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In this issue:

Employment in 2002


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U.S. Department of Labor
Elaine L. Chao, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Kathleen P. Utgoff, Commissioner
The Monthly Labor Review ( usps 987 800) is published
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MONTHLY LABOR

REVIEW
Volume 126, Number 2
February 2003

U.S. labor market in 2002: continued weakness
Most employers were reluctant to hire because of no clear sign
that the economy had returned to sustainable growth
Terence M. McMenamin, Rachel Krantz, and Thomas J. Krolik

Computer and Internet use at work in2001

3

26

More than half of all workers used a computer on the job,
most often to connect to the Internet or access e-mail
Steven Hippie and Karen Kosanovich

E-mail and Internet use:employees andemployers beware

36

Such use of computers is not protected under the law, and employers
could face legal liability for inappropriate use by employees
Charles J. Muhl

Departments
Labor month in review
Précis
Book review
Publications received
Current labor statistics

2
46
47
48
51

Editor-in-Chief: Deborah P. Klein • Executive Editor: Richard M. Devens • Managing Editor: Anna Huffman Hill • Editors: Brian
I. Baker, Richard Hamilton, Leslie Brown Joyner • Book Reviews: Richard Hamilton • Design and Layout: Catherine D. Bowman,
Edith W. Peters • Contributor: Michael Wald


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Labor Month in Review

The February Review
The U.S. labor market remained weak,
tentative, and directionless in 2002,
although at a som ewhat im proved
level from the year before. Terence M.
M cM enam in, R achel K rantz, and
Thomas J. Krolik present a straightfor­
ward account of employment declines
in the beginning of the year, turning up
only slightly in the second half, and an
unemployment rate that edged up early
in the year and fluctuated without a
clear trend afterward.
The majority of the employed use a
computer at work and a substantial
number use the Internet. Steven Hippie
and Karen Kosanovich detail these and a
wide range o f other findings from a
September 2001 computer and Internet
use supplement to the Current Population
Survey. The most frequent activities were
e-mail, word processing, desktop publish­
ing, and spreadsheet and database work.
Charles J. Muhl examines the legal
context of workplace e-mail and Internet
use. In general, his survey indicates that
employers have substantial rights to
supervise and monitor their employees’
use of these communications media. In
turn, employers may often be held
responsible if an employee uses these
tools inappropriately. Some specific
examples of inappropriate use include
sexual harassment, racial defamation, and
libelous statements.

Substantial changes in

cps

The January Current Population Survey
(CPS) incorporated several significant
changes. The questions on race and
Hispanic origin were modified to comply
with new Office of Management and
Budget standards for federal data on race
and ethnicity. The tables and databases
derived from the CPS now contain data for
whites, blacks or African Americans, and
Asians. Data for Hispanics are still
presented separately.
The Census Bureau provided new

2 Monthly Labor Review
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and higher estimates of the working age
population based on both the 2000
Census and newer information on births,
deaths, and migration. Both of these
population control revisions were
introduced in the January 2003 data, with
estimates back to January 2000 adjusted
to reflect the former. As a result of the
second adjustment, which amounted to
941,000 in aggregate, the data on employ­
ment and unemployment levels for
January 2003 (and beyond) are not strictly
comparable with those for earlier months.
The unemployment rate and other ratios,
however, were not substantially affected
by any of the 2003 population control
revisions.
There were especially large impacts
of both the questionnaire changes and
the update to the surveys population
controls, on data for Hispanics. All of
the labor force categories and rates
increased significantly among workers
o f Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. The
estimate working-age population o f
Hispanic or Latino origin was increased
by about 2 million. The effect of the new
procedures is, by itself, only statistically
significant for the unemployment rate
(up 0.4 percentage point). The higher
unemployment rate for Hispanics is due
to the new question identifying addi­
tional and different people as Hispanic
or Latino.
The survey also implemented the
North American Industry Classification
System and the new Standard Occu­
pational Classification. The Bureau of
Labor Statistics calculated and applied
new seasonal adjustment factors, as is the
normal practice, and adopted the Census
Bureau X -12 seasonal adjustm ent
program.

Volunteer work measured
About 59 million people did volunteer
work at some point from September 2001
to September 2002, according to a
supplement to the Current Population
Survey in the latter month. Slightly more

February 2003

than 1 in 4 persons age 16 and older
volunteered. The incidence of volun­
teering was higher among women (31.1
percent) than among men (23.8 percent).
This relationship held across age
groups, education levels, and other
major characteristics.
Among persons of working age, 35to 54-year-olds were the most likely to
volunteer in 2002, with roughly 1 in 3
having donated their time. Teenagers
also had a relatively high volunteer rate,
26.9 percent, perhaps reflecting an
emphasis on volunteer and community
service activities in schools.
Volunteer rates were lowest among
persons in their early twenties (18.2
percent) and among those age 65 years
and older (22.7 percent). Volunteers age
65 and older, however, devoted the most
time annually—a median of 96 hours—to
volunteer activities. Those age 25 to 34
years spent the least time, volunteering a
median of 34 hours during the year.
Among persons 25 years of age and
older, 43.6 percent of college graduates
volunteered during the year. This was
double the volunteer rate o f high school
graduates with no college experience
and more than four times the rate of high
school dropouts.

Payrolls longest In hospitals,
schools, factories
In March 2001, the education and health
services supersector had the most
establishments with 1,000 or more workers.
The 1,593 largest establishments in this
sector employed a total of 3.5 million
workers. Manufacturing had the next
highest number of the largest establish­
ments (1,479) followed by professional
and business services (1,002) and trade,
transportation, and utilities (635). In all,
there were 6,021 private-industry estab­
lishments with 1,000 or more workers in
March 2001. Find more information in
Em ploym ent and Wages, Annual
Averages, 2001, BLS Bulletin 2554.
□

U.S. Labor Market, 2002

U.S. labor market in 2002:
continued weakness
The unemployment rate edged up in 2002;
without a clear sign that the economy
had returned to sustainable growth,
most employers remained reluctant to hire

he U.S. job market remained weak in 2002,
in the wake of the marked deterioration
that occurred in 2001. Nonfarm employ­
ment turned toward slow growth around mid­
year, but still ended up at a lower level than a year
earlier. The unemployment rate edged up during
the year; by yearend, it was up just slightly from
its level at the close o f2001.
These labor market indicators reflected broad
uncertainties facing businesses and consumers.
Early in the year, factors such as an uptick in
industrial production and new orders, as well as
rising consumer confidence, pointed toward an
improvement in economic conditions; as the year
progressed, some of this initial strengthening
gave way. During the second half of the year, the
Terence M.
business
climate and consumers’ attitudes were
McMenamin is an
economist in the
shaped by a number of events. These included
Division of Labor Force
heightened geopolitical concerns and weaken­
Statistics; Rachel
ing in the stock markets, which related in part to
Krantz is an economist
in the Division of
the revelation of accounting irregularities in sev­
Current Employment
eral firms’ financial statements and lapses in cor­
Statistics; and Thomas
porate governance.1 Concern about the outlook
J. Krolik is an
economist in the
for substantial economic recovery persisted
Division of Local Area
through yearend.
Unemployment
Without a clear sign that the economy had
Statistics, all in the
Office of Employment
returned to sustainable growth, most employers
and Unemployment
remained reluctant to hire. Nonfarm payroll em­
Statistics, Bureau of
ployment declined by 424,000 in the first half of
Labor Statistics.
Email:
the year and rose by only 100,000 in the second
McMenamin_T@bls.gov
half; altogether, employment contracted by 0.2
Krantz_R@bls.gov
percent over the year. Manufacturing remained
Krolik_T@bls.gov

Terence M.
McMenamin,
Rachel Krantz,
and
Thomas J. Krolik


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T

weak, with a 3.7-percent employment decline, al­
though the pace of job losses slowed consider­
ably relative to 2001. Industries that are closely
tied to manufacturing activity, such as wholesale
trade and transportation, also remained weak.
Despite low interest rates and a strong housing
market, employment in construction fell by 1.4
percent; and although consumers continued to
spend, retail trade employment fell by 0.8 percent.
Services and governm ent both added jo b s
throughout the year, as long-term demographic
trends generated growth in health services and
education.
Workers benefited from wage growth and low
inflation, as their real average weekly earnings
grew by 1.1 percent over the year. The length of
the average workweek for private industry also
increased in 2002, although only by 0.1 hour. This
was the first time the average work week had ex­
panded since reaching a high in 1997.
Both the number of unemployed persons and
the jobless rate edged up in 2002. The unem­
ployment rate was 5.9 percent in the fourth quar­
ter o f2002, up 0.3 percentage point from the rate
a year earlier, and the number of unemployed
persons rose by nearly 500,000 to 8.4 million.
These increases were much smaller than in 2001.
With little growth in employment, however, those
unemployed tended to stay without a job longer.
The average (mean) duration of unemployment
rose by 3.9 weeks to 17.9 weeks in the fourth
quarter o f2002, while the number of persons un-

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

3

U.S. Labor Market, 2002

Conceptual differences between employment estimates
from establishment and household surveys

The Bureau of Labor Statistics produces two
monthly employment series that are indepen­
dently obtained: the estimate of total nonfarm
jobs, derived from the Current Employment Sta­
tistics (CES or establishment) survey, and the es­
timate of total civilian employment, derived from
the Current Population Survey (CPS or house­
hold survey).
The CES survey is an employer-based survey
that provides data on the number of payroll jobs
in nonfarm industries. The CPS is a survey of
households that provides data on the labor force
status (employed, unemployed, and not in the
labor force) of individuals, and includes informa­
tion on their demographic characteristics. The
surveys are largely complementary.
Employment estimates from the CPS include
both agricultural and nonagricultural sectors
and count persons in any type of work arrange­
ment: wage and salary workers, self-employed
persons, private household workers, and un­
paid workers who worked 15 hours or more in
an enterprise operated by a family member. Es­
timates from the CES survey refer only to per­
sons on wage-and-salary payrolls and exclude
private household workers. As a result, the
count o f employment from the CPS is larger
than that o f the CES survey.
Partially offsetting the higher estimates from
the CPS is the fact that the CPS is a count of per­
sons, and individuals are counted only once, re­
gardless of the number of jobs they hold. In con­
trast, the CES survey is a count of jobs and in­
cludes each job for persons who work in more
than one establishment.


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February 2003

There are other differences in the surveys’
methodology and coverage. For example, the ref­
erence period for the CPS is the week that in­
cludes the 12th day of the month, while, for the
CES survey, it is the pay period that includes the
12th of the month. Pay periods vary in length
and can be longer than 1 week. It is therefore
possible for the CES survey estimate of employ­
ment to reflect a longer reference period than that
used for the CPS.
The “universe” for the CPS is the civilian
noninstitutional population. This includes per­
sons 16 years o f age and older residing in the
United States who are not confined to institu­
tions (for example, correctional, psychiatric,
and long-term care facilities), and who are not
on active duty in the Armed Forces. In this
regard, the coverage o f the CES survey is
broader: there is no age restriction in the CES,
and wage and salary civilian jobs held by uni­
formed military personnel are counted, and
persons who commute into the United States
from Mexico or Canada to work are counted as
employed.
Effective with the release of data for January
2003, a number of changes affect estimates from
the CPS. These changes were undertaken to
benchmark the survey data to more current esti­
mates of the U.S. population; to adopt new stan­
dards for data on race, ethnicity, industry, and
occupation; and to improve seasonal adjustment
procedures. The data included in this article do
not reflect these changes, as they are based on
the procedures and estimates that were in place
at the end o f2002.

employed for 27 weeks or more increased by 705,000. Total
civilian employment was up slightly over the year, entirely
due to increases among adult women. The employment in­
crease in service occupations was largely offset by wide­
spread job losses, particularly in precision production, craft,
and repair occupations, as well as in operator, fabricator, and
laborer fields.
This article examines developments affecting U.S. labor
markets in 2002. The data are primarily from the Current Em­
ployment Statistics (CES) survey, the Current Population Sur­
vey (CPS), and the Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS)
program. All three programs report data monthly, although
quarterly averages are used in this analysis unless otherwise
noted. Over-the-year comparisons measure changes from
fourth quarter 2001 to fourth quarter 2002 unless otherwise
noted. (See page 4 for an explanation of differences between
the CES and CPS surveys.)

Many businesses were reluctant to add new employees in
2002, as they worked through problems of debt and ex­
cess capacity and remained conservative spenders.2 The
employment trend in the help supply services industry,
which supplies personnel on a contract basis, illustrates

this reluctance well. Businesses sometimes contract for
temporary employees if demand for the company’s prod­
ucts or services is uncertain.3 The help supply services
industry added 111,000 jobs in the second quarter o f 2002,
as economic conditions appeared to improve. This fol­
lowed a loss o f 745,000 jobs over the prior 6 quarters. As
the year progressed, however, and the business environ­
ment remained uncertain, job growth in the help supply
services industry stalled. (See chart 1.)
Besides their reluctance to hire new employees, busi­
nesses were also conservative spenders overall. Nonresidential private fixed investment shrank 1.9 percent in 2002.
Most of this contraction occurred in the first quarter. From
the second to fourth quarters, increased spending on
equipment and software countered reduced spending on
structures. Over the year, equipment and software expen­
ditures rose 3.0 percent. This compares to average annual
growth of 6.9 percent during the 1990s.4 Industrial pro­
duction o f business equipment, a measure of business
spending on manufactured goods, declined 2.8 percent
over the year.5 Despite improvement compared to 2001,
these indicators nonetheless showed w eak business
spending in 2002.

Chart 1. Quarterly employment changes in help supply services, 2001-02
Thousands

Thousands

200

200

100

-

-100

-

-200

-300

2001
NOTE: Data are seasonally adjusted.
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Employment Statistics Survey.


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Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

5

U.S. Labor Market, 2002

The mild improvement in business spending on equip­
ment and software aided the employment situation of several
manufacturing industries, although this improvement often
translated into a slowing of job losses rather than job gains.
Over the year, manufacturing lost 642,000 jobs, as companies
chose to draw down existing inventories even as new orders
began to grow.6 (See table 1.) However, relative to 2001, the
rate of factory job losses slowed by about half. Job losses in
electronic and other electrical equipment as well as in in­
dustrial machinery and equipment slowed considerably in
2002 relative to the prior year. Still, in 2002, these two indus­
tries lost a total o f269,000 jobs, accounting for 42 percent of
total job losses in manufacturing. Reduced foreign demand
for electrical equipment and industrial machinery was one
reason for the continued job losses, as exports of computer
and electronic products fell 13.6 percent and exports of ma­
chinery fell 8.3 percent.7 One factor that influenced manu­
facturers’ competitiveness abroad was the strong U.S. dollar,
which made U.S.-produced goods relatively expensive. In
2002, the average monthly value of the dollar relative to the
currencies of major U.S. trading partners reached its highest
level since 1985.8
In recent years, primary metal industries have had diffi­
culties competing with low-priced imports. Primary metals
lost 44,000 jobs in 2002, although its employment decline
slowed during the year as the enactment of temporary steel
tariffs in March raised the relative price of steel imports and
boosted demand for domestic steel. Although several steel
firms filed for bankruptcy protection over the year,9 the
industry’s situation improved as the rate of job loss slowed
and output grew 13.3 percent after having declined in each of
the 2 prior years.10
In contrast, business spending on structures—which ac­
counted for about 20 percent of all business investment in
2002— did not show relative improvement over the year, but
continued its 2-year descent as businesses consolidated
space and closed factories in order to eliminate excess capac­
ity." Thus, despite demand derived from a strong hous­
ing market, the construction industry lost 93,000 jobs. The
job losses were predominately in special trade contrac­
tors (-75,000), especially in electrical work, and heavy con­
struction (-39,000). Employment in engineering and archi­
tectural services, which sells its services primarily to the con­
struction industry,12 fell by 24,000 in 2002. This was the first
year employment in this industry had contracted since 1991.
Construction-related manufacturing industries13 such as lum­
ber and wood products', stone, clay, and glass products', and
fabricated structural metal products also weakened in 2002,
and together they lost 31,000 jobs over the year.
Wholesale trade and trucking and warehousing, two in­
dustries that are closely tied to domestic manufacturing activ­
ity, also experienced relative improvement in their employ­

6 Monthly Labor Review

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2003

ment situation. The pace of job losses in wholesale trade
slowed from 2.9 percent in 2001 to 0.9 percent in 2002. Parallel­
ing the manufacturing industry, the job losses in wholesale
trade were concentrated in professional and commercial
equipment, electrical goods, and machinery, equipment, and
supplies, which collectively lost 87,000jobs in 2002. Employ­
ment in trucking and warehousing was essentially unchanged
in 2002, after declining by 25,000 in the prior year; this re­
flected an increase of 8 percent in truck tonnage in the first 3
quarters, a sign of improved demand for trucking services.14
One area that experienced no relief from prior spending
excesses was the communications industry, where the rate of
job loss accelerated in 2002. Driven by high expectations of
future demand, the communications industry had over-invested in fiber-optic networks and equipment in the 1990s.
These expectations had not yet been realized by 2002 and
infrastructural capacity continued to exceed demand, result­
ing in intense price competition and industry consolidation.15
Over the year, employment contracted by 6.3 percent as
106.000 jobs were lost; this compares with average annual job
growth of 3.8 percent from 1992 through 2000. Manufacturers
o f communications equipment reduced their payrolls by
38.000 in 2002, and about matched the prior year’s rate of
decline.
Business investment in transportation equipment declined
in 2002,16 mainly reflecting weak demand for civil aircraft in
light of poor demand for air travel. Additionally, aircraft sales
were increasingly split between U.S. and foreign manufactur­
ers.17 Due to stiff competition and declining demand, domes­
tic aircraft and parts manufacturing suffered from excess
production capacity and weakening profits; over the year, the
industry cut 62,000 jobs, amounting to 13.7 percent of its
workforce. Aircraft and parts manufacturing was but one of
several industries affected by reduced travel levels.

Travel-related industries faced challenging markets in
2002, as business travel remained depressed and the effects
o f the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks continued to
adversely affect business conditions. 18 The effects were
most visible in transportation, and especially in transporta­
tion by air. Transportation lost 84,000 jobs in 2002 after los­
ing more than twice as many jobs the prior year. About half of
these job losses occurred from the fourth quarter of 2001 to
the first quarter o f2002, during the immediate aftermath of the
September 11th tragedy. During the past 2 years, transporta­
tion by air accounted for the majority of the job losses in
transportation.
Employment in air transportation began to fall early in 2001,
as the industry experienced the effects o f reduced levels of
business travel. At that time, businesses were scrutinizing
their financial statements and eliminating unnecessary ex­
penses as the economy fell into recession. This frequently

Table 1.

Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry, seasonally adjusted quarterly averages, 1996-2002

[Numbers in thousands]
Change, fourth quarter to fourth quarter
Industry

2000-2001

2001-2002

housands Percent

rhousands Percent

[housands Percent

2001

IV

IV

120,689
101,255
24,660

131,130
110,035
24,375

130,806
109,441
23,626

2,088
1,756
-57

1.7
1.7
-.2

-1,055
-1,516
-1,251

-.8
-1.4
-4.9

-324
-594
-749

-.2
-.5
-3.1

583
54
325
107

566
34
340
110

552
32
332
109

-3
-A
3
1

-.6
-8.8
.9
.6

15
-6
18
-3

2.7
-15.0
5.6
-2.7

-14
-2
-8
-1

-2.5
-5.9
-2.4
-.9

5,548
1,282
792
3,474

6,635
1,456
924
4,255

6,542
1,477
885
4,180

217
35
26
156

3.6
2.6
3.1
4.1

-36
23
-27

-.6
-2.4
2.6
-.6

-93
21
-39
-75

-1.4
1.4
-4.2
-1.8

18,529
10,845
784
506
550
707
1,460
2,122
363

17,174
10,249
773
496
561
626
1,443
1,910
325

16,532
9,755
761
485
555
582
1,401
1,790
294

-271
-119
-2
-2
2
-16
-3
-42
-8

-1.5
-1.1
-.3
-.4
.4
-2.4
-.2
-2.1
-2.2

-1,226
-882
-^1
-60
-17
-69
-98
-214
-34

-6.7
-7.9
-5.0
-10.8
-2.9
-9.9
-6.4
-10.1
-9.5

-642
-A94
-12
-11
-6
-44
-42
-120
-31

-3.7
-4.8
-1.6
-2.2
-1.1
-7.0
-2.9
-6.3
-9.5

1,669

1,520

1,371

-30

-1.9

-236

-13.4

-149

-9.8

623
1,799
969
471
860
388

605
1,719
921
453
825
373

537
1,647
907
391
792
372

-A
-16
-10
-4
-7
-3

-.6
-.9
-1.0
-.8
-.8
-.8

-114
-106
-80
-7
-24
-18

-15.9
-5.8
-8.0
-1.5
-2.8
-4.6

-68
-72
-14
-62
-33
-1

-11.2
—4.2
-1.5
-13.7
-4.0
-.3

7,685
1,687
42
621
851
685
1,542
1,032
142

6,925
1,688
34
453
540
626
1,453
1,015
127

6,777
1,687
36
425
509
611
1,399
1,007
125

-152
0
-2
-34
-62
-12
-18
-3
-3

-2.1
.0
^ .1
-6.1
-8.7
-1.8
-1.2
-.3
-2.2

-344
2
1
-67
-73
-26
-89
-15
1

-4.7
.1
3.0
-12.9
-11.9
-4.0
-5.8
-1.5
.8

-148
-1
2
-28
-31
-15
-54
-8
-2

-2.1
-.1
5.9
-6.2
-5.7
-2.4
-3.7
-.8
-1.6

990
93

934
56

923
55

-11
-7

-1.2
-9.6

-66
-11

-6.6
-16.4

-11
-1

-1.2
-1.8

96,029
6,292
4,042
229

106,755
6,912
4,375
232

107,179
6,712
4,291
224

2,145
124
67
1

2.1
1.9
1.6
.3

196
-202
-175
-5

.2
-2.8
-3.8
-2.5

424
-200
-84
-8

.4
-2.9
-1.9
-3.4

444
1,644
175
1,110
14
426

480
1,830
190
1,194
15
435

467
1,827
191
1,147
15
421

7
37
3
17
0
2

1.6
2.2
1.7
1.5
1.4
.4

5
-25
-A
-104
0
-41

1.1
-1.3
-2.1
-8.0
.0
-8.6

-13
-3
1
-41
0
-14

-2.7
-.2
.5
-3.9
.0
-3.2

2,250
1,375
875

2,537
1,688
849

2,421
1,582
839

57
63
-5

2.4
4.2
-.6

-27
-23
-4

-1.1
-1.3
-.5

-116
-106
-10

-4.6
-6.3
-1.2

6,549
3,849
2,700

6,708
3,963
2,745

6,646
3,886
2,759

32
23
9

.5
.6
.3

-197
-155
-42

-2.9
-3.8
-1.5

-62
-77
14

-.9
-1.9
.5

21,815
917
2,714
2,377
3,466

23,412
1,05C
2,873
2,537
3,44C

23,228
1077
2834
2,495
3,377

319
27
32
32
-5

1.4
2.7
1.1
1.3
-.2

-31
24
-21
-14
-34

-.1
2.3
-.7
-.5
-1.0

-184
27
-3 9
-42
-63

-.8
2.6
-1.4
-1.7
-1.8

Electronic components and

Rubber and miscellaneous plastics

IV

Local and interurban passenger


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Average change
1996-2001

1996

Electronic and other electrical

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries.......

2002

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

7

U,S. Labor Market, 2002

Table 1.

Continued

Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry, seasonally adjusted quarterly averages, 1996-2002

[Numbers in thousands]
Change, fourth quarter to fourth quarter
1996

Industry

2001

2002

Average
1996-2001

2000-2001

2001 -2002

IV

IV

Automotive dealers and service
stations.............................................
New and used car dealers..................
Apparel and accessory stores..............
Furniture and home furnishings stores ...
Eating and drinking places....................
Miscellaneous retail establishments......

2,293
1,042
1,100
990
7,589
2,746

2,433
1,127
1,171
1,149
8,218
3,079

2,428
1,127
1,174
1,167
8,112
3,060

28
17
14
32
126
67

1.2
1.6
1.3
3.0
1.6
2.3

14
11
-19
8
24
-26

.6
1.0
-1.6
.7
.3
-.8

-5
0
3
18
-106
-19

-.2
.0
.3
1.6
-1.3
-.6

Finance, insurance, and real estate.........
Finance....................................................
Depository institutions...........................
Commercial banks................................
Savings institutions.............................
Nondepository institutions.....................
Security and commodity brokers...........
Holding and other investment offices....

6,976
3,341
2,019
1,457
262
543
567
212

7,747
3,817
2,066
1,442
259
746
743
261

7,810
3,856
2,080
1,451
262
802
710
263

154
95
9
-3
-1
41
35
10

2.1
2.7
.5
-.2
-.2
6.6
5.6
4.2

127
71
38
20
9
59
-36
8

1.7
1.9
1.9
1.4
3.6
8.6
-4.6
3.2

63
39
14
9
3
56
-33
2

.8
1.0
.7
.6
1.2
7.5
—4.4
.8

Insurance...................................................
Insurance carriers...................................
Insurance agents, brokers, and service
Real estate......................................

2,236
1,521
715
1,398

2,376
1,597
779
1,554

2,373
1,577
796
1,582

28
15
13
31

1.2
1.0
1.7
2.1

26
13
13
30

1.1
0.8
1.7
2.0

-3
-20
17
28

-.1
-1.3
2.2
1.8

Services1 .........................................................
Agricultural services..................................
Hotels and other lodging places...............
Personal services......................................
Business services1 ....................................
Services to buildings...............................
Personnel supply services......................
Help supply services...........................
Computer and data processing services
Auto repair, services, and parking...........
Miscellaneous repair services....................
Motion pictures........................................... .
Amusement and recreation services.........
Health services1..........................................
Offices and clinics of medical doctors....
Nursing and personal care facilities........
Hospitals....................................................
Home healthcare services.....................

34,964
642
1,730
1,185
7,495
918
2,737
2,428
1,289
1,100
373
533
1,500
9,569
1,699
1,742
3,829
691

40,880
861
1,810
1,274
9,312
1,024
3,161
2,829
2,224
1,257
375
575
1,689
10,503
2,024
1,866
4,152
640

41,419
877
1,796
1,288
9,312
1,045
3,166
2,853
2,191
1,264
378
588
1,642
10,773
2,087
1,903
4,265
656

1,183
44
16
18
363
21
85
80
187
31
0
8
38
187
65
25
65
-10

3.2
6.0
.9
1.5
4.4
2.2
2.9
3.1
11.5
2.7
.1
1.5
2.4
1.9
3.6
1.4
1.6
-1.5

38
41
-107
12
-599
27
-701
-633
52
14
3
-12
-55
323
68
53
140
4

.1
5.0
-5.6
1.0
-6.0
2.7
-18.2
-18.3
2.4
1.1
.8
-2.0
-3.2
3.2
3.5
2.9
3.5
0.6

539
16
-14
14
0
21
5
24
-33
7
3
13
-47
270
63
37
113
16

1.3
1.9
-.8
1.1
.0
2.1
.2
.8
-1.5
.6
.8
2.3
-2.8
2.6
3.1
2.0
2.7
2.5

Legal services........................................................
Private schools and other educational services ...
Social services1......................................................
Child daycare services........................................
Residential care...................................................
Museums and botanical and zoological gardens ....
Membership organizations......................................
Engineering and management services1................
Engineering and architectural services.............
Management and public relations.......................

932
2,058
2,445
568
691
87
2,226
2,889
846
894

1,049
2,458
3,122
722
888
110
2,473
3,619
1,052
1,181

1,079
2,572
3,207
728
912
106
2,478
3,670
1,028
1,229

23
80
135
31
39
5
49
146
41
57

2.4
3.6
5.0
4.9
5.1
4.8
2.1
4.6
4.5
5.7

33
96
171
17
62
2
7
101
16
47

3.2
4.1
5.8
2.4
7.5
1.9
.3
2.9
1.5
4.1

30
114
85
6
24
-4
5
51
-24
48

2.9
4.6
2.7
.8
2.7
-3.6
.2
1.4
-2.3
4.1

Government.............. ....................................................
Federal.....................................................................
Federal, except Postal Service..........................
S ta te ........................................................................
State government, except education.................
State government education...............................
Local.........................................................................
Local government, except education.................
Local government education...............................

19,434
2,727
1,874
4,581
2,683
1,898
12,125
5,320
6,805

21,096
2,618
1,777
4,927
2,806
2,121
13,551
5,842
7,709

21,364
2,655
1,847
4,960
2,797
2,163
13,749
5,923
7,825

332
-22
-19
69
25
45
285
104
181

1.7
-.8
-1.1
1.5
0.9
2.2
2.2
1.9
2.5

462
-1
18
121
43
78
342
133
209

2.2
0.0
1.0
2.5
1.6
3.8
2.6
2.3
2.8

268
37
70
33
-9
42
198
81
116

1.3
1.4
3.9
.7
-.3
2.0
1.5
1.4
1.5

Includes other industries not shown separately.

8 Monthly Labor Review

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2003

IV

Thousand;

Percent Thousands Percent Thousands Percent

meant fewer business trips, as some companies substituted
low er-cost altern atives such as phone- and videoconferencing for face-to-face meetings. When business travel
was necessary, some businesses reduced associated ex­
penses by requiring employees to plan ahead, fly coach class
or purchase tickets from discount airlines, and by limiting
travel allowances.19 Except for discount airlines—which ca­
ter to leisure travelers—most major airlines traditionally have
relied heavily on income generated from their sales of lastminute, unrestricted, business-class tickets. When busi­
nesses purchased cheaper, alternative tickets or avoided travel
altogether, the airline industry was forced to respond with its
own cutbacks.20
The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks further aggra­
vated airlines’ financial difficulties. After the attacks, fierce
competition for passengers drove down ticket prices and rev­
enues; competitive pricing from discount carriers helped keep
ticket prices low in 2002. Additionally, after the terrorist at­
tacks, passenger airlines lost a revenue source as new re­
strictions prevented them from carrying certain types of com­
mercial cargo. Transport of U.S. mail, especially, declined.21
As these factors depressed airline revenues, the industry
was forced to concentrate on filling a greater proportion of
their seats in order to profit. In 2002, airlines needed to fill 80
percent of their seats to make a profit, whereas in 2000 they
only needed to fill 70 percent.22 Faced with decreased de­
mand for air travel and financial losses, nearly all airline com­
panies scaled-down the size of their active fleets, stored un­
needed planes, and cut jobs.
The transportation services and hotel and other lodging
places industries also felt the effects of depressed levels of
travel. Employment in transportation services, which includes
travel agencies, contracted for the second consecutive year,
with 14,000jobs lost in 2002. Reduced demand from business
travelers was an important factor driving this loss. The popu­
larity o f the Internet, which enables consumers to directly
purchase tickets, and cutbacks in the commissions that air­
lines traditionally paid to agents, further hurt travel agen­
cies.23 Hotels and other lodging places lost 14,000 jobs in
2002. After reaching a high at the end o f2000, employment in
the hotel industry declined 6.3 percent by the end of 2002.
Similar to the airline industry, the downturn in lodging dates
from early 2001. Reduced business travel was a primary rea­
son for reduced revenues at hotels, although the industry
suffered an additional blow as the September 11,2001, terror­
ist attacks halted all types of travel across the Nation and
further drove down room rates.
Eating and drinking places and amusement and recre­
ation services are industries whose fortunes also rely some­
what on travelers’ purchases. Eating and drinking places re­
duced their payrolls by 106,000 workers in 2002. Since reach­
ing a peak in mid-2001, the industry has contracted 1.9 per­


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cent. A wide range of establishments are classified in eating
and drinking places, and it is difficult to know which factors
drove the industry trend; however, reduced travel is certainly
one negative factor that affected demand. Despite mild im­
provement in mid-2002, employment in amusement and recre­
ation services ended the year down 47,000, declining for the
second consecutive year.
One additional result of the September 11,2001, terrorist
attacks was passage of the Aviation and Transportation Se­
curity Act in November 2001, which led to the creation a new
Federal Government agency: the Transportation Security
Administration ( t s a ). This agency is responsible for secur­
ing the Nation’s transportation systems and, in 2002, it began
the process of federalizing security at U.S. airports. The
agency added 67,000 workers, the vast majority of whom are
responsible for screening passengers and baggage.24 Employ­
ment in Federal Government, excluding the postal service,
reflected these job gains with an over-the-year increase of
70,000. As airport security jobs were federalized, private se­
curity firms lost contracts to provide security services at
airports. Employment in detective, guard, and armored car
services reflected these lost contracts, as this industry lost
24.000 jobs. (See chart 2.) Although the terrorist attacks pro­
foundly impacted airport security and other travel-related in­
dustries, as well as consumers’ willingness to spend money
on travel, consumers remained steadfast spenders on other
goods and services in 2002.

Low interest rates and growth in real earnings sparked con­
sumer spending on certain big ticket items and drove em­
ployment gains in interest rate-sensitive industries. Interest
rates began falling in 2001, as the Federal Reserve Bank low­
ered its target Federal funds rate and began expanding the
money supply; for much o f2002, the Federal funds rate hov­
ered near 1.75 percent.25 Mortgage rates also began falling in
2000, and dipped to a 40-year low in 2002.26
Low mortgage rates, coupled with real earnings growth,
boosted housing affordability and the demand for housing.27
Housing starts reached their highest level in more than 15
years,28and residential general building contractors added
36.000 workers, while carpentry andfloor work added 9,000
workers to meet the increased demand for housing. Although
these construction industries added workers in 2002, as men­
tioned earlier, they did not offset the decline in nonresidential
building, and so the overall construction industry lost jobs.29
Real estate gained 28,000 jobs, reflecting rising sales of
both new and existing homes.30 Minimal inflation, low mort­
gage rates, and appreciating home sales prices (up 7.1 percent
over the year) likely inspired some investors to transfer funds
from Wall Street to real estate.31 A bear market drove stock
prices lower, and the Standard and Poor’s 500 slipped 23 per­
cent over the year. Employment in security and commodity

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

9

U.S. Labor Market, 2002

Chart 2. Monthly employment changes in detective, guard services, and the Transportation
Security Administration, 2001-02

note:

Data are seasonally adjusted.

S o u r c e : Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Employment Statistics Survey.

Chart 3. |Employment in mortgage bankers and brokers and the average monthly Mortgage
Bankers Association of America refinance index, 1999-2002
Monthly employment changes
[thousands]
2o i________________ -______-________ ___________________________[thousands]
Mortgage bankers

„
Refinance index

Refinance index

15

10

-5

-10

-

6

a-

4

-

2

-

1

-

-

-1- I
Jan.

I

I
May

I

I

I

I I I
Sept.

1999

»

I

I
Jan.

May

2000

Sept.

Jan.

2001

May

Sept.

Jan.

May

Sept.

2002

N o t e : Data are seasonally adjusted.
S o u r c e : Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Employment Statistics Survey, and the Mortgage Bankers Association of America.

10 Monthly Labor Review

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2003

brokers followed the market and declined by 33,000. Since
reaching a high in 2001, employment in this industry has de­
creased 9.8 percent. While employment in security and com­
modity brokers contracted, mortgage bankers and brokers
added 54,000jobs over the year, driven by the historically low
mortgage rates and an accompanying 3 5-percent surge in re­
financing activity.32 (See chart 3.) Overall, the finance, insur­
ance, and real estate industry added 63,000 jobs.
Refinancing activity sparked more than employment
growth in mortgage bankers and brokers; it put extra money in
consumers’ pockets and, along with advances in real earn­
ings, strengthened consumer spending. Consumer spending
grew 2.5 percent in 2002. Expenditures on furniture and house­
hold equipment grew by more than 8 percent and helped slow
the pace of job losses in household furniture manufacturing
from 33,000 in 2001 to just 3,000 in 2002.33
Consumer spending on motor vehicles and parts jumped
in the fourth quarter of 2001, and remained high throughout
2002.34 Auto dealers sold more than 17 million vehicles and
recorded strong sales for the fourth consecutive year, due in
part to consumer incentives, such as rebates and zero-per­
cent financing, offered by auto manufacturers.35 Despite
strong sales, employment in motor vehicles and equipment
manufacturing declined by 14,000. This loss was an improve­
ment over 2001, when the industry lost 80,000 jobs.
The major domestic auto manufacturers operated on thin
profit margins or losses partly as a result of competition from
foreign brands, which continued to expand their U.S. produc­
tion base; expenses related to retiree pension funds; and la­
bor costs which, by contract, were essentially fixed. The la­
bor contracts—which required that workers receive pay
whether or not production lines were running—dissuaded
the Big 3 from reducing output.36 Meanwhile, the Big 3
automakers offered incentives to consumers in order to prop
up sales and maintain market share.37 Indeed, industrial pro­
duction of motor vehicles and parts zoomed ahead 5.0 percent
as domestic auto manufacturers produced on average 13,000
more autos per month in 2002 than the prior year.38 Besides
ramping up production, auto manufacturers reduced some of
their variable costs by placing downward pressure on the
prices they offered to suppliers.39 In this way, auto producers
transferred some of their industry’s weakness to auto-related
manufacturing industries, which produce vehicle inputs such
as automotive stampings or electrical equipment for engines.40
Collectively, these industries lost 15,000 jobs in 2002, about
half the jobs they had lost in the prior year.
Total retail sales excluding motor vehicles and parts were
also strong, as they rose 3.6 percent over the year. The retail
trade industry, however, shed 184,000 jobs.41 Eating and
drinking places accounted for the majority of job losses, al­
though department stores lost 42,000 jobs and food stores


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lost 63,000 jobs. In 2002, department stores continued to ben­
efit from technological and managerial innovations that have
improved their efficiency and reduced labor costs in recent
years.42 Food stores benefited from recent innovations, too,
although they also suffered as w arehouse clubs and
superstores provided fierce competition, and chipped away
at food stores’ traditional markets.43

Demographic trends supported job growth in health ser­
vices and education. Health services hired more workers
(270,000) than any other industry in 2002, as its employment
grew 2.6 percent. Aging baby-boomers, population growth, and
technological advances generated increased demand for
healthcare services. Hospitals accounted for the largest share
of the job growth, with 113,000 hires, while offices and clinics o f
medical doctors added 63,000 workers to their payrolls. Em­
ployment in hospitals grew 2.7 percent in 2002, compared with
average annual growth of 1.6 percent from 1996 to 2001. This
accelerated growth is likely linked to a loosening of labor mar­
kets in 2001 and 2002. Acute shortages of workers— in both
specialized and nonspecialized occupations—have plagued the
industry in recent years, and the overall weakening of the labor
market has allowed them to reduce the shortages.44
As in health services, employment growth in public and
private education was largely driven by demographic trends.
Enrollment in public elementary and secondary schools has
increased each year since 1985, as the baby-boom echo and
immigration have added to the numbers of school-aged chil­
dren.45 In 2002, employment in local government education
expanded by 1.5 percent, and private elementary and sec­
ondary schools employment grew by 1.9 percent.
Employment in higher education also expanded; State
Government education, which consists largely of 2- and 4year colleges, added 2.0 percent more jobs, whereas private
colleges and universities added 6.6 percent more jobs. Al­
though State Government education continued to expand in
2002, its rate of job growth slowed compared with its 2.2percent average from 1996 to 2001. Many State colleges and
universities faced severe budget crunches in 2002, as States
collected fewer tax dollars and subsequently reduced fund­
ing for education.46

Unemployment rose slightly in 2002. Data from the Current
Population Survey (CPS) showed that a total of 8.4 million
persons were unemployed at yearend, up by about one-half
million over the year, and the national unemployment rate was
5.9 percent, 0.3 percentage point higher than in the fourth
quarter o f2001. The unemployment rate trended upward fairly
steadily following the onset of the recent recession in March
2001, and reached 5.9 percent in the second quarter o f2002. It
then showed little definitive movement until late in the year. It

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

11

U.S. Labor Market, 2002

should be noted that at the end of 2002, the jobless rate was
still relatively low in comparison to the rates reached during
the labor market downturns of recent decades.47 (See chart 4.)
Total employment, as measured in the household survey,
fell in the first quarter of 2002, but subsequently rose slowly
over the remainder of the year. The number of employed per­
sons was slightly higher in the fourth quarter of 2002 than in
the fourth quarter of 2001.48 The rise in employment did not
keep pace with the rise in the civilian noninstitutional popula­
tion, and as a result, the employment-population ratio fell by
0.6 percentage point over the year to 62.5 percent.
Adult women (those 20 years or older) fared somewhat
better in the labor force than adult men or teenagers in 2002.
Employment among adult women rose by nearly 500,000 over
the year, while there was a decline of nearly 100,000 among
adult men. (See table 2.) By the end of the year the number of
unemployed adult women—those without a job but available
and actively looking for work—had edged up by 166,000, but
joblessness increased by more than twice this amount among
adult men. While the jobless rate for adult women rose only
slightly (0.2 percent), the rate for adult men rose by 0.5 per­
centage point over the year. The labor force participation rate
for adult women remained unchanged in 2002; the participa­
tion rate for adult men dropped by 0.6 percentage point.

12 Monthly Labor Review

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2003

The rapidly deteriorating labor market conditions faced by
teenagers in 2001 eased somewhat in 2002. The unemploy­
ment rate for teens reached 17.1 percent in the second quarter
of the year, but then edged down to 15.8 percent in the fourth
quarter, leaving the rate unchanged over the year.49 The slight
improvement in teenage joblessness in the second half of
2002 was tempered by the fact that fewer teens were engaged
in labor market activity. The teenage civilian labor force de­
creased by 364,000 in 2002, and the teen labor force participa­
tion rate dropped by 2.0 percentage points to 47.1 percent.
This is the lowest this rate has been among teenagers since
the third quarter of 1965. Another sign of the difficult labor
market conditions faced by teenagers is reflected in the change
in the employment level for this group, which fell over the
year, by some 311,000.
As with the overall labor market situation in 2002, the em­
ployment situation of whites, blacks, and Hispanics wors­
ened just slightly over the year. Among blacks, unemploy­
ment rose by 167,000, and the unemployment rate for blacks
rose by 0.9 percentage point to 10.8 percent in the fourth
quarter o f2002. The labor force participation rate for blacks
dropped by 0.4 percentage point to 64.7 percent.
Unemployment among whites rose by 255,000 in 2002, and
their unemployment rate rose by 0.2 percentage point, to 5.1

Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and older, by selected characteristics,
[Numbers in thousands]
2002

1999

2000

2001

IV

IV

IV

I

II

ill

IV

Change,
IV 2001 to
IV 2002

140,036
67.1
134,292
64.4
5,744
4.1

141,257
67.1
135,649
64.4
5,609
4.0

142,291
66.9
134,308
63.1
7,983
5.6

141,868
66.5
133,894
62.8
7,975
5.6

142,605
66.7
134,149
62.8
8,456
5.9

142,761
66.6
134,568
62.8
8,193
5.7

142,799
66.5
134,364
62.5
8,436
5.9

508
-.4
56
-.6
453
.3

70,481
76.6
68,099
74.0
2,382
3.4

71,230
76.6
68,803
73.9
2,427
3.4

71,954
76.5
68,322
72.6
3,632
5.0

71,658
76.0
67,996
72.1
3,662
5.1

72,271
76.5
68,410
72.4
3,861
5.3

72,283
76.3
68,521
72.3
3,762
5.2

72,198
75.9
68,226
71.7
3,972
5.5

244
-.6
-96
-.9
340
.5

61,173
60.8
58,959
58.6
2,214
3.6

61,703
60.8
59,597
58.7
2,106
3.4

62,357
60.9
59,265
57.9
3,092
5.0

62,360
60.8
59,305
57.8
3,054
4.9

62,601
60.8
59,329
57.6
3,272
5.2

62,767
60.8
59,636
57.8
3,131
5.0

62,985
60.9
59,727
57.7
3,258
5.2

628
.0
462
-.2
166
.2

8,382
52.0
7,235
44.9
1,147
13.7

8,324
52.1
7,249
45.3
1,075
12.9

7,980
49.1
6,721
41.4
1,259
15.8

7,851
48.2
6,592
40.4
1,258
16.0

7,733
47.7
6,410
39.5
1,323
17.1

7,711
47.6
6,411
39.6
1,300
16.9

7,616
47.1
6,410
39.6
1,206
15.8

-364
-2.0
-311
-1.8
-53
.0

116,933
67.3
112,839
65.0
4,094
3.5

117,748
67.3
113,671
64.9
4,077
3.5

118,492
67.1
112,639
63.8
5,852
4.9

118,130
66.8
112,265
63.5
5,865
5.0

118,644
67.0
112,457
63.5
6,188
5.2

118,873
67.0
112,766
63.5
6,106
5.1

118,643
66.7
112,536
63.3
6,107
5.1

151
-.4
-103
-.5
255
.2

16,504
66.0
5,175
60.7
1,329
8.1

16,700
65.8
15,460
60.9
1,239
7.4

16,756
65.1
15,102
58.7
1,654
9.9

16,758
64.9
15,073
58.4
1,685
10.1

16,883
65.2
15,080
58.2
1,803
10.7

16,808
64.6
15,179
58.4
1,629
9.7

16,906
64.7
15,085
57.8
1,821
10.8

150
-.4
-17
-.9
167
.9

14,896
67.9
13,994
63.8
902
6.1

15,566
68.6
14,697
64.8
869
5.6

15,967
68.2
14,776
63.1
1,191
7.5

15,969
67.7
14,770
62.6
1,199
7.5

16,129
67.8
14,933
62.7
1,196
7.4

16,279
67.8
15,058
62.7
1,221
7.5

16,275
67.3
15,001
62.0
1,273
7.8

308
-.9
225
-1.1
82
.3

Characteristic

Total

Men, 20 years and older

Women, 20 years and older

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

White

Black

Hispanic origin

Employed
.....................................................
Employment-population ratio..................................
Unemployed
..................................................
Unemployment rate
.........................................

_
Note: Detail for race and Hispanlc-origin groups will not sum to totals
because data for the “other races” group are not presented and Hispanics


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are included in both the white and black population groups.
Source:

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

13

U.S. Labor Market, 2002

percent by the fourth quarter. Employment among whites
decreased slightly over the year, due mainly to a decrease in
employment of adult men (-169,000) and teenagers (-263,000).
The year 2002 marked a milestone of sorts for Hispanics in
the U.S. labor force. Over the year, the number of employed
Hispanics rose by 225,000 to 15 million. With this increase,
Hispanic employment rose to about the same as the number
of employed blacks.50 The rise in Hispanic employment,
driven by the long-term rise in the Hispanic population, was
spread fairly evenly between adult men and adult women.
There also were 82,000 additional ««employed Hispanics by
the fourth quarter, however, and this corresponded with a 0.3percentage point rise in their unemployment rate, which ended
the year at 7.8 percent.

Workers at all education levels were affected by the recent
labor market downturn, including those who have attained
college-level training. During the 2001-02 labor market
downturn, a great deal of media attention was focused on
troubles in the “high tech” sector.51 This field typically em­
ploys more highly educated workers, leading to speculation
that the recent recession may have had a greater effect on
such workers than past recessionary periods. The data sug­
gest that the full story is somewhat more complex than indi­
cated by some news stories.52 The rise in the unemployment
rate among more highly educated workers during the recent
recession largely resembles that of past recessions.53 How­
ever, when compared with the somewhat milder changes in
the unemployment rates of less well-educated groups, it ap­
pears that workers with more education did fare relatively
worse in the most recent downturn.
Since the start of the recent recession in the first quarter of
2001 the unemployment rate for those with less than a high
school education increased by 2.1 percentage points to 9.1
percent. At the same time, the unemployment rate for those
with a high school education but no college training rose 1.3
percentage points to 5.1 percent. These changes represented
unemployment rate increases of about one-third since the first
quarter of 2001. In contrast, during the same period, the un­
employment rate of those with some college training expanded
by more than two-thirds, increasing by 1.9 percentage points
to 4.7 percent, while the rate for college graduates almost
doubled, adding 1.3 percentage points by the end of 2002 ,
reaching 3.0 percent. (See table 3.)
The comparatively moderate unemployment rate change
among workers with less education is consistent with the rela­
tively “mild” nature of the recent downturn.54 This is particu­
larly noteworthy, given the low unemployment rates for the
less educated when the recession began. The strong job
markets of the late 1990s had brought rates for the less edu­
cated close to record lows. The small rise in the jobless rates
during the subsequent labor market slowdown suggests that

,

14 Monthly Labor Review

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February 2003

success in the job market during the expansion among at least
some of the less educated may have had some staying power.
(See chart 5.)

Employment growth occurred among those in service occu­
pations; these gains were substantially offset by losses, par­
ticularly among operators,fabricators, and laborers as well
as those in precision production, craft, and repairjobs. Em­
ployment in service occupations rose by 741,000 over the
year, concentrated mainly in the health services and food
preparation fields. Women accounted for the majority of the
increase in these fields. Employment in farming, forestry, and
fishing also rose, with 205,000 jobs added in 2002, mostly in
farming. Most of this increase was among men. Hispanics
account for a disproportionately large portion of farm workers
(20.4 percent in the fourth quarter o f2002), and over the year,
they made up roughly two-fifths of the employment increase
in this category. (See table 4.)
Employment declined over the year among operators, fab­
ricators, and laborers (—323,000) as well as within precision
production, craft, and repair occupations (-389,000). Most of
the job losses in these fields were among men. Declines within
operator, fabricator, and laborer occupations were concen­
trated among machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors
(-272,000) and handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and la­
borers (-169,000). Employment also fell in technical, sales,
and administrative support occupations (-137,000). Employ­
ment losses in this area were concentrated among women,
who shed 475,000 jobs in administrative support, including
clerical occupations.

Unemployment: why and how long? The number of people
who were unemployed because they had lost their jobs (as
opposed to those who have recently entered the job market or
those who have quit their jobs) rose between the fourth quar­
ters o f2001 and 2002, by 244,000. The increase in job losers
reflects the net effect of a 370,000 rise in the number of those
whose job loss was thought to be permanent, and a 127,000
decline among workers on temporary layoff. The recession of
the early 1990s was the first downturn in which the portion of
the increase in job losers due to permanent job loss was dra­
matically larger than the portion due to temporary layoff. This
pattern continued in the recent labor market downturn, with
the disparity becoming even more striking.55
The number of unemployed who newly entered the labor
force remained little changed over the year, a sign that diffi­
cult labor market conditions may have encouraged many, es­
pecially youth, to otherwise occupy themselves for the time
being.56 Many were unable to delay the pursuit of employ­
ment, however, as evidenced by the number of unemployed
reentrants—persons who previously worked but were out of
the labor force prior to beginning their job search—which

Table 3.

Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 25 years and older by educational attainment,
quarterly averages, seasonally adjusted, 1999-2002

[Numbers in thousands]
2002

1999

2000

2001

IV

IV

IV

I

II

III

IV

174,456

175,921

177,481

177,822

178,290

178,738

179,228

1,747

Educational attainment

Total civilian noninstitutional population.........

Change,
IV 2001 to
IV 2002

Less than a high school diploma
Civilian noninstitutional population1 ................
Percent of total population......................
Civilian labor fo rc e .........................................
Percent of population..............................
Employed......................................................
Employment-population ratio...................
Unemployed..................................................
Unemployment ra te ..................................

28,206
16.2
12,103
42.9
11,332
40.2
770
6.4

27,825
15.8
12,033
43.2
11,256
40.5
777
6.5

27,548
15.5
12,123
44.0
11,126
40.4
997
8.2

27,785
15.6
12,157
43.8
11,165
40.2
991
8.2

28,111
15.8
12,340
43.9
11,297
40.2
1,043
8.5

26,953
15.1
11,777
43.7
10,796
40.1
981
8.3

27,069
15.1
11,920
44.0
10,830
40.0
1,090
9.1

-479
-.4
-203
.0
-296
-.4
93
.9

57,551
33.0
37,428
65.0
36,180
62.9
1,247
3.3

57,609
32.7
37,159
64.5
35,860
62.2
1,299
3.5

57,380
32.3
36,829
64.2
35,044
61.1
1,785
4.8

57,432
32.3
36,710
63.9
34,766
60.5
1,944
5.3

57,012
32.0
36,644
64.3
34,580
60.7
2,064
5.6

57,629
32.2
37,295
64.7
35,414
61.5
1,881
5.0

58,169
32.5
37,214
64.0
35,301
60.7
1,913
5.1

789
.2
385
-.2
257
-.4
128
.3

43,975
25.2
32,402
73.7
31,554
71.8
848
2.6

44,711
25.4
32,955
73.7
32,117
71.8
838
2.5

45,395
25.6
33,438
73.7
32,054
70.6
1,384
4.1

45,173
25.4
33,098
73.3
31,714
70.2
1,384
4.2

44,703
25.1
32,865
73.5
31,303
70.0
1,561
4.8

45,525
25.5
33,315
73.2
31,816
69.9
1,499
4.5

45,979
25.7
33,455
72.8
31,880
69.3
1,576
4.7

584
.1
17
-.9
-174
-1.3
192
.6

44,724
25.6
35,609
79.6
34,992
78.2
617
1.7

45,776
26.0
36,188
79.1
35,621
77.8
567
1.6

47,158
26.6
37,194
78.9
36,112
76.6
1,082
2.9

47,432
26.7
37,577
79.2
36,509
77.0
1,068
2.8

48,464
27.2
38,279
79.0
37,149
76.7
1,130
3.0

48,632
27.2
37,947
78.0
36,873
75.8
1,074
2.8

48,011
26.8
37,763
78.7
36,630
76.3
1,132
3.0

853
.2
569
-.2
518
-.3
50
.1

High school graduates, no college
Civilian noninstitutional population(l).............
Percent of total population.....................
Civilian labor fo rc e .........................................
Percent of population..............................
Employed.....................................................
Employment-population ra tio .................
Unemployed.................................................
Unemployment rate..................................
Less than a bachelor’s degree1
Civilian noninstitutional population1 ...............
Percent of total population.....................
Civilian labor fo rc e ........................................
Percent of population..............................
Employed.....................................................
Employment-population ratio..................
Unemployed.................................................
Unemployment ra te .................................
College graduates
Civilian noninstitutional population1 ...............
Percent of total population....................
Civilian labor fo rc e ........................................
Percent of population..............................
Employed.....................................................
Employment-population ratio..................
Unemployed.................................................
Unemployment rate.................................

1The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation.
2 Includes high school diploma or equivalent.

rose by 174,000 to 2.4 million. Unemployment among those
who voluntarily left their jobs changed little over the year.
(See table 5.)
Because the job market remained slack during 2002, many
people were unemployed for long periods of time. The aver­
age (mean) duration of unemployment rose by 3.9 weeks be­
tween the fourth quarter of 2001 and the fourth quarter of
2002, to 17.9 weeks. The number of people who had been
unemployed for 27 weeks or more rose to 1.7 million from 1
million.

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3 Includes the categories some college, no degree, and associate degree.
Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

S ource:

Alternative measures of labor market underutilization indi­
cated modest change in other types of labor market difficul­
ties during the year. The official unemployment rate is not the
only measure of the extent to which labor resources are being
underutilized. The Bureau of Labor Statistics has developed a
range of alternative measures of labor underutilization that
can be used to supplement the jobless rate and shed further
light on the extent to which labor resources are being utilized.
Table 6 shows alternative measures U -l through U-6 over the
past year. Like the official unemployment rate (U-3, not sea-

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

15

U.S. Labor Market, 2002

Chart 5. Unemployment rates of persons ages 25 to 64 by educational attainment, 1970-2002
Percent

Percent
18
16

12

io

Source : Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 4.

Employment by occupation and sex, fourth quarter, 2001-02, and median usual weekly earnings by
occupation, annual average, 2002

[Employment in thousands]
Total

Median
usual
weekly
earnings

Occupation

Total, 16 years and o ld e r..................
Managerial and professional specialty ...
Executive, administrative, and
managerial.................................
Professional specialty....................
Technical, sales, and administrative
support............................................
Technicians and related support........
Sales occupations.................................
Administrative support, including
clerical........................................

2001
IV

Men

2002
IV

Change,
IV 2001
to IV 2002

2001
IV

Women

2002
IV

Change,
IV 2001
to IV 2002

2001
IV

2002
IV

Change,
IV 2001
to IV 2002

$610
884

134,497
42,044

134,609
42,058

112
14

71,595
20,814

71,432
20,661

-163
-153

62,903
21,230

63,178
21,397

275
167

891
879

20,250
21,794

20,266
21,793

16
-1

10,807
10,007

10,923
9,739

116
-268

9,443
11,787

9 343
12,054

-in n
267

551
693
602

38,687
4,416
15,926

38,550
4,558
16,169

-137
142
243

13,919
1,985
8,032

14,025
2,078
8,090

106
93
58

24,767
2,431
7,894

24 525
2 480
8,079

-

24?

49
185

503

18,345

17,823

-522

3,903

3,857

-46

14,442

13,967

-475

Service occupations.............................
Private household........................
Protective service..............................
Service, except private household
and protective service....................

385
277
647

18,305
707
2,531

19,046
772
2,627

741
65
96

7,320
19
2,000

7,540
43
2,087

220
24
87

10,985
688
531

11 506
729
541

521

355

15,067

15,646

579

5,301

5,410

109

9,766

10,236

470

Precision production, craft, and repair...

633

14,683

14,294

-389

13,445

13153

-292

1,238

1,141

-97

Operators, fabricators, and laborers.....
Machine operators, assemblers,
and inspectors.................................
Transportation and material m oving.....
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers,
and laborers..................................

484

17,632

17,309

-323

13,596

13,354

-242

4,036

3,955

-81

476
581

6,530
5,609

6,258
5,728

-272
119

4,265
5,029

4,094
5,088

-171
59

2,265
580

?

164

640

101
60

401

5,493

5,324

-169

4,301

4,172

-129

1,192

1,151

—41

Farming, forestry, and fishing................

364

3,147

3,352

205

2,501

2,699

198

646

653

7

S ource:

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

16 Monthly Labor Review

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2003

41
10

Table 5.

Unemployed persons by reason for and duration of unemployment, quarterly averages, seasonally adjusted,
1999-2002

[Numbers in thousands]
2002
1999
IV

2000
IV

2001
IV

II

II

III

IV

Change,
IV 2001
to IV 2002

2,495
817
1,677
802
1,984
468

2,508
881
1,628
772
1,899
433

4,430
1,184
3,246
879
2,224
486

4,317
1,099
3,218
873
2,310
507

4,567
1,082
3,485
918
2,414
534

4,559
1,125
3,434
808
2,302
572

4,674
1,057
3,616
843
2,398
524

244
-127
370
-36
174
38

Less than 5 weeks...................................................
5 to 14 weeks...........................................................
15 weeks and over...................................................
15 to 26 weeks.......................................................
27 weeks and o v e r.................................................

2,593
1,748
1,383
691
692

2,497
1,772
1,306
689
617

3,066
2,606
2,256
1,213
1,044

2,961
2,504
2,598
1,386
1,213

2,800
2,711
2,970
1,370
1,600

2,828
2,469
2,855
1,324
1,531

2,801
2,486
3,076
1,327
1,749

-265
-120
820
114
705

Average (mean) duration, in weeks.........................

13.0

12.4

14.0

15.0

17.0

16.8

17.9

3.9

Median duration, in w eeks.......................................

6.1

6.0

7.7

8.3

10.1

8.8

9.5

1.8

Reason and duration

Reason for unemployment
Job losers and persons who completed
temporary jo b s......................................................
On temporary layoff.............................................
Not on temporary la yo ff......................................
Job leavers.................................................. .............
Reentrants.................................................................
New entrants............................................................
Duration of unemployment

Source:

Table 6.

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Range of alternative measures of labor underutilization, quarterly averages, not seasonally adjusted,
1999-2002
1999

2000

2001

IV

IV

IV

I

II

III

IV

Change,
IV 2001
to IV 2002

2002

Measure

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer,
as a percent of the civilian labor force................

.9

.9

1.5

2.0

2.1

1.9

2.0

0.5

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed
temporary jobs, as a percent of
the civilian labor fo rc e ...........................................

1.7

1.6

2.9

3.6

3.0

3.0

3.1

.2

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian
labor force (official unemployment rate )..............

3.8

3.7

5.2

6.2

5.8

5.7

5.6

.4

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers,
as a percent of the civilian labor force plus
discouraged workers..............................................

4.0

3.9

5.5

6.4

6.0

5.9

5.8

.3

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers,
plus all other marginally attached workers, as a
percent of the civilian labor force plus all
marginally attached workers..................................

4.6

4.4

6.1

7.1

6.7

6.6

6.5

.4

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all marginally attached
workers, plus total employed part time for
economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian
labor force plus all marginally attached workers...

6.8

6.6

9.0

10.1

9.5

9.5

9.3

.3

Source:

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

sonally adjusted), most of these measures pointed to only
modest worsening in labor market conditions over the year.
The measure that showed the most sizeable increase was U -1,
which shows persons unemployed 15 weeks or more as a
percent of the civilian labor force. The rise in this measure,
combined with the relatively stable number of unemployed
persons, indicated that, as noted earlier, although unemploy­

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ment rose only slightly in 2002, the weakness in the job market
made it increasingly difficult for those who do not have jobs
to find work. (See table 6.)

During 2002, the median weekly earnings o f full-time
wage and salary workers rose only slightly more than
consumer prices. During most o f the 1990s expansion,

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

17

U.S. Labor Market, 2002

real earnings increased for most worker groups. With the
onset o f the recession in 2001, earnings increases slowed
somewhat. Earnings gains were even smaller in 2002. Over
the year, the median weekly earnings of full-time wage and
salary workers, as derived from the CPS, were $610, repre­
senting an increase o f 2.2 percent from a year earlier.57
This was slightly higher than the 1.6-percent rise in the
Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U)
over the same period. (See table 7.)
Median weekly earnings o f women increased at a faster
pace than those of men in 2002— 3.9 versus 1.9 percent.
Over the year, the ratio of women’s earnings to men’s in­
creased to 78 percent, up from 76 percent a year earlier.
Since 1979, when the Bureau o f Labor Statistics began
regularly collecting information on usual median weekly
earnings in the CPS, the ratio o f women’s to m en’s earn­
ings has increased by 15 percentage points. It is impor­
tant to remember that many factors may underlie the dis­
parity between the earnings o f men and women: differ­
ences in work schedules, educational attainment, length

o f experience in the workforce, occupational and industry
makeup o f each group, and discrimination, for example.
Among the race and ethnic groups, earnings increased
by about the same degree for each group. Between 2001
and 2002, median weekly earnings for blacks rose by 2.5
percent to $499, and whites’ earnings increased by 2.5 per­
cent over the year to $627. Hispanic earnings grew by 2.4
percent over the year, to $424.
Median weekly earnings increased for workers in all
four major educational groups in 2002, although earnings
growth was comparably slower for workers who had at
least some college education. Earnings increased the most
(3.5 percent) among high school graduates with no col­
lege training, whose earnings reached $538 in 2002. Me­
dian weekly earnings among persons with less than a high
school education rose by 2.6 percent, ending the year at
$388. Earnings among workers with some college experi­
ence or an associate’s degree roughly kept pace with in­
flation in 2002, rising by 1.6 percent to $631, while college
graduates’ earnings increased by 2.1 percent to $943.
During the expansion o f the
1990s, earnings expanded at a
Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers
b risk ra te for m any w o rk er
by selected characteristics, annual averages 2001-02
groups.58 Even low-paid workers
saw their earnings improve, espe­
Percent change,
Characteristic
2001
2002
2001-02
cially during the latter part o f the
expansion. Between 1996 and
Total, 16 years and older1 .....................................................
$597
2.2
$610
1999, the weekly earnings o f full­
Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations....
867
891
2.8
time
workers with earnings near
Professional specialty occupations....................................
854
879
2.9
the bottom o f the distribution—
Technicians and related support.........................................
673
693
3.0
Sales occupations...............................................................
574
602
4.9
those with earnings at the first
Administrative support, incuding clerical............................
486
503
3.5
decile— grew by an average o f
Private household workers..................................................
277
255
8.6
Protective service occupations...........................................
647
629
2.9
about
3.0 percent per year (after
Service, except private household and protective............
349
355
1.7
Precision production, craft, and repair................................
adjusting for inflation) over that 3629
633
0.6
Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors...............
457
476
4.2
year period.59 This was roughly
Transportation and material moving occupations...............
1.4
573
581
in line with the earnings growth
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers.......
389
401
3.1
Farming, forestry, and fishing occupations.........................
354
364
2.8
experienced by those near the top
Men........................................................................................
672
685
1.9
of the distribution o f weekly earn­
Women...................................................................................
511
531
3.9
ings—those with earnings at the
White......................................................................................
612
627
2.5
M en....................................................................................
694
709
2.2
ninth decile. Between 1999 and
Women...............................................................................
521
550
5.6
2002, however, the rate o f growth
Black......................................................................................
487
499
2.5
Men....................................................................................
518
524
1.2
for the low-paid workers slowed to
Women...............................................................................
474
451
5.1
a
standstill, undoubtedly reflect­
Hispanic origin......................................................................
424
414
2.4
Men ....................................................................................
438
3.4
453
ing the onset o f the recession in
W om en...............................................................................
385
396
2.9
2001. Earnings advances among
Less than a high school diploma1........................................
378
388
2.6
highly-paid workers also slowed
High school graduates, no college1.....................................
520
538
3.5
Some college or associate degree1.....................................
621
631
1.6
over this period, though the weekly
College graduates, total1 .....................................................
924
943
2.1
earnings o f those at the ninth
decile continued to grow through
1 Earnings figures by educational attainment pertain to persons age 25 and older.
2002. (See table 8.)
S ource: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.


18 Monthly Labor Review
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February 2003

Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program methodologies

The Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS)
program uses multiple methodologies to produce
monthly estimates of civilian labor force, employ­
ment, unemployment, and unemployment rate for
areas below the national level, including census
regions and divisions, the States and the District
of Columbia, and metropolitan areas. The same
concepts that are used in the Current Population
Survey (CPS) for the Nation as a whole are applied
in the LAUS methodologies, so that data are com­
parable across geographic levels.
The LAUS methodologies vary by the availabil­
ity o f inputs, which tends to reflect differences in
geographic level. A signal-plus-noise modeling
approach is used for areas where data from the

Table 8.

Quartiles and selected deciles of usual weekly
earnings of full-time wage and salary workers
16 years and older, annual averages 1992-2002

[In constant 2002 dollars]

Upper limit of:
Year

First
decile

1992.....................
1993.....................
1994.....................
1995.....................
1996.....................
1997.....................
1998.....................
1999.....................
2000.....................
2001 .....................
2002.....................

271
273
264
266
266
270
282
290
292
295
296

First
quartile
374
373
368
366
364
368
382
394
397
402
406

Second
Third
quartile quartile
(median)
554
564
561
562
559
562
576
593
602
606
610

828
837
843
843
843
849
870
892
900
912
926

Ninth
decile
1,174
1,200
1,196
1,198
1,209
1,239
1,273
1,307
1,322
1,367
1,381

NOTE: The Consumer Price Index research series using current meth­
ods (CPi-u-RS) is used to convert dollars to constant dollars. Ten percent of
all full-time wage and salary workers earn less than the upper limit of the first
decile; 25 percent earn less than the upper limit of the first quartile; 50
percent earn less than the upper limit of the second quartile, or median; 75
percent earn less than the upper limit of the third quartile; and 90 percent
earn less than the upper limit of the ninth decile. This chart provides data for
1992 forwards becuase the labor market difficulties of the early 1990s
tapered off in 1992 and the job market expansion of the 1990s began that
year. Data for years prior to 1994 are not strictly comparable, due to the
1994 redesign of the Current Population Survey.
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.


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CPS can reliably serve as inputs.

Model-based
areas include the States and the District of Colum­
bia. Estimates for regions and divisions are ag­
gregated from the model-based estimates for their
constituent States. Due to the methodological
differences, estimates for regions and divisions
may not sum to those for the United States. Met­
ropolitan area estimates are developed through a
building block approach where categories of un­
employed workers are classified based on their
previous status with respect to the labor force,
and controlled to State totals. Both the model and
building block approaches incorporate adminis­
trative data from the Unemployment Insurance
(Ul) systems and establishment payroll data pro­
duced by other BLS programs.

Jobless rates continued to climb in most parts o f the country
in 2002, while falling in some parts. In the places where
they rose, the increases were generally more moderate than
in 2001. Unemployment rates moved upward, on net, in 6 of
the 9 census geographic divisions in 2002.60 (See table 9.)
However, for no division was the jobless rate increase larger
than it had been in 2001. The most marked improvement rela­
tive to the previous year came in the most populous divi­
sion—the South Atlantic—where the 2002 decline of 0.2 per­
centage point followed a 2001 rise of 1.5 points. The relative
improvement was least in the Middle Atlantic division, where
the 0.6-percentage point increase in 2002 followed a full-point
rise in 2001.
Almost all geographic divisions saw their payroll employ­
ment decline in 2002. However, job losses were relatively more
severe for the divisions in the Midwest and Northeast than
those in the South and West. The Middle Atlantic and New
England divisions experienced the largest unemployment rate
increases, 0.6 percentage point each, while shedding jobs at
rates of 0.5 and 0.6 percent, respectively. Meanwhile, the most
sizeable unemployment rate decline, -0.4 percentage point in
the East South Central division, was associated with the only
divisional employment gain, however slight.
The Pacific continued to report the highest divisional un­
employment rate, 6.6 percent in the fourth quarter o f2002, as it
has for 11 consecutive years. The West North Central divi-

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

19

U.S. Labor Market, 2002

Table 9.

Unemployment rates for regions and divisions, seasonally adjusted quarterly averages, 2001-02
2002'

2001
IV

Región and división

I

II

III

IV

Over-theyear change2

Northeast región.......................................................
New England división............................................
Middle Atlantic división.........................................

5.0
4.2
5.2

5.2
4.1
5.6

5.4
4.3
5.8

5.3
4.6
5.6

5.5
4.8
5.8

.5
.6
.6

Midwest región.........................................................
East North Central división...................................
West North Central división..................................

5.0
5.4
4.1

5.2
5.7
4.2

5.4
5.8
4.3

5.3
5.8
4.3

5.2
5.7
4.2

.2
.3
.1

South región.............................................................
South Atlantic división..........................................
East South Central división..................................
West South Central división.................................

5.4
5.2
5.7
5.5

5.4
5.2
5.6
5.5

5.5
5.3
5.5
5.8

5.4
5.1
5.3
5.8

5.4
5.0
5.3
5.9

.0
-.2
-.4
.4

West región..............................................................
Mountain división..................................................
Pacific división......................................................

6.0
5.3
6.3

6.3
5.6
6.5

6.2
5.4
6.6

6.2
5.3
6.5

6.2
5.3
6.6

.2
.0
.3

Data for 2002 have not been benchmarked.
1Weighted changes for divisions within regions may not average to

regional changes due to independent rounding.
Source:

sion had the lowest rate, 4.2 percent, followed by New En­
gland, 4.8 percent. With the exception of 9 quarters in the
early 1980s, one or both of these have posted the lowest divi­
sional unemployment rate.61 All other divisions recorded rates
between 5.0 and 5.9 percent at the close o f2002.
All geographic divisions continued to register sizeable
over-the-year job losses in manufacturing employment in
2002. However, the smallest relative contractions occurred in
the East North Central and East South Central divisions,
where the manufacturing industry accounts for the greatest
shares of total employment, while the largest decline occurred
in the Mountain division, where the manufacturing industry
accounts for the least share of total employment. For all
divisions but the East South Central, the decline in durable
goods manufacturing was steeper than the decline in nondu­
rable goods manufacturing. Every division reported job
losses in transportation and public utilities, and three of the
nine divisions experienced sharper declines in this sector
than in manufacturing. For most divisions, employment was
down more severely in communications and public utilities
than in transportation. Wholesale trade continued to con­
tract in every division, but most slightly in the Pacific.
The healthy construction employment advances in the East
South Central and Middle Atlantic contrasted with the steep
declines for that sector in the Mountain, Pacific, South Atlan­
tic, and West North Central divisions, while the growth in
retail trade in the Pacific contrasted with the large losses in
the East North Central and South Atlantic divisions. Ser­
vices, which accounts for by far the largest share of jobs,
grew at least somewhat in all divisions, including brisk ad­
vances in the East South Central, Mountain, and South Atlan­
tic. Government—particularly at the local level— also added

20 Monthly Labor Review
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February 2003

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Local Area Unemployment Statistics.

jobs across all geographic divisions, most rapidly in those of
the South and West.
States. On net, joblessness was up over the year in 28 States,
down in 19 States and the District of Columbia, and unchanged
in 3 States. (See chart 6.) Only 14 States experienced unem­
ployment rate increases of 0.5 percentage point or more, com­
pared with 38 States over the year ending in the fourth quarter
of2001. The steepest rate climb, 1.4 percentage points, came
in West Virginia, which had posted the largest decline in un­
employment among States in 2001, settling at its historical low
rate of 4.6 percent in the fourth quarter of that year. No other
State recorded an unemployment rate increase as large as a
full percentage point in 2002.
Nevada experienced the largest jobless rate decline among
States in 2002, -2.0 percentage points. This constituted the
most marked unemployment trend reversal for a State, as it
followed an increase of 2.4 percentage points in 2001. Nevada
also registered the most rapid payroll employment growth
over the year. Some of the turnaround there could be attrib­
uted to the partial return to normalcy in tourism following the
terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, but much of the job
growth was population-driven. Three other States—Hawaii,
Kentucky, and South Dakota—reported jobless rate declines
of a full percentage point or more. Hawaii and Kentucky were
also among the 5 States with the most rapid payroll employ­
ment growth in 2002.
Four of the six States with the highest relative joblessness
at the end o f2002 were located in the Pacific division. Oregon
continued to post the highest unemployment rate, 7.1 per­
cent, followed closely by Alaska at 7.0 percent. Conditions in
Oregon were actually much improved over the year. The

Chart 6. Over-the-year change in unemployment rates by State, seasonally adjusted,
fourth quarter 2001-02

-0.6 point or more
NOTE Data f a 2002 have not been benchmarked.
SOURCE: Bureau of Laba Statistics, Local Area Unemployment Statistics.

State’s unemployment-rate decline of 0.5 percentage point in
2002 followed a 2.8-point rise in 2001. Oregon also posted a
small increase in payroll employment in 2002— a marked im­
provement from the more than 2-percent contraction during
the previous year. In Alaska, the 0.9-percentage point in­
crease in joblessness was among the largest for any State,
and came in spite of continued healthy payroll employment
growth.
Three additional States— Illinois, Mississippi, and Wash­
ington— also had unemployment rates above 6.5 percent at
the end o f2002. While Mississippi experienced small employ­
ment growth, Illinois and Washington each continued to shed
relatively large numbers of payroll jobs. In Illinois, the losses
were broad-based, as job declines came in every major indus­
try group except construction. In Washington, by contrast,
almost all of the net employment loss came in manufacturing,
with about 50 percent of the decline attributable to aircraft
and parts manufacturing.
The two most populous States—California and Texas—
and the District of Columbia, Louisiana, and North Carolina
also had unemployment rates of more than 6 percent in the
fourth quarter o f2002. In California, heavy over-the-year job


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losses in business services and IT-related manufacturing were
balanced by strong growth in local government and retail
trade. In Texas, the net effect of employment declines across
most major industry groups was lessened by the rapid expan­
sion of local government.
Five of the 10 States with unemployment rates of 4.0 per­
cent or less in the fourth quarter of 2002 were located in the
West North Central division. South Dakota recorded the low­
est rate, 2.8 percent, followed by Nebraska and North Dakota,
3.3 percent each. None of these States experienced appre­
ciable changes in payroll employment over the year. Mean­
while, one of the remaining lowest unemployment-rate States
in the fourth quarter—Delaware, at 4.0 percent—shed jobs at
the most rapid pace in 2002. Montana posted its historical
low unemployment rate in the third quarter, 4.2 percent, hav­
ing experienced relatively robust employment growth in 2002.
Metropolitan areas.62 More than two-thirds of the large met­
ropolitan areas saw their unemployment rates move upward
in 2002.63 However, for most of these 35 areas with unemploy­
ment rate increases, the rise in joblessness was less than it
had been in 2001. (See table 10.) San Jose, CA, once again

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

21

U.S. Labor Market, 2002

I

C h a n g e s in fo u rth q u a r t e r j n e m p l o y m e n t r a t e s fo r s e l e c t l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s ,
n o t s e a s o n a l l y a d j u s t e d , 20 0 1 - 0 2

Fourth quarter, 2001

Fourth quarter, 2002

Metropolitan area
Unemployment
rate

Over-theyear change

Unemployment
rate

Over-theyear change

Atlanta, ga ................................................................
Baltimore, md.............................................................
Bergen-Passaic, n j .................................................
Boston, MA-NH..........................................................
Buffalo-Niagara Falls, ny ........................................
Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock Hill, nc-s c .....................
Chicago, il .................................................................
Cincinnati, oh-ky-in ...................................................
Cleveland-Lorain-Elyria, o h ....................................
Columbus, o h .....................................................

