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MONTHLY LABOR

REVIEW
Volume 132, Number 1
January 2009

State labor legislation enacted in 2008		 3
Legislatures either enacted or revised laws in such areas as equal employment
opportunity, immigration protections, the minimum wage, and worker privacy
John J. Fitzpatrick, Jr., James L. Perine, and Bridget Dutton

Changes in State unemployment insurance legislation in 2008		28
Federal enactments extend benefits, providing Federal funds to States to cover costs; State
enactments include new benefit amounts and new confidentiality and disclosure guidelines
Loryn Lancaster

Departments

Labor month in review			 2
Book reviews			38			
Précis			40			
Current labor statistics			41

				

Editor-in-Chief: Michael D. Levi  Executive Editor: William Parks II   Managing Editor: Leslie Brown Joyner  Editors: Brian
I. Baker, Casey P. Homan  Book Review Editor: James Titkemeyer  Design and Layout: Catherine D. Bowman, Edith W. Peters 
Contributor: Bruce Bergman

Labor Month In Review

The January Review
The Review’s annual account of labor
legislation begins with the broadbased summary, “State labor legislation enacted in 2008,” by John J.
Fitzpatrick, Jr., James L. Perine, and
Bridget Dutton, from the Department
of Labor, Employment Standards
Administration. Of the more than 30
categories of labor law tracked by the
authors, equal employment opportunity, human trafficking, immigration
protections, independent contractors,
the minimum wage, prevailing wages,
time off, wages paid, and worker privacy were among the most active areas in which State legislatures either
enacted or revised legislation during
the year. The minimum wage was the
“hot-button” issue of 2008, due to 1)
some States’ laws requiring the State’s
minimum-wage rate to be greater
than the Federal rate, 2) other States’
laws requiring an annual increase in
the minimum wage, based on increases in the Consumer Price Index,
and 3) still other States’ regular minimum-wage legislative activity.
The second article narrows the labor
legislation theme by focusing on unemployment insurance laws, a topic
of high interest, given the start of the
current recession in December 2007
(as designated by the National Bureau
of Economic Research). In “Changes
in unemployment insurance legislation in 2008,” Loryn Lancaster, from
the Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration,
highlights five key Federal enactments that extend unemployment insurance benefits and provide Federal
funding to the States to cover costs.
Notably, the Department issued a
final rule amending its definition of
“paying State” to “any ‘single State’ in
which the claimant had base period
wages and employment, and in which


Monthly Labor Review • January  2009

the claimant qualifies for unemployment benefits.” Lancaster then summarizes significant revisions to State
enactments.

tal status, and industry and occupation;
these tables are available upon request
(by telephone: 202 691–6378 or online
http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/forms/
cps?/cps/cpsdisability.htm).

Employment of people with a
disability
Union membership
After many years of extensive research and consultation with various
stakeholders, BLS is now publishing
data each month on the employment
status of people with a disability.
The first posting on our Web site (at
http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpsdisability.
htm) contained labor force, employment, and unemployment data for
January 2009, and the data will be
updated at that location monthly.
The new data are collected through
the Current Population Survey (CPS),
a monthly survey of households. The
survey uses a set of six questions to
identify persons with disabilities; the
latter is defined as physical, mental, or
emotional conditions that cause individuals to have serious difficulty with
their daily activities.
In January, the unemployment rate
for persons with a disability was 13.2
percent, compared with 8.3 percent
for persons with no disability. (These
statistics are not adjusted for seasonal
variations.) One in 5 persons with a
disability was employed, compared
with 2 out of 3 persons without a disability. About 75 percent of persons
with a disability were outside of the
labor force; that is, they were neither
working nor looking for work during
the survey reference period.
One vital aspect of the CPS is that it
collects a wealth of demographic and
economic characteristics of the surveyed population. In addition to the
data now available on our Web site
each month, BLS produces data tables
cross-tabulating disability status by
variables such as age, sex, race, mari-

In 2008, union members accounted
for 12.4 percent of employed wage and
salary workers, up from 12.1 percent
a year earlier, BLS recently reported.
The number of workers belonging to
a union rose during the year by more
than 400,000, to a little more than
16 million. There were 17.7 million
union workers in 1983, the first year
for which comparable union data are
available.
One long-term trend continued
last year: government workers are
much more likely—nearly 5 times as
much—than private industry workers
to belong to a union. This is explained
in part by the types of occupations
in which many public-sector workers are heavily represented; people
working in education, training, and
library occupations, for instance, had
the highest unionization rate, at almost 39 percent, among occupational
groups.
Geographic disparities in union
membership continue to be noticeable. In 2008, New York was the State
with the highest union membership
rate (at about 25 percent), compared
with North Carolina, which had the
lowest (at 3.5 percent). Many large
States, such as California and New
Jersey, had large percentages of employees affiliated with unions—each
at about 18 percent—whereas Texas,
at less than 5 percent, had one of the
lowest unionization rates.
The report summarizing union
membership for 2008 can be found on
the BLS Web site at http://www.bls.
gov/news.release/union2.toc.htm.

State Labor Laws, 2008

State labor legislation
enacted in 2008
Equal employment opportunity, human trafficking,
immigration protections, independent contractors,
the minimum wage, prevailing wages, time off, wages paid,
and worker privacy were among the most active areas
in which State legislatures either enacted or revised
legislation during the year
John J. Fitzpatrick, Jr.,
James L. Perine,
and
Bridget Dutton

John J. Fitzpatrick, Jr., is the
State Standards Team leader
in the Office of Performance,
Budget, and Departmental
Liaison, Wage and Hour Division, Employment Standards
Administration, U.S. Department of Labor; James L. Perine
and Bridget Dutton are compliance specialists on the State
Standards Team in the same
Office. E-mail: fitzpatrickjr.
john@dol.gov, perine.james@
dol.gov, or dutton.bridget@
dol.gov

T

he legislative areas of equal employment opportunity, immigration protections, the minimum wage, prevailing wages, time off, wages paid, and worker
privacy were among the most active during
the individual sessions of the State legislatures in 2008. Legislative activity in those
areas and others resulted in the enactment
or revision of State statutes or regulations
during the course of the year.
In 2008, the States enacted a volume of
labor-related legislation less than that enacted in 2007. The decrease was due in part to
the fact that only 44 States and the District
of Columbia met in regular session during
2008. (All 50 States had met in regular session in 2007.) However, several of the legislatures of the 6 States that did not meet in
regular session (Arkansas, Montana, North
Dakota, Nevada, Oregon, and Texas) met in
special sessions dedicated to various issues
of particular interest or immediate necessity.
In addition, the legislature of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico met in regular session
in 2008 and submitted relevant data. At the
time this article was submitted for publication, 44 of the 50 States, plus the District
of Columbia, had enacted or amended labor
legislation of consequence in the various categories tracked by the Wage and Hour Divi-

sion of the U.S. Department of Labor.
The bills that were introduced and then
enacted by the States were concerned with
more than 30 categories of labor legislation
that are tracked: agriculture, child labor,
State departments of labor, employee discharge, drug and alcohol testing, equal employment opportunity, employment agency
matters, employee leasing, family issues, garment activity, genetic testing, handicapped
workers, hours worked, human trafficking,
independent contractor issues, inmate labor,
living wages, the minimum wage and tipped
employees, miscellaneous or other categories,
offsite work, overtime, plant closing and the
displacement or replacement of workers, employers’ preferences regarding employees, prevailing wages, right-to-work matters, time off
from work, unfair labor practices, wages paid,
whistleblowers, worker privacy, workplace
security, and workplace violence. Not every
piece of labor legislation enacted during the
course of the year falls into one of these 30plus categories. Among the legislative issues
that are excluded from the article are those
which (1) amend existing State law, but in
which the changes are strictly technical in
nature, (2) affect only a limited number of
individuals, (3) require the undertaking or
the distribution of an issue study for a legisMonthly Labor Review • January 2009 

State Labor Laws, 2008

lature or a governor, or (4) deal with operational or other
funding related to a specific issue.
The lower volume aside, the legislation enacted by the
States in 2008 addressed a significant number of employment standards areas and included a number of important
measures. Legislation was enacted in 30 of the categories
tracked.
In 2008, the minimum wage was again the “hot-button”
issue, due to several factors. First, a number of States have
laws that require them to keep their minimum-wage rates
equal to or greater than the Federal rate. Thus, because the
Federal minimum wage was increased to $6.55 per hour
on July 24, 2008, a number of States had to put into effect
an increased minimum wage of their own. Such States
are empowered to do so as the result of their own previously enacted legislation. (The Federal minimum wage
is scheduled for another increase, this time to $7.25 per
hour, on July 24, 2009.) Second, some States have laws that
require them to implement an increase in the minimum
wage once a year, based upon the cost-of-living increase
reported in various consumer price indexes. Finally, regular
minimum-wage legislative activity can occur during any
particular year, and in December 2008 there were 24 States
plus the District of Columbia that had a minimum-wage
requirement greater than the Federal minimum-wage rate.
An additional 14 States had a minimum-wage rate equal
to the Federal rate, 7 States had a minimum-wage rate
less than the Federal rate, and 5 States—Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Tennessee—had no
minimum-wage requirement (Tennessee, however, does
enforce a previously enacted promised-wage law).1 Besides the minimum wage, areas that showed a substantial
amount of legislative activity via new or amended legislation implemented in 2008 were equal employment opportunity, immigration protections, prevailing wages, time off,
wages paid, and worker privacy.
The remainder of this article is composed of two sections. The first provides a brief overview of legislation that
was enacted in several of the most active legislative categories. This overview discusses some, but not all, of the
pieces of legislation that resulted in the enactment of laws,
new or amended, by the individual State legislatures during 2008. The second section presents a more comprehensive and detailed description of each State’s labor-related
legislative activities, again subdivided by category, that resulted in laws amended or newly enacted by the individual
State legislatures during the course of the past year.
Equal employment opportunity. California now requires
that all contractors and subcontractors engaged in con

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

struction provide equal opportunity for employment,
without discrimination, under an expanded list of factors. The District of Columbia now requires employers
to provide reasonable daily unpaid break periods and a
sanitary location so that breast-feeding mothers are able
to express milk for their children. The District also broadened the definition of “discrimination” by bringing within
its scope the concept of a gender-related identity, appearance, expression, or behavior of an individual. Florida expanded the exemption regarding privacy of information
contained in discrimination complaints from applying
only to executive branch agencies to now include all State
agencies and the times such data may become available
to the public. The exemption applies until (1) a finding
has been made relating to probable cause, (2) the complaint has become inactive, or (3) the complaint or other
record is made part of the official record of any hearing
or court proceeding. The Kansas Department of Labor
is now permitted to establish the rules and regulations
necessary to enforce State laws that prohibit employment
discrimination relating to victims of domestic violence or
sexual abuse. Louisiana added a section to its statutes that
stipulates a 1-year prescriptive period for a discrimination
case, but the period may be suspended if an administrative review or investigation of the claim conducted by the
Federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission on
Human Rights is pending. In Maryland, if a civil action
is filed no more than 2 years after the occurrence of an
alleged act of discrimination, then the filing of the civil
action shall serve to automatically terminate any proceeding before the State Human Relations Commission. New
Jersey made it unlawful for employers to discriminate
against employees because of religious practices.
Human trafficking. The California Civil Code was
amended by the addition of a section that prohibits an
employer from deducting from an employee’s wages the
employer’s cost of helping the employee emigrate and
transporting the employee to the United States. Hawaii statutes expanded the definition of “kidnapping”
to include unlawfully obtaining the labor or services of
a person, regardless of whether the action related to the
collection of debt. Such activity by an employer results
in the employer’s committing extortion. Illinois enacted a
new law that will assist victims of trafficking in the State
by allowing Federal resources to be used to prosecute local offenders. The Maine Revised Statutes were amended
to define a “human trafficking offense” as kidnapping or
criminal restraint. Tennessee created the Class B felony
“trafficking offense” for the activity wherein a person

knowingly subjects or maintains another in labor servitude or sexual servitude. Utah statutes now state that an
individual commits human trafficking for forced labor or
forced sexual exploitation by recruiting, harboring, transporting, or obtaining a person through the use of force,
fraud, or coercion by various means. Such action is considered a second-degree felony, except when it is judged
to be aggravated in nature, in which case it is considered
a first-degree felony.
Immigration protections. Arizona State or local agencies
responsible for issuing licenses are now required to verify
that the applicant is lawfully present in the United States.
In addition, the State expanded the scope of the crime of
identity theft to include knowingly accepting the identity
of another person if, when hiring an employee, the person
doing the hiring knowingly accepts any personal identifying information of another person from the prospective
employee, knowing that the prospective employee is not
the person identified, and if the person doing the hiring
uses the said information for work authorization under
Federal law. Prospective contractors in Colorado, prior to
executing a contract for services with a State agency or a
political subdivision thereof, shall certify that, at the time
of certification, they are not knowingly employing or contracting with an illegal alien who will perform work under
the contract for services. In addition, the Colorado Commission on Fire Protection Standards is required to implement a voluntary statewide certified volunteer firefighter
identification program. The Minnesota Governor ordered
the State to implement measures to ensure that all newly
hired executive branch employees are legally eligible to
work. Mississippi enacted the Mississippi Employment
Protection Act, which requires employers in the State to
hire only legal citizens or legal aliens of the United States.
In South Carolina, legislation was enacted that requires
every agency or political subdivision of the State to verify
the lawful presence of any person 18 years or older who
has applied for State or local public benefits or public
employment. Utah now prohibits a public employer from
entering into a contract with a contractor for the physical
performance of services within the State, unless the contractor registers with, and participates in, the Status Verification System to verify the work eligibility status of the
contractor’s new employees who are employed within the
State. Virginia now permits the State Corporation Commission to terminate the corporate existence of a corporation for actions of its officers and directors that constitute
a pattern or practice of employing unauthorized aliens in
the Commonwealth.

Independent contractors. Connecticut established a joint
employment commission, along with an advisory board
that will advise the commission on employee misclassification in the construction industry within the State. In
Idaho, key employees or key independent contractors may
enter into written agreements or covenants that protect
the employer’s legitimate business interests and prohibit
the key employee or key independent contractor from engaging in employment or a line of business that is in direct
competition with the employer’s business after termination of employment. Michigan has created an Interagency
Task Force on Employee Misclassification as an advisory
body responsible for examining and evaluating the existing employee misclassification enforcement mechanism
in the State and for making recommendations for more
efficient mechanisms. The Missouri attorney general is authorized to investigate any alleged or suspected violation
of the law in which an employer knowingly misclassifies
a worker and fails to claim that worker as an employee.
In addition, the State attorney general may seek an injunction prohibiting an employer from engaging in such
conduct, for which penalties assessed may reach $50,000.
Utah has created the Independent Contractor Enforcement Council, which has been directed to design an independent-contractor database that may be accessed by
one or more agencies, the attorney general, and the State
Department of Public Safety. The database is to be used to
identify when a person holds him- or herself out to be an
independent contractor or when a person engages in the
performance of work as an independent contractor who is
not subject to the employer’s control.
Minimum wage. Connecticut increased the amount of
gratuities that it would recognize as part of the minimum
fair wage for bartenders and others who are employed in
the hotel and restaurant industry. In addition, the minimum wage in the State was increased to $8.00 per hour
on January 1, 2009, and will increase to $8.25 per hour on
January 1, 2010. Illinois camp counselors under the age
of 18 and employed at a day camp are not subject to the
State adult minimum wage if they are paid a stipend on a
one-time or periodic basis and, for those who are minors,
if their parent, guardian, or other custodian has consented
in writing to the terms of payment before employment
begins. With some exemptions, the Iowa minimum-wage
requirements shall not apply to an enterprise whose annual gross volume of sales made or business done, exclusive of excise taxes at the retail level, which are separately
stated, is less than $300,000. Maine increased its minimum hourly wage to $7.25 per hour on October 1, 2008.
Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 

State Labor Laws, 2008

An additional increase, to $7.50 per hour, is scheduled for
October 1, 2009. In an amendment to the New Mexico
Minimum Wage Act, the definitions of “employer” and
“employee” were changed to exclude State and political
subdivisions from all parts of the Act except the section
that sets the minimum wage.
Illinois, Kentucky, Michigan, and West Virginia increased their required hourly minimum-wage rates on
July 1, 2008. The Illinois rate was increased from $7.50
per hour to $7.75, Kentucky increased its rate from $5.85
per hour to $6.55, Michigan increased its required rate
from $7.15 per hour to $7.40, and the West Virginia required rate was increased from $6.55 per hour to $7.25.
On July 24, 2008, the following jurisdictions increased
their required minimum-wage rates:
		
Jurisdiction
District of Columbia.................................
Idaho.........................................................
Indiana .....................................................
Maryland...................................................
Montana....................................................
Nebraska...................................................
North Carolina . .......................................
North Dakota............................................
Oklahoma ................................................
South Dakota............................................
Texas ........................................................
Utah..........................................................
Virginia.....................................................

Minimum wage
Old
$7.00
5.85
5.85
6.15
6.25
5.85
6.15
5.85
5.85
5.85
5.85
5.85
5.85

New
$7.55
6.55
6.55
6.55
6.55
6.55
6.55
6.55
6.55
6.55
6.55
6.55
6.55

On September 1, 2008, New Hampshire increased its
required hourly minimum wage from $6.50 per hour to
$7.25.
Arizona, Colorado, Florida, Missouri, Montana, Ohio,
Oregon, Vermont, and Washington increased their hourly
required minimum wage rates on January 1, 2009, on the
basis of language in previously passed legislation that
contained required annual cost-of-living increases to be
implemented in the State minimum wage.
Prevailing wages. California will continue to require a
contractor or subcontractor charged with violating the
laws regulating public-works contracts and the payment
of prevailing wages to appear before a hearing officer for
a hearing. After January 1, 2009, California will not require that the aforesaid hearing be held by an administrative law judge. Delaware has tied the prevailing wage in
a trade or craft to the collectively bargained wage if the
collectively bargained wage has prevailed for that trade or


Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

craft for 2 consecutive years. A revision of the Hawaii Revised Statutes authorizes the State Governor to suspend
the prevailing wage on public projects during a national
emergency declared by the President or Congress or during an emergency declared by the Governor. In addition,
contractors who violate the prevailing wage on public
contracts in the State by falsifying records or delaying or
interfering with an investigation shall be suspended for a
period of 3 years. New Jersey now requires that the prevailing-wage rate be paid to workers employed in the performance of any construction contract, including contracts
for millwork fabrication under the authority of financial
assistance by the State. New Jersey also redefined the term
“construction of a public utility” to mean the construction,
reconstruction, installation, demolition, restoration, or alteration of facilities of the public utility. The term shall
not be construed to include operational work such as flagging, plowing snow, managing vegetation in and around
utility rights-of-way, marking out boundaries on roads,
performing janitorial services, surveying for landscaping
leaks, performing meter work, and making miscellaneous
repairs. New York amended State labor law and general
municipal law in order to provide additional guarantees
of payment of prevailing wages to workers of the State,
despite misdemeanor violations committed by their employers. New York also amended its law so that employers
who owe back wages on State government contracts are
now guilty of misdemeanors or various classes of felonies,
depending upon the total amount of back wages owed.
Rhode Island now requires general contractors and subcontractors who perform work on any State public-works
contract worth $1,000,000 or more to employ apprentices
for the performance of the contract, while complying with
the apprentice-to-journeyman ratio approved by the Apprenticeship Council of the State Department of Labor
and Training.
Time off. Members of the Civil Air Patrol in Colorado
are now permitted to take a leave of absence, during the
period of a mission, for up to 15 days annually without
loss of pay or other benefits. Persons in Connecticut shall
be excused from jury service if, during the preceding 3
years, they appeared in court for jury service and were not
excused from such service. Such persons, however, may
request to be summoned for jury service. The District of
Columbia established various requirements for employers
who employ various numbers of employees to provide a
certain amount of leave time for certain amounts of hours
worked. Employers in Florida are now permitted to grant
an employee up to 3 working days of leave during a 12-

month period if the employee or a family or household
member of the employee is the victim of domestic violence
or sexual abuse. Elected or appointed trustees of any fire
protection district in Illinois are now entitled to absent
themselves from work on the days and times of meetings
of the board of trustees for the duration of the meeting
and during any time necessary for traveling to and from
the meeting. Iowa employers shall not discharge or take or
fail to take action regarding an employee’s promotion or
proposed promotion, or penalize the employee in another
manner, due to the service of the employee as a witness
in a criminal proceeding or as a plaintiff, defendant, or
witness in a civil proceeding. Employees in Nebraska acting as volunteer emergency responders shall make a reasonable effort to notify their employers that they may be
absent from, or report late to, their place of employment.
Employers in the State shall neither terminate nor take
any other disciplinary action against any employee who
is a voluntary emergency responder if such employee is
absent or reports late to work because of responding to an
emergency in his or her status as a voluntary emergency
responder. Most New Jersey State government employees,
along with employees of any county, municipality, school
district, or other political subdivision, may not be laid
off from their employment position if they have been on
military leave of absence for active service in the Armed
Forces of the United States in a time of war or emergency.
Employers in New York are required, at their option, either
to grant a 3-hour leave of absence every 12 months to an
employee who seeks to donate blood or to allow their employees to donate blood during work hours at least 2 times
per year, without using any accumulated leave time. Rhode
Island employers of more than 50 employees are now required to provide up to 30 days of unpaid family military
leave during the time Federal or State orders are in effect,
as long as the employees meet certain requirements. The
employee also must have exhausted all other types of leave,
except for sick and disability leave. Employees in Vermont
shall have the right to take unpaid leave from employment
for the purpose of attending a town meeting, provided that
they notify the employer at least 7 days prior to the date
of the town meeting. In addition, employers in Vermont
shall provide reasonable time, either compensated or uncompensated, throughout the day for employees who continue to express breast milk for a nursing child 3 years after
the birth of the child. Employees of the State, county, city,
or any other political subdivision of Washington shall be
entitled to, and shall be granted, military leave of absence
from such employment for a period not exceeding 21 days
each year.

Wages paid. California has made it a misdemeanor for an
employer to require an employee, as a condition of being
paid, to execute a statement of the hours the employee
may have worked during a pay period when the employer
knows the statement to be false. Colorado established the
following definition of “paycard”: “an access device that
employees use to receive their payroll funds from their
employer.” Employers must meet two conditions in order to utilize paycards. Persons in Florida who, because
of financial hardship, cannot satisfy a civil penalty shall
be allowed to satisfy the penalty by participating in community service and shall receive credit for their service
at the hourly rate specified under the Federal Fair Labor
Standards Act. Iowa law now states that, upon written request by an employee, an employer must send any wages
due to the employee by mail. Employers in Maryland are
required to give each employee, at the time of hiring, notice of the employee’s rate of pay, the regular paydays set
by the employer, and leave benefits. New Jersey law now
states that when a contract between a principal and a sales
representative to solicit orders is terminated, the commissions and other compensation earned as a result of the
representative relationship, but remaining unpaid, shall
become due and payable within 30 days of the date the
contract is terminated or within 30 days of the date the
commissions are due, whichever is later. Upon meeting
certain requirements, employers in West Virginia are now
permitted to pay the wages that are due employees via the
utilization of a payroll card and a payroll card account.
Worker privacy. Connecticut expanded the list of public
employees in the State whose residential addresses may
not be released under the Freedom of Information Act.
Colorado employers may no longer require, as a condition
of employment, that employees not disclose their wages
or require employees to sign a waiver or other document
that purports to deny them the right to disclose information about their wages. Florida added a number of positions of employment to those categories which are exempt
from the State’s public-records requirement. Among these
positions are general and special magistrates, judges of
compensation claims, administrative law judges of the
Florida Division of Administrative Hearings, and child
support enforcement hearing officers. Florida also excluded the records and timesheets of employees who are
victims of sexual violence from the State’s public-records
requirement. Legislation enacted in Hawaii now requires
each State and county government agency to designate an
agency employee to have policy and oversight responsibilities for the protection of personal information. Idaho
Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 

State Labor Laws, 2008

employment security law was amended to provide that
certain specified employment security information be exempt from disclosure, except that such information may
be disclosed as necessary for the proper administration of
employment security programs or, subject to certain restrictions and fees, may be made available to public officials
for use in the performance of their official duties. Indiana
expanded the types of public records that are exempt from
public disclosure unless access to the records is specifically required by Federal or State statute or is ordered by
a court under the rules of discovery. Maine expanded the
protection provided for the personal-contact information of public employees; however, such protection is not
extended to elected officials. Missouri prohibits employArizona
Immigrant protections. The State Legal Workers Act was amended by modifying the crimes
of (1) taking the identity of another person or
entity and (2) trafficking in the identity of another person or entity. The Act, as amended,
now requires any State or local agency issuing a license in the State to verify that the
applicant is lawfully present in the United
States. The Act also expanded the scope of the
crime of identity theft to include knowingly
accepting the identity of another person if,
when hiring an employee, the person doing
the hiring knowingly accepts any personal
identifying information of another person
from the prospective employee, knowing that
the prospective employee is not the person
identified, and if the person doing the hiring
uses the said information for work authorization under Federal law. Accepting the identity
of a person when one knows that the person
is not the one identified is a Class 4 felony.
The State Legal Workers Act also establishes
the Voluntary Enhanced Employer Compliance Program, which allows employers to
voluntarily comply with certain verification
requirements in cooperation with the State
attorney general’s office. First violations shall
subject the employer to a 3-year probationary period for the business location where the
unauthorized alien performed work. For a
second violation, the court shall order the appropriate agencies to permanently revoke all
licenses held by the employer specific to the
business where the unauthorized alien performed work. If the employer does not hold a
license specific to the business location where
the unauthorized alien performed work, but a
license is necessary to operate the employer’s
business in general, the court shall order the
appropriate agencies to permanently revoke all
licenses that are held at the employer’s primary
place of business.
  Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

ers from requiring personal identification microchips to
be implanted into employees for any reason. New York
employers may not publicly post or display an employee’s
Social Security number, visibly print a Social Security
number in files with unrestricted access, or communicate
an employee’s personal identifying information to the
general public. Tennessee now prohibits the disclosure of
home addresses, phone numbers, dates of birth, Social Security numbers, and driver’s license information of State
and local government employees, including law enforcement officers and their family members. Utah amended
the State Government Records Access and Management
Act to add protected status to certain information if the
information is properly classified by a government entity.

Minimum wage. As a result of previously enacted legislation in which the State minimum
wage was indexed to inflation, the minimum
wage in the State was increased to $7.25 per
hour on January 1, 2009.
Miscellaneous. If an employer interviews a law
enforcement or probation officer and reasonably believes that the interview could result
in the dismissal, demotion, or suspension of
the officer, the latter may request to have a
representative present during the interview at
no cost to the employer. Before the interview
begins, the employer shall provide the officer
with a written notice informing the officer of
the specific nature of the investigation, of all
known allegations of misconduct that are the
reason for the interview, and of the officer’s
right to have a representative present. The
employer may require the officer to submit to
a polygraph examination if the officer makes
a statement to the employer during the investigation that differs from other relevant
information that is known to the employer
and if reconciling that difference is necessary
to complete the investigation. If a polygraph
examination is administered, the employer
or the person administering the examination
shall make an audio recording of the complete
procedure and provide a copy of the recording to the officer. The employer is not required
to stop the interview to issue another notice
for allegations based on information provided
by the employee during the interview, nor
is the employer required to disclose any fact
to the employee or his or her representative
that would impede the investigation. In any
appeal of a disciplinary action (that is, a dismissal, demotion or suspension for more than
24 hours) in which a single hearing officer or
administrative law judge has been appointed
to conduct the proceedings, the officer or the
employer may request a different hearing official. In cases before the office of administrative

hearings or when the employer is a county with
a population of 250,000 or a city with a population of 65,000 or more, the first request for
an appeal shall be granted. All other requests
may be granted only upon showing that a fair
and impartial hearing cannot be obtained due
to the prejudice of the official who has been
assigned. The burden of proof in an appeal of
a disciplinary action by a law enforcement or
probation officer shall be on the employer.
Worker privacy. Public bodies shall maintain
all records that are reasonably necessary or
appropriate to maintain an accurate knowledge of disciplinary actions involving public
officers or other employees of the public body.
The records shall be open to inspection and
copying pursuant to State law, unless their inspection or disclosure is contrary to public law.
The law does not require the disclosure of the
home address, the home telephone number, or
a photograph of any person who is protected
pursuant to State law.
In any county, an eligible person may request
that the general public be prohibited from accessing certain information maintained by the
county recorder, county treasurer, or county assessor, including (1) the unique identifier and
the recording date contained in indexes of recorded instruments maintained by the county
recorder and (2) the voting precinct number,
residential address, and telephone number of
the requestor. An eligible person is a peace officer, a justice, a judge, a commissioner, a public
defender, a prosecutor, a code enforcement officer, an adult or juvenile corrections officer, a
corrections support staff member, a probation
officer, a member of the Board of Executive
Clemency, a law enforcement support staff
member, a National Guard member who is
acting in support of a law enforcement agency,
a person who is protected under an order of
protection or an injunction against harassment,
a firefighter assigned to the State Counterter-

rorism Center in the State Department of
Public Safety, or a victim of domestic violence
or stalking who is protected under an order
of protection or an injunction against harassment. The State Revised Statutes now require
the county recorder to notify certain persons 6
months prior to the expiration of a court-ordered redaction of their personal information.
The statutes also allow the Anti-Racketeering
Revolving Fund to be used for the payment
of relocation expenses of any law enforcement
officer who is a victim of a bona fide threat.
California
Equal employment opportunity. The State may
direct a local agency to require that all contractors and subcontractors engaged in construction
provide equal opportunity for employment,
without discrimination, under an expanded list
of factors that now covers marital status, race,
national origin, age, sex, sexual orientation,
color, medical condition, religious creed, ancestry, mental disability, and physical disability.
Human trafficking. The State Civil Code
and the State Penal Code were amended by
the addition of a section to each that relates
to human trafficking. The new civil law prohibits an employer from deducting from an
employee’s wages the employer’s cost of helping the employee emigrate and transporting
the employee to the United States. Because
the existing penal law provides jurisdiction
over certain crimes committed in more than
one county, this new legislation requires a local prosecutor to present evidence to the court
and requires the court to hold a hearing to
consider whether a matter involving human
trafficking in multiple jurisdictions should
proceed in the county of filing or whether one
or more counts should be severed. Charges
alleging multiple violations that involve the
same victim or victims in multiple territorial
jurisdictions shall be subject to judicial review
to determine the location and complexity of
the likely evidence, to identify where the majority of the offenses occurred, and to consider the convenience of, or hardship on, the
victims and witnesses.
Overtime. The State has extended the exemption from overtime pay requirements under State law to computer professionals who
earn no less than $75,000 per year for fulltime employment and are paid at least once
per month in an amount no less than $6,250
per month.
Plant closing. Under existing law, the State
Department of Public Health is responsible
for licensing and regulating health facilities,
including hospitals, and requires a hospital that is planning to reduce or eliminate

emergency medical services to notify various
entities at least 90 days before it takes that
action. Legislation was enacted that changes
the required notification period to 30 days
prior to closing a general acute-care or psychiatric hospital or relocating the provision of
a supplemental service to a different campus.
Notification should be made to the public and
the applicable administering department. The
facility shall provide public notice of the proposed closure, including a notice posted at the
entrance to all affected facilities, and shall also
notify the board of supervisors of the county
in which the health facility is located. In addition, an impact statement reflecting the
changes in the delivery of care to the community must (1) specify how the elimination of
services will be met by other existing agencies
and (2) describe the three nearest available
comparable services in the community.
Prevailing wages. Under existing law, the
State labor commissioner is required to issue
civil wage and penalty assessments to a contractor, a subcontractor, or both if, after an investigation, it is determined that the contractor
or subcontractor violated the laws regulating
public-works contracts and the payment of
prevailing wages. The affected contractor can
obtain a review of a civil wage and penalty assessment by transmitting a written request for
a hearing to the office of the State labor commissioner within 60 days after receiving the
assessment. A hearing officer or an administrative law judge must then commence a hearing within 90 days of receipt of the request.
This legislation continues to require a hearing
officer to hold the hearings, but, after January
1, 2009, does not require that the hearing officer be an administrative law judge. Further,
the contractor or subcontractor may deposit
the full amount of the assessment with the
State Department of Industrial Relations, for
that agency to hold in escrow pending review by
the office of the labor commissioner. The director of the Department of Industrial Relations
is authorized to waive payment of liquidated
damages, or any portion thereof, if the contractor demonstrates that there were substantial
grounds for its appeal.
Wages paid. The State Labor Code was
amended to require that employees of temporary-service employers be paid weekly or daily
wages if an employee is assigned to a client.
The code does not apply to employees who are
assigned to a client for more than 90 consecutive days, unless the employer pays the employee weekly. The code applies civil and criminal penalties of $100 for an initial violation and
$200, plus 25 percent of the amount unlawfully
withheld, for each subsequent violation. An
employer who fails to pay any wages of an employee who is discharged or who has quit the
company will be required to continue to pay

the regular wages of that employee until action is commenced as a penalty or for no more
than 30 days. Employees who refuse to receive
payment, including any penalty accrued, will
not be entitled to receive any benefits under
the bill. Salaries of executive, administrative,
and professional employees of employers covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act may be
paid once a month on or before the 26th day
of the month during which the labor was performed if the entire month’s salaries, including the unearned portion between the date of
payment and the last day of the month, are
paid at that time. Employees covered by collective-bargaining agreements will be paid according to their specified pay arrangements.
It shall be considered a misdemeanor for
an employer to require an employee, as a condition of being paid, to execute a statement of
the hours the employee may have worked during a pay period when the employer knows the
statement to be false. This statement, called an
execution of release, is a way for the employer
to have a record of paying the employee in
advance for work not yet actually done. An
employer shall not require any such execution
of release unless the wages have been paid. A
violation of this law shall render the execution
of release null and void between the employer
and the employee.
Colorado
Agriculture. The State created the Non-immigrant Agricultural Seasonal Worker Pilot
Program in the State Department of Labor
and Employment in order to expedite the
Federal H-2A visa certification process so that
eligible workers might legally come to Colorado to meet the needs of State farmers and
ranchers. The directors of three State agencies
(the commissioner of the State Department of
Agriculture, the director of the State Department of Labor and Employment, and the director of the State Governor’s Office of Economic
Development and International Trade) are
required to seek agreements between the State
and foreign countries to assist in the recruitment and selection of eligible H-2A workers.
The State Department of Labor and Employment is authorized to establish offices in foreign countries and retain local agents to aid in
prospective employees’ application processes,
medical screening, and travel, as well as in the
documentation of employee returns to their
countries of origin. The program is limited to
1,000 employees the first year, with increases of
1,000 employees annually for 4 years. Employers and employees each have multiple requirements concerning pay, transportation, housing,
working conditions, meals, minimum hours
of work, background checks, identity cards,
withholding of wages, and employees’ return
to their country of origin that must be met in
order to participate in the program. The aforeMonthly Labor Review • January 2009 

State Labor Laws, 2008

mentioned officials will work closely with the
U.S. Departments of Labor and State, along
with the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration
Services, to establish a timely, efficient, and
effective process for incorporating workers
into the State Non-immigrant Agricultural
Seasonal Worker Pilot Program and guiding
them through H-2A visa certification.
Employee leasing. The State statutes governing employee-leasing companies that have
ongoing relationships with employers at the
sites at which the leased employees work were
amended. Such companies are now required
to become annually certified with the State
Department of Labor and Employment for a
fee not to exceed $500 per year. Each leasing
company shall pay wages and collect, report,
and pay all payroll-related taxes from its own
accounts for all covered employees. The executive director of the department is authorized
to take disciplinary action against leasing
companies that violate the State statutes regarding required actions of such companies.
The disciplinary action taken may include
penalties such as probation, financial penalties, and revocation of certification.
Handicapped employees. Legislation was enacted that established an income tax credit
for taxpayers who hire individuals with a
developmental disability. The credit is to be
awarded for qualified employees first hired
on or after January 1, 2009, and is applicable
for income years 2009 through 2011 only. A
qualified employee must be (1) a person with
a developmental disability, (2) employed at a
workplace located in 1 of 7 designated State
counties, and (3) compensated in accordance
with applicable minimum-wage laws. The
income tax credit shall equal 50 percent of
gross wages paid to the employee in the first
3 months of employment and 30 percent of
gross wages paid in the subsequent 9 months.
Immigrant protections. The State statute
concerning requirements relating to public
contracts for services was amended. Prior to
executing a contract for services with a State
agency or a political subdivision thereof, prospective contractors shall certify that, (1) at
the time of certification, they are not knowingly employing or contracting with an illegal
alien who will perform work under the contract for services and (2) they will participate
in the e-verify program, jointly administered
by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and the Social Security Administration,
or in the State Department of Labor and Employment’s employee verification program, in
order to confirm the eligibility of all of their
newly hired employees to perform work under
the contract for services. In addition, prospective contractors shall include a provision stating that they have confirmed the eligibility of
10

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

all of their newly hired employees to perform
work under the contract for services through
participation in either the e-verify program or
the department program.
Minimum wage. Because of previously enacted legislation in which the State minimum
wage was indexed to inflation, the minimum
wage in the State was increased to $7.28 per
hour on January 1, 2009.
Time off. The State Revised Statutes were
amended to allow a public or private employee
who is a member of the Civil Air Patrol and
is called for duty in a patrol mission to take a
leave of absence during the period of the mission, for up to 15 days annually, without loss
of pay or other benefits. To obtain this leave,
the member is required to return to his or her
job immediately after being relieved of duty in
the mission. After serving, the member is allowed to return to the same job position in the
same location. An employer shall not discriminate against or discharge from employment
any member of the Civil Air Patrol because
of such membership and shall not hinder a
member or prevent a member from performing his or her duty during any Civil Air Patrol
mission for which the member is entitled to
leave under State law. If an employer violates
the provisions of the law, the member is allowed to bring a civil action for damages, equitable relief, or both. In such action, the court
shall award reasonable attorneys’ fees and
costs to the prevailing party. Employers are
not required to provide this leave when doing
so would result in more than 20 percent of the
employer’s employees being on leave on any
workday. In addition, employers are not required to provide such leave for any employee
designated as an essential employee, defined
as an employee whom the employer deems to
be essential to the employer’s daily enterprise
and whose absence would likely cause the employer to suffer economic injury.
Wages paid. As the result of an amendment
to the State Revised Statutes, the definition of
“paycard” was established and employers may
now deposit an employee’s wages on a paycard as long as certain conditions are met. The
term “paycard” is defined as an access device
that an employee uses to receive his or her
payroll funds from the employer. In order to
be allowed to utilize paycards, the employer
must (1) provide the employee free access to
the entire amount of the net pay at least once
per pay period and (2) permit the employee
to choose other means for payment of wages
as authorized by other sections of the State
Revised Statutes.
Worker privacy. The State Revised Statute
prohibiting action against an employee for

sharing wage information was amended. It
shall now be a discriminatory or unfair employment practice, unless otherwise permitted
by Federal law, for an employer to discharge,
discipline, discriminate against, coerce, intimidate, threaten, or interfere with any employee because the employee inquired about,
disclosed, compared, or otherwise discussed
his or her wages. It is also prohibited for an
employer to require, as a condition of employment, that an employee not disclose his or her
wages or that the employee sign a waiver or
other document that purports to deny the employee the right to disclose his or her wages.
These prohibitions do not apply to employers
who are exempt from the provisions of the
National Labor Relations Act.
Connecticut
Child labor. The State removed the sunset
provision pertaining to conditions under which
a 15-year-old minor can be employed in a mercantile establishment. Employers continue to
be exempt from any fines for employing 15year-olds after the September 30, 2007, sunset,
provided that such employment is (1) limited
to periods during which school is not in session for 5 or more consecutive days, except that
any such minor employed in a retail food store
may work on any Saturday during the year; (2)
for not more than 40 hours in any week; (3)
for not more than 8 hours in any day; and (4)
between the hours of 7:00 a.m. and 7:00 p.m.,
except that from July 1 to the first Monday in
September in any year, any such minor may be
employed until 9:00 p.m.
Labor department. The State Department of
Labor and Employment, in its quarterly electronic publication distributed to employers,
shall, at a minimum, notify every employer of
the Federal law against hiring or continuing
to employ an unauthorized alien. In addition,
the notice shall include information about the
e-verify program jointly administered by the
U.S. Department of Homeland Security and
the Social Security Administration. Notifications are required on a quarterly basis for 2
years and twice per year thereafter. The State
Department of Labor and Employment and
the secretary of State will post the notification
and information about the program on their
Web sites, as well as providing a link thereto.
Employment agencies. State Public Act No.
08-105 was amended to better codify (1) the
criteria and responsibilities for professional
employer organizations, (2) the steps for becoming registered within the State, and (3) all
appropriate fiduciary responsibilities for the
organization. In addition, the State legislature
established a joint enforcement commission
on employee misclassification. The commis-

sion members will consist of the State commissioners for labor, revenue services, and
workers’ compensation; the attorney general;
and the chief State’s attorney—or their designees. The commission shall meet no fewer
than 4 times each year and shall review the
problem of employee misclassification by employers for the purpose of avoiding the employer’s obligations under State and Federal
labor, employment, and tax laws. The commission shall coordinate the civil prosecution of
violations of State and Federal laws as a result
of employee misclassification and shall report
any suspected violation to the chief State’s
attorney or the State’s Attorney serving the
district in which the violation is alleged to
have occurred. The commission shall report to
the Governor and the relevant joint standing
committee of the State General Assembly.
Independent contractor. Legislation was enacted that established a joint enforcement
commission on employee misclassification
and the State Employee Misclassification Advisory Board. Civil prosecution will be coordinated by the commission in the event that an
employer is found to have violated State and
Federal laws as a result of employee misclassification. Beginning in 2010, the commission
is required to produce a yearly report that
summarizes its actions for the preceding calendar year and includes recommendations for
administrative or legislative action. The board
will advise the commission on employee misclassification in the construction industry in
the State, and the members of the board will
consist of management and labor representatives in the construction industry.
Minimum wage. The hourly minimumwage rate of pay required under State law was
increased to $8.00 per hour, effective January 1, 2009. The rate on January 1, 2010, will
again increase, this time to $8.25 per hour.
State law requires that whenever the highest Federal minimum wage is increased, the
State minimum wage shall be increased to the
amount of the Federal minimum wage plus
one-half of 1 percent more than said Federal
rate, rounded to the nearest whole cent, effective on the same date as the increase in the
highest Federal minimum wage. The rates
for learners, beginners, and persons under 18
years shall be no less than 85 percent of the
minimum fair wage for the first 200 hours of
such employment and equal to the minimum
wage thereafter, except for institutional training programs specifically exempted by the
State commissioner of labor.
On January 1, 2009, the State increased the
amount of all gratuities that it shall recognize
as part of the minimum fair wage. From that
date, the State shall recognize gratuities in an
amount (1) equal to 31 percent of the minimum fair wage per hour for persons, other

than bartenders, who are employed in the hotel and restaurant industry, including a hotel
restaurant, and who customarily and regularly
receive gratuities; (2) equal to 11 percent of
the minimum fair wage per hour for persons
employed as bartenders who customarily and
regularly receive gratuities, and (3) not to exceed 35 cents per hour in any other industry.

Worker privacy. The list of public employees
in the State whose residential addresses may
not be released under the Freedom of Information Act was amended. The residential address of an employee of the State Department
of Mental Health and Addiction Services who
provides direct care to patients was added to
the list.

Time off. A person shall be excused from jury
service if, during the preceding 3 jury years,
such person appeared in court for jury service
and was not excused from serving, except that
the person may request to be summoned for
jury service during such a 3-jury-year period
in the same manner as persons are summoned
who are not excused from jury service. Such
request may be made at any time, written to
the jury administrator. Any juror-employee
who has served 8 hours of jury duty in any one
day shall be deemed to have worked a legal
day’s work, and an employer shall not require
the juror-employee to work in excess of 8
hours. Any employer who fails to compensate
a juror-employee pursuant to the State General Statutes and who has not been excused
from such duty to compensate the juror-employee pursuant to the 2008 supplement to the
General Statutes shall be liable to the juroremployee for damages.

Delaware

Wages paid. Legislation was enacted that
amended the acceptable reasons for which an
employer can withhold or divert any portion
of an employee’s wages by adding instances
in which deductions are made for contributions attributable to automatic enrollment, as
defined as a provision of an employee retirement plan, or any subsequent corresponding
internal revenue code of the United States, as
from time to time amended, as established by
the employer. Employers that provide automatic enrollment are relieved of liability for
the investment decisions they make on behalf
of participating employees, provided that (1)
the investment plan allows the participating
employee at least quarterly opportunities to
select among investment alternatives available
under the plan that are to serve as the employee’s contribution to the plan; (2) the employee
is given (a) notice of the investment decisions
that will be made in the absence of the employee’s direction, (b) a description of all the
investment alternatives available under the
plan, and (c) a brief description of procedures
available for the employee to change investments; and (3) the employee is given at least
annual notice of the actual investments made
on behalf of the employee under the organization’s automatic contribution arrangement.
The employer’s relief from liability extends
to any other official of the plan who actually
makes the investment decisions on behalf of
participating employees under the aforesaid
automatic contribution arrangement.

Prevailing wage. The Division of Industrial Affairs of the State Department of Labor
shall establish the prevailing wage for each
craft or class of laborers and mechanics at the
same rates established in collective-bargaining agreements between labor organizations
and their employers that govern work for
those classes of laborers and mechanics for the
county where the public-works contract will
be performed if that particular labor organization’s collective-bargaining rate prevailed
and the said labor organization participated in
the prevailing-wage survey for that particular
trade or craft in that particular county for 2
consecutive years. The agreed-upon rate of pay
will become the prevailing wage for a period
of 5 years, and the raise will be determined on
the basis of the collective-bargaining agreement rate at the time the survey is conducted
for that craft, county, and year. If the prevailing
wage cannot be reasonably and fairly determined in any locality because no agreements
exist or the rate has not prevailed for 2 consecutive years, the Department shall use the
rate established by the annual prevailing-wage
survey. There will be a one-time challenge of
the prevailing-wage rate per cycle as stated in
departmental regulations.
District of Columbia
Equal employment opportunity. The District’s
Human Rights Act of 1977 was amended (1)
to prohibit discrimination against breast-feeding women, (2) to ensure a woman’s right to
breast-feed in any location, public or private,
where she has the right to be with her child,
(3) to require employers to provide reasonable daily unpaid break periods and a sanitary
location so that breast-feeding mothers are
able to express breast milk for their children,
and (4) to require the District Department of
Health to monitor both breast-feeding rates
in the District and the number and nature
of complaints received by the District Office
of Human Rights regarding violations of the
act.
The Prohibition of Discrimination on
the Basis of Gender Identity and Expression
Amendment Act of 2008 is an attempt by the
District government to broaden the definitions
by which discrimination is practiced. The District Office of Human Rights Establishment
Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 11

State Labor Laws, 2008

Act of 1999 was amended by striking the
phrase “sexual orientation” and substituting
the phrase “sexual orientation, gender identity
or expression” in its place, thereby bringing
into the arena the concept of “a gender-related
identity, appearance, expression, or behavior
of an individual, regardless of the individual’s
assigned sex at birth.” As part of this broader
definition as well, the Office of Human Rights
uses the term “transgender” to refer to any
individual whose identity or behavior differs
from stereotypical or traditional gender expectations. The term now refers to transsexual
individuals, cross-dressers, androgynous individuals, and others whose appearance or characteristics are perceived to be gender atypical.
These newly expanded definitions shall be applicable in such areas as employment, renting
or leasing of housing and commercial space,
public accommodations, educational institutions, and agencies of the District government
and its contractors.
Minimum wage. As a result of requirements
that were included in previously enacted legislation, the minimum wage in the District was
increased to $7.55 per hour on July 24, 2008.
Time off. An employer with 100 or more
full-time-equivalent employees shall provide
not less than 1 hour of paid leave for every 37
hours worked, not to exceed 7 days per calendar year; an employer with at least 25, but not
more than 99, full-time-equivalent employees
shall provide 1 hour of paid leave for every 43
hours, not to exceed 5 days per calendar year;
and an employer with 24 or fewer full-timeequivalent employees shall provide not less
than 1 hour for every 87 hours worked, not to
exceed 3 days per calendar year. Employees who
are exempt from overtime payment under the
Fair Labor Standards Act shall not accrue leave
for hours worked beyond a 40-hour workweek.
Paid leave shall accrue in accordance with the
employer’s established pay period, at the beginning of the employee’s employment, and the
employee may begin to access paid leave after
90 days of service. An employee’s unused paid
leave accrued during a 12-month period shall
carry over annually, but the employee shall not
be reimbursed for this leave upon termination
or resignation. An employee who is discharged
after the completion of a 90-day probationary
period and is rehired within 12 months may
access paid leave immediately. The employee
shall make a reasonable effort to schedule paid
leave in a manner that does not unduly disrupt
the employer’s operations. Paid leave requests, if
foreseeable, should be provided at least 10 days
in advance or as early as possible, with reasonable certification, including a signed document
by a health care provider, a police report, or a
court order by a witness advocate or domestic
violence counselor. This act does not prevent
an employer from adopting or retaining a
12

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

paid-leave policy more generous than the one
herein required. Further, an employer shall in
no manner discharge or discriminate against
an employee who (1) opposes any practice by
the employer pursuant or related to this act, (2)
files a complaint, (3) facilitates the institution
of a proceeding, or (4) gives any information
or testimony in connection with a relevant
inquiry.
Wages paid. The Minimum Wage Act Revision Act of 1992 was amended to establish
minimum-compensation requirements for District security officers working in the metropolitan area. An employer shall pay a security officer
working in an office building in the metropolitan
area wages (or any combination of wages and
benefits) that are no less than the combined
amount of the minimum-wage and fringe-benefit rate for the Guard 1 position classification
established by the U.S. Secretary of Labor pursuant to the Service Contract Act of 1965. The
Minimum Wage Act Revision Act shall take
effect following approval by the mayor after a
30-day period of congressional review pursuant
to the State Home Rule Act and publication in
the municipal register. (In the event of a veto by
the mayor, the act shall take effect following an
override of the veto by the council.)
Florida
Minimum wage. As a result of legislation
that was previously enacted in which the State
minimum wage was indexed to inflation, the
State minimum wage was increased to $7.21
on January 1, 2009.
Time off. The State permits an employer
to grant an employee up to 3 working days
of leave during a 12-month period if the
employee or a family or household member
is the victim of domestic or sexual violence.
It will be at the discretion of the employer
whether the leave will be with or without pay.
Employees must use the leave from work to,
among other things, (1) obtain medical care
or mental health counseling, (2) seek legal assistance in addressing issues arising from the
act of domestic or sexual violence, or (3) make
the employees’ homes secure from the perpetrator. Except in cases of imminent danger,
employees must provide appropriate advance
leave notice as required by the employer’s
policy, along with documentation of the act of
domestic or sexual abuse. All personal identifying information documenting domestic
or sexual violence in the workplace will be
deemed confidential.
Wages paid. The maximum authorized amount
of day-labor contracts was increased in the
State’s school districts to $280,000, an amount
to be adjusted annually by the Consumer Price
Index. The contracts affected include those for

construction, renovation, remodeling, or maintenance of existing facilities.
If a person has been ordered to pay a civil
penalty for a noncriminal traffic infraction
and the individual is unable to comply with
the court’s order due to certifiable financial
hardship, the court shall allow the person to
satisfy the civil penalty by participating in
community service until the penalty is paid.
The person shall then receive credit for the
penalty at the hourly credit rate specified under the Federal Fair Labor Standards Act, and
each hour of community service shall reduce
the civil penalty by that amount. The specified hourly credit rate is the wage rate then
in effect under the Act and that an employer
subject to the Act’s provisions must pay per
hour to each employee. If the individual has a
trade or profession for which there is a need,
the specified credit rate for each hour of community service shall be the average prevailing
wage for that particular trade or profession.
The community service agency shall record
the number of hours worked and the date
the service is completed and shall submit
the information to the clerk of the court on
appropriate agency letterhead bearing an authorized signature. The letter shall certify that
the hours completed by the individual equal
the amount of the civil penalty and that the
debt is paid in full. The legislation took effect
on July, 1, 2008.
Worker privacy. The home addresses, telephone numbers, and addresses of places of employment of the spouses and children, and of
the schools and daycare facilities attended by
the children, of active or former law enforcement personnel, including correctional officers
and correctional probation officers, personnel
of the State Department of Children and
Family Services who are involved in investigations, personnel of the State Department of
Health whose duties support investigations,
and personnel of the State Department of
Revenue or of local governments whose responsibilities include revenue collection and
enforcement, are currently exempt from the
State’s public-records requirements. Added to
this exempt category are the following State
employment positions: general and special
magistrates, judges of compensation claims,
administrative law judges of the Division of
Administrative Hearings, and child support
enforcement hearing officers. It is feared that
the release of such identifying information
might place these individuals and their family
members in danger of physical and emotional
harm from disgruntled criminal defendants or
litigants. Therefore, the harm that might result
from the release of the information outweighs
any public benefit that could be derived from
disclosure of the information.
The State amended statutes concerning the
expansion of exemptions from public-records

requirements for records and timesheets of
employees who are victims of sexual violence.
The bill, which would extend future legislative
review and repeal, revises a statement expressing the public necessity to make sure that an
employee’s request for leave is temporarily
confidential and exempt from exposure until
1 year after the leave has been taken.
Worker privacy. All complaints, and other
records in the custody of any agency regarding a complaint, of discrimination relating to
race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age,
handicap, or marital status in connection with
hiring practices, position classifications, salary, benefits, discipline, discharge, employee
performance, evaluation, or any related activities shall be confidential. Any Federal or
State agency that is authorized to have access
to such complaints or records shall be granted
access in the furtherance of such agency’s
statutory duties. If the victim chooses not to
file a complaint, he or she may request that
records of the complaint remain confidential and exempt from relevant public-record
requirements. The request is upheld until a
finding is made relating to probable cause, the
investigation of the complaint becomes inactive, or the complaint or other record is made
part of the official record of any hearing or
court proceeding. This exemption is necessary
because the release of such information could
be defamatory to an individual under investigation or could cause unwarranted damage
to the good name or reputation of the complainant. Further, exclusion of the records is a
public necessity in order that the investigation
not be significantly impaired and that a secure
environment be created for the conduct of the
investigation.
Georgia
Unfair labor practice. Except for exclusions
provided by State Code, no private or public
employer, including the State and its subdivisions, shall condition employment upon any
agreement by a prospective employee that
prohibits the employee from entering the
parking lot and from access thereto when
the employee’s privately owned motor vehicle
contains a firearm that is locked out of sight
within the trunk, glove box, or other enclosed
compartment or area within such privately
owned motor vehicle, provided that the employee possesses a State firearms license. In
addition, except for exclusions provided by
State Code, no private or public employer,
including the State and its subdivisions, shall
establish, maintain, or enforce any policy or
rule that has the effect of allowing such employer or its agents to search any locked, privately owned vehicles of employees or invited
guests on the employer’s parking lot or to gain
access thereto.

Hawaii
Human trafficking. The State Revised Statutes were amended in order to expand the
definition of kidnapping to include unlawfully
obtaining a person’s labor or services, regardless of whether it is or is not related to the
collection of debt. The statutes now specify
that a person commits extortion if the person
obtains, or exerts control over, the property,
labor, or services of another with the intent to
deprive that other person of property, labor, or
services by threatening, by word or conduct, to
destroy, conceal, remove, confiscate, or possess
any actual or purported passport, any other
actual or purported government identification
document, or any immigration document of
another person. Further, the legislation explains that a person commits the offense of
promoting prostitution in the first degree if
the person knowingly advances prostitution by
compelling a person by force, threat, or intimidation to engage in prostitution, by profiting
from such coercive conduct, or by advancing
or profiting from prostitution of a person
younger than 18 years.
Inmate labor. The State House of Representatives requested that the State Department of
Land and Natural Resources, along with the State
Department of Public Safety, develop a plan to
establish a statewide Inmate Conservation Corps
Pilot Program. The purpose of the program is to
perform resource conservation projects, including
forest fire prevention, forest and watershed management, maintenance of recreation areas, fish
and game management, soil conservation, forest
and watershed revegetation, preventive maintenance or reconstruction of levees, and any other
work necessary to prevent flood damage.
Prevailing wage. The revision of the State Revised Statutes resulted in the State Governor’s
being authorized to suspend the prevailing wage
on public projects during a national emergency
declared by the President or Congress or a state
of emergency declared by the Governor.
Under State law, contractors can be suspended for failure to pay back wages and
penalties. For a first or second violation in
this area, if a person or firm fails to pay wages
found due, any penalty assessed, or both, the
person or firm shall be immediately suspended
from doing any work on any public work of
a governmental contracting agency until all
wages and penalties are paid in full. For a third
violation, the contractor shall immediately be
suspended from doing any work on any public
work of a governmental contracting agency for
a mandatory 3-year period. If, after the 3-year
suspension (also mandated for falsification of
records or delay or interference with an investigation), wages or penalties remain unpaid,
the suspension shall remain in force until pay-

ment in full is made. As amended, the law
now authorizes the State Department of Labor and Industrial Relations to immediately
suspend and begin debarment proceedings
against contractors that purposely defraud
the State on a public-works project or that
delay or interfere with the department in determining whether there has been a violation
of the prevailing-wage law.
Worker privacy. Legislation was passed that
authorizes the State to protect the security of
personal information collected and maintained
by State and county government agencies by
designating an agency employee to have policy
and oversight responsibilities for the protection of personal information. The designated
employee will (1) ensure and coordinate agency compliance; (2) assist individuals who have
identity theft and privacy-related concerns;
(3) provide agency staff with education and
information on privacy and security issues; (4)
coordinate with Federal, State, and county law
enforcement agencies on identity theft investigations; and (5) recommend policies and practices to protect individual privacy rights relating to individuals’ personal information. The
legislation establishes an information privacy
and security council within the Department
of Accounting and General Services. The
council will identify best practices to assist
government agencies in improving security
and privacy programs relating to personal
information. Every State government agency
maintaining one or more personal information systems will be required to submit an
annual report to the council on the existence
and character of each personal information system added or eliminated since that
agency’s previous annual report. Government
agencies must develop a plan to protect and
redact personal information—for example,
Social Security numbers—contained in existing hardcopy documents prior to making
the documents available for public inspection. State and county government agencies
that have primary responsibility for human
resource functions shall develop and distribute, to the appropriate agencies, written
guidelines detailing recommended practices
to minimize unauthorized access to personal
information and personal information systems relating to personal recruitment, background checks, testing, employee retirement
and health benefits, and time-reporting and
payroll issues. Notification policies dealing
with security breaches also shall be developed
by State agencies.
Idaho
Independent contractor. Key employees and
key independent contractors may enter into
written agreements or covenants that protect
the employer’s legitimate business interests
Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 13

State Labor Laws, 2008

and prohibit the employee or independent contractor from engaging in employment or a line
of business that is in direct competition with
the employer’s business after termination of
employment. The agreement or covenant shall
be enforceable if it is reasonable as to its duration, geographical area, type of employment, or
line of business and does not impose a greater
restraint than is reasonably necessary to protect
the employer’s legitimate business interests.
Minimum wage. As a result of requirements
that were included in previously enacted legislation, the State minimum wage was increased
to $6.55 per hour on July 24, 2008.
Miscellaneous. Both houses of the State legislature resolved by memorandum to urge that the
U.S. Congress take action to help stop children and employees from accessing Internet
pornography and that legislation be enacted
to facilitate a technology-based solution that
allows parents and employers to subscribe
to Internet access services that exclude adult
content.
Worker privacy. The State employment security law was amended to provide that certain
specified employment security information
is exempt from disclosure, except that such
information may be disclosed as is necessary
for the proper administration of employment
security programs or may be made available
to public officials for use in the performance
of their official duties, both conditions subject
to such restrictions and fees as determined
by the director of employment security. If a
determination finds that a person has made
any unauthorized disclosure of employment
security information in violation of State law
or code, a penalty of $500 for each act of unauthorized disclosure shall be assessed against
the person.
Illinois
Genetic testing. Genetic testing and information derived from genetic testing are
confidential and privileged and may be released only to the individual being tested
or to persons specifically authorized by that
individual to receive the information. The information may not be admissible as evidence
or discoverable in any action of any kind in
any court or before any tribunal, board, or
agency. Though confidential, the information
may be disclosed for purposes of criminal
investigation or prosecution and is admissible in any actions alleging a violation of
this legislation. An employer shall not directly or indirectly solicit, request, require, or
purchase genetic-testing information from a
person or from a family member as a condition of employment, preemployment, labor
14  Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

organization membership, or licensure, nor
shall the employer terminate the employment
of an individual as a result of genetic testing.
Neither can genetic information be used in
furtherance of a workplace wellness program
benefiting employees, unless health or testing
services are offered by the employer; only the
employee or family member may receive testing services, and any individually identifiable
information is available only for purposes of
the service provided. Genetic testing may be
used for genetic monitoring of the biological
effects of toxic substances in the workplace.
Any person aggrieved by a violation of this
legislation shall have a right of action against
any party for liquidated damages of $2,500 or
actual damages, whichever is greater. In addition, any party that intentionally or recklessly
violates this act can be liable for damages of
up to $15,000 or actual damages, whichever
is greater.
Human trafficking. The U.S. House of Representatives passed a legal framework for fighting trafficking by combining and streamlining
efforts against the international and domestic
sale of human beings. The State legislature has
adopted a resolution supporting the adoption
of this Federal legislation, known as HR 3887,
and urging the U.S. Senators from the State
to support the legislation as passed, without
modification, and to support Federal antitrafficking legislation in the U.S. Senate. The
purpose of the resolution is to expand Federal
antitrafficking legislation so that it more accurately represents the experiences of victims
in the State and expands the ability of Federal
prosecutors to bring domestic traffickers to
justice. The State General Assembly implemented Public Act 94–0009, the Trafficking
of Persons and Involuntary Servitude Act,
a powerful first step in the fight against sex
trafficking. Many local traffickers are not held
accountable and continue to prey upon victims due to a lack of resources for researching,
uncovering, and prosecuting domestic trafficking cases. The new law will assist victims
in the State by allowing Federal resources to
be used to prosecute local offenders.
Independent contractor. The State now excludes an employee, independent contractor,
or other agent of a telecommunications carrier, communications cooperative, or mobile
radio service from its definition of “electronic
and information technology worker.”
Minimum wage. The minimum-wage law
in the State was amended to prohibit a camp
counselor under the age of 18 and employed
at a day camp from being subject to the adult
minimum wage if the camp counselor is paid
a stipend on a one-time or periodic basis and,
for a camp counselor who is a minor, if the mi-

nor’s parent, guardian, or other custodian has
consented in writing to the terms of payment
before the employment begins. In the past, the
State stipulated that a camp counselor who
resided on the premises of a seasonal camp
was subject to the adult minimum wage if the
camp counselor worked more than 40 hours
per week and received a total weekly salary of
no less than the adult minimum wage for a
40-hour workweek. Under the law, counselors
who worked less than 40 hours per week were
paid the minimum hourly wage for each hour
worked.
Because of requirements included in previously enacted legislation, the State minimum
wage was increased to $7.75 on July 1, 2008.
Time off. The legislation that amended the
State Fire Protection District Act provides
that elected or appointed trustees of a fire
protection district will be entitled to absent
themselves from work on the days and times
of meetings of the board of trustees for the
period of the meeting and for any time required to travel to and from the meeting.
Employers can neither penalize nor discriminate against a trustee as a result of his or her
absence. Employers will not be required to
compensate the trustee for the time during
which the trustee is absent.
Indiana
Minimum wage. Because of requirements
included in previously enacted legislation, the
State minimum wage was increased to $6.55
per hour on July 24, 2008.
Worker privacy. New legislation expanded
the listing of types of public records that are
exempt from public disclosure unless access to
the records is specifically required by State or
Federal statute or is ordered by a court under
the rules of discovery. Records requested by an
offender (a person confined in a penal institution as the result of having been convicted of a
crime) that contain information relating to (1)
a correctional officer, (2) the victim of a crime,
or (3) a family member of a correctional officer or the victim of a crime, or that concern
or could affect the security of a jail or correctional facility, are now normally exempt from
disclosure.
Iowa
Discharge. Legislation was enacted that
prohibits employment discrimination in the
State by an employer against an employee who
serves as a witness in a criminal proceeding or
as a plaintiff, defendant, or witness in a civil
proceeding.
Minimum wage. With some exceptions, the

State minimum-wage requirements shall no
longer apply to an enterprise whose annual
gross volume of sales made or business done,
exclusive of excise taxes at the retail level, which
are separately stated, is less than $300,000. The
minimum-wage requirements now apply to an
enterprise engaged in the business of laundering, cleaning, or repairing clothing or fabrics
and also apply to an enterprise engaged in
construction or reconstruction. In addition, the
requirements apply to an enterprise engaged in
the operation of a hospital, a preschool, an elementary or secondary school, and an institution
of higher education. Finally, the requirements
also apply to a public agency.
Time off. An employer shall not discharge an
employee, or take or fail to take action regarding an employee’s promotion or proposed promotion, or take action to reduce an employee’s
wages or benefits for actual time worked, due
to the service of the employee as a witness in a
criminal proceeding or as a plaintiff, defendant,
or witness in a civil proceeding.
Wages paid. The State law requirement regarding an employer’s payment of wages to
employees was amended. Henceforth, upon
written request by an employee, employers
must send any wages due to the employee by
mail. The employer shall maintain a copy of
the request for as long as it is effective and
for 2 years thereafter. If an employer fails to
pay an employee’s wages on or by the regular
payday, the employer is liable for the amount
of any overdraft charge if the overdraft is created on the employee’s account because of the
employer’s failure to pay the wages on or by
the regular payday.
Kansas
Discharge. Employers are now prohibited
from terminating any employee because the
employee serves as a volunteer firefighter, volunteer certified emergency medical services
attendant, volunteer reserve law enforcement
officer, or volunteer part-time law enforcement officer. The protection does not apply
to full-time firefighters or law enforcement
officers who volunteer as emergency medical
services attendants, to firefighters, or to law
enforcement officers.
Equal employment opportunity. An amendment of the State Age Discrimination in Employment Act increased the age of protection
from 18 years to 40 years.
Kentucky
Immigrant protections. The State Commission on Fire Protection Personnel Standards is
required to implement a voluntary statewide

certified volunteer firefighter identification
program. The program shall issue a color photo nondriver’s identification card to all certified volunteer firefighters. Applicants for the
card shall provide proof that they are citizens
of the United States, permanent residents of
the United States, or otherwise lawfully present in the United States. The commission is
to promulgate administrative regulations to
establish the standards of proof for citizenship
or legal status of an applicant.
Minimum wage. Because of requirements
included in legislation that was previously enacted, the State minimum wage was increased
to $6.55 per hour on July 1, 2008.
Louisiana
Child labor. The State child labor statutes
were amended to provide for the employment,
under certain conditions, of minors 12 and 13
years of age. Minors under 14 years may be
employed if all of the following conditions are
met: (1) the minor must be at least 12 years
of age, (2) the minor’s parent or legal guardian is an owner or partner in the business in
which the minor is employed, (3) the minor
shall work only under the direct supervision
of the parent or legal guardian who owns or is
a partner in the business, (4) all of the protections afforded to minors between 14 and 15
years of age shall be afforded to minors 12 and
13 years of age, and (5) the minor obtains an
employment certificate pursuant to State law.
Drug and alcohol testing. The State amended
statutes concerning the provisions for drug
testing of certain public employees by certain
public employers of parishes and municipalities. The legislation modifies the following
definitions, among others: “public vehicle,” to
include any motor vehicle, watercraft, aircraft,
or rail vehicle owned or controlled by the
State or by a local governmental subdivision
that has adopted an ordinance; and “public
employer,” to mean the State and any local
governmental subdivision that has adopted
any ordinance, provided that the subdivision
is a public employer for that purpose.
Legislation was enacted that amended
the provisions for drug testing at refining
or chemical-manufacturing facilities to allow certain people involved in construction,
maintenance, or manufacturing to reduce or
modify the initial cutoff level of 50 nanograms per millimeter for marijuana testing.
This amendment will not apply to any person,
firm, or corporation engaged or employed in
the exploration, drilling, or production of oil
or gas in the State or its territorial waters.
Equal employment opportunity. The State’s
Revised Statutes were amended to add a sec-

tion that allows no interruption in the prescriptive time requirement because the plaintiff
failed to give the appropriate amount of time
pursuant to an upcoming discrimination case.
Currently, Section C of the Statute specifies
that a plaintiff who believes that he or she has
been discriminated against and who intends to
pursue court action must give the person who
has allegedly discriminated written notice of
this fact at least 30 days before initiating court
action. The notice should detail the alleged
discrimination, and both parties shall make a
good-faith effort to resolve the dispute prior
to initiating court action. The new Section D
stipulates that the prescriptive period for the
case shall be 1 year, but can be suspended during the pendency of any administrative review
or investigation of the claim conducted by
the Federal Equal Employment Opportunity
Commission or the State Commission on
Human Rights. However, no suspension of
the 1-year prescriptive period shall last longer
than 6 months, and the prescriptive period
shall not be interrupted for failure to give the
appropriate written notice even if there are
other investigations pending.
Overtime. The Governor of the State implemented an Executive order that suspends Federal regulations pertaining to hours of service
for drivers of utility service vehicles operated
by utilities that are engaged solely in intrastate
commerce and are regulated by the Louisiana
Public Service Commission or the city of New
Orleans. This order is active under the rules of
State Proclamation No. 51 BJ 2008, which declares Louisiana to be in a state of emergency
as a result of forecasted hurricane activity that
threatens the lives and property of the citizens
of the State. The order will remain effective
until amended, modified, terminated, or rescinded by the Governor or until terminated
by the operation of the law.
Whistleblower. The whistleblower protections provided for public employees in the
State were amended. Any public employee
who reports, to a person or entity of competent authority or jurisdiction, information that
the employee reasonably believes indicates a
violation of any law, of any order, rule, or regulation issued in accordance with law, or of any
other alleged acts of impropriety related to
the scope or duties of public employment or
public office within any branch or other political subdivision of State government shall
be free from discipline, reprisal, or threats of
discipline or reprisal by the public employer
for reporting such acts of alleged impropriety. No supervisor, agency head, or any other
employee with authority to hire, fire, or discipline employees, and no elected official, shall
subject to reprisal or threaten to subject to
reprisal any public employee because of the
employee’s efforts to disclose such acts of alMonthly Labor Review • January 2009 15

State Labor Laws, 2008

leged impropriety. If any public employee is
suspended, demoted, dismissed, or threatened
with suspension, demotion, or dismissal, as an
act of reprisal for reporting an alleged act of
impropriety in violation of State statute, the
employee shall report such action to the State
Board of Ethics.
Worker privacy. Trust companies were added
to the list of financial institutions, such as
banks, savings and loan associations, or credit
unions, that may provide, to any other such financial institution, a written employment reference that may include information reported
to Federal banking regulators. Where written
employment references contain such information, and where a copy of the written employment reference is sent to the last known
address of the employee in question, a bank,
savings and loan association, trust company,
or credit union shall not be liable for providing such an employment reference unless the
information provided is false and the financial
institution providing the information does so
with knowledge and malice.
Maine
Family issues. The State definition of “family medical leave” under State requirements
for such leave was amended. “Family medical
leave” is now defined as leave requested by an
employee for (1) a serious health condition of
the employee, (2) the birth of the employee’s
child, (3) the placement of a child 16 years
or younger with the employee in connection
with the employee’s adoption of the child,
or (4) a serious health condition of a child, a
domestic partner’s child, a parent’s domestic
partner, or a sibling or spouse. The definition
of “sibling” was also clarified to mean “an
employee’s sibling who is jointly responsible
with the employee for each other’s common
welfare as evidenced by joint living arrangements and joint financial arrangements.”
Human trafficking. The State Revised Statutes
regarding human trafficking were amended.
A “human trafficking offense” is now defined
as kidnapping or criminal restraint when the
crime involves either (1) restraining a person by
destroying, concealing, removing, confiscating,
or possessing any actual or purported passport
or other immigration document, or any other
actual or purported government identification
document, of the other person or (2) using any
scheme, plan, or pattern intended to cause a
person to believe that if he or she does not
perform certain labor or services, including
prostitution, then the person will suffer serious
harm or restraint. In addition, the amended
statutes now allow a trafficked person to bring
a civil action for damages, compensatory damages, punitive damages, injunctive relief, any
16  Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

combination of those conditions, or any other
appropriate relief. A prevailing plaintiff also
is entitled to an award of attorneys’ fees and
costs. Actions brought pursuant to this section of the State statute must be commenced
within 10 years of the date on which the trafficked person was freed from the trafficking
situation. The statute of limitations is tolled
for an incompetent or minor plaintiff even if
a guardian ad litem has been appointed. A defendant is estopped from asserting a defense
of the statute of limitations if the trafficked
person did not file before the expiration of
the statute of limitations due to (1) conduct
by the defendant inducing the plaintiff to delay the filing of the action or preventing the
plaintiff from filing the action or (2) threats
made by the defendant that caused duress to
the plaintiff.
Minimum wage. Effective October 1, 2008,
the State minimum hourly wage was increased
to $7.25 per hour. An additional increase, to
$7.50 per hour, is scheduled for October 1,
2009. On September 30, 2009, and on September 30 of each year thereafter, the State
Department of Labor shall calculate an adjusted minimum-wage rate to maintain employee
purchasing power. The adjusted minimumwage rate must be calculated to the nearest
cent on the basis of the Consumer Price Index
for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W) or a successor index, as calculated
by the U.S. Department of Labor, for the 12
months prior to each September 1. Each adjusted minimum-wage rate so calculated takes
effect January 1 of the next year. An employer
may consider tips as part of the wages of a
service employee, but such a tip credit may
not exceed $3.00 per hour. An employer is liable to an employee for any amount of unpaid
minimum wages. When a judgment is rendered
in favor of any employee in any action brought
to recover unpaid wages, such judgment must
include among such wages an amount equal
to the combined cost of liquidated damages,
the cost of the suit (including reasonable attorneys’ fees), and a civil penalty of not less
than $1,000 or more than $10,000, 90 percent
of which civil penalty must be paid to the
State. On October 1 of each year, beginning
October 1, 2008, the minimum and maximum
civil penalties must be adjusted by the State
Department of Labor to reflect changes in the
CPI-W or a successor index, as calculated by
the U.S. Department of Labor.
Worker privacy. State Public Law 2005, c.381,
Section 3, was amended to further protect the
personal contact information records of public employees. Personal contact information is
considered confidential, and the term means
“home address, home telephone number, home
facsimile number, e-mail address, cellular telephone, and pager number.” Elected officials

are not considered public employees under
the amendment. Notwithstanding any other
provision of law, complaints and investigative
files that relate to court and judicial security
are confidential; however, they can be disseminated to another criminal justice agency. Applications, resumes, and letters and notes of
reference, other than those letters and notes
of reference expressly submitted in confidence,
pertaining to an applicant who has been hired
are public records after the applicant is hired,
except for the personal contact information.
Upon the request of the employing agency,
the State director of the Bureau of Human
Resources shall make the determination as to
whether the release of certain personal information not otherwise protected by law is permissible. The records and proceedings of the
State agency-operated technology centers are
public, except for (a) any record obtained or
developed by a technology center prior to the
receipt of a written application or proposal in
a form acceptable to the center for assistance
from the center; (b) any record pertaining to
an application or proposal that has been received, unless that record is confidential under
another provision of the law; (c) a peer review,
analysis, or other document related to the
evaluation of a grant application or proposal;
and (d) a record that the individual or center
requests to be designated confidential and that
the center determines contains proprietary
information which, if released, would be considered competitively harmful and could impair the center’s ability to get other proposals
or similar necessary information in the future.
Data submitted and deemed confidential by
the Administrator of the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency may not be available for
public inspection. A person who intentionally
or knowingly discloses confidential information in violation of this section commits a
Class E crime.
Maryland
Department of labor. The enforcement authority of the State commissioner of labor
and industry has been expanded. The commissioner may now initiate an investigation
of a complaint that an employment agency
has failed to submit a penal bond as required
by statute. If, after investigation, the commissioner finds that the employment agency has
failed to submit the required penal bond, the
commissioner shall give written notice that
requires the agency to complete certain actions within 15 days of receipt of the notice.
The employment agency must (1) submit the
bond or (2) show written cause why the agency is not required to comply with the statute.
If the employment agency complies with the
requirement to submit a bond or otherwise
submits a timely response, the commissioner
may (1) terminate proceedings against the

agency or (2) schedule a hearing and, by certified mail, give the agency written notice of
the date, place, and time of the hearing. If the
agency fails to comply with a lawful order of
the commissioner or fails to submit a timely
response, the commissioner may impose a civil
money penalty of not less than $500 and not
more than $1,000 for each failure to comply
with the order or failure to submit a timely report. If, after a hearing, the commissioner finds
that the employment agency has violated the
provisions of the statute, the commissioner may
impose a civil penalty of not less than $500
and not more than $1,000 for each violation.
Equal employment opportunity. Section 11–B
of the State Human Relations Commission
section of the State Annotated Code was
amended to cover civil actions resulting from
alleged discriminatory acts and the constraints
for processing such actions. Within 180 days
of the timely filing of a complaint or administrative charge alleging a discriminatory act,
the complainant may bring a civil action
against the respondent. If the civil action is
filed no more than 2 years after the occurrence
of the alleged act of discrimination, the filing
shall serve to automatically terminate any proceeding before the commission that is based
on the underlying administrative complaint
and any amendments thereto. If a payment
of compensatory damages is awarded to the
complainant for future pecuniary losses, emotional pain, suffering, inconvenience, mental
anguish, loss of enjoyment of life, and other
nonpecuniary losses, the amount of damages
awarded may not exceed (1) $50,000 if the respondent employs not fewer than 15 and not
more than 100 employees, (2) $100,000 if the
respondent employs not fewer than 101 and
not more than 200 employees, (3) $200,000
if the respondent employs not fewer than 201
and not more than 500 employees, and (4)
$300,000 if the respondent employs not fewer
than 501 employees, in each of 20 or more
calendar weeks in the current or preceding
calendar year. The court may not inform the
jury of the limitations imposed on compensatory and punitive damages, and if backpay is
awarded, interim earnings or amounts earnable with reasonable diligence by the person(s)
discriminated against shall operate to reduce
the backpay otherwise allowable. If the State
has sufficient money available at the time an
award is made, the State shall pay the award
as soon as practicable within 20 days after the
award is final. If insufficient monies exist at
the time of the award, the affected State unit
shall report this fact to the State comptroller,
who shall keep an accounting of all outstanding awards and report that accounting annually to the Governor, who shall include in the
State budget sufficient funds to pay all awards
made against the State under this section of
the State code.

