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U N IT E D S T A T E S D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
F r a n c e s P e r k in s , S e c r e ta r y
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S
Tsador L u b in , C o m m is sio n e r

+

M on th ly

L ab o r R e v ie w
HughS.Haan|!(^ ifipMq!|C1!RRi!?y
MAR 2 (>¡¿35

V o lu m e 40, N u m b e r 2
F e b r u a r y 1935

+

U N IT E D ST A T E S
G O V E R N M E N T P R I N T I N G O F F IC E
W A S H I N G T O N : 1935

F o r sa le b y t h e S u p e r in t e n d e n t o f D o c u m e n ts
P r ic e 30 c e n t s a c o p y
S u b s c r ip tio n p ric e p er y e a r : U n i t e d S ta te s , C a n a d a , M e x ic o $3.50; o t h e r c o u n t r ie s , $4.75


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C o n te n ts
Special articles:
Operations of cooperative productive enterprises in 1933___________
Italian National Leisure Time Society, by Randolph Harrison, Jr__
Em ploym ent conditions and unem ploym ent relief:
Fluctuation of employment in Ohio in 1933 and comparison with
previous years_______________________________________________
Federal aid for needy college and university students______________
Use of consumption vouchers as a relief measure in Germany______
N ational R ecovery program:
Further stay of scrip-payment provisions under retail codes________
Cancelation of code for cinders, ashes, and scavenger trade_________
Progress of apprentice-training program__________________________
Collective agreements under construction code____________________
Piecework compensation to be computed at least once a week______
Pay authorized for work interruptions beyond labor’s control______
Expansion of field staff of National Recovery Administration______
Summary of permanent codes adopted under National Industrial
Recovery Act during December 1934___________________________
Social security:
Report and recommendations of Committee on Economic Security__
Report of New Hampshire Commission on Unemployment Insurance.
Operation of Wisconsin unemployment-compensation act__________
Establishment of new unemployment assistance board in Great
Britain______________________________________________________
New social-insurance act of Greece_______________________________
Industrial and labor conditions:
Labor conditions in the onion fields of Ohio_______________________
Relative efficiency of Negro and white workers____________________
Collective-bargaining machinery and practices in Great Britain___
Holiday provisions for agricultural workers in Great Britain_______
Labor law s:
Legislative sessions in 1935______________________________________
Right of seaman to extra compensation under certain conditions
denied by Supreme Court______________
Labor organisations :
Trade-union organization and membership in the United States, 1934.
Reorganization of the Labor Front in Germany___________________
Industrial disputes:
Strikes and lockouts in December 1934__________ ________________
Conciliation work of the Department of Labor in December 1934__
Labor awards and decisions:
Recent decisions of National Labor Relations Board_______________
Labor turn-over:
Labor turn-over in manufacturing establishments, November 1934. _
Monthly turn-over rates from January 1932 to November 1934_____


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hi

Page
257
266

279
292
294
296
296
297
297
298
298
299
299
304
313
315
317
320
324
335
338
345
347
348
352
356
358
367
371
385
387

CONTENTS

IY
H o u s in g :

Pas0

Building operations in principal cities of the United States, December
1934_____________________________________________ ___________
Construction from public funds, December 1934---------------------------Housing survey by Canadian Construction Council------------------------

392
399
403

W ages a n d h o u r s o f lab or:

Employment and earnings of electric-railway workers, 1932 ------------Wage-rate changes in American industries------------------------------------Michigan— Wages and hours of labor in paper mills, 1934--------------New York— Factory office workers’ earnings, October 1934------------Hungary— Average hourly wages in March 1934---------------------------Netherlands— Daily wages of mine workers in July 1933 and 1934___

405
409
413
413
415
417

E m p lo y m e n t offices:

Activities of United States Employment Service, November 1934----

418

T r e n d o f e m p lo y m e n t:

Summary of employment reports for December 1934---------------------Trend of employment in November 1934— Revised figures:
Employment in manufacturing industries------------------------------Employment in nonmanufacturing industries-------------------------Employment in building construction------------------------------------Employment and pay rolls in cities of over 500,000 population._
Employment on class I steam railroads in the United States----Employment and pay rolls in the Federal Service. _*--------------Employment created by the Public Works Administration fund.
Emergency work-relief program_____________________________
Emergency conservation work----------------------------------------------Employment on State road projects--------------------------------------Employment on construction projects financed by the Recon­
struction Finance Corporation-------------------------------------------Employment on construction projects financed from regular
governmental appropriations----------------------------------------------

431
435
446
454
457
458
459
461
466
467
468
469
470

R e t a il p rices:

Retail
Retail
Retail
Retail

prices
prices
prices
prices

of
of
of
of

food, December 1934-------------------------------------------electricity, November 15, 1934-----------------------------coal, December 15, 1934--------------------------------------gas, November 15, 1934----------------------------------------

473
486
490
495

Wholesale prices in December 1934----------------------------------------------

497

W h o le sa le p rices:
C o st o f l i v i n g :

Changes in cost of living in the United States, November 1934-------Cost of living in the United States and in foreign countries-------------

511
531

P u b lic a tio n s r e la tin g t o lab or:

Official— United States__________________________________________
Official— Foreign countries---------Unofficial_______________________________________


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535
536
538

T h i s Issu e in B rie f
In 1933 there were in the United States 18 productive enterprises
owned and being operated cooperatively by the workers themselves. Eight
of these, which furnished reports to the Bureau of Labor Statistics,
had 1,181 shareholders (447 of whom were working in the plants) and
650 nonshareholder employees. Although these societies suffered
from the depression they were able to increase their sales considerably
from 1931 to 1933. The 1933 business amounted to $3,629,470. Only
3 societies were able to make a profit on the year’s activities; for all 8
societies combined there was a loss of $86,938. These enterprises paid
in wages during the year $772,073. Page 257.
The Italian Opera Nazionale Dopolavoro is a vast organization jor the
diversion and instruction of workers of all classes during their leisure
hours. Exceptional benefits of many kinds are enjoyed by the mem­
bers, including all types of athletic and recreational activities, reduced
rates for medical care and hospitalization, accident insurance, and
elaborate cultural and educational opportunities. All these advan­
tages are obtained by the payment of such nominal dues that they
are within the reach of the most humble workers. Page 266.
A Nation-wide system to provide Jor the aged, the unemployed, and
the children is recommended in the report of the President’s Committee on
Economic Security. The plan for care of the aged would include
contributory pensions whose cost would be shared by employers and
employees; noncontributory pensions for those already superannuated,
the cost to be shared equally by the States and the Federal Govern­
ment; and a system of voluntary insurance for groups not otherwise
covered. The system of unemployment compensation would be left
largely to the States, but a Federal pay-roll tax would be imposed
against which credits would be allowed to industries in States which
have passed unemployment compensation laws. For the care of
children Federal grants of one-third of the cost is recommended for
States with mothers’ pension acts. Page 304.
As the result of successful organizing campaigns in fields heretofore
unorganized, and the strengthening of established unions following
increased industrial activity, the total organized strength of the
American Federation of Labor was 5,650,000 in October 1934, as
compared to 3,926,796 in October 1933. Some affiliated unions made
spectacular gains in membership. Page 353.

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v

VI

THIS ISSUE IN BRIEF

Cash incomes of less than $500 were reported for the year ending
August 31, 1934, by 83 percent of the families covered in the survey
made by the special Interdepartmental Committee appointed to
investigate labor conditions in the onion fields of Hardin County,
Ohio. Only 3 percent of the families canvassed had incomes of $1,000
or more. Before the strike of last summer the customary hourly wage
rates in the Ohio onion fields was 12% cents an hour and some adult
workers were employed for only 10 cents an hour. After the strike
the bulk of the workers were receiving from 15 to 20 cents an hour.
Page 324.
A review of the operation of the Wisconsin unemployment reserves
and compensation act since it took compulsory effect July 1, 1934, shows
that about 3,400 firms employing approximately 300,000 workers are
subject to the act. Nearly two-thirds of the employers have estab­
lished “ exempted” benefit plans approved by the State Industrial
Commission and in most cases these employers are creating reserve
funds separate from other company assets. The 2 percent unem­
ployment reserve contributions for all employers combined are
expected to average about $450,000 per month. Benefits which
become payable after July 1, 1935, will be based solely on employment
and unemployment occurring after that date. Page 315.
Piecework compensation must be computed at least once in 7 con­
secutive days and yield not less than the minimum hourly code rate
multiplied by the number of hours worked in the period covered,
according to a ruling in January 1935 of the National Industrial
Recovery Board. If hardship results from the application of this
ruling, because of peculiar circumstances or methods of operation,
the employer affected is given the right to apply for an exemption.
Page 298.
Employers under industrial codes must compensate labor for interrup­
tions to work beyond their control if such workers are required to be
present and ready to work. In the administrative order of the National
Industrial Recovery Board establishing this principle four causes of
interruption are listed over which the employer presumably has no
control. An employer may not avoid computing payment for
interruptions by notifying an employee “ that he is free to leave for
an interval too brief reasonably to be considered a temporary lay-off.”
Page 298.


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M onthly Labor R e v iew
U

V o l. 40, N o . 2

n it e d

States B u r e a u

W A S H IN G T O N

4-

(P u b lish ed b y th e

of

L a b o r S t a t is t ic s

F e b r u a r y 1935

O p e ra tio n s o f C o o p e ra tiv e P r o d u c tiv e E n te r p r is e s
in 1933
ORKERS’ productive enterprises, i. e., businesses owned and
operated by the workers themselves, form an interesting
though small part of the cooperative movement in the United States.
Although this has seemed to be a diminishing phase of cooperation in
this country, the rate of decrease has been much smaller during the
depression years than might have been expected, there having been
a net loss of only two societies since 1929.
The survey recently completed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics,1
covering 8 of the 18 workers’ productive organizations in active oper­
ation at the end of 1933, shows that they had at that time 1,181
shareholders (of whom 447 were employed in the cooperative enter­
prise) and 650 nonshareholder employees. They paid in wages dur­
ing the year the sum of $772,073. With share capital of $1,234,704
and reserves of $504,590, they did a business of $3,629,470, an aver­
age of $483,684 per society. Losses, however, exceeded profits by
$86,938.
Comparison with earlier years shows a gain in average number
employed, in average share capital, and in average amount of sales.
While business fell off very decidedly from 1929 to 1931, in most
Ikies of cooperative production, the recovery registered from 1931 to
1933 was such as to raise the average sales in the latter year above
the 1929 level. Reserves have decreased since 1929. Profits prac­
tically disappeared in 1933, only 3 of the 8 societies being able to
show a gain on the year’s operations.
It is the practice in the workers’ productive societies to return to
the shareholders the gains remaining after provision has been made
for reserves, depreciation, etc. During the 3 years from 1930 to
1932, the societies reporting returned in these bonuses the sum of
$105,498. No bonus was paid by any of the societies in 1933.

W

1 For data on cooperative credit societies (credit u nion s), see M o n th ly Labor R ev iew , issue of S eptem ber
1934 (p. 551); data on local consum ers’ societies w ere given in th e N ovem b er 1934 issue (p. 1041).


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257

258

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

As already indicated, the workers’ productive movement in the
United States has been a rather static phase of cooperative endeavor.
To some extent this has been due to the lines of business chosen.
Many of the societies were formed without adequate study of the
field which it was proposed to enter. In fact, the type of industry
has often been such as to mean an inevitably dwindling business for
the cooperative enterprise. The manufacture of articles by hand, in
industries which if not wholly mechanical are rapidly becoming so, is
a highly precarious undertaking. Thus, of the once numerous coop­
erative plants manufacturing hand-blown window glass none remain,
while only three factories manufacturing cigars by hand are still in
operation. In other instances groups of miners have taken over from
the owners unprofitable mines and have worked them—in some in­
stances successfully—but when the vein gave out the society was at
an end. Other groups have entered highly competitive businesses in
which conditions were unusually difficult. Of the numerous coopera­
tive shingle mills on the Pacific coast only a few remain, and these
must compete not only with other shingle manufacturers but also with
the manufacturers of patent and fireproof roofings.
That some of these cooperative groups have nevertheless attained
a considerable degree of success must be put down to their credit.
One such instance is that of a group of shoe workers which started
its own factory 19 years ago. Each year except 1929 and 1930 has
shown an expansion in business, until now it employs in the business
an average of 430 persons, and does a business of more than a million
and a half dollars a year. Although operating losses were sustained
in both 1932 and 1933, the record of this organization, in an industry
as competitive and as subject to fluctuations of style as the manu­
facture of shoes, shows a high quality of management. Another fine
record is that of the plywood mill, which was started in the depres­
sion of 1921. Kecords are not available for the years 1926, 1927, and
1928. Sales fell from 1929 to 1930 and again in the succeeding year,
but began to rise in 1932, and from 1932 to 1933 increased by more
than 50 percent. This was one of the three societies which was able
to show a net gain on its 1933 business.
Workers’ societies may be handicapped by business inexperience
and lack of knowledge of salesmanship and of market conditions.
They may therefore be at a disadvantage when it comes to disposing
of their product.
Lack of adequate capital is another handicap and probably there
have been many societies which have collapsed in adverse times but
which could have succeeded if they had had funds enough to enable
them to absorb some loss and to tide over until conditions changed
for the better.

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COOPERATIVE PRODUCTIVE ENTERPRISES IN 1933

259

General Characteristics of Cooperative Workshops

T he “ ideal” workers’ productive society is composed of workers
in the shop who have contributed all the capital of the enterprise
and do all the work, the business being managed by men elected by
and from tho members. The worker-owners work on a wage basis,
but receive in addition any profits made from the business, these
being divided among the members by various methods.
The cooperative workshop, however, is exposed to a temptation
not present in other forms of cooperation. In the consumers’ society,
for instance, it is to the interest of the members to enlarge the mem­
bership, for each new member increases the business of the society.
The increased volume of business in turn reduces the percentage of
overhead expense and increases the savings made in the business and
therefore, also, the benefits accruing to each member. In the workers’
societies the situation is exactly reversed. Every additional member
increases the number who must share in the profits, though not
necessarily increasing the business done or the amount of profits to
be shared. Each new member, therefore, is likely to be looked upon
as reducing the profits of the others. Especially if the society achieves
business success, there may develop an increasing tendency among
the members to limit their numbers so as to retain all the savings
from the business for themselves, and, if additional workers are
needed, to take them on as employees, not as members. The impetus
to such an attitude is also all the greater in a workers’ productive
organization, inasmuch as the society represents the members’ liveli­
hood; and as the matter is a serious one to them an exclusive mem­
bership policy is quite understandable. In direct proportion as this
occurs, however, the society loses its cooperative character.
Some unavoidable limitation upon membership is, of course, im­
posed by the nature of the business or work carried on, and this
becomes greater with the degree of skill required. If the principle
that all the members are to be workers in the business is observed,
then obviously in a highly specialized undertaking, such, for instance,
as the manufacture of shoes or hand-made window glass, only persons
skilled in the various processes can be admitted as members.
The present study has disclosed varying degrees of cooperativeness
among the workers’ productive societies. Some of these cooperative
companies are in reality more of the nature of trade-union or even
joint-stock enterprises than of cooperative workshops, and this fact
is recognized by the companies themselves. One of the most success­
ful societies is more nearly a profit-sharing than a cooperative society,
as only a small proportion of the workers are stockholders and of the
employees only the actual producers share in the profits.


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260

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

These societies could not, therefore, be measured by the same strict
standard as the consumers’ societies. In the consumers’ movement,
while material benefits from the enterprise are desired, there is usually
also a certain amount of idealism, a vision of something above and
beyond the shopkeeping activities, with shopkeeping simply a first
step toward a better ordering of society to be striven for patiently
but hopefully in the interest of all consumers. This may not be true
of each individual cooperator nor of each individual society, for
many have material benefit as their main or only object, but it is
true of the consumers’ cooperative movement as a whole.
This wider vision seems to be less characteristic of the workers’
productive societies.
Geographical and Industrial Distribution
S ince 1929, when the Bureau’s last previous study was made, an
upholstery association, a mining association, and a laundry have
discontinued operations or sold out. During the interval a woolen
mill was taken over by the workers, but went out of business early
in 1933, so that it figured in neither the 1929 nor 1933 survey. Another
business has become cooperative since 1929. There was thus a net
loss of two societies since that year.
As far as the information of the Bureau goes, therefore, there were
only 18 workers’ productive societies in active operation at the end
of 1933; another association has not yet taken formal action to dis­
solve but has done no business since 1931 and has leased its plant to
a private firm. Of these 19 associations, 9 (including the inactive
one) made a report in the present study.
The following table shows the total number of societies in 1929 and
1933 and the number furnishing data for the latter year, by State and
by industry in which engaged:
Table 1.—Distribution of Workers’ Productive Societies, by States and Industries,
1929 and 1933
N um b er in
existence
State
1929

1933

2
3
1
1
1
2
2
1
7

3
2
1
1
1
1
i 1
1
6
1

20

18

Indiana
M assachusetts
M in n e s o ta ..
M issouri
N ew Jersey
O hio.
Oregon
P enn sylvan ia
W ashin gton .
W isconsin

N um b er
reporting,
1933

1
1
1
1
i 1
3

—

Tnfql

T y p e of society

1929

1933

1
3
2

Box factories. . . . . . .
__
Cigar factories..
...
Coal m in e s.. .
C lothing factories.
. .
E n am eling p la n ts.
P ish canneries.. .
Food factories.
_
. _ .
L au n d ries.. _
P lyw ood factories . . .
Shingle m ills___ ____ ____.
Shoe factories_____ __ ______

3
1
4
3

1
3
1
1
1
«1
1
2
1
4
2

T o ta l. ______________

20

18

1
2

N um b er
reporting,
1933

2

i 1
1
1
2
1

8

1 N o t in c lu d in g 1 s o c ie ty n o t d is s o lv e d b u t a t p r e s e n t in a c t iv e .


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N u m b er in
existence

8

COOPERATIVE PRODUCTIVE ENTERPRISES IN 1933

2G1

Year of Establishment
T he societies reporting have been in existence, on the average, 19
years and 3 months; the range was from 13 years to 37 years and
3 months. One society was formed in 1896, 1 in 1910, 2 in 1915, 1 in
1916, 2 in 1920, and 1 in 1921.

Membership, Employment, and Wage Policies

As a l r e a d y indicated, membership restrictions are fairly common
among the workers’ productive societies. Of those covered in the
present study, one limits the membership to members of the trade
union of the craft. In three associations stock may be sold only to
employees, this presumably with the intention of making the stock­
holders and the labor force identical. One company reports that
while there is no strict rule on the subject, shareholders are given
preference in employment. Two societies provide that each new
stockholder must be voted upon; he must receive in one society a
majority of votes of the board of trustees and in the other a majority
vote of all the stockholders. One association provides in its bylaws
that the number of members shall never be allowed to fall below 16
except by majority vote of all the stockholders.
Table 2 shows, for the individual societies, the total number of
shareholders (members) and those employed in the business, and the
number of nonshareholders employed. It is seen that in only two of
the associations were all the shareholders working in the plant at the
end of 1933. In two others there was no outsider working, but only
a small proportion of the shareholders had jobs in the cooperative en­
terprise. Five of the eight societies employed more nonshareholders
than members.
T a b le 2 . — N u m b e r o f M e m b e rs (S h a re h o ld e rs) a n d o f E m p lo y e e s o f W orkers*
P ro d u c tiv e S o cieties, 1933
Shareholders
Society
N um ber

N um b er
em ployed
in business

N onshare­
holder
em ployees

1.
2_
3.
4_
5.
6
7.
8.

178
565
00
70
210
8
16
74

90
205
7
11
45
S
16
65

88
231

Totnl-

1,181

447

(150

Society
Society
Society
Society
Society
Society
Society
Society

no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.

145
33
18
135

Table 3 shows that the cooperative shingle mills gave employment
to all of their members and 51 nonmembers besides. Except in case

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262

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

of the food company and the plant manufacturing plywood, none of
the others had as many as half of their stockholders working in the
plant.
Table 3 .—Number of Shareholders and of Employees of Workers’ Productive
Societies, by Kind of Business Carried on, 1933
Shareholders
K ind of business

N um ber
of societies
reporting

N um b er

N um b er
em ployed
in business

N onshare­
holder
em ployees

Cigar factories
...
F ish canneries . . ____________________________________
Food factories. ___________________________________ . . .
Plyw ood factories. . . . . . . . . .
Shingle m ills. .
.
_
. . . .
. . . .
Shoe factories_____ __________________________________

2
1
1
1
2
1

130
210
178
74
24
565

18
45
90
65
24
205

145
88
135
51
231

T o ta l___________________________________________

8

1,181

447

650

Wages.—Seven societies reported that they pay the union scale of
wages in the occupations concerned. The eighth society did not
report on this point.
More than three-fourths of a million dollars was paid in wages in
1933 byfthe eight societies. It is seen that the average annual earnings
were very low, ranging from $366 to $927, with a general average of
only $704. These averages are, however, somewhat misleading, for
they are computed on the basis of all employees; while the member
workers are a permanent force, the nonmember employees may be
hired only at the busy season. Again, the plant may have been in
operation only part of the year. There are no data to show what pro­
portion of the labor force was employed on a part-time basis, or to
show how much part-time operation there was during the year.
Table 4 .—Total and Average Wages Paid by Workers’ Productive Associations
in 1933
W ages paid, 1933
K ind of business

N um b er of
em ployees
T otal am ount

Cigar factories.
F ish ca n n ery ___________ _ . ________ . _
Food factory___
...
P ly w ood factory . _
____ .
Shingle m ills ___ _ ______ ____
Shoe factory_______ . . . _________ . . .
T o ta l. ___________________ _______ _

A verage per
em ployee

18
190
178
200
75
436

$8,251
73,369
65,126
158, 918
62,079
404,330

$458
386
366
795
828
927

1,097

772, 073

704

Hours oj labor.—The work week in 1 society in 1933 was 36 hours,
in 2 societies 40 hours, in 1 society 42 hours, and in 1 society 44 hours;
in 1 organization the hours ranged from 30 to 40, and in 1 from 38 to 44.

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C O O PE R A T IV E PR O D U C T IV E E N T E R P R IS E S IN

1933

263

Capitalisation and Business
T he value of the individual shares is generally higher in the workers’
productive societies than in other types of cooperative organizations.
Fifty dollars is a common amount, while in one organization the shares
are $600 each.
Seven of the eight societies limit the number of shares that may be held
by any one member. In one society a member may own not to exceed
$600 worth of stock and in another $10,000 worth. One society
limits the shares to 1 per member, another to 3 per member, and a
third to 20 per member. Another organization provides that all
shareholders must hold an equal number of shares, but did not report
what the number is. Another limits the shareholdings but did not
report the nature of the limitation.
In another company the common stock is being bought back from
individual shareholders and is being placed in a trust fund held for
all active workers in common. At the time of the report 63 percent
of the stock was thus held.
The share capital of the eight societies at the end of 1933 amounted to
about 1Kmillion dollars. Only six societies had any surplus or reserves;
these aggregated over half a million dollars.
The combined business done in 1933 amounted to more than 3%
million dollars.
Table 5 .— Capitalization and Business of Workers’ Productive Societies in 1933

K ind of business

Fisti cann Arles
___
-- —
Food factories. . ---------------------------------------------Shoe factories— ---------------------------------------------T o tal-- -

---------------------------------------i i society.

N um ­
ber of
societies
report­
ing

Paid-in
share
capital

Surplus and
reserves

A m oun t of
business,
1933

A verage
b usiness
per
society

2
1
1
I
2
1

$25,498
175,074
402,449
288,000
35,000
308,683

i $67
240, 355
145, 202
(2)
50,000
68,966

$18, 798
485,286
626,191
682,603
193,976
1, 622,616

$9,399
485,286
626,191
682, 603
96, 988
1,622, 616

8

1, 234,704

504,590

3,629,470

483, 684

^ N o t reported.

Table 6 shows, for the various types of societies, the amount of
business done each year since 1920. In most cases the high sales
occurred during the period from 1927 to 1929, but generally the
business fell off decidedly from 1929 to 1931. Some recovery in
sales was shown from 1931 to 1933, notably in the plywood and shoe
factories. The figures in parentheses at the top of each column
indicate the number of societies covered by the data.
In addition to the regular wages received when employed in the
business, the stockholder employees receive a share of any profits
made by the business. In one society the profits left aftei making

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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

provision for reserves, depreciation, etc., are divided equally among
the members. In five societies they are divided on the basis of the
amount of stock held, just as in the ordinary stock company; how­
ever, as one of these societies limits the amount of stock held by any
one member to three shares in the organization and another to one
share, there is substantially equal division of profits. In the fish
cannery half of the amount of profits is placed in a reserve fund on
which stockholders receive interest at the rate of 3 percent and the
other half is divided among the fishermen in proportion to the fish
caught by each; share capital receives interest at 2 percent.
T a b le 6 .— A m o u n t o f B u sin e ss o f Specified T y p e s o f W o rk e rs ’ P ro d u c tiv e
S ocieties, 1920 to 1933
Year

1920.
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
1928.
1929.
1930.
1931.
1932.
1933.

Cigar facP ish
Food
tories (2) cannery ( 1 ) factory (1)
1 $17, 345
1 28, 231
1 43,499
1 51,446
1 44, 998
87,170
76, 543
81, 500
61,282
55,106
37, 264
26, 203
22,873
18, 798

$1, 019,054
601,298
632, 812
723, 043
650, 756
749,192
740,774
795, 595
688, 693
752,693
538, 797
348,418
424, 386
485, 286

P lyw ood
factory (1)

Shingle
m ills (2)

(2)

1 $216, 613
J 153, 200
1 166, 304
1 186,820
1 188, 297
321,153
320, 031
333,886
384,426
1 130,861
1 81, 686
1 61, 216
193,976

$536, 854
924,812
712, 275
743, 535
(2)
(2)

(2)

846,497
463, 792
391,338
444, 443
682, 603

$1, 571, 245
1, 222, 606
783, 617
626,191

1 1 society only.

Shoe
factory (1)
$175,000

(2)

(2)

363.000
451.000
627.000
796, 000
1, 092,697
1,264, 561
1, 374,413
1, 354,818
1, 284,982
1, 388,177
1,403, 946
1, 622, 616

T otal

$1, 211, 399
846,142
1, 729,365
2,316, 605
2, 221,849
2, 564,194
2, 231,167
2,461, 687
2, 458, 274
3, 393, 540
4, 026,941
3,458,428
3,140, 481
3,629,470

2 N o data.

The amounts of net gain or loss on the trading operations, as well
as the bonuses received by members from profits in addition to the
regular wages, are shown in table 7. It is seen that business was
profitable through 1930; each year since that time, however, has
shown a loss. Notwithstanding the adverse conditions, members
received a bonus each year except 1933.
T a b le 7 .— N e t T ra d in g G a in or L oss o f W o rk e rs’ P ro d u c tiv e S o cieties a n d
A m o u n t o f P ro fit D iv id e d A m o n g M e m b e rs, 1925 to 1933
N e t gain ( + ) or
loss ( —)

Year

1925________
1929 . . . ___ __
1930___
1931. _
1932______ _
1933._ __


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N um ber
of socie­
ties re­
porting

5
6
4
4
4
5

A m oun t

+$143,469
+155,290
+ 103,947
-4 ,8 8 2
-1 9 7,219
-8 6 ,9 3 8

Profit d iv id ed am ong m em bers

N um b er
of socie­
ties re­
porting

6
7
8
8
8
8

Societies d ivid in g
profit

N um b er

2
4
2
1
1

A m oun t
divid ed
$31.770
45,720
90,998
9,860
4, 640

COOPERATIVE PRODUCTIVE ENTERPRISES IN 1933

265

Business Methods and Management

T he final control of all of these societies lies with the general
meeting of stockholders. In all but 1 of the societies reporting, only
1 vote per member is allowed at these meetings regardless of the
amount of stock held. The societies are evenly divided as regards
proxy voting, 4 allowing it and 4 prohibiting it. One society allows
an absent member to vote by mail, provided he has a copy of the
matter to be voted upon and this copy is attached to his written vote.
Oversight of the conduct of the affairs of the society is in the hands
of a board of directors. The actual management is generally left to
an elected manager. In 1 society the manager is appointed by the
board of directors, in 2 societies he is elected by the stockholders from
their own ranks, and in 1 association he may be selected by either of
these 2 methods. Two societies are managed by a board of trustees
elected by the stockholders; in 1 of these the board consists of 9
members, while in the other the number varies as the members decide.
All of the societies subject their books to regular audits; in 6 cases
the auditing is done by a professional accountant, in 1 by the com­
pany’s bookkeeper, and in another by the stockholders.
Development Since 1925
T

able

8 shows comparative data for 1925, 1929, and 1933.

T a b le 8 .— D e v e lo p m e n t o f W o rk e rs’ P ro d u c tiv e S ocieties in 1925, 1929, a n d 1933
Item
T otal num ber of societies________ ___ ___ - __ ___ —
N um b er of societies reporting
_ _ _
__
Shareholders:
N u m b e r .___________ _ _
_
N um b er em ployed
__
_
........________ ___ __
N on shareholder em ployees
_ ____
Share capital:
A m o u n t----------------------------------------------------------------Average per so cie ty .. __ ....................................
Surplus and reserves:
A m ount
______ _
--------Average per society
_
_ .
____ —
Business:
A m ount
__ _
—
Average per society
_ - ____ - ____ —
Profits:
A m ount
_
__
. —
Average per society
__ _ _ ______________
B on u ses to shareholders:

1 N e t, after deducting losses.
2 Loss.


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1933

1929

1925
39
21

20
11

18
8

2,438
465
807

1,405
421
236

1,181
447
650

$1,025, 509
51,275

$808,230
73,475

$1,234,704
154,338

653, 590
72, 621

800,139
100,007

504, 590
63,074

4, 573,329
238,596

3.847.666
349, 788

3.629,470
483,684

i 229,458
16,390

1 153.370
30,674

2 86,938
2 17,388

109,470
27,368

48,635
9, 727

I ta lia n N a tio n a l L e is u re T im e S o c ie ty •
By

R

ando lph

H

a r r is o n

, J r .,

op

the

A

m e r ic a n

E

m bassy

at

R

ome

HE Opera Nazionale Dopolavoro, which is also known by the
initials O. N. D. or simply as Dopolavoro, is a vast organization
for the diversion and instruction of workers of all categories during
their leisure hours. It might be called “ The National Leisure Time
Society” as “ Dopolavoro” is a combination of the two Italian words
“ dopo”, meaning after, and “ lavoro”, meaning work. Its purposes,
as set forth in law, are the following:

T

(a) To promote a sound and profitable employment of the leisure hours of
intellectual and manual workers through institutions capable of developing their
physical, intellectual, and moral capacities; and
(b ) To provide for the increase and coordination of such institutions, furnish­
ing them with all assistance and, where appropriate, promoting the incorporation
thereof.

Dopolavoro has been compared with the Young Men’s Christian
Association in that it supplies its members in all important communi­
ties with a clubhouse affording athletic, cultural, and social facilities
which are designed to occupy their spare time wholesomely. Dopolavoro’s activities are infinitely wider in scope, however, as will be
shown and it has all the power and resources of the Italian Govern­
ment, of which it is an organic part, behind it. Furthermore, instead
of being only a young men’s association, its membership is drawn
from the entire wage-earning adult population of Italy from Govern­
ment officials to day laborers, and there are many other points of
dissimilarity.
Among the exceptional benefits enjoyed by members of Dopolavoro
are reduced fares on the national railways, discounts on the admission
price to theaters and places of public amusement, dramatic and musi­
cal entertainments provided even in the remotest rural districts,
and athletic events and excursions organized for their benefit in all
parts of Italy. They have the advantage of reduced rates for medical
care and hospitalization. In addition to insurance against industrial
accidents, they have insurance against accidents occurring outside
of working hours; they are given the opportunity to perfect themselves
in their chosen trades or professions and to acquire other accomplish­
ments and they are provided with elaborate cultural and educational
facilities. All of these benefits are obtained by the payment of such
nominal dues that they are within reach of the most humble workman.
266

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267

Historical Background and Evolution
T h e occasion for the establishment of the organization was the
adoption in Italy of the 8-hour working day in 1919 as a result of the
international labor convention at Washington. In the initial phase
(lasting until the latter part of 1923) Dopolavoro organizations were
due to private enterprise and grew up alongside the workers’ guilds or
syndicates which were the rallying points of Fascism during the early
post-war confusion of Italy. The Fascist Party assumed control of
the Italian Government in October 1922 and the next year the various
Dopolavoro organizations and dependencies were affiliated with the
National Confederation of Fascist Syndicates and acquired an official
status thereby. Dopolavoro came into its own as a national institu­
tion in 1925 when the Opera Nazionale Dopolavoro was created by a
royal decree with authority to federate under its jurisdiction the
thousands of clubs, societies, sport and cultural organizations existing
in Italy for the benefit of the workingman.
The royal decree provided that the O. N. D. should be governed by a
council composed of a president, a vice president, one representative
each from the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Interior, Finance, Agri­
culture, and Corporations, together with one representative each of
employers and workers to be appointed by the Ministry of Corpora­
tions. The fact that the Duke of Aosta, the king’s uncle, accepted the
first presidency of the O. N. D. indicated in an unmistakable manner
the importance which was attached to the new organization.
Upon his resignation a few years later the government of Dopolavoro
was reorganized to bring it under the immediate control of the Fascist
Party. The secretary general of the Fascist Party became the head
of the organization with the title of “ extraordinary commissioner”,
his office replacing the council and discharging its functions under the
nominal supervision of the Ministry of Corporations. The principal
concern of the extraordinary commissioner is so to coordinate the
policies and direct the energies of Dopolavoro that they will always be
in complete conformity with the larger aims of the Fascist State. It is
the duty of this officer also to pass upon budget estimates, manage
funds in hand, and decide upon the acceptance of gifts, bequests, etc.
On questions of financial policy the Ministry of Corporations exercises
actual supervision, as it is the ministry which is charged with financial
liability for Dopolavoro.
The extraordinary commissioner is assisted by a director general
upon whom the principal administrative burden of Dopolavoro falls.
He is in turn assisted by a secretary general for'central bureaus and a
secretary general for administration. These two officers as well as
the secretary general are appointed for 5 years by the extraordinary
commissioner and are responsible to him. They are salaried officials
109041—35 — 2


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M O N T H L Y L A B O R REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

and may be reappointed at the expiration of the 5-year term. Techni­
cal commissions composed of specialists in the various Dopolavoro
activities carry out the work of the director general and his subordi­
nate bureau chiefs. The following diagram may give a clearer picture
of the administrative structure of the central Dopolavoro organization
in Rome:
O. N. D.
Extraordinary commissioner
Director general

Secretary general
for
administration

Secretary general
for
central bureaus
Organization

Sports

Excursions

Artistic
education

Assistance

Administration

The provincial Dopolavoro sections are organized after the model
of the central body, the organization in each provincial capital being
presided over by the provincial secretary of the Fascist Party, assisted
by a competent director and the necessary technical commissions.
This organization repeats itself down through the smaller towns and
communities in the Province, the local head of the Fascist Party, who
is responsible to the secretary general of the party (the extraordinary
commissioner of Dopolavoro), presiding in every case.
Financial Structure
T h e income and expenditures for O. N. D. for the fiscal year 1933-34
were as follows:

Income
Proportion of contributions paid by labor syndicates to Ministry of
Lire
Corporations and transferred by ministry to account of O. N. D__ 1 4, 735, 822
Subscriptions of members for enrollment in national organization,
including compulsory insurance premiums for each------------------ 4, 691, 797
Receipts from Dopolavoro activities (theatrical performances, sale
of publications, operation of health establishment at Viterbo,
etc.)_______________________________________________________
506, 804
Extraordinary contribution from Ministry of Corporations----------- 2, 458, 115
Miscellaneous items such as contributions from public and private
institutions, gifts, legacies, etc________________________________
397, 150
Total____________________________________________ ______ 12, 789, 688
1 Lira at p ar=5.26 cents; exchange rate in June 1934 was 8.59 cents.


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269

Expenditures
Lire

Administrative expenses and salaries ofemployees_______________
Ordinary contributions to provincialorganizations of O. N. D _____
Indemnities paid on insurance policies__________________________
Expenses of various amusement and educational activities and of
publications________________________________________________

3, 658, 127
3, 824, 790
298, 609
3, 466, 233

Total___________________________________________________ 11,247, 759

The past fiscal year, as is shown above, shows a balance of 1,541,929
lire in favor of O. N. D., which will probably be carried over to reduce
the amount of the extraordinary contribution of the Ministry of
Corporations (the agency financially responsible for Dopolavoro).
The largest single item of expenditure for amusement purposes
during the past year amounted to 1,634,271 fire and went to defray
the expenses of the traveling theatrical and operatic productions
called “ Chariots of Thespis”, which tour the Provinces and rural
districts giving the people the benefit of good music and drama. Other
items of interest are 433,225 fire for encouragement of sports; 233,151
fire for excursions; 7,243 fire for folklore manifestations; 205,014 fire
for welfare and hygiene ; and 588,765 fire for propaganda, prizes, medals,
motion-picture films, etc. It should be remembered that these figures
represent only the expenditures of the central organization of Dopola­
voro, and are largely for administrative and promotion purposes
except in the case of the “ Chariots of Thespis”, which are provided
by it. No statistics are available on the budgets of the provincial
Dopolavoro organizations and their affiliates and dependencies.
Membership
Eligibility.—All Italians over 18 years of age, manual or other
workers, including officers of the Government and members of the
professions, are eligible to belong to Dopolavoro. Organizations exist
within public and private industries, within the ministries and bureaus
of the Government, and within the State monopolies, besides the
regular organizations established in every town and community
throughout the Kingdom and in the Colonies. Women may also
belong and special facilities are provided to furnish them with
instruction and amusements.
Growth.—The total membership of O. N. D. in 1926, the year after
its establishment, was 280,584. By 1930 it had grown to 1,622,140,
and the latest figures compiled for 1934 show a membership of 2,108,227.
The majority of industrial and office workers now belong and the prin­
cipal field for future expansion is among the estimated 8,000,000
agricultural workers of Italy. The central administration is making
special efforts to -appeal to this class of the population.

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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Dues.—Dopolavoro dues are so low that membership is within the
reach of the most modest wage earner. For 4.50 lire (about 40 cents)
per year a card of membership in the national organization may be
obtained, carrying with it the privilege of discounts and reductions and
facilities of many kinds, besides insurance against accidents occurring
during or in connection with Dopolavoro festivities (see section on
social assistance). Members of local Dopolavoro organizations must
pay a small additional sum for the use of the clubhouse and such other
special facilities as each particular organization provides. Typical
facilities provided by local Dopolavoro organizations are billiard
rooms, library, motion-picture projection machine, radio, tennis
courts, athletic fields, etc.
Activities

T he activities of the Opera Nazionale Dopolavoro may be divided
into four major sections:
1. Physical education (sports, popular games, excursions).
2. Artistic education (dramatics, music, cinema, radio, propaganda).
3. Instruction (popular culture, trades, crafts, folklore).
4. Social assistance (hygiene, sanitation, discounts, facilities, insurance, baths
at Viterbo).
Physical Education

The physical-education part of the Dopolavoro program may be
divided into two main sections, sports and excursions, which function
under the direction of two separate organizations affiliated with the
O. N. D., called respectively Central Sports Commission (C. C. S.)
and Italian Federation of Excursions (F. I. E.).
Central Sports Commission.—The importance of the activities under
the control of C. C. S. may be appreciated from the fact that the
president of this committee is also the extraordinary commissioner of
the national organization and its vice president is the director general
of the 0. N. D. These officials are aided by a secretary and a tech­
nical committee which govern the different sports societies federated
under the C. C. S., such as the Federation of Rowing, the Federation
of Basket Ball, etc., each composed of a network of clubs, for the
kind of sport named, extending throughout the nation. The C. C. S.
works in conjunction with the National Olympic Games Committee
(C. O. N. I), the national sports organization of Italy, which has as
its aim the training of athletes for the Olympic games, and with the
athletic divisions of the Balilla (national Fascist children’s organiza­
tion) and the National Fascist Militia for the preparation of and
promotion of national sports events and policies.
The C. C. S. is aware that city dwellers and country men have
different tastes and aptitudes in sports and endeavors to provide
equal opportunities for both classes of the population. It also
arranges for less strenuous forms of sports and games for the diversion

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271

and physical improvement of the older members of Dopolavoro. It
promotes local and national contests in popular sports and games
among which boat, swimming, and cross-country races, rope-pulling
contests, and various kinds of ball games find special favor. Diplo­
mas are awarded to those attaining a prescribed degree of proficiency,
and prizes or medals are given to winners of championships. In 1930
5,300 athletic diplomas were awarded among 26,000 participants.
While statistics for 1934 are not yet available, it may be assumed that
participation in athletic events has increased in proportion to the
growth of membership in Dopolavoro. On account of the excursion
facilities at the disposal of Dopolavoro, participants and spectators
may be assembled for sports events at any point in Italy. Thus a
national swimming championship may be held at Naples, boat races
on Lake Garda, or ski contests at an Alpine resort, all of which places
are’made readily accessible to all members of Dopolavoro.
Besides sports and games, systematic instruction is given in
gymnastics, calisthenics, physical hygiene, boxing, fencing, etc. At
Rome there is every facility for Dopolavoro athletic activities:
Tennis courts, gymnasiums, and athletic fields besides a splendid
stadium and swimming pool. Other important centers in Italy are
no less well equipped.
Dopolavoro champions may be potential Olympic games material
and O. N. D., with its vast organization tapping every section of the
nation’s population, is an important reservoir for the National
Olympic Games Committee to draw upon.
Italian Federation of Excursions.—Like the C. C. S., the F. I. E.
is a semi-independent organization within Dopolavoro and is com­
posed of a federation of societies and clubs. It is possible to be a
member of F. I. E. without also belonging to Dopolavoro, but as a
matter of fact the membership of the two institutions is practically
coextensive. Among the principal facilities offered by F. I. E. are:
1. 50 percent reduction on week-end round-trip tickets, third class, for groups
of not less than five persons, on all the State railways.
2. Reduction similar to the above, without any time limit, for groups of 50 or
more persons.
3. 30 percent discount on all classes of railway accommodations.
4. Discounts on street-car lines and motor busses.
5. Special reductions in fares on steamship lines on the sea and on the Italian
lakes.
6. Free entry into all the museums, galleries, and national monuments.
7. Discounts for admission to the mountain shelters owned by the Alpine
Society of the Tridentino.
8. Discounts in hotels.
9. Free and partially free insurance against accidents during and in connection
with events.


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Such sports as skiing, hiking, and cycling are included in the
activities of the F. I. E. and also volunteer reforestation work in
connection with skiing or hiking trips.
Skiing is a comparatively new sport in Italy and was formerly
confined to its Alpine frontier. Now, however, resorts have been
established and made accessible in all parts of Italy so that skiing in
winter is becoming almost as general as tennis in summer. A road
has been built to the snow fields of Mount Etna so that the Sicilians
may enjoy winter sports. Neapolitans can reach Koccaraso, a
winter sports place in the Abruzzi, in a few hours. A skiing resort
complete in every detail will be opened this winter on Monte Terminillo, a peak only an hour and a half by motor from Eome. A cable
car has been put into operation to make the snow heights of the
Gran Sasso available for the central Adriatic region. Florentines
have two winter sports resorts in the Tuscan Appennines within
little more than an hour’s drive by car and, of course, Turin, Milan,
and Venice are all on the threshold of the Alps. In all there were
some 170 important skiing events during the past winter, in which
it is estimated that not less than 200,000 members of the Dopolavoro
took part. During the same period 2,598 diplomas for proficiency
in skiing were awarded to members.
Cycling is still a major sport in Italy and excursions and long­
distance races for cyclists are promoted by F. I. E. Hiking and
camping are also encouraged, especially the latter, which is believed
to have military value. Last year the War Ministry put 500 tents
at the disposal of F. I. E. for its campers to use, and sites for perma­
nent camping headquarters have been chosen in various mountain
regions of Italy, generally near a strategic pass. Campers may
spend only 2 nights in one place before striking their tents and
moving to a new locality. In connection with these activities
Dopolavoro excursionists have rendered valuable voluntary service
to the National Forest Militia in safeguarding the national forests.
Cultural Education

The intellectual side of the Dopolavoro program is no less ambitious
and successful than the physical. Not only are artistic entertain­
ments provided by means of the theater, cinema, music, and radio,
but members are encouraged to participate whenever possible so
that their latent talents may be discovered and developed, and
try-outs for young talent are held on a large scale.
Prose drama is provided by the Philodramatic Society which is a
federation of provincial dramatic societies incorporated into Dopola­
voro in 1926. In 1929 the most original and perhaps the most
important element of the Philodramatic Society was inaugurated:
the ‘‘Chariot of Thespis”, a complete theater mounted on motor

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273

trucks which tours the Provinces and carries drama into the remotest
districts.
In 1932, 1,350 theaters were instituted and used by 2,208 theatrical
companies giving a total of 44,200 performances; 35 provincial
competitions were held in which 250 dramatic societies took part as
well as 49 schools of declamation and 59 model dramatic organiza­
tions. Finally, 175 new plays from the pens of 85 young authors
were produced by the Dopolavoro theatrical organizations.
Permanent reading committees to pass on the works of new authors
exist in each dramatic society unit, and each provincial Dopolavoro
organization is endowed with a dramatic library consisting of 44
volumes. Competitions between different zones into which the
country is divided by the Philodramatic Society are held annually.
There are also debating societies, authors’ clubs, and dramatic clubs
within the framework of the Philodramatic Society and competitions
are promoted between the different units of the national organization
with the view to discovering new talent.
The proportion of foreign plays in the repertory of the Philo­
dramatic Society may not exceed 20 percent and are confined to
such plays as “ are in harmony with the ideals of O. N. D.”
Music

Choral singing, opera, or orchestral and band concerts are also
offered. Special music schools have been created to which members
are admitted upon the payment of a small extra fee or, in some
cases, free of charge. As in the case of the dramatic societies,
international competitions are held in the different fields of music.
Dopolavoro has established theaters and halls in the workmen’s
quarters of the larger cities where the entertainments of the organiza­
tion may be given. Members, besides getting a reduction on the
admission prices of all musical and theatrical entertainments, are
permitted a rebate in the amusement tax collected on their own enter­
tainments when admission is charged. Members of Dopolavoro
musical groups may also buy their instruments at a substantia]
discount.
* There is a lyrical Chariot of Thespis similar to the dramatic one
already described and no less popular. Dancing schools and dances
are also a part of the musical program of Dopolavoro.
Motion Pictures and Radio

In its own words, Dopolavoro aims with motion pictures “ to facili­
tate education by means of illustration, to demonstrate the newest
scientific achievements, to popularize the latest technical and scien­
tific novelties of social existence, with the view to promoting the
individual and collective good, to instruct and uplift men, instilling

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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

in them an appreciation of the good, the beautiful, and the true.”
Through its agreements with the national motion-picture organiza­
tions Dopolavoro has every facility for showing such news, educa­
tional, or artistic films as it may select.
The Ministry of Communications has accorded to Dopolavoro
exemption from the heavy taxes on the possession and use of radio
electrical equipment; this enables Dopolavoro to make widespread
use of radio as a means of entertainment, propaganda, and instruc­
tion. Radio is especially valuable for these purposes in the remoter
rural districts and in inaccessible mountain regions.
Popular Instruction

The third major division of Dopolavoro activities is concerned
primarily with education of a practical character. One of the first
preoccupations of the general direction of Dopolavoro was to build
up libraries in all its provincial dependencies and to establish courses
for the instruction of illiterates and semi-illiterates. Books and
periodicals have been generously supplied by O. N. D. to create or
supplement the libraries of the provincial organizations. It is
intended that the libraries shall be general in character so that the
reader may find amusement, instruction, or edification according to
his purpose. All Dopolavoro centers now have libraries which vary
from modest reading rooms in the rural communities to handsome
and elaborately equipped halls in the large cities.
Dopolavoro also publishes a weekly review called “ Nostra Gente”
(“ Our People”) which is an important medium of propaganda and
instruction.
Folklore.—Festivals and celebrations based upon folklore are also
fostered by Dopolavoro with the view to preserving ancient costumes
and customs that otherwise would not survive the standardizing
effect of modern means of transportation and communication.
Consciousness of Italy’s historic past is stimulated by costume
pageants and celebrations. These events may cover a wide range,
lo r instance, the local festival of the grape harvest celebrated in some
little wine town of the Alban Hills, essentially unchanged since classic
times, may be made accessible to Dopolavoro members. Or a national*
wine celebration may be held at Rome with representative groups from
all the wine-producing centers of Italy, in the native costume of their
district, assembled for the occasion. Or Dopolavoristi from every­
where may be brought together by means of the excursion facilities
at their disposal to celebrate some annual historic or mythological
anniversary like the founding of Rome or the wedding of Venice to
the Sea. The famous Palio, a pageant and horse race in medieval
costume and setting which has been held every summer in Siena for
centuries, makes Siena the objective of thousands of excursionists

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ITALIAN NATIONAL LEISURE TIME SOCIETY

■275

each year who might not otherwise become aware of Sienese art and
history. By means of these excursion facilities members of Dopolavoro
have exceptional opportunities for getting acquainted with the cus­
toms, artistic treasures, and scenic beauties of their richly varied
country.
Trades and crafts.—Realizing that many persons seek employment
without any technical training for it, and also that changing methods
and new scientific discoveries may render former training obsolete,
Dopolavoro instituted courses for the instruction and perfection of
workers in their respective trades. In 1932 more than 20,000 persons
took advantage of this special instruction, attending courses which
were divided roughly into the following general categories: Agricul­
ture, pisciculture, mechanical and artistic design, plastic design,
mineralogy, mechanics, motors, building construction, cabinetmaking,
weaving, stenography, telegraphy, etc. To stimulate interest in this
type of training, prizes for excellence have been established, consisting
of a round trip to Rome with a 4-day stay in the capital with all ex­
penses paid. Prize winners living in Rome are given their choice of
a trip elsewhere in Italy.
Social Assistance

Hygiene and sanitation.—Dopolavoro has instituted complete courses
of instruction on the health and care of the body, including such sub­
jects as the effect of work on the organism (fatigue), dangers incident to
certain kinds of work, infection, personal and occupational hygiene,
etc. Facilities at seaside and mountain resorts are made available to
members at moderate rates by means of discount privileges, and fre­
quent excursions are organized at appropriate seasons to give the
people the benefit of healthful recreation and change. At Viterbo,
Dopolavoro has a thermal establishment which is modern and complete
in every detail. Its waters are reputed to have valuable curative
properties for a wide range of human ills. Members wishing to utilize
these baths make application to the local Dopolavoro to which they
belong, which in turn transmits the request to the central body at
Rome; there the requests are classified with a view to keeping the
patronage of the baths as evenly distributed as possible throughout
the season. This establishment is open to the public at double the
fees charged to members of Dopolavoro. Provision is also made for
the free admission of deserving cases among Dopolavoristi who cannot
afford the regular fees.
The Ministry of Agriculture and Forests has put at the disposal of
Dopolavoro facilities for caring for at least 30,000 members at a time
at the Alpine resort of Monte Bondone.
Many Dopolavoro organizations have their own infirmaries and
medical equipment, and in addition to this they enjoy discounts vary­
ing from 20 to 70 percent on any medical services rendered them on

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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

the outside, and from 5 to 10 percent on the purchase price of pharma­
ceutical supplies.
Other social assistance.—Dopolavoro performs a very useful and
time-saving service for the workman in its readiness to intercede for
him with the authorities, military or civil, to obtain some favor or due,
such as a discharge, pension, decorations, etc., on the one hand, and
applications for birth, death, and marriage certificates, permits to drive
a motor car, appeals from fines, etc., on the other.
At a recent exposition at Milan, Dopolavoro offered as a novelty
the exhibition of a model house suitable for a workman or an employee
of modest means. The house is simply designed and soundly built,
with the chief emphasis on light, ventilation, convenience, and sanita­
tion. It is hoped that this type of construction will be followed by
employers in providing homes for their employees or by such of the
latter as can afford to build their own homes.
Another hobby of Dopolavoro’s, somewhat allied to its interest
in model houses, is the cultivation of kitchen gardens in urban areas.
Dopolavoro believes that the diet of the proletariat in the large cities
is often deficient in fresh vegetables and green things. It wishes to
remedy this condition and at the same time to provide wholesome
outdoor work for city dwellers. It encourages the use of vacant
lots and waste surburban areas for this purpose and has achieved
notable results already.
In some localities Dopolavoro depots are established which sell
foodstuffs and other necessaries at a discount to Dopolavoro members.
Insurance.—Workmen’s insurance laws are very comprehensive in
Italy and provide compulsory insurance for all types of employees
against accidents incurred during the course of their employment.
They were not protected, however, against accidents occurring out­
side the scope of their employment. When Dopolavoro organized the
leisure time of the working population of Italy it was inevitable that it
should take into consideration the necessity for safeguarding the
people while at play. Two types of policies have been evolved. The
first affords protection against accident, death, or disability incurred
outside the scope of employment or occupation. Annual premiums
of 6 or 10 lire are charged for this insurance, depending upon the
terms of the policy. The second type of insurance is for accidents
incurred during or in connection with Dopolavoro activities, and the
policy is compulsory. The premium is included in the dues (4.50
lire) charged each member for enrollment in the national organiza­
tion. This policy pays 10,000 lire for death, 15,000 lire for permanent
total disability, and 5 lire per day for a maximum period of 1 year for
temporary disability. Compensation for permanent partial disability
depends upon the gravity of the injury and is in accordance with the
terms of the policy.

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ITALIAN NATIONAL LEISURE TIME SOCIETY

277

Rural Dopolavoro
T h e rural districts, as lias already been shown, are not neglected
by the central administration. By means of libraries, films, radio,
courses of instruction, and the “ Chariots of Thespis”, the rural
populations are kept abreast of the nation’s progress and policies, while
the excursion facilities of Dopolavoro give them opportunities to visit
the centers of civilization and industry themselves. Dopolavoro has
two ends in view with regard to its rural members: to render their
lives more agreeable and to give them scientific instruction in agri­
cultural matters. To this latter end an arrangement has been made
with the Ministry of Agriculture and Forests whereby a traveling
instructor in agriculture tours the rural districts and disseminates
knowledge on everything from silkworm culture to the raising of
rabbits.

Dopolavoro in State Monopolies
W h e n O. N. D. was first brought into being by royal decree in 1925
complete Dopolavoro organizations already existed within some of
the more important private and public enterprises, as for example in
the motor-car industry or the street-car companies of different cities.
These Dopolavoro organizations were federated with the national
body with as little change and interference as was consistent with the
carrying out of the national policies, and remained largely self-con­
tained. There exist, however, three Dopolavoro organizations which
are virtually autonomous and these belong to the three great Govern­
ment monopolies: State railways, post office, and tobacco monopoly.
These organizations were so vast, so complicated, besides being already
bound up with the Fascist Government, that it was thought wiser to
make them independent. Their existence was therefore confirmed by
separate royal decrees. These monopolistic Dopolavori are self-sup­
porting and self-governing except that they are subject to the author­
ity of the Extraordinary Commissioner of O. N. D .,i.e.,the Secretary
of the Fascist Party, who is the supreme head of the national organiza­
tion. The Director General of O. N. D. also has a seat on the govern­
ing board of each of these Dopolavoro organizations.
The Dopolavoro of the State Railways may be taken as an illustra­
tion. This organization has nearly 150,000 members. It is governed
by a central committee presided over by the Undersecretary of State
for Railways and composed of the Director General of Railways, the
Chief of Cabinet of the Minister of Communications, the Director
General of O.N.D., the Chief of the CentralBureau of the Dopolavoro
of the Railways, a representative of the railway employees appointed
by the Minister of Communications, and representatives of the Board
of Directors of the Railways. The executive organ of this committee
is called the Central Bureau of the Dopolavoro of Railways, and it

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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

regulates the finances and prepares the programs of activities. Its
income is derived as follows: 800,000 lire a year paid by the Adminis­
tration of Railways, membership dues of 10 lire per year (correspond­
ing to dues in a local organization), and 4.50 lire per year paid by
each member for the enrollment card and the compulsory insurance
policy already described, making a total income of some 3,000,000
lire. The Dopolavoro of the State Railways has its own clubhouses,
theaters, etc., throughout Italy, as well as all the recreational, educa­
tional, and medical facilities that the national institutions possess.


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EMPLOYMENT CONDITIONS AND
UNEMPLOYMENT RELIEF
F lu c tu a tio n o f E m p lo y m e n t in O h io in 1933 a n d
C o m p a riso n w i t h P r e v io u s Y e a rs 1
LUCTUATION of employment from month to month in 1933 2
of wage earners, clerical employees, and salespeople (not traveling)
from returns made by 38,678 establishments in Ohio is shown in this
study. Comparisons are shown throughout with the preceding 4
years, while some of the tables present certain data for the 10 years
1924 to 1933.
The month of highest employment in 1933 was October, when a total
of 987,891 was reported employed by the 38,678 establishments.
The month of lowest employment was March, when the total reported
was 751,965, or 23.9 percent less than in October.
The general industry groups covered in this study are manufactures,
service, wholesale and retail trade, transportation and public utilities,
construction, mining and quarrying, agriculture, and fisheries.
The figures within each year give an accurate picture of the changes
in total numbers from month to month on the pay rolls of the estab­
lishments reporting. They do not supply any information, however,
as to whether the employees are working full time, part time, or over­
time. In making the comparisons it should be borne in mind that
from year to year the number of establishments reporting varies,
although every effort is made to secure reports from all establishments
(except those engaged in interstate transportation and activities of
government units) having three or more employees and falling in the
industrial groups enumerated above. Information is requested of all
mines and quarries regardless of size.
A comparison of maximum and minimum employment and of total
wage and salary payments during the 10 years 1924 to 1933 affords a
fairly good approximation of the extent of the depression in those
respects in Ohio in the industries covered. The average number of
wage earners, clerical employees, and salespeople (not traveling) for

F

B y Fred C . Croxton, C olum bus, Ohio, and Frederick E . Croxton, C olum bia U n iv ersity .
» Sim ilar data are given in U . S. Bureau of Labor Statistics B u lletin N o . 553 for 1914 to 1929; in th e M o n th ly
Labor R eview , M arch 1932, for 1930; and in th e M o n th ly Labor R eview , D ecem ber 1933, for 1931 and 1932.
A verage annual w age and salary p aym en ts w ill be show n in a series of articles beginning in the next issue
of th e M o n th ly Labor R eview .
1


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279

280

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

both sexes combined (computed by dividing the sum of the numbers
reported for each month by 12) was 1,306,622 in 1929 and 836,211, or
470,411 (36 percent) less, in 1932. The average in 1933 was 880,570,
which was 44,359, or 5.3 percent, greater than in 1932, and 426,052,
or 32.6 percent, less than in 1929.
Total wage and salary payments (including those to superintendents
and managers) were $2,060,348,507 in 1929 and $959,294,154, or
$1,101,054,353 (53.4 percent) less, in 1932. Total payments in 1933
were $944,533,236, or $14,760,918 (1.5 percent) less than in 1932 and
$1,115,815,271 (54.2 percent) less than in 1929.
Considering average monthly employment by quarters, the number
employed (822,928) in the fourth quarter of 1932 was 457,008, or
35.7 percent less than the number employed (1,279,936) in 1929. The
average (966,102) in the fourth quarter of 1933 was 143,174, or 17.4
percent, greater than in 1932, and 313,834, or 24.5 percent, less than
in the corresponding quarter of 1929.
Sources and Scope of Study
T h e present report has been compiled from two series of reports
collected and tabulated separately by the Division of Labor Statistics
of the Department of Industrial Relations of Ohio. One series covers
statistics of mines and quarries while the other covers all other in­
dustries in the State except interstate transportation and activities,
either permanent or emergency, of governmental units.
The statistical data for these reports were furnished annually by
employers of the State as required by law. The reports as compiled
by the Ohio Division of Labor Statistics show the data, by industries,
for the State as a whole and also for each of the more populous
counties.
It is believed that this detailed information affords the most com­
prehensive data available in this country relating to changing em­
ployment, or so-called fluctuation of employment, for a long series
of years and for the whole geographical area of a State. It is also
one of the few extensive sources which includes data for clerical help
and sales people. In each of the years the establishments are identi­
cal throughout the year and the facilities for securing reports and the
cooperation from all establishments, as explained in previous reports,3
are unusually favorable.
The Ohio Division of Labor Statistics secures returns from a
number of industries or activities in the “ service’’ group which are
seldom covered in statistical studies. Reporting lists in some of
these activities have been developed slowly, and coverage for the
State, therefore, is more nearly complete for the later years of the
period under consideration than for the earlier ones.
* M o n th ly Labor R eview , issues of A pril 1930 (pp. 31-62); and M arch 1932 (p p. 516-528). See also U . S.
B ureau of Labor S tatistics B u i. N o. 553: F luctuation in Em D lovm ent in Ohio, 1914 to 1929.


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EMPLOYMENT CONDITIONS— UNEMPLOYMENT RELIEF

281

The number of establishments reporting increased each year until
1930 and decreased in 1931, 1932, and 1933. The decrease was
largely in the construction group, in which the number was 45.1 per­
cent less in 1933 than in 1929. Manufactures show a decrease in
establishments reporting of 12.8 percent in 1933 compared with 1929.
The industries covered and the number of establishments reporting
are shown in table 1. The total number for each of the years 1924
to 1930 is slightly less than shown in some previous reports. This
reduction in number varies from 14 to 25 and is due to omission in
this study and in the one published in the Monthly Labor Review
for December 1933 of the group “ Industries, not otherwise classified ”,
and to correction of a typographical error of 2 in 1930.
Table 1.-—Number of Ohio Establishments Reporting Fluctuation of
Employment, 1924-33
1931

1932

1933

1, 777
8, 272
24
9,683

1,736
6,456
(*)
9, 102

1,683
5,586
(0
8,755

714
112
3
122
42
8, 210
8,916

784
672
808
679
82
98 •
108
107
3
3
(2)
(2)
135
137
121
123
32
22
33
30
9, 335 10, 241 10,452 10,357
9, 524 10, 022 10, 111 9,716

860
85
(2)
131
24
10, 215
9, 647

1,625

1,674

1929

1930

In d u stry group

1924

1925

1926

1927

1928

A griculture
__
-- .
C onstruction________________
F ish eries-. ----------- -------------M anufactures________________
M in in g and quarrying:
C o a lm in in g .- __________
Fire-clay m in in g _________
G yp su m m in in g _________
L im eston e quarrying_____
Sandstone quarrying
Service 3 ______ _______
Trade, w holesale and retail 3_T ransportation and public
u tilitie s _________ _________

732
7, 364
25
9,125

910
8, 407
23
9, 502

1,052
9,145
22
9, 704

1,199
9, 724
21
9,880

1, 329 1,444 1,639
9, 942 10,183 9,672
22
21
20
9,937 10,035 10,011

1,000
108
3
116
49
4,233
5, 215

889
108
3
119
43
5, 971
7, 277

879
110
3
119
44
6, 761
7, 867

858
105
3
114
46
7, 598
8, 526

6,707

1, 353

1,453

1,561

1,742

1,692

T otal _________________ 34, 677 34, 605 37,159 39, 635 40, 972 43,160 44, 283 43,168 40,134

38,678

1, 741

1, 776

1 C om bined b y D iv isio n of Labor S tatistics w ith “ Trade, w holesale and re ta il” as estab lish m en ts report­
ing were largely packing and sales p lan ts.
2 O n ly 2 m in es reported in operation and therefore data could n ot be u sed in tab ulation w ith o u t id en tify ­
ing estab lish m en ts.
3 B eginn in g in 1925 th e Ohio D iv isio n of Labor S tatistics changed th e classification of “ offices ” from
“ tra d e” to “ service.” In th is stu d y d ata for “ offices” h ave also been transferred for 1924.

The returns received do not give a complete picture for the industry
group “ agriculture’’ nor for the subgroup “ domestic service” (which
is one of the many classifications under the industry group “ service ”),
as comparatively few farms or domestic establishments in Ohio
employ as many as three persons and reports are not sought, although
a few are received, from concerns employing fewer than three workers.
As stated, information is requested from all mines and quarries regard­
less of size. The lists of the Ohio Division of Labor Statistics are
carefully and continuously checked with those of the Ohio Industrial
Commission which administers the workmen’s compensation law.
Employers of fewer than three persons may carry insurance under
that act but are not compelled to do so. While household or domestic
service does not come within the requirements of the workmen’s
compensation law, employers in this class may avail themselves of the
provisions of that law, regardless of the number of persons employed.
The Monthly Labor Review for January 1934 (pp. 144, 145) contained

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282

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

a discussion relative to the approximate completeness of the materials
collected for the Ohio statistical reports.
Table 2 shows for each of the 10 years, 1924 to 1933, the maximum,
minimum, and average number of employees included. All wage
earners in mining and quarrying have been tabulated males. The
peak year was 1929. The year 1932 shows the lowest maximum and
average number and the year 1933 the lowest minimum number.
Table 2.—Number of Employees Covered by Reports to Ohio Division of Labor
Statistics, 1924-33
B oth sexes
N um ­
ber of
estab­
lish ­ Average
M axi­
M in i­
m ents
of 12
m um
m um
report­ m on th ly
m
onth
m
onth
ing
reports

Year

1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933

_ 31,715 1,095, 488
_ 34,605 1,157, 779
____________;
37.159 1,210,846
_ 39,635 1,194,148
_ 40,972 1, 218,791
_ 43.160 1, 306, 622
____________
44,283 1,161,860
_ 43,168
991,096
____________
40,134
836,211
____________
38,678
880, 570

1,134,424
1, 206, 246
1,259, 325
1,225,049
1,282, 584
1, 356,004
1,225, 478
1, 034,483
871,254
987,891

M ales

Fem ales

Average M axi­
of 12
m on thly m u m
m on th
reports

M in i­ A verage M axi­
of 12
m um
m um
m on th m on thly m onth
reports

1,063,262 857, 062 891,731 833,115
1,086,463 907,167 945,843 847, 398
1,151, 739 946,740 990,383 898, Oil
1,152,874 921, 753 953, 784 869, 457
1,105,408 939,817 993, 705 843,462
1, 230,724 1,004,283 1, 054,154 921,442
1,066,310 882,072 938,811 789, 377
922, 706 736,050 773, 732 669, 492
798, 226 609, 111 639, 773 583,853
751,965 652,880 741, 541 546,139

238,426
250,612
264,106
272, 395
278, 974
302, 339
279, 788
255,046
227,100
227,690

248, 713
266,861
279,275
284,664
301, 222
313,416
288,478
260,751
233,628
246,879

M in i­
m um
m onth

230,147
239,065
253, 728
260,958
261,946
287, 221
271, 218
247, 651
214, 373
205,826

Table 3 shows the average number of employees (computed by
dividing the sum of the numbers reported for each month by 12)
reported under each of the general industry groups.
The averages in 1933 exceeded those for 1932 in manufactures,
mining and quarrying, wholesale and retail trade, transportation
and public utilities, and all industries combined. The percentage
decrease from 1929 to 1933 was 71.1 in construction, 37.0 in manu­
factures, 7.4 in mining and quarrying, 14.2 in service, 16.6 in trade,
25.9 in transportation and public utilities, and 32.6 in all industries
combined.
Table 3.—Average Number of Employees Covered by Reports to Ohio Division
of Labor Statistics, 1924-33, by General Industry Groups
Average num ber of em ployees
Year

1924________ _____
1925_______________
1926,.
1927_______________
1928 ______________
1929_____________
1930-_
____
1931-.....
1932-................ . . . .
1933_______________

A ll indus­ Agri­
tries 1
culture

Con­
struc­
tion

F ish ­
eries

M an u ­
factures

M in ­
ing and
quarry­
ing

Service

Trade, Transpor­
tation
w hole­
sale and and p u b ­
lic u tili­
retail
ties

1,095,488
1,157, 779
1, 210,846
1 ,194,148
1, 218, 791
1, 306, 622
1,161,860
991,096
836, 211
880, 570

74, 791
77, 670
79, 928
83, 535
78, 434
78,631
69, 607
45,601
27, 519
22, 693

325
304
296
283
268
344
295
289
(2)
(2)

679, 523
727,988
751, 340
729, 250
749, 434
806, 607
673,178
552,905
461,183
507, 976

39, 767
35, 939
34,896
22,880
20, 906
27, 630
28,014
27, 305
18, 349
25, 579

104,095
113,046
124,424
130, 525
138,542
153,109
155, 012
150,122
138, 405
131, 308

122,071
126, 928
132, 770
139, 720
140, 780
149, 224
142, 286
137, 304
122, 738
124,485

5, 772
6, 436
7,144
7,754
8, 545
8, 940
8, 989
9,159
7,915
7,629

69,096
69,426
80, 008
80,162
81,849
82,137
84, 450
68,382
60, 103
60, 901

1 Includes a sm all num ber of persons in som e of the years in “ Industries n ot otherw ise classified.” T h is
num ber does n ot exceed 50.
2 C om bined b y D ivision of Labor S tatistics w ith “ Trade, w holesale and re ta il” , as establishm ents
reporting^werejargely packingjandisaleslplants.


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EMPLOYMENT CONDITIONS— UNEMPLOYMENT RELIEF

283

The amount reported paid in wages and salaries in each of the 10
years, 1924 to 1933, is shown in table 4. The total number of estab­
lishments reporting wage and salary payments varies slightly from
the number reporting employment in some of the years. Payments
to superintendents and managers are shown in table 4; information
concerning this group, however, is not included in any of the other
tables in the study, as information other than wage and salary pay­
ments is not requested of employers for this occupation group.
Total wage and salary payments in 1933 to wage earners increased
over 1932 by 2.5 percent. The total payments to each of the other
general occupation groups, however, decreased and the decrease for
the general occupation groups combined was 1.5 percent.
Table 4.— Wage and Salary Payments in Ohio Establishments, 1924-33, by
General Occupation Groups

Year

N um ­
ber of
estab ­
lish ­
m en ts
report­
ing

W age and salary p aym en ts

T otal

W age earners

Bookkeep­
Salespeople
ers, stenog­
raphers, and (not tra v el­
ing)
office clerks

1924
_____________ 31, 713 $1,660,942,142 $1,266,375,497 $207,940,566
1925
_____________ 34,591 1,786,184,473 1,366,094,644 215,613,253
1926
........................................................................
37,153 1,860,533,295 1,412,092,096 231,542,653
1927
_____________ 39,631 1,858,507,831 1,387,591,161 245,235,159
1928
_____________ 40,977 1,920,109,368 1,425,818,971 252,744,576
1929
___ ________ 43,164 2,060,348,507 1, 523,848, 976 282,709,980
1930
_____________ 44,285 1, 740,331,332 1,220,699,988 292,321,872
1931
_____________ 43,167 1, 337,314,493
898,865,953 240,126, 548
1932 i____________________ 40,134
959, 294,154
617,090,082 187,183,178
1933
_____________ 38,679
944, 533,236
632,359,674 175,602,628

$81,728,091
89,783,496
97,523,735
103,849,983
109,017,515
119,084,364
88,972,655
82, 265,334
65,421,317
62,173,379

Superin­
ten d en ts
and
m anagers
$104,897,988
114, 693,080
119,374,811
121,831,528
132,528,306
134,705,187
138,336,817
116,056,658
89,599,577
74,397,555

• A m oun ts differ from those show n in article in M o n th ly Labor R eview for D ecem ber 1933, due to a cor­
rection m ade b y Ohio D ivision of Labor S tatistics and revisions m ade b y one quarry after publication
of th at article.

Table 5 shows for each industry group the number of persons
reported employed on the 15th of each month of 1933.
The month of maximum and the month of minimum employment
and also the variation in number employed are shown for each industry
group for 1933 in table 6. The variation from maximum during the
year 1933, it will be seen, represents in general the difference between
the number employed during one of the last 4 months of the year
and the number employed in March, the month of minimum employ­
ment. In all industries combined, maximum employment was
reported for males in September, and for females and for both sexes
in October. The variation from maximum was 26.4 percent for males,
16.6 percent for females, and 23.9 percent for both sexes.
For both sexes maximum employment was reported in September
in manufactures and service; in October in agriculture, construction,
and transportation and public utilities; in November in mining and
quarrying; and in December in trade. Minimum employment was
reported in February in agriculture, in May in mining and quarrying,
and in March in each of the other general industry groups.
109041—35------3


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284

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Table 5.—Number Reported Employed in Ohio Establishments on 15th of Each
Month, 1933, by Sex and Industry Group
N um b er of em ployees

M on th

B oth sexes:
January________________
F e b r u a r y - - _____________
M arch ____________
A pril..
M a y ...
________
June . .
.1u ly ----------------------------------A u g u s t... .
Septem ber _
October___
N ovem b er.
D ecem ber.
_ __
M ales:
Jan u ary..
__________
February
M arch ____
A pril____
M a y ______________________
Ju n e____
Ju ly ______________________
A ugu st___ __________
Septem ber. _
October___ _________
N ovem b er.
-.
D ecem ber___
Fem ales:
January______ _____
February _______________
M arch ___________
_
A p r il... ____
_________
M a y ______________________
J u n e___ ________
___
Ju ly ______________________
A ugust ___________________
Septem ber________________
October___ _____ _ ____
N ovem b er___ ___________
D ecem ber_____ ____ _____

Con­
A ll in ­ Agricul­
struc­
dustries
ture
tion

M an u ­
factures

M ining
and
quarry­
ing

Trans­
Trade,
porta­
w hole­
Service sale and tion and
p ub lic
retail
u tilities

776,276
783, 555
751, 965
791,872
824,975
878,449
912,875
962,379
986,194
987,891
956,591
953,823

5,794
5,790
6,083
7,469
7,898
9,062
9, 568
8, 465
8, 576
9,618
6,965
6,254

18,375
16,928
16,904
19, 503
22, 742
26,103
25, 863
26, 266
26,124
27,539
24,648
21,325

426,478
435,606
409,780
432,013
464, 236
506, 406
539,165
581,101
593, 249
587, 572
563,067
557,034

23,845
24,017
22,810
22,075
20,865
21, 358
23,890
26,778
28,777
30,642
31, 604
30,281

127,929
127, 531
126,888
129,402
131,016
133,147
132,001
132, 448
135,302
134,753
133,140
132,142

113,884
113,792
.111,462
122, 236
118, 829
121, 847
121,674
125,508
131,309
134,482
134, 265
144,534

59,971
59,891
58,038
59,174
59,389
60,526
60,714
61,813
62,857
63,285
62,902
62,253

565,842
569, 879
546,139
575,295
606, 517
651,536
682,462
726, 328
741, 541
741,012
718,665
709,345

5,216
5, 226
5,474
6, 672
7,098
8,147
8,721
7, 824
7,874
8, 836
6,337
5,654

17, 218
15, 789
15, 777
18, 375
21,599
24,960
24,720
25,119
24,965
26,354
23,475
20,170

332,525
337,459
316,676
337,581
363,798
399, 593
426, 705
463,002
471,185
465,688
449,522
445,747

23,756
23,929
22,722
21,987
20,779
21, 273
23,805
26,686
28,683
30, 545
31,505
30,179

71, 351
71, 267
70, 960
73,319
74,759
76, 235
75,969
76,706
78,374
77,827
76,505
75, 589

69,871
70,180
69,176
71,721
72,330
73,852
74, 757
78,109
80,594
81,413
81,344
82,737

45,905
46,029
45,354
45, 640
46,154
47,476
47, 785
48,882
49,866
50,349
49,977
49, 269

210,434
213,676
205,826
216,577
218,458
226, 913
230,413
236,051
244, 653
246,879
237,926
244,478

578
564
609
797
800
915
847
641
702
782
628
600

1,157
1,139
1,127
1,128
1,143
1,143
1,143
1,147
1,159
1,185
1,173
1,155

93, 953
98,147
93,104
94,432
100,438
106, 813
112,460
118,099
122,064
121,884
113,545
111,287

89
88
88
88
86
85
85
92
94
97
99
102

56,578
56,264
55,928
56,083
56,257
56,912
56,032
55, 742
56,928
56,926
56, 635
56,553

44, 013
43,612
42, 286
50,515
46,499
47,995
46,917
47,399
50, 715
53,069
52,921
61,797

14,066
13,862
12, 684
13,534
13,235
13,050
12,929
12,931
12,991
12,936
12,925
12,984

Considering all industries combined and the total for both sexes,
minimum employment was reported in March with an increase in
each of thejiext 7 months until the maximum was reached in October.
A decrease*was then reported in each of the next 2 months.


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E M PL O Y M E N T C O N D IT IO N S— U N E M P L O Y M E N T R E L IE F

285

Table 6.—Maximum and Minimum Employment in 1933 in Each Industry
Group in Ohio
M axim um

M inim um

Variation from
m axim um

Sex, and in d u stry group
Per­
cent

N um ber

M on th

N um b er

M on th

N um b er

All industries........................................

987,891

October____

751,965

M arch _____

235,926

23.9

Agriculture-_____________________
Construction____________________
Manufactures____________________
Mining and quarrying____________
Service______ ___________________
Trade, wholesale and retail________
Transportation and public utilities...

9,618 .........d o ............
27, 539 ___ d o______
593,249 S ep tem b er..
31,604 N o v e m b e r ..
135,302 S ep tem b er..
144, 534 D ecem b er ...
63,285 October____

5,790 F ebruary__
16,904 M arch __
409,780 ____ d o____ 20,865 M a y _______
126,888 M arch _____
111,462 -------do--------58,038 ____ d o______

3,828
10,635
183; 469
10,739
8,414
33,072
5,247

39.8
38.6
30.9
34.0
6.2
22.9
8.3

All industries..... ....................... .........

741, 541

546,139 ____ do______

195,402

26.4

Agriculture______________________
Construction___ ____ ____________
Manufacturers___________________
Mining and quarrying____________
Service___ _____________________
Trade, wholesale and retail________
Transportation and public utilities...

8,836 October____
26,354 ____ do........ ..
471,185 Sep tem b er. .
31, 505 N o v e m b e r ..
78,374 S ep tem b er..
82,737 D ecem b er ...
50,349 October___

5,216 January____
15,777 M a rch . . _
316,676 ____ do___ _
20,779 M a y ____ _
70,960 M a rch ____
69,176 ____ do______
45,354 -------d o______

3,620
10,577
I 5 4 ; 509
10,726
7,414
13,561
4,995

41.0
40.1
32.8
34.0
9.5
16.4
9.9

All industries................. .....................

246,879 ____ d o . . , ___

205,826 ____ d o___ _

Agriculture______________________
Construction____________________
Manufactures____________________
Mining and quarrying____________
Service_________________________
Trade, wholesale and retail________
Transportation and public utilities...

915
1,185
122,064
102
56,928
61,797
14,066

Both sexes

Males
S ep tem b er..

Females
Ju ne_______
October____
S ep tem b er..
D ecem b er ...
S ep tem b er..
D ecem b er ...
January____

564 F ebruary__
1,127 M a rch _____
93i 104 -------d o _____
85 June, J u l y . .
55,742 A u g u st_____
42,286 M a rch _____
12,684 ------ d o ............

41,053

16.6

351
58
28,960
17
1,186
19, 511
1,382

38.4
4.9
23.7
(>)
2.1
31.6
9.8

1 N o t com puted ow ing to sm all num ber in volved .

Fluctuation of Employment by General Occupation Groups

T he employees reported in each general industry group are sep­
arated in table 7 into 3 general occupation classifications—wage
earners; bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks; and salespeople
(not traveling). Males classified as wage earners formed 86.5 percent
of all males covered in this report in 1929, 85.4 percent in
1930, 84.2 percent in 1931, 83.1 percent in 1932, and 83.9 percent in
1933. Females classified as wage earners formed 60.4 percent of all
females covered in this report in 1929, 58.2 percent in 1930, 57.7
percent in 1931, 57.6 percent in 1932, and 58.7 percent in 1933.


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286

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Table 7.—Number Reported Employed on 15th of Each Month, 1933, in Each
General Occupation Group in Ohio, by Sex
Wage earners
N u m b er em p loyed

B o th sexes:
J an u ary.. _____________
F ebruary. .. . . . . . . . . M arch____________ _____
A p r il.. . ____ __________
M a y . __________________
Ju n e__________________ J u ly ____________________
A ugu st_________________ S ep tem b er.. ___________
October _______________
N o v e m b e r .. . . . . .
. . .
D ecem ber____________
Males:
January_________________
F eb ru ary_______ ____ .
M arch . ________________
A pril____________________
M a y ___________________
Ju n e. .. ____ ___ ______
J u ly ................. . . . . ...............
A ugu st------ . . . . .........
S ep tem b er.. . ______ ___
O ctob er.. ____ ____ . . . _
N o v e m b e r .. _____ ___
D ecem ber______________
Fem ales:
J anuary____
February
M arch
. .
A p r il..
M a y .. ___ . _ ___
Ju n e.
. .
_
.....................
J u ly ......
A u gu st___
. . ___
Sep tem b er______________
O ctober_____ _ . . . _ _ .
N ovem b er____ _
.
D ecem b er___________ . .

T ran s­
Trade,
porta­
w h ole­ tion and
sale and pub lic
retail
u tilities

A ll in ­
dustries

A gri­
culture

C on­
stru c­
tion

M an u ­
factures

M ining
and
quarry­
ing

Service

585,729
593,790
564,713
596,843
632,755
682,362
715,195
761,179
779,943
778,758
747,752
736,032

5,489
5,483
5, 769
7,078
7, 521
8, 733
9,263
8,155
8,284
9,321
6, 673
5,961

15, 527
14,141
14,147
16, 755
19, 916
23, 263
22,975
23,395
23,240
24, 681
21,831
18, 576

369, 614
378,986
354, 393
376,843
408, 336
449,336
480, 708
520,809
532,138
525,420
501, 041
494,917

23, 516
23, 690
22,482
21, 750
20, 537
21,032
23,560
26,428
28,416
30,272
31,226
29,901

79,814
79, 704
79,171
82, 279
83, 735
85,021
83,462
83,944
86, 553
86, 326
84,692
83,584

44,452
44,565
43, 242
45, 542
45,744
46,987
46,974
49,288
51,350
52,371
52,305
53, 762

47, 317
47, 221
45, 509
46, 596
46,966
47,990
48,255
49,160
49,962
50,367
49,984
49,331

464,835
469,094
446,104
474, 311
504, 617
547,774
577,053
618,234
631,662
630,305
607,985
597,909

5,106
5,116
5, 356
6, 529
6,952
8,020
8,606
7, 707
7,765
8,726
6, 230
5, 547

15,458
14,062
14,069
16,672
19,829
23,183
22,898
23,308
23,159
24,578
21, 739
18, 482

299,148
304,291
284,131
305,270
330, 967
366,155
392,487
427, 625
435,265
429, 005
412,842
409, 012

23,516
23,690
22,482
21, 750
20, 537
21, 032
23, 560
26,428
28,416
30, 272
31,226
29, 901

45, 599
45, 666
45,333
47, 931
49,177
50,154
49,499
50, 094
51, 749
51,465
50,172
49,223

37, 015
37,184
36, 249
37,451
37,826
38, 693
39,144
41,260
42, 675
43,170
43,082
43, 784

38,993
39,085
38,484
38, 708
39,329
40, 537
40,861
41,812
42, 633
43,089
42, 694
41,980

120,894
124,696
118, 609
122, 552
128,138
134,588
138,142
142,945
148, 281
148,453
139,767
138,123

383
367
413
549
569
713
657
448
519
595
443
414

69
79
78
83
87
80
79
87
81
103
92
94

70,406
74, 695
70,262
71,573
77,369
83,181
88', 219
93,184
96,873
96,415
88,199
85, 905

34,215
34, 038
33,838
34,348
34, 558
34,867
33, 963
33,850
34,804
34,861
34, 520
34,361

7,437
7,381
6,993
8,091
7,918
8, 294
7,850
8, 028
8, 675
9, 201
9,223
9,978

8,324
8,136
7,025
7,888
7, 637
7,453
7,394
7,348
7,329
7,278
7,290
7,371

M on th

—

Bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks
B oth sexes:
January_____
F eb ru ary___
M arch ______
A pril________
M a y ________
J u n e________
J u ly ------------A u gu st______
S e p te m b e r -..
October_____
N ovem b er _.
D ecem b er___
M ales:
January_____
F eb ru ary___
M arch ______
A pril.
- _
M ay. .........
J u n e________
J u ly ________
A u gu st______
Sep tem b er. __
October_____
N o v e m b e r .. .
D ecem ber___


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129,919
129,183
127,436
126,818
127, 213
129, 273
130,871
133,120
134,949
136,035
136,142
136,818

262
263
264
304
290
266
256
264
245
248
245
244

2,246
2, 212
2,182
2,181
2, 203
2, 207
2, 220
2,216
2,254
2, 254
2, 256
2, 209

52,119
51,919
50, 721
50,418
50,992
52,078
53,351
55,144
55,927
57,043
56,953
57,040

329
327
32S
325
328
326
330
350
361
370
378
380

44,887
44,497
44,400
43, 675
43,641
44,389
44, 691
44, 557
44,877
44, 670
44,801
44,956

18,217
18,101
17, 781
18,132
18,134
18, 277
18,375
18,769
19, 280
19,447
19, 526
20, Oil

11,859
11,864
11,760
11,783
11,625
11, 730
11,648
11,820
12, 005
12,003
11,983
11,978

66, 263
65,822
65,158
64,626
64, 850
65,965
67, 018
68, 425
69,261
69,970
70,142
70.364

84
84
86
88
85
88
86
89
80
77
77
78

1,178
1,172
1,153
1,156
1,166
i, 163
1,176
1,174
1,196
1,191
1,195
1,168

29, 587
29,414
28, 820
28,581
28,921
29,460
30.166
31,273
31,801
32,625
32, 661
32,734

240
239
240
237
242
241
245
258
267
273
279
278

22,887
22,643
22, 663
22, 306
22, 295
22, 710
22, 993
23, 042
23,126
22, 967
23,050
l'23,140

6,093
6,055
6,019
6,042
6,035
6, 091
6,160
6,269
6, 369
6,409
6,450
6,519

6,194
6,215
6,177
6,216
6,106
6, 212
6,192
6, 320
6,422
6,428
6,430
6,447

EMPLOYMENT CONDITIONS— UNEMPLOYMENT RELIEF

287

Tabic 7.—Number Reported Employed on 15th of Each Month, 1933, in Each
General Occupation Group in Ohio, by Sex—Continued
Bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks— C o n tin u e d
N u m b er em p loyed

M on th

Fem ales:
January__________ _____
ie b r u a r y __________ ____
M arch __________________
A pril____________________
M a y ____________________
___
June _________
J u ly .
_________________
A u g u st________ ___ . . .
S ep tem b er______________
O ctob er.. . _ _________
N o v em b er______________
D ecem b er____________ _.

A ll in ­
dustries

Agri­
culture

63,656
63,361
62,278
62,192
62,363
63,308
63,853
64,695
65, 688
66,065
66,000
66,454

178
179
178
216
205
178
170
175
165
171
168
166

C on ­
struc­
tion

1,068
1,040
1,029
1,025
1,037
1,044
1,044
1,042
1,058
1,063
1,061
1,041

Trade, T rans­
porta­
w hole­
sale and tion and
p u b lic
retail
u tilities

M an u ­
factures

M ining
and
quarry­
ing

Service

22, 532
22, 505
21,901
21,837
22,071
22, 618
23,185
23,871
24,126
24,418
24,292
24,306

89
88
88
88
86
85
85
92
94
97
99
102

22,000
21,854
21,737
21,369
21,346
21,679
21,698
21,515
21,751
21,703
21,751
21,816

12,124
12,046
11,762
12,090
12,099
12,186
12,215
12,500
12,911
13,038
13,076
13,492

5,665
5,649
5,583
6,567
5,519
5,518
6,456
5,500
5,583
5,575
5,553
5,531

Salespeople (not traveling)
Both sexes:
January...
February..
March___
April........
May_____
June____
July_____
August___
September
October__
November.
December.
Males:
January...
February.
March___
April........
May____
June_____
July_____
August—
September.
October__
November.
December.
Females:
January__
February..
March___
April____
May_____
June_____
July_____
August___
September.
October__
November.
December.

60,628
60, 582
59,816
68, 211
65,007
66,814
66,809
68,080
71,302
73,098
72, 697
80,973

43
44
50
87
87
63
49
46
47
49
47
49

602
575
575
567
623
633
668
655
630
604
561
540

4, 745
4,701
4,666
4,752
4,908
4,992
5,108
5,148
5,184
5,109
5,073
5,077

3, 228
3,330
3,317
3,448
3,640
3,737
3,848
3,947
3,872
3,757
3,647
3,602

51,215
51,126
50,439
58, 562
54,951
56, 583
56, 325
57,451
60, 679
62, 664
62,434
70,761

795
806
769
795
798
806
811
833
890
915
935
944

34,744
34,963
34,877
36, 358
37,050
37,797
38,391
39, 669
40, 618
40, 737
40,538
41,072

26
26
32
55
61
39
29
28
29
33
30
29

582
555
555
547
604
614
648
637
610
585
541
520

3,790
3,754
3,725
3,730
3,910
3,978
4,052
4,104
4,119
4,058
4,019
4,001

2,865
2,958
2,964
3,082
3,287
3,371
3,477
3,570
3,499
3,395
3,283
3,226

26,763
26,941
26,908
28,228
28,469
29,068
29,453
30,580
31,550
31,834
31,812
32,434

718
729
693
716
719
727
732
750
811
832
853
862

25,884
25,619
24,939
31,853
27,957
29,017
28,418
28, 411
30, 684
32,361
32,159
39,901

17
18
18
32
26
24
20
18
18
16
17
20

20
20
20
20
19
19
20
18
20
19
20
20

955
947
941
1,022
998
1,014
1,056
1,044
1,065
1,051
1,054
1,076

363
372
353
366
353
366
371
377
373
362
364
376

24,452
24,185
23,531
30,334
26,482
27,515
26,872
26,871
29,129
30,830
30,622
38,327

77
77
76
79
79
79
79
83
79
83
82
82

Table 8 shows the month of maximum and of minimum employ­
ment and also the variation in number employed in each of the 3
general occupation groups in 1933. The data for each occupation
group are given by industry groups.

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288

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Considering both sexes combined, the variation from maximum in
1933 was 27.6 percent for wage earners, 7.3 percent for bookkeepers,
stenographers, and office clerks, and 26.1 percent for salespeople (not
traveling). The percentage for the first occupation group represents
the difference between September and March, for the second group
between December and April, and for the third group between Decem­
ber and March. Minimum employment was in the spring month in
each instance.
In manufactures the variation was 33.4 percent for wage earners,
11.6 percent for the clerical group, and 10 percent for salespeople.
T able 8.—Maximum and Minimum Employment in 1933 in Each G eneral

Occupation Group in Ohio
Wage earners
M axim um

M in im u m

V ariation from
m axim um

In d u stry group
N um b er

M on th

779,943

S e p te m b e r ..

Both sexes
A ll industries

_

_ ________ -

A griculture _
__ _ _ _ ___ _
Construction
M anufactures
M in in g and Quarrying
Service. ___ . .
_____ __
Trade, w holesale and retail____ - - T ransportation and p u b lic u t ilit ie s ...

9,321 O ctober____
24, 681 ____ d o______
532| 138 Septem ber
31, 226 N o v e m b e r ..
86; 553 Septem ber
53,762 D e c e m b e r ...
50, 367 October____

Males
A ll industries

_____

____ __

A griculture
C onstru ction.
____
M anufactures .
M in in g and quarrying
__ _________
Service
Trade, w holesale and retail--------------T ransportation and p ub lic u t ilit ie s ...

A g ric u ltu r e..
_
_
____
C onstruction.
M anufactures
Service . .
T rade, w holesale and retail _ _ __. _.
T ransportation and p u b lic u tilitie s___

N um b er

Per­
cent

215, 230

27.6

5,483 F ebruary__
14,141 ___ d o______
354, 393 M arch ____
20, 537 M a y ___ . 79,171 M a rch _____
43, 242 ____ d o______
45, 509 ____ d o---------

3, 838
10, 540
177, 745
10, 689
7, 382
10, 520
4, 858

41.2
42.7
33.4
34.2
8.5
19.6
9.6

564, 713

M a r c h .. . . .