4.1
4.7
4.7
3.7
5.4
5.7
5.7
4.1
5.2
3.1

1.4
.3
1.3
1.8
.7
1.9
1.6
.7
1.2
.9

4.7
4.3
5.2
4.5
5.4
5.7
6.4
4.2
5.8
4.2

.6
- .4
.5
.8
.0
.0
.7
.1
.6
1.1

Dallas, tx ...................................................................
Denver, c o ........................................................
Detroit, mi..................................................................
Fort Lauderdale, fl ..................................................
Fort Worth-Arlington, tx .........................................
Greensboro—Winston-Salem—High Point, n c ...
Hartford, c t ...............................................................
Houston, t x ..................................................................................
Indianapolis, i n .........................................................................
Kansas City, m o - k s ................................................................

5.9
4.7
5.4
6.0
4.8
5.6
3.4

3.1
2.5
2.3
2.4
1.9
2.4

6.4
5.3
5.3
5.8
5.7
5.7

.5
.6
-.1
-.2
.9
.1

1 .6

4 .3

.9

4 .5

1 .0

5 .6

1.1

Los Angeles-Long Beach, c a .........................................
Memphis, t n - a r - m s ..................................................................
Miami, f l ........................................................................................
Middlesex-Somerset-Hunterdon, n j ............................
Milwaukee-Waukesha, w i....................................
Minneapolis-St. Paul, m n -w i .............................................
Nassau-Suffolk, n y ................................................................
New Orleans, l a ....................................................................
New York, n y ................................................................................
Newark, n j ....................................................................................
Norfolk-Virginia Beach-Newport News, v a -n c .......
Oakland, c a ........................................................................
Orange County, c a .................................................................
Orlando, f l ...................................................................................
Philadelphia, p a - n j ..................................................................
Phoenix-Mesa, a z ....................................................
Pittsburgh, pa ..............................................
Portland-Vancouver, o r - w a ..............................................
Providence-Fall River-Warwick, r i - m a ........................
Riverside-San Bernardino, c a .........................................
Rochester, n y .................................................................
Sacramento, c a ........................................................................
St. Louis, MO-IL.........................................................
Salt Lake City-Ogden, ut .......................................
San Antonio, t x ........................................................................
San Diego, c a ............................................................................
San Francisco, c a ..................................................................
San Jose, c a ..............................................................................
Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, w a ..........................................
Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, f l ...................
Washington, dc-md-va-wv ........................................

N ote:

4 .0

1 .9

4 .5

.5

4 .5

.9

5 .0

5

6.1

1 .2

6 .0

-.1

4 .7

.8

4 .6

- .1
-1 .0

8.1

2 .7

7 .1

3 .7

1 .2

4 .4

.7

4 .7

1 .3

5.1

.4

3 .5

1 .0

3 .5

.0

3 .7

1 .0

3 .8

.1
- .3

5 .6

.5

5 .3

6 .5

1 .6

7 .3

4 .8

1 .4

5 .6

4 .1

1 .6

3 .9

- .2
1 .0

22 Monthly Labor Review

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February 2003

.8

4 .9

2 .5

5 .9

3 .5

1 .3

3 .9

5 .5

3 .0

4 .8

4 .4

.7

5 .2

.8

5.1

2 .5

5 .2

.1

.4
- .7

4 .2

.4

5 .0

.8

7 .2

3 .5

7 .0

- .2

4 .5

.9

5 .0

.5

5 .1

.4

5 .8

.7

5.1

1 .5

5 .4

.3

4 .3

.7

5 .3

1 .0

4 .9

.9

5 .0

.1

4 .6

1 .6

4 .9

.3

4 .4

1 .3

4 .9

.5

3 .6

1 .0

4 .2

.6

4 .8

2 .9

5 .3

.5

6 .7

5 .2

7 .9

1 .2
.0

6 .2

2 .4

6 .2

4 .4

1 .8

4 .4

3 .7

1 .4

3 .2

Data for 2 0 0 2 have not been benchmarked.
Bureau of Labor Statistics, Local Area Unemployment Statistics.

S ource:

.8

.0
- .5

in the fourth quarter of 2002, despite a considerable loss of
recorded the largest unemployment rate increase, 1.2 percent­
jobs over the year. Four additional areas—Minneapolis-St.
age points. Columbus, OH—which had registered the lowest
Paul, MN-WI, Nassau-Suffolk, NY, Norfolk-Virginia Beachunemployment rate at the end of 2001—and Houston, TX,
Newport News, va -NC, and Orange County, CA—also regis­
closely followed with increases of 1.1 percentage points each.
tered rates below 4.0 percent. None of these four areas expe­
Increases of a full percentage point were also registered for
rienced a substantial change in their unemployment rate from
two other areas in California—Oakland and Sacramento.
the fourth quarter o f2001, while only Norfolk-Virginia BeachEight of the 11 large metropolitan areas with decreasing
Newport News reported an over-the-year payroll employment
unemployment rates in 2002 were located in the South. Mi­
change in excess of one-half percent.
ami, FL, which had recorded the highest unemployment rate
among these areas at the end of 2001, experienced the most
Labor market conditions remained weak in 2002, follow­
sizeable rate decline in 2002, -1.0 percentage point. Another
ing a more marked deterioration after the start of the reces­
Florida area—Orlando— followed with a rate decline of 0.7
sion
in 2001. The unemployment rate edged up during the
percentage point. The Miami area added payroll jobs at a
year,
averaging 5.9 percent in the fourth quarter. Job losses
much accelerated pace in 2002, as compared with 2001, while
were spread throughout most of the occupational groups,
the Orlando area added a small number of jobs in 2002 follow­
particularly in the precision production, craft, and repair fields
ing a substantial employment contraction in the previous year.
as well as among operators, fabricators, and laborers. Ser­
Washington, DC-MD-VA-WV, was the only other large metro­
vice occupations were the only major occupational group to
politan area to post an over-the-year unemployment rate drop
show a definitive increase in employment over the year. The
as large as 0.5 percentage point.
earnings of most groups increased only slightly in 2002, after
In the fourth quarter of 2002, San Jose, CA, recorded the
accounting for inflation. Earnings growth had begun slow­
highest unemployment rate, 7.9 percent, among the large met­
ing from the pace reached in the late 1990s with the onset of
ropolitan areas. This area continued to experience the sharp­
the recession in 2001. Nonfarm employment declined for the
est payroll employment decline in 2002. New York, NY, and
second consecutive year, although the job loss in 2002 was
Miami, FL, had the next highest jobless rates (7.3 and 7.1 per­
much smaller than in 2001. Job losses in 2002 were concen­
cent, respectively), followed by Portland-Vancouver, OR-WA,
7.0 percent. For the New York area, the annual rate of employ­ trated in manufacturing, retail trade, and communications.
Health services and government were the main sources of
ment contraction decreased notably from 2001 to 2002. The
job growth in 2002.
continued job growth in the Miami area has already been
Local labor markets also continued to deteriorate in 2002,
noted. Meanwhile, broad-based job losses persisted in the
with rising jobless rates and declining payrolls widespread
Portland-Vancouver area in 2002, although they were far less
throughout the country. The pace of deterioration abated
severe than in 2001.
from 2001 for most local markets, and even gave way to condi­
Washington, DC-MD-VA-WV, recorded the lowest unem­
tions consistent with economic growth for some.
□
ployment rate among the large metropolitan areas, 3.2 percent

Notes

2 Clare Ansberry, “On a Budget/A Cloud over the Recovery: Busi­
nesses’ New Frugal Ways/After 1990s Investment Spree, Corporations
are Trying To Do More With Less,” The Wall S tre e t J o u rn a l, Oct. 16,
2002; and Steve Pearlstein, “Too Much Supply, Too Little Demand,”
The W ashington P o st, Aug. 25, 2002, p. Al.
3 See Katherine Abraham, “The Role of Flexible Staffing Arrange­
ments in Short Term Workforce Adjustment Strategies,” in Robert
Hart, ed., E m p lo ym en t, U n e m p lo y m e n t a n d H o u rs o f Work (London,
George Allen and Unwin, 1998); R e p o r t on the A m e ric a n W orkforce
(U.S. Department of Labor, 1999), pp. 18-24; and Rachel Krantz,
“Employment in business services: a year of unprecedented decline,”
M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , April 2002, pp. 17-24.

5 Industrial production data are published by the Federal Reserve on
the Internet at http://w w w .federalreserve.gov/releases/gl7 (vis­
ited Feb. 2003).
6 Total manufacturers’ inventories were down 2.6 percent for the
year (through Nov. 2002). Inventories data are published by the U.S.
Census Bureau on the Internet at http://www.census.gov/mtis/www/
mtis.html (visited Feb. 2003). New orders data are published by the
U.S. Census Bureau online at http://www.census.gov/indicator/www/
m3/ (visited Dec. 2002).
7 Trade data are published by NAICS codes, which do not directly
correspond with SIC classifications. Figures are comparisons of the
period January through November for the years 2001 and 2002; at
publishing time, these were the latest available data. Trade data are
available from the U.S. International Trade Commission’s interactive
tariff and trade dataweb, http://dataweb.usitc.gov (visited Feb. 2003).

4 Real private fixed investment data are published by the Bureau of
Economic Analysis on the Internet at http://www.bea.gov/bea/dn/
nipaweb/TableViewFixed.asp#Mid (visited Feb. 2003).

8 This comparison uses the broad dollar index, which measures
exchange values of the U.S. dollar against the currencies of a large
group of major U.S. trading partners. Data on exchange rates are

1 See “Testimony of Chairman Alan Greenspan,” before the Joint
Economic Committee, U.S. Congress, Nov. 13, 2002, available on the
Internet at http://www.federalreserve.gov (visited Nov. 2002).


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Monthly Labor Review

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23

U.S. Labor Market, 2002

published by the Federal Reserve on the Internet at h ttp ://
www.fcderalreserve.gov (visited Feb. 2003).
9 United Steelworkers Association at http://w ww .usw a.org/sra/
facts.html (visited Dec. 2002).
10 Industrial production data are published by NAICS codes, which do
not directly correspond with SIC classifications. Industrial production
data are published by the Federal Reserve on the Internet at http://
w w w .federalreserve.gov/releases/gl7 (visited Feb. 2003).
11 Real private fixed investment data are published by the Bureau of
Economic Analysis on the Internet at http://w ww .bea.gov/bea/dn/
nipaweb/TableViewFixed.asp#Mid (visited Feb. 2003).
12 Data are from the input-output tables produced by Bureau of Labor
Statistics Employment Projections program. They are available on the
Internet at http://www.bIs.gov/emp/home.htm (visited Nov. 2002).
13 Construction-related manufacturing includes various industries by
four-digit SIC within lumber products; stone, clay, and glass products;
fabricated metals; rubber and other plastic products; and chemicals.
14 Data on truck tonnage are available, by subscription, from the
American Trucking Associations.
15 See “No end in sight—The telecoms slump,” The E c o n o m is t,
May 4, 2002; Pascal Aguirre and Glen Macdonald, “Manager’s Journal:
Accounting for Telecom’s Failures,” The W all S tre e t J o u rn a l, Sept. 3,
2002; and “Too many debts—too few calls—The telecoms crisis—The
telecoms industry is in a mess. What went wrong, and how can it be
fixed?,” The E c o n o m ist, July 20, 2002.
16 Real private fixed investment data are published by the Bureau of
Economic Analysis on the Internet at http://w ww .bea.gov/bea/dn/
nipaweb/Tab!eViewFixed.asp#Mid (visited Feb. 2003).
17 See Daniel Michaels and J. Lynn Lunsford, “Leading the News:
Airbus is Awarded easyJet Order for 120 New Planes Over Boeing,” The
W all S tre e t J o u rn a l, Oct. 15, 2002.
18 On Sept. 11, 2001, terrorists attacked three locations in the
United States. Terrorists hijacked commercial jetliners and crashed
them into each of the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New
York City, and into the Pentagon, in Arlington, Virginia. A fourth
jetliner that had been hijacked crashed in a field in Pennsylvania.
19 See Melanie Trottman and Scott McCartney, “Executive flight:
The age of ‘Wal-Mart’ airlines crunches the biggest carriers—Low-cost
rivals win converts as business travelers seek alternatives to lofty fares—
The high cost of convenience,” The Wall S treet Journal, June 18, 2002;
Elisabeth Goodridge, “Virtual meetings yield real results,”
In form ationW eek, Oct. 22, 2001; Anthony L. Velocci, Jr., “Can Majors
Shift Focus Fast Enough to Survive?,” A via tio n Week a n d S p a ce Tech­
n ology, Nov. 18, 2002; and Tom Belden, “Businesses can save on travel
and still keep employees flying,” The M ilw aukee J o u rn a l S entinel, June
4, 2001.
20 Melanie Trottman and Scott McCartney, “Executive flight: The
age of ‘Wal-Mart’ airlines crunches the biggest carriers...

26 Federal funds rates and mortgage rates are both available from the
Federal Reserve on the Internet at http://w w w .federalrescrve.gov
(visited Feb. 2003).
27 Housing affordability data are published by the National Associa­
tion of Realtors on the Internet at http://w w w .realtor.org (visited
Feb. 2003).
28 Housing starts are published by the U.S. Census Bureau on the
Internet at http://www.eensus.gov/const/www/newresconstindex.htmI
(visited Feb. 2003).
29 The SIC system does not divide s p e c ia l tra d e c o n tr a c to r s into
residential and nonresidential construction components.
30 Existing home-sales data are published by the National Associa­
tion of Realtors on the Internet at http://w w w .realtor.org (visited
Feb. 2003); new home sales data are published by the U.S. Census
Bureau on the Internet at http://w w w .census.gov/const/w w w /
new ressaiesindex.htm l (visited Feb. 2003).
31 Data on home sales prices are published by the National Associa­
tion of Realtors on the Internet at http://www.reaItor.org (visited Feb.
2003); see Patrick Barta, “The Economy: Housing Boom Softens Stock
Blow—Amid Shrinking Portfolios, Home Values Have Risen About 5%
Through August,” The Wall Street Journal, Sept. 9, 2002; Ray A. Smith,
“Is Now the Time to Invest in Real Estate?—As Stock Market Stumbles,
Funds Pour Into Properties, Finding the Right Investment,” The W all
S tre e t J o u rn a l, July 3, 2002; and Ray A. Smith, “Real Estate Offers
Steadier Returns Than Stock,” The Wall S treet Jou rn al, Jan. 28, 2002.
32 The Mortgage Refinance Index is published by the Mortgage
Bankers Association of America, on the Internet at h ttp ://
www.mbaa.org/ (visited Jan. 2003).
33 Consumer spending data are published by the Bureau of Economic
Analysis on the Internet at http://w w w .bea.gov/bea/dn/nipaw eb/
TableViewFixed.asp (visited Feb. 2003).
34 Ibid.
35 Vehicle sales data are published by the Bureau of Economic Analysis
on the Internet at http://www.bea.gov/bea/dnl.htm (visited Feb. 2003).
36 Michael Munley and William A. Strauss, “Auto experts look for­
ward amid concerns about costs,” C h ica g o F e d L ette r, July 2002.
37 See Karen Lundegaard, “While U.S. Auto Makers Sputter, Their
dealers go full throttle,” A sian Wall S treet Jou rn al, Sept. 10, 2002; and
Norihiko Shirouzu, “As Foreign Car Makers Expand in U.S., Glut threat­
ens the Big 3,” A sian W all S tree t Jou rn al, July 11, 2002.
38 Industrial production data are published by the Federal Reserve on
the Internet at http://w ww .federalreserve.gov (visited Feb. 2003).
Domestic auto production data are published by the Bureau of Eco­
nomic Analysis on the Internet at http://w ww .bea.gov/bea/dnl.htm
(visited Feb. 2003).
39 Michael Munley and William A. Strauss, “Auto experts look
forward amid concerns...

21 Kristin S. Krause, “Airlines Bum Millions,” Traffic World, Nov. 4,
2002; Stephen Power and Rick Brooks, “Health Systems on Alert: Post
Office Shifts Mail off Passenger Jets,” The Wall S treet Journal, Oct. 16,
2001 .

40 Auto-related manufacturing industries include automotive and
apparel trimmings (SIC 2396); flat glass (SIC 3211); automobile
stampings (SIC 3465); carburetors, pistons, rings, valves (SIC 3592);
vehicular lighting equipment (SIC 3647); and engine electrical equip­
ment (SIC 3694).

22 The 2002 figure is forecasted. See “State of the U.S. Airline
Industry: A Report on Recent Trends for U.S. Air Carriers 2002-2003,”
published by the Air Transport Association, Nov. 25, 2002, and avail­
able on the Internet at http://www.airlincs.org/ (visited Jan. 2003).
23 Darren Shannon, “ GDS woes highlighted as agents explain zero
commissions effects,” T ra vel A g e n t, May 6, 2002.
24 For more information on the Transportation Security Adminis­
tration, see http://www.tsa.gov,
25 For more information on how the Federal Reserve Bank is able
to influence economy-wide interest rates by changing its target Fed­
eral funds rate, see http://w w w .ny.frb.org/pihoine/edueator/fed/
to o ls.h tm l.

41 Data compare the periods January to November in the years 2001
and 2002; at publishing time, these were the latest available data. Retail
sales data are published by the U.S. Census on the Internet at http://
www.census.gov/econ/www/retmenu.html (visited Feb. 2003).
42 See James K. Glassman, “Retail’s Surprising Shelf Life,” The Wash­
ington P o st, Oct. 27, 2002; and Amy Tsao, “Will Wal-Mart Take Over
the World? First it gobbled the mom-and-pops, then mauled discount
department stores. W hat’s the insatiable chain’s next target?”
B u sinessW eek O n lin e, Dec. 2, 2002.
43 See “ 1992 to 2002: The Supercenter era,” DSN R e ta ilin g T oday,
Aug. 2002; Mike Duff, “Supercenters take lead in food retailing,” DSN
R e ta ilin g T oday, May 6, 2002.

24 Monthly Labor Review

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2003

44 In recent years, the healthcare industry has been experiencing
shortages of nurses, pharmacists, I T workers, emergency room workers,
imaging technicians, nursing assistants, homecare aides, and other types
of workers. While it is difficult to rapidly acquire the skills needed for
many healthcare occupations, not all of these occupations require ex­
tensive education and training. With a loosening of labor market
conditions, it is likely the lower-skilled positions became more attrac­
tive to displaced workers. Additionally, evidence suggests that a loosen­
ing of labor market conditions lured I T workers to healthcare. For
more information, see Phillip Dunn, “No job vacancy,” H o sp ita ls a n d
H ea lth N e tw o rk s , Mar. 2002; Jeff Tieman, “A grim outlook,” M odern
H e a lth c a re , Feb. 4, 2002; and “Initiative addresses shortage of long­
term care paraprofessionals,” H e a lth C a re F in a n c in g R e v ie w , spring

2002 .
45 The “baby boom echo” refers to Americans bom during a period
of increased birth rates which began in the mid-1970s and peaked in
1990. See “The Condition of Education 2002” (U.S. Department of
Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2002-025), Wash­
ington, DC. Note that enrollment data for 2002 are projections.
46 Anne Marie Chaker, “State Schools Plan Big Tuition Jumps,” The
June 20, 2002.
47 The unemployment rate reached a high of 10.7 percent in the
fourth quarter of 1982 and 6.6 percent in the first quarter of 1991
(though the rate rose even after the recession officially ended, to 7.6
percent in the second quarter of 1992).
48 Employment estimates referenced in this section are from the
CPS. CPS data may differ significantly from CES data, mainly due to
conceptual differences between the surveys. See the box note on page
4 for more details on the conceptual differences between employment
estimates from the two surveys.
49 The unemployment rate of 17.1 was the highest rate since the
first quarter of 1996.
50 The results of the 2000 Census revealed that the population
estimates, based on the 1990 Census, were too low. The revised popu­
lation controls, based on the 2000 Census and published in January
2003, show that Hispanics have surpassed Blacks not only in employ­
ment levels but also in population size.
51 See Reuters, “High-Tech Silicon Valley’s Jobless Rate 7.9 Per­
cent,” F o r b e s .c o m , Nov. 9, 2002, available on the Internet at http:/
/w w w .forbes.com /ncw sw ire/2002/11/09/rtr789864.htm l (visited
Dec. 2002). Also, see Anthony DePalma, “White-Collar Layoffs,
Downsized Dreams,” The N e w York Times, Dec. 5, 2002, available on
the Internet at http://w w w .n y tim es.co m /2 0 0 2 /1 2 /0 5 /n y reg io n /
05D REA .htm l (visited Dec. 2002).
W all S tre e t J o u rn a l,

52 See Michael J. Mandel, et al., “The Educated Unemployed,”
Sept. 30, 2002, available on the Internet at
h ttp ://w w w .b u s in e s s w e e k .c o m /m a g a z in e /c o n te n t/0 2 _ 3 9 /
b3801049.htm (visited Dec. 2002). Also, see Rachel Konrad, “From
High-Tech to Blue Collar,” N e w s.c o m , Feb. 8, 2002, available on the
Internet at http://new s.com .com /2100-1017-832553.htinl (visited
Dec. 2002).

B u s in e s s W eek O n lin e ,

53 Chart 5 provides an interesting perspective on this situation. In
the past three recessions, the unemployment rate for workers with at


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least a bachelor of arts degree consistently rises from around the 1.9
percent range to between 3 and 3.5 percent. The unemployment rate
for workers with some college or an associate degree is not as consis­
tent, but the rate increases from less than 4 percent to near the 5percent range or more in each of the three most recent recessions.
54 For example, chart 5 shows that the unemployment rate for
workers with less than a high school diploma rose from the 8-percent
range to the 16-percent range in the 1980s and from around 9 percent
to more than 12 percent in the 1990s. This contrasts with the current
rise from slightly more than 6 percent to around 9 percent. Workers
with a high school diploma, no college also experienced a relatively
mild unemployment rate increase during the recent downturn.
55 For a more detailed discussion of this trend, see David S. Langdon,
Terence M. McMenamin, and Thomas J. Krolik, “U.S. labor market in
2001: economy enters a recession,” M on th ly L a b o r R e view , Feb. 2002,
pp. 26-27. Between the beginning of the recent recession as deter­
mined by the National Bureau of Economic Research (the first quarter
of 2001) and the fourth quarter of 2002, more than 9 out of 10 persons
who became unemployed job losers (on net) believed their job loss was
permanent.
56 See Davide Dukcevich, “Strayer Gains As Unemployment Rises,”
May 3, 2002, available on the Internet at h ttp ://
forbesbest.eom/2002/05/03/0503strayer.html (visited Dec. 2002).

F o r b e s .c o m ,

57 Data in this section of the article are annual averages.
58 The earnings data discussed in this section have been adjusted for
inflation.
59 Ten percent of all full-time wage and salary workers earn less than
the upper limit of the first decile, and 90 percent earn less than the
upper limit of the ninth decile.
60 The four census regions and nine divisions are composed of the
following States and the District of Columbia: Northeast: N e w E n ­
g la n d d iv isio n — Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire,
Rhode Island, Vermont; M id d le A tla n tic d iv is io n —New Jersey, New
York, Pennsylvania; Midwest: E a s t N o rth C e n tr a l d iv isio n —Illinois,
Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin; West N orth C en tra l division —Iowa,
Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota;
South: South A tlan tic divisio n — Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida,
Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Vir­
ginia; E a s t S ou th C e n tr a l d iv is io n — Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi,
Tennessee; W est S ou th C e n tr a l d iv is io n —Arkansas, Louisiana, Okla­
homa, Texas; West: M o u n ta in d iv is io n —Arizona, Colorado, Idaho,
Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, Wyoming; P a c ific d iv is io n —
Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, Washington.
61 Quarterly series for the West region, the Pacific division, and
California begin in 1980. Series for other regions, divisions, and States
begin in 1978.
62 The analysis of metropolitan area data is limited to the 51 areas
with a 1990 census population of 1 million or more.
63 Neither unemployment nor payroll employment data are avail­
able on a seasonally adjusted basis at the metropolitan area level. The
estimates presented here are not seasonally adjusted quarterly data,
which preclude analysis of over-the-quarter changes.

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

25

Internet and Computer Use at Work

Computer and Internet use
at work in 2001
In 2001, more than h a lf o f all workers
used a computer on the job;
the most commonly reported use
was connecting to the Internet or accessing e-mail

Steven Hippie
and
Karen Kosanovich

Steven Hippie and
Karen Kosanovich
are economists in the
Division of Labor Force
Statistics, Office of
Employment and
Unemployment
Statistics, Bureau of
Labor Statistics,
Washington, d c .
E-mail:
Hipple_S@bls.gov
Kosanovich_K@bls.gov

he personal computer is becoming a
hallmark of the workplace in postindustrial
America. The advent of microcomputers
in the mid-1970s expanded both the use of
computers and employees’ computer skills in the
workplace. For many people, computers have
become an indispensable tool on the job. In
September 2001,72.3 million individuals used a
computer at work, accounting for 53.5 percent of
total employment; in addition, about 2 of every 5
employed persons connected to the Internet or
used e-mail while on the job.1
These findings are from a special supplement
to the Current Population Survey ( cps) conducted
in September 2001 ? The Computer and Internet
Use Survey obtained information on computer
and Internet or e-mail use at home, school, and
work, as well as on the use of the Internet for job
searches. The data presented in this article
pertain to computer and Internet use at work and
to job searches using the Internet.3 (For further
information about the survey, see the appendix.)

T

Occupation and industry
The extent to which workers use computers
varies by age, sex, education, and other char­
acteristics. Most of these differences probably

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February 2003

are tied to the occupational composition of the
groups in question. The com puter and the
Internet, after all, are tools that are more useful
for some tasks than others. Computer and In­
ternet use at work was most common among
managerial and professional specialty occu­
pations, with 79.6 percent reporting that they
used a computer at work and 65.8 percent using
the Internet. Technicians and related support
occupations (including computer programmers)
and administrative support (including clerical)
occupations also had high rates of computer and
Internet use: about three-fourths of both groups
said that they used a computer at work, and
roughly half reported that they used the Internet.
In contrast, computer and Internet use rates were
very low for service workers (23.3 percent and
11.9 percent, respectively); operators, fabricators,
and laborers (19.5 percent and 8.4 percent,
respectively); and workers in farming, forestry,
and fishing occupations (19.1 percent and 12.8
percent, respectively). (See chart 1 and table 1.)
As with occupations, there was a great deal
of variation in the use o f computers and the
Internet among the different industries. In the
private sector, the finance, insurance, and real
estate industry had the highest rates of computer
(81.4 percent) and Internet use (66.2 percent). In

contrast, computer and Internet use rates were lowest in the
agriculture (22.6 percent and 12.2 percent, respectively) and
construction (21.3 percent and 14.5 percent, respectively)
industries. (See table 1.)
Workers in the public sector had above-average rates
o f computer and Internet use. Among government workers,
67.2 percent used a computer on the job and 52.5 percent
used the Internet. By comparison, the proportions for all
private-sector wage and salary workers were 51.2 percent and
35.6 percent, respectively. The higher rates of computer and
Internet use among government workers can be explained by
their occupational makeup. For example, nearly half of all
government workers hold m anagerial and professional
specialty jobs, an occupational category that has very high
rates of computer and Internet use. In contrast, the proportion
o f private-sector wage and salary workers employed in
managerial and professional occupations is much lower—
about one-fourth. (See table 1.)

Demographics
Younger and older workers were least likely to use a computer
or the Internet on the job. Among workers aged 16 to 24
years and among those workers aged 65 years and older,
roughly 1 in every 3 used a computer at work, and only about
1 in every 5 reported using the Internet. In contrast, more
than half of workers aged 25 to 64 years used a computer, and
about two-fifths used the Internet. (See table 2.)
Women were more likely than men to use a computer or
the Internet. Computer-use rates for women and men were
59.9 percent and 47.9 percent, respectively; the Internet use
rate for women was 41.2 percent, compared with 36.0 percent
for men. The higher rate of on-the-job computer use among
women is due largely to their concentration in occupations
in which computer use is most common. For example, nearly
three-fifths of women hold managerial, professional, or ad­
ministrative support occupations, whose combined comput-

Chart 1. Internet- and computer-use rates by occupation, September 2001

Total employed

Managerial and professional specialty

Technical, sales, and administrative support

Service occupations

Precision production, craft, and repair

Operators, fabricators, and laborers


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Farming, forestry, and fishing

Percent

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

27

Internet and Computer Use at Work

er-use rate for women was a very high 78.4 percent. In contrast,
about two-fifths of men are employed in precision production,
craft, and repair; operator, fabricator, and laborer; and fanning
occupations, whose combined computer-use rate for men was
23.1 percent, about 30 percentage points lower than that for
all workers.
Computer use at work was more common among white
workers (54.9 percent) than black (43.2 percent) or Hispanic
(32.0 percent) workers. With regard to Internet use, 39.6
percent of whites used the Internet at work, compared with
28.8 percent of blacks and 19.8 percent of Hispanics. (See
chart 2 and table 2.)
Workers with more education were much more likely than
those with less education to use a computer or the Internet at
work. For example, 84.2 percent of workers with advanced
Table 1.

degrees (that is, master’s degrees, doctoral degrees, or pro­
fessional degrees, such as m .d .’ s or j.d .’s) used a computer at
work, and 73.4 percent used the Internet. At the other end of the
educational spectrum, computer and Internet use rates for
workers with less than a high school diploma were 16.2 percent
and 7.6 percent, respectively. (See chart 3 and table 2.)

Computer activity at work
Although there was a great deal of variation by worker
characteristic, the most common use for a computer at work
was to access the Internet or e-mail. Of the 72.3 million workers
who used a computer on the job, 71.8 percent said that they
used the computer to connect to the Internet or to their e-mail.
Other common uses included word processing (67.0 percent),

Employed persons who used a computer or the Internet at work, by occupation and industry, September 2001

[Numbers in thousands]

Occupation and Industry

Total
employed

Used a computer at work
Total

Percent of
employed

Used the Internet at work
Total

Percent of
employed

Occupation
Total, 16 years and older..................................................
Managerial and professional specialty...................................
Executive, administrative, and managerial.........................
Professional specialty.....................................................
Technical, sales, and administrative support.........................
Technicians and related support.........................................
Sales occupations................................................................
Administrative support, including clerical............................
Service occupations................................................................
Precision production, craft, and repair...................................
Operators, fabricators, and laborers......................................
Farming, forestry, and fishing............................................

135,089
41,936
20,279
21,657
38,761
4,617
15,905
18,238
18,279
14,850
17,737
3,527

72,277
33,374
16,297
17,077
26,056
3,462
9,173
13,421
4,259
4,447
3,465
675

53.5
79.6
80.4
78.9
67.2
75.0
57.7
73.6
23.3
29.9
19.5
19.1

51,929
27,607
13,616
13,990
17,539
2,439
6,360
8,741
2,175
2,662
1,493
453

38.4
65.8
67.1
64.6
45.3
52.8
40.0
47.9
11.9
17.9
8.4
12.8

Total, 16 years and older1.................................................
Private wage and salary workers.....................................
Agriculture.............................................................
Nonagricultural industries...........................................
Mining.....................................................
Construction.......................................................

135,089
101,187
1,779
99,408
529
7,242

72,277
51,764
401
51,362
233
1,544

53.5
51.2
22.6
51.7
44.1
21.3

51,929
36,015
218
35,798
173
1,053

38.4
35.6
12.2
36.0
32.7
14.5

Manufacturing......................................................
Durable goods...........................................................
Nondurable g oods..........................................................
Transportation and public utilities..................................
Wholesale trade.....................................................
Retail trade.............................................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate.................................

17,364
10,687
6,678
7,470
4,322
20,758
7,514

8,787
5,450
3,337
4,179
2,467
7,815
6,114

50.6
51.0
50.0
55.9
57.1
37.6
81.4

6,454
4,020
2,434
3,052
1,865
3,814
4,971

37.2
37.6
36.5
40.9
43.2
18.4
66.2

Services2................................................................
Business, automobile, and repair services.................
Personal services, except private households...........
Entertainment and recreation services.........................
Professional services..............................................

34,155
7,976
2,784
1,951
20,672

20,209
4,772
985
861
13,517

59.2
59.8
35.4
44.1
65.4

14,403
3,676
571
566
9,536

42.2
46.1
20.5
29.0
46.1

19,264
3,383
5,631
10,249
14,516

12,945
2,262
4,016
6,667
7,500

67.2
66.9
71.3
65.0
51.7

10,108
1,822
3,269
5,017
5,758

52.5
53.9
58.0
48.9
39.7

Industry

Government workers....................................................
Federal.........................................................
State........................................................................
Local.......................................................................
Self-employed workers...............................................

2

Includes other industries, not shown separately.

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February 2003

Note: Data refer to computer or Internet use on the sole or primary job.
“Used the Internet at work” refers to either connecting to the Internet or
accessing e-mail.

Table 2.

Employed persons who used a computer or the Internet at work, by selected characteristics, September 2001

[Numbers in thousands]
Used a computer at work
Characteristic

Total
employed

Total

Percent of
employed

Used the Internet at work
Total

Percent of
employed

Age and sex
Total, 16 years and older..................................................
16 to 24 years..........................................................................
16 to 19 years.......................................................................
20 to 24 years.......................................................................
25 years and o ld e r...................................................................
25 to 34 years.......................................................................
35 to 44 years.......................................................................
45 to 54 years.......................................................................
55 to 64 years.......................................................................
65 years and older................................................................

135,089
20,024
6,633
13,391
115,065
29,638
35,881
30,831
14,293
4,423

72,277
7,087
1,532
5,555
65,190
17,038
20,909
18,075
7,681
1,488

53.5
35.4
23.1
41.5
56.7
57.5
58.3
58.6
53.7
33.6

51,929
3,973
565
3,408
47,956
12,739
15,410
13,387
5,495
925

38.4
19.8
8.5
25.4
41.7
43.0
42.9
43.4
38.4
20.9

Women......................................................................................

72,306
62,784

34,663
37,614

47.9
59.9

26,040
25,889

36.0
41.2

113,130
15,367
14,848

62,063
6,635
4,754

54.9
43.2
32.0

44,746
4,433
2,933

39.6
28.8
19.8

102,228
21,265
11,596

58,918
8,414
4,945

57.6
39.6
42.6

43,578
4,854
3,497

42.6
22.8
30.2

115,065
11,275
35,220
21,319
11,154
36,096
12,695

65,190
1,831
14,227
12,565
7,013
29,553
10,685

56.7
16.2
40.4
58.9
62.9
81.9
84.2

47,956
859
8,518
8,679
4,725
25,176
9,316

41.7
7.6
24.2
40.7
42.4
69.7
73.4

Race and Hispanic origin
White.........................................................................................
Black.........................................................................................
Hispanic origin..........................................................................
Full- or part-time status
Usually full time on primary jo b ..............................................
Usually part time on primary jo b .............................................
Hours vary on primary jo b .......................................................
Educational attainment
Total, 25 years and older...................................................
Less than a high school diploma............................................
High school graduate, no college...........................................
Some college, no degree........................................................
Associate’s degree..................................................................
College degree.........................................................................
Advanced degree..................................................................

Note: Data refer to computer or Internet use on the sole or primary job.
Details for the race and Hispanic-origin groups do not sum to totals, because

working with spreadsheets or databases (62.3 percent), and
engaging in calendar-related or scheduling activities (52.9
percent). Less commonly reported uses were graphics and
design (28.8 percent) and programming (15.2 percent). (See
table 3.)
Men and women used computers at work for different tasks.
A higher proportion of men than women reported using the
computer to access the Internet or e-mail (75.1 percent,
compared with 68.8 percent). Men were also more likely than
women to use a computer for spreadsheets and databases
(64.9 percent, compared with 59.9 percent), graphics and design
(32.0 percent and 25.8 percent, respectively), and computer
programming (20.4 percent, compared with 10.5 percent).
Women were more likely than men to report using the computer
to do word processing (69.4 percent and 64.3 percent, respec­
tively). As mentioned previously, nearly three-fifths of all

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data for the “other races” group are not presented and Hispanics are
included in both the white and black population groups.

women were employed as managers, professionals, or
clerical workers; the proportion of workers in these three
occupations who used a computer to do word processing
was a very high (74.4 percent).
In terms of occupation, workers in managerial and
professional specialty occupations, who had the highest
rate of computer use on the job, reported some o f the
highest proportions for specific uses of a computer. For
example, 82.7 percent used a computer to access the Internet
or their e-mail, 78.3 percent performed word processing or
desktop publishing on the computer, and 70.3 percent
worked with spreadsheets or databases. (See table 4.)

Job search activity on the Internet
In addition to asking questions on computer and Internet

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

29

Internet and Computer Use at Work

Chart 2. Internet- and computer-use rates by sex, race, and Hispanic origin, September 2001
Percent
70

Percent
70
| Internet-use rate

60

-

50

-

50

40

-

40

30

-

30

V*

I

Computer-use rate

60

20

20

10

10

Both sexes

Men

Women

White

Black

Hispanic origin

Chart 3. Internet- and computer-use rates by educational attainment, September 2001
Percent
90
|

80

| Internet-use rate
; I Computer-use rate

70
60 h
50
40
30

-

20

-

10

-I
Both sexes,
aged 25 and
older


30
Monthly Labor Review
https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Less than a
high school
diploma

High school
graduate, no

February 2003

college

Some college,
no degree

Associate’s
degree

College
graduate

Table 3.

Type of computer activity at work, by selected characteristics, September 2001
Percent who use a computer for—

Employed
persons who
used a
computer
at work
(in
thousands)

Word
processing
or desktop
publishing

Total, 16 years and o ld e r...................
16 to 24 years..........................................
16 to 19 ye a rs........................................
20 to 24 ye a rs........................................
25 years and o ld e r...................................
25 to 34 ye a rs........................................
35 to 44 ye a rs........................................
45 to 54 ye a rs........................................
55 to 64 ye a rs........................................
65 years and older..................................

72,277
7,087
1,532
5,555
65,190
17,038
20,909
18,075
7,681
1,488

67.0
53.6
39.8
57.4
68.4
68.8
68.8
69.4
66.4
58.0

71.8
56.1
36.9
61.3
73.6
74.8
73.7
74.1
71.5
62.2

52.9
45.6
32.1
49.3
53.7
56.3
55.5
53.5
47.0
37.2

62.3
52.2
35.7
56.7
63.4
66.4
65.2
62.3
57.5
47.2

28.8
20.8
12.8
22.9
29.7
30.0
31.3
29.9
25.5
20.6

15.2
12.2
7.4
13.6
15.6
17.6
16.9
13.5
12.9
12.1

13.1
14.3
19.6
12.8
12.9
12.6
12.0
13.7
13.8
16.6

Men............................................................
Women......................................................

34,663
37,614

64.3
69.4

75.1
68.8

55.2
50.9

64.9
59.9

32.0
25.8

20.4
10.5

13.0
13.1

62,063
6,635
4,754

67.4
62.6
64.0

72.1
66.8
61.7

52.7
53.9
49.7

62.7
56.9
57.9

28.9
26.1
22.8

14.7
15.8
12.7

13.2
13.0
11.9

58,918
8,414
4,945

68.4
59.7
62.7

74.0
57.7
70.7

55.2
39.2
49.6

64.3
49.8
59.5

29.6
22.8
29.1

16.2
9.1
14.0

12.7
16.0
12.1

65,190
1,831
14,227
12,565
7,013
29,553
10,685

68.4
45.5
55.2
64.1
61.6
79.6
83.8

73.6
46.9
59.9
69.1
67.4
85.2
87.2

53.7
40.7
46.2
51.1
51.2
59.9
60.0

63.4
45.7
53.8
60.6
58.2
71.5
70.0

29.7
15.5
19.9
26.5
25.9
37.4
38.4

15.6
11.3
11.6
14.0
14.9
18.6
18.7

12.9
19.2
14.5
13.4
14.9
11.1
11.3

Characteristic

Internet or Calendar or
scheduling
e-mail

Spread­
sheets
or data­
bases

Graphics
or
design

Programming

Other
activities

Age and sex

Race and Hispanic origin
White..........................................................
Black.........................................................
Hispanic origin..........................................
Full- or part-time status
Usually full time on primary jo b ..............
Usually part time on primary jo b .............
Hours vary on primary jo b ........................
Educational attainment
Total, 25 years and o ld e r...................
Less than a high school diploma............
High school graduate, no college...........
Some college, no degree.........................
Associate’s degree..................................
College degree.........................................
Advanced degree..................................

Note: Data refer to computer use on the sole or primary job. The
percentage of persons who used computers for various activities may
exceed 100 percent, because some may report multiple activities. Details

use at work, the survey gathered information on Internet job
searching.4 Respondents were asked whether they had used
the Internet (at any location) to search for a job “that year”—
that is, from January to September 2001. About 19.6 million
individuals, or 9.2 percent of the civilian noninstitutional
population aged 16 and older, reported using the Internet (at
any location) to search for a job.5 Job search rates using the
Internet were highest for individuals in the 20- to 24-year-old
(17.4 percent), 25- to 34-year-old (16.8 percent), and 35- to 44year-old (11.0 percent) age groups. (See table 5.)
Men and women were about equally likely to have used
the Internet to search for a job: nearly 1 in every 10 reported
such use. Also, individuals with more years of schooling were
much more likely than the less educated to have used the

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for the race and Hispanic-origin groups do not sum to totals, because data
for the “other races” group are not presented and Hispanics are included in
both the white and black population groups.

Internet to search for a job. The Internet job search rate for
college graduates was 15.6 percent, in contrast to only 1.5
percent for those with less than a high school diploma. (See
table 5.)
Table 6 shows data on job searching by occupation. The
estimates given are limited to the experienced labor force—
the sum of the employed and the unemployed whose last job
was in one of the occupations or industries listed. O f the
141.4 million individuals in this group in September 2001,
17.2 million, or 12.2 percent of the total, used the Internet to
search for a job between January and September 2001. As
was the case for Internet use, individuals in managerial and
professional specialty occupations had the highest rate of
Internet job searching (16.9 percent). Job search rates for the
Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

31

Internet and Computer Use at Work

Table 4.

Type of computer activity at work, by occupation and industry, September 2001
Percent who use a computer for—
Employed
persons who
Word
used a computer processing Internet or Calendar
or
at work
or desktop
e-mail
scheduling
(in
publishing
thousands)

Occupation and Industry

Spread­
sheets
or
data­
bases

Graphics
or
design

Programming

Other
activities

Occupation
Total, 16 years and o ld e r............................
Managerial and professional specialty...........
Executive, administrative, and managerial....
Professional specialty....................................
Technical, sales, and administrative support..
Technicians and related support...................
Sales occupations..........................................
Administrative support, including clerical.....
Service occupations........................................
Precision production, craft, and repair...........
Operators, fabricators, and laborers..............
Farming, forestry, and fishing..........................

72,277
33,374
16,297
17,077
26,056
3,462
9,173
13,421
4,259
4,447
3,465
675

67.0
78.3
79.0
77.6
62.6
58.5
59.9
65.6
52.6
46.5
35.7
60.9

71.8
82.7
83.5
81.9
67.3
70.4
69.3
65.1
51.1
59.9
43.1
67.1

52.9
60.8
65.3
56.5
48.4
52.3
48.6
47.2
45.7
45.4
32.4
43.7

62.3
70.3
76.9
63.9
59.7
59.3
60.1
59.6
43.8
51.7
41.2
61.3

28.8
37.2
34.4
39.9
22.5
29.5
25.6
18.5
17.2
23.7
17.1
21.7

15.2
18.6
16.6
20.5
12.4
27.0
11.1
9.6
8.9
17.4
9.5
10.6

13.1
11.0
9.4
12.5
13.2
14.3
14.5
11.9
18.2
17.4
20.8
12.5

Total, 16 years and older1 ...........................
Private wage and salary w orkers...................
Agriculture.......................................................
Nonagricultural industries...............................
Mining..........................................................
Construction................................................

72,277
51,764
401
51,362
233
1,544

67.0
63.4
58.0
63.5
63.5
65.1

71.8
69.6
54.2
69.7
74.1
68.2

52.9
53.6
47.7
53.7
54.7
56.5

62.3
62.1
65.6
62.1
76.1
67.1

28.8
26.6
18.2
26.7
28.1
31.1

15.2
15.4
8.3
15.5
20.1
18.2

13.1
13.3
15.6
13.3
8.9
11.5

Manufacturing..............................................
Durable g o o d s...........................................
Nondurable goods......................................
Transportation and public utilitie s.................
Wholesale trade..............................................

8,787
5,450
3,337
4,179
2,467

63.9
62.2
66.7
56.7
63.9

73.4
73.8
72.9
73.0
75.6

54.2
54.8
53.4
56.1
52.8

67.0
67.4
66.3
63.3
66.2

34.2
35.1
32.8
24.0
25.0

20.0
23.1
15.0
15.7
14.0

12.0
12.9
10.5
13.6
13.6

Retail tra d e .....................................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate.............
Services2.........................................................
Business, automobile, and repair
services....................................................
Personal services, except private
households...............................................
Entertainment and recreation services....
Professional services................................

7,815
6,114
20,209

44.4
73.1
68.9

48.8
81.3
71.3

41.7
58.6
55.9

48.3
69.8
61.6

17.0
24.5
28.3

9.3
14.5
16.0

19.2
10.3
12.6

4,772

65.6

77.0

59.9

68.5

33.2

27.9

12.0

985
861
13,517

58.2
62.2
71.3

58.0
65.8
70.5

55.6
51.9
54.9

56.5
57.4
60.1

20.1
31.2
27.0

9.3
14.0
12.5

14.1
12.7
12.6

Government workers........................................
Federal............................................................
S ta te ...............................................................
Local................................................................
Self-employed workers.....................................

12,945
2,262
4,016
6,667
7,500

77.9
74.3
79.2
78.2
72.6

78.1
80.6
81.4
75.2
76.8

53.8
56.6
55.8
51.7
46.9

62.5
64.0
66.2
59.7
63.1

32.4
30.1
33.7
32.3
37.5

14.5
17.0
16.7
12.2
15.6

12.2
11.5
12.3
12.3
13.0

Industry

1 Includes unpaid family workers, not shown separately.
2 Includes other industries, not shown separately.

other major occupations ranged from 14.3 percent for
technical, sales, and administrative support occupations to
4.1 percent for farming, forestry, and fishing.
The most common Internet job search methods reported
were reading online ads or job listings (92.2 percent of
Internet jobseekers) and researching inform ation on
potential employers (68.5 percent). The least common
methods used were posting a resume on a job-listing site or
with a service (37.4 percent) and posting a resume on a
personal Web site (4.8 percent). This pattern of Internet job

32
Monthly Labor Review
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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2003

N ote: Data refer to computer or Internet use on the sole or primary job.
The percentage of persons who use computers for various activities may
exceed 100 percent, because some may report multiple activities.

searching was essentially the same, regardless of demographic
characteristic, occupation, or industry. (See tables 5 and 6.)
THE RESULTS FROM THE 2001 COMPUTER AND INTERNET USE
s u r v e y show that computer and Internet use has become a fixture
in the U. S. workplace. Although there was a great deal of variation
in terms of occupation and industry, individuals employed in
managerial and professional specialty occupations and workers in
the finance, insurance, and real estate industry were most likely to
use a computer or the Internet on the job. Computer and Internet

Table 5. Job search activity1 using the Internet, by selected characteristics, September 2001
[Numbers in thousands]
Job search activity of persons who used
the Internet to search for a job (percent)

Total civilian
noninstitutional population

Charactertistlc

Total

Total who
used the
Internet to
search
for a job

Percent
of
total

Read
Posted
online
Researched
Posted
a resume
ads
Information Submitted on a job­
a
or
Other
a
resume
on
resume activities
listing
searched
or
potential
on
own
site or with
online
employers application a service Web site
job
listings

Age and sex
Total, 16 years and o ld e r.............
16 to 24 years....................................
16 to 19 years..................................
20 to 24 years..................................
25 years and o ld e r.............................
25 to 34 years..................................
35 to 44 years...................................
45 to 54 ye a rs..................................
55 to 64 ye a rs..................................
65 years and older............................

212,357
35,195
16,206
18,990
177,162
37,032
44,318
38,642
24,328
32,842

19,616
4,415
1,108
3,308
15,201
6,238
4,890
3,051
877
145

9.2
12.5
6.8
17.4
8.6
16.8
11.0
7.9
3.6
.4

92.0
92.3
91.5
92.5
91.9
92.3
91.9
91.3
89.9
94.1

67.4
63.2
54.1
66.2
68.7
70.7
68.6
66.2
67.4
46.5

49.5
45.9
34.0
49.9
50.5
52.9
50.4
48.9
41.3
43.2

36.7
35.6
26.3
38.7
37.0
42.2
35.4
32.5
26.9
24.6

4.8
4.8
3.0
5.4
4.8
5.5
4.4
4.3
2.7
6.6

3.7
2.7
1.7
3.0
3.9
3.5
3.8
4.4
5.4
10.0

Men......................................................
Women................................................

102,110
110,247

9,700
9,916

9.5
9.0

91.5
92.5

71.5
63.4

53.4
45.6

40.5
33.0

5.9
3.6

3.8
3.6

176,220
25,644
23,288

16,018
2,396
1,377

9.1
9.3
5.9

91.9
92.3
89.2

67.1
67.1
67.7

48.2
52.9
47.0

35.1
41.5
36.6

4.5
5.5
5.8

3.8
3.2
2.4

177,162
27,484
57,386
30,641
14,779
46,872
16,283

15,201
402
2,812
3,029
1,667
7,291
2,390

8.6
1.5
4.9
9.9
11.3
15.6
14.7

91.9
88.8
90.9
92.2
93.7
91.9
91.6

68.7
58.2
59.2
63.1
65.4
76.0
77.8

50.5
38.9
42.0
48.2
48.3
55.9
55.6

37.0
30.3
31.7
34.7
34.7
40.8
39.3

4.8
4.6
3.3
3.8
4.7
5.7
6.4

3.9
1.9
3.1
3.1
3.7
4.8
4.8

Race and Hispanic origin
White...................................................
Black...................................................
Hispanic origin....................................
Educational attainment
Total, 25 years and o ld e r..............
Less than a high school diploma......
High school graduate, no college.....
Some college, no d e gree..................
Associate’s degree............................
College degree...................................
Advanced degree............................

100 percent, because some may perform more than one activity. Details for
the race and Hispanic-origin groups do not sum to totals, because data for
the “other races” group are not presented and Hispanics are included in both
the white and black population groups.

1 Refers to use of the Internet to search for a job “this year”—that is,
from January to September 2001.
N ote:

The percentage of persons performing each activity may exceed

Table 6. Job search activity1 using the Internet, by occupation and industry, September 2001
[Numbers in thousands]
Job search activity of persons who used
the Internet to search for a job (percent)

Occupation and Industry

Total

Total who
used the
Internet to
search
for a job

Read
Posted
online
Percent
ads
Researched Submitted a resume
of
Information a resume on a job­
or
listing
total
searched
on
or
site or
online
potential application
with
employers
job
a service
listings

Posted
a
resume
on own
Web site

Other
activities

Occupation
Total, 16 years and o ld e r............................ 141,447
Managerial and professional specialty...........
43,058
Executive, administrative, and managerial.... 20,851
22,206
Professional specialty....................................
Technical, sales, and administrative support.. 40,521
4,784
Technicians and related support...................
16,709
Sales occupations..........................................
19,028
Administrative support, including clerical.....
19,541
Service occupations........................................
Precision production, craft, and repair...........
15,528
19,082
Operators, fabricators, and laborers..............
3,705
Farming, forestry, and fishing.........................


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

17,235
7,258
3,484
3,775
5,809
868
2,151
2,790
1,477
1,172
1,361
152

12.2
16.9
16.7
17.0
14.3
18.1
12.9
14.7
7.6
7.5
7.1
4.1

92.2
92.8
93.4
92.4
92.7
90.1
94.5
92.1
90.1
89.7
91.0
87.5

68.5
74.3
75.3
73.3
65.7
72.6
71.2
59.3
59.4
65.5
62.6
62.8

50.7
56.0
58.3
53.9
50.8
54.8
54.0
47.0
37.9
45.3
42.0
37.1

37.4
40.1
42.1
38.2
38.1
42.4
40.5
34.9
29.7
35.4
32.9
19.9

Monthly Labor Review

4.8
5.9
4.8
6.9
4.3
6.0
4.8
3.3
4.0
2.9
4.4
2.2

3.8
4.8
4.9
4.7
3.3
2.7
3.6
3.3
3.2
3.0
1.4
2.5

February 2003

33

Internet and Computer Use at Work

Table 6. Continued—Job search activity1 using the Internet, by occupation and industry, September 2001
[Numbers in thousands]
Job search activity of persons who used
the Internet to search for a job (percent)

Occupation and Industry

Total

Read
Posted
online Researched
a resume
ads
Submitted
information
on a Job­ Posted
or
a resume
Other
on
a resume
listing
searched potential
or
on own actlvltle
site
or
online
employers application
Web site
with
Job
a service
listings

Total who
used the
Internet to
search
for a job

Percent
of
total

17,235
13,819
123
13,697
52
548
2,216
1,454
763
1,069
618
2,348
1,307
5,537

12.2
12.9
6.5
13.1
9.4
7.1
12.0
12.8
10.8
13.7
13.6
10.6
16.9
15.4

92.2
92.7
89.2
92.7
98.1
88.3
93.2
92.9
93.7
91.0
94.7
93.8
92.3
92.7

68.5
69.7
66.7
69.8
62.3
64.2
72.2
74.4
68.0
70.2
68.2
64.1
71.6
71.5

50.7
52.0
51.3
52.0
35.0
44.9
53.9
57.1
47.7
53.2
55.1
47.2
56.2
52.6

37.4
38.8
27.8
38.9
11.2
29.2
39.8
41.0
37.7
41.8
40.4
36.3
42.0
39.4

4.8
4.7
2.5
4.7
6.1
5.0
4.6
4.8
4.1
6.9
4.6
4.7
4.7
4.4

3.8
3.7
5.5
3.7
.0
1.6
4.0
5.0
2.0
3.4
5.0
2.4
4.1
4.1

1,739

19.9

94.0

78.6

63.5

49.5

7.0

4.1

324
323
3,097
2,524
480
891
1,153
889

10.8
15.0
14.6
12.8
13.7
15.5
11.0
6.0

91.7
87.7
92.7
90.9
91.7
90.6
90.9
87.6

59.8
71.2
68.8
61.4
55.0
60.8
64.5
69.7

48.7
45.8
48.4
43.8
46.0
43.3
43.2
49.4

35.0
32.8
35.3
29.1
30.7
28.2
29.1
40.0

3.6
2.6
3.2
3.9
2.3
5.1
3.8
9.4

5.6
4.9
4.0
3.4
3.5
3.5
3.2
6.0

Industry
Total, 16 years and older2 ........................... 141,447
Private wage and salary w orkers................... 106,847
Agriculture.......................................................
1,895
Nonagricultural industries............................... 104,951
554
M ining..........................................................
7,747
Construction................................................
18,412
Manufacturing..............................................
11,348
Durable goods..........................................
7,064
Nondurable goods....................................
7,784
Transportation and public utilities..............
Wholesale trade...........................................
4,549
Retail tra d e ..................................................
22,123
Finance, insurance, and real estate..........
7,753
35,971
Services3 .....................................................
Business, automobile, and repair
8,727
services................................................
Personal services, except private
2,995
households...........................................
2,157
Entertainment and recreation services ...
Professional services..............................
21,278
19,697
Government workers........................................
Federal............................................................
3,495
S ta te ...............................................................
5,760
10,443
Local ...............................................................
Self-employed workers.....................................
14,778

1 Refers to use of the Internet to search for a job “this year”—that is,
from January to September 2001.
2 Includes unpaid family workers, not shown separately.

use at work also was most common among women, whites, and
those with higher levels of educational attainment. Data from the
2001 survey show the importance of the Internet in assisting

3 Includes other industries, not shown separately,
Note:

Data refer to computer or Internet use on the sole or primary job.

individuals in searching for new jobs, with nearly 1 in every 10
persons reporting that he or she used the Internet to search for a
job in the 9 months prior to responding to the survey.
□

Notes
A cknowledgment: The authors thank Bernard R. Altschuler and
Sharon R. Cohany for their assistance in the preparation of this article.

force and the employment status of the noninstitutionalized popula­
tion aged 16 years and older.

1 In the survey that is to be discussed, respondents were asked whether
they “connected to the Internet or used e-mail.” In this article, these two
tasks will be collectively referred to as “Internet use.”

3
A recent report by the National Telecommunications and In­
formation Administration of the U.S. Department of Commerce, also
based on the cps Computer and Internet Use Survey, provides a
comprehensive overview of computer and Internet use at all locations:
home, school, and work. (See A Nation Online: How Americans Are
Expanding Their Use o f the Internet (National Telecommunications

2 The cps is a monthly sample survey of about 60,000 households
that provides information on demographic characteristics of the labor

34
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February 2003

Finally, in the basic cps, job search methods are divided into active
and passive, and only active methods—those which can lead to a job
offer—classify a person as unemployed. By contrast, the Internet job
4
The Internet job search questions in the supplement are differentsearch methods in the supplement are not restricted to active methods.
For example, reading job ads or listings online and researching
from the job search questions that are asked in the basic labor force
information on potential employers are not considered to be active
section of the cps and that are used in the classification of
job search methods in the basic cps. However, tables 5 and 6, showing
unemployment. The supplement’s questions on Internet job searching
Internet job search activity, display both passive and active job search
cannot be used to determine the official classification of unem­
methods. As measured in the basic cps, job search activity may or may
ployment, for several reasons. In the basic cps, job search questions are
not have involved the Internet.
not asked of persons with jobs, whereas the Internet job search
5
In a recent study, Richard B. Freeman contends that the low cost
questions were asked of all Internet users, including employed persons.
of transmitting information over the Internet is shifting job search
Also, in the basic cps, job searching among the unemployed must have
and recruiting efforts of employers to that medium. (See Richard B.
occurred within the 4 weeks prior to collection of the survey, but the
Freeman, “The Labour Market in the New Information Economy,”
Internet job search activity could have occurred at any time from
Working Paper 9254 (National Bureau of Economic Research, October
January to September 2001. Moreover, there is no information about
respondents’ labor force status during this longer reference period.
2002 ) . )

and Information Administration, February 2002); on the Internet at http:/
/www.ntia.doc.gov/ntiahome/dn/index.html.)

Appendix:

Data collection

The data presented in this article and other information
on com puter and Internet use were obtained from a
supplement to the September 2001 Current Population
Survey ( c p s ) , a monthly sample survey of about 60,000
households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the
Bureau of Labor Statistics, principally to gather infor­
mation on employment and unemployment. Respondents
to the September 2001 supplement answered questions

about their computer and Internet use at home, school,
and work, in addition to giving other information. The data
cover the incidence of computer and Internet use at work
and job search activity using the Internet. Since 1984, sur­
veys of computer use and (later) Internet use have been
conducted periodically by the Census Bureau. However,
because of comparability issues, the data pertain only to the
September 2001 supplement.

Questions
The data on com puter and Internet use at work and on job
searching using the Internet w ere obtained from the following
questions in the C om puter and Internet U se Survey:
Do you use a com puter at your main job?
1. Yes
2. No
At your main job, w hat do you do on the computer? Do you do
word processing or desktop publishing?
1. Yes
2. N o
D o you connect to the Internet or use e-mail?
1. Yes
2. N o
(Respondents who answ er “yes” to this question are considered
to be Internet users at work.)
Do you use a calendar or do scheduling on the computer?
1. Yes
2. N o
Do you use spreadsheets or databases?
1. Yes
2. N o
Do you do graphics and design?
1. Yes
2. No

D ata on job searching using the Internet pertain to a l l individuals
in the survey who used the Internet:
This year, have you used the Internet to search for a job?
1. Yes
2. No
(“ This year” refers to January through September 2001.)
H ow did you use the Internet to search for a job? Did you read
online job ads or search online job listings?
1. Yes
2. No
Did you research inform ation about potential employers?
1. Yes
2. No
Did you submit a resume or application to an employer online?
1. Yes
2. No
Did you post a resume on a job-listing site or w ith a service
online?
1. Yes
2. No

Do you do programming?
1. Yes
2. N o

Did you post a resume on your ow n Web site?
1. Yes
2. No

D o you use your work com puter for any other purpose?
1. Yes
2. No

Did you do anything else to search for a job online?
1. No
2. Yes


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Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

35

Workplace Internet and E-mail

Workplace e-mail and Internet use:
employees and employers beware
An employee s personal use o f an employer s
e-mail system and o f Internet access
is not protected under the law,
and employers can face legal liability
fo r employees ’inappropriate use thereof

Charles J. Muhl

he widespread use o f the Internet and
electronic mail (“e-mail”) has transformed
the way business is conducted in the
typical American workplace. Written communica­
tion to almost anyone in the world now can be
completed nearly instantaneously; information
about any subject encountered in a daily job task
can be retrieved in seconds from the Internet
through multiple search engines. These techno­
logical developments have benefited employers
and employees alike—employers in accomplishing
business goals and employees in performing their
duties.

Charles J. Muhl is an
attorney with the
National Labor
Relations Board,
Chicago, Illinois. The
views expressed In
this article are the
author's personal
views, not an official
position of the
Board, and
represent the
author's under­
standing of the
issues and cases
discussed. E-mail:
charmuhl@sbcglobal.
net

Undoubtedly, the Internet and e-mail also have
given employees a new means o f escaping briefly
from long days at the office. What sports enthu­
siast, for example, hasn’t taken a quick peek at
ESPN.com on the Internet during working hours to
see the latest sports news? Who hasn’t interrupt­
ed his or her work for a moment to send a quick
note to a friend about the coming weekend’s social
events?

T

A recent extensive survey1 of employers and
employees to gauge their opinions on Internet and
e-mail use at the workplace revealed that both


36 Monthly Labor Review
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February 2003

groups view non-work-related use of the Internet
and e-mail as appropriate, even though, in their
mutual opinion, such use may hinder employees’
productivity. As a general matter, most em­
ployees believe that some personal Internet or email use at work is acceptable and that employers
should not have the right to monitor what sites
employees are visiting or what e-mails they are
sending and receiving. More than 87 percent of
employees surveyed stated that it was appro­
priate for them to surf non-work-related Web sites
for at least some portion of the workday. O f these,
some 55 percent indicated that it was appropriate
for employees to spend anywhere from 15 min­
utes to 30 minutes on the Internet or dealing with
personal e-mail each workday. Nearly 84 percent
o f the employees surveyed indicated that they
regularly send non-work-related e-mails each
day, with 32 percent sending between 5 and 10
such messages. Almost 57 percent of employees
felt that this personal Internet and e-mail use
decreased their productivity.
Yet, despite this widespread activity and
acknowledgment that the activity may make them
less efficient, only 29 percent of employees

reported being caught by their employers engaging in nonwork-related Internet surfing. Almost 55 percent of employees
thought that their employers were not monitoring either their
Internet usage or the e-mails they sent and received. Further­
more, only 57 percent thought that employers should have
the right to monitor their employees’ Internet and e-mail
usage.
Interestingly, employers’ viewpoints were largely the same
on these questions. More than 82 percent of employers
indicated that it was appropriate for employees to view nonwork-related Web sites, and 58 percent of these opined that it
was permissible for employees to do so between 15 and 30
minutes per day. Similarly, some 86 percent of employers
believed that it was appropriate for employees to send
personal e-mail, and 61 percent of them felt that one to five
messages per day was an appropriate number. Only 31
percent o f employers indicated that they monitored or
restricted employees’ Internet usage, even though 51 percent
believed that inappropriate use of the Internet and e-mail
compromises worker productivity. The following tabulation
presents the main results of the Vault.com survey:
P ercen t

P ercen t

o f e m p lo y e e s
r e s p o n d in g

o f e m p lo y e r s

“y e s ”

“y e s ”

Is it appropriate for employees
to surf non-w ork-related
Web site s? .........................................

87.5

82.2

Is it appropriate for employees
to send personal e-mail during
the w orkday?...................................

83.7

85.8

Have you ever caught an employee
(or, if an employee, been caught)
in the act o f surfing a
non-w ork-related Web s i te ? .........

28.8

54.0

Does your company m onitor
or restrict employee Internet
or e-mail use (or, if an
employee, do you think
your em ployer is m onitoring)? ....

45.5

31.0

Does non-w ork-related
Internet surfing compromise
employee activ ity ?.........................

56.6

51.0

Q u e s tio n

r e s p o n d in g

Thus, the sentiment among employers and employees
alike appears to be that personal Internet and e-mail use at
the workplace is fine. But are employers and employees
taking legal risks by adopting such a viewpoint? Is an
employee’s perception that employers do not have the right
to monitor Internet and e-mail use supported in the law? Or
are employees at risk for being disciplined, including having
their jobs terminated, for improper use of the Internet? And


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what risks do employers assume if they allow employees to
use a workplace com puter for personal purposes? Can
employers be held liable for the behavior of employees who
use company e-mail and the Internet?
This article examines how the law has interpreted employers’
and employees’ rights and risks with respect to Internet and email use at the workplace, beginning with a discussion of
whether the law recognizes any right to privacy for employees
in the e-mail they send and the Web sites they view at work. The
article then examines the risks to employers of permitting
employees to use the Internet and e-mail at the office for nonwork-related purposes.

Employee risks from personal use
A substantial percentage of employees appears to believe
that em ployers should not have the right to m onitor
workplace e-mail and Internet use. The law, however, has
answ ered differently to this point. Em ployees often
mistakenly believe that their use of the Internet and e-mail at
the workplace is private when, in fact, courts have found no
reasonable expectation o f privacy in such use and have
consistently permitted employers to monitor and review
employee activity.
The seminal case in this area is Smyth v. The Pillsbury
Company,2 originating in the Federal District Court for the
Eastern District of Pennsylvania. Plaintiff Michael A. Smyth
brought suit against his former employer, The Pillsbury
Company, alleging wrongful discharge after the employer
terminated him for transmitting what the employer deemed
inappropriate and unprofessional comments over the
company’s e-mail system. Because Smyth was an “at-will”
employee, his suit hinged on whether the discharge violated
a “public policy” of the State of Pennsylvania and thereby
fell into an exception to the general rule that an at-will
employee can be terminated at any time for any reason.3 The
court granted the defendant’s motion to dismiss the case for
failure to state a claim, finding that the employer did not commit
the tort of invading the employee’s privacy and therefore did
not violate public policy in terminating Smyth.
The Pillsbury Company, like many employers, established
an e-mail communication system to “promote internal
corporate communications between its employees.”4 After
establishing the system, the company repeatedly told its
employees that all e-mail was confidential and privileged. It
also told employees that the company would not intercept
their e-mails and then use them as the basis for discipline. In
October 1994, Smyth exchanged e-mails with his supervisor
over the company’s e-mail system. Among other things, the
e-mails allegedly contained threats to kill some o f the
company’s sales management staff. The employer intercepted
the e-mails and ultimately fired Smyth for making the threats.

Monthly Labor Review

February

2003

37

Workplace Internet and E-mail

Smyth claimed that his termination violated the public
policy o f Pennsylvania, which he alleged included an
employee’s right to privacy (in e-mail), as supported in
Pennsylvania case law. The plaintiff relied on the tort of
“intrusion upon seclusion” in making this argument. That
tort is defined in the Restatement (Second) of Torts as follows:
One who intentionally intrudes, physically or other­
wise, upon the solitude or seclusion o f another or his
private affairs or concerns, is subject to liability to
the other for invasion o f his privacy, if the intrusion
would be highly offensive to a reasonable person.

The court rejected Smyth’s contention, finding that there
should be no reasonable expectation of privacy in the e-mails
sent, despite the company’s repeated statements that e-mail
would be confidential and privileged. The court noted that
Smyth voluntarily communicated with his supervisor over
the company e-mail system, which was used by all employees
o f the company. The court also reasoned that the plaintiff did
not disclose any personal information about himself in the emails, as would have been the case if the employer had
required him to submit to a drug test or a personal-property
search. Using a balancing-of-interests test, the court found
that, to the extent that Smyth did have a privacy interest in
the e-mails, the company’s interest in preventing inappro­
priate and unprofessional behavior outweighed that interest.
That balancing-of-interests test was a common thread in
later decisions asserting that an employer’s right to maintain
a professional and secure workplace outweighs any right to
privacy an employee may have in e-mail communications or
Internet use. For example, in United States v. Simons,5initially
heard before the District Court of the United States for the
Eastern District of Virginia, the U.S. Government prosecuted
defendant Mark L. Simons, an employee of the Central
Intelligence Agency, for violating Federal child pornography
laws. The defendant worked in the Foreign Bureau of
Information Services division of the Central Intelligence
Agency (CIA) and, in that capacity, used the agency’s
computer system with Internet and e-mail access. During a
routine check o f the capabilities of the computer system’s
“firewall,” the manager of the computer network noticed a
large amount of activity outside the system. Using the keyword
“sex,” he searched the system’s activity logs, believing that
such a search would unearth any inappropriate activity. The
search returned a significant number of hits that came from the
defendant’s workstation. Later in the employer’s investigation,
another information technology professional was told to access
the defendant’s computer remotely to determine whether any
inappropriate pictures or files had been downloaded. The search
returned many files that the administrator subsequently
classified as pornographic in nature. The administrator then was
authorized to copy the defendant’s computer hard drive from a

38 Monthly Labor Review

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February 2003

remote location. Thereafter, the administrator went into the
defendant’s office, removed his hard drive, and replaced it with
the copy the administrator had made.
Prior to his trial, the defendant moved to suppress the
evidence that had been retrieved by the employer. He argued
that the searches of his computer were illegal under the fourth
amendment to the Constitution, because they were con­
ducted without a warrant or other lawful justification. The
court denied the motion, holding that Simons could have no
reasonable expectation of privacy in the workplace Internet
activity logs and computer hard drive that were searched.
As a preliminary matter, the court reviewed the case law
on public-sector employees’ reasonable expectation o f
privacy. The Supreme Court, in Katz v. United States,6
enunciated the standard for determining whether employees
in the public sector have a right to privacy: a person must
have an actual or subjective expectation of privacy, and the
expectation must be one that society recognizes as rea­
sonable. (Employees in the private sector are not afforded
the protections of the Constitution, including the fourth
amendment, in similar situations, because those protections
require “State” action, and monitoring by private employers
clearly is not a government activity.) For example, in
O ’Connor v. Ortega,1 the Supreme Court held that an
employee had a reasonable expectation of privacy in the desk
and file cabinets in his or her office. However, the Court
indicated that an office’s practice or procedures could reduce
such an expectation.
In Simons, the CIA had an official policy which stipulated
that employees could use the Internet for “official business
use, incidental use, lawful use, and contractor com ­
munications” and that the CIA would conduct electronic
auditing of the computer network to “support identification,
termination, and prosecution of unauthorized activity,”
including inbound and outbound file transfers. The Court
found that the defendant could not have a reasonable
expectation of privacy in his Internet activity, given the CIA’s
policy. The Court noted further that, even if the defendant
had a reasonable expectation of privacy, the Government had
a stronger need for supervision, control, and the efficient
operation of its workplace. Accordingly, the Government’s
need would outweigh any right to privacy.
The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit affirmed
the defendant’s later conviction and approved the district
court’s holding with respect to the motion to suppress.8Like
the district court, the court of appeals found that the em­
ployer’s Internet policy “placed employees on notice that
they could not reasonably expect that their Internet activity
would be private.”9 Thus, the employer’s review of Internet
activity logs and remote searches of the defendant’s com­
puter did not violate the fourth amendment, because the
defendant could not expect the usage information and the

files on his computer to be private.
The fourth circuit did discuss separately the appro­
priateness of the employer’s removal of the defendant’s hard
drive from his computer by entering his office. The appellate
court did find that, unlike the activity logs and files on the
hard drive, Simons’ actual office was a place where he had a
legitimate expectation o f privacy. However, the court
permitted the search because it was reasonable in its incep­
tion and scope, given the employer’s interest in discovering
employee misconduct and the prior evidence the employer
had of work-related misfeasance by Simons. In particular, the
court said that (1) the search was reasonable at its inception
because the employer had grounds for suspecting that the
hard drive would have evidence of misconduct (the hard
drive already had been copied remotely) and (2) the search
was permissible in scope because the employer’s admin­
istrator did nothing more in the office but remove and replace
the hard drive. The defendant’s desk and other areas of his
office were not searched.
The U.S. District Court for the District ofNevada rendered
a similar decision in Bohach v. City o f Reno.10 In this case,
two Reno police officers sought a preliminary injunction from
the court to halt an internal affairs investigation into text
messages the officers sent to each other. The officers claimed
that the Reno Police Department’s storage of the messages
on the department’s computer network, as well as the retrieval
of the computer files containing the messages, were violations
of Federal wiretapping law and of the officers’ constitutional
right to privacy. Again, because the officers were government
employees, the constitutional protections applied to the
department’s actions.
The department had a software program called Alphapage
that perm itted officers to transm it b rief alphanumeric
messages to visual display pagers through the department’s
local area network. The software program was functionally
equivalent to an e-mail system. When the software was
implemented, the department had issued a standing order
indicating that every Alphapage message was logged onto
the network and prohibiting messages that commented on
department policy or violated the department’s antidis­
crimination policy. The messages at issue were alphanumeric
and were sent from a computer terminal to a pager.
The court ruled that the officers could not have a reason­
able expectation o f privacy in their use of the Alphapage
system and denied their motion for a preliminary injunction.
The court emphasized that the department’s standing order
reduced employees’ expectation that messages would be
private. The court also found that, given the type of work in
which police officers engage, most officers would expect the
department to monitor their communications, whether over a
telephone, police radio, or pager.
The Simons and City o f Reno cases illustrate the im­

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portance of employers’ Internet and e-mail usage policy and
the employees’ knowledge of, and consent to, that policy.
The most certain piece of evidence demonstrating employee
awareness and consent to a policy is a signed, written ac­
knowledgment stating that the employee has received, read,
and understood the policy. Likewise, although many employ­
ees appear to believe that employers do not have the right to
monitor their Internet and e-mail usage, in fact employees
have no right to privacy in their non-work-related activities,
especially when an employer has a clearly articulated policy
of which employees are aware.
Like the common law, Federal statutory law also has not
afforded employees privacy protection for their personal emails or non-work-related Internet use. In 1986, Congress
enacted the Electronic Communications Privacy Act to amend
the Federal wiretapping laws and afford certain protections to
electronic communications. However, the Act does not shield
employees when they use the Internet or e-mail at work for
personal reasons, because the legislation’s protections are
directed towards such communications while they are in transit,
rather than in storage, and because of certain exceptions that
limit the Act’s coverage.
The Electronic Communications Privacy Act, along with other
prohibitions, restricts the intentional interception of an “elec­
tronic communication,” defined to include e-mail.11 “Intercep­
tion” implies access to the e-mail while it is in transit. Access to
e-mail stored on a computer server is arguably outside the scope
of the Act’s protections. (The City o f Reno court, for example,
noted that the e-mail messages at issue were retrieved from
storage, not during their actual transmission.)
Further, the ban on e-mail interception is limited by three
different exceptions, any one of which may permit an em­
ployer to monitor employees’ e-mail usage. The consent
exception12 permits a party to monitor the e-mail use of
individuals who previously have consented to monitoring,
such as when an employer provides a policy on use that the
employee acknowledges having read. The provider excep­
tion13allows a provider of e-mail services to intercept e-mails
on its system, meaning that employers are not forbidden from
examining e-mail on systems they furnish to their employees.
Arguably, the employees’ system must be provided by an
employer and not a third-party servicer. The ordinarycourse-of-business exception14 permits a party to monitor email messages sent as part of the ordinary course of business.
Although this exception literally applies only to work-related
e-mails, the exception might permit an employer to access
personal e-mails when they are sent on a business system.
Thus, like the common law, Federal statutes do not protect
employees’ personal use of the Internet or e-mail at the
workplace. Employees who feel that such activity is private
and should not be monitored by employers are mistaken
under the law.