Minimum wage. Because of requirements
included in legislation that was previously enacted, the State minimum wage was increased
to $6.55 per hour on July 24, 2008.
Miscellaneous. The State enacted legislation to establish paid-work-based learning
programs in which arrangements are made
between schools and employers to provide
students certain structured employer-supervised learning. The legislation allows a credit
against the State income tax and the tax on
insurance premiums for wages paid to each
student under an approved paid-work-based
learning program. Students must work 200 or
more hours before an employer is eligible to
claim a tax credit, which cannot exceed $1,500
per student. Further, the legislation defines a
“student” as “a person at least 16 years old, but
younger than 23, or who reaches the age of
23 while participating in an approved paidwork-based learning program, and who is
enrolled in a public or private secondary or
postsecondary school in the State.”
Time off. The definitions pertinent to the
State’s Flexible Leave Act were expanded to
provide clarification to employers and employees by defining the nature of the leave
to be used and how it is to be accounted for,
and, in accordance with any terms of a collective-bargaining agreement or employment
policy, to prohibit an employer from taking
certain actions against an employee for filing
a complaint, testifying against or assisting in
a certain action, and failing to comply with
other provisions related to the State Flexible
Leave Act. The relevant new definitions are as
follows: (a) an employer is a person who employs 15 or more individuals and is engaged in
a business, industry, profession, trade, or other
enterprise in the State; (b) a person’s immediate family includes a child, spouse, and parent; and (c) leave with pay includes sick leave,
vacation time, and compensatory time and is
time away from work for which an employee
receives compensation. These amendments
refer to employers who provide leave with
pay under a collective-bargaining agreement
or employment policy. An employee may use
leave with pay for the illness of the employee’s
immediate family. An employee may only use
leave with pay that has been earned and may
designate the type and amount of leave with
pay to be used. If the terms of a collectivebargaining agreement or employment policy
provide a leave-with-pay benefit that is equal
to or greater than the benefit provided by this
act, the collective-bargaining agreement or
employment policy prevails. An employer may
not discharge, demote, suspend, discipline,
otherwise discriminate against, or threaten to
take any actions against an employee who files
a complaint against, testifies against, or assists
in an action brought against the employer for

a violation of this act. These specifications
regarding leave with pay do not affect leave
granted under the Federal Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 and went into effect on
October 1, 2008.
Worker privacy. The authorization for data
collection and reporting requirements by the
State commissioner of labor and industry
concerning labor and employment pay disparity data has been amended. The commissioner
may now collect and analyze data concerning
the racial classification of employees and the
gender of employees so that the data may be
used to study pay disparity issues. The commissioner shall report to the State general
assembly on or before October 1, 2013, regarding the analysis of the data collected and
analyzed. The requirement took effect on October 1, 2008, and shall remain effective for a
period of 5 years and 3 months. At the end
of December 31, 2013, with no further action
required by the general assembly, the requirement shall cease.
Michigan
Independent contractor. Employers in the
State and elsewhere too often misclassify
individuals they hire as independent contractors, even when those individuals should legally be classified as employees. In doing so,
the employer may be violating a number of legal obligations under State and Federal labor,
employment, and tax laws. A State Executive
order created the State Interagency Task Force
on Employee Misclassification as an advisory
body within the State Department of Labor
and Economic Growth. The task force shall
examine and evaluate existing employee misclassification enforcement mechanisms in the
State and other jurisdictions and shall make
recommendations for more effective enforcement mechanisms. The task force also shall (1)
create a system for sharing information, (2)
establish a protocol through which individual
task force member agencies may refer relevant
matters to other member agencies for assessment of potential liability under other relevant
authority, (3) identify barriers to information
sharing, (4) facilitate the pooling, focusing,
and targeting of investigative resources, (5)
develop strategies for systematically investigating employee misclassification, (6) establish joint investigatory strategies and enforcement teams where applicable, and (7) provide
assistance to workers who have been exploited
by employee misclassification. In addition,
the task force shall work at increasing public
awareness of employee misclassification and
shall establish procedures for soliciting referrals or information from the public, including
through a telephone hot line. Finally, the task
force shall issue a report to the Governor on
July 1 of each year, detailing its accomplishMonthly Labor Review • January 2009 17

State Labor Laws, 2008

ments, identifying any administrative or legal
barriers that might impede its effective operation, and recommending executive or legislative
measures to improve enforcement of employee
misclassification.
Minimum wage. Because of requirements
included in previously enacted legislation, the
State minimum wage was increased to $7.40
per hour on July 1, 2008.
Minnesota
Immigrant protection. The State Governor
ordered that measures be implemented to
ensure that all newly hired executive branch
employees are legally eligible to work. As a
result, the State commissioner of administration will implement procedures to ensure
that State contracts in excess of $50,000 are
awarded to vendors that are in compliance
with Federal employment verification laws.
Those procedures will include (1) developing
language for State contracts which certifies
that the vendor and any of its subcontractors
are complying with the Immigration Reform
and Control Act of 1986 in relation to employees performing work in the United States
and that the vendor and its subcontractors are
not knowingly employing persons in violation
of U.S. immigration laws; (2) requiring that, as
of the date on which services on behalf of the
State will be performed, vendors and any of
their subcontractors will have implemented or
will be in the process of implementing the everify program for all newly hired employees
who will perform work on behalf of the State;
and (3) developing language for State contracts that allows the State to terminate the
contract or debar the vendor (or both) if the
commissioner determines that the vendor or
the subcontractor within control of the vendor
has knowingly employed ineligible workers in
violation of the Federal immigration laws. To
the extent consistent with State law, the State
commissioner of employment and economic
development will establish procedures for recipients of business subsidies to certify their
compliance with the Immigration Reform
and Control Act in relation to employees performing work in the United States.
Illegal immigration and criminal activity related to illegal immigration are serious
problems for the State. Local, State, and
Federal authorities need to work on a cooperative basis to combat criminal activity. The
Immigration and Customs Enforcement
(ICE) of the Federal Department of Homeland Security has developed programs to allow State and local law enforcement officials
to work cooperatively with Federal officials.
The State Governor directed the State commissioners of public safety, corrections, and
commerce to take appropriate actions and
18

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

enter into the necessary agreements to work
cooperatively as part of the Agreement of Cooperation in Communities to Enhance Safety
and Security program. This agreement will allow immigration cross-designation (pursuant to
section 287(g)) of the Federal Immigration and
Nationality Act, as well as allow a select number
of State law enforcement officers working with
ICE to assist ICE in enforcing Federal customs
laws as part of the ICE task force operations relating to narcotics smuggling; money laundering;
human smuggling and trafficking; perpetrating
fraud; and targeting, dismantling, and seizing
illicit proceeds from criminal organizations that
exploit the immigration process through identity
theft and fraud.
Worker privacy. The State Statutes 2007
Supplement, Section 325E.59, was amended
by the inclusion of a clarification of the activities that may not be performed by a person or
entity, not including a government entity. The
selling of Social Security numbers obtained
from individuals in the course of business is
now prohibited. However, if the release of
such numbers is incidental to a larger transaction and is necessary to identify the individual
in order to accomplish a legitimate business
purpose, or if the release is for the purpose of
marketing, then the release does not constitute selling. Social Security numbers may be
included in applications and forms sent by
mail, including documents sent as part of an
application or enrollment process; documents
that seek to establish, amend, or terminate
an account, a contract, or a policy; and documents that seek to confirm the accuracy of the
Social Security number. The number may not
be included on the outside of a mailing or in
the bulk mailing of a credit card solicitation
offer. Access must be restricted so that only
an agency’s employees, agents, or contractors
who require access to records containing the
number in order to perform their job duties
are able to obtain the information.
Mississippi
Immigrant protection. The legislature declared that it is a compelling public interest
of the State to discourage illegal immigration
by requiring all agencies within the State to
cooperate fully with Federal immigration
authorities in the enforcement of Federal immigration laws. Thus, the State Employment
Protection Act was enacted. The act requires
employers in the State to hire only legal
citizens or legal aliens of the United States.
Every employer shall register with and utilize the e-verify system to verify the Federal
employment authorization status of all newly
hired employees. It shall be a discriminatory
practice for an employer to discharge an employee working in the State who is a citizen
or permanent resident alien of the United

States while retaining an employee who the
employing entity knows, or reasonably should
have known, is an unauthorized alien hired
after July 1, 2008, and who is working in a job
category that requires equal skill, effort, and
responsibility, and that is performed under
similar working conditions, as the job category
held by the discharged employee. An employing entity that, on the date of the discharge in
question, was enrolled in and used the e-verify
system to verify the employment eligibility of
its employees in the State after July 1, 2008,
shall be exempt from liability, investigation,
or suit arising from any action under the
act. Employers who violate the provisions of
the act shall be subject to the cancellation of
any State or public contract, resulting in ineligibility, for up to 3 years, for any State or
public contract; the loss, for up to 1 year, of
any license, permit, certificate, or other document granted to the employer by any agency
department or government entity for the right
to do business in the State; or both.
Inmate labor. The State Code of 1972 concerning the employment of county-housed State
inmates or of county prisoners was amended. It
is now lawful for the State, a county within the
State, or a municipality of the State to provide
prisoners for public-service work for churches
according to criteria approved by the State Department of Corrections.
Missouri
Independent contractor. Legislation was enacted that authorized the State attorney general (1) to investigate any alleged or suspected
violations of an employer’s knowingly misclassifying a worker and the employer’s failure to
claim that worker and (2) to seek an injunction
prohibiting the employer from engaging in
such conduct. The State shall have the burden
of proving that the employer misclassified the
worker. If it is found that an employer knowingly misclassified a worker, the court may enter a judgment in favor of the State and award
penalties in the amount of $50 per day per misclassified worker, up to a maximum of $50,000.
In awarding State contracts in excess of $5,000,
businesses must reaffirm their enrollment in a
Federal work authorization program, with employers working in connection with the services
contracted. Employers must be able to verify
the employment eligibility of every employee
in the employer’s hire whose employment
commences after the employer enrolls in the
work authorization program. General contractors and subcontractors will not be held liable.
The legislation also deems it unlawful for the
purposes of trafficking to knowingly transport,
move, or attempt to transport, within the State,
any alien who is not lawfully present in the
United States.

Minimum wage. As a result of legislation
enacted in a previous year in which the State
minimum wage was indexed to inflation, the
State minimum wage was increased to $7.05
per hour on January 1, 2009.
Worker privacy. In new legislation, the State
mandates that employers are not allowed to
require any employee to have a personal identification microchip implanted into his or her
person for any reason. Employers who violate
this mandate will be found guilty of a class A
misdemeanor. The legislation also prohibits an
employer from terminating an employee who
has been activated to a national disaster by
the Federal Emergency Management Agency
and, as a result, has been absent from or late
to work. Employees should make a reasonable effort to notify their employers that they
may be absent from or late to work due to an
emergency.
Montana
Minimum wage. The State minimum wage
was increased to $6.55 per hour on July 24,
2008, thus matching the Federal minimum
wage. As a result of legislation that was enacted in a previous year in which the State
minimum wage was indexed to inflation, the
State minimum wage was increased again, to
$6.90 per hour, on January 1, 2009.
Nebraska
Minimum wage. Because of requirements
included in legislation previously enacted, the
State minimum wage was increased to $6.55
per hour on July 24, 2008.
Time off. The State legislature also adopted
the Volunteer Emergency Responders Job
Protection Act. Under the act, employees
acting as volunteer emergency responders
shall make a reasonable effort to notify their
employers that they may be absent from or
report late to their place of employment in
order to respond to an emergency. No employer shall terminate or take any other disciplinary action against any employee who
is a volunteer emergency responder if such
employee is absent from or reports late to his
or her place of employment in order to respond to an emergency prior to the time the
employee is to report to the place of employment. However, an employer may subtract
from an employee’s earned wages an amount
of pay the employee would have earned during the time the employee was away from the
place of employment acting as a volunteer responding to an emergency. At an employer’s
request, an employee acting as a volunteer
emergency responder who is absent from or
reports late to the place of employment in or-

der to respond to an emergency shall provide
the employer, within 7 days of such request,
a written statement, signed by the individual
in charge of the volunteer department or
some other authorized person, that includes
appropriate information about the date and
time of the emergency in which the employee
participated as a volunteer. An employee who
is wrongfully terminated or against whom
any disciplinary action is taken in violation of
the act shall be immediately reinstated to his
or her former position without any reduction
in wages, seniority, or other benefits and shall
receive any lost wages or other benefits, if
applicable, during any period for which such
termination or other disciplinary action was
in effect. An action to enforce the act may be
brought by the employee.
New Hampshire
Child labor. Legislation was enacted to clarify
the conditions and requirements for persons
who are 16 and 17 years of age to train and be
employed as firefighters. The legislation places
limits on youth training and employment,
including the following: (1) no youth under
the age of 16 shall be employed or permitted
to work in firefighting, except when the youth
is enrolled in an explorer program approved
by the State Department of Labor; (2) when
any youth is employed or permitted to work in
support of firefighting, fire organizations must
follow Federal orders regulating youth employment in hazardous occupations at all times
and in all places; (3) the supervisory person
responsible for following the youth requirements must be the chief authority of the fire
organization or his or her designee; (4) youths
will not be employed at any task or duty in support of firefighting if they have not completed
the required training; and (5) the rules adopted
by the commissioner of labor must be followed
by fire organizations when employing or permitting 16- or 17-year-old youths to work in
support of firefighting. In addition, the legislation sets minimum training requirements
for youths working in support of firefighting
and requires an identification card to be issued
upon completion of training.
Minimum wage. Because of requirements
included in legislation that was previously enacted, the State minimum wage was increased
to $7.25 per hour on September 1, 2008.
Overtime. The State clarified the regular rate
of compensation for an employee. The rate is
one-fortieth of the weekly remuneration of
delivery drivers or sales merchandisers covered under the provisions of the Fair Labor
Standards Act. Exceptions will be made for
those employees who are exempt under provisions of the Act.

New Jersey
Equal employment opportunity. Legislation was
enacted that made it unlawful to discriminate
against employees because of their religious
practices. Employers may not impose upon a
person, as a condition of obtaining or retaining
employment, including opportunities for promotion, advancement, or transfers, any terms or
conditions that would require the person to violate or forego a sincerely held religious practice
or observance, including, but not limited to, the
observance of any particular day or days or any
portion thereof as a Sabbath or other holy day in
accordance with the requirements of the religion
or the religious belief. This condition is applicable
unless the employer is able to demonstrate that
it is unable to reasonably accommodate the employee’s religious observance or practice without
undue hardship on the conduct of the employer’s
business. The enacted legislation does not affect
the ability of the employer to require employees
to adhere to reasonable workplace appearance,
grooming, and dress standards not precluded by
other provisions of State or Federal law, except
that the employer shall allow an employee to
appear, groom, and dress consistently with the
employee’s gender identity or expression.
Family issues. The State’s temporary disability insurance provisions were extended
to provide temporary disability leave benefits
for workers caring for sick family members
or for newborn or newly adopted children.
Qualified workers will be entitled to receive
6 weeks of temporary disability leave benefits
when providing care certified to be necessary for a family member suffering a serious
health condition as defined by State statute.
Employees are required to give at least 30
days’ prior notice, except when unforeseeable
circumstances prevent such notice. When
possible, employees also should schedule the
leave in a manner that minimizes any disruption in employer operations and should give
15 days’ prior notice for leave that is intermittent. Employees are required to take benefits
provided under the bill concurrently with
any unpaid leave taken under the State Family Leave Act (P.L. 1989) or the Family and
Medical Leave Act of 1993 (Pub.L.103–3).
The legislation provides that the collection of
an assessment on employees to pay for family
temporary disability leave benefits commence
on January 1, 2009, and that the payment
of family leave benefits commence on July
1, 2009. During 2009, the bill will raise revenues necessary to pay the benefits through
an assessment of 0.09 percent of the portion
of each worker’s wages subject to temporary
disability leave taxes. In 2010 and subsequent
years, the rate will be 0.12 percent. The funds
raised thereby would be deposited into an account to be used only for family leave benefits
and their administration, including the cost
Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 19

State Labor Laws, 2008

of an outreach program to eligible employees
and the cost of issuing annual reports on the
use of the benefits. In addition, the legislation
increases the penalties for misrepresentations,
fraud, and other violations regarding the
family temporary disability benefit program
established by the bill. Penalties for knowingly making a false statement or knowingly
failing to disclose a material fact in order to
improperly obtain benefits or avoid paying
benefits or taxes are increased from $20 to
$250 per statement or nondisclosure. Penalties for other willful violations of the law are
increased from $50 to $500, and additional
penalties for violations with intent to defraud
the program are increased from no less than
$250 to no more than $1,000.
Miscellaneous. The State Senate memorialized the Congress of the United States to
enact legislation requiring the annual publication of a list of companies outsourcing jobs
to other countries. Such a requirement would
raise public awareness and allow State and local governments to prepare initiatives targeted
toward keeping companies from outsourcing
critical U.S. jobs.
Plant closing. The State Revised Statutes
concerning prenotification of certain plant
closings, transfers, and mass layoffs were
amended. The amendment affects employers
who employ 100 or more full-time employees for not less than 60 days or for the period
required pursuant to the Federal Worker Adjustment and Retraining Act or pursuant to
any amendment thereto, whichever is longer.
Before the first termination of employment
occurs in connection with a termination or
transfer of plant operations or a mass layoff,
such employers must provide notification of
the termination or transfer of operations or
the mass layoff to the State commissioner of
labor and workforce development, the chief
elected official of the municipality in which
the establishment is located, each employee
whose employment is to be terminated, and
any collective-bargaining units of employees
in the establishment.
Prevailing wage. The State Economic Development Authority shall adopt rules and
regulations requiring that workers employed
in the performance of construction contracts,
including contracts for millwork fabrication
under the authority of financial assistance by
the State, be paid at a rate not less than the
prevailing-wage rate. This requirement also
shall apply to the performance of any contract
to construct, renovate, or otherwise prepare a
facility for operations necessary for the receipt
of authorized State financial assistance, unless
the work is performed on a facility owned by a
landlord of the entity receiving the assistance
20

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

and less than 55 percent of the facility is leased
by the entity at the time of the contract and
under any agreement to subsequently lease the
facility. The prevailing wage rate shall be the
rate determined by the State commissioner of
labor and workforce development. The prevailing wage shall not be paid for construction
commencing more than 2 years after an entity
has executed a commitment letter regarding
authorized financial assistance with the State
and the first payment or other provision of the
assistance is received.
When a public utility in the State is undergoing construction of some kind, the classification “construction” will refer to construction, reconstruction, installation, demolition,
restoration, or alteration of facilities of the
public utility. This classification shall not include operational work such as flagging, plowing snow, managing vegetation in and around
utility rights-of-way, marking out boundaries
or roads, performing janitorial services, landscaping, surveying leaks, performing meter
work, and making miscellaneous repairs. Any
construction contractor contracting with a
public utility to engage in construction work
on that utility shall employ, on the site, only
employees who have successfully completed
safety training certified by the Occupational
Safety and Health Administration and required for work to be performed on that site.
Any employee employed by a construction
contractor to work on a public utility shall be
paid the wage rate for that employee’s craft
or trade, as determined by the State commissioner of labor and workforce development
pursuant to the provisions of the State Prevailing Wage Act. A construction contractor
who is regulated under the provisions of Title
48 of the State Revised Statutes and is found
by the commissioner to be in violation of this
statute shall be subject to the provisions that
apply to an employer for violation of the public law.
Time off. At present, a leave of absence with
pay is given to every police office or firefighter
who is a duly authorized representative of
certain specified organizations to attend any
State or national convention of the organization. The leave of absence is for the duration
of the convention, with a reasonable time allowed for travel to and from the affair. New
legislation now includes the following organizations as well: the State Patrolmen’s Benevolent Association, Inc.; Fraternal Order of
Police; Firemen’s Mutual Benevolent Association; Fire Fighters Association of New Jersey;
and State Association of Chiefs of Police.
Also included are any corrections officer who
is a member of the Italian American Police
Society, any affiliate of the International Association of Black Professional Firefighters,
and the National Association of Hispanic
Firefighters. Upon request, a certificate of at-

tendance shall be submitted by the representative who is attending the convention.
At no time shall a person holding any office, position, or employment other than for a
fixed term or period under the government of
the State, under the government of any county,
municipality, school district, or other political
subdivision of the State, or under any board,
body, agency, or commission of the State or any
county, municipality, or school district thereof
be laid off from employment if such person
has been on a military leave of absence for active service in the Armed Forces of the United
States in time of war or emergency. If the
employer’s circumstances have so changed for
reasons of economy or efficiency or for some
other, related reason as to make it impossible
or unreasonable for such person who entered
service in time of war or other emergency to resume the office, position, or employment held
prior to entry into such service, the employer
shall restore the person to a position of like
seniority, status, and pay, or, if requested by the
person, to any position available for which the
person is able and qualified to perform the duties. Such person shall not be entitled to layoff
protection if the person voluntarily continues
military service beyond the time that he or she
is eligible to be released from the service.
Wages paid. When a contract between a
principal and a sales representative to solicit
orders is terminated, the commissions and
other compensation earned as a result of the
representative relationship, but remaining
unpaid, shall become due and payable within
30 days of the date the contract is terminated
or within 30 days of the date commissions are
due, whichever is later. A sales representative
shall receive commissions on goods ordered
up to and including the last day of the contract, even if such goods are accepted by the
principal, delivered, and paid for after the end
of the agreement. The commissions shall become due and payable within 30 days after
payment would have been due under the contract if the contract had not been terminated.
A principal who violates or fails to comply
with the provisions of this act shall be liable to
the sales representative for all amounts due, for
exemplary damages in an amount 3 times the
amount of commissions owed to the sales representative, for all attorneys’ fees actually and
reasonably incurred by the sales representative
in any action pursued, and for all court costs.
In case of any court action, should the court
determine that the action against the principal is frivolous, the sales representative shall
be liable to the principal for all attorneys’ fees
and assorted costs incurred.
Workplace security. Under an amendment to
the State Public Law, no employee of a public
utility who is in possession of any identification badge, as provided for by the State Public

Law, shall loan, allow, or permit any other
person to use or display such identification
badge; in case of the loss of any such badge,
the employee shall notify the public utility
forthwith of such loss and the circumstances
surrounding the same. Any employee who
shall display or use the identification badge of
a public-utility employee for the purpose of
deceiving any person as to his or her identity
shall be guilty of a crime of the fourth degree,
punishable by imprisonment for up to 18
months, a fine of $10,000, or both. Persons
who knowingly sell, offer or expose for sale,
or otherwise transfer, or who possess with
the intent to sell, offer or expose for sale, or
otherwise transfer, a document, printed form,
or other writing that falsely purports to be a
public-utility employee identification badge
required under provisions of the State Public Law and that could be used as a means of
verifying a person’s identity as a public-utility
employee is guilty of a crime in the second
degree.
The State Waterfront Commission Act
was amended in order to clarify the grounds
for denial of license applications and revocation of licenses, as well as to provide for the
postponement of certain hearings. The commission has the authority to deny an application for a license or registration for a variety
of reasons, including association with a person
who has been identified by a Federal, State,
or local law enforcement agency as a member
or an associate of an organized crime group,
a terrorist group, or a career offender cartel.
The amended act defines a terrorist group as
either (1) a group associated or affiliated with,
or funded in whole or in part by, an organization designated as a terrorist organization by
the U.S. Secretary of State in accordance with
Section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended from time to time, or
(2) any other organization that assists, funds,
or engages in crimes or acts of terrorism as
defined in the laws of the United States, of
the State of New Jersey, or of the State of
New York. A person whose permit, license, or
registration has been temporarily suspended
may, at any time, demand that the commission conduct a hearing as provided for in the
act. Upon failure of the commission to commence a hearing or render a determination
within the time limits prescribed by the act,
the temporary suspension of the permittee,
licensee, or registrant shall immediately terminate. Notwithstanding other provisions of
the act, if a Federal, State, or local law enforcement agency or prosecutor’s office shall
request the suspension or deferment of any
hearing on the ground that such a hearing
would obstruct or prejudice an investigation
or prosecution, the commission may, in its
discretion, postpone or defer such hearing
for a certain length of time or indefinitely.
Any action by the commission to postpone a

hearing shall be subject to immediate judicial
review as provided within the contents of this
act.
New Mexico
Inmate labor. Research has shown that
obtaining gainful employment for a person
released from prison is a key factor in rehabilitation, reducing recidivism, and ensuring
the safety and security of the State’s citizens.
Further, these individuals encounter many
barriers when they seek employment or a
lawful trade, occupation, or profession. The
legislators of the State House of Representatives resolved that each State agency cooperate with the State Department of Workforce
Solutions and the task force formed in 2007
to serve as a catalyst for helping to remove
barriers to employment and to comply with
all the provisions of the State Criminal Offender Employment Act.
Minimum wage. An amendment to the State
Minimum Wage Act changed the definitions
of “employer” and “employee” to exclude State
and political subdivisions from all parts of the
act except that section which sets the minimum wage. The amendment applies only to
the provisions for governing how overtime is
calculated and does not exclude State and local governments from having to pay the minimum wage, which rose to $7.50 per hour on
January 1, 2009.
New York
Agriculture. The State private housing finance law was amended to offer assistance for
the improvement of existing housing for farmworkers by providing advances to local loan
administrators to make loans to agricultural
producers in order to construct or improve
nonconforming farmworker housing. Under
the amended section of the law, agricultural
producers are defined as those persons who
produce food by the tillage of the soil or who
raise, shear, feed, or manage animals or other
dairying processes.
Department of labor. The duties of the State
commissioner of labor relating to the promulgation of rules and regulations regarding the
employment and education of child performers
were amended. The commissioner shall promulgate such rules and regulations as shall be
necessary and proper to effectuate the purposes
of State statutes, including, but not limited to,
the promulgation of regulations determining
the hours and conditions of work necessary to
safeguard the health, education, morals, and
general welfare of child performers.
Health care overtime. Regularly scheduled

work hours shall refer to those hours a nurse
has agreed to work and is normally scheduled
to work pursuant to the budgeted hours allocated to the nurse’s position by the employer.
If no such allocation system exists, some other
measure generally used by the employer to
determine when an employee is minimally
supposed to work that is consistent with the
collective-bargaining agreement shall be used.
Oncall time cannot be used as a substitute for
mandatory overtime, and no employer shall
require a nurse to work more than that nurse’s
regularly scheduled work hours. A nurse can
be called to service in the case of a natural
health care disaster that unexpectedly affects
the county in which the nurse is employed or
any contiguous county and increases the need
for health care personnel. A Federal, State or
county declaration of emergency may be used
to call personnel to extra service, provided
that a good-faith effort has been made to
have overtime covered on a voluntary basis.
An ongoing medical or surgical procedure in
which a nurse is actively involved and whose
continued presence through the completion
of the procedure is needed is a reason to demand that a nurse stay on the job and not risk
abandoning the patient. Also, the refusal of a
licensed practical nurse or a registered professional nurse to work beyond regularly scheduled hours shall not solely constitute patient
abandonment or neglect.
Plant closing. As part of the amended State
Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act, and as a result of relocation or
consolidation of part or all of an employer’s
business, the employer is required to give
notice of any impending mass layoff, relocation, or employment loss. A plant closing is a
permanent or temporary shutdown of a single
site of employment or of one or more facilities or operating units within a single site of
employment. The employer is required to give
at least a 90-day notification to the affected
employees and their representatives. Such notice is not required if the employment loss is
necessitated by a physical calamity or an act
of terrorism or war. The mailing of a notice
to an employee’s last known address by either
first-class or certified mail or the inclusion of
a notice in an employee’s paycheck shall be
considered an acceptable method for fulfilling
the employer’s obligation to give appropriate
notice to affected employees.
Prevailing wage. Legislation was enacted
that amended the labor law and general municipal law of the State relating to guaranteeing
payment of prevailing wages to the workers of
the State. Any person contracting with the
State, with a public-benefit corporation, with
a municipal corporation, or with a commission
appointed pursuant to law and who shall require more than 8 hours’ work for a day’s labor,
Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 21

State Labor Laws, 2008

unless otherwise permitted by law, is guilty of
a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof,
shall be punished in accordance with the penal law for each offense. Notwithstanding the
foregoing, the department of jurisdiction may
release, to third parties who were not themselves involved in the violations, monies due
and owing on the contract or subcontract that
have not been withheld for the sole purpose of
satisfying the contractor’s or subcontractor’s
obligations under the contract or subcontract.
Every contract for a public-works project shall
contain a term stating that the filing of payrolls in a manner consistent with State law is
a condition precedent to payment of any sums
due and owing to any person for work done
on the project. The department of jurisdiction is defined as the department of the State,
board, or officer in the State, or the particular
law, whose duty it is to prepare or direct the
preparation of the plans and specifications for
a public-works project. Each department of
jurisdiction shall designate, in writing, an individual employed by such department as the
person responsible for the receipt, collection,
and review for facial validity of payrolls. Finally, any person or corporation that conspires
to prevent competitive bidding on a contract
for public work or purchase that is advertised
for bidding shall be guilty of a misdemeanor
under the law.
The State labor law and general municipal law relating to guaranteeing payment of
prevailing wages to workers in the State were
amended. Any person participating in a public-works project in the capacity of a contractor
or subcontractor and who willfully fails to pay
or provide the prevailing wage rate for wages
or supplements owed shall be guilty of a Class
A misdemeanor when such failure results in
underpayments that, in the aggregate amount
to all workers employed by such person, results in an amount due of less than $25,000;
shall be guilty of a Class E felony when the
amount due is greater than $25,000; shall be
guilty of a Class D felony when the amount
due is greater than $100,000; and shall be
guilty of a Class C felony when the amount
due is greater than $500,000. Any person convicted of a second such offense within 5 years
shall disgorge profits and shall not be entitled
to receive any monies due and owing on the
contract or subcontract, nor shall any officer,
agent, or employee of the department of jurisdiction or its financial officer pay to such
person any such monies without the written
approval of the department fiscal officer or
without a court order by a court of competent jurisdiction. Contractors and subcontractors shall keep original payrolls or transcripts
thereof, subscribed and sworn to or affirmed
by the aforementioned department fiscal officer as true under the penalties of perjury.
If the contractor or subcontractor maintains
no regular place of business in the State, and
22

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

if the amount of the contract is in excess of
$25,000, such payrolls shall be kept on the site
of the work. Any person who willfully fails to
file such payroll records with the department
of jurisdiction shall be guilty of a Class E
felony. In addition, any person who fails to file
such payroll records within the time specified
by law shall be subject to a civil penalty of up
to $5,000 per day.
Utility companies and their contractors
and subcontractors who are required to use or
open a street as a condition of issuance of a
permit must agree that none but competent
workers who are skilled in the work required
of them shall be employed for those positions.
Further, the prevailing scale of union wages
shall be the prevailing wage for the similar
titles established by the fiscal officer of the
utility and its contractors and subcontractors.
The department fiscal officer also has the responsibility of keeping original payroll records
or transcripts, subscribed and sworn to or affirmed by him or her as true under the penalty
of perjury. The records shall include the names
and addresses of each employee, laborer, or
mechanic and, for each of them, shall show
the hours and days worked, the occupations
worked, the hourly wage rates paid, and the
supplements paid or provided.
Time off. The State labor law relating to
employers permitting a leave of absence for
blood donation granted to certain employees
was amended. The law now requires an employer, at its option, to (1) grant 3 hours’ leave
of absence in any 12-month period to an employee who seeks to donate blood or (2) allow
its employees, without using any accumulated
leave time, to donate blood during work hours
at least 2 times per year at a convenient time
and place set by the employer. Condition (2)
includes allowing an employee to participate
in a blood drive at the employee’s place of
employment.
Worker privacy. Among the amendments to
the State’s executive, general-business, public-officers, and penal and criminal procedure
law were changes to the labor law to protect
the identity of the employee and any personal
identifying information. An employer now
may not publicly post or display an employee’s
Social Security number, visibly print a Social
Security number in files with unrestricted access, or communicate an employee’s personal
identifying information to the general public.
Personal identifying information shall include
one’s Social Security number, home address
or telephone number, personal electronic mail
address, Internet identification name or password, parent’s surname prior to marriage, and
drivers’ license number. The Social Security
number shall not be used as an identification
number for any occupational licensing. The

commissioner may impose a civil penalty of
up to $500 on any employer for knowingly
violating this law.
North Carolina
Minimum wage. Because of requirements
included in legislation enacted earlier, the
State minimum wage was increased to $6.55
on July 24, 2008.
Whistleblower. The State added agricultural
workers to those protected against discrimination and retaliation in the workplace by
employers if the employee files a complaint;
initiates an inquiry, investigation, inspection,
proceeding, or action; or testifies against or
provides information to any person.
North Dakota
Minimum wage. Because of requirements
included in previously enacted legislation, the
State minimum wage was increased to $6.55
per hour on July 24, 2008.
Ohio
Minimum wage. As a result of legislation
that was enacted in a previous year in which
the State minimum wage was indexed to inflation, the State minimum wage was increased
to $7.30 per hour on January 1, 2009.
Oklahoma
Minimum wage. Because of requirements
included in previously enacted legislation, the
State minimum wage was increased to $6.55
per hour on July 24, 2008.
Unfair labor practice. The State legislature
created the State Freedom of Conscience Act,
which prohibits employers from discriminating against certain persons for refusing to perform specified acts on the basis of certain of
their beliefs. Employers shall not discriminate
against employees or prospective employees
by refusing to reasonably accommodate a religious observance or practice of the employee or
prospective employee, unless the employer can
demonstrate that the accommodation would
pose an undue hardship on the program, enterprise, or business of the employer in certain
circumstances. No health care facility, school, or
employer shall discriminate against any person
with regard to admission; hiring or firing; tenure; terms, conditions, or privileges of employment; student status; or staff status on grounds
that the person refuses or states an intention to
refuse, whether or not in writing, to participate
in an activity specified by statute if the refusal is
based on religious or moral precepts.

Oregon
Minimum wage. As a result of legislation
that was enacted in a previous year in which
the State minimum wage was indexed to inflation, the State minimum wage was increased
to $8.40 per hour on January 1, 2009.
Wages paid. The State Revised Statutes were
amended to exclude from the definition of the
term “employment” those services provided in
conjunction with skiing activities or events for
a nonprofit employing unit by a person who
receives no remuneration other than ski passes
for the services provided. The amended statute
also redefined the term “employee” to exclude
those individuals who receive no wage other
than ski passes or other noncash remuneration
for performing volunteer ski-patrol activities
or ski-area program activities sponsored by a
ski-area operator or by a nonprofit corporation or organization. In addition, the redefinition of the term “employee” now excludes any
individual who is registered with the National
Ski Patrol or a similar nonprofit ski-patrol organization as a nonprofessional ski patroller
and who receives no wage other than passes
authorizing access to, and use of, a ski area for
performing ski-patrol services, including, but
not limited to, services related to preserving
the safety of, and providing information to,
skiers or snowboarders.
Worker privacy. The scope of public records
exempted from disclosure was expanded to
include records of the home address and home
telephone number of any public-safety officer
listed in the records of the State Department
of Public Safety Standards and Training if
said officer requests such an exemption.
Pennsylvania
Overtime health care. Individuals who, as a
condition of employment, have agreed to be
available to return to the place of employment
on short notice if the need arises shall do
so in the event of an unforeseeable declared
national, State, or municipal emergency that
is unpredictable or unavoidable and that will
substantially affect the provision of or the
need for health care services. The employer
must make reasonable efforts (1) to seek persons who will volunteer to work extra time
from all available qualified staff working at
the time of the unforeseeable emergency, (2)
to contact all qualified employees who have
made themselves available to work extra time,
(3) to seek the use of per diem staff, or (4) to
seek personnel from a contracted temporary
agency. The health care facility shall neither
require an employee to work in excess of an
agreed-upon predetermined and regularly
scheduled daily work shift nor prevent an

employee from voluntarily accepting work in
excess of these limitations. An employee who
refuses to accept overtime shall not be subjected to discrimination, dismissal, discharge,
or any other employment decision adverse to
the employee. The State Department of Labor
and Industry may levy an administrative fine
on a health care facility or employer that violates this regulation, and the fine shall be not
less than $100 or more than $1,000 for each
violation.
Puerto Rico
Discharge. Legislation was enacted to discourage the incidence of employee discharge
without just cause and to provide discharged
employees with some resources that would
enable them to make a reasonable transition
to a new workplace. The allowance for compensation and progressive indemnity for discharge without good cause shall be computed
on the basis of the highest number of regular
working hours of the employee during any
period of 30 consecutive calendar days within
the year immediately preceding the discharge.
Employees who are discharged due to technological changes or reorganization or due to
the total or partial ceasing of operations of an
enterprise are excluded from the compensation called for by the legislation.
Equal employment opportunity. The Commonwealth law concerning equal employment opportunity was amended to ensure that
neither employers nor their establishments
perform any discriminatory act. If such an act
of discrimination should be committed, the
entity performing the discrimination will be
charged with a misdemeanor and will receive
a fine of not more than $5,000, 90 days’ incarceration, or both.
Wages paid. Legislation was enacted to permit employers to deduct or withhold part of
the salary earned by an employee when the
employee authorizes the employer, in writing,
to deduct an amount from the wages due as
a contribution, gift, or donation to the fundraising campaigns of the University of Puerto
Rico.
Rhode Island
Prevailing wage. All general contractors
and subcontractors who perform work on any
public-works contract awarded by the State
and valued at $1,000,000 or more shall employ apprentices for the performance of the
contract. The number of apprentices shall
comply with the apprentice-to-journeyman
ratio for each trade approved by the apprenticeship council of the State Department of
Labor and Training.

Time off. The State General Laws were
amended by the legislative addition of the
State Military Family Relief Act. Employers in the State who employ between 15 and
50 employees shall provide up to 15 days of
unpaid family military leave to an employee
during the time Federal or State orders are in
effect. Any employer in the State who employs
more than 50 employees shall provide up to
30 days of unpaid family military leave during
the time Federal or State orders are in effect.
The employee shall give at least 14 days of
notice of the intended date upon which such
leave will commence if the leave consists of
5 or more consecutive workdays. Employees
taking less than 5 consecutive days shall give
the employer advance notice as is practicable.
Whenever possible, the employee shall consult with the employer to schedule the leave
so as not to unduly disrupt the operations of
the employer. An employee shall not take such
leave unless he or she has exhausted all accrued vacation leave, personal leave, compensatory leave, and any other leave that may be
granted, with the exception of sick leave and
disability leave. Employers shall not interfere
with, restrain, or deny an employee’s exercise
of or attempt to exercise the right to such leave
under the law. Employers shall not discharge,
fine, suspend, expel, discipline, or discriminate
in any manner against any employee who exercises his or her right under the law.
South Carolina
Immigrant protection. The State Code of Laws
was amended to enact the State Illegal Immigration Reform Act, requiring that every agency or political subdivision of the State verify
the lawful presence of any person 18 years or
older who has applied for State or local public benefits or public employment. On or after
January 1, 2009, every public employer shall
register and participate in the Federal work
authorization program to verify the authorization of all new employees. No contract will be
let with a public employer unless the contractor
and all levels of subcontractors agree to register
and participate in the Federal work authorization program. Alternatively, the contractors
and subcontractors may utilize another route
to verify employees—for example, by executing an affidavit that the person is a U.S. citizen
or an authorized alien. Individuals who possess
a valid State driver’s license or an identification
card issued by the State Department of Motor
Vehicles, or who are eligible to obtain either
one, may be employed. If the individual has a
valid driver’s license or identification card from
another State, the licensing requirements must
be deemed to be as strict as South Carolina’s.
The Web site of the State Department of Motor
Vehicles shall publish a list of States whose licensing requirements are at least as strict as those
of South Carolina. The employer is compliant
Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 23

State Labor Laws, 2008

with the act if appropriate documentation
is supplied in good faith and the contractor
certifies that the employer is compliant, in
which case neither of them may be sanctioned
or subject to any civil or administrative action
for employing an individual not authorized
for employment in the United States. A person who knowingly makes or files any false,
fictitious, or fraudulent document is guilty of
a felony and, upon conviction, must be fined
within the discretion of the court, imprisoned
for not more than 5 years, or both. A Memorandum of Understanding between the State
Law Enforcement Division and the U.S. Department of Justice or Department of Homeland Security will be instituted covering the
enforcement, detention, and deportation of
unlawful aliens and the training of State and
local law enforcement officials.
South Dakota
Minimum wage. Because of requirements
included in previously enacted legislation, the
State minimum wage was increased to $6.55
per hour on July 24, 2008.
Tennessee
Child labor. An exception to the restrictions
on the employment of minors between the
ages of 14 and 16 years has been established.
The general employment restrictions on minors would not apply to a minor 14 years or
older who is a student enrolled in a course of
study and training in a cooperative’s career and
technical training program, including a work
experience and career exploration program,
that is approved by the State Department of
Education and that complies with Federal law.
The student learner must be employed under
a written agreement, a copy of which must be
retained in the employer’s personnel records.
Drug and alcohol testing. The State Code Annotated was amended to include considerations
concerning drug testing performed on childcare
employees. All persons or entities operating a
childcare agency shall now establish drug-testing policies for employees, directors, licensees,
and operators providing services under contract or for remuneration and who have direct
contact with a child in the care of the agency.
The policy shall specify how testing should be
completed and shall provide for immediate
and effective enforcement action in the event
of a positive drug test. The policy shall be
made available to all persons upon their initial
employment, and its provisions must be satisfied prior to the employee’s engaging in any
transportation services. Drug testing is determinative if there is suspicion of drug usage by
agency personnel and if there are events that
may give rise to reasonable suspicion that em24  Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

ployees are engaged in the illegal use of drugs.
Among such events are a deterioration in job
performance or changes in personal traits or
characteristics; a reported observation of the
individual’s behavior in the work environment;
changes in personal behavior not attributable
to other factors; involvement in or contribution to an accident in which the use of drugs
is reasonably suspected, regardless of whether
the accident involves actual injury; and an
alleged violation of, or conviction for a violation of, criminal drug law statutes involving
illegal or prescription drugs. The agency shall
maintain drug-testing results for 5 years, and
the results shall be made immediately available
to the State Department of Human Services.
Individuals who are to be tested must pay the
appropriate fees necessary to obtain a drug test
pursuant to the agency’s policies. Drug-testing
results obtained under this act are confidential
and may be disclosed only for purposes of enforcement. Childcare agencies failing to comply with the regulation may be denied a license
or a license renewal, and ultimately the license
can be suspended or revoked. The act becomes
effective July 1, 2009.
Human trafficking. The State Code Annotated was amended by the addition of the
State Human Trafficking Act of 2007. The
amended legislation created Class B felony
trafficking offenses for activities in which a
person knowingly subjects another person to,
or maintains another person in, labor or sexual servitude or knowingly recruits, entices,
harbors, transports, provides, or obtains, by
any means, another person for the purpose
of labor or sexual servitude. The offense of
involuntary labor servitude is committed if
the person knowingly subjects, or attempts
to subject, another person to forced labor by
(1) causing or threatening to cause physical
harm to any person, (2) physically restraining
or threatening to physically restrain any person, (3) abusing or threatening to abuse the
law or legal process, (4) knowingly destroying, concealing, removing, confiscating, or
possessing any actual or purported government identification, including immigration
documents, or any other actual or purported
government identification document, of any
person, or (5) using blackmail or using or
threatening to cause financial harm for the
purpose of exercising financial control over
any person. The commission of an act of
involuntary servitude is a Class C felony. A
Class C felony for trafficking of persons occurs when a person knowingly (1) recruits,
entices, harbors, transports, provides, or obtains, by any means (or attempts to do so),
another person, intending or knowing that
the person will be subjected to involuntary
servitude or (2) benefits financially or by receiving anything of value from participation
in an involuntary-servitude venture that has

engaged in an act described in this paragraph
as involuntary labor servitude.
Time off. The State Code Annotated relative
was amended with regard to time off for volunteer firefighters. As amended, the code permits any employee who is an active volunteer
firefighter to leave work in order to respond to
fire calls during the employee’s regular hours
of employment, without loss of pay or any accumulated vacation time, sick leave, or earned
overtime. Such employee may be permitted to
take off the next scheduled work period within 12 hours following his or her response as a
vacation day or sick leave day without loss of
pay if the employee assisted in fighting the fire
for more than 4 hours. If the employee is not
entitled to such time off, the employee may be
permitted to take off the work period in question without pay. The employer may require
the employee to submit a written statement
from the chief of the volunteer fire department verifying that the employee responded
to a fire or was on call and specifying the date,
time, and duration of the response.
Worker privacy. State code now prohibits the
disclosure of home addresses, dates of birth,
telephone numbers, bank account information,
Social Security numbers, and driver’s license
information (unless operating a vehicle is part
of the employee’s job description or duties) of
State and local government employees, including law enforcement officers and the family
members of such exempted individuals.
The State Department of Labor and
Workforce Development is required to maintain the confidentiality of the identity of any
agency officer, employee, or entity filing a
complaint regarding the employment of illegal aliens. However, such information may
be discovered by a subpoena from a court of
record. In addition, the department commissioner or the commissioner’s designee shall inform the person against whom a complaint is
made that such person may request the name
of the complainant or, if the complaint is filed
by an agency or entity, the name of the person
who caused the complaint to be filed. If such
person requests such name, the commissioner
or the commissioner’s designee shall provide
the name requested.
Texas
Minimum wage. Because of requirements
included in previously enacted legislation, the
State minimum wage was increased to $6.55
per hour on July 24, 2008.
Utah
Human trafficking. Legislation was enacted
that criminalized human trafficking and hu-

man smuggling. Human smuggling is defined as the transportation or procurement of
transportation of one or more persons by an
individual who knows or has reason to know
that the person or persons transported or to
be transported are not (1) U.S. citizens, (2)
permanent resident aliens, or (3) otherwise
lawfully in the State or entitled to be in the
State. An individual commits human trafficking for forced labor or forced sexual exploitation by recruiting, harboring, transporting, or
obtaining a person through the use of force,
fraud, or coercion by various means, and the
activity is considered a second-degree felony,
except when it is deemed to be aggravated
in nature. Such human trafficking includes
forced labor in industrial areas, sweatshops,
households, agricultural enterprises, and any
other workplace. Human smuggling of one
or more human beings for profit or for a
commercial purpose is a third-degree felony,
except when it is considered aggravated in
nature. The activity is considered aggravated
in nature if (1) it involves the death of or serious bodily injury to the victim, (2) it involves
more than 10 victims in a single episode, (3) it
involves a victim who is held against his or her
will for more than 180 days, or (4) the victim
is younger than 18 years and, if the activity is
smuggling, the victim is not accompanied by a
family member who is 18 years or older. Aggravated offenses are considered first-degree
felonies.
Immigrant protections. Legislation was enacted that contains provisions related to the
immigration status of individuals within the
State. A number of those provisions deal with
employment issues. Effective July 1, 2009, a
public employer may not enter into a contract
with a contractor for the physical performance
of services within the State unless the contractor registers and participates in the e-verify
system of the Department of Homeland Security to verify the work eligibility status of the
contractor’s new employees who are employed
within the State. Contractors shall register and
participate in the e-verify system in order to
enter into a contract with a public employer.
The contractor is responsible for verifying the
employment status of only new employees who
work under its supervision or direction, and not
those who work for another contractor or subcontractor, except as provided under State law.
Each contractor or subcontractor who works
under or for another contractor shall certify to
the main contractor by affidavit that the contractor or subcontractor has verified, through
the e-verify system, the employment status of
each of its new employees. It is unlawful for an
employing entity in the State to discharge an
employee working in the State who is a U.S.
citizen or permanent resident alien and replace
the employee with, or have the employee’s
duties assumed by, an employee who (1) the

employing entity knows or reasonably should
have known is an unauthorized alien hired on
or after July 1, 2009, and (2) is working in the
State in a job category that requires skill, effort, and responsibility equal to, and that is
performed under working conditions similar
to, those of the job category held by the discharged employee. An employing entity that,
on the date of discharge in question, is enrolled in and using its e-verify system to verify
the employment eligibility of its employees in
the State who are hired after July 1, 2009, is
exempt from liability, investigation, or lawsuit
arising from an action under this law.
Independent contractors. The State legislature
enacted the State Independent Database Act,
which modifies State provisions related to
commerce. The act, created by the Independent Contractor Enforcement Council within
the State Department of Commerce, allows
an independent contractor database designed
by the council to be accessed by one or more
specified agencies, the State attorney general,
and the Department of Public Safety and will
become effective no later than July 1, 2009. It
is expected that the database will (1) reduce
costs to the State resulting from misclassification of workers as independent contractors,
(2) extend outreach and education efforts
regarding the nature and requirements of
independent contractors’ status, (3) promote
efficient and effective information sharing
among the member agencies, and (4) be coordinated with the State Uninsured Motorist
Identification Database. The database will be
used by accessing agencies to identify when
a person (1) holds him- or herself out as an
independent contractor or (2) engages in the
performance of work as an independent contractor not subject to an employer’s control.
The database shall include a process to compare the information against that found in
the State Uninsured Motorist Identification
Database, at least on a monthly basis, in order
to (1) identify a person who may be misclassified as an independent contractor and (2)
promote compliance with State and Federal
laws related to withholding taxes and making
payments for Social Security, Medicare, and
unemployment insurance, thereby preventing insurance fraud and ensuring payment of
overtime and minimum wages.
Minimum wage. Because of requirements
included in legislation previously enacted, the
State minimum wage was increased to $6.55
per hour on July 24, 2008.
Worker privacy. Legislation was adopted that
amended the Government Records Access
and Management Act to add protected status
to certain information if the information is
properly classified by a governmental entity.

Information containing the name, home address, work addresses, and telephone numbers
of an individual engaged in, or providing
goods or services for, medical or scientific research that is conducted within the State system of higher education and that uses animals
is protected from disclosure under the act if
the release of such information would jeopardize the life or safety of an individual.
Vermont
Minimum wage. As a result of legislation
enacted in a previous year in which the State
minimum wage was indexed to inflation, the
State minimum wage was increased to $8.06
per hour on January 1, 2009.
Time off. Employees shall have the right
to take unpaid leave from employment for
the purpose of attending a town meeting,
provided that they notify their employers at
least 7 days prior to the date of the meeting.
An employer shall not penalize the employee
for exercising the right provided by the State
Statutes Annotated.
State law relating to rights provided to
nursing mothers in the workplace was amended. Employers of employees who continue to
be nursing mothers for 3 years after the birth
of a child shall provide reasonable time, either
compensated or uncompensated, throughout
the day for the employee to express breast milk
for her nursing child. The employer has sole
discretion regarding the decision to provide
compensated time, unless the issue has been
moderated by a collective-bargaining agreement. In addition, the employer shall provide
appropriate private space, other than a bathroom, for such purpose. An employer may be
exempted from this requirement if providing
time or an appropriate private space for expressing breast milk would substantially disrupt the employer’s operations. An employer
shall not retaliate or discriminate against an
employee who exercises the aforesaid right.
An employer who violates the provisions described shall be assessed a civil penalty of not
more than $100 for each violation.
Whistleblower. The rights of whistleblowers,
as defined in the State Statutes Annotated,
were amended. A State employee employed as
a trustee and servant of the people shall now
be free to report (in good faith and with candor) waste, fraud, abuse of authority, violations
of law, or a threat to the health of employees,
the public, or persons under the care of the
State without fear of reprisal, intimidation,
or retaliation. Retaliatory action includes any
adverse performance or disciplinary action,
including discharge, suspension, reprimand,
demotion, denial of promotion, the imposition
of a warning period regarding the employee’s
Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 25

State Labor Laws, 2008

performance, and involuntary transfer or reassignment, that is given in retaliation for the
State employee’s involvement in a protected
activity as enumerated by the statute. In addition, no entity shall prohibit a State employee
from engaging in discussions with a member
of the State General Assembly or from testifying before a legislative committee, provided
that no confidential information is divulged
and that the employee is not speaking on
behalf of an entity of the State government.
There shall be no retaliatory action as a result
of the employee’s provision of information
to a legislator or legislative committee. No
protections, however, apply to statements provided that constitute hate speech or threats of
violence against a person. The employee has
a right to seek remedies should an action be
taken against him or her; however, if the claim
is filed with the State Labor Relations Board,
it may not also be brought before the Superior Court, but if it is filed with the Superior
Court, the claim may not appear before any
other process available to the employee. The
grievance shall be brought to the Superior
Court within 180 days of the date of the alleged retaliatory action. Through the Superior
Court, the employee may be reinstated to the
same position, seniority, and work location
held prior to the retaliatory action, as well as
to the same backpay, lost wages, benefits, and
other remuneration. In the event of a showing of a willful and egregious violation of this
legislation, the employee may be granted an
amount up to the amount of backpay, in addition to the actual backpay and other compensatory damages, including interest on backpay,
appropriate injunctive relief, and reasonable
costs and attorneys’ fees.
Virginia
Child labor. The State Code was amended
and now prohibits a minor who is under 18
years of age from being employed, or suffered
or permitted to work, as a driver of school
buses.
Immigrant protections. The State Code regarding the involuntary termination of corporate existence was amended. The existence of a
corporation may now be terminated involuntarily by order of the State Corporation Commission when it finds that the corporation
has been convicted of a violation of 8 U.S.C.
Section 1342A(f ), as amended, for actions of
its officers and directors constituting a pattern
or practice of employing unauthorized aliens
in the Commonwealth. Any corporation convicted of such an offense shall immediately
report such conviction to the commission and
file with the commission an authenticated
copy of the judgment or record of conviction.
Certificates revoked for such cause shall be
26  Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

ineligible for reentry for a period of not less
than 1 year. The same penalty may be invoked
against foreign corporations, a business trust,
or a limited-liability company convicted of
such a violation.
Inmate labor. The circuit court of any county
or city may allow persons confined in the
county or city jail who are awaiting disposition of, or serving sentences imposed for, misdemeanors or felonies to work on a voluntary
basis on State, county, city, or town property
or any property owned by a nonprofit organization that is organized and operated exclusively for charitable or social welfare purposes
and is exempt from taxation under U.S. Code
501(c)(3). These individuals also may work on
private property that is part of a community
improvement project sponsored by a locality or that has structures which are found to
be public nuisances, provided that the court
has reviewed and approved the project for
such purposes and permits the prisoners to
work on such project or any private property
utilized by a nonprofit organization that is,
again, exempt from taxation under U.S. Code
501(c)(3).
Minimum wage. Because of requirements
included in legislation previously enacted, the
State minimum wage was increased to $6.55
per hour on July 24, 2008.
Offsite work. The State has established the
State Office of Telework Promotion and
Broadband Assistance in the office of the
State secretary of technology. The goals of
the office are to encourage teleworking as
a family-friendly, business-friendly public
policy that promotes workplace efficiency and
reduces strain on transportation infrastructure. The office shall work with public and
private entities to develop widespread access
to broadband services and shall promote and
encourage the use of telework alternatives for
public and private employees, including, but
not limited to, appropriate policy and legislative initiatives.
The State Code was amended in order to
redefine the term “telecommuting.” It is now
defined as “a work arrangement in which supervisors direct or permit employees to perform their usual job duties away from their
central workplaces at least 1 day per week and
in accordance with work agreements.”
The State Code relating to State agency
employee commuting policies was amended.
The State has now set a goal to have each
State agency, with the exception of the Department of State Police, have not less than 20
percent of its eligible workforce telecommuting by January 1, 2010.
Worker privacy. Legislation was enacted that

added a Freedom of Information Act exemption for investigator notes and for other correspondence and information with respect to
an active investigation conducted by or for the
State Board of Education and related to the
denial, suspension, or revocation of teaching
licenses. The legislation does not prohibit the
disclosure of records to a local school board
or division superintendent for the purpose
of permitting such board or superintendent
to consider or to take personnel action with
regard to the employee. Records of completed
investigations shall be disclosed in a form
that does not reveal the identity of charging
parties, persons supplying the information,
or other individuals involved in the investigation. If an investigation fails to support a
complaint or does not lead to corrective action, the identity of the person who was the
subject of the complaint may be released only
with the consent of that person.
Washington
Minimum wage. As a result of legislation
enacted in a previous year in which the State
minimum wage was indexed to inflation, the
State minimum wage was increased to $8.55
per hour on January 1, 2009.
Time off. The State Revised Code allowing unpaid leaves of absence for the needs
of military personnel was amended. Every
employee of the State or of any county, city,
or other political subdivision thereof who is a
member of the State National Guard; of the
Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, or Marine Corps Reserve of the United States; or
of any organized Reserve or Armed Forces of
the United States shall be entitled to, and shall
be granted, military leave of absence from his
or her employment for a period not exceeding
21 days during each year, beginning October
1 and ending September 30. Such military
leave of absence shall be in addition to any
vacation or sick leave to which the employee
might otherwise be entitled and shall not involve any loss of efficiency rating, privileges,
or pay. During the period of military leave, the
employee shall receive his or her normal pay
from the State, county, city, or other political
subdivision.
Workplace violence. The State Revised Code
relating to increasing the safety and economic
security of victims of acts of domestic violence,
sexual assault, or stalking was amended. An
employee may now take reasonable leave
from work, intermittent leave, or leave on a
reduced leave schedule, with or without pay,
to (1) seek legal or law enforcement assistance, including, but not limited to, preparing
for or participating in any civil or criminal
legal proceeding related to or derived from

the aforementioned acts, in order to ensure
the health and safety of the employee or the
employee’s family members; (2) seek treatment by a health care provider for physical or
mental injuries caused by said acts or to attend to health care treatment for a victim who
is the employee’s family member; (3) obtain,
or assist a family member in obtaining, services from a domestic violence shelter, rape
crisis center, or other social services program
for relief from said acts; (4) obtain, or assist
a family member in obtaining, mental health
counseling related to an incident of said acts
in which the employee or the employee’s
family member was a victim thereof; or (5)
participate in safety planning, temporarily or
permanently relocate, or take other actions
to increase the safety of the employee or the
employee’s family members from future such
acts. As a condition of taking leave for such
purposes, the employee shall provide the employer with advance notice of the employee’s
intention to take leave. The timing of the notice shall be consistent with the employer’s
stated policy for requesting such leave, if the
employer has such a policy. When advance
notice cannot be given because of an emergency or unforeseen circumstances, the employee or his or her designee must give notice
to the employer no later than the end of the
first day the employee takes such leave. The
employer may require that the leave requests
be supported by verification that the employee or employee’s family member is a victim of
domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking,
or that the leave was taken for one of the five
reasons listed in this section.
West Virginia
Drug and alcohol testing. The State Alcohol
and Drug-Free Workplace Act was created
to require public-improvement contractors
to have and implement a drug-free workplace program which requires that drug and
alcohol testing be conducted by the contractor. Public funds of the State or of any of its
political subdivisions may not be expended,
unless the contractor that was awarded
the contract has implemented a drug-free
workplace policy and shall have provided a
sworn statement in writing, under penalties
of perjury, that it maintains a valid drug-free

workplace policy. The contract shall provide
for its cancellation by the awarding authority if (1) the contractor fails to implement
the drug-free workplace policy, (2) the
contractor fails to provide implementation
information on said policy at the request of
the authority or the State Division of Labor,
or (3) the contractor provides false information to the awarding authority. Among
the requirements of a drug-free workplace
policy are that (1) preemployment drug testing be conducted on all employees and (2)
random drug testing be conducted annually
on at least 10 percent of the contractor’s
employees who perform safety-sensitive duties. Violations of the State law pertaining
to a drug-free workplace policy shall result
in the following consequences: (1) for a first
offense, upon conviction, the party is guilty
of a misdemeanor and fined not more than
$1,000; (2) for a second offense, upon conviction, the party is guilty of a misdemeanor
and fined not less than $1,000 and not more
than $5,000; for a third and subsequent offense, upon conviction, the party is guilty of a
misdemeanor and fined not less than $5,000
and not more than $25,000. In addition, for
a third offense and subsequent offenses, the
contractor shall be excluded from bidding
on any additional public-improvement projects for a period of 1 year.
Minimum wage. Licensees operating charitable bingo games and charitable raffles may
pay a salary, the minimum of which is the
Federal minimum wage and the maximum
of which is not more than 120 percent of
the Federal or State minimum wage, whichever is applicable, to operators of games or
raffles who are either (1) active members of
the licensee’s organization who have been
active members in good standing for at least
2 years prior to the date of the filing of the
application for the license or for renewal of
the same or (2) employees of the licensee’s
organization or its authorized auxiliary organization who are residents of the State,
who are residents of a bordering State if
the county of residence is contiguous to the
county where the bingo or charitable operation is conducted, or who reside within 35
miles of the county where the bingo operation is conducted. Wages paid to concessionstand workers at these functions may not

exceed more than 120 percent of the Federal
minimum wage or the State minimum wage,
whichever is applicable.
Because of requirements included in legislation previously enacted, the State minimum
wage was increased to $7.25 per hour on July
1, 2008.
Wages paid. Employers are now permitted
to pay the wages that are due employees via
the utilization of a payroll card and a payroll
card account. Such payment is to be done
by deposit or electronic transfer of immediately available funds in a federally insured
depository institution that is directly or
indirectly established through an employer
and to which electronic fund transfers of the
employee’s wages, salary, commissions, or
other compensation are made on a recurring
basis. Such payment of employee compensation must be agreed upon in writing by the
person, firm, or corporation that is compensating the employee and the person who is
being compensated.
Wisconsin
Prevailing wage. On January 1, 2008, the
prevailing-wage thresholds for coverage under the State prevailing-wage laws for State
and municipal contracts were administratively
changed from $216,000 to $221,000 for contracts in which more than one trade is involved
and from $43,000 to $45,000 for contracts in
which a single trade is involved. On January
1, 2009, these amounts were administratively changed to $234,000 for contracts in
which more than one trade is involved and to
$48,000 for contracts in which a single trade
is involved.

Note
1
Several tables displaying information on State
labor laws, including tables on current and historical
minimum-wage rates and a table on State prevailingwage laws, along with tables concerning child labor
issues, are available on the Internet at the Employment Standards Administration’s Web site, www.dol.
gov/esa/programs/whd/state/state.htm.

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 27

Unemployment Insurance, 2008

Changes in State unemployment
insurance legislation in 2008
Federal enactments extend benefits, providing Federal funds to the States
to cover costs; State enactments include new minimum and maximum weekly
benefit amounts and new confidentiality and disclosure guidelines

D

uring 2008, there were five Federal legislative enactments and one final rule
that affected the Federal-State unemployment compensation program.
Title IV of the Supplemental Appropriations
Act, 2008 (P.L. 110–252) established the Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08)
program. Effective from July 2008 through
March 2009, up to 13 weeks of benefits are available under this program to eligible jobless workers
in all States. Individuals with benefits remaining
in their EUC08 accounts at the end of March can
collect those benefits through June 2009. This enactment also provided $110 million in grants to
States for administrative costs of the unemployment insurance program. These benefits and administrative costs are entirely Federally financed.
The Social Security Income Extension for
Elderly and Disabled Refugees Act of 2008 (P.L.
110–328) amended the Internal Revenue Code
of 1986 to provide for the collection of certain
unemployment compensation debts resulting
from fraud using the Treasury Offset Program
(through offset of Federal income tax refunds).
The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act,
2008 (P.L. 110–343) included a 1-year extension
of the 0.2-percent Federal Unemployment Tax
Loryn Lancaster is
Act (FUTA) surtax through 2009.
an unemployment
The Unemployment Compensation Exteninsurance program
sion
Act of 2008 (P.L. 110–449) expanded the
specialist in the
current
EUC08 program to provide up to 7 addiDivision of Legislation,
Office of Workforce
tional weeks of unemployment compensation to
Security, Employment eligible individuals in all States. This enactment
and Training
also expanded the EUC08 program by providing
Administration, U.S.
a second tier of benefits of up to 13 additional
Department of Labor.
weeks for eligible individuals in those States with
E-mail: Lancaster.
Loryn@dol.gov
high unemployment rates. These benefits are

Loryn Lancaster

28

Monthly Labor Review • January  2009

available for weeks of unemployment beginning
on or after November 21, 2008, through March
31, 2009, and no EUC08 payment may be made
for any week of unemployment beginning after
August 27, 2009. These benefits are entirely Federally funded.
The Worker, Retiree, and Employer Recovery
Act of 2008 (P.L. 110–458) repealed the provision in the Pension Protection Act of 2006 (P.L.
109–280) that amended the Federal Unemployment Tax Act concerning treatment of pensions,
retirement pay, annuities, or other similar payments. The 2008 legislation provides that unemployment compensation will not be reduced as a
result of any payments of pension, retirement pay,
annuity or other similar payments that may not
be included in the gross income of the individual
for the taxable year in which it was paid because
it was part of a rollover distribution.
The Department of Labor issued a final rule
(effective January 6, 2009) amending its regulations governing combined-wage claims under
the unemployment compensation program. This
rule amends the definition of “paying State” as
follows: any “single State” in which the claimant
had base period wages and employment, and in
which the claimant qualifies for unemployment
benefits, may be a “paying State.”
The unemployment insurance confidentiality or disclosure final rule (effective October
27, 2006) required State laws to meet the rule
requirements within 2 years. As of October 27,
2008, all State laws met the confidentiality or disclosure requirements.
Following is a summary of some significant
changes in State unemployment insurance
laws that occurred during 2008:

Alabama
Financing. The quarterly 0.06-percent special
assessment used to fund the Employment
Security Enhancement Fund, applicable to
certain employers, and the current tax rate
structure for determining an employer’s
contribution rate, are extended from March
31, 2008, to September 30, 2010.
Up to $7,940,119 of Reed Act monies
may be withdrawn from the Unemployment
Compensation Trust Fund for administrative purposes, effective from May 29, 2008,
to September 30, 2009. Whatever amount is
withdrawn will not change the Employer Tax
Schedules for the calendar year beginning
January 1, 2010.
The State Unemployment Tax Act (SUTA)
dumping prevention provisions that mandate
transfer of experience by requiring that the
rates of both employers be recalculated and
made effective in accordance with the date such
transfer or transfers occurred were modified.
(Previously, the rates were effective January 1
of the year the transfer or transfers occurred.)
Monetary entitlement. With respect to benefit years effective on or after July 6, 2008, an
individual will serve a 1-week waiting period
with no benefits payable after the 13th compensable week of paid benefits within a benefit year and prior to the 14th compensable
week of benefits. The waiting week will not be
counted as a week of unemployment.
The weekly maximum benefit amount increases from $235 to $255 for benefit years
beginning on or after July 6, 2008, and to $265
for benefit years beginning on or after July 5,
2009.
Alaska
Administration. New requirements were established concerning the confidentiality and
disclosure of certain Departmental records,
reports, and wage and unemployment compensation information, including required
disclosure to the Department of Homeland
Security, the Internal Revenue Service, and the
Department of Health and Human Services,
for specified purposes only.
Financing. The percentage of the average benefit cost rate used to determine each employer’s
contribution rate changes from 80 percent to
76 percent beginning January 1, 2009, and to
73 percent beginning January 1, 2010.
The percentage of the average benefit cost
rate used to determine the contribution rate
of each employee of a contributing employer
changes from 20 percent to 24 percent beginning January 1, 2009, and to 27 percent beginning January 1, 2010.
Monetary entitlement. The minimum weekly
benefit amount increases from $44 to $56, and

the maximum weekly benefit amount increases
from $248 to $370 effective January 1, 2009.
The minimum base period wages required
for the minimum weekly benefit amount increases from $1,000 to $2,500 effective January 1, 2009. The minimum base period wages
required for the maximum weekly benefit
amount increases from $26,750 to $42,000
effective January 1, 2009.
Arizona
Administration. The Department has the
option of serving determination and reconsideration notices to employing units by electronic means and no longer requires that such
notices be certified when they are mailed.
Financing. An employer’s obligation is extinguished for any contributions, payments in
lieu of contributions, interest, or penalties that
are required to be collected by the Department for any period, if not previously satisfied,
6 years after the amounts were determined
due unless one of the following circumstances
applies:
• the Department has commenced civil
action to collect the debt;
• the taxpayer has agreed in writing to
extend the time period before the time
period expires;
• an enforced collection has been stayed
by the operation of Federal or State
law during the period, and the period
of limitations is extended by the period
of time that the Department was stayed
from engaging in enforced collections.

Previous law required no time limit for collecting contributions, payments in lieu of
contributions, interest, or penalties. If a tax
obligation is extinguished, any related liens
for those obligations are also extinguished.
Any amount of contributions, interest or
penalties for wages and periods that are assessed by the Internal Revenue Service as
subject to the Federal Unemployment Tax
Act against which credit may be taken for
contributions required to be paid into a State
unemployment fund by employers subject
to the Federal law must be determined by
the Department to be due regardless of the
date the contributions, payments in lieu of
contributions, interest, or penalties became
delinquent.
The provision requiring the Department
to issue a release to the person against whom
the lien is claimed once the lien has been satisfied and enacts new provisions regarding the
release or subordination of liens was repealed.
Colorado
Administration. The Department is required
to electronically notify employers quarterly

of the Federal law against hiring or continuing to employ unauthorized aliens and of
the availability of the optional participation
requirements for the Federal electronic verification program (e-verify program) to verify
the work eligibility status of new employees.
The Department and the Secretary of State
are required to post this information on their
respective Web sites and to provide a link to
the e-verify program.
Nonmonetary eligibility. An individual who
quits to relocate due to the transfer of the individual’s spouse who is an active duty member of the U.S. Armed Forces is eligible for
benefits. (Previously, eligibility was limited to
individuals who relocated due to the spouse’s
transfer for medical-related purposes in time
of war or armed conflict.) The provision is repealed effective July 1, 2018.
The requirement for a claimant who quits
to relocate with a military spouse to report all
job separations when an additional claim is
filed during a benefit year due to a recurrence
of unemployment has been deleted.
An exception has been created to the requirement that deputies of the Division of
Employment and Training in the Department of Labor and Employment issue decisions on all claims for unemployment benefits
to exclude cases in which the claimant did not
file a continued claim for benefits.
Connecticut
Financing. Employers and persons or organizations that function as employer agents
who make contributions or payments in lieu
of contributions for 250 or more employees
are required to contribute (pay) electronically.
Nonmonetary eligibility. The provision stipulating that an individual will not be ineligible
for benefits for voluntarily leaving suitable
employment that occurs on or after July 1,
2007, to accompany a spouse who is on active duty with the U.S. Armed Forces and is
required to relocate by the Armed Forces is
now permanent.
Florida
Nonmonetary eligibility. An individual hired
as a day laborer with a temporary help firm
has voluntarily quit and is disqualified for
benefits for failing to report for reassignment
the next business day, provided the individual
was given notice upon completion of the latest assignment that work is available the next
business day and that the individual must report for reassignment the next business day.
The definition of “temporary help firm” has
been modified to include a labor pool and the
definition of “temporary employee” has been
modified to include a day laborer performing
day labor employed by a labor pool.
Monthly Labor Review • January  2009

29

Unemployment Insurance, 2008

Idaho
Administration. New requirements concerning the confidentiality and disclosure of certain
employment security information and new civil
penalties for persons who receive and make unauthorized disclosure of employment security
information in violation of the confidentiality
provisions have been established.
Nonmonetary eligibility. The option of a
claimant being able to demonstrate good cause
for failure to attend job training has been eliminated. Claimants enrolled in approved training
who fail to attend or otherwise participate in
such training are ineligible if they are not able
to work nor available for work unless they have
an illness or disability (under certain circumstances) or compelling personal circumstances.
Overpayments. If a determination is made
finding that an employer has colluded with
an employee or former employee to file a false
or fraudulent claim, a penalty of 10 times the
weekly benefit amount of such employee or
former employee must be added to the liability
of the employer. (This penalty for colluding is
in addition to current law providing penalties
for employers that induce, solicit, or coerce
such employees or former employees to file a
false or fraudulent claim.)
Illinois
Financing. Noncharges benefits paid to individuals who left work to accompany a spouse
reassigned from one military assignment to
another will be paid.
Nonmonetary eligibility. An individual who
has not left work voluntarily without good
cause to accompany a spouse reassigned from
one military assignment to another is eligible.
Indiana
Administration. The Department may operate a data match system with each financial
institution doing business in Indiana. New
legislation sets forth the conditions, requirements, and procedures to follow for both the
institutions and the Department. It provides
that all information provided by a financial
institution is confidential and is available only
to the Department or its agents for use only in
the collection of unpaid financial assessments.
It provides that certain individuals who knowingly or intentionally disclose for a purpose
other than the collection of unpaid final assessments information provided by a financial
institution that is confidential has committed a
Class A misdemeanor.
Financing. The provision relating to the expenditure, use, authorization, and approval of
the special employment and training services
fund for acquiring lands, building and erection
30

Monthly Labor Review • January  2009

of buildings, and leases and contracts and construction necessary for the proper administration of the unemployment insurance law was
removed. These funds will be used for specified
training purposes.
Nonmonetary eligibility. For the purpose of
deductible income only, remuneration for services from employing units does not include
compensation made under a valid negotiated
contract or agreement in connection with a layoff or plant closure, without regard to how the
compensation is characterized by the contract
or agreement.
Deductible income does not include a
supplemental unemployment insurance benefit made under a valid negotiated contract or
agreement.
The definition of “deductible income” was
modified to include a week in which a payment
is actually received by an individual, payments
made by an employer to an individual who
accepts an offer from the employer in connection with a layoff or a plant closure; or except
as otherwise provided, the part of a payment
made by an employer to an individual who accepts an offer from the employer in connection
with a layoff or a plant closure if that part is attributable to a week and the week occurs after
an individual receives the payment, and it was
used under the terms of a written agreement to
compute the payment.
A person who accepts a layoff under an
inverse seniority clause of a validly negotiated
contract and otherwise meets the eligibility
requirements is entitled to receive benefits in
the same amount, under the same terms, and
subject to the same conditions as any other unemployed person; however, this does not apply
to a person who elects to retire in connection
with a layoff or plant closure and receive pension, retirement, or annuity payments; except as
otherwise provided, a person who (1) accepts an
offer of payment or other compensation offered
by an employer to avert or lessen the effect of a
layoff or plant closure; and (2) is otherwise eligible is entitled to receive benefits in the same
amount, under the same terms, and subject to
the same conditions as any other unemployed
person. (Applicable to initial claims filed for
weeks that begin after March 14, 2008.)
Iowa
Financing. An accounting firm, unemployment insurance accounting firm, or other entity that demonstrates a continuous pattern of
failing to participate in initial determinations
to award benefits must be denied permission
to represent any employers in unemployment
insurance matters.
The penalty for each delinquent or insufficient report must not be less than $35. (Previously, it was not less than $10 for the first
delinquent or insufficient report; not less than

$25 for the second; and not less than $50 for
subsequent.) An employer must pay all costs
associated with a subpoena, including service
fees and court costs, for investigations of an
employer liability issue, to complete audits, secure reports, or assess contributions. Refusing
or negligently failing to honor a subpoena must
result in a penalty of $250.
Overpayments. Benefits paid to an individual
and not received as the result of fraud or willful
misrepresentation must not be recovered, if the
employer did not participate in the initial determination and the overpayment occurred as a
result of a subsequent reversal on appeal.
Kentucky
Administration. New requirements concerning the confidentiality and disclosure of certain
unemployment compensation information and
records have been established. A penalty for
persons receiving unemployment compensation information and records who violate the
confidentiality provision was established.
The receipt date for reports, contributions
or payments, protests or appeals is the date it
is delivered to the Department or the date of
the postmark applied by the U.S. Postal Service
or commercial postal service. Privately held
postage meter dates will not be considered in
determining the date of receipt. If the due date
falls on a day the office of the Department or
post office is closed, the due date will be the
next day the office or post office is open.
Louisiana
Administration. The Department’s name has
been changed from the Department of Labor
to the Louisiana Workforce Commission; the
Secretary’s title was changed from Secretary of
Labor to Executive Director.
New requirements were established concerning the confidentiality and disclosure of
certain employment data including disclosure
for compiling statistics for performance and
certain research purposes. New civil and criminal penalties for persons who violate such provisions also were established.
Financing. Procedure 3 has been revised and
procedure 4 was added to the table that provides for the taxable wage base, the formula for
computing benefits, and the maximum weekly
benefit amount (MWBA) based upon the applied trust fund balance range as follows.
When the applied trust fund balance is
• 	 equal to or greater than $1.15 billion,
but less than $1.4 billion, the wage base
is $7,000, the MWBA is $258, and the
applicable benefit computation will be
computed without the 7 and 5 percent
discounts, multiplied by 1.05 and that

amount multiplied by 1.20.

• 	 greater than $1.4 billion, the wage base
is $7,000, the MWBA is $284, and the
applicable benefit computation will be
computed without the 7 and 5 percent
discounts, multiplied by 1.05 and that
amount multiplied by 1.32.

Each employer will be given a 10-percent
contribution rate reduction if at the computation date in any year, the fund balance, including all monies in the benefit transfer account,
exceeds $1.4 billion.
The benefits paid pursuant to specific executive orders and hurricane-related layoffs
that are chargeable to employers’ accounts and
reimbursable must not be recouped. (Prior law
required that the charges be deferred, without
assessment of penalty and interest until July 1,
2008, to allow time for such benefit charges
to be identified and quantified and for payment arrangements to be made through loans,
grants, or State or Federal legislation.)
In the event that any employer pursuant to
this provision was insured by private entities
offering any form of insurances, bonds, certificates of deposit, or any other form of guarantee against unemployment claims chargeable
to the employer’s account, the State will have
the right to recoup such funds from those
private entities or their insurer for repayment
of funds paid out of the unemployment compensation trust fund for any unemployment
claims covered in this provision.
The provision was repealed authorizing the
administrator upon request by the employing
unit to negotiate payment terms for benefit
charges assessed as a result of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita; specific executive orders specifying the payment terms without assessment
of penalty and interest will be made quarterly
for periods not to exceed 2 years, beginning
July 1, 2008.
Monetary entitlement. The maximum weekly
benefit amount increased from $258 to $284.
The duration of benefits changed from the
lesser of 26 times the weekly benefit amount
or 27 percent of wages in insured work to 26
times the weekly benefit amount (from 21 to
26 weeks to 26 weeks).
Maryland
Appeals. A Lower Appeals Division in the
Department of Labor, Licensing, and Regulation, was established to hear and decide appeals
from the determinations of the claims examiners conducted by hearing examiners.
A claimant or employing unit entitled to a
notice of a determination or redetermination
may appeal to the Lower Appeals Division
within 15 days after mailing or delivery of such
notice.
The decision of the hearing examiner is

final unless an appeal is filed with the Board
of Appeals within 15 days after the notice was
mailed or delivered. The time of appeal may
be extended for good cause. The Board of Appeals is required to hear and decide appeals
from the decisions of the Lower Appeals
Division and claims for benefits. Hearing examiners will not be appointed to the Board
of Appeals, and hearings and appeals before
the Board of Appeals will not be conducted
by hearing examiners.
Financing. If authorized or directed by
the U.S. Department of Labor, the Department may directly collect from employers
the Federal unemployment insurance tax set
forth in the Federal Unemployment Tax Act.
These funds must be used only to administer programs and services designated for the
unemployment insurance and employment
services offices. Any agreement reached with
the Federal government must be submitted to
the Joint Committee on Unemployment Insurance Oversight. This act remains effective
for 5 years, ending September 30, 2013.
Nonmonetary eligibility. It is good cause for
an individual to voluntarily quit to follow a
spouse if the spouse serves in the U.S. military or is a civilian employee of the military or
of a Federal agency involved in military operations, and the spouse’s employer requires a
mandatory transfer to a new location.
Massachusetts
Financing. For calendar year 2008, the minimum experience rate is set at 1.12 percent,
and the maximum rate is set at 10.96 percent
(table D).
Minnesota
Extensions and special programs. Extra benefits
are provided to eligible applicants laid off due
to lack of work from the Ainsworth Lumber
Company plant in Cook, Minnesota; eligibility conditions were established; the weekly
amount of extra benefits is the same as the
weekly regular benefit amount, and the maximum amount of extra benefits available is
equal to 13 times the weekly benefit amount.
The program expired on December 27, 2008
(effective May 30, 2008, and it applies retroactively from January 1, 2008.)
The Commission is required to accept
initial and continued requests for unemployment benefits and pay such benefits to residents of Hubbard County who are employed
as a technician or an inspector for Northwest
Airlines and who stopped working because of
a labor dispute between the Aircraft Mechanics Fraternal Association and Northwest Airlines (effective May 30, 2008, and it applies

retroactively from August 21, 2005.)
Financing. Extra benefits paid will not be
used in computing the experience rating of
the Ainsworth Lumber Company (effective
May 30, 2008, and it applies retroactively
from January 1, 2008).
Mississippi
Monetary entitlement. The weekly maximum
benefit amount increases from $210 to $230
for benefit years beginning on or after July 1,
2008, and to $235 for benefit years beginning
on or after July 1, 2009. This provision is repealed July 1, 2010.
Missouri
Administration. A notice of each initial
claim filed by an individual who establishes a
benefit year must be promptly mailed to each
base period employer, except to any contributing base period employer that paid such individual gross wages in the amount of $400 or
less during such individual’s base period.
Any notice of claim or notice of determination required to be mailed to an employer
or claimant may be transmitted electronically
if requested. The date the division transmits
such notice of claim or notice of determination must be deemed the date of mailing for
purposes of filing a protest to the notice or
claim or filing an appeal concerning a notice
of determination.
The law concerning the disclosure of confidential information obtained from any employing unit or individual was modified. Penalties
were established for violating the disclosure
provisions for confidential information.
Appeals. If the last employer or any base period employer files a written protest against
the allowance of benefits based upon the
refusal to accept suitable work when offered,
either through the division or directly by such
last or base period employer, and such protest
is filed within 10 calendar days of the claimant’s refusal of work, such employer must be
deemed an interested party to any determination concerning the claimant’s refusal of work
until such time as the issue or issues raised by
the protest are resolved by a determination or
decision that has become final.
Any base period employer or any employing unit that employed the claimant since the
beginning of the base period who files a written protest against the allowance of benefits
based upon not being able to work or available
for work must be deemed an interested party
to any determination concerning the claimant’s ability to work or availability for work
until such time as the issue or issues raised by
the protest are resolved by a determination or
decision which has become final.
Monthly Labor Review • January  2009

31

Unemployment Insurance, 2008

Financing. For calendar years 2009, 2010,
and 2011, each employer liable for contributions, except employers with a contribution rate
equal to zero, must pay an annual unemployment automation surcharge equal to 5 onehundredths of 1 percent of such employer’s
total taxable wages for the 12-month period
ending the preceding June 13. This percentage may be reduced to ensure that the total
amount of surcharge due from all employers
will not exceed $13 million annually. Each
employer liable to pay such surcharge must be
notified of the amount due by March 31 of
each year, and such amount will be considered
delinquent 30 days thereafter. Delinquent unemployment automation surcharge amounts
may be collected in the manner provided and
must be deposited in the unemployment automation fund.
For calendar years 2009, 2010, and 2011,
the otherwise applicable unemployment
contribution rate of each employer liable for
contributions will be reduced by 5 one-hundredths of 1 percent, but will not be less than
zero.
The Unemployment Automation Fund
was created. It will consist of the unemployment automation surcharge money collected
and such other State funds appropriated by
the general assembly. Upon appropriation, it
requires money in the fund to be used solely
for the purpose of providing automated systems and the payment of associated costs to
improve the administration of the State’s unemployment insurance program.
Nonmonetary Eligibility. In order to be eligible for benefits, the claimant is required to
make a claim for benefits within 14 days from
the last day of the week that is being claimed.
An extension from 14 to 28 days for good
cause may be allowed.
A claimant is eligible for benefits if the
claimant has reported to an employment office to participate in a reemployment assessment and reemployment services as directed
by the deputy or designated staff of an employment office, unless the deputy determines
that good cause exists for failure to participate
and the claimant is ineligible for failing to
report beginning on the first day of the week
that the claimant was scheduled to report and
ending on the last day of the week preceding
the week during which the claimant does report in person.
A “war on terror veteran” is a Missouri resident who serves or has served in the military
and is or was a member of the National Guard
or a member of a U.S. Armed Forces Reserves
unit who was officially domiciled in the State
of Missouri immediately prior to deployment.
(Previous law required that the person be a
member of the Missouri National Guard.)
Overpayments. The method for recovering
32

Monthly Labor Review • January  2009

an overpayment for a war on terror veteran
was changed by providing that the Division
of Employment Security must pursue recovery of overpaid unemployment compensation
benefits against any person receiving such
overpaid benefits through billing, setoffs
against State tax refunds, setoffs against Federal tax refunds to the extent permitted by
Federal law, intercepts of lottery winnings,
and collection efforts.
Nebraska
Financing. The law was amended to not
charge the employer’s experience account for
benefits paid during a week when an individual was participating in training approved
under the Federal Trade Act.
New Hampshire
Financing. The effective date was extended
from July 1, 2007, to July 1, 2008, of the
provision for the discount rate in the contribution rates based on the amounts in the
unemployment fund on September 30 of the
preceding calendar year, and of the provision
that stipulated that the minimum contribution rate cannot be less than 0.10 percent.
Effective July 1, 2008, if the unemployment compensation trust fund balance is
$200 million or more on September 30 of the
preceding calendar year, and if the Commissioner of the Department of Employment Security determines that the health of the New
Hampshire business environment and the
security of existing jobs would be threatened
by decreasing the discount rate from every
employer’s contribution rate, then the Commissioner may adjust the discount rate to 0.5
percent more than otherwise applicable. In
addition, the term “discount rate” is defined
to mean the amount to be subtracted from
every employer’s contribution rate. These provisions are repealed effective July 1, 2009.
Nonmonetary eligibility. The term “full-time
work” is defined to mean work in employment of at least 37.5 hours per week. The term
“part-time work” is defined to mean work in
employment of at least 20 hours per week but
less than 37.5 hours a week.
The benefit eligibility conditions were
amended to provide that an unemployed
individual will be eligible to receive benefits
under the following conditions:
• if ready, willing, and able to accept and
perform suitable full-time or part-time
work on all of the shifts and during all
of the hours for which there is a market
for the services he or she offers and that
he or she has exposed him- or herself to
employment to the extent commensurate with the economic conditions and

the efforts of a reasonably prudent person seeking work; and

• he or she is available for and seeking
permanent, full- or part-time work for
which he or she is qualified, provided
that if availability is limited to part-time
work, the claim for unemployment benefits is based on wages earned in parttime work.
The disqualification for benefits conditions
were amended to replace the terms “work or
full-time work” with “full-time or part-time
work” in the provisions relating to labor
standards in which no work will be deemed
suitable and benefits will not be denied to
any otherwise eligible individual for refusing
to accept new full- or part-time work under
certain conditions. An individual who is seeking only part-time work will be deemed to be
partially unemployed only in any week during
which the individual was employed for fewer
than 20 hours. (Previously, the individual had
to meet certain eligibility requirements related to part-time workers.) The provisions were
repealed that limited eligibility of individuals
seeking part-work to seeking part-time work
for certain reasons.
New Jersey
Administration. The Division of Revenue in
the Department of the Treasury is designated
as the State government’s centralized debt
management agency. A State agency unable
to collect a debt owed to the agency within
90 days of recording of the delinquency is required to transfer the delinquent account no
later than the 91st day following the recording of the debt to the Division of Revenue.
Each State agency or designee is required to
provide an inventory for each fiscal year of
the total debt owed to and collected by the
agency, and debt owed to but uncollected by
the agency, within 90 days of recording the
delinquency.
Financing. The date for calculating the Unemployment Trust Fund Reserve Ratio was
changed from March 31, 2008, to June 30,
2008. An amount of $260 million was appropriated to the Department from the General Fund for deposit in the unemployment
compensation fund. The taxable wage base increases from $27,700 to $28,900 for calendar
year 2009. The contribution rate on wages for
governmental entities and instrumentalities
electing to pay contributions remains at 0.5
percent for calendar year 2009.
Monetary entitlement. The maximum weekly
benefit amount increases from $560 to $584
effective January 1, 2009. The amount needed
to establish a base week remains at $143 per
week for calendar year 2009.