S ep tem b er..

___ d o ______

185, 558

29.4

8, 726
24, 578
435, 265
31, 226
51,749
43, 784
43,089

October____
____ do______
S ep te m b e r ..
N o v e m b e r ..
S ep tem b er.
D e c e m b e r ...
O ctober____

5,106 January-----14,062 February _ _.
284,131 M a r c h ..___
20, 537 M a y ______
45, 333 M arch ____
36, 249 ____ do______
38,484 ____ do______

3,620
10,516
151,134
10, 689
6,416
7,535
4, 605

41.5
42.8
34.7
34.2
12.4
17.2
10.7

148,453 ____ do______

118, 609 __ _ do______

29,844

20.1

367 F eb ru a ry . _
J u n e_______
O ctober____
69 J a n u a ry .. ._
S ep tem b er.. • 70,262 M a r c h .. . . .
33,838 ____ d o______
June _____
6,993 ____ do__.........
D e c e m b e r ...
___do______
Jan uary----7,025

346
34
26, 611
1, 029
2,985
1,299

48.5
(i)
27.5
3.0
29.9
15.6

713
103
96,873
34,867
9,978
8, 324

1 Not computed owing to small number involved.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

M o n th

631, 662

Females
All industries

N um b er

446,104

289

EMPLOYMENT CONDITIONS— UNEMPLOYMENT RELIEF

Table 8.—-Maximum and Minimum Employment in 1933 in Each General
Occupation Group in Ohio—Continued
Bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks
M axim um

V ariation from
m axim um

M in im u m

In d u stry group
N um b er

Per­
cent

M on th

N um b er

M o n th

136, 818

D e c e m b e r ...

126, 818

A pril______

10,000

7. 3

304
2, 256
57,043

A pril_______
N o v e m b e r ..
October____

244
2,181
50,418

D ecem b er...
A pril______
____d o_____

(')
3.3
11.6
(2)
2.9
11. 1
3.2
8. 2

N um b er

Both sexes
A ll industries.
A griculture_________________________
C onstruction________________________
M anufactures_______________________
M ining and q uarrying______________
S ervice___________________ ____ _____
Trade, w holesale and retail__________
T ransportation and p u b lic u tilitie s -..

44,956
20, Oil
12, 005

D e c e m b e r ...
____d o______
S ep tem b er. .

43, 641
.17, 781
11, 625

M a y _______
M arch _____
M a y _______

( 2)

60
75
6, 625
(2)
1,315
2,230
380

70,364

D e c e m b e r ...

64,626

A pril______

5, 738

A u g u st.........
S ep tem b er. _
D e cem b er .._
v-0

fOctober___
77
[N o v em b er.
1,153 M a rch ____
28, 581 A pril______

( 2)

( 2)

(2)

Males
A ll in d u stries________
A griculture___________ ____ _________
C onstru ction ________________________
M anufactures____ ____ _____________
M in in g and q uarrying______________
S ervice______________________________
Trade, w holesale and retail__________
T ransportation and p u b lic u tilitie s .. .

89
1,196
32, 734
( 2)

( 2)

}

(2)

2 3 ,14C .December...
6,519 ____d o______
6,447 ____d o______

22, 295
6,019
6,106

M a y ______
M a rch ____
M a y ______

____________________

66,454

62,192

April.

A griculture______ ___________________
C onstruction________________________
M anufactures_______________________
M ining and q uarrying______________
S ervice______________________________
T rade, w holesale and retail__________
T ransportation and p ub lic u t ilit ie s ...

216
1,068
24, 418

12
43
4,153

(')

( 2)

( 2)

845
500
341

3.6
12.7
3.7
7.7
5.3

Females
A ll industries.

( 2)

22, 000
13,492
5, 665

A pril______
January___
October____
( 2)

January___
D ecem b er...
January___

165 S ep tem b er. .
1,025 A pril_______
21, 837 ____ d o______
(2)

21, 346
11,762
5, 456

( 2)

M a y _______
M arch ____
J u ly ________

4, 262

6.4

51
43
2, 581

(>)4 .0

( 2)

654
1,730
209

10.6
3.0
12.8

3.7

Salespeople (not traveling)
Both sexes
A ll in d u stries_______________________

80,973

D e c e m b e r ...

59,816

M a rch _____

21,157

26.1

A griculture_________________________
C onstruction________________________
M anufactures______ ________________
Service______________________________
Trade, w holesale and retail__________
T ransportation and public u t ilitie s .. .

87 A pril, M a y .
668 J u ly .......... ..
5,184 S e p tem b er..
3,947 A u gu st_____
70, 761 D ecem b er—.
944 ____ d o______

43
540
4, 666
3, 228
50,439
769

January____
D ecem b er..
M arch _____
January___
M a rch _____

44
128
518
719
20, 322
175

«19.2

41,072

____do______

34, 744

January____

6,328

15.4

648
4,119
3,570
32,434
862

M a y ..............
J u ly ......... .
S ep tem b er. .
A u g u st.........
D e c e m b e r ...
____d o........ .

520
3, 725
2,865
26, 763
693

January,
}
.February
D e c e m b e r ...
M a rch _____
January____
___ d o ...........
M arch _____

35
128
394
705
5, 671
169

(0
19.8
9.6
19.7
17.5
19.6

39,901 .........do______

24,939

___ d o—.........

14, 962

37.5

10.0
18.2
28.7
18.5

Males
A ll in d u stries_______________________
A griculture_________________________
C onstruction______________________!..
M anufactures..............................................
Service______________________________
Trade, w holesale and retail__________
T ransportation and p ub lic u tilities___

Females
All in d u stries________ __ ___________
A griculture_________________________

32

Construction.

20

M anufactures______ ________________
S ervice................ ................... .............. .......
Trade, w holesale and retail.......... .........
T ransportation and pub lic u tilities___

1,076
377
38,327
83

A p r il......... ..
[January to
A pril, July,
Septem ber,
N ovem b er,
and D ecem ­
ber.
D e c e m b e r ...
A u gu st........ .
D ecem b er ...
fA u g u s t , 1
\ October.
/

16

O ctober. . .

16

(0

18

A u g u st_____

2

(0

941
353
23, 531
76

M a rch _____
M arch, M a y .
M a r c h ... _.
----- d o ---------

135
24
14, 796
7

1 N o t com puted ow ing to sm all num ber in volved.
2 A ll “ office h e lp ” and fluctuation not reported except for coal m ining.


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12.5
(*)
38.6
(>)

29(3

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

The maximum, minimum, and average number reported employed
in each of the 3 general occupation groups are shown, by sex, in table
9 for each year, 1924 to 1933.
The average number of wage earners, both males and females, re­
ported employed shows an increase in 1933 over 1932. Male book­
keepers, stenographers, and office clerks show a slight increase, while
females and both sexes show a decrease. Salesmen and saleswomen
both show an increase in the average number employed.
Table 9.—Maximum, Minimum, and Average Number Reported Employed in
Specified General Occupation Groups in Ohio 1924-33
Wage earners

Year

1924______
1925______
1926 _____
1927______
1928-.........1929-...........
1930______
1931______
1932-...........
1933-...........

B oth sexes
N um ­
ber of
estab­
lish ­
Average
M axi­
of 12
m ents
m um ,
report­ m on th ly
m onth
ing
reports
899,539
31,715
952, 768
34,605
994,166
37.159
969,441
39,635
40,978
986,606
43.160 1, 051,389
916,121
44,283
43,168
766,699
40,134
637,050
38,678
681,254

937,274
997,957
1,040,932
1,000, 737
1, 045, 225
1,099, 880
976,911
806, 662
668, 089
779,943

Fem ales

M ales

M in i­
m um ,
m onth

868,394
888, 718
942,504
913,961
883,807
958,450
814,789
695,777
606,144
564,713

Average
M axi­
of 12
m um ,
m on th ly m onth
reports
755, 062
800,471
833,030
805, 001
817, 538
868,834
753, 395
619, 633
506,182
547,490

789,457
837, 381
875,444
836,494
869,270
916,978
808,416
655,327
533,129
631,662

M in i­
m um ,
m onth

730,615
744,327
787,792
749,785
725,946
782, 529
662,335
556,108
483, 374
446,104

Average M axi­
of 12
m um ,
m on th ly m onth
reports
144,477
152,297
161,136
164,440
169,068
182,555
162,726
147,066
130, 868
133,764

M in i­
m um ,
m onth

148,403
160, 576
168,944
172,279
178, 214
191,212
168, 570
151,764
135, 547
148,453

137,779
144, 391
154,712
156,733
157,861
174,078
152,454
139,669
122,770
118,609

Bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks
1924______
1925______
1926______
1927______
1928______
1929______
1930______
1931______
1932______
1933______

31,715
34,605
37,159
39, 635
40,978
43,160
44, 283
43,168
40,134
38,678

133, 843
139,352
146, 786
151,411
154, 712
168,532
174,519
153, 555
134,639
131,481

134,542
142,463
149,474
153, 296
159, 051
171,791
177,070
158, 060
142, 000
136,818

132, 871
136, 037
143,031
148,621
149,982
162,738
169,515
147,139
130, 028
126,818

67,864
70, 248
73,613
75,405
77, 640
83, 529
89,944
77,588
66,710
67,322

68, 218
71,374
74, 574
76,309
79, 460
85,400
90,948
79,942
70, 667
70,364

67,497
68,572
71,862
73,876
75, 288
80, 662
87, 593
74,286
64,199
64,626

65,979
69,104
73,173
76,006
77,072
85,003
84, 575
75,967
67,929
64,159

66, 627
71,104
75, 017
77,173
79,591
86,644
86, 206
78,118
71,333
66,454

65,374
67,465
71,169
74,745
74,694
82,076
81,743
72,853
65,766
62,192

32, 628
34,499
38,357
39,951
42, 228
48,489
38, 074
37,942
35,721
34,744

27,970
29,211
29,797
31,949
32, 834
34,781
32,487
32, 013
28, 303
29,767

36, 363
39,267
40,416
43,315
46, 822
47,137
42, 557
40, 692
35, 733
39,901

25,750
27, 002
27, 261
29, 023
29,135
30,923
29,554
29,193
25, 549
24,939

Salespeople (not traveling)
1924______
1925______
1926______
1927______
1928______
1929______
1930______
1931______
1932______
1933______

31,715
34,605
37,159
39, 635
40,978
43,160
44, 283
43,168
40,134
38,678

62,106
65,659
69,894
73,296
77,473
86,701
71, 220
70, 842
64,523
67,835

72,368
77, 664
82,689
86,864
94,556
101,861
82, 006
79, 790
72, 397
80,973

58,947
61,708
65, 760
69, 095
71, 599
79, 556
67,628
67,142
61, 270
59,816

34,136
36,448
40,097
41, 347
44,639
51,920
38,733
38,829
36, 220
38,068

36,005
38,397
42,273
43,549
47, 734
54,724
39,466
39,776
36, 787
41,072

Table 10 presents a comparison of employment fluctuation for
males and females in each year, 1929 to 1933, in each of four industry
groups in which large numbers of both males and females are em­
ployed, and in each year, 1924 to 1933, in all industries combined.

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291

E M PL O Y M E N T C O N D IT IO N S— U N E M PL O Y M E N T R E L IE F

Male wage earners show a greater fluctuation than do female
wage earners in manufactures and in service in each year, 1929 to
1933, while female wage earners show the greater fluctuation each
year in trade and in transportation and public utilities (except in
1929). In the sales group in trade females show much the greater
fluctuation.
Table 10.—Percent of Variation From Maximum Employment in General
Occupation Groups in Specified Industries in Ohio, 1929-33, and for All
Industries, 1924-33
Percent of variation from m axim um em p lo y m en t am ong—

In d u stry group and year

W age earners

Salespeople (not travel­
ing)

B oth
sexes

B o th
sexes

Fe­

M ales

F e­
m ales

1.2
4.5
4.3
3.0
5.7
5.3
4.3
6.9
8.4
7.3

1.0
3.9
3.6
3.2
5.3
5.5
3.7
7.1
9.2
8.2

1.9
5.1
5.1
3.1
6 .2
5.3
5.2
6.7
7.8
6.4

18.5
20.5
20.5
20.5
24.3
21.9
17.5
15.9
15.4
26.1

9 .4
10.2
9 .3
8 .3
11.5
11.4
3.5
4.6
2.9
15.4

29.2
31.2
32.5
33.0
37.8
34.4
30.6
28.3
28.5
37.5

12.8
12.7
12.2
11. 7
27.5

5.3
6.1
9.7
10.5
11.6

5.5
5.0
9.5
11.3
12.7

5.1
7.9
9.9
9 .7
10.6

6.4
3 .6
2.8
4.3
10.0

6.1
3 .5
3.3
4.4
9 .6

8.4
4.7
4.2
5.0
12.5

12.8
11.2
9.7
8.1
12.4

7.4
6.6
7.8
7.8
3.0

5.4
3.4
5.0
8.1
2.9

5.3
3.3
4.8
8.5
3.7

5.5
4.1
5.4
7 .7
3.0

13.1
15.2
11.7
7.7
18.2

13.2
18.3
12.8
8 .6
19.7

10.2
4.3
3.3
5.9
19.6

8.2
3.5
2.9
4.7
17.2

17.8
13. 7
19.0
18.8
29.9

6.9
4.9
5.4
6.6
11.1

4.8
3.5
4.3
3.4
7.7

8 .0
5.9
6 .0
8.1
12.8

25.8
21.1
18.6
18.5
28.7

14.1
6.4
4 .4
4.9
17.5

11.9
12.0
9.6
9.2
9.6

13.0
12.4
9.2
7.1
10.7

7.9
13.3
12.8
17.3
15.6

8.9
5.9
5.0
7.0
3.2

7.7
4.8
5.2
7.2
5.3

10.6
7.5
4.7
6.8
3.7

7.5
10.0
12.4
15.1
18.5

7.1
8.9
12.3
15.3
19.6

B oth
sexes
A ll industries:
1924-_
___________
1925._
_____________
1926____________________
1927____________________
1928-- - _________
1929. - ___
- _______
1930 . ___
1931-. - - ___
1932____________________
_______
1933-M anufactures:
1929
_ _______
1930-_
_____________
1931_________
___________
19321933
- - _______
Service:
1929.- . _______________
1930
- ___________
1931.- _________________
1932 . ________________
1933 __________________
T rade, w holesale and retail:
1929____________________
1930.
___ __________
1931____________________
1932.. _________________
1933
______________
T ransportation and p ub lic
u tilities:
1929
- _____ ________
1930
_____________ -1931-.- ____ __________
1932 .
_____________
1933____________________

Bookkeepers, stenographers, and offiee
clerks

M ales

F e­
m ales

7.3
10.9
9.5
8. 7
15. 4
12. 9
16. 6
13. 7
9.3
27. 6

7.5
11.1
10.0
10.4
16.5
14.7
18.1
15.1
9.3
29.4

7.2
10.1
8.4
9.0
11.4
9.0
9.6
8 .0
9.4
20.1

15.0
18. 5
15. 4
14.0
33. 4

16.4
19.6
16.6
14.8
34.7

10.3
9.3
8.9
7.0
8. 5

M ales

m ales

(0
(0
0)
(0
(')
35.8
32.2
29.7
29.8
38.6
(0
0)
«
0)
0)

1 N o t com p u ted ow in g to sm all num ber in volved .

The average number of persons reported employed in Ohio in the
industries covered by this study is shown by quarters in table 11.
Maximum employment was reported for the first quarter in 1924 and
1932, for the second quarter in 1927, 1930, and 1931, for the third
quarter in 1926 and 1929, and for the fourth quarter in 1925, 1928, and
1933. The average employment in the fourth quarter of 1933 was
higher than in the corresponding quarter of the 2 preceding years and
was at the highest point since the third quarter of 1931.

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292

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW — FEBRUARY 1935

Table 11.—Average Number of Persons (Both Sexes) Reported Employed in
Ohio in All Industries Combined, 1924-33, by Quarters
[Includes th e general occupation groups—w age earners, bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks, and
salespeople (not traveling) ]

Y ear

First quarter

1924_____________________________________
1925______________________________
1926______ ____ _______ . _...... ..
1927______________________________ ___________
1928___________________________________________
1929______________ . . . ____________
1930_______ . . . ______________ . . . . . . . . .
1931...
............
...
_..
1932___________________________________________
1933________________ __________________________

1,114, 718
1,100,874
1,160, 454
1,179, 951
1,134, 343
1, 257, 839
1,180,482
999, 306
868,184
770, 599

Second
quarter
1,102, 557
1,154, 638
1, 210, 699
1,212,884
1, 213, 443
1, 336, 010
1, 217, 635
1, 030, 600
841, 828
831, 765

T hird
quarter

Fourth
quarter

1,076, 261
1,179, 755
1, 238,056
1, 210, 329
1, 259, 781
1,352, 703
1,156,476
993, 077
811, 906
953,816

1, 088,416
1,195,847
1,234,177
1,173, 427
1, 267, 598
1, 279,936
1,092,850
941, 403
822, 928
966,102

Table 12 shows by number and percentage the change from 1932
to 1933 in average number reported employed in Ohio in the industries
covered in this report.
Table 12.—Change in Average Number of Persons Reported Employed in
Ohio, 1933 Compared with 1932
Increase or
decrease
Item

Item
N um b er

A ll em ployees, b y sex:
B oth sexes____ _____________ +44, 359
M a les______________________ +43, 769
F em ales____
+ 590
A ll em ployees, by quarter of
year:
F irst quarter________ ______ - 9 7 , 585
Second quarter. __________ - 1 0 , 063
T hird q u a r ter._ . _________ +141,910
Fourth quarter.
______ +143,174
A ll em ployees, b y general occu­
pation groups:
Wage earners......... ................ + 44, 204

Bookkeepers, stenographers,
and office clerks_________

Increase or
decrease

- 3 ,1 5 8

Per­
cent

+ 5 .3
+ 7 .2
+ .3
- 1 1 .2
- 1 .2
+ 1 7 .5
+ 1 7 .4
+ 6 .9

N um b er

AH em ployees, b y general occu­
pation groups—C ontinued.
Salespeople (not tra v elin g ). .
+ 3 ,3 1 2
A ll em ployees, b y general industry groups:
A griculture_________________
-2 8 6
C o n stru ctio n ..
- 4 ,8 2 6
M anufactures___
+4 6 , 793
M ining and quarrying______
+ 7 , 230
S ervice________________
- 7 ,0 9 7
T rade, w holesale and r e ta il.. + 1 , 747
Transportation and public
u tilities____ _____ ______
+798

Per­
cent

+ 5 .1
-3 .6
-1 7 . 5
+ 10. 1
+ 3 9 .4
-5 . 1
+ 1 .4
+ 1 .3

-2 .3

F e d e ra l A id f o r N e e d y C ollege a n d U n i v e r s i t y S tu d e n ts
INANCIAL aid for 94,308 needy students in 1,465 colleges and
universities in the 48 States, the District of Columbia, Hawaii,
and Puerto Rico will be provided by the Federal Emergency Relief
Administration according to a statement made by the Administrator,
in November 1934. The figures, based on total enrollment of students
as of October 15, 1933, are preliminary and involve a monthly allot­
ment of $1,414,595 by the F. E. R. A. to the State emergency relief
administrations which in turn transfer the funds to each institution
participating in the program.
Each college president is held responsible for the program in his
institution. Students will be employed in socially desirable work on

F


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E M PL O Y M E N T C O N D IT IO N S— U N E M P L O Y M E N T R E L IE F

293

and off the campus. On the campus they will be engaged in research,
clerical, office, library, museum, and laboratory work, while off-thecampus activities include community education, health, and welfare
projects.
The selection of students to receive aid is to be from among those
who without this help would be unable to attend or remain in college.
The quota for each college is 12 percent of the enrollment as of October
15, 1933. A student is permitted to earn as much as $20 a month,
but the allotment of funds to each college will be on the basis of $15
a month for each of 12 percent of its enrollment of full-time students.
The number of colleges and universities in the various States, the
maximum number of students they may aid with Federal funds, arid
the maximum allotment the State emergency relief administrations
may make to the colleges and universities each month during the
present college year are shown in the following table:
Maximum Federal Allotment to Colleges and Universities, and Quota of
Students Aided, by States

State

N um ­
ber of
Quota
col­
leges
of stu ­
dents
and
univer­
sities

M on th ly
allot­
m ents

1,338
456
819
7,446
1,038
489
98
762
1,834
479
5,753
2,519
2,169
1,942
1,426
1,488
549
1,055
3, Oil
3,089
2,440
1,057
2, 665
467
1,300
94
554

$20,070
6,840
12,285
111,690
15,570
7,335
1,470
11,430
27, 510
7,185
86,295
37,785
32,535
29,130
21,390
22,320
8,235
15,825
45,165
46,335
36,600
15,855
39,975
7,005
19,500
1,410
8,310

A labam a_________ ____
A rizona______________
Arkansas______________
California-------------------Colorado_____
____
C o nn ecticu t------- -----D ela w are_________ . . .
Florida___ ____________
G eorgia_______________
Id a h o_________________
Illin o is. ---------------------In d ia n a_______________
Io w a----- ------ --------K ansas-----------------------K e n tu ck y -------------------L o u is ia n a ------------------M a in e________________
M arylan d -------------------M assachusetts .
M ich igan _____________
M in n esota____________
M ississip p i-----------------M issou ri------ ------------M o n tan a--------------------N eb ra sk a_____ ______
N e v a d a -------- --------------N e w H am p shire---------i O n ly going to use $2,000.


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21
5
24
78
17
15
2
14
47
10
65
36
65
41
31
20
15
18
37
39
31
40
54
10
23
1
5

State

N ew Jersey_________
N ew M exico________
N ew Y ork __________
N orth Carolina--------N orth D ak ota---------O h io .----------------------O klahom a___________
O regon................... .......
P e n n s y lv a n ia .............
R hode I s l a n d .............
South C arolina--------South D ak ota ----------T ennessee--------- ------T exas_______________
U ta h ________________
V erm ont____________
V irgin ia------- -----------W ashin gton _________
W est V irginia----------W isconsin----------------W y o m in g .............. . . .
D istrict of C olu m bia.
H aw aii______________
Puerto R ico-------------T o ta l.

N um ­
ber of
Quota M o n th ly
col­
allot­
leges
of stu ­
m ents
dents
and
univer­
sities
22
6
76
53
11
57
43
22
69
6
35
15
42
80
10
8
37
20
21
54
1
10
1
2

1,481
221
10,955
2,455
645
4,979
2,297
911
6,126
550
1,167
483
1,698
4,202
873
314
2,014
1,607
1,030
2,564
112
927
135
225

$22,215
3,315
164,325
36,825
9,675
74,685
34,455
13, 665
91,890
8,250
17, 505
7,245
25,470
63,030
13,095
4, 710
30,210
24,105
15,450
38,460
1,680
13,905
i 2,000
3,375

1,465

94,308

1,414,595

294

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

U se o f C o n s u m p tio n V o u c h e rs as a R e lie f M e a s u re in
G e rm a n y 1
INCE the advent into power of the National Socialist Government
in Germany considerable use has been made of the so-called “ con­
sumption vouchers” of various types, in making payments to the un­
employed. As these vouchers are not transferable they do not have
the features of currency certificates. Up to the fall of 1934 over
300,000,000 marks' worth 2 had been used.
Ordinary consumption vouchers.—Ordinary consumption vouchers
{Bedarfsdeckungscheine) have been issued on the basis of the law of
June 1, 1933,3 for two purposes: (1) They have been distributed to
labor employed in accordance with the provision of the law for the
decrease of unemployment, and the workers, besides receiving an
amount equal to the unemployment relief formerly granted, have
received 25 marks in the form of consumption vouchers for each 4
weeks' work; (2) they have been distributed through the municipali­
ties and local governments to the poor or unemployed to be used in
purchasing necessaries.
The vouchers were issued in denominations of 25 marks each, were
to be repaid from funds of the public treasury, and were distributed
through the local treasury offices, through public-works contractors,
municipalities, etc. Each voucher had to be signed by the holder
upon receipt of the goods to the value indicated in the voucher, after
which it could not be passed on nor transferred but must be returned
to the Government for honoring.
The vouchers have been used principally for the purchase of house­
hold goods, clothes, and the acquisition of the necessaries of life.
Inasmuch as these vouchers effect a turn-over of goods before any
outlay in actual cash is made, they can be considered to have a stimu­
lating effect on credit and business turn-over.
Consumption vouchers of this kind have been issued to the amount
of about 65,000,000 marks. It is understood, however, that their
further use in connection with unemployment relief and for payments
to labor is to be discontinued.
Other vouchers. By far the greatest field for the use of consumption
vouchers is in connection with the marriage loans and marriage
credits which the National Socialist Government grants to newly
wed couples under certain conditions.
These vouchers are similar in type to the consumption vouchers
and are met by the Ministry of Finance from the tax on unmarried
members of the population.

S

1 Data are from report of Hugh Corby Fox, American vice consul at Berlin, Nov. 9,1934.
* Mark at par =23.8 cents; exchange rate in October 1934 was 40.45 cents.
» Reichsgesetzblatt, p. I, no. 60, of June 2, 1933.


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295

By the end of the fiscal year 1933-34, 120,000,000 marks’ worth of
consumption vouchers had been issued as loans to young married
couples; it is anticipated that during the present fiscal year such
loans will aggregate more than 135,000,000 marks.
During the “ winter relief” work campaign of 1933-34 the National
Socialist Welfare Bureau, which conducted the campaign, issued
great numbers of consumption vouchers which were to be met by the
party welfare bureau’s treasury. Exact figures as to the turn-over
achieved in this way are not available, but it is known that on Janu­
ary 30, 1934, the first anniversary of the accession of the National
Socialist Party to power, the welfare bureau issued 15,000,000 coupons
worth 1 mark apiece, to be turned in at food shops for groceries and
other supplies. In addition, coupons worth 6,500,000 marks were
issued for heating supplies and coal.
Federal 'price-reduction certificates.—Price-reduction certificates were
issued for the first time in May 1933 and were originally granted to the
needy population for coal, meat, and fats (margarine, etc.) at reduced
costs. Under regulations inaugurated November 1, 1933, however,
coal and meat were dropped from the list and certificates were there­
after used only to purchase various types of fats. It has been officially
stated that the continued use of these certificates for coal and meat was
considered unnecessary, as the “ winter relief” work was sufficient to
provide the population’s requirements in this respect during the winter
months when the need was greatest.
The certificates are distributed through the local offices of the
Federal Bureau of Employment and Unemployment Insurance or
through the welfare agencies.
Under the new regulations each person in need receives two certifi­
cates per month, each calling for a reduction of 25 pfennigs per German
pound in the purchase of fat. The certificates, valid from November
1 to January 31, are issued to each needy person in blocks of 6 (2 being
valid for each month, as noted above), and 1 order coupon. The
order coupon serves as an advance notice of the amount of fats which
will be required. It must be presented at once to the recipient’s
grocer, and its purpose is to enable the latter, upon presentation to
the local treasury office, to obtain his quota of cheap margarine, or
other fat.
The reduction certificates, as they are collected by the grocer at
the time of the actual sale of fat or margarine, will be paid for at face
value in cash by the local treasury office. The cost of these coupons
is met by the Federal Ministry of Labor from its appropriations.
During the fiscal year 1933-34 approximately 88,000,000 marks’
worth of coupons were issued in this way. The Government states
that the money needed to pay for these coupons is more than met by
the income from the general tax on fats.

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NATIONAL RECOVERY PROGRAM
F u r t h e r S ta y o f S c rip -P a y m e n t P r o v is io n s U n d e r
R e ta il C odes
ODE provisions governing the acceptance of scrip in payment
for purchases made in retail stores were further stayed for a
30-day period ending February 6, 1935. This action was taken in
continuance of previous stays that had remained operative since
approval of the retail codes.1 The purpose of the delay was to permit
time for study of the recommendations of the special committee named
to study the effect of the company store and payment in scrip.2

C

C a n c e la tio n o f C ode f o r C in d e rs, A sh e s, a n d S c a v e n g e r
T rad e
N THE absence of a national organization within the cinders,
ashes, and scavenger trade, and because of the failure of the
trade to form a code authority, the President, on December 19, 1934,
ordered the code canceled. This action followed a public hearing
and was based on the findings and recommendations of the National
Industrial Recovery Board. The code was in effect nearly a year,
having been approved on December 30, 1933.3 With its withdrawal
the transportation operations of the trade become subject to the code
for the trucking industry and all construction operations fall under
the provisions of the construction-industry code. The wage and hour
limitations of these two codes are not unlike those established for the
cinders, ashes, and scavenger trade. It is therefore not expected that
the change to the new provisions will produce hardship. There is an
advantage to the trade in that the expenses of administration incident
to operation under a separate code will not be incurred. These facts
led the National Industrial Recovery Board to believe that cancelation of the code was in the best interest of the trade and the public.

I

1 See M o n th ly Labor R eview , 1934: M ay, p . 1059; A ugust, p. 317.
' Idem , D ecem ber 1934, p. 1353.
* Idem , February 1934, p . 297.

296


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NATIONAL RECOVERY PROGRAM

297

P ro g re ss o f A p p r e n tic e - T r a in in g P ro g ra m
A T THE close of 5 months’ operation of the Federal Committee
on Apprentice Training, appointed August 14, 1934, the State
of Wisconsin had arranged for operation under an approved appren­
ticeship program, two States, Michigan and Delaware, were about to
offer approved plans to industry, organization of committees had
been arranged in 23 States, and preliminary organization was being
carried on in 18 others. This committee, named by the Secretary of
Labor in accordance with Executive order, was formed to administer
the standards established by the President for a national system of
apprenticeship training for industries that do not fix standards under
codes or by agreement between employers and apprentices.1 State
committees are charged with approving apprentice contracts as sub­
mitted, issuing certificates, registering apprentices, supervising train­
ing, and related administrative work. The 23 States reported to have
established such committees are California, Oregon, Wyoming, Colo­
rado, North Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, Maine, Arkansas, Mississippi,
Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, West Virginia, Texas, Mary­
land, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Rhode Island, Mas­
sachusetts, and New Hampshire. The 18 States where preliminary
work has been completed looking toward appointments are Washing­
ton, Montana, Idaho, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma,
Kansas, South Dakota, Missouri, Louisiana, Indiana, Georgia,
Florida, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Vermont.
C o lle c tiv e A g re e m e n ts U n d e r C o n s tr u c tio n C ode
AREA wage agreements controlling working conditions not made
\ , the subject of special provision under the construction code and
supplements have now been approved in 10 localities covering four
divisions of the construction industry—mason contracting; painting,
decorating, and paperhanging; electrical contracting; and plumbing
contracting—and 213 area wage agreements had been submitted to
the National Recovery Administration up to January 9, 1935.2 This
represents an increase of 3 agreements approved over the total in the
month of November 1934.3 The agreements approved cover the mason
contracting division of the New York City Metropolitan Area; the
painting, decorating and paperhanging divisions in the regions of
Miami, Fla., Wilmington, Del., Philadelphia Pa., Omaha, Nebr.,
Greenwich, Conn., and St. Paul, Minn.; the electrical contracting
subdivision in the regions of Detroit, Mich., and Chicago, 111.; and the
plumbing contracting division in the region of Denver, Colo.
jL

» See M o n th ly Labor R eview , Septem ber 1934, p. 623.
2 N ation al R ecovery A dm inistration. Press release no. 9510, 9516A, Jan. 9, 1935.
2 See M o n th ly Labor R eview , D ecem ber 1934, p. 1357.


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

P ie c e w o r k C o m p e n sa tio n to be C o m p u te d a t L east
O n c e a W eek
OMPENSATION in codified industries operating under a piecework system must be computed at least once in 7 consecutive
days and yield not less than the minimum hourly rate of pay estab­
lished in the applicable code multiplied by the number of hours
worked in the period. This ruling was a part of an interpretation
of the National Industrial Recovery Board, made in January 1935,1
relative to code provisions extending minimum hourly rates of pay to
pieceworkers. The text of the interpretation follows:
Under any such provision in any code, an employer shall compute the minimum
compensation payable to each piecework employee on the basis of a period of not
more than 7 consecutive days. Each employer shall pay to each of his piecework
employees for work performed by said employee during such period an amount not
less than the product of the minimum hourly rate prescribed in said code multiplied
by the number of hours worked by said employee during such period.
If any such provision in a code as thus applied should work hardship in any case
by reason of peculiar circumstances or methods of operation, the employer affected
thereby may apply for an exemption to such provision.

P a y A u th o r is e d f o r W o rk I n t e r r u p t i o n s B e y o n d L a b o r’s
C o n tr o l
ORKERS employed under coded industries must be paid for
interruptions of work beyond their control when required by
employers to be present and ready for work, according to an adminis­
trative order of the National Industrial Recovery Board issued late in
December 1934.2 Four causes of interruption are listed over which
the employee presumably has no control: Breakdowns, delays, time
spent waiting for materials or waiting for the loading or unloading of
railroad cars or other vehicles of transportation, and interruptions in
activity due to other causes. The interpretation reads as follows:

W

Time during which an employee is inactive by reason of interruptions in his
work beyond his control may not be construed as time not worked, nor excluded in
computing his hours of labor and wages. The term “ interruptions” includes, but
without limitation, the specific instances hereinabove set forth under “ Facts”
whenever the imminence of resumption of work requires the employee’s presence
at the place of employment. Such requirement is to be presumed in the absence
of adequate prior notice from the employer that the employee is free to leave his
place of employment if he desires. An employer may not, however, by notifying
an employee that he is free to leave for an interval too brief reasonably to be con­
sidered a temporary lay-off, thus avoid computing such period as time worked.
Nothing herein contained, however, shall be construed to modify or affect in any
way bona fide, voluntary and mutual agreements concerning the subject matter
hereof, arrived at by employers and employees, when the same are not in conflict
with the maximum hour and minimum wage provisions of the code applicable to
such parties.

1N ational R ecovery A dm inistration .

Press release no, 9514, Jan. 5, 1935,
* Idem - Press release no. 9408, D ec. 27,1934.


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NATIONAL RECOVERY PROGRAM

299

E x p a n s io n o f F ie ld S ta ff o f N a tio n a l R e c o v e r y
A d m in is tr a tio n
0 facilitate the administration of codes and to strengthen the
compliance work, the National Industrial Recovery Board has
expanded its field personnel by adding a trained staff of full-time
administration members on national code authorities in the field1
and by naming 6 out of the 9 regional directors that it is planned to
appoint to secure greater code compliance in the various divisions of
the country.2 This action was made public in December 1934.
Full-time administration members on national code authorities in
the field are expected to aid code authorities in the work of admin­
istration and to serve the public interest. Part-time administration
members will serve jointly with the new appointees as long as neces­
sary. Regional offices for code administration have been authorized
in New York and Chicago. These will be supplemented by similar
offices in San Francisco, Cleveland, Boston, and Philadelphia.
Division administrators of the National Recovery Administration are
responsible for appointment of the officials mentioned.
For the purpose of securing a greater degree of code compliance in
the cases that code authorities cannot handle, the National Recovery
Administration has divided the country into 9 regions. Regional
staffs have been or will be established in Boston, New York, Wash­
ington, Atlanta, Cleveland, Chicago, Omaha, Dallas, and San Fran­
cisco. The director of compliance and enforcement is in charge of
the new set-up under which the regional offices will have the authority
to act on code complaints, to remove the right to use of the N. R. A.
insignia (the Blue Eagle), and to prepare court prosecutions without
reference to Washington.

S u m m a r y o f P e r m a n e n t C odes A d o p te d U n d e r N a tio n a l
I n d u s tr ia l R e c o v e r y A c t D u r in g D e c e m b e r 1934
r I 'HE principal labor provisions of codes adopted during December
X 1934 under the National Industrial Recovery Act are shown in
summary form in the following tabular analysis. This summary is
in continuation of similar tabulations carried in the Monthly Labor
Review since December 1933.
In presenting the code provisions in this manner the intention is to
supply in readily usable form the major labor provisions, i. e., those
affecting the great bulk of employees in the industries covered.
Under the hours provisions in every instance the maximum hours
1 N ation al R ecovery A dm inistration. Press release no. 9353, D ec. 21, 1934.
5 Idem . T h e B lu e Ragle, vol. I, no. 28, D ec. 17, 1934,
109041 -35------4


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300

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

permitted are shown for the industry as a whole or for factory workers,
office workers, or the principal groups in service industries, where the
codes provide different schedules of hours. There has been no
attempt to enumerate the excepted classes of which one or more are
allowed for in practically all codes, such as (under the hours provi­
sions) executives, and persons in managerial positions earning over a
stated amount (usually $35), specially skilled workers, maintenance
and repair crews, and workers engaged in continuous processes where
spoilage of products would result from strict adherence to the hours
as established. Similarly, the existence of specific classes exempted
from the minimum-wage provisions is not indicated here, as, for
example, apprentices, learners, and handicapped workers. For com­
plete information relative to the exempted classes under the hours
and wages sections, special provisions for the control of homework,
sale of prison-made goods, and studies of occupational hazards, it is
necessary to refer to the original codes. Provisions for overtime rates
of pay and employment of minors lend themselves to fairly complete
analysis within a restricted space and code limitations thereon are
described in the accompanying tabular analysis.
A special section at the end of the table is devoted to amended
codes that have already been printed in original form.


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V

Tabular Analysis of Labor Provisions in Codes Adopted Under National Industrial Recovery Act During December 1934

In d u stry and date effective

B ak in g in d u stry in Puerto
P ic o (Jan. 7, 1935).

$2.50 per bag of flour w eighing 200 pounds
m anufactured, crews of em ployees (u n ­
less rate w as higher in 4 w eeks ended
Sept. 29, 1934). $6 per w eek, others.
$15 per w eek, general. $12 per w eek, m es­
sengers.

M axim um hours

48 per w eek, 8 in 24, 6 d ays in 7 (persons in m an ­
agerial capacity earning $12.50 per w eek ex­
cluded) .

N o provision.

40 per w eek, 8 in 24, general. 144 per year, 32
per m onth, additional, printing processes. 8
per day, norm al. 6 d ays in 7.

V /i

C hlorine control apparatus
in d u stry and trade (D ec.
28, 1934).

40 cents per hour, general. 80 percent of
m in im u m w age, office b oys and girls
(not to exceed 5 percent of total num ber
of office em ployees, b u t each em ployer
entitled to one such em p loyee).

40 per week (in peak periods, 48 per w eek during
6 w eeks in 6 m on ths), general. 56 per w eek,
6 days in 7, w atchm en.

F la t glass m anufacturing
(D ec. 31, 1934).

35 cents per hour in South, 40 cents per
hour in N orth, general. $15 per w eek,
office.

72 in 14 days, 8 in 24, 6 days in 7 (6 per w eek ad di­
tional, w ith overtim e pay; or 4 additional b ut
n o t to exceed 42 per w eek, w ith o u t overtim e
p a y , on noncontinuous processes if services are
required b y reason of failure of another em ­
ployee to w ork), general. 84 in 14 d ays, 6 in 24
(to provide for rotation of shifts, 6 additional
in 24 in 14 days, w ith o u t overtim e pay; or 6
additional in 7 days, w ith o u t overtim e pay,
if services are required b y reason of failure
of another em ployee to w ork), continuous
processes. 40 per w eek, 8 in 24, 6 d ays in 7
(2 ad ditional in 24 in each w eek , w ith o u t over­
tim e p a y ), office. 40 per w eek averaged over
1 m onth, 8 in 24 (in 1 w eek 9 in 24 and 45 per
w eek w ith o u t overtim e p a y , provided eq u iv ­
alent tim e off is granted; 6 per w eek ad ditional,
w ith overtim e p ay), bookkeeping or ac­
counting. 48 per w eek, 8 in 24, in peak periods
during 14 w eeks in 1 year w ith o u t overtim e
p a y (stayed b y P resid en t). 84 in 14 days,
w atchm en.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Provisions for overtim e p a y

regular rate after hours
specified, em ergency work.
1X
A
regular rate for 144
hours per year, 32 per
m onth, additional, p rin t­
ing processes.
V A regular rate after 8 hours
per day and 40 per w eek,
general. 1 } 4 regular rate
after 40 hours per w eek,
em ergency work.
regular rate after 8 hours
in 24 w here overtim e pay
is allow ed, general. \ A
regular rate after 9 hours
in 24 in w eek for w hich
special allow ance is m ade
and after 8 hours in 24 in
balance of m on th , book­
keeping or accounting.
1 Vi regular rate after speci­
fied hours, em ergency
work.

IA

M inors of specified age
excluded from em p loy­
m en t
U nder 16, general. U n ­
der 18, n igh t, hazard­
ous or unh ealth fu l oc­
cupations.
U nd er 16, general. U n ­
der 18, hazardous or u n ­
health fu l occupations.

D o.

D o.

NATIONAL RECOVERY PROGRAM

B lu e print and photo print
(D ec. 31, 1934).

M inim um w ages (excluding apprentices
and learners)

CO

o

Tabular Analysis of Labor Provisions in Codes Adopted Under National Industrial Recovery Act During December 1934— Continued

M axim um hours

Provisions for overtim e p a y

20 per cent increase (but n ot less than $9
nor more th an $10 per w eek) to $15 per
w eek, according to geographic area and
population.

48 per w eek, 10 in 24 (56 in 6 w orking d ays preced­
ing T h an ksgiving, C hristm as, and N ew
Y ear’s), general. 56 per w eek, w atchm en.
6 days in 7.

KosherTneaUtrade......... $20-$25 per w eek, according to p opulation,
cu ttin g and preparing m eat.

48 per w eek, 8 in 24 (10 per day on T hursdays)
(56 per w eek in w eeks preceding 5 Jew ish holi­
days, and th e 3 m en tion ed above), general.

1)4 regular rate after 48 hours
in
w eek s
p r e c e d in g
T h an ksgiving, C hristm as,
and N ew Y ear’s, general.
1)4 regular rate after 10
hours in 24 and 48 per
w eek, ou tside service em ­
ployees. 1)4 regular rate
after m axim um
hours
specified, em ergency work.
1)4 regular rate after 48 hours
per w eek and 8 per day
(except on T hursdays
w hen overtim e rate is paid
after 10 hours), in w eeks
preceding 8 holid ays, gen­
eral.
1)4 regular rate, overtim e
n ot to exceed 5 hours per
w eek in 30 w eek s in spring
and fall seasons, m anual
and m echanical processes.
R egular hourly r a t e ,
others.

M inors of specified age
excluded from em p lo y ­
m en t
* •« 4

R etail m eat trade.

W om en ’s neckw ear and
scarf m a n u factu rin g^ an.
7, 1935).

$14 per w eek, general. 40-47)4 cents per
hour, according to geographic area,
ironers. 51-60 cents per hour, according
to geographic area, operators. $34-$40
per w eek, according to geographic area,
cutters.

37)4 per w eek, 7)4 per day, 5 d ays per w eek
(M on d ay to Friday, except w hen holiday
occurs on one of these d ays), m echanical or
m anual processes. 1 shift of em ployees i per
day. 40 per w eek, 8 per day, 6 d ays in 7,
others.

$18 per w eek, general. $16j[per w eek,
office. $14 per w eek, o ffice-b o y s and
m essengers (not to exceed 5 percent of
th e total num ber of office em p loyees).

40 per w eek, 8 per day, 6 d ays in 7, general and
office. 56 per w eek, 13 days in 14, w atchm en.
40 per w eek, 6 days in 7, chauffeurs and de­
liverym en .

U n d er 16, general. U n ­
der 18, hazardous or
u n h ealth fu l o c c u p a ­
tion s.

D o.

Agriculture
M a lt (Jan. 7, 1935)


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1)4 regular rate after 8 hours
per d ay and 40 per w eek,
receiving and shipping em ­
ployees during 4 m on ths
in 1 year. 1)4 regular rate
after hour specified, em er­
gency work.

>

D o.

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

M in im u m w ages (excluding apprentices
and learners)

In d u stry and date effective

co
o
to

Amended codes
C otton cloth glove m anuI facturing (Jan. 8; am en d ­
ed M a y 5 and N o v . 24,
! 1934).

30-46 cents per hour, according to occupa­
tion, general. $12—$15 per week, accord­
ing to age, office. $1 per week differential,

40 per w eek, 8 in 24 (tolerance of 10 percent, J u ly
1 -N o v . 1, provided average for calendar year is
40 per w eek ), general. 54 per w eek, 6-day
w eek, w atchm en. 48 per w eek, drivers.

E lectric and neon sign
(Sept. 3; am ended N o v .
24, 1934).

$16 per w eek, general. 45 cents per hour,
part-tim e em ployees w orking less than
40 hours per w eek. 75 cents per hour,

40 per w eek, 8 in 24, general.
w atchm en. 6 days in 7.

R etail
trade
Jan.
N ov.

food and grocery
(N o v . 22, 1933, and
1, 1934; am ended
23, 1934).

R etail jew elry (D ec. 11,
1933; am ended N o v . 30,
1934).

R ing traveler m anufactur­
ing (S ep t. 17; am ended
D ec. 13, 1934).

skilled employees.
SO-35 cents per hour, according to geographic
unsk illed m en (not to exceed 10 per­
cent of factory workers), w atch m en , and
female em p loyees. 60-55 cents per hour,
according to geographic area, mixers,
kneaders, etc. JO-45 cents per hour, ac­
cording to geographic area, other m ales.
$16 per w eek, office.
R ange from present rate plus 20 percent
(b ut w age n ot to exceed $10 per w eek) to
$15 per w eek, according to population,
N orth; present rate plus 20 percent (but
w age not to exceed $9 per w eek) to $14
per w eek, according to population, South.
area,

Present rate plus 20 percent (but w age not
to exceed $9) to $14 per w eek in South,
and present rate plus 20 percent (but
w age not to exceed $10) to $15 elsewhere,
according to store hours and population.

35 cents per hour, general.

office.

$14 per week,

54 per w eek,


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1H regular rate after 8 hours
1H

48 per w eek, 10 per day, 6-day w eek, general.
N o lim it on hours, 6-day w eek, outside sales­
m en. 54 per w eek, m aintenance and outside
service. V hour d a ily above store hours, 6
days in 7, executives. 8 per w eek additional
(m axim um 10 per day) in peak periods, 2 w eeks
in first half of year and 3 w eeks in second, all
em ployees. 66 per week, 6 days in 7, watchmen.
According to store hours, 40 per w eek, 8 per day,
-day w eek, or 44 per w eek, 9 per day, 6-day
w eek, or 48 per week, 10 per day, 6-day w eek (in
peak periods of not over 5 w eeks per year, 48
per week, 9 per day, or 52 per w eek, 9 ) 4 per day,
or 56 per w eek, 10 per d ay, resp ectively), em ­
ployees of stores. 40 per w eek, 8 per d ay, 6-day
w eek , others. 6-hour tolerance, m aintenance
and outside service em ployees.
40 per w eek (in peak periods 54 per w eek ), general.

N o general provision.

6

40 per week, 9 per day, 8 per day normal {inpeak
periods, 48 per week in 8weeks in 1 year), office.

U nder 16, general. U n ­
der 18, hazardous or unhealth fu l occupations.
D o.

per d a y and 40 per w eek,
em ergency work.

40 per w eek (in peak periods 48 per w eek during 8
w eeks in year), 8 per day, general. 48 per w eek,
chauffeurs and deliverym en. 56 per w eek,
w atchm en. 44 per w eek, m aintenance m en,
etc.

56 per w eek, 13 days in 14, w atchm en.

1A m en dm ents given

regular rate after m axi­
m um
hours specified,
em ergency repair, etc.

regular rate for hours
after 40 per w eek, gen­
eral. 1 H regular rate after
hours specified, em ergency
m aintenance and repair.

IV

regular rate after 10 hours
per day and 48 per week,
emergency work, mainte­
nance and outside service
employees.

1H

regular rate after 6-hour
tolerance,
m aintenance
and ou tside service em ­
p loyees. I V regular rate

D o.

U nder 16, except th a t
th ose 14 and 15 m a y
w ork n ot to exceed 3
hours per d a y , 6 d ays
per w eek, or 1 d a y of 8
hours, per w eek.
D o.

after maximum daily hours,
provided employer has at­
tempted first to obtain addi­
tional employees.

1V i regular rate after 8 hours

per d a y and 40 per w eek,
general. 1 V regular rate
after 40 hours per w eek,
em ergency work.

U nder 16, general. U n ­
der 18, hazardous or unh ealth fu l occupations.

NATIONAL RECOVERY PROGRAM

M acaroni (F eb . 8; am ended
Oct. 9, 1934).

employees in South, except those receiving
SO cents p e r h o u r o r $12 per week.

W

in italics.

CO

O

CO-

SOCIAL SECURITY
R e p o r t a n d R e c o m m e n d a tio n s o f C o m m itte e o n
E co n o m ic S e c u r ity
HE Committee on Economic Security was created by President
Roosevelt late in June 1934 in an Executive order issued shortly
after he pointed out in a message to Congress that the chief objective
of the administration was “ the security of the men, women, and
children of the Nation.” The committee was charged with the task
of studying the problem of economic security for the individual as
the basis for formulation of sound legislation.
The Secretary of Labor, Frances Perkins, is chairman of the
committee. Other members are Secretary of the Treasury Henry
Morgenthau, Attorney General Homer S. Cummings, Secretary of
Agriculture Henry A. Wallace, and Federal Emergency Relief Admin­
istrator Harry L. Hopkins. Dr. Edwin E. Witte, executive director
of the committee, has been in charge of the research and assembling of
the basic data for the committee. The committee has had the assist­
ance of a technical board composed of 20 authorities in the Govern­
ment service having special knowledge of the various phases of
economic security, an advisory council composed of representative
citizens, and seven other advisory groups.
The committee submitted its report and recommendations to the
President on January 15, 1935, and these were made public on
January 16. The basic principles laid down in the report were
embodied in the social security bills introduced in the United States
Senate by Senator Wagner and in the House by Representatives
Doughton and Lewis.
Following is a summary of the committee’s report and recommenda­
tions, prepared by the committee.
S um m ary o f th e R ep o rt
Need for Security

T he need of the people of this country for “ some safeguard against
misfortunes which cannot be wholly eliminated in this man-made
world of ours” is tragically apparent at this time, when 18,000,000
people, including children and aged, are dependent upon emergency
relief for their subsistence and approximately 10,000,000 workers have
304

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SOCIAL SECURITY

305

no employment other than relief work. Many millions more have
lost their entire savings, and there has occurred a very great decrease
in earnings. The ravages of probably the worst depression of all
time have been accentuated by greater urbanization, with the conse­
quent total dependence of a majority of our people on their earnings
in industry.
As progress is made toward recovery, this insecurity will be lessened,
but it is now apparent that even in the “ normal times” of the prosper­
ous twenties, a large part of our population had little security. From
the best estimates obtainable it appears that in the years 1922 to 1929
there was an average unemployment of 8 percent among our industrial
workers. In the best year of this period the number of the unemployed
averaged somewhat less than 1,500,000.
Unemployment is but one of many misfortunes which often result
in destitution. In the slack year of 1933, 14,500 persons were fatally
injured in American industry and 55,000 sustained some permanent
injury. Nonindustrial accidents exacted a much greater toll. On
the average, 2.25 percent of all industrial workers are at all times
incapacitated from work by reason of illness. Each year more than
one-eighth of all workers suffer one or more illnesses which disable
them for a week, and the percentage of the families in which some
member is seriously ill is much greater. For medical and related care
in urban families of low incomes, over one-fifth each year have expen­
ditures of more than $100 and many have bills of one-fourth and even
one-half of their entire family income. A relatively small but not
insignificant number of workers are each year prematurely invalided,
and 8 percent of all workers are physically handicapped. At least
one-third of all our people, upon reaching old age, are dependent upon
others for support. Less than 10 percent leave an estate, upon death,
of sufficient size to be probated.
There is insecurity in every stage of life.
For the largest group, the people in middle years, who carry the
burden of current production from which all must live, the hazards
with which they are confronted threaten not only their own economic
independence but the welfare of their dependents.
For those now old, insecurity is doubly tragic, because they are
beyond the productive period. Old age comes to everyone who does
not die prematurely, but is a misfortune only if there is insufficient
income to provide for the remaining years of life. With a rapidly
increasing number and percentage of the aged, and the impairment
and loss of savings, this country faces, in the next decade, an even
greater old-age security problem than that with which it is already
confronted.
t
fa
^
For those at the other end of the life cycle—the children—de­
pendence is normal, and security is best provided through their

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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

families. That security is often lacking. Not only do children under
16 constitute above 40 percent of all people now on relief, as compared
to 28 percent in the entire population, but at all times there are
several millions in need of special measures of protection. Some of
these need individual attention to restore, as fully as may be, lives
already impaired. More of them—those who have been deprived of
a father’s support—need only financial aid which will make it possible
for their mothers to continue to give them normal family care.
Most of the hazards against which safeguards must be provided
are similar in that they involve loss of earnings. When earnings
cease, dependency is not far off for a large percentage of our people.
In 1929, at the peak of the stock-market boom, the average per
capita income of all salaried employees at work was only $1,475.
Eighteen million gainfully employed persons, constituting 44 percent
of all those gainfully occupied, exclusive of farmers, had annual earn­
ings of less than $1,000 each; 28,000,000, or nearly 70 percent, earnings
of less than $1,500 each. Many people lived in straitened circum­
stances at the height of prosperity; a considerable number lived in
chronic want. Throughout the twenties, the number of people
dependent.upon private and public charity steadily increased.
With the depression, the scant margin of safety of many others has
disappeared. The average earnings of all wage earners at work
dropped from $1,475 in 1929 to $1,199 in 1932. Since then, there has
been considerable recovery, but even for many who are fully employed
there is no margin for contingencies.
The one almost all-embracing measure of security is an assured
income. A program of economic security, as we vision it, must have
as its primary aim the assurance of an adequate income to each
human being in childhood, youth, middle age, or old age—in sickness
or in health. It must provide safeguards against all of the hazards
leading to destitution and dependency.
A piecemeal approach is dictated by practical considerations, but
the broad objectives should never be forgotten. Whatever measures
are deemed immediately expedient should be so designed that they
can be embodied in the complete program which we must have ere
long.
To delay until it is opportune to set up a complete program will
probably mean holding up action until it is too late to act. A sub­
stantial beginning should be made now in the development of the
safeguards which are so manifestly needed for individual security.
As stated in the President’s message of June 8, these represent not
“ a change in values” but “ rather a return to values lost in the course
of our economic development and expansion.” “ The road to these
values is the way to progress.” We will not “ rest content until wo
have done our utmost to move forward on that road.”

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SO CIA L S E C U R IT Y

307

Major Recommendations
W e d i s c u s s briefly all aspects of the problem of economic security
for the individual. On many phases our studies enable us only to call
attention to the importance of not neglecting these aspects of economic
security and to give endorsement to measures and policies which have
been or should be worked out in detail by other agencies of the
Government.
Apart from these phases of a complete program for economic
security which are dealt with only sketchily, the committee presents
the following major recommendations:
Employment Assurance

Since most people must live by work, the first objective in a pro­
gram of economic security must be maximum employment. As the
major contribution of the Federal Government in providing a safe­
guard against unemployment we suggest employment assurance—the
stimulation of private employment and the provision of public em­
ployment for those able-bodied workers whom industry cannot employ
at a given time. Public-work programs are most necessary in periods
of severe depression, but may be needed in normal times, as well, to
help meet the problems of stranded communities and overmanned or
declining industries. To avoid the evils of hastily planned emergency
work, public employment should be planned in advance and coordi­
nated with the construction and developmental policies of the Govern­
ment and with the State and local public-works projects.
We regard work as preferable to other forms of relief where possible.
While we favor unemployment compensation in cash, we believe that
it should be provided for limited periods on a contractual basis and
without governmental subsidies. Public funds should be devoted to
providing work rather than to introduce a relief element into what
should be strictly an insurance system.
Unemployment Compensation

Unemployment compensation, as we conceive it, is a front line of
defense, especially valuable for those who are ordinarily steadily
employed, but very beneficial also in maintaining purchasing power.
While it will not directly benefit those now unemployed until they
are reabsorbed in industry, it should be instituted at the earliest
possible date to increase the security of all who are employed.
We believe that the States should administer unemployment com­
pensation, assisted and guided by the Federal Government. We
recommend as essential the imposition of a uniform pay-roll tax
against which credits shall be allowed to industries in States that
shall have passed unemployment compensation laws. Through such

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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

a uniform pay-roll tax it will be possible to remove the unfair com­
petitive advantage that employers operating in States which have
failed to adopt a compensation system enjoy over employers operating
in States which give such protection to their wage earners.
We believe also that it is essential that the Federal Government
assume responsibility for safeguarding, investing, and liquidating all
reserve funds, in order that these reserves may be utilized to promote
economic stability and to avoid dangers inherent in their uncontrolled
investment and liquidation. We believe, further, that the Federal
act should require high administrative standards, but should leave
wide latitude to the States in other respects, as we deem experience
very necessary with particular provisions of unemployment compen­
sation laws in order to conclude what types are most practicable in
this country.
Old-Age Security

To meet the problem of security for the aged we suggest as com­
plementary measures noncontributory old-age pensions, compulsory
contributory annuities, and voluntary contributory annuities, all to
be applicable on retirement at age 65 or over.
Only noncontributory old-age pensions will meet the situation of
those who are now old and have no means of support. Laws for the
payment of old-age pensions on a needs basis are in force in more
than half of all States and should be enacted everywhere. Because
most of the dependent aged are now on relief lists and derive their
support principally from the Federal Government and many of the
States cannot assume the financial burden of pensions unaided, we
recommend that the Federal Government pay one-half the cost of
old-age pensions but not more than $15 per month for any individual.
The satisfactory way of providing for the old age of those now
young is a contributory system of old-age annuities. This will enable
younger workers, with matching contributions from their employers,
to build up a more adequate old-age protection than it is possible to
achieve with noncontributory pensions based upon a means test. To
launch such a system we deem it necessary that workers who are now
middle-aged or older and who, therefore, cannot in a few remaining
years of their industrial life accumulate a substantial reserve be,
nevertheless, paid reasonable adequate annuities upon retirement.
These Government contributions to augment earned annuities may
either take the form of assistance under old-age pension laws on a
more liberal basis than in the case of persons who have made no con­
tributions or by a Government subsidy to the contributory annuity
system itself. A portion of these particular annuities will come out
of Government funds, but because receipts from contributions will in
the early years greatly exceed annuity payments, it will not be

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SOCIAL SECURITY

309

necessary as a financial problem to have Government contributions
until after the system has been in operation for 30 years. The com­
bined contributory rate we recommend is 1 percent of pay roll to be
divided equally between employers and employees, which is to be
increased by 1 percent each 5 years, until the maximum of 5 percent
is reached in 20 years.
There still remain, unprotected by either of the two above plans,
professional and self-employed groups, many of whom face depend­
ency in old age. Partially to meet their problem, we suggest the
establishment of a voluntry Government annuity system, designed
particularly for people of small incomes.
Security for Children

A large group of the children at present maintained by relief will
not be aided by employment or unemployment compensation. There
are the fatherless and other “ young” families without a breadwinner.
To meet the problems of the children in these families, no less than
45 States have enacted children’s aid laws, generally called “ mothers’
pension laws.” However, due to the present financial difficulty in
which many States find themselves, far more of such children are on
the relief lists than are in receipt of children’s aid benefits. We are
strongly of the opinion that these families should be differentiated
from the permanent dependents and unemployables, and we believe
that the children’s aid plan is the method which will best care for their
needs. We recommend Federal grants-in-aid on the basis of one-half
of the State and local expenditures for this purpose (one-third of the
entire cost).
We recommend also that the Federal Government give assistance
to States in providing local services for the protection and care of
homeless, neglected, and delinquent children and for child and ma­
ternal health services, especially in rural areas. Special aid should
be given toward meeting a part of the expenditures for transporta­
tion, hospitalization, and convalescent care of crippled and handi­
capped children, in order that those very necessary services may be
extended for a large group of children whose only handicaps are
physical.
Risks Arising Out of 111 Health

As a first measure for meeting the very serious problem of sickness
in families with low income we recommend a Nation-wide preventive
public-health program. It should be largely financed by State and
local governments and administered by State and local health depart­
ments, the Federal Government to contribute financial and technical
aid. The program contemplates (1) grants-in-aid to be allocated
through State departments of health to local areas unable to finance

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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

public-health programs from State and local health resources, (2)
direct aid to States in the development of State health services and
the training of personnel for State and local health work, and (3)
additional personnel in the United States Public Health Service to
investigate health problems of interstate or national concern.
The second major step we believe to be the application of the
principles of insurance to this problem. We are not prepared at this
time to make recommendations for a system of health insurance. We
have enlisted the cooperation of advisory groups representing the
medical and dental professions and hospital management in the
development of a plan for health insurance which will be beneficial
alike to the public and the professions concerned. We have asked
these groups to complete their work by March 1, 1935, and expect to
make a further report on this subject at that time or shortly there­
after. Elsewhere in our report we state principles on which our study
of health insurance is proceeding, which indicate clearly that we
contemplate no action that will not be quite as much in the interests
of the members of the professions concerned as of the families with
low incomes.
Residual Relief

The measures we suggest all seek to segregate clearly distinguish­
able large groups among those now on relief or on the verge of relief
and to apply such differentiated treatment to each group as will give
it the greatest practical degree of economic security. We believe
that if these measures are adopted, the residual relief problem will
have diminished to a point where it will be possible to return primary
responsibility for the care of people who cannot work to the State and
local governments.
To prevent such a step from resulting in less humane and less
intelligent treatment of unfortunate fellow citizens, we strongly rec­
ommend that the States substitute for their ancient, out-moded poor
laws modernized public-assistance laws, and replace their traditional
poor-law administrations by unified and efficient State and local
public welfare departments, such as exist in some States and for
which there is a nucleus in all States in the Federal emergency relief
organizations.
Administration

The creation of a social insurance board within the Department
of Labor, to be appointed by the President and with terms to insure
continuity of administration, is recommended to administer the
Federal unemployment compensation act and the system of Federal
contributory old-age annuities.
Full responsibility for the safeguarding and investment of all social
insurance funds, we recommend, should be vested in the Secretary of
the Treasury.

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The Federal Emergency Relief Administration is recommended as
the most appropriate existing agency for the administration of non­
contributory old-age pensions and grants in aid to dependent children.
If this agency should be abolished, the President should designate the
distribution of its work. It is recommended that all social welfare
activities of the Federal Government be coordinated and systematized.
Accident Compensation

While the present safeguards against industrial accidents have, on
the whole, worked out quite beneficially, there are still far too many
industrial accidents, and the accident compensation laws are sadly
lacking in uniformity and many of them are inadequate.
The following recommendations look toward more adequately
meeting the hazard of industrial accidents.
(1) The Department of Labor should further extend its services in
promoting uniformity and raising the standards of both the safety
laws and the accident compensation laws of the several States and
their administration.
(2) The four States which do not now have accident compensation
laws are urged to enact such laws, and passage of accident com­
pensation acts for railroad employees and maritime workers is
recommended.
Employment Service

If the measures for economic security suggested are to be put into
efficient operation, the United States Employment Service will have
to be expanded and improved. It is through the employment offices
that the unemployment compensation benefits and also the old-age
annuities are to be paid. These offices must function as efficient
placement agencies if the “ willingness-to-work” test of eligibility
for benefits in unemployment compensation is to be made effective.
They now function to select the employees on Public Works projects
and should have a similar relation to any expanded public-employment
program. Above all, the employment offices should strive to become
genuine clearing houses for all labor, at which all unemployed workers
will be registered and to which employers will naturally turn when
seeking employees.
To perform these important functions, a Nation-wide system of
employment offices is vital. The nucleus for such a system exists in
the United States Employment Service and the National Reemploy­
ment Service. Some amendment of the Wagner-Peyser Act is needed
to enable the employment offices to perform all the functions our
program contemplates. The larger funds required will come from
the portion of the Federal pay-roll tax retained for administrative
purposes.

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The interstate business of private employment agencies cannot be
regulated by the States, and, for the protection no less of the repu­
table agencies than of the workers, should be strictly regulated by the
Federal Government.
Educational and Rehabilitation Services

Education, training, and vocational guidance are of major impor­
tance in obtaining economic security for the individual and the Nation.
At this time it is tragically evident that education and training are not
a guaranty against dependency and destitution, that education, to
fulfill its purposes, must be related much more than it has been to the
economic needs of the individuals. In a day and age of rapidly
changing techniques and market demands, many people will find it
necessary to make readjustments long after they have first entered
industry. Our educational content and technique must be adjusted
to this situation.
To a considerable extent the Federal Government is already par­
ticipating in the field of education and we believe that it should
continue to do so, if possible, on an extended scale.
What to do with regard to the army of unemployed youths con­
tinues to be one of the gravest problems of this Nation. Obviously
what the great majority need is a chance to work at some job, a chance
to develop skills and techniques. In any program of employment
they must be given their fair share of available jobs. For many,
however, a training program would be of great benefit. This can be
developed satisfactorily only with the assistance of the Federal
Government.
At this point we desire to call special attention to the importance
of special programs for the physically handicapped, of whom there
are many millions in this country. Since the passage in 1920 of the
Federal Vocational Rehabilitation Act, the Government has been
assisting the States in a service of individual preparation for and place­
ment in employment of persons vocationally handicapped through
industrial or public accident, disease, or congenital causes. The desir­
ability of continuing this program and correlating it with existing and
contemplated services to workers in the general program of economic
security we believe to be most evident.
Other Measures for Economic Security

The different measures and policies which we deem essential in a
program to protect individuals against the many hazards which lead
to destitution and dependency have by no means exhausted the
subject.


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Such hazards as invalidity, nonindustrial accidents, and other
afflictions have not been dealt with.
Old-age insurance will apply to all employed persons, but will not
elude in its compulsory provisions proprietors, tenants, or the selfemployed. Unemployment compensation will have slightly narrower
scope, excluding those in small establishments.
Agricultural workers, domestic servants, homeworkers, and the
many self-employed people constitute large groups in the population
who have generally received little attention. More attention will have
to be given to these groups than they have received heretofore, if there
is to be a reasonably complete program for economic security.
Study of the suggested problems not dealt with in this report and
still other aspects of a comprehensive economic security program
belong logically among the duties of the social insurance board, if one
is established. So do problems of extending the coverage of unem­
ployment compensation and old-age insurance, and the task of corre­
lating the experience gained under these measures to make them
better instruments for the accomplishment of the purposes for which
they are designed.
R e p o r t o f N e w H a m p s h ire C o m m issio n o n U n e m p lo y ­
m e n t In s u ra n c e 1
TENTATIVE plan for the establishment of a system of unem­
ployment reserves in New Hampshire was proposed by the
commission appointed by the Governor of the State to study the
subject and formulate a plan which would merit the support of pro­
gressive citizens.
In considering the relative merits of voluntary action on the part of
employers and a mandatory law, the commission found that the
Wisconsin experience under the law which provided first for voluntary
action before the law became mandatory had been wholly unsatis­
factory and also that any law which left unemployment insurance to
voluntary action would create unfair differentiation between workers
who happen to be protected and those who are not. The commission
decided, therefore, that only an unemployment-insurance measure
which is binding on all employers within the stipulated coverage of the
measure gives hope of dealing effectively with the situation.
The proposed plan covers all occupations and trades except farming,
domestic servants in private homes, Government employees whether
State or local, teachers and officers in schools or colleges, and seasonal
industries, with certain other exceptions of minor importance such as
student nurses in training, members of the immediate family of an
1 N ew H am pshire. C om m ission on U n em ploym en t R eserves. A proposed unem ploym ent-insurance

A

measure for N ew H am pshire.


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employer, etc. A seasonal industry is defined as one with a regular,
consecutive, stipulated season of not over 17 weeks. Since the
workmen’s compensation act of the State applies only to plants of
five or more employees, the unemployment-insurance plan was dl
designed to apply to concerns of not less than five employees. Par
time workers, definitely registering for limited work, would be ex­
cluded from the plan, but the employer would be required to pay the
normal contribution for such workers in order to avoid a possible
tendency to use part-time labor instead of regular workers. The law
would apply to all manual workers paid on an hourly, daily, or weekly
basis, no matter what they earn, and to all salaried workers earning
less than $1,800 a year. A waiting period of 3 weeks’ consecutive
unemployment in any 6 months, or 4 weeks’ cumulative unemploy­
ment in any 6 months is provided before the payment of benefits.
The weekly benefits are fixed in the plan at 50 percent of the total
full-time weekly earnings but with a maximum of $14 and a minimum
of $6. Benefits would be payable for a maximum of 16 weeks of total
unemployment in any 1 year. Benefits would be paid for partial
unemployment, after the normal waiting period, for workers who are
employed less than 3 full days or earn less than half their normal full­
time wages. In order to encourage workers to take such part-time
jobs, the supplementary benefits and earnings are fixed at approxi­
mately 60 percent of normal earnings.
The plan provides that it shall be financed by contributions from
employers of a maximum of 2}{ percent of the total pay roll of workers
covered by the plan. After a period of 3 years, a reduction of premium
is provided for in case of employers who have shown that they have
been able to give more regular employment than others. The con­
tributions received from each employer and the benefits paid out to
his workers will be kept in special accounts. When the account
shows a reserve of 8 percent of the pay roll of the insured group in a
concern, the rate payable by that concern will be only 2 percent, when
the reserve is 10 percent the rate will be 1% percent, and when the
reserve is 12 percent the rate will be the minimum of 1 percent. The
employees’ contribution is fixed at 1 percent of the weekly wage of
each employee covered, which is deducted from the pay by the em­
ployer and sent with his contribution to the State insurance fund.
The unemployment-insurance plan would be administered by the
State department of labor and would be linked with an adequate
system of public employment offices.


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O p e r a tio n o f W isco n sin U n e m p lo y m e n t-C o m p e n s a tio n
A c t1
V I 'HE Wisconsin unemployment reserves and compensation act 2
_rJ_ which became law on January 29, 1932, did not take State-wide
and compulsory effect until July 1, 1934, when contributions by
employers to their various unemployment-reserve funds were started.
During the period from January 1932 to June 1934 only the provisions
relating to approved voluntary plans were in actual effect, although
throughout this period the industrial commission, pursuant to legis­
lative mandate, sought “ to assist employers in the establishment of
voluntary plans for unemployment compensation in conformity with
the standards prescribed by law.” Also during the law’s first 2 years
of operation the commission employed consultants to draft plans
meeting the standards specified by the law for the assistance of those
employers who might desire to submit voluntary plans and took other
steps to encourage suitable voluntary action by employers.
Although a substantial number of voluntary plans were submitted
in late 1932 and early 1933 with a view to reaching the prescribed
minimum number of employees which would preserve the voluntary
nature of the law, many employers marked time during this period
because of possible postponement of the act. During the period
while the enforcement of the law was in abeyance, due to the depressed
condition of industry, an amending law was enacted clarifying the
original act and postponing contributions until July 1, 1934. It is
expected that the advisory committee, consisting of employer and
labor representatives and a representative of the industrial commis­
sion will, as a result of further study and administrative experience,
prepare for consideration by the 1935 session of the legislature such
further clarifying amendments as ought to be enacted before benefits
actually become payable.
In order to assure employers a fully adequate opportunity to sub­
mit voluntary plans under the quota which was first fixed at 175,000
and later reduced to 139,000, the commission established in November
1933 but delayed until April 28, 1934, the announcement of its official
finding that a sufficient degree of recovery had taken place to justify
the enforcement of the act. The publication of the findings on the
latter date closed the employers’ opportunity, which had been held
open for them for 2 years, to bring about the purposes of the act
without legal compulsion.
The delay by employers in establishing plans was occasioned by
the fact that the majority did not wish by their voluntary action to
exclude other employers from the provisions of the law, since, if the
1W isconsin. Industrial C om m ission. U nem ploym en t C om pensation D ep artm en t. H istory and
S tatus of W isconsin’s U n em ploym en t C om pensation A ct. M adison, 1934.
2See M o n th ly Labor R eview , Septem ber 1934, p. 598.
109041—35-----5


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prescribed quota had been reached, over half the employers subject
to tbe act would have escaped the obligation now imposed upon them
by the law to create unemployment-reserve funds for their employees.
As soon as it became known that the law would take compulsory
effect, hundreds of employers began to present their plans for
“ exemption” under the law itself. For the most part these plans
followed closely the various standard drafts prepared by the com­
mission. Exempted plans submitted by employers require specific
approval by the commission, but as such plans are drawn as long­
term contracts terminating April 28, 1939, many employers have
chosen to adopt exempted plans in the hope of thereby securing
immunity from legislative changes throughout the required term of
these contracts. An unemployment-compensation department was
created in the commission in the spring of 1934 to handle the cor­
respondence and analysis of proposed plans, to prepare the necessary
reporting forms, to assist employers in making their contributions,
and to receive or supervise their contribution payments.
The required contributions under the law are figured as a percentage
of the pay roll of each employer, but because of this fact shortening
hours to employ more men does not affect contributions. About
3,400 firms employing approximately 300,000 workers are subject to
the act. The 2 percent unemployment reserve contributions for all
employers combined are expected to average about $450,000 per
month. The benefits which become payable after July 1, 1935, will
be based solely on employment and on unemployment occurring after
that date. Up to the end of November 1934, about 70 employers in
the State, employing about 3,000 workers, had secured exemption
from the law’s benefit provisions by establishing “ guaranteed em­
ployment” plans which are now in full operation and assure the
workers covered by the guaranty at least 42 weeks’ work out of 52,
for at least two-thirds of their full-time schedule of hours in each
such week.
Nearly two-thirds of the employers subject to the act have estab­
lished “ exempted” benefit plans and about 400 of these employers
have been allowed, in view of their financial strength, to set up
unemployment-reserve accounts on their books, subject to such
security as the commission may from time to time consider necessary.
In most cases the exempted employers are creating reserve funds
separate from other company assets, and in many cases the employer
deposits his unemployment-benefit fund with his local bank in a
special account having complete Federal deposit-insurance protec­
tion. The contribution payments made to the various depositories
are recorded and supervised by the industrial commission.
Since the entire administrative cost of the law is paid directly by
employers, no appropriation from general State funds will be required.

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In addition to the payment of the costs of the direct administration
of the law by the employers, beginning in 1935 the assessment will
cover their proportionate share (about one-third) of the total cost
of the State public employment offices, the remaining two-thirds
continuing to be financed from local funds, general State funds, and
Federal funds. The unemployment-compensation act, therefore,
will finance its fair share of the expanded system of public employ­
ment exchanges which will be essential to better job clearing and to
the operation of the law.
E s ta b lis h m e n t o f N e w U n e m p lo y m e n t A ssista n c e B o ard
in G re a t B r i t a i n 1
HE British unemployment insurance system as amended by the
law of June 28, 1934, provided for the taking over of the extended
benefit, which had become known as “ transitional” benefit, by a
national unemployment assistance service under the administration
of an Unemployment Assistance Board.2 On January 7, 1935, the
Board took over the administration of assistance to the recipients of
transitional payments (unemployed insured persons not receiving
insurance benefit) and on March 1, it will take over the remainder of
the able-bodied unemployed now on poor relief. Lord Betterton,
formerly Minister of Labor, is chairman of the board.
It is estimated that with the present level of unemployment the
average number to receive unemployment assistance allowances who
are now entitled to transitional payments will be about 725,000 (with
their dependents in addition). It is not possible, in advance of experi­
ence, to estimate the number whose only recourse hitherto has been
the Public Assistance Authority, but it is considered possible that the
total number of claimants in both classes may be in the neighborhood
of 1,000,000, exclusive of their dependents. The annual rate of
expenditure lor persons in receipt of transitional pajunents, which in
1934 amounted to about £41,000,000,3 it is estimated will increase
under the unemployment-assistance scheme about £3,000,000, and
while it is not possible to make a precise estimate of the expenditure
for the classes formerly on poor relief it is considered that, on the basis
of present unemployment, the total extra cost to the Exchequer in
respect of both classes will not be less than £8,000,000 a year. These
figures, being calculated on the present level of unemployment, are
not necessarily an indication of the actual total Exchequer charge of
1D a ta are from Great B ritain, U n em p loym en t A ssistance A ct, 1934, Draft regulations, 1934, dated D ec.

T

11, 1934, m ade b y the M inister of Labor under sections 38 (3) and 52 (2) of th e U n em p lo y m en t A ssistan ce
A ct, 1934; M em orandum explanatory of the draft regulations; T h e U n em p lo y m en t Insurance (R em oval
of D ifficulties) Order, 1934, dated D ec. 4, 1934.
See M on th ly Labor R eview , Septem ber 1934, p. 574.
Pound at par $418665; exchange rate for 1934 w as $5.0393.

2
3


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future years, which will naturally diminish as the country returns
toward conditions of prosperity.
Under the regulations the need of an applicant will be determined by
reference to the amount at which his needs would be assessed under
the regulations if he had no resources, and to the amount of his
available resources, but an allowance will not be granted or taken
away unless there is a substantial difference between his available
resources and the amount at which liis needs would be assessed when
considered in relation to all the circumstances of the case.
For the purpose of assessing need, applicants are divided broadly
into two classes—those forming part of a household and those living
alone, for example, in lodgings or as boarders. The provisional assess­
ment of the needs of an applicant includes the needs of any members
of the household who are dependent on or ordinarily supported by
him. In case of an applicant living as a member of a household
consisting of two or more persons the following rates apply: For the
householder and the householder’s wife or husband, 24s. a week; for
other householders, 16s. for males and 14s. for females. For other
members of the household aged 21 years or over to whom the foregoing
rates do not apply, the rates are 10s. for the first male and 8s. for the
first female, and for each subsequent member 8s. and 7s., respectively.
The latter rates also apply to persons between the ages of 18 and 21,
while between the ages of 5 and 14, but less than 18 years, the rates
range from 3s. to 6s. per week. If the household consists of only one
child in addition to not more than two adults the amount allowed for
the child is not less than 4s., and in households having more than five
members the total for the household is reduced Is. for each member in
excess of five. For persons living otherwise than as a member of a
household consisting of two or more persons, the rate for males aged
18 years or over is 15s. a week and for females 14s., while the respective
rates for persons under 18 years of age are 13s. and 12s.
The application of the basic scale depends upon two factors—i. e.,
rent and the “ available resources” -— which include income from
investments or savings of the household. The object of the regula­
tions is to try to put all households of the same composition substan­
tially in the same financial position relative to necessary expendi­
ture, and allowance has accordingly been made for the variable factor
of rent, so that the scale can be moved upward or downward accord­
ing as the rents are high or low in particular areas. Tbe general
principle of the allowances is that a certain sum for rent, called the
basic rent allowance, is included. This is calculated on the total
scale allowance for all members of the household. In cases where the
scale allowances are 24s. but less than 30s. the basic rent allowance is
fixed at 7s. 6d.; if the scale allowances are less than 24s. the rent al­
lowance is reduced by one-quarter of the difference; and if more than

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30s. it is increased in the same ratio. Thus for a provisional assess­
ment of 32s. the basic rent allowance would be 8s. and if it is 22s. the
basic rent allowance would be 7s. If the actual rent paid, therefore,
is lower than the basic rent allowance the provisional assessment is
reduced by the amount of the difference, except in special circum­
stances, when this difference may be disregarded if the difference is
not greater than Is. 6d., and therefore it need only be reduced by
the excess over Is. 6d. when the actual rent is more than that amount
below the basic allowance. For example, with a rent of 6s. the pro­
visional assessment would ordinarily be reduced by Is. 6d. but in
special circumstances need not be reduced at all, and with a rent of
5s. the provisional assessment would similarly be reduced by 2s. 6d.
but in special circumstances the reduction might be no more than Is.
The applicant’s available resources cover the aggregate value of all
money and investments belonging to the applicant or to any member
of the household (exclusive of the capital value of any interest in the
house in which the household resides). All other assets are to be
considered in the aggregate with the exception of certain specified
exemptions which are not regarded as available resources to meet
current needs. Certain specific resources such as sickness and ma­
ternity benefits, workmen’s compensation payments, and wounds and
disability pensions are disregarded within certain specified limits for
each type of compensation. The act also makes certain exemptions
for income from subletting or from lodgers. Allowance is made in
assessing resources for the personal requirements of members of the
household whose resources are taken into account and in cases where
special expenditure is necessarily incurred in connection with a per­
son’s employment . The final assessment of the needs of the applicant
will, with these exceptions, be the amount by which the provisional
assessment exceeds the amount of the applicant’s available resources.
However, the act provides that in no case shall the needs of the appli­
cant be assessed at a sum which is equal to or greater than the amount
which would normally be available from earnings if all the members of
the household whose needs have been taken into account were following
their normal occupations. It is provided also that the final assess­
ment may be either increased or reduced to meet special circumstances.
The discretionary powers thus conferred on the Board’s officers and the
appeal tribunals are of great importance and enable an adjustment of
the final assessment to be made to meet special circumstances in every
case in which such special circumstances exist.
An order was issued in December 1934 providing for the removal
of difficulties in the application of the act. The Unemployment Act,
1934, conferred upon insured contributors whose benefit year began
on or after July 26, 1934, certain additional benefit rights, but also
provided that an insured contributor who had exhausted his benefit

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rights in any benefit year should not hereafter be entitled to benefit
until he proved payment of 10 contributions since the end of that
benefit year. The order is designed to remove the difficulties which
might arise from this provision for persons covered by the transitory
provisions, since the Minister of Labor with the consent of the
Treasury was empowered to make such modifications in those pro­
visions as appeared necessary for preventing anomalies during the
period affected by the transition to the provisions of the 1934 act.

N e w S o c ia l-In su ra n c e A c t o f G re e c e 1
SOCIAL insurance act covering sickness and maternity, industrial accidents and occupational diseases, and invalidity, old age,
and death, was passed by the Greek Parliament and promulgated on
October 10, 1934. The insurance system may either be declared
applicable at once to all persons covered by the act or may be applied
by degrees to different occupational classes or districts. In either
case liability to insurance will become effective not earlier than April
10, 1935, and not later than October 10, 1936.
Coverage of Act

T he act covers employed persons in general, but excludes certain
groups of workers, namely, domestic servants, agricultural workers
not employed in the neighborhood of an urban center, servants of
religious organizations, and persons whose contracts of employment
do not as a rule cover a period of more than a week. The insurance
system is financed by contributions of the insured persons and their
employers. For the purpose of fixing the contribution the members
of the insurance system are divided into eight wage classes, the first
of which includes persons earning not more than 29.95 drachmas a
day while the eighth class includes those earning 250 drachmas or
more a day.
The basic daily wage of each class corresponds to the average of the
higher and lower limits of the group. The inclusive daily contribu­
tion payable by insured persons ranges from 1.15 drachmas in class 1
to 20.60 drachmas in class 8. The total contribution is payable by
the employer, whose share amounts to 60 percent of the total, the
employees’ contributions being deducted from their wages. Persons
in receipt of a pension will contribute only to sickness insurance, a
deduction of 5 percent being made from each pension to cover the
costs of medical and pharmaceutical aid to this group. The total
contribution of the employer and the worker represents about 7.7
percent of the basic wage, about 4 percent being allotted to sickness
1Industrial and Labor Inform ation, G eneva, D ec. 3, 1934, p. 295.

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insurance (this may, however, be increased by the Government up
to a maximum of 4.8 percent of the basic wage). The contribution
applied to insurance against invalidity, old age, and death will at
first amount to 3.7 percent of the basic wage, but as from January 1,
1940, this contribution will be increased to 4.8 percent. Further
increases will be made in 1945 and 1948, and it will reach the maximum
of 8 percent of the basic wage in 1951. The ratio of the contribution
between insured persons and employers may be changed by decree
on the occasion of each of these increases.
Benefits
B e n e f i t s for sickness are paid to insured persons or pensioners, or
any member of the family of such a person, if at least 50 days’ work
has been completed during the 12 months preceding sickness. Bene­
fits are also granted to an insured woman or pensioner or the wife
or daughter of an insured person or pensioner in the event of child­
birth. Invalidity benefits are paid to persons who, as a result of
sickness, injury, or physical or mental disability, are rendered inca­
pable for more than 6 months of earning more than one-third of the
normal earnings in the same district and the same occupational class.
Old-age pensions are payable on the completion of the sixty-fifth
year for men and the sixtieth year for women, but eligibility for a
pension depends upon the insured person’s having worked at least
750 days, 300 of which must have been worked during the preceding
3 years. A lump sum may be paid to an insured person who does
not fulfill this condition but who has been insured 300 days or longer.
The old-age pension is payable only if the person concerned does not
earn by his own labor more than half the wage ordinarily earned in
the same district by normally capable persons belonging to the same
occupational class. In the case of the death of an insured person or
pensioner his widow and children under 16 are entitled to a pension.
Benefits are paid for any sickness or injury occurring in the course
of employment, without any qualifying period being required. The
occupational diseases covered by this provision are lead and mercury
poisoning and anthrax infection. Invalidity arising from these indus­
trial diseases or accidents entitles a pensioner to invalidity insurance
without any qualifying period. In case of sickness resulting from a
nonindustrial accident no qualifying period is required, but invalidity
benefit is payable only if the person concerned has completed the
general qualifying period.
Amount of benefit.—Sickness and maternity benefits include medical
and other therapeutic treatment and necessary medicines and cash.
In general the medical benefits are free, but insured persons and
pensioners may be required by administrative regulation to meet
one-fifth of the cost, except in the case of an industrial accident. The


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duration of medical benefits is not limited, treatment being given as
long as the condition of the patient requires them. In maternity
cases the woman is entitled to the assistance of a midwife and, if neces­
sary, medical treatment, or a lump sum may be given in lieu thereof.
Cash benefits are payable to persons incapacitated for work on the
sixth day after the date on which notification of sickness is given and
are paid for a period of not more than 180 days. The benefits vary
from 6 drachmas per day in class 1 to 108 drachmas in class 8, amount­
ing to two-fifths of the basic wage in each wage class. In case of sick­
ness arising from an industrial accident the benefit will be increased
by 50 percent and will be paid for a maximum period of 750 days.
Maternity benefits for insured women are fixed at one-third of their
daily wage for every day they abstain from work in the 6 weeks
preceding and the 6 weeks following childbirth. In the event of the
death of the insured person or pensioner a funeral benefit of 1,250
drachmas is paid.
An invalidity pension consists of a fixed part amounting to 3,000
drachmas a year and an amount based on the amount of contributions
paid on account of the insured person, varying from 15 lepta per day
for each daily contribution in the first class to 4.80 drachmas for each
contribution in the eighth and highest class. The invalidity pension
may not exceed the earnings of the insured person during the last
12 months in which contributions were paid. A special allowance
amounting to 50 percent of the pension is made for invalids who
require the constant attendance of another person.
The old-age pension is calculated in the same way as the invalidity
pension.
A pension equal to 40 percent of the regular pension is paid to the
widow of an insured person or pensioner, and in the event of remarriage
she will receive a final benefit equal to twice her annual pension.
Twenty percent of the pension is paid to each child under 16 years of
age, the pension being payable up to the age of 21 in the case of
children who are continuing their studies and without age limit to
those totally incapable of work. The total of all survivors’ pensions
may not exceed the amount of the pension to which the deceased was
entitled. When this amount is not reached, or in the absence of a
widow and orphans, other relatives of the deceased who were mainly
supported by him will be entitled to a pension of 20 percent of the
deceased person’s pension.
Administration of the Act
T h e Minister of National Economy will have charge of the admin­
istration of the act, and a central insurance institution will be estab­
lished in Athens, with provincial offices in the principal urban centers
and agencies in all localities where more than 500 inhabitants are

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323

insured. The insurance institution will be administered by a board of
11 members, including 2 experts on social questions, 1 expert on
economic questions, and 4 representatives each of the insured persons
and their employers. The three experts will be appointed by the
Government, but the other members will be elected by secret ballot
by the groups they represent, although for an initial period of 5 years,
which may be extended to 10, the Government will select the delegates
from lists submitted by the groups concerned. A commissioner
appointed by the Minister of National Economy will be present at the
meetings of the board in an advisory capacity.
Disputed questions relating to membership, allocation to wage
classes, contributions, and benefits will be submitted to insurance
courts of first or second instance. The courts of first instance, con­
sisting of 3 members, will be established in the provincial offices
of the insurance institution and the court of second instance, con­
sisting of a president appointed from the judges of the Appeal Court
of Athens, 2 officials from the Ministry of National Economy, and
1 employer and 1 worker appointed by their respective organizations,
will be established in Athens. A social insurance council consisting of
23 experts will be appointed by the Minister to advise on draft
measures relating to social insurance, to study social insurance
problems, and to popularize the idea of insurance by means of
periodicals and lectures.


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INDUSTRIAL AND LABOR CONDITIONS
L a b o r C o n d itio n s in th e O n io n F ield s o f O h io
N THE summer of 1934 Nation-wide attention was attracted to the
onion-field area of Ohio by the serious labor disturbances which
occurred there. As a result of the strike, the Secretary of Agriculture,
the Secretary of Labor, and the Federal Emergency Belief Admin­
istrator on August 29, 1934, appointed a committee to make a thor­
ough investigation of labor conditions in the onion fields of Hardin
County, Ohio.
The results of this investigation show that before the strike the
customary hourly wage rate was 12K cents and some adult workers
were employed for only 10 cents an hour. Moreover, during the
year ending August 31, 1934, the cash income from all sources of 53
percent of the 177 families covered by the survey was less than $250,
and 83 percent of the families had incomes of less than $500. Only
3 percent of the families canvassed had incomes of $1,000 or more.
The principal findings of the Interdepartmental Committee are
summarized in this article.