Monthly Labor Review

February

2003

39

Workplace Internet and E-mail

Employer risks from failure to monitor
The law permits employers to monitor employees’ Internet and
e-mail use, especially when the employees have consented to
such monitoring. Yet, in the survey results described in the
introductory section of this article, fewer than one-third of
employers indicated that they actively monitor employees’
Internet activity. What risks are employers running by not
monitoring such activity? The short answer is “many.”
Because computer networks can store incoming and
outgoing messages, parties to lawsuits increasingly submit
e-mail as evidence when they seek to hold an employer liable
for claims such as defamation, sexual harassment, racial or
ethnic discrimination, and copyright or trademark infringe­
ment.15 However, the employee-plaintiffs in these cases
succeed only infrequently.
Defamation. In M eloff v. The New York Life Insurance
Company,16 initially heard before the District Court of the
United States for the Southern District of New York, plaintiff
Phyllis Meloff brought a claim of retaliation based in part
upon her employer’s defamation of her. She had worked
almost three decades with New York Life when she was fired
from her position as a service consultant, allegedly for misuse
of her corporate credit card.
The evidence at trial showed that Meloff had violated
company policy by using her corporate credit card to charge
personal expenses for which she never reimbursed the
employer. She met a number of times with her supervisors,
including James Mellbye, and ultimately was terminated.
Immediately following the meeting that culminated in her
termination, Mellbye sent an e-mail to seven persons which
had the subject title “FRAUD” and which stated,
WE FOUND IT NECESSARY TODAY TO TERMINATE
PHYLLIS MELOFF, WHO USED HER CORPORATE
AMERICAN EXPRESS CARD IN A WAY IN WHICH THE
COMPANY WAS DEFRAUDED. PHYLISS [sic] HAD
APPROX [sic] 27 YEARS WITH NEW YORK LIFE, AND
WHOM [sic] WE CONSIDERED TO BE A VALUED
ASSOCIATE. THIS ACTION REFLECTS OUR COMMITT­
MENT [sic] TO “ADHERE TO THE HIGHEST ETHICAL
STANDARDS IN ALL OUR BUSINESS DEALINGS.” I SEND
THIS TO YOU FOR YOUR OWN INFORMATION.

Five of the seven people who originally received the e-mail
were officers of the company who had subordinates trained
by Meloff. The e-mail was later forwarded to four other
managers who worked on a specific project with Meloff and
to five other employees who had worked with her at various
times. Following a trial, a jury awarded Meloff $250,000 in
compensatory damages and $1,000,000 in punitive damages
on the defamation claim.
However, following the trial, the district court granted the
employer’s motion for judgment as a matter of law (thereby

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effectively throwing out the jury’s verdict), holding that there
was no evidence from which the jury could have found that
the employer “abused its qualified privilege” in making the
defamatory statement. Pursuant to New York law under which
the suit was brought, a party can defend a defamation action
by arguing that the statement was protected by a qualified
privilege. The privilege extends to statements made in the
employment context concerning the qualifications and
actions of employees, where the statements are made by a
person with an interest in commenting, or duty to comment,
on an employee and to a person with a common interest in
the statements’ subject matter. Even when a statement is
protected by the privilege, though, an employer can abuse
the privilege and be subject to liability if the statement is
shown to be false and published (1) with the knowledge that
it was false or with a reckless disregard for its truth, (2) with
common-law malice, or (3) outside the scope of the privilege.
Although it held that the trial record may have supported the
jury’s finding that the statement was defamatory, the district
court ruled that no evidence was submitted by the plaintiff
which tended to show that the employer distributed the email in bad faith.
The Second Circuit Court of Appeals overturned the
district court’s granting of judgment as a matter of law to the
defendant.17 The appeals court relied heavily on precedent
granting no leeway to a trial judge to substitute a personal
opinion for the jury’s verdict on the evidence presented. The
court first stated that there was no reason for the trial judge
to overturn the jury’s finding that the accusation, “FRAUD,”
in the e-mail’s title was not substantially true, because the
jury was qualified to determine what the impression o f the
word “fraud” would be on an average listener. Furthermore,
the court upheld the jury’s finding that the employer acted
with malice in sending the e-mail and thereby abused its
qualified privilege, because Mellbye had assured Meloff, after
the credit card abuse was initially discovered, that it was “no
problem,” but less than a week later sent the inflammatory email. Accordingly, a new trial was ordered for the case.
Li an v. Sedgwick James o f New York, I n c .f involved a
similar defamation action brought in the Southern District of
New York. Plaintiff Philip Lian alleged that he was defamed
by his employer when his supervisor sent an e-mail to other
members of his department which stated that Lian had agreed
to begin looking for other employment. Lian worked as an
insurance salesperson and had a difficult relationship with
his supervisor, Brian Innes. In particular, Innes felt that Lian
failed to adhere to company procedure in his handling of
certain insurance sale transactions and client matters. In the
insurance industry, an agent can be subject to “errors and
omissions” (E&O) liability for negligent acts or omissions in
professional conduct. In a meeting between Lian and Innes,
Lian allegedly told Innes that he wanted to continue working

for Sedgwick through the end of 1996. Subsequently, Innes
sent the following e-mail to four other employees who held
managerial positions with the company:
I have today agreed with Phil Lian that he will begin to
seek employment and opportunity outside of Sedgwick
effective immediately. We have agreed that he may
remain on the payroll 60 days (including, not in addition
to, any accrued vacation time) to effect this transition
and to use his office on the 3rd floor only to arrange
interviews, etc.
Phil had agreed he is NOT to transact any further
business in the name of Sedgwick. We have agreed to
assist in the transition of business he has generated to
his new employer, i.e. we will honor Letters of Appoint­
ment he may produce. These measures are necessary
to protect our e & o exposure.
We both hope the process will not take 60 days but
have also agreed it will not take longer as far as
Sedgwick is concerned—the end of June is the closure
date we have agreed [on].
Please effect the necessary m easures from a
personnel and security perspective and let me know if
you have any questions. Thank you.
The plaintiff contended that the information in the e-mail was
false and that he had never agreed with Innes that he would
seek employment somewhere else. He further alleged that the
dissemination of the e-mail caused him so much embarrassment
that he was forced to resign shortly thereafter.
The court granted the employer’s motion for summary
judgment on the claim, finding that the content of the e-mail
was not defamatory. The plaintiff’s argument essentially was
that the e-mail suggested that he was forced to resign from
Sedgwick because he had exposed Sedgwick to potential e & o
liability through his professional negligence or malpractice.
Linder New York State law, in order to sustain a defamation
claim, a plaintiff is required to show that a party wrongfully
published, to third persons, a false or defamatory statement
about the plaintiff that injured the plaintiff’s reputation. In
this case, Lian argued that the statement was libelous “per
se” (meaning that he did not have to prove special damages—
specific instances in which he lost money as a result of the
statement), because it disparaged him in his office, pro­
fession, or trade.
The court analyzed whether the e-mail was subject to more
than one interpretation. As required by New York law, when
a court finds that a statem ent is capable o f only one
interpretation, it then determines whether that interpretation
is defamatory. In Lian, the court found that the e-mail
consisted merely of (1) an announcement that the plaintiff’s
employment with Sedgwick would be ending and (2)
instructions to other personnel to take the necessary


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measures that accompany such an end of employment. The
court noted that the mere assertion of a person’s discharge
or termination from employment is not defamatory, even if it
is untrue, except when the statement implies that the ter­
mination was a result of employee misconduct. Because the
e-mail suggested that the parties mutually agreed to end
Lian’s employment, the court found no implication of mis­
conduct. Therefore, the court granted judgm ent to the
employer.
Employers do risk liability for defamation when their
supervisors, managers, or other employees send e-mails to
other workers concerning the performance of an employee.
This risk is exacerbated by the ease with which e-mails can be
distributed and the often inflammatory contents of messages
sent in the aftermath of emotional events at the workplace.
Sexual harassment. Evidence to support sexual harassment
claims has increasingly come in the form o f printed e-mail
messages between employees. However, the messages alone
are often insufficient to sustain a plaintiff’s cause of action.
In Schwenn v. Anheuser-Busch, Inc.,19 plaintiff Deborah
Schwenn brought a sexual harassment complaint in the
District Court of the United States for the Northern District of
New York against her employer under New York State law.
The case was based principally upon alleged sexually
harassing e-mail messages she received on the computer
terminal attached to the forklift trucks she operated in the
local Anheuser-Busch warehouse. Schwenn made a com­
plaint to her supervisors, who then conducted meetings with
all of the company’s workers. At those meetings, the company
reiterated the employer’s policy against sexual harassment
and notified the workers that the employer would audit e-mail
messages to ensure compliance with the policy. Schwenn
worked two more shifts at the warehouse after the meetings.
She claimed that, during those shifts, her coworkers retaliated
against her for complaining about the e-mails. After the
plaintiff temporarily left work, the employer printed and
reviewed all e-mail messages residing on the warehouse
computers, but could not locate any offensive ones.
Anheuser-Busch moved for summary judgment on the
plaintiff’s complaint, contending that the injuries alleged by
Schwenn—principally the receipt of the e-mails— were
insufficient to sustain a sexual harassm ent com plaint
premised on a hostile work environment.20 The district court
granted the defendant’s motion. The court compared the
alleged 3-week period of harassment and the receipt of e-mail
messages with other cases in which a hostile work en­
vironment was found, after which it reasoned that Schwenn’s
work environment was not significantly altered by the e-mail
messages or other behavior of her coworkers.
Similarly, in Rudas v. Nationwide Mutual Insurance
Company,21 the District Court of the United States for the

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Workplace Internet and E-mail

Eastern District o f Pennsylvania granted the defendant’s
motion for summary judgment on the plaintiff’s retaliation
claim under the Pennsylvania Human Relations Act. The
court found that, although the plaintiff produced evidence of
sexual harassment— including several sexually explicit emails sent by her former supervisor—the employer had not
taken any retaliatory action against her for lodging a formal
sexual harassment complaint.
Even though employers have been successful with motions
for summary judgment and motions to dismiss complaints for
sexual harassment premised in part on e-mail evidence, that
evidence can be sufficient to sustain a plaintiff’s case under
certain circumstances. In Knox v. State o f Indiana,12for example,
the Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed a jury’s verdict in
favor of an employee on her claim, brought under Title VII of the
1964 Civil Rights Act, of employer retaliation in response to a
sexual harassment charge she lodged. Plaintiff Kristi Knox
worked as a correctional officer at the Correctional Industrial
Complex in Pendleton, Indiana. During her employment, her
supervisor, Robert Stewart, sent her e-mails in which he
propositioned the plaintiff by using acronyms such as “hgtwm,”
which translated into “horizontal good time with me.” Stewart
also left her phone messages reminding her to check her e-mail.
Knox consistently rebuffed Stewart, ultimately leading him to
comment that he “definitely saw a shift change in [her]
future.”23 She then filed a formal complaint with the company
regarding Stew art’s behavior. Initially, he denied any
knowledge of why Knox would file a complaint against him,
but the employer confronted him with copies of the e-mails
he had sent. Thereafter, Stewart acknowledged that his
behavior could have appeared sexually harassing. During
the employer’s investigation, Stewart’s friends on the job
told Knox that they were going to make her life “hell” and
that they were going to “get her.” The appeals court found
that the evidence could support the jury’s finding that Knox
had made an appropriate complaint to her employer and had
been retaliated against because of the complaint.
E-mail evidence alone likely will not result in employer
liability for sexual harassment, especially when an employer
has a mechanism for employees to report such complaints
and takes remedial action after learning o f the complaint.
However, inappropriate e-mail activity, coupled with other
failures on the em ployer’s part, can result in liability.
Furthermore, the foregoing cases demonstrate that at least
some employees fail to realize that the inappropriate
messages they send to their coworkers may not be viewed
solely by the recipients in the “To:” list of the e-mail.
Racial discrimination. Much as in the sexual harassment
cases just described, plaintiffs also have supported claims of
racial discrimination through the introduction o f e-mail
evidence. In Copley v. Bax Global,24heard before the District

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Court of the United States for the Southern District of Florida,
a former employee sued his employer under the Federal civil
rights law prohibiting racial discrimination in the formation of
contracts.25 The plaintiff claimed that he was fired from his
job because he was not Hispanic. Lester Copley, a white man,
was manager of Bax Global’s Ocean Services division for
Florida and Latin America, from which the company
conducted international shipping. His job involved moving
freight through the company’s Miami station. The plaintiff
did not have an employment contract and, accordingly, was
an at-will employee. Over a period of 2 years, the company’s
president received a number of complaints from Latin
American agents concerning Copley’s job performance. As a
result, the plaintiff was terminated. Almost immediately, he
was replaced by Mariano Rabayo, a Canadian citizen who
was bom in Bogota, Colombia.
Plaintiffs can prove a prima facie case o f racial dis­
crimination under Federal civil rights law by using direct,
circumstantial, or statistical evidence. In this case, the plaintiff
relied chiefly on e-mail messages to substantiate his claim,
arguing that the messages were both direct and circum­
stantial evidence that he was fired because he was white.
The e-mail messages focused on Copley’s termination and
included (1) discussions about what action should be taken
against him (transfer or termination) as a result o f the
complaints, (2) a statement that Copley’s removal would
inspire confidence in the company’s Latin American agents,
and (3) concerns about the appearance of naming Rabayo as
Copley’s replacement only a day after Copley would be
terminated. However, none of the messages was clear about
the company’s reason for terminating Copley.
The district court denied the employer’s motion for sum­
mary judgment in the case, finding that the e-mail messages
and other statem ents attributed to the em ployer were
circumstantial evidence of racial discrimination. Because the
e-mail messages made no direct reference to the employer’s
motivation in firing Copley, the court found that they did not
constitute direct evidence of racial discrimination. However, the
e-mail messages and a statement attributed to the plaintiff’s
supervisor asserting that he “didn’t think that a blue-eyed blond­
haired fellow would ever get along well in Latin America and that
we needed a Latin manager of the office to achieve any level of
success” were together sufficient to support an inference that
the employer was motivated by Copley’s race in deciding to
terminate him. That inference cast doubt on the employer’s
stated reason for the firing—complaints from the Latin American
agents—meaning that the issue of whether the reason was a
pretext for the firing was a question of fact for a juiy to resolve at
trial, not for the court to decide by means of a summaryjudgment
motion.
A number of different courts have ruled in favor of em­
ployers in cases where racial discrimination claims are based

solely on a small number of e-mail messages. For example, in
Harley v. McCoach,26 the Federal District Court for the
Eastern District o f Pennsylvania granted the employer’s
motion for summary judgment on a racial discrimination claim,
finding that a lone e-mail referring to the plaintiff as “Brown
Sugar,” an alleged incident in which the plaintiff’s boss
referred to her with the “n” word, and her coworkers’ reference
to her being the Whitney Houston character from the movie The
Bodyguard because of an alleged affair with her boss were
insufficient to show a hostile work environment. Similarly, in
Owens v. Morgan Stanley & Co., Inc.,21 the Federal District
Court for the Southern District of New York granted the
employer’s motion to dismiss a racially hostile work en­
vironment claim, finding that one e-mail containing racist
jokes, while reprehensible, was insufficient to support the
claim. Finally, in Daniels v. Worldcom C orp.2%the District
Court of the United States for the Northern District of Texas
granted the employer’s motion for summary judgment on the
plaintiff’s complaint that the employer negligently permitted
employees to use the company’s e-mail system to send
racially discriminatory jokes. The court was persuaded by
the employer’s prompt remedial action after being advised of
the four e-mails, including reprimanding the employees who
sent them and advising all employees of the company’s policy
on Internet and e-mail use.
These cases make clear that certain racial discrimination
complaints can go to trial on the basis of substantial e-mail
evidence, but that claims premised on infrequent occurrences
are not likely to succeed. Again, employers face less risk when
they implement a policy regarding Internet and e-mail use.
Copyrights and trademarks. Theoretically, employers could
be held liable for employees’ violations of another party’s
copyrights or trademarks in situations where the violation
occurs as part of the employee’s normal business. In the
context of Internet use and e-mail, the most obvious potential
violation is an employee’s downloading of files from the
Internet that have copyright or trademark protections and then
using those files to further the business of the employer in
some manner.29
In sum, employers run risks from failing to monitor
employees’ Internet and e-mail use. Plaintiffs have brought
and supported many kinds of cases against employers, based
in whole or in part on e-mail evidence. Few of the reported
cases, however, have resulted in success for those plaintiffs.
Nonetheless, employers bear substantial litigation costs in
defending such suits; even taking a case to summary judg­
ment, with the necessary depositions o f witnesses and
preparation of the motion and briefs, can run into tens of
thousands of dollars, to say nothing of proceeding to trial.
That danger should motivate employers to implement clear
and detailed policies on the appropriate use of e-mail by


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employees, as well as to monitor e-mail use to ensure that
employees are complying with the policy.

Employer policies
What should an employer’s policy on Internet and e-mail use
articulate? The answer depends on the particular uses and
restrictions the employer decides to implement, but some
general guidelines apply to all situations. Employers should
delineate what are and what are not permissible uses of the
Internet and e-mail at the workplace and should clearly detail
what personal use of those services will be allowed, if any. Of
course, employers should inform employees that any dis­
criminatory or other illegal use of the Internet or e-mail is
prohibited. Employers also should state that employees’ use
of the employer’s e-mail system and Internet access is neither
confidential nor private. Employers should monitor employ­
ees’ use and should state in the policy that such monitoring
will occur.
Are any dangers posed to employers from implementing
such a policy? At least one has arisen in the context of
employers whose em ployees are conducting a union­
organizing campaign. The National Labor Relations Act
grants employees the right, among other things, to organize
and to engage in protected concerted activities. Under the
National Labor Relations Board’s decision in E. I. DuPont de
Nemours & Co.,30 an employer cannot allow employees to
use a business e-mail system to discuss personal topics, but
at the same time forbid them from discussing whether to join
a union. Where employers permit personal use, employees
are free to distribute union literature through e-mail. The Board
also held, in Timekeeping Systems, Inc.,31 that an employer
cannot discharge or otherwise discipline an employee for
sending an e-mail to other employees with commentary on a
proposed change in benefits that the employer is con­
templating or intending to implement. Such activity is
concerted and protected.
The cases of DuPont and Timkeeping Systems suggest
that an employer should not prohibit employees’ discussions
of organizing or working conditions when the employer
permits other personal use of e-mail or the Internet.32 In
addition, the General Counsel’s office (the investigatory and
prosecutorial wing of the Labor Board) previously indicated
that it considers an employer’s rule prohibiting all non­
business use of e-mail as invalid under Board case-law
precedent interpreting the National Labor Relations Act.
However, no official Board decision has yet been reached on
this issue.33

A commonsense approach
Both employers and employees agree that non-work-related use

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Workplace Internet and E-mail

Exhibit 1.

Employer and em plo yee myths and legal realities regarding Internet
and e-m ail use in the w orkplace

Myth

Legal reality

My employer does not have the right to read my personal
e-mail or review the Internet sites I visited.

Employees have no privacy rights in their e-mail and
Internet use, and Federal law does not prohibit employers
from monitoring that use.

It is no big deal if my employees use e-mail or the Internet
for personal reasons on the job. As an employer, I do not
need to monitor their use.

Failure to monitor employees’ e-mail and Internet use can
lead to legal liability in more ways than one.

If I, as an employer, am facing legal liability for employees’
e-mail and Internet use, I should just prohibit them from
any personal use.

Employers may be violating Federal labor law by
implementing blanket prohibitions on personal use.

o f the Internet and e-mail is appropriate, and indeed, many
employees now see such activity as essential to “making it
through” the workday. As with most things in life, a commonsense approach to this issue minimizes the risks for all
involved: employees must acknowledge that their employers
can and will monitor their use of these two electronic means
o f communication to ensure that it is not excessive, in-

appropriate, or illegal, and employers must make all employees
aware of their policies and procedures with respect to the
Internet and e-mail, reviewing employee activity or quickly
taking remedial action when those policies or procedures are
violated. Exhibit 1 presents the chief myths and the cor­
responding legal realities regarding the use o f e-mails and
the Internet in the workplace.
Q

Notes
1 In September 1999, Vault.com, a Web site devoted to assisting
people with a job search or building a career, “surveyed 1,244 em­
ployees and 1,438 employers to determine how Web surfing and email use affect productivity and quality of life at work” (See Vault.com
Web site.) The survey addressed employees’ Internet and e-mail use at
work, employers’ monitoring of that use, and the effect that such use
had on employees’ productivity. See http://www.vault.com/surveys/
internetuse/internetuse.jsp, last visited Dec. 17, 2002.
2 914 F. Supp. 97 (E.D. Penn. 1996).
3 For a detailed discussion of the employment-at-will doctrine and
exceptions to the general rule, see Charles J. Muhl, “The employmentat-will doctrine: three major exceptions,” Monthly Labor Review,
January 2001, pp. 3-11.

11 18 U.S.C. 2510 and 2511(1).
12 18 U.S.C. 251 l(2)(d).
13 18 U.S.C. 2510(5)(a)(ii).
14 18 U.S.C. 2511 (2)(a)(i).
15 Generally, an employer cannot be held liable for an employee’s
conduct, unless the employee is acting within the course and scope of
employment.
16 1999 WL 604871 (S.D. N.Y. 1999).
17 M e lo ff v. The N e w York L ife In su ran ce C o m p a n y, 240 F.3d 138
(2nd Cir. 2001).

4 914 F. Supp. at 98.
5 29 F. Supp. 324 (E.D. Va. 1998).

18 992 F. Supp. 644 (S.D. N.Y. 1998).
19 1998 WL 166845 (N.D. N.Y. 1998).

6 389 U.S. 347, 361 (1967).
7 480 U.S. 709, 717-18 (1987).
8 United States v. Simons, 206 F.3d 392 (4th Cir. 2000).

20 For a more detailed discussion of the various types of sexual
harassment claims and the standards used by courts to evaluate them,
see Charles J. Muhl, “The Law at Work: Sexual Harassment,” M on th ly
L a b o r R e v ie w , July 1998, pp. 61-62.

9 206 F.3d at 398.

21 1997 WL 634501 (E.D. Pa. 1997).

10 932 F. Supp. 1232 (D. Nev. 1996).

22 93 F.3d 1327 (7th Cir. 1996).

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23 93 F. 3d at 1330.
24 80 F.Supp.2d 1342 (S.D. Fla. 2000).
25 42 U.S.C. 1981 provides, in part, that “All persons within the
jurisdiction of the United States shall have the same right in every
State and Territory to make and enforce contracts...as white
citizen[s].” Although courts have disagreed as to whether an at-will
employee can bring a claim under Section 1981 (because at-will
employees do not have a formal employment contract), the district
court here found such a claim to be actionable. (See Copley, 80
F.Supp.2d at 1345—48.)
26 928 F. Supp. 533 (E.D. Pa. 1996).
27 1997 WL 403454 (S.D.N.Y. 1997).
28 1998 WL 91261 (N.D. Tex. 1998).
29 To my knowledge, no reported cases exist in which such a theory
of liability has been advanced. For a general discussion of potential
copyright violations resulting from the posting of copyrighted works
on the Internet, see Marobie-FL, Inc., v. National Association of Fire
Equipment Distributors and Northwest Nexus, Inc., 983 F. Supp. 1167


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(N.D. 111. 1997).
30 31 1 NLRB 893 (1993).
31 323 NLRB 244 (1997).
32 For a more thorough discussion of the issues that e-mail and the
Internet create with respect to the National Labor Relations Act, see
Michael Josserand, “The Impact o f Employer Rules That Limit Email Use and Internet Access,” Colorado Lawyer, October 2000, pp.
7-11.
33 In The Guard Publishing Company, Case Number 36-CA-87431 et al., an administrative law judge rejected the General Counsel’s
position and held that the National Labor Relations Act does not pro­
hibit an employer’s policy that limits e-mail use to business pur­
poses, so long as the policy is applied neutrally. In a neutral application,
the employer cannot permit certain personal uses, but then forbid dis­
cussion of union organizing or other union activities. This decision
came at the trial stage of a case brought by the General Counsel’s of­
fice against an employer. The Board may have the opportunity to
rule on the issue in the near future if exceptions (appeals) to the ad­
ministrative law judge’s decision on the question are filed by any party
to the case.

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Precis

Effects of Septem ber 11
Not long after the first anniversary of
the terrorist attacks of September 11,
2001, the Economic Policy Review
published by the Federal Reserve Bank
o f New York released a special issue on
the economic effects o f the events of
that day. The issue contained an in­
troduction signed by the R e v ie w ’s
editorial board and six articles covering
three broad themes: accounting for the
costs, understanding the impact on
financial systems, and the implications
o f terrorism for the future of the city (in
both upper and lower case).
Jason Bram, James Orr, and Carol
Rapaport look at the direct costs to New
York o f the assaults on the World Trade
Center. One finding is particularly stark:
The lost prospective lifetime earnings
of the nearly 3,000 persons who died at
work that morning added up to nearly
$8 billion. The other quantifiable losses
were substantial, to be sure—$4-6 billion
in earnings lost among other workers
and more than $20 billion in property
damage and clean up costs—but seem
almost immaterial in comparison.
Bart Hobijn speculates on the total
eventual costs to the U.S. economy. The
direct costs, generally increased spend­
ing on security on the part of both the
private and the public sector, he projects
will amount to perhaps $72 billion per
year, about two-thirds of one percent of
gross domestic product. Hobijn finds
that the redirection of resources that this
represents will not have much of an
effect on productivity. For example, he
estimates that doubling security-related
labor inputs would lower multifactor
productivity levels by approximately
one-half of one percent and that the
total effect o f all security-related
changes in spending would be about

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one-and-one-eighth o f a percent of the
level of labor productivity and perhaps
two-thirds of a percent of the level of
multifactor productivity.
Michael J. Fleming and Kenneth D.
Garbade open a section on the effects
of September 11 on the payments and
settlements systems with an examination
of the market for treasury securities and
how it operated in the wake of an event
that not only damaged the commu­
nications infrastructure of the Treasury
market, but killed participants in the market
and destroyed brokers’ offices and
business records. The most visible and
immediate symptom was an increase in the
value of settlement fails from a daily
average of about $1.7 billion during the
week ending September 5 to $ 190 billion
in the week ended September 19. Despite
efforts by market participants to reconcile
accounts and policymakers to provide
liquidity, the daily volume of fails
remained high—$ 105 billion in the week
ended September 26 and $ 142 billion the
week after that. On Thursday, October
4, the Treasury Department found it
necessary to announce a “snap” auc­
tion to reopen the current 10-year
Treasury note. This action helped re­
solve the imbalances in supply and
demand for Treasury securities that had
left a key interest rate so low that failing
to deliver was, in the words o f Fleming
and Garbade, “not an unattractive
alternative to borrowing securities to
make a delivery.”
James J. Me Andrews and Simon M.
Potter chronicle the effect of the events
of September 11 on bank payments and
clearing operations. The same tele­
communications infrastructure damage
that had affected the securities market
also impaired payments processing at
many banks and some were unable to
use the Federal R eserve’s Fedwire

February 2003

system to execute large payments.
However, contrast to the situation in
the securities markets, the Fedwire
system ’s volume and value o f trans­
actions returned to near-normal within
a few days and aggregate opening
balances at the Fed were back to pre­
attack levels by September 21. The
Federal Reserve had provided what
McAndrews and Potter decribed as
“abundant” liquidity to the system
through m assive discount window
lending on September 11 and 12, and
open market operations thereafter.
The final two articles in the Review
address the future of New York and of the
concept of a city in a post-September 11
world. Jason Bram, Andrew Haughwout,
and James Orr find that the city’s industry
mix, growing attractiveness as a place to
live, and consequent value to firms as a
place to find high-value employees should
lead to a continuation of recent growth
trends. Among the indicators they look at
are declining crime rates, increasing
relative earnings per worker, and re­
bounding relative housing prices. They
point out, however, that to maintain
momentum, New York City must rebuild a
severely damaged infrastructure, close a
sizable municipal deficit, and use Federal
emergency assistance wisely.
James Harrigan and Philippe Martin
point out that the economic forces—
labor pooling, market access, trans­
portation costs, and so on—that lead
to the formation of cities are very strong
and these same forces make cities
highly resilient as well. It could veiy well
be that these forces and the quality of
resilience are stronger in New York than
in the average city, thus Harrigan and
Martin conclude that “cities in general,
and New York in particular, are unlikely
to decline in the face of even a sustained
terrorist campaign.”
□

Book Reviews

The future of unions
Unions in a Globalized Environment.
By Bruce Nissen, ed. Armonk, NY,
M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 2002. 296 pp.
$65.95/hardback, $24.95/paperback.
There hasn’t been much good news for
American unions over the past two de­
cades. Rates o f unionization have
steadily declined and would be declin­
ing even faster if public sector unions
were excluded from the overall totals. In
many cases, the decline did not reflect
large numbers of union decertification
votes, but rather the loss of employment
in industries traditionally heavily union­
ized, such as steelmaking and automo­
bile manufacturing. The freer movement
of capital and trade around the world,
often referred to as globalization, has
resulted in more goods being produced
overseas for the American market with a
subsequent decline in the American
manufacturing sector.
At the same time, immigration has
become a second type of globalization.
Immigrant workers coming to America in
search of better economic conditions
often moved into the largely nonunion
service sector, whose job growth pro­
vided better opportunities for employ­
ment. Thus, unions have found them­
selves in a difficult situation—strong in
those industries with declining employ­
ment, while not capitalizing on the em­
ployment growth occurring in service
industries such as restaurants and tem­
porary help supply firms.
In Unions in a Globalized Environ­
ment, Bruce Nissen has compiled a se­
ries o f essays dealing with these two
types o f globalization, as well as sev­
eral essays dealing with the even broader
question of how unions must transform
themselves to adapt to these changing
conditions. The book itself is organized


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

into three sections: how American
unions have reached across borders to
deal with multinational issues; how
American unions have dealt with immi­
grant w orkers in the A m erican
workforce; and how unions themselves
need to rethink their structure and roles
in this new society.
The first two sections of the book
concentrate on actions already being
taken by American unions in reaction to
globalization. Section one discusses
attempts by the United Auto Workers,
United Electrical Workers, and the Com­
munications Workers of America, among
others, to build alliances with unions in
other nations. The details and the ex­
tent of these attempts are fascinating to
read, especially as they have received
little attention in the general media.
Ironically, one chapter focuses on union
organizing at Mexico’s maquila plants.
At the time, the focus was on bidirec­
tional organizing. Unfortunately, since
that chapter was written, the Mexican
maquila plants find themselves to be vic­
tims of globalization, as Mexican work­
ers are laid off and production is moved
to countries such as China, thus dem­
onstrating that globalization remains a
complex process where today’s winners
can become tomorrow’s losers. It would
be interesting to hear how the Mexican
unions now view globalization given this
new environment.
The second section focuses on im­
migrant workers, with one chapter de­
voted to workers in Los Angeles and the
other chapter on workers in South
Florida. The two chapters highlight dif­
ferences in union leadership and orga­
nization as they deal with immigrant
workers. The unions’ records are un­
even as they grapple with a changing
workforce. While it would seem logical
that the unions would embrace new
members, the chapters’ authors docu­

ment how organizational structure and
culture impede efforts to create a more
open union organization.
The final section differs from the pre­
vious sections in that it focuses more
on recommendations on how unions
should transform themselves rather than
documenting their current practices. The
combined effect of the essays in this
section is to argue that unions should
evolve from their present narrow ap­
proach in representing workers at spe­
cific firms to creating a broader “social
movement” unionism. The essays cre­
ate a more theoretical framework for deal­
ing with globalization than the previous
sections.
Producing a book based on a set of
essays by different authors involves a
different set of challenges than creating
a book written by a single author. One
challenge is to make the diverse set of
essays flow in a coherent manner. In
this case, Bruce Nissen has succeeded
magnificently. Each essay contributes
to the main theme of the book. The first
two sectibns tell much about current
union activity that is not widely publi­
cized, which are particularly interesting
to modem industrial relations scholars.
On the other hand, Paul Johnston’s ar­
ticle is an elegant argument for develop­
ing unionism into a broad social move­
ment to benefit the vast majority of work­
ing Americans. Unions in a Globalized
Environment makes a useful addition to
any university’s industrial relations read­
ing list and a good introduction for read­
ers taking a new interest in current in­
dustrial relations research.

—Michael Wald
Bureau of Labor Statistics,
Atlanta region

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

47

Book Reviews

Publications Received

Education

Industrial relations

C arneiro, Pedro and Jam es J. H eckman,

DiNardo, John and David S. Lee, T h e I m ­

T h e E v id e n c e o n C r e d it C o n s tr a in ts in

p a c t o f U n io n iz a tio n o n E s ta b lis h m e n t

Agriculture and natural resources

Cambridge,
ma , National Bureau o f Economic Re­
search, Inc., 2002, 42 pp. (Working Pa­
per 9055) $10 per copy, plus $10 for
postage and handling outside the United
States.
P o s t - s e c o n d a r y S c h o o lin g .

Gray, Wayne B. and Ronald J. Shadbegian,
‘O p tim a l ’ P o llu tio n A b a te m e n t— W h o se

Cam­
bridge, ma, National Bureau o f Economic
Research, Inc., 2002, 39 pp. (Working
Paper 9125) $10 per copy, plus $10 for
postage and handling outside the United
States.
B e n e fits M a tte r , a n d H o w M u c h ?

Economic and social statistics
H ellerstein, Judith and D avid N eum ark,
E th n ic ity , L a n g u a g e , a n d W o r k p la c e S e g ­
r e g a tio n : E v id e n c e f r o m a N e w M a tc h e d

Cambridge,
ma , National Bureau o f Economic Re­
search, Inc., 2002, 63 pp. (Working Pa­
per 9037) $10 per copy, plus $10 for
postage and handling outside the United
States.
E m p lo y e r -E m p lo y e e D a ta Set.

C harles, K erw in K ofi, and M ing-C hing
Luoh, G e n d e r D if fe r e n c e s in C o m p le te d
S c h o o lin g . Cambridge, ma , National Bu­
reau o f Economic Research, Inc., 2002,
43 pp. (W orking Paper 9028) $10 per
copy, plus $10 for postage and handling
outside the United States.
Hanushek, Eric A., T h e L o n g R u n I m p o r t­
a n c e o f S c h o o l Q u a lity . Cambridge, ma ,
National Bureau o f Economic Research,
Inc., 2 002,24 pp. (Working Paper 9071)
$10 per copy, plus $10 for postage and
handling outside the United States.
Krueger, Alan B. and Jitka Maleckova, E d ­
u c a tio n , P o v e r ty , P o l i t i c a l V io le n c e a n d

Economic growth
and development

T e rr o rism : I s T h e re a C a u s a l C o n n e c ­

Cambridge, ma , National Bureau o f Eco­
nomic Research, Inc., 2002,53 pp. (Work­
ing Paper 8993) $10 per copy, plus $10
for postage and handling outside the
United States.

Industry and government
organization
Bernard, Andrew B. and J. Bradford Jen­
sen, T h e D e a th s o f M a n u fa c tu r in g P la n ts .
Cambridge, ma , National Bureau o f Eco­
nomic Research, Inc., 2002,47 pp. (Work­
ing Paper 9026) $10 per copy, plus $10
for postage and handling outside the
United States.
E u ro p e a n C o n fe re n c e o f M in is te rs o f
Transport and International Road Trans­
port Union, E c o n o m ic A s p e c t s o f T a x i
A c c e s s ib ility . Paris, Organisation for Eco­
nomic Co-operation and Development,
2001, 75 pp., softcover.

tio n ?

Black, Sandra E. and Elizabeth Brainerd,
I m p o r tin g E q u a lity ?

Cambridge, ma , National Bureau
o f Economic Research, Inc., 2002,45 pp.
(Working Paper 9074) $ 10 per copy, plus
$10 for postage and handling outside the
United States.

C lo s u r e : A R e g r e s s io n D is c o n tin u ity
A n a l y s i s o f R e p r e s e n t a ti o n E le c tio n s .

The Im p a c t o f

G l o b a liz a tin o n G e n d e r D is c r im in a tio n .

Cambridge, ma , National Bureau o f Eco­
nomic Research, Inc., 2002,35 pp. (Work­
ing Paper 9110) $10 per copy, plus $10
for postage and handling outside the
United States.
Foster, Lucia, John Haltiwanger, and C. J.
Krizan, T h e L in k B e tw e e n A g g r e g a te a n d
M i c r o P r o d u c t i v i t y G r o w th : E v id e n c e
f r o m R e ta il T ra d e . Cambridge, ma , N a­

tional Bureau o f Economic Research, Inc.,
2002, 62 pp. (Working Paper 9120) $10
per copy, plus $10 for postage and han­
dling outside the United States.
Lazear, Edward P., E n tr e p r e n e u r s h ip . Cam­
bridge, ma, National Bureau o f Economic
Research, Inc., 2002, 51 pp. (Working
Paper 9109) $10 per copy, plus $10 for
postage and handling outside the United
States.

T he OECD G row th P ro je c t, E c o n o m i c s
a n d F in a n c e o f L if e lo n g L e a r n in g . Paris,
Organisation for Economic Co-operation
and D e v e lo p m e n t, 2 0 0 1 , 174 p p .,
softcover.
Turner, Sarah and John Bound, C lo s in g th e
G a p o r W id e n in g th e D iv id e : T h e E ffe c ts
o f th e G.I. B ill a n d W o r ld W ar I I o n th e
E d u c a tio n a l O u tc o m e s o f B la c k A m e r i­

Cambridge, ma , National Bureau
o f Economic Research, Inc., 2002,44 pp.
(Working Paper 9044) $ 10 per copy, plus
$10 for postage and handling outside the
United States.
ca n s.

s p o n s e s a n d C o n s e q u e n c e s in G l o b a l

Northampton, MA, Edward
Elgar Publishing, Inc., 2002,274 pp., $90/
cloth.

P e r s p e c tiv e .


48 Monthly Labor Review
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International economics
Coatsw orth, John H. and Jeffrey G W il­
liamson, T h e R o o t s o f L a tin A m e r ic a n
P r o te c tio n is m : L o o k in g B e fo r e th e G r e a t

Cambridge, ma , National
Bureau o f Economic Research, Inc., 2002,
50 pp. (W orking Paper 8999) $10 per
copy, plus $10 for postage and handling
outside the United States.
D e p r e s s io n .

D ehejia, R ajeev H. and R o b erta G atti,
C h ild L a b o r : T h e R o le o f I n c o m e V ari­

Health and safety
Gray, Wayne B. and John M. M endeloff,
T he D e c lin in g E ffe c ts o f OSHA I n s p e c tio n s

Posusney, M arsha Pripstein and Linda J.
Cook, eds., P r i v a tiz a tio n a n d L a b o r : R e ­

Heckman, James J., Carolyn Heinrich, and
Jeffrey Smith, T h e P e r f o r m a n c e o f P e r ­
f o r m a n c e S ta n d a r d s . Cambridge, MA,
National Bureau o f Economic Research,
Inc., 2002, 59 pp. (Working Paper 9002)
$10 per copy, plus $10 for postage and
handling outside the United States.

o n M a n u fa c tu r in g In ju r ie s: 1 9 7 9 t o 1 9 9 8 .

Cambridge, MA, National Bureau o f Eco­
nomic Research, Inc., 2002,31 pp. (Work­
ing Paper 9119) $10 per copy, plus $10
for postage and handling outside the
United States.

February 2003

a b ility a n d A c c e s s to C r e d it A c r o s s C o u n ­
tr ie s . Cambridge, m a , National Bureau
o f Economic Research, Inc., 2002,41 pp.
(Working Paper 9018) $ 10 per copy, plus
$10 for postage and handling outside the
United States.

K rein in , M o rdechai E. and M ichael G.
Plummer, E c o n o m ic I n te g r a tio n a n d A s ia :
T h e D y n a m ic s o f R e g io n a lis m in E u r o p e ,
N o r th A m e r ic a a n d th e A s ia - P a c if ic .

Northampton, m a , Edward Elgar Publish­
ing, Inc., 2000,216 pp., $90/hardcover.
The OECD G rowth Project, I n t e r n a t i o n a l
M o b i l i t y o f th e H i g h l y S k ille d . Paris,
Organisation for Economic Co-operation
and D e v e lo p m e n t, 2 0 0 2 , 348 p p .,
softcover.

Inc., 2002,28 pp. (Working Paper 9081)
$10 per copy, plus $10 for postage and
handling outside the United States.

Management and organization
theory

g r a n t s ’L a b o r - M a r k e t A c tiv ity : E v id e n c e

Cambridge, m a ,
National Bureau o f Economic Research,
Inc., 2002, 34 pp. (Working Paper 9051)
$10 per copy, plus $10 for postage and
handling outside the United States.

f r o m th e U n ite d S ta te s .

Charles, Kerwin Kofi, I s R e ti r e m e n t D e ­

Schomann, Klaus and Philip J. O ’Connell,

Bebchuk, Lucian Arye, Jesse M. Fried, and
David I. Walker, M a n a g e r ia l P o w e r a n d

E d u c a tio n , T r a in in g a n d E m p lo y m e n t

R e n t E x tr a c tio n in th e D e s ig n o f E x e c u ­

P s y c h o l o g i c a l W e ll-b e in g in L a te r L ife.

D y n a m ic s : T r a n s itio n a l L a b o u r M a r k e ts

Cambridge, m a , N a­
tional Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.,
2002, 98 pp. (Working Paper 9068) $10
per copy, plus $10 for postage and han­
dling outside the United States.

Cambridge, m a , National Bureau o f Eco­
nomic Research, Inc., 2002,36 pp. (Work­
ing Paper 9033) $10 per copy, plus $10
for postage and handling outside the
United States.

Glanz, Barbara A., H a n d le w ith C a r e : M o ­

Charles, Kerwin Kofi and P atrick Kline,

tiv a tin g a n d R e ta in in g E m p lo y e e s : C r e ­

R e la tio n a l C o s ts a n d th e P r o d u c tio n o f

a tiv e , L o w - C o s t W ays to R a is e M o r a le ,

S o c ia l

I n c r e a s e C o m m itm e n t, a n d R e d u c e T urn­

Cambridge, m a , National
Bureau o f Economic Research, Inc., 2002,
53 pp. (W orking Paper 9041) $10 per
copy, plus $10 for postage and handling
outside the United States.

Cheltenham, UK,
Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, 2002,
388 pp., $125/cloth.
in th e E u r o p e a n U n io n .

Scotchmer, Suzanne, T h e P o l i t i c a l E c o n o ­
m y o f I n te lle c tu a l P r o p e r ty T reaties. Cam­
bridge, MA, National Bureau o f Economic
Research, Inc., 2002, 37 pp. (Working
Paper 9114) $10 per copy, plus $10 for
postage and handling outside the United
States.

Labor and economic history
Galenson, David W., T h e N e w Y o rk S c h o o l
vs. T h e S c h o o l o f P a r is : W h o R e a lly M a d e

tiv e C o m p e n s a tio n .

o v e r . New York, NY, McGraw-Hill, 2002,
316 pp., $16.95/paperback.

P ro e h l, R eb e c c a A nn, O r g a n i z a t i o n a l
C h a n g e in th e H u m a n S e r v ic e s . Thou­
sand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, 2001,
273 pp., $32.95/paperback.

th e M o s t I m p o r ta n t A r t a f te r W o r ld W ar

Cambridge, m a , National Bureau o f
Economic Research, Inc., 2002, 41 pp.
(Working Paper 9149) $ 10 per copy, plus
$ 10 for postage and handling outside the
United States.

11?.

G alenson, D avid W. and R obert Jensen,
C a r e e r s a n d C a n v a s e s : T h e R is e o f th e
M a r k e t f o r M o d e r n A r t in th e N in e te e n th
C e n tu r y . Cambridge, m a , National Bu­
reau o f Economic Research, Inc., 2002,
58 pp. (Working Paper 9123) $10 per
copy, plus $10 for postage and handling
outside the United States.

H in d m an , H ugh D ., C h i l d L a b o r : A n
A m e r ic a n H is to r y . Armonk, NY, M.E.
Sharpe, Inc., 2002,448 pp., $83.95/hardcover; $29.95/softcover.

Labor force
Bertola, G iuseppe, Francine D. Blau and
Lawrence M. Kahn, L a b o r M a r k e t I n s ti­
tu tio n s a n d D e m o g r a p h ic E m p lo y m e n t

Cambridge, MA, National Bu­
reau o f Economic Research, Inc., 2002,
59 pp. (Working Paper 9043) $10 per
copy, plus $10 for postage and handling
outside the United States.

P a tte r n s .

Klein, Michael W., W o rk a n d P la y : I n te r ­
n a tio n a l E v id e n c e o f G e n d e r E q u a lity in

Cambridge, MA,
National Bureau o f Economic Research,
E m p lo y m e n t a n d S p o r ts .


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

p r e s s in g ? : L a b o r F o r c e I n a c t i v i t y a n d

C a p ita l:

E v id e n c e

fro m

C a r p o o lin g .

Levine, Phillip B., T h e I m p a c t o f S o c i a l
P o li c y a n d E c o n o m ic A c ti v i t y T h r o u g h ­

Cambridge,
National Bureau o f Economic Re­
search, Inc., 2002, 45 pp. (Working Pa­
per 9021) $10 per copy, plus $10 for
postage and handling outside the United
States.
o u t th e F e r tility D e c is io n Tree.

Monetary and fiscal policy

ma,

Hall, Brian J. and Thomas A. Knox, M a n ­
a g in g O p tio n F r a g ility . Cambridge, MA,
National Bureau o f Economic Research,
Inc., 2002,61 pp. (Working Paper 9059)
$10 per copy, plus $10 for postage and
handling outside the United States.

Productivity and technological
change
Lamoreaux, Naomi R. and Kenneth L. Sokoloff, I n te r m e d ia r ie s in th e U .S. M a r k e t
f o r T ech n ology. Cambridge, MA, National
Bureau o f Economic Research, Inc., 2002,
60 pp. (Working Paper 9017) $10 per
copy, plus $10 for postage and handling
outside the United States.

Poliak, R obert A., A n I n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l
M o d e l o f D o m e s tic V iolen ce. Cambridge,
m a , National Bureau o f Economic Re­
search, Inc., 2002, 28 pp. (Working Pa­
per 9099) $10 per copy, plus $10 for
postage and handling outside the United
States.

Wages and compensation
A cem oglu, D aron, D avid H. A u to r and
David Lyle, W om en, W ar a n d W age s: T he
E f f e c t o f F e m a le L a b o r S u p p l y o n th e

Puga, Diego and Daniel Trefler, K n o w le d g e
C r e a tio n a n d C o n tr o l in O r g a n iz a tio n s .

Cambridge, m a , National Bureau o f Eco­
nomic Research, Inc., 2002,44 pp. (Work­
ing Paper 9121) $10 per copy, plus $10
for postage and handling outside the
United States.

W age S tr u c tu r e a t M id - C e n tu r y . Cam­
bridge, MA, National Bureau o f Economic
Research, Inc., 2002, 67 pp. (Working
Paper 9013) $10 per copy, plus $10 for
postage and handling outside the United
States.

N eal, Derek, T h e M e a s u r e d B l a c k - W h ite

Social institutions and
social change

W a g e G a p A m o n g W om en I s T oo S m a ll.

B lau, Francine D., L aw rence M. K ahn,
Joan Y. M oriarty, and A ndre P ortela
Souza, T h e R o le o f th e F a m ily in Im m i­

Cambridge, MA, National Bureau o f Eco­
nomic Research, Inc., 2002,37 pp. (Work­
ing Paper 9133) $10 per copy, plus $10
for postage and handling outside the
United States.

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

49

Erratum
The article, “Welfare reform impacts in SIPP,” Monthly Labor Review, November 2002 (pages 23-38), contains erroneous data in
Appendix table A-4 (page 3 8). The correct standard error figure for “exit July 1996 or later” with “any earnings during the year”
is -.622. The table is reproduced below with the correction in italics.

Logit model results for welfare leavers with July 1996 dummy

Table A-4.

Returned to welfare
during the year

Dependent variable

Coefficient
Share with dependent variable..........
Independent variables
Did not exceed 11th g ra d e ............
African-American.............................
Work-limiting condition
at observation start.......................
Three or more children
in household at start...................
Child underage 3 ............................
Never-married at start....................
Age group........................................
State unemployment ra te ............
State with observation year
unemployment increase...............
a f d c / t a n f benefits.........................
Did not reside in metropolitan area
at start...........................................
Year of e x it......................................
Exit July 1996 or la te r...................

Any earnings during
the year

Standard error

Coefficient

0.281

Standard error

0.675

Poor in final quarter

Coefficient

Standard error

0.428

.192
.476

.137
3.159

-.771
-.018

3.140
.168

.508

.212

3.128
.148

.488

3.166

-1.802

3.171

.576

3.157

.306
-.128
.096

2.133
.147
.151

-.398
-.481
.046

3.139
3.154
.160

.541
-.080
.214

3.125
.138
.142

-.047
-.093

.046
.141

-.122
-.142

3.046
.154

.106
-.084

2.042
.134

-.034
.001

.157
.003

-.012
-.001

.162
.003

.086

.145
.003

-.238
-.104
.143

.185
.088
.262

.143
.123

.192
.093
2.277

-.622

Income $50 per month lower

.000
.075

.169
.082
2.246

-.122
.602

Income $50 per month higher

Dependent variable
Coefficient
Share with dependent variable..........
Independent variables........................
Did not exceed 11th g ra d e ............
African-American.............................
Work-limiting condition
at observation start.......................
Three or more children
in household at start...................
Child under age 3 ............................
Never-married at start....................

0.385

Age group........................................
State unemployment rate...............
State with observation year
unemployment increase..............
AFDC/TANF benefits........................
Did not reside in metropolitan area
at start..........................................
Year of e x it......................................
Exit July 1996 or la te r....................

50

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Standard error

0.523
0.127
.146

-.094
-.109

0.124
.142

.073

.156

-.280

’ .152

.225
.214
.053

1.123
.134
.140

-.120
-.210

.120

-.115

.131
.135

.033
.031

.042
.130

-.025
.028

.041
.126

241
-.004

’ .140
.002

-.246

’ .138

.002

.002

-.116

.167
3.081
3.244

.136
.217
-.750

.162
3.079
3.235

.801

Significant at .01.

February 2003

Coefficient

.091
.125

-.212

Significant at .10.
Significant at .05.

Standard error

Current Labor Statistics

Notes on labor statistics

52

Labor compensation and collective
bargaining data—continued

64

28. Employment Cost Index, private nonfarm workers,
by bargaining status, region, and area s i z e .....................
29. Participants in benefit plans, medium and large firm s ......
30. Participants in benefits plans, small firms
and governm ent........................................................................
31. Work stoppages involving 1,000 workers or m o r e ...........

Comparative indicators
1. Labor market in d ic a to rs.........................................................
2. Annual and quarterly percent changes in
compensation, prices, and p ro d u ctiv ity ..........................
3. Alternative measures o f wages and
compensation ch an g es........................................................

65
65

Labor force data
4. Employment status o f the population,
seasonally adjusted ............................................................
5. Selected employment indicators,
seasonally a d ju s te d .............................................................
6. Selected unemployment indicators,
seasonally a d ju s te d .............................................................
7. Duration o f unemployment,
seasonally a d ju s te d .............................................................
8. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment,
seasonally a d ju s te d .............................................................
9. Unemploym ent rates by sex and age,
seasonally a d ju s te d .............................................................
10. Unemploym ent rates by States,
seasonally a d ju s te d .............................................................
11. Employm ent o f workers by States,
seasonally a d ju s te d .............................................................
12. Employm ent o f workers by industry,
seasonally a d ju s te d .............................................................
13. Average weekly hours by industry,
seasonally a d ju s te d .............................................................
14. Average hourly earnings by industry,
seasonally a d ju ste d ..............................................................
15. Average hourly earnings by in d u stry ...................................
16. Average weekly earnings by in d u stry ..................................
17. Diffusion indexes o f employment change,
seasonally a d ju s te d .............................................................
18. Establishment size and employment covered under ui,
private ownership, by n a i c s supersector......................
19. Annual data establishment, employment, and wages,
covered under ui and u c f e , by o w n ersh ip .....................
20. Annual data: Establishments, employment,
and wages covered under ui and u c f e , by S ta te ...........
21. Annual data: Employment and average annual pay of
ui- and ucFE-covered workers, by largest c o u n tie s.......
22. Annual data: Employment status o f the p o p u latio n........
23. Annual data: Employment levels by in d u stry ...................
24. A nnual data: Average hours and earnings level,
by in d u s try .........................................................................


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92
93

Price data
66
67
68
68
69
69
70
70
71
73
74
75
76
77
79
79
80
81
84
85
85

Labor compensation and collective
bargaining data
25. Employment Cost Index, compensation,
by occupation and industry g ro u p ...................................
26. Employment Cost Index, wages and salaries,
by occupation and industry g ro u p ...................................
27. Employment Cost Index, benefits, private industry
workers, by occupation and industry g ro u p ..................

90
91

32. C onsum er Price Index: U.S. city average, by expenditure
category and commodity and service g ro u p s .................
33. Consum er Price Index: U.S. city average and
local data, all ite m s ..............................................................
34. Annual data: C onsum er Price Index, all items
and major g ro u p s.................................................................
35. Producer Price Indexes by stage o f p ro c e ssin g ..................
36. Producer Price Indexes for the net output o f major
industry g ro u p s...................................................................
37. Annual data: Producer Price Indexes
by stage o f processing........................................................
38. U.S. export price indexes by Standard International
Trade C lassification............................................................
39. U.S. import price indexes by Standard International
Trade C lassification............................................................
40. U.S. export price indexes by end-use cate g o ry ..................
41. U.S. import price indexes by end-use c a te g o ry .................
42. U.S.international price indexes for selected
categories o f services...........................................................

94
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
104
104

Productivity data
43. Indexes o f productivity, hourly compensation,
and unit costs, data seasonally a d ju s te d .........................
44. Annual indexes o f multifactor productivity......................
45. Annual indexes o f productivity, hourly compensation,
unit costs, and p ric e s .........................................................
46. Annual indexes o f output per hour for selected
industries...............................................................................

105
106
107
108

International comparisons data
47. Unemployment rates in nine countries,
data seasonally ad ju sted ..................................................... I l l
48. Annual data: Employment status o f the civilian
working-age population, 10 countries............................. 112
49. Annual indexes o f productivity and related measures,
12 c o u n trie s.......................................................................... 113

Injury and illness data
80
82
83

50. Annual data: Occupational injury and illness
incidence ra te s ...................................................................... 114
51. Fatal occupational injuries by event
or exposure................................................................................116

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

51

Notes on Current Labor Statistics

This section o f the .Review presents the prin­
cipal statistical series collected and calcu­
lated by the B ureau o f L abor Statistics:
series on labor force; employment; unem ­
ployment; labor com pensation; consum er,
producer, and international prices; produc­
tivity; international comparisons; and injury
and illness statistics. In the notes that fol­
low, the data in each group o f tables are
briefly described; key definitions are given;
notes on the data are set forth; and sources
o f additional inform ation are cited.

General notes
The following notes apply to several tables
in this section:
Seasonal adjustment. Certain monthly
and quarterly data are adjusted to eliminate
the effect on the data o f such factors as cli­
m atic c o n d itio n s , in d u s try p ro d u c tio n
schedules, opening and closing o f schools,
holiday buying periods, and vacation prac­
tices, w hich might prevent short-term evalu­
ation o f the statistical series. Tables con­
taining data that have been adjusted are iden­
tified as “ seasonally adjusted.” (All other
data are not seasonally adjusted.) Seasonal
effects are estim ated on the basis o f past
experience. W hen new seasonal factors are
com puted each year, revisions may affect
seasonally adjusted data for several preced­
ing years.
Seasonally adjusted data appear in tables
1 -1 4 , 1 6 -1 7 , 43, and 47. Seasonally ad­
justed labor force data in tables 1 and 4 -9
w ere revised in the February 2002 issue o f
the R e v i e w . Seasonally adjusted establish­
m ent survey data shown in tables 1, 12-14
and 16-17 were revised in the July 2002
R e v i e w and reflect the experience through
M arch 2002. A brief explanation o f the sea­
sonal adjustm ent methodology appears in
“N otes on the data.”
R evisions in the productivity data in
table 49 are usually introduced in the Sep­
tem ber issue. Seasonally adjusted indexes
and percent changes from m onth-to-month
and quarter-to-quarter are published for nu­
merous Consum er and Producer Price Index
series. H ow ever, seasonally adjusted in­
dexes are not published for the U.S. average
A ll-Item s CPI. Only seasonally adjusted per­
cent changes are available for this series.
A djustm ents for price changes. Some
data— such as the “ real” earnings shown in
table 14— are adjusted to eliminate the ef­
fect o f changes in price. These adjustm ents
are made by dividing current-dollar values
by the C onsum er Price Index or the appro­
priate com ponent o f the index, then multi­
plying by 100. For example, given a current

52

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hourly wage rate o f $3 and a current price
index number o f 150, where 1982 = 100, the
hourly rate expressed in 1982 dollars is $2
($3/150 x 100 = $2). The $2 (or any other
resulting values) are described as “ real,”
“constant,” or “ 1982” dollars.

For additional inform ation on interna­
tional com parisons data, see I n t e r n a t i o n a l
C o m p a r i s o n s o f U n e m p lo y m e n t, BLS B ulle­
tin 1979.
Detailed data on the occupational injury
and illness series are published in O c c u p a ­
t i o n a l I n ju r ie s a n d I l l n e s s e s in th e U n ite d

Sources of information
D ata that supplement the tables in this sec­
tion are published by the Bureau in a variety
o f sources. Definitions o f each series and
notes on the data are contained in later sec­
tions o f these N otes describing each set o f
data. For detailed descriptions o f each data
series, see BLS H a n d b o o k o f M e t h o d s , B ul­
letin 2490. Users also may wish to consult

a BLS annual bulletin.
Finally, the M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w car­
ries analytical articles on annual and longer
term developm ents in labor force, employ­
m ent, and unemployment; employee com ­
pensation and collective bargaining; prices;
productivity; in tern atio n al com parisons;
and injury and illness data.

S ta te s , b y I n d u s tr y ,

Symbols

M a j o r P r o g r a m s o f th e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a ­
t i s t i c s , R eport 919. N ew s releases provide
the latest statistical information published
by the Bureau; the major recurring releases
are published according to the schedule ap­
pearing on the back cover o f this issue.
More information about labor force, em­
ployment, and unemployment data and the
household and establishment surveys under­
lying the data are available in the B ureau’s
m o n th ly p u b lic a tio n , E m p l o y m e n t a n d
E a r n in g s . Historical unadjusted and season­
ally adjusted data from the household sur­
vey are available on the Internet:
http://www. bis. gov/cps/
Historically comparable unadjusted and sea­
sonally adjusted data from the establishment
survey also are available on the Internet:
http://www. bis. gov/ces/
Additional information on labor force data
for areas below the national level are pro­
vided in the BLS annual report, G e o g r a p h ic
P r o f i le o f E m p lo y m e n t a n d U n e m p lo y m e n t.

For a com prehensive discussion o f the
Em ploym ent Cost Index, see E m p lo y m e n t
C o s t I n d e x e s a n d L e v e ls , 1 9 7 5 —9 5 , BLS B ul­
letin 2466. The most recent data from the
Employee Benefits Survey appear in the fol­
lowing Bureau o f Labor Statistics bulletins:
E m p l o y e e B e n e f its in M e d i u m a n d L a r g e
F ir m s ; E m p l o y e e B e n e f its in S m a l l P r i v a t e
E s ta b lis h m e n ts ;

and E m p l o y e e B e n e f its in

S t a t e a n d L o c a l G o v e r n m e n ts .

More detailed data on consum er and pro­
ducer prices are published in the monthly
periodicals, T h e CPI D e t a i l e d R e p o r t and
P r o d u c e r P r i c e I n d e x e s . For an overview o f
the 1998 revision o f the C P I , see the D ecem ­
ber 1996 issue o f the M o n t h l y L a b o r R e ­
v ie w . Additional data on international prices
appear in monthly news releases.
Listings o f industries for w hich produc­
tivity indexes are available may be found on
the Internet:
http://www. bis. gov/lpc/

February 2003

n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified,
n.e.s. = not elsewhere specified.
p = preliminary. To increase the tim e­
liness o f some series, prelim inary
figures are issued based on repre­
sentative but incom plete returns,
r = revised. Generally, this revision
reflects the availability o f later
data, but also may reflect other ad­
justm ents.

Comparative Indicators
(Tables 1 -3 )
C om parative indicators tables provide an
overview and comparison o f major BLS sta­
tistical series. Consequently, although many
o f the included series are available monthly,
all m easures in these comparative tables are
presented quarterly and annually.
Labor market indicators include em ­
ployment measures from tw o major surveys
and information on rates o f change in com ­
p ensation provided by th e E m ploym ent
Cost Index (ECI) program. The labor force
p a rtic ip a tio n ra te , th e e m p lo y m e n t-to population ratio, and unem ploym ent rates
for major demographic groups based on the
C urrent Population (“ household”) Survey
are presented, while m easures o f employ­
m ent and average w eekly hours by major
industry sector are given using nonfarm pay­
roll data. T he E m p lo y m en t C ost Index
(com pensation), by major sector and by bar­
gaining status, is chosen from a variety o f
b l s compensation and wage measures be­
cause it provides a com prehensive measure
o f employer costs for hiring labor, not just
outlays for w ages, and it is not affected by
em ployment shifts am ong occupations and
industries.

D ata on ch a n g e s in c o m p en sa tio n ,
prices, and productivity are presented in
table 2. M easures o f rates o f change o f com ­
pensation and wages from the Employment
C ost Index program are provided for all ci­
vilian nonfarm workers (excluding Federal
and household workers) and for all private
nonfarm workers. M easures o f changes in
consum er prices for all urban consum ers;
producer prices by stage o f processing; over­
all prices by stage o f processing; and overall
export and im port price indexes are given.
M easures o f productivity (output per hour
o f all persons) are provided for major sec­
tors.
A ltern a tiv e m easu res o f w age and
com pensation rates o f change, which re­
flect the overall trend in labor costs, are sum­
marized in table 3. D ifferences in concepts
and scope, related to the specific purposes
o f the series,
contribute to the variation in changes among
the individual measures.

Notes on the data
D efinitions o f each series and notes on the
data are contained in later sections o f these
notes describing each set o f data.

Employment and
Unemployment Data

not work during the survey week, but were
available for work except for tem porary ill­
ness and had looked for jobs within the pre­
ceding 4 weeks. Persons who did not look
for w ork because they were on layoff are
also counted among the unemployed. The
unem ploym ent rate represents the num ­
ber unemployed as a percent o f the civilian
labor force.
The civilian labor force consists o f all
em ployed or unem ployed persons in the
civilian noninstitutional population. Persons
n o t in th e la b o r fo rce are th o se n o t
classified as employed or unemployed. This
group includes discouraged workers, defined
as persons who w ant and are available for a
job and who have looked for work sometime
in the past 12 months (or since the end o f
their last job if they held one within the past
12 m onths), but are not currently looking,
b ecau se th ey believe th ere are no jo b s
available or there are none for w hich they
w ould qualify. The civilian n on in stitu ­
tional population comprises all persons 16
years o f age and older who are not inmates
o f penal or mental institutions, sanitariums,
or homes for the aged, infirm, or needy. The
civilian labor force participation rate is
th e
p ro p o rtio n
of
th e
c iv ilia n
noninstitutional population that is in the
labor force. The em ploym ent-population
ratio is employ-m ent as a percent o f the
civilian nonin-stitutional population.

(Tables l ; 4 - 2 4 )

Notes on the data

Household survey data

From time to time, and especially after a
decennial census, adjustm ents are made in
the C urrent Population Survey figures to
co rrect for estim ating errors during the
intercensal years. These adjustm ents affect
the comparability o f historical data. A de­
scription o f these adjustm ents and their ef­
fect on the various data series appears in the
E x p lan ato ry N o tes o f E m p l o y m e n t a n d

Description of the series
Employment data in this section are ob­
tained from the C urrent Population Survey,
a program o f personal interviews conducted
m onthly by the Bureau o f the Census for
the B ureau o f Labor Statistics. The sample
consists o f about 60,000 households selected
to represent the U.S. population 16 years o f
age and older. H ouseholds are interviewed
on a rotating basis, so that three-fourths o f
the sample is the same for any 2 consecutive
m onths.

Definitions
E m ployed persons include (1) all those
w ho w orked for pay any time during the
w eek w hich includes the 12th day o f the
month or who worked unpaid for 15 hours
or more in a family-operated enterprise and
(2) those who were tem porarily absent from
their regular jobs because o f illness, vaca­
tion, industrial dispute, or similar reasons. A
person w orking at m ore than one job is
counted only in the job at which he or she
worked the greatest num ber o f hours.
Unem ployed persons are those who did

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rate the experience through June, are pro­
duced for the July-D ecem ber period, but no
revisions are made in the historical data.
F or additional information on n a­
tional household survey data, contact the
D ivision o f Labor Force Statistics: (202)
691-6378.

Establishment survey data
Description of the series
Employment, hours, and earnings data
in this section are compiled from payroll
records reported monthly on a voluntary ba­
sis to the B ureau o f Labor Statistics and its
cooperating State agencies by about 300,000
establishm ents representing all industries
except agriculture. Industries are classified
in accordance with the 1987 S t a n d a r d I n ­
d u s t r i a l C la s s if ic a tio n (SIC) M a n u a l. In most
industries, the sam pling probabilities are
based on the size o f the establishment; most
large establishm ents are therefore in the
sample. (An establishm ent is not necessar­
ily a firm; it may be a branch plant, for ex­
ample, or w arehouse.) Self-employed per­
sons and others not on a regular civilian pay­
roll are outside the scope o f the survey
because they are excluded from establish­
m ent records. This largely accounts for the
difference in employm ent figures between
the household and establishm ent surveys.

Definitions

E a r n in g s .

Labor force data in tables 1 and 4 -9 are
seasonally adjusted. Since January 1980,
national labor force data have been season­
ally adjusted with a procedure called X -l 1
arima w hich was developed at Statistics
Canada as an extension o f the standard X -l 1
method previously used by bls . A detailed
description o f the procedure appears in the
X - ll ARIMA S e a s o n a l A d ju s tm e n t M e th o d ,
by Estela Bee D agum (Statistics Canada,
Catalogue No. 12-564E, January 1983).
At the beginning o f each calendar year,
historical seasonally adjusted data usually
are revised, and projected seasonal adjust­
m ent factors are calculated for use during
the January-June period. The historical sea­
sonally adjusted data usually are revised for
only the most recent 5 years. In July, new
seasonal adjustment factors, which incorpo­

A n esta b lish m e n t is an econom ic u nit
which produces goods or services (such as a
factory or store) at a single location and is
engaged in one type o f econom ic activity.
Employed persons are all persons who
received pay (including holiday and sick
pay) for any part o f the payroll period in­
cluding the 12th day o f the month. Persons
holding more than one job (about 5 percent
o f all persons in the labor force) are counted
in each establishm ent w hich reports them.
Production workers in m anufacturing
include working supervisors and nonsupervisory w orkers closely associated with pro­
duction operations. T hose w orkers m en­
tioned in tables 11 -1 6 include production
workers in m anufacturing and mining; con­
stru c tio n w o rk ers in c o n stru c tio n ; and
nonsupervisory workers in the following in­
dustries: transportation and public utilities;
wholesale and retail trade; finance, insur­
ance, and real estate; and services. These
groups account for about four-fifths o f the
total em ploym ent on private nonagricultural payrolls.
Earnings are the payments production
or nonsupervisory w orkers receive during
the survey period, including premium pay

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

53

Current Labor Statistics
for overtim e or late-shift w ork but exclud­
ing irreg u lar bonuses and o th e r special
p ay m en ts. R eal ea rn in g s are e arn in g s
adjusted to reflect the effects o f changes in
consum er prices. The deflator for this series
is derived from the C onsum er Price Index
for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers
(CPI-W).
H ours rep resen t the average w eekly
h o u rs o f p ro d u ctio n or n o n su p erv iso ry
w orkers for w hich pay was received, and
are different from standard or scheduled
hours. Overtime hours represent the por­
tion o f average weekly hours which was in
excess o f regular hours and for which over­
time prem ium s were paid.
The D iffu sio n In d ex re p resen ts the
percent o f industries in which employment
w as rising over the indicated period, plus
one-half o f the industries with unchanged
employment; 50 percent indicates an equal
balance between industries with increasing
and decreasing employment. In line with B u­
reau practice, data for the 1-, 3-, and 6-month
spans are seasonally adjusted, while those
for the 12-month span are unadjusted. D ata
are centered within the span. Table 17 pro­
vides an index on private nonfarm employ­
m ent based on 356 industries, and a m anu­
facturing index based on 139 industries.
These indexes are useful for measuring the
dispersion o f econom ic gains or losses and
are also economic indicators.

Notes on the data
E stablishm ent survey data are annually ad­
justed to com prehensive counts o f employ­
m ent (called “benchm arks”). The latest ad­
justm ent, which incorporated M arch 2001
benchm arks, was made with the release o f
M ay 2002 data, published in the July issue
o f the R e v ie w . Coincident with the bench­
m ark adjustm ent, historical seasonally ad­
justed data w ere revised to reflect updated
seasonal factors. Unadjusted data from April
2000 forward and seasonally adjusted data
from January 1997 forward were revised
with the release o f the M ay 2002 data.
In addition to the routine benchm ark re­
visions and updated seasonal factors intro­
duced w ith the release o f the M ay 2002
data, the first estim ates for the transporta­
tion and public utilities; retail trade; and fi­
nance, insurance, and real estate industries
w ere published from a new probabilitybased sample design. These industries are
the third group to convert to a probabilitybased sample under a 4-year phase-in plan
o f a sample redesign project. The comple­
tion o f the phase-in for the redesign, in June
2003 for the services industry, will coincide
with the conversion o f national establish­
m ent survey series from industry coding
based on the 1987 Standard Industrial Clas­
sification (SIC) system to the N orth A m eri­

54
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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

can Industry Classification System (NAICS).
For additional information, see the the June
2002 issue o f E m p lo y m e n t a n d E a r n in g s .
Revisions in State data (table 11) oc­
curred with the publication o f January 2002
data.
Beginning in June 1996, the bls uses the
X-12- arima m ethodology to seasonally ad­
ju st establishm ent survey data. This proce­
dure, developed by the Bureau o f the C en­
sus, controls for the effect o f varying sur­
vey intervals (also known as the 4- versus
5-week effect), thereby providing improved
measurement o f over-the-month changes and
underlying economic trends. Revisions o f
data, usually for the most recent 5-year pe­
riod, are made once a year coincident with
the benchm ark revisions.
In the establishm ent survey, estim ates
for the most recent 2 m onths are based on
incomplete returns and are published as pre­
liminary in the tables (1 2 -1 7 in the R e v ie w ) .
W hen all returns have been received, the es­
timates are revised and published as “final”
(prior to any benchm ark revisions) in the
third month o f their appearance. Thus, D e­
cem ber data are published as prelim inary in
January and February and as final in March.
For the same reasons, quarterly establish­
m ent data (table 1) are prelim inary for the
first 2 m onths o f publication and final in the
third month. Thus, fourth-quarter data are
published as prelim inary in January and
February and as final in March.
F or additional information on estab­
lishm ent survey data, contact the Division
o f C urrent E m ploym ent Statistics: (202)
691-6555.

Unemployment data by
State
Description of the series
D ata presented in this section are obtained
from the Local Area U nem ploym ent Statis­
tics (LAUS) program, which is conducted in
cooperation w ith State employm ent secu­
rity agencies.
M onthly estim ates o f the labor force,
employment, and unem ploym ent for States
and sub-State areas are a key indicator o f
local economic conditions, and form the ba­
sis for determ ining the eligibility o f an area
for benefits under Federal economic assis­
tance programs such as the Job Training
Partnership Act. Seasonally adjusted unem ­
ploym ent rates are presented in table 10.
Insofar as possible, the concepts and defini­
tions underlying these data are those used in
the national estimates obtained from the cps.

Notes on the data
D ata refer to State o f residence. M onthly

February 2003

d ata fo r all S ta te s an d th e D is tric t o f
C olum bia are derived using standardized
procedures established by bls . O nce a year,
estim ates are revised to new population
controls, usually with publication o f January
e stim a te s, and b en c h m a rk e d to an n u al
average cps levels.
F or additional information on data
in this series, call (2 0 2 )6 9 1 -6 3 9 2 (table 10)
or (202) 6 9 1 -6 5 5 9 (table 11).

C overed em ploym ent and
wage data (ES-202)
Description of the series
E mployment, wage, and establishment data
in this section are derived from the quarterly
tax reports subm itted to State em ploym ent
security agencies by private and State and
local governm ent employers subject to State
unemployment insurance (ui) laws and from
Federal, agencies subject to the U nem ploy­
m ent Com pensation for Federal Employees
( ucfe) program. Each quarter, State agencies
edit and process the data and send the infor­
mation to the Bureau o f Labor Statistics.
The Covered Em ploym ent and W ages
data, also referred as ES-202 data, are the
most complete enum eration o f em ployment
and wage information by industry at the na­
tional, State, metropolitan area, and county
levels. They have broad econom ic signifi­
cance in evaluating labor m arket trends and
major industry developments.
Definitions
In general, es-202 m onthly employm ent data
represent the num ber o f covered workers
who worked during, or received pay for, the
pay period that included the 12th day o f the
month. Covered private industry em ploy­
m ent includes m ost corporate officials, ex­
ecutives, supervisory personnel, profession­
als, clerical w orkers, w age earners, piece
w orkers, and part-time workers. It excludes
proprietors, the unin co rp o rated self-em ­
ployed, unpaid family m em bers, and certain
farm and domestic workers. Certain types
o f nonprofit em ployers, such as religious
organizations, are given a choice o f coverage
or exclusion in a num ber o f States. Workers
in these organizations are, therefore, reported
to a limited degree.
Persons on paid sick leave, paid holiday,
paid vacation, and the like, are included. Per­
sons on the payroll o f more than one firm
during the period are counted by each uisubject employer if they m eet the employ­
m ent definition noted earlier. The employ-

ment count excludes workers who earned no
wages during the entire applicable pay period
because o f work stoppages, temporary lay­
offs, illness, or unpaid vacations.
Federal employment data are based on
reports o f monthly employment and quarterly
wages submitted each quarter to State agencies
for all Federal installations with employees
covered by the U nem ploym ent C o m p en sa­
tion for Federal Employees (ucfe) program,

except for certain national security agen­
cies, which are omitted for security rea­
sons. Employment for all Federal agencies for
any given month is based on the number of
persons who worked during or received pay
for the pay period that included the 12th o f
the month.
An establishm ent is an economic unit,
such as a farm, mine, factory, or store, that
produces goods or provides services. It is typi­
cally at a single physical location and engaged
in one, or predominantly one, type o f eco­
nomic activity for which a single industrial clas­
sification may be applied. Occasionally, a single
physical location encompasses two or more
distinct and significant activities. Each activity
should be reported as a separate establishment
if separate records are kept and the various
activities are classified under different four­
digit sic codes.
M ost employers have only one establish­
ment; thus, the establishment is the predomi­
nant reporting unit or statistical entity for re­
porting employment and wages data. Most
employers, including State and local govern­
ments who operate more than one establish­
ment in a State, file a Multiple Worksite R e­
port each quarter, in addition to their quarterly
ui report. The Multiple Worksite Report is
used to collect separate employment and wage
data for each o f the employer’s establishments,
which are not detailed on the ui report. Some
very small multi-establishment employers do
not file a Multiple Worksite Report. W hen the
total employment in an employer’s secondary
establishments (all establishments other than
the largest) is 10 or fewer, the employer gener­
ally will file a consolidated report for all estab­
lishments. Also, some employers either can­
not or will not report at the establishment level
and thus aggregate establishments into one con­
solidated unit, or possibly several units, though
not at the establishment level.
For the Federal Government, the reporting
unit is the installation: a single location at
which a department, agency, or other govern­
ment body has civilian employees. Federal agen­
cies follow slightly different criteria than do
private employers when breaking down their
reports by installation. They are permitted to
combine as a single statewide unit: 1) all instal­
lations with 10 or fewer workers, and 2) all

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installations that have a combined total in the
State o f fewer than 50 workers. Also, when
there are fewer than 25 workers in all second­
ary installations in a State, the secondary in­
stallations may be combined and reported with
the major installation. Last, if a Federal agency
has fewer than five employees in a State, the
agency headquarters office (regional office,
district office) serving each State may consoli­
date the employment and wages data for that
State with the data reported to the State in
which the headquarters is located. As a result
o f these reporting rules, the number o f report­
ing units is always larger than the number o f
em ployers (or governm ent agencies) but
smaller than the number o f actual establish­
ments (or installations).
Data reported for the first quarter are tabu­
lated into size categories ranging from worksites
o f very small size to those with 1,000 em­
ployees or more. The size category is deter­
mined by the establishment’s March employ­
ment level. It is important to note that each
establishment o f a multi-establishment firm is
tabulated separately into the appropriate size
category. The total employment level o f the
reporting multi-establishment firm is not used
in the size tabulation.
Covered employers in most States report
total wages paid during the calendar quarter,
regardless o f when the services were per­
formed. A few State laws, however, specify
that wages be reported for, or based on the
period during which services are performed
rather than the period during which compen­
sation is paid. Under most State laws or regu­
lations, wages include bonuses, stock options,
the cash value o f meals and lodging, tips and
other gratuities, and, in some States, employer
contributions to certain deferred compensa­
tion plans such as 401 (k) plans.
Covered employer contributions for oldage, survivors, and disability insurance (oasdi),
health insurance, unemployment insurance,
workers’ compensation, and private pension
and welfare funds are not reported as wages.
Employee contributions for the same pur­
poses, however, as well as money withheld
for income taxes, union dues, and so forth, are
reported even though they are deducted from
the w orker’s gross pay.
Wages o f covered Federal workers rep­
resent the gross amount o f all payrolls for all
pay periods ending within the quarter. This
includes cash allowances, the cash equivalent
o f any type o f remuneration, severance pay,
withholding taxes, and retirement deductions.
Federal employee remuneration generally cov­
ers the same types o f services as for workers
in private industry.
Average annual wages per employee for
any given industry are computed by dividing

total annual wages by annual average employ­
ment. A further division by 52 yields average
weekly wages per employee. Annual pay data
only approximate annual earnings because an
individual may not be employed by the same
employer all year or may work for more than
one employer at a time.
Average weekly or annual pay is affected
by the ratio o f full-time to part-time workers
as well as the number o f individuals in highpaying and low-paying occupations. W hen
average pay levels between States and indus­
tries are compared, these factors should be
taken into consideration. For example, indus­
tries characterized by high proportions o f parttime workers will show average wage levels
appreciably less than the weekly pay levels of
regular full-time employees in these industries.
The opposite effect characterizes industries
with low proportions o f part-time workers, or
industries that typically schedule heavy week­
end and overtime work. Average wage data also
may be influenced by work stoppages, labor
turnover rates, retroactive payments, seasonal
factors, bonus payments, and so on.