Temporary disability insurance. The maximum weekly benefit amount for State plan
benefits increases from $524 to $546 effective
January 1, 2009. The taxable wage increases
from $27,700 to $28,900 for calendar year
2009. The amount needed to establish a base
week remains at $143 per week for calendar
year 2009.
Nevada
Financing. A revised schedule of contribution rates with 18 classes that changes the
range of reserve ratios for each class was created to be used to assign rates to eligible employers for calendar year 2009.
New York
Administration. New requirements were established concerning the confidentiality and
disclosure of certain unemployment insurance information including requirements for
informed consent, and provision for disclosure to law enforcement agencies, local social
service districts, the Office of Vocational and
Educational Services, and the Commission
for the Blind and Visually Handicapped.
Nonmonetary eligibility. In addition to being
allowed to elect to have Federal income tax
deducted and withheld from unemployment
benefits, individuals may elect to have Federal
or State (or both) income tax deducted and
withheld, and the Commissioner must deduct
and withhold Federal or State (or both) income tax from benefits if the individual elects
such withholding.
North Carolina
Financing. The language was deleted that
provided that any nonprofit employer formerly paying contributions or an Indian
tribe employing unit that had been paying
contributions for at least 3 consecutive calendar years that elects and qualifies to change
to a reimbursement basis may be relieved of
paying the mandatory 1.0 percent of taxable
wages if certain conditions are met based on
the experience ratings of 1.7 or less, 2.7 but
more than 1.7, and 2.7 or more.
Any nonprofit organization electing to
make payments in lieu of contributions is
required to secure such election by posting a
surety bond from an insurance company duly
licensed to conduct business in this State or
obtain an irrevocable letter of credit with the
Commission to insure the payments in lieu of
contributions. Any surety bond posted must
be in force for at least 2 calendar years and renewed with the approval of the Commission.
The Commission is allowed to adopt rules to
implement this requirement.
The language was deleted that provided

that as of August 1, any credit balance remaining in the employer’s account or Indian
tribe employing unit’s account (after all applicable postings) in excess of the allowable
amounts for the 12 months ending on June
30 preceding the computation date must be
refunded, and that any such refund must be
made prior to February 1 following the computation date.
The language was deleted that provided
that upon a change in election from reimbursement to contribution payments, or upon
termination of coverage and after all applicable benefits paid based on wages paid prior to
such change in election or termination of coverage have been charged, any credit balance in
the account must be refunded to the employer
or to the Indian tribe employing unit.
Oklahoma
Administration. The Oklahoma Security
Commission, on or before December 31, 2008,
must provide a method for employers to file
the Employer’s Quarterly Contributions and
Wage Report for State unemployment taxes
through the Internet, as well as a method to
pay such taxes through an electronic payment
system utilizing the Internet.
New legislation defines ther terms “reopened claim” and “continued claim series.”
In addition, new legislation provides various methods of delivering the drug or alcohol
testing policy to employees and persons offered employment.
The provision was deleted that required
claims for exemptions and any other matter
relating to the levy of unemployment compensation to be filed with 10 days of the date
of service of the levy and instead provides
that an order of exemption may relate back
no more than 30 days before the filing of the
claim for exemption and must extend no further than the expiration date or termination
of the levy.
Appeals. The Board of Review must certify
and file with the court a certified copy of the
record of the case within 60 days of the date
of service of the petition. (Previously, the case
had to be recorded within 60 days of the filing
of the petition.)
Financing. An Indian tribe or tribal unit
electing to make payments in lieu of contributions must notify the Commission in
writing before the last day of January of the
calendar year in which the tribe wishes to
begin making reimbursement payments. The
Indian tribe will be liable for reimbursement
payments in lieu of contributions if the Commission determines the Indian tribe is eligible
to exercise its option.
Nonmonetary eligibility. The law clarified

that when adjudicating a separation from
employment in an initial claim or additional
initial claim, disqualification continues for the
full period of unemployment next ensuing
after leaving work voluntarily without good
cause connected to the work and until becoming reemployed and having earned wages
equal to or in excess of 10 times the weekly
benefit amount.
When adjudicating a separation from
employment during a continued claim series,
disqualification will be for the week of the occurrence of leaving work voluntarily without
good cause connected to the work.
Promptly after notification of the claimant’s separation from an employment obtained
during a continued claim series, written notification must be given to the last separating
employer. Notices to separating employers
during a continued claim series must be given
to the last employer in the claim week without
regard to length of employment.
The provision concerning post-accident
testing for drugs or alcohol that provides
that no employee who tests positive for the
presence of certain substances, alcohol, illegal
drugs, or illegally used chemicals will be eligible for compensation, unless the employee
proves by a preponderance of the evidence
that the substances were not the proximate
cause of the injury or accident, no longer applies to unemployment compensation.
South Carolina
Coverage. Services performed by a juvenile
participating in the Department of Juvenile
Justice’s Youth Industries Program are excluded from coverage. Such a juvenile is not
considered an employee of the State and is
not eligible for unemployment compensation
upon termination from the program.
Monetary entitlement. If the Division of
Child Support is notified by the Commission
that an obligor is receiving unemployment insurance benefits, the division must notify the
court for the intercept of these benefits if a
delinquency occurs and the obligator’s case is
a Title IV-D case.
Tennessee
Administration. New requirements concerning the confidentiality and disclosure of
employment security records and reports and
new penalties for violating the confidentiality
and disclosure provisions are established.
Utah
Administration. An independent contractor
data base was created for use in identifying
when a person holds someone out as an independent contractor or engages in the perforMonthly Labor Review • January  2009

33

Unemployment Insurance, 2008

mance of work as an independent contractor
not subject to an employer’s right to control
the person; it requires the data base to include
a process to compare information in the data
base to identify a worker who may be misclassified as an independent contractor, to promote
employer compliance in making payments for
unemployment insurance, and to reduce employer intentional misclassification of a worker
as an independent contractor among other
things; it creates an Independent Contractor
Enforcement Council; it provides that the data
base may be used and accessed by the Department of Workforce Services and the State Tax
Commission; it provides that the council may
study how to reduce costs resulting from misclassification of workers as independent contractors and extend outreach and education efforts regarding the nature and requirements of
independent contractor status; and it provides
for confidentiality of information in the data
base. The Act is repealed July 1, 2013.
The Commissioner may not disclose information obtained from a professional employer
organization except in aggregate form that
does not identify an individual professional
employer organization or client. The Commissioner is allowed to disclose information
to a government entity if the information is
required to perform the government entity’s
duties. Co-employer agencies must treat this
information obtained as confidential unless
disclosure is required under the unemployment insurance law or the Government Records Access and Management Act.
The confidentiality provisions have been
modified to clarify the requirements to enter
into a written agreement, and to provide to
whom and for what purposes certain information will be disclosed.
Financing. The social contribution rate calculation was changed by rounding to three
decimal places. The definition of “adequate reserve” (used to calculate the reserve factor) was
changed to be between 18 and 24 months of
benefits at the average of the five highest benefit cost rates in the last 25 years (previously
defined as between 17 and 19 months).
New requirements for professional employer organizations were defined and established.
A covered employee of the professional employer organization is considered an employee
of the professional employer organization. The
professional employer organization must
• pay contributions, penalty, or interest required on wages paid to covered employees;

• report and pay a required contribution to
the unemployment compensation fund
when due using the State employer account
number and the contribution rate of the
professional employer organization; and
34

Monthly Labor Review • January  2009

• unless a client is otherwise eligible for
experience rating, a client is treated as a
new employer without a previous experience record beginning on the day that
the agreement between the client and
the professional employer organization
terminates or the professional employer
organization fails to submit a report or
make a tax payment when it is due as required by the chapter.
Nonmonetary eligibility. Unemployed individuals are eligible to receive benefits if they
have registered for work with the Department and acted in good faith effort to secure
employment during each and every week for
which the individual made a claim for benefits.
Once unemployed individuals have registered
for work, they no longer are required thereafter
to continue to report at an employment office
to be eligible to receive benefits.
Extensions and special programs. The Department may waive or alter either or both the
requirements to make a claim for benefits and
to register for work as to a disaster in Utah declared by the President of the United States or
by the State’s Governor after giving due consideration to factors directly associated with
the disaster, including the following:
• the disaster’s impact on employers and
their ability to employ workers in the affected area in Utah;

• the disaster’s impact on claimants and
their ability to comply with filing requirements in the affected area in Utah; and
• the magnitude of the disaster and the anticipated time for recovery.
Vermont
Coverage. The definition of “wages” excludes
foster care payments excluded from the definition of gross income under Title 26 of the
Internal Revenue Code.
Extensions and special programs. Electronic
submission of an employer’s short-time compensation plan is now provided for, and an
employer is now required to maintain records
of the plan for a period of 3 years.
The requirement that individuals filing
an initial claim for short-time compensation
serve a waiting week was eliminated.
Virginia
Coverage. The definitions of “employer”
and “employment” were changed to include
services performed for an Indian tribe that
resulted in unemployment insurance coverage
of such services. The term “tribal units” is de-

fined to include subdivisions, subsidiaries, or
business enterprises wholly owned by an Indian tribe. Tribes are allowed to pay contributions or elect to make reimbursements on the
same schedule as nonprofit organizations. An
Indian tribe that elects to make reimbursements is required to file a surety bond or post
a deposit. Failure to make required payments
within 90 days will result in the loss of the option to make reimbursements. Reinstatement
can be made after 1 year when failure is corrected. Failure to make required payments will
cause loss of coverage of services performed
for the tribe and cause the tribe to be liable
for Federal Unemployment Tax Act taxes.
The Commissioner will notify the Internal
Revenue Service of any termination or reinstatement of coverage of services provided for
a tribe. Extended benefits not reimbursed by
the Federal government must be reimbursed
by the tribe.
Extensions and special programs. An individual is required to have had during his or her base
period 20 weeks of full-time insured employment (or the equivalent in insured wages) to be
eligible to receive extended benefits. The term
“or the equivalent in insured wages” is defined
to mean more than 40 times the individual’s
most recent weekly benefit amount.
Monetary entitlement. For claims effective on
or after July 6, 2008, but before July 5, 2009, the
minimum weekly benefit amount is $54 and
the maximum weekly benefit amount is $378;
a total of $2,700 in the two high quarters of
the base period is needed to qualify monetarily,
and a minimum of $18,900.01 is required for
the maximum weekly benefit amount.
For claims effective on or after July 5, 2009,
the minimum weekly benefit amount is $60
and the maximum weekly benefit amount is
$378; a total of $3,000 in the two high quarters of the base period is needed to qualify
monetarily, and a minimum of $18,900.01 is
required for the maximum weekly benefit
amount.
Nonmonetary eligibility. The definition of
“misconduct” was amended to include an
employee’s confirmed positive test for a nonprescribed controlled substance in which a test
must have been a U.S. Department of Transportation-qualified drug screen conducted in
accordance with the employer’s bona fide drug
policy.
The disqualification provision was amended such that, if in connection with an offer of
suitable work, an individual has a confirmed
positive test for a nonprescribed controlled
substance, if the test is required as a condition
of employment and is a U.S. Department of
Transportation-qualified drug screen conducted in accordance with the employer’s bona
fide drug policy.

Washington
Coverage. The definition of “employment”
has been amended to exclude services performed by independent contractors using the
“ABC” test and other criteria.
Nonmonetary eligibility. An individual is not
disqualified from benefits for leaving work to
enter an apprenticeship program approved by
the Washington State apprenticeship training
council, and benefits are payable beginning
Sunday of the week prior to the week active
participation in such program begins.
Wisconsin
Administration. The Department must prescribe the manner and form for filing quarterly
wage reports electronically, not only by using
the Internet (first applicable with respect to reports required to be filed for the third quarter
of 2008). An employer who elects to defer payment of its first quarter contributions must file
contribution reports quarterly, unless excused
(first applicable with respect to contributions
payable for the first quarter of calendar year
2009).
The following types of employers must file
certain reports electronically:
• employers of at least 25 employees (formerly 50) not using an employer agent
must file electronic contribution reports
in the manner and form prescribed by the
Department (first applicable with respect
to reports required to be filed for the third
quarter of 2008);
• employers electing to defer payment of
first quarter contributions must file the
election electronically, and they must
file their employment and wage reports
electronically in the manner and form
prescribed by the Department (first applicable with respect to contributions
payable for the first quarter of 2009);
• an employer agent that prepares reports
on behalf of less than 25 employers must
file contribution reports electronically,
unless the Department waives the requirement (first applicable with respect
to reports required to be filed for the
third quarter of 2008);
• delinquent employers of at least 25 employees (formerly 50) not using an employer agent must file quarterly reports
electronically in the manner and form
prescribed by the Department, unless
excused from filing (first applicable with
respect to reports required to be filed for
the third quarter of 2008).
The language regarding the electronic filing requirements for employer agents that file

those reports on behalf of 25 or more employers has been removed (first applicable
with respect to reports required to be filed
for the third quarter of 2008).
Each employer whose net total contributions paid or payable for any 12-month period
ending on June 30 are at least $10,000 must
pay all contributions by means of electronic
funds transfer (beginning with the next calendar year), and the employer must continue
these payments by such means, unless that
requirement is waived. Each employer agent
must pay all contributions on behalf of each
employer that is represented by the agent
by means of electronic funds transfer (first
applicable with respect to contribution payments made after December 31, 2008).
The option of considering any report
or payment from contributing employers to be timely if, when mailed, it is either
postmarked no later than the due date or is
received by the Department no later than 3
days after the due date was removed (first
applicable with respect to reports required to
be filed for the third quarter of 2008).
Appeals. In a hearing before an appeal
tribunal, a Departmental record relating
to benefit claims constitutes prima facie
evidence and must be admissible to prove
that an employer provided or failed to provide complete and correct information in a
fact-finding investigation of the claim (first
applicable with respect to appeals filed on
April 6, 2008).
Financing. The provisions that require that
benefits be charged unless benefits are erroneously paid without fault on the part of the
employer are now permanent.
Except as otherwise specified, the employer’s contribution rate will be 2.5 percent
of its payroll (previously 2.7 percent) for each
of the first 3 calendar years after becoming
liable or electing contributory status in each
of the following circumstances (applicable
with respect to payrolls beginning on January 1, 2009):
• each time a contributing government
unit elects or reelects contribution financing; or
• when a nonprofit organization elects
reimbursement financing and the election is terminated; or
• if an Indian tribe or tribal unit terminates an election; or
• for contributing employers, except as
otherwise provided, and except as additional contributions apply.
A revised experience rate tax table with
four schedules—A, B, C, and D—was pro-

vided. The range of rates for the most favorable
schedule is 0.0 percent to 8.5 percent and for
the least favorable schedule is 0.07 percent to
8.5 percent (applicable with respect to payrolls
beginning on January 1, 2009). A revised solvency tax table with four schedules—A, B, C,
and D—was provided. The minimum solvency
rate is 0.0 percent and the maximum solvency
rate is 1.35 percent (applicable with respect to
payrolls beginning on January 1, 2009).
Employers’ solvency contribution payments
are due on the same date that their quarterly
contribution payments are due.
The law clarified that each professional
employer organization that enters into an employee leasing agreement with a client during
any calendar quarter must submit a report no
later than the due date for payment of contributions (first applicable with respect to contributions payable for the third quarter of 2008).
The taxable wage base increases from
$10,500 to $12,000 for calendar years 2009
and 2010, to $13,000 for calendar years 2011
and 2012, and to $14,000 for calendar years
after 2012.
The period that contributing employers
must pay an assessment to the administrative
account was extended from each year prior to
the year 2008 to each year prior to the year
2010.
The Department may electronically provide
a means whereby an employer that files its employment and wage reports electronically may
determine the amount of contributions due
for payment by the employer for each quarter.
If an employer that owes a payment of contributions electronically files its quarterly employment and wage reports as prescribed, the
Department may require the employer to determine electronically the amount of contributions due for payment by the employer based
on the employer’s contribution rate for each
quarter. In such a case, the employer is excused
from filing contribution reports as otherwise
required. Payments are due for each quarter
at the close of the next month following the
end of the applicable calendar quarter, except
as otherwise authorized, or as the Department
may assign a later due date.
Any employer delinquent in making any
quarterly wage report must pay a tardy filing
fee of $50 for each delinquent quarterly report.
(Previously, the tardy fee was $25 for 1 to 100
employees and $75 for more than 100 employees.) In addition to the $50 fee, an employer
or employer agent failing to file electronic reports in the manner and form prescribed may
be assessed a penalty of $15 (previously $10).
(This change is first applicable with respect to
reports required to be filed for the third quarter of 2008.) The additional $15 tardy fee increases to $20 with respect to reports required
to be filed for the third quarter of 2009.
In addition to the $50 tardy filing fee, an
employer or employer agent failing to make reMonthly Labor Review • January  2009

35

Unemployment Insurance, 2008

quired contributions by electronic funds transfer and paying contributions inconsistent with
the law will be assessed a penalty of the greater
of $50 or 0.5 percent of the total contributions
paid by the employer or employer agent for
the quarter in which the violation occurs. This
penalty must be paid to the administrative account and may be used by the Department to
make certain payments (first applicable with
respect to contribution payments made after
December 31, 2008).
Except as otherwise provided, an employer
that has a first quarter contribution liability of
$1,000 (previously $5,000) or more may elect
to defer payment to later due dates beyond the
established due date of not more than 60 percent of its first quarter contribution liability,
and under certain conditions, without payment of interest (first applicable with respect
to contributions payable for the first quarter of
calendar year 2009.)
If an employer fails to electronically file its
employment and wage report by a specified
due date, then all unpaid contribution liability
for the first quarter is delinquent, and interest
thereon is payable from April 30 of the year in
which the liability accrues. (This is first applicable with respect to contributions payable for
the first quarter of calendar year 2009.)
Monetary entitlement. The provision was
eliminated that limited an individual’s maximum benefit amount to 10 times the weekly
benefit amount in those instances where a parent is employed by a partnership or limited liability company that is treated as a partnership
or by a corporation or limited liability company treated as a corporation, provided the
partnership or corporation is owned by their
child (applicable with respect to benefit years
which begin on or after April 6, 2008).
For qualifying purposes, a claimant must
have combined base period wages equal to
at least 35 times (formerly 30) the claimant’s
weekly benefit rate to start a benefit year. The
qualifying requirement of 4 times the weekly
benefit rate in one or more quarters outside
the highest quarter of the base period still applies (applicable with respect to benefit years
which begin on or after April 6, 2008).
Beginning January 4, 2009, the minimum
weekly benefit amount increases from $53 to
$54, and the maximum weekly benefit amount
increases from $355 to $363. The minimum
high quarter wages required for the minimum weekly benefit amount increases from
$1,325 to $1,350 beginning January 4, 2009.
The minimum base period wages required
for the minimum weekly benefit amount
increases from $1,590 to $1,890 beginning
January 4, 2009. The minimum high quarter
wages required for the maximum weekly benefit amount increases from $8,875 to $9,075
beginning January 4, 2009. The minimum
base period wages required for the maximum
36

Monthly Labor Review • January  2009

weekly benefit amount increases from $10,650
to $12,705 beginning January 4, 2009.
All amounts forfeited by employing units
who aid and abet or attempt to aid and abet
claimants in acts of concealment and administrative assessments collected from persons
making a false statement or representation in
order to obtain benefits in the name of another
person must be credited to the administrative
account (applicable with respect to specific determinations issued on or after April 6, 2008).
When a claimant is ineligible to receive benefits for any week for concealing wages, the
provision disregarding the first $30 of wages
and reducing the weekly benefit payment by
67 percent will not apply (applicable with respect to specific determinations issued on or
after April 6, 2008)
The law clarified that an individual will not
be disqualified or have a reduction in benefits
due solely to time spent in specified training.
Nonmonetary eligibility. If a claimant is absent from work with a current employer for 16
hours or less in a given week (including the
first week of an absence resulting from a leave
of absence, or the week in which a suspension
or termination occurs) because the claimant
was unable to work or unavailable for work,
the claimant may be eligible for some benefits
for that week under the benefit reduction formula. However, if a claimant is absent from
work with a current employer for any of these
reasons for more than 16 hours in a given
week, the claimant is ineligible for any benefits for that week. A claimant remains eligible
for benefits while the claimant is enrolled in
certain employment related training. (This is
applicable with respect to specific determinations issued on or after April 6, 2008.)
Except as provided in the case of an employee that is absent from work for 16 hours or
less, if an employee’s employment is suspended
by the employee or the employee’s employer or
an employee is terminated by the employee’s
employer, due to the employee’s unavailability for work or inability to perform suitable
work otherwise available with the employee’s
employer, or if the employee is on a leave of
absence, the employee is ineligible for benefits while the employee is unable to work or
unavailable for work (applicable with respect
to specific determinations issued on or after
April 6, 2008).
The provision was appealed that provided
that the employee’s eligibility for benefits for
a partial week will be reduced by the amount
of wages that the employee could have earned
in work had leave not been granted or had the
suspension or termination not occurred.
If an employee is not disqualified for being
discharged for failure to notify the employer
of an absenteeism or tardiness, the employee
may be disqualified for being discharged under
the misconduct connected with the employee’s

work provision.
The provisions concerning a discharge for
failure to notify the employer of absenteeism
or tardiness by repealing the effective dates are
now permanent.
Overpayments. The provisions were modified regarding fraudulent claims by providing that a claimant must forfeit the following
amount of benefits and be disqualified from
receiving benefits if a claimant in filing (1) an
application for benefits or claim for any week
conceals any eligibility material fact or (2) a
claim for any week conceals any wages earned
in or paid or payable for that week:
• an amount equal to the claimant’s weekly
benefit rate for the week for which the
claim is made for each single act of concealment occurring before the date of the
first determination of concealment;
• an amount 3 times the claimant’s benefit
rate for the week in which the claim is
made for each single act of concealment
occurring after the date of the first determination of concealment in which a
penalty is applied under the first bullet
point but, on or before the date of the
first determination of concealment in
which a penalty is applied; and
• an amount 5 times the claimant’s benefit
rate for the week in which the claim is
made for each single act of concealment
occurring after the date of the first determination of concealment in which a
penalty is applied under the second bullet point.
Formerly, the claimant had to forfeit not
less than 25 percent of not more than 4 times
the claimant’s benefit rate which results in no
overpayment, or in the case of an overpayment
of less than 50 percent of the benefit rate of not
less than 1 or more than 4 times the claimant’s
benefit rate when the concealment results in
an overpayment of 50 percent or more of the
benefit rate. (The above provisions are applicable with respect to specific determinations
issued on or after April 6, 2008.)
The provision was repealed that stated that
any forfeiture amount by a claimant of less
than $1 will be rounded up to the nearest
whole dollar (applicable with respect to specific determinations issued on or after April
6, 2008).
Language was added to provide that any
employing unit that attempts to aid and abet
a claimant in committing an act of concealment may be penalized by having to forfeit an
amount equal to the amount of the benefits
improperly received due to the concealment,
and additional penalties will be imposed as indicated (applicable with respect to specific determinations issued on or after April 6, 2008).

Any employing unit that aids and abets
a claimant in committing or attempts to aid
and abet a claimant in committing an act of
concealment must pay additional penalties by
forfeiting an amount as follows:
• $500 for each single act of concealment
occurring before the date of the first determination of concealment;

• $1,000 for each single act of concealment
occurring after the date of the first determination that the employing unit has so
acted and for which a penalty was applied

under the first bullet point, but on or before the date of the first determination
that the employing unit has so acted in
which a penalty is applied; and
• $1,500 for each single act of concealment
occurring after the date of the first determination that the employing unit has so
acted and for which a penalty was applied
under the preceding second bullet point.
The preceding provisions are applicable with
respect to specific determinations issued on or

after April 6, 2008.
The overpayment provision was modified
regarding persons making a false statement or
representation to obtain benefits in the name
of another person by changing the administrative assessment amount that may be assessed
from an administrative assessment in an additional amount equal to not more than 50
percent of the amount of benefits obtained to
an administrative assessment in an additional
amount equal to the amount of benefits obtained (applicable with respect to specific determinations issued on or after April 6, 2008).

Monthly Labor Review • January  2009

37

Book Reviews
Job quality—a “history of the
present”
Demanding work: The paradox of
job quality in the affluent economy.
By Francis Green, Princeton, NJ,
Princeton University Press, 2007,
256 pp., $24.95 /paperback; $57.50/
cloth.
The “job quality debate” is nothing
new, and during a recession, it is
even less popular a topic. But in Demanding Work, economics professor
Francis Green gives us a comprehensive new look at the issues. He
summarizes both the data analyses
and theoretical background behind
a number of international attempts
at measuring job quality. We may
not have a one-size-fits-all job quality index, but we do have a wealth
of data from large social surveys.
Green asserts that despite whatever
biases may exist with social surveys,
we can now isolate those effects and
evaluate true quality change over
time. So, now that we have collected
so much data, do we find trends of
declining job quality?
Contrary to some media reports
that might suggest otherwise, a
very mixed picture of job quality
has emerged. While job insecurity
(independent of the business cycle)
has not worsened, other measures,
such as worker autonomy, have declined, and work has intensified
for many employees. What is more
perplexing is that some quality factors have deteriorated while selected
economic indicators have improved.
The author presents evidence from
a wide range of surveys which “lend
an authoritative counterweight to
the cult of the vignette, the nice or
shocking story, which is too often
the sole evidential method of popular or journalistic social science.”
How we interpret the data, explains
38

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

Green, is how we construct a “history
of the present.” He leads the reader
along an interdisciplinary approach
to assessing job quality, blending
elements of economics, sociology,
and psychology, while presenting
the work of Nobel Prize economist
Amartya Sen and other researchers.
Green offers clear, thorough explanations, while examining differing
viewpoints (usually with objectivity).
The author discusses skill measurement and explains various theories
of the changing demand for skills.
Green points out that beyond the job
shifts that have occurred along with
the increased use of technology, “lowtech” production jobs still make up a
large part of the “knowledge economy.” Nevertheless, hard-to-detail
effects of evolving technologies do
have implications for skill demands,
and Green notes that the full effect is
often dependent on an organization’s
communication structure and how
well information is diffused, along
with management practices.
In a discussion about working hours
and work effort, Green observes that
“part of the expressed concern from
the time balance pressures” fail to
differentiate between household and
individual allocation of time. Average households are working more,
but individuals, on average, are not
working longer.
What then, are the units of effort,
and how would we measure them?
Green contends that beyond quantifying these units, we need to put
them into the larger context, while
remembering that organizational efficiency and individual performance
may or may not be related. “One of
the most frequent generic mistakes
in economic commentary,” claims
the author, is that productivity gains
equal efficiency gains. Although a
direct measure of effort may be impossible, the author explains that it is

feasible to measure relative effort and
effort change.
Green touches on occupational
stress and its emergence as a political
and social issue in the 1990’s. “...The
work hazard that has risen the most,
across many countries, is stress and its
related manifestations of ill health.”
He reminds the reader, “Stress is
only the extreme manifestation of
increased pressures at work.”
A British study shows a pattern
of work intensification followed by
stability of work effort throughout
industries between 1992 and 2001.
Interpreting these findings, Green
notes the dilemma reconciling quantification difficulties with a factor’s
importance. He bemoans the fact
that economists prefer not to deal
with anything other than “hard” data,
but he admits the evidence of work
intensification presents an “incomplete statistical picture.”
The evidence Green collected
points to one other determinant of
job quality—worker discretion over
labor processes—changing over time.
Whereas some would expect wider
participation and more worker influence in today’s environment, trends
indicate declining discretion. He
suggests this may be due partly to increased subcontracting and bureaucratic control. “The understanding of
workers’ discretion—its dependence
on managerial culture, its relationship to modern technologies, and its
importance to workers—needs further development across all the social
sciences.”
The job quality picture is incomplete without a consideration of pay.
The author touches on wage theory
and examines average wage growth
as a potential indicator. He notes
that the United States manufacturing wage in 1970 led other countries,
but by 2000 this was no longer the
case. More significant is the “modern

disappointment” of growing wage
inequality, as measured by the ratio
of wages in the 90th percentile to
those in the 10th percentile. Despite
overall economic growth during
much of the 1970’s and 1980’s, the
United States experienced a stagnation of average wages coupled
with an increase in wage dispersion.
Green claims, “It is self-evident that
a rising dispersion of wages implies
that job quality is becoming more
unequal (unless balanced by an egalitarian trend in the other elements
of work).” Green investigates three
sources of change—growth of manufacturing in low wage, developing
nations; technological change; and
in the United States, a deceleration
in growth of college-educated labor.
How does job security play a role
in quality measurement? The data
indicate that job security has “moved
in accordance with the macroeconomic and labor market environment in recent decades, but exhibit
no clear long-term secular trend.”
In short, it is clear that insecurity is
not a prime source of declining job
quality.
Social surveys have found that
“The average job satisfaction of nations is generally either stationary or
falling.” Variation exists among European Union countries with regard
to trends in well-being. Deterioration occurred in Britain and Germany, but less clear patterns emerge
elsewhere. This mixed picture, along
with the subjectivity involved, may

lead some social scientists and mainstream economists to dismiss these
findings as not indicative of declining job quality. The author proceeds
to delineate potential objections, and
he offers convincing responses to
many of them.
With some major aspects of the
quality of work life improving and
others deteriorating, “no overall verdict about changing quality can be
made without making judgments
about the relative value of those aspects.” Green asserts, however, that
“Changes in job satisfaction over time
within representative populations are
a plausible guide” to gauging trends
in well-being. Determinants of wellbeing can be “classified into aspects
of any individual’s personality, aspects
of her/his job and the match between
the job and the individual.” What
emerges from a number of studies,
however, is the “remarkably large impact of the declining discretion and
work intensification” among jobs.
Green devotes a chapter to summarizing results and outlining policy
implications of deficient job quality,
such as absenteeism and lowered productivity. He warns that national averages that sum the experiences of all
workers in a national economy may
cloud the picture. “There are enough
cases of divergence among different
sectors to warn against oversimplifying the verdict.” And, despite having
data from many sources around the
world, many series are geographically
“sketchy.” According to the author,

“The most complete picture has been
constructed for Britain.” An editor
of the British Journal of Industrial
Relations, Green concludes that the
quality of work life is indeed strained.
“What is emphasized by this analysis is that, whatever the impact on
performance, the taste for reducing
workers’ control over their daily tasks
has had a very considerable effect on
their well-being. The lesson is that,
for the benefit of working people,
there needs to be less intervention
and control from above, and more
discretion and self-determination
from below even within the confines
of a job.” This argument shapes much
of his concluding chapter.
Green includes appendixes where
he summarizes multivariate analyses
behind the study results. An additional data set appendix identifies and
describes major sources of data analyzed, such as the British Household
Panel Study (BHPS). To his credit,
the author was selective in his choice
of sources, which is consistent with
his concern for quality. Per Green:
“Good-quality surveys, with support
from administrative data, enable us
to settle many of the intriguing issues
about job quality in the modern era.”
After reading the thorough presentation in Demanding Work, however,
this reviewer was left wondering if
those job quality issues were truly
settled.
—Bruce Bergman
New York Office
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Monthly Labor Review • January  2009

39

Précis

Professional employer
organizations
In the early 1980s, a new type of company became a significant part of the
economy: the professional employer
organization (PEO). This type of company helps other firms manage their
employees’ benefits, process payrolls,
comply with regulations, and handle
other human resources management
issues. Economists have learned some
important facts about the use of PEOs,
but many unanswered questions remain about the PEO industry, a sector
that grew by 386 percent from 1992
to 2002. In an effort to dig deeper,
Britton Lombardi and Yukako Ono
have written an article entitled “Professional employer organizations:
What are they, who uses them, and
why should we care?” (Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of
Chicago, fourth quarter 2008).
A PEO typically takes human resources employees from its client
companies and places them on its
own payroll; the PEO then “leases”
the companies’ own employees back
to them. This can cause problems in
calculating changes in the sizes of
companies and industries. For example, employment in manufacturing
reportedly decreased by 4.1 percent
from 1989 to 2000, but it has been estimated that manufacturing employment would have grown by 1.4 percent if the manufacturing employees
on PEO payrolls had been included.
Using data from the Census Bureau, Lombardi and Ono find that
4.6 percent of transportation industry employees work for PEOs, making
transportation the industry with the
highest concentration of PEO employees. Among all the U.S. States,
Florida has the highest percentage
40

Monthly Labor Review • January  2009

of leased employees—3.6 percent.
On the whole, larger manufacturing plants are more likely to use
PEO services than are smaller plants.
Plants where there is a greater likelihood of work-related illnesses and
injuries are slightly more prone to using PEOs than are safer plants. Newly
built plants are much more likely to
use PEOs than older plants, probably
because it is usually more important
for new plants to focus on their core
activity to ensure their survival. Firms
that are more diversified—across
States and/or industries—also use
PEO services more, probably because
greater diversification leads to greater
difficulty in complying with regulations. As PEOs do more and more
business, Lombardi and Ono believe
it will become increasingly important
to find the best ways to incorporate
leased employees into labor statistics.

China and India: two
paths to prosperity
Both China and India have experienced rapid economic growth in the
last several decades. In 1980, annual
per capita income was $556 in China
and $917 in India (2007 dollars). By
2006, China’s annual per capita income had increased to $4,766 and India’s had risen to $2,534. The growth
has been especially pronounced since
1995: China’s income increased 8.4
percent per year since then, while
India’s increased by about 5 percent
per year during the same period. In
a recent study of these two emerging
economic powerhouses (“China and
India: Two Paths to Economic Power,” Economic Letter, Federal Reserve
Bank of Dallas, August 2008), economists W. Michael Cox and Richard
Alm compare the different strategies

employed by the two nations on their
way to rapid economic development.
The general change in strategy for
both countries involved opening their
markets to foreign trade and investment and encouraging more private
enterprise. For its part, China took
what the authors call the “traditional
route.” Following the earlier model
provided by Japan and South Korea,
China became a center for low-wage
manufacturing of goods for export
(for example, clothing, toys, and electronics). India, by contrast, recognized
that it would have difficulty competing with China and instead used its
large English-speaking labor force to
focus on exporting services—by, for
example, establishing international
call centers and data-processing operations for multinational corporations.
Although both countries have
achieved rapid and sustained economic growth, the figures cited earlier suggest that China’s manufacture-for-export strategy has been
more successful so far. But Cox and
Alm argue that the wealthiest nations in the world “tend to concentrate employment and production in
services.” Historically, nations have
moved toward a more service-oriented economy relatively late in their
development. But India took advantage of the global economy and new
technologies such as the Internet and
telecommunications to create a niche
for providing high-tech services to
clients around the world. Thus, in the
long term, India’s strategy might be
more sustainable than China’s. As the
authors explain, to continue their development, China and India will both
have to “shift their economies toward
producing the more sophisticated
goods and services associated with
higher incomes.”

Current Labor Statistics
Monthly Labor Review
January 2009

NOTE: Many of the statistics in the
following pages were subsequently
revised. These pages have not been
updated to reflect the revisions.
To obtain BLS data that reflect all revisions, see
http://www.bls.gov/data/home.htm
For the latest set of "Current Labor Statistics,"
see http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/curlabst.htm

Current Labor Statistics
Notes on current labor statistics . ..............

42

Comparative indicators
1. Labor market indicators..................................................... 54
2. Annual and quarterly percent changes in
		 compensation, prices, and productivity........................... 55
3. Alternative measures of wages and
		 compensation changes.................................................... 55

Labor force data
4. Employment status of the population,
		 seasonally adjusted.........................................................
5. Selected employment indicators, seasonally adjusted.........
6. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted.....
7. Duration of unemployment, seasonally adjusted................
8. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment,
		 seasonally adjusted.........................................................
9. Unemployment rates by sex and age,
    seasonally adjusted .........................................................
10. Unemployment rates by State, seasonally adjusted.............
11. Employment of workers by State,
    seasonally adjusted..........................................................
12. Employment of workers by industry,
    seasonally adjusted..........................................................
13. Average weekly hours by industry, seasonally adjusted.......
14. Average hourly earnings by industry,
    seasonally adjusted..........................................................
15. Average hourly earnings by industry..................................
16. Average weekly earnings by industry.................................
17. Diffusion indexes of employment change,
		 seasonally adjusted ......................................................
18. Job openings levels and rates, by industry and regions,
seasonally adjusted........................................................
19. Hires levels and rates by industry and region,
seasonally adjusted........................................................
20. Separations levels and rates by industry and region,
seasonally adjusted.........................................................
21. Quits levels and rates by industry and region,
seasonally adjusted........................................................

56
57
58
58

Labor compensation and collective
bargaining data
30.
31.
32.
33.

Employment Cost Index, compensation ..........................
Employment Cost Index, wages and salaries ....................
Employment Cost Index, benefits, private industry ..........
Employment Cost Index, private industry workers,
		 by bargaining status, and region.....................................
34. National Compensation Survey, retirement benefits,
		 private industry .............................................................
35. National Compensation Survey, health insurance,
  
private industry...............................................................
36. National Compensation Survey, selected benefits,
		 private industry..............................................................
37. Work stoppages involving 1,000 workers or more.............

83
85
87
88
89
92
94
94

Price data

65
66
67

38. Consumer Price Index: U.S. city average, by expenditure
		 category and commodity and service groups.................. 95
39. Consumer Price Index: U.S. city average and
		 local data, all items ........................................................ 98
40. Annual data: Consumer Price Index, all items
		 and major groups........................................................... 99
41. Producer Price Indexes by stage of processing................... 100
42. Producer Price Indexes for the net output of major
		 industry groups.............................................................. 101
43. Annual data: Producer Price Indexes
		 by stage of processing..................................................... 102
44. U.S. export price indexes by end-use category................... 102
45. U.S. import price indexes by end-use category................... 103
46. U.S. international price indexes for selected
		 categories of services...................................................... 103

68

Productivity data

69

47. Indexes of productivity, hourly compensation,
		 and unit costs, data seasonally adjusted.......................... 104
48. Annual indexes of multifactor productivity........................ 105
49. Annual indexes of productivity, hourly compensation,
		 unit costs, and prices...................................................... 106
50. Annual indexes of output per hour for select industries..... 107

59
59
60
60
61
64

69
70
70

22. Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages,
	  10 largest counties . ....................................................... 71
23. Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, by State... 73
24. Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment
	  and Wages, by ownership............................................... 74
25. Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages,
	  establishment size and employment, by supersector....... 75
26. Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and
Wages, by metropolitan area ......................................... 76
27. Annual data: Employment status of the population.......... 81
28. Annual data: Employment levels by industry ................. 81
29. Annual data: Average hours and earnings level,
  
by industry..................................................................... 82

International comparisons data
51. Unemployment rates in 10 countries,
		 seasonally adjusted......................................................... 110
52. Annual data: Employment status of the civilian
working-age population, 10 countries........................... 111
53. Annual indexes of productivity and related measures,
16 economies................................................................ 112

Injury and Illness data
54. Annual data: Occupational injury and illness..................... 114
55. Fatal occupational injuries by event or exposure ................ 116

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 41

Notes on Current Labor Statistics
Current Labor Statistics

This section of the Review presents the
principal statistical series collected and
calculated by the Bureau of Labor Statistics:
series on labor force; employment; unemployment; labor compensation; consumer,
producer, and international prices; productivity; international comparisons; and injury
and illness statistics. In the notes that follow,
the data in each group of tables are briefly
described; key definitions are given; notes
on the data are set forth; and sources of additional information are cited.

General notes
The following notes apply to several tables
in this section:
Seasonal adjustment. Certain monthly
and quarterly data are adjusted to eliminate
the effect on the data of such factors as climatic conditions, industry production schedules, opening and closing of schools, holiday
buying periods, and vacation practices, which
might prevent short-term evaluation of the
statistical series. Tables containing data that
have been adjusted are identified as “seasonally adjusted.” (All other data are not seasonally adjusted.) Seasonal effects are estimated
on the basis of current and past experiences.
When new seasonal factors are computed
each year, revisions may affect seasonally
adjusted data for several preceding years.
Seasonally adjusted data appear in tables
1–14, 17–21, 48, and 52. Seasonally adjusted
labor force data in tables 1 and 4–9 and seasonally adjusted establishment survey data
shown in tables 1, 12–14, and 17 are revised
in the March 2007 Review. A brief explanation of the seasonal adjustment methodology
appears in “Notes on the data.”
Revisions in the productivity data in table
54 are usually introduced in the September
issue. Seasonally adjusted indexes and percent changes from month-to-month and
quarter-to-quarter are published for numerous Consumer and Producer Price Index
series. However, seasonally adjusted indexes
are not published for the U.S. average AllItems CPI. Only seasonally adjusted percent
changes are available for this series.
Adjustments for price changes. Some
data—such as the “real” earnings shown in
table 14—are adjusted to eliminate the effect
of changes in price. These adjustments are
made by dividing current-dollar values by
the Consumer Price Index or the appropriate
component of the index, then multiplying
by 100. For example, given a current hourly
wage rate of $3 and a current price index
number of 150, where 1982 = 100, the hourly
rate expressed in 1982 dollars is $2 ($3/150
x 100 = $2). The $2 (or any other resulting
42

Monthly Labor Review  • January  2009

values) are described as “real,” “constant,” or
“1982” dollars.

Sources of information
Data that supplement the tables in this section are published by the Bureau in a variety
of sources. Definitions of each series and
notes on the data are contained in later sections of these Notes describing each set of
data. For detailed descriptions of each data
series, see BLS Handbook of Methods, Bulletin
2490. Users also may wish to consult Major
Programs of the Bureau of Labor Statistics,
Report 919. News releases provide the latest statistical information published by the
Bureau; the major recurring releases are
published according to the schedule appearing on the back cover of this issue.
More information about labor force,
employment, and unemployment data and
the household and establishment surveys
underlying the data are available in the
Bureau’s monthly publication, Employment
and Earnings. Historical unadjusted and
seasonally adjusted data from the household
survey are available on the Internet:
www.bls.gov/cps/
Historically comparable unadjusted and seasonally adjusted data from the establishment
survey also are available on the Internet:
www.bls.gov/ces/
Additional information on labor force data
for areas below the national level are provided in the BLS annual report, Geographic
Profile of Employment and Unemployment.
For a comprehensive discussion of the
Employment Cost Index, see Employment
Cost Indexes and Levels, 1975–95, BLS Bulletin 2466. The most recent data from the
Employee Benefits Survey appear in the following Bureau of Labor Statistics bulletins:
Employee Benefits in Medium and Large Firms;
Employee Benefits in Small Private Establishments; and Employee Benefits in State and Local
Governments.
More detailed data on consumer and
producer prices are published in the monthly
periodicals, The CPI Detailed Report and Producer Price Indexes. For an overview of the
1998 revision of the CPI, see the December
1996 issue of the Monthly Labor Review. Additional data on international prices appear
in monthly news releases.
Listings of industries for which productivity indexes are available may be found on
the Internet:
www.bls.gov/lpc/
For additional information on international comparisons data, see Interna-

tional Comparisons of Unemployment, Bulletin
1979.
Detailed data on the occupational injury
and illness series are published in Occupational Injuries and Illnesses in the United States,
by Industry, a BLS annual bulletin.
Finally, the Monthly Labor Review carries
analytical articles on annual and longer term
developments in labor force, employment,
and unemployment; employee compensation
and collective bargaining; prices; productivity; international comparisons; and injury
and illness data.

Symbols
n.e.c. =
n.e.s. =
   p =
		
		
		
		
   r =
		
		
		

not elsewhere classified.
not elsewhere specified.
preliminary. To increase
the timeliness of some series,
preliminary figures are issued
based on representative but
incomplete returns.
revised. Generally, this revision
reflects the availability of later
data, but also may reflect other
adjustments.

Comparative Indicators
(Tables 1–3)
Comparative indicators tables provide an
overview and comparison of major bls statistical series. Consequently, although many
of the included series are available monthly,
all measures in these comparative tables are
presented quarterly and annually.
Labor market indicators include employment measures from two major surveys
and information on rates of change in
compensation provided by the Employment
Cost Index (ECI) program. The labor force
participation rate, the employment-population ratio, and unemployment rates for major
demographic groups based on the Current
Population (“household”) Survey are presented, while measures of employment and
average weekly hours by major industry sector are given using nonfarm payroll data. The
Employment Cost Index (compensation),
by major sector and by bargaining status, is
chosen from a variety of BLS compensation
and wage measures because it provides a
comprehensive measure of employer costs for
hiring labor, not just outlays for wages, and it
is not affected by employment shifts among
occupations and industries.
Data on changes in compensation, prices, and productivity are presented in table 2.
Measures of rates of change of compensation

and wages from the Employment Cost Index
program are provided for all civilian nonfarm
workers (excluding Federal and household
workers) and for all private nonfarm workers.
Measures of changes in consumer prices for
all urban consumers; producer prices by stage
of processing; overall prices by stage of processing; and overall export and import price
indexes are given. Measures of productivity
(output per hour of all persons) are provided
for major sectors.
Alternative measures of wage and compensation rates of change, which reflect the
overall trend in labor costs, are summarized
in table 3. Differences in concepts and scope,
related to the specific purposes of the series,
contribute to the variation in changes among
the individual measures.

Employment and
Unemployment Data

4 weeks. Persons who did not look for work
because they were on layoff are also counted
among the unemployed. The unemployment
rate represents the number unemployed as a
percent of the civilian labor force.
The civilian labor force consists of all
employed or unemployed persons in the civilian noninstitutional population. Persons not
in the labor force are those not classified as
employed or unemployed. This group includes
discouraged workers, defined as persons who
want and are available for a job and who
have looked for work sometime in the past
12 months (or since the end of their last job
if they held one within the past 12 months),
but are not currently looking, because they
believe there are no jobs available or there are
none for which they would qualify. The civilian noninstitutional population comprises
all persons 16 years of age and older who are
not inmates of penal or mental institutions,
sanitariums, or homes for the aged, infirm,
or needy. The civilian labor force participation rate is the proportion of the civilian
noninstitutional population that is in the
labor force. The employment-population
ratio is employment as a percent of the civilian noninstitutional population.

(Tables 1; 4–29)

Notes on the data

Household survey data

From time to time, and especially after a decennial census, adjustments are made in the
Current Population Survey figures to correct
for estimating errors during the intercensal
years. These adjustments affect the comparability of historical data. A description of
these adjustments and their effect on the
various data series appears in the Explanatory Notes of Employment and Earnings. For
a discussion of changes introduced in January
2003, see “Revisions to the Current Population Survey Effective in January 2003” in
the February 2003 issue of Employment and
Earnings (available on the BLS Web site at
www.bls.gov/cps/rvcps03.pdf).
Effective in January 2003, BLS began
using the X-12 ARIMA seasonal adjustment
program to seasonally adjust national labor
force data. This program replaced the X-11
ARIMA program which had been used since
January 1980. See “Revision of Seasonally
Adjusted Labor Force Series in 2003,” in
the February 2003 issue of Employment and
Earnings (available on the BLS Web site at
www.bls.gov/cps/cpsrs.pdf) for a discussion
of the introduction of the use of X-12 ARIMA
for seasonal adjustment of the labor force
data and the effects that it had on the data.
At the beginning of each calendar year,
historical seasonally adjusted data usually
are revised, and projected seasonal adjustment factors are calculated for use during the

Notes on the data
Definitions of each series and notes on the
data are contained in later sections of these
notes describing each set of data.

Description of the series
Employment data in this section are obtained from the Current Population Survey,
a program of personal interviews conducted
monthly by the Bureau of the Census for
the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The sample
consists of about 60,000 households selected
to represent the U.S. population 16 years of
age and older. Households are interviewed
on a rotating basis, so that three-fourths of
the sample is the same for any 2 consecutive
months.

Definitions
Employed persons include (1) all those who
worked for pay any time during the week
which includes the 12th day of the month or
who worked unpaid for 15 hours or more in a
family-operated enterprise and (2) those who
were temporarily absent from their regular
jobs because of illness, vacation, industrial
dispute, or similar reasons. A person working
at more than one job is counted only in the
job at which he or she worked the greatest
number of hours.
Unemployed persons are those who did
not work during the survey week, but were
available for work except for temporary illness
and had looked for jobs within the preceding

January–June period. The historical seasonally adjusted data usually are revised for only
the most recent 5 years. In July, new seasonal
adjustment factors, which incorporate the
experience through June, are produced for
the July–December period, but no revisions
are made in the historical data.
F OR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on
national household survey data, contact the
Division of Labor Force Statistics: (202)
691–6378.

Establishment survey data
Description of the series
Employment, hours, and earnings data in this
section are compiled from payroll records
reported monthly on a voluntary basis to
the Bureau of Labor Statistics and its cooperating State agencies by about 160,000
businesses and government agencies, which
represent approximately 400,000 individual
worksites and represent all industries except
agriculture. The active CES sample covers
approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll workers. Industries are classified in
accordance with the 2002 North American
Industry Classification System. In most
industries, the sampling probabilities are
based on the size of the establishment; most
large establishments are therefore in the
sample. (An establishment is not necessarily
a firm; it may be a branch plant, for example,
or warehouse.) Self-employed persons and
others not on a regular civilian payroll are
outside the scope of the survey because they
are excluded from establishment records.
This largely accounts for the difference in
employment figures between the household
and establishment surveys.

Definitions
An establishment is an economic unit which
produces goods or services (such as a factory
or store) at a single location and is engaged
in one type of economic activity.
Employed persons are all persons who
received pay (including holiday and sick pay)
for any part of the payroll period including
the 12th day of the month. Persons holding
more than one job (about 5 percent of all
persons in the labor force) are counted in
each establishment which reports them.
Production workers in the goods-producing industries cover employees, up through
the level of working supervisors, who engage
directly in the manufacture or construction of
the establishment’s product. In private service-providing industries, data are collected
for nonsupervisory workers, which include
most employees except those in executive,
Monthly Labor Review  • January  2009

43

Current Labor Statistics

managerial, and supervisory positions. Those
workers mentioned in tables 11–16 include
production workers in manufacturing and
natural resources and mining; construction
workers in construction; and nonsupervisory workers in all private service-providing
industries. Production and nonsupervisory
workers account for about four-fifths of the
total employment on private nonagricultural
payrolls.
Earnings are the payments production
or nonsupervisory workers receive during
the survey period, including premium pay
for overtime or late-shift work but excluding irregular bonuses and other special
payments. Real earnings are earnings
adjusted to reflect the effects of changes
in consumer prices. The deflator for this
series is derived from the Consumer Price
Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical
Workers (CPI-W).
Hours represent the average weekly
hours of production or nonsupervisory
workers for which pay was received, and are
different from standard or scheduled hours.
Overtime hours represent the portion of
average weekly hours which was in excess
of regular hours and for which overtime
premiums were paid.
The Diffusion Index represents the
percent of industries in which employment
was rising over the indicated period, plus
one-half of the industries with unchanged
employment; 50 percent indicates an equal
balance between industries with increasing
and decreasing employment. In line with
Bureau practice, data for the 1-, 3-, and 6month spans are seasonally adjusted, while
those for the 12-month span are unadjusted.
Table 17 provides an index on private nonfarm employment based on 278 industries,
and a manufacturing index based on 84
industries. These indexes are useful for measuring the dispersion of economic gains or
losses and are also economic indicators.

Notes on the data
Establishment survey data are annually
adjusted to comprehensive counts of employment (called “benchmarks”). The March
2003 benchmark was introduced in February
2004 with the release of data for January
2004, published in the March 2004 issue of
the Review. With the release in June 2003,
CES completed a conversion from the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system to
the North American Industry Classification
System (naics) and completed the transition
from its original quota sample design to a
probability-based sample design. The industry-coding update included reconstruction
of historical estimates in order to preserve
44

Monthly Labor Review  • January  2009

time series for data users. Normally 5 years
of seasonally adjusted data are revised with
each benchmark revision. However, with this
release, the entire new time series history for
all CES data series were re-seasonally adjusted
due to the NAICS conversion, which resulted
in the revision of all CES time series.
Also in June 2003, the CES program introduced concurrent seasonal adjustment for
the national establishment data. Under this
methodology, the first preliminary estimates
for the current reference month and the
revised estimates for the 2 prior months will
be updated with concurrent factors with each
new release of data. Concurrent seasonal
adjustment incorporates all available data,
including first preliminary estimates for
the most current month, in the adjustment
process. For additional information on all of
the changes introduced in June 2003, see the
June 2003 issue of Employment and Earnings
and “Recent changes in the national Current
Employment Statistics survey,” Monthly Labor Review, June 2003, pp. 3–13.
Revisions in State data (table 11) occurred with the publication of January 2003
data. For information on the revisions for
the State data, see the March and May 2003
issues of Employment and Earnings, and “Recent changes in the State and Metropolitan
Area CES survey,” Monthly Labor Review,
June 2003, pp. 14–19.
Beginning in June 1996, the BLS uses
the X-12-ARIMA methodology to seasonally adjust establishment survey data. This
procedure, developed by the Bureau of the
Census, controls for the effect of varying
survey intervals (also known as the 4- versus
5-week effect), thereby providing improved
measurement of over-the-month changes
and underlying economic trends. Revisions
of data, usually for the most recent 5-year
period, are made once a year coincident with
the benchmark revisions.
In the establishment survey, estimates
for the most recent 2 months are based on
incomplete returns and are published as preliminary in the tables (12–17 in the Review).
When all returns have been received, the
estimates are revised and published as “final”
(prior to any benchmark revisions) in the
third month of their appearance. Thus, December data are published as preliminary in
January and February and as final in March.
For the same reasons, quarterly establishment data (table 1) are preliminary for the
first 2 months of publication and final in the
third month. Fourth-quarter data are published as preliminary in January and February
and as final in March.
F OR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on

establishment survey data, contact the Division of Current Employment Statistics:
(202) 691–6555.

Unemployment data by State
Description of the series
Data presented in this section are obtained
from the Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program, which is conducted in
cooperation with State employment security
agencies.
Monthly estimates of the labor force,
employment, and unemployment for States
and sub-State areas are a key indicator of local economic conditions, and form the basis
for determining the eligibility of an area for
benefits under Federal economic assistance
programs such as the Job Training Partnership Act. Seasonally adjusted unemployment
rates are presented in table 10. Insofar as possible, the concepts and definitions underlying
these data are those used in the national
estimates obtained from the CPS.

Notes on the data
Data refer to State of residence. Monthly
data for all States and the District of Columbia are derived using standardized procedures
established by BLS. Once a year, estimates are
revised to new population controls, usually
with publication of January estimates, and
benchmarked to annual average CPS levels.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on data
in this series, call (202) 691–6392 (table 10)
or (202) 691–6559 (table 11).

Quarterly Census of
Employment and Wages
Description of the series
Employment, wage, and establishment data
in this section are derived from the quarterly
tax reports submitted to State employment
security agencies by private and State and
local government employers subject to State
unemployment insurance (ui) laws and from
Federal, agencies subject to the Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees
(ucfe) program. Each quarter, State agencies edit and process the data and send the
information to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
The Quarterly Census of Employment
and Wages (QCEW) data, also referred as ES202 data, are the most complete enumeration
of employment and wage information by
industry at the national, State, metropolitan
area, and county levels. They have broad
economic significance in evaluating labor

market trends and major industry developments.

Definitions
In general, the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages monthly employment data
represent the number of covered workers
who worked during, or received pay for, the
pay period that included the 12th day of
the month. Covered private industry employment includes most corporate officials,
executives, supervisory personnel, professionals, clerical workers, wage earners, piece
workers, and part-time workers. It excludes
proprietors, the unincorporated self-employed, unpaid family members, and certain
farm and domestic workers. Certain types
of nonprofit employers, such as religious
organizations, are given a choice of coverage
or exclusion in a number of States. Workers
in these organizations are, therefore, reported
to a limited degree.
Persons on paid sick leave, paid holiday,
paid vacation, and the like, are included.
Persons on the payroll of more than one
firm during the period are counted by each
ui-subject employer if they meet the employment definition noted earlier. The employment count excludes workers who earned no
wages during the entire applicable pay period
because of work stoppages, temporary layoffs,
illness, or unpaid vacations.
Federal employment data are based on
reports of monthly employment and quarterly wages submitted each quarter to State
agencies for all Federal installations with
employees covered by the Unemployment
Compensation for Federal Employees (ucfe)
program, except for certain national security
agencies, which are omitted for security reasons. Employment for all Federal agencies
for any given month is based on the number
of persons who worked during or received
pay for the pay period that included the 12th
of the month.
An establishment is an economic unit,
such as a farm, mine, factory, or store, that
produces goods or provides services. It is
typically at a single physical location and
engaged in one, or predominantly one, type
of economic activity for which a single industrial classification may be applied. Occasionally, a single physical location encompasses
two or more distinct and significant activities.
Each activity should be reported as a separate
establishment if separate records are kept
and the various activities are classified under
different NAICS industries.
Most employers have only one establishment; thus, the establishment is the
predominant reporting unit or statistical

entity for reporting employment and wages
data. Most employers, including State and
local governments who operate more than
one establishment in a State, file a Multiple
Worksite Report each quarter, in addition
to their quarterly ui report. The Multiple
Worksite Report is used to collect separate
employment and wage data for each of the
employer’s establishments, which are not
detailed on the ui report. Some very small
multi-establishment employers do not file a
Multiple Worksite Report. When the total
employment in an employer’s secondary
establishments (all establishments other
than the largest) is 10 or fewer, the employer
generally will file a consolidated report for all
establishments. Also, some employers either
cannot or will not report at the establishment
level and thus aggregate establishments into
one consolidated unit, or possibly several
units, though not at the establishment level.
For the Federal Government, the reporting unit is the installation: a single location
at which a department, agency, or other government body has civilian employees. Federal
agencies follow slightly different criteria than
do private employers when breaking down
their reports by installation. They are permitted to combine as a single statewide unit: 1)
all installations with 10 or fewer workers,
and 2) all installations that have a combined
total in the State of fewer than 50 workers.
Also, when there are fewer than 25 workers
in all secondary installations in a State, the
secondary installations may be combined and
reported with the major installation. Last, if a
Federal agency has fewer than five employees
in a State, the agency headquarters office
(regional office, district office) serving each
State may consolidate the employment and
wages data for that State with the data reported to the State in which the headquarters
is located. As a result of these reporting rules,
the number of reporting units is always larger
than the number of employers (or government agencies) but smaller than the number
of actual establishments (or installations).
Data reported for the first quarter are
tabulated into size categories ranging from
worksites of very small size to those with
1,000 employees or more. The size category
is determined by the establishment’s March
employment level. It is important to note that
each establishment of a multi-establishment
firm is tabulated separately into the appropriate size category. The total employment level
of the reporting multi-establishment firm is
not used in the size tabulation.
Covered employers in most States report
total wages paid during the calendar quarter,
regardless of when the services were performed. A few State laws, however, specify
that wages be reported for, or based on the

period during which services are performed
rather than the period during which compensation is paid. Under most State laws or
regulations, wages include bonuses, stock
options, the cash value of meals and lodging,
tips and other gratuities, and, in some States,
employer contributions to certain deferred
compensation plans such as 401(k) plans.
Covered employer contributions for
old-age, survivors, and disability insurance
(oasdi), health insurance, unemployment insurance, workers’ compensation, and private
pension and welfare funds are not reported as
wages. Employee contributions for the same
purposes, however, as well as money withheld
for income taxes, union dues, and so forth, are
reported even though they are deducted from
the worker’s gross pay.
Wages of covered Federal workers represent the gross amount of all payrolls for all
pay periods ending within the quarter. This
includes cash allowances, the cash equivalent
of any type of remuneration, severance pay,
withholding taxes, and retirement deductions. Federal employee remuneration generally covers the same types of services as for
workers in private industry.
Average annual wage per employee for
any given industry are computed by dividing total annual wages by annual average
employment. A further division by 52 yields
average weekly wages per employee. Annual
pay data only approximate annual earnings
because an individual may not be employed
by the same employer all year or may work for
more than one employer at a time.
Average weekly or annual wage is affected by the ratio of full-time to part-time
workers as well as the number of individuals
in high-paying and low-paying occupations.
When average pay levels between States and
industries are compared, these factors should
be taken into consideration. For example,
industries characterized by high proportions
of part-time workers will show average wage
levels appreciably less than the weekly pay
levels of regular full-time employees in these
industries. The opposite effect characterizes
industries with low proportions of part-time
workers, or industries that typically schedule
heavy weekend and overtime work. Average
wage data also may be influenced by work
stoppages, labor turnover rates, retroactive
payments, seasonal factors, bonus payments,
and so on.

Notes on the data
Beginning with the release of data for 2001,
publications presenting data from the Covered Employment and Wages program have
switched to the 2002 version of the North
Monthly Labor Review  • January  2009

45

Current Labor Statistics

American Industry Classification System
(NAICS) as the basis for the assignment and
tabulation of economic data by industry.
NAICS is the product of a cooperative effort on the part of the statistical agencies
of the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
Due to difference in NAICS and Standard
Industrial Classification ( SIC) structures,
industry data for 2001 is not comparable to the SIC-based data for earlier years.
Effective January 2001, the program
began assigning Indian Tribal Councils and
related establishments to local government
ownership. This BLS action was in response to
a change in Federal law dealing with the way
Indian Tribes are treated under the Federal
Unemployment Tax Act. This law requires
federally recognized Indian Tribes to be treated similarly to State and local governments.
In the past, the Covered Employment and
Wage (CEW) program coded Indian Tribal
Councils and related establishments in the
private sector. As a result of the new law, CEW
data reflects significant shifts in employment
and wages between the private sector and
local government from 2000 to 2001. Data
also reflect industry changes. Those accounts
previously assigned to civic and social organizations were assigned to tribal governments.
There were no required industry changes for
related establishments owned by these Tribal
Councils. These tribal business establishments
continued to be coded according to the economic activity of that entity.
To insure the highest possible quality
of data, State employment security agencies
verify with employers and update, if necessary, the industry, location, and ownership
classification of all establishments on a 3-year
cycle. Changes in establishment classification codes resulting from the verification
process are introduced with the data reported
for the first quarter of the year. Changes
resulting from improved employer reporting
also are introduced in the first quarter. For
these reasons, some data, especially at more
detailed geographic levels, may not be strictly
comparable with earlier years.
County definitions are assigned according
to Federal Information Processing Standards
Publications as issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Areas
shown as counties include those designated
as independent cities in some jurisdictions
and, in Alaska, those areas designated by the
Census Bureau where counties have not been
created. County data also are presented for
the New England States for comparative
purposes, even though townships are the
more common designation used in New
England (and New Jersey).
The Office of Management and Budget
46

Monthly Labor Review  • January  2009

(OMB) defines metropolitan areas for use
in Federal statistical activities and updates
these definitions as needed. Data in this table
use metropolitan area criteria established
by OMB in definitions issued June 30, 1999
(OMB Bulletin No. 99-04). These definitions
reflect information obtained from the 1990
Decennial Census and the 1998 U.S. Census
Bureau population estimate. A complete list
of metropolitan area definitions is available
from the National Technical Information
Service (NTIS), Document Sales, 5205 Port
Royal Road, Springfield, Va. 22161, telephone 1-800-553-6847.
OMB defines metropolitan areas in terms
of entire counties, except in the six New England States where they are defined in terms of
cities and towns. New England data in this
table, however, are based on a county concept
defined by OMB as New England County
Metropolitan Areas (NECMA) because county-level data are the most detailed available
from the Quarterly Census of Employment
and Wages. The NECMA is a county-based
alternative to the city- and town-based metropolitan areas in New England. The NECMA for
a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) include:
(1) the county containing the first-named city
in that MSA title (this county may include
the first-named cities of other MSA, and (2)
each additional county having at least half its
population in the MSA in which first-named
cities are in the county identified in step 1.
The NECMA is officially defined areas that
are meant to be used by statistical programs
that cannot use the regular metropolitan area
definitions in New England.
For additional information on the
covered employment and wage data, contact
the Division of Administrative Statistics and
Labor Turnover at (202) 691–6567.

Job Openings and Labor
Turnover Survey
Description of the series
Data for the Job Openings and Labor
Turnover Survey (JOLTS) are collected and
compiled from a sample of 16,000 business
establishments. Each month, data are collected for total employment, job openings,
hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, and other
separations. The JOLTS program covers all
private nonfarm establishments such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as Federal,
State, and local government entities in the
50 States and the District of Columbia. The
JOLTS sample design is a random sample
drawn from a universe of more than eight
million establishments compiled as part of the

operations of the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, or QCEW, program. This
program includes all employers subject to
State unemployment insurance (UI) laws and
Federal agencies subject to Unemployment
Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE).
The sampling frame is stratified by ownership, region, industry sector, and size class.
Large firms fall into the sample with virtual
certainty. JOLTS total employment estimates
are controlled to the employment estimates
of the Current Employment Statistics (CES)
survey. A ratio of CES to JOLTS employment
is used to adjust the levels for all other JOLTS
data elements. Rates then are computed from
the adjusted levels.
The monthly JOLTS data series begin with
December 2000. Not seasonally adjusted
data on job openings, hires, total separations, quits, layoffs and discharges, and other
separations levels and rates are available for
the total nonfarm sector, 16 private industry
divisions and 2 government divisions based
on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), and four geographic
regions. Seasonally adjusted data on job
openings, hires, total separations, and quits
levels and rates are available for the total
nonfarm sector, selected industry sectors, and
four geographic regions.

Definitions
Establishments submit job openings infor-mation for the last business day of the
reference month. A job opening requires
that (1) a specific position exists and there
is work available for that position; and (2)
work could start within 30 days regardless
of whether a suitable candidate is found;
and (3) the employer is actively recruiting
from outside the establishment to fill the
position. Included are full-time, part-time,
permanent, short-term, and seasonal openings. Active recruiting means that the establishment is taking steps to fill a position by
advertising in newspapers or on the Internet,
posting help-wanted signs, accepting applications, or using other similar methods.
Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers,
promotions, demotions, or recall from layoffs
are excluded. Also excluded are jobs with
start dates more than 30 days in the future,
jobs for which employees have been hired but
have not yet reported for work, and jobs to be
filled by employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside
contractors, or consultants. The job openings
rate is computed by dividing the number of
job openings by the sum of employment and
job openings, and multiplying that quotient
by 100.

Hires are the total number of additions
to the payroll occurring at any time during
the reference month, including both new and
rehired employees and full-time and parttime, permanent, short-term and seasonal
employees, employees recalled to the location
after a layoff lasting more than 7 days, on-call
or intermittent employees who returned to
work after having been formally separated,
and transfers from other locations. The hires
count does not include transfers or promotions within the reporting site, employees
returning from strike, employees of temporary
help agencies or employee leasing companies,
outside contractors, or consultants. The hires
rate is computed by dividing the number of
hires by employment, and multiplying that
quotient by 100.
Separations are the total number of
terminations of employment occurring at
any time during the reference month, and
are reported by type of separation—quits,
layoffs and discharges, and other separations.
Quits are voluntary separations by employees
(except for retirements, which are reported
as other separations). Layoffs and discharges
are involuntary separations initiated by the
employer and include layoffs with no intent
to rehire, formal layoffs lasting or expected
to last more than 7 days, discharges resulting
from mergers, downsizing, or closings, firings
or other discharges for cause, terminations
of permanent or short-term employees, and
terminations of seasonal employees. Other
separations include retirements, transfers to
other locations, deaths, and separations due to
disability. Separations do not include transfers
within the same location or employees on
strike.
The separations rate is computed by dividing the number of separations by employment, and multiplying that quotient by 100.
The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other
separations rates are computed similarly,
dividing the number by employment and
multiplying by 100.

Notes on the data
The JOLTS data series on job openings, hires,
and separations are relatively new. The full
sample is divided into panels, with one panel
enrolled each month. A full complement of
panels for the original data series based on the
1987 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)
system was not completely enrolled in the
survey until January 2002. The supple-mental
panels of establishments needed to create NAICS estimates were not completely enrolled
until May 2003. The data collected up until

those points are from less than a full sample.
Therefore, estimates from earlier months
should be used with caution, as fewer sampled
units were reporting data at that time.
In March 2002, BLS procedures for collecting hires and separations data were revised to
address possible underreporting. As a result,
JOLTS hires and separations estimates for
months prior to March 2002 may not be
comparable with estimates for March 2002
and later.
The Federal Government reorganization
that involved transferring approximately
180,000 employees to the new Department
of Homeland Security is not reflected in
the JOLTS hires and separations estimates
for the Federal Government. The Office of
Personnel Management’s record shows these
transfers were completed in March 2003. The
inclusion of transfers in the JOLTS definitions
of hires and separations is intended to cover
ongoing movements of workers between
establishments. The Department of Homeland Security reorganization was a massive
one-time event, and the inclusion of these
intergovernmental transfers would distort
the Federal Government time series.
Data users should note that seasonal
adjustment of the JOLTS series is conducted
with fewer data observations than is customary. The historical data, therefore, may
be subject to larger than normal revisions.
Because the seasonal patterns in economic
data series typically emerge over time, the
standard use of moving averages as seasonal
filters to capture these effects requires longer
series than are currently available. As a result,
the stable seasonal filter option is used in the
seasonal adjustment of the JOLTS data. When
calculating seasonal factors, this filter takes
an average for each calendar month after
detrending the series. The stable seasonal
filter assumes that the seasonal factors are
fixed; a necessary assumption until sufficient
data are available. When the stable seasonal
filter is no longer needed, other program features also may be introduced, such as outlier
adjustment and extended diagnostic testing.
Additionally, it is expected that more series,
such as layoffs and discharges and additional
industries, may be seasonally adjusted when
more data are available.
JOLTS hires and separations estimates
cannot be used to exactly explain net changes
in payroll employment. Some reasons why it
is problematic to compare changes in payroll
employment with JOLTS hires and separations, especially on a monthly basis, are: (1)
the reference period for payroll employment
is the pay period including the 12th of the
month, while the reference period for hires
and separations is the calendar month; and

(2) payroll employment can vary from month
to month simply because part-time and oncall workers may not always work during
the pay period that includes the 12th of the
month. Additionally, research has found that
some reporters systematically underreport
separations relative to hires due to a number of factors, including the nature of their
payroll systems and practices. The shortfall
appears to be about 2 percent or less over a
12-month period.
F OR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on
the Job Openings and Labor Turnover
Survey, contact the Division of Administrative Statistics and Labor Turnover at (202)
961–5870.

Compensation and
Wage Data
(Tables 1–3; 30–37)
The National Compensation Survey (NCS)
produces a variety of compensation data. These
include: The Employment Cost Index (ECI)
and NCS benefit measures of the incidence and
provisions of selected employee benefit plans.
Selected samples of these measures appear in
the following tables. NCS also compiles data on
occupational wages and the Employer Costs
for Employee Compensation (ECEC).

Employment Cost Index
Description of the series
The Employment Cost Index (ECI) is a
quarterly measure of the rate of change in
compensation per hour worked and includes
wages, salaries, and employer costs of employee benefits. It is a Laspeyres Index that
uses fixed employment weights to measure
change in labor costs free from the influence
of employment shifts among occupations
and industries.
The ECI provides data for the civilian
economy, which includes the total private
nonfarm economy excluding private households, and the public sector excluding the
Federal government. Data are collected each
quarter for the pay period including the
12th day of March, June, September, and
December.
Sample establishments are classified by
industry categories based on the 2002 North
American Classification System (NAICS).
Within a sample establishment, specific job
categories are selected and classified into
about 800 occupations according to the 2000
Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)
System. Individual occupations are comMonthly Labor Review  • January  2009

47

Current Labor Statistics

bined to represent one of ten intermediate
aggregations, such as professional and related
occupations, or one of five higher level aggregations, such as management, professional,
and related occupations.
Fixed employment weights are used
each quarter to calculate the most aggregate
series—civilian, private, and State and local
government. These fixed weights are also used
to derive all of the industry and occupational
series indexes. Beginning with the March
2006 estimates, 2002 fixed employment
weights from the Bureau’s Occupational
Employment Statistics survey were introduced. From March 1995 to December 2005,
1990 employment counts were used. These
fixed weights ensure that changes in these
indexes reflect only changes in compensation,
not employment shifts among industries or
occupations with different levels of wages
and compensation. For the series based on
bargaining status, census region and division,
and metropolitan area status, fixed employment data are not available. The employment
weights are reallocated within these series
each quarter based on the current eci sample.
The indexes for these series, consequently, are
not strictly comparable with those for aggregate, occupational, and industry series.

Definitions
Total compensation costs include wages,
salaries, and the employer’s costs for employee benefits.
Wages and salaries consist of earnings
before payroll deductions, including production bonuses, incentive earnings, commissions, and cost-of-living adjustments.
Benefits include the cost to employers
for paid leave, supplemental pay (including nonproduction bonuses), insurance,
retirement and savings plans, and legally
required benefits (such as Social Security,
workers’ compensation, and unemployment
insurance).
Excluded from wages and salaries and
employee benefits are such items as paymentin-kind, free room and board, and tips.

Notes on the data
The ECI data in these tables reflect the
con-version to the 2002 North American
Industry Classification System (NAICS) and
the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system. The NAICS and SOC data
shown prior to 2006 are for informational
purposes only. ECI series based on NAICS
and SOC became the official BLS estimates
starting in March 2006.
The ECI for changes in wages and salaries
48

Monthly Labor Review  • January  2009

in the private nonfarm economy was published beginning in 1975. Changes in total
compensation cost—wages and salaries and
benefits combined—were published beginning in 1980. The series of changes in wages
and salaries and for total compensation in
the State and local government sector and
in the civilian nonfarm economy (excluding
Federal employees) were published beginning in 1981. Historical indexes (December
2005=100) are available on the Internet:
www.bls.gov/ect/
A DDITIONAL INFORMATION on the
Employment Cost Index is available at www.
bls.gov/ncs/ect/home.htm or by telephone
at (202) 691–6199.

National Compensation Survey
Benefit Measures
Description of the series
benefit measures of employee benefits
are published in two separate reports. The
annual summary provides data on the incidence of (access to and participation in)
selected benefits and provisions of paid
holidays and vacations, life insurance plans,
and other selected benefit programs. Data on
percentages of establishments offering major
employee benefits, and on the employer and
employee shares of contributions to medical
care premiums also are presented. Selected
benefit data appear in the following tables. A
second publication, published later, contains
more detailed information about health and
retirement plans.
NCS

Definitions
Employer-provided benefits are benefits
that are financed either wholly or partly by
the employer. They may be sponsored by a
union or other third party, as long as there
is some employer financing. However, some
benefits that are fully paid for by the employee also are included. For example, long-term
care insurance paid entirely by the employee
are included because the guarantee of insurability and availability at group premium
rates are considered a benefit.
Employees are considered as having access to a benefit plan if it is available for their
use. For example, if an employee is permitted
to participate in a medical care plan offered
by the employer, but the employee declines to
do so, he or she is placed in the category with
those having access to medical care.
Employees in contributory plans are
considered as participating in an insurance
or retirement plan if they have paid required

contributions and fulfilled any applicable
service requirement. Employees in noncontributory plans are counted as participating
regardless of whether they have fulfilled the
service requirements.
Defined benefit pension plans use predetermined formulas to calculate a retirement
benefit (if any), and obligate the employer to
provide those benefits. Benefits are generally
based on salary, years of service, or both.
Defined contribution plans generally
specify the level of employer and employee
contributions to a plan, but not the formula
for determining eventual benefits. Instead,
individual accounts are set up for participants, and benefits are based on amounts
credited to these accounts.
Tax-deferred savings plans are a type of
defined contribution plan that allow participants to contribute a portion of their salary
to an employer-sponsored plan and defer
income taxes until withdrawal.
Flexible benefit plans allow employees
to choose among several benefits, such as life
insurance, medical care, and vacation days,
and among several levels of coverage within
a given benefit.

Notes on the data
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON THE NCS
benefit measures is available at www.bls.
gov/ncs/ebs/home.htm or by telephone at
(202) 691–6199.

Work stoppages
Description of the series
Data on work stoppages measure the number
and duration of major strikes or lockouts
(involving 1,000 workers or more) occurring
during the month (or year), the number of
workers involved, and the amount of work
time lost because of stoppage. These data are
presented in table 37.
Data are largely from a variety of published sources and cover only establishments
directly involved in a stoppage. They do not
measure the indirect or secondary effect of
stoppages on other establishments whose
employees are idle owing to material shortages or lack of service.

Definitions
Number of stoppages:  The number of
strikes and lockouts involving 1,000 workers or more and lasting a full shift or longer.
Workers involved: The number of workers directly involved in the stoppage.
Number of days idle:  The aggregate

number of workdays lost by workers involved
in the stoppages.
Days of idleness as a percent of estimated working time: Aggregate workdays
lost as a percent of the aggregate number of
standard workdays in the period multiplied
by total employment in the period.

Notes on the data
This series is not comparable with the one
terminated in 1981 that covered strikes involving six workers or more.
A DDITIONAL INFORMATION on work
stop-pages data is available at www. bls.
gov/cba/home.htm or by telephone at (202)
691–6199.

Price Data
(Tables 2; 38–46)
Price data are gathered by the Bureau
of Labor Statistics from retail and primary markets in the United States. Price
indexes are given in relation to a base period—December 2003 = 100 for many Producer Price Indexes (unless otherwise noted),
1982–84 = 100 for many Consumer Price
Indexes (unless otherwise noted), and 1990
= 100 for International Price Indexes.

Consumer Price Indexes
Description of the series
The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a measure
of the average change in the prices paid by
urban consumers for a fixed market basket
of goods and services. The CPI is calculated
monthly for two population groups, one
consisting only of urban households whose
primary source of income is derived from
the employment of wage earners and clerical
workers, and the other consisting of all urban
households. The wage earner index (CPI-W) is
a continuation of the historic index that was
introduced well over a half-century ago for
use in wage negotiations. As new uses were
developed for the CPI in recent years, the need
for a broader and more representative index
became apparent. The all-urban consumer
index (CPI-U), introduced in 1978, is representative of the 1993–95 buying habits of about
87 percent of the noninstitutional population
of the United States at that time, compared
with 32 percent represented in the CPI-W. In
addition to wage earners and clerical workers,
the CPI-U covers professional, managerial, and
technical workers, the self-employed, shortterm workers, the unemployed, retirees, and

others not in the labor force.
The CPI is based on prices of food, clothing,
shelter, fuel, drugs, transportation fares, doctors’
and dentists’ fees, and other goods and services
that people buy for day-to-day living. The
quantity and quality of these items are kept
essentially unchanged between major revisions
so that only price changes will be measured. All
taxes directly associated with the purchase and
use of items are included in the index.
Data collected from more than 23,000 retail
establishments and 5,800 housing units in 87
urban areas across the country are used to develop the “U.S. city average.” Separate estimates
for 14 major urban centers are presented in table
39.The areas listed are as indicated in footnote 1
to the table. The area indexes measure only the
average change in prices for each area since the
base period, and do not indicate differences in
the level of prices among cities.

Notes on the data
In January 1983, the Bureau changed the way
in which homeownership costs are meaured
for the CPI-U. A rental equivalence method
replaced the asset-price approach to homeownership costs for that series. In January 1985,
the same change was made in the CPI-W. The
central purpose of the change was to separate
shelter costs from the investment component
of homeownership so that the index would
reflect only the cost of shelter services provided
by owner-occupied homes. An updated CPI-U
and CPI-W were introduced with release of the
January 1987 and January 1998 data.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION, contact the Division of Prices and Price Indexes:
(202) 691–7000.

Producer Price Indexes
Description of the series
Producer Price Indexes (PPI) measure average changes in prices received by domestic
producers of commodities in all stages of
processing. The sample used for calculating
these indexes currently contains about 3,200
commodities and about 80,000 quotations
per month, selected to represent the movement of prices of all commodities produced
in the manufacturing; agriculture, forestry,
and fishing; mining; and gas and electricity
and public utilities sectors. The stage-of-processing structure of PPI organizes products by
class of buyer and degree of fabrication (that is,
finished goods, intermediate goods, and crude
materials). The traditional commodity structure of PPI organizes products by similarity of
end use or material composition. The industry
and product structure of PPI organizes data in

accordance with the 2002 North American
Industry Classification System and product
codes developed by the U.S. Census Bureau.
To the extent possible, prices used in
calculating Producer Price Indexes apply to
the first significant commercial transaction
in the United States from the production
or central marketing point. Price data are
generally collected monthly, primarily by
mail questionnaire. Most prices are obtained
directly from producing companies on a voluntary and confidential basis. Prices generally are reported for the Tuesday of the week
containing the 13th day of the month.
Since January 1992, price changes for
the various commodities have been averaged
together with implicit quantity weights representing their importance in the total net
selling value of all commodities as of 1987. The
detailed data are aggregated to obtain indexes
for stage-of-processing groupings, commodity
groupings, durability-of-product groupings,
and a number of special composite groups. All
Producer Price Index data are subject to revision 4 months after original publication.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION, contact the Division of Industrial Prices and
Price Indexes: (202) 691–7705.

