­
tions are performed. An establishment is not necessarily iden­
tical to a company or firm, which could consist of one or more
establishments. When two or more activities are carried out
at a single location with a single owner, the entire establish­
ment is classified on the basis of its major activity. More than
two-thirds of multi-unit firms have less than four establish­
ments, but other firms can consist of thousands of establish­
ments.
For several years, Eurostat has been developing the Euro­
pean statistical system on small- and medium-size enterprises
to improve the data on enterprises—births, deaths and em­
ployment changes. A limited amount of data is now available
for 10 of the 15 European Union countries, specifically: Den­
mark, Germany, Spain, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Portu­
gal, Finland, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. However, be­
cause the national concepts on measuring enterprise births
and deaths are not fully harmonized, country comparisons of
absolute figures should be avoided. Moreover, comparison
with U.S. data on establishments is even more problematic,
because European Union data include the self-employed (also
termed sole proprietorships), but U.S. data do not. Only U.S.
establishments that paid wages to at least one employee at
some time during the year are counted; however, the number
of establishments with no paid employees is not an insignifi­
cant number. In 1992, for example, the number of U.S. estab­
lishments with no paid employees was about 14.7 million. The
basic unit of Eurostat data is referred to as the “enterprise,”
which is the smallest group of legal units producing goods or
services and constituting an autonomous economic entity.
Because the Eurostat concept includes sole proprietorships,
it is not synonymous with the U.S. concept of an establish­
ment. Therefore, the term “establishment” is used in describ­
ing only U.S. companies.

Em ploym ent com parisons
In the early 1970s, U.S. and European Union employment rates
(employment as a share of the civilian population) were nearly
the same. Subsequently, employment growth between the
United States and Europe Union has developed a diverging
4

Monthly Labor Review


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July 2000

trend. A closer view of this gap reveals that changes in em­
ployment rates over time reflect population changes. For ex­
ample, between 1975 and 1998, U.S. employment grew, on av­
erage, just under 2 percent a year, compared with only an
average of 1/2 percent in the European Union. Higher U.S.
population growth provides part of the explanation, but it
does not explain the dramatic change in the percentage of the
working-age population now employed in the United States,
versus the European Union. In 1975, the number employed as
a share of the working-age population was 63 percent in the
United States and 64 percent in the European Union. By 1997,
the U.S. rate reached 74 percent and the European Union rate
slipped to 61 percent. This differential is wholly explained by
higher employment in the U.S. service sector.
Service sector. A key difference between the United States
and European Union is the relative number of persons work­
ing and the size of the service sector.5 (See table 1.) The
source of the difference is in the service sector, because shares
of the working-age population in agriculture and industry6
are roughly the same in the United States and the European
Union. Over the 1980s and 1990s, shares in both agriculture
and industry reflected a slight decline, but the percentage of
the working-age population in the service sector increased
more in the United States, reaching 54 percent, than in the
European Union, reaching 40 percent. The distribution rank­
ing among the principal services industries—trade, hotels and
restaurants, transport, finance, business and real estate, and
communal services7—was similar in the United States and
European Union, but a higher percentage of people worked in
all of those industries in the United States. (See table 2.)
Gender and skill level. There are a few other U.S .-European
Union differences in employment activity pertaining to the
services industry that are noteworthy, particularly the share
of employment by gender and skill level. Women accounted
Table 1.

Employment rates by broad industry sector,
1997

[In percent]

Item

United States

European Union

Total population, 15 to
64 years o ld ...............

100.0

100.0

Total employed...................
Agriculture....................
Industry.........................
S ervices........................

74.0
2.0
17.7
54.3

60.5
3.0
17.8
39.7

Not em ployed......................

26.0

39.5

Employment Performance in the Member States: Employment
Rates Report 1998 (European Union Directorate-General for Employment,
Industrial Relations and Social Affairs, Luxembourg,1999).
S ource :

Table 2.

Total employm ent and fem ale employment
rate for the United States and European Union,
1997

Sector

Employment rate

United
States
T o ta l...........................

74.0

European
Union

Female
employment
rate
United
States

European
Union

60.5

46.2

41.8

Agriculture, fisheries,
and fo re stry...............

2.0

3.0

21.8

33.9

Industry........................

11.7

17.8

-

-

.5
11.8

.3
12.3

14.4
32.1

10.4
28.4

.7
4.7

.5
4.7

21.9
9.4

17.8
8.4

Services.......................

54.3

39.5

-

-

Trade.......................
Hotels and
restaurants..........
Transport and
communications ..
Finance and
insurance............
Business services
and real esta te....
Communal
services1.............

12.1

9.1

41.9

45.4

5.4

2.5

53.7

52.5

4.1

3.6

29.9

28.6

3.3

2.1

62.2

46.1

7.8

4.6

45.9

44.2

21.4

17.8

254.2

251.7

Mining, oil, and
natural g a s ..........
Manufacturing........
Electricity, gas and
w ater....................
Construction..........

1Communal services includes public administration, education, health
and social work, sanitary services, membership organizations, recreational
activities, personal and other services, and private households.
2Unweighted average of 10 detailed services industries.
Employment rate is the percentage of the working-age (16 to 64
years old) population employed. Dash indicates data not available. Industry
categories are classified according to the European Community (nace Revi­
sion 1 ) 2-digit sector.

closer view showed that the higher proportion is diffuse
throughout service industries. A greater proportion of U.S.
women work, but the differences in service-sector industries
are negligible. A much larger share of U.S. low-skilled workers
are working, compared with the share in Europe, and a large
percentage of low-skilled workers are in the service sector.

Closer view of U.S. job growth
Near the close of the 20th century, the number of jobs in the
services industry, representing about 30 percent of all jobs,
was twice the number in manufacturing.8 In the current eco­
nomic expansion, the longest in the last half of the 20th cen­
tury, job growth in services was twice as high as its share of
total employment. In other words, services accounted for more
than half of the nearly 18-million job increase between 1991
and 1999.
To determine precisely where most of the job gains are origi­
nating and examine the role of new business creation, we can
observe the top 10 three-digit SIC industries in the United
States that have both a high level change and high percent
change in the number of jobs over the 1991-99 period.9 (See
chart 1.) Seven of those industries are in services, led by
personnel supply services (sic 736) and computer services
(sic 737)—both of which more than doubled in number of
jobs. Four of the top 10 industries pay more than the average
wage— computer services (SIC 737), management and public
Table 3.

Employment rates by skill category, 1997

N ote :

S ource: Employment in Europe, 1999 (European Commission, Director­
ate-General for Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs, 1999).

for a larger share of the working-age population in the United
States (46 percent), versus the share of women in the Euro­
pean Union (42 percent) in 1997. In the service sector, this
difference was very narrow, except for that in the finance and
insurance industry for which women accounted for a much
larger share in the United States. (See table 2.)
Workers also can be distinguished by high, medium, or low
skill levels in major industries. In agriculture and industry, there
was no difference in the distribution of workers by skill level in
the United States and the European Union. In services, how­
ever, there was a significant difference. A much higher share
of U.S. workers in the service sector were low skilled, com­
pared with their European Union counterparts. (See table 3.)
The percentages of medium- and high-skilled workers in ser­
vices were slightly higher in the United States.
This analysis revealed that compared with the proportion
of the European Union population, a greater proportion of the
U.S. population is working, especially in the service sector. A


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Industry and
skill category

United
States

Total employment
(In thousands)..............

175,108

European
Union

246,263

Total employed
(in percent)....................

74.0

60.0

High sk ille d ...............

24.0

21.0

Medium skille d ..........

28.0

25.0

Low skilled................

22.0

14.0

Total................................

20.0

20.0

High sk ille d ...............

4.0

4.0

Medium s k ille d ..........

14.0

14.0

Low skilled................

2.0

2.0

Total................................

55.0

40.0

High s k ille d ...............

20.0

17.0

Medium sk ille d ..........

15.0

11.0

Low skilled................

20.0

12.0

Agriculture and industry

Services

N ote : High skilled = high skilled nonmanual; medium skilled = medium

skilled nonmanual and skilled manual; and low skilled = low skilled manual
and nonmanual.
S ource: Employment in Europe, 1999 (European Union DirectorateGeneral for Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs, 1999).

Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

5

Entrepreneurship and Job Growth

relations (sic 874), mortgage bankers and brokers (SIC 616),
and security brokers and dealers (sic 621). Chart 1 also illus­
trates the change in the number of establishments between
1991 and 1996, which can be interpreted as a rough measure of
entrepreneurship in the top 10 job growth industries. All of
industries listed in the chart exhibited more than a 9-percent
increase in new establishments, the average for all industries,
indicating the importance of new establishments to job growth
in these industries. Computer services, home health care ser­
vices, mortgage bankers and brokers, and management and
public relations services industries recorded a significantly
large percent change of net new establishments.
The examination of all U.S. industries at the three-digit SIC
level revealed that the lion’s share of U.S. job growth in the
current expansion occurred in services industries, with the
birth of new establishments playing an important role. Also,
services comprised a mix of low- and high-paying industries.

Im portance of new com panies
Early studies on the role of the births and deaths of firms/
establishments concentrated on the U.S. manufacturing sec­
tor, because it was the only sector for which such data were
available. The main findings from these studies include10:
• Large establishments and firms account for most newly
created jobs
• Survival rates for jobs increase sharply with firm size
• Smaller establishments and firms have much higher gross
job creation rates but not higher net creation rates
• The probability that a firm will fail decreases with age
• Age of establishment is more important for employment
growth than size, and young establishments grow
faster than old establishments
T ab le 4.

Studies by the Small Business Administration in 1998 fo­
cused on the contribution of new, small firms by economic
sector (agriculture, manufacturing, and services) to overall
job creation.11 Key findings of these studies, which focus
on the services sector between 1990 and 1995, and build
on—and confirm the results of—manufacturing-based stud­
ies include:
• Very small firms (those with fewer than 20 employees)
created about half of the net new jobs; most of which
were in the service sector
• Gross job flow rates—a measure of instability which is
the sum of jobs created and dissolved, relative to aver­
age employment over a specific period—declined as
the establishment aged
• The relationship between job flow rates and estab­
lishment age is stronger for single-unit establish­
ments than it is for multi-unit firms
• Gross and net job creation declines as establishment size
rises
• An increasing share of jobs created in services are in large
firms, but this is not necessarily due to the higher growth
rates in larger firms; smaller businesses growing into alarger
establishment and acquisition of small firms by large firms
are factors also
An international comparative study of job gains and losses
covering basically the 1983-91 period showed that job gains
from new establishments and job losses from establishment

Distribution of U.S. establishments by number of employees, selected years, 1946-97
50-99
employees

90.5

5.7

2.0

1.5

90.8

5.6

1.9

1.4

.3

100.0

89.3

6.6

2.2

1.6

.3

1974 .........................................

100.0

87.9

7.5

2.5

1.8

.3

1983 .........................................

100.0

88.3

7.3

2.5

1.7

.2

1993 .........................................

100.0

87.1

8.0

2.7

1.9

.2

1996 .........................................

100.0

86.7

8.2

2.8

2.1

.2

1997 .........................................

100.0

86.5

8.3

2.8

2.1

.2

Total

1946 .........................................

100.0

1956 .........................................

100.0

1966 .........................................

1-19
employees

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100-499
employees

500
employees
or more

20-49
employees

Year

N ote : In 1974, the Census Bureau began to tabulate data as an
establishment rather than as a reporting unit, in 1983, the Census Bureau
began to tabulate data on firms’ actions anytime during the year rather than

6

• Employment growth rates decline as firm size increases
for establishments owned by a single-establishment
firm, but increase in tandem with firm size for establish
ments owned by multi-establishment firms

0.3

in business at the end of the year,
S ource : County Business Patterns, Census Bureau, selected years,

Chart 1. Top-10 job growth industries in the United States, 1991-99 and the change in number
of establishments, 1991-96

Percent

0

25

50

0

25

50

75

100

125

150

75

100

125

150

Mortgage bankers and brokers
Personal supply services
Computer and data processing
services
Home health care services
Management and public relations
Micellaneous amusement and
recreational services
Landscape and horticulture
services
Security brokers and dealers
Residential care
Micellaneous business services

Percent
NOTE: These are three-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) industries, according to the Standard Industrial

Classification Manual, 1987 (Washington, Office of Management and Budget).
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics and Small Business Administration tabulations.

Chart 2. Distribution of U.S. establishments and employment by employment level, 1997

1-4

5-9

10-19

20-49

50-99

100-499

500 or more

Employment level
SOURCE: County Business Patterns, Census Bureau, 1997.


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7

Entrepreneurship and Job Growth

Table 5.

Distribution of U.S. establishments by number of
em ployees, selected years, 1974-97

Year

Total

1-4
employees

5-9
10-19
employees employees

1974 ........................

100.0

58.6

18.0

1982 ........................

100.0

53.7

20.5

12.5

1983 ........................

100.0

57.4

19.4

11.5

1993 ........................

100.0

54.6

20.1

12.4

1996 ........................

100.0

54.9

19.5

12.3

1997 ........................

100.0

54.5

19.6

12.4

11.3

In 1974 the Census Bureau began to tabulate data as an estab­
lishment rather than as a reporting unit.
In 1983, the Census Bureau began to tabulate data on firms’ actions
anytime during the year rather than in business at the end of the year.
N ote :

S ource:

County Business Patterns, Census Bureau, selected years.

closures were relatively higher in the United States than in
Europe.12

Small business and em ploym ent growth
The level of entrepreneurship is often equated with small busi­
ness.13 Although trending downward slightly over the past
50 years, small business made up more than 85 percent of all
establishments (employing less than 20 workers) in 1997. (See
table 4.) Moreover, very small establishments (those employ­
ing less than five workers) still accounted for more than half
of all establishments in 1997. (See table 5.) This conjures up a
misleading picture of their importance to employment. Chart 2
illustrates a much more equitable distribution of employment,
versus establishment size than the more skewed distribution
data, based solely on the number of establishments by em­
ployment size. In fact, employment levels tend to rise slightly
as establishment size increases—an important point to bear
in mind when examining the role of new establishments in job
creation. That is, even though there are many more small es­
tablishments, their share of total employment is not as signifi­
cant as that of large establishments.

number of persons employed due to establishment change. Es­
tablishment and employment changes are caused by:
• Establishment births
New firms and their establishments
(original establishments)
New establishments in existing firms
(secondary establishments)
• Establishment deaths
Deaths of original establishments
Deaths of secondary establishments
• Employment expansion in existing establishments
• Employment contractions in existing establishments
The following tabulation shows the total number of estab­
lishment and job changes from 1995 to 1996 (the most recent
period for which data are available):
Establishment
change
Births...........................
Deaths..........................
Expansion....................
Contraction..................

Number
of establishments

Number
of jobs

697,460
606,430
1,714,600
1,571,830

5,908,300
4,995,220
10,284,770
9,330,600

The number of jobs created from establishment births ex­
ceeded the number of jobs abolished due to deaths by about
915,000 and the number of jobs from establishment expan­
sions exceeded the number from contractions by about
954,000, resulting in about a 1.9-million job increase between
1995 and 1996. This clearly reflects the dynamic nature of the
job market, which is masked when examining only the net
change for one time period to the next.
Table 6.

Changes in U.S. em ploym ent by establishment
births and deaths, 1989-96

[in percent]

Years

Employment change due to—
Net
employment
Establishment Establishment
Continuing
change
births
deaths
establishments

Job creation from new establishments
How many of the new jobs in the United States are attributed
to new business creation? To help answer this, we can exam­
ine the role of new establishments in job creation by size of
establishment and by detailed industry. Not only is job cre­
ation by size and industry important in determining the impact
of entrepreneurship, but also the sustainability of newly cre­
ated establishments.
The dynamic nature of the U.S. job market is revealed by
examining changes in the number of establishments and in the
8

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1989-90 ....

2.0

5.8

-5 .3

1.5

1990-91 ....

-1 .2

6.1

-5 .3

-2.1

1991-92 ....

.6

7.1

-5 .8

-.8

19 92-9 3....

2.1

5.9

-5 .2

1.4

1993-94 ....

2.1

5.6

-5 .2

1.7

1994-95 ....

3.7

6.0

-4 .7

2.4

1995-96 ....

1.9

5.9

-5 .0

1.0

S ource: Small Business Growth by Major Industry, 1988-1995 (Wash­
ington, Office of Advocacy, U.S. Small Business Administration, 1998), table
A—7, and on the Internet at: http://www.sba.gov/ADVO/stats/dyn_us96.pdf.

Establishment births and deaths and the business cycle. From
1989 to 1996 (a period covering the most recent business cycle
peak in 1990 and trough in 1991) the behavior of existing es­
tablishments with regards to employment is clearly cyclical,
as job cutbacks outnumbered job gains only during the 199092 recessionary period. In contrast, the birth of new establish­
ments appears unrelated to the business cycle. Employment
growth from new establishments remained between a 5.6-percent and 7.1 -percent range from year to year. (See table 6.)
Establishment deaths, which were always a bit fewer than
births, illustrated cyclical tendencies. This is in agreement
with a study analyzing the U.S. and Canadian manufacturing
industries, which found that job destruction was much more
cyclical and volatile than job creation.14 This is related to the
fact that job dissolution is more concentrated because manu­
facturing plants are more likely to shutdown in recessionary
periods; that is, they are more vulnerable to adverse shocks
during this period.15
Although employment gains and losses in existing estab­
lishments dominated the overall employment year-to-year
change, establishment births provided a steady stream of new
jobs each year. It would be useful to know whether these new
establishments were congregated in small firms or were more
widely distributed.

much in size, except for their lower share of new jobs in large
establishments (500 or more employees). A partial explana­
tion is a distinction between a new original company and an
offshoot of an existing firm (like opening a new McDonald’s).
There were 5.9 million jobs created by the birth of establish­
ments over the 1995-96 period—3.3 million from births of
original establishments and 2.7 million from births of existing
establishments. The share of jobs created in small and large
companies differed dramatically between new establishments
and offshoots of existing companies. (See table 7.) Nearly all
of the jobs created by establishment births from offshoots
were in large companies. In contrast, most of the jobs created
by establishment births of original establishments were in
small companies. That is, very few establishments start big. In
the aggregate, moreover, far fewer jobs were created from births
in large establishments (100 or more workers) than in smaller
establishments.
Establishment deaths by size also differ dramatically by
whether the establishment was initially created as an entirely
new entity or as an offshoot from an existing company. Small
new entities and large offshoots both have high death rates.
This occurs for the latter because large companies open and
close new establishments quickly, based upon short-term
profits. Moreover, the difference in the death rate between
small, new establishments and large offshoots probably is
more a function of the age of the establishment than its size.
Younger establishments have a higher risk of dissolution.

Opening new establishments, versus expanding existing
ones. Between 1995 and 1996, slightly more than a third of
the jobs created were from the birth of new establishments.
New companies, as an incubator for new jobs, did not change
Table 7.

Establishment births and deaths vary by major industry and

U.S. employm ent change due to births and deaths, by firm size, 1995-96

[In percent]

Change due to establishment—

Total

1-4
employees

5-9
employees

10-9
employees

20-99
employees

10CM99
em ployees

500
employees
or more

Births (from new firms):
Percent of all jobs cre ated.........................
Percent distribution of jobs created by
births of new firm s .....................................

20.0

38.7

37.5

34.4

29.6

19.1

3.1

100.0

24.8

16.1

15.0

25.3

11.9

6.1

16.4

.1

.2

.6

2.6

14.1

35.5

100.0

.1

.1

.3

2.7

10.8

85.9

21.6

60.2

38.8

35.1

30.6

20.2

4.8

100.0

21.4

14.5

14.3

26.7

13.6

9.4

13.2

.3

.6

1.4

3.9

22.1

25.5

100.0

.2

.4

.9

5.6

12.1

80.8

Births (from existing firms):
Percent of all jobs cre ated .........................
Percent of all jobs created by births of
new fir m s ...................................................
Deaths (from firms not created by births
from existing firms):
Percent of all jobs lo s t...............................
Percent distribution of jobs lost by
deaths........................................................
Deaths (from firms created originally by
births from existing firms):
Percent of all jobs lo s t...............................
Percent distribution of jobs lost by
deaths........................................................
S ource :

On the Internet at: http://www.sba.gov/ADVO/stats/int_data.html.


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9

Entrepreneurship and Job Growth

size. Given the magnitude of the number of jobs created by
the births of establishments, it is useful to examine the con­
trasts by industry. From 1990 to 1995, total employment rose
as new jobs were created from establishment births and ex­
pansion, with the share from expansions being slightly
higher.16 The dominance of expansions verifies the results of
previous studies that were for the most part based only on the
manufacturing sector. Chart 3 and table 8 present data on net
job creation by major industry divisions for the first half of the
1990s. The highest net job creation rate was in services, ac­
counting for one-fifth of the job increase. What distinguishes
the services industry from all other industries is its low death
rate and high expansion rate among existing establishments.
Viewed another way, a larger number of new service establish­
ments survived and expanded over the 1990-95 period. In
contrast, the manufacturing industry lost employment over
the same period because establishment deaths exceeded
births and employment contractions exceeded expansions
among existing establishments. With the exception of manu­
facturing, all major industries recorded large birth rates of new
establishments.
The magnitude and pervasiveness of job reallocation
within and across industry sectors supports a study by Steven
J. Davis, John Haltiwanger, and Scott Schuh, which concludes
that idiosyncratic factors dominate the determination of which
establishments create and destroy jobs, and which establish­
ments grow.17 This results from the considerable uncertainty
that surrounds the development, adoption, distribution, mar­
keting, and regulation of new products and production tech­
niques. Many factors also influence whether an establish­
ment succeeds or fails; prominent among them are the owner’s
initial capital investment, management ability, location, and

Table 8.

age.18 About 1 of 7 establishments go out of business annu­
ally. However, the survival rate more than doubles for firms
that grow, and the earlier in the life of the business that growth
occurs, the higher the chance of survival. Moreover, even a
small amount of growth boosts the survival rate to where 2 of
3 growing firms survive.19
Small establishments (1 to 19 workers) are much more
prevalent in services than in manufacturing. For example, there
were about twice as many small establishments in services
than there are in manufacturing in 1990, accounting for 24
percent of all services industry jobs, compared with 7 percent
of manufacturing jobs. Moreover, the share of jobs created by
establishment births in small firms (1 to 19 employees) was
much higher in the services industry than in manufacturing.
The following tabulation illustrates the percent distribution
of jobs created from establishment births by establishment
size and major industry from 1990 to 1995:
Establishment
size

Total

Manufacturing

Total employees.......
100.0
1-19 employees...........
26.6
20-499 employees.......
33.6
500 or more
employees......................
39.9

Services

100.0
16.8
36.3

100.0
25.8
36.2

46.8

38.0

Net and gross job creation declined as establishment size
increased for total employment in both the manufacturing and
services industries from 1990 to 1995.20 (See table 9.) This is in
agreement with a study of job flow in services,21 but not in
agreement with other studies of such in manufacturing,22 in

Rates of Job changes from establishment births, deaths, expansions, and contractions by major U.S. private
sector industry, 1990-95

Job change from establishment
Net job
creation

Industry

Births

Deaths

Expansions

Employment
share
Contractions

T o tal.........................................................

7.3

26.9

-21.8

22.9

-14.9

Agriculture...................................................

14.6

33.2

-24.8

22.9

-16.7

.6

Mining..........................................................

-10.2

24.7

-30.1

14.5

-19.3

.8

100.0

Construction................................................

-3 .7

25.8

-29.0

19.2

-19.7

5.6

Manufacturing............................................

-3 .6

12.8

-15.9

14.7

-15.2

20.5

Transportation and public u tility ...............

5.2

25.6

-20.9

17.8

-17.3

6.0

Wholesale and retail tra d e ........................

6.2

30.9

-25.4

14.6

-14.0

28.0

Finance, insurance, and real estate........

.2

31.3

-27.1

14.7

-18.6

7.5

S ervices.....................................................

20.1

31.6

-19.4

21.2

-13.2

30.9

S ource : On the Internetat: http://www.sba.gov/ADVO/stats/int_data.html.

10

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Chart 3. Rates of job changes from establishment births and deaths by major U.S. private-sector
industry, 1990-95
Percent
0

5

10

15

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

20

25

30

35

Services
Finance, insurance,
and real estate
Wholesale and
retail trade
Construction
Transportation and
public utilities
Mining
Manufacturing

Percent
SOURCE: On the Internet at: http:www.sba.gov/ADVO/stat/int_data.html.

Chart 4. Number of U.S. jobs created from establishment births by entrepreneurial industries,
1990-95
Number in thousands
0

500

1,000

0

500

1,000

1,500

2,000

2,500

3,000

1,500

2,000

2,500

3,000

Eating and drinking places
Business services
Health services
Engineering and management
services
Social services
Real estate
Amusement and recreation
services
Communications

Number in thousands
NOTE: These are two-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) industries, according to the Standard Industrial

Classification Manual, 1987 (Washington, Office of Management and Budget).


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Entrepreneurship and Job Growth

Table 9.

Rates of job creation and destruction by firm
size and selected U.S. industry, 1990-95

Firm size
and industry

Gross job
creation

Net job
creation

Gross job
destruction

T otal.....................
1-4 em ployees.......
5 -9 em ployees.......
10-19 employees ...
20-99 employees ...
100-499
em ployees............
500 employees
or m o re .................

7.3
36.8
13.8
8.2
5.3

44.0
83.6
55.9
48.7
44.3

-36.7
-46.8
-42.0
-40.5
-39.0

7.0

44.0

-37.0

3.7

36.6

-32.9

-3.6
48.8
21.8
12.6
3.8

27.5
98.2
63.3
49.2
37.3

-31.1
-49.4
-41.1
-36.9
-33.4

-.6

30.5

-31.0

-8.9

20.4

-29.2

20.1
41.8
18.5
15.8
17.7

52.7
82.3
54.2
51.9
53.3

-32.6
-40.5
-35.6
-36.1
-35.6

19.4

53.8

-34.3

18.8

46.2

-27.3

Manufacturing
total .......................
1-4 em ployees....
5 -9 em ployees....
10-19 employees..
20-99 employees..
100-499
em ployees..........
500 employees
or m o re ...............
Services to ta l.........
1-4 em ployee s....
5-9 em ployee s....
10-19 employees..
20-99 employees..
100-499
em ployees..........
500 employees
or m o re ...............
S ource :

On the Internet at: http://www.sba.gov/ADVO/stats/int_data.html.

which smaller establishments had higher gross job creation
rates, not higher net job creation rates. A recent study in the
State of Maryland found no apparent pattern with respect to
business size and net job creation.23 Perhaps the reason for the
discrepancy is that the earlier studies analyzed manufacturing
over a longer period of time and during periods when manufac­
turing employment was growing. Differences could also arise
from using initial employment or average employment for the
period as the base point, or from examining a different geographi­
cal area. Gross job destruction also declined as establishment
size rose for total employment and in both the manufacturing
and services industries.
In the services industry, net job creation, gross job creation,
and gross job destruction did not vary much by establishment
size, except for very small establishments (employing 1 to 4
workers), which had much higher rates. This indicates the sig­
nificance of entrepreneurship in services industries as well as
the precariousness of sustaining new establishments.
Top entrepreneurial industries. Previous sections of
this article have demonstrated that the service sector was
very important to U.S. job growth in the 1990s and that
entrepreneurship through the birth of new, small estab­
lishments played an integral part. To analyze the role of
entrepreneurship in this growth, an examination of job
12

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growth at the two-digit sic industry level was undertaken
in a manner that relates job creation and entrepreneurial ac­
tivity. Entrepreneurial industries were selected on the basis of
three criteria:
1. Number of jobs created by establishment births is greater
than average
2. Ratio of births to deaths of establishments is greater
than the rate for all industries
3. Ratio of the jobs created by establishment births to jobs
lost by establishment deaths is greater than or equal
to the ratio for all industries
Application of these criteria to all two-digit SIC industries
yielded the eight entrepreneurial industries listed in chart
4. Overall, these eight entrepreneurial industries created
almost half (43 percent) of all the jobs created by estab­
lishment births over the 1990-95 period. Most of those
jobs (5 of 8) are in the services industry. For example, busi­
ness services (SIC 73), health services (SIC 80), and eating
and drinking places (sic 58) each generated more than 2
million jobs by creating new establishments during that
period. Engineering and management services followed
with 880,000 jobs in new establishments. To help identify
where entrepreneurial activity is likely to be the highest,
the following tabulation presents the eight entrepreneur­
ial industries and their constituent three-digit sic indus­
tries that recorded a sizable number of new jobs from es­
tablishment births over the 1990-95 period:

SIC

Industry

N um ber o f jo b s
created fro m
establishm ent
births

58

Eating and drinking places............

2,818,000

73
726
737
738

Business services.........................
Personnel supply services...........
Computer services........................
Miscellaneous business
services......................................
Health services.............................
Offices or clinics of doctors..........
Hospitals......................................
Engineering and management
services ......................................
Management and public
relations services.......................

2,741,000
1,299,000
428,000

80
801
806
87
874
83
65
79
48
481

Social services..............................
Real estate....................................
Amusement and recreation
services .....................................
Communications..........................
Telephone communications.........

440,000
2,295,000
406,000
750,000
879,000
338,000
569,000
531,000
445,000
418,000
289,000

While microdata were not readily available, it is still pos­
sible to track the behavior of individual establishments over
time to determine their expansion and survival rates based on
aggregate data. For example, we know for a given period the
number of establishments born and the number that were
dissolved. Some of the establishments that went out of busi­
ness could have been started outside of the time period un­
der analysis. However, we do know that recently started es­
tablishments are more likely to fail or dissolve than older
ones. So, our ratios of births and deaths of establishments
and of jobs are very crude estimates of survival rates. Al­
though we do not know what happened to individual estab­
lishments and jobs in the social services industry (SIC 83), for
example, we know that twice as many establishments and
jobs were created through births than died over the 1990-95
period; that is, they survived. If the birth-death establish­
ment ratio (criteria number 2) is higher than the employment
ratio (criteria number 3), it means that smaller rather than larger
establishments are likely to survive in that industry. This is
the case in engineering and management services (SIC 84)
and communications industries (SIC 48). An examination of
establishment births and deaths by firm size in these indus­
tries reveals that the surviving establishments are typically
mid-size (those with 100-499 employees). In business ser­
vices (sic 73), large firms (500 or more employees) appear to
flourish.

N ew business developm ents in Europe
Unfortunately, data similar to the United States— which
track businesses and measure their employment levels—
are not available for European countries. Recently, how­
ever, Eurostat has provided figures on a number of enter­
prises and their employment levels in consecutive years
1994-95. This is part of a larger Eurostat project, in coop­
eration with national statistical agencies, to build a Euro­
pean statistical system on small- and medium-size enter­
prises. This statistical system constitutes the most com­
plete and compatible source of information on European
enterprises, especially on business start-ups, which is
available for 10 countries.
Enterprise creations and closures for the 10 countries are
quite diffuse. (See table 10.) Enterprise creations (11.3 per­
cent) exceeded closures (9.9 percent) for the countries with
data reporting for 1994-95. During this time, a total of
1,668,000 enterprises were created and 1,375,000 were closed
in the nine countries reporting both creation and disclosure
figures. The vast majority of these new enterprises was very
small (less than four employees), and most of these enter­
prises consisted of one-person operations in the trade, hotel
and restaurants, and the services industries. However, enter­
prise closures exceeded creations in the trade and hotel and


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Table 10.

Enterprise creations and closures in selected
European Union countries, 1994-95
Creation

Country

Closure

Year
Number
(in
thousands)

Rate

Number
(in
thousands)

Rate

Denmark.......

1994

16

Germany.......

1995

528

-

407

-

S p a in ............

1995

365

15.3

284

11.9

F rance..........

1995

285

12.1

254

10.8

Ita ly ..............

1996

287

8.1

270

7.7

Netherlands ..

1994

25

6.4

15

3.9

Portugal........

1994

96

14.7

85

13.1

6.6

Finland..........

1995

31

14.6

23

10.8

Sweden.........

1995

51

12.4

37

9.0

United
Kingdom ....

1995

161

11.2

170

11.8

S ource: Enterprises in Europe, 1999 (Luxembourg, European Com­
mission, Enterprise Policy, 1999).

restaurant industries for all countries reviewed, whereas more
enterprises were created than those that were closed in ser­
vices industries, especially business services and communi­
cation services.
Eurostat enterprise data also track the size of businesses
to see if the size of enterprises increased or decreased from
the previous period. Of the small- and medium-sized enter­
prises—defined as those having 1 to 249 employees—a con­
siderable number consisted of one-person businesses in the
1994-95 period that did not exist in the previous year. More­
over, very few small- and medium-size enterprises were the
result of large firms that had shrunk. Between about 20 per­
cent to 30 percent of the existing one-person businesses were
not present the previous year, reflecting the high creation
rates of sole proprietorships.
Within the framework of the Eurostat enterprise births
and deaths project, detailed employment data are now avail­
able for France, the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, Fin­
land, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Analysis of these
data by enterprise births and deaths and enterprise expan­
sions and contractions reveal wide variation across coun­
tries. Overall, however, it appears that the net effect of
enterprise creation and closure on employment is relatively
small in relation to the total number of jobs concerned.
The performance of existing enterprises appears to be criti­
cal for employment growth, and entrepreneurs setting up
new, successful businesses provide the base for further
growth. Employment growth in the service sector was
slightly more favorable than that in other sectors in the
Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

13

Entrepreneurship and Job Growth

Chart 5. Percent of adults participating in entrepreneurial activity in selected countries, winter, 1999
Percent

4

0

1

2

3

5

4

5

6

7

Percent
NOTE: Entrepreneurial activity is defined as any attempt to start a new business or expand an existing one.
SOURCE: Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, 1999.

early 1990s; very small enterprises contributed the most
to this expansion, relative to their employment share.

Entrepreneurial activity
A recently completed study of entrepreneurship—the Global
Entrepreneurship Monitor study—examined the relationship
between entrepreneurial activity and economic growth inter­
nationally. It made a notable effort to ensure comparability
among the data for 10 countries (the United States, Canada,
Israel, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, Denmark, France,
Japan, and Finland).24 The study defines entrepreneurship as
“any attempt at new business or new venture creation, such
as self-employment, a new business organization, or the ex­
pansion of an existing business, by an individual, a team of
individuals, or an established business.” Data were collected
from multiple sources, but the main source was survey of a
representative sample of 1,000 adults in each country. Re­
spondents were asked whether they were currently starting a
firm on their own or for their employer as part of their job.
Those who answered yes to either or both were considered
“nascent entrepreneurs.”
14

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July 2000

Entrepreneurial activity varied widely by country, ranging
from 1 of 12 adults in the United States to 1 in 71 adults in
Finland. (See chart 5.) Based on this information, entrepre­
neurial activity in the 10 countries was classified into the fol­
lowing categories: high (United States, Canada, and Israel);
medium (Germany, Italy, United Kingdom, and Denmark); and
low (France, Japan, and Finland). The survey results indicate
that a higher rate of entrepreneurial activity appears to be
positively related to economic growth, emphasizing its impor­
tance in a country’s quest to compete successfully in the
global economy.25
According to the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor project,
there are six factors that are most important in fostering entre­
preneurial activities:
•
•
•
•

Entrepreneurial opportunity
Entrepreneurial capacity
Infrastructure
Demography (age structure, female entrepreneurs, and
population growth)
• Education
• Culture

In countries with high entrepreneurial rankings, such activity
was an integral and accepted feature of everyday life, and the
number of female entrepreneurs was high, as is the case in the
United States. Higher entrepreneurial activity also is related
to the capacity of a country’s society to accommodate higher
levels of income disparity. For example, the difference in fam­
ily income between the lowest and the highest in the United
States is wider than in most other developed countries.
Another important cultural or structural feature of highranking entrepreneurial activity is the shift of capital control.
For example, in the United States, available capital has moved
from banks to public markets, making the process of starting a
business more forward-looking and democratic. In addition,
entrepreneurs are no longer limited to receiving capital from a
few institutions. Wall Street companies now routinely issue
high-yield securities for high-risk ventures—termed “below
investment grade.” A very telling statistic is the different lev­
els of investment in the United States and Europe: in 1998,
only 17 percent of Europe’s fixed-income issues were below
investment grade (those considered high risk), compared with
60 percent of the issues in the United States.26
Who are these entrepreneurs? The Global Entrepreneurship
Monitor study found that the largest share of entrepreneurs
were men, ages 25 to 54, although there was also a notable
percentage of young men and women (18 to 24 years) in­

volved in start-ups.27 A U.S. study of young entrepreneurs
found that more than 1 of 4 young men and 1 of 5 young
women became self-employed in the 1980s. Female entrepre­
neurs overwhelmingly engaged in services industries and
around a third of them had engaged in such activity for at
least 3 years.28
Moreover, the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor study con­
cluded that most countries would have to increase the partici­
pation of women in the entrepreneurial process if they wanted
to achieve higher start-up rates.
s u m m a r y , entrepreneurship, or the birth of new establish­
ments, is important to job growth in the United States, but not
as important as job expansion in existing firms, confirming
previous studies that narrowly focused on the manufactur­
ing sector. However, small establishments (1 to 19 workers)
play a much larger role in job growth in the services industry
than they do in manufacturing industries in the United States.
Moreover, new establishments in the services industry were
more likely to survive than those did in manufacturing. U.S.
and European Union establishment birth data are not really
comparable, but a special survey of adults found that entre­
preneurship was much higher in the United States than in
Europe. Also, Europe was characterized by a significantly
smaller percentage of the working-age population employed,
especially in low-skilled service sector jobs.
□

In

N o tes
1 The European Union consists o f the follow in g countries: B e l­
gium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy, Lux­
em bourg, N etherlands, Austria, Portugal, Finland, Sw eden, and the
United Kingdom.
2 Dun and Bradstreet Corporation also tabulates the opening and
closing o f U.S. establishments and tracks their employment level over
time. H owever, research suggests that these data overstate the actual
number o f openings and closures.
3 See Paul R eynolds, M ichael Hay, and S. Michael Camp, G lo b a l
E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p M o n i t o r , 1 9 9 9 , E xecutive Report (Ew ing Marion
Kauffman Foundation, Center for Entrepreneurial Leadership, 1999).
4 For an excellent description and documentation o f the Longitudi­
nal Establishment and Enterprise Microdata database, see Zoltán Acs
and Catherine Armington, L o n g itu d in a l E s ta b l is h m e n t a n d E n te r p r is e
m i c r o d a t a leem D o c u m e n t a t i o n (Center for Econom ic Studies, U .S.
Census Bureau, 1998).
5 For the analysis o f the sectoral composition o f employment, U.S.
data for this section have been transformed to match those compiled in
the European Union, which are classified according to the Statistical
C la ssifica tio n o f E conom ic A ctivities in the European Com m unity
( nace R evision 1).
6 Industry includes m ining, construction, and manufacturing, the
typical international com parative definition.
7 Under the nace Revision 1 industry classification scheme, commu­
nal services include: public administration, education, health and social
work, sanitary services, membership organizations, recreational activi­
ties, personal and other services, and private households.


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8 It should be noted, however, that through new technologies and
other productivity-enhancing techniques, manufacturing’s share o f to­
tal output has slipped only slightly from around 30 percent since 1972,
while the services industry’s share has crept up from 14 percent to 18
percent. That is, m anufacturing’s role in the overall econ om y has
remained important even though its job count has dwindled sig n ifi­
cantly.
9 The Standard Industrial Classification System (sic) is a U.S. classi­
fication system used to identify all establishm ent-based industries or
governm ent establishm ents. For more information, see S t a n d a r d I n ­
d u s tr ia l C la s s if i c a tio n M a n u a l, 1 9 8 7 (Washington, O ffice o f M anage­
ment and Budget).
10 John Haltiwanger, and C. J. Krizan, “Small Business and Job Cre­
ation in the United States,” in Zoltán J. A cs, ed., A r e S m a l l F ir m s
I m p o r ta n t? (N orw ell, M assachusetts, Kluwer A cadem ic Publishers,
1999); Steven J. D avis, John H altiwanger, and Scott Schuh, “Small
Business and Job Creation: D issecting the Myth and R eassessing the
Facts,” L a b o r M a r k e ts , E m p lo y m e n t P o lic y , a n d J o b C r e a tio n , 5 , 1994;
Steven J. Davis, John Haltiwanger, and Scott Schuh, J o b C r e a tio n a n d
D e s tr u c tio n (M assachusetts, mit Press, 1997); Timothy Dunne, Mark
Roberts, and Larry Sam uelson, “Plant Turnover and Gross Em ploy­
ment Flows in the U.S. Manufacturing Sector,” J o u r n a l o f L a b o r E c o ­
n o m i c s , July 1989; T im othy D u n n e, Mark R ob erts, and Larry
Samuelson, “The Growth and Failure o f U .S. Manufacturing Plants,”
Q u a r te r ly J o u r n a l o f E c o n o m ic s , vol. 104, 1989; and D. Evans, “The
Relationship between Firm Growth, Size and Age: Estimates for 100
Manufacturing Industries,” J o u r n a l o f I n d u s tr i a l E c o n o m ic s , vol. 15,
1987.
11 S m a ll B u s in e s s G r o w th b y M a jo r I n d u s tr y , 1 9 8 8 —1 9 9 5 (Washing-

Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

15

Entrepreneurship and Job Growth

ton, Small Business Administration, O ffice o f Advocacy, 1998); and
M e r g e r s a n d A c q u is itio n s in th e U n ite d S ta te s , 1 9 9 0 - 1 9 9 4 (Small Busi­

ness Administration, O ffice o f Advocacy, Washington, 1998).
12 “Job Gains and Job Losses in Firms,” E m p lo y m e n t O u tlo o k (Paris,
O rganisation for E conom ic C o-operation and D evelop m en t ( oecd ),
199 4 ).
13 Reynolds, Hay, and Camp, G lo b a l E n trepren eu rsh ip M o n ito r, 1 9 9 9 .
14 John Baldwin, Timothy Dunne, and John Haltiwanger, “A com ­
parison o f job creation and job destruction in Canada and the United
States,” R e v ie w o f E c o n o m ic s a n d S ta t is tic s , vol. 80, 1998.
15 Robert E. Hall, “The Concentration o f Job D estruction,” nber
Working Paper no. W 7025 (New York, National Bureau o f Economic
Research, 1999).
16 Som e o f the growth o f employment in large firms (100 or more
em ployees) over time results from expanding small firms m oving to a
larger size category. O f the total number o f jobs in 1990 that survived
to 1994 (76 million), 96 percent remained in small establishments (less
than 100 em p loyees), w hile 4 percent o f the jobs were in establish­
ments that were acquired by large firms or in establishments that ex ­
panded into the large-firm size category. See Small Business Adminis­
tration and Executive O ffice o f the President, “N ew Data for Analysis
for Small Business Job Creation,” T h e S ta te o f S m a ll B u s in e s s : 1 9 9 9
(W ashington, 1999), chapter 2.
17 D avis, Haltiwanger, and Schuh, J o b C r e a tio n a n d D e s tr u c tio n ,
1997.
18 Bruce Phillips, “The Influence of Industry and Location on Small
Firm Failure R ates,” F r o n t i e r s o f E n tr e p r e n e u r s h i p R e s e a r c h 1 9 9 3 ,
P r o c e e d i n g s o f th e T h ir te e n th A n n u a l B a b s o n C o lle g e E n tr e p r e n e u r s h ip R e s e a r c h C o n fe r e n c e (Babson Park, m a , 1993).

19 Bruce Phillips and Bruce A. Kirchhoff, “Formation, Growth and
Survival; Small Firm Dynamics in the U.S. Economy,” S m a ll B u s in e s s
E c o n o m ic s , vol. 1, 1989, pp. 6 5 -7 4 .
20 Preliminary data for 1994-98 showed the same inverse relation­
ship between firm size and net job creation. When comparing the late
1990s with the early 1990s, however, net job creation was much higher
in the 1994-98 period in very small firms (1 -4 em ployees) and it was
negative among very large firms (500 or more em ployees), mainly as a
result o f firm deaths. Unpublished data from Bruce Phillips, Small Busi­
ness Administration, June 1999.

16

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July 2000

21 Acs, and Armington, J o b F lo w D y n a m ic s in th e S e r v ic e S e c to r
(Washington, Center for Economic Studies, Census Bureau, 1999).
22 Davis, Haltiwanger, and Schuh, “Small Business and Job Creation;”
Steven J. Davis, and John Haltiwanger, “Gross Job Creation, Gross Job
Destruction, and Employment Reallocation,” Q u a r te r ly J o u r n a l o f E c o ­
n o m ic s , vol. 107, 1992; Dunne, Roberts, and Samuelson, “Plant Turn­
over and Gross Employment Flow s;” Dunne, Roberts and Samuelson,
“The Growth and Failure o f U .S. Manufacturing Plants;” and Evans,
“The Relationship between Firm Growth, Size and A ge.”
23 David Stevens and Julia Lang, “Small Business Employment D y ­
namics R evisited ,” T h e D u b io u s B e n e f its o f S m a l l B u s in e s s f o r J o b
G r o w th a n d W a g e s (W ashington, E conom ic P olicy Institute, 1998).
Bruce P hillips argued that Stevens and Lang used an inappropriate
database for analyzing the relationship between job creation and busi­
ness size; they used quarterly unemployment insurance reports where
establishments are not clearly distinguished. See Bruce Phillips, Com ­
m ents on the E conom ic P olicy In stitu te’s T h e D u b i o u s B e n e f i t s o f
S m a ll B u s in e s s f o r J o b G r o w th a n d W a g e s , Unpublished, 1998.
24 See Reynolds, Hay, and Camp, G lo b a l E n tr e p r e n e u r s h ip M o n ito r ,
1999.

25 A correlation of 0.61, which was marginally significant (p = 0.08),
was reported between start-up rates and economic growth in the Global
Entrepreneurship M onitor study.
26 Michael Milken, “Prosperity and Social Capital,” T h e W a ll S tr e e t
J o u r n a l, June 23, 1999. For a number o f countries, the Milken Institute

has developed a “capital access in d ex,” which m easures the ease o f
raising capital. The United States ranks first at 100.0, fo llo w ed by
Switzerland (97.3) and Hong Kong (94.4). The European Union ranges
from 94.0 for the United Kingdom to 46.3 for Greece. The average for
the European Union (less Luxembourg for which no figure was avail­
able) was 75.0. See Glenn Yago, Lalita Ramesh, Dan Brumbaugh, and
James Barth, C a p tia l A c c e s s I n d e x (Santa Monica, CA, Milken Institute,
May 1999).
27 See Reynolds, Hay, and Camp, G lo b a l E n tr e p r e n e u r s h ip M o n ito r ,
1 9 99.

28 Bradley R. Schiller, and Philip Crewson, E n tr e p r e n e u r ia l O r ig in s : A
L o n g itu d in a l I n q u ir y (Washington, Small Business Administration, O f­
fice o f Advocacy, 1994.)

Retiring Baby-boomers

Gauging the labor force effects
of retiring baby-boomers
As aging baby-boomers begin retiring, the effects
on the overall economy and on certain occupations
and industries will be substantial, creating a need
fo r younger workers to fill the vacated jobs,
many o f which require relatively high levels o f skill

Arlene Dohm

Arlene Dohm is
an economist in
the Office of
Employment
Projections,
Bureau of Labor
Statistics,


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

s the oldest baby-boomers begin retir­
ing in the next several years, the impli­
cations for the workforce could be enor­
mous. The current tight labor market situation
could be exacerbated, hindering prospects for
economic growth and putting a greater burden
on those remaining in the workforce, perhaps
forcing them to work longer hours. Especially in
occupations with functions less conducive to
technology-driven productivity innovations—
many of the jobs in health services and educa­
tional services, for example—service may suf­
fer and needs could go unmet unless older work­
ers can be retained or other sources of workers
can be found. Even in occupations where tech­
nological innovations have produced relatively
large productivity gains—many of the more com­
plex machining jobs in manufacturing, for ex­
ample—the learning curves often are steep,
meaning that new workers need to enter these
occupations soon, so they can become proficient
in the necessary skills by the time the babyboomers begin leaving the labor force. This ar­
ticle looks at the occupations and industries likely
to be most affected when the oldest babyboomers begin retiring.

A

The aging labor force
The baby boom began in 1946 and continued
through 1964. During those 19 years, 76 million
people were born. The sheer magnitude of the

number of births during this period has had a major
impact on many aspects of our economy over the
last 50 years. It also has largely determined the size
and age composition of the labor force for the past
30 years. In 1978, when baby-boomers were aged
15 to 32, they made up approximately 45 percent
of the labor force. Now, in large part reflecting the
aging of the baby-boomers, the percentage of work­
ers aged 45 and older will increase from 33 per­
cent of the labor force in 1998 to 40 percent in
2008, adding nearly 17 million workers to this age
group. Over the same period, those aged 25 to 44
will decline as a percentage of the labor force—
from 51 percent to 44 percent, resulting in 3 million
fewer workers in this age bracket. Consequently, the
median age of the labor force will rise from 38.7 in
1998 to 40.7 in 2008.1
As the age of the labor force increases, a greater
number of people will leave the labor force due to
death, disability, or retirement. Of the 25 million
people projected by the Bureau of Labor Statistics
to leave the labor force between 1998 and 2008,22
million will be aged 45 years or older and thus will
be leaving mostly to retire. The total number of
people who left the labor force the previous de­
cade was 19 million. Over the 1998-2008 period,
the oldest baby-boomers will be aged 52 to 62.
After 2008, as more and more baby-boomers reach
retirement age, the impact of their retirements will
continue to grow.
Three methods are often cited for determining
the average age of retirement. The first method uses
Monthly Labor Review July 2000 17

Retiring Baby-boomers

a simple model to estimate the average annual number of net
exits or withdrawals occurring over a given period within a
particular age cohort. Using this “cohort method,” Murray
Gendell concluded that, from 1990 to 1995, the average age
of retirement in the United States was 62.2 years for men
and 62.7 years for women.2 The second method relies on
determining the average age for first withdrawal of a Social
Security pension check. The Social Security Administration
states that in 1998 the average age for first withdrawal of a
pension check was 63.8 years for men and 64.0 years for
women. However, about 50 percent of men and 53 percent of
women made their initial claims at age 62.3 Finally, a third
method of estimating the average age of exit from the labor
force involves examining labor force participation rates among
older workers by single years of age. With this method, the
average age of exit is defined as the age at which half the popu­
lation is in the labor force and half is not in the labor force. In
1999, the average age at exit from the labor force was between
61 and 62 years. (At age 61, about 47 percent of the popula­
tion was not in the labor force; at age 62, about 55 percent of
the population was not in the labor force.)4
The “retirement” age, as calculated using these methods,
has remained fairly stable over the last 20 years, although there
are signs that it may be starting to increase, b l s projects that
labor force participation rates for those aged 55 years and older
will increase by 5.5 percentage points from 1998 to 2008.5
For a number of reasons, including changes to Social Security,
this trend should continue. By congressional mandate, begin­
ning in 2000, the normal retirement age for collecting a full
Social Security pension will increase by gradual increments
from its current level of 65 years and 2 months to 67 years in
2022. At the same time, the amount of reduced pension ben­
efits one can collect at age 62 also will be lowered. In addi­
tion, Congress recently eliminated the earnings limit on the
amount that Social Security recipients between the ages of 65
and 69 can earn before having to forfeit part of their Social
Security benefits. Together, these rule changes should keep
people in the workforce longer.
Another reason the retirement age is likely to rise in the
future is the trend toward companies offering defined con­
tribution pension plans instead of defined benefit plans. A
b l s survey of medium to large employers showed that, among
full-time employees, participation in defined benefit pension
plans declined from 59 percent in 1991 to 50 percent in
1997.6 Defined benefit plans provide the maximum benefits
when taken at the earliest possible age of eligibility. In con­
trast, under defined contribution plans (such as 401 (k)s), the
amount of benefits accrued depends on the amount contrib­
uted to the plan by employers and employees, as well as on
the rate of growth of the investments in the retirement fund.
A study by the American Association of Retired Persons
( a a r p ) provides further evidence of prolonged labor force
participation, finding that 8 in 10 baby-boomers plan to work
18

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during their “retirement years,” although not necessarily at the
same job and not necessarily full time.7 Declining age dis­
crimination and increasing labor force participation among
women also should contribute to raising the retirement age in
the future. To the extent that these changes occur and the re­
tirement age rises, the BLS estimates may overstate the number
of retirements occurring over the 1998-2008 period.
Evidence from the b l s Current Population Survey (CPS)
reveals a number of interesting details about the gender com­
position of older workers.8 For example, men’s labor force
participation rates peak at 94 percent, while those of women
peak at only 79 percent. At age 55, when many government
and some union workers are eligible to receive pensions, par­
ticipation rates were 83 percent for men in 1999, and 66 per­
cent for women. At age 62,53 percent of men were still in the
labor force, compared with only 38 percent of women. Finally,
at age 65, only 29 percent of the population was still in the
workforce—36 percent of men and 22 percent of women. These
statistics suggest that women leave the workforce after age
55 more rapidly than men. As a result, occupations employ­
ing large numbers of women can expect to have, on average,
higher retirement rates at earlier ages than predominately
male occupations.

The d ata
This study examines CPS data on occupation and age from 1998
and 1999; it also uses b l s projections data to estimate the num­
ber of retirements expected to occur over the 1998-2008 pe­
riod. Of the approximately 500 occupations included in the
CPS, only those that had a greater-than-average proportion of
workers aged 45 and older were included in the study. Be­
cause in the average occupation, slightly less than 34 percent
of its employees are aged 45 years and older, only occupations
with 34 percent or more workers aged 45 years and older were
considered. This age group was selected because persons aged
45 in 1998 will be 55 in 2008, and thus will be eligible for
retirement under a number of plans.
Only occupations with more than 50,000 total employees
are described, because the data for occupations with fewer
employees were deemed less reliable. This last criterion
eliminated approximately 30 occupations with older-thanaverage workforces. Some of the more common occupa­
tions deleted from the analysis because of their size include
tailors, firefighting occupations, funeral directors, actuar­
ies, telephone line installers, geologists, purchasing manag­
ers, optometrists, veterinarians, podiatrists, stevedores, ur­
ban planners, petroleum engineers, boilermakers, aircraft
mechanics, a variety of repairers, and some metalworking
machine operators. A number of other occupations that would
not have met the size requirement on their own, but that were
homogeneous enough to be considered as a group, were com­
bined into five aggregated occupations: rail transportation

occupations; water transportation occupations; teachers, col­
lege and university; fishers, hunters, and trappers; and super­
visors, construction occupations. The aggregate group rail
transport occupations, for example, comprises locomotive
operating occupations and railroad conductors and yardmasters. In addition, college and university teachers, normally
listed by 30 different specialty occupations, here are included
under the combined group teachers, college and university.
An additional 20 occupations were excluded because replace­
ment data are not available for them. Finally, a number of
nonspecific or miscellaneous occupations were excluded.
After these restrictions, 102 occupations were researched
for this study.
Table 1 lists the occupations having the largest percentage
of workers aged 45 years and older, along with the median
age for each occupation. There are a number of reasons that
these occupations have older workforces. Many of them are
made up of supervisory or managerial employees, who nor­
mally are older than frontline employees. Within executive,
administrative, and managerial occupations, for example, 41
percent of employees are 45 or older. Another reason is that,
due to obsolescence, productivity improvements within the
occupation, or difficulty in hiring and recruiting, many of
the occupations listed in the table are declining in employ­
ment— which means fewer younger workers coming into the
occupations, leaving a workforce that is older than average.
Many of the clerical and manufacturing jobs on the list fall

into this category. As workers retire from these declining
occupations, many will not be replaced. Such occupations
include farmers, millwrights, dressmakers, rail transporta­
tion occupations, and tool and die makers.
Professional occupations also have a disproportionate num­
ber of older workers, particularly those requiring postgradu­
ate degrees. The opportunity costs for these high-wage earn­
ers leaving the labor force is greater than for most other occu­
pations. Also, many of them are self-employed and thus are
better able to control their schedules as they get older. In a
study that looked at the labor force withdrawal patterns of a
group of older workers, Joseph Quinn and his coauthors found
a strong positive correlation between self-employment and
delayed retirement, and a slightly positive correlation be­
tween education and delayed employment.9 Self-employed
workers often retire later because they lack pension plans.
More educated workers also have a tendency to stay in thencareers longer, due to greater job satisfaction and the costs
of lost income in leaving the job, as well as other factors. At
the same time, however, these workers often have better pen­
sion and health benefits than other workers, enabling them
to retire younger. Occupations falling into this category in­
clude dentists and psychologists.
Some of the occupations listed in table 1— such as real es­
tate sales occupations, bus drivers, and taxi drivers—have a
large number of part-time workers. Older workers often take
part-time jobs to supplement their retirement earnings or as a

Occupations in 1998 with the highest percentage of workers ag ed 45 years and older
Occupation

Total, all em ployees...........................................
Farmers, except horticultural...........................................
Construction inspectors...............................
Real estate sales occupations...............................
Administrators and officials, public adm inistration................
C lergy...........................................................................................
Millwrights..........................................
Librarians..................................................
Administrators, education and related fie ld s .............
Bus drive rs..................................................
Dressm akers...............................................
D entists...........................................
Stationary en ginee rs................................
Teachers, secondary s c h o o l...................................
Counselors, educational and vocational........................
Managers, properties and real esta te .....................................
Psychologists.............................................
Crane and tower operators...................................
Management a n a ly s ts..............................................
Telephone installers and repairers................................
A uthors..............................................................
Private household cleaners and servants..............................
Inspectors and compliance officers, ex. construe...................
Tool and die m a k e rs..........................................................
Taxi cab drivers and chauffeurs.................................