Notes on the data
Beginning with the release o f data for 2001,
publications presenting data from the Covered
Employment and Wages (CEW) program have
switched to the 2002 version o f the North
Am erican Industry C lassificatiion System
(NAICS) as the basis for the assignment and
tabulation o f economic data by industry, naics
is the product o f a cooperative effort on the
part o f the statistical agencies o f the United
States, Canada, and Mexico. Due to difference
in naics and Standard Industrial Classifica­
tion (SIC) structures, industry data for 2001 is
not comparable to the sic-based data for ear­
lier years.
Effective January 2001, the cew program
began assigning Indian Tribal Councils and re­
lated establishments to local government own­
ership. This bls action was in response to a
change in Federal law dealing with the way
Indian Tribes are treated under the Federal
Unemploym ent Tax Act. This law requires
federally recognized Indian Tribes to be treated
similarly to State and local governments. In
the past the cew program coded Indian Tribal
Councils and related establishm ents in the
private sector. As a result o f the new law,
cew data reflects significant shifts in em ­
ployment and wages between the private sec­
tor and local government from 2000 to 2001.
D ata also reflect industry changes. Those
accounts previously assigned to civic and
social organizations were assigned to tribal
governments. There were no required indus­
try changes for related establishments owned

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Current Labor Statistics

by these Tribal Councils. These tribal busi­
ness establishments continued to be coded ac­
cording to the economic activity o f that entity.
To insure the highest possible quality of
data, State em ploym ent security agencies
verify with employers and update, if neces­
sary, the industry, location, and ownership clas­
sification o f all establishments on a 3-year cycle.
Changes in establishment classification codes
resulting from the verification process are in­
troduced with the data reported for the first
quarter o f the year. Changes resulting from
improved employer reporting also are intro­
duced in the first quarter. For these reasons,
some data, especially at more detailed geo­
graphic levels, may not be strictly comparable
with earlier years.
The2000 county data used to calculate the
2000-2001 changes were adjusted for changes
in industry and county classification to make
them comparable to data for 2001. As a result,
the adjusted 2000 data differ to some extent
from the data available on the Internet at:
http: //www. bis. gov/cew/home. htm.
County definitions are assigned according
to Federal Information Processing Standards
Publications as issued by the National Insti­
tute o f Standards and Technology. A reas
shown as counties include those designated
as independent cities in some jurisdictions
and, in Alaska, those areas designated by the
Census Bureau where counties have not been
created. County data also are presented for
the N ew England States for comparative pur­
poses, even though townships are the more
comm on designation used in N ew England
(and N ew Jersey).
For additional information on the covered
employment and wage data, contact the Divi­
sion o f Administrative Statistics and Labor
Turnover at (202) 691-6567.

Compensation and
W age Data
(Tables 1-3; 25-31)
Compensation and wage data are gathered
by the Bureau from business establishments,
State and local governments, labor unions, col­
lective bargaining agreements on file with the
Bureau, and secondary sources.

pensation per hour w orked and includes
w ages, salaries, and employer costs o f em ­
ployee b en efits. It uses a fixed m ark et
basket of labor— similar in concept to the Con­
sumer Price Index’s fixed market basket o f
goods and services— to measure change over
time in employer costs o f employing labor.
Statistical series on total compensation
costs, on wages and salaries, and on benefit
costs are available for private nonfarm work­
ers excluding proprietors, the self-employed,
and household workers. The total compensa­
tion costs and wages and salaries series are
also available for State and local government
workers and for the civilian nonfarm economy,
which consists o f private industry and State
and local government workers combined. Fed­
eral workers are excluded.
The Employment Cost Index probability
sample consists o f about 4,400 private non­
farm establishments providing about 23,000
occupational observations and 1,000 State and
local governm ent establishments providing
6,000 occupational observations selected to
represent total employment in each sector. On
average, each reporting unit provides wage and
compensation information on five well-speci­
fied occupations. Data are collected each quar­
ter for the pay period including the 12th day
o f March, June, September, and December.
Beginning with June 1986 data, fixed em­
ployment weights from the 1980 Census o f
P o p u la tio n are u se d e a c h q u a rte r to
calculate the civilian and private indexes and
the index for State and local governm ents.
(P rio r to J u n e 1 9 8 6 , th e e m p lo y m e n t
weights are from the 1970 Census o f Popu­
lation.) These fixed weights, also used to
derive all o f the industry and occupation
series indexes, ensure that changes in these
indexes reflect only changes in com pensa­
tion, not employment shifts among indus­
tries or occupations with different levels o f
wages and compensation. For the bargaining
status, region, and metropolitan/non-m etropolitan area series, how ever, employment
data by industry and occupation are not
available from the census. Instead, the 1980
employm ent w eights are reallocated within
these series each quarter based on the cur­
rent sample. Therefore, these indexes are not
strictly comparable to those for the aggre­
gate, industry, and occupation series.

Definitions
Em ploym ent Cost Index
Description of the series
The Employment Cost Index (ECl) is a quar­
terly measure o f the rate o f change in com­

56
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Total com pensation costs include wages,
salaries, and the em ployer’s costs for em­
ployee benefits.
Wages and salaries consist o f earnings
before payroll deductions, including produc­

February 2003

tion bonuses, incentive earnings, comm is­
sions, and cost-of-living adjustments.
Benefits include the cost to employers
for paid leave, supplem ental pay (includ­
ing nonproduction bonuses), insurance, retire­
ment and savings plans, and legally required
benefits (such as Social Security, workers’ com­
pensation, and unemployment insurance).
Excluded from wages and salaries and em­
ployee benefits are such items as payment-in­
kind, free room and board, and tips.

Notes on the data
The Employment Cost Index for changes in
wages and salaries in the private nonfarm
economy was published beginning in 1975.
Changes in total compensation cost— wages
and salaries and benefits combined— were
published beginning in 1980. The series o f
changes in wages and salaries and for total
compensation in the State and local govern­
m ent sector and in the civilian nonfarm
economy (excluding Federal employees) were
published beginning in 1981. Historical in­
dexes (June 1981=100) are available on the
Internet:
http://www. bis. gov/ect/
F or additional information on the
Em ploym ent C ost Index, contact the Office
o f Compensation Levels and Trends: (202)
691-6199.

Em ployee Benefits Survey
Description of the series
Employee benefits data are obtained from
the Employee Benefits Survey, an annual
survey o f the incidence and provisions o f
selected benefits provided by em ployers.
The survey collects data from a sample o f
app ro x im ately 9 ,0 0 0 private secto r and
State and local governm ent establishments.
The data are presented as a percentage o f em­
ployees who participate in a certain benefit, or
as an average benefit provision (for example,
the average number o f paid holidays provided
to employees per year). Selected data from the
survey are presented in table 25 for medium
and large private establishments and in table
26 for small private establishments and State
and local government.
The survey covers paid leave benefits
such as holidays and vacations, and personal,
funeral, ju ry duty, military, family, and sick
leave; short-term disability, long-term dis­
ability, and life insurance; medical, dental,
and vision care plans; defined benefit and
defined contribution plans; flexible benefits
plans; reim bursem ent accounts; and unpaid
family leave.
A lso, data are tab u lated on th e inci-

dence o f several oth er b en efits, such as
severance pay, child-care assistance, well-ness
p ro g ram s, and em p lo y ee a ssista n c e
programs.

Definitions
E m p lo y er-p ro v id ed b en efits are benefits
that are financed either wholly or partly by
the employer. They may be sponsored by a
union or other third party, as long as there is
some employer financing. H owever, some
benefits that are fully paid for by the em ­
ployee also are included. For example, long­
term care insurance and postretirem ent life
insurance paid entirely by the employee are
included because the guarantee o f insurabil­
ity and availability at group prem ium rates
are considered a benefit.
Participants are workers who are covered
by a benefit, whether or not they use that benefit.
I f the benefit plan is financed w holly by
employers and requires employees to complete
a minimum length o f service for eligibility, the
workers are considered participants whether or
not they have met the requirement. If workers
are required to contribute towards the cost o f a
plan, they are considered participants only if
they elect the plan and agree to make the required
contributions.
Defined benefit pension plans use pre­
determined formulas to calculate a retirement
benefit (if any), and obligate the employer to
provide those benefits. Benefits are generally
based on salary, years o f service, or both.
D efined contribution plans generally
specify the level o f employer and employee
contributions to a plan, but not the formula for
determining eventual benefits. Instead, indi­
vidual accounts are set up for participants, and
benefits are based on amounts credited to these
accounts.
Tax-deferred savings plans are a type of
defined contribution plan th at allow par­
ticipants to contribute a portion o f their sal­
ary to an employer-sponsored plan and defer
income taxes until withdrawal.
Flexible benefit plans allow employees
to choose among several benefits, such as life
insurance, medical care, and vacation days, and
among several levels o f coverage within a given
benefit.

Notes on the data
Surveys o f employees in medium and large
establishments conducted over the 1979-86
period included establishments that employed
at least 50,100, or 250 workers, depending on
the industry (m ost service industries were
excluded). The survey conducted in 1987

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covered only State and local governments with
50 or more employees. The surveys conducted
in 1988 and 1989 included medium and large
establishments with 100 workers or more in
private industries. All surveys conducted over
the 1979-89 period excluded establishments
in Alaska and Hawaii, as well as part-time
employees.
Beginning in 1990, surveys o f State and
lo c a l g o v e rn m e n ts an d sm all p riv a te
establishm ents w ere conducted in evennumbered years, and surveys o f medium and
large establishments were conducted in oddnum bered years. The small establishm ent
su rv e y in c lu d e s all p riv a te n o n fa rm
e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith fe w e r th a n 100
w o rk e rs , w h ile th e S ta te an d lo c a l
government survey includes all governments,
regardless o f the num ber o f workers. A ll
three surveys include full- and part-tim e
workers, and workers in all 50 States and
the D istrict o f Columbia.
For additional information on the Em ­
ployee Benefits Survey, contact the Office o f
Com pensation Levels and Trends on the
Internet:
http://www.bls.gov/ebs/

Work stoppages
Description of the series
Data on work stoppages measure the number
and duration o f major strikes or lockouts (in­
volving 1,000 workers or more) occurring dur­
ing the month (or year), the number o f work­
ers involved, and the amount o f work time lost
because o f stoppage. These data are presented
in table 27.
D ata are largely from a variety o f pub­
lished sources and cover only establishments
directly involved in a stoppage. They do
not measure the indirect or secondary effect
o f stoppages on other establishments whose
employees are idle owing to material short­
ages or lack o f service.

Definitions
N um ber o f stoppages: The num ber o f
strikes and lockouts involving 1,000 workers
or more and lasting a full shift or longer.
Workers involved: The number o f work­
ers directly involved in the stoppage.
Number o f days idle: The aggregate
number o f workdays lost by workers involved
in the stoppages.
D ays o f id le n e ss as a p ercen t o f
estim a te d w o r k in g time: A g g re g a te
workdays lost as a percent o f the aggregate
number o f standard workdays in the period
multiplied by total employment in the period.

Notes on the data
This series is not comparable with the one
terminated in 1981 that covered strikes in­
volving six workers or more.
F or additional information on work
stoppages data, contact the Office o f Com ­
pensation and W orking Conditions: (202)
6 9 1 -6 2 8 2 , or the Internet:
http:Zwww.bls. gov/cba/_________

Price Data
(Tables 2; 32^12)
P rice data are g athered by th e B ureau
o f L ab o r S tatistics from retail and p ri­
mary markets in the United States. Price in­
dexes are given in relation to a base period—
1982 = 100 for many Producer Price Indexes,
1982-84 = 100 for many Consumer Price In­
dexes (unless otherwise noted), and 1990 =
100 for International Price Indexes.

Consumer Price Indexes
Description of the series
The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a m ea­
sure o f the average change in the prices paid
by urban consum ers for a fixed market bas­
ket o f goods and services. The CPI is calcu­
lated m onthly for tw o population groups,
one consisting only o f urban households
whose primary source o f income is derived
from the employment o f wage earners and
clerical w orkers, and the other consisting o f
all urban households. The wage earner index
(CPI-W) is a continuation o f the historic in­
dex that was introduced well over a halfcentury ago for use in wage negotiations. As
new uses were developed for the CPI in re­
cent years, the need for a broader and more
representative index becam e apparent. The
all-urban consum er index (CPI-U), introduced
in 1978, is representative o f the 1993-95
buying habits o f about 87 percent o f the
noninstitutional population o f the U nited
States at that tim e, compared with 32 per­
cent represented in the CPI-W. In addition to
wage earners and clerical workers, the CPI-U
covers professional, managerial, and techni­
cal w orkers, the self-employed, short-term
w orkers, the unemployed, retirees, and oth­
ers not in the labor force.
The CPI is based on prices o f food, cloth­
ing, shelter, fuel, drugs, transportation fares,
doctors’ and dentists’ fees, and other goods
and services that people buy for day-to-day
living. The quantity and quality o f these
items are kept essentially unchanged between
major revisions so that only price changes
will be measured. All taxes directly associ-

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57

Current Labor Statistics

ated with the purchase and use o f items are
included in the index.
D ata collected from more than 23,000 re­
tail establishments and 5,800 housing units
in 87 urban areas across the country are used
to develop the “U.S. city average.” Separate
estimates for 14 major urban centers are pre­
sented in table 33. The areas listed are as
indicated in footnote 1 to the table. The area
indexes measure only the average change in
prices for each area since the base period, and
do not indicate differences in the level o f
prices among cities.

Notes on the data
In January 1983, the Bureau changed the
w ay in w hich hom eow nership costs are
m eaured for the cpi-u . A rental equivalence
m ethod replaced the asset-price approach
to hom eow nership costs for that series. In
January 1985, the same change was made in
the cpi-w . The central purpose o f the change
was to separate shelter costs from the in­
vestm ent com ponent o f home-ownership so
that the index would reflect only the cost o f
shelter services provided by ow ner-occu­
pied homes. An updated CPI-U and CPI-W
were introduced with release o f the January
1987 and January 1998 data.
F or additional information , contact
the D ivision o f Prices and P rice Indexes:
(2 0 2 )6 9 1 -7 0 0 0 .

Producer Price Indexes
Description of the series
Producer Price Indexes (ppi) measure av­
erage changes in prices received by domestic
producers o f comm odities in all stages o f
processing. The sample used for calculating
these indexes currently contains about 3,200
commodities and about 80,000 quotations
per m onth, selected to represent the move­
m ent o f prices o f all commodities produced
in the m anufacturing; agriculture, forestry,
and fishing; m ining; and gas and electricity
and public utilities sectors. The stage-ofp ro c e s s in g s tru c tu r e o f ppi o rg a n iz e s
products by class o f buyer and degree o f
fabrication (th at is, finished goods, in ter­
m ediate goods, and crude m aterials). The
traditional com m odity structure o f ppi o r­
ganizes products by sim ilarity o f end use
or m aterial com position. The industry and
product structure o f ppi organizes data in
accordance w ith the Standard Industrial
C lassification (SIC) and the product code
extension o f the sic developed by the U.S.
Bureau o f the Census.
To the extent possible, prices used in
Digitized for58
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calculating Producer Price Indexes apply to
the first significant commercial transaction
in the United States from the production or
central marketing point. Price data are gen­
erally collected monthly, prim arily by mail
questionnaire. M ost prices are obtained di­
rectly from producing companies on a vol­
untary and confidential basis. Prices gener­
ally are reported for the Tuesday o f the week
containing the 13th day o f the month.
Since January 1992, price changes for the
various com m odities have been averaged
to g e th e r w ith im plicit q u an tity w eig h ts
representing their importance in the total net
selling value o f all commodities as o f 1987.
The detailed data are aggregated to obtain
indexes for stage-of-processing groupings,
commodity groupings, durability-of-product
groupings, and a number o f special composite
groups. All Producer Price Index data are
subject to revision 4 m onths after original
publication.
F or additional information, contact
the D ivision o f Industrial Prices and Price
Indexes: (2 0 2 )6 9 1 -7 7 0 5 .

Intern ational Price Indexes
Description of the series

spondents are asked to indicate all discounts,
allowances, and rebates applicable to the re­
ported prices, so that the price used in the
calculation o f the indexes is the actual price for
which the product was bought or sold.
In addition to general indexes o f prices for
U.S. exports and imports, indexes are also
published for detailed product categories o f
exports and imports. These categories are
defined according to the five-digit level o f
detail for the Bureau o f Economic A nalysis
End-use Classification, the three-digit level
for the Standard Industrial C lassification
(SITC), and the four-digit level o f detail for the
H arm o n ized System . A g g reg ate im p o rt
indexes by coun-try or region o f origin are
also available.
bls publishes indexes for selected catego­
ries o f internationally traded services, calcu­
lated on an international basis and on a balance-of-payments basis.

Notes on the data
The export and im port price indexes are
weighted indexes o f the Laspeyres type. The
trade weights currently used to compute both
indexes relate to 2000.
Because a price index depends on the same
items being priced from period to period, it is
necessary to recognize w hen a p roduct’s
specifications or terms o f transaction have
been modified. For this reason, the B ureau’s
questionnaire requests detailed descriptions o f
the physical and functional characteristics o f
the products being priced, as well as informa­
tion on the number o f units bought or sold,
discounts, credit terms, packaging, class o f
buyer or seller, and so forth. W hen there are
changes in either the specifications or terms o f
transaction o f a product, the dollar value o f
each change is deleted from the total price
change to obtain the “pure” change. Once this
value is determined, a linking procedure is em­
ployed which allows for the continued repric­
ing o f the item.
F or additional information, contact
the Division o f International Prices: (202)
691-7155.

The International Price Program produces
m onthly and quarterly export and im port
price indexes for nonmilitary goods and ser­
vices traded between the United States and
the rest o f the world. The export price index
provides a measure o f price change for all
products sold by U.S. residents to foreign
buyers. (“Residents” is defined as in the na­
tional income accounts; it includes corpora­
tions, businesses, and individuals, but does
not require the organizations to be U.S.
owned nor the individuals to have U.S. citi­
zenship.) The import price index provides a
measure o f price change for goods purchased
from other countries by U.S. residents.
The product universe for both the import
and export indexes includes raw materials,
agricultural products, semifinished manufac­
tures, and finished manufactures, including
both capital and consum er goods. Price data
for these items are collected primarily by mail
Productivity Data
questionnaire. In nearly all cases, the data are
collected directly from the exporter or im­ (Tables 2; 43^16)
porter, although in a few cases, prices are
obtained from other sources.
To the extent possible, the data gathered
Business and m ajor sectors
refer to prices at the U.S. border for exports
and at either the foreign border or the U.S.
Description of the series
border for imports. For nearly all products,
the prices refer to transactions completed dur­ The productivity measures relate real output
ing the first week o f the month. Survey re­ to real input. As such, they encompass a fam-

February 2003

ily o f m easures w hich include single-factor
input measures, such as output per hour, out­
put per unit o f labor input, or output per
unit o f capital input, as well as measures o f
multifactor productivity (output per unit o f
combined labor and capital inputs). The Bu­
reau indexes show the change in output rela­
tive to changes in the various inputs. The
measures cover the business, nonfarm busi­
ness, manufacturing, and nonfmancial corpo­
rate sectors.
Corresponding indexes o f hourly compen­
sation, unit labor costs, unit nonlabor pay­
m ents, and prices are also provided.

Definitions
O utput per hour o f all persons (labor pro­
ductivity) is the quantity o f goods and ser­
vices produced per hour o f labor input. Out­
put per unit o f capital services (capital
productivity) is the quantity o f goods and
services produced per unit o f capital ser­
vices input. M ultifactor productivity is the
quantity o f goods and services produced per
combined inputs. For private business and pri­
vate nonfarm business, inputs include labor
and capital units. For manufacturing, inputs
include labor, capital, energy, non-energy ma­
terials, and purchased business ser-vices.
Com pensation per hour is total com ­
pensation divided by hours at work. Total
com pensation equals the wages and salaries
o f employees plus em ployers’ contributions
for social insurance and private benefit plans,
plus an estim ate o f these payments for the
self-employed (except for nonfm ancial cor­
porations in w hich there are no self-em ­
ployed). R eal com pensation per hour is
co m p en satio n per h o u r d eflated by the
change in the C onsum er Price Index for A ll
Urban Consumers.
U nit labor costs are the labor com pen­
sation costs expended in the production o f a
unit o f output and are derived by dividing
com pensation by output. U nit nonlabor
paym ents include pro fits, d ep reciatio n ,
interest, and indirect taxes per unit o f out­
put. They are computed by subtracting com­
pensation o f all persons from current-dollar
value o f output and dividing by output.
U n it n on lab or costs contain all the
co m p o n en ts o f u nit n o n lab o r paym ents
except u nit profits.
U nit profits include corporate profits
w ith inventory valuation and capital co n ­
sum ption adjustm ents per u nit o f output.
H o u rs o f all p e r so n s are th e to ta l
h o u rs at w ork o f payroll w o rk ers, selfem p lo y ed p e rs o n s, an d u n p a id fam ily
w orkers.
L abor inputs are hours o f all persons
adjusted for the effects o f changes in the

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education and experience o f the labor force.
C ap ital services are the flow o f ser­
vices from the capital stock used in pro­
duction. It is developed from m easures o f
the net stock o f physical assets— e q u ip ­
m ent, structures, land, and inventories—
w eighted by rental prices for each type o f
asset.
C om bined units o f labor and cap ital
inputs are derived by com bining changes
in labor and capital in p u t w ith w eights
w hich represent each com ponent’s share
o f total cost. C om bined units o f labor,
capital, energy, m aterials, and purchased
business services are sim ilarly derived by
c o m b in in g ch an g es in each in p u t w ith
w eights that represent each in p u t’s share
o f total costs. The indexes for each input
an d fo r c o m b in e d u n its are b a sed on
changing w eights which are averages o f the
shares in the cu rren t and preceding year
(the T ornquist index-num ber form ula).

Notes on the data
B u sin e ss secto r o u tp u t is an an n u ally w eighted index constructed by excluding
from real gross dom estic product ( g d p ) the
follow ing outputs: general governm ent,
n o nprofit institu tio n s, paid em ployees o f
private households, and the rental value
o f ow ner-occupied dw ellings. N onfarm
business also excludes farm ing. Private
b u sin ess and private n o n farm b u sin ess
fu rth er exclude governm ent enterprises.
The m easures are supplied by the U.S. D e­
partm ent o f C om m erce’s B ureau o f E co ­
nomic A nalysis. Annual estim ates o f m anu­
facturing sectoral o u tput are produced by
the B ureau o f Labor Statistics. Q uarterly
m an u factu rin g o u tp u t indexes from the
Federal Reserve B oard are adjusted to these
annual output m easures by the b l s . C om ­
pensation data are developed from data o f
the B ureau o f E conom ic A nalysis and the
B ureau o f L abor Statistics. H ours data
are developed from data o f the B ureau o f
L abor Statistics.
The productivity and associated cost
m easures in tables 4 3 -4 6 describe the re­
lationship betw een o u tp u t in real term s
and the labor and capital inputs involved
in its production. They show the changes
from period to period in the am o u n t o f
goods and services produced per u nit o f
in p u t.
A lthough these m easures relate output
to hours and capital services, they do not
m easure the co ntributions o f labor, capi­
tal, or any other specific factor o f produc­
tion. R ather, they reflect the jo in t effect
o f m any influences, including changes in

technology; shifts in th e com position o f
the labor force; capital inv estm ent; level
o f o u tp u t; ch an g es in th e u tilizatio n o f
capacity, energy, m aterial, and research
and developm ent; the organization o f pro­
duction; m anagerial skill; and ch aracteris­
tics and efforts o f the w ork force.
F O R A D D I T I O N A L I N F O R M A T I O N on this
productivity series, contact the D ivision
o f P ro d u c tiv ity R e se a rc h : (2 0 2 ) 6 9 1 5606.

Industry productivity
measures
Description of the series
T h e B L S in d u s tr y p r o d u c t iv i ty d a ta
supplem ent the m easures for the business
econom y and m ajor sectors w ith annual
m easures o f labor productivity for selected
industries at the three- and four-digit levels
o f the Standard In dustrial C lassification
system . In addition to labor productivity,
th e in d u s try d a ta also in c lu d e a n n u a l
m easures o f com pensation and unit labor
c o s ts fo r th r e e - d i g it in d u s tr i e s a n d
m easures o f m ultifactor productivity for
three-digit m anu factu rin g industries and
ra ilro a d tr a n s p o r ta tio n . T h e in d u s try
m easures differ in m ethodology and data
sources from the p ro ductivity m easures
for the m ajor sectors because the industry
m easures are developed independently o f
the N ational Incom e and Product A ccounts
fra m e w o rk u se d fo r th e m a jo r s e c to r
m easures.

Definitions
O utput per hour is derived by dividing
an index o f industry ou tp u t by an index o f
labor input. For m ost in d u stries, output
indexes are derived from data on the value
o f in d u s try o u tp u t a d ju s te d fo r p rice
change. For the rem aining industries, out­
put indexes are derived from data on the
physical q uantity o f production.
The labor input series consist o f the
hours o f all employees (production w orkers
and nonproduction workers), the hours o f all
persons (paid employees, partners, propri­
etors, and unpaid family w orkers), or the
number o f employees, depending upon the
industry.
U n it lab or costs rep resen t the labor
c o m p e n sa tio n c o sts per u n it o f o u tp u t
produced, and are derived by dividing an
index o f labor com pensation by an index
o f output. L abor com pensation includes
p a y ro ll as w ell as s u p p le m e n ta l pay-

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February 2003

59

Current Labor Statistics

m ents, including both legally required ex­
p en d itu res and paym en ts for v o lu n tary
program s.
M u ltifactor p rod u ctiv ity is derived
by dividing an index o f ind u stry o u tput
by an index o f the com bined inputs co n ­
sum ed in producing th at output. C om ­
bined inputs include capital, labor, and
interm ediate purchases. The m easure o f
cap ital in p u t used represents the flow o f
services from the capital stock used in
production. It is developed from m easures
o f th e n e t sto c k o f p h y sic a l a s s e ts —
equipm ent, structures, land, and inven to ­
ries. The m easure o f in term ediate p u r­
chases is a com bination o f purchased m a­
terials, services, fuels, and electricity.

differences. Although precise comparability
may not be achieved, these adjusted figures
provide a better basis for international com­
parisons than the figures regularly published
by each country. For further information on
adjustm ents and comparability issues, see
Constance Sorrentino, “International unem ­
ployment rates: how comparable are they?”
M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v ie w , June 2000, pp. 3-20.

Notes on the data

Notes on the data

The industry m easures are com piled from
data produced by the B ureau o f L abor Sta­
tistics and the B ureau o f the C ensus,w ith
additional data supplied by oth er g o v ern ­
m en t ag e n c ie s, trad e a sso c ia tio n s, and
other sources.
For m ost in d u stries, the p roductivity
indexes refer to the ou tp u t per hour o f all
em ployees. For som e trade and services
industries, indexes o f o u tput per h our o f
all persons (including self-em ployed) are
constructed. For som e transportation in­
dustries, only indexes o f o u tp u t per em ­
ployee are prepared.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION On this
series, co n tac t the D ivision o f In d u stry
P roductivity Studies: (202) 6 9 1 -5 6 1 8 .

International
Comparisons
(Tables 4 7 -4 9 )

Labor force and
unem ploym ent
Description of the series
Tables 47 and 48 present comparative meas­
ures o f the labor force, employment, and un­
em p lo y m en t— ap p ro x im atin g U .S. c o n ­
cepts— for the United States, Canada, A us­
tralia, Japan, and several European countries.
The u n em ploym ent statistics (an d , to a
lesser extent, em ploym ent statistics) pub­
lished by other industrial countries are not,
in most cases, comparable to U.S. unemploy­
m ent statistics. Therefore, the B ureau ad­
justs the figures for selected countries, where
necessary, for all known major definitional

60
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Definitions
For the principal U.S. definitions o f the labor
force, employment, and unemployment, see
the Notes section on Employment and Unem­
ployment Data: Household survey data.

The adjusted statistics have been adapted to
the age at which compulsory schooling ends
in each country, rather than to the U.S. stan­
dard o f 16 years o f age and older. Therefore,
the adjusted statistics relate to the popula­
tion aged 16 and older in France, Sweden, and
the United Kingdom; 15 and older in A ustra­
lia, Japan, Germany, Italy from 1993 onward,
and the Netherlands; and 14 and older in Italy
prior to 1993. An exception to this rule is
that the Canadian statistics for 1976 onward
are adjusted to cover ages 16 and older,
whereas the age at which compulsory school­
ing ends rem ains at 15. The institutional
population is included in the denominator o f
the labor force participation rates and em ­
ploym ent-population ratios for Japan and
Germany; it is excluded for the United States
and the other countries.
In the U.S. labor force survey, persons on
layoff who are awaiting recall to their jobs
are classified as unemployed. European and
Japanese layoff practices are quite different
in nature from those in the United States;
therefore, strict application o f the U.S. defi­
nition has not been made on this point. For
further information, see M o n th ly L a b o r R e ­
v ie w , December 1981, pp. 8-11.
The figures for one or more recent years
for France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands,
and the United Kingdom are calculated using
adjustment factors based on labor force sur­
veys for earlier years and are considered pre­
liminary. The recent-year measures for these
countries, therefore, are subject to revision
whenever data from more current labor force
surveys become available.
There are breaks in the data series for the
United S tates(1990,1994,1997,1998,1999,
2000), Canada (1976) France (1992), Ger­
many (1991), Italy (1991, 1993), the N eth­
erlands (1988), and Sweden (1987).
For the United States, the break in series

February 2003

reflects a major redesign o f the labor force
survey questionnaire and collection method­
ology introduced in January 1994. Revised
population estimates based on the 1990 cen­
sus, adjusted for the estimated undercount,
also were incorporated. In 1996, previously
published data for the 1990-93 period were
revised to reflect the 1990 census-based
population controls, adjusted for the u n ­
dercount. In 1997, revised population con­
trols were introduced into the household sur­
vey. T h erefo re, th e data are n o t strictly
conparable with prior years. In 1998, new
composite estimation procedures and minor
revisions in population controls were intro­
duced into the household survey. Therefore,
the data are not strictly comparable with data
for 1997 and earlier years. See the Notes sec­
tion on E m ploym ent and U nem ploym ent
Data o f this R e v ie w .
bls recently introduced a new adjusted
series for Canada. Beginning with the data
for 1976, Canadian data are adjusted to more
closely approximate U.S. concepts. A djust­
ments are made to the unemployed and labor
force to exclude: (1) 15-year-olds; (2) pas­
sive jobseekers (persons only reading new s­
paper ads as their method o f job search); (3)
persons waiting to start a new job who did
not seek work in the past 4 weeks; and (4)
persons unavailable for work due to personal
or family responsibilities. An adjustm ent is
made to include full-tine students looking for
full-time work. The im pact o f the adjust­
ments was to lower the annual average unem ­
ployment rate by 0 .1 -0 .4 percentage point
in the 1980s and 0 .4 -1 .0 percentage point in
the 1990s.
For France, the 1992 break reflects the
substitution o f standardized European Union
Statistical Office (eurostat) unemployment
statistics for the unem ploym ent data esti­
mated according to the International Labor
Office (ilo) definition and published in the
Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development (oecd) annual yearbook and
quarterly update. This change was made be­
cause the eurostat data are more up-to-date
than the oecd figures. Also, since 1992, the
eurostat definitions are closer to the U.S.
definitions than they were in prior years. The
impact o f this revision was to lower the un­
employment rate by 0.1 percentage point in
1992 and 1993, by 0.4 percentage point in
1994, and 0.5 percentage point in 1995.
For Germany, the data for 1991 onward
refer to unified Germany. D ata prior to 1991
relate to the former West Germany. The im­
pact o f including the former East Germany
was to increase the unemployment rate from
4.3 to 5.6 percent in 1991.
For Italy, the 1991 break reflects a revi­
sion in the method o f weighting sample data.

The impact was to increase the unemploy­ ploym ent rate by 0.2 percentage point in
1987 and gradually rose to 0.5 percentage
m ent rate by approximately 0.3 percentage
point in 1992.
point, from 6.6 to 6.9 percent in 1991.
Beginning with 1987, bls has adjusted the
In October 1992, the survey methodol­
Swedish data to classify students who also
ogy was revised and the definition o f unem ­
sought work as unemployed. The impact o f
ployment was changed to include only those
this change was to increase the adjusted un­
who were actively looking for a job within
employment rate by 0.1 percentage point in
the 30 days preceding the survey and who
1987 and by 1.8 percentage points in 1994,
w ere available for work. In addition, the
w hen unemployment was higher. In 1998,
lower age limit for the labor force was raised
the adjusted unemployment rate had risen
from 14 to 15 years. (Prior to these changes,
from 6.5 to 8.4 percent due to the adjustment
bls adjusted Italy’s published unem ploy­
to include students.
ment rate downward by excluding from the
The net effect o f the 1987 and 1993
unem ployed those persons w ho had not
changes and the bls adjustm ent for stu­
actively sought work in the past 30 days.)
The break in the series also reflects the incor­ d e n ts seek in g w o rk lo w ered S w e d e n ’s
1987 unem ploym ent rate from 2.3 to 2.2
poration o f the 1991 population census re­
percent.
sults. The impact o f these changes was to
FORADDITIONAL INFORMATION On this se­
raise Italy’s adjusted unemployment rate by
ries, contact the Division o f Foreign Labor
approximately 1.2 percentage points, from
Statistics: (202) 691-5654.
8.3 to 9.5 percent in fourth-quarter 1992.
These changes did not affect employment
significantly, except in 1993. Estimates by
Manufacturing productivity
the Italian Statistical Office indicate that em­
ploym ent declined by about 3 percent in
and labor costs
1993, rather than the nearly 4 percent indi­
Description of the series
cated by the data shown in table 44. This
difference is attributable mainly to the incor­
Table 49 presents comparative indexes o f
poration o f the 1991 population benchmarks
manufacturing labor productivity (output per
in the 1993 data. D ata for earlier years have
hour), output, total hours, compensation per
not been adjusted to incorporate the 1991
hour, and unit labor costs for the U nited
census results.
States, Canada, Japan, and nine European
For the Netherlands, a new survey ques­
countries. These measures are trend compari­
tionnaire was introduced in 1992 that allowed
sons— that is, series that measure changes
for a closer application o f ilo guidelines.
over time— rather than level comparisons.
eurostat has revised the Dutch series back
There are greater technical problems in com­
to 1988 based on the 1992 changes. The 1988
paring the levels o f m anufacturing output
revised unem ploym ent rate is 7.6 percent;
among countries.
the previous estimate for the same year was
bls constructs the comparative indexes
9.3 percent.
from three basic aggregate measures— output,
There have been two breaks in series in
total labor hours, and total compensation.
the Swedish labor force survey, in 1987 and
The hours and compensation measures refer
1993. A djustm ents have been made for the
to all employed persons (wage and salary
1993 break back to 1987. In 1987, a new
earners plus self-employed persons and un­
questionnaire w as introduced. Q uestions
paid family workers) in the United States,
regarding cu rren t availability w ere added
Canada, Japan, France, Germany, Norway,
and the period o f active w orkseeking w as
and Sweden, and to all employees (wage and
reduced from 60 days to 4 w eeks. These
salary earners) in the other countries.
changes low ered S w ed en ’s 1987 u n em ­
plo ym ent rate by 0 .4 p ercen tag e point,
Definitions
from 2.3 to 1.9 percent. In 1993, the m ea­
surem ent period for the labor force su r­
O utput, in general, refers to value added
vey w as changed to represent all 52 w eeks
in m anu factu rin g from the national ac­
o f th e y ear rath e r th an one w eek each
co u n ts o f each country. H ow ever, the
m onth and a new ad justm ent for popula­
o u tput series for Japan prior to 1970 is
tion to tals w as intro d u ced . The im pact
an index o f industrial production, and the
w as to raise th e u n e m p lo y m en t rate by
national accounts m easures for the U nited
approxim ately 0.5 percentage point, from
7.6 to 8.1 percent. S tatistics Sw eden re­ K ingdom are essentially identical to their
indexes o f industrial production.
vised its labor force survey data for 1 9 8 7 T h e 1 9 7 7 - 9 7 o u tp u t d a ta fo r th e
92 to take into account the break in 1993.
The adjustm ent raised the Sw edish u n em ­ U nited States are the gross product origi­


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nating (value added) m easures prepared
by the B ureau o f E conom ic A nalysis o f
the U S . D epartm ent o f C om m erce. C om ­
parable m an u factu rin g o u tp u t data c u r­
rently are not available prior to 1977.
U.S. gross product originating is a chaintype annual-w eighted series. (For m ore in­
form ation on the U .S. m easure, see R obert
E. Y uskavage, “Im p ro v ed E stim a te s o f
G ro ss P ro d u c t by In d u stry , 1 9 5 9 -9 4 ,”
S u r v e y o f C u r r e n t B u s i n e s s , A ugust 1996,
pp. 1 3 3 -5 5 .) The Japanese value added
series is based upon one set o f fixed price
w eights for the years 1970 through 1997.
O u tp u t series for the oth er foreign econo­
m ies also em ploy fixed price w eights, but
the w eights are updated periodically (for
exam ple, every 5 or 10 years).
To preserve the comparability o f the U.S.
measures with those for other economies, bls
uses gross product originating in m anufac­
turing for the United States for these com­
parative measures. The gross product origi­
nating series differs from the manufacturing
output series that bls publishes in its news
releases on quarterly measures o f U.S. pro­
ductivity and costs (and that underlies the
measures that appear in tables 43 and 45 in
this section). The quarterly measures are on
a “sectoral output” basis, rather than a valueadded basis. Sectoral output is gross output
less intrasector transactions.
Total labor hours refers to hours worked
in all countries. The measures are developed
from statistics o f manufacturing employment
and average hours. The series used for France
(from 1970 forward), Norway, and Sweden
are official series published with the national
accounts. W here official total hours series are
not available, the measures are developed by
bls using employment figures published with
the national accounts, or other comprehen­
sive employment series, and estimates o f an­
nual hours worked. For Germany, bls uses
estimates o f average hours worked developed
by a research institute connected to the M in­
istry o f Labor for use with the national ac­
counts employm ent figures. For the other
countries, bls constructs its own estimates
o f average hours.
Denmark has not published estimates of
average hours for 1994-97; therefore, the bls
measure o f labor input for Denmark ends in
1993.
Total compensation (labor cost) includes
all payments in cash or in-kind made directly
to employees plus employer expenditures for
legally required insurance programs and con­
tractual and private benefit plans. The mea­
sures are from the national accounts o f each
country, except those for Belgium, which are
developed by bls using statistics on employ-

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February 2003

61

Current Labor Statistics
ment, average hours, and hourly compensa­
tion. For Canada, France, and Sweden, com­
pensation is increased to account for other sig­
nificant taxes on payroll or employment. For
the United Kingdom, compensation is reduced
between 1967 and 1991 to account for em­
ploym ent-related subsidies. Self-employed
workers are included in the all-employed-per­
sons measures by assuming that their hourly
compensation is equal to the average for wage
and salary employees.

Notes on the data
In general, the measures relate to total m anu­
facturing as defined by the International Stan­
dard Industrial Classification. H owever, the
m easures for France (for all years) and Italy
(beginning 1970) refer to mining and m anu­
facturing less energy-related products, and
the measures for Denmark include mining and
exclude manufacturing handicrafts from 1960
to 1966.
The m easures for recent years may be
based on current indicators o f manufacturing
output (such as industrial production in­
dexes), em ploym ent, average hours, and
hourly compensation until national accounts
and other statistics used for the long-term
measures become available.
For additional information on this se­
ries, contact the Division o f Foreign Labor
Statistics: (202) 691-5654.

Occupational injury
and illness Data
(Tables 50-51)

Survey of Occupational
Injuries and Illnesses
Description of the series
The Survey o f Occupational Injuries and Ill­
nesses collects data from employers about their
workers’ job-related nonfatal injuries and ill­
nesses. The information that employers pro­
vide is based on records that they maintain un­
der the Occupational Safety and Health Act o f
1970. Self-employed individuals, farms with
fewer than 11 employees, employers regulated
by other Federal safety and health laws, and
Federal, State, and local government agencies
are excluded from the survey.
The survey is a Federal-State coopera­
tive program with an independent sample

62

Monthly Labor Review


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selected for each participating State. A strati­
fied random sample with a Neym an alloca­
tion is selected to represent all private in­
dustries in the State. The survey is strati­
fied by Standard Industrial Classification
and size o f employment.

Definitions
Under the Occupational Safety and Health
Act, employers maintain records o f nonfatal
work-related injuries and illnesses that in­
volve one or more o f the following: loss o f
consciousness, restriction o f work or motion,
transfer to another job, or medical treatment
other than first aid.
Occupational injury is any injury such as
a cut, fracture, sprain, or amputation that re­
sults from a work-related event or a single, in­
stantaneous exposure in the work environment.
Occupational illness is an abnormal con­
dition or disorder, other than one resulting
from an occupational injury, caused by expo­
sure to factors associated with employment.
It includes acute and chronic illnesses or dis­
ease which may be caused by inhalation, ab­
sorption, ingestion, or direct contact.
Lost w orkday injuries and illnesses
are cases that involve days away from work,
or days o f restricted work activity, or both.
Lost w orkdays include the num ber o f
w orkdays (consecutive or not) on w hich
the employee w as either away from w ork
or at w ork in some restricted capacity, or
both, because o f an occupational injury or
illness, bls measures o f the num ber and
incidence rate o f lost w orkdays w ere dis­
c o n tin u ed b eginning w ith th e 1993 su r­
vey. T h e n u m b e r o f d ay s aw ay fro m
w o rk or days o f re stric te d w o rk activ ity
do es n o t in c lu d e th e day o f in ju ry or
o n se t o f illn ess or an y days on w h ich
th e em ployee w ould n o t have w o rk ed ,
su ch as a F ed eral holiday, even th ough
able to w ork.
Incidence rates are computed as the num­
ber o f injuries and/or illnesses or lost work
days per 100 full-time workers.

Notes on the data
The definitions o f occupational injuries and
illnesses are from R e c o r d k e e p in g G u id e lin e s
f o r O c c u p a tio n a l I n ju r ie s a n d I lln e s s e s (U. S.
D epartm ent o f Labor, Bureau o f Labor Sta­
tistics, September 1986).
Estimates are made for industries and em­
ployment size classes for total recordable cases,
lost workday cases, days away from work
cases, and nonfatal cases without lost work­
days. These data also are shown separately for

February 2003

injuries. Illness data are available for seven cat­
egories: occupational skin diseases or disorders,
dust diseases o f the lungs, respiratory condi­
tions due to toxic agents, poisoning (systemic
effects o f toxic agents), disorders due to physi­
cal agents (other than toxic materials), disorders
associated with repeated trauma, and all other
occupational illnesses.
The survey continues to measure the num­
ber o f new work-related illness cases which
are recognized, diagnosed, and reported during
the year. Some conditions, for example, long­
term latent illnesses caused by exposure to car­
cinogens, often are difficult to relate to the
workplace and are not adequately recognized
and reported. These long-term latent illnesses
are believed to be understated in the survey’s
illness measure. In contrast, the overwhelming
majority o f the reported new illnesses are those
which are easier to directly relate to workplace
activity (for example, contact dermatitis and
carpal tunnel syndrome).
M ost o f the estimates are in the form o f
incidence rates, defined as the number o f inju­
ries and illnesses per 100 equivalent full-time
workers. For this purpose, 200,000 employee
hours represent 100 employee years (2,000
hours per employee). Full detail on the avail­
able measures is presented in the annual bulle­
tin, O c c u p a t i o n a l I n j u r ie s a n d I l l n e s s e s :
C o u n ts, R a te s , a n d C h a r a c te r is tic s .

Comparable data for more than 40 States
and territories are available from the bls O f­
fice o f Safety, Health and Working C ondi­
tions. M any o f these States publish data on
State and local governm ent employees in ad­
dition to private industry data.
M ining and railroad data are furnished to
bls by the Mine Safety and Health A dm inis­
tration and the Federal Railroad A dm inistra­
tion. Data from these organizations are in­
cluded in both the national and State data
published annually.
With the 1992 survey, bls began publish­
ing details on serious, nonfatal incidents re­
sulting in days away from work. Included are
some major characteristics o f the injured and
ill workers, such as occupation, age, gender,
race, and length o f service, as well as the cir­
cumstances o f their injuries and illnesses (na­
ture o f the disabling condition, part o f body
affected, event and exposure, and the source
directly producing the condition). In general,
these data are available nationwide for de­
tailed industries and for individual States at
more aggregated industry levels.
F or additional information on occu­
pational injuries and illnesses, contact the Of­
fice o f Occupational Safety, Health and Work­
ing Conditions at (202) 6 9 1 -6 1 8 0 , or access
the Internet at: h ttp://www. bls. gov/iif/

Census of Fatal
Occupational Injuries
The Census o f Fatal Occupational Injuries
compiles a complete roster o f fatal job-re­
lated injuries, including detailed data about
the fatally injured w orkers and the fatal
events. T he program co llects and cross
checks fatality inform ation from multiple
sources, including death certificates, State
and Federal w orkers’ compensation reports,
Occupational Safety and Health A dm inistra­
tion and M ine Safety and Health A dm inis­
tration records, medical exam iner and au­
topsy reports, media accounts, State motor
vehicle fatality records, and follow-up ques­
tionnaires to employers.
In addition to private w age and salary
workers, the self-employed, family members,
and Federal, State, and local governm ent
workers are covered by the program. To be
included in the fatality census, the decedent


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must have been employed (that is working
for pay, compensation, or profit) at the time
o f the event, engaged in a legal work activity,
or present at the site o f the incident as a re­
quirement o f his or her job.

Definition
A fa tal w ork in ju ry is any intentional or
u n in te n tio n a l w o u n d or d am age to th e
body resulting in death from acute expo­
sure to energy, such as heat or electricity,
or kinetic energy from a crash, or from the
absence o f such essentials as heat or oxy­
gen caused by a specific event or incident
or series o f events w ithin a single w ork­
day or shift. Fatalities th at occur during a
p erso n ’s com m ute to or from w ork are ex­
cluded from the census, as well as w orkrelated illn esses, w hich can be difficu lt
to identify due to long latency periods.

Notes on the data
T w enty-eight data elem ents are collected,
coded, and tabulated in the fatality pro­
gram , including inform ation about the fa­
tally injured w orker, the fatal incident, and
th e m a c h in e ry or e q u ip m e n t involved.
Sum m ary w orker dem ographic data and
event ch aracteristics are included in a n a­
tional new s release th a t is available about
8 m onths after the end o f the reference
year. The C ensus o f Fatal O ccupational
Injuries w as initiated in 1992 as a jo in t
F ed era l-S ta te effo rt. M o st S tates issue
sum m ary inform ation at th e tim e o f the
national new s release.
F or additional information on the
Census o f Fatal Occupational Injuries con­
tact the bls Office o f Safety, H ealth, and
W orking Conditions at (202) 691-6175, or
the Internet at:
http://www.bls.gov/iif/

Where to find additional data
Current and historical statistics from Bureau of Labor Statistics surveys are
available at the addresses listed on the inside back cover of this Review, or on
the Internet at

http://www.bls.gov

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

63

Current Labor Statistics:

Comparative Indicators

1. Labor market indicators
Selected indicators

001

2002

2000
IV

2001
I

II

2002
III

IV

1

II

III

IV

Employment data
Employment status of the civilian noninstitutionalized
population (household survey):1
Labor force participation rate..........................................
Employment-population ratio..........................................
Unemployment rate.......................................................
Men..........................................................................
16 to 24 years...........................................................
25 years and over......................................................
Women......................................................................
16 to 24 years...........................................................
25 years and over......................................................

66.9
63.8
4.8
4.8
11.4
3.6
4.7
9.7
3.7

66.6
62.7
5.8
5.9
12.8
4.7
5.6
11.1
4.6

67.1
64.4
4.0
4.0
9.6
2.9
4.0
8.4
3.0

67.2
64.4
4.2
4.2
10.6
3.1
4.1
8.7
3.3

66.9
63.9
4.5
4.6
11.2
3.4
4.3
9.2
3.4

66.8
63.6
4.8
4.9
11.5
3.7
4.8
10.0
3.7

66.9
63.1
5.6
5.7
12.7
4.4
5.5
10.6
4.4

66.5
62.8
5.6
5.7
12.9
4.5
5.5
11.0
4.4

66.7
62.8
5.9
6.0
12.8
4.9
5.8
11.2
4.8

66.6
62.8
5.7
5.9
13.3
4.6
5.5
10.8
4.3

66.5
62.5
5.9
6.1
12.4
4.9
5.7
11.4
4.6

Employment, nonfarm (payroll data), in thousands:1
Total............................................................................
Private sector.............................................................
Goods-producing.......................................................
Manufacturing........................................................
Service-producing......................................................

1,922
0,989
4,949
7,695
6,978

130,790
109,530
23,836
16,724
106,953

132,185
111,551
25,626
18,400
106,559

132,559
111,687
25,493
18,196
106,941

132,193
111,332
25,136
17,872
107,057

131,943
110,939
24,786
17,538
107,157

131,130
110,035
24,375
17,174
106,755

130,759
109,594
24,049
16,883
106,711

130,706
109,505
23,879
16,776
106,827

130,844
109,574
23,787
16,691
107,057

130,806
109,441
23,626
16,532
107,179

Average hours:
Private sector..............................................................
Manufacturing...........................................................
Overtime................................................................

34.4
40.7
3.9

34.4
40.9
4.1

34.3
41.1
4.4

34.3
41.0
4.1

34.2
40.8
3.9

34.1
40.7
3.9

34.1
40.5
3.8

34.2
40.8
4.0

34.2
41.0
4.2

34.1
40.8
4.1

34.2
40.7
4.1

4.1
4.2

3.4
3.2

.7
.7

1.3
1.4

.9
1.0

1.2
.9

.8
.8

1.0
1.1

.9
1.1

.9
.6

.6
.4

Employment Cost Index2
Percent change in the ECI, compensation:
All workers (excluding farm, household and Federal workers).
Private industry workers.................................................
Goods-producing3....................................................

3.8

3.7

.6

1.3

.9

.7

.8

1.2

.9

.6

Service-producing3...................................................
State and local government workers................................

.9

4.3
4.2

3.1
4.1

.7
.7

1.4
.9

1.0
.6

1.0
2.1

.8
.6

1.1
.6

1.2
.4

.6
2.2

.2
.9

Workers by bargaining status (private industry):
Union...........................................................................
Nonunion..................................... .................................

4.2
4.1

4.2
3.2

.5
.7

.7
1.5

1.1
1.0

1.0
.9

1.4
.7

1.1
1.1

1.0
1.1

1.2
.5

.9
.4

1 Quarterly data seasonally adjusted.
2 Annual changes are December-to-December changes. Quarterly changes are calculated using the last month of each quarter.
3 Goods-producing industries include mining, construction, and manufacturing. Service-producing industries include all other private sector industries.

64

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2003

2. Annual and quarterly percent changes in compensation, prices, and productivity
Selected measures

2001

2000

2002

2002

2001

IV

1

II

III

IV

II

I

III

IV

Compensation data1'2
Employment Cost Index—compensation (wages,
salaries, benefits):
Civilian nonfarm............................................................
Private nonfarm.........................................................
Employment Cost Index—wages and salaries:
Private nonfarm.........................................................

4.1
4.2

-

0.7
.7

1.3
1.4

0.9
1.0

1.2
.9

0.8
.8

1.0
1.1

0.9
1.1

0.9
.6

0.6
.4

3.7
3.8

-

.6
.6

1.1
1,2

.9
1.0

1.0
.8

.7
.8

.9
.9

.8
1.0

.7
.4

.4
.3

3.4

1.2

.2

1.3

1.0

.2

-.9

.7

.5

.6

-.2

-1.8
-2.4
1.0
-.2
-8.8

-1.2
-1.6
-.4
-1.2
-10.6

.4
.1
1.1
-.3
9.4

.9
1.2
-.1
.2
-3.5

.8
1.0
-7.1
.6
-6.6

-.3
-.3
-.1
-1.0
-12.0

-3.2
—4.3
.1
-3.6
-12.2

1.1
1.5
2.9
.9
8.0

.2
.4
-.3
1.1
37.1

.2
.0
-.7
1.1
1.9

-.5
-.3
-.5
-.3
1.9

1.1
1.1
1.4

-

2.1
1.7
-.7

-1.5
-1.5
-2.6

-.2
-.1
2.2

1.8
2.1
3.2

7.6
7.3
10.8

8.3
8.6
4.6

1.8
1.7
5.0

5.4
5.1
5.7

-

Price data1
Consumer Price Index (All Urban Consumers): All Items.....
Producer Price Index:
Finished goods...............................................................
Capital equipment........................................................
Intermediate materials, supplies, and components............
Crude materials...............................................................
Productivity data3
Output per hour of all persons:
Business sector..............................................................
Nonfarm business sector.................................................
Nonfinancial corporations4...............................................

1 Annual changes are December-to-December changes. Quarterly changes are
calculated using the last month of each quarter. Compensation and price data are not
seasonally adjusted, and the price data are not compounded.
2 Excludes Federal and private household workers.

3 Annual rates of change are computed by comparing annual averages.
Quarterly percent changes reflect annual rates of change in quarterly indexes.
The data are seasonally adjusted.
4 Output per hour of all employees.
NOTE: Dash indicates data not available.

3. Alternative measures of w age and compensation changes
Quarterly average
Components

2001
IV

Average hourly compensation:1
All persons, business sector...................................................

Four quarters ending

2002
I

II

2001
III

IV

IV

2002
I

II

III

IV

1.4
1.5

3.0
2.9

4.2
3.9

5.3
4.9

-

1.5
1.4

1.4
1.4

2.4
2.3

3.5
3.3

-

.8
.8
1.4
.7
.6

1.0
1.1
1.1
1.1
.6

.9
1.1
1.0
1.1
.4

.9
.6
1.2
.5
2.2

.6
.4
.9
.4
.9

4.1
4.2
4.2
4.1
4.2

3.9
3.9
4.7
3.8
3.9

4.0
4.0
4.5
3.9
3.6

3.7
3.7
4.7
3.5
3.8

3.4
3.2
4.2
3.2
4.1

.7
.8
1.6
.7
.5

.9
.9
.7
1.0
.5

.8
1.0
.9
1.0
.3

.7
.4
1.0
.4
1.8

.4
.3
.8
.3
.6

3.7
3.8
4.4
3.6
3.6

3.5
3.5
4.4
3.4
3.4

3.5
3.6
4.2
3.5
3.2

3.2
3.2
4.3
3.1
3.1

2.9
2.7
3.5
2.7
3.2

Employment Cost Index—compensation:
Civilian nonfarm2....................................................................
Union................................................................................
Nonunion..........................................................................
State and local governments.................................................
Employment Cost Index—wages and salaries:
Civilian nonfarm2....................................................................
Union................................................................................
Nonunion..........................................................................
State and local governments.................................................

1 Seasonally adjusted. "Quarterly average” is percent change from a quarter ago, at an annual rate.
2 Excludes Federal and household workers.


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Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

65

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

4. Employment status of the population, by sex, age, race, and Hispanic origin, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status

Annual average
2001

2002

TOTAL
Civilian noninstitutional
population1..................... 211,864 213,977
Civilian labor force........... 141,815 142,535
Participation rate.......
66.9
66.6
Employed.................... 135,073 134,269
Employment-pop63.8
62.7
ulatlon ratio2...........
6,742
Unemployed................
8,266
Unemployment rate....
4.8
5.8
Not in the labor force...... 70,050
71,442

2001
Dec.

2002
Jan.

212,927 213,089
142,314 141,390
66.4
66.8
134,055 133,468

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

213,206 213,334 213,492 213,658
142,211 142,005 142,570 142,769
66.7
66.6
66.8
66.8
134,319 133,894 133,976 134,417

June

213,842
142,476
66.6
134,053

July

Aug.

214,023 214,225
142,390 142,616
66.5
66.6
134,045 134,474

Sept.

Oct.

214,429 214,643
143,277 143,123
66.7
66.8
135,185 134,914

Nov.

Dec.

214,819 214,968
142,733 144,542
66.4
66.3
134,225 133,952

63.0
8,259
5.8
70,613

62.6
7,922
5.6
71,699

63.0
7,891
5.5
70,995

62.8
8,111
5.7
71,329

62.8
8,594
6.0
70,922

62.9
8,351
5.8
70,889

62.7
8,424
5.9
71,366

62.6
8,345
5.9
71,633

62.8
8,142
5.7
71,609

63.0
8,092
5.6
71,152

62.9
8,209
5.7
71,519

62.5
8,508
6.0
72,087

62.3
8,590
6.0
-

M e n , 20 y e a rs a n d o v e r

Civilian noninstitutional
population1.....................
Civilian labor force...........
Participation rate.......
Employed....................
Employment-populatlon ratio2..........
Agriculture................
Nonagricultural
industries...............
Unemployed................
Unemployment rate....

93,659
71,590
76.4
68,587

94,675
72,127
762
68,312

94,161
71,988
76.5
68,276

94,228
71,534
75.9
67,818

94,262
71,718
76.1
68,157

94,315
71,723
76.0
68,013

94,414
72,098
76.4
68,193

94,479
72,428
76.7
68,647

94,622
72,288
76.4
68,390

94,694
72,172
76.2
68,405

94,756
72,203
76.2
68,447

94,906
72,473
76.4
68,711

95,020
72,342
76.1
68,545

95,158
72,185
75.9
68,099

95,251
72,067
75.7
68,035

73.2
2,102

72.2
2,230

72.5
2,141

72.0
2,207

72.3
2,185

72.1
2,084

72.2
2,213

72.7
2,125

72.3
2,138

72.2
2,256

722
2,221

72.4
2,226

72.1
2,432

71.6
2,337

71.4
2,312

66,485
3,003
4.2

66,083
3,815
5.3

66,135
3,712
5.2

65,611
3,716
52

65,973
3,560
5.0

65,929
3,710
5.2

65,980
3,905
5.4

66,522
3,781
5.2

66,251
3,899
5.4

66,149
3,767
5.2

66,226
3,757
5.2

66,485
3,762
5.2

66,114
3,796
5.2

65,761
4,087
5.7

65,723
4,032
5.6

102,060
62,148
60.9
59,596

103,079
62,684
60.8
59,503

102,492
62,481
61.0
59,205

102,550
62,056
60.5
59,102

102,651
62,703
61.1
59,588

102,728
62,320
60.7
59,227

102,847
62,724
61.0
59,333

102,936
62,597
60.8
59,337

103,038
62,481
60.6
59,316

103,127
62,590
60.7
59,364

103,256
62,783
60.8
59,710

103,335
62,929
60.9
59,835

103,416
63,045
61.0
59,764

103,499
62,906
60.8
59,765

103,572
63,005
60.8
59,652

58.4
817

57.7
803

57.8
859

57.6
824

58.0
829

57.7
804

57.7
732

57.6
760

57.6
749

57.6
814

57.8
772

57.9
845

57.8
865

57.7
832

57.6
808

58,779
2,551
4.1

58,702
3,179
5.1

58,346
3,276
5.2

58,277
2,954
4.8

58,759
3,116
5.0

58,423
3,093
5.0

58,602
3,391
5.4

58,577
3,260
5.2

58,567
3,165
5.1

58,550
3,226
5.2

58,938
3,073
4.9

58,991
3,094
4.9

58,899
3,281
5.2

58,933
3,140
5.0

58,844
3,353
5.3

16,146
8,077
50.0
6,889

16,222
7,724
47.6
6,452

16,275
7,845
48.2
6,574

16,310
7,800
47.8
6,548

16,293
7,790
47.8
6,575

16,292
7,962
48.9
6,655

16,231
7,748
47.7
6,450

16,243
7,744
47.7
6,434

16,182
7,707
47.6
6,347

16,202
7,629
47.1
6,276

16,212
7,630
47.1
6,318

16,189
7,874
48.6
6,639

16,206
7,737
47.7
6,609

16,163
7,642
47.3
6,361

16,144
7,470
46.3
6,265

42.7
225

29.8
216

40.4
246

40.1
241

40.4
233

40.8
239

39.7
209

39.6
213

39.2
223

38.7
213

39.0
196

41.0
227

40.8
229

39.4
188

38.8
191

6,664
1,187
14.7

6,236
1,272
16.5

6,328
1,271
16.2

6,307
1,252
16.1

6,342
1,215
15.6

6,416
1,308
16.4

6,240
1,298
16.8

6,221
1,310
16.9

6,124
1,360
17.6

6,064
1,352
17.7

6,122
1,312
172

6,411
1,236
15.7

6,376
1,131
14.6

6,173
1,282
16.8

6,074
1,205
16.1

177,314
118,569
66.9
112,511

176,607
118,403
67.0
112,388

176,713
117,759
66.6
111,876

176,783
118,472
67.0
112,632

176,866
118,159
66.8
112,286

176,972
118,661
67.1
112,426

177,087
118,742
67.1
112,563

177,217
118,530
66.9
112,382

177,345
118,678
66.9
112,446

177,486
118,919
67.0
112,844

177,628
119,021
67.0
113,010

177,777
118,969
66.9
112,882

177,896
118,710
66.7
112,562

177,992
118,251
66.4
112,165

63.5
6,058
5.1

63.6
6,015
5.1

63.3
5,883
5.0

63.7
5,840
4.9

63.5
5,873
5.0

63.5
6,236
5.3

63.6
6,179
5.2

63.4
6,148
5.2

63.4
6,233
5.3

63.6
6,075
5.1

63.6
6,011
5.1

63.5
6,087
5.1

63.3
6,149
5.2

63.0
6,086
5.1

25,559
16,719
65.4
15,270

25,957
16,833
64.9
15,106

25,752
16,833
65.4
15,122

25,785
16,769
65.0
15,119

25,813
16,747
64.9
15,131

25,839
16,758
64.9
14,969

25,868
16,941
65.5
15,045

25,898
16,887
65.2
15,168

25,930
16,822
64.9
15,027

25,961
16,618
64.0
14,976

26,000
16,753
64.4
15,142

26,039
17,053
65.5
15,420

26,081
16,940
65.0
15,275

26,116
16,820
64.4
14,974

26,148
16,958
64.9
15,006

59.7
1,450
8.7

58.2
1,727
10.3

58.7
1,711
10.2

58.6
1,650
9.8

58.6
1,616
9.6

57.9
1,789
10.7

58.2
1,896
11.2

58.6
1,718
10.2

58.0
1,794
10.7

57.7
1,642
9.9

58.2
1,611
9.6

59.2
1,633
9.6

58.6
1,665
9.8

57.3
1,846
11.0

57.4
1,952
11.5

W o m e n , 2 0 y e a rs a n d o v e r

Civilian noninstitutional
Civilian labor force...........
Participation rate.......
Employed....................
Employment-populatlon ratio2..........
Agriculture................
Nonagricultural
industries...............
Unemployment rate....
B o th s e x e s , 1 6 to 1 9 y e a rs

Civilian noninstitutional
population1.....................
Civilian labor force...........
Participation rate.......
Employed....................
Employment-popAgriculture................
Nonagricultural
industries..............
Unemployed................
Unemployment rate....
W h it e

Civilian noninstitutional
population1..................... 175,888
Civilian labor force........... 118,144
Participation rate.......
67.2
Employed.................... 113,220
Employment-pop64.4
Unemployed................
4,923
Unemployment rate....
4.2
B la c k

Civilian noninstitutional
population1.....................
Civilian labor force...........
Participation rate.......
Employed....................
Employment-population ratio2...........
Unemployed................
Unemployment rate....
See footnotes at end of table.

66

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2003

4. Continued—Employment status of the population, by sex, age, race, and Hispanic origin, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status

Annual average

2002

2001

2001

2002

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov

Dec.

23,122
15,751
68.1
14,714

23,898
16,169
67.7
14,946

23,478
16,013
68.2
14,753

23,542
15,988
67.9
14,700

23,604
16,011
67.8
14,867

23,664
15,908
67.2
14,743

23,732
16,156
68.1
14,877

23,797
16,085
67.6
14,963

23,867
16,146
67.6
14,959

23,935
16,304
68.1
15,066

23,999
16,240
67.7
15,014

24,065
16,294
67.7
15,095

24,129
16,216
67.2
14,952

24,194
16,347
67.6
15,076

24,255
16,261
67.0
14,976

63.6
1,037
6.6

62.5
1,223
7.6

62.8
1,260
7.9

62.4
1,288
8.1

63.0
1,143
7.1

62.3
1,165
7.3

62.7
1,279
7.9

62.9
1,122
7.0

62.7
1,187
7.4

62.9
1,238
7.6

62.6
1,225
7.5

62.7
1,198
7.4

62.0
1,264
7.8

62.3
1,271
7.8

61.7
1,285
7.9

H is p a n ic o rig in

Civilian noninstitutional
population1.....................
Civilian labor force...........
Participation rate.......
Employed....................
Employment-popUnemployed................
Unemployment rate....

1 The population figures are not seasonally adjusted.
2 Civilian employment as a percent of the civilian noninstitutional population.

NOTE: Detail for the above race and Hispanic-origin groups will not sum to totals
because data for the "other races" groups are not presented and Hispanics are included
in both the white and black population groups.

5. Selected employment indicators, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
Selected categories

Annual average

2002

2001

2002

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

134,269
71,530
62,739

134,055
71,577
62,478

133,468
71,114
62,354

134,319
71,457
62,862

133,894
71,299
62,595

133,976
71,397
62,579

134,417
71,894
62,524

134,053
71,524
62,528

134,045
71,509
62,536

134,474
71,552
62,922

135,185
72,004
63,181

134,914
71,854
63,061

134,225
71,348
62,877

133,952
71,173
62,779

43,208

42,772

42,823

43,275

43,317

43,167

43,548

43,140

43,273

43,371

43,225

43,376

43,172

43,064

33,554

33,209

33,174

33,703

33,552

33,446

33,371

33,362

33,361

33,723

33,997

33,773

33,669

33,544

8,403

8,458

8,396

8,417

8,320

8,266

8,397

8,465

8,521

8,419

8,357

8,377

8,361

8,493

1,884
1,233
27

1,971
1,245
32

1,879
1,313
27

1,917
1,311
49

1,930
1,293
21

1,825
1,264
29

1,896
1,216
34

1,911
1,156
40

1,909
1,158
29

2,031
1,227
27

1,927
1,231
24

2,054
1,221
25

2,186
1,322
34

2,038
1,293
42

2,003
1,272
42

123,235
19,127
104,108
803
103,305
8,594
101

122,523
19,421
103,102
817
102,285
8,405
93

122,196
19,183
103,013
736
102,277
8,524
92

122,145
19,047
103,098
725
102,373
8,213
97

122,770
19,286
103,485
709
102,775
8,257
86

122,545
19,218
103,327
677
102,650
8,200
89

122,366 123,071
19,347
19,811
103,019 103,260
791
775
102,228 102,485
8,234
8,305
103
105

122,627
19,630
102,997
810
102,187
8,208
95

122,196
19,709
102,486
855
101,631
8,268
99

122,885 123,327
19,596
19,442
103,289 103,885
934
887
102,402 102,951
8,368
8,439
87
91

122,653
19,423
103,230
902
102,328
8,582
94

121,856
18,384
102,472
931
101,541
8,910
98

121,826
19,207
102,618
783
101,836
8,801
71

3,672

4,130

4,267

3,973

4,228

3,997

4,151

3,996

3,899

4,177

4,325

4,217

4,262

4,155

4,086

2,355

2,724

2,809

2,549

2,755

2,721

2,690

2,626

2,588

2,723

2,880

2,687

2,908

2,715

2,767

1,007

1,111

1,161

1,089

1,120

1,021

1,131

1,064

1,031

1,096

1,159

1,202

1,130

1,190

1,096

18,707

18,700

18,540

18,291

18,395

18,530

18,793

18,887

19,170

19,138

19,120

18,833

18,484

18,548

18,270

3,529

3,959

4,119

3,781

3,998

3,848

4,009

3,818

3,758

3,949

4,060

4,068

4,148

4,032

3,928

2,266

2,612

2,717

2,448

2,615

2,605

2,587

2,515

2,472

2,609

2,715

2,596

2,834

2,631

2,657

1,131

1,174

1,097

1,158

1,068

18,609

18,300

17,884

17,990

17,737

2001

C h a r a c te r is tic

Employed, 16 years and over... 135,073
Men................................ 72,080
Women...........................
62,992
Married men, spouse
present.......................... 43,243
Married women, spouse
present..........................
33,613
Women who maintain
8,364
families..........................
C la s s o f w o rk e r

Agriculture:
Wage and salary workers....
Self-employed workers......
Unpaid family workers.......
Nonagricultural industries:
Wage and salary workers....
Government.....................
Private households......
Other.........................
Self-employed workers.....
Unpaid family workers......
P e rs o n s a t w o r k p a rt tim e 1

All industries:
Part time for economic
reasons.........................
Slack work or business
conditions..................
Could only find part-time
work..........................
Part time for noneconomic
reasons........................
Nonagricultural industries:
Part time for economic
reasons.........................
Slack work or business
conditions...................
Could only find part-time

1,074
1,022
1,122
1,033
1,087
1,068
1,089
1,001
1,138
989
Part time for noneconomic
18,572
18,004 18,274 18,350
18,739
17.717
18.174
17,960
18,177
17,886
reasons........................
1 Excludes persons "with a job but not at work" during the survey period for such reasons as vacation, illness, or industrial disputes.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

67

Current Labor Statistics:

6.

Labor Force Data

Selected unemployment indicators, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[Unemployment rates]
Annual average

Selected categories

2001

2002

2001

2002

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Characteristic
Total, 16 years and over.........................
Both sexes, 16 to 19 years..................
Men, 20 years and over......................
Women, 20 years and over.................

4.8
14.7
4.2
4.1

5.8
16.5
5.3
5.1

5.8
16.2
5.2
5.2

5.6
16.1
5.2
4.8

5.5
15.6
5.0
5.0

5.7
16.4
5.2
5.0

6.0
16.8
5.4
5.4

5.8
16.9
5.2
5.2

5.9
17.6
5.4
5.1

5.9
17.7
5.2
5.2

5.7
17.2
5.2
4.9

5.6
15.7
5.2
4.9

5.7
14.6
5.2
5.2

6.0
16.8
5.7
5.3

6.0
16.1
5.6
5.3

White, total........................................
Both sexes, 16 to 19 years.............
Men, 16 to 19 years....................
Women, 16 to 19 years................
Men, 20 years and over..................
Women, 20 years and over.............

12.7
12.7
13.8
11.4
3.7
3.6

14.5
14.5
15.9
13.0
4.7
4.4

5.1
13.7
14.6
12.8
4.6
4.5

5.0
14.2
13.7
14.6
4.7
4.2

4.9
14.0
15.4
12.6
4.4
4.4

5.0
14.5
16.3
12.7
4.5
4.3

5.3
14.0
15.4
12.5
4.8
4.6

5.2
14.8
15.4
14.2
4.8
4.5

5.2
15.6
17.7
13.4
4.7
4.4

5.3
16.4
19.1
13.6
4.8
4.4

5.1
14.8
17.5
12.1
4.7
4.3

5.1
13.8
15.3
12.3
4.7
4.3

5.1
13.7
14.4
13.0
4.7
4.5

5.2
14.6
15.8
13.3
5.0
4.2

5.1
13.6
14.6
12.5
4.9
4.4

Black, total........................................
Both sexes, 16 to 19 years.............
Men, 16 to 19 years.....................
Women, 16 to 19 years................
Men, 20 years and over..................
Women, 20 years and over.............

8.7
29.0
30.5
27.5
8.0
7.0

10.3
29.9
31.5
28.2
9.5
8.9

10.2
33.4
32.0
34.8
9.1
8.7

9.8
30.7
32.1
29.0
8.9
8.4

9.6
27.9
30.0
25.6
8.7
8.5

10.7
31.0
36.9
24.7
10.1
9.0

11.2
35.4
37.3
33.5
9.3
10.2

10.2
30.2
36.8
22.3
8.6
9.5

10.7
30.2
30.0
30.4
10.4
8.8

9.9
28.0
20.5
34.8
9.0
8.9

9.6
30.5
30.5
30.4
8.8
8.3

9.6
27.7
34.7
20.8
9.3
7.9

9.8
23.1
24.8
21.3
9.7
8.5

11.0
30.6
29.7
31.5
10.9
9.0

11.5
33.1
34.4
32.0
10.7
10.1

Hispanic origin, total........................

6.6

7.6

7.9

8.1

7.1

7.3

7.9

7.0

7.4

7.6

7.5

7.4

7.8

7.8

7.9

Married men, spouse present...........
Married women, spouse present.......
Women who maintain families..........
Full-time workers.............................
Part-time workers.............................

