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February 2000

U.S. D epartm ent of L abor


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Bureau o f Labor Statistics

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MONTHLY LABOR

REVIEW___________________ :
Volume 123, Number 2
February 2000

The job market remains strong in 1999

3

The unemployment rate inched down to a 30-year low,
and the downward trend in manufacturing employment abated
Jennifer Martel and Laura A. Kelter

Counting the counters: effects of Census 2000 on employment

24

To separate the effects of Census 2000 on employment trends, the data
will be adjusted in each of the months in which census employees are hired
Laura A. Kelter

Analyzing the recent upward surge in overtime hours

30

Manufacturing employers in the 1990s were more likely to increase
overtime hours among existing employees than to hire new workers
Ron L. Hetrick

Interindustry wage differentials:patterns andsources

34

Survey data reveal that occupations that are most closely related
to the primary mission of the firm have the greatest differentials
Jane Osburn

Departments
Labor month in review
Précis
Book reviews
Publications received
Current labor statistics

2
47
48
50
53

Editor-in-Chief: Deborah P. Klein • Executive Editor: Richard M. Devens, Jr. • Managing Editor: Anna Huffman Hill • Editors: Brian I. Baker,
Leslie Brown Joyner, Lawrence H. Leith, Mary K. Rieg • Book Reviews: Roger A. Comer, Ernestine Patterson Leary • Design and Layout: Catherine D.
Bowman, Edith W. Peters • Contributors: Henry P. Guzda, Michael Wald


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Labor Month in Review

The February Review
As the American economy entered 1999,
it was approaching its ninth year of ex­
pansion following the recession of 199091. As the year ended, unemployment
was at its lowest rate in 30 years and non­
farm employment had increased by 2.7
million. Jennifer L. Martel and Laura
A. Kelter examine last year’s strong job
market in some detail. In one section,
they analyze the impact the changing de­
mographic composition of the labor force
may have had: “If the age composition
of the labor force in 1999 had been the
same as in 1969, but each component
age group retained its 1999 rate of un­
employment, the overall unemployment
rate in 1999 would have been about 0.4
percentage point higher.”
Preparations for this y ear’s census
account for part of last y ear’s growth in
employment, according to the report by
Laura A. Kelter. In fact, Census 2000 hir­
ing became noticeable as early as Au­
gust 1998, when the number of census
workers rose by 12,000 over the month.
At that early stage, the Census Bureau is
compiling its address list. Particularly in
rural areas with noncity-style addresses,
this may involve door-to-door canvass­
ing of substantial area. At its peak, Cen­
sus em ployed nearly 40,000 workers
during the Address Listing phase. (Edi­
tors’ note: We are sure it is unnecessary
to admonish the R eview ’s readers to
participate in Census 2000.)
Ron L. Hetrick summarizes the pro­
pensity o f m anufacturers to increase
overtime hours rather than hire new em ­
ployees during the 1990s. Although over­
time hours were at relatively high levels
at the beginning of the current expansion,
they were increased by nearly half—
roughly as much as they had been in ear­
lier recoveries. Conversely, manufactur­
ing employment grew by only 4 percent
following its low point in 1993, in con­
trast to an increase of 15 percent in the
long expansion of the 1960s.

2 Monthly Labor Review

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2000

Jane Osbum uses some relatively new
capabilities in the Occupational Employ­
ment Statistics program to carry out a
study of interindustry wage differentials.
She finds that differentials are often as­
sociated with the primary m ission of
firm s in an industry. For exam ple,
“W ithin the services sector, most of the
occupations having the lowest correla­
tion with the all-occupation wage differ­
ential are related to physical production
activities, while those having the high­
est correlation are occupations having
coordination functions....”

Shiskin Award
nominations
Nominations are invited for the 2000 Julius
Shiskin Award for Economic Statistics, a
prize established in 1979 to recognize con­
tributions to the development of economic
stratistics or their use in interpreting the
economy. A nomination form may be ob­
tained by writing the Julius Shiskin Award
Committee, American Statistical Associa­
tion, 1429 Duke Street, Alexandria, Vir­
ginia, 22314-3415, or via e-m ail to:
NancyH@amstat.org. Completed forms
must be received by April 1,2000.

2000-01 Occupational
Outlook Handbook
released
The Occupational Outlook Handbook
provides detailed discussions of the na­
ture of work and the typical working con­
ditions in more than 250 occupations. In
addition, it gives details on the require­
ments for entering an occupation and the
opportunities for advancement once in
it. Each occupational statement discusses
projected job growth relative to the en­
tire economy over the next decade and,
in some cases, the ease or difficulty of
finding a job. Users also will find facts

on current earnings, related occupations,
and sources of additional information.
The 2000-01 edition of the Handbook
will help guide workers into the new cen­
tury, presenting essential inform ation
about prospective changes in the work­
place and the qualifications that will be
needed by tomorrow’s work force. Cop­
ies of the Occupational Outlook Hand­
book, 2000-01 Edition (Bulletin 2520)
can be purchased from the BLS Publica­
tions Sales Center, p.o . B ox 2145,Chi­
cago, i l 60690-2145, phone (312) 353—
1880. The cost is $49 for soft cover; $51
for hard cover.

Factory worker
compensation
compared
For all foreign economies studied by the
Bureau o f L abor S tatistics, average
hourly compensation costs were $14.69
in 1998. This was 79 percent of the U.S.
level, down from 95 percent in 1995. The
widening gap reflected the continued
appreciation of the U.S. dollar against
most foreign currencies, particularly the
Asian currencies. In the Asian newly in­
dustrializing economies ( n ie s ), hourly
com pensation costs in manufacturing
were $5.72 in 1998. Hourly costs in the
Asian n ie s are now less than one-third
the U.S. level.
In Europe, hourly compensation costs
in U.S. dollars for production workers
in manufacturing were 11 percent higher
than in the United States in 1998. Hourly
compensation costs in U.S. dollars were
$20.67 in Europe in 1998, compared with
$18.56 in the United States. This gap of
11 percent is much smaller than it was 3
years earlier— in 1995, compensation
costs in Europe exceeded those in the
United States by 28 percent.
Learn more in “International Com­
parisons of Hourly Compensation Costs
for Production Workers in M anufactur­
ing, 1998,” news release u s d l 00-07.

The Job Market, 1999

Hi

The job m arket
remains strong in 1999
The unemployment rate hit a 30-year low;
services led job growth, and the recent
downward trend in manufacturing employment
abated in the second half o f the year

Jennifer L, Martel
and
Laura A. Kelter

Jennifer L. Martel is an
economist in the
Division of Labor Force
Statistics, Bureau of
Labor Statistics; Laura
A. Kelter is an econo­
mist in the Division of
Monthly Industry
Employment Statistics,
Bureau of Labor
Statistics.

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he U.S. economy entered its 9th year of
expansion in 1999. By the end of the
year, 106 months of uninterrupted recov­
ery from the 1990-91 recession had passed,
equaling the lengthy expansion of the 1960s—
the longest on record. Gross domestic product
increased 4.3 percent in 1999, with the strength
due, in large part, to exceptionally robust con­
sumer spending. (See table 1.) Most indicators
of labor market performance evidenced contin­
ued strength in 1999. Over the year, total non­
farm payroll employment increased by 2.7 mil­
lion, to 129.6 million in the fourth quarter, and
the unemployment rate declined to 4.1 percent
by year’s end, a 30-year low.
With employment continuing to grow and un­
employment continuing to inch down, concerns
about the economy overheating and resultant in­
flationary pressures prompted the Federal Re­
serve to raise interest rates several times in the
second half of the year. As the year progressed,
wage growth remained tepid, and by the end of
the year, consumer prices were up by only 2.6
percent from a year earlier.
The service-producing industries provided the
overwhelming majority of employment growth in
1999. Job growth in construction also was healthy,
buoyed by low interest rates and strong consumer
confidence, although the rise in mortgage inter­
est rates in the second half of the year dampened
employment in homebuilding a bit. Manufactur-

T

ing continued to lose jobs in 1999, as export
growth remained sluggish in the wake of recent
economic turmoil in several Asian economies.
However, the rate of job loss in manufacturing
was slower than in the previous year.
Workers in most major demographic groups
benefited from the healthy labor market in 1999,
as unemployment rates fell to their lowest lev­
els in decades. Almost half of the employment
growth over the year occurred in the higher pay­
ing managerial and professional specialty oc­
cupations. Men, women, whites, blacks, and
Hispanics all reported increases in real earnings.
This article provides snapshots of several
important developments or issues related to the
U.S. economy and labor market in 1999. The
primary sources of data are the Current Employ­
ment Statistics ( ces) survey of establishments
and the Current Population Survey ( cps) of
households.1 Both of these surveys are con­
ducted monthly; however, quarterly averages are
used in the analysis that follows, unless other­
wise noted, and over-the-year changes are based
on comparisons of fourth-quarter 1998 and 1999
data, unless otherwise noted.

More than half of all job growth in 1999 was
in services, and companies that provide serv­
ices to businesses led the way. Contracting fo r
services and workers has grown at a rapid pace
throughout the current expansion. Two factors
Monthly Labor Review February 2000 3

The Job Market, 1999

Table 1.

Over-the-year percent change in selected
broad economic indicators, 1993-99
Indicator

Real gross domestic product1...........
Real exports1...................................
Home mortgage Interest rate...........
New home sales1.............................
Sales of existing homes1...................
Consumer confidence2.....................
Consumer Price Index (cpi-u ) ..............

1997-98

4.6
1.9
-11.4
15.4
11.8
-3.9
1.5

1993-98
average

3.9
8.3
.0
4.5
3.7
11.9
2.4

1998-99

4.3
6.2
13.1
4.5
10.0
9.8
2.6

1Percent changes for 1998-99 are based on third-quarter comparisons.
2Not seasonally adjusted.
N o te : Seasonally adjusted fourth-quarter data, unless otherwise noted.

provided further impetus fo r businesses to contract fo r serv­
ices in 1999: tight labor markets and the need to rewrite com­
puter programs so that they would work in the new century.
Nonfarm payroll employment grew by 2.7 million in 1999,
somewhat less than the 2.9 million in 1998 (see table 2), but in
line with the average for the current expansion. As in the past,
the services industry led employment growth, adding almost
1.5 million employees during 1999. (See chart 1.) An industry
ranking of jobs added within services reveals that the stron-

gest performers were those industries that provided services
to other businesses (business services and engineering and
management services) instead of those driven by individual
consumers or demographic trends (social services and health
services). (See chart 2.)
Businesses purchase services for many reasons. Some com­
panies maximize their flexibility to respond to changing de­
mand for their products and services by contracting for those
services instead of directly hiring permanent employees for
peak periods. Others contract out for services for which they
lack expertise, such as installing new computer programs or
implementing new accounting systems. In some companies,
the growth of output increases the demand for routine services
such as payroll or facilities management. Many companies meet
peak workloads by contracting for workers through a tempo­
rary help agency. Among the services that businesses pur­
chased, management and public relations, computer and data
processing services, and personnel supply services each expe­
rienced employment growth greater than 7 percent in 1999,
compared with 2.1 percent for all industries.
The number of jobs in management and public relations serv­
ices grew by 11.2 percent in 1999, almost equaling 1998’s strong

C onceptual differences betw een em ploym ent estim ates
from the Current Population Survey (household survey)
and the Current Em ploym ent Statistics survey (establishm ent survey)
The Bureau o f Labor Statistics maintains two independent
monthly data series on employment: the estimate of total
nonfarm jobs, derived from the Current Employment Sta­
tistics ( ces) survey, and the estimate of total employment,
derived from the Current Population Survey ( cps).
The ces survey is an employer-based survey that pro­
vides data on the number of jobs within industries. The cps
is a survey of households that provides data on the labor
force status (employed, unemployed, and not in the labor
force) of individuals and includes information on their de­
mographic as well as socioeconomic characteristics. The
surveys are largely complementary.
Employment estimates from the cps are for persons in
any type of work arrangement: wage and salary workers,
self-employed persons, and unpaid workers in family busi­
nesses. To be considered em ployed, an unpaid fam ily
worker must have worked 15 or more hours in an enter­
prise operated by a member of the family. Estimates from
the ces survey refer only to persons on nonfarm payrolls.
As a result, the count o f employment from the cps is larger
than that from the ces survey.
Partially offsetting the higher estimates from the cps is
the fact that it is a count of persons, and individuals are

4 Monthly Labor Review February 2000

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

counted only once, regardless of the number of jobs they
hold. In contrast, the establishment survey is a count of jobs
and includes each job for persons who work in more than
one establishment.
There are other differences in the surveys’ methodology
and coverage. For example, the reference period for the cps
is the week that includes the 12th day of the month, while,
for the ces survey, it is the pay period that includes the 12th
of the month. Pay periods vary in length and can be longer
than 1 week. It is therefore possible for the ces survey esti­
mate of employment to reflect a longer reference period
than that used for the cps.
The universe for the cps is the civilian noninstitutional
population, which comprises persons 16 years of age and
older residing in the United States who are not residents of
institutions (for example, penal and mental facilities and
homes for the aged) and who are not on active duty in the
Armed Forces. In this regard, the coverage of the ces sur­
vey is broader: there is no age restriction, uniformed mili­
tary personnel who hold civilian jobs are covered because
of their civilian employment, and persons who commute
into the United States from Mexico or Canada to work are
counted as employed.

Table 2.

Employees on nonfarm payrolls, by industry, seasonally adjusted quarterly averages, 1993-99

[Numbers in thousands]

Industry

Fourth
quarter,
1993

Fourth
quarter,
1998

Fourth
quarter,
1999

Change, fourth quarter to fourth quarter
1997-98
Thousands

Average, 1994-98

Percent

Thousands

Percent

1998-99
Thousands Percent

Total nonfarm....................................
Total private.....................................
Goods-producing.............................

111,780
92,857
23,486

126,865
106,920
25,319

129,585
109,313
25,245

2,919
2,609
138

2.4
2.5
.5

3,017
2,813
367

2.6
2.9
1.5

2,720
2,393
-74

2.1
2.2
-.3

Mining............................................
Metal mining.................................
Oil and gas extraction....................
Nonmetallic minerals, except fuels ...

607
49
353
103

574
50
325
109

528
48
289
108

-27
-3
-21
1

-4.5
-5.7
-6.1
.9

-7
0
-6
1

-1.1
.4
-1.6
1.1

-46
-2
-36
-1

-8.0
^1.0
-11.1
-.9

Construction...................................
General building contractors...........
Heavy construction,
except building..............................
Special trade contractors................

4,782
1,151

6,100
1,396

6,356
1,449

325
71

5.6
5.4

264
49

5.0
3.9

256
53

4.2
3.8

723
2,908

856
3,848

870
4,036

52
202

6.5
5.5

27
188

3.4
5.8

14
188

1.6
4.9

Manufacturing.................................
Durable goods...............................
Lumber and wood products..........
Furniture and fixtures...................
Stone, clay, and glass products.....
Primary metal industries...............
Fabricated metal products............
Industrial machinery and equipment
Computer and office equipment....
Electronic and other electrical
equipment................................
Electronic components
and accessories.......................
Transportation equipment.............
Motor vehicles and equipment......
Aircraft and parts.........................
Instruments and related products ...
Miscellaneous manufacturing
industries..................................

18,097
10,247
725
492
521
684
1,348
1,942
356

18,645
11,098
820
533
568
701
1,495
2,177
372

18,361
10,956
830
544
570
686
1,488
2,117
358

-160
-48
17
15
13
-15
-2
-23
-10

-.9
-.4
2.1
2.9
2.3
-2.1
-.1
-1.0
-2.6

110
170
19
8
9
3
29
47
3

.6
1.6
2.5
1.6
1.7
.5
2.1
2.3
.9

-284
-142
10
11
2
-15
-7
-60
-14

-1.5
-1.3
1.2
2.1
.4
-2.1
-.5
-2.8
-3.8

1,532

1,675

1,665

-38

-2.2

29

1.8

-10

-.6

529
1,738
853
515
882

643
1,887
996
520
855

644
1,835
1,002
467
832

-26
8
-3
3
-19

-3.9
.4
-.3
.6
-2.2

23
30
29
1
-5

4.0
1.7
3.1
.2
-.6

1
-52
6
-53
-23

.2
-2.8
.6
-10.2
-2.7

382

387

389

—6

-1.5

1

.3

2

.5

Nondurable goods.........................
Food and kindred products..........
Tobacco products.........................
Textile mill products.....................
Apparel and other textile products .
Paper and allied products............
Printing and publishing................
Chemicals and allied products......
Petroleum and coal products.......
Rubber and miscellaneous
plastics products........................
Leather and leather products........

7,850
1,686
43
672
976
690
1,522
1,076
150

7,547
1,689
40
586
730
667
1,563
1,042
140

7,405
1,686
38
551
662
655
1,550
1,033
136

4
-1
-26
-77
-15
4
2
-1

-1.4
.2
-2.4
-4.2
-9.5
-2.2
.3
.2
-.7

-61
1
-1
-17
-49
-5
8
-7
-2

-.8
.0
-1.4
-2.7
-5.6
-.7
.5
-.6
-1.4

-142
-3
-2
-35
—68
-12
-13
-9
-A

-1.9
-.2
-5.0
-6.0
-9.3
-1.8
-.8
-.9
-2.9

919
116

1,010
79

1,023
71

8
-9

.8
-10.2

18
-7

1.9
-7.4

13
-8

1.3
-10.1

Service-producing...........................
Transportation and public utilities......
Transportation................................
Railroad transportation.................
Local and interurban passenger
transit.......................................
Trucking and warehousing............
Water transportation.....................
Transportation by a ir.....................
Pipelines, except natural gas........
Transportation services.................

88,294
5,853
3,638
244

101,545
6,671
4,334
231

104,340
6,864
4,476
227

2,780
192
158
4

2.8
3.0
3.8
1.8

2,650
164
139
-3

2.8
2.7
3.6
-1.1

2,795
193
142
-4

2.8
2.9
3.3
-1.7

387
1,471
170
989
18
360

474
1,768
183
1,202
14
462

487
1,834
181
1,261
13
473

18
71
7
43
0
16

3.9
4.2
4.0
3.7
.0
3.6

17
59
3
43
-1
20

4.1
3.7
1.5
4.0
-4.9
5.1

13
66
-2
59
-1
11

2.7
3.7
-1.1
4.9
-7.1
2.4

Communications and public utilities..
Communications...........................
Electric, gas, and sanitary services

2,215
1,275
940

2,337
1,485
851

2,388
1,546
843

34
42
-9

1.5
2.9
-1.0

24
42
-18

1.1
3.1
-2.0

51
61
-8

2.2
4.1
-.9

Wholesale trade..............................
Durable goods..............................
Nondurable goods.........................

6,023
3,466
2,557

6,889
4,073
2,816

7,071
4,195
2,876

175
100
75

2.6
2.5
2.7

173
121
52

2.7
3.3
1.9

182
122
60

2.6
3.0
2.1

- in

See footnote at end of tables.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review February 2000 5

The Job Market, 1999

Table 2.

Continued—Employees on nonfarm payrolls, by industry, seasonally adjusted quarterly averages, 1993-99

[Numbers in thousands]

Change, fourth quarter to fourth quarter
Fourth
quarter,
1993

Fourth
quarter,
1998

Retail trade........................................
Building materials and garden
supplies.......................................
General merchandise stores...........
Department stores.........................
Food stores....................................
Automotive dealers and service
stations.......................................
New and used car dealers.............
Apparel and accessory stores........
Furniture and home furnishings
stores...........................................
Eating and drinking places............
Miscellaneous retail establishments

20,004

22,453

22,910

355

1.6

490

2.3

457

2.0

795
2,498
2,158
3,247

962
2,751
2,448
3,487

1,004
2,763
2,457
3,481

33
34
46
8

3.6
1.3
1.9
.2

33
51
58
48

3.9
1.9
2.6
1.4

42
12
9
-6

4.4
.4
.4
-.2

2,047
927
1,141

2,362
1,055
1,146

2,426
1,096
1,197

42
10
18

1.8
1.0
1.6

63
26
1

2.9
2.6
.1

64
41
51

2.7
3.9
4.5

846
6,933
2,495

1,043
7,817
2,886

1,098
7,946
2,995

35
135
52

3.5
1.8
1.8

39
177
78

4.3
2.4
3.0

55
129
109

5.3
1.7
3.8

Finance, insurance, and real estate....
Finance..........................................
Depository institutions...................
Commercial banks......................
Savings institutions.....................
Nondepository institutions.............
Security and commodity brokers....
Holding and other investment
offices.......................................

6,856
3,290
2,089
1,498
320
484
491

7,519
3,652
2,045
1,466
258
692
660

7,679
3,726
2,048
1,466
253
712
697

312
167
9
^1
0
89
47

4.3
4.8
.4
-.3
.0
14.8
7.7

133
72
-9
-6
-12
42
34

1.9
2.1
-.4
-.4
-4.2
7.4
6.1

160
74
3
0
-5
20
37

2.1
2.0
.1
.0
-1.9
2.9
5.6

226

256

270

23

9.9

6

2.5

14

5.5

Insurance.......................................
Insurance carriers..........................
Insurance agents, brokers,
and services................................
Real estate....................................

2,224
1,549

2,374
1,619

2,412
1,638

85
62

3.7
4.0

30
14

1.3
.9

38
19

1.6
1.2

675
1,342

755
1,493

774
1,540

23
60

3.1
4.2

16
30

2.3
2.2

19
47

2.5
3.1

Services1..........................................
Agricultural services......................
Hotels and other lodging places.....
Personal services..........................
Business services1.........................
Services to buildings...................
Personnel supply services..........
Help supply services...............
Computer and data processing
services....................................
Auto repair, services, and parking ...
Miscellaneous repair services........

30,637
537
1,615
1,143
5,895
832
2,029
1,786

38,069
727
1,783
1,198
8,779
962
3,271
2,905

39,544
766
1,807
1,216
9,347
1,001
3,508
3,109

1,438
36
25
8
549
28
162
139

3.9
5.2
1.4
.7
6.7
3.0
5.2
5.0

1,486
38
34
11
577
26
248
224

4.4
6.2
2.0
.9
8.3
2.9
10.0
10.2

1,475
39
24
18
568
39
237
204

3.9
5.4
1.3
1.5
6.5
4.1
7.2
7.0

909
934
340

1,675
1,159
388

1,831
1,197
402

201
30
13

13.6
2.7
3.5

153
45
10

13.0
4.4
2.7

156
38
14

9.3
3.3
3.6

Motion pictures.............................
Amusement and recreation services
Health services!............................
Offices and clinics of medical
doctors....................................
Nursing and personal care facilities
Hospitals....................................
Home health care services..........

421
1,285
8,850

576
1,638
9,891

611
1,723
10,025

11
77
119

1.9
4.9
1.2

31
71
208

6.5
5.0
2.2

35
85
134

6.1
5.2
1.4

1,517
1,616
3,772
504

1,830
1,757
3,950
652

1,886
1,757
3,981
657

67
-7
68
-58

3.8
-.4
1.8
-8.2

63
28
36
30

3.8
1.7
.9
5.3

56
0
31
5

3.1
.0
.8
.8

Legal services..............................
Private schools and other
educational services....................
Social services1.............................
Child day care services...............
Residential care..........................
Museums and botanical
and zoological gardens................
Membership organizations............
Engineering and management
services1......................................
Engineering and architectural
services..................................
Management and public relations..

926

986

1,012

34

3.6

12

1.3

26

2.6

1,756
2,106
482
580

2,214
2,695
615
760

2,297
2,836
642
797

83
134
29
32

3.9
5.2
4.9
4.4

92
118
27
36

4.7
5.1
5.0
5.6

83
141
27
37

3.7
5.2
4.4
4.9

77
2,045

94
2,376

95
2,413

3
63

3.3
2.7

3
66

4.1
3.0

1
37

1.1
1.6

2,535

3,271

3,502

216

7.1

147

5.2

231

7.1

761
696

919
1,080

960
1,201

40
113

4.6
11.7

32
77

3.8
9.2

41
121

4.5
11.2

18,922
2,898

19,945
2,712

20,272
2,647

310
27

1.6
1.0

205
-37

1.1
-1.3

327
-65

1.6
-2.4

Industry

Government....................................
Federal...........................................


6 Monthly Labor Review February 2000
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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Fourth
quarter,
1999

1997-98
Thousands

A v e ra g e ,1994-98

Percent

Thousands

Percent

1998-99
Thousands Percent

Table 2.

Continued—Employees on nonfarm payrolls, by industry, seasonally adjusted quarterly averages, 1993-99

[Numbers in thousands]

Change, fourth quarter to fourth quarter
Fourth
quarter,
1993

Fourth
quarter,
1998

Federal, except Postal Service........

2,100

1,832

1,778

8

.4

-54

-2.7

-54

-2.9

State government............................
State government, except
education...................................
State government education...........
Local government...........................
Local government, except
education...................................
Local government education...........

4,513

4,641

4,727

56

1.2

26

.6

86

1.9

2,663
1,851
11,511

2,715
1,926
12,592

2,761
1,966
12,898

37
20
226

1.4
1.0
1.8

10
15
216

.4
.8
1.8

46
40
306

1.7
2.1
2.4

5,126
6,385

5,463
7,129

5,575
7,323

70
157

1.3
2.3

67
149

1.3
2.2

112
194

2.1
2.7

Industry

Fourth
quarter,
1999

’Includes other industries not shown separately.

performance. Consulting companies often help businesses stream­
line their processes for managing people, performance, and li­
abilities, with the goal of improving productivity. Consultants
are primarily skilled professionals and frequently are assigned a
specific budget, task, and time horizon. With the turn of the cen­
tury approaching, consulting services were called upon to re­
place or modernize information systems and to prepare con­
tingency plans for potential computer problems related to the
year-2000 date turnover. Like management and public rela­
tions services, the computer services industry also enjoyed
continued strong growth in the past year. Employment in com­
puter and data-processing services increased by 9.3 percent in
1999, not as fast as the growth in 1998, but still 4 times the
pace for all industries.
Because, in 1999, businesses were already straining to find
labor resources to meet increasing demand, many companies
continued to turn to employment agencies or to temporary help
services that year to help them survive seasonal increases, meet
one-time requirements for specific tasks, or fill permanent
positions. Personnel supply services provide businesses with
employees whose occupations range from day laborers to com­
puter scientists. The need to closely adjust labor input to handle
fluctuations in consumer demand has particularly benefited the
help supply industry, which typically supplies workers to busi­
nesses for defined, limited periods. However, the tight labor
market in 1999 also prompted some businesses to turn to help
supply industries to fill permanent positions. In this capacity,
a temporary help agency not only recruits workers, but also
may provide them with limited training, as well as a period of
“trial” employment, before they are transferred to a perma­
nent position on the business’ payroll.2
The number of workers employed in personnel supply serv­
ices rose by 7.2 percent from 1998 to 1999. Even though this
industry was among the fastest growing, the 1999 increase was
below the average annual rate of growth of the industry for the
past 5 years. While growth in employment in the personnel

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1997-98
Thousands

S ource:

A v e ra g e ,1994-98
Percent

Thousands

Percent

1998-99
Thousands

Percent

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Employment Statistics survey.

supply industry has been particularly robust throughout the
current expansion,3 growth in 1999 was tempered by a tight
labor market. Thus, the scarcity of qualified persons available
to be hired, which boosted the demand for personnel supply
services, also limited the industry’s ability to meet demand.4

The economy was buoyed by strong consumer confidence.
With consumers enjoying the benefits o f low price inflation
and continuing their pattern o f spending rather than saving,
consumer demand sustained the domestic economy even as
most other economies around the world remained weak. The
confidence workers had about the economy, combined with
growth in real earnings and a soaring stock market, led to
improved sales o f most goods and services.
The average hourly and weekly earnings of production and
nonsupervisory workers in the private economy increased be­
tween the fourth quarters of 1998 and 1999 by 3.7 percent and
3.4 percent, respectively, before adjustment for inflation. In­
creases in hourly earnings slowed from the pace set over the
past 2 years, but remained higher than the average over the
current expansion. Real earnings growth lost much of its mo­
mentum of the previous year, partly due to smaller wage gains,
but even more so because the increase in consumer prices,
while still small, was greater than in 1998. Real earnings have
grown by 6 percent thus far during the current expansion, which
began in 1991. In constant dollars, the over-the-year growth in
fourth-quarter hourly earnings was 0.9 percent in 1999, com­
pared with 2.4 percent during 1998. Nevertheless, any increase
in inflation-adjusted earnings indicates that consumers are able
to purchase more goods and services.
The continued growth in real earnings and the healthy gains
in employment fueled consumer confidence,5 which improved
markedly over the year. Naturally, the retail trade industry ben­
efited from consumer spending, but some detailed components
within retail did much better than others. The growth rate in
retail trade employment in 1999 was slightly ahead of that
Monthly Labor Review February 2000 7

The Job Market, 1999

Chart 1.

SOURCE:

Chart 2.

C h a n g e in em ploym ent, by industry division, 1999

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Employment Statistics survey.

Services industries with most jobs a d d ed , 1999

B usiness services

E ngineering and m anagem ent

Social services

Health services

A m use m en t and recreation

Educational services

100

200

300

400

Thousands of workers
SOURCE:

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Employment Statistics survey.

8 Monthly Labor Review February 2000

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

500

600

experienced in 1998. The gains were made despite a highly
competitive labor market, which would tend to make recruit­
ment in relatively low-paying retail jobs even more difficult.
In fact, employment slowed in the fall of the year, suggesting
that retailers were having to wrestle with the problems of a
dwindling supply of workers.6
W ithin retail trade, miscellaneous retail establishments, a
category that encompasses a variety of stores, such as drug­
stores, liquor stores, and florists, as well as catalog compa­
nies and other nonstore retailers (including Internet compa­
nies), accounts for much of the improvement over 1998. The
miscellaneous retail industry added 109,000 jobs during the
year, twice as many as in 1998. Automotive dealerships, fur­
niture and home furnishings stores, and apparel stores also
exhibited much larger gains than in 1998. Employment growth
in eating and drinking places, department stores, and food
stores lagged behind that of 1998, bringing overall perform­
ance for retail trade to just below the average pace for the
previous 5-year period.
Automotive dealerships reaped the benefits of strong con­
sumption. Sales of motor vehicles in 1999 surpassed the record
set in 1986, as income gains, low interest rates, and dealer
incentives acted together to create a remarkably favorable cli­
mate for sales. A strong dollar also affected sales of motor
vehicles, as cheaper imports prompted domestic manufactur­
ers to offer discounts. Despite competition from on-line car
sales, employment by new and used car dealers increased by
3.9 percent, the biggest rise since 1994.
Growth in furniture and home furnishings stores was led
by radio, television, and computer stores. Consumers replaced
computers with newer models that would provide uninterrupted
use into the year 2000 and models that offered much-improved
processing speeds. Competition in the computer market put
downward pressure on prices in the industry in 1999, and many
consumers took advantage of price reductions for computers
and peripheral equipment.7 M anufacturers’ rebates and dis­
counts from on-line service providers were common, making
1999 a very good year for computer purchases.8 Reflecting
this sales growth, employment in radio, television, and com­
puter stores grew by over 6.3 percent in 1999, nearly match­
ing the strong 6.7-percent average growth over the past 5 years.

Low interest rates benefited construction and related indus­
tries. In the first quarter o f 1999, the percentage o f families able
to buy American homes reached the highest level in recent his­
tory, as both low interest rates and healthy income gains helped
make housing more affordable.9 Despite increasing mortgage
rates during the second half o f the year, sales o f new homes were
sustained at very high levels throughout 1999, even outpacing
the sales records o f 1998.
Employment in many construction-related industries posted
continued growth during 1999, but the building boom eventu­
ally resulted in shortages, not only of labor, but also of materi­

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

als.10 Most of the job growth in construction supported resi­
dential building and the contracting of specialized trades such
as plumbing, painting, and carpentry services. General build­
ing contractors, which include residential construction firms,
increased employment by 3.8 percent in 1999, compared with
5.4 percent in 1998. Job gains in all construction industries
were weaker in 1999 than their average for the current expan­
sion overall and also weaker than in 1998.
Industries that produced basic construction materials in­
creased their payrolls as they stepped up production. Demand
for lumber and wood products grew at a moderate pace, with
job growth in that manufacturing industry slightly below that
of 1998. Companies that manufacture furniture and fixtures
also increased their payrolls, although the rate of growth de­
clined somewhat following an unusually high rate of gain in
1998. Employment across all construction-related manufac­
turing industries grew by 1.4 percent in 1999, compared with
a decline in overall manufacturing of 1.5 percent.
The momentum in construction also spilled over into some
areas of retail trade. Strong growth was evident in stores that
sell building materials and garden supplies, lending further
credence to the importance of the construction industry in ex­
plaining overall employment growth. Consumers also fre­
quented retail stores to make purchases for their residences,
resulting in a healthy 5.3-percent job gain in furniture and
appliance stores. Orders tracked by the American Furniture
Manufacturers Association reflect increased purchases over
1998, as bedroom, dining room, and occasional furniture all
registered moderate gains.11
Agricultural services, which include landscape services,
grew by 5.4 percent in 1999. The industry followed the pat­
tern of the construction industry for the majority of the year.
The contracting of agricultural services was in preparation for
new-home sales, as well as for maintaining landscaping for
existing homes and businesses.
Employment in real estate and finance continued to benefit
from strong growth in the housing market, as job gains in mort­
gage banks and brokerages, title insurance, and real estate
agents were robust through the first half of the year. However,
employment related to refinancing slowed as interest rates in­
creased, a trend that began early in the year. Declines in refi­
nancing lowered the demand for mortgage bankers and bro­
kers as the year progressed, and the industry shed jobs from
June through the end of the year. Growth in the finance indus­
tries was dampened not only by these job losses, but also by
continued consolidation among banks and savings institutions.

Industries that were affected by intense price competition
and the weak world economy suffered in 1999. Particularly
affected by world economic conditions were industries that
produced commodities rather than services. M ost commodi­
ties underwent a slow price recovery from 1998 lows,12 al­
though overall, commodity prices remained below 1997 levMonthly Labor Review February 2000 9

The Job Market, 1999

els. While fu e l prices rebounded strongly over the year, prices
o f many other goods were still making up fo r lost ground.
Employment in mining exhibited a weakness similar to that
of a year earlier, as low oil prices continued through the first
quarter of 1999. After plunging 32 percent in 1998, oil prices
made nearly a full recovery by the fourth quarter of 1999. The
recovery of employment, however, was only modest. (See chart
3.) Oil and gas companies continued to streamline operations.
A number of mergers that took place in 1999 held employment
gains to a minimum, as domestic companies strove to be more
cost competitive with overseas suppliers.
The steel-producing industry also did not recover from
1998’s price declines. While the bulk of the declines occurred
in 1998, the recovery in prices has been slow. In m id-1999,
steel production was almost unchanged over the year, and ca­
pacity utilization actually fell slightly. The U.S. International
Trade Commission determined that domestic steel producers
had been unfairly harmed by the flood of cheap imports, and
then the United States negotiated agreements with Russia and
Brazil to limit steel imports from those countries. Demand for
domestically produced steel improved, and by the end of the
year, both steel production and capacity utilization were up
from 1998 levels. Employment in the primary metals industry
recovered slightly over the fourth quarter, after declining by
14,000 during the first 9 months of the year.
Weakness in Southeast Asian and emerging economies re­
duced the demand for U.S. exports, particularly of industrial
machinery, electrical equipment, and transportation equipment.
These three industries account for 30 percent of manufactur­
ing employment, so suppressed demand for their output has a
large impact on overall manufacturing. An improvement in the
performance of the Asian economies in 1999 coincided with a
moderation in declines in monthly U.S. manufacturing employ­
ment by midyear. (See chart 4.) Employment declines in elec­
trical and electronic equipment eased greatly in 1999 com­
pared with 1998 (see chart 5), as job gains in the second half
of the year nearly offset continued losses in the first half. In
contrast, apparel and other textile products fared as poorly in
1999 as in 1998, losing another 9 percent of that industry’s
workforce and showing no signs of improvement. Employment
declines accelerated in industrial machinery, with 3 times the
number of jobs lost as in 1998; however, employment stabi­
lized in the fourth quarter. Aircraft and parts also fared much
worse in 1999, in part because of delayed or canceled orders
from ailing countries in Southeast Asia. As was the case with
the apparel industry, the job losses in aircraft continued through­
out the year.

Special factors affected employment in 1999. Two industries
had unusual employment movements in 1999 that were unre­
lated to general economic trends: Federal payrolls benefited
throughout the year from the preparation fo r the Census 2000,
and, due to changes in legislation, the home health care in­

10 Monthly Labor Review February 2000
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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

dustry began to recover from steep job losses incurred in 1998.
Monthly swings in Federal employment in 1999 are largely
explained by hiring for the Census 2000.13 Most of the hiring
took place during three preparation phases that caused corre­
sponding peaks in Federal Government employment. Over the
course of the year, total nonfarm employment averaged 19,000
higher than it would have been without the decennial workers.
Excluding census workers, the number of other Federal work­
ers (which includes U.S. Postal Service workers and civilian
employees of the Department of Defense) fell throughout the
year, and the declines were more precipitous than in the past
few years.
Early in 1999, the home health care industry began to re­
cover from more than a year of declines. The turnaround was
slow, how ever: after losing m ore than 8 percent o f its
workforce during 1998, the industry grew by just 1 percent in
1999. (See chart 6.) The weak gains coincided with incre­
mental relief from medicare restrictions that were put in place
in 1998. July 1,1999, marked the end of “sequential billing,”
a Balanced Budget Act provision that seriously hurt cash flow
for home health agencies. This provision required medicare
claims to be submitted in chronological order; each claim
would then have to be paid or denied before another one could
be submitted. As a result, some agencies refocused their pa­
tients loads, shifting away from medicare and medicaid cli­
ents and toward private payers.

As the current economic expansion entered its 9th year in
1999, total civilian employment continued to increase and
the unemployment rate continued to decline. Workers in most
major demographic groups benefited from the improvements
in the job market.
Data from the cps also depict a healthy job market in 1999.
Employment grew by about 1.9 million, slightly more than in
1998.14 The percentage of the population that was employed
(the employment-population ratio) reached a record-high 64.3
percent in the first quarter of 1999 and finished out the year at
that level. The number of unemployed persons fell by about
390,000 in 1999, and the unemployment rate continued to de­
cline, reaching 4.1 percent by the fourth quarter— a 30-year
low. (See table 3 and chart 7.)
Among persons aged 20 and older, employment increased by
almost 1.8 million in 1999, compared with an increase of 1.4
million in 1998. Women accounted for a disproportionately large
share of the employment growth in 1999. Almost three-fifths of
the growth occurred among adult women, although they make
up less than half of total employment. This pattern has typified
the current expansion, with women accounting for more than
half of overall employment growth since 1991.15
The employment-population ratio for adult women reached
record highs in 1999, ending the year at 58.5 percent. For
men, the ratio was virtually unchanged over the year, at 74.0
percent. During the current expansion, the ratios for men and

| Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and older, by selected characteristics,
quarterly averages, seasonally adjusted, 1998-99
[Numbers in thousands]

Change, fourth

1999
Characteristic

Fourth quarter,
1998

First quarter

Second quarter

Third quarter

Fourth quarter

to fourth
quarter, 1999'

Total

Civilian labor force........................................
Participation rate.....................................
Employed.................................................
Employment-population ratio....................
Unemployed..............................................
Unemployment rate.................................

138,321
67.1
132,208
64.1
6,114
4.4

139,058
67.2
133,077
64.3
5,981
4.3

139,144
67.1
133,214
64.2
5,930
4.3

139,394
67.0
133,526
64.2
5,868
4.2

139,880
67.0
134,153
64.3
5,727
4.1

1,501
.0
1,889
.2
-389
-.3

70,013
76.8
67,519
74.1
2,494
3.6

70,082
76.9
67,642
74.2
2,440
3.5

70,029
76.6
67,559
73.9
2,470
3.5

70,245
76.6
67,805
74.0
2,440
3.5

70,419
76.6
68,044
74.0
2,375
3.4

629
-.1
730
.0
-101
-.2

59,979
60.5
57,591
58.1
2,388
4.0

60,612
60.8
58,283
58.4
2,329
3.8

60,820
60.8
58,489
58.5
2,332
3.8

60,872
60.7
58,585
58.4
2,287
3.8

61,054
60.7
58,865
58.5
2,188
3.6

819
.2
1,032
.4
-214
-.5

8,329
52.7
7,098
44.9
1,232
14.8

8,363
52.5
7,151
44.8
1,212
14.5

8,295
51.8
7,166
44.7
1,128
13.6

8,277
51.5
7,137
44.4
1,141
13.8

8,407
52.2
7,243
44.9
1,164
13.8

53
-.5
124
.1
-73
-1.1

115,850
67.3
111,390
64.7
4,459
3.8

116,349
67.5
112,008
64.9
4,341
3.7

116,352
67.3
111,966
64.8
4,385
3.8

116,535
67.3
112,268
64.8
4,267
3.7

116,788
67.2
112,703
64.9
4,085
3.5

1,012
-.1
1,381
.3
-367
-.3

16,171
65.9
14,829
60.5
1,343
8.3

16,273
65.9
14,968
60.6
1,304
8.0

16,295
65.7
15,044
60.7
1,251
7.7

16,387
65.8
15,041
60.4
1,346
8.2

16,503
66.0
15,172
60.6
1,332
8.1

286
.1
301
.1
-15
-.2

14,470
67.8
13,406
62.8
1,064
7.4

14,503
67.9
13,561
63.5
943
6.5

14,571
67.6
13,590
63.1
981
6.7

14,698
67.6
13,750
63.2
948
6.4

14,893
67.9
13,984
63.7
909
6.1

649
.6
792
1.5
-142
-1.3

Men, 20 years and older

Civilian labor force........................................
Participation rate...................................
Employed.................................................
Employment-population ratio..................
Unemployed.............................................
Unemployment rate...............................
Women, 20 years and older

Civilian labor force........................................
Participation rate...................................
Employed.................................................
Employment-population ratio..................
Unemployed.............................................
Unemployment rate...............................
Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force........................................
Participation rate...................................
Employed.................................................
Employment-population ratio..................
Unemployed..............................................
Unemployment rate...............................
White

Civilian labor force........................................
Participation rate...................................
Employed.................................................
Employment-population ratio..................
Unemployed..............................................
Unemployment rate...............................
Black

Civilian labor force........................................
Participation rate...................................
Employed.................................................
Employment-population ratio..................
Unemployed..............................................
Unemployment rate...............................
Hispanic origin

Civilian labor force........................................
Participation rate...................................
Employed.................................................
Employment-population ratio..................
Unemployed..............................................
Unemployment rate...............................

' Estimates of over-the-year changes have been adjusted to reflect revisions to population controls introduced in January 1999.
N o te :

Details for racial and Hispanic-origin groups will not sum to totals


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

because data for the “other races” group are not presented and Hispanics are
included in both the white and black population groups.
S o u r ce :

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Monthly Labor Review February 2000

11

The Job Market, 1999

Chart 3.

Employment in oil and gas extraction and oil prices, 1997-99, seasonally adjusted

Employment
(thousands)
360

Dollars
30

25
340

20

320 -

15
\

-

10

300
Jobs in oil and gas extraction

«. /

Price of West Texas intermediate oil
280

J__ I__ I__ I__ I__ I__ L

J__ I__ I__ I

1997
SOURCE:

Chart 4.

\ _____ -

I

I

I

I

!

I

I

J__ !__ I__ I__ I__ I__ I__ I__ L

1998

I

I

I

1999

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Employment Statistics survey.

Manufacturing em ploym ent, 1996-99, seasonally adjusted

E m p lo ym e n t
(th o u sa n d s)

12 Monthly Labor Review February 2000

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

E m p lo ym e n t
(th o u sa n d s)

19,000
18,900
18,800
18,700
18,600
18,500
18,400
18,300
18,200

women have continued the long-term pattern of convergence,
with the wom en’s ratio growing slightly faster than the m en’s.
The number of unemployed adults decreased by about 320,000
in 1999. By the fourth quarter, the unemployment rate had
edged down to 3.4 percent for adult men and 3.6 percent for
adult women, the lowest rate in 26 years for men and in 31
years for women.
Women who maintained families showed marked improve­
ment in their labor market situation in 1999. Employment for
these women increased by about 450,000 over the year, to 8.4
million; this figure compares with an increase of about 200,000
in 1998.16 In 1999, the percentage of such women who were
employed reached 65.6 percent, an over-the-year increase of
1.3 percentage points. The number of unemployed women
maintaining families edged down to about 550,000 in 1999,
and their unemployment rate declined to 6.1 percent.
The labor market situation changed little for teenagers (per­
sons aged 16 to 19 years) in 1999. The unemployment rate of
teens improved slightly, ending the year at 13.8 percent, a low
rate not seen since the early 1970s. The size of the teenage
labor force— the sum of those who were employed and those
who were unemployed— was about about unchanged. The teen­
age labor force participation rate— the proportion of the popu­
Table 4.

lation that is in the labor force— was also about unchanged.
During the current expansion, the teenage labor force partici­
pation rate has fluctuated, but shown no clear trend. However,
the rate is down substantially from a historical peak of almost
59 percent in the late 1970s. The decrease reflects, in large
part, a growing proportion of teens enrolled in school. In 1979,
67 percent of the teenage population was enrolled in school;
by 1999, the ratio had risen to 77.4 percent.17 Teenagers who
are attending school have a lower labor force participation rate
than those who are not attending, so an increase in the propor­
tion of persons enrolled in school is often associated with a
lower overall labor force participation rate.
The labor force expanded in 1999 for whites, blacks, and
Hispanics. Since the first quarter of 1991 (the final quarter of
the 1990-91 recession, as officially defined), the Hispanic la­
bor force has grown by 38 percent, largely a reflection of the
group’s strong population growth. This increase compares with
a 20-percent increase in the size of the black labor force and a
9-percent increase in the white labor force. In 1999, the labor
force participation rates were 67.9 percent for Hispanics, 67.2
percent for whites, and 66.0 percent for blacks.
The unemployment rate for whites ended the year at a threedecade low of 3.5 percent. Blacks and Hispanics both achieved

Employment by occupation, sex, race, and Hispanic origin, fourth quarter, 1998-99, and median usual weekly
earnings by occupation, annual average, 1999
Men

Total

Women

Fourth
quarter,
1999'

Change,
fourth
quarter,
1998,
to fourth
quarter,
1999'

Fourth
quarter,
1998

Fourth
quarter,
1999'

Change,
fourth
quarter,
1998,
to fourth
quarter,
1999'

132,578
39,916
19,496
20,420

134,534
40,856
19,700
21,156

1,956
940
204
736

71,135
20,348
10,828
9,520

71,774
20,508
10,684
9,824

639
160
-144
304

61,443
19,568
8,668
10,900

62,760
20,348
9,016
11,332

1,317
780
348
432

488
618
523
447

38,547
4,163
16,107
18,276

39,325
4,442
16,427
18,456

778
279
320
180

13,766
1,875
7,915
3,976

14,187
2,089
8,035
4,063

421
214
120
87

24,780
2,288
8,192
14,300

25,138
2,352
8,393
14,393

358
64
201
93

336
243
592

17,838
861
2,388

17,525
828
2,324

-313
-33
-64

7,215
45
1,955

6,899
36
1,864

-316
-9
-91

10,623
816
433

10,626
792
459

3
-24
26

313

14,589

14,373

-216

5,216

4,998

-218

9,374

9,374

0

Precision production, craft, and repair..........
Mechanics and repairers..........................
Construction trades..................................
Other production, craft, and repair............

594
621
566
588

14,398
4,772
5,629
3,996

14,894
4,708
6,152
4,035

496
-64
523
39

13,121
4,595
5,493
3,033

13,516
4,468
6,003
3,045

395
-127
510
12

1,277
178
136
963

1,379
240
149
990

102
62
13
27

Operators, fabricators, and laborers............
Machine operators, assemblers,
and inspectors......................................
Transportation and material moving..........
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers,
and laborers.........................................

429

18,475

18,678

203

13,915

14,027

112

4,560

4,651

91

423
513

7,757
5,516

7,385
5,803

-372
287

4,910
4,948

4,517
5,186

-393
238

2,847
569

2,867
618

20
49

363

5,201

5,490

289

4,057

4,324

267

1,145

1,166

21

Farming, forestry, and fishing.......................

331

3,405

3,255

-150

2,771

2,637

-134

634

618

-16

Median
usual
weekly
earnings

Fourth
quarter,
1998

Total, aged 16 and older.......................
Managerial and professional specialty..........
Executive, administrative, and managerial..
Professional specialty..............................

$549
797
792
800

Technical, sales, and administrative support..
Technicians and related support...............
Sales occupations...................................
Administrative support, including clerical....
Service occupations....................................
Private household....................................
Protective service....................................
Service, except private household
and protective.......................................

Occupation

' Over-the-year changes were not adjusted for revised population controls.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

S ource:

Change,
fourth
Fourth
Fourth quarter,
1998,
quarter, quarter,
to fourth
1999'
1998
quarter,
1999'

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Monthly Labor Review February 2000

13

The Job Market, 1999

C h a rt 5.

Percent ch an g e in em ploym ent for selected manufacturing industries, 1998 and 1999

Electrical equipment

Apparel and other textiles

Industrial machinery

Aircraft and parts

-1 2

SOURCE:

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Employment Statistics survey.

Em ploym ent in hom e health c a re services, 1997-99, seasonally adjusted

Employment
(thousands)

January 1997
SOURCE:

Employment
(thousands)

July 1997

January 1998

July 1998

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Employment Statistics survey.

14 Monthly Labor Review February 2000

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

January 1999

July 1999

record-low unemployment rates in 1999.18The black unemploy­
ment rate finished the year at 8.1 percent, the lowest on record
prior to 1999. For Hispanics, the unemployment rate reached a
record low in the first quarter and continued to decline in the last
half of the year, bottoming out at 6.1 percent in the fourth quar­
ter. The unemployment rates for blacks and Hispanics remained
higher than that for whites in 1999, although the gap narrowed
slightly between Hispanics and whites; the gap between blacks
and whites showed no improvement.
Employment grew faster for minority workers than for whites
in 1999. The number of employed persons increased by about
2.0 percent for blacks, to 15.2 million; 6.0 percent for Hispanics,
to 14.0 million; and 1.2 percent for whites, to 112.7 million. The
number of persons employed as a percentage of the population
reached record highs for whites, blacks, and Hispanics during
Table 5.

1999 and ended the year strong: 64.9 percent, 60.6 percent, and
63.7 percent, respectively. Since the beginning of the current
expansion, the employment-population ratio has grown more for
blacKs and Hispanics than for whites.
Employment increased in 1999 for persons aged 25 and
older who had attended college; employment was about un­
changed for persons with no college experience.19 This differ­
ence continues the long-term trend in which the overall
workforce is becoming more educated, reflecting a decline in
the proportion of the population with no college experience.
For example, since 1992,20 the number of employed persons
with less than a high school diploma decreased by about
159,000, to 11.3 million, while the number of employed per­
sons with a college degree increased by 7.4 million, to 35.0
million. In 1999, the unemployment rate improved for work-

Employment by occupation, sex, race, and Hispanic origin, fourth quarter, 1998-99
Total

White

Occupation

Fourth
quarter,
1998

Fourth
quarter,
1999

Total, aged 16 and older..........
Managerial and professional
specialty..................................
Executive, administrative,
and managerial........................
Professional specialty occupations

132,578

134,534

1,956

39,916

40,856

940

34,774

19,496
20,420

19,700
21,156

204
736

38,547
4,163
16,107

39,325
4,442
16,427

18,276

Technical, sales, and administrative
support.....................................
Technicians and related support
Sales occupations....................
Administrative support,
including clerical.....................
Service occupations......................
Private households....................
Protective services....................
Service, except private
household and protective........
Precision production, craft,
and repair...................................
Mechanics and repairers...........
Construction trades....................
Other production, craft,
and repair................................
Operators, fabricators,
and laborers..............................
Machine operators,assemblers,
and inspectors.........................
Transportation and material
moving....................................
Handlers,equipment cleaners,
helpers, and laborers.................
Farming, forestry, and fishing........

111,646 112,975

Hispanic

1,329

14,929

15,270

341

13,442

14,012

570

35,384

610

3,086

3,333

247

1,932

2,009

77

17,228
17,546

17,310
18,074

82
528

1,471
1,615

1,542
1,791

71
176

1,076
856

1,066
944

-10
88

778
279
320

32,431
3,455
13,891

32,976
3,676
14,158

545
221
267

4,420
465
1,504

4,486
475
1,472

66
10
-32

3,141
282
1,260

3,264
266
1,281

123
-16
21

18,456

180

15,086

15,142

56

2,451

2,540

89

1,600

1,717

117

17,838
861
2,388

17,525
828
2,324

-313
-33
-64

13,723
700
1,907

13,415
661
1,812

-308
-39
-95

3,258
134
433

3,175
125
445

-83
-9
12

2,706
272
198

2,714
237
197

8
-35
-1

14,589

14,373

-216

11,116

10,942

-174

2,691

2,605

-86

2,236

2,280

44

14,398
4,772
5,629

14,894
4,708
6,152

496
-64
523

12,721
4,215
5,077

13,263
4,181
5,622

542
-34
545

1,139
392
391

1,130
368
390

-9
-24
-1

1,872
500
808

2,034
509
991

162
9
183

3,996

4,035

39

3,428

3,460

32

365

373

8

564

534

-30

18,475

18,678

203

14,856

14,915

59

2,852

2,993

141

2,995

3,222

227

7,757

7,385

-372

6,147

5,816

-331

1,187

1,159

-28

1,347

1,403

56

5,516

5,803

287

4,522

4,719

197

845

952

107

684

725

41

5,201

5,490

289

4,187

4,381

194

820

881

61

964

1,093

129

3,405

3,255

-150

3,141

3,022

-119

174

153

-21

795

769

-26

1Over-the-year changes were not adjusted for revised population controls,
N o t e : Details for racial and Hispanic-origin groups will not sum to totals
because data for the “other races” group are not presented and Hispanics are


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Black

Change,
Change,
C hange
Change,
fourth
fourth
fourth
fourth
Fourth
Fourth
quarter,
quarter, Fourth
Fourth
quarter, Fourth
Fourth quarter,
quarter,
quarter,
1998,
1998,
quarter, quarter,
1998, quarter, quarter,
1998,
1998
1999
to fourth
to fourth
1998
1999
to fourth
1999
1999 to fourth
quarter,
quarter,
quarter,
quarter,
1999'
1999'
1999'
1999'

included in both the white and black population groups.
S ource:

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey,

Monthly Labor Review February 2000

15

The Job Market, 1999

Chart 7. Unem ploym ent rate, 1969-99, seasonally adjusted

Percent

Percent

12

10

NOTE: Shaded regions represent recessions as designated by the National Bureau of Economic Research. Data are quarterly.
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Chart 8.

O ver-th e -y e a r em ploym ent growth, by occupation an d gender, fourth-quarter 1998-99

1

Farm ing, forestry,
and fishing

■

W om en

□

Men

O perators, fabricators,
and laborers

Precision production,
craft, and repair

Service occupations

Technical, sales, and
adm inistrative support

M anagerial and
professional specialty

-400

-200

200
E m ploym ent grow th

SOURCE:

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.


16 Monthly Labor Review February 2000
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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

400

600

800

ers of all educational backgrounds, ending the year at 1.7 per­
cent for college graduates, 2.6 percent for persons with some
college experience, but less than a bachelor’s degree, 3.3 per­
cent for high school graduates, and 6.3 percent for persons
with less than a high school diploma.

Nearly half o f the total employment growth over the year
was in the generally high-paying managerial and profes­
sional specialty occupations. Growth in these fields was par­
ticularly strong fo r women and blacks. The strongest gains
among men were in technical, sales, and administrative sup­
port occupations and in precision production, craft, and re­
pair occupations.
Employment in managerial and professional specialty occu­
pations expanded by 940,000 in 1999, accounting for about half
of total employment growth during the year.21 Employment
growth in these occupations has been disproportionately strong
for most of the current expansion. (Managerial and professional
specialty occupations made up 30 percent of total employment
in 1999.) Professional specialty occupations accounted for the
majority of the growth in the managerial and professional spe­
cialty category in 1999. Notable employment gains occurred in
many professional occupations, including computer systems
analysts and computer scientists, schoolteachers, lawyers, and
social workers. Technical, sales, and administrative support oc­
cupations also showed strong growth in 1999, accounting for
two-fifths of total employment gains. (See table 4.)
For women, total employment grew by about 1.3 million in
1999. Nearly three-fifths of this net growth (780,000) was in
the managerial and professional specialty fields. Employment
growth in professional specialty occupations was slightly stron­
ger than in managerial occupations. Among the professional
occupations, female schoolteachers increased their numbers
rapidly. (Women accounted for the majority of growth in this
occupation.) Many women also found work in 1999 as regis­
tered nurses and social workers. Outside managerial and pro­
fessional specialty occupations, most of the remaining em­
ployment gains among women were in the technical, sales,
and administrative support occupations, particularly the lower
paying sales and administrative support jobs. However, for
every woman who found a job in these occupations, two found
a job in managerial and professional specialty occupations.
(See table 4 and chart 8.)
For men, employment expanded by about 640,000 over
the year, with the largest gains in technical, sales, and admin­
istrative support occupations (420,000). Technicians and re­
lated support occupations, which tend to pay more than sales
and administrative jobs, accounted for about half of these em­
ployment gains. Precision production, craft, and repair occu­
pations accounted for the second-largest employment increase
for men in 1999 (400,000), with most of the growth in con­
struction trades. Among men, professional specialty occupa­
tions grew by about 300,000, although employment in execu­

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

tive, administrative, and managerial occupations decreased.
Employment in managerial and professional specialty oc­
cupations grew particularly rapidly for blacks in 1999, increas­
ing by 8 percent, or 250,000. More than two-thirds of this
growth was in the professional specialty fields and was well
spread among the occupations. The number of blacks employed
as operators, fabricators, and laborers also grew noticeably
(140,000); much of the growth was among transportation and
material moving workers. For blacks, the managerial and pro­
fessional specialty and the operator, fabricator, and laborer oc­
cupations accounted for the majority of employment growth
in 1999. (See table 5 and chart 9.)
For whites, employment in managerial and professional
specialty occupations rose by about 610,000 in 1999, only
slightly more than in technical, sales, and administrative sup­
port occupations (550,000) and precision production, craft,
and repair occupations (540,000). Professional specialty jobs
accounted for the vast majority of gains in the managerial and
professional specialty group. Within the technical, sales, and
administrative support category, growth was strongest for tech­
nicians and salesworkers. Construction trades accounted for
nearly all of the employment gains in the precision produc­
tion, craft, and repair field.
For Hispanics, there was comparatively little employment
growth in managerial and professional specialty fields. Instead,
employment growth was spread out among the remaining oc­
cupational categories. The number of Hispanics working as
operators, fabricators, and laborers grew by about 230,000 in
1999, accounting for about two-fifths of the total employment
gains among Hispanics. Within this broad “blue-collar” cat­
egory, many Hispanics found jobs as handlers, equipment clean­
ers, helpers, and laborers. Precision production, craft, and re­
pair occupations— particularly the construction trades— and
technical, sales, and administrative support occupations— no­
tably administrative support— contributed about half of total
employment growth for Hispanics.

Demographic changes in the makeup o f the labor force can
affect various labor market indicators, including the unem­
ployment rate. Accordingly, it is im portant to take such
changes into account in making comparisons across years.
Among the demographic variables that can influence the un­
employment rate over time are the age and sex compositions
o f the labor force. A simple exercise reveals that the unem­
ployment rate would have been higher in 1999 had the com­
position o f the labor force by age been the same as in past
years (for example, 1969 and 1978).
In 1999, the average unemployment rate was 4.2 percent,22
the lowest annual rate since 1969, when the rate averaged 3.5
percent for the year. Given that the jobless rate was at its low­
est in 30 years, it is reasonable to ask whether major demo­
graphic changes over that period could be partly responsible
for the improvement in unemployment. Age is a particularly
Monthly Labor Review February 2000

17

The Job Market, 1999

important variable in this regard, because the unemployment
rates for young workers (aged 16 to 24 years) tend to be much
higher than those for older workers. For example, the unem­
ployment rates for workers in the 16-to-19- and 20-to-24-year
age groups were 13.9 percent and 7.5 percent, respectively, in
1999; these figures compare with an average unemployment
rate of 3.1 percent for workers aged 25 and older. Thus, a de­
crease in the percentage of young workers in the labor force
would exert downward pressure on the unemployment rate,23
all else remaining equal. Indeed, in 1999, persons aged 16 to
24 years made up about 16 percent of the labor force, the
lowest proportion since the late 1950s; in 1969 they accounted
for about 21 percent, and in 1978 the proportion o f these in­
dividuals peaked at more than 24 percent.24 If the age com­
position of the labor force in 1999 had been the same as in
1969, but each component age group retained its 1999 rate of
unemployment, the overall unemployment rate in 1999 would
have been about 0.4 percentage point higher. The unemploy­
ment rate would have been even higher— by about 0.7 per­
centage point— if the age composition in 1999 had been the
same as in 1978.
The composition of the labor force by sex also can influence
unemployment rates. This occurs when the unemployment rate
for one gender is higher than for the other. For example, in 1969,
the unemployment rate for women, 4.7 percent, was much higher
than that for men, 2.8 percent. As long as the jobless rate for
women was higher than that for men, the influx of women into
the job market—which was quite pronounced during the 1970s—
exerted upward pressure on the unemployment rate. However,
the unemployment rates for men and women have been quite
close for the past two decades, thus limiting the effects of the
Table 6.

changing composition of the labor force by sex.25

After accounting fo r inflation, median weekly earnings of
full-time wage and salary workers increased in 1999, mark­
ing the third consecutive year o f gains in real earnings. Earn­
ings increased slightly faster fo r women than fo r men. Earn­
ings rose fo r whites, blacks, and Hispanics, and there were
gains fo r adults o f all educational backgrounds.
Median26 usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and sal­
ary workers were $549 in 1999, up 5.0 percent from $523 in
1998.27 The earnings gain was greater than the 2.2-percent
rise in prices from 1998 to 1999, as measured by the Con­
sumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (cpi-u). In 1999,
median weekly earnings for men who usually work full time
were $618, compared with $473 for women. Earnings were up
for both men and women, but the gain was slightly larger for
women. The ratio of women’s to m en’s earnings thus edged up
slightly, to 76.5 percent.28 Over the course of the current ex­
pansion, the ratio has increased by 2.3 percentage points. Dur­
ing the previous expansion,29 the ratio of wom en’s to m en’s
earnings increased by 5.5 percentage points.
The continuing disparity in earnings between men and
women reflects many different factors, only some of which
are measurable. Variables include differences in educational
attainment, length of experience in the workforce, and discrimi­
nation. In addition, part of the pay difference reflects the oc­
cupational makeup of the groups. For example, although
women accounted for about half of total employment in mana­
gerial and professional specialty occupations in 1999, within
that broad group, they were less likely than men to work in
higher paying occupations. Men were more likely to be em-

Quartiles and selected deciles of usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by educational
attainment, annual averages, 1998-99
Upper limit o f Educational attainment

Number of
workers (in
thousands)

First decile

First quartile

Second
quartile
(m edian)

Third quartile

Ninth decile

1999

Total, 25 years and older..............................
Less than a high school diploma................
High school graduate, no college...............
Some college or associate’s degree..........
College graduates, total............................

86,352
8,459
27,314
23,949
26,630

$284
215
270
300
430

$393
267
349
404
607

$592
346
490
580
860

$872
494
688
798
1,243

$1,260
680
932
1,079
1,749

84,549
8,576
27,131
23,210
25,632

275
204
259
291
410

379
257
338
391
586

572
337
479
558
821

836
486
667
774
1,173

1,198
679
899
1,040
1,657

1998

Total, 25 years and older..............................
Less than a high school diploma................
High school graduate, no college...............
Some college or associate’s degree..........
College graduates, total............................

N o t e : Ten percent of all full-time wage and salary workers earn less
than the upper limit of the first decile; 25 percent earn less than the upper
limit of the first quartile; 50 percent earn less than the upper limit of the
second quartile, or median; 75 percent earn less than the upper limit of the

18 Monthly Labor Review February 2000

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third quartile; and 90 percent earn less than the upper limit of the ninth
decile.
S ource:

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Unemployment rates for regions and divisions, quarterly averages, seasonally adjusted, 1998-99
1999
Región and división

Fourth
quarter,
1998

First quarter

Second quarter

Third quarter

Fourth quarter

Northeast región.....................................................
New England división..........................................
Middle Atlantic división........................................

4.5
3.3
4.9

4.3
3.1
4.7

4.3
3.2
4.7

4.4
3.0
4.8

4.2
3.1
4.6

Midwest región.............................................. ........
East North Central división..................................
West North Central división.................................

3.6
3.9
3.0

3.4
3.7
2.7

3.6
3.9
2.9

3.5
3.8
3.0

3.4
3.7
2.6

South región...........................................................
South Atlantic división..........................................
East South Central división..................................
West South Central división.................................

4.3
3.9
4.3
4.9

4.2
3.8
4.3
4.7

4.1
3.7
4.2
4.6

4.0
3.7
4.1
4.4

4.0
3.7
4.2
4.4

West región............................................................
Mountain división................................................
Pacific división....................................................