I

General Considerations

T he onion-field area of Ohio is part of a marsh land located about
90 miles northwest of Columbus and 10 or 12 miles east of Lima.
The marsh is in Hardin County and is divided into two parts, con­
sisting of 17,000 acres known as the Scioto Marsh, and 4,000 acres
known as the Hog-Creek Marsh. Both marshes were completely
uncultivated about 45 years ago, but, beginning with the early
nineties, the area was slowly brought under cultivation, until at
present the entire marsh land has been reclaimed. Several small
towns'such as Alger, Dola, McGuffey, and Ada are located in the
marsh area.
A considerable percentage of the acreage of both marshes is con­
trolled by a few growers. In the Scioto Marsh one corporate farm,
operated by a general manager who is also a large stockholder, controls
approximately 3,500 acres; another corporate farm owns 900 acres;
and one family owns 600 acres and leases another 300 acres. Thus,
three owners control 30 percent of the land of this marsh. In the
Hog-Creek Marsh one grower owns approximately 1,200 acres, or
about 30 percent of the entire marsh. The remaining acreage is
divided among a large number of small growers.
324

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Costs, Prices, and Profits
I t w a s generally admitted by the growers who were interviewed
that both marshes covered extremely fertile land which had, over a
period of years, yielded excellent returns. A report filed in 1929 by
a special committee of these growers with the financial committee of
the house of representatives of the Ohio Legislature stated that prior
to 1929 the total income from onions grown on Scioto and Hog-Creek
Marshes averaged $1,000,000 per year and that the valuation of the
marsh land available for onion raising (about 11,000 acres) was at
that time $1,440,000. Actually, only from 5,000 to 6,000 acres were
planted to onions, so that the $1,000,000 annual income was obtained
from land valued at $720,000.
The growers claimed, however, that during the past few years they
had consistently lost money, but, in spite of repeated requests, no
grower offered access to his books and records for evidence to support
these claims.
The acreage planted to onions has declined steadily during the past
decade. In part, this is the result of the decreased fertility of the
soil for the culture of onions, but long-continued failure to rotate
crops has also been a factor. The maximum acreage planted to
onions in both tracts in any one year was about 8,000 acres. For the
1934 crop, only 3,500 acres were so planted, and the growers claimed
that, because of windstorms, drought, and the strike, only 2,000 acres
were actually harvested.
Yield.—In addition to the reduction in onion acreage, the growers
stated that the yield per acre has decreased considerably. Statements
were made that as against an average yield of about 400 bushels an
acre once obtained from the marsh land, the average yield for 1934
would be only about 250 bushels These figures could only be
checked against the annual reports issued by the State Agriculture
Experiment Station located on the Scioto Marsh. From the first
report (1932), it appears that with the proper use of fertilizers and
thorough irrigation, an average yield in excess of 400 bushels an acre
was obtained on land cultivated by this station. In the 1933 report
the experiment station showed an average yield in excess of 500 bushels
an acre. On the other hand, the Crops and Market Reports published
by the United States Department of Agricidture indicate that the
average yield per acre for onions produced in Ohio, which includes a
very small acreage in addition to the marsh areas in Hardin County,
was only 350 bushels in 1924 and had decreased to 215 bushels an
acre in 1933. Advanced methods of cultivation and extensive use of
fertilizers and irrigation are probably limited to the acreage con­
trolled by the large growers. It is probably true, therefore, that
there is a wide variation between the yield from acreage controlled

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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

by them and the yield from acreage primarily in the charge of share
croppers.
Prices and marketing practices.—The Crops and Market Reports
published by the United States Department of Agriculture indicate
that the average price per bushel for onions produced in Ohio fluc­
tuated considerably, rising from 67 cents per bushel (57 pounds) in
1924 to $1.60 per bushel in 1928, falling to a low of 21 cents per bushel
in 1932, and increasing to 60 cents per bushel in 1933.
It was stated to be the customary procedure that a few large
producers purchase at the end of the harvest year the entire crop of
all the growers. Only a few growers have the necessary storage and
warehouse facilities located near the marsh land. Further, it was
admitted by some of the growers that the so-called “ losses” suffered
during the past few years resulted from the fact that those who pur­
chased the crop did so in anticipation of a rise in price during the
following winter and early spring. In other words, it seems likely
that these losses were due rather to this speculative method of
marketing than to the sharp decline in the price of onions.
Costs.— Accurate information could not be obtained with respect to
the cost of production of onions on the marsh land. The county
agent for Hardin County stated that in his opinion the cost did not
exceed $100 per acre. In the report filed by the special committee of
growers with the Ohio State Legislature it was stated that the approx­
imate per-acre cost of producing onions from planting to cultivating
(figured on a basis of a yield of 400 bushels per acre) was $209.65.
This estimate included rent, plowing and fitting, cost of seed, sowing
seed, fertilizers, weeding, topping, hoeing, screening, cost of bags,
taxes of $8 per acre, brokerage of $15 per acre, depreciation on crates,
insurance, and depreciation on buildings.
It is quite likely that the shift on the part of many growers from
onions to potatoes and other truck garden crops is due not so much to
actual losses incurred from raising onions (aside from speculative losses)
as to the fact that these other crops have proven extremely profitable.
Thus, one of the large growers stated that for 1933 he had 500 acres
planted to potatoes, which cost him $85 per acre. This grower ad­
mitted that he received an average price of $125 an acre, or a net
profit of $20,000.
Labor Requirements

T he most intensive cultivation of the entire marsh land has occurred
in the raising of onions. Even though the maximum amount of acreage
ever planted to onions was only 8,000 acres, the labor troubles during
the summer of 1934 occurred primarily in the onion fields.
Onion culture may be divided into 4 classes of operations. The
first step is the preparation of the soil, which includes plowing, har­
rowing, loaming, dragging and smoothing the soil, and fertilizing. The

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INDUSTRIAL AND LABOR CONDITIONS

'

327

second step is that of planting, in sowing seeds in rows or beds by
hired drill or gang drill. The third step, that of cultivation, consists
of hoeing, by hand or wheel, from 8 to 14 times, interspersed with
hand weeding. The fourth and final step is harvesting and curing;
when the bulbs become ripe and come to the surface the onions are
pulled by hand and thrown in windrows. The onions are allowed to
remain on the ground for several days, being stirred occasionally with
wooden rakes. The tops are then removed by twisting or by cutting
with shears and the onions are placed in crates for drying or are left
in the windrows. After the drying period is over the onions are put
into sacks or crates for curing, which takes about 4 or 5 weeks. They
are then sorted, graded, screened, and cleaned, and put into sacks or
crates for storage.
Labor is required chiefly in connection with the weeding and har­
vesting. This work usually covers the period from June to September.
Although the work covers a period of only 4 or 5 months, a large num­
ber of workers must be available. Even during this short term the
work is not steady. The growers have become accustomed, because
of the large supply of available agricultural workers, to concentrate
the weeding and harvesting process during a few days in any particular
week, making workers toil long hours, ranging from 10 to 13 hours a
day.
Influx oj agricultural workers.—About 15 years ago, when onion
cultivation was most intensive, the growers commenced an active
campaign to influence families located in the mountainous sections of
the nearby States of Kentucky, West Virginia, and Tennessee to come
into Hardin County during the summer season for work in the onion
fields. By advertisements in local newspapers and active personal
solicitation, families were advised of the opportunities of employment
in the onion fields. Entire families were promised employment, since
the children could do acceptable work in weeding and topping the
onions. Wage rates of 25 cents or 30 cents an hour were offered.
At first, the families who responded came to the onion fields merely
for the summer work, staying until October and then returning to
their homes after the harvest. General opinion was to the effect that
it was only about 5 or *6 years ago that these mountain families began
staying through the winter on the marsh land. The information
secured from the workers, however, does not confirm these statements.
Of the 63 Kentucky, West Virginia, and Tennessee families inter­
viewed, only 19 percent had been in Hardin County less than 5 years,
while 24 percent had been there from 5 to 10 years, and 57 percent
10 years or more.
There is no doubt that a large number of the available agricultural
workers on and near the marshland were brought there to woik in
connection with onion cultivation. The decline in the acreage planted

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MONTHLY LABOR EEVIEW— FEBRUAEY 1935

to onions necessarily decreased the demand for these workers. As
crops shifted to corn, potatoes, and truck products, the demand for
agricultural labor became less and less.
The situation which existed in the early part of the 1934 season,
before the strike, was simply that the families of agricultural workers
on the marsh found that their working days were considerably
reduced, even in comparison with their previous experience, because
of the growers’ practice of concentrating the available work within a
shorter period through the use of more workers at lower wages.
Employment and Wage Rates

T he Interdepartmental Committee found that the grievances of
the agricultural workers were concerned chiefly with hourly wage
rates, scarcity of work, employment of children, and the difficulty of
marketing at a fair price the onions grown on a crop-sharing basis.
The work in the onion fields is done both by workers who depend
on day labor alone and those who plant some acreage on a crop­
sharing basis in addition to doing day labor. There seems to be no
social distinction between these two groups, a situation easily under­
stood when the number of acres the small share-croppers plant is
taken into consideration. Of the 195 families included in this study,
109 were share-croppers; 36 of these families had less than 3 acres of
land, 38 families between 3 and 5 acres, 18 families between 5 and 10
acres, and only 17 families 10 acres or more. It is understood that a
landowner who needs day labor on the land he is farming has first
claim on the time of the share-cropper who rents from him. The
share-cropper cares for his own acreage during the time he is not
needed by the landowner.
Onions are the chief crop grown by share-croppers. They were
raised by 104 of the 109 families of share-croppers included in the
survey and were the only product raised by 84 of these families.
Under the arrangement between the landowner and the share­
cropper, the landowner prepares the soil and sows the seed, usually
making a charge to the share-cropper for this service. In the 1934
season this “ fitting cost” ranged from $3.50 to $12.50 an acre. In
some cases the share-cropper is unaware of the amount of the “ fitting
cost” until the end of the harvest. The share-cropper and his family
supply the labor. The harvested onions are divided on a 50-50 basis
as they are stacked in crates, furnished by the landowner, in the field.
The share-croppers claim that, even if the seed were “ blown out” by
spring windstorms, they sometimes are required to pay the “ fitting”
bill, although they had no crop as a source of income with which to
meet the charge.
The marketing of onions presents another difficulty to share-crop­
pers. They stated that it is understood that the crop is to be offered

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INDUSTRIAL AND LABOR CONDITIONS

329

first to the landlord and that if he does not wish to buy he will be con­
sulted by any prospective purchasers. It was claimed the prices set
by local distributors were below market prices. Another hardship
was the lack of their own storage facilities and the necessity for
immediate cash, making it imperative for the small share-cropper to
dispose of his crop before prices reached their peak in the winter and
spring.
Day laborers are paid by the hour for most of their work on the
farm or in connection with the storehouses. Topping onions, how­
ever, is paid for by the crate.
Employment of women and children.—The cultivation and harvest­
ing of onions are done on a family basis, women and children working
particularly in the weeding, pulling, and topping processes. It was
reported that fewer children than usual were employed in the fields
during the 1934 season, due both to the surplus labor supply and to the
publicity resulting from the strike. Of the 433 workers from whom
age data were obtained, however, 43 were under 14 years of age and
34 between 14 and 16 years of age. Thus, the children under 14 years
who were working constituted 10 percent and those under 16 years
18 percent of the total group of workers whose age was reported.
The information in regard to the employment of children covered
only those who were working on a wage basis on land farmed by the
grower. Therefore, since approximately three-fourths of the onion
acreage is on a crop-sharing basis, where children assist the parents,
the information covers only a fraction of the work done by minors in
the production of onions.
Work opportunities.—Opportunities for agricultural work both for
day laborers and share-croppers have been seriously curtailed during
the last 5 years by a steady reduction in the acreage planted in onions.
Since very little land, other than that used for onions, is rented to
share-croppers, agricultural workers desiring land on a crop-sharing
basis have not been able to secure it. Day laborers have had little
employment because the crops substituted for onions require far less
hand labor during the cultivating and harvesting seasons and afford
practically no winter work such as is available through the screening
and loading of onions. The fact that onion workers formerly left
Ohio in October, but have in recent years remained through the
winter and have been in the market for work in the onion storehouses
has contributed toward creating a surplus labor supply.
The gravity of the employment situation has been increased by the
scarcity of nonagricultural jobs. Formerly men were able to secure
temporary work in other communities during the slack periods in
farming. The amount of nonagricultural work reported by workers
for the year ending August 31, 1934, was negligible. Only 47 of the
468 agricultural workers furnishing information were able to secure
employment off the farm.


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

The total number of days worked during the year ending August
31, 1934, in both agricultural and nonagricultural work, by 451 of
the 468 workers (including children under 16 years of age), is shown
below:
Number of
workers

Under 10 days___________________________________________ 96
10 and under 26 days_____________________________________ 112
26 and under 51 days_____________________________________ 67
51 and under 76 days_____________________________________ 47
76 and under 101 days____________________________________ 36
101 and under 126 days________________________________ 23
126 and under 151 days_____________________ _____________ 25
151 days and over________________________________________
45

A more detailed analysis of the days worked by workers 16 years of
age and over during the year ending August 31,1934, is given in table 1.
From this table it will be noted that 39 percent of the reported
group had no more than a month’s work (25 days) during the entire
year, 55 percent worked less than 2 months, and 77 percent less than
3 months, while the working time of 88 percent did not exceed half­
time. Even when the work record of the men is considered separately,
it is found that 57 percent of the workers had no more than 3 months’
work during the year and only 17 percent worked more than 6 months.
T a b le 1 .— N u m b e r o f D a y s E m p lo y e d a n d S trik e S ta tu s o f W o rk e rs 16 Y e a rs
o f A ge a n d O v e r in O hio O n io n F ie ld s, Y e a r E n d in g A ug. 31, 1934
W orkers 16 years of age and over

N u m b er of days em ployed

T otal

M en

W om en

N u m ­ Per­ N u m ­ Per­ N u m ­ Per­
ber cent
ber cent
ber cent
A ll workers c o v e r e d _________

391

N u m b er reporting, w ho worked speci­
______
fied t i m e _____

381

100

268

100

113

63
84
61
46
35
22
25
45

17
22
16
12
9
6
7
12

21
50
39
41
30
18
24
45

8
19
15
15
11
7
9
17

42
34
22
5
5
4
1

U nder 10 d a y s____ ____ _______
10 and under 26 d a y s ______ _
26 and under 51 d a y s_________
_
51 and under 76 d a y s_____
_ __
76 and under 101 d a y s. _
_ ___
101 and under 126 d a y s____ __ __
126 and under 151 d ays- _______
151 days and over— ______
N u m b er n ot reporting _ _________

10

276

8

115

2

On strike

M en

N o t on strike

W om ­
M en W om ­
en
en

58

27

218

88

100

55

27

213

86

37
30
19
4
4
4
1

5
17
9
13
6
1
4

12
10
4

16
33
30
28
24
17
20
45

30
24
18
5
5
3
1

5

2

3

1

Wage rates.—According to both workers and growers, the wage
rate of workers in the onion fields 15 years ago was 35 cents an hour
and as recently as 1930 the prevailing rate was 25 cents an hour. In
1934, however, the usual wage rate was 12%cents an hour before the
strike, and some adult workers received as low as 10 cents an hour.
After the strike the bulk of the workers were paid 15 cents an hour.

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The table below indicates the level of wage rates during the 1934
season. The figures are based on the replies of 202 persons who had
worked at weeding before the strike and of 149 who had weeded sub­
sequent to the strike.
T a b le 2 .— D is trib u tio n o f W age R a te s B efo re a n d A fte r S trik e
N um b er receiving
specified rate
H ou rly wage rate

N um b er of workers r e p o r tin g _______

__

U nder 10 cen ts____________ _ __________
. __ _ ___
10 and under 12J^ cents___
12J4 and under 15 c e n t s _________________
15 and under 20 cents___________________
20 and under 25 cents _____ - _ _ _ ____
25 and under 30 cents____ __________
30 and under 35 cents __ ________ _
35 cents and o v er ,.

Before
strike

After
strike

202

149

6
37
148
10

2
3
14
98
23
3
2
4

1

Most of the workers who received 25 cents an hour or more after
the strike were those working for growers who had made arrange­
ments with the union. The rates of less than 10 cents were received
by children under,14 years of age.
Annual Earnings
F o ur sources were included in considering the total income of
families of workers in the marsh: (1) Cash earnings from agricultural
work; (2) cash income from all other work; (3) income in kind; and
(4) income from relief.
Cash earnings from agricultural work.-—The income from agricul­
tural work during the 1934 season was affected by the scarcity of
work, the shortage of share-crop land, and the decrease in the hourly
rates of pay. Table 3 shows the earnings from agricultural work
reported by 179 families for the year September 1, 1933, to August
31, 1934. The annual family earnings from farm work of 60 percent
of the families from which information was secured was less than
$250, 26 percent earned between $250 and $500, and only 14 percent
earned $500 or more. When the families which had no work since
June 20 because of the strike were eliminated the situation was only
slightly improved; 77 of the 140 reporting families not on strike
earned less than $250, while 39 earned between $250 and $500, and
the earnings of only 24 families were $500 or more.
The families depending on day labor alone had lower incomes than
those working land on the crop-sharing basis. More than threefourtlis of the families of day laborers earned less than $250 from
agricultural work during the year and 98 percent less than $500.
Even in the group of 98 share-croppers 46 percent earned less than
$250 and 77 percent less than $500.
109041—35------6

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MONTHLY LABOE KEVIEW— FEBKUARY 1935

Table 3.—Earnings from Agricultural Work of Families Working in Ohio Onion
Fields, Year Ending Aug. 31, 1934
N um b er of fam ilies canvassed, having workers in onion fields
Share-croppers and day
labor

D a y labor only

T otal
A nnual fam ily earnings from
agricultural work

T otal
T otal
N um - N um N um - N um ber
ber
N um - Perber
ber
on noton
on not on N u m ­ Per­
ber cent N u m ­ Per­
strik e strik e
strik e strik e
ber
cent
ber cent
A ll fam ilies covered-------------------------------

195

Fam ilies reporting, w hose earnings were
specified am ou nts-------------------------------

179

100

81

100

U nder $250-------------------------------------U nder $50--------------------------------$50 and under $150-------------------$150 and under $250-----------------$250 and under $500------------------------$500 and under $750------------------------$750 and under $1,000---------------------$1,000 and over_._---------------------------

107
20
44
43
47
14
7
4

60
11
25
24
26
8
4
2

62
14
24
24
17

77
17
30
30
21

1
1

1
1

Fam ilies n ot reporting earnings-------------

16

86

5

57

109

26

55

98

22
7
11
4
4

40
7
13
20
13
1
1

45
6
20
19
30
14
6
3

2

11

29

3

14

95

100

13

85

46
6
20
19
31
14
6
3

8
1
5
2
4

37
5
15
17
26
14
5
3

1
1

10

The figures shown in table 3 represent the earnings from farm work
of all members of the families. In 130 of the 195 families interviewed
more than one person was working. The earnings of families did not
rise greatly as number of workers in the family increased. Of the
107 families with earnings of less than $250, 63 had 2 or more persons
working. Although 10 of the 12 families on strike which had only
1 worker reported earnings of less than $250, 12 of the 15 families
with 2 workers were also in this earnings group. Much the same
condition existed among families not on strike. Of the 51 families
not on strike having 1 worker, 34 earned less than $250, while 27 of the
42 families having 2 workers likewise earned less than $250. Only 4
families in the entire group/earned $1,000 or more, and in every case
there were 3 or more workers in the family. All 4 of the families with
earnings of $1,000 or more were nonstrikers.
Cash income from all sources other than relief.—When the income
from all sources except relief is added to agricultural earnings the
picture is not materially altered. Fifty-three percent of all reporting
families had annual incomes of less than $250 and 83 percent less
than $500. Moreover, 8 percent of the families had incomes of less
than $50 for the year and 29 percent less than $150. Only 3 percent
of the entire group earned $1,000 or more. Even when families not
on strike are considered separately the proportion in the income
group is practically the same; 48 percent received less than $250
and 79 percent less than $500. Table 4 shows the annual cash in­
comes from all sources with the exception of relief.

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INDUSTRIAL AND LABOR CONDITIONS

Table 4.—Annual Income from all Sources, Exclusive of Relief, of Families with
Workers in Ohio Onion Fields, Year Ending Aug. 31, 1934
N u m b er of fam ilies canvassed, h avin g workers in onion fields

T otal

Share-croppers and daylabor

D a y labor on ly

A nnual fam ily incom e
N um ­
N um ­
T otal
T otal
N um ­
N um ­
ber
ber
N u m ­ Per­
ber
ber
not
not
on
on
ber cent N u m ­ Per­
on
on N u m ­ Per­
strike
strike
ber cent
strike
strike ber cent
A ll fam ilies covered

29

86

57

195
177

100

79

100

25

54

98

U nder $250_________________________
U nder $50______________________
$50 and under $150___ _________
$150 and under $250___ - ---------$250 and under $500________________
$500 and under $750
$750 and under $1,000 _ _
$1,000 and over

94
12
37
45
53
16
9
5

53
8
21
25
30
9
5
3

52
8
20
24
24
1
1
1

66
10
25
31
31
1
1
1

19
4
11
4
6

33
4
9
20
18
1
1
1

42
4
17
21
29
15
8
4

3

11

Fam ilies not reporting incom e—

--------

18

7

4

14

95

100

13

85

43
4
17
21
30
15
8
4

8
1
4
3
4

34
3
13
18
25
15
7
4

109

_ _ _

Fam ilies reporting w hose incom e was
specified am ou n t_________ _________

1
1

10

Income in kind.—The cash income of families was supplemented
in part by income in kind. There were wide variations, between
families, in the value of the payments received in kind. Reports
on tenure of homes were secured from 194 of the 195 families and on
food supplies from all families. Houses were furnished by the
growers to 109 families, 7 families had free homes from other sources,
41 families rented homes, and 37 owned their homes.
Farm laborers in the area were able to supplement their income
through raising a part of their food, provided they could make the
necessary investment. Twelve of the 195 families v interviewed,
however, had no supplementary food supply; only 16 had a garden,
a cow, chickens, and pigs; the other families had varying combina­
tions of these sources of food. A garden was the most frequent
source of supplementary food supply; 170 families grew a part of
their food at home and usually canned a few vegetables for winter
use. The drought of 1934 resulted in poorer returns than usual from
garden produce, with the result that food supplies for summer and
winter were not adequate. Cows were owned by 70 of the 195 families.
Income from relief.—Only 49 of the 195 families included in the
study had been able to go through the last year without assistance
from a public relief agency. The value of all relief other than cloth­
ing bought in bulk and surplus commodities was reported for 95 of
these families. Table 5 gives the value of these amounts, by number
of persons in the household. Relief for the entire year given to 25
families was valued at less than $20, to 35 families between $20 and

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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

$40, and to 23 families between $40 and $60. Only 12 families,
composed of 3 or more persons, each, had relief during the year
amounting to $60 or more.
Table 5.—Relief in Families with Workers in Ohio Onion Fields and Number
of Persons in Family, Year Ending Aug. 31, 1934
N um b er of fam ilies canvassed, w ith workers in onion fields
V alue of relief received during year
N um b er in fam ily

A ll fam ilies covered- .

-

__

Fam ilies consisting of—
1 person
2 persons
_ .
3 persons. - - - - - ...........
4 persons. __ -_
5 persons. __ _ _
6 p erso n s,.
...........
...........
7 persons__
. ___
... .
8 persons
9 persons__ . .
.................. ...........
10 persons or more _ _ _ _ _ _

Total
re­
T otal ceiv­
ing
relief

No
$60
$20
$40
$80 A m oun t relief
U n ­ and
and and
not re­
der under under under and
over ported
$20
$40
$60
$80

195

146

25

1
29
33
26
24
23
14
12
17
16

1
16
25
21
20
21
8
7
12
15

8
5
1
3
2
1
1
1
3

35
1
5
7
3
8
6
1
1
3

23

6

6

2
1

1

2
2

5
3
4
1
3
3

1
1
1
1

1
2
1

51

49

1
8
11
5
8
3
6
4
5

13
8
5
4
2
6
5
5
1

Of the 95 families from which information was obtained in regard
to the value of relief given during the year, 39 were on strike at the
time of the investigation and 56 were not on strike. The average
value of relief per family during the year (except clothing in bulk
and surplus commodities) is shown in table 6.
Table 6.—Relief Given to 95 Families with Workers in Ohio Onion Fields, Year
Ending Aug. 31, 1934
Fam ilies on strike
M onth

N um b er of
families
receiving
relief

A verage
valu e of
îelief per
fam ily

Fam ilies not on strike
N um b er of
fam ilies
receiving
relief

Average
valu e of
relief per
fam ily

1933
Sep tem b er__ . . .
... ...................................................
October_____ . _ _ ... ....... ...............
.
.........................
N o v em b er. .............
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - D ecem ber
........................................ ........................ ......... ...

1
1
6
7

$3. 50
6.25
9. 08
3. 73

2
11

$2. 50
12. 37

1934
January_____ _
. ________ - - - - - - - - ____
February....... ................................................................... .............
M a r c h .. _____ _________ _________ _ . ____________
A pril____ _
______ __________________ _____
...
M a y ______ _ . . . _____________ __ . . . . . . ________
J u n e .. - - - - J u ly __________________________________________________
A ugu st______ _____ _______- -- - ____ __________

15
15
21
18
8
34
36
38

4. 37
4.95
8. 42
4.99
2.80
4.93
11.54
17.16

19
18
13
14
9
41
41
31

7.71
5.49
7. 98
6. 09
2. 62
3. 57
8.01
16.83

Relief expenditures for both groups increased during the summer of
1934. This amounts to indirect subsidy of onion production in the

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335

case of employed workers. Eighteen of these ninety-five families
had applied for relief in December 1933, soon after the close of the
1933 harvesting season.

R e la tiv e E ffic ien c y o f N e g ro a n d W h ite W o rk e rs
HE findings of several inquiries concerning the efficiency of
Negro labor as compared to white labor are brought together
in an article in the December 1934 issue of the American Federationist, by Robert C. Weaver, associate adviser on economic status of
Negroes, United States Department of the Interior.
These findings are regarded as of special interest in view of the
fact that since the setting up of the President’s recovery program
there has been a great deal of discussion on the relative efficiency
of colored workers. In the South particularly it has been reported
that Negroes are not so efficient as the white workers and that as a
consequence it is “impossible and uneconomic” for employers in that
part of the United States to pay these colored workers as much as
white laborers.
According to the author of the article here reviewed there is no
direct evidence to support or refute the statement. In his judgment,
however, there are some pertinent data on the subject in question,
although he doubts whether the efficiency of labor is scientifically
measurable by race. He declares that up to the present no such
studies have been made. The results of some investigations of the
attitudes of employers on the matter and some additional data for a
single industry are, however, available. The greater number of the
inquiries as to the opinions of employers, made in the latter part of
the last decade, are concerned with the North and the West. In
those sections of the United States there is not so much industrial
prejudice against the Negro as in the South. Moreover, the Negro
workers are more carefully selected in the North and West, and the
information secured relates to a period in which Negro workers were
entering industries from which they had been formerly excluded.
Employers were uncertain as to the desirability of these newly tried
laborers, who were used because other labor was not available. Such
workers were not expected to be efficient, and, consequently, the
favorable reports of employers upon the efficiency of Negro labor,
while they do not disprove the statement that Negroes are less
efficient workers, do tend to weaken it.
Among the inquiries cited in this article in the American Federationist is one made by the Chicago Commission on Race Relations in
1920. That body reported that 71 employers interviewed considered
the Negro as efficient as white workers and 22 reported the Negro as

T


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

less efficient; the first group, however, included nearly all of the large
employers of Negroes.
The following table is a compilation of the results of three other
inquiries as to employers’ opinions on the relative efficiency of Negro
labor. One of these surveys was made by the Detroit Bureau of
Governmental Research, another by the Pennsylvania Department of
Public Welfare, and a third by J. Tinsley Willis in connection with the
preparation of a master’s thesis on Negro labor in the tobacco industry
in North Carolina.
E fficiency a n d R e g u la rity o f N eg ro es as C o m p a re d to W h ite W o rk e rs, a c c o rd in g
to O p in io n s of E m p lo y e rs
D etroit Bureau of
G overnm ent R e­
search survey 1

P enn sylvan ia D e ­
partm ent of P u b ­
lic W elfare sur­
v ey 2

J. T in sley W illis
survey 3

E fficiency and regularity
N um ber N um b er N um ber N um ber N um ber N um b er
of firms
of firms
of firms
em ployed reporting em ployed
reporting em ployed reporting
D egree of efficiency:
M ore efficien t-.............
- _ -------- ...
Same efficiency_____ _ . - - ------------T,p,ss p/ffiftient
N o t reported

11
68
24
17

5,102
12,631
2,729
1,109

14
32
10

1,780
6,400
1,120

1
3
0
3

1,200
13,677

T o ta l------------------ --------------------------

120

21,571

56

9,300

7

15, 331

D egree of regularity:
M ore regular
Sam e r e g u la r ity __ _________
___ _
Less regular
- - ______ _ Not, reported

7
68
33
12

199
8,864
4 11, 587
921

3
28
25

431
6, 321
2, 548

0
5
1
1

12, 754
2,177
400

120

21, 571

56

9, 300

7

15, 331

T o ta l______ - - - - - - - - - - -

. _ ----------

454

1 Feldm an, H erm an. R acial Factors in A m erican Industry. N e w Y ork, 1931, p. 60. D a ta are for 1926.
2 Johnson, Charles. T h e N egro in A m erican C ivilization. N e w Y ork, 1930, p p. 70, 71.
2 W illis, J. T in sley. Negro Labor in the Tobacco Ind u stry in N orth Carolina. A n unp u b lish ed m aster’s
thesis at N ew Y ork U n iversity, 1932, pp. 46, 47. D a ta are for 1930.
4 “ R ecen t migration w as felt to be responsible for the high rate of irregularity. Labor turn-over for N egro
em ployees was thought to be generally less th an th at for w h ite em p loyees.”

Commenting on these findings, Mr. Weaver says:
Although these data speak for themselves, a word should be said by way of
explanation. In the first place, statistical material can never tell the whole
picture. The Negro is not offered the same inducement to increase his efficiency
as is his white prototype. Working conditions in the South are particularly
unfavorable and in all sections of the country there are few inducements for
efficiency by way of better jobs which act upon the colored workers. Thus
employer assertion of equal efficiency for Negro workers assumes greater impor­
tance and significance. It means that in spite of the traditional attitude toward
the Negro, and in the face of the smaller likelihood of promotion that presents
itself to colored workers, their labor has so proved its worth that it is judged to be
as efficient as that of another group which has enjoyed and does enjoy greater
advantages. This evidence points to the potentialities of Negro labor, if it is
treated in a more just and sympathetic manner.

In Mr. Weaver’s judgment, the closest approximation to a valid
investigation of the efficiency and regularity of Negro labor is Miss

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INDUSTRIAL AND LABOR CONDITIONS

Alma Herbst’s study of the meat-packing industry in Chicago, pub­
lished in 1932. MissHerbst covers the “ typical” establishment hav­
ing the Bedeaux wage-payment system under which, after standard
output is fixed, any worker exceeding it gets a premium. Although
it is not certain that the workers fully understand this system and al­
though the industrial processes do not render easy a precise allocation of
production per man, the premium payments are instructive. When a
group is given premiums, it is evidence that the output of the mem­
bers of that group is above standard. They must have attained and
exceeded the minimum efficiency requirements. The accompanying
tabulation presents some of Miss Herbst’s findings. The data are
only for employees affected by the Bedeaux premium system.
Earnings of White and Negro Male Employees as Affected by Bedeaux Premium
Wage Payment 1
W eekly prem ium s

U nder $2.50
- ___________________________________
$2.50-$4.99________________ ________________________________________ _____
$5-$7.49_________________________________________________________________
$7.50-$9.90__________________ ____________________________________________
$10 and over _ _ _ _ _ _
_
_ _
N o n rem inm s. _ _ _ _ _ _
_ _
______

W hite
workers

Negro
workers

230
111
31
20
8
102

49
30
16
12
8
0

279
141
47
32
16
102

502

115

617

T otal

1 Include only those w hose wages are affected b y B edeaux prem ium wage paym ent.

Fifteen and one-tenth percent of the white women eligible for
premiums as contrasted to 6.5 percent of Negro women of the same
group failed to receive these extra payments. The proportions
awarded premiums up to $5 were approximately the same for both
races, but 16.3 percent of the Negro women as compared to 8.8 per­
cent of the white women getting premiums had extra earnings of $5
per week.
The sources cited in the article under review seem to indicate a
tendency for the employers to feel that the Negro’s regularity is
less satisfactory than his efficiency. By way of explanation of this
attitude, the author states that Negroes are as a rule hired to do
unpleasant work which is frequently casual and that they are also
marginal laborers with a slight hold on their jobs. These facts, in
addition to the fact that the type of labor which falls to the lot of
colored workers is of the kind that ordinarily has a higher turn-over,
regardless of the race of those doing such labor, throw considerable
light on the tendency toward irregularity. “ For the most part”,
the author says, “ this is an occupational and not a racial charac­
teristic.” It is found among Negroes because of their job distribu­
tion. He concedes, however, that there is a racial factor in this
irregularity. The Negroes, he reports, find advancement based on

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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

ability very difficult and consequently have recourse to new jobs in
order to improve their economic status. Moreover, “ the greater
degree of irregularity seems to have been, in part, an attribute of the
post-war period.” Again, rural workers find it no easy matter to
adapt themselves to urban industry. The southern textile manu­
facturers have noted this tendency to irregularity in recently recruited
white labor for the cotton mills. “ There are evidences to the effect
that Negroes, as they gain more industrial experience, are reducing
the degree of their irregularity.” For example, in 1930 the North
Carolina employers testified more favorably along this line than the
Detroit employers at an earlier date.
The above analysis, according to the author, seems to show certain
tendencies.
I t seem s to p o in t o u t t h a t th e N e g ro e s’ efficiency v a rie s in p ro p o r tio n to th e
fa v o ra b le n e ss of th e ir w o rk in g c o n d itio n s. I n a d d itio n , th e N eg ro h a s b e c o m e
efficient in in d u s trie s in th e p e rio d since th e W o rld W ar. T h e e v id e n c e s u p p lie d
b y h is e m p lo y e rs a n d b y a n in d e p e n d e n t in v e s tig a tio n is to th e effect t h a t h e is
a s efficient a s th e w h ite w o rk er. W h e n one c o n sid e rs th e o c c u p a tio n a l d is tr i b u ­
tio n of c o lo red w o rk e rs, i t seem s t h a t th e ir re g u la rity of N e g ro e s is a b o u t on a
p a r w ith t h a t fo r w h ite s. I n lig h t of th e s e fin d in g s, c e rta in c o n c lu sio n s c a n be
d ra w n . T h e re is no re a s o n fo r s e ttin g th e w age fo r th e N eg ro b elo w t h a t fo r
w h ite w o rk e rs. P le a s fo r s e p a r a te m in im u m w ages fo r co lo red w o rk e rs in th e
codes of fa ir c o m p e titio n re s t u p o n a tr a d itio n a l a t t i t u d e to w a rd N eg ro la b o r.
T h e a s s u m p tio n of le sse r efficiency fo r N eg ro es h a s n o t b e e n p ro v e d , a n d a ll th e
ev id e n c e w e h a v e a b o u t re la tiv e efficiency seem s to re f u te th e a ss e rtio n .

C o lle c tiv e -B a rg a in in g M a c h in e r y a n d P ra c tic e s in G r e a t
B r ita in
HE Ministry of Labor of Great Britain has begun the publica­
tion of a series of volumes presenting and analyzing the more
important of the collective agreements now in effect in that country.
The first volume of this series covers mining and quarrying, building,
woodworking and allied industries, and engineering, shipbuilding,
iron and steel, and other metal industries.1 These industries employ
about 4% million workers, constituting over one-third of the total
insured population of the country, and while not all of these workers
are directly covered by the written agreements discussed in the
report, the high degree of organization among both employers and
workers in these industries makes it probable that most of them are
either working under signed agreements or under conditions influenced
thereby.
Collective agreements have built up what the Ministry of Labor
speaks of as a large body of industrial bylaws. These tangible
1 Great B ritain . M in istry of Labor. Report on collective agreem ents betw een em ployers and w o rk ­
people in Great B ritain and N orthern Ireland. V ol. I. L ondon, 1934.


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evidences of the practical value of collective bargaining have been
developing since the 1870’s, when written local agreements embracing
general working conditions supplanted the still earlier uniform pieceprice lists. Local agreements are in turn giving place to national
agreements applicable to the entire industry. The report of the
Ministry of Labor deals not only with the provisions of these contracts
but with the machinery and procedure for negotiating them.
National Agreements

Among the industries treated in this report, those operating under
national agreements are engineering,2 shipbuilding, heating, ventilat­
ing and domestic engineering, building and civil engineering, electrical
contracting, railway workshops, vehicle building (including automobile
bodies), and light castings.
National agreements may cover all phases of employment relations
in detail, or they may deal only with general policies and standards,
leaving details to be covered locally. In some instances, notably in
the building industry, comprehensive national agreements may be
supplemented by regional or local arrangements, provided that
nothing inconsistent with or inimical to the national pact is introduced.
National agreements sometimes limit the subjects which may be left
to local negotiations or the manner in which these subjects may be
treated. Thus the national agreement in the heating, ventilating,
and domestic engineering industry leaves wages to be fixed by each
district, but stipulates that the prevailing wage of the district shall
be declared and observed. Even under the two most concise and
detailed national agreements—those in the building and engineering
industries—flexibility is attained by leaving some points for local
decision and control. For example, the national building agreement
fixes the maximum weekly hours, but the time for commencing and
stopping work is decided locally. In engineering, such questions as
allowances, expenses and travel time for workers sent away on instal­
lation jobs, and the rate of wages to be paid junior journeymen, or
improvers, during the probationary period between the expiration
of apprenticeship and full journeyman status are left to local deter­
mination.
Negotiating agencies.—A prerequisite to an agreement which is both
nation-wide and industry-wide is effective organization of employers
and workers. Generally more than one organization each of employers
and employees are involved in the negotiations and are signatory to
the agreement; frequently, in fact, particularly with regard to the
unions, there are several.
2 T h e term “ engineering,” as used in th e report under review , includes m arine engineering, electrical
engineering, locom otive construction, boilerm aking and foundry work, th e m anufacture of agricultural
and textile m achinery, m achine tools, autom obiles, trucks and m otorcycles, and general engineering.


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Thus in the engineering industry the representatives selected by an
all-inclusive national organization are spokesmen for the employers
in negotiating agreements, while the workers are represented by one
general organization, several smaller unions of separate crafts, and
still others acting for unskilled workers and woman employees. In
construction engineering the employers are organized into one associa­
tion through which the national agreement is handled, and two organ­
izations act for the workers, one for the skilled craftsmen and one for
the unskilled.
The agencies involved in drawing up national agreements for the
shipbuilding and ship-repairing industries are federated bodies com­
posed of local associations of employers on the one hand, and of 24
trade unions comprising the principal classes of shipyard workers on
the other. Several craft organizations concerned with shipbuilding
are not members of the Federation of Engineering and Shipbuilding
Trades, but they act jointly with the federation in negotiations with
the employers.
A still more closely knit mechanism, the national joint council,
functions in the building industry. This council consists of repre­
sentatives of federated bodies of organized employers in various build­
ing trades, and, on the workers’ side, of representatives of the National
Federation of Building Trades Operatives, such separate craft unions
as remain outside the federation, the National Union of General
and Municipal Workers, and the Transport and General Workers
Union. This national joint council is assisted by regional, area, and
local committees. A separate joint council, similarly composed, has
operated in the building industry in Scotland since 1930, when the
employers withdrew from their national federation and by agreement
with the workers set up the Scottish joint council and negotiated a
separate agreement. A national joint council is the agency through
which the national agreement in electrical contracting is negotiated,
and, as in the building industry, a separate body functions for
Scotland.
Methods of handling grievances and disputes.- One of the most
important duties of the trade agreement is to provide machinery and
procedure for meeting and settling questions of differences before they
become disputes that threaten a stoppage of work. Many of the agree­
ments discussed prescribe procedure, beginning with the initial appear­
ance of trouble in the plant, step by step successively to arbitration,
if that becomes necessary.
The national agreement in the engineering industry, which is of
general application throughout the diverse activities and occupations
classed as engineering, provides for the adjustment of differences as
they relate to changes in wage rates, hours per week, or working con­
ditions fixed by the agreement. When any question arises, the man
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agement of the plant and the workmen directly concerned must
attempt to settle it at the point of its inception. If satisfactory
adjustment is not made, the matter is discussed at a meeting with the
employer, at which are present the workmen concerned with the griev­
ance, accompanied by a representative of their union, and a repre­
sentative of the employers’ association. The next stage is a local
conference with representatives of the employers’ association and the
union or unions of the workers involved, which must be held within
7 working days after formal notification of the existence of a referable
dispute. If the local conference does not obtain a settlement of all
points in dispute, the whole matter or any unresolved part of it then
goes to a central conference, which must act within 14 days. During
this procedure no stoppage of work shall take place.
The arrangement for handling disputes in shipbuilding is quite simi­
lar to that in the engineering agreement, but goes farther. If the
central conference is not successful a general conference follows at the
request of either party. The general conference, which must meet
within 14 days after it is called upon, is composed of the representa­
tives of the employers’ association and of all organizations signatory
to the agreement, whether or not parties to the dispute. It is pre­
sided over by an independent chairman, and if neither a decision nor
an agreement to arbitrate is arrived at, the general conference must
“ be adjourned to a date not later than 10 days from the date of such
conference.”
The independent chairman is appointed for the duration of the
agreement by a joint committee composed of 3 persons representing
the employers’ federation and 3 representing all unions covered by
the agreement. If this joint committee fails to appoint the chairman,
the Minister of Labor may be requested to make the nomination.
Under the building-trades agreement detailed provision is made for
meeting disputes as they arise and for their successive handling by
bodies created and regulated by the agreement. The court of last
resort is a standing body, the conciliation panel of the national joint
council, whose decision is final and binding. If this body becomes
deadlocked and cannot reach a decision, it reports that fact to the
national joint council, which then determines what further action shall
be taken, including referal of the entire dispute, de novo, to the Indus­
trial Arbitration Court.
Throughout the various steps made mandatory under the agree­
ment, no stoppage of work may take place on any pretext. When the
last recourse is exhausted and arbitration is refused, however, the
national joint council must report its inability to arrive at a settlement
of the dispute. Thereafter all parties are free, after 14 days’ formal
notice, to take any action they see fit.

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The electrical-contracting industry, which operates under a national
agreement so far as wages, hours, and working conditions are con­
cerned, provides for the handling of disputes through supplemental
district agreements. Machinery provided in these may carry referals
as far as the national bodies representing both sides. The estab­
lishment of machinery for dealing with disputes is the subject of
a separate agreement between railway shop unions and railway
managements. This provides for shop, works, and line committees in
succession, as needed.
Methods of handling jurisdictional claims.—The vital part in the
maintenance of industrial peace played by the manner in which work
is allocated to the different industries, occupations, and crafts is
recognized in many British agreements. The English use the word
“ demarcation” to express these classifications, while in American
usage the term “ jurisdiction” is applied.
Two aspects of the jurisdiction problem are handled by agreement.
Some merely provide procedure for reaching decisions when cases of
disputed jurisdiction arise; others attempt either to define craft lines
or to outline in more or less detail the principles which shall govern
classification.
A joint demarcation agreement covers both the shipbuilding and
engineering industries, involving 23 craft unions. Boilermakers,
however, are not a party to it. The agreement recognizes that “ it is
in the best interests of both parties that arrangements should be made
to avoid any stoppage of work in demarcation questions,” and accord­
ingly provides machinery for their prompt settlement locally as they
arise. Adjustment agencies and procedure are similar to those used
for other disputed questions, but they deal only with the specific issue
of jurisdiction. Pending settlement, the recognized practice of the
plant in which the dispute arose is to prevail, but decisions are to
constitute the basis for future determination of similar issues. They
are binding in the plant involved for 1 year, and thereafter unless
brought up again for review by any affected ciaft.
In December 1933 the National Federation of Building Trades
Employers and the Federation of Civil Engineering Contractors,
acting for the employers, and the National Federation of Building
Trades Operatives, representing the workers, negotiated a special
agreement classifying their fields of operation into four main cate­
gories: Civil engineering, work involving chiefly civil engineering,
building, and work that is mainly building. Wage rates, hours and
conditions fixed by the civil-engineering agreement are to apply to the
first two categories, except in the case of building craftsmen and labor­
ers working on engineering jobs, who are to work the hours called for
in the civil-engineering agreement at hourly rates set by the building
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trades agreement. The terms of the building-trades agreement apply
to the two last categories.
Within these prescribed classifications, the trade agreements are to
be explicitly applied, irrespective of the materials used on the job or
the proportion of skilled to unskilled workers, and without regard to
whether the firm handling the contract is classed as an engineering or
construction contractor. A series of notes is incorporated in the
agreement that deals with typical cases illustrating points at which
troubles arise, and indicating principles to apply in such cases. A
joint tribunal is created for the purpose of handling border-line cases
which cannot be settled by consent under the occupational classifi­
cations fixed in the agreement.
District and Local Agreements
T h e most important industries not covered by national agreements
with which the Ministry of Labor report deals are mining and quarry­
ing, and the iron and steel industry. Negotiation machinery and
procedure do not differ materially from those concerned with more
comprehensive agreements. The chief point of difference, aside from
coverage, is the general subject matter contained in the two kinds of
pacts. Wage determinations and adjustments are, by and large, the
chief concern of the agencies negotiating agreements geographically
limited in their application, while national agreements as a rule deal
with a far wider field of industrial relations.
Coal mining.—Coal mining is highly organized on both the employ­
ers’ and the workers’ side. The workers’ organization is an industrial
union divided into districts, but a few independent craft unions exist,
as, for example, among enginemen and mechanics. While the district
has traditionally been the unit both of union membership and of the
negotiating power, the national-agreement idea was introduced in
1921, following a nation-wide strike. This national agreement, and
the one of 1924 which followed it, still left much of the control in the
hands of district boards. The termination of the second national
agreement was followed by the general strike of 1926, which in turn
brought about the passage of an act establishing an 8-liour day for
underground workers. Thereafter coal-mining agreements reverted to
the district basis.
Many aspects of working conditions in coal mining are matters
dealt with by legislation, and hence are only partially subject to
collective bargaining. Minimum wage rates, maximum daily hours
(now 7 ’and the handling of disputes are all regulated to some degree
by law. Subjects with which district agreements generally deal are
wage adjustments above the basic minima fixed by law, distribution
of hours, overtime and week-end work, and the matter of rental for
company-owned houses, free or nominal-priced coal for the workers’

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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

home consumption, and compensatory allowances for workers who
are entitled to these dispensations but whose manner of living does not
call for them.
Wages in the coal industry take the form of basic rates to which
varying percentages are added in the different districts. The deter­
mination of this percentage is the chief point toward which bargaining
is directed in negotiating district agreements. It is arrived at by first
ascertaining the total proceeds of the industry in each district for a
given period. The proportion of this to be distributed as wages is
then determined by (1) deducting from the total proceeds production
costs other than wages, and (2) allocating to wages a fixed percentage,
usually 85 to 87 percent, of the remainder.
One condition which, in relation to methods and practices of col­
lective bargaining, is of particular interest is that if the net proceeds of
the industry available for distribution as wages are not sufficient to
meet the fixed minimum percentage of basic rates and to guarantee to
the men on daily rates what is known as a subsistence wage, the deficit
must be made up by the owner. Thus in the negotiations each side
must present and maintain its case in actual figures of pounds, shillings,
and pence.
Iron and steel.—In addition to district agreements in the iron and
steel industry, which as a rule deal with the method of wage adjust­
ments and the settlement of disputes, there are a great many local
agreements fixing working conditions in individual plants and some­
times for certain classes of workers within a plant.
Settlements of disputes in the pig-iron branch are usually provided
for by the creation of ad hoc joint bodies as cases arise. The basis of
wage negotiation is the determination, first, of a basic rate, and then of
a sliding scale based upon the selling price of the product, on the basis
of which the standard rate is increased or reduced for the following
3 months.
In iron and steel manufacture two kinds of wage determination are
found. In some instances the sliding scale based on selling price is
used, in others a bonus on production. Generally agreements provid­
ing for output bonuses deal only with individual plants.
Wage-determination methods in other industries.—Where the piece­
work system prevails in an industry, collective bargaining is directed
toward drawing up price lists. This is done sometimes in the most
minute detail, as, for example, in cutlery, sheet-metal, and galvanized
liollow-ware manufacture, in which price lists specify in detail almost
every conceivable kind of work the worker might be called upon to
perform. Less detailed methods specify a fixed relation to time rates
which piece rates must yield.
Still another method is to adopt a sliding scale based upon the
Ministry of Labor’s cost-of-living index. Among the industries operat
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ing under agreements carrying this provision are quarrying, steel
erection, public works contracting (London), furniture manufacture,
and certain metal fabrications. Some agreements stipulate, however,
that wages shall not respond to decreases in the cost of living below a
certain fixed point.
H o lid a y P r o v is io n s f o r A g r ic u ltu r a l W o rk e rs in G r e a t
B r ita in
EGAL holidays, Saturday half-holidays, and in some cases annual
j vacations, with pay, have been secured for many farm laborers
in Great Britain through their trade agreements. The Land Worker,
the official organ of the National Union of Agricultural Workers, in
its issue of December 1934, describes the results of the union’s effort
to establish holidays with pay on the farms.
Before the enactment of legislation creating a wages board and
making possible collective bargaining between farm laborers and
employing farmers, few agricultural workers, the journal states,
“ knew what it was to enjoy the bank holidays which are common to
the industrial workers of Great Britain.” While some enlightened
employers granted the statutory holidays and occasionally other free
time, the policy of the union has been to get away entirely from
private understandings and to incorporate provisions for holidays
in the agreements negotiated by the wage committees. This method
gives legal sanction to such provisions.
Although the union feels that “ the present position still leaves
much to be desired”, the report shows that of the 52 counties in
England and Wales, 35 counties, or districts thereof, have agreements
granting 1 or more of the 6 bank holidays. Details are shown
tabularly thus:

I

Bank Holidays Provided in Agreements Between Farm Laborers and Their
Employers in Counties of England and Wales

B ank h olid ays granted

N o n e __ ______ _____________
1 h olid ay________ _______ --2 h olid ays-- ___ _ ____ _
3 h olid ays______ _____ _
4 h o lid a y s.- - _
_______
5 h olid ays-- - - - - - - - - - 6 h olid ay s___________________

N u m b er of
counties or
cou n ty
districts

N um b er of
workers
in v o lv ed

i 20
i5
i 14
4
5
2
5

143, 500
33, 800
236, 200
47, 300
60, 500
32, 500
41,900

1 In Y orkshire, conditions are not uniform throughout th e cou n ty.
bank holid ay, th e E ast R id in g has 2, and th e W est R id in g has none.


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

A better record has been established with regard to the Saturday
half-holiday, particularly for male agricultural workers. In 49 of
the 52 counties, agreements covering 466,700 men provide for a short
workday on Saturday, with pay for overtime. The number of hours
worked range from 5 to 6 )2- Only 16,500 men in 3 counties are still
working a full day.
On the other hand, only half the women and girls, and less than half
the special workers, such as shepherds, horsemen, and stockmen, have
been granted the short day.
Usually, annual vacations with pay are provided through voluntary
or individual agreements, but in some cases these are recognized by the
wages boards and accordingly have the same force as the collective
agreements. Generally only special workers employed by the year
are given vacations with pay. Holidays of 6 days to 2 weeks are the
rule, and the arrangements call for double pay for the vacation period
if the worker is deprived of this annual leave.


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LABOR LAWS
L e g isla tiv e Sessions in 1935
ALL of the State legislatures, with the exception of 4 (Kentucky,
i i Louisiana, Mississippi, and Virginia), meet in odd-numbered
years. The majority of the States have biennial sessions, while
5 States meet annually. The Alabama Legislature meets in oddnumbered years every fourth year. In 1935, therefore, 44 State
legislatures will assemble in regular session. Meeting also this year
are the Territorial legislatures of Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and
the Philippine Islands. The Congress of the United States, as a result
of the so-called “ lame-duck amendment” will hereafter convene
annually on January 3.
In all of the States except Nebraska, and in the Congress of the
United States, two-house (bicameral) legislatures enact the laws. By
a recent change in the Constitution of Nebraska a unicameral system
has been established. The subject has been receiving attention for
many years. As early as 1836, Vermont abandoned a system of a
one-house legislature in favor of the dual system. In some 9 other
States, through the direct vote of the electorate, the vote of their
chosen representatives, or in constitutional conventions, the estab­
lishment of a one-house legislature has been defeated.
The upper branch of the State legislature is generally designated as
the senate, but the lower house is known by different designations
such as legislature, general assembly, legislative assembly, and in
2 States (Massachusetts and New Hampshire) as general court.
The term of the legislature is limited in some 25 States, the period
varying from 40 to 127 days; in 19 States there is no limit on the
length of the legislative term.
It is expected that social legislation will receive more than a passing
interest in the sessions of 1935, and it is believed that under the
leadership of the National .Congress the movement for such social
security measures as unemployment insurance and old-age pensions,
as well as mothers’ pensions, will receive an added impetus.
The following table shows the States meeting in regular legislative
session in 1935, as well as the date of convening:
347

109041—35------7


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935
Date Set by Law for the Convening of State Legislatures
T im e of assem bly fixed b y law

State

Alabama,
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Conn ftfiti oi 11,
D elaw are
Florida
G eorgia___ . . .
Idaho
Illinois
Tn d i an a,
Towa
Kansas
NTnine
M aryland
M assachusetts
M ichigan
M innesota
M issouri
M ontana
N ebraska
N evad a
N ew H am pshire
N ew Jersey
N ew M exico
N ew York
N orth Carolina
N orth D akota
Ohio
Oklahom a
Oregon
P en n sylvan ia
R hode Island
South Carolina
South D akota
T ennessee
T exas
U tah
V erm ont
W ashington
W est V irginia
W isconsin
W yom in g

Second T u esd ay in January____
_ _
__ _
Second M on d ay in January- _ _____ ____
do
__ _
-- - - -- __ _
----First M on d ay after first d ay in Jan uary. . . _
First W ed n esday in January
W ed n esday after first M on d ay in J a n u a r y __ _ __ _ __
First T u esd ay in January _
____
_
_ _ _
T u esd ay after first M on d ay in A pril
. . .
. . .
Second M on d ay in January, for organization; regular session, second M on d ay after J u ly 4.
First M on d ay after Jan. 1
_
W ed n esday after first M on d ay in January
. .
__
T h u rsd ay after first M on d ay in Jan uary__ __
_ _
Second M on d ay in January
.
...
__
Second T u esd ay in J a n u a r y .__ _ _ __
__
___ __
First W ed n esday in January
do
_
___
_
_
_ _
do
_ _ _ _
_
- do
_
_ _
T u esd a y after first M on d ay in January .
First W ednesday after Jan. 1 _
_ _ __
_ _ ____
First M on d ay in January
__
__
_
_____
First T u esd ay in January
_
T hird M on d ay in January . .
.
..
...............
First W ed n esday in January
Second T u esd ay in Jan uary________ - _______- ______
do
____
First W ed n esday in January
W ed n esday after first M on d ay in January
T u esd ay after first M on d ay in January __
First M on d ay in January
.
....
T u esday after first M on d ay in January
_ _ _ __
Second M on d ay in Jan uary__ _
__
_
__ First T u esd ay in January _ _ _
_ _ _________________
do
. .
______
...
__
Second T u esd ay in January.
T u esd ay after first M on d ay in January
___
First M on d ay in January _____ _____
___ _____ _ _ __
Second T u esd ay in Jan uary. _ _ _
____
_
___ Second M on d ay in Jan uary.
W ed n esday after first M on d ay in J an u ary . .
____
Second M on d ay in January . .
Second W ed n esday in January _
___ ___ _
do
______ _
_____ _
__
- _.
Second T u esd ay in January
___

D a te of convening,
1935 session
Jan. 8.
Jan. 14.
D o.
Jan. 7.
Jan. 2.
Jan. 9.
Jan. 1.
Apr. 2.
Jan. 14 (date of organization m eetin g ).
Jan. 7.
Jan. 9.
Jan. 10.
Jan. 14.
Jan. 8.
Jan. 2.
D o.
D o.
D o.
Jan. 8.
Jan. 2.
Jan. 7.
Jan. 1.
Jan. 21.
Jan. 2.
Jan. 8.
Do.
Jan. 2.
Jan. 9.
Jan. 8.
Jan. 7.
Jan. 8.
Jan. 14.
Jan. 1.
D o.
Jan. 8.
D o.
Jan. 7.
Jan. 8.
Jan. 14.
Jan. 9.
Jan. 14.
Jan. 9.
D o.
Jan. 8.

R ig h t o f S e a m an to E x tr a C o m p e n sa tio n U n d e r C e r ta in
C o n d itio n s D e n ie d b y S u p re m e C o u r t
HE United States Supreme Court on January 7, 1935, rendered a
decision of interest to labor, in the case of a seaman who demanded
extra compensation for failure of the master of the ship to pay him
wages when due. (McCrea v. United States, 55 Sup. Ct. 291.) The
seaman, Livingston H. McCrea, shipped as a fireman on the steam­
ship American Shipper on a voyage from New York to London and
return. Upon arriving at London he demanded of the master of the
ship his discharge, payment of the balance of wages due, 1 month’s
additional pay, and adequate employment on some other vessel bound
for the Port of New York. The discharge and payment of the com­
pensation were claimed to be due for the reason that the vessel failed,
while at sea, to divide the crew into the number of watches provided
for by section 2 of the Seamen’s Act and section 4583 of the Revised
Statutes of the United States.

T


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The seaman originally brought his petition in the District Court
for Southern New York, where the court awarded him a decree of the
value of the clothing which he had lost, $28.95 for wages due, and a part
of the double wages which he demanded. Upon a reargument of the
case the court reduced the amount of recovery to the value of the
clothing and the amount of wages due, on the ground that the demand
for double wages was for a penalty for which the United States as a
sovereign nation was not liable. The Court of Appeals for the Second
Circuit took the same view and affirmed the decree of the district court.
The case was carried to the United States Supreme Court, where it
was urged that the decision of the lower courts was erroneous because
the recovery of double wages was compensatory and not for the impo­
sition of a penalty. It was further urged that even though it was a
penalty the Government was liable by virtue of the provisions of
the Suits in Admiralty Act, and of the Government’s “ waiver of sov­
ereign immunity by engaging in the business of operating vessels in
competition with private owners.”
It was further urged that the court of appeals was in error in holding
that the decree first entered by the district court allowing recovery
of double wages was set aside and superseded by a later decree
allowing recovery only for the amount claimed for loss of the sea­
man’s clothing and for unearned wages. The United States Supreme
Court did not consider the question raised with respect to the liability
of the Government for double wages, since the seaman had failed to
establish his right to the double wages demanded, regardless of the
asserted immunity of the Government.
At the time the seaman made his demand in London, the master
of the ship was advancing money to other members of the crew, and
offered to pay one-half of the wages due the seaman but the latter re­
fused the offer. Upon refusal the master told the seaman that he
was not acquainted with the sections of the statute cited and it
would be necessary for him to consult them. Thereupon, he asked
McCrea to meet him in the office of the American consul in London
on the following day, where he would discuss the demands with him.
The seaman went to the consulate the following morning, and after
making his complaint to the consul, and the consul in turn informing
him that he was not entitled to his discharge, he left before the arrival
of the master of the ship. Before leaving the consulate, McCrea re­
quested that the opinion of the consul be placed in writing and sent
to him in care of the vessel.
The master of the ship did not arrive at the consulate until the
early part of the afternoon, at which time he was informed that the
seaman had been there and left. The master subsequently returned
to his vessel and remained on the ship most of the time while it was
in port, but did not again see the seaman.

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MONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W — F E B R U A R Y

1935

At the time of the trial in the lower court the seaman related his
experiences of returning to the vessel as he said he had to do, and how
he endeavored to locate the master but found it impossible. He also
stated he made several inquiries of the other members of the crew as
to the whereabouts of the master. The seaman subsequently left
the vessel and never returned and after spending some time in Eng­
land he purchased a passage on another vessel, returning to the
United States.
The United States Supreme Court referred to a previous case
decided by that court (O’Hara v. Luckenbach Steamship Co., 269
U. S. 364) in which it was held that the purpose of section 2 of the
Seamen’s Act, which gave certain rights to the seamen whenever the
master of the vessel failed to divide the crew into certain watches, was
to provide for the safety of vessels at sea, rather than to regulate work­
ing conditions of the crew. The Supreme Court laid aside several of
the questions advanced and possible doubts as to the correct construc­
tion of certain parts of section 4583 of the statutes and said that it
is plain that by its provisions the consul was made the arbiter of the
seaman’s demand for the month’s extra wages and for other relief
which it affords and that his favorable action upon the demand and
his discharge of the seaman were prerequisite to any recovery under
it. In the case under consideration the consul refused to give the
seaman his discharge and to certify that he was entitled to the relief
demanded. The court pointed out that the lower courts were right
in denying recovery under that section.
The court, however, did take up the question of the seaman’s right
to double wages for failure of the master to pay wages when they are
due. Under section 4529 of the Revised Statutes the master of a
vessel is required to pay a seaman his wages within a specified time
after the termination of the agreement under which he was shipped,
or at the time of his discharge, whichever happens first. The court
showed that in the case of vessels making foreign voyages the pay­
ment must be made within 24 hours after the cargo has been dis­
charged, or within 4 days after the seaman has been discharged. In
all cases, the court further pointed out, the seaman is entitled at the
time of his discharge to one-third of the balance of wages due him.
The section of the statute directs that “ Every master or owner who
refuses or neglects to make payment in the manner” specified “ with­
out sufficient cause shall pay to the seaman a sum equal to 2 days’
pay for each and every day during which payment is delayed beyond
the respective periods, which sum shall be recoverable as wages.”
The date when the cargo was discharged did not appear in the case,
and the court pointed out that the time within which the master of
the vessel could pay the wages due and thus avoid liability for double
wages cannot be taken to be less than 4 days from the time of arrival.

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351

There was no question of a failure to pay one-third of the wages due,
as the court showed, as the seaman “ did not avail himself of the
master’s offer to pay him one-half of his wages.” Since it has been
decided that the seaman was entitled to a discharge and to the pay­
ment of wages due, and payment was not made within the time speci­
fied by the statute, the court said that it could be assumed that the
seaman was entitled to the double pay demanded if the master of
the vessel failed “ without sufficient cause” to pay the wages due.
There was some question as to what was meant by “ without sufficient
cause.” In a previous case (Collie v. Fergusson, 281 U. S. 52) the
Supreme Court had defined the words “ without sufficient cause” as
follows:
The words “ refuses or neglects to make payment * * * without sufficient
cause” connote, either conduct which is in some sense arbitrary or willful, or at
least a failure not attributable to impossibility of payment. We think the use of
this language indicates a purpose to protect seamen from delayed payments of
wages by the imposition of a liability which is not exclusively compensatory but
designed to prevent, by its coercive effect, arbitrary refusals to pay wages, and to
induce prompt payment when payment is possible.

The statute also, the court showed—
* * * confers no right to recover double wages where the delay in payment
of wages due was not in some sense arbitrary, willful or unreasonable. In view
of the many duties imposed, some by law, on the master of a vessel upon arrival
in a foreign port, we cannot say that the statute compels him, on pain of sub­
jecting himself or his owner to heavy loss, to make immediate decision of ques­
tions of law involved in a seaman’s demands, of whose nature he is left in
ignorance.

The court showed that the master of the vessel did not unreasonably
defer action by fixing the following day in the consul’s office as the
time and place for his decision. This case, the court opined, is not
one of neglect to pay wages without sufficient cause, and “ liability for
double wages”, the court said, “accrues, if at all, from the end of the
period within which payment should have been made. It must be
determined by the happening of an event within the period, failure
to pay wages without sufficient cause.”
In affirming the lower court, the United States Supreme Court
therefore held that—
The statute affords a definite and reasonable procedure by which the seaman
may establish his right to recover double pay where his wages are unreasonably
withheld. But it affords no basis for recovery if, by his own conduct, he precludes
compliance with it by the master or owner. He cannot afterward impose the
liability by the mere expedient of bringing suit upon it.


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LABOR ORGANIZATIONS
T r a d e - U n io n O r g a n is a tio n a n d M e m b e rsh ip in U n ite d
S ta te s , 1934
OTH depression and recovery are reflected in the fluctuations in
membership of American trade unions in the past few years, and
an unusual fluidity has developed in the structure of the organizations
themselves. The tendency is toward broadening the base of the
individual unions, a trend that is finding expression in actual and
proposed amalgamations, in the successful elimination of dual union­
ism in some fields, and in the adoption by the American Federation of
Labor, at its 1934 convention, of a policy of industrial unionism for
the mass-production industries.

B

American Federation of Labor Membership, 1934

T he total paid-up membership in August 1934, as reported to the
annual convention of the American Federation of Labor, was 2,823,750
compared to 2,526,796 in August 1933. These figures do not include
those exempt from payment of dues on account of unemployment,
illness, or industrial disputes. The total organized strength of the
federation as reported by the executive council was 3,926,796 in
October 1933, and 5,650,000 in October 1934.
A number of elements go to make up this growth. One is the
affiliation with the American Federation of Labor early in 1934 of
the largest of the independent unions, the Amalgamated ClothingWorkers, with a membership of approximately 125,000. Another is
the renewed interest in organization following the enactment of the
National Industrial Recovery Act, which resulted in increased mem­
bership in most of the established unions. In some this increase was
spectacular. Based on their voting strength in the 1934 convention,
as compared to 1933, some affiliated national and international
unions showed membership gains ranging from 100 percent to a
forty fold increase. The greatest gains on the whole were in the
smaller unions, such as the Jewelry Workers’ International Union,
which had 8 votes1 in 1933 and 49 in 1934; the Oil Field Workers’
International Union, which jumped from 3 votes in 1933 to 125 in
1934; and the Tobacco Workers’ International Union, whose vote
11vote is allowed for each 100 m em bers or major fraction thereof.
352

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more than tripled. Great gains were also reported by some of the
largest unions, notably the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’
Union, which had 250 votes in 1933 and 1,500 in 1934, and the United
Textile Workers, whose votes rose from 150 to 387. On the other
hand, some organizations showed a marked falling off in member­
ship which had not been arrested at the time of the 1934 conven­
tion. Conspicuous among these are the actors’ union and some of the
building-trades organizations.
The most notable growth in 1934, that of the directly affiliated
local unions, was remarkable not only for the numbers enrolled but
for the fact that it represented successful organizing in fields hereto­
fore unorganized—the mechanized mass-production industries. The
workers in these industries, principally automobile, rubber, cement,
aluminum, and the manufacture of heavy electrical equipment, were
organized into unions chartered directly by the American Federation
of Labor on a plant basis, without relation to the craft or occupation
they followed. The number of directly affiliated local and federal
labor unions increased from 673 in 1933 to 1,788 in 1934. The
average paid-up membership in unions of this class in 1934 was 89,083,
and some of the new ones, especially in the automobile plants, had a
very large membership.
A.t the San Francisco convention in October 1934 the question of
what policy to adopt with regard to the growing movement of organiza­
tion in the mechanized, semiskilled industries became a vital issue.
The decision reached was in effect a fundamental change in the organ­
izing policy of the American Federation of Labor. While that policy
has always maintained that the basis of unionism was craft or trade,
the convention declared that “it is also realized that in many indus­
tries in which thousands of workers are employed a new condition
exists requiring organization upon a different basis to be most effective”.
Accordingly the executive council was directed to issue charters for
national and international unions in the automotive, cement, alumi­
num, and any other mass-production industries, in which, in its
judgment this would be desirable.
Industrialized agriculture is another field in which organization is
making definite progress. The National Sheep Shearers’ Union was
chartered by the American Federation of Labor in 1932, and 40 direct­
ly affiliated local unions of agricultural workers were reported in 1934.
These unions cover farm laborers to some extent, but the trend is
toward organizing those whose occupations place them on the border­
line between agriculture and industry—for example, grading and
packing fruits and vegetables, and employment in greenhouses and
in landscape gardening.


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354

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Membership of Independent Unions
A c c u r a t e membership data are not available for all independent
unions. The expression “ standard unions” is applied to the American
Federation of Labor organizations and the four large independent
railroad brotherhoods, and membership of this group can be readily
determined, as recent reports place the membership of the railroad
brotherhoods at about 300,000. Thus the so-called standard unions
represent nearly 6,000,000 organized workers.
The Trade Union Unity League is a federation of about 12 “ leftwing” industrial unions with a reported membership of approximately
150,000.
Several recently organized national unions not affiliated with any
group are attaining strength and significance, but comprehensive
membership figures are not available, partly because in some cases
this information is withheld as a matter of policy, and partly because
of rapid changes and the lack of adequate facilities for checking
membership gains and losses. Moreover there are always independ­
ent unions which, while having no national entity, attain considerable
strength and significance locally. The number of local independent
units of this type has been increasing in the recent past. Organiza­
tions confined to a locality have never been included in studies of
trade unions made by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and information
concerning them is meager.
Any estimate of the number of workers in the United States holding
membership in trade unions would have to include these scattered
local units, as well as the rapidly growing number of independent
agencies of national scope. However, these data have not been
brought together to an extent that would afford a comprehensive,
authentic figure of the actual organized strength of American workers.

Trend Toward Amalgamation
I n a d d i t i o n to the amalgamation of two unions in the hat, cap and
millinery trade, consummated in 1934, negotiations were begun by a
number of organizations looking toward mergers. Among American
Federation of Labor unions, two in the tobacco industry (the Cigarmakers’ International Union and the Tobacco Workers’ International
Union), and the iron molders and foundry employees, are discussing
consolidation. Other organizations moving in that direction are
either both in groups not affiliated with the American Federation
of Labor, or one is and the other is not so affiliated. Successful
termination of merger proceedings in the last-mentioned instances
would, to that extent, eliminate dual unionism. That is the objective
of the efforts to amalgamate the National Federation of Post Office
Clerks and the United National Association of Post Office Clerks.


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LABOR ORGANIZATIONS

355

The latter is an independent organization from which the former
seceded. The seceding group then joined the American Federation of
Labor. These organizations have existed independently in identical
jurisdictions since 1906, but impetus toward joining forces was given
by the 1933 conventions of both bodies, which adopted resolutions
calling for amalgamation and appointed committees instructed to
begin negotiations at once. If this breach is closed it will mean that
all organized clerks in the United States Postal Service, except those
handling railway mail, will belong to the same organization.
A movement to merge the two railroad brotherhoods in engine
service—the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers and the Brother­
hood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen—advanced to the
point of negotiations through a joint committee composed of repre­
sentatives of both organizations.
“White-Collar” Organisations
O r g a n iz a t io n s among workers in the so-called “ white-collar”
occupations are increasing both in number and in scope. In 1934 the
executive council of the American Federation of Labor reported an
increase in the number of unions of office workers from 12 in 1933 to
32 in 1934. The jurisdiction of these unions covers stenographers,
typists, bookkeepers, accountants, and office clerks. While the
membership of these local unions was not reported, they were con­
sidered of sufficient importance to call for some movement toward
unification of their scattered forces, since they are affiliated directly
with the American Federation of Labor and have no national entity.
Other white-collar and professional workers who are organized into
unions affiliated with the Federation are actors, musicians, publicschool teachers, draughtsmen, employees of the United States Post
Office and of the executive departments of the United States Govern­
ment, railway clerks, and the sales forces of retail stores. Exclusive
of the directly affiliated unions of office workers, these organized
nonmanual workers controlled practically 12 per cent of the vote cast
by national and international unions at the 1934 convention of the
American Federation of Labor. In addition, there are two other
independent organizations of Government employees—one in the post
office and the other in the Federal executive departments—that are
dual to organizations affiliated with the American Federation of
Labor. They have a combined membership of approximately 83,000.
Journalism is another field in which organization, under the Ameri­
can Newspaper Guild, has made substantial progress within the past
year. Considering all classes of organized nonmanual workers,
affiliated and independent, it is entirely probable that their organized
strength in 1934 was about 400,000.


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356

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

R e o r g a n is a tio n o f th e

Labor

F ro n t

in

G e rm a n y 1

N OCTOBER 24, 1934, the German Government issued a decree
defining the status and purposes of the Labor Front. The latter
has actually been in existence for a number of months, as its formation
and activities had been authorized by the National Labor Law of
January 20, 1934.2
The new decree provides that all manual or intellectual workers shall
be members of the Labor Front, which is to be a separate division of
the National Socialist Party.
It is the duty of the Labor Front to insure industrial peace through
furthering the just interests of employer and worker and reconciling
those interests when they conflict. This provision appears to indicate
that the officials of the Labor Front are to relieve the labor trustees,
provided for by the National Labor Law of January 20, of much con­
ciliation work.
In addition, the Labor Front is to direct the occupational training
of workers and to promote the activities of the organization known as
“ Strength Through Enjoyment” {Kraft durch Freude), which provides
recreation for workers.
Shortly after the assumption of power by the National Socialists,
the labor unions were dissolved and their property was seized. The
employers’ associations now share the same fate, for the decree pro­
vides that all property belonging to the former labor unions and
employers’ associations shall be taken over by the Labor Front.
The decree contains the following provisions:

O

S ectio n 1. The German Labor Front is the organization of German brain
and hand workers. In it are mainly the members of the former labor unions,
the former Unions of salaried employees, and the former associations of em­
ployers, etc., who are united as members possessing equal rights.
Membership in the German Labor Front cannot be replaced by membership
in a professional, sociopolitical, economic, or philosophical organization.
The state chancellor may decree that legally recognized corporative bodies
shall belong to the German Labor Front.
S ec . 2. The aim of the German Labor Front is to form a real national and
working community of all Germans.
It must see to it that every individual is enabled to fill his place in the economic
life of the nation in a mental and physical condition that will qualify him for
the highest achievement and will guarantee the greatest advantage to the
national community.
S ec . 3. The German Labor Front is an organ of the National Socialist Party
in the meaning of the law of December 1, 1933, for the security of unity of the
party and the State.
S e c . 4. The direction of the German Labor Front rests with the National
Socialist Party.
The staff leader of the political organization directs the German Labor Front.
He is appointed by the leader and state chancellor. He appoints and dismisses
the other leaders of the German Labor Front.
1 D ata are from report of W illiam E . D odd , Am erican A m bassador, B erlin, N o v . 1,1934.
2 M o n th ly Labor R eview for M a y 1934 (pp. 1104-1116).


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LABOR ORGANIZATIONS

357

There shall be appointed as such leaders primarily members of the National
Socialist Party organs, the National Socialist Establishment Cell Organization,
and the National Socialist Small Tradesmen’s Organization, as well as members
of the Storm Troops (S. A.) and the Defense Troops (S. S.).
S ec . 5. The territorial divisions of the German Labor Front correspond to
those of the National Socialist Party.
The aim of an organic order, proclaimed in the program of the National
Socialist Party, shall control the establishment of the professional divisions of
the German Labor Front. The territorial and professional division of the
German Labor Front is decided by the staff leader of the political organization
and is published in the service book of the German Labor Front. He decides
with regard to membership and admission into the German Labor Front.
S ec . 6. The treasury of the German Labor Front is subject to the control
of the treasurer of the National Socialist Party, in accordance with the first
executory decree dated March 23, 1934, to the law governing the security of
unity of the party and the State.
S ec . 7. The German Labor Front must insure labor peace by bringing about
an appreciation of the justified demands of the body of workers by the men at
the head of the establishments and in the former an appreciation of the situa­
tion and the possibilities of their establishment.
The German Labor Front has the duty of finding an adjustment between the
justified interests of all parties concerned which coincides with the National
Socialist principles and which will reduce the number of cases which, under the
law of January 20, 1934, must be brought before competent State agencies for
decision.
The agency necessary for such an adjustment representing all the parties in
interest is a matter of concern exclusively of the German Labor Front. The
formation of other organizations or their activity in this field are not allowed.
S ec . 8. The German Labor Front supports the National Socialist Associa­
tion, “ Strength Through Enjoyment.”
The German Labor Front must take charge of professional training. It must
furthermore fulfill the duties which are transferred to it under the law of January
20, 1934.
S ec . 9. The property of the former organizations mentioned in section 1 of
this decree, including their auxiliary and substitute organizations, managements
of property, and economic enterprises, forms the property of the German Labor
Front. This property forms the basis of the self-aid institution of the German
Labor Front.
Through the self-aid institution of the German Labor Front each of its members
is to be guaranteed the maintenance of his existence in case of need, in order to
smooth the way for the most capable of our fellow-countrymen or to help them
achieve an independent existence, preferably on land of their own.
S e c . 10. This decree becomes effective on the day of its promulgation (Octo­
ber 24, 1934).


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INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES
S tr ik e s a n d L o c k o u ts in D e c e m b e r 1934
HERE was a decrease in the number of strikes beginning in
December from the number beginning in November. This de­
cline, similar to that which usually occurs in December, was not so
marked as that of a year ago. Almost one-half of the strikes and
lockouts in December 1934 occurred in the transportation, textile
and clothing, and mining industries. The first named includes bus
and truck drivers, seamen and longshoremen, and electric railway
operators.
Chicago motor coach strike.—The 16-weeks strike of Division 1022
of the Amalgamated Association of Street, Electric Railway and
Motor Coach Employees of America, affiliated with the American
Federation of Labor, against the Chicago Motor Coach Co. was offi­
cially ended on December 6. The termination of this strike brought
to an end one of the most turbulent chapters in the history of city
transportation service, several persons having been killed and a num­
ber injured. These included passengers, as well as bus drivers who
refused to go out on strike. Over a hundred members of the union
were arrested and a number, including union officials, were indicted
for murder.
The strike was called in a demand for reemployment of 24 men
who, the Amalgamated Association claimed, had been discharged be­
cause of union activities. The matter had been brought to the atten­
tion of the National Labor Board last spring and on June 29, 1934,
the board had rendered a decision ordering the Chicago Motor Coach
Co. to reinstate 15 of these men. The company refused to comply,
maintaining that the National Labor Board had “ no jurisdiction
with respect to the matters and things referred to in the decision.” 1
Furthermore, the company claimed that over 90 percent of its em­
ployees favored the company union, the Chicago Motor Coach Em­
ployees’ Fraternity, in preference to the Amalgamated Association.
The National Labor Board was succeeded by the National Labor
Relations Board, which upheld the decision of its predecessor by
holding that the company had violated section 7 (a) of the National
Industrial Recovery Act and referring the case to the N. R. A. Cornpli-

T

1 L etter to N ation al Labor R elations Board, Ju ly 28, 1934, b y C hicago M otor C oach Co.

358

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INDUSTKIAL DISPUTES

359

ance Division for prosecution. No action having been taken to re­
instate the men, the Amalgamated Association declared a strike on
August 16.
Union officials at first reported that approximately 600 responded
to the ‘strike call, but later reduced this number to 150. The
company claimed that only 144 men of a total of 1,260 employees
were involved in the strike. Bus service was continued without
serious interruption. On October 6 the company secured a perma­
nent injuction against picketing and violence. Two months of in­
action followed.
The international president and the general executive board of the
Amalgamated Association went to Chicago and a settlement was
effected in December, under the terms of which the company agreed
“ to accept applications for employment in the service from those
who went on strike, without prejudice” and the association agreed
that there “ will be no intimidation, coercion, or violence resorted to
in future efforts to promote organization. * * * If at any
time in the future there is a decision on the part of a majority of the
[Chicago Motor Coach] employees to organize into the Amalga­
mated Association, the question of organization shall be taken up
between the officers of the company and international officers of the
Amalgamated Association and an understanding between them
reached regarding the same, pursuant to the provisions of section 7 (a)
of the National Industrial Recovery Act.” The terms of the settle­
ment also indicated that many of the projected legal actions in con­
nection with the strike would be settled amicably.
Los Angeles railway strike.—Similar in many respects to the Chicago
strike was the strike declared by the same international union against
the Los Angeles Railway Corporation on November 24. An election
ordered by the Los Angeles Regional Labor Board on January 5, 1934,
had been won by the Amalgamated Association of Street, Electric
Railway and Motor Coach Employees of America. Upon complaint
of the union that the corporation was not abiding by the results of
the election, a fact-finding committee held a hearing on October 30.
Upon the basis of evidence brought out at this hearing, the regional
labor board rendered a decision “ that the corporation had failed to
abide by the results of the election and unanimously recommended
that the corporation recognize the Amalgamated Association, Divi­
sion 997, as the sole representative of the employees for purposes of
collective bargaining.” The company maintained that it had not
violated the true intent and meaning of the law but admitted to a
“ violation of the law as construed, erroneously as we believe, by the
National Labor Relations Board.” 2
2 T h e T ran sit Journal N ew s, D ec. 8, 1934, p. 294.


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360

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY

1935

The regional board later suggested that the question of wages and
hours be submitted to an impartial board, to which the union agreed,
but the company refused unless provisions were made for increasing
the company’s revenues if expenses were increased.
Upon the failure of these overtures, a strike was voted at' a mass
meeting early on the morning of November 24. Almost immediately
there was disorder and for a time it looked as though the city’s street­
car and bus service would be paralyzed. Since, however, less than
500 men actually went out on strike, service was curtailed but not
disorganized. There was some violence and a number of persons were
injured but the public continued to use the street cars, and during
succeeding weeks more men returned to their jobs.
Meanwhile, a threatened strike of workers on the interurban lines
of the Pacific Electric Railway Co., operating out of Los Angeles, was
averted when, on December 22, through the intervention of the
National Mediation Board, the company and union agreed on certain
wage increases and changes in working rules. The street-car workers,
however, were unable to obtain any wage concessions from the Los
Angeles Railway Corporation.
On December 24 the National Labor Relations Board announced
its decision that “ the Los Angeles Railway Corporation has violated
section 7 (a) by interfering with the self-organization of their employ­
ees, impairing their right of collective bargaining, and refusing to
bargain collectively within the meaning of that section, in that they
negotiated with the Los Angeles Railway Employees Association, after
the employees had, by majority vote, designated the Amalgamated
Association of Street and Electric Railway Employees of America,
Division 997, as their exclusive agency.”
The Board stated that, unless the Los Angeles Railway Corporation
notified the Board within 10 days that the corporation recognized the
Amalgamated Association and would enter into negotiations with it,
the case would be referred to the compliance division of the National
Recovery Administration and to other agencies of the Federal Govern­
ment for appropriate action.
Anthracite coal strike.—The strike between the two rival unions in
the anthracite coal fields was continued during December. On
December 26 the insurgent union, United Anthracite Miners of
Pennsylvania, called a strike of all employees of the Glen Alden
Coal Co. in the Wilkes-Barre area. The immediate cause, announced
by the union, was an alleged cut in brakemen’s wages and the placing
of patchers in brakemen’s positions at patchers’ pay. The strike was
unauthorized by the old union, the United Mine Workers of America,
which had a collective agreement with the company.
Between two or three thousand men quit work, shutting down
three collieries and seriously crippling several others. Numerous

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INDUSTKIAL DISPUTES

361

clashes between the rival unions occurred along the picket lines before
a truce was arranged between the striking union and the company on
January 1, 1935. With the announcement of this truce, the United
Mine Workers threatened a general strike, charging that the company
had violated the terms of its agreement. While these threats were
not carried out, the new year opened with lines drawn sharply, the
insurgent group determined to prove that it represents the majority
of miners in this district, and the old union equally determined to
continue in its traditional role as “ bargaining agent” for all anthracite
miners.
Strikes and Lockouts, 1919 to 1934

T he numbers of strikes and lockouts, workers involved, and mandays lost for each of the months during 1933 and 1934, and for the
years since 1928 are given in table 1. Information on all these points
for strikes and lockouts during previous years is not available, the
only complete record being the number of strikes and lockouts which
began in each year since 1919. Figures for the months, January to
October 1934, have been revised and represent the latest known
information about strikes and lockouts occurring during that time.
These figures are not final, however, and may be further revised if
additional data are procured. Figures for November and December
are preliminary and in only a limited number of cases represent
information which has been confirmed by the parties concerned in the
strikes or lockouts.
Subsequent tables give various analyses of strikes and lockouts
data for October, this being the latest month for which verified infor­
mation is available. In all of these tabulations, strikes and lockouts
involving fewer than six workers and lost time of less than 1 day have
been omitted. The number of man-days lost is an estimate based
on the number of employees within a given establishment who stopped
work or were thrown out of work because of the strike or lockout,
and the number of days these persons would have worked had there
been no dispute. The industrial classification conforms to that used
by the Census Bureau and the Division of Employment Statistics of
the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Table 2 shows the number of strikes and lockouts in each industry
which began in October and the total number in progress, i. e., those
which began prior to and continued into October, plus those which
began in October. The table also gives the number of workers in­
volved and the total number of man-days’ work lost (p. 3G3).
The largest number of strikes and lockouts occurred in the textile
and clothing industries, the furniture industry, transportation, mining,
and trade. Most of the strikes in the transportation industries were


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362

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

called b37 longshoremen, and bus and truck drivers. There was an
unusually large number of strikes in retail stores, indicating the
vigorous efforts being made to organize retail store clerks. The
largest strike during the month was that called by the Federation of
Silk and Rayon Dyers and Finishers of America on October 25, which
was settled on December 3.
Table 1.—Strikes and Lockouts, 1919 to 1934
Strikes and lockouts
N um b er
Y ear or m onth

1919
1920
1921
1922
1923 .
1924
1925
1926___________
1927___
1928
____________
1929_________
1930 . .
.
1931
1932___________________________
1933___________________________

W orkers in volved

In
E nded effect
T otal in year
at end
in pro­
or
of year
Prior to In year gress
m onth
or
year or
or
m onth
m onth m onth
B eginning—

B egin ­
ning in
year or
m onth

In pro­
gress
during
m onth

M andays lost
during
year or
m onth

58
31
21
7
21
12

3, 630
3,411
2, 385
1,112
1,553
1, 249
1,301
1,035
734
629
903
653
894
808
1, 562

687
934
674
901
829
1,574

656
913
667
880
817
1,544

31
21
7
21
12
30

357,145
230,463
158,114
279,299
242,826
812,137

1933
J a n u arv..
_ _ _
February
___________ _
M arch
_ __ „
A p r il________________________
M a y _____________ _ _________
June - - - - J u ly __________________________
A ugust _ ____________
Sep tem b er___ ___ ___________
October
.
.................
N o v e m b e r -.. _ __
. ...
D ecem b er..- . ______________

12
32
35
39
47
50
52
84
99
125
98
52

75
67
98
80
140
137
240
246
223
129
67
60

87
99
133
119
187
187
292
330
322
254
i65
112

55
64
94
72
137
135
208
231
197
156
113
82

32
35
39
47
50
52
84
99
125
98
52
30

20,172
11,114
40, 548
23, 793
44, 589
42,233
111,051
157, 953
244, 636
56,164
38,062
21, 822

21,169
19,989
47, 463
36,874
64,891
61, 330
139,099
211, 524
298, 480
219, 846
139, 208
45, 612

251,829
113,215
348, 459
551,930
664, 689
576, 535
1, 505,408
1, 570, 512
3, 873, 662
3, 659, 502
1, 298,113
404,993

1934
January______________ _______
F ebruary. _________ _______
M arch _______ _ _ _ _ _
A p r il______________ _________
M a y _______ _ ___ _________
June
_
_ _____
J u ly __________________________
A u g u s t ___ __ _______________
Septem ber, _
_ _ _
O ctober____ _ _ ____ ._ _ . _
N ovem b er 1_____ ____________
D ecem ber i ____ ______________

30
37
43
54
84
9-±
118
91
102
80
i09
132

80
79
141
184
196
141
124
150
118
176
133
114

110
116
184
238
280
235
242
241
220
256
242
246

73
73
130
154
186
117
15i
139
140
147
110
111

37
43
54
84
94
118
91
102
80
109
132
135

38,913
83, 507
88, 205
133, 640
152, 228
39, 521
151,127
57, 868
412, 658
76,194
36, 000
16, 000

78,165
115,542
120, 830
170, 812
224, 209
101, 462
215,198
114, 878
485,153
103, 353
101,000
70, 000

653,202
915,673
1, 345,310
2, 258, 684
2, 086, 900
1, 594, 387
1, 966, 766
1, 696, 415
4, 018, 382
906, 768
955, 000
509,000

1 Preliminary.


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31, 556, 947
9,975, 213
2, 730, 6f8
6, 386,183
6,462,973
14,818,846

363

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES
Table 2.—Strikes and Lockouts in October 1934, by Industry
B eginning in
October

In progress
in October

Ind u stry

A ll industries ____

_ ..