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Total employed
(in thousands)

Percent of employed
45 years and older

Median age

131,995

33.7

39

946
71
753
632
327
83
209
754

68.5
60.6
59.8
58.7
56.9
56.6
56.5
56.1

53
49
49
47
48
46
47
47

474
68
156
130
1,228
231
521
233

54.2
52.9
51.3
50.8
50.3
50.2
49.9
49.4

47
46
45
45
45
45
45
45

67
443
232
130
555
238
135
275

49.3
49.0
48.7
48.5
48.3
47.5
46.7
46.5

45
45
45
45
44
44
44
44

Monthly Labor Review July 2000 19

Retiring Baby-boomers

1 O c c u p a tio n s w ith th e g r e a te s t r e p la c e m e n t
W ÊIÊÊtm ÊM n e e c js fo r th o s e re tirin g , 1 9 9 8 -2 0 0 8
[In thousands]
Occupation

R etiree
re placem ent
needs

Total, all em ployees.....................................

22,205

Secretaries............................................................
Truck drivers, h e a v y...........................................
Teachers, elementary school..............................
Janitors and cleaners...........................................
Teachers, secondary scho ol...............................
Registered nurses.................................................
Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks ...
Teachers, college and university........................
Administrators, education and related fie ld s ....
Farmers, except horticultural..............................

519
425
418
408
378
331
330
195
178
175

Supervisors, construction occupations.............
Administrators and officials,
public administration...........................................
Real estate sales occupations...........................
Insurance sales occupations..............................
Industrial machinery repairers............................
Maids and housekeeping clean ers......................
Private household cleaners and servants.........
P h ysicia n s............................................................
Financial managers...............................................
L a w y e rs .................................................................

165
143
144
135
125
122
112
108
102
99

way of staying productive in their older years without the stress
of a full-time job. Other occupations listed in the table have a
large percentage of older workers due to a lack of hiring in
the recent past, resulting from downsizing or a temporary
oversupply— in some cases, even when the occupation is pro­
jected to grow in the coming period. Teachers are an example
of an occupation for which the demand tapered off in the 1980s
(due to a declining birth rate during the 1970s), leaving a
workforce that is older than average.
Some occupations have more older workers because they
are highly unionized and thus favor seniority and generally
have lower turnover rates due to higher wages and better ben­
efits than nonunion jobs. Airline pilots and rail transporta­
tion occupations are examples of occupations with large pro­
portions of unionized workers. Some occupations are sim­
ply less attractive to younger workers—even though jobs are
available and demand for workers may be high. An example
of an occupation experiencing difficulty attracting young
qualified workers is that of tool and die makers.

A ffected occupations and industries
How many job openings will retirements generate, and in which
occupations and industries? bls calculates net separations for
each occupation in developing data on replacement needs. The
number of net separations approximates the number of people
permanently leaving an occupation and is measured by exam­
ining the net flow of individuals entering and exiting the occu­
pation. For occupations that are growing or maintaining their
employment level, replacement needs are equal to the number
20

Monthly Labor Review July 2000


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

of workers leaving an occupation. For occupations that are
declining, replacement needs are equal to the number of work­
ers leaving the occupation less those that will not be replaced.10
This study examines replacement needs or job openings gen­
erated by those who are projected to permanently leave an
occupation over the 1998-2008 period.
The investigation focuses only on those aged 45 years and
older and assumes that the vast majority of these workers will
leave the occupation to retire. Although persons aged 45 and
older occasionally change jobs or leave and reenter the
workforce at a later time, for this article, it is assumed that the
number is quite small. In the future, with the increasing port­
ability of pension plans, movement into and out of occupa­
tions may become more common among older workers. At
this time, however, with defined benefit pension plans still
prevalent, movement between jobs generally is not voluntary
and workers retire at the earliest possible time.
Table 2 lists the top 20 occupations that will have the great­
est replacement needs due to persons aged 45 and older leav­
ing the occupation from 1998 to 2008. Because the majority
will be leaving the labor force to retire, they are referred to
here as retirees. The occupations listed in the table are large
occupations with workforces that are older than average.
Among these occupations, five are in the education field, in­
cluding three teaching occupations, as well as janitors and
cleaners (most or whom work in schools), and education ad­
ministrators. The reason for this is that many public educa­
tion workers, like most workers in government, can retire
I

O c c u p a tio n s w ith th e g r e a te s t p e r c e n t a g e o f
w o rk e rs a g e d 4 5 a n d o ld e r p e r m a n e n tly
le a v in g th e o c c u p a tio n , 1 9 9 8 -2 0 0 8

Occupation

Percentage o f
w o rk e rs
p e rm a n e n tly
leaving occupation

Total, all em ployees...............................

53.8

Fishers, hunters, and tra p p e rs....................
Water transportation occupations.................
Operations and systems researchers
and a n a lysts...............................................
Supervisors, police and detective.................
Telephone installers and repairers................
Insurance underwriters...................................
Supervisors, mechanics and re paire rs.........
Laundering and dry cleaning machine
op e ra to rs....................................................
Teachers, secondary scho ol..........................
Supervisors, construction w orke rs.............

80.5
76.7

Mail carriers, postal s e rv ic e ........................
Rail transportation occupations.....................
Welfare service a id e s .....................................
Winding and twisting machine operators.....
Dental laboratory and medical appliance
technicians...................................................
Public relations spe cia lists............................
Telephone operators.......................................
Industrial machine repairers..........................
Rail transportation occupations.....................
Licensed practical nurses..............................

65.8
65.2
65.1
64.9

74.2
70.9
69.6
68.6
68.3
67.7
66.8
65.9

64.7
63.7
62.4
60.4
60.6
59.1

earlier than those in the private sector. According to b ls , twothirds of all State and local employees in 1994 were covered
by pension plans that allow a person to retire at age 55 or
earlier, as long as they have met a years-of-service require­
ment (usually 30 years).11 This standard also applies to Fed­
eral employees. It is also the case that most government em­
ployees are covered under defined benefit pension plans that
provide the maximum economic benefits to those who retire
at the earliest possible age of pension eligibility. People un­
der these plans tend to retire earlier than those under other
plans or with no pension coverage.12 For these reasons, gov­
ernment occupations will be among the first to experience
the effects of the surge in retirements by baby-boomers.
In contrast, table 3 lists the occupations that will have the
most replacement needs due to persons aged 45 and older leav­
ing the occupation as a percentage of the occupation’s
workforce that was 45 and older in 1998. What makes these
occupations unique is not the percentage of persons 45 and
older leaving them; rather, these occupations already have a
workforce that is older than average. It is this combination of
older-than-average workforces and greater-than-average per­
centage of people aged 45 and older leaving that makes these
occupations stand out, because even in occupations with
workforces younger than average, those aged 45 and older typi­
cally leave in large numbers. On average, 54 percent of work­
ers aged 45 and older will leave the workforce in the next 10
years. Interestingly, secondary school teachers is the only oc­
cupation to appear in tables 1 and 2, having both a large numTable 4.

ber of people leaving the labor force and a very large percent­
age of those aged 45 and older leaving the profession.
Table 4 shows the top 20 occupations most affected by
baby-boomer retirement. It is assumed that the effect will be
stronger in the later years when the baby-boomers are older.
By looking at the replacement-needs data over a 15-year pe­
riod, using 5-year cohort data, if an occupation is projected
to have much greater replacement needs in the 2003-08 pe­
riod than in the 1993-98 period, it was assumed to be attrib­
utable mostly to the baby-boomers retiring. Under this as­
sumption, most job openings or replacement needs occur­
ring during the 1993-98 period were attributable mostly to
non-baby-boomers. By 2008, however, the oldest babyboomers will be age 62— at or near the average retirement
age for the population—and thus the 2003-08 period will
include baby-boomers aged 45 to 62. On average, for all
employees, replacement needs during the 2003-08 period
are projected to be about 25 percent greater than during the
1993-98 period, confirming the significant impact of babyboomer retirements. The occupations listed in the table em­
ploy a large number of baby-boomers, and early retirements
are prevalent. Airline pilots fall into this category, as well as
most public administration and teaching occupations.
Table 5 lists all the occupations in this study ranked by
percentage of workers aged 45 years and older, along with
total replacement needs for the occupation and an estimate
of the percentage of workers aged 45 and older that will leave
by 2008. It also shows the industries that employ approxi-

Occupations most affected by baby-boom er retirements, 1993-2008

[Numbers in thousands]

O cc u p atio n

Retiree
re p la c e m e n t
needs,
1993-98'

Total, all em ployees........................................................................

9,419

10,411

11,794

25.2

Airline pilots and navigators.................................................................
Management a n a ly s ts ...........................................................................
Teachers, special e d u c a tio n ................................................................
P hoto gra phe rs........................................................................................
Teachers a id e s ......................................................................................
Industrial en ginee rs...............................................................................
Eligibility clerks, social w e lfa re ...........................................................
Personnel and labor relations m anagers..........................................
Postal clerks, except mail carriers.......................................................
Supervisors, police and detectives.....................................................

5
6
8
3
27
11
5
7
16
9

9
11
11
4
38
15
6
9
20
14

14
16
19
5
52
21
9
13
30
17

172.7
152.0
135.4
94.8
91.8
87.6
85.0
83.6
81.0
80.2

Plumbers, pipefitters, and steam fitters...............................................
Financial m a nage rs...............................................................................
P sycholog ists..........................................................................................
Social w o rk e rs ........................................................................................
L a w y e rs ...................................................................................................
Administrators, education and related fie ld s .....................................
Teachers, elementary s c h o o l...............................................................
Registered n u rs e s .................................................................................
Administrators and officials, public admin..........................................
C h e m is ts .................................................................................................

21
34
15
32
33
59
141
116
50
7

28
44
17
40
42
78
181
143
62
7

36
58
26
54
57
101
237
188
81
11

73.6
73.1
73.0
72.0
71.6
70.6
68.8
62.6
60.3
57.6

1 Numbers based on 5-year average, not equivalent to total employed.


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Retiree
re p la c e m e n t
needs,
1998-2003'

Retiree
re p la c e m e n t
needs,
20 0 3 -0 8 '

Percent
ch an g e,
1993-98 to
2 0 0 3 -0 8 2

2 Calculated percentage uses unrounded numbers.

Monthly Labor Review July 2000 21

Retiring Baby-boomers

Occupations with a greater-than-average number of workers ag ed 45 years and older, 1998-2008
[Numbers in thousands]

Occupation

Percent
Total
employed, employed,
45 and
1998
older, 1998

Percent
Retiree
workers
replacement 45 and older
needs,
leaving
1998-2008
occupation,
1998-2008

Industries employing more than
20 percent of occupation

Total, all employees................................

131,995

34

22,205

53.8

Farmers, except horticultural........................
Construction inspectors...............................
Real estate sales occupations..................
Administrators and officials,
public administration..................................
C lergy...........................................................
Millwrights ....................................................
Librarians.....................................................
Administrators, education
and related fields.......................................

946
71
753

69
61
60

175
17
144

24.3
45.9
33.8

Agriculture
Construction; public administration
Real estate

632
327
83
209

59
57
57
57

143
69
22
50

41.7
36.6
53.3
46.4

Public administration
Religious organizations
Manufacturing
Libraries; education

754

56

178

47.1

Education

Bus drivers...................................................
Dressmakers................................................
D entists........................................................
Stationary engineers...................................
Teachers, secondary school......................
Counselors, educational
and vocational...........................................
Managers, properties
and real estate...........................................
Psychologists...............................................

474
68
156
130
1,228

54
53
51
51
50

89
14
29
27
378

34.9
28.4
40.3
47.7
66.8

Bus service and urban transit; education
Dressmaking shops; retail trade
Offices of dentists
Manufacturing; real estate
Education

231

50

56

48.4

Education

521
233

50
49

70
43

26.3
36.9

Crane and tower operators..........................
Management analysts..................................
Telephone installers and repairers...............
Authors.........................................................
Private household workers...........................
Inspectors and compliance officers,
excluding construction..............................
Rail transportation occupations....................
Tool and die makers.....................................
Taxi cab drivers and chauffeurs...................
Upholsterers.................................................

67
443
232
130
555

49
49
49
49
48

16
28
60
17
112

54.2
15.7
69.6
29.5
45.8

Real estate
Health services, not elsewhere classified (n.e.c);
offices of health practitioners, n.e.c.
Metal industries mfg.; construction; blast furnaces
Management and public relations
Telephone communications
Miscellaneous professional services
Private households

238
105
135
275
71

48
47
47
47
47

42
33
24
39
12

39.4
60.6
42.4
38.9
53.1

Welfare service aides...................................
insurance sales occupations.......................
Physicians....................................................
Supervisors, cleaning and
building service workers...........................
Teachers, college and university..................
Supervisors, police
and detectives..............................................
Managers, farms,
except horticultural....................................

92
595
743

46
46
46

24
135
108

65.1
52.1
37.2

Public administration
Railroads
Manufacturing
Taxicab service; bus and urban transit
Furniture and fixtures manufacturing;
miscellaneous repair services.; retail trade
Social services, n.e.c.
Insurance
Offices of physicians; hospitals

165
922

46
45

40
195

52.3
50.1

Services to dwellings and other buildings; hotels and motels
Education

118

45

31

70.9

Public administration

170

45

22

32.6

Agriculture

Lawyers........................................................
Mail carriers, postal service.........................
Personnel and labor
relations managers....................................
Postal clerks, except mail carriers...............
Bookkeepers, accounting
and auditing clerks....................................
Architects......................................................
Secretaries...................................................
Airplane pilots and navigators.......................
Teachers, elementary school.......................

955
334

44
44

99
87

27.7
65.8

Legal services; public administration
Postal service

163
320

44
43

22
50

40.3
39.1

Manufacturing
Postal service

1,735
158
2,925
113
1,957

43
43
43
43
43

330
19
519
24
418

46.4
34.7
41.9
47.9
54.4

Retail trade
Engineering and architectural services
No concentration
Air transportation
Education

67

42

24

58.5

Barber shops

259
2,247

42
42

69
408

68.3
47.8

Manufacturing; retail trade
Building services; education

Barbers.........................................................
Supervisors, mechanics
and repairers.............................................
Janitors and cleaners...................................
Winding and twisting
machine operators....................................
Sales workers, furniture and
home furnishings.......................................
Teachers aides.............................................
Painters, sculptors, craft-artists,
and printmakers........................................
Guards and police,
except public service................................

22

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

53

42

12

55.2

Textile mill products manufacturing

153
635

41
41

27
90

46.3
38.1

Retail trade
Education

242

41

39

42.5

Miscellaneous professional services; manufacturing

759

40

96

34.3

Detective and protective services

Continued—Occupations with a greater-than-average number of workers ag ed 45 years and older, 1998-2008
[Numbers in thousands]

Occupation

Total
employed,
1998

Percent
Percent
Retiree
workers
employed, replacem ent 45 and older
45 and
needs,
leaving
older, 1998
1998-2008
occupation,
1998-2008

Industries em ploying more than
20 percent of occupation

Operating engineers.....................................
Miscellaneous electrical and
electronic equipment repair.......................
Electrical and electronic
equipment assemblers..............................
Fishers, hunters, and trappers.....................
Eligibility clerks, social welfare......................
Supervisors, general office...........................
Personnel clerks, excluding
payroll and timekeeping.............................
Production inspectors,
checkers, and examiners.........................

245

40

44

50.7

Construction

Civil engineers..............................................
Supervisors, motor
vehicle operators.......................................
Registered nurses........................................
Grader, dozer, and scraper
operators...................................................
Pressing machine operators........................
Supervisors, construction workers..............
Teachers, special education.........................
Textile sewing machine
operators...................................................
Sheriffs, bailiffs, other law
enforcement officers.................................
Maids and housekeeping
cleaners.....................................................
News vendors..............................................
Brickmasons and stonemasons...................
Telephone operators.....................................
Records clerks.............................................
Dieticians......................................................
Messengers..................................................
Musicians and composers...........................
Technical writers...........................................
Industrial engineers......................................
Library clerks................................................
Operations and systems
researchers and analysts.........................
Plumbers, pipefitters,
and steamfitters.........................................
Industrial machinery repairers......................
Water transportation
occupations...............................................
Interviewers..................................................
Payroll and timekeeping clerks.....................
Surveying and mapping technicians.............
Truck drive rs................................................
Office machine repairers..............................
Dental laboratory and medical
appliance technicians................................
Chemists, excluding biochemists.................
Financial managers......................................
Underwriters.................................................
Aerospace engineers...................................
Machinists.....................................................
Sales workers, motor vehicles.....................
Photographers..............................................
Public relations specialists............................
Mail clerks, except postal.............................
Licensed practical nurses............................
Laundering and dry cleaning
machine operators....................................
Social workers..............................................
Production coordinators...............................
Dispatchers..................................................


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

83

40

14

44.0

Motor vechicle and equipment manufacturing

343
53
94
398

40
40
39
39

58
10
14
79

54.7
57.2
34.7
48.2

Elec, mach., equip., and supplies manufacturing
Fishing, hunting, and trapping
Public admin.; social serv., n.e.c.; offices of physicians
Public administration; banking

74

39

13

53.4

Public administration

524

39

96

47.6

Manufacturing

297

39

42

43.5

Construction; public administration

88
2,039

39
39

14
331

55.7
47.2

Trucking; wholesale trade
Hospitals

76
92
756
382

38
38
38
38

6
18
165
29

19.4
48.3
65.9
22.6

Construction
Laundry and garment serv.; apparel products mfg.
Construction
Education

514

38

81

39.2

Apparel and textile products manufacturing

162

38

13

25.7

Public administration

657
101
192
160
206
91
156
183
73
262
174

38
38
38
38
37
37
37
37
37
37
37

122
12
29
36
23
18
17
25
12
36
22

51.5
30.5
56.7
62.4
37.1
57.3
33.0
42.4
59.0
38.8
39.4

Hotels and motels; hospitals; nursing facilities
Printing and publishing; retail trade
Construction
Telephone communications
Education
Hospitals; nursing facilities
Trucking services
Entertainment and ree. services; religious organizations
Manufacturing; computer and data processing services
Manufacturing
Libraries; education

212

37

54

74.2

Manufacturing; public administration

516

37

65

38.1

Construction

563

37

125

60.4

Manufacturing

63
167
147
72
3,023
62

37
37
36
36
36
36

16
22
31
8
425
9

76.7
43.9
54.2
34.5
43.1
46.3

Water transportation
Hospitals; research and development
No concentration
Engineering and architectural services
Trucking; retail trade
Wholesale trade; electrical repair shops

54
134
707
117
86

35
35
35
35
35

11
18
102
19
13

64.7
38.7
51.6
68.6
43.0

532
310
155
170
179
382

35
35
35
35
35
35

89
41
9
28
20
85

53.8
37.5
20.4
56.8
35.5
59.1

Health services n.e.c.; offices of dentists
Chem. and allied prod. mfg. research and development
Banking
Insurance
Guided missiles, space vehicles mfg.; aircraft and
parts manufacturing
Mach, and computer equip, mfg.; metal industries mfg.
Retail trade
Miscellaneous personal services
Management and public relations
No concentration
Hospitals; nursing facilities

200
751
256
235

35
34
34
34

44
95
37
39

67.7
39.1
51.8
55.4

Laundry, cleaning, and garment services
Social services n.e.c.; public administration
Manufacturing
Public administration; trucking

Monthly Labor Review July 2000 23

Retiring Baby-boomers

mately 20 percent or more of the occupation. It can be as­ many near the top of the list. People in this industry retire
sumed that these industries will be at least moderately af­ earlier, in general, because of pensions that often provide full
fected by the aging of workers in the occupation. How severe coverage for qualified employees after 30 years of service.
the impact will be largely depends on how critical the occu­ Also, a slowdown in hiring in the 1980s and early 1990s raised
pation is to the industry and whether the industry is trying to the average age of the teaching professions and left fewer
add or reduce workers in the field. Due to the large number workers to move into vacant slots.
Almost all the transportation industries are on the list, in­
of individual manufacturing industries, it is rare for one to
employ more than 20 percent of an occupation. In most cases, cluding railroads, bus service, urban transit, taxicab service,
therefore, only the aggregate industry manufacturing was air transportation, trucking, and water transportation. The rea­
listed. However, when a particular manufacturing industry did sons for this include the relatively high age requirements for
operating vehicles and other modes of transportation, high
dominate a profession, it was listed separately.
Although much of the industry information is intuitive— wages and low turnover rates in the highly unionized railroad
such as teachers tending to work in the education industry— and airline industries, and a large number of part-time work­
the table does point out industries that will be affected by re­ ers, especially in bus and taxicab services, occupations often
tirements in multiple occupations. Although manufacturing preferred by older workers.
The health services industry (especially hospitals) and the
leads the list of affected industries—with 12 occupations and
another 14 manufacturing industries listed separately— it is construction industry are two other sectors that have at least
difficult to measure the effect because of the size of the manu­ eight occupations listed in table 5. In particular, registered
facturing sector and the number of occupations included within nurses (R N s) and licensed practical nurses (L P N s) are expected
it. Several of the occupations in the manufacturing sector are to leave the hospital industry in large numbers. Currently, 62
managerial or highly skilled jobs, normally held by older, more percent of r n s and 32 percent of LPNs work in hospitals. A
experienced workers. It is the experience and skill that many number of other healthcare occupations are on the list, in­
manufacturing companies will miss most, because of the length cluding physicians, dentists, and psychologists. Construction
of time it takes to train new workers.13 However, the manufac­ industry occupations listed in the table tend to be senior or
turing sector includes industries in decline as well as indus­ skilled positions, where one would expect to find more older
tries that are growing; therefore, the reasons that some of the workers. On the whole, though, the average age in the con­
occupations have a higher concentration of older workers may struction industry is much lower than average.
The data show that the impact on occupations and industries
vary between industries. One detailed manufacturing industry
that appears three times in the table is apparel and textile mill from the retirements of the oldest baby-boomers will vary,
products. As an industry widely known to be in decline and even among those occupations with a greater-than-average
projected by BLS to have negative job growth through 2008, number of workers aged 45 years and older. The impact will
the lack of new hiring in this industry has created a workforce be felt more prominently in some occupations (particularly
those in education and public administration) than in others
whose average age is unusually high.
The public administration industry appears 13 times in table (such as farming, where replacement needs equal about a
5, and it includes Federal, State and local government workers quarter of the workforce aged 45 and older). Among the broad
employed in the administrative, executive, legislative, judicial, occupational groups, the executive, administrative, and
regulatory, and international areas of government. Other indus­ managerial occupations will experience the greatest turnover.
tries employing a relatively large number of government work­ Those 45 and older make up 41 percent of this group, and 42
ers include educational services, hospitals, and urban transit. percent of these older workers are expected to leave by 2008.
Again, it is hard to measure the effect of retirements on this in­ That is equal to nearly 3 million job openings in this field due
dustry, because of the wide variety of jobs and differing growth to retirements, resulting in a significant loss of managerial
trends among the three branches of government, with employ­ skills and experience.
For a number of occupations, however, the attrition
ment projected to decline in Federal government and to grow in
State and local government. However, one occupation that makes generated by the upcoming retirements may be the preferred
up a large proportion of government employment will soon lose mechanism to reduce the size of the occupation in the face of
significant numbers to retirement—officials and administrators, declining demand. Farmers, bookkeepers, sewing machine
public administration. In this occupational group, 59 percent of operators, among others, all face declining prospects due to
its workers are aged 45 and older, with 42 percent projected to productivity improvements or declining U.S. production.
leave by 2008. Clearly, upcoming retirements will dramatically
affect this important government occupation.
Beyond 2008
The industry that will be most affected by baby-boomer
retirements is educational services. Nearly all the major oc­ The effect of baby-boomer retirements will be more dramatic
cupations that make up this industry are included in table 5, in the decade following 2008. By 2018, all but the youngest
24

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baby-boomers will be of retirement age. Aggravating the situ­
ation is a much smaller pool of workers immediately follow­
ing the baby-boomers. Nevertheless, there are encouraging
signs that the labor force will not collapse in 20 years. Re­
cent changes to Social Security will probably cause some to
delay retirement. The increased use of defined contribution
pension plans, such as 401 (k)s, which do not have an age or
length-of-service component, may motivate some to stay in

the workforce longer. A healthier older population and one
that sees work as beneficial may also keep people working
longer. Finally, the supply of workers may be on the upswing.
Immigration, for example, is projected to continue increas­
ing in the coming years, and the birth rate increased over the
1979-94 period, the so-called “baby-boom echo.”14 These
phenomena will help provide more workers for a dwindling
labor force.
□

Notes
A cknowledgment: The author thanks Sean Kirby of the Office of Employment
Projections for programming support.

this paragraph are from unpublished tabulations from the Current Population
Survey, 1999 annual averages.

1Howard N Fullerton, Jr., “Labor force projections to 2008: steady growth
and changing com position,” M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , November 1999, pp.
19-32; see table 5, p. 27; for age o f labor force, see p. 30.

9 Joseph Quinn, Richard Burkhauser, Kevin Cahill and Robert Weathers,
“Microeconometric Analysis of the Retirement Decision: United States,”
Economics Department Working Papers No. 203 (Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development, July 1, 1998), pp. 18-19; also, see oecd ’s
Economics Department website on the Internet at http://www.oecd.org/eca/eco.

2 Murray Gendell, “Trends in retirement age in four countries, 1965-95,”
M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , August 1998, pp. 20-30; for methodology, see p. 21

and sources cited; for study results, see pp. 22-25.
3 S o c ia l S e c u r ity B u lle tin , A n n u a l S ta tis tic a l S u p p le m e n t, 1 9 9 9 (Social
Security Administration, 1999), p. 265.
4 Bureau o f Labor Statistics, unpublished tabulations from the Current
Population Survey, 1999 annual averages.
5 Howard N Fullerton, Jr., “Labor force projections to 2008,” table 3, p. 24.
6 E m p lo y e e b e n e fits in m e d iu m a n d la r g e p r i v a t e e s ta b lis h m e n ts , 1 9 9 7 ,
9 9 -0 2 (U.S. Department o f Labor), Jan. 7,1999.

usdl

7 “Baby Boomers Envision Their Retirement: An aarp Segmentation
Analysis” (American Association o f Retired Persons, February 1999), on
the Internet at http://www.aarp.org (visited June 2000).
8 The Current Population Survey ( cps ), conducted for bls by the Bureau
o f the Census, is a monthly survey o f about 50,000 scientifically selected
households, chosen to be representative o f the civilian noninstitutional
population o f the United States. Each month, using cps data, bls analyzes
and publishes statistics on the labor force, employment, and unemployment,
classified by a variety o f demographic, social, and economic characteristics.
For more information on the cps , see bls H a n d b o o k o f M e th o d s , Bulletin
2490 (Bureau o f Labor Statistics, April 1997), pp. 4-14. All o f the data cited in


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10bls uses age-specific employment data from the cps for two discrete points
in time to estimate net separations. The same birth cohort is followed over the
course of 5 years as it enters the next older age cohort. The resulting employment
change for that cohort determines if there is a net decline in the occupation or
net growth for that particular age group. This is repeated for all birth cohorts.
The sum of net separations across all age groups determines the number of net
separations for the occupation. Permanent exits from the occupation are totaled
and reported as net separations and go into the calculation of future replacement
needs for each occupation after employment changes are taken into account.
For more information on how separation rates and replacement-needs data are
calculated, see “Estimating Occupational Replacement Needs,” in O c c u p a tio n a l
P r o je c tio n s a n d T ra in in g D a ta , Bulletin 2521 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, May
2000), pp. 71-90.
11 B L S r e p o r ts o n e m p lo y e e b e n e f its in S ta te a n d lo c a l g o v e r n m e n ts ,
1 9 9 4 , usdl 95-368 (U.S. Department o f Labor), Sept. 14,1995.
12Quinn, Burkhauser, Cahill, and Weathers, “Microeconometric Analysis
o f the Retirement Decision,” p. 19
13“Ageing Workers,” T h e E c o n o m is t, Sept. 4, 1999, p. 65.
14 Frederick W. Hollman, Tammany J. Mulder, and Jeffrey E. Kalian,
“Population Projections o f the United States, 1999 to 2100: M ethodology
and Assumptions,” Working Paper No. 38 (U.S. Bureau o f the Census, 1999).

Monthly Labor Review July 2000 25

Average Weekly Hours

On the decline in average
weekly hours worked
The decline in the workweek in private industry
as measured hy the Current Employment Statistics survey
can be attributed to the combination
o f disproportionate employment growth
and low and declining hours in retail trade
Katie Kirkland

Katie Kirkland
is an economist
in the Office of
Employment and
Unemployment
Statistics, Bureau
of Labor Statistics,

26

ow many hours per week do work­
ers in the United States spend at thenpaying jobs? The answer can be found
by examining two principal b l s surveys used to
track the number of hours that Americans work
per week. The Current Population Survey (CPS)
shows that there has been little change in aver­
age weekly hours worked; from 1964 to 1999,
there was a decline of 0.5 percent in the average
weekly hours at work in nonagricultural indus­
tries. This statistic contrasts information on the
average workweek from the Current Employ­
ment Statistics (CES) program, otherwise known
as the “establishment survey” or the “payroll
survey.” Here, data show a long-term downward
trend in the average length of the workweek.
From 1964 to 1999, average weekly hours fell
by a substantial 11 percent, from 38.7 to 34.5
hours, based on annual averages of monthly data.
Considering that most people do not differ­
entiate between paid and unpaid work, it be­
comes clearer why these two labor economics
surveys from the b l s report contradictory data
on the workweek. The most apparent reason is
that the two surveys use different sources of in­
formation, resulting in a variation in the type of
data gathered.
The CPS survey is a household survey; the
CES survey is an establishment survey. The CPS
hours data is based on workers’ reports on the

H

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hours they actually worked and includes all jobs they
held during the survey reference period.1 The CES
survey represents employers’ reports on the employ­
ees’ paid hours of work. If a person works for more
than one employer, the hours are reported separately
for each. For example, in the CES a person working
two part-time jobs of 20 hours a week is counted as
having two 20-hour jobs, but in the CPS , the same
individual is counted as one worker working 40 hours.
In May 2000, 5.7 percent of all employed persons
16 years and older were multiple jobholders. Thus,
the CPS is the appropriate survey to use to examine
trends in a person’s average workweek, while the CES
is used to examine trends in the average number of
hours people spend at each job.
Further, the scope of workers covered by the two
measures differs. The CPS presents data for the total
civilian noninstitutional population, while the CES
hours data are limited to the private sector. The CES
reports hours data for production workers in the
goods-producing sector and nonsupervisory work­
ers in the service-producing sector. The data sources
and scopes of the two surveys explain why they could
have different trends in the length of the workweek,
but why does the CES measure show declining hours?
To investigate, one must first understand how av­
erage weekly hours are calculated using CES data.
For each industry, the sum of the reported paid hours
worked is divided by the total number of production
workers reported for that same industry.2 Accord-

T ab le 1.

Average w eekly hours and em ploym ent of production/nonsupervisory workers by major industry
division, 1964-99
Production/nonsupervisory workers

Average w eekly hours
Industry

Change
1964

Total priva te.............................
Goods producing
M in in g ......................................
Construction............................
Manufacturing.........................
Service producing
Transportation
and public utilities................
Wholesale tra d e ......................
Retail tra d e ..............................
Finance, insurance,
and real e s ta te .....................
S ervices...................................

Change

1999

1964
Level

Percent

1999
Level

Percent

38.7

34.5

-4 .2

-10.9

40,560

88,911

48,351

119.2

41.9
37.2
40.7

43.8
39.1
41.7

1.9
1.9
1.0

4.5
5.1
2.5

497
2,637
12,781

402
4,953
12,739

-9 5
2,316
-4 2

-19.1
87.8
-.3

41.1
40.7
37.0

38.7
38.3
29.0

-2 .4
-2 .4
-8 .0

-5 .8
-5 .9
-21.6

3,490
2,832
8,037

5,660
5,538
20,046

2,170
2,706
12,009

62.2
95.6
149.4

37.3
36.1

36.2
32.6

-1.1
-3 .5

-2 .9
-9 .7

2,346
7,939

5,546
34,027

3,200
26,088

136.4
328.6

N ote: Levels of production/nonsupervisory workers are in thousands.
S ource: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Employment Statistics program.

ingly, when either the total hours or the number of production
workers change, average weekly hours are affected. Follow­
ing are some situations that would cause such changes:
• When individual workers have fewer paid hours in
their current jobs, total hours decrease, causing aver­
age weekly hours to decline.
• When companies begin to employ more part-time
workers while holding on to their full-time workforce,
the average weekly hours total falls as the number of
workers increases at a faster rate than does the figure
for total hours.
• When companies that employ a large percent of parttime workers (that is, companies that have short av­
erage workweeks) grow faster than otherwise com­
parable companies within an industry, average weekly
hours decline.
• When aggregating hours across industries, the aver­
age weekly hours for each industry are weighted (or
m ultiplied) by the proportion of production or
nonsupervisory workers in the industry division. Thus,
if employment in an industry with low average weekly
hours grows faster than the average pace for all in­
dustries in its division, then the low-hours industry
increases its share in the aggregation and the average
weekly hours for all industries would decline.
While the CES survey data do not explain why the work­
week in a particular company or industry is declining, an


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examination of which industries are responsible for the de­
clines can shed light on the various reasons why the aver­
age workweek for the private sector has declined over the
past 35 years.

Shifts am ong industry divisions
Which major industry divisions caused the sharp down­
ward trend in the private sector workweek from 1964 to
1999? During this period, all the goods-producing divisions—
mining, construction, and manufacturing—added hours to
their workweeks. In contrast, the service-producing divi­
sions—transportation and public utilities, wholesale trade,
retail trade, finance, insurance, and real estate, and ser­
vices— all lost hours in their workweeks. (See table 1.)
The two major divisions with the highest number of hours
in 1999—mining and manufacturing— saw a decrease in the
percentage of production workers. The loss of production
workers in these two divisions caused a reduction in their
shares of private sector production workers. This phenom­
enon negatively affected the level of average weekly hours in
private industry, because the goods-producing industries that
had higher average weekly hours carried less weight in the
private sector average. Also, the two industry divisions in
the service-producing sector with the low est average
weekly hours, retail trade and services, experienced the.
largest percent increases in nonsupervisory workers. The
number of nonsupervisory workers increased by 149 per­
cent in retail trade. In services, the figure was even more
dramatic, increasing by 329 percent. With their large and in­
creasing shares of private sector employment and their low
and declining average weekly hours, retail trade and services

Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

27

Average Weekly Hours

were the two industry divisions most responsible for the de­
cline in average weekly hours in private industry.
Retail trade experienced the most significant loss in av­
erage weekly hours—21.6 percent. Services was second with
a nearly 10-percent decline. The level of average weekly
hours in services was just below the level in private indus­
try. (See chart 1.) A further investigation of retail trade and
services explains most of the long-term decline of average
weekly hours in the total private sector.

Declining w orkw eek in retail trade
All of the industries within retail trade exhibited declining
average weekly hours from 1972 to 1999. (See table 2.) Total
retail trade and most of its industries had declining average
weekly hours from 1972 to 1991, followed by small gains in
hours over the 1992 to 1999 period. (See chart 2.) Overall,
from 1972 to 1999, average weekly hours in retail trade fell
by about 13 percent.
The repeals of the Blue Laws may have had a substantial
impact on weekly hours in retail trade. The Blue Laws, stat­
utes that regulated personal and public conduct, originated
in Virginia in 1624. During the late 20th century, repeated
legal challenges to the constitutionality of the Blue Laws
were made in courts, particularly regarding the Sunday clos­
ing of retail and other business establishments.3 In 1961, all
50 States had Sunday closing laws, but by 1991, only 13
States still upheld Blue Laws.4To keep stores open on Sun­
days, establishments would have been likely to hire more
part-time employees, leading to a shortening of the work­
week because the level of total hours would not increase as
quickly as the number of workers. Therefore, the repeals of
the Blue Laws could help explain the decline in average
weekly hours throughout retail industries, including apparel,
furniture, and miscellaneous retail stores (such as toy, jew­
elry, and gift stores).
Table 2.

Just as the repeals of the Blue Laws likely led to the addi­
tion of part-time jobs to cover Sundays, average weekly hours
also would have been affected by the steady proliferation
throughout the United States of shopping malls, with their nu­
merous stores remaining open longer hours throughout the week
than had been the case in earlier years. These longer hours of
operation created the need for more part-time workers to staff
the extra hours. This, in turn, increased the numbers of
nonsupervisory workers with short hours, which lowered the
average hours in a workweek.
From 1972 to 1999, eating and drinking places had the larg­
est percent increase in production workers and the most sig­
nificant percent decrease in average weekly hours among
retail trade industries. Because of eating and drinking places’
increased share in retail trade employment, the lower-thanaverage level of average weekly hours in the industry also
contributed to a decline in the level of retail trade’s average
weekly hours. Most significant was the compounding effect in
eating and drinking places. This industry experienced both the
largest decrease in average weekly hours and the largest in­
crease in nonsupervisory workers, even while maintaining a
very low level of average weekly hours.
The sharpest declines in average weekly hours were in eat­
ing and drinking places during the 1970s. (See chart 2.) During
this period, the gains experienced by eating and drinking places
were caused, in part, by the growth of dual-earner families.
This created a higher demand and supplied the means to pay
for meals away from home.5 Eating and drinking establishments
have met their employment needs by hiring various types of
employees: students needing flexible work schedules, workers
seeking secondary part-time jobs, and retired persons desiring
supplemental income.6 The hiring of large amounts of parttime employees drove down the level of average weekly hours
in eating and drinking places, and with its increased share of
employment in retail trade, it also drove down the division’s
average weekly hours.

Average w eekly hours and employm ent of nonsupervisory workers in retail industries, 1972-99
Nonsupervisory workers

Average w eekly hours
Industry
C hange
1972'

1999
Level

Retail tra d e ........................................
Building m aterials..........................
General m erchandise....................
Food s to re s ....................................
Automotive dealers........................
A pparel...........................................
Furniture.........................................
Eating and d rin k in g .......................
Miscellaneous re ta il.......................

33.4
38.9
31.7
32.8
39.8
31.0
37.0
30.4
34.0

29.0
35.2
29.6
29.9
35.5
26.3
33.0
25.6
29.6

-4 .4
-3 .7
-2.1
-2 .9
-4 .3
-4 .7
-4 .0
-4 .8
-4 .4

’The earliest date of data available for some of the detailed industry series is 1972.
N ote: Levels of nonsupervisory workers are in thousands.

28

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Change
1972'

1999

10,717
442
1,982
1,676
1,497
693
439
2,674
1,316

20,046
826
2,589
3,161
1,969
985
894
7,131
2,491

Percent
-13.2
-9 .5
-6 .6
-8 .8
-10.8
-15.2
-10.8
-15.8
-12.9

Level
9,329
384
607
1,485
472
292
455
4,457
1,175

Percent
87.0
86.9
30.6
88.6
31.5
42.1
103.6
166.7
89.3

Chart 1.

Average weekly hours for the total private sector and selected
industry divisions, 1964-99

Hours
(annual averages)

Chart 2.

Hours
(annual averages)

Average weekly hours of selected retail industries, 1972-99

Hours
(annual averages)

Hours
(annual averages)

34

34

32

- 32

30

-

30

-

28

-

26

28 ,
Retail trade

26

G e n e ral m erchandise

Eating and drinking
24

Li------ ■------ L
1972

1974


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24
1976

1978

1980

1982

1984

1986

1988

1990

1992

1994

1996

Monthly Labor Review

1998

July 2000

29

Average Weekly Hours

T ab le 3.

Average weekly hours and em ploym ent of nonsupervisory workers In selected service
industries, 1972-99
A verage w eekly hours
Industry

Change
1972

S ervices...........................................................
Agricultural service s.....................................
Hotels and m o te ls ........................................
Business s e rvice s........................................
Auto repair, services, and p a rk in g ..............
Miscellaneous repair s e rvice s....................
Motion pictures.............................................
Amusement and recreation s ervice s..........
Health s e rv ic e s ............................................
Legal se rv ic e s ..............................................
Social service s.............................................
Engineering and m anagem ent...................
Services, not elsewhere cla ssified.............

Nonsupervisory workers

33.9
'35.7
33.1
233.3
37.5
40.6
“28.0
“27.2
33.7
34.4
32.7
“37.4
436.1

Change

1999

32.6
34.8
30.9
33.7
35.6
37.9
30.9
26.5
32.9
34.9
31.2
37.3
35.3

1972
Level

Percent

-1 .3
-.9
-2 .2
.4
-1 .9
-2 .7
2.9
-.7
-.8
.5
-1 .5
-.1
-.8

-3 .8
-2 .5
-6 .6
1.2
-5.1
-6 .7
10.4
-2 .6
-2 .4
1.5
-4 .6
-.3
-2 .2

'S tart date is 1982.
2S tartdate is 1988.

11,059
236
718
32,361
349
172
“287
“862
3,083
245
467
“ 1,728
“25

1999

34,027
648
1,569
8,200
963
309
515
1,450
8,845
796
2,422
2,444
41

Level

Percent

22,968
412
851
5,839
614
137
228
588
5,762
551
1,955
716
16

207.7
174.6
118.5
247.3
175.9
79.7
79.4
68.2
186.9
224.9
418.6
41.4
64.0

3Start date is 1981.
“Start date is 1988.
N ote : Levels of nonsupervisory workers are in thousands.

Job growth in services
Like retail trade, the services industry division also had weekly
hours that declined over the 1964-99 period. However the
rapid employment growth in services was the more important
contribution of this industry division to the decline in the
private sector’s weekly hours. Over the period, the services
industry, where average weekly hours are shorter than the
private sector average, experienced a 329-percent increase in
the number of nonsupervisory workers. With its increased
share of private sector employment, the below-average fig­
ure for average weekly hours in services pulled down the pri­
vate sector average. Business services and health services
account for about half of the growth among nonsupervisory
service industry workers, and the workweeks in these two in­
dustries were shorter than the average for all industries. (See
table 3.)
Within business services, help supply services (which is
dominated by temporary help agencies) showed the largest
increase— 2.5 million nonsupervisory workers from 1972 to
1999. Help supply services also had a shorter workweek than
the average for all services industries. Some companies use
such help supply firms to supplement their workforce when
product demand increases. This competitive strategy of us­
ing “just-in-time labor” enables companies to increase flex­
ibility and decrease organizational costs.7
Average weekly hours not only were lower in services than
in all private industries, but were declining as well. The down­

30

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ward pressure on average weekly hours for the services divi­
sion was widespread, as three-fourths of the services indus­
tries showed declines in their workweeks. The increase of
workers in personnel supply also helps to explain the decline
in services average weekly hours, because even though aver­
age weekly hours for help supply are increasing, they are lower
than the overall services average.
T h e d e c l in e i n t h e l e n g t h of the total private workweek over
the last 35 years was caused primarily by the combined ef­
fects of disproportionate employment growth and low and
declining average weekly hours in retail trade and services.
In fact, among the eight private sector industry divisions, re­
tail trade and services had: 1) the shortest workweeks in 1964,
2) the largest declines in average weekly hours measured in
either hours or percentages between 1964 and 1999, and 3)
the highest employment gains over the period on either a level
or percent basis. Within retail trade, average weekly hours
were particularly low and on the decline in eating and drink­
ing places, which experienced strong employment growth.
Within services, strong employment growth in the help sup­
ply industry, which has a shorter-than-average workweek, also
contributed to the decline in average weekly hours in the pri­
vate sector, in spite of its increasing average hours. In addi­
tion, employment declines in mining and manufacturing,
which have high average weekly hours, had a negative im­
pact on average weekly hours in the private sector because
of their decreased shares in private sector employment. □

N o tes
1 The CPS provid es data on several differen t con cep ts o f hours
w orked. Each m onth, all survey respondents are asked about the
total hours w orked at all job s during the survey reference week; a
quarter o f the sam p le respondents each m onth are asked about the
usual hours w orked per w eek on the primary job; and, each year in
a supplem ent to the cps con d u cted in March, all survey respondents
are asked about the usual hours w orked per w eek during the last
year. For further in form ation , see “H ours o f W ork,” R e p o r t o n th e
A m e r i c a n W o r k f o r c e (Bureau o f Labor S ta tistics, 1999), Chapter 3.
2 For a more d etailed exp lan ation o f m ethods for com puting in ­
dustry sta tistics on hours, p lease refer to the “E stablishm ent D ata”
se ctio n (particularly Table 2-A ) o f the “Explanatory N otes and E s­
tim ates o f Error,” in E m p l o y m e n t a n d E a r n i n g s , a m onthly p u b li­
ca tio n s o f the Bureau o f Labor S tatistics.
3 S ee “ B lu e L a w s ,” M i c r o s o f t E n c a r t a O n l i n e E n c y c l o p e d i a

(UM I P ub lication s, H eld ref P u b lication s), on the Internet at h ttp ://
w w w .w e stla w .co m (v isited Sept. 10, 1999).
5 A ccordin g to the Current P opulation Survey, from 1960 to 1999,
the proportion o f traditional fa m ilies (the husband on ly in the la ­
bor force, not the w ife) decreased by 6 9 .2 percent, and the propor­
tion o f dual-w orker fa m ilies (both husband and w ife in the labor
force) increased by 7 1 .8 percent.
6 In 1999, 2 2 .8 percent o f em p loyed persons aged 16 to 19 years
w orked in eating and drinking places; 10.5 percent o f n on agricu ltural w age and salary m ultip le job holders w ere em p loyed in eating
and drinking p laces in their secondary job . In 1999, 5 7 .7 percent
o f persons aged 5 5 -6 4 years were em p loyed ; 12.8 percent o f these
em p loyed persons worked in retail trade. O f them , 17.7 percent were
em p loyed by eatin g and drinking estab lish m en ts. The ab ove data
are from the Current Population Survey.

2 0 0 0 , on the Internet at h ttp ://e n c a r ta .m sn .c o m (v isited A ug. 30,

1 9 9 9 ).
4 See Steven Lagerfeld, “Spending Time,” C u r re n t, February 1, 1999

7 “ ‘J u st-in -T im e’ In ven tories and Labor: A Study o f Two In d u s­
tries, 1 9 9 0 -9 8 ,” R e p o r t o n th e A m e r i c a n W o r k f o r c e (Bureau o f La­
bor S tatistics, 1999), Chapter 1.

Shiskin A w a rd w in n er
Dr. Edwin R. Dean of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics has been awarded the 2000 Julius Shiskin
Award for his important contributions to the improvement and understanding of productivity measures
and for his leadership in international comparisons of labor statistics. Dr. Dean’s expertise and
innovations also have expanded the Bureau of Labor Statistics international technical cooperation
program, thereby fostering the reputation of the United States as a leader in the world’s increasingly
global economy. The award, established by the family of the late Dr. Shiskin and administered by the
Washington Statistical Society and the National Association of Business Economists, honors original
and important contributions to the development and interpretation of economic statistics.


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Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

31

Precis
Firms, plants, and jobs
The bulk of employer-based studies of
jobs and job flows are based on data
collected for individual physical loca­
tions or “establishments” (sometimes
called “plants”). Scott Schuh and Rob­
ert K. Triest, writing in New England
Economic Review, add another per­
spective, that of the firm. A firm is an
entity that may control many estab­
lishments, although roughly four out
of five manufacturing firms are single­
establishment firms. The other fifth,
according to the tabulations the au­
thors have constructed from the Cen­
sus Bureau Longitudinal Database,
account for roughly three-quarters of
manufacturing employment. Thus, la­
bor allocations made among the estab­
lishments of multiplant firms may have
significant consequences and have
very different causes than allocations
between firms.
For example, a multiestablishment
firm may transfer workers among its
plant in an effort to reduce total pro­
duction costs or shift the composition
of output. In contrast, reallocation
between firms is more likely to be due
to changes in product demand. In the
intra-firm case, workers may be trans­
ferred without an intervening spell of
unemployment. In reallocations across
firms, workers let go by firms that re­
duce head co u n ts usually undergo
some period of unemployment.
Schuh and Triest examined flows
of jobs for both single- and m ulti­
establishm ent m anufacturing firms
from 1967 to 1992 and discovered the
following:
•

•

32

Job flows, net and gross, are much
higher at single plant firms than at
multiplant firms.
Job flows between multiplant firms
constitute less than 60 percent of
the total job flows among the es­
tablishments of those firms.

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•

The share of job flows between
firms declines as the number of
plants owned by a firm increases.

•

Excess reallocation, jobs created or
destroyed in excess of what is
needed to achieve the observed
change in a sector’s employment,
is remarkably small among large
firms.

Schuh and Triest conclude their pa­
per by confirming that the labor market
is in constant flux. Among smaller
firms, this flux is characterized by very
high rates of job creation and destruc­
tion, and is more often due to plant
startups and shutdowns. Larger firms
have lower rates of job creation and
destruction.

’Net job growth
The Internet Economy directly sup­
ported about 2.5 m illion workers in
1999, according to a study by the Uni­
versity of Texas at Austin’s Center for
Research in Electronic Commerce. This
re p re se n te d an in cre ase o f about
650,000 jobs compared with 1998— a
hefty 36-percent growth. There are now
more workers employed by Internet
Economy companies than by the Fed­
eral G overnm ent (excluding postal
workers).
Internet Economy companies in­
clude “bricks and mortar” firms— such
as decades-old retailers—that use the
Internet to increase traditional sales as
well as firms for whom the Internet is
th e ir p rim ary b u sin e ss— such as
Internet service providers. Also, some
Internet Economy jobs are newly cre­
ated positions arising from the growth
of the Internet itself, while others are
created because firm s have shifted
workers to take advantage of expanded
Internet-related opportunities.
Revenues also soared for Internet
Economy companies in 1999. The Uni­
versity of Texas study found that rev­

enue was up 62 percent in 1999, to a
level of $523.9 billion. The study esti­
mated that the 2000 level would reach
$850 billion if current conditions con­
tinue.
The study of the Internet Economy
appeared, of course, on the World Wide
Web. It was accessed at http://www.
internetindicators.com on July 5,2000.

Indexing the ’Net
Economy
Measuring the new economy on an
annual basis may not be quick enough
to capture all the action. To keep
closer track, The Industry Standard, a
San Francisco-based newsmagazine
covering the Internet, tabulates a
broad set of Net business momentum
indicators every week. The Internet
Economy Index is a composite of these
Internet business health indicators.
The indicators include stock prices of
20 prominent Net companies, the lat­
est week’s tallies of Net IPOs and other
deals, total traffic, network perfor­
mance, online advertising spending,
public relations or “buzz,” and con­
sumer e-commerce totals. Based on
m ovem ent of these indicators and
qualitative input from the Industry
Standard's editorial staff, each week
is rated on a scale of 1 to 10 (1 is slow­
est and 10 is fastest) representing the
momentum of the Internet Economy.
For the week ended June 23, Industry
Standard analyst Mark Mowery re­
ported, “A dow nturn in online ad
spending and Net traffic levels con­
tributed to another mediocre week in
the Internet economy,” as the Internet
Economy Index remained level at 5. □

We are interested in your feedback on
this column. Write to: Executive Editor,
Monthly Labor Review, Bureau of Labor
Statistics, Washington, DC 20212, or
e-mail MLR@bIs.gov______________

Book Reviews

in c o m e s of A m erican s
The New Dollars and Dreams: American
Incomes and Economic Change. By
Frank Levy. New York, Russell Sage
Foundation, 1998, 248 pp. $16.95,
paperback; $39.95, hardcover.
In the first quarter century after World
War II— from 1946 to 1973— the
economy grew rapidly and achieved
most of the Nation’s economic goals. In
the quarter century since 1973, the
American economy’s performance has
been much weaker. Average wage growth
slowed sharply after the early 1970s. As
a consequence, many of today’s older
workers have not seen significant in­
come gains over their careers, contends
Frank Levy in this book which updates
his 1987 “Dollars and Dreams,” that con­
centrated on the post-1973 slowdown in
productivity and income growth.
But the economy may be entering a
period in which it can once again gener­
ate broadly rising incomes, says the au­
thor. Whether or not this happens de­
pends upon three factors:
1. The growth rate of labor produc­
tivity: the increase in output per
hour of work.
2. The economy’s level of skill bias, the
degree to which new production
processes, including expanding
trade, favor better educated workers
over less educated workers.
3. The quality of the Nation’s equalizing
institutions; public and private
education, the welfare programs,
unions, international trade regu­
lations, and the other political struc­
tures that blunt the most extreme
market outcomes and try to ensure
that most people benefit from
economic growth.
Contrasts and parallels are made.
Sixty percent of white male workers were
over age 35 in 1947, and among white
men age 65, one-half still worked, com­
pared with about one-sixth today. While


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the men were experienced, they did not
have much formal education. Two-thirds
had not finished high school, while only
one-eighth had some college. In 1947,
the average income gap between 30year-old and 40-year-old white men was
7 percent. By the late 1960s, when white
men were better educated, the gap was
13 percent.
Only one-third of black men, compared
with three-quarters of white men, had gone
beyond the seventh grade. Blacks’ weak
position was enforced by both legal and
informal discrimination. But the demands
of war production opened up manufac­
turing jobs to blacks, and encouraged mi­
gration out of the South, largely to North­
ern and Midwestern cities. Black migra­
tion was also forced by the mechaniza­
tion of Southern agriculture, which elimi­
nated farm labor jobs.
During World War II, women’s labor
force participation—the proportion of
women older than 14 years who were
working or looking for work—peaked at
35 percent in 1944, in contrast to today’s
58 percent. At the war’s end, it declined
only modestly to 31 percent in the early
postwar years.
The full employment of the KennedyJohnson years drew more people into the
labor force, and so distributed growing
incomes more equally, and the average
family’s real income grew by 30 percent.
In both 1968 and 1969, the black male
unemployment rate stood at 3.8 percent,
6 percent below its 1955 and 1965 aver­
age and about 4.5 percent below the 1997
level. Low black unemployment was
strong medicine for black incomes. The
proportion of black families headed by
women had risen from 15 percent in 1950
to 22 percent in 1960 and 31 percent in
1969. By itself, the trend should have
caused the black-white income gap to
grow, but the improved economy was
so powerful the ratio of black-to-white
median family incomes increased from
52 to 61.
In the early 1970s, the collapse of pro­
ductivity growth was a sign that U.S.
firms had to organize work in new ways.