International Price Indexes
Description of the series
The International Price Program produces
monthly and quarterly export and import
price indexes for nonmilitary goods and
services traded between the United States
and the rest of the world. The export price
index provides a measure of price change
for all products sold by U.S. residents to
foreign buyers. (“Residents” is defined as in
the national income accounts; it includes
corporations, businesses, and individuals, but
does not require the organizations to be U.S.
owned nor the individuals to have U.S. citizenship.) The import price index provides a
measure of price change for goods purchased
from other countries by U.S. residents.
The product universe for both the import
and export indexes includes raw materials,
agricultural products, semifinished manufactures, and finished manufactures, including both capital and consumer goods. Price
data for these items are collected primarily
by mail questionnaire. In nearly all cases,
the data are collected directly from the exporter or importer, although in a few cases,
prices are obtained from other sources.
To the extent possible, the data gathered
refer to prices at the U.S. border for exports
and at either the foreign border or the U.S.
Monthly Labor Review  • January  2009

49

Current Labor Statistics

border for imports. For nearly all products, the
prices refer to transactions completed during
the first week of the month. Survey respondents are asked to indicate all discounts, allowances, and rebates applicable to the reported
prices, so that the price used in the calculation
of the indexes is the actual price for which the
product was bought or sold.
In addition to general indexes of prices
for U.S. exports and imports, indexes are also
published for detailed product categories of exports and imports. These categories are defined
according to the five-digit level of detail for the
Bureau of Economic Analysis End-use Classification, the three-digit level for the Standard
International Trade Classification (SITC), and
the four-digit level of detail for the Harmonized System. Aggregate import indexes by
country or region of origin are also available.
BLS publishes indexes for selected categories of internationally traded services,
calculated on an international basis and on a
balance-of-payments basis.

Notes on the data
The export and import price indexes are
weighted indexes of the Laspeyres type. The
trade weights currently used to compute both
indexes relate to 2000.
Because a price index depends on the same
items being priced from period to period, it
is necessary to recognize when a product’s
specifications or terms of transaction have
been modified. For this reason, the Bureau’s
questionnaire requests detailed descriptions of
the physical and functional characteristics of
the products being priced, as well as information on the number of units bought or sold,
discounts, credit terms, packaging, class of
buyer or seller, and so forth. When there are
changes in either the specifications or terms
of transaction of a product, the dollar value
of each change is deleted from the total price
change to obtain the “pure” change. Once
this value is determined, a linking procedure
is employed which allows for the continued
repricing of the item.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION, contact the Division of International Prices:
(202) 691–7155.

Productivity Data
(Tables 2; 47–50)

Business and major sectors
Description of the series
The productivity measures relate real output
to real input. As such, they encompass a fam50

Monthly Labor Review  • January  2009

ily of measures which include single-factor
input measures, such as output per hour,
output per unit of labor input, or output per
unit of capital input, as well as measures of
multifactor productivity (output per unit
of combined labor and capital inputs). The
Bureau indexes show the change in output
relative to changes in the various inputs.
The measures cover the business, nonfarm
business, manufacturing, and nonfinancial
corporate sectors.
Corresponding indexes of hourly compensation, unit labor costs, unit nonlabor
payments, and prices are also provided.

Definitions
Output per hour of all persons (labor
productivity) is the quantity of goods and
services produced per hour of labor input.
Output per unit of capital services (capital
productivity) is the quantity of goods and
services produced per unit of capital services input. Multifactor productivity is the
quantity of goods and services produced per
combined inputs. For private business and
private nonfarm business, inputs include
labor and capital units. For manufacturing,
inputs include labor, capital, energy, nonenergy
materials, and purchased business services.
Compensation per hour is total compensation divided by hours at work. Total
compensation equals the wages and salaries
of employees plus employers’ contributions for
social insurance and private benefit plans, plus
an estimate of these payments for the self-employed (except for nonfinancial corporations
in which there are no self-employed). Real
compensation per hour is compensation per
hour deflated by the change in the Consumer
Price Index for All Urban Consumers.
Unit labor costs are the labor compensation costs expended in the production of a
unit of output and are derived by dividing
compensation by output. Unit nonlabor
payments include profits, depreciation,
interest, and indirect taxes per unit of output.
They are computed by subtracting compensation of all persons from current-dollar value
of output and dividing by output.
Unit nonlabor costs contain all the components of unit nonlabor payments except
unit profits.
Unit profits include corporate profits
with inventory valuation and capital consumption adjustments per unit of output.
Hours of all persons are the total hours
at work of payroll workers, self-employed
persons, and unpaid family workers.
Labor inputs are hours of all persons
adjusted for the effects of changes in the

education and experience of the labor force.
Capital services are the flow of services
from the capital stock used in production. It
is developed from measures of the net stock
of physical assets—equipment, structures,
land, and inventories—weighted by rental
prices for each type of asset.
Combined units of labor and capital
inputs are derived by combining changes in
labor and capital input with weights which
represent each component’s share of total
cost. Combined units of labor, capital, energy,
materials, and purchased business services are
similarly derived by combining changes in
each input with weights that represent each
input’s share of total costs. The indexes for
each input and for combined units are based
on changing weights which are averages of
the shares in the current and preceding year
(the Tornquist index-number formula).

Notes on the data
Business sector output is an annually-weighted index constructed by excluding from real
gross domestic product (GDP) the following
outputs: general government, nonprofit
institutions, paid employees of private households, and the rental value of owner-occupied
dwellings. Nonfarm business also excludes
farming. Private business and private nonfarm business further exclude government
enterprises. The measures are supplied by
the U.S. Department of Commerce’s Bureau
of Economic Analysis. Annual estimates of
manufacturing sectoral output are produced
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Quarterly manufacturing output indexes from the
Federal Reserve Board are adjusted to these
annual output measures by the BLS. Compensation data are developed from data of the
Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Bureau
of Labor Statistics. Hours data are developed
from data of the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
The productivity and associated cost
measures in tables 47–50 describe the relationship between output in real terms and
the labor and capital inputs involved in its
production. They show the changes from
period to period in the amount of goods and
services produced per unit of input.
Although these measures relate output
to hours and capital services, they do not
measure the contributions of labor, capital,
or any other specific factor of production.
Rather, they reflect the joint effect of many
influences, including changes in technology;
shifts in the composition of the labor force;
capital investment; level of output; changes
in the utilization of capacity, energy, material,
and research and development; the organi-

zation of production; managerial skill; and
characteristics and efforts of the work force.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on this
productivity series, contact the Division of
Productivity Research: (202) 691–5606.

Industry productivity measures
Description of the series
The BLS industry productivity indexes measure the relationship between output and
inputs for selected industries and industry
groups, and thus reflect trends in industry efficiency over time. Industry measures include
labor productivity, multifactor productivity,
compensation, and unit labor costs.
The industry measures differ in methodology and data sources from the productivity
measures for the major sectors because the
industry measures are developed independently of the National Income and Product
Accounts framework used for the major
sector measures.

Definitions
Output per hour is derived by dividing an
index of industry output by an index of labor
input. For most industries, output indexes
are derived from data on the value of industry output adjusted for price change. For
the remaining industries, output indexes are
derived from data on the physical quantity
of production.
The labor input series is based on the
hours of all workers or, in the case of some
transportation industries, on the number of
employees. For most industries, the series
consists of the hours of all employees. For
some trade and services industries, the series
also includes the hours of partners, proprietors, and unpaid family workers.
Unit labor costs represent the labor compensation costs per unit of output produced,
and are derived by dividing an index of labor
compensation by an index of output. Labor
compensation includes payroll as well as
supplemental payments, including both
legally required expenditures and payments
for voluntary programs.
Multifactor productivity is derived by
dividing an index of industry output by an index of combined inputs consumed in producing that output. Combined inputs include
capital, labor, and intermediate purchases.
The measure of capital input represents the
flow of services from the capital stock used
in production. It is developed from measures

of the net stock of physical assets—equipment, structures, land, and inventories. The
measure of intermediate purchases is a
combination of purchased materials, services,
fuels, and electricity.

Notes on the data
The industry measures are compiled from
data produced by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Census Bureau, with additional
data supplied by other government agencies,
trade associations, and other sources.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on this
series, contact the Division of Industry Productivity Studies: (202) 691–5618, or visit the
Web site at: www.bls.gov/lpc/home.htm

International Comparisons
(Tables 51–53)

Labor force and unemployment
Description of the series
Tables 51 and 52 present comparative
measures of the labor force, employment,
and unemployment approximating U.S.
concepts for the United States, Canada,
Australia, Japan, and six European countries.
The Bureau adjusts the figures for these
selected countries, for all known major
definitional differences, to the extent that
data to prepare adjustments are available.
Although precise comparability may not
be achieved, these adjusted figures provide
a better basis for international comparisons than the figures regularly published
by each country. For further information
on adjustments and comparability issues,
see Constance Sorrentino, “International
unemployment rates: how comparable are
they?” Monthly Labor Review, June 2000,
pp. 3–20, available on the Internet at www.
bls.gov/opub/mlr/2000/06/art1full.pdf.

Definitions
For the principal U.S. definitions of the labor
force, employment, and unemployment, see
the Notes section on Employment and Unemployment Data: Household survey data.

Notes on the data
Foreign country data are adjusted as closely
as possible to the U.S. definitions. Primary
areas of adjustment address conceptual differences in upper age limits and defini-

tions of employment and unemployment,
provided that reliable data are available to
make these adjustments. Adjustments are
made where applicable to include employed
and unemployed persons above upper age
limits; some European countries do not
include persons older than age 64 in their
labor force measures, because a large portion
of this population has retired. Adjustments
are made to exclude active duty military
from employment figures, although a small
number of career military may be included
in some European countries. Adjustments
are made to exclude unpaid family workers
who worked fewer than 15 hours per week
from employment figures; U.S. concepts do
not include them in employment, whereas
most foreign countries include all unpaid
family workers regardless of the number
of hours worked. Adjustments are made
to include full-time students seeking work
and available for work as unemployed when
they are classified as not in the labor force.
Where possible, lower age limits are based
on the age at which compulsory schooling
ends in each country, rather than based on
the U.S. standard of 16. Lower age limits
have ranged between 13 and 16 over the years
covered; currently, the lower age limits are
either 15 or 16 in all 10 countries.
Some adjustments for comparability are
not made because data are unavailable for
adjustment purposes. For example, no adjustments to unemployment are usually made for
deviations from U.S. concepts in the treatment
of persons waiting to start a new job or passive
job seekers. These conceptual differences have
little impact on the measures. Furthermore,
BLS studies have concluded that no adjustments should be made for persons on layoff
who are counted as employed in some countries because of their strong job attachment as
evidenced by, for example, payment of salary
or the existence of a recall date. In the United
States, persons on layoff have weaker job attachment and are classified as unemployed.
The annual labor force measures are obtained from monthly, quarterly, or continuous household surveys and may be calculated
as averages of monthly or quarterly data.
Quarterly and monthly unemployment
rates are based on household surveys. For
some countries, they are calculated by applying annual adjustment factors to current published data and, therefore, are less
precise indicators of unemployment under
U.S. concepts than the annual figures. The
labor force measures may have breaks in
series over time due to changes in surveys,
sources, or estimation methods. Breaks are
noted in data tables.
For up-to-date information on adjustments and breaks in series, see the Technical
Monthly Labor Review  • January  2009

51

Current Labor Statistics

Notes of Comparative Civilian Labor Force
Statistics, 10 Countries, on the Internet at
www.bls.gov/fls/flscomparelf.htm, and the
Notes of Unemployment rates in 10 countries,
civilian labor force basis, approximating U.S.
concepts, seasonally adjusted, on the Internet
at www.bls.gov/fls/flsjec.pdf.
F OR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on
this series, contact the Division of Foreign
Labor Statistics: (202) 691–5654 or flshelp@
bls.gov.

Manufacturing productivity
and labor costs
Description of the series
Table 53 presents comparative indexes of
manufacturing output per hour (labor productivity), output, total hours, compensation
per hour, and unit labor costs for the United
States, Australia, Canada, Japan, the Republic
of Korea, Taiwan, and 10 European countries.
These measures are trend comparisons—that
is, series that measure changes over time—
rather than level comparisons. BLS does
not recommend using these series for level
comparisons because of technical problems.
BLS constructs the comparative indexes
from three basic aggregate measures—output, total labor hours, and total compensation. The hours and compensation measures
refer to employees (wage and salary earners)
in Belgium and Taiwan. For all other economies, the measures refer to all employed
persons, including employees, self-employed
persons, and unpaid family workers.
The data for recent years are based on the
United Nations System of National Accounts
1993 (SNA 93). Manufacturing is generally defined according to the International Standard
Industrial Classification (ISIC). However, the
measures for France include parts of mining
as well. For the United States and Canada, it
is defined according to the North American
Industry Classification System (NAICS 97).

Definitions
Output. For most economies, the output
measures are real value added in manufacturing from national accounts. However, output for Japan prior to 1970 and
for the Netherlands prior to 1960 are
indexes of industrial production. The
manufacturing value added measures for the
United Kingdom are essentially identical
to their indexes of industrial production.
For United States, the output measure for
the manufacturing sector is a chain-weighted
52

Monthly Labor Review  • January  2009

index of real gross product originating (deflated value added) produced by the Bureau
of Economic Analysis of the U.S. Department of Commerce. Most of the other
economies now also use chain-weighted
as opposed to a fixed-year weights that are
periodically updated.
To preserve the comparability of the U.S.
measures with those of other economies,
BLS uses gross product originating in manufacturing for the United States. The gross
product originating series differs from the
manufacturing output series that BLS publishes in its quarterly news releases on U.S.
productivity and costs (and that underlies the
measures that appear in tables 48 and 50 in
this section). The quarterly measures are on
a “sectoral output” basis, rather than a valueadded basis. Sectoral output is gross output
less intrasector transactions.
Total hours refer to hours worked in all
economies. The measures are developed from
statistics of manufacturing employment and
average hours. For most other economies, recent years’ aggregate hours series are obtained
from national statistical offices, usually from
national accounts. However, for some economies and for earlier years, BLS calculates the
aggregate hours series using employment
figures published with the national accounts,
or other comprehensive employment series,
and data on average hours worked.
Hourly compensation is total compensation divided by total hours. Total compensation includes all payments in cash or in-kind
made directly to employees plus employer
expenditures for legally required insurance
programs and contractual and private benefit plans. For Australia, Canada, France,
and Sweden, compensation is increased
to account for important taxes on payroll
or employment. For the United Kingdom,
compensation is reduced between 1967 and
1991 to account for subsidies.
Labor productivity is defined as real
output per hour worked. Although the labor
productivity measure presented in this release
relates output to the hours worked of persons
employed in manufacturing, it does not measure
the specific contributions of labor as a single
factor of production. Rather, it reflects the joint
effects of many influences, including new technology, capital investment, capacity utilization,
energy use, and managerial skills, as well as the
skills and efforts of the workforce.
Unit labor costs are defined as the cost
of labor input required to produce one unit
of output. They are computed as compensation in nominal terms divided by real output.
Unit labor costs can also be computed by
dividing hourly compensation by output per
hour, that is, by labor productivity.

Notes on the data
The measures for recent years may be
based on current indicators of manufacturing output (such as industrial production
indexes), employment, average hours, and
hourly compensation until national accounts and other statistics used for the
long-term measures become available.
F OR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on
this series, go to http://www.bls.gov/news.
release/prod4.toc.htm or contact the Division of Foreign Labor Statistics at (202)
691–5654.

Occupational Injury
and Illness Data
(Tables 54–55)

Survey of Occupational Injuries
and Illnesses
Description of the series
The Survey of Occupational Injuries and
Illnesses collects data from employers about
their workers’ job-related nonfatal injuries
and illnesses. The information that employers
provide is based on records that they maintain
under the Occupational Safety and Health
Act of 1970. Self-employed individuals, farms
with fewer than 11 employees, employers
regulated by other Federal safety and health
laws, and Federal, State, and local government
agencies are excluded from the survey.
The survey is a Federal-State cooperative
program with an independent sample selected for each participating State. A stratified
random sample with a Neyman allocation
is selected to represent all private industries
in the State. The survey is stratified by Standard Industrial Classification and size of
employment.

Definitions
Under the Occupational Safety and Health
Act, employers maintain records of nonfatal
work-related injuries and illnesses that involve one or more of the following: loss of
consciousness, restriction of work or motion,
transfer to another job, or medical treatment
other than first aid.
Occupational injury is any injury such
as a cut, fracture, sprain, or amputation that
results from a work-related event or a single,
instantaneous exposure in the work environment.
Occupational illness is an abnormal

condition or disorder, other than one resulting from an occupational injury, caused by
exposure to factors associated with employment. It includes acute and chronic illnesses
or disease which may be caused by inhalation,
absorption, ingestion, or direct contact.
Lost workday injuries and illnesses are
cases that involve days away from work, or
days of restricted work activity, or both.
Lost workdays include the number of
workdays (consecutive or not) on which the
employee was either away from work or at
work in some restricted capacity, or both,
because of an occupational injury or illness.
BLS measures of the number and incidence
rate of lost workdays were discontinued beginning with the 1993 survey. The number
of days away from work or days of restricted
work activity does not include the day of injury
or onset of illness or any days on which the
employee would not have worked, such as a
Federal holiday, even though able to work.
Incidence rates are computed as the
number of injuries and/or illnesses or lost
work days per 100 full-time workers.

Notes on the data
The definitions of occupational injuries and
illnesses are from Recordkeeping Guidelines
for Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (U.S.
Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, September 1986).
Estimates are made for industries and employment size classes for total recordable cases,
lost workday cases, days away from work cases,
and nonfatal cases without lost workdays. These
data also are shown separately for injuries.
Illness data are available for seven categories:
occupational skin diseases or disorders, dust
diseases of the lungs, respiratory conditions
due to toxic agents, poisoning (systemic
effects of toxic agents), disorders due to
physical agents (other than toxic materials),
disorders associated with repeated trauma,
and all other occupational illnesses.
The survey continues to measure the
number of new work-related illness cases
which are recognized, diagnosed, and reported during the year. Some conditions, for
example, long-term latent illnesses caused
by exposure to carcinogens, often are difficult to relate to the workplace and are not
adequately recognized and reported. These
long-term latent illnesses are believed to be
understated in the survey’s illness measure. In

contrast, the overwhelming majority of the
reported new illnesses are those which are
easier to directly relate to workplace activity
(for example, contact dermatitis and carpal
tunnel syndrome).
Most of the estimates are in the form
of incidence rates, defined as the number
of injuries and illnesses per 100 equivalent
full-time workers. For this purpose, 200,000
employee hours represent 100 employee years
(2,000 hours per employee). Full detail on the
available measures is presented in the annual
bulletin, Occupational Injuries and Illnesses:
Counts, Rates, and Characteristics.
Comparable data for more than 40 States
and territories are available from the bls
Office of Safety, Health and Working Conditions. Many of these States publish data
on State and local government employees in
addition to private industry data.
Mining and railroad data are furnished to
BLS by the Mine Safety and Health Administration and the Federal Railroad Administration. Data from these organizations are
included in both the national and State data
published annually.
With the 1992 survey, BLS began publishing details on serious, nonfatal incidents
resulting in days away from work. Included
are some major characteristics of the injured
and ill workers, such as occupation, age, gender, race, and length of service, as well as the
circumstances of their injuries and illnesses
(nature of the disabling condition, part of
body affected, event and exposure, and the
source directly producing the condition). In
general, these data are available nationwide
for detailed industries and for individual
States at more aggregated industry levels.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on occupational injuries and illnesses, contact the
Office of Occupational Safety, Health and
Working Conditions at (202) 691–6180, or
access the Internet at: www.bls. gov/iif/

Census of Fatal
Occupational Injuries
The Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries
compiles a complete roster of fatal job-related injuries, including detailed data about the
fatally injured workers and the fatal events.
The program collects and cross checks fatality
information from multiple sources, including

death certificates, State and Federal workers’
compensation reports, Occupational Safety
and Health Administration and Mine Safety
and Health Administration records, medical
examiner and autopsy reports, media accounts, State motor vehicle fatality records,
and follow-up questionnaires to employers.
In addition to private wage and salary
workers, the self-employed, family members, and Federal, State, and local government workers are covered by the program.
To be included in the fatality census, the
decedent must have been employed (that is
working for pay, compensation, or profit)
at the time of the event, engaged in a legal
work activity, or present at the site of the
incident as a requirement of his or her job.

Definition
A fatal work injury is any intentional or
unintentional wound or damage to the body
resulting in death from acute exposure to
energy, such as heat or electricity, or kinetic
energy from a crash, or from the absence of
such essentials as heat or oxygen caused by a
specific event or incident or series of events
within a single workday or shift. Fatalities
that occur during a person’s commute to or
from work are excluded from the census,
as well as work-related illnesses,which can
be difficult to identify due to long latency
periods.

Notes on the data
Twenty-eight data elements are collected,
coded, and tabulated in the fatality program,
including information about the fatally
injured worker, the fatal incident, and the
machinery or equipment involved. Summary worker demographic data and event
characteristics are included in a national news
release that is available about 8 months after
the end of the reference year. The Census
of Fatal Occupational Injuries was initiated in 1992 as a joint Federal-State effort.
Most States issue summary information
at the time of the national news release.
F OR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on
the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries
contact the BLS Office of Safety, Health,
and Working Conditions at (202) 691–
6175, or the Internet at: www.bls.gov/iif/

Monthly Labor Review  • January  2009

53

Current Labor Statistics: Comparative Indicators

1. Labor market indicators
Selected indicators

2006

2006

2007

III

2007
IV

I

II

2008
III

IV

I

II

III

Employment data
Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional
population (household survey):

1

Labor force participation rate........................................................
Employment-population ratio........................................................
Unemployment rate………………………………………………….…
Men………………………………………………..…….….…………
16 to 24 years...........................................................................
25 years and older....................................................................
Women……………………………………………….….……………
16 to 24 years...........................................................................
25 years and older....................................................................
Employment, nonfarm (payroll data), in thousands:

66.2
63.1
4.6
4.6
11.2
3.5
4.6
9.7
3.7

66.0
63.0
4.6
4.7
11.6
3.6
4.5
9.4
3.6

66.2
63.1
4.7
4.6
11.4
3.5
4.7
10.1
3.8

66.3
63.4
4.4
4.5
11.0
3.3
4.4
9.7
3.5

66.2
63.2
4.5
4.6
10.8
3.6
4.4
9.0
3.5

66.0
63.0
4.5
4.6
11.5
3.5
4.4
9.0
3.6

66.0
62.9
4.7
4.8
11.8
3.6
4.6
9.8
3.7

66.0
62.8
4.8
4.9
12.2
3.7
4.7
9.9
3.8

66.0
62.7
4.9
5.0
12.7
3.8
4.8
10.0
3.9

66.1
62.6
5.3
5.5
13.3
4.2
5.1
11.0
4.1

66.1
62.2
6.0
6.4
14.6
5.0
5.5
11.7
4.5

1

Total nonfarm…………………….................................................... 136,086
Total private....................................................................... 114,113

137,626
115,423

136,528
114,472

136,982
114,899

137,310
115,167

137,625
115,423

137,837
115,610

138,078
115,759

137,831
115,454

137,617
115,154

137,318
114,776

22,531
Manufacturing………….………………..………………………… 14,155

22,221
13,883

22,564
14,138

22,436
14,033

22,362
13,953

22,267
13,890

22,138
13,822

21,976
13,772

21,737
13,644

21,491
13,527

21,303
13,380

Service-providing……………………………………………….…………..…113,556

115,405

113,964

114,546

114,948

115,358

115,699

116,102

116,094

116,126

116,015

Goods-producing ……………………………………………….…………..

Average hours:
Total private........................................…………..........................
Manufacturing………...……………………………………………
Overtime……..………….………………...………………………

33.9
41.1
4.4

33.8
41.2
4.2

33.8
41.3
4.4

33.9
41.1
4.2

33.9
41.2
4.1

33.9
41.4
4.1

33.8
41.4
4.2

33.8
41.1
4.0

33.8
41.2
4.0

33.7
41.0
3.8

33.6
40.7
3.6

Civilian nonfarm ……………………………….…………………………….……

3.3

3.3

1.1

.6

.9

.8

1.0

.6

.8

.7

.8

Private nonfarm……………...............………...............................

3.2

3.0

.8

.7

.8

.9

.8

.6

.9

.7

.6

2.5

2.4

.7

.5

.4

1.0

.5

.6

1.0

.7

.4

1, 2, 3

Employment Cost Index
Total compensation:
4

5

Goods-producing ……………………………………………….…………
5

Service-providing ……………………………………………….…………
State and local government ……………….………………………
Workers by bargaining status (private nonfarm):
Union……………………………………………………………………
Nonunion…………………………………………………………………
1

3.4

3.2

.9

.7

.9

.9

.9

.6

.9

.7

.6

4.1

4.1

2.3

.9

1.0

.6

1.8

.7

.5

.5

1.7

3.0
3.2

2.0
3.2

.6
.9

.6
.6

-.3
1.0

1.2
.9

.5
.8

.7
.6

.8
.9

.8
.7

.7
.6

Quarterly data seasonally adjusted.
Annual changes are December-to-December changes. Quarterly changes
are calculated using the last month of each quarter.
3
The Employment Cost Index data reflect the conversion to the 2002 North
American Classification System (NAICS) and the 2000 Standard Occupational
Classification (SOC) system. The NAICS and SOC data shown prior to 2006 are
for informational purposes only. Series based on NAICS and SOC became the
official BLS estimates starting in March 2006.
2

54

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

4

Excludes Federal and private household workers.
Goods-producing industries include mining, construction, and manufacturing. Serviceproviding industries include all other private sector industries.
5

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, household survey data reflect revised population
controls. Nonfarm data reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the North
American Industry Classification System (NAICS), replacing the Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) system. NAICS-based data by industry are not comparable with SIC
based data.

2. Annual and quarterly percent changes in compensation, prices, and productivity
Selected measures

2006

2007

2006
III

2007
IV

I

2008

II

III

IV

I

II

III

1, 2, 3

Compensation data

Employment Cost Index—compensation:
Civilian nonfarm...................................................................
Private nonfarm...............................................................
Employment Cost Index—wages and salaries:
Civilian nonfarm……………………………………………….
Private nonfarm...............................................................
Price data

3.3
3.2

3.3
3.0

1.1
.8

0.6
.7

0.9
.8

0.8
.9

1.0
.8

0.6
.6

0.8
.9

0.7
.7

0.8
.6

3.2
3.2

3.4
3.3

1.1
.8

.6
.7

1.1
1.1

.7
.8

1.0
.9

.7
.6

.8
.9

.7
.7

.8
.6

3.2

2.8

.0

-.5

1.8

1.5

.1

.7

1.7

2.5

.0

3.0
3.5
1.6
6.5
1.4

3.9
4.5
1.8
4.0
12.2

-.9
-1.3
.0
-.4
1.2

.1
-.2
1.3
-.8
4.0

2.2
2.8
.3
1.5
5.7

1.9
2.5
-.1
3.2
3.8

.1
.2
-.1
.1
-2.4

1.8
1.9
1.2
2.0
11.9

2.8
3.4
.7
5.0
14.5

4.2
5.3
.6
6.7
16.4

-.3
-.6
1.0
.9
-15.5

.9
1.0

1.5
1.4

-2.0
-2.1

.2
.2

-.1
.0

5.0
4.1

6.2
5.8

.1
.8

2.3
2.6

3.7
3.6

1.3
1.1

2.1

.9

2.7

-2.6

.4

3.4

1.8

1.9

-.2

8.6

-

1

Consumer Price Index (All Urban Consumers): All Items......
Producer Price Index:
Finished goods.....................................................................
Finished consumer goods.................................................
Capital equipment……………………………………………
Intermediate materials, supplies, and components…………
Crude materials.....................................................................
4

Productivity data
Output per hour of all persons:

Business sector.....................................................................
Nonfarm business sector.......................................................
5

Nonfinancial corporations ……………….…………...………………

1
Annual changes are December-to-December changes. Quarterly changes are
calculated using the last month of each quarter. Compensation and price data are not
seasonally adjusted, and the price data are not compounded.
2

only. Series based on NAICS and SOC became the official BLS estimates starting in
March 2006.
4
Annual rates of change are computed by comparing annual averages. Quarterly
percent changes reflect annual rates of change in quarterly indexes. The data are
seasonally adjusted.

Excludes Federal and private household workers.

3
The Employment Cost Index data reflect the conversion to the 2002 North American
Classification System (NAICS) and the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)
system. The NAICS and SOC data shown prior to 2006 are for informational purposes

5

Output per hour of all employees.

3. Alternative measures of wage and compensation changes
Quarterly change
Components

2007
III

Four quarters ending—

2008
IV

I

II

2007
III

III

2008
IV

I

II

III

1

Average hourly compensation:
All persons, business sector..........................................................
All persons, nonfarm business sector...........................................
Employment Cost Index—compensation:

4.4
5.3

3.6
3.8

3.8
3.5

4.7
4.7

4.8
4.5

3.7
3.6

3.4
3.3

3.9
4.0

4.1
4.3

1.0
.8
.5
.8
1.8

.6
.6
.7
.6
.7

.8
.9
.8
.9
.5

.7
.7
.8
.7
.5

.8
.6
.7
.6
1.7

3.3
3.1
2.0
3.2
4.3

3.3
3.0
2.0
3.2
4.1

3.3
3.2
3.1
3.2
3.6

3.1
3.0
2.7
3.0
3.5

2.9
2.8
2.9
2.8
3.4

1.0
.9
.7
.9
1.7

.7
.6
.3
.7
.7

.8
.9
.8
.9
.6

.7
.7
1.1
.7
.5

.8
.6
.7
.6
1.8

3.3
3.4
2.7
3.4
3.5

3.4
3.3
2.3
3.5
3.5

3.2
3.2
2.6
3.3
3.5

3.2
3.1
2.9
3.2
3.4

3.1
2.9
2.9
3.0
3.5

2

3

Civilian nonfarm ……….………………………………………….…………..…
Private nonfarm….......................................................................
Union…………..........................................................................
Nonunion…………....................................................................
State and local government….....................................................
Employment Cost Index—wages and salaries:
3

3.6
3.3

2

Civilian nonfarm ……….………………………………………….…………..…
Private nonfarm….......................................................................
Union…………..........................................................................
Nonunion…………....................................................................
State and local government….....................................................
1

Seasonally adjusted. "Quarterly average" is percent change from a
quarter ago, at an annual rate.
2

The Employment Cost Index data reflect the conversion to the 2002
North American Classification System (NAICS) and the 2000 Standard

Occupational Classification (SOC) system. The NAICS and SOC data shown
prior to 2006 are for informational purposes only. Series based on NAICS
and SOC became the official BLS estimates starting in March 2006.
3

Excludes Federal and private household workers.

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 55

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

4. Employment status of the population, by sex, age, race, and Hispanic origin, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status

Annual average
2006

2007

2007
Nov.

Dec.

2008
Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

TOTAL
Civilian noninstitutional
1

population ……………………. 228,815
Civilian labor force.............. 151,428
66.2
Participation rate...........
Employed........................ 144,427
Employment-pop63.1
ulation ratio 2……………
7,001
Unemployed...................
4.6
Unemployment rate.....
Not in the labor force........ 77,387

231,867 232,939 233,156 232,616 232,809 232,995 233,198 233,405 233,627 233,864 234,107 234,360 234,612 234,828
153,124 153,828 153,866 153,824 153,374 153,784 153,957 154,534 154,390 154,603 154,853 154,732 155,038 154,616
66.0
66.0
66.0
66.1
65.9
66.0
66.0
66.2
66.1
66.1
66.1
66.0
66.1
65.8
146,047 146,647 146,211 146,248 145,993 145,969 146,331 146,046 145,891 145,819 145,477 145,255 144,958 144,285
63.0
7,078
4.6
78,743

63.0
7,181
4.7
79,111

62.7
7,655
5.0
79,290

62.9
7,576
4.9
78,792

62.7
7,381
4.8
79,436

62.6
7,815
5.1
79,211

62.7
7,626
5.0
79,241

62.6
8,487
5.5
78,871

62.4
8,499
5.5
79,237

62.4
8,784
5.7
79,261

62.1
9,376
6.1
79,253

62.0
9,477
6.1
79,628

61.8
10,080
6.5
79,575

61.4
10,331
6.7
80,212

Men, 20 years and over
Civilian noninstitutional
1

population ……………………. 102,145
Civilian labor force.............. 77,562
75.9
Participation rate...........
Employed........................ 74,431
Employment-pop72.9
ulation ratio 2……………
3,131
Unemployed...................
4.0
Unemployment rate.....
Not in the labor force……… 24,584

103,555 104,087 104,197 103,866 103,961 104,052 104,152 104,258 104,371 104,490 104,613 104,741 104,869 104,978
78,596
79,075
79,004
78,864
78,748
78,838
78,776
78,878
79,037
79,327
79,318
79,444
79,451
79,316
75.9
76.0
75.8
75.9
75.7
75.8
75.6
75.7
75.7
75.9
75.8
75.8
75.8
75.6
75,337
75,834
75,499
75,427
75,362
75,197
75,148
75,001
74,998
75,094
74,866
74,631
74,441
74,138
72.8
3,259
4.1
24,959

72.9
3,240
4.1
25,012

72.5
3,505
4.4
25,193

72.6
3,437
4.4
25,002

72.5
3,386
4.3
25,213

72.3
3,641
4.6
25,214

72.2
3,628
4.6
25,376

71.9
3,877
4.9
25,380

71.9
4,038
5.1
25,334

71.9
4,234
5.3
25,163

71.6
4,452
5.6
25,295

71.3
4,813
6.1
25,298

71.0
5,010
6.3
25,418

70.6
5,178
6.5
25,662

Women, 20 years and over
Civilian noninstitutional
1

population ……………………. 109,992
Civilian labor force.............. 66,585
60.5
Participation rate...........
Employed........................ 63,834
Employment-pop58.0
ulation ratio 2……………
2,751
Unemployed...................
4.1
Unemployment rate.....
Not in the labor force……… 43,407

111,330 111,805 111,903 111,739 111,822 111,902 111,990 112,083 112,183 112,290 112,401 112,518 112,633 112,731
67,516
67,776
67,866
67,982
67,816
68,159
68,176
68,390
68,446
68,303
68,672
68,423
68,757
68,749
60.6
60.6
60.6
60.8
60.6
60.9
60.9
61.0
61.0
60.8
61.1
60.8
61.0
61.0
64,799
64,980
64,912
65,098
64,950
65,055
65,260
65,138
65,238
65,167
65,047
65,072
65,090
64,935
58.2
2,718
4.0
43,814

58.1
2,796
4.1
44,029

58.0
2,954
4.4
44,037

58.3
2,885
4.2
43,756

58.1
2,865
4.2
44,006

58.1
3,104
4.6
43,743

58.3
2,916
4.3
43,814

58.1
3,252
4.8
43,693

58.2
3,208
4.7
43,737

58.0
3,135
4.6
43,988

57.9
3,625
5.3
43,729

57.8
3,351
4.9
44,094

57.8
3,666
5.3
43,877

57.6
3,815
5.5
43,982

16,982
7,012
41.3
5,911

17,048
6,977
40.9
5,832

17,056
6,996
41.0
5,801

17,012
6,978
41.0
5,724

17,027
6,810
40.0
5,681

17,041
6,787
39.8
5,717

17,056
7,005
41.1
5,923

17,064
7,266
42.6
5,907

17,073
6,907
40.5
5,655

17,084
6,973
40.8
5,558

17,092
6,863
40.2
5,563

17,101
6,865
40.1
5,552

17,110
6,830
39.9
5,427

17,118
6,550
38.3
5,212

34.8
1,101
15.7
9,970

34.2
1,145
16.4
10,071

34.0
1,196
17.1
10,059

33.6
1,254
18.0
10,034

33.4
1,130
16.6
10,216

33.5
1,070
15.8
10,254

34.7
1,082
15.4
10,051

34.6
1,358
18.7
9,798

33.1
1,253
18.1
10,166

32.5
1,415
20.3
10,110

32.6
1,299
18.9
10,229

32.5
1,313
19.1
10,236

31.7
1,404
20.6
10,279

30.4
1,338
20.4
10,568

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years
Civilian noninstitutional

1
population ……………………. 16,678
7,281
Civilian labor force..............
43.7
Participation rate...........
6,162
Employed........................
Employment-pop36.9
ulation ratio 2……………
1,119
Unemployed...................
15.4
Unemployment rate.....
Not in the labor force……… 9,397

White3
Civilian noninstitutional
1

population ……………………. 186,264
Civilian labor force.............. 123,834
66.5
Participation rate...........
Employed........................ 118,833
Employment-pop63.8
ulation ratio 2……………
5,002
Unemployed...................
4.0
Unemployment rate.....
Not in the labor force……… 62,429

188,253 188,956 189,093 188,787 188,906 189,019 189,147 189,281 189,428 189,587 189,747 189,916 190,085 190,221
124,935 125,430 125,460 125,340 124,940 125,190 125,171 125,762 125,704 125,971 125,981 125,955 126,388 126,029
66.4
66.4
66.3
66.4
66.1
66.2
66.2
66.4
66.4
66.4
66.4
66.3
66.5
66.3
119,792 120,194 119,889 119,858 119,534 119,574 119,667 119,661 119,518 119,542 119,222 119,180 118,893 118,338
63.6
5,143
4.1
63,319

63.6
5,235
4.2
63,526

63.4
5,571
4.4
63,633

63.5
5,482
4.4
63,447

63.3
5,406
4.3
63,966

63.3
5,616
4.5
63,829

63.3
5,504
4.4
63,975

63.2
6,101
4.9
63,519

63.1
6,186
4.9
63,724

63.1
6,428
5.1
63,616

62.8
6,760
5.4
63,766

62.8
6,775
5.4
63,961

62.5
7,495
5.9
63,697

62.2
7,691
6.1
64,193

27,485
17,496
63.7
16,051

27,666
17,453
63.1
15,980

27,704
17,538
63.3
15,961

27,640
17,713
64.1
16,090

27,675
17,632
63.7
16,169

27,709
17,702
63.9
16,116

27,746
17,753
64.0
16,234

27,780
17,742
63.9
16,029

27,816
17,716
63.7
16,085

27,854
17,767
63.8
16,040

27,896
17,973
64.4
16,074

27,939
17,737
63.5
15,714

27,982
17,793
63.6
15,810

28,021
17,710
63.2
15,718

58.4
1,445
8.3
9,989

57.8
1,473
8.4
10,212

57.6
1,577
9.0
10,165

58.2
1,623
9.2
9,927

58.4
1,463
8.3
10,043

58.2
1,586
9.0
10,007

58.5
1,520
8.6
9,992

57.7
1,713
9.7
10,038

57.8
1,632
9.2
10,100

57.6
1,726
9.7
10,088

57.6
1,899
10.6
9,923

56.2
2,023
11.4
10,202

56.5
1,983
11.1
10,190

56.1
1,992
11.2
10,311

Black or African American3
Civilian noninstitutional

1
population ……………………. 27,007
Civilian labor force.............. 17,314
64.1
Participation rate...........
Employed........................ 15,765
Employment-pop58.4
ulation ratio 2……………
1,549
Unemployed...................
8.9
Unemployment rate.....
Not in the labor force……… 9,693

See footnotes at end of table.

56

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

4. Continued—Employment status of the population, by sex, age, race, and Hispanic origin, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status

Annual average
2006

2007

2008

2007

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

31,383
21,602
68.8
20,382

31,809
21,872
68.8
20,623

31,903
21,888
68.6
20,517

31,643
21,698
68.6
20,320

31,732
21,755
68.6
20,401

31,820
21,775
68.4
20,269

31,911
21,917
68.7
20,404

31,998
22,102
69.1
20,573

32,087
22,131
69.0
20,420

32,179
22,071
68.6
20,435

32,273
22,226
68.9
20,452

64.9
1,220
5.6
9,781

64.8
1,249
5.7
9,938

64.3
1,371
6.3
10,016

64.2
1,378
6.3
9,946

64.3
1,354
6.2
9,977

63.7
1,507
6.9
10,045

63.9
1,512
6.9
9,994

64.3
1,529
6.9
9,896

63.6
1,711
7.7
9,956

63.5
1,636
7.4
10,108

63.4
1,774
8.0
10,048

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

32,369
22,258
68.8
20,531

32,465
22,236
68.5
20,268

32,558
22,078
67.8
20,187

63.4
1,727
7.8
10,111

62.4
1,967
8.8
10,229

62.0
1,891
8.6
10,480

Hispanic or Latino
ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional

1
population ……………………. 30,103
Civilian labor force.............. 20,694
68.7
Participation rate...........
Employed........................ 19,613
Employment-pop65.2
ulation ratio 2……………
1,081
Unemployed...................
5.2
Unemployment rate.....
Not in the labor force ………… 9,409

1

The population figures are not seasonally adjusted.
Civilian employment as a percent of the civilian noninstitutional population.
3
Beginning in 2003, persons who selected this race group only; persons who
selected more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, persons who
reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main
race.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white and black or African American) do not
sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. In addition, persons whose
ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race and, therefore, are classified
by ethnicity as well as by race. Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population
controls used in the household survey.

2

5. Selected employment indicators, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
Selected categories

Annual average
2006

2007

2007
Nov.

2008

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Characteristic
Employed, 16 years and older.. 144,427 146,047 146,647 146,211 146,248 145,993 145,969 146,331 146,046 145,891 145,819 145,477 145,255 144,958 144,285
Men....................................... 77,502
78,254
78,604
78,260
78,157
78,113
77,948
78,038
77,954
77,794
77,823
77,632
77,396
77,108
76,672
Women............................…… 66,925
67,792
68,043
67,951
68,091
67,880
68,021
68,293
68,092
68,097
67,996
67,845
67,860
67,850
67,613
Married men, spouse
45,700

46,314

46,339

46,213

46,063

46,136

45,961

45,964

45,862

45,911

46,120

45,829

45,958

45,870

45,705

35,272

35,832

35,689

35,565

35,536

35,648

35,749

36,177

36,171

36,270

36,185

36,055

35,913

35,633

35,657

4,162

4,401

4,513

4,665

4,769

4,884

4,914

5,220

5,233

5,416

5,724

5,718

6,055

6,700

7,321

2,658

2,877

3,008

3,174

3,247

3,291

3,323

3,558

3,595

3,816

4,194

4,112

4,232

4,733

5,426

1,189

1,210

1,223

1,236

1,163

1,222

1,362

1,323

1,281

1,336

1,286

1,362

1,516

1,491

1,572

reasons……………………… 19,591

19,756

19,539

19,526

19,613

19,348

19,409

19,809

19,428

19,496

19,406

19,712

19,371

19,147

18,880

4,071

4,317

4,453

4,577

4,677

4,790

4,797

5,125

5,164

5,308

5,599

5,641

5,941

6,485

7,200

2,596

2,827

2,981

3,120

3,174

3,231

3,238

3,513

3,531

3,744

4,156

4,032

4,121

4,690

5,313

1,178

1,199

1,205

1,219

1,149

1,216

1,354

1,331

1,288

1,328

1,277

1,350

1,537

1,481

1,570

reasons.................………… 19,237

19,419

19,224

19,225

19,296

19,019

19,072

19,456

19,047

19,106

19,051

19,281

19,033

18,889

18,598

present................................
Married women, spouse
present................................
Persons at work part time1
All industries:
Part time for economic
reasons…………………….…
Slack work or business
conditions………….........
Could only find part-time
work………………………
Part time for noneconomic
Nonagricultural industries:
Part time for economic
reasons…………………….…
Slack work or business
conditions.......................
Could only find part-time
work………………………
Part time for noneconomic
1

Excludes persons "with a job but not at work" during the survey period for such reasons as vacation, illness, or industrial disputes.

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population controls used in the household survey.

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 57

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

6. Selected unemployment indicators, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[Unemployment rates]
Annual average

Selected categories

2006

2007

2007

2008

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Characteristic
Total, 16 years and older............................
Both sexes, 16 to 19 years.....................
Men, 20 years and older.........................
Women, 20 years and older...................

4.6
15.4
4.0
4.1

4.6
15.7
4.1
4.0

4.7
16.4
4.1
4.1

5.0
17.1
4.4
4.4

4.9
18.0
4.4
4.2

4.8
16.6
4.3
4.2

5.1
15.8
4.6
4.6

5.0
15.4
4.6
4.3

5.5
18.7
4.9
4.8

5.5
18.1
5.1
4.7

5.7
20.3
5.3
4.6

6.1
18.9
5.6
5.3

6.1
19.1
6.1
4.9

6.5
20.6
6.3
5.3

6.7
20.4
6.5
5.5

White, total 1………………………………

4.0
13.2
14.6
11.7
3.5
3.6

4.1
13.9
15.7
12.1
3.7
3.6

4.2
14.7
17.8
11.8
3.7
3.7

4.4
14.4
16.8
12.1
3.9
4.0

4.4
15.6
19.0
12.3
3.9
3.8

4.3
14.4
17.1
11.8
3.9
3.8

4.5
13.2
14.7
11.7
4.1
4.1

4.4
13.8
15.2
12.4
4.1
3.7

4.9
16.4
17.7
14.9
4.4
4.1

4.9
16.6
17.8
15.3
4.5
4.2

5.1
19.0
22.2
15.6
4.7
4.1

5.4
17.2
19.2
15.0
4.9
4.7

5.4
17.4
19.4
15.2
5.3
4.2

5.9
18.5
22.4
14.4
5.7
4.9

6.1
18.4
21.5
15.2
6.0
5.0

8.9
29.1
32.7
25.9
8.3
7.5

8.3
29.4
33.8
25.3
7.9
6.7

8.4
29.7
34.6
24.9
7.9
7.0

9.0
34.7
39.5
30.1
8.4
7.0

9.2
35.7
41.3
28.5
8.3
7.3

8.3
31.7
32.6
30.9
7.9
6.5

9.0
31.3
38.9
25.4
8.4
7.5

8.6
24.5
27.9
21.9
8.4
7.4

9.7
32.3
40.1
25.2
8.9
8.2

9.2
29.6
35.5
23.9
9.3
7.4

9.7
32.0
38.0
26.5
10.0
7.5

10.6
28.8
29.2
28.3
10.3
9.1

11.4
29.4
32.6
26.3
11.9
9.3

11.1
32.4
36.8
27.3
11.6
8.8

11.2
32.3
42.1
23.2
11.9
9.0

5.2
2.4
2.9
4.5
5.1

5.6
2.5
2.8
4.6
4.9

5.7
2.6
3.0
4.6
5.0

6.3
2.7
3.1
4.9
5.6

6.3
2.7
3.1
4.8
5.4

6.2
2.7
3.1
4.8
5.0

6.9
2.8
3.3
5.0
5.3

6.9
2.8
3.0
5.0
4.9

6.9
2.9
3.1
5.5
5.5

7.7
3.0
3.3
5.5
5.4

7.4
3.2
3.3
5.7
5.5

8.0
3.5
3.7
6.2
5.7

7.8
3.8
3.5
6.2
5.9

8.8
4.1
4.2
6.7
5.7

8.6
4.1
4.2
6.9
5.8

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years................
Men, 16 to 19 years........................
Women, 16 to 19 years..................
Men, 20 years and older....................
Women, 20 years and older..............
Black or African American, total 1………
Both sexes, 16 to 19 years................
Men, 16 to 19 years........................
Women, 16 to 19 years..................
Men, 20 years and older....................
Women, 20 years and older..............
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity………………
Married men, spouse present................
Married women, spouse present...........
Full-time workers...................................
Part-time workers..................................
Educational attainment2
Less than a high school diploma................

6.8

7.1

7.6

7.6

7.7

7.3

8.2

7.8

8.3

8.7

8.5

9.6

9.6

10.3

10.5

Some college or associate degree………..

4.3
3.6

4.4
3.6

4.5
3.3

4.7
3.7

4.6
3.6

4.7
3.7

5.1
3.8

5.0
3.9

5.2
4.3

5.1
4.2

5.2
4.5

5.7
4.8

6.3
5.0

6.3
5.2

6.8
5.5

Bachelor's degree and higher 4…………….

2.0

2.0

2.2

2.2

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.7

2.5

3.1

3.1

July

Aug.

Sept.

High school graduates, no college 3………

1

Beginning in 2003, persons who selected this race group only; persons who

selected more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, persons who
reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main
race.
2

Data refer to persons 25 years and older.

7. Duration of unemployment, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Weeks of
unemployment
Less than 5 weeks...........................
5 to 14 weeks..................................
15 weeks and over..........................
15 to 26 weeks.............................
27 weeks and over.......................
Mean duration, in weeks...................
Median duration, in weeks...............

Annual average
2006
2,614
2,121
2,266
1,031
1,235
16.8
8.3

2007
2,542
2,232
2,303
1,061
1,243
16.8
8.5

2007
Nov.
2,633
2,157
2,398
1,014
1,384
17.2
8.7

2008

Dec.
2,793
2,330
2,520
1,182
1,338
16.6
8.4

Jan.
2,634
2,396
2,503
1,124
1,380
17.5
8.8

Feb.
2,639
2,396
2,377
1,079
1,299
16.8
8.4

Mar.
2,767
2,525
2,400
1,118
1,282
16.2
8.1

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population controls used in the household survey.

58

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

Apr.
2,484
2,495
2,626
1,272
1,353
16.9
9.3

May
3,244
2,469
2,773
1,223
1,550
16.6
8.3

June
2,712
2,999
2,916
1,328
1,587
17.5
10.0

2,835
2,823
3,118
1,440
1,678
17.1
9.7

3,235
2,821
3,402
1,561
1,841
17.4
9.2

2,853
3,051
3,607
1,598
2,008
18.4
10.2

Oct.
3,065
3,003
4,062
1,805
2,257
19.7
10.6

Nov.
3,251
3,091
3,963
1,757
2,206
18.8
10.0

8. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason for
unemployment
Job losers 1…………………….…
On temporary layoff..............
Not on temporary layoff........
Job leavers..............................
Reentrants...............................
New entrants...........................

Annual average
2006

2007

2007

Nov.

2008

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

3,321
921
2,400
827
2,237
616

3,515
976
2,539
793
2,142
627

3,609
979
2,630
783
2,160
669

3,857
975
2,882
798
2,343
697

3,796
1,040
2,756
830
2,201
667

3,854
971
2,883
769
2,112
648

4,154
1,056
3,098
781
2,117
681

4,014
1,099
2,915
850
2,134
624

4,282
1,113
3,169
870
2,460
828

4,370
1,077
3,292
833
2,498
748

4,407
1,037
3,370
861
2,705
811

4,824
1,266
3,559
999
2,652
820

5,171
1,407
3,764
974
2,555
822

5,719
1,340
4,379
940
2,623
828

6,072
1,395
4,677
935
2,636
759

47.4
13.2
34.3
11.8
32.0
8.8

49.7
13.8
35.9
11.2
30.3
8.9

50.0
13.6
36.4
10.8
29.9
9.3

50.1
12.7
37.5
10.4
30.4
9.1

50.7
13.9
36.8
11.1
29.4
8.9

52.2
13.2
39.0
10.4
28.6
8.8

53.7
13.7
40.1
10.1
27.4
8.8

52.7
14.4
38.2
11.2
28.0
8.2

50.7
13.2
37.5
10.3
29.1
9.8

51.7
12.7
39.0
9.9
29.6
8.9

50.2
11.8
38.4
9.8
30.8
9.2

51.9
13.6
38.3
10.7
28.5
8.8

54.3
14.8
39.5
10.2
26.8
8.6

56.6
13.3
43.3
9.3
25.9
8.2

58.4
13.4
45.0
9.0
25.3
7.3

2.3
.5
1.4
.4

2.5
.5
1.5
.5

2.5
.5
1.4
.4

2.5
.5
1.4
.4

2.7
.5
1.4
.4

2.6
.6
1.4
.4

2.8
.6
1.6
.5

2.8
.5
1.6
.5

2.9
.6
1.7
.5

3.1
.6
1.7
.5

3.3
.6
1.7
.5

3.7
.6
1.7
.5

3.9
.6
1.7
.5

July

Oct.

Nov.

Percent of unemployed
Job losers 1…………………….…
On temporary layoff...............
Not on temporary layoff.........
Job leavers...............................
Reentrants................................
New entrants............................
Percent of civilian
labor force
2.2
2.3
Job losers 1…………………….…
.5
.5
Job leavers...............................
1.5
1.4
Reentrants................................
.4
.4
New entrants............................
1
Includes persons who completed temporary jobs.

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population controls used in the household survey.

9. Unemployment rates by sex and age, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[Civilian workers]
Sex and age

Annual average

2007

2008

2006

2007

Nov.

Dec.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

Aug.

Sept.

Total, 16 years and older..................
16 to 24 years...............................
16 to 19 years............................
16 to 17 years.........................
18 to 19 years.........................
20 to 24 years............................
25 years and older........................
25 to 54 years.........................
55 years and older..................

4.6
10.5
15.4
17.2
14.1
8.2
3.6
3.8
3.0

4.6
10.5
15.7
17.5
14.5
8.2
3.6
3.7
3.1

4.7
10.7
16.4
19.0
14.4
8.0
3.7
3.8
3.0

5.0
11.8
17.1
19.6
15.4
9.4
3.9
4.1
3.2

4.9
11.7
18.0
20.4
15.9
8.7
3.8
3.9
3.2

4.8
11.3
16.6
18.3
15.5
8.9
3.8
3.9
3.2

5.1
11.3
15.8
18.6
14.0
9.3
4.0
4.2
3.4

5.0
11.0
15.4
19.7
13.2
8.9
3.9
4.2
3.0

5.5
13.0
18.7
21.2
17.5
10.4
4.1
4.4
3.3

5.5
12.6
18.1
23.3
15.6
10.1
4.3
4.5
3.3

5.7
13.4
20.3
24.9
17.3
10.2
4.4
4.6
3.6

6.1
13.1
18.9
22.1
17.1
10.5
4.9
5.1
4.1

6.1
13.2
19.1
21.6
17.6
10.5
5.0
5.2
4.1

6.5
13.7
20.6
22.9
18.3
10.6
5.3
5.5
4.5

6.7
13.8
20.4
23.8
18.3
10.9
5.5
5.8
4.7

Men, 16 years and older.................
16 to 24 years.............................
16 to 19 years..........................
16 to 17 years.......................
18 to 19 years.......................
20 to 24 years..........................
25 years and older......................
25 to 54 years.......................
55 years and older................

4.6
11.2
16.9
18.6
15.7
8.7
3.5
3.6
3.0

4.7
11.6
17.6
19.4
16.5
8.9
3.6
3.7
3.2

4.7
11.8
19.5
21.4
17.8
8.6
3.6
3.7
3.1

5.1
12.8
19.8
22.1
18.4
9.8
3.8
4.0
3.2

5.1
13.1
21.8
24.0
19.5
9.4
3.8
4.0
3.2

4.9
12.5
18.7
20.5
18.0
9.9
3.7
3.8
3.2

5.2
12.5
17.8
22.0
15.2
10.3
4.0
4.1
3.3

5.1
12.0
16.9
22.2
14.5
9.9
4.0
4.3
3.0

5.6
14.1
20.7
23.3
19.6
11.0
4.2
4.4
3.4

5.7
13.8
19.9
26.2
17.1
11.2
4.3
4.6
3.4

6.1
15.2
23.4
29.4
19.9
11.6
4.6
4.9
3.7

6.3
14.3
20.7
24.0
18.6
11.5
5.0
5.2
4.2

6.7
14.4
21.0
23.0
20.1
11.5
5.5
5.8
4.4

7.1
16.4
24.5
26.9
21.6
12.8
5.5
5.7
4.6

7.2
16.0
24.1
28.8
21.2
12.6
5.9
6.1
5.1

Women, 16 years and older...........
16 to 24 years.............................
16 to 19 years..........................
16 to 17 years…………………
18 t0 19 years…………………
20 to 24 years..........................
25 years and older......................
25 to 54 years.......................
55 years and older 1…………

4.6
9.7
13.8
15.9
12.4
7.6
3.7
3.9

4.5
9.4
13.8
15.7
12.5
7.3
3.6
3.8

4.6
9.4
13.4
17.1
10.7
7.4
3.8
4.0

4.9
10.7
14.4
17.3
12.3
8.8
3.9
4.1

4.7
10.1
14.2
17.2
12.1
8.0
3.8
3.9

4.7
9.9
14.5
16.2
12.8
7.7
3.8
4.0

5.0
10.0
13.8
15.5
12.8
8.1
4.1
4.2

4.8
9.8
14.0
17.5
11.8
7.7
3.9
4.0

5.3
11.9
16.6
19.0
15.2
9.6
4.1
4.4

5.2
11.2
16.3
20.3
13.9
8.8
4.2
4.4

5.2
11.4
17.1
20.4
14.6
8.7
4.2
4.3

5.8
11.9
17.1
20.2
15.6
9.4
4.8
5.0

5.5
11.9
17.1
20.3
14.8
9.4
4.4
4.6

5.8
10.7
16.3
19.1
14.6
8.1
5.1
5.2

6.0
11.4
16.6
19.4
15.0
9.1
5.2
5.4

2.9

3.0

2.8

2.9

3.4

3.3

3.4

2.8

2.8

3.4

4.3

4.5

3.9

4.3

4.3

1

Jan.

May

June

Data are not seasonally adjusted.

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population controls used in the household survey.

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 59

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

10. Unemployment rates by State, seasonally adjusted
Sept.

Oct.
2007

State

2008p

Oct.

Oct.
2007

State

2008p

Sept.

2008p

Oct.

2008p

Alabama............................…………………
Alaska........................................................
Arizona............................……………………
Arkansas....................................................
California............................…………………

3.5
6.2
3.9
5.5
5.7

5.3
6.7
5.9
4.9
7.7

5.5
7.2
6.1
5.4
8.2

Missouri………………………………………
Montana.....................................................
Nebraska............................…………………
Nevada......................................................
New Hampshire............................…………

5.4
3.2
3.1
5.1
3.3

6.5
4.6
3.6
7.2
4.1

6.5
4.8
3.7
7.7
4.1

Colorado....................................................
Connecticut............................………………
Delaware...................................................
District of Columbia............................……
Florida........................................................

3.9
4.8
3.5
5.7
4.3

5.2
6.1
4.8
7.0
6.6

5.7
6.5
5.3
7.3
7.0

New Jersey................................................
New Mexico............................………………
New York...................................................
North Carolina............................……………
North Dakota.............................................

4.2
3.3
4.6
4.7
3.2

5.8
4.0
5.8
6.9
3.6

6.0
4.3
5.7
7.1
3.4

Georgia............................…………………
Hawaii........................................................
Idaho............................………………………
Illinois.........................................................
Indiana............................……………………

4.5
2.8
2.7
5.3
4.5

6.4
4.5
5.0
6.9
6.2

6.9
4.6
5.3
7.3
6.4

Ohio............................………………………
Oklahoma..................................................
Oregon............................……………………
Pennsylvania.............................................
Rhode Island............................……………

5.7
4.3
5.4
4.4
5.1

7.2
3.8
6.4
5.7
8.8

7.3
4.3
7.2
5.8
9.3

Iowa............................………………………
Kansas.......................................................
Kentucky............................…………………
Louisiana...................................................
Maine............................……………………

3.8
4.0
5.4
3.6
4.9

4.2
4.8
7.1
5.2
5.6

4.4
4.9
6.8
5.6
5.7

South Carolina............................…………
South Dakota.............................................
Tennessee............................………………
Texas.........................................................
Utah............................………………………

6.0
2.9
5.0
4.3
2.8

7.3
3.2
7.2
5.1
3.5

7.9
3.2
7.0
5.6
3.5

Maryland............................…………………
Massachusetts...........................................
Michigan............................…………………
Minnesota..................................................
Mississippi............................………………

3.6
4.3
7.5
4.6
6.3

4.6
5.3
8.7
5.9
7.8

4.9
5.5
9.3
5.9
7.2

Vermont............................…………………
Virginia.......................................................
Washington............................………………
West Virginia.............................................
Wisconsin............................………………
Wyoming....................................................

3.9
3.2
4.6
4.7
4.8
2.9

5.2
4.3
5.7
4.4
5.0
3.3

5.2
4.4
6.3
4.6
5.1
3.3

p

= preliminary

11. Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by State, seasonally adjusted
State

Sept.

Oct.
2007

2008p

Alabama............................………… 2,186,252 2,169,709
Alaska.............................................
353,073
359,987
Arizona............................…………… 3,048,582 3,134,758
Arkansas........................................ 1,369,790 1,379,507
California............................………… 18,253,532 18,497,504

Oct.

2008p
2,171,989
360,492
3,149,685
1,385,435
18,581,769

State

Oct.
2007

Oct.

2008p

Missouri……………………………… 3,041,909
Montana.........................................
502,039
Nebraska............................…………
987,564
Nevada........................................... 1,348,757
New Hampshire............................…
738,784

3,010,217
507,302
999,914
1,409,309
746,299

3,028,232
506,995
999,184
1,416,858
744,431

Colorado......................................... 2,729,228
Connecticut............................……… 1,876,708
Delaware........................................
444,211
District of Columbia........................
326,633
Florida............................................ 9,208,198

2,749,371
1,898,783
446,360
332,322
9,344,301

2,753,346
1,910,687
447,690
329,551
9,365,608

New Jersey.....................................
New Mexico............................……
New York........................................
North Carolina............................…
North Dakota..................................

4,460,266
945,079
9,530,678
4,530,643
366,871

4,540,221
958,034
9,652,732
4,577,528
374,266

4,552,678
961,564
9,660,219
4,588,475
372,134

Georgia............................………… 4,841,797
Hawaii.............................................
647,313
Idaho............................……………
756,873
Illinois............................................. 6,731,106
Indiana............................…………… 3,206,083

4,894,137
667,453
759,393
6,707,818
3,252,500

4,894,407
665,289
759,585
6,642,367
3,246,463

Ohio............................………………
Oklahoma.......................................
Oregon............................……………
Pennsylvania..................................
Rhode Island............................……

5,984,116
1,734,365
1,936,063
6,289,310
577,274

6,000,391
1,757,738
1,961,581
6,444,916
572,769

5,989,173
1,769,772
1,970,869
6,447,029
570,453

Iowa............................………………
Kansas...........................................
Kentucky............................…………
Louisiana........................................
Maine............................……………

1,664,827
1,481,122
2,044,641
2,003,314
705,437

1,685,033
1,501,233
2,047,438
2,053,649
711,686

1,682,570
1,501,718
2,045,114
2,061,993
710,939

South Carolina............................… 2,145,025 2,158,704 2,169,776
South Dakota..................................
443,953
447,367
447,026
Tennessee............................……… 3,052,716 3,049,201 3,045,902
Texas.............................................. 11,532,143 11,787,861 11,815,195
Utah............................……………… 1,376,230 1,387,620 1,383,957

Maryland............................…………
Massachusetts...............................
Michigan............................…………
Minnesota.......................................
Mississippi............................………

2,987,408
3,404,587
5,004,846
2,931,351
1,322,080

3,002,538
3,413,637
4,926,617
2,941,781
1,327,154

3,000,803
3,423,049
4,930,328
2,942,082
1,316,825

Vermont............................…………
352,934
Virginia........................................... 4,076,293
Washington............................……… 3,440,169
West Virginia..................................
810,601
Wisconsin............................……… 3,089,491
Wyoming........................................
288,695

NOTE: Some data in this table may differ from data published elsewhere because of the continual updating of the database.
p

60

Sept.

2008p

= preliminary

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

353,165
4,142,322
3,500,752
808,517
3,089,362
293,576

356,261
4,150,664
3,515,574
810,116
3,088,991
293,765

12. Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by industry, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[In thousands]

Industry

Annual average
2006

TOTAL NONFARM................. 136,086
TOTAL PRIVATE........................ 114,113

2007

2007
Nov.

2008

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.p

Nov. p

137,623 138,037 138,078 138,002 137,919 137,831 137,764 137,717 137,617 137,550 137,423 137,020 136,700 136,167
115,420 115,759 115,745 115,666 115,557 115,454 115,363 115,264 115,154 115,048 114,909 114,525 114,163 113,623

22,531

22,221

22,049

21,976

21,907

21,816

21,737

21,628

21,577

21,491

21,437

21,367

21,250

21,083

20,920

684
64.4
619.7
134.5
220.3
Mining, except oil and gas 1……
78.0
Coal mining……………………
Support activities for mining……
264.9
7,691
Construction................................
Construction of buildings........... 1,804.9
985.1
Heavy and civil engineering……
Speciality trade contractors....... 4,901.1
Manufacturing.............................. 14,155
Production workers................ 10,137
8,981
Durable goods...........................
6,355
Production workers................
558.8
Wood products..........................
509.6
Nonmetallic mineral products
464.0
Primary metals..........................
Fabricated metal products......... 1,553.1
1,183.2
Machinery……….....................
Computer and electronic

723
60.8
662.1
146.0
224.5
77.6
291.6
7,614
1,761.0
1,001.2
4,851.9
13,884
9,979
8,816
6,257
519.7
503.4
456.0
1,563.3
1,188.2

735
59.9
675.0
152.3
226.0
78.7
296.7
7,520
1,716.4
999.0
4,804.8
13,794
9,944
8,763
6,242
509.0
499.5
452.6
1,565.6
1,189.9

739
60.6
677.9
153.1
225.2
78.3
299.6
7,465
1,702.4
993.8
4,768.4
13,772
9,933
8,739
6,220
507.2
496.4
452.2
1,562.7
1,191.0

744
60.7
683.2
154.5
227.0
78.6
301.7
7,426
1,690.2
984.6
4,750.8
13,737
9,922
8,718
6,214
503.5
494.4
452.3
1,560.9
1,193.8

744
60.2
684.0
153.8
225.7
78.7
304.5
7,382
1,673.0
977.6
4,731.8
13,690
9,879
8,685
6,182
498.6
492.2
451.4
1,557.1
1,191.7

750
60.1
689.7
155.2
226.2
79.2
308.3
7,343
1,668.2
976.9
4,697.5
13,644
9,847
8,652
6,152
492.9
487.7
451.3
1,556.9
1,195.1

752
60.8
690.9
154.2
225.8
79.3
310.9
7,284
1,648.2
967.4
4,668.0
13,592
9,799
8,607
6,112
490.9
486.3
450.1
1,544.1
1,193.1

760
59.5
700.6
158.3
229.6
80.5
312.7
7,246
1,634.9
965.3
4,645.6
13,571
9,784
8,594
6,100
482.4
482.1
448.7
1,544.2
1,195.1

768
57.3
710.2
160.1
230.9
81.3
319.2
7,196
1,621.5
959.5
4,615.1
13,527
9,738
8,564
6,064
477.3
479.3
446.8
1,537.1
1,194.4

777
57.7
719.4
162.4
231.3
81.2
325.7
7,173
1,618.3
955.5
4,598.7
13,487
9,692
8,541
6,033
473.3
476.6
446.0
1,531.8
1,196.5

788
58.1
729.6
164.1
233.8
83.5
331.7
7,153
1,612.8
952.8
4,587.8
13,426
9,636
8,482
5,980
467.6
475.8
443.0
1,534.3
1,193.0

795
58.9
736.2
165.8
234.1
84.4
336.3
7,098
1,592.1
943.6
4,562.5
13,357
9,572
8,433
5,930
462.2
471.0
442.7
1,524.2
1,187.2

796
59.5
736.3
166.1
234.6
85.2
335.6
7,034
1,577.2
934.3
4,522.0
13,253
9,466
8,349
5,844
454.8
471.6
440.9
1,511.0
1,182.9

800
60.8
738.9
167.0
234.9
86.1
337.0
6,952
1,557.9
922.3
4,471.8
13,168
9,383
8,287
5,783
446.1
463.6
434.1
1,495.7
1,171.9

products 1……………………… 1,307.5
Computer and peripheral

1,271.9

1,260.5

1,257.6

1,256.3

1,251.9

1,254.1

1,253.8

1,250.1

1,247.1

1,246.1

1,247.4

1,245.5

1,239.6

1,232.6

GOODS-PRODUCING………………
Natural resources and
mining…………..……….......……
Logging....................................
Mining..........................................
Oil and gas extraction……………

equipment..............................
Communications equipment…

196.2
136.2

186.9
128.6

185.5
129.5

185.4
129.0

184.9
129.5

185.9
128.7

186.0
129.4

186.7
130.9

186.2
130.4

184.6
131.8

185.1
130.8

185.4
131.2

185.3
131.7

184.9
131.9

183.7
131.3

Semiconductors and
electronic components..........
Electronic instruments……….

457.9
444.5

444.5
444.0

437.0
443.0

434.9
443.7

433.5
444.3

429.7
442.9

428.7
446.2

426.7
445.7

424.2
445.6

422.1
444.9

423.2
444.1

423.4
444.7

422.1
444.5

419.1
442.4

415.4
441.2

Electrical equipment and
appliances...............................
Transportation equipment.........

432.7
1,768.9

427.2
1,710.9

426.6
1,693.5

423.8
1,684.7

421.6
1,678.1

420.8
1,672.0

419.9
1,651.1

421.5
1,630.6

422.1
1,636.8

422.0
1,631.9

422.4
1,624.8

419.4
1,584.0

416.8
1,572.2

416.0
1,531.3

412.8
1,540.1

Furniture and related
products.....……………………… 560.1
Miscellaneous manufacturing
643.7
Nondurable goods.....................
5,174
Production workers................
3,782
Food manufacturing.................. 1,479.4

534.5
641.0
5,068
3,723
1,481.3

527.0
638.8
5,031
3,702
1,477.9

523.8
639.9
5,033
3,713
1,486.3

520.4
636.4
5,019
3,708
1,483.2

516.0
633.3
5,005
3,697
1,482.7

511.2
632.0
4,992
3,695
1,477.0

506.4
630.2
4,985
3,687
1,473.8

503.5
629.1
4,977
3,684
1,473.5

499.5
628.8
4,963
3,674
1,472.4

495.6
627.7
4,946
3,659
1,469.8

487.4
630.1
4,944
3,656
1,474.0

482.4
628.9
4,924
3,642
1,476.7

472.0
629.2
4,904
3,622
1,480.1

465.4
624.9
4,881
3,600
1,484.2

Beverages and tobacco
products…………………………
Textile mills………………………
Textile product mills...................
Apparel………………………….
Leather and allied products.......
Paper and paper products.........

194.2
195.0
166.7
232.4
36.8
470.5

195.7
169.9
158.4
213.0
33.9
460.6

194.3
164.9
157.2
206.4
34.1
458.6

192.0
163.0
155.7
204.8
33.7
460.3

191.1
162.0
154.0
202.0
34.5
459.0

189.3
161.4
153.0
200.6
33.5
457.8

190.8
158.7
153.3
198.1
33.5
457.9

193.3
156.4
152.2
198.0
33.9
458.4

193.7
155.1
151.0
196.6
33.7
458.1

192.5
152.2
149.3
196.4
34.6
456.6

192.2
149.9
148.7
195.9
33.9
454.9

191.3
150.6
147.9
196.1
35.1
453.4

191.3
148.3
147.9
193.1
35.0
449.8

189.1
146.7
147.0
189.6
34.4
448.0

190.5
142.0
145.8
188.1
34.0
446.0

Printing and related support
activities…………………………
Petroleum and coal products.....
Chemicals..................................
Plastics and rubber products..

634.4
113.2
865.9
785.5

624.2
113.4
862.9
754.0

622.0
112.1
860.5
743.0

619.5
111.7
862.0
744.2

620.1
112.2
861.2
739.7

614.6
112.5
861.0
738.7

614.2
112.2
860.5
735.6

611.7
112.2
861.3
734.1

607.3
113.4
861.6
732.8

601.9
113.8
859.8
733.9

598.9
114.6
857.1
730.2

599.2
114.1
855.4
726.4

595.2
114.2
852.5
720.0

590.2
114.1
852.0
712.4

584.9
114.8
851.0
700.0

SERVICE-PROVIDING...................

113,556

115,402 115,988 116,102 116,095 116,103 116,094 116,136 116,140 116,126 116,113 116,056 115,770 115,617 115,247

PRIVATE SERVICEPROVIDING……………………… 91,582
Trade, transportation,
and utilities................................
Wholesale trade.........................
Durable goods…………………..
Nondurable goods……………

26,276
5,904.5
3,074.8
2,041.3

93,199

93,710

93,769

93,759

93,741

93,717

93,735

93,687

93,663

93,611

93,542

93,275

93,080

92,703

26,608
6,028.3
3,130.7
2,069.3

26,693
6,075.0
3,152.4
2,086.6

26,658
6,072.9
3,145.0
2,089.3

26,631
6,067.3
3,138.0
2,090.9

26,579
6,057.6
3,127.3
2,088.4

26,552
6,054.3
3,127.8
2,087.5

26,496
6,043.9
3,118.1
2,086.9

26,451
6,038.4
3,109.8
2,089.3

26,431
6,034.6
3,103.6
2,088.4

26,393
6,017.6
3,094.3
2,078.4

26,346
6,007.1
3,084.9
2,075.2

26,225
5,999.5
3,080.1
2,070.0

26,124
5,975.1
3,061.1
2,066.9

25,977
5,949.9
3,044.9
2,060.8

Electronic markets and
agents and brokers……………

788.5
828.4
836.0
838.6
838.4
841.9
839.0
838.9
839.3
842.6
844.9
847.0
849.4
847.1
844.2
Retail trade................................. 15,353.3 15,490.7 15,513.1 15,487.8 15,472.2 15,428.8 15,401.4 15,355.7 15,331.8 15,324.2 15,302.4 15,274.7 15,199.1 15,136.9 15,045.6
Motor vehicles and parts
dealers 1………………………
Automobile dealers..................

1,909.7
1,246.7

1,913.1
1,245.3

1,911.0
1,244.9

1,909.3
1,244.6

1,910.2
1,244.0

1,905.1
1,236.2

1,901.5
1,233.7

1,897.6
1,228.8

1,892.9
1,224.2

1,883.3
1,215.2

1,870.6
1,204.3

1,853.2
1,189.6

1,837.4
1,177.1

1,811.9
1,153.6

1,784.8
1,129.4

Furniture and home
furnishings stores....................

586.9

581.0

584.9

584.5

579.9

575.9

570.6

569.0

568.5

568.9

569.2

566.4

561.7

556.8

547.0

Electronics and appliance
stores.......................................

541.1

543.7

542.6

540.4

534.3

533.6

535.0

534.7

539.3

534.9

535.2

535.3

530.3

527.7

521.0

See notes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 61

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

12. Continued—Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by industry, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[In thousands]

Annual average

Industry

2008

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.p

Nov. p

1,305.3
2,848.5

1,279.9
2,871.9

1,271.6
2,871.9

1,266.0
2,880.1

1,258.5
2,885.7

1,250.8
2,890.1

1,240.5
2,882.4

1,240.3
2,880.7

1,238.2
2,879.2

1,230.1
2,879.5

1,237.0
2,871.5

1,235.9
2,863.2

1,232.9
2,866.3

1,224.5
2,859.9

961.1
864.1

988.6
861.2

998.6
859.1

999.9
850.5

1,000.6
853.8

993.5
854.2

993.9
852.6

993.4
847.4

990.9
841.2

990.4
844.4

990.0
841.3

985.1
839.8

984.4
834.2

981.9
834.8

976.9
834.5

Clothing and clothing
accessories stores …………………1,450.9

1,500.4

1,524.5

1,508.6

1,498.2

1,496.3

1,498.9

1,495.4

1,494.5

1,494.8

1,494.8

1,495.8

1,482.9

1,477.4

1,459.8

Sporting goods, hobby,
book, and music stores…………… 645.5
General merchandise stores1………2,935.0
Department stores………………… 1,557.2
Miscellaneous store retailers……… 881.0
Nonstore retailers…………………… 432.8

658.2
2,984.6
1,576.7
868.7
437.6

664.0
2,968.2
1,560.6
868.3
440.1

661.6
2,976.7
1,568.4
866.3
446.5

667.2
2,971.1
1,564.3
869.4
441.4

661.9
2,955.7
1,543.3
865.3
443.1

658.6
2,943.9
1,534.3
862.8
442.7

651.5
2,939.0
1,528.1
863.3
441.5

653.2
2,928.5
1,514.7
860.8
441.0

654.5
2,939.6
1,516.3
858.9
437.1

649.3
2,948.4
1,517.2
857.4
436.6

659.5
2,941.1
1,507.0
856.4
433.6

650.1
2,929.8
1,494.2
855.5
433.7

649.7
2,909.0
1,476.0
856.9
431.6

639.0
2,915.2
1,472.5
850.8
432.2

Transportation and
warehousing................................. 4,469.6
Air transportation…………….……… 487.0
Rail transportation……...…………… 227.5
62.7
Water transportation………...………
Truck transportation………..……… 1,435.8

4,536.0
492.6
234.4
64.3
1,441.2

4,549.0
503.0
233.8
65.0
1,428.7

4,539.9
502.1
232.5
64.4
1,423.1

4,534.5
504.7
233.8
63.8
1,422.5

4,535.5
508.2
233.7
62.5
1,417.4

4,537.7
507.5
233.7
61.6
1,420.4

4,538.3
504.5
233.5
62.3
1,415.2

4,524.1
501.3
233.0
61.3
1,409.8

4,514.0
497.6
230.0
61.8
1,400.1

4,513.6
495.2
232.1
61.9
1,398.3

4,505.1
490.9
230.6
60.7
1,400.1

4,465.9
487.4
229.2
60.3
1,387.3

4,448.8
485.3
229.4
59.7
1,381.0

4,417.3
485.3
229.9
58.7
1,369.3

Building material and garden
supply stores................................ 1,324.1
Food and beverage stores............. 2,821.1
Health and personal care
stores………………………………
Gasoline stations……………………

Transit and ground passenger
transportation………...……………
Pipeline transportation………...……

399.3
38.7

410.0
40.1

411.5
40.6

411.8
40.8

411.9
40.6

413.5
40.9

412.9
41.2

418.3
41.3

412.9
42.2

416.4
42.8

417.1
43.3

416.5
43.0

408.2
43.7

407.1
43.9

405.0
44.2

Scenic and sightseeing
transportation…….…………………

27.5

29.4

30.9

31.3

31.0

31.5

31.7

31.3

31.1

31.3

30.6

30.9

29.5

29.1

27.3

Support activities for
transportation………………..……
Couriers and messengers……...……
Warehousing and storage…………
Utilities ………………………….……….....
Information…………………...….

570.6
582.4
638.1
548.5
3,038

582.9
582.5
658.7
553.4
3,029

589.2
584.4
661.9
555.5
3,022

587.1
588.1
658.7
557.1
3,018

584.9
585.5
655.8
557.1
3,014

585.9
586.0
655.9
557.0
3,016

586.3
585.3
657.1
558.2
3,013

588.2
585.0
658.7
557.7
3,007

587.1
587.2
658.2
557.1
3,002

587.0
587.7
659.3
558.1
2,997

590.3
586.5
658.3
559.8
2,988

590.8
585.8
655.8
559.2
2,984

587.2
580.2
652.9
560.8
2,978

586.6
576.1
650.6
563.0
2,972

581.1
568.2
648.3
563.8
2,953

Publishing industries, except
Internet…………………...…………

902.4

898.2

892.2

889.7

889.2

886.8

882.9

882.8

879.7

877.0

873.0

870.4

867.0

864.5

856.0

Motion picture and sound
recording industries……...………… 375.7
Broadcasting, except Internet.
328.3

380.0
326.4

376.3
325.0

376.3
321.9

372.9
323.0

380.1
322.1

383.0
322.5

382.5
320.8

380.9
321.2

382.0
319.6

379.1
320.4

379.4
318.4

379.4
317.7

383.1
318.5

379.2
318.1

Internet publishing and
broadcasting………………...………
Telecommunications………….…… 1,047.6

1,028.3

1,026.4

1,026.8

1,025.3

1,022.0

1,020.1

1,018.0

1,017.7

1,018.9

1,016.1

1,016.0

1,014.4

1,007.0

1,001.2

270.5
125.7
8,308
6,146.6

272.6
129.5
8,260
6,115.5

273.5
129.3
8,252
6,111.2

273.0
130.5
8,244
6,106.2

274.2
131.2
8,231
6,102.2

272.3
131.9
8,231
6,103.4

272.2
130.7
8,229
6,103.8

272.1
130.1
8,226
6,098.8

269.8
130.0
8,213
6,088.0

268.3
130.8
8,206
6,081.1

268.0
131.7
8,196
6,075.1

267.4
131.7
8,173
6,062.2

266.6
132.6
8,142
6,043.5

265.2
132.9
8,110
6,023.8

21.2

21.1

20.7

20.7

20.7

20.9

20.9

21.1

21.0

20.9

20.9

20.8

20.9

20.5

20.7

related activities1………………… 2,924.9
Depository credit

2,881.6

2,834.3

2,829.2

2,825.0

2,820.4

2,811.8

2,807.9

2,800.5

2,794.0

2,788.6

2,784.7

2,785.3

2,770.9

2,755.2

intermediation1…………………… 1,802.0
Commercial banking..…………… 1,322.9

1,822.5
1,345.8

1,823.4
1,344.7

1,824.6
1,345.9

1,821.5
1,342.2

1,823.3
1,344.9

1,821.6
1,343.4

1,822.9
1,344.2

1,820.6
1,343.4

1,818.1
1,343.1

1,815.3
1,340.9

1,813.2
1,339.4

1,808.9
1,337.2

1,804.7
1,334.3

1,799.9
1,331.5

818.3

847.9

856.9

856.7

859.2

862.5

865.8

867.2

866.6

866.0

860.6

860.9

851.5

845.9

843.3

Insurance carriers and
related activities………………...… 2,303.7

2,308.1

2,315.6

2,316.8

2,313.9

2,311.1

2,318.4

2,319.7

2,323.2

2,319.2

2,323.2

2,320.3

2,316.2

2,317.4

2,315.9

87.9

87.8

88.0

87.8

87.4

87.3

86.5

87.9

87.5

87.9

87.8

88.4

88.3

88.8

88.7

Real estate and rental
and leasing………………………..… 2,172.5
Real estate……………………….… 1,499.0
Rental and leasing services………
645.5

2,161.7
1,491.9
640.3

2,144.7
1,477.1
637.4

2,140.6
1,476.4
633.6

2,138.0
1,471.4
635.2

2,128.6
1,466.0
631.0

2,127.8
1,465.0
631.1

2,124.9
1,465.7
627.4

2,127.3
1,466.4
629.5

2,125.1
1,466.2
627.2

2,125.3
1,463.7
629.3

2,121.3
1,465.6
623.8

2,110.7
1,457.9
620.6

2,098.8
1,454.6
612.4

2,086.4
1,451.6
603.0

28.1

29.5

30.2

30.6

31.4

31.6

31.7

31.8

31.4

31.7

32.3

31.9

32.2

31.8

31.8

17,566

17,962

18,079

18,131

18,101

18,073

18,014

18,031

17,982

17,927

17,904

17,854

17,789

17,726

17,590

services1…………………………… 7,356.7
Legal services……………..……… 1,173.2

7,662.0
1,176.4

7,784.8
1,175.2

7,820.5
1,173.9

7,819.2
1,173.0

7,829.2
1,174.9

7,823.5
1,172.6

7,845.6
1,172.5

7,839.1
1,172.2

7,850.3
1,171.3

7,855.4
1,168.8

7,859.5
1,166.6

7,860.8
1,166.2

7,872.9
1,165.7

7,855.5
1,163.5

889.0

947.2

979.4

993.3

992.3

991.9

983.3

986.1

973.8

978.0

976.3

977.7

975.3

976.2

974.5

Architectural and engineering
services…………………………… 1,385.7

1,436.0

1,453.9

1,460.4

1,460.5

1,463.0

1,461.8

1,464.9

1,464.9

1,466.2

1,466.0

1,464.2

1,457.0

1,452.3

1,442.3

ISPs, search portals, and
data processing………..…………
Other information services…………

263.2
120.8
Financial activities ………………..… 8,328
Finance and insurance……………..…6,156.0
Monetary authorities—
central bank…………………..……
Credit intermediation and

Securities, commodity
contracts, investments……………

Funds, trusts, and other
financial vehicles…………….……

Lessors of nonfinancial
intangible assets………………..…
Professional and business
services…………………………...…
Professional and technical

Accounting and bookkeeping
services……………………………

.