_

__ ______

_____

I r o n a n d s te e l a n d th e ir p r o d u c ts , n o t in c l u d in g m a c h in e r y
B last furnaces, steel works, and rolling m ills _______
_
H ardw are
_ _ ____ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
_______
P lum b ers’ supplies and fixtures-Stoves
_
_
_
_
_________________
Structural and ornam ental m etalwork
_ _
_
T ools (not including edge tools, m achine tools, files, and
saws) (hand tools) ..........................
W irework __ ___ __ _ ____ _______ _____________ _ _
M a c h in e r y , n o t in c l u d in g t r a n s p o r t a t io n e q u ip m e n t
Electrical m achinery, apparatus, and supplies ___ ___
F oundry and m achine-shop products
R adios and phonographs _________________ _ __ _______
T ypew riters and p arts_________________________ __
Other________ _ _______________________________________
T r a n s p o r ta tio n e q u ip m e n t _ __ _ _ __________________
A utom obiles, bodies and parts _ _ ___
Shipbuilding __
__ _
N o n fe r r o u s m e t a ls a n d th e ir p r o d u c t s __________________
Silverw are and plated ware
_
_ ___
__ ___ _ _
Stam ped and enam eled ware_ _____ ______ _ _ _ _ _ __
Other_________________________________ ________________
L u m b e r a n d a llied p r o d u c ts ________________ ______ _ ___
F u rn itu re__ __
_
_ _ _
S a w m ills.
__
_ _______________ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Other____ ______________________________________________
S t o n e , c la y , a n d g la ss p r o d u c t s __________________________
Brick, tile, and terra cotta ____ ____ _________________
G l a s s _______ .
._
__ ___ _____________
Other___________________________________________________
T ex tiles a n d th e ir p r o d u c t s . _ _ _ ______________________
Fabrics:
Carpets and r u g s ._
___
_
_____ ______ ___
C otton good s_________ _________
_ _ _ _ _ _ ------- _
C otton sm all wares
D yein g and finishing textiles _______ __ _ ___ ___ ___
K n it goods
__
____ ___ ____ __ _
Silk and rayon g o o d s ___
_ .................. ..
-----W oolen and w orsted good s,
_____
Other
_ _
_____________________
W earing apparel:
_____
C lothing, m en ’s
_ _
C lothing, w om en ’s
_____
M illin ery ..................
_ _
Shirts and collars_____ __ _ _ _ _ -------_
O ther.
_ _ _ _ ----_ _ _ _
_ _ .
-----L e a th e r a n d its m a n u f a c t u r e s _______ ________ _ _ ----B oots and shoes __
_
_
.
................
L eather
..........................
Other leather goods _
._
__
__ _
O th e r ._ _______ __________ ______ ___ _ __ --------------F o o d a n d k in d r e d p r o d u c ts . ___________________________
B a k in g ..
___________
_ -------------------- -------------------Flour and grain m ills _ _______ _____ ____ Slaughtering and m eat p acking. _ _ _ _ _ -----_ —
P a p er a n d p r i n t i n g _____ ________________________________
Boxes, paper _ _ ...
__
------ _
Paper and p u lp . _
Printing and publishing, book and job
_
.
_
C h e m ic a ls a n d allied p r o d u c ts . ________________________
C ottonseed—oil, cake, and m eal.
-------------- ---------------P aints and varnishes _
...........
.
R u b b e r p r o d u c t s ______________________________ _ ------------Other rubber goods_____________________________________
M is c e lla n e o u s m a n u f a c t u r e s ._ _ ____ _ ------------------Broom and b r u s h --------- ----------- ----------------- ------------Furriers and fur factories __ ______
___
Other _ --------- ---------- ----- ------------------------- ___ - _
E x tr a c tio n o f m in e r a ls ____________________________________
Coal m in in g------------- ----------------------------- --------------------M etalliferous m ining
...
_ _
Quarrying and nonm etallic m in in g
_._
109041—35------8


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

N um ­
ber

W ork­
ers in ­
volved

176

76,194

256

103, 353

906, 768

8
1
l
1
2

1,852
40
192
25
1,273

12
1
1
2
2
3

2, (¡«4
40
192
528
1,273
449

32,036
160
1,920
2, 615
14,148
10,995

2
1
5
i
i
i
i
i

22
100
1,133
150
550
109
289
35

3
1
1
1
18
15
1
2
4
1
2
1
25

388
65
303
20
3, 476
2, 336
600
540
837
153
671
13
30, 343

2
1
7
1
3
1
1
1
3
2
1
4
1
2
i
32
22
7
3
0
2
3
1
47

22
100
1,688
150
1,105
109
289
35
1,573
563
1,010
1,322
65
1,237
20
6,239
3,712
1,737
790
1,869
953
903
13
39, 871

398
1,800
30,891
300
24,921
109
5, 491
70
34,431
11,201
23, 230
23,575
195
23, 300
80
101,235
60, 058
22, 687
18, 490
29, 680
17, 259
12,297
130
256, 406

2
4

357
1,238

1

25, 000

1
3
2

125
1, 540
155

2
9
1
3
2
6
5
3

357
3, 202
90
25, 766
2,414
1,538
3,125
443

2,468
46, 706
90
103,178
38, 726
12, 550
20, 371
5, 521

4

533

1
4
3
8
5

22
1, 170
203
807
787

1
4
2

20
(133
70

2
3
1
1
1
2
1
1
4
4
7
1
1
5
17
10
4
3

563
189
150
9
30
27«
70
200
408
408
1, 884
29
75
1,780
12,231
11, 501
594
136

5
2
1
5
3
17
8
1
7
1
10
6
1
3
3
1
1
1
2
1
1
6
6
8
1
1
6
18
11
4
3

612
829
22
1, 270
203
8,012
2,205
250
5, 537
20
1,102
225
64
813
189
150
9
30
270
70
200
922
922
1, 938
29
75
1,834
13,331
12, 601
594
136

4,242
11, 967
176
9, 224
1, 187
98, 534
23, 755
2, 250
72, 469
60
10, 878
3, 422
320
7,136
3, 027
2, 700
27
300
3, 760
560
3,200
16, 350
16, 350
29,178
261
225
28, 692
47.114
31,678
14,828
608

N um ­
ber

W ork­
ers in ­
volved

M andays
lost
in Oc­
tober

364

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Table 2.—Strikes and Lockouts in October 1934, by Industry— Continued
B eginn in g in
October

In progress
in October

Ind u stry

T r a n s p o r t a t io n a n d c o m m u n ic a t i o n
W ater transportation
_
__
___
_
_ _ _ _
M otor transportation
E lectric railroad
__
__ _ _
_ _ _
T rade
__ _
..........
W holesale
_
R etail
-_________
D o m e s tic a n d p e r s o n a l service
_
_
____ __
H otels, restaurants, and boarding houses
Personal service, barbers, b eau ty parlors__
___________
Laundries
_ _
- ___ - - ____
_____ __ __
D yein g, cleaning, and pressing...
Elevator and m aintenance _
_
Other
________
___
-- P r o fe s s io n a l service
Recreation and am usem ent
B u ild in g a n d c o n s t r u c t io n
B u ild ings exclusive of P. W . A
_ _
A ll other (bridges, docks, roads, etc., and P . W . A . b uild ­
ings)
--_______
A g r ic u ltu r e , e tc
___
__
___ _______
Fish in g
_ _
___
- -- ___ R e lie f w ork
O th e r _________
- - - - - - - - - - - _ _
_-

N um ­
ber

W ork­
ers in ­
v olved

N um ­
ber

W ork­
ers in ­
volved

24

12, 817

25

12, 933

15
8
1

762
11, 957
98

17

3,044

4
13

128
2,916

12

2,457

1
1
5
1

762
12,073
98

19
4

3, 090

128
2, 968

823
36,143

14

2, 542

21,176

15
1
1
6
1

4

314

1
4
1

11
7

948

1

1

81, 243

2,482
78, 565
196

15
9
1

1,125
50
912
56

4
2
2
3

M andays
lost
in Oc­
tober

1,125
50
947
56
50
314
44
44
1,103

36, 966

10,125
100

6, 857
448
350
3, 296
44
44
7,254

343

15
9

605

6

1,541

2

1, 541

2

1,541

31, 962

3
2

1,121
43

10, 321
701

1,541
1

,

121
15

400

3,089

703

4,165
31,962

The number of strikes and lockouts in each State is shown in
table 3. More than half the strikes and lockouts beginning in
October took place in four States—New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio,
and California. There were twice as many man-days lost because
of strikes and lockouts in New York as in any other State.
Three strikes in progress in October extended across State lines: A
strike of creosote workers of one company having plants in Mississippi
and Alabama; the silk and rayon dyers’ strike, which centered in
New Jersey but spread into New York and Pennsylvania; and a
strike of clay workers in' the neighborhood of Akron, Ohio, and
Clearfield, Pa., which started last June and was settled October 24.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

365

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES
Table 3 . —Strikes and Lockouts in October 1934, by States
B eginning in
October

In progress
in October

State
N um ber

A ll S ta tes__________ L

_ . . . ______________

A lab am a. . .
...
...
. . . . ___
_____________ . . . . . .
C alifornia___ _____
Colorado ____ . . . . . . . . . .
C o nn ecticu t________ ________ __________ . .
D istrict of C olu m bia___ __________ __________
Georgia___ _____ _____________ . . . . . . .
Illin o is. . ______________ _____ _ . . . . .
In d ia n a ________________ _____ . .
______
Io w a ____
... _
._
_______ ______ . . . .
K en tu ck y . __________ . . . ____ . . . _______
Louisiana . . . . . . ______ . . . ____ ____ ____
M assachusetts . _. . . . ______________ ______
M ich igan . __________ ____ _ _ . _____
. _.
___ . . . ____ _
M in n e s o ta _____ _. _____
M issouri___________ . . . __________ ______ __
N ebraska . ________ . . . . . . ______ . __ . . .
N ew H am p shire____ ______
_ . . . _. _ _ . . .
N e w J e r s e y .. _______ . . . . .
. . ____ . . .
N ew Y ork _ . .
.
.
.
. . . . . . . .
N orth C arolina ..................... . . .
. . . . . .
O h io .. . . . ___ _
.
. . .
. . . .
O k la h o m a __________ . _____ ________ . . .
O reg o n ._ _ . . .
...
. . . _ ___ _
..
P e n n s y lv a n ia ...
_ . . . . . . _______ . . . _
R hod e I sla n d ..
. .
South C arolina______ ____ . . . . . . . . . ______
T en n essee_____ _____________________________
T exas____________ _____________ . _________
V e r m o n t __ . . .
....
______
V irginia__________________________ __________
W ashington _______ .
.
....
. . . . ...
W est V irginia__________ ___________________ .
W iscon sin .
.. ... . . . .
...
W y o m in g .. ._
. . . ._ ____
. ._
Interstate .
_____ ______ . . . . ____ _

W orkers
in volved

N um ber

Workers
in volved

M an-days
lost during
October

176

76,194

256

103, 353

906,768

7
18
5
5
1

1, 226
2,996
718
993
50

3
4
1
2
2
8
5
2
2
1
1
7
34
1
19

387
159
600
195
166
2,493
674
22
378
50
452
912
14, 045
300
5,978

3
21

447
11,955
500
907
98
1, 172
895
269
576
1,081

2

25,500

1,240
2,996
718
1,433
72
681
548
485
600
195
166
3, 532
913
22
378
50
452
1,881
20,982
300
8, 800
12
877
17,108
350
500
1,410
471
1,172
895
269
3,498
4,012
35
26, 300

4, 250
40,185
5,167
6, 572
656
14 6K3
9, 571
2,739
4,800
1,089
623
51,679
13,537
398
1,162
100
8,136
30, 892
208, 089
2,100
97, 857
60
9,947
75, 517

1
4
1
1
3
3
1
8

8
18
5
6
2
3
5
5
1
2
2
15
8
2
2
1
1
8
42
1
28
1
5
39
1
1
5
3
1
3
3
8
17
1
3

3,000
20,399
8,544
9,376
12,905
5, 632
52, 870
68, 583
128, 300

The size of strikes and lockouts beginning in October, according to
number of workers involved, is shown in table 4. The largest was a
strike of 25,000 silk and rayon dyers. Over one-half of the strikes
involved less than 100 workers. (No tabulation is made of disputes
involving less than six workers.)
Strikes and lockouts ending in October 1934, classified by duration
in weeks and months, are given in table 5. As in the preceding months,
almost 40 percent of the strikes ending in October lasted less than 1
week.
The three disputes lasting 3 months or more were the strikes of
clay workers in Ohio and Pennsylvania; a strike of rubber workers
in Sandusky, Ohio, which began last April; and a strike of silk work­
ers in Pennsylvania which began June 25.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

366

1935

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W — FE B R U A R Y

Table 4 . —Strikes and Lockouts Beginning in October 1934, Classified by Number
of Workers Involved
N u m b er of strikes and lockou ts in w hich the
num ber of workers in volved w as—
Industrial group

A ll industries.

T otal

500
1,000 5.000
100
6 and 20 and and
and
and
and
under under under under under under
20
100
500
1,000 5,000 10.000

176

38

55

55

20

8

2

2

3

1

1
2
6
1
5
2
3
1
1
1
2

3
1
5
i
14
2

3
i
2

6
4
7
4
5
1
1

5
6
3
3
3

5

2

10,000
and
over
1

Manufacturing
Iron and steel and their products (not in clud ­
ing m ach in ery)___________________________
M achinery, n ot including transportation
eq u ip m en t_______________________________
Nonferrous m etals and their products_______
L um ber and allied products------------------------Stone, clay, and glass p rod ucts______________
T extiles and their products_________________
Leather and its m anufactures----------------------Food and kindred p rod ucts_________________
Paper and p rin tin g-------------------------------- -—
C hem icals and allied p rod ucts______________
R ubber products-----------------------------------------M iscellaneous m anufacturing_______________

5
3
18
4
25
6
4
3
2
4
7

4
1
2
2
1
1
1

1

1

i

1
1
1
2
2

2

Nonmanufacturing
E xtraction of m in erals__________ _____ _____
T ransportation and com m u n ication ------------T rad e______________________________________
D om estic and personal service____________
B u ild in g and con stru ction __________________
A griculture________________________________
R elief w ork ________________________________
O th er----------------------------------------------------------

17
23
18
12

11
6
3
3

h

2
3
1

4
2

1

i

1
1

1
1

1
2

1

Table 5.—Duration of Strikes and Lockouts Ending in October 1934
N um b er w ith duration of—

Industrial group

A ll industries.

1
2
1 w eek
w eek m onth m onth m onths
and
3
and
and
and
m onths
less
less
less
less
or more
than
than
than
than
w eek
2
1
3
A
m onth m onth m onths m onths

T otal Less
than

147

57

30

34

11

12

3
2

1
2

1

1

3
18
3
33
8

2
4
1
6
2
1
1

1
2
1
10

6

4

2

9
2
4

5
1

2
3

3

Manufacturing
Iron and steel and their products (not including m a­
chinery) —
M achinery, not including transportation equipm entT ransportation eq u ip m en t________________________
Nonferrous m etals and their products______________
Lum ber and allied p rod ucts_______________________
Stone, clay, and glass p rod ucts____________________
T extiles and their p rod ucts________________________
Leather and its m anufactures______________________
Food and kindred products------------------------------------Paper and p rin tin g---------------------------------------------- R ubber p rod ucts__________________________________
M iscellaneous m anufacturing______________________

1

6
1
3
2

1

1

1

1
1

4
16
8
2

2
1
2
5

4
1
1

1

1

Nonmanufacturing
E xtraction of m inerals_____________
T ransportation and com m unication
T rad e--------------------------------------------D om estic and personal service-------Professional service________________
B u ild ing and construction_________
Agriculture, e tc__________________...
R elief w ork ________________________
O th er_____________________________


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

9
17
11
9
1

11

1

3
2

1

3
1
1
1
4
1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1

367

IN D U ST R IA L D IS PU T E S

The major causes and objects of strikes and lockouts beginning in
October are listed in table 6. The question of wages was the dominant
issue in about one-third of the strikes; matters of union recognition,
closed shop, discrimination because of union activities, and violation
of union agreements were major causes of about half the strikes and
lockouts. In most of these, however, wages and other matters entered
into the situation.
Table 6.— Causes of Strikes and Lockouts Beginning in October 1934
Strikes and lockouts

W orkers involved

M ajor cause or object
N um b er

Percent of
total

N um ber

Percent of
total

T o ta l______ ____ _________________________ ___________

176

100.0

76,194

100.0

W age increase_________ ______________________ ___ _ _
W age decrease_______________________________________
H our decrease___ ______ ____ _ __________ __________
W age increase, hour decrease________ ________ . . . ___
R ecognition of union _________________________
____
R ecognition and w ages_____ ______ ___ ___________ _
R ecognition and h ours______________________ _ _____
R ecognition, wages and hours_________________________
R ecognition and working conditions . _ ____ ____ . . .
W orking con d ition s_________________________ _______
Closed sh op _________ ________________________________
S y m p a th y ___ ____
_ ________ __________ _ _ _ _ _ _
D iscrim in ation in em p loym en t or discharge- _______ _
V iolation of agreem ent __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _________ _ _ ___
D ifferent unions com peting for control________ ______
O ther__________ __ _ __ __ ____________ ______
_ _
N o t reported.- _____
_ ___ _____________ _ _ _ __

31
2
2
25
8
15
1
15
1
5
17
3
20
7
1
19
4

17.6
1.1
1.1
14.2
4.5
8.5
.6
8.5
.6
2.8
9.7
1. 7
11.4
4. 0
.6
10.8
2.3

2,892
495
93
16,370
2,674
2,626
12
28,880
98
1,147
2,619
300
13, 671
1,031
28
3,095
163

3.8
.6
.1
21.5
3.5
3.4
(9

(*)

37.9
.1
1.5
3.4
.4
17.9
1.4
4.1
.2

! Less than Ho of 1 percent.

C o n c ilia tio n W o rk o f th e D e p a r tm e n t o f L a b o r in
D e c e m b e r 1934
By

H

ugh

L.

K

e r w in

, D

ir e c t o r

of

C

o n c il ia t io n

HE Secretary of Labor, through the Conciliation Service’
exercised her good offices in connection with 51 labor disputes
during December 1934. These disputes affected a known total of
14,663 employees. The table following shows the name and loca­
tion of the establishment or industry in which the dispute occurred,
the nature of the dispute (whether strike or lockout or controversy
not having reached the strike or lockout stage), the craft or trade
concerned, the cause of the dispute, its present status, the terms of
settlement, the date of beginning and ending, and the number of
workers directly and indirectly involved.
In addition to the cases shown, the commissioners of conciliation
also assisted in handling 56 cases involving violations of the National
Industrial Recovery Act, and disputes in the textile industry and
involving oil workers.

T


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

368

Labor Disputes Handled by Commissioners of Conciliation During December 1934
W orkers in ­
volved

D uration
C om pan y or in d u stry and location

N ature of
controversy

E lgin State H osp ital, E lgin, 111__
Laborers, Springfield, 111________

U nclassified. Referred to regional
board.
_
W ages and w orking co n d itio n s .— A djusted. A llow ed increases 15
percent above code m inim um ;
returned to work.
C ontroversy. B u i l d i n g - t r a d e s
A lleged discrim ination__________ Unclassified. M atter one of p at­
workers.
ronage and not for conciliation.
_ do
B u ild ing laborers___ A sk ed wage increase____________ A djusted. Increased, on average,
10 cents per hour.
__ _do
T elep hon e operators. A sked agreem ent w ith com p an y. P en d in g_________________________
B lack sm ith s
and
helpers.
C ask etm ak ers. ___

W est Coast T elephone
Co.,
E verett, W ash.
Kalam azoo Stationery Co., K ala­ ___ do
Pressm en
mazoo, M ich.
T ruck drivers for A tlan tic & P a­
_ do _
D rivers
cific T ea C o., Pittsb u rgh , Pa.
C olum bia R efining Co., C leve­ ____ d o______ _ -__do__- __________
land, Ohio.
A uto m echanics, D a y to n , O hio—.
P ainters, G alveston, T ex ________

Strike,
C ontroversy-

Superior L im e & H yd rate Co.,
Pelham , Ala.
L au n dry workers, St. Louis, M o .

Strike

Shrim pers, Biloxi, M iss--------------

T h r e a te n e d
strike.
C ontroversy-

Socony V acu um Oil Co., C leve­
land, Ohio,
Shell Oil Corporation, C leveland,
Ohio.
C em ent finishers, Peoria, 111-------

do______

do
T hreatened
strike.

A uto freight lines, Salem , Oreg—_ Strike.
Post-office build in g, N ew ark, N . J_ ___ d o_______


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Cause of d ispute

W orking con d ition s_____________

(T erm s not y et feM aking of agreem ent____________ A djusted.
ceived.)
A sked 40 percent increase; w ork­ U nab le to adjust.
M atter in
court.
ing conditions.
W ages and hours; v iolation of A djusted. Agreed to p a y over­
tim e wages and grant more em ­
agreement.
ploym ent.
A uto m ech an ics. — A sk ed closed sh o p _______________ P en d in g_________________________
W age rate for th is area__________ A djusted.
R ate fixed at 87)4
Painters
cents per hour u n til June 1,1935;
$1 thereafter.
A sked closed shop and check-off— U nclassified. Referred to regional
L im e workers
board.
L aundry d rivers___ W ages and w orking co n d itio n s.__ Pending. (M a n y plan ts have con­
cluded agreem ents.)
Shrimpers and oys- W orking con d ition s______________ A djusted. Satisfactory agreement
concluded.
term en.
Workers discharged and working A djusted.
Workers reinstated;
Oil workers
- satisfactory agreement.
conditions.
___ d o. . ___ _ ___
____ d o___________________________ A djusted. R ein stated on award
of arbitrator.
A llow ed retroactive
C em ent finishers___ W ages and alleged violation of A djusted.
agreement.
p a y 12jA cents per hour from
M a y 1, 1934.
D rivers and helpers _ W ages and w orking c o n d itio n s.. . P en d in g---- -------------------------------C arpenters and join­ 3 discharged for alleged im ­ A djusted. 2 reinstated on trial;
third m an incapable of work as­
perfect work.
ers.
signed.

B egin ­
ning

E n d in g

1934
D ec. 1

1934
D ec. 13

400

N o v . 26

D ec.

4

140

D ec.

8

2

D ec. 15

1,000

D ec.

1

N o v . 28

D i­
In d i­
rectly rectly

1

D ec. 11

20

N o v . 17

D ec. 19

306

D ec.

4

D ec. 12

19

D ec.

7

D ec. 12

200
70

D ec. 13

D ec.

1

D ec.

8

D ec.

15

(i)

N o v . 16
D ec.

90

6

40

4

120

1,800

1

D ec.

9

400

1,600

Sept. 27

D ec.

5

1

130

N o v . 15

D ec.

4

1

98

D ec.

6

Dec. 18

25

1,000

D ec.

7

D ec. 10

100
10

25

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

C leveland C hain P lant, C leve­ Strikeland, Ohio.
Central M etallic C asket Co., C hi­ __ __do__
cago, 111.

C raftsm en concerned

Present status and term s of
settlem ent

1 N o t y e t reported.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

3
637
7
45

100

100

40

700

300

(0

70

6

388
0)
25
(!)
3

3

200

100

43
30

370

1

20

IN D U ST R IA L D ISPU T E S

A djusted. Satisfactory settlem ent D ec. 10 D ec. 14
concluded.
U nab le to adjust. R ecognition re­ D ec. 11 D ec. 18
fused.
A djusted.
W ill em p loy union D ec. 12 D ec. 19
workers in future.
A djusted. A ccepted arbitration _ _do____ D ec. 13
and returned to work.
A djusted. A llow ed 75 cents; on D ec. 13 D ec. 18
June 1, 1935, 87H cents u n til
Sept. 1, 1935.
Gas workers________ W age increase and w orking con­ Unclassified. Referred to regional D ec. 14 D ec. 15
Laclede Gas L ight Co., St. Louis, Strike
board.
ditions.
M o.
B u ild in g trades, Savannah, Ga.
C ontroversy. B u ild in e workers___ Area agreem ent on rates------------- P en d in g --------------------------------------- D ec. 15
_do____ Carpenters and iron- Jurisdiction of steel-w indow - ____do____________________________ D ec. 12
C arm elite H om e for Aged, near
frame work.
workers.
St. Louis, K irkw ood, M o.
D rivers and helpers. W ages and renewal of closed-shop ____d o____________________________ D ec. 13
Produce dealers, C leveland, O h io. T hreatened
agreement.
strike.
-------- Area w age agreem ent------------------ ____do____________________________ D ec. 14
Painters, W aco, T e x _____________ C ontroversy. P ainters---D isp u te as to placem ent of local A djusted. B etter understanding D ec. 11 D ec. 21
Laborers. . . .
do
Laborers, M orrisville, 111., and
for future w ork conditions.
workers.
T ayorsville, 111.
Gas and electric A sked closed shop---------------------- P en d in g --------------------------------------W isconsin Gas & E lectric Co., T hreatened
workers.
strike.
R acine, W is„ and P u b lic U tility
Co., R acine, W is.
Wages; discharges for union affili­ A djusted. R einstated; no in ­ N o v . 20 D ec. 10
K apoun M eat M arket, Cedar C ontroversy. M eat cu tters_____
crease allowed.
ation.
R apids, Iow a.
J u ly 26
L e v y R estaurants, H ollyw ood, Strike______ R estaurant w orkers. Wages; union recognition, and P en d in g_________________________
working conditions.
Calif.
A ug. 24 D ec. 13
A
dju
sted
.
Increased
to
$27
per
A sked 20 percent wage increase
do______ T ruck drivers . . .
Sw ift & Co., Pittsb u rgh , P a ---------week; recognition allow ed.
and union recognition.
A
djusted.
A
llow
ed
65I£
cents
per
D ec. 8 D ec. 20
L on gsh orem en ._ . . . A sked w age increase-----------------do___
R iver L ines, San Francisco B ay,
hour for straight tim e; 85 cents
San Joaquin and Sacramento
for
overtim
e.
R ivers, Calif.
D ec. 4
Hours and wages; 1 discharged; P en d in g_________________________
C restón Storage & Transfer Co., C ontroversy. D rivers. . . . . .
reinstatem ent sought. (Court
Grand R ap id s, M ich .
proceedings pending.)
M eat c u tte r s.. _ . . . W age increase---------------------------- ____d o--------- -------------------------------A rmour & Co., H uron, S. D a k ----- Threatened
strike.
do
do___ -- Cleaners and dyers. Proposed w age cu ts--------------------- ____d o------------------------------------------C leaning and dyeing, P h iladel­
phia, Pa.
____d
o____________________________
W
ages
and
working
con
d
ition
s.
V egetable workers, Orange C oun­ ____ do___ -- V egetable w orkers..
ty , Calif.
W ages for piecework; union rec­ ____d o------------------------------------------- D ec. 13
P ou ltry workers, Chicago, 111------- Strike ____ P ou ltry workers
ognition.
K asm ill Shirt Co., N ew Y ork C ity . C ontroversy. Shirt w orkers______ C om pany proposed to m ove fac­ ____d o------------------------------------------- D ec. 21
tory to C onnecticut.
T extile workers . _ V iolation of agreement b y both ____d o------------------------------------------- Sept. 3
Georgia W ebbing & T ape Co., Strike ___
workers and em ployers.
C olum bus and A tlan ta, Ga.
Objection to nonunion w o rk ers.. . A djusted. C om pan y agreed to D ec. 10 D ec. 19
do__ _ __ U pholsterers. . .
M id w est U pholstering Co., St.
em p loy union workers.
L ouis, M o.
D ec. 15
W
orking con d ition s-------------------- P en d in g_________________________
Ironworkers.
.
.
.
.
C
ontroversy.
C olem an B ronze Co., Chicago, I1L.

Truck drivers, Joliet, 111................. - ____ d o______ D rivers for construc­ W orking con d ition s_____________
tion work.
U nion recognition----------------------Gold miners
do
M other Lode m ines, Jackson,
Calif.
Bridge builders, H enry, 111----------- C ontroversy. Bridge w o r k e r s ____ V iolation of agreem ent as to union
labor.
Jurisdiction of m etal w ork _______
Post-office build in g, N ew ark , N . J . S t r ik e _____ I r o n a n d s h e e t m etal workers.
B u ild ing painters, B eaum ont and C ontroversy. B u ild ing p a in ters.. . W age agreem ent for th is area____
Port A rthur, Tex.

100
600
(i)
257

107
(i)

7

60
30
0)

7
—

oo
OT>
CO

L a b o r D is p u te s H a n d le d b y C o m m issio n e rs of C o n c ilia tio n D u rin g D e c e m b e r 1934— C o n tin u e d

D uration
C om pan y or in d u stry and location

N ature of
controversy

St. L ouis Lead & Sm elter Co., Collin sville, 111.
T o ta l______________________

1N o t

y et reported.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Strike.

B u ild ing trades
S tove and foundry
workers.

Taxicab d r iv e r s ..
W oodworkers

W ages and w orking conditions
do
__ _

. A sked $15 per w eek m in im u m .

.

A sked wage increase

B ak elite w orkers___
E lectrical workers
Carpenters and cem ent finishers.
Lead and
workers.

sm elter

Cause of dispute

..

_ _____

___ _____

Jurisdiction of certain w o r k ... . .
A sked wage increase .

____

E n d in g

1934
Pend in g _________
_ D ec. 24
A djusted. A greem ents providing D ec. 15
arbitration and increases from
5 to 20 percent.

D ec. 29

_ Pending _

...

W ages and w orking co n d itio n s.

. _ __ do___

B egin ­
ning

___do

___ __ ___
____ _

D ec. 29

Pending
do

U nclassified. Plant dism antled
and being shipped to another
com pany.

50

1,200
D ec. 28

D ec. 27
__ ___________ _ ___ __

0575
)
50

__ __ __

A djusted. Satisfactory agreem ent. D ec. 21

__

1934

D i­
In d i­
rectly rectly

D ec. 17
D ec. 24

800
(>)
(9

1935
Jan.
6

8, 571

0

no?

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

B u ild in g trades* Buffalo, N . Y ___ C ontroversy
R om e S tove & R ange Co.. South- Strike . .
ern
C ooperative
Foundry,
Standard S tove & R ange Co.,
and H an k s Stove & R ange Co.,
R om e, Ga.
V an D y k e T axi Co., Buffalo, N . Y . T hreatened
strike.
Furniture factories, Tacom a and ____ d o___ __
Seattle, W ash.
A m erican Record Corporation, C ontroversy.
Scranton. Pa.
R adio stations, C olum bia, Charles- ____ d o___ __
ton, G reenville, and Spartan­
burg, S. C.
R eform atory B u ild ing, P . W . A. ____ do______
project, Concord, M ass.

C raftsm en concerned

W orkers in ­
volved

Present status and term s of
settlem ent

LABOR AWARDS AND DECISIONS
R e c e n t D ecisio n s o f N a tio n a l L a b o r R e la tio n s B o ard
EINSTATEMENT of discharged employees to their former
positions was ordered in 10 of 18 decisions of the National Labor
Relations Board rendered between December 7 and December 31,
1934. In two of these decisions the Board ruled that the discharged
employees who had been ordered reinstated by regional labor boards
should be reimbursed for wages lost since the date of such decisions.
In two decisions the evidence was found insufficient to sustain the
complaint of the employees that the companies had violated section
7 (a) of the National Industrial Recovery Act, but as the companies
had shown hostility to the unions, the Board recommended the re­
instatement of the employees by the companies to show their good
faith.
In two decisions the Board ordered that elections be held to deter­
mine the person, persons, or organization desired by the employees to
represent them for the purpose of collective bargaining. In one case
the complaint of four employees that they had been discharged in
violation of section 7 (a) was rejected.
One decision ordered the company to recognize the organization
representing the majority of their employees for the purpose of col­
lective bargaining.
In two cases the Board reaffirmed former decisions which had been
appealed, and ordered the cases to the compliance division and to
other Government agencies for appropriate action unless its orders
were complied with within a specified time.

R

Shuster Gaio Corporation—Fur Dressers’ Union and Fur Floor Workers’
Union

T his case came to the National Labor Relations Board after the
Shuster Gaio Corporation had failed to comply with the recommen­
dation of the regional labor board, for the second district, that it
reinstate those of its former employees at Brooklyn, N. Y., who
signified their desire to work at its new plant in Farmingdale, Long
Island.
For a number of years prior to 1934, the company operated under
written closed-shop contracts with the Fur Dressers’ Union Local

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

371

372

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

No. 2 and Fur Floor Workers’ Union Local No. 3. Similar contracts
were in force with the majority of other employers in New York and
vicinity. Following the expiration of these contracts on January 31,
1934, numerous conferences in regard to the terms and conditions
upon which the contracts might be renewed were held between repre­
sentatives of the union and the various employers, including the
Shuster Gaio Corporation. Agreement at substantial reductions in
wage scales was reached late in May, and contracts were signed with
30 out of 38 employers, excluding the Shuster Gaio Corporation.
Without formal notice to its employees or to the union of the ter­
mination of further negotiations, the company made plans to move
its plant to Farmingdale, Long Island, and proceeded to transfer its
machinery. Removal was completed on or about June 15. Of the
65 to 70 union men in the two locals employed by the company in
May, 11 are now employed at the Farmingdale plant; about 12 to 14
workers were newly hired, of whom at least one was a union member
formerly employed at another plant in New York. Certain union
employees, who asked for a job, refused the company’s offer when it
was intimated that they were required to give up their union mem­
bership.
The National Labor Relations Board, on December 22, 1934, found
that the company violated section 7 (a) by interfering with the selforganization of its employees, impairing and denying the right of its
employees to bargain collectively through representatives of their own
choosing, and by requiring its employees and those seeking employ­
ment, as a condition of employment, to refrain from joining, organiz­
ing, or assisting a labor organization of their own choosing.
The following enforcement order was issued:
As appropriate reparation for its violation of law, and to bring about a con­
dition in harmony with the law, the company is required to take the following
steps: (1) Reinstatement to their former positions those of its employees at
Brooklyn, N. Y., at the time of removal who signify through their representatives
their desire to work at its new plant in Farmingdale, Long Island. (2) In the
event that, after replacing all workers newly hired since the moving of the plant
by former employees designated by their representatives and competent to
perform the work in question, the company finds it impossible for reasons of
business expediency to reengage at this time the remainder of its former em­
ployees, the company shall establish a preferential list of such employees, from
which reinstatement shall be made before any new employees are engaged for
work which those on the list are competent to perform. (3) Recognize and
bargain collectively with Fur Dressers’ Local Union No. 2 and Floor Workers’
Union Local No. 3, as representative of all its employees, whenever called upon
to do so, with reference to terms and conditions of employment, sharing the work,
or any other appropriate subject of collective bargaining. (4) Notify its em­
ployees in Farmingdale by the posting of appropriate bulletins or otherwise,
that it is not a term or condition of their employment that they resign from
membership in such unions or from designating such unions as their representa­
tive for the purpose of collective bargaining or other mutual aid or protection,

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

LABOR AWARDS AND DECISIONS

373

and that the company will in no manner discriminate against them because of,
or interfere with, their exercise of full freedom of association, self-organization,
and choice of representatives. Unless the company has complied with require­
ments (1) or (2) and (4) within 7 days of the date of this decision, and notifies
this board in writing within that time that it intends in good faith to comply
with requirement (3) whenever called upon by the unions, the case will be referred
to the compliance division of the National Recovery Administration and to other
agencies of the Government for appropriate action.

Globe Gabbe Corporation—Fur Dressers’ Union and Fur Floor Workers
Union
T h e case of tlie Globe Gabbe Corporation and the Fur Dressers’
Union No. 2 and the Fur Floor Workers’ Union No. 3, was similar
to the case of the Shuster Gaio Corporation and their employees
members of the same unions, in that they moved their plant, after
failure to renew their contracts with their employees.
The Globe Gabbe Corporation moved its plant from Brooklyn to
South Norwalk, Conn. Of the 88 union men in the two locals em­
ployed by the company in May at the Brooklyn plant, only 11 were
employed at the South Norwalk plant. The company admits that
all the employees transferred were taken as a result of “ private and
individual negotiations with them.”
The decision and enforcement order on December 22, 1934, in this
case, were practically the same as in the Shuster Gaio Corporation
case.

Los Angeles Railway Corporation, Los Angeles Motor Coach Co.
Amalgamated Association of Street and Electric Railway Employees of
America

On A u g u s t 19, 1933, a number of the employees of the companies
organized Division 997 of the Amalgamated Association of Street and
Electric Railway Employees. Four days later the Los Angeles
Railway Employees’ Association was formed. A dispute ensued
between the rival organizations for the right to represent employees
of the companies. Upon the request of the Amalgamated Associa­
tion, the National Labor Board, through the Los Angeles Regional
Labor Board, conducted an election on January 5, 1934, to determine
the representatives of the street-car trainmen, motor-coach operators,
and power department substation employees for purposes of collective
bargaining.
The results of the election, as certified to by the regional labor
board, disclosed that of 2,350 employees eligible to vote, 2,120 voted;
that 1,290 ballots were cast for the Amalgamated, 767 for the company
association, and 63 were declared void. Although the company did
not agree to abide by the results, it at no time contested the election.

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374

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

In a letter to the Los Angeles Regional Labor Board, dated October 5,
1934, the attitude of the company was stated as follows:
This corporation regards it as its legal duty to bargain with the duly chosen
representatives of any group of employees or with any individual employee, if
he so chooses, irrespective of the fact that at an election held on January 5, 1934,
the Amalgamated Association of Street and Electric Railway Employees of
America, Division No. 997, received a majority of the votes cast by a group of
employees voting in that election. This corporation cannot concede to the
representatives chosen by the majority in that election the. exclusive right to
bargain and agree as to the wages, hours, or working conditions of a very sub­
stantial number of its employees who, by their votes at that election, or their
refusal to vote, indicated that they did not choose the members of the Amal­
gamated Association or the association itself as their representatives to so bargain
with the Los Angeles Railway Corporation, and who still insist upon their right
to be represented in collective-bargaining proceedings.

The National Labor Relations Board, in its decision on December
22, 1934, found that the Los Angeles Railway Corporation and the
Los Angeles Motor Coach Co. “ violated section 7 (a) by interfering
with the self-organization of their employees, impairing their right of
collective bargaining, and refusing to bargain collectively within the
meaning of that section, in that they negotiated with the Los Angeles
Railway Employees’ Association, after the employees had, by majority
vote, designated the Amalgamated Association of Street and Electric
Railway Employees of America, Division No. 997, as their exclusive
agency.”
In its enforcement provision the Board stated that unless within 10
days from the date of the decision the Los Angeles Railway Corpora­
tion and the Los Angeles Motor Coach Co. notified the Board in
writing that they recognized the Amalgamated Association of Street
and Electric Railway Employees of America, Division No. 997, as
their employees’ exclusive agency for collective bargaining, and that,
when requested by the Amalgamated, they would enter into negotia­
tions with the union and endeavor in good faith to arrive at a collective
agreement covering terms of employment of all employees within
the class which was permitted to vote at the election of January 5,
1934, the case would be referred to the compliance division of the
National Recovery Administration and to other agencies of the
Federal Government for appropriate action.
Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Railway Co.—Amalgamated Association of
Street and Electric Railway Employees and Motor Coach Operators
T h e National Labor Relations Board on December 20, 1934,
announced its affirmation of its decision of November 20, 1934, in
the case of the Omaha and Council Bluffs Street Railway Co., denying
the petition of Local Division 1002 of the Amalgamated Association
of Street and Electric Railway Employees and Motor Coach Operators
for an election. The election was requested to determine whether

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

LABOR AWARDS AND DECISIONS

375

the employees of the company desired the Amalgamated or the
Omaha and Council Bluffs Employees' Protective Association to
represent them for the purpose of collective bargaining. Union
counsel petitioned for a reversal of the former decision and a re­
hearing was held December 11.
Pointing out that the argument of counsel for the Amalgamated
at the rehearing indicated that the Board's previous decision may
have been misinterpreted, the Board made it clear that “ it is not our
intention to make it unnecessarily difficult for employees to obtain
orders by this Board for the conducting of elections to determine their
choice of representatives for collective bargaining."
The Board in this decision stated that elections should be freely
granted when a substantial number of employees petitioned for one
and where other circumstances were shown to indicate that an election
would serve the public interest. The decision cited as examples of
these circumstances cases in which organizations or individuals make
conflicting claims of being the collective-bargaining agency favored
by the employees, or in which a company refuses to bargain collec­
tively with the petitioning group because it doubts whether the group
represents a majority of the employees, or cases where the workers
are in a state of unrest which might lead to strife.
Kaynee Co.— Cleveland Joint Board, Amalagmated Clothing Workers

On D ecem ber 15, 1934, the National Labor Relations Board
announced its decision that it was in the public interest to hold an
election to determine whether the workers in the Kaynee Co. of
Cleveland should be represented by the “ employee council" plan or
by the Cleveland Joint Board of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers,
but disallowed the claim that the company had discharged 26 workers
in violation of section 7 (a). The Board ordered that the election
be held within 2 weeks under the supervision of and under rules
worked out by the regional labor board for the eighth district, in
conjunction with the parties.
The Kaynee Co., in April 1934, assisted the employees in putting
into operation an “ employee council" plan. The Board found that
the method in which the plan had been inaugurated did “ not afford
that freedom of choice contemplated by the statute." The Board
further held that the contract worked out by the employees’ council
was not binding upon the employees because it was “ a product of a
violation of section 7 (a). The method by which the plan was
adopted invalidates the choice of workers thereunder, and the com­
pany cannot rely on the agreement to forestall a genuine election."
The Board further noted that there was great duplication in the
employees who requested representation by the employees’ council
and also by the Amalgamated Clothing Workers. The company

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376

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

claimed that there was no dispute with regard to wages, hours, or
working conditions, and this, the Board stated, strengthened the case
that the unfortunate situation was caused by the conflicting claims
as to the collective-bargaining agency desired by the employees.
Acme Machine Products Go.— International Association of Machinists
T h is case arose out of a complaint of the International Association
of Machinists, Lodge No. 35, that the Acme Machine Products Co. of
Muncie, Ind., had refused to bargain collectively with the union.
The union petitioned for an election to establish the right of the union
to represent certain classifications of employees for the purpose of
collective bargaining.
On May 17, 1934, a committee from the union, representing certain
employees of the company, requested a conference with the company
stating that the union represented an “ overwhelming majority” of
the employees in the plant eligible to membership in the union, and
presented the draft of a collective agreement for negotiation. At a
conference held on May 24, the company refused to deal with the
union.
In June 1934 the Acme Employees’ Welfare Association was formed
out of a loose organization devoted to the maintenance of welfare and
floral funds. It was organized primarily for the presentation of griev­
ances, and has made no attempt to negotiate a collective agreement.
The company repeatedly made known its opposition to the union and
its preference for the welfare organization. There has been no
opportunity for the employees to vote on their desire to be represented
by the latter organization for collective-bargaining purposes.
On December 29, 1934, the National Labor Relations Board found
that the company had discharged two employees because of their
union activity and ordered the company to reinstate them. At the
hearing before the Board the president of the company stated that
he was willing to take the two men back if they would agree not to
talk about the union during working hours.
The Board issued the following order for an election:
There shall be held at Muncie, Ind., under the supervision of the director of the
regional labor board for the tenth district, as representative of the National Labor
Relations Board, between the hours of 7 a. m. and 10 p. m. on a day, to be set by
said regional director, within 15 days after the date of this order, an election by
secret ballot of the employees of the Acme Machine Products Co. in the classifica­
tions listed below who were on the pay roll of the company on the date of this order,
to determine whether they desire to be represented by the Acme Employees’
Welfare Association or by the International Association of Machinists, Lodge
No. 35, or by any other person, persons or organization, for the purpose of collec­
tive bargaining as defined in section 7 (a) of the National Industrial Recovery Act
and incorporated in Public Resolution No. 44 of the Seventy-third Congress.
The employees in the following classifications shall be eligible to vote in said
election: All workers, male and female, engaged in operating machine tools for

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

LABOR AWARDS AMD DECISIONS

377

machining metal parts or products used for the making of machinery, tools and
mechanical devices; also those engaged in inspecting those machine parts and those
employed at bench and assembly work, including operators of cold bolt headers and
threaders.

Boston Mattress Companies— National Furniture Workers' Industrial Union
T h e National Furniture Workers’ Industrial Union No. 3 com­
plained that the American Mattress Co., Massachusetts Mattress Co.,
Eagle Mattress Co., Inc., National Mattress Co., Enterprise Moakler
Co., and New England Bedding Co., all of Boston, Mass., and vicinity,
had discriminated against their employees in violation of section 7 (a)
of the National Industrial Recovery Act.
The companies had uniform closed-shop agreements with the union
for a period of 1 year, expiring August 31, 1934. After the union, in
accordance with a provision in the agreement, gave notice that it
desired certain changes, meetings took place on August 20 and August
23 between a committee of the union and a committee of the New
England Bedding Manufacturers’ Association, of which the companies
were members. At the close of the meeting on August 23 the union
was notified that the companies would thereafter negotiate individually
with the union. Negotiations between the union and the individual
companies took place during the period from August 23 to September
6. The union, acting in the belief that the companies were not nego­
tiating in good faith, called a strike on September 7.
The New England Regional Labor Board, after a hearing on Septem­
ber 27, dismissed the complaint against the New England Bedding Co.,
and on October 16 recommended, with reference to the other com­
panies, that the strike then in progress be called off and that the com­
panies reinstate their employees as of August 31, 1934. The strike
was called off by the union, but the companies failed to comply with
the recommendation for the reinstatement of employees.
The National Labor Relations Board, after careful consideration of
the evidence as it related to the negotiations between the individual
companies and the union, concluded that the union had failed to
establish a case against any of the companies. But in view of the fact
that all the companies had had collective agreements with the union
during the preceding year, and were now unable to conclude a new
agreement in any instance, it was not unreasonable for the union to
suspect that the companies were not bargaining in good faith.
The decision of the Board on December 22, 1934, strongly urged the
companies, as a token of sincerity, to reinstate their employees who
had gone on strike on September 7.


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378

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

San Francisco CalFBulletin—-Dean S. Jennings
T he National Labor Relations Board on December 12, 1934,
announced its adherence to its decision rendered December 3, in the
complaint of Dean S. Jennings against the San Francisco CallBulletin.
The Board reiterated its ruling that unless within 10 days the San
Francisco Call-Bulletin notified it either that it had offered to reinstate
Jennings or that it desired to submit evidence on the merits of the case,
the case would be “ transmitted to the compliance division of the
National Recovery Administration and to the enforcement agencies
of the Federal Government for appropriate action.”
The Board declined to grant the request made by counsel for
Jennings at the rehearing that its original order be amended to include
not only reinstatement but payment of back wages.
At the rehearing on December 7 a statement addressed to the Board
by Donald Richberg, Executive Director of the National Emergency
Council, was read into the record. Accepting Mr. Richberg’s admoni­
tion that the Board had a duty “ to maintain the good faith of the
action of the President, both in approving the code and in creating the
National Labor Relations Board”, the Board pointed out that “ if
we have correctly interpreted the code and the Executive order
creating this Board, no question of breaking faith can be involved—
unless, indeed, we are obliged to take account of some extrinsic
understandings not embodied in the documents.” The Board found
that no new evidence was presented at the rehearing, which was held
at the request of the National Recovery Administration, throwing any
light upon the meaning of the code.
Ward Baking Co.—William A. Sayre
T h e Ward Baking Co., of Baltimore, Md., employed William A.
Sayre as a stationary engineer on July 24, 1932. On April 1, 1934, he
was discharged, allegedly for incompetence. The International
Union of Operating Engineers Local No. 272 and Mr. Sayre charged
that he was dismissed because of his union affiliation and activity.
The National Labor Relations Board, on December 7, 1934, held
that the evidence fell short of proving that Sayre was discharged by
the company because of his union affiliation or activity. Neverthe­
less, the Board stated that “ in the absence of real evidence that Mr.
Sayre was incompetent, so much suspicion attaches to his discharge
that we are of the opinion that the company, in order to show good
faith, should offer Mr. Sayre immediate and full reinstatement to his
former position.”


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379

Available Truck Co.—International Association of Machinists
O n D e c e m b e r 29, 1934, the National Labor Relations Board ruled
that the Available Truck Co., of Chicago, had, by the discharge of
seven of its employees, “ interfered with, restrained and coerced its
employees in their self-organization and has required its employees,
as a condition of employment, to refrain from joining, organizing, or
assisting a labor organization of their own choosing.”
In the latter part of 1933 certain employees of the company became
members of the International Association of Machinists Local No.
701. Several attempts were made by representatives of the union to
meet with the officials of the company for the purpose of collective
bargaining, without success.
Early in March 1934 the union requested the Chicago Regional
Labor Board to use its good offices to induce the company to bargain
collectively with the union. On March 26 one of the officials of the
company called the employees into his office and asked them to
indicate in his presence whether or not they desired the union to
represent them. Eighty percent of the employees voted against the
union. On the next day, 17 of the 26 employees petitioned the
Chicago Regional Board to order, hold, and supervise an election for
the selection of representatives to bargain collectively with the
company.
On or about April 19, 1934, an official of the company requested the
employees to meet at the home of one of their number for the purpose
of voting upon the question whether they wished to be represented
by the union. On this occasion 15 employees voted for the union and
5 voted against it. On or about April 20 the company discharged
seven of these employees and all were replaced by other men.
The Board ordered that unless within 10 days the company notified
the Board of its offer to reinstate these employees immediately to
their former positions, the case would be referred to the appropriate
agencies of the Government for action.

Jamaica Buses, Inc.—An Employee
T h e National Labor Relations Board, on December 19, 1934,
ruled that the Jamaica Buses, Inc., of Jamaica, N. Y., had violated
section 7 (a) of the National Recovery Act. and had by its discharge
of Albert F. Wentzel, interfered with, restrained, and coerced its
employees in their self-organization.
During the summer of 1934, Wentzel, a driver, and other employees
of the Jamaica Buses, Inc., joined Local No. 1020 of the Amalgamated
Association of Street and Electric Railway and Motor Coach Employ­
ees of North America. Union meetings were held during August and
September. Throughout this period Wentzel canvassed his fellow
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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

employees in an effort to obtain signatures to a petition addressed
to the New York Regional Labor Board requesting an election for
the choice of representatives for collective bargaining. At the time
of Wentzel’s discharge the petition included the signature of a majority
of the Jamaica Buses, Inc.
The company claimed that Wentzel was discharged because he failed
to register a nickel fare. Wentzel said he made no attempt to collect
the fare, as the passenger rode but a short distance over the fare zone,
and Chief Inspector Sheriff had ordered that drivers were not to
argue with passengers who were riding short distances over fare
zones.
The Board ruled that the company had violated section 7 (a) by
the discharge of Wentzel, and that unless the company had notified
the board within 7 days of the date of the decision that it had offered
immediate and full reinstatement of Wentzel, the case would be re­
ferred to the compliance division or other agencies of the Govern­
ment for appropriate action.
Diamond Crystal Salt Co.—Salt Workers’ Union
T h e National Labor Relations Board on December 22, 1934,
ordered the reinstatement by the Diamond Crystal Salt Co., of St.
Clair, Mich., of Wilfred Henry, member of Salt Workers’ Union
No. 19567, who, the Board found, had been discharged in violation of
section 7 (a).
The company contended that Henry had been discharged for talk­
ing about the union in violation of company rules. The Board found
that the story of the employee who had reported Henry for talking
about the union was in certain aspects impossible of belief, and that
the company had given Henry no opportunity to present his side of
the case before discharging him.
The Board, therefore, issued the following enforcement order:
Unless within 10 days from the date of this decision the company notifies
this Board in writing that it has offered full reinstatement to Wilfred Henry
the case will be referred to the compliance division of the National Recovery
Administration and to other enforcement agencies of the Federal Government
for appropriate action.

Boston Upholstery Companies— National Furniture Workers’ Industrial
Union Local No. 3
T h e National Labor Relations Board, by its decision on December
22, 1934, ruled that Peerless Upholstery Co., Union Parlor Furniture
Co., Freeman Parlor Furniture Co., Inc., Bay State Upholstering
Co., and Soboff & Glickson Upholstery Co. had violated section 7 (a)
by discharging their employees because of their union affiliation, and
that the Prime Upholstery Co., Inc., and Standard Upholstery Co.

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LABOR AWARDS AND DECISIONS

381

had violated that section by failing to bargain collectively in good
faith with the representatives of their employees. The companies
all operate in Boston, Mass., or vicinity.
Immediately prior to the expiration of a closed-shop agreement with
Local No. 3 of the National Furniture Workers’ Industrial Union, the
five companies first named sent their employees a notice that upon the
expiration of the agreement they would no longer be regarded as
employees of the company. The Board decided that although
upon expiration of a closed-shop agreement an employer is no longer
bound to employ union members only, he cannot discharge all his
union employees simply because a closed-shop agreement expired.
To do so, the Board stated, is to discriminate against them because of
their membership in the union.
The other two companies were found to have violated the collectivebargaining provision of the statute by not meeting with the union for
a discussion of a proposed collective agreement.
The Board issued the following enforcement order:
Said companies should within 7 days from the date of this decision offer
reinstatement, to their former positions, to all the employees, without exception,
who struck or who were locked out on September 12, discharging if necessary
all employees hired since September 11, and terminating such individual con­
tracts as may be necessary to bring about this result. All reinstatements should
be made within 5 days after application by a particular employee, which applica­
tion shall be made within 5 days from the date of the offer of reinstatement.
The New England Regional Labor Board, as the agent of this board, may,
upon petition, grant extensions of any of such time limits.
Within 7 days from the date of this decision, each company shall notify this
board in writing that it will comply with this decision. The case of each com­
pany which fails to do so will be referred to the compliance division of the
National Recovery Administration and to other agencies of the Federal Govern­
ment for appropriate action.

Paraffine Cos., Inc.—An Employee
T h e Paraffine Cos., Inc., Oakland, Calif., on or about August 5,
1934, discharged Theodore Hutt, who had been employed by the
company for 5 years. Hutt was one of a group who had taken
steps to organize a local union in July 1934.
The company claimed that H utt was discharged for inefficiency
and because of curtailment of production. Evidence of H utt’s
inefficiency was unconvincing. He had been steadily employed for a
relatively long period of time and had received successive increases
in pay, except for one decrease occurring shortly after a lay-off due
to illness.
On December 13, 1934, the board ruled that the Paraffine Cos.,
Inc., had violated section 7 (a) by discharging H utt because of his
union activity, and ordered the company to offer immediate and full
reinstatement to H utt within 2 weeks and notified it that unless this

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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

was done the case would be referred to the compliance division for
appropriate action.
Patrick, Inc.—Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America
T his case came to the National Labor Relations Board upon
failure of Patrick, Inc., of Duluth, Minn., to comply with the decision
of the Minneapolis-St. Paul Regional Labor Board.
In October 1933 the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America
began organizing the employees of the company. At that time the
president of the company held a meeting of his employees, at which
he stated that he did not want his employees to join the union, that
he wanted no dealing with the union, and that he would close down
the shop if his employees became members of the union.
On April 27, 1934, the Regional Labor Board, with the consent
of the company, conducted an election, as a result of which the
Twin City Joint Board of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers was
designated the representative of Patrick, Inc., employees by a
majority of 19 to 11.
Mrs. Fanny Hanson, who had been employed by the company
for a year, was among the first to join the union. In October 1933,
about 2 weeks after she joined the union, Mrs. Hanson was dis­
charged and not reemployed. Miss Hilda Jacobson, who had been
employed by the company for 4 years, was active in union organiza­
tion. She was discharged in October 1933. She was reemployed
just prior to the election, but discharged again shortly after the vote
was taken.
On December 31, 1934, the board decided that Patrick, Inc., had
violated section 7 (a) by interfering with, restraining, and coercing
its employees in the matter of self-organization; by denying its
employees the right to bargain collectively, and by discharging
Mrs. Fanny Hanson and Miss Hilda Jacobson because of their
union affiliation and activities, and issued the following enforcement
order:
The company should take the following steps to bring about a condition in
harmony with the law: (1) Refrain from interfering with, restraining, or coercing
its employees in the matter of their self-organization; (2) notify all its employees
that they are free to join a labor organization of their own choosing; (3) recog­
nize the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, Twin City Joint Board, as
its employees’ exclusive agency for collective bargaining, and upon request by
the union, enter into negotiations with the union and endeavor in good faith to
arrive at a collective agreement covering terms of employment of all employees
within the class which was permitted to vote at the election of April 27, 1934; (4)
offer immediate and full reinstatement in employment to Mrs. Fanny Hanson
and Miss Hilda Jacobson. Unless within 5 days the company notifies this Board
in writing that it will comply with and carry out the foregoing steps, this case
will be referred to the compliance division of the National Recovery Administra­
tion and to other agencies of the Government for appropriate action.

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LABOR AWARDS AND DECISIONS

383

Ward Baking Co.—Amalgamated Food Workers’ Union
R e i n s t a t e m e n t of three employees and their reimbursement for
wages lost from the date of a ruling by the Regional Labor Board
were required of the Ward Baking Co., New York City, in a decision
of the National Labor Relations Board rendered December 20, 1934.
The company was found to have violated section 7 (a) of the Na­
tional Recovery Act at its Bronx plant by discharging Louis Heiberg,
Robert Gildea, and Wilhelm Kuhnle, because of their union member­
ship and activities. The Board disallowed that part of the complaint
of the Amalgamated Food Workers’ Union, Factory Workers’ Branch,
which referred to the alleged discriminatory discharge of Charles Carl­
son, Alex Kolodzesky, and Hugh Marns.
The Amalgamated Food Workers’ Union, Factory Workers’ Branch,
was organized in the Ward Baking Co. plant in May 1934. Imme­
diately after the first union meeting, it is alleged that the management
questioned those employees who attended, advised them against
affiliating with the union, and began to criticize and find fault with
the work of the union members.
Heiberg had worked for the Ward Baking Co. for 5 years, Gildea
for 2 years, and Kuhnle for various periods totaling 7 years. No
fault was found with their work until they became members of the
union. The record included a number of statements attributed to
the company officials which show a definite antipathy to the union
and its attempts to organize.
At the time that Carlson, Kolodzesky, and Marns were discharged,
seven employees apparently not members of the union were also dis­
missed. Since there was evidence that the three men named were poor
workers and lacked interest in their work, no finding of discriminatory
discharge was sustained in their case.

Hazel'Atlas Glass Co.— American Flint Glass Workers Union

On D e c e m b e r 15, 1934, the National Labor Relations Board ruled
that the Hazel-Atlas Glass Co. of Clarksburg, W. Va., had discharged
C. R. Gilbert for union activity, and ordered the company to reemploy
him in the maintenance department, in which he was formerly
employed. The Board also ruled that the company should reimburse
Gilbert for wages lost after October 31, 1934, the date on which the
Regional Labor Board had originally ordered reinstatement.
In April 1934 a group of 20 or more empolyees wrote to the West
Virginia State Federation of Labor for aid in organizing a union.
Organizers sent by the State Federation of Labor to confer with the
employees arranged for the conference. Only Gilbert and one other
employee of the 20 who asked for aid attended the conference. A
meeting was called for June 6. On that morning Gilbert was called
into the office of the superintendent and questioned regarding the

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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

contemplated meeting, and also as to which of the employees had
written to the State federation asking for aid in organizing a union.
On June 15 twenty employees were discharged, Gilbert being the
oldest in point of service. Three men junior in service to Gilbert
were retained. The evidence submitted showed the company’s hos­
tility to the union.
The enforcement order called for reinstatement of Gilbert in the
maintenance department of the company with payment of wages lost
since October 31, 1934, within 10 days of the date of the decision, or
the case would be referred to the compliance division for appropriate
action.
Bennett Shoe Co.—Reynolds et al.

T he National Labor Relations Board, on December 10, 1934, dis­
missed the complaint of Jean R. Reynolds, Joseph Stavro, John J.
Callahan, and Mary J. Noble, against the Bennett Shoe Co. of Marl­
boro, Mass.
The Bennett Shoe Co. entered into a closed-shop agreement with
the United Shoe and Leather Workers’ Union, which represented a
majority of the men in the plant. Complainants, workers in the
plant, at that time joined the United Shoe and Leather Workers’
Union, but retained their membership in the Shoe Workers’ Protec­
tive Union. Some time later the United Shoe and Leather Workers’
Union notified the complainants that they were violating a provision
in its constitution that no member could belong to any other organi­
zation in the trade. They were apparently given an opportunity to
resign from the Shoe Workers’ Protective Union, of which they re­
fused to avail themselves. As a result they were tried in a tradeunion tribunal, fined, and suspended. The employer was notified
that they were no longer members of the United Shoe and Leather
Workers’ Union in good standing, and under the terms of the closedshop agreement they were discharged.
The Board held that by joining the United, the complainants
ratified in effect the closed-shop agreement and could not therefore
question its validity, that by requesting and accepting membership
in the United at a time when that union had already adopted the
constitution, they assented to it, and it must therefore, for the purpose
of the present case, be assumed to have been legally adopted and bind­
ing on them. For these reasons this complaint was dismissed.


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LABOR TURN-OVER
L a b o r T u r n - O v e r in M a n u f a c tu r in g E s ta b lis h m e n ts,
N o v e m b e r 1934
HE quit, discharge, and lay-off rates in manufacturing industries
were all lower in November 1934 than during either the previous
month or the corresponding month of the preceding year. The
accession rate, in contrast, was higher than during either October 1934
or November 1933. In spite of this, however, the total separation
rate for November was higher than the accession rate. The hiring or
accession rate exceeded that for any month since April, while the total
separation rate was lower than for either of the previous 2 months.
Scope of report.—Rates as quoted in this study represent the num­
ber of changes per 100 employees on the pay roll. The data are
compiled from reports received by the Bureau of Labor Statistics
from more than 5,000 establishments in 144 manufacturing industries.
The establishments reporting employed over 1,000,000 people.
The net turn-over rate as shown in table 1 is the rate of replace­
ment; that is, the number of jobs that are vacated and filled per 100
employees. In a plant which is increasing its force, it is necessary to
offset all separations before there can be any effective enlargement of
the staff. Therefore, the net turn-over rate will be equal to the
separation rate. In a plant which is reducing its force, all accessions
must be offset before there can be any effective reduction in the per­
sonnel. Hence, the net turn-over rate would be equal to the accession
rate. The excess of accessions or separations, in each case, is due to
an expansion or a reduction of force and should not be considered a
turn-over expense.
Change in method of reporting.—From January 1932 to October 1934
data concerning labor turn-over have been collected and published on
a quarterly basis. Previous to that date the information was col­
lected and published monthly. Beginning with October 1934 the
Bureau resumed the monthly reporting system. Data on a monthly
basis for the interval between January 1, 1932, and November 30,
1933, are shown in the article on page 387.
Trend by months.—Table 1 shows, for manufacturing as a whole,
the total separation rate subdivided into the quit, discharge, and lay­
off rates, together with the accession rate and the net turn-over rate
for each month of 1933 and for the first 11 months of 1934.
385

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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Table 1.—Monthly Labor Turn-Over Rates per 100 Employees in Representative
Factories in 144 Industries

Class of rates and year

Q uit rate:
1934__________________
1933__________________
Discharge rate:
1934
1933_____________
Lay-off rate:
1934 _
1933 _____________
T otal separation rate:
1934 _
1933__________________
A ccession rate:
1934 ________ _ . .
1933__________________
N e t turn-over rate:
1934
1933 _________________

Jan­ F eb ­ M arch April M ay June
uary ruary

Ju ly

A u­
gust

N o ­ D e­
Sep­
tem ­ Octo­ vem ­ cem ­
ber
ber
ber
ber

0.90
.65

0.85
.49

0.93
.53

1.11
.63

1.01
.84

0. 94
1.03

0. 70
1.25

0. 75
1.22

1.55
1.65

0.73
.87

0. 62
.78

0. 72

. 18
. 15

. 19
. 13

.21
. 14

.23
. 15

. 22
.18

. 18
.26

. 19
.26

. 19
.31

. 16
.27

. 19
.24

. 15
.22

.18

2.35
2. 76

1.85
3.78

2. 08
3.93

2. 04
2. 00

3.65
1.34

3.48
1.18

2.96
1.98

3.56
1.87

3.41
2.34

4.38
3. 47

3.78
3.79

3. 79

3.43
3.56

2.89
4.40

3. 22
4.60

3. 38
2.78

4.88
2. 36

4. 60
2.47

3.85
3.49

4.50
3.40

5.12
4. 26

5. 30
4. 58

4. 55
4.79

4.69

5.81
3.48

6.71
2.56

6. 33
2. 22

5.18
4.87

4.19 3. 58
7. 21 10. 21

3.71
9.48

3.24
8. 59

3. 61
5. 53

4.09
3. 97

4.32
3.71

3.37

3 43
3.48

2.89
2. 56

3. 22
2.22

3. 38
2.78

4.19
2. 36

3. 71
3. 49

3.24
3.40

3.61
4. 26

4.09
3.97

4. 32
3.71

3. 37

3. 58
2.47

Analysis by industries.—Table 2 shows the quit, discharge, lay-off,
accession, and net turn-over rates for the 10 industries for which the
Bureau’s sample covers a sufficiently large number of firms to justify
the publishing of separate industry figures.
In the 10 industries for which separate indexes are shown, reports
were received from representative plants employing at least 25 per­
cent of the workers in each of these industries as shown in the 1929
Census of Manufactures.
For the month of November 1934 sawmills showed the highest quit
rate of any of these 10 industries and brick manufacturing the lowest.
The highest discharge rate also occurred in the sawmill industry. The
lowest was registered in the men’s clothing industry. The highest
lay-off rate was shown by the slaughtering and meat-packing industry
and the lowest by iron and steel. Automobiles showed the highest
accession rate and iron and steel the lowest.


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LABOR TURN-OVER

Table 2.—Monthly Turn-Over Rates per 100 Employees, in Specified Industries
Novem­ October Novem­ Novem­ October Novem­
ber 1934 1934 ber 1933 ber 1934 1934 ber 1933

Class of rates

Automobiles
Quit rate___ . _________ . . . . .
...
. _____
Discharge rate_________________________________
Lay-off rate. ____________ _____ ______________
Total separation rate.
________ _____________
.
.......
Accession rate________
Net turn-over rate...... ................. ......................

0.65
. 13
3.25
4.03
17. 30
4.03

0. 53
.16
12.31
13.00
5.31
5.31

Boots and shoes
1.19
.35
4. 75
6.29
13.63
6.29

Brick
Quit rate....... ................................. . . . . . . . . . ..
Discharge rate__________________ _____ _______
Lay-off rate__ . . . ._ __ _ ____________ . . . ____
Total separation rate____ ____. . . . _____________
Accession rate___ . . . . . _________ ___ ______
Net turn-over r a t e __ . ..
................ .

0.38
. 16
10.77
11.31
10.76
10.76

1.06
. 17
8.94
10.17
11.95
10.17

0. 47
. 12
3. 63
4.22
2.61
2.61

0.46
.17
2. 78
3.41
4.10
3.41

0.36
.08
14.05
14.49
6.08
6. 08

0. 56
. 16
4.63
5. 35
4.19
4.19

0.53
. 17
4.34
5.04
3.32
3.32

0.93
.29
4.09
5.31
3.93
3.93

0.62
.07
1.78
2.47
1.65
1.65

[

Quitrate.. .. _ . . . ...
....... ...
Discharge rate
_______________________ ___
Lay-off rate___ .
.................................. .
. . ___
Total separation rate . ______
Accession rate.. _. ____ _
Net turn-over rate__ _____
___. .

M o n th ly

0.63
.04
1.70
2.37
1.92
1.92

0.73
.09
2.87
3.69
.84
.84

1.16
.31
6.08
7. 55
7.27
7.27

1.14
.35
4.58
6.07
2.86
2.86

Furniture
0.43
.15
4. 44

5.02
3.33
3.33

0.59
. 18
3. 62
4.39
3.52
3. 52

0. 61
.51
10.36
11.48
2. 73
2.73

0.42
.06
3.73
4.21
3.03
3.03

0.64
.07
2.33
2.94
3.02
2.94

0.89
. 15
4.44

5. 48
1.69
1.69

Slaughtering and meat
packing

Sawmills
0.94
.43
6.38
7.75
4.35
4.35

1.12
.31
3.37
4.80
8.05
4.80

Men’s clothing

Iron and steel
Quit rate... _ ____________
_
_ ___ . . .
Discharge rate___ ____
Lay-off rate. ________________ . . . . .
________
Total separation rate___________________________
Accession rate________
Net turn-over rate____ ____ . . . _______________

0. 65
. 16
4.64
5.45
1.54
1.54

Cotton manufacturing

Foundries and machine
shops
Quit rate__ _____
___
Discharge rate _ _. ____________________ . . _
Lay-off rate_____ . ___ . . . . .
Total separation rate.___________________________
Accession rate. . _.
Net turn-over rate___ ________ ____ _________ _

0. 55
.11
3. 25
3. 91
1. 21
1. 21

1. 09
.51
5. 72
7. 32
4.34
4.34

0. 66
.35
12.71
13.72
11.57
11.57

1.39
.56
22.27
24.22
9.16
9.16

0.81
.45
7. 70
8.96
10.79
8.96

T u r n - O v e r R a te s F ro m J a n u a r y 1932 to
N o v e m b e r 1934

ROM January 1932 to October 1934 the statistics covering labor
turn-over have been collected and published on a quarterly
basis. Beginning with October 1934 the Bureau has resumed the
monthly reporting system. In order that the monthly series may
be complete, the Bureau gives in the following tables monthly data
for the period January 1932 to November 1934, inclusive.

F


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Table 1 shows, for manufacturing as a whole, the total separation
rate subdivided into quit, discharge, and lay-off rates, together with
the accession rate for each month of the period, January 1932 to
November 1934, inclusive.
Table 1.—Monthly Labor Turn-Over Rates per 100 Employees in Manufacturing
Plants in 144 Industries, 1934, 1933, and 1932
Class of rates, and
year

Q uit rate:
1934____________
1933____________
1932____________
D ischarge rate:
1934____
___
1933____________
1932____________
L ay-off rate:
1934___________
1933____________
1932___________
T o t a l s e p a r a tio n
rate:
1934____
___
1933____________
1932___________
A ccession rate:
1934____
____
1933___________
1932____________

A v ­ Jan­ F eb ­
M arch April M ay June
erage uary ruary

J u ly

A u­
gust

Sep­
N o­ D e­
tem ­ Octo­ v em ­ cem ­
ber
ber
ber
ber

0.91
.69

0. 90
.65
.71

0. 85
.49
.71

0. 93
.53
.86

1.11
.63
.91

1.01
.84
.68

0. 94
1.03
.66

0. 70
1. 25
.63

0. 75
1.22
.67

1. 55
1.65
.76

0. 73
.87
.65

0. 62
.78
.54

0. 72
.56

.21
.16

. 18
. 15
. 19

. 19
. 13
.18

.21
. 14
.21

.23
.15
.22

.22
. 18
. 16

. 18
.26
. 14

. 19
.26
.14

. 19
.31
.14

. 16
.27
.14

. 19
.24
.14

15
.22
. 15

. 18
. 15

2. 71
3. 44

2. 35
2. 76
2. 45

1.85
3.78
2. 43

2.08
3.93
3. 30

2. 04
2. 00
4. 60

3. 65
1.34
4. 27

3. 48
1.18
4. 83

2. 96
1.98
4. 47

3. 56
1.87
3. 04

3. 41
2. 34
3. 57

4. 38
3.47
2.67

3. 78
3. 79
2. 70

3. 79
3. 35

3. 83
4. 29

3.43
3. 56
3. 35

2.89
4. 40
3. 32

3. 22
4. 60
4. 37

3.38
2.78
5. 73

4. 88
2.36
5.11

4. 60
2. 47
5. 63

3 85
3.49
5. 24

4 50
3. 40
3.85

5.12
4. 26
4. 47

5 30
4.58
3. 46

4. 55
4. 79
3. 39

4. 69
4. 06

5. 48
3.31

5.81
3. 48
4.15

6. 71
2. 56
2. 75

6. 33
2. 22
2.75

5.18
4. 87
2. 76

4. 19 3. 58
7. 21 10.21
2. 59 2.70

3. 71
9.48
3.01

3. 24
8. 59
4.21

3. 61
5. 53
5. 04

4 09
3. 97
3. 72

4. 32
3. 71
3. 07

3.37
3. 07

Table 2 shows the quit, discharge, lay-off, accession, and average
turn-over rates for the 10 industries for which the Bureau’s sample
covers a sufficiently large number of firms to justify the publishing
of separate index figures.
Table 2 .—Monthly Labor Turn-Over Rates per 100 Employees in Specified
Industries During 1934, 1933, and 1932
Automobiles
C lass of rates, and
year

Q uit rate:
1934____________
1933.___________
1932___________
D ischarge rate:
1934____________
1933____________
1932___________
Lay-off rate:
1934____________
1933____________
1932____________
T o t a l s e p a r a tio n
rate:
1934___________
1933____________
1932____________
A ccession rate:
1934___________
1933............... .
1932............ .........

A v ­ Jan­ F e b ­
erage uary ruary M arch April M ay June

J u ly

Au­
gust

Sep­
N o­ D e­
tem ­ Octo­ v em ­ cem ­
ber
ber
ber
ber

1.28
.86

2. 82
.98
.89

3. 23
.55
.83

3. 49
.57
1. 70

3. 31
.87
1. 24

2. 45
1.08
.91

1 58
1.27
.78

0 98
1. 42
.68

0 82
1.52
.68

0 59
2. 28
.60

n 53
1. 69
.40

0 65
1. 19
.6 2

1.47
.71

.46
. 22

.64
.41
.28

.68
.29
.28

.09
. 17
.35

. 74
.32
. 20

. 52
.34
. 21

. 41
.51
. 18

. 29
.54
. 11

24
.45
. 13

14
.3 7
. 13

16
1.34
. 17

13
.3 5
.23

.37
.28

6. 22
6. 70

3. 22 2.43
3. 78 12. 90
3.73 3. 28

3. 79
15. 42
5. 26

4. 66 12.85 10. 80 6. 38
2. 42 1.52 1.53 3.10
7.13 5. 85 5. 42 12. 46

9 90 13. 31 12. 31
3. 30 10.03 14.28
9.98 12.19 6.89

3. 25
4. 75
6.37

3. 59
4.14

7. 96
7.78

6. 68 6.34
5.17 13.74
4. 90 4. 39

7. 97
16.16
7.31

8. 71 15. 82 12 79 7. 65 10 96 14 04 13 00
3. 61 2. 94 3.31 5. 06 5. 27 12.68 17.31
8.57 6. 97 6. 38 13. 25 10.79 12. 92 7. 46

4 03
6. 29
7. 22

5. 43
5. 13

5 31 17 30
6.20 13. 63
9.15 10. 79

18. 26
12. 79

25. 51 20.17
9. 97 10. 39 3.51
6. 85 9. 39 4.17


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

16. 62 11. 77
4. 01 12. 92
5.83 6.11

4. 24 3. 48 2. 93
8. 73 13. 00 12.43
8.36 6.37 2.36

2 61
7.83
2.67

2 53
6.10
5.44

389

LABOR TURN-OYER
Table

2

.—Monthly Labor Turn-over Rates per 100 Employees in Specified
Industries During 1934, 1933, and 1932— Continued
Boots and shoes

Class of rates, and
year

Q uit rate:
1934 ___
1933____________
1932____________
Discharge rate:
1934 ___
___
1933____________
1932____________
Lay-off rate:
1934
___
1933____________
1932____________
T o t a l s e p a r a tio n
rate:
1934
1933____________
1932___________
A ccession rate:
1934
1933____________
1932____________

A v ­ Jan­ F eb ­
M arch A pril M ay June
erage uary ruary

Ju ly

A u­
gust

Sep­
N o­ D e­
tem ­ Octo­ v em ­ cem ­
ber
ber
ber
ber

0. 86
1. 22
.81

0. 76
1.43
.89

0. 64
2. 07
1.16

0. 55
.60
.92

0. 47
.65
.57

0. 76
.74

.25
.42
.23

. 17
.47
.22

. 11
.20
. 16

.12
. 16
. 14

.24
.17

0.98
.97

0. 88
. 76
1. 10

1. 64
.72
1. 21

1. 49
.86
1.46

0. 78
.80
1.07

0. 92
.79
.76

0. 79
.89
.86

.25
.23

. 23
. 17
.27

.27
.22
.31

.33
. 19
.41

.25
.16
. 26

. 19
. 16
. 18

.21
.21
. 19

2.16
2.15

1.40
1.44
1. 21

. 99
1. 15
.87

1.46
1.52
2. 43

1. 56
1. 61
2. 99

2. 08
1.28
3. 35

3.19
1.12
3.07

.95
.96
1.24

2.30
1.83
1. 24

2. 33
2. 07
1.40

3. 25
2. 89
2.13

3. 63
4. 64
3.29

4. 55
3. 00

3. 39
3.36

2. 51
2. 37
2. 58

2. 90
2. 09
2. 39

3. 28
2. 57
4. 30

2. 59
2. 57
4. 32

3.19
2. 23
4. 29

4.19
2. 22
4.12

2.11
2.51
2. 25

3.31
3. 68
2. 36

3.14
4. 61
2. 78

3.91
3. 69
3. 21

4.22
5. 45
4. 00

5. 55
3.91

3.87
3. 37

5.96
3. 67
4.84

6. 09
3. 75
4. 99

4. 40
2. 90
4. 10

2. 46
3.17
1.60

2. 22
4. 27
.92

3. 53
5. 25
2. 49

4. 37
8. 06
3.89

1.90
5. 25
3. 84

1.09
2.41
5. 68

1.21
2.35
2. 28

2.61
1. 54
1.93

3. 74
3. 08

.30
. 33j
. 20

Brick
Q u it rate:
1934 .
0. 75
. 25
1933___________ 0. 62
.
.43
1932_______
.29
D ischarge rate:
. 30
1934
.21
1933___________
. 17
1932___________
. 66
. 26
L ay-off rate:
1934. _________
3.98
1933___________ 8. 18 6. 83
1932 _________ 11.03 16. 62
T otal
separation
rate:
5. 03
1934
1933___________ 8. 97 7. 29
1932___________ 11.58 17. 71
Accession rate:
15.71
1934
1933___________ 10. 44 9. 66
1932___________ 7. 73 4.57

0. 77
. 12
.32

0. 70
. 15
.31

0. 74
.28
.26

0. 55
.35
.28

2. 16
.62
.34

2.64
.75
23

0. 55
.94
. 22

0. 80
1.02
.40

1.06
.59
.26

0. 38
.36
. 19

1.00
. 17

. 31
. 11
.45

.35
. 19
.38

.21
.08
. 37

.21
.20
. 17

.22
. 18
.20

.08
.17
. 13

. 15
. 13
. 13

.08
.40
. 12

. 17
.07
. 17

.16
.08
. 18

. 13
.05

3. 93
7. 49
8. 47

5. 29 3.91
8. 47 5.28
4. 64 11.50

6. 22 6.81 8. 22
3.59 3. 63 5. 27
8. 00 13. 03 10. 05

9. 95 15. 55 8.94 10. 77
5. 20 11. 25 10. 98 14. 05
8. 75 9. 20 11.40 10.31

14. 38
20. 81

5.01
7. 72
9. 24

6. 34 4.86
8.81 5. 64
5. 33 12.13

6. 98 9.19 10. 94 10. 65 16. 43 10.17 11.31
4.14 4. 43 6.19 6. 27 12. 67 11.64 14.49
8. 45 13.57 10. 41 9. 10 9.72 11.83 10. 68

15. 51
21.03

9. 82
6. 73
6. 60

8.41 10. 33 9. 50 7.14 6.26 6. 69
7.88 10. 61 18. 89 27.63 11.58 10. 25
10. 36 7.82 10. 45 8. 95 7.91 8. 98

4.39 11.95 10. 76
5. 25 6. 65 6. 08
8.90 6. 66 7. 67

5.59
3. 85

Cotton manufacturing
Q uit rate:
1934................
1933___________
1932 ____ . . . .
D ischarge rate:
1934
1933____
___
1932___________
L ay-off rate:
1934
1933___________
1932___________
T otal
separation
rate:
1934___________
1933___________
1932........... ...........
A ccession rate:
1934___________
1933___________
1932............. .........

1.67
1.10

1.31
1.51
1. 19

1.28
1.18
1.12

1.17
1.04
1. 15

1. 20
1.92
1.03

1.31
2. 22
.90

1.30
2. 70
.64

0. 88
2.26
.95

0. 85
2. 02
1.36

6. 49
1.75
1.42

1.12
1.32
1.33

0. 93
1.14
1.13

1.02
.89

. 39
.27

. 40
.30
.34

.39
.29
. 24

.34
.23
.34

. 26
.43
.30

.30
.37
.22

. 28
.43
.26

.32
.51
.23

.27
.58
.24

.33
.46
.29

.31
.34
.20

.29
.35
.30

.27
.28

2. 74
3. 75

2.14
2. 04
2. 30

1.53
3. 77
2. 33

1.87
4.16
3.06

2. 22
1.51
6. 65

5. 63 5. 11
.61
.77
6. 35 10. 36

1.89
2. 48
4.13

2. 39
3.12
1.17

2. 46
2.88
1.57

3. 37
2. 74
1.73

4.09
4.58
3.22

3.19
3. 36

4.80
5.12

3. 85
3.85
3.83

3.20
5.24
3. 69

3. 38
5. 43
4. 55

3.68
3.86
7. 98

7. 24 6. 69
3.36 3. 74
7.47 11.26

3. 09
5. 25
5.31

3.51
5. 72
2. 77

9.28
5. 09
3.28

4.80
4. 40
3. 26

5.31
6.07
4. 65

6.89
5.58

6. 57
4.88
5. 25

5.90
3.82
4. 73

4. 86
3.46
3.50

3. 35 3.18 3. 54 3.67 3.03 3. 60
7. 35 13.48 14. 09 17. 54 5. 21 4. 70
2. 27 1.96 2.51 7. 68 12.41 12.92

8.05
3.59
5.80

3.93
2.86
4. 49


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

___

4. 48
4. 53

___

2.58
3.96

390
Table

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W — FEBR U A R Y
2

1935

.—Monthly Labor Turn-Over Rates per 100 Employees in Specified
Industries During 1934, 1933, and 1932—Continued
Foundries and machine shops

C lass of rates, and
year

Q uit rate:
1934___________
1933___________
1932___________
D ischarge rate:
___ . _
1934
1933___________
1932___________
L ay-off rate:
1934___________
1933___________
1932___________
T otal
separation
rate:
1934___________
1933___________
1932___________
A ccession rate:
1934 ________
1933___________
1932___________

A v ­ Jan­ F eb ­
April M ay June
erage uary ruary M arch

Ju ly

A u­
gust

Sep­
N o­ D e­
tem ­ Octo­ v em ­ cem ­
ber
ber
ber
ber

0.54
.31

0. 66
.24
.42

0. 75
.22
.36

1. 38
.26
.46

0. 90
.33
.29

0. 79
.38
.39

0. 66
.63
.31

0. 52
.72
.29

0. 56
.89
.27

0. 51
.82
.27

0. 56
.54
. 23

0. 46
.53
.22

0. 63
.20

. 17
. 10

. 19
.04
. 15

. 17
.07
. 12

. 26
.09
. 12

. 28
.08
. 12

. 29
. 16
. 14

. 25
. 25
. 12

. 20
. 19
.08

. 15
.28
.09

. 13
.27
.08

. 16
. 24
.03

. 17
. 17
.07

. 16
.08

2. 65
3.47

2. 49
2. 62
3. 14

1. 55
3. 72
2. 98

1.87
2. 83
3. 55

1.83
2. 24
4. 27

3. 61
1.50
3.93

4. 27
1.84
4. 74

2. 80
1. 56
3. 43

3. 94
1.91
3. 24

5. 62
2. 42
3. 34

4. 63
3. 26
2. 42

2. 78
4. 34
3.29

3.12
3. 12

3. 36
3.88

3. 34
2. 90
3.71

2. 47
4.01
3. 46

3. 51
3. 18
4.13

3.01
2. 65
4.68

4. 69
2.04
4. 46

5. 18
2. 72
5.17

3. 52
2.47
3.80

4. 65
3.08
3.60

6. 26
3. 51
3. 69

5. 35
4. 04
2.71

3. 41
5. 04
3. 58

3. 91
3. 40

5. 37
2. 52

6. 25
2. 71
3. 23

6. 34
1.73
2. 52

7. 48
2. 12
2. 94

6. 46
4. 38
2. 00

4. 95
5. 69
2. 54

4. 19 3. 58 2. 72
8. 80 10. 05 10. 55
1.88 2. 14 2. 35

2. 60
6. 54
3. 27

4.19
4. 44
2. 64

4. 10
3. 32
2. 44

3.07
2. 28

Furniture
Q uit rate:
1934
________
1933___________
1932___________
D ischarge rate:
1934. . _______
1933___________
1932___________
Lay-off rate:
1934___________
1933___________
1932___________
T otal
separation
rate:
1934___________
1933___________
1932___________
Accession rate:
1934___________
1933___________
1932___________

0. 78
.43

0. 58
.34
.38

0. 59
.23
.63

0. 49
.31
.64

0. 62
.75
.53

0. 60
1.36
.47

0. 86
1. 22
.36

0. 49
1.02
.52

0. 41
1.07
.42

1. 45
1. 21
. 54

0 59
.68
.22

0 43
.61
.28

0.51
. 21

.35
. 15

.27
. 14
. 16

. 23
.26
.34

. 25
. 12
.27

. 22
.08
. 15

. 21
. ii
. 16

. 27
. 16
. 12

. 37
.28
. 10

18
.42
.07

22
.53
. 11

18
.79
.12

15
. 51
. 12

.32
.07

4. 63
4.61

5. 24
5. 61
5. 86

4.03
3. 29
4. 35

3. 97
5. 78
6.19

4. 66
2. 68
5. 72

4.48
1.56
5.95

3.71
2. 67
6. 86

3.08
1. 60
4. 96

3.43
1.36
2. 44

3. 57
2. 02
1.59

3.62 4.44
3. 83 10. 36
2.00 3. 07

12. 52
5. 89

5. 76
5.19

6. 09
6.09
6. 40

4.85
3. 78
5. 32

4. 71
6.21
7. 10

5. 50
3.51
6. 40

5. 29
3.03
6. 58

4.84
4. 05
7.34

3. 94
2. 90
5. 58

4 02
2. 85
2.93

5 24
3. 76
2. 24

4 39 5 02
5. 30 11. 48
2. 34 3. 47

13. 35
6.17

7.16
4.12

5. 52
3. 36
4. 00

5. 14
3.31
4. 69

5. 40
1.88
3. 63

4. 25 5. 54
8.85 10.09
3. 70 3.44

__

3 52
3. 87
5. 05

3 33
2. 73
1. 76

2. 77
3. 05

60
.97
.36

0 63
! 85
.38

0

62
.73
.36

0.61
.54

6. 38 6. 37 4 79 4 44
9. 37 12. 42 15. 73 11.43
3. 21 3. 74 6. 59 7. 50

Iron and steel
Q uit rate:
1934___________
1933___________
1932___________
D ischarge rate:
1934___________
1933___________
1932___________
Lay-off rate:
1934___________
1933___________
1932___________
T otal s e p a r a t i o n
rate:
1934___________
1933___________
1932___________
A ccession rate:
1934___________
1933___________
1932___________

.53

. 82
.38
.55

0. 67
.25
.55

0. 73
.31
.53

. 11
.05

.08
.03
.05

.07
.04
.07

. 13
.03
.04

.11
.06
. 11

. 11
.07
.07

09
. 14
.05

23
.03

16
.23
.05

04
. 17
.05

04
. 12
.05

.09
.04

.07
.05

1.45
. 20
1.48

. 82
1 .8 8

1.72

. 57
1.48
1. 03

. 52
.91
5. 68

. 67
.99
4. 94

1. 17
.73
3.30

3 74
.37
2. 25

2 84
. 94
1.56

3 39
1.19
.65

1 70
2. 22
1.45

1 78
2. 87
1.23

1.74
1.60

2. 29
2. 58

2.35
2.61
2. 08

1. 56
2.17
2.34

1.43
1.82
1.60

1. 63
1.31
7.16

1 64
1.40
5.54

2 38
1.77
4. 29

4^1
1.44
2.71

3 94
2. 32
2.17

4 03
2. 33
1.06

2 37
3. 19
1.88

2 47
3.69
1.63

2. 42
2. 19

2. 48
1.47
1.71

3.25
2. 05
1.27

4.85
.73
1.34

5 44
2. 67
2. 77

5

4.56
1.36

44 3. 72 1 12
5. 86 12.25 13. 75
.68 1.06 1.77

1 07
8.43
1.32

98
3. 74
1.17

1 92
L 79
2.08

1 66
i84
.61

1.33
2. 08

0
0 .6 8

1.50
2. 00


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2

. 00
.34
1.37

1

0

. 86
.34
.53

1

. 12
.90
.94

0

56
.84
.43
11

0 94
1. 15
.56

0

07

391

LABOR TU R N-O VER

Table 2.— Monthly Labor Turn-Over Rates per 100 Employees in Specified
Industries During 1934, 1933, and 1932— Continued
M en’s clothing
Class of rates, and
year

Quit rate:
1934___________
1933___________
1932;___________
D ischarge rate:
1934___________
1933___________
1932___________
Lay-off rate:
1934___________
1933___________
1932___________
T o ta l s e p a r a t i o n
rate:
1934___________
1933___________
1932___________
Accession rate:
1934___________
1933___________
1932........... ...........