But four factors undercut what should
have been competitive pressure to restruc­
ture: (1) Since the late 1940s, better trans­
portation and communication had laid the
groundwork for a more competitive
economy. Competitive forces were held in
check by government regulations. Regu­
lation limited a new firm’s ability to enter
the industry, and an existing firm’s ability
to change prices, both of which reduced
possibilities for competition. (2) Between
1973 and 1979 prices at both the whole­
sale and retail levels rose more than 100
percent. (3) The value of the dollar was
declining abroad. (4) Finally, labor force
demographics provided a buffer of a dif­
ferent kind. Its numbers, amplified by the
baby-boom cohorts and older married
women, saw to it that the labor force grew
at a very rapid 30 percent per decade.
In the 1980 presidential campaign,
Ronald Reagan argued that the role of
government should be limited. People and
business should be given strong incen­
tives to produce more. At the same time,
Reagan proposed a series of supply side
tax cuts. Today, the combination of
Reagan tax cuts and no corresponding
budget cuts, a policy popular at the time,
is blamed for the large Federal budget defi­
cit that extended into the 1990s.
By the late 1980s, most people knew
wages were growing steadily, but grow­
ing job instability, particularly among
white-collar workers, was something new.
In contrast to the blue-collar recession of
1980-82, the layoffs of 1989 was a whitecollar recession. Layoffs and the threats
of layoffs made people cautious about
pushing for wage increases.
For two decades, the most durable eco­
nomic change has been the Nation’s shift
to a service economy, Levy says. Service
firms were often labor intensive, so wage
costs were important. Production was of­
ten spread over many locations, and so
unionization and wage bargaining were
harder. While many manufacturing jobs
required physical strength, sales and cleri­
cal jobs required “soft skills” that women
were supposed to have and less educated
men were supposed to lack, putting the
Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

33

Book Reviews

men at a disadvantage.
Levy identifies four trends in his book:
1. The post-1973 slowdown in wage
growth.
2. The post-1979 surge in skill bias that
lowered demand for high school
graduates and high school dropouts.
3. The long-term employment shift
away from agriculture and goods
production and toward the service
sector.
4. An increasingly competitive environ­
ment and a shift in power away from
employees and toward a firm’s stock­
holders.
By 1996,49 percent of white male work­
ers were in white-collar jobs, up from 32
percent in 1950. In a related trend, white
men increasingly acquired a college edu­
cation. By 1950, 30-year-old white men
with 4 or more years of college earned an
average of 27 percent per year more than
30-year-old men with high school diplo­
mas. This pattern continued throughout
the decade. Among whites in their late
20s, the proportion with 4 or more years
of college rose from 6 percent in 1947 to
12 percent in 1959. Demand grew as well,
however, and the gap between college and
high school earnings of 1960 was 30 per­
cent, slightly higher than in 1950.
Beyond the educational earnings gap,
a second source of earnings inequality
was the growing gap among men and
women with the same race, age, educa­
tion, and so forth. Then in the 1970s and
1980s, many young college graduates
confronted slow career starts. Slow
starts reflected the softness of demand,
enabling employers to enforce appren­
ticeship terms in journalism and other
overcrowded occupations.
Levy points out that most discussions
of earned income focus on inequality in
the broad middle of the earnings distribu­
tion. But the growing share of all income
at the very top of the distribution is in­
creasingly attracting media attention. U.S.
Census Bureau data provide little guid­
ance here. To preserve confidentiality and

34

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elicit the public’s cooperation, the Cen­
sus Bureau imposes upper limits on the
income data it records, and even stricter
limits on the income data it releases for
research analysis. To examine high in­
comes, the best data comes from the U.S.
Treasury Department’s “Statistics of In­
come” which annually reports adjusted
gross incomes from a sample of tax re­
turns. Treasury maintains confidentiality
by recording no information about the tax
filers’ personal characteristics—where
they live, their gender, age or education.
Each observation does include the tax
return’s adjusted gross income and the
source of that income—wages and sala­
ries, interest and dividends, capital gains,
and so on. In 1994, the top 5 percent to­
taled 558,000 tax filers (out of 116 million)
with annual incomes of at least $282,000
in 1994 dollars, equivalent to $302,000 in
1997 dollars. Average income of these high
income taxpayers was $718,000, and about
69,000 tax filing units— one return out of
every 1,700 — had 1994 adjusted gross
income of more than $ 1 million.
However, it should be noted that Inter­
nal Revenue Service numbers are for tax­
able income, very different from the stan­
dard definition of income, and, of course,
much broader than earnings, particularly
when it concerns taxpayers with high in­
comes. Too, Internal Revenue Service
numbers would include income for both
husband and wife for virtually all married
couple families (which would be a large
portion of the high income filers). So
Treasury’s data is difficult to use in con­
nection with Census Bureau and bls data.
After the mid-1970s, and particularly in
the 1980s, economics and demography
worked together, but this time to increase
inequality. We have seen that earnings
inequality grew as a consequence of both
increasing educational requirements and
the growing number of very high earners.
Living arrangements reinforced these
trends, both through the growth of female­
headed families and increased work
among wives of high-income husbands.
Two other trends in this period, however,
moderated the trend in inequality: the

July 2000

growing number of middle-income singles
and rising incomes among elderly fami­
lies. Without these two trends, both fam­
ily and household income inequality
would be even larger than they are now.
Since 1993, as the historic U.S. expan­
sion gathered steam, real income has risen
for families at the bottom of the income
scale as well as for those at the top—in
sharp contrast to the previous 20 years—
the President’s Council of Economic Ad­
visers (CEA) reported in February of this
year. The CEA report was published after
Levy had completed his research, and its
data is therefore not included in The New
Dollars and Dreams. In its annual eco­
nomic report, the CEA contends that from
1993 through 1998, the latest year for
which figures are available, real incomes
for the lowest 20 percent of families rose
an average of 2.7 percent a year—com­
pared with a 0.8-percent annual decline
for the previous 20 years. Real incomes
for this group actually have been going
up faster than for those in the top 20 per­
cent, who averaged a 2.4-percent gain. Of
course, in dollar terms, the increases were
much larger at the top. So far, the more
even nature of the income gains has done
little to reduce the gap between the top
and bottom groups. CEA figures show, for
example, that in 1973, the average income
for the top 20 percent of families was 7.5
percent higher than the average income
for those in the bottom 20 percent. By
1993, that had widened to 11.4 times higher,
and it is close to that today.
Levy’s book does include a thoughtful
explanation of the history of Federal eco­
nomic policies, and includes insights that
may be applied to public policy today. The
technological explosion, coupled with the
increased educational levels of the Ameri­
can workers, is undoubtedly a significant
factor in any analysis of the disparity
between high and low incomes, as well
are international events and social and
foreign policy decisions of every kind.
—Mary Ellen Ayres
Office of Publications
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Current Labor Statistics

Notes on labor statistics .................. 36
Comparative indicators
1. Labor market indicators................................................... 46
2. Annual and quarterly percent changes in
compensation, prices, andproductivity....................... 47
3. Alternative measures of wages and
compensation changes.................................................. 48

Labor force data
4. Employment status of the population,
seasonally adjusted......................................................
5. Selected employment indicators,
seasonally adjusted.................................................
6. Selected unemployment indicators,
seasonally adjusted......................................................
7. Duration of unemployment,
seasonally adjusted......................................................
8. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment,
seasonally adjusted......................................................
9. Unemployment rates by sex and age,
seasonally adjusted......................................................
10. Unemployment rates by States,
seasonally adjusted......................................................
11. Employment of workers by States,
seasonally adjusted......................................................
12. Employment of workers by industry,
seasonally adjusted......................................................
13. Average weekly hours by industry,
seasonally adjusted......................................................
14. Average hourly earnings by industry,
seasonally adjusted......................................................
15. Average hourly earnings by industry...............................
16. Average weekly earnings by industry.............................
17. Diffusion indexes of employment change,
seasonally adjusted......................................................
18. Annual data: Employment status of the population.......
19. Annual data: Employment levels by industry.................
20. Annual data: Average hours
and earnings levels by industry....................................

49
50
51
52
52
53
54
55


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26. Participants in benefits plans, small firms
and government............................................................ 71
27. Work stoppages involving 1,000 workers or more.......... 72

Price data
28. Consumer Price Index: U.S. city average, by expenditure
category and commodity and service groups...............
29. Consumer Price Index: U.S. city average and
local data, all items.......................................................
30. Annual data: Consumer Price Index, all items
and major groups..........................................................
31. Producer Price Indexes by stage of processing...............
32. Producer Price Indexes for the net output of major
industry groups............................................................
33. Annual data: Producer Price indexes
by stage of processing..................................................
34. U.S. export price indexes by Standard International
Trade Classification.....................................................
35. U.S. import price indexes by Standard International
Trade Classification.....................................................
36. U.S. export price indexes by end-use category................
37. U.S. import price indexes by end-use category...............
38. U.S.international price indexes for selected
categories of services....................................................

73
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
84

56
58
59
60
61
62
63
63
64

Labor compensation and collective
bargaining data
21. Employment Cost Index, compensation,
by occupation and industry group...............................
22. Employment Cost Index, wages and salaries,
by occupation and industry group...............................
23. Employment Cost Index, benefits, private industry
workers, by occupation and industry group................
24. Employment Cost Index, private nonfarm workers,
by bargaining status, region, and area siz e...................
25. Participants in benefit plans, medium and large firms.....

Labor compensation and collective
bargaining data—continued

65

Productivity data
39. Indexes of productivity, hourly compensation,
and unit costs, data seasonally adjusted......................
40. Annual indexes of multifactor productivity.....................
41. Annual indexes of productivity, hourly compensation,
unit costs, and prices...................................................
42. Annual indexes of output per hour for selected
industries......................................................................

85
86
87
88

International comparisons data
43. Unemployment rates in nine countries,
data seasonally adjusted............................................... 91
44. Annual data: Employment status of the civilian
working-age population, 10 countries....... ................... 92
45. Annual indexes of productivity and related measures,
12 countries.................................................................. 93

67

Injury and illness data

68

46. Annual data: Occupational injury and illness
incidence rates.............................................................. 94
47. Fatal occupational injuries by event or
exposure....................................................................... 96

69
70

Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

35

Notes on Current Labor Statistics

This section of the R eview presents the prin­
cipal statistical series collected and calcu­
lated by the Bureau of Labor Statistics:
series on labor force; employment; unem­
ployment; labor compensation; consumer,
producer, and international prices; produc­
tivity; international comparisons; and injury
and illness statistics. In the notes that follow,
the data in each group of tables are briefly
described; key definitions are given; notes
on the data are set forth; and sources of addi­
tional information are cited.

G e n e ra l notes
The following notes apply to several tables
in this section:
Seasonal adjustment. Certain monthly
and quarterly data are adjusted to eliminate
the effect on the data of such factors as cli­
matic conditions, industry production sched­
ules, opening and closing of schools, holi­
day buying periods, and vacation practices,
which might prevent short-term evaluation
of the statistical series. Tables containing
data that have been adjusted are identified as
“seasonally adjusted.” (All other data are not
seasonally adjusted.) Seasonal effects are es­
timated on the basis of past experience.
When new seasonal factors are computed
each year, revisions may affect seasonally
adjusted data for several preceding years.
Seasonally adjusted data appear in tables
1-14,16-17,39, and 43. Seasonally adjusted
labor force data in tables 1 and 4-9 were re­
vised in the February 2000 issue of the R e­
view . Seasonally adjusted establishment sur­
vey data shown in tables 1, 12-14 and lb 17 were revised in the July 2000 R eview and
reflect the experience through March 2000.
A brief explanation of the seasonal adjust­
ment methodology appears in “Notes on the
data.”
Revisions in the productivity data in table
45 are usually introduced in the September
issue. Seasonally adjusted indexes and per­
cent changes from month-to-month and
quarter-to-quarter are published for numer­
ous Consumer and Producer Price Index se­
ries. However, seasonally adjusted indexes
are not published for the U.S. average AllItems CPI. Only seasonally adjusted percent
changes are available for this series.
Adjustments for price changes. Some
data—such as the “real” earnings shown in
table 14— are adjusted to eliminate the ef­
fect of changes in price. These adjustments
are made by dividing current-dollar values
by the Consumer Price Index or the appro­
priate component of the index, then multi­
plying by 100. For example, given a current
hourly wage rate of $3 and a current price
36 Monthly Labor Review

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

index number of 150, where 1982 = 100, the
hourly rate expressed in 1982 dollars is $2
($3/150 x 100 = $2). The $2 (or any other
resulting values) are described as “real,”
“constant,” or “1982” dollars.

tional comparisons data, see International
C om parisons o f Unemploym ent, BLS Bulle­
tin 1979.
Detailed data on the occupational injury
and illness series are published in O ccupa­

Sources of information

tional Injuries and Illnesses in the U nited
States, by Industry, a BLS annual bulletin.
Finally, the M onthly L abor R eview car­

Data that supplement the tables in this sec­
tion are published by the Bureau in a variety
of sources. Definitions of each series and
notes on the data are contained in later sec­
tions of these Notes describing each set of
data. For detailed descriptions of each data
series, see b l s H andbook o f M ethods, Bul­
letin 2490. Users also may wish to consult
M ajor P rogram s o f the Bureau o f L abor Sta­
tistics, Report 919. News releases provide

July 2000

the latest statistical information published by
the Bureau; the major recurring releases are
published according to the schedule appear­
ing on the back cover of this issue.
More information about labor force, em­
ployment, and unemployment data and the
household and establishment surveys under­
lying the data are available in the Bureau’s
monthly publication, Em ploym ent and Earn­
ings. Historical unadjusted and seasonally
adjusted data from the household survey are
available on the Internet:
http://stats.bls.gov/cpshome.htm
Historically comparable unadjusted and sea­
sonally adjusted data from the establishment
survey also are available on the Internet:
http://stats.bls.gov/ceshome.htm
Additional information on labor force data
for areas below the national level are pro­
vided in the BLS annual report, G eographic
Profile o f Em ploym ent and Unemploym ent.

For a comprehensive discussion of the
Employment Cost Index, see E m ploym ent
C ost Indexes and Levels, 1 9 7 5 -9 5 , b l s Bul­
letin 2466. The most recent data from the
Employee Benefits Survey appear in the fol­
lowing Bureau of Labor Statistics bulletins:
E m ployee B enefits in M edium a n d Large
Firm s; E m ployee Benefits in Small P rivate
E stablishm ents; and E m ployee B enefits in
State and L ocal G overnm ents.

More detailed data on consumer and pro­
ducer prices are published in the monthly
periodicals, The c p i D e ta ile d R ep o rt and
P roducer P rice Indexes. For an overview of
the 1998 revision of the C P I , see the Decem­
ber 1996 issue of the M onthly L abor R eview .
Additional data on international prices ap­
pear in monthly news releases.
Listings of industries for which produc­
tivity indexes are available may be found on
the Internet:
http://stats.bls.gov/iprhome.htm
For additional information on interna­

ries analytical articles on annual and longer
term developments in labor force, employ­
ment, and unemployment; employee com­
pensation and collective bargaining; prices;
productivity; international comparisons; and
injury and illness data.

Symbols
n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified,
n.e.s. = not elsewhere specified.
p = preliminary. To increase the time­
liness of some series, preliminary
figures are issued based on repre­
sentative but incomplete returns,
r = revised. Generally, this revision
reflects the availability of later
data, but also may reflect other ad­
justments.

Comparative Indicators
(Tables 1-3)
Comparative indicators tables provide an
overview and comparison of major BLS sta­
tistical series. Consequently, although many
of the included series are available monthly,
all measures in these comparative tables are
presented quarterly and annually.
Labor market indicators include em­
ployment measures from two major surveys
and information on rates of change in com­
pensation provided by the Employment Cost
Index (ECl) program. The labor force partici­
pation rate, the employment-to-population
ratio, and unemployment rates for major de­
mographic groups based on the Current
Population (“household”) Survey are pre­
sented, while measures of employment and
average weekly hours by major industry sec­
tor are given using nonfarm payroll data. The
Employment Cost Index (compensation), by
major sector and by bargaining status, is cho­
sen from a variety of BLS compensation and
wage measures because it provides a com­
prehensive measure of employer costs for
hiring labor, not just outlays for wages, and
it is not affected by employment shifts among
occupations and industries.
Data on changes in compensation, prices,
and productivity are presented in table 2.

Measures of rates of change of compensa­
tion and wages from the Employment Cost
Index program are provided for all civil­
ian nonfarm workers (excluding Federal
and household workers) and for all private
nonfarm workers. Measures of changes in
consumer prices for all urban consumers;
producer prices by stage of processing;
overall prices by stage of processing; and
overall export and import price indexes are
given. Measures of productivity (output per
hour of all persons) are provided for major
sectors.
Alternative measures of wage and com­
pensation rates of change, which reflect the
overall trend in labor costs, are summarized
in table 3. Differences in concepts and scope,
related to the specific purposes of the series,
contribute to the variation in changes among
the individual measures.

Notes on the data
Definitions of each series and notes on the
data are contained in later sections of these
notes describing each set of data.

Employment and
Unemployment Data
(Tables 1; 4-20)

Household survey d ata
Description of the series
E m p l o y m e n t d a t a in this section are ob­
tained from the Current Population Survey,
a program of personal interviews conducted
monthly by the Bureau of the Census for the
Bureau of Labor Statistics. The sample con­
sists of about 50,000 households selected to
represent the U.S. population 16 years of age
and older. Households are interviewed on a
rotating basis, so that three-fourths of the
sample is the same for any 2 consecutive
months.

ceding 4 weeks. Persons who did not look for
work because they were on layoff are also
counted among the unemployed. The unem­
ployment rate represents the number unem­
ployed as a percent of the civilian labor force.
The civilian labor force consists of all
employed or unemployed persons in the
civilian noninstitutional population. Persons
not in the labor force are those not classified
as employed or unemployed. This group
includes discouraged workers, defined as
persons who want and are available for a job
and who have looked for work sometime in
the past 12 months (or since the end of their
last job if they held one within the past 12
months), but are not currently looking,
because they believe there are no jobs
available or there are none for which they
would qualify. The civilian noninstitu­
tional population comprises all persons 16
years of age and older who are not inmates
of penal or mental institutions, sanitariums,
or homes for the aged, infirm, or needy. The
civilian labor force participation rate is the
proportion of the civilian noninstitutional
population that is in the labor force. The
employment-population ratio is employ­
ment as a percent of the civilian nonin­
stitutional population.

Notes on the data
From time to time, and especially after a
decennial census, adjustments are made in
the Current Population Survey figures to
correct for estimating errors during the
intercensal years. These adjustments affect
the comparability of historical data. A de­
scription of these adjustments and their ef­
fect on the various data series appears in the
Explanatory Notes of E m p lo y m e n t a n d
E arnings.

Data beginning in 2000 are not strictly
comparable with data for 1999 and earlier
years because of the introduction of revised
population controls. Additional information
appears in the February 2000 issue of Em ­
ploym en t and Earnings.

Definitions
Employed persons include (1) all those who
worked for pay any time during the week
which includes the 12th day of the month or
who worked unpaid for 15 hours or more in
a family-operated enterprise and (2) those
who were temporarily absent from their regu­
lar jobs because of illness, vacation, indus­
trial dispute, or similar reasons. A person
working at more than one job is counted only
in the job at which he or she worked the
greatest number of hours.
Unemployed persons are those who did
not work during the survey week, but were
available for work except for temporary ill­
ness and had looked for jobs within the pre­


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Labor force data in tables 1 and 4-9 are
seasonally adjusted. Since January 1980,
national labor force data have been season­
ally adjusted with a procedure called X-11
a r i m a which was developed at Statistics
Canada as an extension of the standard X11 method previously used by b l s . A de­
tailed description of the procedure appears
in the X -ll a r i m a S e a so n a l A d ju stm e n t
M ethod, by Estela Bee Dagum (Statistics
Canada, Catalogue No. 12-564E, January
1983).
At the beginning of each calendar year,
historical seasonally adjusted data usually
are revised, and projected seasonal adjust­
ment factors are calculated for use during
the January-June period. The historical sea­

sonally adjusted data usually are revised for
only the most recent 5 years. In July, new
seasonal adjustment factors, which incorpo­
rate the experience through June, are pro­
duced for the July-December period, but no
revisions are made in the historical data.
F o r a d d i t i o n a l in f o r m a t i o n on na­
tional household survey data, contact the
Division of Labor Force Statistics: (202) 691—
6378.

Establishment survey d a ta
Description of the series
E m p l o y m e n t , h o u r s , a n d e a r n in g s d a t a

in this section are compiled from payroll
records reported monthly on a voluntary ba­
sis to the Bureau of Labor Statistics and its
cooperating State agencies by about 300,000
establishments representing all industries
except agriculture. Industries are classified
in accordance with the 1987 S tan dard In­
dustrial C lassification (SIC) M anual. In most
industries, the sampling probabilities are
based on the size of the establishment; most
large establishments are therefore in the
sample. (An establishment is not necessar­
ily a firm; it may be a branch plant, for ex­
ample, or warehouse.) Self-employed per­
sons and others not on a regular civilian
payroll are outside the scope of the sur­
vey because they are excluded from estab­
lishment records. This largely accounts for
the difference in employment figures be­
tween the household and establishment
surveys.

Definitions
An establishment is an economic unit which
produces goods or services (such as a fac­
tory or store) at a single location and is en­
gaged in one type of economic activity.
Employed persons are all persons who
received pay (including holiday and sick
pay) for any part of the payroll period in­
cluding the 12th day of the month. Per­
sons holding more than one job (about 5
percent of all persons in the labor force)
are counted in each establishment which
reports them.
Production workers in manufacturing
include working supervisors and nonsupervisory workers closely associated with pro­
duction operations. Those workers men­
tioned in tables 11-16 include production
workers in manufacturing and mining; con­
struction workers in construction; and
nonsupervisory workers in the following in­
dustries: transportation and public utilities;
wholesale and retail trade; finance, insurance,
and real estate; and services. These groups ac­
count for about four-fifths of the total emMonthly Labor Review

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37

Current Labor Statistics

ployment on private nonagricultural payrolls.
Earnings are the payments production
or nonsupervisory workers receive during
the survey period, including premium pay
for overtime or late-shift work but exclud­
ing irregular bonuses and other special
payments. Real earnings are earnings
adjusted to reflect the effects of changes in
consumer prices. The deflator for this series
is derived from the Consumer Price Index
for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical
Workers (CPi-W).
Hours represent the average weekly
hours of production or nonsupervisory work­
ers for which pay was received, and are dif­
ferent from standard or scheduled hours.
Overtime hours represent the portion of av­
erage weekly hours which was in excess of
regular hours and for which overtime premi­
ums were paid.
The Diffusion Index represents the per­
cent of industries in which employment was
rising over the indicated period, plus one-half
of the industries with unchanged employment;
50 percent indicates an equal balance between
industries with increasing and decreasing em­
ployment. In line with Bureau practice, data
for the 1-, 3-, and 6-month spans are season­
ally adjusted, while those for the 12-month
span are unadjusted. Data are centered within
the span. Table 17 provides an index on pri­
vate nonfarm employment based on 356 in­
dustries, and a manufacturing index based on
139 industries. These indexes are useful for
measuring the dispersion of economic gains
or losses and are also economic indicators.

Beginning in June 1996, the b l s uses the
X-12 a r i m a methodology to seasonally ad­
just establishment survey data. This proce­
dure, developed by the Bureau of the Cen­
sus, controls for the effect of varying survey
intervals (also known as the 4- versus 5-week
effect), thereby providing improved mea­
surement of over-the-month changes and un­
derlying economic trends. Revisions of data,
usually for the most recent 5-year period, are
made once a year coincident with the bench­
mark revisions.
In the establishment survey, estimates for
the most recent 2 months are based on in­
complete returns and are published as pre­
liminary in the tables (12-17 in the Review ).
When all returns have been received, the es­
timates are revised and published as “final”
(prior to any benchmark revisions) in the
third month of their appearance. Thus, De­
cember data are published as preliminary in
January and February and as final in March.
For the same reasons, quarterly establish­
ment data (table 1) are preliminary for the
first 2 months of publication and final in the
third month. Thus, fourth-quarter data are
published as preliminary in January and Feb­
ruary and as final in March.
F o r a d d it i o n a l in f o r m a t io n on estab­
lishment survey data, contact the Division of
Monthly Industry Employment Statistics:
(202) 691-6555.

Unem ploym ent d a ta by
State
Description of the series

Notes on the data
Establishment survey data are annually ad­
justed to comprehensive counts of employ­
ment (called “benchmarks”). The latest ad­
justment, which incorporated March 1999
benchmarks, was made with the release of
May 2000 data, published in the July 2000
issue of the R eview . Coincident with the
benchmark adjustment, historical seasonally
adjusted data were revised to reflect updated
seasonal factors. Unadjusted data from April
1999 forward and seasonally adjusted data
from January 1996 forward are subject to
revision in future benchmarks.
In addition to the routine benchmark revi­
sions and updated seasonal factors introduced
with the release of the May 2000 data, all esti­
mates for the wholesale trade division from
April 1998 forward were revised to incorpo­
rate a new sample design. This represented
the first major industry division to convert to
a probability-based sample under a 4-year
phase-in plan for the establishment survey
sample redesign project. For additional infor­
mation, see the the June 2000 issue of Em ploy­
ment and Earnings.

Revisions in State data (table 11) occurred
with the publication of January 2000 data.
38

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July 2000

Data presented in this section are obtained
from the Local Area Unemployment Statis­
tics (LAUS) program, which is conducted in
cooperation with State employment security
agencies.
Monthly estimates of the labor force,
employment, and unemployment for States
and sub-State areas are a key indicator of lo­
cal economic conditions, and form the basis
for determining the eligibility of an area for
benefits under Federal economic assistance
programs such as the Job Training Partner­
ship Act. Seasonally adjusted unemployment
rates are presented in table 10. Insofar as
possible, the concepts and definitions under­
lying these data are those used in the national
estimates obtained from the c p s .

Notes on the data
Data refer to State of residence. Monthly data
for all States and the District of Columbia are
derived using standardized procedures
established by b l s . Once a year, estimates are
revised to new population controls, usually
with publication of January estimates, and
benchmarked to annual average CPS levels.
F o r a d d it i o n a l in f o r m a t io n o n da ta in

this series, call (202) 691-6392 (table 10) or
(202) 691-6559 (table 11).

Compensation and
Wage Data
(Tables 1-3; 21-27)
C o m p e n s a t io n a n d w a g e d a t a are gathered
by the Bureau from business establishments,
State and local governments, labor unions,
collective bargaining agreements on file with
the Bureau, and secondary sources.

Employment Cost index
Description of the series
The Employment Cost Index (ECI) is a quar­
terly measure of the rate of change in com­
pensation per hour worked and includes
wages, salaries, and employer costs of em­
ployee benefits. It uses a fixed market
basket of labor—similar in concept to the
Consumer Price Index’s fixed market basket
of goods and services—to measure change
over time in employer costs of employing
labor.
Statistical series on total compensation
costs, on wages and salaries, and on benefit
costs are available for private nonfarm work­
ers excluding proprietors, the self-employed,
and household workers. The total compensa­
tion costs and wages and salaries series are
also available for State and local government
workers and for the civilian nonfarm economy,
which consists of private industry and State
and local government workers combined. Fed­
eral workers are excluded.
The Employment Cost Index probability
sample consists of about 4,400 private non­
farm establishments providing about 23,000
occupational observations and 1,000 State
and local government establishments provid­
ing 6,000 occupational observations selected
to represent total employment in each sector.
On average, each reporting unit provides
wage and compensation information on five
well-specified occupations. Data are col­
lected each quarter for the pay period includ­
ing the 12th day of March, June, September,
and December.
Beginning with June 1986 data, fixed
employment weights from the 1980 Census
of Population are used each quarter to
calculate the civilian and private indexes
and the index for State and local govern­
ments. (Prior to June 1986, the employment
weights are from the 1970 Census of Popu­
lation.) These fixed weights, also used to
derive all of the industry and occupation
series indexes, ensure that changes in these
indexes reflect only changes in compensa­
tion, not employment shifts among indus-

tries or occupations with different levels of
wages and compensation. For the bargaining
status, region, and metropolitan/non-metropolitan area series, however, employment
data by industry and occupation are not
available from the census. Instead, the 1980
employment weights are reallocated within
these series each quarter based on the cur­
rent sample. Therefore, these indexes are not
strictly comparable to those for the aggre­
gate, industry, and occupation series.

Definitions
Total compensation costs include wages,
salaries, and the employer’s costs for em­
ployee benefits.
Wages and salaries consist of earnings
before payroll deductions, including produc­
tion bonuses, incentive earnings, commis­
sions, and cost-of-living adjustments.
Benefits include the cost to employers
for paid leave, supplemental pay (includ­
ing nonproduction bonuses), insurance, retire­
ment and savings plans, and legally required
benefits (such as Social Security, workers’
compensation, and unemployment insurance).
Excluded from wages and salaries and em­
ployee benefits are such items as payment-in­
kind, free room and board, and tips.

Notes on the data
The Employment Cost Index for changes in
wages and salaries in the private nonfarm
economy was published beginning in 1975.
Changes in total compensation cost—wages
and salaries and benefits combined—were
published beginning in 1980. The series of
changes in wages and salaries and for total
compensation in the State and local govern­
ment sector and in the civilian nonfarm
economy (excluding Federal employees)
were published beginning in 1981. Histori­
cal indexes (June 1981=100) are available on
the Internet:
http://stats.bls.gov/ecthome.htm
F o r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the
Employment Cost Index, contact the Office
of Compensation Levels and Trends: (202)
691-6199.

Employee Benefits Survey
Description of the series
Employee benefits data are obtained from
the Employee Benefits Survey, an annual
survey of the incidence and provisions of
selected benefits provided by employers.
The survey collects data from a sample of
approximately 9,000 private sector and
State and local government establishments.
The data are presented as a percentage of em­


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ployees who participate in a certain benefit, or
as an average benefit provision (for example,
the average number of paid holidays provided
to employees per year). Selected data from the
survey are presented in table 25 for medium
and large private establishments and in table
26 for small private establishments and State
and local government.
The survey covers paid leave benefits
such as holidays and vacations, and personal,
funeral, jury duty, military, family, and sick
leave; short-term disability, long-term dis­
ability, and life insurance; medical, dental,
and vision care plans; defined benefit and
defined contribution plans; flexible benefits
plans; reimbursement accounts; and unpaid
family leave.
Also, data are tabulated on the inci­
dence of several other benefits, such as
severance pay, child-care assistance, well­
ness programs, and employee assistance
programs.

Definitions
Employer-provided benefits are benefits
that are financed either wholly or partly by
the employer. They may be sponsored by a
union or other third party, as long as there is
some employer financing. However, some
benefits that are fully paid for by the em­
ployee also are included. For example, long­
term care insurance and postretirement life
insurance paid entirely by the employee are
included because the guarantee of insurabil­
ity and availability at group premium rates
are considered a benefit.
Participants are workers who are covered
by a benefit, whether or not they use that benefit
If the benefit plan is financed wholly by
employers and requires employees to complete
a minimum length of service for eligibility, the
workers are considered participants whether or
not they have met the requirement. If workers
are required to contribute towards the cost of
a plan, they are considered participants only
if they elect the plan and agree to make the
required contributions.
Defined benefit pension plans use prede­
termined formulas to calculate a retirement
benefit (if any), and obligate the employer to
provide those benefits. Benefits are generally
based on salary, years of service, or both.
Defined contribution plans generally
specify the level of employer and employee
contributions to a plan, but not the formula
for determining eventual benefits. Instead,
individual accounts are set up for partici­
pants, and benefits are based on amounts
credited to these accounts.
Tax-deferred savings plans are a type of
defined contribution plan that allow par­
ticipants to contribute a portion of their sal­
ary to an employer-sponsored plan and defer
income taxes until withdrawal.

Flexible benefit plans allow employees
to choose among several benefits, such as life
insurance, medical care, and vacation days, and
among several levels of coverage within a given
benefit.

Notes on the data
Surveys of employees in medium and large
establishments conducted over the 1979-86
period included establishments that
employed at least 50, 100, or 250 workers,
depending on the industry (most service
industries were excluded). The survey
conducted in 1987 covered only State and
local governments with 50 or more
employees. The surveys conducted in 1988
and 1989 included medium and large
establishments with 100 workers or more in
private industries. All surveys conducted over
the 1979-89 period excluded establishments
in Alaska and Hawaii, as well as part-time
employees.
Beginning in 1990, surveys of State and
local governments and small private
establishments were conducted in evennumbered years, and surveys of medium and
large establishments were conducted in oddnumbered years. The small establishment
survey includes all private nonfarm
establishments with fewer than 100 workers,
while the State and local government survey
includes all governments, regardless of the
number of workers. All three surveys include
full- and part-time workers, and workers in all
50 States and the District of Columbia.
F o r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the
Employee Benefits Survey, contact the Of­
fice of Compensation Levels and Trends on
the Internet:
http ://stats.bls.gov/ebshome.htm

Work stoppages
Description of the series
Data on work stoppages measure the num­
ber and duration of major strikes or lockouts
(involving 1,000 workers or more) occurring
during the month (or year), the number of
workers involved, and the amount of work
time lost because of stoppage. These data are
presented in table 27.
Data are largely from a variety of pub­
lished sources and cover only establish­
ments directly involved in a stoppage. They
do not measure the indirect or secondary
effect of stoppages on other establishments
whose employees are idle owing to material
shortages or lack of service.

Definitions
Number of stoppages: The number of
strikes and lockouts involving 1,000 work­
ers or more and lasting a full shift or longer.
Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

39

Current Labor Statistics

Workers involved: The number of
workers directly involved in the stoppage.
Number of days idle: The aggregate
number of workdays lost by workers in­
volved in the stoppages.
Days of idleness as a percent of estimated
working time: Aggregate workdays lost as a
percent of the aggregate number of standard
workdays in the period multiplied by total
employment in the period.

Notes on the data
This series is not comparable with the one
terminated in 1981 that covered strikes in­
volving six workers or more.
F o r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t io n on work
stoppages data, contact the Office of Com­
pensation and Working Conditions: (202)
691-6282, or the Internet:
http ://stats.bls.gov/cbahome.htm

Price Data

Notes on the data

(Tables 2; 28-38)
are gathered by the Bureau
of Labor Statistics from retail and pri­
mary markets in the United States. Price
indexes are given in relation to a base pe­
riod— 1982 = 100 for many Producer Price
Indexes, 1982-84 = 100 for many Con­
sumer Price Indexes (unless otherwise
noted), and 1990 = 100 for International
Price Indexes.
P r ic e d a t a

Consumer Price Indexes
Description of the series
The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a mea­
sure of the average change in the prices paid
by urban consumers for a fixed market bas­
ket of goods and services. The CPI is calcu­
lated monthly for two population groups, one
consisting only of urban households whose
primary source of income is derived from the
employment of wage earners and clerical
workers, and the other consisting of all ur­
ban households. The wage earner index (CPiW) is a continuation of the historic index that
was introduced well over a half-century ago
for use in wage negotiations. As new uses
were developed for the CPI in recent years,
the need for a broader and more representa­
tive index became apparent. The all-urban
consumer index (CPi-U), introduced in 1978,
is representative of the 1993-95 buying hab­
its of about 87 percent of the noninstitutional
population of the United States at that time,
compared with 32 percent represented in the
CPi-W. In addition to wage earners and cleri­
cal workers, the CPI-U covers professional,
managerial, and technical workers, the selfemployed, short-term workers, the unem­
ployed, retirees, and others not in the labor
40

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force.
The CPI is based on prices of food, cloth­
ing, shelter, fuel, drugs, transportation fares,
doctors’ and dentists’ fees, and other goods
and services that people buy for day-to-day
living. The quantity and quality of these
items are kept essentially unchanged be­
tween major revisions so that only price
changes will be measured. All taxes directly
associated with the purchase and use of items
are included in the index.
Data collected from more than 23,000 re­
tail establishments and 5,800 housing units
in 87 urban areas across the country are used
to develop the “U.S. city average.” Separate
estimates for 14 major urban centers are pre­
sented in table 29. The areas listed are as in­
dicated in footnote 1 to the table. The area
indexes measure only the average change in
prices for each area since the base period, and
do not indicate differences in the level of
prices among cities.

July 2000

In January 1983, the Bureau changed the
way in which homeownership costs are
meaured for the CPI-U. A rental equivalence
method replaced the asset-price approach to
homeownership costs for that series. In
January 1985, the same change was made
in the CPI-W. The central purpose of the
change was to separate shelter costs from
the investment component of home-owner­
ship so that the index would reflect only the
cost of shelter services provided by owneroccupied homes. An updated c p i -u and c p i w were introduced with release of the Janu­
ary 1987 and January 1998 data.
F o r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on con­
sumer prices, contact the Division of Con­
sumer Prices and Price Indexes: (202)
691-7000.

Producer Price Indexes
Description of the series
Producer Price Indexes (PPi) measure av­
erage changes in prices received by domes­
tic producers of commodities in all stages
of processing. The sample used for calcu­
lating these indexes currently contains about
3,200 commodities and about 80,000 quo­
tations per month, selected to represent the
movement of prices of all commodities pro­
duced in the manufacturing; agriculture, for­
estry, and fishing; mining; and gas and elec­
tricity and public utilities sectors. The stageof-processing structure of PPI organizes
products by class of buyer and degree of
fabrication (that is, finished goods, interme­
diate goods, and crude materials). The tradi­
tional commodity structure of p p i organizes
products by similarity of end use or mate­
rial composition. The industry and product

structure of p p i organizes data in
accordance with the Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) and the product code ex­
tension of the sic developed by the U.S. Bu­
reau of the Census.
To the extent possible, prices used in
calculating Producer Price Indexes apply
to the first significant commercial trans­
action in the United States from the pro­
duction or central marketing point. Price
data are generally collected monthly, pri­
marily by mail questionnaire. Most prices
are obtained directly from producing com­
panies on a voluntary and confidential ba­
sis. Prices generally are reported for the
Tuesday of the week containing the 13th
day of the month.
Since January 1992, price changes for the
various commodities have been averaged
together with implicit quantity weights
representing their importance in the total net
selling value of all commodities as of 1987.
The detailed data are aggregated to obtain
indexes for stage-of-processing groupings,
commodity groupings, durability-of-product
groupings, and a number of special composite
groups. All Producer Price Index data are
subject to revision 4 months after original
publication.
F o r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on pro­
ducer prices, contact the Division of In­
dustrial Prices and Price Indexes: (202)
691-7705.

International Price indexes
Description of the series
The International Price Program produces
monthly and quarterly export and import
price indexes for nonmilitary goods traded
between the United States and the rest of the
world. The export price index provides a
measure of price change for all products sold
by U.S. residents to foreign buyers. (“Resi­
dents” is defined as in the national income
accounts; it includes corporations, busi­
nesses, and individuals, but does not require
the organizations to be U.S. owned nor the
individuals to have U.S. citizenship.) The
import price index provides a measure of
price change for goods purchased from other
countries by U.S. residents.
The product universe for both the import
and export indexes includes raw materials,
agricultural products, semifinished manufac­
tures, and finished manufactures, including
both capital and consumer goods. Price data
for these items are collected primarily by
mail questionnaire. In nearly all cases, the
data are collected directly from the exporter
or importer, although in a few cases, prices
are obtained from other sources.
To the extent possible, the data gathered
refer to prices at the U.S. border for exports
and at either the foreign border or the U.S.

border for imports. For nearly all products,
the prices refer to transactions completed dur­
ing the first week of the month. Survey re­
spondents are asked to indicate all discounts,
allowances, and rebates applicable to the re­
ported prices, so that the price used in the cal­
culation of the indexes is the actual price for
which the product was bought or sold.
In addition to general indexes of prices
for U.S. exports and imports, indexes are also
published for detailed product categories of
exports and imports. These categories are
defined according to the five-digit level of
detail for the Bureau of Economic Analysis
End-use Classification (SITC), and the four­
digit level of detail for the Harmonized
System. Aggregate import indexes by coun­
try or region of origin are also available.
bls publishes indexes for selected catego­
ries o f internationally traded services, calcu­
lated on an international basis and on a balance-of-paym ents basis.

Notes on the data
The export and import price indexes are
weighted indexes of the Laspeyres type. Price
relatives are assigned equal importance
within each harmonized group and are then
aggregated to the higher level. The values as­
signed to each weight category are based on
trade value figures compiled by the Bureau
of the Census. The trade weights currently
used to compute both indexes relate to 1990.
Because a price index depends on the same
items being priced from period to period, it is
necessary to recognize when a product’s speci­
fications or terms of transaction have been
modified. For this reason, the Bureau’s ques­
tionnaire requests detailed descriptions of the
physical and functional characteristics of the
products being priced, as well as information
on the number of units bought or sold, dis­
counts, credit terms, packaging, class of buyer
or seller, and so forth. When there are changes
in either the specifications or terms of trans­
action of a product, the dollar value of each
change is deleted from the total price change
to obtain the “pure” change. Once this value
is determined, a linking procedure is em­
ployed which allows for the continued repric­
ing of the item.
For the export price indexes, the preferred
pricing is f.a.s. (free alongside ship) U.S. port
of exportation. When firms report export
prices f.o.b. (free on board), production point
information is collected which enables the
Bureau to calculate a shipment cost to the port
of exportation. An attempt is made to collect
two prices for imports. The first is the import
price f.o.b. at the foreign port of exportation,
which is consistent with the basis for valua­
tion of imports in the national accounts. The
second is the import price c.i.f.(costs, insur­
ance, and freight) at the U.S. port of importa­


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tion, which also includes the other costs as­
sociated with bringing the product to the U.S.
border. It does not, however, include duty
charges. For a given product, only one price
basis series is used in the construction of an
index.
F or additional information on inter­
national prices, contact the Division of In­
ternational Prices: (202) 691-7155.

Productivity Data
(Tables 2; 39-42)

Business sector and m ajor
sectors
Description of the series
The productivity measures relate real output
to real input. As such, they encompass a fam­
ily of measures which include single-factor
input measures, such as output per hour, out­
put per unit of labor input, or output per unit
of capital input, as well as measures of mul­
tifactor productivity (output per unit of com­
bined labor and capital inputs). The Bureau
indexes show the change in output relative
to changes in the various inputs. The mea­
sures cover the business, nonfarm business,
manufacturing, and nonfinancial corporate
sectors.
Corresponding indexes of hourly com­
pensation, unit labor costs, unit nonlabor
payments, and prices are also provided.

Definitions
Output per hour of all persons (labor pro­
ductivity) is the quantity of goods and ser­
vices produced per hour of labor input. Out­
put per unit of capital services (capital pro­
ductivity) is the quantity of goods and ser­
vices produced per unit of capital services
input. Multifactor productivity is the quan­
tity of goods and services produced per com­
bined inputs. For private business and pri­
vate nonfarm business, inputs include labor
and capital units. For manufacturing, in­
puts include labor, capital, energy, non-en­
ergy materials, and purchased business ser­
vices.
Compensation per hour is total compen­
sation divided by hours at work. Total com­
pensation equals the wages and salaries of
employees plus employers’ contributions for
social insurance and private benefit plans,
plus an estimate of these payments for the
self-employed (except for nonfinancial cor­
porations in which there are no self-em­
ployed). Real compensation per hour is
compensation per hour deflated by the
change in the Consumer Price Index for All
Urban Consumers.
Unit labor costs are the labor compen­

sation costs expended in the production of a
unit of output and are derived by dividing
compensation by output. Unit nonlabor
payments include profits, depreciation,
interest, and indirect taxes per unit of out­
put. They are computed by subtracting com­
pensation of all persons from current-dollar
value of output and dividing by output.
Unit nonlabor costs contain all the
components of unit nonlabor payments ex­
cept unit profits.
Unit profits include corporate profits
with inventory valuation and capital con­
sumption adjustments per unit of output.
Hours of all persons are the total hours
at work of payroll workers, self-employed
persons, and unpaid family workers.
Labor inputs are hours of all persons ad­
justed for the effects of changes in the edu­
cation and experience of the labor force.
Capital services are the flow of services
from the capital stock used in production. It
is developed from measures of the net stock
of physical assets—equipment, structures,
land, and inventories—weighted by rental
prices for each type of asset.
Combined units of labor and capital
inputs are derived by combining changes in
labor and capital input with weights which
represent each component’s share of total
cost. Combined units of labor, capital, energy,
materials, and purchased business services are
similarly derived by combining changes in
each input with weights that represent each
input’s share of total costs. The indexes for
each input and for combined units are based
on changing weights which are averages of the
shares in the current and preceding year (the
Tomquist index-number formula).

Notes on the data
Business sector output is an annually-weighted
index constructed by excluding from real gross
domestic product (gdp ) the following outputs:
general government, nonprofit institutions,
paid employees of private households, and the
rental value of owner-occupied dwellings.
Nonfarm business also excludes farming. Pri­
vate business and private nonfarm business
further exclude government enterprises. The
measures are supplied by the U.S. Department
of Commerce’s Bureau of Economic Analy­
sis. Annual estimates of manufacturing sectoral
output are produced by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics. Quarterly manufacturing output in­
dexes from the Federal Reserve Board are ad­
justed to these annual output measures by the
BLS. Compensation data are developed from
data of the Bureau of Economic Analysis and
the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Hours data are
developed from data of the Bureau of Labor
Statistics.
The productivity and associated cost mea­
sures in tables 39-42 describe the relation-

Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

41

Current Labor Statistics

ship between output in real terms and the
labor and capital inputs involved in its pro­
duction. They show the changes from period
to period in the amount of goods and ser­
vices produced per unit of input.
Although these measures relate output to
hours and capital services, they do not mea­
sure the contributions of labor, capital, or any
other specific factor of production. Rather,
they reflect the joint effect of many influences,
including changes in technology; shifts in the
composition of the labor force; capital invest­
ment; level of output; changes in the utiliza­
tion of capacity, energy, material, and research
and development; the organization of produc­
tion; managerial skill; and characteristics and
efforts of the work force.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on this
productivity series, contact the Division of
Productivity Research: (202) 691-5606.

Industry productivity measures
Description of the series
The bls industry productivity data supplement
the measures for the business economy and
major sectors with annual measures of labor
productivity for selected industries at the
three- and four-digit levels of the Standard
Industrial Classification system. The
industry measures differ in methodology
and data sources from the productivity
measures for the major sectors because the
industry measures are developed indepen­
dently of the National Income and Product
Accounts framework used for the major
sector measures.

employees. For some transportation indus­
tries, only indexes of output per employee
are prepared. For some trade and service
industries, indexes of output per hour of
all persons (including self-employed) are
constructed.
for additional information on this se­
ries, contact the Division of Industry Produc­
tivity Studies: (202) 691-5618.

International Comparisons
(Tables 43-45)

Labor force and
unem ploym ent
Description of the series
Tables 43 and 44 present comparative meas­
ures of the labor force, employment, and un­
employment—approximating U.S. con­
cepts—for the United States, Canada, Aus­
tralia, Japan, and several European countries.
The unemployment statistics (and, to a lesser
extent, employment statistics) published by
other industrial countries are not, in most
cases, comparable to U.S. unemployment
statistics. Therefore, the Bureau adjusts the
figures for selected countries, where neces­
sary, for all known major definitional differ­
ences. Although precise comparability may
not be achieved, these adjusted figures pro­
vide a better basis for international compari­
sons than the figures regularly published by
each country.

Definitions

Definitions

Output per hour is derived by dividing an in­
dex of industry output by an index of labor
input. For most industries, output indexes are
derived from data on the value of industry out­
put adjusted for price change. For the remain­
ing industries, output indexes are derived from
data on the physical quantity of production.
The labor input series consist of the hours
of all employees (production and nonproduc­
tion workers), the hours of all persons (paid
employees, partners, proprietors, and unpaid
family workers), or the number of employees,
depending upon the industry.

For the principal U.S. definitions of the la­
bor force, employment, and unemployment,
see the Notes section on Employment and
Unemployment Data: Household survey
data.

Notes on the data
The industry measures are compiled from
data produced by the Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics, the Departments of Commerce, Inte­
rior, and Agriculture, the Federal Reserve
Board, regulatory agencies, trade associa­
tions, and other sources.
For most industries, the productivity
indexes refer to the output per hour of all

42

Monthly Labor Review


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July 2000

Notes on the data
The adjusted statistics have been adapted to
the age at which compulsory schooling ends
in each country, rather than to the U.S. stan­
dard of 16 years of age and older. Therefore,
the adjusted statistics relate to the popula­
tion aged 16 and older in France, Sweden,
and the United Kingdom; 15 and older in
Canada, Australia, Japan, Germany, Italy
from 1993 onward, and the Netherlands; and
14 and older in Italy prior to 1993. The insti­
tutional population is included in the de­
nominator of the labor force participation
rates and employment-population ratios for
Japan and Germany; it is excluded for the
United States and the other countries.
In the U.S. labor force survey, persons on

layoff who are awaiting recall to their jobs are
classified as unemployed. European and
Japanese layoff practices are quite different
in nature from those in the United States;
therefore, strict application of the U.S. defi­
nition has not been made on this point. For
further information, see M onthly L abor R e­
view , December 1981, pp. 8-11.
The figures for one or more recent years
for France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands,
and the United Kingdom are calculated using
adjustment factors based on labor force sur­
veys for earlier years and are considered pre­
liminary. The recent-year measures for these
countries, therefore, are subject to revision
whenever data from more current labor force
surveys become available.
There are breaks in the data series for the
United States (1990, 1994, 1997, 1998),
France (1992), Italy (1991,1993), the Neth­
erlands (1988), and Sweden (1987).
For the United States, the break in series
reflects a major redesign of the labor force
survey questionnaire and collection method­
ology introduced in January 1994. Revised
population estimates based on the 1990 cen­
sus, adjusted for the estimated undercount,
also were incorporated. In 1996, previously
published data for the 1990-93 period were
revised to reflect the 1990 census-based
population controls, adjusted for the un­
dercount. In 1997, revised population con­
trols were introduced into the household sur­
vey. Therefore, the data are not strictly
conparable with prior years. In 1998, new
composite estimation procedures and minor
revisions in population controls were intro­
duced into the household survey. Therefore,
the data are not strictly comparable with data
for 1997 and earlier years. See the Notes sec­
tion on Employment and Unemployment
Data of this R eview .
For France, the 1992 break reflects the
substitution of standardized European Union
Statistical Office ( eurostat) unemployment
statistics for the unemployment data esti­
mated according to the International Labor
Office (ilo) definition and published in the
Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development ( oecd ) annual yearbook and
quarterly update. This change was made be­
cause the eurostat data are more up-to-date
than the oecd figures. Also, since 1992, the
eurostat definitions are closer to the U.S.
definitions than they were in prior years. The
impact of this revision was to lower the un­
employment rate by 0.1 percentage point in
1992 and 1993, by 0.4 percentage point in
1994, and 0.5 percentage point in 1995.
For Italy, the 1991 break reflects a revi­
sion in the method of weighting sample data.
The impact was to increase the unemploy­
ment rate by approximately 0.3 percentage
point, from 6.6 to 6.9 percent in 1991.
In October 1992, the survey methodol-

ogy was revised and the definition of unem­
ployment was changed to include only those
who were actively looking for a job within
the 30 days preceding the survey and who
were available for work. In addition, the
lower age limit for the labor force was raised
from 14 to 15 years. (Prior to these changes,
bls adjusted Italy's published unemploy­
ment rate downward by excluding from the
unemployed those persons who had not
actively sought work in the past 30 days.)
The break in the series also reflects the in­
corporation of the 1991 population census
results. The impact of these changes was to
raise Italy’s adjusted unemployment rate by
approximately 1.2 percentage points, from
8.3 to 9.5 percent in fourth-quarter 1992.
These changes did not affect employment
significantly, except in 1993. Estimates by
the Italian Statistical Office indicate that em­
ployment declined by about 3 percent in
1993, rather than the nearly 4 percent indi­
cated by the data shown in table 44. This dif­
ference is attributable mainly to the incorpo­
ration of the 1991 population benchmarks in
the 1993 data. Data for earlier years have not
been adjusted to incorporate the 1991 cen­
sus results.
For the Netherlands, a new survey ques­
tionnaire was introduced in 1992 that al­
lowed for a closer application of ilo guide­
lines. EUROSTAT has revised the Dutch series
back to 1988 based on the 1992 changes. The
1988 revised unemployment rate is 7.6 per­
cent; the previous estimate for the same year
was 9.3 percent.
There have been two breaks in series in
the Swedish labor force survey, in 1987 and
1993. Adjustments have been made for the
1993 break back to 1987. In 1987, a new
questionnaire was introduced. Questions re­
garding current availability were added and
the period of active workseeking was reduced
from 60 days to 4 weeks. These changes low­
ered Sweden’s 1987 unemployment rate by
0.4 percentage point, from 2.3 to 1.9 percent.
In 1993, the measurement period for the la­
bor force survey was changed to represent
all 52 weeks of the year rather than one week
each month and a new adjustment for popu­
lation totals was introduced. The impact was
to raise the unemployment rate by approxi­
mately 0.5 percentage point, from 7.6 to 8.1
percent. Statistics Sweden revised its labor
force survey data for 1987-92 to take into
account the break in 1993. The adjustment
raised the Swedish unemployment rate by 0.2
percentage point in 1987 and gradually rose
to 0.5 percentage point in 1992.
Beginning with 1987, BLS has adjusted
the Swedish data to classify students who
also sought work as unemployed. The im­
pact of this change was to increase the ad­
justed unemployment rate by 0.1 percentage
point in 1987 and by 1.8 percentage points


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in 1994, when unemployment was higher. In
1998, the adjusted unemployment rate had
risen from 6.5 to 8.4 percent due to the ad­
justment to include students.
The net effect of the 1987 and 1993
changes and the bls adjustment for students
seeking work lowered Sweden’s 1987 unem­
ployment rate from 2.3 to 2.2 percent.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION On this se­
ries, contact the Division of Foreign Labor
Statistics: (202) 691-5654.

Manufacturing productivity
and labor costs
Description of the series
Table 45 presents comparative indexes of
manufacturing labor productivity (output per
hour), output, total hours, compensation per
hour, and unit labor costs for the United
States, Canada, Japan, and nine European
countries. These measures are trend compari­
sons—that is, series that measure changes
over time—rather than level comparisons.
There are greater technical problems in com­
paring the levels of manufacturing output
among countries.
bls constructs the comparative indexes
from three basic aggregate measures—out­
put, total labor hours, and total compensa­
tion. The hours and compensation measures
refer to all employed persons (wage and sal­
ary earners plus self-employed persons and
unpaid family workers) in the United States,
Canada, Japan, France, Germany, Norway,
and Sweden, and to all employees (wage and
salary earners) in the other countries.

Definitions
Output, in general, refers to value added in
manufacturing from the national accounts of
each country. However, the output series for
Japan prior to 1970 is an index of industrial
production, and the national accounts mea­
sures for the United Kingdom are essentially
identical to their indexes of industrial pro­
duction.
The 1977-97 output data for the United
States are the gross product originating (value
added) measures prepared by the Bureau of
Economic Analysis of the U.S. Department
of Commerce. Comparable manufacturing
output data currently are not available prior
to 1977.
U.S. gross product originating is a chaintype annual-weighted series. (For more in­
formation on the U.S. measure, see Robert
E. Yuskavage, “Improved Estimates of Gross
Product by Industry, 1959-94,” Survey o f
C urrent Business, August 1996, pp. 133—
55.) The Japanese value added series is based
upon one set of fixed price weights for the
years 1970 through 1997. Output series for

the other foreign economies also employ fixed
price weights, but the weights are updated
periodically (for example, every 5 or 10 years).
To preserve the comparability of the U.S.
measures with those for other economies, bls
uses gross product originating in manufac­
turing for the United States for these com­
parative measures. The gross product origi­
nating series differs from the manufacturing
output series that bls publishes in its news
releases on quarterly measures of U.S. pro­
ductivity and costs (and that underlies the
measures that appear in tables 39 and 41 in
this section). The quarterly measures are on
a “sectoral output” basis, rather than a valueadded basis. Sectoral output is gross output
less intrasector transactions.
Total labor hours refers to hours worked
in all countries. The measures are developed
from statistics of manufacturing employment
and average hours. The series used for France
(from 1970 forward), Norway, and Sweden
are official series published with the national
accounts. Where official total hours series are
not available, the measures are developed by
bls using employment figures published with
the national accounts, or other comprehen­
sive employment series, and estimates of
annual hours worked. For Germany, bls uses
estimates of average hours worked developed
by a research institute connected to the Min­
istry of Labor for use with the national ac­
counts employment figures. For the other
countries, bls constructs its own estimates
of average hours.
Denmark has not published estimates of
average hours for 1994-97; therefore, the bls
measure of labor input for Denmark ends in
1993.
Total compensation (labor cost) includes
all payments in cash or in-kind made directly
to employees plus employer expenditures for
legally required insurance programs and con­
tractual and private benefit plans. The mea­
sures are from the national accounts of each
country, except those for Belgium, which are
developed by bls using statistics on employ­
ment, average hours, and hourly compensa­
tion. For Canada, France, and Sweden, com­
pensation is increased to account for other sig­
nificant taxes on payroll or employment. For
the United Kingdom, compensation is reduced
between 1967 and 1991 to account for em­
ployment-related subsidies. Self-employed
workers are included in the all-employed-persons measures by assuming that their hourly
compensation is equal to the average for wage
and salary employees.

Notes on the data
In general, the measures relate to total manu­
facturing as defined by the International Stan­
dard Industrial Classification. However, the
measures for France (for all years) and Italy

Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

43

Current Labor Statistics

(beginning 1970) refer to mining and manu­
facturing less energy-related products, and
the measures for Denmark include mining
and exclude manufacturing handicrafts from
1960 to 1966.
The measures for recent years may be
based on current indicators of manufactur­
ing output (such as industrial production in­
dexes), employment, average hours, and
hourly compensation until national accounts
and other statistics used for the long-term
measures become available.
F or additional information on this se­
ries, contact the Division of Foreign Labor
Statistics: (202) 691-5654.

Occupational Injury
and Illness Data
(Tables 46-47)

Survey of O ccu p a tio n al
Injuries and Illnesses

an occupational injury, caused by exposure to
factors associated with employment. It in­
cludes acute and chronic illnesses or disease
which may be caused by inhalation, absorp­
tion, ingestion, or direct contact.
Lost workday injuries and illnesses are
cases that involve days away from work, or
days of restricted work activity, or both.
Lost workdays include the number of
workdays (consecutive or not) on which
the employee was either away from work
or at work in some restricted capacity, or
both, because of an occupational injury or
illness, bls measures of the number and
incidence rate of lost workdays were dis­
continued beginning with the 1993 survey.
The number of days away from work or
days of restricted work activity does not
include the day of injury or onset of illness
or any days on which the employee would
not have worked, such as a Federal holiday,
even though able to work.
Incidence rates are computed as the
number of injuries and/or illnesses or lost
work days per 100 full-time workers.

Notes on the data
Description of the series

The definitions of occupational injuries and
illnesses are from R ecordkeeping G uidelines
fo r O ccupational Injuries and Illnesses (U.S.
Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics, September 1986).
Estimates are made for industries and em­
ployment size classes for total recordable cases,
lost workday cases, days away from work cases,
and nonfatal cases without lost workdays.
These data also are shown separately for inju­
ries. Illness data are available for seven catego­
ries: occupational skin diseases or disorders,
dust diseases of the lungs, respiratory condi­
tions due to toxic agents, poisoning (systemic
effects of toxic agents), disorders due to physi­
cal agents (other than toxic materials), disor­
ders associated with repeated trauma, and all
other occupational illnesses.
The survey continues to measure the num­
ber of new work-related illness cases which
are recognized, diagnosed, and reported dur­
ing the year. Some conditions, for example,
Definitions
long-term latent illnesses caused by exposure
to carcinogens, often are difficult to relate to
Under the Occupational Safety and Health the workplace and are not adequately recog­
Act, employers maintain records of nonfatal nized and reported. These long-term latent ill­
work-related injuries and illnesses that in­ nesses are believed to be understated in the
volve one or more of the following: loss of survey’s illness measure. In contrast, the over­
consciousness, restriction of work or motion, whelming majority of the reported new ill­
transfer to another job, or medical treatment nesses are those which are easier to directly
other than first aid.
relate to workplace activity (for example, con­
Occupational injury is any injury such as tact dermatitis and carpal tunnel syndrome).
Most of the estimates are in the form of
a cut, fracture, sprain, or amputation that re­
sults from a work-related event or a single, in­ incidence rates, defined as the number of in­
stantaneous exposure in the work environment. juries and illnesses per 100 equivalent full­
Occupational illness is an abnormal con­ time workers. For this purpose, 200,000 em­
dition or disorder, other than one resulting from ployee hours represent 100 employee years

The Survey of Occupational Injuries and Ill­
nesses collects data from employers about their
workers’ job-related nonfatal injuries and ill­
nesses. The information that employers provide
is based on records that they maintain under
the Occupational Safety and Health Act of
1970. Self-employed individuals, farms with
fewer than 11 employees, employers regulated
by other Federal safety and health laws, and
Federal, State, and local government agencies
are excluded from the survey.
The survey is a Federal-State coopera­
tive program with an independent sample
selected for each participating State. A
stratified random sample with a Neyman al­
location is selected to represent all private
industries in the State. The survey is strati­
fied by Standard Industrial Classification
and size of employment.