5.3
4.2
5.7

5.1
3.9
5.6

5.0
4.2
5.4

4.8
4.1
5.1

4.6
3.9
4.9

S ource:

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Local Area Unemployment Statistics program.

ployed as engineers, mathematical and computer scientists,
lawyers and judges, and physicians— some of the highest paid
professional occupations. Women, on the other hand, were
more likely to be employed in the lower paid professional oc­
cupations, such as schoolteachers, social workers, and regis­
tered nurses. Women accounted for three-fifths of the total
employed in service occupations, which include some of the
lowest paid workers. In the higher paying blue-collar fields—
precision production, craft, and repair occupations— women
accounted for only 9 percent of the employed.
Among the m ajor racial and ethnic groups, median weekly
earnings rose by 5.1 percent for whites in 1999, to $573. Earn­
ings rose by 4.5 percent for blacks, to $445, and by 4.1 per­
cent for Hispanics, to $385. Differences in educational attain­
ment, age, and experience— as well as discrimination in the
workplace— are but a few of the possible reasons for varia­
tions in earnings between minorities and whites. As with men
and women, the pay difference also reflects the occupational
makeup of the groups. For example, in 1999, only 12 percent
of whites were employed in the relatively low-paying service
occupations, while 22 percent of blacks and 20 percent of His­
panics were employed in those occupations. Thirty-one per­
cent of whites were employed in the managerial and profes­
sional specialty occupations, in which pay is relatively high;
the corresponding figures were 21 percent for blacks and 15
percent for Hispanics.
M edian weekly earnings increased for workers in all four
major educational groups in 1999. However, median weekly
earnings for those with a college degree increased the most,
rising by 4.8 percent over the year, to $860. Earnings for per­
sons with some college experience or an associate’s degree
increased by 3.9 percent, to $580, while earnings for persons
with a high school diploma increased by 2.3 percent, to $490,

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and earnings for those with less than a high school diploma
increased by 2.7 percent, to $346. (See table 6.)
For the 3rd consecutive year, earnings for the lowest paid
workers in all education groups increased. For persons with
less than a high school diploma, earnings at the upper limit of
the first decile30 increased 5.4 percent, to $215.31 Earnings at
the upper limit of the first decile increased 4.2 percent for
workers with a high school education, 3.1 percent for those
with some college or an associate’s degree, and 4.9 percent
for college graduates.
The highest paid workers within most educational groups
also saw earnings gains in 1999. The fastest earnings growth
occurred for those with a college degree; earnings at the ninth
decile increased by 5.6 percent for this group. Earnings at the
ninth decile increased by 3.8 percent for those with some col­
lege or an associate’s degree and by 3.7 percent for high school
graduates. Weekly earnings at the ninth decile were essentially
unchanged for workers with less than a high school education.

With the unemployment rate remaining at low levels in 1999
and employment continuing to increase, many economists
began looking closelyfo r signs o f tightness in the labor mar­
ket. Some concern arose as to whether the supply o f workers
would be adequate to meet demand. When employment growth
did not result in marked earnings pressure, questions were
raised regarding where the increase in workers came from
over the year. The c p s is able to provide information that can
be used, in a limited way, as a measure o f the potential sup­
ply o f workers. It is also able to show, to some degree, where
the newly employed came from in 1999.
One widely used indicator of the potential supply of work­
ers is the number of persons outside of the labor force who
indicate that they currently want a job. In 1999, an average of
Monthly Labor Review February 2000

19

The Job Market, 1999

Chart 9.

O v e r-th e-year em ploym ent growth, by occupation and race or Hispanic origin,
fourth quarter, 1998-99

Farm ing, forestry,
and fishing

O perators, fabricators,
and laborers

Precision production,
craft, and repair

Service occupations

Technical, sales, and
adm inistrative support
M anagerial and
professional specialty

-400

-200

200

600

400

800

E m ploym ent grow th

SOURCE:

Chart 10.

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Persons not in the labor force, annual a verag e , 1999

Marginally attached workers
(

1, 201 , 000)

}

Persons not in the
labor force who "want
a job"
(4,568,000)

Discouraged workers
(273,000)

N o t e : Persons not in the labor force who “want a job” are neither working nor currently looking for work, but have simply expressed a
desire for a job. Marginally attached workers are persons who are not in the labor force, who want and are available for a job, and who have
looked for work sometime in the past 12 months (or since the end of their last job if they held one within the past 12 months), but are not
currently looking. Discouraged workers are a subset of the marginally attached who are not currently looking for work because they believe
that no jobs are available or that there are none for which they would qualify.
S o u r c e : Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Siurvey.


20 Monthly Labor Review February 2000
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4.6 million persons who were not in the labor force reported
that they indeed wanted a job.32 O f these workers, 1.2 million
reported that they actually searched for work within the past
12 months and were available to take a job if one were of­
fered. (This group is often referred to as those who are “mar­
ginally attached” to the labor force.) Among marginally at­
tached workers, 273,000 had looked for work in the previous
12 months, but were not currently looking,33 because they be­
lieved that no jobs were available for them or that there were
none for which they would qualify. (This group is known as
discouraged workers.)34 (See chart 10.)
Since 1994,35 the number of persons outside the labor force
who want a job has declined by 27 percent. The number who
were currently available, and actually looked, for work within
12 months of being surveyed fell by 34 percent over the period.
The count of discouraged workers declined even more dramati­
cally, by 45 percent between 1994 and 1999. These numbers
suggest that there may have been significant movement into the
labor force by those previously not participating.
The labor market is very dynamic, with changes in employ­
ment reflecting both changes in population and changes in the
proportion of the population that is employed; the latter are
largely tied to the performance of the economy. From 1998 to
1999, the civilian noninstitutional population increased by 2.2
million, and employment grew by about 2.0 million. Approxi­
mately three-fourths of net employment growth can be attrib­
uted to the growth in population. That is, if the proportion of
the population employed had not changed, employment still
would have increased by about 1.4 million. However, the per­
cent of the population with jobs increased slightly, and that
increase accounted for the balance (about 550,000, or onefourth) of the total change in employment. The rise in the em­
ployment-population ratio reflected net declines in the pro­
portions of the population who were unemployed or not in the
labor force, but who wanted a job.36

Strong job growth continued in the West and South, while
already tight labor markets in the Midwest tightened even
further?1 The decline in unemployment was widespread, with
many States enjoying their lowest unemployment rates on
record?8
Unemployment. All four regions had lower unemployment
rates in 1999 than a year earlier. (See table 7.) The West, where
the rate declined rather steadily all year, registered the largest
decrease, -0 .7 percentage point. Despite this improvement,
the West had the highest jobless rate, 4.6 percent, for the eighth
consecutive year. The Midwest had the lowest rate (3.4 per­
cent), as it has in the fourth quarter of every year this decade.
At year’s end, three regions had unemployment rates at his­
torical lows. The exception was the Northeast, where the rate
was only slightly above the 4.0 percent recorded during three


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different quarters in 1988-89.
All nine geographic divisions experienced at least small
unemployment rate declines in 1999. The largest decreases
occurred in the Pacific (-0.8 percentage point) and West South
Central (-0.5 percentage point) divisions. The West North Cen­
tral registered the lowest jobless rate (2.6 percent) among all
divisions for the 10th straight year, while the Pacific division
reported the highest rate (4.9 percent) for the 8th year in a row.
Only the Middle Atlantic division failed to equal or better its
historical low unemployment rate during some quarter of 1999.
Two-thirds of the States, including all those in the East North
Central and East South Central divisions, established new low
monthly unemployment rates in 1999.
Employment. Nonfarm payroll employment increased in all
four census regions in 1999, with the most rapid expansions
occurring in the West (2.5 percent) and South (2.2 percent).
The Midwest, with its continuing low unemployment rate, high
labor force participation rate, and high multiple-jobholding
rate, had the slowest rate of increase (0.8 percent). Labor short­
ages may have curtailed job growth in this region. Among the
nine geographic divisions, gains ranged from 0.7 percent in
the East North Central to 2.7 percent in the Mountain division.
The South Atlantic (2.6 percent), Pacific (2.4 percent), and
West South Central (2.3 percent) divisions also had aboveaverage growth rates. The following tabulation lists nonfarm
payroll employment growth in 1999 (in thousands):
Region

Number

West....................
South..................
Northeast............
Midwest..............

673
996
357
254

Percent

2.5
2.2
1.5
.8

In all major industries, except mining and manufacturing,
every geographic region and division posted net job growth in
1999. In the two exceptions, the opposite was seen: widespread
declines across the United States. As in most recent years, serv­
ices accounted for the greatest number of new jobs in each
region and geographic division. Trade ranked second in job
creation in all regions and divisions. Meanwhile, construction
had the highest growth rate in three regions (most notably, the
West, at 6.4 percent) and in seven divisions. Both transporta­
tion and services grew at greater than a 3.0-percent pace in the
West and South.
T he labor market e n d e d the 20th century on a strong note.
Employment grew by about 2 percent in 1999, with more than
half of the growth in services; job gains were particularly robust
in industries that provided services to other businesses. Construc­
tion, the industry with the highest percentage of job growth, ben­
efited from the low interest rates that prevailed for much of the

Monthly Labor Review February 2000 21

The Job Market, 1999

year. Employment growth in retail trade, which was slightly ahead
of that in 1998, was sustained by strong consumer spending. Al­
though employment declined in manufacturing, the rate of de­
crease slowed in the second half of the year.
Adult women accounted for a disproportionately large share
of employment growth in 1999, and the employment-population
ratio for adult women reached a record high. Employment grew

faster for minority workers than for whites over the year; em­
ployment growth was the fastest for Hispanics. Overall, almost
half of employment growth was in managerial and professional
specialty occupations. The unemployment rate ended the year at
4.1 percent, the lowest level in 30 years; workers of all major
demographic groups shared in the improvement, as did the four
regions of the United States.
□

Notes
A cknowledgments: The authors thank Kenneth LeVasseur a senior
econom ist in the D ivision o f Local Area Unemployment Statistics, for his
analysis o f regional employment and unemployment. Thanks also go to
Cynthia Engel, an econom ist formerly in the D ivision o f Monthly Industry
Employment Statistics, for her contributions to this article.
1 See box on page 4 for an explanation o f conceptual differences be­
tween the two surveys.
2 “Surveys find more employers relying on staffing firms,” Staffing
In d u stry R e v ie w , May/June 1998, p. 42.

3 See ‘“ Just in T im e’ Inventories and Labor: a Study o f Two Industries,
1990-1998,” R e p o rt on the A m erica n W orkforce (U.S. Department o f La­
bor, 1999).
4 Manpower, Inc., “No R elief o f Labor-Shortage in New Year,” E m ­
p lo y m e n t O u tlo o k S u rv e y , N ov. 22, 1999; on the Internet at http://
www.manpower.com/news/lQOO.htm (visited December 1999).
5 The Conference Board, “The Conference Board’s Consumer Confidence
C lim b s,” press release, N ov. 30, 1999; on the Internet at http://

www.conference-board.org/products/frames.cfm?main=c-consumer.cfm
(visited December 1999).
6 Federal Reserve Board, B e ig e B o o k Sum m ary, Sept. 22, 1999, D e­
cem ber 1999; on the Internet at http://www.bog.frb.fed.us/fomc/

BeigeBook/1999/19990922/default.htm.
7 The Consumer Price Index for personal computers and peripheral
equipment declined from 78.2 in 1998 to 53.5 in 1999.
8 International Data Corporation, “ idc Forecasts Healthy Worldwide
1999 pc Demand with 17% Unit Growth Over q4 1998— Consumer
Demand Offsets Quake and y2 k,” Dec. 7, 1999; on the Internet at http://
q4

www.idc.com/Data/Personal/content/PS120799PR.htm.
9 “Housing Opportunity Index Hits Record High in This Year’s First
Quarter,” June 17, 1999; on the Internet at http://www.nahb.org/news/
hoiqtrl.htm. (no longer accessible). The index, computed from 524,324
closings o f new and existing homes in 181 markets, was the highest since
the National Association o f Home Builders began tabulating it in 1992.
Through the first quarter, families earning the median U.S. household in­
com e o f $47,800 could afford to buy an unprecedented 69.6 percent of
homes sold nationwide.
10 Shortages o f skilled labor, wallboard, brick, and insulation were reported
by the National Association o f Home Builders, and shortages o f labor were
also cited in various “Beige Book” reports by the Federal Reserve.
11 Total orders were up 8.4 percent over the year. (See S u rvey o f C u r­
rent B u siness, August 1999 results, published Oct. 8, 1999.)
12 Bureau o f Labor Statistics, Producer Price Index. The index for fuel has
caught up to 1997 levels, but prices o f most other commodities have not.
13 See “Counting the Counters,” this issue, pp. 24-29.
14 Effective with data for January 1999, revised population controls
were introduced into the cps. The revised controls resulted in an increase of
307,000 in the estimated size o f the civilian noninstitutional population
aged 16 and older. They also increased the estimated size o f the civilian
labor force and o f employment by about 60,000 each, with more substan­
tial, but offsetting, changes among population subgroups. Over-the-year


22 Monthly Labor Review February 2000
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changes in this article, which are generally based on fourth-quarter-1998
to fourth-quarter-1999 comparisons, have been adjusted for the effects o f
these revised population controls, unless otherwise noted.
15 The National Bureau o f Econom ic Research determined that the
trough o f the recession in the early 1990s occurred in March 1991; hence,
the expansion o f the 1990s officially began in that month and year. H ow­
ever, it should be noted that many labor market indicators showed weak­
ness w ell into 1992. The unemployment rate, for example, did not peak
until June 1992.
16 Over-the-year changes for women maintaining families were not ad­
justed for revised population controls because adjustment factors were not
available for the group.
17 The figure for 1979 was taken from the October 1979 supplement to
the cps , from which information is obtained on school enrollment for teen­
agers. The figure for October 1999 is from data on school enrollment ob­
tained in the basic c p s . October data are used because schools are usually
in session that month.
18 Historical data on unemployment are available beginning in 1954
for whites, 1972 for blacks, and 1973 for Hispanics.
19 Over-the-year changes in employment status by educational attain­
ment have not been adjusted to reflect revised population controls because
adjustment factors were not available.
20 Data on educational attainment for years prior to 1992 are not strictly
comparable to data for 1992 and later years because o f survey changes.
Prior to 1992, the respondents were asked how many years o f school they
had completed. Beginning in 1992, respondents were asked instead about
the highest degree they had obtained.
21 Over-the-year changes in this part o f the article were not adjusted for
revised population controls because adjustment factors were available nei­
ther for employment by race or Hispanic origin crossed by occupation nor
by detailed occupation alone.
22 In this part o f the article, all data are annual averages.
23 The concept of a changing age distribution affecting unemployment
rates has been considered on numerous occasions in the literature over the
years; among the more recent contributions is an article by Lawrence F.
Katz and Alan B. Krueger (“The High-pressure U.S. Labor Market o f the
1990s,” Working Paper #416 (Princeton, nj, Princeton University, Indus­
trial Relations Section, May 1999)), who found that the unemployment
rate in 1998 would have been about 5.2 percent (as opposed to the official
rate o f 4.5 percent) if the age composition o f the labor force had been the
same as the average over the 1960-98 period.
24 The year 1969 was chosen as a point o f comparison because the
unemployment rate in 1999 was the lowest since 1969, on an annual-aver­
age basis. The year 1978 was chosen as another point because in that year
the proportion o f young people in the labor force was the highest o f all
years over the 1948-99 period.
25 O f course, age and sex are not the only variables that can exert an
influence on unemployment rates. Other factors may be race and educa­
tional attainment. A more indepth analysis would simultaneously take into
account a wide range o f variables affecting unemployment.
26 The m edian (or upper limit o f the second quartile) is the amount that

divides a given earnings distribution into two equal groups, one having earn­
ings above the median and the other having earnings below the median.
27 The data presented in this part o f the article are annual averages, and
changes are based on a comparison o f 1998 and 1999 figures. Over-theyear changes in median weekly earnings were not adjusted for revised popu­
lation controls because adjustment factors were not available.
28 This aggregate ratio does not control for differences in many vari­
ables that may affect earnings. For more information on trends in the earn­
ings o f wom en, see Mary Bowler, “W om en’s earnings: an overview ,”
M on th ly L a b o r R e view , December 1999, pp. 13-21.
29 The National Bureau of Economic Research (nber) determined that No­
vember 1982 was the trough of the 1981-82 recession and that the ensuing
expansion peaked in July 1990. The nber designated March 1991 as the trough
o f the 1990-91 recession. In this part of the article, the 1982-89 period is used
to represent the expansion of the 1980s and the 1992-99 period is used for the
expansion o f the 1990s, because the cyclical low points in median weekly
earnings prior to the two expansions (in constant dollars, using the cpi-u and
cpi-u-x I) occurred in 1981 and 1991, respectively.
30 At the upper limit o f the f ir s t d e c ile , 90 percent o f workers have
higher earnings, and 10 percent have lower earnings, than that limit. At the
upper limit o f the ninth d e c ile , 90 percent o f workers have lower earnings
than that limit.
31 In the case o f over-the-year earnings growth by educational attain­
ment, the trends exhibited by the first decile are consistent with the ob­
served trends at the first quartile. Likewise, the trends shown by the ninth
decile are consistent with those at the third quartile. At the upper limit of
the f ir s t q u a rtile , 75 percent o f workers have higher earnings, and 25 per­
cent have lower earnings, than that limit. At the upper limit o f the third
q u a rtile, 25 percent o f workers have higher earnings than the limit.
32 The data in this part o f the article are annual averages.
33 C u rren tly lo o k in g refers to job search activity conducted within the
4 weeks preceding the survey. Had these persons been looking within that
period, they would have been counted as u n em p lo yed rather than n ot in the
la b o r fo r c e .

34 An analysis o f data on persons not in the labor force, but who indi­
cate that they want a job, reveals that their labor market attachment is
generally weak. Specifically, Monica Castillo (“Persons outside the labor


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force who want a job,” M on th ly L a b o r R e view , July 1998, pp. 3 4 -4 2 ) found
that only 41 percent o f persons not in the labor force in 1994 who said they
wanted a job were actually in the labor force a year later. The percentage
was slightly higher for marginally attached workers (48 percent). For dis­
couraged workers, 45 percent were in the labor force in 1995.
35 In 1994, a redesigned cps was introduced in which some o f the cat­
egories o f persons not in the labor force were subject to major changes in
definition. As a result, historical comparisons for these categories are pos­
sible only back to that year.
36 To calculate the change in employment that is due to population growth,
the employment-population ratio for the first period is applied to the popula­
tion for the second, and the employment level that is derived is compared
with the employment level for the first period. To calculate the change in
employment due to shifts in the proportion o f the population among the sepa­
rate labor force categories, the change in the ratios for the other labor force
categories is divided by the change in the employment-population ratio, and
the change in employment not due to population growth is multiplied by the
resulting distribution. The change that results is the net change between la­
bor force categories, not the gross flows between categories.
37 Estimates o f both nonfarm employment and the labor force are the
sum of State estimates and are not intended to add to national totals. In addi­
tion, both series are subject to revision resulting from reestimation and up­
dated seasonal adjustment effective with the release o f January 2000 data.
The four regions and nine divisions are composed of the following States
and the District o f Columbia: northeast: N ew E n glan d division —Connecti­
cut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont; M iddle
A tlan tic division —New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania; south: South A t­
lan tic division —Delaware, District o f Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Mary­
land, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia; E a st South
C entral division —Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, Tennessee; W est South
C en tral division —Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas; midwest: E ast
N orth C entral division —Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin; W est
N orth C entral division —Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North
Dakota, South Dakota; west: M ountain division —Arizona, Colorado, Idaho,
Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, Wyoming; P acific division —Alaska,
California, Hawaii, Oregon, Washington.
38 Monthly data for the West region, Pacific division, and California be­
gin in 1980; the other regional, divisional, and State series begin in 1978.

Monthly Labor Review February 2000 23

Counting the Counters

Counting the counters: effects
of Census 2000 on em ploym ent
In order to distinguish the underlying employment trends
from the effects o f Census 2000 hiring , the affected BLS
employment estimates must he adjusted in each o f the months
in which intermittent census employees are hired
Laura A. Kelter

nce every 10 years, the U.S. Bureau of
the Census undertakes the constitution­
ally mandated Census of Population and
Housing for apportioning of the House of Repre­
sentatives. This decennial census is designed to
collect demographic data about all persons living
in the United States, Puerto Rico and the island
areas.1 In addition to Congressional redistrict­
ing, census figures are used for redistricting State
legislatures and for distributing Federal funds for
schools, housing assistance, highway construc­
tion, and programs for the elderly.2 Because of its
magnitude, the decennial census requires years
of planning and thousands of employees to ac­
complish. For this reason, employment levels in
the Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Employ­
ment Statistics (CES) survey, particularly in cer­
tain industries, are affected— both in the actual
year in which the census is conducted and, to a
lesser degree, up to 21 months prior to the cen­
sus. Hiring for the census is reflected in data for
Federal Government, as well as in the aggregate,
to ta l n o n farm e m p lo y m e n t.3 D etailing the
amount of census effect within the CES data is
essential to understanding the underlying em ­
ployment trends in the affected industries.

O

Historical overview
Laura A. Kelter is an
economist in the Division
of Monthly Industry
Employment Statistics,
Bureau of Labor
Statistics.

From its level at the end of the year prior to the
census to its peak level during the census year,
employment increases ranged from almost 125,000
during the 1970 census to nearly 370,000 during
the 1990 census. (See chart 1.) During each of the
last four decennial censuses, Federal em ploy­


24
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February 2000

ment spiked between March and May of the cen­
sus year, corresponding w ith hiring for the
Nonresponse Followup portion of the census,
which was conducted from April through July.
In addition, prior to the census year, relatively
small temporary increases in employment oc­
cur as workers are hired by the Bureau of the
Census for “Address L ist” developm ent and
Preparation Field Operations.
In order to analyze the underlying employment
trends in estimates affected by the decennial cen­
suses, the affected CES employment series must be
adjusted for each of the months in which intermit­
tent census employees were hired. An example from
the 1990 census helps illustrate this point. Prior
to adjustment, Federal employment shows a sharp
spike of growth in May and then a corresponding
quick downturn 2 months later. (See chart 2.) Con­
versely, after adjusting for the temporary census
workers, employment rem ained basically un­
changed during the first half of the census year; it
began to decline slightly in August, as the Nation
entered the 1990-91 recession.
Similarly, prior to adjustment for the tempo­
rary census workers, total nonfarm employment
peaked in May 1990 before declining sharply.
(See chart 3.) After adjusting for the census
workers, however, the increase in employment
and the subsequent decline were more modest.

Analysis of Census 2000 data
Hiring for the Census 2000 began in February
1998, but its effects did not become noticeable
in the overall employment counts until August

Chart 1,

Employment in Federal Governm ent, 1958-99, seasonally adjusted

Thousands

Thousands

2,800

2,600

2,400

2,200

2,000

1,800

1,600

1,400

Chart 2.

Employment in Federal G overnm ent, including an d excluding Census 2000 workers,
January 1989 to D ecem ber 1990, seasonally adjusted

T hou san ds


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T housands

2,600

2,500

2,400

2,300

2,200

2,100

2,000

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

25

Counting the Counters

Chart 3.

Total nonfarm em ploym ent, including and excluding Census 2000 workers,
January 1989 to D ecem ber 1990, seasonally adjusted
T housands

T housands

112,000

111,000

110,000

109,000

108,000

107,000

106,000

Chart 4.

Employment of Census 2000 workers an d phases of census, O ctober 1997
to D ecem ber 1999

Thousands

T housands

50,000

40,000

30,000

20,000

10,000

January
1998

April
1998


26 Monthly Labor Review
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July
1998

February 2000

October
1998

January
1999

April
1999

July
1999

October
1999

0

Chart 5.

Employment in Federal G overnm ent, including and excluding Census 2000 workers,
January 1998 to D ecem b er 1999, seasonally adjusted
T housands

T hou san ds

1,870
1,860
1,850
1,840
1,830
1,820
1,810
1,800
1,790
1,780
1,770
1,760
1,750

Chart 6.

Decennial census workers as percent of population, 1960-2000

Percent

Percent

1960


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1970

1980

1990

Monthly Labor Review

2000

February 2000

27

Counting the Counters

1998, w hen the level of census enum erators grew by more
than 12,000 w orkers over the m onth. (See chart 4.) This
was the beginning of the agency’s A ddress Listing phase
o f the census. Through A ddress Listing, the Bureau of
the Census develops an address list for areas with non­
city-style addresses, such as rural routes and box num ­
bers. A ddress Listing allows census w orkers to docum ent,
on census m aps, the street address or com parable loca­
tion, the m ailing address if different from the street ad­
dress, and the census block location of all living quarters
in the U nited States, Puerto Rico, and the island areas. In
areas with non-city-style addresses, census w orkers can­
vassed assigned areas door-to-door, identifying each m ail­
ing address and describing its physical location. E m ploy­
m ent during A ddress L isting peaked in N ovem ber 1999 at
a level o f m ore than 41,000 jobs; the level then dropped
back down to around 20,000 jobs in December.
Following Address Listing, the Bureau of the Census be­
gan its Block Canvassing phase for city-style areas with street
and number addresses (about 94 million addresses.) In this
phase, employees covered 100 percent of the ground, knock­
ing on every third door. (In multiunit structures, all units were
visited.) Also during this phase, census workers verified ad­
dresses, asked if there were additional units at the address or
on the property, and inquired about surrounding addresses.
Employm ent during Block Canvassing reached a peak of
nearly 40,000 employees in February and March 1999 and then
rapidly declined to fewer than 8,000 employees by May.
Following Block Canvassing and progressing through the
end of 1999, the Bureau of the Census initiated its Local Up­
date o f Census Addresses (LU C A ) operation. During this
phase, local government officials were given an opportunity
to review and provide updates to the address list of housing
units, special places, and group quarters for their jurisdic­
tion, as well as to update census maps. To that end, the Accu­
racy and Coverage Evaluation Survey and the Special Place
Facility Questionnaire Operation were conducted. Employ­
ment of census workers reached a peak of approximately
18,000 workers during this phase.
Employment in Federal Government including the decen­
nial census workers declined by 43,000 jobs between Janu­
ary 1998 and December 1999. W hen the decennial census
workers are excluded, however, the industry declined at a
slightly faster rate— 58,000 jobs over the 2-year period.
Even though both series were at about the same employment
levels by December 1999, the hiring of Census 2000 work­
ers clearly masked a downward trend in Federal employment.
(See chart 5.) Decennial census workers averaged an addi­
tional 15,000 jobs per month during the period. Effects of
the census hiring during 1998 were too small to be noticed
at the total nonfarm employment level, with the exception of


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February 2000

the few peak months during Address Listing and Block Can­
vassing phases of the census. Most of the significant effects
will come in 2000.
During preliminary work for the 1990 census, the pattern
was similar, although not as dramatic during the early phases
of the census. The hiring of the 1990 decennial census work­
ers made employment in Federal Government appear to have
grown when actually it had remained basically unchanged.

Expectations for Census 2000
As the size of the population has increased, it has taken more
employees to conduct the census (See chart 6.) The Bureau
of the Census has stated that, to account for the anticipated
118 million housing units in the United States and a popula­
tion expected to reach 275 million people, more than half-amillion census takers and support personnel will be needed.
The temporary positions can last from as little as one day to
several weeks, and most census workers will fill two or three
of the more than 860,000 field positions needed to accom­
plish Census 2000.4
Forecasting its employment requirements has been diffi­
cult, for several reasons. First, the Supreme Court ruled in
January 1999 that the Bureau of the Census could not use
statistical sampling to supplement any count used to allocate
Congressional seats. Second, the most labor intensive field
operation, Nonresponse Followup, depends upon the actual
percentage of census forms returned by the U.S. public.
Significant hiring for Census 2000 is planned to begin in
March 2000 as preparations are made to conduct major field
operations. Following Census Day— April 1, 2000— and
continuing through early July, the agency will proceed into
its Nonresponse Followup operation, the most labor-inten­
sive field operation. Judging from the past, peak census em ­
ployment, as measured by the CES, should occur between
March and May 2000.5 Following peak employment, signifi­
cant layoffs should occur the following month and continue
through December 2000.
T h e c e s e m p l o y m e n t r e p o r t is a major coincident eco­
nomic indicator. It is important that analysts understand the
magnitude of Census 2000 hiring to distinguish underlying
employment trends from this special activity that occurs once
a decade. The most significant period of employment increases
and subsequent declines due to Census 2000 will occur be­
tween March and September 2000. Throughout the period,
the monthly BLS Employment Situation news release, which
publishes data from the CES and the Current Population Sur­
vey, will identify the impact of census workers on the employ­
ment estimates. Early in 2001, b l s will publish a detailed account
of the effects of Census 2000 on employment.
□

Notes
1 The island areas include the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam,
American Samoa, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
2 S ee C en su s 2 0 0 0 H om e P age, on the Internet at http://
www.census.gov/dmd/www/2khome.htm, accessed February 2000.
The C ensus 2 0 0 0 Hom e P age is part o f the o fficial Bureau o f the
Census website at http://www.census.gov.
3 Universe counts for Federal workers are provided to the ces survey
by the U nited States O ffice o f P ersonnel M anagem ent, O ffice o f
W orkforce Inform ation. The data reflect the number o f temporary


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decennial census workers receiving at least one paycheck during the
reference month. For the purpose o f this article, the series, "Federal
Government, excluding Postal Service," is used for Federal workers.
4 Census 2000 Hom e Page, on the Internet at http://
www.census.gov/dmd/www/2khome.htm, accessed February 2000.
5 A peak is reached in the month in which the em ploym ent trend
changes from positive to negative. For example, during the 1990 cen­
sus, em ploym ent in the series continued to expand through its peak
level in May before declining in June.

Erratum
In the article, “Industry output and employment projections to 2008,” by Allison
Thomson (Monthly Labor Review, November 1999), some data in tables 1,2, and 4 are
incorrect. Therefore, some quantitative comparisons in the article may be incorrect.
However, the qualitative analyses and conclusions remain unchanged. A revised
version is on the Internet at:

http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/mlrhome.htm
For a reprint of the article, contact mlr@bls.gov or James Franklin, Office of Employ­
ment Projections, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, DC 20212;, telephone:
202-691-5709.

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

29

Overtime Hours

Analyzing the recent upward
surge in overtim e hours
During the economic expansion o f the 1990s,
employers in manufacturing industries were more likely
than in previous recessions to increase overtime hours
among existing employees than to hire new workers

Ron L. Hetrick

lrom March 1991, the end of the last reces­
sion, to early 1997, average weekly over­
time in manufacturing increased by 1.6 hours,
reaching its highest level— 4.9 hours— since b l s
began publishing the series in 1956.1Overtime re­
mained at or near this high level over the next year,
retreating slightly by the end of 1998. These data
are from the b l s Current Employment Statistics
(CES) survey, a monthly survey of payroll, hours,
and earnings collected from a sample of more than
400,000 of the Nation’s employers. The CES pro­
gram defines overtime as hours for which premi­
ums were paid because they exceeded the number
of straight-time workday or workweek hours. Aver­
age overtime is computed by dividing the total num­
ber of overtime hours in a given industry by the
number of production workers in that industry, in­
cluding those that work no overtime at all.
Historically, average overtime has increased with
recoveries and fallen with recessions, with the level
never exceeding 4.1 hours. Average overtime fell from
3.7 to 3.3 hours during the 1990-91 recession, but the
current expansion has seen overtime reach an
unprecendented level. This article analyzes the strik­
ing growth in overtime from March 1991 to January
1998 and its relationship to employment

F

Overtime growth in the 1990s
Ron L. Hetrick is an
economist in the
Division of Monthly
Industry Employment
Statistics, Bureau of
Labor Statistics.

Following the 1990-91 recession, cyclical job loss
in manufacturing continued until mid-1993. Indeed,
after losing 683,000 jobs during the downturn, an­
other 400,000 manufacturing jobs were lost after
the recession officially ended in March 1991. Inter­

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February 2000

estingly, however, the cyclical trend in manufactur­
ing overtime hours turned around exactly the same
month that the recession ended. By the time that
manufacturing employment started its cyclical re­
covery in July 1993, average overtime had increased
from 3.3 to 4.1 hours. (See chart 1.) Overtime hours
continued to surge, reaching 4.8 hours in the last
quarter of 1994. Manufacturing employment ex­
panded until April 1995, adding a total of 541,000
jobs in a period of less than 2 years.
Average factory overtime fell by 0.6 hour in 1995.
In 1996, it started inching upwards again, while
employment in the industry experienced a mild
downward trend. By December of 1996, average
weekly overtime had reached 4.6 hours, after start­
ing the year at 4.2 hours. Employment also started
back on a growth trend early in 1996, but at a very
slow pace. By March 1997, overtime had reached a
record high of 4.9 hours— a level it sustained for
the next 2 months and then revisited at the end of
the year. In contrast, employment, while still grow­
ing, ended 1997 at a level nearly 700,000 lower than
its prerecession peak in March 1989.

Sources of overtime growth
Manufacturing’s record-setting increase in aver­
age weekly overtime is the result of two factors.
The first, as shown in table 1, is that, from March
1991 to January 1998, overtime increased in all
but one of the component industries in manufac­
turing. The increases ranged from a notable 3-hour
gain in transportation equipment to a relatively
slight increase of 0.6 hour in apparel products. As

Chart 1.

Employment and a v e ra g e w eekly overtim e hours in manufacturing, 1990-98,
seasonally adjusted

E m ploym ent
(in thousands)

the table illustrates, more than half of the 20 industries within
manufacturing had increases of at least 1 hour over the 199198 period. In fact, many of these industries had set records for
their overtime series by early 1997.2
Some specific industries made exceptional contributions
to the growth in overtime hours. Within transportation, for
example, overtime in the motor vehicle manufacturing indus­
try jumped by a remarkable 4.4 hours. Similarly, within primary
metals, overtime in iron and steel foundries grew by 3.7 hours,
and within industrial machinery and equipment, refrigeration
and service machinery overtime increased by 2.9 hours.3
The second factor driving the increase in overtime is that
the distribution o f employment in manufacturing was shifting
towards com ponent industries that were adding the most
overtime over the 1991-98 period. This effect can be quanti­
fied by dividing the industries in the table into two groups.
The 10 industries that had the greatest increase in overtime
after the recession together averaged 5.2 overtime hours,
which was 1.2 hours more than the average for the other 10
industries. At the same time, the 10 industries with the high­
est average overtime increase also had an accumulated in­
crease in production workers of 11.2 percent, while the bot­
tom 10 lost 4.7 percent of their production workers.
The combined effect of the growth in overtime in nearly
every industry and the employment increases in industries
with large gains in overtime can be seen in aggregate overtime


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O vertim e
Hours

(the product of production workers and average weekly over­
time hours). The top ten overtime gainers accounted for 68
percent of the total manufacturing aggregate overtime in Janu­
ary 1998, compared with 60 percent in March 1991.
Overtime hours also would increase if employment in in­
dustries with high overtime levels grew faster than employ­
ment in industries with lower levels of overtime. To determine
whether this was a factor, manufacturing overtime in 1998 was
computed using the employment distribution of March 1991.
The results showed that the shift in industry mix contributed
little to the increase in overtime, adding just 0.1 hour.

Substituting overtime for employment
Historically, both employment and overtime have increased
as the U.S. economy emerged from recessions, with overtime
gains generally occurring prior to the employment gains.
While this has remained the case since March 1991, employ­
ers appeared to rely more heavily on overtime in the current
expansion than on hiring new employees. This part of the
analysis focuses on overtime growth from the beginning of
the current recovery until overtime hours peaked 82 months
later, in January 1998, comparing it with employment growth
over the same period. The data are compared with two other
expansions that lasted at least 82 months. (See table 2.)
When the recoveries that began in March 1961 and Decem-

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

31

Overtime Hours

Table 1.
S IC

Industry

code

20-39
37
33
34
32
35
25
30
22
24
28
26
38
31
39
20
27
21
23
29

Change in overtime hours in manufacturing in­
dustries, March 1991-January 1998

Total, manufacturing.....
Transportation equipment....
Primary metal industries....
Fabricated metal products ..
Stone, clay, and glass
products.........................
Industrial machinery and
equipment......................
Furniture and fixtures........
Rubber and miscellaneous
plastics products...........
Textile mill products...........
Lumber and wood products .
Electronic and other
electrical equipment........
Chemicals and allied
products.........................
Paper and allied products....
Instruments and related
products.........................
Leather and leather
products.........................
Miscellaneous
manufacturing................
Food and kindred products .
Printing and publishing.......
Tobacco products..............
Apparel and other textile
products.........................
Petroleum and coal
products.........................

March
1991

January Level Percent
1998 change change

3.3
3.1
4.2
3.1

4.9
6.1
6.8
5.2

1.6
3.0
2.6
2.1

48.5
96.8
61.9
67.7

4.2

6.2

2.0

47.6

3.6
2.0

5,6
3,9

2,0
1.9

55.6
95.0

3.2
3.5
3.0

4.7
4.9
4.3

1.5
1.4
1.3

46.9
40.0
43.3

3.1

4.3

1.2

38.7

4.3
4.7

5.3
5.7

1.0
1.0

23.3
21.3

2.9

3.8

.9

31.0

1.6

2.5

.9

56.3

2.4
4.3
2.6
2.1

3,2
5.1
3.4
2.8

.8
.8
.8
.7

33.3
18.6
30.8
33.3

1.6

2.2

.6

37.5

6.1

6.1

.0

.0

These data are seasonally adjusted; only not seasonally adjusted
data for overtime are published on a monthly basis. Industries are listed in
descending order, beginning with the industry having the greatest change
over the period in the level of overtime and ending with the industry having
the least change in overtime.
N ote:

ber 1982 were 82 months old, they had added 3.5 million and 1.3
million manufacturing jobs, respectively. The peak levels of average
overtime associated with those recoveries were 4.1 hours in Febru­
ary through April 1966 and 4.0hours in February and April 1989. The
current recovery’s overtime gain of 1.6 hours is slightly below the
two previous recoveries; however, because the level at the onset of
the current expansion was significantly higher, the peak levels of the
two previous recoveries were superseded in less than 2 years. Even
with this record-setting strength in overtime, employment grew by
only 397,000, or just 17 percent of the average job growth in the two
earlier recoveries.
The implied substitution of overtime for hiring can be quantified
using full-time equivalents. Full-time equivalents are computed by
taking the aggregate overtime and dividing it by 40, the number of
hours in a standard workweek. For example, if 20 people worked 6
hours of overtime, the full-time equivalent of that overtime would be
3— that is, 3 extra production workers could have been hired rather
than existing workers accumulating 120 weekly overtime hours.
From March 1991 to January 1998, the number of production
workers in manufacturing increased by 601,000. Over the same
period, the full-time equivalent of the aggregate overtime change
32 Monthly Labor Review

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February 2000

in manufacturing was 571,000jobs. (See table 3.) That means that if
employers had hired new workers instead of increasing overtime,
nearly twice as many production workers would have been hired.
The table also shows where these workers would have been
hired. Transportation equipment, which includes auto and air­
craft assembly, had an overtime change valued at 107,000 full­
time equivalent jobs, or one-fifth of the total for all manufactur­
ing. Industrial machinery and fabricated metals also would have
accounted for a large portion of the hiring during this period.
Other industries with relatively large full-time equivalents in­
cluded rubber and plastics, electronics, and primary metals.
A common factor among the industries that added the most
overtime was a highly skilled workforce. The data suggest that
when the overall skill level among workers in an industry is
relatively high, firms tend to increase overtime during expan­
sions rather than hire new workers. Training highly skilled
workers is costly, especially if many of them may be laid off
during the next recession. For similar reasons, workers in some
highly skilled occupations are in short supply and thus may not
be available to the hiring establishment. The 10 industries
within manufacturing with the largest overtime gains since the
recession had more than 17 percent of their employment in
highly skilled positions; the comparable figure for the 10 in­
dustries with the least gains is 8 percent.4

Employment and overtime in 1998
After starting 1998 at the record-setting level of 4.9 hours, by
the end of the year, average weekly overtime in manufactur­
ing had fallen by 0.4 hour. (See table 4.) Meanwhile, em­
ployment in manufacturing declined by 238,000 over the
same period, as many export-sensitive industries reacted to
the economic crises then occurring in Southeast Asia, Rus­
sia, and Brazil. The industry groups with the largest aggre­
gate overtime declines in 1998 included specific (three-digit)
industries that were the most export-sensitive of all manufac­
turing industries, including computers, aerospace, semicon­
ductors, and household audio and video equipment.5 The 0.4hour reduction in manufacturing overtime is equal to 157,000
full-time equivalents— that is, had overtime not been reduced
Manufacturing peak overtime in selected
recoveries and employment growth after 82
months of expansion
Overtime hours
Start date

March 1961 .......
December 1982.
Average..........
March 1991 .......

Employment (in thousands)

Peak
level

Change

Level
change

Percent
change

Average
monthly
change

4.1
4.0
4.1
4.9

2.0
1.7
1.9
1.6

3,505
1,280
2,393
397

21.8
7.1
14.4
2,2

43
16
30
5

by 0.4 hour, employers would have had to lay off an additional
157,000 factory workers in 1998.
i n p r e v i o u s e x p a n s i o n s , manufacturing employers
in the 1990s were more likely to increase overtime hours among
existing employees than to hire new employees. Despite begin­
ning the current expansion at historically high levels, overtime
increased by nearly as many hours as in the earlier expansions
of the 1960s and 1980s, bringing the level to a record high (4.9
hours) by the end of 1997. From its low of 3.3 hours in March
1991, overtime increased by 48 percent. The gains in overtime
were spread throughout the manufacturing industry groups,
with the largest gains occurring in durable goods, especially
transportation equipment and primary metal industries.

U n l ik e

IQ y g Q

P roduction w o rker a n d fu ll-tim e e q u iva le n t
grow th in m anufacturing, M arch 1991 to
January 1998
[Numbers in thousands]
Production
worker
growth

Full-time
equivalent
growth1

Total manufacturing..............
Durable goods....................
Lumber and wood
products..........................
Furniture and fixtures.........
Stone, clay, and glass
products.........................
Primary metal industries....
Fabricated metal products ...
Industrial machinery and
equipment........................
Electronic and other
electrical equipment........
Transportation equipment....
Instruments and related
products.........................
Miscellaneous
manufacturing.................

601
722

571
443

1,172
1,165

115
47

30
22

145
69

36
13
146

26
38
71

62
51
217

178

86

264

85
141

39
107

124
248

-53

6

—47

14

6

20

Nondurable goods................
Food and kindred
products..........................
Tobacco products..............
Textile mill products...........
Apparel and other textile
products.........................
Paper and allied products ....
Printing and publishing.......
Chemicals and allied
products..........................
Petroleum and coal
products.........................
Rubber and miscellaneous
plastics products.............
Leather and leather
products.........................

-121

123

2

46
-4
-53

30
0
13

76
-4
-40

-187
5
-6

2
14
17

-185
19
11

-2

14

12

-11

-2

-13

126

39

165

-35

0

-35

Industry

Combined
total2

1Full-time equivalents are computed by taking the total number of overtime
hours and dividing it by 40, the number of hours in a standard workweek. This
analytical tool provides an estimate of the number of production workers that
could have been hired if employers had hired new workers instead of increas­
ing overtime.
2 This hypothetical total is obtained by combining the figures for actual
production worker growth over the period with those for full-time equivalents.
Thus, these figures represent the total number of production workers that
could have been hired had employers not increased overtime.


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Table 4.

Change in production workers, full-time
equivalents and overtime hours in selected
industries, 1997-98

[In thousands except for overtime]

Industry

Total, manufacturing................
Industrial machinery and
equipment.........................
Transportation equipment......
Electronic and other electrical
equipment.........................
Primary metal industries........
Fabricated metal products....

Change in
production
workers

Change in
full-time
equivalents

Change in
overtime
hours

-238

-157

-.4

-25
-40

-41
-34

-1.1

-50
-16
-11

-21
-1 4
-13

-.6
-.8
-.4

-.9

Note: Changes are calculated from December 1997 to December 1998,
using seasonally adjusted figures.

Meanwhile, employm ent in manufacturing grew quite
modestly during the 1990s expansion, increasing by about 4
percent from its trough in June 1993 to its peak in March
1998. Over comparable periods in the 1960s and 1980s, by
contrast, employment increased by 15 percent and 5 percent,
respectively. Largely as a result of economic crises abroad,
employment began to decline in early 1998, with losses con­
centrated in export-sensitive industries. But just as overtime
had substituted for job gains in the current expansion through
1997, it acted as a cushion against job loss in 1998. In fact,
had overtime not been reduced by 0.4 hour in 1998, instead of
a loss of nearly a quarter-million jobs in manufacturing, the
loss would have been closer to 400,000. Manufacturing em ­
ployment continued to decline in 1999, while overtime hours
held steady, rising slightly by the end of the year.

Notes

D

1 The "official" starting and ending dates o f recessions and expan­
sions are determined by the National Bureau o f Econom ic Research
(nber)— a private, nonprofit, nonpartisan research organization dedi­
cated to promoting a greater understanding of how the economy works.
nber identifies economic turning points— that is, dates when economic
activity turned in the opposite direction. For more information, see
nber's website, on the Internet at http://www.nber.org/, accessed Feb­
ruary 2000.
2 Industries are defined by the Standard Industrial Classification (sic)
system. The 20 component industries within manufacturing are those at the
two-digit sic level of aggregation. For more information on the sic system,
see S ta n d a rd In d u stria l C la ssific a tio n M anual, 1 9 8 7 (Washington, DC,
Office o f Management and Budget, 1987).
3 Overtime data for specific (three-digit) industries within transpor­
tation equipment, primary m etals, and industrial m achinery are not
seasonally adjusted. Therefore, to avoid seasonal fluctuations, over­
time hours are measured from December 1990 to December 1997.
4 Data from the bls 1996 O ccupational E m ploym ent S tatistics
program.. Highly skilled positions were defined as engineers, techni­
cians, scientists, and precision workers and assemblers.
5 This analysis is based on the percent o f employment tied to exports
in 1993; data are from the bls O ffice o f Employment Projections.

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

33

Interindustry w a g e differentials
patterns and possible sources
Data from the Occupational Employment Statistics survey
are used to investigate wage differences among industries
and reveal that occupations that are most closely related
to the primary mission o f the firm have the greatest differential

Jane Osburn

Jane Osburn is an
economist in the
Office of Employment
and Unemployment
Statistics, Bureau of
Labor Statistics.

o workers with similar skills in similar oc­
cupations receive similar wages across
industries? Differences in interindustry
wages have been widely documented over the
last two decades, and researchers continue to
discuss these differences. In particular, they seek
the sources of wage dispersion among individual
workers, employers, industries, and geographic
areas. Recent attempts to explore the role of par­
ticular technologies, including microprocessor
technologies, in wage dispersion has heightened
interest in this issue.1
This article examines interindustry wage dif­
ferentials, using data from the O ccupational
Em ploym ent Statistics (O ES) survey. The OES
classifies employment and wages of individuals
by detailed occupation and three-digit Standard
Industrial Classification (sic) industry.2 The OES
survey solicits employment and wage data for more
than 700 occupations in three-digit sic industries
using a sample of 1.2 million establishments.3
Estimates of occupational employment and wages
are developed for the Nation, individual States, and
metropolitan statistical areas, as well as Guam,
Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. This article
uses data from the 1996,1997, and 1998 surveys,
which when combined account for the total OES
sample. (Hereafter referred to as the 1998 OES
data.)4
The OES is useful for investigating wage differ­
ences among industries because its data provide
high levels of both occupational and industrial
detail. D ata by detailed occupation allow re-

D


34 Monthly Labor Review
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February 2000

searchers to examine wage differences among in­
dustries that hold constant a relatively detailed
description of individuals’ job tasks and duties.
Because several of the proposed explanations of
interindustry wage differentials have implications
for the types of tasks and duties that are expected
to be most closely associated with wage differ­
ences among industries, OES data have consider­
able potential to add to our understanding of this
issue.

Comparisons with other surveys
Most of the earlier (pre-1985) studies of wage dis­
persion among industries have used data ob­
tained from households, such as the data from
the Current Population Survey or those collected
from the decennial census. These data contain
information about workers’ occupation and in­
dustry of employment, in addition to information
about workers’ demographic characteristics such
as age, sex, work experience, and education level.5
Recently, more studies have used data that are
collected at the firm or establishment level. These
data contain relatively detailed information about
workers’ occupation, industry of employment,
and demographic characteristics.6
Wage data from alternative sources have dif­
ferent strengths. One key measure illustrates wage
differences across industries for workers with
similar levels of education and other “human capi­
tal” characteristics. Data obtained from house­
hold surveys that describe the demographic char-

acteristics of workers are used to measure the portion of the
difference in the wages of workers in similar occupations that
is attributable to average differences in the level of workers’
“human capital.” Wage differences among industries repre­
sent a problem for researchers because differences in the de­
mographic characteristics of workers in similar occupations
explain only a portion of the wage differences among indus­
tries. The demographic information collected by household
surveys is thus a very important strength of these data, rela­
tive to surveys that collect data classified by occupation and
industry alone.
The OES estimates of wage differences among industries
compare the wages of workers employed in the same detailed
occupations, without also controlling for demographic char­
acteristics. Controlling for detailed occupation holds the fol­
lowing factors constant: job-specific skills and tasks, differ­
ences among occupations in labor market power and condi­
tions, and systematic differences among occupations in the
wage setting practices of firms. Recent studies suggest that
data by detailed occupation and industry implicitly control
well for differences in demographic characteristics such as
age, education, and experience. In a 1992 study, David I. Levine
found that controls for standard human capital variables ex­
plained none of the wage variation among employers after
controlling for occupation. Earlier studies by Erica L. Groshen
and Jonathan Leonard produced similar findings.7
Data that control for detailed occupations are especially
appropriate for studying interindustry wage differentials be­
cause many of the theories that attempt to explain such differ­
entials suggest that the skills and tasks of certain jobs might
play an important role. For example, one explanation suggests
that wage premiums are paid in an effort to ameliorate work­
place problems, such as shirking, by increasing the cost of job
loss to the employee. Jobs for which the configuration of du­
ties and tasks are especially costly to monitor should, for this
reason, be paid higher premiums than those that are not as
expensive. Another explanation suggests a similar rationale
for paying wage premiums in the case of high job turnover.
Many jobs plagued by high rates of turnover often have in
common a set of particularly undesirable tasks or duties.8
Table 1 shows a sample of the oes data containing the
mean hourly wages o f a range of occupations in selected
industries. The size o f the wage differences among industries
for given occupations is striking. For exam ple, the wages of
general m anagers range from $17.40 in bow ling centers to
$44.89 in the industrial organic chem icals industry, and the
wages o f janito rs range from $6.69 in bow ling centers to
$16.36 in m otor vehicles and equipm ent manufacturing. For
m ost occupations, the table reveals a clear pattern o f higher
wages in industries near the top o f the table and lower
wages in industries at the bottom . H ow ever, this pattern is
not apparent for com puter program m ers, who appear to


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have sim ilar wages regardless of industry.
OES data provide an important tool for investigating inter­
industry wage differentials because they permit such wage
range analyses and other types of comparisons of wage char­
acteristics across detailed occupations. The OES data do, how­
ever, pose some limitations on the analysis of interindustry
wage differentials. For example, the survey provides informa­
tion for an unusually large number of distinct occupations,
but does not incorporate information on the scope and respon­
sibility of these jobs. To illustrate this limitation, we use the
occupation, “general manager.” It is likely that systematic differ­
ences exist in the responsibilities of general managers across
industries. For example, among other differences, managers in
bowling centers are more likely to be managers of relatively small
establishments, while managers in the petroleum refining indus­
tries are more likely to be corporate executives. Although the
lack of information on the scope and responsibility of certain
jobs is not a problem for most occupations across industries, it is
a problem for some occupations.9

Patterns of wage differentials
Interindustry wage differentials have largely remained a mys­
tery, although research dating back to 1950 has found that
industry affiliation accounts for a significant portion of wage
differentials after controlling for education, race, sex, and other
“human capital” characteristics of workers. The firms in some
industries pay both low skilled and high skilled workers wages
that are considerably above the average than those in other
industries.10
Most of what is known about wage differences among in­
dustries can be summarized in three basic facts:
• Industry wage differentials are amazingly uniform across
occupations. For example, janitors and managers, alike,
appear to receive similar wage differentials, depending on
the industry in which they work.
• Industry differentials have been remarkably stable over
time; wage differentials are largely unchanged from the
pattern of the 1950s.
• Industry wage differentials are positively associated with
industry characteristics including capital intensity, indus­
try concentration (based on a four-firm concentration ra­
tio11), profitability, unionization, and low percentages of
women.12
Industry wage differentials, calculated using 1998 OES wage
and employment data for selected three-digit sic industries are
shown in table 2. The industries selected include manufactur­
ing, trade, and service. Note that these industry wage differ­
entials were constructed from 1998 OES wage and employment
data using a method which takes into account the detailed

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

35

Industry Wage Differentials

1 Mean hourly wages of selected occupations in selected industries, 1998
O ccupation

SIC

Industry

General Accountants Com puter Secretaries
m anagers
programmers

Janitors

Machinery
mechanics

Truck
drivers

371
291
461
491
372
286
363
874

Motor vehicles and equipment manufacturing.............
Petroleum refining......................................................
Pipelines, except natural gas.....................................
Electric services........................................................
Aircraft and parts manufacturing................................
Industrial organic chemicals manufacturing................
Household appliances manufacturing..........................
Management and public relations services..................

$37.78
44.27
40.63
37.27
40.88
44.89
39.39
38.20

$23.36
22.65
23.06
22.42
23.58
24.35
18.94
20.54

$22.22
24.67
25.50
25.42
24.81
25.28
26.31
26.58

$14.24
15.65
14.09
14.60
15.18
15.20
12.47
13.39

$16.36
11.09
14.44
11.93
10.95
11.89
9.71
8.27

$18.44
20.25
20.81
18.26
19.02
15.72
14.80
17.34

$16.49
16.26
15.25
15.58
18.34
19.93
13.25
14.11

731
513
394
317
302
422
314
736

Advertising services..................................................
Apparel, piece goods, and notions wholesale.............
Toys and sporting goods manufacturing......................
Handbags and personal leather goods manufacturing...
Rubber and plastics footwear manufacturing...............
Public warehousing and storage services...................
Footwear, except rubber manufacturing......................
Personnel supply services.........................................

39.79
35.97
33.40
33.62
39.56
27.89
36.20
33.10

19.80
22.11
20.46
23.09
18.85
19.10
17.81
17.38

22.56
23.51
26.31
27.10
22.49
22.50
20.12
29.43

13.06
11.24
13.05
13.39
12.67
11.00
10.95
10.99

8.67
8.77
8.70
9.67
8.82
7.53
8.10
7.14

_
14.72
15.00

_
13.53
14.65

214
799
723
581
793
564
566

Tobacco stemming and redrying.................................
Miscellaneous amusement, recreation services..........
Beauty shops............................................................
Eating and drinking places.........................................
Bowling centers.........................................................
Children’s and infants’ wear stores.............................
Shoe stores..............................................................

39.61
22.47
18.12
20.07
17.40
19.08
18.83

17.81
16.21
15.46
17.15
14.13
20.15
16.98

13.93
23.41
20.07
25.37
14.08
25.82
23.91

13.29
10.31
9.55
10.59
8.73
12.47
10.90

7.07
7.51
7.03
6.78
6.69
7.61
6.81

N o te :

Dashes indicate data not available.

occupation of workers in addition to the detailed industry in
which the worker is employed. These categories correspond
to a total of 730 detailed occupations and 378 three-digit SIC
industries. The industry wage differentials examined in most
previous studies use demographic information, such as that
available from the Current Population Survey, which takes into
account a w orker’s “human capital” characteristics such as
education, job tenure, and sex, in addition to the detailed in­
dustry and occupation in which the worker is employed.13
The industry wage differential examined here is the employ­
ment-weighted average of the occupation-specific wage differ­
entials for each occupation in the industry. The occupation-spe­
cific wage differential is the ratio of the average wage of the
occupation in a particular industry to the average wage of the
occupation in some industry that is used as a base for compari­
son. The wage differential for each occupation in a given indus­
try is weighted by its share of the industry’s total employment.
The weighted wage differentials for each occupation in the in­
dustry are then summed to produce the average wage differen­
tial, or “all-occupation” wage differential, for the industry as a
whole.
All calculations in this article utilize data at the five-digit
36 Monthly Labor Review

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2000

-

-

16.40
14.47
13.84
14.51

13.12
13.56
12.95
12.82

12.17
14.22

10.30
12.08

-

8.09
9.86
16.39
15.20

-

8.39
12.62
12.43
13.55

occupation code level, the most detailed level of occupational
aggregation that is produced in the OES survey. In the cal­
culation for any given industry, occupations that have no
employment in the industry are excluded from the calculation,
as are occupations for which there is no employment in the
base industry. The miscellaneous plastics manufacturing in­
dustry, sic 308, is used as the base for the calculations in table
2. It was chosen as the base due to the large num ber of
occupations that are in this industry. O therw ise, the choice
of base industry is arbitrary. A ccuracy and consistency of
the calculations was assured by com paring the wage dif­
ferentials using the m iscellaneous plastics m anufacturing
industry as the base with the differentials using the w hole­
sale trade of m otor vehicles (sic 501) as the base. The
wholesale trade of m otor vehicles industry contains a large
num ber of occupations that are com m on to service sector
industries. The wage differentials in table 2 reflect an in­
dustry ranking that is the same, regardless of which indus­
try is used as a base for calculation.
Table 2 shows that the industry wage differential or “ all­
occupation” wage differential for m otor vehicles m anufac­
turing is 0.32. This m eans that, on average, the wages paid

any given occupation in the m otor vehicles m anufacturing
industry are 32 percent higher than those in the m iscella­
neous plastics manufacturing industry.
The 1998 OES wage and employment data confirm much
that is known about static differences among industries in the
level o f occupational pay. A striking feature of table 2 is the
magnitude o f interindustry wage differentials. Among the in­
dustries included in the table, the wages paid to given occu­
pations range from 32 percent above those of the miscella­
neous plastics m anufacturing industry in m otor vehicles
manufacturing to 72 percent below the wages of miscellaneous
plastics manufacturing in shoe stores. The data also accord
with existing knowledge about the industrial pattern of indus­
try wage differentials: most high wage industries are manu­
facturing industries, while lower wage industries tend to be
concentrated in the trade and services sectors. W ithin the
manufacturing sector, higher wage industries tend to be those
that are large, unionized, highly concentrated, and capital in­
tensive. These industries also tend to employ relatively few
women, and have low ratios of labor costs to total cost.
Also visible within the set o f industries included in table 2
is a divide between industries that have been more and less
affected by technological change and globalization of compe­
tition. As discussed by Michael Piore and Charles F. Sabel,
Thierry J. Noyelle, and recently by Ray Marshall, global compe­
tition and new technology have drastically altered the lines of
fragmentation among industries. While, in the decades follow­
ing World War II, employment and wage-setting policies were
clearly related to the degree of market sheltering enjoyed by the
industry, these policies were increasingly related to the competi­
tive strategy employed by firms during the 1980s and 1990s. In
industries such as bowling centers, shoe stores, and wood prod­
ucts manufacturing, most firms continue to employ a cost-cut­
ting strategy, and tend to have low wages, while in industries
including motor vehicles manufacturing, paperboard mills, and
business services, firms have largely shifted to a productivityincreasing strategy, and tend to have higher wages.14

photographers in selected industries relative to the average
wage of photographers in the department store industry.15
According to the chart, occupations in the m iscellaneous
amusement and recreation services industry, on average,
have a 1-percent higher wage than do sim ilar occupations
in the departm ent store industry. The average wage of pho­
tographers in this industry is 27 percent low er than the
average wage of photographers in the departm ent store
industry. By contrast, the wages of photographers w ork­
ing in the search, detection, and guidance instrum ents and
equipm ent m anufacturing industry are higher (39 percent),
relative to the average wage of photographers in the de­
partm ent store industry (24 percent) than is true of other
occupations in the industry. M uch of the higher earnings of
photographers working in the search, detection, and guid­
ance instrum ents and equipm ent m anufacturing industry,
as well as in the advertising industry, probably reflects the
Table 2. Industry wage differentials for selected
manufacturing and service industries, 1998

SIC

371
291
461
491
372
286
263
363
731
874
513
394
302
317

Causes of wage differentials
The causal connections between industry wage differentials and
industry characteristics such as capital intensity and industry
concentration are not fully understood. Wage differences be­
tween industries do, however, accord closely with some of the
well known causes of wage differences, such as skill level.
Skills. Some of the wage level differences among industries
are explained by differing levels of skill required of workers
employed in given occupations. Photographers are an example
of an occupation for which skill levels vary greatly among
industries. Chart 1 shows the all-occupation wage differen­
tials for selected industries along with the average wage of

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422
249
314
736
214
799
723
581
793
564
566

All-occupation
industry
wage differential
(base = sic 308)'

Industry

Motor vehicles and equipment
manufacturing..........................................
Petroleum refining.......................................
Pipelines, except natural ga s......................
Electric services.........................................
Aircraft and parts manufacturing.................
Industrial organic chemical manufacturing....
Paperboard mills.........................................
Household appliances manufacturing..........
Advertising services...................................
Management and public relations
services.................................................
Apparel, piece goods, and notions
wholesale................................................
Toys and sporting goods manufacturing.......
Rubber and plastics footwear
manufacturing..........................................
Handbags and personal leather goods
manufacturing.........................................
Public warehousing and storage services....
Miscellaneous wood products
manufacturing..........................................
Footwear, except rubber manufacturing.......
Personnel supply services..........................
Tobacco stemming and redrying...................
Miscellaneous amusement, recreation
services..................................................
Beauty shops.............................................
Eating and drinking places...........................
Bowling centers...........................................
Children’s and infants’ wear stores..............
Shoe stores...............................................

.32
.29
.27
.25
.23
.21
.21
.15
.05
.05
-.03
-.03
-.05
-.05
-.07
-.08
-.15
-.17
-.20
-.28
-.35
-.36
-.45
-.68
-.72

' Service sector industries include sics 400-899, and regulated, trade,
and service industries. Occupations not surveyed in the base industry are
excluded from the calculation.

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

37

Industry Wage Differentials

Chart 1. Industry wage differentials for photographers and for all occupations within selected industries,
compared with the department store industry, 1998
Percent
-80

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

80

|

111

_____________ re**!__ ■■■__

----- 1------1------T----- 1------T----- 1------T-----

Photographers in the specified industry,
compared with photographers in
department stores
All occupations in the specified industry,
compared with sim ilar occupations in
department stores

Portrait studios

Miscellaneous amusement
and recreation services

1

Advertising

Search, detection,
and guidance
instruments
and equipment
___ i___ 1___ i___ 1___ i___ 1___ i___ ___ i___ 1___ i___ 1___ i___ 1___ i___
-80

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

80

Percent

Note: This chart shows, for example, that the average wage of photographers in advertising is 34 percent higher than the average
wage of photographers in the department store industry, and the wages of occupations in advertising are on average 32 percent higher
than the wages of similar occupations in the department store industry.

higher skill requirem ents for jobs in these industries.16
Industry wage differentials remain a problem for research­
ers because only a portion of the differences in wage levels
among industries are explained by w orkers’ skill levels. A
sizable portion of the differences appears to be somehow re­
lated to industry characteristics including capital intensity,
profitability, unionization, and the percentage of female em­
ployment. A full discussion of theories attempting to explain
industry wage differentials is beyond the scope o f this article.