A v ­ Jan­ F eb ­ M arch April M ay June
erage uary ruary

July

A u­
gust

Sep­ O cto­ N o ­ D e­
tem ­
v em ­ cem ­
ber
ber
ber
ber

0. 84
.94

0. 75
.45
1.06

0. 68
.66
.98

0. 59
.63
.94

0. 81
.75
1.06

0.92
.79
1.13

1.13
.99
.88

1.07
1.32
.75

1.05
1.22
.65

0. 72
.77
1.52

0. 64
.85
.58

0. 42
.89
.66

0. 60
1.04

. 12
.09

. 11
.07
.08

. 10
.03
. 11

.12
.04
. 11

.09
.22
.05

. 17
.10
.05

. 15
. 11
.03

.09
.12
.04

.07
.23
.04

.07
. 18
.07

.07
. 12
.03

.06
. 15
.05

.06
.41

2. 30
2. 60

2. 54
1.72
1.22

.72
1.20
1.84

.85
2. 82
2.40

1.47
.83
6. 63

4.09
1.82
4.91

1.68
.56
3.38

2.15
.81
1.44

1.57
3. 32
.72

5.43
2. 77
.56

2. 23
1.85
.93

3.73
4.44
3.31

4. 66
4. 35

3. 26
3. 63

3. 40
2. 24
2.36

1.50
1.89
2. 93

1.56
3.49
3.45

2. 37
1.80
7. 74

5.18
2.71
6. 09

2. 96
1.66
4. 29

3.31
2. 25
2. 23

2. 69
4. 77
1.41

6. 22
3. 72
2.15

2.94
2. 82
1. 54

4.21
5.48
4. 02

3. 75
3.77

5.42
4.41
6. 20

5.69
2. 48
2. 05

3. 25
1.65
1.89

2. 37
3.07
1. 77

1.86
4.89
2. 33

4.01
7. 79
2. 22

2. 57
6. 44
6. 04

2. 21
4. 20
7.90

2.36
2. 61
7. 45

3.02
2.49
2. 72

3.03
1.69
3.05

3.41
2.11

1. 14
2. 04
.93

0.95
2. 48
.54

1.16
1.37
.84

0. 94
1.09
.69

1.27

.49
.53
.27

.50
.51
. 24

.31
.41
.44

.43
.51
.44

.25
.43

___

5.32
5.80

Sawmills
Quit rate:
1934
1933 __________
1932___________
D ischarge rate:
1934
1933___________
1932______ ____
Lay-off rate:
1934
1933___________
1932 _________
T otal s e p a r a t i o n
rate:
1934
1933 __________
1932 __________
A ccession rate:
1934
1933___________
1932 _________

1.47
.79

1. 04
.78
.94

1

. 06
.63
.48

1.30
.99
.89

1. 29
. 60
.87

1.49
1.40
.76

1.58
1. 69
.84

1.52
1. 77

.47
.51
.24

.33
.62
. 15

1

1 .0 2

.6 8

.43
.33

. 61
.43
.39

.46
.32
.46

.51
.42
.39

. 50
.25
.35

.51
.33
.30

4. 20
4. 50
5. 90

2. 54
5.14
5.87

3.21
6 . 32
6 . 27

3.01
2.98
4. 77

9. 39
2. 23
6 . 29

5. 8 6
1.98
8 . 59

5. 61

. 51
3. 54
5. 85

5. 56
4.31
4. 52

6.08
4. 97
6.24

6

4.47
6.21

. 38
5.72
3. 58

8.24
14.64

6.37
7.33

5.85
5. 71
7. 23

4.06
6. 09
6.81

5.02
7. 73
7. 55

4.80 11.39
4. 83 3. 96
5.99 7. 35

7.91
4.18
9. 67

7.46 10.14
4. 40 6.11
6.03 7.05

7.01
7. 30
5. 30

7. 55
6. 75
7. 52

7. 75
7.32
4.71

9. 76
15. 75

8. 74
6. 39

8. 31 10. 82
8.23 4.60
7. 24 5.60

11.62 11.15 7. 55 7. 63 6. 38 6.21
5. 95 9. 26 15. 54 18.21 15.09 10.34
6. 86 7.61 6.45 6.37 4.91 4.98

6. 76
8. 84
8. 78

7. 27
4. 49
6. 95

4.35
4. 34
5.26

3. 90
4. 29

2 .0 1

4. 8 6

8

Slaughtering and meat packing
Q uit rate:
1934
_______
1933
- ______
1932___________
D ischarge rate:
iq*u
1933 __________
1932___________
Lay-off rate:
1934
________
1933 _________
1932___________
T otal s e p a r a t i o n
rate:
1934
_______
1933
1932___________
A ccession rate:
1934
...............
1933
1932................... -

0. 97
.87

0.85
.64
.91

0.80
.63
1.34

0. 90
.59
.93

0.81
.66
.95

1.06
.95
.91

1.26
1.13
.95

1.33
1.16
.77

1.80
1.40
.74

2.11
1.63
.89

1.39
.97
.75

0. 66
.81
.62

0.81
.72

.39
.33

. 26
.23
.36

.26
.27
.49

.32
.21
.34

.29
.30
.35

.37
.42
.31

.40
.48
.34

.40
.40
.34

.68
.48
34

.46
.62
.36

.56
.35
.25

.35
.45
.21

.37
.22

6.01
5. 74

5. 99 10. 23
4. 37 6. 53
4.92 7.29

10. 40
5.00
7. 60

6.06
3.84
5.11

4.37
3.96
4.50

7.87
3.24
6.98

4. 20
5.29
5.26

7.01
4. 83
5. 33

7.12 22. 27 12.71
7.00 8. 73 7. 70
3. 89 5.18 6. 30

9. 84
ö. 41

7.37
6.94

7.10 11.29
5.24 7.43
6.19 9.12

11.62
5.80
8.87

7.16
4.80
6.41

5.80
5.33
5.72

9.53
4.85
8. 27

5. 93
6. 85
6. 37

9.49
6.71
6.41

9.69 24. 22 13.72
9. 25 10. 05 8.96
5.14 6.18 7.13

9.14
5. 71
6.14

7. 02
4. 80
4.45

9.59
6.32


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

10. 69
6.46
6.09

6. 76 10.97 11.95 15.41 15. 30 16. 35
7.41 10. 21 9.94 10.51 19. 78 11.64
5. 92 7. 60 7.11 6. 83 6.15 7. 21

9.16 11.57
7. 56 10. 79
6.29 6.18

___
11. 02
7.35
7.45
5.95

HOUSING
B u ild in g O p e ra tio n s in P r in c ip a l C itie s o f t h e U n ite d
S ta te s , D e c e m b e r 1934
N accordance with the usual seasonal trend, there was a decrease in
both the number and cost of buildings comparing December with
November. Compared with the previous month, December reports
showed a decrease of 29.6 percent in the number and a decrease of
32.2 percent in the value of buildings for which permits were issued.
This decline in construction was spread over all types.
The estimated cost of new residential buildings decreased 32.5 per­
cent, new nonresidential buildings, 36.5 percent, and additions, altera­
tions, and repairs, 25.7 percent. Compared with the corresponding
month of the previous year, the estimated cost reported in December
1934 building permits also registered decreases in new residential
building, in new nonresidential building, and in additions, alterations,
and repairs to existing buildings. The value of contracts awarded by
Federal and State Governments for building in the 764 reporting cities
amounted to $7,293,368 in December and $2,202,318 in November.
Information published in this study is based on reports received by
the Bureau of Labor Statistics from 764 identical cities having a
population of 10,000 or over. The permit data are collected from
local building officials on forms mailed by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics, except in the States of Illinois, Massachusetts, New Jersey,
New York, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania, where the State de­
partments of labor collect and forward the information to the Federal
Bureau. The cost figures shown are estimates made by prospective
builders on applying for their permits to build. No land costs are
included. Only building projects within the corporate limits of the
cities enumerated are shown. Federal and State contract figures are
collected from the various officials who have the power to award
contracts.
Comparisons by Geographic Divisions

I

T a b l e 1 shows the estimated cost of new residential buildings, of
new nonresidential buildings, of additions, alterations, and repairs,
and of total building operations in 764 identical cities having a
population of 10,000 or over, November and December 1934, by
geographic divisions.
Decreases in indicated expenditures for residential buildings were
registered in all nine of the geographic divisions comparing permits
issued in December with those issued during the previous month.
The decreases ranged from 4 percent in the Pacific States to 54.7
percent in the Mountain States. The decrease for the country as a
whole amounted to 32.5 percent.
392


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

393

HOUSING

Table 1.—Estimated Cost of Building Construction in 764 Identical Cities
N ew nonresidential buildings
(estim ated cost)

N ew residential buildings
(estim ated cost)
Geographic division

A ll d iv ision s---------- -------------N e w E n glan d -------------------------M idd le A tla n tic__________ --E ast N orth C entral- -------------W est N orth C en tra l.. ......... ..
South A tla n tic----- ---------------- E ast South C e n tr a l--.
----W est South C entral----------------M o u n ta in .. __________________
Pacific-----------------------------

D ecem ber
1934

N ovem ber
1934

$7,134,837

$10, 562,994
1, 064,925
3,446, 795
1,161,440
531, 528
2, 010,452
103,963
869,034
169, 218
1, 205, 639

973, 210
2,179, 922
825, 225
311, 365
1,016, 430
69,805
525, 055
76, 675
1,157,150

P ercen tchange
- 3 2 .5
- 8 .6
- 3 6 .8
- 2 8 .9
- 4 1 .4
- 4 9 .4
- 3 2 .9
- 3 9 .6
- 5 4 .7
- 4 .0

A dditions, alterations, and re­
pairs (estim ated cost)
Geographic division
D ecem ber
1934

N ovem ber
1934

$12,447, 375

$19, 603,493

1,026,989
2,521,099
3,168, 504
934,339
1,353,482
570, 287
729, 330
182,762
1,960,583

1, 357, 616
9, 041,835
2,416,873
1,368,078
1,818, 083
208,972
1,373, 259
318,214
1, 700,563

change
- 3 6 .5
- 2 4 .4
- 7 2 .1
+ 3 1 .1
- 3 1 .7
- 2 5 .6
+172. 9
- 4 6 .9
- 4 2 .6
+ 1 5 .3

N um ­
ber of
Per­
N ovem ber centage cities
1934
change

$29, 725,138 $43,811,399
-.8
- 2 5 .1
- 3 2 .1
- 2 3 .4
- 5 0 .2
- 3 1 .2
- 22.0
+ 1.1
- 9 .2

Percent-

T o ta l construction (estim ated
cost)

Per­
N ovem ber centage D ecem ber
1934
1934
change

$10,142, 926 $13,644,912
1,370,872
1, 359,377
3,921,929
2,939,303
1, 329,060
1,957,473
584,056
447, 651
2,452,584
1,221, 025
593,709
408,718
758,120
591, 597
236,900
239, 588
1, 769, 269
1, 606,607

A ll divisions.
N ew E n glan d ______
M id d le A tla n tic____
E ast N orth C entral.
W est N orth Central.
South A tla n tic _____
E ast South Central..
W est South C entral.
M o u n ta in __________
Pacific_____________

D ecem ber
1934

3, 359, 576
7, 640, 324
5,322, 789
1,693, 355
3, 590,937
1, 048,810
1,845,982
499,025
4,724,340

3, 793,413
16,410,559
5, 535, 786
2,483, 662
6,281,119
906,644
3, 000,413
724, 332
4,675, 471

- 3 2 .2
- 1 1 .4
- 5 3 .4
- 3 .8
- 3 1 .8
- 4 2 .8
+ 1 5 .7
- 3 8 .5
- 3 1 .1
+ 1.0

113
169
174
69
73
34
47

22
63

Three of the nine geographic divisions, however, showed increases
in nonresidential building. The incease in the East South Central
States amounted to nearly 175 percent.
The value of additions, alterations, and repairs to existing buildings
decreased in eight of the nine geographic divisions. Only the Moun­
tain States showed an increase in this type of construction.
Total construction registered a decrease in all divisions except the
East South Central and the Pacific.
Table 2 shows the number of new residential buildings, of new
nonresidential buildings, of additions, alterations, and repairs, and of
total building operations in 764 identical cities, November and
December 1934, by geographic divisions.
Table 2.—Number of New Buildings, Alterations, and Repairs, and of Total
Building Construction in 764 Identical Cities

---------------- ---

N ew residential
buildings
Geographic division

N ew nonresiden­
tial buildings

A dditions, altera­
tions, and repairs

T o ta l construction

PerPerD e- N oPerD e- N oDe- N oPerD e- N ocem- vem- cent- cem- vem - cent- cem- vem - cent- cem- vem - centber
ber
ber
age
ber
age
ber
age
age
ber
ber
ber
1934 1934 change 1934 1934 change 1934 1934 change 1934 1934 change

A ll d iv ision s__________ 1,477 2,154 - 3 1 .4 3, 466 5, 745 - 3 9 .7
383
786 - 5 1 .3
169
207 - 1 8 .4
N ew E ngland_________
655 1,102 - 4 0 .6
384 - 3 3 .1
257
M idd le A tlan tic___ . . .
649 1,159 - 5 4 .0
123
205 - 4 0 .0
E ast N orth C en tral___
214
503 - 5 7 .5
160 - 5 8 .7
66
W est N orth C entral___
640 - 4 4 .4
356
265
458 - 4 2 .1
Souih A t l a n t i c . ______
141
161 - 1 2 .4
41
46 - 1 0 .9
E ast South C entral___
377 - 3 3 .7
250
310 - 2 4 .8
233
W est South C entral----134
185 - 2 7 .6
33
60 - 4 5 .0
M o u n tain _________ ___
832 - 1 7 .8
684
324 - 1 0 .5
290
Pacific____ ___________


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

15, 450
1,586
3, 239
1,552
657
2,253
1,041
1,159
482
3,481

21, 083
2,314
4, 217
2,656
1,266
3,345
1,095
1,322
612
4,256

- 2 6 .7
- 3 1 .5
- 2 3 .2
- 4 1 .6
- 4 8 .1
- 3 2 .6
- 4 .9
- 1 2 .3
- 2 1 .2
- 1 8 .2

20, 393 28, 982
2,138 3, 307
4,151 5, 703
2, 324 4,020
937 1,929
2,874 4, 443
1,223 1,302
1,642 2,009
649
857
4,455 5,412

- 2 9 .6
- 3 5 .3
-2 7 .2
- 4 2 .2
—51.4
—3ö. 3
- 6 .1
- 1 8 .3
- 2 4 .3
- 1 7 .7

394

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

There were decreases in the number of new residential buildings, of
new nonresidential buildings, of additions, alterations, and repairs,
and of total building construction in each of the nine geographic divi­
sions, comparing permits issued in December 1934 with those issued
during the previous month.
Table 3 shows the estimated cost of housekeeping dwellings and
the number of families provided for in such dwellings for which permits
were issued in 764 identical cities, November and December 1934, by
geographic divisions.
Table 3.—Estimated Cost and Number of Family-Dwelling Units Provided in
764 Identical Cities
1

-fam ily dw ellings

E stim ated cost

2

Fam ilies pro­
vided for

-fam ily dw ellings
Fam ilies pro­
vided for

E stim ated cost

Geographic division
D ecem ­
ber 1934

N o v em ­
ber 1934

N ew E n glan d ___ _______
$955,110 $1, 024, 525
M id d le A tla n tic_________ 1,166,922 1, 619, 315
754,825 1,023,440
E ast N orth C e n t r a l.___
W est N orth Central __ _
215,965
501,028
932,130 1,742, 002
South A t la n t ic ___ _____
E ast South C entral_____
69,805
87, 463
W est South C en tral..
361, 680
798,084
M o u n tain ___________ . .
72, 375
156,618
Pacific__________________
984, 700 1, 053,769
T o ta l_____
___ -.
Percentage change _____

5, 513, 512
- 3 1 .1

8,006, 244

D ecem ­ N ovem ­ D ecem ­
ber 1934 ber 1934 ber 1934

166
229
113
61
250
41
202

32
266
1,360
- 3 1 .1

197
330
196
155
403
43
290
57
302

$11, 500
158, 000
38,400
19, 400
28, 300
0

0

0

0

123, 025
4, 300
123,450

61.950
7,600
116,170

49

28

1,973

506, 375
- 9 .8

561,450

E stim ated cost

D ecem ­
ber 1934

N ew E n g la n d -_ ________
M id d le A tla n tic___ E ast N orth C en tral_____
W est N orth C entral_____
South A tla n tic-- - ___ _
E ast South C en tral_____
W est South C e n tr a l___
M o u n tain ____ ____ ____Pacific______ -_ _______

$6 , 600
855, 000
29.000
0

56.000
0

40, 350
0

49, 000

T o ta l-. ---------------- 1,035,950
Percentage ch an ge______
- 4 7 .5


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

N o v em ­
ber 1934

Fam ilies pro­
vid ed for

E stim ated cost

D ecem ­ N o v em ­ D ecem ­
ber 1934 ber 1934 ber 1934

$8 , 0 0 0
1, 593, 500
10 0 , 000
4, 500
203, 000
15,000
9, 000
5, 000
35, 700

3
287

1,973,700

379
- 4 7 .0

37

4
495
42
4
128

0

6

22

14
3
19

11
0

0

19

$16,800
230,980
38, 000
26,000
63.950

2

6

37
9
7
15

79
13
7
49

2

2

37

33

158
- 2 7 .2

217

T otal, all kinds of housekeeping
dw ellings

M u ltifam ily dw ellings

Geographic division

N o­
N o v em ­ D e c e m ­ vera- v
ber 1934 ber 1934 ber
1934

715

Fam ilies pro­
vid ed for

N o­
N o v em ­ D e c e m ­ vem ­
ber 1934 ber 1934 ber
1934

$973, 210 $1, 049, 325
2,179, 922 3, 443, 795
822, 225 1,161,440
235,365
531, 528
1, 016,430 2, 008,952
69,805
102, 463
525, 055
869, 034
76, 675
169, 218
1,157,150 1, 205,639

171
553
133

7, 055,837 10, 541, 394
- 3 3 .1

1,897
- 3 4 .7

68

302
41
273
34
322

207
904
251
166
580
49
332
62
354
2,905

395

HOUSING

Decreases were shown in the estimated cost and in the number of
families provided for in 1-family dwellings, comparing December
1934 with the preceding month. Slight increases were shown in the
estimated cost and in the number of families provided for in 2-family
and multifamily dwellings in the West South Central and the Pacific
States, contrasting data in this comparable period.
Table 4 shows the index numbers of families provided for and the
index numbers of indicated expenditures for new residential buildings,
for new nonresidential buildings, for additions, alterations, and
repairs, and for total building operations for each month, September
1929 to December 1934, inclusive. These index numbers are worked
on a “ link-relative system” with the monthly average of 1929
equaling 100.
Table 4.—Index Numbers of Families Provided for and of Indicated Expendi­
tures for Building Operations
[M on th ly average, 1929=100]

Indicated expenditures for—

Indicated expenditures for—

M on th

1929
Sep tem b er___
October _ .
N o v em b er___
Decem ber
1930
January ___
February____
M arch _______
A p r i l . . . _____
M a y ___ . . . . .
June
J u ly
A ugust
Sep tem b er___
October
N o v e m b e r .. .
D ecem ber
1931
January
February_____
M arch __
April . . . .
M a y _________
June,
Ju ly
A u g u st_______
S ep tem b er___
October
N o v em b er___

F am ­
N ew
ilies N ew
nonpro­ resi­
v id ­
residen­
ed
dential
for
tial
b uild ­ b u ild ­
ings
ings

70.2
64. 4
51.7
35.9
34.2
43.0
57.1
62.0
59.6
54. 4
49. 9
48. 7
51.3
58 3
52.9
45 0
39.1
40.3
53. 4
64. 6
51.7
43. 4
35. 8
36.6
30. 1
33. 7
23.8
14.7

1932
January
14 4
February____ 13.0
M arch ............... 15.4

63.7
61. 6
44.8
30.2
29. 4
34.7
47.2
51.0
48.5
45.1
44.1
43. 4
44.4
44 9
42.5
37 6

81.3
107.9
89.6
74. 3
64.3
51.8
87.1
1 0 0 .1

90.7
82. 5
86.7
67. 2
73.8
53. 5
54.4
64.3

A d d i­ T otal
tions, b uild ­
altera­
ing
tions,
con­
and
struc­
re­
tion
pairs

73.7
85.7

95.0
115. 2
95.2

6 8 .1

6 6 .1

51.7

55.1
57.5
77.5
81.8
84.5
74. 6
77.4
58.6
64.2
58.1
37.8
53. 5

46.1
44.1
66.4
73.8
69.3
63.3
64.8
54.4
58.2
49. 7
46.3
50.1

1 1 .8

43.4
43.8
76.4
73.9
58.5
41. 7
53.7
63.9
41.8
34.8
32.7
32 9

55. 5
48.6
58.0
65. 2
53.0
56. 5
57.8
48.3
41.0
39.8
33.6
27. 3

38.9
37.9
57.1
60.6
48.8
39.4
41. 7
47.3
33.5
30.8
26.2
22. 3

.2
9.1
10.7

25. 0
16.5
18.1

25.8
26.7
27.0

18.2
14.3
15.7

30.8
30.3
40. 7
48.6
39.8
33 4
27. 6
33.5
24.8
25 4
19.0

10

109041—35------10


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

M on th

F am ­
ilies
pro­
v id ­
ed
for

1932—Con.
A pril_________ 13.4
M a y . _ - _____ 11.3
J u n e_________ 1 0 . 6
J u ly _________
8. 2
A u g u s t ______ 9.7
Septem ber___ 1 0 . 8
O c to b e r __ _
9. 5
N ovem b er___
6.4
D e c e m b e r ...-- 5.0
1933
J a n u a r y ___
4.9
February____
5.6
M arch _______
7.2
7.4
A pril________
M a y ______ _ 11.9
J u n e_________ 12.3
J u ly _________ 1 0 . 2
A u gu st_______ 8.9
Septem ber___ 1 1 . 8
October___
6.5
N ovem b er___ 1 2 . 1
D ecem b er____
6.7
1934
January______
February------M arch _______
A pril________
M a y . . ______
J u n e_________
J u ly _________
A u gu st-------- Septem ber___
October______
N ovem b er___
D ecem b er____

3.7
3.8
7.2
9.0
1 0 .2

7.2
7.8
7.6
7.4
9.9
8 .2

5.4

N ew
N ew
nonresi­
resid en­
dential
tial
b uild ­ build ­
ings
ings

A d d i­
tions,
altera­
tions,
and
re­
pairs

T otal
build­
ing
con­
struc­
tion

32.0
27.3
28.2

18.8
23.3
17.3

2 2 .6

1 2 .0

7.5

25.0
39.3
24.6
16.1
15.7
11.4

24.9
21.7

10.7

6 .6

1 2 .6

2 2 .8

1 1 .0

4.9
3.6

2 1 .8

14.9
13.7

13.0
10.5

3.4
4.6
4 .2
4.6

16.2
14.2
20.9
22. 6
29.8
33.3
26.7
29.4
25.5
30.1
18.3
23.5

14.7
7.9
7.8
9.5
21.7
13.8

9.7
7.9
7.9
5.6
6 .8

17.3

7.1

26.8
8.9
6.9
9.9
33.8
11.5
10.9
10.4

8 .6

1 2 .8

5.2

13. 1
10.3
13.8

8 .1
8 .- 8
8 .0

8 .6

4.6
2 .8

3.2
5.7
6.7
7.3
5.3
5.3
5.4
5.7
6 .8

5.9
4.0

10.5
10.3
10.9
13.6
20.4
1 2 .6

16.8
17.0
1 2 .6

16.4
16.1
1 0 .2

24.2
2 2 .2

27.0
30.1
36.4
34.4
35.8
34.1
32.0
43.5
31.2
23.2

1 2 .6

1 2 .2

11.9
13.1
12 . 1
1 1 .0
11

.1

8.9
8.7
1 0 .8
1 2 .8

16.7
12.4
14.2
14. 1
12.3
16.0
13.7
9.3

396

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Comparison, December 1934 with December 1933
T a b l e 5 shows the estimated cost of new residential buildings, of
new nonresidential buildings, of additions, alterations, and repairs,
and of total building operations in 750 identical cities having a popu­
lation of 10,000 or over, December 1933 and December 1934, by
geographic divisions.

Table 5.—Estimated Cost of Building Construction in 750 Identical Cities
N ew nonresidential buildings
(estim ated cost)

N ew residential buildings
(estim ated cost)
Geographic division

A ll d ivision s.
N ew E ngland--------M id d le A tla n tic____
E ast N orth C en tral_
W est N orth Central.
South A tlan tic_____
E ast South C entral.
W est South CentralM ou n tain __________
Pacific_____________

D ecem ber
1934

D ecem ber
1933

$7,104,337

$7, 204, 724

962,710
2,161,922
825, 225
311, 365
1, 013,980
6 8 ,555
526, 755
76, 675
1,157,150

829,250
4,194, 450
305,952
146,000
526,629
50,400
276,532
70, 643
804, 8 6 8

Percent­
age
change

+ 1 6 .1
- 4 8 .5
+169. 7
+113.3
+ 9 2 .5
+ 3 6 .0
+ 9 0 .5
+ 8 .5
+ 4 3 .8

A dditions, alterations, and
repairs (estim ated cost)
Geographic division
D ecem ber
1934

- 2 .4

1,039, 765
4, 220, 325
956,382
340, 548
1, 448, 026
507, 429
454, 388
137, 570
1, 246,801

+ 3 0 .0
- 3 0 .6
+ 3 8 .1
+ 3 1 .4
- 1 5 .7
- 2 0 .1
+ 2 9 .8
+ 7 2 .2
+ 2 8 .4

1,352,005
2,930, 582
1,320,712
447,551
1, 221,025
405, 318
589,802
236,957
1, 600, 624

D ecem ber
1933

$12,093,181

$17,347,891

1,020,627
2, 510,859
2,971, 287
788, 339
1, 353, 482
570, 287
734,955
182, 762
1,960,583

Percent­
age
change

6 8 6 ,735
4,918,790
2, 322,883
940, 233
3, 261,916
312,350
1,485,408
39,137
3,380, 439

T otal construction (estim ated
cost)

Per­
D ecem ber centage D ecem ber
1934
1933
change

A ll d iv isio n s.. ----------- ------------ $10,104, 576 $10,351,234
N ew E n glan d ____ _ ________
M idd le A tla n tic ______________
E ast N orth C entral------ -------W est N orth Central -------------South A tlan tic______ . .
E ast South C entral— ---------W est South C e n tr a l.. . . . . . .
M o u n ta in .. . . . -------------------Pacific_____ _ ----------- --------

D ecem ber
1934

Per­
D ecem ber
centage
1933
change

N um ­
ber
of
cities

- 1 6 .0

750

2, 555,750 + 3 0 .5
13, 333, 565 - 4 3 .0
3, 585,217 + 4 2 .7
+ 8 .4
1, 426,781
5, 236,571 - 3 1 .5
870,179 + 2 0 . 0
2, 216, 328 - 1 6 .5
247,350 +100. 7
5,432,108 - 1 3 .1

109
171
174

$29, 302, 094 $34,903, 849
3,335,342
7, 603, 363
5,117, 224
1, 547, 255
3, 588,487
1,044,160
1,851,512
496, 394
4, 718,357

- 3 0 .3
+ 4 8 .6
- 4 9 .0
+ 2 7 .9
- 1 6 .2
- 5 8 .5
+ 8 2 .6
- 5 0 .5
+367. 0
- 4 2 .0

68

72
26
47
20

63

New residential buildings decreased 1.4 percent comparing Decem­
ber with the corresponding month of 1933. Eight of the nine geo­
graphic divisions, however, registered increases in this type of
structure.
The decrease in indicated expenditures for dwellings was brought
about wholly by the falling off in New York City. In the Borough
of Queens permits were issued during December 1933 for apartment
houses to cost $3,000,000. This was more than the total cost of all
residential buildings for which permits were issued during December
1934 in the Middle Atlantic States.
Decreases were also shown for new nonresidential buildings and for
additions, alterations, and repairs. Six of the nine geographic divi
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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

397

HOUSING

sions, however, registered increases in the estimated cost of repairs,
comparing December 1934 with December 1933.
Table 6 shows the number of new residential buildings, of new
nonresidential buildings, of additions, alterations, and repairs, and of
total building operations in 750 identical cities, December 1933 and
December 1934, by geographic divisions.
Table 6.—Number of New Buildings, Alterations and Repairs, and of Total
Building Construction in 750 Identical Cities, December 1933 and 1934
N ew residential
buildings
Geographic division

N ew nonresidential A dd ition s, altera­
buildings
tions, and repairs

T otal construction

D eD ePerD eD ePerD eD ePerD ecem- cem- cent- cem- cem- cent- cem- cem- cent- cemher
her
age
ber
ber
age
ber
ber
age
ber
1934 1933 change 1934 1933 change 1934 1933 change 1934

A ll d iv isio n s__________

1,469

N e w E n g la n d _________
M id d le A tla n tic_______
E ast N orth C en tral___
W est N o rth C entral___
South A tla n tic________
E ast South C en tral___
W est South C entral___
M o u n ta in ___________
Pacific___ ____ _______

167
254
123
66

262
40
234
33
290

D ePercem- centber
age
1933 change

897 + 6 3 .8 3,437 2,694 + 2 7 .6 15, 356 11,133 + 3 7 .9 20,262 14,724 + 3 7 .6
132
185
63
48
129

+ 2 6 .5
+ 3 7 .3
+ 9 5 .2
+ 3 7 .5
+103.1
21
+ 9 0 .5
104 +125.0
15 + 1 2 0 . 0
200
+ 4 5 .0

378
636
645
213
356
141
250
134
684

305
535
412
193
270
96
223
71
589

+ 2 3 .9
+ 1 8 .9
+ 5 6 .6
+ 1 0 .4
+ 3 1 .9
+ 4 6 .9
+ 1 2 .1
+ 8 8 .7
+ 16.1

1, 560
3,182
1,548
657
2,253
1,033
1,165
479
3, 479

955
2, 902
1,160
439
1,605
457
714
349
2,452

+ 6 3 .4
+ 9 .6
+ 3 3 .4
+ 4 9 .7
+ 4 0 .4
+126. 0
+ 6 3 .2
+ 3 7 .2
+ 4 1 .9

2,105
4,072
2,316
936
2,871
1,214
1,649
646
4,453

1,392
3, 622
1,635
680
2,104
574
1,041
435
3,241

+ 51. 2
+ 1 2 .4
+ 4 1 .7
+ 37. 6
+ 3 6 .5
+111. 5
+ 5 8 .4
+48. 5
+ 3 7 .4

There were increases in the numbers of new residential buildings,
of new nonresidential buildings, and of additions, alterations, and re­
pairs in each of the nine geographic divisions comparing the 2 months
under discussion.
Table 7 shows the estimated cost of residential buildings and the
number of family-dwelling units provided in the new residential
buildings for which permits were issued in 750 identical cities during
December 1933 and December 1934, by geographic divisions.
Increases were registered in both the estimated cost and the number
of families provided for in 1-family and 2-family dwellings. Due to
the inclusion of the $3,000,000 apartment houses in the Borough of
Queens in December 1933, there was a falling off in the estimated cost
of apartment houses and in the number of family-dwelling units
provided therein, as indicated by reports received for December 1934.


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398

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Table 7.—Estimated Cost and Number of Family-Dwelling Units Provided in
750 Identical Cities
l-fam ily dw ellings

E stim ated cost

2

Fam ilies pro­
v id ed for

-fam ily dw ellings
Fam ilies pro­
v id ed for

E stim ated cost

Geographic division
D ecem ­
ber 1934

$944, 610
N ew E n glan d ___________
M id d le A tla n tic_________ 1,148, 922
754,825
E ast N orth C en tral_____
215,965
W est N orth C entral. . _
929, 680
South A tla n tic______ . .
E ast South C entral ___
6 8 , 555
W est South C en tral.._ . .
363, 380
72, 375
M ou n tain ----------------------984, 700
Pacific
. . . . . . . -----T otal . ___________
Percentage change

5, 483, 012
+ 5 7 .5

D ecem ­
ber 1933

D ecem ­
ber 1934

D ecem ber
1933

D e­
cem ­
ber
1934

$4, 500
158,000
38, 400
19, 400
28, 300

$50, 300
164, 800
14, 250
2 , 000
8 , 250

37
9
7
15

0

0

93
15
183

123, 025
4, 300
123, 450

41, 000
0

2

0

54, 880

37

21

811

499,375
+ 4 8 .9

335,480

157
+ 3 5 .3

D ecem ­
D ecem ­
ber
ber 1933
1934

$755,450
808,150
282, 702
144, 000
488, 379
50, 400
230, 832
70, 643
649, 988

164
226
113
61
247
40
203
32
266

3,480, 544

1,352
+ 6 6 .7

12 1

146
59
47
126
21

E stim ated cost

D ecem ­
ber 1934

D ecem ­
ber 1933

Fam ilies pro­
vid ed for

4
287
11
0
37

9
1,194
4
0
15

22

3
0
40

$13, 600
855, 000
29, 000

$23, 500
3, 221, 500
9,000

56, 000

30, 000

49, 000

100, 000

19

T o ta l________
Percentage ch an ge. _

1,042, 950
- 6 9 .2

3, 388, 700

380
-70.0

0
0
40, 350
0

0
0
4,700
0

E stim a ted cost

D ecem ­
Decernber
ber 1933
1934

N ew E n glan d ______
M id d le A tla n tic ____
E ast N orth C en tral.
W est N orth Central.
South A tla n tic_____
E ast South C entralW est South CentralM ou n tain __________
P acific_____________

0
0

16
49
5

1

2

4

0

0

19

49

116

T o ta l, all k in d s of housekeeping
dw ellings

M u ltifam ily dw ellings

Geographic division

D e­
cem ­
ber
1933

0

1,265

D ecem ­
ber 1934

D ecem ber
1933

$962, 710
2,161,922
822, 225
235, 365
1, 013, 980
6 8 , 555
526, 755
76, 675
1,157,150

$829, 250
4,194,450
305,952
146, 000
526, 629
50,400
276, 532
70, 643
804,868

7, 025,337
- 2 .5

7, 204, 724

Fam ilies pro­
v id ed for
D ecember
1934

D e­
cem ­
ber
1933

169
550
133

146
1, 389

68

49
145

299
40
274
34
322
1,889
- 1 3 .8

68

21

115
15
244
2,192

Permits were issued during December for the following important
building projects: In Hartford, Conn., for public utilities to cost
$192,000; in Decatur, 111., for a public building to cost $265,000; in
Peoria, 111., for warehouses to cost $225,000; in Dearborn, Mich., for
a steel mill to cost $430,000; in Cincinnati, Ohio, for an office building
to cost $296,000; in Hamilton, Ohio, for a public building to cost over
$255,000; in Long Beach, Calif., for school buildings to cost over
$430,000; in Endicott, N. Y., for a school building to cost $270,000;
and in Nashville, Tenn., for a factory building to cost $225,000.
Contracts were awarded by the Procurement Division of the Treasury
Department for an elevator plant at the Federal Office Building, New
York, to cost over $350,000, and for a parcel-post building at Rich­
mond, Va., to cost nearly $555,000.

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399

HOUSING

C o n s tr u c tio n fro m P u b lic F u n d s , D e c e m b e r 1934
OMPARING December with November there were decreases in
the value of contracts awarded for construction projects to be
financed from the Public Works Administration fund as well as for
construction projects financed by direct appropriations to the different
Federal departments. The value of construction projects financed
from all types of Federal funds during December, however, exceeded
$65,000,000.
Table 8 shows for the months of November and December the value
of contracts awarded for Federal construction projects to be financed
from Public Works Administration funds, by geographic divisions.

C

Table 8.—Value of Contracts Awarded for Federal Construction Projects
Financed From Public Works Administration Funds
B u ild ing construction

R iver, harbor, and
flood-control projects

P u b lic roads

Geographic division
D ecem ber
1934
A ll d iv ision s_____ ____ ____
N ew E n glan d ___ _________
M id d le A tla n tic___ ______
E ast N orth C en tral______
W est N orth C entral______
______
South A tlan tic _
E ast South Central . _
W est South C entral- .
M o u n ta in ___________
.
P a c ific.- . . . ___
Outside continental U nited
S ta te s .-. _______________

$1, 798, 302
170, 283
385,805
120, 653
19, 481
664, 782
44,850
103, 445
134, 122
141,132
13, 749

N ovem ber
1934

N ovem ber
1934

D ecem ber
1934

N ovem b er
1934

$2,795,366 $18,804, 236 $28,197,814
143, 630
1, 007, 772
1,708, 773
2,965,967
500,915
5,026, 391
3,898, 026
293,476
2,820,425
1,434, 323
586, 822
6,592,931
2, 236, 097
389, 551
1, 8 8 8 , 554
1, 261, 387
4,239
2,424,273
256, 629
2, 761,828
2, 461.302
2, 184, 902
11,434
3,130,474
1, 053, 934
345, 765
2,144,691

$12,209,945

$12, 523,824

262,905

Streets and roads
Geographic division

A ll d iv ision s______________
N ew E n glan d ___________ .
M idd le A tlan tic ____ - _
E ast N orth C entral_____ .
W est N orth C entral___. . .
South A tlan tic____________
E ast South Central _. „ ___
W est South C entral_______
M o u n ta in _________________
P acific_________ _________
O utside continental U nited
S tates_________________ .

D ecem ber
1934

D ecem ber
1934

0

0

118,016
1,898,137
214, 695
2,781,041
183,670
175,093
7,153,172

0

14, 036
437, 226
1,072, 255

0

N aval vessels

1

0

28, 860
18, 737
4, 322, 721
6 , 316,110

0

0

0

R eclam ation projects

N ovem ber
1934

D ecem ber
1934

N ovem ber
1934

D ecem ber
1934

$429, 319

$574,012

$134, 070

$62,697

$2, 583,114

0

135,195

0

0

5,000

0

3,340

0

0

0

0

1,399
921
1,538

0

0

0

•

N ovem b er
1934
$130,304
0

0

0

0

0

75, 650
115, 287

130, 212

59,357

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

125,881
94, 849

9,247
5,000
22, 296
99,836
241,868

0

0

0

0

103, 586
536,467
1,943, 061

123, 548
6 , 756

12, 652

60, 570

0

0

0

0

0

W ater and sewage
system s

M iscellaneous

0

0

0

Total

Geographic division
D ecem ber
1934
A ll div ision s______________
N ew E n g la n d .. __________
M idd le A tla n tic ___ ____
E ast N orth C entral___ _
W est N o rth C entral_______
South A tlan tic____________
E ast South C entral_______
W est South C entral_______
M ou n tain . ______________
P acific_______________ --_
Outside continental U nited
S tates. - .
. ______ ___

$27, 315
0

D ecem ber
1934

N ovem ber
1934

$229, 689
10, 500

$834, 997
55,386
332,102
218,120
8,584
159,021
6 , 502
9, 477
30
34,175
, 600

0

0

567

, 800

25,178
25,569
108,850
1,013
7,316
35,000
16, 263

715

0

0

19, 233
0
0
0
6

N ovem ber
1934

1 1

! Other than those reported b y th e Bureau of Public Roads.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

D ecem ber
1934

N ovem ber
1934

$549, 443
406
73,152
112,503
18,840
60, 776
21,494
15,950
9,037
237,285

$36, 821, 298
1, 234, 840
3, 718, 655
4, 257, 641
5, 785,109
9, 601,105
1,428,026
2,992,372
3, 418, 628
4, 346, 206

$45,161, 327
1,998, 504
5, 721,814
5,149, 719
7,438,857
5, 297,376
2, 639,689
2,938, 586
10, 562, 501
2,992, 628

98,178

38, 716

421, 653

400

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Federal contracts awarded during December to be financed from the
Public Works Administration fund totaled nearly $37,000,000. This
is a decrease of over $8,000,000 as compared with November. In­
creases in contract valuation, however, were registered in the following
projects: Reclamation and miscellaneous building.
During December contracts were awarded for a dam on the Missis­
sippi River near Winona, Minn., to cost over $1,500,000; for a dam on
the Mississippi River near Muscatine, Iowa, to cost over $2,000,000;
for a flood-control reservoir at Grafton, W. Va., to cost over $6,000,000;
and for sheet-steel piling for Grand Coulee Dam, Almira, Wash., to
cost over $1,100,000.
Table 9 shows the value of contracts awarded from the Public
Works Administration fund for all non-Federal projects during
December 1934, by geographic divisions.
Table 9 . —Value of Contracts Awarded for Non-Federal Construction Projects
Financed From Public Works Administration Funds
B u ild ing construction

Streets and roads >

W ater and sewage
system s

Geographic division
D ecem ber
1934

N ovem ber D ecem ber N ovem ber
1934
1934
1934

A ll d iv isio n s-_____ ___________ $10,086, 683 $13,398, 724 $3, 236, 897 $2,803,498
N ew E n glan d __________ _____
M idd le A tla n tic .............. ......... .
E ast N orth C entral_____ ____
W est N orth C entral__________
South A tlan tic________________
E ast South C en tral_________ _
W est South C entral___________
M ou n tain ______ ____________
Pacific________________ _______
O utside continental U nited
S tates. ___________ _______ _

805,192
3, 234, 671
377,294
1, 244,824
6 6 8 , 240
284, 245
2, 036, 764
6 6 , 642
1,368,811

1, 315,798
5,942,010
872,653
329,154
979,097
2,109,030
583,255
381,322
864,505

0

21,900

N ovem b er
1934

$9, 572,138

$7, 010,233

116, 230

266,321
81,613
103, 303

456,096
446, 043
3, 306,805
1, 327,091
880, 629
339, 046
1, 362, 692
119,638
1,135, 519

895,977
723, 872
1,779,406
407,984
840,558
133,473
936,301
587, 204
661,458

0

0

198, 579

44,000

182, 247
13, 039
932,095
1,027, 373
213, 853
23, 977
728,083
0

Railroad construction
and repair

7?

D ecem ber
1934

907, 576
0

189,656
676,408
578,621
0

M iscellaneous

T otal

Geographic division
D ecem ber
1934
A ll d ivision s___________

_____

N ew E ngland ______________
M idd le A tla n tic______________
E ast N orth C en tral___________
W est N orth C en tral__________
South A tla n tic ________________
E a st South C e n t r a l__________
W est South C entral___________
M o u n ta in ____________________
Pacific____________ . . . . . . . . .
Outside continental U nited
S tates________ _____ ________
1

N ovem ber D ecem ber N ovem ber
1934
1934
1934

D ecem ber
1934

N ovem ber
1934

$737, 500 $14, 604, 023 $1, 062,053 $1, 208, 673

$24, 695, 271

$39,025,151

1,518,519
4, 434, 836
4,640, 972
4, 246, 596
1, 782, 522
647, 268
4,179, 289
237, 272
2,809, 418

3.204.498
21, 281, 300
2,841,715
2,039,804
2,339,039
2.303.499
1,800,268
1,161, 802
1, 703,468

198, 579

289, 758

0

0

74, 984
3,583
24, 778
647, 308
19,800

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

737, 500

14, 604,023

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

51,750
50,992
188,858

626, 258
763
60,996
14,391
111, 663
74,202

0

0

0

223,858

0

0

Other than those reported b y th e Bureau of P u b lic Roads.


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85,147
11,395

401

HOUSING

During December the value of contracts awarded for Public Works
Administration non-Federal projects amounted to over $24,000,000,
a decrease of nearly $15,000,000 as compared with November. NonFederal public works construction projects are financed by loans and
grants awarded by the Public Works Administration. For the most
part, these awards are made to State governments or to political subdi­
visions thereof. In a few cases loans are made to private firms. By
far the larger number of private loans have been made to railroad
companies. In the case of allotments to States, cities, and counties,
the Federal Government grants outright not more than 30 percent
of the cost of construction. Loans made to private firms must be
paid in full during the time specified in the loan contract. Interest
is charged for all loans.
Contracts were awarded during December for the following large
projects to be financed from non-Federal Public Works Administra­
tion funds: For a sewage plant at East St. Louis, 111., to cost nearly
$2,000,000, and for a building at the University of Texas to cost over
$1,500,000.
Table 10 shows the value of contracts awarded or force-account
work started during November and December 1934 on Federal con­
struction projects to be financed from appropriations made by the
Congress direct to the Federal departments.
Table 10.—Value of Contracts for Federal Construction Projects Financed
From Regular Governmental Appropriations
B u ild ing construction

R iver, harbor, and floodcontrol projects

P u b lic roads

Geographic division
D ecem ber
1934

N ovem ber
1934

D ecem ber
1934

N ovem ber
1934

D ecem ber
1934

A ll d iv isio n s____________

$1,453, 235

$7,923,298

$801,172

$1, 562,663

$743,422

$926,893

N ew E n glan d ___________
M idd le A tlan tic_________
E ast N orth C e n tr a l.. . .
W est N orth C e n tr a l____
South A tlan tic__________
E a st South C en tral_____
W est South C e n tr a l____
..
M o u n ta in ______ ____
Pacific____ _ .
___
O u t s id e C o n t in e n t a l
U n ited S tates_________

23, 256
564,019
344,182
47, 628
198, 662
45,168
188, 546
3, 300
38,474

36,453
5,876,187
824,192
8,928
464, 999
33,820
19, 602
3, 810
29, 648

0
0
0
66, 509
0
0
328,979
293, 597
112,087

114, 224
0
0
76, 583
0
0
0
549,875
821, 981

0
0
0
0
90, 380
0
516, 749
0
136, 293

0
0
0
3, 250
52, 427
85,153
748, 295
0
37, 768

0

625,659

0

0

0

0

Streets and roads 1
Geographic division

D ecem ber
1934

N ovem ber
1934

N a v a l vessels
D ecem ber
1934

N ovem ber
1934

R eclam ation projects

N ovem b er
1934

D ecem ber
1934

N ovem b er
1934

A ll d iv isio n s____________

$225, 256

$207, 685

$1,417, 300

$773,861

a $1 2 6 , 6 0 0

a $137,800

N e w E n glan d _______ . . .
M idd le A tlan tic_________
E ast N orth C en tral____
W est N o rth C e n tr a l____
South A tla n tic__________
E ast South C entral_____
W est South C entral-------M o u n ta in ____ __________
Pacific___ ______________
O u t s id e c o n t in e n t a l
U n ited S tates..................

0
0
0
0
203,504
0
0
21, 752
0

0
4, 459
0
0
42,114
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
61, 000
0
0
0
1,196, 300

0
30,000
0
0
563,061
0
0
0
118,500

0
0
0
7, 500
7,700
0
7, 000
62,400
37,800

0
0
0
9,000
7,700
0
10,000
67,000
39,900

0

161,112

160,000

62,300

0

0

See footnotes at end of tab le.


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402

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Table 10 . —Value of Contracts for Federal Construction Projects Financed
From Regular Governmental Appropriations— Continued
W ater and sewage
system s

M iscellaneous

T otal

Geographic division
D ecem ber
1934

N ovem b er
1934

D ecem ber
1934

N ovem b er
1934

D ecem ber
1934

N ovem b er
1934

A ll d ivision s__________ .

$11,718

$20,408

$151,845

$255,978

N ew E n glan d ___________
M idd le A t la n t ic ... . . . .
E ast N orth C en tral. _ _
W est N orth C entral_____
South A tla n tic .._ ______
E ast South C entral__ . . .
W est South C entral_____
M o u n ta in ... . . . _______
Pacific_____ ____________
O u t s id e c o n t in e n t a l
U n ited S ta tes_______

0
0
0
0
11,718
0
0
0
0

6,419
0
0
0
13,989
0
0
0
0

0
71, 683
0
0
46, 637
0
1,709
0
9,816

0
36,566
6,900
0
104,466
86, 228
0
15,000
1,360

23,256
635, 702
344,182
121,637
619,601
45,168
1,042,983
381, 049
1, 530, 770

158,078
5,947, 212
831, 092
97,761
1, 248, 756
205, 201
777,897
635, 685
1,049,157

0

0

22, 000

5,458

182,000

854,529

2 $4,930, 548 2$11,809, 568

1 Other than those reported b y the Bureau of P u b lic Roads.
2 Includes $4,200 not allocated b y geographic divisions.

Contracts awarded during December totaled nearly $5,000,000 as
compared with nearly $12,000,000 in November. Increases, how­
ever, were shown in the value of contracts awarded for street paving
and for naval vessels. Valuations shown in table 10 are in addition to
work financed from the Public Works Administration fund. (See
tables 8 and 9, pp. 399 and 400.)
Table 11 shows the value of public-building and highway-con­
struction awards as reported by the various State governments for
December 1933 and for November and December 1934, by geographic
divisions.
Table 11 . —Value of Public-Building and Highway-Construction Awards as
Reported by State Governments
V alue of awards for public buildings

V alue of awards for h igh w ay
construction

Geographic division
D ecem ber
1934

N ovem ber
1934

D ecem ber
1933

D ecem ber
1934

N ovem ber
1934

...

$1,642,246

$1,310,548

$3,686,795

$4,938, 992

$4, 955,644

$3, 699,193

N ew E n glan d . . . . . . . . .
.
M idd le A tla n tic__________ . . .
E ast N orth C en tral. ________
W est N orth C entral. . . . . . .
South A tlan tic . . . . . . . . .
E ast South C en tral__________
W est South C en tra l............ ..
M ou n tain ____________________
Pacific_________ . . . _______

52,461
101, 635
792,957
3,756
313, 288
0
282,007
3,179
92,963

62, 534
11, 387
623,889
33, 397
21, 224
0
544, 631
0
13,486

99, 985
319, 769
1,780, 777
437,482
362, 654
3, 000
132, 157
108, 233
442, 738

126, 576
52, 671
3, 032, 668
206, 553
79,191
105,671
751, 200
21,207
563, 255

364,224
1, 317, 954
1,101,027
890, 360
39, 344
177, 914
98, 951
26,110
939, 760

0
0
62,851
228,883
252, 285
89,104
222,098
161,168
2, 682,804

A ll d ivision s______ ______


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D ecem ber
1933

HOUSING

403

The value of contracts awarded by the various State governments
for building construction during December 1934 was less than half the
December 1933 valuation, but showed an increase of over $300,000 as
compared with the November 1934 valuation.
The value of awards for highway construction showed an increase
as compared with December 1933, but a slight decrease as compared
with November 1934. The contract valuations shown in table 11 do
not include projects financed from the Public Works Administration
fund.
H o u s in g S u r v e y b y C a n a d ia n C o n s tr u c tio n C o u n c il
ROBLEMS of slum clearance and low-cost housing are being con­
sidered by a recently appointed special committee of the National
Construction Council of Canada. In this connection an attempt is
being made to secure through 20 regional committees in the principal
Canadian cities a survey of housing conditions in different parts of the
Dominion.
For the use of the regional committees, the following classification
standards for housing was provided by the National Council:1

P

National Construction Council Housing Survey— 1934
Classification Standards for Housing
H o u s i n g to be judged according to minimum health standards and additional
requisites of minimum, standard of amenities. The minimum health standard is
one that provides for health and decency only, any dwelling falling below this
standard to be considered as dangerous to the health of the occupants or incom­
patible with decency. The additional requisites of minimum standard of ameni­
ties are those that would provide satisfactory environmental conditions which
Canadian customs and standards demand.
i Labor G azette, O ttaw a, D ecem ber 1934, p p. 1102-1103.


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404

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935
Item

P osition ____
F ou n d ation .
C ellar______
R oom s_____

H eatin g ____

W in d o w s .. .
L igh tin g ___

M in im u m standard of h ealth
M u st h ave free access of light and air_____
W here there is no cellar there m u st be a
space of 2 feet under house, space drained
and enclosed.
Good if floored w ith cem ent and ven tilated .
D r y dirt floor, w ith good foundations,
w ell ven tilated .
N o livin g room s in basem ent. Specially
planned basem ent apartm ent w ith floor
n o t m ore than 4 feet below grade n ot to
be considered as substandard.
C entral heating (furnace or heating boiler)
is n ot required. H ouse m u st be w eather
proof and capable of being heated b y one
or more stoves.
A ll room s m u st h ave w in dow s opening to
outer air and w in dow s m u st be m ovable.
It should n ot be necessary to u se artificial
ligh tin g on a norm al day.

Illu m in ation
D am pness.
S m ell____

Verm in

W ater sup p ly.

T oilet.

Cooking
Food storage
E n viron m en t.


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M in im u m standard of a m enities
N o rear or alley dw elling.
Sam e as for health.
C em ent floor required.

Central h eatin g required.

Good d ayligh t in all rooms.
W ired for electric lig h t or piped for
gas.

T h e house or apartm ent m u st be free from
serious dam pness.
Sm ell does n ot itself stam p house as su b ­
standard b u t w hen sm ell is p ersistent
and caused b y conditions w hich are a
m enace to h ealth th e house should be
classed as substandard.
T h e h ouse m u st be in condition to keep it
free from verm in . W here a row of
houses is infested it w ould be im possible
for one house to be k ep t free. E n viron ­
m en t m u st be considered.
H ou se m u st be piped for cold w ater. T ap
w ith sink and drain, basin or bath m u st
be in good w orking order.

W ater closet in sid e b uilding for use of
household on ly, w ith en try from the
d w elling. T h ere m u st be a w in dow in
com partm ent opening d irectly to open
air. T oilet m u st be in w orking order.
A separate place m u st be provided for
cooking apart from th e sleeping quarters.
V en ts and flues m u st be provided.
A ccom m odation for storage of food m u st
be provided in reasonably cool position,
w ith protection from d ust and flies.

Free from obnoxious odors inside or
out.

Free from verm in of all kinds.

C om plete in sid e plu m b in g w ith hot
and cold water w ith sink, basin,
b ath and toilet. T o ilet m u st not
open o il k itch en , liv in g room , or
be in basem ent. A ll m u st be in
good w orking order. T here m u st
be a w in d o w to open air in all
rooms con tain in g p lu m b in g fix­
tures.

In d iv id u a l cooking arrangem ent for
each household.

W hat is com m on ly term ed a “ s lu m ”
w ould n ot su p p ly proper neighbor­
hood surroundings for house in ­
ten d ed to provide satisfactory
environm ental conditions of even
a m in im u m standard of am en ities.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR
E m p lo y m e n t a n d E a rn in g s o f E le c tr ic - R a ilw a y
W o rk e rs , 1932
EW industries in the United States have undergone more violent
changes in recent years than the electric railways. Until the early
F
twenties, the electric railways formed the backbone of the Nation’s
municipal and interurban transportation system. Since the war,
however, the automotive method of highway transportation has
developed into a formidable rival. The spirited competition between
these two systems that has been a feature of the past decade has
resulted in far-reaching changes. What these changes have meant
is strikingly illustrated by the quinquennial census of electrical
industries covering the year 1932, the results of which have recently
been published by the United States Bureau of the Census.1
One of the most significant features of the Census Bureau’s report is
that during the 5-year interval from 1927 to 1932 the total number of
electric-railway companies declined from 963 to 706, a net reduction of
26.7 percent. Part of this decrease in the number of operating com­
panies was no doubt due to the process of industrial integration, a
tendency that was characteristic of all industries during the period.
But unquestionably many of the 257 defunct companies were victims
of the fierce competitive struggle that has been going on in the indus­
try. A familiar sign of the times in almost all parts of the country in
recent years has been the removal of abandoned trolley tracks in
order to improve traffic conditions for the new means of mass trans­
port. This trend is clearly reflected in the census report. In the
aggregate, 9,174 miles of electric-railway track passed from active
operation between 1927 and 1932. The length of track now operated
by the electric railways—31,548 miles—-is substantially less than in
1907 and is nearly a third less than the miles of track operated in
1917. At the same time the number of passenger cars used dropped
from 70,309 in 1927 to 59,692 in 1932. Still more drastic was the
decline in revenue passengers from 12,174,592,333 in 1927 to 7,955,980,642 in 1932, a decrease of 34.7 percent.
1 U nited States D ep artm en t of Com m erce. Bureau of th e C ensus. C ensus of Electrical Ind u stries,
1932: Electric R ailw ays and M otor B u s Operations of A ffiliates and Successors. W ashin gton , 1934.


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405

406

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W — F E B R U A R Y 1935

Decline in Employment
T h e decline in the volume of business of the electric railways has
had important social repercussions. Including the motor-bus opera­
tions of affiliates and successors, the total number of workers employed
by the electric railways in 1932 was 182,165. This represents a
decrease of 31.8 percent when compared with the 267,115 workers
(including 2,540 motor-bus operators) employed by the industry in
1927 and is nearly 40 percent less than the number employed in 1922,
when the industry was near its peak. Indeed, fewer workers now look
to the electric railways for their livelihood than in 1907. (See table 1.)

Table 1.— Trend of Employment and Wages on Electric Railways and Motor
Busses, 1922, 1927, and 1932, by Occupational Classes
Percent of change
Item

N um b er of operating c o m p a n ie s _____
E m ployees:
N um ber, to ta l- _____ - . .
Salaries and wages, to ta l___
Salaried em ployees:
N um ber, to ta l__________________
Salaries, to ta l____ _ . _
_
Officials:
N um b er _______________________
S a la r ie s-.. _ ________ ____ . . .
M anagers and superintendents:
N um b er .
_ ____ __________
S a la ries.._ _______ _ . _______
Clerks, stenographers, and others:
N um b er
. . .
Salaries . .
W age earners:
N um ber, total
.............. .
W ages, total
. _ .
_____
Conductors, m otorm en, 1-man car
and trolley-bus operators:
N um b er
___
W ages _______ _
__ ________
Conductors:
N u m b er________________________
W ages _____ _________________
M otorm en:
N um b er _________ . .
W ages. _______ . . . __ _______
Operators, 1-man cars:
N um b er . . . . . . _ __________ .
W a g e s .. _ _ _ __________ ____
Operators, trolley-busses:
N u m b er________ _______________
W ages_____ _ . . . _ .
...
A ll other wage earners:
N um b er
. .
.......
W ages____ . . . . . ______
___
1 Includes
2 Includes
3 Includes
4 Includes

1932

1927

485

1922

682

1922
1927 to 1922 to
to
1932
1927
1932
858 - 2 8 .9

-2 0 . 5 -4 3 . 5

182,165
i 267,115
2 300, 523 - 3 1 .8
$281,832,170 1 $441,951,958 2 $445,680,135 - 3 6 .2

- 1 1 . 1 - 3 9 .4
- . 8 - 3 6 .8

20, 260
$40,146, 625

27,845
$56, 647, 314

30, 239 - 2 7 .2
$57,489,091 - 2 9 .1

- 7 .9
- 1 .5

- 3 3 .0
- 3 0 .2

1,203
$5,911,818

1,723
$8, 770,049

2, 017 - 3 0 .2
$8,946,893 - 3 2 .6

- 1 4 .6
- 2 .0

-4 0 . 4
- 3 3 .9

2, 464
$7, 899,735

3,093
$9, 576, 584

3, 358 - 2 0 .3
$10, 403, 759 - 1 7 .5

- 7 .9
- 8 .0

- 2 6 .6
- 2 4 .1

16, 593
$26,335,072

23,029
$38, 300,681

24,864 - 2 7 .9
$38,138,439 - 3 1 .2

- 7 .4
+ .4

- 3 3 .3
- 3 0 .9

161,905
i 239, 270
2 270, 284 - 3 2 .3
$241,685,545 1 $385, 304,644 2 $388,191,044 - 3 7 .3

- 1 1 .5
- .7

-4 0 . 1
- 3 7 .7

78,928
. i 115, 720
2 130, 628 - 3 1 .8
$121, 751, 610 i $200,963,146 2 $205,238,478 - 3 9 .4

- 1 1 .4
- 2 .1

- 3 9 .6
- 4 0 .7

23,010
$36,606, 255

41,085
$71. 321,403

58,988 - 4 4 .0
$92,939,236 - 4 8 .7

- 3 0 .4
- 2 3 .3

- 6 1 .0
- 6 0 .6

23, 368
$38,185,398

46, 210
$83,039, 708

58,166 - 4 9 .4
$92,953, 300 - 5 4 .0

- 2 0 .6
- 1 0 .7

- 5 9 .8
- 5 8 .9

32, 216
$46, 408, 516

25, 885
$42, 274,998

13,070 + 2 4 .5 + 9 8 .0 +146.5
$18,797,669 + 9 .8 +124.9 +146.9

334
$551,441

3 2, 540
4 $4, 327,037

3 404 - 8 6 .9 +528.7 - 1 7 .3
4 $548,273 - 8 7 .3 +689.2
+ .6

82,977
$119,933,935

123, 550
$184, 341, 498

139, 656 - 3 2 .8
$182, 852, 566 - 3 4 .9

- 1 1 .5
+ .8

- 4 0 .6
- 3 4 .4

2,540 operators of motor busses and $4,327,037 wages.
404 operators of m otor busses and $548,273 wages.
operators of motor busses for 1927 and 1922.
w ages for operators of motor busses for 1927 and 1922.

During the 5-year interval, 1927-32, there was a marked decrease
in both the number of salaried employees and the number of wage
earners. The most pronounced decrease, however, is shown in the
number of wage earners. In 1932 the total number or wage earners

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

407

W AGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

was 161,905, a decrease of 32.3 percent in comparison with 1927 and
40.1 percent less than in 1922. Of the wage earners, the occupational
class most seriously affected was that of motormen, the total number
on pay rolls declining from 46,210 in 1927 to 23,368 in 1932, a reduc­
tion of 49.4 percent. A sharp decrease is also reported in the number
of conductors, only 23,010 being employed in 1932 as against 41,085
at the time of the previous census. The decreased number of motormen and conductors was partly offset by a marked rise of 24.5 per­
cent in the number of operators of 1-man cars. For the miscellaneous
class of wage earners employment fell off 32.8 percent during the 5year interval.
Salaried workers were somewhat more fortunate than the wage­
earning class. For the group as a whole, employment decreased 27.2
percent between 1927 and 1932, the total number carried on the pay
rolls being 20,260 compared with 27,845 at the time of the preceding
census. Of the salaried employees, officials were subject to the most
severe curtailment and between 1927 and 1932 more than 500 were
taken off the pay rolls. A reduction of 27.9 percent was reported in
the number of chirks, stenographers, and miscellaneous salaried
employees, while the number of managers and superintendents in
1932 was 20.3 percent less than in 1927.
Average Annual Earnings
A l t h o u g h the number of workers employed by the electric rail­
ways has been drastically reduced since 1927, the earnings of the
workers fortunate enough to retain their jobs have been better main­
tained than have those of workers in many other branches of industry.
For all employees of the electric railways, the average earnings in
1932 were $1,547. This represents a decrease of only 6.5 percent
when compared with the average of $1,655 in 1927 and is slightly
higher than the average for 1922. (See table 2.)
T a b le 2 .— C o m p a riso n o f A v e rag e A n n u a l E a rn in g s on E le c tric R a ilw a y s a n d
M o to r B usses in 1922, 1927, a n d 1932, b y O c c u p a tio n a l C lasses
Percent of change

A verage earnings
Occupational class

1927 to
1932

1922 to
1932

1932

1927

1922

-------

$1, 547

$1, 655

$1,483

- 6 .5

+ 4 .3

Salaried em ployees, average__
. ----------------------Officials
- ___
...
M anagers and sup erin ten dents. . .............
Clerks, stenographers, and o th e r s ..
-------------W age earners, average____ .
___________________
C onductors___
__ ____
M otorm en . . . . .
Other w age earn ers.. . . ------ --------------------

1,982
4,914
3,206
1,587
1,493
1,591
i 1, 523
1,445

2,034
5,090
3,096
1,663
1,610
1,736
2 1,737
1,492

1,901
4.436
3,098
1,534
1.436
1,576
2 1,568
1,310

- 2 .6
- 3 .5
+ 3 .6
- 4 .6
- 7 .3
-8 .4
- 1 2 .3
- 3 .2

+ 4 .3
+ 1 0 .8
+ 3 .5
+ 3 .5
+ 4 .0
+ 1 .0
- 2 .9
+ 1 0 .3

A verage, all em ployees

_____ _

. . . ___ . . . -

1 Includes 1-man car and trolley-bus operators.
2 Includes 1-man car and m otor-bus operators.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

408

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Despite the relatively favorable showing for the industry as a
whole, the earnings of some occupational classes were sharply reduced
between 1927 and 1932. For the wage earners, the average for 1932
was $1,493 as against $1,610 in 1927, a decrease of 7.3 percent.
Earnings of salaried employees, on the other hand, declined only
2.6 percent, averaging $1,982 in 1932 compared with $2,034 in 1927.
The most drastic decline in earnings is shown for motormen;
from an average of $1,737 in 1927, their earnings declined to $1,523
in 1932, a decrease of 12.3 percent. The average earnings of conduc­
tors in 1932 show a decline of 8.4 percent in comparison with the
preceding census year, but the earnings of the miscellaneous class of
wage earners came within 3.2 percent of the 1927 level, averaging
$1,445 as against $1,492.
In contrast with the sharp decreases in the earnings of the wage­
earning group, earnings of salaried employees held up fairly well. In
fact, the salaries of managers and superintendents increased during
the period, averaging $3,206 in 1932 as compared with $3,096 in 1927.
Earnings of clerks, stenographers, and other miscellaneous salaried
employees, however, decreased 4.6 percent during the 5-year interval,
while the salaries of officials in 1932 averaged 3.5 percent less than
in 1927.
Geographical Differentials in Earnings
E a r n in g s of electric-railway employees vary widely between
occupational groups, and there are also marked differences in earn­
ings of workers within the same occupational group. To some extent,
variations in earnings of workers of the same skills are to be found in
all branches of industry and simply reflect the recognition of service,
unusual aptitude, or the individual bargaining ability of the worker.
But apart from these ordinary variations, sharp geographical differ­
entials are apparent in the earnings of workers employed by the
electric railways (table 3).
In 1932 earnings were generally highest in the Middle. Atlantic
region and New England and lowest in the South Central States.
The average earnings of all workers engaged in the industry during
the year, for example, was $1,547, but in the different sections of the
country the average earnings ranged between a high of $1,656 in the
Middle Atlantic division and a low of $1,251 in the West South
Central States—a difference of 24 percent. Although the relative
standing of the major geographic divisions with respect to earnings
displays a curious persistency, the spread is much more pronounced
when the workers in the low-income brackets are considered sepa­
rately. To illustrate, earnings of conductors in the Mountain States
were almost 42 percent below the average for New England.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

409

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR
T a b le 3 . — G e o g rap h ic V a ria tio n s in A v e rag e E a rn in g s o f
E m p lo y e e s in 1932, b y O c c u p a tio n a l C lasses

W age earners

Salaried em ployees

Geographic division

A ver­
age all
em ­ A ll sala­
ployees ried em ­
ployees

Ofllcials

E le c tric -R a ilw a y

M an ­
agers Clerks,
A ll
Other
C on­ M otorstenog­ wage
and
wage
super­ raphers, earners ductors m en 1 earners
in ten d ­ etc.
en ts

U n ited S t a t e s .. . . ________

$1, 547

$1, 982

$4,914

$3, 206

$1, 587

$1, 493

$1,591

$1,523

$1, 445

N e w E n g la n d . . . . ------------M id d le A tlan tic ____ _____
E ast N orth C en tral. . . .
W est N orth C entral______ .
South A tla n tic . _____ E ast South C entral_________
W est South C entral . . . ___
M o u n ta in ___ _____ . . ___
P a c ific.. . .
.
. . .

1,617
1,656
1,527
1,393
1,409
1,308
1, 251
1, 321
1, 549

1,853
2, 241
1,815
1,980
1,958
1,753
1,674
1,810
1, 893

4, 075
6,565
4, 496
4, 427
4, 254
3, 270
3, 302
3,372
5, 544

3,178
3, 627
2, 995
2, 943
2, 793
2, 393
3,117
2, 834
3, 087

1,473
1,734
1,433
1, 619
1, 660
1,440
1,301
1,382
1,666

1,597
1,591
1,491
1,306
1,328
1,252
1,166
1, 232
1,501

1,863
1,585
1,701
1,281
1, 503
1, 521
1, 261
1,085
1, 542

1,656
1,625
1,579
1,344
1,369
1,367
1, 237
1,235
1,490

1,527
1,576
1,319
1,276
1,230
1, 035
1,049
1,250
1,489

1 Includes 1-man car and trolley-bus operators.

Earnings of salaried employees were consistently higher in the
Middle Atlantic States than in any other section of the country.

W a g e -R a te C h an g e s in A m e ric a n I n d u s tr ie s
Manufacturing Industries

ABLE l presents information concerning wage-rate adjustments
occurring between October 15 and November 15, 1934, as shown
by reports received from 25,507 manufacturing establishments
employing 3,554,573 workers in November.
Seventy establishments in 30 industries reported wage-rate increases
averaging 7.7 percent and affecting 5,475 employees. One establish­
ment each in seven industries reported decreases which averaged
10.9 percent and affected 123 workers.
Four establishments in the paper and pulp industry gave an average
increase of 5 percent to 1,160 workers. Ten newspaper establish­
ments reported an average increase of 8.2 percent affecting 1,034
employees. One women’s clothing manufacturing establishment gave
an increase of 7.5 percent to 669 workers. Eight foundry and
machine-shop establishments gave an average increase of 5 percent
to 427 employees. The increases in each of the remaining industries
affected 371 emplcwees or less.

T


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

410

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

T a b le 1 .— W a g e -R a te

C h a n g e s in M a n u fa c tu rin g I n d u s trie s D u rin g M o n th
E n d in g N o v . 15, 1934

Industry

All m anufacturing industries
Percentage of to ta l____
Iron and steel and their p roducts,
n ot including machinery:
B last furnaces, steel works
and rolling m ills—..............—
B olts, n u ts, washers, and
rivets______ ______ - .............
Oast-iron p ip e_______________
C utlery (not including silver
and plated cutlery) and
edge tools_______ _________
Forgings, iron and steel.......H ardw are......................................
Plum bers’ sup p lies--------------Steam and hot-water heating
apparatus and steam fit­
tin g s............................................
S toves....... ......... ....................... ..
Structural and ornamental
m etal work_________ _____ _
T in cans and other tin w are. .
T ools (not including edge
tools, m achine tools, files,
and sa w s)__________ ______
W irew ork___________________
M achinery, n ot including trans­
portation equipm ent:
A gricultural im p lem en ts____
Cash registers, adding m a­
chines, and calculating m a­
chines—...........— ................... .
Electrical m achinery, appa­
ratus, and sup p lies________
E ngines, turbines, tractors,
and water w heels--------------Fou n d ry and machine-shop
products.................................. .
M achine tools_______________
R adios and phonographs____
T extile m achinery and parts
T ypew riters and p arts______
T ransportation equipm ent:
A ircraft..........................................
A u tom ob iles......... .......................
Cars, electric- and steam railroad.............................. ........
L ocom otives....... .........................
S hip bu ildin g—............................
R ailroad repair shops:
E lectric railroad.................. .......
Steam railroad______________
N onferrous m etals and their
products:
A lu m in u m m an ufactures___
Brass, bronze, and copper
p r o d u c t s .................................
C locks and w atch es and tim e ­
recording d evices__________
Jew elry........... ...............................
L igh tin g e q u ip m e n t................
Silverw are and p lated w are. . .
S m elting and refining—cop­
per, lead, and z in c ________
Stam ped and enam eled w are.
L um ber and allied products:
F u rn itu re___________________
Lum ber:
M illw ork ............. .................
S aw m ills________________
T u rp en tin e and rosin _______
i Less than Ho of 1 percent.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

E stab ­
lish­
m ents
report­
ing

N um b er of em ployees
having—

N um b er of establish­
m ents reporting—
T otal
num ber
of em ­
ployees

No
wagerate
changes

Wagerate
increases

7 3, 548,975
998

5, 475
0.2

No
Wage- Wagerate
wagerate
inderate
changes creases creases
70
0.3

25, 507 3, 554, 573
100.0
300.0

25, 430
99.7

238

247, 535

238

247, 535

59
54

8, 726
9, 353

59
54

8, 726
9,353

158
96

13, 950
9, 540
24,987
9,500

164
95
109
85

4
1
1
1

13,843
9, 453
24,979
9,495

107
87
8
5

21,426
25,014

94
210

1

21,415
25, 014

11

210

297
75

20, 024
10,966

295
75

2

19,984
10,966

40

139
108

10,309
10,843

137
108

1

10, 302
10,843

3

84

21,970

84

110
86

95

16,859

30

123,103

408

108

35,907

108

1,666

214
53
185
14

144, 682
22,310
38,376
16,861
15,796

I, 658
214
5S
184
14

33
358

3,989
226,493

33
358

68
11

114

12,110
4, 759
31, 809

68
11
114

358
582

18, 752
73,453

354
582

4

1

6,971

34

39, 306

304

28
175
75

11, 529
10,973
3,844
9,548

28
173
75
68

220

13, 692
23, 565

41
220

593

56,002

587

653
674
34

26,968
74, 712
2, 565

653
674
34

68

41

4

16,859

30

35

1

123
0)

21, 970

409

304

(')

W agerate
decreases

1

123, 076

27

35,907
8
1

144, 255
22,310
38, 376
16,850
15, 796

49.7
11

3,989
493

226,

12,110
4,759
31,809
18, 490
73, 453

262

6,921

50

39, 306
11,529
10,952
3,844
9, 548

2

21

13,692
23', 565
5

1

55,847
26, 968
74, 712
2, 565

109

46

411

W AGES AND HOURS OF LABOR
T a b le 1 .— W a g e -R a te

C h a n g e s in M a n u fa c tu rin g In d u s trie s
E n d in g N o v . 15, 1934— C o n tin u e d

Industry

Stone, clay, and glass products:
B rick, tile, and terra c o tta __
C em en t.......................... ...........
G lass_____________ _________
M arble, granite, slate, and
other p rod ucts____________
P o tter y _____________________
T extiles and their products:
Fabrics:
Carpets and rugs________
C otton goods____________
C otton sm all w ares-- . . .
D y ein g and finishing
textiles. _______ ______
H ats, fu r -fe lt ___________
K n it goods______________
Silk and rayon goods - - _
W oolen and worsted
goods ________________
W earing apparel:
C lothing, m en ’s _________
C lothing, w om en ’s _______
Corsets and allied garm ents.
M e n ’s furnishings_________
M illin e ry _________
Shirts and collars____
L eather and its manufactures:
B oots and shoes. _____ ....
L eath er. _____
___
Food and kindred products:
B a k i n g .. _________
B everages_________
B u t t e r .. . _______
C anning and p reservin g..
C onfectionery______
F lo u r_____________
Ice cream __________
Slaughtering and m eat packin g----------------------------------Sugar, b eet__________
Sugar refining, cane
T obacco manufactures:
C hew ing and sm oking tobacco and sn u ff___
Cigars and cigarettes___
Paper and printing:
Boxes, paper_______
Paper and p u lp . __ _____
P rin tin g and publishing:
B ook and jo b ______
N ew spapers and periodicals___________
C hem icals and allied products,
and petroleum refining:
Other than petroleum refining:
C h e m ic a ls __
C ottonseed—o i 1, c a k e ,
and meal ______
D ru ggists’ p rep arations..
E x p losives_________
Fertilizers______ ___
P aints and varnishes.
R ayon and allied produ cts................ ......... . . .
S o a p ___ ____ . .
Petroleum refining_______
R ubber products:
R ubber boots and shoes____
R ubber goods, other than
boots, shoes, tires, and inner tu b es___
_______
R ubber tires and inner tubes
109041—35----- -11


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

N um b er of establish­
m ents reporting—

E stab ­
lish­
m ents
report­
ing

Total
num ber
of em ­
ployees

544
140
178

19, 881
17,989
50, 474

543
140
178

263
127

5, 105
19, 819

263
126

33
687
125

15, 975
277,781
10, 458

33
687
125

161
55
488
279

34, 400
7, 347
122,112
48, 544

161
55
487
279

No
Wage- Wagewagerate
rate
in ­
rate
de­
changes creases creases

D u rin g M o n th

N um b er of em ployees

having—
No
wagerate
changes

19,691
17, 989
50,474

1

5,105
19, 795

1

Wagerate

W age
rate
de­
creases creases

in­

190

24

15, 975
277 ,781

IO! 458
34, 400
7, 347
122, 099
48,544

1

524

115,878

521

1,551
775
37
85
148
165

108,665
42,589
6,057
8, 262
7, 587
25, 315

1,551
’ 774
37
85
148
165

356
175

107,642
33; 736

356
174

1

1, 136
561
328
753
334
421
379

68, 542
26,858
4, 640
53, 498
44, 612
17,125
9,232

1,134

2

559

1

328
748
333
419

5
1
2

307
70
16

118,519
18,992
IO! 710

305
70
16

40
239

10, 175
51, 570

40
239

733
459

37, 985
110,408

733
455

4

1,538

63, 586

1, 535

2

577

53,859

567

10

122

25,309

122

100
74
34
301
643

5,622
9,430
4, 567
10, 792
18,276

100
73
34
301
643

30
111
147

46,211
17^ 037
4L 452

30
111
145

11

17,823

11

17, 823

186
34

23, 929
39,121

186
34

23,929
39; 121

2

1

115, 673
108, 665
41, 920
6,057
8, 262
7, 587
25,315

1

107, 642
33i 365
1

379

2

68,530
26, 809
4, 640
53,390
44, 545
17 041
9,232
118 199
18, 992
10, 710

13
172

33

669

371
12
39

10

108
67
84
320

10,175
51,570
37, 985
109, 248
1

1,160

63,557

19

52,825

1,034

10

25, 309
5, 622
9,416
4 , 567
10, 792
18', 276

1

1

1

46, 211
17 ,037
41,421

14

22

9

412

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Nonmanufacturing Industries
I n t a b l e 2 are shown data relating to changes in wage rates
reported to the Bureau by cooperating establishments in 17 non­
manufacturing industries for the period from October 15 to November
15, 1934.
Establishments in 9 industries reported wage-rate increases. Of
these, 49 retail trade establishments gave wage-rate increases averag­
ing 6 percent and affecting 571 workers, while 6 establishments in the
electric-railroad and motor-bus operation and maintenance industry
reported an average 5 percent increase to 562 employees. The num­
ber of workers affected by increases in the remaining 7 industries
ranged from 8 to 355 and totaled 909.
Eleven establishments in 4 industries reported wage-rate decreases
affecting 122 employees.
Table 2.—Wage-Rate Changes in Nonmanufacturing Industries During Month
Ending Nov. 15, 1934

Industrial group

E stab ­ T otal
n um ­
lish ­
m ents ber of
em ­
report­
ployees
ing

Anthranite m ining
160 84, 294
Pp.rp.fvnta.gp. nf total
100. 0
100. 0
Pit.nm innns final m ining
1,462 249,114
Pp,rfi.p,nta,gfi, of total
100.0
100. 0
M etalliferous m ining
279 29,012
Pp,montage of total
100.0
100. 0
Quarrying and nnnmetallifi m ining
1 126 32,959
Pfi,rofintagfi of total
100.0
100. 0
Orn (Ifi-petrolfiii m pr odn fii n g
237 24,808
Pomp/ntagp. of total
100. 0
100. 0
T elephone and telegraph
8, 220 260, 581
Pereentaiie of total
100.0
100. 0
Electric light and power and m anufaetnrod gas
2,706 240, 276
Pereentage of total
100. 0
100. 0
Electric-railroad and m otor-bus op132,174
oration and m aintenanee
537
Pereentage of total
100.0
100.0
W holesale trade. _______ _ ________ 16,872 300, 297
100.0
100.0
Percentage of to ta l________ _____
R etail trade_________________________ 61, 578 948,497
100.0
100.0
Percentage of to ta l______________
H otels
2,448 139,762
Pereentage of total
100.0
100. 0
1,318 69,344
Laundries___ . . . . . _____________ .
100.0
100.0
Percentage of to ta l______________
677 15,705
D yein g and cleaning___ ____________
100.0
100.0
Percentage of to ta l______________
B anks
3,049 98,118
Pereentage of total
100. 0
100. 0
Brokerage
401 11,500
Pereentage of total
100.0
100.0
Insnranee
1,091 69,611
Ppi'ppntflg-fk of total
100. 0
100 0
Real estate
926 21,561
Pereentage of total
100.0
100.0
1 Less than Mo of 1 percent.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

N um b er of establish­
m en ts reporting—

N um b er of em ployees
having—

No
No
Wage- W ageW age- Wagewage- rate in ­ rate de­ wage- rate in­ rate de­
rate
rate
creases changes creases creases
creases
changes
160
100.0
1,462
100.0
279
100.0
1,126
100.0
235
99.2
8,220
100. 0

2
.8

84,294
100.0
249,114
100.0
29,012
100.0
32,959
100.0
24, 527
98.9
260, 581
100.0

281
1.1

2,670
98. 7

36
1.3

239,921
99.9

355
.1

531
98.9
16,844
99.8
61, 524
99.9
2,448
100.0
1,316
99.8
675
99.7
3,046
99.9
401
100.0
1,091
100. 0
924
99.8

6
1.1
24
.1
49
.1

131,612
99.6
4 300,082
99.9
(>)
5 947,886
99.9
(0
139, 762
100.0
1 69, 267
99.9
.1
1 15,681
99.8
.1
98, 087
100.0
11,500
100.0
69,611
100.0
21,553
100.0

562
.4
174
.1
571
.1

1
.1
1
.1
3
.1

2
.2

55
.1
5
(>)
31
(■)

8
(i)

41
(>)

40

(>)
22
«

19
.1

413

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

W ages a n d H o u rs o f L a b o r in M ic h ig a n P a p e r
M ills, 1934
SURVEY of hourly-wage rates, average hours per week, and
average weekly earnings in the paper mills of Michigan was
made by the department of labor of that State as of the pay-roll
period ending nearest to September 15, 1934. The results for the
State as a whole are shown, by occupations, in the following table.
The average hourly rate for all occupations was 48 cents, the highest
rate—77.2 cents per hour—being for the occupation of machine
tenders, and the lowest—35.2 cents—being for sorters and counters.
Average hours per week averaged 37.4, the occupational range being
from 24 to 41.2.

A

Average Rates per Hour, Hours per Week, and Weekly Earnings of Paper-Mill
Workers in Michigan, September 1934

Occupation

A ver­ A ver­ A ver­
age
age
age
hourly hours w eekly
earn­
per
rates
week
ings

A ver­ A ver- A ver­
age
age
age
w eekly
hourly hours
per
earn­
rates
week
ings

Occupation

C e n ts

A cid m a k ers-_ _ _
Acid m akers’ helpers A ssistan t cook s. _ __
.. ..
Beaterm en __ _______
B leach m akers __
B leach erm en .-- ______ _
B low p it m en _______ _
.
Boiler repairm en.
. _
B ack ten d ers_______________
Coal passers _ Cooks _
C utterm en _____ ___________
1ligesterm en _______________
E m bossing-m achine operators______________________
F irem en .
First beater helpers. __ ____
Fourth hands
.. .
General m ill oilers
F ourth beater helpers
. _
H an d ym en
Janitors
... _
Laborers. . .
Loaders____________________
Log handlers. . ...
Maichine ten d ers_______ _.
M a c h in ists____________ ___

E a rn in g s

C e n ts

54.1
48.3
51. 0
48. 2
71. 4
59. 1
51.9
56. 3
57.0
45. 3
59.7
45. 6
41. 0

36. 2
39. 7
32. 9
34. 0
37. 1
39.7
39.8
39. 6
34. 7
40. 3
34.7
36.4
38.0

$19. 58
19.17
16. 78
16. 39
26. 49
23. 46
20. 66
22. 29
19. 78
18. 25
20. 71
16. 60
15. 58

46.0
54.9
49. 2
44.9
49. 5
38. 0
48.3
45. 4
41.8
44.8
48. 6
77. 2
61. 3

32.0
39. 1
33. 7
34.6
39. 0
24. 0
40. 2
40.0
39. 6
39. 1
39. 2
33. 4
39. 4

14. 72
21. 46
16. 58
15. 53
19. 30
9. 12
19. 42
18. 16
16. 55
17. 52
19. 05
25. 78
24. 15

M illw rights
Paper testers
Painters
Packers
Rag room helpers
Repairm en
R ew inderm en
Saw m ill hands
Screen m en
Second beater helpers
Supercalender ru n n e rs.. . .
Supercalender helpers
Sorters and counters
Store clerks __
Storekeepers...
Steam fitters
. . .
...
Stock lifters
T h ird h an d s_____ __
Third beater helpers
Trim m erm en
Truckers
W ashermen
W atch m en .
.. .
W et m achine runners.
Y a r d m e n . ____ _ _ . . . .
Average for in d u str y ..

o f O ffice W o rk e rs in N e w
F a c to rie s, O c to b e r 1934

62 1
47. 2
53.8
43 0
3S. 0
50. 4
49. 5
50. 3
45 8
43 9
46.0
38.0
35 2
51. 3
43. 6
58 7
44. 8
51. 0
39 0
53. 5
59. 7
42. 5
43.0
46. 5
44.7

39.1
38. 4
40.0
36 0
24. 0
40 9
38.3
39 1
36 2
36 0
32.0
24.0
26.0
39.4
39. 5
40. 0
32. 7
34. 6
24. 0
39. 0
40. 2
30.9
41. 2
39.7
37.5

$24. 28
18 12
21. 52
15.48
9 12
20. 61
18. 96
19. 67
16 58
15. 80
14. 72
9. 12
9. 15
20. 21
17. 22
23.48
14. 65
17. 65
9. 36
20. 86
24. 00
13. 13
17. 72
18. 46
16. 76

48.0

37.4

17. 95

Y o rk

S ta te

HE annual survey of office workers’ earnings in New York State
factories, made by the State department of labor and published
in its Industrial Bulletin for November 1934, shows that the earnings
of these workers averaged $32.45 in October 1934 as compared with
$31.85 in October 1933, an increase of 1.9 percent. The peak in earn­
ings shown by these annual surveys was reached in October 1930, with
an average of $37.48. Lower earnings in October 1934 than in October

T


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414

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

1933 were noted in a number of industry groups but the decreases
were more than offset by gains in other groups.
The workers covered by the survey included such employees as
office clerks, stenographers, bookkeepers, accountants, cashiers, stock
clerks, office managers, and superintendents. The establishments rep­
resented are those comprising the fixed list of representative manufac­
turing plants which submit regular reports for the monthly labor
market analysis of the New York Department of Labor.
Table 1 shows average weekly earnings in the various industry
groups in October of each year from 1925 to 1934. The New York
Department of Labor cautions the reader against comparing average
wage levels in one industry with those in another because of the uneven
distribution of the higher-salaried supervisory and technical staff and
the lower-paid clerical force in different industries.
Table 1.—Average Weekly Earnings of Office Employees in Representative
New York State Factories in October of Each Year, 1925 to 1934
A verage w eek ly earnings in October—
in d u stry group
1925

1926

1927

1928

1929

1930

1931

1932

1933

1934

A ll in d u stries_________ _______ $34. 49 $35. 38 $35. 88 $36. 37 $36. 94 $37. 48 $35. 49 $31. 86 $31. 85 $32.45
Stone, clay, and glass___
_
M etals and m ach in ery.W ood m anufactures___________
Furs, leather and rubber goods..
C hem icals, oils, paints, e tc ____
P ulp and paper_______________
Printing and paper goods
T ex tiles__________________ ___
C lothing and m illinery
Food and tobacco. . .
W ater, light, and p ow er__

32. 78
35. 75
36.94
28. 75
29.45
(>)
38. 90
29. 36
30. 92
34. 86
32. 78

34.06
36. 31
39. 19
29. 64
31. 10
(i)
39.91
29. 95
31.41
35.86
32. 53

34. 40
36. 88
39. 52
29. 62
32. 64
0)
40.49
29.85
31.45
35. 86
31.79

35. 10
37.63
37. 22
29. 82
33.38
(>)
41. 37
30.81
31.82
35. 03
31.60

34. 70
37. 72
37. 56
29. 34
34.07
(0
42. 68
30.87
33.30
36. 04
30. 77

35.52
38. 29
36. 74
30. 58
34. 74
(0
43. 94
33.47
32. 60
36.49
33.01

34. 35
35. 06
38. 07
28. 75
32. 87
0)
41.85
33. 46
31. 27
35.10
30. 64

31.48
31.27
32.04
24.73
29. 93
0)
37. 25
29. 35
27. 63
33.10
31.59

28.83
32. 39
30. 31
24.72
30. 64
(>)
36. 44
31.76
26. 24
31. 90
30. 24

27.74
34. 29
30. 59
23. 72
31.00
(')
36. 71
29.97
25. 38
31.86
34.10

1 Separate earnings n ot com puted because of sm all num ber of em ployees.

Table ‘i t .—Average Weekly Earnings of Men and Women in Factory Offices
in New York State, October 1934
A verage w eek ly earnings of—
W om en

M en
In d u stry group
T otal
State

A ll industries
Stone, clay, and glass . .
. .
__
M etals and m ach in ery__
W ood m anufactures. .
Furs, leather and rubber goods _
C hem icals, oils, paints, etc
_
P u lp and paper
Printing and paper goods ____
T extiles
_ ___
C lothing and m illin ery___ _
Food and tobacco
__
W ater, light, and power

N ew
York
C ity

U p-State

N ew
York
C ity

U p-State

$12. 71

$44. 03

$41.80

$21.15

$22. 76

$19. 92

0)
41.76
40. 27
32. 72
43.42
(>)
49,04
40.48
38. 84
39. 90
0)

0)
38. 53
35. 47
34. 45
35.17
(>)
53.41
38.43
40.95
43.26
(0

(0
42. 82
42.28
31. 28
46.95
(>)
39. 03
41.02
32. 82
35. 62
(')

(>)
20. 39
19.06
19. 89
19. 67
(0
22. 38
21.60
21. 18
22.32
(0

0)
22.29
21.14
22. 57
20. 53
(>)
23.68
22.03
22.17
23. 32
0)

0)
19. 77
18. 44
17.41
19. 35
(0
19.70
21.43
18. 23
21. 56
(>)

1 Separate earnings not com puted because of small num ber of em ployees.


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T otal
State

415

WAGES AND H0U11S OF LABOR

A comparison of the earnings of men and women in factory offices in
New York State in October 1934 is given in table 2. The figures in
this table are not based on a fixed list of concerns as are those in table 1,
as separate data for men and women are not obtainable from all the
firms or from identical firms each year.
Employment of office workers in New York State increased 5.3 per­
cent and their total pay roll 7.3 percent between October 1933 and
October 1934. Table 3 shows the number of employees and the total
amount of pay roll in the different industry groups in October 1934,
with the percent of change from October 1933.
Table 3 .—Employment and Pay Rolls in Factory Offices in New York State,
October 1934 Compared with October 1933
E m p loym en t

Ind u stry group

A ll industries

_

......................

Stone, clay, and g la s s .-------- -------------------- . . .
...
M etals and m achinery----- ------------------- ---------------------W ood m anufactures
. .
____
Furs, leather and rubber g o o d s.................
. . ..
C hem icals, oils, paints, etc
~ _______
______
P u lp and paper
Printing and* paper good s_____________ ____ ________
T extiles
.
____
_
_ _ __
C lothing and m illinery _
_ _ . . .............. ......... . .
Food and tob acco.
_
.
. _______ . .
W ater, light, and pow er-----------------------------------------------

P a y roll

Percent
N um b er of of change,
A m oun t,
em ployees
October
October
October 1933 to Octo­
1934
1934
ber 1934

Percent
of change,
October
1933 to Octo
ber 1934

37,182

+ 5 .3

$1, 206, 406

+ 7 .3

655
11,669
1,137
2,285
3, 637
276
7,855
2,066
2,919
3, 204
1,479

+ 7 .0
+ 7 .7
- 1 .6
+ 1 .5
+ 1 2 .4
- 9 .8
+ 2 .1
+ 9 .9
- 1 .2
+ 5 .3
+ 9 .7

18,169
400,096
34, 785
54,210
112, 739
9,548
288,341
61,912
74,096
102, 075
50, 435

+ 3 .0
+ 1 4 .0
-.6
- 2 .6
+ 1 3 .7
- 1 2 .0
+ 2 .9
+ 3 .7
- 4 .4
+ 5 .2
+ 2 3 .7

A v e ra g e H o u r l y W ages in H u n g a r y in M a rc h 1934
HE following table contains the average hourly wages in certain
occupations in Hungary on March 31, 1934.1 A comparison of
the hourly wages of male workers with those of female workers shows
that the rates of women are, on the average, about 35 percent lower
than those of men in the same occupations. The hourly wages of the
young workers amount, on the average, to 20 fillers (about 6 cents)
per hour.

T

1 H ungary. L ’Office C entral R oyal H ongrois de S tatistiq u e.
Septem ber 1934, p. 425.


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B u lletin S tatistiq ue M ensu el, July-

416

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW — FEBRUARY 1935

Average Hourly Wages of Workers in Certain Occupations in Hungary on
Mar. 31, 1934
[P en g o (100 fillers) a t p a r = 17.49 c e n ts; a v era g e e x c h a n g e ra te in M a r ch 1934 w a s 29.61 cents]

A v e r a g e h o u r ly w a g es
I n d u s tr y a n d o c c u p a tio n

M ining and sm elting:
P ick m en ___________________________
Other underground w orkers___ ____
Surface day laborers________________
Iron and m etal industry:
Gold- and silver-sm iths_____ _______
T in sm ith s__________________________
B u ild ing m echanics________________
M achine m echanics________________
F itters_____________________________
M a c h in ists;________________________
B lacksm ith s________________________
D a y laborers_______________________
M achine industries:
Founders___________________________
M olders____________________________
G u n sm ith s_________________________
Ship carpenters_____________________
Toolm akers_________________________
W atchm akers_______________________
D a y laborers_______________________
Electrical industry:
Electrotechnical w orkers____________
W iring w orkers_____________________
Electrical fitters____________________
D a y laborers_______________________
E arthenw are, stone, and glass industries:
T ile m akers________________________
Furnace m e n _______________________
Glass blow ers_______________________
D a y laborers________________________
W ood and bone industries:
S aw yers____________________________
Carpenters____________ _____________
C abinetm akers_____________________
Polishers____________________________
D a y laborers__________ _____________
L eather, bristle, and feather industries:
Leather workers____________________
T an n ers____________________________
R ubber w orkers____________________
D a y laborers________________________
T extile industry:
Spinners and w eavers_______________
B u tton and lace m akers_____________
W ool dyers_________________________
W ool spinners and w ea v ers._________
C loths d yers________________________
U pholsterers________________________
D a y laborers________________________
C lothing industry:
Shoem akers______________ __________
H atm ak ers_____ •____________________
Tailors for m en ______________________
Tailors for w om en ___________________
Fur workers_________________________
Paper industry:
Paper m akers_______________________
Bookbinders________________________
D a y laborers________________________
Food industry:
B ak ers______________________________
D a y laborers________________________
B u ild in g trade:
M asons_____________________________
C arpenters__________________________
Lead founders_______________________
Steel construction w o rk ers.._________
C em ent w orkers..'___________________
Interior p ainters_____________________
D a y laborers________________________
P rinting trade:
C om positors, h a n d __________________
C om positors, m ach in e_______________
M achine operators__________________
Printer helpers______________________


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W ork­
U n­
Y oung
sk illed
e r s’
w o rk ers
h elp ers w o rk ers

M a le F e m a le
w o rk ers w o rk ers

A d u lt

S k illed
w o rk ers

Fillers

Fillers

Fillers
62

23

62
44
33
69
70
54
63

78
72
55
61
66
69
69

48
49
39
45
43
42
50

58
68
89
65
75
63
33

64
68
116
66
75
63

52

59
70
72
45

78
71
73

49
64
69

Fillers
62
44
34
74
70
54
63
66
65
63
38
58
68
90
65
75
63
33

48

66
32

54

28

69
70
72
46

44

33
59
43
24

22

39
57
62
54
25

25

65
63
35

Fillers

41
16

39
57
62
47
26

44
57
63
52

46
58
52
31

50
61
97

43
51
51

43
39
48
46
48
60
27

53
60
89
67
79
60

34
37
43
42
39

61
62
72
53
56

37
40
40

74
43

15

33

13

13
23

20
15

26

12

31

20

52
38

50
52
49
46
51
60
32

37
37
39
46
28

62
70
70
80
64

36
38
47
31

52
49
70
52
42

53
86.
40

36
46
22

50
65
38

57
65

46

63
47

43
39

61
45

66

45

65
57
155
54
74
62

18

65
57
93
44
39
62
27

173
203
159

58

173
203
159
73

173
203
159
93

35

40

31

23

29

45

49
58
59
37

65
57
93
44
50
62
30

33

32
33

19

22

Fillers

71
60

32
59
43
23

42
24

Fillers

44

23
25
14
27
18
10
18

29

38
45

63
29
28

16
19
27

73

15

417

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

Average Hourly Wages of Workers in Certain Occupations in Hungary on
Mar. 31, 1934—Continued
Average hourly wages
Ind u stry and occupation

Transportation:
M otorm en
C onductors _
Truck drivers
Coachm en
Porters. _
R a ilw ay track w ork ers.. . . .
Local G overnm ent service:
D a y laborers
.

W ork­
Un­
M ale Female A dult Skilled
skilled Y oung
ers’
workers workers workers workers helpers workers workers

. . .

Fillèrs

Fillèrs

Fillèrs

60
57
72
40
36
28

60
57
72
40
36
28

60
57
72

54

54

Fiüèrs

Fillèrs

Fillèrs

Fillèrs

42

40
36
20

22

28
62

49

35

18

D a ily W ages o f M in e W o rk e rs in th e N e th e r la n d s in
J u ly 1933 a n d 1934
HE following table showing the daily wages paid to various
groups of workers in mining in the Netherlands in July 1933 and
1934 is taken from the September 29, 1934, issue of Maandschrift,
published by the Central Statistical Bureau of that country.

T

Daily Wages of Workers in Mining in the Netherlands in July 1933 and 1934
[Florin at par=40.2 cents; exchange rate in J u ly 1933 w as 56.2 cents and in J u ly 1934, 67.8 cents]

D a ily wages in
J u ly —

D a ily wages in
J u ly Group of workers

Group of workers
1933

Underground workers
M iners, forem en_________________
Gong and blasting forem en. _.........
M in ers__________________________
M iners serving as prop setters___
Prop setters_____________________
M iner helpers___________________
H a u lers_________________________
Other haulers:
Over 21 years________________
18 to 21 years________________
Skilled w orkers---------------------------Signalm en----------------------------------E n gin e d rivers__________________
Second sign alm en _______________
P u m p operators_________________
S tablem en _______________________
Laborers:
Over 21 years------------------------18 to 21 years________________

1933

1934

1934

Underground workers—C ontinued
Florins Florins
7. 36
6. 24
5. 61
5. 35
4.81
4. 83
4. 20

7. 28
6. 20
5. 63
5. 35
4. 81
4. 82
4. 22

3. 83
3. 12
5. 19
5. 21
4. 71
4. 47
4. 14
4. 23

3.79
3. 11
5. 20
5. 24
4. 74
4. 41
4. 10
4. 03

4. 46
3. 23

4. 49
3. 16

Laborers—C ontinued.
17 years
_ ...
. _
16 years. .
___________

Florins Florins
2. 61
2. 11

2. 62
2. 10

5. 15

5. 19

S k illed __________________________
Sem iskilled
. . . . .
_ _ .
U n sk illed _______________________
Laborers:
21 to 22 years .
19 to 20 years _.
. ----- .
16 to 18 years __ _ . -------U nder 16 years . . .
-----

5. 07
4. 40
3. 89

5.05
4. 40
3. 90

3. 00
2. 31
1. 53
1. 11

3.03
2. 28
1. 52
1. 12

A verage, surface workers___

3.93

3.94

A verage, u nd ergrou nd
w orkers.
.
... .