44

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2000

(2,000 hours per employee). Full detail on the
available measures is presented in the annual
bulletin, Occupational Injuries and Illnesses:
Counts, Rates, and Characteristics.

Comparable data for more than 40 States
and territories are available from the bls Of­
fice of Safety, Health and Working Condi­
tions. Many of these States publish data on
State and local government employees in ad­
dition to private industry data.
Mining and railroad data are furnished to
bls by the Mine Safety and Health Adminis­
tration and the Federal Railroad Administra­
tion. Data from these organizations are in­
cluded in both the national and State data
published annually.
With the 1992 survey, bls began publish­
ing details on serious, nonfatal incidents re­
sulting in days away from work. Included are
some major characteristics of the injured and
ill workers, such as occupation, age, gender,
race, and length of service, as well as the cir­
cumstances of their injuries and illnesses (na­
ture of the disabling condition, part of body
affected, event and exposure, and the source
directly producing the condition). In general,
these data are available nationwide for de­
tailed industries and for individual States at
more aggregated industry levels.
F or additional information on occu­
pational injuries and illnesses, contact the
Office of Occupational Safety, Health and
Working Conditions at (202) 691-6180, or
access the Internet at:
http ://www.bls.gov/oshhome.htm

Census of Fatal
O ccupational Injuries
The Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries
compiles a complete roster of fatal job-re­
lated injuries, including detailed data about
the fatally injured workers and the fatal
events. The program collects and cross
checks fatality information from multiple
sources, including death certificates, State
and Federal workers’ compensation reports,
Occupational Safety and Health Administra­
tion and Mine Safety and Health Adminis­
tration records, medical examiner and au­
topsy reports, media accounts, State motor
vehicle fatality records, and follow-up ques­
tionnaires to employers.
In addition to private wage and salary
workers, the self-employed, family mem­
bers, and Federal, State, and local govern­
ment workers are covered by the program.
To be included in the fatality census, the
decedent must have been employed (that is
working for pay, compensation, or profit)
at the time of the event, engaged in a legal
work activity, or present at the site of
the incident as a requirement of his or her
job.

Definition

lease that is available about 8 months after
the end of the reference year. The Census of
Fatal Occupational Injuries was initiated in
1992 as a joint Federal-State effort. Most
States issue summary information at the time
of the national news release.
F or a d d it io n a l inform atio n on the
Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries con­
tact the bls Office of Safety, Health, and
Working Conditions at (202) 691-6175, or
the Internet at:
http ://www.bls.gov/oshhome.htm

related illnesses, which can be difficult
to identify due to long latency periods.

A fatal work injury is any intentional or un­
intentional wound or damage to the body re­
sulting in death from acute exposure to energy,
such as heat or electricity, or kinetic energy
from a crash, or from the absence of such es­
sentials as heat or oxygen caused by a specific
event or incident or series of events within a
single workday or shift. Fatalities that occur
during a person’s commute to or from work
are excluded from the census, as well as work-

Notes on the data
Twenty-eight data elements are collected,
coded, and tabulated in the fatality program,
including information about the fatally in­
jured worker, the fatal incident, and the ma­
chinery or equipment involved. Summary
worker demographic data and event charac­
teristics are included in a national news re­

Bureau of Labor Statistics Internet
The Bureau of Labor Statistics World Wide Web site on the Internet contains a range of
data on consumer and producer prices, employment and unemployment, occupational com­
pensation, employee benefits, workplace injuries and illnesses, and productivity. The
homepage can be accessed using any Web browser:
http://stats.bls.gov

Also, some data can be accessed through anonymous f t p or Gopher at
stats.bls.gov

In the June 2000 Monthly Labor Review, Current Labor Statistics table 7 (Duration of
unemployment) and part 1 of table 28 (Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers) were
inadvertently omitted. Data from the tables can be obtained by clicking the CLS button on
the Review’s homepage at
http:/Avww/bls.gov/opuh/mlr/rnlrhome.htm

or by e-mail to mlr@bls.gov.


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Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

45

Current Labor Statistics:

1.

Comparative Indicators

Labor market indicators
Selected indicators

1998

1998

1999
II

1999

III

IV

I

II

2000
III

IV

1

II

Employment data
Employment status of the civilian noninstitutionalized
population (household survey):1
Labor force participation rate.........................................................

67.1

67.1

67.0

67.0

67.1

67.2

67.1

67.0

67.0

67.5

67.3

Employment-population ratio.........................................................

64.1

64.3

64.1

64.0

64.1

64.3

64.2

64.2

64.3

64.7

64.6

Unemployment rate........................................................................

4.5

4.2

4.4

4.5

4.4

4.3

4.3

4.2

4.1

4.1

4.0

Men................................................................................................

4.4

4.1

4.3

4.5

4.3

4.2

4.2

4.1

4.0

4.0

3.9

16 to 24 years............................................................................

11.1

10.3

10.7

11.5

10.6

10.4

10.4

10.0

10.4

9.7

9.7

25 years and over......................................................................

3.2

3.0

3.1

3.2

3.1

3.0

3.0

3.0

2.9

2.9

2.8

Women..........................................................................................

4.6

4.3

4.6

4.5

4.6

4.4

4.4

4.4

4.2

4.2

4.1

16 to 24 years............................................................................

9.8

9.5

9.7

9.9

9.4

9.8

9.2

9.5

9.4

9.6

9.0

25 years and over......................................................................

3.6

3.3

3.6

3.5

3.6

3.4

3.4

3.3

3.1

3.2

3.2

Employment, nonfarm (payroll data), in thousands:1
Total..................................................................................................

125,865

128,786

125,486

126,180

126,967

127,800

128,430

129,073

129,783

130,626

131,537

Private sector................................................................................

106,042

108,616

105,726

106,321

107,016

107,741

108,319

108,874

109,507

110,195

110,711

Goods-producing........................................................................

25,414

25,482

25,427

25,408

25,469

25,488

25,454

25,459

25,524

25,680

25,704

Manufacturing.........................................................................

18,805

18,543

18,871

18,765

18,716

18,632

18,543

18,516

18,482

18,481

18,487

100,451

103,304

100,059

100,772

101,498

102,312

102,976

103,614

104,259

104,946

105,833

Service-producing.......................................................................
Average hours:
Private sector................................................................................

34.6

34.5

34.6

34.6

34.6

34.5

34.5

34.5

34.5

34.5

34.5

Manufacturing.............................................................................

41.7

41.7

41.7

41.7

41.7

41.6

41.7

41.8

41.7

41.7

41.7

Overtime...................................................................................

4.6

4.6

4.6

4.6

4.5

4.5

4.6

4.6

4.7

4.6

4.7

Employment Cost Index2
Percent change in the ECI, compensation:
All workers (excluding farm, household and Federal workers)....

3.4

3.4

.8

1.2

.6

.4

1.0

1.1

.9

1.3

-

Private industry workers...............................................................

3.5

3.4

.9

1.1

.6

.4

1.1

.9

.9

1.5

-

Goods-producing3....................................................................

2.8

3.4

.8

.7

.5

.8

.7

.9

1.0

1.6

-

Service-producing3...................................................................

3.8
3.0

3.4
3.4

.8
.3

1.3
1.5

.6
.6

.3
.5

1.3
.4

.9
1.5

.8
1.0

1.4
.6

Union................................................................................................

3.0

2.7

1.0

1.1

.5

.4

.7

.9

.7

1.3

-

Nonunion..........................................................................................

3.5

3.6

.8

1.1

.6

.5

1.2

.9

1.0

1.5

-

State and local government workers...........................................

_
-

Workers by bargaining status (private industry):

1 Quarterly data seasonally adjusted.
2 Annual changes are December-to-December changes. Quarterly changes are calculated using the last month of each quarter.
3 Goods-producing industries include mining, construction, and manufacturing. Service-producing industries include all other private sector industries.

NOTE:

46

Dash indicates data not available.

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2000

2.

Annual and quarterly percent changes in compensation, prices, and productivity
Selected measures

1998

1998

1999
I

II

1999
III

IV

1

II

2000
III

IV

1

Compensation data1’2
Employment Cost Index— compensation (wages,
salaries, benefits):
Civilian nonfarm.........................................................................

3.4

3.4

0.8

0.8

1.2

0.6

0.4

1.0

1.1

0.9

1.3

Private nonfarm....................................................................

3.5

3.4

.9

.9

1.1

.6

.4

1.1

.9

.9

1.5

Employment Cost Index— wages and salaries:
Civilian nonfarm.......................................................................

3.7

3.5

.9

.7

1.3

.7

.5

1.0

1.1

.8

1.1

Private nonfarm....................................................................

3.9

3.5

1.1

.9

1.3

.6

.5

1.2

.9

.9

1.2

1.6

2.7

.6

.5

.4

.2

.7

.7

1.0

.2

1.7

Finished goods...........................................................................

.0

2.9

-.8

.5

-.1

.4

.0

1.2

1.5

.1

1.6

Finished consumer goods....................................................

.0

3.8

-1 .0

.8

.0

.2

.0

1.8

2.2

-.2

2.0

Price data1
Consumer Price Index (All Urban Consumers): All Items......
Producer Price Index:

Capital equipm ent..................................................................

.0

.3

.0

- .5

- .4

.9

-.1

- .4

- .4

1.2

.1

Intermediate materials, supplies, and components...............

-3 .3

3.7

-1 .4

.2

-.5

-1 .6

-.2

1.9

1.9

.1

2.0

Crude materials...........................................................................

-16.7

15.3

-8 .8

-1 .8

-5 .6

-2 .5

-.1

9.4

10.2

-3 .5

9.5

Productivity data3
Output per hour of all persons:
Business sector...........................................................................

2.9

3.2

4.8

.7

3.5

4.3

2.9

.8

4.7

6.6

1.8

Nonfarm business sector...........................................................

2.8

3.0

4.7

1.0

3.2

4.1

2.7

.5

5.0

6.9

2.4

Nonfinancial corporations4........................................................

4.0

4.0

3.7

3.9

5.9

3.1

4.1

3.4

4.0

5.1

3.6

1

Annual changes are December-to-December changes.

Quarterly changes are

calculated using the last month of each quarter. Compensation and price data are not
seasonally adjusted, and the price data are not compounded.

cent changes reflect annual rates of change in quarterly indexes. The data are
seasonally adjusted.
4

Output per hour of all employees.

2 Excludes Federal and private household workers.
3 Annual rates of change are computed by comparing annual averages. Quarterly per­


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

47

Current Labor Statistics:

Comparative Indicators

3. Alternative measures of w ag e and compensation changes
Quarterly average
Components

1998
IV

Four quarters ending—

1999
I

III

II

IV

2000

1998

I

IV

1999
1

II

2000
III

IV

1

Average hourly compensation:1
All persons, business sector...............................................................

5.4

5.3

4.9

4.5

4.1

5.2

4.9

4.5

4.3

4.3

3.4

3.0

3.2

3.1

3.4

4.3

3.5
3.0

3.0
3.0

3.3
2.7

3.1

4.6

3.0
2.9

3.4

2.5
3.2

3.4
2.7

3.0

2.9

3.6
3.4

3.3
3.2

3.5
3.5

4.0
4.2

4.9

4.9

5.1

4.5

3.3

3.5

4.6

4.2

4.7

4.6

3.8

4.1

5.4
5.4

1.0
1.1

1.1

.9

1.3

.9
.9

.9
.7

1.5
1.3

1.0
1.0

1.5
.6

3.5
3.0

Employment Cost Index— compensation:
Civilian nonfarm2..................................................................................

.6

.4
.4

Union.................................................................................................
Nonunion...........................................................................................

.6
.5

.4

.7

.6

.5

1.2

State and local governments...........................................................

.6

.5

.4

.9
1.5

.7

.5

1.0

1.1

.8

1.1

3.7

3.3

3.6

.6

.5
.4

1.2

.9
.7

.9

1.2

3.9

3.3

3.6

3.6
4.7
3.6

Employment Cost Index— wages and salaries:
Civilian nonfarm2..................................................................................
Union..................................................................................................

.5
.7

.9

.6
.9

.5
1.3

3.3
4.0

3.1
3.3

3.1
3.7

2.6

.5

.8
1.2

2.5

Nonunion...........................................................................................

3.3

3.6

2.7
4.4

State and local governments...........................................................

.7

.4

.4

1.9

.9

.6

3.1

2.9

3.1

3.3

3.6

3.8

1 Seasonally adjusted. "Quarterly average" is percent change from a quarter ago, at an annual rate.
2 Excludes Federal and household workers.

48

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June 1999

4. Employment status of the population, by sex, age, race, and Hispanic origin, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]

Employment status

Annual average

1999

2000

1998

1999

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

205,220
137,673
67.1
131,463

207,753
139,368
67.1
133,488

207,427

207,632

207,828

208,483
139,697
67.0
133,940

208,666
139,834
67.0
134,098

208,907

139,336
67.0
133,399

208,265
139,475
67.0
133,650

208,782

139,332
67.1
133,398

208,038
139,372
67.0
133,530

208,832

139,013
67.0
133,190

140,108
67.1
134,420

140,910
67.5
135,221

141,165
67.6
135,362

209,053
140,867
67.4
135,159

209,216
141,230
67.5
135,706

209,371
140,489
67.1
134,715

64.1
6,210
4.5
67,547

64.3
5,880
4.2
68,385

64.2

64.2
5,934
4.3
68,300

64.2
5,937
4.3
68,492

64.2
5,842
4.2
68,666

64.2

64.2

64.3

64.4

5,825
4.2
68,790

5,757
4.1
68,786

5,736
4.1
68,832

5,688
4.1
68,724

64.8
5,689
4.0
67,872

64.8
5,804
4.1
67,742

64 7

5,823
4.2
68,414

5,708
4.1
68,187

64 9
5,524
3.9
67,986

64.3
5,774
4.1
68,882

TOTAL
Civilian noninstitutional
Civilian labor force............
Participation rate........
Employed......................
Employment-popUnemployed.................
Unemployment rate...
Not in the labor force......

Men, 20 years and over
Civilian noninstitutional
90,790

91,555

91,368

91,487

91,561

91,692

91,793

91,896

91,986

92,052

92,057

92,092

92,145

92,303

92,408

Civilian labor force............
Participation rate........
Employed......................
Employment-pop-

69,715
76.8
67,135

70,194
76.7
67,761

69,978
76.6
67,470

70,116
76.6
67,645

70,167
76.6
67,703

70,240
76.6
67,768

70,328
76.6
67,943

70,339
76.5
67,898

70,388
76.5
68,037

70,529
76.6
68,197

70,917
77.0
68,585

71,120
77.2
68,691

70,822
76.9
68,480

70,761
76.7
68,481

70,603
76.4
68,230

73.9

73.8
2,224

2,246

73.9
2,256

73.9
2,237

74.0
2,189

73.9
2,206

74.0
2,262

74.1
2,227

74.5
2,303

74.6
2,309

74.3

2,350

74.0
2,244

73.9

Agriculture..................
Nonagricultural
industries................
Unemployed..................
Unemployment rate...

2,232

74.2
2,213

73.8
2,217

64,785
2,580
3.7

65,517
2,433
3.5

65,246
2,508
3.6

65,399
2,471
3.5

65,447
2,464
3.5

65,531
2,472
3.5

65,754
2,385
3.4

65,692
2,441
3.5

65,775
2,351
3.3

65,970
2,332
3.3

66,282
2,332
3.3

66,382
2,429
3.4

66,249
2,342
3.3

66,269
2,280
3.2

66,013
2,373
3.4

98,786
59,702
60.4
57,278

100,158
60,840
60.7
58,555

100,008
60,708
60.7
58,483

100,131
60,988
60.9
58,647

100,203
60,852
60.7
58,477

100,285
60,904
60.7
58,648

100,385
60,860
60.6
58,630

100,458
60,955
60.7
58,800

100,573
61,052
60.7
58,838

100,666
61,154
60.7
58,958

100,579
61,576
61.2
59,280

100,666
61,575
61.2
59,398

100,713
61,671
61.2
59,422

100,809
61,920
61.4
59,757

100,929
61,614
61.0
59,248

58.0
768

58.5
803

58.5
820

58.6
851

58.4

58.5
780

58.4

798

778

58.5
800

58.5
768

58.6
791

58.9
826

59.0
871

59.0
894

59.3
899

58.7
864

56,510
2,424
4.1

57,752
2,285
3.8

57,663
2,225
3.7

57,796
2,341
3.8

57,679
2,375
3.9

57,868
2,256
3.7

57,852
2,230
3.7

58,000
2,155
3.5

58,070
2,214
3.6

58,167
2,196
3.6

58,454
2,297
3.7

58,526
2,178
3.5

58,528
2,249
3.6

58,858
2,163
3.5

58,383
2,367
3.8

15,644
8,256
52.8
7,051

16,040
8,333
52.0
7,172

16,051
8,327
51.9
7,237

16,014
8,228
51.4
7,106

16,065
8,317
51.8
7,219

16,061
8,228
51.2
7,114

16,086
8,287
51.5
7,077

16,129
8,403
52.1
7,242

16,107
8,394
52.1
7,223

16,114
8,425
52.3
7,265

16,147
8,416
52.1
7,356

16,149
8,470
52.4
7,273

16,196
8,374
51.7
7,257

16,104
8,549
53.1
7,467

16,034
8,271
51.6
7,237

45.1
261

44.7
234

45.1
246

44.4

44.9
224

44.3
217

44.0
212

44.9
232

44.8
280

45.1
261

45.6
242

45.0
228

44.8
233

46.4

233

243

45.1
217

6,790
1,205
14.6

6,938
1,162
13.9

6,991
1,090
13.1

6,873
1,122
13.6

6,995
1,098
13.2

6,897
1,114
13.5

6,865
1,210
14.6

7,010
1,161
13.8

6,943
1,171
14.0

7,004
1,160
13.8

7,114
1,060
12.6

7,046
1,197
14.1

7,024
1,117
13.3

7,224
1,082
12.7

7,020
1,034
12.5

173,085

172,859
116,193
67.2
111,898

172,999
116,518
67.4
112,115

173,133
116,492
67.3
112,193

173,275

173,432

173,821
117,008
67.3
112,951

117,716
67.7
113,704

173,886
117,821
67.8
113,634

173,983
117,832
67.7
113,630

174,197

116,495
67.2
112,303

173,709
116,703
67.2
112,611

174,092

116,619
67.3
112,308

173,585
116,654
67.2
112,548

173,812

116,509
67.3
112,235

117,988
67.8
113,915

117,097
67.2
112,988

64.8
4,273
3.7

64.7
4,295
3.7

64.8
4,403
3.8

64.8
4,299
3.7

64.8
4,311
3.7

64.8
4,192
3.6

64.8
4,106
3.5

64.8
4,092
3.5

65.0
4,057
3.5

65.4
4,011
3.4

65.3
4,187
3.6

65.3
4,202
3.6

65.4
4,073
3.5

64.9
4,108
3.5

25,135

25,161

16,636
66.2
15,444

16,596
66.0
15,261
60.7
1,335
8.0

Women, 20 years and over
Civilian noninstitutional
Civilian labor force............
Participation rate........
Employed......................
Employment-population ratio2............
Agriculture..................
Nonagricultural
industries................
Unemployed..................
Unemployment rate....

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years
Civilian noninstitutional
population1........................
Civilian labor force............
Participation rate........
Employed......................
Employment-population ratio2............
Agriculture..................
Nonagricultural
industries................
Unemployed..................
Unemployment rate....

White
Civilian noninstitutional
population1........................ 171,478
Civilian labor force............. 115,415
Participation rate........
67.3
Employed...................... 110,931
Employment-pop64.7
ulation ratio2............
Unemployed..................
4,484
Unemployment rate....
3.9

Black
Civilian noninstitutional
population1........................
Civilian labor force.............
Participation rate........
Employed......................
Employment-pop-

24,373
15,982
65.6
14,556

24,855

24,798

24,833

24,867

24,904

25,019

25,051

25,047

16,290
65.7
15,053

16,308
65.7
15,069

16,366
65.8
14,962

16,321
65.5
15,047

24,946
16,474
66.0
15,114

24,985

16,365
65.8
15,056

16,489
66.0
15,124

16,508
66.0
15,187

16,513
65.9
15,204

16,622
66.4
15,254

25,076
16,785
66.9
15,471

25,105
16,572
66.0
15,356

ulation ratio2............
Unemployed..................
Unemployment rate....

59.7
1,426
8.9

60.6
1,309
8.0

60.7
1,237
7.6

60.7
1,239
7.6

60.2
1,404
8.6

60.4
1,274
7.8

60.6
1,360
8.3

60.5
1,365
8.3

60.7

60.7
1,309
7.9

60.9
1,368
8.2

61.7
1,314
7.8

61.2

61.4

1,321
8.0

1,216
7.3

1,191
7.2

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

49

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

4. Continued—Employment status of the population, by sex, age, race, and Hispanic origin, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]

Employment status

2000

1999

Annual average
1998

1999

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

21,070

21,650

21,548

21,618

21,684

21,752

21,820

21,881

21,947

22,008

22,047

22,108

22,166

22,231

22,292

14,317
67.9
13,291

14,665
67.7
13,720

14,555
67.5
13,574

14,624
67.6
13,655

14,617
67.4
13,696

14,710
67.6
13,759

14,766
67.7
13,795

14,809
67.7
13,879

14,887
67.8
13,979

14,984
68.1
14,095

15,251
69.2
14,395

15,249
69.0
14,382

15,313
69.1
14,355

15,355
69.1
14,524

15,322
68.7
14,432

63.1

63.4

63.2
921
6.3

63.3
951
6.5

63.2
971
6.6

63.4
930
6.3

63.7

64.0

908
6.1

889
5.9

65.3
856
5.6

65.1
868
5.7

64.8
958
6.3

65.3
831
5.4

64.7

945
6.4

63.0
981
6.7

63.2

1,026
7.2

Hispanic origin
Civilian noninstitutional

Participation rate........
Employment-pop-

Unemployment rate...

969
6.6

890
5.8

1 The population figures are not seasonally adjusted.

data for the "other races" groups are not presented and Hispanics are included in both the

2 Civilian employment as a percent of the civilian noninstitutional population.

wh'te ancl black population groups.

NOTE: Detail for the above race and Hispanic-origin groups will not sum to totals because

5.

Selected employment indicators, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[In thousands]

Selected categories

2000

1999

Annual average

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

1998

1999

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Men........................................
Women..................................

131,463
70,693
60,771

133,488
71,446
62,042

133,190
71,207
61,983

133,398
71,330
62,068

133,399
71,437
61,962

133,530
71,436
62,094

133,650
71,630
62,020

133,940
71,623
62,317

134,098
71,732
62,366

134,420
71,927
62,493

135,221
72,358
62,863

135,362
72,473
62,889

135,159
72,313
62,846

135,706
72,307
63,399

134,715
71,948
62,767

Married men, spouse
present................................

42,923

43,254

42,997

43,279

43,350

43,368

43,367

43,206

43,273

43,283

43,951

43,535

43,297

43,272

43,216

Married women, spouse
present................................

32,872

33,450

33,442

33,758

33,387

33,504

33,275

33,521

33,635

33,762

34,166

33,882

33,780

33,877

33,786

Women who maintain
families................................

7,904

8,229

8,081

8,028

8,272

8,335

8,312

8,398

8,526

8,375

8,362

8,220

8,082

8,307

8,301

Wage and salary workers.....
2,000
1,341
Self-employed workers........
38
Unpaid family workers.........
Nonagricultural industries:
Wage and salary workers..... 119,019
Government..........................
18,383
Private industries................. 100,637
962
Private households........
99,674
Other...............................
8,962
Self-employed workers.......
103
Unpaid family workers.........

1,944
1,297
40

1,930
1,330
36

1,923
1,341

1,939
1,292
45

1,908
1,266
46

1,930
1,198
40

1,936
1,267
42

2,049
1,216
41

2,018
1,211
36

2,024
1,320
38

2,025
1,344
51

2,043
1,292
42

2,054
1,272
43

2,006
1,252
38

121,323
18,903
102,420
933
101,487
8,790
95

121,311
18,771
102,540
914
101,626
8,726
61

121,006
19,007

121,150
19,114
102,036
873
101,163
9,000
93

121,583

121,965
18,902
103,063
944
102,119
8,686
108

18,959
103,467
948
102,519
8,662
98

122,823
19,013
103,810
952
102,858
8,802
92

123,166
19,394
103,772
1,016
102,756
8,793
74

123,169
19,598
103,571
998
102,573
8,704
107

123,623
19,280
104,343
1,019
103,324

122,860

19,080
102,503
1,035
101,468
8,791
100

121,654
18,817
102,837
939
101,898
8,833
101

122,426

101,999
983
101,016
8,840
88

121,188
19,032
102,156
944
101,212
8,820
77

8,750
103

19,169
103,691
953
102,783
8,714
82

3,665

3,357

3,399

3,377

3,316

3,279

3,283

3,179

3,274

3,320

3,219

3,139

3,124

3,124

3,248

2,095

1,968

1,950

2,048

1,974

1,904

1,922

1,928

1,930

1,951

1,893

1,807

1,820

1,844

1,962

1,258

1,079

1,116

1,045

1,050

1,057

1,073

993

1,032

1,025

1,012

1,023

953

1,016

978

18,530

18,758

18,692

18,716

18,983

19,230

18,801

18,799

18,651

18,618

18,889

19,031

18,770

18,474

18,409

3,501

3,189

3,229

3,209

3,142

3,127

3,112

2,983

3,105

3,157

3,066

2,985

3,003

3,021

3,096

1,997

1,861

1,845

1,902

1,850

1,813

1,806

1,807

1,815

1,843

1,801

1,705

1,766

1,782

1,840

1,228

1,056

1,089

1,031

1,034

1,041

1,063

964

1,013

1,018

966

1,005

922

989

962

17,954

18,197

18,138

18,106

18,466

18,652

18,273

18,249

18,083

18,061

18,347

18,406

18,184

17,943

17,853

Characteristic
Employed, 16 years and over..

Class of worker
agriculture:

39

Persons at work part time1
All industries:
Part time for economic
reasons...............................
Slack work or business
conditions.......................
Could only find part-time
Part time for noneconomic
reasons..............................
Nonagricultural industries:
Part time for economic
reasons...............................
Slack work or business
conditions.......................
Could only find part-time
Part time for noneconomic
reasons..............................

1 Excludes persons "with a job but not at work" during the survey period for such reasons as vacation, illness, or industrial disputes.

50

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2000

6.

Selected unemployment indicators, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[Unemployment rates]

Selected categories

Annual average
1998

1999

1999
May

June

July

Aug.

2000

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

12.5

Characteristic
Total, 16 years and over.............................
Both sexes,

16 to

19 years.....................

4.5

4.2

4.2

4.3

4.3

4.2

4.2

4.1

4.1

4.1

4.0

4.1

4.1

14.6

13.9

13.1

13.6

13.2

13.5

14.6

13.8

14.0

13.8

12.6

14.1

13.3

3.9
12.7

4.1

Men, 20 years and over...........................

3.7

3.5

3.6

3.5

3.5

3.5

3.4

3.5

3.3

3.3

3.3

3.4

3.3

3.2

3.4

Women, 20 years and over....................

4.1

3.8

3.7

3.8

3.9

3.7

3.7

3.5

3.6

3.6

3.7

3.5

3.6

3.5

3.8

White, total...............................................

3.9

3.7

3.7

3.8

3.7

3.7

3.6

3.5

3.5

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years................
Men, 16 to 19 years.........................

12.6
14.1

12.0

11.4

12.0

11.7

12.0

3.5
12.2

12.2

12.0

12.3

12.3
12.7

11.8

12.6

11.4
11.7

11.9

12.8

Women, 16 to 19 years..................

10.9
3.2
3.4

11.3
3.0
3.3

10.6

12.0

11.1

11.0

11.9

11.7

11.2

3.1
3.3

3.2
3.4

3.1
3.3

3.2
3.2

2.9
3.2

2.9
3.1

2.8
3.1

Men, 20 years and over.....................
Women, 20 years and over...............

3.4

3.6

3.6

3.5

3.5

12.5

11.7

13.3

10.8
12.4

14.4

11.3

11.6
13.0

10.6
10.7

10.9

9.1

12.1

10.0

10.5

2.8
3.0

2.8
3.1

10.4
2.9

2.9
3.2

2.8

2.8
3.3

3.1

3.1

Black, total................................................

8.9

8.0

7.6

7.6

8.6

7.8

8.3

8.3

8.0

7.9

8.2

7.8

7.3

7.2

8.0

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years................

27.6

27.9

25.2

24.8

26.9

28.1

25.3

23.9

30.9

27.9

28.8

24.0
23.8

22.4

6.3

7.1

7.0

7.0

7.4

26.6
7.1

28.9

7.2

26.1
7.7

27.5
23.0

Men, 20 years and over.....................

21.2
6.4

31.0
25.9

22.2
22.0

22.5
6.6

29.6
26.7

25.1
21.3

25.1
6.7

30.7
23.4

24.3
22.3

23.9

30.1
25.3
7.4

30.8
35.3

28.4

Men, 16 to 19 years........................

30.8
30.3
31.4

6.4

6.6

7.2

Women, 20 years and over................

7.9

6.8

6.5

6.7

7.7

6.9

6.7

6.1

6.6

6.7

7.2

6.5

6.1

5.8

7.0

Hispanic origin, total.............................

7.2

6.4

6.7

6.6

6.3

6.5

6.6

6.3

6.1

5.9

5.6

5.7

6.3

5.4

5.8

Married men, spouse present.............

2.4

2.2

2.2

2.3

2.3

2.2

2.2

2.1

2.2

2.0

2.1

1.9

2.9
7.2

2.7

2.7

2.7

2.6
6.4

2.5

2.5

2.9

6.0
3.9
4.9

2.6
6.1

2.6

6.0
4.0
4.7

2.6
6.2

4.0
5.0

2.5
6.2
3.9
4.9

2.0
2.7

1.8

Married women, spouse present........

2.3
2.6

3.9
4.6

3.9

3.8

6.3
3.8

6.5
3.9

4.9

5.1

4.6

5.3

4.3
6.7

4.2
5.0

4.2
4.6

4.1
4.1

4.2
2.6

4.2
4.0

4.3

4.0

2.5

2.8

4.2
4.2

Women, 16 to 19 years..................

Women who maintain families............
Full-time workers...................................
Part-time workers..................................

4.3
5.3

6.5
4.0

5.0

6.0
4.0
5.2

2.8
6.4
4.1

5.3

4.9

4.3
5.7

4.3
5.9

4.4
4.8

4.4

4.2

6.0

4.2

6.4
4.1

6.3
4.1
4.6

6.8

27.7
20.2

Industry
Nonagricultural wage and salary
workers.........................................................
Mining....................................................

4.6
3.2

Construction..............................................

7.5

7.0

7.2

7.3

6.9

7.6

6.9

6.7

5.7

6.6

6.4

7.5

6.9

5.2

Manufacturing..........................................

3.9

3.6

3.5

3.7

3.5

3.8

3.9

3.7

3.7

3.2

3.3

3.9

4.0

5.8
3.7

3.4

3.5
3.9

3.4

3.7
3.1

3.7
4.1

4.0

3.5

3.7

3.8

3.5
4.0

3.6
3.6

3.9

4.0

3.7

2.8
3.9

3.0
3.8

3.0
5.2

3.9
4.1

3.6
3.7

3.0
5.2

3.2
5.3

3.0
4.8
2.4

3.1
4.9

3.3
5.3

3.7
5.1

3.2
5.3

3.2
5.1

2.3

2.3

2.1

4.2

4.0

3.9

3.8
2.1

2.9
3.7

2.4
4.1

2.1

2.2

4.0
1.7

2.6
3.7

2.1

4.0
2.1

2.5
4.2

3.1
5.4
2.4

2.9
4.9

2.2

3.4
5.2
2.4

2.8
5.2

2.3
4.1

2.9
5.3
2.4

3.5
3.0
5.2

1.7

2.0

7.1

5.0

6.5

5.6

8.4

7.6

3.6

Durable goods.......................................
Nondurable goods................................
Transportation and public utilities..........
Wholesale and retail trade.....................

4.7
3.4
5.5

Finance, insurance, and real estate......
Services.....................................................
Government workers....................................

4.5
2.3

Agricultural wage and salary workers.......

8.3

Less than a high school diploma.................
High school graduates, no college.............

3.0
1.8

2.5

2.3
4.1

2.2
8.9

4.0
2.5

2.3

4.4
2.2

10.1

9.3

9.0

9.6

7.1

6.7

6.8

7.0

6.8

6.6

6.5

6.0

6.6

6.0

3.5

3.6

6.8
3.8

6.8

4.0

3.6

3.5

3.5

3.3

3.3

3.5

3.5

3.5

6.9
3.4

6.1
3.4

2.8

2.8
1.8

2.6

3.0

3.1

2.7

2.7

2.7

2.5

2.6

2.9

2.7

2.6

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.8

1.8

1.6

1.6

1.5

2.0
5.7

7.7

2.0
8.3

Educational attainment*

Some college, less than a bachelor's
degree.................................................
College graduates.........................................

1.8

7.0

2.5
1.6

1 Data refer to persons 25 years and over.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

51

Current Labor Statistics:

7.

Labor Force Data

Duration of unemployment, monthly d ata seasonally adjusted

[Numbers in thousands]

Weeks of
unemployment

1998

2000

1999

Annual average
1999

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov,

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

Less than 5 weeks............................

2,622

2,568

2,502

2,540

2,640

2,599

2,582

2,545

2,601

2,620

2,447

2,603

2,824

2,455

2,531

5 to 14 weeks.....................................

1,950

1,832

1,832

1,775

1,778

1,798

1,805

1,811

1,760

1,694

1,754

1,864

1,719

1,868

1,953

15 weeks

and over............................

1,637

1,480

1,519

1,634

1,511

1,463

1,412

1,434

1,401

1,388

1,372

1,277

1,295

1,250

1,337

15 to 26 weeks...............................

763

755

784

806

779

747

708

719

725

693

667

673

657

670

677

27 weeks and over.........................

875

725

735

828

732

716

704

715

676

695

705

604

637

580

660

Mean duration, in weeks..................

14.5

13.4

13.4

14.3

13.5

13.2

13.0

13.2

13.0

12.9

13.2

12.5

12.8

12.4

12.6

Median duration, in weeks...............

6.7

6.4

6.6

6.3

5.8

6.4

5.9

6.3

6.2

5.9

5.7

6.1

6.0

6.0

5.8

8.

Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[Numbers in thousands]

Reason for
unemployment

1999

1998
2,822
866
1,957

2000

1999

Annual average

2,622
848
1,774

734

783

2,132
520

2,005
469

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

2,573
869
1,704

2,518
802

2,493
851

2,401

2,477

2,306

739

2,616
838

2,541
781

1,642

1,739

1,778

758
1,967
504

778

821

825

776

1,958
511

1,935
485

2,036

2,043

759
1,975

1,759
824

703
1,602

2,483
894

1,716

795
1,606

453

393

387

Sept.

Aug.

May

June

July

2,678
837
1,841

2,670

2,670
847

2,629
893

1,823

781
2,034

831
2,038

768
2,003

1,736
793
1,942

440

359

459

481

876
1,794

Oct.

1,979
434

1,589
774

883
1,961

2,093

408

500

42.4

Percent of unemployed
45.5

44.6

45.1

45.3

45.3

45.0

44.3

43.7

43.5

42.0

43.5

45.6

44.0

41.9

13.9

14.4
30.2

14.1

14.9
30.4

14.4

15.3
29.7

15.0
29.4

13.9

14.8

13.9

13.0

14.6

13.5

12.8

15.3

28.6

28.1
14.4

30.6
13.6

31.0

30.5

29.1

14.3

15.1

35.6

13.2
34.4

27.2
13.2

34.3

35.8

6.7

7.5

35.6
7.4

1.8

14.1

13.0

13.6

13.1

29.8
13.5

34.6
6.1

33.9
7.8

33.2

8.0

34.3
7.4

8.2

33.9
8.7

34.0
8.9

2.1

1.9

1.9

1.9

1.9

1.9

1.8

.5

.6

.6

1.5

1.5

.6
1.4

.6
1.4

.5

1.5

.6
1.4

1.4

.4

.3

.3

.3

.3

.3

.4

31.5
11.8
34.3
8.4

13.3
34.1

31.0
13.2

30.9

14.3
33.7
8.5

7.9

35.9
6.9

1.8

1.8

1.7

1.8

1.9

1.8

1.6

.6

.6

1.4

.6
1.4

1.5

.6
1.4

.5
1.4

.6
1.4

.6
1.4

.4

.3

.3

.3

.3

.3

.3

8.5

Percent of civilian
labor force

New entrants.....................................

52

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2000

.6
1.5
.4

9.

Unemployment rates by sex and age, monthly d ata seasonally adjusted

[Civilian workers]

Sex and age

Annual average
1998
4.5

1999
4.2

1999
May
4.2

June
43

July
43

2000

Aug.

Sept.

42

4.2

4 1

4 1

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.
4 1

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

4*0

16 to 24 years.................................

10.4

9.9

9.6

9.8

9.7

9.6

10.0

10.0

10.0

9.8

9.3

10.0

9.7

9.3

9.8

16 to 19 years.............................
16 to 17 years..........................

14.6
17.2

13.9

13.1

13.6

13.2

14.0

12.7

12.5

15.4
11.7

13 8
72

16.5
12 3
77

15.9
12 8

15.3
12 1

25 years and over..........................

7.9
3.4

12 1
7.3

15.9
12 4
77

16.0

12.4

16.3
11.8

14.6

12.8

12.6
14.0
11 4

13.3

18 to 19 years..........................

13.8
16.5
12 1

14.1

16.1
11.2

14.6
16.1

13.9

16.3

13.5
15.9

3.2
32

3.1
32

3.0
3 1

3.0
3 1

3.0

3.0

3.0

2.9

3.0

30

2.6

2.7

2.8

3.0

2.7

2.4

2.4

39

7.5

7.5

76

76

3.2
32

3.2
33

3.2

55 years and over...................

3.5
2.7

3.1
3.2
2.8

2.7

3.0

33
2.9

Men, 16 years and over..................

4.4

4.1

4.2

4.1

4 1

11.1

10 2

10.5
14 3

10 2
13 8

74
3.0

2.7

2.6

2.7

4 1
9.9

4 1
m 4
14 2

4*0
m 2

4*0
m 6

9*7

13 9

40
99
14 6

16 9
13 6

17 7
13 6

14 3
13 7

13 9

7.8

7.2

7.3

7.4

2.8
2.9

2.9
2.9

2.8

38

16.2

10.3
14.7

19.1

17.0

17 6

16 8

16 1

16 2

16 6

16 6

18 to 19 years........................

14.1

13.1

11.5

12.7

12 2

12 6

13 2

13 2

20 to 24 years...........................

8.1

7.7

8.0

8.3

8.1

7.6

7.2

8.2

25 years and over........................

3.2

3.1

3.0

3.0
3.0

3.1
3.1

3.0
3.0

2.9

7.5
2.8

3.0

2.9

2.8
2.9

3.0

2.9

2.9

2.8

2.6

2.5

2.5

2.8

4.2

4.1

4.2

9.8
13.0

8.9

8.9

16.1

12.2
15.1

11.1
13.7
8.9

13.9

25 to 54 years........................

3.3

3.0
3.0

55 years and over.................

2.8

2.8

3.1
2.8

3.0
2.7

Women, 16 years and over............
16 to 24 years..............................

4.6

4.3

4.2

4.4

4.4

4.3

9.8
12.9

9.5
13.2

8.9
12.2

9.1

4.3
10.0
14.7

4.2
9.6
13.4

15.5

14.5

13.0
15.7

9.3
13.2

15.1
11.5

9.1
12.6
14.7

11.6

10.9

10.9

15.6
11.6

15.6
14.5

16.3
11.4

6.9

6.8

10.5
7.0

3.1

3.1

3.2

7.6
3.2

25 to 54 years........................

3.8

3.4

3.5
3.5

7.2
3.2

10.8
7.9

3.3
3.4

3.6

7.0
3.3
3.4

7.2

3.6

7.2
3.3

3.4

3.2

3.3

2.6

2.8

2.6

3.3

2.9

2.4

2.1

3.2
2.5

3.3

55 years and over.................

2.6

2.9

3.1

16 to 19 years...........................
16 to 17 years........................
18 to 19 years........................
20 to 24 years...........................
25 years and over........................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

7.8

11.2
7.1
3.5

12 4

2.8

7.3
2.7
2.7

2.8

2.8

2.7

2.6

4.1

4.3

4.0

9.6
12.6

10.2
14.4

8.9
11.6

4.3
9.5

14.3
11.6

15.4
13.7

13.3
10.4

7.8

7.7

7.2

3.0

3.2

3.0

8.2
3.3

3.0
3.3

3.3
2.7

3.2

3.5

2.0

2.3

Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

8.3
2.8

11.8
15.0
9.9

53

Current Labor Statistics:

10.

Labor Force Data

Unemployment rates by State, seasonally adjusted
State

Apr.
1999

Mar.
2000

Apr.
2000p

State

3.0
4.5

2.4
3.8

2.9
3.8

2.8

2.2

2.5

2.8

4.6

3.7

3.8

2.3
3.6

5.6
5.2

5.3
4.6

5.5
4.6

5.8

5.5

3.0

3.4

3.0

3.8

3.8

3.5

2.9

2.8

4.1

3.4

3.5

3.8

4.7

4.3

4.3
3.6

4.1

5.8

3.1

2.8

5.5

4.4

5.8

4.7

4.6

4.2

4.0
4.4

4.4

3.9

3.0

3.2

4.3
3.4

4.0

3.8

3.8
3.7

4.5

3.7

3.5

3.0
4.1

2.1

2.3

3.5

3.7

4.6
4.0

4.6
2.9

4.5
2.7

2.8

2.4

2.4

2.7
4.8
6.9

2.7
4.5
5.1

2.7
4.6
5.1

4.1

3.6

6.0

6.6

5.3

4.6

3.9
4.7

3.6
4.4

5.0

4.8

3.0

2.7

3.3
3.6

2.3
3.2

6.5
3.9

2.6

2.1

2.2

2.9

3.2

3.3

4.7
5.4

3.9
5.2

3.9
4.4

4.2

3.5

3.3

3.7

3.0
2.4

2.8

5.1

New Hampshire...........................................

Utah...............................................................

3.2

2.9
2.7

3.0

2.6

5.5

5.5
W yoming........................................................

p = preliminary

Monthly Labor Review

Apr.
2000p
2.4

4.2

6.6

3.1
3.8
2.7

54

Mar.
2000
2.9
4.8

4.9

4.6
5.4


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Apr.
1999

July 2000

4.9

3.0

3.1

3.4

4.9

4.0

4.0


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

11.

Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by State, seasonally adjusted

[In thousands]
Apr.

Mar.

Apr.

1999

2000

2000p

A la b a m a Alaska......

1,913.3
276.2

1,948.0

1,947.2

279.9

282.8

Montana..........................................

Arizona.....

2,141.6

2,227.3

2.244.3

Nebraska.........................................

State

State

Apr.

Mar.

Apr.

1999

2000

2000p

2,715.7

2,746.5

379.9

389.8

389.8

887.9

895.2

2,748.4

Arkansas-

1,137.5

1,165.0

1,167.3

975.3

1,012.5

293.9
1,013.4

California..

13,900.0

14,270.1

14,334.5

New Hampshire.............................

603.9

612.4

613.2

Colorado....................

2,119.4

2,199.0
1,691.7

3,854.5

3,911.7

1,669.1

2,188.9
1,692.1

New Jersey.....................................

Connecticut...............

727.6

739.4

3,923.3
741.6

Delaware...................

410.1

421.2

422.4

New York........................................

8,428.0

8,577.9

8,594.0

District of Colum bia-

612.6

619.9

619.6

3,851.9

3,911.4

3,923.4

Florida........................

6,806.3

7,087.5

7,109.9

323.9

325.2

325.5

Georgia-

3,858.3

3,995.8

4,010.4

5,541.0

5,590.6

5 600.3

1,455.1
1,566.8

1,484.3

1 485.8

5,573.0

1,588.0
5,622.7

1,591.2
5 617.6

North Dakota.................................

Hawaii—

530.6

539.7

541.0

Idaho......

555.1

556.2

Illinois....

533.6
5,953.4

6,001.8

6,011.8

Indiana...

2,959.9

2,985.3

2,991.2

Rhode Island..................................

463.8

469.0

471.8

Iowa..........

1,467.8

1,484.6

1,489.7

South Carolina...............................

Kansas....

1,322.5
1,791.0

1,343.5

1,343.1

South Dakota.................................

1,824.5
371.5

1,868.3
380.6

1,867.9
380.7

1,830.8

1,835.1

Tennessee......................................

2,664.2

2,719.0

2,711.7

1,891.4
583.2

1,908.7
599.2

1,910.2

Texas...............................................
Utah.................................................

9,107.5

9,349.1
1,068.2

9,363.9
1,069.7

2,375.9
3,225.6

2,435.0
3,274.7

2,440.9

290.4

295.8

295.2

Massachusetts..

3,293.6

Virginia.............................................

3,392.9

3,477.6

Michigan...........

4,525.1

4,554.7

4,570.6

W ashington.....................................

2,632.8

3,463.9
2,679.9

Minnesota.........
Mississippi........

2,601.5
1,152.7

2,651.2
1,159.6

2,654.8
1,156.7

West Virginia...................................
W isconsin.......................................

726.2
2,772.2

732.4
2,811.7

W yoming.........................................

231.5

237.3

Kentucky...
Louisiana..
Maine.......
Maryland...........

601.1

Oregon.............................................

1,045.1

2,677.5
731.7
2,820.9
235.6

p = preliminary
NOTE: Some data in this table may differ from data published elsewhere because of the continual updating of the data base.

Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

55

Current Labor Statistics:

12.

Labor Force Data

Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by industry, monthly d a ta seasonally adjusted

[In thousands]

Industry

1998
TOTAL............................. 125,865
PRIVATE SECTOR................ 106,042

2000

1999

Annual average
1999

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May"

128,786

128,377

128,898

129,057

129,523

130,038
109,730

130,387

130,482

131,419
110,752

131,590
110,587

108,616

108,274

128,630
108,507

108,735

108,846

129,265
109,042

109,275

129,788
109,517

110,036

110,088

131,009
110,462

GOODS-PRODUCING................
Mining ..................................

25,414

25,482

25,436

25,432

25,488

25,430

25,460

25,483

25,527

25,561

25,677

25,624

25,738

25,725

25,687

590

535

532

529

528

527

529

527

530

530

533

536

539

537

Metal mining................................

49

45

45

339

293

289

45
286

45
287

45

OH and gas extraction.................
Nonmetallic minerals,

45
287

526
44

45
288

45
291

45
293

45
296

45
300

45
303

44
304

286

289

except fuels...............................

110

112

112

112

112

112

112

112

112

111

111

111

111

111

110

Construction...........................

6,020
1,377

6,404
1,450

6,364
1,444

6,388
1,447

6,408
1,451

6,401
1,447

6,439
1,458

6,470
1,464

6,516
1,470

6,552
1,474

6,652
1,498

6,618
1,491

6,726
1,508

6,694
1,497

6,670
1,496

840
3,804

869
4,084

861

866

867

872

892

885

905

899

4,090

4,115

4,134

876
4,170

882

4,075

865
4,089

866

4,059

4,196

4,262

4,242

4,313

4,298

891
4,283

18,540
12,741

18,515
12,711

18,552

18,503

18,494

18,484

18,484

18,479

18,495

18,492

12,706

12,700

12,702

12,702

12,701

12,713

18,473
12,697

18,476

12,753

12,683

12,689

18,480
12,683

General building contractors......
Heavy construction, except
building......................................
Special trades contractors.........

Manufacturing.........................

18,805

18,543

Production workers...............

12,952

12,739

Durable goods......................

11,205

11,103

11,125

11,097

11,090

11,083

11,085

11,087

11,099

11,088

11,094

11,104

11,107

7,666

7,590

11,091
7,584

11,083

Production workers...............

7,572

7,620

7,590

7,580

7,581

7,579

7,579

7,592

7,592

7,580

7,584

7,586

Lumber and wood products....

814

828

827

827

829

829

830

831

831

831

830

832

830

830

828

Furniture and fixtures...............

533

548

546

547

554

551

551

553

553

552

553

553

555

557

558

Stone, clay, and glass
products...................................

562

563

563

562

563

563

568

567

568

567

567

700

699

698

699

698

698

699

699

701

699

699

Fabricated metal products.......
Industrial machinery and
equipment...............................
Computer and office
equipment.............................
Electronic and other electrical

1,509

1,517

1,515

1,515

701
1,517

562
697

565

715

563
697

564

Primary metal industries..........

1,515

1,518

1,519

1,520

1,521

1,523

1,525

1,528

1,534

1,536

2,206

2,141

2,141

2,139

2,142

2,135

2,133

2,130

2,131

2,132

2,130

2,131

2,124

2,126

2,125

382

370

372

373

371

370

370

369

370

370

369

368

366

364

360

1,707

1,670

1,666

1,667

1,675

1,669

1,670

1,672

1,670

1,673

1,679

1,684

1,682

1,691

1,693

645
1,855

646
1,865

651
1,859

654
1,861

1,028
467

1,026
461

1,024

equipment...............................
Electronic components and
Transportation equipment.......
Motor vehicles and
equipment..............................
Aircraft and parts....................

660
1,893

636
1,884

634
1,883

1,878

635
1,890

637
1,887

636
1,880

638
1,873

638
1,870

640
1,867

642
1,871

995
525

1,019

1,016
503

1,018
496

1,029
493

1,026
488

1,025
483

1,022

1,022

1,029

478

473

1,023
470

1,027

495

469

453

873

856

857

856

859

854

852

849

850

849

847

844

844

844

845

395

396

397

398

399

399

398

397

397

395

7,401
5,121

7,399

7,392
5,122

7,396
5,121

7,385

7,382

7,388

5,105

5,103

5,105

7,373
5,097

1,673
38

1,675
38

1,674

1,681
38

1,672

1,671

38

37

1,678
37

1,676
37

550

552

549

548

549

35
549

548

545

674

672

665

665
1,549

669
665

666
664

1,548

1,549

665
663
1,550

1,551

665
662
1,554

661
1,552

1,031
132

1,030
132

1,031
132

1,031
132

1,031
132

1,030
132

1,027

1,008

634

463

Instruments and related
products..................................
Miscellaneous manufacturing
industries..................................

395

395

394

394

395

Nondurable goods.................

7,440
5,149

7,449

7,432

7,427

7,406

7,404

Production workers...............

7,600
5,287

5,157

5,139

5,133

5,116

5,120

Food and kindred products......
Tobacco products.....................

1,683
41

1,677

1,677

1,674

1,674

1,667

1,673

39

39
560

38
557

36

Textile mill products..................

38
562

38
552

699
669

693
668

598

560

Apparel and other textile
products..................................
Paper and allied products........

766
677

692

Printing and publishing............

1,565

Chemicals and allied products

1,043
139

Petroleum and coal products..
Rubber and miscellaneous

668
1,553
1,034
134

688

1,551

1,551

668
1,552

1,035
134

1,033
133

1,032
134

556
681
667
1,552
1,030
132

678
666
1,551
1,031

1,551
1,032

133

133

5,123

665
662

660

132

1,005
84

1,006

1,006

1,008

78

78

1,003
78

76

1,008
77

1,005
77

1,008
77

1,009
76

1,011
76

1,011
76

1,010
76

1,010
76

1,007
75

75

SERVICE-PRODUCING.............. 100,451

103,304

102,941

103,198

103,410

103,627

103,805

104,040

104,261

104,477

104,710

104,858

105,271

105,694

105,903

plastics products....................
Leather and leather products..

Transportation and public
utilities..............................
Railroad transportation............
Local and interurban
passenger transit...................
Trucking and warehousing......
Water transportation................
Pipelines, except natural gas..
Transportation services..........

6,611

6,826

6,797

6,817

6,834

6,848

6,866

6,875

6,898

6,911

6,925

6,937

6,953

6,970

6,961

4,273

4,409

4,392

4,420

4,441

4,453

4,459

4,470

4,479

4,492

4,509

4,498

230

232

4,426
227

4,436

231

4,408
232

226

226

226

226

225

225

222

221

219

493
1,827

494

494

498

1,828

1,833
197

1,839

498
1,832

1,268
12
466

200
1,270
12
469

1,269
12
468

2,461
1,602

2,461
1,604

2,463
1,607

469
1,744
181
1,181
14
454

485
1,805
187
1,227

483
1,798

13
463

185
1,218
13
463

2,416
1,552

2,405
1,541

229

485

486

1,803
187
1,224

1,808

13
464

488
1,810

488

490

1,816

489
1,818
190
1,241
13
464

190
1,246

188
1,230
13
466

188
1,234
13
466

189
1,238
13
466

2,414

2,422

2,430

1,551

1,558

1,565

1,823

491
1,818
192

192

13
465

1,253
13
466

1,256
13
464

196
1,259
12
465

2,434

2,445

2,452

2,455

2,458

1,572

1,581

1,588

1,591

1,598

200

Communications and public
Communications......................
Electric, gas, and sanitary

Retail trade............................

2,338
1,477

2,409
1,544

861

865

864

865

863

864

865

862

864

864

864

860

859

857

856

6,800

6,924

6,898

6,905

6,927

6,946

6,962

6,973

6,989

7,002

7,005

7,011

7,033

7,055

7,047

22,295

22,788

22,763

22,810

22,833

22,841

22,844

22,863

22,893

22,936

22,973

22,987

23,027

23,197

23,081

1,032

1,022

Building materials and garden
supplies.....................................

948

General merchandise stores.....
Department stores...................

2,730

989
2,771

2,415

2,431

982
2,781
2,444

See footnotes at end of table.

56

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2000

985
2,777

989
2,774

992

994

1,004

1,008

1,012

1,016

1,020

1,034

2,768

2,757

2,752

2,752

2,766

2,791

2,762

2,433

2,426

2,414

2,408

2,406

2,416

2,762
2,417

2,756

2,439

2,765
2,419

2,409

2,443

2,406

12. Continued— Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by industry, monthly d a ta seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]

1998

1999

2000

1999

Annual average
Apr.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.p

Apr.p

3,487

3,479

3,478

3,484

3,478

3,481

3,480

3,482

3,481

3,484

3,478

3,498

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Food stores..................................
Automotive dealers and

3,482

3,483

3,492

service stations.........................

2,341

2,406

2,399

2,400

2,403

2,407

2,409

2,415

2,420

2,424

2,432

2,445

2,442

2,454

2,455

New and used car dealers.......
Apparel and accessory stores...

1,048
1,143

1,081

1,074

1,077

1,096
1,198

1,097

1,100

1,177

1,178

1,103
1,193

1,108

1,172

1,091
1,189

1,092

1,163

1,085
1,192

1,089

1,180

1,080
1,178

1,109
1,204

1,191

1,200

1,195

Furniture and home furnishings
stores..........................................
Eating and drinking places.........

1,085
7,904

1,081

1,084

1,091

1,090

1,094

1,097

1,099

1,095

1,102

1,102

1,107

1,115

1,119

7,760

7,863

7,880

7,911

7,989

7,960

7,932

7,925

7,943

7,986

7,987

7,980

7,981

8,061

Miscellaneous retail
establishments.........................

2,867

2,968

2,945

2,962

2,970

2,983

2,988

2,997

3,009

3,005

2,994

3,015

3,018

3,022

3,035

Finance, insurance, and
real estate............................

7,407

7,632

Finance.........................................
Depository institutions..............

3,593
2,042

3,706
2,047

7,611
3,697

7,650
3,716

Commercial banks..................
Savings institutions.................

1,468
258

Nondepository institutions........

658

1,465
256
714

brokers......................................
Holding and other investment

645

offices.......................................

248
2,344

1,026

2,050
1,467

7,621

7,636

7,647

3,706
2,047

3,709

3,715
2,044

7,653

7,668

7,675

7,685

7,685

7,698

7,689

7,696

3,715
2,047

3,719

3,723
2,044

3,727

3,726

3,732

3,726
2,034

2,036

1,460
254

1,458
252

3,732

2,040
1,458

2,038
1,457

251

250

1,456
247

1,455
247

713

708

708

701

699

702

705

712

717

725

2,040

1,462

2,046
1,464

256

256

255

255

2,047
1,464
254

720

721

721

719

713

711

711

672

676

682

685

686

691

697

267

267

266
2,407

270
2,414

271

272

273

274

274

272

2,402

268
2,404

269

2,399

2,411

2,416

2,410

2,412

1,636

2,406
1,632

2,412

1,639

1,636

1,633

1,634

777
1,553

778
1,552
40,101
798

257

1,465
256

716

679

668

266
2,402

263
2,395

2,045
1,463

1,466

Security and commodity

1,598

1,635

1,631

1,635

1,638

1,635

1,636

2,410
1,637

767

764

764

764

769

771

773

773

775

777

774

Real estate...................................

746
1,471

1,525

1,519

1,516

1,525

1,528

1,527

1,528

1,535

1,541

1,542

1,553

776
1,554

Services' ...............................

37,526

39,000

38,697

38,782

39,205

39,257

39,433

39,554

39,657

39,804

39,822

706

759

755

751

38,952
757

39,055

Agricultural services...................

757

763

766

774

765

788

782

39,980
799

1,812
1,214

1,807

1,800

1,805

1,822

1,835

1,225

1,231

1,234

1,235

9,392
1,000

9,482

9,537
1,004

3,513

9,416
999
3,505

1,228
9,424

3,108

3,100

Insurance......................................
Insurance carriers.....................

1,641

Insurance agents, brokers,
and service..............................

Hotels and other lodging places

1,776

1,799

1,791

1,786

1,797

760
1,807

Personal services.......................

1,195

1,206

1,204

1,189

1,200

1,207

Business services........................
Services to buildings................
Personnel supply services.......