38 Monthly Labor Review
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February 2000

However, a brief review of the main explanations is offered
here to illustrate the potential usefulness of o e s data for the
study of this issue.17
At least partially accounting for the unexplained portion of
wage differences between industries, according to most re­
searchers, are workers’ skills that are not captured by the stan­
dard “human capital” measures of worker characteristics such
as age, sex, years of education, and work experience. Workers
certainly vary greatly by skill level in the way they negotiate,

persuade, or handle uncertainty, for example. However, few of
these skills are measured in the data currently available to
researchers. Theories emphasizing the importance of unmea­
sured skills suggest a variety of mechanisms by which indus­
try characteristics, such as capital intensity, affect both the
measured and unmeasured skills that are required of workers.
Because measured and unmeasured abilities are not perfectly
correlated, such theories would explain why measured skills
account for only a portion of industry wage differentials. The
portion of the wage differential that actually makes up pay­
ment to unmeasured worker characteristics appears to the ob­
server as an unexplained portion of the wage differential, or
one that is somehow due to industry affiliation alone.18
Job conditions. For many occupations within the manufac­
turing sector, another important source of wage variation is
the degree of workers’ exposure to unpleasant, risky, or haz­
ardous conditions on the job. Dangerous or risky working
conditions necessitate the payment of a compensating differ­
ential that brings the net benefits from work into line with
those enjoyed by individuals working under less hazardous
conditions.19 Welders, for example, receive a compensating
differential. Chart 2 shows the all-occupation wage differential
for selected industries, along with the average wage of weld­
ers in each industry, relative to the average wage of welders in
the miscellaneous plastics industry.20 The chart shows that
the wages of welders working in electric and petroleum-re­
lated industries are much higher, relative to the average wage
of welders in the miscellaneous plastics industry. This holds
true in comparisons with other occupations in these indus­
tries. Some of the higher earnings for welders can likely be
attributed to the danger of working close to highly combus­
tible materials. It also seems likely that some portion of these
higher earnings is actually a skill differential associated with
specialized skills and training that equip welders to work un­
der such conditions with maximum safety.
Efficiency wage theories. Some research suggests that certain
industries provide wage differentials to ameliorate workplace
problems, such as high rates of employee turnover, absentee­
ism, or shirking. Efficiency wage theories argue that higher wages
reduce the incidence of such problems, and thus increase pro­
ductivity, by increasing the effective cost of job loss to the em­
ployee. According to the efficiency wage argument, a portion of
the observed wage differentials between industries reflect differ­
ences in the costs of such problems, and thus in the wage pay­
ments that are made in an effort to deal with them.21
One variant of the efficiency wage approach suggests that
higher wages increase efficiency by insulating the internal
labor market of the firm from the external labor market. Above­
market wage rates may increase efficiency by eliminating the
need for frequent and costly adjustment of the firm ’s wage


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schedules, in response to fluctuations in the external labor
m arket. A nother argum ent suggests sim ilar savings for
multiplant firms that pay uniform above-market wages across
all plants regardless of location. Such a policy has the advan­
tage of increasing the firm ’s flexibility in transferring workers
between locations.22
Other explanations. Some other explanations of interindus­
try wage differentials represent a more dramatic departure from
the standard competitive assumptions of most economic theo­
rizing on this issue. Rent sharing models suggest that, under
certain conditions including the existence of a discretionary
margin of profits and worker bargaining power, firms choose
to pay workers wages above the competitive wage. The size of
the noncompetitive wage premium in given industries is af­
fected by the degree of worker bargaining power across the
occupational spectrum, the size of the profit margin, and the
degree of managerial altruism.23
Also representing a departure from the standard competitive
assumptions normally applied to this issue are sociological mod­
els, such as that proposed by G. Akerlof, which incorporate
elements from both the efficiency wage and rent sharing models.
Akerlof suggests that higher wages are a positive incentive for
work effort that affects workers’ subjective feelings about the
job, in addition to providing an economic reward. The now long
standing experience with the use of team production in most
industries has, indeed, convinced many that above average
wage rates improve group work norms by raising morale and
loyalty.24
Models of worker sorting suggest that individual employ­
ers consistently hire workers from a single quality stratum,
regardless of occupation. In this view, establishments tend to
hire only high, average, or low skill workers, depending on
factors that affect the competitive strategy of the firm, such as
the skill-sensitivity of the technology used.25 The theoretical
framework for such a divide between firms is provided by
Lawrence R. Klein, who argues that firms have only two
choices of how to compete: on the basis of cutting costs or on
the basis of improving productivity.26 The former strategy in­
volves the use of low-skilled workers who earn low wages,
and the high productivity strategy involves the use of higher
skilled workers who earn higher wages, along with a host of
other workplace innovations affecting work organization, or­
ganization structure, and culture.27 Worker sorting models
suggest that wage differences between industries partially re­
flect differences in technology and other factors that affect
worker sorting, and thus, the proportion of firms within indus­
tries that choose to pay high wages.28
Several recent studies have emphasized the role of tech­
nology in the worker sorting model. While the technologies
used in the services sector certainly vary among firms and
industries, some of the most basic differences are seen in the

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

39

Industry Wage Differentials

manufacturing sector, in which production processes are rela­
tively easily identifiable as either mass production, batch pro­
duction, or continuous process production. Shoshona Zuboff
and others argue that a dynamic similar to a sorting model
explanation may be especially important in explaining high
wages in the continuous process industries, in which the
characteristics of the production process tend to require a
high level of commitment, competence, and skill from most
workers.29 Recently, some economists have argued that the
sorting model also might apply in the case of alternative strat­
egies for employing microprocessor technologies in the work­

place. According to a study by Timothy F. Bresnahan, Erik
Brynjolfsson, and Lorin M. Hitt, alternative strategies that
employ microprocessor technologies in the workplace differ
in the degree to which decisionmakers recognize and are
guided by complementarities that exist when employing high
skilled workers, decentralized decisionmaking, and informa­
tion technology.30

Potential uses of

oes

data

The various explanations of industry wage differentials have

Chart 2. Industry wage differentials for welders in specified industries and for all occupations
within selected industries, compared with the miscellaneous plastics industry, 1998
Percent
-60

-40
r

J

-20
T

0

|

20

T

T

| Welders in the specified industry,
compared with welders in miscellaneous
plastics industry

HI

40

|

T

60

|------------ T------------

Furniture and homefurnishings
stores

All occupations in the specified industry,
compared with similar occupations in
miscellaneous plastics industry
Recreational vehicle dealers
1

Pipelines, except natural gas
I

Gas production and distribution
•/;

I

Electric services
..................
------------1_______ 1_______ i_______ 1_______ i_______ _______ i_______ i_______ i_______ i_______ i_______

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

Percent
Note: This chart shows, for example, that the average wage of welders in the pipelines industry is 55 percent higher than the average
wage of welders in the miscellaneous plastics industry, and the wages of occupations in the pipelines industry are on average 27
percent higher than the wages of similar occupations in the miscellaneous plastics industry

40 Monthly Labor Review

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differing implications for the wage characteristics that we
should expect to observe for particular occupations. These
explanations differ with respect to which occupations should
be most affected by industry characteristics such as capital
intensity, or which occupations should have wage differen­
tials of similar magnitude. While the theory of rent sharing
suggests that wage differentials should accrue relatively
evenly across differing types of occupations, explanations
that emphasize the role of unmeasured abilities suggest that
occupations requiring similar types of such unmeasured skills
should have wage differentials that are similar to each other.
Examples might include the negotiation skills of managers and
team leaders, the computer skills needed of clerical occupa­
tions, or the skill of certain production occupations that use
auditory cues to detect errors in the settings of a machine.
Three characteristics of the industry wage differentials of
detailed occupations provide useful information for under­
standing the causes of wage differences among the indus­
tries. The first characteristic is the association between the
industry wage differential of given detailed occupations and
the all-occupation average wage differential for the industry
as a whole. This analysis provides information about which
occupations contribute most strongly and consistently to the
overall industry effect. A clear pattern wherein the wages of
some occupations are more highly correlated with the all-oc­
cupation average wage differential would suggest that these
occupations are more strongly affected by one or more of the
industry-specific factors mentioned earlier. Any similarities in
the characteristics of these occupations would further pro­
vide important clues about the type of mechanism responsible
for the pattern. If, for example, the wages of occupations shar­
ing particular types of skills are more highly correlated with
the overall industry wage differential, this could suggest the
importance of skill-based explanations such as those empha­
sizing unmeasured abilities or efficiency wages. Alternatively,
a similar degree of correlation between the wages of a broad
array of occupations and the all-occupation differential would
suggest a rent sharing model or one emphasizing other socio­
logical considerations.
The second characteristic is the association between the in­
dustry wage differential of given detailed occupations and a
measure of capital intensity of the industry in which the occupa­
tion is employed. Because, as mentioned earlier, the pattern of
wage differences among industries is correlated with the degree
of industry capital intensity, information about which occupa­
tions appear to be most important in this relationship also should
help narrow the range of plausible explanations for wage differ­
ences.31 And, because capital intensity is a rough proxy for
production technology, a clear pattern whereby certain types of
occupations are more correlated with capital intensity would
seem to argue in favor of explanations emphasizing the role of
technology, such as the worker sorting model.


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The third characteristic is the degree of correlation between
the industry wage differentials of detailed occupations. Iden­
tification of groups of occupations for which the industry wage
effect is similar also should provide valuable information for
understanding this issue. A clear pattern of correlation among
the industry wage differentials of similar types of occupations
would seem to argue in favor of a skills-based explanation,
such as those emphasizing unmeasured abilities or efficiency
wages. A clear pattern whereby only certain groups of occu­
pations have highly correlated wage differentials could fur­
ther indicate the types of skills driving the pattern, and thereby
suggest particular efficiency wage or unmeasured skills expla­
nations. Alternatively, a similar degree of correlation between
occupations across broad occupational groups would sug­
gest a rent sharing or other sociological explanation.
The degree of association between the variables in all three
sets of analyses was measured using the Pearson product
moment coefficient of correlation (r).32 This statistic equals 1
(-1) for variables that positively (negatively) covary exactly,
and has a lesser magnitude for variables that only partially
covary.
Table 3 shows the correlations between the industry wage
differential of selected occupations and the all-occupation
wage differential for manufacturing and services combined
and for the manufacturing and services sectors separately.33
The pattern for the combined manufacturing and services sec­
tors shows a rather evenly high degree of correlation between
the wages of most occupations and the all-occupation indus­
try differential, with a few exceptions. Most highly correlated
with the all-occupation industry wage differential are occupa­
tions involved in coordination activities, including purchas­
ing managers, general managers, personnel, training, and la­
bor relations specialists, and clerical worker supervisors. Least
correlated with the all-occupation differential are engineering
managers, purchasing agents, systems analysts, computer
support specialists, plastic molding machine operators, and
machinists. These latter results appear to be driven by the low
correlations in the services sector between the wages of these
occupations and the all-occupation industry differential.
Within the services sector, most of the occupations having
the lowest correlation with the all-occupation wage differen­
tial are related to physical production activities, while those
having the highest correlation are occupations engaged in
coordination functions, including purchasing managers, gen­
eral managers, personnel, training and labor relations special­
ists, and clerical worker supervisors. Within the manufactur­
ing sector, occupations having the highest degree of correla­
tion with the all-occupation wage differential are occupations
that coordinate production activities, including industrial pro­
duction managers, personnel, training, and labor relations
specialists, supervisors of operators, and production inspec­
tors. Occupations having the lowest degree of correlation

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

41

Industry Wage Differentials

Table 3.

Correlation between the all-occupation
industry wage differential and the industry
wage differential of selected detailed
occupations, 1998

O ccupation

Services and
m anufacturing

Services

M anufacturing

Purchasing managers.......
Engineering managers.......
Industrial production
managers......................
General managers...........
Accountants and auditors..
Purchasing agents...........
Personnel, training, and
labor relations
specialists.....................

0.80
.21

0.75
(’)

0.69
.73

.35
.81
.73
.12

.26
.78
.68
(')

.84
.66
.72
.73

.79

.75

.80

Systems analysts............
Computer support
specialists.....................
Clerical worker
supervisors...................
Adjustment clerks............
Secretaries......................
Receptionists...................
Supervisors of mechanics
Supervisors of operators ...

.13

C)

.61

.40

.32

.45

.82
.79
.61
.74
.55
.64

.78
.75
.54
.71
.43
.59

.77
.52
.76
.51
.72
.79

Production inspectors.......
Machinery maintenance
mechanics.....................
Machinists........................
Plastic molding machine
operators.......................
Machine feeders..............
Truck drivers....................

.46

.43

.83

.59
.08

.52
.09

.70
.62

.34
.61
.48

(')
0
.43

.26
.69
.52

1 The calculation is not statistically significant at p = 0.1.
N o t e : Service sector industries include sics 400-899; regulated, trade,
and service industries.

with the all-occupation industry wage differential tend to be
non-production-related occupations, including com puter
support specialists, adjustment clerks, and receptionists.
Overall, the analyses in table 3 suggest that the occupa­
tions most strongly affected by factors resulting in wage dif­
ferentials among industries are those having duties and tasks
that are most closely related to the primary mission of the firm.
Systematic differences between industries in the wages paid
to the occupations most closely involved in the primary activ­
ity o f the firm are suggestive of attempts by the firms in some
industries to increase the productivity of these workers by
paying higher wages. These results seem to suggest the im­
portance of either the sociological version of the efficiency
wage explanation (suggested by G. Akerlof, which empha­
sizes the positive effect of higher wages on the morale and
productivity of workers) or a version of the sorting model.
Table 4 shows the correlations between the industry wage
differential of detailed occupations within the manufacturing
sector and a measure of capital intensity of the industry in
which the occupation is em ployed.34 The table shows that
occupations for which the wage differential is most highly
correlated with capital intensity include stock clerks, supervi­
42
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sors of operators and mechanics, machinists, machine forming
operators, production inspectors, and machinery maintenance
mechanics. Occupations having wages that are least corre­
lated with capital include engineering managers, purchasing
agents, secretaries, and computer support specialists These
patterns suggest that manufacturing sector occupations for
which wages are closely associated with capital intensity are
production occupations and occupations engaged in the co­
ordination of production activities.
The results of the analyses in table 4 are consistent with
those reported in table 3 for the manufacturing sector. They
further suggest, in the case of manufacturing industries, that
the relatively larger role of production occupations in account­
ing for interindustry wage differentials is related to the pro­
duction technology, for which capital intensity is a rough
proxy. The relatively high correlations between the wages of
skilled production workers and capital intensity suggest a
dynamic along the lines of a sorting model, in which factors
such as the production technology affect the proportion of
firms that choose to organize work in accordance with a high
wage strategy.
Tables 5 and 6 show the correlations between the industry
wage differentials of detailed occupations, produced sepa­
rately for the manufacturing and services sectors.35 Both sec­
tors reveal a pattern of association between the wages of
similar types of workers. The wages of occupations engaged
in coordination functions, including general managers; pur­
chasing managers; personnel, training, and labor relations
specialists; and clerical worker supervisors are all highly cor­
related. The wages of clerical worker supervisors are most
highly correlated with other occupations engaged in either

Correlations between the industry wage
differential of selected occupations and
industry capital intensity in manufacturing, 1998
O ccupation

Correlation
co efficient

Engineering managers........................................
Industrial production managers..........................
General managers.............................................
Purchasing agents............................................
Personnel, training, and labor relations
specialists......................................................
Computer support specialists.............................
Clerical worker supervisors................................
Adjustment clerks.............................................

0.13
.31
.23
.20

Secretaries.......................................................
Supervisors of mechanics.................................
Supervisors of operators...................................
Production inspectors........................................
Machinery maintenance mechanics....................
Machinists.........................................................
Machine forming operators.................................
Machine feeders................................................
Janitors.............................................................
Stock clerks......................................................

.21
.46
.50
.32
.35
.34
.36
.30
.25
.50

No te:

All calculations are statistically significant at p = 0.1.

.24
.21
.28
.26

Table 5.

Pearson coefficients of correlation between the wages of occupations in service sector industries

Pur­
chasing
m anagers

O ccupation

Purchasing managers ...
General managers........
Accountants and
auditors...................
Personnel, training, and
labor relations
specialists...............
Systems analysts........
Computer support
specialists...............
Clerical worker
supervisors..............
Adjustment clerks.......
Secretaries.................
Receptionists.............
Supervisors of
mechanics...............
Production inspectors...
Machinery maintenance
mechanics...............

Geneid
Accoun­
m ana­
tants
gers

Personnel,
Com ­
C lerical
training,
puter
worker
Systems
and
support
super­
labor
analysts
special­
visors
relations
ists
specialists

Ajust­
aient
clerks

S ecre­
taries

Super­
visors
Recep­
of
tionists
m e­
chanics

M a­
Pro­
chinery
duction
main­
inspec­ tenance
tors
m e­
chanics

1.00
.76

1.00

.66

.75

1.00

71
.17

.78
(’)

.69
.28

1.00
.15

1.00

.43

.42

.45

.31

.51

1.00

.73
.64
.63
.65

.76
.69
.71
.67

.76
.49
.60
.54

.80
.78
.58
.71

(1)
(1)
.19
.15

.33
.19
.58
.40

1.00
.71
.58
.70

1.00
.44
.62

1.00
.65

1.00

.47
.33

.42
.39

.49
.51

.44
.30

.20
(')

.35
.30

.57
.36

.35
.24

.41
.46

.48
.36

1.00
.39

1.00

.52

.62

.36

.63

(')

-.04

.51

.69

.37

.34

.38

.12

1.00

'Indicates calculation not significant at p = 0.1.

Table 6.

Pearson cooefficient of correlation between the wages of occupations in manufacturing sector industries

O ccupation

Purchasing
managers.............
Industrial production
managers.............
General managers....
Accountants and
auditors...............
Purchasing agents....
Personnel, training,
and labor relations
specialists...........
Clerical worker
supervisors..........
Adjustment clerks...
Secretaries............ .
Supervisors of
mechanics............
Supervisors of
operators..............
Machinery
maintenance
mechanics..........
Machinists..............
Plastic molding
machine operators


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In­
dustrial
Pur­
chasing pro­
duction
m a­
m a­
nagers
nagers

Person­
nel,
Gene- Accoun­
training, C lerical
Pur­
id
tants
worker
and
chasing
and
m ana­
super­
labor
agents
auditors
gers
relations visors
special­
ists

Ajust­
aient
clerks

Secre­
taries

M a­
Super­ Super­ chinery
Plastic
visors
visors
main­
M a­ molding
of
of
tenance chinists m achine
o p era­
m e­
op era­
m e­
tors
chanics
tors
chanics

1.00

.71
.65

1.00
.79

1.00

.77
.84

.67
.67

.65
.54

1.00

.80

1.00

.77

.79

.57

.70

.79

1.00

.68
.52
.78

.78
.59
.85

.81
.67
.83

.71
.47
.75

.64
.50
.72

.71
.48
.77

1.00

.58
.80

1.00

.55

1.00

.59

.73

.64

.57

.59

.69

.73

.54

.68

1.00

.57

.79

.56

.53

.61

.71

.68

.60

.63

.76

1.00

.59
.56

.68
.66

.51
.58

.66

.67
.50

.73
.63

.60
.62

.41
.47

.68

.68

.46

.67

.62

.67
.69

1.00
.62

1.00

.24

.22

.19

.30

.29

.26

.22

.10

.25

.11

.13

.17

.12

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

1.00

43

Industry Wage Differentials

coordination activities or clerical functions, including pur­
chasing managers; general managers; accountants; person­
nel, training, and labor relations specialists; adjustment clerks;
and secretaries. In the manufacturing sector, the correlation co­
efficients between the wages of each pair of occupations in the
group including supervisors of mechanics, supervisors of op­
erators, industrial production managers, and machinery mainte­
nance mechanics, are all above 0.5. The wages of purchasing
managers are most highly correlated with the wages of purchas­
ing agents and secretaries, and the wages of industrial produc­
tion managers are most highly correlated with the wages of gen­
eral managers; personnel, training, and labor relations special­
ists; supervisors of mechanics; supervisors of operators; and
clerical worker supervisors, and secretaries.
The results reported in tables 5 and 6 suggest that occupa­
tions having similar wage differentials tend to be either inter­
related in the production process or require similar types of
tasks and skills. These results suggest a skill-based explana-

tion of industry wage differentials such as an efficiency wage
or unmeasured ability argument. The generally high inter­
correlations among the wages of most occupations are also
suggestive, however, of a rent sharing explanation, in which
all occupations share relatively equally in the wage differen­
tial of the industry.
In s u m m a r y , the analyses of o e s survey data suggest that
industry wage differentials are associated with occupations
most closely associated with the primary mission of the firm.
These results suggest that interindustry wage differentials
might reflect a motivational role in the use of higher wages.
The results of table 4 further suggest that this motivational
effect might be somewhat contingent on the production tech­
nology, as is emphasized in a sorting model. The results of
tables 5 and 6 are consistent with these results and further
suggest a pattern of association among the wages of similar
types of occupations.
□

Notes
1 See for example, David H. Autor, Lawrence F. Katz, and Alan B.
Krueger, “Computing Inequality: Have Computers Changed the Labor
Market?” Q u a rte r ly J o u rn a l o f E c o n o m ic s, vol. 113, no. 4, 1998, pp.
1 1 6 9 -1 2 1 3 . A lso see Eli Berm an, John Bound, and Z vi G rilich es,
“Changes in the Demand for Skilled Labor Within U.S. Manufacturing
Industries: Evidence From the Annual Survey o f Manufacturers,” Q u a r­
te r ly J o u r n a l o f E c o n o m ic s , vol. 109, no. 2, 1994, pp. 3 6 7 -9 7 ; and
Mark Dorns, T im othy D unne, and K enneth R. T roske, “W orkers,
W ages, and Technology,” Q u a r te r ly J o u r n a l o f E c o n o m ic s , vol. 112,
no. 1, 1997, pp. 2 5 3 -9 0 .
2 S ee S ta n d a r d I n d u s tr ia l C la s s ific a tio n M a n u a l, 1 9 8 7 , O ffice o f
Management and Budget.
3 The full O ccupational Em ploym ent S tatistics sam ple includes,
with certainty, all Federal and State governm ent em p loyees and all
establishm ents em ploying more than 250 workers, together making
up approximately one-third o f total U .S. em ployment. The remaining
two-thirds o f all workers are surveyed with probability equal to the
reciprocal o f the probability o f selection o f the establishment in which
they are em ployed. The average number o f workers included in the
sample for any given three-digit sic industry/occupation cell is roughly
1,500 individuals.
4 Data for these 3 years were combined by first adjusting the 1996
and 1 9 9 / wage rates to reflect wage change over the 1996-98 period,
using wage change indices obtained from the Employment Cost Index
program.
The Occupational Employment Statistics (oes) survey is a coopera­
tive Federal/State effort that provides occupational em ploym ent and
wage data for more than 760 occupations in detailed industrial sectors.
The Department o f Labor provides the funding and technical support for
the program, and the States collect the data as well as provide the results
in published form, oes was initiated in 1971, with 15 participating States,
and has expanded throughout the years to include all 50 States and U.S.
territories. As a result of a redesign effort in 1996, the oes survey now also
provides occupational wage data by detailed industry. The 1996 redesign
effort also expanded the scope of the oes sur-vey to include all industries
every year. For more information on the technical aspects o f the oes
survey, contact the O ffice o f Em ployment and Unem ploym ent Statis­
tics, room 4840, 2 Massachusetts Avenue, ne , Washington DC 20212;

44 Monthly Labor Review

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February 2000

telephone (202) 691-6569; or e-m ail at: o esin fo @ b ls.g o v .
5 For a survey o f studies, including data references, see William T.
Dickens and Lawrence F. Katz. “Inter-industry Wage Differences and
Industry Characteristics,” in Kevin Lang and Jonathan S. Leonard, eds.,
U n em p lo ym en t a n d the S tru ctu re o f L a b o r M a rk ets (N ew York, Basil
Blackwell, 1987), ch. 3, pp. 4 1-54.
6 For exam ples o f studies using establishment data, see Alejandra
M izala and Pilar Romaguera, “Wage D ifferentials and O ccupational
Wage Premia: Firm-Level Evidence for Brazil and C hile,” R e v ie w o f
In co m e a n d W ealth, vol. 44, no. 2, 1998, 239-57; and Andrew K.G.
Hildreth and Andrew J. Oswald, “Rent Sharing and Wages: Evidence
from Company and Establishment Panels,” J o u rn a l o f L a b o r E c o n o m ­
ics, vol. 15, no. 2, 1997, pp. 3 18-37.
7 See David I. Levine, “Can Wage Increases Pay for Them selves?
Tests With a Production Function,” E c o n o m ic J o u rn a l, vol. 102, no.
414, 1992, pp. 1102-15. Also see Erica L. Groshen, “Sources o f IntraIndustry Wage Dispersion: How Much do Em ployers Matter?” Q u a r­
te r ly J o u r n a l o f E c o n o m ic s , vol. 106, no. 3, 1991, pp. 8 6 9 -8 4 ; and
Jonathan S. Leonard, “Executive Pay and Firm Performance,” In d u s­
tr ia l a n d L a b o r R e la tio n s R eview , vol. 43, no. 3, 1990, pp. S I 3 -2 9 .
8 A more detailed discussion o f theories of interindustry wage differ­
entials appears later in the article.
9 The Bureau o f Labor Statistics has another data set— the National
Compensation Survey— that does address some of the issues of scope and
responsibility, albeit for a smaller number o f occupations. See Brooks
Pierce, "Using the National Compensation Survey to Predict Wage Rates,"
C o m p en sa tio n a n d W orking C o n d itio n s, Winter 1999, pp. 8-16 .
10 See Erica L. Groshen, "Five Reasons W hy Wages Vary Among
Employers," I n d u s tr ia l R e la tio n s , vol. 30, no. 3, 1991, pp. 3 5 0 -8 1 .
G oshen used Current Population Survey data to show that about 50
percent o f the variation in wages among industries is accounted for by
worker education, age, sex, race, union affiliation, industry (two-digit sic),
and occupation. A lso see Alan Krueger and L. Summers, "Efficiency
Wages and the Inter-Industry Wage Structure,” E c o n o m e tric a , vol. 56,
no. 2, 1988, pp. 259-93; and K. M. Murphy, and R. H. Topel, “Efficiency
Wages Reconsidered: Theory and Evidence,” in Y. Weiss, and G. Fishelson,
ed s., A d v a n c e s in th e T h e o r y a n d M e a s u r e m e n t o f U n e m p lo y m e n t
(London, M acmillan, 1990), pp. 2 0 4 -4 2 .

For early research on interindustry wage differentials, see Sumner H.
Slichter, “Notes on the Structure o f Wages,” R e v ie w o f E c o n om ics a n d
S ta tistic s, vol. 32, 1950, pp. 8 0 -9 1 .
11 This ratio provides a measure o f the share o f industry sales ac­
counted for by the largest four firms.
12 For an exhaustive investigation o f the characteristics o f interindus­
try wage differentials, see Dickens and Katz, “Inter-industry Wage D if­
ferences and Industry Characteristics.” This article also contains a review
o f the empirical research on interindustry wage differentials, including
data sources.
13 I b id .
14 For a discussion o f changes in the nature o f product markets that
have altered the im peratives o f com petition for firms in m ost indus­
tries over the last two decades, see Ray Marshall, "Job and Skill D e­
m ands in the N ew E conom y," in L e w is C. S olm on and A le c R.
L even so n , ed s., L a b o r M a r k e ts , E m p lo y m e n t P o lic y , a n d J o b C r e ­
a tio n (Oxford, The W estview Press, 1994). A lso see M ichael Piore,
and Charles F. Sabel, The S e c o n d In d u s tria l D iv id e : P o s s ib ilitie s f o r
P r o s p e r ity (N ew York, B asic B ooks, 1984); and Thierry J. N oyelle,
B e y o n d In d u s tria l D u a lism ; M a rk e t a n d J o b S eg m en ta tio n in the N ew
E c o n o m y (O xford, The W estview P ress, 1987). For a d iscussion o f

case studies exam ining the im plem entation o f new tech n ologies in
pulp m ills, see Shoshona Zuboff, In the A g e o f the S m a rt M achin e: The
F u tu re o f W ork a n d P o w e r (N ew York, Basic Books, 1988).
15 The department store industry also is used as the base for the
calculation o f the all-occupation industry wage differential.

culation o f the all-occupation wage differential for each industry.
21 See Alan B. Krueger, and Lawrence H. Summ ers, “E fficien cy
Wages and the Inter-industry Wage Structure,” E c o n o m etrica , vol. 56,
no. 2, 1988, pp. 2 5 9 -9 3 .
22 Peter B. Doeringer, and Michael J. Piore, In tern a l L a b o r M a rk e ts
a n d M a n p o w e r A n a ly sis (Lexington, ma, d .c . Heath and Co., 1971).
23 The rent sharing explanation o f industry wage differentials is dis­
cussed in A. Krueger and L. Summers, “Reflections on the Inter-Indus­
try Wage Structure,” in K evin Lang and Jonathan S. Leonard, eds.,
U n e m p lo y m e n t a n d th e S tru c tu re o f L a b o r M a r k e ts (O xford, Basil
Blackw ell, 1987), pp. 17-47. A lso see S. N ickell, and S. Wadhwani,
“Insider Forces and W age D eterm ination,” E c o n o m ic J o u r n a l, v ol.
100, no. 401, 1990, pp. 496-509; David G. Blanchflower, Andrew J.
Oswald, and Mario D. Garrett, “Insider Power in Wage Determination,”
E c o n o m ica , vol. 57, no. 226, 1990; and Andrew K.G. Hildreth, and
Andrew J. O swald, “Rent-Sharing and Wages: Evidence from Com­
pany and Establishment Panels,” Jou rn a l o f L a b o r E conom ics, vol. 15,
no. 2, 1997.
24 See G. Akerlof, “G ift Exchange and E fficien cy Wage Theory:
Four V iew s,” A m e r ic a n E c o n o m ic R e view , P a p e r s a n d P r o c e e d in g s ,
vol. 74, no. 2, 1984, pp. 7 9 -8 3 .
25 Erica L. Groshen, 1991, “Five Reasons Why Wages Vary Among
Em ployers,” In d u s tria l R e la tio n s.
26 See Lawrence R. Klein, “Components o f Com petitiveness,” S c i­
e n c e , vol. 241, 1988, pp. 3 0 8 -1 5 . In this article, Klein explains the

16 For information about the average level o f vocational preparation
o f photographers em ployed in different industries, see The D ic tio n a ry
o f O c c u p a tio n a l T itle s (U .S. Department o f Labor, Em ploym ent and
Training Administration, 1991), vols. 1-2.

com petitiveness problem by decom posing output prices into unit cost,
the reciprocal o f labor productivity, the profit margin, and the foreign
exchange value o f the currency. The decom position shows that firms
have two choices for competition: the basis o f com petition is either
cutting costs or improving productivity.

17 For a description o f explanations o f both inter-industry w age
variation and inter-establishm ent wage variation, see Groshen, “Five
Reasons Why Wages Vary Among Em ployers,” In d u stria l R e la tio n s.

27 See Eileen Appelbaum and Rosemary Batt, The N e w A m e r ic a n
W orkplace: T ran sform iin g Work S yste m s in the U n ite d S ta tes, (Ithaca,
ilr Press, 1994).

18 See M ichael Keane, “Individual Heterogeneity and Inter-industry
Wage Differentials,” J o u rn a l o f H um an R eso u rces, vol. 28, no. 1, 1993.
Also see McKinley Blackburn, and David Newmark, “Unobserved Ability,
Efficiency Wages, and Inter-industry Wage Differentials,” Q u arterly Jou r­
n a l o f E c o n o m ic s , v o l. 107, n o .4, 1992, pp. 1 4 2 1 -3 6 . K eane and
Blackburn and Newmark have recently estimated the proportion o f indus­
try wage differentials that is due to unobserved worker characteristics.
Keane found that 50 percent o f industry wage variation is explained by
variation in unobserved worker skills, and Blackburn and Newmark found
that 20 to 30 percent o f the variation is explained by unobserved worker
characteristics. A lso see K. M. Murphy and R. H. Topel, “Unem ploy­
ment, Risk, and Earnings: Testing for Equalizing Differences in the La­
bor Market” in Kevin Lang and Jonathan S. Leonard, eds., U n em p lo y­
m ent a n d the Structure o f L a b o r M arkets (Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1987).
Unmeasured skills also play a role in other theories o f industry wage
d ifferen tia ls. H ae-shin H wang and others, for exam p le, argue that
failure to adequately account for unmeasured skills has led to the un­
derestim ation o f the importance o f com pensating differentials in ex ­
plaining w age differentials among industries. See H ae-sh in H wang,
Robert W. R eed, and Carlton Hubbard, “C om pensating W age D if­
f e r e n tia ls and U n o b se r v e d P r o d u c tiv ity ,” J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c a l
E c o n o m y , v o l . 100, no. 4., 1992.
19 For a general discussion o f compensating wage differentials, see
S. Rosen, “The Theory o f Equalizing D ifferences,” in O. Ashenfelter,
and R. Layard, e d s., H a n d b o o k o f L a b o r E c o n o m ic s (N ew York,
E lsevier Science Publishers, 1986). For a discussion o f compensating
d ifferen tia ls in the ca se o f occu p ational hazard, see Jean M ichel
Cousineau, Robert Lacroix and Anne-Marie Girard, “Occupational Haz­
ard and Wage Compensating D ifferentials,” The R e v ie w o f E c o n o m ics
a n d S ta tistic s, vol. 74, no. 1, 1992.
20 The miscellaneous plastics industry also is used as a base for the cal­


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28 See Dae II Kim, “Reinterpreting Industry Premiums: Match-Spe­
cific Productivity,” J o u rn a l o f L a b o r E con om ics, vol. 16, no. 3, 1998,
pp. 479-504. Also see Stephen G. Bronars, and Melissa Famulari, “Wage,
Tenure, and Wage Growth Variation Within and Across Establishments,”
J o u rn a l o f L a b o r E c o n o m ics, vol. 15, no. 2, 1997, pp. 285-317; and
Robert Gibbons and Lawrence F. Katz “Does Unmeasured Ability Ex­
plain Inter-Industry Wage Differentials?” R e v ie w o f E c o n o m ic Studies,
vol. 59, no. 3, 1992, pp. 5 15-35.
29 See Zuboff, In the A g e o f the S m art M achine.
30 S ee Tim othy F. Bresnahan, Erik B rynjolfsson, and Lorin M.
H itt, “Inform ation T ech n ology, W orkplace O rganization, and the
Demand for Skilled Labor: Firm-Level Evidence,” nber Working Pa­
per no. 7136 (National Bureau o f E conom ic R esearch, Cam bridge,
M assach u setts, 1999).
31 The capital stock data used in this analysis were obtained from
the National Bureau o f Econom ic Research, Manufacturing Produc­
tivity Database, which covers the years 1 9 5 8 -9 4 . T hese data were
extrapolated to include the years 1995 and 1996, using Annual Survey
o f Manufacturer’s data on nominal investment by 4-digit sic industry
for the years 1995 and 1996, and extrapolated rates o f capital depre­
ciation by three-digit sic industry. The capital stock figures by four­
digit sic industry were then aggregated to the three-digit sic lev el.
Data on capital depreciation rates and on investm ent expenditures
for the years 1995 and 1996 were obtained from Randy Becker, U.S.
Bureau of the Census.

32

1(X. - X)(Y - Y)
R = --------------- ---------------------------

SQRT

X(Y -

Xf

X(y -

Y)2

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

45

Industry Wage Differentials

34 All calculations in table 4 use the miscellaneous plastics industry,
sic 308, as the base for comparison.

Where:
X. = industry wage differential for occupation X in industry i
X =

mean industry wage differential for occupation X

Y = industry wage differential for occupation Y in industry i
Y = mean industry wage differential for occupation Y

33 All calculations in table 3 use the miscellaneous plastics industry,
sic 308, as the base.

35 The calculations for the manufacturing sectors use the miscellaneous
plastics manufacturing industry, sic 308, as the base for comparison. The
calculations for the services sector use the w holesale trade o f motor
vehicles industry, sic 501, as the base for comparison. More information
is availab le from the author at (202) 6 9 1 -6 5 0 4 or by e-m ail at

Osburn_J@bls.gov.

Where are you publishing your research?
The M onthly Labor Review will consider for publication studies of the labor force,
labor-management relations, business conditions, industry productivity, compen­
sation, occupational safety and health, demographic trends, and other economic
developments. Papers should be factual and analytical, not polemical in tone. Po­
tential articles should be mailed to: Editor-in-Chief, Monthly Labor Review, Bureau
of Labor Statistics, Washington, DC 20212, or by e-mail to: mlr@bls.gov


46 Monthly Labor Review
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February 2000

Precis

Unemployment and
wealth
To what extent are workers able to fi­
nance their unemployment spells with
their own wealth holdings? Jonathan
Gruber of the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology addresses this and related
questions in NBER Working Paper No.
7348, “The Wealth of the Unemployed:
Adequacy and Implications for Unem­
ployment Insurance.”
G ruber notes that the unemployed
have a number of possible sources for
fin a n c in g c o n s u m p tio n , in c lu d in g
sa v in g s, u n e m p lo y m e n t in su ra n c e
benefits, other governm ent transfers
such as food stamps, and transfers from
relatives or charitable organizations. In
this study, Gruber focuses on wealth as
a mechanism for financing unemploy­
ment.
Data for his analysis are from the
1984-92 panels of the Survey of Income
and Program Participation ( sipp). The
SIPP interviews respondent households
every four months over the course of two
to three years in order to gather informa­
tion on income and labor force partici­
pation— in addition, the survey gathers
some data on wealth holdings, usually at
two points in the panel.
Gruber finds that the median worker
has savings that could finance about twothirds of the income loss from a spell of
unemployment. However, nearly a third
of workers are not able to even replace
10 percent of income loss.

High performance
practices
The subject of high-performance work
practices came up in two recent pieces.
In the W inter 2000 e p i Journal, Eileen


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Appelbaum briefly reviews some of the
major findings of her book M anufactur­
ing Advantage: Why high performance
work systems pay o /f (co-authored with
Tom B ailey, P eter B erg, and A rne
Kalleberg). Their surveys in three manu­
facturing industries indicate that, “with
some variance within these industries,
workplace practices that promoted coher­
ent work systems produced benefits such
as increased productivity, better financial
perform ance, higher target wages for
workers, as well as reduced inventory,
space requirem ents, and excess labor
costs.” A separate survey of workers
found that, at least in the steel and ap­
parel industries, workers in high-perfor­
m ance system s tend to have higher
wages.
Peter Cappelli and David Neumark
also examined these two aspects of the
high-performance work practices issue in
“Do ‘High Performance’ Work Practices
Im p ro v e E sta b lish m e n t-L e v e l O u t­
com es?” ( nber W orking Paper 7374).
On one hand, their results suggest that
practices that expand employee involve­
ment do not have an unambiguous effect
on productivity, although the results point
more toward positive effects. The evi­
dence is stronger for the idea that such
practices raise average labor costs per
employee. However, their data suggest
that high performance work practices do
not adversely affect labor efficiency as
measured by output per dollar of labor
costs. “Thus,” they conclude, “despite
raising labor cost/compensation imple­
menting such practices should not hurt
competitiveness.”
Both Appelbaum and Cappelli and
Neumark discuss the fact that high-per­
form ance work practices also have a
positive effect on factors that are benefi­
cial to the work establishment and work­
ers, but may not be captured by the cho­
sen performance measures. Examples of
such effects include, higher m orale,

greater adaptability, lower waste, in­
creased trust, better job satisfaction, and
stronger commitment.

Going back to work
Over roughly the past 50 years, labor
force participation among the mothers
of young children has gone up dramati­
cally. According to Lisa Barrow’s article,
“Child care costs and the return-to-work
decisions of new mothers,” in the Fed­
eral Reserve Bank of Chicago’s E co­
nomic Perspectives, the participation
rate of women with pre-school aged chil­
dren rose from 12.0 percent in 1947 to
62.3 percent in 1996. Her analysis goes
on to model the retum-to-work decisions
that contribute to the latter figure.
Barrow finds that while higher wages
and lower child care costs would cer­
tainly have a significant impact on the
decision to return to work within a year
of bearing a first child, delayed child
bearing may have a greater impact on
the labor force participation rate. Other
factors that influence the decision to
work include education and having had
at age 14 a fem ale role m odel that
worked. Factors that tended to work
against a decision to return to work in­
cluded higher income earned by a spouse
or partner and higher local unemploy­
m ent rates in the year follow ing the
child’s birth.

Erratum
The final clause of the second paragraph
of our December 1999 precis of “A s­
sessing Affirmative Action” by Harry
Holzer and Davis Neumark should have
read: “ ...— this is in contrast to laws that
only prohibit actions that disadvantage
women and members of minority groups,
such as refusing to employ them. ”
□

Monthly Labor Review February 2000 47

Book Reviews
Gazing into the future
Capital For Our Time: The Economic,
Legal, and Management Challenges
o f Intellectual Capital. Edited by
N icholas Im parto. S tanford, C A ,
Hoover Institution Press, 1999, 448
pp. $14.95, paper.
Working in the Twenty-First Century:
P o lic ie s fo r E co n o m ic G row th
Through Training, Opportunity, and
E d u ca tio n . By D avid I. L evine.
Armonk, NY, m .e . Sharpe, Inc., 1998,
64 pp. $61.95, hardback; $24.95,
paper.
In American society, now is the time to
think about the future. Several conver­
gent factors are shaping our present dis­
course in all areas of society, including
the area of economics. First, we are pre­
paring for a mathematically symbolic
moment, as the world enters a new mil­
lennium, although it is not clear that this
moment has any real meaning except to
legacy computer systems. We are also in
a period of economic prosperity that
gives us confidence in ourselves and the
ability to shape our future. Finally, the
first two events come at a time of techno­
logical revolution, perhaps as significant
as the building of railroads or the appli­
cation of electricity to our lives. Technol­
ogy offers the chance to re-mix the odds
of economic players— holders of the new
technology have the opportunity to rein­
vent themselves into the new social and
economic elite. A transforming technol­
ogy has the same effect as reshuffling the
cards in poker—everyone has a new op­
portunity to be a winner.
The shift from “things” to “ideas” is
a captivating idea in itself. Is the value of
this article a “thing” like the computer
that was used to write it, or is it an idea
conveyed by a “thing,” such as words on
the page o f a book? Is the value in bytes
or in th e id eas tra n sm itte d to the
reader? At what point do my ideas have
economic value and when do they turn
from my intellectual property into my
intellectual capital, som ething I can
assign an economic value?

48 Monthly Labor Review
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Capital fo r Our Time deals precisely
with these questions. Written as a series
of essays by different authors, the book
addresses the primary issues evolving as
intangible ideas take on tangible value.
The book begins with a series of essays
on econom ics. A fter all, econom ists
teach that paying for something will in­
duce producers to create more of it. There
is no evidence that intellectual property
is immune from the laws of economics.
If intellectual property is treated as an­
other form of capital, it gains value and
should encourage more intellectual prop­
erty to be created and sold. As it gains
value, this intellectual property takes on
issues more traditionally reserved for
other types of capital. Once ideas are de­
fined as having value, then issues of man­
agement and law come into play. While
there are essays in the book dealing with
econom ics, accounting, and m anage­
ment, the discussion turns to matters of
legal rights.
Our Anglo-Saxon ideas of value de­
rive from our understanding of land.
Property laws have a strong history, hav­
ing been built up over a series of centu­
ries, but applying them to ideas can be
problematic. Land itself is a tangible. I
can see it, measure it, and quickly decide
whether someone else is using it without
my permission. These facts are less clear
in the area of ideas. What is the value of
my name when it is used on the Internet?
Who has the right to that name and if
someone else uses my name, what are my
rights? The challenges these questions
present in a standard legal system based
on years of law and tradition are multi­
plied when applied to global communi­
ties. Even if a set of case law develops in
the United States to address these issues,
the Internet is truly a global matrix, and
international law can be much murkier.
Several of the essays can be summarized
as discussion on creating a body of law
that allows labor to benefit from its intel­
lectual capital.
Ideas demand a different set of skills
both to produce them and move them
into intellectual capital that has tangible

February 2000

worth. Preparing a work force that will
successfully adapt to this new environ­
m ent is the focus of Working in the
Twenty-First Century. Levine cites pub­
lic policy strategies that embrace a fu­
ture with great potential but less stability
than in present society. Through a series
of chapters, focused on current policies,
he described present societal problems,
how we got into the current situation, and
how we can find a way out of it. His chap­
ter four, “Getting Out of This Mess: In­
vest and Reinvent,” summarizes much of
his philosophy. Through systematic in­
vestment in institutions, including gov­
ernment, and incentive plans that en­
courage people, government, and busi­
ness to move in the correct direction, he
believes that society can plan its way into
a bright future.
Unlike some policymakers, Levine
maintains an abiding faith in the value
of government as a tool in this transfor­
mation. While he cites present govern­
ment policies that work against the new
economy, he has an abiding faith that a
reinvented government will be a positive
tool for change in the next century. His
vision is of an inclusive society, moti­
vated and guided by enlightened policies,
accountable for their actions and empow­
ered by an energized government. By
adopting best practices, institutions as
diverse as business corporations and
schools can work for a common goal.
Both books offer thought-provoking
ideas about the future, but they share a
common faith in it. While they acknowl­
edge a future that is less stable than the
present, they both approach the future as
a stable commodity where change comes
at a planned pace event and where to­
morrow may be different than today, but
not surprising. Neither book envisions
radical and wrenching change— change
that destroys as well as creates and comes
so quickly as to be unmanageable. While
both books should be commended for
recom m ending solutions as w ell as
identifying problems, the value of these
books is in their illum ination of the
present situation. Readers may wish to

use them to access points to their own
vision of tomorrow.
— Michael Wald
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Atlanta region

Empowering em ployees
The Business o f Employee Em power­
ment: Democracy and Ideology in
the W orkp la ce. By T h o m as A.
Potterfield. W estport, CT, Quorum
Books, 1999, 161 pp. $55.
The opening scene o f Shakespeare’s
tragedy Macbeth has three witches stir­
ring their satanic brew while the play’s
namesake comments that “so foul and
fair a day I have not seen.” While read­
ing this book, one might conjure simi­
lar thoughts that so foul and yet fair a
book I have not read in a long time. At
times, The Business o f Employee Em ­
powerm ent is brilliant, interesting, and
rem arkably analytical. Yet, there are
some assertions that are frustrating, in­
congruous, or m isleading. These dis­
tractions, however, are only minor prob­
lems. Thomas Potterfield has written a
valuable contribution to the growing lit­
erature and understanding of employee
em pow erm ent, participatory m anage­
m ent, total q uality m anagem ent, or
whatever the term used to describe the
various and myriad constructs of labormanagement cooperation.
The author segments the process and
evolution of the empowerment into three
basic categories: ideology, domination,
and freedom. These segments, he as­
serts, are grossly m isunderstood, and
those m isunderstandings are perpetu­
ated in literature, and become too struc­
tured for the process to substantially
succeed. Thus, complete power-sharing
between employees and managers never
occurs in the world o f work. Workers
never really escape the industrial serf­
dom of the job site.


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The book is basically divided into
two distinct sections: the first section
analyzes the theoretical development of
the segments, and the second illustrates
the validity of Potterfield’s theories as
applied to a case study of a fictitiously
named Fortune 100 company. In the
author’s words, one of the chief goals
of the publication is to illustrate how
the current and past structures of “em­
powerm ent” distorted reality in ways
that serve to protect and sustain exist­
ing relations of power and dominance
within the corporation.
Without citing it as a reference, this
parallels the “paradigm theory” of the
often cited psychologist Thomas Kuhn.
K u h n ’s theory is th at any existing
school o f thought is dom inant until
challenged by a new paradigm. The es­
tablished paradigm immediately tries to
eliminate or absorb the new ideology,
and if unsuccessful is replaced by that
new theory. The new paradigm or hy­
brid of the old one is dominant until it
is challenged. Political economists fol­
lowing the seminal theories of Harry
Braverman in the seminal work Labor
and M onopoly Capitalism will easily
recognize this process as it applies to
labor-management relations. Basically,
Potterfield argues that the so-called “em­
powerment” process is a band-aid attempt
to stem the hemorrhaging of corporatist
capitalism in a rapidly changing global
and technological society. It adapts the
current system to market forces by giv­
ing workers a sense of workplace con­
trol without really changing the insti­
tutional structure.
Yet this is not, in the author’s opin­
ion, such an evil or pernicious thing. If
capitalism had to evolve to provide true
workplace democracy it would benefit
the system and workers. Potterfield
works for the truest capitalistic institu­
tion, the multinational corporation. He
apparently is not a practicing radical,
except perhaps in theoretical thinking.
His resources for this book are very bal­
anced, running from radical theorists
Karl Marx and Herbert Marcuse to man­

agement icons Philip Crosby, Edwards
Demming, and Peter Drucker. In be­
tween, he consults a range o f labormanagement and organizational devel­
opment experts such as Tom Peters and
Robert Waterman (Getting to Yes); MIT
Professor Thomas Kochan (The Trans­
formation o f Industrial Relations); and
former Secretary of Labor Robert Reich
(The Work o f Nations). In reading this
book, and the psychological im plica­
tions for empowerment as a means to
pacify the workforce, I was reminiscent
of M arx’s adage that religion is the opi­
ate of the masses.
As mentioned, there are some frus­
trating flaws in The Business o f E m ­
ployee Empowerment. The misreading
of labor history is probably the most
glaring error. “Unlike many of the ear­
lier attempts at participatory manage­
ment, empowerment has really taken
hold of the collective imaginations of
corporate leaders and m anagem ent
theorists,” the book claim s. L ater it
states that empowerment is an attempt
to create more democratic and partici­
patory approaches to management be­
ginning in the 1950s and 1960s. The
1994 C om m ission on the Future of
Worker-Management Relations (which
the author fails to cite in the bibliogra­
phy as a resource), chaired by Harvard
Professor and former Secretary of La­
bor John Dunlop, acknowledges that
Filene’s Department Store in the 1890s
marked the first real acceptance of em ­
ployee empowerment by management.
In addition, the often cited book, The
Am erican Idea o f Industrial D em oc­
racy, by Milton Derber, gives a com­
plete history of employee participation
from the Civil War through the 1960s.
It will also appear obvious to the se­
rious student of industrial relations that
some basic resource materials published
within the last 10 years or so are miss­
ing. W hile no study can cite all the
sources on any given topic, such works
as Negotiating fo r the Future, by Irv­
ing and Barry Bluestone, the former one
of the architects of the Saturn experi-

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

49

Book Reviews

ment, should have been cited. As a re­
sult, those persons interested in fully
understanding the process of employee
em pow erm ent should read other re ­
sources to complement this book. Obvi­
ously, The Business o f Employee E m ­
powerm ent is not for the casual reader,
but then it was not meant to be.
It should also be noted that the trade
unionist is likely to take issue with some
of the claims made in the book. The con­
tributions and participation of unions is
not even mentioned until far into the
book. Potterfield’s statement that corpo­
rate A m erica gave workers a middle
class standard of living will also draw
the attention of trade unionist readers.
Even if one considers the impact of “wel­
fare capitalism,” they must accept that
this was a reaction against unions and
an attempt to circumvent their influence.
Yet despite minor and frustrating er­
rors, the book is very good and worth­
while. The shop-floor team leader, the
human resource director, or the student
of “work” theory, however, will find it
easy to digest. The author leaves read­
ers pondering the question, “Are there
c o m p a n ie s w h ere e m p o w e rm e n t’s
em ancipatory potential is m ore fully
developed, where employees participate
fully in all of the decisions that affect
their working lives?” Potterfield, as well
as many industrial relations scholars, are
waiting for an answer. M ost workers
would like that answer to be “yes.”

Heckman, James J., Accounting for Hetero­
geneity, Diversity and General Equilib­
rium In Evaluating Social Programs.

Cambridge, m a , National Bureau of
Economic Research, Inc., 1999, 103 pp.
(Working Paper 7230.) $10 per copy,
plus $10 for postage and handling out­
side the United States.
Holzer, Harry and David Neumark, Assess­
ing Affirmative Action. Cambridge, ma ,
National Bureau of Economic Research,
Inc., 1999,88 pp. (Working Paper 7323.)
$10 per copy, plus $10 for postage and
handling outside the United States.
Israel, Central Bureau of Statistics, Monthly
Bulletin of Statistics, June, July, August.

Jerusalem, Israel Central Bureau of Sta­
tistics, 1999, 188, 158, and 158 pp, re­
spectively.
Lazear, Edward O., Economic Imperialism.
Cambridge, m a , National Bureau of
Economic Research, Inc., 1999, 63 pp.
(Working Paper 7300.) $10 per copy,
plus $10 for postage and handling out­
side the United States.
Stigler, Stephen M., Statistics on the Table:
The History o f Statistical Concepts and
Methods. Cambridge, MA, Harvard Uni­

versity Press, 1999, 488 pp. $45.
Piehl, Anne Morrison and others, Testing
for Structural Breaks in the Evaluation
o f Programs. Cambridge, ma , National

Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.,
1999, 24 pp. (Working Paper 7226.) $10
per copy, plus $10 for postage and han­
dling outside the United States.

Economic growth and development
Arora, Ashish and Jai Asundi, Quality Certi­
fication and the Economics of Contract
Software Development: A Study of the In­
dian Software Industry. Cambridge, MA,

— Henry P. Guzda
Industrial Relations Specialist
U.S. Department of Labor

National Bureau of Economic Research,
Inc. 1999, 35 pp. (Working Paper 7260.)
$10 per copy, plus $10 for postage and
handling outside the United States.
DiNardo, John and Mark P. Moore. The
Phillips Curve Is Back? Using Panel
Data to Analyze the Relationship Be­
tween Unemployment and Inflation In
An Open Economy. Cambridge, MA, Na­

Publications received
Economic and social statistics

tional Bureau of Economic Research,
Inc., 1999,27 pp. (Working Paper 7328.)
$10 per copy, plus $10 for shipping and
handling outside the United States.

Anderson, Margo J. and Stephen E.
Fienberg, Who Counts: The Politics of
Census— Taking in Contem porary
America. New York, Russell Sage Foun­

dation, 1999, 319 pp. $32.50.

50 Monthly Labor Review
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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Sherer, F.M., New Perspectives on Eco­

February 2000

nomic Growth and Technological Inno­
vation. Washington, Brookings Institu­

tion Press, 1999, 167 pp. $38.95.

Education
Cameron, Stephen V. and James J.
Heckman, The Dynamics o f Educational
Attainment for Blacks, Hispanics, and
Whites. Cambridge, ma , National Bureau

of Economic Research, Inc., 1999,89 pp.
(Working Paper 7249.) $ 10 per copy, plus
$10 for postage and handling outside the
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Dale, Stacy Berg and Alan B. Krueger, Es­
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Unobservables. Cambridge, MA, Na­

tional Bureau of Economic Research,
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National Bureau of Economic Research,
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Health and safety
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Safety, Health and Working Conditions.

Geneva, International Labor Organiza­
tion, 1999, 277 pp. $34.95. Available
from ilo Publications Center, Waldorf,
md 20604-0753.
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Fatal Work­
place Injuries in 1997: A Collection of
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147 pp. Report 934.
Occupational Injuries and Illnesses:
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$29.95.
Galaczy, Patricia, Electronic Meeting Sys­
tems: Win-Win Group Decision Making.

Kingston, Ontario, Queen’s University,
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Greenan, Nathalie and Jacques Mairesse,
O rganizational Change in French
Manufacturing: What Do We Learn
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tional Bureau of Economic Research,
Inc., 1999,35 pp. (Working Paper 7285.)
$10 per copy, plus $10 for postage and
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Hart, Robert A. and Seiichi Kawasaki, Work
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Leisink, Peter, ed., G lobalization and
Labour Relations. Northampton, ma ,
Edward Elgar, 1999, 259 pp. $90.
Maclnnes, Scott D., Interpreting the Col­
lective Agreement: The Duty to be Rea­
sonable. Kingston, Ontario, Queen’s

University, Industrial Relations Center,
IRC Press, 1999, 20 pp.
Markowitz, Linda, Worker Activism After
Successful Union Organization. Armonk,
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$58.95.
Park, Soon-Won, Colonial Industrialization
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Factory. Cambridge, ma , Harvard Uni­

versity Press, 1999, 223 pp. $42.50.
Strober, Myra H. and Agnes Miling Kaneko
Chan, The Road Winds Uphill All the
Way: Gender, Work, and Family in the
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ma ,

The mit Press, 1999, 276 pp.

Thomason, Terry, John F. Burton, Jr., and
Douglas E. Hyatt, eds., New Approaches
to Disability in the Workplace. Madison,
wi, Industrial Relations Research Asso­
ciation, 1998, 338 pp. $27.50, paper.
Available from Cornell University Press,
Ithaca, NY.
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219 pp.

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U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board, The

Osterman, Paul, Securing Prosperity: The

Role o f Delegated Examining Units:
Hiring New Employees in a Decentral­
ized Civil Service. (A Report to the

American Labor Market: How It Has
Changed and What to Do About It.

President and the Congress of the United
States.) Washington, 1999, 17 pp.

Princeton, NJ, Princeton University
Press, 1999, 222 pp. $24.95.
Shimerr, Robert, The Impact o f Young

International economics
Siebert, Horst, ed., Globalization and La­
bor. Keil, Germany, University of Kiel,
1999, 320 pp.

Labor force
Chaykowski, Richard P. and Lisa M.
Powell, eds., Women and Work.
Montreal, Quebec, McGill-Queen’s
University Press, 1999, 304 pp. $49.95,
cloth; $18.95, paper.
Fairlie, Robert W. and Bruce D. Meyer,
Trends in Self-Employment Among
White and Black Men: 1910-1990. Cam­

bridge, MA, National Bureau of Eco­
nomic Research, Inc., 1999, 58 pp.
(Working Paper 7182.) $10 per copy,
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side the United States.
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Good News for Shareholders? The Ef­
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Stock Prices, 1970-97. Cambridge, MA,

National Bureau of Economic Research,
Inc., 1999,43 pp. (Working Paper 7295.)
$10 per copy, plus $10 for postage and
handling outside the United States.
Hunt, Jennifer, Determinants o f Non-Em­
ployment and Unemployment Durations
in East Germany. Cambridge, ma , Na­

tional Bureau of Economic Research,
Inc., 1999,37 pp. (Working Paper 7128.)
$10 per copy, plus $10 for postage and
handling outside the United States.
International Labor Office, Key Indicators
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600 pp. $99.95, plus $8 for shipping.
Available from ilo Publications Center,
Waldorf, md 20604-0753.
Neumark, David and William Wascher, A
Cross-National Analysis o f the Effects
of Minimum Wages on Youth Employ­
ment. Cambridge, ma , National Bureau

of Economic Research, Inc., 1999,48 pp.
(Working Paper 7299.) $10 per copy,

Workers on the Aggregate Labor Mar­
ket. Cambridge, ma , National Bureau of

Economic Research, Inc., 1999, 40 pp.
(Working Paper 7306.) $10 per copy,
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Western, Bruce, Between Class and Market:
Postwar Unionization in the Capitalist
Democracies. Princeton, NJ, Princeton

University Press, 1997, 230 pp. $17.95,
paper.

Productivity and technological
change
Chakraborty, Atreya and Mark Kazarosian,
Product Differentiation and the Use of
Information Technology: Evidence from
the Trucking Industry. Cambridge, MA,

National Bureau of Economic Research,
Inc., 1999,35 pp. (Working Paper 7222.)
$10 per copy, plus $10 for postage and
handling outside the United States.
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Local Academic Science Driving Orga­
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bridge, MA, National Bureau of Economic
Research, Inc., 1999, 45 pp. (Working
Paper 7248.) $10 per copy, plus $10 for
postage and handling outside the United
States.
Hall, Robert E., Reorganization. Cambridge,
ma , National Bureau of Economic Re­
search, Inc., 1999, 29 pp. (Working Pa­
per 7181.) $10 per copy, plus $10 for
postage and handling outside the United
States.
Jaffe, Adam B., The U.S. Patent System In
Transition: Policy Innovation and the In­
novation Process. Cambridge, ma , Na­

tional Bureau of Economic Research,
Inc., 1999,60 pp. (Working Paper 7280.)
$10 per copy, plus $10 for postage and
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bridge, ma , National Bureau of Economic
Research, Inc., 1999, 49 pp. (Working
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U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Boston—
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National Compensation Survey, October
1998. Washington, 1999, Bulletin 3095-

bridge, ma , National Bureau of Economic
Research, Inc., 1999, (Working Paper
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Glaeser, Edward L. and others, What Is So­
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_Montana National Compensation
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Data in the n l s Mature Women’s Survey
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National Bureau of Economic Research,
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Organization for Economic Co-Operation
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Gustman Alan L. and Thomas L.
Steinmeier, Employer Provided Pension

ment Service in the U nited States.

Heckman, James J., Policies to Foster Hu­
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□

Current Labor Statistics

Notes on labor statistics

...................

54

Com parative indicators
1. Labor market indicators................................................... 64
2. Annual and quarterly percent changes in
compensation, prices, and productivity...................... 65
3. Alternative measures of wages and
compensation changes.................................................. 65

Labor force data
4. Employment status of the population,
seasonally adjusted......................................................
5. Selected employment indicators,
seasonally adjusted......................................................
6. Selected unemployment indicators,
seasonally adjusted......................................................
7. Duration of unemployment,
seasonally adjusted......................................................
8. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment,
seasonally adjusted......................................................
9. Unemployment rates by sex and age,
seasonally adjusted......................................................
10. Unemployment rates by States,
seasonally adjusted......................................................
11. Employment of workers by States,
seasonally adjusted......................................................
12. Employment of workers by industry,
seasonally adjusted......................................................
13. Average weekly hours by industry,
seasonally adjusted......................................................
14. Average hourly earnings by industry,
seasonally adjusted......................................................
15. Average hourly earnings by industry...............................
16. Average weekly earnings by industry..............................
17. Diffusion indexes of employment change,
seasonally adjusted......................................................
18. Annual data: Employment status of the population.......
19. Annual data: Employment levels by industry.................
20. Annual data: Average hours
and earnings levels by industry....................................

66
67
68
68
69
69
70
70


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26. Participants in benefits plans, small firms
and government............................................................
27. Work stoppages involving 1,000 workers or m ore..........

84
85

Price data
28. Consumer Price Index: U.S. city average, by expenditure
category and commodity and service groups...............
29. Consumer Price Index: U.S. city average and
local data, all items.......................................................
30. Annual data: Consumer Price Index, all items
and major groups..........................................................
31. Producer Price Indexes by stage of processing................
32. Producer Price Indexes for the net output of major
industry groups............................................................
33. Annual data: Producer Price Indexes
by stage of processing..................................................
34. U.S. export price indexes by Standard International
Trade Classification.....................................................
35. U.S. import price indexes by Standard International
Trade Classification.....................................................
36. U.S. export price indexes by end-use category................
37. U.S. import price indexes by end-use category...............
38. U.S.international price indexes for selected
categories of services....................................................

86
89
90
91
92
92
93
94
95
96
96

71
73
73

74
75
76
76
77
77

Labor compensation and collective
bargaining d ata
21. Employment Cost Index, compensation,
by occupation and industry group...............................
22. Employment Cost Index, wages and salaries,
by occupation and industry group...............................
23. Employment Cost Index, benefits, private industry
workers, by occupation and industry group................
24. Employment Cost Index, private nonfarm workers,
by bargaining status, region, and area size...................
25. Participants in benefit plans, medium and large firm s.....

Labor compensation and collective
bargaining data—continued

78
80
81
82
83

Productivity data
39. Indexes of productivity, hourly compensation,
and unit costs, data seasonally adjusted......................
40. Annual indexes of multifactor productivity.....................
41. Annual indexes of productivity, hourly compensation,
unit costs, and prices...................................................
42. Annual indexes of output per hour for selected
industries......................................................................

97
98
99
100

International comparisons data
43. Unemployment rates in nine countries,
data seasonally adjusted............................................... 102
44. Annual data: Employment status of the civilian
working-age population, 10 countries.......................... 103
45. Annual indexes of productivity and related measures,
12 countries.................................................................. 104

Injury and illness data
46. Annual data: Occupational injury and illness
incidence rates.............................................................. 105
47. Fatal occupational injuries by event or
exposure...................................................................... 107

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

53

Notes on Current Labor Statistics

This section of the Review presents the prin­
cipal statistical series collected and calcu­
lated by the Bureau of Labor Statistics:
series on labor force; employment; unem­
ployment; labor compensation; consumer,
producer, and international prices; produc­
tivity; international comparisons; and injury
and illness statistics. In the notes that follow,
the data in each group of tables are briefly
described; key definitions are given; notes
on the data are set forth; and sources of addi­
tional information are cited.

General notes
The following notes apply to several tables
in this section:
Seasonal adjustment. Certain monthly
and quarterly data are adjusted to eliminate
the effect on the data of such factors as cli­
matic conditions, industry production sched­
ules, opening and closing of schools, holi­
day buying periods, and vacation practices,
which might prevent short-term evaluation
of the statistical series. Tables containing
data that have been adjusted are identified as
“seasonally adjusted.” (All other data are not
seasonally adjusted.) Seasonal effects are es­
timated on the basis of past experience.
When new seasonal factors are computed
each year, revisions may affect seasonally
adjusted data for several preceding years.
Seasonally adjusted data appear in tables
1-14,16-17,39, and 43. Seasonally adjusted
labor force data in tables 1 and 4-9 were re­
vised in the February 2000 issue of the Re­
view. Seasonally adjusted establishment sur­
vey data shown in tables 1, 12-14 and 1617 were revised in the July 1999 Review and
reflect the experience through March 1999.
A brief explanation of the seasonal adjust­
ment methodology appears in “Notes on the
data.”
Revisions in the productivity data in table
45 are usually introduced in the September
issue. Seasonally adjusted indexes and per­
cent changes from month-to-month and
quarter-to-quarter are published for numer­
ous Consumer and Producer Price Index se­
ries. However, seasonally adjusted indexes
are not published for the U.S. average AllItems cpi. Only seasonally adjusted percent
changes are available for this series.
Adjustments for price changes. Some
data—such as the “real” earnings shown in
table 14— are adjusted to eliminate the ef­
fect of changes in price. These adjustments
are made by dividing current-dollar values
by the Consumer Price Index or the appro­
priate component of the index, then multi­
plying by 100. For example, given a current
hourly wage rate of $3 and a current price

54 Monthly Labor Review
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index number of 150, where 1982 = 100, the
hourly rate expressed in 1982 dollars is $2
($3/150 x 100 = $2). The $2 (or any other
resulting values) are described as “real,”
“constant,” or “ 1982” dollars.

tional comparisons data, see International
Comparisons of Unemployment, BLS Bulle­
tin 1979.
Detailed data on the occupational injury
and illness series are published in Occupa­

Sources of information

tional Injuries and Illnesses in the United
States, by Industry, a BLS annual bulletin.
Finally, the Monthly Labor Review car­

Data that supplement the tables in this sec­
tion are published by the Bureau in a variety
of sources. Definitions of each series and
notes on the data are contained in later sec­
tions of these Notes describing each set of
data. For detailed descriptions of each data
series, see b l s Handbook of Methods, Bul­
letin 2490. Users also may wish to consult
Major Programs of the Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics, Report 919. News releases provide

the latest statistical information published by
the Bureau; the major recurring releases are
published according to the schedule appear­
ing on the back cover of this issue.
More information about labor force, em­
ployment, and unemployment data and the
household and establishment surveys under­
lying the data are available in the Bureau’s
monthly publication, Employment and Earn­
ings. Historical unadjusted and seasonally
adjusted data from the household survey are
available on the Internet:
http://stats.bls.gov/cpshome.htm
Historically comparable unadjusted and sea­
sonally adjusted data from the establishment
survey also are available on the Internet:
http:// stats .bis .gov/ceshome .htm
Additional information on labor force data
for areas below the national level are pro­
vided in the bls annual report, Geographic
Profile of Employment and Unemployment.

For a comprehensive discussion of the
Employment Cost Index, see Employment
Cost Indexes and Levels, 1975-95, BLS Bul­
letin 2466. The most recent data from the
Employee Benefits Survey appear in the fol­
lowing Bureau of Labor Statistics bulletins:
Employee Benefits in Medium and Large
Firms; Employee Benefits in Small Private
Establishments; and Employee Benefits in
State and Local Governments.

More detailed data on consumer and pro­
ducer prices are published in the monthly
periodicals, The c p i Detailed Report and
Producer Price Indexes. For an overview of
the 1998 revision of the cpi , see the Decem­
ber 1996 issue of the Monthly Labor Review.
Additional data on international prices ap­
pear in monthly news releases.
Listings of industries for which produc­
tivity indexes are available may be found on
the Internet:
http://stats.bls.gov/iprhome.htm
For additional information on interna­

February 2000

ries analytical articles on annual and longer
term developments in labor force, employ­
ment, and unemployment; employee com­
pensation and collective bargaining; prices;
productivity; international comparisons; and
injury and illness data.