Surface workers

It will be seen that the daily wages of workers in mining increased
for underground workers by 0.04 and for surface workers by 0.01
florin from July 1933 to July 1934,


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EMPLOYMENT OFFICES
A c tiv itie s o f U n ite d S ta te s E m p lo y m e n t S e rv ic e ,
N o v e m b e r 1934
LACEMENTS made by the United States Employment Service
during the first 5 months of the present fiscal year were more
than double the number made in the same period last year, if place­
ments made on C. W. A. projects in the earlier year are excluded.
A somewhat smaller relative gain in placements made with private
employers is indicated. In the 5 months ending November 30, last,
1,387,380 placements were made through offices of the Service as
compared to 610,512 non-C. W. A. placements in the corresponding
months of 1933. Private industry absorbed an estimated total of
590,000 of this year’s total as compared to 289,500 in the same 5
months of 1933. Placements estimated at 763,000 were made on
Public Works Administration projects in the five 1934 months com­
pared to 289,800 in the same period of 1933. In the earlier year some
branches of the Employment Service were not in full operation during
the entire period, many offices not having been opened until August
and September.
Nearly 30 percent of the total number of persons reported as gain­
fully employed by the 1930 census registered for work with the United
States Employment Service during the 17 months ending November
30, 1934, the date of latest available reports. From July 1,1933, when
the Employment Service began operations on a unified, Nation-wide
basis, to November 30, 1934, registrations of 14,311,000 persons were
handled by the two operating branches of the Service—the affiliated
State employment services and the federally supported National
Reemployment Service. From this total number, which equals 11.6
percent of the 1930 population of the country, the Employment
Service was able to make 8,339,000 placements in private industry,
on P. W. A. projects, in regular governmental service, and last winter,
on C. W. A. projects. The National Reemployment Service handled
70 percent of the registrations and made 78 percent of the place­
ments, the remainder being made by the various State employment
services affiliated with the United States Employment Service. At
the end of November 1934 persons who were actively seeking employ­
ment through the two branches of the Service numbered 6,618,684.
418

P


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EMPLOYMENT OFFICES

419

Operations During October and November 1934

A g e n e r a l decline in employment activities in November is indi­
cated by the operating figures of the Employment Service for that
month. Placements reported by offices declined to 219,560, a drop
of 22.7 percent from the previous month’s figures. Applications by
persons registering with the Employment Service for the first time
also dropped, the total of 292,021 representing a decline of 14.3 per­
cent from the previous month’s figures in States with reports directly
comparable. The number of reregistrations and renewals by persons
previously registered increased moderately, reaching 582,491. As a
result, the total registration of new applicants and previously regis­
tered persons declined only 3 percent from the October level, and the
active file dropped but 2.5 percent, reflecting the continuing pressure
of unemployment. Under present conditions, however, such minor
changes in the size of the Employment Service active file are not
necessarily accurate indicators of changes in the general level of
employment.
Declines in placements were general, all but 4 States showing a
drop, while 19 States showed a decrease of over 25 percent from the
previous month. The four States showing increased placements in
November were Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, and Rhode
Island. The greatest declines in placements were reported in Arkan­
sas, Idaho, Iowa, Michigan, Montana, and Wisconsin. Although the
Nation-wide total of new applicants declined, 12 States reported
increases in persons registering for the first time, the greatest increases
being reported in Alabama, Arizona, Kansas, New Jersey, and
Oklahoma. Likewise, while the Nation-wide aggregate of old and
new applications combined fell off, 21 States showed increases in this
figure and in 10 States the increase exceeded 10 percent. The largest
gains in total applications were reported in Alabama, Arkansas,
Maine, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New Mexico, and Oklahoma,
indicating a sustained pressure upon the placing facilities in those
States. Changes in active-file totals were generally small except in
Alabama, Arkansas, Maine, and North Dakota, which reported
sizable increases, and in California, Florida, Minnesota, Mississippi,
Nebraska, Nevada, and New York, which reported declines of 10
percent or more.
During the month of November 17,784 veterans registered for
employment with the Service for the first time and 32,167 veteran
placements were made. At the end of the month 452,258 veteran
applications were in the active file as compared with the 1,132,800
who have registered since June 30, 1933.


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420

MONTHLY LABOK REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Table 1.—Geographic Analysis of Placement Ratios, United States Employment
Service, November 1934

Geographic division

U nited S tates. _____ ____
N ew E n glan d . ___ __________ ___ ___ ___ . . . ___
M idd le A tlan tic _______ . . . ____ ___________ . . .
E ast N orth Central
...
........................................
W est N orth Central . . .
. . . . . .
....
South A tla n tic .. . . .
...
__ _ .
E ast South C en tral. . _________________________ . . .
W est South C en tral..
__ _____ . . . . . . .
M ou n tain . .
. . . . . . . .
_ ..
P acific__
_______
._
______ _ .

Table

2 .—

N ew ap­
plications
per place­
m ent

A ctiv e file
per place­
m en t

Placem ents

N ew ap­
plications

219, 558

292,021

1.33

30.1

13,498
40,830
30,846
42,199
32,234
15,383
17,891
16, 596
10,081

19,206
88,434
55,197
31,931
33, 898
16, 291
27,115
11,298
8,651

1. 42
2.17
1. 79
. 76
1.05
1. 06
1. 52
. 68
.86

30. 9
46. 6
33. 4
16. 3
25 4
37. 5
37.1
13. 9
29.1

Percentage Distribution of Operations of United States Employment
Service, by Geographic Divisions, November 1934

Geographic division

P op u la­
tion, 1930

G ainfully
em ­
ployed,
1930

U . S. Employ /merit S en rice
Place­
m ents

N ew ap­ T otal ap­
plications plications

A ctiv e
file

U n ited S tates____________ ____ __________

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

N e w E n glan d . . .
. . .
. . . . . . .
M idd le A tla n tic.
. . _______________
E ast N orth C en tra l..
. . ____ __
___
W est N orth Central ______ ______ _ __
South A tla n tic. . . . . .
________ ____
E ast South C en tral. . . . . . . . .
....
W est South C entral___________ _________
M o u n tain ___ . . . . . . _ ________ _. .
Pacific____ _ _____________ . __________

6.7
21.4
20.6
10.8
12.9
8.1
9.9
3.0
6.7

7. 0
22.4
20.7
10.3
12.4
7.7
9.3
2.9
7.3

6.1
18.6
14.0
19.2
14.7
7. 0
8.1
7.6
4.6

6. 6
30.3
18.9
10.9
11.6
5. 6
9.3
3.9
3.0

9. 1
21.5
17.0
13.7
11.4
7. 1
11.6
5.3
3.3

6. 3
28.7
15.6
10.4
12.4
8. 7
10.0
3.5
4.4

Table 3.-—Percent of Population of Principal Geographic Divisions Registered
With Offices of United States Employment Service, November 1934

Geographic division

Population,
1930

G ainfully
em ployed,
1930

R egistrations in active file of U . S.
E m p lo y m en t Service, N o v em ­
ber 1934

N um b er

U n ited S ta te s. ________________ ____ _
N ew E n g la n d ____________ ____ ____ __ _
M idd le A tlan tic . . . ________ . .
E ast N orth C entral_____________________
W est N orth C entral. _____ _ ________
South A tla n tic__________ . .
E ast South C entral_______ ________ _
W est South C e n tr a l.. . . . . . . . . . . .
M o u n ta in .. . . . . . . ............ ..
Pacific
...


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Percent of Percent of
popula­ gainfully
tion
em ployed

122, 775,046

48,829,920

6,618, 684

5. 39

13. 55

8,166,341
26, 260,750
25,297,185
13, 296,915
15, 793,589
9,887,214
12,176,830
3,701, 789
8,194, 433

3, 431,167
10,957, 546
10,108,321
5,052,837
6,055,304
3,736,681
4,518,232
1, 394,813
3,575,019

416, 648
1,901,628
1,029,932
687,391
818,934
576, 590
664,086
229,961
293, 514

5.10
7.24
4.07
5.16
5.18
5.83
5. 45
6.21
3. 58

12.14
17.35
10.18
13.60
13.52
15.43
14.69
16. 48
8.21


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

to

fcO
to

Veterans’ Activ ities
U .S.D epartm ent o f L a b o r
UNITED STATES EMPLOYMENT SERVICE
W ashin gton

fcd

d

>
id
co
Oi

o s .s s .M l 2


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

'Jack Brandt, Jr.

423

EMPLOYMENT OFFICES

Table 4 . —Placements Made by Offices of Combined State Employment and
National Reemployment Services, October and November 1934
N ew applica­
tions per place­
m ent

Placem ents

A ctiv e file per
placem ent

State
October

N o v em ­
ber

Per­
cent of
change

Octo­ N o v em ­ Octo­ N o v em ­
ber
ber
ber
ber

i 284,093

219, 558

- 2 2 .7

2 1. 20

1.33

23.9

30.1

A labam a_______________________
_____
Arizona . . .
. _ _ .....
. . . .
A rkansas.
California_________________ ________ __
Colorado
. . .
............

4,045
1,904
5,213
5, 850
3,853

3,355
1,508
3,113
3,704
2, 452

-1 7 .1
- 2 0 .8
- 4 0 .3
- 3 6 .7
- 3 6 .4

1.31
.75
1.92
.69
.82

2. 79
1.19
3.55
.93
1.26

20.5
10.9
12.4
10.4
16.4

33.0
14.2
29.4
14.5
24. 7

C onnecticut ____________________________
D elaw are .
F lorid a__________________ ____________ _
Georgia____________ . . . ___ . . . ____ _
Idah o_________ _____ ______________ . . .

3, 274
1,242
5,631
4, 525
3,179

2, 804
1,105
5,519
4,129
1,675

- 1 4 .4
- 1 1 .0
- 2 .0
- 8 .8
- 4 7 .3

1.95
.74
.83
1.99
.45

1.91
.78
.91
1.77
.83

17.1
10.7
18.2
46.0
9.3

19.8
11.7
16.7
51.1
16.6

Illinois . .
.
. . . .
_____ ...
Indiana
Iow a________________ __________________
K ansas.
K en tu ck y ...................... ... . ___
_ . _ _

12, 479
5, 646
9,127
5, 663
2, 827

10,867
3, 577
4,141
4, 503
2, 626

- 1 2 .9
- 3 6 .6
- 5 4 .6
- 2 0 .5
- 7 .1

2. 37
1. 11
.46
.52
.98

1.62
1,42
.66
.79
.99

16.3
31.3
6.5
23. 7
78.6

18.6
46.4
14. 5
29.8
84.1

L o u isia n a .............. ........... _ ______________
M a in e__________________________________
M arylan d _______________________________
M assach usetts___________________________
M ichigan

2,108
2,102
3, 592
5, 330
4, 950

2,306
1,670
2, 447
4, 660
2,834

+ 9 .4
- 2 0 .6
- 3 1 .9
-1 2 . 6
-4 2 . 7

.98
.89
1.29
2. 25

.93
1. 30
1.44
1. 72
2. 08

69.2
7.1
23.3
52.3
60. 3

61.8
10.4
31.2
55.6
118.0

M innesota
M iss is s ip p i..
. . .
M issouri
...
______
M o n ta n a ___ _______ . . . . . . . .
.
N ebraska . .
. -----------------------------------

i 16, 244
5, 269
12, 137
6, 673
' 7,456

11,543
6, 504
9,740
4,013
6,510

- 2 8 .9
+ 2 3 .4
- 1 9 .7
- 3 9 .9
- 1 2 .7

.55
.47
1. 32
. 18
.48

.62
.33
1.28
.28
.45

7.4
14.2
18. 7
6.6
8.0

8.2
9.3
22. 9
10.5
8.4

N e v a d a ..
..................
N ew H am pshire_________________________
N ew Jersey . . . . . . . _ . __________ .
N ew M exico . . .
. . . .
N ew York .
.
_ .

1,294
3, 160
4, 809
1, 721
16, 525

788
2, 621
4, 140
1,859
12, 064

-3 9 .1
-1 7 . 1
- 1 3 .9
+ 8 .0
- 2 7 .0

.78
.62
1.95
.76
1.99

.77
.55
3.01
.66
2.43

4.7
5.6
22.2
21.0
53.0

6.8
7.2
25.2
20.6
63.2

N orth Carolina
N orth D a k o ta .
. . . .
Ohio ....................
Oklahom a
.
....
Oregon__________________________________

9, 385
3, 219
12,073
4,168
3,389

5, 762
2, 926
8, 780
3, 181
2,912

- 3 8 .6
-9 . 1
- 2 7 .3
- 2 3 .7
-1 4 . 1

.63
.49
1.77
. 70
.56

1.02
.52
2.40
1. 23
.62

8.4
7.9
19.7
58.2
25.9

14. 1
9.5
28.9
77.5
29.6

Penn sylvan ia
R hode Island
South C arolina____________ . . . ______
South D akota .
T e n n e sse e ..

26,139
769
5, 675
3, 485
3,196

24, 626
850
4, 548
2, 836
2, 898

- 5 .8
+ 1 0 .5
- 1 9 .9
-1 8 . 6
- 9 .3

2. 43
1.70
.63
.67
.80

1.89
1.58
.75
.55
.76

40.4
66.4
24.8
26.6
57.9

42.0
60.4
30.4
32.9
63.7

T ex a s___________________________________
U ta h . . . . .
. ... ... . . .
. . . .
V erm on t_________ _____________________
V irginia__________ _____________________
W ashin gton __

13, 578
3, 747
1,098
6,052
4,390

9,291
3,295
893
4, 464
3,465

-3 1 . 6
-1 2 . 1
- 1 8 .7
- 2 6 .2
- 2 1 .1

.79
.40
.85
.72
.79

1.08
.39
.96
.71
.98

13.0
5.9
12.8
14.3
34.7

19.8
7.2
16.3
19.0
44.4

W est Virginia
.
. . .
W iscon sin _______________________________
W yom in g
.
. . . ................ ..
_
D istrict of C olum bia. . . . . . . _______

4,293
8,248
1,532
1,829

2,806
4, 788
1,006
1,454

- 3 4 .6
- 4 1 .9
- 3 4 .3
- 2 0 .5

.56
.95
.48
1.75

.65
1. 17
.74
1.97

20.9
9.1
6.9
19.9

30.8
15.3
10.6
24.9

U n ited S tates......

.......... ............

1 R evised figures.
2 C om puted from com parable figures only.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

424

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Table 5 .—Registrations with Offices of Combined State Employment and
National Reemployment Services, October and November, 1934
N ew applications
State
October

Illin ois____ -Indiana
Io w a __
Kansas ___ K en tu ck y -

Per­
N o­
v em ­ cent of October
ber
change

N o­
Per­
v em ­ cent of
ber
change

. . 2340, Oil 292, 021 3-1 4 .3 2901, 273 874, 512

U n ited S tates___

A la b a m a -., ___________
Arizona
----Arkansas California - C olorado__
C onnecticut .
D elaw are
Florid a. _________
Georgia__________
Idaho _-

T otal applications 1

... - _ -

_

5,298
1,434
10, 027
4,019
3, 143
6, 388
924
4, 055
8, 999
1,437
29, 579
6, 247
4, 194
2, 946
2, 770

- 3 .0

A ctiv e file

October

N o v em ­ Per­
cent of
ber
change

26, 786, 357 6, 618,684

- 2 .5

+76. 7
+25. 7
+ 10.3
-1 4 . 4
- 1 .4

18,114
2, 924
32, 655
12, 639
8,815

29, 905 + 6 5 .1
3,413 + 16. 7
39, 598 +21. 3
12, 122 - 4 . 1
8, 567
- 2 .8

82, 821
20, 792
64, 634
61, 113
63, 045

110,860
21, 406
91,596
53, 534
60, 669

+ 3 3 .9
+ 3 .0
+41. 7
-1 2 . 4
- 3 .8

5, 360 -1 6 . 1
861 - 6 . 8
5,024 + 7 .9
7,312 - 1 8 .7
1,398 - 2 . 7

10, 985
2, 662
12, 155
26, 590
7, 234

10, 010 - 8 . 9
1,931 - 2 7 .5
12,619 + 3 .8
20, 577 - 2 2 . 6
5,110 - 2 9 . 4

56, 122
13,236
102, 330
208, 244
29, 542

55, 482
12, 883
92. 118
210, 854
27,855

- 2 .7
- 1 0 .0
+ 1.3
- 5 .7

- 4 0 .6
- 1 8 .5
- 3 4 .8
+21. 2
- 5 .8

58, 564
11,113
18, 077
15,331
12, 524

45,140
12,914
14, 385
17, 177
7, 603

- 2 2 .9
+ 16. 2
-2 0 . 4
+ 12. 0
- 3 9 .3

202, 808
176, 931
2 58, 456
134,114
222, 329

202, 392
165,945
60, 039
134,130
220, 879

-.2
- 6 .2
+ 2 .7
+ .0
-.7

2,148 + 4 . 2
2, 167 + 16.3
3, 530 - 2 3 . 7
8, 026 - 3 3 . 1
5,899

5, 439
6,420
9, 752
19, 831
18, 247

4,872
9,831
10,321
49, 645
14, 088

- 1 0 .4
+ 53. 1
+ 5 .8
+150.3
- 2 2 .8

145, 953
14,873
83,820
278,843
332, 596

142, 440
17, 320
76, 372
259, 228
334. 397

- 2 .4
+ 16.5
- 8 .9
- 7 .0
+ .5

9, 363
1,802
11,064
3, 439
3,098

17, 558
5, 094
2, 733
3. 572
2, 608

-

1. 1

L ouisiana..............- M ain e. M arylan dM assach usetts.- _ _ _ _ _
M ichigan _

2, 061
1,864
4, 624
11,992
4 6, 072

M inn esota___
M ississip p i- . _ _______
M issouri
M o n tan a,
N eb rask a_______________

2 9, 178
2, 500
15, 992
1, 214
2 3, 767

7, 186
2, 122
12, 442
1, 127
2, 927

- 2 1 . 7 2 33, 034
-1 5 . 1
10, 306
- 2 2 .2
36, 921
8, 979
-7 . 2
- 2 2 . 3 2 13,498

31, 038
11, 584
32, 131
6, 571
11, 230

- 6 .0
+ 12.4
- 1 3 .0
- 2 6 .8
- 1 6 .8

119,450
74, 584
226, 595
45, 214
62, 944

94, 776
60, 218
222, 996
41,969
54, 391

- 2 0 .7
- 1 9 .3
- 1 .6
- 7 .2
- 1 3 .6

N ev ad a
..
. _
1,013
N ew H am p shire________
1,963
N e w Jersey
_ _
9, 363
N e w M exico
1,312
N ew Y ork _
2 32, 964

604
1,450
12, 441
1,224
29, 355

- 4 0 .4
2,123
5,404
-2 6 . 1
+ 3 2 .9
21,017
4,
754
- 6 .7
- 1 0 .9 2 79, 567

1,702 - 1 9 .8
5, 688 + 5 .3
29, 032 +38.1
6, 770 + 4 2 .4
77, 937 - 2 . 0

6, 077
17, 767
106, 902
2 36, 077
2 876, 037

5, 383
18, 769
104, 432
38, 215
762, 707

- 1 1 .4
+ 5 .6
- 2 .3
+ 5 .9
- 1 2 .9

N orth C arolina .
N orth D ak ota.
Ohio . _
_ - _
O klahom a. _ __________
Oregon. _ ______ ______

5, 885
1, 579
21, 399
2, 905
1,897

+ .2
5, 894
1, 523 - 3 . 5
21,034 - 1 . 7
3,914 +34. 7
1,817 - 4 . 2

18, 277
7, 169
58, 779
12, 875
7,107

16, 688 - 8 . 7
8, 392 + 17. 1
55, 219 - 6 . 1
17. 805 + 3 8 .3
6, 168 - 1 3 . 2

78,995
25, 306
237,855
242, 685
87, 729

81,129
27,837
253, 721
246, 510
86, 251

+2. 7
+ 10. 0
+ 6. 7
+ 1.6
- 1 .7

P e n n sy lv a n ia ___________
R hode IslandSouth C arolina_________
South D a k o ta ____
. _
T e n n e s se e .. ___ - _ _

63, 504
1,310
3, 568
"2, 321
2, 553

46, 638 - 2 6 .6
1,345 + 2 .7
3,417 - 4 . 2
1,548 - 3 3 .3
2,198 - 1 3 .9

101, 009
2, 068
12, 045
6,556
20, 467

T exas _
__ _ ____
U ta h ______ ___________
V erm on t_______________
V irginia
W ashington

10, 770
1,490
936
4, 328
3, 486

9, 989 - 7 . 3
1, 297 - 1 3 .0
858 - 8 . 3
3,182 -2 6 . 5
3, 395 - 2 . 6

42, 689
9, 700
2,159
18,177
13, 656

38, 843 - 9 . 0
10, 708 + 10.4
2, 285 + 5 .8
13, 888 - 2 3 .6
10, 289 - 2 4 . 7

177,107
2 23, 283
14, 076
2 84, 820
152, 333

183,540
23, 831
14,514
84, 618
153,729

+ 3 .6
+ 2 .4
+3. 1
-. 2
+ .9

W est V irginia__________
W iscon sin .
_. _ . . .
W y o m in g ___
_____ . .
D istrict of C olu m b ia ___

2, 401
7,814
730
3,196

1,819 -2 4 . 2
5,612 - 2 8 .2
748 + 2 .5
2, 859 - 1 0 . 5

8,834
25, 821
3,166
5, 045

8,895
+ .7
21, 285 - 1 7 . 6
3, 525 + 11.3
5,061
+ .3

89, 766
74, 771
10. 534
36, 357

86, 468
73, 477
10, 633
36,137

- 3 .7
-1 . 7
+ .9
- .6

1 Includes new applications, reregistrations, and renewals.
2 R evised figures.
3 C om puted from com parable figures only.
4 D etroit not in clud ed .


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

80, 703
2, 085
9, 950
5,834
13, 378

-2 0 . 1
+ .8
- 1 7 .4
- 1 1 .0
- 3 4 .6

1, 056, 751 1,034, 489
51,085
51, 335
140, 733
138,355
92, 752
93, 222
184, 633
185,170

- 2 .1
+ .5
-1 .7
+ .5
-.3

425

EMPLOYMENT OFFICES

Table 6.—Veteran Activities of Offices of Combined State Employment and
National Reemployment Services, October and November, 1934

State

V eteran
V eteran
new ap­
active file Veteran new ap pli­
Veteran placem ents plications
cations
per place­
per p lace­
m ent
m en t
Per­
N o­
N o­
Per­ Oc­ N o ­ Oc­ N o ­
Octo­ v em ­ cent of to­ vem ­ to­ vem ­ Octo­ vem ­ cent of
ber
ber
ber change
ber change ber ber ber ber

Veteran active file

O cto­
ber

N o­
Per­
v em ­ cent of
ber change

U n ited S tates___ 139, 668 32,167 - 1 8 .9 20. 52 0. 55 11.6 14. 1 120, 671 17, 784 2 - 1 4 .6 1462,045 452, 258
4,906
2, 054
4,756
6, 755
7,601

- 2 .1

6,809 + 3 8 .8
1,980 - 3 . 6
6,418 + 3 4 .9
5, 668 - 1 6 . 1
7,527 - 1 . 0

A labam a
Arizona .
A rkansas___
California- - .
C olorado___ . . .

577
271
479
1,056
680

453
249
353
663
377

- 2 1 .5 .54 .98 8. 5 15.0
.66 .73 7.6 8. C
- 8 .1
—26. S 1. 10 1. 41 9.9 18.2
- 3 7 .2 .42 . 55 6.4 8. 5
- 4 4 .6 .32 . 58 11. 2 20.0

311
179
525
444
217

445 + 4 3 .1
181 + 1 . 1
497 - 5 . 3
362 -1 8 . 5
220 + 1.4

C onn ecticu tD elaw are
Florida . - __
G e o r g ia ___ - _
Idaho - ___ . __

314
148
483
438
338

232
71
440
521
260

- 2 6 . 1 1. 14 1. 22 16.5 20.2
- 5 2 .0 . 18 .31 5.3 11. 1
.41 .44 18. 3 18.2
- 8 .9
+ 18.9 .92 . 71 26. 6 21. I
-2 3 . 1 .30 . 41 7.2 7. 5

358
26
196
405
101

282 - 2 1 .2
22 - 1 5 . 4
193 - 1 . 5
368 - 9 . 1
106 + 5 .0

5,168 4, 696 - 9 . 1
809 + 2 .8
787
8, 835 8, 007 - 9 . 4
11,652 11,015 - 5 . 5
2,431 1,957 - 1 9 . 5

2,128 1,457 - 3 1 . 5
288 - 3 5 .4
446
144 - 5 3 . 5
31C
209 + 4 . 5
200
194 - 1 1 .0
218

19, 540 19, 938 + 2 .0
14, 340 13, 426 - 6 . 4
i 4,654 5, 293 + 13.7
9,230 9,140 - 1 . 0
16, 364 15, 387 - 6 . 0

Illin o is___ . . __
Ind iana___- . .
Io w a .
Kansas . . .
K e n tu c k y ______
L ouisiana______
M a in e___ ____
M a ry la n d ______
M a ssa ch u setts..M ichigan

1,384 1, 128 - 1 8 .5 1. 54 1. 29 14. 1
532 - 4 7 .8
.44 . 54 14. 1
1,019
1,701
790 - 5 3 .6 . 18 . 18 2.8
892 - 2 0 .0 . 18 .23 8.3
1,115
746
733 - 1 . 7 .29 .26 21.9
397
278
443
679
563

315
172
368
800
323

- 2 0 .7 .38 .48 25. 3 32.3
- 3 8 . 1 .36 .71 4.7 8. 7
- 1 6 .9 . 54 .50 7.5 8.2
+ 1 7 .8 1. 13 .72 28.8 21.9
—42. 6
1. 39 18. 1 32. 4

150
100
240
768
= 375

0.0
150
122 + 2 2 .0
183 - 2 3 .7
572 - 2 5 .5
45C

10,042 10,177 + 1.3
1,305 1,504 + 15. 2
3, 328 3, Oil - 9 . 5
19,562 17, 482 - 1 0 . 6
10, 189 10,47S + 2 .8

. 57 4. 5 6.7
. 34 12.9 15.3
.43 8.4 8.5
. 12 3.7 5.3
. 18 4. 3 3.9

i 360
134
869
79
191

732
124
714
65
155

8,184 8, 572 + 4 .7
6,140 5, 540 - 9 . 8
14, 788 14, 206 - 3 . 9
2,768 2, 767
-. 0
4, 110 3, 342 - 1 8 . 7

M in n eso ta______ i 1, 816 1,288 -2 9 . 1
362 - 2 3 .8
M ississip p i, - ,
475
1,765 1, 674 - 5 . 2
M issou ri_______
743
525 - 2 9 .3
M on ta n a - . .
i 909
867 - 4 . 6
N ebraska- ______
N ev a d a ________
N ew H am pshire
N ew Jersey-N e w M exico
N ew Y ork

168
285
204
236
415
688
586
710
i 1,931 1, 276

17.7
25. 2
6. 7
10. 2
21.0

-4 1 . 1
- 1 3 .6
-3 9 . 7
-1 7 . 5
- 3 3 .9

. 21
. 28
.49
. 11
. 20

.72 .58 1. 4 2.5
.39 .34 5.8 7.3
.92 1.98 13.3 22.8
. 18 . 17 3.7 4.8
.81 1. 25 34. 1 47.3

206
98
92
70
635
820
97
129
1,559 1,593

+103. 3
- 7 .5
- 1 7 .8
-1 7 . 7
- 1 8 .8

392
417
- 5 2 .4
1,362 1,487
- 2 3 .9
9,181 9,481
+ 29. 1
- 2 4 .8 i 2,796 2,813
+ 2 . 2 i 65, 591 60, 396

+6. 4
+9. 2
+ 3 .3
+ .2
-7 .9

N orth C arolina
N orth D akota
O hio.
_ .
O klahom a _ Oregon. __ _____

717 - 3 2 .9
1,069
251
240 - 4 . 4
1,868 1, 648 - 1 1 .8
533 - 1 9 . 6
663
559 - 1 5 . 4
661

. 24
.30
.77
.31
. 21

.37 4.4 6.9
. 28 4.7 5.6
. 69 11.0 12. 7
.57 28.3 34.8
.27 10. 1 12. 3

268 + 3 .1
260
67 - 1 0 .7
75
1,440 1,145 - 2 0 . 5
304 +46. 2
208
149 + 8 .0
138

4,652 4,937 + 6 . 1
1,174 1,352 + 1 5 .2
20,566 21,006 + 2 .1
18, 742 18, 543 - 1 . 1
6,695 6,862 + 2 . 5

P en n sylvan ia
R hode Island . .
South C arolina.
South D a k o ta . _
T en n essee______

4,086 5,192 +27. 1
123 +29. 5
95
502
422 - 1 5 .9
419 - 3 0 .9
606
496 + 6 . 2
467

.91
. 71
.30
.20
.37

.50
. 61
. 41
. 21
.36

9.3
18.0
16.7
15.9
25.0

3,728 2, 596 - 3 0 .4
75 +11. 9
67
171 + 11.8
153
89 - 2 5 . 2
119
180 + 2 .9
175

50,198 48, 503
2, 273 2, 220
7,115 7, 045
6, 671 6, 681
13, 204 12,412

T exas__________
U ta h ___________
V erm on t_______
V irginia
W a sh in g to n ..

2, 244 1, 759 -2 1 . 6
438 - 2 5 . 1
585
66 -1 9 . 5
82
672
516 - 2 3 .2
614 -2 0 . 2
769

.32
. 15
.66
. 42
.33

. 35 7.0 9.3
. 17 2.6 4.7
.55 8.6 10. 7
.33 7.8 9.9
.34 16. 4 20.4

711
88
54
281
252

615
75
36
172
210

W est Virginia
W iscon sin .
_ _
W yom in g _
D istrict of Colu m b ia ... . . .

717
1,091
258

425 - 4 0 .7
601 - 4 4 .9
203 - 2 1 .3

. 26
.48
. 24

. 36
. 48
.28

7.9 13. 6
6.3 11. 4
4.0 4.9

184
525
63

153 - 1 6 .8
291 -4 4 . 6
57 - 9 . 5

5, 665
6, 834
1,041

5, 778
6,881
992

+ 2 .0
+ .7
-4 . 7

315

159 - 4 9 .6

. 63 1. 37

8.7 16. 4

199

218

2, 756

2,611

—5. 3

R evised figures.
C om puted from comparable figures only.
D etroit not included.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

12.3
23.9
14. 2
11.0
28.3

-1 3 . 5
- 1 4 .8
-3 3 . 3
- 3 8 .8
-1 6 . 7

+ 9 .5

- 3 .4
-2 . 3
-1 .0
+ •1
- 6 .0

15, 692 16, 293 + 3 .8
1, 533 2, 063 + 3 4 .6
703
- .6
707
5,106 5,130
+• 5
-.9
12, 610 12, 502

426

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Table 7.—Placements Made by Offices of State Employment Services, October and
November, 1934
N e w applica­
tions per
placem ent

Placem ents

A ctiv e file per
placem ent

State
October

N o v em ­ Per­
N o v em ­
N o v em ­
October
cent of October
ber
ber
ber
change
60, 395

-1 3 . 7

2 2. 38

2.19

i 33.7

36.4

A r iz o n a __ __
_
. . .
___
Colorado
. .
_
__
_ ..
_ _____ - - - - - C o n n ecticu t-- . _ _____
Illinois _ _
_
. . . . i -----In d ia n a .
________________________________

316
1,004
2, 282
6, 832
2, 024

387
418
1,957
5, 782
1,929

+ 22. 5
- 5 8 .4
- 1 4 .2
-1 5 . 4
-4 . 7

1.89
1.17
2. 13
3. 78
1. 99

2. 77
3. 21
2. 01
2. 39
1.90

15.6
33. 7
14.9
12. 4
34.0

14.9
85.2
17.0
15. 3
34. 6

Iow a - - - - - K ansas (not affiliated) - L ou isian a. - - - - - M assach usetts______________ ____ ______
M ich igan -

2, 906
1,456
2,108
2, 401
2, 172

1,769
1,059
2, 306
2,292
1, 635

-3 9 . 1
- 2 7 .3
+9. 4
-4 .5
-2 4 . 7

.71
. 66
.98
3. 35

.92
.66
.93
2. 24
2. 58

6. 1
15. 6
69. 2
53.9
115. 3

10.9
23. 1
61.8
47. 4
155. 2

M in n esota ____ _____ ____ _ _ _____ - M issou ri. - -_- - ___ _____________ _-N ev ad a
N e w H am p shire___
- _ N e w J ersey .. - - - - - -

4, 704
2,004
669
610
3, 639

3, 382
1,848
302
308
2,866

-2 8 . 1
-7 .8
-5 4 . 9
-4 9 . 5
-2 1 . 2

1.03
2. 76
1. 13
.63
1.84

1. 11
3. 34
1.26
1.97
2. 84

11.7
18.5
5.6
10.9
21.3

10. 7
20.9
9. 5
26. 5
22.9

N e w M exico.
.
___ N e w Y o r k ____ ________ _____ ___ ____
O hio- _
- - - - O klahom a - .
P e n n sy lv a n ia .-. . . . .
. _ - ---------- -

74
9,322
6,441
1,084
12, 590

155 + 109. 5
7, 457 - 2 0 .0
4, 708 - 2 6 .9
1,014
- 6 .5
15, 283 + 2 1 .4

1.36
2. 39
2. 50
1.01
3. 75

.71
2.74
3.32
.86
2.20

93.6
64. 5
20.5
8 .5
46.2

41.7
66.7
28.9
7.0
37.1

V irgin ia. _ - W est V irginia
W isconsin -

480
878
i 3,985

+ 14.4
-1 3 . 7
-4 4 . 0

1. 10
.61
i 1. 33

.81
.46
1.71

25.6
19. 6
i 7.0

19.8
21. 0
11.7

A ll S ta tes, ____________

_ _______ __ _ - i 69, 981

-

- - - - - -----------

.

1 R evised figures.

549
758
2,231

2 C om puted from com parable figures on ly.

Table 8.— Registrations with Offices of State Employment Services, October and
November, 1934
N e w applications
State

T otal applications 1

N o v em ­ Per­
N o v em ­ Per­
October
cent of October
cent of
ber
ber
change
change

A ll S ta tes_______ _ 2165,333

132, 071 3 -20.6 2334, 997

Per­
cent of
change

- 2 .2

2 2,358, 079

2,197, 349

- 6 .8

+ 5 3 .1
+ 5 .6
- 1 1 .8
- 3 0 .6
+ 1 7 .4

4,933
33,884
33,977
84, 592
68,820

5, 760
35,604
33, 262
88,303
66, 656

+ 1 6 .8
+ 5 .1
- 2 .1
+ 4 .4
- 3 .1

- 7 .4

17, 678

19, 362

+ 9 .5

- 1 1 .6
- 1 0 .4
+240.7
- 3 0 .3

22, 652
145,953
129, 327
250,364

24,456
142,440
108, 579
253,763

+ 8 .0
-2 .4
- 1 6 .0
+ 1 .4

- 3 2 .7
+ 2 .3
- 3 4 .0
+ 8 8 .6
+ 2 8 .5

55,138
37,074
3, 734
6, 638
77, 686

36,100
38, 621
2, 872
8,157
65, 531

- 3 4 .5
+4. 2
-2 3 . 1
+ 2 2 .9
- 1 5 .6

828
62,459
40,449
3,636
66,806

583 - 2 9 .6
-. 1
62,398
37,958 - 6 . 2
3, 396 - 6 . 6
52, 284 -2 1 . 7

2 6, 056
600, 912
132,197
9,227
581,357

6, 470
497, 656
135, 998
7,122
567, 714

+ 6 .8
- 1 7 .2
+ 2 .9
- 2 2 .8
-2 . 3

1,431
1,342
2 14, 716

969 - 3 2 .3
1,211 - 9 . 8
11,712 - 2 0 .4

2 10, 782
17,217
2 27,881

10,848
15,926
26,149

+ .6
- 7 .5
- 6 .2

Io w a ______________
Kansas (not affilia te d )____ _______
L ou isian a.
_____
M assach usetts___ _
M ichigan . . ___

2,073

1,629 - 2 1 .4

7, 520

6,967

960
2, 061
8,047
* 4, 262

700 - 2 7 .1
2,148 + 4 .2
5,143 - 3 6 .1
4, 218

3,813
5,439
12, 544
9,918

3, 370
4, 872
42,419
6,909

M inn esota___
M issou ri. ____ - .
N ev a d a _______ __
N ew H am p shire___
N e w Jersey ______

4, 855
5, 556
756
458
6, 702

3,747
6,176
381
607
8,136

- 2 2 .8
+ 11.2
- 4 9 .6
+ 3 2 .5
+ 2 1 .4

13,902
15, 505
1,282
1,282
13,058

9, 361
15,864
846
2,418
16, 780

N ew M exico______
N ew Y o r k .. __ _
O hio_______________
O k la h o m a ____ _ .
P e n n s y lv a n ia _____

101
22,286
16,121
1,095
47,173

110 + 8 .9
20,404 - 8 . 4
15, 640 - 3 . 0
872 - 2 0 .4
33, 696 - 2 8 .6

V irginia___________
W est V irginia_____
W iscon sin _________

528
535
2 5,306

446 - 1 5 .5
351 - 3 4 .4
3,823 - 2 7 .9

868
2, 353
8, 475
40, 943
6,428

1 Includes new ap plications, reregistrations, and renewals.
1 R evised figures.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

N ovem ber

1,329
2,484
7,477
28,405
7, 546

598
1,170
4,853
25,817
4,020

+ 7 9 .4
+ 1 4 .6
- 1 8 .9
- 4 6 .5
- 8 .6

October

327, 558

A rizona___________
Colorado.
C on n ecticu t_______
Illin o is________
In d ia n a ___________

1,073
1,341
3, 937
13,819
3, 674

A ctiv e file

3 C om puted from com parable figures only.
< D etroit not included.

427

EMPLOYMENT OFFICES

Table 9.—Veteran Activities of Offices of State Employment Services, October
and November 1934

Veteran placem ents
State

Veteran
Veteran
new appli­ active
cations
file per
per place­
place­
m ent
m ent

V eteran new ap pli­
cations

Per­ Oc­ N o ­ Oc­ N o ­
o­
Per­
N o­
Octo­ vNem
­ cent of to­ vem ­ to­ v em ­ Octo­ vem ­ cent of
ber
ber
ber change ber ber ber ber
ber change
A ll S ta tes., __ _ _ i 9,993 9, 536
32
250
199
605
365

52
75
139
491
296

Iowa_
K ansas (not affilia te d )_________
L ouisiana___
M assachusetts___
M ichigan

732

353 - 5 1 .8

330
397
350
223

205
315
492
145

M in n eso ta _______
M issouri_________
N ev a d a --------------N ew H am pshire. _
N ew Jersey______

584
308
207
63
493

447
280
94
42
190

- 2 3 .5
-9 . 1
- 5 4 .6
- 3 3 .3
- 6 1 .5

V irginia____ ____
W est V irginia___
W iscon sin . . . . . .

21
179
i 547

+ 6 2 .5 2. 44
- 7 0 . 0 .30
- 3 0 .2 1.39
- 1 8 .8 3. 17
- 1 8 .9
.68

2.29
1.39
1.60
2.47
.60

23.1
20. 5
16.3
13.7
15.9

15.5
71.2
21.3
18.4
18.0

.21

2.2

5.6

124

73 - 4 1 .1

- 3 7 .9
. 16 .21 6.2 10.4
.38 .48 25.3 32.3
- 2 0 .7
+ 4 0 .6 1.32 . 72 29.5 16. 6
- 3 5 .0
2.44 15.8 26. 7

53
150
463
3 248

44 - 1 7 .0
150
0.0
354 - 2 3 .5
354

.17

.35 .53 6.7 8.1
.82 1. 18 14.7 15.9
.84 .88 1. 2 2.5
.43 .55 7.3 13.9
.94 2. 67 12.0 27.8

- 1 9 .0 .24 .26 13.1 16.6
- 1 6 .4 1. 11 1.44 i 49.5 53.7
- 1 9 .5 1.89 1. 62 20.6 24.6
+ 5 1 .4 .55 .38 14.6 6.4
+ 66. 1 1.26 .51 12. 2 7.0

36 + 7 1 .4
96 - 4 6 .4
263 - 5 1 .9

1.33
. 17
1.68

1 R evised figures.
2 C om puted from com parable figures only.
3 D etroit n ot included.

109041—35------12


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Octo­
ber

Per­
N o­
v em ­ cent of
ber change

- 4 . 6 2 1.05 0. 86 i 15.8 15.7 ‘ 10,467 8, 244 2 -2 2 .8 i 157,746 149, 516

A rizona_________
C olorado________
C o n n ecticu t_____
Illin o is__________
Ind iana__________

42
34
N ew M exico. . .
862
721
N ew York
619
O hio_______ ____
498
140
212
Oklahom a
P en n sy lv a n ia ____ 2,445 4, 060

Veteran active file

.36 48.4 23.8
.38 4.4 8.7
.75 i 4.5 10.0

78
119 + 5 2 .6
75
104 + 3 8 .7
222 - 1 9 .9
277
1,916 1,214 - 3 6 .6
249
179 -2 8 .1

203
253
173
27
461

236
330
83
23
508

+ 16.3
+ 3 0 .4
- 5 2 .0
- 1 4 .8
+ 1 0 .2

10
9 - 1 0 .0
954 1,035 + 8 .5
1,172
809 - 3 1 .0
77
81 + 5 .2
3,072 2,070 - 3 2 .6
28
31
i 373

13 - 5 3 .6
36 + 16.1
198 - 4 6 .9

- 5 .2

738
5,135
3, 251
8, 307
5,811

806
5, 337
2,966
9,024
5,339

+ 9 .2
+ 3 .9
- 8 .8
+ 8 .6
- 8 .1

1,616

1,984 + 2 2 .8

2,041 2,128 + 4 .3
10,042 10,177 + 1.3
10,328 8,175 - 2 0 .8
3,520 3,875 + 10.1
3,926
4, 536
241
460
5, 924

3,641 - 7 . 3
4, 451 - 1 . 9
235 - 2 . 5
582 + 2 6 .5
5,286 - 1 0 .8

550
566 + 2 .9
42, 634 38,742 - 9 . 1
12, 726 12, 235 - 3 . 9
2,043 1,358 - 3 3 .5
29,772 28, 291 - 5 . 0
i 885
792
i 2, 468

856
831
2,631

- 3 .3
+ 4 .9
+ 6 .6

428

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Table 10.—Placements Made by Offices of National Reemployment Service,
October and November 1934
N ew ap plica­
tions per place­
m ent

Placem ents

A ctiv e file per
placem ent

State
October

N o v em ­
ber

____ i 214,112

Per­
N o v em ­
N o v em ­
cent of October
October
ber
ber
change

159,163

- 2 5 .7

i 0.82

1.00

i 20.7

27.8

A lab am a________________________________
A rizona, _
. ____
,
____
A rk a n sa s,,
_ _ ______ ____
C a lifornia., . _ _ _
____
Colorado . .
. . . ___ ______ . .

4,045
1,588
5,213
5,850
2, 849

3, 355
1,121
3,113
3, 704
2,034

- 1 7 .1
- 2 9 .4
- 4 0 .3
- 3 6 .7
- 2 8 .6

1.31
.53
1.92
.69
.69

2. 79
.65
3. 55
.93
.86

20. 5
10.0
12.4
10.4
10.2

33.0
14.0
29.4
14. 5
12.3

C onnecticut
.
. .
D elaw are . .
. . . . ______ _
F lo rid a ,,_
___ ______________________
Georgia________. . . . _________ _ ______
Id ah o ___________________________________

992
1,242
5, 631
4, 525
3, 179

847
1, 105
5, 519
4,129
1, 675

- 1 4 .6
- 1 1 .0
- 2 .0
-8 .8
- 4 7 .3

1.55
.74
.83
1.99
.45

1. 68
.78
.91
1.77
.83

22. 3
10.7
18.2
46.0
9.3

26.2
11. 7
16.7
51. 1
16.6

Illin o is__________________________________
Indiana . . .
,
I o w a ,, . .
.
K a n s a s , ___ _____ . . . .
K e n tu ck y __________ ______ ___ ______

5,647
3,622
6, 221
4,207
2, 827

5,085
1,648
2, 372
3, 444
2, 626

- 1 0 .0
- 5 4 .5
- 6 1 .9
-1 8 . 1
-7 . 1

.67
.61
.34
.47
.98

.74
.86
.47
.83
.99

20.9
29.8
6.7
26.5
78.6

22.4
60.2
17. 1
31.8
84.1

M aine,
...
_
M a r y la n d ___
_ _ _ _
_
_ . .
M a ssach u setts,............
..................... . .
M ichigan
,
....................
.

2,102
3, 592
2, 929
2,778

1,670
2, 447
2, 368
1,199

- 2 0 .6
- 3 1 .9
-1 9 . 2
- 5 6 .8

.89
1.29
1. 35
.65

1.30
1.44
1. 22
1.40

7.1
23.3
51.0
29. 6

10.4
31.2
63.6
67.3

M in n esota___
. ________ _______ _ _ _
M i s s i s s i p p i - ..___ ____ . . . . . . . . . . _
M issou ri___
. .
M o n t a n a ,__ _
..
. . . .
N ebraska , . ,
. . .
_ ____

i 11,540
5, 269
10,133
6, 673
i 7,456

8,161
6, 504
7,892
4,013
6, 510

- 2 9 .3
+ 2 3 .4
-2 2 . 1
- 3 9 .9
- 1 2 .7

.38
.47
1.03
. 18
.48

.42
.33
.79
.28
.45

5.7
14. 2
18.7
6.6
8.0

7.2
9.3
23. 4
10.5
8.4

N e v a d a ... _ ., . . . .
___
N ew H am p shire___________ ___________
N ew Jersey___ _ _____ _______________
N ew M exico,
...
N e w Y ork
__ ________ _______

625
2, 550
1,170
1,647
7, 203

486
2,313
1,274
1,704
4, 607

- 2 2 .2
- 9 .3
+ 8 .9
+ 3 .5
- 3 6 .0

.41
.62
2.27
.74
1.48

.46
.36
3. 38
.65
1.94

3.7
5.8
25.0
18.2
38.2

5.2
4.6
30.5
18.6
57.5

N orth Carolina . . .
N orth D a k o ta _____
Ohio , ,
. ,
O klahom a,
.
Oregon. . . .

9, 385
3,219
5, 632
3, 084
3, 389

5, 762
2, 926
4, 072
2,167
2,912

- 3 8 .6
-9 . 1
- 2 7 .7
- 2 9 .7
-1 4 . 1

.63
.49
.94
.59
.56

1.02
.52
1.32
1.40
.62

8.4
7.9
18.8
75.7
25.9

14.1
9.5
28.9
110.5
29.6

P en n sylvan ia . .
. ..........................
R hode Islan d _______ . . .
_________ __
South C arolin a,.
_____ . . .
South D a k o ta .. . . .
...
. . . ___
T en n essee___
___ _
___

13, 549
769
5, 675
3,485
3,196

9, 343
850
4, 548
2,836
2,898

- 3 1 .0
+ 10.5
- 1 9 .9
- 1 8 .6
- 9 .3

1.21
1. 70
.63
.67
.80

1.39
1.58
.75
. 55
.76

35.1
66.4
24.8
26. 6
57.9

50.0
60.4
30.4
32.9
63.7

T e x a s ,......... . , , ____ _ , _ _______
U t a h ... ____________
__ ___________
V erm o n t,, ,_
_
_ _
Virginia
______
. . .
W ashington _____ _

13, 578
3, 747
1,098
5, 572
4, 390

9,291
3,295
893
3,915
3, 465

- 3 1 .6
-1 2 . 1
- 1 8 .7
- 2 9 .7
-2 1 . 1

.79
.40
.85
.68
.79

1.08
.39
.96
.70
.98

13. 0
5.9
12.8
13.3
34.7

19.8
7.2
16.3
18.8
44.4

W est V ir g in ia ... _______ . ___________
W iscon sin ___ _ _ _
W yom in g___________________
______
D istrict of C olu m bia______
__________

3,415
i 4, 263
1, 532
1,829

2,048
2, 557
1,006
1,454

- 4 0 .0
- 4 0 .0
- 3 4 .3
- 2 0 .5

.55
1.59
.48
1. 75

.72
.70
.74
1.97

21.2'
i 11.0
6.9
19.9

34.4
18.5
10.6
24.9

A ll States___________________ ____

1 R evised figures.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

____ _
_______ ______
. . . .
. .
.
_

.

429

EMPLOYMENT OFFICES

Table 11.—Registrations with Offices of National Reemployment Service,
October and November 1934
N e w applications
State

T otal applications 1

Percent
October N o v em ­
of
October
ber
change

A ll S ta tes________ 2174, 678

N o v em ­ Percent
of
ber
ch an ge

A ctiv e file

October

N o v em ­ Percent
of
ber
change

159, 950

- 8 .4

2 566, 276

546, 954

- 3 .4

A la b a m a ..................
A rizona . - .
Arkansas
____ _
C alifornia-_ _
Colorado

5,298
836
10, 027
4,019
1,973

9, 363
729
11,064
3, 439
1, 757

+ 7 6 .7
- 1 2 .8
+ 1 0 .3
-1 4 . 4
- 1 0 .9

18,114
2,056
32, 655
12, 639
6,462

29,905
2,084
39, 598
12,122
6. 083

+ 6 5 .1
+ 1 .2
+ 2 1 .3
- 4 .1
-5 .9

82,821
15, 859
64,634
61,113
29.161

110, 860
15, 646
91, 596
53, 534
25,065

+ 3 3 .9
- 1 .3
+ 4 1 .7
- 1 2 .4
- 1 4 .0

C on n ecticu t.
_ D elaw are
Florida
Georgia _
Idah o_____________

1, 535
924
4, 655
8. 999
1,437

1,423
861
5, 024
7,312
1,398

- 7 .3
- 6 .8
+ 7 .9
-1 8 . 7
- 2 .7

2, 510
2, 662
12,155
26, 590
7,234

2, 533
1,931
12, 619
20, 577
5,110

-2 7 . 5
+ 3 .8
- 2 2 .6
- 2 9 .4

22,145
13, 236
102, 330
208, 244
29, 542

22, 220
12,883
92,118
210,854
27,855

+ .3
- 2 .7
- 1 0 .0
+ 1 .3
- 5 .7

Illin o is.
Indiana
Io w a _____________
K an sas___________
K en tu ck y .

3, 762
2, 227
2, 121
1,986
2, 770

3, 739
1, 420
1, 104
2, 872
2, 608

-.6
-3 6 . 2
- 4 7 .9
+ 4 4 .6
- 5 .8

17, 621
4, 685
10, 557
11,518
12, 524

16, 735
5,368
7, 418
13, 807
7, 603

- 5 .0
+ 1 4 .6
-2 9 . 7
+ 1 9 .9
- 3 9 .3

118,216
108,111
2 40, 778
111,462
222, 329

114,089
99, 289
40, 677
109, 674
220, 879

-3 .5
- 8 .2
- .2
- 1 .6
-.7

M a in e____________
M a ry la n d ________
M assach usetts. _
M ichigan ____ _ _

1,864
4, 624
3,945
1,810

2,167
3, 530
2,883
1,681

+ 1 6 .3
- 2 3 .7
- 2 6 .9
-7 . 1

6, 420
9, 752
7, 287
8, 329

9,831
10, 321
7, 226
7,179

+ 5 3 .1
+ 5 .8
-.8
- 1 3 .8

14,873
83, 820
149, 516
82, 232

17, 320
76, 372
150, 649
80, 634

+ 1 6 .5
- 8 .9
+ .8
- 1 .9

2 4, 323
2, 500
10, 436
1, 214
2 3, 767

3,439
2,122
6, 266
1, 127
2, 927

- 2 0 .4
-1 5 . 1
- 4 0 .0
-7 . 2
- 2 2 .3

2 19,132
10, 306
21, 416
8, 979
2 13, 498

21, 677
11,584
16, 267
6, 571
11,230

+ 1 3 .3
+ 12.4
- 2 4 .0
- 2 6 .8
- 1 6 .8

64, 312
74, 584
189, 521
45, 214
62, 944

58.676
60, 218
184, 375
41,969
54, 391

- 8 .8
- 1 9 .3
- 2 .7
- 7 .2
- 1 3 .6

N ev a d a . _
257
N ew H a m p sh ire...
1, 505
2, 661
N ew Jersey
. .
1,211
N ew M exico. . .
N ew York . . _
2 10, 678

223
843
4, 305
1, 114
8, 951

-1 3 . 2
- 4 4 .0
+ 61. 8
-8 . 0
-1 6 . 2

841
4, 122
7, 959
3,926
2 17,108

856
3, 270
12, 252
6, 187
15, 539

+ 1.8
- 2 0 .7
+ 5 3 .9
+57. 6
- 9 .2

2, 343
11, 129
29, 216
30, 021
2 275,125

2,511
10,612
38,901
31,745
265,051

+ 7 .2
- 4 .6
+33. 1
+ 5 .7
- 3 .7

N orth C arolina___
N orth D akota
O hio_____________
O k la h o m a ..
Oregon
. . . .

5,885
1,579
5, 278
1,810
1,897

5, 894
1,523
5, 394
3, 042
1,817

+ .2
- 3 .5
+2. 2
+ 68. 1
- 4 .2

18, 277
7, 169
18,330
9, 239
7, 107

16, 688
8, 392
17, 261
14, 409
6, 168

- 8 .7
+17. 1
- 5 .8
+ 5 6 .0
-1 3 . 2

78,995
25,306
105, 658
233, 458
87, 729

81,129
27, 837
117, 723
239, 388
86, 251

+ 2 .7
+ 10.0
+ 1 1 .4

P en n sy lv a n ia ____
R hode Isla n d _____
South C arolina___
South D akota
T en n essee________

16, 331
1,310
3, 568
2, 321
2, 553

12, 942
1.345
3,417
1, 548
2,198

- 2 0 .8
+ 2 .7
-4 . 2
- 3 3 .3
- 1 3 .9

34, 203
2, 068
12.045
6, 556
20, 467

28, 419
2,085
9, 950
5, 834
13, 378

- 1 6 .9
+ .8
- 1 7 .4
- 1 1 .0
- 3 4 .6

475, 394
51,085
140, 733
92, 752
185,170

466, 775
51,335
138, 355
93, 222
184, 633

- 1 .8
+ .5
- 1 .7
+ .5
-.3

T ex a s___ . . . .
U tah . . . _
V erm ont . .
Virginia .
_ .
W ashin gton . . „

10, 770
1, 490
936
3,800
3,486

9, 989
1, 297
858
2, 736
3, 395

- 7 .3
- 1 3 .0
- 8 .3
- 2 8 .0
- 2 .6

42, 689
9,700
2, 159
16, 746
13, 656

38,843
10, 708
2, 285
12,919
10, 289

- 9 .0
+ 10.4
+ 5 .8
- 2 2 .9
- 2 4 .7

177, 107
2 23, 283
14. 076
74, 038
152,333

183, 540
23,831
14, 514
73, 770
153, 729

+ 3 .6
+ 2 .4
+ 3 .1
-.4
+ .9

W est V ir g in ia .. __
W isco n sin .. . _
W yom in g________
D istrict of Columb i a . . . _________

1,866
2 2, 508
730

1, 468
1, 789
748

- 2 1 .3
- 2 8 .7
+ 2 .5

7, 492
2 11,105
3,166

7, 684
9, 573
3, 525

+ 2 .6
- 1 3 .8
+ 1 1 .3

72, 549
2 46,890
10, 534

70, 542
47, 328
10, 633

-2 .8
+ .9
+ .9

3,196

2,859

- 1 0 .5

5,045

5,061

+ .3

36, 357

36,137

—.6

M in n eso ta___
M ississip p i_______
M isso u ri_________
M o n ta n a .. . _ _
N ebraska.

1 Includes new applications, reregistrations, and renewals.
2 R evised figures.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

24,428, 278 4, 421, 335

- 0 .2

- 1 .7

430

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Table 12.—Veteran Activities of Offices of National Reemployment Service,
October and November 1934

V eteran placem ents
State

V eteran
V eteran
new appli­
V eteran new appli­
cations active file
cations
per place­
per place­
m en t
m en t

Per­
N o­
Per­ Oc­ N o ­ Oc­ N o ­
N o­
O cto­ v em ­ cent of to­ vem ­ to­ vem ­ O cto­ v em ­ cent of
ber
ber
ber change
ber change ber ber ber ber
A ll S tates---------- 129. 675 22,631 - 2 3 .7 10. 34 0. 42 •10.3 13.4 110, 204 9, 540

Veteran active file

Octo­
ber

N o­
Per­
v em ­ cent of
ber change

- 6 . 5 1304. 299 302, 742
+ 4 3 .1
- 3 8 .6
- 5 .3
- 1 8 .5
- 1 8 .3

4,906
1, 316
4, 756
6, 755
2, 466

6,809
1,174
6,418
5, 668
2,190

- 0 .5
+ 3 8 .8
- 1 0 .8
+ 3 4 .9
-1 6 . 1
-1 1 . 2

8. 5 15.0
5. 5 6.0
9.9 18. 2
6.4 8.5
5.7 7. 3

311
101
525
444
142

445
62
497
362
116

.70
. 18
.41
.92
.30

.65 16.7 18.6
. 31 5.3 11. 4
.44 18.3 18. 2
.71 26.6 21. 1
.41 7. 2 7.5

81
26
196
405
101

60 - 2 5 .9
22 - 1 5 .4
193 - 1 . 5
368 - 9 . 1
106 + 5 .0

1,917 1, 730 - 9.8
809 + 2 .8
787
8,835 8, 007 - 9 . 4
11,652 11,015 - 5 . 5
2, 431 1,957 - 1 9 . 5

-1 8 . 2
-6 3 . 9
-5 4 . 9
-1 2 . 5
- 1 .7

. 27
.30
. 19
. 19
. 29

.38 14.4 17. 1
.46 13.0 34.3
. 16 3.3 7. 6
. 24 9. 2 10. 2
.26 21.9 21.0

212
197
186
147
218

243
109
71
165
194

+ 1 4 .6
- 4 4 .7
- 6 1 .8
+12. 2
- 1 1 .0

11,233 10,914
8, 529 8,087
i 3, 038 3, 309
7,189 7, 012
16, 364 15, 387

172 - 3 8 .1
368 -1 6 . 9
308 - 6 . 4
178 - 4 7 .6

.36
.54
.93
.37

.71 4.7 8.7
.50 7.5 8. 2
. 71 28. 1 30. 2
.54 19.6 37. 1

100
240
305
127

122
183
218
96

+ 2 2 .0
- 2 3 .7
-2 8 .5
- 2 4 .4

1,305
3,328
9, 234
6, 669

1,504 + 1 5 .2
3, Oil - 9 . 5
+ .8
9,307
6, 604 - 1 . 0

841 - 3 1 .7
M in n esota ______ i 1, 232
362 - 2 3 .8
M ississip p i. . .
475
M issouri . . .
1,457 1,394 - 4 . 3
525 - 2 9 .3
M o n ta n a . ------743
867 - 4 . 6
N eb raska------ ..
i 909

. 13
.28
.42
. 11
.20

.59 3.5 5.9
.34 12.9 15.3
.28 7.0 7. C
. 12 3.7 5.3
. 18 4.3 3.9

i 157
134
616
79
191

496
124
384
65
155

+215. 9
-7 .5
- 3 7 .7
-1 7 . 7
- 1 8 .8

4, 258
6,140
10,252
2, 768
4,110

4, 931 + 15.8
5, 540 - 9 . 8
9,755 - 4 . 8
- .0
2, 767
3, 342 - 1 8 . 7

.42 .20 1.9 2. 5
.40 .29 6.4 5.6
.89 1.39 16.7 18.6
. 18 . 16 3.1 4. 1
.57 1.01 21.6 39.0

33
65
174
119
605

15
47
312
88
558

A la b a m a .. . . .
A rizona
_____
A rk an sas..
California. . .
C olorado___ . .

577
239
479
1,056
430

453
197
353
663
302

- 2 1 .5
. 54 .98
- 1 7 .6
.42 .31
- 2 6 . 3 1. 10 1. 41
-3 7 . 2 .42 . 55
- 2 9 .8 .33 . 38

C on n ecticu t. .
D elaw are.
. .
F l o r id a .___ . . .
Georgia-------------Idah o____ .

115
148
483
438
338

93
71
440
521
260

-1 9 . 1
- 5 2 .0
- 8 .9
+ 1 8 .9
-2 3 . 1

Illin o is......... .........
In d ia n a ..
Io w a .
K an sas. ----------K e n tu ck y ______

779
654
969
785
746

637
236
437
687
733

M a in e__________
M arylan d ______
M assachusetts .
M ich igan _ __ __

278
443
329
340

N e v a d a ..
78
N e w H am pshire.
173
N e w J ersey .. .
195
N e w M exico
668
N ew Y ork ____
i 1,069

74 - 5 . 1
162 - 6 .4
225 + 15.4
552 - 1 7 .4
555 - 4 8 .1

- 2 .8
-5 . 2
+ 8 .9
- 2 .5
- 6 .0

182 +20. 5
- 5 4 .5
151
902
905
- 2 7 .7
+■ 3
+ 7 9 .3
3, 257 4, 195 + 2 8 .8
+ .0
-2 6 . 1
2, 246 2, 247
- 7 . 8 i 22,957 21,654 - 5 . 7

N orth Carolina
N orth D a k o t a ...
O hio___________
O klahom a . . . .
Oregon . . —

1,069
717 - 3 2 .9
251
240 - 4 . 4
1,249 1,150 —7. S
321 - 3 8 .6
523
559 - 1 5 .4
661

. 24
. 3C
.21
. 25
. 21

.37 4.4 6.9
. 28 4.7 5.6
. 29 6.S 7.6
.69 31.9 53. 5
.27 10. 1 12.3

260
75
268
131
138

268 + 3 . 1
67 - 1 0 . 7
336 + 25. 4
223 + 7 0 .2
149 + 8 .0

4, 652 4,937 + 6 . 1
1,174 1,352 + 1 5 .2
7,840 8, 771 + 11.9
16, 699 17,185 + 2 .9
6, 695 6,862 + 2 .5

P e n n sy lv a n ia ...
R hode Island ___
South C arolina.
South D akota .
T en n esse e-. -----

1,641 1,132 - 3 1 .0
m
+29. 5
95
422 - 1 5 .9
502
606
419 -3 0 . t
496 + 6 .2
467

.40
.71
.30
. 2(
.37

.46
.61
.41
. 21
.36

12. 4
23.9
14.2
11.0
28.3

17.9
18. C
16.7
15. 9
25.0

656
67
153
119
175

526
75
171
89
180

- 1 9 .8
+ 1 1 .9
+ 11.8
-2 5 . 2
+ 2 .9

20,426 20, 212
2, 273 2. 220
7,115 7,045
6, 671 6,681
13, 204 12,412

T exas___ . . . .
U ta h ___________
Verm ont
V irginia.
. .
W ash in gton ____

2,244 1,759 -2 1 . 6
438 - 2 5 . 1
585
82
66 - 1 9 . 5
480 - 2 6 .3
651
614 - 2 0 . 2
769

.32
. 15
.66
.39
. 33

.35 7.0 9.3
. 17 2.6 4.7
.55 8.6 10.7
. 3 ; 6. 5 8.9
.34 16.4 20.4

711
88
54
252
252

615
75
36
159
210

- 1 3 .5
-1 4 . 8
- 3 3 .3
- 3 7 .2
- 1 6 .7

15, 692 16, 293 + 3 .8
1,533 2,063 + 3 4 .6
707
705
- .6
4, 221 4, 274 + 1.3
12, 610 12, 502
- .9

538
i 541
258

329 - 3 8 .8
338 - 3 7 . f
203 - 2 1 .;

. 28
i. 28
. 24

.36 9. 1 15.0
.28 i 8.0 12.6
. 28 4.0 4.9

153
i 152
63

315

159 - 4 9 .6

8.7 16.4

199

W est V ir g in ia .._
W isco n sin .. . . .
W y o m in g .. .
D istrict of Colu m b ia _______
1 R evised figures.


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.63 1.37

117 - 2 3 .5
93 - 3 8 .8
57 - 9 . 5
218

+ 9 .5

-1 . 0
-2 .3
- 1 .0
+ •1
- 6 .0

4,873
i 4, 366
1,041

4.947
4, 250
992

+ 1.5
-2 .7
- 4 .7

2, 756

2,611

- 5 .3

TREND OF EMPLOYMENT
S u m m a r y o f E m p lo y m e n t R e p o r ts fo r D e c e m b e r 1934
Comparison of December 1934 with November 1934 and December 1933

HE four tables presented below summarize the reported data
regarding trend of employment in December 1934. Employ­
ment and pay-roll indexes, per capita weekly earnings, average hours
worked per week, and average hourly earnings, as well as percentage
changes from November 1934 and December 1933, are shown for
manufacturing and for the nonmanufacturing groups insofar as the
information is available.
The principal changes shown in these tables are briefly as follows:
Factory employment and pay rolls increased 1.7 percent and 6.2
percent, respectively, from November to December. The employ­
ment increase is contrary to the movement shown in December in
12 of the 15 preceding years. Declines in pay rolls have been shown
in 8 of the 15 preceding years.
Forty-two of the ninety manufacturing industries surveyed reported
gains in employment over the month interval, and 62 reported in­
creased pay rolls.
Greater activity in automobile plants, due to production of new
models, was reflected in gains in that industry from November to
December of 32.5 percent in employment and 48.9 percent in pay
rolls, while the resulting demand for automobile hardware was a
primary cause for the gains in the hardware industry of 11.1 percent
in employment and 20 percent in pay rolls. The gains of 25.7 per­
cent in employment and 36.1 percent in pay rolls in the dyeing and
finishing textiles industry were due primarily to the settlement of
labor difficulties in this industry, and more than offset the sharp
declines reported in the preceding month.
The durable goods group of industries showed gains of 3.4 percent
in employment and 9.3 percent in pay rolls. The nondurable goods
group showed gains of 0.5 percent in employment and 3.8 percent in
pay rolls. The December indexes of employment and pay rolls for
the former group were 64.3 and 50.4, respectively. The employment
index for the nondurable goods group was 92.9 and the pay-roll index
was 79.5.
In nonmanufacturing, 6 of the 18 industries covered showed in­
creases in employment, and 9 showed gains in pay rolls. The most

T


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431

432

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

pronounced changes were seasonal in character. The gain in em­
ployment in retail trade was due primarily to Christmas trade, while
winter weather conditions caused recessions in the building construc­
tion and the quarrying and nonmetallic mining industries.
Comparing December with November, there was an estimated
increase in employment of 340,000 workers in the reporting groups,
other than class I steam railroads, shown in table 1. The estimated
increase in weekly pay rolls in these groups was $10,700,000.
Federal employment declined 6.4 percent comparing December with
November. Pay rolls during the same period declined 4.9 percent.
Declines were negligible except in the case of construction projects.
The legislative service was the only branch of the Federal Govern­
ment in which there was an increase comparing December with the
previous month.
Table 1.—Employment, Pay Rolls, and Earnings in Various Industries in
December 1934 (Preliminary Figures)
E m p loym en t

Percentage
change
from—

In d u stry
Index D e ­
cember 1934

N o ­ D e­
vem ­ cem ­
ber
ber
1934 1933

(1 9 2 3 -2 5 = 1 0 0 )

A ll m anufacturing industries
com b in ed . __ _______ ______
Class I steam railroads 1______
Coal m ining:
A nthracite __
B itu m in ou s_ _
M etalliferous m iningQuarrying and nonm etallic
m in in g. _
_ ___ _ _ _
Crude petroleum producing - __
P u b lic u tilities:
T elephone and telegraph _ _
Electric light and power
and m anufactured gas__
Electric - railroad
and
motor-bus operation and
m aintenance
Trade:
W holesale-_... _ _ _ ___
R etail-- ________________
General merchandism g--------------------------Other than general
m erchandising______
H otels (cash p aym en ts o n ly )-Laundries-D y ein g and cleaning- ______ B anks B ro k erage___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Insurance.
R eal estate.
B uilding construction________

Percentage
change
A ver­
from—
age
in
Index D e ­
D
e­
cember 1934
N o ­ D e ­ cem ­
v em ­ cem ­ ber
ber
ber
1934
1934 1933

Percentage
change
from—
N o ­ D e­
v em ­ cem ­
ber
ber
1934 1933

(1 9 2 3 -2 5 = 1 0 0 )

78.1 + 1.7 + 5 .0
-. 4
53.8 - 1 . 8
(1 9 2 9 = 1 0 0 )

(2)

63.2 + 6 .2 + 1 6 .0 $19. 73 + 4 .4 + 1 0 .4
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)

(1 9 2 9 = 1 0 0 )

61.6 + 1 .4 + 1 3 .0
79.7 - . 1 + 5 .7
44.4 + 2 .8 + 9 .4

52.3 + 2 .2 + 1 8 .1 24. 78 + . 9
57.0 - 2 . 3 + 12. 2 18.61 - 2 . 3
29.4 + 3 .2 + 1 2 .2 21. 53 + . 4

+ 4 .4
+ 6 .1
+ 2 .6

42. 1 -1 5 .1
78.7 - . 2

23.6 - 2 0 .0 - 3 . 3 14. 30 - 5 . 7
59.5 + . 9 + 1 1 .8 26. 78 + 1 .1

+ 4 .1
+ 6 .6

- 7 .1
+ 4 .9

-.3

+ .4

83.6 - 2 . 2

+ 2 .2

71. Ü - 1 . 0

+ .3

69.7

73.2 + 1 .3

-. 1
+ 7 .3
+ 1.4
+ 2 .7
-.3
-2 4 . 8
+ 1 .5
+ 3 .5
+ 5 .6

27. 83 + 1 .7

62.3

+ .8

+ 3 .0

+ 4 .5 28. 02 + 1 .8

+ 4 .2

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)

97.8 + 2 2 .5 + 8 .5 15. 76 - 3 . 5

+ 1 .3

59.4 + 2 .3 + 1 . 4
64.9 - , 1 + 12.7
63.3 - . 6 + 3 .6
51.1 - 5 . 2 + 8 .0
- .4
+ .2
+ . 4 - 2 8 .1
+ 1 .7 + 2 .9
- . 1 + 3 .8
- 1 3 .1 + 1 1 .8

+ 1 .5
+ 5 .0
+2. 2
+ 5 .2
+ .5
- 4 .3
+ 1 .4
+ .2
+ 6 .4

22. 42 (4)
13. 48 + . 4
14. 95 + . 4
17. 17 - . 6
31.46 - . 3
34. 32
36.98 + 1 .7
21.49 - . 1
23.11 - 1 . 7

1 Prelim inary— Source: Interstate Com m erce C om m ission.
2 N o t available.
3 R evised . C om plete series of indexes w ill appear in M arch issue of M o n th ly Labor R eview .
4 N o change.


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+ 7 .6

+ .6

3 64.8 + • 9 + 6 .4 26. 12 + 1 .0 + 2 .0
3 66.0 + 6 .8 + 3 .1 19.14 - 3 . 1 + 1 .3

127.3 + 2 7 .0 + 7 .1
81. 2 + 2 .3
83.3 - . 5
79.5 - 1 . 0
72.4 - 4 . 6
-. 1
+. 3
+ .1
+ •1
- 1 1 .6

+ 8 .1

78.3 - 1 . 6 + 5 .2 29. 85

3 85.0 - . 1 + 4 .3
3 90.8 + 8 .5 + 1 .9

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)

Percapita w eek ly
earnings

P a y roll

433

TREND OF EMPLOYMENT

Employment on relief work increased 6.5 percent and pay rolls
increased 1.2 percent comparing December with November.
Private employment.—Table 1 shows the December employment and
pay-roll indexes and per capita weekly earnings for all manufacturing
industries combined, for various nonmanufacturing industries and for
class I steam railroads in December 1934 with percentage changes
over the month and year, except in the few cases, referred to in foot­
notes, for which certain items cannot be computed. Table 2 shows
for the same industries as in table 1, as far as data are available,
average hours worked per week and average hourly earnings, together
with percentage changes over the month and year intervals.
Table 2.—Hours and Earnings in December 1934 in Various Industries
(Preliminary Figures)
Average hours worked
per w eek

Ind u stry

Average hourly earnings

Percentage
Percentage
A ver­ change from 1— A ver­ change from 1—
age in
age in
D ecem ­
D ecem ­
N o v em ­ D ecem ­
N ovem ­ D ec e m ­ ber
ber
ber
ber
1934
1934
ber
ber
1934
1934
1933
1933
C e n ts

A ll m anufacturing industries com b in ed . .
--------Class I steam railroads
Coal m ining:
A nthracite
------B itu m in ou s
- - - - M etalliferous m ining- _ ------------- ---------- ----------- _ Quarrying and nonm etallic m in in g-- _ ---------------------Crude petroleum producing__________________________
P u b lic utilities:
T elephone and telegraph. _- ___ _ ------ --E lectric light and power and manufactured gas—
Electric-railroad and m otor-bus operation and
m aintenance _
Trade:
W holesale-- _ _ _ - _ - ------------------------------------R etail
- . _
- - - - - - General m erchandising-- _ _ . . . ----- - - - - - Other than general m erchandising
H o te ls___
- _ -- ___________ _ _ _ ----- --- _ --_
Laundries ------D y ein g and cleaning------------------------------------- ----------B anks
-------------Brokerage
--------- ------------- -------------------------- ------Insurance ________ -_ - ----------------------R eal estate
- - - - - - - - - - B u ild ing construction --------

35.2

+ 3 .2

+ 3 .4

56.0

+ 1 .1

+ 6 .2

30.5
26.5
36. 4
29.6
34.4

+ 3 .7
-.4
+ 1. 1
- 6 .9
- 1 .4

- 1 .1
- 8 .7
- 5 .7
- 2 .3
+ .6

81. 5
70.9
58. 1
47.9
79.4

- 1 .6
-, 1
-1 . 2
+• 6
+ 2 .3

+ 3 .2
+ 18.5
+ 8 .7
+ 6 .2
+ 6 .4

38. 2
38. 7

+ .3
-.3

+ 3 .6
- 1 .7

74.6
77.2

+ 1.4
+ 1.2

+ 6 .8
+ 7 .2

45.6

+ 2 .0

+ .8

61. 1

+ .5

+ 8 .4

41.0
41. 6
40.5
42.6
47.3
39.2
39.7
(4)
(4)
(4)
0)

27.8

+ 3 .5
+ 7 .7
+ 1.4
+ .2
(3)
0)
(4)
(4)
(4)
- 3 .8

+ 1.8
- 1 .9
-4 . 2
+ 1.9
-4 . 5
+3. 1
+ 1.1
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
+ 5 .2

63.4
48.3
41. 1
54. 2
2 27.8
37.4
43.2
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
83.5

-. 2
- 6 .4
- 1 0 .5
-1 . 6
-. 4
-.5
-. 7
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
+ 2 .6

-.6
+ 6 .6
+ 5 .6
+ 3 .7
+ 9 .6
- 1 .4
+ 3 .9
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
+ 5 .4

1 Percentage changes over year com puted from indexes.
2 Cash p aym en ts on ly. T h e ad ditional valu e of board, room, and tip s cannot be com puted.
3 N o change.
4 N o t available.

Public employment.-—Employment created by the Federal Govern­
ment is of two general classes: (1) Employment either in the execu­
tive, judicial, legislative, or military service, and on various construc­
tion projects financed by the Federal Government; and (2) employ­
ment on relief work, where the work itself and the system of payment
is of an emergency-relief character. Data for these two types of
Federal employment are shown separately in tables 3 and 4.

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434

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW — FEBRUARY 1935

Table 3.—Employment and Pay Rolls in Various Services of the U. S. Govern­
ment, December 1934 (Preliminary Figures)
E m p loym en t
Group
D ecem ­
ber 1934
A ll groups,- ..

_____ _____

Per­
cent­
age
N o v em ­
ber 1934 change

1,364,188 1,458,184

E xecutive s e r v ic e ............... ....
.Tudicial service___. . .
L egislative service
... _
M ilitary s e r v ic e ___
_ _
C onstruction projects financed b y P. W . A C onstruction projects financed b y R . E. C_
Construction projects financed b v direct
governm ental appropriations . . . _____

- 6 .4

672, 273
1,861
4, 648
272, 200
382, 594
l \ 321

675.442
-.5
1.885 - 1 . 3
• 4, 630
+ .4
272, 572
-. 1
469,874 - 1 8 .6
16, 502 - 1 3 . 2

16, 291

18, 211 - 1 0 .5

P a y roll
N ovem b er
1934

Per
centage
change

$147,902, 095 $155, 564,313

- 4 .9

D ecem ber
1934

100, 736,351 1100, 787, 487
446,130
451, 653
1,057,996
i 1, 070,881
20, 971,678
21, 786, 447
22, 491,692
28,831,432
1,337,719
1,621,468
860, 529

1, 014,945

-.
-1 .
-1 .
-3 .
-2 2 .
-1 7 .

5
2
2
7
0
5

-1 5 . 2

1 R evised .

Table 4 . —Employment and Pay Rolls on Relief Work of Various Federal
Agencies, December 1934 (Preliminary Figures)
E m p loym en t

P a y rolls
PerPer­
centcent­
age
D ecem ber N ovem ber age
D
ecem
ber
N
ovem
ber
change
change
1934
1934
1934
1934

Group

A ll groups.

___

_ _ _ _

_____ . _

E m ergency work program . . . .
Em ergency conservation work___________

2, 700,028

2, 534, 420

2, 350, 000 1 2,147,091
350,028
387, 329

+ 6 .5 $80, 414, 634 $79, 467, 650

+ 1 .2

+ 9 .5
- 9 .6

+ 3 .4
- 7 .3

65,000, 000 1 62,845, 540
15, 414, 634 16, 622,110

1 R evised.

Coverage of Reports
M onthly reports on tren d of em ploym ent and p ay rolls are now
available for th e following groups: (1) 90 m anufacturing industries;

(2) 18 nonmanufacturing industries, including building construction;
(3) class I steam railroads; and (4) Federal services and agencies.
The reports for the first two of these groups—manufacturing and
nonmanufacturing—are based on sample surveys by the Bureau of
Labor Statistics, but in practically all cases the samples are sufficiently
large to be entirely representative. The figures on class I steam
railroads are compiled by the Interstate Commerce Commission and
include all employees. The data for the various Federal services and
agencies also cover all employees on the pay rolls of such organizations.
In total, these four main groups include a majority of the wage and
salary workers in the United States. Unfortunately, however, no
such complete information is available as yet for certain other large
employment groups—notably, agricultural work, professional service,
and domestic and personal service.


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TREND OF EM PLOYM ENT

435

T r e n d o f E m p lo y m e n t in N o v e m b e r 1934 (R e v is e d
F ig u re s )
HIS article presents the detailed figures on volume of employ­
ment, as compiled by the Bureau of Labor Statistics for the
month of November 1934> The tabular data are the same as those
published in the Trend of Employment pamphlet for November
except for certain minor revisions and corrections.

T

E m p lo y m e n t in M a n u fa c tu r in g In d u s tr ie s in N o v e m b e r 1934
F a c t o r y employment decreased 1.9 percent from October to No­
vember and factory pay rolls declined 2.5 percent. The slightly
greater decrease in pay rolls was due, to a slight extent, to the observ­
ance of the Armistice Day holiday during the November pay period.
Thirty-seven of the 90 manufacturing industries surveyed reported
gains in employment from October to November and 38 industries
reported increased pay rolls.
The general indexes of factory employment and pay rolls for No­
vember 1934 are 76.8 and 59.5, respectively. A comparison of these
indexes with those of November 1933 shows increases over the year
interval of 0.8 percent in employment and 7.2 percent in pay rolls.
The indexes of factory employment and pay rolls are computed
from data supplied by representative establishments in 90 important
manufacturing industries of the country. Reports were received in
November from 25,507 establishments employing 3,554,573 workers,
whose weekly earnings were $67,036,788 during the pay period end­
ing November 15. The employment reports received from these co­
operating establishments cover more than 50 percent of the total wage
earners in all manufacturing industries of the country.
Comparing the levels of employment and pay rolls in the 90 sep­
arate industries in November 1934 with those of November 1933, 52
industries showed increased employment over the year interval and
64 showed increased pay rolls.
Dividing the manufacturing industries into “ durable” and “ non­
durable” goods groups, the former group showed decreases in em­
ployment and pay rolls from October to November of 1 percent and
0.6 percent, respectively. The latter group showed losses of 2.8 per­
cent in employment and 3.8 percent in pay rolls. The November
employment and pay-roll indexes were 62.2 and 46.1, respectively,
for the “ durable” goods group, and 92.4 and 76.6, respectively, for
the “ nondurable” goods group. The “ durable” goods group is com­
posed of the following subgroups: I r o n a n d s t e e l , m a c h i n e r y ,
TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT, RAILROAD REPAIR SHOPS, NONFERROUS
METALS, LUMBER AND ALLIED PRODUCTS, AND STONE-CLAY-GLASS,


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436

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Per capita weekly earnings for all manufacturing industries com­
bined fell 0.5 percent from October to November and rose 6.5 percent
from November 1933 to November 1934. Gains from October to
November were shown in 43 of the 90 individual manufacturing
industries surveyed and ranged from 0.1 to 24.3 percent.
The per capita earnings shown in the following table must not be
confused with full-time weekly rates of wages. They are per capita
weekly earnings, computed by dividing the total amount of pay roll
for the week by the total number of employees (part-time as well as
full-time workers).
Man-hour data supplied by identical establishments in October and
November 1934 showed a decrease over the month interval for all
manufacturing industries combined of 0.6 percent in average hours
worked per week and no change in average hourly earnings. Thirtynine of the industries covered showed increases in average hours worked
and 42 reported increased hourly earnings. As all reporting estab­
lishments do not furnish man-hour information, the Bureau’s figures
on average hours worked per week and average hourly earnings are
necessarily computed from data furnished by a smaller number of
establishments than are covered in the monthly survey of manufac­
turing industries. Average hours worked per week and average
hourly earnings are presented for only those manufacturing indus­
tries for which available information covers at least 20 percent of all
the employees in the industry.
In table 1 are shown indexes of employment and pay rolls in Novem­
ber 1934 for each of the 90 manufacturing industries surveyed, for
the 14 major groups and 2 subgroups into which these industries are
classified, and for manufacturing as a whole, together with percentage
changes from October 1934 and November 1933. Per capita weekly
earnings in November 1934, together with percentage changes from
the previous month and from November of the previous year for each
of the 90 manufacturing industries and for manufacturing as a whole
are also presented in this table. Average hours worked per week in
November 1934 and average hourly earnings, together with percentage
changes from October 1934 and November 1933 are likewise presented
for manufacturing as a whole and for each industry for which man­
hour data covering at least 20 percent of the total employees in the
industry were received.


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Table 1.—Employment, Pay Rolls, Hours, and Earnings in Manufacturing Industries, November 1934
E m p loym en t

Industry

Iron and steel and their products, n ot includ­
ing m achinery____________________________
Blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills___
Bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets___ __________
Cast-iron pipe____________________________
Cutlery (not including silver and plated cut­
lery), and edge tools________ _____________
Forgings, iron and steel____________________
Hardware................................. ................. ...........
Plumbers’ supplies________________________
Steam and hot-water heating apparatus and
steam fittings......... ................ ...........................
Stoves____________ _____ ________ ________
Structural and ornamental metalwork.............
Tin cans and other tinware....... ................... ......
Tools (not including edge tools, machine tools,
files, and saws)........ ........... ........... ................ .
Wirework_____ __________ _____ _________
Machinery, n o t including transportation
eq u ip m en t______ ______ __________________
Agricultural implements___ _______________
Cash registers, adding machines, and calcula­
ting machines............. ................ .......................
Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies..
Engines, turbines, tractors, and water wheels...
Foundry and machine-shop products.................
See footnotes at end of table.


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Percentage
Percentage
Index
Index
change from—
change from—
N o­
N o­
vem ­
v em ­
ber
ber
1934
1934
N o­
N o­
(3-year Octo­
(3-year Octo­
v
em
­
v em ­
average
ber
average
ber
ber
ber
1923-25
1934
1923-25
1934
1933
1933
= 100)
= 100)

A ver­
age in
N o­
v em ­
ber
1934

Percentage
change from—

O cto­
ber
1934

N o­
v em ­
ber
1933

A verage hours worked
per w eek *

A ver­
age in
N o­
v em ­
ber
1934

Percentage
change from—

O cto­
ber
1934

N o­
v em ­
ber
1933

A verage hourly
earnings 1

A ver­
age in
N o­
v em ­
ber
1934

Percentage
change from—

Octo­
ber
1934

N o­
v em ­
ber
1933

C e n ts

76.8

- 1 .9

+ 0 .8

59.5

- 2 .5

+ 7 .2

$18. 87

- 0 .5

+ 6 .5

2 34. 1

- 0 .6

-0 .4

66.2
65.9
72. 2
49.3

+ .3
+ .7
- .4
- 2 .9

- 2 .5
- 2 .9
- 1 1 .3
+ 9 .6

44.2
41.7
44.9
26.4

+ 3 .3
+ 6 .5
+ 2 .3
- 4 .1

+ 2 .1
- 1 .2
- 1 6 .2
+ 1 0 .9

17. 43
15. 56
14. 22

+ 5 .7
+ 2 .7
-1 .3

+ 1.9
- 5 .2
+ 1 .2

26.7
28.1
28.9

+ 4 .7
+ 1 .1
-1 .4

78.9
51.0
45. 4
62.7

+• 8
+ 3 .6
+ 2 .8
+ 1 .3

+ 1 .2
- .2
- 2 1 .6
+ 7 .0

57.4
35.8
34.2
37.6

+ 2 .8
+ 13.7
+ 7 .5
+ 3 .7

+ 6 .1
+ 4 .1
- 1 2 .1
+ 3 6 .2

19. 86
20. 05
18.09
18.80

+ 2 .0
+ 9 .7
+ 4 .6
+ 2 .3

+ 4 .9
+ 4 .9
+ 1 2 .0
+ 2 7 .7

36.8
33.7
33.2
33.8

49.3
93.9
57.9
89.6

- .6
- 1 .4
+ 1 .4
- 4 .5

-1 2 . 4
+• 4
+ 8 .6
+ 6 .8

32.0
67.0
41. 2
79.4

- 1 .5
- 6 .9
+ .9
- 3 .8

+ 4 .6
+ 8 .4
+ 1 6 .4
+ 6 .3

20.83
19. 92
19. 79
18. 31

- .9
- 5 .6
- .6
+ .7

+ 1 9 .3
+ 8 .2
+ 6 .7
- .8

58.1
121. 2

+ .7
- .2

- 1 .5
+ 2 .5

48.4
94.5

+ 2 .2
- 1 .5

+ 7 .8
+ 1 1 .3

19. 15
17.81

+ 1 .4
-1 .3

+ 9 .5
+ 8 .6

77.9
79.6

(3)
+ 9 .1

+ 6 .3
+ 4 1 .9

57.2
85.7

+ .4
+ 1 5 .2

+ 1 3 .9
+ 5 9 .9

22. 80

+ 5 .6

106.7
65.4
73.5
66.0

+0)
+ .5
+ 1 .7
- .7

+ 1 3 .8
+ 8 .5
+ 3 0 .3
+5. 6

83.3
50.0
50.0
46.6

+ 5 .9
+ 1.4
+ 3 .3
- 2 .1

+ 1 6 .3
+ 2 1 .1
+ 4 9 .3
+ 11.2

25.64
20.96
24. 33
19. 88

+ 5 .9
+ .9
+ 1.6
- 1 .3

55.4

(3)

+ 5 .8

-7 .8
- 1 1 .7
+ 5 .6

65.6
55.5
48.7

+ 1 .1
+ .9
(s)

+ 1 0 .8
+ 6 .1
- 3 .9

+ .5
+ 9 .1
+ 4 .1
+ 1 .2

-1 .4
-2 .7
+ 8 .0
+ 1 7 .5

53.9
59.7
54.3
55.7

+ .9
+ .7
- .4
+ 1 .3

+ 7 .4
+ 8 .7
+ 2 .3
+ 1 0 .5

35.0
35.6
33.9
34.9

- .3
- 5 .8
- .6
(3)

+ 1 .7
- 3 .4
- .3
-3 .1

59.5
54.9
58.7
52.3

- .7
- .7
+ .2
+ .8

+ 9 .2
+ 8 .9
+ 7 .1
+ 2 .3

34.8
32.2

+ 1 .8
-1 .2

- 6 .0
+ 1 5 .3

55.0
55.1

- .4
- .4

+ 1 5 .0
+ 8 .2

+ 12.5

38.1

+ 2 .1

+ 1 .5

60.2

+ 3 .6

+ 1 3 .5

+ 2 .3
+ 1 1 .9
+ 1 4 .6
+ 6 .1

38.1
33.9
37.5
33.1

+ 6 .1
+ 1 .5
+ 1.1
- 1 .5

-3 .7
+ 3 .0
+ 8 .6
- .2

67.4
61.3
64.9
59.9

- .3
- .3
+ .6
(3)

+ 5 .6
+ 1 0 .4
+ 5 .6
+ 6 .4

2

TREND OF EMPLOYMENT

All industries..... ..................... .................. .................

Per capita w eek ly
earnings 1

P a y roll

CO

-I

438

Table 1.— Employment, Pay Rolls, Hours, and Earnings in Manufacturing Industries, November 1934— Continued
P a y roll

Percentage
Index
change from—
N ov em ­
ber
1934
N o­
(3-year Octo­
v em ­
ber
average
ber
1934
1923-25
1933

Percentage
Index
change from—
N o­
vem ber
1934
N o­
(3-year Octo­
v em ­
ber
average
ber
1934
1923-25
1933
= 100)

= 100)

M achinery—Continued.
70.2
Machine tools________________________ ____
Radios and phonographs.... .................................. 214.5
60.8
Textile machinery and parts—..............................
Typewriters and parts—. ....... ............................. 106.1
Transportation equ ip m en t..... ...........................— 62.0
Aircraft........ .............................................- .......... 250. 4
67.1
Automobiles_______________ ______________
30.2
Cars, electric- and steam-railroad........................
37.5
Locomotives..... ....................................................
69.3
Shipbuilding..........................................................
51.6
Railroad repair shops-..................................... ......
65.7
Electric railroad............ ................................... .
50.5
Steam railroad------ ------- ---------------- ------- 76.0
Nonferrous m etals and their products..............
62.5
Aluminum manufactures_________ ______ _
72.0
Brass, bronze, and copper products__________
77.6
Clocks and watches and time-recording devices.
76.9
Jewelry__________________ _______________
68.9
Lighting equipment___ _________ _________ 71.7
Silverware and plated ware-------------------------74.5
Smelting and refining—copper, lead, and zinc..
83.9
Stamped and enameled ware........... .................. .
48.6
Lumber and allied p rod u cts...................... ..........
65.2
Furniture................ ..................... ........................
Lumber:
M illw ork ................
S a w m ills ................
T urpentine and rosin.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

36.3
32.8
92.4

A ver­
age in
N ovem ber
1934

Percentage
change from—

A verage hours w orked
per w eek >

A ver­
age in
N o­
v em ­
ber
1934

Percentage
change from—

Octo­
ber
1934

N o­
v em ­
ber
1933

$22.49
19. 22
19.33
22.98

+ 3 .2
- 1.0
- 3 .2
+ 3 .8

+ 0 .4
+ 1 .4
- 1 2 .9
+ 20.1

36.7
34.2
32.3
40.5

+ 2.8
-3 .4
- 1.2
+ 5 .2

24.08
22.80
19.85
21.74
22.32

- 3 .4
+ 1.0
- 1 .7
-.8
- 1 .3

- 3 .4
+ 9 .4
+ 6 .5
+ 1 3 .2
+ 6.1

36.9
31.3
33.2
34.4
30.4

- 2 .4

26.41
24.18

-1.0

-.2

+ 3 .6
+ 2 .4

19.89
19. 99
19. 26
19.81
19. 56
21.70
20. 32
18.01

+ 4 .1
+ 2.2
+ 1.2
- .1
+. 3
+ 3 .7
- .7

+ 1 7 .3
+ 8.2
+ 1.0
+ 3 .2

15.88
15. 56
14. 54
12.43

Octo­
ber
1934

N o­
v em ­
ber
1933

A verage hourly
ea rn in g s1

A ver­
age in
N o­
v em ­
ber
1934

Percentage
change from—

Octo­
ber
1934

Cents
+ 1 .5
- 3 .7
-(< )
+ 1 .9
- 3 .0
- 5 .5
- 2 .4
- 1 1 .4
- 1 .3
- 2 .7
-4 .3
+ .8
- 5 .0
+ 1 .2
+ 1 .1
+ 1 .4
+ 3 .4
- 3 .5
+ 2 .7
+ 1 .6
+ 1 .9
+ 1 .2

+ 2 1 .7
- 1 3 .6
- 2 1 .4
+ 2 6 .6
+ 1 5 .9
- 2 5 .8
+ 1 8 .6
+ 6.0
+ 6 7 .4
+ 9 .1
- 5 .8
- 1 .4

-2 .0

- 2 3 .5
- 3 .7
+ 2 1 .3
+ 1 8 .5
+ 10. 1
+ 1 .4
+ 16.0
+ 5 .1
- 7 .1
- 9 .9

-(<)
- 3 .3

- 2 .4
- 5 .5

+ 3 .4

-

-

1 .8

8.6

52.6
131.5
43.4
97.8
48.1
214.5
51.3
27.5
16.6
54.0
44.4
57.4
43.5
58.8
53.8
51.3
64.7
63.1
58.0
56.7
46.4
71.9
33.6
44.5

+ 4 .7
- 4 .6
- 3 .2
+ 5 .8
- 2.6
- 8 .7
- 1 .4
- 1 2 .9

24.0
21.3
47.9

-.4
-5 .6
+ 6 .4

-

2. 1

- 4 .0
- 5 .1

+.6

- 5 .9
+ 2 .3
+ 5 .2
+ 3 .6
+ 4 .6
- 3 .6
+ 3 .0
+ 5 .3
+ 1.1
+ 2.1
- 4 .5
- 5 .7

+ 21.8
- 12.6
- 3 2 .1
+ 5 2 .3
+ 2 4 .6
- 2 8 .3
+ 2 9 .5
+ 1 2 .7
+ 9 0 .8
+ 1 5 .4
- 3 .7
+ 2.1
- 4 .4
+ 12.2
- 1 0 .5
+ 3 .8
+ 2 2 .5
+ 21.8
+ 1 8 .9
+ 8.8
+ 2 6 .8
+ 1 3 .1
( 3)

-1.1
+ 8.6
- 2 .3
+ 5 .7

N o­
v em ­
ber
1933

- 1 4 .9
+ 5 .1

61.3
56.3
59.8
56.6

+ 0 .5
+ 2 .4
-2 .3
- 1.6

+ 4 .5
+ 1 1 .7
+ 1.1
+ 1 4 .5

- 3 .3
- 4 .2
- .1
+ 9 .4
+ 1.1

67.5
72.6
60.1
63.2
74.1

+.1
- .4

+ 2.6
+ 11.8

-.3
- 2 .3

-

1.6

+ 3 .6
+ 4 .2
+ 1 3 .8

43.6
38.4

2. 1

+ 2.0

59.4
62.8

- .7

- 1 .5

+ 5 .1
+ 2 .7
+ 2 .5
- 2 .3
+• 5
+ 3 .8
- 1.6
+ 1.1

+.8

53.7
57.5
47.4
51.5
54.3
56.2
54.9
50.3

1.1
- .3
- 1.2
+ 2 .4
- .4

+ 7 .2
+ 9 .6
+ 7 .4

37.0
34.8
40.6
38.1
36.6
38.2
37.0
35.7

- 3 .!