8,584

9,123
988

9,010
978

9,047
979

9,088
984

9,148
992

3,366

3,387

2,872

3,405
3,017

3,350

Help supply services..............
Computer and data
processing services................

2,975

2,986

3,000

1,599

1,781

1,749

1,765

1,781

1,794

1,182

1,184

1,185

Auto repair services
and parking...............................

950
3,230

1,144

1,811

1,806

1,210

1,210

9,204

9,303
1,003

3,422

9,186
998
3,418

3,025

3,024

3,032

3,099

9,336
1,003
3,501
3,097

1,806

1,814

1,823

1,829

1,842

1,185

1,190

1,196

1,197

1,198

1,813
1,207

1,000
3,440

3,490

1,003
3,523

1,008
3,556

3,119

3,148

1,852

1,859

1,868

1,876

1,202

1,202

1,196

1,196

3,613
3,194

382

1,185
397

1,178

Miscellaneous repair services...

396

398

395

395

396

398

400

400

405

403

406

407

407

Motion pictures............................
Amusement and recreation

573

600

587

604

611

609

608

608

612

613

609

616

609

608

617

1,601

1,696

1,668

1,675

1,695

1,694

1,712

1,713

1,730

1,734

1,725

1,759

1,762

1,763

1,778

Health services............................
Offices and clinics of medical

9,846

9,973

9,951

9,954

9,964

9,975

9,993

9,999

10,009

10,026

10,038

10,057

10,059

10,071

10,078

doctors.....................................
Nursing and personal care
facilities....................................
Hospitals....................................
Home health care services......

1,803

1,865

1,856

1,860

1,864

1,868

1,874

1,876

1,880

1,885

1,886

1,895

1,898

1,907

1,912

1,762
3,926
672

1,755
3,970

1,753
3,966
656

1,755
3,966

1,755
3,969

1,754
3,968

1,756
3,977

1,756
3,978

1,759
3,985

1,760
3,992

1,762
3,989

1,763
3,990

653

Educational services..................
Social services............................

999
2,265
2,760
629

1,000
2,278
2,763
632

2,288
2,799

2,289
2,803
631

1,009
2,288
2,817
634

658
1,012
2,298
2,840
646

658
1,017
2,297
2,872
657

781

772

775

788

792

796

659
1,015
2,304
2,850
650
801

1,763
3,987
654

998
2,254
2,755
628

653
1,002
2,272
2,778
633
777

1,756
3,978
658

973
2,177
2,644

1,755
3,973
658
1,004

93
2,361

94
2,402

94
2,392

93
2,394

94
2,409

2,403

95
2,409

94
2,408

95
2,409

96
2,411

3,185

3,420

3,370

3,391

3,411

3,441

3,458

3,464

3,487

905

944

939

940

942

948

948

948

954

605
747

655
1,002
2,270
2,782
632

655

781

631
785

657
1,007

656
1,014

653
1,014
2,321
2,889
660

1,010
2,332
2,900
659

803

2,298
2,876
655
807

810

816

95
2,418

96
2,420

95
2,420

96
2,422

98
2,420

3,496

3,515

3,532

3,544

3,558

3,561

959

964

973

976

977

980

Museums and botanical and
zoological gardens..................
Membership organizations........
Engineering and management

94

Engineering and architectural
Management and public
relations..................................

1,034

1,158

1,133

1,143

1,153

1,165

1,178

1,180

1,193

1,196

1,213

1,220

1,218

1,225

1,226

19,819

20,160

20,077

20,153
2,656

20,218
2,654

20,237

20,269

20,315

20,365

20,382

20,540

20,647

2,669

20,105
2,664

20,210

2,686

20,099
2,688

2,643

2,648

2,645

2,665

2,702

2,818

2,887

1,819
4,612

1,796
4,695

1,809
4,688
1,955

1,788
4,677

1,789
4,675
1,934

1,779
4,682
1,947

1,785
4,717

1,780
4,722

2,735
12,815
7,268
5,547

1,780
4,729
1,967
2,762
12,892

1,780
4,730
1,969
2,761
12,940

1,953
4,733
1,967

2,741

1,960
2,762
12,872

1,836
4,725
1,962

2,736
12,734

1,965
2,752
12,847

1,799
4,727
1,967

2,733
12,723
7,206
5,517

1,779
4,706
1,965
2,741
12,853
7,308

2,763

7,295
5,552

7,305
5,567

7,318
5,574

7,351
5,589

2,760
12,973
7,365
5,608

12,955
7,347

2,766
12,989
7,365
5,624

2,022
4,739
1,969
2,770
13,021
7,398
5,623

2,666

2,651

Federal, except Postal
Service....................................
State.............................................
Other State government.........

Other local government..........

1,916
2,695
12,521
7,082
5,440

1,953
2,743
12,796
7,265
5,531

1,941

7,225
5,509

12,766
7,239
5,527

5,545

5,608

1 Includes other industries not shown separately.
p = preliminary.
NOTE: See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

57

Current Labor Statistics:

13.

Labor Force Data

A verage w eekly hours of production or nonsupervisory workers on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry, monthly
d ata seasonally adjusted
A n n u a l a ve ra g e

1999

2000

In d u s try
1998

1999

May

June

J u ly

Aug.

Sept.

O ct.

N ov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

A p r.

M ayp

34.5

34.6

34.4

PRIVATE SECTOR.................................

34.6

34.5

34.5

34.5

34.5

34.5

34.5

34.5

34.5

34.5

34.5

34.6

GOODS-PRODUCING.................................

41.0

41.0

41.0

41.1

41.1

41.1

41.2

41.1

41.3

41.0

41.1

41.3

41.2

41.5

40.9

MINING.......................................................

43.9

43.8

43.9

43.9

44.5

44.1

44.3

44.1

44.2

44.3

44.7

44.7

44.7

45.3

44.2

MANUFACTURING...................................

41.7

41.7

41.7

41.8

41.8

41.8

41.8

41.7

41.7

41.8

41.7

42.2

41.4

4.6

4.6

4.6

4.7

4.6

4.6

4.7

41.8
4.7

41.7

Overtime hours......................................

4.7

4.7

4.6

4.7

4.6

4.9

4.5

Durable goods........................................

42.3

42.2

42.2

42.3

42.4

42.3

42.4

42.3

42.2

42.2

42.3

42.8

42.0

4.8
41.1

4.8
41.2

4.7
41.2

4.8

4.8

4.9

41.2

41.1

4.8
41.1

4.8
41.1

4.8

41.2

4.8
41.1

4.8
41.1

42.3
4.9

42.3

Overtime hours.....................................
Lumber and wood products..................

41.0

4.8
40.9

5.1
41.2

4.7
40.7

41.0
40.2

Furniture and fixtures.............................

40.5

40.3

40.3

40.4

40.5

40.3

40.4

40.1

39.9

Stone, clay, and glass products...........
Primary metal industries.........................

43.5
44.2

43.5

43.4

43.5

43.5

43.5

43.5

43.8

44.2

44.2

44.3

44.4

44.4

44.5

43.5
44.3

44.3

Blast furnaces and basic steel
products...............................................

44.6

44.8

44.6

44.9

45.0

45.0

45.0

45.2

45.3

45.4

Fabricated metal products....................

42.3

42.2

42.1

42.2

42.3

42.3

42.3

42.2

42.1

Industrial machinery and equipment....

42.8

42.2

42.1

42.1

42.3

42.3

42.4

42.3

Electronic and other electrical
equipment.............................................

41.4

41.4

41.4

41.5

41.5

41.6

41.6

Transportation equipment.....................

43.4

43.8

43.6

44.1

44.2

43.9

44.0

Motor vehicles and equipment...........
Instruments and related products.........
Miscellaneous manufacturing...............

43.5
41.3
39.9

45.0
41.5
39.8

44.5
41.5
40.1

45.3
41.5

45.1
41.5

45.4
41.5

39.9

45.5
41.6
39.9

40.0

39.9

Nondurable goods.................................

40.9

40.9

41.0

41.0

41.0

41.0

Overtime hours.....................................

4.4

4.4

4.5

4.4

4.4

Food and kindred products...................
Textile mill products...............................

4.3
41.7
41.0

41.0
4.4

41.8

41.8
40.7

41.9
41.1

41.7

Apparel and other textile products.......
Paper and allied products.....................

37.3
43.4

37.5
43.5

41.8
40.9
37.7

37.5

41.0
37.4

43.4

37.6
43.6

43.5

43.6

41.7
40.9
37.4
43.4

Printing and publishing...........................

38.3
43.2

38.2

38.2

38.3

38.3

43.0

43.0

43.1

38.3
43.2

38.3

43.0

38.3
43.2

43.0

43.0

plastics products...................................
Leather and leather products................

41.7

41.7
37.8

41.8
38.2

41.8

41.7

41.7

37.6

37.9

37.9

37.9

41.8
37.5

41.5
37.6

SERVICE-PRODUCING..............................

32.9

32.8

32.8

32.8

32.9

32.8

32.8

TRANSPORTATION AND
PUBLIC UTILITIES................................

39.5

38.7

38.9

38.9

38.8

38.8

WHOLESALE TRADE...............................

38.3

38.3

38.3

38.3

38.4

38.3

RETAIL TRADE.........................................

29.0

29.0

29.0

29.1

29.1

29.0

Chemicals and allied products.............
Rubber and miscellaneous

40.9

p = preliminary.
NOTE: See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.

58

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2000

40.2

40.3

40.2

40.6

40.3

43.6

43.5

43.4

44.5

44.5

44.4

43.6
44.9

43.9

45.3
42.4

45.4

45.2

45.0

44.7

42.1

42.4

42.5

43.0

42.2

42.2

42.2

42.3

42.3

42.3

42.9

42.1

41.6

41.4

41.5

41.6

41.6

41.8

42.2

41.4

43.8

43.6

43.4

43.8

44.0

43.7

44.3

43.2

45.0
41.5

44.5
41.5
39.7

45.0
41.3

45.0
41.2

44.6
41.2

45.5
41.6

44.2
41.2

39.8

44.7
41.5
39.7

39.5

39.5

39.4

39.8

39.3

41.0

41.0

40.9

40.9

41.0

40.9

41.3

40.6

4.5
41.9

4.5
41.8

4.5
41.7

4.4

4.5

41.3
37.4

4.3
41.6
41.6

4.6
41.9
41.9
38.0

41.0
37.0

43.4

41.2
37.5
43.3

41.6
41.7
37.7

4.3
41.2

41.2

41.6
41.1

43.6

42.8

38.3

38.3

38.5

37.5
43.5

43.5
44.4

37.6

43.0

43.3

43.5

37.8
43.2

43.0

38.3
42.9

38.3
42.7

38.2
42.6

42.9

38.0
42.7

41.5
37.7

41.5
37.4

41.6
37.8

41.6
38.1

41.5
38.0

42.1
38.9

41.3
38.2

32.9

32.8

32.9

32.9

32.8

32.8

32.8

32.8

38.6

38.4

38.3

38.4

38.4

38.3

38.3

38.7

38.5

38.4

38.6

38.4

38.5

38.6

38.5

38.6

38.6

39.0

28.8

29.0

29.0

29.1

29.1

29.1

29.0

28.8

28.9

14.

A verage hourly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry,
seasonally adjusted

__________________
2000

1999

Annual average
Industry
1998
PRIVATE SECTOR (in current dollars).. $ 12.78
Goods-producing.................................

14.34

1999

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

Mayp

$ 13.24

$13.19

$13.23

$13.27

$13.30

$13.35

$13.38

$13.41

$13.44

$13.49

$13.54

$13.58

$13.64

$13.66

14.84

14.77

14.85

14.89

14.91

14.96

14.99

15.03

15.05

15.13

15.20

15.25

15.30

15.28

17.27

17.26

17.24

16.91

17.09

17.11

17.07

17.26

17.16

17.14

17.09

17.00

17.04

17.09

17.14

Construction...........................................

16.61

17.18

17.11

17.18

17.20

17.21

17.26

17.33

17.37

17.44

17.50

17.60

17.67

17.78

17.75

Manufacturing........................................

13.49

13.91

13.85

13.93

13.98

14.01

14.04

14.06

14.07

14.10

14.15

14.21

14.23

14.28

14.26

Excluding overtime............................

12.79

13.18

13.13

13.19

13.24

13.27

13.29

13.31

13.33

13.36

13.41

13.45

13.47

13.49

13.52

Service-producing................................

12.27

12.73

12.68

12.71

12.76

12.78

12.83

12.86

12.89

12.93

12.97

13.01

13.05

13.11

13.15

Transportation and public utilities.......

15.31

15.69

15.66

15.67

15.72

15.73

15.79

15.79

15.84

15.94

15.92

16.00

16.04

16.12

16.20

Wholesale trade.....................................

14.07

14.58

14.52

14.56

14.61

14.65

14.70

14.75

14.76

14.83

14.90

14.89

14.90

15.03

15.04

8.74

9.08

9.03

9.07

9.10

9.13

9.16

9.18

9.21

9.25

9.26

9.32

9.35

9.39

9.39

Finance, insurance, and real estate....

14.07

14.62

14.60

14.62

14.68

14.65

14.71

14.73

14.76

14.78

14.86

14.87

14.95

14.98

15.02

Services..................................................

12.84

13.36

13.31

13.35

13.39

13.42

13.46

13.51

13.53

13.57

13.61

13.66

13.69

13.74

13.79

7.75

7.86

7.86

7.88

7.88

7.87

7.86

7.87

7.87

7.87

7.88

7.87

7.84

7.87

7.88

PRIVATE SECTOR (in constant (1982)
dollars)...................................................

p = preliminary.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

59

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

15. A verage hourly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry
2000

1999

Annual average
Industry
1998

1999

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

Mayp

PRIVATE SECTOR..................................

$12.78

$13.24

$13.20

$13.15

$13.16

$13.20

$13.38

$13.41

$13.43

$13.46

$13.58

$13.58

$13.59

$13.69

$13.64

MINING.....................................................

16.91

17.09

17.05

16.98

17.17

17.05

17.13

17.05

17.01

17.19

17.30

17.20

17.28

17.29

17.18

CONSTRUCTION.....................................

16.61

17.18

17.06

17.13

17.27

17.31

17.46

17.54

17.42

17.47

17.39

17.42

17.54

17.66

17.71

MANUFACTURING..................................

13.49

13.91

13.85

13.90

13.91

13.95

14.11

14.03

14.08

14.20

14.19

14.19

14.22

14.28

14.26

14.62

14.55

14.58

14.73

14.72

14.73

14.76

14.82

14.80

13.98

14.40

14.34

14.40

14.38

14.47

Lumber and wood products.................

11.10

11.47

11.46

11.53

11.54

11.56

11.60

11.60

11.64

11.67

11.63

11.62

11.73

11.74

Furniture and fixtures............................

10.90

11.16

11.33

11.33

11.36

11.47

11.47

11.51

11.59

11.64

11.69

13.59

13.84

13.91

11.25
13.97

11.28

Stone, clay, and glass products..........

11.23
13.87

11.43
11.14

13.94

14.10

14.00

14.04

13.97

13.94

13.96

14.23

14.26

Primary metal industries......................

15.48

15.83

15.74

15.90

16.02

15.98

16.18

16.01

16.12

16.17

16.20

16.28

14.03
16.34

16.51

16.39

Durable goods.......................................

Blast furnaces and basic steel
products..............................................

18.42

18.81

18.73

18.99

19.11

19.09

19.16

19.32

19.49

19.72

19.44

13.48

13.47

13.49

18.93
13.52

18.90

13.07

19.06
13.47

18.99

Fabricated metal products...................

13.64

13.52

13.59

13.72

13.71

13.67

13.69

13.75

13.75

Industrial machinery and equipment...
Electronic and other electrical

14.47

15.02

14.97

14.99

15.08

15.14

15.24

15.18

15.22

15.36

15.39

15.40

15.43

15.42

15.44

equipment............................................

13.10

13.39
17.92

13.49

13.52

13.64

13.72

17.88

18.17

18.50

13.73
18.72

13.77

18.14

13.60
18.41

13.61

18.57

18.58

13.70
18.70

13.70
18.82

13.66
18.79

Motor vehicles and equipment..........

17.51
17.84

13.46
18.04

13.42

Transportation equipment....................
Instruments and related products.......

13.81

10.88
Nondurable goods...............................

18.41

18.33

18.61

18.16

18.53

18.96

18.85

14.17
11.30

14.11

14.13
11.26

14.25

14.28

14.29

11.29

11.31

11.43

14.36
11.45

11.21

10.86

10.94

9.03

9.05

9.05

16.08

16.12

16.02

15.99

16.00

16.15

16.14

14.02
17.64

14.12
17.67

14.10
17.70

14.13
17.67

14.18

14.20
17.77

21.76

21.76

21.62

22.03

12.46
9.93

12.57

12.58

10.01

12.61
10.08

12.57
9.96

10.01

12.67
10.13

12.66

9.91

15.80

15.78

15.90

15.96

15.98

16.05

16.02

16.15

16.11

14.65

14.68

14.74

17.76

14.85

14.99

14.91

14.83

15.14

15.01

9.03

9.05

9.19

9.21

9.22

9.26

9.33

9.35

9.37

9.42

9.39

14.54

14.62

14.64

14.69

14.74

14.76

14.99

14.93

14.97

15.12

15.03

13.78

13.77

13.77

13.83

13.76

10.78

8.88

15.88

16.02

15.95

13.84

13.75

13.74

17.30

17.26

13.81
17.39

13.83

17.38

17.41

20.91

21.39

20.98

21.06

21.28

21.21

21.55

11.89
9.35

12.36
9.77

12.27
9.67

12.30

12.41
9.69

12.37
9.86

12.51
9.95

12.42

9.65

PUBLIC UTILITIES...............................

15.31

15.69

15.57

15.59

15.69

15.69

WHOLESALE TRADE.............................

14.07

14.58

14.58

14.45

14.57

RETAIL TRADE.......................................

8.74

9.08

9.03

9.02

14.07

14.62

14.73

14.51

17.09

11.58

9.03

10.72

8.83

13.46

11.58

9.04

10.71

Printing and publishing..........................

11.55

12.36
20.19
10.90
9.07

8.89
15.95

Chemicals and allied products............
Petroleum and coal products...............

11.53

13.43

10.76

15.94

11.54

12.36
19.71

8.81

15.50

11.41

13.45

10.69

Paper and allied products....................

14.44

12.27
19.10

20.86

8.86

19.34

14.40

12.23
17.48
10.85

20.47

10.71

19.36

14.40

13.36

12.18
18.90

8.52

19.17

14.41

13.37

12.15
21.09

10.39

19.03

14.38
11.52

12.23
17.21
10.84

13.21

12.15
20.69

Textile mill products..............................
Apparel and other textile products......

18.99

14.41

13.39
12.28
18.03
10.84

13.14

12.10

13.16
12.09
19.07

19.22

14.34

13.37

13.10

12.76
11.80
18.56

Food and kindred products..................

18.39
18.80

13.17
12.07

13.25
12.09
17.82

13.31
12.19
18.02

9.01

10.73
8.99

10.80
8.98

16.24

16.09

13.98

13.98

17.67

17.61
21.62

13.33

17.63
22.24

21.77

Rubber and miscellaneous
plastics products..................................
Leather and leather products...............

14.16
17.76
21.27

10.06

TRANSPORTATION AND

FINANCE, INSURANCE,
AND REAL ESTATE............................
SERVICES................................................

12.84

13.36

13.32

13.21

13.18

p = preliminary.
NOTE: b e e "Notes on tne data" tor a description ot the most recent DencnmarK revision.

60

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2 0 0 0

13.23

13.45

13.51

13.57

13.65

16. Average weekly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry
Industry

2000

1999

A nnual average

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

M a/

$467.85

1998

1999

May

June

Ju ly

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

$442.19

$456.78

$456.72

$454.99

$456.65

$463.32

$458.93

$463.99

$463.34

$465.72

$467.15

$464.44

$464.78

$473.67

455.06

456.44

457.82

458.85

460.58

461.61

462.65

463.68

465.41

468.48

468.51

471.94

469.90

PRIVATE SECTOR

m in in g ........................................

CONSTRUCTION.........................

268.32

271.25

271.86

270.83

271.01

274.15

269.96

272.45

271.91

273.31

273.51

270.50

268.35

273.32

269.65

742.35

748.54

753.61

750.52

767.50

758.73

758.86

758.73

758.65

763.24

766.39

758.52

758.59

776.32

764.51

664.04

674.15

680.55

692.27

701.32

646.13

671.74

670.46

681.77

689.07

692.40

673.96

701.60

688.09

677.84

562.53

580.05

577.55

581.02

573.09

583.11

588.39

589.26

594.18

603.50

590.30

588.89

590.13

595.48

590.36

341.34

344.45

343.78

345.85

340.11

345.04

346.11

346.01

348.70

354.17

345.61

342.98

340.72

343.61

340.27
623.08

MANUFACTURING

Lumber and wood products......

591.35

607.68

606.58

610.56

598.21

612.08

615.50

618.38

622.57

634.86

621.18

620.13

622.87

628.37

456.21

472.56

473.20

476.74

475.04

482.37

472.80

480.24

480.24

480.73

474.97

469.85

470.61

482.10

480.17

441.45

452.57

443.37

449.75

452.25

459.10

456.60

458.87

458.94

471.42

459.95

458.10

462.44

464.44

465.26

Stone, clay, and glass
591.17

603.35

607.58

612.04

611.89

614.75

620.40

616.00

620.57

604.90

591.06

591.90

596.28

614.74

620.31

684.22

699.69

698.86

707.55

698.47

704.72

716.77

709.24

720.56

732.50

722.52

722.83

723.86

734.70

722.80

821.53

842.69

840.98

858.35

850.08

849.96

852.65

848.61

865.68

878.14

867.95

875.20

875.10

891.34

872.86

552.86

568.86

567.09

571.98

560.35

571.90

571.52

574.60

580.29

594.08

579.93

576.87

577.72

583.00

580.25

619.32

633.84

631.73

631.08

628.84

637.39

635.51

640.60

646.85

663.55

654.08

652.96

654.23

655.35

651.57

542.34

557.24

553.01

556.93

550.39

562.43

563.33

568.48

572.98

582.15

572.83

569.38

571.29

569.92

562.79

759.93

790.15

786.69

798.16

754.54

794.03

812.15

810.04

811.00

838.66

811.51

815.66

819.06

829.96

817.37

776.04

828.45

826.68

843.03

777.25

828.29

860.78

852.02

849.76

887.96

850.75

856.35

860.73

880.88

866.43

Blast furnaces and basic
Fabricated metal products........
Industrial machinery and
Electronic and other electrical
Transportation equipment.........
Motor vehicles and
Instruments and related
Miscellaneous manufacturing...

Food and kindred products.......

570.35

588.06

584.15

586.40

584.25

591.19

587.32

594.50

600.85

612.43

595.33

595.13

593.28

594.72

592.04

434.11

449.74

449.52

449.27

442.57

452.40

453.77

459.15

459.82

466.22

450.43

453.13

456.23

456.25

453.94

521.88

538.24

535.79

538.74

537.65

539.97

546.53

547.23

551.03

557.02

544.16

542.42

542.82

548.76

543.92

492.06

505.36

503.36

506.66

507.87

506.94

512.62

512.62

518.08

520.67

505.10

500.21

501.84

506.76

506.76

710.85

762.80

814.71

829.67

849.93

836.49

754.11

753.79

774.86

793.32

672.91

685.22

741.08

782.49

803.56

425.99

438.04

437.22

442.24

434.83

440.59

438.75

445.30

449.28

453.11

443.36

448.11

450.69

456.20

446.90

Apparel and other textile
317.80

332.25

333.02

338.71

326.71

333.00

331.57

338.92

337.65

343.52

335.92

339.53

342.09

341.19

336.50

672.70

693.39

686.02

693.83

688.86

690.64

709.69

704.74

704.30

712.50

695.27

687.57

686.40

696.07

687.56

515.52

528.69

522.50

520.75

526.16

531.07

539.63

539.63

543.98

550.68

534.39

536.94

540.26

542.44

533.83

Chemicals and allied products.

738.29

747.34

740.44

742.18

742.55

750.37

765.11

758.99

765.58

772.18

757.56

750.98

749.28

757.00

754.80

Petroleum and coal products....
Rubber and miscellaneous

911.68

921.91

893.75

905.58

923.55

903.55

930.96

933.98

935.68

937.86

933.98

956.10

969.66

966.59

916.74

495.81

515.41

515.34

516.60

510.05

512.12

520.42

516.67

523.32

532.97

523.32

520.40

520.81

528.34

524.12

Leather and leather products...

351.56

369.31

370.36

371.53

363.38

381.58

372.13

374.60

378.33

375.75

372.96

375.49

379.38

388.99

385.30

TRANSPORTATION AND
PUBLIC UTILITIES...................

604.75

607.20

604.21

608.01

610.34

618.19

608.30

605.95

608.97

612.86

612.03

611.51

608.76

626.62

617.01

WHOLESALE TRADE.................

538.88

558.41

562.79

553.44

556.57

565.49

560.78

567.49

566.78

570.24

578.61

568.07

566.51

588.95

582.39

RETAIL TRADE...........................

253.46

263.32

262.77

265.19

270.00

270.60

264.67

266.17

264.61

271.32

265.91

266.48

267.98

272.24

271.37

FINANCE, INSURANCE,
AND REAL ESTATE.................

512.15

529.24

536.17

522.36

527.80

540.94

528.50

530.31

530.64

534.31

551.63

538.97

537.42

554.90

539.58

SERVICES...................................

418.58

435.54

435.56

430.65

432.30

439.24

434.44

441.78

443.74

444.99

450.61

448.90

447.53

453.62

445.82

p = preliminary.
n o t e : bee "Notes on tne data" tor a aescription ot tne most recent pencnmark revision, uasn indicates data not avaiiaDie.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

61

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

17. Diffusion indexes of em ploym ent change, seasonally adjusted
[In percent]
Timespan and year

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov

Dec.

Private nonfarm payrolls, 356 industries
Over 1-month span:
1997..............................................................

57.3

59.7

62.8

63.2

57.7

57.7

61.2

60.1

61.5

65.3

62.1

61.2

1998..............................................................

63.2

56.6

60.5

58.7

58.3

59.7

53.9

58.1

56.2

53.8

59.0

57.4

1999..............................................................

54.1

58.8

2000..............................................................

53.9

59.6

52.8

57.9

58.8

53.8

57.3

60.7

60.8

59.0

60.8

54.1

60.7

55.8

42.8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Over 3-month span:
1997..............................................................

62.6

64.0

66.3

66.7

63.2

62.1

61.5

67.4

69.4

69.0

69.1

64.3

66.6

66.2

1998..............................................................

63.2

63.6

58.0

57.4

59.7

58.1

58.6

59.4

57.3

58.8

58.1

57.9
60.7

59.6

63.5

64.3

63.1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1999..............................................................

58.3

57.3

58.4

2000..............................................................

66.3
54.4

61.0

62.6

61.7

56.0

Over 6-month span:
1997..............................................................

66.3

67.0

66.6

66.3

65.6

67.1

66.3

70.4

67.4

65.2

61.8

62.9

61.4

59.0

69.0
57.4

69.7

69.8

68.5
58.4

70.4

1998..............................................................

59.7

59.3

59.1
64.6
-

1999..............................................................

60.0

2000..............................................................

58.0

57.6

58.6

54.4

59.7

60.4

62.1

64.0

62.8

65.2

65.4

62.1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Over 12-month span:
1997..............................................................

69.0

67.3

68.3

69.7

69.5

70.1

70.1

70.4

70.5

70.1

69.4

70.4

1998..............................................................

69.7

67.3

67.3

65.9

63.9

62.5

61.5

62.1

61.0

59.8

59.8

1999..............................................................

60.3

58.3

57.6

59.4

59.6

60.5

61.9

61.0

62.6

62.4

62.8

58.1
-

56.5
45.7

60.4
41.7
51.4

43.9
50.4

-

-

64.7

64.0
40.6

Manufacturing payrolls, 139 industries
Over 1-month span:
1997..............................................................
1998..............................................................
1999..............................................................

49.6
57.9
45.0

2000..............................................................

52.2

52.5
50.7
41.0
47.8

56.1
53.6
42.8
51.1

54.0
50.7
46.4
50.0

51.4
47.1
40.3
42.4

54.3
50.0
46.4

37.8
54.7

50.7

53.6
50.0
38.1

46.4

61.9
39.9
51.8

-

-

-

-

-

52.5
41.4

52.5
39.2

55.8
40.3

59.7
43.2

66.5
37.1

43.5

39.9

45.0

42.1

50.4

36.7
51.1

-

-

-

-

-

-

55.4

Over 3-month span:
1997..............................................................
1998..............................................................

50.7

53.2

1999..............................................................

56.8
36.7

56.8
37.1

55.8
52.2
37.1

2000..............................................................

47.8

52.5

49.3

53.2

53.2

60.1
35.6

54.3

52.5
50.4

Over 6-month span:
1997..............................................................
1998..............................................................
1999..............................................................
..............................................................

2000

51.1

-

51.8

53.2

54.7

61.2

61.2

64.4

64.7

63.7

43.5
32.7

42.1

36.7

34.5

45.7

36.0
48.2

39.9

38.8

38.8
41.0

43.2

-

-

-

-

-

-

48.6
-

32.7
51.1
-

56.8
39.9
37.1

57.2

57.9

37.8
38.8

38.1

58.3
37.1

39.6

42.4

-

-

54.0
51.8
31.7

54.0

55.4

46.8

40.6
36.0

54.7

52.5
51.8
32.4

- Data not available.
NOTE: Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing
plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50
percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and

July 2000

50.7
-

52.9

33.5

55.0
37.4

Monthly Labor Review

34.5
45.3

33.5
46.4

1998..............................................................
1999..............................................................

62

53.2
48.6
37.8

39.9
37.1

Over 12-month span:
1997..............................................................


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

56.1
52.2

35.3

56.8

56.8

57.2

36.0
41.7

34.2
43.2

33.5
-

decreasing employment. Data for the 2 most recent months shown in each
span are preliminary. See the "Definitions" in this section. See "Notes on
the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.

18.

Annual data: Employment status of the population

[Numbers in thousands]
1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

Civilian noninstitutional population...........

190,925

192,805

194,838

196,814

198,584

200,591

203,133

205,220

207,753

Civilian labor force...................................

126,346

128,105

129,200

131,056

132,304

133,943

136,297

137,673

139,368

Labor force participation rate...............

66.2

66.4

66.3

66.6

66.8

67.1

67.1

67.1

Employed.............................................

117,718

118,492

120,259

123,060

124,900

126,708

129,558

131,463

133,488

Employment-population ratio..........

61.7

61.5

61.7

62.5

62.9

63.2

63.8

64.1

64.3

3,269

3,247

3,115

3,409

3,440

3,443

3,399

3,378

3,281

114,499

115,245

117,144

119,651

121,460

123,264

126,159

128,085

130,207

8,628

9,613

8,940

7,996

7,404

7,236

6,739

6,210

7.5

6.9

6.1

5.6

5.4

4.9

4.5

4.2

64,700

65,638

65,758

66,280

66,647

66,837

67,547

68,385

1996

1997

1998

1999
128,786

Employment status

Nonagricultural industries............

6.8

Unemployment rate..........................
Not in the labor force...............................

19.

64,578

66.6

5,880

Annual data: Employment levels by industry

[In thousands]
Industry

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

Total employment............................................

108,249

108,601

110,713

114,163

117,191

119,608

122,690

125,865

Private sector................................................

89,847

89,956

91,872

95,036

97,885

100,189

103,133

106,042

108,616

Goods-producing.......................................

23,745

23,231

23,352

23,908

24,265

24,493

24,962

25,414

25,482

Mining......................................................

689

635

610

601

581

580

596

590

Construction...........................................

4,650

4,492

4,668

4,986

5,160

5,418

5,691

6,020

6,404

Manufacturing.........................................

18,406

18,104

18,075

18,321

18,524

18,495

18,675

18,805

18,543

Service-producing.....................................

84,504

85,370

87,361

90,256

92,925

95,115

97,727

100,451

103,304

Transportation and public utilities........

5,755

5,718

5,811

5,984

6,132

6,253

6,408

6,611

Wholesale trade.....................................

6,081

5,997

5,981

6,162

6,378

6,482

6,648

6,800

6,826
6,924

Retail trade.............................................

19,284

19,356

19,773

20,507

21,187

21,597

21,966

22,295

22,788

Finance, insurance, and real estate....

6,646

6,602

6,757

6,896

6,806

6,911

7,109

7,389

7,569

28,336

29,052

30,197

31,579

33,117

34,454

36,040

37,533

39,027
20,170

535

18,402

18,645

18,841

19,128

19,305

19,419

19,557

19,823

Federal.................................................

2,966

2,969

2,915

2,870

2,822

2,757

2,699

2,686

2,669

State.....................................................

4,355

4,408

4,488

4,576

4,635

4,606

4,582

4,612

4,695

Local.....................................................

11,081

11,267

11,438

11,682

11,849

12,056

12,276

12,525

12,806

NOTE: See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

63

Current Labor Statistics:

20.

Labor Force Data

Annual data: A verage hours and earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers on nonfarm
payrolls, by industry

_____________________________
1991

In d u s try

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

Private sector:
Average weekly hours..................................................

34.3

Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...........................

10.32

34.4
10.57

34.5
10.83

Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..........................

353.98

363.61

373.64

34.7

11.12
385.86

34.5
11.43

34.4

34.6

34.6

34.5

11.82

12.78

13.24

394.34

406.61

12.28
424.89

442.19

456.78

Mining:
Average weekly hours................................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)........................

44.4

43.9

44.3

44.8

44.7

45.3

45.4

43.9

43.8

14.19

14.54

14.60

14.88

15.30

15.62

16.15

16.91

Average weekly earnings (in dollars).......................

630.04

638.31

646.78

666.62

683.91

707.59

733.21

742.35

17.09
748.54

Construction:
Average weekly hours................................................

38.1

38.0

38.5

38.9

38.9

39.0

39.0

38.9

Average hourly earnings (in dollars)........................

14.00

14.38

14.73

16.04

533.40

553.63

573.00

15.09
587.00

15.47

Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................

14.15
537.70

603.33

625.56

16.61
646.13

39.1
17.18
671.74

Manufacturing:
Average weekly hours................................................

40.7

41.0

41.4

42.0

41.6

41.6

42.0

41.7

41.7

Average hourly earnings (in dollars).......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................

11.18

11.46

11.74

12.07

12.37

12.77

13.17

13.49

13.91

455.03

469.86

486.04

506.94

514.59

531.23

553.14

562.53

580.05

Transportation and public utilities:
Average weekly hours................................................

38.1

38.3

39.3

39.7

39.4

39.6

39.7

39.5

38.7

Average hourly earnings (in dollars)........................

13.20

13.43

13.55

13.78

14.13

14.45

14.92

15.31

15.69

Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................

502.92

514.37

532.52

547.07

556.72

572.22

592.32

604.75

607.20

38.4

38.3
14.07

Wholesale trade:
Average weekly hours................................................

38.1

38.2

38.2

38.4

38.3

Average hourly earnings (in dollars)........................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................

11.15
424.82

11.39
435.10

11.74
448.47

12.06
463.10

12.43

38.3
12.87

476.07

492.92

13.45
516.48

Average weekly hours................................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars).......................

28.6
6.94

28.8

28.8

28.9

28.8

28.8

7.12

7.49

Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................

198.48

205.06

7.29
209.95

7.69
221.47

7.99
230.11

35.9
12.80
459.52

38.3

538.88

14.58
558.41

28.9

29.0

29.0

8.33
240.74

8.74
253.46

9.08
263.32

36.1
13.34

36.4

36.2

14.07

481.57

512.15

14.62
529.24

Retail trade:

216.46

Finance, insurance, and real estate:
Average weekly hours................................................

35.7

35.8

35.8

35.8

35.9

Average hourly earnings (in dollars)........................

10.39
370.92

10.82

11.35
406.33

11.83

12.32
442.29

Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................

387.36

423.51

Services:
Average weekly hours...............................................

32.4

32.5

32.5

Average hourly earnings (in dollars)........................

10.23

10.54

10.78

32.5
11.04

Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................

331.45

342.55

350.35

358.80

64

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2000

32.4

32.4

32.6

32.6

32.6

11.39
369.04

11.79

12.28

12.84

13.36

382.00

400.33

418.58

435.54

21.

Employment Cost Index, compensation,1by occupation and industry group

[June 1989 = 100]
1998

1999

2000

Percent change
3

Series
Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

months
ended

12
months
ended

Mar. 2000
Civilian workers2................................................................

136.3

137.4

140.4

139.0

139.8

141.8

143.3

144.6

146.5

1.3

4.3

White-collar workers.............................................................

137.7

Professional specialty and technical..................................
Executive, adminitrative, and managerial.........................
Administrative support, including clerical..........................
Blue-collar workers................................................................

137.5
139.1
138.0
133.2

138.7
138.3
139.7
139 3
134 3

140.6
140.0
141.7
140 4
135 3

141.4

141.9

145.0
143.9
147.3

145.3
148.6

148.4
146.7

1.4

141.3
143.5
142 5
137 1

143.3
142.2
145.4
145 4

146.3

141.0
141.8
141 3
13fi 1

1.0

150.5

1.3

4.6
3.8
4.9

Service occupations..............................................................

136 9

137.9

139.4

140.0

141.3

142.4

143.1

144.8

146.0

.8

3.3

Goods-producing...................................................................
Manufacturing......................................................................

135.1
136.4

Service-producing.................................................................
Services................................................................................
Health services..................................................................

136 8

136.3
137.2
137 7

137.2
138.2
139 fi

137.9
138.9
140 4

139.0
139.9

140.0
140.9

141.2
142.1

142.5
143.6

144.9
146.0

1.7
1.7

4.2
4.4

138.3
138.0
137.1
137 5

139.0
138.5
138.2
137 7

140.8
139.1
139.4
140 2

141.7
139.1
140.2

142.3
140.5
141.3

143.2
141.4
142.2

145.1
142.7
143.4

146.5
144.3
145.0

148.0
145.9
146.3

1.0
1.1

4.0
3.8
3.5

Workers, by occupational group:

Workers, by industry division:

Hospitals..........................................................................

.9

136.4

137.4

138.9

139.9

140.8

141.5

142.4

144.4

145.7

.9

3.5

136.2

137.3

139.0

139.9

140.5

141.9

143.4

144.7

146.6

1.3

4.3

136.3
136.4

137.5
137.5

139.0
138.8

139.8
139.4

140.4
140.5

142.0
141.9

143.3
143.2

144.6
144.5

146.8
146.5

1.5
1.4

4.6
4.3

139.4

141.1
141.3
141.6
141.9
140.4
140.6
135 ?

142.0
141.9
142.6
141.8
142.6
141.4
135 9

142.4
143.0
142.9
143.7
139.6
142.6

144.1
144.5
144.1
145.8
142.6
143.7

145.6
146.0
145.2
147.7
144.1
145.0

146.9
147.3
146.7
149.1

149.3
149.4
148.4

1.6

139.9
140.1
140.0
137.3
139.6
134 3

1.2

4.8
4.5
3.8

145.3
146.2

151.1
148.9
149.0

1.3
2.5
1.9

5.1
6.7
4.5

Precision production, craft, and repair occupations.......
Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors............
Transportation and material moving occupations...........
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers....

138.1
138.8
138.8
139.4
135.3
138.2
133 1
132.9
133.6
129.3
137.0

134.4
134.7
129.9
137.6

135.4
135.7
130.7
138.5

136.1
136.8
130.7
139.2

137.2
137.3
131.6
141.0

140.6
141.4
135.2
144.4

142.3
144.0
137.5
146.4

1.2
1.8

3.7
4.9

133.6
142.3

139.6
139.9
134.4
143.2

1.7
1.4

4.5
3.8

Service occupations............................................................

135.3

136.0

137.3

138.0

139.5

140.6

141.0

142.6

143.9

.9

3.2

Production and nonsupervisory occupations4.................

135.3

136.6

138.0

139.0

139.3

140.8

141.9

143.1

145.3

1.5

4.3

135.1
134.5
137.7
136.3
133.5
130.6
136.4
138.2
136.5
135.0
136.5
135.9

136.2
135.6
138.8
137.4
134.6
132.7
137.2
139.1
137.3
135.9
137.4
136.7

137.1
136.5
139.7
138.3
135.5
133.4
138.2
140.1
138.3
136.8
138.5
137.6

137.8
137.2
140.2
138.8
136.3
134.3

138.9
138.3
141.7
140.4
137.1
135.6

141.1
140.5
143.9
142.5
139.4
137.9

139.9
141.8
140.1
138.5
139.9
139.6

142.5
141.8
145.5
143.9
140.7
138.7
143.6
145.8
143.8
142.1

144.8
144.2
148.1
146.5
142.8
140.8
146.0
148.2
146.2
144.4
146.5
144.9

1.6

138.9
140.5
138.7
137.7

139.9
139.3
142.7
141.3
138.3
136.9
140.9
143.0
141.3
139.4

4.2
4.3
4.5
4.4
4.2
3.8
4.4
4.5
4.4
4.3
4.7
3.8

136.7
137.4
138.0
139.5
132.1
135.0
135.8
134.0
137.9
136.6
139.6
134.7
135.5
137.7
137.0
133.1
131.2
131.3

137.8
138.5
139.3
140.6
133.2
135.8
137.1
134.9

139.6
140.0
141.2
142.2
134.3
137.0
138.5
136.7
140.7
140.5
141.0
137.6
138.1
140.8
140.0
135.9
133.2
133.7

Public administration3...........................................................
Nonmanufacturing.................................................................

Private industry workers..................................................
Excluding sales occupations............................................
Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers............................................................
Excluding sales occupations..........................................
Professional specialty and technical occupations..........
Executive, adminitrative, and managerial occupations..
Sales occupations.............................................................
Administrative support occupations, including clerical...
Blue-collar workers......................................................

Workers, by industry division:
Goods-producing.................................................................
Excluding sales occupations.......................................
White-collar occupations.................................................
Excluding sales occupations.......................................
Blue-collar occupations...................................................
Construction.......................................................................
Manufacturing...........................................................
White-collar occupations................................................ .
Excluding sales occupations.......................................
Blue-collar occupations...................................................
Durables...........................................................................
Nondurables.......................................................................
Service-producing................................................................
Excluding sales occupations.......................................
White-collar occupations.................................................
Excluding sales occupations.......................................
Blue-collar occupations...................................................
Service occupations........................................................
Transportation and public utilities.....................................
Transportation..................................................................
Public utilities...................................................................
Communications...........................................................
Electric, gas, and sanitary services.............................
Wholesale and retail trade................................................
Excluding sales occupations.......................................
Wholesale trade...............................................................
Excluding sales occupations.......................................
Retail trade.......................................................................
General merchandise stores........................................
Food stores....................................................................

139.7
139.2
140.3
135.8
136.3
138.6
138.2
134.4
133.0
132.9

139.2
138.2
140.5
140.6
142.2
142.8
134.8
137.8
139.3
137.3
141.9
141.7
142.1
138.2
138.8
142.8
141.2
135.6
134.0
132.7

140.9
141.7
142.3
143.8
136.2
139.3
139.7
136.8
143.4
143.3
143.4
138.9
139.9
142.7
142.4
136.8
135.0
134.3

138.4
138.4

141.0
140.4
142.8
143.3
144.3
145.5
137.8
140.5
140.9
138.1
144.6
144.9
144.2
141.1
141.9
144.6
144.0
139.1
135.6
135.7

142.1
144.3
142.5
140.5
142.3
141.5
144.1
144.6
145.8
147.0
139.1
140.8
141.8
138.7
145.7
146.1
145.1
142.2
142.8
146.3
145.8
140.0
137.2
137.0

144.0
142.8
145.3
145.9
147.0
148.3
139.8
142.4
142.3
139.5
146.1
146.0
146.1
143.5
144.3
148.5
147.4
140.7
138.3
138.1

147.4
147.7
149.3
150.3
141.8
143.6
143.9
140.4
148.6
148.4
148.9
145.6
146.4

1.4

1.7

1.8
1.8
1.5
1.5
1.7

1.6
1.7

1.6
1.7
1.5
1.4

4.6
4.2
4.9
4.5
4.1
3.1
3.0

1.2
1.6
1.3
1.4

.8
1.1
.6
1.7

1.6
1.9
1.5
1.5

150.0
149.6
143.2
139.7

1.0

140.1

1.4

1.5

1.8
1.0

2.6
3.6
3.6
3.8
4.8
4.6
5.1
5.1
4.7
3.5
4.3

See footnotes at end of table.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

65

Current Labor Statistics:

Compensation & Industrial Relations

21. Continued—Employment Cost Index, compensation,1 by occupation and industry group
[June 1989 = 100]

Series
Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Percent change

2000

1999

1998

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

12

3
months

months

ended

ended

Mar. 2000
Finance, insurance, and real estate..................................

136.7

138.4

141.0

142.5

141.5

145.8

147.6

148.3

152.0

2.5

7.4

Excluding sales occupations.........................................

140.2

141.3

143.2

145.6

148.8

151.0

151.6

154.2

1.7

5.9

Banking, savings and loan, and other credit agencies.

145.3

148.4

148.8

155.4

159.3

159.8

162.7

138.9

141.7

141.7

142.7

143.5

145.8
147.6

149.9

139.3

144.0
144.6

144.5

Services..................................................................................

141.9
141.8

1.8
2.8
1.2

9.3

Insurance.............................................................................

143.3
137.4

143.3
146.7

5.8
4.1

Business services..............................................................

139.5

140.3
140.7

143.5

145.9

147.5

148.7

146.1
150.7

151.9

149.4
154.2

Health services...................................................................

138.2

138.7

139.0

139.0

140.5

141.4

142.6

144.2

145.8

Hospitals...........................................................................

136.7

138.2

139.9

141.2

142.1

143.0

144.6

Educational services..........................................................

143.4

143.9

139.1
147.0

147.7

148.3

148.7

152.2

Colleges and universities...............................................

144.3

144.8

147.8

148.5

149.2

149.6

1.5

4.5
3.8

145.8

1.1
.8

153.0

154.0

.7

3.8

152.6

153.3

154.6

144.5

146.7

1.5

4.6

.8

3.3
3.6

Nonmanufacturing...............................................................

136.0

137.2

138.9

139.7

140.3

142.0

143.4

White-collar workers..........................................................
Excluding sales occupations.......................................

137.9

139.2

141.1

142.0

142.3

144.1

145.6

146.9

149.2

1.6

4.8

140.5
132.4

142.0
133.4

142.7
134.0

143.7
135.2

145.3

146.8

148.1

150.2

Blue-collar occupations.....................................................

139.3
131.0

140.6

4.5
4.0

134.9

135.7

136.9

137.7

139.2

138.0
140.7

138.7

Service occupations..........................................................

136.8
140.4

1.4
1.4

142.3

143.5

136.5

136.9

139.0

139.8

140.5

141.0

143.1

144.6

145.5

136.1
135.6

136.2

138.4

139.3

139.8

140.2

142.6

137.7

138.5

139.3

142.0

140.4

141.6

139.5
136.8

140.3
137.8

144.5
143.0

138.8

142.8
141.3
139.5

146.1

137.2
135.2

138.8
142.6
141.4

144.0
143.2

144.9

135.6
137.9

145.0
142.5

147.0
145.9
143.7

State and local government workers...................................

.8
.6

3.1

.6
.6
.6
.6
.8

3.6

3.6

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers.................................................................
Professional specialty and technical...................................
Executive, administrative, and managerial........................
Administrative support, including clerical...........................

137.5
136.9
135.0

140.9

144.1

3.8
3.1
3.2
3.5

Workers, by industry division:

Services excluding schools5...............................................

136.5

136.6

139.0

139.7

140.0

140.5

143.2

144.5

145.2

.5

3.7

136.1

136.2

138.7

138.8

139.6

140.3

142.6

143.8

145.2

4.0

137.9

138.0
138.4

140.3
140.7

140.7

141.2
141.7

142.0

144.2

145.8

141.2

142.7

144.8

146.3

147.3
147.9

1.0
1.0
1.1

138.8

139.6
139.9

139.9
140.2

140.3

144.4
144.7

145.0
145.3

.4

3.6

140.6

.4

3.6

139.3
141.5

139.6
141.7

140.0
142.1

143.1
143.5
142.9

144.1
146.5

144.5
147.4

.3

144.8

.6

3.5
4.0

139.9

140.8

141.5

142.4

144.4

145.7

.9

3.5

138.4

136.1

136.5
136.7
136.2

137.9

138.1

139.1
138.8
140.4

136.4

137.4

138.9

136.3
136.6
Elementary and secondary........................................
Public administration3............................................................

1 Cost (cents per hour worked) measured in the Employment Cost Index consists of
wages, salaries, and employer cost of employee benefits.
2 Consists of private industry workers (excluding farm and household workers) and
State and local government (excluding Federal Government) workers.


Monthly Labor Review
66
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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2000

4.3
4.4

3 Consists of legislative, judicial, administrative, and regulatory activities.
4 This series has the same industry and occupational coverage as the Hourly
Earnings index, which was discontinued in January 1989.
5 Includes, for example, library, social, and health services.

22. Employment Cost Index, wages and salaries, by occupation and industry group
[June 1989 = 100]
1998

1999

2000

Series
Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

Percent change
3
months
ended

12
months
ended

Mar. 2000
134.0

135.0

136.8

137.7

138.4

139.8

141.3

142.5

144.0

1.1

4.0

135.6
135.8
137.4

136.7
136.6

138.8
138.5

139.7
139.4

140.1
140.1

141.6
141.0

143.3
142.6

144.6
144.0

146.2
144.9

4.4
3.4

138.3
136.2
131.4
134.5

140.5
137.5
132.6
136.1

140.3
138.6
133.3
137.0

141.6
140.0
134.5
138.3

143.8
140.9
135.8
139.4

145.9
142.3
137.0
140.1

147.2
143.5
137.9
141.7

148.6
145.5
139.2
143.0

1.1
.6
1.0

134.8
136.9
136.2
134.2
136.3

133.3
134.6
135.7
137.6
136.5
135.1
136.5

134.4
136.0
137.8
139.6
137.6
136.4

135.2
136.8
138.7
140.5
137.6
137.1
140.0

137.4
139.0
140.7
142.3
139.7
138.8
140.6

138.6
140.2
142.3
144.1

139.1

136.3
137.9
139.2
141.5
138.8
138.1
140.2

140.9
140.1
143.7

139.7
141.5
143.5
145.5
142.5
141.6
144.7

141.3
142.9
145.0
146.6
143.8
142.6
145.3

132.7
134.0

133.2
135.1

134.8
137.0

135.9
137.8

136.9
138.4

137.8
139.9

139.5
141.5

141.5
142.6

142.5
144.2

133.7
133.7

134.9
134.8

136.6
136.3

137.4
136.9

138.1
138.2

139.7
139.6

141.0
140.8

142.2

143.9
143.5

White-collar workers............................................................
Excluding sales occupations..........................................
Professional specialty and technical occupations..........
Executive, adminitrative, and managerial occupations..
Sales occupations.............................................................
Administrative support occupations, including clerical...
Blue-collar workers.............................................................
Precision production, craft, and repair occupations.......
Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors............
Transportation and material moving occupations...........
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers....

135.7
136.3
135.9
137.8
133.1
135.3
130.2
129.8
131.6
125.9
133.2

137.0
137.5
137.1
138.7
135.2
136.7
131.3
131.2
132.7
126.4
133.7

139.0
139.1
138.7
140.9
138.8
137.9
132.4
132.3
133.8
127.6
135.1

139.9
139.7
139.7
140.5
141.3
138.9
133.2
133.0
134.9

142.1
142.5
141.8
144.3
140.5
141.4
135.6
135.6
136.7
131.0
138.3

143.5
143.9
142.6
146.4
142.1
142.7
136.8
136.7
138.3
131.9
139.4

144.8
145.2
144.1
147.6
143.3
143.8
137.7

127.8
135.8

140.3
141.0
140.7
141.9
137.3
140.4
134.3
134.3
135.7
129.1
137.3

137.5
139.5
132.7
140.4

146.0
139.1
138.9
140.7
134.1
141.8

Service occupations............................................................

132.1

133.0

134.4

135.3

136.7

137.8

138.0

139.6

141.0
142.1

Civilian workers1...........................................................
Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers..............................................................
Professional specialty and technical..................................
Executive, adminitrative, and managerial.........................
Administrative support, including clerical..........................
Blue-collar workers................................................................
Service occupations..............................................................
Workers, by industry division:
Goods-producing...................................................................
Manufacturing......................................................................
Service-producing..................................................................
Services................................................................................
Health services..................................................................
Hospitals..........................................................................
Educational services.........................................................
Public administration^..........................................................
Nonmanufacturing.................................................................

Private industry workers..................................................
Excluding sales occupations............................................

135.0
130.4
133.7

132.0
133.7

142.0

1.4
.9
.9

1.1
1.0
1.0
.8
.9
.7
.4
.7

1.1
1.2
1.1

4.9
3.9
3.5
3.4

3.7
3.6
4.2
3.6
3.6
3.3
3.6
4.1
4.2
4.2
3.8

Workers, by occupational group:

Production and nonsupervisory occupations3.................
Workers, by industry division:
Goods-producing.................................................................
Excluding sales occupations.......................................
White-collar occupations................................................
Excluding sales occupations.......................................
Blue-collar occupations..................................................
Construction.......................................................................
Manufacturing....................................................................
Excluding sales occupations.......................................

Excluding sales occupations.......................................
Excluding sales occupations......................................

Transportation.................................................................
Public utilities...................................................................
Communications...........................................................
Wholesale and retail trade................................................
Excluding sales occupations.......................................
Wholesale trade...............................................................

General merchandise stores........................................
Food stores....................................................................

146.6
146.7
145.1
149.2
146.7

132.3

133.6

135.2

136.4

136.8

138.2

139.3

140.4

132.0
131.3
135.0
133.3
130.1
126.0
133.7
135.6
133.8
132.3
133.4
134 2

133.2
132.5
136.3
134.6
131.3
128.1
134.6
136.8
135.0
133.1
134.5
134 9

134.3
133.6
137.4
135.7
132.3
128.5
136.0
138.3

135.2
134.4
138.2
136.4
133.3
129.3
136.8
139.0
137.1
135.3
136.9
136.8

136.3
135.5
139.4
137.8
134.3
130.7
137.9
140.1
138.3
136.3
137.9
138.0

137.3
136.6
140.5
138.8
135.4
131.9
139.0
141.4

138.5
137.8
141.7
140.1
136.6
133.0
140.2
142.7

139.6
137.2
139.1
138.7

140.8
138.4
140.4
139.7

139.7
138.9
143.0
141.3
137.6
133.6
141.5
144.0
142.0
139.7
141.8
140.9

141.3
140.5
145.0
143.2
139.0
136.0
142.9
145.8
143.7
140.8
143.0
142.7

134.4
135.2
135.7
137.3
130.2
132.1
132.1
130.1
134.5
134.4
134.7
133.3
134.7
136.2
136.5
131.9
129.4
129.0

135.6
136.2
137.0
138.4
131.1
133.0
132.8
130.4
135.7
135.8
135.6
134.6
135.6
137.1
137.8

137.6
137.9
139.2
140.2
132.4
134.2

138.4
138.5
140.1
140.7
132.9
135.2
135.1
132.9
137.8
138.0
137.4
137.0
138.2
141.3
140.8
134.8
133.0
130.5

138.9
139.8
140.3
142.0
134.4
136.7
135.4
132.3
139.2
139.4
138.9
137.7
139.5
140.7
141.9
136.2
133.7
131.8

140.8
141.4
142.3
143.7
135.9
137.8
136.8
133.7
140.6
141.1
140.0
139.6
141.1
142.3
143.0
138.3
134.3
132.8

142.1
142.6
143.8
145.1
137.0
138.0
137.5
134.4
141.5
141.9
140.9
140.7
141.8
144.3
144.8

143.3
143.8
145.0
146.4
137.8
139.6
137.9
134.9
141.8
142.2
141.3
142.0
143.3
146.5
146.4

138.9
135.6
133.9

139.6
136.7
134.9

145.0
145.3
146.9
147.8
139.1
141.1
138.5
134.9
143.2
143.4
143.0
143.8
145.2
147.4
147.9
142.1
137.8
136.7

133.3
131.5
130.5

136.3
134.3
135.9
136.0

134.3
132.4
136.5
136.7
136.3
136.6
137.6
139.3
139.6
135.2
132.2
131.7

1.2
1.0
.7

1.1

4.5
4.0
3.1
5.1

2.4

6.8

1.5

4.0
3.6
3.4
3.7
3.9
3.3

1.0
1.0
.9

1.1
1.0
1.0
1.2
1.1
1.2
1.4
1.3

1.0
1.8
1.0
1.3

1.2
.8
.8
1.3

1.2
1.0
1.3

1.0
.9

1.1
.4

.0
1.0
.8
1.2
1.3
1.3

.6
1.0
1.8
.8
1.3

3.1
3.9

3.7
3.7
4.0
3.9
3.5
4.1
3.6
4.1
3.9
3.3
3.7
3.4
4.4
3.9
4.7
4.1
3.5
3.2
2.3

2.0
2.9
2.9
3.0
4.4
4.1
4.8
4.2
4.3
3.1
3.7

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

67

Current Labor Statistics:

22.

Compensation & Industrial Relations

Continued— Employment Cost Index, wages and salaries, by occupation and industry group

[June 1989 = 100]

Series
Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

Sept.

June

Percent change

2000

1999

1998

Dec.

Mar.

3

12

months
ended

months
ended

Mar. 2000
Finance, insurance, and real estate..................................

132.6

134.8

138.1

139.8

137.2

142.4

144.5

145.2

148.7

2.4

8.4

Excluding sales occupations.........................................