See notes at end of table

62

2007

2007

2006

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

12. Continued—Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by industry, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[In thousands]

Industry

Annual average

2007

2008

2006

2007

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.p

Nov. p

1,284.6

1,359.8

1,387.5

1,391.4

1,391.6

1,393.5

1,391.3

1,403.9

1,408.9

1,411.7

1,419.7

1,424.5

1,427.4

1,433.2

1,435.9

886.4

952.8

985.1

994.3

989.2

992.7

997.0

1,001.3

1,006.9

1,014.6

1,019.0

1,019.8

1,029.6

1,031.9

1,033.3

1,810.9

1,846.0

1,850.0

1,847.8

1,845.5

1,844.7

1,839.7

1,841.0

1,836.4

1,837.8

1,830.2

1,832.1

1,823.7

1,820.9

1,814.8

Administrative and waste
services…………………………… 8,398.3
Administrative and support

8,453.6

8,444.1

8,462.8

8,436.2

8,398.6

8,351.2

8,344.4

8,306.0

8,239.2

8,218.1

8,162.7

8,104.6

8,031.7

7,919.9

8,096.7
3,600.9
2,605.1
805.5

8,081.4
3,563.9
2,583.7
798.9

8,099.3
3,566.9
2,578.5
803.7

8,070.8
3,562.1
2,574.6
797.4

8,036.1
3,531.6
2,536.8
796.6

7,987.3
3,483.7
2,506.0
794.1

7,978.9
3,462.2
2,487.1
792.8

7,939.8
3,421.8
2,451.6
789.2

7,873.5
3,363.3
2,415.3
785.2

7,852.3
3,339.9
2,391.6
786.2

7,793.5
3,285.8
2,353.5
785.6

7,735.8
3,236.2
2,308.6
787.7

7,660.6
3,173.0
2,263.4
787.4

7,549.1
3,072.3
2,185.2
787.2

Computer systems design
and related services…………
Management and technical
consulting services……………
Management of companies
and enterprises……..……….....

services 1……………………… 8,050.2
Employment services 1……… 3,680.9
Temporary help services…… 2,637.4
792.9
Business support services……
Services to buildings
and dwellings…………………

1,801.4

1,851.2

1,861.1

1,872.0

1,861.3

1,859.7

1,857.3

1,864.6

1,865.9

1,867.4

1,864.4

1,861.8

1,855.9

1,848.5

1,841.9

Waste management and
remediation services………….

348.1

356.9

362.7

363.5

365.4

362.5

363.9

365.5

366.2

365.7

365.8

369.2

368.8

371.1

370.8

17,826
2,900.9

18,327
2,949.1

18,522
2,975.5

18,568
2,984.5

18,617
3,003.4

18,665
3,009.6

18,709
3,018.6

18,757
3,030.5

18,820
3,047.3

18,891
3,099.2

18,935
3,111.6

18,997
3,126.6

18,993
3,082.3

19,021
3,072.7

19,073
3,082.5

Educational and health
services………………...……….
Educational services…….………

Health care and social
assistance……….……………… 14,925.3 15,377.6 15,546.7 15,583.2 15,613.6 15,655.0 15,690.5 15,726.1 15,772.4 15,791.3 15,823.3 15,870.8 15,910.5 15,948.2 15,990.7
Ambulatory health care
services 1……………………… 5,285.8
Offices of physicians…………… 2,147.8
Outpatient care centers………
492.6
865.6
Home health care services……
Hospitals………………………… 4,423.4

5,477.1
2,204.0
507.1
913.3
4,517.3

5,554.8
2,232.2
511.0
929.1
4,558.8

5,566.0
2,235.6
513.0
930.9
4,572.4

5,581.7
2,240.8
511.5
934.7
4,579.3

5,600.0
2,248.2
512.0
939.5
4,592.8

5,612.5
2,251.7
511.9
943.3
4,606.4

5,632.8
2,259.6
514.9
946.1
4,616.2

5,649.9
2,265.2
516.6
951.0
4,635.0

5,667.7
2,273.1
516.7
954.5
4,642.9

5,693.2
2,281.1
520.3
960.8
4,653.5

5,703.8
2,282.7
522.2
963.4
4,669.1

5,721.1
2,289.7
519.9
967.0
4,677.0

5,732.0
2,295.0
522.6
969.6
4,689.0

5,746.1
2,301.1
524.5
973.5
4,698.1

2,952.0
1,600.8
2,431.2
849.2
13,474

2,967.5
1,605.9
2,465.6
856.7
13,628

2,971.2
1,608.2
2,473.6
857.1
13,635

2,974.6
1,608.8
2,478.0
859.2
13,644

2,979.9
1,613.3
2,482.3
858.6
13,660

2,983.4
1,609.6
2,488.2
861.8
13,676

2,987.3
1,610.7
2,489.8
858.1
13,690

2,989.8
1,612.1
2,497.7
860.2
13,679

2,987.7
1,608.9
2,493.0
848.8
13,679

2,986.4
1,606.5
2,490.2
842.2
13,655

2,990.5
1,607.4
2,507.4
850.5
13,639

2,989.9
1,603.5
2,522.5
861.5
13,587

2,995.7
1,606.1
2,531.5
862.4
13,562

3,006.3
1,609.2
2,540.2
865.0
13,486

Nursing and residential
care facilities 1………………… 2,892.5
Nursing care facilities………… 1,581.4
Social assistance 1……………… 2,323.5
Child day care services………
818.3
Leisure and hospitality………..
13,110
Arts, entertainment,
and recreation……….…….……

1,928.5

1,977.5

2,001.4

2,010.3

2,016.1

2,019.1

2,025.7

2,021.1

2,013.1

2,011.7

1,999.5

2,004.0

1,988.7

1,988.6

1,967.6

Performing arts and
spectator sports…………………

398.5

412.4

426.4

429.9

429.5

431.0

433.9

436.4

434.7

438.0

433.1

432.9

427.6

428.8

420.9

Museums, historical sites,
zoos, and parks…………………

123.8

130.2

131.6

131.5

132.6

131.7

133.4

132.6

133.9

132.7

132.1

131.7

130.3

129.7

129.7

1,406.3

1,434.9

1,443.4

1,448.9

1,454.0

1,456.4

1,458.4

1,452.1

1,444.5

1,441.0

1,434.3

1,439.4

1,430.8

1,430.1

1,417.0

Amusements, gambling, and
recreation………………………

Accommodations and
food services…………………… 11,181.1 11,496.3 11,626.8 11,624.7 11,628.0 11,640.7 11,650.7 11,668.7 11,665.8 11,667.4 11,655.6 11,634.6 11,598.3 11,572.9 11,518.7
Accommodations………………. 1,832.1
1,856.4 1,870.3 1,858.1 1,854.9 1,854.4 1,849.4 1,853.0 1,849.0 1,843.4 1,835.8 1,824.9 1,810.6 1,797.8 1,761.2
Food services and drinking
places…………………………… 9,349.0
Other services……………………
5,438
Repair and maintenance……… 1,248.5
Personal and laundry services
1,288.4

9,639.9
5,491
1,257.0
1,305.2

9,756.5
5,506
1,258.0
1,309.7

9,766.6
5,507
1,255.5
1,306.9

9,773.1
5,508
1,252.9
1,306.6

9,786.3
5,517
1,255.2
1,306.4

9,801.3
5,522
1,254.8
1,308.5

9,815.7
5,525
1,254.0
1,309.9

9,816.8
5,527
1,251.7
1,310.6

9,824.0
5,525
1,245.6
1,312.8

9,819.8
5,530
1,243.8
1,315.1

9,809.7
5,526
1,233.9
1,318.5

9,787.7
5,530
1,232.7
1,319.4

9,775.1
5,533
1,228.4
1,314.8

9,757.5
5,514
1,217.7
1,308.8

Membership associations and
organizations…………………… 2,901.2
Government..................................
Federal........................................
Federal, except U.S. Postal
Service....................................
U.S. Postal Service………………
State...........................................
Education................................
Other State government..........
Local...........................................
Education................................
Other local government...........

2,928.8

2,938.0

2,944.4

2,948.9

2,955.6

2,959.0

2,961.4

2,964.3

2,966.5

2,970.8

2,973.6

2,977.5

2,989.6

2,987.3

21,974
2,732

22,203
2,727

22,278
2,728

22,333
2,735

22,336
2,717

22,362
2,725

22,377
2,726

22,401
2,734

22,453
2,740

22,463
2,744

22,502
2,750

22,514
2,748

22,495
2,750

22,537
2,769

22,544
2,769

1,962.6
769.7
5,075
2,292.5
2,782.0
14,167
7,913.0
6,253.8

1,964.6
762.3
5,125
2,318.4
2,806.6
14,351
7,976.6
6,374.5

1,966.7
761.7
5,131
2,314.3
2,816.5
14,419
7,999.6
6,419.2

1,972.3
763.1
5,153
2,332.5
2,820.9
14,445
8,016.5
6,428.2

1,977.3
739.7
5,159
2,335.1
2,824.0
14,460
8,018.0
6,441.5

1,982.9
741.6
5,158
2,332.9
2,824.9
14,479
8,031.9
6,447.5

1,986.6
739.1
5,157
2,332.9
2,823.8
14,494
8,035.7
6,457.8

1,996.0
737.9
5,170
2,340.8
2,829.1
14,497
8,032.1
6,465.0

2,006.5
733.3
5,174
2,344.4
2,829.7
14,539
8,060.0
6,479.2

2,013.1
731.0
5,179
2,354.3
2,824.9
14,540
8,053.2
6,486.8

2,018.6
731.5
5,193
2,366.7
2,826.5
14,559
8,072.5
6,486.5

2,025.2
722.4
5,210
2,378.8
2,831.2
14,556
8,058.6
6,497.4

2,033.6
716.8
5,206
2,378.8
2,826.7
14,539
8,043.7
6,495.1

2,053.8
715.3
5,209
2,377.4
2,831.2
14,559
8,062.3
6,497.0

2,059.4
709.7
5,215
2,382.8
2,832.2
14,560
8,058.1
6,502.3

1

Includes other industries not shown separately.
NOTE: See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.
p = preliminary.

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 63

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

13. Average weekly hours of production or nonsupervisory workers1 on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry, monthly
data seasonally adjusted
Industry

Annual average
2006

2007

2007

2008

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.p

Nov. p
33.5

TOTAL PRIVATE…………………………

33.9

33.8

33.8

33.8

33.7

33.7

33.8

33.8

33.7

33.7

33.7

33.7

33.6

33.6

GOODS-PRODUCING………………………

40.5

40.6

40.7

40.5

40.4

40.4

40.5

40.4

40.2

40.3

40.3

40.3

39.9

39.9

39.6

Natural resources and mining……………

45.6

45.9

46.2

45.8

45.7

45.7

46.2

44.9

44.6

45.0

44.8

45.3

44.5

44.6

44.1

Construction…………………………………

39.0

39.0

39.1

39.0

38.8

38.7

38.9

38.9

38.5

38.7

38.7

38.7

38.4

38.2

37.8

Manufacturing…………………….............
Overtime hours..................................

41.1
4.4

41.2
4.2

41.3
4.1

41.1
4.0

41.1
4.0

41.1
4.0

41.2
4.0

41.0
4.0

41.0
3.9

41.0
3.8

41.0
3.8

40.9
3.7

40.5
3.5

40.5
3.5

40.3
3.3

Durable goods..…………………............
Overtime hours..................................
Wood products.....................................
Nonmetallic mineral products...............
Primary metals.....................................
Fabricated metal products...................
Machinery…………………………………
Computer and electronic products……
Electrical equipment and appliances…
Transportation equipment....................
Furniture and related products………..
Miscellaneous manufacturing..............

41.4
4.4
39.8
43.0
43.6
41.4
42.4
40.5
41.0
42.7
38.8
38.7

41.5
4.2
39.4
42.3
42.9
41.6
42.6
40.6
41.2
42.8
39.2
38.9

41.5
4.1
39.0
42.9
42.7
41.7
42.9
40.9
41.2
42.6
38.9
38.8

41.3
4.0
39.2
41.5
42.2
41.6
42.9
40.5
41.6
42.1
39.1
38.8

41.4
4.1
39.0
42.2
42.5
41.6
43.1
40.4
41.4
42.6
38.3
39.0

41.4
4.1
39.0
42.1
42.4
41.7
43.0
40.5
41.1
42.9
38.2
38.8

41.5
4.0
38.7
43.1
42.9
41.7
42.7
41.0
41.3
42.3
38.7
39.3

41.3
4.0
38.8
42.2
42.4
41.6
42.5
41.1
41.1
42.3
38.7
39.3

41.2
3.9
39.1
42.3
42.2
41.4
42.1
41.2
41.1
42.1
38.8
39.2

41.2
3.8
39.3
42.1
42.5
41.2
42.1
41.2
41.0
42.2
39.0
39.2

41.3
3.8
39.0
42.5
42.4
41.2
42.1
41.1
40.9
42.6
38.3
39.1

41.2
3.7
38.9
42.3
42.7
41.3
42.7
41.0
41.0
41.8
38.1
39.5

40.7
3.5
38.4
42.0
42.1
41.0
42.2
40.9
41.0
40.8
37.5
38.8

40.7
3.5
38.1
42.0
41.9
40.9
42.0
40.8
40.5
41.3
37.5
38.8

40.5
3.2
38.2
41.6
41.3
40.6
41.6
41.2
40.2
40.9
37.3
38.8

Nondurable goods..................................
Overtime hours..................................
Food manufacturing............................…
Beverage and tobacco products..........
Textile mills………………………………
Textile product mills……………………
Apparel.................................................
Leather and allied products..................
Paper and paper products………………

40.6
4.4
40.1
40.8
40.6
39.8
36.5
38.9
42.9

40.8
4.1
40.7
40.8
40.3
39.7
37.2
38.1
43.2

40.9
4.1
40.6
40.5
39.9
39.1
36.9
38.1
43.7

40.8
4.0
40.4
40.8
40.2
39.9
37.5
39.1
44.0

40.6
3.9
40.5
40.5
38.7
38.6
36.7
38.2
44.0

40.6
3.9
40.6
40.1
38.8
39.3
36.8
38.2
43.9

40.7
3.9
40.7
40.4
38.8
39.3
36.7
38.7
43.6

40.5
3.9
40.8
39.6
38.4
38.3
36.6
38.6
43.3

40.5
3.8
40.8
39.7
39.0
38.7
36.0
38.7
42.5

40.5
3.8
40.6
39.0
38.9
39.1
36.4
38.5
42.7

40.5
3.7
40.5
38.9
39.4
39.2
37.0
38.4
42.6

40.4
3.7
40.5
38.2
39.5
38.8
36.4
37.6
43.0

40.2
3.6
40.4
38.2
39.0
38.2
36.0
37.5
42.4

40.3
3.6
40.5
37.8
38.4
38.0
36.0
36.9
42.3

40.1
3.5
40.4
37.5
38.2
37.9
36.3
36.2
41.6

Printing and related support
activities.............................................
Petroleum and coal products……………
Chemicals…………………………………
Plastics and rubber products……………

39.2
45.0
42.5
40.6

39.1
44.2
41.9
41.3

39.0
43.8
42.1
42.1

38.8
44.0
41.5
41.4

38.4
43.8
41.6
41.1

38.2
43.6
41.4
41.2

38.6
43.5
41.9
41.1

38.5
43.2
41.3
41.0

38.5
44.2
41.3
41.0

38.1
44.4
41.8
41.1

38.0
45.4
41.9
41.3

38.3
45.5
41.5
41.0

38.3
45.3
41.3
40.8

38.5
45.2
41.5
40.7

38.4
44.8
41.3
40.6

PRIVATE SERVICEPROVIDING………………………………

32.5

32.4

32.4

32.4

32.4

32.3

32.4

32.4

32.4

32.4

32.3

32.4

32.3

32.3

32.3

Trade, transportation, and
utilities.......……………….......................
Wholesale trade........……………….......
Retail trade…………………………………
Transportation and warehousing………
Utilities………………………………………
Information…………………………………
Financial activities…………………………

33.4
38.0
30.5
36.9
41.4
36.6
35.7

33.3
38.2
30.2
36.9
42.4
36.5
35.9

33.3
38.1
30.2
36.8
42.5
36.2
35.8

33.3
38.3
30.1
36.8
42.8
36.3
35.8

33.4
38.4
30.2
36.6
43.1
36.3
35.8

33.3
38.2
30.1
36.7
42.8
36.2
35.8

33.4
38.4
30.2
36.7
43.3
36.6
35.8

33.4
38.3
30.2
36.7
42.6
36.5
35.9

33.3
38.3
30.1
36.5
42.4
36.6
36.0

33.3
38.3
30.1
36.5
42.8
36.6
35.9

33.2
38.4
30.0
36.4
42.4
36.7
35.7

33.2
38.3
30.0
36.4
42.2
36.8
36.1

33.2
38.1
30.1
36.3
42.6
36.9
36.0

33.1
38.2
29.9
36.2
42.3
36.9
36.0

32.9
38.1
29.8
35.9
42.4
37.0
36.0

Professional and business
services……………………………………
Education and health services……………
Leisure and hospitality……………………
Other services……………........................

34.6
32.5
25.7
30.9

34.8
32.6
25.5
30.9

34.7
32.6
25.3
30.9

34.8
32.6
25.3
30.8

34.7
32.6
25.3
30.8

34.6
32.6
25.3
30.8

34.8
32.7
25.3
30.9

34.8
32.6
25.4
30.8

34.8
32.7
25.3
30.8

34.8
32.6
25.3
30.8

34.8
32.6
25.2
30.8

34.9
32.6
25.2
30.9

34.8
32.5
25.2
30.8

35.0
32.5
25.1
30.8

35.0
32.5
25.1
30.8

1

Data relate to production workers in natural resources and mining and
manufacturing, construction workers in construction, and nonsupervisory workers
in the service-providing industries.

64

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

NOTE: See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark
revision.
p = preliminary.

14. Average hourly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers1 on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry,
monthly data seasonally adjusted
Industry

Annual average

2007

2008

2006

2007

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.p

Nov. p

TOTAL PRIVATE
Current dollars………………………
Constant (1982) dollars……………

$16.76
8.24

$17.42
8.32

$17.64
8.27

$17.70
8.27

$17.75
8.26

$17.81
8.29

$17.87
8.28

$17.89
8.27

$17.95
8.24

$18.00
8.17

$18.06
8.12

$18.14
8.17

$18.17
8.19

$18.23
8.32

$18.30
–

GOODS-PRODUCING...............................

18.02

18.67

18.84

18.90

18.98

19.04

19.12

19.12

19.17

19.25

19.33

19.41

19.47

19.51

19.57

19.90
20.02
16.81
15.96
17.68
15.33

20.96
20.95
17.26
16.43
18.19
15.67

21.02
21.20
17.40
16.58
18.31
15.85

21.54
21.30
17.41
16.60
18.33
15.86

21.75
21.38
17.49
16.68
18.41
15.92

21.69
21.47
17.55
16.74
18.49
15.94

22.01
21.56
17.61
16.79
18.54
16.03

21.61
21.60
17.62
16.80
18.58
15.99

21.71
21.70
17.65
16.85
18.61
16.04

22.01
21.77
17.71
16.93
18.67
16.11

22.54
21.84
17.78
16.99
18.75
16.14

23.02
22.01
17.76
16.99
18.70
16.18

23.17
22.09
17.79
17.05
18.72
16.27

23.10
22.12
17.86
17.12
18.80
16.33

23.14
22.21
17.92
17.22
18.88
16.35

PRIVATE SERVICE-PRIVATE SERVICEPROVIDING..........………………..............

16.42

17.10

17.33

17.39

17.44

17.50

17.55

17.58

17.64

17.69

17.74

17.82

17.85

17.92

17.99

Trade,transportation, and
utilities…………………………………....
Wholesale trade....................................
Retail trade...........................................
Transportation and warehousing………
Utilities……………………………………
Information..............................................
Financial activities..................................

15.39
18.91
12.57
17.28
27.40
23.23
18.80

15.79
19.59
12.76
17.73
27.87
23.94
19.64

15.93
19.86
12.81
17.93
28.18
24.11
19.87

16.00
19.93
12.81
18.07
28.52
24.18
19.91

16.02
19.97
12.80
18.10
28.61
24.33
20.00

16.07
20.00
12.84
18.21
28.58
24.41
20.05

16.11
20.03
12.86
18.25
28.77
24.53
20.11

16.11
20.05
12.85
18.33
28.56
24.50
20.16

16.16
20.06
12.90
18.38
28.81
24.67
20.23

16.19
20.12
12.90
18.39
29.14
24.74
20.26

16.20
20.16
12.90
18.41
28.65
24.82
20.30

16.26
20.29
12.93
18.47
28.88
24.91
20.38

16.23
20.23
12.93
18.45
28.84
24.86
20.42

16.26
20.24
12.91
18.56
28.83
24.93
20.43

16.31
20.30
12.96
18.57
28.93
25.02
20.40

Professional and business
services.................................................

19.13

20.13

20.42

20.46

20.53

20.63

20.74

20.84

20.90

21.01

21.12

21.30

21.40

21.57

21.83

Education and health
services.................................................
Leisure and hospitality..........................
Other services.........................................

17.38
9.75
14.77

18.11
10.41
15.42

18.43
10.61
15.66

18.48
10.65
15.71

18.54
10.67
15.74

18.59
10.73
15.76

18.61
10.74
15.77

18.64
10.79
15.79

18.71
10.81
15.81

18.75
10.85
15.85

18.81
10.86
15.90

18.85
10.89
15.92

18.91
10.89
15.93

18.94
10.90
15.95

18.97
10.89
15.97

Natural resources and mining...............
Construction...........................................
Manufacturing.........................................
Excluding overtime...........................
Durable goods……………………………
Nondurable goods………………………

1

Data relate to production workers in natural resources and mining and
manufacturing, construction workers in construction, and nonsupervisory
workers in the service-providing industries.

NOTE: See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.
p = preliminary.

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 65

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

15. Average hourly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers1 on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry
Industry

Annual average
2006

TOTAL PRIVATE……………………………… $16.76
Seasonally adjusted…………………….
–

2007

2007
Nov.

Dec.

2008
Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.p Nov. p

$17.42 $17.63 $17.75 $17.80 $17.85 $17.92 $17.91 $17.90 $17.96 $17.98 $18.05 $18.21 $18.23 $18.36
– 17.64 17.70 17.75 17.81 17.87 17.89 17.95 18.00 18.06 18.14 18.17 18.23 18.30

GOODS-PRODUCING......................................

18.02

18.67

18.88

18.96

18.90

18.94

19.03

19.06

19.13

19.24

19.37

19.50

19.61

19.58

19.59

Natural resources and mining……………..

19.90

20.96

20.99

21.68

21.96

21.87

22.26

21.77

21.51

21.74

22.41

23.03

23.17

22.94

22.98

Construction.…………..................................

20.02

20.95

21.26

21.38

21.24

21.35

21.43

21.48

21.60

21.69

21.90

22.15

22.33

22.27

22.26

Manufacturing…………………………………… 16.81

17.26

17.42

17.51

17.53

17.55

17.60

17.63

17.63

17.71

17.71

17.73

17.83

17.83

17.91

Durable goods..…………………..................
Wood products .........................................
Nonmetallic mineral products ………………
Primary metals .........................................
Fabricated metal products …....................
Machinery …………..………………………
Computer and electronic products ...........
Electrical equipment and appliances ........
Transportation equipment ........................
Furniture and related products .................
Miscellaneous manufacturing ...................

17.68
13.39
16.59
19.36
16.17
17.20
18.94
15.54
22.41
13.80
14.36

18.19
13.67
16.93
19.66
16.53
17.72
19.95
15.94
23.02
14.32
14.66

18.36
13.82
17.05
19.69
16.70
17.74
20.22
15.68
23.41
14.35
14.72

18.46
13.88
16.94
19.73
16.82
17.95
20.33
15.73
23.46
14.50
15.00

18.43
13.90
16.99
20.04
16.77
17.72
20.51
15.70
23.34
14.38
14.91

18.50
13.82
16.86
19.99
16.78
17.81
20.60
15.73
23.48
14.37
14.95

18.53
13.89
16.80
20.21
16.85
17.85
20.80
15.66
23.46
14.42
15.08

18.56
13.96
17.12
20.20
16.81
17.88
20.90
15.76
23.52
14.45
14.97

18.57
14.08
16.90
20.23
16.84
17.98
20.99
15.69
23.53
14.48
14.97

18.67
14.12
16.98
20.25
16.92
17.87
21.06
15.75
23.79
14.58
15.15

18.63
14.22
16.94
20.42
16.94
17.93
21.15
15.87
23.68
14.52
15.35

18.69
14.22
16.86
20.27
17.07
17.94
21.25
15.95
23.81
14.59
15.33

18.77
14.34
16.95
20.35
17.14
18.05
21.27
16.01
23.98
14.54
15.30

18.77
14.41
16.90
19.98
17.18
18.07
21.48
15.85
24.03
14.53
15.32

18.89
14.50
16.78
20.17
17.21
18.13
21.42
15.86
24.30
14.58
15.46

Nondurable goods………………………......
Food manufacturing ...........................……
Beverages and tobacco products .............

15.33
13.13
18.18

15.67
13.54
18.49

15.83
13.63
19.54

15.90
13.70
19.69

15.99
13.87
19.55

15.93
13.74
19.64

16.01
13.83
19.59

16.03
13.86
19.26

16.04
13.89
19.05

16.08
13.95
18.57

16.19
14.01
18.86

16.14
14.00
18.43

16.29
14.13
18.81

16.29
14.08
19.11

16.34
14.18
19.56

12.55
11.86
10.65
11.44
18.01
15.80
24.11
19.60
14.97

13.00
11.78
11.05
12.04
18.43
16.15
25.26
19.56
15.38

13.06
11.67
11.20
12.50
18.47
16.33
26.95
19.52
15.49

13.13
11.75
11.28
12.12
18.71
16.65
25.52
19.57
15.65

13.29
11.68
11.43
12.78
18.78
16.51
26.55
19.46
15.56

13.35
11.62
11.46
12.68
18.61
16.49
26.51
19.40
15.58

13.45
11.78
11.35
12.81
18.66
16.65
27.22
19.35
15.69

13.45
11.78
11.51
12.63
18.58
16.64
27.12
19.39
15.77

13.50
11.86
11.43
12.88
18.74
16.66
27.01
19.37
15.71

13.58
11.80
11.36
12.88
18.89
16.78
27.17
19.33
15.69

13.77
11.80
11.35
12.85
19.07
16.82
27.70
19.46
15.84

13.68
11.78
11.28
12.94
18.76
16.84
27.86
19.58
15.84

13.72
11.81
11.48
12.98
18.99
16.91
28.42
19.81
15.92

13.73
11.63
11.39
13.14
19.06
16.95
28.86
19.65
15.97

13.84
11.63
11.41
13.38
18.87
16.98
28.36
19.86
16.04

Textile mills ..............................................
Textile product mills .................................
Apparel .....................................................
Leather and allied products ………………
Paper and paper products …………………
Printing and related support activities…...
Petroleum and coal products ………………
Chemicals ……………………………………
Plastics and rubber products ....................
PRIVATE SERVICEPROVIDING …………………………………….

16.42

17.10

17.31

17.45

17.52

17.58

17.65

17.62

17.59

17.64

17.63

17.69

17.86

17.90

18.07

Trade, transportation, and
utilities…….……..........................................
Wholesale trade ………………………………
Retail trade ……………………………………
Transportation and warehousing ……………
Utilities ………..…..….………..………………

15.39
18.91
12.57
17.28
27.40

15.79
19.59
12.76
17.73
27.87

15.84
19.89
12.70
17.94
28.17

15.89
20.10
12.64
18.04
28.61

16.02
20.01
12.78
18.08
28.62

16.08
20.03
12.82
18.14
28.61

16.16
20.08
12.90
18.19
28.88

16.16
20.01
12.90
18.28
28.69

16.14
19.93
12.91
18.33
28.83

16.20
20.05
12.92
18.44
29.01

16.21
20.12
12.93
18.53
28.48

16.24
20.23
12.95
18.50
28.64

16.30
20.20
13.03
18.51
28.94

16.26
20.20
12.91
18.54
28.89

16.29
20.44
12.89
18.57
29.08

Information………………………………….....

23.23

23.94

24.11

24.34

24.44

24.44

24.58

24.52

24.60

24.73

24.70

24.81

24.98

24.97

25.05

Financial activities……..………....................

18.80

19.64

19.83

19.97

19.96

20.07

20.18

20.22

20.20

20.27

20.20

20.30

20.43

20.41

20.54

19.13

20.13

20.33

20.67

20.65

20.77

20.93

20.84

20.81

21.03

20.99

21.06

21.25

21.41

22.02

services………………………………………… 17.38

Professional and business
services…………………………………………
Education and health
18.11

18.42

18.51

18.61

18.58

18.62

18.63

18.64

18.68

18.85

18.84

18.96

18.93

18.95

Leisure and hospitality ………………………

9.75

10.41

10.67

10.77

10.73

10.82

10.76

10.80

10.82

10.77

10.72

10.79

10.88

10.92

10.92

Other services…………………......................

14.77

15.42

15.61

15.75

15.74

15.78

15.84

15.82

15.84

15.85

15.80

15.84

15.95

15.90

15.97

1 Data relate to production workers in natural resources and mining and
manufacturing, construction workers in construction, and nonsupervisory
workers in the service-providing industries.

66

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

16. Average weekly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers1 on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry
Industry
TOTAL PRIVATE…………………
Seasonally adjusted..........

Annual average
2006

2007

2007
Nov.

2007

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.p

Nov. p

567.87
–

589.72
–

594.13
596.23

605.28
598.26

592.74
598.18

596.19
600.20

605.70
604.01

599.99
604.68

601.44
604.92

612.44
606.60

605.93
608.62

611.90
611.32

611.86
610.51

612.53
612.53

618.73
613.05

730.16

757.06

770.30

771.67

756.00

751.92

766.91

766.21

769.03

783.07

780.61

791.70

790.28

787.12

777.72

907.95

961.78

969.74

992.94

988.20

986.34 1,017.28

970.94

950.74

987.00 1,006.21 1,052.47 1,042.65 1,036.89 1,020.31

781.21

816.06

829.14

825.27

805.00

800.63

825.06

824.83

833.76

852.42

858.48

874.93

868.64

864.08

691.02

711.36

722.93

728.42

716.98

714.29

723.36

722.83

721.07

729.65

719.03

726.93

729.25

725.68

725.36

732.00
532.99
Wood products .........................
712.71
Nonmetallic mineral products....
Primary metals…………………… 843.59
668.98
Fabricated metal products.........
Machinery………………………… 728.84

754.12
539.10
716.79
843.28
687.13
753.99

763.78
534.83
731.45
842.73
701.40
762.82

771.63
546.87
696.23
844.44
708.12
780.83

759.32
530.98
696.59
851.70
695.96
763.73

758.50
523.78
686.20
847.58
693.01
762.27

767.14
531.99
715.68
869.03
702.65
763.98

766.53
538.86
722.46
852.44
699.30
761.69

765.08
553.34
718.25
853.71
697.18
756.96

774.81
564.80
726.74
868.73
698.80
754.11

760.10
558.85
726.73
859.68
691.15
749.47

771.90
560.27
726.67
865.53
706.70
762.45

769.57
559.26
725.46
860.81
707.88
763.52

765.82
550.46
719.94
833.17
707.82
758.94

766.93
555.35
696.37
837.06
702.17
757.83

766.96

809.19

833.06

841.66

822.45

826.06

852.80

854.81

862.69

873.99

862.92

871.25

876.32

878.53

891.07

636.95
957.65

656.58
985.57

652.29
671.67
999.61 1,006.43

649.98
638.64
994.28 1,002.60

645.19
994.70

646.16
999.60

640.15
648.90
985.91 1,013.45

641.15
650.76
975.62 1,000.02

659.61
985.58

646.68
997.25

643.92
993.87

535.90

561.03

559.65

578.55

545.00

541.75

555.17

553.44

557.48

571.54

557.57

566.09

551.07

541.97

543.83

manufacturing..........................

555.90

569.98

571.14

589.50

580.00

575.58

594.15

586.82

583.83

595.40

594.05

607.07

595.17

591.35

599.85

Nondurable goods.......................

621.97
525.99

639.99
550.65

653.78
562.92

656.67
561.70

646.00
556.19

638.79
546.85

648.41
555.97

647.61
559.94

646.41
565.32

652.85
566.37

652.46
567.41

653.67
569.80

663.00
580.74

658.12
574.46

660.14
579.96

741.34
509.39
472.24
389.20
445.47
772.39

753.80
524.47
467.96
411.52
459.43
795.20

787.46
521.09
457.46
415.52
478.75
816.37

793.51
539.64
478.23
423.00
484.80
834.47

778.09
514.32
449.68
416.05
484.36
826.32

769.89
512.64
454.34
420.58
480.57
805.81

785.56
521.86
464.13
418.82
499.59
807.98

768.47
515.14
450.00
423.57
491.31
802.66

763.91
523.80
454.24
412.62
502.32
788.95

733.52
529.62
468.46
415.78
501.03
804.71

737.43
535.65
462.56
416.55
485.73
806.66

711.40
543.10
460.60
410.59
481.37
804.80

714.78
544.68
452.32
409.84
486.75
816.57

712.80
524.49
438.45
411.18
484.87
810.05

733.50
532.84
439.61
417.61
481.68
790.65

618.92

632.08

640.14

654.35

630.68

629.92

644.36

640.64

638.08

634.28

630.75

646.66

656.11

661.05

657.13

GOODS-PRODUCING……………
Natural resources
and mining………………………..
CONSTRUCTION
Manufacturing……………………
Durable goods……………………

841.43

Computer and electronic
products..................................
Electrical equipment and
appliances...............................
Transportation equipment………
Furniture and related
products………………………..
Miscellaneous

Food manufacturing...................
Beverages and tobacco
products..................................
Textile mills………………………
Textile product mills……………
Apparel……………………………
Leather and allied products.......
Paper and paper products…….
Printing and related
support activities………………
Petroleum and coal

products………………………… 1,085.50 1,115.24 1,204.67 1,099.91 1,157.58 1,134.63 1,165.02 1,163.45 1,188.44 1,228.08 1,276.97 1,264.84 1,310.16 1,330.45 1,287.54
819.99
823.74
818.03
809.54
801.22
810.77
800.81
794.17
811.86
811.48
812.57
822.12
815.48
824.19
Chemicals………………………… 833.67
Plastics and rubber
products…………………………
PRIVATE SERVICEPROVIDING…………....................
Trade, transportation,
and utilities………………………
Wholesale trade......…………......
Retail trade…………………………

608.41

635.15

652.13

657.30

639.52

637.22

644.86

646.57

644.11

649.57

644.69

649.44

654.31

649.98

652.83

532.78

554.78

559.11

570.62

558.89

564.32

573.63

567.36

566.40

578.59

571.21

574.93

576.88

576.38

587.28

514.34
718.63
383.02

526.38
748.90
385.20

525.89
757.81
382.27

535.49
779.88
385.52

525.46
758.38
379.57

529.03
759.14
380.75

538.13
775.09
387.00

534.90
764.38
385.71

534.23
761.33
387.30

545.94
779.95
394.06

541.41
770.60
391.78

542.42
774.81
392.39

544.42
767.60
396.11

536.58
771.64
384.72

539.20
784.90
384.12

Transportation and
warehousing……………………… 636.97
654.83
661.99
678.30
650.88
654.85
667.57
663.56
665.38
680.44
674.49
678.95
675.62
671.15
674.09
Utilities……………………………… 1,135.34 1,182.17 1,194.41 1,221.65 1,222.07 1,218.79 1,241.84 1,225.06 1,219.51 1,247.43 1,204.70 1,202.88 1,244.42 1,224.94 1,244.62
Information…………………………

850.42

873.63

872.78

893.28

877.40

879.84

902.09

887.62

890.52

917.48

908.96

915.49

924.26

921.39

939.38

Financial activities………………… 672.21

705.29

705.95

726.91

708.58

716.50

730.52

721.85

721.14

739.86

719.12

728.77

729.35

730.68

751.76

Professional and
business services………………

662.27

700.15

705.45

727.58

704.17

714.49

734.64

725.23

724.19

744.46

728.35

737.10

737.38

749.35

777.31

Education and Education and
health services…………………… 564.94

590.18

600.49

607.13

604.83

603.85

608.87

603.61

605.80

610.84

614.51

614.18

616.20

613.33

619.67

Leisure and hospitality………….

250.34

265.45

266.75

272.48

262.89

269.42

272.23

272.16

273.75

278.94

276.58

278.38

272.00

273.00

273.00

Other services……………………… 456.50

476.80

480.79

488.25

480.07

482.87

489.46

485.67

486.29

492.94

488.22

492.62

489.67

489.72

493.47

1 Data relate to production workers in natural resources and mining and manufacturing,

NOTE: See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.

construction workers in construction, and nonsupervisory workers in the service-

Dash indicates data not available.

providing industries.

p = preliminary.

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 67

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

17. Diffusion indexes of employment change, seasonally adjusted
[In percent]
Timespan and year

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug. Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Private nonfarm payrolls, 278 industries
Over 1-month span:
2004...............................................
2005..............................................
2006..............................................
2007…………………………………
2008…………………………………

50.5
52.2
65.1
51.6
45.4

50.5
60.6
60.9
51.8
41.4

64.1
54.2
64.4
52.7
47.4

62.6
58.2
59.3
51.1
45.6

61.7
55.8
53.3
56.6
46.4

58.9
58.2
52.7
50.4
42.3

56.0
58.0
60.4
52.2
38.3

50.0
61.3
58.9
51.6
46.2

56.9
54.7
53.5
56.4
35.9

56.9
53.6
55.8
54.6
37.8

51.3
62.4
57.1
48.2
27.6

51.8
54.7
56.0
48.5

Over 3-month span:
2004...............................................
2005..............................................
2006..............................................
2007…………………………………
2008…………………………………

54.4
52.2
67.2
58.4
46.7

52.9
55.5
66.2
54.7
42.7

57.3
57.5
66.6
55.3
42.3

63.5
60.8
65.5
54.7
44.0

68.8
58.9
60.6
56.2
43.1

66.6
61.9
58.2
53.3
44.0

61.3
60.4
56.0
53.1
36.3

56.4
63.9
58.9
54.7
37.4

57.7
61.1
55.7
58.4
34.1

59.5
54.4
56.4
56.8
34.5

61.9
54.9
57.1
54.7
27.0

54.6
61.3
58.4
52.4

Over 6-month span:
2004...............................................
2005..............................................
2006..............................................
2007…………………………………
2008…………………………………

50.0
54.6
63.1
59.1
51.5

51.6
57.3
64.4
56.4
49.8

55.3
56.8
67.2
57.5
44.7

60.9
57.5
67.0
56.8
46.5

63.7
57.5
64.4
58.8
43.6

65.1
58.2
66.4
58.2
39.1

65.1
64.4
61.5
56.2
37.6

63.9
62.8
61.7
58.0
39.1

60.4
62.0
60.4
58.2
33.6

61.7
59.3
59.7
57.1
32.5

58.2
61.5
60.8
54.6
29.6

56.0
62.0
56.0
53.8

Over 12-month span:
2004...............................................
2005..............................................
2006..............................................
2007…………………………………
2008…………………………………

40.5
60.6
67.2
62.6
53.8

42.3
60.8
65.1
59.1
54.6

45.1
59.7
65.5
60.4
52.6

48.9
58.9
62.6
58.9
50.4

51.3
58.0
64.8
59.5
49.3

58.2
60.0
66.4
58.4
45.8

57.5
60.9
64.4
57.5
44.7

55.7
63.3
64.4
58.8
42.5

57.3
60.4
66.2
61.7
41.4

58.8
58.9
65.1
60.4
38.1

60.6
59.5
64.4
59.9
32.3

60.8
61.7
65.5
57.7

Manufacturing payrolls, 84 industries
Over 1-month span:
2004...............................................
2005..............................................
2006..............................................
2007…………………………………
2008…………………………………

43.5
36.3
57.7
47.6
40.5

47.6
48.8
45.8
35.7
28.6

47.0
42.9
54.8
30.4
38.1

63.7
44.6
48.8
29.8
35.1

50.6
42.3
38.1
37.5
44.6

51.2
35.1
53.0
39.3
30.4

58.3
38.1
50.6
41.7
26.8

42.9
47.0
44.0
33.3
37.5

42.9
45.8
36.3
40.5
25

48.2
46.4
40.5
45.2
26.8

42.3
47.0
38.1
44.6
21.4

39.9
47.0
39.3
36.3

Over 3-month span:
2004...............................................
2005..............................................
2006..............................................
2007…………………………………
2008…………………………………

41.1
38.1
54.8
33.9
35.7

40.5
39.3
52.4
28.6
27.4

43.5
42.3
47.6
32.1
26.8

56.5
44.6
48.8
27.4
29.2

58.9
36.3
44.6
29.8
29.8

61.3
37.5
50.6
32.7
35.7

57.7
33.3
42.9
31.0
24.4

47.0
39.9
47.6
34.5
22.6

46.4
45.8
36.3
32.1
21.4

41.7
41.7
37.5
39.3
22.6

44.6
38.7
32.1
44.0
20.2

38.7
49.4
34.5
41.7

Over 6-month span:
2004...............................................
2005..............................................
2006..............................................
2007…………………………………
2008…………………………………

29.2
33.9
42.9
34.5
34.5

31.5
38.1
45.2
27.4
33.9

32.7
35.1
50.6
23.8
32.1

44.6
36.9
47.6
27.4
28.0

49.4
32.1
48.2
31.5
26.8

54.8
32.1
47.6
34.5
20.8

59.5
41.7
46.4
33.3
19.6

56.0
35.7
48.8
31.0
24.4

51.2
36.3
43.5
29.2
17.3

51.8
36.9
41.7
35.1
17.9

44.0
37.5
38.7
34.5
17.9

38.7
42.3
29.8
32.7

Over 12-month span:
2004...............................................
2005..............................................
2006..............................................
2007…………………………………
2008…………………………………

13.1
44.6
44.6
39.3
29.8

14.3
43.5
40.5
36.3
29.8

13.1
41.7
40.5
36.9
29.8

20.2
40.5
39.3
28.6
24.4

23.2
36.3
39.3
29.8
27.4

35.7
35.1
44.6
26.2
24.4

36.9
32.1
41.7
26.8
23.8

38.1
33.9
42.3
29.2
21.4

36.9
32.7
46.4
30.4
22.6

44.0
33.3
48.2
29.8
20.2

44.6
33.3
45.2
33.3
17.9

44.6
38.1
44.0
33.9

NOTE: Figures are the percent of industries with employment
increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged
employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance
between industries with increasing and decreasing
employment.

68

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

See the "Definitions" in this section. See "Notes on the data"
for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.
Data for the two most recent months are preliminary.

18. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted
1

Levels (in thousands)
Industry and region
May
2

Total ………………………………………………

Percent

2008
June

July

2008

Aug.

Sept.

p

Oct.

May

Nov.

June

2.6

July

2.5

Aug.

2.5

Sept.

2.4

p

Oct.

2.3

Nov.

3,631

3,497

3,492

3,375

3,214

3,001

2,793

2.1

2.0

Total private 2…………………………………

3,185

3,073

3,046

2,952

2,778

2,585

2,419

2.7

2.6

2.6

2.5

2.4

2.2

2.1

Construction………………………………

130

100

94

85

110

64

67

1.8

1.4

1.3

1.2

1.5

0.9

1.0

Manufacturing……………………………

249

241

229

245

213

213

142

1.8

1.7

1.7

1.8

1.6

1.6

1.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities………

572

539

569

572

458

507

554

2.1

2.0

2.1

2.1

1.7

1.9

2.1

Professional and business services……

649

670

696

634

567

498

459

3.5

3.6

3.7

3.4

3.1

2.7

2.5

Education and health services…………

648

682

687

643

617

606

592

3.3

3.5

3.5

3.3

3.1

3.1

3.0

Leisure and hospitality……………………

503

452

432

383

443

404

251

3.5

3.2

3.1

2.7

3.2

2.9

1.8

451

417

412

423

440

429

375

2.0

1.8

1.8

1.8

1.9

1.9

1.6
2.0

Industry

Government…………………………………
Region3
Northeast…………………………………

600

608

615

617

590

541

506

2.3

2.3

2.3

2.4

2.3

2.1

South………………………………………

1,386

1,440

1,384

1,317

1,240

1,191

1,086

2.7

2.8

2.7

2.6

2.4

2.4

2.2

Midwest……………………………………

721

676

638

664

664

629

566

2.2

2.1

2.0

2.1

2.1

2.0

1.8

West………………………………………

937

789

847

777

710

639

663

2.9

2.5

2.7

2.5

2.3

2.0

2.1

1

Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal
adjustment of the various series.
2

Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other
services, not shown separately.
3

Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey,
New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas,
Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland,
Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas,
Virginia,

West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri,
Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California,
Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, Wyoming.
NOTE: The job openings level is the number of job openings on the last business day of the
month; the job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month
as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
P

= preliminary.

19. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted
1

Levels (in thousands)
Industry and region
May
Total 2………………………………………………

Percent

2008
June

July

Aug.

2008
Sept.

Oct.

p

Nov.

May
3.0

June
3.2

July
2.9

Aug.
3.0

Sept.
3.2

Oct.
3.0

Nov.p

4,123

4,438

4,026

4,063

4,362

4,155

3,548

2.6

Total private 2…………………………………

3,871

4,136

3,751

3,822

4,090

3,852

3,157

3.4

3.6

3.3

3.3

3.6

3.4

2.8

Construction………………………………

286

354

242

322

288

334

236

3.9

4.9

3.4

4.5

4.0

4.7

3.4

Manufacturing……………………………

274

285

249

251

281

257

216

2.0

2.1

1.8

1.9

2.1

1.9

1.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities………

828

906

858

878

875

837

726

3.1

3.4

3.3

3.3

3.3

3.2

2.8

Professional and business services……

770

889

748

701

741

748

719

4.3

5.0

4.2

3.9

4.2

4.2

4.1

Education and health services…………

479

485

474

509

514

512

438

2.5

2.6

2.5

2.7

2.7

2.7

2.3

Leisure and hospitality……………………

847

741

798

728

830

734

579

6.2

5.4

5.8

5.3

6.1

5.4

4.3

329

340

321

315

313

322

292

1.5

1.5

1.4

1.4

1.4

1.4

1.3
2.0

Industry

Government…………………………………
Region3
Northeast…………………………………

646

761

657

679

688

629

518

2.5

3.0

2.6

2.7

2.7

2.5

South………………………………………

1,538

1,666

1,512

1,549

1,570

1,516

1,323

3.1

3.4

3.0

3.1

3.2

3.1

2.7

Midwest……………………………………

914

966

934

926

1,020

973

779

2.9

3.1

3.0

2.9

3.3

3.1

2.5

1,111

1,084

979

1,004

1,057

975

874

3.6

3.5

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.2

2.9

West………………………………………
1

Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal
adjustment of the various series.
2

Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other
services, not shown separately.

Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri,
Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona,
California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah,
Washington, Wyoming.

3

Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New
York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware,
District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi,
North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia;

NOTE: The hires level is the number of hires during the entire month; the hires rate
is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
p

= preliminary.

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 69

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

20. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted
1

Levels (in thousands)
Industry and region

Percent

2008
May

2

Total ………………………………………………

June

July

2008

Aug.

Sept.

p

Oct.

Nov.

May
3.1

June

July

3.2

Aug.

3.2

Sept.

3.2

p

Oct.

2.9

Nov.

4,313

4,368

4,359

4,398

4,042

4,299

4,301

3.1

3.2

Total private 2…………………………………

4,046

4,115

4,128

4,149

3,792

4,034

4,042

3.5

3.6

3.6

3.6

3.3

3.5

3.6

Construction………………………………

393

409

473

400

403

418

455

5.4

5.7

6.6

5.6

5.7

5.9

6.6

Manufacturing……………………………

359

353

324

325

335

424

388

2.6

2.6

2.4

2.4

2.5

3.2

2.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities………

868

1,003

1,013

933

916

945

906

3.3

3.8

3.8

3.5

3.5

3.6

3.5

Professional and business services……

741

799

694

851

696

771

750

4.1

4.5

3.9

4.8

3.9

4.4

4.3

Education and health services…………

434

417

464

424

378

427

402

2.3

2.2

2.4

2.2

2.0

2.2

2.1

Leisure and hospitality……………………

801

749

741

754

714

671

683

5.8

5.5

5.4

5.5

5.2

4.9

5.1

269

259

244

257

251

264

261

1.2

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.2

1.2
2.6

Industry

Government…………………………………
Region3
Northeast…………………………………

685

658

745

705

600

607

652

2.7

2.6

2.9

2.7

2.3

2.4

South………………………………………

1,614

1,681

1,629

1,633

1,456

1,564

1,611

3.3

3.4

3.3

3.3

2.9

3.2

3.3

Midwest……………………………………

915

954

912

893

956

1,003

956

2.9

3.0

2.9

2.8

3.0

3.2

3.1

1,096

1,089

1,099

1,142

1,017

1,123

1,116

3.5

3.5

3.6

3.7

3.3

3.7

3.7

West………………………………………
1

Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal
adjustment of the various series.

Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska,
North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California,
Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington,
Wyoming.

2

Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other
services, not shown separately.
3

Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New
York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware,
District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi,
North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West
Virginia;

NOTE: The total separations level is the number of total separations during the entire
month; the total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire
month as a percent of total employment.
p

= preliminary

21. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted
Levels1 (in thousands)
Industry and region
May
2

Total ………………………………………………

Percent

2008
June

July

Aug.

2008
Sept.

Oct.

p

Nov.

May
1.7

June
1.7

July
1.7

Aug.
1.6

Sept.
1.6

Oct.

p

Nov.

2,336

2,365

2,314

2,252

2,144

2,135

1,870

1.6

1.4

Total private 2…………………………………

2,210

2,242

2,209

2,134

2,032

2,020

1,772

1.9

1.9

1.9

1.9

1.8

1.8

1.6

Construction………………………………

124

139

157

150

118

108

81

1.7

1.9

2.2

2.1

1.7

1.5

1.2

Manufacturing……………………………

163

154

134

143

141

156

124

1.2

1.1

1.0

1.1

1.1

1.2

.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities………

495

545

545

485

494

488

401

1.9

2.1

2.1

1.8

1.9

1.9

1.5

Professional and business services……

391

413

363

352

317

373

318

2.2

2.3

2.0

2.0

1.8

2.1

1.8

Education and health services…………

229

246

268

234

234

259

219

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.2

1.2

1.4

1.1

Leisure and hospitality……………………

547

525

499

482

485

450

420

4.0

3.8

3.7

3.5

3.6

3.3

3.1

126

123

111

121

120

116

110

.6

.5

.5

.5

.5

.5

.5

Northeast…………………………………

327

344

341

306

279

286

264

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.2

1.1

1.1

1.0

South………………………………………

937

969

930

912

821

837

744

1.9

2.0

1.9

1.8

1.7

1.7

1.5

Midwest……………………………………

485

515

504

513

531

524

410

1.5

1.6

1.6

1.6

1.7

1.7

1.3

West………………………………………

584

539

541

518

492

493

451

1.9

1.7

1.8

1.7

1.6

1.6

1.5

Industry

Government…………………………………
Region3

1

Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal
adjustment of the various series.
2

Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other
services, not shown separately.

Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri,
Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona,
California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon,
Utah, Washington, Wyoming.

3

Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New
York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware,
District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi,
North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West
Virginia;

70

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

NOTE: The quits level is the number of quits during the entire month; the quits
rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total
employment.
p

= preliminary.

22. Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages: 10 largest counties, first quarter 2008.

County by NAICS supersector

Establishments,
first quarter
2008
(thousands)

Average weekly wage1

Employment
March
2008
(thousands)

Percent change,
March
2007-082

First
quarter
2008

Percent change,
first quarter
2007-082

United States3 ..............................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

9,112.7
8,820.9
125.3
890.0
361.3
1,923.2
144.9
872.4
1,504.2
838.9
731.2
1,194.1
291.8

134,761.1
112,728.2
1,731.8
7,020.0
13,529.8
26,031.1
3,013.5
8,005.6
17,691.9
17,845.8
13,112.5
4,444.1
22,032.9

0.4
.2
2.7
-4.1
-2.3
.2
-.1
-1.7
.5
3.0
1.3
1.0
1.3

$905
913
1,020
898
1,079
745
1,469
1,898
1,131
767
360
547
868

2.4
2.4
10.5
4.8
1.9
1.9
2.3
.2
4.2
3.6
2.9
3.4
2.7

Los Angeles, CA ..........................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

425.0
421.0
.5
14.0
14.8
54.2
8.5
24.4
42.4
27.9
26.7
192.2
4.0

4,229.6
3,617.0
11.4
149.6
440.0
803.6
214.6
240.6
597.5
492.5
397.9
250.0
612.6

.4
-.1
-5.0
-5.5
-3.4
.0
2.2
-4.3
-1.5
2.9
1.2
1.3
3.2

992
975
1,745
975
1,084
792
1,723
1,807
1,165
848
528
441
1,088

2.1
2.1
13.8
2.6
5.0
1.1
.5
.3
4.3
3.4
3.5
4.8
1.5

Cook, IL ........................................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

138.2
136.8
.1
12.1
7.0
27.4
2.5
15.7
28.5
13.7
11.5
14.2
1.4

2,490.4
2,178.2
1.0
84.3
229.4
465.9
57.5
209.6
431.2
373.1
226.6
95.6
312.2

-.5
-.5
-10.7
-4.9
-3.0
-1.1
.4
-2.4
-.1
1.9
1.2
.6
-.5

1,147
1,167
919
1,315
1,062
838
1,820
2,905
1,403
833
412
721
1,006

2.7
2.9
-6.5
9.2
1.8
2.7
.2
4.5
3.2
3.3
1.2
2.9
1.3

New York, NY ...............................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

118.5
118.3
.0
2.3
3.0
21.7
4.4
18.7
24.7
8.7
11.3
17.6
.3

2,376.0
1,923.2
.2
36.2
36.0
246.4
134.1
377.6
489.3
293.1
213.9
87.8
452.8

1.7
1.9
-4.5
8.9
-6.3
.8
.7
.7
1.9
1.5
3.7
1.8
.8

2,805
3,229
2,375
1,596
1,499
1,211
2,698
9,840
2,343
989
766
1,105
1,004

-1.0
-1.4
23.3
8.6
-4.1
.8
5.0
-3.7
3.8
3.9
2.7
7.6
1.7

Harris, TX .....................................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

96.6
96.1
1.5
6.7
4.7
22.2
1.4
10.6
19.3
10.2
7.5
11.4
.5

2,046.5
1,791.5
80.0
157.0
184.1
426.9
32.6
120.3
337.7
216.5
176.8
58.5
255.0

3.4
3.5
5.5
5.4
2.7
3.3
.0
.9
3.6
4.6
3.0
1.7
2.9

1,172
1,212
3,698
1,042
1,524
1,068
1,363
1,701
1,293
839
384
632
893

3.8
3.9
13.5
3.6
2.8
1.6
-4.0
1.3
4.0
3.1
2.7
5.3
2.1

Maricopa, AZ ................................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

101.7
101.0
.5
11.0
3.6
22.4
1.7
13.0
22.6
9.9
7.3
7.2
.7

1,805.2
1,580.7
8.7
144.5
127.3
372.2
30.9
145.0
306.8
206.5
187.1
50.5
224.5

-1.4
-1.9
-4.2
-14.2
-4.6
-.1
3.5
-4.4
-1.9
4.6
.6
1.0
2.8

867
865
991
884
1,252
805
1,164
1,238
870
879
405
577
880

1.3
1.1
22.5
2.4
5.0
-1.2
.9
-.8
1.6
3.4
.0
4.2
3.0

See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 71

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

22. Continued—Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages: 10 largest counties, first quarter 2008.

County by NAICS supersector

Establishments,
first quarter
2008
(thousands)

Average weekly wage1

Employment
March
2008
(thousands)

Percent change,
March
2007-082

First
quarter
2008

Percent change,
first quarter
2007-082

Orange, CA ..................................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

100.1
98.7
.2
7.0
5.3
17.5
1.4
11.0
19.0
9.9
7.1
15.3
1.4

1,504.9
1,347.3
6.5
94.5
174.2
276.2
29.7
115.7
273.9
146.8
175.1
47.9
157.6

-1.1
-1.4
.7
-8.2
-2.2
-.4
-2.7
-13.6
-1.7
4.2
3.5
1.7
1.5

$1,019
1,001
563
1,080
1,188
918
1,544
1,722
1,124
863
397
560
1,170

1.2
.9
-.2
.7
3.0
-1.2
10.9
(4)
3.7
3.0
.3
.4
3.0

Dallas, TX .....................................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

67.8
67.3
.6
4.4
3.1
15.1
1.7
8.8
14.7
6.6
5.3
6.5
.5

1,489.7
1,322.2
8.0
84.0
135.4
304.5
49.6
144.1
279.0
148.6
128.8
38.9
167.4

2.0
1.9
13.6
3.7
-3.3
1.4
.3
(4)
3.8
3.6
2.6
1.7
2.6

1,119
1,145
3,497
953
1,320
1,003
1,694
1,869
1,236
891
509
625
913

2.6
2.5
20.2
1.6
1.0
2.8
5.2
2.2
3.3
3.7
-2.9
3.1
3.4

San Diego, CA .............................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

97.8
96.5
.8
7.1
3.2
14.4
1.3
9.7
16.1
8.1
6.9
24.3
1.3

1,327.6
1,098.1
11.3
78.0
103.1
216.1
38.2
76.4
217.2
135.2
160.4
55.9
229.5

.0
-.5
.7
-12.3
-.2
-1.7
1.9
-6.5
-.2
4.1
2.0
1.4
2.7

945
936
534
985
1,316
772
1,910
1,329
1,170
840
422
482
986

1.9
1.7
4.3
3.4
5.5
3.8
-4.8
-2.4
3.5
3.1
1.7
.6
2.2

King, WA ......................................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

76.8
76.3
.4
6.9
2.5
15.1
1.8
7.1
13.7
6.5
6.2
16.2
.5

1,186.2
1,030.4
3.1
71.3
112.5
220.2
77.8
76.1
189.6
124.4
110.0
45.4
155.8

2.7
2.9
.4
4.9
1.4
2.1
5.2
.3
3.3
4.2
3.6
.6
1.5

1,125
1,142
1,621
1,086
1,443
958
2,144
1,651
1,306
837
447
599
1,010

4.2
4.3
-.5
6.7
4.9
1.9
12.8
-1.8
3.7
5.5
-1.1
7.7
3.0

Miami-Dade, FL ............................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

88.2
87.8
.5
6.5
2.7
23.5
1.6
10.6
17.9
9.4
5.9
7.6
.4

1,029.9
876.6
10.8
50.9
46.0
253.7
20.1
70.5
135.6
141.7
107.0
37.2
153.3

-1.0
-1.2
-6.5
-11.4
-6.3
-.2
-3.6
-3.0
-4.1
3.9
.1
2.5
.2

871
837
465
812
774
777
1,354
1,483
992
796
506
526
1,062

1.5
1.2
-1.5
1.0
2.1
1.0
-3.2
4.0
.7
3.2
1.8
1.3
2.5

1

Average weekly wages were calculated using unrounded data.

2

Percent changes were computed from quarterly employment and pay data
adjusted for noneconomic county reclassifications. See Notes on Current Labor
Statistics.
3

72

Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

Virgin Islands.
4

Data do not meet BLS or State agency disclosure standards.

NOTE: Includes workers covered by Unemployment Insurance (UI) and
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) programs. Data are
preliminary.

23. Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages: by State, first quarter 2008.

State

Establishments,
first quarter
2008
(thousands)

Average weekly wage1

Employment
March
2008
(thousands)

Percent change,
March
2007-08

First
quarter
2008

Percent change,
first quarter
2007-08

United States2 ...................................

9,112.7

134,761.1

0.4

$905

2.4

Alabama ............................................
Alaska ...............................................
Arizona ..............................................
Arkansas ...........................................
California ...........................................
Colorado ...........................................
Connecticut .......................................
Delaware ...........................................
District of Columbia ...........................
Florida ...............................................

121.7
21.1
162.7
85.2
1,345.1
178.2
113.2
29.0
32.5
631.0

1,947.0
303.0
2,639.7
1,178.4
15,561.5
2,300.0
1,683.9
418.4
680.8
7,918.6

-.2
1.0
-1.3
-.1
.1
1.7
1.2
.5
1.1
-2.2

740
866
820
667
1,008
920
1,254
987
1,488
777

3.2
4.2
2.4
4.1
2.1
3.6
-.6
.1
4.3
1.8

Georgia .............................................
Hawaii ...............................................
Idaho .................................................
Illinois ................................................
Indiana ..............................................
Iowa ..................................................
Kansas ..............................................
Kentucky ...........................................
Louisiana ...........................................
Maine ................................................

276.4
39.0
57.6
365.0
160.1
94.2
86.0
112.9
121.7
50.8

4,060.9
628.1
645.3
5,796.1
2,858.7
1,469.8
1,363.2
1,794.0
1,887.3
584.1

.1
.2
.2
.1
-.7
.9
1.0
.1
1.3
.5

847
773
635
980
757
710
737
714
765
701

1.3
3.5
.3
2.6
2.4
3.6
2.4
2.4
4.8
3.5

Maryland ...........................................
Massachusetts ..................................
Michigan ............................................
Minnesota .........................................
Mississippi .........................................
Missouri .............................................
Montana ............................................
Nebraska ...........................................
Nevada ..............................................
New Hampshire ................................

164.8
212.7
259.1
173.5
71.0
175.2
42.9
59.1
76.7
48.9

2,530.3
3,203.1
4,058.8
2,644.8
1,138.2
2,708.0
432.4
912.2
1,266.3
621.2

.0
.9
-1.8
.6
.8
.0
.9
1.4
-1.2
.3

963
1,143
857
908
634
768
625
687
839
863

2.8
3.3
.9
4.0
3.3
3.5
4.3
3.2
4.7
3.4

New Jersey .......................................
New Mexico ......................................
New York ..........................................
North Carolina ...................................
North Dakota .....................................
Ohio ..................................................
Oklahoma ..........................................
Oregon ..............................................
Pennsylvania .....................................
Rhode Island .....................................

276.3
54.5
582.3
258.4
25.4
294.4
100.4
133.8
341.5
35.9

3,939.9
823.8
8,555.0
4,069.1
343.3
5,189.1
1,560.0
1,713.1
5,608.8
464.8

.5
.6
1.3
.9
2.6
-1.0
1.6
.3
.5
-1.5

1,133
717
1,399
788
652
798
707
776
869
851

3.3
4.7
.1
1.3
6.2
1.0
4.7
2.9
2.4
2.3

South Carolina ..................................
South Dakota ....................................
Tennessee ........................................
Texas ................................................
Utah ..................................................
Vermont ............................................
Virginia ..............................................
Washington .......................................
West Virginia .....................................
Wisconsin ..........................................

117.4
30.3
143.4
558.7
86.7
24.8
229.2
218.9
48.8
159.7

1,888.3
389.4
2,746.4
10,420.8
1,220.2
300.8
3,653.5
2,928.6
700.3
2,734.3

.1
2.0
.6
2.8
1.4
-.3
.2
2.1
.3
.2

695
632
761
903
718
735
918
899
679
760

2.8
5.2
3.3
3.6
3.2
4.4
2.0
3.7
4.0
2.2

Wyoming ...........................................

24.8

277.2

2.9

779

6.7

Puerto Rico .......................................
Virgin Islands ....................................

57.1
3.5

1,004.5
46.5

-1.6
1.1

489
708

2.7
3.4

1
2

Average weekly wages were calculated using unrounded data.

Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico
or the Virgin Islands.

NOTE: Includes workers covered by Unemployment Insurance (UI)
and Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE)
programs. Data are preliminary.

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 73

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

24. Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, by ownership
Year

Average
establishments

Average
annual
employment

Total annual wages
(in thousands)

Average annual wage
per employee

Average
weekly
wage

Total covered (UI and UCFE)
1998 ..................................................
1999 ..................................................
2000 ..................................................
2001 ..................................................
2002 ..................................................
2003 ..................................................
2004 ..................................................
2005 ..................................................
2006 ..................................................
2007 ..................................................

7,634,018
7,820,860
7,879,116
7,984,529
8,101,872
8,228,840
8,364,795
8,571,144
8,784,027
8,971,897

124,183,549
127,042,282
129,877,063
129,635,800
128,233,919
127,795,827
129,278,176
131,571,623
133,833,834
135,366,106

$3,967,072,423
4,235,579,204
4,587,708,584
4,695,225,123
4,714,374,741
4,826,251,547
5,087,561,796
5,351,949,496
5,692,569,465
6,018,089,108

$31,945
33,340
35,323
36,219
36,764
37,765
39,354
40,677
42,535
44,458

$614
641
679
697
707
726
757
782
818
855

$31,676
33,094
35,077
35,943
36,428
37,401
38,955
40,270
42,124
44,038

$609
636
675
691
701
719
749
774
810
847

$31,762
33,244
35,337
36,157
36,539
37,508
39,134
40,505
42,414
44,362

$611
639
680
695
703
721
753
779
816
853

$33,605
34,681
36,296
37,814
39,212
40,057
41,118
42,249
43,875
45,903

$646
667
698
727
754
770
791
812
844
883

$30,251
31,234
32,387
33,521
34,605
35,669
36,805
37,718
39,179
40,790

$582
601
623
645
665
686
708
725
753
784

$43,688
44,287
46,228
48,940
52,050
54,239
57,782
59,864
62,274
64,871

$840
852
889
941
1,001
1,043
1,111
1,151
1,198
1,248

UI covered
1998 ..................................................
1999 ..................................................
2000 ..................................................
2001 ..................................................
2002 ..................................................
2003 ..................................................
2004 ..................................................
2005 ..................................................
2006 ..................................................
2007 ..................................................

7,586,767
7,771,198
7,828,861
7,933,536
8,051,117
8,177,087
8,312,729
8,518,249
8,731,111
8,908,198

121,400,660
124,255,714
127,005,574
126,883,182
125,475,293
125,031,551
126,538,579
128,837,948
131,104,860
132,639,806

$3,845,494,089
4,112,169,533
4,454,966,824
4,560,511,280
4,570,787,218
4,676,319,378
4,929,262,369
5,188,301,929
5,522,624,197
5,841,231,314

Private industry covered
1998 ..................................................
1999 ..................................................
2000 ..................................................
2001 ..................................................
2002 ..................................................
2003 ..................................................
2004 ..................................................
2005 ..................................................
2006 ..................................................
2007 ..................................................

7,381,518
7,560,567
7,622,274
7,724,965
7,839,903
7,963,340
8,093,142
8,294,662
8,505,496
8,681,001

105,082,368
107,619,457
110,015,333
109,304,802
107,577,281
107,065,553
108,490,066
110,611,016
112,718,858
114,012,221

$3,337,621,699
3,577,738,557
3,887,626,769
3,952,152,155
3,930,767,025
4,015,823,311
4,245,640,890
4,480,311,193
4,780,833,389
5,057,840,759

State government covered
1998 ..................................................
1999 ..................................................
2000 ..................................................
2001 ..................................................
2002 ..................................................
2003 ..................................................
2004 ..................................................
2005 ..................................................
2006 ..................................................
2007 ..................................................

67,347
70,538
65,096
64,583
64,447
64,467
64,544
66,278
66,921
67,381

4,240,779
4,296,673
4,370,160
4,452,237
4,485,071
4,481,845
4,484,997
4,527,514
4,565,908
4,611,395

$142,512,445
149,011,194
158,618,365
168,358,331
175,866,492
179,528,728
184,414,992
191,281,126
200,329,294
211,677,002

Local government covered
1998 ..................................................
1999 ..................................................
2000 ..................................................
2001 ..................................................
2002 ..................................................
2003 ..................................................
2004 ..................................................
2005 ..................................................
2006 ..................................................
2007 ..................................................

137,902
140,093
141,491
143,989
146,767
149,281
155,043
157,309
158,695
159,816

12,077,513
12,339,584
12,620,081
13,126,143
13,412,941
13,484,153
13,563,517
13,699,418
13,820,093
14,016,190

$365,359,945
385,419,781
408,721,690
440,000,795
464,153,701
480,967,339
499,206,488
516,709,610
541,461,514
571,713,553

Federal government covered (UCFE)
1998 ..................................................
1999 ..................................................
2000 ..................................................
2001 ..................................................
2002 ..................................................
2003 ..................................................
2004 ..................................................
2005 ..................................................
2006 ..................................................
2007 ..................................................

47,252
49,661
50,256
50,993
50,755
51,753
52,066
52,895
52,916
63,699

NOTE: Data are final. Detail may not add to total due to rounding.

74

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

2,782,888
2,786,567
2,871,489
2,752,619
2,758,627
2,764,275
2,739,596
2,733,675
2,728,974
2,726,300

$121,578,334
123,409,672
132,741,760
134,713,843
143,587,523
149,932,170
158,299,427
163,647,568
169,945,269
176,857,794

25. Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, establishment size and employment, private ownership, by
supersector, first quarter 2007
Size of establishments
Industry, establishments, and
employment

Total

Fewer than
5 workers1

5 to 9
workers

10 to 19
workers

20 to 49
workers

50 to 99
workers

100 to 249
workers

250 to 499
workers

500 to 999
workers

1,000 or
more
workers

Total all industries2
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

8,572,894
112,536,714

5,189,837
7,670,620

Natural resources and mining
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

124,002
1,686,694

69,260
111,702

23,451
155,044

15,289
205,780

10,137
304,936

3,250
222,684

1,842
278,952

519
179,598

190
126,338

64
101,660

Construction
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

883,409
7,321,288

580,647
835,748

141,835
929,707

84,679
1,137,104

52,336
1,564,722

15,341
1,046,790

6,807
1,004,689

1,326
443,761

350
232,556

88
126,211

Manufacturing
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

361,070
13,850,738

136,649
238,848

61,845
415,276

54,940
755,931

53,090
1,657,463

25,481
1,785,569

19,333
2,971,836

6,260
2,140,531

2,379
1,613,357

1,093
2,271,927

Trade, transportation, and utilities
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

1,905,750
25,983,275

1,017,012
1,683,738

381,434
2,539,291

248,880
3,335,327

160,549
4,845,527

53,721
3,709,371

34,536
5,140,740

7,315
2,510,273

1,792
1,167,986

511
1,051,022

Information
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

143,094
3,016,454

81,414
113,901

20,986
139,730

16,338
222,710

13,384
411,218

5,609
387,996

3,503
533,877

1,134
392,350

489
335,998

237
478,674

Financial activities
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

863,784
8,146,274

563,670
890,816

155,984
1,029,911

81,849
1,080,148

40,668
1,210,332

12,037
822,627

6,313
945,396

1,863
645,988

939
648,691

461
872,365

Professional and business services
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

1,456,681
17,612,073

989,991
1,375,429

196,645
1,292,744

125,014
1,685,085

83,127
2,520,739

32,388
2,243,595

20,412
3,102,005

5,902
2,012,609

2,263
1,535,591

939
1,844,276

Education and health services
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

812,914
17,331,231

388,773
700,195

179,011
1,189,566

116,031
1,559,689

75,040
2,258,922

27,393
1,908,595

18,815
2,828,678

4,153
1,409,073

1,906
1,319,128

1,792
4,157,385

Leisure and hospitality
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

716,126
12,949,319

275,121
439,080

120,795
815,688

132,408
1,858,394

134,766
4,054,666

39,766
2,648,733

10,681
1,510,212

1,639
551,528

646
438,008

304
633,010

Other services
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

1,119,209
4,402,263

908,792
1,109,065

118,963
776,354

57,419
756,783

25,169
732,313

5,562
379,320

2,731
401,371

457
152,994

95
62,295

21
31,768

1

Includes establishments that reported no workers in March 2007.

2

Includes data for unclassified establishments, not shown separately.

1,407,987
933,910
648,489
220,564
124,980
30,568
9,326,775 12,610,385 19,566,806 15,156,364 18,718,813 10,438,705

11,049
5,510
7,479,948 11,568,298

NOTE: Data are final. Detail may not add to total due to rounding.

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 75

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

26. Average annual wages for 2006 and 2007 for all covered workers1 by
metropolitan area
Average annual wages3
Metropolitan area2

2007

Percent
change,
2006-07

Metropolitan areas4 ..............................................................

$44,165

$46,139

4.5

Abilene, TX ............................................................................
Aguadilla-Isabela-San Sebastian, PR ...................................
Akron, OH ..............................................................................
Albany, GA ............................................................................
Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY ..............................................
Albuquerque, NM ...................................................................
Alexandria, LA .......................................................................
Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ ....................................
Altoona, PA ............................................................................
Amarillo, TX ...........................................................................

29,842
19,277
38,088
32,335
41,027
36,934
31,329
39,787
30,394
33,574

31,567
20,295
39,499
33,378
42,191
38,191
32,757
41,784
31,988
35,574

5.8
5.3
3.7
3.2
2.8
3.4
4.6
5.0
5.2
6.0

Ames, IA ................................................................................
Anchorage, AK ......................................................................
Anderson, IN ..........................................................................
Anderson, SC ........................................................................
Ann Arbor, MI ........................................................................
Anniston-Oxford, AL ..............................................................
Appleton, WI ..........................................................................
Asheville, NC .........................................................................
Athens-Clarke County, GA ....................................................
Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta, GA .....................................

35,331
42,955
32,184
30,373
47,186
32,724
35,308
32,268
33,485
45,889

37,041
45,237
32,850
31,086
49,427
34,593
36,575
33,406
34,256
48,111

4.8
5.3
2.1
2.3
4.7
5.7
3.6
3.5
2.3
4.8

Atlantic City, NJ .....................................................................
Auburn-Opelika, AL ...............................................................
Augusta-Richmond County, GA-SC ......................................
Austin-Round Rock, TX .........................................................
Bakersfield, CA ......................................................................
Baltimore-Towson, MD ..........................................................
Bangor, ME ............................................................................
Barnstable Town, MA ............................................................
Baton Rouge, LA ...................................................................
Battle Creek, MI .....................................................................

38,018
30,468
35,638
45,737
36,020
45,177
31,746
36,437
37,245
39,362

39,276
31,554
36,915
46,458
38,254
47,177
32,829
37,691
39,339
40,628

3.3
3.6
3.6
1.6
6.2
4.4
3.4
3.4
5.6
3.2

Bay City, MI ...........................................................................
Beaumont-Port Arthur, TX .....................................................
Bellingham, WA .....................................................................
Bend, OR ...............................................................................
Billings, MT ............................................................................
Binghamton, NY ....................................................................
Birmingham-Hoover, AL ........................................................
Bismarck, ND .........................................................................
Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford, VA ................................
Bloomington, IN .....................................................................

35,094
39,026
32,618
33,319
33,270
35,048
40,798
32,550
34,024
30,913

35,680
40,682
34,239
34,318
35,372
36,322
42,570
34,118
35,248
32,028

1.7
4.2
5.0
3.0
6.3
3.6
4.3
4.8
3.6
3.6

Bloomington-Normal, IL .........................................................
Boise City-Nampa, ID ............................................................
Boston-Cambridge-Quincy, MA-NH ......................................
Boulder, CO ...........................................................................
Bowling Green, KY ................................................................
Bremerton-Silverdale, WA .....................................................
Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT .........................................
Brownsville-Harlingen, TX .....................................................
Brunswick, GA .......................................................................
Buffalo-Niagara Falls, NY ......................................................

41,359
36,734
56,809
50,944
32,529
37,694
74,890
25,795
32,717
36,950

42,082
37,553
59,817
52,745
33,308
39,506
79,973
27,126
32,705
38,218

1.7
2.2
5.3
3.5
2.4
4.8
6.8
5.2
0.0
3.4

Burlington, NC .......................................................................
Burlington-South Burlington, VT ............................................
Canton-Massillon, OH ...........................................................
Cape Coral-Fort Myers, FL ....................................................
Carson City, NV .....................................................................
Casper, WY ...........................................................................
Cedar Rapids, IA ...................................................................
Champaign-Urbana, IL ..........................................................
Charleston, WV .....................................................................
Charleston-North Charleston, SC ..........................................

32,835
40,548
33,132
37,065
40,115
38,307
38,976
34,422
36,887
35,267

33,132
41,907
34,091
37,658
42,030
41,105
41,059
35,788
38,687
36,954

0.9
3.4
2.9
1.6
4.8
7.3
5.3
4.0
4.9
4.8

Charlotte-Gastonia-Concord, NC-SC ....................................
Charlottesville, VA .................................................................
Chattanooga, TN-GA .............................................................
Cheyenne, WY ......................................................................
Chicago-Naperville-Joliet, IL-IN-WI .......................................
Chico, CA ..............................................................................
Cincinnati-Middletown, OH-KY-IN .........................................
Clarksville, TN-KY .................................................................
Cleveland, TN ........................................................................
Cleveland-Elyria-Mentor, OH .................................................

45,732
39,051
35,358
35,306
48,631
31,557
41,447
30,949
33,075
41,325

46,975
40,819
36,522
36,191
50,823
33,207
42,969
32,216
34,666
42,783

2.7
4.5
3.3
2.5
4.5
5.2
3.7
4.1
4.8
3.5

Coeur d’Alene, ID ..................................................................
College Station-Bryan, TX .....................................................
Colorado Springs, CO ...........................................................
Columbia, MO ........................................................................
Columbia, SC ........................................................................
Columbus, GA-AL ..................................................................
Columbus, IN .........................................................................
Columbus, OH .......................................................................
Corpus Christi, TX .................................................................
Corvallis, OR .........................................................................

29,797
30,239
38,325
32,207
35,209
32,334
40,107
41,168
35,399
40,586

31,035
32,630
39,745
33,266
36,293
34,511
41,078
42,655
37,186
41,981

4.2
7.9
3.7
3.3
3.1
6.7
2.4
3.6
5.0
3.4

See footnotes at end of table.

76

2006

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

26. Continued — Average annual wages for 2006 and 2007 for all covered
workers1 by metropolitan area
Average annual wages3
Metropolitan area2

Percent
change,
2006-07

2006

2007

Cumberland, MD-WV ............................................................
Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX ............................................
Dalton, GA .............................................................................
Danville, IL .............................................................................
Danville, VA ...........................................................................
Davenport-Moline-Rock Island, IA-IL .....................................
Dayton, OH ............................................................................
Decatur, AL ............................................................................
Decatur, IL .............................................................................
Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach, FL .........................

$29,859
47,525
33,266
33,141
28,870
37,559
39,387
34,883
39,375
31,197

$31,373
49,627
34,433
34,086
30,212
39,385
40,223
35,931
41,039
32,196

5.1
4.4
3.5
2.9
4.6
4.9
2.1
3.0
4.2
3.2

Denver-Aurora, CO ................................................................
Des Moines, IA ......................................................................
Detroit-Warren-Livonia, MI ....................................................
Dothan, AL .............................................................................
Dover, DE ..............................................................................
Dubuque, IA ...........................................................................
Duluth, MN-WI .......................................................................
Durham, NC ...........................................................................
Eau Claire, WI .......................................................................
El Centro, CA .........................................................................

48,232
41,358
47,455
31,473
34,571
33,044
33,677
49,314
31,718
30,035

50,180
42,895
49,019
32,367
35,978
34,240
35,202
52,420
32,792
32,419

4.0
3.7
3.3
2.8
4.1
3.6
4.5
6.3
3.4
7.9

Elizabethtown, KY .................................................................
Elkhart-Goshen, IN ................................................................
Elmira, NY .............................................................................
El Paso, TX ............................................................................
Erie, PA .................................................................................
Eugene-Springfield, OR .........................................................
Evansville, IN-KY ...................................................................
Fairbanks, AK ........................................................................
Fajardo, PR ...........................................................................
Fargo, ND-MN .......................................................................