+ 9 .0

35.2

- 4 .3

-

2.0

44.7

+.7

+ 5 .0

-.4
- 2 .4
+ 2 .9

+ 1 1 .3
+ 3 .4
+ 1 5 .9

34.9
33.1

-.6
- 2 .1

+ 5 .4
- 3 .8

44.6
44.5

+. 2
- .2

+ 5 .1
+ 7 .6

+.8

+ 8.1

+.6

«
+.2

- 4 .8

-

+ 3 6 .5

+.5

- 4 .3
- 5 .0
+ 1 .3
+ 2 .5
+ 2.1

+ 1.6

+.1
- .2

-

(3)

+.7
- .4

+ 5 .4
+ 1 .3
+ 1 0 .4
+ 9 .9
+ 5 .3
+ 6 .9
+ 6 .4
+ 6.0
+ 8 .4
+ 8 .4

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Ind u stry

Per capita w eekly
ea rn in g s1

E m p loy m en t

B rick, tile, and terra co tta ..........................................
C em en t................................... ......... ......... .....................
G lass---------------------------------------------------------------M arble, granite, slate, and other p roducts-------P o tter y _________________________________ ______
Carpets and ru gs__________________________
C otton g o o d s ..................................... ...................
C otton sm all wares ____ ___________ . .
D y ein g and finishing textiles________ _____
H ats, fur-felt____ _______ ___________ ______
K n it good s________________________________
Silk and rayon goods______________________
W oolen and w orsted goods________________

Corsets and allied g a rm en ts..______ ____ _
M e n ’s furnishings__________ ____ _________
Shirts and collars__________________________
B oots and sh oes----- -----------------------------------------L eather------------ . . . ---------------- ------------- -----------B a k in g ...-------- -----------------------------------------------B everages_____________________________________
C anning and p reserving_______________________
C onfectionery_________________________________
F lour________________________________________ .
Ice c r e a m ______________ ____ _________________
Slaughtering and m eat packing______ ____ ____
Sugar, b eet______ ____ ________________________
Sugar refining, can e_____________________ _____
T nhapro m a n u f a c t u r e
C hew ing and sm oking tobacco and s n u f f ______
Cigars and cigarettes............. ........... ..........................
Boxes, p aper. __________________________ _____
Paper and p u lp ................................... ....................... ..
Prin tin g and publishing:
Book and j o b .................................... .....................
N ew spapers and p eriodicals..............................

+ .3
- 2 .4
-9 . 1
+ 3 .8
- 7 .2
+ 4 .4
- 4 .8
-.8
- 5 .9
- 3 .8
- 6 .5
- 1 1 .9
+ 2 .5
+ .7
-2 , 1
+ 14.4
- 1 2 .7
- 1 6 .7
-1 4 . 2
+ 1 .7
+ 1 1 .4
- 1 7 .7
- 1 .5
- 5 .1
- 9 .7
+ 6 .6
- 7 .1
+ .3
-9 .5
-3 .4
- 3 4 .9
-9 .0
-7 .5
-9 .0
-5 .9
+ 1 7 .2
- 1 .6
-.4
- 2 .7
- 0
(3)
- 1 .6
- 1 .5

+ 11.9
+ 2 1 .3
+ 2 7 .8
+ 1 4 .3
- 1 5 .6
+ 5 .8
+ 2 .0
- 1 .0
- 1 9 .0
-.5
+ 6 .2
- 1 5 .3
- 1 2 .9
+ 7 .9
+ 3 .8
-4 .6
+ 9 .4
- .6
+ 2 0 .3
+ 2 2 .5
+ 1 8 .1
- 5 .3
+ 8 .4
+ 1 .5
- 1 .8
+ 1 0 .4
+ 1 2 .7
+ 9 .1
+ 1 8 .0
-7 .2
+ 1 3 .3
+ 3 .2
+ 6 .7
+ 5 .7
+ 3 1 .5
- 2 3 .2
+ 2 .8
- 2 .6
-3 .9
- 2 .5
+ 9 .4
+ 1 3 .1
+ 1 3 .3

+ 3 .9
+ .2

74.4
90.4

+ .9
+ .5

+ 1 1 .0
+ 4 .6

+ .6
- 0
- 4 .9
+ 2 .8
-3 .9
+ 1 .9
- 1 .5
(3)
- 5 .3
- .4
-2 .2
-1 4 . 4
- 2 .7
+ 1.0
-1 .2
+ 1 0 .1
- 5 .1
-7 .4
- 5 .1
+. 1
+ 9 .2
- 1 3 .8
-2 . 1
- 2 .2
-3 . 1
+ 1 .1
- 8 .8
- .6
- 9 .7
-2 . 1
- 3 5 .6
- 5 .3
- 3 .4
-9 .0
-7 .0
- 5 .7
+ 3 .0
- 2 .0
+ .4
-2 .4
+ .1
+ .6
+ .3

+3. 8
+ 2 .4
+ 1 7 .0

87.2
99.8

+ .2
+ .6

14. 37
18.31
19. 16
19. 94
17. 73

- 2 .4
-4 .4
+ 1 .1
- 3 .4
+ 2 .5

+ 16.9
+ 9 .4
+ 6 .4
+ 4 .6
+ 5 .8

32.0
32.4
34.1
30.2
33.9

- .6
- 3 .3
+ 1.8
-3 .2
+ .9

+ 3 .4
+ 6 .6
+ 2 .1
- .5
- 1 2 .7

44.8
56.6
56.3
66.9
51.5

0
- 1 .0
- .7
-.1
+ 1 .4

+ 13.3
+ 6 .0
+ 5 .8
+ 13.3
+ 1 6 .6

16.81
12. 77
15. 52
18.07
19. 39
16. 55
15. 25
16. 25

-.7
- 3 .5
- 4 .4
+ 2 .9
+ 5 .4
- .2
-1 . 0
+ 3 .9

-.9
+ 2 .4
+ 4 .6
- .6
- 8 .4
+ 6 .7
+ 9 .7
+ 2 .4

29.7
33.9
34.6
35.8
27.0
34.9
34.4
33.3

+. s
- 3 .1
-3 . 1
+ 5 .3
+ 5 .5
-.3
+ .3
+ 5 .7

- 1 0 .5
- .6
+ 3 .5
-.8
+ 2 3 .2
-K 1
+ 4 .9
+ 2 .2

56.5
37.8
44.7
50.5
72.0
47.9
44.5
48.9

-1 . 2
- .3
- 1 .8
- 2 .3
+• 4
-

1.6

+ 13.7
+ 2 .4
+ 3 .0
-1 .4
+ 1 4 .9
+ 7 .4
+5 8
+ .2

15.19
17.70
14.99
15.51
17. 74
13.20

- 1 0 .0
-9 . 6
+ 1 .6
+ 2 .0
- 4 .5
+ .6

+ .8
+ 8 .5
+ 2 0 .1
+ 8 .5
+ 7 .7
+ 1 5 .7

24.8

- 1 0 .5

-

10 .6

60.8

-

2 .2

+ Ì Ì .9

31.6
34.7

+ 1 .3
- 3 .3

+ 1 9 .7
+ 3 .2

46.7
41.5

34.0

+ .9

+ 1 5 .4

14. 51
21.27

-6 .8
+ 5 .6

-5 .5
+ 8 .8

29.4
36.5

- 4 .9
+ .6

-1 5 .0
- 2 .7

21.43
28. 05
20.07
12. 53
15.06
20. 38
24.95
23. 07
19.64
20.02

+ .9
+ .3
- 1 .3
+ 1 .2
-4 .0
-4 .2
“K 1
+ 1 .2
+ 2 4 .3
- 4 .4

+ 3 .4
+ 6 .0
- 2 .9
+ 2 8 .9
+ 7 .5
+ 2 .8
+ 3 .3
+ 1 9 .0
+ 6 .8
- 2 .2

39.6
36.8

+ .8
-2 .4

- 3 .5
- 2 .5

53.6
75.7

31.7
35.4
37.5
42.0
41. 1
49.2
37.3

- 5 .1
-2 .7
-4 .3
- 2 .8
+ 2 .2
+ 2 8 .5
+ 1 .4

+• 6
+ 7.1
- 1.0
+ 2 .3
+ 5.8
- 2 .5

38.3
41.9
54.7
58.2
54.7
41.1
52.8

+

12.84
13. 48

- 3 .1
+ 2 .5

+ .3
+ .5

32.3
34.6

- 1 .8
-2 .0

7 .2

39.9
38.8

+

18.24
19.33

- 2 .1
- 1 .7

+ 1 0 .1
+ 8 .5

36.2
36.5

- 2 .4
- 2 .4

+ .8
- .7

50.4
53.0

+ .8

+ 9 .6
+ 9 .6

+ 7 .0
+ 4 .6

35.8
37.0

+ .6
- .3

+ 2 .4
-. 1

73.5
86.1

+ 1 .0
+ .2

+ 6 .1
4"5. 3

26. 27
32. 98

+ .7
-. 1

- . 7

-

4 .9

0
- . 4

4 .3

- 3 .6
+ 1 4 .8

38.6

+ . 5

+ 5 .2

51.0
55.3

+ . 4

+ 9 .3
+ 8 .0

- . 2

+

+ . 5

0

+

2 .9

4 .4

- . 9

+. ^
+ 2 .3
- 1.4
- 2 .0
- 5.2
1.2
4 .3

+ . 4

+ 8 .3
+ 8 .4
+ 5 .8
+ 5 .1
+ 5 .1
-2 . 1
+ 1 2 .4
+ 6 .4
-1 .8

TREND OF EMPLOYMENT

C lothing, m en ’s ........... ................. .........................

- 1 9 .4
+ .9
-2 . 2
-4 . 1
- 1 8 .3
- 2 .9
+ 1 .6
- 1 4 .7
- 5 .0
+ 1 .3
- 5 .4
- 6 .8
+ 2 .2
- 1 .1
+ 11. 0
+ 2 .4
+ 8 .9
- 1 2 .0
- 5 .9
+ 3 .2
+ 3 .6
+ 1 .6
+ 4 .0
+ 5 .8
+ 1 1 .4
-4 . 4
+ 1.5
- 4 .1
+ 4 .3
+ 2 .8
+ 1 0 .5
- 2 7 .9
+ 4 .9
- 3 .0
- 4 .2
-3 .1
+ 2 .8
+ 3 .2
+ 4 .6

35.6
16.5
29.4
72.0
17.3
47.7
71.1
72.5
43.6
75.7
64.7
73.2
62.0
107.9
62.3
53.6
64.1
52.1
81. 3
80.7
87.5
45. 1
98.3
61.0
54.6
82.0
96.1
98.6
142.2
56. 4
87.5
76.5
63.3
50.2
100.7
147.2
72.8
48.8
62.2
47.1
82.7
81.3
82.0

52.2
29! 9
48.2
88.5
28.6
69.7
90. 9
89. 7
60.1
94.2
80.4
91.4
73.5
110.6
75.0
75.0
89.6
80.3
115. 5
89.3
116.9
59. 3
101.3
81. 6
79.8
89.2
109.0
115.4
151.9
76.0
88.4
91.5
77.7
63.5
109.3
189.0
93.6
64.0
73.8
62.7
90.8
90.3
106.9

+ 5 .3
+ 8 .6

See footnotes at end of table.

439


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

E m p loy m en t

C h e m ic a ls a n d a llied p r o d u c ts , a n d p e tr o le u m
r e fin in g __________ _______
Other th an petroleum refining_________________
C h em icals-.
___________________________
C ottonseed—oil, cake, and m eal___________
D ru ggists’ preparations____________________
E xp losives___________________________
_
F ertilizers__________ ______________
P ain ts and varn ish es______________________
R ayon and allied products_____ ____ ______
Soap_______________________ _____
Petroleum refining- ____________ . .
R u b b e r p r o d u c t s _________________________ _____
R ubber b oots and shoes ____________________
R ubber goods, other than boots, shoes, tires, and
inner tu b e s________________ _______________
R ubber tires and inner tu b es_____ ____________

Index
N o­
v em ­
ber
1934
(3-year
average
1923-25
= 100)

Percentage
change from—

Percentage
Index
change from—
N o­
v em ­
ber
1934
N o­
(3-year Octo­
v em ­
average
ber
ber
1934
1923-25
1933
= 100)

A ver­
age in
N o­
v em ­
ber
1934

Octo­
ber
1934

N o­
v em ­
ber
1933

108.6
107.9
104.4
90.5
105.5
91.6
91.2
99.7
320.8
104.6
111.9
76.6
53.9

- 0 .7
- .6
-2 .0
-1 7 .2
- 1 .2
-.3
- .3
+ .2
+ 4 .5
-1 .0
- .9
- 1 .0
-1 .4

+ 0 .2
- .2
+ .4
-2 2 . 7
+ 3 .5
- 1 .4
+. 4
+ 9 .4
- 3 .4
+ 7 .1
+ 1 .7
-1 1 .6
- 1 7 .2

90.9
89.1
90.7
81.4
96.8
71.2
69. 7
78.5
231.6
92.5
96.8
58.1
49.8

- 0 .8
-. 6
- 1 .9
- 1 9 .4
- 2 .3
- 1 .8
- 5 .2
+. 5
+ 6 .6
- 2 .2
- 1 .2
-.3
- .9

+ 7 .4
+ 7 .2
+ 6 .6
- 1 9 .5
+ 4 .3
+ 7 .1
+ 1 0 .6
+ 1 4 .9
+ 5 .8
+ 1 5 .5
+ 7 .8
-.3
- 1 5 .0

$24.15
10.19
19.64
22.13
11.81
21.47
19.16
21.55
26.08

112.1
68.7

- .9
- .9

-1 7 . 1
- 5 .2

85.2
50.4

-3 .3
+ 1.6

- 1 1 .3
+ 12.5

Percentage
change from—

Octo­
ber
1934

N o­
v em ­
ber
1933

A verage hours w orked
per w eek

A ver­
age in
N o­
v em ­
ber
1934

Percentage
change from—

Octo­
ber
1934

■No­
v em ­
ber
1933

A verage hourly
earnings

A v er­
age in
N o­
v em ­
ber
1934

Percentage
change from—

O cto­
ber
1934

N o­
v em ­
ber
1933

C e n ts

+ 0 .1
-2 .7
- 1 .1
-1 .5
-4 .9
+ 2 .0
- 1 .2
-.3

+ 6 .5
+ 4 .6
+ .8
+ 9 .0
+ 1 0 .2
+ 5 .0
+ 9 .2
+ 7 .5
+ 5 .8

38.5
43.6
38.2
34.4
33.1
37.9
37.7
37.6
34.3

- 1 .8
- 6 .8
- 3 .3
- 1 .7
- 3 .5
- .8
+ 3 .6
- 2 .8
-1 .7

-0 .6
+ 1 0 .9
+ .1
+ .7
-3 .3
-3 .3
- .3
-6 .5
- .5

62.1
23.5
48.0
64.4
35.6
56.6
50.9
56.2
76.2

+ 2 .1
+ 5 .9
+ 1 .1
+ .3
- 1 .4
+ 1 .1
- 1 .2
+ .9
+ 1 .6

+ 5 .9
- 4 .4
+ 2 .3
+ .2
+ 1 4 .6
+ 6 .9
+ 1 0 .2
+ 1 4 .9
+ 1 0 .3

18.31

+ .5

+ 5 .9

17. 57
22. 67

- 2 .4
+ 2 .5

+ 7 .2
+ 1 8 .8

34.6

+ .3

+ 2 .1

52.9

+■2

+ 6 .0

34.6
28.7

-3 . 1
+ 1 .1

- 1 .3
+ 3 .2

50.7
80.0

+ .4
+ 1.3

+ 5 .9
+ 1 4 .2

1 Per capita w eek ly earnings are com puted from figures furnished b y all reporting establishm ents. A verage hours and average hourly earnings are com puted from data furnished
by a smaller num ber of establishm ents as som e firms do not report m an-hour inform ation. Figures for groups not com puted. Percentages of change over year on per capita w eek ly
earnings, average hours w orked per w eek, and average hourly earnings com puted from indexes. Percentage change over m on th on per capita w eek ly earnings in “ A ll in d u stries”
also com puted from indexes.
2 W eighted.
3 N o change.
4 Less than Ho of 1 percent.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Ind u stry

Per capita w eek ly
earnings

P a y roll

440

Table 1.—Employment, Pay Rolls, Hours, and Earnings in Manufacturing Industries, November 1934— Continued

TREND OF EMPLOYMENT

441

Estimated Number of Wage Earners and Weekly Pay Rolls in Manufacturing
Industries

I n t a b l e 2 are presented the estimated number of wage earners and
weekly pay rolls in all manufacturing industries combined and in the
14 major groups and 2 subgroups into which these manufacturing
industries have been classified, for the years 1919 to 1933, inclusive,
and for the first 11 months of 1934. These estimates have been com­
puted by multiplying the weighting factors of the several groups of
industries (number employed or weekly pay roll in the index base
period 1923-25) by the Bureau’s index numbers of employment or
pay rolls (which have been adjusted to conform with census trends
over the period 1919-31) and dividing by 100. Data are not available
for all groups over the entire period shown. The totals for all man­
ufacturing industries combined, however, have been adjusted to
include all groups. The estimated total employment and weekly
pay rolls for all manufacturing industries combined do not include
the manufactured-gas industry (which is included in the Bureau’s
electric light and power and manufactured-gas industry) or the
motion-picture industry.
Table 2 .—Estimated Number of Wage Earners and Weekly Wages in all Manu­
facturing Industries Combined and in Industry Groups

Y ear and m onth

T otal m an u ­
facturing

Iron and
steel and
their
products

M achinery,
not includ­ Transpor­
tation
ing trans­
portation equipm ent
equipm ent

Railroad
repair
shops

Nonferrous
m etals and
their prod­
ucts

E m p lo y m e n t
1919 average-- ___________ 1920________________________
1921________________________
1922________________________
1923________________________
1924________________________
1925________________________
1926________________________
1927________________________
1928________________________
1929________________________
1930________________________
1931________________________
1932________________________
1933-_______________________
1934: Jan uary............................
February_____________
M arch_________ _____
A p r i l ____
M a y _________________
Ju ne___ - - - - - - - - .
J u ly ____________ ___
A u g u st___ - - - -_
Septem ber_________ . .
O ctober______________
N o v em b er.
.

8,983,900
9, 065,600
6,899, 700
7, 592, 700
8, 724,900
8, 083, 700
8, 328, 200
8, 484, 400
8, 288, 400
8,285, 800
8, 785,600
7, 668,400
6,484,300
5, 374,200
5,778,400
6,146, 000
6, 514, 200
6, 770,100
2 6,906,100
2 6,912,600
2 6,799,900
2 6, 593, 500
6, 666,200
6, 351,900
2 6, 569, 500
6,435, 000

858,600
926, 300
572,400
722, 500
892, 400
833,700
851,200
880, 200
834,900
829,800
881,000
766,200
598,400
458,100
503,400
545, 500
572, 200
601,400
623, 700
646, 000
656,400
603,900
589,300
567, 000
2 567,000
568, 700

! Com parable data not available.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1,026,800
1,131, 700
680,700
717,400
928,600
835,400
870, 500
946,700
897,800
922, 500
1,105,700
918, 700
687,000
494,600
517,100
614,700
640,100
674,400
705,100
713,900
709, 500
2 693, 700
2 692,800
2 684,900
2 684, 000
684,000

(>»
(')
(>)
(0
606, 200
524,500
559, 600
558, 600
495,100
541,900
583, 200
451,800
373, 800
315, 700
305,600
401,200
2 476, 700
526,300
2 560,100
2 561,800
2 538, 700
2 498,100
2 471,700
2 418,100
2 361, 800
2 350, 500
2 R evised.

(0
0)
0)
0)
523,700
464,900
458,100
460,700
428,900
404, 000
398,200
353,800
309,000
257,400
250,600
254, 500
257,400
267, 600
278, 700
287,300
288,300
281,100
266,100
268, 500
259, 900
248,800

0)
(>)
0)
(>)
(0
0)
0)
(>)
0)
(0
(0
0)
209, 000
164, 200
175,200
190,200
200,400
212,200
217, 300
219,900
214, 500
206, 600
207,400
206,900
212, 200
214,800

442

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

T a b le 2 .— E s tim a te d N u m b e r o f W age E a rn e rs a n d W e e k ly W ages in all M a n u ­
fa c tu rin g In d u s trie s C o m b in e d a n d in I n d u s tr y G ro u p s — C o n tin u e d

Y ear and m onth

T otal m an u ­
facturing

Iron and
steel and
their
products

M achinery,
not in clud ­ Transpor­
tation
ing trans­
portation equ ip m en t
equipm ent

Railroad
repair
shops

Nonferrous
m etals and
their prod­
ucts

W eek ly p a y ro lls
1919 average________________
1920________________________
1921________________________
1922________________________
1923________________________
1924________________________
1925________________________
1926________________________
1927______________ _________
1928__ ____ ________________
1929________________________
1930________________________
1931________________________
1932________________________
1933________________________
1934: January______________
February_________
M arch___. . . .
. .
A pril_____
______
M a y ............. __
_ ___
Ju ne_________________
Ju ly __________________
A u gu st_______________
Septem ber____________
O ctober________ ____ _
N o v em b er.-. . . . ____

Y ear and m onth

$198,145,000 $23,937,000 $24, 534,000
238, 300,000 30, 531,000 31,982,000
155,008,000 14, 049,000 16,450,000
165,406,000 17,400,000 16,982, 000
210, 065, 000 25,442,000 24,618,000
195,376, 000 23,834,000 22, 531,000
204,665,000 24, 680,000 23,843,000
211,061,000 25, 875,000 26,310,000
206,980, 000 24,289, 000 25,095,000
208,334,000 24, 740,000 26,334,000
221,937,000 26, 568, 000 31,761,000
180, 507, 000 21,126, 000 24,197, 000
137, 256, 000 13,562,000 15,135,000
7,164, 000
93, 757,000
8,546,000
8,925,000
98, 623,000
8,975,000
109,806,000 10,134, 000 11, 260,000
123, 395, 000 11, 269,000 12, 253,000
131,852,000 12,650,000 13,199,000
136,962,000 14,006, 000 14,311,000
136, 575,000 15,115,000 14, 713, 000
2 132,040,000 15,436, 000 14, 571,000
2123, Oil, 000 11,737,000 213,838, 000
2 126,603, 000 11,219,000 213,744,000
2 118,089,000 10,134,000 213,152, 000
124,138,000 10, 554,000 213,483,000
121, 085,000 10,899,000 13,531,000

Lum ber
and allied
products

Stone,
clay, and
glass
products

(>)
0)
«
0)
0)
(')
0)
0)
$18,532,000 $14,856,000
15,636,000 12,972,000
17,478, 000 12,847,000
17,126,000 13,025,000
15,450,000 12,475,000
17,494,000 11,817,000
18,136, 000 12, 255,000
12,076,000 10, 316, 000
8,366,000
9,008,000
5,793, 000
7, 012,000
5, 652, 000
6, 799, 000
5,710, 000
9,072,000
6,185,000
212,377, 000
6, 578,000
214, 529,000
7,188,000
215,906,000
7, 297,000
215, 200,000
7,297,000
213, 513,000
6,931,000
211,361,000
212,119,000
6, 578,000
2 9, 003,000
6,185,000
2 8, 555, 000 2 6,347, 000
6,022,000
8,332,000

T extiles and their products

Fabrics

W earing
apparel

Group

(■)
0)
(>)
(>)
0)
(0
0)
(>)
(■)
(!)
(>)
(')
$4, 622,000
2,865,000
3, 039,000
3, 452,000
3,826,000
4,163,000
4,317, 000
4,441,000
4, 243,000
3, 928,000
3,899, 000
3,958,000
4,214,000
4,309,000

Leather
and its
m an u ­
factures

E m p lo y m e n t
1919 average______ ________
1920________________________ ,
1921________________________
1922________________________
1923________________________
1924________________________
1925__________ ____ ________
1926________________________
1927________________________
1928________________________
1929________________________
1930________________________
1931________________________
1932________________________
1933________________________
1934: January______________
February_____________
M arch___ ___________
A pril_________________
M a y _________________
Ju ne___ _____________
J u ly __________________
A u g u s t.. ____________
S eptem ber______ .
O ctober________
_ .
N o v em b er.— ________


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

863,800
821,200
703,000
894,300
932,100
901, 300
921, 600
922, 300
864,100
848,100
876, 500
699,400
516, 900
377,800
406,100
418,800
432, 600
445,400
453, 700
468,400
459, 200
448, 200
450, 000
452,800
2 454, 600
446, 300

302, 700
314, 500
253,000
299,600
351,400
346,400
352, 700
363, 500
349,800
334,900
328, 500
280,800
222,800
156, 000
157, 500
165, 700
174, 400
182, 500
193, 700
202,100
200, 000
189, 900
186,000
185, 300
2 181,800
182, 900

Com parable data not available,

1, 052,600
1, 045, 300
994, 300
1, 054, 900
1,164, 400
1, 041,900
1,109, 500
1,095, 700
1,119,200
1, 062,400
1, 095,900
950,400
886, 700
794,100
952, 600
988,400
1, 065,800
1,087,900
1, 070, 200
1, 049, 200
993, 900
961, 900
946,400
685, 500
991, 700
991, 700

507,800
519,400
473,900
487,800
499, 300
455,800
466, 500
472,800
501,400
513,100
536, 700
497, 700
472,000
401,800
418,100
385,900
442,800
471, 300
474,100
449,000
423,400
378,300
427, 200
452,800
447, 600
424,800

1, 609,400
1,612,400
1, 509, 400
1, 585, 500
1, 714,300
1, 545, 500
1,627,400
1, 628,000
1,694, 400
1, 651, 300
1, 706,900
1,513,000
1,421, 000
1,250, 300
1,432, 700
1,437,100
1, 577,300
1, 629, 400
1, 614, 700
1, 565, 900
1,481,100
1, 399, 700
1,437,100
1,191,100
1, 503,900
1,481,100

1 R evised .

349, 600
318, 600
280,100
314, 600
344,800
311,700
314,200
312, 700
316, 000
309,400
318, 600
295,100
272,800
255,500
269, 400
268, 200
292,100
299, 900
298, 600
295, 700
283,700
289, 200
294, 700
277, 200
2 269,800
264, 000

443

TREND OF EMPLOYMENT

Table 2.—Estimated Number of Wage Earners and Weekly Wages in All Manu­
facturing Industries Combined and in Industry Groups—Continued

Year and month

Lumber
and allied
products

Stone,
clay, and
glass
products

Textiles and their products
Fabrics

Wearing
apparel

Group

Leather
and its
manu­
factures

W ee k ly p a y rolls
1919 average________________
1920.
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
1928.
1929.
1930.
1931.
1932.
1933.
1934: J a n u a r y ............................
F ebruary_____________
M arch...............................
A pril_________________
M a y ................................ ..
Ju ne_________________
J u ly __________________
A u g u s t ______ ____ _
Septem ber____________
O ctober_________ ____
N o v em b er_______ ____

$16, 549,000
20, 358, 000
13,161,000
15, 234, 000
18, 526,000
18, 228,000
18,824,000
18,997,000
17, 916,000
17,454,000
18,062,000
13,464, 000
8,641, 000
4,656, 000
4, 900,000
5, 075,000
5,650,000
5,909, 000
6,168,000
6, 409,000
6, 279,000
5,853,000
6, 205, 000
6, 279, 000
6, 520, 000
6,224,000

Y ear and m onth

$6,397,000 $17,494,000 $10,121,000 $28,440,000
8,239, 000 21,005,000 12,124,000 34,115,000
5, 907, 000 17, 235, 000 10,266, 000 28, 284, 000
6,442,000 17, 747,000 10,438, 000 28, 962,000
8, 726,000 21, 590,000 10, 919, 000 33,511,000
8,926,000 19, 014, 000
9,804, 000 29,712,000
8, 985,000 20, 497,000 10, 284, 000 31, 795,000
9, 257,000 20, 241,000 10, 297,000 31, 731, 000
8,929,000 21,135,000 11,123,000 33,817, 000
8, 541,000 19, 510, 000 11,114, 000 32,199, 000
8,323,000 20, 251,000 11, 476, 000 33,321,000
6,828,000 16,167,000
9, 680,000 27,115,000
4, 786, 000 14,308, 000
8, 338,000 23, 799,000
2,588, 000 10,367, 000
5, 733,000 16,947,000
2,455, 000 12, 664, 000
5, 757,000 19, 394, 000
2, 655, 000 13, 647,000
5,850, 000 20, 526, 000
2,956,000 15,948, 000
7,473, 000 24,676, 000
3,081,000 16,457,000
8, 414,000 26,164,000
3,445,000 16,152,000
7,866,000 25,277,000
3, 507,000 15, 256,000
7, 039,000 23,472,000
3,445,000 13, 626, 000
6, 377, 000 21,033,000
3, 205,000 13,117,000
5,716,000 19, 798,000
3,098,000 13,178, 000
7, 297,000 21, 571, 000
3, 081, 000 10, 001,000
7,328,000 18, 214,000
2 3,152,000 14,889,000
7, 587,000 23,662, 000
3,161,000 14, 767,000
6,625,000 22, 522, 000

Foods and
kindred
products

Tobacco
manufac­
tures

C hem icals
and allied
products

Paper and
printing

$6,978, 000
7,437, 000
6, 040, 000
6,711,000
7,472, 000
6,654,000
6,831, 000
6, 909,000
7, 009, 000
6, 696,000
6, 915, 000
5, 748,000
5, 035,000
4,060,000
4, 394,000
4, 716,000
5, 708,000
5,896,000
5, 736,000
5,512,000
5,093,000
5,393,000
5,498,000
4,834,000
4, 492, 000
4, 261,000

R ubber
products

E m p lo y m e n t
1919 average____________________
1920____ _______________________
1921____ __________ ____ _______
1922____________________________
1923____________________________
1924____________________________
1925____ _______________________
1926____________________________
1927____ _________ _____________
1928____________________________
1929____________________________
1930____________________________
1931____________________________
1932____________ ____ __________
1933_____ ___________ __________
1934: January.......................... .........
F ebruary_________________
M areh ____________________
A pril_____________________
M a y ______________________
Ju ne______________________
J u ly .________ ____________
A u g u st_____ _____________
Septem ber...................... .........
October_____ _____________
N o v em b er________________

$733,600
713,000
626,400
651,400
681,900
657,800
664,400
664, 400
679, 400
707,100
753,500
731,100
650, 500
577,100
631,000
628, 700
627,800
643,100
694, 500
665,400
702, 600
735,800
816,100
849,700
2 798,900
728,800

1 Com parable data not available.

109041—35------13


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

$157,000
154,000
149,900
146,400
146,300
136,700
132,100
125, 700
129,300
125, 600
116,100
108,300
99, 700
88, 600
82, 700
75,400
85,900
89,100
89, 500
84,800
86,400
84, 600
90,100
89, 500
90,400
88,600

$510,100
549,100
467,100
489, 400
527, 400
529,200
537,100
553,600
553,500
558,300
591,500
574,100
511,800
451, 700
458,400
490,700
494, 500
497, 600
505,100
509,300
503,000
496,000
498,200
506,100
3 512,000
514,100

(>)
(')
(>)
(0
$342, 700
322,200
334,200
355,100
346, 700
342,500
384,800
364, 700
316,800
279,700
315,400
359, 200
368,300
375,600
377,400
353, 500
348,100
350,800
350,000
361,800
3 364, 300
361,800

J R evised .

0)
(0
(>)
0)
$137,800
123, 200
141,800
141, 200
142,000
149,200
149,100
115, 500
99,200
87,800
99, 300
110,100
113, 600
117,000
120,900
119, 700
115,000
112,700
108,400
105,300
3 103,900
102,900

444

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Table ¡2.—Estimated Number of Wage Earners and Weekly Wages in All Manu­
facturing Industries Combined and in Industry Groups—Continued

Y ear and m onth

Foods and
kindred
products

Tobacco
m anufac­
tures

Paper and
printing

C hem icals
and allied
products

R ubber
products

W ee k ly p a y ro lls
1919 average.........................................
1920____ _______________________
1 9 2 1 ...................................... .............
1922______ _____________________
1923______ _____________________
1924......... ............... ......... ................. .
1925__________ ____ _______ ____
1926____________________________
1927____________________________
1928____________________________
1929____ _______________________
1930____________________________
1931____ _______________________
1932..................... .................................
1933____________________________
1934: January______________ ____
F ebruary_________________
M arch___ ____ ___________
A pril............... ................. .........
M a y .......................... .................
June____ _________________
J u ly ------------------------- --------A ugu st___________________
Septem ber________________
October_____ _____________
N ovem b er............................. .

$14,879,000
16,698,000
14, 333,000
14,142,000
15, 296,000
15,155,000
15,268, 000
15, 503,000
15, 838,000
16, 388,000
17, 344,000
16, 593,000
14,173,000
11, 308,000
11,604,000
12,301,000
12, 352, 000
12, 522,000
12,663,000
13, 296,000
14,008,000
14, 571,000
16, 022,000
16, 661,000
3 15, 752,000
14, 651, 000

$2, 386,000
2,772,000
2, 325,000
2, 206,000
2, 317,000
2, 213,000
2,147,000
2,049,000
2,025,000
1, 916,000
1,819,000
1, 617,000
1, 336, 000
1,052,000
944,000
886,000
1,012,000
1,019,000
1,028,000
1, 030,000
1,057,000
1, 052,000
1,097,000
1,119,000
1,090,000
1, 086, 000

1 Com parable data not available.

$10,873,000
14, 729,000
12,259,000
12, 762,000
14,304,000
14, 797,000
15, 506, 000
16, 478,000
16, 501,000
16, 691,000
17, 771,000
17,036,000
14, 461,000
11,126, 000
10, 299,000
11,045,000
11,297,000
11, 550,000
11,847,000
11, 981,000
11, 728,000
11,491,000
11,654,000
11,937,000
3 12, 293,000
12,293,000

(')
(>)
0)
(>)
$8,499,000
8,013,000
8,444,000
9,055,000
8,978,000
8,997,000
10, 068, 000
9, 334,000
7, 643,000
5, 861,000
6,179,000
7,035, 000
7,257, 000
7, 417, 000
7, 683,000
7, 352,000
7, 333,000
7, 381,000
7, 487, 000
7,479, 000
3 7, 621,000
7, 565, 000

(>)
(0
(0
0)
$3, 500,000
3,223,000
3, 676,000
3,707,000
3,810,000
4,069,000
3,986,000
2, 934, 000
2,165,000
1,555,000
1,740,000
2,036,000
2,261,000
2,445,000
2, 546,000
2, 438,000
2, 306,000
2,147,000
2,039,000
1.946,000
3 2,022, 000
2,015,000

3 R evised.

Index Numbers of Employment and Pay Roll Totals in Manufacturing
Industries
G e n e r a l index numbers of factory employment and pay rolls by
months, from January 1919 to November 1934, inclusive, together
with average indexes for each of the years from 1919 to 1933, inclusive,
and for the 11-month period, January to November 1934, inclusive,
based on the 3-year average 1923-25 as 100, are shown in table 3.
A chart of these indexes also follows.


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TREND OF EMPLOYMENT


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Ox

446

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Table 3.—General Indexes of Employment and Pay Rolls in Manufacturing
Industries, January 1919 to November 1934
[3-year average, 1923-25=100]

E m p lo y m e n t
M on tn

Ja n u ary..........
F ebruary___
M a rch ______
A pril________
M a y . . . .........J u n e________
J u ly -------------A ugu st--------S e p te m b e r -..
O ctober_____
N o v em b er__
D ecem b er___

1919

1920

1921 1922 1923

1924 1925

1926

1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933

1934

105.3
102.0
102.4
102.5
103.1
104.3
106.9
109.7
111.7
111.3
112.6
114.4

114.9
113.7
116.0
114.5
112.0
111.1
108.5
108.8
107.5
103.7
97.4
89.7

81.0
82.6
83.2
82.1
81.9
81.0
79.8
81.2
83.4
84.1
84.2
83.3

100.2
101.5
101.7
99.9
96.8
93.8
91.0
92.1
94.4
95.3
94.8
96.1

100.5
101.5
102.1
101.4
100.4
100.3
99.4
101.4
103.4
103.1
101.4
10,0.0

98.2
99.7
100.2
99.6
99.1
99.1
98.1
99.3
100.5
99.6
97.4
96.1

60.2
61.1
58.8
59.9
62.6
66.9
71.5
76.4
80.0
79.6
76.2
74.4

73.3
77.7
80.8
182.4
182.5
>81.1
178.7
79.5
75.8
178.4
76.8

108.2

eo
NO
G

A v era g e. ~ 107.2

82.5
84.6
85.9
85.8
87.9
89.8
88.2
91.4
94.5
97.0
99.0
100.5

100.7
102.5
104.6
105.0
105.3
106.0
104.9
105.2
105.7
104.5
103.2
101.4

96.3
98.1
98.8
98.7
98.1
98.0
97.8
99.5
101.5
102.2
101.8
101.5

95.0
96.5
97.6
97.1
97.0
97.8
97.7
100.1
102.2
102.6
101.7
101.2

100.8
102.9
104.1
105.3
105.3
105.6
106.1
107.9
109. 0
107.7
103.6
99.8

97.3
97.4
96.9
96.3
94.8
92.9
89.5
88.8
89.6
87.7
84.6
82.3

79.6
80.3
80.7
80.7
80.1
78.4
77.0
77.1
77.4
74.4
71.8
71.0

68.7
69.5
68.4
66.1
63.4
61.2
58.9
60.1
63.3
64.4
63.4
62.1

90.6 104.1 96.5 99.4 101.2 98.9 98.9 104.8 91.5 77.4 64.1 69.0 278.8
P a y rolls

January____
F ebruary___
M a rch ______
A pril________
M a y ________
J u n e________
J u ly -------------A u g u st—.........
S e p te m b e r ...
October_____
N o v em b er__
D ecem ber___
A v e r a g e ...

95.3
89.6
90.0
89.2
90.0
92.0
94.8
99.9
104.7
102.2
106.7
114.0

117.2
115.5
123.7
120.9
122.4
124.2
119.3
121.6
119.8
115.8
107.0
98.0

82.8
81.3
81.7
79.0
77.3
75.4
71.7
73.9
73.4
72.6
71.7
73.3

69.6
72.4
74.9
73.8
77.2
80.5
78.5
83.0
87.0
89.5
93.4
95.7

94.6
97.9
102.5
103.8
107.3
107.5
103.3
103.8
104.3
106.6
104.5
102.9

98.8
104.1
104.1
101.8
97.5
92.4
85.7
89.3
92.5
95.1
93.7
97.6

95.4
100.8
102.4
100.0
100.7
98.7
96.8
99.3
98.8
104.6
104.6
105.2

100.9
105.0
106.5
104.4
103.1
103.3
99.0
103.4
104.4
107.6
104.1
103.5

98.4
104.4
105.7
104.5
104.0
102.4
98.5
101.9
101.4
102.1
98.5
99.5

96.0 102.3
101.2 109.3
102.5 111.6
100.5 112.6
101.3 112.9
101.7 111.2
99.0 107.2
103.3 112.0
104.7 112.9
108.2 112.4
105. C 104.1
105.6 100.7

95.9
98.8
98.8
97.7
95.4
92.3
84.3
83.3
84.1
82.2
76.8
75.2

70.0
74.3
75.6
74.4
73.4
69.7
66.2
65.9
63.4
61.3
58.1
57.6

53.5
54.6
53.1
49.5
46.8
43.4
39.8
40.6
42.9
44.7
42.9
41.5

39.5
40.2
37.1
38.8
42.7
47.2
50.8
56.8
59.1
59.4
55.5
54.5

54.0
60.6
64.8
67.3
67.1
164.9
>60.5
162.2
158.0
>61.0
59.5

97.4 117.1 76.2 81.3 103.3 96.1 100.6 103.8 101.8 102.4 109.1 88.7 67.5 46.1 48.5 261.8
• R evised .

1 A verage

for 11 m on ths.

E m p lo ym en t in T ^ o n m a n u fa c tu r in g In d u strie s in T^ovem ber 1934
F iv e of the 17 nonmanufacturing industries surveyed monthly by
the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics reported gains in em­
ployment from October to November, and an equal number of in­
dustries, although not in each case identical, showed increased pay
rolls. Data for the building-construction industry are not presented
here, but are shown in detail under the section “ Building construction.”
The changes in employment in November were largely of seasonal
character. The increases of 3.8 percent in anthracite mining and
0.6 percent in bituminous-coal mining reflected increased production
during the November pay period, while the increase of 1.3 percent in
retail trade was due largely to seasonal expansion in the general
merchandising group of retail establishments. This group, composed
of department, variety, general-merchandise, and mail-order estab­
lishments, reported an increase of 6.4 percent in employment from
October to November. Employment decreased 0.1 percent over the
month interval in the remaining 56,766 retail trade establishments
for which data were available. The remaining two industries report
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TREND OF EMPLOYMENT

447

ing increased employment from October to November were wholesale
trade and banks, in which were shown gains of 0.9 percent and 0.1
percent, respectively.
The declines in employment of 5.6 percent in the dyeing and
cleaning and 4.3 percent in the quarrying and nonmetallic mining
industries reflect seasonal recessions, as does also the loss of 1.7 per­
cent in the number of laundry workers. The decrease of 1.2 percent
in employment in brokerage firms continued the decline in this in­
dustry, which has been unbroken since September of last year except
for a small increase in February 1934.
The remaining decreases in employment ranged from 0.9 percent
in the crude petroleum producing industry to 0.3 percent in the
metalliferous mining and in the real estate industries.
The largest increase in pay rolls, 6.1 percent, occurred in the
anthracite mining industry, and is the first November pay-roll in­
crease recorded in this industry in the 6 years the Bureau has been
assembling data for anthracite mining. Bituminous-coal mining also
recorded a pay-roll increase (1.3 percent).
In table 4 are shown indexes of employment and pay rolls, per
capita weekly earnings, average hours worked per week, and average
hourly earnings in November 1934 for 13 of the nonmanufacturing
industries surveyed monthly by the Bureau of Labor Statistics,
together with percentage changes from October 1934 and November
1933. Per capita weekly earnings in banks, brokerage, insurance,
and real estate, together with percentage changes from October 1934
and November 1933 in these per capita earnings and in employment
and pay rolls are also presented. Indexes of employment and pay
rolls for these industries are not available.


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448

Table 4 . —Employment, Pay Rolls, Hours, and Earnings in Nonmanufacturing Industries, November 1934

Coal m ining:
___ - A nth racite_____
B itu m in ou s_____________ _______________ ___
M etalliferous m in in g ______
__ _______________ Quarrying and nonm etallic m ining ........................ ..
C rude-petroleum producing_______________
__
P u b lic u tilities:
T elephone and telegraph___ __________ - ___
E lectric light and power and m anufactured gas_
Electric-railroad and m otor-bus operation and
m ain ten an ce___________ ________
__
Trade:
W holesale______________
___ - _______
R etail ___________ - _______________ _____ Hotel« (cash p avm en ts only) 4 _ _____ ___________
L aundries
________________________________ ____
D yein g and cleaning_____________ _ ____ - - ___
R anks
__________________________ -- ________
_ _________ _____
Insurance0 __ _ _______ _______
Real esta te. _____________________ _____ ____ ___

A verage hours w orked
per w eek 1

A verage h ourly earn­
ings 1

Percentage
Percentage
Percentage
Percentage
Percentage
Index
Index
change from— A ver­ change from—
N o v em ­ change from— N o v em ­ change from— A ver­ change from— A ver­
age in
age in
age in
ber 1934
ber 1934
N o v em ­
N o v em ­
N o v em ­
(average
(average
1929 October N o v em ­ 1929 October N o v em ­ ber 1934 October N ovem - ber 1934 October N o v em ­ ber 1934 October N o v em ­
1934 ber 1933
1934 ber 1933
1934 ber 1933
1934 ber 1933
1934 ber 1933 = 100)
= 100)
C e n ts

- 8 .3
- 3 .0

+ 7 .1
+ 1 5 .0
+ 1 1 .3
+ 3 .9
+ 1 7 .3

$24. 57
19.14
21.42
15. 43
27. 72

+ 2 .2
+ .7
+ 1 .2
- 4 .2
- 2 .0

+ 7 .5
+ 7 .8
+ 4 .6
+ 7 .2
+ 7 .5

29.4
26.7
36.0
32.3
34.9

+ 1 .7
+ .8
+ .6
- 4 .2
- 1 .7

+ 1 .0
- 7 .6
-4 .3
+ 1. 0
+ 2 .0

82.8
71.5
58. 9
47.8
78.4

+ 0 .5
—. 3
+ 1 .2
—. 6
+ .6

+ 3 .9
+ 2 0 .8
+ 1 0 .1
+ 6 .4
+ 5 .1

72.2
79.6

- 3 .5
-1 .2

+ 6 .6
+ 6 .8

27. 33
29. 50

- 3 .1
-.8

+ 5 .1
+ 3 .2

38.2
38.8

-.8
- 1 .3

+ 2 .9
+ .3

73.5
76. 2

- 1 .7
+ .7

+ 4 .6
+ 5 .5

61.8

- 1 .8

+ 4 .0

27. 55

- 1 .3

+ 2 .9

44.8

-.9

-1 .5

60.6

- .8

+ 8 .4

2 64.2
2 61.8
64.9
63.7
53.9
(5)
(5)
(5)
«

-.5
- .2
- .6
- 1 .7
- 8 .8
+ .4
- .2
+ .2
+ .4

+ 6 .1
+ .7
+ 1 7 .6
+ 4 .9
+ 2 .7
+ 1 .2
- 2 8 .8
+ 2 .2
+ 3 .7

26.05
19.94
13. 40
14. 81
17. 32
31.43
34.20
34. 72
21. 58

- 1 .4
- 2 .1
(3)
+ .1
- 3 .4
+• 4
+ 1 .0
+■9
+ .7

+ 1 .8
~K 8
+ 6 .5
+ 2 .5
+ 3 .0
+ 1 .3
-3 .2
+ 1 .4
+ .9

40.7
40.3
47.1
39.2
39. 6
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)

-.5
—1. 0
- .2
(3)
- 2 .0
(8)
(5)
(5)
(8)

+. 5
(3)
- 6 .1
+ 2 .9
—2.1
(8)
(5)
(8)
(8)

63.6
51. 9
27. 9
37.1
43. 6
(8)
(8)
(8)
(8)

- .3
- 1 .0
+• 7
(3)
—1. 4
(8)
(8)
(8)
(5)

+ 1 .3
+ 3 .9
+ 1 2 .2
+ .2
+ 5 .9
(8)
(8)
(8)
«

60.7
79.8
43.2
49.6
78.8

+ 3 .8
+ .6
- .3
- 4 .3
- .9

-0 .5
+ 6 .7
+ 6 .4
- 3 .1
+ 9 .1

51.2
58.3
28.5
29.4
59.0

+ 6 .1
+ 1 .3

69.9
85.5

-.5
-.4

+ 1 .5
+ 3 .5

71.8

- .6

+ 1 .1

2 85.1
2 83.7
83.7
80.3
75.8
(5)
0)
(«)
(5)

+ .9
+ 1 .3
- .6
- 1 .7
-5 .6
+ .1
- 1 .2
- .4
- .3

+ 4 .3
- .2
+ 1 0 .4
+ 2 .4
-.4
-. 1
- 2 6 .4
+ 1 .3
+ 2 .7

1 Per capita w eek ly earnings are com puted from figures furnished b y all reporting estab lish m en ts. A verage hours and average hourly earnings are com puted from data furnished
b y a sm aller num ber of estab lish m en ts as som e firms do n o t report m an-hour inform ation. Percentage changes over year com puted from indexes.
2 R evised . See table 3 and accom panying text.
3 N o change.
4 T h e additional valu e of board, room, and tip s cannot b e com puted.
1 N o t available
6 ° CPOTMntageChange in em p loym en t from Septem ber 1034, + 0 .1 ; from October 1933, + 1 .2 . Percentage change in p a y roll from Septem ber 1934, + 0 .6 ; from October 1933, + 4 .9
Average per capita w eek ly earnings in October 1934, $34.37; percentage change from Septem ber 1934, + 0.5; from October -934, + 3 ./ .


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Ind u stry

Per capita w eek ly
earnings 1

P a y roll

E m p loym en t

449

TREND OF EMPLOYMENT

Indexes of Employment and Pay-Roll Totals for Nonmanufacturing Industries
I n d e x numbers of employment and pay-roll totals for 11 nonmanufacturing industries are presented in table 5. These index
numbers show the variation in employment and pay rolls in these
industries by months from January 1931 through November 1934.
A revision of the indexes for the wholesale- and retail-trade indus­
tries for the months January 1929 to November 1934, inclusive, has
been made. The revised indexes appear in table 6.
Table 5.—Indexes of Employment and Pay Rolls for Nonmanufacturing
Industries, January 1931 to November 1934
[12-month average, 1929=100]

A nthracite m ining
M on th

E m p loym en t

B itum inous-coal m ining

P a y rolls

E m p loym en t

P a y rolls

1931 1932 1933 1934 1931 1932 1933 1934 1931 1932 1933 1934 1931 1932 1933 1934
January_________
February...............
M arch __________
A pril____________
M a y ........................
J u n e____________
J u ly -------------------A u g u s t .________
S eptem ber______
October_________
N o v em b er______
D ecem ber_______

90.6
89.5
82.0
85.2
80.3
76.1
65.1
67.3
80.0
86.8
83.5
79.8

76.2
71.2
73.7
70.1
66.9
53.0
44.5
49.2
55.3
63.9
62.7
62.3

52.5
58.7
54.6
51.6
43.2
39.5
43.8
47.7
56.8
56.9
61.0
54.5

64.1
63.2
67.5
58.2
63.8
57.5
53.6
49.5
56.9
58.5
60.7
— -

89.3
101.9
71.3
75.2
76.1
66.7
53.7
56.4
64.9
91.1
79.5
78.4

61.5
57.3
61.2
72. t
58. C
37.4
34.5
41. 4
47.0
66.7
51.6
56.2

43.2
56.8
48.8
37.4
30.0
34.3
38.2
46.6
60.7
61.6
47.8
44.3

A verage___ 80.5 62.5 51.7 i 59.4 75.4 53.7 45.8

73.2
65.8
82.4
51.7
64.6
53.3
42.3
39. 7
47.0
48.3
51.2
—

93.9
91.5
88.8
85. S
82.4
78.4
76.4
77. C
80.4
81.3
81.1
81.2

A verage___

68.3
65.3
63.5
63.9
62.4
60.0
56.2
55.8
55.5
53.8
52.8
51.2

49.3
46.9
45.0
43.3
38.3
32.2
29.5
28. (3
29.3
30.5
31.9
33. 3

32.4
31.5
30.0
29.4
30.0
31.5
33.0
36.8
38.9
40.7
40.6
40.6

39.6
40.3
39.8
41.7
40.8
41.0
39.9
42.7
42.3
43.3
43.2
—

55.0
54.6
52.8
51.4
49.3
46.1
41.3
40.2
40.0
37.4
35.1
34.3

29.7
27.8
26.5
25.0
23.8
20.1
16.9
16.5
17.0
18.0
18.7
18.7

18.1
17.8
17.4
16.4
17.0
18.3
19.0
21.9
23.9
25.9
25.6
26.2

59.1 36. 5 34.6 141.3 44.8 21.6 20.6

74.8
73.2
72.2
69.8
67.8
65.0
65.3
62.4
61.2
60.4
57.6
58.2

54.9
54.4
51.4
54.9
54.5
54.2
55.4
57.4
56.2
56.8
56.5
57.2

57.2
57.0
56.5
56.8
56.9
58.0
59.5
60.8
66.2
70.6
72.2
75.0

73.2
72.4
72.8
74.0
76.7
80.0
81.6
82.7
81.8
79.5
78.8
—

71.5
70.0
73.2
66.3
64.7
62.7
59.2
56.3
55.2
54.4
52.0
54.9

46.5
46.9
43.2
44.5
47.1
44.8
44.6
42.9
41.9
42.5
42.4
41.7

73.3
68.3
65.2
58.6
54.4
52.4
50.4
50. 6

47.0
47.0
46.8
33.9
30.7
27.3
24.4
26.4
30.2
5 3 .6
56.2 37.8
54.6 38.0
52.3 37.7

51.3
54.6
58.9
51.4
54.4
55.1
49.7
50. 4
4 4 .1
51.4
4 4 .1
57.6
50.7 58.3
50.8 —

36.1
37.2
30.7
26.6
26.9
29.2
33.6
43. 3

Quarrying and nonm etallic m ining
25.4
26.0
25.9
27.2
25.6
26.7
25.1
27.0
25.9
28.2
28.5

.....

64.4
66.6
70.0
76.1
75.0
72.3
71.0
68.9
66.6
64.5
59.3
53.9

39.9
41.7
42.5
40.1
41.6
40.6
42.2
42.5
44.4
50.1
50.3
53.2

48.9
47.4
46.0
48.6
50.6
49.5
49.5
51.1
52.4
52.4
49.4
42.3

35.1
34.8
35.1
39.3
43.4
47.3
49.5
51.6
52.6
53.2
51.1
45.3

39.7
38.8
42.0
48.7
54.3
56.6
55.6
54.7
53.3
51.8
49.5
—

50.4
54.4
58.2
62.6
62.3
60.1
57.3
55.1
51.2
48.7
43.3
36.9

30.2
29.6
28.7
30.0
32.3
30.0
29.1
29.7
30.5
30.1
27.1
22.1

18.1
17.4
17.8
20.2
23.8
27.5
28.4
29.9
29.3
31.2
23.3
24.4

21.3
21.0
2 4 :1

29.9
35.0
37.0
35.0
34.0
32.4
32.1
29.4

.....

26.5 67.4 49.0 44.9 •49.5 53.4 29.1 24.7 • 30.1

1

Crude-petroleum producing
J a n u a r y ............ —
F e b r u a r y ---------M arch ________ -A pril__________-M a y . . ........ ....... -J u n e__________ -J u ly ..................... A ugu st— ...........-Septem ber____ -O c to b e r ............-N o v em b er____ -D ecem ber_____ —

69.8 75.8
69.3 76.1
67.6 77.8
63.7 72.2
61.2 76.7
61.3 76.7
63.2 77.0
68. 6 77.1
71.8 78.2
68. C 79.3
74.8 79.8
75.4 .........

56.3 83.2 67.4 67.9 • 77.0 57.5 35.6 37.8 • 53.9

1

M etalliferous m ining
J an u ary.________
February-----------M arch_____ ____
A pril____________
M a y ....................
J u n e____________
J u ly _____________
A ugu st__________
Septem ber______
O c to b e r............ ..
N o v em b er______
D ecem ber_______

80.8
77.4
75.2
65.5
62.6
60.5
58.6
59. 4
62.4
67. C
69.4
70.0

Telephone and telegraph
53.0
50.5
52.5
53.4
56.4
56.9
60.0
61.2
59.7
60.8
59.0
—

90.5
89.2
88.6
88.1
87.4
86.9
86.6
85.9
85.0
84.1
83.5
83.1

83.0
82.0
81.7
81.2
80.6
79.9
79.1
78.1
77.4
76.2
75.5
74.8

74.6
73.9
73.2
72.3
70.1
69.2
68.5
68.1
68.3
68.7
68.9
69.4

70.2
69.8
70.0
70.2
70.2
70.4
71.0
71.0
70.9
70.3
69.9
—

96.3
94.8
97.9
95.0
94.1
95.0
93.3
92.3
92.1
91.6
89.7
92.7

89.1
89.6
88.2
83.4
82.8
82.1
79.6
79.1
75.9
75.7
74.3
73.5

71.7
71.9
71.6
67.8
68.5
66.6
66.7
66.1
64.6
67.0
67.7
67.7

69.0
67.9
70.4
68.8
71.4
71.3
72.3
74.0
72.2
74.9
72.2
—

A v era g e..-- 65.7 55.3 62.2 ‘ 77.6 61.7 44.1 44.1 •56.7 86.6 79.1 70.4 170.4 93.7 81.1 68.2 •71.3
1 A verage for 11 m onths.


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450

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Table 5 .—Indexes of Employment and Pay Rolls for Nonmanufacturing
Industries, January 1931 to November 1934—Continued
[12-month average, 1929=100]

E lectric light and power and m anufactured gas
M on th

P a y rolls

E m p loym en t

P a y rolls

E m p loym en t

Electric-railroad and m otor-bus operation
and m aintenance 2

1931 1932 1933 1934 1931 1932 1933 1934 1931 1932 1933 1934 1931 1932 1933 1934
J a n u a r y ..______
February...... .........
M arch __________
A pril___________
M a y ____________
J u n e____________
J u ly ____________
A u gu st______ . . .
S ep tem b er.. . . . .
O c to b e r ________
N o vem b er______
D ecem b er_______
A verage___

99.2
97.8
96.7
97.1
97.6
97.2
96.7
95.9
94.7
92.7
91.3
90.3

89.3
87.2
85.5
84.8
84.0
83.2
82.3
81.5
81.0
79.9
79.1
78.4

82.2
81.2
81.7
82.4
83.1
84.0
85.0
85.6
85.8
85.8
85.5

77.7
77.4
76.9
76.9
76.9
77.3
77.5
78.1
80.3
82.2
82.6
81.8

—

98.6
99.7
102.4
97.6
98.7
98.3
97.4
96.2
94.3
93.2
93.3
91.2

88.4
86.0
85.4
82.4
84.2
80.5
78.7
76.7
74.7
74.4
73.2
73.2

73.0
71.6
71.9
69.4
69.9
69.9
70.0
70.9
71.8
76.2
74.5
74.4

73.8
74.4
75.6
76.8
77.6
77.8
81.1
79.9
79.3
80.6
79.6
—

86.9
86.6
86.4
86.8
85.9
85.3
85.6
84.8
84.0
82.7
81.5
79.9

79.5
78.9
77.6
78.0
76.9
76.5
75.6
74.1
73.5
72.3
71.8
71.4

70.5
71.0
71.7
72.2
72.6
73.2
73.1
72.8
72.5
72.2
71.8
—

85.6
87.1
88.1
86.6
85.1
84.8
83.3
81.9
81.2
79.0
79.7
77.8

75.4
74.8
73.6
71.8
72.2
70.2
66.4
63.8
62.5
61.5
61.7
61.9

60.9
60.6
59.4
58.1
58.2
58.0
57.4
58.2
57.8
59.8
59.4
59.6

59.2
60.1
62.2
62.9
63.0
63.2
63.8
62.8
62.4
63.0
61.8
—

95.6 83.0 78.8 183.8 96.7 79.8 72.0 >77.9 84.7 75.5 70.0 172.1 83.4 68.0 58.9 162.2
D y ein g and cleaning

Laundries
Ja n u ary..................
F e b r u a r y .............
M arch _____ ____
A pril______ _____
M a y ........................
J u n e........................
J u ly ........................
A u gu st— ...............
Sep tem b er.............
October_________
N o vem b er______
D ecem b er.............

70.6
70.4
69.8
69.5
69.1
69.3
69.4
69.5
69.7
70.6
71.0
70.8

94.3
93.7
93.2
94.3
94.1
94.8
95.6
94.0
93.0
91.8
89.8
88.8

88.2
86.3
85.4
85.4
84.8
84.4
83.6
82.2
81.9
80.7
79.4
79.1

78.6
77.5
76.1
76.5
76.6
79.2
79.5
81.1
82.6
81.3
78.4
78.4

78.5
78.4
79.2
80.5
82.1
84.0
84.6
83.7
82.9
81.7
80.3
—

90.7
89.6
89.6
90.9
90.5
91.2
91.5
88.6
88.0
85.6
82.6
81.0

80.0
76.7
75.0
74.7
73.9
71.8
69.4
66.9
65.8
64.1
61.9
61.4

60.7
58.1
55.4
56.6
57.1
59.4
58.7
60.3
63.5
62.5
60.7
61.1

61.7
61.7
62.7
64.4
66.9
68.3
68.2
66.6
65.9
64.8
63.7
—

82.1
80.7
81.3
88.4
89.3
91.4
91.1
86.4
88.0
87.0
83.2
78.4

75.8
74.4
74.4
76.9
78.0
78.6
76.1
73.4
76.9
76.0
72.0
69.5

67.4
65.6
65.8
74.9
75.7
79.1
76.6
76.8
81.9
81.6
76.1
70.5

68.1
68.1
72.4
79.9
84.3
84.9
80.5
78.6
80.0
80.3
75.8
—

73.7
71.2
71.7
81.9
82.1
84.5
81.8
75.9
78.3
77.2
70.8
64.4

62.4
59.0
58.5
62.5
63.8
62.4
56.9
53.4
57.9
55.8
49.6
45.9

44.2
40.2
38.9
51.7
51.0
53.7
50.0
50.0
57.1
57.4
52.5
47.3

46.8
46.3
51.7
60.8
65.1
64.1
58.9
56.7
59.0
59.1
53.9
—

A verage___ 93.1 83.5 78.8 181.4 88.3 70.1 59.5 165.0 85.6 75.2 74.3 177.5 76.1 57.3 49.5 ‘ 56.6
H otels
J anuary_________
F ebruary________
M a rch ................
A pril____________
M a y . . .....................
J u n e....... ......... .......
J u l y . . . . ...................
A u gu st__________
Sep tem b er______
O ctober_________
N o vem b er______
D e c e m b e r ............
A verage___

95.0
96.8
96.8
95.9
92.5
91.6
93.3
92.8
90.6
87.4
84.9
83.1

83.2
84.3
84.0
82.7
80.1
78.0
78.4
77.6
77.0
.75.4
74.3
73.2

73.8
73.8
72.4
71.9
71.9
73.6
75.6
77.1
78.7
77.0
75.8
77.6

81.5
84.8
86.4
86.6
85.7
86.2
86.3
86.2
84.4
84.2
83.7

91.0
93.7
93.4
89.9
87.7
85.4
85.2
83.8
81.9
79.7
77.1
75.4

73.9
73.9
72.4
69.6
67.0
63.8
61.8
59.6
59.1
58.6
57.5
56.6

55.7
55.9
53.5
51.7
51.8
52.3
53.3
54.0
55.6
56.2
55.2
57.6

60.8
65.2
66.6
66.5
65.9
66.2
65.6
64.5
64.3
65.3
64.9
—

91.7 79.0 74.9 '85.1 85.4 64.5 54.4 ‘ 65.1

1 A verage for 11 m onths.
2 N o t including electric-railroad car b uild in g and repairing; see transportation eq u ip m en t and railroad
repair-shop groups, m anufacturing industries, table 1.

Revised Indexes of Employment and Pay Rolls in Wholesale and Retail Trade

The Bureau of Labor Statistics has revised its index numbers of
employment and pay rolls in retail and wholesale trade to conform to
the trend shown in the annual averages of these industries as published
by Bureau of Census for 1929 and 1933. This revision is temporary
in character and was effected in order immediately to present indexes

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TREND OF EMPLOYMENT

451

which indicate with greater accuracy the trend in total employment
and pay rolls in retail and wholesale trade.
Through a C. W. A. project in the early part of 1934 the number of
retail and wholesale establishments reporting to the Bureau was
greatly increased, equalizing to some extent the proportionate number
of establishments covered in each line of trade. The survey in No­
vember 1934 covered 61,578 retail-trade establishments, employing
948,497 persons. In the general merchandising group 4,812 estab­
lishments employing 404,877 workers were surveyed and in retail
trade other than general merchandising, a total of 56,766 establish­
ments employing 543,620 workers supplied data for November.
The wholesale-trade survey covered 16,872 establishments, which
employed 300,297 people.
The Bureau’s previous series of indexes for retail trade were un­
weighted. Therefore, the retail-trade totals were greatly influenced
by the changes in employment and pay rolls in department, variety,
and general merchandising stores, which are subject to marked sea­
sonal fluctuations, and which exercised a predominating influence on
the total not in proportion to their importance in the industry. The
expansion of the survey to include numerous establishments in other
lines of retail trade reduced the effects of the general merchandising
group in the total and greatly affected the percentage changes based
on the unweighted group of establishments. In order to eliminate
this discrepancy, the retail-trade indexes have been entirely recon­
structed by segregating the reporting establishments by line of trade
and then combining the totals into two groups, general merchandising,
which includes department, variety, general merchandising, and mail­
order establishments, and retail trade other than general merchandis­
ing. From these data three series of indexes have been constructed
for the retail-trade industry.
Index numbers of employment and pay rolls for all retail trade com­
bined have been computed, weighted according to the respective im­
portance of the two group subdivisions, and are presented in table 6,
together with indexes for the general-merchandising and retail trade
other-than-general-merchandising groups and wholesale trade. The
base period for these indexes is the average of the 12 monthly indexes
for the year 1929.
The indexes of employment and pay rolls for the two subgroups of
retail trade and for wholesale trade are computed by a link-relative
method. The percentage changes over the month interval in employ­
ment and pay rolls were computed from reports received from identi­
cal establishments in the current and the preceding month and these
percentage changes are added to or subtracted from 100. The index
of the preceding month is then multiplied by this figure to secure the

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452

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

current-month index. For instance, if identical establishments in the
general merchandising group show an increase of 2 percent in employ­
ment over the month interval, the index of the preceding month is
multiplied by 102 percent to secure the index for the current month.
The chain indexes thus computed for the two groups of retail trade
and for wholesale trade were then adjusted to conform to the level of
employment or pay rolls as indicated by census reports. The method
used in adjusting the indexes was similar, although not identical, to
the method used in adjusting the Bureau’s indexes of factory employ­
ment and pay rolls. An “ additive” or arithmetical method was used
and the statistical bias which occurred between 1929 and 1933 was
eliminated by the adjustment of the monthly indexes from January
1930 to April 1933 rather than by the extension of the adjustment for
bias through all of the months of the final census year. A ratio method
was considered, but in view of the slight difference in the results and
the additional work necessary to make such computations the arith­
metic adjustment was decided upon.
In obtaining the indexes for total retail trade the adjusted indexes of
the general merchandising group and retail trade, other than general
merchandising were multiplied by their respective group weights
which represented the total number of employees or the average
weekly earnings in the group in 1929. The sum of the aggregates
thus obtained was divided by the total of the group weights to com­
pute the index for total retail trade.
The weighting factors for retail and wholesale trade are the average
number of employees (full time and part time) and the yearly pay
rolls reduced to a weekly basis as shown in the census of retail and
wholesale distribution in 1929, the base year, or the year representing
100 percent.
The general merchandising weighting factor represents the total
number of employees in the general merchandising group of stores.
The weighting factor for retail trade other than general merchandis­
ing, includes all other retail trade with the exception of restaurants
and second-hand stores. The Bureau has no data for second-hand
stores and data for restaurants have been added too recently to be
included in the present series of indexes.
The Bureau is now engaged in the construction of weighted indexes
for retail and wholesale trade in which each of the major lines of trade
will be weighted according to its importance in the total. The com­
putation of these weighted indexes will require a considerable length
of time, and it will be a number of months before these more detailed
weighted indexes of wholesale and retail trade will be available. In
the meantime this temporary revision has been made in order to elim­
inate the bias which existed in the former series between 1929 and
1933.

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453

TREND OF EMPLOYMENT

Table 6.—Revised Indexes of Employment and Pay Rolls in Retail Trade, and
Wholesale Trade, January 1929 to November 1934
[12-m onth average, 1929 = 100]
T o ta l r e ta il tr a d e
P a y rolls

E m p loym en t
M onth

January__________
February_________
M arch ___________
A pril_____________
M a y _____________
J u n e___________ J u l y . . ____ ______
A ugu st___________
S ep tem b er_______
October________ _
N o v e m b e r __ _
D ecem ber________
A verage____

1929

1930

1931

1932

1933

1934

1929

1930

1931

1932

1933

1934

97.2
95.4
97.4
97.6
98.6
99.3
97.4
98.7
100.6
102.0
104.2
111.9

100.2
97.3
96.6
98.1
98.8
96.9
93.0
91.5
94.3
95.6
96.8
102.5

92.3
89.3
89.2
91.3
90.8
90.7
84.2
81.2
83.3
85.2
84.8
90.6

80.3
78.3
78.6
78.7
77.2
76.3
73.1
71.8
74.2
76.3
75.4
80.9

72.1
70.4
68.9
73.3
72.1
73.2
71.0
75.4
80.6
83.3
83.9
89. 1

79.8
79.6
81.5
82.5
82.9
82.6
79.0
77.8
81.7
82.6
83.7

95.9
95.1
97.3
97.2
98.2
99.8
98.8
99.2
101.7
103.2
103.3
109.7

99.8
97.7
97.0
97.9
99.4
97.9
92.8
89.4
91.5
92.6
92.4
95.4

88.1
86.4
86.8
87.5
86.8
86.7
81.3
77.9
78.3
78.9
78.3
80.4

71.9
69.1
68.5
67.7
65.5
62.7
59.2
56.9
58.3
59.7
58.6
60.4

54.7
51.8
49.0
52.0
51.3
52.2
51.0
54.9
58.7
61.6
61.4
64.0

59.0
58.8
59.8
61.2
61.5
61.4
60.1
58.4
60.6
61.9
61.8

100.0

96.8

87.7

76.8

76.1

i 81.2

100.0

95.3

83.1

63.2

55.2

i 60.4

71.1
68.9
71.5
74.0
74.5
73.9
69.5
66.9
74.0
77.3
79.8

R e ta il tr a d e —G e n e r a l m e r c h a n d is in g
January________ - 98.5
February_________ 94.5
M arch _________ . 96.1
A pril_____________ 95.5
M a y ________ ____
97.1
96.5
J u n e_____________
J u ly ______________ 92.2
A ugu st_________ - 91.5
Sep tem b er___ _
96.6
October________ _ 101.7
108.0
N o v em b er_____ D ecem ber________ 131.7

95.9
92.2
91.9
95.9
94.4
91.5
86.0
82.5
89.6
94.0
97.4
118.1

92.1
89.3
90.8
93.0
92.8
91.4
84.7
81.6
88.7
92. 1
94.1
116.2

84.8
81.2
82.6
82.7
82.1
80.3
74. 1
71.5
78.7
83.7
84.6
104.7

76.4
73.0
70.7
80. 7
78.5
79.9
74.7
78.4
98.0
93.6
97.0
118.9

86.6
85.0
90.1
91.0
92.0
90.6
83.0
81.2
91. 5
94. 2
100.2

100.0
97.2
98.5
94.8
95.8
96.7
96.1
92.9
97.4
101.7
105.0
123.9

95.8
92.7
92.3
94.9
93.8
93.4
87.7
83.7
89.0
92.6
94.6
108.5

90.3
87.1
88.0
■88.8
88.5
87.9
82.3
78.7
83.9
85.3
86.9
100.7

78.1
73.1
73.1
72.3
70.5
67.6
61.3
58.5
64.3
67.7
67.9
79.2

61.4
57.1
53.4
60.8
59.3
60.6
56.4
62.4
71.8
75.3
76.1
90.1

A verage____

94.1

92.2

82.6

84.2

i 89.6

100.0

93.3

87.4

69.5

65.4

i 72.9

56.5
56.7
57.4
58.5
58.8
58.8
58.2
56.6
57.8
58.7
58.1

100.0

—

R e ta il tr a d e —O th e r t h a n g e n e r a l m e r c h a n d is in g
January__________
F ebruary________
M arch..... .................
A pril____________
M a y . . . ....................
J u n e ........................
J u ly ---------- ------- A u g u st___________
S ep tem b er.. ___
October _ _______
N o v em b er_____
D ecem ber------------

96.9
95.6
97.7
98.1
99.0
100.0
98.7
100.6
101.6
102.1
103.2
106.7

101.3
98.7
97.8
98.7
100.0
98.3
94.8
93.8
95.5
96.0
96.7
98.4

92.4
89.3
88.8
90.9
90.3
90.5
84.1
81.1
81.9
83.4
82.3
83.9

79.1
77.6
77.5
77.6
75.9
75.2
72.8
71.9
73.0
74.3
73.0
74.6

71.0
69.7
68.4
71.3
70.4
71.5
70.0
74.6
78.4
80.6
80.4
81.3

78.0
78.2
79.3
80.3
80.5
80.5
77.9
76.9
79.1
79.5
79.4

95.1
94.7
97.1
97.7
98.7
100.5
99.4
100.5
102.6
103.5
103.0
106.8

100.6
98.7
98.0
98.5
100.6
98.8
93.8
90.6
92.0
92.6
92.0
92.7

87.7
86.2
86.5
87.2
86.5
86.4
81.1
77.7
77.2
77.6
76.5
76.2

70.6
68.3
67.5
66.7
64.5
61.7
58.8
56.6
57.1
58.1
56.7
56.5

53.3
50.7
48.1
50.2
49.7
50.5
49.9
53.4
56.0
58.8
58.3
58.6

A verage____

100.0

97.5

86.7

75.2

74.0

i 79.1

100.0

95.7

82.2

61.9

53.1

—

i 57.8

W h o le s a le tr a d e
January__________
F ebruary.................
M arch ___________
A pril_____________
M a y . - .......................
J u n e_____________
J u ly ______________
A ugu st- - -------- -Sep tem b er_______
October__________
N o v em b er...............
D ecem b er------------

97.7
96.9
97.3
97.9
99.0
99.2
100.4
101.3
101.9
102.9
102.9
102.6

100.0
98.4
97.6
97.1
96.6
96.2
95.7
94.6
94.4
93.7
92.1
91.5

88.9
87.6
86.7
86.7
86.3
86.3
85.9
85.6
85.1
84.2
83.1
82.6

80.7
79.7
78.6
77.6
76.6
75.6
75.2
74.9
75.6
76.2
76.0
75.4

73.6
72.4
71.3
71.5
72.2
73.9
75.1
77.9
80.3
81.7
81.6
81.5

80.6
81.2
81.8
82. 1
82.8
82.3
82.2
82.5
83.5
84.3
85.1

96.7
96.4
98.5
97.8
99.0
98.6
100.5
100.0
103.3
102.7
101.9
104.7

99.9
98.1
99.4
97.5
96.9
98.1
95.4
92.9
92.8
92.0
90.0
90.2

86.3
87.1
87.7
83.7
83.2
82.5
81.6
80.3
79.5
77.9
77.6
75.6

71.8
70.1
68.8
66.3
67.1
63.5
61.9
60.3
60.1
60.8
60.1
59.3

60.3
58.3
61.0
55.1
53.5
62.0
52.4
63.1
62.6
53.8
62.8
53.7
55.5
63.8
57.2
62.7
63.6
58.7
62.4
64.5
64.2
60.5
60.9 ...........

A verage........

100.0

95.7

85.8

76.8

76.1

i 82.6

100.0

95.3

81.9

64.2

56.8

1A verage for 11 m on ths.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

i 62.8

454

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

E m ploym ent in B u ild in g C on stru ction in N o v em b er 1934
T a b l e 7 is based on returns made by 10,772 firms engaged in public
and private building-construction projects not aided by Public Works
Administration funds. These reports include all trades, from exca­
vation through painting and interior decoration, which are engaged
in erecting, altering, or repairing buildings. Work on roads, bridges,
docks, etc., is omitted. The reports cover building operations in
various localities in 34 States and the District of Columbia.
For purposes of comparison in this study, all reports were reduced
to a 1-week basis if not originally so reported.
In November the average weekly earnings were $23.60 as compared
with $23.77 for October. These are per capita weekly earnings, com­
puted by dividing the total amount of the weekly pay roll by the total
number of employees—part time as well as full time.
The average hours per week per man—28.9 in November and 29.7
in October—were computed by dividing the number of man-hours by
the number of workers employed by those firms which reported man­
hours.
The average hourly earnings—81.9 cents in November and 80
in October—were computed by dividing the pay roll of those firms
which reported man-hours, by the number of man-hours.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

455

TREND OF EMPLOYMENT

Table 7.—Employment, Pay Rolls, Hours, and Earnings in the BuildingConstruction Industry, November 1934
[Figures in italics are not com piled b y th e Bureau of Labor S tatistics b u t are taken from reports issued
b y cooperating State bureaus]

Percentage change
from O c t o b e r
1934

Average
hourly
earnings 1

N ovem b er 1934

Percentage change
from O c t o b e r
1934

A verage
hours per
w eek per
m an 1
N u m b er N o v e m ­
ber 1934

Percentage change
from O c t o b e r
1934

A m ou n t N o v e m ­
ber 1934

a¡3

Percentage change
from O c t o b e r
1934

o
u
z

A verage
w eek ly
earnings

P a y rolls

A m ou n t N o v em ­
ber 1934

a
¿3

Percentage change
from O c t o b e r
1934

Locality

E m p loym en t

N u m b er N o v em ­
ber 1934

bfl
.s
»-4
o
a
Sh

C e n ts

A ll localities_____________ 10,772 85,761
Alabam a: B ir m in g h a m ...

87

California:
Los A n geles_________
San Francisco-Oakla n d ________ ____ _
Other localities______
T h e S ta te............... .

547 - 1 0 .5

9,822

$23.60

- 0 .7

28.9

- 2 .7

81.9 + 2 .4

- 8 .4

17.96

+ 2 .3

28.7

+ 1 .1

62.8 + 1 .1

1 ,0 9 6

- 2 .6

2 4 , 064

-6 .3

2 1 .9 6

- 3 .8

3 4 .3

+ 5 .9

6 3 .9

-9 .2

28
20

715
195

- 1 2 .8
+ 8 .3

1 7 ,0 6 4
4 ,0 3 9

- I 4 .8
+ .6

2 3 .8 7
2 0 .7 1

- 2 .2
- 7 .1

2 8 .1
2 6 .9

-.7
-4 -3

8 4 .9
7 7 .0

- 1 .6
- 2 .9

68 2 ,0 0 6

-5 .6

4 5 ,1 6 7

+ 3 .0

7 1 .7

- 6 .6

203

C onnecticut:
B ridgeport.....................
H artford------- -----------N e w H a v e n .................

612
109
257 1,114
148
884

T h e S ta te....... ...........

514 2, 610

- 9 .1

2 2 .5 2

- 3 .8

31.4

11,972 - 1 5 .1

22.09

- 3 .2

24.5 - 1 2 .2

89.4 + 9 .0

-.3
- 3 .0
0)

15,072
25,489
22,765

- 1 .6
- 7 .9
-.9

24. 63
22.88
25. 75

- 1 .2
- 5 .0
- .9

31.2
32.8
33.8

- 3 .1
-3 .0
-3 .2

79.5 + 1 .9
69.4 - 2 . 1
76.9 + 2 .8

- 1 .4

63,326

- 4 .0

24.26

- 2 .6

32.8

- 3 .0

74.2

21,389
126,844

-2 .4
- 7 .3

23.32 + 1 4 .2
27.83 - 2 . 7

33.1
31.7

+ 4 .4
-3 .4

70.5 + 9 .6
88.0 + 1 .0

542 - 1 2 .3

95
917 - 1 4 .5
378 4,557 - 4 . 8

Florida:
Jack sonville_________
M ia m i______________

-3 .0

20

Colorado: D en v er_______

Delaware: W ilm in g to n .. .
D istrict of C olu m bia-------

- 2 . 3 $2,023,807

+ .5

44
242
68 1,267

+ 7 .1
+ .8

4,001
27,136

+ 1 .1
+ 2 .9

16.53
21.42

-5 .6
+ 2 .1

28.0
30.6

- 6 .4
+ 2 .0

59.1
70.1

+ .9
+ .3

112 1,509

+ 1 .8

31,137

+ 2 .7

20.63

+ .9

30.2

+ .7

68.4

+ .3

Georgia: A tla n ta ______ _

129

840

+ .1

14,256

+ .9

16.97

+ .8

27.0

-.4

61.5

- .3

Illinois:
C hicago--------------------Other localities______

131
86

1 ,9 0 8
1 ,4 2 5

+ 5 .2
+ 3 .0

5 5 ,7 4 7
2 7 ,1 5 7

+ 5 .8
- 1 0 .3

2 9 .2 2
1 9 .0 6

+. 6
- 1 2 .9

0)
(4)

(4)
0)

(4)
(4)

(4)
(4)

217 3 ,3 3 3

+ 4 -8

8 2 ,9 0 4

(3)

2+ 87

-4 -2

_w _

(4)

(4)

(4)

20.90
21.62
24.37
21.78

- 2 .2
+ 5 .3
- 2 .0
+ 2 .9

27.8
32.3
31.6
31.1

- 9 .2
- 3 .0
+• à
+ 6 .1

75.2
67.0
77.2
70.3

-.1

30.7

- 2 .2

74.8 + 2 .2

26.6 - 1 2 .8
25.1
(2)
29.3 - 1 0 .4
28.4 - 5 . 6
28.4 - 8 . 1

85.5 + 1 6 .2
70.2 + . 4
66.0 - . 2
62.2 - . 8
73.9 - 3 . 5

T h e S ta te........... .......

T h e S tate...................
Indiana:
E v a n sv ille__________
Fort W ayn e-------------Indianapolis-------------South B en d -------- . . .

64
551 - 6 . 0
274 - 3 7 .3
78
148 1,160 - 5 . 1
192 - 2 . 5
36

11,515 - 8 . 1
5,924 - 3 4 .0
28,271 - 7 . 0
+ .3
4,181

T h e S ta te_________

326 2,177 - 1 0 .9

49,891 - 1 1 .0

22.92

90
425 - 2 4 .5
64
320 - 2 . 1
142
911 + 2 .0
112 1,024 + 6 .2
84
365 + 1 0 .9

9,595 - 2 4 .4
5,623 - 2 . 2
17,139 - 8 . 9
18,121
- .6
7, 651 - 1 . 9
+ .s
4 5 ,1 2 0

22.58
+ .2
-.1
17.57
18.81 - 1 0 .7
17.70 - 6 . 4
20.96 - 1 1 .6
2 0 .3 2

+ 1 0 .9

3 0 .0

+ 2 .0

6 7 .6

+ 8 .2

- 2 .5

2 4 . S3

- .6

2 9 .9

+ .3

8 1 .5

-.9

469 3, 679 + 1 1 .7
50
159 - 1 4 .1
382 - 1 1 .8
106

91,972 + 10.1
3,267 - 1 3 .5
6,902 - 1 4 .3

25.00
20.55
18.07

- 1 .4
+ .6
- 2 .9

30.7
28.6
29.1

(2)
+ 1 .1
- 6 .4

+ 7 .8

--- ----- ------

24.20

-.7

30.5

- .3

Iowa: D es M oines_______
Kansas: W ich ita________
K entu ck y: L ou isville-----Louisiana: N e w O rleans..
M aine: P ortlan d ------------M aryland: B altim ore-----M assachusetts: A ll localitie s ....................... ...............
M ichigan:
D etro it______________
F lin t________________
Grand R ap id s----------T h e S ta te_________

110 2 ,2 2 0

- 9 .6

694

- 1 .9

625 4,220

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

5 ,4 0 1

1 3 1 ,4 2 2

102,141

+ 7 .1

+ 7 .6
+ 8 .8
- 2 .4
-4 .2

81.6 - 1 . 2
71.8 - . 7
62.0 + 3 .5
79.5

- .1

456

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Table 7.—Employment, Pay Rolls, Hours, and Earnings in the BuildingConstruction Industry, November 1934—Continued
[Figures in italics are not com piled b y th e B ureau of Labor S tatistics b u t are taken from reports issued
b y cooperating State bureaus]

Percentage change
from O c t o b e r
1934

Average
hourly
earnings 1

N ovem ber 1934

Percentage change
from O c t o b e r
1934

N um ber N o v e m ­
ber 1934

Percentage change
from O c t o b e r
1934

a

3
£

A m oun t N o v em ­
ber 1934

<v
rd

Percentage change
from O c t o b e r
1934

a
cd
o

N um ber N o v e m ­
ber 1934

M
O
a
Locality

Average
hours per
w eek per
m an 1

Average
w eek ly
earnings

P a y rolls

Percentage change
from O c t o b e r
1934

E m p loym en t

A m oun t N o v em ­
ber 1934

tû
3

M innesota:
D u lu th --------------- . . .
M inn eap olis____ ____
St. P a u l_____________

46
146 - 8 . 7
205 1,297 - 1 9 .0
148
731 - 7 . 2

3,133 - 9 . 9
27, 823 - 1 9 .9
17,829 - 7 . 5

21.46
21.45
24.39

- 1 .2
- 1 .1
-.3

29.3
27.4
30.4

- 3 .9
- 2 .5
- 3 .8

73.0 + 2 .8
77.8 + 1 .8
80.1 + 3 .2

T h e S ta te........... .......

C e n ts

399 2,174 - 1 4 .7

48, 785 - 1 5 .2

22.44

-.5

28.6

- 2 .4

78.3 + 2 .5

M issouri:
K ansas C ity ! _______
St. L ou is____________

280 1,817
564 3,060

- .2
+ 8 .2

45,563
79,629

- .5
+ .6

25.08
26.02

-.3
- 7 .1

27.6
25.8

- 2 .5
- 6 .5

92.2 + 2 .9
100.7 - . 4

T h e S ta te_________

844 4,877

+ 4 .9

125,192

+ .2

25. 67

- 4 .5

26.4

826 + 1 8 .7

16,098

+ 4 .0

- 5 .4

97.5

+ .9

19.49 - 1 2 .4

26.7 - 1 2 .7

73.0

+ .4

+ 2 1 .9
- 1 2 .0

3 1 .0 6
2 2 .4 0

+ 6 .0
-1 4

2 7 .7
2 8 .1

-■ 4
-4 -4

1 1 2 .0
7 9 .7

(»)

4 9 8 ,0 6 6

+ 6 .1

2 7 .0 1

+ 3 .0

2 7 .9

- 2 .4

9 6 .8

+ 5 .7

6,086

- 3 .6

18.44

- 9 .4

27.5

-8 .6

67.1

- .9

7, 732 - 1 5 .2
39,217 - 1 0 .0
67, 747 - 7 .1
12, 370 - 9 . 9
11,281 - 3 . 3

21.30
22.33
25. 05
22. 33
23. 21

- 8 .9
- 9 .0
- 5 .5
+ 6 .2
- 5 .3

28.2
27.2
25.1
28.0
29.1

- 7 .8
- 6 .8
- 8 .7
-.7
- 3 .0

75.6
82.1
99.3
79.9
79.8

-1 .2
-2 .3
+ 3 .1
+ 7 .2
- 2 .3

-8 .4

23. 59

- 5 .5

26.5

- 7 .0

88.7 + 1 .3

15. 59
17. 83

- 9 .0
+ 3 .7

22.3 - 1 1 .9
27.7
-.7

69.2 + 3 .4
64.9 + 4 .0

N ebraska: O m aha.......... ..

160

N ew York:
N ew York C ity _____
Other localities______

553 9 ,8 2 2
357 8 ,6 1 8

+ 1 5 .0
- 8 .0

3 0 5 ,0 5 7
1 9 3 ,0 0 9

910 18, 44O

+ 8 .0

+ 6 .5

T h e S ta te_________
N orth Carolina: Charlo tte .................. ...................
Ohio:
A kron_______________
C in c in n a ti6_________
C levelan d ___________
D a y to n ______________
Y oun gstow n _________
T h e S ta te_________

47

330

96
363 - 6 . 9
418 1,756 - 1 . 2
598 2, 705 - 1 . 7
141
554 - 1 5 .2
88
486 + 2 .1
1,341 5,864

Oklahoma:
Oklahom a C ity ______
T u lsa________________

- 3 .1

138,347

90
54

355 - 1 8 .2
344
(2)

5,536 - 2 5 .6
6,132 + 3 .7

T h e S tate_________

144

699 - 1 0 .2

11, 668 - 1 2 .6

16. 69

- 2 .7

24.9

- 6 .0

66.8 + 3 .1

Oregon: P ortlan d .............

166

796 - 2 3 .4

16, 018 - 2 4 .6

20.12

- 1 .6

24.5

- 1 .2

82.4

Pennsylvania:?
Erie area........................
Philadelphia area........
P ittsb u rgh area______
R eading a r e a ...........
Scranton area_____ . .
Other areas__________
T h e S ta te_________
R hode Island: Providence.

n
381
W
31
m

- 1 2 .0
- 1 0 .7
- 1 2 .8
- 6 .1
- 6 .2

2 ,9 4 1
7 3 ,8 1 4
4 2 ,3 3 1
4 ,6 2 9
3 ,8 5 8
4 8 ,6 9 6

+. 8
- 1 3 .8
- 2 0 .5
- 1 8 .8
- I 4 .O
- 4 .9

1 3 .0 1
2 1 .7 0
2 5 .4 4
1 9 .9 5
2 0 .7 4
2 1 .8 2

- .2
- 2 .1
- 1 1 .0
-6 .9
-9 .4

1 6 .7
3 0 .1
2 6 .7
3 0 .2
2 8 .0
3 3 .4

- 1 5 .7
-2 .3
- 1 5 .8
-5 .9
-7 .6
+ .6

977

7 ,9 4 2

- 9 .7

1 7 6 ,2 6 9

- 1 3 .3

2 2 .1 9

- 4 .0

2 9 .9

-4 .8

242 1,543

-2 .0

34,681

- 4 .2

22.48

-

32.7

- .6

Tennessee:
C hattanooga_____ . . .
K n oxville____________
M em p h is____________
N a sh v ille_____ _____
T h e S t a t e . . .......... ..