2.7
3.1
6.6
4.7
5.1

3.6
3.7
8.0
5.9
5.3

3.4
3.7
8.0
5.8
5.6

3.5
3.4
7.9
5.7
5.2

3.4
3.8
8.0
5.7
4.8

3.4
3.7
7.3
5.8
5.2

3.9
3.9
8.6
6.2
5.2

3.6
3.9
8.1
5.9
5.6

4.1
3.8
8.2
6.1
5.0

3.5
3.7
8.4
5.9
5.4

3.4
3.5
7.3
5.7
5.6

3.6
3.6
7.2
5.7
5.3

3.4
3.8
8.0
5.8
5.3

3.6
3.8
8.3
6.1
5.1

3.6
3.8
8.7
6.1
5.4

5.0
4.7
7.3
5.2
5.3
5.1
4.1
5.6
2.8
4.6
2.2
9.7

6.2
6.2
9.3
6.7
7.0
6.1
5.5
6.9
3.2
5.6
2.5
9.1

6.2
6.1
8.9
6.8
7.2
6.1
6.1
7.1
3.0
5.5
2.4
9.6

5.9
5.9
9.4
6.6
7.0
5.9
6.2
6.3
2.2
5.4
2.3
10.3

6.0
4.5
7.9
6.7
7.5
5.5
5.8
6.5
2.8
5.5
2.7
9.5

6.1
6.3
8.8
7.0
7.5
6.3
5.4
6.5
3.1
5.4
2.8
12.4

6.5
6.0
9.3
7.2
7.6
6.6
6.1
7.2
3.2
5.8
2.5
9.0

6.3
4.4
8.9
6.7
6.3
7.5
5.7
7.0
4.0
5.6
2.6
9.1

6.3
7.9
9.1
6.8
7.3
6.1
5.9
6.6
4.1
5.9
2.3
8.3

6.2
3.8
10.3
6.3
6.8
5.6
5.3
6.8
3.7
5.8
2.5
9.7

6.0
6.0
9.5
6.3
6.5
5.9
4.8
6.8
3.1
5.4
2.4
9.8

6.0
8.0
9.3
6.5
6.9
5.9
5.0
6.9
3.1
5.1
2.7
8.8

6.2
5.2
9.9
6.4
6.5
6.2
5.2
7.3
3.0
5.4
2.8
6.7

6.3
7.6
9.3
6.6
7.0
6.1
5.6
7.5
3.2
5.4
2.5
8.7

6.5
8.8
10.4
6.8
7.2
6.1
5.4
7.0
3.6
5.9
2.6
7.3

7.3
4.2

8.5
5.3

8.8
4.9

8.1
5.2

8.3
5.3

8.0
5.4

9.0
5.7

8.5
5.6

7.9
5.6

8.7
5.1

8.4
5.1

7.8
5.0

8.8
4.8

9.2
5.2

9.5
5.4

3.3
2.3

4.5
2.9

4.3
3.1

4.2
2.9

4.1
2.9

4.3
2.7

4.7
3.0

4.9
2.9

4.7
2.9

4.4
2.9

4.3
2.7

4.7
2.9

4.4
3.1

4.7
2.9

5.0
3.0

Industry
Nonagricultural wage and salary
workers...............................................
Mining...............................................
Construction......................................
Manufacturing...................................
Durable goods................................
Nondurable goods..........................
Transportation and public utilities.......
Wholesale and retail trade..................
Finance, insurance, and real estate.....
Services............................................
Government workers.............................
Agricultural wage and salary workers......
Educational attainment*
Less than a high school diploma..............
High school graduates, no college...........
Some college, less than a bachelor's
degree.................................................
College graduates..................................
1 Data refer to persons 25 years and over.

7. Duration of unemployment, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Weeks of
unemployment

68

Annual average
2001

2002

2001

2002

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Less than 5 weeks.......................
5 to 14 weeks...............................
15 weeks and over.......................
15 to 26 weeks..........................
27 weeks and over....................

2,833
2,163
1,746
949
797

2,858
2,547
2,861
1,346
1,515

3,024
2,724
2,410
1,295
1,115

2,978
2,586
2,546
1,418
1,127

2,828
2,515
2,561
1,383
1,178

3,078
2,411
2,688
1,355
1,333

2,793
2,818
2,854
1,360
1,494

2,876
2,531
2,952
1,316
1,636

2,729
2,784
3,103
1,434
1,669

2,896
2,464
2,883
1,349
1,533

2,880
2,431
2,783
1,309
1,474

2,708
2,511
2,900
1,315
1,585

2,715
2,471
2,980
1,324
1,656

2,904
2,490
3,022
1,288
1,734

2,783
2,496
3,225
1,369
1,856

Mean duration, in weeks...............
Median duration, in weeks............

13.2
6.8

16.6
9.1

14.5
8.2

14.6
8.8

15.0
8.1

15.4
8.1

16.6
8.9

17.1
9.8

17.3
11.7

16.4
8.6

16.2
8.4

17.8
9.5

17.5
9.6

17.7
9.3

18.5
9.6

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2003

8.

Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[Numbers in thousands]
Reason for
unemployment
Job losers1 ...................................
On temporary layoff...................
Not on temporary layoff..............

New entrants................................

2002

2001

4,522
1,097
3,424
859
2,353
533

3,428
1,049
2,379
832
2,029
453

2002

2001

Annual average

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

4,492
1,107
3,385
908
2,361
495

4,354
1,124
3,231
879
2,191
479

4,326
1,106
3,220
877
2,268
485

4,270
1,066
3,204
862
2,471
557

June

Apr.

May

4,525
1,095
3,430
1,017
2,450
519

4,598
1,091
3,506
902
2,433
499

4,579
1,061
3,518
836
2,360
584

July

Aug.

Sept.

4,580
1,224
3,356
818
2,375
571

4,560
1,151
3,410
824
2,270
619

4,535
999
3,536
781
2,263
526

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

4,737
1,054
3,682
838
2,344
469

4,651
1,031
3,619
822
2,376
588

4,633
1,085
3,547
868

2,475
515

Percent of unemployed
Job losers1 ..................................

New entrants................................

50.8
15.6
35.3
12.3
30.1
6.7

54.7
13.3
41.4
10.4
28.5
6.5

54.4
13.4
41.0

2.4
.6

1.4
.3

54.4
13.9
40.5

55.1
14.2
40.9

53.2
12.9
40.3

52.3
13.1
39.3

1 1 .0

11.1

1 1 .0

1 0 .6

1 2 .0

28.6

27.7

28.5

30.3

28.8

6 .0

6.1

6.1

6 .8

6.1

3.2

3.2

3.1

3.0

3.0

.6

.6

.6

.6

.6

1.7
.4

1.7
.3

1.5
.3

1 .6

1.7
.4

3.2
.7
1.7
.4

54.5
12.9
41.6
10.7
28.9
5.9

54.8
12.7
42.1

3.2
.6

54.9
14.7
40.2
9.8
28.5

1 0 .0

56.0
12.3
43.6
9.6
27.9
6.5

55.1
13.9
41.2
1 0 .0

56.4

55.1

1 2 .6

1 2 .2

1 2 .8

43.9

41.8

27.9
5.6

42.9
9.7
28.2
7.0

3.2

1 0 .0

54.6

1 0 .2

29.2

6 .8

27.4
7.5

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.3

.6

.6

3.2
.5

3.3

.6

.6

.6

.6

1.7
.3

1.7
.4

1.7
.4

1 .6

1 .6

1 .6

1.7
.4

1.7
.4

May

June

28.2
7.0

6.1

Percent of civilian
labor force
Job losers1 ..................................

New entrants...............................
' Includes persons who completed temporary jobs.

9.

.3

.4

.4

Aug.

Sept.

.3

Unemployment rates by sex and age, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[Civilian workers]
Sex and age

Annual average

2000

2002

Dec.

2001

2002
Jan.

Feb.

Total, 16 years and over...............
16 to 24 years..........................
16 to 19 years.......................
16 to 17 years....................
18 to 19 years....................
20 to 24 years.......................
25 years and over....................
25 to 54 years....................
55 years and over...............

4.8
10.6
14.7
17.1
13.2
8.3
3,7
3.8
3.0

5.8
12.0
16.5
18.8
15.5
9.7
4.6
4.8
3.8

5.8
11.9
16.2
18.8
14.8
9.6
4.5
4.7
4.0

5.6
11.9
16.1
17.0
15.2
9.7
4.4
4.7
3.5

15.6
16.5
14.7
9.5
4.5
4.6
3.8

Men, 16 years and over..............
16 to 24 years........................
16 to 19 years.....................
16 to 17 years...................
18 to 19 years...................
20 to 24 years.....................
25 years and over...................
25 to 54 years...................
55 years and over.............

4.8
11.4
15.9
18.8
14.1
8.9
3.6
3.7
3.3

5.9
12.8
18.0
21.1
16.3
10.2
4.7
4.8
4.1

5.8
12.8
172
20.0
15.6
10.5
4.5
4.5
4.2

5.8
12.5
16.3
17.6
15.1

5.6
12.4
16.8
19.6
15.4

10.6

10.2

4.5
4.7
3.8

4.4
4.5
4.1

Women, 16 years and over..........
16 to 24 years........................
16 to 19 years.....................
16 to 17 years...................
18 to 19 years..................
20 to 24 years.....................
25 years and over...................
25 to 54 years...................
55 years and over.............

4.7
9.7
13.4
15.3
12.2
7.5
3.7
3.8
2.7

5.6

5.8
11.0
15.1
17.6
14.0
8.7
4.6
4.8
3.7

5.4
11.3
15.8
16.4
15.2
8.7
4.3
4.6
3.0

5.5
10.7
14.3
13.6
13.9
8.7
4.6
4.7
3.5


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

11.1

14.8
16.6
13.8
9.1
4.6
4.8
3.6

5.5
11.6

Mar.
5.7
12.5
16.4
18.0
15.1
10.3
4.5
4.7
3.5
5.9
13.7
18.5
2 0 .8

16.7
11.1

4.5
4.7
3.6

Apr.
6.0

12.3
16.8
19.4
15.1
1 0.0

4.9
5.0
4.0
6.1

13.0
18.1
19.6
172
10.3
4.8
4.9
4.3

5.5

6.0

11.2

11.6

14.3
15.3
13.4
9.4
4.4
4.6
3.4

15.4
19.2
12.9
9.6
5.0
5.1
3.7

5.8
11.6

16.9
20.7
14.8
8.9
4.8
5.0
4.2

5.9
122

17.6
2 0 .8

15.6
9.3
4.8
4.9
42

July
5.9
12.3
17.7
20.9
16.1
9.5
4.6
4.8
3.7

Oct.

Nov.

5.7

5.6

5.6

12.2

1 1 .8

1 1 .8

1 2 .2

172
19.7
16.0
9.6
4.5
4.6
4.0

15.7
19.3
13.6
9.7
4.5
4.6
3.7

15.7
19.3
13.6
9.7
4.5
4.6
3.8

16.8
19.4
15.3
9.8
4.8
5.0
3.5

5.9
13.2
17.8
21.5
15.9

5.8

6.3
12.7
17.7

5.9
12.5
18.6
23.7
15.6
9.4
4.8
4.9
4.5

6.1

6 .0

6.0

12.9
19.6
232
17.4
9.5
4.9
5.0
4.6

13.0
19.8
23.9
17.4
9.6
4.7
4.8
4.0

13.7

5.8
10.7
15.2
17.4
14.1
8.3
4.8
5.1
3.7

5.7
11.4
15.6
18.3
13.7
9.1
4.6
4.8
3.8

20.1

24.5
17.8
10.5
4.6
4.7
4.1

5.7

5.4

11.6

10.6

15.6
17.9
14.8
9.4
4.6
4.8
3.4

14.2
15.1
14.1
8.7
4.5
4.6
3.8

Monthly Labor Review

1 0 .8

4.5
4.7
3.9
5.4
10.3
13.5
17.2
11.1

8.5
4.5
4.6
3.5

1 2 .2

15.6
17.5
14.5
10.4
4.6
4.8
3.8
5.7
11.3
13.6
14.7
13.3
10.1

4.6
4.8
3.8

6 .0

Dec.
6 .0

11.9
16.1
17.5
15.4
9.7
4.9
5.0
4.3
6 .2

15.7

12.4
17.1
18.1
16.7

1 0.2

1 0.0

5.1
5.3
3.9

5.1
5.2
4.4

5.6

5.9
11.3
15.1
16.8
14.1
9.3
4.6
4.9
4.2

21.1

1 1 .6

15.8
17.6
14.8
9.3
4.4
4.7
3.1

February 2003

69

Current Labor Statistics:

10.

Labor Force Data

Unemployment rates by State, seasonally adjusted
Nov
2001

State
Alabama................
Alaska...................
Arizona.................
Arkansas...............
California...............

Oct.

Nov

2002p

2002p

5.9

5.6

6.1

6 .8

5.6
5.4
6.1

5.7
5.1
6.5

Colorado...............
Connecticut...........
Delaware...............
District of Columbia.
Florida...................

4.9
3.9
3.3

5.2
4.2
3.9

6 .8

6.1

5.6

5.2

Georgia.................
Hawaii...................
Idaho.....................
Illinois....................
Indiana..................

4.5
5.7
5.3
5.9
5.1

4.6
4.0
5.4

Iowa......................
Kansas..................
Kentucky...............
Louisiana...............
Maine....................

3.7
4.5

6.1

Nov.
2002p

5.0
4.6
3.3
6.7
4.0

4.9
4.3
3.2
45
48

5.1
4.4
3.3
46
47

5.2 New Jersey...........................................
4.4 New Mexico..........................................
4.1 New York.............................................
6.1
North Carolina......................................
5.2 North Dakota.........................................

4.8
5.1
5.6
6.5
2.9

5.5
59
5.8

5 .9

6 .0

6 .2

3.6

3.4

5.0

4.7
3.9
5.8
6.7
4.9

Ohio.....................................................
Oklahoma............................................
Oregon.................................................
Pennsylvania.........................................
Rhode Island........................................

4.7
4.4
7.7
5.0
4.9

5.6
4.1
7.0
5.3
5.2

5.5
4.3
7.1
5.6
5.1

4.1
4.6
4.9
5.8
4.1

3.9 South Carolina......................................
4.6 South Dakota........................................
5.1 Tennessee............................................
6 .2 Texas...................................................
4.4 Utah.....................................................

5.9
3.6
4.8
5.6
5.2

5.6
2.7
4.5

2 .8

3.9
5.3
5.7
4.0

4.1
5.1
5.7
4.0

6 .8

6 .8

4.2
4.5
7.2
4.6
4.9
4.1

6.5
4.3

3.9
6.3

Oct.
2002p

6 .8

6 .8

4.4
4.4

Nov.
2001

5.8 Missouri
Montana...............................................
5.8 Nebraska..............................................
5.0 Nevada................................................
6.5 New Hampshire....................................

6.1

Maryland................
Massachusetts.......
Michigan................
Minnesota..............
Mississippi.............

State

Vermont...............................................
Virginia.................................................
Washington...........................................
West Virginia.........................................
Wisconsin.............................................
Wyoming..............................................

5.6
6 .0

6.3

5.1

4.3
6.3
5.4

39
3.8
6.7

40
3.9
6.7

6 .2

6.1

6 .2

4.9
3.9

5.1
4.4

p = preliminary
Dash indicates data not available.

11.

Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by State, seasonally adjusted

[In thousands]
Nov.
2001

Oct.

Nov.

2002p

2002p

Alabama................
Alaska...................
Arizona..................
Arkansas...............
California...............

1,910.8
291.4
2,252.6
1,149.9
14,644.2

1,892.8
295.0
2,251.1
1,149.9
14,657.5

1,891.3
295.9
2,260.3
1,149.4
14,645.8

Missouri...................................
Montana..................................
Nebraska..................................
Nevada....................................
New Hampshire........................

2,707.1
390.0
911.4
1,046.8
624.3

2,669.5
397.5
911.2
1,076.8
622.7

2,661.8
398.7
912.9
1,075.6
624.0

Colorado...............
Connecticut...........
Delaware...............
District of Columbia.
Florida...................

2,213.3
1,672.4
418.3
649.3
7,187.6

2,184.4
1,669.1
410.9
649.7
7,240.8

2,177.8
1,665.9
411.0
652.2
7,239.4

New Jersey...............................
New Mexico.............................
New York.................................
North Carolina..........................
North Dakota............................

4,020.0
757.4
8,574.5
3,882.6
330.9

4,009.7
763.0
8,538.1
3,887.2
329.9

4,013.5
765.7
8,531.0
3,879.4
330.3

Georgia.................
Hawaii...................
Idaho.....................
Illinois....................
Indiana..................

3,906.6
546.0
569.3
5,969.4
2,915.4

3,852.8
552.6
564.6
5,913.9
2,905.9

3,863.2
553.1
562.2
5,907.7
2,904.3

Ohio.........................................
Oklahoma................................
Oregon.....................................
Pennsylvania............................
Rhode Island............................

5,539.6
1,516.0
1,582.4
5,666.5
477.6

5,504.3
1,520.1
1,585.4
5,638.9
481.5

5,503.7
1,521.9
1,585.2
5,638.4
482.5

Iowa......................
Kansas..................
Kentucky...............
Louisiana...............
Maine.....................

1,465.2
1,360.6
1,819.0
1,936.9
608.3

1,462.2
1,363.9
1,837.7
1,932.7
610.4

1,463.7
1,363.2
1,839.4
1,929.9
610.5

South Carolina..........................
South Dakota............................
Tennessee................................
Texas.......................................
Utah.........................................

1,834.8
377.8
2,706.3
9,449.6
1,075.6

1,834.8
376.5
2,696.1
9,411.4
1,063.8

1,832.8
376.0
2,699.0
9,410.6
1,062.7

Maryland................
Massachusetts.......
Michigan................
Minnesota..............
Mississippi.............

2,470.4
3,312.1
4,561.5
2,653.4
1,130.8

2,467.8
3,274.0
4,534.9
2,643.9
1,131.2

2,473.1
3,270.4
4,535.7
2,646.6
1,129.8

Vermont....................................
Virginia....................................
Washington...............................
West Virginia.............................
Wisconsin.................................
Wyoming..................................

297.7
3,504.9
2,667.8
733.6
2,816.0
246.2

298.5
3,500.1
2,635.7
726.3
2,838.9
246.6

298.3
3,499.1
2,641.8
726.8
2,842.6
247.7

State

State

Nov.
2001

p = preliminary. Dash indicates data not available.
NOTE: Some data in this table may differ from data published elsewhere because of the continual updating of the data base.


70 Monthly Labor Review
https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2003

Oct.

Nov.

2002p

2002p

12. Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by industry, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
Annual average
2001

131,922
P R IV A T E S E C T O R ...................... 110,989
24,944
G O O D S -P R O D U C IN G ......................
M i n i n g '...............................................
565
36
Metal mining.........................
338
Oil and gas extraction.............
Nonmetallic minerals,
111
except fuels........................
6,685
C o n s tr u c tio n .....................................
1,462
General building contractors....
Heavy construction, except
922
building..............................
4,300
Special trades contractors.......
17,695
M a n u fa c tu r in g ..................................
Production workers........... 11,933
10,636
D u ra b le g o o d s ..............................
7,126
Production workers...........
786
Lumber and wood products...
519
Furniture and fixtures............
Stone, clay, and glass
571
products...........................
656
Primary metal industries........
1,483
Fabricated metal products.....
Industrial machinery and
2 ,0 1 0
equipment........................
Computer and office
343
equipment......................
Electronic and other electrical
1,631
equipment........................
Electronic components and
661
accessories......................
1,760
Transportation equipment......
Motor vehicles and
947
equipment.......................
461
Aircraft and parts................
Instruments and related
830
products..........................
Miscellaneous manufacturing
380
industries..........................
7,059
N o n d u ra b le g o o d s ......................
4,808
Production workers...........
1,691
Food and kindred products....
34
Tobacco products................
478
Textile mill products..............
Apparel and other textile
566
products...........................
834
Paper and allied products......
1,490
Printing and publishing..........
1,022
Chemicals and allied products
126
Petroleum and coal products..
Rubber and miscellaneous
958
plastics products................
60
Leather and leather products..
S E R V IC E -P R O D U C IN G ................... 106,978
T O T A L ........................................

2002

2001

Dec.
130,793 130,890
109,531 109,768
23,836 24,261
557
565
32
33
339
334
2002

Jan.
130,871
109,734
24,130
568
33
342

Feb.
130,706
109,544
24,041
564
32
339

Mar.
130,701
109,505
23,975
560
32
336

June
May
130,680 130,702 130,736
109,495 109,496 109,525
23,905 23,870 23,861
564
558
555
32
32
32
334
333
339
Apr.

July
130,790
109,562
23,812
551
33
329

Aug.
130,913
109,624
23,801
555
32
333

Sept.
130,829
109,536
23,748
552
32
330

Oct.
130,898
109,549
23,688
552
32
331

Nov.p
130,817
109,453
23,631
551
32
332

Dec.p
130,661
109,299
23,557
554
32
336

112

112

110

110

6,555
1,462

6,634
1,459

6,615
1,459

6,597
1,458

6,593
1,462

6,541
1,452

6,541
1,454

6,549
1,454

6,519
1,445

6,556
1,450

6,556
1,469

6,544
1,475

109
6,543
1,480

108
6,546
1,475

900
4,194
16,725
11,217
9,907
6,587
767
491

924
4,251
17,062
11,437
10,166
6,753
770
494

919
4,237
16,947
11,362
10,070
6,690
771
492

914
4,225
16,880
11,305
10,023
6,653
771
491

908
4,223
16,822
11,264
9,976
6,625
769
491

901
4,188
16,800
11,250
9,976
6,620
767
497

908
4,179
16,758
11,245
9,963
6,619
770
494

910
4,185
16,757
11,236
9,944
6,603
767
495

899
4,175
16,742
11,247
9,922
6,609
766
495

898
4,198
16,690
9,889
6,591
768
495

898
4,189
16,640
11,164
9,832
6,539
764
488

893
4,176
16,592
11,134
9,800
6,522
764
488

885
4,178
16,537
11,088
9,757
6,487
761
486

880
4,191
16,457
22,032
9,700
6,447
759
480

554
592
1,418

558
617
1,437

555
607
1,427

551
601
1,425

550
596
1,422

551
598
1,425

549
597
1,428

552
593
1,425

554
589
1,428

557
589
1,418

558
586
1,412

557
582
1,409

556
582
1,400

553
579
1,392

1,824

1,887

1 ,8 6 8

1,855

1,846

1,842

1,826

1,829

1,826

1,810

1,801

1,797

1,790

1,780

304

322

317

315

315

313

308

304

301

296

296

295

293

291

1,443

1,437

1,428

1,426

1,408

1,392

1,381

2,368

1,360

111

111

111

111

111

111

1 1,212

111

111

1,419

1,499

1,478

1,459

1,445

558
1,667

595
1,709

582
1,680

571
1,682

566
1,674

566
1,671

567
1,675

566
1,679

563
1,661

555
1,675

550
1,661

544
1,659

536
1,648

531
1,639

912
410

920
449

902
437

913
427

915
419

912
416

914
416

920
411

905
409

918
407

912
400

914
396

909
392

900
392

804

822

818

816

813

811

807

805

803

799

798

793

792

789
369
6,775
4,585
1,689
36
422

33
441

370
6,846
4,639
1,685
34
440

371
6,824
4,630
1,689
33
436

372
6,808
4,626
1,687
34
434

371
6,813
4,633
1,691
34
432

374
6,820
4,638
1,687
35
429

370
6,801
4,621
1,683
38
427

372
6,808
4,625
1,694
37
426

370
6,792
4,612
1,690
37
426

374
6,780
4,601
1,687
36
422

531
621
1,428

527
620
1,419
1,010

522
612
1,405
1,008
125

525
612
1,406
1,008
126

524
613
1,401
1,006
125

516
612
1,403

1,011

520
612
1,407
1,006
125

126

510
614
1,401
1,006
125

509
613
1,400
1,007
126

506
608
1,394
1,007
125

372
6,818
4,630
1,689
35
432

373
6,896
4,684
1,685
34
448

374
6,877
4,672

372
6,857
4,652

1,6 8 6

1,686

34
444

521
615
1,410
1,008
125

537
624
1,444
126

536
622
1,437
1,008
126

927
56
106,957

930
56
106,629

7,065
4,497
234

6,773
4,317
229

480
1,848
192
1,266
15
462

126

126

523
615
1,413
1,008
125

928
56
106,741

924
56
106,665

929
56
106,726

927
55
106,775

928
55
106,832

929
55
106,875

936
56
106,978

929
555
107,112

927
57
107,081

926
57
107,210

925
55
107,186

917
53
207,104

6,856
4,332
233

6,850
4,343
235

6,837
4,341
234

6,814
4,330
233

6,799
4,330
230

6,793
4,328
228

6,790
4,334
229

6,780
4,328
227

6,765
4,323
228

6,725
4,293
226

6,727
4,300
225

6,721
4,300
225

4,274
224

472
1,826
190
1,162
15
423

481
1,827
188
1,159
15
429

481
1,824
188
1,171
15
429

479
1,826
187
1,171
15
429

478
1,819
186
1,172
15
427

476
1,830
190
1,162
15
427

475
1,827
193
1,165
15
425

472
1,829
193
1,172
15
424

471
1,834
192
1,167
15
422

466
1,827
190
1,176
15
421

469
1,816
189
1,160
15
418

471
1,826
189
1,156
15
418

467
1,829
192
1,151
15
421

465
1,828
191
1,128
15
423

2,570
1,716

2,456
1,614

2,524
1,679

2,507
1,660

2,496
1,652

2,484
1,643

2,469
1,628

2,465
1,626

2,456
1,615

2,452
1,608

2,442
1,597

2,432
1,588

2,427
1,584

2,421
1,583

2,412
1,576

R e ta il tr a d e .......................................

852
6,776
23,522

842
6,671
23,306

845
6,702
23,318

847
6,702
23,396

844
6,689
23,331

841
6,681
23,332

841
6,678
23,345

839
6,681
23,327

841
6,681
23,308

844
6,679
23,339

845
6,671
13,295

844
6,663
23,291

842
6,657
23,289

838
6,643
23,247

836
6,638
23,148

Building materials and garden
supplies............................
General merchandise stores....
Department stores...............

1,044
2,897
2,559

1,065
2 ,8 6 8

1,050
2,853
2,520

1,049
2,856
2,520

1,048
2,892
2,550

1,053
2,901
2,560

1,061
2,915
2,575

1,068
2,897
2,560

1,066
2,884
2,542

1,067
2,885
2,544

1,066
2,850
2,513

1,067
2,856
2,515

1,071
2,851
2,506

1,078
2,828
2,491

1,077
2,819
2,487

1 ,0 1 2

1 ,0 1 0

T r a n s p o r ta tio n a n d p u b lic
u t ilitie s ...........................................

Railroad transportation..........
Local and interurban
passenger transit...............
Trucking and warehousing....
Water transportation............
Transportation by air............
Pipelines, except natural gas..
Transportation services.......
Communications and public
Communications.................
Electric, gas, and sanitary

2,529

6 ,6 8 6

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

71

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

12. Continued—Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by industry, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]___________________
Industry

Annual average
2001

2002

2002
Dec.

2002
Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept

Oct.

Nov.p

Dec.p

3,541

3,394

3,430

3,421

3,402

3,392

3,392

3,397

3,394

3,388

3,392

3,392

3,380

3,382

3,364

2,425

2,438
1,131
1,163

2,436
1,133
1,187

2,430
1,134
1,172

2,426
1,131
1,175

2,429
1,129
1,170

2,434
1,133
1,169

2,432
1,128
1,173

2,437
1,127
1,178

2,443
1,130
1,177

2,438
1,131
1,171

2,438
1,131
1,174

2,430
1,128
1,172

2,419

1,189

2,432
1,130
1,174

1,141
8,256

1,151
8,143

1,156
8,190

1,138
8,238

1,143
8,161

1,143
8,154

1,141
8,152

1,146
8,130

1,148
8,121

1,153
8,144

1,154
8,125

1,153
8,129

1,156
8,140

1,165
8,129

1,176
8,063

3,118

3,079

3,038

3,069

3,083

3,088

3,085

3,086

3,090

3,087

3,088

3,085

3,073

3,063

3,056

7,712
3,800
2,053
1,434
256
720

7,760
3,828
2,076
1,448
263
772

7,748
3,818
2,070
1,444
261
752

7,748
3,819
2,070
1,450
262
755

7,745
3,812
2,072
1,446
263
754

7,740
3,809
2,074
1,447
264
753

7,743
3,813
2,075
1,446
264
756

7,732
3,813
2,073
1,446
264
756

7,733
3,819
2,071
1,444
264
762

7,737
3,819
2,073
1,445
263
767

7,745
3,822
2,075
1,448
263
773

7,773
3,837
2,078
1,450
264
783

7,803
3,853
2,080
1,452
263
797

7,807
3,854
2,082
1,451
261
801

7,814
3,860
2,079
1,449
261
809

769

718

734

729

726

722

723

723

723

718

714

714

713

709

709

257
2,369
1,595

261
2,370
1,582

262
2,372
1,594

259
2,372
1,594

260
2,376
1,593

260
2,375
1,591

259
2,374
1,989

261
2,369
1,583

263
2,366
1,579

261
2,365
1,576

260
2,366
1,574

262
2,366
1,577

263
2,371
1,578

262
2,373
1,578

263
2,374
1,577

773
1,544

788
1,562

778
1,557

783
1,557
40,901

3,080
2,761

1,811
1,282
9,207
1,018
3,070
2,758

3,107
2,795

2 ,8 8 8

787
1,548
41,152
862
1,801
1,285
9,332
1,023
3,205
2,902

41,215
862
1,795
1,282
9,325
1,034
3,196
2,875

792
1,557
41,347
863
1,788
1,285
9,395
1,041
3,257
2,925

789
1,570
41,336
874
1,782
1,287
9,330
1,042
3,188
2,869

793
1,579

10,908
865
1,811
1,290
9,231

785
1,556
41,025
857
1,796
1,286
9,312
1,027
3,175
2,857

789
1,553

41,183
867
1,798
1,286
9,305
1,031
3,169
2,852

784
1,556
40,963
872
1,811
1,289
9,237

786
1,550

40,970
849
1,870
1,269
9,572
1,016
3,446
3,084

778
1,558
40,883
865
1,805
1,284
9,265
1,025
3,107
2,782

41,385
874
1,791
1,288
9,324
1,041
3,178
2,865

795
1,580
41,404
880
1,792
1,283
9,309
1,045
3,152
2,838

797
1,580
41,456
878
1,808
1,291
9,303
1,043
3,170
2,861

2,225

2,195

2,219

2,213

2,208

2,198

2,190

2,190

2,191

2,193

2,191

2,190

2,196

2,195

2,187

1,257
374
583

1,263
377
583

1,259
376
574

1,262
376
581

1,262
379
574

1,260
377
572

1,261
377
574

1,262
375
578

1,265
378
581

1,266
379
584

1,266
377
588

1,266
378
595

1,262
378
591

1,263
378
590

1,266
376
584

Food stores.........................
Automotive dealers and
service stations..................
New and used car dealers....
Apparel and accessory stores..
Furniture and home furnishings
stores...............................
Eating and drinking places.....
Miscellaneous retail
establishments...................

1,121

1,1 2 2

1 174

F in a n c e , in s u ra n c e , a n d
re a l e s t a te ......................................

Finance...............................
Depository institutions..........
Commercial banks.............
Savings institutions............
Nondepository institutions.....
Security and commodity
brokers............................
Holding and other investment
offices..............................
Insurance............................
Insurance carriers................
Insurance agents, brokers,
and service.......................
Real estate..........................
S e r v ic e s 1..........................................

Agricultural services...............
Hotels and other lodging places
Personal services..................
Business services..................
Services to buildings............
Personnel supply services.....
Help supply services..........
Computer and data
processing services............
Auto repair services
and parking........................
Miscellaneous repair services....
Motion pictures......................
Amusement and recreation
services.............................

1,0 2 2

868

121

41,093
856
1,789
1,279
9,330
1,023
3,198

1,721

1,642

1,680

1,699

1,649

1,621

1,631

10,381

10,673

10,530

10,551

10,575

1,635
10,602

1,611

Health services......................
Offices and clinics of medical
doctors.............................
Nursing and personal care
facilities.............................
Hospitals.............................
Home health care services....
Legal services.......................
Educational services...............
Social services......................
Child day care services.........
Residential care...................
Museums and botanical and
zoological gardens...............
Membership organizations.......
Engineering and management
services.............................
Engineering and architectural
services.............................
Management and public
relations...........................

10,611

10,626

10,660

1,649
10,687

1,662
10,711

1,638
10,729

1,640
10,755

1,630
10,777

10,786

2 ,0 0 2

2,064

2,029

2,033

3,041

2,046

2,044

2,050

2,061

2,067

2,075

2,079

2,085

2,088

2,092

1,847
4,096
636
1,037
2,433
3,057
716
864

1,889
4,225
647
1,966
2,526
3,177
726
904

1,871
4,164
641
1,051
2,463
3,135
723
891

1,876
4,174
643
1,053
2,473
3,149
723
896

1,875
4,184
642
1,054
2,485
3,155
722
899

1,879
4,193
643
1,056
2,489
3,162
723
902

1,883
4,199
643
1,059
2,501
3,167
925
903

1 ,8 8 6

1,887
4,221
643
1,065
2,511
3,165
726
904

1,8 8 8

4,207
644
1,066
2,518
3,164
722
901

4,233
646
1,065
2,529
3,181
726
904

1,893
4,244
646
1,065
2,538
3,203
736
906

1,896
4,247
651
1,072
2,550
3,199
731
906

1,899
4,256
655
1,077
2,560
3,201
730
909

1,905
4,267
656
1,079
2,574
3,208
728
912

1,904
4,268
656
1,081
2,583
3,209
726
915

108
2,477

110

110

2,468

2,473

2,471

109
2,471

109
2,470

109
2,477

108
2,480

109
2,484

109
2,476

108
2,472

108
2,478

107
2,480

107
2,478

106
2,477

3,593

3,645

3,621

3,624

3,629

3,631

3,636

3,649

3,636

3,634

3,634

3,659

3,666

3,667

3,669

1,053

1,036

1,048

1,047

1,044

1,044

1,041

1,042

1,034

1,032

1,030

1,029

1,027

1,028

1,027

1,166

1,210

1,184

1,192

1,193

1,191

1,202

1,209

1,204

1,214

1,211

1,224

1,226

1,228

G o v e r n m e n t.......................................

20,933
2,616

21,260
2,620

2 1 ,1 2 2

21,137
2,615

21,162
2,609

21,196
2,608

21,185
2,611

21,206
2,600

2 1,211

2,616

2,601

21,228
2,607

21,289
2,611

21,293
2,621

21,349
2,649

21,364
2,661

1,230
21,362
2,665

1,767
1,803
4,885
4,947
2,096
2,147
2,789
2,800
13,432
13,694
7,646
7,799
5,786 I 5,895
Includes other industries not shown separately.

1,776
4,932
2,124
2,808
13,559
7,723
5,852

1,776
4,935
2,127
2,808
13,575
7,732
5,861

1,777
4,937
2,130
2,807
13,593
7,746
5,871

1,782
4,940
2,133
2,807
13,617
7,767
5,878

1,784
4,942
2,135
2,807
13,645
7,754
5,879

1,777
4,945
2,141
2,804
13,661
7,770
5,891

1,783
4,935
2,135
2,800
13,675
7,755
5,920

1,790
4,950
2,155
2,795
13,671
7,788
5,883

1,792
4,948
2,145
2,803
13,730
7,837
5,893

1,810
4,958
2,163
2,795
13,714
7,808
5,906

1,840
4,955
2,160
2,795
13,745
7,829
5,916

1,853
4,961
2,165
2,786
13,742
7,820
5,922

1,857
4,854
2,166
2,788
13,743
7,814
5,929

Federal................................
Federal, except Postal
Service.............................
State...................................
Education............................
Other State government........
Local....................................
Education............................
Other local government.........
1

110

p= preliminary.
NOTE: See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.


72 Monthly Labor Review
https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2003

1,650

13. Average weekly hours of production or nonsupervisory workers on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry, monthly
data seasonally adjusted_________________________ ______________ ____________________________________
Industry

Annual average
2001

PRIVATE SECTOR.............................

34.2

2002
24.1

2002

2001
Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Oct.

Sept

Nov.p Dec.p

34.1

34.1

34.2

34.2

34.2

34.2

34.3

34.0

34.1

34.2

34.2

34.2

34.1

40.4

40.5

40.4

40.3

40.5

40.0

40.3

40.3

40.1

39.9

40.2

43.4

43.3

42.4

43.0

43.3

42.7

43.3

42.8

42.7

43.0

42.3

41.1
4.3

40.7
4.0

40.9
4.2

40.8
4.1

40.7
4.1

40.6
4.0

40.9
4.2

GOODS-PRODUCING.............................

40.4

40.3

40.2

40.3

MINING.................................................

43.5

42.9

43.8

43.0

MANUFACTURING...............................
Overtime hours...............................

40.7
3.9

40.9
4.1

40.8
3.8

40.6
3.9

40.7
3.9

41.0
4.1

40.9
4.2

40.9
4.2

Durable goods....................................
Overtime hours..............................
Lumber and wood products..............
Furniture and fixtures.......................
Stone, clay, and glass products........
Primary metal industries...................
Blast furnaces and basic steel
products......................................

41.0
3.9
40.6
39.0
43.6
43.6

41.3
4.1
41.0
40.2
43.5
44.3

40.9
3.8
41.0
39.2
43.4
43.7

41.0
3.9
40.5
40.1
43.8
43.6

41.1
3.9
40.9
40.3
44.1
43.8

41.3
4.1
41.1
40.6
43.6
44.4

41.4
4.1
40.8
40.8
43.8
44.3

41.3
4.1
40.8
40.4
43.4
44.1

41.5
4.2
41.0
40.2
43.7
44.6

41.0
3.9
41.2
40.1
43.2
44.1

41.2
4.1
41.0
40.3
43.3
44.3

41.3
4.1
41.1
40.2
43.4
44.2

41.2
4.2
41.0
39.6
43.4
44.7

40.9
4.0
40.6
39.3
42.9
44.3

41.4
4.2
41.4
41.1
43.2
44.6

44.6
41.4

45.6
41.7

44.4
41.3

44.5
41.3

44.8
41.6

45.5
41.7

45.1
41.6

45.6
41.9

46.1
42.0

45.5
41.7

45.8
41.7

46.0
41.6

46.2
41.6

45.4
41.2

46.9
41.3

Industrial machinery and equipment...
Electronic and other electrical
equipment....................................
Transportation equipment.................
Motor vehicles and equipment........
Instruments and related products......

40.6

40.6

40.1

40.1

40.1

40.5

40.6

40.7

40.9

40.3

40.8

40.7

40.5

40.3

40.7

39.4
41.9
42.7
40.9
37.9

39.0
42.6
44.2
40.7
38.7

39.4
41.9
43.2
40.6
38.0

38.7
42.7
44.3
40.5
38.2

38.9
42.3
43.7
40.4
38.4

39.4
42.4
43.9
40.6
38.8

39.5
42.6
44.4
40.4
38.8

39.4
42.3
44.2
40.4
38.8

39.4
43.5
44.1
40.9
39.6

38.7
41.7
42.9
40.4
38.4

38.7
42.2
43.8
40.7
38.5

38.8
42.6
44.3
40.8
38.6

38.3
42.6
44.4
40.7
38.9

38.7
42.3
44.0
40.5
38.5

38.9
42.7
44.5
40.9
39.1

Nondurable goods.............................
Overtime hours..............................
Food and kindred products...............
Textile mill products.........................
Apparel and other textile products.....
Paper and allied products.................

40.3
4.0
41.1
39.9
37.3
41.6

40.3
4.2
41.2
41.2
36.9
41.6

40.1
3.9
40.9
40.0
36.9
41.3

40.0
4.0
41.0
40.2
36.7
41.1

40.2
3.9
41.0
40.9
36.7
41.5

40.4
4.2
41.4
41.4
37.4
41.5

40.3
4.3
41.2
41.5
37.1
41.6

40.4
4.3
41.2
41.4
37.0
41.9

40.6
4.3
41.6
41.5
37.0
41.6

40.2
4.2
41.0
41.6
36.8
41.2

40.5
4.2
41.3
41.8
36.8
41.7

40.2
4.0
40.8
41.2
36.9
41.4

40.1
4.1
40.8
41.9
36.6
41.3

40.2
4.0
41.1
40.9
36.6
41.5

40.3
4.2
41.4
41.2
36.6
41.8

38.1
42.3

37.5
42.2

37.8
41.9

37.3
41.9

37.4
41.9

37.5
42.0

37.2
41.8

37.5
42.3

37.7
42.5

37.3
42.1

37.7
42.6

37.5
42.4

37.4
42.2

37.2
42.2

37.7
42.0

40.7
36.3

41.0
36.8

40.8
36.9

40.5
37.0

40.9
37.2

41.1
37.3

41.6
37.5

41.2
36.7

41.3
36.8

41.0
36.7

41.2
35.7

40.8
35.6

40.9
36.3

40.7
37.0

40.8
37.4

R F R V IG F -P R O n i IC IN G ..................................

32.7

32.7

32.7

32.7

32.7

32.8

32.7

32.8

32.8

32.6

32.7

32.8

32.8

32.9

32.7

TRANSPORTATION AND
PUBLIC UTILITIES..........................

38.2

38.3

38.2

38.1

38.2

38.2

38.3

38.4

38.3

38.3

38.4

38.5

38.4

38.5

38.2

38.4

38.3

38.3

38.6

38.4

38.5

38.5

38.6

38.5

38.7

29.1

29.1

28.8

28.9

29.0

29.1

29.2

29.2

Chemicals and allied products.........
Rubber and miscellaneous
plastics products...........................

WHOI

FSALE

TRADE..........................

RETAIL TRADE...................................

38.2
28.9

38.4
29.0

38.3
28.9

38.2
28.9

38.3
29.0

29.1 I

29.0

p = preliminary.
NOTE: See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

73

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

14. Average hourly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry,
seasonally adjusted
Industry
P R IV A T E S E C T O R (in c u r r e n t d o lla rs )..
G o o d s -p r o d u c in g .........................................

Mining....................................
Construction...................................
Manufacturing................................
Excluding overtime......................
S e r v ic e -p r o d u c in g ........................................

Transportation and public utilities.....
Wholesale trade.............................
Retail trade...................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate....
Services......................................

Annual average

2001

2002

2001

2002

$14.32

$14.77 $14.56 $14.58

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.p

Dec.p

$14.61

$14.64

$14.66

$14.69

$14.74

$14.76

$14.83

$14.85

$14.90

$14.93

$14.98

15.92

16.41

16.18

16.24

16.28

16.29

16.32

16.35

16.39

16.38

16.44

16.48

16.54

16.55

16.62

17.56
18.34
14.83
14.15

17.76
18.87
15.30
14.57

17.51
18.60
15.08
14.39

17.69
18.65
15.13
14.42

17.66
18.68
15.17
14.46

17.72
18.74
15.19
14.45

17.63
18.83
15.19
14.43

17.87
18.77
15.27
14.53

17.70
18.81
15.31
14.56

17.78
18.87
15.28
14.57

17.87
18.90
15.34
14.59

17.82
18.98
15.35
14.62

17.83
19.00
15.44
14.70

17.89
19.01
15.44
14.71

17.70
19.16
15.49
14.73

13.85

14.30

14.10

14.11

14.13

14.18

14.19

14.23

14.27

14.31

14.37

14.40

14.44

14.48

14.53

16.79
15.86
9.77
15.80
14.67

17.29
16.21
10.04
16.35
15.24

17.09
16.07
9.89
16.00
14.98

17.09
16.10
9.90
16.06
15.01

17.11
16.19
9.92
16.08
15.04

17.21
16.23
9.95
16.14
15.08

17.21
16.11
9.97
16.18
15.13

17.26
16.12
9.99
16.17
15.16

17.31
16.15
10.06
16.27
15.19

17.27
16.14
10.05
16.38
15.26

17.28
16.28
10.09
16.43
15.30

17.36
1629

17.38
16.31

1 0 .1 0

1 0 .1 2

16.53
15.34

16.57
15.40

17.47
16.32
10.13
16.71
15.44

17.47
16.35
10.18
16.71
15.50

8 .1 2

8.09

8.11

8.13

8.13

8.14

8.14

8.15

8.15

8.18

P R IV A T E S E C T O R (in c o n s ta n t (1 9 8 2 )
d o lla r s )................................................................
8 .0 0
8.24
8.14
8.14
8.13
p= preliminary. Dash indicates data not available.
NOTE: See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.


74 Monthly Labor Review
https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2003

15. Average hourly earnings of production or nonsuporvisory workers on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry
Annual average
Industry

2002

2001
Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Oct.

Sept.

Nov.p Dec.p

2001

2002

PRIVATE SECTOR...............................

$14.32

$14.77

MINING................................................

17.56

17,76

17.58

17.89

17.76

17.73

17.70

17.74

17.65

17.76

17.71

17.80

17.81

17.77

17.76

CONSTRUCTION..................................

18.34

18.87

18.69

18.56

18.62

18.66

18.70

18.67

18.74

18.90

18.97

19.10

19.14

19.07

19.25

MANUFACTURING...............................

14.83

15.30

15.17

15.15

15.16

15.16

15.20

15.23

15.28

15.26

15.32

14.40

15.42

15.48

15.59

Durable goods...................................
Lumber and wood products..............
Furniture and fixtures.......................
Stone, clay, and glass products........
Primary metal industries...................
Blast furnaces and basic steel
products......................................
Fabricated metal products................

15.28
12.26
12.24
15,00
16.92

15.78
12.50

15.66
12.42
12.56
15.10
17.19

15.61
12.38
12.61
15.12
17.15

15.63
12.39
12.59
15.17
17.15

15.63
12.35
12.57
15.12
17.20

15.66
12.33
12.54
15.35
17.25

15.68
12.43
12.59
15.43
17.36

15.74
12.53
12.62
15.48
17.46

15.66
12.58
12.55
15.62
17.60

15.81
12.57
12.71
15.52
17.49

15.89
12.63
12.74
15.69
17.54

15.95
12.60

16.01
12.56
12.74
15.69
17.65

16.11
12.65
12.93
15.80
17.73

20.41
14.25

2 0 .8 8

20.53
14.56

20.53
14.57

20.63
14.51

2 0 .6 6

14.60

20.69
14.66

20.81
14.64

20.92
14.71

21.07
14.61

20.90
14.69

20.96
14.80

2 1 .0 2

14.71

14.84

21.05
14.90

21.25
15.03

Industrial machinery and equipment...
Electronic and other electrical

15.89

16.44

16.23

16.31

16.33

16.31

16.30

16.35

16.36

16.47

16.55

16.58

16.53

16.55

16.67

14.51
19.06
19.40
14.81
12.16

15.00
19.89
20.50
15.25
12.40

14.97
19.71
20.19
15.09
12.39

14.86
19.57
19.99
15.09
12.46

14.90
19.69
20.05
15.10
12.42

14.93
19.65
20.09
15.12
12.39

14.87
19.68
15.11
12.36

15.04
19.75
20.36
15.14
12.28

15.05
19.37
19.76
15.24
12.30

15.06
19.86
20.56
15.28
12.39

15.05
20.04
20.71
15.40
12.44

15.06
20.31

2 0 .2 2

14.91
19.65
20.17
15.11
12.37

15.44
12.42

15.08
20.53
21.42
15.44
12.45

15.18
20.57
21.39
15.57
12.54

14.16
12.89
21.50
11.35
9.43
16.87

14.61
13.23
21.65
11.74
9.91
17.49

14.45
13.17
31.37
11.53
9.60
17.26

14.47
13.14

14.47
13.08
21.71
11.64
9.77
17.17

14.46
13.10
22.47
11.65
9.82
17.25

14.53
13.18
22.80
11.65
9.93
17.33

14.55
13.25
23.09
11.73
9.93
17.51

14.60
13.29
23.26
11.69
9.95
17.53

14.69
13.34
23.34
11.74
9.91
17.73

14.60
13.24
20.83
11.75
9.95
17.55

14.69
13.26
20.61
11.80
9.94
17.66

14.66
13.21
20.35
11.74
9.97
17.58

14.71
13.26
20.37
11.80
9.98
17.64

14.83
13.37
20.69
11.74

14.82
18.61
22.08

15.18
19.18
22.33

15.04
18.88
22.19

15.12
18.93
22.39

15.11
19.01
22.39

15.05
18.96

15.18
19.28

2 2 .2 2

2 2 .1 1

15.32
19.45
22.46

15.30
19.32
22.48

15.33
19.43
22.57

15.40
19.10

2 2 .0 2

15.11
19.14
22.15

15.15
19.32

2 2 .1 0

15.06
18.95
22.45

2 2 .6 8

13.39
10.31

13.73
10.30

13.69
10.29

13.71
10.31

13.65
10.35

13.61
10.40

13.68
10.39

13.69
10.43

13.66
10.27

13.76
10.37

13.71
10.27

13.74
10.04

13.77
10.08

13.79
10.26

13.95
10.53

TRANSPORTATION AND
PURI 1C UTILITIES............................

16.79

17.29

17.11

17.13

17.12

17.19

17.26

17.18

17.24

17.28

17.26

17.40

17.38

17.48

17.50

WHOLESALE TRADE..........................

15.86

11.62

11.47

11.57

11.58

11.57

11.58

11.54

11.57

11.52

11.58

11.75

11.71

11.72

11.76

RETAIL TRADE....................................

9.77

10.04

9.89

9.96

9.95

9.98

1 0 .0 0

9.98

1 0 .0 0

9.98

1 0.0 1

10.15

10.14

10.14

10.18

FINANCE, INSURANCE,
A N n R F A I FSTATE..........................

15,80

16.35

16.14

16.07

16.13

16.17

16.23

16.18

16.27

16.25

16.31

16.57

16.53

16.68

16.80

SERVICES...........................................

14.67

15.24

15.15

15.14

15.17

15.16

15.16

15.12

15.08

15.02

15.05

15.36

15.40

15.50

15.24

Transportation equipment.................
Motor vehicles and equipment........

Food and kindred products...............
Textile mill products.........................
Apparel and other textile products.....
Paper and allied products.................
Printing and publishing.....................
Petroleum and coal products............
Rubber and miscellaneous
plastics products............................

1 2 .6 6

15.49
17.73

$14.62 $14.65 $14.67 $14.67 $14.69 $14.67 $14.68 $14.65 $14.70 $14.92 $14.92 $14.96 $15.05

2 1 .2 1
1 1 .6 6

9.72
17.19
15.01
18.87

1 2 .6 8

15.79
17.60

2 1 .1 2

1 0 .1 1

17.78

p = preliminary.
N O TE :

See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

75

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

16. Average weekly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry
Annual average

Industry

2001

2002

2001
Dec.

2002
Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

$500.25
502.40
275.77

$509.40
505.58
280.66

$501.03
501.84
275.75

$505.68
505.70
277.54

$514.74
507.87
281.74

Oct.

Nov.p

Dec.p

P R IV A T E S E C T O R

Current dollars..............
Seasonally adjusted...
Constant (1982) dollars..

$489.74
273.45

$503.66 $502.93 $492.24 $497.31 $497.31 $497.99
496.50 497.18 499.68 500.69 501.37
283.37 281.91
275.46 277.36 275.82 274.53

$508.77 $508.64 $517.62
509.58 510.61
510.82
278.02 277.79 283.37

M IN IN G .....................

763.86

761.90

771.76

754.96

761.90

757.07

750.48.

766.37

767.78

763.68

768.61

768.96 62.765.83

762.27

755.23

C O N S T R U C T IO N ..

720.76

732.16

719.57

714.56

716.87

716.54

723.69

728.13

740.23

740.88

749.32

754.45

746.46

724.66

727.65

603.58
337.01

625.77

625.00
350.34

612.06
342.51

610.95
340.74

620.04
343.89

620.16
341.87

622.91
343.39

631.06
347.69

614.98
338.46

629.65
345.58

636.02
348.12

630.68
344.63

633.13
345.78

646.99
354.13

626.48
497.76
477.36

651.71
512.50
508.63

651.46
507.98
501.14

636.89
493.96
504.40

637.70
495.60
501.08

645.52 646.76
503.88 504.30
509.09 506 31/50

649.15
510.87
504.86

656.36
520.00
508.59

634.23
517.04
449.49

654.53
519.14
516.03

662.61
526.67
519.79

658.74
520.38
502.13

659.61
511.19
500.68

676.62
522.45
539.18

654.00
737.71

673.82
772.15

649.30
763.24

645.62
746.03

646.24
746.03

645.62
758.52

667.73
762.45

675.83
767.31

687.31
782.21

682.59
769.12

684.43
774.81

699.77
780.53

693.18
784.96

676.24
788.96

676.24
803.17

910.29
589.95

952.13
613.41

909.48
614.43

907.43
600.28

915.97
597.81

933.83
607.36

937.26
606.92

951.02
611.95

972.78
619.29

965.01
599.01

957.22
614.04

972.54
620.12

964.82
620.31

964.09
619.84

992.38
635.77

M A N U F A C T U R IN G

Current dollars.............
Constant (1982) dollars..
D u ra b le g o o d s ..................................

Lumber and wood products....
Furniture and fixtures...........
Stone, clay, and glass
products..........................
Primary metal industries.......
Blast furnaces and basic
steel products..................
Fabricated metal products....
Industrial machinery and
equipment.......................
Electronic and other electrical
equipment.......................
Transportation equipment.....
Motor vehicles and
equipment......................
Instruments and related
products...........................
Miscellaneous manufacturing..

645.13

667.46

667.49

657.29

658.10

663.82

660.15

665.45

669.12

658.80

671.93

676.46

667.41

670.28

690.14

571.69
798.61

585.00
847.31

603.29
841.62

573.60
827.81

576.63
825.01

588.24
835.13

581.42
844.27

582.98
842.99

592.58
847.28

571.90
780.61

584.33
848.02

589.96
863.72

579.81
869.27

591.14
874.58

604.16
896.85

828.38

906.10

892.40

871.56

868.17

883.96

907.88

905.63

910.09

810.16

914.92

931.95

939.84

946.76

971.11

605.73
460.86

620.68
479.88

623.22
477.02

612.65
469.74

611.55
473.20

616.90
483.21

607.42
479.57

607.42
479.96

620.74
485.06

609.60
468.63

620.37
479.49

628.32
480.18

628.41
483.14

629.95
480.57

647.71
495.33

570.65
529.78
851.40
452.87

588.78
545.08
883.32
483.69

588.12
546.56
880.44
465.87

575.91
533.48
854.76
465.23

574.46
523.20
881.43
471.41

581.29
533.17
912.28
483.48

582.65
533.79
932.52
485.81

586.37
543.25
962.85
486.80

592.76
550.21
983.90
489.81

587.60
546.94
982.61
480.17

592.76
553.43
839.45
494.68

597.88
554.27
828.52
489.70

590.80
546.89
826.21
477.82

595.76
552.94
808.69
483.80

606.55
560.20
835.88
500.03

351.74
701.79

365.68
727.58

358.08
724.92

350.89
709.95

357.58
705.69

368.25
713.43

369.40
717.46

369.40
728.42

373.13
727.50

362.71
728.70

366.16
730.08

364.80
743.49

362.91
729.57

366.27
740.88

374.07
755.65

564.64
787.20
945.02

569.25
809.40
924.46

576.02
800.51
934.20

555.37
790.65
932.78

558.73
790.22
938.41

568.51
793.17
920.23

560.58
794.62
900.23

559.86
800.11
887.41

563.60
815.36
917.01

562.07
809.51
928.80

573.80
819.40
904.30

582.16
830.52
968.03

575.28
815.30
946.41

579.47
821.89
941.17

589.82
828.75
918.54

544.97
374.25

562.93
379.04

568.14
380.73

555.26
378.38

556.92
380.88

559.37
386.88

564.98
388.59

564.03
382.78

569.62
384.10

554.53
373.32

563.48
369.72

564.71
358.43

563.19
367,92

562.63
393.82

578.93
379.04

641.38

662.21

660.45

644.09

648.85

651.50

654.15

657.99

668.91

663.55

667.96

676.86

665.65

671.23

677.25

W H O L E S A L E T R A D E ..

605.85

622.46

627.33

608.96

615.98

614.55

615.40

615.86

630.63

616.63

623.32

636.40

624.77

628.71

643.59

R E T A IL T R A D E ..............

282.35

291.16

289.78

279.88

284.57

286.43

287.00

289.42

297.00

295.41

295.30

295.37

293.05

292.03

300.31

570.38

590.24

592.34

575.31

582.29

580.50

581.03

577.63

597.11

581.75

588.79

608.12

591.77

600.48

618.24

479.71

496.82

498.44

487.51

493.03

492.70

491.18

489.89

497.64

489.65

493.641 505.34

501.71

504.97

504.97

N o n d u ra b le g o o d s ........................ .

Food and kindred products....
Tobacco products.................
Textile mill products..............
Apparel and other textile
products...........................
Paper and allied products......
Printing and publishing..........
Chemicals and allied products.
Petroleum and coal products...
Rubber and miscellaneous
plastics products.................
Leather and leather products...
T R A N S P O R T A T IO N A N D
P U B L IC U T IL IT IE S .........................

F IN A N C E , IN S U R A N C E ,
A N D R E A L E S T A T E ......
S E R V IC E S ..

p= preliminary.
Note: See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision. Dash indicates data not available.


76 Monthly Labor Review
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February 2003


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

17.

Diffusion indexes of employment change, seasonally adjusted

[In percent]
Timespan and year

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

Aug.

July

Sept.

Oct.

Nov

Dec.

Private nonfarm payrolls, 356 industries
Over 1-month span:
1998 .........................................
1999.........................................
2 0 0 0 ..........................................
2 0 0 1 ..........................................
2 0 0 2 ..........................................

62.4
55.3
55.9
49.4
47.3

57.5
58.6
57.5
45.7
41.4

59.1
53.6
57.9
50.3
49.7

60.2
58.4
51.2
42.4
47.8

57.5
55.5
50.1
47.3
50.9

56.8
57.8
55.8
43.2
49.4

54.6
57.1
57.8
44.5
48.6

59.1
54.8
51.4
42.5
48.8

57.2
57.1
52.4
42.4
49.3

53.0
57.2
52.4
40.5
48.3

57.9
60.4
53.2
39.3
45.4

56.8
58.1
52.7
44.1
45.5

Over 3-month span:
1998..........................................
1999..........................................
2 0 0 0 ..........................................
2 0 0 1 ..........................................
2 0 0 2 ..........................................

65.3
59.2
60.4
45.5
40.1

66.3
57.6
61.4
46.1
43.2

65.3
59.5
59.4
40.8
42.5

65.9
55.2
53.2
43.4
46.5

62.7
60.2
52.4
37.8
48.0

58.2
57.2
55.5
43.2
50.1

58.9
59.4
56.6
39.3
47.1

59.1
59.2
56.2
38.0
45.1

59.8
59.7
51.2
35.3
47.3

57.9
58.9
51.0
33.7
45.1

57.1
61.2
53.2
36.3
42.8

58.8
60.7
51.6
38.9

Over 6 -month span:
1998.........................................
1999..........................................
2 0 0 0 ..........................................
2 0 0 1 ..........................................
2 0 0 2 ..........................................

70.2
60.2
61.1
44.7
37.0

67.4
58.9
59.4
42.7
41.6

64.7
58.5
58.1
39.5
43.4

61.5
59.7
57.9
40.1
44.4

64.1
57.2
54.2
40.8
46.5

62.1
60.8
52.4
35.8
46.0

59.1
61.2
52.9
37.0
46.5

58.8
62.5
54.2
32.4
43.1

57.5
62.7
52.4
34.3
40.5

60.2
61.8
48.7
33.1
_

59.2
61.2
45.7
34.1

58.4
62.8
46.5
35.6
-

Over 12-month span:
1998..........................................
1999.........................................
2 0 0 0 ..........................................
2 0 0 1 ..........................................
2 0 0 2 ..........................................

69.9
61.2
61.4
41.5
35.2

67.9
60.1
59.9
41.5
36.0

67.6
58.2
58.8
38.9
37.3

65.6
61.0
56.2
37.5
38.3

64.1
60.7
55.3
37.3
40.2

62.7
61.6
53.6
36.2
39.6

61.7
62.2
53.0
34.1

62.2
61.1
51.0
33.6
-

60.8
63.8
47.7
34.4
-

59.4
62.2
45.2
33.9
-

60.8
59.7
44.5
33.3
-

58.9
60.5
42.9
34.4
-

-

-

-

Manufacturing payrolls, 139 Industries
Over 1-month span:
1998..........................................
1999..........................................
2 0 0 0 .........................................
2 0 0 1 ..........................................
2 0 0 2 ..........................................

57.0
47.4
44.9
34.9
35.3

52.6
41.2
52.2
26.8
37.9

52.2
42.6
49.3
38.2
40.4

52.9
46.0
46.0
29.0
47.4

44.9
46.3
49.3
28.3
47.1

47.4
43.4
50.7
30.5
40.4

38.2
50.0
57.4
34.9
48.9

52.9
42.6
36.8
25.7
41.9

44.9
46.0
39.0
31.6
40.1

38.6
45.6
42.3
31.3
40.4

42.3
51.5
47.1
25.0
40.8

41.5
49.3
40.8
30.9
37.5

Over 3-month span:
1998..........................................
1999.........................................
2 0 0 0 ..........................................
2 0 0 1 .........................................
2 0 0 2 .........................................

59.2
39.3
48.2
21.3
24.6

57.0
39.3
48.9
21.3
30.1

54.8
39.7
48.9
18.4
37.1

51.8
40.1
44.5
23.5
38.6

48.2
41.2
46.7
19.9
40.1

38.2
43.8
52.2
23.2
41.2

41.9
44.1
46.0
17.3
38.6

43.0
46.3
38.6
19.1
34.6

43.0
42.3
29.0
16.2
32.4

38.2
44.1
34.2
18.0
32.4

32.7
47.8
39.0
18.4
29.8

40.4
45.2
36.0
18.0

60.7
36.4
47.8

49.3
37.5
44.5
14.0
29.8

40.1
40.4
50.0
16.2
38.2

45.2
37.5
41.9
16.5
36.4

42.6
42.3
37.9
13.2
34.2

39.0
43.0
36.0
14.7
31.6

38.2
44.5
35.3
11.8
27.9

34.6
48.2
32.4
14.0
26.5

41.2
43.0
26.1
13.2

35.7
44.5
21.3
17.6

33.1
47.4
21.7
16.5

19.9

54.4
36.0
45.2
16.9
26.8

54.8
38.6
49.3
13.6
18.0

52.2
34.6
44.1
13.6
18.0

51.8
32.4
39.3
13.6

46.7
36.0
36.8
15.4

40.4
37.9
35.3

40.1
39.0
34.2

38.2
40.1
33.8

37.5
40.4
28.7

36.4
44.5

12.1

1 1 .0

1 1 .0

1 1 .0

12.9

2 0 .2

2 0 .2

24.6

21.7

34.6
44.5
19.1
12.9
-

Over 6 -month span:
1998.........................................
1 999.........................................
2 0 0 0 .........................................
2 0 0 1 .........................................
2 0 0 2 .........................................
Over 12-month span:
1998.........................................
1999.........................................
2 0 0 0 .........................................
2 0 0 1 .........................................
2 0 0 2 .........................................

2 0 .2

Dash indicates data not available.
NOTE: Figures are the percent of industries with employment
increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged
employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance
between industries with inceasing and decreasing employment.

2 2 .1

-

-

35.7
43.4
17.6
14.0

34.2
44.5
14.0
14.0
-

Data for the 2 most recent months shown in each span are
preliminary. See the "Definitions" in this section. See "Notes on
the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark
revision.

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

77

Current Labor Statistics:

18.

Labor Force Data

Establishment size and employment covered under Ul, private ownership, by Supersector, first quarter 2001
Size of establishments
Industry, establishments, and
employment

Total

Fewer than
5 workers1

5 to 9
workers

10 to 19
workers

20 to 49
workers

50 to 99
workers

100 to 249
workers

250 to 499
workers

500 to 999
workers

1,000 or
more
workers

T o ta l a ll in d u s t r i e s 2

7,665,968
108,932,804

4,526,062
6,886,752

127,969
1,566,104

74,644
110,942

23,304
154,199

15,169
203,845

9,501
285,486

2,935
200,360

1,700
254,358

499
172,011

167
109,973

50
74,930

765,649
6,481,334

494,254
714,992

127,017
832,978

75,983
1,020,982

47,230
1,410,131

13,591
925,178

6,040
890,282

1,176
390,630

293
197,146

65
99,015

398,837
16,806,452

148,682
255,376

67,510
453,750

60,267
830,685

58,942
1,836,858

28,633
2,009,224

22,490
3,456,620

7,636
2,622,512

3,198
2,166,352

1,479
3,175,075

1,840,104
25,518,430

969,760
1,629,626

376,578
2,507,906

244,890
3,278,074

153,450
4,630,611

53,110
3,670,363

32,898
4,888,033

6,970
2,343,794

1,813
1,191,894

635
1,378,129

............................

150,855
3,692,948

84,672
113,812

20,636
137,426

17,119
234,492

14,772
457,236

6,698
465,567

4,475
685,746

1,476
507,063

674
462,533

333
629,073

E s ta b lis h m e n ts , first q u a rte r ...........
E m p lo y m e n t, M a rc h ............................

716,808
7,623,126

458,390
750,421

128,266
843,311

71,615
952,198

37,529
1,121,825

11,731
801,994

6,084
917,250

1,808
621,240

897
609,199

488
1,005,688

1,238,267
16,441,289

825,617
1,170,098

173,773
1,140,772

107,694
1,451,932

73,807
2,245,729

29,139
2,022,745

19,405
2,951,873

5,654
1,933,668

2,177
1,480,878

1,001
2,043,594

679,762
14,712,829

321,428
603,470

155,333
1,027,913

96,121
1,291,605

61,097
1,836,799

22,789
1,589,809

15,989
2,383,443

3,721
1,274,120

1,690
1,178,727

1,594
3,526,943

627,875
11,590,048

249,542
390,258

104,548
705,222

110,374
1,542,760

117,264
3,560,715

33,939
2,263,935

9,463
1,344,217

1,725
586,269

667
453,703

353
742,969

954,627
4,187,740

750,261
977,871

115,619
752,689

55,756
734,980

24,254
703,687

5,498
372,499

2,630
384,044

484
160,249

102
66,660

23
35,061

E s ta b lis h m e n ts , first q u a rte r
E m p lo y m e n t, M a rc h

...........

............................

1,304,741
858,606
598,438
208,084
121,189
31,149
8,633,337 11,588,220 18,104,061 14,323,060 18,158,276 10,611,556

11,678
6,021
7,917,065 12,710,477

N a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s a n d m in in g
E s ta b lis h m e n ts , firs t q u a rte r ...........
E m p lo y m e n t, M a rc h ............................
C o n s t r u c t io n
E s ta b lis h m e n ts , firs t q u a rte r ...........
E m p lo y m e n t, M a rc h ............................
M a n u f a c t u r in g
E s ta b lis h m e n ts , firs t q u a rte r
E m p lo y m e n t, M a rc h

...........

............................

T r a d e , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , a n d u tilitie s
E s ta b lis h m e n ts , firs t q u a rte r
E m p lo y m e n t, M a rc h

...........

............................

I n f o r m a t io n
E s ta b lis h m e n ts , first q u a rte r
E m p lo y m e n t, M a rc h

...........

F in a n c ia l a c t iv it ie s

P r o f e s s io n a l a n d b u s in e s s s e r v ic e s
E s ta b lis h m e n ts , firs t q u a rte r ........... .
E m p lo y m e n t, M a rc h ............................ .
E d u c a t io n a n d h e a lt h s e r v ic e s
E s ta b lis h m e n ts , first q u a rte r ............
E m p lo y m e n t, M a rc h .............................
L e is u r e a n d h o s p it a lit y
E s ta b lis h m e n ts , first q u a rte r ............
E m p lo y m e n t, M a rc h ..............................
O t h e r s e r v ic e s
E s ta b lis h m e n ts , first q u a rte r ............
E m p lo y m e n t, M a rc h ..............................

1 Includes establishments that reported no workers in March 2001.
Includes data for unclassified establishments, not shown separately.

78

Monthly Labor Review


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February 2003

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Data reflect the movement of
Indian Tribal Council establishments from private industry to the public sector. See
Notes on Current Labor Statistics.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

19.

Annual data: establishments, employment, and wages covered under Ul and UCFE by ownership

Year

A v era g e
e s t a b lis h m e n ts

A v e ra g e

T o ta l a n n u a l w a g e s

annual

(in t h o u s a n d s )

e m p lo y m e n t

A v e ra g e an n u al

A v e ra g e

w ages

w e e k ly

p e r e m p lo y e e

w age

T o ta l c o v e r e d (U l a n d U C F E )

1992.............................................
1993 ............................................
1994 ......... ...................................
1995.............................................
1996
.....................................
1997......... .................................
1998......... ................................
1999 ......... ...................................
2000 ............................................
2001 ............................................

6,532,608
6,679,934
6,826,677
7,040,677
7,189,168
7,369,473
7,634,018
7,820,860
7,879,116
7,984,529

107,413,728
109,422,571
112,611,287
115,487,841
117,963,132
121,044,432
124,183,549
127,042,282
129,877,063
129,635,800

$2,781,676,477
2,884,472,282
3,033,676,678
3,215,921,236
3,414,514,808
3,674,031,718
3,967,072,423
4,235,579,204
4,587,708,584
4,695,225,123

$25,897
26,361
26,939
27,846
28,946
30,353
31,945
33,340
35,323
36,219

$498
507
518
536
557
584
614
641
679
697

$25,622
26,055
26,633
27,567
28,658
30,058
31,676
33,094
35,077
35,943

$493
501
512
530
551
578
609
636
675
691

$25,547
25,934
26,496
27,441
28,582
30,064
31,762
33,244
35,337
36,157

$491
499
510
528
550
578
611
639
680
695

$27,789
28,643
29,518
30,497
31,397
32,521
33,605
34,681
36,296
37,814

$534
551
568
586
604
625
646
667
698
727

$25,434
26,095
26,717
27,552
28,320
29,134
30,251
31,234
32,387
33,521

$489
502
514
530
545
560
582
601
623
645

$35,066
36,940
38,038
38,523
40,414
42,732
43,688
44,287
46,228
48,940

$674
710
731
741
777
822
840
852
889
941

Ul c o v e re d

.......................................
........................................
1994.............................................
1995.............................................
1996 .............................................
1997.............................................
1998
.......................................
1999.............................................
2000 .............................................
2001 .............................................
1992
1993

6,485,473
6,632,221
6,778,300
6,990,594
7,137,644
7,317,363
7,586,767
7,771,198
7,828,861
7,933,536

104,288,324
106,351,431
109,588,189
112,539,795
115,081,246
118,233,942
121,400,660
124,255,714
127,005,574
126,883,182

$2,672,081,827
2,771,023,411
2,918,684,128
3,102,353,355
3,298,045,286
3,553,933,885
3,845,494,089
4,112,169,533
4,454,966,824
4,560,511,280

P r iv a te in d u s tr y c o v e r e d

1992 .............................................
1 9 9 3 ...........................................
1 9 9 4 .............................................
1995
.....................................
1996......... ...................................
1 9 9 7 .............................................
1998.............................................
1999 ..........................................
2000........ ....................................
2001 .............................................

6,308,719
6,454,381
6,596,158
6,803,454
6,946,858
7,121,182
7,381,518
7,560,567
7,622,274
7,724,965

89,349,803
91,202,971
94,146,344
96,894,844
99,268,446
102,175,161
105,082,368
107,619,457
110,015,333
109,304,802

$2,282,598,431
2,365,301,493
2,494,458,555
2,658,927,216
2,837,334,217
3,071,807,287
3,337,621,699
3,577,738,557
3,887,626,769
3,952,152,155

S ta te g o v e r n m e n t c o v e r e d

1992.............................................
1993
........................................
1 9 9 4 .............................................
1 9 9 5 .............................................
19 9 6 .............................................
1997.............................................
1998.............................................
1999 ............................................
2000.............................................
2001 .............................................

58,801
59,185
60,686
60,763
62,146
65,352
67,347
70,538
65,096
64,583

4,044,914
4,088,075
4,162,944
4,201,836
4,191,726
4,214,451
4,240,779
4,296,673
4,370,160
4,452,237

$112,405,340
117,095,062
122,879,977
128,143,491
131,605,800
137,057,432
142,512,445
149,011,194
158,618,365
168,358,331

L o c al g o v e rn m e n t c o v e re d

1 9 9 2 .............................................
.........................................
1993
1 9 9 4 .............................................

1995.............................................
1996
........................................
1997.............................................
1998.............................................
1999 .............................................
2000.............................................
2001 .............................................

117,923
118,626
121,425
126,342
128,640
130,829
137,902
140,093
141,491
143,989

10,892,697
11,059,500
11,278,080
11,442,238
11,621,074
11,844,330
12,077,513
12,339,584
12,620,081
13,126,143

$277,045,557
288,594,697
301,315,857
315,252,346
329,105,269
345,069,166
365,359,945
385,419,781
408,721,690
440,000,795

F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t c o v e r e d (U C F E )

1992 ...........................................
1993 ...........................................
1 9 9 4 ............................................
1995............................................
19 9 6 ............................................
1 9 9 7 ............................................
1998
.....................................
1999 ............................................
2000............................................
2001 ............................................

47,136
47,714
48,377
50,083
51,524
52,110
47,252
49,661
50,256
50,993

3,125,404
3,071,140
3,023,098
2,948,046
2,881,887
2,810,489
2,782,888
2,786,567
2,871,489
2,752,619

$109,594,650
113,448,871
114,992,550
113,567,881
116,469,523
120,097,833
121,578,334
123,409,672
132,741,760
134,713,843

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Data reflect the movement of Indian Tribal Council establishments from private industry to
the public sector. See Notes on Current Labor Statistics.

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

79

Current Labor Statistics:

20.

Labor Force Data

Annual data: establishments, employment, and wages covered under Ul and UCFE, by State
Average
establishments
State

Average annual
employment

20002001
change

2001

20002001
change

2001

20002001
change

Average weekly
wage
20002001
change

2001

Total United States .......

7,984,529

154,540

129,635,800

-185,779

$4,695,225,123

$109,884,920

$697

$18

Alabama........................
Alaska...........................
Arizona..........................
Arkansas .......................
California.......................

112,356
19,287
118,706
72,814
1,065,699

30
467
3,546
587
74,645

1,854,462
283,033
2,243,652
1,127,151
14,981,757

-23,500
7,479
22,942
-3,731
138,284

55,822,097
10,237,292
74,963,072
30,725,592
619,146,651

1,284,088
553,237
2,546,248
963,862
7,497,476

579
696
643
524
795

21
20
16
18
3

Colorado.......................
Connecticut...................
Delaware.......................
District of Columbia........
Florida...........................

153,824
108,201
25,253
28,414
454,077

5,347
414
505
9
9,367

2,201,379
1,665,607
406,736
635,749
7,153,589

14,728
-9,121
482
-1,535
92,606

83,547,602
78,272,099
15,629,636
35,543,559
225,713,701

2,274,669
2,095,243
787,067
1,790,086
9,933,356

730
904
739
1,075
607

15
29
36
56
19

Georgia.........................
Hawaii...........................
Idaho.............................
Illinois............................
Indiana..........................

230,232
35,439
46,480
319,588
151,376

5,219
1,412
1,084
-2,723
-1,328

3,871,763
557,146
571,314
5,886,248
2,871,236

-10,941
3,961
8,137
-54,259
-63,392

136,039,438
17,412,210
15,864,510
230,054,835
91,246,189

3,195,926
469,266
263,832
4,050,811
183,520

676
601
534
752
611

18
12
1
20
14

Iowa..............................
Kansas ..........................
Kentucky.......................
Louisiana ......................
Maine............................

91,006
80,521
108,025
115,807
46,206

-5,825
52
302
-2,386
1,344

1,429,543
1,319,667
1,736,575
1,869,966
593,166

-13,432
5,984
-26,160
827
2,472

41,223,534
39,792,114
52,133,417
54,473,146
17,092,043

919,492
1,221,387
1,367,028
2,345,871
750,886

555
580
577
560
554

18
15
23
24
22

Maryland.......................
Massachusetts...............
Michigan .......................
Minnesota .....................
Mississippi ....................

147,158
191,824
259,556
156,031
63,207

622
6,848
5,809
487
-748

2,421,899
3,276,224
4,476,659
2,609,669
1,111,255

16,392
21,104
-107,880
1,325
-25,520

92,644,873
147,348,234
167,385,129
95,479,188
28,806,869

5,096,016
3,574,494
-2,295,158
3,107,396
151,385

736
865
719
704
499

36
16
7
23
14

Missouri ........................
Montana........................
Nebraska ......................
Nevada .........................
New Hampshire .............