32,072
35,878
33,968
29,903
33,213
33,257
36,858
41,296
21,002
33,542

32,701
36,566
34,879
31,354
34,788
34,329
37,182
42,345
22,075
35,264

2.0
1.9
2.7
4.9
4.7
3.2
0.9
2.5
5.1
5.1

Farmington, NM .....................................................................
Fayetteville, NC .....................................................................
Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers, AR-MO ...............................
Flagstaff, AZ ..........................................................................
Flint, MI ..................................................................................
Florence, SC ..........................................................................
Florence-Muscle Shoals, AL ..................................................
Fond du Lac, WI ....................................................................
Fort Collins-Loveland, CO .....................................................
Fort Smith, AR-OK .................................................................

36,220
31,281
35,734
32,231
39,409
33,610
29,518
33,376
37,940
30,932

38,572
33,216
37,325
34,473
39,310
34,305
30,699
34,664
39,335
31,236

6.5
6.2
4.5
7.0
-0.3
2.1
4.0
3.9
3.7
1.0

Fort Walton Beach-Crestview-Destin, FL ..............................
Fort Wayne, IN ......................................................................
Fresno, CA ............................................................................
Gadsden, AL ..........................................................................
Gainesville, FL .......................................................................
Gainesville, GA ......................................................................
Glens Falls, NY ......................................................................
Goldsboro, NC .......................................................................
Grand Forks, ND-MN .............................................................
Grand Junction, CO ...............................................................

34,409
35,641
33,504
29,499
34,573
34,765
32,780
29,331
29,234
33,729

35,613
36,542
35,111
30,979
36,243
36,994
33,564
30,177
30,745
36,221

3.5
2.5
4.8
5.0
4.8
6.4
2.4
2.9
5.2
7.4

Grand Rapids-Wyoming, MI ..................................................
Great Falls, MT ......................................................................
Greeley, CO ...........................................................................
Green Bay, WI .......................................................................
Greensboro-High Point, NC ...................................................
Greenville, NC .......................................................................
Greenville, SC .......................................................................
Guayama, PR ........................................................................
Gulfport-Biloxi, MS .................................................................
Hagerstown-Martinsburg, MD-WV .........................................

38,056
29,542
35,144
36,677
35,898
32,432
35,471
24,551
34,688
34,621

38,953
31,009
37,066
37,788
37,213
33,703
36,536
26,094
34,971
35,468

2.4
5.0
5.5
3.0
3.7
3.9
3.0
6.3
0.8
2.4

Hanford-Corcoran, CA ...........................................................
Harrisburg-Carlisle, PA ..........................................................
Harrisonburg, VA ...................................................................
Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford, CT .............................
Hattiesburg, MS .....................................................................
Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton, NC ..............................................
Hinesville-Fort Stewart, GA ...................................................
Holland-Grand Haven, MI ......................................................
Honolulu, HI ...........................................................................
Hot Springs, AR .....................................................................

31,148
39,807
31,522
51,282
30,059
31,323
31,416
36,895
39,009
27,684

32,504
41,424
32,718
54,188
30,729
32,364
33,210
37,470
40,748
28,448

4.4
4.1
3.8
5.7
2.2
3.3
5.7
1.6
4.5
2.8

Houma-Bayou Cane-Thibodaux, LA ......................................
Houston-Baytown-Sugar Land, TX ........................................
Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH ...........................................
Huntsville, AL .........................................................................
Idaho Falls, ID .......................................................................
Indianapolis, IN ......................................................................
Iowa City, IA ..........................................................................
Ithaca, NY ..............................................................................
Jackson, MI ...........................................................................
Jackson, MS ..........................................................................

38,417
50,177
32,648
44,659
31,632
41,307
35,913
38,337
36,836
34,605

41,604
53,494
33,973
45,763
29,878
42,227
37,457
39,387
38,267
35,771

8.3
6.6
4.1
2.5
-5.5
2.2
4.3
2.7
3.9
3.4

See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 77

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

26. Continued — Average annual wages for 2006 and 2007 for all covered
workers1 by metropolitan area
Average annual wages3
Metropolitan area2

2007

Jackson, TN ...........................................................................
Jacksonville, FL .....................................................................
Jacksonville, NC ....................................................................
Janesville, WI ........................................................................
Jefferson City, MO .................................................................
Johnson City, TN ...................................................................
Johnstown, PA .......................................................................
Jonesboro, AR .......................................................................
Joplin, MO .............................................................................
Kalamazoo-Portage, MI .........................................................

$34,477
40,192
25,854
36,732
31,771
31,058
29,972
28,972
30,111
37,099

$35,059
41,437
27,005
36,790
32,903
31,985
31,384
30,378
31,068
38,402

1.7
3.1
4.5
0.2
3.6
3.0
4.7
4.9
3.2
3.5

Kankakee-Bradley, IL ............................................................
Kansas City, MO-KS ..............................................................
Kennewick-Richland-Pasco, WA ...........................................
Killeen-Temple-Fort Hood, TX ...............................................
Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol, TN-VA ............................................
Kingston, NY ..........................................................................
Knoxville, TN .........................................................................
Kokomo, IN ............................................................................
La Crosse, WI-MN .................................................................
Lafayette, IN ..........................................................................

32,389
41,320
38,750
31,511
35,100
33,697
37,216
45,808
31,819
35,380

33,340
42,921
40,439
32,915
36,399
35,018
38,386
47,269
32,949
36,419

2.9
3.9
4.4
4.5
3.7
3.9
3.1
3.2
3.6
2.9

Lafayette, LA .........................................................................
Lake Charles, LA ...................................................................
Lakeland, FL ..........................................................................
Lancaster, PA ........................................................................
Lansing-East Lansing, MI ......................................................
Laredo, TX .............................................................................
Las Cruces, NM .....................................................................
Las Vegas-Paradise, NV .......................................................
Lawrence, KS ........................................................................
Lawton, OK ............................................................................

38,170
35,883
33,530
36,171
39,890
28,051
29,969
40,139
29,896
29,830

40,684
37,447
34,394
37,043
40,866
29,009
31,422
42,336
30,830
30,617

6.6
4.4
2.6
2.4
2.4
3.4
4.8
5.5
3.1
2.6

Lebanon, PA ..........................................................................
Lewiston, ID-WA ....................................................................
Lewiston-Auburn, ME ............................................................
Lexington-Fayette, KY ...........................................................
Lima, OH ...............................................................................
Lincoln, NE ............................................................................
Little Rock-North Little Rock, AR ...........................................
Logan, UT-ID .........................................................................
Longview, TX .........................................................................
Longview, WA ........................................................................

31,790
30,776
32,231
37,926
33,790
33,703
36,169
26,766
35,055
35,140

32,876
31,961
33,118
39,290
35,177
34,750
39,305
27,810
36,956
37,101

3.4
3.9
2.8
3.6
4.1
3.1
8.7
3.9
5.4
5.6

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, CA .............................
Louisville, KY-IN ....................................................................
Lubbock, TX ..........................................................................
Lynchburg, VA .......................................................................
Macon, GA .............................................................................
Madera, CA ...........................................................................
Madison, WI ...........................................................................
Manchester-Nashua, NH .......................................................
Mansfield, OH ........................................................................
Mayaguez, PR .......................................................................

48,680
38,673
31,977
33,242
34,126
31,213
40,007
46,659
33,171
20,619

50,480
40,125
32,761
34,412
34,243
33,266
41,201
49,235
33,109
21,326

3.7
3.8
2.5
3.5
0.3
6.6
3.0
5.5
-0.2
3.4

McAllen-Edinburg-Pharr, TX ..................................................
Medford, OR ..........................................................................
Memphis, TN-MS-AR ............................................................
Merced, CA ............................................................................
Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Miami Beach, FL ..............................
Michigan City-La Porte, IN .....................................................
Midland, TX ...........................................................................
Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis, WI ....................................
Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI ...........................
Missoula, MT .........................................................................

26,712
31,697
40,580
31,147
42,175
31,383
42,625
42,049
46,931
30,652

27,651
32,877
42,339
32,351
43,428
32,570
45,574
43,261
49,542
32,233

3.5
3.7
4.3
3.9
3.0
3.8
6.9
2.9
5.6
5.2

Mobile, AL ..............................................................................
Modesto, CA ..........................................................................
Monroe, LA ............................................................................
Monroe, MI ............................................................................
Montgomery, AL ....................................................................
Morgantown, WV ...................................................................
Morristown, TN ......................................................................
Mount Vernon-Anacortes, WA ...............................................
Muncie, IN .............................................................................
Muskegon-Norton Shores, MI ................................................

36,126
35,468
30,618
40,938
35,383
32,608
31,914
32,851
30,691
33,949

36,890
36,739
31,992
41,636
36,223
35,241
32,806
34,620
31,326
34,982

2.1
3.6
4.5
1.7
2.4
8.1
2.8
5.4
2.1
3.0

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach, SC ....................
Napa, CA ...............................................................................
Naples-Marco Island, FL .......................................................
Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro, TN .................................
New Haven-Milford, CT .........................................................
New Orleans-Metairie-Kenner, LA .........................................
New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island, NY-NJ-PA ......
Niles-Benton Harbor, MI ........................................................
Norwich-New London, CT .....................................................
Ocala, FL ...............................................................................

27,905
41,788
39,320
41,003
44,892
42,434
61,388
36,967
43,184
31,330

28,576
44,171
41,300
42,728
47,039
43,255
65,685
38,140
45,463
31,623

2.4
5.7
5.0
4.2
4.8
1.9
7.0
3.2
5.3
0.9

See footnotes at end of table.

78

Percent
change,
2006-07

2006

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

26. Continued — Average annual wages for 2006 and 2007 for all covered
workers1 by metropolitan area
Average annual wages3
Metropolitan area2

Percent
change,
2006-07

2006

2007

Ocean City, NJ ......................................................................
Odessa, TX ............................................................................
Ogden-Clearfield, UT .............................................................
Oklahoma City, OK ................................................................
Olympia, WA ..........................................................................
Omaha-Council Bluffs, NE-IA ................................................
Orlando, FL ............................................................................
Oshkosh-Neenah, WI ............................................................
Owensboro, KY .....................................................................
Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA ...................................

$31,801
37,144
32,890
35,846
37,787
38,139
37,776
39,538
32,491
45,467

$32,452
41,758
34,067
37,192
39,678
39,273
38,633
41,014
33,593
47,669

2.0
12.4
3.6
3.8
5.0
3.0
2.3
3.7
3.4
4.8

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville, FL ........................................
Panama City-Lynn Haven, FL ...............................................
Parkersburg-Marietta, WV-OH ..............................................
Pascagoula, MS ....................................................................
Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent, FL ...........................................
Peoria, IL ...............................................................................
Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD ................
Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ ...............................................
Pine Bluff, AR ........................................................................
Pittsburgh, PA ........................................................................

39,778
33,341
32,213
36,287
33,530
42,283
48,647
42,220
32,115
40,759

40,975
33,950
33,547
39,131
34,165
43,470
50,611
43,697
33,094
42,910

3.0
1.8
4.1
7.8
1.9
2.8
4.0
3.5
3.0
5.3

Pittsfield, MA ..........................................................................
Pocatello, ID ..........................................................................
Ponce, PR .............................................................................
Portland-South Portland-Biddeford, ME ................................
Portland-Vancouver-Beaverton, OR-WA ...............................
Port St. Lucie-Fort Pierce, FL ................................................
Poughkeepsie-Newburgh-Middletown, NY ............................
Prescott, AZ ...........................................................................
Providence-New Bedford-Fall River, RI-MA ..........................
Provo-Orem, UT ....................................................................

36,707
28,418
20,266
36,979
42,607
34,408
39,528
30,625
39,428
32,308

38,075
29,268
21,019
38,497
44,335
36,375
40,793
32,048
40,674
34,141

3.7
3.0
3.7
4.1
4.1
5.7
3.2
4.6
3.2
5.7

Pueblo, CO ............................................................................
Punta Gorda, FL ....................................................................
Racine, WI .............................................................................
Raleigh-Cary, NC ..................................................................
Rapid City, SD .......................................................................
Reading, PA ..........................................................................
Redding, CA ..........................................................................
Reno-Sparks, NV ...................................................................
Richmond, VA ........................................................................
Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA .................................

30,941
32,370
39,002
41,205
29,920
38,048
33,307
39,537
42,495
36,668

32,552
32,833
40,746
42,801
31,119
39,945
34,953
41,365
44,530
37,846

5.2
1.4
4.5
3.9
4.0
5.0
4.9
4.6
4.8
3.2

Roanoke, VA .........................................................................
Rochester, MN .......................................................................
Rochester, NY .......................................................................
Rockford, IL ...........................................................................
Rocky Mount, NC ..................................................................
Rome, GA ..............................................................................
Sacramento--Arden-Arcade--Roseville, CA ...........................
Saginaw-Saginaw Township North, MI ..................................
St. Cloud, MN ........................................................................
St. George, UT ......................................................................

33,912
42,941
39,481
37,424
31,556
34,850
44,552
37,747
33,018
28,034

35,419
44,786
40,752
38,304
32,527
33,041
46,385
37,507
33,996
29,052

4.4
4.3
3.2
2.4
3.1
-5.2
4.1
-0.6
3.0
3.6

St. Joseph, MO-KS ................................................................
St. Louis, MO-IL .....................................................................
Salem, OR .............................................................................
Salinas, CA ............................................................................
Salisbury, MD ........................................................................
Salt Lake City, UT ..................................................................
San Angelo, TX .....................................................................
San Antonio, TX ....................................................................
San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos, CA ...................................
Sandusky, OH .......................................................................

31,253
41,354
32,764
37,974
33,223
38,630
30,168
36,763
45,784
33,526

31,828
42,873
33,986
39,419
34,833
40,935
30,920
38,274
47,657
33,471

1.8
3.7
3.7
3.8
4.8
6.0
2.5
4.1
4.1
-0.2

San Francisco-Oakland-Fremont, CA ...................................
San German-Cabo Rojo, PR .................................................
San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA ..................................
San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo, PR .........................................
San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles, CA ........................................
Santa Barbara-Santa Maria-Goleta, CA ................................
Santa Cruz-Watsonville, CA ..................................................
Santa Fe, NM ........................................................................
Santa Rosa-Petaluma, CA ....................................................
Sarasota-Bradenton-Venice, FL ............................................

61,343
19,498
76,608
24,812
35,146
40,326
40,776
35,320
41,533
35,751

64,559
19,777
82,038
25,939
36,740
41,967
41,540
37,395
42,824
36,424

5.2
1.4
7.1
4.5
4.5
4.1
1.9
5.9
3.1
1.9

Savannah, GA .......................................................................
Scranton--Wilkes-Barre, PA ..................................................
Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA ..............................................
Sheboygan, WI ......................................................................
Sherman-Denison, TX ...........................................................
Shreveport-Bossier City, LA ..................................................
Sioux City, IA-NE-SD .............................................................
Sioux Falls, SD ......................................................................
South Bend-Mishawaka, IN-MI ..............................................
Spartanburg, SC ....................................................................

35,684
32,813
49,455
35,908
34,166
33,678
31,826
34,542
35,089
37,077

36,695
34,205
51,924
37,049
35,672
34,892
33,025
36,056
36,266
37,967

2.8
4.2
5.0
3.2
4.4
3.6
3.8
4.4
3.4
2.4

See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 79

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

26. Continued — Average annual wages for 2006 and 2007 for all covered
workers1 by metropolitan area
Average annual wages3
Metropolitan area2

2007

Spokane, WA .........................................................................
Springfield, IL .........................................................................
Springfield, MA ......................................................................
Springfield, MO ......................................................................
Springfield, OH ......................................................................
State College, PA ..................................................................
Stockton, CA ..........................................................................
Sumter, SC ............................................................................
Syracuse, NY .........................................................................
Tallahassee, FL .....................................................................

$34,016
40,679
37,962
30,786
31,844
35,392
36,426
29,294
38,081
35,018

$35,539
42,420
39,487
31,868
32,017
36,797
37,906
30,267
39,620
36,543

4.5
4.3
4.0
3.5
0.5
4.0
4.1
3.3
4.0
4.4

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL ..................................
Terre Haute, IN ......................................................................
Texarkana, TX-Texarkana, AR ..............................................
Toledo, OH ............................................................................
Topeka, KS ............................................................................
Trenton-Ewing, NJ .................................................................
Tucson, AZ ............................................................................
Tulsa, OK ...............................................................................
Tuscaloosa, AL ......................................................................
Tyler, TX ................................................................................

38,016
31,341
32,545
37,039
34,806
54,274
37,119
37,637
35,613
36,173

39,215
32,349
34,079
38,538
36,109
56,645
38,524
38,942
36,737
37,184

3.2
3.2
4.7
4.0
3.7
4.4
3.8
3.5
3.2
2.8

Utica-Rome, NY .....................................................................
Valdosta, GA .........................................................................
Vallejo-Fairfield, CA ...............................................................
Vero Beach, FL ......................................................................
Victoria, TX ............................................................................
Vineland-Millville-Bridgeton, NJ .............................................
Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC .....................
Visalia-Porterville, CA ............................................................
Waco, TX ...............................................................................
Warner Robins, GA ...............................................................

32,457
26,794
40,225
33,823
36,642
37,749
36,071
29,772
33,450
38,087

33,916
27,842
42,932
35,901
38,317
39,408
37,734
30,968
34,679
39,220

4.5
3.9
6.7
6.1
4.6
4.4
4.6
4.0
3.7
3.0

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV ...............
Waterloo-Cedar Falls, IA .......................................................
Wausau, WI ...........................................................................
Weirton-Steubenville, WV-OH ...............................................
Wenatchee, WA .....................................................................
Wheeling, WV-OH .................................................................
Wichita, KS ............................................................................
Wichita Falls, TX ....................................................................
Williamsport, PA ....................................................................
Wilmington, NC ......................................................................

58,057
34,329
34,438
31,416
28,340
30,620
38,763
30,785
31,431
32,948

60,711
35,899
35,710
32,893
29,475
31,169
39,662
32,320
32,506
34,239

4.6
4.6
3.7
4.7
4.0
1.8
2.3
5.0
3.4
3.9

Winchester, VA-WV ...............................................................
Winston-Salem, NC ...............................................................
Worcester, MA .......................................................................
Yakima, WA ...........................................................................
Yauco, PR .............................................................................
York-Hanover, PA ..................................................................
Youngstown-Warren-Boardman, OH-PA ...............................
Yuba City, CA ........................................................................
Yuma, AZ ...............................................................................

34,895
37,712
42,726
28,401
19,001
37,226
33,852
33,642
28,369

36,016
38,921
44,652
29,743
19,380
38,469
34,698
35,058
30,147

3.2
3.2
4.5
4.7
2.0
3.3
2.5
4.2
6.3

1 Includes workers covered by Unemployment
Insurance (UI) and Unemployment Compensation
for Federal Employees (UCFE) programs.
2 Includes data for Metropolitan Statistical
Areas (MSA) as defined by OMB Bulletin No.
04-03 as of February 18, 2004.

80

Percent
change,
2006-07

2006

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

3 Each year’s total is based on the MSA
definition for the specific year. Annual changes
include differences resulting from changes in
MSA definitions.
4 Totals do not include the six MSAs within
Puerto Rico.

27. Annual data: Employment status of the population
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status
Civilian noninstitutional population...........
Civilian labor force............................……
Labor force participation rate...............
Employed............................…………
Employment-population ratio..........
Unemployed............................………
Unemployment rate........................
Not in the labor force............................…
1

1997

19981

203,133
136,297
67.1
129,558
63.8
6,739
4.9
66,837

205,220
137,673
67.1
131,463
64.1
6,210
4.5
67,547

19991

20001

20011

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

207,753
139,368
67.1
133,488
64.3
5,880
4.2
68,385

212,577
142,583
67.1
136,891
64.4
5,692
4
69,994

215,092
143,734
66.8
136,933
63.7
6,801
4.7
71,359

217,570
144,863
66.6
136,485
62.7
8,378
5.8
72,707

221,168
146,510
66.2
137,736
62.3
8,774
6
74,658

223,357
147,401
66
139,252
62.3
8,149
5.5
75,956

226,082
149,320
66
141,730
62.7
7,591
5.1
76,762

228,815
151,428
66.2
144,427
63.1
7,001
4.6
77,387

231,867
153,124
66
146,047
63
7,078
4.6
78,743

Not strictly comparable with prior years.

28. Annual data: Employment levels by industry
[In thousands]
Industry

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Total private employment............................…

103,113

106,021

108,686

110,996

110,707

108,828

108,416

109,814

111,899

114,184

115,717

Total nonfarm employment……………………
Goods-producing............................………
Natural resources and mining.................
Construction............................……………
Manufacturing............................…………

122,776
23,886
654
5,813
17,419

125,930
24,354
645
6,149
17,560

128,993
24,465
598
6,545
17,322

131,785
24,649
599
6,787
17,263

131,826
23,873
606
6,826
16,441

130,341
22,557
583
6,716
15,259

129,999
21,816
572
6,735
14,510

131,435
21,882
591
6,976
14,315

133,703
22,190
628
7,336
14,226

136,174
22,570
684
7,689
14,197

137,969
22,378
722
7,624
14,032

Private service-providing..........................
79,227
Trade, transportation, and utilities..........
24,700
Wholesale trade............................……… 5,663.90
Retail trade............................………… 14,388.90
Transportation and warehousing.........
4,026.50
Utilities............................………………
620.9
Information............................……………
3,084
Financial activities............................……
7,178
Professional and business services……
14,335
Education and health services…………
14,087
11,018
Leisure and hospitality……………………
Other services……………………………
4,825

81,667
25,186
5,795.20
14,609.30
4,168.00
613.4
3,218
7,462
15,147
14,446
11,232
4,976

84,221
25,771
5,892.50
14,970.10
4,300.30
608.5
3,419
7,648
15,957
14,798
11,543
5,087

86,346
26,225
5,933.20
15,279.80
4,410.30
601.3
3,631
7,687
16,666
15,109
11,862
5,168

86,834
25,983
5,772.70
15,238.60
4,372.00
599.4
3,629
7,807
16,476
15,645
12,036
5,258

86,271
25,497
5,652.30
15,025.10
4,223.60
596.2
3,395
7,847
15,976
16,199
11,986
5,372

86,599
25,287
5,607.50
14,917.30
4,185.40
577
3,188
7,977
15,987
16,588
12,173
5,401

87,932
25,533
5,662.90
15,058.20
4,248.60
563.8
3,118
8,031
16,395
16,953
12,493
5,409

89,709
25,959
5,764.40
15,279.60
4,360.90
554
3,061
8,153
16,954
17,372
12,816
5,395

91,615
26,231
5,897.60
15,319.30
4,465.80
548.5
3,055
8,363
17,552
17,838
13,143
5,432

93,339
26,472
6,005.30
15,382.00
4,531.20
553.5
3,087
8,446
17,920
18,377
13,565
5,472

19,909

20,307

20,790

21,118

21,513

21,583

21,621

21,804

21,990

22,252

Government……………………………………

19,664

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 81

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

29. Annual data: Average hours and earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers on nonfarm
payrolls, by industry
Industry

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Private sector:
Average weekly hours.......…….................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars).........................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)........................

34.5
12.51
431.86

34.5
13.01
448.56

34.3
13.49
463.15

34.3
14.02
481.01

34
14.54
493.79

33.9
14.97
506.72

33.7
15.37
518.06

33.7
15.69
529.09

33.8
16.13
544.33

33.9
16.76
567.87

33.8
17.41
589.36

Goods-producing:
Average weekly hours.............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars).......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................

41.1
13.82
568.43

40.8
14.23
580.99

40.8
14.71
599.99

40.7
15.27
621.86

39.9
15.78
630.04

39.9
16.33
651.61

39.8
16.8
669.13

40
17.19
688.17

40.1
17.6
705.31

40.5
18.02
729.87

40.5
18.64
755.73

46.2
15.57
720.11

44.9
16.2
727.28

44.2
16.33
721.74

44.4
16.55
734.92

44.6
17
757.92

43.2
17.19
741.97

43.6
17.56
765.94

44.5
18.07
803.82

45.6
18.72
853.71

45.6
19.9
908.01

45.9
20.99
962.54

Average weekly hours............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars).....................
Manufacturing:

38.9
15.67
609.48

38.8
16.23
629.75

39
16.8
655.11

39.2
17.48
685.78

38.7
18
695.89

38.4
18.52
711.82

38.4
18.95
726.83

38.3
19.23
735.55

38.6
19.46
750.22

39
20.02
781.04

38.9
20.94
814.83

Average weekly hours............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars).....................
Private service-providing:

41.7
13.14
548.22

41.4
13.45
557.12

41.4
13.85
573.17

41.3
14.32
590.65

40.3
14.76
595.19

40.5
15.29
618.75

40.4
15.74
635.99

40.8
16.15
658.59

40.7
16.56
673.37

41.1
16.8
690.83

41.2
17.23
710.51

Average weekly hours..………................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars).......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................

32.8
12.07
395.51

32.8
12.61
413.5

32.7
13.09
427.98

32.7
13.62
445.74

32.5
14.18
461.08

32.5
14.59
473.8

32.4
14.99
484.81

32.3
15.29
494.22

32.4
15.74
509.58

32.5
16.42
532.84

32.4
17.09
554.47

Trade, transportation, and utilities:
Average weekly hours.............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars).......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................
Wholesale trade:

34.3
11.9
407.57

34.2
12.39
423.3

33.9
12.82
434.31

33.8
13.31
449.88

33.5
13.7
459.53

33.6
14.02
471.27

33.6
14.34
481.14

33.5
14.58
488.42

33.4
14.92
498.43

33.4
15.4
514.61

33.4
15.82
528.22

Average weekly hours.........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Retail trade:

38.8
14.41
559.39

38.6
15.07
582.21

38.6
15.62
602.77

38.8
16.28
631.4

38.4
16.77
643.45

38
16.98
644.38

37.9
17.36
657.29

37.8
17.65
667.09

37.7
18.16
685

38
18.91
718.3

38.2
19.56
747.7

Average weekly hours.........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Transportation and warehousing:
Average weekly hours.........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Utilities:
Average weekly hours.........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Information:
Average weekly hours.........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Financial activities:

38.8
14.41
559.39

38.6
15.07
582.21

38.6
15.62
602.77

38.8
16.28
631.4

38.4
16.77
643.45

38
16.98
644.38

37.9
17.36
657.29

37.8
17.65
667.09

37.7
18.16
685

38
18.91
718.3

30.2
12.8
747.7

39.4
13.78
542.55

38.7
14.12
546.86

37.6
14.55
547.97

37.4
15.05
562.31

36.7
15.33
562.7

36.8
15.76
579.75

36.8
16.25
598.41

37.2
16.52
614.82

37
16.7
618.58

36.9
17.28
637.14

37
17.76
656.95

42
20.59
865.26

42
21.48
902.94

42
22.03
924.59

42
22.75
955.66

41.4
23.58
977.18

40.9
41.1
40.9
41.1
41.4
42.4
23.96
24.77
25.61
26.68
27.42
27.93
979.09 1,017.27 1,048.44 1,095.90 1,136.08 1,185.08

36.3
17.14
622.4

36.6
17.67
646.52

36.7
18.4
675.32

36.8
19.07
700.89

36.9
19.8
731.11

36.5
20.2
738.17

36.2
21.01
760.81

36.3
21.4
777.05

36.5
22.06
805

36.6
23.23
850.81

36.4
23.92
871.03

Average weekly hours.........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Professional and business services:
Average weekly hours.........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Education and health services:
Average weekly hours.........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Leisure and hospitality:
Average weekly hours.........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Other services:
Average weekly hours.........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................

35.7
13.22
472.37

36
13.93
500.95

35.8
14.47
517.57

35.9
14.98
537.37

35.8
15.59
558.02

35.6
16.17
575.51

35.5
17.14
609.08

35.5
17.52
622.87

35.9
17.94
645.1

35.8
18.8
672.4

35.9
19.66
706.01

34.3
13.57
465.51

34.3
14.27
490

34.4
14.85
510.99

34.5
15.52
535.07

34.2
16.33
557.84

34.2
16.81
574.66

34.1
17.21
587.02

34.2
17.48
597.56

34.2
18.08
618.87

34.6
19.12
662.23

34.8
20.15
700.96

32.2
12.56
404.65

32.2
13
418.82

32.1
13.44
431.35

32.2
13.95
449.29

32.3
14.64
473.39

32.4
15.21
492.74

32.3
15.64
505.69

32.4
16.15
523.78

32.6
16.71
544.59

32.5
17.38
564.95

32.6
18.03
587.2

26
7.32
190.52

26.2
7.67
200.82

26.1
7.96
208.05

26.1
8.32
217.2

25.8
8.57
220.73

25.8
8.81
227.17

25.6
9
230.42

25.7
9.15
234.86

25.7
9.38
241.36

25.7
9.75
250.11

25.5
10.41
265.03

32.7
11.29
368.63

32.6
11.79
384.25

32.5
12.26
398.77

32.5
12.73
413.41

32.3
13.27
428.64

32
13.72
439.76

31.4
13.84
434.41

31
13.98
433.04

30.9
14.34
443.37

30.9
14.77
456.6

30.9
15.22
470.05

Natural resources and mining
Average weekly hours............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars).....................
Construction:

NOTE: Data reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), replacing the Standard Industrial Classification
(SIC) system. N AICS-based data by industry are not comparable with SIC-based data.

82

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

30. Employment Cost Index, compensation,1 by occupation and industry group
[December 2005 = 100]
2006
Series

Sept.

2007

Dec.

Mar.

June

2008

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Percent change
Sept.

3 months
ended

12 months
ended

Sept. 2008
2

Civilian workers ……….…….........…………………………………….…

102.7

103.3

104.2

105.0

106.1

106.7

107.6

108.3

109.2

0.8

2.9

Management, professional, and related………………………
Management, business, and financial……………………
Professional and related……………………………………
Sales and office…………………………………………………
Sales and related……………………………………………
Office and administrative support…………………………

103.0
102.7
103.2
102.4
101.7
102.8

103.7
103.2
104.0
103.0
102.3
103.5

104.7
104.4
104.9
103.8
102.4
104.7

105.5
105.2
105.7
104.8
103.6
105.5

106.7
106.2
107.0
105.5
104.1
106.4

107.2
106.6
107.6
106.4
105.2
107.1

108.3
108.2
108.4
106.8
105.0
108.0

109.0
108.9
109.0
107.7
106.1
108.6

110.1
109.7
110.4
108.2
106.0
109.5

1.0
.7
1.3
.5
-.1
.8

3.2
3.3
3.2
2.6
1.8
2.9

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance…………
Construction and extraction………………………………
Installation, maintenance, and repair……………………
Production, transportation, and material moving……………
Production……………………………………………………
Transportation and material moving………………………
Service occupations……………………………………………

103.0
103.0
103.0
101.8
101.6
102.2
102.5

103.6
103.7
103.6
102.4
102.0
102.8
103.5

104.1
104.3
103.7
102.7
102.1
103.4
104.8

105.1
105.7
104.4
103.5
102.8
104.4
105.5

106.1
106.5
105.6
104.2
103.3
105.3
106.9

106.8
107.4
106.2
104.7
104.1
105.6
107.7

107.7
108.5
106.7
105.6
104.8
106.6
108.4

108.4
109.6
107.0
106.2
105.3
107.3
109.1

109.3
110.3
108.0
106.9
105.9
108.1
110.2

.8
.6
.9
.7
.6
.7
1.0

3.0
3.6
2.3
2.6
2.5
2.7
3.1

Workers by industry
Goods-producing………………………………………………
Manufacturing…………………………………………………
Service-providing………………………………………………
Education and health services……………………………
Health care and social assistance………………………
Hospitals…………………………………………………
Nursing and residential care facilities………………
Education services………………………………………
Elementary and secondary schools…………………

102.0
101.4
102.9
103.5
103.5
103.2
102.6
103.4
103.5

102.5
101.8
103.5
104.2
104.3
104.0
103.7
104.1
104.2

102.9
102.0
104.4
104.9
105.4
105.1
104.5
104.5
104.6

103.9
102.9
105.2
105.5
106.1
105.7
105.0
104.9
105.0

104.4
103.2
106.4
107.2
107.1
106.7
105.6
107.3
107.4

105.0
103.8
107.0
107.9
107.9
107.5
106.3
107.9
107.9

106.1
104.7
107.8
108.6
108.9
108.4
107.3
108.3
108.2

106.8
105.1
108.5
109.2
109.6
109.2
108.2
108.9
108.8

107.3
105.6
109.5
110.8
110.4
110.2
109.0
111.1
111.1

.5
.5
.9
1.5
.7
.9
.7
2.0
2.1

2.8
2.3
2.9
3.4
3.1
3.3
3.2
3.5
3.4

Public administration ……………………………………… 102.4

103.8

105.6

106.6

108.0

109.1

109.7

110.1

111.6

1.4

3.3

102.5

103.2

104.0

104.9

105.7

106.3

107.3

108.0

108.7

.6

2.8

Workers by occupational group
Management, professional, and related………………………
Management, business, and financial……………………
Professional and related……………………………………
Sales and office…………………………………………………
Sales and related……………………………………………
Office and administrative support…………………………
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance…………
Construction and extraction…………………………………
Installation, maintenance, and repair………………………
Production, transportation, and material moving……………
Production……………………………………………………
Transportation and material moving………………………
Service occupations……………………………………………

102.9
102.7
103.1
102.3
101.7
102.7
103.0
103.1
103.0
101.7
101.6
102.0
102.3

103.5
103.1
103.9
102.9
102.3
103.4
103.6
103.7
103.4
102.3
102.0
102.6
103.1

104.6
104.3
104.9
103.7
102.4
104.5
104.0
104.4
103.5
102.5
102.1
103.1
104.5

105.5
105.1
105.9
104.7
103.6
105.4
105.0
105.7
104.1
103.3
102.8
104.1
105.2

106.4
106.0
106.7
105.3
104.2
106.0
105.9
106.5
105.2
103.9
103.2
104.9
106.4

106.8
106.3
107.3
106.1
105.2
106.7
106.7
107.4
105.8
104.5
104.0
105.3
107.0

108.1
108.0
108.3
106.6
105.0
107.8
107.6
108.6
106.3
105.5
104.8
106.4
107.8

108.9
108.7
109.0
107.5
106.2
108.5
108.3
109.7
106.6
106.0
105.2
107.2
108.7

109.6
109.3
109.9
107.9
106.0
109.2
109.0
110.3
107.4
106.6
105.8
107.7
109.4

.6
.6
.8
.4
-.2
.6
.6
.5
.8
.6
.6
.5
.6

3.0
3.1
3.0
2.5
1.7
3.0
2.9
3.6
2.1
2.6
2.5
2.7
2.8

Workers by industry and occupational group
Goods-producing industries……………………………………
Management, professional, and related……………………
Sales and office………………………………………………
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance………
Production, transportation, and material moving………..

102.0
101.6
102.1
102.7
101.6

102.5
102.0
102.8
103.3
102.0

102.9
102.7
103.0
104.0
102.1

103.9
103.8
103.7
105.3
102.9

104.4
104.3
104.1
106.1
103.3

105.0
104.4
104.8
107.0
104.0

106.1
106.1
105.1
108.1
104.8

106.8
106.6
106.3
109.0
105.3

107.2
106.7
106.7
109.8
105.8

.4
.1
.4
.7
.5

2.7
2.3
2.5
3.5
2.4

Construction…………………………………………………
Manufacturing…………………………………………………
Management, professional, and related…………………
Sales and office……………………………………………
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance……
Production, transportation, and material moving……..

103.0
101.4
101.3
101.3
101.5
101.5

103.6
101.8
101.4
102.1
102.1
101.9

104.7
102.0
102.0
102.4
101.7
101.9

105.9
102.9
103.3
103.2
102.4
102.6

106.9
103.2
103.3
103.5
102.8
103.1

107.6
103.8
103.5
104.3
103.9
103.8

108.9
104.7
104.9
105.0
104.6
104.5

110.1
105.1
105.2
106.1
104.5
105.0

110.6
105.6
105.4
106.7
105.3
105.5

.5
.5
.2
.6
.8
.5

3.5
2.3
2.0
3.1
2.4
2.3

Service-providing industries…………………………………
Management, professional, and related……………………
Sales and office………………………………………………
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance………
Production, transportation, and material moving………..
Service occupations…………………………………………

102.7
103.2
102.3
103.6
101.9
102.3

103.4
103.8
102.9
104.0
102.6
103.1

104.3
105.0
103.7
104.0
103.0
104.5

105.2
105.9
104.8
104.5
104.0
105.3

106.1
106.8
105.4
105.7
104.7
106.4

106.7
107.3
106.3
106.2
105.2
107.1

107.7
108.5
106.8
106.7
106.4
107.9

108.5
109.3
107.7
107.3
107.0
108.7

109.1
110.2
108.0
107.8
107.6
109.5

.6
.8
.3
.5
.6
.7

2.8
3.2
2.5
2.0
2.8
2.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities…………………………

102.4

103.0

103.1

104.2

104.7

105.5

106.1

107.3

107.6

.3

2.8

Workers by occupational group

3

Private industry workers………………………………………

See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 83

Current Labor Statistics: Compensation & Industrial Relations

30. Continued—Employment Cost Index, compensation,1 by occupation and industry group
[December 2005 = 100]
2006
Series

Sept.

2007

Dec.

Mar.

June

2008

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Percent change
Sept.

3 months
ended

12 months
ended

Sept. 2008
Wholesale trade……………………………………………
Retail trade…………………………………………………
Transportation and warehousing………………………
Utilities………………………………………………………
Information…………………………………………………
Financial activities…………………………………………
Finance and insurance…………………………………
Real estate and rental and leasing……………………
Professional and business services………………………
Education and health services……………………………
Education services………………………………………
Health care and social assistance……………………
Hospitals………………………………………………
Leisure and hospitality……………………………………
Accommodation and food services……………………
Other services, except public administration……………

102.4
101.9
101.6
110.1
103.0
102.1
102.6
100.2
102.9
103.2
103.2
103.2
103.2
102.4
102.5
103.6

102.9
102.7
102.2
110.4
103.2
102.5
102.9
100.8
103.5
104.1
104.2
104.1
103.9
103.7
104.0
104.0

103.7
102.9
102.8
102.8
104.3
104.2
104.6
102.2
104.7
105.1
104.5
105.2
105.0
105.3
105.8
105.7

104.6
103.9
104.0
104.7
105.6
104.6
104.9
103.0
105.9
105.7
104.9
105.9
105.6
106.0
106.4
106.1

104.2
105.1
104.5
105.0
105.8
105.4
105.7
104.1
106.9
106.9
106.7
106.9
106.5
107.5
108.1
107.1

105.3
106.1
104.5
105.6
106.1
105.6
106.1
103.7
107.5
107.7
107.5
107.8
107.3
108.1
108.6
107.6

105.7
106.6
105.6
106.5
106.1
106.8
107.0
105.5
109.0
108.6
108.1
108.8
108.2
109.0
109.5
108.7

107.2
107.6
106.4
108.1
106.2
107.3
107.7
105.7
109.9
109.4
109.1
109.4
109.1
109.3
110.0
109.4

107.1
108.2
106.8
108.1
107.2
107.4
107.6
106.4
110.8
110.3
111.4
110.1
110.1
110.6
111.4
109.9

-0.1
.6
.4
.0
.9
.1
-.1
.7
.8
.8
2.1
.6
.9
1.2
1.3
.5

2.8
2.9
2.2
3.0
1.3
1.9
1.8
2.2
3.6
3.2
4.4
3.0
3.4
2.9
3.1
2.6

103.2

104.1

105.1

105.7

107.6

108.4

108.9

109.4

111.3

1.7

3.4

Workers by occupational group
Management, professional, and related………………………
Professional and related……………………………………
Sales and office…………………………………………………
Office and administrative support…………………………
Service occupations……………………………………………

103.3
103.4
103.3
103.5
103.1

104.0
104.0
104.1
104.2
104.5

104.9
104.8
105.6
105.7
105.4

105.4
105.3
106.2
106.4
106.3

107.5
107.5
107.9
108.2
108.0

108.3
108.2
108.6
108.9
109.1

108.8
108.6
108.8
109.3
109.7

109.3
109.1
109.3
109.8
110.0

111.3
111.1
111.0
111.4
111.9

1.8
1.8
1.6
1.5
1.7

3.5
3.3
2.9
3.0
3.6

Workers by industry
Education and health services………………………………
Education services………………………………………
Schools…………………………………………………
Elementary and secondary schools………………
Health care and social assistance………………………
Hospitals…………………………………………………

103.7
103.5
103.5
103.6
105.1
103.3

104.3
104.1
104.1
104.2
105.7
104.3

104.8
104.6
104.6
104.7
107.1
105.6

105.3
105.0
104.9
105.0
107.6
106.3

107.5
107.4
107.4
107.4
108.6
107.5

108.2
108.0
108.0
108.0
109.3
108.2

108.6
108.4
108.4
108.3
110.1
109.2

109.1
108.8
108.8
108.8
111.1
109.7

111.2
111.0
111.0
111.1
112.7
110.8

1.9
2.0
2.0
2.1
1.4
1.0

3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.8
3.1

102.4

103.8

105.6

106.6

108.0

109.1

109.7

110.1

111.6

1.4

3.3

State and local government workers…………………………

3

Public administration ………………………………………
1

Cost (cents per hour worked) measured in the Employment Cost Index consists of
wages, salaries, and employer cost of employee benefits.
2
Consists of private industry workers (excluding farm and household workers) and
State and local government (excluding Federal Government) workers.
3
Consists of legislative, judicial, administrative, and regulatory activities.

84

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

NOTE: The Employment Cost Index data reflect the conversion to the 2002 North
American Classification System (NAICS) and the 2000 Standard Occupational
Classification (SOC) system. The NAICS and SOC data shown prior to 2006 are for
informational purposes only. Series based on NAICS and SOC became the official BLS
estimates starting in March 2006.

31. Employment Cost Index, wages and salaries, by occupation and industry group

[December 2005 = 100]

2006
Series

Sept.

2007

Dec.

Mar.

June

2008

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Percent change
Sept.

3 months
ended

12 months
ended

Sept. 2008
1

Civilian workers ……….…….........…………………………………….…

102.6

103.2

104.3

105.0

106.0

106.7

107.6

108.4

109.3

0.8

3.1

Management, professional, and related………………………
Management, business, and financial……………………
Professional and related……………………………………
Sales and office…………………………………………………
Sales and related……………………………………………
Office and administrative support…………………………

102.9
102.7
103.1
102.4
102.0
102.6

103.6
103.1
103.8
103.0
102.5
103.3

104.7
104.7
104.7
103.8
102.7
104.5

105.4
105.4
105.3
104.8
103.9
105.3

106.6
106.4
106.7
105.4
104.3
106.1

107.1
106.7
107.4
106.2
105.5
106.8

108.2
108.2
108.3
106.7
105.2
107.8

109.0
109.0
109.0
107.7
106.6
108.5

110.1
109.8
110.3
108.1
106.3
109.3

1.0
.7
1.2
.4
-.3
.7

3.3
3.2
3.4
2.6
1.9
3.0

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance…………
Construction and extraction………………………………
Installation, maintenance, and repair……………………
Production, transportation, and material moving……………
Production……………………………………………………
Transportation and material moving………………………
Service occupations……………………………………………

102.7
102.9
102.6
101.9
101.8
102.1
102.2

103.4
103.7
103.1
102.5
102.3
102.7
103.2

104.3
104.6
103.8
103.2
103.2
103.3
104.6

105.1
105.7
104.4
103.9
103.6
104.2
105.3

106.3
106.6
105.8
104.7
104.3
105.1
106.5

107.1
107.7
106.4
105.1
104.7
105.5
107.3

108.1
109.0
107.0
106.1
105.7
106.6
108.0

109.0
109.9
107.8
106.9
106.5
107.3
108.7

109.9
110.7
108.8
107.7
107.2
108.2
109.9

.8
.7
.9
.7
.7
.8
1.1

3.4
3.8
2.8
2.9
2.8
2.9
3.2

Workers by industry
Goods-producing………………………………………………
Manufacturing…………………………………………………
Service-providing………………………………………………
Education and health services……………………………
Health care and social assistance………………………
Hospitals…………………………………………………
Nursing and residential care facilities………………
Education services………………………………………
Elementary and secondary schools…………………

102.3
101.9
102.7
103.1
103.2
102.9
102.2
103.0
102.9

102.9
102.3
103.3
103.8
104.1
103.8
103.3
103.5
103.4

103.9
103.3
104.3
104.4
105.1
104.8
104.1
103.7
103.6

104.7
103.9
105.1
104.9
105.9
105.6
104.7
104.0
103.8

105.4
104.5
106.2
106.6
107.1
106.7
105.8
106.2
106.0

106.0
104.9
106.8
107.4
107.9
107.4
106.4
106.9
106.6

107.1
105.9
107.7
108.0
108.9
108.4
107.4
107.3
107.0

108.0
106.7
108.5
108.7
109.6
109.4
108.1
107.9
107.5

108.6
107.4
109.4
110.2
110.4
110.5
109.1
110.0
109.9

.6
.7
.8
1.4
.7
1.0
.9
1.9
2.2

3.0
2.8
3.0
3.4
3.1
3.6
3.1
3.6
3.7

Public administration ……………………………………… 102.0

103.5

104.5

105.2

106.4

107.4

108.2

108.6

109.9

1.2

3.3

102.5

103.2

104.3

105.1

106.0

106.6

107.6

108.4

109.1

.6

2.9

Workers by occupational group
Management, professional, and related………………………
Management, business, and financial……………………
Professional and related……………………………………
Sales and office…………………………………………………
Sales and related……………………………………………
Office and administrative support…………………………
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance…………
Construction and extraction…………………………………
Installation, maintenance, and repair………………………
Production, transportation, and material moving……………
Production……………………………………………………
Transportation and material moving………………………
Service occupations……………………………………………

103.0
102.8
103.1
102.4
102.0
102.6
102.8
103.0
102.6
101.8
101.7
102.0
102.0

103.6
103.1
104.0
103.0
102.6
103.3
103.4
103.7
103.0
102.4
102.2
102.6
102.9

104.9
104.7
105.1
103.8
102.8
104.5
104.2
104.7
103.7
103.1
103.1
103.2
104.6

105.8
105.5
106.0
104.8
104.0
105.4
105.1
105.8
104.2
103.8
103.6
104.1
105.3

106.7
106.3
107.0
105.3
104.4
106.0
106.2
106.7
105.6
104.5
104.2
105.0
106.5

107.2
106.6
107.6
106.2
105.5
106.7
107.1
107.8
106.1
105.0
104.6
105.4
107.1

108.5
108.2
108.7
106.7
105.3
107.7
108.1
109.2
106.8
106.0
105.6
106.5
107.9

109.3
109.0
109.5
107.7
106.6
108.5
109.0
110.1
107.6
106.8
106.4
107.4
108.8

110.1
109.7
110.4
108.0
106.4
109.2
109.8
110.8
108.5
107.5
107.2
108.0
109.7

.7
.6
.8
.3
-.2
.6
.7
.6
.8
.7
.8
.6
.8

3.2
3.2
3.2
2.6
1.9
3.0
3.4
3.8
2.7
2.9
2.9
2.9
3.0

Workers by industry and occupational group
Goods-producing industries……………………………………
Management, professional, and related……………………
Sales and office………………………………………………
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance………
Production, transportation, and material moving………..

102.3
102.4
102.2
102.7
101.9

102.9
102.8
103.1
103.4
102.4

103.9
104.4
103.4
104.4
103.2

104.7
105.3
104.1
105.6
103.7

105.4
105.9
104.7
106.5
104.4

106.0
106.0
105.5
107.6
104.8

107.1
107.7
105.8
108.8
105.7

108.0
108.4
107.2
109.6
106.6

108.6
108.7
107.6
110.5
107.3

.6
.3
.4
.8
.7

3.0
2.6
2.8
3.8
2.8

Construction…………………………………………………
Manufacturing…………………………………………………
Management, professional, and related…………………
Sales and office……………………………………………
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance……
Production, transportation, and material moving……..

102.9
101.9
102.2
101.1
102.3
101.8

103.7
102.3
102.3
102.0
103.0
102.3

104.9
103.3
103.8
102.4
103.8
103.1

106.0
103.9
104.6
103.2
104.3
103.6

107.0
104.5
105.0
103.9
105.0
104.2

107.8
104.9
105.3
104.7
105.9
104.5

109.0
105.9
106.7
105.5
106.8
105.4

110.0
106.7
107.2
106.9
107.1
106.3

110.6
107.4
107.6
107.6
108.1
107.1

.5
.7
.4
.7
.9
.8

3.4
2.8
2.5
3.6
3.0
2.8

Service-providing industries…………………………………
Management, professional, and related……………………
Sales and office………………………………………………
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance………
Production, transportation, and material moving………..
Service occupations…………………………………………

102.6
103.1
102.4
103.0
101.7
102.0

103.3
103.7
102.9
103.4
102.4
102.9

104.4
105.0
103.8
103.9
103.0
104.6

105.3
105.9
104.9
104.3
104.0
105.3

106.1
106.8
105.4
105.7
104.6
106.6

106.8
107.4
106.3
106.3
105.2
107.2

107.7
108.6
106.8
106.9
106.3
108.0

108.6
109.4
107.7
108.0
107.1
108.8

109.3
110.3
108.0
108.6
107.8
109.7

.6
.8
.3
.6
.7
.8

3.0
3.3
2.5
2.7
3.1
2.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities…………………………

102.1

102.7

103.2

104.3

104.6

105.5

105.9

107.2

107.5

.3

2.8

Workers by occupational group

2

Private industry workers………………………………………

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 85

Current Labor Statistics: Compensation & Industrial Relations

31. Continued—Employment Cost Index, wages and salaries, by occupation and industry group
[December 2005 = 100]
2006
Series

Sept.

2007

Dec.

Mar.

June

2008

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Percent change
Sept.

3 months
ended

12 months
ended

Sept. 2008
Wholesale trade……………………………………………
Retail trade…………………………………………………
Transportation and warehousing………………………
Utilities………………………………………………………
Information…………………………………………………
Financial activities…………………………………………
Finance and insurance…………………………………
Real estate and rental and leasing……………………
Professional and business services………………………
Education and health services……………………………
Education services………………………………………
Health care and social assistance……………………
Hospitals………………………………………………
Leisure and hospitality……………………………………
Accommodation and food services……………………
Other services, except public administration……………

102.7
101.9
101.4
103.0
102.6
102.5
102.9
100.8
103.0
103.0
103.1
103.0
102.9
102.3
102.2
103.4

103.0
102.8
101.9
103.5
102.4
102.8
103.2
101.4
103.5
104.0
104.1
103.9
103.7
103.7
103.8
103.8

103.8
103.1
102.5
104.3
103.8
104.7
105.4
101.6
104.8
104.8
104.2
104.9
104.6
105.7
106.0
105.7

104.8
104.2
103.7
105.5
104.9
104.9
105.5
102.4
105.9
105.6
104.6
105.8
105.4
106.4
106.5
106.1

104.0
105.1
104.1
106.1
105.2
106.0
106.5
103.6
106.7
106.9
106.4
107.0
106.5
108.1
108.4
107.3

105.2
106.1
104.2
106.8
105.3
105.9
106.6
103.1
107.5
107.7
107.4
107.8
107.2
108.8
109.0
107.9

105.2
106.4
105.0
108.0
105.3
107.2
107.9
104.5
109.1
108.6
107.9
108.7
108.2
109.7
110.0
109.2

107.2
107.6
106.0
109.3
106.3
107.7
108.4
104.7
110.0
109.2
108.6
109.4
109.2
109.9
110.4
109.9

106.8
108.1
106.7
109.3
107.3
107.7
108.2
105.3
111.0
110.2
110.8
110.1
110.3
111.4
111.9
110.4

-0.4
.5
.7
.0
.9
.0
-.2
.6
.9
.9
2.0
.6
1.0
1.4
1.4
.5

2.7
2.9
2.5
3.0
2.0
1.6
1.6
1.6
4.0
3.1
4.1
2.9
3.6
3.1
3.2
2.9

102.8

103.5

104.1

104.6

106.4

107.1

107.7

108.2

110.1

1.8

3.5

Workers by occupational group
Management, professional, and related………………………
Professional and related……………………………………
Sales and office…………………………………………………
Office and administrative support…………………………
Service occupations……………………………………………

102.9
103.0
102.6
102.7
102.4

103.5
103.6
103.2
103.4
103.9

104.0
103.9
104.5
104.7
104.5

104.3
104.2
104.8
105.0
105.2

106.3
106.3
106.3
106.5
106.5

107.0
107.0
107.0
107.3
107.7

107.6
107.5
107.4
107.8
108.3

108.2
108.1
107.9
108.3
108.6

110.1
110.1
109.3
109.7
110.4

1.8
1.9
1.3
1.3
1.7

3.6
3.6
2.8
3.0
3.7

Workers by industry
Education and health services………………………………
Education services………………………………………
Schools…………………………………………………
Elementary and secondary schools………………
Health care and social assistance………………………
Hospitals…………………………………………………

103.1
103.0
103.0
103.0
104.8
103.1

103.6
103.4
103.4
103.4
105.5
104.4

104.0
103.7
103.6
103.6
106.6
105.7

104.2
103.9
103.9
103.8
107.2
106.5

106.3
106.1
106.1
106.0
108.2
107.6

107.1
106.8
106.8
106.6
109.2
108.6

107.5
107.2
107.2
106.9
110.1
109.8

108.1
107.7
107.7
107.5
111.0
110.3

110.2
109.9
109.9
109.8
112.8
111.4

1.9
2.0
2.0
2.1
1.6
1.0

3.7
3.6
3.6
3.6
4.3
3.5

102.0

103.5

104.5

105.2

106.4

107.4

108.2

108.6

109.9

1.2

3.3

State and local government workers…………………………

2

Public administration ………………………………………
1

Consists of private industry workers (excluding farm and household workers) and
State and local government (excluding Federal Government) workers.
2
Consists of legislative, judicial, administrative, and regulatory activities.
NOTE: The Employment Cost Index data reflect the conversion to the 2002 North

86

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

American Classification System (NAICS) and the 2000 Standard Occupational
Classification (SOC) system. The NAICS and SOC data shown prior to 2006 are for
informational purposes only. Series based on NAICS and SOC became the official
BLS estimates starting in March 2006.

32. Employment Cost Index, benefits, by occupation and industry group
[December 2005 = 100]
2006
Series

Sept.

2007

Dec.

Mar.

June

2008

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Percent change
Sept.

3 months
ended

12 months
ended

Sept. 2008
Civilian workers………………………………………………….

102.8

103.6

104.0

105.1

106.1

106.8

107.6

108.1

108.9

0.7

2.6

Private industry workers………………………………………… 102.5

103.1

103.2

104.3

105.0

105.6

106.5

107.0

107.5

.5

2.4

Workers by occupational group
Management, professional, and related………………………
Sales and office…………………………………………………
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance…………
Production, transportation, and material moving……………

102.8
102.0
103.5
101.6

103.4
102.9
104.0
102.0

103.8
103.4
103.4
101.2

104.9
104.3
104.8
102.4

105.6
105.2
105.3
102.7

106.0
106.0
105.9
103.7

107.3
106.5
106.5
104.4

107.9
107.0
107.0
104.5

108.5
107.6
107.5
104.8

.6
.6
.5
.3

2.7
2.3
2.1
2.0

Service occupations……………………………………………

103.0

103.6

104.2

105.1

106.0

106.7

107.6

108.5

108.7

.2

2.5

Goods-producing………………………………………………
101.3
Manufacturing………………………………………………… 100.5
Service-providing……………………………………………… 103.0

101.7
100.8
103.7

100.9
99.6
104.1

102.2
101.0
105.2

102.4
100.7
106.0

103.2
101.7
106.6

104.0
102.3
107.6

104.4
102.2
108.1

104.6
102.3
108.7

.2
.1
.6

2.1
1.6
2.5

105.2

107.0

108.0

110.3

111.0

111.4

111.8

113.9

1.9

3.3

Workers by industry

State and local government workers…………………………

104.1

NOTE: The Employment Cost Index data reflect the conversion to
the 2002 North American Classification System (NAICS) and the 2000
Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system. The NAICS and
SOC data shown prior

to 2006 are for informational purposes only. Series based on NAICS and SOC became the official
BLS estimates starting in March 2006.

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 87

Current Labor Statistics: Compensation & Industrial Relations

33. Employment Cost Index, private industry workers by bargaining status and region
[December 2005 = 100]
2006
Series

Sept.

2007

Dec.

Mar.

June

2008

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Percent change
Sept.

3 months
ended

12 months
ended

Sept. 2008
COMPENSATION
Workers by bargaining status1
Union…………………………………………………………………
Goods-producing…………………………………………………
Manufacturing…………………………………………………
Service-providing…………………………………………………

102.4
101.8
100.5
102.9

103.0
102.2
100.8
103.6

102.7
101.5
99.2
103.7

103.9
102.8
100.0
104.7

104.4
103.1
100.0
105.4

105.1
104.0
101.0
106.0

105.9
104.6
101.4
107.0

106.7
105.6
101.7
107.5

107.4
106.2
102.1
108.3

0.7
.6
.4
.7

2.9
3.0
2.1
2.8

Nonunion……………………………………………………………
Goods-producing…………………………………………………
Manufacturing…………………………………………………
Service-providing…………………………………………………

102.6
102.0
101.7
102.7

103.2
102.5
102.1
103.4

104.2
103.3
102.8
104.4

105.1
104.2
103.7
105.3

105.9
104.8
104.1
106.2

106.5
105.4
104.6
106.8

107.5
106.5
105.6
107.7

108.3
107.1
106.2
108.6

108.9
107.6
106.6
109.2

.6
.5
.4
.6

2.8
2.7
2.4
2.8

Workers by region1
Northeast……………………………………………………………
South…………………………………………………………………
Midwest………………………………………………………………
West…………………………………………………………………

102.5
102.8
102.3
102.5

103.3
103.5
102.8
103.0

104.0
104.3
103.3
104.2

105.1
105.3
104.2
104.9

106.2
106.1
104.6
105.7

106.8
106.7
105.3
106.5

107.4
107.8
106.0
107.8

108.1
108.5
107.0
108.4

108.7
109.1
107.4
109.3

.6
.6
.4
.8

2.4
2.8
2.7
3.4

Workers by bargaining status1
Union…………………………………………………………………
Goods-producing…………………………………………………
Manufacturing…………………………………………………
Service-providing…………………………………………………

101.7
101.9
101.4
101.6

102.3
102.3
101.7
102.2

102.8
102.7
102.0
102.9

103.7
103.6
102.5
103.8

104.4
104.3
102.9
104.6

104.7
104.3
102.6
104.9

105.5
105.2
103.4
105.8

106.7
106.4
104.4
106.9

107.4
107.1
104.9
107.7

.7
.7
.5
.7

2.9
2.7
1.9
3.0

Nonunion……………………………………………………………
Goods-producing…………………………………………………
Manufacturing…………………………………………………
Service-providing…………………………………………………

102.7
102.4
102.0
102.7

103.3
103.0
102.5
103.4

104.5
104.2
103.6
104.6

105.3
105.0
104.2
105.4

106.2
105.8
104.9
106.3

106.9
106.4
105.5
107.0

107.9
107.7
106.6
107.9

108.7
108.4
107.3
108.8

109.4
109.0
108.0
109.4

.6
.6
.7
.6

3.0
3.0
3.0
2.9

Workers by region1
Northeast……………………………………………………………
South…………………………………………………………………
Midwest………………………………………………………………
West…………………………………………………………………

102.5
102.9
102.0
102.7

103.1
103.6
102.6
103.2

104.0
104.6
103.6
104.8

105.0
105.6
104.4
105.4

106.1
106.5
105.0
106.2

106.6
107.0
105.6
107.0

107.5
108.1
106.3
108.3

108.2
109.1
107.5
108.9

108.7
109.8
107.9
109.9

.5
.6
.4
.9

2.5
3.1
2.8
3.5

WAGES AND SALARIES

1
The indexes are calculated differently from those for the
occupation and industry groups. For a detailed description of
the index calculation, see the Monthly Labor Review Technical
Note, "Estimation procedures for the Employment Cost Index,"
May 1982.

88

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

NOTE: The Employment Cost Index data reflect the conversion to the 2002 North American
Classification System (NAICS) and the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system. The
NAICS and SOC data shown prior to 2006 are for informational purposes only. Series based on NAICS
and SOC became the official BLS estimates starting in March 2006.

34. National Compensation Survey: Retirement benefits in private industry by
access, participation, and selected series, 2003–2007
Series

Year
2003

2004

2005

2007 1

2006

All retirement
Percentage of workers with access
All workers………………………………………………………

57

59

60

60

White-collar occupations 2 ……………………………………

67

69

70

69

-

-

-

-

-

76
64

Management, professional, and related ……………….

61

Sales and office ……………………………………………

-

-

-

-

Blue-collar occupations 2………………………………………

59

59

60

62

-

-

-

-

-

61

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance...…
Production, transportation, and material moving…...…
Service occupations……………………………………………

-

-

-

-

65

28

31

32

34

36

Full-time…………………………………………………………

67

68

69

69

70

Part-time………………………………………………………

24

27

27

29

31

Union……………………………………………………………

86

84

88

84

84

Non-union………………………………………………………

54

56

56

57

58

Average wage less than $15 per hour……...………………

45

46

46

47

47

Average wage $15 per hour or higher……...………………

76

77

78

77

76

Goods-producing industries…………………………………

70

70

71

73

70

Service-providing industries…………………………………

53

55

56

56

58

Establishments with 1-99 workers……………………………

42

44

44

44

45

Establishments with 100 or more workers…………………

75

77

78

78

78

All workers………………………………………………………

49

50

50

51

51

White-collar occupations 2 ……………………………………

59

61

61

60

-

-

-

-

-

69
54

Percentage of workers participating

Management, professional, and related ……………….
Sales and office ……………………………………………

-

-

-

-

Blue-collar occupations 2………………………………………

50

50

51

52

-

-

-

-

-

51

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance…...
Production, transportation, and material moving…...…
Service occupations……………………………………………

-

-

-

-

54

21

22

22

24

25

Full-time…………………………………………………………

58

60

60

60

60

Part-time………………………………………………………

18

20

19

21

23

Union……………………………………………………………

83

81

85

80

81

Non-union………………………………………………………

45

47

46

47

47

Average wage less than $15 per hour……...………………

35

36

35

36

36

Average wage $15 per hour or higher……...………………

70

71

71

70

69

Goods-producing industries…………………………………

63

63

64

64

61

Service-providing industries…………………………………

45

47

47

47

48

Establishments with 1-99 workers……………………………

35

37

37

37

37

Establishments with 100 or more workers…………………

65

67

67

67

66

-

-

85

85

84

20

21

22

21

21

23

24

25

23

-

-

-

-

-

29
19

3

Take-up rate (all workers) ……………………………………
Defined Benefit
Percentage of workers with access
All workers………………………………………………………
2
White-collar occupations ……………………………………

Management, professional, and related ……………….
Sales and office ……………………………………………
2
Blue-collar occupations ………………………………………

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance...…

-

-

-

-

24

26

26

25

-

-

-

-

-

26
26

Production, transportation, and material moving…...…

-

-

-

-

Service occupations……………………………………………

8

6

7

8

8

Full-time…………………………………………………………

24

25

25

24

24

Part-time………………………………………………………

8

9

10

9

10

Union……………………………………………………………

74

70

73

70

69

Non-union………………………………………………………

15

16

16

15

15

Average wage less than $15 per hour……...………………

12

11

12

11

11

Average wage $15 per hour or higher……...………………

34

35

35

34

33

Goods-producing industries…………………………………

31

32

33

32

29

Service-providing industries…………………………………

17

18

19

18

19

9

9

10

9

9

34

35

37

35

34

Establishments with 1-99 workers……………………………
Establishments with 100 or more workers…………………
See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 89

Current Labor Statistics: Compensation & Industrial Relations

34. Continued—National Compensation Survey: Retirement benefits in private industry
by access, participation, and selected series, 2003–2007
Series

Year
2003

2004

2005

2007

2006

1

Percentage of workers participating
All workers………………………………………………………
2
White-collar occupations ……………………………………
Management, professional, and related ……………….
Sales and office ……………………………………………
Blue-collar occupations 2……………………………………
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance...…
Production, transportation, and material moving…...…
Service occupations…………………………………………
Full-time………………………………………………………
Part-time………………………………………………………
Union……………………………………………………………
Non-union………………………………………………………
Average wage less than $15 per hour……...………………

20
22
24
7
24
8
72
15
11

21
24
25
6
24
9
69
15
11

21
24
26
7
25
9
72
15
11

20
22
25
7
23
8
68
14
10

20
28
17
25
25
7
23
9
67
15
10

Average wage $15 per hour or higher……...………………

33

35

34

33

32

Goods-producing industries…………………………………

31

31

32

31

28

Service-providing industries…………………………………

16

18

18

17

18

Establishments with 1-99 workers…………………………

8

9

9

9

9

Establishments with 100 or more workers…………………

33

34

36

33

32

Take-up rate (all workers) 3……………………………………

-

-

97

96

95

All workers………………………………………………………

51

53

53

54

55

White-collar occupations 2 ……………………………………

62

64

64

65

-

-

-

-

-

71
60

Defined Contribution
Percentage of workers with access

Management, professional, and related ……………….

-

-

-

-

Blue-collar occupations 2……………………………………

Sales and office ……………………………………………

49

49

50

53

-

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance...…

-

-

-

-

51
56

Production, transportation, and material moving…...…

-

-

-

-

Service occupations…………………………………………

23

27

28

30

32

Full-time………………………………………………………

60

62

62

63

64

Part-time………………………………………………………

21

23

23

25

27

Union……………………………………………………………

45

48

49

50

49

Non-union………………………………………………………

51

53

54

55

56

Average wage less than $15 per hour……...………………

40

41

41

43

44

Average wage $15 per hour or higher……...………………

67

68

69

69

69

Goods-producing industries…………………………………

60

60

61

63

62

Service-providing industries…………………………………

48

50

51

52

53

Establishments with 1-99 workers…………………………

38

40

40

41

42

Establishments with 100 or more workers…………………

65

68

69

70

70

All workers………………………………………………………

40

42

42

43

43

White-collar occupations 2 ……………………………………

51

53

53

53

-

-

-

-

-

60
47

Percentage of workers participating

Management, professional, and related ……………….

-

-

-

-

Blue-collar occupations 2……………………………………

Sales and office ……………………………………………

38

38

38

40

-

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance...…

-

-

-

-

40
41

Production, transportation, and material moving…...…

-

-

-

-

Service occupations…………………………………………

16

18

18

20

20

Full-time………………………………………………………

48

50

50

51

50

Part-time………………………………………………………

14

14

14

16

18

Union……………………………………………………………

39

42

43

44

41

Non-union………………………………………………………

40

42

41

43

43

Average wage less than $15 per hour……...………………

29

30

29

31

30

Average wage $15 per hour or higher……...………………

57

59

59

58

57

Goods-producing industries…………………………………

49

49

50

51

49

Service-providing industries…………………………………

37

40

39

40

41

Establishments with 1-99 workers…………………………

31

32

32

33

33

Establishments with 100 or more workers…………………

51

53

53

54

53

-

-

78

79

77

3

Take-up rate (all workers) ……………………………………
See footnotes at end of table.

90

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

34. Continued—National Compensation Survey: Retirement benefits in private industry
by access, participation, and selected series, 2003–2007
Series

Year
2003

2004

2005

2007 1

2006

Employee Contribution Requirement
Employee contribution required…………………………
Employee contribution not required………………………
Not determinable……………………………………………

-

-

61
31
8

61
33
6

65
35
0

Percent of establishments
Offering retirement plans……………………………………
Offering defined benefit plans………………………………
Offering defined contribution plans……………………….

47
10
45

48
10
46

51
11
48

48
10
47

46
10
44

1

The 2002 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) replaced the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)
System. Estimates for goods-producing and service-providing (formerly service-producing) industries are considered comparable.
Also introduced was the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) to replace the 1990 Census of Population system.
Only service occupations are considered comparable.

2

The white-collar and blue-collar occupation series were discontinued effective 2007.

3

The take-up rate is an estimate of the percentage of workers with access to a plan who participate in the plan.

Note: Where applicable, dashes indicate no employees in this category or data do not meet publication criteria.

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 91

Current Labor Statistics: Compensation & Industrial Relations

35. National Compensation Survey: Health insurance benefits in private industry
by access, particpation, and selected series, 2003-2007
Series

Year
2003

2004

2005

2007

2006

1

Medical insurance
Percentage of workers with access
All workers…………………………………………………………………………

60

69

70

71

2
White-collar occupations ………………………………………………………

65

76

77

77

-

-

-

-

-

85
71

Management, professional, and related …………………………………
Sales and office………………………………………………………………
Blue-collar occupations 2………………………………………………………
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance………………………

71

-

-

-

-

64

76

77

77

-

-

-

-

-

76

Production, transportation, and material moving…………………………

-

-

-

-

78

Service occupations……………………………………………………………

38

42

44

45

46

Full-time…………………………………………………………………………

73

84

85

85

85

Part-time…………………………………………………………………………

17

20

22

22

24

Union………………………………………………………………………………

67

89

92

89

88

Non-union…………………………………………………………………………

59

67

68

68

69

Average wage less than $15 per hour…………………………………………

51

57

58

57

57

Average wage $15 per hour or higher…………………………………………

74

86

87

88

87

Goods-producing industries……………………………………………………

68

83

85

86

85

Service-providing industries……………………………………………………

57

65

66

66

67

Establishments with 1-99 workers………………………………………………

49

58

59

59

59

Establishments with 100 or more workers……………………………………

72

82

84

84

84

All workers…………………………………………………………………………

45

53

53

52

52

White-collar occupations 2 ………………………………………………………

50

59

58

57

-

-

-

-

-

67
48

Percentage of workers participating

Management, professional, and related …………………………………
Sales and office………………………………………………………………
Blue-collar occupations 2………………………………………………………
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance………………………

-

-

-

-

51

60

61

60

-

-

-

-

-

61

Production, transportation, and material moving…………………………

-

-

-

-

60

Service occupations……………………………………………………………

22

24

27

27

28

Full-time…………………………………………………………………………

56

66

66

64

64

Part-time…………………………………………………………………………

9

11

12

13

12

Union………………………………………………………………………………

60

81

83

80

78

Non-union…………………………………………………………………………

44

50

49

49

49

Average wage less than $15 per hour…………………………………………

35

40

39

38

37

Average wage $15 per hour or higher…………………………………………

61

71

72

71

70

Goods-producing industries……………………………………………………

57

69

70

70

68

Service-providing industries……………………………………………………

42

48

48

47

47

Establishments with 1-99 workers………………………………………………

36

43

43

43

42

Establishments with 100 or more workers……………………………………

55

64

65

63

62

Take-up rate (all workers) 3………………………………………………………

-

-

75

74

73

All workers…………………………………………………………………………

40

46

46

46

46

2
White-collar occupations ………………………………………………………

47

53

54

53

-

-

-

-

-

62
47

Dental
Percentage of workers with access

Management, professional, and related …………………………………
Sales and office………………………………………………………………
2
Blue-collar occupations ………………………………………………………

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance………………………

-

-

-

47

47

46

-

-

-

-

-

43

Production, transportation, and material moving…………………………

-

-

-

-

49

Service occupations……………………………………………………………

22

25

25

27

28

Full-time…………………………………………………………………………

49

56

56

55

56

Part-time…………………………………………………………………………

9

13

14

15

16

Union………………………………………………………………………………

57

73

73

69

68

Non-union…………………………………………………………………………

38

43

43

43

44

Average wage less than $15 per hour…………………………………………

30

34

34

34

34

Average wage $15 per hour or higher…………………………………………

55

63

62

62

61

Goods-producing industries……………………………………………………

48

56

56

56

54

Service-providing industries……………………………………………………

37

43

43

43

44

Establishments with 1-99 workers………………………………………………

27

31

31

31

30

Establishments with 100 or more workers……………………………………

55

64

65

64

64

See footnotes at end of table.

92

40

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

35. Continued—National Compensation Survey: Health insurance benefits in
private industry by access, particpation, and selected series, 2003-2007
Series

Year
2003

2004

2005

2007

2006

1

Percentage of workers participating
All workers……………………………………………………………………………

32

37

36

36

White-collar occupations 2 ………………………………………………………

37

43

42

41

-

Management, professional, and related ……………………………………

-

-

-

-

51
33

Sales and office…………………………………………………………………
Blue-collar occupations 2…………………………………………………………
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance…………………………

36

-

-

-

-

33

40

39

38

-

-

-

-

-

36

Production, transportation, and material moving……………………………

-

-

-

-

38

Service occupations………………………………………………………………

15

16

17

18

20

Full-time……………………………………………………………………………

40

46

45

44

44

Part-time……………………………………………………………………………

6

8

9

10

9

Union………………………………………………………………………………

51

68

67

63

62

Non-union…………………………………………………………………………

30

33

33

33

33

Average wage less than $15 per hour…………………………………………

22

26

24

23

23

Average wage $15 per hour or higher…………………………………………

47

53

52

52

51

Goods-producing industries………………………………………………………

42

49

49

49

45

Service-providing industries………………………………………………………

29

33

33

32

33

Establishments with 1-99 workers………………………………………………

21

24

24

24

24

Establishments with 100 or more workers………………………………………

44

52

51

50

49

Take-up rate (all workers) 3…………………………………………………………

-

-

78

78

77

Percentage of workers with access………………………………………………

25

29

29

29

29

Percentage of workers participating………………………………………………

19

22

22

22

22

Percentage of workers with access………………………………………………

-

-

64

67

68

Percentage of workers participating………………………………………………

-

-

48

49

49

Percent of estalishments offering healthcare benefits …………………......…

58

61

63

62

60

Vision care

Outpatient Prescription drug coverage

Percentage of medical premium paid by
Employer and Employee
Single coverage
Employer share……………………………………………………………………

82

82

82

82

81

Employee share…………………………………………………………………

18

18

18

18

19

Family coverage
Employer share……………………………………………………………………

70

69

71

70

71

Employee share…………………………………………………………………

30

31

29

30

29

1

The 2002 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) replaced the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)
System. Estimates for goods-producing and service-providing (formerly service-producing) industries are considered comparable.
Also introduced was the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) to replace the 1990 Census of Population system.
Only service occupations are considered comparable.

2

The white-collar and blue-collar occupation series were discontinued effective 2007.

3

The take-up rate is an estimate of the percentage of workers with access to a plan who participate in the plan.

Note: Where applicable, dashes indicate no employees in this category or data do not meet publication criteria.

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 93

Current Labor Statistics: Compensation & Industrial Relations

36. National Compensation Survey: Percent of workers in private industry
with access to selected benefits, 2003-2007
Year

Benefit

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Life insurance……………………………………………………

50

51

52

52

58

Short-term disabilty insurance…………………………………

39

39

40

39

39

Long-term disability insurance…………………………………

30

30

30

30

31

Long-term care insurance………………………………………

11

11

11

12

12

Flexible work place………………………………………………

4

4

4

4

5

Flexible benefits………………………………………………

-

-

17

17

17

Dependent care reimbursement account…………..………

-

-

29

30

31

Healthcare reimbursement account……………………...…

-

-

31

32

33

Health Savings Account………………………………...………

-

-

5

6

8

Employee assistance program……………………….…………

-

-

40

40

42

Section 125 cafeteria benefits

Paid leave
Holidays…………………………………………...……………

79

77

77

76

77

Vacations……………………………………………..………

79

77

77

77

77

Sick leave………………………………………..……………

-

59

58

57

57

Personal leave…………………………………………..……

-

-

36

37

38

Paid family leave…………………………………………….…

-

-

7

8

8

Unpaid family leave………………………………………..…

-

-

81

82

83

Employer assistance for child care…………………….………

18

14

14

15

15

Nonproduction bonuses………………………...………………

49

47

47

46

47

Family leave

Note: Where applicable, dashes indicate no employees in this category or data do not
meet publication criteria.

37. Work stoppages involving 1,000 workers or more
Annual average

Measure

2006

Number of stoppages:
Beginning in period.............................
In effect during period…......................

2007

2007
Nov.

2008

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Nov. p

Oct.

20
23

21
23

1
2

2
4

0
1

2
3

2
4

1
2

2
4

2
2

1
1

2
2

2
2

2
3

0
0

Workers involved:
Beginning in period (in thousands)…..
In effect during period (in thousands)…

70.1
191.0

189.2
220.9

10.5
14.2

6.5
20.7

0.0
10.5

6.2
16.7

5.7
11.9

2.3
6.0

3.4
9.4

4.2
4.2

8.5
8.5

7.0
7.0

28.2
28.2

8.7
35.7

0
0

Days idle:
Number (in thousands)…....................

2687.5

1264.8

284.0

254.8

220.5

148.8

140.9

104.4

125.0

12.3

42.5

102.4

469.8

521.7

0

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.02

0.02

0

1

Percent of estimated working time …
1

Agricultural and government employees are included in the total employed
and total working time; private household, forestry, and fishery employees are
excluded. An explanation of the measurement of idleness as a percentage of
the total time

94

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

worked is found in "Total economy measures of strike idleness,"
October 1968, pp. 54–56.
NOTE:

p = preliminary.

Monthly Labor Review ,

38. Consumer Price Indexes for All Urban Consumers and for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers:
U.S. city average, by expenditure category and commodity or service group
[1982–84 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
Annual average

Series

2006

CONSUMER PRICE INDEX
FOR ALL URBAN CONSUMERS
All items...........................................................................
All items (1967 = 100)......................................................
Food and beverages......................................................
Food..................….........................................................
Food at home…...........................................................
Cereals and bakery products….................................
Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs…................................

201.6
603.9
195.7
195.2
193.1
212.8
186.6

1
Dairy and related products ……….………………………… 181.4
Fruits and vegetables…............................................. 252.9
Nonalcoholic beverages and beverage

materials…..............................................................
Other foods at home…...............................................
Sugar and sweets….................................................
Fats and oils….........................................................
Other foods…...........................................................
Other miscellaneous foods

1,2

……….…………………

2008

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

207.342
621.106
203.300
202.916
201.245
222.107
195.616

210.177
629.598
206.563
206.277
204.745
225.668
198.616

210.036
629.174
206.936
206.704
205.208
226.461
198.755

211.080
632.301
208.837
208.618
207.983
228.661
200.035

211.693
634.139
209.462
209.166
208.329
233.389
199.688

213.528
639.636
209.692
209.385
208.203
236.261
199.775

214.823
643.515
211.365
211.102
210.851
240.034
200.770

216.632
648.933
212.251
212.054
211.863
244.192
200.960

218.815
655.474
213.383
213.243
213.171
245.758
202.914

219.964
658.915
215.326
215.299
215.785
250.321
205.075

219.086
656.284
216.419
216.422
217.259
250.080
207.488

218.783
655.376
217.672
217.696
218.629
250.924
209.937

216.573
648.758
218.705
218.738
219.660
252.832
210.706

212.425
636.332
218.752
218.749
219.086
252.723
209.602

194.770 205.959 205.299 206.905 208.166 206.171 207.680 207.778 209.117 213.981 214.748 213.533 212.733 213.102
262.628 268.407 272.482 279.072 272.129 268.446 272.746 276.481 277.957 280.209 283.296 285.986 285.484 283.677

147.4
169.6
171.5
168.0
185.0

153.432
173.275
176.772
172.921
188.244

113.9

115.105 115.396 115.267 115.162 118.182 117.321 118.500 118.744 118.453 120.510 121.033 121.144 122.699 123.543

1

Food away from home ……….………………………………… 199.4
1,2
Other food away from home ……….…………………… 136.6
Alcoholic beverages….................................................. 200.7
Housing.......................................................................... 203.2
Shelter...............…....................................................... 232.1
Rent of primary residence…...................................... 225.1
Lodging away from home……………………………… 136.0
3

2007

2007

206.659
144.068
207.026
209.586
240.611
234.679

154.299
173.963
178.600
175.327
188.340
209.854
146.628
209.018
210.745
242.207
238.169

153.648
174.057
178.631
176.068
188.325
210.233
145.814
208.704
210.933
242.372
239.102

157.863
176.085
180.193
181.813
190.037
211.070
146.649
210.425
212.244
243.871
239.850

157.805
177.863
180.588
184.878
192.064
211.878
148.385
212.044
213.026
244.786
240.325

158.089
178.238
182.214
182.808
192.597
212.537
148.564
212.407
214.389
245.995
240.874

159.730
181.806
184.878
190.640
195.993
213.083
148.667
213.503
214.890
246.004
241.474

158.336
182.680
185.097
193.364
196.787
213.967
149.666
213.532
215.809
246.069
241.803

158.320
183.804
185.558
196.150
197.888
215.015
149.873
213.912
217.941
247.083
242.640

159.346
185.725
187.067
201.205
199.566
216.376
151.120
214.394
219.610
248.075
243.367

160.055
186.991
187.813
203.059
200.961
217.063
151.133
215.094
219.148
247.985
244.181

161.499
187.944
189.929
206.274
201.388
218.225
152.040
216.055
218.184
247.737
244.926

163.727
189.348
190.515
208.300
202.993
219.290
153.544
216.972
217.383
247.844
245.855

163.015
189.301
191.756
205.806
203.058
220.043
153.978
217.492
216.467
247.463
246.681

142.813 136.703 133.545 140.176 144.092 149.434 146.378 145.634 148.621 153.032 149.146 143.597 141.140 133.555

238.2

246.235 248.876 249.532 250.106 250.481 250.966 251.418 251.576 252.170 252.504 252.957 253.493 253.902 254.669

116.5
194.7
177.1
234.9
182.1
127.0
119.5
114.1
110.7

117.004
200.632
181.744
251.453
186.262
126.875
118.998
112.368
110.296

116.997
202.161
182.725
291.845
184.753
126.252
121.204
114.807
112.166

117.003
203.006
183.516
299.296
185.155
126.066
118.257
112.026
109.418

117.435
204.796
185.107
306.937
186.475
126.515
115.795
110.691
104.367

117.622
205.795
185.994
308.269
187.376
126.753
117.839
112.917
106.340

117.701
209.221
189.693
332.139
190.105
127.423
120.881
114.994
110.645

118.422
213.302
194.121
342.811
194.379
127.332
122.113
116.653
111.221

118.411
219.881
201.212
363.872
200.999
127.598
120.752
116.479
108.722

119.092
231.412
213.762
389.423
213.375
127.625
117.019
112.011
104.312

118.764
239.039
221.742
395.706
221.805
127.884
114.357
109.669
100.049

118.562
235.650
217.455
367.794
218.656
128.013
116.376
110.180
104.211

119.944
228.450
209.501
349.164
210.950
128.584
121.168
112.720
111.774

119.916
221.199
201.176
318.667
203.503
128.789
122.243
115.067
111.833

120.232
216.285
195.599
281.869
199.435
128.554
121.262
114.239
110.588

116.5
123.5
180.9
177.0

113.948
122.374
184.682
180.778

117.339
125.005
190.677
186.839

113.779
122.258
189.984
186.134

113.861
121.148
190.839
186.978

115.750
122.377
190.520
186.571

116.037
124.407
195.189
191.067

116.358
126.212
198.608
194.574

114.582
125.537
205.262
201.133

111.555
123.568
211.787
207.257

109.218
122.421
212.806
208.038

109.558
121.982
206.739
201.779

113.494
124.907
203.861
199.153

116.158
126.442
192.709
187.976

116.010
126.788
173.644
168.527

2
New and used motor vehicles ……….…………………… 95.6
New vehicles…........................................................ 137.6
1
Used cars and trucks ……….……………………………… 140.0
Motor fuel…............................................................... 221.0
Gasoline (all types)…............................................... 219.9
Motor vehicle parts and equipment…........................ 117.3
Motor vehicle maintenance and repair…................... 215.6
Public transportation...............….................................. 226.6
Medical care................................................................... 336.2
Medical care commodities...............…......................... 285.9
Medical care services...............…................................ 350.6
Professional services…............................................. 289.3
Hospital and related services…................................. 468.1
2
Recreation ……….………………………………………….……… 110.9
1,2
Video and audio ……….……………………………………… 104.6
2
Education and communication ……….……………………… 116.8

94.303
136.254
135.747
239.070
237.959
121.583
222.963
230.002
351.054
289.999
369.302
300.792
498.922
111.443
102.949
119.577

94.562
136.250
136.616
262.282
260.943
123.487
225.672
233.758
357.041
293.201
376.250
303.780
515.359
111.842
102.719
121.409

94.754
136.664
136.943
258.132
256.790
123.928
226.120
233.408
357.661
293.610
376.940
304.784
515.677
111.705
102.691
121.506

94.834
136.827
137.203
260.523
259.338
124.282
227.732
234.334
360.459
295.355
380.135
306.529
523.313
112.083
102.986
121.762

94.581
136.279
137.248
259.242
257.845
125.225
228.731
235.724
362.155
296.130
382.196
307.928
527.971
112.365
103.171
121.766

94.318
135.727
137.225
278.739
276.497
126.325
229.765
242.929
363.000
297.308
382.872
308.726
528.968
112.731
103.548
121.832

93.973
135.175
136.787
294.291
291.910
126.049
230.528
244.164
363.184
296.951
383.292
309.227
530.144
112.874
103.477
122.073

93.705
134.669
136.325
322.124
319.787
126.824
231.730
251.600
363.396
294.896
384.505
310.917
531.022
112.987
102.988
122.348

93.598
134.516
135.980
347.418
344.981
127.824
233.162
264.681
363.616
295.194
384.685
311.317
531.606
112.991
102.306
122.828

93.650
134.397
135.840
349.731
347.357
129.118
234.788
270.002
363.963
294.777
385.361
311.926
533.558
113.277
102.203
123.445

93.260
133.404
135.405
323.822
321.511
130.327
236.125
268.487
364.477
295.003
385.990
312.396
535.501
113.786
102.546
124.653

92.480
132.399
132.916
315.078
313.535
131.048
237.121
261.318
365.036
295.461
386.579
312.527
537.728
114.032
102.706
125.505

92.071
132.264
129.733
268.537
266.382
131.917
238.227
252.323
365.746
295.791
387.440
312.914
540.853
114.169
102.193
125.686

91.618
132.359
126.869
187.189
184.235
132.947
239.048
243.385
366.613
297.317
387.992
313.328
543.183
114.078
101.831
125.758

Owners' equivalent rent of primary residence ………
1,2

Tenants' and household insurance ……….…………
Fuels and utilities…...................................................
Fuels...............…......................................................
Fuel oil and other fuels….......................................
Gas (piped) and electricity…..................................
Household furnishings and operations…...................
Apparel ..........................................................................
Men's and boys' apparel….........................................
Women's and girls' apparel…....................................
1

Infants' and toddlers' apparel ……….……………………
Footwear…................................................................
Transportation................................................................
Private transportation...............…................................