Symbols
n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified,
n.e.s. = not elsewhere specified.
p = preliminary. To increase the time­
liness of some series, preliminary
figures are issued based on repre­
sentative but incomplete returns,
r = revised. Generally, this revision
reflects the availability of later
data, but also may reflect other ad­
justments.

Comparative Indicators
(Tables 1-3)
Comparative indicators tables provide an
overview and comparison of major bls sta­
tistical series. Consequently, although many
of the included series are available monthly,
all measures in these comparative tables are
presented quarterly and annually.
Labor market indicators include em­
ployment measures from two major surveys
and information on rates of change in com­
pensation provided by the Employment Cost
Index (ECl) program. The labor force partici­
pation rate, the employment-to-population
ratio, and unemployment rates for major de­
mographic groups based on the Current
Population (“household”) Survey are pre­
sented, while measures of employment and
average weekly hours by major industry sec­
tor are given using nonfarm payroll data. The
Employment Cost Index (compensation), by
major sector and by bargaining status, is cho­
sen from a variety of bls compensation and
wage measures because it provides a com­
prehensive measure of employer costs for
hiring labor, not just outlays for wages, and
it is not affected by employment shifts among
occupations and industries.
Data on changes in compensation, prices,
and productivity are presented in table 2.

Measures of rates of change of compensa­
tion and wages from the Employment Cost
Index program are provided for all civil­
ian nonfarm workers (excluding Federal
and household workers) and for all private
nonfarm workers. Measures of changes in
consumer prices for all urban consumers;
producer prices by stage of processing;
overall prices by stage of processing; and
overall export and import price indexes are
given. Measures of productivity (output per
hour of all persons) are provided for major
sectors.

Alternative measures of wage and com­
pensation rates of change, which reflect the
overall trend in labor costs, are summarized
in table 3. Differences in concepts and scope,
related to the specific purposes of the series,
contribute to the variation in changes among
the individual measures.
Notes on the d a ta
Definitions of each series and notes on the
data are contained in later sections of these
notes describing each set of data.

Employment and
Unemployment Data
(Tables 1; 4-20)

Household survey data
Description of the series
E mployment data in this section are ob­

tained from the Current Population Survey,
a program of personal interviews conducted
monthly by the Bureau of the Census for the
Bureau of Labor Statistics. The sample con­
sists of about 50,000 households selected to
represent the U.S. population 16 years of age
and older. Households are interviewed on a
rotating basis, so that three-fourths of the
sample is the same for any 2 consecutive
months.
Definitions

Employed persons include (1) all those who
worked for pay any time during the week
which includes the 12th day of the month or
who worked unpaid for 15 hours or more in
a family-operated enterprise and (2) those
who were temporarily absent from their regu­
lar jobs because of illness, vacation, indus­
trial dispute, or similar reasons. A person
working at more than one job is counted only
in the job at which he or she worked the
greatest number of hours.
Unemployed persons are those who did
not work during the survey week, but were
available for work except for temporary ill­
ness and had looked for jobs within the pre­

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ceding 4 weeks. Persons who did not look for
work because they were on layoff are also
counted among the unemployed. The unem­
ployment rate represents the number unem­
ployed as a percent of the civilian labor force.
The civilian labor force consists of all
employed or unemployed persons in the
civilian noninstitutional population. Persons
not in the labor force are those not classified
as employed or unemployed. This group
includes discouraged workers, defined as
persons who want and are available for a job
and who have looked for work sometime in
the past 12 months (or since the end of their
last job if they held one within the past 12
months), but are not currently looking,
because they believe there are no jobs
available or there are none for which they
would qualify. The civilian noninstitu­
tional population comprises all persons 16
years of age and older who are not inmates
of penal or mental institutions, sanitariums,
or homes for the aged, infirm, or needy. The
civilian labor force participation rate is the
proportion of the civilian noninstitutional
population that is in the labor force. The
employment-population ratio is employ­
ment as a percent of the civilian nonin­
stitutional population.

Revisions in the household
survey
Data beginning in 2000 are not strictly
comparable with data for 1999 and earlier
years because of the introduction of re­
vised population controls. Additional in­
formation appears in the February 2000
issue of Employment and Earnings.

F or additional information on na­
tional household survey data, contact the
Division of Labor Force Statistics: (202)
691-6378.

Establishment survey data
Description of the series
E mployment, hours , and earnings data

in this section are compiled from payroll
records reported monthly on a voluntary ba­
sis to the Bureau of Labor Statistics and its
cooperating State agencies by about
390,000 establishments representing all in­
dustries except agriculture. Industries are
classified in accordance with the 1987 Stan­
dard Industrial Classification (SIC) Manual.

Notes on the d a ta
From time to time, and especially after a
decennial census, adjustments are made in
the Current Population Survey figures to
correct for estimating errors during the
intercensal years. These adjustments affect
the comparability of historical data. A de­
scription of these adjustments and their ef­
fect on the various data series appears in the
Explanatory Notes of Employment and
Earnings.

Labor force data in tables 1 and 4-9 are
seasonally adjusted. Since January 1980,
national labor force data have been season­
ally adjusted with a procedure called X-11
arima which was developed at Statistics
Canada as an extension of the standard X11 method previously used by BLS. A de­
tailed description of the procedure appears
in the X -ll a r i m a Seasonal Adjustment
Method, by Estela Bee Dagum (Statistics
Canada, Catalogue No. 12-564E, January
1983).
At the beginning of each calendar year,
historical seasonally adjusted data usually
are revised, and projected seasonal adjust­
ment factors are calculated for use during
the January-June period. The historical sea­
sonally adjusted data usually are revised for
only the most recent 5 years. In July, new
seasonal adjustment factors, which incorpo­
rate the experience through June, are pro­
duced for the July-December period, but no
revisions are made in the historical data.

In most industries, the sampling probabili­
ties are based on the size of the establish­
ment; most large establishments are there­
fore in the sample. (An establishment is not
necessarily a firm; it may be a branch plant,
for example, or warehouse.) Self-em­
ployed persons and others not on a regu­
lar civilian payroll are outside the scope
of the survey because they are excluded
from establishment records. This largely
accounts for the difference in employment
figures between the household and estab­
lishment surveys.
Definitions
An establishment is an economic unit which
produces goods or services (such as a fac­
tory or store) at a single location and is en­
gaged in one type of economic activity.
Employed persons are all persons who
received pay (including holiday and sick
pay) for any part of the payroll period in­
cluding the 12th day of the month. Per­
sons holding more than one job (about 5
percent of all persons in the labor force)
are counted in each establishment which
reports them.
Production workers in manufacturing
include working supervisors and nonsupervisory workers closely associated with pro­
duction operations. Those workers men­
tioned in tables 11-16 include production
workers in manufacturing and mining;

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

55

Current Labor Statistics

construction workers in construction; and
nonsupervisory workers in the following in­
dustries: transportation and public utilities;
wholesale and retail trade; finance, insurance,
and real estate; and services. These groups ac­
count for about four-fifths of the total employ­
ment on private nonagricultural payrolls.
Earnings are the payments production
or nonsupervisory workers receive during
the survey period, including premium pay
for overtime or late-shift work but exclud­
ing irregular bonuses and other special
payments. Real earnings are earnings
adjusted to reflect the effects of changes in
consumer prices. The deflator for this series
is derived from the Consumer Price Index
for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical
Workers (CPI-W).
Hours represent the average weekly
hours of production or nonsupervisory work­
ers for which pay was received, and are dif­
ferent from standard or scheduled hours.
Overtime hours represent the portion of av­
erage weekly hours which was in excess of
regular hours and for which overtime premi­
ums were paid.
The Diffusion Index represents the per­
cent of industries in which employment was
rising over the indicated period, plus one-half
of the industries with unchanged employment;
50 percent indicates an equal balance between
industries with increasing and decreasing em­
ployment. In line with Bureau practice, data
for the 1-, 3-, and 6-month spans are season­
ally adjusted, while those for the 12-month
span are unadjusted. Data are centered within
the span. Table 17 provides an index on pri­
vate nonfarm employment based on 356 in­
dustries, and a manufacturing index based on
139 industries. These indexes are useful for
measuring the dispersion of economic gains
or losses and are also economic indicators.
Notes on the d a ta
Establishment survey data are annually ad­
justed to comprehensive counts of employ­
ment (called “benchmarks”). The latest ad­
justment, which incorporated March 1998
benchmarks, was made with the release of
May 1999 data, published in the July 1999
issue of the R e v ie w . Coincident with the
benchmark adjustment, historical seasonally
adjusted data were revised to reflect updated
seasonal factors and refinement in the sea­
sonal adjustment procedures. Unadjusted
data from April 1998 forward and season­
ally adjusted data from January 1995 forward
are subject to revision in future benchmarks.
Revisions in State data (table 11) occurred
with the publication of January 1999 data.
Beginning in June 1996, the bls uses the
X-12 arima methodology to seasonally ad­
just establishment survey data. This proce­
dure, developed by the Bureau of the Cen­
sus, controls for the effect of varying survey

56 Monthly Labor Review
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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

intervals (also known as the 4- versus 5-week
effect), thereby providing improved mea­
surement of over-the-month changes and un­
derlying economic trends. Revisions of data,
usually for the most recent 5-year period, are
made once a year coincident with the bench­
mark revisions.
In the establishment survey, estimates for
the most recent 2 months are based on in­
complete returns and are published as pre­
liminary in the tables (12-17 in the R e view ).
When all returns have been received, the es­
timates are revised and published as “final”
(prior to any benchmark revisions) in the
third month of their appearance. Thus, De­
cember data are published as preliminary in
January and February and as final in March.
For the same reasons, quarterly establish­
ment data (table 1) are preliminary for the
first 2 months of publication and final in the
third month. Thus, fourth-quarter data are
published as preliminary in January and Feb­
ruary and as final in March.
A comprehensive discussion of the differ­
ences between household and establishment
data on employment appears in Gloria R Green,
“Comparing employment estimates from
household and payroll surveys,” M on th ly L a­
b o r R eview , December 1969, pp. 9-20.
For additional information on estab­
lishment survey data, contact the Division of
Monthly Industry Employment Statistics:
(202) 691-6555.

Unemployment data by
State
Description of the series
Data presented in this section are obtained
from the Local Area Unemployment Statis­
tics (LAUS) program, which is conducted in
cooperation with State employment security
agencies.
Monthly estimates of the labor force,
employment, and unemployment for States
and sub-State areas are a key indicator of lo­
cal economic conditions, and form the basis
for determining the eligibility of an area for
benefits under Federal economic assistance
programs such as the Job Training Partner­
ship Act. Seasonally adjusted unemployment
rates are presented in table 10. Insofar as
possible, the concepts and definitions under­
lying these data are those used in the national
estimates obtained from the cps.
Notes on the d a ta
Data refer to State of residence. Monthly data
for all States and the District of Columbia are
derived using standardized procedures
established by bls. Once a year, estimates are
revised to new population controls, usually
with publication of January estimates, and
benchmarked to annual average cps levels.

February 2000

For additional information on data in
this series, call (202) 691-6392 (table 10) or
(202) 691-6559 (table 11).

Compensation and
Wage Data
(Tables 1-3; 21-27)
Compensation and wage data are gathered

by the Bureau from business establishments,
State and local governments, labor unions,
collective bargaining agreements on file with
the Bureau, and secondary sources.

Employment Cost Index
Description of the series
The Employment Cost Index (ECi) is a quar­
terly measure of the rate of change in com­
pensation per hour worked and includes
wages, salaries, and employer costs of em­
ployee benefits. It uses a fixed market
basket of labor—similar in concept to the
Consumer Price Index’s fixed market basket
of goods and services—to measure change
over time in employer costs of employing
labor.
Statistical series on total compensation
costs, on wages and salaries, and on benefit
costs are available for private nonfarm work­
ers excluding proprietors, the self-employed,
and household workers. The total compensa­
tion costs and wages and salaries series are
also available for State and local government
workers and for the civilian nonfarm economy,
which consists of private industry and State
and local government workers combined. Fed­
eral workers are excluded.
The Employment Cost Index probability
sample consists of about 4,400 private non­
farm establishments providing about 23,000
occupational observations and 1,000 State
and local government establishments provid­
ing 6,000 occupational observations selected
to represent total employment in each sector.
On average, each reporting unit provides
wage and compensation information on five
well-specified occupations. Data are col­
lected each quarter for the pay period includ­
ing the 12th day of March, June, September,
and December.
Beginning with June 1986 data, fixed
employment weights from the 1980 Census
of Population are used each quarter to
calculate the civilian and private indexes
and the index for State and local govern­
ments. (Prior to June 1986, the employment
weights are from the 1970 Census of Popu­
lation.) These fixed weights, also used to
derive all of the industry and occupation
series indexes, ensure that changes in these
indexes reflect only changes in compensa-

tion, not employment shifts among indus­
tries or occupations with different levels of
wages and compensation. For the bargain­
ing status, region, and metropolitan/nonmetropolitan area series, however, employ­
ment data by industry and occupation are not
available from the census. Instead, the 1980
employment weights are reallocated within
these series each quarter based on the cur­
rent sample. Therefore, these indexes are not
strictly comparable to those for the aggre­
gate, industry, and occupation series.
Definitions

Total compensation costs include wages,
salaries, and the employer’s costs for em­
ployee benefits.
Wages and salaries consist of earnings
before payroll deductions, including produc­
tion bonuses, incentive earnings, commis­
sions, and cost-of-living adjustments.
Benefits include the cost to employers
for paid leave, supplemental pay (includ­
ing nonproduction bonuses), insurance, retire­
ment and savings plans, and legally required
benefits (such as Social Security, workers’
compensation, and unemployment insurance).
Excluded from wages and salaries and em­
ployee benefits are such items as payment-inkind, free room and board, and tips.
Notes on the d a ta
The Employment Cost Index for changes in
wages and salaries in the private nonfarm
economy was published beginning in 1975.
Changes in total compensation cost—wages
and salaries and benefits combined—were
published beginning in 1980. The series of
changes in wages and salaries and for total
compensation in the State and local govern­
ment sector and in the civilian nonfarm
economy (excluding Federal employees)
were published beginning in 1981. Histori­
cal indexes (June 1981=100) are available on
the Internet:
http://stats.bls.gov/ecthome.htm
F or additional information on the
Employment Cost Index, contact the Office
of Compensation Levels and Trends: (202)
691-6199.

Employee Benefits Survey
Description of the series

Employee benefits data are obtained from
the Employee Benefits Survey, an annual
survey of the incidence and provisions of
selected benefits provided by employers.
The survey collects data from a sample of
approximately 9,000 private sector and State
and local government establishments. The

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

data are presented as a percentage of employ­
ees who participate in a certain benefit, or as
an average benefit provision (for example, the
average number of paid holidays provided to
employees per year). Selected data from the
survey are presented in table 25 for medium
and large private establishments and in table
26 for small private establishments and State
and local government.
The survey covers paid leave benefits
such as holidays and vacations, and personal,
funeral, jury duty, military, family, and sick
leave; short-term disability, long-term dis­
ability, and life insurance; medical, dental,
and vision care plans; defined benefit and
defined contribution plans; flexible benefits
plans; reimbursement accounts; and unpaid
family leave.
Also, data are tabulated on the inci­
dence of several other benefits, such as
severance pay, child-care assistance, well­
ness programs, and employee assistance
programs.
Definitions

Employer-provided benefits are benefits
that are financed either wholly or partly by
the employer. They may be sponsored by a
union or other third party, as long as there is
some employer financing. However, some
benefits that are fully paid for by the em­
ployee also are included. For example, long­
term care insurance and postretirement life
insurance paid entirely by the employee are
included because the guarantee of insurabil­
ity and availability at group premium rates
are considered a benefit.
Participants are workers who are covered
by a benefit, whether or not they use that benefit
If the benefit plan is financed wholly by
employers and requires employees to complete
a minimum length of service for eligibility, the
workers are considered participants whether or
not they have met the requirement. If workers
are required to contribute towards the cost of
a plan, they are considered participants only
if they elect the plan and agree to make the
required contributions.
Defined benefit pension plans use prede­
termined formulas to calculate a retirement
benefit (if any), and obligate the employer to
provide those benefits. Benefits are generally
based on salary, years of service, or both.
Defined contribution plans generally
specify the level of employer and employee
contributions to a plan, but not the formula
for determining eventual benefits. Instead,
individual accounts are set up for partici­
pants, and benefits are based on amounts
credited to these accounts.
Tax-deferred savings plans are a type of
defined contribution plan that allow par­
ticipants to contribute a portion of their salary
to an employer-sponsored plan and defer in­

come taxes until withdrawal.
Flexible benefit plans allow employees to
choose among several benefits, such as life
insurance, medical care, and vacation days,
and among several levels of coverage within a
given benefit.
Notes on the d a ta
Surveys of employees in medium and large
establishments conducted over the 1979-86
period included establishm ents that
employed at least 50, 100, or 250 workers,
depending on the industry (most service
industries were excluded). The survey
conducted in 1987 covered only State and
local governments with 50 or more
employees. The surveys conducted in 1988
and 1989 included medium and large
establishments with 100 workers or more in
private industries. All surveys conducted over
the 1979-89 period excluded establishments
in Alaska and Hawaii, as well as part-time
employees.
Beginning in 1990, surveys of State and
local governments and small private
establishments were conducted in evennumbered years, and surveys of medium and
large establishments were conducted in oddnumbered years. The small establishment
survey includes all private nonfarm
establishments with fewer than 100 workers,
while the State and local government survey
includes all governments, regardless of the
number of workers. All three surveys include
full- and part-time workers, and workers in all
50 States and the District of Columbia.
F or additional information on the
Employee Benefits Survey, contact the Of­
fice of Compensation Levels and Trends on
the Internet:

http ://stats.bls.gov/ebshome.htm

Work stoppages
Description of the series
Data on work stoppages measure the num­
ber and duration of major strikes or lockouts
(involving 1,000 workers or more) occurring
during the month (or year), the number of
workers involved, and the amount of work
time lost because of stoppage. These data are
presented in table 27.
Data are largely from a variety of pub­
lished sources and cover only establish­
ments directly involved in a stoppage. They
do not measure the indirect or secondary
effect of stoppages on other establishments
whose employees are idle owing to material
shortages or lack of service.
Definitions

Number of stoppages: The number of
strikes and lockouts involving 1,000 work-

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

57

Current Labor Statistics

ers or more and lasting a full shift or longer.
Workers involved: The number of
workers directly involved in the stoppage.
Number of days idle: The aggregate
number of workdays lost by workers involved
in the stoppages.

Days of idleness as a percent of estimated
working time: Aggregate workdays lost as a
percent of the aggregate number of standard
workdays in the period multiplied by total
employment in the period.
Notes on the d a ta
This series is not comparable with the one
terminated in 1981 that covered strikes in­
volving six workers or more.
F or additional information on work
stoppages data, contact the Office of Com­
pensation and Working Conditions: (202)
691-6282, or the Internet:

http ://stats.bls.gov/cbahome.htm

Price Data

Notes on the d a ta

(Tables 2; 28-38)
P rice data are gathered by the Bureau
of Labor Statistics from retail and pri­
mary markets in the United States. Price
indexes are given in relation to a base pe­
riod— 1982 = 100 for many Producer Price
Indexes, 1982-84 = 100 for many Con­
sumer Price Indexes (unless otherwise
noted), and 1990 = 100 for International
Price Indexes.

Consumer Price Indexes
Description of the series
The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a mea­
sure of the average change in the prices paid
by urban consumers for a fixed market bas­
ket of goods and services. The CPI is calcu­
lated monthly for two population groups, one
consisting only of urban households whose
primary source of income is derived from the
employment of wage earners and clerical
workers, and the other consisting of all ur­
ban households. The wage earner index (CPIW) is a continuation of the historic index that
was introduced well over a half-century ago
for use in wage negotiations. As new uses
were developed for the CPI in recent years,
the need for a broader and more representa­
tive index became apparent. The all-urban
consumer index (CPI-U), introduced in 1978,
is representative of the 1993-95 buying hab­
its of about 87 percent of the noninstitutional
population of the United States at that time,
compared with 32 percent represented in the
CPi-w. In addition to wage earners and cleri­
cal workers, the CPI-U covers professional,
managerial, and technical workers, the selfemployed, short-term workers, the unem­
58 Monthly Labor Review

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

ployed, retirees, and others not in the labor
force.
The cpi is based on prices of food, cloth­
ing, shelter, fuel, drugs, transportation fares,
doctors’ and dentists’ fees, and other goods
and services that people buy for day-to-day
living. The quantity and quality of these
items are kept essentially unchanged be­
tween major revisions so that only price
changes will be measured. All taxes directly
associated with the purchase and use of items
are included in the index.
Data collected from more than 23,000 re­
tail establishments and 5,800 housing units
in 87 urban areas across the country are used
to develop the “U.S. city average.” Separate
estimates for 14 major urban centers are pre­
sented in table 29. The areas listed are as in­
dicated in footnote 1 to the table. The area
indexes measure only the average change in
prices for each area since the base period, and
do not indicate differences in the level of
prices among cities.

In January 1983, the Bureau changed the
way in which homeownership costs are
meaured for the CPI-U. A rental equivalence
method replaced the asset-price approach to
homeownership costs for that series. In
January 1985, the same change was made
in the CPi-w. The central purpose of the
change was to separate shelter costs from
the investment component of home-owner­
ship so that the index would reflect only the
cost of shelter services provided by owneroccupied homes. An updated CPI-U and CPIw were introduced with release of the Janu­
ary 1987 and January 1998 data.
F or additional information on con­
sumer prices, contact the Division of Con­
sumer Prices and Price Indexes: (202)
691-7000.

Producer Price Indexes
Description of the series

Producer Price Indexes (PPI) measure av­
erage changes in prices received by domes­
tic producers of commodities in all stages
of processing. The sample used for calcu­
lating these indexes currently contains about
3,200 commodities and about 80,000 quo­
tations per month, selected to represent the
movement of prices of all commodities pro­
duced in the manufacturing; agriculture, for­
estry, and fishing; mining; and gas and elec­
tricity and public utilities sectors. The stageof-processing structure of PPI organizes
products by class of buyer and degree of
fabrication (that is, finished goods, interme­
diate goods, and crude materials). The tra­
ditional commodity structure of PPI orga­
nizes products by similarity of end use or

February 2000

material composition. The industry and
product structure of ppi organizes data in
accordance with the Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) and the product code ex­
tension of the sic developed by the U.S. Bu­
reau of the Census.
To the extent possible, prices used in
calculating Producer Price Indexes apply
to the first significant commercial trans­
action in the United States from the pro­
duction or central marketing point. Price
data are generally collected monthly, pri­
marily by mail questionnaire. Most prices
are obtained directly from producing com­
panies on a voluntary and confidential ba­
sis. Prices generally are reported for the
Tuesday of the week containing the 13th
day of the month.
Since January 1992, price changes for the
various commodities have been averaged
together with implicit quantity weights
representing their importance in the total net
selling value of all commodities as of 1987.
The detailed data are aggregated to obtain
indexes for stage-of-processing groupings,
commodity groupings, durability-of-product
groupings, and a number of special composite
groups. All Producer Price Index data are
subject to revision 4 months after original
publication.
F or additional information on pro­
ducer prices, contact the Division of In­
dustrial Prices and Price Indexes: (202)
691-7705.

International Price Indexes
Description of the series
The International Price Program produces
monthly and quarterly export and import
price indexes for nonmilitary goods traded
between the United States and the rest of the
world. The export price index provides a
measure of price change for all products sold
by U.S. residents to foreign buyers. (“Resi­
dents” is defined as in the national income
accounts; it includes corporations, busi­
nesses, and individuals, but does not require
the organizations to be U.S. owned nor the
individuals to have U.S. citizenship.) The
import price index provides a measure of
price change for goods purchased from other
countries by U.S. residents.
The product universe for both the import
and export indexes includes raw materials,
agricultural products, semifinished manufac­
tures, and finished manufactures, including
both capital and consumer goods. Price data
for these items are collected primarily by
mail questionnaire. In nearly all cases, the
data are collected directly from the exporter
or importer, although in a few cases, prices
are obtained from other sources.
To the extent possible, the data gathered
refer to prices at the U.S. border for exports

and at either the foreign border or the U.S.
border for imports. For nearly all products, the
prices refer to transactions completed during
the first week of the month. Survey respon­
dents are asked to indicate all discounts, al­
lowances, and rebates applicable to the re­
ported prices, so that the price used in the cal­
culation of the indexes is the actual price for
which the product was bought or sold.
In addition to general indexes of prices
for U.S. exports and imports, indexes are also
published for detailed product categories of
exports and imports. These categories are
defined according to the five-digit level of
detail for the Bureau of Economic Analysis
End-use Classification (SiTC), and the four­
digit level of detail for the Harmonized
System. Aggregate import indexes by coun­
try or region of origin are also available.
publishes indexes for selected catego­
ries of internationally traded services, calcu­
lated on an international basis and on a balance-of-payments basis.
bls

Notes on the d a ta
The export and import price indexes are
weighted indexes of the Laspeyres type. Price
relatives are assigned equal importance
within each harmonized group and are then
aggregated to the higher level. The values as­
signed to each weight category are based on
trade value figures compiled by the Bureau
of the Census. The trade weights currently
used to compute both indexes relate to 1990.
Because a price index depends on the same
items being priced from period to period, it is
necessary to recognize when a product’s speci­
fications or terms of transaction have been
modified. For this reason, the Bureau’s ques­
tionnaire requests detailed descriptions of the
physical and functional characteristics of the
products being priced, as well as information
on the number of units bought or sold, dis­
counts, credit terms, packaging, class of buyer
or seller, and so forth. When there are changes
in either the specifications or terms of trans­
action of a product, the dollar value of each
change is deleted from the total price change
to obtain the “pure” change. Once this value
is determined, a linking procedure is em­
ployed which allows for the continued repric­
ing of the item.
For the export price indexes, the preferred
pricing is f.a.s. (free alongside ship) U.S. port
of exportation. When firms report export
prices f.o.b. (free on board), production point
information is collected which enables the
Bureau to calculate a shipment cost to the port
of exportation. An attempt is made to collect
two prices for imports. The first is the import
price f.o.b. at the foreign port of exportation,
which is consistent with the basis for valua­
tion of imports in the national accounts. The
second is the import price c.i.f.(costs, insur­

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ance, and freight) at the U.S. port of importa­
tion, which also includes the other costs as­
sociated with bringing the product to the U.S.
border. It does not, however, include duty
charges. For a given product, only one price
basis series is used in the construction of an
index.
For additional information on inter­
national prices, contact the Division of In­
ternational Prices: (202) 691-7155.

Productivity Data
(Tables 2; 39-42)

Business sector and major
sectors
Description of the series
The productivity measures relate real output
to real input. As such, they encompass a fam­
ily of measures which include single-factor
input measures, such as output per hour, out­
put per unit of labor input, or output per unit
of capital input, as well as measures of mul­
tifactor productivity (output per unit of com­
bined labor and capital inputs). The Bureau
indexes show the change in output relative
to changes in the various inputs. The mea­
sures cover the business, nonfarm business,
manufacturing, and nonfinancial corporate
sectors.
Corresponding indexes of hourly com­
pensation, unit labor costs, unit nonlabor
payments, and prices are also provided.
Definitions

Output per hour of all persons (labor pro­
ductivity) is the quantity of goods and ser­
vices produced per hour of labor input. Out­
put per unit of capital services (capital pro­
ductivity) is the quantity of goods and ser­
vices produced per unit of capital services
input. Multifactor productivity is the quan­
tity of goods and services produced per com­
bined inputs. For private business and pri­
vate nonfarm business, inputs include labor
and capital units. For manufacturing, in­
puts include labor, capital, energy, non-en­
ergy materials, and purchased business ser­
vices.
Compensation per hour is total compen­
sation divided by hours at work. Total com­
pensation equals the wages and salaries of
employees plus employers’ contributions for
social insurance and private benefit plans,
plus an estimate of these payments for the
self-employed (except for nonfinancial cor­
porations in which there are no self-em­
ployed). Real compensation per hour is
compensation per hour deflated by the
change in the Consumer Price Index for All
Urban Consumers.

Unit labor costs are the labor compen­
sation costs expended in the production of
a unit of output and are derived by dividing
compensation by output. Unit nonlabor
payments include profits, depreciation,
interest, and indirect taxes per unit of out­
put. They are computed by subtracting com­
pensation of all persons from current-dollar
value of output and dividing by output.
Unit nonlabor costs contain all the
components of unit nonlabor payments ex­
cept unit profits.
Unit profits include corporate profits
with inventory valuation and capital con­
sumption adjustments per unit of output.
Hours of all persons are the total hours
at work of payroll workers, self-employed
persons, and unpaid family workers.
Labor inputs are hours of all persons ad­
justed for the effects of changes in the edu­
cation and experience of the labor force.
Capital services are the flow of services
from the capital stock used in production. It
is developed from measures of the net stock
of physical assets—equipment, structures,
land, and inventories—weighted by rental
prices for each type of asset.
Combined units of labor and capital
inputs are derived by combining changes in
labor and capital input with weights which
represent each component’s share of total
cost. Combined units of labor, capital, energy,
materials, and purchased business services are
similarly derived by combining changes in
each input with weights that represent each
input’s share of total costs. The indexes for
each input and for combined units are based
on changing weights which are averages of the
shares in the current and preceding year (the
Tomquist index-number formula).
Notes on the d a ta
Business sector output is an annually-weighted
index constructed by excluding from real gross
domestic product (gdp) the following outputs:
general government, nonprofit institutions,
paid employees of private households, and the
rental value of owner-occupied dwellings.
Nonfarm business also excludes farming. Pri­
vate business and private nonfarm business
further exclude government enterprises. The
measures are supplied by the U.S. Department
of Commerce’s Bureau of Economic Analy­
sis. Annual estimates of manufacturing sectoral
output are produced by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics. Quarterly manufacturing output in­
dexes from the Federal Reserve Board are ad­
justed to these annual output measures by the
BLS. Compensation data are developed from
data of the Bureau of Economic Analysis and
the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Hours data are
developed from data of the Bureau of Labor
Statistics.
The productivity and associated cost mea-

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

59

Current Labor Statistics

sures in tables 39-42 describe the relation­
ship between output in real terms and the la­
bor and capital inputs involved in its pro­
duction. They show the changes from period
to period in the amount of goods and ser­
vices produced per unit of input.
Although these measures relate output to
hours and capital services, they do not mea­
sure the contributions of labor, capital, or any
other specific factor of production. Rather,
they reflect the joint effect of many influences,
including changes in technology; shifts in the
composition of the labor force; capital invest­
ment; level of output; changes in the utiliza­
tion of capacity, energy, material, and research
and development; the organization of produc­
tion; managerial skill; and characteristics and
efforts of the work force.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on this
productivity series, contact the Division of
Productivity Research: (202) 691-5606.

Industry productivity measures
Description of the series
The bls industry productivity data supplement
the measures for the business economy and
major sectors with annual measures of labor
productivity for selected industries at the
three- and four-digit levels of the Standard
Industrial Classification system. The
industry measures differ in methodology
and data sources from the productivity
measures for the major sectors because the
industry measures are developed indepen­
dently of the National Income and Product
Accounts framework used for the major
sector measures.

indexes refer to the output per hour of all
employees. For some transportation indus­
tries, only indexes of output per employee
are prepared. For some trade and service
industries, indexes of output per hour of
all persons (including self-employed) are
constructed.
FORADDITIONAL INFORMATION on this se­
ries, contact the Division of Industry Produc­
tivity Studies: (202) 691-5618.

International Comparisons
(Tables 43-45)

Labor force and
unemployment
Description of the series
Tables 43 and 44 present comparative meas­
ures of the labor force, employment, and un­
employment—approximating U.S. con­
cepts—for the United States, Canada, Aus­
tralia, Japan, and several European countries.
The unemployment statistics (and, to a lesser
extent, employment statistics) published by
other industrial countries are not, in most
cases, comparable to U.S. unemployment
statistics. Therefore, the Bureau adjusts the
figures for selected countries, where neces­
sary, for all known major definitional differ­
ences. Although precise comparability may
not be achieved, these adjusted figures pro­
vide a better basis for international compari­
sons than the figures regularly published by
each country.

Definitions

Definitions

Output per hour is derived by dividing an in­
dex of industry output by an index of labor
input. For most industries, output indexes are
derived from data on the value of industry out­
put adjusted for price change. For the remain­
ing industries, output indexes are derived from
data on the physical quantity of production.
The labor input series consist of the hours
of all employees (production and nonproduc­
tion workers), the hours of all persons (paid
employees, partners, proprietors, and unpaid
family workers), or the number of employees,
depending upon the industry.

For the principal U.S. definitions of the la­
bor force, employment and unemployment,
see the Notes section on Employment and
Unemployment Data: Household survey
data.

Notes on the d a ta
The industry measures are compiled from
data produced by the Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics, the Departments of Commerce, Inte­
rior, and Agriculture, the Federal Reserve
Board, regulatory agencies, trade associa­
tions, and other sources.
For most industries, the productivity

60 Monthly Labor Review

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Notes on the d a ta
The adjusted statistics have been adapted to
the age at which compulsory schooling ends
in each country, rather than to the U.S. stan­
dard of 16 years of age and older. Therefore,
the adjusted statistics relate to the popula­
tion aged 16 and older in France, Sweden,
and the United Kingdom; 15 and older in
Canada, Australia, Japan, Germany, Italy
from 1993 onward, and the Netherlands; and
14 and older in Italy prior to 1993. The insti­
tutional population is included in the de­
nominator of the labor force participation
rates and employment-population ratios for
Japan and Germany; it is excluded for the
United States and the other countries.

February 2000

In the U.S. labor force survey, persons on
layoff who are awaiting recall to their jobs
are classified as unemployed. European and
Japanese layoff practices are quite different
in nature from those in the United States;
therefore, strict application of the U.S. defi­
nition has not been made on this point. For
further information, see M o n th ly L a b o r R e ­
v ie w , December 1981, pp. 8-11.
The figures for one or more recent years
for France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands,
and the United Kingdom are calculated us­
ing adjustment factors based on labor force
surveys for earlier years and are considered
preliminary. The recent-year measures for
these countries, therefore, are subject to re­
vision whenever data from more current la­
bor force surveys become available.
There are breaks in the data series for the
United States (1990, 1994, 1997, 1998),
France (1992), Germany (1991), Italy
(1991, 1993), the Netherlands (1988), and
Sweden (1987).
For the United States, the break in series
reflects a major redesign of the labor force
survey questionnaire and collection method­
ology introduced in January 1994. Revised
population estimates based on the 1990 cen­
sus, adjusted for the estimated undercount,
also were incorporated. In 1996, previously
published data for the 1990-93 period were
revised to reflect the 1990 census-based
population controls, adjusted for the un­
dercount. In 1997, revised population con­
trols were introduced into the household sur­
vey. Therefore, the data are not strictly
conparable with prior years. In 1998, new
composite estimation procedures and minor
revisions in population controls were intro­
duced into the household survey. Therefore,
the data are not strictly comparable with data
for 1997 and earlier years. See the Notes sec­
tion on Employment and Unemployment
Data of this R e view .
For France, the 1992 break reflects the
substitution of standardized European Union
Statistical Office (eurostat) unemployment
statistics for the unemployment data esti­
mated according to the International Labor
Office (ilo) definition and published in the
Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development (oecd) annual yearbook and
quarterly update. This change was made be­
cause the eurostat data are more up-to-date
than the OECD figures. Also, since 1992, the
eurostat definitions are closer to the U.S.
definitions than they were in prior years. The
impact of this revision was to lower the un­
employment rate by 0.1 percentage point in
1992 and 1993, by 0.4 percentage point in
1994, and 0.5 percentage point in 1995.
For Germany, the 1991 break reflects the
introduction of comparative labor force mea­
sures for unified Germany. Data for years
prior to 1991 relate to the former West Ger-

many. The impact of including the former
East Germany was to increase the unemploy­
ment rate from 4.3 to 5.6 percent in 1991.
For Italy, the 1991 break reflects a revi­
sion in the method of weighting sample data.
The impact was to increase the unemploy­
ment rate by approximately 0.3 percentage
point, from 6.6 to 6.9 percent in 1991.
In October 1992, the survey methodology
was revised and the definition of unemploy­
ment was changed to include only those who
were actively looking for a job within the 30
days preceding the survey and who were
available for work. In addition, the lower age
limit for the labor force was raised from 14
to 15 years. (Prior to these changes, bls ad­
justed Italy’s published unemployment rate
downward by excluding from the unem­
ployed those persons who had not
actively sought work in the past 30 days.)
The break in the series also reflects the in­
corporation of the 1991 population census
results. The impact of these changes was to
raise Italy’s adjusted unemployment rate by
approximately 1.2 percentage points, from
8.3 to 9.5 percent in fourth-quarter 1992.
These changes did not affect employment
significantly, except in 1993. Estimates by
the Italian Statistical Office indicate that em­
ployment declined by about 3 percent in
1993, rather than the nearly 4 percent indi­
cated by the data shown in table 44. This dif­
ference is attributable mainly to the incorpo­
ration of the 1991 population benchmarks in
the 1993 data. Data for earlier years have not
been adjusted to incorporate the 1991 cen­
sus results.
For the Netherlands, a new survey ques­
tionnaire was introduced in 1992 that al­
lowed for a closer application of ilo guide­
lines. eurostat has revised the Dutch series
back to 1988 based on the 1992 changes. The
1988 revised unemployment rate is 7.6 per­
cent; the previous estimate for the same year
was 9.3 percent.
There have been two breaks in series in
the Swedish labor force survey, in 1987 and
1993. Adjustments have been made for the
1993 break back to 1987. In 1987, a new
questionnaire was introduced. Questions re­
garding current availability were added and
the period of active workseeking was reduced
from 60 days to 4 weeks. These changes low­
ered Sweden’s 1987 unemployment rate by
0.4 percentage point, from 2.3 to 1.9 percent.
In 1993, the measurement period for the la­
bor force survey was changed to represent
all 52 weeks of the year rather than one week
each month and a new adjustment for popu­
lation totals was introduced. The impact was
to raise the unemployment rate by approxi­
mately 0.5 percentage point, from 7.6 to 8.1
percent. Statistics Sweden revised its labor
force survey data for 1987-92 to take into
account the break in 1993. The adjustment


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

raised the Swedish unemployment rate by 0.2
percentage point in 1987 and gradually rose
to 0.5 percentage point in 1992.
Beginning with 1987, bls has adjusted
the Swedish data to classify students who
also were available for and sought work as
unemployed. The impact of this change was
to increase the unemployment rate by 0.1
percentage point in 1987 and by 1.8 percent­
age points in 1994, when unemployment was
higher. In 1998, the unemployment rate was
increased by 1.9 percentage points, from 6.5
to 8.4 percent due to the adjustment to in­
clude students.
The net effect of the 1987 and 1993
changes and the bls adjustment for students
seeking work lowered Sweden’s 1987 unem­
ployment rate from 2.3 to 2.2 percent.
FORADDITIONAL INFORMATION on this se­
ries, contact the Division of Foreign Labor
Statistics: (202) 691-5654.

Manufacturing productivity
and labor costs
Description of the series
Table 45 presents comparative indexes of
manufacturing labor productivity (output per
hour), output, total hours, compensation per
hour, and unit labor costs for the United
States, Canada, Japan, and nine European
countries. These measures are trend compari­
sons—that is, series that measure changes
over time—rather than level comparisons.
There are greater technical problems in com­
paring the levels of manufacturing output
among countries.
bls constructs the comparative indexes
from three basic aggregate measures—out­
put, total labor hours, and total compensa­
tion. The hours and compensation measures
refer to all employed persons (wage and sal­
ary earners plus self-employed persons and
unpaid family workers) in the United States,
Canada, Japan, France, Germany, Norway,
Sweden, and the United Kingdom, and to all
employees (wage and salary earners) in the
other countries.
Definitions

Output, in general, refers to value added in
manufacturing from the national accounts of
each country. However, the output series for
Japan prior to 1970 and for the Netherlands
prior to 1960 are indexes of industrial pro­
duction, and the national accounts measures
for the United Kingdom are essentially iden­
tical to their indexes of industrial produc­
tion.
The 1977-98 output data for the United
States are the gross product originating (value
added) measures prepared by the Bureau of
Economic Analysis of the U.S. Department

of Commerce. Comparable manufacturing
output data currently are not available prior
to 1977.
U.S. gross product originating is a chaintype annual-weighted series. (For more in­
formation on the U.S. measure, see Robert
E. Yuskavage, “Improved Estimates of Gross
Product by Industry, 1959-94,” S u rv ey o f
C u rren t B u sin ess, August 1996, pp. 133-55.)
The Japanese value added series is based
upon one set of fixed price weights for the
years 1970 through 1998. Output series for
the other foreign economies also employ
fixed price weights, but the weights are up­
dated periodically (for example, every 5 or
10 years).
To preserve the comparability of the U.S.
measures with those for other economies, bls
uses gross product originating in manufac­
turing for the United States for these com­
parative measures. The gross product origi­
nating series differs from the manufacturing
output series that bls publishes in its news
releases on quarterly measures of U.S. pro­
ductivity and costs (and that underlies the
measures that appear in tables 39 and 41 in
this section). The quarterly measures are on
a “sectoral output” basis, rather than a valueadded basis. Sectoral output is gross output
less intrasector transactions.
Total labor hours refers to hours worked
in all countries. The measures are developed
from statistics of manufacturing employment
and average hours. The series used for France
(from 1970 forward), Norway, Sweden, and
Canada are official series published with the
national accounts. Where official total hours
series are not available, the measures are de­
veloped by BLS using employment figures
published with the national accounts, or other
comprehensive employment series, and esti­
mates of annual hours worked. For Germany,
bls uses estimates of average hours worked
developed by a research institute connected
to the Ministry of Labor for use with the na­
tional accounts employment figures. For the
other countries, bls constructs its own esti­
mates of average hours.
Denmark has not published estimates of
average hours for 1994-98; therefore, the bls
measure of labor input for Denmark ends in
1993.
Total compensation Gabor cost) includes
all payments in cash or in-kind made directly
to employees plus employer expenditures for
legally required insurance programs and con­
tractual and private benefit plans. The mea­
sures are from the national accounts of each
country. For Canada, France, and Sweden,
compensation is increased to account for other
significant taxes on payroll or employment.
For the United Kingdom, compensation is re­
duced between 1967 and 1991 to account for
employment-related subsidies. Self-employed
workers are included in the all-employed-per-

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

61

Current Labor Statistics

sons measures by assuming that their hourly
compensation is equal to the average for wage
and salary employees.
Notes on the d a ta
In general, the measures relate to total manu­
facturing as defined by the International Stan­
dard Industrial Classification. However, the
measures for France (through 1989) refer to
mining and manufacturing less energy-related
products, and the measures for Denmark in­
clude mining and exclude manufacturing
handicrafts from 1960 to 1966.
The measures for recent years may be
based on current indicators of manufactur­
ing output (such as industrial production in­
dexes), employment, average hours, and
hourly compensation until national accounts
and other statistics used for the long-term
measures become available.
For additional information on this se­
ries, contact the Division of Foreign Labor
Statistics: (202) 691-5654.

Occupational Injury
and Illness Data
(Tables 46-47)

Survey of Occupational
Injuries and Illnesses

consciousness, restriction of work or motion,
transfer to another job, or medical treatment
other than first aid.
Occupational injury is any injury such as
a cut, fracture, sprain, or amputation that re­
sults from a work-related event or a single, in­
stantaneous exposure in the work environment.
Occupational illness is an abnormal con­
dition or disorder, other than one resulting
from an occupational injury, caused by expo­
sure to factors associated with employment. It
includes acute and chronic illnesses or disease
which may be caused by inhalation, absorp­
tion, ingestion, or direct contact.
Lost workday injuries and illnesses are
cases that involve days away from work, or
days of restricted work activity, or both.
Lost workdays include the number of
workdays (consecutive or not) on which the
employee was either away from work or at
work in some restricted capacity, or both, be­
cause of an occupational injury or illness, bls
measures of the number and incidence rate of
lost workdays were discontinued beginning
with the 1993 survey. The number of days
away from work or days of restricted work
activity does not include the day of injury or
onset of illness or any days on which the em­
ployee would not have worked, such as a Fed­
eral holiday, even though able to work.
Incidence rates are computed as the
number of injuries and/or illnesses or lost
work days per 100 full-time workers.
Notes on the d a ta

Description of the series
The Survey of Occupational Injuries and Ill­
nesses collects data from employers about their
workers’ job-related nonfatal injuries and ill­
nesses. The information that employers provide
is based on records that they maintain under
the Occupational Safety and Health Act of
1970. Self-employed individuals, farms with
fewer than 11 employees, employers regulated
by other Federal safety and health laws, and
Federal, State, and local government agencies
are excluded from the survey.
The survey is a Federal-State coopera­
tive program with an independent sample
selected for each participating State. A
stratified random sample with a Neyman al­
location is selected to represent all private
industries in the State. The survey is strati­
fied by Standard Industrial Classification
and size of employment.
Definitions
Under the Occupational Safety and Health
Act, employers maintain records of nonfatal
work-related injuries and illnesses that in­
volve one or more of the following: loss of
62 Monthly Labor Review

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The definitions of occupational injuries and
illnesses are from Recordkeeping Guidelines
for Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (U.S.
Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics, September 1986).
Estimates are made for industries and em­
ployment size classes for total recordable cases,
lost workday cases, days away from work cases,
and nonfatal cases without lost workdays.
These data also are shown separately for inju­
ries. Illness data are available for seven catego­
ries: occupational skin diseases or disorders,
dust diseases of the lungs, respiratory condi­
tions due to toxic agents, poisoning (systemic
effects of toxic agents), disorders due to physi­
cal agents (other than toxic materials), disor­
ders associated with repeated trauma, and all
other occupational illnesses.
The survey continues to measure the num­
ber of new work-related illness cases which
are recognized, diagnosed, and reported dur­
ing the year. Some conditions, for example,
long-term latent illnesses caused by exposure
to carcinogens, often are difficult to relate to
the workplace and are not adequately recog­
nized and reported. These long-term latent ill­
nesses are believed to be understated in the
survey’s illness measure. In contrast, the over­
whelming majority of the reported new ill­

February 2000

nesses are those which are easier to directly
relate to workplace activity (for example, con­
tact dermatitis and carpal tunnel syndrome).
Most of the estimates are in the form of
incidence rates, defined as the number of in­
juries and illnesses per 100 equivalent full­
time workers. For this purpose, 200,000 em­
ployee hours represent 100 employee years
(2,000 hours per employee). Full detail on the
available measures is presented in the annual
bulletin, Occupational Injuries and Illnesses:
Counts, Rates, and Characteristics.

Comparable data for more than 40 States
and territories are available from the BLS Of­
fice of Safety, Health and Working Condi­
tions. Many of these States publish data on
State and local government employees in ad­
dition to private industry data.
Mining and railroad data are furnished to
bls by the Mine Safety and Health Adminis­
tration and the Federal Railroad Administra­
tion. Data from these organizations are in­
cluded in both the national and State data
published annually.
With the 1992 survey, bls began publish­
ing details on serious, nonfatal incidents re­
sulting in days away from work. Included are
some major characteristics of the injured and
ill workers, such as occupation, age, gender,
race, and length of service, as well as the cir­
cumstances of their injuries and illnesses (na­
ture of the disabling condition, part of body
affected, event and exposure, and the source
directly producing the condition). In general,
these data are available nationwide for de­
tailed industries and for individual States at
more aggregated industry levels.
For additional information on occu­
pational injuries and illnesses, contact the
Office of Occupational Safety, Health and
Working Conditions at (202) 691-6180, or
access the Internet at:

http ://www.bls.gov/oshhome.htm

Census of Fatal
Occupational Injuries
The Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries
compiles a complete roster of fatal job-re­
lated injuries, including detailed data about
the fatally injured workers and the fatal
events. The program collects and cross
checks fatality information from multiple
sources, including death certificates, State
and Federal workers’ compensation reports,
Occupational Safety and Health Administra­
tion and Mine Safety and Health Adminis­
tration records, medical examiner and au­
topsy reports, media accounts, State motor
vehicle fatality records, and follow-up ques­
tionnaires to employers.
In addition to private wage and salary
workers, the self-employed, family mem­
bers, and Federal, State, and local govem-

ment workers are covered by the program.
To be included in the fatality census, the
decedent must have been employed (that
is working for pay, compensation, or profit)
at the time of the event, engaged in a legal
work activity, or present at the site of the
incident as a requirement of his or her job.

sentials as heat or oxygen caused by a specific
event or incident or series of events within a
single workday or shift. Fatalities that occur
during a person’s commute to or from work
are excluded from the census, as well as workrelated illnesses, which can be difficult
to identify due to long latency periods.

Definition

Notes on the d a ta

A fatal work injury is any intentional or unin­

Twenty-eight data elements are collected,
coded, and tabulated in the fatality program,
including information about the fatally in­
jured worker, the fatal incident, and the ma­
chinery or equipment involved. Summary

tentional wound or damage to the body resultng in death from acute exposure to energy,
uch as heat or electricity, or kinetic energy
■om a crash, or from the absence of such es­

worker demographic data and event charac­
teristics are included in a national news re­
lease that is available about 8 months after
the end of the reference year. The Census of
Fatal Occupational Injuries was initiated in
1992 as a joint Federal-State effort. Most
States issue summary information at the
time of the national news release.
F or additional information on the
Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries con­
tact the BLS Office of Safety, Health, and
Working Conditions at (202) 691-6175, or
the Internet at:
http ://www.bls.gov/oshhome.htm

Bureau of Labor Statistics Internet
The Bureau of Labor Statistics World Wide Web site on the Internet contains a range of
data on consumer and producer prices, employment and unemployment, occupational com­
pensation, employee benefits, workplace injuries and illnesses, and productivity. The
homepage can be accessed using any Web browser:


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

http://stats.bls.gov
Also, some data can be accessed through anonymous f t p or Gopher at

stats.bls.gov

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

63

Current Labor Statistics: Comparative Indicators

2. Annual and quarterly percent changes in compensation, prices, and productivity
1997

Selected measures

1997

1998
III

1998
IV

I

II

1999
III

IV

I

II

III

Compensation data 1’2
Employment Cost Index— compensation (wages,
salaries, benefits):
Civilian nonfarm........................................................................

3.3

3.4

1 .0

0 .8

0 .8

0 .8

1 .2

0 .6

0.4

1 .0

Private nonfarm....................................................................

3.4

3.5

.8

.9

.9

.9

1.1

.6

.4

1.1

1 .1

.9

Employment Cost Index— wages and salaries:
3.8

3.7

1 .2

.9

.7

1.3

.7

.5

1 .0

3.9

3.9

1 .0

1 .0

1.1

.9

1.3

.6

.5

1 .2

.9

1.7

1 .6

.6

.1

.6

.5

.4

.2

.7

.7

1 .0

- 1 .2

.0

.2

- .5

- .8

.5

- .1

.4

.0

1 .2

1 .6

-1 .4

.0

.4

- .8

- 1 .0

.8

.0

.2

.0

1 .8

2 .2

- .4

Private nonfarm....................................................................

.9

1 .1

Price data 1
Consumer Price Index (All Urban Consumers): All Items.....
Producer Price Index:
Finished goods...........................................................................
Capital equipment...................................................................

- .6

.0

- .7

.0

-.5

- .4

.9

- .1

- .4

Intermediate materials, supplies, and components...............

- .8

-3 .3

.2

- .8

-1 .4

.2

- .5

- 1 .6

- .2

1.9

1 .8

Crude materials...........................................................................

-1 1 .3

-16.7

1.3

- .6

- 8 .8

- 1 .8

-5 .6

-2 .5

- .1

1.9

9.8

.5

Productivity data 3
Output per hour of all persons:
Business sector...........................................................................

2 .2

2 .8

3.6

1 .2

4.6

.6

3.4

4.3

3.0

.8

4.7

Nonfarm business sector...........................................................

2 .0

2 .8

3.3

1 .2

4.4

.9

3.1

4.1

2.7

.6

4.9

Nonfinancial corDorations4 ........................................................

3.0

4.0

6.3

2 .8

3.7

3.9

5.9

3.2

4.1

3.2

4.7

1

Annual changes are December-to-December changes.

Quarterly changes are

calculated using the last month of each quarter. Compensation and price data are not
seasonally adjusted, and the price data are not compounded.
2

Excludes Federal and private household workers.

3

Annual rates of change are computed by comparing annual averages. Quarterly per­

64 Monthly Labor Review

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2000

cent changes reflect annual rates of change in quarterly indexes. The data are
seasonally adjusted.
4

Output per hour of all employees.

2. Annual and quarterly percent changes in compensation, prices, and productivity
Selected m easures

1997

1997

1998

1998

III

IV

I

II

1999
IV

III

I

II

III

C o m p e n s a t io n d a t a 1,2

Employment Cost Index— compensation (wages,
salaries, benefits):
Civilian nonfarm.........................................................................

3.3

3.4

1 .0

0 .8

0 .8

0 .8

1 .2

0 .6

0.4

1 .0

Private nonfarm....................................................................

3.4

3.5

.8

.9

.9

.9

1.1

.6

.4

1.1

1 .1

.9

Employment Cost Index—wages and salaries:
3.8

3.7

1 .2

9

7

13

.7

.5

1 0

3.9

3.9

1 .0

1 .0

1.1

.9

1.3

.6

.5

1 .2

.9

1.7

1 .6

.6

.1

.6

.5

.4

.2

.7

.7

1 .0

Finished goods...........................................................................

- 1 .2

.0

.2

-.5

- .8

.5

- .1

.4

.0

1 .2

1 .6

Finished consumer goods....................................................

-1 .4

.0

.4

- .8

- 1 .0

.8

.0

.2

.0

1 8

2 .2

- .4

Private nonfarm....................................................................

9

1.1

P r ic e d a t a 1

Consumer Price Index (All Urban Consumers): All Items......
Producer Price Index:

Capital equipment..................................................................

- .6

.0

-.7

.0

-.5

- .4

.9

- .1

- .4

Intermediate materials, supplies, and components...............

- .8

-3 .3

.2

- .8

-1 .4

.2

-.5

- 1 .6

- .2

1.9

1 .8

Crude materials...........................................................................

-1 1 .3

-1 6 .7

1.3

- .6

- 8 .8

- 1 .8

-5 .6

-2 .5

- .1

1.9

9.8

.5

P r o d u c t iv ity d a ta 3

Output per hour of all persons:
Business sector...........................................................................

2 .2

2 .8

3.6

1 .2

4.6

.6

3.4

4.3

3.0

.8

4.7

Nonfarm business sector...........................................................

2 .0

2 .8

3.3

1 .2

4.4

.9

3.1

4.1

2.7

.6

4.9

Nonfinancial corDorations4 ........................................................

3.0

4.0

6.3

2 .8

3.7

3.9

5.9

3.2

4.1

3.2

4.7

1

Annual changes are December-to-December changes.

Quarterly changes are

calculated using the last month of each quarter. Compensation and price data are not

cent changes reflect annual rates of change in quarterly indexes. The data are
seasonally adjusted.

seasonally adjusted, and the price data are not compounded.

Output per hour of all employees.

4

2

Excludes Federal and private household workers.

3

Annual rates of change are computed by comparing annual averages. Quarterly per­

3. Alternative measures of wage and compensation changes
Q uarterly average
Com ponents

1998
II

III

Four quarters ending—
1999

IV

I

1998

II

III

II

III

1999
IV

I

II

III

Average hourly compensation: 1
All persons, business sector..............................................................

5.5
5.6

6 .1
6 .2

4.9
4.6

4.9
4.2

5.1
4.8

4.6
4.7

5.5
5.3

5.8
5.7

5.4
5.3

5.4
5.1

5.3
4.9

4.9
4.6

.4
.4
.4
.5
.5

1 .0

1.1

1.1

.9
.9
.9
1.5

3.5
3.5
2.7
3.8
2.7

3.7
3.8
2.7
4.0
3.0

3.4
3.5
3.0
3.5
3.0

3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
2.9

3.2
3.3
2.7
3.4
3.0

3.1
3.1
2.5
3.2
2.9

3.8
40
3.0
4.1
3.0

4.0
43
3.2
4.4
3.0

3.7

3.3
3*3
3.1
3.3
2.9

3.6
3*6
3.1
3.7
3.1

3.3
3*2
2.5
3.3
3.3

Employment Cost Index— compensation:
Civilian nonfarm2 ..................................................................................
Private nonfarm.................................................................................
Union.................................................................................................
Nonunion..........................................................................................
State and local governments...........................................................

.8

1 .2

.6

.9

1.1

.6

1 .0

1.1

.5

.8

1.1

.6

.3

1.5

6

.7
.9

.7

.9

1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3

.2

1 .6

.7
1 .2

4

Employment Cost Index—wages and salaries:
Civilian nonfarm2 ..................................................................................
Private nonfarm.................................................................................
Union.................................................................................................
Nonunion..........................................................................................
State and local governments...........................................................

.8

6

.5
.7
.7

1

Seasonally adjusted. "Quarterly average" is percent change from a quarter ago, at an annual rate.

2

Excludes Federal and household workers.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

.5
.5
.4
.5
.4

1 .0

1.1

1 2

g

.8

.7
.9
1.9

1 .2

.4

3 ,9

3.3
4.0
3.1

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

65

Current Labor Statistics:
4.

Labor Force Data

Employment status of the population, by sex, age, race, and Hispanic origin, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[Numbers in thousands]
Em ployment status

Annual average
1998

1999

1998

1999

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

207,753
139,368
67.1
133,488

206,270
138,545
67.2
132,517

206,719

206,873
139,137
67.3
133,029

207,036
138,804
67.0
132,976

207,236

207,427

207,632

207,828

139,332
67.1
133,398

139,336
67.0
133,399

208,483
139,697
67.0
133,940

208,666
139,834
67.0
134,098

208,832

139,013
67.0
133,190

208,038
139,372
67.0
133,530

208,265

139,086
67.1
133,054

64.3
6,108
4.4
67,736

64.2

64.2
6,032
4.3
68,150

64.2

64.2

64.2

5,823
4.2
68,414

64.2
5,934
4.3
68,300

64.2

5,828
4.2
68,232

5,937
4.3
68,492

5,842
4.2
6 8 ,6 6 6

5,825
4.2
68,790

64.2
5,757
4.1
68,786

64.3
5,736
4.1
68,832

TO TAL

Civilian noninstitutional
population1 .......................... 205,220
Civilian labor force.............. 137,673
67.1
Participation rate.........
Employed........................ 131,463
Employment-pop64.1
ulation ratio2 ..............

139,232
67.4
133,225

139,475
67.0
133,650

140,108
67.1
134,420
64.4

64.3

64.2

64.4

4.5
67,547

5,880
4.2
68,385

6,028
4.4
67,725

6,007
4.3
67,487

90,790

91,555

91,220

91,124

91,189

91,215

91,302

91,368

91,487

91,561

91,692

91,793

91,896

91,986

92,052

69,715
76.8
67,135

70,194
76.7
67,761

70,044
76.8
67,528

70,202
77.0
67,771

70,111
76.9
67,527

69,934
76.7
67,628

69,992
76.7
67,562

69,978
76.6
67,470

70,116
76.6
67,645

70,167
76.6
67,703

70,240
76.6
67,768

70,328
76.6
67,943

70,339
76.5
67,898

70,388
76.5
68,037

70,529
76.6
68,197

73.9

74.0
2,244

74.0
2,254

74.4
2,304

74.1

74.1

74.0

74.0

2,305

2,246

73.9
2,237

73.9

2,239

73.9
2,256

74.0

2,231

73.8
2,224

73.9

2,350

2,189

2,206

2,262

74.1
2,227

64,785
2,580
3.7

65,517
2,433
3.5

65,274
2,516
3.6

65,467
2,431
3.5

65,296
2,584
3.7

65,389
2,306
3.3

65,257
2,430
3.5

65,246
2,508
3.6

65,399
2,471
3.5

65,447
2,464
3.5

65,531
2,472
3.5

65,754
2,385
3.4

65,692
2,441
3.5

65,775
2,351
3.3

65,970
2,332
3.3

98,786

100,158

99,181

99,686

99,746

99,833

99,923

100,008

100,131

100,203

100,285

100,385

100,458

100,573

1 0 0 ,6 6 6

59,702
60.4
57,278

60,840
60.7
58,555

60,118
60.6
57,776

60,691
60.9
58,373

60,591
60.7
58,261

60,554
60.7
58,216

60,765
60.8
58,336

60,708
60.7
58,483

60,988
60.9
58,647

60,852
60.7
58,477

60,904
60.7
58,648

60,860
60.6
58,630

60,955
60.7
58,800

61,052
60.7
58,838

61,154
60.7
58,958

58.0

58.5

58.6
802

58.5
780

58.5

58.5

851

58.4
798

58.4

803

58.5
820

58.6

822

58.3
821

58.4

803

58.3
767

58.4

768

778

800

768

58.6
791

56,510
2,424
4.1

57,752
2,285
3.8

57,009
2,342
3.9

57,571
2,318
3.8

57,439
2,330
3.8

57,395
2,338
3.9

57,533
2,429
4.0

57,663
2,225
3.7

57,796
2,341
3.8

57,679
2,375
3.9

57,868
2,256
3.7

57,852
2,230
3.7

58,000
2,155
3.5

58,070
2,214
3.6

58,167
2,196
3.6

population1 ..........................
Civilian labor force.............
Participation rate.........
Employed........................
Employment-pop-

15,644

16,040

15,777

15,909

15,939

15,988

16,011

16,065

16,061

16,086

16,129

16,107

16,114

8,333
52.0
7,172

8,383
52.9
7,213

8,339
52.4
7,081

8,435
52.9
7,241

8,316
52.0
7,132

8,329
52.0
7,156

16,051
8,327
51.9
7,237

16,014

8,256
52.8
7,051

8,228
51.4
7,106

8,317
51.8
7,219

8,228
51.2
7,114

8,287
51.5
7,077

8,403
52.1
7,242

8,394
52.1
7,223

8,425
52.3
7,265

ulation ratio2 .............
Aqriculture....................
Nonagricultural
industries.................
Unemployed....................
Unemployment rate...

45.1
261

44.7
234

45.5

44.5
191

45.4
275

44.6
230

44.7

44.9
224

44.3
217

44.0

233

45.1
246

44.4

220

44.9
232

44.8
280

45.1
261

6,790
1,205
14.6

6,938
1,162
13.9

6,993
1,170
14.0

6,890
1,258
15.1

6,966
1,194
14.2

6,902
1,184
14.2

6,923
1,173
14.1

6,991
1,090
13.1

6,873

6,897
1,114
13.5

6,865

13.6

6,995
1,098
13.2

7,010
1,161
13.8

6,943
1,171
14.0

7,004
1,160
13.8

population1..........................
Civilian labor force.............
Participation rate.........
Employed........................
Employment-pop»-

171,478

173,085

172,197

172,394

172,491

172,597

172,730

172,859

172,999

173,133

173,275

173,432

173,585

173,709

173,821

115,415
67.3
110,931

116,509
67.3
112,235

115,980
67.4
111,539

116,356
67.5
111,978

116,455
67.5
112,017

116,237
67.3
112,030

116,344
67.4

116,193
67.2
111,898

116,518
67.4
112,115

116,492
67.3
112,193

116,619
67.3
112,308

116,495
67.2
112,303

116,654
67.2
112,548

116,703
67.2
112,611

117,008
67.3
112,951

64.7

64.8

64.9

64.9

64.8

64.7

64.8

64.8

64.8

4,273
3.7

4,378
3.8

4,438
3.8

4,207
3.6

4,458
3.8

4,295
3.7

64.8
4,403
3.8

64.8

4,484
3.9

64.8
4,441
3.8

65.0

Unemployed...................
Unemployment rate...

4,299
3.7

4,311
3.7

4,192
3.6

4,106
3.5

64.8
4,092
3.5

65.0
4,057
3.5

24,373

24,855

24,529

24,665

24,697

24,729

24,765

24,798

24,833

24,867

24,904

24,946

24,985

25,019

25,051

15,982
65.6
14,556

16,365
65.8
15,056

16,155
65.8
14,894

16,337

16,250
65.8
14,924

16,231
65.6
14,925

16,288
65.8
15,011

16,290
65.7
15,053

16,308
65.7
15,069

16,366
65.8
14,962

16,321
65.5
15,047

16,474

16,489

16,508

6 6 .0

6 6 .0

6 6 .0

15,114

15,124

15,187

16,513
65.9
15,204

59.7
1,426
8.9

60.6
1,309

60.6
1,261
7.8

61.0
1,281
7.8

60.6
1,277
7.8

60.7

60.7

1,237
7.6

1,239
7.6

60.2
1,404

60.4
1,274
7.8

60.6
1,360
8.3

60.5
1,365
8.3

60.7
1,321

Unemployed....................
Unemployment rate....
Not in the labor force........

6 ,2 1 0

5,688
4.1
68,724

M e n , 20 y ea rs an d o ver

Civilian noninstitutional
population1 ..........................
Civilian labor force..............
Participation rate.........
Employed........................
Employment-population ratio2 .............
Aqriculture....................
Nonagricultural
industries..................
Unemployed....................
Unemployment rate....
W o m e n , 20 y ea rs a n d o v er

Civilian noninstitutional
population1 ..........................
Civilian labor force.............
Participation rate.........
Employed........................
Employment-popAqriculture...................
Nonagricultural
industries..................
Unemployed....................
Unemployment rate....
B o th s e x e s , 1 6 t o 1 9 y e a r s

Civilian noninstitutional

233

1 ,1 2 2

212

1 ,2 1 0

14.6

W h it e

Civilian noninstitutional

1 1 1 ,8 8 6

B la c k

Civilian noninstitutional
population1 .........................
Participation rate.........
Employed........................
Employment-popUnemployed...................
Unemployment rate...