163,121
40,477
52,653
49,635
46,070

138
2,136
836
1,770
171

2,652,876
383,905
883,920
1,043,748
610,192

-23,960
4,862
1,516
25,919
3,685

86,009,694
9,672,371
25,083,293
34,569,506
21,650,267

2,000,438
472,112
646,745
1,717,063
582,754

623
485
546
637
682

19
18
13
16
14

New Jersey...................
New Mexico..................
New York ......................
North Carolina................
North Dakota..................

256,536
48,439
538,898
224,426
23,326

-13,793
522
9,822
2,208
38

3,876,194
729,422
8,423,312
3,805,498
311,632

-1,221
12,293
-47,446
-57,272
2,412

171,793,642
20,935,825
393,598,666
121,866,007
8,011,085

2,443,618
1,216,191
9,383,346
1,858,872
378,510

852
552
899
616
494

12
23
27
19
19

Ohio ..............................
Oklahoma .....................
Oregon..........................
Pennsylvania .................
Rhode Island..................

285,567
90,603
111,073
331,405
33,636

4,705
1,574
2,150
16,187
311

5,434,769
1,463,622
1,596,753
5,552,366
468,952

-77,865
11,771
-11,175
-5,535
1,351

180,885,154
41,004,250
53,018,365
194,211,696
15,758,369

1,681,299
1,821,743
317,098
5,158,632
507,610

640
539
639
673
646

15
20
9
19
19

South Carolina...............
South Dakota.................
Tennessee ....................
Texas ............................
Utah ..............................

114,979
27,365
125,165
494,088
68,607

5,613
221
140
4,509
2,470

1,786,899
364,715
2,625,746
9,350,770
1,050,674

-33,210
598
-41,005
62,437
6,551

52,275,679
9,337,014
82,762,402
337,047,962
31,600,715

986,967
306,302
1,275,641
12,484,223
1,082,204

563
492
606
693
578

21
15
18
21
16

Vermont........................
Virginia..........................
Washington...................
West Virginia..................
Wisconsin .....................
Wyoming.......................

24,156
195,639
221,450
46,620
148,227
21,288

287
3,048
1,775
-186
2,374
429

298,020
3,436,172
2,689,507
685,754
2,717,660
237,278

1,558
8,411
-14,921
-845
-18,388
6,446

9,011,468
126,222,350
100,746,663
19,187,832
85,713,725
6,654,092

439,492
5,662,779
413,740
726,836
1,733,629
459,596

581
706
720
538
607
539

25
30
7
21
17
23

Puerto Rico....................
Virgin Islands.................

51,733
3,236

-633
-17

1,007,919
44,330

-18,234
1,981

19,884,381
1,294 885

578,173
120,936

379
562

17
29

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding.

80

2001

Total annual wages
(in thousands)

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2003


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

21. Annual data: Employment and average annual pay for all workers
covered under Ul and UCFE in the 249 largest U.S. counties
A v e ra g e a n n u a l pay

E m p lo y m e n t

C o u n ty '

2001

P e rc e n t
change,

2000-20012

R an ked by
p e rc e n t
change,

2001

2000-20013

P e rc e n t
change,

2000-20012

United States4 ................. 129,635,800

-.1

-

36,219

2.5

Jefferson, AL ..................
Madison, A L...................
Mobile, A L......................
Montgomery, A L .............
Anchorage, AK ...............
Maricopa, A Z ..................
Pima, A Z ........................
Pulaski, AR ....................
Alameda, CA .................
Contra Costa, CA ...........

380,680
156,169
167,000
129,878
133,842
1,561,773
326,917
240,754
697,181
337,444

-1.0
1.3
-1.5
-.9
3.1
1.2
-.6
-.7
-.1
.7

197
54
212
192
16
61
170
175
135
80

35,453
37,089
29,502
29,979
37,998
35,689
30,690
32,261
46,489
44,744

4.2
3.5
3.1
3.8
3.7
1.6
5.1
4.7
3.1
5.7

Fresno, CA ....................
Kern, C A ........................
Los Angeles, C A .............
Marin, CA.......................
Monterey, CA..................
Orange, C A ....................
Placer, CA .....................
Riverside, CA..................
Sacramento, C A .............
San Bernardino, CA........

322,084
242,232
4,103,370
111,939
166,186
1,411,944
116,185
491,535
588,426
545,113

-.1
1.5
.6
1.3
.8
1.6
6.1
4.2
3.0
2.8

136
49
87
55
75
46
1
8
18
21

27,878
30,106
40,891
43,547
31,735
40,252
34,773
29,971
39,173
30,995

6.5
5.3
3.1
2.2
5.9
2.6
4.1
2.8
3.8
3.6

San Diego, C A ................
San Francisco, CA..........
San Joaquin, CA.............
San Mateo, C A ...............
Santa Barbara, CA .........
Santa Clara, CA..............
Santa Cruz, CA...............
Solano, CA ....................
Sonoma, CA ..................
Stanislaus, C A ................

1,218,982
586,085
204,504
369,868
177,234
1,002,637
102,669
121,402
194,922
164,473

2.0
-3.3
1.9
.1
.8
-2.3
.9
3.0
2.1
2.2

37
246
39
120
76
233
64
19
32
30

38,418
61,068
30,818
62,288
33,626
65,931
35,022
33,496
36,145
29,591

2.3
6.1
5.3
-7.2
3.2
-13.5
-2.2
5.7
1.1
4.9

Tulare, CA .....................
Ventura, C A ...................
Adams, C O ....................
Arapahoe, CO.................
Boulder, C O ...................
Denver, CO....................
El Paso, C O ...................
Jefferson, CO .................
Larimer, C O ...................
Fairfield, C T ...................

132,878
293,208
146,043
285,963
184,755
461,996
240,100
210,375
121,880
421,211

.0
1.5
.6
-.2
3.2
-.6
.9
.1
2.3
-1.0

130
50
88
144
13
171
65
121
29
198

24,732
37,783
34,753
44,999
44,310
46,134
34,391
37,819
33,248
63,163

4.2
1.9
4.0
-2.7
-2.8
4.0
4.1
4.5
2.6
3.3

Hartford, C T ...................
New Haven, CT ..............
New London, C T.............
New Castle, DE ..............
Washington, DC .............
Alachua, FL ...................
Brevard, F L ....................
Broward, F L ...................
Collier, FL ......................
Duval, FL .......................

497,280
363,265
124,684
282,318
635,734
119,148
184,725
663,954
110,230
436,663

-.5
-1.1
1.6
.2
-.2
.7
1.7
2.1
5.9
1.8

163
201
47
112
145
81
43
33
2
41

45,050
39,483
38,505
42,849
55,909
26,917
32,798
33,966
30,839
33,721

3.2
2.9
4.8
5.8
5.6
2.9
2.2
2.2
2.9
2.9

Escambia, FL..................
Hillsborough, FL .............
Lee, FL ..........................
Leon, FL ........................
Manatee, FL ...................
Miami-Dade, F L ..............
Orange, FL ....................
Palm Beach, F L ..............
Pinellas, F L ....................
Polk, FL .........................

121,285
595,768
171,902
142,981
118,788
993,834
602,668
499,688
448,788
184,471

.8
1.8
4.5
.9
5.2
1.6
.2
3.9
3.3
.1

77
42
5
66
4
48
113
9
12
122

28,610
32,874
29,432
30,287
26,629
34,524
32,218
35,957
31,742
28,890

7.1
3.7
4.6
3.5
4.4
3.6
3.5
2.1
1.5
3.6

Sarasota, F L ..................
Seminole, FL ..................
Volusia, FL.....................
Chatham, G A .................
Clayton, GA ...................
Cobb, G A .......................
Dekalb, G A ....................
Fulton, GA .....................
Gwinnett, GA ..................
Richmond, G A ................

147,206
145,147
142,478
122,608
114,982
301,520
305,903
754,870
289,538
104,694

4.5
2.2
-.2
-.2
-.3
-.1
-.7
.1
2.9
-.9

6
31
146
147
151
137
176
123
20
193

29,030
31,951
26,064
30,549
38,301
40,174
39,648
47,761
39,405
29,431

1.9
3.6
3.9
3.0
4.2
3.6
2.7
1.5
.9
2.9

See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

81

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

21. Continued—Annual data: Employment and average annual pay for
all workers covered under Ul and UCFE in the 249 largest U.S.
counties
E m p lo y m e n t
C o u n ty ’
2001

A v e ra g e a n n u a l p ay

P e rc e n t
change,
2 0 0 0 -2 0 0 1 2

R anked by
p e rc e n t
change,
2 0 0 0 -2 0 0 1 3

200 1

P e rc e n t
change,
2 0 0 0 -2 0 0 1 2

Honolulu, H I...................
Ada, ID ...........................
Cook, IL .........................
Du Page, IL ....................
Kane, Tl .........................
Lake, IL ..........................
Peoria, I L .......................
Sangamon, IL .................
Will, IL ............................
Winnebago, IL ................

409,669
182,309
2,630,768
580,938
194,374
316,150
102,764
145,195
145,570
139,815

.4
2.7
-1.5
-.2
-.1
-.3
-1.8
.2
.1
-2.9

99
23
213
148
138
152
223
114
124
241

32,531
33,081
44,108
43,470
33,362
43,970
33,288
36,259
34,280
31,951

2.1
-4.0
2.8
2.1
3.7
3.2
6.1
4.3
6.1
1.4

Allen, IN .........................
Elkhart, IN ......................
Lake,IN .........................
Marlon, IN ......................
St. Joseph, IN .................
Vanderburgh, IN .............
Linn, IA ..........................
Polk, IA ..........................
Johnson, KS ..................
Sedgwick, KS .................

183,329
113,524
194,624
591,406
124,967
109,418
119,914
263,469
292,984
249,863

-2.3
-6.8
-1.9
-1.3
-3.1
.1
-1.7
-.2
2.4
.1

234
249
226
210
244
125
219
149
27
126

32,830
30,797
32,017
37,885
30,769
30,494
34,649
34,944
37,204
33,937

1.7
1.5
1.4
3.8
3.7
3.1
1.6
3.8
-.1
3.8

Shawnee, K S ..................
Fayette, K Y ....................
Jefferson, K Y .................
Caddo, LA......................
East Baton Rouge, L A ....
Jefferson, LA .................
Lafayette, LA ..................
Orleans, LA....................
Cumberland, ME.............
Anne Arundel, MD ..........

100,462
167,714
431,347
120,877
243,392
213,911
119,294
263,427
168,147
200,174

.3
-2.4
-1.7
1.3
-1.1
-.4
4.5
.1
1.3
2.8

105
237
220
56
202
160
7
127
57
22

30,513
32,237
34,688
29,354
30,397
29,326
32,364
32,880
32,327
37,190

3.9
5.0
4.1
2.0
3.9
4.6
8.2
3.7
5.1
4.9

Baltimore, MD................
Howard, MD...................
Montgomery, M D ............
Prince Georges, M D .......
Baltimore City, MD..........
Bristol, MA .....................
Essex, MA .....................
Hampden, MA.................
Middlesex, M A ................
Norfolk, M A....................

360,128
132,935
449,881
304,022
381,155
218,818
306,111
204,824
850,295
327,067

.2
1.3
.9
.5
.4
-1.1
.2
.9
1.4
.7

115
58
67
94
100
203
116
68
52
82

36,240
40,191
45,893
38,986
40,508
32,012
39,242
33,357
51,734
44,173

6.2
6.1
5.0
5.2
5.0
4.1
.5
3.6
.0
2.2

Plymouth, M A .................
Suffolk, MA ....................
Worcester, M A................
Genesee, M l..................
Ingham, M l.....................
Kalamazoo, M l................
Kent, Ml .........................
Macomb, M l...................
Oakland, Ml ...................
Ottawa, Ml .....................

166,471
602,983
321,044
160,442
174,290
116,728
339,510
326,600
755,451
115,880

.8
.1
.3
-3.0
-.3
-1.7
-1.8
-3.2
-1.4
-2.5

78
128
106
242
153
221
224
245
211
239

34,929
58,906
37,299
35,995
35,753
33,908
34,570
40,481
45,038
32,246

3.4
4.0
-.9
-.9
2.3
3.8
1.7
-1.0
1.2
.9

Washtenaw, M l...............
Wayne, Ml .....................
Anoka, M N .....................
Dakota, MN....................
Hennepin, MN.................
Ramsey, MN..................
Hinds, M S ......................
Greene, MO...................
Jackson, MO...................
St. Louis, MO..................

195,562
848,463
109,521
155,662
863,674
333,380
134,285
140,739
384,942
641,151

.2
-2.4
-.3
1.3
-.8
.0
-.9
-.9
-2.3
-.8

117
238
154
59
186
131
194
195
235
187

40,249
42,968
34,585
35,683
45,495
40,400
31,138
28,065
37,405
38,929

.2
1.2
1.9
3.8
3.8
3.4
1.8
4.1
3.7
2.1

St. Louis City, MO...........
Douglas, NE'..................
Lancaster, NE.................
Clark, NV .......................
Washoe, NV ..................
Hillsborough, NH ............
Rockingham, NH ............
Atlantic, NJ ....................
Bergen, NJ.....................
Burlington, NJ .................

245,192
325,629
148,200
720,184
193,571
192,712
130,917
141,240
453,626
187,398

-2.2
-.7
.9
3.2
2.4
.0
.7
.9
1.5
3.6

231
177
69
14
28
132
83
70
51
11

40,834
32,866
29,352
32,648
34,231
39,320
36,642
32,555
46,828
38,776

5.8
1.6
2.9
1.6
4.5
.3
2.3
4.8
1.1
3.1

See footnotes at end of table.

82
Monthly Labor Review

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2003


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

21. Continued—Annual data: Employment and average annual pay for
all workers covered under Ul and UCFE in the 249 largest U.S.
counties
A v e ra g e a n n u a l pay

E m p lo y m e n t

C o u n ty 1
200 1

P e rc e n t
change,
2 0 0 0 -2 0 0 1 2

R anked by
p e rc e n t
change,
2 0 0 0 -2 0 0 1 3

200 1

P e rc e n t
change,
2 0 0 0 -2 0 0 1 2

Camden, NJ...................
Essex, NJ ......................
Hudson, N J....................
Mercer, N J .....................
Middlesex, N J .................
Monmouth, NJ ................
Morris, NJ ......................
Ocean, NJ......................
Passaic, NJ....................
Somerset, N J.................

199,869
361,569
237,253
215,524
399,332
240,757
277,653
133,657
175,108
176,713

.5
-.5
.0
2.6
1.3
3.2
.4
3.7
-1.1
1.7

95
164
133
25
60
15
101
10
204
44

36,530
46,526
47,638
46,831
47,726
40,399
53,829
31,034
39,192
55,769

4.0
4.2
.4
4.9
2.7
1.8
-11.0
1.9
3.8
1.8

Union, N J.......................
Bernalillo, NM .................
Albany, NY.....................
Bronx, NY ......................
Dutchess, NY..................
Erie, NY .........................
Kings, NY.......................
Monroe, NY ...................
Nassau, NY ...................
New York, N Y .................

236,609
309,166
229,957
214,227
112,912
454,839
439,343
393,783
593,368
2,342,338

-.1
.7
-.5
.4
2.5
-1.1
-.1
-.7
-.8
-1.5

139
84
165
102
26
205
140
178
188
214

46,204
31,663
37,848
34,248
38,748
32,103
31,952
36,597
40,599
74,883

2.0
4.9
5.7
4.3
7.4
1.9
3.9
3.3
1.4
3.2

Oneida, N Y ....................
Onondaga, N Y................
Orange, NY....................
Queens, N Y ...................
Rockland, NY..................
Suffolk, NY.....................
Westchester, NY.............
Buncombe, NC ...............
Cumberland, NC.............
Durham, NC...................

108,686
249,754
120,903
478,661
107,348
581,938
404,974
105,378
106,381
169,609

-1.8
-1.1
.7
-.7
.4
.1
-.4
-.3
-2.8
.3

225
206
85
179
103
129
161
155
240
107

28,381
33,469
30,218
36,963
38,720
38,706
48,716
28,701
26,981
48,076

4.0
3.0
2.9
5.7
3.9
2.2
3.5
3.8
3.3
-2.6

Forsyth, NC ...................
Guilford, NC ...................
Mecklenburg, NC............
Wake, NC ......................
Butler, O H ......................
Cuyahoga, O H ................
Franklin, OH ..................
Hamilton, OH ..................
Lorain, OH .....................
Lucas, OH......................

180,155
274,077
514,036
385,777
126,863
796,353
702,628
559,852
103,115
234,678

-.7
-2.0
.3
.9
-.5
-1.6
.2
-1.1
-3.5
-1.7

180
229
108
71
166
217
118
207
247
222

34,693
33,217
41,775
36,996
32,325
37,533
36,090
38,339
32,194
33,088

2.0
3.1
3.1
4.6
2.6
2.8
3.2
2.0
.6
2.6

Mahoning, OH ................
Montgomery, OH ............
Stark, O H .......................
Summit, OH ...................
Oklahoma, O K ................
Tulsa, OK.......................
Clackamas, OR ..............
Lane, OR .......................
Marion, OR ....................
Multnomah, OR ..............

108,769
298,982
173,888
261,098
415,507
342,502
133,997
137,574
126,999
444,393

-3.7
-1.5
-1.6
-2.1
.4
.6
-.2
-1.9
-.6
-1.1

248
215
218
230
104
89
150
227
172
208

26,860
34,783
29,197
33,416
30,161
32,771
33,699
28,983
28,785
37,668

3.5
.7
2.4
2.1
3.2
5.2
3.7
4.0
2.4
2.4

Washington, OR .............
Allegheny, P A ................
Berks, PA.......................
Bucks, P A ......................
Chester, PA ...................
Cumberland, P A .............
Dauphin, PA ...................
Delaware, PA..................
Erie, PA .........................
Lancaster, P A .................

228,453
711,532
165,263
246,491
217,148
122,649
173,292
214,106
128,893
218,415

1.4
.3
-.7
.6
.6
-.6
.3
1.0
-2.3
-.3

53
109
181
90
91
173
110
63
236
156

42,222
38,086
32,807
35,239
44,216
33,996
34,855
38,494
29,293
31,493

-5.0
3.7
2.5
3.5
1.0
3.6
3.5
4.5
3.3
2.2

Lehigh, P A .....................
Luzerne, PA...................
Montgomery, PA.............
Philadelphia, P A .............
Westmoreland, PA..........
York, PA ........................
Providence, R l................
Charleston, SC ...............
Greenville, SC ................
Richland, SC...................

172,860
141,944
485,822
658,827
134,128
165,879
288,650
180,711
226,362
205,841

.2
-.8
.5
-.7
-.4
-1.0
-.7
-1.0
-3.0
-.5

119
189
96
182
162
199
183
200
243
167

35,564
28,924
44,366
40,813
28,827
31,936
34,566
29,013
32,622
30,591

.8
3.8
1.3
2.8
3.0
3.3
3.5
4.8
4.3
3.3

See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

83

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

21. Continued—Annual data: Employment and average annual pay for
all workers covered under Ul and UCFE in the 249 largest U.S.
counties
E m p lo y m e n t
C o u n ty '
2001

P e rc e n t
change,
2 0 0 0 -2 0 0 1 2

Spartanburg, S C .............
Minnehaha, S D ...............
Davidson, t N ..................
Hamilton, TN ..................
Knox, TN ........................
Shelby, T N .....................
Bexar, TX .......................
Cameron, TX .................
Collin, T X .......................
Dallas, T X ......................

1 1 7 ,2 6 2
1 0 6 ,7 1 7
4 3 4 ,0 0 6
1 8 7 ,7 2 4
2 0 3 ,4 7 0
4 9 6 ,6 4 7
6 5 5 ,1 9 5
1 1 1 ,3 7 4
1 8 1 ,0 0 7
1 ,5 5 0 ,8 3 5

Denton, TX ....................
El Paso, TX ....................
Harris, TX ................................
Hidalgo, T X .............................
Jefferson, TX .................
Lubbock, TX ...................
Nueces, T X ....................
Tarrant, TX ....................
Travis, TX ......................
Salt Lake, U T.................

1 2 2 ,5 5 2
2 4 8 ,4 0 7
1 ,8 6 4 ,1 0 0
1 6 8 ,6 1 0
1 1 8 ,7 6 4
1 1 8 ,0 4 2
1 4 3 ,4 7 0
7 0 9 ,1 6 2
5 3 4 ,8 6 1
5 3 0 ,4 9 7

Utah, U T ........................
Arlington, VA..................
Chesterfield, VA..............
Fairfax, V A .....................
Henrico, VA ...................
Norfolk, VA ....................
Richmond, VA.................
Virginia Beach, VA..........
Clark, WA ......................
King, WA........................

1 4 3 ,4 2 3
1 5 9 ,1 7 0
1 0 7 ,7 2 1
5 4 2 ,9 8 4
1 6 9 ,8 2 7
1 4 6 ,4 1 4
1 6 4 ,9 0 6
1 6 6 ,0 0 7
1 1 4 ,7 1 6
1 ,1 4 6 ,1 9 1

Pierce, W A.....................
Snohomish, W A..............
Spokane, W A.................
Kanawha, W V.................
Brown, Wl ......................
Dane, W l........................
Milwaukee, Wl ................
Waukesha, Wl ................

2 3 8 ,6 0 0
2 0 9 ,6 5 7
1 9 0 ,0 5 7
1 1 1 ,5 5 2
1 4 1 ,9 5 0
2 7 9 ,2 0 8
5 2 2 ,0 2 2
2 2 4 ,7 2 1

-1 .5

San Juan, PR .................

3 2 4 ,7 9 1

-2.2
1.1
-.1
-.3
.6
-.5
.9

2.1
5 .7
-.6
.9

-1.2
1 .7
3.1
-1 .9

2.1

4.1
3 .5
1 .9

73
209
45
17
228
35

3 0 ,7 8 8
2 5 ,8 4 7
4 3 ,7 5 1
2 2 ,3 1 3
3 2 ,5 7 0
2 6 ,5 7 7
2 9 ,4 0 6
3 7 ,2 8 7
4 1 ,6 9 8
3 3 ,2 1 0

5.1
3.1
4 .5

2 8 ,2 6 6
5 5 ,3 9 0
3 2 ,9 5 7
5 2 ,6 4 1
3 7 ,8 6 9
3 3 ,5 0 4
4 0 ,1 7 3
2 6 ,7 5 0
3 3 ,1 2 5
4 7 ,1 8 6

1.3
4 .8
3 .4

-.1
.5
.3

111

98
143
24
38
79
185
74
36
196

2 .7

2.0
.8
-.7
.9

2.1
-.9

216
158
134
1 90
159

1 .9

40

-.8
.6

191
93

3 1 ,2 6 1
3 6 ,3 8 8
2 9 ,3 1 0
3 1 ,6 0 1
3 2 ,6 3 1
3 4 ,0 9 7
3 5 ,7 3 6
3 7 ,0 9 2

-.5

169

2 2 ,1 7 9

-.3
.0
-.8
-.3

P e rc e n t
change,
2 0 0 0 -2 0 0 1 2

3 1 ,8 5 6
2 9 ,2 0 5
3 5 ,5 0 9
3 1 ,2 4 0
3 0 ,7 6 5
3 5 ,7 9 1
3 1 ,0 3 2
2 2 ,1 4 2
4 1 ,3 3 8
4 4 ,9 0 9

97
184
1 42

-.1

2 00 1

232
62
141
157
92
168
72
34
3
174

86

.7
.5
-.7

2.2
2.2
4 .2
3 .7
2 .7

2.0
1.2

2.8
4.1

1.1
4 .3

5.2
.9
3 .2

2.1
4 .8
4.1
4 .0
5 .3
3 .0

-.6
4 .7
3 .6
-1 .5
4 .8
3 .5
3 .9
2 .9

4.1

3.7

’ Includes areas not officially designated as
counties.
See Notes on Current Labor
Statistics.

4 Totals for the United States do not include
data for Puerto Rico.

2 Percent changes were computed from
annual employment and pay data adjusted for
noneconomic county reclassifications.
See
Notes on Current Labor Statistics.

Note: Data pertain to workers covered by
Unemployment
Insurance
(Ul)
and
Unemployment Compensation for Federal
Employees (UCFE) programs. The 248 U.S.
counties comprise 66.2 percent of the total
covered workers in the United States.

3 Rankings for percent change in
employment are based on the 249 counties that
are comparable over the year.

22.

A v e ra g e a n n u a l pay
R anked by
p e rc e n t
change,
2 0 0 0 -2 0 0 1 3

Annual data: Employment status of the population

[Numbers in thousands]_______________________
Employment status

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

Civilian noninstitutional population.........
Civilian labor force.............................
Labor force participation rate............

194,838
129,200
66.3

196,814
131,056
66.6

198,584
132,304
66.6

200,591
133,943
66.8

203,133
136,297
67.1

205,220
137,673
67.1

207,753
139,368
67.1

209,699
140,863
67.2

211,864
141,815
66.9

213,977
142,535
66.6

Employed.....................................
Employment-population ratio........
Agriculture................................
Nonagricultural industries..........

120,259
61.7
3,115
117,144

123,060
62.5
3,409
119,651

124,900
62.9
3,440
121,460

126,708
63.2
3,443
123,264

129,558
63.8
3,399
126,159

131,463
64.1
3,378
128,085

133,488
64.3
3,281
130,207

135,208
64.5
3,305
131,903

135,073
63.8
3,144
131,929

134,269
62.7
3,248
131,020

Unemployed.................................
Unemployment rate.....................
Not in the labor force..........................

8,940
6.9
65,638

7,996
6.1
65,758

7,404
5.6
66,280

7,236
5.4
66,647

6,739
4.9
66,837

6,210
4.5
67,547

5,880
4.2
68,385

5,655
4.0
68,836

6,742
4.8
70,050

8,266
5.8
71,442

Monthly Labor Review

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2003

23.

Annual data: Employment levels by industry

[In thousands]
1993

Industry

1994

1996

1995

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

128,916
108,709
25,507
539
6,415
18,552

131,720
111,018
25,669
543
6,653
18,473

131,922
110,989
24,944
565
6,685
17,695

130,793
109,531
23,836
557
6,555
16,725

Total employment.....................................
Private sector........................................
Goods-producing................................
Mining.............................................
Construction....................................
Manufacturing..................................

110,713
91,872
23,352
610
4,668
18,075

114,163
95,036
23,908
601
4,986
18,321

117,191
97,885
24,265
581
5,160
18,524

119,608
100,189
24,493
580
5,418
18,495

122,690
103,133
24,962
596
5,691
18,675

125,865
106,042
25,414
590
6,020
18,805

Service-producing...............................
Transportation and public utilities.......

87,361
5,811
5,981
19,773
6,757
30,197

90,256
5,984
6,162
20,507
6,896
31,579

92,925
6,132
6,378
21,187
6,806
33,117

95,115
6,253
6,482
21,597
6,911
34,454

97,727
6,408
6,648
21,966
7,109
36,040

100,451
6,611
6,800
22,295
7,389
37,533

103,409
6,834
6,911
22,848
7,555
39,055

106,051
7,031
6,947
23,337
7,578
40,457

106,978
7,065
6,776
23,522
7,712
40,970

106,957
6,773
6,671
23,306
7,761
41,184

18,841
2,915
4,488
11,438

19,128
2,870
4,576
11,682

19,305
2,822
4,635
11,849

19,419
2,757
4,606
12,056

19,557
2,699
4,582
12,276

19,823
2,686
4,612
12,525

20,206
2,669
4,709
12,829

20,702
2,777
4,786
13,139

20,933
2,616
4,885
13,432

21,262
2,619
4,947
13,695

Retail trade.....................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate....

Local............................................

Note: See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.

24. Annual data: Average hours and earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers on nonfarm
payrolls, by industry
In d u s tr y

1993

1994

1995

1997

1996

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

P riv a te s ec to r:


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Average weekly hours.......................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars).....................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)....................

34.5
10.83
373.64

34.7
11.12
385.86

34.5
11.43
394.34

34.4
11.82
406.61

34.6
12.28
424.89

34.6
12.78
442.19

34.5
13.24
456.78

34.5
13.76
474.72

34.2
14.32
489.74

34.1
14.77
503.66

44.3
14.60
646.78

44.8
14.88
666.62

44.7
15.30
683.91

45.3
15.62
707.59

45.4
16.15
733.21

43.9
16.91
742.35

43.2
17.05
736.56

43.1
17.22
742.18

43.5
17.56
763.86

42.9
17.76
761.90

38.5
14.38
553.63

38.9
14.73
573.00

38.9
15.09
587.00

39.0
15.47
603.33

39.0
16.04
625.56

38.9
16.61
646.13

39.1
17.19
672.13

39.3
17.88
702.68

39.3
18.34
720.76

38.8
18.87
732.16

41.4
11.74
486.04

42.0
12.07
506.94

41.6
12.37
514.59

41.6
12.77
531.23

42.0
13.17
553.14

41.7
13.49
562.53

41.7
13.90
579.63

41.6
14.37
597.79

40.7
14.83
603.58

40.9
15.30
625.77

39.3
13.55
532.52

39.7
13.78
547.07

39.4
14.13
556.72

39.6
14.45
572.22

39.7
14.92
592.32

39.5
15.31
604.75

38.7
15.69
607.20

38.4
16.21
622.46

38.2
16.79
641.38

38.3
17.29
662.21

38.2
11.74
448.47

38.4
12.06
463.10

38.3
12.43
476.07

38.3
12.87
492.92

38.4
13.45
516.48

38.3
14.07
538.88

38.3
14.59
558.80

38.5
15.22
585.97

38.2
15.86
605.85

38.4
16.21
622.46

28.8
7.29
209.95

28.9
7.49
216.46

28.8
7.69
221.47

28.8
7.99
230.11

28.9
8.33
240.74

29.0
8.74
253.46

29.0
9.09
263.61

28.9
9.46
273.39

28.9
9.77
282.82

29.0
10.04
291.16

35.8
11.35
406.33

35.8
11.83
423.51

35.9
12.32
442.29

35.9
12.80
459.52

36.1
13.34
481.57

36.4
14.07
512.15

36.2
14.62
529.24

36.4
15.14
551.10

36.1
15.80
570.38

36.1
16.35
590.24

32.5
10.78
350.35

32.5
11.04
358.80

32.4
11.39
369.04

32.4
11.79
382.00

32.6
12.26
400.33

32.6
12.84
418.58

32.6
13.37
435.86

32.7
13.93
455.51

32.7
14.67
479.71

32.6
15.24
496.82

M in in g :

Average weekly hours.....................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
C o n s tru c tio n :

Average weekly hours.....................................
Average hourly earnings (In dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
M a n u fa c tu rin g :

Average weekly hours.....................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars).................
T ra n s p o rta tio n a n d p u b lic u tilities :

Average weekly hours.....................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars).................
W h o le s a le trad e:

Average weekly hours.....................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)..................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars).................
R e ta il tra d e :

Average weekly hours.....................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)..................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars).................
F in a n c e , in s u ra n c e , a n d real e sta te :

Average weekly hours....................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)..................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars).................
S e rv ic e s :

Average weekly hours....................................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars).................

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

85

Current Labor Statistics:

25.

Compensation & Industrial Relations

Employment Cost Index, compensation,1 by occupation and industry group

[June 1989 = 100]
2000
Series

Sept.

2001
Mar.

June

2002

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Percent change

Sept.

Dec.

3 months
ended

12 months
ended

Dec. 2002
C iv ilia n w o r k e r s 2 .................................

149.5

152.5

153.8

155.6

156.8

158.4

159.9

161.3

162.2

0.6

3.4

151.5
150.0
153.7
151.8
145.6
148.5

154.4
153.2
156.6
155.3
148.2
152.0

156.0
154.3
158.6
156.8
149.3
153.3

157.7
156.7
159.6
158.8
151.1
155.0

158.9
157.5
161.2
160.0
152.0
156.9

160.5
158.5
163.7
162.0
153.7
158.4

162.1
159.3
165.6
163.3
155.1
159.4

163.5
161.4
166.3
164.9
156.4
161.3

164.3
162.4
166.7
166.1
157.5
162.2

.5
.6
.2
.7
.7
.6

3.4
3.1
3.4
3.8
3.6
3.4

148.0
148.7
150.1
151.2
149.0
149.5
149.7
146.9
149.6

150.7
151.3
153.0
154.3
152.5
153.2
151.7
150.6
152.6

152.2
152.6
154.4
155.4
154.6
155.6
152.2
151.9
154.0

153.2
153.3
156.4
158.1
156.7
158.2
156.1
153.8
156.0

154.4
154.6
157.6
159.0
158.3
160.0
156.6
155.2
157.2

156.3
156.6
159.1
160.2
160.5
162.3
157.1
156.5
158.7

157.7
158.1
160.7
161.1
161.8
163.8
157.4
157.5
160.2

158.7
159.1
162.2
163.2
163.1
165.7
161.6
160.2
161.7

169.2
160.5
162.8
163.9
164.5
167.6
162.8
161.7
162.4

.9
.9
.4
.4
.9
1.1
.7
.9
.4

3.8
3.8
3.3
3.1
3.9
4.8
4.0
4.2
3.3

Excluding sales occupations.......................................

149.9
149.8

153.0
153.0

154.5
154.4

155.9
156.0

157.2
157.2

158.9
159.0

160.7
160.5

161.6
161.6

162.3
162.4

.4
.5

3.2
3.3

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers.............................................
Excluding sales occupations.....................................
Professional specialty and technical occupations.........
Executive, adminitrative, and managerial occupations..
Sales occupations.....................................................
Administrative support occupations, including clerical...
Blue-collar workers....................................................
Precision production, craft, and repair occupations.......
Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors..........
Transportation and material moving occupations.........
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers....

152.6
152.9
152.2
154.4
151.2
152.3
145.5
145.8
146.0
139.9
149.4

155.7
156.5
156.3
157.3
152.3
156.1
148.2
148.7
148.3
142.6
152.2

157.4
158.1
157.5
159.4
154.5
157.7
149.3
149.7
149.1
143.9
153.4

158.7
159.6
159.2
160.2
155.0
159.5
151.0
151.8
150.4
145.6
154.9

160.1
160.9
160.3
161.8
156.7
160.8
151.9
152.5
151.5
146.3
156.5

161.9
162.8
161.5
164.4
157.7
162.8
153.6
153.7
153.6
148.7
158.7

163.8
164.3
162.5
166.6
161.6
164.2
155.1
155.7
154.7
149.6
159.9

164.6
165.3
163.6
167.0
161.6
165.6
156.3
156.9
155.4
151.0
161.4

165.2
165.9
164.4
167.2
161.9
166.7
157.3
157.8
156.7
151.8
162.9

.4
.4
.5
.1
.2
.7
.6
.6
.8
.5
.9

3.2
3.1
2.6
3.3
3.3
3.7
3.6
3.5
3.4
3.8
4.1

Service occupations....................................................

146.6

150.0

151.3

152.6

154.8

156.4

157.4

159.0

159.8

.5

3.2

Production and nonsupervisory occupations4...............

148.4

151.4

152.7

154.3

155.5

157.1

158.7

159.7

160.5

.5

3.2

Workers, by industry division:
Goods-producing.........................................................
Excluding sales occupations..................................
White-collar occupations..........................................
Excluding sales occupations..................................
Blue-collar occupations............................................
Construction........................................................
Manufacturing........................................................
White-collar occupations...........................................
Excluding sales occupations..................................
Blue-collar occupations............................................
Durables..................................................
Nondurables..............................................

147.9
147.2
151.3
149.6
145.8
145.1
148.7
151.4
149.3
146.7
149.4
147.5

150.7
150.1
154.5
153.0
148.2
148.2
151.3
154.2
152.2
149.1
151.8
150.4

152.1
151.5
156.5
155.0
149.3
150.3
152.6
156.0
154.0
150.0
153.1
151.6

153.1
152.5
156.8
155.3
150.8
151.7
153.3
156.0
153.8
151.3
154.0
152.0

154.4
153.7
158.1
156.5
151.9
153.0
154.6
156.9
154.7
152.7
155.3
153.2

156.2
155.5
160.1
158.4
153.6
154.1
156.6
159.1
156.7
154.6
156.9
156.0

157.6
156.9
161.9
160.2
154.8
155.2
158.1
161.1
158.6
155.8
158.3
157.5

158.6
157.9
162.9
161.1
155.9
156.3
159.1
162.2
159.6
156.7
158.9
159.2

160.1
159.2
164.3
162.3
157.3
157.9
160.5
163.3
160.7
158.3
160.6
160.3

.9
.8
.9
.7
.9
1.0
.9
.7
.7
1.0
1.1
.7

3.7
3.6
3.9
3.7
3.6
3.2
3.8
4.1
3.9
3.7
3.4
4.6

Service-producing..............................................
Excluding sales occupations..................................
White-collar occupations......................................
Excluding sales occupations..................................
Blue-collar occupations.............................................
Service occupations..........................................
Transportation and public utilities................................
Transportation........................................................
Public utilities................................................
Communications............................................
Electric, gas, and sanitary services........................
Wholesale and retail trade.........................................
Excluding sales occupations..................................
Wholesale trade.........................................
Excluding sales occupations..................................
Retail trade..................................................
General merchandise stores.................................
Food stores..........................................................

150.6
151.1
152.6
153.9
144.5
146.3
147.4
142.8
153.5
153.9
152.9
148.3
149.6
152.1
152.7
146.2
142.2
143.4

153.8
154.6
155.8
157.5
147.7
149.6
150.5
145.4
157.3
158.3
156.0
151.0
152.6
155.1
156.9
148.7
147.3
146.1

155.3
156.0
157.4
159.1
148.7
150.8
152.4
146.9
159.8
161.1
158.1
152.6
153.9
157.8
158.5
149.7
149.4
148.2

156.9
157.8
159.0
160.9
150.9
152.2
153.5
148.2
160.7
162.8
158.1
153.7
155.4
158.6
160.0
150.9
149.7
149.7

158.2
159.0
160.3
162.2
151.4
154.2
155.5
151.1
161.5
163.4
159.1
155.5
157.1
159.5
160.6
153.2
150.9
151.7

159.9
160.9
162.1
164.1
153.2
155.9
157.3
152.5
163.9
166.0
161.3
156.5
157.5
161.9
162.3
153.5
152.4
152.9

161.8
162.4
164.0
165.6
155.2
157.0
158.9
153.9
165.5
166.1
164.8
159.5
160.0
166.3
164.4
155.6
154.2
154.5

162.7
163.5
164.7
166.5
156.6
158.5
160.8
155.4
168.2
169.0
167.2
159.6
160.3
165.9
166.1
156.0
156.1
156.3

163.1
164.0
165.1
167.0
156.9
159.3
161.7
156.1
169.2
170.1
168.1
159.7
160.4
166.7
167.2
155.8
155.1
156.3

.2
.3
.2
.3
.2
.5
.6
.5
.6
.7
.5
.1
.1
.5
.7
-.1
-.6
.0

3.1
3.1
3.0
3.0
3.6
3.3
4.0
3.3
4.8
4.1
5.7
2.7
2.1
4.5
4.1
1.7
2.8
3.0

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers.....................................................
Professional specialty and technical.............................
Executive, admlnitrative, and managerial......................
Administrative support, including clerical......................
Blue-collar workers...................................................
Service occupations......................................................
Workers, by industry division:
Goods-producing................................................
Manufacturing........................................................
Service-producing.....................................................
Services.....................................................
Health services..................................................
Hospitals.........................................................
Educational services...........................................
Public administration3.......................................
Nonmanufacturing......................................................
P r iv a t e in d u s t r y w o r k e r s ..................................

See footnotes at end of table.

86
Monthly Labor Review

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2003

25. Continued—Employment Cost Index, compensation,1 by occupation and industry group
[June 1989 = 100]
2000
Series

Dec.

2002

2001
Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Percent change

Sept.

Dec.

3 months
ended

12 months
ended

Dec. 2002
Finance, insurance, and real estate............................
Excluding sales occupations..................................
Banking, savings and loan, and other credit agencies.
Insurance................................................................
Services....................................................................
Business services....................................................
Health services........................................................
Hospitals...............................................................
Educational services................................................
Colleges and universities........................................

155.7

157.9

158.4
166.5
155.2
154.1
158.4
150.6
151.1
159.9
159.2

Nonmanufacturing.....................................................
White-collar workers................................................
Excluding sales occupations.................................
Blue-collar occupations............................................
Service occupations.................................................
S t a t e a n d lo c a l g o v e r n m e n t w o r k e r s ..............................................

169.8
182.1
164.0
162.6
166.3
160.6
162.8
168.5
168.1

167.3
171.3
184.2
166.1
163.7
166.6
162.0
164.5
169.0
168.4

168.0
172.1
184.6
167.1
164.9
167.2
163.2
166.2
173.5
172.0

173.1
185.3
167.9
165.4
167.5
164.4
168.1
175.2
173.7

0.3
.6
.4
.5
.3
.2
.7
1.1
1.0
1.0

4.5
4.9
6.3
4.1
2.7
.8
3.8
4.9
4.5
3.7

157.6
160.5
162.3
150.6
154.1

159.3
162.2
164.2
152.2
155.9

161.1
164.1
165.7
154.0
156.9

162.0
164.8
166.6
155.4
158.4

162.5
165.3
167.1
155.9
159.2

.3
.3
.3
.3
.5

3.1
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.3

154.3

155.2

156.1

156.7

160.1

161.5

.9

4.1

150.4
149.2
153.7
151.6
149.0

153.7
152.8
156.4
154.2
151.5

154.4
153.2
157.6
155.6
153.2

155.2
153.6
159.5
156.9
154.0

155.7
154.1
159.6
158.0
154.7

159.3
158.1
162.3
161.0
158.4

160.7
159.4
163.8
162.4
159.8

.9
.8
.9
.9
.9

4.1
4.0
3.9
4.4
4.3

150.6
151.9
154.4
154.7
150.1
150.5
149.0
154.3
151.9

154.4
154.5
157.1
157.4
154.1
154.4
152.8
153.8
151.9

154.9
156.1
158.5
159.1
154.5
154.8
153.1
159.6
155.2

155.5
157.9
160.4
160.7
154.8
155.1
153.4
160.0
156.5

155.9
158.7
161.4
161.8
155.1
155.4
153.6
160.4
157.9

159.7
161.0
163.5
164.1
159.2
159.6
157.7
164.7
160.2

160.9
.8
1.1
162.8
1.2
165.5
166.2
1.3
.7
160.3
.7
160.7
158.8
.7
165.8
.7
161.7 __________£

3.9
4.3
4.4
4.5
3.8
3.8
3.7
3.9
4.2

161.2
170.8
157.6
156.5
160.5
152.7
153.5
162.3
162.2

159.5
163.1
172.7
159.3
157.8
163.0
154.7
155.9
162.6
162.6

160.9
164.7
175.4
159.9
160.0
165.2
156.8
158.4
166.4
166.2

161,3
165.0
174.5
161.3
161.0
166.2
158.4
160.3
167.6
167.5

151.1
153.7
155.1
144.8
147.8

153.1
155.8
157.5
146.9
149.5

154.7
157.5
159.1
148.1
150.7

156.3
159.0
160.9
150.2
152.1

148.9

150.3

151.2

148.3
147.4
150.7
149.4
147.2

149.5
148.4
152.4
150.7
148.6

148.9
148.8
151.6
152.0
148.7
149.0
148.1
151.7
148.3

149.9
150.1
152.1
152.2
149.6
149.9
148.5
153.7
150.6

165.2

168.5

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers......................................................
Professional specialty and technical.............................
Executive, administrative, and managerial.....................
Administrative support, including clerical.......................
Blue-collar workers.......................................................
Workers, by industry division:
Services......................................................................
Services excluding schools........................................
Health services........................................................
Hospitals..............................................................
Educational services................................................
Schools................................................................
Elementary and secondary..................................
Colleges and universities.....................................
Public administration ...................................................

1 Cost (cents per hour worked) measured in the Employment Cost Index consists of
wages, salaries, and employer cost of employee benefits.
2 Consists of private industry workers (excluding farm and household workers) and
State and local government (excluding Federal Government) workers.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

3 Consists of legislative, judicial, administrative, and regulatory activities.
4 This series has the same industry and occupational coverage as the Hourly
Earnings index, which was discontinued in January 1989.
5 Includes, for example, library, social, and health services.

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

87

Current Labor Statistics:

Compensation & Industrial Relations

26. Employment Cost Index, wages and salaries, by occupation and industry group
[June 1989 = 100]_______________________
2000

2001

2002

Percent change

Series
Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

3 months
ended

12 months
ended

Dec. 2002
C iv ilia n w o r k e r s 1..............................

147.9

149.5

150.8

152.3

153.4

154.8

156.1

157.2

157.8

0.4

2.9

150.2
149.6
152.4
149.6
142.9
147.1

151.7
151.1
154 0
151.6
144.7
148.6

153.1
152.155 8
152 7
146.0
149.7

154.5
154.2
156 7

155.6
155.1

157.0
155.6

158.4
156.2

159.6
158.0

160.1
158.6

.3
.4

2.9
2.3

158 1

160 7

16? 6

147.6
151.2

148.5
153.0

149.7
154.2

151.0
155.1

151.9
‘ 56.2

152.6
156.9

.5
.4

2.8
2.5

145.3
146.5
148 9
151.0
148.3
147.3
149 6

147.0
148.5
150 5
152.6
149.8
148.8

147,6
150.0
151 7
153.6
151.8
151.2

149.5
150.7
153 4
156.2
153.7
15.5

150.5
151.7

151.8
153.1

153.1
154.5

153.9
155.4

155.1
156.5

.8
.7

3.1
3.2

157.1
155.5
155.5

158.1
157.3
157.2

158.8
158.5
158.6

160.7
159.6
160.3

161.1
160.9
162.2

.2
.8
1.2

2.5
3.5
4.3

150 5

151 0

146.1
148.1

147.6
149.7

148.7
149.7

150.3
152.6

151.6
153.8

152.5
155.0

153.4
156.4

154.8
157.5

155.8
158.0

.6
.3

2.8
2.7

Excluding sales occupations.......................................

147.7
147.6

149.4
149.5

150.9
150.8

152.1
152.2

153.3
153.3

154.7
154.9

156.3
156.1

157.0
157.0

157.5
157.9

.3
.3

2.7
2.7

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers....................................................
Excluding sales occupations.....................................
Professional specialty and technical occupations.........
Executive, adminitrative, and managerial occupations..
Sales occupations......................................................
Administrative support occupations, including clerical...
Blue-collar workers......................................................
Precision production, craft, and repair occupations......
Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors..........
Transportation and material moving occupations.........
Handlers, eguipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers....

150.6
151.1
150.2
153.0
148.7
150.1
142.8
142.8
143.7
137.6
146.2

152.3
153.0
152.1
154.7
149.2
152.3
144.6
144.6
145.6
139.5
148.0

153.8
154.4
153.2
156.5
151.5
153.6
145.9
145.7
146.9
140.7
149.8

154.8
155.7
154.8
157.2
151.2
155.3
147.5
147.7
148.1
142.1
151.0

156.1
156.9
155.9
158.6
152.6
156.5
148.3
148,4
149.0
142.8
152.4

157.7
158.6
156.7
161.3
153.6
158.2
149.6
149.2
150.5
144.8
154.2

159.4
160.0
157.4
163.6
157.0
159.2
150.9
151.0
151.6
145.2
155.1

160.0
169.8
158.2
164.3
156.9
160.3
151.7
151.8
152.0
146.3
156.0

160.4
160.8
158.5
164.5
156.8
161.3
152.4
152.3
153.2
146.9
157.2

.3
.3
.2
.1
-.1
.6
.5
.3
.8
.4
.8

2.8
2.8
1.7
3.7
2.8
3.1
2.8
2.6
2.8
2.9
3.1

Service occupations.....................................................

144.9

146.4

147.5

148.7

150.6

152.0

152.8

153.9

154.4

.4

2.6

Production and nonsupervisory occupations3...............

146.0

147.7

149.0

150.3

151.5

152.7

154.0

154.7

155.2

.3

2.4

Workers, by industry division:
Goods-producing.........................................................
Excluding sales occupations..................................
White-collar occupations..........................................
Excluding sales occupations..................................
Blue-collar occupations............................................
Construction..............................................................
Manufacturing...........................................................
White-collar occupations..........................................
Excluding sales occupations..................................
Blue-collar occupations............................................
Durables...................................................................
Nondurables.............................................................

145.2
144.6
148.7
147.2
143.1
140.7
146.5
149 2
147.5
144.6
147.3
145.4

147.0
146.3
150.5
148 9
144 7
142.1
148.5
151 1
149.9
146.4
149.0
147.5

148.6
147 8
152.3
150 5

149.5
148 7
152.6

140 7

160 Q

153.6

155.0

150 8

161 7

16? Q

146 1

147 4

143.9
150.0
15? 7
150.5
147.8
150.5
149.0

145.1
150.7

146.3
151.7

15? 8

163 3

150.5
149.1
151.5
149.3

Service-producing.........................................................
Excluding sales occupations..................................
White-collar occupations..........................................
Excluding sales occupations..................................
Blue-collar occupations............................................
Service occupations.................................................
Transportation and public utilities...............................
Transportation.........................................................
Public utilities...........................................................
Communications...................................................
Electric, gas, and sanitary services........................
Wholesale and retail trade..........................................
Excluding sales occupations..................................
Wholesale trade.......................................................
Excluding sales occupations..................................
Retail trade..............................................................
General merchandise stores...................................
Food stores...........................................................

148.9
149.4
150.9
152.3
142.2
144.8
142.3
138.6
147.1
147.4
146.6
147.4
149.0
151.6
153.2
145.2
142.2
141.6

150.5
151.3
152.5
154.3
144.3
146.1
143.7
139.8
148.7
149.2
148.1
148.4
150.7
151.6
154.9
146.9
143.8
143.3

151.9
152.6
154.0
155.6
145.3
147.2
145.7
141.6
151.0
151.8
149.9
150.1
151.9
154.5
156.5
147.8
145.5
144.5

153.2
154.2
155.2
157.2
147.5
148.4
146.7
142.6
152.0
153.3
150.4
150.6
153.1
154.1
157.4
148.8
145.7
145.7

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers.....................................................
Professional specialty and technical.............................
Executive, adminitrative, and managerial......................
Administrative support, including clerical.......................
Blue-collar workers........................................................
Service occupations.....................................................
Workers, by industry division:
Goods-producing...........................................................
Manufacturing.............................................................
Service-producing.........................................................
Services......................................................................
Health services..........................................................
Hospitals.................................................................
Public administration2...................................................
Nonmanufacturing.........................................................
P r iv a t e in d u s t r y w o r k e r s ......................................................

See footnotes at end of table.

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154 6

154 5

150.5

151.7

153.1

153.9

155.0

.7

3.0

156.6

157.9

158.6

.7

3.3

147.0
153.1

148.2
154.4

149.0
155.4

150.2
156.5

.8
.7

151.0
150.3
151.7
153.9

152.3
151.7
153.9
151.9

153.9
152.8
155.3
153.1

155.0
153.5
156.0
154.4

155.9
154.7
157.3
155.2

.6
.8
.8
.5

2.7
3.2
0.0
3.2
2.9
3.1
3.3

151.9
156.1
157.2
158.2
148.1
149.4
149.2
145.7
153.6
155.2
151.7
152.1

156.1
157.2
158.2
160.4
149.4
151.6
150.5
147.4
154.3
155.3
153.0
153.0

157.7
158.5
159.9
161.6
151.1
152.4
152.1
148.6
156.4
157.1
155.5
155.7

158.4
159.3
160.5
162.5
151.8
153.5
153.4
149.6
158.2
159.6
156.5
155.5

158.6
159.6
160.7
162.8
152.0
154.1
154.1
150.1
159.3
160.7
157.4
155.5

.1
.2
.1
.2
.1
.4
.5
.3
.7
.7
.6
.0

2.7
2.6
2.7
2.6
2.6
2.6
3.3
3.0
3.7
3.5
3.8
2.2

.4
.7
-.1
-.6
.1

4.0
3.7
1.3
1.8
2.5

-

154.8
157.9
150.7
146.5
146.7

-

157.2
159.4
150.9
147.9
148.0

-

161.3
161.2
152.7
148.9
148.9

_

160.4
162.6
152.9
150.1
150.1

_

161.0
163.7
152.7
149.2
150.3

_

_

26.

Continued—Employment Cost Index, wages and salaries, by occupation and industry group

[June 1989 = 100]___________________________________
2000

2001

2002

Percent change

Series
Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

3 months
ended

12 months
ended

Dec. 2002
Finance, insurance, and real estate............................
Excluding sales occupations..................................
Banking, savings and loan, and other credit agencies.
Insurance................................................................
Services....................................................................
Health services........................................................
Hospitals...............................................................
Educational services...............................................
Colleges and universities.......................................

151.7
154.1
165.7
150.8
151.8
156 0
148.1
146.8
154.3
152.9

153.9
156.6
169.4
152.4
153.8
158 2
149.8
148.5
155.4
154.1

154.6
157.6
170.8
153.3
155.0
160 8
151.8
151.0
156.1
155.0

155.8
159.1
173.2
153.6
157.1
162 8
153.6
153.3
159.6
158.4

156.0
159.1
171.7
155.0
158.2
163 7
155.4
155.4
160.5
159.6

160.3
164.5
181.2
157.1
159.5
164 0
157.3
157.1
161.2
159.9

162.0
165.7
182.8
158.6
160.3
164 n
158.4
158.6
161.2
159.9

162.4
166.1
182.7
159.6
161.5
164 6
159.9
160.2
165.2
163.1

162.6
167.3
183.9
159.1
161.7
164 fl
160.7
162.1
166.5
164.3

0.1
.7
.7
-.3
.1
1
.8
1.2
.8
.7

4.2
5.2
7.1
2.6
2.2
7
3.4
4.3
3.7
2.9

Nonmanufacturing.....................................................
White-collar workers................................................
Excluding sales occupations.................................
Blue-collar occupations............................................
Service occupations.................................................

147.9
150.6
151.9
140.9
144.7

149.5
152.3
153.9
142.8
146.0

150.9
153.8
155.3
143.9
147.1

152.2
155.0
156.9
145.8
148.2

153.5
156.4
158.3
146.4
150.1

155.0
158.0
160.1
147.5
151.4

156.5
159.6
161.3
149.0
152.3

157.2
160.2
162.1
149.8
153.4

157.5
160.5
162.5
150.2
154.0

.2
.2
.2
.3
.4

2.6
2.6
2.7
2.6
2.6

S t a t e a n d l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t w o r k e r s .............................................

148.3

150.2

151.2

154.3

155.2

156.1

156.7

160.1

161.5

.6

3.2

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers......................................................
Professional specialty and technical.............................
Executive, administrative, and managerial.....................
Administrative support, including clerical......................
Blue-collar workers........................................................

148.0
148.2
148.8
146.2
145.1

149.0
149.1
150.1
147.0
146.0

149.8
149.8
151.5
147.6
146.5

152.7
153.0
153.9
149.8
149.1

153.3
153.4
155.1
150.9
150.8

153.9
153.6
156.6
151.9
151.6

154.4
154.1
156.8
152.8
152.1

157.4
157.5
159.0
155.1
154.5

158.4
158.4
160.1
156.0
155.1

.6
.6
.7
.6
.4

3.3
3.3
3.2
3.4
2.9

Workers, by industry division:
Services......................................................................

148.7

149.5

150.2

153.7

154.2

154.6

155.0

158.4

159.2

.5

3.2

Services excluding schools4........................................
Health services........................................................
Hospitals..............................................................
Educational services................................................
Schools................................................................
Elementary and secondary..................................
Colleges and universities.....................................

147.9
149.3
149.2
148.7
148.9
148.5
149.5

149.1
149.9
149.5
149.5
149.7
149.0
151.4

150.7
151.9
151.8
150.0
150.2
149.5
151.8

153.2
154.2
154.2
153.6
153.8
152.8
156.5

154.9
155.8
155.7
154.0
154.1
153.1
156.7

156.7
157.8
157.7
154.2
154.3
153.4
156.8

157.3
158.6
158.8
154.5
154.6
153.6
157.3

159.1
160.5
160.6
158.1
158.3
157.4
160.7

160.3
162.2
162.5
158.9
159.0
158.1
161.6

.8
1.1
1.2
.5
.4
.4
.6

3.5
4.1
4.4
3.2
3.2
3.3
3.1

Public administration2...................................................
146.1
148.7
147.6
150.3
151.6
152.5
153.4
154.8
155.8
.6
2.8
' Consists of private industry workers (excluding farm and household workers) and
3 This series has the same industry and occupational coverage as the Hourly
State and local government (excluding Federal Government) workers.
Earnings index, which was discontinued in January 1989.
2 Consists of legislative, judicial, administrative, and regulatory activities.
4 Includes, for example, library, social, and health services.

27.

Employment Cost Index, benefits, private industry workers by occupation and industry group

[June 1989 = 100]____________________________________________________________________________
2000

2001

2002

Percent change

Series
Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

3 months
ended

12 months
ended

Dec. 2002
158.6

161.5

163.2

165.2

166.7

169.3

171.6

173.1

174.6

0.9

4.7

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers......................................................
Blue-collar workers.......................................................

161.5
154.1

165.2
155.7

167.4
156.7

169.5
158.3

171.2
159.2

173.5
162.2

176.1
164.0

177.2
166.2

178.5
167.8

.7
1.0

4.3
5.4

Workers, by industry division:
Goods-producing..........................................................
Service-producing.........................................................
Manufacturing...............................................................
Nonmanufacturing........................................................

156.2
159.4
154.8
159.7

158.5
162.6
157.1
162.9

159.6
164.6
157.9
164.9

160.8
167.1
158.5
167.4

162.6
168.4
160.4
168.6

165.8
170.7
163.7
171.1

167.4
173.3
165.5
173.5

168.8
174.9
166.8
175.2

171.0
175.9
168.9
176.3

1.3
.6
1.3
.6

5.2
4.5
5.3
4.4

P r iv a te i n d u s t r y w o r k e r s .......................................................................


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89

Current Labor Statistics:

Compensation & Industrial Relations

28. Employment Cost Index, private nonfarm workers by bargaining status, region, and area size
[June 1989 = 100]___________________________________________________________________________________
2000

2001

2002

Percent change

Series
Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

3 months
ended

12 months
ended

Dec. 2002
C O M P E N S A T IO N
W o r k e r s , b y b a r g a in in g s t a t u s 1

Union................................................................................
Goods-producing...........................................................
Service-producing..........................................................
Manufacturing...............................................................
Nonmanufacturing.........................................................

146.9
147.3
146.4
147.4
146.2

147.9
147.9
147.6
147.9
147.3

149.5
149.3
149.5
148.8
149.4

151.0
150.6
151.2
149.9
151.1

153.1
151.6
154.2
151.4
153.5

154.8
153.4
156.0
153.4
155.0

156.3
154.7
157.6
154.6
156.6

158.1
156.2
159.9
155.9
158.8

159.5
157.8
161.1
157.9
159.9

0.9
1.9
.8
1.3
.7

4.2
4.0
4.5
4.3
4.2

Nonunion...........................................................................
Goods-producing...........................................................
Service-producing..........................................................
Manufacturing................................................................
Nonmanufacturing.........................................................

151.6
149.3
152.3
149.9
151.8

153.8
151.6
154.4
152.4
153.9

155.3
153.1
155.9
153.7
155.4

156.7
154.0
157.5
154.4
157.0

157.8
155.3
158.6
155.5
158.2

159.6
157.2
160.3
157.6
159.9

161.4
158.6
162.2
159.1
161.7

162.5
159.5
162.9
160.1
162.4

162.8
160.8
163.3
161.3
162.9

.4
.8
.2
.7
.3

3.2
3.5
3.0
3.7
3.0

150.3
148.6
153.3
151.8

151.6
151.1
154.8
154.3

153.7
152.3
156.0
156.0

155.2
153.5
157.4
157.6

156.3
154.6
158.6
159.4

158.3
156.2
161.1
160.4

159.9
157.6
162.2
162.9

160.5
158.9
163.5
163.8

161.3
159.0
164.6
165.0

.5
.1
.7
,7

3.2
2.8
3.8
3.5

151.0
150.3

153.1
152.1

154.6
153.7

156.0
154.8

157.4
155.6

159.1
157.5

160.9
158.5

161.8
160.0

162.5
169.8

.4
.5

3.2
3.3

Union................................................................................
Goods-producing...........................................................
Service-producing..........................................................
Manufacturing................................................................

141.2
141.3
141.5
142.6
140.4

142.1
142.4
142.2
143.9
141.1

143.7
144.2
143.7
145.5
142.7

145.1
145.3
145.4
146.7
144.3

147.4
146.3
148.9
148.0
147.1

148.4
147.2
150.0
149.0
148.1

149.8
158.6
151.4
150.2
149.6

151.3
150.0
152.9
151.6
151.1

152.5
151.2
154.1
153.1
152.1

.8
.8
.8
1.0
.7

3.5
3.3
3.5
3.4
3.4

Nonunion...........................................................................
Goods-producing............................................................
Service-producing..........................................................
Manufacturing...............................................................
Nonmanufacturing.........................................................

149.0
146.8
149.6
148.0
148.9

150.8
148.8
151.4
150.1
150.7

152.2
150.3
152.7
151.6
152.0

153.4
151.1
154.1
152.2
153.3

154.4
152.1
155.1
153.1
154.4

155.9
153.5
156.7
154.7
155.9

157.5
154.8
158.3
156.1
157.5

158.1
155.5
158.9
156.8
158.1

158.5
156.6
159.0
157.8
158.3

.3
.7
.1
.6
.1

2.7
3.0
2.5
3.1
2.5

146.0
146.3
149.6
149.2

147.3
148.3
150.9
151.3

149.2
149.3
152.3
152.9

150.6
150.2
153.6
154.3

151.7
151.2
154.7
156.0

153.5
152.5
157.1
156.4

154.9
153.6
158.5
158.7

155.1
154.7
159.2
159.3

155.7
154.6
160.2
160.1

.4
-.1
.6
.5

2.6
2.2
3.6
2.6

148.0
146.0

149.8
147.4

151.2
148.8

152.4
149.7

153.7
150.5

155.1
151.7

156.7
152.6

157.4
153.8

157.9
154.8

.3
.7

2.7
2.9

W o r k e r s , b y r e g io n 1

Northeast..........................................................................
South...............................................................................

W o r k e r s , b y a r e a s iz e 1

Metropolitan areas............................................................
W A G E S A N D S A L A R IE S
W o r k e r s , b y b a r g a in in g s t a t u s 1

W o r k e r s , b y r e g io n 1

Northeast..........................................................................
South...............................................................................
Midwest (formerly North Central).......................................
West................................................................................
W o r k e r s , b y a r e a s iz e 1

Metropolitan areas............................................................
Other areas......................................................................

1 The indexes are calculated differently from those for the occupation and Industry groups. For a detailed description of the index calculation, see the M o n th ly
Technical Note, "Estimation procedures for the Employment Cost Index," May 1982.

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L a b o r R e v ie w

29. Percent of full-time em ployees participating in employer-provided benefit plans, and in selected features within plans,
medium and large private establishments, selected years, 1980-97
It e m

Scope of survey (in 000's)...................................
Number of employees (in 000’s):
With medical care............................................
Wth life insurance...........................................
With defined benefit plan..................................

1982

1980

1984

1988

1986

1989

1991

1993

1995

1997

21,352

21,043

21,013

21,303

31,059

32,428

31,163

28,728

33,374

38,409

20,711
20,498
17,936

20,412
20,201
17,676

20,383
20,172
17,231

20,238
20,451
16,190

27,953
28,574
19,567

29,834
30,482
20,430

25,865
29,293
18,386

23,519
26,175
16,015

25,546
29,078
17,417

29,340
33,495
19,202

10
75
99
10.1
20
100
62
_

9
25
76
25
99
10.0
24
3.8
99
67
_

9
26
73
26
99
9.8

11
29
72
26
85
3.2
96
9.4
24

96
67
37
26
_

29
68
26
83
3.0
91
9.4
21
3.1
97
65
60
53
_

80
3.3
89
9.1
22
96
58

81
3.7
89
9.3
20
3.5
95
56

16
_

10
26
71
26
84
3.3
97
9.2
22
3.1
97
68
37
18
_

8
30
67
28
80
3.3
92
10.2
21

99
67
_

10
27
72
26
88
3.2
99
10.0
25
3.7
100
70
_

84

93

97

97

97

95

90

92

83

82

77

76

58

62

46
62
8

66
70
18

76
79
28

75
80
28

81
80
30

86
82
42

78
73
56

85
78
63

36
$11.93
58
$35.93

43
$12.80
63
$41.40

44

$19.29
64
$60.07

47
$25.31
66
$72.10

51
$26.60
69
$96.97

61
$31.55
76
$107.42

67
$33.92
78
$118.33

69
$39.14
80
$130.07

96

96

92

94

94

91

87

87

72
10
59

78
8
49

71
7
42

71
6
44

76
5
41

77
7
37

74
6
33

42

43

53

55

T im e -o ff p la n s

Participants with:
Paid lunch time................................................
Average minutes per day.................................
Paid rest time..................................................
Average minutes per day.................................
Paid funeral leave............................................
Average days per occurrence...........................
Paid holidays...................................................
Average days per year....................................
Paid personal leave..........................................
Average days per year....................................
Paid vacations.................................................
Paid sick leave 1..............................................
Unpaid maternity leave.....................................
Unpaid paternity leave......................................
Unpaid family leave.........................................

23
3.6

3 .3

98
69
33

9

3.3

3.3

In s u ra n c e p la n s

Participants in medical care plans.........................
Percent of participants with coverage for:
Home health care...........................................

Percent of participants with employee
contribution required for:
26

27

46

51

96

96

Average monthly contribution..........................
Average montniy contrioution..........................
Percent of participants with:
Accidental death and dismemberment
insurance.....................................................
Retiree protection available...............................
Participants in long-term disability

69

72

74

-

64

64

40

43

47

48

42

45

40

41

54

51

51

49

46

43

45

44

Participants in sickness and accident
Participants in short-term disability plans 1.............
R e tire m e n t p la n s

Participants in defined benefit pension plans.........
Percent of participants with:
Normal retirement prior to age 65......................
Early retirement available................................
Ad hoc pension increase in last 5 years.............
Benefit coordinated with Social Security.............
Participants in defined contribution plans...............
Participants in plans with tax-deferred savings
arrangements.................................................

84

84

82

76

63

63

59

56

52

50

55
98
53
45
-

58
97
52
45
-

63
97
47
54
56
-

64
98
35
57
62

59
98
26
55
62

62
97
22
64
63

55
98
7
56
54

52
95
6
61
48

52
96
4
58
51

52
95
10
56
49

60

45

48

48

49

55

57

36

41

44

43

54

55

5
12

9
23

10
36

12
52

12
38
5

13
32
7

-

-

-

33

_

_

_

2
5

O th e r b e n e fits

Employees eligible for:
Flexible benefits plans......................................

Premium conversion plans.................................
The definitions for paid sick leave and short-term disability (previously sickness and
accident insurance) were changed for the 1995 survey. Paid sick leave now includes only
plans that specify either a maximum number of days per year or unlimited days. Shortterms disability now includes all insured, self-insured, and State-mandated plans available
on a per-disability basis, as well as the unfunded per-disability plans previously reported as
sick leave. Sickness and accident insurance, reported in years prior to this survey, included
only insured, self-insured, and State-mandated plans providing per-disability bene­


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fits at less than full pay.
2 Prior to 1995, reimbursement accounts included premium conversion plans, which
specifically allow medical plan participants to pay required plan premiums with pretax
dollars. Also, reimbursement accounts that were part of flexible benefit plans were
tabulated separately.
NOTE:

Dash indicates data not available.

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

91

Current Labor Statistics:

Compensation & Industrial Relations

30. Percent of full-time employees participating in employer-provided benefit plans, and in selected features
within plans, small private establishments and State and local governments, 1987, 1990, 1992, 1994, and 1996
Small private establishments

Item
1990
Scope of survey (in 000's)...................................
Number of employees (in 000's):
With medical care............................................
With life insurance...........................................
Wth defined benefit plan..................................

1992

1994

State and local governments
1987

1996

1990

1994

1992

32,466

34,360

35,910

39,816

10,321

12,972

12,466

12,907

22,402
20,778
6,493

24,396
21,990
7,559

23,536
21,955
5,480

25,599
24,635
5,883

9,599
8,773
9,599

12,064
11,415
11,675

11,219
11,095
10,845

11,192
11,194
11,708

8
37
48
27
47
2.9
84
9.5
11
2.8
88
47

9
37
49
26
50
3.0
82
9.2
12
2.6
88
53

11
36
56
29
63
3.7
74
13.6
39
2.9
67
95

10
34
53
29
65
3.7
75
14.2
38
2.9
67
95

18
7

51
3.0
80
7.6
14
3.0
86
50
_
48

17
34
58
29
56
3.7
81
10.9
38
2.7
72
97

17
8

50
3.1
82
7.5
13
2.6
88
50
_
47

57
30

51
33

59
44

62
3.7
73
11.5
38
3.0
66
94
_
93

69

71

66

64

93

93

90

87

79
83
26

80
84
28

-

-

76
78
36

82
79
36

87
84
47

84
81
55

42
$25.13
67
$109.34
64

47
$36.51
73
$150.54
64

52
$40.97
76
$159.63
61

52
$42.63
75
$181.53
62

35
$15.74
71
$71.89
85

38
$25.53
65
$117.59
88

43
$28.97
72
$139.23
89

47
$30.20
71
$149.70
87

78
1
19

76
1
25

79
2
20

77
1
13

67
1
55

67
1
45

74
1
46

64
2
46

19

23

20

22

31

27

28

30

6

26

26

14

21

22

21

T im e -o ff p la n s

Participants with:
Paid lunch time................................................
Average minutes per day.................................
Paid rest time..................................................
Average minutes per day.................................
Average days per occurrence...........................
Paid holidays...................................................
Average days per year'...................................
Paid personal leave..........................................
Average days per year....................................
Paid vacations.................................................
Unpaid leave...................................................
Unpaid paternity leave......................................
Unpaid family leave..........................................
In s u ra n c e p la n s

Participants in medical care plans.........................
Percent of participants with coverage for:
Home health care...........................................
Physical exam...............................................
Percent of participants with employee
contribution required for:
Self coverage................................................
Average monthly contribution..........................
Family coverage............................................
Average monthly contribution..........................
Participants in life insurance plans........................
Percent of participants with:
Accidental death and dismemberment
insurance......................................................
Survivor Income benefits..................................
Retiree protection available...............................
Participants in long-term disability
insurance plans..............................................
Participants in sickness and accident

29

Participants in short-term disability plans 2.............
R e tire m e n t p la n s

Participants in defined benefit pension plans.........
Percent of participants with:
Normal retirement prior to age 65......................
Ad hoc pension increase in last 5 years.............
Terminal earnings formula...............................
Benefit coordinated with Social Security............
Participants in defined contribution plans...............
Participants in plans with tax-deferred savings
arrangements.................................................

20

22

15

15

93

90

87

91

54
95
7
58
49

50
95
4
54
46

-

47
92

92
90
33
100
18

89
88
16
100
8

92
89
10
100
10

92
87
13
99
49

-

31

33

34

38

9

9

9

9

17

24

23

28

28

45

45

24

1
8

2
14

3
19

4
12
7

5
5

5
31

5
50

5
64

53
44

O th e r b e n e fits

Employees eligible for:
Reimbursement accounts 3................................
Premium conversion plans ...............................

1 Methods used to calculate the average number of paid holidays were revised
in 1994 to count partial days more precisely. Average holidays for 1994 are
not comparable with those reported in 1990 and 1992.
2 The definitions for paid sick leave and short-term disability (previously
sickness and accident insurance) were changed for the 1996 survey. Paid sick
leave now includes only plans that specify either a maximum number of days
per year or unlimited days. Short-term disability now includes all insured, selfinsured, and State-mandated plans available on a per-disability basis, as well
as the unfunded per-disability plans previously reported as sick leave.

92
Monthly Labor Review

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2003

Sickness and accident insurance, reported in years prior to this survey,
included only Insured, self-insured, and State-mandated plans providing perdisability benefits at less than full pay.
3 Prior to 1996, reimbursement accounts included premium conversion plans,
which specifically allow medical plan participants to pay required plan
premiums with pretax dollars. Also, reimbursement accounts that were part of
flexible benefit plans were tabulated separately.
Note: Dash indicates data not available.

31. Work stoppages involving 1,000 workers or more
Measure

Annual totals

2001

2000

Dec.

2001

2002p
Jan

Mar

Feb

Apr

May

June

Aug.

July

Sept.

Nov.

Oct.

Dec.

Number of stoppages:
Beginning in period.........................
In effect during period.....................

39
40

29
30

2
2

0
1

1
2

1
1

2
3

3
5

1
3

3
4

1
3

3
3

1
3

2
2

1
1

Workers involved:
Beginning in period (in thousands)....
In effect during period (in thousands).

394
397

99
102

6.0
6.0

.0
1.0

1.5
2.5

2.9
2.9

4.1
7.0

5.1
9.2

1.5
5.3

6.7
8.2

3.5
6.2

13.7
13.7

1.2
13.5

4.3
4.3

1.4
1.4

Days idle:
Number (in thousands)...................

133.4
27.2
80.7
138.2
50.6
39.3
23.9
20,419
9.0
43.5
36.0
54.0
1,151
55.0
21.0
.00
.00
.00
,00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
,00
,00
,00
.06
Percent of estimated working time1....
(2)
1 Agricultural and government employees are included in the total employed and total working time; private household, forestry, and fishery employees are excluded. An explanation of
the measurement of idleness as a percentage of the total time worked is found in" Total economy' measures of strike idleness," M onthly Lab or R e vie w , October 1968, pp. 54—56.
2 Less than 0.005.
p = preliminary.
NOTE: Dash indicates data not available.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

93

Current Labor Statistics:

32.

Price Data

Consumer Price Indexes for All Urban Consumers and for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers: U.S. city average,
by expenditure category and commodity or service group

[1 9 8 2 - 8 4 = 1 0 0 , unless otherw ise indicated]____________________________________

Annual average

Series

2001

CONSUMER PRICE INDEX
FOR ALL URBAN CONSUMERS
All items..........................................................
All items (1967- 100)........................................
Food and beverages.........................................
Food.............................................................
Food at home...............................................
Cereals and bakery products.........................
Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs........................
Dairy and related products1...........................
Fruits and vegetables...................................
Nonalcoholic beverages and beverage
materials.................................................
Other foods at home....................................
Sugar and sweets......................................
Fats and oils.............................................
Other foods...............................................
Other miscellaneous foods12....................
Food away from home...................................
Other food awav from home1'2......................
Alcoholic beverages........................................
Housing..........................................................
Rent of primary residence.............................
Lodging away from home..............................
Owners’ equivalent rent of primary residence3....
Tenants’ and household insurance1,2..............
Fuels and utilities........................................
Fuels.......................................................
Gas (piped) and electricity.........................
Household furnishings and operations............
Apparel.........................................................
Men's and boys' apparel...............................
Women's and girls' apparel...........................
Infants’ and toddlers' apparel1........................
Footwear....................................................
Transportation.................................................
Private transportation.....................................
New and used motor vehicles2.......................
New vehicles.............................................
Used cars and trucks1................................
Motor fuel..................................................
Gasoline (all types)....................................
Motor vehicle parts and equipment.................
Motor vehicle maintenance and repair............
Public transportation......................................
Medical care....................................................
Medical care commodities..............................
Medical care services....................................
Professional services....................................
Hospital and related services........................
Recreation2 ..................................................
Video and audio1'2.......................................
Education and communication2.........................
Education2..................................................
Educational books and supplies...................
Tuition, other school fees, and child care.......
Communication1'2........................................
Information and information processing1,2......
Telephone services1,2..............................
Information and information processing
other than teleDhone services1,4..............
Personal computers and peripheral
equipment1,2....................................

Personal care1.............................................
Personal care products1...............................
Personal care services1...............................