2
Education ……….………………………………………….……… 162.1
Educational books and supplies…........................... 388.9

Tuition, other school fees, and child care….............
1,2

Communication ……….………………………………………
1,2
Information and information processing
……….…
1,2
Telephone services ……….……………………………
Information and information processing
other than telephone services

1,4

……….……………

468.1
84.1

171.388 176.717 176.927 177.440 177.460 177.407 177.754 177.994 178.385 179.229 183.184 186.148 186.669 186.733
420.418 431.606 434.352 437.822 439.052 439.906 442.160 442.770 443.309 444.382 458.989 462.787 463.825 462.694
494.079 509.605 510.016 511.301 511.253 511.013 511.887 512.579 513.743 516.264 527.230 536.082 537.606 537.906
83.367 83.250 83.282 83.396 83.391 83.502 83.670 83.929 84.394 84.840 84.701 84.524 84.535 84.601

81.7
95.8

80.720
98.247

80.519
98.775

80.546
98.792

80.642
98.906

80.638
98.837

80.752
99.031

80.921
99.494

81.080 81.513 81.965 81.815 81.635 81.652 81.723
99.879 100.677 101.339 101.301 101.311 101.407 101.538

12.5

10.597

10.204

10.215

10.229

10.253

10.246

10.170

10.118

10.071

10.087

10.012

9.901

9.874

9.867

Personal computers and peripheral
1,2

120.9
321.7
519.9

108.411 100.104 100.000 100.998 100.545 100.359 98.853 97.028 95.663 94.711 92.921 90.797 89.945 88.984
333.328 336.379 337.633 339.052 340.191 341.827 343.410 344.709 345.885 346.810 346.990 348.166 349.276 349.040
554.184 561.967 566.696 572.684 575.227 574.890 576.359 581.185 589.904 596.782 597.361 597.581 599.744 599.820

1
Personal care ……….………………………………………….… 190.2
1
Personal care products ……….…………………………… 155.8
1
Personal care services ……….…………………………… 209.7

195.622 197.156 197.643 198.112 198.716 199.982 201.028 201.523 201.537 201.545 201.623 202.486 203.107 202.921
158.285 158.561 158.236 158.201 157.677 158.440 159.398 158.790 158.868 158.989 159.252 159.643 159.826 161.000
216.559 218.604 219.656 219.932 220.848 222.752 222.799 223.649 223.520 223.719 224.151 224.614 225.564 226.197

equipment ……….…………………………………
Other goods and services..............................................
Tobacco and smoking products...............…................

See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 95

Current Labor Statistics: Price Data

38. Continued—Consumer Price Indexes for All Urban Consumers and for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers
U.S. city average, by expenditure category and commodity or service group

[1982–84 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]

Annual average
2007
2006
2007
Nov. Dec.

Series
Miscellaneous personal services...............…....

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

2008
June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

313.6 324.984 328.610 329.908 332.183 333.826 335.427 337.685 339.824 340.547 340.077 341.053 343.431 343.131 340.174

Commodity and service group:
Commodities...........…............................................
Food and beverages….........................................
Commodities less food and beverages….............
Nondurables less food and beverages…............
Apparel ….........................................................
and apparel….................................................
Durables…..........................................................
Services…..............................................................
3

Rent of shelter ……….……………………………………
Transportation services…....................................
Other services…..................................................
Special indexes:
All items less food…............................................
All items less shelter…........................................
All items less medical care…...............................
Commodities less food….....................................
Nondurables less food….....................................
Nondurables less food and apparel….................
Nondurables….....................................................
3

Services less rent of shelter ……….…………………
Services less medical care services…................
Energy…..............................................................
All items less energy…........................................
All items less food and energy….......................
Commodities less food and energy…..............
Energy commodities......................................
Services less energy…....................................

164.0 167.509 171.043 170.511 171.179 171.530 173.884 175.838 178.341 180.534 181.087 179.148 179.117 175.257 167.673
195.7
145.9
176.7
119.5

203.300
147.515
182.526
118.998

206.563
151.067
190.560
121.204

206.936
150.162
188.635
118.257

208.837
150.303
188.692
115.795

209.462
150.530
189.420
117.839

209.692
153.682
196.185
120.881

211.365
155.690
200.926
122.113

212.251
158.778
207.875
120.752

213.383
161.337
213.489
117.019

215.326
161.301
213.363
114.357

216.419
158.179
207.284
116.376

217.672
157.621
206.919
121.168

218.705
151.874
195.127
122.243

218.752
141.397
173.346
121.262

216.3 226.224 238.067 236.735 238.389 238.297 247.546 254.599 266.943 278.584 280.062 268.740 265.100 244.935 209.569
114.5
238.9
241.9
230.8
277.5

112.473
246.848
250.813
233.731
285.559

112.103
248.974
252.495
236.449
289.592

112.093
249.225
252.669
236.504
289.945

112.300
250.648
254.239
237.347
290.905

112.094
251.527
255.199
237.929
291.406

112.059
252.817
256.470
239.556
292.218

111.671
253.426
256.463
240.150
293.016

111.362
254.509
256.532
242.343
293.959

111.232
256.668
257.585
245.759
294.668

111.275
258.422
258.637
247.869
295.677

110.779
258.638
258.547
248.806
297.923

110.077
258.059
258.255
248.047
299.598

109.677
257.559
258.368
247.762
299.923

109.191
256.967
257.961
247.030
299.996

202.7 208.098 210.846 210.610 211.512 212.136 214.236 215.462 217.411 219.757 220.758 219.552 218.991 216.250 211.421
191.9
194.7
148.0
178.2
213.9
186.7
253.3
229.6
196.9
203.7
205.9
140.6
223.0
244.7

196.639
200.080
149.720
184.012
223.411
193.468
260.764
236.847
207.723
208.925
210.729
140.053
241.018
253.058

199.998
202.770
153.234
191.668
234.241
199.253
263.599
238.671
219.009
210.888
212.435
140.547
265.420
255.549

199.734
202.600
152.344
189.844
233.014
198.422
263.966
238.894
217.506
210.890
212.356
140.014
261.976
255.785

200.609
203.569
152.531
190.000
234.667
199.346
265.311
240.201
219.465
211.846
213.138
139.845
264.660
257.220

201.110
204.136
152.799
190.781
234.736
200.030
266.154
241.004
219.311
212.545
213.866
140.324
263.508
258.098

203.217
205.992
155.881
197.167
243.109
203.767
267.567
242.310
230.505
213.420
214.866
141.056
283.362
259.249

205.040
207.317
157.870
201.693
249.571
207.096
269.007
242.921
240.194
213.851
215.059
141.156
298.757
259.503

207.566
209.170
160.880
208.233
260.703
211.240
271.467
243.982
257.106
214.101
215.180
140.677
326.414
260.049

210.242
211.408
163.385
213.538
271.235
214.783
275.200
246.219
275.621
214.600
215.553
139.925
351.886
261.216

211.468
212.576
163.364
213.447
272.612
215.628
277.982
248.007
280.833
215.335
216.045
139.535
354.423
262.323

210.264
211.653
160.341
207.769
262.470
212.882
278.606
248.198
266.283
215.873
216.476
139.785
328.240
262.867

209.936
211.321
159.825
207.483
259.278
213.274
277.615
247.563
258.020
216.397
216.862
140.528
318.918
262.980

206.776
209.021
154.250
196.442
241.183
207.435
276.297
246.997
231.561
216.695
217.023
140.659
272.921
263.156

201.075
204.721
144.055
175.979
209.344
195.773
275.425
246.351
189.938
216.417
216.690
140.236
193.395
262.901

CONSUMER PRICE INDEX FOR URBAN
WAGE EARNERS AND CLERICAL WORKERS
All items....................................................................

197.1 202.767 205.891 205.777 206.744 207.254 209.147 210.698 212.788 215.223 216.304 215.247 214.935 212.182 207.296

All items (1967 = 100)...............................................
Food and beverages................................................

587.2
194.9
194.4
192.2
213.1
186.1
180.9
251.0

Food..................…..................................................
Food at home…....................................................
Cereals and bakery products…..........................
Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs….........................
1
Dairy and related products ……….…………………
Fruits and vegetables…......................................
Nonalcoholic beverages and beverage
materials….......................................................
Other foods at home….......................................
Sugar and sweets….........................................
Fats and oils…..................................................
Other foods…...................................................
1,2
Other miscellaneous foods ……….……………
1
Food away from home ……….……………………………
1,2
Other food away from home ……….………………
Alcoholic beverages…...........................................
Housing....................................................................
Shelter...............…................................................
Rent of primary residence…...............................
2
Lodging away from home ……….……………………
3
Owners' equivalent rent of primary residence …
1,2
Tenants' and household insurance ……….……
Fuels and utilities…...........................................
Fuels...............…..............................................
Fuel oil and other fuels…................................
Gas (piped) and electricity…..........................
Household furnishings and operations…............
Apparel ...................................................................
Men's and boys' apparel….................................
Women's and girls' apparel….............................
1

Infants' and toddlers' apparel ……….………………
Footwear….........................................................
Transportation..........................................................
Private transportation...............….........................
2

New and used motor vehicles ……….………………
See footnotes at end of table.

96

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

603.982
202.531
202.134
200.273
222.409
195.193
194.474
260.484

613.287
205.763
205.451
203.741
225.941
198.325
205.850
265.736

612.948
206.141
205.855
204.141
226.696
198.489
205.149
269.533

615.828
208.055
207.794
206.870
229.105
199.686
206.652
275.843

617.345
208.674
208.317
207.242
233.915
199.141
207.750
268.954

622.985
208.927
208.571
207.196
236.764
199.484
205.660
266.030

627.606
210.559
210.252
209.657
240.663
200.285
207.135
270.169

633.830
211.438
211.200
210.624
244.648
200.501
207.088
274.136

641.082
212.700
212.514
212.079
246.493
202.424
208.510
276.641

644.303
214.662
214.577
214.679
250.972
204.557
213.582
278.885

641.155
215.850
215.812
216.214
250.842
207.211
214.139
282.171

640.226
217.098
217.090
217.594
251.448
209.515
212.841
284.612

632.025
218.141
218.120
218.600
253.561
210.314
211.808
283.549

617.472
218.178
218.114
217.956
253.498
209.297
212.184
281.279

146.7 152.786 153.610 152.883 157.130 157.456 157.488 158.799 157.285 157.309 158.527 159.024 160.850 163.265 162.472
169.1
170.5
168.7
185.2
114.2
199.1
136.2
200.6

172.630
175.323
173.640
188.405
115.356
206.412
143.462
207.097

173.393
176.845
176.101
188.657
115.803
209.518
145.233
208.958

173.511
177.051
176.736
188.646
115.658
209.931
144.454
208.934

175.572
178.902
182.307
190.364
115.658
210.776
145.625
210.473

177.442
179.740
185.292
192.430
118.828
211.517
146.924
212.507

177.713
181.033
183.706
192.832
117.754
212.193
147.188
212.748

181.215
183.725
191.560
196.106
118.751
212.794
147.335
213.633

182.241
184.127
194.228
197.081
119.248
213.723
148.517
213.486

183.342
184.378
197.155
198.153
118.879
214.851
149.306
213.976

185.174
186.054
201.821
199.722
121.015
216.177
150.232
214.440

186.458
186.860
203.721
201.119
121.443
217.002
150.301
214.931

187.467
188.914
207.069
201.632
121.589
218.147
151.321
215.728

188.806
189.574
208.973
203.138
123.026
219.219
152.910
216.953

188.685
190.501
206.870
203.126
123.837
220.107
153.464
217.626

198.5
224.8
224.2
135.3
216.0
116.8

204.795
232.998
233.806
142.339
223.175
117.366

206.288
235.069
237.288
136.244
225.548
117.370

206.638
235.480
238.216
133.179
226.151
117.396

207.692
236.550
238.955
139.825
226.703
117.740

208.268
237.158
239.419
143.046
227.057
117.921

209.388
237.965
239.932
148.110
227.488
117.999

210.161
238.261
240.507
145.936
227.893
118.683

211.191
238.353
240.818
144.979
228.007
118.615

213.441
239.198
241.623
148.378
228.536
119.293

215.026
239.845
242.276
152.248
228.824
119.006

214.743
240.038
243.010
148.368
229.219
118.894

213.954
240.163
243.741
142.591
229.670
120.279

213.156
240.517
244.624
140.763
230.028
120.258

212.591
240.740
245.425
133.747
230.743
120.589

193.1
174.4
234.0
180.2
122.6
119.1
114.0
110.3
118.6
123.1

198.863
179.031
251.121
184.357
122.477
118.518
112.224
110.202
116.278
122.062

200.151
179.777
292.098
182.781
122.031
120.920
114.784
112.165
119.897
124.649

200.831
180.379
298.656
183.066
121.880
118.126
112.487
109.375
116.419
122.029

202.663
182.025
306.087
184.522
122.322
115.866
111.494
104.456
116.323
121.137

203.584
182.823
307.599
185.324
122.547
117.883
113.592
106.512
118.442
122.408

206.861
186.315
329.271
188.143
123.184
120.809
115.808
110.712
118.990
124.343

210.912
190.657
339.009
192.434
123.108
121.855
117.136
110.971
119.200
126.150

217.388
197.554
358.947
199.045
123.287
120.407
116.621
108.594
117.213
125.335

228.843
209.843
381.903
211.398
123.434
116.706
112.395
104.062
114.057
123.381

236.381
217.640
388.208
219.612
123.798
113.978
109.969
99.772
111.502
122.380

233.373
213.807
363.535
216.557
123.944
116.214
110.513
104.584
111.593
122.026

226.709
206.544
345.907
209.442
124.500
120.990
112.973
112.304
115.764
124.873

219.325
198.191
317.012
201.651
124.719
121.957
115.495
111.880
118.496
126.352

214.700
193.000
283.747
197.507
124.466
121.149
114.651
110.612
118.611
126.689

180.3 184.344 190.761 189.967 190.918 190.639 195.710 199.556 206.757 213.633 214.533 207.796 204.785 192.198 170.870
177.5 181.496 187.951 187.159 188.093 187.762 192.740 196.641 203.781 210.423 211.201 204.348 201.476 188.871 167.301
94.7
93.300 93.529 93.733 93.842 93.664 93.455 93.158 92.850 92.714 92.686 92.287 91.305 90.530 89.783

38. Continued—Consumer Price Indexes for All Urban Consumers and for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers: U.S. city
average, by expenditure category and commodity or service group
[1982–84 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
Annual average

Series

2006

New vehicles…............................................
1

Used cars and trucks ……….……………………
Motor fuel…...................................................
Gasoline (all types)…..................................
Motor vehicle parts and equipment…............
Motor vehicle maintenance and repair….......
Public transportation...............….....................
Medical care.......................................................
Medical care commodities...............…............
Medical care services...............…...................
Professional services….................................
Hospital and related services….....................
2

Recreation ……….………………………………………
Video and audio

1,2

……….……………………………
2

Education and communication ……….……………
2

2007

2008

2007
Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

138.6 137.415 137.372 137.736 137.931 137.445 136.910 136.456 135.933 135.728 135.556 134.540 133.504 133.351 133.380
140.8
221.6
220.7
116.9
218.1
225.0

136.586
239.900
238.879
121.356
225.535
228.531

137.457
263.248
262.013
123.302
228.267
231.999

137.791
259.032
257.792
123.786
228.692
231.363

138.052
261.531
260.457
124.416
230.255
232.594

138.094
260.402
259.112
125.238
231.349
233.979

138.070
279.975
277.842
126.330
232.344
240.729

137.616
295.618
293.349
126.032
232.983
241.966

137.145
323.495
321.291
126.742
234.221
249.310

136.790
348.762
346.459
127.750
235.550
261.779

136.639
351.124
348.888
128.997
237.324
266.259

136.186
325.116
322.930
130.228
238.583
264.755

133.669
316.717
315.324
131.072
239.571
258.142

130.444
269.639
267.580
132.088
240.688
249.168

127.540
187.770
184.855
133.125
241.509
240.496

335.7
279.0
351.1
291.7
463.6

350.882
282.558
370.111
303.169
493.740

357.165
285.475
377.498
306.300
510.836

357.745
285.913
378.119
307.333
510.961

360.710
287.703
381.507
309.169
518.853

362.329
288.335
383.510
310.426
523.654

363.069
289.254
384.149
311.259
524.534

363.356
288.796
384.753
311.757
526.495

363.462
286.825
385.769
313.294
527.230

363.628
287.033
385.911
313.618
527.948

363.942
286.562
386.560
314.235
529.798

364.652
286.880
387.420
314.893
532.065

365.250
287.397
388.036
314.977
534.394

366.000
287.725
388.947
315.458
537.382

366.800
289.046
389.493
315.825
539.864

108.2 108.572 108.805 108.702 109.046 109.315 109.742 109.775 109.876 109.905 110.198 110.698 110.904 110.947 110.826
103.9 102.559 102.465 102.523 102.839 103.028 103.525 103.414 102.958 102.306 102.267 102.643 102.819 102.267 101.974
113.9 116.301 117.686 117.782 118.097 118.079 118.155 118.462 118.737 119.264 119.852 120.809 121.439 121.569 121.636

Education ……….………………………………………
Educational books and supplies…..............

160.3 169.280 174.016 174.276 175.134 175.118 175.101 175.545 175.791 176.148 176.879 180.819 183.613 184.091 184.115
390.7 423.730 434.979 437.391 441.207 441.927 442.639 444.594 445.394 445.740 446.741 461.104 465.570 466.885 465.576

Tuition, other school fees, and child care…

453.3 477.589 491.022 491.554 493.797 493.672 493.546 494.711 495.384 496.449 498.598 509.241 517.389 518.726 518.938
86.0 85.782 85.807 85.834 85.935 85.919 86.016 86.244 86.496 87.017 87.490 87.369 87.224 87.226 87.300

1,2

Communication ……….……………………………
1,2
Information and information processing …
1,2

Telephone services ……….…………………
Information and information processing
other than telephone services

1,4

……….…

84.3

83.928

83.894

83.917

84.008

83.992

84.091

84.320

84.511

95.9

98.373

98.874

98.887

98.988

98.931

99.090

99.566

99.939 100.723 101.375 101.339 101.350 101.436 101.564

85.007

13.0

11.062

10.710

10.722

10.737

10.754

10.745

10.671

10.621

10.585

85.484

10.600

85.355

10.525

85.208

10.414

85.214

10.375

85.292

10.367

Personal computers and peripheral
1,2

equipment ……….………………………
Other goods and services..................................
Tobacco and smoking products...............…....
1

Personal care ……….…………………………………

121.0 108.164 100.257 100.000 101.067 100.582 100.265 98.820 97.010 95.766 94.691 92.931 90.722 89.690 88.631
330.9 344.004 347.427 348.830 350.630 351.979 353.351 354.887 356.523 358.419 359.961 360.102 361.125 362.354 362.550
521.6 555.502 563.435 568.410 574.724 577.359 576.910 578.296 583.296 592.248 599.180 599.823 600.293 602.533 602.881
188.3 193.590 195.122 195.467 195.885 196.564 197.803 198.859 199.367 199.404 199.495 199.501 200.284 200.930 201.036

1

155.7 158.268 158.579 158.407 158.167 157.877 158.730 159.585 158.993 159.052 159.237 159.345 159.730 159.914 160.994

1

209.8 216.823 218.897 219.945 220.324 221.338 223.043 223.088 223.922 223.838 223.994 224.464 224.910 225.800 226.433
314.1 326.100 330.258 330.850 333.154 334.868 336.476 338.851 341.212 341.921 341.763 342.974 345.175 344.622 342.853

Personal care products ……….…………………
Personal care services ……….…………………
Miscellaneous personal services...............…
Commodity and service group:
Commodities...........….......................................
Food and beverages…....................................
Commodities less food and beverages…........
Nondurables less food and beverages…......
Apparel …...................................................

165.7
194.9
148.7
182.6
119.1

169.554
202.531
150.865
189.507
118.518

173.489
205.763
155.011
198.661
120.920

172.952
206.141
154.086
196.636
118.126

173.711
208.055
154.345
196.910
115.866

174.083
208.674
154.603
197.606
117.883

176.727
208.927
158.156
205.166
120.809

178.900
210.559
160.488
210.558
121.855

181.837
211.438
164.188
218.794
120.407

184.495
212.700
167.344
225.585
116.706

185.105
214.662
167.376
225.595
113.978

182.846
215.850
163.761
218.454
116.214

182.647
217.098
162.971
217.828
120.990

177.906
218.141
155.982
203.762
121.957

168.926
218.178
143.544
178.209
121.149

Nondurables less food, beverages,
and apparel…............................................
Durables…....................................................
Services….........................................................
3

Rent of shelter ……….………………………………
Transporatation services…............................
Other services….............................................

226.1 237.858 251.442 249.863 251.751 251.621 262.252 270.496 285.024 298.593 300.341 287.124 283.056 259.204 217.500
114.6 112.640 112.413 112.450 112.688 112.560 112.549 112.171 111.845 111.769 111.820 111.357 110.451 109.782 109.038
234.1 241.696 243.906 244.275 245.484 246.154 247.197 248.045 249.175 251.365 252.991 253.304 252.861 252.369 252.144
216.6 224.617 226.636 227.035 228.071 228.660 229.443 229.719 229.810 230.620 231.255 231.445 231.541 231.885 232.096
230.6 233.420 235.874 236.020 236.883 237.426 238.496 239.044 240.728 243.395 245.005 246.041 245.722 246.003 246.126
268.2 275.218 278.513 278.783 279.780 280.199 281.017 281.829 282.720 283.449 284.449 286.389 287.792 287.898 288.082

Special indexes:
All items less food….......................................
All items less shelter…...................................
All items less medical care…..........................
Commodities less food…...............................
Nondurables less food…................................
Nondurables less food and apparel…............
Nondurables…...............................................
3

Services less rent of shelter ……….……………
Services less medical care services…...........
Energy…........................................................
All items less energy…...................................
All items less food and energy…..................
Commodities less food and energy…........
Energy commodities.................................
Services less energy…...............................
1

Not seasonally adjusted.

2

Indexes on a December 1997 = 100 base.

3

Indexes on a December 1982 = 100 base.

197.5
189.2
191.3
150.6
183.8
223.0
189.5

202.698
193.940
196.564
152.875
190.698
234.201
196.772

205.783
197.479
199.565
156.977
199.471
246.726
203.087

205.575
197.174
199.431
156.073
197.551
245.286
202.222

206.371
198.113
200.329
156.365
197.892
247.136
203.268

206.877
198.592
200.800
156.670
198.660
247.188
203.933

209.055
200.904
202.713
160.152
205.843
256.899
208.101

210.583
202.931
204.290
162.455
211.005
264.488
211.757

212.870
205.774
206.423
166.070
218.809
277.717
216.582

215.498
208.817
208.906
169.169
225.276
290.127
220.813

216.407
210.069
210.002
169.213
225.309
291.760
221.740

214.950
208.544
208.900
165.689
218.562
279.753
218.473

214.361
208.068
208.563
164.937
218.010
276.112
218.725

210.949
204.149
205.726
158.132
204.734
254.473
211.680

205.214
197.342
200.707
145.985
180.533
216.516
198.009

224.7
225.3
196.8
198.0
199.2
141.1
223.0
239.9

230.876
232.195
208.066
203.002
203.554
140.612
241.257
247.888

233.029
234.115
219.861
205.066
205.355
141.254
265.598
250.546

233.314
234.468
218.104
205.155
205.377
140.815
261.928
250.925

234.576
235.557
220.163
205.991
205.992
140.696
264.633
252.103

235.258
236.154
219.983
206.588
206.605
141.238
263.601
252.756

236.483
237.201
231.533
207.296
207.406
141.973
283.359
253.589

237.922
238.048
241.518
207.812
207.687
142.040
298.852
254.031

240.181
239.167
258.903
208.021
207.747
141.558
326.565
254.517

243.780
241.422
277.597
208.458
208.007
140.878
351.873
255.513

246.411
243.071
282.579
209.062
208.317
140.492
354.402
256.365

246.834
243.354
267.624
209.718
208.857
140.802
328.310
257.072

245.787
242.868
259.864
210.325
209.329
141.428
319.507
257.411

244.331
242.316
232.106
210.649
209.511
141.375
272.894
257.774

243.599
242.058
188.375
210.541
209.383
140.793
192.494
258.008

4

Indexes on a December 1988 = 100 base.

NOTE: Index applied to a month as a whole, not to any specific date.

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 97

Current Labor Statistics: Price Data

39. Consumer Price Index: U.S. city average and available local area data: all items
[1982–84 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
Pricing

All Urban Consumers

sched-

2008

ule1
U.S. city average……………………………………………

June

July

Aug.

Urban Wage Earners
2008

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

M

218.815 219.964 219.086 218.783 216.573 212.425 215.223 216.304 215.247 214.935 212.182 207.296

Northeast urban……….………………………………………….………

M

232.649 234.545 233.788 232.841 230.837 227.236 229.829 231.488 230.790 229.949 227.762 223.741

Size A—More than 1,500,000...........................................

M

234.518 236.460 236.107 235.314 233.165 229.625 230.120 231.808 231.465 230.579 228.437 224.621

M

138.542 139.623 138.537 137.723 136.730 134.445 139.286 140.253 139.329 138.881 137.489 134.757

M

208.968 210.071 209.351 209.252 206.019 201.737 204.867 206.038 205.121 205.023 201.236 196.346

M

209.813 211.003 210.341 210.283 207.049 202.922 204.509 205.761 204.989 205.002 201.323 196.770

M

134.018 134.595 133.969 133.982 131.946 129.018 134.409 135.037 134.236 134.215 131.699 128.186

Region and area size2

3

Size B/C—50,000 to 1,500,000 ……….…………………………
4

Midwest urban ……….………………………………………….…………
Size A—More than 1,500,000...........................................
3

Size B/C—50,000 to 1,500,000 ……….…………………………
Size D—Nonmetropolitan (less than 50,000)………….....

M

205.122 206.435 206.251 205.522 202.086 197.883 204.023 205.452 204.812 204.064 200.017 195.114

South urban…….…..............................................................

M

212.324 213.304 212.387 212.650 210.108 205.559 210.469 211.438 210.362 210.572 207.312 201.821

Size A—More than 1,500,000...........................................

M

214.359 215.373 214.496 214.854 212.617 208.644 213.549 214.379 213.439 213.579 210.663 205.753

M

134.980 135.643 135.004 135.093 133.285 130.324 134.222 134.952 134.179 134.285 132.017 128.504

3

Size B/C—50,000 to 1,500,000 ……….…………………………
Size D—Nonmetropolitan (less than 50,000)………….....

M

214.739 215.274 214.655 215.258 213.103 206.659 216.357 216.901 216.031 216.762 213.696 205.777

West urban…….…...............................................................

M

223.040 223.867 222.823 222.132 221.034 217.113 218.508 219.248 217.854 217.028 215.499 210.870

Size A—More than 1,500,000...........................................

M

226.767 227.562 226.541 225.910 224.967 220.925 220.603 221.232 219.827 219.169 217.714 213.143

M

135.283 136.021 135.207 134.834 133.795 131.440 135.738 136.478 135.464 134.873 133.694 130.684

M
M
M

199.840 200.941 200.278 199.982 198.148 194.628 199.028 200.009 199.187 198.842 196.590 192.508
135.330 136.055 135.315 135.160 133.587 130.857 135.240 135.986 135.138 135.003 133.026 129.723
211.989 212.555 212.138 211.740 209.755 204.856 211.236 211.929 211.233 210.844 208.028 202.041

Chicago–Gary–Kenosha, IL–IN–WI…………………………..
Los Angeles–Riverside–Orange County, CA……….…………

M
M

215.738 217.459 215.971 215.465 213.363 209.053 209.021 211.020 209.435 209.084 206.772 202.022
229.033 229.886 228.484 227.449 226.159 222.229 222.435 223.245 221.230 220.285 218.726 214.083

New York, NY–Northern NJ–Long Island, NY–NJ–CT–PA…

M

238.580 240.273 240.550 240.089 238.403 234.498 233.776 235.446 235.510 234.703 232.778 228.727

Boston–Brockton–Nashua, MA–NH–ME–CT……….…………

1

– 241.258

– 238.519

– 232.354

– 240.511

– 238.133

– 231.854

Cleveland–Akron, OH……………………………………………

1

– 206.941

– 206.219

– 198.187

– 198.063

– 197.260

– 188.860

Dallas–Ft Worth, TX…….………………………………………

1

– 206.413

– 205.883

– 200.051

– 210.830

– 209.666

– 201.479

Washington–Baltimore, DC–MD–VA–WV ……….………………

1

– 142.065

– 142.036

– 138.547

– 141.622

– 141.679

– 137.700

Atlanta, GA……………………..…………………………………

2

212.032

– 211.404

– 206.388

– 212.013

– 211.113

– 205.236

Detroit–Ann Arbor–Flint, MI……………………………………

2

207.593

– 209.484

– 205.238

– 203.524

– 205.492

– 200.570

–

Houston–Galveston–Brazoria, TX………………………………

2

193.567

– 192.723

– 191.140

– 193.742

– 193.206

– 190.600

–

Miami–Ft. Lauderdale, FL……………...………………………

2

225.079

– 225.473

– 223.699

– 223.849

– 224.597

– 222.038

–

Philadelphia–Wilmington–Atlantic City, PA–NJ–DE–MD……

2

228.408

– 228.337

– 225.113

– 228.429

– 228.212

– 225.069

–

San Francisco–Oakland–San Jose, CA…….…………………

2

225.181

– 225.411

– 225.824

– 221.454

– 221.385

– 221.192

–

Seattle–Tacoma–Bremerton, WA………………...……………

2

228.068

– 227.745

– 225.915

– 223.573

– 223.273

– 220.687

–

3

Size B/C—50,000 to 1,500,000 ……….…………………………
Size classes:
5

A ……….………………………………………….…………..……………
3
B/C ……………………….….………………………………………….…
D…………….…………......................................................
Selected local areas 6

7

1

Foods, fuels, and several other items priced every month in all areas; most other
goods and services priced as indicated:
M—Every month.
1—January, March, May, July, September, and November.
2—February, April, June, August, October, and December.
2

Regions defined as the four Census regions.

3

Indexes on a December 1996 = 100 base.

4

The "North Central" region has been renamed the "Midwest" region by the Census
Bureau. It is composed of the same geographic entities.
5

Indexes on a December 1986 = 100 base.

6

In addition, the following metropolitan areas are published semiannually and
appear in tables 34 and 39 of the January and July issues of the CPI Detailed

98

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

–

Report :
Anchorage,
AK;
Cincinnatti,
OH–KY–IN;
Kansas
City,
MO–KS;
Milwaukee–Racine, WI; Minneapolis–St. Paul, MN–WI; Pittsburgh, PA; Port-land–Salem,
OR–WA; St Louis, MO–IL; San Diego, CA; Tampa–St. Petersburg–Clearwater, FL.
7

Indexes on a November 1996 = 100 base.

NOTE: Local area CPI indexes are byproducts of the national CPI program. Each local
index has a smaller sample size and is, therefore, subject to substantially more sampling
and other measurement error. As a result, local area indexes show greater volatility than
the national index, although their long-term trends are similar. Therefore, the Bureau of
Labor Statistics strongly urges users to consider adopting the national average CPI for use
in their escalator clauses. Index applies to a month as a whole, not to any specific date.
Dash indicates data not available.

40. Annual data: Consumer Price Index, U.S. city average, all items and major groups
[1982–84 = 100]
Series
Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers:
All items:
Index..................……...............................................
Percent change............................……………………
Food and beverages:
Index................…….................................................
Percent change............................……………………
Housing:
Index....………………...............................................
Percent change............................……………………
Apparel:
Index........................…….........................................
Percent change............................……………………
Transportation:
Index........................………......................................
Percent change............................……………………
Medical care:
Index................…….................................................
Percent change............................……………………
Other goods and services:
Index............…….....................................................
Percent change............................……………………
Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners
and Clerical Workers:
All items:
Index....................……………...................................
Percent change............................……………………

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

160.5
2.3

163.0
1.6

166.6
2.2

172.2
3.4

177.1
2.8

179.9
1.6

184.0
2.3

188.9
2.7

195.3
3.4

201.6
3.2

207.342
2.8

157.7
2.6

161.1
2.2

164.6
2.2

168.4
2.3

173.6
3.1

176.8
1.8

180.5
2.1

186.6
3.3

191.2
2.5

195.7
2.4

203.300
3.9

156.8
2.6

160.4
2.3

163.9
2.2

169.6
3.5

176.4
4.0

180.3
2.2

184.8
2.5

189.5
2.5

195.7
3.3

203.2
3.8

209.586
3.1

132.9
.9

133.0
.1

131.3
–1.3

129.6
–1.3

127.3
–1.8

124.0
–2.6

120.9
–2.5

120.4
–.4

119.5
–.7

119.5
.0

118.998
-0.4

144.3
0.9

141.6
–1.9

144.4
2.0

153.3
6.2

154.3
0.7

152.9
–.9

157.6
3.1

163.1
3.5

173.9
6.6

180.9
4.0

184.682
2.1

234.6
2.8

242.1
3.2

250.6
3.5

260.8
4.1

272.8
4.6

285.6
4.7

297.1
4.0

310.1
4.4

323.2
4.2

336.2
4.0

351.054
4.4

224.8
4.4

237.7
5.7

258.3
8.7

271.1
5.0

282.6
4.2

293.2
3.8

298.7
1.9

304.7
2.0

313.4
2.9

321.7
2.6

333.328
3.6

157.6
2.3

159.7
1.3

163.2
2.2

168.9
3.5

173.5
2.7

175.9
1.4

179.8
2.2

184.5
5.1

191.0
1.1

197.1
3.2

202.767
2.9

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 99

Current Labor Statistics: Price Data

41. Producer Price Indexes, by stage of processing
[1982 = 100]
Grouping
Finished goods....……………………………
Finished consumer goods.........................
Finished consumer foods........................

Annual average
2006

2007

2007
Nov.

Dec.

2008
Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.p Sept.p Oct.p Nov.p

160.4
166.0
156.7

166.6
173.5
167.0

171.4
179.4
169.5

170.4
178.2
172.2

172.0
180.1
174.5

172.3
180.4
173.6

175.1
184.2
176.0

176.5
185.8
175.5

179.8
190.3
177.6

182.4
193.8
180.0

185.1
197.2
181.0

182.1
193.1
181.4

182.0
192.7
182.0

177.3
185.4
180.7

172.1
178.4
180.8

excluding foods.....................................
Nondurable goods less food.................
Durable goods......................................
Capital equipment...................................

169.2
182.6
136.9
146.9

175.6
191.7
138.3
149.5

182.9
201.5
140.2
151.0

180.1
197.9
139.5
150.7

181.9
200.3
140.1
151.4

182.7
201.4
140.2
151.8

187.1
208.2
139.9
151.8

189.6
211.7
140.5
152.4

195.0
220.0
140.3
152.7

199.0
226.4
139.7
152.7

203.4
233.1
139.6
153.3

197.4
223.8
139.9
153.7

196.7
222.6
140.1
154.3

186.8
205.5
144.1
156.8

176.9
190.6
143.7
156.7

Intermediate materials,
supplies, and components........…………

164.0

170.7

176.2

175.7

177.8

179.1

184.5

187.3

192.8

197.2

203.1

200.2

198.7

189.8

180.7

for manufacturing......................................
Materials for food manufacturing..............
Materials for nondurable manufacturing...
Materials for durable manufacturing.........
Components for manufacturing................

155.9
146.2
175.0
180.5
134.5

162.4
161.4
184.0
189.8
136.3

166.1
166.6
195.1
188.6
136.7

166.3
169.8
195.1
188.1
136.8

168.4
173.6
199.3
189.5
137.4

170.1
176.7
201.5
193.1
137.8

173.1
180.0
206.0
200.3
137.9

175.5
180.3
209.5
205.6
138.6

179.1
182.7
215.9
211.9
139.4

182.4
185.4
222.8
215.4
140.1

187.4
187.6
234.8
219.2
141.3

190.6
187.4
243.8
220.1
142.1

187.1
185.2
236.9
213.0
142.5

181.8
179.2
226.0
204.3
142.6

173.5
177.5
206.9
191.7
142.4

Materials and components
for construction.........................................
Processed fuels and lubricants...................
Containers..................................................
Supplies......................................................

188.4
162.8
175.0
157.0

192.5
173.9
180.3
161.7

193.2
189.7
183.2
163.9

193.4
186.3
183.4
164.6

194.4
188.6
185.1
166.8

195.7
189.0
185.7
168.1

197.3
206.1
185.9
170.0

200.2
211.8
187.0
171.3

203.3
227.3
187.6
173.1

206.5
238.4
189.2
174.6

209.8
250.1
191.9
178.3

213.1
224.2
194.2
179.4

214.4
223.2
198.1
179.9

212.8
193.2
199.4
177.9

210.3
170.3
199.3
176.0

Crude materials for further
processing.......................…………………
Foodstuffs and feedstuffs...........................
Crude nonfood materials............................

184.8
119.3
230.6

207.1
146.7
246.3

225.6
152.9
274.1

229.0
158.5
275.4

235.5
162.6
283.8

245.5
165.4
299.9

262.1
169.2
327.7

274.6
168.1
352.4

293.1
173.2
382.4

301.2
178.1
393.0

313.3
178.9
414.9

280.0
170.4
360.5

257.8
168.0
320.8

208.8
147.9
248.2

181.8
144.6
200.0

Special groupings:
Finished goods, excluding foods................
Finished energy goods...............................
Finished goods less energy........................
Finished consumer goods less energy.......
Finished goods less food and energy.........

161.0
145.9
157.9
162.7
158.7

166.2
156.3
162.8
168.7
161.7

171.6
170.4
164.9
171.0
163.6

169.6
163.8
165.5
172.0
163.5

171.0
166.6
166.7
173.5
164.4

171.7
167.2
167.0
173.7
165.0

174.6
177.5
167.6
174.7
165.1

176.4
182.4
168.0
174.9
165.7

180.1
194.8
168.8
175.9
166.1

182.8
204.6
169.4
176.8
166.0

185.9
214.0
170.2
177.7
166.7

182.0
198.2
170.7
178.3
167.3

181.7
195.5
171.3
178.9
167.9

176.0
167.8
172.8
179.9
170.4

169.4
144.1
172.8
180.0
170.4

and energy................................................
Consumer nondurable goods less food

166.7

170.0

172.2

172.2

173.2

174.0

174.1

174.8

175.2

175.2

175.9

176.6

177.2

179.8

179.7

and energy..............................................

191.5

197.0

199.3

200.0

201.4

203.0

203.6

204.3

205.4

206.0

207.6

208.8

209.8

210.5

211.0

Intermediate materials less foods
and feeds..................................................
Intermediate foods and feeds.....................
Intermediate energy goods.........................
Intermediate goods less energy..................

165.4
135.2
162.8
162.1

171.5
154.4
174.6
167.6

177.0
161.4
191.1
170.2

176.3
164.6
187.8
170.4

178.2
170.6
190.5
172.3

179.4
175.0
191.5
173.7

184.7
180.3
208.6
176.0

187.7
180.5
213.4
178.4

193.3
184.5
228.7
181.4

197.8
186.6
240.3
183.9

203.6
195.5
253.5
187.9

200.5
194.0
230.3
190.1

199.1
192.2
226.2
189.4

190.3
181.1
196.7
185.7

181.0
176.3
168.8
181.4

and energy................................................

163.8

168.4

170.8

170.9

172.5

173.7

175.8

178.3

181.2

183.8

187.5

189.9

189.3

186.0

181.8

Crude energy materials..............................
Crude materials less energy.......................
Crude nonfood materials less energy.........

226.9
152.3
244.5

232.8
182.6
282.6

267.1
189.2
289.9

268.3
194.1
291.7

273.6
200.9
307.3

291.7
205.9
319.7

325.4
211.7
332.1

346.1
218.5
366.7

386.1
223.9
372.4

400.4
228.2
373.8

426.5
231.7
386.1

352.7
223.2
379.1

311.4
213.3
342.6

233.7
183.6
283.6

189.9
168.1
225.7

Finished consumer goods

Materials and components

Finished consumer goods less food

Intermediate materials less foods

p = preliminary.

100

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

42. Producer Price Indexes for the net output of major industry groups
[December 2003 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
NAICS

Industry
Total mining industries (December 1984=100).............................

2007
Nov.

Dec.

2008
Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.p Sept.p Oct.p Nov.p

249.3
314.8
161.3
168.7

249.5
315.9
161.2
164.9

254.2
321.9
164.9
167.2

263.8
335.0
170.3
168.8

287.2
371.6
174.8
169.8

301.6
390.8
186.1
170.1

329.0
436.2
184.7
172.2

341.4
456.0
185.8
173.1

363.8
490.4
191.8
175.9

306.9
395.4
191.6
178.8

276.2
345.1
189.4
178.3

218.8
250.3
188.7
180.2

183.4
194.9
179.6
180.9

168.0
161.4
111.1
109.1
101.5
150.5
106.1
117.8
107.2
305.5

166.9
162.8
111.2
109.3
101.5
151.1
106.1
118.0
107.4
288.4

168.5
165.8
112.1
110.1
101.8
152.0
105.7
118.5
107.8
294.9

169.6
167.5
112.7
110.3
101.8
152.4
105.5
119.2
108.1
298.4

173.4
169.8
112.7
110.4
102.0
152.6
105.9
119.6
108.2
337.1

175.3
171.2
112.9
110.6
102.2
152.7
106.2
120.2
109.0
347.7

179.4
174.0
114.2
111.4
102.2
152.4
108.2
120.5
109.2
384.1

182.0
176.1
114.1
111.7
102.1
153.4
109.2
120.9
109.5
406.0

185.6
180.3
115.0
112.6
102.3
153.8
108.9
121.8
109.8
429.6

183.0
180.8
114.9
113.9
102.8
154.8
109.2
124.2
110.4
383.9

183.1
180.2
115.2
115.1
102.6
154.2
109.6
126.5
110.5
381.6

176.8
176.9
115.8
114.9
102.7
154.1
107.7
127.2
110.4
300.4

169.5
174.6
115.7
115.0
102.8
155.1
106.6
127.4
110.0
222.3

325
326

(December 1984=100)………………………………….…………
Chemical manufacturing (December 1984=100)…………………… 209.2
152.2
Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

210.4
153.2

213.6
154.8

215.8
155.6

218.4
156.4

221.1
156.8

224.5
158.3

228.5
159.4

234.5
162.9

240.0
165.0

241.2
166.4

239.2
168.3

235.4
167.9

331
332
333
334
335
336
337

Primary metal manufacturing (December 1984=100)………………
Fabricated metal product manufacturing (December 1984=100)…
Machinery manufacturing………………………..……………………
Computer and electronic products manufacturing…………………
Electrical equipment, appliance, and components manufacturing
Transportation equipment manufacturing……………………………
Furniture and related product manufacturing

188.9
163.7
113.0
92.8
124.5
106.6
166.6

188.6
164.3
113.1
92.6
124.4
106.0
166.4

190.4
165.6
113.8
92.6
125.2
106.6
167.1

194.2
166.8
114.3
92.8
125.9
106.6
167.8

202.4
168.3
114.6
92.7
127.1
106.1
168.3

211.5
171.1
115.1
92.7
127.3
106.7
169.5

221.1
173.0
115.8
92.8
127.8
106.6
170.2

227.8
174.7
116.4
92.8
128.2
105.9
171.3

232.7
177.2
117.9
92.8
129.1
105.9
172.3

235.1
178.9
118.5
93.0
129.9
106.3
172.7

227.4
180.3
119.0
92.9
129.9
106.5
173.6

217.8
180.1
119.3
92.8
129.4
109.8
174.3

201.8
179.4
119.4
92.8
126.8
109.4
175.6

339

Miscellaneous manufacturing………………………………………… 107.5

107.7

108.5

108.7

109.2

109.3

109.4

109.9

110.8

110.8

110.7

110.8

110.7

116.1
121.1
114.9
123.8
73.7
125.7

118.0
119.0
89.3
123.8
66.6
134.7

118.3
119.6
109.0
124.8
67.1
136.0

118.4
118.8
110.2
124.5
61.6
133.8

117.9
120.1
113.4
125.5
60.6
133.1

118.9
119.4
119.7
127.2
65.7
136.4

118.3
120.2
118.7
127.3
59.3
136.5

118.1
119.6
105.8
127.8
67.6
141.8

118.4
120.3
106.5
133.8
77.2
140.6

118.8
120.8
109.9
133.1
84.3
167.6

118.7
122.0
109.5
134.2
85.3
159.5

118.4
122.5
111.8
135.8
114.9
169.1

118.9
122.4
114.1
136.5
67.9
149.8

Air transportation (December 1992=100)…………………………… 189.4
Water transportation…………………………………………………… 116.5
Postal service (June 1989=100)……………………………………… 175.5

187.1
116.4
175.5

192.0
119.0
175.5

191.8
119.2
175.5

198.6
120.6
175.5

199.5
121.1
175.5

203.7
124.7
180.5

213.5
127.0
180.5

213.6
130.4
180.5

213.0
132.2
180.5

208.8
134.6
180.5

212.0
136.0
180.5

206.7
132.7
180.5

127.4

127.8

129.7

131.1

134.5

137.0

141.7

146.8

146.2

140.7

137.6

134.8

121.5
106.7
125.3
161.9
116.5
114.3

122.7
106.7
125.3
161.9
117.0
114.6

123.3
107.3
125.4
162.4
117.9
115.4

123.3
107.3
125.5
162.6
118.0
117.2

123.3
107.3
125.5
162.9
118.3
117.7

123.2
107.3
125.4
162.7
118.5
118.2

123.2
106.9
125.4
162.7
118.6
118.5

123.2
106.9
125.4
162.6
118.6
118.5

123.5
106.9
125.6
163.2
119.4
118.6

123.4
106.9
126.8
163.1
119.4
118.1

123.4
106.9
126.4
163.4
119.4
118.3

123.7
108.0
126.9
164.4
120.2
118.7

123.9
107.8
127.0
164.3
120.4
118.7

108.5
102.3
101.2
100.5
124.2
108.5
110.5
106.1
118.4
155.1
112.9

108.5
103.6
100.7
100.4
123.0
110.0
109.9
105.6
119.1
155.1
113.0

109.7
104.4
100.6
100.4
122.5
108.1
110.3
106.6
121.3
159.9
115.6

109.8
104.6
100.9
100.5
122.9
108.2
109.8
106.0
121.3
160.3
114.1

110.4
105.2
100.6
100.5
121.0
109.7
110.0
106.8
125.1
160.7
113.8

110.9
106.4
101.0
100.4
119.6
109.5
110.2
107.3
120.3
161.1
112.7

110.7
105.5
101.3
100.8
119.6
110.5
106.9
108.3
122.0
160.9
114.0

110.4
104.4
101.1
100.8
120.2
110.4
106.9
108.2
125.4
161.1
112.7

111.0
103.9
101.0
100.9
119.1
110.9
106.8
109.2
136.7
161.5
115.3

111.3
104.3
101.7
101.1
119.4
111.5
105.4
110.8
133.4
161.7
116.3

110.3
104.3
101.4
101.1
119.0
111.9
105.5
108.7
128.8
161.5
115.9

110.8
110.0
100.6
101.3
117.2
113.0
104.0
108.7
131.8
163.1
115.8

111.0
110.6
100.5
101.1
115.1
110.7
103.8
109.4
130.1
163.2
114.9

140.8
105.1
122.3
101.7
107.1
109.5
144.7

140.8
105.1
122.2
100.2
108.7
108.4
143.7

139.2
105.2
122.3
98.8
108.9
110.7
145.4

140.3
105.3
123.0
98.8
109.1
112.1
145.2

140.3
105.3
123.0
98.8
108.9
112.0
145.3

140.5
105.7
122.9
98.8
108.9
112.2
145.6

140.5
106.3
122.7
98.8
109.0
111.9
144.9

141.3
106.3
122.8
98.8
109.1
112.6
147.0

141.6
106.3
123.0
98.8
109.0
112.3
149.9

141.5
105.7
123.5
98.8
109.8
113.1
152.4

141.6
106.3
123.2
99.9
109.5
113.9
144.7

142.4
106.3
123.6
101.4
109.3
112.5
148.5

142.1
106.3
124.1
101.4
109.3
113.3
146.5

211
212
213
311
312
313
315
316
321
322
323
324

Oil and gas extraction (December 1985=100) .............................
Mining, except oil and gas……………………………………………
Mining support activities………………………………………………
Total manufacturing industries (December 1984=100)................
Food manufacturing (December 1984=100)…………………………
Beverage and tobacco manufacturing...........................................
Textile mills....................................................................................
Apparel manufacturing………………………………...………………
Leather and allied product manufacturing (December 1984=100)
Wood products manufacturing………………………………………
Paper manufacturing.....................................................................
Printing and related support activities...........................................
Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

(December 1984=100)………….…………………………………

(December 1984=100)………………………………………………
Retail trade
441
442
443
446
447
454

Motor vehicle and parts dealers………………………………………
Furniture and home furnishings stores………………………………
Electronics and appliance stores……………………………………
Health and personal care stores………………………………………
Gasoline stations (June 2001=100)…………………………………
Nonstore retailers………………………………………………………
Transportation and warehousing

481
483
491

Utilities
221

Utilities…………………………………………………………………… 126.6
Health care and social assistance

6211
6215
6216
622
6231
62321

Office of physicians (December 1996=100)…………………………
Medical and diagnostic laboratories…………………………………
Home health care services (December 1996=100)…………………
Hospitals (December 1992=100)……………………………………
Nursing care facilities…………………………………………………
Residential mental retardation facilities………………………………
Other services industries

511
515
517
5182
523
53112
5312
5313
5321
5411
541211
5413

Publishing industries, except Internet ………………………………
Broadcasting, except Internet…………………………………………
Telecommunications……………………………………………………
Data processing and related services………………………………
Security, commodity contracts, and like activity……………………
Lessors or nonresidental buildings (except miniwarehouse)………
Offices of real estate agents and brokers……………………………
Real estate support activities…………………………………………
Automotive equipment rental and leasing (June 2001=100)………
Legal services (December 1996=100)………………………………
Offices of certified public accountants………………………………
Architectural, engineering, and related services

(December 1996=100)………………………………………………
54181
Advertising agencies……………………………………………………
5613
Employment services (December 1996=100)………………………
56151
Travel agencies…………………………………………………………
56172
Janitorial services………………………………………………………
5621
Waste collection…………………………………………………………
721
Accommodation (December 1996=100)……………………………
p = preliminary.

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 101

Current Labor Statistics: Price Data

43. Annual data: Producer Price Indexes, by stage of processing
[1982 = 100]
Index

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Finished goods
Total...............................................................................
Foods............................…………………………….……
Energy............……………………………………….….…
Other…...............................………………………….……

131.8
134.5
83.4
142.4

130.7
134.3
75.1
143.7

133.0
135.1
78.8
146.1

138.0
137.2
94.1
148.0

140.7
141.3
96.8
150.0

138.9
140.1
88.8
150.2

143.3
145.9
102.0
150.5

148.5
152.7
113.0
152.7

155.7
155.7
132.6
156.4

160.4
156.7
145.9
158.7

166.6
166.9
156.4
161.7

Intermediate materials, supplies, and
components
Total...............................................................................
Foods............……………………………………….….…
Energy…...............................………………………….…
Other.................…………...………..........………….……

125.6
123.2
89.0
134.2

123.0
123.2
80.8
133.5

123.2
120.8
84.3
133.1

129.2
119.2
101.7
136.6

129.7
124.3
104.1
136.4

127.8
123.2
95.9
135.8

133.7
134.4
111.9
138.5

142.6
145.0
123.2
146.5

154.0
146.0
149.2
154.6

164.0
146.2
162.8
163.8

170.6
161.5
174.6
168.4

111.1
112.2
87.3
103.5

96.8
103.9
68.6
84.5

98.2
98.7
78.5
91.1

120.6
100.2
122.1
118.0

121.0
106.1
122.3
101.5

108.1
99.5
102.0
101.0

135.3
113.5
147.2
116.9

159.0
127.0
174.6
149.2

182.2
122.7
234.0
176.7

184.8
119.3
226.9
210.0

207.3
146.7
233.0
238.8

Crude materials for further processing
Total...............................................................................
Foods............................…………………………….……
Energy............……………………………………….….…
Other…...............................………………………….……

44. U.S. export price indexes by end-use category
[2000 = 100]
Category

2007
Nov.

Dec.

2008
Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

ALL COMMODITIES……………....................................

118.7

119.3

120.7

121.8

123.8

124.4

124.8

126.1

128.0

125.9

124.9

122.4

118.5

Foods, feeds, and beverages……………...……………
Agricultural foods, feeds, and beverages….............
Nonagricultural (fish, beverages) food products……

165.9
169.8
133.1

171.1
175.2
136.1

180.5
185.0
142.0

188.7
193.8
144.7

196.9
202.6
148.3

192.8
198.2
146.4

193.3
198.9
145.5

198.0
204.0
146.1

211.5
218.9
147.0

189.6
194.7
145.7

190.2
195.7
143.6

174.4
178.1
143.4

164.4
166.8
145.6

Industrial supplies and materials……………...………… 153.9

154.1

157.1

159.1

165.5

167.9

169.6

173.2

177.8

174.0

169.3

162.0

148.6

Agricultural industrial supplies and materials…........

144.9

144.7

146.0

150.6

159.3

157.9

156.9

158.0

162.8

160.9

157.5

148.5

133.5

Fuels and lubricants…...............................…………

224.7

222.8

232.1

225.6

249.5

259.3

275.8

297.2

312.3

275.8

267.6

240.1

200.1

Nonagricultural supplies and materials,
excluding fuel and building materials…………...…
Selected building materials…...............................…

147.9
113.8

148.5
113.7

150.9
113.3

154.1
113.8

158.2
114.2

160.1
114.1

160.1
113.9

161.6
113.8

165.1
114.5

165.3
115.2

160.6
115.4

155.7
116.6

145.2
116.1

Capital goods……………...…………………………….… 100.3
Electric and electrical generating equipment…........ 107.2
Nonelectrical machinery…...............................……… 93.4

100.6
107.5
93.6

100.9
107.7
93.7

101.3
108.3
93.9

101.2
108.6
93.7

101.5
108.7
93.9

101.6
108.6
93.9

102.0
108.9
94.2

101.9
109.3
94.0

101.9
109.2
94.1

101.9
109.5
94.0

101.8
109.7
93.7

101.6
109.2
93.5

Automotive vehicles, parts, and engines……………...

106.5

106.7

106.9

107.0

107.1

107.5

107.5

107.4

107.7

107.8

107.9

108.2

108.1

Consumer goods, excluding automotive……………... 106.8
Nondurables, manufactured…...............................… 108.0
Durables, manufactured…………...………..........…… 104.4

107.3
108.2
105.2

107.3
108.1
105.2

107.4
108.2
105.5

108.0
109.3
105.4

108.1
109.8
105.1

108.1
110.0
105.1

108.2
110.1
105.2

108.5
109.8
106.0

109.0
109.6
107.2

109.3
109.0
108.7

109.8
108.7
110.0

108.8
106.6
109.9

Agricultural commodities……………...…………………
Nonagricultural commodities……………...……………

169.3
115.7

177.5
116.6

185.6
117.3

194.3
118.8

190.5
119.6

190.8
120.1

195.2
121.2

208.2
122.3

188.2
121.5

188.3
120.4

172.4
118.8

160.4
115.4

102

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

165.0
115.4

45. U.S. import price indexes by end-use category
[2000 = 100]
2007

Category

Nov.

2008

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

ALL COMMODITIES……………....................................

127.5

127.3

129.2

129.5

133.5

137.3

141.2

145.5

147.5

143.0

138.0

130.6

121.9

Foods, feeds, and beverages……………...……………
Agricultural foods, feeds, and beverages….............
Nonagricultural (fish, beverages) food products……

133.4
147.1
102.5

134.4
148.3
103.0

138.1
153.1
104.3

137.8
152.6
104.4

141.8
157.3
106.8

143.7
159.8
107.2

145.0
162.2
105.9

147.7
165.1
108.4

149.7
167.6
109.1

150.4
167.9
110.9

148.0
164.9
109.6

146.0
162.4
108.9

138.7
152.9
106.7

Industrial supplies and materials……………...………… 212.8

211.3

218.2

219.0

234.5

248.7

265.0

283.0

290.7

270.7

249.4

217.8

182.8

Fuels and lubricants…...............................…………
Petroleum and petroleum products…………...……

294.8
312.2

290.3
306.7

301.9
319.6

300.0
315.6

329.0
347.5

354.6
375.8

388.3
412.2

423.7
450.3

437.6
465.0

392.0
419.5

347.1
372.5

282.7
298.9

215.9
221.8

Paper and paper base stocks…...............................

108.0

109.2

112.5

113.4

114.1

116.2

117.1

117.3

118.9

119.7

119.8

116.2

115.1

Materials associated with nondurable
supplies and materials…...............................………
Selected building materials…...............................…
Unfinished metals associated with durable goods…
Nonmetals associated with durable goods…...........

133.7
115.6
214.8
103.3

135.3
116.0
217.2
103.8

143.6
115.9
215.3
105.4

146.6
113.8
224.5
105.9

147.8
114.1
241.5
105.2

148.7
114.3
259.2
106.2

149.6
116.2
263.6
107.3

152.9
119.2
273.2
107.6

157.4
121.3
273.4
110.7

159.6
122.1
270.3
111.8

162.3
122.7
256.4
111.4

161.7
120.6
237.5
110.8

155.2
119.1
209.5
110.6

Capital goods……………...…………………………….… 92.1
Electric and electrical generating equipment…........
107.5
Nonelectrical machinery…...............................……… 87.7

92.2
107.9
87.7

91.9
107.7
87.4

92.0
108.7
87.4

92.2
109.3
87.5

93.0
111.5
88.0

93.3
111.7
88.4

93.2
112.0
88.2

93.4
112.7
88.4

93.4
113.0
88.3

93.4
112.8
88.3

93.2
112.1
88.2

92.8
111.4
87.7

Automotive vehicles, parts, and engines……………...

106.2

106.8

107.1

107.2

107.4

107.8

107.8

107.9

108.1

108.3

108.2

108.3

107.7

Consumer goods, excluding automotive……………...
102.4
Nondurables, manufactured…...............................… 105.3
Durables, manufactured…………...………..........…… 99.2
Nonmanufactured consumer goods…………...……… 103.3

102.6
105.5
99.3
103.8

103.1
106.5
99.6
104.0

103.5
106.8
100.0
104.1

104.0
107.5
100.4
104.3

104.6
107.9
101.1
105.6

104.8
108.0
101.3
105.8

104.9
107.9
101.5
106.6

105.1
108.2
101.7
106.7

105.2
108.4
101.7
106.6

105.1
108.2
101.8
106.6

105.2
108.2
102.0
105.9

104.9
108.1
101.7
103.2

46. U.S. international price Indexes for selected categories of services
[2000 = 100, unless indicated otherwise]
Category

2006
Sept.

2007
Dec.

Mar.

June

2008

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Import air freight……………...........................................
Export air freight……………...……………………………

133.1
117.9

131.2
116.7

130.7
117.0

132.3
117.0

134.2
119.8

141.8
127.1

144.4
132.0

158.7
140.8

156.8
146.2

Import air passenger fares (Dec. 2006 = 100)……………
Export air passenger fares (Dec. 2006 = 100)…............

130.9
142.4

125.4
137.3

122.9
140.2

144.6
147.3

140.2
154.6

135.3
155.7

131.3
156.4

171.6
171.4

161.3
174.9

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 103

Current Labor Statistics: Productivity Data

47. Indexes of productivity, hourly compensation, and unit costs, quarterly data seasonally adjusted
[1992 = 100]
2005

Item

2006

III

IV

I

135.6
164.1
119.6
121.1
131.6
125.0

135.3
165.8
119.6
122.6
132.4
126.3

136.1
168.0
120.7
123.5
133.4
127.2

134.6
163.2
118.9
121.2
133.2
125.6

134.2
164.7
118.8
122.7
134.2
126.9

142.8
160.8
117.2
113.5
112.6
115.7
152.2
125.5
116.9
172.9
166.5
121.3
96.3

II

2007
III

IV

I

136.6
168.1
119.7
123.1
136.2
128.0

135.9
169.0
119.1
124.3
136.2
128.8

135.9
172.6
122.1
127.0
133.4
129.4

135.9
174.7
122.4
128.5
134.3
130.7

135.1
166.8
119.8
123.5
135.5
127.9

135.7
167.1
118.9
123.2
138.6
128.8

135.0
167.9
118.3
124.4
138.3
129.5

135.0
171.7
121.4
127.1
134.8
130.0

144.8
161.2
116.3
111.8
111.4
113.1
177.4
130.3
117.7

146.3
164.5
118.1
112.5
112.4
112.9
182.5
131.5
118.8

146.0
164.5
117.0
113.1
112.6
114.4
183.1
132.8
119.4

147.0
165.1
116.3
112.8
112.3
114.2
193.0
135.3
120.0

172.8
165.3
119.2
95.6

172.6
170.9
122.7
99.0

172.7
169.5
120.7
98.2

174.5
170.3
120.0
97.6

II

2008
III

IV

I

II

III

137.6
175.5
121.6
127.5
137.4
131.2

139.7
177.0
121.9
126.7
139.7
131.6

139.7
178.9
121.7
128.1
139.2
132.2

140.5
180.6
121.5
128.5
140.2
132.9

141.8
182.2
121.2
128.6
140.9
133.2

142.2
184.3
120.6
129.6
143.1
134.7

135.0
173.7
121.8
128.7
135.2
131.1

136.4
174.1
120.7
127.7
138.2
131.5

138.3
175.5
120.8
126.9
140.3
131.8

138.6
177.8
120.9
128.3
139.8
132.5

139.5
179.5
120.8
128.7
141.0
133.2

140.8
181.1
120.4
128.6
141.9
133.5

141.1
183.1
119.8
129.8
144.4
135.2

146.0
167.8
118.7
115.3
114.9
116.2
173.9
131.6
120.5

146.2
170.3
119.4
116.7
116.5
117.2
171.8
131.8
121.6

147.4
171.3
118.7
116.5
116.2
117.4
172.5
132.2
121.5

148.1
172.5
118.7
116.8
116.5
117.8
166.8
130.9
121.3

148.8
175.0
119.0
117.9
117.6
118.9
155.9
128.8
121.3

148.7
176.2
118.6
118.6
118.5
119.0
150.3
127.4
121.5

151.8
177.8
118.2
117.7
117.1
119.1
147.0
126.6
120.3

–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–

175.4
174.6
123.5
99.5

177.0
176.9
124.0
100.0

178.7
176.4
122.3
98.7

180.6
176.4
121.4
97.6

182.5
179.7
122.2
98.5

184.0
181.4
122.1
98.6

183.1
183.1
121.7
100.0

182.6
185.3
121.2
101.5

Business
Output per hour of all persons........................................
Compensation per hour…………………………….………
Real compensation per hour………………………………
Unit labor costs…...............................……………………
Unit nonlabor payments…………...………..........………
Implicit price deflator………………………………………
Nonfarm business
Output per hour of all persons........................................
Compensation per hour…………………………….………
Real compensation per hour………………………………
Unit labor costs…...............................……………………
Unit nonlabor payments…………...………..........………
Implicit price deflator………………………………………
Nonfinancial corporations
Output per hour of all employees...................................
Compensation per hour…………………………….………
Real compensation per hour………………………………
Total unit costs…...............................……………………
Unit labor costs.............................................................
Unit nonlabor costs......................................................
Unit profits......................................................................
Unit nonlabor payments…………...………..........………
Implicit price deflator………………………………………
Manufacturing
Output per hour of all persons........................................
Compensation per hour…………………………….………
Real compensation per hour………………………………
Unit labor costs…...............................……………………
NOTE: Dash indicates data not available.

104

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

48. Annual indexes of multifactor productivity and related measures, selected years
[2000 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
Item

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Private business
Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons......……………..............
87.4
Output per unit of capital services……………………… 104.6
Multifactor productivity……………………………………
93.7
Output…...............................………………………….……
79.2

90.0
104.7
95.3
82.8

91.7
104.9
96.2
87.2

94.3
103.5
97.5
91.5

97.2
102.3
98.7
96.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

102.8
96.0
100.1
100.5

107.1
94.8
101.8
102.0

111.2
95.6
104.4
105.2

114.5
97.5
107.0
109.7

116.8
98.6
108.8
113.8

118.0
99.1
109.4
117.4

120.2
98.1
110.1
120.1

88.8
75.7
84.4
83.6

90.7
79.1
86.9
85.9

94.2
83.2
90.6
87.4

96.4
88.4
93.9
91.1

99.0
94.1
97.5
95.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

98.6
104.6
100.3
107.0

97.2
107.6
100.2
112.9

97.0
110.0
100.7
116.3

98.4
112.5
102.5
117.4

100.2
115.4
104.6
118.4

102.8
118.5
107.4
119.1

103.8
122.3
109.2
122.3

Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons........……………………… 88.2
Output per unit of capital services……………………… 105.6
94.5
Multifactor productivity……………………………………
Output…...............................………………………….……
79.3

90.5
105.5
95.9
82.8

92.0
105.3
96.5
87.2

94.5
103.9
97.8
91.5

97.3
102.5
98.8
96.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

102.7
96.0
100.1
100.5

107.1
94.7
101.8
102.1

111.0
95.4
104.3
105.2

114.2
97.3
106.8
109.6

116.4
98.3
108.6
113.7

117.6
98.7
109.0
117.4

119.7
97.9
109.7
120.1

88.2
75.0
83.9
83.5

90.2
78.5
86.4
85.8

93.9
82.7
90.3
87.3

96.2
88.1
93.6
91.0

99.0
93.9
97.4
94.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

98.7
104.7
100.5
107.0

97.2
107.8
100.2
113.1

97.1
110.3
100.8
116.4

98.6
112.7
102.6
117.4

100.4
115.6
104.7
118.4

103.1
118.9
107.6
119.1

104.1
122.8
109.4
122.4

Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons...…………………………
Output per unit of capital services………………………
Multifactor productivity……………………………………
Output…...............................………………………….……

79.8
98.7
90.8
80.3

82.7
98.0
91.2
83.1

87.3
100.6
93.8
89.2

92.0
100.7
95.9
93.8

96.1
100.4
96.7
97.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

101.6
93.5
98.7
94.9

108.6
92.3
102.4
94.3

115.3
93.2
105.2
95.2

117.9
95.4
108.0
96.9

123.5
98.9
108.4
100.4

125.0
100.2
110.1
102.3

–
–
–
–

Inputs:
Hours of all persons.....................................................
Capital services…………...………..........………….……
Energy……………….……….........................................
Nonenergy materials....................................................
Purchased business services.......................................
Combined units of all factor inputs…………...………...

100.6
81.4
113.7
78.9
88.8
88.5

100.4
84.8
110.4
86.0
88.5
91.1

102.2
88.7
108.2
92.9
92.1
95.1

101.9
93.2
105.4
97.7
95.0
97.8

101.3
97.0
105.5
102.6
100.0
100.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

93.5
101.5
90.6
93.3
100.7
96.2

86.8
102.1
89.3
88.4
98.2
92.1

82.6
102.1
84.4
87.7
99.1
90.5

82.2
101.6
84.0
87.3
97.0
89.7

81.3
101.5
91.6
92.4
104.5
92.7

81.8
102.0
86.6
91.5
106.6
92.9

–
–
–
–
–
–

Inputs:
Labor input...................................................................
Capital services…………...………..........………….……
Combined units of labor and capital input………………
Capital per hour of all persons.......................……………
Private nonfarm business

Inputs:
Labor input...................................................................
Capital services…………...………..........………….……
Combined units of labor and capital input………………
Capital per hour of all persons......…………………………
Manufacturing [1996 = 100]

NOTE: Dash indicates data not available.

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 105

Current Labor Statistics: Productivity Data

49. Annual indexes of productivity, hourly compensation, unit costs, and prices, selected years
[1992 = 100]
Item

1962

1972

1982

1992

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Business
Output per hour of all persons........................................
Compensation per hour…………………………….………
Real compensation per hour………………………………
Unit labor costs…...............................……………………
Unit nonlabor payments…………...………..........………
Implicit price deflator………………………………………

52.9
15.1
65.2
28.5
26.1
27.6

71.2
26.7
83.3
37.4
35.7
36.8

80.1
63.6
90.6
79.4
70.1
75.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

112.8
125.8
108.1
111.5
109.4
110.7

116.1
134.7
112.0
116.0
107.2
112.7

119.1
140.3
113.5
117.9
110.0
114.9

123.9
145.3
115.7
117.3
114.2
116.1

128.7
151.2
117.7
117.5
118.3
117.8

132.4
156.9
119.0
118.5
124.7
120.8

135.0
163.2
119.7
120.9
130.8
124.5

136.4
169.6
120.5
124.4
134.6
128.2

139.0
178.3
123.2
128.3
135.4
131.0

55.9
15.6
67.3
27.8
25.8
27.1

73.1
26.9
84.0
36.8
34.9
36.1

80.8
63.9
91.1
79.1
69.3
75.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

112.5
125.2
107.6
111.3
110.9
111.1

115.7
134.2
111.6
116.0
108.7
113.3

118.6
139.5
112.8
117.7
111.6
115.4

123.5
144.6
115.1
117.1
116.0
116.7

128.0
150.4
117.1
117.5
119.6
118.3

131.6
155.9
118.2
118.5
125.5
121.1

134.1
162.1
118.9
120.9
132.4
125.1

135.4
168.5
119.7
124.5
136.4
128.9

137.9
177.1
122.3
128.4
136.2
131.3

60.4
17.4
75.1
27.3
28.7
23.4
54.5
31.7
29.7

74.2
28.8
90.0
37.5
38.8
33.9
54.1
39.3
39.0

83.1
66.5
94.7
80.4
80.0
81.3
75.2
79.7
79.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

117.9
124.2
106.7
104.0
105.3
100.4
129.1
108.0
106.2

122.5
133.0
110.6
107.4
108.6
104.2
108.7
105.4
107.5

124.7
138.6
112.1
111.6
111.2
112.6
82.2
104.5
108.9

129.7
143.6
114.3
110.7
110.7
110.8
98.0
107.4
109.6

134.6
149.5
116.4
111.0
111.0
111.1
109.9
110.7
110.9

139.6
153.9
116.7
110.0
110.3
109.3
144.8
118.8
113.1

141.6
159.8
117.2
112.7
112.9
112.2
154.4
123.5
116.4

142.6
165.4
117.5
115.4
116.0
113.8
162.9
126.9
119.7

144.8
173.4
119.8
118.5
119.8
114.9
153.5
125.2
121.6

–
–
–
–
–
–

–
–
–
–
–
–

–
–
–
–
–
–

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

133.7
123.5
106.1
92.4
102.9
99.5

139.1
134.7
112.0
96.9
103.5
101.4

141.2
137.8
111.5
97.6
102.0
100.6

151.0
147.8
117.7
97.9
100.3
99.5

160.4
158.2
123.2
98.7
102.9
101.5

163.9
161.5
122.4
98.5
110.2
106.4

171.9
168.3
123.5
97.9
121.1
113.5

173.8
173.0
122.8
99.5
126.2
117.4

179.7
182.6
126.1
101.6
–
–

Nonfarm business
Output per hour of all persons........................................
Compensation per hour…………………………….………
Real compensation per hour………………………………
Unit labor costs…...............................……………………
Unit nonlabor payments…………...………..........………
Implicit price deflator………………………………………
Nonfinancial corporations
Output per hour of all employees...................................
Compensation per hour…………………………….………
Real compensation per hour………………………………
Total unit costs…...............................……………………
Unit labor costs.............................................................
Unit nonlabor costs......................................................
Unit profits......................................................................
Unit nonlabor payments…………...………..........………
Implicit price deflator………………………………………
Manufacturing
Output per hour of all persons........................................
Compensation per hour…………………………….………
Real compensation per hour………………………………
Unit labor costs…...............................……………………
Unit nonlabor payments…………...………..........………
Implicit price deflator………………………………………
Dash indicates data not available.