8 .0

6 6 .2

15,056

See footnotes at end of table.


66 Monthly Labor Review
https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2000

60.4

60.4

1,326

1,306

8 .2

8 .0

8 .6

8 .0

60.7
1,309
7.9

4. Continued—Employment status of the population, by sex, age, race, and Hispanic origin, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Em ploym ent status

_____________________________________
Annual average

1998

1999

1998

1999

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

population'..........................
Civilian labor force..............
Participation rate.........
Employed........................
Employment-pop-

21,070

21,650

21,405

21,296

21,355

21,414

21,483

21,548

21,618

21,684

21,752

21,820

21,881

21,947

22,008

14,317
67.9
13,291

14,665
67.7
13,720

14,512
67.8
13,379

14,448
67.8
13,473

14,520

14,542
67.9
13,673

14,535
67.7
13,541

14,555
67.5
13,574

14,624
67.6
13,655

14,617
67.4
13,696

14,710
67.6
13,759

14,766
67.7
13,795

14,809
67.7
13,879

14,887
67.8
13,979

14,984

ulation ratio2.............
Unemployed....................
Unemployment rate....

63.1
1,026
7.2

63.4
945
6.4

62.5
1,133
7.8

63.3
975
6.7

63.4

63.8
869

63.0
994

63.2

63.2
971

63.7

6 .8

930
6.3

908

6 .0

921
6.3

63.3
951
6.5

63.4

969

6 .8

63.0
981
6.7

63.2

984

64.0
889
5.9

H is p a n ic o rig in

Civilian noninstitutional

2

6 8 .0

13,536

6 .6

6 .6

6 8 .1

14,095

6.1

The population figures are not seasonally adjusted.

data for the "other races" groups are not presented and Hispanics are included in both the

Civilian employment as a percent of the civilian noninstitutional population.

white and black population groups.

No t e : Detail for the above race and Hlspanic-origin groups will not sum to totals because

5.

Selected employment indicators, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[In thousands]
Annual average

1998

1999

Selected categories
1998

1999

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Employed, 16 years and over..
Men........................................
Women.................................

131,463
70,693
60,771

133,488
71,446
62,042

132,517
71,173
61,344

133,225
71,368
61,857

133,029
71,230
61,799

132,976
71,269
61,707

133,054
71,208
61,846

133,190
71,207
61,983

133,398
71,330
62,068

133,399
71,437
61,962

133,530
71,436
62,094

133,650
71,630
62,020

133,940
71,623
62,317

134,098
71,732
62,366

134,420
71,927
62,493

Married men, spouse
present.................................

42,923

43,254

43,205

43,440

43,077

43,164

43,210

42,997

43,279

43,350

43,368

43,367

43,206

43,273

43,283

Married women, spouse
present.................................

32,872

33,450

33,077

33,526

33,130

33,167

33,284

33,442

33,758

33,387

33,504

33,275

33,521

33,635

33,762

Women who maintain
families.................................

7,904

8,229

8,087

8,089

8,103

8,142

8,081

8,081

8,028

8,272

8,335

8,312

8,398

8,526

8,375

2 ,0 0 0

1,944
1,297
40

1,867
1,332
34

1,962
1,324
31

1,900
1,376
43

1,905
1,358
39

1,930
1,399
33

1,930
1,330
36

1,923
1,341
39

1,939
1,292
45

1,908
1,266
46

1,930
1,198
40

1,936
1,267
42

2,049
1,216
41

2,018

1,341
38
119,019
18,383
100,637
962
99,674
8,962
103

121,323
18,903
102,420
933
101,487
8,790
95

120,365
18,709
101,656
937
100,719
8,829
119

120,777
18,829
101,948
895
101,053
8,840

120,939
18,778
102,161
926
101,235
8,730
127

120,925
18,778
102,147
935

121,188
19,032
102,156
944

121,583
19,080
102,503
1,035
101,468
8,791

121,654
18,817
102,837
939
101,898
8,833

121,965
18,902
103,063
944
102,119

8,801
65

121,311
18,771
102,540
914
101,626
8,726
61

121,006
19,007
101,999
983
101,016
8,840

110

120,967
18,783
102,184
861
101,323
8,733
108

100

101

108

122,426
18,959
103,467
948
102,519
8,662
98

3,665

3,357

3,448

3,489

3,425

3,509

3,403

3,274

3,320

2,095

1,968

1,938

2,051

1,985

2,018

1,937

1,258

1,079

1,144

1 ,1 2 2

1,131

1,181

18,530

18,758

18,721

18,589

18,677

3,501

3,189

3,271

3,341

1,997

1,861

1,851

1,948

1,228

1,056

1,115

1,099

17,954

18,197

18,187

18,033

C h a r a c te r is t ic

C la s s o f w o r k e r

Agriculture:
Wage and salary workers.....
Self-employed workers........
Unpaid family workers.........
Nonagricultural industries:
Wage and salary workers.....
Government..........................
Private industries.................
Private households........
Other................................
Self-employed workers.......
Unpaid family workers.........

1 ,2 1 1

36

88

8,820
77

121,150
19,114
102,036
873
101,163
9,000
93

3,399

3,377

3,316

3,279

3,283

3,179

1,950

2,048

1,974

1,904

1,922

1,928

1,930

1,951

1,117

1,116

1,045

1,050

1,057

1,073

993

1,032

1,025

18,622

18,752

18,692

18,716

18,983

19,230

18,801

18,799

18,651

18,618

3,282

3,325

3,225

3,229

3,209

3,142

3,127

3,112

2,983

3,105

3,157

1,900

1,927

1,845

1,845

1,902

1,850

1,813

1,806

1,807

1,815

1,843

1 ,1 0 1

1,128

1,087

1,089

1,031

1,034

1,041

1,063

964

1,013

1,018

18,031

18,159

18,138

18,106

18,466

18,652

18,273

18,249

18,083

18,061

1 0 1 ,2 1 2

1 0 1 ,2 1 2

8 ,6 8 6

P e r s o n s a t w o r k p a r t t im e 1

All industries:
Part time for economic
reasons................................
Slack work or business
conditions........................
Could only find part-time
work.................................
Part time for noneconomic
reasons...............................
Nonagricultural industries:
Part time for economic
reasons................................
Slack work or business
conditions........................
Could only find part-time
work.................................
Part time for noneconomic
reasons..............................
1

18,094

Excludes persons "with a job but not at work" during the survey period for such reasons as vacation, illness, or industrial disputes.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

67

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

5. Selected employment indicators, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
Annual average

1999

1998

Selected categories
1998

1999

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Employed, 16 years and over..
Men........................................
Women..................................

131,463
70,693
60,771

133,488
71,446
62,042

132,517
71,173
61,344

133,225
71,368
61,857

133,029
71,230
61,799

132,976
71,269
61,707

133,054
71,208
61,846

133,190
71,207
61,983

133,398
71,330
62,068

133,399
71,437
61,962

133,530
71,436
62,094

133,650
71,630
62,020

133,940
71,623
62,317

134,098
71,732
62,366

134,420
71,927
62,493

Married men, spouse
present.................................

42,923

43,254

43,205

43,440

43,077

43,164

43,210

42,997

43,279

43,350

43,368

43,367

43,206

43,273

43,283

Married women, spouse
present.................................

32,872

33,450

33,077

33,526

33,130

33,167

33,284

33,442

33,758

33,387

33,504

33,275

33,521

33,635

33,762

Women who maintain
families.................................

7,904

8,229

8,087

8,089

8,103

8,142

8,081

8,081

8,028

8,272

8,335

8,312

8,398

8,526

8,375

2 ,0 0 0

1,944
1,297
40

1,867
1,332
34

1,962
1,324
31

1,900
1,376
43

1,905
1,358
39

1,930
1,399
33

1,930
1,330
36

1,923
1,341
39

1,939
1,292
45

1,908
1,266
46

1,930
1,198
40

1,936
1,267
42

2,049
1,216
41

2,018

1,341
38
119,019
18,383
100,637
962
99,674
8,962
103

121,323
18,903
102,420
933
101,487
8,790
95

120,365
18,709
101,656
937
100,719
8,829
119

120,777
18,829
101,948
895
101,053
8,840

120,939
18,778
102,161
926
101,235
8,730
127

120,925
18,778
102,147
935

121,188
19,032
102,156
944
8,820
77

121,583
19,080
102,503
1,035
101,468
8,791

121,654
18,817
102,837
939
101,898
8,833

88

121,150
19,114
102,036
873
101,163
9,000
93

121,965
18,902
103,063
944
102,119

8,801
65

121,311
18,771
102,540
914
101,626
8,726
61

121,006
19,007
101,999
983
101,016
8,840

110

120,967
18,783
102,184
861
101,323
8,733
108

100

101

108

122,426
18,959
103,467
948
102,519
8,662
98

3,665

3,357

3,448

3,489

3,425

3,509

3,403

3,399

3,377

3,316

3,279

3,283

3,179

3,274

3,320

2,095

1,968

1,938

2,051

1,985

2,018

1,937

1,950

2,048

1,974

1,904

1,922

1,928

1,930

1,951

1,258

1,079

1,144

1 ,1 2 2

1,131

1,181

1,117

1,116

1,045

1,050

1,057

1,073

993

1,032

1,025

18,801

18,799

18,651

18,618

Characteristic

Class of worker
Agriculture:
Wage and salary workers.....
Self-employed workers........
Unpaid family workers..........
Nonagricultural industries:
Wage and salary workers.....
Government..........................
Private industries.................
Private households........
Other................................
Self-employed workers......
Unpaid family workers........

1 0 1 ,2 1 2

1 0 1 ,2 1 2

8 ,6 8 6

1 ,2 1 1

36

Persons at work part time1
All industries:
Part time for economic
reasons...............................
Slack work or business
conditions.......................
Could only find part-time
Part time for noneconomic
reasons..............................
Nonagricultural industries:
Part time for economic
reasons...............................
Slack work or business
conditions........................
Could only find part-time
Part time for noneconomic
reasons..............................
1

18,530

18,758

18,721

18,589

18,677

18,622

18,752

18,692

18,716

18,983

19,230

3,501

3,189

3,271

3,341

3,282

3,325

3,225

3,229

3,209

3,142

3,127

3,112

2,983

3,105

3,157

1,997

1,861

1,851

1,948

1,900

1,927

1,845

1,845

1,902

1,850

1,813

1,806

1,807

1,815

1,843

1,228

1,056

1,115

1,099

1 ,1 0 1

1,128

1,087

1,089

1,031

1,034

1,041

1,063

964

1,013

1,018

17,954

18,197

18,187

18,033

18,031

18,159

18,138

18,106

18,466

18,652

18,273

18,249

18,083

18,061

Sept.

Oct.

Nov,

Dec.

2,582

2,545

2,601

1,805
1,412

1,811
1,434
719

1,760

2,620
1,694

715

1,401
725
676

1,388
693
695

13.0

13.2

13.0

5.9

6.3

6 .2

12.9
5.9

18.094

Excludes persons "with a job but not at work" during the survey period for such reasons as vacation, illness, or Industrial disputes.

7.

Duration of unemployment, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[Numbers in thousands]
Weeks of
unemployment

Annual average
1998
2,622

5 to 14 weeks.....................................

1999

1998
Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

2,568
1,832

2,573
1,884

2,397

2,585

1 ,8 6 8

2,502
1,832

2,540

1,925

2,521
1,884

2,741

2 ,0 1 2

2,640
1,778

2,599
1,798

1,539
754

1,474
794
680

1,519
784
735

806
828

1,511
779
732

1,463
747

785

1,467
752
715

14.3
6.3

13.5
5.8

13.2
6.4

1999

15 weeks and over............................

1,950
1,637

1,480

1,572

1,491

15 to 26 weeks...............................
27 weeks and over.........................

763
875

755
725

759
813

776
715

Mean duration, in weeks..................

14.5
6.7

13.4
6.4

14.0

13.5

13.8

13.6

13.2

13.4

6 .8

6 .8

6.9

6 .8

6 .1

6 .6

Median duration, in weeks...............


68 Monthly Labor Review
https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2000

1,775
1,634

Aug.

716

708
704

8.

Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[Numbers in thousands]
Reason for
unem ploym ent

Annual average
1998

Job losers1 .........................................

2,822

On temporary layoff......................
Not on temporary layoff................
Job leavers.........................................
Reentrants.........................................
New entrants......................................

866

1998

1999
2,622
848
1,774
783
2,005
469

1,957
734
2,132
520

1999

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

2,795
865
1,930
719
1,994
503

2,708
863
1,845
729
2,009
519

2,721
854
1,867
750
2,090
498

2,646
833
1,813
774
2,007
446

2,695
843
1,852
810
2,039
473

2,678
837
1,841
781
2,034
440

2,670
876
1,794
831
2,038
359

July

Aug.

2,670
847
1,823
768
2,003
459

2,629
893
1,736
793
1,942
481

Sept.
2,573
869
1,704
758
1,967
504

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

2,518
802
1,716
778
1,958
511

2,493
851
1,642
821
1,935
485

2,401
795
1,606
825
2,036
453

Percent of unemployed
Job losers1 .........................................
On temporary layoff......................
Not on temporary layoff.................
Job leavers..........................................
New entrants......................................

45.5

44.6

46.5

45.4

44.9

45.1

44.8

45.1

45.3

45.3

45.0

44.3

43.7

43.5

42.0

13.9
31.5

14.4
30.2
13.3
34.1

14.4
32.1

14.5
30.9

14.1
30.8
12.4
34.5

14.0
30.8
13.5
33.9
7.9

14.1
31.0
13.2
34.3
7.4

14.9
30.4
14.1
34.6

14.4
30.9
13.0
33.9
7.8

15.3
29.7
13.6
33.2

8 .2

14.2
30.9
13.2
34.2
7.6

8 .2

15.0
29.4
13.1
33.9
8.7

13.9
29.8
13.5
34.0
8.9

14.8
28.6
14.3
33.7
8.5

13.9
28.1
14.4
35.6
7.9

1.7

1 2 .0

1 2 .2

8 .0

33.2
8.4

33.7
8.7

2 .1

1.9

2 .0

1.9

2 .0

1.9

1.9

1.9

1.9

1.9

1.9

1 .8

1 .8

1 .8

.5
1.5
.4

.6

.5
1.4
.4

.5
1.4
.4

.5
1.5
.4

.6

.6

.6

.6

.6

.6

.6

.6

.6

1.4
.3

1.5
.3

1.5
.3

1.5
.3

1.4
.3

1.4
.3

.5
1.4
.4

1.4
.4

1.4
.3

1.5
.3

1 1 .8

34.3
8.4

6 .1

Percent of civilian
labor force

Job leavers..........................................
New entrants......................................

1.4
.3

' Includes persons who completed temporary jobs.

9.

Unemployment rates by sex and age, monthly data seasonally adjusted

[Civilian workers]
S ex and age

Annual average
1998

Total, 16 years and over...................
16 to 24 years................................
16 to 19 years.............................
16 to 17 years..........................
18 to 19 years..........................
20 to 24 years.............................
25 years and over..........................
25 to 54 years..........................
55 years and over...................

4.5
10.4
14.6
17.2

Men, 16 years and over..................
16 to 24 years..............................
16 to 19 years...........................
16 to 17 years........................
18 to 19 years........................
20 to 24 years...........................
25 years and over........................
25 to 54 years........................
55 years and over.................

4.4

Women, 16 years and over............
16 to 24 years..............................
16 to 19 years...........................
16 to 17 years........................
18 to 19 years........................
20 to 24 years...........................
25 years and over........................
25 to 54 years........................
55 years and over.................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1 2 .8

7.9
3.4
3.5
2.7

1 1 .1

16.2
19.1
14.1
8 .1

3.2
3.3

1999
4.2
9.9
13.9
16.3
12.4
7.5
3.1
3.2
2 .8

4.1
10.3
14.7
17.0
13.1
7.7
3.0
3.0

1998
Dec.
4.4
9.8
14.0
16.7
1 2 .2

7.2
3.3
3.3
2.9
4.3
1 0 .6

16.0
19.1
13.7
7.4
3.2
3.2
3.0

2 .8

2 .8

4.6
9.8
12.9
15.1
11.5
7.8
3.6
3.8

4.3
9.5
13.2
15.5

14.1

1 1 .6

1 0 .6

7.2
3.3
3.4

7.1
3.5
3.6

2 .8

2 .8

2 .6

4.4
8.9
1 1 .8

1999
Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

4.3

4.4

4.2

4.3

1 0 .1

1 0 .2

1 0 .0

1 0 .0

15.1
17.9
12.9
7.1
3.2
3.3
2.9

14.2
15.8
13.0
7.7
3.3
3.4
2.9

14.2
16.6
12.7
7.4
3.1
3.2

14.1
16.6
12.4
7.5
3.3
3.3
2.9

4.2
10.7
16.4
19.3
14.3
7.3
3.0
3.1
2 .8

4.4
9.5
13.7
16.3
11.5
7.0
3.4
3.5
3.0

4.3
10.3
14.9
16.0
13.9
7.6
3.2
3.2
2.9
4.4
1 0 .0

13.4
15.5
1 2 .0

7.9
3.4
3.5
2 .8

2 .8

4.0
1 0 .1

15.0
17.3
13.5
7.2
2 .8

2.9
2 .6

4.5
9.9
13.4
15.9
11.7
7.7
3.4
3.5
3.1

4.1
10.5
14.8
18.3
1 2 .6

7.9
3.0
3.0
2.7
4.6
9.5
13.4
14.8
1 2 .1

7.1
3.6
3.7
3.1

May

June

4.2
9.6
13.1
16.1

4.3
9.8
13.6
16.3

1 1 .2

1 1 .8

7.5
3.2
3.2
2.7

7.6
3.2
3.3
3.0

4.2

4.1
10.5
14.3
16.8
12.7
8.3
3.0
3.0
2.7

1 0 .2

13.9
17.6
11.5
8 .0

3.1
3.1
2 .8

4.2
8.9
1 2 .2

14.5
10.9
6.9
3.3
3.4
2 .6

4.4
9.1
13.0
15.7
10.9
6 .8

3.5
3.5
3.3

July
4.3
9.7
13.2
15.4
11.7
7.6
3.2
3.3
2.9
4.1

Aug.
4.2
9.6
13.5
15.9
1 2 .1

7.3
3.2
3.2
2.7

13.8
16.1

4.1
9.9
13.9
16.2

1 2 .2

1 2 .6

8 .1

7.6
3.1
3.1
2.9

1 0 .2

3.0
3.0
3.0
4.4
9.1
14.7

4.3
9.3
13.2
15.6

1 1 .2

1 1 .6

7.1
3.5
3.6
2.9

7.0
3.3
3.4
2.4

1 2 .6

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

4.2

4.1

4.1

1 0 .0

1 0 .0

1 0 .0

14.6
16.1
13.8
7.2
3.1
3.2

13.9
15.9
12.4
7.7
3.0
3.1
2.7

14.0
16.5
12.3
7.7
3.0
3.1

2 .6

2 .6

4.0
9.9
14.6
16.6
13.2
7.2
3.0
3.0
2.9

4.1
10.4
14.2
15.5
13.2

2 .8

2 .6

4.3

4.2
9.6
13.4
16.3
11.4
7.2
3.1
3.2
2.5

4.2
9.8
13.0
16.1

1 0 .0

14.7
15.6
14.5
7.2
3.2
3.4
2 .1

Monthly Labor Review

Dec.
4.1
9.8
13.8
16.5
1 2 .1

7.4
3.0
3.0
2.7

4.0

4.0

1 0 .2

1 0 .6

8 .2

14.9
16.9
13.6
7.5

15.2
17.7
13.5
7.8

2.9
3.0

2 .8

2 .8

2.9

2.9
2.5

1 0 .8

7.9
3.1
3.3
2 .6

February 2000

4.1
8.9
1 2 .2

15.1
10.5
7.0
3.2
3.2
2.9

69

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

10. Unemployment rates by State, seasonally adjusted
State

Nov.

Oct.

Nov.

1998

1999

1999p

Alabama...
Alaska......
Arizona.....
Arkansas..
California..

4.1

Colorado...................
Connecticut...............
Delaware...................
District of ColumbiaFlorida........................

State

5.5
4.0
5.5
5.9

4.4
5.7
4.0
4.2
4.9

4.4
5.9
4.0
4.3
4.8

Missouri.........................................................
Montana.........................................................
Nebraska.......................................................

3.6
3.2
3.4

3.0
3.0
3.2

2.8

New Jersey...................................................
New Mexico..................................................
New York......................................................

8.2

5.9
4.0

2.9
3.3
5.9
4.0

3.6
5.3
5.1
4.3
2.7

3.7
5.4
4.6
4.2
2.9

4.2

Georgia.............
Hawaii................
Idaho..................
Illinois.................
Indiana...............

4.9
4.4
3.0

Iowa...................
Kansas...............
Kentucky...........
Louisiana..........
Maine.................

2.7
3.8
4.3
5.3
4.0

Maryland...........
MassachusettsMichigan...........
Minnesota.........
Mississippi........

4.0
3.1
3.8
2.5
5.2

4.0

6.1

2.2

2.1

3.2
4.1
5.6
3.9

3.3
3.9
4.9
3.5

3.5
3.2
3.7

3.2
3.2
3.7
2.4
4.5

2.2
5.2

Nov.

Oct.

Nov.

1998

1999

1999p

3.5
5.6
2.7
36
2.9

2.7
4.9
2.5
44
2.5
4.5

North Carolina..............................................
North Dakota.................................................

4.5
6.4
55
3.2
2.9

Oregon...........................................................
Pennsylvania................................................
Rhode Island................................................

New Hampshire...........................................

South Carolina..............................................
South Dakota................................................
Tennessee.....................................................
Texas.............................................................
Utah................................................................
Vermont.........................................................
Virginia...........................................................
Washington...................................................
West Virginia.................................................
Wisconsin......................................................
Wyoming........................................................

2.6
4.8

2.6
45

2.6
4.3

6.0

6.0

5.2

5.0

3.3

3.2

2.8

2.8

4 1
4.5
5.5
4.5
4.4

4.2

40
32

4.0

4.4
2.7
3.6
4.7
3.4

4.7
2.5
3.7
4.4
2.9

2.9

2.6
2.8

2.8
4.1
4.8
3.4
3.1
2.9
4.9

6.2
3.6
4.7

3 1
5.5
4.2
3.7

5.1
4.3
3.8

2.8
4.8
6.7

4.0

2.8

2.9
4.4

6.6

4.6

p = preliminary

11. Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by State, seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State

Nov.

Oct.

Nov.

1998

1999

1999p

State

Nov.

Oct.

Nov.

1998

1999

1999p

2,707.6
384 1
879.2
989 1
596.8

2,711.2
384.5
880.3
990.3
602.2

Alabama...................
Alaska.......................
Arizona.....................
Arkansas..................
California..................

1,916.8
276.6
2,113.4
1,132.0
13,748.8

1,931.6
278.6
2,176.3
1,144.3
14,067.9

1,934.6
278.8
2,182.2
1,146.6
14,113.5

New Hampshire.............................

2,708.5
376.4
882.6
943.9
591.2

Colorado..................
Connecticut.............
Delaware..................
District of Columbia.
Florida.......................

2,074.6
1,652.5
403.9
616.4
6,773.0

2,111.0
1,674.1
415.2
621.7
7,014.1

2,118.4
1,678.6
415.9
620.5
7,033.5

New Jersey.....................................
New Mexico...................................
New York........................................
North Carolina...............................
North Dakota.................................

3,821.1
725.3
8,293.1
3,814.5
317.5

3,882.0
733.1
8,443.6
3,843.5
316.4

3,888.3
735.6
8,456.6
3,849.7
318.9

Georgia....................
Hawaii.......................
Idaho.........................
Illinois........................
Indiana.....................

3,782.9
528.3
527.1
5,937.5
2,931.5

3,904.5
531.2
532.6
5,967.4
2,958.8

3,922.5
531.4
531.7
5,985.2
2,957.9

Ohio................................................
Oklahoma.......................................
Oregon.............................................
Pennsylvania.................................
Rhode Island..................................

5,498.2
1,451.6
1,571.2
5,515.5
430.9

5,522.4
1,486.5
1,592.2
5,546.0
469.0

5,527.8
1,487.9
1,596.0
5,541.3
468.4

Iowa...........................
Kansas.....................
Kentucky..................
Louisiana..................
Maine........................

1,460.8
1,328.4
1,763.3
1,913.3
576.1

1,492.9
1,346.9
1,797.2
1,920.9
587.9

1,494.6
1,349.5
1,799.8
1,926.5
589.8

South Carolina...............................
South Dakota.................................
Tennessee......................................
Texas...............................................
Utah................................................

1,806.0
363.7
2,653.9
9,046.6
1,034.2

1,842.0
363.1
2,677.0
9,267.8
1,061.4

1,849.6
365.1
2,678.5
9,294.2
1,063.0

Maryland..................
Massachusetts........
Michigan...................
Minnesota.................
Mississippi................

2,346.6
3,191.6
4,543.9
2,584.8
1,133.8

2,384.8
3,234.6
4,570.6
2,627.3
1,131.7

2,391.0
3,235.8
4,578.8
2,631.8
1,131.2

Vermont..........................................
Virginia............................................
Washington.....................................
West Virginia..................................
Wisconsin.......................................
Wyoming.........................................

287.1
3,341.7
2,619.0
722.6
2,725.1
227.4

292.7
3,403.5
2,661.2
725.3
2,748.6
231.1

294.0
3,406.1
2,669.5
727.2
2,750.0
231.8

Missouri..........................................
Nebraska.........................................

p = preliminary
No t e : Some data in this table may differ from data published elsewhere because of the continual updating of the data base.

70 Monthly Labor Review

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2000

12. Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by industry, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]__________________________________________________________________________
Industry

Annual average

1998

1999

1998

1999p

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.p

Dec.p

P R IV A T E S E C T O R ......................

125,826
106,007

128,610
108,450

127,186
107,213

127,378
107,386

127,730
107,676

127,813
107,726

128,134
108,035

128,162
108,085

128,443
108,338

128,816
108,663

128,945
108,735

129,048
108,830

129,332
109,095

129,554
109,296

129,869
109,547

G O O D S - P R O D U C IN G ......................

25,347

25,315
560
50
312

25,329

25,285

25,288

25,199

550
50
305

538
49
294

531
49
287

25,148
524
47
285

25,186
527
48
287

25,198
528
48
289

25,260
527
49
288

25,277

553
50
306

25,180
526
48
285

25,247

590
50
339

25,240
535
49
293

25,354

M i n i n g ...............................................

T O T A L .........................................

Metal mining...............................
Oil and gas extraction................
Nonmetallic minerals,
except fuels.............................
C o n s t r u c t io n ......................................

General building contractors....
Heavy construction, except
building....................................
Special trades contractors.........
M a n u fa c tu r in g ...................................

Production workers..............
D u r a b le g o o d s ...............................

Production workers..............
Lumber and wood products....
Furniture and fixtures..............
Stone, clay, and glass
products.................................
Primary metal industries..........
Fabricated metal products......
Industrial machinery and
equipment..............................
Computer and office
equipment............................
Electronic and other electrical
equipment..............................
Electronic components and
accessories...........................
Transportation equipment........
Motor vehicles and
equipment.............................
Aircraft and parts...................
Instruments and related
products................................
Miscellaneous manufacturing
industries................................
N o n d u r a b le g o o d s .......................

Production workers..............
Food and kindred products.....
Tobacco products.....................
Textile mill products.................
Apparel and other textile
products.................................
Paper and allied products........
Printing and publishing............
Chemicals and allied products.
Petroleum and coal products...
Rubber and miscellaneous
plastics products.....................
Leather and leather products...
S E R V IC E -P R O D U C IN G ....................

570
50
320

528
48
285

529
48
291

109

109

110

109

109

108

109

109

109

110

109

109

109

108

107

5,985
1,372

6,273
1,434

6,173
1,404

6,170
1,410

6,238
1,426

6,232
1,429

6,277
1,428

6,239
1,427

6,258
1,430

6,270
1,432

6,246
1,426

6,293
1,440

6,314
1,445

6,369
1,451

6,385
1,452

838
3,744

862
3,977

876
3,893

871
3,889

869
3,943

864
3,939

874
3,975

854
3,958

857
3,971

857
3,981

852
3,968

857
3,996

861
4,008

869
4,049

881
4,052

18,772
12,930

18,432
12,662

18,611
12,795

18,585
12,773

18,538
12,730

18,503
12,714

18,473
12,696

18,429
12,662

18,396
12,623

18,449
12,691

18,378
12,622

18,366
12,617

18,356
12,608

18,364
12,616

18,363
12,616

11,170
7,643

10,986
7,512

11,074
7,568

11,050
7,548

11,027
7,529

11,014
7,527

10,993
7,519

10,971
7,504

10,960
7,487

11,015
7,549

10,975
7,513

10,959
7,496

10,952
7,489

10,958
7,494

10,959
7,487

813
530

826
540

823
534

826
534

827
535

827
535

824
536

824
537

824
538

826
546

826
543

827
544

829
546

830
543

830
543

563
712
1,501

569
690
1,489

570
699
1,493

569
696
1,495

571
695
1,491

569
693
1,490

570
691
1,489

569
689
1,487

568
687
1,485

571
692
1,493

568
688
1,484

569
685
1,486

568
685
1,487

571
687
1,488

571
687
1,490

2,203

2,129

2,167

2,148

2,146

2,139

2,132

2,129

2,128

2,131

2,122

2,117

2,116

2,117

2,118

379

360

370

362

362

360

361

362

364

360

359

358

358

357

359

1,704

1,662

1,669

1,663

1,659

1,659

1,658

1,658

1,657

1,667

1,662

1,662

1,665

1,664

1,667

660
1,884

639
1,855

640
1,882

637
1,884

636
1,871

636
1,873

635
1,864

635
1,853

637
1,849

639
1,863

641
1,859

640
1,848

643
1,838

643
1,836

645
1,831

990
524

1,000
490

994
518

996
517

989
510

992
511

996
503

996
498

998
491

1,014
488

1,012
483

1,006
476

1,001
471

1,002
467

1,002
463

868

839

851

849

847

844

842

839

837

840

836

833

830

833

833

393

387

386

386

385

385

387

386

387

386

387

388

388

389

389

7,602
5,287

7,446
5,151

7,537
5,227

7,535
5,225

7,511
5,201

7,489
5,187

7,480
5,177

7,458
5,158

7,436
5,136

7,434
5,142

7,403
5,109

7,407
5,121

7,404
5,119

7,406
5,122

7,404
5,129

1,686
41
598

1,685
39
561

1,693
40
582

1,699
40
579

1,695
40
575

1,693
39
571

1,689
38
567

1,688
38
563

1,680
39
560

1,681
39
559

1,666
36
557

1,679
38
553

1,680
38
551

1,686
38
552

1,691
38
550

763
675
1,565
1,043
140

684
659
1,554
1,035
137

724
666
1,560
1,042
140

718
664
1,561
1,041
139

707
664
1,559
1,041
139

702
662
1,557
1,037
139

698
662
1,555
1,038
139

691
661
1,551
1,036
138

686
659
1,552
1,033
137

679
659
1,554
1,032
138

672
658
1,553
1,030
136

669
657
1,552
1,033
137

666
655
1,552
1,033
136

663
655
1,550
1,033
136

658
655
1,548
1,033
135

1,009
83

1,019
74

1,012
78

1,016
78

1,015
76

1,014
75

1,019
75

1,018
74

1,016
74

1,021
72

1,022
73

1,017
72

1,021
72

1,022
71

1,026
70

100,480

103,370

101,832

102,063

102,401

102,528

102,846

102,963

103,263

103,569

103,797

103,862

104,134

104,294

104,592

6,600
4,276
231

6,791
4,425
230

6,684
4,340
231

6,708
4,356
233

6,723
4,367
233

6,732
4,378
235

6,750
4,397
234

6,758
4,402
233

6,781
4,423
233

6,799
4,438
230

6,813
4,445
226

6,831
4,455
227

6,841
4,458
227

6,860
4,472
227

6,892
4,498
228

468
1,745
180
1,183
14
455

482
1,812
181
1,237
13
469

474
1,769
183
1,205
14
464

474
1,786
182
1,204
14
463

475
1,789
181
1,213
14
462

476
1,796
177
1,218
14
462

483
1,800
180
1,220
14
466

480
1,802
180
1,226
13
468

483
1,810
181
1,234
13
469

483
1,817
182
1,240
13
473

488
1,817
182
1,246
13
473

486
1,825
182
1,250
13
472

486
1,828
182
1,251
13
471

487
1,833
181
1,259
13
472

487
1,842
180
1,273
13
475

2,324
1,469

2,366
1,522

2,344
1,492

2,352
1,502

2,356
1,507

2,354
1,506

2,353
1,508

2,356
1,513

2,358
1,513

2,361
1,519

2,368
1,525

2,376
1,533

2,383
1,541

2,388
1,545

2,394
1,551

T r a n s p o r t a t io n a n d p u b lic
u tilitie s ............................................

Transportation.............................
Railroad transportation............
Local and interurban
passenger transit...................
Trucking and warehousing......
Water transportation................
Transportation by air................
Pipelines, except natural gas...
Transportation services..........
Communications and public
utilities.......................................
Communications.......................
Electric, gas, and sanitary
services..................................

855

845

852

850

849

848

845

843

845

842

843

843

842

843

843

W h o le s a le tr a d e ...............................

6,831

7,003

6,901

6,924

6,937

6,947

6,965

6,977

6,993

7,012

7,031

7,041

7,064

7,066

7,082

R e ta il tr a d e .........................................

22,296

22,784

22,525

22,556

22,648

22,611

22,724

22,748

22,796

22,903

22,888

22,862

22,891

22,887

22,952

Building materials and garden
supplies....................................
General merchandise stores.....
Department stores...................

948
2,730
2,426

987
2,773
2,471

967
2,758
2,456

972
2,773
2,470

979
2,781
2,475

982
2,794
2,489

982
2,799
2,499

979
2,784
2,486

982
2,782
2,482

986
2,778
2,476

988
2,774
2,468

992
2,762
2,460

1,001
2,756
2,455

1,004
2,750
2,447

1,007
2,784
2,469

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

71

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

12. Continued—Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by industry, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]______________________________________________________________________________________
Industry

Annual average
1998

Food stores.................................
Automotive dealers and
service stations........................
New and used car dealers......
Apparel and accessory stores...
Furniture and home furnishings
stores........................................
Eating and drinking places........
Miscellaneous retail
establishments........................

1999p

1999

1998
Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.p

Dec.p

3,482

3,483

3,487

3,481

3,492

3,490

3,492

3,487

3,479

3,478

3,484

3,478

3,481

3,478

3,485

2,341
1,048
1,143

2,406
1,082
1,181

2,370
1,059
1,147

2,377
1,061
1,152

2,390
1,065
1,167

2,392
1,069
1,167

2,399
1,074
1,163

2,400
1,077
1,172

2,403
1,080
1,178

2,407
1,085
1,192

2,409
1,089
1,191

2,415
1,091
1,189

2,420
1,092
1,200

2,424
1,096
1,199

2,434
1,099
1,191

1,026
7,760

1,085
7,903

1,048
7,857

1,055
7,843

1,064
7,855

1,070
7,785

1,081
7,863

1,084
7,880

1,091
7,911

1,090
7,989

1,094
7,960

1,097
7,932

1,099
7,922

1,093
7,943

1,101
7,970

2,867

2,965

2,891

2,903

2,920

2,931

2,945

2,962

2,970

2,983

2,988

2,997

3,009

2,996

2,980

7,407
3,593
2,042
1,468
258
658

7,633
3,707
2,048
1,466
256
714

7,542
3,663
2,047
1,467
257
698

7,570
3,675
2,049
1,469
258
705

7,581
3,681
2,051
1,470
258
708

7,595
3,690
2,051
1,469
258
712

7,611
3,697
2,050
1,467
257
716

7,621
3,706
2,047
1,465
256
720

7,636
3,709
2,045
1,463
256
721

7,647
3,715
2,044
1,462
256
721

7,650
3,716
2,046
1,464
255
719

7,653
3,715
2,047
1,466
255
713

7,668
3,719
2,047
1,464
254
711

7,678
3,725
2,047
1,465
253
710

7,690
3,735
2,049
1,468
252
714

645

679

661

663

661

664

668

672

676

682

685

686

691

697

702

248
2,344
1,598

266
2,401
1,634

257
2,379
1,624

258
2,383
1,627

261
2,386
1,628

263
2,392
1,632

263
2,395
1,631

267
2,399
1,635

267
2,402
1,638

268
2,404
1,635

266
2,407
1,636

269
2,410
1,637

270
2,414
1,641

271
2,411
1,636

270
2,412
1,637

746
1,471

767
1,525

755
1,500

756
1,512

758
1,514

760
1,513

764
1,519

764
1,516

764
1,525

769
1,528

771
1,527

773
1,528

773
1,535

775
1,542

775
1,543

37,526
706
1,776
1,195
8,584
950
3,230
2,872

38,999
758
1,798
1,206
9,124
988
3,407
3,019

38,207
739
1,783
1,202
8,829
964
3,292
2,922

38,313
747
1,785
1,205
8,869
971
3,308
2,933

38,458
751
1,786
1,201
8,922
971
3,331
2,954

38,556
747
1,789
1,200
8,963
973
3,343
2,967

38,697
755
1,791
1,204
9,010
978
3,350
2,975

38,782
751
1,786
1,189
9,047
979
3,366
2,986

38,952
757
1,797
1,200
9,088
984
3,387
3,000

39,055
760
1,807
1,207
9,148
992
3,422
3,025

39,205
757
1,813
1,207
9,186
998
3,418
3,024

39,257
763
1,811
1,210
9,204
1,000
3,440
3,032

39,433
766
1,806
1,210
9,303
1,003
3,490
3,099

39,545
774
1,810
1,214
9,331
1,003
3,504
3,101

39,654
758
1,804
1 224
9,408
997
3,531
3,125

1,599 .

1,781

1,691

1,708

1,724

1,734

1,749

1,765

1,781

1,794

1,806

1,814

1,823

1,828

1,841

1,144
382
573

1,185
397
600

1,163
390
577

1,168
392
573

1,175
392
582

1,176
393
580

1,178
396
587

1,182
398
604

1,184
395
611

1,185
395
609

1,185
396
608

1,190
398
608

1,196
400
612

1,198
401
614

1,197
405
606

F in a n c e , in s u ra n c e , a n d
r e a l e s t a t e ........................................

Finance.......................................
Depository institutions.............
Commercial banks.................
Savings institutions................
Nondepository institutions......
Security and commodity
Holding and other investment
offices......................................
Insurance....................................
Insurance carriers....................
Insurance agents, brokers,
Real estate..................................
S e r v ic e s 1............................................

Hotels and other lodging places
Business services.......................
Services to buildings................
Personnel supply services.......
Help supply services..............
Computer and data
processing services...............
Auto repair services
and parking..............................
Miscellaneous repair services...
Amusement and recreation
Health services...........................
Offices and clinics of medical
doctors....................................
Nursing and personal care
facilities...................................
Hospitals....................................
Home health care services.....
Legal services.............................
Educational services..................
Social services............................
Child day care services...........
Residential care........................
Museums and botanical and
zoological gardens..................
Membership organizations........
Engineering and management
Engineering and architectural
services..................................
Management and public
relations.................................

Federal, except Postal
Service...................................
Education..................................
Local............................................
Education..................................
Other local government...........

1,601

1,695

1,647

1,653

1 656

1 660

1,668

1,675

1,695

1 694

1 712

1 713

1 730

1 728

1 711

9,846

9,973

9,899

9,905

9,919

9,932

9,951

9,954

9,964

9,975

9,993

9,999

10,009

10,025

10,041

1,803

1,866

1,833

1,840

1,844

1,850

1,856

1,860

1,864

1,868

1,874

1,876

1,880

1,887

1,890

1,762
3,926
672
973
2,177
2,644
605
747

1,755
3,970
654
1,002
2,269
2,782
632
781

1,756
3,952
651
988
2,223
2,708
618
762

1,756
3,954
645
989
2,218
2,721
621
765

1,755
3,959
651
992
2,237
2,734
625
768

1,754
3,963
653
995
2,243
2,744
627
769

1,753
3,966
656
998
2,254
2,755
628
772

1,755
3,966
653
999
2,265
2,760
629
775

1,755
3,969
653
1,002
2,272
2,778
633
777

1,754
3,968
655
1,000
2,278
2,763
632
781

1,755
3,973
658
1,004
2,288
2,799
631
785

1,756
3,977
657
1,007
2,289
2,803
631
788

1,756
3,978
658
1,009
2,288
2,817
634
792

1,755
3,979
658
1,012
2,298
2,841
644
798

1,760
3,987
656
1,015
2,304
2,850
648
802

93
2,361

94
2,402

94
2,380

94
2,385

94
2,389

95
2,392

94
2,392

93
2,394

94
2,409

94
2,403

95
2,409

94
2,408

95
2,409

95
2,411

95
2,419

3,185

3,420

3,292

3,316

3,335

3,354

3,370

3,391

3,411

3,441

3,458

3,464

3,487

3,498

3,521

933

939

940

942

948

948

948

954

960

965

1,195

1,215

905

944

922

926

930

1,034

1,158

1,090

1,103

1,111

1,123

1,133

1,143

1,153

1,165

1,178

1,180

1,193

19,819
2,686

20,160
2,669

19 973
2,701

19 992
2,702

20,054
2,713

20 087
2,710

20 099
2,688

20 077
2,666

20 105
2,664

20 153
2,656

20 ?10
2,651

20 218
2,654

20 237

2,643

2,646

2,652

1,819
4,612
1,916
2,695
12,521
7,082
5,440

1,796
4,695
1,953
2,743
12,795
7,265
5,531

1,819
4,652
1,932
2 720
12,620
7,148
5,472

1,822
4 644
1,920
2 724
12,646
7,165
5,481

1,834
4 670
1,941
2 729
12,671
7,181
5,490

1,831
4 680
1,948
2 732
12,697
7,200
5,497

1,809
4 688
1,955
2 733
12,723
7,206
5,517

1,788
4 677
1,941
2 736
12,734
7,225
5,509

1,789
4 675
1,934
2 741
12,766
7,239
5,527

1,779
4 68?
1,947
? 735

1,779

1,780
4 72?

1,778

1,777

1,965
? 741

1,785
4 717
1,965
? 75?

? 76?

? 760

12,815
7,268
5,547

12,853
7,308
5,545

12,847
7,295
5,552

12,872
7,305
5,567

12,887
7,315
5,572

1 Includes other industries not shown separately.
p = preliminary.

Note : See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.

72FRASER
Monthly Labor Review
Digitized for
https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2000

4 706

1,960

1,965

1,974
12,935
7,350
5,585

13. Average weekly hours of production or nonsupervisory workers on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry, monthly
data seasonally adjusted
Annual average

1998

1999

Industry
1998

1999p

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.p Dec.p

PRIVATE SECTOR....................................

34.6

34.5

34.6

34.6

34.6

34.5

34.4

34.4

34.5

34.5

34.5

34.4

34.5

34.5

34.5

GOODS-PRODUCING....................................

41.0

41.0

41.1

41.1

41.0

40.8

40.9

41.0

41.2

41.2

41.1

41.1

41.1

41.3

41.0

42.9

43.0

42.9

43.8

44.1

44.0

45.1

44.2

44.3

44.1

44.2

44.9

41.7
4.7

41.9
4.7

41.8
4.7

41.8
4.7

41.8
4.7

41.7
4.6

41.7
4.7

MINING............................................................

43.9

43.9

43.3

MANUFACTURING.......................................
Overtime hours.......................................

41.7
4.6

41.7
4.6

41.7
4.5

41.6
4.5

41.6
4.5

41.5
4.5

41.6
4.3

41.7
4.6

Durable goods............................................

42.3
4.8
41.1
40.6
43.5
44.2

42.3
4.8
41.1
40.3
43.4
44.2

42.2
4.6
41.5
40.2
43.8
43.7

42.2
4.6
41.7
40.4
43.8
43.7

42.2
4.6
41.1
40.3
43.4
43.8

42.0
4.6
41.2
40.3
42.9
43.9

42.1
4.3
41.2
40.4
43.1
44.0

42.2
4.7
41.2
40.4
43.4
44.3

42.3
4.8
41.1
40.4
43.4
44.3

42.5
4.9
41.1
40.6
43.6
44.5

42.4
4.9
41.3
40.3
43.6
44.4

42.4
4.9
41.1
40.4
43.6
44.4

42.3
4.8
41.1
40.2
43.4
44.3

42.2
4.7
41.0
40.0
43.9
44.3

42.1
4.8
40.8
40.5
43.1
44.5

44.6
42.3

44.8
42.2

43.3
42.2

43.8
42.1

43.8
42.1

43.9
42.1

44.5
41.8

44.8
42.1

45.2
42.1

45.2
42.3

45.1
42.4

45.0
42.3

45.0
42.1

45.4
42.1

45.8
42.1

42.8

42.2

42.1

42.1

42.1

41.9

41.9

42.1

42.0

42.4

42.4

42.4

42.4

42.3

42.4

41.4
43.4
43.5
41.3
39.9

41.4
43.8
45.0
41.5
39.8

41.1
44.1
44.9
41.1
39.6

41.2
43.5
44.3
41.2
39.6

41.2
44.0
45.0
41.3
39.7

41.0
43.7
44.7
41.2
39.8

41.1
44.0
45.1
41.6
39.6

41.5
43.5
44.4
41.6
40.2

41.5
44.2
45.4
41.5
40.0

41.7
44.4
46.0
41.7
40.1

41.7
44.0
45.2
41.6
40.1

41.6
44.0
45.2
41.6
40.0

41.6
43.9
45.3
41.5
39.8

41.5
43.5
44.7
41.6
39.6

41.4
43.0
44.1
41.7
39.7

40.9
4.3
41.7
41.0
37.3
43.4

40.9
4.4
41.8
41.0
37.4
43.5

40.9
4.3
42.0
40.8
37.3
43.4

40.8
4.4
41.8
40.8
37.0
43.5

40.8
4.3
41.7
40.6
37.5
43.5

40.8
4.4
41.7
40.4
37.4
43.7

40.9
4.2
41.9
41.0
37.5
43.6

41.0
4.4
41.8
41.0
37.8
43.5

41.0
4.5
41.8
40.6
37.7
43.5

41.1
4.5
42.0
41.3
37.5
43.5

40.9
4.4
41.6
40.9
37.3
43.7

40.9
4.4
41.7
40.8
37.5
43.5

41.0
4.5
42.0
41.3
37.5
43.5

41.0
4.4
41.8
41.2
37.3
43.5

41.0
4.6
41.7
41.4
37.5
43.3

Furniture and fixtures.............................
Primary metal industries.........................
Blast furnaces and basic steel
Fabricated metal products....................
Industrial machinery and equipment....
Electronic and other electrical
Transportation equipment.....................
Instruments and related products........
Miscellaneous manufacturing................

Overtime hours.....................................

Apparel and other textile products.......

Printing and publishing...........................
Chemicals and allied products.............
Rubber and miscellaneous
plastics products...................................
Leather and leather products................

38.3
43.2

38.2
43.0

38.1
42.7

38.2
42.9

38.1
42.8

37.9
42.8

38.1
43.0

38.3
43.0

38.3
43.0

38.4
43.1

38.3
43.3

38.3
43.2

38.4
43.1

38.3
43.2

38.3
43.1

41.7
37.6

41.7
37.8

41.7
37.5

41.4
37.3

41.7
37.7

41.8
37.7

41.5
38.1

41.9
38.4

41.8
37.9

41.7
37.9

41.6
38.2

41.7
37.2

41.5
37.5

41.6
37.8

41.5
37.7

SERVICE-PRODUCING..................................

32.9

32.8

32.9

32.9

33.0

32.8

32.8

32.8

32.8

32.9

32.9

32.8

32.8

32.8

32.9

TRANSPORTATION AND
PUBLIC UTILITIES..................................

39.5

38.7

39.1

39.3

39.2

39.1

39.0

38.8

38.9

38.7

38.9

38.6

38.5

38.1

38.3

W H O L E S A L E T R A D E .........................................

38.4

38.4

38.4

38.4

38.5

38.4

38.4

38.3

38.4

38.4

38.4

38.5

38.6

38.4

38.5

RETAIL TRADE.............................................

29.0

29.0

29.0

29.0

29.2

29.0

29.0

29.1

29.1

29.1

29.0

28.8

28.9

28.9

29.0

p = preliminary.
NOTE: See "Notes on the data” for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.

14. Average hourly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry,
seasonally adjusted
A nnual average

1998

1999

Industry
1998
PRIVATE SECTOR (in current dollars).. $ 12.78

1999p

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.p

Dec.p

$ 13.24

$12.98

$13.04

$13.06

$13.11

$13.14

$13.18

$13.24

$13.28

$13.29

$13.35

$13.39

$13.40

$13.46

14.34

14.82

14.51

14.53

14.56

14.61

14.67

14.75

14 85

14.90

14.90

14.93

14.97

15.00

15.04

16.90

17.05

17.18

17.07

16.97

17.00

16.87

17.05

16.96

17.23

17.12

17.09

17.09

16.92

17.10

Construction...........................................

16.59

17.13

16.80

16.80

16.83

16.92

16.97

17.08

17.16

17.18

17.15

17.21

17.27

17.32

17.43

Manufacturing........................................

13.49

13.91

13.60

13.64

13.67

13.71

13.79

13.85

13.95

14.02

14.03

14.04

14.07

14.07

14.10

Excluding overtime.............................

12.79

13.18

12.90

12.93

12.97

13.00

13.09

13.13

13.20

13.26

13.28

13.29

13.33

13.33

13.36

Service-producing...................................

12.27

12.74

12.49

12.56

12.58

12.63

12.65

12.68

12.73

12.77

12.79

12.85

12.89

12.90

12.97

Transportation and public utilities.......

15.31

15.66

15.47

15.49

15.51

15.53

15.60

15.65

15.65

15.70

15.70

15.76

15.76

15.80

15.89

Wholesale trade.....................................

14.06

14.60

14.30

14.36

14.36

14.42

14.44

14.48

14.56

14.61

14.63

14.74

14.80

14.85

14.95

Retail trade.............................................

8.73

9.08

8.89

8.93

8.95

8.98

9.03

9.04

9.06

9.10

9.13

9.15

9.18

9.20

9.26

Finance, insurance, and real estate....

14.06

14.61

14.40

14.46

14.49

14.51

14.58

14.60

14.62

14.68

14.63

14.70

14.72

14.72

14.74

Services..................................................

12.85

13.39

13.08

13.17

13.22

13.27

13.28

13.33

13.38

13.42

13.44

13.49

13.55

13.55

13.62

7.75

-

7.81

7.83

7.84

7.86

7.83

7.85

7.89

7.88

7.87

7.86

7.87

7.86

-

PRIVATE SECTOR (in constant (1982)
dollars)........................................................
-

Data not available.

p = preliminary.
NOTE: See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

73

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

15. Average hourly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry
A nnual average

1999

1998

Industry

P R IV A T E S E C T O R .............................................
M I N I N G ......................................................................

1998

1999p

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.p

Dec.p

$12.78

$13.24

$13.00

$13.11

$13.10

$13.12

$13.16

$13.19

$13.14

$13.15

$13.20

$13.38

$13.41

$13.44

$13.48

16.90

17.05

17.29

17.23

17.08

17.01

16.93

17.00

16.93

17.12

17.01

17.10

17.00

16.94

17.22

16.74

16.66

16.79

16.85

17.02

17.08

17.22

17.26

17.41

17.49

17.38

17.43

C O N S T R U C T I O N .................................................

16.59

17.13

16.87

M A N U F A C T U R I N G .............................................

13.49

13.91

13.69

13.66

13.66

13.73

13.80

13.85

13.91

13.92

13.95

14.11

14.04

14.09

14.22

13.98
11.10
10.90
13.60
15.49

14.40
11.47
11.23
13.91
15.85

14.16
11.33
11.10
13.70
15.36

14.11
11.28
11.10
13.66
15.39

14.12
11.26
11.06
13.64
15.41

14.20
11.31
11.10
13.70
15.53

14.27
11.37
11.14
13.75
15.62

14.34
11.42
11.14
13.87
15.75

14.40
11.45
11.16
13.94
15.91

14.38
11.52
11.24
14.00
16.03

14.47
11.53
11.28
13.97
15.99

14.63
11.55
11.33
14.12
16.20

14.55
11.59
11.33
14.02
16.02

14.58
11.60
11.35
14.09
16.14

14.73
11.68
11.49
14.07
16.22

18.43
13.06

18.87
13.46

18.18
13.34

18.41
13.29

18.50
13.29

18.56
13.33

18.59
13.36

18.79
13.45

19.05
13.46

19.12
13.45

18.99
13.50

19.05
13.61

18.96
13.50

19.18
13.57

19.23
13.70

Industrial machinery and equipment...
Electronic and other electrical
equipment............................................
Transportation equipment....................
Motor vehicles and equipment..........
Instruments and related products.......
Miscellaneous manufacturing.............

14.47

15.02

14.73

14.69

14.72

14.81

14.85

14.95

14.99

15.07

15.13

15.23

15.18

15.20

15.39

13.09
17.53
17.86
13.81
10.89

13.45
18.09
18.47
14.17
11.33

13.26
17.56
17.73
14.00
11.12

13.26
17.47
17.65
13.91
11.16

13.25
17.50
17.71
13.94
11.17

13.27
17.66
17.98
13.97
11.19

13.31
17.88
18.31
14.07
11.25

13.38
17.98
18.40
14.10
11.25

13.40
18.20
18.68
14.13
11.30

13.49
17.94
18.23
14.25
11.32

13.51
18.23
18.61
14.28
11.34

13.62
18.56
19.04
14.30
11.46

13.58
18.47
18.93
14.36
11.47

13.57
18.46
18.87
14.36
11.46

13.68
18.69
19.16
14.42
11.62

N o n d u r a b l e g o o d s ..........................................

12.76
11.80
18.55
10.39
8.52
15.51

13.18
12.10
19.03
10.71
8.87
15.98

12.99
12.02
17.05
10.56
8.71
15.78

12.99
11.94
17.14
10.63
8.68
15.73

12.97
11.91
17.80
10.60
8.65
15.70

13.03
11.93
19.33
10.62
8.78
15.78

13.09
12.07
19.99
10.68
8.83
15.83

13.11
12.11
20.63
10.69
8.81
15.91

13.15
12.16
20.79
10.76
8.89
15.98

13.22
12.15
21.15
10.71
8.83
16.05

13.18
12.08
20.99
10.72
8.88
15.98

13.35
12.19
18.88
10.78
9.01
16.27

13.27
12.10
17.77
10.72
8.99
16.12

13.34
12.23
17.76
10.79
9.04
16.14

13.45
12.32
17.70
10.86
9.12
16.25

13.45
17.12
20.92

13.83
17.48
21.46

13.68
17.31
21.22

13.66
17.24
21.22

13.67
17.20
21.43

13.73
17.18
21.59

13.73
17.27
21.49

13.74
17.39
21.05

13.73
17.35
21.14

13.80
17.49
21.35

13.82
17.51
21.29

13.97
17.78
21.62

13.97
17.72
21.68

14.01
17.74
21.81

14.11
17.87
21.87

11.87
9.32

12.31
9.69

12.08
9.43

12.19
9.64

12.16
9.56

12.20
9.55

12.23
9.59

12.21
9.59

12.25
9.57

12.35
9.61

12.32
9.77

12.46
9.86

12.37
9.83

12.40
9.82

12.53
9.88

P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S .........................................

15.31

15.66

15.50

15.57

15.56

15.51

15.57

15.55

15.56

15.66

15.67

15.78

15.76

15.86

15.89

W H O L E S A L E T R A D E ......................................

14.06

14.60

14.32

14.42

14.38

14.34

14.48

14.53

14.44

14.55

14.65

14.73

14.78

14.86

14.98

R E T A IL T R A D E ....................................................

8.73

9.08

8.88

9.00

8.98

9.00

9.03

9.03

9.02

9.02

9.04

9.18

9.20

9.21

9.25

14.06

14.61

14.40

14.48

14.55

14.53

14.61

14.72

14.50

14.53

14.61

14.63

14.68

14.72

14.74

12.85

13.39

13.18

13.30

13.32

13.33

13.32

13.34

13.23

13.20

13.25

13.48

13.54

13.60

13.71

Furniture and fixtures............................
Stone, clay, and glass products..........
Primary metal industries......................
Blast furnaces and basic steel
products..............................................
Fabricated metal products...................

Food and kindred products..................
Textile mill products..............................
Apparel and other textile products......
Paper and allied products....................
Printing and publishing.........................
Chemicals and allied products............
Petroleum and coal products...............
Rubber and miscellaneous
plastics products..................................
Leather and leather products...............
T R A N S P O R T A T IO N A N D

F IN A N C E , IN S U R A N C E ,
A N D R E A L E S T A T E .....................................
S E R V IC E S ...............................................................

p = preliminary.
NOTE: See 'Notes on the data“for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.


74 Monthly Labor Review
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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2000

16. Average weekly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry
Industry

Annual average

1998

1999

1998

1999p

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.p

Dec.p

$442.19

$456.78

268.32

-

$451.10
449.11
272.07

$445.74
451.18
268.19

$449.33
451.88
270.19

$448 70
452.30
269.33

$451 39
452.02
268.84

$456 37
453.39
271.65

$454 64
456.78
270.62

$456 31
458.16
270.81

$463 32
458.51
274.15

$458 93
459.24
269.96

$463 99
461.96
272.45

$463 68
462.30
272.11

$466 41
464.37
273.71

P R IV A T E S E C T O R

Seasonally adjusted................
Constant (1982) dollars............
M IN IN G ......................................................

741.91

748 50

755.57

728.83

729 32

717 82

733 07

751 40

748 31

765 26

756 95

759 24

758 20

757 22

77R 34

C O N S T R U C T IO N ..................................

643.69

668 07

659.62

634.45

633.08

632.98

650.41

668.89

679.78

687.08

690.40

672.03

699.60

686.51

674.54

562.53
341.34

580 05

Constant (1982) dollars.............

583 19
351.74

564 16
339.45

564 16
339.24

568 42
341.19

574 08
341.92

577 55
343.78

581 44
346.10

573 50
340.36

583 11
345.04

588 39
346.11

589 88
346.26

348.94

355.50

D u r a b le g o o d s ....................................

591.35

609.12

613.13

591.21

591.63

596.40

602.19

606.58

610.56

598.21

612.08

615.92

618.38

622.57

634.86

Lumber and wood products.....
Furniture and fixtures................
Stone, clay, and glass
products..................................
Primary metal industries...........
Blast furnaces and basic
steel products.........................
Fabricated metal products........
Industrial machinery and
equipment..............................
Electronic and other electrical

456.21
442.54

471.42
452.57

472.46
460.65

459.10
445.11

453.78
440.19

461.45
444.00

468.44
447.83

472.79
443.37

476.32
449.75

473.47
451.85

480.80
459.10

472.40
457.73

479.83
458.87

479.08
459.68

481.22
477.98

591.60
684.66

603.69
700.57

600.06
685.06

580.55
674.08

576.97
673.42

578.14
681.77

594.00
688.84

607.51
699.30

611.97
706.40

613.20
698.91

616.08
705.16

621.28
717.66

616.88
709.69

621.37
721.46

606.42
736.39

821.98
552.44

845.38
568.01

794.47
578.96

810.04
555.52

808.45
555.52

814.78
557.19

829.11
562.46

843.67
566.25

861.06
569.36

854.66
558.18

852.65
571.05

855.35
568.90

851.30
572.40

870.77
579.44

890.35
594.58

619.32

633.84

636.34

619.92

619.71

623.50

626.67

630.89

631.08

628.42

635.46

635.09

642.11

647.52

667.93

541.93
760.80

556 83
792.34

560.90
802.49

543 66
756.45

544 58
768.25

541 42
775.27

547 04
790.30

551 ?6
789.32

558 10
802.62

551 74
757.07

562 02
796.65

816.64

814.53

814.09

833.57

776.91

831.15

829.76

776.60

796.95

810.90

834.94

831.68

848.07

780.24

831.87

866.32

857.53

852.92

879.44

570.35
434.51

588.06
450.93

588.00
447.02

573.09
435.24

578.51
442.33

578.36
447.60

583.91
448.88

583.74
451.13

586.40
450.87

584.25
444.88

591.19
453.60

587.73
454.96

594.50
461.09

603.12
460.69

614.29
467.12

N o n d u r a b le g o o d s ...........................

521.88

539.06

540.38

527.39

525.29

529.02

532.76

536.20

539.15

538.05

540.38

547.35

548.05

552.28

562.21

Food and kindred products......

492.06
710.47
425.99

505.78
761.20
439.11

514.46
639 38
437.18

495.51
639.32
432.64

489.50
662 16
426.12

490.32
736 47
427.99

497.28
767 6?
436.81

503.78
8?1 07
437.22

505.86
833 88

507.87

506.15

513.20

513.04

518.55

523.60

441.16

434.83

440.59

438.75

444.88

448.86

456.12

317.80
673.13

331.74
695.13

330.11
699.05

318.56
684.26

322.65
675.10

328.37
684.85

332.01
690.19

333.02
688.90

338.71
695.13

326.71
690.15

333.00
693.53

331.57
712.63

338.92
706.06

339.90
708.55

347.47
719.88

515.14
739.58
912.11

528.31
751.64
927.07

530.78
752.99
948.53

514.98
737.87
931.56

515.36
734.44
927.92

520.37
735.30
943.48

523.11
737.43
917.62

522.12
744.29
896.73

520.37
746.05
909.02

525.78
746.82
924.46

530.69
754.68
906.95

539.24
769.87
931.82

539.24
763.73
936.58

543.59
771.69
937.83

550.29
782.71
962.28

494.98
350.43

513.33
366.28

515.82
359.28

503.45
353.79

503.42
355.63

509.96
359.08

511.21
363.46

511.60
367.30

513.28
367.49

506.35
359.41

510.05
377.12

517.09
367.78

514.59
370.59

520.80
375.12

532.53
378.40

604.75

606.04

606.05

602.56

606.84

601.79

601.00

603.34

606.84

609.17

617.40

607.53

605.18

605.85

607.00

M A N U F A C T U R IN G

Transportation equipment.........
Motor vehicles and
equipment.............................
Instruments and related
products...................................
Miscellaneous manufacturing....

Apparel and other textile
products..................................
Paper and allied products.........
Printing and publishing..............
Chemicals and allied products..
Petroleum and coal products....
Rubber and miscellaneous
plastics products......................
Leather and leather products....

605 77

T R A N S P O R T A T IO N A N D
P U B L IC U T IL IT IE S ...........................
W H O L E S A L E T R A D E .........................

539.90

560.64

549.89

547.96

550.75

547.79

554.58

560.86

554.50

558.72

566.96

564.16

570.51

570.62

576.73

R E T A IL T R A D E ......................................

253.17

263.32

259.30

252.90

256.83

257.40

259.16

262.77

265.19

268.80

270.30

264.38

264.96

264.33

270.10

F IN A N C E , IN S U R A N C E ,
A N D R E A L E S T A T E .........................

511.78

528.88

521.28

521.28

528.17

523.08

524.50

535.81

520.55

525.99

539.11

526.68

529.95

529.92

532.11

S E R V IC E S ................................................

418.91

436.51

429.67

429.59

432.90

431.89

431.57

436.22

431.30

432.96

439.90

435.40

442.76

444.72

448.32

p = preliminary.
Note : See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision. Dash indicates data not available.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

75

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

17. Diffusion indexes of employment change, seasonally adjusted
[In percent]
Tim espan and year

Jan.

Mar.

Feb.

Apr.

May

June

July

Sept.

Aug.

Nov

Oct.

Dec.

Private nonfarm payrolls, 356 industries
Over 1-month span:
1997..............................................................
1998..............................................................
1999..............................................................

56.2
63.8
54.4

61.0
57.9
58.3

61.9
58.8
52.1

62.8
60.5
58.8

58.8
55.9
51.5

56.3
57.9
57.0

60.7
58.0
57.6

61.0
55.8
50.0

54.6
55.1

65.4
52.9
57.2

63.6
59.1
58.7

62.1
58.6
54.4

Over 3-month span:
1997..............................................................
1998..............................................................
1999..............................................................

63.8
66.7
60.7

63.6
66.2
55.9

67.7
64.5
59.6

67.3
63.9
54.6

62.6
61.4
56.3

61.7
58.7
56.2

61.4
60.0
56.2

66.2
58.4
59.0

67.3
57.6
57.4

69.9
57.6
60.7

70.8
59.0
59.8

71.2
60.4
_

67.4
70.6
61.1

68.3
66.9
58.8

65.6
65.9
57.3

67.0
62.4
59.0

65.6
62.6
55.2

64.9
61.1
57.4

66.3
58.0
56.9

68.4
59.8
62.1

69.7
60.0
60.0

71.3
60.8
_

71.3
60.8
_

71.9
58.0

69.0
70.4
60.1

67.3
68.3
57.3

68.3
67.1
57.0

69.7
64.0
57.6

69.5
62.1
58.0

70.1
61.7
58.7

70.1
61.8
-

70.4
63.8
-

70.5
59.8
-

69.7
59.0
-

69.8
59.3
-

71.3
58.6
-

Over 6-month span:
1997..............................................................
1998..............................................................
1999..............................................................
Over 12-month span:
1997..............................................................
1998..............................................................
1999..............................................................

59.4

-

Manufacturing payrolls, 139 industries
Over 1-month span:
1 9 9 7 ..............................................................
1998..............................................................
1999..............................................................