135.9

137.5

139.7

139.6

141.0

144.8

148.0

150.2

Banking, savings and loan, and other credit agencies.

140.9

147.0

144.4

154.5

147.5
159.2

159.6

1.5
1.5

10.9

6.5

Insurance.............................................................................

133.1

143.2
134.8

138.7

138.5

146.1
137.4

139.8

140.2

141.5

162.0
145.5

137.2

138.3

140.0

140.8

142.2

143.2

144.5

146.0

147.4

2.8
1.0

5.9

Services.................................................................................
Business services..............................................................

137.6

139.2

141.8

145.4

146.3

148.5

149.8

152.0

1.5

4.5

Health services...................................................................

136.2

137.5

138.7

139.6

140.6

142.2

143.5

.9

3.5

Hospitals...........................................................................

133.6

136.5
134.7

144.1
137.4

135.8

136.5

137.6

139.6

142.8

143.5

143.9

140.9
148.2

141.8
148.9

3.1

139.1
139.1

139.7

142.8

143.6

144.1

139.3
147.5
147.2

.6

Educational services..........................................................
Colleges and universities...............................................

138.3
144.2
144.4

147.9

148.9

.5
.7

3.3

141.0
143.5

142.1

143.9

1.3

4.4

144.7

4.6
4.1

3.7

3.5

Nonmanufacturing...............................................................

133.4

134.7

136.5

137.4

137.9

139.7

White-collar workers..........................................................
Excluding sales occupations.......................................

135.5

136.8

138.9

139.8

140.1

142.0

136.9

138.1

139.8

141.6

143.2

128.2
132.0

129.5
132.9

130.5
134.1

135.1

132.4
136.5

134.0
137.7

144.6
135.1
137.9

145.9

Blue-collar occupations.....................................................
Service occupations..........................................................

140.3
131.1

146.5
147.4

135.8
139.5

140.9

State and local government workers..................................

135.1

135.4

137.6

138.5

139.0

139.6

142.2

143.5

144.3

1.2
1.0
1.2
1.0
.6

White-collar workers.................................................................

135.0

135.2

137.6

138.5

138.9

139.3

142.1

143.4

144.1

.5

3.7

Professional specialty and technical...................................

135.5
135.1
133.0

135.6

137.9

138.7

139.4

144.3

138.0
135.4

139.3
136.5

.5

135.1

136.0

136.9

144.9
142.4
141.5

3.9
3.4

133.5

144.3
141.7
140.7

.5
.4

133.1

140.5
137.5
137.6

142.5
142.7

143.6

135.6
133.3

138.9
140.1
137.4

3.6
3.4

Services...................................................................................

135.7

135.9

138.4

139.2

139.5

139.9

142.9

144.0

144.6

.4

3.7

Services excluding schools4................................................

135.4

135.5
136.5

137.8
138.7

138.2
139.2

139.6
140.4

142.1
142.8

143.2
144.2

144.3
145.3

136.3

140.6

142.8

144.1

145.3

.8
.8
.8

3.8
4.0

Hospitals..........................................................................

139.0
139.7
139.7
139.5
139.6

139.8

142.9
143.1
143.1

144.0
144.2
144.1

144.5
144.7

Elementary and secondary.........................................

135.7
135.8
136.0

Colleges and universities...........................................
Public administration4............................................................

137.4

3.8
3.2
3.8

Workers, by occupational group:

Executive, administrative, and managerial........................

139.6
139.4

.6

Workers, by industry division:

136.3

139.1

136.0
136.1

139.3
139.5
139.3

139.5

140.0
139.9

144.5

.3
.3
.3

135.2

135.5

137.7

139.6

139.6

139.8

142.6

144.4

144.9

.3

3.8

132.7

133.2

134.8

135.9

136.9

137.8

139.5

141.5

142.5

.7

4.1

1 Consists of private industry workers (excluding farm and household workers) and
State and local government (excluding Federal Government) workers.

3.6
3.7
3.6

3 This series has the same industry and occupational coverage as the Hourly
Earnings index, which was discontinued in January 1989.

2 Consists of legislative, judicial, administrative, and regulatory activities.

23.

4.0

138.6
138.4
138.5
138.7

136.5
135.8

4 Includes, for example, library, social, and health services.

Employment Cost Index, benefits, private industry workers by occupation and industry group

[June 1989 = 100]
2000

1999

1998
Series
Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

Percent change
3

12

months
ended

months
ended

Mar. 2000
148.6

150.2

153.8

2.4

5.5

145.2

145.8

147.3

146.6

147.4

151.0

152.5

156.3

2.5

5.7

141.6

147.9
142.2

149.4

141.0

143.6

144.8

146.2

150.0

2.6

5.5

143.0
144.9

143.2
145.7

144.3

145.2

152.3

150.7

154.0

2.8
2.2

5.6

147.9

146.3
149.4

148.2

146.1

142.6

142.7
145.8

143.6
146.3

144.5
148.0

145.7
149.4

147.8
150.7

152.3
154.0

142.6

143.7

144.5

144.7

145.6
140.4

142.5

Workers, by occupational group:
139.1
Workers, by industry division:
141.5
142.7
Nonmanufacturing....................................................................

68

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141.7
142.7

143.8
142.4
143.9

145.0

3.0

2.2

5.4

6.1
5.3

24.

Employment Cost Index, private nonfarm workers by bargaining status, region, and area size

[June 1989 = 100]

2000

1999

1998
Series
Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

Percent change
12
3
months
months
ended
ended
Mar. 2000

COMPENSATION
Workers, by bargaining status1
Union................................................................................................

134.0

135.3

136.8

137.5

138.0

139.0

140.2

141.2

143.0

1.3

3.6

Goods-producing.......................................................................

132.7

135.6
138.0

136.5
138.5

136.8

138.2
139.7

139.2

143.3

1.8

142.5

.8

4.8
2.4

136.9
137.4

137.0
138.1

138.1

141.0
139.1

140.8
141.4
141.0

144.5

2.5

5.5

139.2

140.3

140.8

141.7

.6

2.6
4.7

Service-producing......................................................................

135.3

134.3
136.2

M anufacturing.............................................................................

133.6

134.6

136.0

Nonmanufacturing.....................................................................

133.9

135.3

136.9

Nonunion..........................................................................................
Goods-producing.......................................................................

136.7

137.8

140.8

142.5

143.8

145.2

147.4

1.5

136.9

139.3
137.7

140.1

135.9

138.3

139.7

140.5

143.1

145.4

1.6

4.1

Service-producing......................................................................
Manufacturing.............................................................................

136.7

138.0

139.7

140.6

141.1

143.0

141.8
144.4

145.7

148.0

1.6

4.9

137.2

138.0

138.9

139.4

140.7

141.7

143.0

144.4

4.1

136.3

137.5

139.1

140.0

140.6

142.4

143.8

145.1

146.5
147.4

1.5

Nonmanufacturing.....................................................................

1.6

4.8

136.0

137.0
136.4

138.7

139.5

140.5

141.5

143.2

144.3

146.3

1.4

4.1

135.5

137.6

139.1

140.7

141.8

143.0

145.0

1.4

138.3
135.2

139.6
136.6

140.9
138.5

138.1
141.4

141.7

143.6

145.0

146.3

148.9

1.8

4.2
5.1

140.0

140.3

142.1

143.3

144.7

147.0

1.6

4.8

139.2

Workers, by region1
Northeast........................................................................................
South...............................................................................................

Workers, by area size1
136.4

137.5

139.8
139.4

142.0

140.5

141.8

143.3
143.1

144.7

137.1

139.1
138.2

140.4

135.9

143.6

146.9
146.0

1.5
1.7

4.6
3.9

Union................................................................................................

129.6

130.7

132.4

133.1

133.6

134.7

135.7

136.5

137.2

.5

2.7

Goods-producing.......................................................................

127.9

129.4

131.7

132.3

133.8

134.9

136.1

137.2

.8

3.7

Service-producing......................................................................
Manufacturing............................................................................

131.8

132.2

131.0
134.1

134.8

135.4

135.8

136.8

137.2

137.6

.3

1.6

129.6
129.6

130.4
130.8

132.2
132.4

133.0
133.1

133.6
133.7

134.7

137.5
135.9

138.8
136.4

.9
.4

3.9

134.6

135.8
135.6

Nonunion.........................................................................................

134.5
133.6
134.6
135.1

135.7

137.4
135.7

138.3

139.0
137.8

140.7
138.8

142.0
140.0

143.3
141.1

134.0

135.3

141.3
140.5
140.5

142.6
141.7
141.8

143.9
142.9
143.0

1.3
1.3
1.3

4.4

139.3
139.4

145.1
142.9
145.8
144.4

Northeast........................................................................................

132.6

133.8

135.4

South...............................................................................................

134.0
134.7
132.9

134.9

136.5

136.4
136.7

138.2
139.4

140.9
141.5

136.0
134.5

137.5
136.7

138.0
138.4

141.0

139.9
140.2
142.4

140.2

141.3

135.1
133.4

136.9
134.7

137.7

138.3

139.9

136.0

137.1

138.4

Metropolitan areas.........................................................................

WAGES AND SALARIES
Workers, by bargaining status1

Goods-producing.......................................................................
Service-producing......................................................................
Manufacturing............................................................................

134.7
135.9
136.2

137.9
137.3
137.1

136.5
138.8
138.2
138.0

138.6

2.0

3.7
4.7
3.6

145.0

1.0
1.4

4.6

143.6

142.3
143.0
145.3

1.0
1.1
1.2

3.8
3.7
4.6

142.6

144.7

1.5

4.7

141.2

142.5

144.1

139.8

140.2

142.2

1.1
1.4

4.2
3.7

Workers, by region1
137.1
137.9
138.9
138.2

Workers, by area size1
Metropolitan areas........................................................................

133.8

Other areas....................................................................................

132.5

1 The indexes are calculated differently from those for the occupation and industry groups. For a detailed description of the index calculation, see the M onthly Labor Review
Technical Note, "Estimation procedures for the Employment Cost Index," May 1982.


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Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

69

Current Labor Statistics:

Compensation & Industrial Relations

25. Percent of full-time employees participating in employer-provided benefit plans, and in selected features within plans,
medium and large private establishments, selected years, 1980-97_________________________________________________

Scope of survey (in 000's)............................................
Number of employees (in 000's):
With medical care......................................................
With life insurance.....................................................
With defined benefit plan..........................................

1986

1984

1982

1980

Item

1997

1995

1993

1991

1989

1988

21,352

21,043

21,013

21,303

31,059

32,428

31,163

28,728

33,374

38,409

20,711
20,498
17,936

20,412

20,383
20,172
17,231

20,238

20,201
17,676

20,451
16,190

27,953
28,574
19,567

29,834
30,482
20,430

25,865
29,293
18,386

23,519
26,175
16,015

25,546
29,078
17,417

29,340
33,495
19,202

11
29
72
26
85
3.2
96
9.4

10
26
71
26
84
3.3
97
9.2

8
30
67
28
80
3.3
92
10.2

9
29
68
26
83
3.0
91
9.4

_
_
_
_
80
3.3
89
9.1

_
_
_
_
81
3.7
89
9.3

22
3.1

21
3.3

21
3.1

22
3.3

20
3.5

Time-off plans
Participants with:
Paid lunch tim e............................................................
Average minutes per day........................................
Paid rest time..............................................................
Average minutes per day.........................................
Paid funeral leave.......................................................
Average days per occurrence.................................
Paid holidays...............................................................
average uays per year.............................................

10
75
-

9
25
76
25

99
10.1

99
10.0

99
9.8

10
27
72
26
88
3.2
99
10.0

Paid personal leave....................................................
Average days per year............................................

20
-

24
3.8

23
3.6

25
3.7

24
3.3

Paid vacations.............................................................

100

99

99

100

98

97

96

97

96

95

Paid sick leave 1.........................................................
Unpaid maternity leave..............................................
Unpaid paternity leave...............................................
Unpaid family le a ve ...................................................

62

67

67

70

-

-

67
37
26

65
60
53

56

-

68
37
18

58

-

69
33
16

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

84

93

97

97

97

95

90

92

83

82

77

76

46
62
8

66
70
18

76
79
28

75
80
28

81
80
30

86
82
42

78
73
56

85
78
63

43
$12.80
63
$41.40

44
$19.29
64
$60.07

47
$25.31
66
$72.10

51
$26.60
69
$96.97

61
$31.55
76
$107.42

67
$33.92
78
$118.33

69
$39.14
80
$130.07

-

9
26
73
26
-

Insurance plans

_
Percent of participants with employee
contribution required for:
Self coverage...........................................................
Average monthly contribution................................
Family coverage......................................................
Mveraye mummy uururiuuuun................................
Participants in life insurance plans.............................
Percent of participants with:
Accidental death and dismemberment
insurance..................................................................
Retiree protection available......................................
Participants in long-term disability

_

58

62

-

-

26
46

27
51

-

-

36
$11.93
58
$35.93

96

96

96

96

92

94

94

91

87

87

69

72

74

72

78
8
49

71
7
42

71
6
44

76
5
41

77
7
37

74
6
33

42

43

53

55

_

_

-

64

64

10
59

40

43

47

48

42

45

40

41

54

51

51

49

46

43

45

44

-

-

-

Participants in sickness and accident
Participants in short-term disability plans 1................

Retirement plans
Participants in defined Denetit pension plans............
Percent of participants with:
Normal retirement prior to age 65...........................
Early retirement available.......................................
Ad hoc pension increase in last 5 years................
Terminal earnings formula......................................

Participants in plans with tax-deferred savings
arrangements............................................................

84

84

82

76

63

63

59

56

52

50

55
98
53
45

58
97
52

63
97
47
54

64
98
35
57

62
97
22
64

56

62

63

55
98
7
56
54

52
95
6
61

45

59
98
26
55
62

4E

52
96
4
58
51

52
95
10
56
49

60

45

48

48

49

55

57

33

36

41

44

43

54

55

-

Other benefits
Employees eligible for:
2

5

9

10

12

12

13

5

12

23

36

52

38
5

32
7

Premium conversion plans.......................................
1

The definitions for paid sick leave and short-term disability (previously sickness and

fits at less than full pay.

accident insurance) were changed for the 1995 survey. Paid sick leave now includes only

2

plans that specify either a maximum number of days per year or unlimited days. Short-

specifically allow medical plan participants to pay required plan premiums with pretax

Prior to 1995, reimbursement accounts included premium conversion plans, which

terms disability now includes all insured, self-insured, and State-mandated plans available

dollars.

on a per-disability basis, as well as the unfunded per-disability plans previously reported as

tabulated separately.

Also, reimbursement accounts that were part of flexible benefit plans were

sick leave. Sickness and accident insurance, reported in years prior to this survey, included
only insured, self-insured, and State-mandated plans providing per-disability bene­

70

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July 2000

N o t e : Dash indicates data not available.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

26. Percent of full-time em ployees participating in em ployer-provided benefit plans, an d in selected features
within plans, small private establishments an d State and local governments, 1987, 1990, 1992, 1994, an d 1996
Small private establishm ents

Item

1992

1990

1994

State and local governm ents
1987

1996

1990

1992

1994

32,466

34,360

35,910

39,816

10,321

12,972

12,466

12,907

22,402
20,778
6,493

24,396
21,990
7,559

23,536
21,955
5,480

25,599
24,635
5,883

9,599
8,773
9,599

12,064
11,415
11,675

11,219
11,095
10,845

11,192
11,194
11,708

Average days per occurrence...............................
Paid holidays...........................................................

8
37
48
27
47
2.9
84

9
37
49
26
50
3.0
82

50
3.1
82

51
3.0
80

17
34
58
29
56
3.7
81

36
56
29
63
3.7
74

10
34
53
29
65
3.7
75

62
3.7
73

Average days per year1.........................................
Paid personal leave.................................................
Average days per year..........................................
Paid vacations.........................................................

9.5
11
2.8
88

9.2
12
2.6
88

7.5
13
2.6
88

7.6
14
3.0
86

10.9
38
2.7
72

13.6
39
2.9
67

14.2
38
2.9
67

11.5
38
3.0
66

47

53

50

50

97

95

95

94

17
8

18
7

_

_

59
44

-

48

51
33

-

47

57
30
"

-

-

93

69

71

66

64

93

93

90

87

79
83
26

80
84
28

-

-

-

-

76
78
36

82
79
36

87
84
47

84
81
55

Average monthly contribution..............................
Family coverage...................................................

42
$25.13
67

47
$36.51
73

52
$40.97
76

52
$42.63
75

35
$15.74
71

38
$25.53
65

43
$28.97
72

47
$30.20
71

Average monthly contribution..............................

$109.34

$150.54

$159.63

$181.53

$71.89

$117.59

$139.23

$149.70

Participants in life insurance plans...........................
Percent of participants with:
Accidental death and dismemberment
insurance..............................................................
Survivor income benefits.......................................
Retiree protection available....................................
Participants in long-term disability
insurance plans......................................................
Participants in sickness and accident

64

64

61

62

85

88

89

87

78
1
19

76
1
25

79

2
20

77
1
13

67
1
55

67
1
45

74
1
46

64

22

31

27

28

30

14

21

22

21

Number of employees (in 000's):
With medical care...................................................
With life insurance..................................................

Time-off plans
Participants with:
Paid lunch time........................................................
Average minutes per day......................................
Paid rest time..........................................................
Average minutes per day......................................

Unpaid leave...........................................................
Unpaid paternity leave............................................
Unpaid family leave.................................................

h

_

Insurance plans
Participants in medical care plans.............................
Percent of participants with coverage for:
Home health care..................................................
Extended care facilities........................................
Physical exam.......................................................
Percent of participants with employee
contribution required for:

19

23

20

6

26

26

2

46

29

Participants in short-term disability plans2...............

Retirement plans
Participants in aetined Denetit pension plans...........

20

22

54
95
7
58
49

50
95
4
54
46

31

33

17

24

15

15

93

90

87

91

-

47
92
53
44

92
90
33
100
18

89
88
16
100
8

92
89
10
100
10

92
87
13
99
49

34

38

9

9

9

9

23

28

28

45

45

24

Percent of participants with:
Early retirement available.....................................
Ad hoc pension increase in last 5 years...............
Terminal earnings formula....................................
Benefit coordinated with Social Security...............
Participants in defined contribution plans..................
Participants in plans with tax-deferred savings
arrangements.........................................................

-

-

Other benefits
Employees eligible for:
Flexible benefits plans............................................
Reimbursement accounts3.....................................
Premium conversion plans ....................................

1

2

3

4

5

5

5

5

8

14

19

12

5

31

50

64

-

-

7

-

-

_

’ Methods used to calculate the average number of paid holidays were revised

_

sick leave. Sickness and accident insurance, reported In years prior to this

in 1994 to count partial days more precisely. Average holidays for 1994 are

survey, included only Insured, self-insured,

not comparable with those reported in 1990 and 1992.

providing per-disability benefits at less than full pay.

and State-mandated plans

2 The definitions for paid sick leave and short-term disability (previously

3 Prior to 1996, reimbursement accounts Included premium conversion plans,

sickness and accident insurance) were changed for the 1996 survey. Paid sick

which specifically allow medical plan participants to pay required plan

leave now includes only plans that specify either a maximum number of days

premiums with pretax dollars. Also, reimbursement accounts that were part of

per year or unlimited days. Short-term disability now includes all insured, selfinsured, and State-mandated plans available on a per-disability basis, as well

flexible benefit plans were tabulated separately.

as the unfunded per-disability plans previously reported as

N o t e : Dash indicates data not available.

Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

71

Current Labor Statistics:

Compensation & Industrial Relations

27. Work stoppages involving 1,000 workers or more
Measure

Annual totals
1997

1998

2000

1999
Jan.p

Feb.p

Mar.p

Apr.p

Mayp

Junep Julyp

Aug.p Sept.p Oct.p

Nov.p

Dec.p

Jan.p

Number of stoppages:
Beginning in period...............................

29

34

1

2

0

1

3

2

1

1

2

0

1

0

0

34

34

5

5

2

3

6

6

6

3

5

2

2

1

1

Workers involved:
Beginning in period (in thousands)....

339

387

1.4

4.1

.0

8.0

9.6

2.2

1.7

11.0

19.1

.0

2.0

.0

.0

In effect during period (in thousands).

351

387

9.2

10.3

4.4

12.4

22.0

21.6

16.3

15.4

34.5

10.1

5.0

3.0

3.0

4,497

5,116

129.0

104.1

101.2

256.8

314.8

309.4

266.4

118.8

176.2

67.1

63.6

63.0

60.0

.01

.02

.01

(2)

<2)

.01

.01

.01

.01

(2)

.01

<2)

(2)

(2)

(2)

Days idle:

Percent of estimated working tim e1....

1 Agricultural and government employees are included in the total employed and total working time; private household, forestry, and fishery employees are excluded.

An explanation of

the measurement of idleness as a percentage of the total time worked is found in " 'Total economy' measures of strike idleness," Monthly Labor Review, October 1968, pp. 54-56.
2 Less than 0.005.
v = preliminary.

72

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2000

28.

Consumer Price Indexes for All Urban Consumers and for Urban W age Earners and Clerical Workers: U.S. city average,
by expenditure category and com m odity or service group

[1982-84 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]

1999

Annual average
1998

1999

May

June

July

Aug.

2000

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

C O N S U M E R P R IC E IN D E X
FO R A LL U R B A N C O N SU M ER S

All items.......................................................................

163.0

166.6

166.2

166.2

166.7

167.1

167.9

168.2

168.3

168.3

168.7

169.7

171.1

171.2

171.3

All items (1 9 6 7 -1 0 0 )...............................................

488.3

499.0

497.7

497.9

499.2

500.7

502.9

503.9

504.1

504.1

505.5

508.4

512.5

512.9

513.3

Food and beverages................................................

161.1

164.6

164.2

164.1

164.2

164.7

165.1

165.5

165.7

165.9

166.6

166.8

167.1

167.2

167.8

Food..........................................................................

160.7

164.1

163.7

163.6

163.8

164.2

164.6

165.1

165.2

165.4

166.1

166.3

166.5

166.6

167.3

161.1

164.2

163.9

163.7

163.7

164.1

164.5

165.1

165.1

165.4

166.3

166.3

166.4

166.5

167.5

Cereals and bakery products.............................

181.1

185.0

185.1

185.7

186.3

184.9

185.2

185.2

184.8

185.9

185.6

186.0

186.1

187.2

188.6

Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs............................

147.3

147.9

146.7

147.2

147.3

148.5

149.2

149.2

150.5

149.8

150.2

151.3

152.4

152.9

153.9

Dairy and related products1...............................
Fruits and vegetables.........................................

150.8

159.6

156.1

158.7
202.6

164.1
202.2

159.1

160.6

201.2

204.5

160.4
208.4

160.9

203.2

156.5
202.1

162.1

203.1

155.7
202.0

164.6

198.2

156.2
207.2

203.0

201.7

201.6

159.6
204.3
137.3

Food at home........................................................

Nonalcoholic beverages and beverage
materials............................................................

133.0

134.3

134.2

134.3

134.3

134.5

134.2

134.6

133.9

134.7

137.1

138.4

138.5

137.6

Other foods at home...........................................

150.8

153.5

153.4

153.6

153.7

154.2

153.9

153.7

153.0

153.3

154.3

154.4

155.1

154.0

155.4

Sugar and sweets.............................................

150.2

152.3

153.0

152.4

152.4

152.7

153.5

153.3

152.1

152.3

154.8

154.4

154.6

152.4

153.7
147.0

Fats and oils......................................................

146.9

148.3

147.2

147.5

148.1

148.6

148.5

149.0

145.3

145.1

147.0

145.6

145.9

144.8

Other foods........................................................

165.5

168.9

168.7

169.2

169.3

169.9

169.2

168.7

169.0

169.4

169.8

170.5

171.6

170.7

172.1

Other miscellaneous foods1,2.......................

102.6

104.9

105.0

104.9

104.2

104.8

105.3

104.3

103.9

105.7

104.3

106.4

107.0

105.2

106.4

Food away from home1.........................................

161.1

165.1

164.6

164.6

165.1

165.6

165.8

166.2

166.5

166.8

167.2

167.6

167.9

168.1

168.3

Other food away from home1,2.........................
Alcoholic beverages...............................................

101.6

105.2

104.3

104.4

105.5

105.8

106.4

106.8

106.9

106.9

107.5

107.9

107.9

108.0

108.1

165.7

169.7

169.3

169.5

169.9

170.2

170.7

170.5

171.2

171.8

172.4

173.0

173.5

173.6

173.8

Housing......................................................................

160.4

163.9

163.0

164.1

164.7

165.0

165.2

165.0

164.9

164.8

165.8

166.9

167.6

167.6

167.8

Shelter.....................................................................

182.1

187.3

186.5

187.2

188.0

188.3

188.3

188.5

188.6

188.6

189.8

190.7

191.8

191.8

192.0

Rent of primary residence.................................

172.1

177.5

176.7

177.1

177.5

177.9

178.4

178.8

179.8

180.3

180.8

181.2

181.7

181.9

182.3

109.0

112.3

111.8

113.8

117.1

117.1

113.8

113.1

108.5

105.8

111.3

115.1

120.9

119.4

117.5

Owners' equivalent rent of primary residence3

187.8

192.9

192.2

192.6

193.0

193.4

193.9

194.2

194.9

195.2

195.7

196.1

196.4

196.8

197.2

Tenants' and household insurance1,2..............
Fuels and utilities...............................................

99.8

100.5
126.5

102.2
130.2

102.1
131.1

102.2
131.4

102.3
132.7

102.2

102.1

102.4

102.6

130.3

130.0

102.2
129.6

102.4

128.5

101.3
128.8

129.9

132.9

131.8

103.1
131.7

103.8
132.4

Fuels...................................................................

113.7

113.5

111.0

115.1

116.0

116.2

117.6

115.0

114.6

114.1

114.3

117.6

116.3

116.1

116.8

Fuel oil and other fuels..................................

90.0

91.4

87.7

87.3

87.5

89.2

93.9

97.6

100.7

106.3

114.4

147.2

130.1

123.7

121.6

Gas (piped) and electricity............................

121.2

120.9

118.4

123.0

124.0

124.1

125.3

122.0

121.4

120.3

119.8

120.6

120.7

121.0

122.0

Household furnishings and operations.............

126.6

126.7

126.7

126.8

126.8

126.8

127.0

126.6

126.4

126.4

127.0

127.2

127.9

128.2

128.1

Apparel.....................................................................

133.0

131.3

134.2

130.9

127.3

127.5

131.8

134.6

133.6

130.1

126.8

129.2

132.5

133.3

132.2

Men's and boys' apparel....................................

Infants' and toddlers' apparel1..........................

131.8

131.1

133.8

131.4

128.3

127.1

130.5

134.0

133.2

131.5

129.2

130.0

131.5

131.6

132.6

126.0

123.3

127.3

122.6

116.1

117.9

125.4

128.4

126.6

121.8

116.0

120.0

125.9

126.7

124.4

126.1

129.0

127.6

126.8

127.4

128.3

129.9

132.4

132.6

133.0

133.3

133.1

133.9

132.3

131.7

128.0

125.7

127.4

125.4

125.2

123.8

124.7

126.1

126.4

123.7

121.6

122.1

124.7

126.7

126.1

141.6

144.4

144.2

143.4

144.7

145.7

146.5

147.3

147.6

148.3

148.3

149.7

153.4

152.9

153.1

137.9

140.5

140.2

139.7

140.6

141.9

142.9

143.3

143.6

144.4

144.4

145.6

149.2

148.7

148.8

100.1

100.1

99.7

99.7

99.8

99.7

100.1

100.5

100.9

101.1

100.8

100.3

100.4

100.8

101.0

143.4

142.9

142.9

142.5

142.0

141.4

141.6

142.3

143.1

143.6

143.3

143.0

143.3

143.5

143.3

150.6
92.2

152.0
100.7

149.6
101.4

150.9
99.2

152.3
102.5

153.8
107.8

155.7
110.3

156.4
110.0

156.1
109.3

155.0
112.2

153.9
112.6

153.0
118.1

153.0
131.7

154.0
128.7

155.4
128.3

Gasoline (all types)..........................................

91.6

100.1

100.8

98.6

101.9

107.2

109.7

109.4

108.7

111.5

111.9

117.3

130.9

127.9

127.6

Motor vehicle parts and equipment..................

101.1

100.5

100.2

100.1

100.0

100.1

100.6

100.5

101.2

100.8

100.8

100.9

101.4

101.0

101.1

Motor vehicle maintenance and repair.............

167.1

171.9

171.3

171.7

172.1

172.1

172.8

173.2

173.6

173.8

174.6

175.2

175.7

175.9

176.3

Public transportation............................................

190.3

197.7

198.4

192.6

200.8

197.1

194.7

201.5

202.2

201.2

199.5

204.2

209.8

209.2

210.4

242.1

250.6

249.5

250.2

251.1

251.9

252.3

252.8

253.3

254.2

255.5

257.0

258.1

258.8

259.4

221.8

230.7

229.4

230.5

231.7

232.5

233.1

233.2

233.7

234.6

235.2

235.5

236.3

237.0

237.5

Transportation...........................................................

New and used motor vehicles2.........................
Used cars and trucks1......................................

Medical care commodities....................................

246.8

255.1

254.0

254.6

255.5

256.2

256.6

257.1

257.7

258.5

260.1

262.0

263.2

263.9

264.4

222.2

229.2

228.6

229.3

229.8

230.1

230.4

230.9

231.4

231.7

233.1

234.9

236.1

236.6

237.1

287.5

299.5

297.0

297.6

299.3

301.3

302.1

302.9

303.9

306.3

308.4

310.5

311.5

312.7

313.5

101.1

102.1

102.2

102.2

102.2

102.2

101.7

101.8

101.9

102.0

102.3

102.5

102.9

102.9

103.1

101.1

100.7

100.9

100.7

100.6

100.9

100.1

100.1

100.1

100.1

100.5

100.8

100.9

100.3

101.3

Education and communication2............................

100.3

101.2

100.4

100.3

100.4

101.2

101.9

102.1

102.2

102.3

102.7

102.2

102.0

101.8

101.8

Education2............................................................
Educational books and supplies....................

102.1

107.0

105.6

105.7

106.0

107.5

109.4

109.6

109.3

109.3

110.2

110.6

110.6

110.7

110.9

250.8

261.7

261.6

262.1

262.3

264.5

267.0

269.0

255.7

256.0

273.9

278.3

276.9

276.7

276.8

Tuition, other school fees, and child care.....

294.2

308.4

304.1

304.4

305.4

309.9

315.3

315.9

316.3

316.3

317.3

318.0

318.3

318.7

319.2

98.7

96.0

95.7

95.5

95.5

95.6

95.3

95.3

95.9

95.9

96.0

94.7

94.3

93.8

93.7

Information and information processing1,2....

98.5

95.5

95.2

94.9

94.9

95.0

94.7

94.7

95.3

95.4

95.5

94.1

93.6

93.1

93.0

Telephone services1,2...................................
Information and information processing

100.7

100.1

99.6

99.7

99.5

99.8

99.6

99.8

100.6

100.7

100.9

99.4

98.9

98.6

98.5

other than telephone services1,4..............
Personal computers and peripheral

39.9

30.5

30.9

29.8

30.0

29.8

29.3

28.7

28.2

28.2

28.0

27.6

27.2

26.7

26.6

Medical care services...........................................

.1 2

equipment1,2..........................................
Other goods and services......................................

Personal care1......................................................

Personal care services1....................................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

78.2

53.5

55.7

54.5

52.9

50.9

49.7

48.2

47.0

47.2

46.4

45.1

44.2

42.7

42.4

237.7

258.3

255.8

255.9

258.3

257.6

262.6

263.2

263.0

263.0

264.7

266.7

268.0

271.9

270.2

274.8

355.8

345.5

343.2

356.0

350.1

373.8

373.3

369.8

369.1

375.1

383.0

387.3

404.4

393.5

156.7

161.1

160.7

161.1

161.1

161.4

161.8

162.4

162.8

162.9

163.4

163.8

164.3

164.8

165.1

148.3

151.8

150.9

152.6

152.0

152.3

153.0

153.4

153.3

152.5

152.8

152.6

153.5

153.4

153.0

166.0

171.4

171.0

170.9

171.4

171.9

172.1

172.9

173.9

174.3

174.9

175.6

176.2

176.2

177.3

Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

73

Current Labor Statistics:

28.

Price Data

Continued— Consumer Price Indexes for All Urban Consumers and for Urban W age Earners and Clerical Workers: U.S. city average,
by expenditure category and com m odity or service group

[1982-84 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]

Annual average
1998

1999

2000

1999

Series
May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

O ct

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

234.7

243.0

242.1

242.4

242.9

243.9

244.6

245.6

246.0

246.6

247.6

248.9

249.4

250.9

251.7

Commodities.............................................................

141.9

144.4

144.5

143.9

143.9

144.5

145.8

146.4

146.2

146.1

146.2

147.4

149.2

149.3

149.2

Food and beverages.............................................

161.1

164.6

164.2

164.1

164.2

164.7

165.1

165.5

165.7

165.9

166.6

166.8

167.1

167.2

167.8

Commodities less food and beverages..............

130.5

132.5

132.8

131.9

131.9

132.5

134.3

134.9

134.6

134.4

134.0

135.7

138.4

138.4

138.0

Nondurables less food and beverages............

132.6

137.5

138.2

136.6

136.7

138.0

141.0

141.9

141.3

140.9

140.5

143.9

148.5

148.5

147.6

Apparel..............................................................

133.0

131.3

134.2

130.9

127.3

127.5

131.8

134.6

133.6

130.1

126.8

129.2

132.5

133.3

132.2

Nondurables less food, beverages,
and apparel......................................................

137.4

146.0

145.6

144.8

146.8

148.8

151.2

151.2

150.7

152.1

153.1

157.2

162.7

162.3

161.5

Durables...............................................................

127.6

126.0

125.8

125.7

125.6

125.4

125.7

125.9

126.0

125.9

125.7

125.3

125.6

125.6

125.8

Miscellaneous personal services.....................
Commodity and service group:

Services....................................................................

184.2

188.8

187.9

188.6

189.5

189.9

190.1

190.2

190.5

190.5

191.4

192.2

193.1

193.3

193.6

Rent of shelter3....................................................
Transporatation services.....................................

189.6
187.9

195.0
190.7

194.2
190.4

194.9
189.3

195.7
191.0

196.1
190.2

196.1
189.9

196.3
191.9

196.3
192.7

196.3
192.8

197.6
193.0

198.5
193.7

199.7
195.0

199.8
195.2

199.9
195.7

Other services......................................................

216.9

223.1

221.9

222.2

222.6

223.9

224.5

225.1

226.0

226.5

227.4

227.4

227.8

228.0

228.4

All items less food...............................................

163.4

167.0

166.6

166.7

167.2

167.7

168.5

168.8

168.8

168.8

169.2

170.3

171.9

172.0

172.1

All items less shelter............................................

157.2

160.2

159.9

159.7

160.1

160.6

161.6

162.0

162.1

162.1

162.3

163.3

164.8

164.9

165.1

All items less medical care.................................

158.6

162.0

161.6

161.6

162.0

162.5

163.2

163.6

163.6

163.6

164.0

164.9

166.3

166.4

166.5

Commodities less food........................................

132.0

134.0

134.3

133.4

133.4

134.0

135.8

136.3

136.1

135.9

135.6

137.2

139.9

139.9

139.4

Special indexes:

Nondurables less food.........................................

134.6

139.4

140.1

138.6

138.7

139.9

142.8

143.7

143.1

142.8

142.4

145.7

150.1

150.1

149.3

Nondurables less food and apparel...................

139.2

147.5

147.0

146.3

148.2

150.0

152.3

152.3

151.9

153.2

154.2

158.0

163.0

162.7

161.9

Nondurables.........................................................

146.9

151.2

151.4

150.5

150.6

151.5

153.2

154.0

153.7

153.6

153.7

155.6

158.1

158.2

158.0

Services less rent of shelter3.............................
Services less medical care services..................
Energy...................................................................

191.8

195.8

194.7

195.6

196.5

196.9

197.3

197.4

197.9

198.0

198.6

199.2

199.9

200.2

200.9

178.4
102.9

182.7
106.6

181.8
105.6

182.6
106.8

183.4
108.7

183.8
111.3

183.9
113.2

184.1
111.6

184.3
111.2

184.3
112.2

185.1
112.5

185.8
116.7

186.7
122.2

186.9
120.7

187.2
121.0

170.9

174.4

174.1

174.0

174.3

174.5

175.1

175.7

175.8

175.7

176.2

176.8

177.7

178.0

178.1

All items less food and energy.........................

173.4

177.0

176.6

176.6

176.9

177.1

177.7

178.3

178.4

178.2

178.7

179.4

180.4

180.7

180.8

Commodities less food and energy...............

143.2

144.1

144.5

143.7

143.2

143.0

144.6

145.3

145.0

144.2

143.6

144.2

145.3

145.9

145.5

92.1

100.0

100.3

98.3

101.3

106.3

109.1

109.1

108.7

111.8

112.8

120.6

131.7

128.4

127.9

190.6

195.7

195.0

195.3

196.1

196.5

196.6

197.2

197.5

197.7

198.7

199.5

200.5

200.7

200.9

Services less energy.......................................
C O N S U M E R P R IC E IN D E X F O R U R B A N
W A G E E A R N E R S A N D C L E R IC A L W O R K E R S

159.7

163.2

162.8

162.8

163.3

163.8

164.7

165.0

165.1

165.1

165.5

166.4

167.8

167.9

168.1

All Items (1 9 6 7 - 100)...............................................

475.6

486.2

484.9

485.0

486.3

487.8

490.5

491.5

491.7

491.8

492.9

495.6

499.7

500.1

500.7

Food and beverages................................................

160.4

163.8

163.3

163.3

163.4

163.9

164.3

164.7

164.9

165.2

165.9

166.1

166.4

166.5

167.2

160.0

163.4

162.9

162.8

163.0

163.5

163.9

164.4

164.5

164.7

165.4

165.6

165.9

166.0

166.7
166.4

160.0

163.0

162.6

162.5

162.5

162.9

163.5

164.0

164.0

164.2

165.1

165.1

165.3

165.4

Cereals and bakery products............................

180.9

184.7

184.8

185.5

186.1

184.8

185.0

185.0

184.5

185.7

185.5

185.8

185.9

186.9

188.4

Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs...........................

147.0

147.6

146.1

146.9

146.8

148.2

148.9

148.8

150.1

149.4

149.8

150.8

152.0

152.5

153.5

Dairy and related products1..............................
Fruits and vegetables.........................................

150.4
197.0

159.4
201.8

155.8
205.3

155.7
201.9

155.3
201.0

156.0
201.2

158.4
201.6

164.0
201.0

164.6
199.8

161.9
202.8

159.9
207.0

160.4
201.7

158.7
200.5

160.2
200.5

159.3
203.1

Nonalcoholic beverages and beverage
materials...........................................................

131.8

133.2

133.1

133.2

133.1

133.2

133.0

133.4

132.7

133.5

136.0

137.6

137.8

136.7

136.4

150.2

152.8

152.6

152.8

153.0

153.5

153.3

152.9

152.3

152.7

153.7

153.8

154.5

153.4

154.9

150.1

152.2

152.8

152.0

152.0

152.6

153.3

153.2

152.0

152.3

154.8

154.3

154.5

152.3

153.6

Fats and oils......................................................

146.5

147.9

147.0

147.2

147.8

148.3

148.1

148.6

144.9

144.7

146.8

145.2

145.7

144.5

146.9

165.4

168.8

168.5

169.0

169.2

169.7

169.2

168.5

168.8

169.4

169.8

170.5

171.6

170.7

172.2

Other miscellaneous foods1,2......................

102.6

104.6

104.7

104.4

103.9

104.4

105.1

103.8

103.4

105.2

103.9

106.2

106.7

104.7

106.1

Food away from home1........................................

161.1

165.0

164.5

164.4

164.9

165.5

165.8

166.1

166.5

166.8

167.1

167.6

167.9

168.1

168.3

Other food away from home1,2........................

101.6
164.6

105.1
168.8

104.2
168.5

104.5
168.7

105.3
169.1

105.8
169.2

106.2
169.8

106.6
169.5

106.8
170.4

106.9
171.0

107.4
171.6

107.8
172.2

107.8
172.8

108.3
172.9

108.5
172.9

Housing.....................................................................

156.7

160.0

159.2

160.2

160.7

161.0

161.3

161.0

161.1

161.1

161.8

162.7

163.2

163.3

163.6

Shelter...................................................................

176.6

181.6

180.9

181.5

182.0

182.4

182.6

182.8

183.1

183.3

184.1

184.8

185.6

185.8

186.1

171.7

177.1

176.4

176.8

177.1

177.5

178.0

178.4

179.3

179.9

180.3

180.7

181.2

181.4

181.8

109.0

122.2

112.0

113.8

116.7

116.8

113.8

113.1

108.4

105.7

110.8

114.5

119.9

118.7

117.8

Owners' equivalent rent of primary residence3

171.1

175.7

175.1

175.4

175.7

176.1

176.5

176.8

177.4

177.8

178.2

178.6

178.8

179.1

179.5

Tenants' and household insurance1,2..............
Fuels and utilities..............................................

100.0

101.6

100.9

102.3

102.2

102.3

102.5

102.4

102.3

102.4

102.6

102.6

102.8

103.3

128.4

128.7

126.3

130.2

131.1

131.4

132.6

130.1

129.8

129.2

129.5

132.0

131.2

131.1

104.0
131.9

Fuels..................................................................

113.3

113.0

110.6

114.7

115.7

115.9

117.2

114.4

114.0

113.5

113 3

116.3

115.4

115.2

116.0

Fuel oil and other fuels.................................

90.3

91.7

88.0

87.8

87.6

89.3

93.9

97.7

100.7

106.0

114.0

144.5

129.6

123.0

120.9

120.8

120.4

117.9

122.6

123.6

123.7

124.9

121.5

120.9

119.8

119.4

120.1

120.2

120.5

121.6

Household furnishings and operations............
Apparel.....................................................................

125.0

124.7

124.8

124.8

124.9

124.7

124.8

124.5

124.2

124.2

124.5

124.6

125.3

125.6

125.5

131.6

130.1

133.0

129.6

126.4

126.4

130.5

133.1

132.3

129.0

125.9

127.9

131.0

131.8

130.9

Men’s and boys' apparel...................................

131.4

131.2

134.0

131.6

128.6

127.2

130.3

134.0

133.3

131.6

129.3

129.9

131.5

131.5

132.7

Women's and girls' apparel...............................

123.9

121.3

125.5

120.6

114.4

116.0

123.3

126.0

124.4

119.8

114.2

118.0

123.5

124.3

122.1

126.7

130.3

128.9

128.0

128.4

129.6

131.4

134.1

134.3

134.8

134.9

134.7

135.7

134.1

133.4

128.7
140.5

126.2
143.4

127.9
143.1

125.8
142.4

125.8
143.7

124.4
145.0

125.1
146.0

126.6
146.6

126.9
146.9

124.2
147.6

122.3
147.7

122.6
149.1

124.7
152.9

127.1
152.2

126.6
152.5

Private transportation...........................................

138.0

140.7

140.3

139.9

140.9

142.4

143.6

143.9

144.2

145.0

145.1

146.4

150.1

149.5

149.7

New and used motor vehicles2.........................

100.3

100.4

99.8

100.0

100.1

100.2

100.7

101.2

101.5

101.5

101.2

100.7

100.8

101.2

101.5

74

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2000

28.

C o n tin u ed — C on sum er Price In d ex es for All Urban Consum ers a n d for Urban W a g e Earners a n d C lerica l Workers: U.S. city a v e ra g e ,
b y e x p e n d itu re c a te g o ry a n d c o m m o d ity or service group

[1982-84 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]

Series

1998

1999

2000

1999

Annual average
May

June

Aug.

July

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

New vehicles....................................................

144.6

144.0

144.0

143.6

143.2

142.6

142.8

143.5

144.3

144.7

144.5

144.2

144.5

144.7

144.5

Used cars and trucks1.....................................

152.0

153.3

150.9

152.2

153.7

155.2

157.0

157.7

157.3

156.3

155.3

154.4

154.4

155.4

156.8

Motor fuel...........................................................

92.2

100.8

101.3

99.2

102.6

107.8

110.6

110.0

109.5

112.3

112.9

118.6

132.0

128.5

128.5

Gasoline (all types)..........................................

91.7

100.2

100.8

98.7

102.1

107.3

110.0

109.4

108.9

111.7

112.3

117.9

131.2

127.8

127.9

Motor vehicle parts and equipment..................

100.5

100.0

99.7

99.6

99.5

99.6

99.9

99.8

100.6

100.2

100.3

100.5

100.9

100.6

100.5

Motor vehicle maintenance and repair.............

168.2

173.3

172.7

173.1

173.5

173.5

174.3

174.7

175.1

175.2

176.1

176.6

177.2

177.4

177.8

Public transportation............................................

187.1

193.1

193.9

189.0

195.7

192.5

190.7

196.3

197.0

196.0

194.8

198.8

203.4

202.9

203.9

Medical care............................................................

241.4

249.7

248.7

249.4

250.3

251.0

251.4

251.9

252.5

253.2

254.5

256.2

257.3

258.0

258.5

Medical care commodities..................................

218.6

226.8

225.7

226.6

227.8

228.4

229.0

229.1

229.5

230.2

230.7

231.0

231.8

232.4

232.9

Medical care services..........................................

246.6

254.9

253.8

254.5

255.3

256.0

256.4

257.0

257.6

258.4

259.9

261.9

263.1

263.8

264.4

Professional services........................................

223.7

230.8

230.2

231.0

231.4

231.7

232.0

232.5

233.1

233.4

234.8

236.7

238.0

238.6

239.0

Hospital and related services...........................

283.6

295.5

293.0

293.6

295.3

297.3

298.2

298.9

299.8

302.1

304.1

306.4

307.5

308.7

309.5

100.9

101.3

101.5

101.6

101.6

101.5

101.0

101.1

101.0

101.2

101.4

101.6

102.0

102.0

102.3

101.1

100.5

100.6

100.5

100.4

100.7

99.8

99.9

99.9

99.8

100.2

100.4

100.6

100.0

101.0

2
Education and communication ............................

100.4

101.5

100.7

100.7

100.8

101.5

102.1

102.3

102.5

102.5

103.0

102.5

102.2

102.1

102.1

Education2...........................................................
Educational books and supplies.....................

102.1
253.1

107.2
264.1

105.9
264.3

106.0
264.8

106.3
265.0

107.7
267.2

109.5
269.9

109.7
271.8

109.4
256.5

109.4
256.9

110.5
276.6

110.9
281.3

111.0
280.0

111.1
279.9

111.3
280.0

Tuition, other school fees, and child care......

288.5

302.8

298.7

299.2

300.2

304.1

309.5

310.0

310.4

310.4

311.7

312.7

312.8

Communication1,2..............................................
12
Information and information processing ' ....
12
Telephone services ' .................................
Information and information processing

99.1

96.9

96.5

96.4

96.3

96.5

96.2

96.3

96.9

97.0

97.1

95.7

95.3

313.4
94.8

313.8
94.7

.. 1 2

other than telephone services1,4...............
Personal computers and peripheral

99.0

96.5

96.2

96.0

96.0

96.1

95.8

95.9

96.6

96.6

96.7

95.3

94.8

94.4

94.3

100.7

100.2

99.8

99.9

99.7

99.9

99.7

100.0

100.8

100.9

101.1

99.6

99.1

98.8

98.7

41.2

31.6

31.8

30.8

31.1

30.8

30.3

29.9

29.3

29.3

28.9

28.6

28.2

27.6

27.5

equipment1,2.........................................
Other goods and services......................................

77.9

53.1

55.1

54.0

52.5

50.6

49.4

48.1

46.9

46.9

45.7

44.5

43.6

42.0

41.8

236.1

261.9

258.8

258.7

262.0

260.7

267.3

267.9

267.4

267.3

269.3

271.7

273.3

278.0

275.4

Tobacco and smoking products.........................

274.8

356.2

345.9

343.5

356.6

350.6

374.4

374.0

370.4

369.7

375.7

383.6

387.8

404.9

393.7

156.8

161.3

160.8

161.3

161.3

161.6

161.9

162.6

163.0

163.1

163.5

163.9

164.3

164.6

164.9

149.3

152.5

151.6

153.3

152.7

153.1

153.7

154.1

154.0

153.1

153.4

153.2

154.1

153.9

153.4

166.3

171.7

171.4

171.2

171.8

172.2

172.4

173.2

174.4

174.7

175.3

176.1

176.6

176.6

177.7

234.0

243.1

242.3

242.6

243.2

243.8

244.5

245.5

245.9

246.7

247.6

248.3

249.4

250.4

251.2

Personal care products1.................................
Personal care services1...................................
Miscellaneous personal services....................
Commodity and service group:

141.8

144.7

144.6

144.0

144.2

144.8

146.3

146.8

146.6

146.6

146.6

147.8

149.8

149.9

149.9

160.4

163.8

163.3

163.3

163.4

163.9

164.3

164.7

164.9

165.2

165.9

166.1

166.4

166.5

167.2

Commodities less food and beverages.............

130.6

133.2

133.4

132.5

132.7

133.4

135.4

165.9

135.6

135.4

135.1

136.8

139.6

139.6

139.3

Nondurables less food and beverages...........

132.1

138.1

138.8

137.0

142.9

142.2

150.2

149.4

133.0

129.6

130.5

133.1

132.3

125.9

145.1
127.9

150.2

130.1

142.0
129.0

141.7

131.6

138.8
126.4

142.1

Apparel...........................................................
Nonduraoies less tooo, beverages,

137.5
126.4

131.0

131.8

130.9

137.0

147.2

146.6

145.7

148.1

150.2

153.2

153.1

152.5

153.9

155.0

159.3

165.7

165.2

164.4

127.3

126.0

125.6

125.6

125.7

125.7

126.1

126.3

126.4

126.3

126.0

125.6

125.8

126.0

126.2

181.0

185.3

184.4

185.2

185.9

186.3

186.6

186.7

187.1

187.2

187.9

188.5

189.2

189.4

189.8

170.1
185.4

174.9
187.9

174.2
187.5

174.7
186.7

175.3
188.0

175.6
187.4

175.8
187.3

176.1
189.0

176.3
189.8

176.5
189.9

177.3
190.2

178.0
190.8

178.7
191.8

178.9
192.0

179.2
192.4

213.7

219.6

218.4

218.8

219.2

220.3

220.9

221.6

222.3

222.9

223.8

223.7

224.0

224.2

224.6
168.3

Durables...........................................................

Transporatation services..................................
Special indexes:

Commodities less food.....................................

159.5

163.1

162.6

162.7

163.2

163.7

164.7

165.0

165.1

165.1

165.4

166.4

168.0

168.2

155.0

158.1

157.7

157.6

158.6

159.7

160.1

160.1

160.1

162.8

163.0

163.1

159.2

158.8

158.8

159.7

160.7

161.0

161.1

161.1

160.3
161.4

161.3

155.8

158.0
159.2

162.3

163.6

163.8

164.0

132.0

134.6

134.8

133.9

134.2

134.8

136.7

137.2

137.0

136.8

136.5

138.2

141.0

141.0

140.7

134.1

140.0

140.6

138.9

139.4

140.7

143.8

144.6

144.0

143.8

143.6

146.8

151.7

151.7

150.9

138.7

148.4

147.9

147.0

149.3

151.2

154.0

153.8

153.4

154.7

155.8

159.8

165.7

165.3

164.5

Nondurables......................................................

146.5

151.3

151.4

150.5

150.8

151.7

153.6

154.3

154.0

154.0

154.2

156.0

158.8

158.9

158.8

170.7

174.1

173.0

174.0

174.7

175.0

175.5

175.4

175.8

175.9

176.4

176.9

177.4

177.7

178.2

Energy................................................................

175.4
102.1

179.5
106.1

178.6
105.2

179.4
106.2

180.1
108.4

180.4
111.1

180.7
113.1

180.8
111.4

181.1
111.0

181.2
112.1

181.9
112.5

182.4
116.7

183.1
122.9

183.3
121.0

183.7
121.5

Energy commodities....................................
Services less energy....................................
1 Not seasonally adjusted.

j

167.6

171.1

170.7

170.6

170.9

171.1

171.8

172.4

172.6

172.5

172.8

173.3

174.1

174.5

174.6

169.6

173.1

172.8

172.7

172.9

173.1

173.9

174.5

174.7

174.5

174.8

175.3

176.2

176.7

176.7

142.7

144.3

144.5

143.8

143.5

143.3

145.0

145.7

145.4

144.6

144.1

144.6

145.6

146.4

146.0

92.3

100.3

100.6

98.6

101.8

106.8

109.7

109.4

109.1

112.1

113.1

120.4

132.0

128.3

128.3

187.7

192.6

191.9

192.2

192.8

193.2

193.4

194.0

194.4

194.7

195.5

196.2

196.9

197.1

197.5

4 Indexes on a December 1988 = 100 base.

2 Indexes on a December 1997 = 100 base.
3 Indexes on a December 1982 = 100 base.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

NOTE: Index applies to a month as a whole, not to any specific date.

Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

75

Current Labor Statistics:

Price Data

29. Consumer Price Index: U.S. city average and available local area data: all items
[1982-84 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]

Pricing
schedule1

Area

U.S. city average...............................................................

M

All Urban Consumers
1999
Apr.

Urban Wage Earners

2000

May

Feb.

Mar.

1999

Apr.

May

Apr.

2000

May

166.2

166.2

169.7

171.1

171.2

171.3

162.7

162.8

Feb.
166.4

Mar.

Apr.

May

167.8

167.9

168.1

Region and area size2
Northeast urban.......................................................................

M

172.8

172.8

177.4

178.3

178.4

178.2

169.5

169.7

174.3

175.1

175.3

175.3

Size A— More than 1,500,000............................................

M

173.6

173.6

178.3

179.2

179.1

179.0

169.3

169.4

174.1

174.9

175.0

175.0

Size B/C—50,000 to 1,500,0003........................................

M

103.9

103.9

106.7

107.2

107.4

107.3

103.5

103.5

106.3

106.8

107.0

106.9

M

162.2

162.2

165.8

167.0

166.9

167.4

158.2

158.3

162.1

163.4

163.2

163.8

Size A— More than 1,500,000............................................

M

163.6

163.6

167.2

168.3

168.2

169.0

158.8

158.9

162.7

163.8

163.6

164.5

Size B/C— 50,000 to 1,500,000®.......................................
Size D— Nonmetropolitan (less than 50,000)....................

M

103.7

103.7

106.0

106.8

106.8

106.9

103.5

103.4

106.1

106.9

106.9

107.0

M

156.4

156.5

159.8

161.5

161.3

161.4

154.4

154.4

158.3

160.0

159.9

160.0

South urban.............................................................................

M

161.5

161.6

164.7

166.4

166.6

166.6

159.4

159.7

163.0

164.6

164.9

164.9

Size A— More than 1,500,000............................................

M

160.5

160.5

164.1

165.9

166.1

166.1

157.9

158.1

161.8

163.4

163.7

163.7

Size B/C— 50,000 to 1,500,000®..................................
Size D— Nonmetropolitan (less than 50,000)....................

M

103.9

104.1

105.9

106.9

107.1

107.1

103.5

103.7

105.7

106.7

106.9

107.0

M

162.6

162.1

165.1

166.8

166.7

167.0

162.7

162.6

165.8

167.6

167.6

167.9

West urban..............................................................................

M

169.0

168.7

171.9

173.4

173.7

173.9

164.9

164.7

167.4

169.1

169.4

169.6

Size A— More than 1,500,000............................................

M

170.0

169.8

173.3

174.9

175.1

175.4

164.2

164.0

167.1

168.7

169.0

169.3

Size B/C— 50,000 to 1,500,000®.......................................

M

105.1

104.8

106.2

107.1

107.2

107.3

105.0

104.7

105.9

106.8

107.1

107.1

M
M

150.5
104.1
162.1

150.5
104.1
161.9

154.0
106.1
164.9

155.2
106.9
166.7

155.2
107.1
166.7

155.4
107.1
166.8

148.9
103.7
160.9

149.0
103.8
160.8

152.5
105.9
164.1

153.6
106.8
165.9

153.7
106.9
166.0

154.0
107.0
166.1

Size classes:
A5...........................................................................................
B/C®.......................................................................................
D...........................................................................................

M

Selected local areas6
Chicago-Gary-Kenosha, IL—IN—
W l .................................
Los Angeles-Riverside-Orange County, CA........................

M

167.6

168.2

171.3

172.0

171.7

173.5

161.7

162.3

165 6

166 4

166 1

167 9

M

166.6

166.2

169.2

170.6

170.6

171.1

160.1

159.7

162.4

163.9

163.9

164.4

New York, NY-Northern NJ-Long Island, N Y -N J-CT-PA..

M

176.0

176.1

180.4

181.4

181.2

181.3

171.3

171.5

175.8

176.6

176.6

176.9

Boston-Brockton-Nashua, M A -N H -M E-C T.......................

1

-

174.2

-

182.7

-

181.6

-

172.6

-

181.1

-

180.5

Cleveland-Akron, OH.............................................................

1

-

161.5

-

166.8

-

166.4

-

153.7

-

159.2

-

158.9

Dallas-Ft Worth, TX................................................................

1

157.2

163.1

163.2

157.0

-

162.9

-

163.1
106.6

Washington-Baltimore, DC -M D -VA-W V7...........................

1

-

103.6

-

107.0

-

106.7

-

103.4

-

106.9

-

Atlanta, GA...............................................................................

2

164.0

-

167.4

-

169.8

-

160.9

-

164.9

-

167.2

-

Detroit-Ann Arbor-Flint, M l....................................................