106

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

50. Annual indexes of output per hour for selected NAICS industries
[1997=100]
NAICS

Industry
Mining

1987

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

85.5
80.1
80.1
69.8
58.5
71.2
88.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

103.6
101.2
101.2
104.5
106.5
109.3
101.3

111.4
107.9
107.9
105.8
110.3
112.3
101.2

111.0
119.4
119.4
106.3
115.8
122.0
96.2

109.1
121.6
121.6
109.0
114.6
131.9
99.3

113.6
123.8
123.8
110.9
112.4
138.6
103.6

116.0
130.1
130.1
113.6
113.2
142.8
108.1

106.8
111.7
111.7
115.9
112.8
137.4
114.2

96.0
107.8
107.8
114.0
107.6
130.0
118.2

87.2
100.3
100.3
110.6
100.0
123.4
118.7

-

65.6
67.8

100.0
100.0

103.7
99.0

103.5
102.7

107.0
113.2

106.4
110.1

102.9
115.4

105.1
114.1

107.5
118.3

114.3
122.2

115.4
119.0

-

21
211
2111
212
2121
2122
2123

Mining………………………………………………….
Oil and gas extraction…………………………………
Oil and gas extraction…………………………………
Mining, except oil and gas……………………………
Coal mining……………………………………………
Metal ore mining………………………………………
Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying…………

2211
2212

Power generation and supply…………………………
Natural gas distribution………………………………

311
3111
3112
3113
3114

Food………………………………………………….
Animal food……………………………………………
Grain and oilseed milling………………………………
Sugar and confectionery products……………………
Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty………

94.1
83.6
81.1
87.6
92.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

103.9
109.0
107.5
103.5
107.1

105.9
110.9
116.1
106.5
109.5

107.1
109.7
113.1
109.9
111.8

109.5
131.4
119.5
108.6
121.4

113.8
142.7
122.4
108.0
126.9

116.8
165.8
123.9
112.5
123.0

117.3
149.5
130.3
118.2
126.2

123.3
165.5
133.0
130.7
132.0

121.1
150.4
130.7
129.2
126.9

-

3115
3116
3117
3118
3119

Dairy products…………………………………………
82.7
Animal slaughtering and processing………………… 97.4
Seafood product preparation and packaging……… 123.1
Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing………………… 100.9
Other food products…………………………………… 97.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
120.2
103.8
107.8

93.6
101.2
131.6
108.6
111.4

95.9
102.6
140.5
108.3
112.6

97.1
103.7
153.0
109.9
106.2

105.0
107.3
169.8
108.9
111.9

110.5
106.6
173.2
109.3
118.8

107.4
108.0
162.2
113.8
119.3

109.6
117.4
186.1
115.4
116.2

110.2
116.9
203.8
110.5
116.3

-

312
3121
3122
313
3131

Beverages and tobacco products……………………
Beverages………………………………………………
Tobacco and tobacco products………………………
Textile mills……………………………………………
Fiber, yarn, and thread mills…………………………

78.1
77.1
71.9
73.7
66.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

97.6
99.0
98.5
102.6
102.1

87.3
90.7
91.0
106.2
103.9

88.3
90.8
95.9
106.7
101.3

89.5
92.7
98.2
109.5
109.1

82.6
99.4
67.0
125.3
133.3

90.9
108.3
78.7
136.1
148.8

94.7
114.1
82.4
138.6
154.1

100.5
120.3
93.1
152.8
143.5

94.0
112.0
94.9
150.5
139.7

-

3132
3133
314
3141
3149

Fabric mills……………………………………………
Textile and fabric finishing mills………………………
Textile product mills……………………………………
Textile furnishings mills………………………………
Other textile product mills……………………………

68.0
91.3
93.0
91.2
92.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

104.2
101.2
98.7
99.3
96.7

110.0
102.2
102.5
99.1
107.6

110.1
104.4
107.1
104.5
108.9

110.3
108.5
104.5
103.1
103.1

125.4
119.8
107.3
105.5
105.1

137.3
125.1
112.7
114.4
104.2

138.6
127.7
123.4
122.3
120.4

164.2
139.8
128.0
125.7
128.9

170.5
126.2
121.1
117.3
126.1

-

315
3151
3152
3159
316

Apparel…………………………………………………
Apparel knitting mills…………………………………
Cut and sew apparel…………………………………
Accessories and other apparel………………………
Leather and allied products…………………………

71.9
76.2
69.8
97.8
71.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

101.8
96.1
102.3
109.0
106.6

111.7
101.4
114.6
99.3
112.7

116.8
108.9
119.8
98.3
120.3

116.5
105.6
119.5
105.2
122.4

102.9
112.0
103.9
76.1
97.7

112.4
105.6
117.2
78.7
99.8

103.4
96.6
108.4
70.8
109.5

110.9
120.0
113.5
74.0
123.6

114.0
123.7
117.6
67.3
132.5

-

3161
3162
3169
321
3211

Leather and hide tanning and finishing………………
Footwear………………………………………………
Other leather products…………………………………
Wood products…………………………………………
Sawmills and wood preservation……………………

94.0
76.7
92.3
95.0
77.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.3
102.1
113.3
101.2
100.3

98.1
117.3
110.4
102.9
104.7

100.1
122.3
122.8
102.7
105.4

100.3
130.7
117.6
106.1
108.8

81.2
102.7
96.2
113.6
114.4

82.2
104.8
100.3
114.7
121.3

93.5
100.7
127.7
115.6
118.2

118.7
105.6
149.7
123.1
127.3

118.1
115.4
174.6
124.9
129.7

-

3212
3219
322
3221
3222

Plywood and engineered wood products…………… 99.7
Other wood products………………………………… 103.0
Paper and paper products……………………………
85.8
Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills…………………… 81.7
Converted paper products……………………………
89.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

105.1
101.0
102.3
102.5
102.5

98.7
104.5
104.1
111.1
100.1

98.8
103.0
106.3
116.3
101.1

105.2
104.7
106.8
119.9
100.5

110.3
113.9
114.2
133.1
105.6

107.0
113.9
118.9
141.4
109.6

102.9
119.6
123.4
148.0
112.9

110.2
126.3
124.5
147.7
114.8

117.4
125.3
127.3
151.1
116.6

-

323
3231
324
3241
325

Printing and related support activities………………
Printing and related support activities………………
Petroleum and coal products…………………………
Petroleum and coal products…………………………
Chemicals………………………………………………

97.6
97.6
71.1
71.1
85.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.6
100.6
102.2
102.2
99.9

102.8
102.8
107.1
107.1
103.5

104.6
104.6
113.5
113.5
106.6

105.3
105.3
112.1
112.1
105.3

110.2
110.2
118.0
118.0
114.2

111.1
111.1
119.2
119.2
118.4

114.5
114.5
123.4
123.4
125.8

119.5
119.5
123.8
123.8
134.1

121.1
121.1
122.8
122.8
137.5

-

3251
3252
3253
3254
3255

Basic chemicals………………………………………
Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers……………………
Agricultural chemicals…………………………………
Pharmaceuticals and medicines……………………
Paints, coatings, and adhesives……………………

94.6
77.4
80.4
87.3
89.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

102.8
106.0
98.8
93.8
100.1

115.7
109.8
87.4
95.7
100.3

117.5
109.8
92.1
95.6
100.8

108.8
106.2
90.0
99.5
105.6

123.8
123.1
99.2
97.4
108.9

136.0
122.2
108.4
101.5
115.2

154.4
121.9
117.4
104.1
119.1

165.2
130.5
132.5
110.0
120.8

169.3
134.9
130.7
115.0
115.4

-

3256
3259
326
3261
3262

Soap, cleaning compounds, and toiletries…………
Other chemical products and preparations…………
Plastics and rubber products…………………………
Plastics products………………………………………
Rubber products………………………………………

84.4
75.4
80.9
83.1
75.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

98.0
99.2
103.2
104.2
99.4

93.0
109.3
107.9
109.9
100.2

102.8
119.7
110.2
112.3
101.7

106.0
110.4
112.3
114.6
102.3

124.1
120.8
120.8
123.8
107.1

118.2
123.0
126.0
129.5
111.0

135.3
121.3
128.7
131.9
114.4

153.1
123.5
132.6
135.6
118.7

162.9
118.1
132.8
133.8
124.9

-

327
3271
3272
3273

Nonmetallic mineral products…………………………
Clay products and refractories………………………
Glass and glass products……………………………
Cement and concrete products………………………

87.6
86.9
82.4
93.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

103.7
101.2
101.3
105.1

104.3
102.7
106.7
105.9

102.5
102.9
108.1
101.6

100.0
98.4
102.9
98.0

104.6
99.7
107.5
102.4

111.2
103.5
115.3
108.3

108.7
109.2
113.8
102.8

115.3
114.6
123.1
106.5

114.6
111.9
132.9
103.1

-

Utilities

Manufacturing

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 107

Current Labor Statistics: Productivity Data

50. Continued - Annual indexes of output per hour for selected NAICS industries
[1997=100]
NAICS

1987

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

85.6
70.7
86.3
87.9
81.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

98.4
94.2
103.6
101.1
94.3

100.1
93.1
105.1
101.0
101.6

100.9
85.9
108.8
102.4
105.1

104.6
84.9
115.2
101.9
102.1

116.6
89.8
122.8
98.6
98.1

119.7
100.2
125.9
104.9
98.2

130.9
105.8
131.0
104.1
109.3

141.7
112.1
140.8
103.4
111.0

136.9
109.7
146.6
103.8
117.9

146.5
104.3
148.3
109.7
125.1

4246
4247
4248
4249
425
4251

Chemicals……………………………………………… 90.4
Petroleum………………………………………………
84.4
Alcoholic beverages…………………………………… 99.3
Miscellaneous nondurable goods…………………… 111.2
Electronic markets and agents and brokers………… 64.3
Electronic markets and agents and brokers………… 64.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

97.1
88.5
106.5
105.4
102.4
102.4

93.3
102.9
105.6
106.8
112.3
112.3

87.9
138.1
108.4
115.0
120.1
120.1

85.3
140.6
106.4
111.9
110.7
110.7

89.1
153.6
106.8
106.1
109.8
109.8

92.2
151.1
107.9
109.8
104.5
104.5

91.2
163.2
103.1
120.7
101.6
101.6

87.4
153.3
104.0
124.1
91.5
91.5

85.1
149.4
107.4
121.9
95.0
95.0

86.4
149.1
108.5
117.1
98.3
98.3

44-45
441
4411
4412
4413

Retail trade……………………………………………
Motor vehicle and parts dealers………………………
Automobile dealers……………………………………
Other motor vehicle dealers…………………………
Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores……………

79.2
78.4
79.2
74.1
71.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

105.7
106.4
106.5
109.6
105.1

112.7
115.1
116.3
114.8
107.6

116.1
114.3
113.7
115.3
108.4

120.1
116.0
115.5
124.6
101.3

125.6
119.9
117.2
133.6
107.7

131.6
124.3
119.5
133.8
115.1

137.9
127.3
124.7
143.3
110.1

141.3
126.7
123.5
134.6
115.5

147.3
129.3
125.8
142.6
115.9

152.7
132.2
129.8
146.9
112.0

442
4421
4422
443
4431

Furniture and home furnishings stores………………
Furniture stores…………………………………………
Home furnishings stores………………………………
Electronics and appliance stores……………………
Electronics and appliance stores……………………

75.1
77.3
71.3
38.0
38.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

104.1
104.3
104.1
122.6
122.6

110.8
107.5
115.2
150.6
150.6

115.9
112.0
121.0
173.7
173.7

122.4
119.7
126.1
196.7
196.7

129.3
125.2
134.9
233.5
233.5

134.6
128.8
142.6
292.7
292.7

146.7
139.2
156.8
334.1
334.1

150.5
142.3
161.4
367.5
367.5

158.2
151.1
168.3
412.0
412.0

168.7
156.6
184.6
471.1
471.1

444
4441
4442
445
4451

Building material and garden supply stores………… 75.8
Building material and supplies dealers……………… 77.6
Lawn and garden equipment and supplies stores…
66.9
Food and beverage stores…………………………… 110.8
Grocery stores………………………………………… 111.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

107.4
108.3
102.4
99.9
99.6

113.8
115.3
105.5
101.9
102.5

113.3
115.1
103.1
101.0
101.1

116.8
116.7
118.4
103.8
103.3

120.8
121.3
118.3
104.7
104.8

127.1
127.4
125.7
107.2
106.7

134.6
134.0
140.1
112.9
112.2

134.8
134.9
134.7
117.9
116.8

137.9
138.0
138.3
120.6
118.2

142.2
140.0
162.1
123.8
120.6

4452
4453
446
4461
447

Specialty food stores………………………………… 138.5
Beer, wine, and liquor stores………………………… 93.6
Health and personal care stores……………………
84.0
Health and personal care stores……………………
84.0
Gasoline stations……………………………………… 83.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.5
104.6
104.0
104.0
106.7

96.4
99.1
107.1
107.1
110.7

98.5
105.7
112.2
112.2
107.7

108.2
107.1
116.2
116.2
112.9

105.3
110.1
122.9
122.9
125.1

112.2
117.0
129.5
129.5
119.9

120.3
127.8
134.3
134.3
122.2

125.3
139.8
133.4
133.4
124.7

139.4
146.1
139.3
139.3
124.9

145.4
156.8
139.0
139.0
129.3

4471
448
4481
4482
4483

Gasoline stations………………………………………
Clothing and clothing accessories stores……………
Clothing stores…………………………………………
Shoe stores……………………………………………
Jewelry, luggage, and leather goods stores………

83.9
66.3
67.1
65.3
64.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

106.7
106.3
108.7
94.2
108.7

110.7
114.0
114.2
104.9
122.5

107.7
123.5
125.0
110.0
130.5

112.9
126.4
130.3
111.5
123.9

125.1
131.3
136.0
125.2
118.7

119.9
138.9
141.8
132.5
132.9

122.2
139.1
140.9
124.8
144.3

124.7
147.6
153.0
132.0
138.9

124.9
162.4
169.4
145.1
148.3

129.3
176.6
186.9
141.6
162.9

451
4511
4512
452
4521

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores……
Sporting goods and musical instrument stores……
Book, periodical, and music stores…………………
General merchandise stores…………………………
Department stores……………………………………

74.9
73.2
78.9
73.5
87.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

107.9
111.5
101.0
105.3
100.4

114.0
119.8
103.2
113.4
104.5

121.1
129.4
105.8
120.2
106.2

127.1
134.5
113.0
124.8
103.8

127.6
136.0
111.6
129.1
102.0

131.5
141.1
113.7
136.9
106.8

151.1
166.0
123.6
140.7
109.0

163.5
179.3
134.3
145.0
110.0

170.5
191.4
132.4
149.8
112.7

167.8
189.2
128.3
152.5
107.0

4529
453
4531
4532
4533

Other general merchandise stores…………………
Miscellaneous store retailers…………………………
Florists…………………………………………………
Office supplies, stationery and gift stores……………
Used merchandise stores……………………………

54.8
65.1
77.6
61.4
64.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

114.7
108.9
102.3
111.5
119.1

131.0
111.3
116.2
119.2
113.4

147.3
114.1
115.2
127.3
116.5

164.7
112.6
102.7
132.3
121.9

179.3
119.1
113.8
141.5
142.0

188.8
126.1
108.9
153.9
149.7

192.9
130.8
103.4
172.8
152.6

199.8
139.2
123.7
182.4
156.6

204.8
155.0
145.1
204.8
167.6

219.3
160.8
132.9
224.5
182.0

4539
454
4541
4542
4543

Other miscellaneous store retailers…………………
Nonstore retailers………………………………………
Electronic shopping and mail-order houses…………
Vending machine operators…………………………
Direct selling establishments…………………………

68.3
50.7
39.4
95.5
70.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

105.3
114.3
120.2
106.3
101.9

103.0
128.9
142.6
105.4
104.3

104.4
152.2
160.2
111.1
122.5

96.9
163.6
179.6
95.7
127.9

94.4
182.1
212.7
91.3
135.1

99.9
195.5
243.6
102.3
127.0

96.9
215.5
273.0
110.5
130.3

101.6
220.6
290.1
114.4
119.6

114.0
261.9
355.9
125.7
127.5

115.4
290.8
397.2
132.4
138.4

481
482111
48412
48421
491
4911

Air transportation………………………………………
81.1
Line-haul railroads……………………………………
58.9
General freight trucking, long-distance……………… 85.7
Used household and office goods moving………… 106.7
U.S. Postal service……………………………………
90.9
U.S. Postal service……………………………………
90.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

97.6
102.1
99.4
91.0
101.6
101.6

98.2
105.5
99.1
96.1
102.8
102.8

98.1
114.3
101.9
94.8
105.5
105.5

91.9
121.9
103.2
84.0
106.3
106.3

102.1
131.9
107.0
81.6
106.4
106.4

112.8
142.0
110.7
86.2
107.8
107.8

126.9
146.4
110.7
88.6
110.0
110.0

135.5
138.4
113.2
88.3
111.2
111.2

142.5
142.8
112.3
87.0
111.3
111.3

-

492
493
4931
49311
49312

Couriers and messengers…………………………… 148.3
Warehousing and storage……………………………
Warehousing and storage……………………………
General warehousing and storage…………………
Refrigerated warehousing and storage………………
-

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

112.6
106.4
106.4
112.1
97.9

117.6
107.7
107.7
112.9
103.4

122.0
109.3
109.3
115.8
95.4

123.4
115.3
115.3
126.3
85.4

131.1
122.1
122.1
136.1
87.2

134.0
124.8
124.8
138.9
92.3

126.8
122.5
122.5
131.0
99.3

125.1
124.9
124.9
132.2
97.5

128.6
122.3
122.3
127.9
88.5

-

100.0

116.1

116.3

117.1

116.6

117.2

126.4

130.7

136.5

142.7

-

Paper and paper products……………………………
Druggists' goods………………………………………
Apparel and piece goods……………………………
Grocery and related products…………………………
Farm product raw materials…………………………

511

108

Industry

4241
4242
4243
4244
4245

Retail trade

Transportation and warehousing

Information

Publishing industries, except internet

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

64.1

50. Continued - Annual indexes of output per hour for selected NAICS industries
[1997=100]
NAICS

1987

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

5111
5112
51213
515
5151
5152

Newspaper, book, and directory publishers………… 105.0
Software publishers…………………………………… 10.2
90.7
Motion picture and video exhibition…………………
Broadcasting, except internet………………………… 99.5
Radio and television broadcasting…………………… 98.1
Cable and other subscription programming………… 105.6

Industry

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

103.9
134.8
99.8
100.8
91.5
136.2

104.1
129.2
101.8
102.9
92.6
139.1

107.7
119.2
106.5
103.6
92.1
141.2

105.8
117.4
101.6
99.2
89.6
128.1

104.7
122.1
99.8
104.0
95.1
129.8

109.5
138.1
100.4
107.9
94.6
146.0

106.6
160.6
103.6
112.5
96.6
158.7

107.6
173.7
102.4
117.7
100.9
164.6

110.8
177.0
105.7
125.5
109.5
169.9

-

5171
5172
5175

Wired telecommunications carriers…………………
56.9
Wireless telecommunications carriers………………
75.6
Cable and other program distribution……………… 105.2

100.0
100.0
100.0

107.7
110.5
97.1

116.7
145.2
95.8

122.7
152.8
91.6

116.7
191.9
87.7

124.1
217.9
95.0

130.5
242.6
101.3

131.7
292.2
113.8

138.2
381.9
110.6

146.2
435.9
110.6

-

52211

Commercial banking…………………………………

72.8

100.0

97.0

99.8

102.7

99.6

102.1

103.6

108.4

108.5

114.2

-

92.7
60.3
77.0

100.0
100.0
100.0

100.1
115.4
113.2

112.2
120.9
129.4

112.3
121.7
134.9

111.1
113.5
133.3

114.6
114.0
130.3

121.1
115.8
148.5

118.2
136.6
154.5

110.2
145.1
144.2

111.8
162.2
176.4

-

82.9
90.0
90.2
95.9
98.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

107.6
111.4
98.2
89.2
124.8

105.8
106.8
98.0
97.9
109.8

100.9
107.6
102.0
107.5
108.9

94.4
111.0
100.1
106.9
102.2

111.4
107.6
100.5
113.1
97.6

110.0
112.6
100.5
121.1
104.1

99.9
118.3
107.8
133.5
93.0

103.6
120.8
115.4
131.5
93.5

99.7
119.1
116.2
132.8
95.3

-

89.3
75.1

100.0
100.0
100.0

86.8
111.4
95.3

93.2
115.5
98.6

89.8
119.4
101.0

99.6
115.2
102.1

116.8
127.6
105.6

115.4
147.2
118.8

119.8
167.2
116.6

115.9
182.4
121.5

122.9
189.9
115.6

-

-

100.0
100.0
100.0

118.8
117.2
121.4

124.7
121.4
129.7

131.9
127.4
139.9

135.3
127.7
148.3

137.6
123.1
163.3

140.8
128.6
160.0

140.8
130.7
153.5

137.9
126.0
154.0

140.1
128.2
156.3

-

Finance and insurance

Real estate and rental and leasing

2007

532111
53212
53223

Passenger car rental…………………………………
Truck, trailer, and RV rental and leasing……………
Video tape and disc rental……………………………

541213
54131
54133
54181
541921

Tax preparation services………………………………
Architectural services…………………………………
Engineering services…………………………………
Advertising agencies…………………………………
Photography studios, portrait…………………………

56131
56151
56172

Employment placement agencies……………………
Travel agencies………………………………………
Janitorial services………………………………………

6215
621511
621512

Medical and diagnostic laboratories…………………
Medical laboratories……………………………………
Diagnostic imaging centers……………………………

71311
71395

Amusement and theme parks………………………
Bowling centers………………………………………

112.0
106.0

100.0
100.0

110.5
89.9

105.2
89.4

106.0
93.4

93.0
94.3

106.5
96.4

113.2
102.4

101.4
107.9

109.9
106.1

97.7
110.6

-

7211
722
7221
7222
7223
7224

Traveler accommodation……………………………… 85.1
Food services and drinking places…………………
96.0
Full-service restaurants………………………………
92.1
Limited-service eating places………………………… 96.5
Special food services…………………………………
89.9
Drinking places, alcoholic beverages……………… 136.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.1
101.0
100.9
101.2
100.6
99.7

105.6
100.9
100.8
100.4
105.2
98.8

111.8
103.5
103.0
102.0
115.0
100.6

107.6
103.8
103.6
102.5
115.3
97.6

112.1
104.4
104.4
102.7
114.9
102.9

114.4
106.3
104.2
105.4
117.6
118.6

120.4
107.0
104.8
106.8
118.0
112.2

115.0
107.9
105.2
107.5
119.2
121.6

111.8
109.7
106.0
109.8
118.7
135.7

109.2
105.1
108.6
120.2
145.2

8111
81211
81221
8123
81292

Automotive repair and maintenance………………… 85.9
Hair, nail, and skin care services……………………
83.5
Funeral homes and funeral services………………… 103.7
Drycleaning and laundry services…………………… 97.1
Photofinishing…………………………………………
95.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

103.6
108.6
106.8
100.1
69.3

106.1
108.6
103.3
105.0
76.3

109.4
108.2
94.8
107.6
73.8

108.9
114.6
91.8
110.9
81.2

103.7
110.4
94.6
112.5
100.5

104.1
119.7
95.7
103.8
100.5

112.0
125.0
92.9
110.6
102.0

111.9
129.9
93.2
120.5
112.4

112.8
122.3
99.7
119.6
114.4

-

Professional and technical services

Administrative and waste services

Health care and social assistance

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

Accommodation and food services

Other services

NOTE: Dash indicates data are not available.

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 109

Current Labor Statistics: Productivity Data

51. Unemployment rates, approximating U.S. concepts, 10 countries, seasonally adjusted
[Percent]
2006

Country

2006

2007

I

II

2008

2007

III

IV

I

II

III

IV

I

II

III

United States………

4.6

4.6

4.7

4.7

4.7

4.4

4.5

4.5

4.7

4.8

4.9

5.3

Canada………………

5.5

5.3

5.7

5.4

5.6

5.4

5.4

5.3

5.2

5.2

5.2

5.3

5.3

Australia……………

4.8

4.4

5.0

4.9

4.7

4.5

4.5

4.3

4.3

4.3

4.1

4.3

4.2

Japan…………………

4.2

3.9

4.2

4.2

4.2

4.1

4.0

3.8

3.8

3.9

3.9

4.0

4.1

France………………

9.5

8.6

9.9

9.5

9.5

9.2

9.1

8.7

8.5

8.2

8.0

8.0

8.3

Germany……………

10.4

8.7

11.1

10.6

10.1

9.6

9.3

8.9

8.5

8.1

7.8

7.6

7.5

Italy…………………

6.9

6.2

7.3

6.9

6.7

6.5

6.2

6.1

6.2

6.4

6.7

6.8

-

Netherlands…………

3.9

3.2

4.3

3.9

3.8

3.8

3.6

3.2

3.0

3.0

2.9

2.8

2.5

Sweden………………

7.0

6.1

7.3

7.3

6.7

6.5

6.4

6.1

5.8

5.9

5.8

5.8

5.9

United Kingdom……

5.5

5.4

5.3

5.5

5.5

5.5

5.5

5.4

5.3

5.2

5.3

5.4

-

NOTE: Dash indicates data not available.
Quarterly figures for France, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands are calculated by
applying annual adjustment factors to current published data and therefore should be
viewed as less precise indicators of unemployment under U.S. concepts than the
annual figures. Quarterly figures for Sweden are BLS seasonally adjusted estimates
derived from Swedish not seasonally adjusted data. For further qualifications and
historical annual data, see the BLS report International comparisons of annual labor
force statistics, 10 countries (on the internet at

110

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

6.0

http://www.bls.gov/fls/flscomparelf.htm). For monthly unemployment rates, as
well as the quarterly and annual rates published in this table, see the BLS report
Unemployment rates in 10 countries, civilian labor force basis, approximating U.S.
concepts, seasonally adjusted (on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/fls/flsjec.pdf).
Unemployment rates may differ between the two reports mentioned, because the
former is updated annually, whereas the latter is updated monthly and reflects the
most recent revisions in source data.

52. Annual data: employment status of the working-age population, approximating U.S. concepts, 10 countries
[Numbers in thousands]

Employment status and country

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

137,673
15,135
9,339
67,240
25,434
39,752
23,004
7,744
4,401
28,474

139,368
15,403
9,414
67,090
25,791
39,375
23,176
7,881
4,423
28,786

142,583
15,637
9,590
66,990
26,099
39,302
23,361
8,052
4,482
28,962

143,734
15,891
9,744
66,860
26,393
39,459
23,524
8,199
4,522
29,092

144,863
16,366
9,893
66,240
26,646
39,413
23,728
8,345
4,537
29,343

146,510
16,733
10,079
66,010
26,851
39,276
24,020
8,379
4,557
29,564

147,401
16,955
10,221
65,770
26,937
39,711
24,084
8,439
4,571
29,802

149,320
17,108
10,506
65,850
27,092
40,760
24,179
8,459
4,694
30,138

151,428
17,351
10,699
65,960
27,322
41,250
24,395
8,541
4,748
30,600

153,124
17,696
10,949
66,080
27,535
41,416
24,459
8,686
4,823
30,790

67.1
65.1
64.3
63.2
55.6
57.3
47.3
61.1
63.2
62.5

67.1
65.4
64.3
62.8
56.0
57.7
47.7
61.8
62.8
62.4

67.1
65.9
64.0
62.4
56.3
56.9
47.9
62.5
62.7
62.8

67.1
66.0
64.4
62.0
56.6
56.7
48.1
63.4
63.7
62.8

66.8
66.1
64.4
61.6
56.7
56.7
48.3
64.0
63.6
62.7

66.6
67.1
64.3
60.8
56.8
56.4
48.5
64.7
63.9
62.9

66.2
67.7
64.6
60.3
56.8
56.0
49.1
64.6
63.8
62.9

66.0
67.7
64.6
60.0
56.6
56.4
49.1
64.8
63.6
63.0

66.0
67.4
65.3
60.0
56.5
57.6
48.7
64.7
64.8
63.1

66.2
67.4
65.6
60.0
56.6
58.2
48.9
65.1
64.9
63.5

66.0
67.7
66.0
60.0
56.7
58.4
48.6
65.9
65.3
63.4

United States……………………………………………… 129,558
Canada……………………………………………………
13,637
Australia……………………………………………………
8,444
Japan………………………………………………………
64,900
France……………………………………………………… 22,176
Germany…………………………………………………… 35,508
Italy…………………………………………………………
20,169
Netherlands………………………………………………
7,189
Sweden……………………………………………………
3,969
United Kingdom…………………………………………… 26,413

131,463
13,973
8,618
64,450
22,597
36,059
20,370
7,408
4,033
26,684

133,488
14,331
8,762
63,920
23,080
36,042
20,617
7,605
4,110
27,058

136,891
14,681
8,989
63,790
23,714
36,236
20,973
7,813
4,222
27,375

136,933
14,866
9,086
63,460
24,167
36,350
21,359
8,014
4,295
27,603

136,485
15,223
9,264
62,650
24,312
36,018
21,666
8,114
4,303
27,815

137,736
15,586
9,480
62,510
24,373
35,615
21,972
8,069
4,293
28,077

139,252
15,861
9,668
62,640
24,354
35,604
22,124
8,052
4,271
28,379

141,730
16,080
9,975
62,910
24,493
36,185
22,290
8,056
4,334
28,674

144,427
16,393
10,186
63,210
24,717
36,978
22,721
8,205
4,416
28,930

146,047
16,767
10,470
63,510
25,162
37,815
22,953
8,408
4,530
29,138

63.8
59.6
59.0
61.0
49.1
51.6
41.9
57.7
56.8
58.1

64.1
60.4
59.3
60.2
49.7
52.3
42.2
59.1
57.6
58.5

64.3
61.3
59.6
59.4
50.4
52.1
42.6
60.3
58.3
59.0

64.4
62.0
60.3
59.0
51.4
52.2
43.2
61.5
60.0
59.4

63.7
61.9
60.0
58.4
51.9
52.2
43.8
62.6
60.4
59.5

62.7
62.4
60.2
57.5
51.8
51.5
44.3
62.9
60.6
59.6

62.3
63.1
60.7
57.1
51.5
50.8
44.9
62.2
60.1
59.8

62.3
63.3
61.1
57.1
51.1
50.6
45.1
61.8
59.4
60.0

62.7
63.4
62.0
57.3
51.1
51.2
44.9
61.6
59.9
60.0

63.1
63.6
62.5
57.5
51.2
52.2
45.5
62.5
60.4
60.1

63.0
64.2
63.1
57.6
51.8
53.3
45.6
63.8
61.3
60.0

6,739
1,248
759
2,300
2,940
3,907
2,584
423
445
1,991

6,210
1,162
721
2,790
2,837
3,693
2,634
337
368
1,790

5,880
1,072
652
3,170
2,711
3,333
2,559
277
313
1,728

5,692
956
602
3,200
2,385
3,065
2,388
239
260
1,587

6,801
1,026
658
3,400
2,226
3,110
2,164
186
227
1,488

8,378
1,143
629
3,590
2,334
3,396
2,062
231
234
1,528

8,774
1,147
599
3,500
2,478
3,661
2,048
310
264
1,488

8,149
1,093
553
3,130
2,583
4,107
1,960
387
300
1,422

7,591
1,028
531
2,940
2,599
4,575
1,889
402
361
1,463

7,001
958
512
2,750
2,605
4,272
1,673
336
332
1,670

7,078
929
478
2,570
2,374
3,601
1,506
278
293
1,652

4.9
8.4
8.3
3.4
11.7
9.9
11.4
5.6
10.1
7.0

4.5
7.7
7.7
4.1
11.2
9.3
11.5
4.4
8.4
6.3

4.2
7.0
6.9
4.7
10.5
8.5
11.0
3.5
7.1
6.0

4.0
6.1
6.3
4.8
9.1
7.8
10.2
3.0
5.8
5.5

4.7
6.5
6.8
5.1
8.4
7.9
9.2
2.3
5.0
5.1

5.8
7.0
6.4
5.4
8.8
8.6
8.7
2.8
5.2
5.2

6.0
6.9
5.9
5.3
9.2
9.3
8.5
3.7
5.8
5.0

5.5
6.4
5.4
4.8
9.6
10.3
8.1
4.6
6.6
4.8

5.1
6.0
5.1
4.5
9.6
11.2
7.8
4.8
7.7
4.9

4.6
5.5
4.8
4.2
9.5
10.4
6.9
3.9
7.0
5.5

4.6
5.3
4.4
3.9
8.6
8.7
6.2
3.2
6.1
5.4

Civilian labor force
United States……………………………………………… 136,297
Canada……………………………………………………
14,884
Australia……………………………………………………
9,204
Japan………………………………………………………
67,200
France……………………………………………………… 25,116
Germany…………………………………………………… 39,415
Italy…………………………………………………………
22,753
Netherlands………………………………………………
7,612
Sweden……………………………………………………
4,414
United Kingdom…………………………………………… 28,403

Participation rate1
United States………………………………………………
Canada……………………………………………………
Australia……………………………………………………
Japan………………………………………………………
France………………………………………………………
Germany……………………………………………………
Italy…………………………………………………………
Netherlands………………………………………………
Sweden……………………………………………………
United Kingdom……………………………………………

Employed

Employment-population ratio 2
United States………………………………………………
Canada……………………………………………………
Australia……………………………………………………
Japan………………………………………………………
France………………………………………………………
Germany……………………………………………………
Italy…………………………………………………………
Netherlands………………………………………………
Sweden……………………………………………………
United Kingdom……………………………………………

Unemployed
United States………………………………………………
Canada……………………………………………………
Australia……………………………………………………
Japan………………………………………………………
France………………………………………………………
Germany……………………………………………………
Italy…………………………………………………………
Netherlands………………………………………………
Sweden……………………………………………………
United Kingdom……………………………………………

Unemployment rate
United States………………………………………………
Canada……………………………………………………
Australia……………………………………………………
Japan………………………………………………………
France………………………………………………………
Germany……………………………………………………
Italy…………………………………………………………
Netherlands………………………………………………
Sweden……………………………………………………
United Kingdom……………………………………………
1

Labor force as a percent of the working-age population.

2

Employment as a percent of the working-age population.

NOTE: There are breaks in series for the United States (1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2003,
2004), Australia (2001), Germany (1999, 2005), the Netherlands (2000, 2003), and Sweden
(2005). For further qualifications and historical annual data, see the BLS report
International comparisons of annual labor force statistics, 10 countries (on the

Internet at http://www.bls.gov/fls/flscomparelf.htm). Unemployment rates may differ
from those in the BLS report Unemployment rates in 10 countries, civilian labor force
basis, approximating U.S. concepts, seasonally adjusted (on the Internet at
http://www.bls.gov/fls/flsjec.pdf), because the former is updated annually, whereas
the latter is updated monthly and reflects the most recent revisions in source data.

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 111

Current Labor Statistics: International Comparisons

53. Annual indexes of manufacturing productivity and related measures, 16 economies

[1996 = 100]

Measure and economy

1980

1990

1993

1994

1995

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Output per hour
United States………………………
Canada………………………….……
Australia…………………….………
Japan…………………………………
Korea, Rep. of………………………
Taiwan………………………………
Belgium…………………………...…
Denmark……………………………
France………………………………
Germany………………………...……
Italy……………………………...……
Netherlands…………………...……
Norway………………………………
Spain………………………………..
Sweden……………………………..
United Kingdom……………….……

58.6
66.5
72.6
54.8
–
40.4
57.2
75.3
56.9
67.1
60.1
58.7
77.3
62.8
60.0
55.9

80.1
85.2
91.1
81.3
58.0
73.9
84.7
90.3
84.2
86.1
82.5
81.4
96.8
86.8
73.9
87.8

88.1
94.0
96.2
87.6
75.9
83.4
89.6
92.0
90.0
89.1
87.2
86.2
98.3
94.9
82.6
100.1

92.7
99.3
98.7
89.0
82.8
86.6
94.4
103.4
95.9
95.8
94.9
94.1
98.3
97.8
91.1
102.7

96.2
100.5
97.2
95.6
90.9
93.0
98.6
103.4
99.7
97.3
99.5
97.9
97.1
101.2
96.8
101.0

104.2
104.5
102.2
103.5
112.8
104.1
109.8
108.0
105.9
105.9
102.0
100.3
100.2
101.0
109.1
102.0

111.5
109.6
107.3
104.5
125.7
109.2
111.2
107.4
111.4
106.3
100.6
103.2
97.7
102.7
115.6
102.9

117.1
114.2
109.0
107.3
139.8
116.0
110.2
109.1
116.2
108.9
101.4
107.4
101.1
104.5
126.2
107.8

126.1
121.1
115.2
113.0
151.7
122.2
114.1
113.0
124.5
116.5
106.7
115.2
104.2
105.6
134.8
115.2

127.4
118.5
117.9
110.6
150.6
127.7
115.3
113.2
127.0
119.5
107.0
115.7
107.1
108.0
131.0
119.4

140.9
120.5
123.2
114.7
165.3
139.2
119.1
113.9
132.4
120.7
105.7
119.2
110.2
108.4
145.3
122.4

149.8
121.1
125.5
122.5
176.8
143.6
122.0
118.7
138.4
125.0
103.5
121.7
119.7
111.1
157.1
128.2

159.0
123.1
127.2
131.0
197.2
150.9
127.6
125.5
142.2
129.7
105.0
129.9
126.8
113.2
173.9
136.0

162.4
127.8
128.1
139.6
212.1
162.3
131.5
126.9
148.7
134.6
106.4
135.8
131.2
115.4
184.7
140.2

165.9
127.7
129.4
142.2
233.5
173.9
134.4
133.4
154.6
144.1
105.9
140.2
135.0
117.7
195.6
147.0

172.7
130.4
133.4
146.2
253.9
189.0
137.3
134.3
158.5
151.3
105.4
144.0
134.7
122.2
197.3
150.8

Output
United States…………………..……
Canada………………………………
Australia………………………………
Japan…………………………………
Korea, Rep. of………………………
Taiwan………………………………
Belgium………………………………
Denmark……………………………
France………………………………
Germany……………………………
Italy……………………………………
Netherlands…………………………
Norway………………………………
Spain………………………………..
Sweden………………………………
United Kingdom……………………

60.5
71.2
80.2
59.0
20.5
38.2
74.8
85.6
83.2
92.3
74.7
70.5
96.7
75.5
67.1
80.3

80.7
88.7
93.1
94.3
63.2
76.7
96.6
94.7
97.5
107.2
92.6
89.2
92.9
94.6
80.4
96.9

85.7
87.7
92.7
93.5
75.5
85.0
92.8
90.3
93.8
99.9
89.9
90.2
93.2
92.4
74.1
93.4

92.2
94.4
97.5
92.1
84.1
90.1
97.0
100.0
96.8
103.1
95.9
95.0
95.7
94.0
85.5
97.8

96.4
98.7
96.9
95.9
94.0
95.0
99.6
104.8
100.3
102.1
100.5
98.6
96.1
97.6
96.8
99.3

106.1
106.3
102.3
102.5
104.9
105.7
108.2
108.2
104.7
104.4
101.5
101.4
104.3
106.4
107.8
101.8

113.2
111.7
105.2
97.1
96.6
109.1
110.1
109.1
109.7
105.6
102.4
104.8
103.6
112.9
116.7
102.4

118.1
121.0
105.0
96.7
117.6
117.1
110.2
110.0
113.4
106.6
102.2
108.7
103.5
119.3
127.6
103.4

125.5
133.1
109.9
101.8
137.6
125.7
114.9
113.9
118.6
113.9
106.5
116.0
102.9
124.6
138.1
105.8

118.5
128.0
108.9
96.2
140.6
116.4
114.9
114.0
119.8
115.8
106.2
115.8
102.2
128.6
134.9
104.5

121.8
129.0
114.2
94.7
151.2
126.7
114.0
110.7
119.7
113.4
105.0
115.9
101.6
128.4
143.4
101.7

123.2
128.3
116.2
99.8
159.6
133.5
112.5
107.6
121.9
114.2
102.2
114.6
105.0
130.0
150.4
101.9

130.1
131.4
116.3
105.6
177.3
146.5
116.6
109.3
123.0
118.3
103.0
118.5
111.0
130.9
164.2
104.0

131.4
133.5
115.8
111.1
189.8
156.7
116.3
105.9
125.9
120.0
102.5
120.9
115.9
132.4
171.8
102.8

135.2
132.2
114.7
115.8
205.9
168.4
119.4
111.7
127.2
127.0
103.7
124.1
123.9
134.8
180.6
104.4

138.3
130.8
118.6
119.0
219.3
185.8
122.4
116.2
128.8
135.0
104.8
128.1
129.3
138.6
185.2
105.0

Total hours
United States……………………… 103.3
Canada……………………………… 107.0
Australia……………………………… 110.5
Japan………………………………… 107.6
Korea, Rep. of………………………
–
Taiwan……………………………… 94.5
Belgium……………………………… 130.9
Denmark…………………………… 113.7
France……………………………… 146.3
Germany…………………………… 137.4
Italy…………………………………… 124.3
Netherlands………………………… 120.1
Norway……………………………… 125.1
Spain……………………………….. 120.3
Sweden……………………………… 111.8
United Kingdom…………………… 143.8

100.7
104.1
102.2
115.9
109.0
103.7
114.1
104.8
115.8
124.6
112.2
109.6
96.0
109.0
108.8
110.4

97.3
93.3
96.4
106.7
99.5
101.9
103.5
98.1
104.1
112.1
103.1
104.6
94.8
97.4
89.7
93.3

99.5
95.1
98.7
103.5
101.6
104.0
102.8
96.7
101.0
107.6
101.1
100.9
97.3
96.1
93.9
95.2

100.2
98.3
99.7
100.4
103.3
102.2
101.0
101.4
100.6
105.0
100.9
100.7
99.0
96.4
100.0
98.3

101.8
101.6
100.1
99.1
93.0
101.6
98.6
100.2
98.9
98.6
99.5
101.0
104.1
105.4
98.8
99.8

101.5
101.9
98.1
92.9
76.8
99.9
98.9
101.5
98.5
99.4
101.8
101.5
106.1
109.9
100.9
99.6

100.9
105.9
96.3
90.2
84.1
101.0
100.0
100.8
97.6
97.9
100.8
101.2
102.4
114.1
101.1
95.9

99.6
109.9
95.4
90.1
90.7
102.9
100.6
100.8
95.3
97.7
99.9
100.7
98.8
118.0
102.4
91.8

93.0
107.9
92.3
87.0
93.3
91.1
99.6
100.7
94.3
96.9
99.3
100.1
95.4
119.0
103.0
87.5

86.5
107.1
92.7
82.6
91.5
91.1
95.7
97.2
90.4
94.0
99.3
97.2
92.3
118.4
98.7
83.1

82.2
105.9
92.6
81.4
90.2
92.9
92.2
90.7
88.1
91.4
98.8
94.1
87.7
117.0
95.7
79.5

81.8
106.7
91.4
80.6
89.9
97.1
91.4
87.1
86.5
91.2
98.1
91.2
87.5
115.6
94.4
76.5

80.9
104.4
90.4
79.6
89.5
96.5
88.5
83.5
84.7
89.2
96.4
89.0
88.4
114.7
93.0
73.3

81.5
103.5
88.7
81.5
88.2
96.8
88.9
83.7
82.3
88.1
97.9
88.5
91.8
114.6
92.4
71.0

80.1
100.3
88.9
81.4
86.4
98.3
89.2
86.5
81.2
89.2
99.4
88.9
96.0
113.4
93.9
69.6

82.7
82.4
79.5
83.0
36.1
66.5
81.4
83.1
78.9
72.3
70.5
79.0
81.2
65.9
77.4
82.8

93.3
93.5
89.3
94.1
61.6
82.6
94.8
90.9
91.8
86.7
85.1
91.7
89.2
90.3
85.8
96.2

96.3
96.2
90.4
96.0
70.8
86.6
95.5
94.1
95.3
90.6
89.6
95.7
91.9
93.6
88.0
98.6

98.1
98.5
95.7
99.2
85.9
93.8
98.2
96.0
98.1
95.5
94.9
98.3
96.0
97.6
92.8
100.3

102.6
102.4
103.0
103.3
108.7
103.1
103.8
103.4
102.9
102.0
104.7
102.3
104.5
102.4
105.4
104.4

108.6
107.7
107.3
105.9
118.4
107.0
105.3
106.1
103.7
103.4
102.8
106.7
110.6
103.2
109.4
112.3

112.9
110.0
111.7
105.7
119.0
108.9
106.7
108.8
107.0
105.8
105.4
110.5
116.9
102.9
112.8
118.9

123.2
113.6
116.3
105.1
127.1
111.0
108.6
110.9
112.8
111.3
108.1
116.1
123.5
104.5
117.2
126.2

126.1
116.7
123.6
106.5
131.1
118.1
114.3
116.2
115.8
114.7
111.8
121.4
130.9
108.7
122.8
131.8

135.2
120.6
129.3
107.2
144.4
114.4
119.3
121.2
122.8
117.5
115.0
128.4
138.8
111.8
129.4
139.1

144.7
125.5
134.5
104.9
151.5
116.3
122.8
129.4
125.7
120.2
119.3
133.5
144.5
117.4
135.2
146.1

147.7
129.1
141.6
105.9
173.0
118.2
125.4
134.4
129.7
120.9
123.4
139.0
149.2
121.5
138.9
153.7

150.5
135.4
150.7
106.8
186.8
122.8
129.8
143.6
134.4
122.4
127.4
141.1
156.2
127.3
143.6
159.7

156.7
138.0
160.3
105.3
202.9
125.2
132.5
148.0
140.9
127.5
129.9
145.0
165.1
132.7
147.7
171.0

162.2
143.2
169.9
105.0
218.6
127.2
136.0
150.5
145.0
129.7
132.7
149.3
172.9
139.2
152.9
175.3

Hourly compensation
(national currency basis)
United States………………………
Canada………………………………
Australia………………………………
Japan…………………………………
Korea, Rep. of………………………
Taiwan………………………………
Belgium………………………………
Denmark……………………………
France………………………………
Germany……………………………
Italy……………………………………
Netherlands…………………………
Norway………………………………
Spain………………………………..
Sweden………………………………
United Kingdom……………………
See notes at end of table.

112

51.2
43.8
–
53.7
–
23.1
47.5
39.5
34.6
43.3
22.6
52.4
34.3
23.1
32.9
33.4

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

53. Continued— Annual indexes of manufacturing productivity and related measures, 16 economies
Measure and economy

1980

1990

1993

1994

1995

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Unit labor costs
(national currency basis)
United States………………………
Canada………………………………
Australia………………………………
Japan…………………………………
Korea, Rep. of………………………
Taiwan………………………………
Belgium………………………………
Denmark……………………………
France………………………………
Germany……………………………
Italy……………………………………
Netherlands…………………………
Norway………………………………
Spain………………………………..
Sweden………………………………
United Kingdom……………………

87.4
65.9
–
98.0
33.6
57.1
83.0
52.5
60.9
64.5
37.6
89.4
44.4
36.8
54.9
59.8

103.3
96.7
87.3
102.1
62.3
89.9
96.1
91.9
93.7
84.0
85.4
97.0
83.9
76.0
104.8
94.3

106.0
99.5
92.8
107.5
81.2
99.1
105.7
98.9
102.0
97.3
97.5
106.4
90.7
95.1
103.9
96.1

103.9
96.9
91.5
107.9
85.5
100.0
101.2
91.0
99.4
94.6
94.4
101.7
93.4
95.7
96.6
96.0

102.0
98.0
98.4
103.8
94.5
100.9
99.6
92.9
98.5
98.2
95.3
100.4
98.9
96.5
95.8
99.4

98.5
98.0
100.7
99.8
96.4
99.0
94.5
95.7
97.2
96.3
102.7
102.0
104.2
101.4
96.6
102.4

97.4
98.3
100.0
101.3
94.2
97.9
94.7
98.8
93.1
97.3
102.2
103.3
113.2
100.4
94.7
109.2

96.4
96.3
102.4
98.6
85.1
93.9
96.9
99.7
92.1
97.1
104.0
102.8
115.7
98.5
89.4
110.3

97.7
93.8
100.9
93.0
83.8
90.9
95.1
98.1
90.6
95.5
101.4
100.8
118.5
99.0
86.9
109.5

99.0
98.5
104.8
96.2
87.0
92.5
99.1
102.7
91.2
96.0
104.5
104.9
122.2
100.6
93.8
110.4

96.0
100.0
105.0
93.5
87.3
82.2
100.2
106.4
92.8
97.4
108.7
107.7
126.0
103.1
89.1
113.7

96.6
103.6
107.1
85.6
85.7
81.0
100.6
109.0
90.8
96.1
115.3
109.7
120.7
105.6
86.1
113.9

92.9
104.9
111.3
80.8
87.8
78.4
98.3
107.0
91.2
93.2
117.6
107.0
117.6
107.3
79.9
113.0

92.6
106.0
117.6
76.5
88.1
75.7
98.7
113.1
90.4
91.0
119.8
103.9
119.1
110.3
77.8
113.9

94.4
108.1
123.9
74.0
86.9
72.0
98.6
110.9
91.2
88.5
122.6
103.5
122.3
112.7
75.5
116.3

93.9
109.8
127.4
71.8
86.1
67.3
99.1
112.1
91.5
85.7
125.8
103.6
128.3
113.9
77.5
116.2

Unit labor costs
(U.S. dollar basis)
United States………………………
Canada………………………………
Australia………………………………
Japan…………………………………
Korea, Rep. of………………………
Taiwan………………………………
Belgium………………………………
Denmark……………………………
France………………………………
Germany……………………………
Italy……………………………………
Netherlands…………………………
Norway………………………………
Spain………………………………..
Sweden………………………………
United Kingdom……………………

87.4
76.8
–
47.0
44.6
43.6
87.9
54.1
73.7
53.4
67.7
75.8
58.1
65.0
87.0
89.1

103.3
113.1
87.1
76.6
70.5
91.8
89.1
86.2
88.0
78.2
110.0
89.8
86.6
94.4
118.7
107.8

106.0
105.2
80.6
105.2
81.1
103.0
94.7
88.4
92.1
88.5
95.6
96.6
82.6
94.5
89.4
92.5

103.9
96.7
85.5
114.8
85.3
103.8
93.7
83.1
91.7
87.8
90.4
94.3
85.5
90.5
84.0
94.3

102.0
97.4
93.1
120.2
98.4
104.6
104.7
96.2
101.0
103.2
90.2
105.6
100.8
98.0
90.0
100.5

98.5
96.5
95.7
89.7
81.9
94.5
81.7
84.0
85.2
83.5
93.0
88.1
95.0
87.6
84.7
107.4

97.4
90.4
80.4
84.1
54.1
80.2
80.8
85.5
80.7
83.2
90.8
87.8
96.8
85.1
79.8
116.0

96.4
88.4
84.5
94.3
57.6
79.8
79.2
82.7
76.5
79.6
88.2
83.8
95.7
79.9
72.5
114.3

97.7
86.1
75.0
93.9
59.6
79.9
67.4
70.3
65.2
67.8
74.6
71.2
86.9
69.6
63.6
106.4

99.0
86.7
69.2
86.1
54.2
75.1
68.1
71.5
63.7
66.1
74.5
71.9
87.8
68.6
60.8
101.9

96.0
86.9
72.9
81.2
56.2
65.4
72.7
78.2
68.4
70.8
81.9
77.9
101.9
74.2
61.4
109.5

96.6
100.9
89.3
80.3
57.9
64.6
87.4
96.1
80.2
83.7
104.0
95.0
110.1
91.1
71.5
119.3

92.9
109.9
104.7
81.3
61.7
64.5
93.9
103.7
88.5
89.2
116.5
101.8
112.7
101.6
72.9
132.7

92.6
119.3
114.6
75.6
69.3
64.7
94.3
109.5
87.8
87.1
118.8
98.9
119.4
104.5
69.8
132.9

94.4
130.0
119.3
69.2
73.3
60.8
95.1
108.3
89.3
85.5
122.7
99.5
123.2
107.8
68.7
137.4

93.9
139.5
136.6
66.3
74.6
56.3
104.3
119.5
97.8
90.5
137.5
108.7
141.6
118.9
77.0
149.1

NOTE: Data for Germany for years before 1993 are for the former West Germany. Data for 1993 onward are for unified Germany. Dash indicates data not available.

augTAB54B

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 113

Current Labor Statistics: International Comparisons

54. Occupational injury and illness rates by industry, 1 United States
Industry and type of case

Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers 3

2

1989

1

1990

1991

1992

1993

4

1994

4

1995

4

1996

4

1997

4

1998

4

1999

4

2000

4

2001

4

5

PRIVATE SECTOR

8.6
4.0
78.7

8.8
4.1
84.0

8.4
3.9
86.5

8.9
3.9
93.8

8.5
3.8
–

8.4
3.8
–

8.1
3.6
–

7.4
3.4
–

7.1
3.3
–

6.7
3.1
–

6.3
3.0
–

6.1
3.0
–

5.7
2.8
–

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing
Total cases ............................………………………….
Lost workday cases.....................................................
Lost workdays........………...........................................

10.9
5.7
100.9

11.6
5.9
112.2

10.8
5.4
108.3

11.6
5.4
126.9

11.2
5.0
–

10.0
4.7
–

9.7
4.3
–

8.7
3.9
–

8.4
4.1
–

7.9
3.9
–

7.3
3.4
–

7.1
3.6
–

7.3
3.6
–

Mining
Total cases ............................………………………….
Lost workday cases.....................................................
Lost workdays........………...........................................

8.5
4.8
137.2

8.3
5.0
119.5

7.4
4.5
129.6

7.3
4.1
204.7

6.8
3.9
–

6.3
3.9
–

6.2
3.9
–

5.4
3.2
–

5.9
3.7
–

4.9
2.9
–

4.4
2.7
–

4.7
3.0
–

4.0
2.4
–

Construction
Total cases ............................………………………….
Lost workday cases.....................................................
Lost workdays........………...........................................

14.3
6.8
143.3

14.2
6.7
147.9

13.0
6.1
148.1

13.1
5.8
161.9

12.2
5.5
–

11.8
5.5
–

10.6
4.9
–

9.9
4.5
–

9.5
4.4
–

8.8
4.0
–

8.6
4.2
–

8.3
4.1
–

7.9
4.0
–

General building contractors:
Total cases ............................………………………….
Lost workday cases.....................................................
Lost workdays........………...........................................

13.9
6.5
137.3

13.4
6.4
137.6

12.0
5.5
132.0

12.2
5.4
142.7

11.5
5.1
–

10.9
5.1
–

9.8
4.4
–

9.0
4.0
–

8.5
3.7
–

8.4
3.9
–

8.0
3.7
–

7.8
3.9
–

6.9
3.5
–

Heavy construction, except building:
Total cases ............................………………………….
Lost workday cases.....................................................
Lost workdays........………...........................................

13.8
6.5
147.1

13.8
6.3
144.6

12.8
6.0
160.1

12.1
5.4
165.8

11.1
5.1
–

10.2
5.0
–

9.9
4.8
–

9.0
4.3
–

8.7
4.3
–

8.2
4.1
–

7.8
3.8
–

7.6
3.7
–

7.8
4.0
–

Special trades contractors:
Total cases ............................………………………….
Lost workday cases.....................................................
Lost workdays........………...........................................

14.6
6.9
144.9

14.7
6.9
153.1

13.5
6.3
151.3

13.8
6.1
168.3

12.8
5.8
–

12.5
5.8
–

11.1
5.0
–

10.4
4.8
–

10.0
4.7
–

9.1
4.1
–

8.9
4.4
–

8.6
4.3
–

8.2
4.1
–

Manufacturing
Total cases ............................………………………….
Lost workday cases.....................................................

13.1
5.8

13.2
5.8

12.7
5.6

12.5
5.4

12.1
5.3

12.2
5.5

11.6
5.3

10.6
4.9

10.3
4.8

9.7
4.7

9.2
4.6

9.0
4.5

8.1
4.1

Lost workdays........………...........................................

113.0

120.7

121.5

124.6

–

–

–

–

–

–

–

–

–

Total cases ............................………………………….
Lost workday cases.....................................................
Lost workdays........………...........................................

14.1
6.0
116.5

14.2
6.0
123.3

13.6
5.7
122.9

13.4
5.5
126.7

13.1
5.4
–

13.5
5.7
–

12.8
5.6
–

11.6
5.1
–

11.3
5.1
–

10.7
5.0
–

10.1
4.8
–

–
–
–

8.8
4.3
–

Lumber and wood products:
Total cases ............................…………………………
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost workdays........………........................................

18.4
9.4
177.5

18.1
8.8
172.5

16.8
8.3
172.0

16.3
7.6
165.8

15.9
7.6
–

15.7
7.7
–

14.9
7.0
–

14.2
6.8
–

13.5
6.5
–

13.2
6.8
–

13.0
6.7
–

12.1
6.1
–

10.6
5.5
–

Furniture and fixtures:
Total cases ............................…………………………
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost workdays........………........................................

16.1
7.2
–

16.9
7.8
–

15.9
7.2
–

14.8
6.6
128.4

14.6
6.5
–

15.0
7.0
–

13.9
6.4
–

12.2
5.4
–

12.0
5.8
–

11.4
5.7
–

11.5
5.9
–

11.2
5.9
–

11.0
5.7
–

Stone, clay, and glass products:
Total cases ............................…………………………
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost workdays........………........................................

15.5
7.4
149.8

15.4
7.3
160.5

14.8
6.8
156.0

13.6
6.1
152.2

13.8
6.3
–

13.2
6.5
–

12.3
5.7
–

12.4
6.0
–

11.8
5.7
–

11.8
6.0
–

10.7
5.4
–

10.4
5.5
–

10.1
5.1
–

Primary metal industries:
Total cases ............................…………………………
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost workdays........………........................................

18.7
8.1
168.3

19.0
8.1
180.2

17.7
7.4
169.1

17.5
7.1
175.5

17.0
7.3
–

16.8
7.2
–

16.5
7.2
–

15.0
6.8
–

15.0
7.2
–

14.0
7.0
–

12.9
6.3
–

12.6
6.3
–

10.7
5.3
11.1

Fabricated metal products:
Total cases ............................…………………………
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost workdays........………........................................

18.5
7.9
147.6

18.7
7.9
155.7

17.4
7.1
146.6

16.8
6.6
144.0

16.2
6.7
–

16.4
6.7
–

15.8
6.9
–

14.4
6.2
–

14.2
6.4
–

13.9
6.5
–

12.6
6.0
–

11.9
5.5
–

11.1
5.3
–

Industrial machinery and equipment:
Total cases ............................…………………………
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost workdays........………........................................

12.1
4.8
86.8

12.0
4.7
88.9

11.2
4.4
86.6

11.1
4.2
87.7

11.1
4.2
–

11.6
4.4
–

11.2
4.4
–

9.9
4.0
–

10.0
4.1
–

9.5
4.0
–

8.5
3.7
–

8.2
3.6
–

11.0
6.0
–

Electronic and other electrical equipment:
Total cases ............................…………………………
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost workdays........………........................................

9.1
3.9
77.5

9.1
3.8
79.4

8.6
3.7
83.0

8.4
3.6
81.2

8.3
3.5
–

8.3
3.6
–

7.6
3.3
–

6.8
3.1
–

6.6
3.1
–

5.9
2.8
–

5.7
2.8
–

5.7
2.9
–

5.0
2.5
–

Transportation equipment:
Total cases ............................…………………………
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost workdays........………........................................

17.7
6.8
138.6

17.8
6.9
153.7

18.3
7.0
166.1

18.7
7.1
186.6

18.5
7.1
–

19.6
7.8
–

18.6
7.9
–

16.3
7.0
–

15.4
6.6
–

14.6
6.6
–

13.7
6.4
–

13.7
6.3
–

12.6
6.0
–

Instruments and related products:
Total cases ............................…………………………
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost workdays........………........................................

5.6
2.5
55.4

5.9
2.7
57.8

6.0
2.7
64.4

5.9
2.7
65.3

5.6
2.5
–

5.9
2.7
–

5.3
2.4
–

5.1
2.3
–

4.8
2.3
–

4.0
1.9
–

4.0
1.8
–

4.5
2.2
–

4.0
2.0
–

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries:
Total cases ............................…………………………
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost workdays........………........................................

11.1
5.1
97.6

11.3
5.1
113.1

11.3
5.1
104.0

10.7
5.0
108.2

10.0
4.6
–

9.9
4.5
–

9.1
4.3
–

9.5
4.4
–

8.9
4.2
–

8.1
3.9
–

8.4
4.0
–

7.2
3.6
–

6.4
3.2
–

Total cases ............................………………………….
Lost workday cases.....................................................
Lost workdays........………...........................................
5

Durable goods:

See footnotes at end of table.

114

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

54. Continued—Occupational injury and illness rates by industry,1 United States
Industry and type of case2

Incidence rates per 100 workers 3
1989 1

1990

1991

1993 4 1994 4 1995 4 1996 4 1997 4 1998 4 1999 4 2000 4 2001 4

1992

Nondurable goods:
Total cases ............................…………………………..…
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost workdays........………...............................................

11.6
5.5
107.8

11.7
5.6
116.9

11.5
5.5
119.7

11.3
5.3
121.8

10.7
5.0
–

10.5
5.1
–

9.9
4.9
–

9.2
4.6
–

8.8
4.4
–

8.2
4.3

7.8
4.2
–

7.8
4.2
–

6.8
3.8
–

Food and kindred products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..
Lost workday cases......................................................
Lost workdays........………............................................

18.5
9.3
174.7

20.0
9.9
202.6

19.5
9.9
207.2

18.8
9.5
211.9

17.6
8.9
–

17.1
9.2
–

16.3
8.7
–

15.0
8.0
–

14.5
8.0
–

13.6
7.5

12.7
7.3
–

12.4
7.3
–

10.9
6.3
–

Tobacco products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..
Lost workday cases......................................................
Lost workdays........………............................................

8.7
3.4
64.2

7.7
3.2
62.3

6.4
2.8
52.0

6.0
2.4
42.9

5.8
2.3
–

5.3
2.4
–

5.6
2.6
–

6.7
2.8
–

5.9
2.7
–

6.4
3.4

-

5.5
2.2
–

6.2
3.1
–

6.7
4.2
–

Textile mill products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..
Lost workday cases......................................................
Lost workdays........………............................................

10.3
4.2
81.4

9.6
4.0
85.1

10.1
4.4
88.3

9.9
4.2
87.1

9.7
4.1
–

8.7
4.0
–

8.2
4.1
–

7.8
3.6
–

6.7
3.1
–

7.4
3.4
–

6.4
3.2
–

6.0
3.2
–

5.2
2.7
–

Apparel and other textile products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..
Lost workday cases......................................................
Lost workdays........………............................................

8.6
3.8
80.5

8.8
3.9
92.1

9.2
4.2
99.9

9.5
4.0
104.6

9.0
3.8
–

8.9
3.9
–

8.2
3.6
–

7.4
3.3
–

7.0
3.1
–

6.2
2.6

-

5.8
2.8
–

6.1
3.0
–

5.0
2.4
–

Paper and allied products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..
Lost workday cases......................................................
Lost workdays........………............................................

12.7
5.8
132.9

12.1
5.5
124.8

11.2
5.0
122.7

11.0
5.0
125.9

9.9
4.6
–

9.6
4.5
–

8.5
4.2
–

7.9
3.8
–

7.3
3.7
–

7.1
3.7
–

7.0
3.7
–

6.5
3.4
–

6.0
3.2
–

Printing and publishing:
Total cases ............................…………………………..
Lost workday cases......................................................
Lost workdays........………............................................

6.9
3.3
63.8

6.9
3.3
69.8

6.7
3.2
74.5

7.3
3.2
74.8

6.9
3.1
–

6.7
3.0
–

6.4
3.0
–

6.0
2.8
–

5.7
2.7
–

5.4
2.8
–

5.0
2.6
–

5.1
2.6
–

4.6
2.4
–

Chemicals and allied products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..
Lost workday cases......................................................
Lost workdays........………............................................

7.0
3.2
63.4

6.5
3.1
61.6

6.4
3.1
62.4

6.0
2.8
64.2

5.9
2.7
–

5.7
2.8
–

5.5
2.7
–

4.8
2.4
–

4.8
2.3
–

4.2
2.1
–

4.4
2.3
–

4.2
2.2
–

4.0
2.1
–

Petroleum and coal products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..
Lost workday cases......................................................
Lost workdays........………............................................

6.6
3.3
68.1

6.6
3.1
77.3

6.2
2.9
68.2

5.9
2.8
71.2

5.2
2.5
–

4.7
2.3
–

4.8
2.4
–

4.6
2.5
–

4.3
2.2
–

3.9
1.8
–

4.1
1.8
–

3.7
1.9
–

2.9
1.4
–

Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..
Lost workday cases......................................................
Lost workdays........………............................................

16.2
8.0
147.2

16.2
7.8
151.3

15.1
7.2
150.9

14.5
6.8
153.3

13.9
6.5
–

14.0
6.7
–

12.9
6.5
–

12.3
6.3
–

11.9
5.8
–

11.2
5.8
–

10.1
5.5
–

10.7
5.8
–

8.7
4.8
–

Leather and leather products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..
Lost workday cases......................................................
Lost workdays........………............................................

13.6
6.5
130.4

12.1
5.9
152.3

12.5
5.9
140.8

12.1
5.4
128.5

12.1
5.5
–

12.0
5.3
–

11.4
4.8
–

10.7
4.5
–

10.6
4.3
–

9.8
4.5
–

10.3
5.0
–

9.0
4.3
–

8.7
4.4
–

Transportation and public utilities
Total cases ............................…………………………..…
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost workdays........………...............................................

9.2
5.3
121.5

9.6
5.5
134.1

9.3
5.4
140.0

9.1
5.1
144.0

9.5
5.4
–

9.3
5.5
–

9.1
5.2
–

8.7
5.1
–

8.2
4.8
–

7.3
4.3
–

7.3
4.4
–

6.9
4.3
–

6.9
4.3
–

Wholesale and retail trade
Total cases ............................…………………………..…
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost workdays........………...............................................

8.0
3.6
63.5

7.9
3.5
65.6

7.6
3.4
72.0

8.4
3.5
80.1

8.1
3.4
–

7.9
3.4
–

7.5
3.2
–

6.8
2.9
–

6.7
3.0
–

6.5
2.8
–

6.1
2.7
–

5.9
2.7
–

6.6
2.5
–

Wholesale trade:
Total cases ............................…………………………..…
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost workdays........………...............................................

7.7
4.0
71.9

7.4
3.7
71.5

7.2
3.7
79.2

7.6
3.6
82.4

7.8
3.7
–

7.7
3.8
–

7.5
3.6
–

6.6
3.4
–

6.5
3.2
–

6.5
3.3
–

6.3
3.3
–

5.8
3.1
–

5.3
2.8
–

Retail trade:
Total cases ............................…………………………..…
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost workdays........………...............................................

8.1
3.4
60.0

8.1
3.4
63.2

7.7
3.3
69.1

8.7
3.4
79.2

8.2
3.3
–

7.9
3.3
–

7.5
3.0
–

6.9
2.8
–

6.8
2.9
–

6.5
2.7
–

6.1
2.5
–

5.9
2.5
–

5.7
2.4
–

Finance, insurance, and real estate
Total cases ............................…………………………..…
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost workdays........………...............................................

2.0
.9
17.6

2.4
1.1
27.3

2.4
1.1
24.1

2.9
1.2
32.9

2.9
1.2
–

2.7
1.1
–

2.6
1.0
–

2.4
.9
–

2.2
.9
–

.7
.5
–

1.8
.8
–

1.9
.8
–

1.8
.7
–

Services
Total cases ............................…………………………..…
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost workdays........………...............................................

5.5
2.7
51.2

6.0
2.8
56.4

6.2
2.8
60.0

7.1
3.0
68.6

6.7
2.8
–

6.5
2.8
–

6.4
2.8
–

6.0
2.6
–

5.6
2.5
–

5.2
2.4
–

4.9
2.2
–

4.9
2.2
–

4.6
2.2
–

-

-

1
Data for 1989 and subsequent years are based on the Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1987 Edition. For this reason, they are not strictly comparable with data
for the years 1985–88, which were based on the Standard Industrial Classification
Manual, 1972 Edition, 1977 Supplement.

N = number of injuries and illnesses or lost workdays;
EH = total hours worked by all employees during the calendar year; and
200,000 = base for 100 full-time equivalent workers (working 40 hours per week, 50 weeks
per year).

2
Beginning with the 1992 survey, the annual survey measures only nonfatal injuries and
illnesses, while past surveys covered both fatal and nonfatal incidents. To better address
fatalities, a basic element of workplace safety, BLS implemented the Census of Fatal
Occupational Injuries.

4
Beginning with the 1993 survey, lost workday estimates will not be generated. As of 1992,
BLS began generating percent distributions and the median number of days away from work
by industry and for groups of workers sustaining similar work disabilities.
5

Excludes farms with fewer than 11 employees since 1976.

3

The incidence rates represent the number of injuries and illnesses or lost workdays per
100 full-time workers and were calculated as (N/EH) X 200,000, where:

NOTE: Dash indicates data not available.

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009 115

Current Labor Statistics: Injury and Illness Data

55. Fatal occupational injuries by event or exposure, 1996-2005
20053

1996-2000
(average)

2001-2005
(average)2

All events ...............................................................

6,094

5,704

5,734

100

Transportation incidents ................................................
Highway ........................................................................
Collision between vehicles, mobile equipment .........
Moving in same direction ......................................
Moving in opposite directions, oncoming ..............
Moving in intersection ...........................................
Vehicle struck stationary object or equipment on
side of road .............................................................
Noncollision ...............................................................
Jack-knifed or overturned--no collision .................
Nonhighway (farm, industrial premises) ........................
Noncollision accident ................................................
Overturned ............................................................
Worker struck by vehicle, mobile equipment ................
Worker struck by vehicle, mobile equipment in
roadway ..................................................................
Worker struck by vehicle, mobile equipment in
parking lot or non-road area ....................................
Water vehicle ................................................................
Aircraft ...........................................................................

2,608
1,408
685
117
247
151

2,451
1,394
686
151
254
137

2,493
1,437
718
175
265
134

43
25
13
3
5
2

264
372
298
378
321
212
376

310
335
274
335
277
175
369

345
318
273
340
281
182
391

6
6
5
6
5
3
7

129

136

140

2

171
105
263

166
82
206

176
88
149

3
2
3

Assaults and violent acts ...............................................
Homicides .....................................................................
Shooting ....................................................................
Suicide, self-inflicted injury ............................................

1,015
766
617
216

850
602
465
207

792
567
441
180

14
10
8
3

Contact with objects and equipment ............................
Struck by object ............................................................
Struck by falling object ..............................................
Struck by rolling, sliding objects on floor or ground
level .........................................................................
Caught in or compressed by equipment or objects .......
Caught in running equipment or machinery ..............
Caught in or crushed in collapsing materials ................

1,005
567
364

952
560
345

1,005
607
385

18
11
7

77
293
157
128

89
256
128
118

94
278
121
109

2
5
2
2

Falls ..................................................................................
Fall to lower level ..........................................................
Fall from ladder .........................................................
Fall from roof .............................................................
Fall to lower level, n.e.c. ...........................................

714
636
106
153
117

763
669
125
154
123

770
664
129
160
117

13
12
2
3
2

Exposure to harmful substances or environments .....
Contact with electric current ..........................................
Contact with overhead power lines ...........................
Exposure to caustic, noxious, or allergenic substances
Oxygen deficiency .........................................................

535
290
132
112
92

498
265
118
114
74

501
251
112
136
59

9
4
2
2
1

Fires and explosions ......................................................
Fires--unintended or uncontrolled .................................
Explosion ......................................................................

196
103
92

174
95
78

159
93
65

3
2
1

Event or exposure1

Number

Percent

1 Based on the 1992 BLS Occupational Injury and Illness Classification Manual.
2 Excludes fatalities from the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks.
3 The BLS news release of August 10, 2006, reported a total of 5,702 fatal work injuries for calendar year
2005. Since then, an additional 32 job-related fatalities were identified, bringing the total job-related fatality
count for 2005 to 5,734.
NOTE: Totals for all years are revised and final. Totals for major categories may include subcategories not
shown separately. Dashes indicate no data reported or data that do not meet publication criteria. N.e.c. means
"not elsewhere classified."
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, in cooperation with State, New York City,
District of Columbia, and Federal agencies, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries.

116

Monthly Labor Review • January 2009

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Wages in the Nonprofit Sector: Healthcare, Personal Care, and Social Service
Occupations
by Amy Butler
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Originally Posted: January 27, 2009
Revision posted: April 15, 2009
The National Compensation Survey now publishes wage data on full-time workers in private nonprofit establishments. This is
the third in a series of three articles comparing the average hourly earnings of full-time workers in private nonprofits, private
industry as a whole, State governments, and local governments.
In 2007, there were more than 1.64 million nonprofit organizations in the United States.1 Nonprofits include, but are not
limited to, hospitals, churches, educational institutions, social welfare organizations, and charitable organizations. Health
professionals, educators, other professionals, health technicians, administrative support workers, and service occupations
account for the majority of paid workers in the nonprofit sector.2
The National Compensation Survey (NCS) provides a source of recent data to compare the wage rates of workers in
nonprofits with those of their counterparts in private industry as a whole3 and in State and local government. Separate wage
estimates for full-time workers in private nonprofit establishments in 2007 were published in National Compensation Survey:
Occupational Earnings in the United States, 2007.4 The NCS now provides average hourly wage estimates by occupational
group and by detailed occupation for full-time workers employed in all private industry, in the private nonprofit sector, in State
government, and in local government.5
Organizations that provide health services account for 37 percent of the revenues of the entire nonprofit sector.6 Healthcare
establishments include hospitals, nursing homes, doctors offices, and home health agencies. More than half of all
hospitals7 and about 31 percent of nursing homes are nonprofit.8 Physicians, nurses, laboratory technicians, and medical
assistants are some of the occupations found in healthcare establishments.
Some workers, such as home care aides, work in health-related fields, but their jobs are not classified in the healthcare
occupation groups; their jobs are in the personal care and service occupations group. The personal care and services group
also includes many other occupations, ranging from child care workers to residential advisors of colleges and boarding
schools.
Social services--such as child welfare agencies, community food and housing organizations, job training, and social welfare
programs--assist individuals and families. Nonprofit organizations sometimes supplement programs provided by government
agencies and for-profit businesses. Nonprofits are often contracted to administer programs that are created, overseen, and
funded by State or Federal government (or both).9
There are several hypotheses used to explain why the wages of nonprofit workers differ from those of their for-profit
counterparts. According to the labor donation hypothesis, workers in the nonprofit sector are willing to donate a portion of
their paid labor and receive lower wages because they obtain satisfaction from the fact that their efforts achieve altruistic
goals. Also, nonprofits might pay lower wages and compensate their workers with employer-provided benefits or other
favorable job characteristics such as a flexible work schedule. On the other hand, some nonprofits might actually pay higher
wages because nonprofits do not benefit from the cost reductions of paying lower wages in the same way that for-profit
employers do. In addition, nonprofits may choose to hire better quality workers in order to produce a better quality product or
service and pay these employees higher wages.10
Using data from the 2007 National Compensation Survey, this third and final article of the series compares the wages of fulltime private nonprofit workers in healthcare, personal care, and social service occupations with the wages of workers in the
same occupations in all private industry, in State government, and in local government. The comparisons are made for

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occupational groups and for specific occupations.11 The first article in the series examines the wages of workers in
management, selected professional, and administrative support occupations; the second article examines the wages of
occupations typically found in educational and research institutions.

Healthcare Practitioner And Technical Occupations
Dentists, pharmacists, therapists, and registered nurses are a few of the occupations in the healthcare practitioner and
technical occupational group. As chart 1 below shows, wages for healthcare practitioner and technical occupations at
nonprofit establishments ($28.85) were higher in 2007 than they were for the same occupations in State government ($23.89)
and in local government ($27.30).12 In private industry as a whole, these occupations received hourly rates ($30.11) that
were not significantly greater than those in the nonprofit sector.

Physicians and surgeons. Physicians and surgeons is a broad occupation group that is further separated into specific
occupations such as general practitioners, psychiatrists, pediatricians, and so on. Chart 2 shows that physicians and
surgeons earned more per hour in nonprofit establishments ($54.62) in 2007 than they did at State and local government
establishments ($40.41).13 However, physicians and surgeons employed by private establishments earned considerably
more per hour ($86.63) than those employed by nonprofits.

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Registered nurses. Registered nurse is the largest healthcare occupation in terms of employment, with 2.5 million
workers.14 Hourly wages for registered nurses were similar at nonprofits ($30.80), all private establishments ($30.58), and
State and local governments ($29.60).15
Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses. Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses are supervised by
physicians and registered nurses.16 They provide basic care to patients and assist other healthcare providers. Chart 2 shows
that the average hourly earnings of licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses were lower at State and local
governments ($16.68 per hour) than they were at nonprofits ($18.95 per hour). Wages at nonprofits for this occupation were
similar to those at all private establishments ($18.79 per hour).
Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians. Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians perform medical
laboratory tests used to diagnose various diseases and other ailments. These workers are employed by hospitals, clinics, or
establishments that provide medical testing services. As can be seen in chart 2, the hourly wages of clinical laboratory
technologists and technicians were similar at nonprofits ($19.87), in private industry as a whole ($19.60), and in State and
local governments ($18.85).17

Healthcare Support Occupations
Healthcare support occupations include such occupations as nursing aides, orderlies, and medical assistants. As chart 3
shows, healthcare support occupations at nonprofits averaged $12.12 per hour, similar to the wages of these occupations
employed by local government ($12.30 per hour). In State government, however, these occupations earned more per hour
($13.42) than in nonprofits. In private establishments, these occupations earned an average of $12.51 per hour, which is
similar to the wages at nonprofits. Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants at nonprofits averaged $11.99 per hour and
earned more than those in all private establishments ($11.32 per hour), but not significantly more than workers in State and
local governments ($11.44 per hour).18 Medical assistants earned similar hourly wages at nonprofits ($14.03), in State and
local government ($14.05),19 and at private establishments ($13.42).

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COMPENSATION AND WORKING CONDITIONS

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Personal Care And Service Occupations
Personal care and service occupations include such occupations as child care workers and home care aides. Home care
aides work in patients homes or in residential care facilities. As chart 4 shows, workers in these occupations earned less at
nonprofits ($10.86 per hour) than at local governments ($13.91 per hour). The average hourly wages of nonprofit personal
care and service workers did not differ significantly from those of private industry workers ($11.15) and those of State
government workers ($13.18 per hour). Child care workers had higher hourly wages at State and local government
($13.13)20 than at nonprofits ($10.08) and private industry ($9.00). The hourly earnings of personal and home care aides at
nonprofits ($10.52), at private establishments ($10.20), and in State and local government ($11.52) were similar to one
another--that is, the differences were not statistically significant.

Community And Social Services Occupations
Community and social service workers include social workers, counselors, and religious workers. These workers can be
found at State and local welfare agencies, community service organizations, hospitals, and schools. As can be seen in chart

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COMPENSATION AND WORKING CONDITIONS

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

5, community and social service occupations at nonprofits earned considerably less per hour ($17.68) than did their
counterparts in local government establishments, where the average was $27.51 per hour. Community and social service
workers in nonprofits earned less than those in State governments ($20.80 per hour), but had very similar earnings compared
to those in private industry ($17.82 per hour).
Social workers, a group that includes specific occupations such as family, public health, and mental health social workers,
earned $19.49 per hour at nonprofits, less than their counterparts at local governments ($25.96 per hour).
Counselors--including substance abuse, behavioral disorder, and mental health counselors--earned considerably more per
hour in local government ($33.39) than they did at nonprofits ($17.91). Wages for counselors in State government ($23.36
per hour) also were higher than at nonprofits.

Summary
Using data from the 2007 National Compensation Survey to compare the wages of full-time workers in nonprofit
organizations with those of their counterparts in all private industry, in State government, and in local government, the
following results were found:
• Healthcare practitioners and technical workers in nonprofit establishments had higher wages than their counterparts in
State government and in local government, but their wages were similar to those in private industry as a whole.
• Wages for workers in healthcare support occupations were similar at nonprofits, in private industry, and in local
government establishments. However, these occupations earned more in State government than they did at
nonprofits.
• The hourly wages of personal care and service workers at nonprofit establishments did not differ significantly from
those of these workers in State government and in private industry as a whole; personal care and service workers in
local government earned more than their counterparts at nonprofits.
• In community and social services occupations, local government workers had the highest average hourly earnings.
Amy Butler
Economist, Division of National Compensation Survey, Office of Field Operations, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Telephone: (202) 691-5756; E-mail: Butler.Amy@bls.gov.

NOTE: Data for private industry in this article have been revised. When the article was originally published, the tabulations for
private industry incorrectly included State and local government workers, in addition to private sector workers. The error has
been corrected.

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COMPENSATION AND WORKING CONDITIONS

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Notes
1 Data on the total number of tax-exempt organizations are from Internal Revenue Service Data Book 2007, Publication 55B (Internal Revenue
Service, March 2008), table 25; available on the Internet at http://www.irs.gov/taxstats/article/0,,id=168593,00.html. Churches are not required
to apply for recognition of tax exemption.
2 Christopher J. Ruhm and Carey Borkoski, “Compensation in the Nonprofit Sector,” The Journal of Human Resources, autumn 2003, pp.
992–1021.
3 Private industry includes both nonprofit and for-profit establishments. Wage estimates for employees of for-profit establishments were not
available.
4 National Compensation Survey: Occupational Earnings in the United States, 2007, Bulletin 2704 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, August 2008);
available on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ncswage2007.htm. The National Compensation Survey (NCS) has always included
nonprofit establishments in its private industry measures of occupational earnings, compensation cost trends, benefit incidence, and detailed
benefits provisions. For more information on the National Compensation Survey, see BLS Handbook of Methods, Chapter 8, “National
Compensation Measures,” available on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/opub/hom/homtoc.htm.
5 Occupations are classified according to the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system, which categorizes more than 800
individual occupations into 23 major groups. The National Compensation Survey does not survey agriculture, Federal government, military, or
private household employers. For more information on the detailed occupations included in each major occupational group, see National
Compensation Survey: Occupational Earnings in the United States, 2006, “Appendix B. Standard Occupational Classification System,”
available on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ocs/sp/ncbl0841.pdf.
6 Registered Nonprofit Organizations by Major Purpose or Activity, Internal Revenue Service, Exempt Organizations Business Master File,
January 2008; available from the Urban Institute, National Center for Charitable Statistics, on the Internet at http://nccsdataweb.urban.org/
NCCS/Public/index.php.
7 According to data from the U.S. Census Bureau, there were 5,756 hospitals in the United States in 2005, and 2,958 of them were
nongovernmental and nonprofit. See Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2008 (U.S. Census Bureau), table 163; available on the Internet
at http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/index.html.
8 According to data from the National Center for Health Statistics, there were 16,100 nursing homes in 2004, and 5,000 of them were voluntary
nonprofit establishments. See National Center for Health Statistics, National Nursing Home Survey (NNHS), 2004 Facility Tables, table 1;
available on the Internet at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/major/nnhsd/Facilitytables.htm.
9 Steven Rathgeb Smith, “Social Services,” ch. 4 in Lester M. Salamon, ed., The State of Nonprofit America. (Washington, DC, Brookings
Institution Press, 2002).
10 See Christopher J. Ruhm and Carey Borkoski, “Compensation in the Nonprofit Sector,” The Journal of Human Resources, autumn 2003,
pp. 992–1021; also, Laura Leete, “Whither the Nonprofit Wage Differential? Estimates from the 1990 Census,” Journal of Labor Economics,
January 2001, pp. 136–70.
11 That is, those workers who are classified in the same occupations according to the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)
system.
12 Statements of comparisons in this article are significant at a standard error level of 1.645 or more (90-percent confidence level), unless
indicated otherwise. See table 1 for wage estimates and the corresponding relative standard errors.
13 Combined wage estimate for State and local government workers.
14 See “Registered Nurses” in Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2008-09 Edition (Bureau of Labor Statistics), available on the Internet at
http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos083.htm.
15 Combined wage estimate for State and local government workers.
16 Licensed practical nurses and licensed vocational nurses care for people who are sick, injured, convalescent, or disabled under the
direction of physicians and registered nurses. For more information, see Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2008-09 Edition, “Licensed Practical
and Licensed Vocational Nurses,” on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos102.htm.
17 Combined wage estimate for State and local government workers.
18 Combined wage estimate for State and local government workers.
19 Combined wage estimate for State and local government workers.
20 Combined wage estimate for State and local government workers.

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Table 1. Average hourly earnings of selected full-time healthcare, personal care, and social service occupations, 2007
Nonprofit
Occupation

Healthcare
Practitioner and
Technical

Hourly
Mean

Private

Relative
Standard
Error

Hourly
Mean

State Government

Relative
Standard
Error

Hourly
Mean

Relative
Standard
Error

Local Government
Hourly
Mean

Relative
Standard
Error

State and Local
Government
Hourly
Mean

Relative
Standard
Error

$28.85

1.7

$30.11

4.2

$23.89

3.7

$27.30

2.3

$25.94

2.0

Physicians and
Surgeons

54.62

9.5

86.63

17.0

29.76

14.7

55.01

13.0

40.41

12.3

Registered
Nurses

30.80

1.1

30.58

1.0

28.86

2.7

30.03

3.3

29.60

2.3

Licensed
Practical and
Licensed
Vocational
Nurses

18.95

1.6

18.79

1.1

16.81

3.4

16.59

2.4

16.68

2.2

Clinical
Laboratory
Technologists
and
Technicians

19.87

2.6

19.60

2.4

18.46

5.3

19.06

4.7

18.85

3.4

12.12

1.8

12.51

1.4

13.42

3.2

12.30

3.2

12.88

2.2

Nursing Aides,
Orderlies, and
Attendants

11.99

2.5

11.32

1.4

12.08

6.2

11.11

3.2

11.44

3.0

Medical
Assistants

14.03

4.0

13.42

2.6

14.16

7.1

13.99

4.5

14.05

3.8

Personal Care
and Service

10.86

2.9

11.15

7.7

13.18

11.3

13.91

3.6

13.78

3.5

Child Care
Workers

10.08

4.2

9.00

2.2

(-)

(-)

12.86

3.9

13.13

3.5

Personal and
Home Care
Aides

10.52

5.6

10.20

4.1

(-)

(-)

10.35

9.0

11.52

8.8

Community and
Social Services

17.68

3.4

17.82

2.9

20.80

2.8

27.51

2.6

24.32

2.0

Social Workers

19.49

3.2

19.51

2.9

20.19

3.8

25.96

8.5

23.00

5.3

Counselors

17.91

4.6

18.23

3.7

23.36

4.2

33.39

3.9

29.92

3.2

Healthcare
Support

NOTE: A dash (-) indicates that no published data are available.

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COMPENSATION AND WORKING CONDITIONS

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Data for Chart 1. Average hourly earnings of full-time workers in healthcare practitioner and technical occupations,
2007
Occupation

Nonprofit

Private

$28.85

$30.11

Healthcare practitioner and technical

State government

$23.89

Local government

$27.30

Data for Chart 2. Average hourly earnings of selected full-time workers in healthcare practitioner and technical
occupations, 2007
Nonprofit

Private

Physicians and surgeons

Occupation

$54.62

$86.63

State and local government

$40.41

Registered nurses

$30.80

$30.58

$29.60

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

$18.95

$18.79

$16.68

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

$19.87

$19.60

$18.85

Data for Chart 3. Average hourly earnings of full-time workers in healthcare support occupations, 2007
Occupation

Healthcare support

Nonprofit

Private

$12.12

State government

$12.51

Local government

$13.42

$12.30

Data for Chart 4. Average hourly earnings of full-time workers in personal care and service occupations, 2007
Occupation

Personal care and service

Nonprofit

$10.86

Private

$11.15

State government

$13.18

Local government

$13.91

Data for Chart 5. Average hourly earnings of full-time workers in community and social services occupations, 2007
Occupation

Community and Social Services

Nonprofit

$17.68

Private

$17.82

State government

$20.80

Local government

$27.51

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