50.0
58.6
40.3

52.9
51.8
42.4

53.6
50.4
39.6

56.1
50.4
44.6

52.2
40.6
36.3

53.2
46.8
45.3

51.1
40.3
57.2

55.4
45.3
38.5

53.6
42.1
42.8

62.2
36.3
48.9

61.2
39.9
54.3

55.4
45.0
48.9

Over 3-month span:
1997.............................................................
1998.............................................................
1999.............................................................

51.8
59.4
37.4

51.4
57.9
31.7

57.6
51.8
37.1

56.8
44.2
30.2

54.3
41.7
33.8

51.8
34.9
43.9

53.6
37.4
43.2

55.4
37.1
44.6

59.7
38.1
38.5

68.3
34.2
48.9

65.8
35.6
50.7

64.4
35.3

Over 6-month span:
1 9 9 7 ............................................................
1998............................................................
1999............................................................

54.7
59.7
33.1

54.0
49.3
29.1

51.4
48.2
28.1

54.3
36.7
36.0

52.5
36.7
30.9

52.2
36.7
34.5

55.4
28.4
36.3

61.2
31.3
46.0

61.5
33.5
45.0

64.7
35.3

66.2
32.7

65.1
28.1

_

_

_

Over 12-month span:
1997.............................................................
1998.............................................................
1999............................................................

54.7
54.0
32.7

52.5
49.3
25.9

54.0
46.0
28.4

54.0
40.6
29.5

55.4
35.6
28.4

56.8
33.8
30.9

57.2
30.9

57.9
32.0

58.3
26.6

56.5
26.6

55.4
25.5

57.2
26.3

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

decreasing employment. Data for the 2 most recent months shown in each

- Data not available.
NOTE: Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing

span are preliminary. See the "Definitions” in this section. See "Notes on
the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.

plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50
percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and

18. Annual data: Employment status of the population
[Numbers in thousands]
Em ploym ent status

1992

1991

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

Civilian noninstitutional population...........

190,925

192,805

194,838

196,814

198,584

200,591

203,133

205,220

207,753

Civilian labor force...................................

126,346

128,105

129,200

131,056

132,304

133,943

136,297

137,673

139,368

Labor force participation rate...............

66.2

66.4

66.3

66.6

66.6

66.8

67.1

67.1

67.1

126,708

129,558

131,463

133,488

Employed.............................................

117,718

118,492

120,259

123,060

124,900

Employment-population ratio..........

61.7

61.7

62.5

62.9

63.2

63.8

64.1

64.3

Agriculture......................................

3,269

61.5
3,247

3,115

3,409

3,440

3,443

3,399

3,378

3,281

Nonagricultural industries............

114,499

115,245

117,144

119,651

121,460

123,264

126,159

128,085

130,207
5,880

8,628

9,613

8,940

7,996

7,404

7,236

6,739

6,210

Unemployment rate..........................

6.8

7.5

6.9

6.1

5.6

5.4

4.9

4.5

4.2

Not in the labor force...............................

64,578

64,700

65,638

65,758

66,280

66,647

66,837

67,547

68,385


76 Monthly Labor Review
https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2000

19. Annual data: Employment levels by industry
[In thousands]
Industry

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999p

108,249
89,847

108,601
89,956

110,713
91,872

114,163
95,036

117,191
97,885

119,608
100,189

125,826
106,007

128,610
108,450

23,231
635

23,352
610

23,908
601

24,265
581

24,493
580

596

25,347
590

25,240

Mining......................................................

23,745
689

122,690
103,133
24,962

Construction...........................................
Manufacturing.........................................

4,650
18,406

4,492
18,104

4,668
18,075

4,986
18,321

5,160
18,524

5,418
18,495

5,691
18,675

5,985
18,772

535
6,273
18,432

Service-producing.....................................

84,504

85,370

87,361

90,256

5,755
6,081
19,284

5,718
5,997

5,811
5,981

95,115
6,253
6,482

100,480
6,600

103,370
6,791

19,773
6,757

7,003
22,784

6,646

19,356
6,602

5,984
6,162
20,507

92,925
6,132

97,727

Transportation and public utilities........

6,896

6,806

28,336

29,052

30 197

31 579

33 117

18,402
2,966
4,355

18,645

18,841

Federal.................................................

11,081

2,915
4,488
11,438

19 128
2,870

Local.....................................................

2,969
4,408
11,267

19 305
2,822
4 635
11,849

Total employment...........................................
Private sector.................................................
Goods-producing.......................................

Wholesale trade.....................................
Retail trade.............................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate....

6,378
21,187

4,576
11,682

6,408

21,597

6,648
21,966

6,911
34 454

7,109

6,831
22,296
7,407

36 040

37 526

38 999

4 606

19 557
2,699
4 582

19 819
2,686
4 612

20 160
2,669
4 695

12,056

12,276

12,521

12,795

19 419
2,757

7,633

NOTE: See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.

20. Annual data: Average hours and earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers on nonfarm
payrolls, by industry
Industry

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999p

Private sector:

Average weekly hours..................................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)..........................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)........................

34.3
10.32
353.98

34.4
10.57
363.61

34.5
10.83
373.64

34.7
11.12
385.86

34.5
11.43
394.34

34.4
11.82
406.61

34.6
12.28
424.89

34.6
12.78
442.19

34.5
13.24
456.78

44.4
14.19
630.04

43.9
14.54
638.31

44.3
14.60
646.78

44.8
14.88
666.62

44.7
15.30
683.91

45.3
15.62
707.59

45.4
16.15
733.21

43.9
16.90
741.91

43.9
17.05
748.50

38.1
14.00
533.40

38.0
14.15
537.70

38.5
14.38
553.63

38.9
14.73
573.00

38.9
15.09
587.00

39.0
15.47
603.33

39.0
16.04
625.56

38.8
16.59
643.69

39.0
17.13
668.07

40.7
11.18
455.03

41.0
11.46
469.86

41.4
11.74
486.04

42.0
12.07
506.94

41.6
12.37
514.59

41.6
12.77
531.23

42.0
13.17
553.14

41.7
13.49
562.53

41.7
13.91
580.05

38.1
13.20
502.92

38.3
13.43
514.37

39.3
13.55
532.52

39.7
13.78
547.07

39.4
14.13
556.72

39.6
14.45
572.22

39.7
14.92
592.32

39.5
15.31
604.75

38.7
15.66
606.04

38.1
11.15
424.82

38.2
11.39
435.10

38.2
11.74
448.47

38.4
12.06
463.10

38.3
12.43
476.07

38.3
12.87
492.92

38.4
13.45
516.48

38.4
14.06
539.90

38.4
14.60
560.64

28.6
6.94
198.48

28.8
7.12
205.06

28.8
7.29
209.95

28.9
7.49
216.46

28.8
7.69
221.47

28.8
7.99
230.11

28.9
8.33
240.74

29.0
8.73
253.17

29.0
9.08
263.32

35.7
10.39
370.92

35.8
10.82
387.36

35.8
11.35
406.33

35.8
11.83
423.51

35.9
12.32
442.29

35.9
12.80
459.52

36.1
13.34
481.57

36.4
14.06
511.78

36.2
14.61
528.88

32.4
10.23
331.45

32.5
10.54
342.55

32.5
10.78
350.35

32.5
11.04
358.80

32.4
11.39
369.04

32.4
11.79
382.00

32.6
12.28
400.33

32.6
12.85
418.91

32.6
13.39
436.51

M ining:

Average weekly hours................................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)........................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................
C o n stru ctio n :

Average weekly hours................................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)........................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................
M an u factu rin g :

Average weekly hours................................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)........................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................
T ra n s p o rta tio n a n d p u b lic utilities:

Average weekly hours................................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)........................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................
W h o le s a le trade:

Average weekly hours................................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)........................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................
R e tail trade:

Average weekly hours................................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)........................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................
F in a n c e , in s u ra n c e , a nd real estate:

Average weekly hours................................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)........................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................
Se rv ices :

Average weekly hours................................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)........................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

77

Current Labor Statistics: Compensation & Industrial Relations
21.

Employment Cost Index, compensation,1 by occupation and industry group

[June 1989 = 100]
1997

1998

1999

Percent change
3
12

Series
Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

m onths

months

ended

ended

Sept. 1999
C iv ilia n w o rk e rs 2..................................................................................

134.1

135.2

136.3

137.4

139.0

139.8

140.4

141.8

143.3

1.1

3.1

135.2
135.8
135.3
135.8
131.8
134.6

136.5
136.7
137.3
136.9
132.4
135.6

137.7
137.5
139.1
138.0
133.2
136.9

138.7
138.3
139.7
139.3
134.3
137.9

140.6
140.0
141.7
140.4
135.3
139.4

141.4
141.0
141.8
141.3
136.1
140.0

141.9
141.3
143.5
142.5
137.1
141.3

143.3
142.2
145.4
143.4
138.3
142.4

145.0
143.9
147.3
144.7
139.5
143.1

1.2
1.2
1.3
.9
.9
.5

3.1
2.8
4.0
3.1
3.1
2.7

Goods-producing......................................................................
Manufacturing.........................................................................
Service-producing....................................................................
Services...................................................................................
Health services.....................................................................
Hospitals..............................................................................
Educational services............................................................

133.6
134.6
134.2
136.5
136.7
135.6
136.5

134.1
135.3
135.5
137.6
137.9
136.7
137.0

135.1
136.4
136.8
138.3
138.0
137.1
137.5

136.3
137.2
137.7
139.0
138.5
138.2
137.7

137.2
138.2
139.6
140.8
139.1
139.4
140.2

137.9
138.9
140.4
141.7
139.1
140.2
141.0

139.0
139.9
140.9
142.3
140.5
141.3
141.3

140.0
140.9
142.4
143.2
141.4
142.2
141.7

141.2
142.1
144.0
145.1
142.7
143.4
144.6

.9
.9
1.1
1.3
.9
.8
2.0

2.9
2.8
3.2
3.1
2.6
2.9
3.1

Public administration3.............................................................
Nonmanufacturing....................................................................

134.1

135.1

136.4

137.4

138.9

139.9

140.8

141.5

142.4

.6

2.5

133.8

135.1

136.2

137.3

139.0

139.9

140.5

141.9

143.4

1.1

3.2

133.9
134.1

135.1
135.2

136.3
136.4

137.5
137.5

139.0
138.8

139.8
139.4

140.4
140.5

142.0
141.9

143.3
143.2

.9
.9

3.1
3.2

135.2
135.9
136.7
135.2
132.2
135.9
131.7
131.7
132.2
128.0
134.2

136.7
137.4
137.8
137.4
133.5
137.0
132.3
131.9
133.0
128.9
135.8

138.1
138.8
138.8
139.4
135.3
138.2
133.1
132.9
133.6
129.3
137.0

139.4
139.9
140.1
140.0
137.3
139.6
134.3
134.4
134.7
129.9
137.6

141.1
141.3
141.6
141.9
140.4
140.6
135.2
135.4
135.7
130.7
138.5

142.0
141.9
142.6
141.8
142.6
141.4
135.9
136.1
136.8
130.7
139.2

142.4
143.0
142.9
143.7
139.6
142.6
136.9
137.2
137.3
131.6
141.0

144.1
144.5
144.1
145.8
142.6
143.7
138.2
138.4
138.4
133.6
142.3

145.6
146.0
145.2
147.7
144.1
145.0
139.4
139.6
139.9
134.4
143.2

1.0
1.0
.8
1.3
1.1
.9
.9
.9
1.1
.6
.6

3.2
3.3
2.5
4.1
2.6
3.1
3.1
3.1
3.1
2.8
3.4

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers.................................................................
Professional specialty and technical...................................
Executive, adminitrative, and managerial..........................

Service occupations.................................................................
Workers, by industry division:

Private in d u s try w o rk e rs ................................................................

Excluding sales occupations..............................................
Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers...............................................................
Excluding sales occupations............................................
Professional specialty and technical occupations...........
Executive, adminitrative, and managerial occupations..
Sales occupations................................................................
Administrative support occupations, including clerical...
Precision production, craft, and repair occupations.......
Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors............
Transportation and material moving occupations...........
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers....
Service occupations...............................................................

133.1

134.1

135.3

136.0

137.3

138.0

139.5

140.6

141.0

.3

2.7

Production and nonsupervisory occupations4..................

133.2

134.2

135.3

136.6

138.0

139.0

139.3

140.8

141.9

.8

2.8

133.6
133.1
135.6
134.5
132.4
129.7
134.6
135.8
134.5
133.7
135.0
133.7

134.1
133.6
136.2
135.0
132.8
129.7
135.3
136.7
135.3
134.3
135.7
134.5

135.1
134.5
137.7
136.3
133.5
130.6
136.4
138.2
136.5
135.0
136.5
135.9

136.2
135.6
138.8
137.4
134.6
132.7
137.2
139.1
137.3
135.9
137.4
136.7

137.1
136.5
139.7
138.3
135.5
133.4
138.2
140.1
138.3
136.8
138.5
137.6

137.8
137.2
140.2
138.8
136.3
134.3
138.9
140.5
138.7
137.7
139.2
138.2

138.9
138.3
141.7
140.4
137.1
135.6
139.9
141.8
140.1
138.5
139.9
139.6

139.9
139.3
142.7
141.3
138.3
136.9
140.9
143.0
141.3
139.4
141.0
140.4

141.1
140.5
143.9
142.5
139.4
137.9
142.1
144.3
142.5
140.5
142.3
141.5

.9
.9
.8
.8
.8
.7
.9
.9
.8
.8
.9
.8

2.9
2.9
3.0
3.0
2.9
3.4
2.8
3.0
3.0
2.7
2.7
2.8

133.8
134.5
134.9
136.3
130.0
132.7
132.9
132.1
133.7
131.8
136.0
132.4
133.0
134.6
134.5
131.1
128.6
129.8

135.3
136.1
136.6
138.1
130.9
133.9
134.2
133.4
135.1
134.0
136.4
132.9
134.0
135.1
135.4
131.7
130.0
129.4

136.7
137.4
138.0
139.5
132.1
135.0
135.8
134.0
137.9
136.6
139.6
134.7
135.5
137.7
137.0
133.1
131.2
131.3

137.8
138.5
139.3
140.6
133.2
135.8
137.1
134.9
139.7
139.2
140.3
135.8
136.3
138.6
138.2
134.4
133.0
132.9

139.6
140.0
141.2
142.2
134.3
137.0
138.5
136.7
140.7
140.5
141.0
137.6
138.1
140.8
140.0
135.9
133.2
133.7

140.5
140.6
142.2
142.8
134.8
137.8
139.3
137.3
141.9
141.7
142.1
138.2
138.8
142.8
141.2
135.6
134.0
132.7

140.9
141.7
142.3
143.8
136.2
139.3
139.7
136.8
143.4
143.3
143.4
138.9

142.8
143.3
144.3
145.5
137.8
140.5
140 9
138.1
144.6
144.9
144.2
141.1
141.9
144.6
144.0
139.1
135.6
135.7

144.1
144.6
145.8
147.0
139.1
140.8
141 8
138.7
145.7
146.1
145.1
142.2

.9
.9
1.0
1.0
.9
.2
.6
.4
.8
.8
.6
.8
.6
1.2
1.3
.6
1.2
1.0

3.2
3.3
3.3
3.4
3.6
2.8
24
1.5
3.6
4.0
2.9
3.3
3.4
3.9
4.1
3.0
3.0
2.5

Workers, by industry division:
Goods-producing....................................................................

Excluding sales occupations........................................
Construction..........................................................................
Manufacturing.......................................................................

Durables................................................................................
Nondurables.........................................................................
Service-producing...................................................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................

Transportation....................................................................
Public utilities.....................................................................
Communications............................................................
Electric, gas, and sanitary services.............................
Wholesale and retail trade..................................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................
Wholesale trade.................................................................
Retail trade.........................................................................
General merchandise stores.........................................
Food stores.......................................................................
See footnotes at end of table.


78 Monthly Labor Review
https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2000

139.9
142.7
142.4
136.8
135.0
134.3

142.8
146.3
145.8
140.0
137.2
137.0

21. Continued— Employment Cost Index, compensation,1 by occupation and industry group
[June 1989 = 100]
1997

1998

1999

Percent change

Series
Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

3

12

m onths

m onths

ended

ended

Sept.

Sept. 1999
Finance, insurance, and real estate..................................

130.5

134.5

136.7

138.4

141.0

142.5

141.5

145.8

147.6

1.2

4.7

Excluding sales occupations.........................................
Banking, savings and loan, and other credit agencies.
Insurance............................................................................
Services.................................................................................
Business services..............................................................
Health services...................................................................
Hospitals...........................................................................
Educational services.........................................................
Colleges and universities...............................................

133.5
133.1
133.1
137.0
136.3
137.0
135.4
141.6
142.5

137.6
140.6
134.8
138.5
138.6
138.1
136.5
142.6
143.7

140.2
143.3
137.4
139.3
139.5
138.2
136.7
143.4
144.3

141.3
145.3
138.9
140.3
140.7
138.7
138.2
143.9
144.8

143.2
148.4
141.9
141.8
143.5
139.0
139.1
147.0
147.8

143.3
146.7
141.7
142.7
145.9
139.0
139.9
147.7
148.5

145.6
148.8
141.7
143.5
147.5
140.5
141.2
148.3
149.2

148.8
155.4
144.0
144.6
148.7
141.4
142.1
148.7
149.6

151.0
159.3
144.5
146.1
150.7
142.6
143.0
152.2
152.6

1.5
2.5
.3
1.0
1.3
.8
.6
2.4
2.0

5.4
7.3
1.8
3.0
5.0
2.6
2.8
3.5
3.2

Nonmanufacturing................................................................

133.3

134.7

136.0

137.2

138.9

139.7

140.3

142.0

143.4

1.0

3.2

White-collar workers..........................................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................
Blue-collar occupations.....................................................
Service occupations..........................................................

134.9
136.2
129.4
132.7

136.5
137.9
130.1
133.8

137.9
139.3
131.0
134.9

139.2
140.5
132.4
135.7

141.1
142.0
133.4
136.9

142.0
142.7
134.0
137.7

142.3
143.7
135.2
139.2

144.1
145.3
136.8
140.4

145.6
146.8
138.0
140.7

1.0
1.0
.9
.2

3.2
3.4
3.4
2.8

S t a t e a n d lo c a l g o v e r n m e n t w o r k e r s ..............................................

135.0

135.7

136.5

136.9

139.0

139.8

140.5

141.0

143.1

1.5

2.9

134.8
134.6
135.6
135.3
133.3

135.5
135.1
136.4
136.1
134.2

136.1
135.6
137.5
136.9
135.0

136.2
135.6
137.9
137.2
135.2

138.4
137.7
140.4
139.5
136.8

139.3
138.5
141.6
140.3
137.8

139.8
138.8
142.6
141.4
138.8

140.2
139.3
142.8
141.3
139.5

142.6
142.0
144.5
143.0
140.9

1.7
1.9
1.2
1.2
1.0

3.0
3.1
2.9
2.5
3.0

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers.................................................................
Professional specialty and technical...................................
Executive, administrative, and managerial.........................
Administrative support, including clerical...........................
Blue-collar workers..................................................................
Workers, by industry division:
Services...................................................................................

135.4

136.0

136.5

136.6

139.0

139.7

140.0

140.5

143.2

1.9

3.0

Services excluding schools5................................................
Health services...................................................................
Hospitals...........................................................................
Educational services..........................................................
Schools.............................................................................
Elementary and secondary.........................................
Colleges and universities............................................

134.4

135.3

136.1

136.2

138.7

138.8

139.6

140.3

142.6

1.6

2.8

136.0
136.3
135.4
135.7
135.5
136.3

137.2
137.6
135.9
136.2
135.8
137.2

137.9
138.4
136.3
136.6
136.1
137.9

138.0
138.4
136.5
136.7
136.2
138.1

140.3
140.7
138.8
139.1
138.8
140.4

140.7
141.2
139.6
139.9
139.3
141.5

141.2
141.7
139.9
140.2
139.6
141.7

142.0
142.7
140.3
140.6
140.0
142.1

144.2
144.8
143.1
143.5
142.9
144.8

1.5
1.5
2.0
2.1
2.1
1.9

2.8
2.9
3.1
3.2
3.0
3.4

Public administration .............................................................

134.1

135.1

136.4

137.4

138.9

139.9

140.8

141.5

142.4

.6

2.5

' Cost (cents per hour worked) measured in the Employment Cost Index consists of
wages, salaries, and employer cost of employee benefits.
2 Consists of private industry workers (excluding farm and household workers) and
State and local government (excluding Federal Government) workers.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

3 Consists of legislative, judicial, administrative, and regulatory activities.
4 This series has the same industry and occupational coverage as the Hourly
Earnings index, which was discontinued in January 1989.
5 Includes, for example, library, social, and health services.

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

79

Current Labor Statistics: Compensation & Industrial Relations

22.

Employment Cost Index, wages and salaries, by occupation and industry group

[June 1989 = 100]
1997

Percent change

1999

1998

Series
Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

3

12

m onths

m onths

ended

ended

Sept. 1999
131.6

132.8

134.0

135.0

136.8

137.7

138.4

139.8

141.3

1.1

3.3

White-collar workers.................................................................
Professional specialty and technical...................................
Executive, adminitrative, and managerial...........................
Administrative support, including clerical...........................
Blue-collar workers...................................................................
Service occupations..................................................................

133.0
134.0
133.5
132.7
128.4
131.5

134.3
135.0
135.6
133.7
129.3
132.6

135.6
135.8
137.4
135.0
130.4
133.7

136.7
136.6
138.3
136.2
131.4
134.5

138.8
138.5
140.5
137.5
132.6
136.1

139.7
139.4
140.3
138.6
133.3
137.0

140.1
140.1
141.6
140.0
134.5
138.3

141.6
141.0
143.8
140.9
135.8
139.4

143.3
142.6
145.9
142.3
137.0
140.1

1.2
1.1
1.5
1.0
.9
.5

3.2
3.0
3.8
3.5
3.3
2.9

Workers, by industry division:
Goods-producing......................................................................
Manufacturing.........................................................................
Service-producing.....................................................................
Services........................................................:..........................
Health services.....................................................................
Hospitals..............................................................................
Educational services............................................................

129.9
131.3
132.2
134.8
134.3
132.5
135.3

130.6
132.2
133.6
136.0
135.4
133.6
135.9

132.0
133.7
134.8
136.9
136.2
134.2
136.3

133.3
134.6
135.7
137.6
136.5
135.1
136.5

134.4
136.0
137.8
139.6
137.6
136.4
139.1

135.2
136.8
138.7
140.5
137.6
137.1
140.0

136.3
137.9
139.2
141.5
138.8
138.1
140.2

137.4
139.0
140.7
142.3
139.7
138.8
140.6

138.6
140.2
142.3
144.1
140.9
140.1
143.7

.9
.9
1.1
1.3
.9
.9
2.2

3.1
3.1
3.3
3.2
2.4
2.7
3.3

130.3
131.5

131.4
132.8

132.7
134.0

133.2
135.1

134.8
137.0

135.9
137.8

136.9
138.4

137.8
139.9

139.5
141.5

1.2
1.1

3.5
3.3

131.0
131.2

132.3
132.4

133.7
133.7

134.9
134.8

136.6
136.3

137.4
136.9

138.1
138.2

139.7
139.6

141.0
140.8

.9
.9

3.2
3.3

132.7
133.4
133.7
133.6
129.8
132.9
128.3
128.2
129.5
124.1
130.2

134.2
134.8
134.8
135.8
131.4
133.9
129.1
128.7
130.6
125.1
131.8

135.7
136.3
135.9
137.8
133.1
135.3
130.2
129.8
131.6
125.9
133.2

137.0
137.5
137.1
138.7
135.2
136.7
131.3
131.2
132.7
126.4
133.7

139.0
139.1
138.7
140.9
138.8
137.9
132.4
132.3
133.8
127.6
135.1

139.9
139.7
139.7
140.5
141.3
138.9
133.2
133.0
134.9
127.8
135.8

140.3
141.0
140.7
141.9
137.3
140.4
134.3
134.3
135.7
129.1
137.3

142.1
142.5
141.8
144.3
140.5
141.4
135.6
135.6
136.7
131.0
138.3

143.5
143.9
142.6
146.4
142.1
142.7
136.8
136.7
138.3
131.9
139.4

1.0
1.0
.6
1.5
1.1
.9
.9
.8
1.2
.7
.8

3.2
3.5
2.8
3.9
2.4
3.5
3.3
3.3
3.4
3.4
3.2

C iv ilia n w o r k e r s 1.........................................................................................

Workers, by occupational group:

Public administration2.............................................................
Nonmanufacturing....................................................................
P r iv a t e in d u s t r y w o r k e r s .....................................................................

Excluding sales occupations..............................................
Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers...............................................................
Excluding sales occupations............................................
Professional specialty and technical occupations...........
Executive, adminitrative, and managerial occupations..
Sales occupations................................................................
Administrative support occupations, including clerical...
Precision production, craft, and repair occupations.......
Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors............
Transportation and material moving occupations...........
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers....
Service occupations...............................................................

129.9

131.1

132.1

133.0

134.4

135.3

136.7

137.8

138.0

.1

2.7

Production and nonsupervisory occupations3..................

130.1

131.2

132.3

133.6

135.2

136.4

136.8

138.2

139.3

.8

3.0

129.9
129.3
132.3
130.9
128.4
124.7
131.3
132.8
131.3
130.2
131.2
131.4

130.6
130.0
132.9
131.6
129.2
124.9
132.2
133.6
132.2
131.2
131.9
132.6

132.0
131.3
135.0
133.3
130.1
126.0
133.7
135.6
133.8
132.3
133.4
134.2

133.2
132.5
136.3
134.6
131.3
128.1
134.6
136.8
135.0
133.1
134.5
134.9

134.3
133.6
137.4
135.7
132.3
128.5
136.0
138.3
136.3
134.3
135.9
136.0

135.2
134.4
138.2
136.4
133.3
129.3
136.8
139.0
137.1
135.3
136.9
136.8

136.3
135.5
139.4
137.8
134.3
130.7
137.9
140.1
138.3
136.3
137.9
138.0

137.3 ' 138.5
136.6
137.8
140.5
141.7
138.8
140.1
135.4
136.6
131.9
133.0
140.2
139.0
141.4
142.7
139.6
140.8
137.2
138.4
140.4
139.1
138.7
139.7

.9
.9
.9
.9
.9
.8
.9
.9
.9
.9
.9
.7

3.1
3.1
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.5
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.1
3.3
2.7

131.5
132.3
132.6
134.2
127.9
129.8
130.1
128.5
132.0
131.8
132.2
130.9
132.2
133.0
133.9
129.9
126.7
126.7

133.1
133.9
134.3
135.9
128.9
131.0
131.3
129.5
133.5
134.0
132.9
131.6
133.2
133.6
135.0
130.6
128.4
127.0

134.4
135.2
135.7
137.3
130.2
132.1
132.1
130.1
134.5
134.4
134.7
133.3
134.7
136.2
136.5
131.9
129.4
129.0

135.6
136.2
137.0
138.4
131.1
133.0
132.8
130.4
135.7
135.8
135.6
134.6
135.6
137.1
137.8
133.3
131.5
130.5

137.6
137.9
139.2
140.2
132.4
134.2
134.3
132.4
136.5
136.7
136.3
136.6
137.6
139.3
139.6
135.2
132.2
131.7

138.4
138.5
140.1
140.7
132.9
135.2
135.1
132.9
137.8
138.0
137.4
137.0
138.2
141.3
140.8
134.8
133.0
130.5

138.9
139.8
140.3
142.0
134.4
136.7
135.4
132.3
139.2
139.4
138.9
137.7
139.5
140.7
141.9
136.2
133.7
131.8

140.8
141.4
142.3
143.7
135.9
137.8
136.8
133.7
140.6
141.1
140.0
139.6
141.1
142.3
143.0
138.3
134.3
132.8

.9
.8
1.1
1.0
.8
.1

3.3
3.4
3.3
3.5
3.5
2.8
2.4
1.5
3.7
38
3.4
3.0
3 1
3.6
3.7
2.7
2.6
1.7

Workers, by industry division:
Goods-producing....................................................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................
Construction.........................................................................
Manufacturing.......................................................................

Durables................................................................................
Nondurables.........................................................................
Service-producing...................................................................

Excluding sales occupations........................................

Transportation....................................................................
Public utilities.....................................................................
Electric, gas, and sanitary services.............................
Wholesale and retail trade..................................................
Wholesale trade.................................................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................
Retail trade.........................................................................
General merchandise stores.........................................
Food stores......................................................................
See footnotes at end of table.


80 Monthly Labor Review
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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2000

142.1
142.6
143.8
145.1
137.0
138.0
137.5
134.4
141.5
141.9
140.9
140.7
141.8
144.3
144.8
138.9
135.6
133.9

.5
.5
.6
.6
.6
.8
.5
1.4
1.3
.4
1.0
.8

22. Continued—Employment Cost Index, wages and salaries, by occupation and industry group
[June 1989 = 100]_________________________________________________________
P ercent change
12
3

1999

1998

1997
Series
Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

m onths

m onths

ended

ended

Sept.

Sept. 1999

136.5
143.5
143.6

137.2
141.0
146.1
137.4
142.2
145.4
138.7
137.6
143.9
144.1

142.4
144.8
154.5
139.8
143.2
146.3
139.6
138.3
144.2
144.4

144.5
147.5
159.2
140.2
144.5
148.5
140.6
139.3
147.5
147.2

1.5
1.9
3.0
.3
.9
1.5
.7
.7
2.3
1.9

4.6
5.6
8.3
1.1
3.2
4.7
2.3
2.6
3.3
3.1

136.5
138.9
139.8
130.5
134.1

137.4
139.8
140.3
131.1
135.1

137.9
140.1
141.6
132.4
136.5

139.7
142.0
143.2
134.0
137.7

141.0
143.5
144.6
135.1
137.9

.9
1.1
1.0
.8
.1

3.3
3.3
3.4
3.5
2.8

135.4

137.6

138.5

139.0

139.6

142.2

1.9

3.3

135.2
135.6
135.6
133.3
133.5

137.6
137.9
138.0
135.4

138.5
138.7
139.3
136.5
136.0

138.9
138.9
140.1
137.4
136.9

139.3
139.4
140.5
137.5
137.6

142.1
142.5
142.7
139.6
139.4

2.0
2.2
1.6
1.5
1.3

3.3
3.3
3.4
3.1
3.2

138.1
139.7

130.6
133.6
138.3
130.2
136.2
137.3
135.4
133.2
138.4
138.7

132.6
135.9
140.9
133.1
137.2
137.6
136.2
133.6
139.1
139.1

134.8
137.5
143.2

Colleges and universities...............................................

126.4
129.3
128.9
128.7
134.7
134.9
134.3
132.2
137.8
137.8

134.8
138.3
139.2
136.5
134.7
139.6
139.7

147.0
138.7
140.0
141.8
137.5
135.8
142.8
142.8

Nonmanufacturing................................................................
White-collar workers..........................................................
Excluding sales occupations.......................................
Blue-collar occupations.....................................................
Service occupations..........................................................

130.7
132.4
133.8
126.4
129.7

132.1
134.1
135.5
127.1
130.9

133.4
135.5
136.9
128.2
132.0

134.7
136.8
138.1
129.5
132.9

S t a t e a n d lo c a l g o v e r n m e n t w o r k e r s .............................................

133.6

134.4

135.1

133.7
134.4
133.1
131.4
131.2

134.5
135.1
134.1
132.3
132.3

135.0
135.5
135.1
133.0
133.1

Finance, insurance, and real estate..................................
Excluding sales occupations.........................................
Banking, savings and loan, and other credit agencies.
Insurance.............................................................................
Services.................................................................................
Business services..............................................................
Health services...................................................................
Hospitals...........................................................................

139.8
139.6
144.4
138.5
140.8
144.1
137.4

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers.................................................................
Professional specialty and technical...................................
Executive, administrative, and managerial.........................

Workers, by industry division:
Services......................................................... .........................

134.7

135.3

135.7

135.9

138.4

139.2

139.5

139.9

142.9

2.1

3.3

Schools............................................................................
Elementary and secondary.........................................
Colleges and universities............................................

133.3
133.9
133.7
134.8
134.9
135.3
133.6

134.4
135.3
135.2
135.3
135.5
135.7
134.6

135.4
136.3
136.3
135.7
135.8
136.0
135.2

135.5
136.5
136.5
135.8
136.0
136.1
135.5

137.8
138.7
138.6
138.4
138.5
138.7
137.7

138.2
139.2
139.1
139.3
139.5
139.3
139.6

139.0
139.7
139.7
139.5
139.6
139.5
139.6

139.6
140.4
140.6
139.8
140.0
139.9
139.8

142.1
142.8
142.8
142.9
143.1
143.1
142.6

1.8
1.7
1.6
2.2
2.2
2.3
2.0

3.1
3.0
3.0
3.3
3.3
3.2
3.6

Public administration2.............................................................

130.3

131.4

132.7

133.2

134.8

135.9

136.9

137.8

139.5

1.2

3.5

Services excluding schools4................................................
Health services...................................................................
Hospitals..........................................................................

' Consists of private industry workers (excluding farm and household workers) and
State and local government (excluding Federal Government) workers.

3 This series has the same industry and occupational coverage as the Hourly
Earnings index, which was discontinued in January 1989.

2 Consists of legislative, judicial, administrative, and regulatory activities.

23.

135.1

4 Includes, for example, library, social, and health services.

Employment Cost Index, benefits, private industry workers by occupation and industry group

[June 1989 = 100]
1997

P ercent change
12
3

1999

1998

Series
Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

m onths

m onths

ended

ended

Sept. 1999
140.8

141.8

142.6

143.7

144.5

145.2

145.8

147.3

148.6

0.9

2.8

142.0
138.8

143.4
139.0

144.7
139.1

145.6
140.4

146.6
141.0

147.4
141.6

147.9
142.2

149.4
143.6

151.0
144.8

1.1
.8

3.0
2.7

141.5
139.8
141.4
140.2

141.5
141.4
141.7
141.5

141.5
142.7
141.7
142.7

142.5
143.8
142.4
143.9

143.0
144.9
142.6
145.0

143.2
145.7
142.7
145.8

144.3
146.1
143.6
146.3

145.2

146.3
149.4
145.7
149.4

.8
1.0
.8
.9

2.3

Workers, by occupational group:

Workers, by industry division:

Nonmanufacturing....................................................................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

147.9
144.5
148.0

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

3.1
2.2
3.0

81

Current Labor Statistics: Compensation & Industrial Relations

24.

Employment Cost Index, private nonfarm workers by bargaining status, region, and area size

[June 1989 = 100]
1997

1998

1999

Percent change

Series
Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

3

12

m onths

m onths

ended

ended

Sept. 1999
C O M P E N S A T IO N
W o r k e r s , b y b a r g a in in g s t a t u s 1

Union...................................................................................
Goods-producing........................................................................
Service-producing......................................................................
Manufacturing............................................................................
Nonmanufacturing.....................................................................

133.2
132.3
134.0
133.0
132.9

133.5
132.5
134.5
133.3
133.2

134.0
132.7
135.3
133.6
133.9

135.3
134.3
136.2
134.6
135.3

136.8
135.6
138.0
136.0
136.9

137.5
136.5
138.5
136.9
137.4

138.0
136.8
139.2
137.0
138.1

139.0
138.2
139.7
138.1
139.2

140.2
139.2
141.0
139.1
140.3

0 .9

2 .5

.7

.9
.7
.8

2.7
2.2
2.2
2.5

Nonunion................................................................................
Goods-producing.......................................................................
Service-producing......................................................................
Manufacturing......................................................................
Nonmanufacturing.....................................................................

133.9
134.0
133.7
135 1
133.4

135.3
134.7
135.3
135 9

136.7
135.9
136.7
I 37 ?

137.8
136.9
138.0

139.3
137.7
139.7

140.1
138.3
140.6

140.8
139.7
141.1

142.5
140.5
143.0

143.8
141.8
144.4

.9
.9
1.0

3.2
3.0
3.4

138 n

134.9

136.3

137.5

139.1

140.0

140.6

142.4

143.8

1.0

3.4

134.0
132.5
136.2
132.5

135.0
134.6
136.9
133.4

136.0
135.5
138.3
135.2

137.0
136.4
139.6
136.6

138.7
137.6
140.9
138.5

139.5
138.1
141.4
140.0

140.5
139.1
141.7
140.3

141.5
140.7
143.6
142.1

143.2
141.8
145.0

1.2
.8
1.0

3.2
3.1
2.9

133.9
133.8

135.1
135.3

136.4
135.9

137.5
137.1

139.1
138.2

139.8
139.4

140.4
140.5

142.0
141.8

143.3
143.1

.9
.9

Union................................................................................................
Goods-producing.......................................................................
Service-producing......................................................................
Manufacturing.............................................................................
Nonmanufacturing.....................................................................

128.3
126.6
130.4
127.8
128.6

128.9
127.1
131.2
128.6
129.1

129.6
127.9
131.8
129.6
129.6

130.7
129.4
132.2
130.4
130.8

132.4
131.0
134.1
132.2
132.4

133.1
131.7
134.8
133.0
133.1

133.6
132.3
135.4
133.6
133.7

134.7
133.8
135.8
134.7
134.6

135.7
134.9
136.8
135.8
135.6

.7
.8
.7
.8
.7

Nonunion..............................................................................
Goods-producing.......................................................................
Service-producing......................................................................
Manufacturing.............................................................................
Nonmanufacturing.....................................................................

131.6
131.2
131.6
132.6
131.1

133.0
132.0
133.2
133.5
132.6

134.5
133.6
134.6
135.1
134.0

135.7
134.7
135.9
136.2
135.3

137.4
135.7
137.9
137.3
137.1

138.3
136.5
138.8
138.2
138.0

139.0
137.8
139.3
139.4
138.6

140.7
138.8
141.3
140.5
140.5

142.0
140.0
142.6
141.7
141.8

.9
.9
.9
.9
.9

130.7
130.6
132.2
130.2

131.6
133.0
133.0
131.2

132.6
134.0
134.7
132.9

133.8
134.9
136.0
134.5

135.4
136.5
137.5
136.7

136.4
136.7
138.0
138.4

137.1
137.9
138.9
138.2

138.2
139.4
141.0
140.2

139.9
140.2
142.4
141.3

1.2
.6
1.0
.8

3.3
2.7
3.6
3.4

131.1
130.4

132.3
132.0

133.8
132.5

135.1
133.4

136.9
134.7

137.7
136.0

138.3
137.1

139.9
138.4

141.2
139.8

.9
1.0

3.1
3.8

W o r k e r s , b y r e g io n 1

Northeast........................................................................................
South...............................................................................................
Midwest (formerly North Central)...............................................
West.........................................................................................

»3.0

W o r k e r s , b y a r e a s iz e 1

Metropolitan areas.........................................................................
Other areas....................................................................................

3 .0
3 .5

W A G E S A N D S A L A R IE S
W o r k e r s , b y b a r g a in in g s t a t u s 1
2 .5
3 .0
2 .0
2 .7
2 .4
3 .3
3 .2

3.4
3.2
3.4

W o r k e r s , b y r e g io n 1

Northeast.............................................................................
South.....................................................................................
Midwest (formerly North Central)................................................
West..............................................................................
W o r k e r s , b y a r e a s iz e 1

Metropolitan areas................................................................
Other areas.......................................................................

1 The indexes are calculated differently from those for the occupation and industry groups. For a detailed description of the index calculation, see the Monthly Labor Review
Technical Note, "Estimation procedures tor the Employment Cost Index," May 1982.


82 Monthly Labor Review
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February 2000

25. Percent of full-time employees participating in employer-provided benefit plans, and in selected features within plans,
medium and large private establishments, selected years, 1980-97
_________________________!________________
Item
Scope of survey (in 000's).............................................
Number of employees (in 000’s):
With medical care.......................................................
With life insurance......................................................
With defined benefit plan...........................................

1984

1982

198 0

1988

1986

199 7

199 5

199 3

1991

1989

21,352

21,043

21,013

21,303

31,059

32,428

31,163

28,728

33,374

38,409

20,711
20,498
17,936

20,412
20,201
17,676

20,383
20,172
17,231

20,238
20,451
16,190

27,953
28,574
19,567

29,834
30,482
20,430

25,865
29,293
18,386

23,519
26,175
16,015

25,546
29,078
17,417

29,340
33,495
19,202

10
75
-

9
26
73
26
99
9.8

10
27
72
26
88
3.2
99
10.0

11
29
72
26
85
3.2
96
9.4

10
26
71
26
84
3.3
97
9.2

8
30
67
28
80
3.3
92
10.2

9
29
68
26
83
3.0
91
9.4

_
80
3.3
89
9.1

81
3.7
89
9.3

23
3.6

25
3.7

24
3.3

22
3.1

21
3.3

21
3.1

22
3.3

20
3.5

Time-off plans
Participants with:
Paid lunch time.............................................................
Average minutes per day..........................................
Paid rest time................................................................
Average minutes per day..........................................
Paid funeral leave.........................................................
Average days per occurrence..................................
Paid holidays.................................................................
Average days per year..............................................

99
10.1

9
25
76
25
99
10.0

Paid personal leave.....................................................
Average days per year..............................................

20
-

24
3.8

Paid vacations...............................................................

100

99

99

100

98

97

96

97

96

95

Paid sick leave 1...........................................................
Unpaid maternity leave................................................
Unpaid paternity leave................................................
Unpaid family leave....................................................

62

67

67

70

-

67
37
26

65
60
53

56

-

68
37
18

58

-

69
33
16

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

84

93

97

97

97

95

90

92

83

82

77

76

-

62
_

46
62
8

66
70
18

76
79
28

75
80
28

81
80
30

86
82
42

78
73
56

85
78
63

27
-

43
$12.80
63
$41.40

44
$19.29
64
$60.07

47
$25.31
66
$72.10

51
$26.60
69
$96.97

61
$31.55
76
$107.42

67
$33.92
78
$118.33

69
$39.14
80
$130.07

In s u r a n c e p la n s

Participants in medical care plans...............................
Percent of participants with coverage for:
Home health care.......................................................
Extended care facilities............................................

Percent of participants with employee
contribution required for:
Self coverage.............................................................
Average monthly contribution.................................
Family coverage........................................................
Average montmy contriDution................................
Participants in life insurance plans..............................
Percent of participants with:
Accidental death and dismemberment
insurance....................................................................
Survivor income benefits...........................................
Retiree protection available.......................................
Participants in long-term disability

58
_

-

-

36
$11.93
58
$35.93

96

96

96

96

92

94

94

91

87

87

69
-

72
-

-

64

74
64

72
10
59

78
8
49

71
7
42

71
6
44

76
5
41

77
7
37

74
6
33

40

43

47

48

42

45

40

41

42

43

44

26
46

51

Participants in sickness and accident
54

51

51

49

46

43

45

-

-

-

-

-

53

55

Participants in short-term disability plans 1.................
R e t ir e m e n t p la n s

Participants in defined benefit pension plans............
Percent of participants with:
Normal retirement prior to age 65...........................
Ad hoc pension increase in last 5 years.................
Terminal earnings formula.......................................
Participants in defined contribution plans..................
Participants in plans with tax-deferred savings
arrangements.............................................................

84

84

82

76

63

63

59

56

52

50

55
98

58
97

53
45

52
45

63
97
47
54
56

64
98
35
57
62

59
98
26
55
62

62
97
22
64
62

55
98
7
56
54

52
95
6
61
48

52
96
4
58
51

52
95
10
56
49

60

45

48

48

49

55

57

33

36

41

44

43

54

55

-

-

_

_

-

O t h e r b e n e f it s

Employees eligible for:
Reimbursement accounts2........................................
Premium conversion plans........................................

-

2

5

£

1C

12

12

13

5

12

23

36

52

38

32

1 The definitions for paid sick leave and short-term disability (previously sickness and

fits at less than full pay.

accident insurance) were changed for the 1995 survey. Paid sick leave now includes only

2 Prior to 1995, reimbursement accounts included premium conversion plans, which

plans that specify either a maximum number of days per year or unlimited days. Short-

specifically allow medical plan participants to pay required plan premiums with pretax

terms disability now includes all insured, self-insured, and State-mandated plans available
on a per-disability basis, as well as the unfunded per-disability plans previously reported as

dollars.

Also, reimbursement accounts that were part of flexible benefit plans were

tabulated separately.

sick leave. Sickness and accident insurance, reported in years prior to this survey, included
only insured, self-insured, and State-mandated plans providing per-disability bene­


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No te : Dash indicates data not available.

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

83

Current Labor Statistics:

Compensation & Industrial Relations

26. Percent of full-time employees participating in employer-provided benefit plans, and in selected features
within plans, small private establishments and State and local governments, 1987, 1990, 1992, 1994, and 1996
Small private establishments

Item
1990

1992

1994

State and local governments
1996

1987

1990

1992

1994

Scope of survey (in 000's)...........................................

32,466

34,360

35,910

39,816

10,321

12,972

12,466

12,907

Number of employees (in 000's):
With medical care......................................................
With life insurance.....................................................
With defined benefit plan..........................................

22,402
20,778
6,493

24,396
21,990
7,559

23,536
21,955
5,480

25,599
24,635
5,883

9,599
8,773
9,599

12,064
11,415
11,675

11,219
11,095
10,845

11,192
11,194
11,708

Participants with:
Paid lunch time..........................................................
Average minutes per day........................................
Paid rest time..............................................................
Average minutes per day........................................
Paid funeral leave......................................................
Average days per occurrence.................................
Paid holidays..............................................................

8
37
48
27
47
2.9
84

9
37
49
26
50
3.0
82

51
3.0
80

11
36
56
29
63
3.7
74

10
34
53
29
65
3.7
75

_
_
_
_

50
3.1
82

17
34
58
29
56
3.7
81

62
3.7
73

Average days per year'...........................................
Paid personal leave....................................................
Average days per year............................................
Paid vacations...........................................................

9.5
11
2.8
88

9.2
12
2.6
88

7.5
13
2.6
88

7.6
14
3.0
86

10.9
38
2.7
72

13.6
39
2.9
67

14.2
38
2.9
67

11.5
38
3.0
66

Paid sick leave 2.........................................................

47

53

50

50

97

95

95

94

Unpaid leave...............................................................
Unpaid paternity leave...............................................
Unpaid family leave....................................................

17
8

18
7

_
47

_
48

57
30

51
33

59
44

”

“

_
_
93

71

66

64

93

93

90

87

-

76
78
36

82
79
36

87
84
47

84
81
55

Time-off plans
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Insurance plans
Participants in medical care plans..............................
Percent of participants with coverage for:
Home health care.....................................................
Extended care facilities...........................................
Physical exam..........................................................

79
83
26

80
84
28

-

Percent of participants with employee
contribution required for:
Self coverage...........................................................
Average monthly contribution................................
Family coverage......................................................

42
$25.13
67

47
$36.51
73

52
$40.97
76

52
$42.63
75

35
$15.74
71

38
$25.53
65

43
$28.97
72

47
$30.20
71

Average monthly contribution................................

$109.34

$150.54

$159.63

$181.53

$71.89

$117.59

$139.23

$149.70

Participants in life insurance plans.............................
Percent of participants with:
Accidental death and dismemberment
insurance..................................................................
Survivor income benefits..........................................
Retiree protection available......................................
Participants in long-term disability
insurance plans..........................................................
Participants in sickness and accident
insurance plans..........................................................

64

64

61

62

85

88

89

87

78
1
19

76
1
25

79
2
20

77
1
13

67
1
55

67
1
45

74
1
46

64
2
46

19

23

20

22

31

27

28

30

14

21

22

21

-

-

-

-

Participants in short-term disability plans2................

69

6

26

26

-

-

-

20

22

15

15

93

90

87

91

50
95
4
54
46

-

47
92
-

-

53
44

92
90
33
100
18

89
88
16
100
8

92
89
10
100
10

92
87
13
99
49

29

Retirement plans
Participants in defined benefit pension plans...........
Percent of participants with:
Normal retirement prior to age 65...........................
Early retirement available........................................
Ad hoc pension increase in last 5 years.................
Terminal earnings formula.......................................
Benefit coordinated with Social Security................
Participants in defined contribution plans...................
Participants in plans with tax-deferred savings
arrangements.............................................................

54
95
7
58
49

-

31

33

34

38

9

9

9

9

17

24

23

28

28

45

45

24

Other benefits
Employees eligible for:
Flexible benefits plans................................................
Reimbursement accounts 3.......................................
Premium conversion plans ......................................

1

2

3

4

5

5

5

5

8

14

19

12

5

31

50

64

1 Methods used to calculate the average number of paid holidays were revised
in 1994 to count partial days more precisely. Average holidays for 1994 are not
comparable with those reported in 1990 and 1992.
2 The definitions for paid sick leave and short-term disability (previously
sickness and accident insurance) were changed for the 1996 survey. Paid sick
leave now includes only plans that specify either a maximum number of days
per year or unlimited days. Short-term disability now includes all insured, selfinsured, and State-mandated plans available on a per-disability basis, as well
as the unfunded per-disability plans previously reported as sick leave.

84 Monthly Labor Review

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2000

7

Sickness and accident insurance, reported in years prior to this survey,
included only insured, self-insured, and State-mandated plans providing perdisability benefits at less than full pay.
3 Prior to 1996, reimbursement accounts included premium conversion plans,
which specifically allow medical plan participants to pay required plan
premiums with pretax dollars. Also, reimbursement accounts that were part of
flexible benefit plans were tabulated separately.
Note : Dash Indicates data not available.

27. Work stoppages involving 1,000 workers or more
Annual totals

1998

1999

Measure
1997

1998

Oct.

Nov.

Jan.p

Dec.

Feb.p

Mar.p

Apr.p

Mayp

Junep

Julyp

Aug.p

Sept.p

Oct.p

Number of stoppages:
Beginning in period...............................

29

34

5

3

3

1

2

0

1

3

2

1

1

2

0

34

34

7

7

6

5

5

2

3

6

6

6

3

5

2

Workers involved:
Beginning in period (in thousands)....

339

387

8.0

7.1

3.8

1.4

4.1

.0

8.0

9.6

2.2

1.7

11.0

19.1

.0

In effect during period (In thousands).

351

387

10.6

13.7

10.4

9.2

10.3

4.4

12.4

22.0

21.6

16.3

15.4

34.5

10.1

4,497

5,116

148.7

160.3

171.0

129.0

104.1

101.2

256.8

314.8

309.4

266.4

118.8

176.2

67.1

.01

.02

.01

.01

.01

.01

.00

.00

.01

.01

.01

.01

.00

.01

.00

Days idle:

Percent of estimated working time1....

1 Agricultural and government employees are Included in the total employed and total working time; private household, forestry, and fishery employees are excluded. An explanation of
the measurement of idleness as a percentage of the total time worked is found in " 'Total economy' measures of strike idleness," Monthly Labor Review, October 1968, pp. 54-56.
p = preliminary.


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Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

85

Current Labor Statistics:

28.

Price Data

Consumer Price Indexes for All Urban Consumers and for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers: U.S. city average,
by expenditure category and commodity or service group

[1982-84 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
Series

Annual average
1998

1999

1998
Dec.

1999
Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

C O N S U M E R P R IC E IN D E X
FO R ALL URB AN CO NSUM ERS

All items...................................................................
All items (1967= 100).............................................

163.0
488.3

166.6
499.0

163.9
491.0

164.3
492.3

Food and beverages..............................................

161.1
160.7
161.1

164.6
164.1
164.2

162.7

Food.......................................................................

162.3
162.6

Cereals and bakery products...........................
Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs..........................

181.1
147.3

185.0
147.9

Dairy and related products1.............................
Fruits and vegetables.......................................
Nonalcoholic beverages and beverage
materials.........................................................
Other foods at home........................................

150.8
198.2

Sugar and sweets............................................

133.0
150.8
150.2

Fats and oils....................................................
Other foods.....................................................

146.9
165.5

166.2
497.7

166.2
497.9

166.7
499.2

167.1
500.7

167.9

168.2

502.9

503.9

168.3
504.1

168.3
504.1

163.9
163.4

164.2

164.1

164.2

164.7

165.1

165.5

165.7

165.9

163.7

164.2
164.1

165.1

165.2

165.4

163.9

163.8
163.7

164.6

163.5

163.6
163.7

183.5
146.8

184.8
146.7

185.1
146.7

185.7
147.2

186.3
147.3

184.9
148.5

164.5
185.2
149.2

165.1
185.2
149.2

165.1
184.8
150.5

165.4
185.9
149.8

162.3
200.3

161.5
199.9

156.1
203.3

156.2
207.2

156.1
203.2

155.7
202.0

156.5
202.1

158.7
202.6

164.1
202.2

164.6
201.2

162.1
204.5

134.5

134.5
152.9

134.3

134.2
153.4

134.3
153.7
152.4

134.5
154.2
152.7

134.2
153.9

134.6
153.7

153.5

148.6
169.9

148.5
169.2

164.5
492.9

165.0
494.4

163.9

163.8

163.7

163.3
163.8

163.3
163.4

182.3
147.3

163.6
164.3
184.2
146.4

183.8
147.0

159.6
203.1

157.6
200.7

161.2
208.6

134.3
153.5

131.7
152.4

133.5
153.0

152.3
148.3
168.9

150.1
151.9
166.9

151.7

153.3
151.3

150.5
167.7

150.9
168.2

166.2
497.8

153.6
151.7

153.0

134.3
153.6
152.4

149.0
169.2

147.2
168.7

147.5
169.2

148.1

168.1

151.0
149.4

169.3

133.9

134.7

153.3

153.0
152.1

152.3

149.0
168.7

145.3
169.0

145.1
169.4

153.3

Other miscellaneous foods1,2......................

102.6

104.9

104.9

104.1

105.9

104.9

105.6

105.0

104.9

104.2

104.8

105.3

104.3

103.9

105.7

Food away from home1........................................

161.1

165.1

163.0

163.5

163.8

164.2

164.5

164.6

164.6

165.1

165.6

165.8

166.2

166.5

166.8

Other food away from home1,2........................
Alcoholic beverages.............................................
Housing...................................................................

101.6
165.7

105.2
169.7

103.3
167.2

103.5
167.6

103.7
168.6

103.7
168.4

104.0
168.8

104.3
169.3

104.4
169.5

105.5
169.9

105.8
170.2

106.4
170.7

106.8
170.5

106.9
171.2

106.9
171.8

160.4
182.1

163.9
187.3

161.3
184.0

161.8
184.7

162.3
185.5

162.8
186.3

163.0
186.6

163.0
186.5

164.1
187.2

164.7
188.0

165.0
188.3

165.2
188.3

165.0
188.5

164.9
188.6

164.8
188.6

172.1

174.9

175.3
107.1

175.6

176.0

176.4

176.7

177.1

179.8

180.3

114.6

111.8

113.8

177.9
117.1

178.8

114.5

177.5
117.1

178.4

110.5

113.8

113.1

108.5

Shelter..................................................................
Rent of primary residence................................
Lodginq away from home2...............................

109.0

177.5
112.3

Owners' equivalent rent of primary residence3

187.8

192.9

103.8
190.7

191.0

191.3

191.5

191.9

192.2

192.6

193.0

193.4

193.9

194.2

194.9

105.8
195.2

Tenants' and household insurance1,2..............
Fuels and utilities..............................................
Fuels................................................................

99.8
128.5
113.7

115.1

102.1
131.1
116.0

118.3
126.8

118.0
126.7

117.9
126.7

117.5
127.2

100.5
126.5
111.0
87.7
118.4
126.7

87.3
123.0
126.8

87.5
124.0
126.8

102.2
131.4
116.2
89.2
124.1

102.3
132.7

110.5
86.2

100.3
125.7
110.2
87.7

102.2
130.2

110.9
86.6

100.1
126.0
110.6
86.2

100.2
125.9

90.0
121.2
126.6

99.9
126.6
111.4
86.1
118.9
126.6

99.7
126.2

Fuel oil and other fuels.................................
Gas (piped) and electricity............................
Household furnishings and operations............
Apparel...................................................................
Men's and boys' apparel...................................

101.3
128.8
113.5
91.4
120.9
126.7

117.6
93.9
125.3
127.0

102.2
130.3
115.0
97.6
122.0
126.6

102.1
130.0
114.6
100.7
121.4
126.4

102.2
129.6
114.1
106.3
120.3
126.4

133.0
131.8
126.0

131.3
131.1

127.9
128.1
117.7

129.7
129.9

132.7
131.4

130.9
131.4

127.3

122.6

117.9

131.8
130.5
125.4

134.6
134.0
128.4

130.1
131.5

126.3

127.3
128.3
116.1

133.6
133.2

120.6

135.2
133.5
128.7

134.2
133.8

123.3

130.7
130.3
122.4

126.6

121.8

126.1

129.0

129.6

126.4

127.6

126.8

127.4

128.3

127.4
144.2

125.4
143.4

125.2
144.7

140.1

140.2

139.7

140.6

123.8
145.7
141.9

133.0
123.7

140.6
136.4

129.2
144.3

132.6
126.4

Transportation.........................................................
Private transportation..........................................

127.5
140.7
137.2

129.9
124.7

132.4

125.7
144.4
140.5

125.6
126.4

128.2

128.0
141.6
137.9

130.0
125.6
140.4
136.7

147.6
143.6

148.3
144.4

New and used motor vehicles2........................
New vehicles...................................................

100.1
143.4

100.1

100.9

100.6

99.9

99.7

99.7

99.8

99.7

100.1

100.5

100.9

101.1

144.1

144.4

143.8

99.6
143.4

99.7

142.9

143.3

142.9

142.0

141.4

150.6
92.2
91.6

152.0
100.7

153.1
86.2
85.7

148.3
83.6
83.1

147.4
86.3
85.8

148.3
100.9
100.4

149.6
101.4

152.3
102.5
101.9

153.8
107.8
107.2

143.6
155.0
112.2
111.5

100.9
170.4

100.1
170.6
198.8

100.3
170.9
201.4

192.6

100.0
172.1
200.8

100.1
172.1
197.1

100.6
172.8
194.7

143.1
156.1
109.3
108.7
101.2

169.6
188.4

150.6
85.0
84.5
101.2
169.8
190.4

141.6
155.7
110.3
109.7

142.3

Used cars and trucks1.....................................
Motor fuel..........................................................

142.5
150.9
99.2

201.5

245.2

246.6

247.7

249.1

252.8

255.1

255.5
229.8
299.3

232.5
256.2

233.1
256.6
230.4
302.1

233.2
257.1

253.3
233.7
257.7

254.2

226.8
252.6

251.1
231.7

252.3

225.9

250.2
230.5

251.9

225.6
249.6

248.3
227.7

230.9
302.9

231.4
303.9

231.7
306.3
102.0

Women's and girls’ apparel..............................
Infants' and toddlers' apparel1..........................
Footwear...........................................................

Gasoline (all types).........................................
Motor vehicle parts and equipment.................
Motor vehicle maintenance and repair............
Public transportation............................................

101.1
167.1
190.3

100.1
100.5
171.9
197.7

Medical care............................................................
Medical care commodities..................................
Medical care services..........................................

242.1

Professional services........................................
Hospital and related services...........................

222.2
287.5

229.2
299.5

Recreation2............................................................

101.1

Video and audio1,2.............................................

101.1

Education and communication2...........................

221.8
246.8

250.6
230.7

101.2

124.8
139.8
135.9

193.1

171.3
198.4

229.3
253.5

249.5
229.4
254.0

98.6
100.1
171.7

127.5
127.1

146.5
142.9

126.1
147.3
143.3

156.4
110.0
109.4
100.5
173.2

173.6
202.2

100.8
173.8
201.2
234.6
258.5

224.6
291.4

251.3
225.8
294.4

226.8
296.2

296.6

228.2
296.3

228.6
297.0

254.6
229.3
297.6

102.1

101.2

101.7

101.8

101.8

102.0

102.2

102.2

102.2

102.2

101.7

101.8

101.9

100.7

100.7

101.4

101.6

101.2

101.0

100.9

100.7

100.6

100.9

100.1

100.1

100.1

100.1

100.3

101.2

100.7

100.9

100.9

100.8

100.7

100.4

100.3

100.4

101.2

101.9

102.1

102.2

102.3

Education2...........................................................
Educational books and supplies....................

102.1
250.8

107.0
261.7

104.7
257.3

105.0
258.4

105.3
261.3

105.4
261.4

105.5
261.2

105.6
261.6

105.7
262.1

106.0
262.3

107.5
264.5

109.4
267.0

109.6
269.0

109.3
255.7

109.3
256.0

Tuition, other school fees, and child care......

294.2
98.7

308.4
96.0

301.7
97.1

302.4
97.3

303.3
96.9

303.5
96.6

303.8
96.3

304.1
95.7

304.4
95.5

305.4
95.5

309.9
95.6

315.3
95.3

315.9
95.3

316.3
95.9

316.3
95.9

Communication1,2..............................................
Information and information processinq1,2....

253.1
227.4

100.8
100.2

126.8

230.1
301.3

98.5

95.5

96.9

96.9

96.5

96.1

95.8

95.2

94.9

94.9

95.0

94.7

94.7

95.3

95.4

Telephone services1,2.................................
Information and information processing

100.7

100.1

100.3

100.7

100.4

100.2

100.0

99.6

99.7

99.5

99.8

99.6

99.8

100.6

100.7

other than teleDhone services1,4...............
Personal computers and peripheral

39.9

30.5

34.8

33.8

33.3

32.4

32.1

30.9

29.8

30.0

29.8

29.3

28.7

28.2

28.2

equipment1,2.........................................
Other goods and services......................................
Tobacco and smoking products.........................

78.2

53.5

64.2

61.4

59.7

57.6

56.8

55.7

54.5

52.9

50.9

49.7

48.2

47.0

47.2

237.7
274.8

258.3
355.8

250.3
331.2

255.4
354.2

255.0
348.7

253.3
335.9

256.1
349.9

255.8
345.5

255.9
343.2

258.3
356.0

257.6
350.1

262.6
373.8

263.2
373.3

263.0
369.8

263.0
369.1

Personal care1....................................................

156.7

161.1

158.3

158.9

159.4

160.0

160.2

160.7

161.1

161.1

161.4

161.8

162.4

162.8

162.9

Personal care products1..................................

148.3

151.8

148.7

149.9

149.8

150.8

150.9

150.9

152.6

152.0

152.3

153.0

153.4

153.3

152.5

Personal care services1..................................

166.0

171.4

168.3

168.8

169.3

169.9

170.3

171.0

170.9

171.4

171.9

172.1

172.9

173.9

174.3


86 Monthly Labor Review
https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2000

28. Continued—Consumer Price Indexes for All Urban Consumers and for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers: U.S. city average,
by expenditure category and commodity or service group
[1982-84 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]_____________________
Annual average

1998

1999

Series
1998
Miscellaneous personal services....................
Commodity and service group:
Commodities..............................................
Food and beverages..........................................
Commodities less food and beverages............
Nondurables less food and beverages...........
Apparel..........................................................
Nondurables less food, beverages,
and apparel..................................................
Durables...........................................................

234.7

1999

Dec.

243.C

237.8
142.2
162.7

141.9

144.4

161.1
130.5

164.6
132.5

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

238.9

240.6

241.1

241.4

242.1

242.4

242.9

243.9

244.6

245.6

246.C

246.6

142.5

142.2
163.8
129.6

142.6
163.7
130.2

144.6

143.9
164.1
131.9

144.5
164.7

145.8
165.1
134.3

136.6

143.9
164.2
131.9
136.7

138.0

141.0

165.6
134.9
141.9

146.2
165.7
134.6
141.3

146.1

163.9
133.2

144.5
164.2
132.8
138.2

146.4

163.9
129.9

140.9

134.2

130.9

127.3

127.5

131.8

134.6

133.6

130.1

145.6
125.8

144.8
125.7

146.8
125.6

148.8
125.4

151.2
125.7

151.2

150.7

152.1

125.9

126.0

125.9

132.6

137.5

130.2
132.1

133.0

131.3

130.7

131.8
127.9

131.9
129.7

133.2
132.7

138.6
135.2

137.4

146.0
126.0

137.8
127.4

138.8
127.1

138.0
126.4

138.5
126.0

145.7

127.6

May

126.1

132.5

165.9
134.4

Services.................................................................

184.2

188.8

185.7

186.3

186.9

187.6

187.8

187.9

188.6

189.5

189.9

190.1

190.2

190.5

190.5

Rent of shelter3.................................................
Transporatation services..................................
Other services...................................................

189.6
187.9

195.0
190.7
223.1

191.5
188.4

192.3
188.8

193.9
190.7

194.9
189.3
222.2

196.3
191.9
225.1

196.3
192.8

222.6

196.1
190.2
223.9

196.3
192.7

221.3

194.2
190.4
221.9

196.1
189.9

220.5

194.3
191.0
221.7

195.7
191.0

219.5

193.1
189.3
221.1

226.0

226.5
168.8
162.1
163.6

216.9

224.5

Special indexes:
All items less food.....................................

163.4

167.0

164.2

164.5

164.7

165.3

166.7

166.6

166.7

167.2

167.7

168.5

168.8

168.8

All items less shelter.........................................
All items less medical care...............................
Commodities less food....................................
Nondurables less food......................................

157.2
158.6
132.0
134.6

160.2
162.0
134.0
139.4

158.1
159.8
131.4

158.5
160.5
131.7
135.3

159.9
161.6
134.6
140.4

159.9
161.6
134.3
140.1

159.7

160.1
162.0
133.4
138.7

160.6
162.5

161.6
163.2

162.0
163.6

134.0
139.9

135.8
142.8

136.3
143.7

162.1
163.6
136.1
143.1

135.9
142.8

139.2

147.5

147.9

140.5
148.5

147.0
151.4

147.0
151.4

152.3
153.2

152.3

146.9

140.0
147.9

150.0

Nondurables.......................................................

147.5
151.2

133.9
140.7

158.1
160.0
131.1
134.0

Nondurables less food and apparel.................

157.8
159.4
131.7
134.2
139.7

154.0

151.9
153.7

153.2
153.7

Services less rent of shelter3............................
Services less medical care services................
Energy.................................................