2

164.1

-

167.2

-

168.1

-

158.7

-

162.0

-

162.8

-

Houston-Galveston-Brazoria, TX.........................................

2

148.3

-

152.1

-

152.7

-

146.6

-

150.5

-

151.3

-

Miami-Ft. Lauderdale, FL......................................................

2

161.7

-

165.9

-

166.9

-

159.1

-

163.5

-

164.5

-

Phlladelphla-Wilmington-Atlantic City, P A -N J-D E-M D .....

2

171.1

174.7

-

175.7

-

170.6

-

174.5

-

175.7

-

San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose, CA................................

2
2

172.2

-

176.5

-

178.6

-

168.8

-

172.5

-

174.8

-

172.2

-

176.0

-

177.7

-

167.8

-

171.5

-

173.2

-

Seattle-Tacoma-Bremerton, WA...........................................

1 Foods, fuels, and several other Items priced every month in all areas; most other goods
and services priced as indicated:
M— Every month.
1—
2—

January, March, May, July, September, and November.
February, April, June, August, October, and December.

MO-KS; Mllwaukee-Racine, Wl;

Minneapolls-St. Paul, MN-WI; Pittsburgh, PA; Port-

land-Salem, OR-WA; St Louis, MO-IL; San Diego, CA; Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater,
FL.
7 Indexes on a November 1996 = 100 base.
- Data not available.

2 Regions defined as the four Census regions.
3 Indexes on a December 1996 = 100 base.
4 The "North Central" region has been renamed the "Midwest" region by the Census Bureau.
It is composed of the same geographic entities.
5 Indexes on a December 1986 = 100 base.
6 In addition, the following metropolitan areas are published semiannually and appear in
tables 34 and 39 of the January and July issues of the cpi Detailed Report : Anchorage, AK;
Cincinnati-Hamilton, OH-KV-IN; Denver-Boulder-Greeley, CO; Flonolulu, HI; Kansas City,

76

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2000

NOTE: Local area CPI Indexes are byproducts of the national CPI program. Each local
Index has a smaller sample size and is, therefore, subject to substantially more sampling and
other measurement error. As a result, local area Indexes show greater volatility than the
national index, although their long-term trends are similar. Therefore, the Bureau of Labor
Statistics strongly urges users to consider adopting the national average CPI for use In their
escalator clauses. Index applies to a month as a whole, not to any specific date.

30.

Annual data: Consumer Price Index, U.S. city average, all items and major groups

[ 1982-84 =

100]_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
Series

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers:
All items:
Index...............................................................................

136.2

140.3

144.5

148.2

152.4

163.0

166.6

4.2

3.0

3.0

2.6

2.8

156.9
3.0

160.5

Percent change.............................................................

2.3

1.6

2.2

Food and beverages:
Index...............................................................................

136.8

138.7

141.6

144.9

148.9

153.7

157.7

161.1

164.6

Percent change.............................................................

3.6

1.4

2.1

2.3

2.8

3.2

2.6

2.2

2.2

Housing:
Index...............................................................................

133.6

137.5

156.8

160.4

2.9

148.5
2.6

152.8

4.0

141.2
2.7

144.8

Percent change.............................................................

2.9

2.6

2.3

163.9
2.2

Apparel:
Index................................................................................

133.7
1.4

133.4

132.0
-1 .0

131.7

132.9

-.2

-.2

.9

133.0
.1

131.3
-1 .3

2.5

128.7

131.9

Percent change.............................................................
Transportation:

3.7

2.5

Index...............................................................................

123.8
2.7

126.5
2.2

130.4

134.3

139.1

141.6

144.4

3.0

3.6

143.0
2.8

144.3

3.1

0.9

-1 .9

2.0

177.0
8.7

190.1
7.4

201.4

211.0

220.5

228.2

234.6

242.1

250.6

5.9

4.8

4.5

3.5

2.8

3.2

3.5

171.6

183.3

206.9
4.2

224.8
4.4

258.3

2.9

215.4
4.1

237.7

6.8

192.9
5.2

198.5

7.9

5.7

8.7

134.3
4.1

138.2

142.1

149.8
2.9

157.6

159.7

163.2

2.8

145.6
2.5

154.1

2.9

2.9

2.3

1.3

2.2

Percent change.............................................................
Medical care:
Index..............................................................................
Percent change.............................................................
Other goods and services:
Index..............................................................................
Percent change.............................................................
Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners
and Clerical Workers:
All items:
Index...............................................................................
Percent change.............................................................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

77

Current Labor Statistics:

31.

Price Data

P ro d u cer P rice In d ex es, b y s ta g e of processing

[ 1982 = 100]

A n n ua l average

1999

2000

G ro u p in g
1998

1999

May

June

J u ly

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

A pr.

May

134.7

136.0
135.6
135.9

137.0
137.0
135.9

137.0
136.9
137.1

137.5
137.6
138.0

Finished goods........................................

130.7

133.0

132.4

132.7

132.9

133.7

134.7

135.1

134.9

Finished consumer goods.........................
Finished consumer foods........................

128.9
134.3

132.0
135.1

131.2
134.5

131.7
135.1

132.1
134.6

133.2
135.9

134.6
136.7

134.5
135.8

134.3
135.4

134.9
134.3
135.6

133.9
135.0

126.4
122.2
132.9
137.6

130.5
127.9

131.9
130.4

133.7

133.6
131.7
134.4
138.3

133.3
131.4
134.1
138.4

137.2

134.3
134.0
138.4

137.3
137.0
134.0
138.5

136.6

131.5
134.9
138.5

133.6
131.6
134.6
138.3

135.4

131.6
136.9

133.5
132.8
131.2
136.7

136.0
133.9
138.7

136.9
134.0
138.7

supplies, and components....................
Materials and components
for manufacturing.......................................
Materials for food manufacturing.............
Materials for nondurable manufacturing..
Materials for durable manufacturing........
Components for manufacturing................

Finshed consumer goods
excluding foods......................................

129.6

130.0

130.8

133.0
137.6

126.6
132.8
137.6

127.5
132.3
137.2

128.9
131.7
137.0

123.0

123.2

122.2

123.0

123.9

124.6

125.3

125.0

125.2

125.4

125.9

126.8

127.9

128.0

128.3

126.1
123.2
126.7
128.0
125.9

124.6
120.8
124.9
125.1
125.7

123.8
119.6
123.3
124.3
125.6

124.1
120.0
123.8
124.8
125.7

124.6
119.0
124.8
126.1

125.0
121.1
125.5
126.2

125.9
120.9
127.8
126.7
125.7

126.4

126.8
117.8
129.6
129.4

127.4

117.6
128.6
128.6

125.6

125.9
122.2
127.7
126.5
125.7

125.9
118.2
128.2
127.2

125.6

125.4
122.0
126.5
126.2
125.7

125.8

125.9

125.7

118.1
131.3
129.5
125.7

128.0
119.6
132.1
129.8
125.9

128.4
120.6
133.2
129.6
126.0

146.8
81.1
140.8
134.8

148.9
84.6
142.5
134.2

148.5
82.5
141.6
133.7

149.5
84.9
142.2
133.9

150.5
87.6
142.1
133.9

150.4

149.6
92.5
145.7
134.4

149.1

90.0
143.6
134.2

149.4
90.2

150.4
91.5
147.2
135.2

150.8
94 9

146.5
135.0

149.8
90.6
146.5
135.1

147.3
135.5

151.3
98.1
148.3
136.0

151.6
96.3
151.8
136.2

151.1
96.7
152.8
136.6

96.8
103.9
88.4

98.2
98.7
94.3

97.4
99.6
92.3

97.4
99.5
92.5

97.9
96.2
95.5

103.1
100.1
101.5

107.3
100.1
108.3

104.0
98.8
103.8

109.2
99.5
111.9

103.5
96.9
104.3

105.8
96.5
108.3

111.2
97.6
116.5

113.3
101.3
117.5

110.6
103.5
111.5

115.4
104.6
118.6

goods, excluding foods................
energy goods................................
goods less energy........................
consumer goods less energy.....
goods less food and energy........

129.5
75.1
141.1
142.5
143.7

132.3
78.8
143.0
145.2
146.1

131.6
77.5
142.5
144.6
145.6

131.8
78.6
142.6
144.8
145.5

132.3
80.7
142.3
144.5
145.3

133.0
83.5
142.5
144.9
145.2

134.0
85.8
143.1
145.8
145.7

134.7
83.5
144.2
146.6
147.5

134.7
83.6
144.0
146.3
147.4

134.6
83.6
144.0
146.4
147.4

134.5
83.8
143.6
145.8
147.0

135.9
87.4
144.2
146.6
147.5

137.2
92.0
144.3
146.7
147.6

136.8
90.1
144.7
147.2
147.7

137.2
91.5
145.0
147.6
147.8

Finished consumer goods less food
and energy..................................................

147.7

151.7

151.0

151.0

150.9

150.7

151.7

153.6

153.4

153.4

152.8

153.6

153.6

153.7

153.8

Consumer nondurable goods less food
and energy...............................................

159.1

166.3

165.2

165.7

165.9

165.7

167.9

168.1

168.2

168.2

167.3

169.0

169.0

169.2

169.4

and feeds....................................................
Intermediate foods and feeds....................
Intermediate energy goods.........................
Intermediate goods less energy.................

123.4
116.2
80.8
132.4

123.9
111.1
84.6
131.7

122.9
109.8
82.2
131.1

123.7
110.2
84.6
131.5

124.7
109.1
87.2
131.9

125.4
110.9
89.6
132.3

126.0
111.8
92.1
132.5

125.7
112.4
89.0
132.9

126.0
111.6
89.9
133.0

126.2
109.7
90.3
133.0

126.8
109.3
91.2
133.5

127.7
110.3
94.5
133.8

128.8
110.8
97.8
134.4

128.9
111.8
96.0
134.9

129.2
113.2
96.5
135.2

Intermediate materials less foods
and energy.................................................

133.5

133.1

132.5

132.9

133.4

133.7

133.9

134.2

134.4

134.6

135.1

135.4

136.0

136.5

136.7

Crude energy materials..............................
Crude materials less energy.......................
Crude nonfood materials less energy........

68.6
113.6
142.1

78.5
107.9
135.2

77.1
107.6
131.4

77.1
107.7
132.2

80.4
105.8
134.2

87.3
109.4
136.8

95.4
110.0
139.1

88.7
109.8
141.7

98.9
110.5
142.6

87.9
109.5
146.0

92.0
110.2
149.8

102.2
111.4
151.0

103.4
114.1

96.3
115.2
149.0

105.8
115.8
148.5

Nondurable goods less food.................
Durable goods........................................
Capital equipment...................................

Intermediate materials,

Materials and components
for construction..........................................
Containers.....................................................
Supplies........................................................

89.3
146.3
134.8

Crude materials for further
processing.............................................
Foodstuffs and feedstuffs............................
Crude nonfood materials.............................

Special groupings:
Finished
Finished
Finished
Finished
Finished

Intermediate materials less foods

78

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2000

151.1

32.

P ro du cer Price In d e x e s for th e n e t output of m a jo r industry groups

[December 1984 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
2000

1999

A nnual average
In d u stry

SIC

1998

_
10
12
13
14

Total mining industries..................................

Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
minerals, except fuels....................................

-

Total manufacturing industries.....................

20
21
22
23

Food and kindred products..............................
Tobacco manufactures....................................
Textile mill products.........................................
Apparel and other finished products
made from fabrics and similar materials......
Lumber and wood products,
except furniture...............................................
Furniture and fixtures.......................................
Paper and allied products................................

24
25
26

1999

May

84.7

91.5

87.7

95.1

86.7

89.5

97.3

100.1

94.9

100.0

76.3
86.0
91.2

73.4
86.1
101.6

72.6
85.4
90.4

73.9
85.3
94.2

75.5
84.6
104.5

73.6
85.8
108.6

73.4
84.4
101.8

71.7
86.0
108.3

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Feb.

Apr.

Dec.

78.7

Ju ly

Jan.

Mar.

Nov.

76.3

June

May

70.8

78.0

76.5

73.2
89.5
68.3

70.3
87.3
78.5

69.7
87.8
76.3

67.3
88.2
76.2

68.8
86.9
79.6

69.3
86.9
87.6

70.4
85.9
96.9

132.2

134.0

133.8

134.2

134.2

134.2

134.3

134.4

134.4

134.4

135.0

135.0

135.2

136.0

137.5

126.2
126.3
243.1
118.0

128.3
126.3
325.7
116.3

127.7
125.3
316.1
116.4

127.8
126.0
316.2
116.3

128.3
125.9
316.1
115.9

129.0
126.8
316.5
116.0

129.7
127.5
344.5
115.9

130.2
127.5
344.4
116.1

130.3
127.1
344.5
115.9

130.5
126.7
345.0
116.1

130.8
126.7
329.4
116.2

132.0
127.3
348.6
116.3

133.0
127.5
347.3
116.0

132.8
128.2
347.2
116.1

133.4
129.1
347.1
116.3

124.8

125.3

125.3

125.1

125.1

125.5

125.6

125.6

125.4

125.3

125.2

125.3

125.3

125.6

125.6

157.0
139.7
136.2

161.8
141.3
136.4

161.9
140.9
134.8

165.2
141.1
135.8

168.5
141.3
136.3

166.9
141.6
137.3

163.1
141.8
138.7

160.0
142.0
139.9

159.6
142.0
140.2

160.6
142.1
140.4

161.4
142.4

161.9
142.4

141.0

141.5

162.0
142.8
143.5

161.8
143.0
145.8

159.0
143.3
146.9

27

Printing, publishing, and allied industries.......

174.0

177.6

177.2

177.2

177.4

177.7

178.1

178.6

179.1

179.2

180.4

180.6

181.2

181.3

181.7

28
29
30
31
32
33
34

Chemicals and allied products........................
Petroleum refining and related products.........
Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products.
Leather and leather products...........................
Stone, clay, glass, and concrete products......
Primary metal industries..................................
Fabricated metal products,

148.7
66.3
122.1
137.1
129.3
120.9

149.7
76.8
122.2
136.5
132.6
115.8

148.2
75.4

149.9
79.6
122.1
136.7
132.7
115.4

150.0
85.3
122.5
136.7
133.1
115.7

151.0
90.2

121.6
136.0
132.5
114.9

149.0
74.2
121.9
136.5
132.7
115.0

122.8
136.9
133.2
116.4

152.8
87.0
122.9
137.0
133.6
117.1

153.0
89.5
123.3
137.0
133.7
117.1

152.9
91.8
123.4
137.0
133.5
117.4

153.6
94.0
123.5
137.5
134.4
118.6

154.1
103.7
123.7
137.5
134.5
119.1

154.8
112.2
124.0
137.5
134.7
119.8

155.5
107.8
124.1
137.4
134.7
120.5

156.9
111.4
123.3
137.5
134.8
120.5

except machinery and transportation
transportation equipment..............................

128.7

129.1

128.9

129.1

129.1

129.1

129.2

129.4

129.6

129.7

129.9

130.1

130.4

130.4

130.3

35

Machinery, except electrical............................

117.7

117.3

117.5

117.5

117.3

117.2

117.1

117.1

117.1

117.0

117.1

117.3

117.4

117.4

117.5

36

Electrical and electronic machinery,
equipment, and supplies................................

110.4
133.6

109.5
134.5

109.7
134.1

109.5
133.6

109.5
133.0

109.5
132.9

109.2
132.6

109.1
136.7

109.1
136.2

108.9
136.2

108.7
136.3

108.8
135.9

108.5
136.1

108.7
136.3

108.6
136.1

126.0

125.7

125.9

125.3

125.1

125.0

124.9

125.2

125.3

125.6

126.0

126.0

125.9

126.1

126.3

129.7

130.3

130.5

130.5

130.5

130.1

130.0

130.4

130.2

130.5

130.7

131.0

130.9

131.1

131.3

111.6
132.3
105.6
124.5
99.2

114.8
135.3
113.0
130.8
98.3

114.3
135.4
114.4
130.0
98.5

114.6
135.2
116.8
130.9
98.6

114.8
135.2
117.4
131.4
98.2

115.1
135.2
117.2
131.7
98.2

115.8
135.2
117.3
131.8
98.3

115.5
135.2
116.7
133.1
98.3

115.5
135.2
116.7
133.4
98.2

115.8
135.2
116.1
134.2
98.2

116.5
135.2
116.4
141.0
102.1

116.8
135.2
117.5
136.8
101.9

118.1
135.2
117.2
138.4

118.2
135.2
118.5
142.5
101.9

118.8
135.2
119.8
149.6
101.9

July 2000

79

37
38

39

Measuring and controlling instruments;
photographic, medical, and optical
goods; watches and clocks............................
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries
industries (12/85 - 100).................................

Service industries;
42
43
44
45
46

Motor freight transportation
and warehousing (06/93 - 100).....................
Water transportation (12/92 = 100).................
Transportation by air (12/92 = 100).................
Pipelines, except natural qas (12/92 = 100)....


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

101.9

Current Labor Statistics:

33.
[1982

Price Data

Annual data: Producer Price Indexes, by stage of processing
=

100]
In d e x

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

Finished goods
Total.......................................................................................

121.7

123.2

124.7

125.5

127.9

131.3

131.8

130.7

133.0

Foods..................................................................................

124.1

123.3

125.7

126.8

129.0

133.6

134.5

134.3

135.1
146.1

Energy.................................................................................

78.1

77.8

78.0

77.0

78.1

83.2

83.4

Other....................................................................................

131.1

134.2

135.8

137.1

140.0

142.0

142.4

75.1
143.7

114.4

114.7

116.2

118.5

124.9

125.7

125.6

123.0

123.2

115.3
85.1

113.9

115.6

118.5

119.5

125.3

123.2

123.2

120.8

84.3
122.0

84.6
123.8

83.0
127.1

84.1
135.2

89.8

89.0

80.8

84.3

134.0

134.2

133.5

133.1

113.8
121.5

111.1

96.8

98.2

112.2

98.7
78.5
91.1

78.8

Intermediate materials, supplies, and
components
Total......................................................................................
Foods...................................................................................
Energy.................................................................................
O ther...................................................................................

121.4

Crude materials for further processing
Total......................................................................................

101.2

100.4

102.4

101.8

102.7

Foods..................................................................................
Energy.................................................................................

105.5
80.4

105.1
78.8

108.4
76.7

106.5
72.1

105.8
69.4

O ther....................................................................................

97.5

94.2

94.1

97.0

105.8

80

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2000

85.0

87.3

103.9
68.6

105.7

103.5

84.5

34.

U.S. e x p o rt p ric e in d e x e s b y S tan d ard In tern atio n al Trad e Classification

[1995 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
SITC

1999

Industry

Rev. 3

May

2000

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

89.2

87.4
94.2
70.9
99.8

87.6

86.6

86.4

97.3
73.3
97.8

97.5
72.7
94.3

97.4
69.5
96.6

82.0
66.0
68.6
93.5
70.7

74.7
80.3
72.8
82.9
71.5
65.2
93.6
72.3

76.5
83.4
80.1
83.0
73.5
65.1
93.0
73.0

77.7
86.5
85.0
82.8
75.2
64.4

115 3
97 6
128.6

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Apr.

May

86.3
97.7
70.1
94.3

85.6
100.9
68.5
91.2

86.3
100.1
71.0
90.9

86.9
98.0
74.1

87.1
99.4
74.4

87.8
102.1
74.0
90.6

87.9
105.1
75.0
89.0

89.0

88.6

78.1
88.6
82.3
83.5
77.1
64.5
93.1
75.1

77.8
87.8
78.1
83.8
78.7
63.4
93.8
77.3

78.9
90.5
79.6
85.0
80.9
62.5
94.1
78.4

80.0
91.1

83.2
87.7

80.5
86.4
84.3
61.2
94.3
80.0

82.2
89.5
84.8
86.5
88.3
65.7
94.0
80.7

86.0
87.2
90.0
68.6
93.5
80.9

84.2
85.5
88.3
87.4
93.8
68.9
93.0
80.4

85.2
86.3
89.1
86.7
99.0
69.0
93.0
79.5

119 5
97 6

126 6
97 5

129 5
96 1

188 5
96 1

152 1
96 1

137 2
94 7

142 4
94 7

Feb.

Mar.

0 Food and live animals....................................................
01
Meat and meat preparations.............................................
04
Cereals and cereal preparations.......................................
05
Vegetables, fruit, and nuts, prepared fresh or dry...........

89.2
89.9
76.2
97.6

2 Crude materials, inedible, except fuels........................
21
Hides, skins, and furskins, raw.........................................
22
Oilseeds and oleaginous fruits..........................................
24
Cork and wood....................................................................
25
Pulp and waste paper........................................................
26
Textile fibers and their waste............................................
27
Crude fertilizers and crude minerals................................
28
Metalliferous ores and metal scrap..................................

74.6
79.0
79.5
81.7
62.9
70.1
93.5
70.6

3 Mineral fuels, lubricants, and related products............
32

102.0
98.3

109 0
98 2

Petroleum, petroleum products, and related materials....

100.7
98 4
105.3

107.6

119.8

113 8
98 3
126.4

131.3

121 4
97 6
133.4

140.1

143.6

159.6

179.2

152.0

163.1

4 Animal and vegetable oils, fats, and waxes..................

81.9

76.6

76.8

77.1

78.8

81.9

79.0

78.0

75.8

74.3

70.8

71.6

70.9

5 Chemicals and related products, n.e.s..........................
54
Medicinal and pharmaceutical products...........................
55
Essential oils; polishing and cleaning preparations........
57
Plastics in primary forms (12/92 - 100)...........................
58
59
Chemical materials and products, n.e.s...........................

90.7
100.6
101.8
86.6
96.3
99.5

91.2
100.6
101.9
88.4
97.2

91.6
100.3
101.9
89.7
97 4
99.4

91.8
99.9
101.8
90 6
97 4

92.3
99.8
102.1
92 1
97 6

93.3
99.8
102.3
94 4
97 9

93.3
99.8
103.5
94 9

93.6
100.3
103.4
95 0

93.8
100.2
103.4
94 8

98 0

95.6
100.0
103.2
97 5
100 6

95.9
100.0
103.1
98 1
100 1

99.2

98.9

97 8
99.2

94.4
100.4
103.0
95 6
100 5

99.3

97 8
98.8

94.2
100.4
103.3
94 8
98 6
99.9

99.6

99.3

98.9

33

6 Manufactured goods classified chiefly by materials....
62
64
66
68

Rubber manufactures, n.e.s..............................................
Paper, paperboard, and articles of paper, pulp,
and paperboard................................................................
Nonmetallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s.........................
Nonferrous metals..............................................................

7 Machinery and transport equipment.............................
71
72
74
75
76
77
78

91.5
75.9
98.5
74.9
79.0
79.2

99.6

93.3
73.5

99.1

96.6

96.8

97.1

97.3

97.5

97.8

98.0

98.3

98.3

99.0

99.7

99.9

100.0

105.9

105.5

105.6

105.8

106.9

108.2

108.2

108.5

104.7

103.7

103.6

103.7

103.9

82.9
106.3
84.7

83.4
106.3
85.0

84.4
106.3
85.3

85.4
106.3
87.0

86.3
106.1
88.0

87.2
106.0
90.2

87.6
106.0
90.7

87.2
105.8
92.3

87.6
105.8
93.4

87.8
106.0
98.8

88.4
106.2

89.1
106.4

101.9

100.3

90.6
106.4
98.2

97.8

97.6

97.3

97.3

97.2

97.4

97.5

97.2

97.4

97.3

97.3

97.4

97.4

Power generating machinery and equipment..................
Machinery specialized for particular industries...............
General industrial machines and parts, n.e.s.,

109.5
105.9

109.6
106.1

110.1
105.8

110.1
105.8

110.1
105.9

110.2
106.0

111.0
106.1

111.0
104.7

111.8
106.2

111.8
106.3

111.8
106.1

111.9
106.2

112.1
106.2

and machine parts............................................................
Computer equipment and office machines......................
Telecommunications and sound recording and
reproducing apparatus and equipment..........................
Electrical machinery and equipment................................
Road vehicles.....................................................................

107.2
72.2

107.3
71.6

107.5
71.0

107.5
71.0

107.6
70.2

107.7
70.5

107.7
70.4

107.9
70.2

107.5
70.1

107.6
68.7

108.0
68.7

108.2
68.5

108.2
68.4

97.1
89.0
102.3

96.9
88.6
102.5

97.0
87.7
102.4

96.9
87.5
102.3

96.9
87.6
102.4

96.6
87.4
103.1

96.6
87.3
103.1

96.7
86.7
103.1

96.4
86.4
103.5

97.0
86.6
103.6

96.8
86.3
104.0

96.7
86.4
103.9

96.8
86.4
103.9

105.4

105.2

105.4

105.4

105.4

105.5

105.6

105.3

105.2

105.4

105.7

105.8

105.8

87 Professional, scientific, and controlling

instruments and apparatus.........................................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

81

Current Labor Statistics:

35.

Price Data

U.S. im po rt p ric e in d e x e s b y S tan d ard In tern atio n al Trad e C lassification

[1995 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
SITC

2000

1999

Industry

Rev. 3

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

0 Food and live animals....................................................

94.9

93.3

92.6

92.0

91.5

91.0

92.4

94.7

93.7

93.6

93.5

94.3

93.1

01
03

Meat and meat preparations.............................................
Fish and crustaceans, mollusks, and other

93.7

94.5.

94.3

96.7

99.4

98.4

97.7

98.4

97.8

98.2

99.1

100.2

100.2

05
07

aquatic invertebrates.......................................................
Vegetables, fruit, and nuts, prepared fresh or dry...........
Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices, and manufactures
thereof...............................................................................

106.0
108.1

104.3
103.2

104.2
103.5

103.8
102.6

103.1
101.6

105.0
96.5

107.5
97.2

106.8
103.6

106.8
102.0

107.9
102.1

109.7
101.2

112.7
100.6

112.5
97.0

68.4

69.4

64.3

63.2

61.4

62.0

66.0

70.6

67.2

64.7

61.0

61.1

59.7

1 Beverages and tobacco..................................................

110.4

110.4

110.6

111.2

112.2

111.5

111.5

112.0

111.2

111.4

111.7

111.9

112.4

Beverages...........................................................................

107.2

107.2

107.6

107.7

109.1

108.5

108.5

108.7

107.9

108.2

108.5

108.7

109.4

11

2 Crude materials, inedible, except fuels.........................
24
25
28
29

Cork and wood...................................................................
Pulp and waste paper........................................................
Metalliferous ores and metal scrap..................................
Crude animal and vegetable materials, n.e.s..................

88.5

90.3

93.1

92.7

91.7

90.8

90.3

92.2

93.6

94.7

94.3

93.8

91.9

118.3
58.1
90.9
107.8

122.3
60.6
91.9
101.7

131.9
61.4

128.9
61.1
93.8
105.0

121.7
66.0
94.3
111.1

116.7

114.9
66.8
98.0
106.5

118.7
68.2
99.0
111.9

117.7
70.5
101.4
121.1

117.0
72.0
105.7
124.3

118.6
72.4
104.0
111.9

117.6
75.1
101.7
110.5

113.0
77.0
99.5
104.7

165.6
166.8
170.4

147.8
146.4
171.3

156.4
156.7
166.8

92.8
88.8
88.4
97.3
89.7

93.4
89.8
87.9
97.3
89.4

94.8
91.0
87.1
97.3
90.0

93.9
80.4
100.6

93.9
80.3
100.0

93.9
80.8
101.3

91.9
102.8

63.9
98.4
112.1

3 Mineral fuels, lubricants, and related products............
Petroleum, petroleum products, and related materials...
33
34
Gas, natural and manufactured........................................

93.1
91.1
112.1

92.7
91.3
106.5

105.3
103.8
123.1

117.1
115.9
134.1

126.5
125.7
142.2

128.0
127.4
141.1

134.7
132.6
161.5

141.2
141.4
150.2

145.2
146.1
147.8

165.7
167.9
161.4

5 Chemicals and related products, n.e.s.........................
52
Inorganic chemicals...........................................................
Dying, tanning, and coloring materials.............................
53
Medicinal and pharmaceutical products...........................
54
Essential oils; polishing and cleaning preparations.........
55
Plastics in primary forms (12/92 - 100)...........................
57
Plastics in nonprimary forms (12/92 - 100).....................
58
Chemical materials and products, n.e.s...........................
59

90.6
86.8
91.7
95.6
92.7
93.4
74.0
98.0

90.6
86.7
91.9
96.2
92.4

90.6
86.4
90.6
96.2
91.7
93.7
75.8
98.0

90.4
86.2
90.5
96.3
91.8

91.3
86.6
90.2
97.0
92.3
93.8
77.9
98.1

91.8
87.2
90.6
97.4
91.8
93.8
78.9
98.6

92.1
87.7
91.4
97.8
92.3

92.0
88.0
89.7
97.3
90.2
94.0
79.7
99.5

92.2
88.3
88.9
98.2
89.6
93.7
79.3
100.0

92.7
89.0
89.3
98.2
89.6
93.0
79.0
101.6

6 Manufactured goods classified chiefly by materials....

91.8

92.0

91.9

92.4

92.6

93.3

93.9

93.9

94.5

95.5

97.9

97.6

97.1

Rubber manufactures, n.e.s..............................................
Paper, paperboard, and articles of paper, pulp,
and paperboard................................................................
Nonmetallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s.........................
Nonferrous metals.............................................................
Manufactures of metals, n.e.s...........................................

94.7

94.3

94.4

94.5

95.0

94.9

94.4

94.4

92.7

92.8

92.3

92.4

92.5

85.2
100.8
85.8
96.4

83.7
100.9
87.7
96.1

83.6
100.8
87.6
95.8

83.5
100.9
89.9
95.6

83.7
101.1
91.1
95.8

84.4
101.2
94.8
95.6

87.4
101.6
95.4
95.9

86.2
101.2
95.6
95.9

86.6
100.8
98.9
95.7

86.9
101.2
104.4
96.1

87.1
100.8
114.8
96.1

88.8
100.9
110.1
96.3

100.8
106.6
96.3

62
64
66
68
69

93.6
75.6
97.4

93.1
76.1
98.1

93.9
79.4
98.4

89.7

7 Machinery and transport equipment.............................

90.6

90.3

89.9

89.9

89.9

89.9

89.8

89.7

89.8

89.8

89.7

89.6

89.6

72
74

Machinery specialized for particular industries...............
General industrial machines and parts, n.e.s.,

97.8

97.6

97.3

97.2

97.6

97.8

98.2

97.8

97.7

97.9

97.3

97.1

97.0

75
76

Computer equipment and office machines.....................
Telecommunications and sound recording and
reproducing apparatus and equipment..........................

97.7
63.6

97.6
63.1

97.3
62.0

97.3
61.8

97.4
61.6

97.3
61.4

97.3
61.4

97.0
61.7

97.0
61.5

96.7
61.4

97.0
61.0

96.9
60.5

96.7
60.2

87.8
83.3
102.3

87.6
82.7
102.3

87.3
81.9
102.4

87.0
82.1
102.4

87.1
82.5
102.2

86.0
82.6
102.4

85.9
82.2
102.4

85.6
82.1
102.3

85.2
82.4
102.4

85.2
82.2
102.6

84.9
82.2
102.7

84.6
82.5
102.7

84.5
83.0
102.8

77
78
85

Footwear............................................................................

100.5

100.7

100.7

100.6

100.8

100.8

100.8

100.8

100.8

100.9

100.7

100.5

100.7

88

Photographic apparatus, equipment, and supplies,
and optical goods, n.e.s..................................................

91.4

91.3

91.2

91.1

91.4

92.2

92.5

92.5

92.2

91.7

91.8

91.7

91.8

Monthly Labor Review
82

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2000

36.
[1995

U.S. export price indexes by end-use category
=

100]
1999

Category
May

June

July

2000

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

A L L C O M M O D IT IE S ................................................................

94.5

94.5

94.4

94.7

94.8

95.1

95.3

Foods, feeds, and beverages.......................................

89.0

88.9

86.7

87.9

87.6

87.4

Agricultural foods, feeds, and beverages................

86.8

86.8

85.0

86.9

86.7

Nonagricultural (fish, beverages) food products.....

114.2

113.1

106.8

99.5

Industrial supplies and materials..................................

87.2

87.5

88.3

89.0

Agricultural industrial supplies and materials...........

79.5

78.4

76.2

76.3

Fuels and lubricants.....................................................

98.4

99.8

106.1

Nonagricultural supplies and materials,
excluding fuel and building materials......................

85.7

86.0

Selected building materials........................................

87.5

87.8

Capital goods...................................................................

96.7

96.5

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

95.2

95.4

95.8

86.7

86.0

86.4

85.6

84.9

86.3
85.4

98.2

99.7

99.2

99.5

89.5

90.4

91.1

91.7

76.6

77.5

76.6

76.7

75.2

76.9

77.7

78.0

78.0

110.5

111.8

114.4

115.9

120.4

122.7

131.3

143.6

127.5

132.8

86.6

87.0

89.1

89.3

89.7

90.4

91.0

91.8

92.2

88.4

87.5
87.4

88.3

88.0

87.8

87.7

88.6

89.2

89.5

90.1

90.4

89.9

96.2

96.2

96.1

96.2

96.3

96.0

96.1

96.0

96.1

96.1

98.7

98.8

96.3

96.2

87.2

87.4

88.1

88.0

86.0

86.2

87.0

87.3

98.3

100.9

101.4

100.6

96.6

92.1

93.6

95.2

94.5

95.2

96.4

Electric and electrical generating equipment...........

98.9

99.0

98.2

98.0

98.3

98.4

98.5

98.3

98.8

Nonelectrical machinery..............................................

93.2

92.9

92.6

92.6

92.4

98.3
92.4

96.0
98.7

92.5

92.1

92.1

91.9

91.9

91.9

91.9

Automotive vehicles, parts, and engines.....................

103.0

103.2

103.2

103.2

103.3

104.0

103.9

103.8

103.9

103.8

104.2

104.2

104.2

Consumer goods, excluding automotive......................

101.8

102.0

101.9

102.0

102.4

102.5

102.4

102.3

102.3

102.1

102.0

102.0

102.2
102.4

102.4

102.0

101.9
102.1

102.2

Nondurables, m anufactured......................................

102.5

102.9

102.8

102.6

102.5

102.3

102.4

Durables, manufactured..............................................

100.3

100.5

100.6

100.8

100.7

100.8

100.9

100.8

101.0

101.4

101.0

101.2

101.2

Agricultural commodities................................................

85.2

83.1
95.7

84.6

84.0

84.4

95.9

96.6

83.1
96.6

83.2

95.8

84.5
96.3

83.7

95.5

85.0
95.6

84.7

Nonagricultural commodities..........................................

96.8

97.2

97.6

85.1
97.5

97.6


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

July 2 0 0 0

85.3

83

Current Labor Statistics:

37.

Price Data

U.S. import price indexes by end-use category

[1995 = 100]
2000

1999
Category

A L L C O M M O D IT IE S .................................................................

July

June

May
92.5

92.4

Aug.

Sept.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

93.3

94.3

95.2

95.4

96.2

96.8

97.2

99.2

99.3

97.8

98.4

92.3

91.6

93.0

94.8

93.6

93.3

92.9

93.7

92.6

Foods, feeds, and beverages.........................................

94.8

93.7

92.8

92.5

Agricultural foods, feeds, and beverages.................

90.3

89.3

88.0

87.7

87.6

86.1

87.2

89.8

88.4

87.6

86.5

86.7

85.2

Nonagricultural (fish, beverages) food products.....

106.5

105.2

105.4

105.0

104.9

106.3

108.2

107.7

107.2

108.1

109.7

112.1

112.1

Industrial supplies and materials...................................

91.5

91.8

96.1

99.9

103.1

104.3

106.9

109.4

111.0

118.6

119.8

114.1

116.7

Fuels and lubricants.....................................................

93.4

93.2

105.4

116.7

126.0

128.1

134.3

140.7

144.2

164.7

163.9

155.3

Petroleum and petroleum products.......................

90.8

91.2

103.5

115.6

125.2

127.3

132.5

140.9

145.8

167.5

166.4

147.0
146.7

83.1

85.6

86.9

77.7

77.0

77.0

76.9

78.4

82.1

81.2

81.8

78.5

82.8

156.3

Materials associated with nondurable
supplies and materials...............................................

87.3

87.4

87.0

86.9

87.7

88.3

88.8

89.1

89.2

89.7

90.4

91.2

92.5

Selected building materials........................................
Unfinished metals associated with durable goods..

110.5
87.3

114.2

118.9

110.5
97.4

106.9

111.9
104.2

109.2

94.8

110.1
100.3

112.1

93.0

108.3
94.4

111.1

89.0

113.4
89.7

110.0

88.3

120.6
87.7

102.0

Nonmetals associated with durable goods..............

87.3

87.0

86.7

86.7

87.3

87.5

87.5

87.4

87.2

88.0

87.6

87.8

88.5

81.7

81.7

81.6

81.3

81.0

91.8

92.1

78.3

91.8
78.2

81.2
92.2

77.9

77.7

77.5

Nonelectrical machinery.............................................

Consumer goods, excluding automotive.....................
Durables, manufactured.............................................
Nonmanufactured consumer goods.........................

38.

83.0

82.6

81.9

81.9

91.5

91.1

81.9
91.2

82.0

92.3

91.6

91.7

81.8
91.8

79.9

79.5

78.7

78.7

78.8

78.6

78.5

91.1
78.4

101.8

101.7

101.8

101.9

101.9

102.0

102.0

102.0

102.1

102.2

102.2

102.3

102.6

97.6

97.4
100.2

97.4

97.7

97.5

94.3

100.6
94.1

97.1
100.2
93.4

96.9
100.1

94.4

100.5
94.1

97.4
100.4

94.5
98.8

100.8
94.2

97.5
100.4

97.1

100.3
94.1

97.6
100.7
94.2

97.5

100.5

97.5
100.4
98.0

98.3

99.1

99.9

100.0

98.8

99.8

100.4

99.3

94.1

93.8

101.5

102.0

U.S. international price Indexes for selected categories of services

[1990 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]

June

Sept.

2000

1999

1998

Category

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

87.9

90.7

88.9

Air freight (inbound) (9/90 = 100).....................................

83.4

81.8

87.4

88.0

86.2

Air freight (outbound) (9/92 = 100)...................................

96.0

95.8

95.2

92.7

92.8

92.7

91.7

91.7

Air passenger fares (U.S. carriers)...................................

107.8
102.4

104.5

112.3

114.2

101.1

98.9

104.2

102.6

106.8
102.2
139.4

107.3
102.6

103.2

106.3
133.7

108.6

Ocean liner freight (inbound)............................................

107.3
104.0
105.0

103.1

Air passenger fares (foreign carriers)..............................

84

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2000

148.0

136.3

100.3
93.5
100.1

92.4

93.3

39.

Indexes of productivity, hourly compensation, and unit costs, quarterly d ata seasonally adjusted

[1992 = 100]
Quarterly indexes
1997

Item
I

II

1998
III

IV

I

II

1999
III

IV

I

II

2000
III

IV

I

116.6
129.4

B u siness
Output per hour of all persons..........................................

106.2

Compensation per hour.....................................................

112.5

107.0
113.2

Real compensation per hour.............................................

100.2
105.9

100.6
105.8

114.6
109.1

Output per hour of all persons..........................................
Compensation per hour.....................................................

108.3

109.6

109.8

110.7

111.9

112.7

112.9

114.2

116.1

117.9
103.6

119.5
104.6

121.3
105.8

122.8
106.7

124.3

101.4

116.5
102.5

128.2
108.6

107.6

107.6

108.9

109.6

109.7

107.5
110.3

127.2
108.5

106.1

125.8
108.0
111.4

111.4

116.0
109.6

116.2
109.8

114.3
110.0

114.4
110.1

112.7
110.3

112.2
110.5

112.1
110.6

111.0

111.0
111.3

111.5

110.5
114.4
111.9

106.0
112.1

106.8
112.9

107.7

108.0
115.9

109.2
117.3

109.5
118.9

110.4
120.7

111.5
122.1

112.2

112.4

99.9

100.3

100.9

102.0

104.1

106.1
109.5

124.8
107.1

115.6
127.4

Real compensation per hour.............................................

123.3
106.7

113.7
126.2

116.3

114.1

107.7

107.9

108.0
110.6

Unit labor costs....................................................................
Unit nonlabor payments.....................................................
Implicit price deflator...........................................................

107.9
114.6

112.2

111.6

108.6
111.0
115.2
112.5

N onfarm b u siness
128.7

Unit labor costs....................................................................

105.8

105.7

106.0

107.3

103.1
107.4

108.6

105.3
109.4

109.9

111.1

111.0

110.2

Unit nonlabor payments.....................................................

115.0

117.1

115.4

115.9

114.2

113.2

112.7

113.2

112.3

113.0

115.8

116.9

Implicit price deflator...........................................................

109.1

116.7
109.7

110.0

110.3

110.5

110.6

110.8

110.7

111.1

111.5

111.7

112.2

112.9

Output per hour of all employees.....................................

109.4

110.0

111.7

112.4

113.4

114.5

116.2

117.1

120.4

122.0

123.0

111.2

112.0

113.3

115.1

116.4

99.5
101.4
101.8

100.2
101.0
101.4

101.3
101.5
102.4

102.3
101.5

121.3
105.4
102 5

107.3
102.9

127.7
107.2
102 9

102.6

103.1

103.6

103.8

124.2
106.6
102.7
104.1

125.6
107.1
103.0

Unit labor costs..................................................................

99.1
101.3
101.7

119.9
104.6
101 9
103.2

126.7

Real compensation per hour.............................................

118.1
103.4
101.9

118.3
122.7

119.3

Compensation per hour.....................................................

104.2

103.9

103.8

Unit nonlabor costs...........................................................

100.1

100.3

99.7

99.1

98.7

98.4

99.4

98.4

98.9

99.8

100.5

Unit profits............................................................................
Unit nonlabor payments.....................................................

156.3
114.4

156.9
114.7

161.8

156.1

98.6
154.1

150.8

153.8

147.1

151.3

150.2

150.2

115.6

113.6

112.7

112.0

112.5

Implicit price deflator...........................................................

105.9

106.1

106.1

106.1

106.0

106.0

106.3

111.6
106.3

111.9
106.5

112.0
106.7

146.5
111.7

100.5
155.3

106.7

107.0

124.5
119.2

128.9
122.1

131.1
123.4

132.8

134.3

137.7

121.3

125.1

126.9

105.8

106.1

107.5

108.3

95.5

94.8

106.8
94.1

128.3
108.7

94.2

94.5

93.1

N o nfinancial co rp o ra tio n s

106.2
102 3

113.2

114.5
107.4

M anufactu ring
Output per hour of all persons..........................................

116.8

118.3

120.9

122.2

123.2

Compensation per hour.....................................................

111.7

112.5

113.6

115.7

117.4

Real compensation per hour.............................................

99.5
95.7

100.0
95.1

100.5
94.0

101.8

103.2

94.6

95.3

Unit labor costs....................................................................


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104.3
95.7

127.0

Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

140.2
129.4
108.6
92.3

85

Current Labor Statistics:

40.

Productivity Data

Annual indexes of multifactor productivity and related measures, selected years

[1992 = 100]
Item

1960

1970

1980

1989

1990

1991

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

Private business
Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons........................................

50.8

70.1

83.8

95.5

96.1

96.7

100.1

100.6

101.0

103.7

Output per unit of capital services.................................

117.3

117.1
86.5

100.1

102.3
100.6

101.9
100.7

102.3
102.4

O utput....................................................................................

34.0

51.6

72.6

97.8

99.6
98.6

98.6
98.1

100.7

70.7

103.8
100.0

102.1

Multifactor productivity.....................................................

107.3
95.3

96.9

102.7

107.0

110.0

114.7

66.9
29.0

73.7
44.1

86.6
67.7

102.4
94.2

102.6
96.5

48.1

59.7

76.2

97.8

43.3

59.9

78.1

92.0

Inputs:
Labor input.........................................................................
Capital services.................................................................
Combined units of labor and capital input....................
Capital per hour of all persons.........................................

100.2

102.7

106.4

108.9

110.6

99.0

98.3
98.7

102.0
102.6

104.6
106.3

108.0
109.3

112.2
112.1

94.1

98.1

99.4

98.3

99.2

101.4

105.2
102.6
103.1
120.1
114.1
117.1
116.5
102.6

Private nonfarm business
Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons.......................................

54.3

72.2

85.6

95.9

96.3

96.9

100.1

100.6

101.2

103.7

104.9

Output per unit of capital services.................................

126.1

124.1

111.4

102.6

102.1

101.8

102.1

89.4
51.8

97.0

100.1
103.0

100.5
107.1

100.8
110.4

102.3
115.0

102.1
102.7

73.1

99.8
98.8

98.8
98.4

100.8

74.9
33.7

104.6
100.5
98.1

120.2

110.9
112.6

114.6
117.7
117.0
102.8

Multifactor productivity.....................................................
O utput....................................................................................

97.6

Inputs:
Labor input.........................................................................

62.1

71.7

85.4

102.4

102.6

100.1

102.9

106.5

109.0

Capital services.................................................................

26.7

41.8

98.2

108.4

91.7

98.6
98.1

99.3

98.5

109.5
99.4

112.4

76.8

99.0
93.8

106.5

43.0

58.0
58.2

102.2
102.9

104.8

45.0

93.9
97.7

96.3

Combined units of labor and capital input....................
Capital per hour of all persons.........................................

65.6
74.9

42.1
125.6

54.5
116.3

95.1
97.3

102.2

105.3
105.2

109.4

113.8

101.8

106.8

101.6

Manufacturing
Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons.......................................
Output per unit of capital services.................................
Multifactor productivity.....................................................
O utput....................................................................................

70.4

90.7

93.0

101.5

103.5
100.4

101.3
99.8

98.6

101.2

104.4

108.4

107.0
110.7

97.1

97.5

95.5

103.6

109.1

113.8

118.0

-

103.7

-

-

72.9

84.2

38.7

56.8

87.3
75.7

-

92.0

104.2

107.5

107.1

104.8

100.4

101.4

103.6

30.9

74.6

93.8

96.3

98.2

101.7
103.7

103.6

104.0
106.6

110.3

107.3
104.4

109.5
101.4

107.0

-

103.0

105.4

-

104.3
102.3

107.8
104.5

111.0

111.6

-

105.0

106.6

-

Inputs:
Hours of all persons..........................................................
Capital services.................................................................
Energy................................................................................

51.5

48.8
85.4

Nonenergy materials........................................................
Purchased business services.........................................
Combined units of all factor inputs................................

39.1

46.0

92.5
74.5

96.8
88.3

99.9
91.3

100.1
93.1

27.3

47.4
67.4

71.9
86.7

88.9
96.7

91.8
97.7

91.9
96.9

-

53.1

Data not available.

86
Monthly Labor Review

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2000

41.

Annual indexes of productivity, hourly compensation, unit costs, and prices, selected years

[1992= 100]
Item

1960

1970

1980

1989

1990

1991

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

Business
Output per hour of all persons..........................................

48.0

66.2

79.8

93.3

94.5

95.9

100.1

101.4

102.2

105.2

107.5

110.5

114.0

Compensation per hour.....................................................

13.6

23.5

54.3

85.7

94.9

102.4

104.5

106.7

110.1

114.2

120.3

126.3

Real compensation per hour.............................................

59.9

79.0

89.7

95.8

90.6
96.4

97.4

99.9

99.7

99.1

99.6

101.1

105.1

108.1

Unit labor costs....................................................................

28.4

35.6

91.9

95.9

99.0

106.2

94.6
95.4

97.4
98.4

109.8

113.5

115.1

112.2

65.9

92.5
92.1

108.8
112.7

110.8

32.0
34.3

103.0
106.9

104.7

25.5
27.3

102.3
102.9

104.4

Unit nonlabor paym ents.....................................................

68.1
62.1

102.5

104.4

106.4

107.9

109.5

110.3

111.3

Output per hour of all persons...........................................

51.2

93.5

94.6

101.4

102.4

54.7

90.5

102.1

104.3

106.5

105.2
109.8

107.2
113.8

110.2
119.7

113.5
125.4

Real compensation per hour.............................................

62.8

79.7

90.3

85.8
95.8

96.1
94.9

100.1

14.3

68.0
23.7

81.3

Compensation per hour.....................................................

91.7

98.8

104.0

99.3
104.4

107.2

67.2

99.5
102.9

104.5

34.9
31.7

99.6
102.1

100.7

27.9
24.9

96.3
95.7

97.4

Unit labor costs....................................................................
Unit nonlabor paym ents.....................................................

106.1

108.6

110.5

61.1

91.9

94.2

107.4

110.8

113.8

115.9

26.8

33.7

65.0

91.8

95.1

97.5
98.3

103.4

Implicit price deflator...........................................................

102.6

104.5

106.5

107.8

109.7

113.9
110.5

111.5

Implicit price deflator...........................................................

Nonfarm business

98.9

113.4

Nonfinancial corporations
Output per hour of all employees.....................................
Compensation per hour.....................................................

52.6

66.3

76.9

93.8

94.9

96.9

101.5

104.3

105.6

108.4

111.7

116.2

-

25.3
85.1

56.6

87.0

91.4

95.5

102.1

119.0

-

97.2

98.0

99.5

100.0

Total unit costs....................................................................
Unit labor costs..................................................................

28.9
29.7

37.4
38.2

93.6
92.7

97.2
97.1

106.2
98.6

113.0

93.6
72.5
73.7

104.3
99.5

109.0

Real compensation per hour.............................................

15.6
68.6

99.8
98.6

100.0
100.0

100.6
100.5

100.5

100.6
101.1

103.9
101.3
102.4

-

96.4

100.3
100.6

Unit nonlabor costs...........................................................

35.4

69.4

95.9

99.0

102.9

99.6

100.2

100.9

100.1

99.4

98.4

-

Unit profits............................................................................

26.8
53.2

47.1

72.6

99.0

95.5

130.5

137.5

151.5

157.1

150.4

-

33.2

38.3

70.2

107.6

109.8

112.6

113.4

111.0

-

30.9

38.2

72.5

98.1
97.0

102.7

Implicit price deflator...........................................................

96.6
94.1

94.0
100.7

112.5

Unit nonlabor payments.....................................................

99.3

101.3

102.6

103.7

104.7

105.3

105.3

-

98.6
100.4

-

-

Manufacturing
Output per hour of all persons...........................................

42.1

54.4

70.4

90.7

93.0

95.1

102.2

105.3

109.4

113.8

119.6

125.3

133.3

Compensation per hour.....................................................

23.7
79.7

55.6

86.6

90.8

105.6

125.3

96.6

100.8

100.4

Unit labor costs....................................................................
Unit nonlabor paym ents.....................................................

35.3
26.7

43.6
29.4

97.6

100.4

107.2
94.0

98.9

Implicit price deflator...........................................................

30.1

34.9

79.5

95.3

98.8

99.5

100.9

96.0
110.2
104.7

94.8

99.6

98.6
107.2

104.3
95.3

79.9

95.5
95.2

100.2
100.5
101.1

109.3
98.9

119.4

96.8

107.9
100.2

113.4

91.8
78.9

95.6
98.0

102.7

Real compensation per hour.............................................

14.9
65.4

100.3
102.9
101.9

103.9

-

-

-

-

-

-

- Data not available.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

87

Current Labor Statistics:

Productivity Data

42. Annual indexes of output per hour for selected 3-digit Sic industries
[1987= 100]
Industry

SIC

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Mining
Copper ores...............................................................
Gold and silver ores.................................................
Bituminous coal and lignite mining..........................
Crude petroleum and natural gas............................
Crushed and broken stone.......................................

102
104
122
131
142

109.2
101.5
111.7
101.0
101.3

106.6
113.3
117.3
98.0
98.7

102.7
122.3
118.7
97.0
102.2

100.5
127.4
122.4
97.9
99.8

115.2
141.6
133.0
102.1
105.0

118.1
159.8
141.2
105.9
103.6

126.0
160.8
148.1
112.4
108.7

117.2
144.2
155.9
119.4
105.4

116.5
138.3
168.0
123.9
107.2

118.9
159.0
176.6
125.2
114.0

117.5
186.3
187.3
128.7
111.9

201
202
203
204
205

100.1
108.4
97.0
101.3
96.8

99.2
107.7
97.8
107.6
96.1

97.1
107.3
95.6
105.4
92.7

99.6
108.3
99.2
104.9
90.6

104.6
111.4
100.5
107.8
93.8

104.3
109.6
106.8
109.2
94.4

101.2
111.8
107.6
108.4
96.4

102.3
116.4
109.1
115.4
97.3

97.4
116.0
109.2
108.0
95.6

103.2
119.5
111.8
118.7
99.3

-

99.8
114.1
127.6
101.6
111.6

104.5
112.6
127.0
105.3
106.5

106.2
111.8
130.8
101.0
126.6

102.0
120.1
120.5
101.6
107.6

108.3
120.3
134.3
103.1
142.9

113.8
110.1
135.7
109.2
147.2

117.1
120.0
136.3
103.9
147.2

Manufacturing
Meat products...........................................................
Dairy products...........................................................
Preserved fruits and vegetables..............................
Grain mill products....................................................
Bakery products........................................................

-

Sugar and confectionery products..........................
Fats and oils..............................................................
Beverages..................................................................

206
207
208
209
211

99.5
108.9
106.0
107.0
101.2

101.8
116.4
112.7
99.3
109.0

103.2
118.1
117.7
99.3
113.2

Broadwoven fabric mills, cotton..............................
Broadwoven fabric mills, manmade........................
Narrow fabric mills....................................................
Knitting mills..............................................................
Textile finishing, except wool...................................

221
222
224
225
226

99.6
99.2
108.4
96.3
90.3

99.8
106.3
92.7
108.0
88.7

103.1
111.3
96.5
107.5
83.4

111.2
116.2
99.6
114.1
79.9

110.3
126.2
112.9
119.5
78.6

117.8
131.7
111.4
128.1
79.3

122.1
142.5
120.1
134.3
81.2

134.0
145.3
118.9
138.6
78.5

137.3
147.6
126.3
150.5
79.2

130.9
161.9
107.7
150.2
94.0

Carpets and rugs......................................................
Yarn and thread mills................................................
Miscellaneous textile goods.....................................
Men's and boys’ suits and coats..............................
Men's and boys' furnishings.....................................

227
228
229
231
232

98.6
102.1
101.6
105.1
100.1

97.8
104.2
109.1
97.7
100.1

93.2
110.2
109.2
93.9
102.1

89.2
111.4
104.6
90.2
108.4

96.1
119.6
106.5
89.0
109.1

97.1
126.6
110.4
97.4
108.4

93.3
130.7
118.5
97.7
111.7

95.8
137.4
123.7
92.5
123.4

100.2
147.4
123.1
97.4
134.7

100.3
155.5
117.9
130.3
152.4

-

Women's and misses' outerwear.............................
Women's and children's undergarments................
Hats, caps, and millinery..........................................
Miscellaneous apparel and accessories.................
Miscellaneous fabricated textile products...............

233
234
235
238
239

101.4
105.4
99.0
101.3
96.6

96.8
94.6
96.4
88.4
95.7

104.1
102.1
89.2
90.6
99.9

104.3
113.6
91.1
91.8
100.7

109.4
117.4
93.6
91.3
107.5

121.8
124.5
87.2
94.0
108.5

127.4
138.0
77.7
105.5
107.8

135.5
161.3
84.3
116.8
109.2

141.6
174.5
82.2
120.1
105.6

151.5
196.3
83.5
105.2
117.0

_

Logging......................................................................
Sawmills and planing mills.......................................
Millwork, plywood, and structural members...........
Wood containers.......................................................
Wood buildings and mobile homes.........................

241
242
243
244
245

93.7
100.7
98.8
103.1
97.8

89.4
99.6
97.1
108.8
98.8

86.3
99.8
98.0
111.2
103.1

86.0
102.6
98.0
113.1
103.0

96.2
108.1
99.9
109.4
103.1

88.6
101.9
97.0
100.1
103.8

87.8
103.3
94.5
100.9
98.3

86.0
110.2
92.7
106.1
97.0

85.4
115.6
92.4
106.7
96.7

71.9
117.5
89.9
106.6
101.1

Miscellaneous wood products..................................
Household furniture...................................................
Office furniture..........................................................
Public building and related furniture........................
Partitions and fixtures...............................................

249
251
252

102.4
102.0
97.5
113.7
92.4

107.7
104.5
95.0
119.8
95.6

110.5
107.1
94.1
120.2
93.0

114.2
110.5
102.5
140.6
102.7

115.3
110.6
103.2

115.4
116.9
101.1
173.3
101.2

123.1
121.8
117.9

161.0
107.4

111.8
112.5
100.5
157.4
98.9

114.4
121.6
106.4

253
254

95.9
99.4
94.3
109.6
95.7

181.5
97.5

186.5
121.4

Miscellaneous furniture and fixtures........................
Pulp mills...................................................................
Paper mills.................................................................
Paperboard mills.......................................................
Paperboard containers and boxes...........................

259
261
262
263
265

103.6
99.6
103.9
105.5
99.7

101.9
107.4
103.6
101.9
101.5

103.5
116.7
102.3
100.6
101.3

102.1
128.3
99.2
101.4
103.4

99.5
137.3
103.3
104.4
105.2

103.6
122.5
102.4
108.4
107.9

104.7
128.9
110.2
114.9
108.4

110.0
131.9
118.6
119.5
105.1

113.2
132.6
111.6
118.0
106.3

102.2
104.4
107.0
124.2
110.1

Miscellaneous converted paper products...............
Newspapers..............................................................

101.1
96.9
97.9

Books.........................................................................
Miscellaneous publishing..........................................