2002

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

177.1
530.4
173.6
173.1
173.4
193.8
161.3
167.1
212.2

179.9
176.7
538.8 5292.0
176.8
175.2
176.2
174.7
174.7
175.6
198.0
195.3
162.1
162.0
168.1
170.8
214.4
220.9

177.1
530.6
176.2
175.8
176.2
196.7
162.1
169.9
224.8

177.8
532.7
176.4
175.9
176.0
197.6
161.8
170.1
223.3

178.8
535.5
176.6
176.1
176.3
197.0
162.8
169.4
225.8

179.8
538.6
176.7
176.2
176.4
198.1
162.5
168.7
223.4

179.8
538.5
176.4
175.8
175.5
198.2
162.4
169.0
221.0

179.9
538.9
176.4
175.8
175.0
198.7
161.9
168.0
217.4

180.1
539.5
176.6
176.0
175.2
198.7
162.3
167.6
217.4

180.7
541.2
176.6
176.0
174.9
198.6
162.2
167.2
217.0

181.0
542.1
176.9
176.4
175.2
198.4
161.8
166.3
218.4

181.0
543.2
177.1
176.5
175.1
198.9
161.3
166.5
217.4

181.3
543.1
177.4
176.8
175,5
198.3
162.1
167.1
219.8

180.9
541.9
177.8
177.3
176.1
197.3
162.4
167.3
224.9

139.2
159.6
155.7
155.7
176.0
108.9
173.9
113.4
179.3
176.4
200.6
192.1
118.6
206.3
106.2
150.2
135.4
129.3
142.4
129.1
127.3
125.7
119.3
129.2
123.0
154.3
150.0
101.3
142.1
158.7
124.7
124.0
104.8
183.5
210.6
272.8
247.6
278.8
246.5
338.3
104.9
101.5
105.2
118.5
295.9
341.1
93.3
92.3
99.3

139.2
160.8
159.0
155.4
177.1
109.2
178.3
117.7
183.6
180.3
208.1
199.7
118.3
214.7
108.7
143.6
127.2
115.5
134.4
128.3
124.0
121.7
115.8
126.4
121.4
152.9
148.8
99.2
140.0
152.0
116.6
116.0
106.9
190.2
207.4
285.6
256.4
292.9
253.9
367.8
1-6.2
102.6
107.9
126.0
317.6
362.1
92.3
90.8
99.7

18.5
160.9
156.1
156.9
177.9
108.5
176.0
115.5
180.9
176.9
203.2
196.4
108.0
210.9
106.3
142.2
126.2
112.7
133.5
128.9
123.7
122.8
114.8
128.5
120.6
148.5
144.3
101.6
143.5
157.2
96.1
95.4
105.8
186.4
204.8
277.3
251.6
283.5
248.9
348.3
105.3
101.2
106.9
122.0
294.7
352.2
93.4
92.3
99.6

139.5
161.3
158.4
158.3
177.4
108.9
176.4
115.5
181.8
177.6
204.5
197.0
113.1
211.6
106.4
141.5
125.3
112.9
132.4
128.7
120.4
120.8
109.7
125.0
117.1
148.6
144.4
101.0
142.7
155.6
97.9
97.2
106.2
187.1
205.8
279.6
252.6
286.2
250.6
353.1
105.7
102.1
107.2
122.6
303.0
353.2
93.4
92.2
100.3

140.0
160.4
158.5
157.2
176.3
108.0
177.0
115.8
182.6
178.5
206.1
197.7
119.3
212.2
106.8
140.0
123.7
112.3
130.6
128.6
123.5
122.0
115.3
127.2
119.5
148.4
144.1
100.1
141.2
153.9
98.2
97.6
106.1
188.0
207.3
281.0
253.7
287.7
251.4
356.4
105.9
102.9
107.3
123.2
314.4
353.9
93.1
92.0
100.3

140.1
159.9
157.2
156.4
175.9
107.8
177.1
116.3
182.5
179.1
207.0
198.2
121.9
212.8
106.8
140.2
123.8
112.8
130.7
128.7
128.2
125.2
121.3
129.9
123.5
150.5
146.3
99.6
140.7
152.1
107.7
107.1
106.5
188.5
207.9
282.0
254.1
288.9
251.9
359.4
106.1
102.9
106.6
123.3
314.2
354.1
92.0
90.8
99.1

140.1
161.5
159.6
156.5
177.8
108.0
177.2
116.9
182.9
179.5
207.5
198.5
122.1
213.3
107.2
140.3
123.8
115.1
130.6
128.9
128.8
125.6
122.2
198.9
124.5
153.7
149.6
99.3
140.4
152.8
121.4
120.8
106.8
189.0
209.7
283.2
254.8
290.2
252.5
362.4
106.5
102.9
106.2
123.3
314.4
354.1
91.2
90.0
98.2

138.0
160.0
157.9
155.9
176.1
108.9
177.6
117.1
183.3
179.7
207.5
198.8
120.1
213.7
107.6
141.5
125.1
114.4
132.1
128.9
127.1
124.3
229.4
127.4
124.5
153.8
149.5
99.1
139.8
151.8
121.4
120.8
106.8
189.9
211.3
284.1
255.4
291.2
252.9
364.5
106.4
103.1
106.6
123.5
315.6
354.6
91.9
90.7
99.3

137.5
138.3
160.8
161.0
158.0
160.2
154.9
154.6
177.4
177.3
109.0
110.1
178.2 1787.5
117.6
117.7
183.5
183.8
180.7
181.2
208.1
208.8
199.3
199.8
121.7
120.9
214.3
214.9
107.8
108.6
146.2
146.8
130.8
130.3
112.7
111.6
138.0
138.6
128.7
128.6
122.7
118.7
120.8
118.4
113.7
107.6
124.9
122.9
121.2
118.5
153.4
153.7
149.1
149.5
98.8
98.8
139.2
138.7
152.2
152.7
120.1
120.8
119.5
120.3
106.7
107.4
190.0
189.8
209.7
211.3
284.7 286.6
256.4
257.5
291.7 293.8
253.2 255.0
365.3
367.6
106.2
106.2
103.0
102.6
106.9
107.6
124.8
124.3
317.4
318.3
356.8
358.3
91.8
92.6
90.6
90.8
99.2
99.5

137.6
160.6
159.9
154.1
176.9
109.3
178.8
118.1
184.2
209.6
200.2
200.2
123.6
215.4
109.6
146.8
130.7
112.1
138.5
128.1
120.5
118.3
111.0
124.3
119.7
153.9
149.7
98.7
138.1
153.4
121.5
120.9
107.7
191.0
209.4
287.3
257.7
294.7
254.9
371.3
106.3
102.4
108.9
127.1
319.6
365.6
93.2
91.5
100.6

140.2
160.8
159.6
154.1
177.0
109.7
179.2
118.8
183.9
181.5
209.2
200.7
117.6
216.2
110.0
147.2
131.0
115.2
138.7
128.1
124.6
120.1
118.0
126.2
121.6
154.0
150.0
98.7
138.7
152.2
121.7
121.1
107.4
191.4
206.5
287.7
257.9
295.2
254.8
373.3
106.2
102.3
109.5
129.6
323.2
372.8
92.5
90.7
100.1

140.5
160.9
159.9
155.9
177.0
109.8
179.6
119.1
184.7
181.4
201.3
201.3
117.0
216.8
110.0
144.4
127.9
119.3
134.9
128.0
126.8
122.8
120.5
127.7
123.0
154.9
151.1
98.9
139.5
150.7
124.5
123.9
106.9
191.8
203.4
289.2
258.3
297.1
256.0
376.7
106.4
102.6
109.4
129.9
323.2
373.8
92.2
90.4
99.9

139.1
161.1
158.5
153.4
178.3
110.3
179.8
119.7
185.1
181.2
209.6
202.0
113.2
217.3
111.4
143.6
127.0
121.8
133.7
127.8
125.5
123.2
118.0
127.5
122.7
155.2
151.5
98.8
140.4
148.8
124.4
123.8
107.2
192.8
202.3
290.5
259.1
298.5
256.5
380.7
106.4
103.0
109.3
130.0
324.0
374.1
91.8
90.0
99.8

139.2
161.1
159.1
152.4
178.2
110.2
180.1
119.8
184.9
181.1
209.5
202.5
109.2
214.7
112.3
144.2
127.5
125.6
134.1
127.0
121.5
121.7
113.1
125.3
120.7
154.2
150.4
98.7
140.6
148.5
119.7
119.1
107.0
193.3
203.0
291.3
259.5
299.4
257.0
382.4
106.5
103.2
109.2
130.0
323.3
374.0
91.8
90.0
99.9

21.3

18.3

19.8

19.4

19.0

18.8

18.6

18.5

18.4

18.4

18.3

17.8

17.7

17.3

17.2

29.5
282.6
425.2
170.5
155.1
184.3

22.2
293.2
461.5
174.7
154.7
188.4

25.3
286.4
431.7
172.6
155.4
186.4

24.6
287.2
432.8
173.2
155.2
186.3

23.8
290.2
449.3
173.7
155.5
186.4

23.1
288.5
433.4
174.1
155.1
187.3

22.9
292.9
461.4
174.4
155.4
187.9

23.0
291.5
449.0
174.7
154.8
188.3

22.6
294.4
467.4
174.9
155.4
188.3

22.3
294.5
467.2
175.0
154.6
188.7

22.0
295.9
478.2
174.9
154.3
189.1

21.1
297.0
485.8
174.9
154.4
189.2

20.7
295.4
470.6
175.3
154.6
189.3

20.0
295.6
470.4
175.5
154.2
189.9

19.7
295.8
472.5
175.4
153.4
189.9

See footnotes at end of table.

94
Monthly Labor Review

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2002

2001

February 2003

32. Continued—Consumer Price Indexes for All Urban Consumers and for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers: U.S. city
average, by expenditure category and commodity or service group
[ 1 9 8 2 - 8 4 = 100, unless o therw ise indicated]

Annual average
Series
Miscellaneous personal services.................
Commodity and service group:
Commodities................................................
Food and beverages....................................
Commodities less food and beverages...........
Nondurables less food and beverages..........
Apparel.................................................
Nondurables less food, beverages,
and apparel...........................................
Durables..................................................
Services......................................................
Rent of shelter3.........................................
Transporatation services.............................
Other services...........................................
Special indexes:
All items less food......................................
All items less shelter...................................
All items less medical care..........................
Commodities less food................................
Nondurables less food................................
Nondurables less food and apparel...............
Nondurables.............................................
Services less rent of shelter3........................
Services less medical care services..............
Energy.....................................................
All items less energy...................................
All items less food and energy....................
Commodities less food and energy............
Energy commodities..............................
Services less energy...............................

2002

2001

Aug.
Sept.
275.4 275.2

Oct.
276.0

Nov.
276.6

Dec.
276.9

149.6
176.6
134.0
145.4
120.5

150.2
176.9
134.8
147.2
124.6

150.7
177.1
135.5
148.4
126.8

150.6
177.4
135.2
148.0
125.5

149.7
177.8
133.6
145.2
121.5

164.3
121.1
210.7
217.4
209.6
246.4

164.8
120.7
211.5
218.3
210.1
248.2

165.2
120.6
211.5
217.9
210.1
249.1

166.0
120.6
211.7
218.4
210.9
249.7

166.0
120.5
211.8
218.2
212.0
249.9

163.9
120.2
211.9
218.1
212.0
250.2

180.6
170.9
174.4
136.3
148.0
164.9
161.2
217.5
202.6
124.9
187.3
190.1
143.4
120.3
217.2

180.8
170.9
174.5
135.5
146.7
165.2
160.6
218.6
203.2
125.5
187.5
190.3
142.5
120.9
218.0

181.5
171.3
175.0
135.9
147.7
165.8
161.2
219.5
204.2
125.8
188.1
191.0
142.8
121.5
219.0

181.8
171,9
175.3
136.7
149.3
166.1
162.2
220.0
204.1
126.1
188.4
191.3
143.6
122.0
218.9

182.2
172.2
175.6
137.3
150.6
166.9
163.0
219.9
204.2
125.8
188.8
191.8
143.9
124.8
219.5

182.1
172.3
175.6
137.0
150.2
166.9
162.9
220.2
204.3
125.3
188.9
191.8
143.6
124.9
219.8

181.6
171.7
175.1
135.6
147.6
165.0
161.6
220.5
204.3
123.3
188.6
191.4
142.5
120.7
219.8

175.8
523.6
175.7
175.1
174.4
198.2
162.1
168.7
219.1

175.9
524.0
175.7
175.2
174.1
198.6
161.8
167.8
216.4

176.0
524.5
176.0
175.4
174.3
198.7
162.2
167.4
216.4

176.6
526.0
175.9
175.3
174.0
198.5
162.0
167.0
216.2

177.0
527.3
176.2
175.7
174.3
198.4
161.5
166.1
217.5

177.3
528.2
176.3
175.7
174.2
198.9
161.2
166.4
216.2

177.4
528.4
176.6
176.0
174.5
198.2
162.1
166.9
218.0

177.0
527.2
177.1
176.5
175.1
197.1
162.3
167.2
222.9

137.3
159.7
157.6
155.7
176.7
109.5
177.5
117.7
183.1
175.1
201.2
98.1
120.7
194.2
107.6
140.7
123.9
114.0
131.0
125.0
126.2
124.6
118.2
129.9
124.4
152.7
149.8
99.3

136.9
160.4
158.8
154.3
177.9
109.6
178.0
118.1
183.2
176.1
20.7
198.7
120.4
194.7
107.9
145.6
129.1
112.2
136.9
124.8
122.0
121.1
112.7
127.5
121.0
152.4
149.5
99.1

137.6
160.5
159.9
154.7
177.6
110.8
178.4
118.2
183.6
176.5
202.3
199.2
121.3
195.2
108.7
146.1
129.6
110.9
137.5
124.7
118.0
118.6
106.5
125.3
118.2
152.7
149.9
99.1

136.9
160.1
159.6
154.0
177.3
109.9
178.7
118.9
183.8
176.9
202.9
199.6
122.9
195.7
109.7
146.2
129.6
111.3
137.4
124.2
119.6
118.2
109.6
126.8
119.6
153.0
150.2
99.1

139.6
160.3
159.5
155.2
177.2
110.1
179.0
119.3
183.4
177.0
203.0
200.0
117.7
196.4
110.1
146.5
129.9
114.5
137.6
123.9
123.5
119.8
116.8
128.4
121.4
153.1
150.4
99.0

139.9
160.3
159.5
155.8
177.2
110.1
179.4
119.6
184.3
176.9
203.5
200.6
117.7
196.9
110.1
143.6
126.7
118.6
133.8
123.9
125.5
122.3
119.3
129.5
122.3
154.0
151.4
99.0

138.6
160.7
158.2
153.4
178.8
111.0
179.7
120.0
184.6
176.9
203.7
201.3
114.0
197.4
111.2
143.0
126.0
121.0
132.9
123.7
124.6
122.7
117.2
129.7
122.5
154.2
151.6
98.7

139.1
169.6
158.9
152.9
178.5
110.7
180.0
120.1
184.7
176.9
203.9
201.9
109.6
198.0
112.3
143.5
126.4
125.0
133.2
123.0
120.9
118.8
112.3
127.2
120.8
153.0
150.4
98.5

2001
263.1

2002
274.4

Dec.
268.5

Jan.
270.4

Feb.
271.8

Mar.
272.9

Apr.
273.2

June
May
274.2 274.6

July
275.1

150.7
173.6
137.2
147.1
127.3

149.7
176.8
134.2
145.1
124.0

147.9
175.2
132.3
138.4
123.7

147.8
176.2
131.6
137.9
120.4

148.1
176.4
132.1
139.6
123.5

149.4
176.6
133.7
143.6
128.2

151.0
176.7
136.0
148.4
128.8

150.5
176.4
135.4
147.4
127.1

149.8
176.4
134.4
145.7
122.7

149.3
176.6
133.6
144.4
118.7

163.4
124.6
203.4
208.9
201.9
238.0

162.2
121.4
209.8
216.7
209.1
246.4

151.6
124.3
205.3
211.7
204.5
241.9

152.6
123.6
206.3
213.0
205.2
242.9

153.6
122.7
207.3
214.7
206.5
243.5

157.3
122.1
208.0
215.6
207.3
243.6

164.7
121.9
208.4
216.1
207.9
243.8

164.1
121.7
208.8
216.1
208.9
244.5

164.0
121.3
209.8
216.8
209.0
245.1

177.8
169.7
171.9
138.9
149.1
164.1
160.6
212.3
196.6
129.3
183.5
186.1
145.3
125.2
209.6

180.5
170.8
174.3
136.0
147.4
163.3
161.1
217.5
202.5
121.7
187.7
190.5
143.7
117.1
217.5

177.0
168.2
171.3
134.1
140.9
153.4
156.8
213.2
198.3
111.4
185.2
187.8
144.7
97.6
212.6

177.4
168.4
171.7
133.5
140.5
154.5
157.0
213.9
199.2
111.7
185.7
188.2
143.7
99.3
213.8

178.2
168.7
172.4
133.9
142.2
155.4
158.0
214.3
200.2
111.0
186.5
189.2
144.2
99.5
215.1

179.2
169.7
173.3
135.6
145.9
158.7
160.2
214.8
200.8
115.6
187.1
189.8
144.6
108.6
215.9

180.4
170.9
174.3
137.8
150.4
165.5
162.7
215.1
201.2
122.2
187.5
190.3
145.1
121.6
216.3

180.4
170.9
174.2
137.3
149.5
165.0
162.1
216.0
201.6
122.9
187.4
190.2
144.4
121.6
216.6

173.5
516.8
173.0
172.5
172.4
193.6
161.2
167.1
210.8

175.9
523.9
176.1
176.5
175.1
197.1
162.0
167.2
222.9

172.9
515.0
174.6
174.1
173.7
195.1
161.8
170.6
212.8

173.2
515.0
175.7
175.2
175.3
196.7
162.0
169.7
223.2

173.7
517.5
175.8
175.3
175.1
197.5
161.6
170.0
222.2

174.7
520.2
176.1
175.6
175.5
197.0
162.7
169.2
224.9

175.8
523.7
176.1
175.5
175.3
197.9
162.1
168.7
222.0

138.4
159.1
155.6
155.4
176.3
109.1
173.8
113.6
178.8
172.1
194.5
191.5
118.4
187.6
106.4
149.5
134.2
129.2
141.5
125.8
126.1
125.8
117.3
130.9
123.1
153.6
150.8
101.9

138.6
160.4
158.8
155.3
177.6
109.7
178.2
118.1
183.3
175.7
201.9
199.0
118.4
195.1
108.7
142.9
126.1
115.0
133.4
124.4
123.1
121.7
114.6
128.6
121.2
151.8
149.0
99.4

137.7
160.5
155.9
156.5
178.3
109.0
176.0
115.8
180.5
172.9
197.7
195.7
108.8
191.7
106.3
141.5
125.2
112.7
132.5
125.4
123.0
122.7
113.5
130.3
121.0
147.4
144.5
102.0

138.8
161.0
158.5
158.0
177.9
109.3
176.4
115.8
181.4
173.4
198.7
196.3
113.2
192.3
106.4
140.8
124.2
113.0
131.4
125.0
119.6
121.0
108.5
126.7
117.7
147.5
144.6
101.3

139.5
160.1
158.5
157.0
176.8
108.5
176.9
116.0
182.1
173.9
199.8
197.0
119.4
192.9
106.8
139.4
122.7
112.4
129.7
124.9
122.4
122.2
113.8
128.4
119.3
147.1
144.2
100.3

139.7
159.6
157.1
156.3
176.5
108.3
177.0
116.8
182.2
174.4
200.6
197.5
122.2
193.3
106.9
139.6
122.8
112.7
129.8
124.9
126.9
125.2
119.7
131.7
122.8
149.2
146.4
99.7

139.4
161.0
153.4
156.2
178.2
108.5
177.1
117.4
182.8
174.8
201.0
197.8
122.0
193.9
107.5
139.6
122.7
114.7
129.6
125.1
127.9
125.8
120.9
131.7
124.4
152.7
149.8
99.5

C O N S U M E R P R IC E IN D E X F O R U R B A N
W A G E E A R N E R S A N D C L E R IC A L W O R K E R S

All items.......................................................
All items (1967- 100).....................................
Food and beverages......................................
Food...........................................................
Food at home.............................................
Cereals and bakery products......................
Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs.....................
Dairy and related products1.........................
Fruits and vegetables.................................
Nonalcoholic beverages and beverage
materials...............................................
Other foods at home..................................
Sugar and sweets....................................
Fats and oils...........................................
Other foods............................................
Other miscellaneous foods1,2..................
Food away from home1.................................
Other food away from home1,2...................
Alcoholic beverages.....................................
Housing.......................................................
Shelter......................................................
Rent of primary residence..........................
2
Owners’ equivalent rent of primary residence3
12
Tenants’ and household Insurance ' ...........
Fuels and utilities......................................
Fuels....................................................
Fuel oil and other fuels...........................
Gas (piped) and electricity.......................
Household furnishings and operations..........
Apparel.......................................................
Men's and boys' apparel............................
Women's and girls' apparel.........................
Infants’ and toddlers’ aoDarel1.....................
Transportation...............................................
Private transportation..................................
New and used motor vehicles2....................
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

95

Current Labor Statistics:

Price Data

32. Continued—Consumer Price Indexes for All Urban Consumers and for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers: U.S. city
average, by expenditure category and commodity or service group
[ 1 9 8 2 - 8 4 = 1 00 , unless otherw ise indicated]

Series

_____________ _________________________________________

Annual average
2001

2002

2001
Dec.

2002
Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

New vehicles..........................................

143.2

141.1

144.7

143.8

142.3

141.8

141.5

140.9

140.3

139.8

139.1

139.8

140.7

141.5

141.7

Used cars and trucks1.............................
Motor fuel................................................
Gasoline (all types).................................
Motor vehicle parts and equipment..............
Motor vehicle maintenance and repair..........
Public transportation...................................
Medical care.................................................
Medical care commodities............................
Medical care services..................................
Professional services................................
Hospital and related services......................

159.8
124.9
124.2
104.0
185.1
204.9
271.8
242.7
278.5
248.7
333.8
103.6
100.9
105.3
118.7
299.9
334.7
94.5
93.8

152.8
117.0
116.4
106.1
191.7
202.6
284.6
251.1
292.5
256.0
363.2
104.6
102.0
107.6
125.9
318.5
354.8
93.7
92.7

158.1
96.3
95.7
104.9
187.9
200.1
276.2
246.7
283.0
251.0
343.6
103.8
100.5
106.9
122.1
297.3
345.2
94.6
93.9

156.5
98.2
97.6
105.3
188.6
201.0
278.5
247.6
285.7
252.8
348.2
104.2
101.4
107.1
122.7
305.2
346.2
94.7
94.0

154.8
98.5
97.9
105.3
189.5
202.5
279.8
248.5
287.2
253.6
351.4
104.5
102.2
107.2
123.3
315.2
347.0
94.5
93.7

153.0
108.0
107.5
105.7
189.9
203.0
280.9
249.0
288.4
254.0
354.3
104.6
102.1
106.5
123.3
315.1
347.2
93.3
92.6

152.6
121.7
121.2
106.0
190.5
204.5
281.9
249.6
289.6
254.6
357.1
105.0
102.2
106.0
123.3
315.3
347.2
92.6
91.7

152.7
121.8
121.2
106.0
191.4
206.3
282.9
250.3
290.6
255.3
359.4
104.9
102.3
106.5
123.5
316.3
347.7
93.3
92.5

153.0
120.4
119.9
105.9
191.5
205.9
283.6
251.3
291.3
255.3
360.6
104.6
102.2
106.7
124.4
318.2
350.3
93.1
92.4

153.6
121.2
120.6
106.7
191.4
204.7
285.5
252.3
293.5
257.2
363.2
104.6
101.8
107.4
124.8
319.1
351.4
93.9
92.7

99.4

99.9

99.9

100.4

100.5

99.3

98.4

99.4

99.3

99.7

154.2
121.8
121.3
107.0
192.5
204.5
286.3
252.3
294.5
256.9
367.1
104.7
101.6
108.6
126.9
320.4
357.7
94.6
93.4
100.8

153.1
122.1
121.6
106.7
192.9
201.9
286.7
252.5
294.9
256.8
368.9
104.4
101.4
109.1
129.3
323.9
364.9
93.9
92.4
100.3

151.5
124.9
124.4
106.2
193.3
199.2
288.3
252.8
296.9
258.2
372.6
194.6
101.8
109.0
129.6
324.2
365.7
93.6
92.4
100.2

149.7
124.8
124.3
106.5
194.3
198.5
289.6
253.5
298.4
258.7
376.7
104.5
102.2
108.8
129.7
325.0
366.0
93.3
92.0
100.1

149.3
120.0
119.4
106.1
195.0
199.2
290.6
254.0
299.5
259.2
379.1
104.7
102.4
108.8
129.7
324.5
366.0
93.2
93.0
100.1

22.1

19.0

20.6

20.1

19.7

19.5

19.3

19.2

19.1

19.1

18.9

18.5

18.3

17.9

17.8

29.1
289.5
426.1
170.3
155.7
184.9
262.8

21.8
302.0
463.2
174.1
155.5
189.1
274.0

25.0
293.3
432.9
172.3
156.0
187.1
268.0

24.3
294.0
433.5
172.7
155.9
187.0
269.8

23.5
298.3
450.7
173.2
156.3
187.1
271.4

22.8
295.2
434.1
173.7
156.0
188.0
272.5

22.5
301.7
462.7
173.9
156.2
188.7
272.6

22.7
299.1
450.1
174.0
155.4
189.1
273.6

22.3
303.5
468.7
174.4
156.2
189.0
274.1

22.1
303.5
468.8
174.4
155.3
189.4
274.7

21.7
306.0
480.7
174.3
155.1
189.8
275.2

20.8
307.8
488.4
174.4
155.2
190.0
274.9

20.4
304.9
473.1
174.8
155.5
190.1
275.9

19.7
305.0
472.8
174.9
155.0
190.6
276.6

19.3
305.1
474.3
174.7
154.2
190.7
276.7

151.4
173.0
138.7
149.0
126.1

150.4
176.1
135.5
147.0
123.1

148.4
174.6
133.4
139.4
123.0

148.3
175.7
132.7
138.9
119.6

148.6
175.8
133.1
140.7
122.4

149.8
176.1
134.7
144.8
126.9

151.7
176.1
137.5
150.5
127.9

151.2
175.7
136.8
149.3
126.2

150.5
175.7
135.9
147.8
122.0

150.1
275.7
135.2
146.5
118.0

150.4
175.9
135.6
147.7
119.6

151.0
176.2
136.4
149.4
123.5

151.4
176.3
136.9
159.6
125.5

151.3
176.6
136.5
150.2
124.6

150.4
177.1
135.0
147.3
120.9

166.3
125.3
199.6
187.3
199.1
233.7

165.3
121.8
205.9
194.5
207.7
241.6

153.1
124.9
201.7
190.4
202.6
237.3

154.2
124.1
202.5
191.4
203.4
238.3

155.4
123.1
203.3
192.5
204.7
239.0

159.4
122.3
203.9
193.2
205.6
238.8

168.1
122.1
204.2
193.7
206.2
238.9

167.2
122.0
204.8
193.9
207.1
239.7

167.3
121.6
205.8
194.3
207.3
240.4

167.6
121.5
206.6
194.8
208.0
241.6

168.5
121.3
207.3
195.5
208.6
243.4

169.1
121.1
207.6
195.5
208.8
244.1

169.7
121.0
207.8
196.1
210.0
244.6

169.6
120.6
208.1
196.2
211.4
244.8

167.2
120.4
208.3
196.3
211.7
245.1

173.6
167.6
169.1
140.2
150.8
166.7
161.4
188.5
193.1
128.7
179.8
181.7
146.1
125.3
206.0

175.8
168.3
171.1
137.3
149.2
166.1
161.4
193.1
198.9
120.9
183.6
185.6
144.4
17.3
213.9

172.5
165.7
168.3
135.1
141.8
154.7
157.3
189.2
195.0
110.0
181.5
183.5
145.6
97.5
209.4

172.7
165.8
168.5
134.5
141.8
154.7
157.5
189.8
195.7
110.5
181.6
183.6
144.4
99.2
210.4

173.3
166.1
169.0
134.8
143.1
157.0
158.5
190.1
196.5
109.8
182.5
184.4
144.8
99.5
211.5

174.3
167.1
170.0
136.5
147.0
160.7
160.8
190.5
197.0
114.7
182.9
184.9
145.0
108.7
212.1

175.7
168.5
171.1
139.1
152.5
168.7
163.7
190.7
197.4
121.6
183.4
185.5
145.8
121.9
212.6

175.8
168.4
171.0
138.5
151.4
167.9
162.9
181.6
197.9
122.2
183.3
185.4
145.0
121.9
213.0

175.9
168.4
171.2
137.6
150.0
168.0
162.2
193.2
198.9
124.1
183.2
185.3
144.2
120.5
213.3

176.1
168.4
171.3
136.9
148.7
168.3
161.6
194.1
199.6
124.7
183.3
185.4
143.2
121.2
214.3

176.7
168.9
171.8
137.4
149.8
169.2
162.2
194.9
200.4
125.0
183.8
186.0
143.7
121.8
215.1

177.1
169.5
172.2
138.1
151.5
169.6
163.2
195.3
200.6
125.3
184.3
186.5
144.4
122.2
215.4

177.5
169.7
172.5
138.6
152.6
179.3
163.9
195.2
200.7
125.2
184.7
186.9
144.5
125.1
216.1

177.5
169.7
172.5
138.3
152.3
170.2
163.9
195.6
200.9
124.8
184.8
187.0
144.1
125.2
216.5

177.0
169.1
172.1
136.8
149.6
168.0
162.6
195.9
201.1
122.6
184.6
186.7
143.1
120.7
216.7

Recreation2.................................................
Video and audio1,2.....................................
Education and communication2......................
Education2................................................
Educational books and supplies.................
Tuition, other school fees, and child care.....
Communication1,2......................................
Information and information processing1'2...
Telephone services1,2............................
Information and information processing
other than telephone services1,4............
Personal computers and peripheral
Other goods and services...............................
Tobacco and smoking products....................
Personal care1...........................................
Personal care products1............................
Personal care services1............................
Miscellaneous personal services.................
Commodity and service group:
Commodities...............................................
Food and beverages...................................
Commodities less food and beverages...........
Nondurables less food and beverages..........
Apparel.................................................
Nondurables less food, beverages,
and apparel..........................................
Durables..................................................
Services......................................................
Rent of shelter3.........................................
Transporatation services.............................
Other services...........................................
Special indexes:
All Items less food......................................
All items less shelter...................................
All items less medical care..........................
Commodities less food................................
Nondurables less food................................
Nondurables less food and apparel...............
Nondurables.............................................
Services less rent of shelter3........................
Services less medical care services..............
Energy.....................................................
All Items less energy...................................
All items less food and energy....................
Commodities less food and energy............
Energy commodities..............................
Services less energy...............................
' Not seasonally adjusted.
2 Indexes on a December 1997 = 100 base.
3 Indexes on a December 1982.100 base.

96
Monthly Labor Review

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

4 Indexes on a December 1988 = 100 base.
Dash indicates data not available.
NoTE: Index applied to a month as a whole, not to any specific date.

February 2003

33.

Consumer Price Index: U.S. city average and available local area data: all items

[1982-84 = 100, unless otherwise indicateci]

U.S. city average...................................................

2002

2002

schedule1

Urban Wage Earners

All Urban Consumers

Pricing

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

M

179.9

180.1

180.7

181.0

181.3

181.3

180.9

175.9

176.1

176.6

177.0

177.3

177.4

177.0

M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M

187.8
189.5
111.6
175.3
177.7
111.2
168.9
173.5
174.9
110.9
171.6
184.5
187.2
112.2

188.3
190.1
111.8
175.3
177.5
111.3
169.4
173.6
174.8
111.0
172.2
184.7
187.4
112.5

189.3
181.3
112.0
175.8
178.2
111.4
169.7
173.8
175.4
110.9
172.7
185.3
187.9
113.0

189.5
191.2
112.6
176.2
178.2
111.5
170.0
174.2
175.7
111.2
172.6
185.7
188.2
113.1

189.9
191.5
113.0
176.3
178.7
111.9
170.2
174.9
176.9
111.6
173.9
185.8
188.4
113.3

190.1
191.7
113.1
176.1
178.3
111.7
170.4
174.9
176.1
111.9
173.0
185.8
188.4
113.1

189.6
191.4
112.6
175.5
177.8
111.4
169.5
174.6
175.9
111.6
171.3
185.5
188.0
113.1

184.2
184.6
111.4
170.7
172.3
110.7
166.7
171.1
172.3
110.2
171.8
179.7
180.7
112.0

184.7
185.2
111.7
170.8
172.1
110.9
167.3
171.1
172.2
110.2
172.1
179.8
180.8
112.2

185.7
186.4
112.0
171.3
172.8
111.0
167.6
171.3
172.7
110.2
172.8
180.3
181.3
112.5

186.2
186.7
112.0
171.7
173.4
111.1
167.8
171.7
172.9
111.5
173.0
180.7
181.7
112,7

186.5
186.9
112.9
171.8
173.3
111.4
168.1
172.3
173.7
110.9
173.2
180.6
181.7
112.9

186.9
187.3
113.1
171.6
173.0
111.3
168.2
172.4
173.3
111.1
173.4
181.0
181.9
112.9

186.6
187.1
112.7
171.0
172.4
111.0
167.2
170.8
173.1
110.8
172.6
180.8
181.6
112.9

M
M
M

164.5
111.3
173.0

164.6
111.4
173.3

165.3
111.5
173.9

165.5
111.8
174.3

165.8
112.1
174.3

165.7
112.2
174.5

165.4
111.9
173.8

162.6
110.7
171.7

162.7
110.9
172.0

163.4
111.0
172.5

163.8
111.3
172.9

164.0
111.6
173.0

164.0
111.7
173.1

163.7
111.4
172.5

M
M
M
1
1
1
1

182.1
181.9
191.5
-

181.2
182.2
192.0
195.7
173.4
172.9
113.4

181.6
183.0
193.1
179.7
180.9
160.1
175.2
188.3
193.5
190.3

182.1
183.4
193.3
199.1
174.6
173.2
114.0

182.8
183.7
193.7

183.2
184.0
193.4
200.4
173.4
173.6
114.0

182.4
183.7
193.1

175.9
174.7
186.5

175.1
175.0
187.1
194.1
164.5
172.6
113.1

175.5
175.6
188.1

175.8
176.3
188.5
197.7
165.7
172.9
113.7

176.5
176.5
188.8

176.9
177.0
188.8
199.2
164.9
173.0
113.5

176.0
176.7
188.7

R e g io n a n d a re a s ize 2

Northeast urban.......... ...............................................
Size A—More than 1,500,000...................................
Size B/C—50,000 to 1,500,0003................................
4

Size A—More than 1,500,000...................................
Size B/C—50,000 to 1.500.0003................................
Size D—Nonmetropolitan (less than 50,000)................
South urban..............................................................
Size A—More than 1,500,000...................................
Size B/C—50.000 to 1.500.0003................................
Size D—Nonmetropolitan (less than 50,000)...............
West urban...............................................................
Size A—More than 1,500,000...................................
Size B/C—50,000 to 1,500,0003................................
Size classes:
.5
B/C3......................................................................
S e le c te d lo c a l a re a s 6

Chicago-Gary-Kenosha, IL-IN-WI...............................
Los Angeles-Riverside-Orange County, CA..................
New York, NY-Northern NJ-Long Island, NY-NJ-CT-PA.
Boston-Brockton-Nashua, MA-NH-ME-CT..................
Cleveland-Akron, OH.................................................
Dallas-Ft Worth, TX...................................................
Washinqton-Baltimore, DC-MD-VA-WV7......................
Atlanta, GA................................................................

179.1
2
_
179.0
2
_
158.3
2
174.4
2
186.3
2
193.2
2
189.4
2
month in all areas; most other

Mlami-Ft. Lauderdale, FL............................................
Philadelphia-Wilmlngton-Atlantic City, PA-NJ-DE-MD....
San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose, CA.........................
Seattle-Tacoma-Bremerton, WA.................................
1 Foods, fuels, and several other items priced every
goods and services priced as indicated:
M—Every month.
1— January, March, May, July, September, and November.
2— February, April, June, August, October, and December.
2 Regions defined as the four Census regions.
3 Indexes on a December 1996 = 100 base.
4 The "North Central" region has been renamed the "Midwest" region by the Census
Bureau. It is composed of the same geographic entitles.
5 Indexes on a December 1986 = 100 base.
6 In addition, the following metropolitan areas are published semiannually and appear in
tables 34 and 39 of the January and July issues of the cpi Detailed R e port : Anchorage,


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

—
174.6
176.3
176.8
- 179.4
- 177.3 176.5
_ 180.4
_ 179.7 173.2
174.4
175.0
175.0
_ 162.6
_ 159.8 156.7
_ 158.0
158.0
160.3
175.3
174.5
172.8
- 177.0
- 177.9 172.0
184.9
185.6
186.7
- 185.8
- 185.3 184.7
189.6
190.0
189.3
- 194.3
- 193.2 189.1
184.6
185.5
184.8
- 190.9
- 190.0 184.1
AK; Cincinnatti, OH-KY-IN; Kansas City, MO-KS; Milwaukee-Racine, Wl;
Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI; Pittsburgh, PA; Port-land-Salem, OR-WA; St Louis,
MO-IL; San Diego, CA; Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL.
7 Indexes on a November 1996 = 100 base.
NOTE: Local area CPI Indexes are byproducts of the national CPI program. Each local
index has a smaller sample size and is, therefore, subject to substantially more sampling
and other measurement error. As a result, local area Indexes show greater volatility than
the national index, although their long-term trends are similar. Therefore, the Bureau of
Labor Statistics strongly urges users to consider adopting the national average CPI for
use in their escalator clauses. Index applies to a month as a whole, not to any specific
date. Dash indicates data not available.

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

97

Current Labor Statistics:

Price Data

34. Annual data: Consumer Price Index, U.S. city average, all items and major groups
[1982-84 = 100]
Series

1993

Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers:
All items:
Index ..................................................
Percent change...........................................
Food and beverages:
Index............................................
Percent change............................................
Housing:
Index...............................................
Percent change...........................................
Apparel:
Index........................................................
Percent change...........................................
Transportation:
Index.....................................................
Percent change................................................
Medical care:
Index..................................................
Percent change...................................................
Other goods and services:
Index..............................................
Percent change..............................................
Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners
and Clerical Workers:
All Items:
Index.......................................................
Percent change.............................................

Digitized for 98
FRASER
Monthly Labor Review
https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

144.5
3.0

148.2
2.6

152.4
2.8

156.9
3.0

160.5
2.3

163.0
1.6

166.6
2.2

172.2
3.4

177.1
2.8

179.9
1.5

141.6
2.1

144.9
2.3

148.9
2.8

153.7
3.2

157.7
2.6

161.1
2.2

164.6
2.2

168.4
2.3

173.6
3.1

176.8
1.8

141.2
2.7

144.8
2.5

148.5
2.6

152.8
2.9

156.8
2.6

160.4
2.3

163.9
2.2

169.6
3.5

176.4
4.0

180.3
2.2

133.7
1.4

133.4
-.2

132.0
-1.0

131.7
-.2

132.9
.9

133.0
.1

131.3
-1.3

129.6
-1.3

127.3
-1.8

124.0
-2.6

130.4
3.1

134.3
3.0

139.1
3.6

143.0
2.8

144.3
0.9

141.6
-1.9

144.4
2.0

153.3
6.2

154.3
0.7

152.9
-.9

201.4
5.9

211.0
4.8

220.5
4.5

228.2
3.5

234.6
2.8

242.1
3.2

250.6
3.5

260.8
4.1

272.8
4.6

285.6
4.7

192.9
5.2

198.5
2.9

206.9
4.2

215.4
4.1

224.8
4.4

237.7
5.7

258.3
8.7

271.1
5.0

282.6
4.2

293.2
3.8

142.1
2.8

145.6
2.5

149.8
2.9

154.1
2.9

157.6
2.3

159.7
1.3

163.2
2.2

168.9
3.5

173.5
2.7

175.9
1.4

February 2003

35. Producer Price Indexes, by stage of processing
[1982 = 100]
Grouping

Finshed consumer goods

Annual average

2001

2002

Dec.

2001

2002
Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

139.0
139.6
139.8

138.8
139.6
139.8

138.7
139.5
139.2

138.9
139.8
138.4

140.6
141.5
139.1

139.6
140.3
139.2

139.1
139.8
139.6

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

140.7
141.5
141.3

138.8
139.3
140.0

137.2
136.8
140.4

137.4
137.2
141.1

137.7
137.5
142.3

138.7
138.9
143.4

138.8
139.2
139.2

138.6
139.1
139.4

141.4
142.8
133.9
139.7

138.7
139.8
132.9
139.1

135.1
134.0
133.9
139.7

135.4
134.4
133.9
139.7

135.4
134.3
134.1
139.8

136.9
136.7
133.6
139.5

138.9
139.8
133.5
139.3

138.6
139.5
133.0
139.1

139.3
140.6
132.8
139.0

139.1
141.0
131.5
138.4

139.3
141.3
131.3
138.2

142.0
142.5
131.1
138.1

142.1
143.9
134.5
139.7

141.8
133.5
139.3
139.7

139.6
141.3
132.1
138.6

128.7

125.4

125.5

125.2

126.1

127.2

127.1

127.7

128.1

128.5

129.4

129.7

129.8

129.4

127.4
124.3
131.8
125.2
126.3

127.8
126.1
123.3
129.3
126.1
125.2
124.7

124.7
122.5
126.2
122.5
126.0

124.5
122.1
125.4
122.5
126.3

124.6
122.6
125.4
122.6
126.3

125.1
122.9
126.5
123.5
126.4

125.5
121.8
128.0
123.7
126.3

125.5
121.2
128.1
124.1
126.2

125.9
122.1
128.8
124.7
126.1

126.3
122.7
129.7
125.3
126.0

126.7
123.1
130.7
125.6
126.2

127.0
123.9
131.7
125.8
125.9

127.3
124.3
132.8
125.7
125.8

127.8
125.3
133.3
126.4
126.1

127.3
127.2
131.5
126.3
126.0

150.6
104.5
153.1
138.6

151.3
96.2
152.2
138.9

149.0
89.3
152.2
138.1

150.2
90.0
152.6
138.2

150.2
88.8
151.9
138.1

150.7
91.3
151.7
138.3

151.1
95.3
151.2
138.5

151.4
94.8
151.0
138.4

151.5
96.4
151.3
138.7

151.7
97.3
151.4
139.1

152.1
97.3
151.7
139.4

152.3
100.4
152.8
139.7

151.8
101.6
152.3
139.6

151.1
101.1
153.8
139.7

151.1
100.4
153.4
139.7

121.3
106.2
127.3

108.1
99.5
111.2

94.8
96.4
90.2

98.9
99.6
95.0

98.0
102.0
91.4

103.7
102.8
100.9

108.3
96.5
114.0

109.9
98.2
115.6

105.7
96.8
109.2

106.8
98.0
110.2

108.3
99.6
111.5

108.5
100.7
111.1

111.6
99.7
117.4

117.1
99.4
127.3

119.4
100.4
130.6

140.4
96.8
147.5
150.8
150.0

138.3
88.8
147.3
150.8
150.2

136.1
80.7
147.6
150.9
150.4

136.3
81.3
147.7
151.1
150.4

136.3
81.3
148.1
151.6
150.4

137.2
85.0
148.2
151.9
150.2

138.5
88.8
147.3
150.6
150.4

138.2
88.4
147.1
150.5
150.2

138.6
89.8
147.3
150.7
150.2

138.4
90.5
146.7
150.3
149.5

138.4
91.0
146.5
150.0
149.4

138.8
92.8
146.2
149.6
149.3

140.7
94.4
147.8
151.2
151.2

139.5
91.1
147.5
151.0
150.8

138.7
90.4
147.1
150.7
150.1

156.9

157.7

158.0

157.6

157.6

157.4

157.9

157.7

157.8

157.1

157.0

156.9

159.0

158.6

157.8

177.9

178.7

178.8

178.8

In te rm e d ia te m a te ria ls ,

Materials and components
Materials for nondurable manufacturing...
Materials for durable manufacturing.......
Materials and components

C ru d e m a te ria ls f o r fu rth e r

S p e c ia l g r o u p in g s :

Finished consumer goods less energy....
Finished goods less food and energy......
Finished consumer goods less food

175.1

177.7

176.4

176.4

176.2

176.3

177.6

177.6

178.0

177.9

177.9

130.5
115.9
104.1
135.1

128.5
115.6
95.9
134.6

126.0
114.3
89.0
133.4

126.1
113.6
89.6
133.3

125.9
113.6
88.4
133.3

126.8
114.3
90.9
133.8

127.9
113.6
94.9
134.0

127.9
112.9
94.6
134.0

128.4
114.2
96.2
134.4

128.8
115.8
96.7
134.8

128.8
116.5
96.7
135.2

130.0
117.9
100.1
135.4

130.4
117.4
101.6
135.4

130.5
117.7
101.0
135.7

130.0
119.1
99.5
135.6

136.4

135.8

134.6

134.6

134.6

135.0

135.4

135.4

135.7

136.0

136.5

136.6

136.6

136.9

136.7

101.8
108.6
135.6

76.7
103.4
124.2

82.8
106.2
126.1

76.9
108.5
128.1

89.9
109.3
129.0

107.3
105.5
131.8

108.3
97.8
107.4
107.5
134.9 I 138.6

98.1
108.9
141.0

100.0
100.1
110.5
110.9
140.5 I 139.6

108.9
109.8
139.4

123.2
109.5
139.1

127.6
111.4
139.7

Intermediate materials less foods

Crude nonfood materials less energy.....


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

122.8
112.2
130.6

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

99

Current Labor Statistics:

Price Data

36. Producer Price Indexes for the net output of major industry groups
[December 1984 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
SIC

Annual average

Industry

2001
10
12
13
14

T o ta l m in in g In d u s trie s ............................................

20
21
22
23

T o ta l m a n u fa c tu rin g in d u s trie s ............................

24
25
26

Metal mining...........................................
Coal mining (12/85 = 100).........................
Oil and gas extraction (12/85 = 100)...........
Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
minerals, except fuels.............................
Food and kindred products........................
Tobacco manufactures.............................
Textile mill products..................................
Apparel and other finished products
made from fabrics and similar materials.....
Lumber and wood products,
except furniture......................................
Furniture and fixtures...............................
Paper and allied products..........................

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

Printing, publishing, and allied industries......
Chemicals and allied products....................
Petroleum refining and related products.......
Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products.
Leather and leather products.....................
Stone, clay, glass, and concrete products....
Primary metal industries............................
Fabricated metal products,
except machinery and transportation
equipment........................

35
36

Machinery, except electrical......................
Electrical and electronic machinery,
equipment, and supplies..........................
Transportation.........................................
Measuring and controlling instruments;
photographic, medical, and optical
goods; watches and clocks......................
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries
industries (12/85 = 100)...........................

37
38
39

114.3
70.8
91.3
127.5

2002
86.3
93.4
94.0
106.5

2001
Dec.
77.6
68.9
92.5
78.3

2002
Jan.
81.9
71.0
95.3
84.0

Feb.
78.0
72.3
94.5
77.9

Mar.
87.5
72.9
94.6
92.7

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

99.8
73.4
94.4
111.9

100.3
73.9
94.4
112.7

93.5
76.9
93.7
101.7

93.5
74.7
93.9
102.0

93.6
74.4
93.8
102.1

95.1
74.1
93.6
104.5

102.7
72.5
94.0
116.5

112.3
72.6
93.7
131.7

115.6
73.7
93.0
136.8

141.0

143.5

141.5

142.5

143.4

143.5

143.4

143.6

143.7

143.7

143.7

143.4

143.5

143.8

144.4

134.6
132.8
386.1
116.9

133.6
131.6
134.7
115.7

131.6
131.7
398.2
116.1

131.7
131.5
391.7
116.3

132.0
132.0
391.7
115.8

132.8
132.0
392.2
115.8

133.8
131.5
407.8
115.8

133.5
130.9
408.0
115.5

133.6
131.3
408.2
115.8

133.6
131.5
408.6
115.7

133.7
131.3
408.6
115.6

134.2
131.4
408.5
115.7

135.6
131.6
408.5
115.6

134.7
131.7
409.2
116.0

134.7
132.8
409.0
115.4

125.8

125.3

125.3

125.2

125.1

125.2

125.0

125.1

125.2

125.3

125.4

125.4

126.0

125.8

125.3

156.2
145.1
146.2

155.3
146.2
143.7

153.4
145.5
144.8

154.0
145.6
144.1

154.8
145.8
143.2

156.7
145.7
142.9

156.8
145.7
143.3

156.0
145.9
142.5

155.3
146.1
142.8

155.5
146.6
142.9

155.7
146.2
143.9

155.1
146.3
144.6

154.8
146.7
144.6

154.1
146.9
145.3

154.2
146.5
145.0

188.7
158.4
105.3
125.9
141.3
136.0
116.1

193.0
157.3
98.8
125.4
141.1
137.0
116.1

192.0
154.3
75.9
125.2
140.3
136.7
114.0

192.0
154.0
77.7
125.1
140.2
136.9
113.7

192.1
154.3
79.5
124.4
139.8
136.4
113.7

192.1
155.1
89.2
124.6
140.0
136.3
114.4

192.6
155.9
100.5
124.8
140.1
136.6
114.7

192.6
156.3
99.7
125.3
140.6
137.1
115.4

192.9
157.0
98.9
125.8
140.9
137.2
116.3

193.1
158.5
101.1
125.5
141.4
137.0
116.9

193.0
158.7
103.1
126.4
141.7
137.3
117.5

193.6
159.5
108.7
126.3
141.6
137.4
117.8

193.8
159.5
117.6
126.3
141.7
137.5
117.6

194.0
160.6
107.1
125.7
142.3
136.9
118.2

194.2
159.6
102.4
125.6
142.4
137.2
117.9

131.0

131.7

131.2

131.2

131.2

131.2

131.3

131.4

131.6

131.9

132.0

132.2

132.1

132.3

132.3

118.0

117.2

117.8

117.7

117.6

117.7

117.6

117.6

117.4

117.2

116.8

116.8

116.7

116.6

116.6

107.0
137.9

105.7
137.2

106.6
138.6

106.7
138.0

106.6
138.5

106.6
137.9

106.1
137.7

105.9
137.1

105.8
137.0

105.5
135.5

105.7
135.4

105.5
134.9

105.1
139.2

104.9
138.3

104.5
137.2

127.3

128.5

127.7

128.3

128.6

128.9

128.2

128.2

128.3

128.3

128.4

128.5

128.7

128.8

128.9

132.4

133.2

132.4

132.7

133.4

132.9

133.3

133.1

133.3

133.4

133.2

133.4

133.4

132.7

133.7

123.1
143.4
129.8
157.2
110.3

124.5
150.2
134.0
158.0
111.9

123.1
145.4
129.7
157.1
112.0

123.2
145.4
129.3
157.1
111.1

123.4
145.4
128.9
157.1
111.3

123.5
145.4
128.7
156.8
111.6

123.7
145.4
127.9
156.3
111.5

124.1
145.4
131.7
156.2
111.3

124.3
145.4
134.0
156.8
111.5

124.3
155.0
135.4
157.9
112.3

124.6
155.0
135.4
158.9
112.5

125.0
155.0
135.2
159.0
112.5

125.4
155.0
138.4
159.6
112.7

125.9
155.0
141.0
160.3
112.3

125.9
155.0
142.3
160.7
112.3

S e r v ic e in d u s trie s :

42
43
44
45
46

Motor freight transportation
and warehousing (06/93 = 100).................
U.S. Postal Service (06/89 = 100)................
Water transportation (12/92 = 100)...............
Transportation by air (12/92 = 100)..............
Pipelines, except natural aas (12/92 = 100)...


100
Monthly Labor Review
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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2003

37. Annual data: Producer Price Indexes, by stage of processing
[1982 = 100]
Index

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

Finished goods
124.7
125.7
78.0
135.8

125.5
126.8
77.0
137.1

127.9
129.0
78.1
140.0

131.3
133.6
83.2
142.0

131.8
134.5
83.4
142.4

130.7
134.3
75.1
143.7

133.0
135.1
78.8
146.1

138.0
137.2
94.1
148.0

140.7
141.3
96.8
150.0

138.8
140.0
88.8
150.2

116.2
115.6
84.6
123.8

118.5
118.5
83.0
127.1

124.9
119.5
84.1
135.2

125.7
125.3
89.8
134.0

125.6
123.2
89.0
134.2

123.0
123.2
80.8
133.5

123.2
120.8
84.3
133.1

129.2
119.2
101.7
136.6

129.7
124.3
104.1
136.4

127.8
123.3
95.9
135.8

102.4
108.4
76.7
94.1

101.8
106.5
72.1
97.0

102.7
105.8
69.4
105.8

113.8
121.5
85.0
105.7

111.1
112.2
87.3
103.5

96.8
103.9
68.6
84.5

98.2
98.7
78.5
91.1

120.6
100.2
122.1
118.0

121.3
106.2
122.8
101.8

108.1
99.5
101.8
100.8

Intermediate materials, supplies, and
components

Crude materials for further processing

Other.....................................................................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

101

Current Labor Statistics:

Price Data

38. U.S. export price indexes by Standard International Trade Classification
[2000

=

S IT C
R e v. 3

100]
2001

Industry

0
01
04
05

F o o d a n d liv e a n im a ls ...................................................................

2
22
24
25
26
28

C r u d e m a te ria ls , in e d ib le , e x c e p t fu e ls ...............................

3
32
33

M in e ra l fu e ls , lu b ric a n ts , a n d re la te d p ro d u c ts ...............

5
54
55
57
58
59

C h e m ic a ls a n d re la te d p ro d u c ts , n .e .s .................................

6
62
64

M a n u fa c tu r e d g o o d s c la s s ifie d c h ie fly b y m a te ria ls .....

66
68
7
71
72
74
75
76
77
78
87

Meat and meat preparations....................................
Cereals and cereal preparations...............................
Vegetables, fruit, and nuts, prepared fresh or dry........
Oilseeds and oleaginous fruits..................................
Cork and wood......................................................
Pulp and waste paper.............................................
Textile fibers and their waste...................................
Metalliferous ores and metal scrap............................

Petroleum, petroleum products, and related materials...
Medicinal and pharmaceutical products......................
Essential oils; polishing and cleaning preparations.......
Plastics in primary forms.........................................
Plastics in nonprimary forms....................................
Chemical materials and products, n.e.s......................
Rubber manufactures, n.e.s.....................................
Paper, paperboard, and articles of paper, pulp,
and oaoerboard....................................................
Nonmetallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s....................
Nonferrous metals..................................................
M a c h in e r y a n d tra n s p o rt e q u ip m e n t......................................

Power generating machinery and equipment...............
Machinery specialized for particular industries.............
General industrial machines and parts, n.e.s.,
and machine parts................................................
Computer equipment and office machines..................
Telecommunications and sound recording and
reproducing apparatus and equipment.....................
Electrical machinery and equipment..........................
Road vehicles........................................................

2002

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

101.2
97.8
107.2
100.6

102.7
93.1
108.4
110.5

100.0
91.3
106.0
102.4

100.3
93.2
105.4
102.5

100.6
92.0
105.2
103.7

99.7
91.6
103.8
103.8

87.1
90.9
88.0
77.2
84 0
81.3

87.1
91.6
88.1
75.8
85 3
84.9

86.9
89.4
87.6
73.9
86 6
87.0

87.7
92.0
87.2
74.1
86 ?
87.3

89.7
93.8
87.3
77.1
86 8
91.7

90.9
95.1
87.4
81.0

82.4
108 8
74.6

87.1
109 5
80.1

84.3
109 7
76.5

89 8
110 8
83.6

99 7
95.8

90.2

92.8
100.9
98.8
86.5
95.8
97.6

92.2
101.1
97.5
85.4
95.9
98.1

92.3
100.8
97.1
85.8
95.7
97.6

93.2
100.5
97.6
87.6
95.8
98.0

94.8
100.3
97.5
90.5
95.3
97.4

96.7
100.9

97.3
100.4

97.2
100.4

96.7
100.8

95.2
102.1
83.1

95.3
101.7
85.3

94.1
101.4
85.9

99.6
104.0
100.5

99.3
104.6
100.7

101.7
92.9

June

July

Aug.

99.8
90.0
106.5
99.0

101.1
87.8
112.7
98.0

103.4
88.7
119.9
98.2

95.3
102.9
87.1
89.3

99.8
117.0
88.1
96.5

98.9

99.8

96 4

93 9

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

107.7
89.8
133.4
98.9

106.4
89.1
130.5
97.8

106.7
87.9
131.7
99.0

106.8
89.8
126.3
98.6

97.9
113.5
88.8
89.6

97.3
114.1
90.0
86.5

96.8
107.2
90.7
88.5

98.8
116.9
90.6
87.9

99.6

97.9

93.9

94.1

95.0

98.8
116.2
90.2
85.9
98 4
97.5

109.3

104.5

87.9

91.6

92.0

98.0

105.F-

99.6

92.2

95.1
100.2
97.1
92.2
95.6
97.4

95.4
100.4
97.3
92.5
96.0
97.5

96.1
100.8
97.1
93.1
96.4
97.3

96.4
101.3
97.5
93.1
96.5
98.2

96.8
101.3
97.4
92.9
96.9
98.3

97.1
101.3
97.3
97.3
97.6
98.6

96.8
101.2
97.2
93.5
97.7
98.5

96.6
101.3
97.3
93.1
95.9
98.8

97.4
101.1

97.4
101.5

98.0
102.7

98.7
103.8

99.0
105.1

99.1
205.9

99.1
105.7

99.0
105.4

99.0
105.6

92.5
102.1
85.1

92.9
101.9
86.5

93.1
102.0
86.5

94.8
102.2
85.3

95.7
102.2
85.2

96.2
102.2
84.9

96.3
102.2
84.4

96.8
101.4
83.4

96.6
101.3
83.2

96.9
101.3
83.3

99.3
104.4
100.8

99.5
104.6
101.1

99.5
104.6
101.4

99.3
104.6
102.0

98.9
104.5
101.8

98.7
104.5
102.1

98.8
104.6
102.0

98.7
104.6
101.8

98.7
104.7
101.8

98.7
105.2
101.7

98.6
105.2
101.7

102.1
92.5

102.0
92.9

102.2
93.1

102.1
92.5

102.3
91.7

102.3
90.4

102.1
90.4

102.3
90.3

102.3
89.3

102.2
89.1

102.3
88.6

102.3
88.7

97.7
95.9
100.3

97.9
94.8
100.1

97.5
94.6
100.2

97.5
94.7
100.3

97.8
94.8
100.3

97.8
94.6
100.4

97.7
93.9
100.3

96.2
93.3
100.4

96.3
93.5
100.6

96.4
93.6
100.6

96.3
93.3
100.9

96.3
93.3
100.9

96.2
92.8
100.9

100.9

100.8

101.1

101.2

101.3

101.3

101.3

101.4

101.5

101.4

101.6

101.5

101.7

P ro fe s s io n a l, s c ie n tific , a n d c o n tro llin g
in s tr u m e n ts a n d a p p a r a tu s ......................................................


102
Monthly Labor Review
https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2003

39. U.S. import price indexes by Standard International Trade Classification
[2000 = 100]
SITC

Industry

R ev. 3

0
01
03
05
07

F o o d a n d liv e a n im a ls ...................................................................

Meat and meat preparations....................................
Fish and crustaceans, mollusks, and other
aquatic invertebrates.............................................
Vegetables, fruit, and nuts, prepared fresh or dry........
Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices, and manufactures
thereof................................................................

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

98.8
103.4

97.6
102.0

97.6
101.2

99.2
106.8

83.0
105.0

84.9
106.7

81.4
107.6

82.0
106.1

82.4
107.1

84,5

93.5

94.3

98.6

99.9

102.5
102.2

102.5
102.2

Aug.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

94.8
109.8

95.8
105.5

94.3
107.4

96.4
109.8

97.0
110.1

96.4
105.4

94.5
104.0

96.3
105.9

96.6
105.4

82.9
99.3

82.3
106.8

82.0
98.1

80.4
104.0

80.1
104.9

80.0
108.1

79.8
102.2

81.9
105.0

78.5

77.5

78.8

83.3

88.5

83.8

84.6

84.2

Sept.

102.9
103.2

102.9
103.2

102.1
102.5

102.0
102.3

102.7
102.4

103.0
102.8

102.7
102.4

102.5
102.2

102.6
102.2

Cork and wood.......................................................
Pulp and waste paper..............................................
Metalliferous ores and metal scrap...........................
Crude animal and vegetable materials, n.e.s...............

89.9
91.7
77.7
91.2
96.0

90.1
92.6
78.1
91.4
92.2

92.7
98.6
77.2
92.7
91.7

95.8
106.6
74.9
93.7
92.3

96.3
108.1
73.4
95.0
90.5

97.0
105.2
74.7
95.6
103.8

96.4
103.1
77.1
95.9
92.8

96.8
103.4
80.2
96.4
91.0

96.8
101.8
82.3
95.2
97.5

96.4
98.3
82.3
93.3
104.0

95.7
96.3
82.3
93.8
101.6

95.0
96.0
80.5
93.9
100.3

93.9
93.5
78.9
94.5
101.5

Petroleum, petroleum products, and related materials....
Gas, natural and manufactured................................

61.2
59.8
68.7

64.0
62.6
70.8

65.2
65.6
58.2

76.4
77.4
64.8

87.1
86.8
86.0

89.0
89.1
84.3

86.0
85.9
83.6

66.1
88.9
77.7

91.1
92.9
72.7

96.3
97.8
81.1

96.9
97.6
87.3

89.7
88.9
92.1

95.6
94.9
97.4

97.5
97.6
97.1
97.0
100.1
99.8
100.9
97.8

97.7
97.0
97.8
97.1
100.1
98.6
100.8
96.1

96.7
97.1
97.4
96.3
99.9
97.1
100.6
95.2

96.3
97.8
97.2
96.0
99.8
91.5
100.6
93.6

97.3
98.5
95.6
96.6
98.9
91.4
101.8
94.5

97.5
98.5
95.6
96.7
99.1
91.1
101.8
94.3

97.0
98.6
96.2
98.0
99.9
91.8
100.3
93.6

98.6
100.0
96.4
98.7
100.4
96.6
99.6
93.5

98.9
100.2
96.8
100.0
101.2
96,4
99.5
93.5

98.7
100.1
96.6
99.6
98.4
97.9
99.4
92.4

98.3
101.5
95.8
99.5
98.4
96.1
99.5
91.0

98.0
102.9
95.9
99.4
98.8
95.7
99.6
90.8

98.1
102.2
96.7
99.2
99.2
94.5
99.6
91.6

92.0
97.9

92.4
97.3

92.3
97.6

92.2
97.6

92.6
97.9

92.3
98.1

92.8
98.1

93.0
98.2

93.1
98.2

93.5
99.3

93.5
99.3

93.6
99.3

93.7
99.3

96.1
97.5
73.8
99.0

95.0
97.2
76.4
99.0

93.7
97.0
77.2
98.5

93.4
96.9
76.9
98.5

92.5
96.9
79.2
98.2

91.9
97.0
79.7
98.3

91.7
97.0
79.7
98.3

91.7
97.2
79.2
98.3

92.7
97.5
77.7
98.6

93.7
97.5
76.4
98.6

93.3
97.6
76.0
98.4

93.3
97.6
76.5
98.3

92.8
97.6
77.4
98.3

97.7
98.7

97.4
98.5

97.2
98.5

97.1
98.5

97.2
98.6

97.0
98.8

97.1
99.0

96.9
98.7

96.9
99.2

96.7
98.3

96.4
98.5

96.2
98.7

96.1
99.2

97.8
88.8

98.1
88.6

97.5
88.2

97.5
88.1

97.6
88.2

97.4
88.0

97.8
87.8

98.1
87.2

98.4
86.9

98.4
86.4

98.5
84.9

98.6
84.5

98.6
84.1

95.7
96.3
97.0
96.9
100.3 1,001.0
99.3
100.3

95.1
97.0
100.2
99.6

94.8
96.8
100.1
99.5

94.8
97.0
100.2
99.0

94.5
97.1
100.0
99.1

94.4
97.1
100.2
99.2

94.0
96.6
100.3
99.3

93.1
96.7
100.3
99.5

92.8
96.5
100.3
99.4

92.1
96.0
100.8
99.4

91.1
95.9
100.5
99.4

91.8
95.6
100.5
99.6

97.7

97.3

97.2

97.2

97.4

97.8

98.4

98.8

98.4

98.5

98.3

98.5

2
24
25
28
29

C ru d e m a te ria ls , in e d ib le , e x c e p t fu e ls ................................

Beverages.............................................................

5
52
53
54
55
57
58
59

C h e m ic a ls a n d re la te d p ro d u c ts , n .e .s ..................................

6
62
64

M a n u fa c tu re d g o o d s c la s s ifie d c h ie fly b y m a te ria ls ......

66
68
69

Nonmetalllc mineral manufactures, n.e.s....................
Nonferrous metals.................................................
Manufactures of metals, n.e.s...................................

7
72
74

M a c h in e ry a n d tra n s p o rt e q u ip m e n t......................................

78
85
88

July

Jan.

103.0
103.1

B e v e ra g e s a n d to b a c c o ................................................................

75
76

June

Dec.

102.4
102.1

1
11

3
33
34

2002

2001

Inorganic chemicals................................................
Dying, tanning, and coloring materials.......................
Medicinal and pharmaceutical products......................
Essential oils; polishing and cleaning preparations.......
Plastics in primary forms..........................................
Plastics In nonprlmary forms....................................
Chemical materials and products, n.e.s......................

Rubber manufactures, n.e.s.....................................
Paper, paperboard, and articles of paper, pulp,

Machinery specialized for particular industries............
General industrial machines and parts, n.e.s.,
Telecommunications and sound recording and
reproducing apparatus and equipment.....................

Photographic apparatus, equipment, and supplies,
and optical ooods. n.e.s........................................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

98.4

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

103

Current Labor Statistics:

40.

Price Data

U.S. export price indexes by end-use category

[2000 = 100]
2001

Category

2002

Dec.
ALL COMMODITIES.....................................

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

97.6

97.5

97.3

97.6

98.0

98.0

98.0

98.3

98.5

98.8

98.7

98.8

98.6

Foods, feeds, and beverages........................
Agricultural foods, feeds, and beverages.............
Nonagricultural (fish, beverages) food products....

100.6
101.6
90.4

102.0
102.6
96.3

98.9
99.4
94.5

99.7
100.0
98.3

100.3
100.8
96.2

100.4
100.9
96.1

101.5
101.7
100.7

104.0
104.5
100.0

106.1
106.7
100.7

109.8
110.7
101.3

107.6
108.2
102.1

109.6
110.4
102.2

108.7
109 4
102.7

Industrial supplies and materials...........................

91.4

91.5

91.4

91.9

93.4

93.8

94.6

95.6

95.5

95.9

96.4

96.1

95.9

Agricultural industrial supplies and materials.........

93.3

92.3

92.9

93.6

93.6

93.0

95.8

97.9

97.7

98.4

98.4

100.2

102.0

Fuels and lubricants.................................
Nonagricultural supplies and materials,
excluding fuel and building materials..................
Selected building materials...........................

83.5

85.6

83.8

85.6

90.3

87.9

86.7

88.3

88.0

92.9

94.0

91.6

91 2

92.3
94.1

92.3
94.4

92.2
94.4

92.6
94.2

94.0
94.3

94.8
94.1

95.7
94.2

96.7
95.0

96.5
95.4

96.4
96.2

96.8
96.6

96.6
96.5

96 3
96.1

Capital goods............................................
Electric and electrical generating equipment.........
Nonelectrical machinery.....................................

99.4
101.5
97.7

99.1
102.1
97.2

99.2
102.0
97.3

99.4
102.1
97.5

99.5
101.8
97.6

99.2
101.8
97.3

98.7
102.0
96.5

98.5
101.8
96.2

98.5
102.1
96.2

98.4
102.1
96.0

98.3
102.1
95.8

98.3
102.0
95.7

98.2
102.0
95.6

Automotive vehicles, parts, and engines..................

100.5

100.7

100.8

100.9

100.7

100.9

100.9

100.9

101.1

101.1

101.3

101.3

101.4

Consumer goods, excluding automotive..................
Nondurables, manufactured................................
Durables, manufactured..................................

99.9
99.1
100.5

99.5
98.2
100.6

99.1
98.2
99.9

99.1
98.1
99.7

98.9
98.2
99.3

99.0
98.3
99.2

99.1
98.5
99.4

99.1
98.5
99.5

99.3
98.7
99.7

99.3
98.7
99.6

99.4
98.8
99.6

99.3
98.6
99.7

99 3
98.8
99.6

Agricultural commodities.................................
Nonagricultural commodities............................

100.2
97.3

100.9
97.2

98.3
97.2

98.9
97.5

99.6
97.8

99.5
97.8

100.7
97.8

103.4
97.9

105.2
97.9

108.6
98.0

106.6
98.1

108.7
98.0

108.1
97.9

41.

U.S. import price indexes by end-use category

[2000 = 100]
2001

Category

2002

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

A L L C O M M O D IT I E S ......................................................................

91.4

91.6

91.6

92.8

94.3

94.4

94.1

94.5

94.8

95.5

95.5

94.5

95.2

Foods, feeds, and beverages.................................
Agricultural foods, feeds, and beverages..............
Nonagricultural (fish, beverages) food products....

94.6
98.3
86.8

95.7
99.9
87.0

93.8
97.2
86.8

95.0
99.5
85.5

96.0
100.9
85.5

97.2
102.7
85.2

96.2
101.3
85.1

96.9
102.4
85.0

96.9
102.0
86.0

99.7
105.4
87.3

100.0
106.1
86.6

100.0
106.0
87.1

20.0
106.4
87.5

Industrial supplies and materials.............................

77.6

79.1

79.8

84.9

90.3

90.8

89.8

91.3

92.6

95.2

95.4

91.9

94.7

Fuels and lubricants..........................................
Petroleum and petroleum products...................

61.6
59.9

64.5
63.0

65.9
65.7

76.4
76.9

87.1
86.7

88.5
88.4

85.8
85.3

88.1
88.5

90.7
91.8

96.2
97.1

96.6
97.0

89.0
88.1

95.1
94.6

Paper and paper base stocks..............................
Materials associated with nondurable
supplies and materials.......................................
Selected building materials..................................
Unfinished metals associated with durable goods..
Nonmetals associated with durable goods............

90.7

90.0

88.8

88.0

87.0

86.7

87.1

88.0

89.3

90.5

90.1

89.7

89.0

96.2
92.9
82.1
99.0

96.3
93.1
83.2
98.4

96.0
96.1
83.8
97.6

95.9
100.7
83.8
97.2

97.4
101.0
86.2
97.6

97.4
99.6
86.6
96.8

97.1
99.1
88.5
96.7

98.1
99.9
89.4
97.1

99.1
99.2
88.6
97.0

99.4
97.6
89.7
96.9

99.7
96.9
90.0
97.0

99.8
96.4
90.4
96.9

99.9
94.8
91.5
97.0

Capital goods..................................................
Electric and electrical generating equipment.........
Nonelectrical machinery.......................................

96.2
100.6
94.9

95.7
97.3
94.8

95.4
96.7
94.5

95.2
95.5
94.4

95.2
95.3
94.5

95.1
95.0
94.4

95.1
95.1
94.4

94.8
95.3
93.8

94.9
95.9
93.9

94.7
95.7
93.7

94.0
95.2
92.9

93.9
94.8
92.8

93.8
94 9
92.7

Automotive vehicles, parts, and engines.................

100.1

99.8

100.1

99.9

100.1

99.9

100.1

100.2

100.2

100.3

100.7

100.4

100.5

Consumer goods, excluding automotive..................
Nondurables, manufactured...............................
Durables, manufactured.................................
Nonmanufactured consumer goods......................

98.7
99.7
98.0
96.4

98.7
99.8
97.8
95.8

98.4
99.7
97.4
95.7

98.2
99.2
97.3
96.1

98.1
99.1
97.2
95.8

98.2
99.1
97.2
97.6

98.1
99.1
97.2
95.6

98.2
99.3
97.3
95.3

98.2
99.6
97.0
95.6

98.1
99.5
96.8
95.4

98.1
99.6
96.8
95.4

97.9
99.3
96.7
95.2

98.0
99.6
96.5
95.4

42.

U.S. international price Indexes for selected categories of services

[2000 = 100]_____________
2000

Category
Sept.

2001
Dec.

Mar.

June

2002
Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec,

Air freight (inbound)...........................................
Airfreight (outbound)................................................

100.2
100.2

99.0
100.2

97.9
100.1

95.1
98.0

94.9
97.6

95.2
97.9

93.9
95.9

98.3
98.4

100.3
97.3

105.8
95.4

Air passenger fares (U.S. carriers).............................
Air passenger fares (foreign carriers).........................
Ocean liner freight (inbound)...................................

103.1
103.2
101.1

99.9
97.6
101.0

101.9
100.7
102.8

106.4
103.8
100.8

107.6
110.2
98.1

103.5
100.8
93.6

103.3
99.4
91.7

110.7
110.9
90.3

114.3
118.5
93.5

107.9
107.2
93.3

Monthly Labor Review
Digitized for104
FRASER
https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2003

43.

Indexes of productivity, hourly compensation, and unit costs, quarterly data seasonally adjusted

[1992 = 100]
1999

Item
III

IV

I

II

2002

2001

2000

III

I

IV

II

III

IV

B u s in e s s

III

115.2
127.0
107.8
110.2
115.3
112.1

115.3
131.4
110.5
114.0
110.7
112.8

117.2
132.4
110.5
113.0
114.1
113.4

117.3
135.0
111.7
115.1
111.2
113.7

117.9
136.3
111.9
115.6
112.0
114.3

117.5
137.3
111.8
116.9
112.3
115.2

117.4
137.5
111.0
117.1
113.6
115.8

117.9
137.8
111.1
116.8
115.5
116.4

120.1
138.3
111.6
115.1
117.2
115.9

122.5
139.3
112.0
113.7
119.9
116.0

123.1
140.8
112.2
114.4
119.3
116.2

124.7
142.6
113.2
114.3
119.7
116.3

112.9
124.5
106.6
110.3
115.8
112.3

114.7
126.3
107.2
110.1
117.0
112.6

114.7
130.8
110.0
114.0
112.3
113.4

116.4
131.5
109.8
113.0
115.6
113.9

116.6
134.3
111.1
115.2
112.8
114.3

117.1
135.3
111.2
115.6
113.4
114.8

116.7
136.3
110.9
116.8
113.8
115.7

116.6
136.3
110.1
116.9
115.3
116.3

117.2
136.7
110.2
116.6
117.2
116.8

119.3
137.2
110.7
115.0
119.2
116.5

121.8
138.2
111.1
113.4
121.7
116.4

122.3
139.5
111.2
114.0
121.7
116.8

123.8
141.2
112.0
114.0
121.9
116.9

114.7
121.2
103.7
105.3
105.6
104.5
127.7
110.4
107.2

115.8
122.7
104.2
105.7
106.0
104.6
126.0
110.1
107.4

117.8
126.9
106.7
106.9
107.8
104.5
119.5
108.4
108.0

118.3
127.8
106.6
107.5
108.0
106.3
118.8
109.5
108.5

119.5
130.4
107.9
108.6
109.1
107.1
109.5
107.7
108.6

119.5
131.7
108.2
109.8
110.2
108.9
98.6
106.3
108.9

118.8
131.3
106.9
110.8
110.6
111.6
93.1
106.9
109.3

119.4
131.9
106.5
111.3
110.4
113.5
95.4
108.9
109.9

120.4
132.7
107.0
111.7
110.3
115.5
97.9
111.0
110.5

123.5
133.6
107.8
109.8
108.2
114.1
107.6
112.4
109.6

124.9
134.7
108.3
109.5
107.9
114.0
107.6
112.4
109.4

236.7
136.2
108.6
109.4
107.5
114.5
107.8
112.8
109.3

128.4
138.1
109.6
109.5
107.5
114.8
104.9
112.3
109.1

129.8
122.6
104.9
94.4

132.1
124.2
105.4
94.0

133.6
131.4
110.5
98.4

134.9
129.3
107.9
95.9

135.4
132.2
109.4
97.7

135.9
131.5
108.0
96.7

135.4
132.0
107.4
97.5

135.4
133.0
107.4
98.2

136.4
133.3
107.5
97.8

137.6
134.3
108.3
97.6

140.9
135.6
109.0
96.2

142.3
136.6
108.9
96.0

144.2
138.1
109.6
95.8

N o n f in a n c i a l c o r p o r a t io n s

M a n u f a c tu r in g


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

II

113.6
123.4
107.3
110.4
114.1
111.8
N o n f a r m b u s in e s s

Unit labor costs........................................................