191.8

195.8

192.8

193.3

193.8

194.2

194.5

194.7

195.6

196.5

196.9

197.3

197.4

197.9

198.0

178.4
102.9

182.7
106.6
174.4

179.8
98.9

180.3
98.1

181.5
98.4

181.8
105.0

183.4
108.7

183.8
111.3

183.9
113.2

184.1
111.6

184.3
111.2

184.3
112.2

172.9

173.7

175.7
143.7

176.2
143.9
86.4
194.7

174.0
176.6
143.7

174.3
176.9
143.2

174.5
177.1

175.1
177.7

175.7

175.3
143.7

174.2
176.8
144.9

181.8
105.6
174.1

182.6
106.8

172.3
174.8
143.9

180.9
97.3
173.2

175.8
178.4

98.3

101.3
196.1

143.0
106.3
196.5

144.6
109.1

175.7
178.2
144.2

161.4

162.7

164.7

165.0

484.7

163.3
486.3

163.8

480.9

487.8

490.5

491.5

164.3

164.7

163.9

164.0
184.5
150.1

164.7
164.2
185.7
149.4

All items less energy..........................................

170.9
173.4
143.2

177.0
144.1

92.1
190.6

100.0
195.7

86.3

85.2

192.5

193.2

83.9
194.0

All items.........................................................

159.7
475.6

163.2
486.2

160.7

All items (1967 « 100)..................................

478.6

161.0
479.7

161.1
479.8

All items less food and energy........................
Commodities less food and energy..............
Energy commodities....................................
Services less energy.....................................

99.9
195.0

176.6
144.5
100.3

161.6
133.4
138.6
146.3
150.5

195.0

195.3

162.8
484.9

485.0

148.2
150.6

151.5

196.6

178.3
145.3
109.1
197.2

145.0
108.7
197.5

111.8
197.7

165.1
491.7

165.1
491.8

164.9
164.5

165.2

C O N S U M E R P R IC E IN D E X F O R U R B A N
W A G E E A R N E R S A N D C L E R IC A L W O R K E R S

Food and beverages..........................................

160.4

Food....................................................

160.0

163.8
163.4

160.0
180.9
147.0

Food at home.....................................................
Cereals and bakery products............................
Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs.........................

162.8

161.9

163.1

163.0

163.4

162.6

163.0
184.7
147.6

162.6
183.5
146.7

162.3
183.2
146.4

162.6
162.2
184.5
146.3

163.3
162.9
162.6
184.8
146.1

163.3

162.8
163.1
184.0
146.0

163.0
162.6

162.9

161.5
161.3
182.0
146.9

162.8
162.5
185.5
146.9

163.0
162.5
186.1
146.8

163.9
163.5
162.9
184.8
148.2

163.5
185.0
148.9

164.4
164.0
185.0
148.8

Dairy and related products1..............................
Fruits and vegetables......................................
Nonalcoholic beverages and beverage
materials.........................................................
Other foods at home.......................................

150.4
197.0

159.4
201.8

157.4
199.0

161.1
207.3

162.2
199.3

161.5
198.7

155.7
201.7

155.8
205.3

155.7
201.9

155.3
201.0

156.0
201.2

158.4
201.6

164.0
201.0

164.6
199.8

161.9
202.8

131.8
150.2

130.4
151.7

132.5
152.4

133.1
152.6
152.8

132.7
152.3

133.5
152.7

152.0

150.6
168.1

148.9
168.0

147.0
168.5

147.2
169.0

152.0
147.8
169.2

133.2
153.5
152.6

133.4
152.9

151.8
150.1
167.7

133.2
153.0
151.7
148.6
169.0

133.0
153.3

150.0
151.2
166.7

133.6
152.3
151.1

133.1
153.0

150.1
146.5
165.4

133.4
152.6
151.3

133.2
152.8

Sugar and sweets............................................
Fats and oils....................................................
Other foods.....................................................

133.2
152.8
152.2

153.3
148.1
169.2

153.2
148.6
168.5

152.0
144.9
168.8

152.3
144.7
169.4

Other miscellaneous foods1,2.....................

102.6

104.6

104.9

104.2

105.9

105.0

105.2

104.7

104.4

103.9

104.4

105.1

103.8

103.4

105.2

161.1

165.0

163.0

163.5

163.8

164.1

164.4

164.5

164.4

164.9

165.5

165.8

166.1

166.5

166.8

101.6
164.6

105.1
168.8

103.4
166.2

103.6
166.5

103.7
167.6

103.8
167.3

104.1
167.8

104.2
168.5

104.5
168.7

105.3
169.1

105.8
169.2

106.2
169.8

106.6
169.5

106.8
170.4

106.9
171.0

156.7

157.8
178.8

158.1
179.3

158.4
179.9

158.8
180.5

159.1

159.2
180.9

160.2
181.5

160.7

180.8

182.0

161.0
182.4

161.3
182.6

161.0
182.8

161.1
183.1

161.1
183.3

Food away from home1..................................
Other food away from home1,2........................
Alcoholic beverages...............................
Housing.....................................................

147.9
168.8

148.3
169.7

176.6

160.0
181.6

Rent of primary residence.................................

171.7

177.1

174.6

174.9

175.3

175.6

176.0

176.4

176.8

177.1

177.5

178.0

178.4

179.3

179.9

Lodqinq away from home2...............................

109.0

122.2
175.7

104.0

107.1

110.3

114.2

112.0

113.8

116.7

116.8

113.8

113.1

108.4

105.7

173.7

173.9

174.2

174.5

114.5
174.8

175.1

175.4

175.7

176.1

176.5

176.8

177.4

177.8

100.3
126.4
110.9
86.6
118.4

100.1
126.0
110.4
87.1

100.4
125.8
110.2

100.6
125.8
110.0
85.8
117.3
124.9
131.1
131.6

100.9
126.3
110.6
88.0
117.9
124.8
133.0
134.0

102.3
130.2
114.7

102.2
131.1
115.7

102.3
131.4
115.9

102.4
129.2

87.6
123.6
124.9
126.4

89.3
123.7
124.7
126.4

102.4
130.1
114.4
97.7

102.3
129.8
114.0

87.8
122.6
124.8
129.6

102.5
132.6
117.2
93.9
124.9

131.6

125.5

120.6

128.6
114.4

127.2
116.0

128.0
125.8
142.4
139.9

128.4
125.8
143.7
140.9

129.6
124.4
145.0
142.4

143.6

100.0

100.1

100.2

100.71

Shelter.....................................................

Owners' equivalent rent of primary residence3

171.1

Tenants' and household insurance1,2..............
Fuels and utilities..............................................
Fuels....................................................

100.0
128.4
113.3

Fuel oil and other fuels.................................
Gas (piped) and electricity............................
Household furnishings and operations............
Apparel.............................................................

90.3
120.8
125.0
131.6

Men's and boys' apparel...................................

131.4
123.9

121.3

121.0

128.1
116.4

86.8
117.5
124.8
128.5
129.9
118.8

Infants' and toddlers' apparel1.....................
Footwear...........................................................
Transportation..............................................

126.7
128.7
140.5

130.3
126.2
143.4

Private transportation..........................................

138.0

140.7

130.9
128.2
139.6
137.1

130.8
126.1
139.1
136.5

100.3

100.4

101.1

100.6

Women's and girls' apparel...............................

New and used motor vehicles2......................... L


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

101.6
128.7
113.0
91.7
120.4
124.7
130.1
131.2

124.8
129.8
130.2

117.7
125.0
127.1

100.6
125.5
109.7
88.1
116.9
125.2
133.7

123.9

133.6
126.5

127.2
125.4
138.3
135.6

126.5
126.8
139.1

129.3
129.5
142.9

136.2

140.1

128.9
127.9
143.1
140.3

99.9

99.5

99.7

99.8

124.8
130.5
130.3
123.3
131.4
125.1
146.0

Monthly Labor Review

113.5
106.0
119.8
124.2
129.0

100.7
120.9
124.2
132.3
133.3
124.4

119.8

143.9

134.3
126.9
146.9
144.2

134.8
124.2
147.6
145.0

101.2

101.5

101.5

121.5
124.5
133.1
134.0
126.0
134.1
126.6
146.6

131.6

February 2000

87

Current Labor Statistics:

Price Data

28. Continued—Consumer Price Indexes for All Urban Consumers and for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers: U.S. city average,
by expenditure category and commodity or service group
[1982-84 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
Annual average
Series

1998
144.6

2
12
2
2

Tuition, other school fees, and child care......
1,2
Information and information processing ....
Information and information processing
14
Personal computers and peripheral
12

1999
144.0

1999

1998
Dec.
145.3

Jan.

Mar.

Feb.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

145.5

145.0

144.5

144.5

144.0

143.6

143.2

142.6

142.8

143.5

144.3

144.7

148.7

149.6

150.9

152.2

153.7

155.2

157.0

157.7

157.3

156.3

86.4

101.3

99.2
98.7

102.6

107.8

110.6

107.3

110.0

109.5
108.9

112.3

102.1

110.0
109.4

99.6

99.5
173.5

99.6

99.9

99.8

100.6

100.2

173.5

174.3

174.7

175.1
197.0

175.2
253.2

152.0

153.3

154.3

151.8

149.6

92.2
91.7

100.8

86.0

85.0

100.2

85.5

84.5

83.5
83.0

85.9

100.8
100.3

100.5

100.0

100.5

100.5

99.8

99.6

168.2
187.1

173.3

170.9

100.6
171.2

171.8

172.0

172.7

193.1

185.1

186.8

189.1

194.1

172.3
196.4

193.9

189.0

195.7

192.5

190.7

196.3

241.4

249.7

244.4

246.9

247.5

248.2

250.3

251.0

251.4

223.2

226.6

229.0

229.5

230.2

251.0

252.3

253.8

254.5

227.8
255.3

228.4

254.9

223.9
252.8

225.7

246.6

222.1
249.4

251.9
229.1

252.5

226.8

248.7
225.7

249.4

218.6

245.8
222.4

256.0

256.4

257.0

257.6

258.4

100.8
99.7

173.1

111.7

196.0

223.7

230.8

226.2

227.3

228.9

230.2

231.0

231.4

231.7

232.0

232.5

295.5

287.4

290.4

292.8

292.3

293.0

293.6

295.3

297.3

298.2

298.9

233.1
299.8

233.4

283.6

228.3
292.4

253.3
229.7

100.9

101.3

100.8

101.2

101.3

101.3

101.4

101.5

101.6

101.6

101.5

101.0

101.1

101.0

101.2

101.1

100.5

100.7

101.3

101.4

101.0

100.8

100.6

100.5

100.4

100.7

99.8

99.9

99.9

99.8

100.4

101.5

100.9

101.2

101.2

101.0

100.9

100.7

100.7

100.8

101.5

102.1

102.3

102.5

102.5

102.1
253.1

107.2
264.1

104.7

105.1
260.8

105.5
263.9

105.6
264.0

105.7

106.0
264.8

106.3
265.0

107.7
267.2

109.5
269.9

109.4

109.4

263.9

105.9
264.3

109.7

259.7

271.8

256.5

256.9

288.5
99.1

302.8

295.8
97.8

296.6
98.1

297.8
97.7

298.0
97.4

298.3
97.0

298.7

309.5
96.2

310.4

310.4

96.3

304.1
96.5

310.0

96.5

299.2
96.4

300.2

96.9

96.3

96.9

97.0

99.0

96.5

97.7

97.8

97.4

97.1

96.7

96.2

96.0

96.0

96.1

95.8

95.9

96.6

96.6

100.7

100.2

100.4

100.8

100.5

100.4

100.0

99.8

99.9

99.7

99.9

99.7

100.0

100.8

100.9

41.2

31.6

36.0

35.0

34.4

33.5

33.0

31.8

30.8

31.1

30.8

30.3

29.9

29.3

29.3

302.1

77.9

53.1

64.0

61.1

59.3

56.9

55.9

55.1

54.0

52.5

50.6

49.4

48.1

46.9

46.9

236.1

261.9

252.6

259.2

258.3

255.6

259.5

258.8

258.7

262.0

260.7

267.3

267.9

267.4

267.3

274.8

356.2

332.0

354.5

348.9

336.0

350.5

345.9

343.5

356.6

350.6

374.4

374.0

370.4

369.7

156.8

161.3

158.3

159.1

159.6

160.3

160.4

160.8

161.3

161.3

161.6

161.9

162.6

163.0

163.1

149.3

152.5

149.6

150.7

150.8

151.6

151.7

151.6

153.3

152.7

153.1

153.7

154.1

154.0

153.1

166.3

171.7

168.6

169.1

169.6

170.2

170.6

171.4

171.2

171.8

172.2

172.4

173.2

174.4

174.7

234.0

243.1

237.4

239.1

240.8

241.4

241.7

242.3

242.6

243.2

243.8

244.5

245.5

245.9

246.7

141.8
160.4

144.7

142.3

142.5

142.2

163.1
130.4

163.0

144.7
163.0

144.0
163.3

144.2
163.4

144.8

161.9
130.6

142.5
162.9

144.6

163.8

163.9

146.3
164.3

146.8
164.7

146.6
164.9

146.6
165.2

135.6
142.2

135.4

132.3

129.0

Commodity and service group:
163.3
133.4

129.9

130.3

133.6

132.5

132.7

133.4

135.4

165.9

132.1

132.0

131.8

133.1

137.0

127.1

128.5

131.1

133.0

129.6

137.5
126.4

138.8
126.4

142.1

129.8

139.1
133.7

138.8

131.6

138.1
130.1

130.5

142.9
133.1

137.0

147.2

137.9

139.2

138.2

138.7

146.7

146.6

145.7

148.1

150.2

153.2

153.1

152.5

153.9

127.3

126.0

127.4

126.9

126.1

125.7

125.8

125.6

125.6

125.7

125.7

126.1

126.3

126.4

126.3

181.0

185.3

182.5

183.0

183.5

184.0

184.2

184.4

185.2

185.9

186.3

186.6

186.7

187.1

187.2

170.1
185.4

174.9
187.9
219.6

172.2
186.1
216.1

172.7
186.4
217.1

173.2
186.8

173.8
187.8

175.3
188.0

175.6
187.4

219.2

220.3

221.6

176.3
189.8
222.3

176.5
189.9

218.8

175.8
187.3
220.9

176.1
189.0

217.8

174.2
187.5
218.4

174.7
186.7

217.7

174.1
187.9
218.1

222.9

160.5
155.9

162.6
157.7

162.6
157.7

162.7

163.2

163.7

157.6

158.0

158.6

164.7
159.7

165.0
160.1

165.1
160.1

165.1
160.1

130.6
132.1

133.2

142.0

Nondurables less food, beverages,

213.7
Special indexes:

161.1
156.1

157.1

157.5

158.8

158.8

158.8

159.2

159.7

160.7

161.0

161.1

161.1

131.8

131.3

131.8

135.0

134.8

133.9

134.2

134.8

136.7

137.2

137.0

136.8

134.1
139.7

134.1

135.1
140.5

140.8
147.9

140.6

138.9
147.0

139.4

140.7

143.8

144.6

144.0

149.3

151.2

153.8

153.4

143.8
154.7

163.1

160.4

158.1

155.6

155.8

159.2

156.8

132.0

134.6

132.0

134.1
138.7

140.0
148.4

146.5

151.3

147.3

147.8

134.0
140.0
147.7

148.3

151.4

151.4

150.5

150.8

151.7

154.0
153.6

154.3

154.0

154.0

170.7

174.1

171.9

172.3

172.8

172.7

173.0

174.0

174.7

175.0

175.5

175.4

175.8

175.9

175.4
102.1

179.5
106.1
171.1

171.5
176.S
97.6
169.;
171.;

177.3
97.C
169.6
171.6

177.8
96.1
170.C

178.2
97.6
170.2
172.2

178.4
104.5
170.7

178.6
105.2
170.7

179.4
106.2

180.1
108.4

180.8
111.4
172.4

172.;

173.;

174.6

143.7

144.5

143.5

143.2

145.C

100.6

143.6
98.6

101.6

106.6

192.2

192.6 I

193.5 I

109.1
194.4

112.1

191.;

109.'
193.4

145.'
109.4

181.1
111.C
172.6
174.'
145.4

181.2
112.1
172.5

172.6

170.6
172.7

180.7
113.1
171.6

172.;

180.4
111.1
171.1
173.1

167.6
169.6
142.7
92.
Services less energy.....................................

160.6
155.8
157.1

159.5
155.0

187.'

173.1
144.;

140.9

loo.;

86.2

144.C
85.2

192.6

189.'

190.;

144.1

171.;
143.7
83.6

86.6

144.6
100.2

190.;

191.6

191.6

147.9

1 Not seasonally adjusted.

4 lndexes on a December 1988= 100 base'

Indexes on a December 1 9 9 7 - 100 base.
3
Indexes on a December 1982 = 100 base.

n o te :


88 Monthly Labor Review
https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2000

170.;

Index applies to a month as a whole, not to any specific date.

194.C)|

174.5
144.6
194.7

29.

Consumer Price Index: U.S. city average and available local area data: all items

[1982-84 = 100, unless otherwise indicated] ___________________
All Urban Consumers

Pricing
Area

sched­
ule1

U.S. city average..............................................................

M

1998
Nov.
164.0

Urban W age Earners

1999

Dec.
163.9

Aug.
167.1

Sept.
167.9

Oct.
168.2

1998
Nov.
168.3

Dec.
168.3

Nov.
160.7

1999

Dec.
160.7

Aug.

Sept.

163.8

164.7

Oct.
165.0

Nov.

Dec.

165.1

165.1

Region and area size2
Northeast urban......................................................................
Size A— More than 1,600,000.............................................

M

171.2

171.2

174.1

174.8

175.5

175.5

175.5

168.2

168.2

170.9

171.9

172.5

172.6

172.6

M

172.2

172.2

175.1

175.7

176.4

176.5

176.3

168.2

168.2

171.0

171.8

172.5

172.7

172.4

Size B/C— 50,000 to 1,500,0003........................................

M

102.6

102.5

104.3

105.1

105.3

105.1

105.4

102.2

102.3

103.8

104.7

105.0

105.0

105 2

Midwest urban4.................................................................
Size A— More than 1,500,000............................................

M

160.1

159.8

163.2

164.3

164.3

164.6

164.4

156.2

156.0

159.4

160.6

160.6

160.9

160.7

M

161.3

161.0

164.8

165.7

165.7

165.6

165.5

156.7

156.5

160.2

161.1

161.1

161.0

161.1

Size B/C— 50,000 to 1.500.0003........................................
Size D— Nonmetropolitan (less than 50,000)...................

M

102.4

102.3

104.2

105.1

105.0

105.6

105.3

102.1

102.0

104.0

105.1

105.0

105.5

105.3

South urban...........................................................................

M

154.7

155.0

157.7

158.6

158.7

159.3

158.9

152.9

153.3

156.1

157.1

157.2

157.6

157.3

M

159.6

159.6

162.6

163.2

163.6

163.5

163.6

157.7

157.8

160.6

161.5

161.9

161.8

162.0

Size A— More than 1,500,000............................................

M

158.6

158.3

161.9

162.7

163.2

162.9

163.0

156.2

156.0

159.5

160.4

160.9

160.6

160.9

Size B/C—50,000 to 1,500,0003........................................
Size D— Nonmetropolitan (less than 50,000)...................

M

102.8

102.8

104.4

104.8

105.1

105.1

105.2

102.4

102.5

104.0

104.6

104.9

104.9

105.0

M

160.0

160.4

163.7

164.1

164.1

164.1

163.5

160.6

160.8

164.1

164.8

164.8

165.0

164.6

M

165.8

165.8

169.5

170.0

170.4

170.4

170.5

161.8

161.8

165.3

165.8

166.2

166.2

166.4

Size A— More than 1,500,000............................................

M

166.5

166.5

170.5

171.2

171.6

171.6

171.7

160.7

160.8

164.7

165.3

165.6

165.7

165.8

Size B/C— 50,000 to 1,500,000®........................................

M

103.5

103.4

105.2

105.2

105.5

105.5

105.7

103.3

103.3

105.1

105.1

105.4

105.3

105.5

M
M
M

148.5
102.8
159.9

148.4
102.7
160.2

151.6
104.5
163.1

152.2
105.0
163.7

152.6
105.2
163.8

152.5
105.3
164.2

152.5
105.3
163.7

147.0
102.4
159.1

146.9
102.5
159.2

150.1
104.1
162.1

150.8
104.8
163.0

151.2
105.0
163.1

151.2
105.0
163.5

151.2
105.2
163.1

163.7

West urban...........................................................................

Size classes:
A6....................................................................................
B/C3........................................................................
D.....................................................................

Selected local areas6
Chicago-Gary-Kenosha, IL—IN—W l.......................................
Los Angeles-Riverside-Orange County, CA........................

M

165.4

165.1

169.3

169.7

169.7

169.3

169.2

159.9

159.6

163.5

164.1

164.0

163.7

M

163.4

163.5

166.3

167.2

167.2

167.1

167.3

157.0

157.2

159.8

160.7

160.7

160.6

160.9

New York, NY-Northern NJ-Long Island, NY-NJ-CT-PA..

M

174.7

174.7

177.6

178.2

178.9

178.8

170.5

173.2

173.9

174.3

• _

175.2

174.5
_

174.6

171.5

170.5
_

177.8

_

152.8

-

-

156.4

_

156.1

_

Boston-Brockton-Nashua, M A -N H -M E -C T .......................

1

172.1

-

-

176.8

-

179.2

178.6
-

Cleveland-Akron, OH............................................

1

161.5

-

-

164.2

-

163.8

-

Dallas-Ft Worth, TX................................................................

1

154.5

-

-

159.8

-

160.1

-

153.8

-

-

159.6

-

159.8

_

Washinqton-Baltimore, D C -M D -V A-W V7............................

1

102.9

-

-

105.4

-

105.0

-

102.2

-

-

105.3

-

104.9

-

Atlanta, GA....................................................................

2

-

161.6

165.9

-

166.5

-

167.0

-

158.8

163.2

_

164.0

_

164.6

Detroit-Ann Arbor-Flint, Ml.....................................................

-

161.2

164.2

-

165.9

-

165.6

-

155.9

158.7

-

160.4

_

160.4

-

146.1

148.9

-

151.2

-

150.3

-

144.8

147.9

-

149.9

-

149.2

-

161.1

162.3

-

164.1

-

164.8

-

158.7

160.0

-

161.9

_

162.7

-

169.0

173.1

-

174.4

-

172.9

-

168.5

172.6

_

174.3

_

172.8

San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose, CA...............................

2
2
2
2
2

-

167.4

173.5

-

175.2

-

174.5

_

163.7

170.0

_

171.2

_

170.9

Seattle-Tacoma-Bremerton, WA......................................

2

-

169.4

173.4

-

174.7

-

174.4

-

164.9

168.8

-

170.2

_

170.1

Houston-Galveston-Brazorla, TX.........................................
Mlami-Ft. Lauderdale, FL.......................................................
Philadelphia-Wilmington-Atlantic City, PA -N J-DE-M D .....

Foods, fuels, and several other items priced every month in all areas; most other goods
and services priced as indicated:
M— Every month.
1—

January, March, May, July, September, and November.

2—

February, April, June, August, October, and December.

MO-KS; Milwaukee-Racine, Wl; Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI; Pittsburgh, PA; Portland-Salem, OR-WA; St Louis, MO-IL; San Diego, CA; Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater,
FL.
7 Indexes on a November 1996 = 100 base.
- Data not available.

2 Regions defined as the four Census regions.
3 Indexes on a December 1996 = 100 base.
The "North Central" region has been renamed the "Midwest" region by the Census Bureau.
It is composed of the same geographic entities.
5 Indexes on a December 1986 = 100 base.
6 In addition, the following metropolitan areas are published semiannually and appear in
tables 34 and 39 of the January and July issues of the CPI Detailed Report: Anchorage, AK;

NOTE: Local area CPI indexes are byproducts of the national CPI program. Each local
Index has a smaller sample size and is, therefore, subject to substantially more sampling and
other measurement error. As a result, local area indexes show greater volatility than the
national index, although their long-term trends are similar. Therefore, the Bureau of Labor
Statistics strongly urges users to consider adopting the national average CPI for use in their
escalator clauses. Index applies to a month as a whole, not to any specific date.

Cindnnati-Hamilton, O H-KY-IN; Denver-Boulder-Greeley, CO; Honolulu, HI; Kansas City,


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

89

Current Labor Statistics:

30.

Price Data

Annual data: Consumer Price Index, U.S. city average, all items and major groups

[1982-84 = 100]
1991

Series

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers:
All items:
Index...............................................................................
Percent change.............................................................
Food and beverages:
Index................................................................................
Percent change.............................................................
Housing:
Index................................................................................
Percent change.............................................................
Apparel:
Index...............................................................................
Percent change.............................................................
Transportation:
Index...............................................................................
Percent change.............................................................
Medical care:
Index..............................................................................
Percent change.............................................................
Other goods and services:

136.2
4.2

140.3
3.0

144.5
3.0

148.2

152.4

2.6

2.8

156.9
3.0

160.5
2.3

163.0
1.6

166.6
2.2

136.8
3.6

138.7
1.4

141.6
2.1

144.9
2.3

148.9
2.8

153.7
3.2

157.7
2.6

161.1
2.2

164.6
2.2

133.6
4.0

137.5
2.9

141.2
2.7

144.8
2.5

148.5
2.6

152.8
2.9

156.8
2.6

160.4
2.3

163.9
2.2

128.7
3.7

131.9
2.5

133.7
1.4

133.4
-.2

132.0
-1 .0

131.7
-.2

132.9
.9

133.0
.1

131.3
-1 .3

123.8
2.7

126.5
2.2

130.4
3.1

134.3
3.0

139.1
3.6

143.0
2.8

144.3
0.9

141.6
-1 .9

144.4
2.0

177.0
8.7

190.1
7.4

201.4
5.9

211.0
4.8

220.5
4.5

228.2
3.5

234.6
2.8

242.1
3.2

250.6
3.5

Percent change.............................................................

171.6
7.9

183.3
6.8

192.9
5.2

198.5
2.9

206.9
4.2

215.4
4.1

224.8
4.4

237.7
5.7

258.3
8.7

Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners
and Clerical Workers:
All items:
Index..............................................................................
Percent change.............................................................

134.3
4.1

138.2
2.9

142.1
2.8

145.6
2.5

149.8
2.9

154.1
2.9

157.6
2.3

159.7
1.3

163.2
2.2


90 Monthly Labor Review
https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2000

31.

Producer Price Indexes, by stage of processing

[1982 = 100]
Annual average

1999

1998

Grouping
1998

1999p

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Finished consumer goods.........................
Finished consumer foods........................

130.7
128.9
134.3

133.1
132.1
135.1

131.1
129.4
134.5

131.4
129.7
135.6

130.8
129.0
134.1

131.1
129.4
134.7

131.9
130.4
133.4

132.4
131.2
134.5

132.7
131.7
135.1

132.9
132.1
134.6

133.7
133.2
135.9

134.8
134.6
137.0

135.0
134.4
135.6

135.0
134.5
135.4

135.0
134.4
135.7

Finshed consumer goods
excluding foods.......................................
Nondurable goods less food.................
Durable goods.........................................
Capital equipment....................................

126.4
122.2
132.9
137.6

130.6
127.9
133.0
137.6

127.1
122.7
133.8
137.9

127.1
122.9
133.3
137.8

126.6
122.2
133.5
138.0

127.0
122.9
133.1
137.7

129.0
125.7
133.1
137.8

129.6
126.6
132.8
137.6

130.0
127.5
132.3
137.2

130.8
128.9
131.7
137.0

131.9
130.4
131.6
136.9

133.4
132.8
131.1
136.7

133.7
131.6
134.8
138.5

133.9
132.0
134.6
138.3

133.7
131.8
134.6
138.3

sup plies, and c o m p o n e n ts .........................

123.0

123.2

120.9

120.9

120.4

120.7

121.6

122.2

123.0

123.9

124.6

125.2

125.2

125.4

125.6

Materials and components
for manufacturing........................................
Materials for food manufacturing..............
Materials for nondurable manufacturing...
Materials for durable manufacturing........
Components for manufacturing................

126.1
123.2
126.7
128.0
125.9

124.5
120.9
124.8
125.1
125.7

124.1
124.0
123.3
124.2
125.8

123.9
124.3
123.0
123.5
125.8

123.5
122.2
122.5
123.2
125.7

123.4
121.4
122.6
123.2
125.7

123.2
118.1
122.7
123.2
125.7

123.8
119.6
123.3
124.3
125.6

124.1
120.0
123.8
124.8
125.7

124.6
119.0
124.8
126.1
125.6

125.0
121.1
125.5
126.2
125.6

125.1
122.5
125.8
125.8
125.6

125.9
122.4
127.3
126.5
125.9

126.0
121.4
127.8
126.8
125.7

126.1
118.5
128.4
127.4
125.7

146.8
81.1
140.8
134.8

148.9
84.9
142.5
134.2

146.6
75.8
138.7
134.3

146.9
76.1
138.3
134.1

147.3
74.9
138.0
133.8

147.8
76.2
138.5
133.7

148.0
80.6
140.4
133.8

148.5
82.5
141.6
133.7

149.5
84.9
142.2
133.9

150.5
87.6
142.1
133.9

150.4
90.0
143.6
134.2

149.7
92.5
146.3
134.4

149.2
90.3
146.6
134.9

149.3
91.2
146.5
135.1

149.7
91.7
146.5
135.2

96.8
103.9
88.4

98.2
98.8
94.3

89.8
97.0
81.6

90.1
101.2
79.2

88.2
98.2
78.1

89.0
98.8
79.1

91.1
95.4
84.8

97.4
99.6
92.3

97.4
99.5
92.5

97.9
96.2
95.5

103.1
100.1
101.5

106.9
100.5
107.4

104.9
99.6
104.7

108.6
99.5
110.9

103.9
96.8
105.0

Finished goods, excluding foods.................
Finished energy goods.................................
Finished goods less energy........................
Finished consumer goods less energy.....
Finished goods less food and energy........

129.5
75.1
141.1
142.5
143.7

132.3
78.9
143.0
145.2
146.1

130.0
70.8
142.9
144.9
146.1

130.0
71.3
143.0
145.1
145.9

129.7
70.1
142.7
144.6
146.0

129.9
71.2
142.7
144.7
145.8

131.3
75.9
142.3
144.2
145.8

131.6
77.5
142.5
144.6
145.6

131.8
78.6
142.6
144.8
145.5

132.3
80.7
142.3
144.5
145.3

133.0
83.5
142.5
144.9
145.2

134.0
85.9
143.2
145.9
145.6

134.7
83.6
144.2
146.5
147.5

134.8
84.0
144.0
146.4
147.4

134.7
83.8
144.0
146.5
147.4

Finished consumer goods less food
and energy...................................................

147.7

151.7

151.6

151.2

151.3

151.2

151.2

151.0

151.0

150.9

150.7

151.6

153.5

153.5

153.4

Consumer nondurable qoods less food
and energy................................................

159.1

166.3

165.4

165.2

165.2

165.3

165.2

165.2

165.7

165.9

165.7

167.7

168.0

168.3

168.1

Intermediate foods and feeds.....................
Intermediate energy goods.........................
Intermediate goods less energy..................

123.4
116.2
80.8
132.4

123.9
111.1
84.6
131.7

121.3
114.5
75.5
131.1

121.2
114.6
75.9
130.9

120.9
112.6
74.7
130.6

121.2
111.0
76.0
130.6

122.3
109.0
80.3
130.7

122.9
109.8
82.2
131.1

123.7
110.2
84.6
131.5

124.7
109.1
87.2
131.9

125.4
110.9
89.6
132.3

125.9
112.1
92.1
132.4

125.9
112.5
90.0
132.9

126.2
112.0
90.9
133.0

126.5
110.0
91.4
133.1

Intermediate materials less foods
and energy...................................................

133.5

133.1

132.1

131.9

131.8

131.9

132.1

132.5

132.9

133.4

133.7

133.7

134.2

134.4

134.6

68.6
113.6
142.1

78.4
108.0
135.3

64.2
104.9
128.1

61.0
108.1
128.8

58.8
106.4
130.9

60.5
106.6
129.9

68.1
103.9
129.1

77.1
107.6
131.4

77.1
107.7
132.2

80.4
105.8
134.2

87.3
109.4
136.8

94.1
110.4
139.6

89.6
110.6
142.5

97.5
110.6
142.8

89.0
109.3
145.5

Finished g o o d s ..................................................

In te rm ed iate m aterials,

Materials and components
for construction...........................................
Containers......................................................

C rud e m aterials fo r fu rth e r
p ro c e s s in g ........................................................

Foodstuffs and feedstuffs.............................
Crude nonfood materials..............................
Special group ing s:

Intermediate materials less foods

Crude nonfood materials less energy........


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

91

Current Labor Statistics:

32.

Price Data

Producer Price indexes for the net output of major industry groups

[December 1984 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
Annual average

1999

1998

Industry

SIC

1998

_
10
12
13
14

_
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

1999p

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Apr.

Mar.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Nov.

Dec.

84.7

90.9

88.4

93.9

87.5

69.3
86.9
87.6

71.0
84.0
96.4

77.8
86.9
91.9

73.5
86.5
99.8

72.6
85.1
91.6

Oct.

Total m ining industries..........................................

70.8

78.0

66.8

64.1

62.5

63.4

68.9

76.5

76.3

78.7

Metal mining......................................................
Coal mining (12/85 = 100)...............................
Oil and gas extraction (12/85 - 100)...............
Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
minerals, except fuels.....................................

73.2
89.5
68.3

70.5
87.2
78.5

69.5
91.4
62.9

68.2
85.5
60.3

69.3
89.2
57.3

68.3
89.3
58.6

69.8
89.9
65.7

69.7
87.8
76.3

67.3
88.2
76.2

68.8
86.9
79.6

132.2

133.9

132.7

133.0

133.5

133.6

133.8

133.8

134.2

134.2

134.2

133.8

134.0

134.2

134.4

127.7
125.3
316.1
116.4

127.8
126.0
316.2
116.3

128.3
125.9
316.1
115.9

129.0
126.8
316.5
116.0

129.7
127.6
344.4
115.9

130.1
127.4
344.4
116.1

130.3
127.2
344.6
116.0

130.6
126.7
345.0
116.1

Total m anufacturing industries..........................

Food and kindred products..............................
Tobacco manufactures.....................................
Textile mill products..........................................
Apparel and other finished products
made from fabrics and similar materials......
Lumber and wood products,
except furniture...............................................
Furniture and fixtures.......................................
Paper and allied products................................

126.2
126.3
243.1
118.6

128.3
126.3
325.7
116.3

125.9
126.1
316.0
117.6

126.2
126.6
316.5
117.1

125.9
125.8
316.3
116.6

126.3
125.6
315.8
117.0

127.4
124.3
316.0
116.4

124.8

125.3

124.9

125.0

125.1

125.2

125.3

125.3

125.1

125.1

125.5

124.9

125.5

125.6

125.6

157.0
139.7
136.2

161.8
141.2
136.4

155.7
140.2
133.5

156.7
140.5
133.0

158.3
140.5
132.6

160.1
140.6
133.3

160.2
140.7
134.2

161.9
140.9
134.8

165.2
141.1
135.8

168.5
141.3
136.3

166.9
141.6
137.3

162.9
141.5
138.8

159.9
141.8
139.8

160.0
141.8
140.2

160.9
142.2
140.3

27

Printing, publishing, and allied industries.......

174.0

177.5

175.2

176.4

176.5

177.0

177.1

177.2

177.2

177.4

177.7

177.7

178.3

178.8

179.2

28
29
30
31
32
33
34

Chemicals and allied products.........................
Petroleum refining and related products.........
Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products.
Leather and leather products..........................
Stone, clay, glass, and concrete products.....

148.7
66.3
122.1
137.1
129.3
120.9

149.5
76.8
122.2
136.5
132.6
115.7

147.9
56.3
121.8
136.7
130.2
116.9

147.5
58.6
121.5
135.8
130.7
115.9

147.3
56.2
121.4
136.1
131.5
115.1

147.5
59.9
121.3
136.1
131.7
114.8

147.7
73.7
121.7
136.1
132.1
114.7

148.2
75.4
121.6
136.0
132.5
114.9

149.0
74.2
121.9
136.5
132.7
115.0

149.9
79.6
122.1
136.7
132.7
115.4

150.0
85.3
122.5
136.7
133.1
115.7

150.3
89.9
122.7
137.0
133.3
115.8

151.9
86.8
122.8
137.1
133.5
117.0

152.2
89.6
123.2
137.2
133.7
116.9

152.5
92.8
123.3
137.3
133.6
117.2

128.7

129.1

128.7

128.8

128.8

128.7

128.9

128.9

129.1

129.1

129.1

129.2

129.4

129.4

129.6

117.5

117.5

117.5

117.3

117.2

117.1

117.2

117.2

117.2

Fabricated metal products,
except machinery and transportation
transportation equipment..............................

35
36
37
38

39

117.7

117.3

117.3

117.4

117.4

117.4

110.4
133.6

109.6
134.4

110.0
134.9

110.0
134.5

109.9
134.8

109.8
134.4

109.7
134.5

109.7
134.1

109.5
133.6

109.5
133.0

109.5
132.9

109.6
132.4

109.2
136.5

109.4
136.1

109.4
136.0

126.0

125.7

125.9

126.6

126.6

126.4

126.4

125.9

125.3

125.1

125.0

125.4

125.6

125.3

125.4

129.7

130.3

129.8

130.2

130.3

130.4

130.4

130.5

130.5

130.5

130.1

130.1

130.4

130.2

130.6

111.6
132.3
105.6
124.5
99.2

114.7
135.3
113.3
130.8
98.4

112.7
132.3
105.7
126.5
99.2

113.6
135.4
106.0
126.6
98.4

113.9
135.4
106.0
128.4
98.2

114.1
135.4
105.8
128.9
98.2

114.2
135.4
106.0
129.6
98.4

114.3
135.4
114.4
130.0
98.5

114.6
135.2
116.8
130.9
98.6

114.8
135.2
117.4
131.4
98.2

115.1
135.2
117.2
131.7
98.2

115.7
135.2
118.4
132.2
98.6

115.4
135.2
117.5
132.4
98.5

115.3
135.2
116.3
133.0
98.4

115.8
135.2
117.2
133.7
98.4

Electrical and electronic machinery,

Measuring and controlling instruments;
photographic, medical, and optical
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries
Service industries:

42
43
44
45
46

33.

Motor freight transportation
and warehousing (06/93 = 100).....................
Water transportation (12/92 - 100).................
Transportation by air (12/92 - 100).................

Annual data: Producer Price Indexes, by stage of processing

[1982 = 100]
1991

Index

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999p

Finished goods
121.7
124.1
78.1
131.1

123.2
123.3
77.8
134.2

124.7
125.7
78.0
135.8

125.5
126.8
77.0
137.1

127.9
129.0
78.1
140.0

131.3
133.6
83.2
142.0

131.8
134.5
83.4
142.4

130.7
134.3
75.1
143.7

133.1
135.1
78.9
146.1

114.4
115.3
85.1
121.4

114.7
113.9
84.3
122.0

116.2
115.6
84.6
123.8

118.5
118.5
83.0
127.1

124.9
119.5
84.1
135.2

125.7
125.3
89.8
134.0

125.6
123.2
89.0
134.2

123.0
123.2
80.8
133.5

123.2
120.9
84.6
133.1

101.2
105.5
80.4
97.5

100.4
105.1
78.8
94.2

102.4
108.4
76.7
94.1

101.8
106.5
72.1
97.0

102.7
105.8
69.4
105.8

113.8
121.5
85.0
105.7

111.1
112.2
87.3
103.5

96.8
103.9
68.6
84.5

98.2
98.8
78.4
91.1

Intermediate materials, supplies, and
components

Crude materials for further processing

Other...................................................................................

92 Monthly Labor Review

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2000

34.

U.S. export price indexes by Standard International Trade Classification

[1995 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
SITC

Industry

Rev. 3

1998
Dec.

1999
Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

0 Food an d live a n im a ls .................................................................
01
Meat and meat preparations..............................................
04
Cereals and cereal preparations.......................................
05
Vegetables, fruit, and nuts, prepared fresh or dry...........

89.5
89.9
78.9
99.7

90.4
90.2
79.3
103.2

89.2
93.3
77.8
97.9

87.8
90.0
75.8
94.9

88.2
88.9
76.7
94.8

89.2
89.9
76.2
97.6

89.2
91.5
75.9
98.5

87.4
94.2
70.9
99.8

87.6
97.3
73.3
97.8

86.6
97.5
72.7
94.3

86.4
97.4
69.5
96.6

86.4
97.7
70.1
94.3

85.5
101.0
68.5
90.2

2 C rud e m aterials, inedible, exc ept fu e ls ..............................
21
Hides, skins, and furskins, raw..........................................
22
Oilseeds and oleaginous fruits...........................................
24
Cork and wood.....................................................................
25
Pulp and waste paper.........................................................
26
Textile fibers and their waste.............................................
27
28
Metalliferous ores and metal scrap...................................

76.3
85.7
95.6
81.4
57.7
70.6
95.1
67.9

75.6
82.7
91.4
81.4
59.7
70.4
93 4
67.7

75.0
81.4
84.9
81.5
61.3
70.8
93 4
68.8

74.0
81.5
78.3
81.5
62.0
69.7
93 6
69.8

74.1
78.9
80.4
81.8
61.9
69.8
93 5
68.6

74.6
79.0
79.5
81.7
62.9
70.1
93 5
70.6

74.9
79.0
79.2
82.0
66.0
68.6
93 5
70.7

74.7
80.3
72.8
82.9
71.5
65.2
93 6
72.3

76.5
83.4
80.1
83.0
73.5
65.1
93 0
73.0

77.7
86.5
85.0
82.8
75.2
64.4
93 3
73.5

78.1
88.6
82.3
83.5
77.1
64.5
93 1
75.1

77.8
87.8
78.2
83.8
78.7
63.4
93 8
77.0

78.9
91.6
79.6
84.7
81.0
62.5
94 1
78.1

3 M ineral fuels, lu brica nts , and related p rodu cts...............
32
Coal, coke, and briquettes.................................................
33
Petroleum, petroleum products, and related materials...

93.7
99.4
92.2

93.3
99.3
91.4

93.4
99.3
91.4

93.1
99.3
90.9

99.6
98.3
103.3

100.7
98.4
105.3

102.0
98.3
107.6

109.0
98.2
119.8

113.8
98.3
126.4

115.3
97.6
128.6

116.9
97.6
131.3

119.6
97.6
133.4

126.2
97.6
140.1

4 A nim al an d v e g e ta b le oils, fats , and w a x e s ......................

99.7

98.0

90.6

82.6

82.8

81.9

76.6

76.8

77.1

78.8

81.9

79.0

78.0

5 C hem ica ls and relate d produ cts , n .e .s ................................
54
Medicinal and pharmaceutical products...........................
55
Essential oils; polishing and cleaning preparations.........
57
Plastics in primary forms (12/92 - 100)...........................
58
Plastics in nonprimary forms (12/92 - 100).....................
59
Chemical materials and products, n.e.s...........................

91.0
100.6
101.6
85.6
95.4
101.2

90.6
100.1
101.3
84.6
95.9
100.4

90.6
100.2
101.4
84.4
95.4
100.8

90.5
100.4
101.5
84.4
96.4
100.4

90.4
100.6
101.4
85.5
96.1
99.9

90.7
100.6
101.8
86.6
96.3
99.5

91.2
100.6
101.9
88.4
97.2
99.6

91.6
100.3
101.9
89.7
97.4
99.4

91.8
99.9
101.8
90.6
97.4
99.3

92.3
99.8
102.1
92.1
97.6
99.2

93.2
99.8
102.3
94.9
97.9
98.9

93.3
99.7
103.5
95.6
97.8
98.8

93.3
100.2
103.4
95.6
98.0
98.9

6 M anufactured g o o d s classified c h ie fly by m aterials.....
62
64
66
68

Rubber manufactures, n.e.s.............................................. .
Paper, paperboard, and articles of paper, pulp,
and paperboard.................................................................
Nonmetallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s.........................
Nonferrous metals...............................................................

7 M achinery and tra n sp o rt e q u ip m e n t....................................
71
72
74
75
76

Power generating machinery and equipment..................
Machinery specialized for particular industries...............
General industrial machines and parts, n.e.s.,
and machine parts............................................................
Computer equipment and office machines.......................
Telecommunications and sound recording and

77
78

Electrical machinery and equipment.................................
Road vehicles......................................................................

96.4

96.7

96.8

96.4

96.5

96.6

96.8

97.1

97.3

97.5

97.8

98.0

98.2

106.0

106.5

107.6

106.8

105.9

105.9

105.5

105.6

105.8

106.9

108.2

108.4

108.7

81.3
107.3
83.9

80.3
106.9
84.5

80.8
106.9
85.4

80.9
106.5
84.0

81.9
106.6
84.3

82.9
106.3
84.7

83.4
106.3
85.0

84.4
106.3
85.3

85.4
106.3
87.0

86.3
106.1
88.0

87.2
106.0
90.2

87.6
106.0
90.7

87.5
106.0
92.0

98.2

98.1

98.1

97.9

98.0

97.8

97.6

97.3

97.3

97.2

97.4

97.5

97.4

108.5
105.2

109.1
105.7

109.3
105.6

109.4
105.7

109.6
105.9

109.5
105.9

109.6
106.1

110.1
105.8

110.1
105.8

110.1
105.9

110.2
106.0

111.1
106.1

111.1
106.0

106.5
74.4

107.0
73.6

107.4
73.3

107.2
73.0

107.3
72.7

107.2
72.2

107.3
71.6

107.5
71.0

107.5
71.0

107.6
70.2

107.7
70.5

107.7
70.4

107.6
70.3

97.6
90.6
102.1

97 6
89.9
102.1

97 4
89.9
102.3

97.5
89.3
102.2

97.3
89.6
102.2

97.1
89.0
102.3

96.9
88.6
102.5

97.0
87.7
102.4

96 9
87.5
102.3

96 9
87.6
102.4

96.6
87.4
103.1

96.6
87.3
103.1

96.6
87.0
103.1

104.1

104.8

104.8

105.0

105.2

105.4

105.2

105.4

105.4

105.4

105.5

105.6

105.4

87 P rofessional, scientific, and con trolling
in stru m e nts and a p p a ra tu s ....................................................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

93

Current Labor Statistics:

35.

Price Data

U.S. import price indexes by Standard International Trade Classification

[1995 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
1999

1998

SITC

Industry

Rev. 3

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

0 Food an d live a n im a ls .................................................................

95.2

96.3

93.2

93.2

94.5

94.9

93.3

92.6

92.0

91.5

90.6

91.9

94.6

Meat and meat preparations..............................................
Fish and crustaceans, mollusks, and other
aquatic invertebrates.........................................................
Vegetables, fruit, and nuts, prepared fresh or dry...........
Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices, and manufactures
thereof.................................................................................

91.8

91.9

92.2

94.0

94.5

93.7

94.5

94.3

96.7

99.4

98.4

97.7

98.4

100.1
110.6

100.9
112.8

102.7
102.1

103.3
101.7

106.0
104.9

106.0
108.1

104.3
103.2

104.2
103.5

103.8
102.6

103.1
101.6

103.7
96.5

106.7
96.9

106.5
104.6

75.0

76.2

72.3

71.0

69.5

68.4

69.4

64.3

63.2

61.4

62.0

66.0

70.3

1 B e verages and to b a c c o ..............................................................

109.9

110.4

110.0

110.4

110.6

110.4

110.4

110.6

111.2

112.2

111.5

111.5

112.0

Beverages............................................................................

106.6

106.7

106.7

106.9

107.2

107.2

107.2

107.6

107.7

109.1

108.5

108.5

108.7

2 C rude m aterials, inedible, exc e p t fu e ls ............................

84.1

84.3

87.4

86.3

86.1

88.5

90.3

93.1

92.7

91.7

91.3

90.7

92.8

Crude rubber (including synthetic and reclaimed)...........
Cork and wood.....................................................................
Pulp and waste paper.........................................................
Metalliferous ores and metal scrap...................................
Crude animal and vegetable materials, n.e.s...................

51.0
106.9
57.8
92.8
99.4

108.6
57.2
90.9
103.4

113.7
57.9
90.4
120.7

113.2
57.6
89.9
109.4

113.6
57.3
89.5
108.6

118.3
58.1
90.9
107.8

122.3
60.6
91.9
101.7

131.9
61.4
91.9
102.8

128.9
61.1
93.8
105.0

121.7
66.0
94.3
111.1

116.7
66.6
98.4
112.1

114.9
69.4
98.0
106.5

118.7
70.8
99.7
111.9

3 M ineral fuels, lu brica nts , and related p ro d u cts...............
Petroleum, petroleum products, and related materials...
33
34

64.6
58.7
110.7

67.5
61.7
113.5

66.6
61.3
107.3

73.2
70.2
97.4

86.3
84.9
99.3

93.1
91.1
112.1

92.7
91.3
106.5

105.3
103.8
123.1

117.1
115.9
134.1

126.5
125.7
142.2

127.9
127.4
140.8

132.7
130.7
158.1

139.3
139.0
152.3

5 Chemicals and related products, n.e.s.............................
52
Inorganic chemicals.............................................................
Dying, tanning, and coloring materials..............................
53
Medicinal and pharmaceutical products...........................
54
Essential oils; polishing and cleaning preparations.........
55
Plastics in primary forms (12/92 - 100)...........................
57
Plastics in nonprimary forms (12/92 = 100).....................
58
Chemical materials and products, n.e.s............................
59

91.1
90.9
96.5
95.7
95.2
91.3
73.7
99.4

91.4
90.1
94.7
97.0
94.6
91.8
73.5
98.8

91.1
88.7
94.0
97.4
94.3
92.2
73.0
98.1

90.8
88.6
94.3
96.7
93.5
92.0
73.1
97.9

90.6
86.9
92.6
96.1
93.1
92.5
73.5
98.5

90.6
86.8
91.7
95.6
92.7
93.4
74.0
98.0

90.6
86.7
91.9
96.2
92.4
93.6
75.6
97.4

90.6
86.4
90.6
96.2
91.7
93.7
75.8
98.0

90.4
86.2
90.5
96.3
91.8
93.1
76.1
98.1

91.3
86.6
90.2
97.0
92.3
93.8
77.9
98.1

91.8
87.2
90.6
97.5
91.8
93.8
78.9
98.6

92.2
87.7
91.4
97.9
92.3
93.9
79.4
98.4

91.8
88.1
89.7
97.4
90.2
94.0
80.2
98.8

6 M anufactured g o o d s classified c h ie fly by m a terials.....

91.7

91.6

91.8

91.8

91.7

91.8

92.0

91.9

92.4

92.6

93.3

94.0

94.0

94.4

94.6

94.7

94.5

94.2

94.7

94.3

94.4

94.5

95.0

94.9

94.4

94.4

86.1
100.6
83.0
96.6

85.6
100.7
82.9
97.1

85.7
100.9
84.4
96.8

85.8
101.3
85.9
95.9

85.1
100.9
85.7
95.9

85.2
100.8
85.8
96.4

83.7
100.9
87.7
96.1

83.6
100.8
87.6
95.8

83.5
100.9
89.9
95.6

83.7
101.1
91.1
95.8

84.3
101.2
94.8
95.6

87.6
101.6
95.4
95.9

87.0
101.1
95.5
95.7

91.2

91.2

91.3

90.9

90.6

90.6

90.3

89.9

89.9

89.9

89.9

89.8

89.7

98.4

98.5

98.8

98.3

98.1

97.8

97.6

97.3

97.2

97.6

97.8

98.2

97.8

97.2
61.4

96.8
61.4

01
03
05
07

11

23
24
25
28
29

62
64

Paper, paperboard, and articles of paper, pulp,

66

Nonmetallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s.........................

68
69

Manufactures of metals, n.e.s...........................................

7

72
74
75
76

Machinery specialized for particular industries...............
General industrial machines and parts, n.e.s.,
Computer equipment and office machines......................
Telecommunications and sound recording and
reproducing apparatus and equipment..........................

77

78
85
88

Photographic apparatus, equipment, and supplies,
and optical goods, n.e.s...................................................

-

-

98.4
66.7

98.6
66.6

99.1
65.9

98.4
64.4

97.9
63.7

97.7
63.6

97.6
63.1

97.3
62.0

97.3
61.8

97.4
61.6

97.2
61.4

88.3
84.1
101.5

88.3
83.7
101.9

88.5
84.1
102.0

88.4
83.8
101.9

87.9
83.5
102.0

87.8
83.3
102.3

87.6
82.7
102.3

87.3
81.9
102.4

87.0
82.1
102.4

87.1
82.5
102.2

86.0
82.6
102.4

85.9
82.2
102.4

85.8
82.2
102.3

100.9

101.3

101.4

101.1

101.2

100.5

100.7

100.7

100.6

100.8

100.8

100.8

100.7

91.1

91.9

92.1

91.8

91.4

91.4

91.3

91.2

91.1

91.4

92.2

92.5

92.4

- Data not available.


94 Monthly Labor Review
https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-

February 2000

36.

U.S. export price indexes by end-use category

[1995= 100]
C ategory

1998

Dec.

1999

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

A L L C O M M O D IT IE S .................................................................

94.8

94.8

94.6

94.2

94.4

94.5

94.5

94.4

94.7

94.8

95.1

95.2

95.3

Foods, feeds, and beverages.......................................
Agricultural foods, feeds, and beverages................
Nonagricultural (fish, beverages) food products.....

91.2
91.0
94.9

91.5
91.1
97.5

89.4
88.7
98.7

87.3
85.9
103.5

88.2
86.4
108.5

89.0
86.8
114.2

88.9
86.8
113.1

86.7
85.0
106.8

87.9
86.9
99.5

87.6
86.7
98.2

87.4
86.4
99.7

86.7
85.6
100.5

85.9
84.7
100.7

Industrial supplies and materials...................................

87.1

86.8

86.8

86.5

86.8

87.2

87.5

88.3

89.0

89.5

90.3

91.0

91.5

Agricultural industrial supplies and materials...........

82.7

82.4

81.9

79.9

79.6

79.5

78.4

76.2

76.3

76.6

77.5

76.6

76.7

Fuels and lubricants.....................................................
Nonagricultural supplies and materials,
excluding fuel and building materials......................
Selected building materials.........................................

92.8

92.8

92.7

92.4

97.8

98.4

99.8

106.1

110.5

111.8

113.5

115.2

120.0

86.0
86.1

85.7
86.3

85.7
86.8

85.5
87.3

85.3
87.5

85.7
87.5

86.0
87.8

86.6
88.0

87.0
88.4

87.5
87.4

88.3
87.8

89.1
87.7

89.1
88.5

Capital goods...................................................................
Electric and electrical generating equipment...........
Nonelectrical machinery..............................................

97.1
99.5
93.7

97.1
99.1
93.6

97.1
99.1
93.6

96.9
99.1
93.4

97.0
99.1
93.5

96.7
98.9
93.2

96.5
99.0
92.9

96.2
98.2
92.6

96.2
98.0
92.6

96.1
98.3
92.4

96.2
98.3
92.4

96.3
98.4
92.5

96.2
98.5
92.3

Automotive vehicles, parts, and engines.....................

102.8

102.9

103.1

103.0

102.9

103.0

103.2

103.2

103.2

103.3

104.0

104.0

104.0

Consumer goods, excluding automotive......................
Nondurables, manufactured........................................
Durables, manufactured..............................................

101.8
101.8
100.7

101.9
102.1
100.6

101.9
102.3
100.3

101.8
102.1
100.3

101.8
102.0
100.4

101.8
102.0
100.3

102.0
102.1
100.5

101.9
102.0
100.6

102.0
102.0
100.8

101.9
102.1
100.7

102.2
102.4
100.8

102.3
102.5
100.9

102.4
102.8
100.8

Agricultural commodities.................................................
Nonagricultural commodities..........................................

89.2
95.4

89.2
95.4

87.1
95.5

84.5
95.3

84.9
95.5

85.2
95.5

85.0
95.6

83.1
95.7

84.7
95.8

84.6
95.9

84.5
96.3

83.7
96.6

82.9
96.7


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

95

Current Labor Statistics:

37.

Price Data

U.S. import price indexes by end-use category

[1995 = 100]
1999

1998
C ategory
Jan.

Dec.

Mar.

Feb.

Apr.

May

July

June

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

ALL COMMODITIES..........................................................

90.4

90.8

90.7

90.9

91.9

92.5

92.4

93.3

94.3

95.2

95.4

96.0

96.7

Foods, feeds, and beverages........................................
Agricultural foods, feeds, and beverages.................
Nonagricultural (fish, beverages) food products.....

95.1
92.3
102.1

95.9
93.3
102.6

93.3
89.2

94.0
89.1
106.5

94.8
90.3
106.5

93.7
89.3
105.2

92.8
88.0
105.4

92.5
87.7

103.8

93.0
88.7
104.4

105.0

92.3
87.6
104.9

91.4
86.1
105.2

92.7
87.0
107.6

94.8
89.9
107.4

Industrial supplies and materials...................................

81.8

82.6

82.5

84.8

89.0

91.5

91.8

96.1

99.9

103.1

104.3

106.3

108.9

Fuels and lubricants.....................................................

65.5
59.5

68.1
62.0

67.2
61.7

73.9
70.3

86.7
84.6

93.4

105.4
103.5

116.7

90.8

93.2
91.2

115.6

126.0
125.2

128.1
127.3

132.4
130.7

138.9
138.6

78.8

78.3

78.6

78.4

77.5

77.7

77.0

77.0

76.9

78.4

79.1

82.7

82.6

87.9
102.8
86.8
88.5

87.5
104.2
86.6
88.8

87.3
107.6
86.6
88.6

87.5
107.9
86.9
88.2

87.4
108.3
86.7
87.3

87.3
110.5
87.3
87.3

87.4
114.2
88.3
87.0

87.0
120.6
87.7
86.7

86.9
118.9
89.0
86.7

87.7
113.4
89.7
87.3

88.3
110.1
93.0
87.5

88.8
108.4
94.4
87.5

89.0
111.2
94.8
87.2

84.5
93.7
81.5

84.5
93.5
81.5

84.5
93.6
81.5

83.7
92.8
80.7

83.3
92.5
80.2

83.0
92.3
79.9

82.6
91.5
79.5

81.9
91.1
78.7

81.9
91.2
78.7

82.0
91.6
78.8

81.9
91.7
78.6

81.8
91.8
78.5

81.7
91.9
78.3

101.3

101.4

101.5

101.4

101.5

101.8

101.7

101.8

101.9

101.9

102.0

102.0

101.9

98.0
101.0
94.8
99.0

97.7
100.8
94.4
98.9

97.6
100.5
94.5
98.8

97.5
100.4
94.4
98.0

97.4
100.2
94.3
98.3

97.4
100.3
94.1
99.1

97.7
100.8
94.2
99.9

97.5
100.5
94.1
100.0

97.5
100.6
94.2
98.8

97.4
100.4
94.1
99.8

Materials associated with nondurable
supplies and materials...............................................
Selected building materials.........................................
Unfinished metals associated with durable goods..
Nonmetals associated with durable goods..............

Electric and electrical generating equipment...........

Nonmanufactured consumer goods..........................

38.

97.9
100.8
95.0
97.1

98.4
101.1
95.2
100.9

98.1
101.0
95.2
97.7

U.S. international price Indexes for selected categories of services

[1990 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
1999

1998

Category
Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Air freight (inbound) (9/90 - 100)......................................
Air freight (outbound) (9/92 - 100)...................................

82.9
97.2

83.4
96.0

81.8
95.8

87.4
95.2

88.0
92.7

86.2
92.8

87.9
92.7

90.7
89.5

Air passenger fares (U.S. carriers)...................................
Air passenger fares (foreign carriers)..............................
Ocean liner freight (inbound)............................................

99.3
97.6
93.0

107.8
102.4
103.2

107.3
104.0
105.0

103.1
101.1
104.2

104.5
98.9
102.6

112.3
106.3
133.7

114.2
108.6
148.0

106.8
102.2
139.4


96 Monthly Labor Review
https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2000

39.

Indexes of productivity, hourly compensation, and unit costs, quarterly data seasonally adjusted

[1992 = 100]____________________________________________________________________________________
Quarterly indexes

III

IV

I

II

1999

1998

1997

1996

Item

III

IV

I

II

III

IV

I

II

III

Business
105.4
110.7
99.8
105.0
113.5
108.2

105.9
111.6
99.8
105.3
113.9
108.5

106.3
112.5
100.1
105.9
114.5
109.1

107.1
113.2
100.4
105.7
115.9
109.5

108.1
114.6
101.2
106.0
116.0
109.7

108.4
116.4
102.4
107.4
114.1
109.9

109.7
117.8
103.4
107.5
114.2
110.0

109.8
119.4
104.4
108.8
112.6
110.2

110.7
121.2
105.6
109.5
112.1
110.4

111.9
122.7
106.5
109.6
112.1
110.5

112.7
124.2
107.4
110.2
112.1
110.9

113.0
125.7
107.8
111.3
110.9
111.2

114.3
127.1
108.3
111.3
111.5
111.4

105.3
110.3
99.4
104.7
113.6
107.9

105.8
111.2
99.5
105.0
114.4
108.4

106.1
112.2
99.8
105.7
115.0
109.1

106.9
112.9
100.1
105.6
116.6
109.6

107.8
114.1
100.8
105.8
117.0
109.9

108.1
115.9
101.9
107.2
115.3
110.1

109.3
117.2
102.9
107.3
115.8
110.4

109.5
118.8
103.9
108.5
114.1
110.5

110.4
120.6
105.1
109.3
113.1
110.7

111.5
122.0
105.9
109.4
112.7
110.6

112.2
123.3
106.6
109.8
113.1
111.0

112.4
124.7
106.9
111.0
112.2
111.4

113.8
126.2
107.5
110.9
112.8
111.6

108.6
109.5
98.7
100.6
100.8
99.9
151.4
112.4
104.8

109.6
110.3
98.7
100.4
100.6
99.9
153.9
113.0
104.8

110.1
111.2
98.9
100.7
101.0
99.8
155.6
113.4

112.4
113.3
100.0
100.3
100.7
99.2
161.1
114.3
105.4

113.2
115.1
101.2
100.8
101.6
98.6
155.3
112.4
105.3

114.2
116.4
102.2
100.8
101.9
98.0
153.7
111.5
105.2

115.3
118.0
103.2
101.2
102.3
98.2
150.1
110.8
105.2

117.0
119.8
104.4
101.2
102.4
98.0
152.6
111.3
105.5

117.9
121.3
105.3
101.8
102.9
99.2
145.3
110.4

121.4
125.6
107.0
102.3
103.4

105.5

119.1
122.7
106.1
101.7
103.0
98.4
149.5
110.8
105.7

120.0
124.2
106.5
102.1
103.4

105.3

110.7
112.0
99.3
100.8
101.1
99.9
156.2
113.6
105.4

98.8
148.5
110.9
106.0

99.5
145.4
110.7
105.9

114.7
109.6
98.8
95.6

115.7
110.3
98.7
95.4

116.9
111.8
99.5
95.7

118.4
112.6
99.9
95.1

120.9
113.6
100.3
94.0

122.0
115.5
101.5
94.6

122.7
117.0
102.7
95.3

123.9
118.6
103.7
95.7

126.3
120.6
105.1
95.5

128.2
121.4
105.4
94.7

130.4
122.8
106.2
94.1

132.2
124.5
106.8
94.2

133.5
126.4
107.7
94.7

Nonfarm business

Nonfinancial corporations

Manufacturing

Unit labor costs....................................................................
-

Data not available.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

97

Current Labor Statistics:

40.

Productivity Data

Annual indexes of multifactor productivity and related measures, selected years

[1992 = 100]
1960

Ite m

1970

1980

1989

1990

1991

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

Private b u s in e s s

Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons........................................
Output per unit of capital services.................................
Multifactor productivity.....................................................
Output....................................................................................
Inputs:
Labor input.........................................................................
Capital services.................................................................
Capital per hour of all persons..........................................

50.8
117.3
70.7
34.0

70.1
117.1
86.5
51.6

83.8
107.3
95.3
72.6

95.5
103.8
100.0
97.8

96.1
102.1
99.6
98.6

96.7

100.1
100.7
100.1
102.7

100.6
102.3
100.6
107.0

101.0
101.9
100.7
110.0

103.7

98.6
98.1
96.9

102.3
102.4
114.7

105.2
102.6
103.1
120.1

60.6
29.0
48.1
43.3

68.3
44.1
59.7
59.9

80.5
67.7
76.2
78.1

99.6
94.2
97.8
92.0

100.2
96.5
99.0
94.1

99.0
98.3
98.7
98.1

102.9
102.0
102.6
99.4

107.1
104.6
106.3
98.3

109.8
108.0
109.3
99.2

112.0
112.2
112.1
101.4

116.2
117.1
116.5
102.6

54.3
126.1
74.9
33.7

72.2
124.1
89.4
51.8

85.6
111.4
97.6
73.1

95.9
104.6
100.5
98.1

96.3
102.6
99.8
98.8

96.9
98.8
98.4
97.0

100.1
100.8
100.1
103.0

100.6
102.1
100.5
107.1

101.2
101.8
100.8
110.4

103.7
102.1
102.3
115.0

104.9
102.1
102.7
120.2

56.4
26.7
45.0
43.0

66.6
41.8
58.0
58.2

79.3
65.6
74.9
76.8

99.5
93.9
97.7
91.7

100.2
96.3
99.0
93.8

98.8
98.2
98.6
98.1

103.1
102.2
102.9
99.3

107.2
104.8
106.5
98.5

109.9
108.4
109.5
99.4

112.3
112.6
112.4
101.6

116.6
117.7
117.0
102.8

42.1
125.6
72.9
38.7

54.5
116.3
84.2
56.8

70.4
101.5
87.3
75.7

90.7
103.5
100.4
97.1

93.0
101.3
99.8
97.5

95.1
97.3
98.6
95.5

102.2
101.8
101.2
103.6

105.3
105.2
104.4
109.1

109.4
106.8
108.4
113.8

113.8
107.0
110.7
118.0

-

104.0
106.6
109.5
101.4
111.0
105.0

103.7
110.3
107.0
105.4
111.6
106.6

-

P rivate n o n fa rm b u s in e s s

Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons........................................
Output per unit of capital services.................................
Multifactor productivity.....................................................
Output....................................................................................
Inputs:
Labor input.........................................................................
Capital services.................................................................
Capital per hour of all persons.........................................
M a n u f a c tu r in g

Productivity:
Output per hour of ail persons.......................................
Output per unit of capital services.................................
Multifactor productivity.....................................................
Output....................................................................................
Inputs:
Hours of all persons.........................................................
Capital services.................................................................
Energy.................................................................................
Purchased business services.........................................
Combined units of all factor inputs................................
-

92.0
30.9
51.5
39.1
27.3
53.1

Data not available.