267
271
272
273
274

99.1
96.7

101.6
95.2
98.3
94.1
89.0

101.4
90.6
93.9
96.6
92.2

105.3
85.8
89.5
100.8
95.9

105.5
81.5
92.9
97.7
105.8

107.9
79.4
89.5
103.5
104.5

110.6
79.9
81.9
103.0
97.5

113.3
79.0
87.8
101.6
94.8

113.6
77.4
89.1
99.3
93.6

121.7
79.0
100.1
102.2
114.5

Commercial printing.................................................
Manifold business forms...........................................
Greeting cards..........................................................
Blankbooks and bookbinding....................................
Printing trade services..............................................

275
276
277
278
279

100.0
98.7
100.1
95.6
99.9

101.1
89.7
109.1
94.2
94.3

102.5
93.0
100.6
99.4
99.3

102.0
89.1
92.7
96.1
100.6

108.0
94.5
96.7
103.6
112.0

106.9
91.1
91.4
98.7
115.3

106.5
82.0
89.0
105.4
111.0

107.2
76.9
92.5
108.7
116.7

108.3
75.2
90.8
114.5
126.2

109.2
78.9
92.2
115.3
124.2

Industrial inorganic chemicals..................................
Plastics materials and synthetics.............................
Drugs..........................................................................
Soaps, cleaners, and toilet goods............................
Paints and allied products.........................................

281
282
283
284
285

105.7
98.8
101.0
102.0
101.4

104.3
99.7
102.8
100.6
103.3

106.8
100.9
103.8
103.8
106.3

109.7
100.0
104.5
105.3
104.3

109.7
107.5
99.5
104.4
102.9

105.6
112.0
99.9
108.7
108.8

102.3
125.3
104.9
111.2
116.7

109.3
128.3
108.7
118.6
118.0

110.1
125.3
112.1
120.9
125.6

116.1
133.8
112.6
130.4
127.2

See footnotes at end of table.

88

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2000

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

_

-

42.

Continued-Annual indexes of output per hour for selected 3-digit SIC industries

[1987 = 100]
Industry

SIC

Industrial organic chemicals.....................................

286
287

Agricultural chemicals................................................
Miscellaneous chemical products............................
Petroleum refining......................................................
Asphalt paving and roofing materials.......................

289
291
295

1988
109.9
103.7

1989
110.4
104.3

95.4

95.2

105.3
98.3

109.6
95.3

1990
101.4
104.7
97.3
109.2
98.0

1991
95.8
99.5
96.1
106.6
94.1
90.6
102.4
92.4

Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products..........
Tires and inner tubes.................................................
Hose and belting and gaskets and packing............
Fabricated rubber products, n.e.c............................
Miscellaneous plastics products, n.e.c.....................

299
301
305
306
308

98.4
102.9
103.7
104.2
100.5

101.9
103.8
96.3
105.5
101.8

94.8
103.0
96.1
109.0
105.7

Footwear, except rubber............................................

314
316
317
321
322

101.3
93.7
98.5
91.9
100.6

101.1
104.8
93.1
90.7
100.2

101.1
106.2
96.5
84.5
104.8

323
324

95.9
103.2

90.1
110.2

92.6
112.4

Structural clay products.............................................
Pottery and related products....................................
Concrete, gypsum, and plaster products.................

325
326
327

98.8
99.6
100.8

103.1
97.1
102.4

109.6
98.6
102.3

Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral products..........
Blast furnace and basic steel products...................
Iron and steel foundries.............................................
Primary nonferrous metals........................................
Nonferrous rolling and drawing................................

329
331
332

103.0
112.6
104.0

95.5
108.0
105.4

109.6
106.1

333
335

107.8
95.5

106.1
93.6

102.3
92.7

Nonferrous foundries (castings)...............................
Miscellaneous primary metal products...................
Metal cans and shipping containers........................
Cutlery, handtools, and hardware............................
Plumbing and heating, except electric.....................

336
339
341
342
343

102.6
106.6
106.5
97.8
103.7

105.1
105.0
108.5
101.7
101.5

104.0
113.7
117.6
97.3
102.6

103.6
109.1
122.9

Fabricated structural metal products.......................
Screw machine products, bolts, etc.........................
Metal forgings and stampings...................................
Metal services, n.e.c..................................................
Ordnance and accessories, n.e.c............................

344
345
346
347
348

100.4
98.5
101.5
108.3
97.7

96.9
96.1
99.8
102.4

98.8
96.1
95.6
104.7
82.1

100.0
97.9
92.9
99.4

Construction and related machinery.......................
Metalworking machinery............................................

349
351
352
353
354

101.4
106.8
106.3
106.5
101.0

Special industry machinery.......................................
General industrial machinery....................................
Refrigeration and service machinery.......................
Industrial machinery, n.e.c........................................
Electric distribution equipment..................................

355
356
358
359
361

Electrical industrial apparatus...................................
Household appliances..............................................
Electric lighting and wiring equipment.....................
Communications equipment....................................
Miscellaneous electrical equipment & supplies.....

362
363
364

Motor vehicles and equipment..................................

Luggage.......................................................................
Handbags and personal leather goods...................
Flat glass....................................................................
Glass and glassware, pressed or blown..................
Products of purchased glass....................................
Cement, hydraulic......................................................

Engines and turbines.................................................

Ship and boat building and repairing......................
Railroad equipment....................................................
Motorcycles, bicycles, and parts..............................
Guided missiles, space vehicles, parts...................

Measuring and controlling devices..........................
Ophthalmic goods.....................................................
Photographic equipment & supplies.......................

109.9
108.2
94.4
100.3
98.7
83.6
102.3

1992

1993

1994

92.2
103.8
107.1

99.9
105.0
105.7

120.1
108.0

123.8
104.9

101.5

104.2

107.8
97.8
115.2
114.4

116.5
99.7

96.3
124.1
102.7
119.1

104.2
90.7
111.2
92.7

105.2

94.6
99.5
101.8
111.3
100.4

108.9

123.1
116.7

89.5
97.8
97.7
108.7

120.7
113.0
92.3
86.8
97.6
112.9

1995
98.6
108.5

1996
99.0
110.0
110.1

1997

1998

112.9
120.4

-

-

142.0

120.2
149.2

111.2

113.1

120.8

87.4

87.1
138.8
107.4
121.0
124.7

97.2
148.5
112.5
125.4
130.1

126.1
110.6
83.2
101.5
121.4

129.5
136.4
109.7
107.6
128.2

-

90.5
81.8
99.6
115.7
106.1
124.3

122.0
128.7

-

112.6
109.3
104.5

119.6

125.3
133.1
116.1

119.3
107.3

116.1
109.2

-

111.0
99.2

110.4
155.1
116.2
110.8
104.0

112.7
160.9
121.7
116.0
112.3

-

107.8
132.3

131.1
104.6
121.5
120.9
117.1

-

-

97.7
108.3
109.8

101.5
115.1
111.4

106.2

105.9

119.9
106.8

95.8
101.2

99.5
102.5

100.3
104.6

125.6
114.0
108.4
101.5

94.0
107.8
104.5
110.7
91.0

104.3
117.1
107.2
101.9
96.0

104.5
133.5
112.1
107.9
98.3

113.0
105.3
101.2

103.6

108.5
111.3
132.3
104.0
102.0

112.1
134.5
140.9
109.2
109.1

117.8
152.2
144.2
111.3
109.2

122.3
149.6
155.2
118.2
118.6

126.4

-

140.9
160.8
113.1
127.2

-

102.3
103.7

104.8
104.4
108.7

107.7
107.2
108.5

81.5

111.6
88.6

120.6
84.6

123.0
83.6

105.8
109.7
109.3
127.7
87.6

106.5
110.2
113.6
128.4
87.5

110.0
151.3
120.2
123.5
100.5

108.3
103.5

97.5
106.5
116.5
107.0
101.1

97.4
105.8
112.9
99.1
96.4

101.1
103.3
113.9
102.0
104.3

102.0
109.2
118.6
108.2
107.4

103.2
122.3
125.0
117.7
109.9

106.6
122.7
134.7
122.1
114.8

108.3
136.6
137.2
123.3
114.9

106.2
134.2
141.0
131.8
118.6

104.6
105.9
102.1
106.5
105.4

108.3
101.5
106.0
107.1
105.0

107.5
101.5
103.6
107.3
106.3

108.3
101.6
100.7
109.0
106.5

106.0
101.6
104.9
117.0
119.6

113.6
104.8
108.6
118.5
122.2

121.2
106.7
110.7
127.4
131.8

132.3
109.0
112.7
138.8
143.0

134.0
109.4
114.7
141.4
143.9

130.1
110.1
114.8
129.7

-

143.9

-

104.6

107.1

101.3

107.8
150.3
108.2

131.4
113.4
166.0
110.5

150.8
127.3
113.7
170.9
114.1

154.3
127.4
116.9
190.3
123.1

163.9
138.1
121.4
221.0
124.6

-

106.5
97.5
124.5
98.6

117.1
115.0
105.7
146.7

134.9

105.8
99.9
121.4
90.6

132.9
123.4

366
369

107.4
104.7
100.2
107.2
99.6

107.7

103.0
101.9
110.5
102.8

371
372
373
374
375
376

103.2
100.6
99.4
113.5
92.6
104.1

103.3
98.2
97.6
135.3
94.6
110.6

102.4
98.9
103.7
141.1
93.8
116.5

96.6
108.2
96.3
146.9
99.8
110.5

104.2
112.4
102.7
147.9
108.4
110.5

106.2
115.2
106.2
151.0
130.9
122.1

108.8
109.6
103.8
152.5
125.1
118.9

106.7
107.8
98.0
150.0
120.3
121.0

107.2
113.0
99.2
148.3
125.5
129.4

116.5
114.0
104.3
183.2
120.5
126.6

381
382
384
385
386

104.8
103.9
105.2
112.6
105.6

105.8
102.1
107.9
123.3
113.0

112.7
107.0
116.9
121.2
107.8

118.9
113.9
118.7
125.1
110.2

122.1
121.0
123.5
144.5
116.4

129.1
125.2
127.3
157.8
126.9

132.1
135.0
126.7
160.6
132.7

149.5
147.8
131.5
167.2
129.5

142.2
151.9
139.8
188.2
128.7

148.9
144.3
146.3
202.6
121.6

89.8
95.9
110.7
110.7

95.4

96.8
102.0

114.5
127.8
100.1
98.4
103.9

106.3
142.4

107.8
142.7
112.7

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

89

Current Labor Statistics:

Productivity Data

42. Continued-Annual indexes of output per hour for selected 3-digit SIC industries
[ 1 9 8 7 = 100]

Industry

SIC

Jewelry, silverware, and plated w are........................

391

100.1

102.9

99.3

95.8

96.7

96.7

99.5

100.2

102.6

117.2

_

Musical instrum ents.....................................................

393

101.8

96.1

97.1

96.9

96.0

95.6

88.7

86.9

78.8

83.9

-

Toys and sporting goods............................................

394

104.8

106.0

109.7

112.9

111.3

111.6

129.9

113.6
135.2

119.9
144.1

139.6
127.7

-

108.3

109.7
116.8

114.2

395

108.1
118.2

104.9

Pens, pencils, office, and art supplies.....................
Costume jewelry and notions.....................................

396

102.0

93.8

105.3

106.7

110.8

129.0

143.7

142.2

119.1

-

Miscellaneous manufactures.....................................

399

102.1

100.9

106.5

109.2

109.5

115.8
107.7

106.1

108.1

112.8

109.3

-

Trucking, except local ' ...............................................

4213

105.2

109.3

111.1

116.9

123.4

126.6

129.5

125.4

130.9

132.4

130.1

U.S. postal service i ....................................................

431

99.9

99.7

104.0

103.7

104.5

107.1

106.6

106.5

104.7

108.3

109.5

Air transportation 1.......................................................

4512,13,22 (pts.)

99.5

95.8

92.9

92.5

96.9

100.2

105.7

108.6

111.6

111.1

108.5

481

106.2

111.6

113.3

119.8

127.7

135.5

142.2

148.1

159.5

160.9

171.2

483

103.1

106.2

104.9

106.1

108.3

106.7

110.1

105.8

101.1

100.8

484

102.0

99.7

92.5

87.5

88.3

86.7

85.6

109.6
86.7

84.4

87.6

88.0

491.3 (pt.)

104.9

492.3 (pt.)

108.3

107.7
111.2

110.1
105.8

113.4
109.6

115.2
111.1

120.6
121.8

126.8
125.6

135.0
137.1

150.5
158.6

146.5
145.9

157.2
153.4

521

101.0

99.1

103.6

101.3

105.4

110.5

118.3

117.6

121.7

122.2

133.0

523
525
526
531

102.8
108.6
106.7
99.2

101.7

99.4

106.5
107.2
100.4

114.7

115.2
103.4
97.0

106.0
110.5
83.9
94.2

100.9

105.8
106.6
105.7

130.2
112.7
116.6
108.6

135.3
108.5
117.2
110.9

140.2
112.1
136.6
118.4

143.8
111.2
128.1
123.5

166.0
125.3
136.1
129.4

533
539
541

101.9
100.8
98.9

154.2

167.7

184.7

190.1

203.2

136.1
93.3

159.7

94.6

121.8
93.7

160.9
92.5

163.9
91.2

229.2
164.9
89.4

247.6
168.2
89.2

262.5

109.8
95.4

Meat and fish (seafood) markets...............................

542

99.0

97.6

94.0

86.5

81.1
81.7

84.7

83.3

91.1
87.2

89.1

89.8

88.4
94.7

93.7

546

96.8
89.7

95.8

Retail bakeries.............................................................

75.4

89.9
65.0

New and used car dealers.........................................

551

106.1
102.7

104.1

106.5

99.0

100.0
109.7

107.6
98.7

108.7
102.6

107.1
105.7

108.2

553
554

103.4
103.2

102.5

Auto and home supply stores....................................

104.6

107.8
104.2

108.0
107.0

115.2

120.4
117.9

126.3
117.5

125.1
125.7

125.0
132.2

130.6
145.5

119.3

128.5

142.3

145.8

154.8

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

-

Transportation

Utilities
Radio and television broadcasting............................

Gas utilities....................................................................

Trade
Paint, glass, and wallpaper stores............................
Hardware stores...........................................................
Retail nurseries, lawn and garden supply stores....

Variety stores................................................................
Miscellaneous general merchandise stores............

124.4

101.6
105.2

151.2
116.4

102.5
88.5
98.2

92.8

561

103.0
106.0

109.6

102.6
113.7

104.3
119.2

W omen's clothing stores............................................

562

97.8

99.5

101.5

103.0

112.2

115.5
118.4

Gasoline service stations............................................
Men's and boys' wear stores.....................................

118.2

86.8

189.9
90.2

Family clothing stores.................................................

565

102.0

104.9

104.5

106.4

111.7

114.5

120.4

133.8

138.8

142.1

Shoe stores...................................................................

566

102.7

106.1

105.1

111.5

113.2

145.6
136.4

96.3
98.6
98.5

100.9
103.5

88.6
101.8
102.8

78.8
101.5
105.2

89.1
108.4
113.9

92.9
107.6
117.0

146.9
127.1

143.5

569
571
572

126.3
100.4

134.5

Miscellaneous apparel and accessory stores.........
Furniture and homefurnishings stores.....................
Household appliance stores.......................................

107.2
95.2

118.6
141.8

118.1
119.4
155.5

131.0
121.6
184.5

Radio, television, computer, and music stores.......
Eating and drinking places.........................................

573
581

118.6
102.8

114.6
102.2

119.6
104.0

128.3
103.1

137.8
102.5

152.7
102.8

177.0
101.1

196.7
100.9

204.6
99.5

215.1
100.5

258.9
101.1

Drug and proprietary stores.......................................
Liquor stores.................................................................
Used merchandise stores...........................................

591
592

101.9
98.2

102.5
101.1

103.6
105.2

104.7
105.9

105.4
100.7

109.6
112.8

115.4
108.9

105.3

104.9

100.3

98.6

112.1

105.7
99.1
115.4

106.9
103.7

593

103.6
108.4
110.4

117.3

129.8

138.0

117.7
113.9
158.4

Miscellaneous shopping goods stores.....................

594

100.7

104.2

104.2

105.6
95.6

110.8

106.5
127.5
92.7

143.3
100.7

117.8
146.1
114.2

123.7
177.2

131.5
193.5

85.3

122.1
84.4

120.0
165.5

92.0

108.8
84.4

105.0
109.3

Fuel dealers.................................................................

596
598

115.8

113.4

112.0

Retail stores, n.e.c.......................................................

599

105.9

103.1

113.7

103.2

111.6

117.3

125.0

126.2

139.5

147.3

157.6

602

102.8
97.6

104.8
95.0
99.7

107.7

110.1
99.1

111.0
107.8

118.5
106.2

121.7

126.4

129.7

109.6

110.1

109.7

133.0
107.9

133.0

96.1
101.8

99.2

98.3

104.0
117.4

105.5
129.3

108.7

113.5
153.4

102.7

108.8
121.2

111.9

122.1
112.0
138.7

Finance and services
Hotels and motels........................................................
Laundry, cleaning, and garment services................

701
721

Photographic studios, portrait....................................
Beauty shops................................................................

722

100.1

94.9

96.6

92.8

97.7

98.9
105.9

126.6

108.0
133.7

723

95.1

99.6

96.8

94.8

99.6

95.7

99.8

103.5

106.3

107.5

108.4

127.6
97.1

149.0

153.0

114.1

101.3
115.2

107.0
121.2

100.5

99.8

101.3

97.2

Barber shops................................................................

724

108.8

111.6

100.2

94.1

112.1

120.8

117.7

114.6

Funeral services and crematories............................

726

102.5

97.9

90.9

89.5

103.2

98.2

103.8

99.7

Automotive repair shops.............................................
Motion picture theaters...............................................

753
783

105.7
107.1

108.1
114.3

106.9
115.8

98.7

103.3

104.0

116.0

110.8

109.8

112.3
106.5

119.5
101.4

1 Refers to output per employee.
2

n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified

Refers to ouput per full-tim e equivalent employee year on fiscal basis.

90

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2000

- Data not available.

108.8

43. Unemployment rates, approximating U.S. concepts, in nine countries, quarterly data
seasonally adjusted
Country

Annual average
1997

1998

1997
IV

1999

1998
I

II

III

IV

II

I

III

United States.........................................

4.9

4.5

4.7

4.7

4.4

4.5

4.4

4.3

4.3

4.2

Canada...................................................

9.2

8.9

8.6

8.4

8.6

8.3

8.1

8.0

8.3
8.1

8.0
7.7

7.8
7.4

8.0

Australia.................................................

8.3
8.0

7.4

7.6
7.2

Japan......................................................

3.4

4.1

3.5

3.7

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.7

4.8

4.8

France....................................................

12.4

11.7

12.3

12.0

11.7

11.7

11.5

11.3

11.2

11.1

9.9

9.4

10.0

9.9

9.5

9.1

9.1

9.0

9.0

9.1

12.3

12.3

12.3

12.2

12.3

12.4

12.4

12.3

12.1

10.1
7.0

8.4
6.3

9.1
6.6

8.8
6.4

8.6
6.3

8.5
6.3

7.7
6.3

7.4
6.3

7.0
6.1

United Kinodom.....................................

therefore should

be viewed as

7.1
5.9

1 Quarterly rates are for the first month of the quarter.

data, and

- Data not available.

unemployment under U.S. concepts than the annual figures. See "Notes

less precise indicators of

on the data" for information on breaks in series. For further qualifications
NOTE:

Quarterly figures for France, Germany, and the United Kingdom

are calculated by applying annual adjustment factors to current published


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

and historical data, see Comparative Civilian Labor Force Statistics, Ten
Countries, 1959-1998 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, Oct. 22,1999).

Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

91

Current Labor Statistics:

Internation Comparisons Data

44. Annual data: Employment status of the working-age population, approximating U.S. concepts, 10 countries
^slumbers in thousands]
Em ploym ent status and country

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

123,869
14,151
8,228
61,920
24,170

125,840
14,329
8,444
63,050
24,300

126,346
14,408
8,490
64,280
24,490

128,105
14,482
8,562
65,040
24,550

129,200
14,663
8,619
65,470
24,650

131,056
14,832
8,776
65,780
24,760

132,304
14,928
9,001
65,990
24,820

133,943
15,145
9,127
66,450
25,080

136,297
15,354
9,221
67,200
25,140

137,673
15,632
9,347
67,240
25,390

28,840
22,530
6,430
4,552
28,580

29,410
22,670
6,640
4,597
28,730

39,120
22,940
6,750
4,591
28,610

39,040
22,910
6,950
4,520
28,410

39,130
22,760
7,090
4,443
28,310

39,210
22,640
7,190
4,418
28,280

39,050
22,700
7,270
4,460
28,480

39,180
22,820
7,370
4,459
28,620

39,450
22,850
7,530
4,418
28,760

39,430
23,000
7,720
4,402
28,870

C iv ilia n la b o r f o r c e

United States'.................................................................
Canada...........................................................................
Australia..........................................................................
Japan..............................................................................
3ermany"........................................................................
taly..................................................................................
Netherlands....................................................................
Sweden...........................................................................
United Kingdom..............................................................
P a r tic ip a tio n r a te 3

United S tates................................................................
Canada...........................................................................
Australia..........................................................................
Japan..............................................................................
3ermany"........................................................................
taly.................................................................................
Netherlands....................................................................
Sweden..........................................................................
United Kingdom..............................................................

66.5
67.5
64.0
62.2
56.1

66.5
67.3
64.6
62.6
56.0

66.2
66.7
64.1
63.2
56.0

66.4
65.9
63.9
63.4
55.8

66.3
65.5
63.6
63.3
55.6

66.6
65.3
63.9
63.1
55.5

66.6
64.8
64.6
62.9
55.2

66.8
64.9
64.6
63.0
55.4

67.1
64.8
64.3
63.2
55.2

67.1
65.1
64.4
62.8
55.6

55.2
47.3
54.7
67.3
64.0

55.3
47.2
56.1
67.4
64.1

58.9
47.7
56.5
67.0
63.7

58.3
47.5
57.8
65.7
63.1

58.0
48.1
58.5
64.5
62.8

57.6
47.5
59.0
63.7
62.5

57.2
47.5
59.3
64.1
62.7

57.4
47.7
59.8
64.0
62.7

57.6
47.7
60.7
63.4
62.8

57.6
47.8
62.0
63.1
62.7

E m p lo y e d

United States'................................................................
Canada...........................................................................
Australia..........................................................................
Japan..............................................................................
=rance.............................................................................
3ermany"........................................................................
taly..................................................................................
Netherlands....................................................................
Sweden..........................................................................
United Kingdom..............................................................

117,342
13,086
7,720
60,500
21,850

118,793
13,165
7,859
61,710
22,100

117,718
12,916
7,676
62,920
22,140

118,492
12,842
7,637
63,620
21,990

120,259
13,015
7,680
63,810
21,740

123,060
13,292
7,921
63,860
21,710

124,900
13,506
8,235
63,890
21,890

126,708
13,676
8,344
64,200
21,950

129,558
13,941
8,429
64,900
22,010

131,463
14,326
8,597
64,450
22,410

27,200
20,770
5,980
4,480
26,510

27,950
21,080
6,230
4,513
26,740

36,910
21,360
6,350
4,447
26,090

36,420
21,230
6,560
4,265
25,530

36,020
20,430
6,620
4,028
25,340

35,900
20,080
6,670
3,992
25,550

35,850
19,980
6,760
4,056
26,000

35,680
20,060
6,900
4,019
26,280

35,540
20,050
7,130
3,973
26,740

35,720
20,170
7,410
4,034
27,050

E m p l o y m e n t - p o p u l a t i o n r a t io 4

United S tates................................................................
Canada...........................................................................
Australia..........................................................................
Japan..............................................................................
3ermany"........................................................................
taly.................................................................................
Netherlands....................................................................
Sweden..........................................................................
United Kingdom..............................................................

63.0
62.4
60.1
60.8
50.7

62.8
61.9
60.1
61.3
50.9

61.7
59.8
57.9
61.8
50.6

61.5
58.4
57.0
62.0
49.9

61.7
58.2
56.6
61.7
49.0

62.5
58.5
57.7
61.3
48.7

62.9
58.6
59.1
60.9
48.7

63.2
58.6
59.1
60.9
48.5

63.8
58.9
58.8
61.0
48.3

64.1
59.7
59.2
60.2
49.1

52.0
43.6
50.9
66.2
59.3

52.6
43.9
52.6
66.1
59.6

55.5
44.5
53.2
64.9
58.0

54.4
44.0
54.5
62.0
56.7

53.4
43.1
54.7
58.5
56.2

52.8
42.1
54.7
57.6
56.5

52.5
41.8
55.1
58.3
57.2

52.2
41.9
55.9
57.6
57.6

51.9
41.8
57.5
57.0
58.3

52.2
41.9
59.5
57.8
58.8

U n e m p lo y e d

United States'................................................................
Canada...........................................................................
Australia.........................................................................
Japan..............................................................................
-ranee............................................................................
3ermany"........................................................................
taly.................................................................................
Netherlands....................................................................
Sweden..........................................................................
United Kingdom..............................................................

6,528
1,065
508
1,420
2,320

7,047
1,164
585
1,340
2,210

8,628
1,492
814
1,360
2,350

9,613
1,640
925
1,420
2,560

8,940
1,649
939
1,660
2,910

7,996
1,541
856
1,920
3,050

7,404
1,422
766
2,100
2,920

7,236
1,469
783
2,250
3,130

6,739
1,414
791
2,300
3,120

6,210
1,305
750
2,790
2,980

1,640
1,760
450
72
2,070

1,460
1,590
410
84
1,990

2,210
1,580
400
144
2,520

2,620
1,680
390
255
2,880

3,110
2,330
470
415
2,970

3,320
2,560
520
426
2,730

3,200
2,720
510
404
2,480

3,500
2,760
470
440
2,340

3,910
2,800
400
445
2,020

3,710
2,840
310
368
1,820

U n e m p lo y m e n t ra te

United S tates................................................................
Canada...........................................................................
Australia.........................................................................
Japan..............................................................................
zrance............................................................................
3ermany"........................................................................
taly..................................................................................
Netherlands....................................................................
Sweden..........................................................................
United Kingdom..............................................................

5.3
7.5
6.2
2.3
9.6

5.6
8.1
6.9
2.1
9.1

6.8
10.4
9.6
2.1
9.6

7.5
11.3
10.8
2.2
10.4

6.9
11.2
10.9
2.5
11.8

6.1
10.4
9.7
2.9
12.3

5.6
9.5
8.5
3.2
11.8

5.4
9.7
8.6
3.4
12.5

4.9
9.2
8.6
3.4
12.4

4.5
8.3
8.0
4.1
11.7

5.7
7.8
7.0
1.6
7.2

5.0
7.0
6.2
1.8
6.9

5.6
6.9
5.9
3.1
8.8

6.7
7.3
5.6
5.6
10.1

7.9
10.2
6.6
9.3
10.5

8.5
11.3
7.2
9.6
9.7

8.2
12.0
7.0
9.1
8.7

8.9
12.1
6.4
9.9
8.2

9.9
12.3
5.3
10.1
7.0

9.4
12.3
4.0
8.4
6.3

1 Data for 1994 are not directly comparable with data for 1993 and earlier years. For

3 Labor force as a percent of the working-age population,

additional information, see the box note under "Employment and Unemployment Data"
n the notes to this section.

4 Employment as a percent of the working-age population,

2 Data from 1991 onward refer to unified Germany. See Comparative Civilian Labor Note : See "Notes on the data" for information on breaks in series for the United
States, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Sweden. Dash indicates
Porce Statistics, Ten Countries, 1959-1998, October 22, 1999, on the Internet at
data not available.
it t p : //s ta ts .b ls .g o v /fls d a ta .h tm .

92

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 2000

45. Annual indexes of manufacturing productivity and related measures, 12 countries
[1992 = 100]
Ite m a n d c o u n tr y

1960

1970

1980

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

O u tp u t p e r h o u r

United States............................................................
Canada.....................................................................
Japan........................................................................
Belgium....................................................................
Denmark...................................................................
Germany...................................................................
Italy............................................................................
Netherlands..............................................................
Norway.....................................................................
Sweden....................................................................
United Kingdom.......................................................

40.7
14.0
18.0
29.9
21.8
29.2
19.6
18.6
36.7
27.6
31.2

59.2
38.0
32.9
52.7
43.1
52.0
36.8
38.1
57.8
52.8
44.7

71.9
75.3
63.9
65.4
90.3
66.7
77.2
64.1
69.2
76.7
74.0
56.1

94.4
91.3
81.2
88.9
90.6
81.8
88.1
85.1
91.6
93.3
90.1
79.4

98.0
91.1
84.8
92.0
94.1
87.4
91.5
86.7
93.7
92.1
90.8
82.3

97.1
92.4
89.5
96.9
99.6
91.9
94.6
89.4
97.1
94.6
93.8
86.2

97.8
95.3
95.4
96.8
99.1
93.5
99.0
92.5
98.6
96.6
95.0
88.3

98.3
95.1
99.4
99.1
99.6
96.9
101.9
95.2
99.6
97.5
95.0
92.2

102.1
102.5
100.5
102.5
104.5
100.6
100.6
102.9
101.4
100.6
106.7
104.0

108.3
106.2
101.8
108.4

114.9
108.9
109.3
113.2

108.5
107.9
105.6
112.7
101.4
116.1
106.8

114.4
111.2
109.3
117.7
102.0
122.4
104.8

114.9
115.1
110.3
119.7
102.0
125.4
103.2

123.2
121.8
113.4
125.7
101.9
133.6
104.0

127.4
127.1
113.6
127.8
104.1
136.5
105.1

104.0
110.8

-

-

117.3
107.3
115.8
114.7
-

122.1
111.0
121.4
121.8
-

127.9
111.7
120.4
122.6
-

O u tp u t

-

-

34.2
10.7
30.7
40.8
31.0
41.5
21.4
31.7
56.5
46.5
67.7

60.5
38.8
57.6
68.0
64.1
70.9
44.7
59.5
89.1
81.7
90.3

77.3
85.4
59.9
78.2
91.3
88.7
85.3
78.4
77.4
103.6
91.8
87.2

97.9
103.2
78.4
88.8
99.3
87.2
88.0
88.2
89.5
110.7
107.7
94.4

104.5
109.3
84.6
93.3
100.8
92.2
90.9
94.5
92.8
105.3
110.2
101.4

90.2
99.1
104.3
97.2
94.0
98.1
96.9
101.3
111.6
105.4

102.5
106.6
96.3
101.0
102.7
99.1
99.1
99.6
100.1
100.2
110.6
105.3

98.7
98.8
101.4
100.7
101.7
99.8
102.8
99.2
100.6
98.3
103.6
100.0

103.5
105.1
96.0
97.0
99.0
95.7
91.8
96.4
98.2
102.7
101.3
101.4

112.2
113.2
95.4
101.4
109.3
100.3
93.5
102.2
104.2
106.7
115.7
106.1

119.6
118.8
100.6
104.2
114.7
104.8
93.7
107.2
107.8
109.0
130.1
107.8

121.6
120.2
106.7
104.2
117.8
104.5
92.5
106.7
108.4
110.1
132.9
108.2

128.8
128.0
111.1
109.0
120.3
110.2
95.8
110.4
114.1
113.3
140.3
109.6

135.0
133.0
103.6
111.8
126.5
114.6
100.7
112.5
116.6
116.4
146.4
110.0

92.1
84.1
76.3
170.7
136.5
142.1
142.3
109.0
170.6
154.0
168.3
217.3

104.4
102.1
102.3
174.7
129.0
148.7
136.3
121.2
156.2
154.3
154.7
202.1

107.5
113.5
93.8
119.7
101.1
133.1
110.5
122.4
111.8
135.0
124.0
155.3

103.8
113.0
96.6
100.0
109.6
106.6
99.9
103.6
97.7
118.6
119.5
118.9

106.6
120.0
99.8
101.5
107.2
105.5
99.3
108.9
99.0
114.3
121.4
123.2

107.1
119.9
100.8
102.3
104.7
105.8
99.3
109.7
99.8
107.1
119.0
122.3

104.8
111.9
100.9
104.3
103.7
105.9
100.1
107.7
101.5
103.7
116.4
119.2

100.4
103.8
102.0
101.5
102.1
103.0
100.9
104.2
101.0
100.8
109.0
108.5

101.4
102.6
95.6
94.7
94.8
95.1
91.3
93.6
96.9
102.1
94.9
97.5

103.6
106.6
93.7
93.6

104.0
109.1
92.0
92.0

103.7
112.0
92.2
90.8

105.5
115.4
91.5
89.5

105.6
119.0
86.1
91.2

Canada.....................................................................
Japan........................................................................
Belgium....................................................................
Denmark...................................................................

14.9
10.4
4.3
5.4
4.6

23.7
17.8
16.5
13.7
13.3

56.6
47.7
58.6
52.5
49.6

80.7
75.3
77.9
79.7
80.1

84.0
77.8
79.2
81.1
82.9

86.6
82.5
84.2
85.9
87.7

90.8
89.5
90.7
90.1
92.7

95.6
94.7
95.9
97.3
95.9

Germany...................................................................
Italy............................................................................
Netherlands..............................................................
Norway.....................................................................
Sweden....................................................................
United Kingdom........................................................

8.1
1.6
6.4
4.7
4.1
3.1

20.7
4.7
20.2
11.8
10.8
6.3

53.6
28.2
64.4
39.0
37.4
33.2

76.0
66.7
87.8
78.5
67.3
64.8

79.1
69.3
87.7
83.3
71.7
67.7

83.2
75.9
88.5
87.2
79.4
72.9

89.4
84.4
90.8
92.3
87.6
80.9

77.2
63.3
91.7
80.3
55.0
61.2
69.4
44.0
93.0
50.8
50.6
59.1

85.5
82.5
96.0
89.7
88.4
96.2
86.3
78.3
95.9
84.1
74.7
81.6

85.7
85.5
93.4
88.1
88.2
93.4
86.5
79.9
93.6
90.4
79.0
82.2

89.2
89.2
94.0
88.7
88.1
93.6
87.9
84.9
91.1
92.2
84.7
84.6

77.2
65.4
51.3
88.3
58.9
76.7
59.6
63.3
82.3
63.9
69.6
77.8

85.5
75.2
84.2
77.2
77.9
84.7
74.9
74.4
83.2
77.5
68.5
75.7

85.7
83.9
92.4
77.0
79.0
82.9
76.9
75.6
83.2
86.1
75.0
82.9

89.2
91.0
86.3
72.3
72.6
77.7
73.0
76.2
75.5
82.9
76.4
78.5

United States............................................................
Canada.....................................................................
Japan.........................................................................
Belgium.....................................................................
Denmark...................................................................
France......................................................................
Germany...................................................................
Italy............................................................................
Netherlands..............................................................
Sweden....................................................................
United Kingdom.......................................................
T o ta l h o u rs

United States............................................................
Canada.....................................................................
Japan.........................................................................
Belgium....................................................................
Denmark...................................................................
Germany...................................................................
Italy............................................................................
Netherlands..............................................................
Norway.....................................................................
Sweden.....................................................................
United Kingdom.......................................................

-

-

-

-

92.4
86.7
96.7
92.4
105.2
99.6
99.4

91.6
84.3
98.0
91.6
106.9
106.3
102.9

91.0
80.4
96.7
90.5
107.9
106.0
104.8

89.5
78.6
97.4
90.8
111.1
105.0
105.4

89.9
79.3
99.0
91.2
111.9
107.3
104.7

102.7
99.6
104.6
104.8
104.6

105.6
100.4
106.7
106.1

107.9
103.6
109.5
109.2

109.3
102.8
110.9
112.0

113.4
106.7
113.9
115.2

119.4
110.8
115.8
116.0

95.1
93.6
95.2
97.5
95.4
90.5

105.9
107.5
103.7
101.5
98.0
104.3

111.7
107.8
108.2
104.4
101.1
106.5

117.7
112.8
110.6
109.2
106.2
107.4

123.7
120.9
113.2
113.6
113.4
108.2

126.6
125.9
115.8
119.1
118.3
111.4

127.6
124.8
118.3
126.4
121.5
117.8

92.8
93.9
95.0
93.0
93.6
96.8
90.3
91.3
92.1
95.6
92.3
91.6

97.2
99.6
96.5
98.1
96.3
99.3
93.3
98.4
95.5
100.0
100.4
98.2

100.6
97.2
104.1
102.3
100.1
102.2
105.3
104.4
102.3
100.9
91.8
100.3

97.6
94.5
104.9
97.9
93.0
96.8
103.6
102.1
96.0
102.9
87.0
99.7

93.9
95.2
100.1
96.4
93.8
94.1
105.9
103.2
94.0
107.1
86.8
102.5

93.2
95.8
95.8
97.6
92.7
95.3
107.5
109.6
94.6
111.4
90.4
104.8

92.9
96.2
93.8
94.6
95.9
91.2
103.9
111.1
92.2
116.9
88.5
107.1

93.4
99.2
96.2
94.7
94.0
89.4
100.4
109.8
92.5
121.4
89.0
112.1

92.8
97.2
83.1
89.5
91.3
94.1
87.3
93.8
88.9
95.0
90.8
92.5

97.2
105.0
90.9
92.3
90.8
93.1
87.8
97.6
89.8
95.7
96.6
98.2

100.6
91.1
118.8
95.1
93.2
95.5
99.4
81.8
96.8
88.3
68.6
85.3

97.6
83.6
130.1
94.2
88.3
92.4
99.8
78.1
92.8
90.7
65.7
86.5

93.9
83.8
135.1
105.2
101.1
99.9
115.5
78.0
103.0
105.0
70.8
91.6

93.2
84.9
111.7
101.4
96.5
98.6
111.6
87.5
98.6
107.1
78.5
95.6

92.9
83.9
98.3
84.9
87.6
82.6
93.5
80.3
83.0
102.5
67.5
99.3

93.4
80.8
93.1
83.8
84.7
80.2
89.1
77.9
82.0
99.9
65.2
105.2

C o m p e n s a tio n p e r h o u r

U n it la b o r c o s ts :

-

-

-

-

-

National currency basis

United States...........................................................
Canada.....................................................................
Japan........................................................................
Belgium....................................................................
Denmark...................................................................
France......................................................................
Germany...................................................................
Italy............................................................................
Netherlands..............................................................
Norway......................................................................
Sweden....................................................................
United Kingdom.......................................................
U n it la b o r c o s ts :

-

25.5
30.9
30.1
15.4
19.5
27.8
8.0
34.4
12.9
14.9
9.8

-

30.0
43.3
41.7
25.2
24.0
39.8
12.7
52.9
20.4
20.5
14.1

U.S. dollar basis

United States............................................................
Canada.....................................................................
Japan.......................................................................
Belgium....................................................................
Denmark...................................................................
Germany..................................................................
Italy............................................................................
Netherlands..............................................................
Norway.....................................................................
Sweden....................................................................
United Kingdom.......................................................

-

31.8
10.9
19.4
13.5
21.1
10.4
16.0
16.0
11.3
16.8
15.6

-

34.7
15.3
27.0
20.3
23.0
17.1
24.9
25.7
17.8
23.0
19.2

- Data not available.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

93

Current Labor Statistics:

46.

Injury and Illness Data

O ccup atio nal injury an d illness rates by industry,1 United States
Incidence rates per 100 full-tim e workers3
Industry and type of case2

1987

1988

1989 1

1990

1991

1992

1993 4 1994 4 1995 4 1996 4 1997 4 1998 4

P R IV A T E S E C T O R 5

Total cases..................................................................................

8.3
3.8
69.9

8.6
4.0
76.1

8.6
40
78.7

8.8
41
84.0

8.4
39
86.5

11.2
5.7
94.1

10.9
56
101.8

10.9
57
100.9

11.6
59
112.2

10.8
54
108.3

126.9

8.5
4.9
144.0

8.8
51
152.1

8.5
48
137.2

8.3
5,0
119.5

7.4

7.3

129.6

204.7

14.7
6.8
135.8

14.6
68
142.2

14.3
68
143.3

14.2

13.0

13.1

147.9

148.1

161.9

14.2
6.5
134.0

14.0
6.4
132.2

13.9
6.5
137.3

13.4
64
137.6

12.0
55
132.0

142.7

14.5
6.4
139.1

15.1
7.0
162.3

13.8
65
147.1

13.8
63
144.6

12.8
60
160.1

15.0
7.1
135.7

14.7
7.0
141.1

14.6
69
144.9

14.7
69
153.1

13.5
6,3

13.8

151.3

168.3

11.9
5.3
95.5

13.1
5.7
107.4

13.1
58
113.0

13.2
58
120.7

12.7
5,6
121.5

12.5
124.6

12.5
5.4
96.8

14.2
5.9
111.1

14.1
60
116.5

14.2
60
123.3

13.6

13.4

122.9

126.7

18.9
9.6
176.5

19.5
10.0
189.1

18.4
9.4
177.5

18.1
8.8
172.5

16.8
83
172.0

16.3

15.4
6.7
103.6

16.6
7.3
115.7

16.1
72

16.9

15.9

14.9
7.1
135.8

16.0
75
141.0

15.5
74
149.8

15.4

14.8

13.6

160.5

156.0

152.2

17.0
7.4
145.8

19.4
82
161.3

18.7
81
168.3

19.0

17.7

17.5

180.2

169.1

175.5

17.0
72
121.9

18.8
80
138.8

18.5

18.7

17.4

16.8

147.6

155.7

146.6

144.0

11.3
4.4
72.7

12.1
47
82.8

12.1
48
86.8

12.0

11.2

11.1

7.2
31
55.9

8.0

9.1

9.1

8.6

8.4

64.6

77.5

79.4

83.0

81.2

13.5
57
105.7

17.7
66
134.2

17.7

17.8

18.3

18.7

138.6

153.7

166.1

186.6

5.8
2.4
43.9

6.1
26
51.5

5.6
25
55.4

5.9

6.0

5.9

57.8

64.4

65.3

10.7
4.6
81.5

11.3
5.1
91.0

11.1
5.1
97.6

11.3
5.1
113.1

11.3
5.1
104.0

10.7
5.0
108.2

8.9
3.9

8.5
3,8

8.4
3.8

8.1

7.4

7.1
3.3

6.7
3.1

11.2

10.0

9.7

8.7

8.4

7.9
3.9

6.8

6.3

6.2

5.4
3.2

5.9
3.7

4.9
2.9

12.2

11.8

10.6

9.9
4.5

9.5
4.4

8.8
4.0

11.5

10.9

9.8

9.0
4.0

8.5
3.7

8.4
3.9

11.1

10.2

9.9

9.0
4.3

8.7
4.3

8.2
4.1

12.8

12.5

11.1

10.4

10.0
4.7

9.1
4.1

12.1

12.2

11.6

10.6
4.9

10.3
4.8

9.7
4.7

13.1

13.5

12.8

11.6
5.1

11.3
5.1

10.7
5.0

15.9
7.6

15.7
7.7

14.9
7.0

14.2
6.8

13.5
6.5

13.2
6.8

14.6
6.5

15.0
7.0

13.9
6.4

12.2
5.4

12.0
5.8

11.4
5.7

13.8
6.3

13.2
6.5

12.3
5.7

12.4
6.0

11.8
5.7

11.8
6.0

17.0
7.3

16.8
7.2

16.5
7.2

15.0
6.8

15.0
7.2

14.0
7.0

16.2
6.7

16.4
6.7

15.8
6.9

14.4
6.2

14.2
6.4

13.9
6.5

11.1
4.2

11.6
4.4

11.2
4.4

9.9
4.0

10.0
4.1

9.5
4.0

8.3
3.5

8.3

7.6
3.3

6.8
3.1

6.6
3.1

5.9
2.8

18.5
7.1

19.6
7.8

18.6
7.9

16.3
7.0

15.4
6.6

14.6
6.6

5.6
2.5

5.9
2.7

5.3
2.4

5.1
2.3

4.8
2.3

4.0
1.9

10.0
4.6

9.9
4.5

9.1
4.3

9.5
4.4

8.9
4.2

8.1
3.9

-

-

-

-

-

93.8

A g r ic u lt u r e , f o r e s t r y , a n d f i s h i n g 5

Total cases..................................................................................
Lost workdays..............................................................................

11.6

M in in g

Total cases..................................................................................

C o n s t r u c t io n

Total cases..................................................................................

General building contractors:
Total cases..................................................................................

Heavy construction, except building:
Total cases..................................................................................

Special trades contractors:
Total cases..................................................................................

12.2

12.1
165.8

M a n u f a c t u r in g

Total cases..................................................................................

Durable goods:
Total cases..................................................................................

Lumber and wood products:
Total cases...............................................................................

Furniture and fixtures:
Total cases...............................................................................

Stone, clay, and glass products:
Total cases...............................................................................

Primary metal Industries:
Total cases...............................................................................

Fabricated metal products:
Total cases...............................................................................

165.8
14.8
128.4

Industrial machinery and equipment:
Total cases...............................................................................
Lost workdays...........................................................................
Electronic and other electrical equipment:
Total cases...............................................................................

Transportation equipment:
Total cases...............................................................................

Instruments and related products:
Total cases...............................................................................

Miscellaneous manufacturing Industries:
Total cases...............................................................................
Lost workday cases...................................................................
Lost workdays............................................................................
See footnotes at end of table.

94

Monthly Labor Review


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July 2000

88.9

87.7

46.

C ontinued— O ccup atio nal injury an d illness rates by industry,1 United States
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers3
Industry and type of case

1987

1988

1990

1989 1

1992

1991

1993 4 1994 4 1995 4 1996 4 1997 4

1998 4

Nondurable goods:
Total c ases...........................................................................................
Lost workday cases..............................................................................
Lost workdays........................................................................................

11.1
5.1
93.5

11.4
5.4
101.7

11.6
5.5
107.8

11.7
5.6
116.9

11.5
5.5
119.7

11.3
5.3
121.8

10.7
5.0

10.5
5.1

9.9
4.9

9.2
4.6

-

-

-

17.7
8.6
153.7

18.5
9.2
169.7

18.5
9.3
174.7

20.0
9.9
202.6

19.5
9.9
207.2

18.8
9.5
211.9

17.6
8.9

17.1
9.2

16.3
8.7

-

-

-

-

8.6
2.5
46.4

9.3
2.9
53.0

8.7
3.4
64.2

7.7
3.2
62.3

6.4
2.8
52.0

6.0
2.4
42.9

5.8
2.3

5.3
2.4

5.6
2.6

6.7
2.8

-

-

-

-

9.0
3.6
65.9

9.6
4.0
78.8

10.3
4.2
81.4

9.6
4.0
85.1

10.1
4.4
88.3

9.9
4.2
87.1

9.7
4.1

8.7
4.0

8.2
4.1

7.8
3.6

-

-

-

-

7.4
3.1
59.5

8.1
3.5
68.2

8.6
3.8
80.5

8.8
3.9
92.1

9.2
4.2
99.9

9.5
4.0
104.6

9.0
3.8

8.9
3.9

8.2
3.6

7.4
3.3

-

-

-

12.8
5.8
122.3

13.1
5.9
124.3

12.7
5.8
132.9

12.1
5.5
124.8

11.2
5.0
122.7

11.0
5.0
125.9

9.9
4.6

9.6
4.5

_

_

6.7
3.1
55.1

6.6
3.2
59.8

6.9
3.3
63.8

6.9
3.3
69.8

6.7
3.2
74.5

7.3
3.2
74.8

6.9
3.1

7.0
3.1
58.8

7.0
3.3
59.0

7.0
3.2
63.4

6.5
3.1
61.6

6.4
3.1
62.4

7.3
3.1
65.9

7.0
3.2
68.4

6.6
3.3
68.1

6.6
3.1
77.3

15.9
7.6
130.8

16.3
8.1
142.9

16.2
8.0
147.2

12.4
5.8
114.5

11.4
5.6
128.2

8.4
4.9
108.1

-

8.8
4.4
-

8.2
4.3
-

Food and kindred products:
Total cases........................................................................................
Lost workday cases..........................................................................
Lost workdays....................................................................................
Tobacco products:
Total c ases........................................................................................
Lost workday cases..........................................................................
Lost workdays....................................................................................
Textile mill products:
Total cases........................................................................................
Lost workday cases..........................................................................
Lost workdays...................................................................................
Apparel and other textile products:
Total cases........................................................................................
Lost workday cases..........................................................................
Lost workdays...................................................................................
Paper and allied products:
Total cases........................................................................................
Lost workday cases..........................................................................
Printing and publishing:
Total c ases........................................................................................
Lost workday cases...........................................................................
Lost workdays...................................................................................
Chemicals and allied products:
Total cases........................................................................................
Lost workday cases...........................................................................
Lost workdays...................................................................................
Petroleum and coal products:
Total cases........................................................................................
Lost workday cases...........................................................................
Lost workdays...................................................................................
Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products:
Total cases.......................................................................................
Lost workday cases..........................................................................
Leather and leather products:
Total c ases.......................................................................................
Lost workday cases..........................................................................
Lost workdays...................................................................................

15.0
8.0

14.5
8.0

13.6
7.5

-

-

5.9
2.7
-

6.4
3.1
-

6.7
3.1
-

6.7
3.4
-

-

7.0
3.1
-

6.2
2.6
-

8.5
4.2

7.9
3.8

7.3
3.7

7.1
3.7

_

_

_

_

6.7
3.0

6.4
3.0

6.0
2.8

5.7
2.7

5.4
2.8

-

-

-

-

-

-

6.0
2.8
64.2

5.9
2.7

5.7
2.8

5.5
2.7

4.8
2.4

-

-

-

4.8
2.3
-

4.2
2.1
-

6.2
2.9
68.2

5.9
2.8
71.2

5.2
2.5

4.7
2.3

4.8
2.4

4.6
2.5

-

-

-

-

4.3
2.2
-

3.9
1.8
-

16.2
7.8
151.3

15.1
7.2
150.9

14.5
6.8
153.3

13.9
6.5

14.0
6.7

12.9
6.5

12.3
6.3

_

_

_

_

11.9
5.8

11.2
5.8

13.6
6.5
130.4

12.1
5.9
152.3

12.5
5.9
140.8

12.1
5.4
128.5

12.1
5.5

12.0
5.3

11.4
4.8

10.7
4.5

10.6
4.3
-

9.8
4.5
-

8.9
5.1
118.6

9.2
5.3
121.5

9.6
5.5
134.1

9.3
5.4
140.0

9.1
5.1
144.0

7.7
3.4
56.1

7.8
3.5
60.9

8.0
3.6
63.5

7.9
3.5
65.6

7.6
3.4
72.0

7.4
3.7
64.0

7.6
3.8
69.2

7.7
4.0
71.9

7.4
3.7
71.5

7.8
3.3
52.9

7.9
3.4
57.6

8.1
3.4
60.0

8.1
3.4
63.2

2.0
.9
14.3

2.0
.9
17.2

2.0
.9
17.6

2.4
1.1

1.1

5.5
2.7
45.8

5.4
2.6
47.7

5.5
2.7
51.2

-

_

_

-

-

-

9.5
5.4

9.3
5.5

9.1
5.2

8.7
5.1

4.8

4.3

-

-

-

-

-

-

8.4
3.5
80.1

8.1
3.4

7.9
3.4

7.5
3.2

6.8
2.9

3.0

2.8

-

"

-

-

-

-

7.2
3.7
79.2

7.6
3.6
82.4

7.8
3.7

7.7
3.8

7.5
3.6

6.6
3.4

-

-

-

-

3.2
-

3.3
-

7.7
3.3
69.1

8.7
3.4
79.2

8.2
3.3

7.9
3.3

-

-

7.5
3.0
-

6.9
2.8
-

2.9
-

2.7
-

2.4

2.7
1.1

2.6
1.0

2.4
.9

27.3

2.9
1.2
32.9

2.9
1.2

24.1

-

-

-

-

0.9
-

0.7
-

6.0
2.8
56.4

6.2
2.8
60.0

7.1
3.0
68.6

6.7
2.8

6.5
2.8

6.4
2.8

6.0
2.6

5.6

52
2.4

-

-

-

-

-

T r a n s p o r t a t io n a n d p u b lic u t ilit ie s

Lost workday cases.............................................................................
Lost workdays.......................................................................................
W h o le s a le a n d re t a il t r a d e

Lost workday cases.............................................................................
Lost workdays.......................................................................................
Wholesale trade:
Lost workday cases.............................................................................
Lost workdays.......................................................................................
Retail trade:
Lost workday cases.............................................................................
Lost workdays.......................................................................................
F in a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d re a l e s t a t e

Lost workday cases.............................................................................
Lost workdays.......................................................................................
S e r v ic e s

Lost workday cases.............................................................................
Lost workdays.......................................................................................

2.5
-

1 Data for 1989 and subsequent years are based on the Standard Industrial Class­
ification Manual, 1987 Edition. For this reason, they are not strictly comparable with data
for the years 1985-88, which were based on the Standard Industrial Classification
Manual, 1972 Edition, 1977 Supplement.

N = number of injuries and illnesses or lost workdays;
EH = total hours worked by all employees during the calendar year; and
200,000 = base for 100 full-time equivalent workers (working 40 hours per week, 50
weeks per year).

2 Beginning with the 1992 survey, the annual survey measures only nonfatal injuries and
illnesses, while past surveys covered both fatal and nonfatal incidents. To better address
fatalities, a basic element of workplace safety, BLS implemented the Census of Fatal
Occupational Injuries.

4 Beginning with the 1993 survey, lost workday estimates will not be generated. As of
1992, BLS began generating percent distributions and the median number of days away
from work by industry and for groups of workers sustaining similar work disabilities.

3 The incidence rates represent the number of injuries and illnesses or lost workdays per
100 full-time workers and were calculated as (N/EH) X 200,000, where:


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5 Excludes farms with fewer than 11 employees since 1976.
- Data not available.

Monthly Labor Review

July 2000

95

Current Labor Statistics:

Injury and Illness Data

47. Fatal occupational injuries by event or exposure, 1993-98
Fatalities
Event or exposure1

1993-97

19972

Average

Number

1998
Number

Percent

Total...............................................................................................

6,335

6,238

6,026

100

Transportation incidents...............................................................

2,605

2,630

44

Highway incident...................................................................................

2,611
1,334

1,393

1,431

24

Collision between vehicles, mobile equipment.............................

652

640

701

12

Moving in same direction..............................................................
Moving in opposite directions, oncoming...................................

109
234
132

103
230

118
271

2
4

142

142

2

Vehicle struck stationary object or equipment..............................
Noncollision incident.........................................................................

249

282

306

5

360

387

373

6

Jackknifed or overturned— no collision......................................

. 267
388

298
377

300
384

5

214

216

216

6
4

Aircraft....................................................................................................

315

4

373
106

261
367

223

Worker struck by a vehicle.................................................................

413
112

7
2

Moving in intersection...................................................................

Nonhighway (farm, industrial premises) incident.............................
O verturned..........................................................................................

W ater vehicle incident..........................................................................

109

Railway...................................................................................................

83

93

60

1

Assaults and violent acts..............................................................

1,241

1,111

960

16

995

860
708

709
569

12

73

61

Shooting.............................................................................................

810

Stabbing.............................................................................................
Other, including bombing................................................................

75
110

79

79

1

Self-inflicted injuries..............................................................................

215

216

223

4

Contact with objects and equipment...........................................

1,005
573

1,035
579

941
517

16
9

Struck by falling object......................................................................

369

384

317

5

Struck by flying object.......................................................................

65

54

Caught in or compressed by equipment or objects........................
Caught in running equipment or machinery..................................

290

320

58
266

1
4

153
124

189
118

129
140

2
2

9
1

Falls..................................................................................................

668

716

702

12

Fall to lower level..................................................................................
Fall from ladder..................................................................................
Fall from roof......................................................................................
Fall from scaffold, staging................................................................

591
94

653

623
111

10
2
3
2

116
154
87

139
83

156
97

Fall on same level.................................................................................

52

44

51

1

554
298

572
334

9

Contact with electric current................................................................

586
320
128
43

138

153

40

46

1

120
70

123

104

2

59
90

48
87

Contact with overhead power lines................................................
Contact with temperature extremes...................................................
Exposure to caustic, noxious, or allergenic substances................
Inhalation of substances..................................................................
Oxygen deficiency.................................................................................
Drowning, submersion......................................................................

Other events or exposures3...........................................................
1 Based on the 1992 BLS Occupational Injury and Illness

80

72

75

1
1
1

199

196

205

3

26

21

16

101

Fires and e xp lo sio n s....................................................................

3

6
3

Includes the category "Bodily reaction and exertion."

Classification Structures.
2

The BLS news release issued August 12, 1998, reported a

total of 6,218 fatal work injuries for calendar year 1997. Since

NOTE:

Totals

for

major categories

then, an additional 20 job-related fatalities were identified,

tota's because of rounding.

bringing the total job-related fatality count for 1997 to 6,238.

percent.

96

Monthly Labor Review


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Schedule of release dates for BLS statistical series
Series

Release
date

Period
covered

Release
date

Period
covered

Release
date

Period
covered

Employment situation

J u ly 7

Ju n e

A ugust 4

J u ly

S e p te m b e r 1

August

A ugust 8

2 n d q u a rte r

S e p te m b e r 6

2nd q u a rte r

Productivity and costs

MLR table
number
1; 4 -2 0
2; 3 9 -4 2

U.S. Import and Export
Price Indexes

J u ly 13

Ju n e

A u g u s t 10

J u ly

S e p te m b e r 13

August

3 4 -3 8

Producer Price Indexes

J u ly 14

Ju n e

A u g u s t 11

J u ly

S e p te m b e r 14

A ugust

2; 3 1 -3 3

Consumer Price indexes

J u ly 18

June

A u g u s t 16

J u ly

S e p te m b e r 15

A ugust

2; 2 8 -3 0

Real earnings

J u ly 18

Ju n e

A u g u s t 16

J u ly

S e p te m b e r 15

A ugust

14, 16

Employment Cost Indexes

J u ly 27

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