I

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

105

Current Labor Statistics:

44.

Productivity Data

Annual indexes of multifactor productivity and related measures, selected years

[1996 - 100, unless otherwise indicated]
Item

1960

1970

1980

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

Private business
Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons..................
Output per unit of capital services............
Multifactor productivity............................
Output..........................................
Inputs:
Labor input............................
Capital services.........................
Combined units of labor and capital input...........
Capital per hour of all persons..................

45.6
110 4
65.2

63.0
111.1
80.0

75.8
101.5
88.3

v0<O
82.6

54.0
24.9
42.3
41.3

52.4
56.7

67.3
74.7

64.9
118.3
82.6

77.3
105.7

87.7

o/ .0

94.8
97.7
96.6
85.7

95.4
98.5
97.1
88.5

96.6
100.3
98.1
92.8

97.3
99.7
98.4
95.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

102.0
100.5
101.1
105.2

104.8
100.1
102.6
110.6

104.8
100.1
102.6
110.6

89.3
87.7
88.8
97.0

91.8
89.8
91.1
96.8

95.6
92.6
94.6
96.3

98.0
96.0
97.3
97.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

103.7
104.7
104.0
101.5

106.4
110.4
107.7
104.7

106.4
110.4
107.7
104.7

94.8
97.9
96.6
85.5

95.3
98.8
97.1
88.4

96.5
100.3
98.1
92.6

97.5
99.9
98.6
95.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

101.7
100.2
100.9
105.1

104.5
99.8
102.4
110.6

104.5
99.8
102.4
110.6

89.0
87.3
88.4
96.8

91.8
89.5
91.0
96.5

95.4
92.3
94.4
96.3

97.8
95.9
97.2
97.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

103.8
104.9
104.2
101.5

106.6
110.8
108.0
104.7

106.6
110.8
108.0
104.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

101.9
101.1
100.4
103.3

105.0
104.0
102.6
108.7

109.0
105.0
105.0
113.4

112.8
104.5
106.1
116.9

117.1
105.6
109.8
123.5

124.3
106.5
113.2
130.7

124.3
106.5
113.2
130.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.01

101.4
102.2
103.7
105.7
103.0
102.9

103.6
104.5
107.3
111.3
105.1
106.01

104.0
108.0
109.5
112.8
110.0
107.9

103.7
111.9
107.0
120.4
108.9
110.2|

105.5
116.9
103.9
120.4
114.2
112.5|

105.2
122.8
109.2
127.2
116.8
115.5

105.2
122.8
109.2
127.2
116.8
115.5

Private nonfarm business
Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons................
Output per unit of capital services..................
Multifactor productivity.............................
Output......................................
Inputs:
Labor input....................................
Capital services...............................
Combined units of labor and capital input............
Capital per hour of all persons................

48.7
120.1
69.1
27.2

Ov>0

50.1
22.6
39.3
40.5

35.5
50.7
54.8

41.8
124.3
72.7

54.2
116.5
84.4

92.0
30.9
51.3
38.2
28.2
52.9

104.2
48.5

74.7

44.8
48.8
67.0

73.7
87.0

65.9
73.1

00.0
87.3

Manufacturing (1992 a 100)
Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons......................
Output per unit of capital services......................
Multifactor productivity......................
Output...................................
Inputs:
Hours of all persons..........................
Capital services..............................
Energy.................................
Nonenergy materials..............................
Purchased business services..............
Combined units of all factor inputs................

106 Monthly Labor Review

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2003

70.1
100.9

98.01

97.0

45.

Annual indexes of productivity, hourly compensation, unit costs, and prices, selected years

[1992 = 100]___________________
Item

1960

1970

1980

1990

1993

1995

1994

1996

B u s in e s s

Output per hour of all persons..................
Compensation per hour...........................
Real compensation per hour....................
Unit labor costs.......................................
Unit nonlabor payments..........................
Implicit price deflator...............................

2000

2001

80.4
54.2
89.2
67.4
61.5
65.2

95.2
90.7
96.3
95.3
93.9
94.8

100.5
102.5
100.0
101.9
102.5
102.2

101.9
104.5
99.9
102.6
106.4
104.0

102.6
106.7
99.6
104.1
109.4
106.0

105.4
110.1
100.1
104.5
113.3
107.7

107.8
113.5
101.0
105.3
117.1
109.7

110.6
119.7
105.0
108.2
114.5
110.6

113.5
125.2
107.6
110.3
113.9
111.8

116.9
133.8
111.2
114.4
112.0
1113.5

118.2
137.7
111.4
116.5
114.7
115.8

51.9
14.3
62.6
27.5
24.6
26.5

68.9
23.7
79.2
34.4
31.3
33.3

82.0
54.6
89.8
66.5
60.5
64.3

95.3
90.5
96.2
95.0
93.6
94.5

100.5
102.2
99.7
101.7
103.0
102.2

101.8
104.3
99.7
102.5
106.9
104.1

102.8
106.6
99.4
103.7
110.4
106.1

105.4
109.8
99.8
104.2
113.5
107.6

107.5
113.1
100.6
105.2
118.0
109.8

110.3
119.1
104.5
108.0
115.7
110.8

112.9
124.3
106.8
110.1
115.5
112.1

116.2
133.0
110.6
114.4
113.5
114.1

117.5
136.6
110.5
116.3
116.4
116.3

55.4
15.6
68.1
26.8
28.1
23.3
50.2
30.2
28.8

70.4
25.3
84.4
34.8
35.9
31.9
44.4
35.1
35.6

81.1
56.4
92.9
68.4
69.6
65.1
68.8
66.0
68.4

95.4
90.8
96.5
95.9
95.2
98.0
94.3
97.1
95.8

100.7
102.0
99.6
101.0
101.3
100.2
113.2
103.5
102.1

103.1
104.2
99.6
101.1
101.0
101.3
131.7
109.0
103.7

104.2
106.2
99.0
102.0
101.9
102.2
139.0
111.6
105.1

107.5
109.0
99.0
101.2
101.4
100.6
152.2
113.8
105.5

108.4
110.3
98.1
101.5
101.8
100.9
156.9
115.2
106.2

111.7
116.0
101.7
103.3
103.8
102.2
141.7
112.3
106.6

114.7
121.1
104.1
105.1
105.6
103.5
131.7
110.7
107.3

117.1
129.2
107.4
109.8
110.3
108.3
113.2
109.5
110.0

118.3
132,4
107.0
112.9
111.9
115.8
100.5
111.8
111.9

41.8
14.9
65.0
35.6
26.8
30.2

54.2
23.7
79.2
43.8
29.3
35.0

70.1
55.6
91.4
79.3
80.2
79.9

92.9
90.8
96.4
97.8
99.8
99.0

101.9
102.7
100.2
100.8
100.9
100.9

105.0
105.6
101.0
100.7
102.8
102.0 I

109.0
107.9
100.6
99.0
106.9
103.9

112.8
109.4
99.4
96.9
109.9
104.8

117.6
111.5
99.1
94.8
110.0
104.1

123.3
117.4
103.0
95.2
103.7
100.4

129.7
122.1
104.9
94.1
104.9
100.7

134.9
131.1
109.0
97.2
107.0
103.2

136.2
133.1
107.7
97.8

M a n u f a c tu r in g

Output per hour of all persons................
Compensation per hour.........................
Real compensation per hour..................
Unit labor costs.....................................
Unit nonlabor payments.........................
Implicit price deflator..............................

1999

67.0
23.5
78.6
35.1
31.6
33.9

N o n f in a n c i a l c o r p o r a t io n s

Output per hour of all employees............
Compensation per hour..........................
Real compensation per hour...................
Total unit costs......................................
Unit labor costs....................................
Unit nonlabor costs..............................
Unit profits.............................................
Unit nonlabor payments.........................
Implicit price deflator..............................

1998

48.8
13.7
59.8
28.0
25.2
27.0

N o n f a r m b u s in e s s

Output per hour of all persons.................
Compensation per hour..........................
Real compensation per hour...................
Unit labor costs......................................
Unit nonlabor payments..........................
Implicit price deflator..............................

1997

Dash indicates data not available.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

107

Current Labor Statistics:

Productivity Data

46. Annual Indexes of output per hour for selected 3-digit SIC industries
[1987=100]_____________

______________ Industry

SIC

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

102
104
122
131
142

102.7
122.3
118.7
97.0
102.2

100.5
127.4
122.4
97.9
99.8

115.2
141.6
133.0
102.1
105.0

118.1
159.8
141.2
105.9
103.6

126.0
160.8
148.1
112.4
108.7

117.2
144.2
155.9
119.4
105.4

116.5
138.3
168.0
123.9
107.2

118.9
158.5
176.6
125.2

118.3
187.6
188.0
127.5

112.6

201

99.6
108.3
99.2
104.9
90.6

104.6
111.4
100.5
107.8
93.8

104.3
109.6
106.8
109.2
94.4

101.2

203
204
205

97.1
107.3
95.6
105.4
92.7

102.3
116.4
109.1
115.4
97.3

97.4
116.0
109.2
108.0
95.6

206
207
208
209
211

103.2
118.1
117.0
99.2
113.2

102.0
120.1
120.0
101.7
107.6

99.8
114.1
127.1
101.5
111.6

104.5
112.6
126.4
105.2
106.5

108.3
120.3
133.5
102.9
142.9

222
224
225
226

103.1
111.3
96.5
107.5
83.4

111.2
116.2
99.6
114.0
79.9

110.3
126.2
112.9
119.3
78.6

117.8
131.7
111.4
127.9
79.3

227
228
229
232
233

93.2
110.2
109.2
102.1
104.1

89.2
111.4
104.6
108.4
104.3

96.1
119.6
106.5
109.1
109.4

234
235
238
239
242

102.1
89.2
90.6
99.9
99.8

113.7
91.1
91.8
100.7
102.6

243
244
245
249
251

98.0
111.2
103.1
107.7
104.5

252
253
254
259
261

1999

2000

Mining
C o p p e r o r e s ............................................................. .
G o ld a n d s ilv e r o r e s .............................................
B itu m in o u s c o a l a n d lig n ite m in in g ................
C r u d e p e tro le u m a n d n a tu ra l g a s ..................
C r u s h e d a n d b ro k e n s to n e ................................

110.0

122.6

110.2

197.5
194.9
134.5
105.0

239.9
207.0
142.5
101.9

102.5
119.3
110.7
118.2
99.1

102.3
119.3
117.8
126.2
100.9

101.8

112.7
120.4
129.3
106.4

102.9
113.5
123.5
127.5
107.6

113.7

116.7

110.1

120.2

135.0
109.1
147.2

135.5
104.0
147.2

123.0
137.3
136.4
112.4
152.2

127.0
154.4
129.7
113.9
137.7

130.5
151.4
128.6
116.3
139.1

137.3
147.6
126.3
150.3
79.2

131.2
162.2

134.1
81.2

134.0
145.3
118.9
138.3
78.5

136.2
168.6
117.7
135.9
93.7

139.3
175.3
124.9
146.6
94.4

140.2
167.4
117.1
155.6
97.2

97.1
126.6
110.4
108.4
121.8

93.3
130.7
118.5
111.7
127.4

95.8
137.4
123.7
123.4
135.5

100.2

102.3
153.0

103.0
155.4
134.4
200.3
189.9

117.4
93.6
91.3
107.5
108.1

124.5
87.2
94.0
108.5
101.9

138.0
77.7
105.5
107.8
103.3

161.3
84.3
116.8
109.2

98.0
113.1
103.0
110.5
107.1

99.9
109.4
103.1
114.2
110.5

97.0
100.1
103.8
115.3
110.6

94.5
100.9
98.3

95.0
119.8
95.6
103.5
116.7

94.1
120.2
93.0
102.1
128.3

102.5
140.6
102.7
99.5
137.3

103.2
161.0
107.4
103.6
122.5

100.5
157.4
98.9
104.7
128.9

262
263
265
267
271

102.3
100.6
101.3
101.4
90.6

99.2
101.4
103.4
105.3
85.8

103.3
104.4
105.2
105.5
81.5

102.4
108.4
107.9
107.9
79.4

110.2
114.9
108.4

272
273
274
275
276

93.9
96.6
92.2
102.5
93.0

89.5
100.8
95.9
102.0
89.1

92.9
97.7
105.8
108.0
94.5

89.5
103.5
104.5
106.9
91.1

81.9
103.0
97.5
106.5
82.0

277
278
279
281
282

100.6
99.4
99.3
106.8
100.9

92.7
96.1
100.6
109.7
100.0

96.7
103.6
112.0
109.7
107.5

91.4
98.7
115.3
105.6
112.0

111.0

102.3
125.3

92.5
108.7
116.7
109.3
128.3

283
284
285
286
287

103.8
103.8
106.3
101.4
104.7

104.5
105.3
104.3
95.8
99.5

99.5
104.4
102.9
94.6
99.5

99.7
108.7
108.8
92.2
103.8

104.6
111.2
116.7
99.9
105.0

108.7
118.6
118.0
98.6
108.5

Manufacturing
M e a t p ro d u c ts ..........................................................
D a iry p ro d u c ts ..........................................................
P re s e rv e d fru its a n d v e g e ta b le s .....................
G r a in m ill p ro d u c ts ................................................
B a k e ry p ro d u c ts .......................................................

S u g a r a n d c o n fe c tio n e ry p ro d u c ts .................
F a ts a n d o ils .............................................................
B e v e r a g e s ..................................................................
M is c e lla n e o u s fo o d a n d k in d re d p ro d u c ts ..
C ig a r e t te s ...................................................................

B ro a d w o v e n fa b ric m ills, c o tto n .......................
B ro a d w o v e n fa b ric m ills, m a n m a d e ...............
N a r r o w fa b ric m ills ..................................................
K n ittin g m ills ...............................................................
T e x tile fin is h in g , e x c e p t w o o l.............................

C a r p e ts a n d ru g s .....................................................
Y a r n a n d th re a d m ills .............................................
M is c e lla n e o u s te x tile g o o d s ...............................
M e n 's a n d b o y s ' fu rn is h in g s ...............................
W o m e n 's a n d m is s e s ' o u te r w e a r.....................

W o m e n 's a n d c h ild re n 's u n d e rg a rm e n ts ....
H a ts , c a p s , a n d m illin e ry .....................................
M is c e lla n e o u s a p p a r e l a n d a c c e s s o rie s ......
M is c e lla n e o u s fa b ric a te d te x tile p ro d u cts
S a w m ills a n d p la n in g m ills ..................................

M illw o rk , p ly w o o d , a n d s tru c tu ral m e m b e rs .
W o o d c o n ta in e rs .......................................................
W o o d b u ild in g s a n d m o b ile h o m e s ................
M is c e lla n e o u s w o o d p ro d u c ts ...........................
H o u s e h o ld fu rn itu re ................................................

O ffic e fu rn itu re ...........................................................
P u b lic b u ild in g a n d r e la te d fu rn itu re ...............
P a rtitio n s a n d fix tu r e s .............................................
M is c e lla n e o u s fu rn itu re a n d fix tu re s ...............
P u lp m ills .......................................................................

P a p e r m ills ....................................................................
P a p e rb o a rd m ills .......................................................
P a p e rb o a rd c o n ta in e rs a n d b o x e s ...................
M is c e lla n e o u s c o n v e rte d p a p e r p ro d u c ts ....
N e w s p a p e r s .................................................................

P e r io d ic a ls .....................................................................
B o o k s ...............................................................................
M is c e lla n e o u s p u b lis h in g ......................................
C o m m e rc ia l p rin tin g ..................................................
M a n ifo ld b u s in e s s fo rm s ........................................
G r e e tin g c a r d s .............................................................
B la n k b o o k s a n d b o o k b in d in g ...............................
P rin tin g tr a d e s e r v ic e s .............................................
In d u s tria l in o rg a n ic c h e m ic a ls .............................
P la s tic s m a te ria ls a n d s y n th e tic s .......................

D r u g s ................................................................................
S o a p s , c le a n e r s , a n d to ile t g o o d s .....................
P a in ts a n d a llie d p ro d u c ts .....................................
In d u s tria l o rg a n ic c h e m ic a ls .................................
A g ric u ltu ra l c h e m ic a ls ..............................................

S e e fo o tn o te s a t e n d o f ta b le .

108 Monthly Labor Review

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2003

111.8

107.6
108.4
96.4
106.2
111.8

130.1
100.9
126.6
122.1

142.5
120.1

111.8

112.5

110.6

79.9

89.0
105.4

110.8

138.0
94.3
100.3
150.4
118.7
162.1
149.9

120.1

174.8
151.9

96.0
157.6
128.0
190.9
173.9

208.9
87.1
101.5
119.2
116.9

216.4
98.7
108.0
117.3
118.7

294.7
99.3
105.8
128.8
125.4

352.3
106.1
111.3
132.5
124.4

89.1
106.2
100.3
123.4
121.3

91.3
106.5
99.2
131.2
125.7

89.2
103.9
100.3
140.7
128.9

91.4
104.6
94.6
146.5
128.4

118.3
214.9

113.1
207.6
125.6
121.9

131.9

106.4
181.5
97.5
113.2
132.6

86.6

108.9
222.4
125.9
119.1
84.8

118.6
119.5
105.1
113.3
79.0

111.6

112.0

118.0
106.3
113.6
77.4

126.7
109.7
119.5
79.0

114.8
127.8
113.5
123.0
83.6

126.2
134.9
111.9
126.0
86.0

133.5
135.3
112.9
128.3
88.3

89.1
99.3
93.6
108.3
75.2

100.1

112.2

111.2

102.6

114.5
108.8
77.9

100.9
119.4
109.9
76.7

106.1
127.2
115.0
70.6

109.9
106.1
127.8
118.7
69.4

92.2
114.2
123.3
116.8
135.4

104.1
116.5
126.7
145.8
142.2

109.3
123.8
121.5
148.5
148.6

105.1
126.2
119.6
141.3
151.0

112.4
126.4
126.4
111.3
119.8

104.3
122.7
126.8
105.7
118.0

105.6
114.8
122.7
120.6

106.2
124.8
124.6
127.8

104.6

112.0

110.2

92.7
106.1
97.0
115.4
116.9
101.1

173.3
101.2
110.0

87.8
101.6

94.8
107.2
76.9

147.4
123.1
134.7
141.6
174.5
82.2
120.1

105.6
115.6
92.4
106.7
96.7
114.4
121.6

90.8
114.5
126.2
110.1

125.3
112.5
120.9
125.6
99.0
110.0

121.1

110.7
82.3

111.2
202.0

131.9
110.5
78.8

46. Continued - Annual indexes of output per hour for selected 3-digit SIC industries
[1987=100]
Industry______________

SIC

1990

1991

1992

1994

1993

1995

1996

1998

1997

1999

2000

Miscellaneous chemical products........................
Petroleum refining..............................................
Asphalt paving and roofing materials...................
Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products.........
Tires and Inner tubes..........................................

289
291
295
299
301

97.3
109.2
98.0
94.8
103.0

96.1
106.6
94.1
90.6
102.4

101.8
111.3
100.4
101.5
107.8

107.1
120.1
108.0
104.2
116.5

105.7
123.8
104.9
96.3
124.1

107.8
132.3
111.2
87.4
131.1

110.1
142.0
113.1
87.1
138.8

120.3
149.2
123.1
96.5
149.1

120.8
155.8
124.7
98.5
144.1

123.3
170.2
123.4
86.5
142.1

125.6
180.2
126.1
82.9
145.9

Hose and belting and gaskets and packing..........
Fabricated rubber products, n.e.c.......................
Miscellaneous plastics products, n.e.c.................
Footwear, except rubber.....................................
Flat glass...........................................................

305
306
308
314
321

96.1
109.0
105.7
101.1
84.5

92.4
109.9
108.3
94.4
83.6

97.8
115.2
114.4
104.2
92.7

99.7
123.1
116.7
105.2
97.7

102.7
119.1
120.8
113.0
97.6

104.6
121.5

107.4
121.0
124.7
126.1
101.5

113.5
125.3
129.9
121.4
107.6

112.7
132.3
133.8
110.9
114.0

110.6
136.9
140.9
132.6
129.4

115.4
144.7
145.4
146.2
140.4

Glass and glassware, pressed or blown...............
Products of purchased glass...............................
Cement, hydraulic...............................................
Structural clay products.......................................
Pottery and related products...............................

322
323
324
325
326

104.8
92.6
112.4
109.6
98.7

102.3
97.7
108.3
109.8
95.9

108.9
101.5
115.1
111.4
99.5

108.7
106.2
119.9
106.8
100.3

112.9
105.9
125.6
114.0
108.5

115.7
106.1
124.3
109.4

121.4
122.0
128.7
119.6
119.4

128.3
125.1
133.1
111.9
124.2

135.2
122.0
134.1
114.8
127.4

139.3
130.2
138.6
123.5
122.0

135.8
137.2
136.9
124.8
121.2

Concrete, gypsum, and plaster products..............
Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral products.........
Blast furnace and basic steel products.................
Iron and steel foundries......................................
Primary nonferrous metals..................................

327
329
331
332
333

102.3
95.4
109.7
106.1
102.3

101.2
94.0
107.8
104.5
110.7

102.5
104.3
117.0
107.2
101.9

104.6
104.5
133.6
112.1
107.9

101.5
106.3
142.4
113.0
105.3

104.5
107.8
142.6
112.7
111.0

107.3
110.4
147.5
116.2
110.8

107.6
114.7
155.0
120.8
112.0

112.8
114.9
151.0
121.1
118.9

111.1
113.3
155.6
128.9
117.7

105.1
116.1
160.1
132.1
111.9

Nonferrous rolling and drawing............................
Nonferrous foundries (castings)..........................
Miscellaneous primary metal products.................
Metal cans and shipping containers....................
Cutlery, handtools, and hardware.......................

335
336
339
341
342

92.7
104.0
113.7
117.6
97.3

91.0
103.6
109.1
122.9
96.8

96.0
103.6
114.5
127.8
100.1

98.3
108.5
111.3
132.3
104.0

101.2
112.1
134.5
140.9
109.2

99.2
117.8
152.2
144.2
111.3

104.0
122.3
149.6
155.2
118.2

111.3
127.0
136.2
160.3
114.6

115.7
131.5
140.0
163.8
115.7

121.4
129.8
149.0
157.9
121.9

118.0
129.7
154.3
159.5
125.4

Plumbing and heating, except electric.................
Fabricated structural metal products...................
Metal forgings and stampings.............................
Metal services, n.e.c..........................................
Ordnance and accessories, n.e.c.......................

343
344
346
347
348

102.6
98.8
95.6
104.7
82.1

102.0
100.0
92.9
99.4
81.5

98.4
103.9
103.7
111.6
88.6

102.0
104.8
108.7
120.6
84.6

109.1
107.7
108.5
123.0
83.6

109.2
105.8
109.3
127.7
87.6

118.6
106.5
113.6
128.4
87.5

127.3
111.9
120.2
124.4
93.7

130.5
112.7
125.9
127.3
96.6

125.7
112.8
128.3
126.1
91.0

132.2
112.8
129.8
135.7
92.8

Miscellaneous fabricated metal products............
Engines and turbines.........................................
Farm and garden machinery..............................
Construction and related machinery................... .
Metalworking machinery....................................

349
351
352
353
354

97.5
106.5
116.5
107.0
101.1

97.4
105.8
112.9
99.1
96.4

101.1
103.3
113.9
102.0
104.3

102.0
109.2
118.6
108.2
107.4

103.2
122.3
125.0
117.7
109.9

106.6

108.3
136.6
137.2
123.3
114.9

107.7
136.9
141.2
132.5
119.2

111.6
146.1
148.5
137.6
119.8

109.3
151.5
128.6
133.6
123.0

109.2
164.5
139.6
139.8
129.8

Special industry machinery................................
General industrial machinery..............................
Computer and office equipment..........................
Refrigeration and service machinery..................
Industrial machinery, n.e.c................................

355
356
357
358
359

107.5
101.5
138.1
103.6
107.3

108.3
101.6
149.6
100.7
109.0

106.0
101.6
195.7
104.9
117.0

113.6
104.8
258.6
108.6
118.5

121.2
106.7
328.6
110.7
127.4

134.0
109.4
681.3
114.7
141.4

131.7
110.0
960.2
115.0
129.3

124.5
111.2
1356.6
121.4
127.5

138.6
113.1
1862.5
124.0
135.8

172.2
118.7
2172.0
122.3
141.8

Electric distribution equipment...........................
Electrical industrial apparatus............................
Household appliances.......................................
Electric lighting and wiring equipment.................
Communications equipment..............................

361
362
363
364
366

106.3
107.7
105.8
99.9
123.8

106.5
107.1
106.5
97.5
129.1

119.6
117.1
115.0
105.7
154.9

122.2
132.9
123.4
107.8
163.1

131.8
134.9
131.4
113.4
186.4

143.9
154.3
127.4
116.9
229.5

142.8
164.2
142.9
121.8
275.4

147.5
162.3
150.2
129.2
284.5

148.9
158.3
149.5
132.4
371.9

155.4
157.0
162.4
134.8
448.8

Electronic components and accessories............
Miscellaneous electrical equipment & supplies...
Motor vehicles and equipment...........................
Aircraft and parts..............................................
Ship and boat building and repairing..................

367
369
371
372
373

133.4
90.6
102.4
98.9
103.7

154.7
98.6
96.6
108.2
96.3

189.3
101.3
104.2
112.3
102.7

217.9
108.2
106.2
115.2
105.9

274.0
110.5
108.8
109.5
103.8

114.
106.
107 3
98.

515.0
123.1
107.2
113.1
99.3

613.4
128.3
116.3
114.7
105.5

768.6
135.3
125.2
140.1
102.5

1062.6
147.2
136.7
138.1
113.1

1440.1
156.0
127.1
132.2
121.6

Railroad equipment..........................................
Motorcycles, bicycles, and parts.......................
Guided missiles, space vehicles, parts..............
Search and navigation equipment.....................
Measuring and controlling devices....................

374
375
376
381
382

141.1
93.8
116.5
112.7
106.4

146.9
99.8
110.5
118.9
113.1

147.9
108.4
110.5
122.1
119.9

151.0
130.9
119.4
129.1
124.0

152.5
125.1
114.9
132.1
133.8

150.10
120.:3
116.'9
149 5
146,4

148.3
125.5
125.1
142.2
150.5

184.2
120.4
133.6
149.5
142.4

189.1
127.7
138.9
149.1
143.5

212.8
122.4
156.1
149.6
152.4

218.4
119.4
113.3
163.7
158.5

Medical instruments and supplies.....................
Ophthalmic goods...........................................
Photographic equipment & supplies..................
Jewelry, silverware, and plated ware.................
Musical instruments.........................................

384
385
386
391
393

116.9
121.2
107.8
99.3
97.1

118.7
125.1
110.2
95.8
96.9

123.5
144.5
116.4
96.7
96.C

127.3
157.8
126.9
96.7
95.6

126.7
160.6
132.7
99.5
88.7

131,5
167.:2
129,5
100.:2
86 9

139.8
188.2
128.7
102.6
78.8

147.4
196.3
121.6
114.2
82.S

158.6
199.0
128.0
113.1
81.4

160.4
235.2
160.6
134.3
97.1

167.0
250.2
169.4
144.9
105.3

121.0

117.1
99.6

112.6

122.1

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

109

Current Labor Statistics:

Productivity Data

46. Continued - Annual indexes of output per hour for selected 3-digit SIC industries
[1987=100]
Industry
Toys and sporting goods....................
Pens, pencils, office, and art supplies.,
Costume jewelry and notions.............
Miscellaneous manufactures.............
Transportation
Railroad transportation......................

SIC

1990

1991

1992

394
395
396
399

108.1
118.2
105.3
106.5

109.7
116.8
106.7
109.2

104.9
111.3
110.8
109.5

114.2
111.6
115.8
107.7

109.7
129.9
129.0
106.1

1996

1997

1998

1999

113.6
135.2
143.7
108.1

119.9
144.1
142.2
112.8

125.7
127.5
118.0
109.4

131.6
132.5
131.2
108.5

126.6
123.4
130.8
114.9

2000
140.4
124.9
145.3
115.9

4011

118.5

127.8

139.6

145.4

150.3

156.2

167.0

169.8

173.3

182.5

195.8

4213
431
4512,13,22(pts.)

111.1
104.0
92.9

116.9
103.7
92.5

123.4
104.5
96.9

126.6
107.1

129.5
106.6
105.7

125.4
106.5
108.6

130.9
104.7
111.1

132.4
108.3
111.6

129.9
109.8
108.4

131.6
110.9
109.1

131.2
113.6
110.7

481
483
484
491,3(pts.)
492,3(pts.)

113.3
104.9
92.6
110.1
105.8

119.8
106.1
87.6
113.4
109.6

127.7
108.3
88.5
115.2
111.1

142.2

121.8

148.1
109.6
84.5
80.8
137.1

159.5
105.8
81.9
116.8
145.9

160.9
101.7
84.7
150.0
158.6

170.1
104.5
86.1
159.6
144.4

186.3
108.4
85.0
162.0
147.2

201.3
109.9
87.6
169.6
160.6

521
523
525
526
531

104.3
106.8
115.3
84.7
96.8

102.3
100.4
108.7
89.3
102.0

106.4
107.6
115.2
101.2
105.4

111.4
114.2
113.9
107.1
110.4

117.8

117.0
113.5

130.9
115.6
117.4
116.1

121.6
133.5
119.5
136.4
123.8

121.8
134.8
119.0
127.5
129.1

134.2
163.5
137.9
133.7
135.8

143.0
165.1
147.6
150.4
146.0

144.2
170.1
145.7
154.5
160.4

Variety stores...........................................
Miscellaneous general merchandise stores.
Grocery stores..........................................
Meat and fish (seafood) markets.................
Retail bakeries.........................................

533
539
541
542
546

154.6
118.6
96.6
98.9
91.2

159.0
124.8
96.3
90.8
96.7

173.9
140.4
96.5
99.2
96.5

191.9
164.3
96.0
97.7
86.5

197.9
164.8
95.4
95.7
85.3

212.4
167.4
93.9
94.4
83.0

240.4
167.7
92.1
86.4
75.9

260.1
170.4
91.7
90.8
67.6

271.2
185.9
92.2
95.7
68.1

315.0
199.6
95.3
97.4
83.1

330.9
224.3
96.1
110.0
88.4

New and used car dealers.....
Auto and home supply stores..
Gasoline service stations.......
Men's and boy's wear stores...
Women's clothing stores........

551
553
554
561
562

106.7
103.7
103.0
115.6
106.6

104.9
100.2
104.8
121.9
111.2

107.4
101.6
110.2
122.3
123.6

108.6

109.7
105.3

115.9
119.5
130.0

121.7
130.4

108.1
109.1
127.2
121.4
139.9

109.1
108.2
126.1
129.8
154.2

108.8
108.1
126.1
136.3
157.3

108.7
113.1
133.9
145.2
176.0

111.6
115.5
141.7
154.5
190.2

112.5
119.3
139.0
165.0
205.7

Family clothing stores....................................
Shoe stores..................................................
Furniture and homefurnishings stores............
Household appliance stores...........................
Radio, television, computer, and music stores.

565
566
571
572
573

107.8
107.9
104.6
104.6
120.8

111.5
107.8
105.4
107.2
129.3

118.6
115.5
113.9
116.1
139.3

121.5
117.3
113.3
118.7
153.8

127.7
130.7
114.7
122.4
178.2

141.8
139.2
117.4
139.6
198.1

146.9
151.9
123.6
142.2
206.6

150.2
148.4
124.2
155.2
216.8

153.1
145.0
127.3
184.2
258.3

155.9
152.9
134.5
186.4
309.1

160.4
160.2
141.1
209.3
359.4

Eating and drinking places.................
Drug and proprietary stores................
Liquor stores.....................................
Used merchandise stores...................
Miscellaneous shopping goods stores.

581
591
592
593
594

104.5
106.3
105.9
103.0
107.4

103.8
108.0
106.9
102.3
109.3

103.4
107.6
109.6
115.7
107.9

103.8
109.6

102.1

102.0

109.9

111.1

101.8

100.1

104.7

116.7
111.7

119.5
117.3

123.2

100.6
113.9
113.8
132.6
125.3

101.6
119.8
109.9
140.3
129.4

102.0
125.7
116.5
163.6
138 7

104.0
129.8
114.5
183.2
143.7

107.3
136.9
127.7
216.7
150.6

Nonstore retailers..................................
Fuel dealers..........................................
Retail stores, n.e.c.................................
Finance and services
Commercial banks.................................
Hotels and motels..................................
Laundry, cleaning, and garment services.
Photographic studios, portrait..................
Beauty shops.........................................

596
598
599

111.1
84.6
114.5

112.5
85.3
104.0

126.5
84.3
112.5

132.2
91.9
118.1

149.0
99.0
125.8

152.5
111.4
127.0

173.5
112.5
140.2

186.8
109.1
147.8

208.3
105.8
157.4

220.6
115.2
162.5

263.2
117.3
168.1

602
701
721
722
723

107.7
96.2
102.3
98.2
97.5

110.1
99.3
99.9
92.1
95.8

111.0
108.0
99.3
95.8
100.9

118.5
106.5
99.9
101.8

121.7
109.9
105.0
108.3

97.0

101.1

126.4
110.5
106.6
116.2
104.8

129.7
110.0
109.8
110.7
107.6

133.0
108.2
109.0
114.1
108.5

132.6
108.2
116.0
121.6
110.5

135.9
109.9
120.8
107.7
113.4

143.2
114.1
123.6
112.0
114.5

Barber shops..............................
Funeral services and crematories.
Automotive repair shops..............
Motion picture theaters...............

724
726
753
783

100.7
91.2
107.9
118.1

94.9
89.9
100.1
118.2

113.2
103.8
105.1
114.8

121.9
98.7
105.7
113.8

118.8
104.3
114.3
110.4

115.7

128.8
97.6
116.1
104.1

150.4
101.9
117.2
103.4

157.4
104.2
124.9
106.1

132.8
100.2
126.4
108.7

129.9
93.9
128.5
112.3

Trucking, except local1................................
unitea states postal service ■.......................
Air transportation.........................................
utilities
Telephone communications..........................
Radio and television broadcasting................
Cable and other pay TV services..................
Electric utilities.............................................
Gas utilities.................................................
Trade
Lumber and other building materials dealers..
Paint, glass, and wallpaper stores.................
Hardware stores..........................................
Retail nurseries, lawn and garden supply stores..
Department stores........................................

Herers to output per employee.
Herers to output per tun-time equivalent employee year on tiscai Dasis.


110 Monthly Labor Review
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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2003

100.2

135.5
106.7
85.3
24.1

100.8

110.1

83.4
50.5
125.6
118.9
127.8
121.2

121.1

120.6

100.2
121.6

105.0

n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified

seasonally adjusted
2000

2001

01

2000

Annual average
Country

o
C
M


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

47. Unemployment rates, approximating U.S. concepts, in nine countries, quarterly data

IV

III

II

I

IV

III

II

I

United States.......

4.0

4.0

4.1

4.0

4.2

4.5

6.1
6.5
4.8
9.9

6.1
6.4
4.7
9.5

6.1
6.1
4.7
9.3

6.1
6.2
4.8
9.0

6.2
6.5
4.8
8.6

6.3
6.9
4.9
8.5

4.8
6.4
6.8
5.2
8.7

5.6

6.1
6.3
4.8
9.4

4.8
6.4
6.7
5.1
8.7

4.0

Canada...............

8.1
10.7
5.8
5.5

8.0
9.6
5.0
-

8.3
11.2
6.6
5.8

8.1
10.9
6.0
5.5

8.0
10.5
5.6
5.4

7.8
10.1
5.2
5.3

7.9
10.0
5.1
5.1

8.0
9.7
5.0
5.0

8.0
9.5
5.0
5.1

8.1
9.3
5.1

France1...............
Germany1...........
i 1.2

llnitfirt Kinnriom1.

1Preliminary for 2001 for Japan, France, Germany, Italy, Sweden,
and the United Kingdom.
2 Quarterly rates are for the first month of the quarter.
NOTE: Quarterly figures for France and Germany are calculated
by applying annual adjustment factors to current published data,
and therefore should be viewed as less precise indicators of
unemployment under U.S. concepts than the annual figures.

6.8
6.8
5.5
8.9

_

See "Notes on the data" for information on breaks in series. For
further qualifications and historical data, see C o m p a ra tive C ivilia n
L a b o r F o rce S tatistics, Ten C o untries, 1959-2001 (B u re a u of Labor
Statistics, Mar. 25, 2002), on the Internet at
h t t p ://w w w .b ls .g o v /fls /h o m e .h tm

Monthly and quarterly unemployment rates, updated monthly, are
also on this site. Dash indicates data not available.

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

111

Current Labor Statistics:

International Comparison

48. Annual data: Employment status of the working-age population, approximating U.S. concepts, 10 countries
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and country

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

128,105
14,177
8,557
65,040
24,570
39,010
22,910
6,950
4,520
28,410

129,200
14,308
8,613
65,470
24,640
39,100
22,570
7,100
4,443
28,430

131,056
14,400
8,771
65.780
24.780
39,070
22,450
7,190
4,418
28,440

132,30'
14,51'
8,99f
65.99C
24.83C
38.98C
22.46C
7.26C
4.46C
28.56C

133.94C
14.66C
9,11£
66.45C
25.09C
39.14C
22.57C
7,370
4,459
28,720

136,29'
14,95«
9,20'
67.20C
25,21 C
39.42C
22.68C
7.53C
4,41«
28,91 C

137,67,
15,23'
9,335
67.24C
25.52C
39.75C
22.96C
7.69C
4,402
29,040

139,36
15,53«
9,46f
67.09C
25.83C
39.80C
23.13C
7,90C
4.43C
29.30C

140,86
15,78
9,67
66,99
25.98C
39.75C
23.34C
8.05C
4.48C
29.45C

141,815
16,027
9,817
66,870

66.4
65.9
63.9
63.4
55.9
58.2
47.5
57.8
65.7
63.1

66.3
65.5
63.5
63.3
55.8
57.7
47.9
58.6
64.5
62.8

66.6

65.2
63.9
63.1
55.8
57.4
47.3
59.0
63.7
62.7

66.6
64.9
64.6
62.9
55.6
57.1
47.1
59.2
64.1
62.7

66.8
64.7
64.6
63.0
55.8
57.1
47.1
59.8
64.0
62.8

67.1
65.4
64.3
62.8
56.1
57.7
47.6
61.7
62.8
62.9

67.1
65.6
64.2
62.4
56.4
57.6
47.8
62.8
62.8
63.2

67.2
65.2
64.7
62.C
56.4
57.5
48.1
63.5
63.8
63.3

66.9
66.0
64.7
61.6

C iv ilia n la b o r fo rc e

United States....
Canada...........
A ustralia ...........

Japan..............
France.............
Germany..........
Italy.................
Netherlands......
Sweden............
United Kingdom..

23,540
4,537

P a r tic ip a tio n ra te 1

United States....
Canada............
Australia...........
Japan..............
France.............
Germany..........
Italy.................
Netherlands..... .
Sweden............
United Kingdom..

67.1
65.0
64.3
63.2
55.7
57.3
47.2
60.8
63.3
62.9

E m p lo y e d

United States....
Canada............
Australia...........
Japan..............
France..............
Germany..........
Italy.................
Netherlands..... .
Sweden............
United Kingdom.

118,492
12,672
7,660
63,620

_
64.2

123,060
13,027
7,942
63,860
21.720
35,760
19,940
6,670
3,992
25.720

124,900
13,271
8,256
63,890
21,910
35,780
19,820
6,760
4,056
26,070

126,708
13,380
8,364
64,200
21,960
35,640
19,920
6,900
4,019
26,380

129,558
13,705
8,444
64,900
22,090
35,510
19,990
7,130
3,973
26,880

131,463
14,068
8,618
64,450
22,510
36,060
20,210
7,380
4,034
27,210

133,488
14,456
8,808
63,920
22,940
36,360
20,460
7,640
4,117
27,530

135,208
14,827
9,068
63,790
23,530
36,540
20,840
7,810
4,229
27,830

135,073
14,997
9,157
63,470

36,390
21,230
6,560
4,265
25,530

120,259
12,770
7,699
63,810
21,740
35,990
20,270
6,630
4,028
25,450

61.5
58.9
57.2
62.0
50.1
54.2
44.0
54.5
62.0
56.7

61.7
58.5
56.8
61.7
49.2
53.2
43.0
54.7
58.5
56.2

62.5
59.0
57.8
61.3
48.9
52.6
42.0
54.7
57.6
56.7

62.9
59.4
59.2
60.9
49.0
52.4
41.5
55.1
58.3
572

63.2
59.1
59.3
60.9
48.8
52.0
41.6
56.0
57.7
57.6

63.8
59.7
59.0
61.0
48.8
51.6
41.6
57.5
56.9
58.5

64.1
60.4
59.3
60.2
49.5
52.3
41.9
59.2
57.6
58.9

64.3
61.3
59.8
59.4
50.1
52.6
42.3
60.8
58.4
59.4

64.5
62.1
60.6
59.0
51.1
52.8
42.9
61.6
60.1
59.4

63.8
61.9
60.3
58.4

22,020

_
_

21,280
4,309

E m p lo y m e n t-p o p u la tio n ra tio 2

United States..........................................
Canada..................................................
Australia.................................................
Japan....................................................
France...................................................
Germany................................................
Italy....... :...............................................
Netherlands......
Sweden............
United Kingdom..
U n e m p lo y e d

United States....
Canada............
Australia...........
Japan..............
France..............
Germany..........
Italy.................
Netherlands......
Sweden............
United Kingdom.

9,613
1,505
897
1,420
2,550
2,620
1,680
390
255
2,880

8,940
1,539
914
1,660
2,900
3,110
2,300
470
415
2,980

7,996
1,373
829
1,920
3,060
3,320
2,510
520
426
2,720

7,404
1,246
739
2,100
2,920
3,200
2,640
500
404
2,490

7,236
1,289
751
2,250
3,130
3,510
2,650
470
440
2,340

6,739
1,252
760
2,300
3,120
3,910
2,690
400
445
2,030

6,210
1,169
721
2,790
3,020
3,690
2,750
310
368
1,830

5,880
1,080
658
3,170
2,890
3,440
2,670
270
313
1,770

5,655
962
611
3,200
2,450
3,210
2,500
240
260
1,620

5.6
8.6
8.2
3.2
11.8
8.2
11.8
6.9
9.1
8.7

5.4
8.8
8.2
3.4
12.5
9.0
11.7
6.4
9.9
8.1

4.9
8.4
8.3
3.4
12.4
9.9
11.9
5.3
10.1
7.0

4.5
7.7
7.7
4.1
11.8
9.3
12.0
4.0
8.4
6.3

4.2
7.0
7.0
4.7
11.2
8.6
11.5
3.4
7.1
6.0

4.0
6.1
6.3
4.8
9.4
8.1
10.7
3.0
5.8
5.5

_
_
_
61.0

6,742
1,031
661
3,400

_
2,270
228
-

U n e m p lo y m e n t ra te

United States....
Canada............
Australia...........
Japan..............
France.............
Germany..........
Italy.................
Netherlands..... .
Sweden............
United Kingdom..

7.5

6.9

6.1

10.6

10.8

10.5

10.6

8.0

9.5
9.4
2.9
12.3
8.5

10.2

11.2

2.2

2.5

10.4
6.7
7.3
5.6
5.6

11.8

10.1

1 Labor force as a percent of the working-age population.
2 Employment as a percent of the working-age population.
NOTE: See notes on the data for Information on breaks in series.

112 Monthly Labor Review

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2003

6.6

72

9.3
10.5

9.6
9.6

For further qualifications and historical data, see Com parative Civilian Labor Force
S ta tistics, Ten Countries, 1959-2001 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, Mar. 25,2002)
on the Internet at h ttp ://w w w .b ls .g o v /fls /h o m e .h tm
Dash indicates data are not available.

4.8
6.4
6.7
5.1
8.7
8.0
9.6
5.0

49. Annual indexes of manufacturing productivity and related measures, 12 countries
[1 9 9 2 = 100]

Item and country

1970

1960

1980

1990

1991

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

O u tp u t p er h o u r

United States................................................................
Canada..........................................................................
Japan..............................................................................
Belgium..........................................................................
Denm ark........................................................................
France............................................................................
G erm any........................................................................
Italy.................................................................................
Netherlands..................................................................
Norway...........................................................................
Sweden..........................................................................
United Kingdom...........................................................

_
37.8
13.8
18.0
29.9
22.0
29.2
23.6
18.5
37.4
27.3
30.0

-

54.9
37.5
32.9
52.7
43.1
52.0
44.3
37.9
58.8
52.2
43.2

70.5
72.9
63.2
65.4
90.4
66.8
77.2
74.2
68.8
77.5
73.1
54.3

96.9
93.4
94.4
96.8
99.1
93.8
99.0
95.8
98.5
97.6
94.6
89.2

97.9
95.3
99.0
99.1
99.4
97.0
98.3
95.9
99.6
98.2
95.5
93.8

145.6
116.1
128.1
134.1
146.3
128.2
115.0

116.1
117.0

113.9
112.2
108.0
118.2
100.7
121.9
104.9

114.6
113.9
108.1
120.2
102.5
124.5
103.8

121.9
119.4
109.9
122.3
102.0
132.3
105.2

126.5
113.1
121.2
129.2
127.7
120.3
110.0
125.0
99.9
139.5
107.0

94.9
101.4
105.6
100.3
95.1
102.4

118.4
119.6
98.9
104.2
111.6
104.9
95.2
107.2
108.1
107.3
128.4
107.8

127.9
127.7
106.5
113.8
115.2
109.7
95.7
108.8
111.5
114.2
138.0
109.9

133.1
132.8
100.2
116.4
115.7
115.0
97.2
110.7
114.8
113.7
147.6
110.8

141.2
141.0
101.9
118.0
115.1
118.7
95.8
110.5
118.1
113.6
157.8
111.1

147.0
148.8
107.6
122.2
122.9
124.1
101.7

104.6
104.6
117.1
106.1

121.3
119.6
103.0
106.6
106.7
104.6
92.5
105.4
108.7
110.3
131.1
108.5

113.9
123.7
110.2
168.7
113.3

141.3
143.9
99.1
121.7
126.7
126.3
101.8
114.6
108.9
167.4
110.7

103.6
109.0
88.7
91.1
-

105.4
112.4
88.0
89.6
-

105.2
117.5
82.7
90.1

104.4

102.8
125.6
80.2
91.7

97.1
123.9
77.4
90.7

107.3
110.8
103.3
108.4
108.2
109.5
104.9
113.2
99.6
119.4
107.1

111.1
114.1

-

113.8
112.4
111.0
113.2
-

117.0
109.7

135.3
116.0
126.9
129.5
132.7
120.4
109.9
128.5
103.6
149.7
111.6

142.9
118.4
134.1
133.4

121.3
113.5
121.0
127.0

102.1
105.8
101.7
102.5
100.8
100.6
101.8
101.4
101.6
99.6
107.3
103.9

142.5
127.9
113.0
133.8
104.5
158.0
118.0

105.3
160.4
119.8

O u tp u t

United States................................................................
Canada..........................................................................
Japan..............................................................................
Belgium..........................................................................
Denm ark........................................................................
France............................................................................
Germany........................................................................
Italy.................................................................................
Netherlands..................................................................
Norway..........................................................................
Sweden..........................................................................
United Kingdom...........................................................

-

-

101.6
106.0
97.1
101.0
102.8
99.1
99.1
99.4
99.9
100.9
110.1
105.4

98.3
99.0
102.0
100.7
101.5
99.8
102.3
99.3
100.4
99.0
104.1
100.0

103.5
105.9
96.3
97.0
95.6
95.7
92.4

107.5
114.6
95.6
119.7
101.1
132.9
110.5
113.8
111.7
134.7
124.0
160.5

104.8
113.5
102.9
104.3
103.7

101.4
100.1
94.7
94.7
94.8

103.6
103.0
91.9
93.6
-

104.0
106.4

105.6
100.1
103.7
101.4
103.4
116.4
118.1

100.4
103.9
103.1
101.5
102.1
102.9
104.1
103.6
100.9
100.8
109.0
106.6

95.1
90.8
95.2
96.8
102.1
94.9
97.6

92.7
86.8
97.6
92.4
105.0
98.1
99.1

92.1
84.9
99.3
91.5
106.6
105.3
102.7

91.3
81.2
97.5
90.4
107.6
105.3
104.5

90.0
80.1
99.0
91.1
112.0
104.3
104.5

90.0
80.7
100.6
91.8
113.7
105.8
103.6

55.6
47.6
58.5
52.5
49.6
40.9
53.6
30.4
64.4
39.0
37.3
32.1

90.8
88.3
90.5

95.6
95.0
96.4

90.1
92.7
90.9
89.4

97.3
95.9
96.4
91.5
94.2

105.6
103.7
104.9
106.1

107.9
106.0
108.3
109.2

109.4
107.0
109.2
110.9
-

111.5
109.3
112.9
114.9
112.0
124.7

117.4
110.5
115.8
116.6

95.3
97.5
95.5
93.8

102.7
102.0
102.8
104.8
104.6
102.6
106.4
105.7
103.8
101.5
97.4
104.6

75.8
83.6
60.4
78.2
91.4
88.7
85.3
84.4

33.4
10.7
30.7
40.8
31.0
41.5
23.0
31.5
57.4
45.9
67.3

58.9
39.2
57.6
68.0
64.1
70.9
48.1
59.1
90.6
80.7
90.2

76.8
104.4
90.7
87.2

92.1
88.3
77.8
170.7
136.5
140.8
142.3
97.6
170.5
153.6
168.3
224.6

104.4
107.1
104.4
174.7
129.0
148.5
136.3
108.5
156.1
153.9
154.7
208.8

14.9
10.0
4.3
5.4
4.6
4.3
8.1
1.8
6.4
4.7
4.1
3.0

23.7
17.1
16.4

96.5
98.4
101.7
101.9
101.4

T o ta l hours

United States................................................................
Canada..........................................................................
Japan..............................................................................
Belgium..........................................................................
Denm ark........................................................................
France............................................................................
G erm any........................................................................
Italy.................................................................................
Netherlands..................................................................
Norway..........................................................................
Sweden..........................................................................
United Kingdom...........................................................

89.1
92.0

121.5
80.3
91.1
89.4
79.6
100.5
92.0
109.6
105.4
99.6

87.1
79.5
100.7
92.5
105.4
106.8
96.0

86.3
78.8
99.7
103.4
104.3
92.4

C o m p e n s a tio n p e r h o u r

Canada..........................................................................
Japan..............................................................................
Belgium.........................................................................
Denm ark........................................................................
Germany........................................................................
Italy.................................................................................
Netherlands..................................................................

United Kingdom...........................................................

13.7
13.3
10.4
20.7
5.3
20.2
11.8
10.7
6.1

87.6
90.9
92.3
87.8
82.9

-

-

106.8
108.2
104.4
100.0
106.7

110.0
117.5
111.3
110.7
109.2
106.5
107.9

112.1
122.3
119.0
113.0
113.6
114.4
109.5

106.0
111.7

122.1
112.3
115.2

123.0
115.8
118.7
119.4
113.9

112.6
126.5
122.2
120.6
125.7
124.4
120.5

118.3
116.3
129.3
124.6
124.0
133.0
129.3
129.6

131.1
113.9
114.5
121.1
120.8
133.5
127.8
131.0
140.0
131.8
135.2

133.1
117.8
115.0
125.9
126.6
137.7
132.6
147.6
137.2
140.4

U n it la b o r c o sts: National currency basis

United States................................................................
Canada..........................................................................
Japan.............................................................................
Belgium.........................................................................
Denmark.......................................................................
France...........................................................................
Germany.......................................................................
Italy................................................................................
Netherlands..................................................................
Norway..........................................................................
United Kingdom..........................................................

-

26.4
31.3
30.1
15.4
19.4
27.8
7.5
34.6
12.7
15.0
9.8

-

31.1
43.8
41.7
25.2
24.0
39.8
11.9
53.3
20.1
20.6
14.1

78.8
65.2
92.5
80.3
54.9
61.3
69.4
41.0
93.7
50.3
51.0
59.0

93.7
94.6
95.9
93.0
93.5
96.9
90.3
91.5
92.3
94.6
92.9
92.9

97.6
99.6
97.4
98.1
96.5
99.3
93.1
98.2
95.6
99.2
100.0
100.1

100.6
96.4
101.1
102.3
103.7
101.9
104.5
104.3
102.1
101.9
90.8
100.8

98.5
93.6
101.5
97.9
96.2
97.9
102.0
101.9
95.6
104.8
83.8
99.7

94.8
94.3
97.6
96.4
96.4
96.6
104.7
103.0
93.7
108.4
87.4
102.9

93.5
97.5
94.0
94.7
103.7
97.8
107.4
110.0
94.0
110.8
91.9
105.5

91.9
96.2
93.3
90.5
99.7
91.9
104.4
111.9
94.7
116.4
90.2
108.2

92.8
97.7
95.5
90.2
102.9
88.2
105.2
111.1
96.5
125.7
89.2
112.7

90.2
96.8
90.8
91.4
105.4
87.7
107.4
113.4
96.6
128.4
86.2
116.2

91.7
96.1
85.4
90.8
101.8
84.8
104.4
113.1
97.9
134.0
83.4
114.5

91.4
101.5
89.8
93.9
101.7
86.5
106.6
115.4

78.8
67.4
51.8
88.3
58.8
76.8
59.6
59.0
82.9
63.3
70.2
77.7

93.7
98.0
83.8
89.5
91.2
94.1

97.6
105.1
91.7
92.3
91.0
93.1
87.5
97.5
89.9
95.0
96.3
100.1

100.6
90.3
115.4
95.1
96.5
95.2
98.7
81.6
96.6
89.2
67.8
85.6

98.5
82.8
125.9
94.2
91.4
93.4
98.2
77.9
92.4
92.3
63.2
86.4

94.8
83.0
131.7
105.2
104.0
103.5
114.2
77.9
102.7
106.4
71.3
91.9

93.5
86.4
109.6
98.4
108.0
101.2
111.5
87.9
98.1
106.6
79.8
93.2

91.9
84.0
97.7
81.2
91.0
83.3
94.0
80.9
85.3
102.1
68.8
100.4

92.8
79.6
92.4
79.9
92.7
79.1
93.3
78.8
85.5
103.5
65.3
105.7

90.2
78.8
101.2
77.6
91 .C
75.4
91.4
76.9
82.1
102.2
60.8
106.4

91.7
78.2
100.4
66.8
75.E
63.2
76.9
66.4
72.1
94.5
53.0
98.3

91.4
79.2
93.6
67.0
73.7
62.5
76.2
65.7
96.8
48.2

140.1
85.5
117.2

U n it la b o r c o sts: U.S. dollar basis

United States...............................................................
Canada.........................................................................
Belgium.........................................................................

Netherlands.................................................................
Norway..........................................................................
Sweden.........................................................................
United Kingdom..........................................................

-

32.9
11.0
19.4
13.4
21.0
10.4
15.0
16.1
11.1
16.9
15.6

-

36.0
15.5
27.0
20.2
23.0
17.1
23.3
25.9
17.5
23.1
19.1

87.3
94.1
89.1
94.0
91.3
93.9

95.5

NOTE: Data for G ermany for years before 1991 are for the former West Germany. Data for 1991 onward are for unified Germany. Dash indicates data not available.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

113

Current Labor Statistics:

50.

Injury and Illness

O ccupational injury and illness rates by industry,1 United States
Industry and type of case2

1989 1

1990

1991

Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers3
1992 1993 4 1994 4 1995 4 1996 4 1997 4 19984 1999 4 2000 4

P R IV A T E S E C T O R 5

Total c a s e s .......................................................................
Lost workday cases........................................
Lost workdays......................................................

8.6
4.0

8.8
4.1

8.4
3.9

8.9
3.9

78.7

84.0

86.5

93.8

10.9
5.7

11.6
5.9
112.2

10.8
5.4

11.6
5.4

100.9

108.3

126.9

8.5
4.8
137.2

8.3
5.0
119.5

7.4

7.3
4.1
204.7

6.8

6.3

4.5
129.6

3.9

3.9

8.5
3.8

8.4
3.8

8.1
3.6

7.4
3.4

7.1
3.3

6.7
3.1

6.3
3.0

6.1
3.0

11.2
5.0

10.0
4.7

9.7
4.3

8.7
3.9

8.4
4.1

7.9
3.9

7.3
3.4

7.1
3.6

6.2

5.4
3.2

5.9
3.7

4.9

3.9

2.9

4.4
2.7

3.0

A g r ic u ltu r e , fo re s try , a n d fis h in g 5

Total c a s e s ...............................................................
Lost workday cases................................................
Lost workdays.............................................................
M in in g

Total c a s e s ....................................................................
Lost workday cases............................................................
Lost w orkdays....................................................

4.7

C o n s tru c tio n

T otal c a s e s .......................................................................
Lost workday cases...........................................................

14.3
6.8
143.3

14.2
6.7

13.0

13.1

12.2

11.8

10.6

9.9

6.1
148.1

5.8
161.9

5.5

5.5

4.9

4.5

9.5
4.4

8.8
4.0

8.6
4.2

8.3
4.1

12.2
5.4
142.7

11.5
5.1

10.9
5.1

9.8
4.4

9.0
4.0

8.5
3.7

8.4
3.9

8.0
3.7

7.8
3.9

137.6

12.0
5.5
132.0

11.1
5.1
-

10.2
5.0
-

9.9
4.8
-

9.0
4.3
_

8.7
4.3
_

8.2
4.1
_

7.8
3.8

7.6
3.7

12.5
5.8

11.1
5.0
-

10.4
4.8

10.0
4.7
-

9.1
4.1
_

8.9
4.4

8.6
4.3

147.9

G eneral building contractors:
T otal c a s e s ...................................................................
Lost workday cases....................................................................
Lost workdays....................................................................

13.9
6.5
137.3

Heavy construction, except buildinq:
T otal c a s e s .......................................................................
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost workdays............................................................

13.8
6.5
147.1

13.8
6.3

12.8
6.0

12.1
5.4

144.6

160.1

165.8

Special trades contractors:
T otal c a s e s ...............................................................................
Lost workday cases.............................................
Lost w orkdays...................................................................

14.6
6.9
144.9

14.7
6.9
153.1

13.5
6.3
151.3

13.8
6.1
168.3

12.8
5.8

13.1
5.8

13.2
5.8
120.7

12.7
5.6

12.5
5.4

11.6
5.3
_

10.6
4.9
_

10.3
4.8
_

9.7
4.7
_

9.0
4.5

124.6

12.2
5.5
-

9.2
4.6

121.5

12.1
5.3
-

14.2
6.0

13.6
5.7

13.4
5.5

122.9

126.7

12.8
5.6
_

11.6
5.1
_

11.3
5.1
_

5.0
_

4.8
_

_
_

123.3

13.5
5.7
_

10.1

116.5

13.1
5.4
-

10.7

6.0

_

Total c a s e s ...................................................................................
Lost w orkday cases..........................................................
Lost w orkdays.......................................................

18.4
9.4
177.5

18.1
8.8
172.5

16.8
8.3
172.0

16.3
7.6
165.8

15.9
7.6
-

15.7
7.7
-

14.9
7.0
_

14.2
6.8
_

13.5
6.5
_

13.2
6.8
_

13.0
6.7

12.1
6.1

Furniture and fixtures:
Total c a s e s ........................................................................
Lost workday cases........................................................................
Lost workdays..................................................................

16.1
7.2
-

16.9

15.9
7.2
-

14.8
6.6
128.4

14.6
6.5
-

15.0
7.0
-

13.9
6.4
_

12.2
5.4
_

12.0
5.8
_

11.4
5.7
_

11.5
5.9

11.2
5.9

15.5
7.4

15.4

14.8
6.8

13.6
6.1

13.8
6.3
-

13.2
6.5

12.3
5.7
_

12.4

11.8
5.7
_

11.8
6.0
_

10.4

6.0
_

10.7
5.4

-

17.0
7.3
-

16.8
7.2
-

16.5
7.2
-

15.0
6.8
_

15.0
7.2
_

14.0
7.0

12.9
6.3

12.6
6.3

13.4
6.4

-

-

-

M a n u fa c tu rin g

T otal c a s e s .........................................................................................
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost workdays.........................................................................

113.0

Durable goods:
T otal c a s e s ..............................................................................
Lost workday cases....................................................................
Lost workdays.........................................................................

14.1

Lum ber and wood products:

7.8
-

Stone, clay, and glass products:
Total c a s e s ....................................................................
Lost workday cases.......................................................
Lost w orkdays..................................................

149.8

160.5

156.0

152.2

Prim ary metal Industries:
Total c a s e s ......................................................................
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost workdays.....................................................

18.7
8.1
168.3

19.0
8.1
180.2

17.7
7.4
169.1

17.5
7.1
175.5

Fabricated metal products:
Total c a s e s .......................................................................
Lost workday cases.................................................................
Lost w orkdays................................................................

18.5
7.9
147.6

18.7
7.9
155.7

17.4
7.1
146.6

16.8
6.6
144.0

16.2
6.7

16.4
6.7
-

15.8
6.9
-

14.4
6.2
-

14.2
6.4
_

13.9
6.5
_

12.6
6.0

11.9
5.5

-

Total c a s e s .................................................................................
Lost workday cases....................................................................
Lost w orkdays.......................................................

12.1
4.8
86.8

12.0
4.7
88.9

11.2
4.4
86.6

11.1
4.2
87.7

11.1
4.2
-

11.6
4.4
-

11.2
4.4
-

9.9
4.0
_

10.0
4.1
_

9.5
4.0

8.5
3.7

3.6

Electronic and other electrical equipment:
Total c a s e s ....................................................................................
Lost workday cases..................................................
Lost w orkdays.............................................................

9.1
3.9
77.5

9.1
3.8
79.4

8.6
3.7
83.0

8.4

8.3
3.5
-

8.3
3.6
-

7.6
3.3
_

6.8
3.1
_

6.6
3.1
_

5.9

5.7

5.7

3.6
81.2

2.8

2.8

2.9

Transportation equipment:
Total c a s e s ....................................................................
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost w orkdays..................................................

17.7
6.8
138.6

17.8
6.9
153.7

18.3
7.0
166.1

19.6
7.8
_

18.6
7.9
-

16.3
7.0
_

15.4
6.6
_

14.6
6.6
_

13.7
6.4
_

13.7
6.3

186.6

18.5
7.1
-

Instruments and related products:
Total c a s e s .......................................................................
Lost workday cases...............................................
Lost w orkdays...........................................................

5.6
2.5
55.4

5.9
2.7
57.8

6.0
2.7
64.4

5.9
2.7
65.3

5.6
2.5
-

5.9
2.7
-

5.3
2.4
_

5.1
2.3
-

4.8
2.3
_

4.0
1.9
_

4.0
1.8

4.5
2.2

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries:
Total c a s e s ....................................................................................
Lost w orkday cases..........................................................
Lost w orkdays...........................................................................

11.1
5.1
97.6

11.3
5.1
113.1

11.3
5.1
104.0

10.7
5.0
108.21

10.0
4.6

9.9
4.5

9.1
4.3

9.5
4.4

8.9
4.2

8.1
3.9

8.4
4.0

7.2
3.6

-

-

-

-

7.3

5.5

Industrial machinery and equipment:

See footnotes at end of table.

114 Monthly Labor Review

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2003

18.7
7.1

-I

-

8.2

50.

Continued—Occupational injury and illness rates by industry,1United States
Incidence rates per 100 workers3
Industry and type of case

Nondurable goods:
Total cases...................................................................................................................
Lost workday cases..................................................................................................
Lost workdays...............................................................................................................
Food and kindred products:
Total cases....................................................................
Lost workday cases..............................................................................................
Lost workdays............................ ................................................
Tobacco products:
Total cases....................................................................
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost workdays.................................................................
Textile mill products:
Total cases....................................................................
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost workdays.................................................................
Apparel and other textile products:
Total cases....................................................................
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost workdays.................................................................
Paper and allied products:
Total cases...................................................................
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost workdays.......................... . .....................................
Printinq and publishinq:
Total cases....................................................................
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost workdays.................................................................
Chemicals and allied products:
Total cases...................................................................
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost workdays.................................................................
Petroleum and coal products:
Total cases....................................................................
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost workdays................................................................
Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products:
Total cases....................................................................
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost workdays................................................................
Leather and leather products:
Total cases..................................................................
Lost workday cases.........................................................
Lost workdays................................................................

1989 1

1990

1992

1991

19934 1994 4 1995 4 1996 4 1997 4 1998 4 1999 4 2000 4
10.5
5.1

11.6
5.5
107.8

11.7
5.6
116.9

11.5
5.5
119.7

11.3
5.3
121.8

10.7
5.0

18.5
9.3
174.7

20.0
9.9
202.6

19.5
9.9
207.2

18.8
9.5
211.9

17.6
8.9
-

17.1
9.2

8.7
3.4
64.2

7.7
3.2
62.3

6.4
2.8
52.0

6.0
2.4
42.9

5.8
2.3
-

5.3
2.4
“

10.3
4.2
81.4

9.6
4.0
85.1

10.1
4.4
88.3

9.9
4.2
87.1

9.7
4.1
“

“

9.9
4.9

16.3
8.7

'

13.6
7.5
“

“

5.5
2.2

6.2
3.1
”

8.7
4.0
“

8.2
4.1
”

7.8
3.6
“

6.7
3.1

7.4
3.4
~

6.4
3.2

6.0
3.2

9.0
3.8
-

8.9
3.9
-

8.2
3.6

7.4
3.3
“

7.0
3.1
“

6.2
2.6
"

5.8
2.8
“

6.1
3.0
“

9.6
4.5

8.5
4.2

7.9
3.8

7.3
3.7

7.1
3.7

7.0
3.7

6.5
3.4

“

“

”

6.4
3.0

6.0
2.8

5.7
2.7

5.4
2.8

5.0
2.6

5.1
2.6

”

”

5.5
2.7

4.8
2.4

4.8
2.3

4.2
2.1

4.4
2.3

“

“

~

4.6
2.5

4.3
2.2

3.9
1.8
~

4.1
1.8

3.7
1.9

11.2
5.8

10.1
5.5

10.7
5.8

12.7
5.8
132.9

12.1
5.5
124.8

11.2
5.0
122.7

11.0
5.0
125.9

9.9
4.6

6.9
3.3
63.8

6.9
3.3
69.8

6.7
3.2
74.5

7.3
3.2
74.8

6.9
3.1
-

“

7.0
3.2
63.4

6.5
3.1
61.6

6.4
3.1
62.4

6.0
2.8
64.2

5.9
2.7

5.7
2.8
“

“

5.9
2.8
71.2

5.2
2.5

4.7
2.3

4.8
2.4

“

6.7
3.0

“

“

“

-

15.1
7.2
150.9

14.5
6.8
153.3

13.9
6.5
-

14.0
6.7

13.6
6.5
130.4

12.1
5.9
152.3

12.5
5.9
140.8

12.1
5.4
128.5

12.1
5.5

12.0
5.3

9.2
5.3
121.5

9.6
5.5
134.1

9.3
5.4
140.0

9.1
5.1
144.0

Lost workday cases...........................................................
Lost workdays...................................................................

8.0
3.6
63.5

7.9
3.5
65.6

7.6
3.4
72.0

Lost workday cases...........................................................
Lost workdays.............................................................................................................

7.7
4.0
71.S

7.4
3.7
71.5

Lost workday cases....... .........................................................................................
Lost workdays...................................................................

8.1
3.4
60.0

-

12.9
6.5
“

12.3
6.3
-

11.4
4.8

10.7
4.5

11.9
5.8
10.6
4.3

_

4.2
2.2

"

“

9.8
4.5

10.3
5.0

9.0
4.3

”

“

7.3
4.3

7.3
4.4

4.3

“

“

6.7
3.0

6.5
2.8

6.1
2.7

”

“

”

“

7.5
3.6

6.6
3.4

6.5
3.2

6.5
3.3

6.3
3.3

”

“

“

“

“

7.£
3.3

7.5
3.0

6.9
2.8

6.8
2.9

6.5
2.7

“

“

2.9
1.2

2.7
1.1

2.6
1.0

6.7
2.8

6.5
2.8

“

“

“

9.5
5.4

9.3
5.5

9.1
5.2

8.7
5.1

8.2
4.8

”

“

”

”

8.4
3.5
80.1

8.1
3.4

7.9
3.4

7.5
3.2

6.6
2.9

7.2
3.7
79.2

7.6
3.6
82.4

7.6
3.7

7.7
3.8

“

8.1
3.4
63.2

7.7
3.3
69.1

8.7
3.4
79.2

8.2
3.3

2.0
.9
17.6

2.4
1.1
27.3

2.4
1.1
24.1

2.9
1.2
32.9

5.5
2.7
51.2

6.0
2.8
56.4

6.2
2.8
60.0

7.1
3.0
68.6

W h o le s a le a n d re tail tra d e

-

~

“

F in a n c e , in s u ra n c e , a n d real e s ta te

I

6 .r

2.8

_

6.1
2.5

_

-

-

-

_
5.8
_
—
~

.9

2.2
.9

.7
.5

1.8
.8

1.9
.8

6.C
2.6

5.6
2.5

5.2
2.4

4.9
2.2

4.9
2.2
-

2 .r

S erv ice s


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

~

“

-

T ra n s p o rta tio n a n d p u b lic u tilities

Lost workdays..................................................................

12.4
7.3

6.4
3.4
“

9.2
4.2
99.9

1 Data for 1989 and subsequent years are based on the Standard Industrial Class­
ification M anual, 1987 Edition. For this reason, they are not strictly comparable with data
for the years 1985-88, which were based on the Standard Industrial Classification
M anual, 1972 Edition, 1977 Supplement.
2 Beginning with the 1992 survey, the annual survey measures only nonfatal injuries and
illnesses, while past surveys covered both fatal and nonfatal incidents. To better address
fatalities, a basic element of workplace safety, BLS implemented the Census of Fatal
Occupational Injuries.
3 The incidence rates represent the number of injuries and illnesses or lost workdays per
100 full-time workers and were calculated as (N/EH) X 200,000, where:

12.7
7.3

5.9
2.7

16.2
7.8
151.3

Lost workday cases...........................................................
Lost workdays...................................................................

“

6.7
2.8
“

16.2
8.0
147.2

Lost workday cases...........................................................
Lost workdays...................................................................

“

“

5.6
2.6
“

8.8
3.9
92.1

6.2
2.9
68.2

14.5
8.0

7.8
4.2

“

8.6
3.8
80.5

6.6
3.1
77.3

15.0
8.0

8.2
4.3

”

-

9.5
4.0
104.6

6.6
3.3
68.1

8.8
4.4
~

“

“

“

9.2
4.6

-

N = number of injuries and illnesses or lost workdays;
EH = total hours worked by all employees during the calendar year; and
200,000 = base for 100 full-time equivalent workers (working 40 hours per week, 50
weeks per year).
4 Beginning with the 1993 survey, lost workday estimates will not be generated. As of
1992, BLS began generating percent distributions and the median number of days away
from work by industry and for groups of workers sustaining similar work disabilities.
5 Excludes farms with fewer than 11 employees since 1976.
Dash indicates data not available.

Monthly Labor Review

February 2003

115

Current Labor Statistics:

Injury and Illness

51. Fatal occupational injuries by event or exposure, 1996-2001
Fatalities
Event or exposure1

1996-2000

20002

Average

Number

Total.......................................................................

20013
Number

Percent

6,094

5,920

5,900

100

2,608
1,408
685
117
247
151
289
322
298
378
212
263
376
105
71

2,573
1,365
696
136
243

2,517
1,404
723

43
24
12

256

4

279
3^6
304
399
213
280
370
84
71

295

5

P73
324
157
247
383
90
62

5
3
4
6
2
1

1,015
766
617
68
80
216

930
677
533
66
78
221

902
639
505
58
76
228

15
11
9
1
1
4

Struck by object...............................................................
Struck by falling object..........................................
Struck by flying object..............................................
Caught in or compressed by equipment or objects....................
Caught in running equipment or machinery............................
Caught in or crushed in collapsing materials.............................

1,005
567
364
57
293
157
128

1,006
571
357
61
294
157
123

962
553
343
60
266
144
122

16
9
6
1
5
2
2

Fall to lower level...................................................................
Fall from ladder....................................................................
Fall from roof........................................................................
Fall from scaffold, staging......................................................
Fall on same level.........................................................

714
636
106
153
90
55

734
659
110
150
85
56

808
698
122
159
91
84

14
12
2
3
2
1

535
290
132
40
112
57
92
73

481
256
128
29
100
48
94
75

499
285
124
35
96
49
83
59

8
5
2
1
2
1
1
1

196

177

188

3

20

19

24

-

T r a n s p o r t a t io n i n c i d e n t s .............................................................................

Highway incident..........................................................
Collision between vehicles, mobile equipment........................
Moving in same direction..................................................
Moving in opposite directions, oncoming.............................
Moving in intersection................................................
Vehicle struck stationary object or equipment........................
Noncollision incident........................................................
Jackknifed or overturned—no collision...............................
Nonhighway (farm, industrial premises) incident.......................
Overturned.................................................................
Aircraft.........................................................
Worker struck by a vehicle...................................................
Water vehicle incident......................................................
Railway......................................................................
A s s a u l t s a n d v io l e n t a c t s ..................................................................................

Homicides.........................................................
Shooting.....................................................................
Stabbing..............................................................
Other, including bombing................................................
Self-inflicted injuries..............................................................
C o n t a c t w it h o b j e c t s a n d e q u ip m e n t .........................................................

E x p o s u r e t o h a r m f u l s u b s t a n c e s o r e n v ir o n m e n t s ...........................

Contact with electric current...........................................
Contact with overhead power lines........................................
Contact with temperature extremes..........................................
Exposure to caustic, noxious, or allergenic substances..............
Inhalation of substances...............................................
Oxygen deficiency....................................................
Drowning, submersion......................................................
F ir e s a n d e x p l o s i o n s .......................................................................................
O t h e r e v e n t s o r e x p o s u r e s 4......................................................

1 Based on the 1992 bls Occupational Injury and Illness
Classification Structures.

3 Total excludes 2,886 work-related fatalities resulting from
events of September 11.

2 The bls news release issued Aug. 14, 2001, reported a total
of 5,915 fatal work injuries for calendar year 2000. Since then,
an additional five job-related fatalities were identified, bringing
the total job-related fatality count for 2000 to 5,920.

4 Includes the category "Bodily reaction and exertion."
Totals for major categories may include sub-categories
not shown separately. Percentages may not add to totals
because of rounding. Dash indicates less than 0.5 percent.

116 Monthly Labor Review

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Schedule of release dates for BLS statistical series
Series

Release
date

Period
covered

Release
date

Period
covered

Productivity and costs

F e b ru a ry 6

4th q u a rte r

M arch 6

4th q u a rte r

Employment situation

F e b ru a ry 7

J a n u a ry

M arch 7

F eb ru a ry

A p ril 4

M arch

2 ;4 3 -4 6

U.S. Import and Export
Price Indexes

F e b ru a ry 13

J a n u a ry

M arch 13

F eb ru a ry

A p ril 10

M arch

3 8 -4 2

Producer Price Indexes

F e b ru a ry 20

J a n u a ry

M arch 14

F eb ru a ry

A p ril 11

M arch

2; 3 5 -3 7

Consumer Price indexes

F e b ru a ry 21

J a n u a ry

M arch 21

F eb ru a ry

A p ril 16

M arch

2; 3 2 -3 4

Real earnings

F e b ru a ry 21

J a n u a ry

M arch 21

F eb ru a ry

A p ril 16

M arch

1 4 -1 6 , 24

A p ril 29

1st q u a rte r

Employment Cost Indexes


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Release
date

Period
covered

MLR table
number
1 ; 4 -2 4

1 -3 ; 2 5 -2 8