98 Monthly Labor Review
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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2000

104.2
48.8
85.4
46.0
47.4
67.4

107.5
74.6
92.5
74.5
71.9
86.7

107.1
93.8
96.8
88.3
88.9
96.7

104.8
96.3
99.9
91.3
91.8
97.7

100.4
98.2
100.1
93.1
91.9
96.9

101.4
101.7
103.7
103.0
104.3
102.3

103.6
103.6
107.3
104.4
107.8
104.5

-

-

_
-

-

41.

Annual indexes of productivity, hourly compensation, unit costs, and prices, selected years

[1992 = 100]
Item

1960

1970

1980

1988

1989

1990

1991

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

B u s in e s s

99.9
102.3
102.9
102.5

104.5
99.7
103.0
106.9
104.4

102.2
106.7
99.1
104.4
109.8
106.4

105.2
110.1
99.6
104.7
113.5
107.9

107.5
114.2
101.1
106.2
115.1
109.5

110.5
120.3
105.1
108.8
112.7
110.3

96.1
94.9
97.4
98.8
97.5
98.3

100.1
102.1
99.6
102.1
103.4
102.6

101.4
104.3
99.5
102.9
107.4
104.5

102.4
106.5
98.9
104.0
110.8
106.5

105.2
109.8
99.3
104.4
113.8
107.8

107.2
113.8
100.7
106.1
115.9
109.7

110.2
119.7
104.5
108.6
113.9
110.5

94.9
91.4
97.2
97.1
96.4
99.0
95.5
98.1
97.0

96.9
95.5
98.0
99.8
98.6
102.9
94.0
100.7
99.3

101.5
102.1
99.5
100.3
100.6
99.6
112.5
102.7
101.3

104.3
104.3
99.5
100.0
100.0
100.2
130.5
107.6
102.6

105.6
106.2
98.6
100.6
100.5
100.9
137.5
109.8
103.7

108.4
109.0
98.6
100.4
100.5
100.1
151.5
112.6
104.7

111.7
113.0
100.0
100.6
101.1
99.4
157.1
113.4
105.3

116.2
119.0
103.9
101.3
102.4
98.4
150.4

93.0
90.8
96.6
97.6
99.6
98.8

95.1
95.6
98.0
100.4
98.9
99.5

102.2
102.7
100.2
100.5
101.1
100.9

105.3
105.6
100.8
100.3
102.9
101.9

109.4

113.8
109.3
98.9
96.0
110.2
104.7

119.6
113.4
100.4
94.8

125.3
119.4
104.3
95.3

-

-

100.1
102.4

95.9
94.6
95.4

95.9
94.9
97.4
99.0
97.4
98.4

93.5
85.8
95.8
91.7
91.9
91.8

94.6
90.5
96.3
95.7
94.2
95.1

94.7
84.8
98.9
89.5
89.6
89.1
110.3
94.2
91.2

93.8
87.0
97.2
93.6
92.7
95.9
99.0
96.6
94.1

90.5
84.0
97.9
92.8
90.4
91.4

90.7
86.6
96.8
95.5
95.2
95.3

48.0
13.6
59.9
28.4
25.5
27.3

66.2
23.5
79.0
35.6
32.0
34.3

79.8
54.3
89.7
68.1
62.1
65.9

92.4
83.4
97.3
90.3
86.2
88.8

93.3
85.7
95.8
91.9
92.5
92.1

94.5
90.6
96.4

51.2
14.3
62.8
27.9
24.9
26.8

68.0
23.7
79.7
34.9
31.7
33.7

81.3
54.7
90.3
67.2
61.1
65.0

92.9
83.6
97.4
89.9
85.9
88.5

52.6
15.6
68.6
28.9
29.7
26.8
53.2
33.2
30.9

66.3
25.3
85.1
37.4
38.2
35.4
47.1
38.3
38.2

76.9
56.6
93.6
72.5
73.7
69.4
72.6
70.2
72.5

42.1
14.9
65.4
35.3
26.7
30.1

54.4
23.7
79.7
43.6
29.4
34.9

70.4
55.6
91.8
78.9
79.9
79.5

101.4

N o n fa rm b u s in e s s

N o n fin a n c ia l c o rp o ra tio n s

111.0
105.3

M an u fa c tu rin g

Implicit price deflator...........................................................

107.9
100.2
98.6
107.2
103.9

_

_

- Data not available.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

99

Current Labor Statistics:

42.

Productivity Data

C o n tin u e d — A n n u al in d e x e s of o u tp ut p e r hour for s e le c te d 3 -d ig it SIC industries

[1987 = 100]
Industry

SIC

Tires and inner tubes................................................
Hose and belting and gaskets and packing............
Fabricated rubber products, n.e.c............................
Miscellaneous plastics products, n.e.c....................
Footwear, except rubber..........................................

301
305
306
308
314

102.9
103.7
104.3
100.5
101.3

103.8
96.3
105.5
101.7
101.1

103.0
96.1
109.2
105.6
101.1

102.4
92.4
110.1
108.1
94.4

107.8
97.8
115.3
114.1
104.2

116.5
99.7
123.2
116.4
105.2

124.1
102.7
119.2
120.4
113.0

131.1
104.6
121.6
120.7
117.1

138.8
107.2
120.3
124.9
125.8

_
-

Luggage.....................................................................
Handbags and personal leather goods...................
Flat glass....................................................................
Glass and glassware, pressed or blown..................
Products of purchased glass....................................

316
317
321
322
323

93.7
98.5
91.9
100.6
95.9

104.8
93.1
90.7
100.2
90.1

106.2
96.5
84.5
104.8
92.6

100.3
98.7
83.6
102.3
97.7

90.7
111.2
92.7
108.9
101.5

89.5
97.8
97.7
108.7
106.2

92.3
86.8
97.6
112.9
105.9

90.5
81.8
99.6
115.7
106.1

108.5
83.9
104.2
121.9
124.5

_
-

Cement, hydraulic......................................................
Structural clay products............................................
Pottery and related products....................................
Concrete, gypsum, and plaster products................
Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral products..........

324
325
326
327
329

103.2
98.8
99.6
100.8
103.0

110.2
103.1
97.1
102.4
95.5

112.4
109.6
98.6
102.3
95.4

108.3
109.8
95.8
101.2
94.0

115.1
111.5
99.5
102.5
104.3

119.9
105.8
100.3
104.6
104.5

125.6
113.0
108.4
101.5
106.3

124.3
111.6
109.3
104.5
107.8

127.9
119.5
119.4
107.5
111.3

_
-

Blast furnace and basic steel products...................
Iron and steel foundries............................................
Primary nonferrous metals.......................................
Nonferrous rolling and drawing................................
Nonferrous foundries (castings)...............................

331
332
333
335
336

112.6
104.0
107.8
95.5
102.6

108.0
105.4
106.1
93.6
105.1

109.6
106.1
102.3
92.7
104.0

107.8
104.5
110.9
90.9
103.6

117.1
107.2
102.0
95.8
103.6

133.5
112.1
108.0
98.2
108.5

142.4
113.0
105.4
101.1
112.1

142.7
112.7
111.1
99.1
117.8

153.6
115.7
111.0
103.9
122.6

_
-

Miscellaneous primary metal products....................
Metal cans and shipping containers........................
Cutlery, handtools, and hardware............................
Plumbing and heating, except electric....................
Fabricated structural metal products.......................

339
341
342
343
344

106.6
106.5
97.8
103.7
100.4

105.0
108.5
101.7
101.5
96.9

113.7
117.6
97.3
102.6
98.8

109.1
122.9
96.8
102.0
100.0

114.5
127.8
100.1
98.4
103.9

111.3
132.3
104.0
102.0
104.8

134.5
140.9
109.2
109.1
107.7

152.2
144.2
111.3
109.2
105.8

149.6
155.2
117.9
118.6
106.7

_

Screw machine products, bolts, etc........................
Metal forgings and stampings..................................
Metal services, n.e.c..................................................
Ordnance and accessories, n.e.c............................
Miscellaneous fabricated metal products...............

345
346
347
348
349

98.5
101.5
108.3
97.7
101.4

96.1
99.8
102.4
89.8
95.9

96.1
95.6
104.7
82.1
97.5

97.9
92.9
99.4
81.5
97.3

102.3
103.7
111.6
88.6
100.9

104.4
108.7
120.6
84.6
101.8

107.2
108.5
123.0
83.6
103.0

109.7
109.3
127.7
87.6
106.4

110.4
113.7
127.5
87.4
108.6

_

Engines and turbines.................................................
Farm and garden machinery....................................
Construction and related machinery........................
Metalworking machinery...........................................
Special industry machinery......................................

351
352
353
354
355

106.8
106.3
106.5
101.0
104.6

110.7
110.7
108.3
103.5
108.3

106.5
116.5
107.0
101.1
107.5

105.8
112.9
99.1
96.4
108.3

103.3
113.9
102.0
104.3
106.0

109.2
118.6
108.2
107.4
113.6

122.3
125.0
117.7
109.9
121.2

122.7
134.7
122.1
114.8
132.3

136.9
136.6
123.8
114.7
134.7

_
-

General Industrial machinery....................................
Refrigeration and service machinery.......................
Industrial machinery, n.e.c........................................
Electric distribution equipment.................................
Electrical industrial apparatus...................................

356
358
359
361
362

106.0
102.1
106.5
105.4
104.5

101.6
106.0
107.1
105.0
107.3

101.5
103.6
107.3
106.3
107.5

101.6
100.7
109.0
106.5
106.8

101.6
104.9
116.9
119.6
116.8

104.8
108.6
118.4
122.2
132.5

106.7
110.7
127.3
131.8
134.5

109.0
112.7
138.8
143.0
150.4

110.0
114.4
142.1
145.1
154.1

-

Household appliances...............................................
Electric lighting and wiring equipment.....................
Communications equipment.....................................
Miscellaneous electrical equipment & supplies......
Motor vehicles and equipment.................................

363
364
366
369
371

103.0
101.9
110.4
102.8
103.2

104.7
100.2
107.0
99.6
103.3

105.8
99.9
120.9
90.6
102.4

106.5
97.5
123.8
98.6
96.6

115.0
105.7
145.4
101.3
104.2

123.4
107.8
149.0
108.2
105.3

131.4
113.4
164.8
110.5
107.1

127.3
113.7
169.6
114.1
104.1

126.7
117.4
189.6
123.0
104.1

_
-

Aircraft and parts.......................................................
Ship and boat building and repairing.......................
Railroad equipment...................................................
Motorcycles, bicycles, and parts.............................
Guided missiles, space vehicles, parts...................

372
373
374
375
376

100.5
99.4
113.5
92.6
104.8

98.2
97.6
135.3
94.6
110.5

98.8
103.7
141.1
93.8
115.7

108.1
96.3
146.9
99.8
109.8

112.2
102.7
147.9
108.4
109.3

115.1
106.2
151.0
130.9
120.9

109.5
103.8
152.5
125.1
117.5

107.8
97.9
150.0
120.3
118.7

112.6
100.5
146.3
123.3
127.3

-

Search and navigation equipment...........................
Measuring and controlling devices...........................
Medical instruments and supplies............................
Ophthalmic goods......................................................
Photographic equipment & supplies........................

381
382
384
385
386

104.8
103.1
104.4
112.6
105.6

105.8
101.3
107.2
123.3
113.0

112.7
106.1
116.3
121.2
107.8

118.9
112.9
118.4
125.1
110.2

122.1
119.9
123.3
144.5
116.4

129.1
124.0
126.9
157.8
126.9

132.1
133.8
126.1
160.6
132.7

149.5
146.4
130.9
167.2
129.5

141.8
150.4
140.4
188.9
129.0

_
-

Jewelry, silverware, and plated ware.......................
Musical instruments...................................................
Toys and sporting goods..........................................
Pens, pencils, office, and art supplies.....................
Costume jewelry and notions...................................
Miscellaneous manufactures....................................

391
393
394
395
396
399

100.1
101.8
104.8
108.6
102.0
104.5

102.9
96.1
106.0
113.3
93.8
102.8

99.3
97.1
108.1
118.7
105.3
107.9

95.8
96.9
109.7
117.3
106.7
109.9

96.7
96.0
104.9
111.7
110.8
109.6

96.7
95.6
114.2
112.0
115.8
107.8

99.5
88.7
109.7
130.2
129.0
106.2

100.2
86.9
113.6
135.4
143.7
108.2

103.2
78.9
120.0
144.4
142.3
113.5

U.S. postal service1...................................................

431

99.9

99.7

104.0

103.7

104.5

107.1

106.6

106.5

104.7

108.3

Air transportation 2....................................................

4512,13,22 (pts.)

99.5

95.8

92.9

92.5

96.9

100.2

105.7

108.6

111.1

112.1

481
483
484
491,3 (pt.)
492,3 (pt.)

106.2
103.1
102.0
104.9
105.5

111.6
106.2
99.7
107.7
103.5

113.3
104.9
92.5
110.1
94.8

119.8
106.1
87.5
113.4
94.0

127.7
108.3
88.3
115.2
95.3

135.5
106.7
85.1
120.6
107.0

142.2
110.1
83.3
126.8
102.2

148.1
109.6
84.3
135.0
107.5

159.4
105.9
81.6
146.5
116.0

160.2
101.3
84.1
150.5
119.9

1988

1989

1990

199 1

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

_

_
_
_
-

T r a n s p o r t a tio n

C o m m u n ic a t io n s a n d u tilitie s

Telephone communications.....................................
Radio and television broadcasting...........................
Cable and other pay TV services.............................
Electric utilities............................................................
Gas utilities.................................................................
See footnotes at end of table.

100 Monthly Labor Review

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February 2000

42. Continued—Annual indexes of output per hour for selected 3-digit SIC industries
[ 1 9 8 7 = 100]_____________________________________________________________________________________________

Industry

SIC

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

W h o le s a le an d retail trade

Lumber and other building materials dealers.........
Paint, glass, and wallpaper stores............................
Hardware stores...........................................................
Retail nurseries, lawn and garden supply stores....
Department stores.......................................................

521
523
525
526
531

101.0
102.8
108.6
106.7
99.2

99.1
101.7
115.2
103.4
97.0

103.6
106.0
110.5
83.9
94.2

101.3
99.4
102.5
88.5
98.2

105.4
106.5
107.2
100.4
100.9

110.3
112.1
106.5
106.6
108.1

117.9
124.6
114.2
116.6
111.2

117.0
126.8
110.7
117.1
113.4

121.5
132.1
115.2
136.6
121.0

124.0
132.3
115.8
119.3
125.7

Variety stores................................................................
Miscellaneous general merchandise stores............
Grocery stores.............................................................
Meat and fish (seafood) markets...............................
Retail bakeries.............................................................

533
539
541
542
546

101.9
100.8
98.9
99.0
89.8

124.4
109.8
95.4
97.6
83.3

151.2
116.4
94.6
96.8
89.7

154.2
121.8
93.7
88.4
94.7

167.7
136.1
93.3
95.8
94.0

185.5
159.7
93.0
95.8
88.0

191.8
160.9
92.9
95.3
90.1

205.8
164.0
91.9
95.5
91.2

232.6
165.1
90.2
88.8
87.3

246.1
165.7
89.1
90.8
97.6

New and used car dealers.........................................
Auto and home supply stores....................................
Gasoline service stations............................................
Men's and boys' wear stores.....................................
Women's clothing stores............................................

551
553
554
561
562

103.4
103.2
103.0
106.0
97.8

102.5
101.6
105.2
109.6
99.5

106.1
102.7
102.6
113.7
101.5

104.1
99.0
104.3
119.2
103.0

106.5
100.0
109.7
118.2
112.2

107.6
100.9
113.3
115.6
116.8

108.7
107.0
116.5
118.1
115.8

107.1
112.6
120.4
117.9
122.8

108.2
113.9
117.2
126.3
133.6

107.3
109.7
116.5
139.1
134.1

Family clothing stores.................................................
Shoe stores..................................................................
Miscellaneous apparel and accessory stores.........
Furniture and homefurnishings stores.....................
Household appliance stores.......................................

565
566
569
571
572

102.0
102.7
96.3
98.6
98.5

104.9
107.2
95.2
100.9
103.5

104.5
106.1
88.6
101.8
102.8

106.4
105.1
78.8
101.5
105.2

111.7
111.5
89.1
108.4
113.9

114.9
112.4
95.2
108.5
115.0

121.2
124.4
105.4
110.5
116.8

135.2
131.5
131.2
114.7
131.6

140.5
142.6
139.9
122.5
132.0

143.2
143.5
128.0
125.7
149.4

Radio, television, computer, and music stores.......
Eating and drinking places.........................................
Drug and proprietary stores.......................................
Liquor stores.................................................................
Used merchandise stores...........................................

573
581
591
592
593

118.6
102.8
101.9
98.2
105.3

114.6
102.2
102.5
101.1
104.9

119.6
104.0
103.6
105.2
100.3

128.3
103.1
104.7
105.9
98.6

137.8
102.5
103.6
108.4
110.4

153.4
101.7
104.8
100.1
110.4

178.8
98.9
104.5
98.1
111.6

200.0
97.6
105.2
102.0
111.6

209.3
95.2
107.5
110.3
121.6

220.4
93.7
113.8
107.8
122.1

Miscellaneous shopping goods stores.....................
Nonstore retailers........................................................
Fuel dealers.................................................................
Retail stores, n.e.c.......................................................

594
596
598
599

100.7
105.6
95.6
105.9

104.2
110.8
92.0
103.1

104.2
108.8
84.4
113.7

105.0
109.3
85.3
103.2

102.7
122.1
84.4
111.6

106.2
121.8
92.2
115.5

111.5
130.6
99.7
121.3

117.2
125.7
112.3
120.5

119.5
138.3
113.3
130.6

124.5
148.0
106.5
137.8

Commercial banks......................................................
Hotels and motels........................................................
Laundry, cleaning, and garment services................
Photographic studios, portrait....................................
Beauty shops................................................................

602
701
721
722
723

102.8
97.6
97.2
100.1
95.1

104.8
95.0
99.7
94.9
99.6

107.7
96.1
101.8
96.6
96.8

110.1
99.1
99.2
92.8
94.8

111.0
107.8
98.3
97.7
99.6

118.9
106.2
98.9
105.9
95.7

122.3
109.6
104.0
117.4
99.8

127.6
110.1
105.5
129.3
103.5

130.9
109.7
108.7
126.4
106.3

134.1
107.9
108.1
135.4
108.9

Barber shops................................................................
Funeral services and crematories............................
Automotive repair shops.............................................
Motion picture theaters...............................................

724
726
753
783

108.8
102.5
105.7
107.1

111.6
97.9
108.1
114.3

100.2
90.9
106.9
115.8

94.1
89.5
98.7
116.0

112.1
103.2
103.3
110.8

120.8
98.2
104.0
109.8

117.7
103.8
112.3
106.5

114.6
99.7
119.5
101.4

127.6
97.1
114.1
100.4

153.4
101.3
115.8
100.8

F in a n c e a n d s e rv ic e s

1 Refers to output per full-time equivalent employee year on fiscal basis.

n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.

2 Refers to output per employee.

NOTE: Dash Indicates data not available.


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Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

101

Current Labor Statistics:

43.

International Comparisons Data

Unemployment rates, approximating U.S. concepts, in nine countries, quarterly data
seasonally adjusted
C ountry

Annual average
1997

1998

IV

1999

1998

1997

IV

III

II

I

III

II

I

United States.........................................

4.9

4.5

4.7

4.7

4.4

4.5

4.4

4.3

4.3

4.2

Canada...................................................
Australia.................................................
Japan.....................................................

9.2
8.6
3.4

8.3
8.0
4.1

8.9
8.3
3.5

8.6
8.1
3.7

8.4
8.0
4.2

8.3
8.1
4.3

8.0
7.7
4.4

7.8
7.4
4.7

8.0
7.4
4.8

7.6
7.2
4.8

France.....................................................

12.4

11.7

12.3

12.0

11.7

11.7

11.5

11.3

11.2

11.1

Germany................................................

9.9

9.4

10.0

9.9

9.5

9.1

9.1

9.0

9.0

9.1

12.3

12.3

12.3

12.2

12.3

12.4

12.4

12.3

12.1

-

10.1
7.0

8.4
6.3

9.1
6.6

8.8
6.4

8.6
6.3

8.5
6.3

7.7
6.3

7.4
6.3

7.0
6.1

7.1

United Kinadom.....................................

data, and

-

unemployment under U.S. concepts than the annual figures. See "Notes

Data not available.

therefore should

be viewed as

-

1 Quarterly rates are for the first month of the quarter.

less precise indicators of

on the data" for information on breaks in series. For further qualifications
NOTE:

Quarterly figures for France, Germany, and the United Kingdom

are calculated by applying annual adjustment factors to current published


102 Monthly Labor Review
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February 2000

and historical data, see Comparative Civilian Labor Force Statistics, Ten
Countries, 1959-1998 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, Oct. 22,1999).

44. Annual data: Employment status of the working-age population, approximating U.S. concepts, 10 countries
[Numbers in thousands]____________________________________________________________________________________
E m p l o y m e n t s t a t u s a n d c o u n tr y

1989

1990

123,869
14,151
8,228
61,920
24,170

125,840
14,329
8,444
63,050
24,300

28,840
22,530
6,430
4,552
28,580

29,410
22,670
6,640
4,597
28,730

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

126,346
14,408
8,490
64,280
24,490

128,105
14,482
8,562
65,040
24,550

129,200
14,663
8,619
65,470
24,650

131,056
14,832
8,776
65,780
24,760

132,304
14,928
9,001
65,990
24,820

133,943
15,145
9,127
66,450
25,080

136,297
15,354
9,221
67,200
25,140

137,673
15,632
9,347
67,240
25,390

39,120
22,940
6,750
4,591
28,610

39,040
22,910
6,950
4,520
28,410

39,130
22,760
7,090
4,443
28,310

39,210
22,640
7,190
4,418
28,280

39,050
22,700
7,270
4,460
28,480

39,180
22,820
7,370
4,459
28,620

39,450
22,850
7,530
4,418
28,760

39,430
23,000
7,720
4,402
28,870

1991

Civilian labor force

United States'....................................................................
Canada...............................................................................
Australia.............................................................................
Japan...................................................................................
France................................................................................
Germany*...........................................................................
Italy......................................................................................
Netherlands........................................................................
Sweden..............................................................................
United Kingdom.................................................................
P articipation rate3

United States'....................................................................
Canada...............................................................................
Australia.............................................................................
Japan..................................................................................
France................................................................................
Germany*............................................................................
Italy......................................................................................
Netherlands........................................................................
Sweden..............................................................................
United Kingdom.................................................................

66.5
67.5
64.0
62.2
56.1

66.5
67.3
64.6
62.6
56.0

66.2
66.7
64.1
63.2
56.0

66.4
65.9
63.9
63.4
55.8

66.3
65.5
63.6
63.3
55.6

66.6
65.3
63.9
63.1
55.5

66.6
64.8
64.6
62.9
55.2

66.8
64.9
64.6
63.0
55.4

67.1
64.8
64.3
63.2
55.2

67.1
65.1
64.4
62.8
55.6

55.2
47.3
54.7
67.3
64.0

55.3
47.2
56.1
67.4
64.1

58.9
47.7
56.5
67.0
63.7

58.3
47.5
57.8
65.7
63.1

58.0
48.1
58.5
64.5
62.8

57.6
47.5
59.0
63.7
62.5

57.2
47.5
59.3
64.1
62.7

57.4
47.7
59.8
64.0
62.7

57.6
47.7
60.7
63.4
62.8

57.6
47.8
62.0
63.1
62.7

E m ployed

United States'....................................................................
Canada...............................................................................
Australia.............................................................................
Japan...................................................................................
France................................................................................
Germany*............................................................................
Italy......................................................................................
Netherlands........................................................................
Sweden..............................................................................
United Kingdom.................................................................

117,342
13,086
7,720
60,500
21,850

118,793
13,165
7,859
61,710
22,100

117,718
12,916
7,676
62,920
22,140

118,492
12,842
7,637
63,620
21,990

120,259
13,015
7,680
63,810
21,740

123,060
13,292
7,921
63,860
21,710

124,900
13,506
8,235
63,890
21,890

126,708
13,676
8,344
64,200
21,950

129,558
13,941
8,429
64,900
22,010

131,463
14,326
8,597
64,450
22,410

27,200
20,770
5,980
4,480
26,510

27,950
21,080
6,230
4,513
26,740

36,910
21,360
6,350
4,447
26,090

36,420
21,230
6,560
4,265
25,530

36,020
20,430
6,620
4,028
25,340

35,900
20,080
6,670
3,992
25,550

35,850
19,980
6,760
4,056
26,000

35,680
20,060
6,900
4,019
26,280

35,540
20,050
7,130
3,973
26,740

35,720
20,170
7,410
4,034
27,050

Em ploym ent-popu latio n ratio4

United States'....................................................................
Canada...............................................................................
Australia..............................................................................
Japan...................................................................................
France................................................................................
Germany*...........................................................................
Italy......................................................................................
Netherlands........................................................................
Sweden...............................................................................
United Kingdom.................................................................

63.0
62.4
60.1
60.8
50.7

62.8
61.9
60.1
61.3
50.9

61.7
59.8
57.9
61.8
50.6

61.5
58.4
57.0
62.0
49.9

61.7
58.2
56.6
61.7
49.0

62.5
58.5
57.7
61.3
48.7

62.9
58.6
59.1
60.9
48.7

63.2
58.6
59.1
60.9
48.5

63.8
58.9
58.8
61.0
48.3

64.1
59.7
59.2
60.2
49.1

52.0
43.6
50.9
66.2
59.3

52.6
43.9
52.6
66.1
59.6

55.5
44.5
53.2
64.9
58.0

54.4
44.0
54.5
62.0
56.7

53.4
43.1
54.7
58.5
56.2

52.8
42.1
54.7
57.6
56.5

52.5
41.8
55.1
58.3
57.2

52.2
41.9
55.9
57.6
57.6

51.9
41.8
57.5
57.0
58.3

52.2
41.9
59.5
57.8
58.8

U nem ployed

United States '....................................................................
Canada...............................................................................
Australia.............................................................................
Japan..................................................................................
France................................................................................
Germany*...........................................................................
Italy......................................................................................
Netherlands........................................................................
Sweden...............................................................................
United Kingdom.................................................................

6,528
1,065
508
1,420
2,320

7,047
1,164
585
1,340
2,210

8,628
1,492
814
1,360
2,350

9,613
1,640
925
1,420
2,560

8,940
1,649
939
1,660
2,910

7,996
1,541
856
1,920
3,050

7,404
1,422
766
2,100
2 920

7,236
1,469
783
2,250
3,130

6,739
1,414
791
2,300
3,120

6,210
1,305
750
2,790
2,980

1,640
1,760
450
72
2,070

1,460
1,590
410
84
1,990

2,210
1,580
400
144
2,520

2,620
1,680
390
255
2,880

3,110
2,330
470
415
2,970

3,320
2,560
520
426
2,730

3,200
2,720
510
404
2,480

3,500
2,760
470
440
2,340

3,910
2,800
400
445
2,020

3,710
2,840
310
368
1,820

U n em plo ym ent rate

United States'....................................................................
Canada...............................................................................
Australia..............................................................................
Japan..................................................................................
France................................................................................
Germany*...........................................................................
Netherlands........................................................................
Sweden...............................................................................
United Kingdom.................................................................

5.3
7.5
6.2
2.3
9.6

5.6
8.1
6.9
2.1
9.1

6.8
10.4
9.6
2.1
9.6

7.5
11.3
10.8
2.2
10.4

6.9
11.2
10.9
2.5
11.8

6.1
10.4
9.7
2.9
12.3

5.6
9.5
8.5
3.2
11.8

5.4
9.7
8.6
3.4
12.5

4.9
9.2
8.6
3.4
12.4

4.5
8.3
8.0
4.1
11.7

5.7
7.8
7.0
1.6
7.2

5.0
7.0
6.2
1.8
6.9

5.6
6.9
5.9
3.1
8.8

6.7
7.3
5.6
5.6
10.1

7.9
10.2
6.6
9.3
10.5

8.5
11.3
7.2
9.6
9.7

8.2
12.0
7.0
9.1
8.7

8.9
12.1
6.4
9.9
8.2

9.9
12.3
5.3
10.1
7.0

9.4
12.3
4.0
8.4
6.3

1 Data for 1994 are not directly comparable with data for 1993 and earlier years. For

3 Labor force as a percent of the working-age population,

additional information, see the box note under "Employment and Unemployment Data"
in the notes to this section.

4 Employment as a percent of the working-age population,

2 Data from 1991 onward refer to unified Germany. See Comparative Civilian Labor

NOTE:

Force Statistics. Ten Countries, 1959-1998, October 22, 1999, on the Internet at

States, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Sweden. Dash indicates
data not available.

h tt p : //s t a t s .b ls .g o v /fls d a ta .h tm .


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

See "Notes on the data" for information on breaks in series for the United

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

103

Current Labor Statistics:

International Comparisons Data

45. Annual indexes of m anufacturing productivity and related measures, 12 countries
[1992 = 100]
It e m a n d c o u n t r y

1960

1970

1980

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1993

1994

1997

1996

1995

1998

O u tp u t p e r h o ur

United States.........................................................
Canada..................................................................
Japan....................................................................
Belgium................................................................
Denmark...............................................................
France...................................................................
Germany................................................................
Italy........................................................................
Netherlands..........................................................
Norway..................................................................
Sweden.................................................................
United Kingdom....................................................

-

40.7
14.0
18.0
29.9
21.8
29.2
19.6
19.3
36.7
27.6
31.2

_
59.2
38.0
32.9
52.7
43.1
52.0
36.8
38.1
57.8
52.8
44.7

71.9
75.3
63.9
65.4
90.3
66.7
77.2
64.1
69.2
76.7
74.0
56.2

94.4
91.3
81.2
88.9
90.6
81.8
88.1
85.1
91.7
93.3
90.1
79.5

98.0
91.1
84.8
92.0
94.1
87.4
91.5
86.7
93.8
92.1
90.8
82.4

97.1
92.4
89.5
96.9
99.6
91.9
94.6
89.4
97.1
94.6
93.8
86.2

97.8
95.3
95.4
96.8
99.1
93.5
99.0
92.5
98.6
96.6
95.0
88.4

98.3
95.1
99.4
99.1
99.6
96.9
101.9
95.2
99.6
97.5
95.0
92.2

102.1
102.5
100.5
102.5
104.5
100.6
100.6
102.9
101.9
100.6
106.7
104.1

108.3
106.2
101.8
108.4
108.5
107.9
105.6
114.2
101.4
116.1
106.8

114.9
108.9
109.3
113.2
114.5
111.2
109.3
119.9
102.0
122.4
104.7

117.3
107.3
115.8
114.7
115.0
115.1
110.3
124.4
102.0
125.4
103.3

122.1
110.0
120.2
121.7
123.3
121.8
113.4
130.7
101.9
133.6
103.8

127.0
111.7
120.5
122.4
127.5
127.1
113.6
132.8
104.1
136.5
104.8

O u tp u t

United States.........................................................
Canada..................................................................
Japan.....................................................................
Belgium.................................................................
Denmark...............................................................
France..................................................................
Germany...............................................................
Italy........................................................................
Netherlands..........................................................
Norway..................................................................
Sweden.................................................................
United Kingdom....................................................

34.2
10.7
30.7
40.8
31.0
41.5
21.4
31.7
56.5
46.5
67.8

60.5
38.8
57.6
68.0
64.1
70.9
44.7
59.5
89.1
81.7
90.4

77.3
85.4
59.9
78.2
91.3
88.7
85.3
78.4
77.4
103.6
91.8
87.2

97.9
103.2
78.4
88.8
99.3
87.2
88.0
88.2
89.5
110.7
107.7
94.5

104.5
109.3
84.6
93.3
100.8
92.2
90.9
94.5
92.8
105.3
110.2
101.5

104.0
110.8
90.2
99.1
104.3
97.2
94.0
98.1
96.9
101.3
111.6
105.5

102.5
106.6
96.3
101.0
102.7
99.1
99.1
99.6
100.1
100.2
110.6
105.4

98.7
98.8
101.4
100.7
101.7
99.8
102.8
99.2
100.6
98.3
103.6
100.1

103.5
105.1
96.0
97.0
99.0
95.7
91.8
96.4
98.2
102.7
101.3
101.5

112.2
113.2
95.4
101.4
109.3
100.3
93.5
102.2
104.2
106.7
115.7
106.2

119.6
118.8
100.6
104.2
115.1
104.9
93.7
107.2
107.8
109.0
130.1
107.8

121.6
120.2
106.7
104.2
119.0
104.6
92.5
106.7
110.6
110.1
132.9
108.3

128.8
128.0
110.0
109.0
121.7
110.3
95.8
110.4
116.1
113.3
140.3
109.3

134.2
133.0
103.9
111.8
127.3
114.6
100.7
112.5
118.8
116.4
146.4
109.7

92.1
84.1
76.3
170.7
136.5
142.1
142.3
109.0
164.7
154.0
168.3
217.4

104.4
102.1
102.3
174.7
129.0
148.7
136.3
121.2
156.4
154.3
154.7
202.1

107.5
113.5
93.8
119.7
101.1
133.1
110.5
122.4
111.9
135.0
124.0
155.3

103.8
113.0
96.6
100.0
109.6
106.6
99.9
103.6
97.6
118.6
119.5
118.9

106.6
120.0
99.8
101.5
107.2
105.5
99.3
108.9
98.9
114.3
121.4
123.2

107.1
119.9
100.8
102.3
104.7
105.8
99.3
109.7
99.7
107.1
119.0
122.3

104.8
111.9
100.9
104.3
103.7
105.9
100.1
107.7
101.6
103.7
116.4
119.2

100.4
103.8
102.0
101.5
102.1
103.0
100.9
104.2
101.0
100.8
109.0
108.5

101.4
102.6
95.6
94.7
94.8
95.1
91.3
93.6
96.4
102.1
94.9
97.5

103.6
106.6
93.7
93.6
92.4
86.7
96.7
91.3
105.2
99.6
99.4

104.0
109.1
92.0
92.0
91.6
84.3
98.0
90.0
106.9
106.3
103.0

103.7
112.0
92.2
90.8
91.0
80.4
96.7
88.9
107.9
106.0
104.8

105.5
115.4
91.5
89.5
89.5
78.6
97.4
88.8
111.1
105.0
105.4

105.6
119.0
86.2
91.3
89.9
79.3
99.0
89.5
111.9
107.3
104.7

14.9
10.4
4.3
5.4
4.6
4.3
8.1
1.6
6.4
4.7
4.1
3.1

23.8
17.8
16.5
13.7
13.3
10.3
20.7
4.7
20.2
11.8
10.8
6.3

55.8
47.7
58.6
52.5
49.6
40.8
53.6
28.2
64.4
39.0
37.4
33.2

80.9
75.3
77.9
79.7
80.1
78.6
76.0
66.7
87.8
78.5
67.3
64.8

84.2
77.8
79.2
81.1
82.9
81.6
79.1
69.3
87.7
83.3
71.7
67.7

86.9
82.5
84.2
85.9
87.7
86.0
83.2
75.9
88.5
87.2
79.4
72.9

91.0
89.5
90.7
90.1
92.7
90.6
89.4
84.4
90.8
92.3
87.6
80.9

95.8
94.7
95.9
97.3
95.9
96.2
95.1
96.3
95.2
97.5
95.4
90.5

102.9
99.6
104.6
104.8
104.6
102.8
105.9
107.5
103.7
101.5
98.0
104.3

105.8
100.4
106.7
106.1

108.3
103.6
109.5
109.2

110.7
102.8
110.9
112.0

105.0
111.7
107.8
108.2
104.4
101.1
106.5

107.7
117.7
112.8
110.6
109.2
106.2
107.4

109.4
123.7
120.9
113.9
113.6
113.4
108.2

115.1
106.7
114.1
115.1
112.4
126.6
125.9
117.5
119.1
118.3
112.8

120.0
110.8
115.0
115.9
114.0
127.6
124.8
117.8
126.4
121.5
119.2

25.5
30.9
30.1
15.4
19.5
27.8
8.0
33.2
12.9
14.9
10.5

30.0
43.3
41.7
25.2
24.0
39.8
12.7
53.0
20.4
20.5
14.1

77.6
63.3
91.7
80.3
55.0
61.2
69.4
44.0
93.1
50.8
50.6
59.1

85.7
82.5
96.0
89.7
88.4
96.2
86.3
78.3
95.8
84.1
74.7
81.5

85.9
85.5
93.4
88.1
88.2
93.4
86.5
79.9
93.5
90.4
79.0
82.2

89.5
89.2
94.0
88.7
88.1
93.6
87.9
84.9
91.1
92.2
84.7
84.6

93.1
93.9
95.0
93.0
93.6
96.8
90.3
91.3
92.1
95.6
92.3
91.6

97.5
99.6
96.5
98.1
96.3
99.3
93.3
98.4
95.6
100.0
100.4
98.1

100.8
97.2
104.1
102.3
100.1
102.2
105.3
104.4
101.8
100.9
91.8
100.2

97.7
94.5
104.9
97.9
93.0
96.8
103.6
102.1
94.8
102.9
87.0
99.7

94.3
95.2
100.1
96.4
93.4
94.0
105.9
103.2
92.3
107.1
86.8
102.5

94.3
95.8
95.8
97.6
92.3
95.1
107.5
109.6
91.5
111.4
90.4
104.7

94.3
96.2
95.0
94.6
95.3
91.1
103.9
111.1
89.9
116.9
88.5
108.7

94.5
99.2
95.4
94.7
94.9
89.4
100.4
109.8
88.7
121.4
89.0
113.8

77.6
65.4
51.3
88.3
58.9
76.7
59.6
63.3
82.4
63.9
69.6
77.8

85.7
75.2
84.2
77.2
77.9
84.7
74.9
74.4
83.1
77.5
68.5
75.7

85.9
83.9
92.4
77.0
79.0
82.9
76.9
75.6
83.1
86.1
75.0
82.9

89.5
91.0
86.3
72.3
72.6
77.7
73.0
76.2
75.5
82.9
76.4
78.5

93.1
97.2
83.1
89.5
91.3
94.1
87.3
93.8
88.9
95.0
90.8
92.5

97.5
105.0
90.9
92.3
90.8
93.1
87.8
97.6
89.8
95.7
96.6
98.2

100.8
91.1
118.8
95.1
93.2
95.5
99.4
81.8
96.3
88.3
68.6
85.2

97.7
83.6
130.1
94.2
88.3
92.4
99.8
78.1
91.6
90.7
65.7
86.4

94.3
83.8
135.1
105.2
100.7
99.8
115.5
78.0
101.2
105.0
70.8
91.6

94.3
84.9
111.7
101.4
96.1
98.4
111.6
87.5
95.4
107.1
78.5
92.5

94.3
83.9
99.5
84.9
87.0
82.6
93.5
80.3
81.0
102.5
67.5
100.8

94.5
80.8
92.3
83.8
85.5
80.2
89.1
77.9
78.6
99.9
65.2
106.8

-

-

T o ta l ho u rs

United States........................................................
Canada..................................................................
Japan....................................................................
Belgium.................................................................
Denmark...............................................................
France..................................................................
Germany...............................................................
Italy........................................................................
Netherlands..........................................................
Nonway..................................................................
Sweden.................................................................
United Kingdom....................................................

-

C o m p e n s a tio n p e r h our

Canada.................................................................
Japan.....................................................................
Belgium................................................................
Denmark................................................................
Germany...............................................................
Italy........................................................................
Netherlands..........................................................
Sweden.................................................................
United Kingdom....................................................
U n it la b o r c o sts:

-

-

-

National currency basis

Canada..................................................................
Japan....................................................................
Belgium................................................................
Denmark..............................................................
Germany..............................................................
Italy......................................................................
Netherlands..........................................................
Sweden................................................................
United Kingdom...................................................
U n it la b o r c o s ts :

U.S. dollar basis

United States.......................................................
Japan...................................................................

France...................................................................

Netherlands..........................................................
Sweden.................................................................
United Kingdom...................................................

-

31.9
10.9
19.4
13.5
21.1
10.4
16.0
15.5
11.3
16.8
15.6

-

34.7
15.3
27.0
20.3
23.0
17.1
24.9
25.8
17.8
23.0
19.2

- Data not available.

104 Monthly Labor Review

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2000

46.

Occupational injury and illness rates by industry,1United States
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers3
In d u s try a n d ty p e o f c a s e
1986

1987

1988

1989 1

1990

1 99 1

1992

1993 4

1994 4

1995 4

1996 4

1997 4

P R IV A T E S E C T O R 5

T otal cases.......................................................................................
Lost workday cases...........................................................................
Lost workdays....................................................................................

7.9
3.6
65.8

8.3
3.8
69.9

8.6
4.0
76.1

8.6
4.0
78.7

8.8
4.1
84.0

8.4
3.9
86.5

8.9
3.9
93.8

8.5
3.8

8.4
3.8

8.1
3.6

7.4
3.4

7.1
3.3

-

-

-

-

-

11.2
5.6
93.6

11.2
5.7
94.1

10.9
5.6
101.8

10.9
5.7
100.9

11.6
5.9
112.2

10.8
5.4
108.3

11.6
5.4
126.9

11.2
5.0

10.0
4.7

9.7
4.3

8.7
3.9

8.4
4.1

-

-

-

-

-

7.4
4.1
125.9

8.5
4.9
144.0

8.8
5.1
152.1

8.5
4.8
137.2

8.3
5.0
119.5

7.4
4.5
129.6

7.3
4.1
204.7

6.8
3.9

6.3
3.9

6.2
3.9

5.4
3.2

5.9
3.7

-

-

-

-

-

15.2
6.9
134.5

14.7
6.8
135.8

14.6
6.8
142.2

14.3
6.8
143.3

14.2
6.7
147.9

13.0
6.1
148.1

13.1
5.8
161.9

12.2
5.5
-

11.8
5.5
-

10.6
4.9

9.9
4.5

9.5
4.4

-

-

-

12.0
5.5
132.0

12.2
5.4
142.7

11.5
5.1

10.9
5.1

9.8
4.4

9.0
4.0

8.5
3.7

-

-

-

-

-

12.8
6.0
160.1

12.1
5.4
165.8

11.1
5.1

10.2
5.0

9.9
4.8

9.0
4.3

8.7
4.3

-

-

-

-

10.0
4.7

A g r ic u ltu re , fo r e s tr y , a n d fis h in g 5

Total cases.......................................................................................
Lost workday cases...........................................................................
Lost workdays....................................................................................
M in in g

T otal cases.......................................................................................
Lost workday cases...........................................................................
Lost workdays....................................................................................
C o n s tr u c tio n

T otal cases.......................................................................................
Lost workday cases...........................................................................
Lost workdays....................................................................................
General building contractors:
T otal cases.......................................................................................
Lost workday cases...........................................................................
Lost workdays....................................................................................

14.9
6.6
122.7

14.2
6.5
134.0

14.0
6.4
132.2

13.9
6.5
137.3

13.4
6.4
137.6

Heavy construction, except buildinq:
T otal cases.......................................................................................
Lost workday cases...........................................................................
Lost workdays....................................................................................

14.7
6.3
132.9

14.5
6.4
139.1

15.1
7.0
162.3

13.8
6.5
147.1

13.8
6.3
144.6

Special trades contractors:
Total cases.......................................................................................
Lost workday cases...........................................................................
Lost workdays....................................................................................

15.6
7.2
140.4

15.0
7.1
135.7

14.7
7.0
141.1

14.6
6.9
144.9

14.7
6.9
153.1

13.5
6.3
151.3

13.8
6.1
168.3

12.8
5.8

12.5
5.8

11.1
5.0

10.4
4.8

-

-

-

-

-

10.6
4.7
85.2

11.9
5.3
95.5

13.1
5.7
107.4

13.1
5.8
113.0

13.2
5.8
120.7

12.7
5.6
121.5

12.5
5.4
124.6

12.1
5.3

12.2
5.5

11.6
5.3

10.6
4.9

10.3
4.8

-

-

-

-

-

11.0
4.8
87.1

12.5
5.4
96.8

14.2
5.9
111.1

14.1
6.0
116.5

14.2
6.0
123.3

13.6
5.7
122.9

13.4
5.5
126.7

13.1
5.4

13.5
5.7

12.8
5.6

11.6
5.1

11.3
5.1

-

-

-

-

-

Total cases....................................................................................
Lost workday cases........................................................................
Lost workdays.................................................................................

18.9
9.7
177.2

18.9
9.6
176.5

19.5
10.0
189.1

18.4
9.4
177.5

18.1
8.8
172.5

16.8
8.3
172.0

16.3
7.6
165.8

15.9
7.6

15.7
7.7

14.9
7.0

14.2
6.8

13.5
6.5

-

-

-

-

-

Furniture and fixtures:
Total cases....................................................................................
Lost workday cases........................................................................
Lost workdays.................................................................................

15.2
6.3
103.0

15.4
6.7
103.6

16.6
7.3
115.7

16.1
7.2
-

16.9
7.8
-

15.9
7.2
-

14.8
6.6
128.4

14.6
6.5
-

15.0
7.0
-

13.9
6.4

12.2
5.4

12.0
5.8

-

-

-

Stone, clay, and qlass products:
Total cases....................................................................................
Lost workday cases........................................................................
Lost workdays................................................................................

13.6
6.5
126.0

14.9
7.1
135.8

16.0
7.5
141.0

15.5
7.4
149.8

15.4
7.3
160.5

14.8
6.8
156.0

13.6
6.1
152.2

13.8
6.3
-

13.2
6.5
-

12.3
5.7

11.8
5.7

-

12.4
6.0
-

Primary metal industries:
Total cases.....................................................................................
Lost workday cases........................................................................
Lost workdays................................................................................

13.6
6.1
125.5

17.0
7.4
145.8

19.4
8.2
161.3

18.7
8.1
168.3

19.0
8.1
180.2

17.7
7.4
169.1

17.5
7.1
175.5

17.0
7.3
-

16.8
7.2

16.5
7.2

15.0
6.8

15.0
7.2

-

-

-

-

Fabricated metal products:
Total cases.....................................................................................
Lost workday cases........................................................................
Lost workdays................................................................................

16.0
6.8
115.5

17.0
7.2
121.9

18.8
8.0
138.8

18.5
7.9
147.6

18.7
7.9
155.7

17.4
7.1
146.6

16.8
6.6
144.0

16.2
6.7

16.4
6.7

15.8
6.9

14.4
6.2

14.2
6.4

-

-

-

-

-

Total cases....................................................................................
Lost workday cases........................................................................
Lost workdays................................................................................

10.7
4.2
72.0

11.3
4.4
72.7

12.1
4.7
82.8

12.1
4.8
86.8

12.0
4.7
88.9

11.2
4.4
86.6

11.1
4.2
87.7

11.1
4.2

11.6
4.4

11.2
4.4

9.9
4.0

10.0
4.1

-

-

-

-

-

Electronic and other electrical equipment:
Total cases.....................................................................................
Lost workday cases........................................................................
Lost workdays................................................................................

6.4
2.7
49.8

7.2
3.1
55.9

8.0
3.3
64.6

9.1
3.9
77.5

9.1
3.8
79.4

8.6
3.7
83.0

8.4
3.6
81.2

8.3
3.5

8.3
3.6

7.6
3.3

6.8
3.1

6.6
3.1

-

-

-

-

-

Transportation equipment:
Total cases...................................................................................
Lost workday cases.......................................................................
Lost workdays................................................................................

9.6
4.1
79.1

13.5
5.7
105.7

17.7
6.6
134.2

17.7
6.8
138.6

17.8
6.9
153.7

18.3
7.0
166.1

18.7
7.1
186.6

18.5
7.1

19.6
7.8

18.6
7.9

16.3
7.0

15.4
6.6

-

-

-

-

-

5.3
2.3
42.2

5.8
2.4
43.9

6.1
2.6
51.5

5.6
2.5
55.4

5.9
2.7
57.8

6.0
2.7
64.4

5.9
2.7
65.3

5.6
2.5
_

5.9
2.7
_

5.3
2.4
_

5.1
2.3
_

4.8
2.3
—

10.2
4.3
70.9

10.7
4.6
81.5

11.3
5.1
91.0

11.1
5.1
97.6

11.3
5.1
113.1

11.3
5.1
104.0

10.7
5.0
108.2

10.0
4.6

9.9
4.5

9.1
4.3

9.5
4.4

8.9
4.2

-

-

-

-

-

M a n u fa c tu rin g

Lost workday cases...........................................................................
Lost workdays....................................................................................
Durable goods:
Lost workday cases...........................................................................
Lost workdays....................................................................................
Lumber and wood products:

-

Industrial machinery and equipment:

Instruments and related products:
Total cases...................................................................................
Lost workday cases.......................................................................
Miscellaneous manufacturinq industries:
Total cases...................................................................................
Lost workday cases.......................................................................
Lost workdays................................................................................
See footnotes at end of table.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

105

Current Labor Statistics:

Injury and Illness Data

46. Continued—Occupational injury and illness rates by industry,1United States
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers3
Industry and type of case

1986

1987

1988

1989

1

1990

1991

1992

1993 4 1994 4 1995 4 1996 4 1997 4

N o n d u ra b le g o o d s :
T o ta l c a s e s ........................................................................................................
L o s t w o rk d a y c a s e s .........................................................................................
L o s t w o rk d a y s ....................................................................................................

10.0
4.6
82.3

11.1
5.1
93.5

11.4
5.4
101.7

11.6
5.5
107.8

11.7
5.6
116.9

11.5
5.5
119.7

11.3
5.3
121.8

10.7
5.0

16.5
8.0
137.8

17.7
8.6
153.7

18.5
9.2
169.7

18.5
9.3
174.7

20.0
9.9
202.6

19.5
9.9
207.2

18.8
9.5
211.9

17.6
8.9

6.7
2.5
45.6

8.6
2.5
46.4

9.3
2.9
53.0

8.7
3.4
64.2

7.7
3.2
62.3

6.4
2.8
52.0

6.0
2.4
42.9

5.8
2.3
-

5.3
2.4

9.7
4.1

-

10.5
5.1
-

9.9
4.9
-

9.2
4.6
-

8.8
4.4
-

F o o d a n d k in d re d p ro d u c ts :
T o ta l c a s e s .....................................................................................................
L o s t w o rk d a y c a s e s .....................................................................................
L o s t w o r k d a y s .................................................................................................
T o b a c c o p ro d u c ts :
T o ta l c a s e s .....................................................................................................
L o s t w o rk d a y c a s e s .....................................................................................
L o s t w o r k d a y s .................................................................................................
T e x tile m ill p ro d u c ts :
T o ta l c a s e s .....................................................................................................
L o s t w o rk d a y c a s e s ......................................................................................
L o s t w o rk d a y s ............................................... .................................................
A p p a re l a n d o th e r te x tile p ro d u c ts :
T o ta l c a s e s .....................................................................................................
L o s t w o rk d a y c a s e s .....................................................................................
L o s t w o r k d a y s ................................................................................................
P a p e r a n d a llie d p ro d u c ts :
T o ta l c a s e s .....................................................................................................
L o s t w o rk d a y c a s e s .....................................................................................
L o s t w o r k d a y s .................................................................................................
P rin tin q a n d p u b lis h in q :
T o ta l c a s e s .....................................................................................................
L o s t w o rk d a y c a s e s .....................................................................................
L o s t w o rk d a y s ................................................................................................
C h e m ic a ls a n d a llie d p ro d u c ts :
T o ta l c a s e s .....................................................................................................
L o s t w o rk d a y c a s e s .....................................................................................
L o s t w o r k d a y s ................................................................................................
P e tro le u m a n d c o a l p ro d u c ts :
T o ta l c a s e s .....................................................................................................
L o s t w o rk d a y c a s e s .....................................................................................
L o s t w o rk d a y s ................................................................................................
R u b b e r a n d m is c e lla n e o u s p la s tic s p ro d u c ts :
T o ta l c a s e s .....................................................................................................
L o s t w o rk d a y c a s e s .....................................................................................
L o s t w o r k d a y s ................................................................................................
L e a th e r a n d le a th e r p ro d u c ts :
T o ta l c a s e s ....................................................................................................
L o s t w o rk d a y c a s e s .....................................................................................

17.1
9.2

16.3
8.7
-

15.0
8.0
-

14.5
8.0
-

5.6
2.6
-

6.7
2.8
-

5.9
2.7
-

8.2
4.1

-

8.7
4.0
-

-

7.8
3.6
-

6.7
3.1
-

-

-

-

7.8
3.1
59.3

9.0
3.6
65.9

9.6
4.0
78.8

10.3
4.2
81.4

9.6
4.0
85.1

10.1
4.4
88.3

9.9
4.2
87.1

6.7
2.7
49.4

7.4
3.1
59.5

8.1
3.5
68.2

8.6
3.8
80.5

8.8
3.9
92.1

9.2
4.2
99.9

9.5
4.0
104.6

9.0
3.8
-

8.9
3.9
-

8.2
3.6
-

7.4
3.3
-

7.0
3.1
-

10.5
4.7
99.5

12.8
5.8
122.3

13.1
5.9
124.3

12.7
5.8
132.9

12.1
5.5
124.8

11.2
5.0
122.7

11.0
5.0
125.9

9.9
4.6

9.6
4.5

8.5
4.2

7.3
3.7

-

-

-

7.9
3.8
-

6.5
2.9
50.8

6.7
3.1
55.1

6.6
3.2
59.8

6.9
3.3
63.8

6.9
3.3
69.8

6.7
3.2
74.5

7.3
3.2
74.8

6.9
3.1
-

6.7
3.0
-

6.4
3.0
-

6.0
2.8
-

5.7
2.7
-

6.3
2.7
49.4

7.0
3.1
58.8

7.0
3.3
59.0

7.0
3.2
63.4

6.5
3.1
61.6

6.4
3.1
62.4

6.0
2.8
64.2

5.9
2.7

5.5
2.7

4.8
2.4

-

5.7
2.8
-

-

-

4.8
2.3
-

7.1
3.2
67.5

7.3
3.1
65.9

7.0
3.2
68.4

6.6
3.3
68.1

6.6
3.1
77.3

6.2
2.9
68.2

5.9
2.8
71.2

5.2
2.5
-

4.7
2.3
-

4.8
2.4

4.6
2.5

4.3
2.2

14.0
6.6
118.2

15.9
7.6
130.8

16.3
8.1
142.9

16.2
8.0
147.2

16.2
7.8
151.3

15.1
7.2
150.9

14.5
6.8
153.3

13.9
6.5
-

14.0
6.7

12.9
6.5
-

12.3
6.3

10.5
4.8
83.4

12.4
5.8
114.5

11.4
5.6
128.2

13.6
6.5
130.4

12.1
5.9
152.3

12.5
5.9
140.8

12.1
5.4
128.5

12.1
5.5

12.0
5.3

11.4
4.8

10.7
4.5

10.6
4.3

_

_

_

_

_

8.2
4.8
102.1

8.4
4.9
108.1

8.9
5.1
118.6

9.2
5.3
121.5

9.6
5.5
134.1

9.3
5.4
140.0

9.1
5.1
144.0

9.5
5.4

9.3
5.5

9.1
5.2

8.7
5.1

-

-

-

-

8.2
4.8
-

7.7
3.3
54.0

7.7
3.4
56.1

7.8
3.5
60.9

8.0
3.6
63.5

7.9
3.5
65.6

7.6
3.4
72.0

8.4
3.5
80.1

8.1
3.4

7.9
3.4

7.5
3.2

6.8
2.9

6.7
3.0

_

_

_

_

_

7.2
3.6
62.5

7.4
3.7
64.0

7.6
3.8
69.2

7.7
4.0
71.9

7.4
3.7
71.5

7.2
3.7
79.2

7.6
3.6
82.4

7.8
3.7
-

7.7
3.8

7.5
3.6

6.6
3.4

6.5
3.2

7.8
3.2
50.5

7.8
3.3
52.9

7.9
3.4
57.6

8.1
3.4
60.0

8.1
3.4
63.2

7.7
3.3
69.1

8.7
3.4
79.2

8.2
3.3

7.9
3.3
-

7.5
3.0

2.0
.9
17.1

2.0
.9
14.3

2.0
.9
17.2

2.0
.9
17.6

2.4
1.1
27.3

2.4
1.1
24.1

2.9
1.2
32.9

2.9
1.2
-

2.7
1.1
-

2.6
1.0
-

2.4
.9
-

2.2
0.9
-

5.3
2.5
43.0

5.5
2.7
45.8

5.4
2.6
47.7

5.5
2.7
51.2

6.0
2.8
56.4

6.2
2.8
60.0

7.1
3.0
68.6

6.7
2.8

6.5
2.8

6.4
2.8

-

-

-

6.0
2.6
-

5.6
2.5
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

11.9
5.8
-

T r a n s p o r t a t io n a n d p u b lic u tilitie s
T o ta l c a s e s ........................................................................................................
L o s t w o rk d a y c a s e s .........................................................................................
L o s t w o r k d a y s ....................................................................................................
W h o le s a le a n d re ta il tra d e
T o ta l c a s e s ........................................................................................................
L o s t w o rk d a y c a s e s .........................................................................................

W h o le s a le tra d e :
T o ta l c a s e s ........................................................................................................
L o s t w o rk d a y c a s e s .........................................................................................
L o s t w o rk d a y s ...................................................................................................
R e ta il tra d e :
T o ta l c a s e s ........................................................................................................
L o s t w o rk d a y c a s e s ........................................................................................
L o s t w o r k d a y s ...................................................................................................

-

-

-

-

-

6.9
2.8
-

-

6.8
2.9
-

F in a n c e , in s u ra n c e , a n d re a l e s ta te
L o s t w o rk d a y c a s e s ........................................................................................
L o s t w o r k d a y s ...................................................................................................
S e rv ic e s
T o ta l c a s e s .......................................................................................................
L o s t w o rk d a y c a s e s ........................................................................................
L o s t w o rk d a y s ...................................................................................................

' Data for 1989 and subsequent years are based on the Standard Industrial Class­
ification Manual, 1987 Edition. For this reason, they are not strictly comparable with data
for the years 1985-88, which were based on the Standard Industrial Classification
Manual, 1972 Edition, 1977 Supplement.

N = number of injuries and illnesses or lost workdays;
EH = total hours worked by all employees during the calendar year; and
200,000 = base for 100 full-time equivalent workers (working 40 hours per week, 50
weeks per year).

2 Beginning with the 1992 survey, the annual survey measures only nonfatal injuries and

4 Beginning with the 1993 survey, lost workday estimates will not be generated. As of

illnesses, while past surveys covered both fatal and nonfatal incidents. To better address
fatalities, a basic element of workplace safety, BLS implemented the Census of Fatal
Occupational Injuries.

1992, BLS began generating percent distributions and the median number of days away
from work by industry and for groups of workers sustaining similar work disabilities.

3 The incidence rates represent the number of injuries and illnesses or lost workdays per
100 full-time workers and were calculated as (N/EH) X 200,000, where:

- Data not available.

106 Monthly Labor Review

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

February 2000

5 Excludes farms with fewer than 11 employees since 1976.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

47.

Fatal occupational injuries by event or exposure, 1993-98
Fatalities
Event or exposure1

19 9 3 -9 7

19972

Average

N um ber

1998
N um ber

Percent

Total...............................................................................................

6,335

6,238

6,026

100

T r a n s p o r t a t io n in c id e n t s ...................................................................................

2,605
1,393
640
103
230
142
282
387
298
377
216
261
367
109
93

2,630
1,431
701
118
271
142
306
373
300
384
216
223
413

44
24

Worker struck by a vehicle..................................................................
Water vehicle incident..........................................................................
Railway...................................................................................................

2,611
1,334
652
109
234
132
249
360
267
388
214
315
373
106
83

A s s a u lt s a n d v io le n t a c t s ..................................................................................

1,241

1,111

995
810
75
215

860
708
73
79
216

960
709
569
61
79
223

1,005
573
369
65
290
153
124

1,035
579
384
54
320
189
118

941
517
317
58
266
129
140

668

716
653
116
154
87
44

702
623

80

554
298
138
40
123
59
90
72

572
334
153
46
104
48
87
75

199

196

205

26

21

16

Highway incident...................................................................................
Collision between vehicles, mobile equipment.............................
Moving in same direction..............................................................
Moving in opposite directions, oncoming...................................
Moving in intersection...................................................................
Vehicle struck stationary object or equipment..............................
Noncollision incident..........................................................................
Jackknifed or overturned— no collision......................................
Nonhighway (farm, industrial premises) incident.............................
Overturned.........................................................................................

Shooting.............................................................................................
Stabbing.............................................................................................
Other, including bombing................................................................
Self-inflicted injuries..............................................................................

110

C o n t a c t w ith o b je c t s a n d e q u i p m e n t .. . . . .................................................

Struck by object....................................................................................
Struck by falling object.....................................................................
Struck by flying object......................................................................
Caught in or compressed by equipment or objects........................
Caught in running equipment or machinery..................................
Caught in or crushed in collapsing materials...................................
F a lls .................................................................................................................................

591
94
139
83
52

Fall from ladder..................................................................................

Fall on same level................................................................................

586
320
128
43

Contact with electric current................................................................
Contact with overhead power lines................................................
Contact with temperature extremes...................................................
Exposure to caustic, noxious, or allergenic substances................

120
70

101

Oxygen deficiency...............................................................................

O t h e r e v e n t s o r e x p o s u r e s 9............................................................................

1 Based on the 1992 bls Occupational Injury and Illness

3

112
60

12
2
4

2
5

6
5

6
4
4
7

2
1
16

12
9

1
1
4
16
9
5

1
4

111

2
2
12
10
2

156
97
51

2
1

3

9

6
3

1
2
1
1
1
3

Includes the category "Bodily reaction and exertion."

Classification Structures.
2

The BLS news release issued August 12, 1998, reported a

total of 6,218 fatal work injuries for calendar year 1997. Since
then, an additional 20 job-related fatalities were identified,
bringing the total job-related fatality count for 1997 to 6,238.

NOTE:

Totals

for

major categories

may include sub­

categories not shown separately. Percentages may not add to
totals because of rounding.

Dash indicates less than 0.5

percent.

Monthly Labor Review

February 2000

107


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Here are the Bureau’s addresses.
Bureau of Labor S tatistics....................................
Division of Information Services.........................
BLS Regional O ffices............................................

http://stats.bls.gov
http://stats.bls.gov/opbinfo.htm
http://stats.bls.gov/regnhome.htm

Employment and Unemployment:
Employment, hours, and earnings by industry
N atio n a l...........................................................
State and a re a..................................................
National labor force d a ta ..................................
Region, State, and metropolitan area
labor force d a ta ...............................................
Longitudinal re search ........................................
Covered employment and w a g e s.....................
Occupational employment statistics................
Mass layoff statistics..........................................

http://stats.bls.gov/ceshome.htm
http://stats.bls.gov/790home.htm
http://stats.bls.gov/cpshome.htm
http://stats.bls.gov/lauhome.htm
http://stats.bls.gov/nlshome.htm
http://stats.bls.gov/cewhome.htm
http://stats.bls.gov/oeshome.htm
http://stats.bls.gov/lauhome.htm

Prices and Living Conditions:
Consumer price indexes............................................... http://stats.bls.gov/cpihome.htm
Producer price in d e x e s................................................ http://stats.bls.gov/ppihome.htm
Consumer Expenditure S u rv ey .................................. http://stats.bls.gov/csxhome.htm

Compensation and Working Conditions:
National Compensation S u rv ey .................................
Collective bargaining...................................................
Employment cost trends..............................................
Employee Benefits Survey..........................................
Occupational Compensation Survey...........................
Safety and h ealth...........................................................

http://stats.bls.gov/comhome.htm
http://stats.bls.gov/cbahome.htm
http://stats.bls.gov/ecthome.htm
http://stats.bls.gov/ebshome.htm
http://stats.bls.gov/ocshome.htm
http://stats.bls.gov/oshhome.htm

Productivity:
Quarterly labor p roductivity.............
Industry pro d u ctivity..........................
M ultifactor productivity.....................

http://stats.bls.gov/lprhome.htm
http://stats.bls.gov/iprhome.htm
http://stats.bls.gov/mprhome.htm

Employment Projections.............

http://stats.bls.gov/emphome.htm

International data:
Foreign labor statistics.......................
U.S. import and export price indexes

http:// stats.bls.gov/flshome.htm
http://stats.bls.gov/ipphome.htm

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Schedule of release dates for BLS statistical series
Release
date

Period
covered

Release
date

Period
covered

Employment situation

February 4

January

March 3

Fe

Productivity and costs

February 8

4th quarter

March 7

4th quarter

U.S. Import and Export
Price Indexes

February 16

January

March 15

February

Producer Price Indexes

February 17

March 16

February

2; 31-33

Consumer Price indexes

February 18

March 17

February

2; 28-30

Real earnings

February 18

March 17

February

6

es

Employment Cost Indexes


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Release
date

Period
covered

MLR table
number

2; 39-42
3

1st quarter

1-3; 21-24