31
36
68
74

150 + 2 .0
330 - 9 . 6
376 + 1. 1
893 + 1 4 .5

209 1,749

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

+. S

226
3 ,4 0 2
1 ,6 6 4
232
186
2 ,2 3 2

m

+ 5 .1

2 .2

-.7

7 5 .5 + 1 8 . 7
7 3 .3
-.7
9 6 .7 + 6 . 0
6 6 .1 - 1 . 0
7 5 .9
(2)
6 5 .6 + 1 . 4
7 6 .1

+ .7

68.8 - 1 . 9

2,616 + 2 2 .2
5,072 - 8 . 5
6,154 - 1 5 .3
15,181 + 1 1 .4

17.44 + 1 9 .8
15.37 + 1 .2
16.37 - 1 6 .2
17.00 - 2 . 6

28.9 + 2 1 .9
26.0 + 4 .4
22.3 - 1 8 .6
27.9
+ .7

60.9
59.2
72.8
60.9

29,023

16. 59

26.4

62.7 - 2 . 5

+ 1 .6

- 3 .4

-1 .1

+ 2 .5
- 2 .8
+ 2 .2
- 3 .5

457

TREND OF EMPLOYMENT
T a b le 7 .— E m p lo y m e n t, P a y R olls, H o u rs , a n d E a rn in g s in th e
C o n s tru c tio n I n d u s tr y , N o v e m b e r 1934— C o n tin u e d

B u ild in g -

[Figures in italics are not com piled b y th e Bureau of Labor Statistics but are taken from reports issued
b y cooperating State bureaus]

Texas:
D a lla s_________ _____
E l P aso_____________
H ou ston _____________
San A nton io_________

N ovem b er 1934

Average
hourly
earnings 1
Percentage change
from O c t o b e r
1934

Percentage change
from O c t o b e r
1934

Average
hours per
w eek per
m an 1
N u m b er N o v em ­
ber 1934

Percentage change
from O c t o b e r
1934

Average
w eek ly
earnings
A m o u n t N o v em ­
ber 1934

Percentage change
from O c t o b e r
1934

a
£

P a y rolls

A m o u n t N o v em ­
ber 1934

a
â
'o
u
o>

Percentage change
from O c t o b e r
1934

Locality

E m p loym en t

N u m b er N o v em ­
ber 1934

bJ3
.9
©
O,
(H

C e n ts

187
630 - 6 . 7
21
94 + 1 6 .0
-.3
181 1,168
324
-.6

10,837
1,539
21,991
4,800

477 2, 216

88

- 7 .4
+ 3 .4
-3 .0
+ 3 .4

17.20 - 0 . 8
16.37 - 1 0 .9
18.83 - 2 . 6
14.81 + 4 .0

26.2
24.2
28.3
23.5

- 2 .6
- 8 .3
-.4
- 3 .3

26.8

- 1 .8

+ 2 .3
- 3 .0
- 3 .5
+ 8 .5

66.0

- .3

- 1 .7

39,167

- 3 .3

17. 67

U tah: Salt Lake C ity ___

130

215 - 1 0 .8

4,906

+ 1 .2

22.82 + 1 3 .5

27.2 + 1 2 .9

83.9 + 2 .8

Virginia:
N orfolk-Portsm outh
R ich m on d ___ ____

68
115

335 - 6 . 7
851 - 1 2 .3

6,196 - 9 . 4
17, 792 - 1 8 .3

18.50
20.91

- 2 .9
- 6 .9

27.7
34.1

- 4 .5
+ 1 .8

66.8 + 1 .5
61.6 - 8 . 5

183 1,186 - 1 0 .8

23,988 - 1 6 .2

20. 23

- 6 .0

32.2

«

63.0 - 5 . 8

603 + 2 .2
168 - 2 . 3
229 + 1 9 .9

13,831 + 1 6 .0
4,078 - 2 . 2
4,293 + 1 0 .6

22.94 + 1 3 .6
24.27
+ .1
18. 75 - 7 . 7

+ 4 .9

22, 202 + 1 1 .2

22.20

+ 6 .0

186 - 3 4 .0

3,386 - 3 0 .7

18.20

+ 5 .0

T h e State

_______

T h e State ________
W ashington:
S eattle______________
Spokane_____________
T acom a_____________
T he S ta te,

..

W est Virginia: W h eelin g.
W isconsin: A ll lo c a lities..

156
49
81

286 1,000
55
152

1 ,7 9 4

- 7 .4

3 6 ,4 0 5

- 6 .6

2 0 .2 9

- 1 .7

65.9
67.6
66.5
63.5

+.8

24.0 + 1 3 .2
27.4 - 3 . 9
20.4 - 1 2 .4

95.4 + • i
88.6 + 4 .0
91.9 + 5 .4

23.8

+ 3 .9

93.4 + 2 .2

27.5

- 1 .4

66.5 + 6 .6

3 1 .6

- 3 .4

6 2 .6

+ 2 .3

1 A verages com puted from reports furnished b y 10,338 firms.
2 N o change.
3 Less than Ho of 1 percent decrease.
4 D a ta not available.
« Includes both K ansas C ity , M o., and K ansas C ity, K ans.
6 Includes C ovington and N ew port, K y .
2 E ach separate area includes from 2 to 8 counties.

E m p lo ym en t a n d P ay R olls in N o v e m b e r 1934 in C ities o f O ver
500,000 P o p u la tio n
F l u c t u a t i o n s in employment and pay-roll totals in November
1934 as compared with October 1934 in 13 cities of the United States
having a population of 500,000 or over are presented in table 8.
These changes are computed from reports received from identical
establishments in each of the months considered.
In addition to reports received from establishments in the several
industrial groups regularly covered in the survey of the Bureau,
excluding building construction, reports have also been secured from
other establishments in these cities for inclusion in these totals.
Information concerning employment in building construction is not
available for all cities at this time and therefore has not been included.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

458

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Table 8.—Fluctuations in Employment and Pay Rolls in October 1934 as
Compared With November 1934
N u m b er of
establish­
m en ts re­
porting in
both
m on ths

Cities

N ew York C ity _____
Chicago, 111---- -------P hiladelphia, P a ___
D etroit, M ic h 1. _____
Los A ngeles, C alif___
C leveland, O hio-------S t. L ouis, M o ..............
Baltim ore, M d ______
B oston, M ass________
P ittsburgh, P a ______
San Francisco, C alif.B uffalo, N . Y ......... .
M ilw auk ee, W is_____

16, 866
3, 975
2,880
1, 588
2,538
2,191
2,519
1,414
3, 700
1,527
1, 595
1,020
867

N u m b er on p a y roll

A m o u n t of p a y roll
(1 week)

October
1934

October
1934

Percent­
age
change
from
N ovem b er October
1934
1934
594,889
347,832
212,065
214,858
104, 493
121, 028
120,480
80, 416
157,016
120,444
65,808
59,803
64, 707

598, 782
355, 004
211, 570
213,842
105,170
123, 290
120, 506
81,992
157, 731
121,085
66, 689
60, 280
64, Q23

Percentage
change from
October
1934
N ovem b er
1934
1.0
- 3 .5
-.3
+ .9
-2 .8
-1 .8
- 2 .6
-1.7
- .6
- .7
- 1 .4
-1 .1
+ 1 .5

- 0 . 7 $15, 416, 688 $15, 267,409
8,158,180
- 2 .0
8,451,131
4,801,932
4,814,022
T. 2
5,074,161
5,029,833
+ .5
2,443,838
2, 513,147
- .6
2,666, 770
- 1 .8
2,716,109
2, 541,924
2, 475,119
- ( 2)
1, 582, 491
- 1 .9
1,609,390
3, 564,190
3, 543,523
- .5
2,522,132
2, 540, 641
- .5
1, 652,470
1, 630, 063
- 1 .3
1, 279,127
1, 293,601
- .8
1, 415, 770
1,395,333
+ 1 .1

-

1 Septem ber-O ctober data revised to 1,582 estab lish m en ts, 227,781 em ployees in Septem ber, 197,785 in
October, and a decrease of 13.2 percent; $4,930,556 in Septem ber, $4,610,527 in October, and a decrease of
6.5 percent.
2 L ess than Ho of 1 percent.

E m p lo ym en t on Class I Steam R a ilro a d s in th e U n ite d States
R e p o r t s of the Interstate Commerce Commission for class I rail­
roads show that the number of employees, exclusive of executives
and officials, decreased from 999,729 on October 15, 1934, to 966,819
on November 15, 1934, or 3.3 percent. Pay rolls decreased from
$127,411,527 in October 1934 to $117,962,289 in November 1934,
or 7.4 percent.
The monthly trend of employment from January 1923 to November
1934 on class I railroads—that is, all roads having operating revenues
of $1,000,000 or over—is shown by index numbers published in table
9. These index numbers, constructed by the Interstate Commerce
Commission, are based on the 3-year average 1923-25 as 100, and
cover all employees.
Table 9.—Indexes of Employment on Class I Steam Railroads in the United
States, January 1923 to November 1934
[3-year average, 1923-25=100]

1923

1924

1925

1926

1927

1928

1929

1930

1931

1932

1933

1934

98.4
January______________
F ebruary____________
98.6
M arch _______________ 100.4
A pril_____ _______ . 101.9
M a y _________________ 104.8
J u n e________ _______ 107.1
J u ly --------------------------- 108.2
A u gu st_______________ 109.2
S ep tem b er___________ 107.7
O ctober______________ 107.1
N o vem b er________ . . 105.0
D ecem b er____________ 99.1

96.7
96.9
97.3
98.8
99.1
97.9
98.0
98.9
99.6
100.7
98.9
96.0

95.5
95.3
95.1
96.5
97.7
98.5
99.3
99.5
99. 7
100.4
98.9
96.9

95.6
95.8
96.5
98.6
100.0
101.3
102.6
102.4
102.5
103.1
101.0
98.0

95.2
95.0
95.6
97.1
99. 1
100.7
100.7
99.2
98.8
98.5
95.5
91.7

89.1
88.7
89.7
91.5
94.4
95.8
95.4
95.5
95. 1
95.2
92.7
89.5

88.0
88.6
89.8
91.9
94.6
95.8
96.3
97.1
96.5
96.6
92.8
88.5

86.1
85.2
85.3
86.7
88.3
86.3
84.5
83.5
82.0
80.2
76.9
74.8

73.5
72.6
72.7
73.4
73.8
72.7
72.3
71.0
69.2
67.6
64.4
62.5

61.1
60.2
60.5
59.9
59.6
57.7
56.3
54.9
55.7
56.9
55.8
54.7

53.0
52.7
51.5
51.8
52.5
53.6
55.4
56.8
57.7
57.4
55.8
54.0

54.1
54.6
55.9
56.9
58.5
59.0
58.7
57.8
57.0
i 56.6
i 54.8

104.0

98.2

97.8

99.8

97.3

92.7

93.1

83.3

70.6

57.8

54.4

2 56. 7

M on th

A verage.......... .

1 Prelim inary.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2 A verage for 11 m onths.

459

TREND OF EMPLOYMENT

Table 10 shows the total number of employees by occupations on
the 15th day of October and November 1934, and by group totals on
the 15th day of December 1934; also pay-roll totals for the entire
months of October and November. Total compensation for the
month of December is not yet available. In these tabulations data
for the occupational group reported as “ executives, officials, and staff
assistants ” are omitted. Beginning in January 1933 the Interstate
Commerce Commission excluded reports of switching and terminal
companies from its monthly tabulations. The actual figures for the
months shown in table 10 therefore are not comparable with the totals
published for the months prior to January 1933. The index numbers
of employment for class I railroads shown in table 9 have been
adjusted to allow for this revision and furnish a monthly indicator of
the trend of employment from January 1923 to November 1934.
T a b le 10 . — E m p lo y m e n t on C lass I S te a m R a ilro a d s , O c to b e r to D e c e m b e r 1934,
a n d F a y R o lls fo r O c to b e r a n d N o v e m b e r 1934
[From m o n th ly reports of Interstate C om m erce C om m ission. A s d ata for on ly th e m ore im portant occupa­
tions are show n separately, th e group totals are not th e sum of th e item s under the respective groups.
E m p lo y m en t figures for D ecem ber 1934 are available b y group totals on ly at th is tim e]
N u m b er of em ployees at
m id d le of m onth

T otal earnings

Occupation
October N ovem - D ecem ­ October 1934 N ovem b er
1934
1934
ber 1934 ber 1934

All employees.............................................................. 999, 729

966,819

949,382 $127, 411, 527 $117,962, 289

Professional, clerical, and general.......... ............ .
Clerks....................- ___________ _____ _____
Stenographers and typists..................................
Maintenance of way and structures........................
Laborers, extra gang and work train ......... ......
Laborers, track and roadway section____ ____
Maintenance of equipment and stores.................. .
Carmen_________ _________ _____ _____ _
Electrical workers...____ ________________
Machinists......................................... ..................
Skilled-trades helpers....... ...................................
Laborers (shop, engine houses, power plants,
and stores)___ ________ ______ _____ ____
Common laborers (shop, engine houses, power
plants, and stores)___________ _____ _____
Transportation, other than train, engine, and yard.
Station agents.................... ........ .........................
Telegraphers, telephones, and towermen------Truckers (stations, warehouses, and platforms).
Crossings and bridge flagmen and gatemen___
Transportation, yardmaster, switch tenders, and
hostlers........ ............. ..............................................
Transportation, train and engine..............................
Road conductors....................... ...... ....................
Road brakemen and flagmen...... .......................
Yard brakemen and yard helpers......................
Road engineers and motormen_____________
Road firemen and helpers___ ________ _____

164,888
86,161
15, 460
217,939
23,100
108,092
269, 720
55,996
8, 573
37,472
59,368

164,267
85,667
15, 425
195, 217
14, 531
96,622
264,999
54, 295
8,556
37, 068
58,005

163,492

20,837
17,829
125,185
23, 766
14,727
18, 763
16,659
12, 259
209, 738
23,252
48, 501
35, 740
28, 340
31,046

12,206
206,426
22, 734
47, 365
35,489
27,793
30,543

23,360,725
11,640,416
1,948, 629
18, 791,163
1,372, 723
6, 770, 900
31, 634,304
7, 449,951
1, 247,930
5,150,358
5,816, 568

22,801,388
11,241,182
1,911,435
15,998,501
809,939
5,325, 045
29,568,021
6,804,001
1,169,325
4,821,141
5,353, 642

20, 580

1,658,091

1,586,536

17, 298
123, 704
23, 702
14,578
18, 253
16, 585

1,156,827
14,623,185
3, 521, 741
2,116,304
1,537, 202
1,133,565

1, 055,311
13,875,645
3, 377, 244
2,016,381
1,412,085
1,117,420

2,155,026
36,847,124
5, 232,196
7,200, 013
4,890, 663
7,020,092
5,074,943

2, 079,676
33,639,058
4, 762,465
6, 476,137
4, 531,671
6,370,267
4,596,479

180,951
266,034

124, 058

12,158
202, 689

E m p lo ym en t a n d P ay R olls in th e Federal Service, N o v e m b e r 1934
E m pl o y m en t in the executive departments of the Federal service
registered a gain of 505 employees as compared with October.
Comparing November 1934 with the corresponding month of the pre­
ceding year, there was a rise in employment of 20,696.
109041-35-— -14


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

460

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Information concerning employment in the executive departments
is collected by the Civil Service Commission from the various de­
partments and offices of the United States Government. The figures
are tabulated by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Employment data for the legislative, judicial, and military services
are collected and compiled by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Table 11 shows the number of employees in the executive depart­
ments of the Federal Government. Data for employees working in
the District of Columbia are shown separately. Approximately 13
percent of the employees in the executive departments are in the city
of Washington.
T a b le 11 . — E m p lo y e e s in th e E x e c u tiv e S erv ice o f th e U n ite d S ta te s , N o v e m b e r
1933 a n d O c to b e r 1934 a n d N o v e m b e r 1934
D istrict of C olum bia

O utside th e D istrict

E ntire service

Perm a­ T em p o­
T otal
rary i
n en t

Perm a­ T em p o­
T otal
nen t
rary 1

Item
Perm a­ T em p o
rary
nent

T otal

N um b er of em ployees:
7,301 73,131 464, 480 68, 038
N ovem b er 1933................
65,830
October 1934 ___________
84,891
8,431 93,322 502,157 88, 026
N ovem b er 1934_________
8,138
85, 689
93,827 502, 952 78,663
Gain or loss:
N ovem b er 1933 to N o ­
vem ber 1934__________ +19, 859
+837 + 20, 696 + 38, 472 + 10, 625
October 1934 to N o v em ­
ber 1934----------------------+798
-2 9 3
+505
+795 - 9 , 363
Percentage change:
N ovem b er 1933 to N o ­
vem ber 1934__________ +30.17 + 11.46 +28. 30 + 8 .2 8 +15. 62
October 1934 to N o v em ­
+ 0 . 94 - 3 .4 8
+ 0 . 46 + 0 .1 6 -1 0 .6 4
ber 1934______________
Labor turn-over, N ovem b er
1934:
2,488
3,484
996
6,335 17, 661
A d d ition s 2_____________
957
1, 543
2,500
Separations 2____________
5, 530 27,178
1.12
12. 02
21.19
Turn-over rate per 1 0 0 ...
2. 67
1.10

532, 518 530, 310
590,183 587, 048
581,615 588, 641

75, 339 605, 649
96,457 683, 505
86,801 675, 442

+49, 097 +58, 331 +11, 462 + 69, 793
- 8 , 568 + 1 , 593 - 9 ,6 5 6

- 8 , 063

+ 9 .2 2 + 1 1 .0 0 + 15. 21 +11. 52
-1 .4 5

+ 0 . 27 - 1 0 . 01

23, 996
32,708
4.10

8,823
6, 487
1.10

18, 657
28, 721
19.31

- 1 .1 8
27,480
35, 208
4. 04

1 N o t including field em ployees of the P ost Office D ep artm en t or 43,110 em ployees hired under letters of
authorization of th e A griculture D ep artm en t, w ith a p a y roll of $1,641,597.
2 N o t in clud in g em ployees transferred w ith in th e G overnm ent service, as such transfers should not be
regarded as labor turn-over.

Table 12 shows employment in the executive departments of the
United States Government by months, January to November 1934,
inclusive.
T a b le 12 . — E m p lo y m e n t in th e E x e c u tiv e D e p a r tm e n ts o f th e U n ite d S ta te s , by
M o n th s , 1934

M on th s

J anuary____________
February- ________
M arch _____ _____ A pril....................... .
M a y _______________
J u n e -. . __________


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

D istrict
of Co­
lum bia

O utside
D istrict
of Co­
lu m b ia

T otal

M on th s

78,045
79,913
81, 569
83,850
85,939
87,196

530, 094
531,839
541,990
560,258
573,147
573,898

608,139
611, 752
623,559
644,108
659, 086
661,094

J u ly _______________
A u g u st________ -S ep tem b er................
October, ..............
N o v em b er_______

D istrict
of Co­
lu m b ia

Outside
D istrict
of Co­
lu m b ia

87, 978
91, 065
92, 557
93,322
93,827

583, 531
585, 772
589, 280
590,183
581,615

T otal

671, 509
676,837
681,837
683, 505
675, 442

461

TREND OF EMPLOYMENT

Table 13 shows the number of employees and amounts of pay
rolls in the various branches of the United States Government
during October and November 1934.
T a b le 1 3 .—E m p lo y m e n t a n d P a y R o lls fo r th e U n ite d S ta te s G o v e rn m e n t,
O c to b e r a n d N o v e m b e r 1934
N u m b er of em ployees

A m oun t of p a y roll

Branch of service
N ovem b er

October

N ovem b er

October

______ ______ ___

953, 597

959, 541

$123,929,825

$123, 263, 417

E x ecu tiv e service--------------------------------------------M ilitary service_______________________________
Judicial service__________ ____________ _______
L egislative service____________________________

675,442
272, 572
1,885
3, 698

683,505
270, 490
1,846
3,700

100,715, 284
21,786, 447
451, 653
976,441

101,888, 573
19,945, 777
453, 217
975,850

T o ta l_________ ___ - ______

Table 14 shows the number of employees and amounts of pay
rolls for all branches of the United States Government by months,
December 1933 to November 1934, inclusive.
T a b le 1 4 .— E m p lo y m e n t a n d P a y R olls fo r th e U n ite d S ta te s G o v e rn m e n t,
D e c e m b e r 1933 to N o v e m b e r 1934
E xecutive service

M ilitary service

Judicial service

L egislative
service

M on th
N u m b er
of e m ­
ployees

A m oun t
of pay
roll

1933
D ecem b er........ ...................

608,670

$82, Oil, 601

263, 622 $17, 656,909

1, 872 $432, 435

3,864

$886, 781

1934
January________________
F ebruary__ ____________
M arch _________________
A pril________ _________
M a y ___________________
J u n e___________________
J u ly ....................................
A u g u st.-----------------------S e p te m b e r .,.................... O ctober________________
N o v em b er__ _
-

608,139
611,752
623, 559
644,108
659, 086
661, 094
671, 509
676, 837
681, 837
683, 505
675, 442

77,450, 498
83, 524, 296
84, 837, 493
85, 090, 283
89, 577,479
91, 540, 629
i 95,184,175
i 98,467, 579
99,152, 554
101, 888, 573
100,715, 284

262,942
263,464
266, 285
266,923
266, 864
267,038
268, 257
268, 712
269,489
270, 490
272, 572

1,780
1,742
1,854
1,904
1,913
1,881
1,750
1,690
1,777
1,846
1,885

3, 845
3,852
3,867
3,865
3,862
3,878
3,713
3, 723
3,721
3,700
3, 698

871, 753
926,363
928,368
926, 484
940, 666
944,758
978,908
977,966
976, 516
975,851
976,441

N u m b er
of em ­
ployees

A m oun t
of p ay
roll

18,499, 516
19, 532,832
19,050,158
18,816, 636
19, 216,150
19, 539, 020
20, 391,629
20, 501,900
20,855,093
19,945, 777
21,786,447

Number A m o u n t Number A m o u n t
of em ­ of p a y
of em ­ of pay
roll
ployees
ployees
roll

417, 000
430,843
443, 505
432, 401
442,896
439,170
434, 736
439,014
486,410
453,217
451,653

> R evised .

E m p lo ym en t C reated by P u b lic W o r\s A d m in is tr a tio n F u n d ,
N o vem b er 1934
N e a r l y 470,000 workers were provided with employment at the
site of Public Works Administration construction projects during the
month ending November 15, 1934. Monthly pay rolls for these
workers aggregated nearly $29,000,000. The aggregate number of
man-hours worked on Public Works Administration construction proj­
ects during the month ending November 15 totaled nearly 46,500,000.
Orders were placed during the month for material valued at over
$56,000,000. The hourly earnings of workers averaged 62 cents.
This construction is financed wholly or in part from P. W. A. funds.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

462

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

By Type of Project
T a b l e 15 shows, by type of project, employment, pay rolls, and
man-hours worked during the month of November 1 1934 on Federal
construction projects financed by the Public Works Administration
fund.
T a b le 1 5 .— E m p lo y m e n t a n d P a y R o lls on F e d e ra l P ro je c ts F in a n c e d
P u b lic W o rk s F u n d s , N o v e m b e r 1934

fro m

[Subject to revision]

N um b er
of wage
earners

T y p e of project

A m ou n t
of p ay
rolls

N um b er
of m an ­
hours
worked

A verage
earnings
per hour

V alue of
m aterial
orders
placed

A ll projects___________________________________

326,342 $19, 280,633

32,716, 504

$0. 589

$42, 208, 417

B u ild in g con stru ction ___ ________________ ___
P u b lic roads_______________ -- ________ _____
R iver, harbor, and flood con trol______________
Streets and roads 1____________________________
N a v a l vessels_________________________________
R eclam ation __________________________________
F orestry. ____ ______________________________
W ater and sew erage__________________________
M iscellan eou s. . ____________________________

22,335
180, 677
54,127
11,927
20,353
18,960
2,388
1,228
14,347

1,953,035
15,284,567
6,422,647
1,037,843
2,803,717
2,870,904
267, 206
82,809
1,993,776

.777
.499
.621
.518
.844
.617
.748
.667
.609

3,073,465
11,300,000
7,707, 258
528,155
2, 277,154
16,197, 363
118,827
110,467
895, 728

1, 517, 638
7, 630,484
3,989, 271
537, 200
2, 366,125
1,770, 745
199,831
55, 262
1, 214,077

1 Other than those reported b y th e B ureau of P u b lic R oads.

Federal projects are financed entirely by allotments made by the
Public Works Administration to the various departments and agencies
of the Federal Government. The construction work is done either
by commercial firms to whom contracts are awarded by the Federal
agencies or by day labor hired directly by such agencies.
Table 16 shows, by type of project, employment, pay rolls, and
man-hours worked during the month of November on non-Federal
construction projects financed from the Public Works Administration
fund.
T a b le 1 6 .— E m p lo y m e n t a n d P a y R o lls on N o n -F e d e ra l P ro je c ts F in a n c e d F ro m
P u b lic W o rk s F u n d s , N o v e m b e r 1934
[Subject to revision]

T y p e of project

N um b er
N u m b er of A verage
A m ou n t of
m an-hours earnings
of w age
p a y rolls
per hour
worked
earners

V alue of
m aterial
orders
placed

A ll projects______________ ____ ___________ ____

121,845

$7,906, 966

11,221,771

$0. 705

$13,629,781

B u ild in g con stru ction____________________ . .
Streets and r o a d s ..____ ______________________
W ater and sew erage__________________________
R ailroad con stru ction _________________________
M iscellaneous_____________________ ______ ___

43,681
20,007
36, 649
20, 425
1,083

3, 111, 490
1,025,998
2,154,978
1, 534, 516
79,984

3,544,078
1, 659,161
3,153,130
2,765,527
99,875

.878
.618
.683
.555
.801

6,438,204
2, 040,647
4,350,793
591, 609
208,528

1 W henever th e m on th of N ovem b er is spoken of in th is stu d y it is assum ed to m ean th e m on th ending
N ovem b er 15.


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TREND OF EMPLOYMENT

463

Non-Federal projects are financed by allotments made by the
Public Works Administration to a State, or political subdivisions
thereof, or in some cases to commercial firms. In the case of allot­
ments to States and their political subdivisions, the Public Works
Administration makes a direct grant of not more than 30 percent of
the total construction cost. The public agency to which the loan
is made finances the other 70 percent. In some instances the 70
percent is obtained as a loan from the Public Works Administration.
In others, the loan is obtained from outside sources. Where the
Public Works Administration makes a loan, it charges interest and
specifies the time in which the loan must be repaid in full.
No grants are made to commercial firms. Commercial allotments
consist entirely of loans. The large percentage of commercial allot­
ments have been made to railroads. Railroad work falls under
three headings: First, construction, such as electrification, laying of
rails and ties, repairs to buildings, etc.; second, building and repairing
of locomotives and passenger and freight cars in railroad shops;
third, the building of locomotives and passenger and freight cars in
commercial shops.
Data concerning employment created by railroad construction is
shown in table 16. Employment in railroad car and locomotive
shops is shown in table 19, page 464. Employment in commercial
car and locomotive shops is shown in table 20, page 465.
By Geographic Divisions
T a b l e 17 shows employment, pay rolls, and man-hours worked
during November 1934 on Federal construction projects financed
from the Public Works Administration fund, by geographic divisions.
T a b le 1 7 .— E m p lo y m e n t a n d P a y R o lls on F e d e ra l P ro je c ts F in a n c e d F ro m
P u b lic W o rk s F u n d s , N o v e m b e r 1934

[Subject to revision]
W age earners
Geographic division

N um b er Weeklyem ­
ployed average

A ll d iv is io n s 1........... ............................ .......

326,342

N ew E n g la n d _________ ______________
M id d le A tla n tic______________________
E a st N o rth C en tral______________ ___
W est N orth C entral________ _________
South A tla n tic ____ _____ ____________
E a st South C en tral____ _____________
W est South C entral__________________
M o u n ta in ........ ...................................... .......
P a cific......... ..................... ..................... .........
O utside con tin en tal U n ited S tates____

15, 306
35,811
40,449
58,414
48,831
38,123
34,710
30,419
17,860
6,226

A m ou n t of N u m b er of A verage
p ay rolls m an-hours earnings
per hour
worked

312,190 $19,280,633
14,950
34,878
38,558
56,339
46,305
36,927
33,334
28,599
16,668
5,439

1,169,328
2, 217,692
2,428,314
2,685,036
3,056, 207
2,148,082
1,496, 700
2, 345, 625
1,423,694
284, 387

32, 716,504
1,842,582
3, 552,503
3,568,079
4, 683,208
5,107,076
4,504,926
3,425,074
3,572,027
1,834,952
601,162

V alue of
m aterial
orders
placed

$0.589 1$42, 208, 417
.635
.624
.681
.573
.598
.477
.437
.657
.776
.473

901,128
2, 503,863
2,424,232
1,976, 294
2,562,484
15,295, 689
1,323,866
2,246,788
1,250, 781
389,116

1Includes data for 193 wage earners which cannot be charged to any specific geographic division.
J Includes $11,300,000, estimated value of material orders placed for public-road projects which cannot be
charged to any specific geographic division.

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464

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Table 18 shows employment, pay rolls, and man-hours worked
during November 1934 on non-Federal projects financed from the
Public Works Administration fund, by geographic divisions.
T a b le 18 . — E m p lo y m e n t a n d P a y R o lls on N o n -F e d e ra l P ro je c ts F in a n c e d F ro m
P u b lic W o rk s F u n d s , N o v e m b e r 1934
[Subject to revision]

W age earners
Geographic division

N um b er Weeklyem ­
average
ployed

N um b er of A verage
A m ou n t of m an-hours earnings
p ay rolls
worked
per hour

V alue of
m aterial
orders
placed

A ll d iv is io n s ..- _____________________

121,845

102,144

$7,906,966

11,221,771

$0. 705

$13,629, 781

N ew E n glan d ________ _____ _________
M idd le A tla n tic______________________
E ast N orth C en tral__________________
W est N orth C en tral__________________
South A tla n tic ____________ ______ ___
E ast South C entral__________________
W est South C entral__________________
M ou n tain —. ________________________
Pacific_______________________________
O utside con tin en tal U n ited S tates____

17, 764
19,312
16,146
15, 547
26, 981
6,710
6,610
3,490
9,048
237

14, 600
16, 627
13,172
12, 759
23, 773
5, 762
5, 257
2,706
7, 274
214

1,149,865
1, 541,908
1,150, 976
871,971
1,852,161
349,755
296,916
185,858
496,910
10, 646

1, 702, 756
1, 848, 204
1, 362, 479
1,155, 265
3,106, 245
596,817
497,463
264,463
668, 635
19,444

.675
.834
.845
.755
.596
.586
.597
.703
.743
.548

1, 987, 835
2, 907, 207
2, 220, 479
2,116,819
1,835,651
506, 363
788,791
429, 087
825,892
11,657

Table 19 shows employment, pay rolls, and man-hours worked in
railway car and locomotive shops operated by railroads on work
financed from the Public Works Administration fund during Novem­
ber 1934, by geographic divisions.
T a b le 19 . — E m p lo y m e n t a n d P a y R olls in R a ilro a d S h o p s on W o rk F in a n c e d
F ro m P u b lic W o rk s F u n d s , N o v e m b e r 1934
[Subject to revision]

Geographic division

N um b er
of wage
earners

N um b er of Average
A m oun t of
man-hours earnings
p ay rolls
worked
per hour

V alue of
m aterial
orders
placed

A ll d ivision s__________________________________

15,323

$916,150

1,446,959

$0. 633

$435,301

N ew E n glan d ________________________________
M idd le A tla n tic______________________________
E ast N orth C entral___________________________
W est N orth C entral__________________________
South A tla n tic _______________________________
E ast South C entral___________________________
W est South C entral..................... ......... ............... ..
M ou n tain ___ ______________ _________________
Pacific________________________________________

482
3,713
2, 449
1,175
839
1,360
1,690
778
2,837

61,276
192,822
199,132
85,132
53,689
68,086
87,048
27,924
141,041

92,418
297,004
306,061
137, 402
89,458
114,902
143,124
44,902
221, 688

.663
.649
.651
.620
.600
.593
.608
.622
.636

25,918
45,138
29,154
6,862
273,445
5, 247
18,348
6,419
24,770

In the Middle Atlantic States there were over 3,700 railway-shop
workers and in the Pacific States more than 2,800 such employees
who were paid from the Public Works Administration fund. Work
in these railway shops provided jobs for more than 15,000 people who
were paid nearly $1,500,000 for their month’s work, at the rate of
63 cents per hour. In only one division, the East South Central,
did the earnings average less than 60 cents per hour.

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465

TREND OF EMPLOYMENT

Table 20 shows employment, pay rolls, and man-hours worked in
commercial car and locomotive shops on contracts financed from the
Public Works Administration fund during November 1934, by
geographic divisions.
T a b le 2 0 .— E m p lo y m e n t a n d P a y R o lls in C o m m e rc ia l C a r a n d L o c o m o tiv e
S h o p s on W o rk s F in a n c e d F ro m P u b lic W o rk s F u n d s , N o v e m b e r 1934
[Subject to revision]
N um b er of A m oun t of N um b er of
man-hours
wage
p ay rolls
worked
earners

Geographic division

A verage
earnings
per hour

________ ______________________________

6,364

$727,683

1,108,961

$0. 645

N ew E ngland ___________ ___ __ ____________________
M idd le A tla n tic ______________________________________
E ast N orth Central
_ _ __________________________
______ _________________ ___
W est N orth Central
South A t la n t ic ________________ _____________________

572
3,905
1,336
494
57

54,986
480,234
149,107
37,492
5,864

90,890
723,112
209,595
76,335
9,029

.605
.664
.711
.491
.649

A ll divisions

Outside car and locomotive builders are rapidly finishing work on
the orders which they have received from railroads to be paid for
from P. W. A. funds. However, there were still more than 6,000
workers employed during November whose hourly earnings average
6 4 cents.
T a b le 2 1 .— E m p lo y m e n t a n d P a y R o lls, A u g u st 1933 to N o v e m b e r 1934, on
P ro je c ts F in a n c e d F ro m P u b lic W o rk s F u n d s
[Subject to revision]

M on th

N um b er of
wage earners

A ugust 1933 to N ovem b er 1934______

A m ount of
p ay rolls

N um b er of
man-hours
worked

Average
earnings
per hour

V alue of m a­
terial orders
placed

$319,480, 208

561, 580, 271

$0. 569

$612,494,512

1933
A u g u st. ___________________________
Septem ber_________________________
O ctober_________ _________________
N ovem b er______ . . . . ------------- . . .
D ecem b er_______ _ . . . ----------------

4, 699
33, 836
121,403
254, 784
270,408

280, 040
1, 961, 496
7, 325,313
14, 458, 364
15, 424, 700

539,454
3,920, 009
14, 636,603
27, 862, 280
29,866, 249

.519
.500
.500
.519
.516

202,100
1, 622, 365
1 22, 513, 767
24,299, 055
24,850,188

1934
January____________________________
February______________ _____ _
...
M arch------ --------------------------------------A pril_______________________ ______
M a y _________________ _____ _______
June______ ____________ . ------------J u lv ________________________________
A ugu st__________ _______ __________
Septem ber__________________________
October ---------- ---------------------------N ovem b er_________ ______ _________

273, 583
295, 741
292,696
371,234
491,166
592, 057
624, 286
602, 581
549,910
507, 799
469, 874

14, 574,960
15, 246,423
15,636, 545
17, 907, 842
25, 076,908
32, 783, 533
33,829, 858
35,142, 770
31, 720,317
29,280, 240
28,831,432

27, 658, 591
28,938,177
29,171, 634
31,559,966
44,912,412
58, 335,119
59, 436, 314
59,943, 328
51, 699, 495
46, 617, 616
46,494,195

.527
.527
.536
.567
.558
.562
.569
.586
.614
.628
.620

23, 522,929
24, 565, 004
2 69, 334,408
2 66,659,362
2 49, 720, 378
2 57, 589,895
2 49,299,174
2 46,961, 648
2 44, 487, 057
2 50,593, 683
56,273,499

1 Includes orders placed for n aval vessels prior to October 1933.
* Includes orders placed b y railroads for new equipm ent.

Purchase orders have been placed for materials valued at over
$612,000,000 from the inception of the Public Works Administration
program up to November 15, 1934. It is estimated that the manu­
facture of these materials will create 1,600,000 man-months of labor.

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466

M O N TH LY L A B O R R E V IE W — F E B R U A R Y

1935

This accounts only for labor in the fabrication of material in the form
in which it is to be used. For example, only labor in manufacturing
brick is included, not the labor in taking the clay from the pits or
in transporting the clay and other materials used in the brick plant.
In fabricating steel rails only labor in the rolling mill is counted, not
labor created in mining and smelting the ore, nor labor in the blast
furnaces, the open-hearth furnaces, nor the blooming mills.
Table 21 shows employment, pay rolls, and man-hours worked by
employees from the inception of the Public Works program in August
1933 to November 1934, inclusive. (See p. 465.)
From the beginning of the Public Works program to November
1934 nearly $320,000,000 was disbursed for pay rolls. This construc­
tion work has provided at the site of the projects more than 560,000,000
man-hours of labor. Earnings per hour averaged 57 cents over the
16-month period.
E m ergency W o r \ Relief P ro g ra m
D u r i n g the week ending November 29 there were 1,402,000 people
on the pay rolls of the emergency work program of the Federal Relief
Administration. This is a decrease of 28,000 as compared with the
last week in October.
Table 22 shows the number of employees and amounts of pay rolls
for workers on the emergency work program for weeks ending No­
vember 29 and October 25.
T a b le 2 2 .— E m p lo y m e n t a n d P a y R o lls fo r W o rk ers on E m e rg e n c y W o rk R e lie f
P ro g ra m
[Subject to revision]
N um b er of em ployees
w eek ending—

A m oun t of p ay roll

Geographic division
N o v . 29

Oct. 25

N o v . 29

Oct. 25

N ew E n glan d _________________________________
M idd le A tlan tic_______________ ____ ____ ____
E ast N orth C en tral___________________________
W est N orth C entral—_____ ________ ____ - .........
South A tlan tic.......................... _................................. .
E ast South C en tral___________________________
W est South C entral-............................................ .......
M o u n ta in ......................... .......... ......... ................... ..
Pacific..... ................................. ....................................... .

115, 211
249, 585
220, 860
204,697
175, 029
83, 022
172, 730
50,913
129,992

119,411
211, 796
238, 209
258, 620
188,496
81,442
168,287
58,605
105, 808

$1, 242, 616
3, 579, 279
2, 224, 403
1, 715, 493
1,136,148
421, 472
1,142,188
535, 642
1, 318,926

$1,369,669
3, 458,329
2, 357,145
2,088, 821
1, 242, 007
440,939
1,176,869
647,223
1,114, 546

T otal ________________________________ _
Percentage change____________________________

1, 402, 039
—2.0

1,430, 674

13,316,167
—4.2

13,895, 548

Table 23 shows the number of employees and amounts of pay
rolls for workers on the emergency work relief program by months,
from the inception of the work in March 1934 to November 1934,
inclusive.
There were nearly 2,000,000 workers carried on the rolls of the
emergency work program. This does not mean, however, that as
many as that were working at any given time. Because of the fact


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467

T R E N D O F E M PL O Y M E N T

that a limit is placed on the earnings of employees, not more than 60
percent of this number were working during any given week. For
example, during the week ending November 29, 1,402,000 workers
were employed.
T a b le 2 3 .— E m p lo y m e n t a n d P a y R olls fo r W o rk ers on E m e rg e n c y W o rk R e lie f
P ro g ra m , b y M o n th s , 1934
N um b er of A m oun t of
em p lo y ees1
pay roll

M onth

M arch___________________
A pril___________________ _
M a y _____________________
J u n e_____ ____ _ ______
J u ly ---------------------------------

22,934
1,176, 818
1, 341, 853
1,478, 200
1,706,455

$842, 000
38,953, 678
42, 214, 039
42,221,757
47, 244,553

N um b er of A m oun t of
em p lo y ees1 pay roll

M on th

1,908,993
1.949, 267
1.950. 000
2,150,000

A ugu st_________________
Septem ber_____________
October_______ ________
N ovem b er______________

$54,792. 488
50,110, 074
51, 000, 000
64,000,000

1 W age earners show n in this report represent th e num ber th at worked an y part of m onth. T h ese em ­
ployees are allow ed to work each m onth till a certain specified m axim um is earned then are replaced
b y other workers taken from th e relief rolls.

E m ergency C o n serva tio n W o r \
D u r i n g the month ending November 30 there were over 387,000
men engaged in Civilian Conservation work. These men drew over
$16,600,000 for their month’s pay. In addition to their pay, the
enrolled personnel receives free board, clothing, and medical
attention.
Table 24 shows employment and pay rolls for emergency conserva­
tion work during the months of October and November 1934, by
type of work.
T a b le 2 4 .— E m p lo y m e n t a n d P a y R o lls in th e E m e rg e n c y C o n s e rv a tio n W o rk ,
N o v e m b e r a n d O c to b e r 1934
N u m b er of em ployees

A m o u n t of p a y rolls

Group
N ovem b er

October

N ovem ber

October

A ll groups_____________________________________

387,329

391,894

$16,622,110

$16,939,595

Enrolled personnel----------------- ------------------- -----R eserve officers......... ................. ...................................
E ducational advisers________ _____ - .................
Supervisory and te c h n ic a l1___________________

348,583
6,191
1,111
3 31,444

349,624
6,235
1,101
3 34,934

10,886,247
1,545,883
178,177
4,011,803

10,918,755
1,558,522
176,609
4,285,709

1 Includes carpenters, electricians, and laborers.
3 Includes 28,432 em ployees, and $3,680,902 pay roll in the executive service table.
3 Includes 29,417 em ployees, and $3,765,920 pay roll in th e executive service table.

The number of workers in Civilian Conservation Camps decreased
4,500 as compared wdth October. Information concerning employ­
ment and pay rolls for emergency conservation work is collected by
the Bureau of Labor Statistics from the War Department, Depart­
ment of Agriculture, Treasury Department, and the Department of
the Interior. The pay of the enrolled personnel is figured as follows:
5 percent are paid $45 per month; 8 percent, $36 per month; and the
remaining 87 percent, $30 per month.

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468

M O N TH LY L A B O R R E V IE W — F E B R U A R Y

1935

Table 25 shows employment and pay rolls in emergency conserva­
tion work from the beginning of the program in May 1933 to Novem­
ber 1934, inclusive.
Table

2 5 .—Monthly

Totals of Employees and Pay Rolls in the Emergency
Conservation Work, May 1933 to November 1934
N um b er
of em ­
ployees

M onth

A m oun t of
p ay roll

N um b er
of em ­
ployees

M onth

A m oun t of
p a y roll

1934—C ontinued

1933
M a y ___________________
Ju ne____________________
J u ly -------------------- ------A u gu st............ .....................
Septem ber__________ . . .
October _______________
N ovem b er______________
D e c e m b e r .._____ ______

191,380
283,481
316,109
307,100
242, 968
294,861
344,273
321, 701

$6,388, 760
9,876, 780
11,482,262
11,604, 401
9, 759,628
12,311,033
14, 554,695
12,951,042

1934
January____ ___________
February_______________

331, 594
321,829

13, 581, 506
13,081,393

____
M arch ___ . . .
A p ril. ____________ ____
M a y ____________________
June .................. ........... ......
J u ly ____________________
A ugust ________________
Septem ber_______ ______
O ctober______ ________
N ovem b er______________

247, 591
314,664
335,871
280, 271
389,104
385,340
335,785
391,894
387,329

$10, 792,319
13, 214,018
14,047, 512
12, 641,401
16,032,734
16,363,826
15,022,969
16,939, 595
16,622,110

During the 19-month period that the Civilian Conservation Camps
has been in operation, more than $247,000,000 was disbursed for
pay rolls.
E m p lo ym en t on State R o a d Projects
T h e r e were over 225,000 men building and maintaining State
roads during the month of November. Of this number, 29.3 percent
were engaged in building new roads and 70.7 percent in maintaining
existing roads. The number employed during November decreased
approximately 15,000 as compared with the previous month.
T a b le 2 6 .— E m p lo y m e n t fo r C o n s tru c tio n a n d M a in te n a n c e o f S ta te R o a d s, by
G e o g ra p h ic D iv isio n «
N ew

Geographic d ivision

N um b er of
em ployees
N o­
vem ber

N ew E n glan d ____________ 18,048
5,089
M idd le A tla n tic_________
E ast N orth C en tral............. 12,531
W est N orth C entral______ 6,073
South A tla n tic ..............
10, 345
E ast South C entral______
3,096
W est South C entral______
4,193
M ou n tain ________________
3,436
P acific___________________
3,295
T otal, continental U nited
S tates__________________ 66,106
Percentage change ______
-6 .9
Outside continental U n it­
ed S t a te s ............................
0
Grand to ta l................ 66,106

M aintenance
A m oun t of
pay rolls

N um b er of
em ployees

Octo­
ber

N o v em ­
ber

October

N o v em ­
ber

20,926
6,601
12,963
7,625
9,118
2,452
5,515
2,887
2,921

$828,955
346,929
702,420
149, 746
216,172
153,463
157,102
198, 704
182,388

$764,476
393,366
655,935
263,424
177, 265
105, 777
244, 678
159,485
170, 050

8,059
42,890
25,477
19,067
28,905
10, 780
10,310
7,404
6,485

71,008

2,935,879 2,934,456
+ .05

0

0

71,008

2,935,879 2, 934,456

A m oun t of
pay rolls

Octo­ N o v em b er
October
ber
6,405
55,479
23, 217
18,067
29,917
11,010
10, 599
8,435
6, 032

$649,196
2,172,043
1,457,065
1,111,935
1,334,848
410, 391
760,348
468,043
613,587

$509,935
2,890,043
1,531, 652
987,239
1, 294,370
373,152
754,826
592,978
563, 217

159,451 169,161
- 5 .7

8,977,456
- 5 .5

9,497,412

74

74

6,348

7,870

159,525 169, 235

8,983,804

9,505, 282

1 E xcluding em p loym ent furnished b y projects financed from public-w orks fund.


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469

TREN D OF EMPLOYM ENT

Table 26 shows the number of employees engaged in building and
maintaining State roads during the months of October and November
1934, by geographic divisions.
Table 27 shows the number of employees engaged in the construc­
tion and maintenance of State roads, for the months January to
November 1934, inclusive.
T a b le 2 7 .— E m p lo y m e n t on C o n s tru c tio n a n d M a in te n a n c e o f S ta te R o ad s»
N um b er of em ployees working
on—

N um b er of em ployees w orking
on—
M on th

M on th
N ew
roads
January___________
February......... .........
M arch ____________
A pril______________
M a y . . - ......................
June____ _________

M ain ­
tenance

25,345
22,311
19,985
21, 510
27,161
37,642

N ew
roads

T otal

161,785
149,215
152,129
157, 548
194,435
208, 521

136,440
126,904
132,144
136,038
167,274
170,879

J u ly ____ _________
A u gu st____________
Septem ber....... .........
October......................
N ovem b er________

M a in ­
tenance

45,478
53,540
61,865
71, 008
66,106

168,428
180, 270
188,323
169,161
159,451

T otal

213,906
233,810
250,188
240,169
225, 557

1 E xcluding em p loym ent furnished b y projects financed from the public-w orks fund.

E m p lo ym en t on C o n stru c tio n Projects F inanced by th e R econstruct
tio n F in a nce C orporation, T'lovember 1934
D u r i n g the month ending November 15, more than 16,500 people
were employed by contractors working on construction projects
financed by loans made by the Self-Liquidating Division of the
Reconstruction Finance Corporation.
Table 28 shows employment, pay rolls, and man-hours worked on
construction projects financed by the Reconstruction Finance Cor­
poration, by type of project.
T a b le 2 8 .— E m p lo y m e n t a n d P a y R o lls fo r P ro je c ts F in a n c e d b y th e R e c o n s tru c ­
tio n F in a n c e C o rp o ra tio n D u rin g N o v e m b e r 1934, b y T y p e o f P ro je c t
[Subject to revision]

T y p e of project

N um b er of A m oun t of N u m b er of
man-hours
wage
p ay rolls
worked
earners

A verage
earnings
per hour

V alue of
m aterial
orders
placed

A ll projects_______________________________

16, 502

$1,621,468

2,233,928

$0. 726

$2,856,371

Railroad construction______________ _____
B u ild ing con stru ction ____________________
Bridges _____________ _________________
R eclam ation ___________________________
W ater and sew age----------- ------------------------M iscellaneous____________________________

26
1,941
5,709
2,504
4,975
1,347

2,123
163,320
465,852
152,799
692,641
144,733

3, 516
152,093
560,391
316,248
992,273
209,407

.604
1.074
.831
.483
.698
.691

1,854
122,949
1,874, 688
83,595
398,576
374,709

Table 29 shows employment, pay rolls, and man-hours worked on
contracts financed by the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, by
geographic divisions.

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470

M O N T H L Y L A B O R R E V IE W — F E B R U A R Y

1935

T a b le 2 9 .— E m p lo y m e n t a n d P a y R o lls fo r P ro je c ts F in a n c e d b y th e R e c o n s tru c ­
tio n F in a n c e C o rp o ra tio n D u rin g N o v e m b e r 1934, b y G e o g ra p h ic D iv isio n
[Subject to revision]

N um b er of
A m oun t of N um b er of
wage
p ay rolls m an-hours
earners
worked

Geographic d ivision

A verage
earnings
per hour

V alue of
m aterial
orders
placed

A ll d ivision s.................... ................. ................... .

16, 502

$1,621,468

2,233,928

$0. 726

$2,856,371

N ew E n g la n d ................................ ................... .
M id d le A tla n tic -..................................................
E ast N orth C entral_____________ _______ _
W est N orth C entral____________ ________ _
South A tla n tic......... ............. ......................... ..
E ast South C entral_______ _______________
W est South C en tral................. ............ .............
M o u n ta in _____________ _______ __________
Pacific.............................. .........................................

0
2,941
314
32
172
36
864
2,506
9, 637

0
268,585
38,240
786
4,932
1,791
72,684
152,932
1,081,518

0
269,872
36,328
1,040
14,843
3,737
95,771
316,359
1,495,978

0
.995
1.053
.756
.332
.479
.759
.483
.723

0
1,057,416
11, 506
14,890
10,341
1,854
53,010
83,595
1, 623,759

More than one-half of these workers were employed in the three
Pacific States. Hourly earnings ranged from 33 cents in the South
Atlantic States to $1.05 in the East North Central States.
Table 30 shows data concerning employment, pay rolls, and man­
hours worked during the months, April to November, inclusive, on
construction projects financed by the Reconstruction Finance
Corporation.
T a b le 30 . — E m p lo y m e n t a n d P a y R o lls fo r P ro je c ts F in a n c e d b y th e R e c o n s tru c ­
tio n F in a n c e C o rp o ra tio n , A p ril T h ro u g h N o v e m b e r 1934
[Subject to revision]

Month

April___________ ____________________
May________________________________
June_______
_____ __
..............
July___ ______ _________ _____
August___________________ ___ _____ September_____________
October_____ _____ _____
November..... .......................................... .

Number of Amount of Number of
wage
pay rolls man-hours
earners
worked
18,638
19,274
19,218
17,760
17,149
17,088
17,482
16,502

$1,518,479
1,636,503
1,743,318
1,624,924
1,688,012
1, 648,618
1,596,996
1,621,468

2,302,739
2,334,060
2,412,342
2,183,560
2,286,286
2,231,069
2,181,846
2,233,928

Average
earnings
per hour
$0.659
.701
.723
.744
.738
.739
.732
.726

Value of
material
orders
placed
$2,297,479
2,120,498
2,189,538
2,332,554
2,303,516
2,500,638
2,274,174
2,856,371

The value of material orders, placed by contractors working on
Reconstruction Finance Corporation construction projects, amounted
to $18,877,408 from March 15 to November 15, 1934.
E m p lo ym en t on C o n stru c tio n P rojects F in a n ced f r o m R e g u la r
G o v e rn m e n ta l A p p r o p r ia tio n s
T h e r e were more than 18,000 employees working on construction
projects financed from governmental appropriations made by the Con­
gress direct to the various executive departments.
November pay rolls for these employees amounted to over $1,000,000. Their hourly earnings averaged 60 cents. The number of


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

TREND OF EMPLOYMENT

471

workers shown above includes only employees working on contracts
awarded since July 1, 1934.
Whenever a contract is awarded by a Government department, the
Bureau of Labor Statistics is immediately notified on post-card form
of the name and address of the contractor. Schedules are then mailed
to the contractor, who returns his report to the Bureau showing the
number of men on his pay rolls, the amount of the pay rolls, the
number of man-hours worked, and the value of orders placed for each
of the different kinds of materials he has purchased.
The following tables show information concerning such work on
construction projects on which work started since July 1. The
Bureau has no data for projects that were under way previous to
July 1, 1934.
Table 31 shows employment, pay rolls, and man-hours worked on
construction projects started subsequent to July 1, 1934, financed
from direct appropriations to the various Government agencies.
Table 31.—Employment and Pay Rolls for Construction Projects Financed
From Regular Governmental Appropriations for November 1934, by Type
of Projects
[Subject to revision]

N um b er of A m oun t of N um b er of
man-hours
w age
p ay roll
worked
earners

T y p e of project

V alue of
m aterial
orders
placed

Average
earnings
per hour

A ll projects_______________________________

18, 211

$1,014,945

1,690,488

$0.600

$3,334,648

B u ild ing construction____________________
P u b lic r o a d s _____ ___ ___________________
R iver, harbor, and flood control_________ Streets and roads_________________ ______ _
N a v a l v essels_____________________________
F o restry .- ________________ ____ _________
W ater and sew age________________________
M iscellaneous____________________________

5,181
4,023
6,930
903
639
6
177
352

306,484
235,776
365,253
34, 680
48,802
107
5,980
17,863

407,540
410, 661
716, 507
62,684
52,561
167
10,793
29, 575

.752
.574
.510
.553
.928
.641
.554
.604

384,123
291,289
342,140
58,159
2,216,575
92
10,665
31,605

Table 33.—Employment and Pay Rolls for Construction Projects Financed from
Regular Governmental Appropriations for November 1934, by Geographic
Divisions
[Subject to revision]

Geographic division

N um b er of
N um b er of
A m oun t of man-hours
w age
p ay rolls
worked
earners

V alue of
m aterial
orders
placed

A verage
earnings
per hour

A ll d iv isio n s______________________________

18, 211

$1,014,945

1,690,488

$0. 600

N e w E ngland ___________________________
M id d le A tla n tic ..- .................- ................... ..
E a st N orth C entral______________________
W est N orth C entral______________________
South A tla n tic__ ___________________ ____
E ast South C e n tr a l____________ ________
W est South C e n tr a l.. ___________________
M o u n ta in ___ _____ _______________ ______
Pacific— ________________________________
O utside continental U n ited S tates________

722
1,352
2[ 928
930
2,131
2, 658
4,015
1,222
1,515
' 738

48, 201
90,786
158,915
42,360
117, Oil
126,990
222,948
78,363
92,987
36,384

66,061
141,480
223,546
76, 513
181,680
265, 214
423,010
120,399
123,293
69,292

.730
.642
.711
.554
.644
.479
.527
.651
.754
.525

1

$3, 334,648
127,620
2,090, 571
76,010
33, 003
207,023
63,248
289,294
28,467
104,852
23,271

1 Includes $291,289 estim ated valu e of orders placed for p u b lic road projects w hich cannot be charged to
an y specific geographic divisions.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

472

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Table 32 shows for the month of November employment, pay rolls,
and man-hours worked on construction projects started since July 1,
which are financed from regular governmental appropriations, by
geographic divisions. (See p. 471.)
Table 33 shows for the months August to November inclusive,
employment, pay rolls, and man-hours worked on construction proj­
ects starting since July 1, which are financed from direct governmental
appropriations.
Table 33.—Employment and Pay Rolls for Construction Projects Financed From
Regular Governmental Appropriations Through November 1934
[Subject to revision]

M on th

A ugust _________________________________
Septem ber
_ ________________________
O ctober__________________________________
N ovem b er________________________________

N um ber
of wage
earners

5,601
9,800
13, 593
18, 211

N u m b er of
A m oun t of man-hours
p a y rolls
worked

$329,440
493,363
689,604
1,014,945

557,747
773,685
1,103,523
1, 690,488

Average
earnings
per hour

$0. 591
.638
.625
.600

V alue of
material
orders
placed
$150, 506
842, 292
982,835
3,334,648

Purchase orders were placed during the month ending November 15
for materials to cost over $3,300,000. More than two-thirds of this
amount was accounted for by structural and reinforcing steel orders.
Total material orders to date on this program aggregated over
$5,000,000.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

RETAIL PRICES
R e t a il P ric e s o f F o o d , D e c e m b e r 1934
URING December 1934 retail prices of food in the larger cities
of the United States decreased six-tenths of 1 percent. The
index (1913 = 100) as computed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics
fell from 114.9 for November 20 to 114.3 for December 18.
The decrease was largely due to a drop in the price of eggs. Price
advances for lamb find hens steadied the index for the meats group,
although most beef and pork items continued to decline. The trend
in prices of fresh fruit continued downward. Cabbage and onions
showed seasonal advances. Other vegetables remained practically
unchanged. The price trend for butter, fats, and oils was upward.
A further decrease in the price of sugar was recorded.
Retail prices of 78 foods are received from 51 of the larger cities
of the United States. Index numbers are for 42 foods purchased
by wage earners.
The weighted average of prices from these cities is continued in
this report as an approximation to a United States average, but will
be designated hereafter by the more precise term “ 51 cities com­
bined ”, instead of “ United States.”
The 42 foods included in the index are grouped as follows:
Cereals.—White bread, flour, corn meal, corn flakes, rolled oats,
wheat cereal, macaroni, and rice.
Meats.—Sirloin steak, round steak, rib roast, chuck roast, plate
beef, pork chops, sliced bacon, sliced ham, leg of lamb, and hens.
Dairy products.—Fresh milk, evaporated milk, butter, and cheese.
Eggs.
Fruits and vegetables.—Bananas, oranges, prunes, raisins, navy
beans, beans with pork, cabbage, canned corn, onions, canned peas,
white potatoes, and canned tomatoes.
Miscellaneous foods.—Canned red salmon, oleomargarine, vegetable
lard substitute, coffee, lard, sugar, and tea.

D


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

473

474

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Table 1.—Indexes of the Average Retail Cost of 42 Foods in 51 Large Cities
Combined, by Commodity Groups
December and November 1934 and December 1933
Percentage change D ec. 18,
1934, com pared w ith —

Ind ex (1913=100)
A rticle

1934

1933

1934

D ec. 18 D ec. 4 N o v . 20 N o v . 6 D ec. 19 D ec. 5
A ll foods___________
Cereals_________
M eats__________
D airy p rod u cts.
E ggs----------------F ruits and vegetab les________
M is c e lla n e o u s
foods..................

- 0 .3

- 0 .6

98.7
101.7

- 0 .4
+ 0 .3
- 7 .0

115.6

+ 0 .2

-0 .5

-1 .6

- 1 3 .4

87.1

+ 0 .2

+ 0 .5

+ 0 .5

+ 1 1 .9

120.1

114.9
150.9

108.4
116.2

107.6
113.9

103.9
142.0
100.4
94.7
93.0

105.5
142.5

108.8
108.1

120.6 122.6

103.6

103.4

104.2

105.3

119.6

96.7

96.4

96.4

96.9

115.3
152.1

D ec. 4 N o v .20 N o v . 6 D ec. 19

+ 0 .2
+ 0 .3
- 5 .8

114.6
150.9
119.9
108.5
114.8

114.3
150.9

1933

101.2

86.6

0.0

0.0

- 0 .9
-0 .8
- 2 .0
+ 1 .1
- 5 .1

+ 9 .9
+ 6 .3
+ 1 9 .6
+ 1 4 .8
+ 1 6 .2

Recent changes in the prices of 34 staple foods are indicated in the
relative prices shown in table 2.
Table 2.—Relative Retail Prices of 34 Staple Foods in 51 Large Cities Combined
December and November 1934, and December 1933
[1913 = 100]
1934

1933

Article
D ec. 18
Cereals:
Bread, w h ite_________________________
Corn m ea l___________________________
Flour, w heat, w h ite__________________
R ice
__________________________
M eats:
Beef:
Sirloin steak _____________________
Knuri ri s t e a k __________________ _
R ib roast________________________
P late _ _________________________
Chuck roast___________________ Lam b, leg of_________________________
Pork:
C h o p s __________________________
Bacon, sliced_____________________
H am , sliced______________________
R oasting chickens____________ _______
D a iry products:
B u tter _________________________ - ___
C h e e s e ______________________________
Adilk, fresh___________________________
RggS
__________________________________
F ru its and vegetables:
B an an as_____________________________
Oranges______________________________
Prunes _____________________________
R a is in s ______________________________
C abbage_____________________________
O n io n s ______________________________
P o ta to es_____________________________
B eans, n a v y _________________________
Beans w ith p ork _____________________
Corn, can n ed ________________________
Peas, can n ed _________________________
T om atoes, can n ed ____________________
M iscellaneous foods:
Coffee _______ - ____________________
Lard, p ure___________________________
S itgar, granulated____________________
T e a __________________________________


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

D ec. 4

N o v . 20

N ov. 6

D ec. 19

D ec. 5

148.2
160.0
154.5
93.1

148.2
160.0
154.5
94.3

148.2
160.0
154.5
94.3

150.0
160.0
154.5
95.4

141.1
133.3
142.4
80.5

141.1
133.3
145.5
80.5

123.2
122.9
115.2
95.0
105.6
124.9

124.0
123.3
115.7
94.2
105.6
123.8

123.6
124.2
116.7
94.2
106.3
123.3

126.4
126.5
117.2
95.9
108.1
124.3

109.4
108.5
100.5
80.2
92.5
109.5

111.0
109.0
102.5
81.0
93.8
111.1

115.7
123.7
146.5
115.0

113.8
123.3
146.1
114.6

116.2
123.3
148.0
114.6

120.5
124.4
149.8
114.6

94.3
85.6
116.7
93.4

93.8
85.6
117.8
93.0

92.4
109.0
131.5
108.1

91.6
108.6
131.5
114.8

91.6
108.1
131.5
116.2

89.6
107.7
131.5
113.9

62.9
100.9
125.8
93.0

73.1
103.6
125.8
101.7

145.8
96.0
t 97.4
Ì 91.5
121.7
170.8
100.0
107.0
70.4
105.3

147.1
101.0
97.4
91.5
113.0
166.7
100.0
108.8
70.4
105.3

149.0
111.7
97.4
91.5
113.0
162.5
100.0
110.5
70.4
104.3

152.3
124.7
98.3
91.5
113.0
158.3
100.0
112.3
70.4
104.3

101.2

101.2

101.2

101.2

162.1
86.0
91.5
85.8
187.0
158.3
135.3
103.5
[69.4
‘ 92.6
95.6
96.3

160.1
88.7
91.5
87.7
169.6
145.8
129.4
103.5
70.4
93.6
95.6
95.1

93.6
98.7
100.0
133.8

94.0
96.2
101.8
133.3

94.0
95.6
101.8
132.5

94.6
93.0
103.6
132.9

88.6
59.5
100.0
124.3

88.9
60.8
101.8
123.0

I

121.1

121.1

121.1

121.1

RETAIL PRICES

475

The Bureau receives biweekly prices for 78 articles of food. Aver­
age prices of these foods in 51 of the larger cities of the United States
are shown in table 3.
Table 3.—Average Retail Prices of 78 Foods in 51 Large Cities Combined
December and November 1934, and December 1933
1934

1933

A rticle

Cereal foods:
Flour, w heat, w h ite .. ........ —.p o u n d —
Corn m eal___________ .................. d o___
R olled oats__________ —.......... . .d o —
Corn flakes_________ -8-oz. p ack age..
W heat cereal.............. .. 28-oz. p ack age..
R ice_________________ — ........ .p o u n d ..
M acaroni______ _____ —...............d o----B akery products:
Bread, w hite, w h eat——..............d o ___
Bread, rye...................... .............. —d o____
Bread, w hole w h e a t.. — .............d o ___
Cake, p ou n d .................. .................. d o___
Beef:
Sirloin steak ................... .................. d o----R oun d steak _________ .................. d o----R ib ro ast........................ .................. d o___
C huck roast................... .............. . . d o ___
P la te........... ............ ....... -------------- d o___
Lamb:
L eg.............. ..................... -------------- d o___
R ib chops____________ — .............d o___
B r e a s t .................... ....... .................. d o___
C huck or shoulder----- .................. d o----Pork:
C hop s_______________ .................. d o___
L oin roast....................... ...................d o___
B acon, sliced ................. _________ d o___
H am , sliced .................... -------------- d o___
H am , w h ole_________ ...................d o ___
H am , picnic, sm ok ed . .......... ....... d o ___
Salt p ork ......................... ...................d o___
Veal:
C u tle ts ........................... ____ ____ d o___
Poultry:
R oasting chickens___ .................. d o___
Fish:
Salm on, canned, pin k . ____16-oz. c a n ..
Salm on, canned, red—.................. d o----D airy products:
B u tter_________ _____ _______ p o u n d ..
C heese............................. ...................do___
M ilk , fresh____ _____ ________ q u a r t..
M ilk , evaporated____ —-14H-oz. c a n ..
C rea m ....................... .. —........ Y i p in t ..
Fats and oils:
Lard, pure.................. — .......... ..p o u n d ..
Lard, com p ou nd _____ - .................d o___
V egetable lard s u b s titu te ............d o___
Oleom argarine_______ .................. d o___
E g g s........... ....................... .. ................ d o zen ..
F ruits, fresh:
A pp les_____________ _ ...............p o u n d ..
B ananas____________ ..............’d o zen ..
L em ons........................... .................. d o ___
Oranges......... ................. ..................d o —
Vegetables, fresh:
Beans, green_________ _______ p o u n d ..
Cabbage________ ____ ...................d o___
C arrots____ _____ ___ ............ .b u n c h ..
C elery______________ ..... ............ s ta lk ..
L ettu ce_____________ _________ h e a d ..
O nions............................. ............ .p o u n d —
P otatoes_____________ ...................d o----Sw eetpotatoes............... .................. d o___
Spinach_____________ .................. d o___
109041—35------15


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

D ec. 18

D ec. 4

N o v . 20

N ov. 6

D ec. 19

D ec. 5

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

5.1
4.8
7.4
8.5
24.3
8.1
15.8

5.1
4.8
7.3
8.4
24.3
8.2
15.8

5.1
4.8
7.3
8.4
24.3
8.2
15.8

5.1
4.8
7.3
8.4
24.3
8.3
15.9

4.7
4 .0
6.6
8.9
24.1
7.0
15.8

4. 8
4 .0
6.6
8.9
24.0
7. 0
15.8

8.3
8.9
9.0
22.8

8.3
8.9
9.0
22.7

8.3
8.9
9.0
22.7

8.4
8.9
9 .0
22.7

7.9
8 .6

7. 9
8 .6

31.3
27.4
22.8
16.9
11.5

31.5
27.5
22.9
16.9
11.4

31.4
27.7
23.1
17.0
11.4

32.1
28.2
23.2
17.3
11.6

27.8
24.2
19.9
14.8
9.7

28.2
24.3
20.3
15.0
9.8

23.6
30.8
10.3
17.6

23.4
30.3
10.2
17.4

23.3
30.4
10.1
17.4

23.5
30.7
10.3
17.6

20.7

21.0

24.3
19.7
33.4
39.4
23.1
15.7
22.3

23.9
19.3
33.3
39.3
23.2
15.8
21.9

24.4
19.8
33.3
39.8
23.3
15.9
21.9

25.3
20.7
33.6
40.3
23.8
16.2
21.8

31.0

31.2

31.1

31.9

24.5

24.4

24.4

24.4

13.4
21.2

13.5
21.3

13.6
21.2

13.6
21.3

35.4
24.1
11.7
6.7
14.2

35.1
24.0
11.7
6.7
14.3

35.1
23.9
11.7
6.7
14.3

34.3
23.8
11.7
6.7
14.2

15.6
13.9
19.8
16.0
37.3

15.2
13.3
19.6
15.6
39.6

15.1
13.0
19.6
15.5
40.1

14.7
12.8
19.4
15.3
39.3

5.9
22.3
27.2
28.8

5.7
22.5
27.5
30.3

5.7
22.8
27.5
33.5

5. 7
23.3
28.4
37.4

14.3
2.8
5.8
9.5
9.3
4.1
1.7
4.4
8.9

11.0
2.6
5.3
9.1
8.8
4.0
1.7
4.2
7.0

12.7
2.6
5.0
8.8
8.1
3.9
1.7
3.8
6.7

10.9
2.6
4.9
8.3
8.1
3.8
1.7
3.7
6.6

19.8

19.7

23.1
31.3

23.1
31.7

19.9

19.8

20.8

20.8

24.1
22.3
11.2
6.8

28.0
22.9
11.2
6.8

9.4

9.6

19.0
12.5
32.1

19.0
12.6
35.1

24.8

24.5

25.8

26.6

4.3

3.9

3.8
2.3

3.5
2.2

476

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

Table 3.—Average Retail Prices of 78 Foods in 51 Large Cities Combined—Con.
December and November 1934, and December 1933
1933

1934
A rticle

Fruits, canned:
P each es. ____________ ...n o . 2 > 2 c a n ..
Pears________________ ................ _do____
P in e a p p le ..
— __ .................. do___
V egetables,* canned:
Asparagus
no. 2 can
do__
Corn________________ _________ d o___
______ d o ___
P eas______ __________
T o m a to e s... ________ _________ d o ___
Pork and b ean s______ ___ 16-oz. c a n ..
F ruits, dried:
Peaches
. p o u n d ..
Prunes______________ _________ d o----R aisin s________ ______ _________ d o___
Vegetables, dried:
Black-eyed peas
d o __
T i i m a hp.ans
__ d o___
N a v y beans................... ...............-_do___
Sugar and sw eets:
Sugar, granulated........ .................. d o ___
. 24-oz. c a n ..
Corn sirup
M olasses
18-oz. can .
Beverages:
C offee____ __________ ............ p o u n d ...
•T ea_________________ _________ d o ___
M iscellaneous foods:
__ d o___
Peanut, butter
Salt, table
________ d o ___
Soup, tom ato
1 0 }4 -o z . can
T om ato in ip.a
IJU^-oz. nan

D ec. 18

D ec. 4

N o v . 20

N ov. 6

D ec. 19

D ec. 5

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

17.4
20.4

17.4
20.5

24.5
11.9
12.3
17.3
10.4
6.9

10.9
13.6
9.9
6.8

11.0
13.6
9.8
6.9

16.0
11.4
9.7

15.9
11.5
9.7

10.7
9.1

10.7
9.3

8.0
9.9
6.2

7.9
9.9
6.3

8 .2
9.9
6.4

5.9

5.9

6.5
13.3
13.9

5.6
13.2
13.8

5.6
13.2
13.9

5.7
13.1
13.9

5.5

5.6

27.9
72.8

28.0
72.5

28.0
72.1

28.0
72.3

26.4
67.6

26.5
66.9

17.9
4.3
8.2
8.6

17.8
4.3
8.1
8.5

17.6
4.3
8.1
8.5

17.4
4.3
8.1
8.6

19.3
22.6
22.6

19.3
22.7
22.6

19.4
22.5
22.6

19.3
22.5
22.7

24.7
11.9
12.4
17.3
10.4
6.9

24.6
11.9
12.4
17.3
10.4
6.9

24.6
11.9
12.3
17.3
10.4
6.9

16.1
11.4
9.7

16.1
11.4
9.7

8.0
9.9
6.1

Food prices decreased from November 20 to December 18, 1934, in
29 of the 51 cities reporting to the Bureau. For four cities there was
no change. Eighteen cities showed slight increases.
These 51 cities have been grouped into five regional areas as follows:
North Atlantic.—Boston, Bridgeport, Buffalo, Fall River, Man­
chester, Newark, New Haven, New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh,
Portland (Maine), Providence, Rochester, and Scranton.
South Atlantic.—Atlanta, Baltimore, Charleston, Jacksonville,
Norfolk, Richmond, Savannah, and Washington (D. C.).
North Central.— Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus, Detroit,
Indianapolis, Kansas City, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Omaha, Peoria,
St. Louis, St. Paul, and Springfield (111.).
South Central.-—Birmingham, Dallas, Houston, Little Rock, Louis­
ville, Memphis, Mobile, and New Orleans.
Western.-—Butte, Denver, Los Angeles, Portland (Oreg.), Salt Lake
City, San Francisco, and Seattle.
Table 4 presents index numbers for 39 cities and percentage of price
changes for all of the 51 cities for specified periods in 1934 and 1933


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

477

RETAIL PRICES
Table 4 . — Indexes of the Average Retail Cost of 42 Foods, by Cities
December and November 1934, and December 1933
•

Percentage change D ec.
18, 1934, com pared
w ith —

Index (1913 = 100)
C ity

D ec. 18 D ec. 4 N o v . 20 N o v . 6 D ec. 19 D ec. 5
61 cities co m b in ed .- - ____
North A tla n tic area:
B oston __ _____________
Bridgeport
Buffalo- - _____________
Fall R i v e r _____ _____
M a n ch ester. __________
N ew a rk ________________
N e w H a v e n ___________
N ew Y ork______________
P h iladelp h ia____________
Pittsb u rgh _ ___________
Portland, M aine
Provid en ce____ ________
R ochester
S cran ton . ______ ______
South A tla n tic area:
A tla n ta ________________
B altim ore
__ ______
Charleston, S. C ________
J a c k s o n v ille ___ ____ _
Norfolk
R ich m on d — ________ —
Savannah
W ashington, D . C -- N orth C entral area:
C hicago________________
C in cin n ati______________
C levelan d ______________

M e m p h is
M o b ile

N ew Orleans___________
W estern area:
B u tte
D en ver _______________
Los A ngeles . _________
Portland, Oreg_________
Salt Lake C ity _________
San Francisco__________
S ea ttle .________________


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

D ee. 4 N o v . 20 D ec. 19

114.3

114.6

114.9

115.3

103.9

105.5

- 0 .3

- 0 .6

+ 9 .9

111.1

112.4

113.7

115.4

103.6

106.2

118.2
111.3
113.9
115.4
116.0
119.8
118.7
115.0

117.6
112.1
114.0
116.1
120.2
121.0
118.4
114.9

118.1
114.1
116.1
116.0
121.0
120.8
118.7
115.2

118.6
113.8
117.6
116.4
120.5
120.9
119.0
114.8

108.4
103.1
105.1
105.4
110.2
110.6
108.2
102.1

110.0
104.5
106.7
106.7
110.1
113.7
110.7
104.7

112.8

114.4

116.4

116.3

105.8

107.8

117.3

117.4

116.4

116.9

112.0

113.9

- 1 .2
- .7
+ .6
- .7
0
- .6
-3 .5
- 1 .0
+ .2
0
0
- 1 .3
- .4
- .1

-2 .3
-2 .0
+ .1
- 2 .5
- 1 .9
- .5
- 4 .1
-.8
0
- .2
- 2 .3
-3 .0
- .6
+ .8

+ 7 .2
- 8 .4
+ 9 .1
+ 7 .9
+ 8 .4
+ 9 .6
+ 5 .2
+ 8 .3
+ 9 .7
+ 1 2 .6
+8. 1
+ 6 .6
+ 9 .4
+ 4 .8

114.1
121.3
114.6
109.4

114.0
121.8
114.5
108.2

113.2
122.5
115.2
108.2

113.0
122.2
114.7
107.5

102.4
109.5
109.3
97.8

101.3
111.6
107.8
99.4

+ .1
- .4

120.4

120.6

120.4

120.4

109.0

110.0

+ .8
-1 .0
- .5
+ 1 .0
0
+ .1
0
- 1 .0

+ 1 1 .4
+ 1 0 .8
+ 4 .9
+ 1 1 .9
+ 1 0 .6
+ 1 0 .5
+ 1 0 .6
+ 1 1 .4

+ .2
+ .2
- 1 .4
- .5
-.9
+ 4 .0
+ .3
- 1 .2

+ 8 .4
+ 1 4 .2
+8D
+ 1 1 .2
+ 9 .2
+ 9 .8
+ 1 4 .3
+ 1 3 .8
+ 1 0 .0
+ 1 3 .0
+ 5 .1
+ 1 2 .3
+ 9 .5
+ 1 2 .5

122.9

121.9

124. Ï

124.4

110.3

112.4

117.1
115.7
109.6

117.7
115.4
110.1

116.9
115.5
111.2

117.0
115.1
111.7

108.0
101.3
100.7

109.4
105.0
101.9

112.6
107.6
114.5
118.3
115.2
111.6

113.8
108.6
115.7
118.6
116.4
111.0

113.6
103.4
114.2
119.7
115.4
111.2

114.4
103.5
115.8
119.2
115.1
110.9

103.1
98.0
100.3
103.9
104.7
98.8

104.5
99.6
102.3
106.1
106.6
99.8

117.6

118.3

118.5

118.1

104.7

107.4

114.4
115.3

115.2
113.3

113.6
114.4

114.8
113.6

102.3
103.2

103.3
105.6

107.7
113.2
109.2

106.4
112.3
108.9

107.0
113.1
108.9

107.9
113.0
109.1

98.0
99.5
98.7

95.5
100.1
98.7

115.7

116.0

116.3

117.2

104.3

111.4
105.3
104.2
100.9
118.1
111.5

111.2
105.8
106.1
102.7
119.1
112.5

111.0
106.5
107.6
103.0
121.1
113.1

111.3
107.5
106.9
103.0
121.4
112.7

97.0
94.9
92.8
89.1
106.3
100.0

f io lm n b iL S

D etro it__ ______________
In d ia n a p o lis ___________
K ansas C ity , M o _______
M ilw a u k e e .. __________
M in n e a p o lis ___________
O m aha_________________
Peoria
St. L ou is_______________
St. Paul
Springfield
South Central area:
B irm ingham ____________
D a lla s__________________
H ouston
L ittle R ock _____________
L o u isv ille______________

1933

1934

1933

1934

+ 1 .1
- .3
-.1
-. 1
+ .8
- .5
+ .2
-.5
-.1
- 1 .1
-.9
- 1 .0
-.3
- 1 .1
+ .5
-4 .2
- .6
- 1 .0
+ .6

- .2

+ .4
- 4 .3
-.8
- .7
+ 1 .0

105.0

- .7
+ 1 .7
-. 1
+ 1 .1
+ .8
+ .3
+ .5
-.3

+ 1 .2
+ .6
.0
+ .3
+ .7
-.5

+ 1 1 .9
+ 1 1 .7
+ 14.6
+ 9 .8
+ 1 3 .8
+ 1 0 .7
+ 1 0 .4
+11. 0

98.9
98.1
94.1
91.5
109.4
101.9

-.6
+ .2
- .5
- 1 .8
- 1 .8
- .8
-.9

- 1 .1
+ .4
- 1 .2
- 3 .1
- 2 .0
- 2 .4
- 1 .4

+ 1 7 .4
+ 1 4 .7
+ 1 1 .0
+ 12.3
+ 13.2
+ 11.2
+ 11.5

+ .7

478

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW--- FEBRUARY 19 3 5

Table 5 shows average retail prices of 41 articles of food for Hono­
lulu and other localities in Hawaii on October 1, November 1, and
December 1, 1934.
Table 5.—Average Retail Prices of 41 Foods in Hawaii
October, November, and December 1934
Other localities

H on olu lu
A rticle
Oct. 1
Sirloin steak _____________ _______ p o u n d ..
R oun d s te a k ... -------------- ...................d o ___
R ib roast............................ . .................. d o-----C huck roast_______ _____ ...................d o ----P la te b eef. -------- ------------ ____ ____ d o ___
Pork ch op s............................. .................. d o ___
B acon, slic ed ____________ .................. d o ----H am , slic ed _________ . . . . .................. d o ----L a m b . _________________ _________ d o ----H ens____________ _______ _________ d o----Salm on, red, canned_____ ____ 16-oz. c a n ..
M ilk , fresh______________ ________ q u a r t..
M ilk , evaporated________ . . 14J^-oz. c a n ..
B u tter________ ____ _____ .......... . „ p ou n d ..
C heese__________________ _________ d o ----Lard . . . ----------------- ................ . d o -----V egetable lard sub stitu te _________ d o ----Eggs, strictly fr e s h ............ ..............d o z e n ..
Bread, w hite, w h e a t____ _______ p o u n d ..
F lour_____________ _____ .................. d o ___
Corn m eal________ ______ .................. d o ----R olled o a ts______ ______ _________ d o ___
Corn flakes ----------------- —8-oz. p a ck a g e..
W heat cereal____________ ,28-oz. p a ck a g e..
M acaroni.............................. ...............p o u n d ._
R ice------------------------------- .............. .. d o ----B eans, n a v y ........................ ____ ____ d o ----P otatoes................................ .................... d o___
O n io n s ................................ .................... d o ___
Cabbage________________ __________ d o ----Pork and b ean s_________ ____ 16-oz. c a n ..
Corn, canned------ ------------ _____ no. 2 c a n ..
Peas, can n ed ___________ .................... d o ----T om atoes, c a n n e d ............ .................... d o-----Sugar, gran u lated ........... .. ................p o u n d ..
T ea _____ ____ __________ .................... d o----C offee__________________ .................... d o ___
P r u n e s ............ ..................... __________ d o ----R a isin s................................... _____ ____ d o----B a n a n a s..____ _________ __________ d o-----Oranges_________________ ________ d o z e n ..


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

33.0
26.9
26.3
17.6
14.9
28.7
40.2
49.1
30.7
30.3
20.9
19.0
7.0
35.3
26.3
18.0
21.6
51.5
10.3
5.5
8.7
11.0
12.2
27.1
18.0
5.2
8.9
2.9
3.8
5.1
6.4
15.8
16.3
13.4
5.5
83.8
31.7
12.0
10.0
3.9
39.9

N ov. 1
32.1
26.9
26.6
17.1
15.0
28.7
39.3
51.4
30.4
30.7
20.7
19.0
7.0
36.3
26.8
19.0
21.8
53.7
10.3
5.6
8.9
11.1
12.4
27.1
18.0
5.3
8.9
2.9
3.7
5.3
6.7
15.8
16.1
13.9
5.5
85.3
30.2
11.3
10.2
3.8
42.9

D ec. 1
31.4
26.9
25.4
17.6
15.0
30.1
39.3
50.6
29.0
30.7
20.7
19.0
7.0
36.8
26.8
19.0
22.1
53.8
10.3
5.6
8.9
11.0
12.3
27.1
18.2
5.3
9 .0
2.8
3.7
4.7
6.7
15.6
16.1
13.9
5.4
86.3
29.7
11.9
10.2
3.8
43.7

Oct. 1
23.9
22.1
19.8
17.6
15.2
28.2
39.8
38.0
31.0
31.3
20.1
15.0
7.9
39.5
24.5
22.5
18.2
48.8
10.0
5.6
10.7
11.4
13.3
28.4
19.5
5.2
7.6
2.9
3.4
3.3
7.4
15.9
16.8
14.6
6.1
85.3
31.7
11.6
10.4
4.3
52.9

N ov. 1
24.0
22.1
20.0
17.6
15.2
28.4
39.8
37.5
31.0
31.0
20.1
15.0
7.9
39.6
24.5
22.5
18.3
50.5
10.0
5.7
10.8
11.6
13.3
28.4
19.5
5.2
7.4
2.8
3.4
3.0
7.4
16.0
16.8
14.6
6.0
85.3
32.2
11.4
10.8
4.3
55.0

D ec. 1
23.9
22.4
19.6
17.3
14.8
27.7
40.3
36.5
30.0
30.0
20.1
15.0
7.9
41.9
24.9
25.0
19.3
52.0
10.4
5.6
10.6
11.6
13.1
28.1
19.0
5.1
7.1
2.7
3.1
3.0
7.2
15.9
16.7
14.6
5.9
85.4
31.5
11.5
10.6
4.0
55.0

479

RETAIL PRICES

Table 6 shows biweekly changes during the year 1934 in retail
prices of 34 staple foods in 51 large cities combined as indicated by
relative prices.
Table 6.—Relative Retail Prices of 34 Staple Foods in 51 Large Cities Combined,
1934
[1913=100]

Cereals

M eats

Year and m onth

1934 average....... .............
Jan.
Feb.
M ar.
Apr.
M ay
June
Ju ly
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
N ov.
D ec.

Bread Flour

Corn
meal

B ice

146.4

148.5

150.0

92.0

123.2

122.9

111.6

88.4

101.9

113.6

131.7

142.4
142.4
142. 4
145. 5
145.5
145.5
145. 5
145.5
142.4
142.4
142.4
145.5
148. 5
148. 5
148. 5
148. 5
151.5
151. 5
154.5
154.5
154.5
154.5
154.5
154. 5
154. 5
154. 5 '

140.0
140.0
146.7
143.3
143.3
143.3
143.3
143.3
143.3
143.3
150.0
143.3
146.7
146.7
146.7
146.7
150.0
150.0
153.3
153.3
156.7
156.7
160.0
160.0
160.0
160.0

83.9
86.2
87.4
88.5
89.7
89.7
89.7
90.8
89.7
90.8
90.8
90.8
93.1
94.3
94.3
94.3
94.3
95.4
95.4
95.4
95.4
94.3
95.4
94.3
94.3
93.1

108.3
110.6
111.0
112.2
113.4
113.4
115.0
116.5
119.3
122.8
123.6
125.2
126.0
128.3
129.5
129.1
129.5
133.1
137.0
136.2
133.1
130.7
126.4
123.6
124.0
123.2

107.6
109.4
109.9
110.8
111.7
112.1
112.6
114.8
118.8
122.0
123.8
125.1
126.5
128.7
130.0
130.0
130.0
133.6
138.1
137.7
133.6
130.5
126.5
124.2
123.3
122.9

99.5
101.0
101.5
102.5
103.5
103.5
104.5
105.1
108.6
111.1
112.1
112.1
113.1
113.6
114.1
114.1
114.1
117.2
122.7
124.2
121.2
120.7
117.2
116.7
115.7
115.2

79.3
81.8
82.6
84.3
84.3
85.1
84.3
84.3
84.3
86.8
85.1
86.0
86.0
86.0
86.8
86.0
86.0
90.1
97.5
98.3
95.9
95.0
95.9
94.2
94.2
95.0

91.9
92.5
92.5
93.1
93.8
94.4
95.0
96.9
98.8
100.6
101.3
101.9
102.5
103.1
103.8
103.1
103.1
107.5
114.4
115.6
111.9
110.6
108.1
106.3
105.6
105.6

100.9
105.2
107.0
109.9
110.3
112.7
114.6
116.0
116.4
119.2
119.2
114.1
113.6
110.3
111.3
111.3
112.7
115.0
117.8
120.2
117.8
116.4
114.6
114.6
114.6
115.0

110.1
113.8
120.1
128.6
130.7
130.7
132.8
133.3
139.7
146.0
147.1
148.7
143.9
142.3
138.6
132.3
130.7
132.8
134.9
133.3
130.7
127.0
124.3
123.3
123.8
124.9

2..................... 141.1
16__________ 141.1
30__________ 141.1
13__________ 141.1
27..................... 141.1
1 3 ................„ 141.1
27..................... 142.9
10__________ 142.9
24__________ 142.9
8__________ 142.9
22............... .
142.9
5 _____ ____ 144.6
1 9 -................. 144.6
3 __________ 144.6
17............. ..
146.4
3 1 .................... 148.2
14__________ 148.2
28..................... 150.0
11. ________ 150.0
25__________ 150.0
9 - _ . ...........150.0
23__________ 150.0
6__________ 150.0
20__________ 148.2
4__________ 148.2
18__________ 148.2

Meats—Continued

Sirloin R ound R ib
steak steak roast

D airy products

Year and m onth
Bacon, H am ,
sliced sliced
1934 a v e r a g e .............. 107.0
Jan.
Feb.
M ar.
Apr.
M ay
June
J u ly
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
N ov.
D ee.

2________
16.................
3 0 . . . ..........
13.................
27.................
13________
27.................
10________
2 4 . . .............
8 ________
22________
5________
19............... .
3________
17.................
31.................
14________
28________
11________
25.................
9.................
2 3 . . ...........
6 ________
20________
4 ________
18.................

87.0
86.7
87.8
87.8
90.0
93.0
94.8
95.6
95.9
95.9
96.3
98.9
101.5
105.6
108.1
109.3
110.4
118.9
128.1
129.3
129.6
127.0
124.4
123.3
123.3
123.7

Pork
B u tter Cheese M ilk ,
chops
fresh

137.2

119.0

80.9

107.2

127.0

116.7
116.7
117.5
119.0
120.1
121.9
123.0
123.8
124.2
126.0
127.9
132.3
138.7
142.8
143.9
146.1
147. 2
153.2
159.1
159.9
156.1
153.5
149.8
148.0
146.1
146.5

94.8
95.2
94.8
112.9
113.8
117.1
114.8
112.9
114.8
115.7
113.8
113.3
116.7
123.8
121.4
119.0
122.9
154.8
154.3
135.7
130.5
128.6
120.5
116.2
113.8
115.7

65.8
66.6
68.7
79.1
80.7
83.3
80.2
76.5
75.2
77.3
77.3
78.6
79.1
79.1
78.6
79.4
83.8
87.7
85.9
84.3
83.8
85.1
89.6
91.6
91.6
92.4

100.0
99.6
101.8
105.4
108.1
109.0
109.5
109.0
106.8
105.4
105.9
106.3
106.8
106.8
107.2
106.8
106.8
110.0
110.4
109.5
108.6
107.2
107.7
108.1
108.6
109.0

125.8
124.7
123.6
129.2
125.8
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
125.8
125.8
125.8
127.0
127.0
128.1
129.2
130.3
131.5
130.3
131.5
131.5
131.5
131.5


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

P late C huck
L am b ,
beef
roast H ens leg of

F ru its and vegetables
Eggs
B an a­
nas

Or­
anges

Prunes

151.0

109.7

97.4

90.6

89.3 164.1
86.7 .157.5
85.8 151.6
81.2 151.6
74.8 154.2
71.6 150.3
71.3 147.1
69.6 144.4
68.1 146.4
67.5 147.1
67.8 145.1
68.7 145.8
71.3 149.7
73.6 150.3
76.2 151.6
80.9 152.9
87.8 153.6
95.4 149.7
99.4 154.2
102.0 156.9
103.5 156.2
109.0 154.9
113.9 152.3
116.2 149.0
114.8 147.1
108.1 145.8

90.0
92.7
92.7
90.0
90.3
92.0
92.7
92.3
92.3
99.0
109.7
114.0
131.3
129.7
127.0
123.0
125.0
124.0
123.3
123.3
119.7
131.3
124.7
111.7
101.0
96.0

92.3
92.3
94.0
94.0
95.7
96.6
96.6
97.4
96.6
97.4
98.3
98.3
98.3
99.1
99.1
99.1
100.0
100.0
98.3
98.3
98.3
97.4
98.3
97.4
97.4
97.4

87.7
87.7
87.7
87.7
88.7
88.7
88.7
89.6
89.6
90.6
90.6
90.6
90.6
90.6
91.5
91.5
91.5
91.5
91.5
91.5
91.5
91.5
91.5
91.5
91.5
91.5

86.7

R a i­
sins

480

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW--- FEBRUARY 193 5

Table 6.—Relative Retail Prices of 34 Staple Foods in 51 Large Cities Combined,
1934—Continued
M iscellaneous foods

F ruits and vegetables— C ontinued
Year and
m onth

1934 average___
Jan.

2 ....
1 6 -.-.
3 0 ....
Feb. 1 3 - ...
2 7 ....
M ar. 1 3 _ ...
2 7 - ...
Apr. 1 0 . . . .
2 4 ....
M ay 8 - ..22—
June 5 . . . .
19___
Ju ly 3 . . . .
1 7 ....
31___
Aug. 1 4 ....
2 8 .—
Sept. 11___
2 5 - .Oct. 9 . . . .
23—
N o v . 6—
20—
D ec. 4—
1 8 ....

Beans,
Beans, w ith
C ab­ Corn,
bage canned
n avy pork
69.4

103.5

66.3
68.4
69.4
70.4
70.4
69.4
70'. 4
68.4
67.3
68.4
68.4
68.4
68.4
68.4
67.3
67.3
67.3
68.4
68.4
69.4
70.4
70.4
70.4
70.4
70.4
70.4

101.8
100.0
101.8
101.8
103.5
103.5
101.8
101.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
101.8
101.8
105.3
108.8
114.0
114.0
112.3
110.5
108.8
107.0

152.2
200.0
204.3
195.7
182.6
169.6
165.2
160.9
152.2
152.2
160.9
160.9
152.2
143.5
139.1
147.8
152.2
156.5
152.2
143.5
134.8
126.1
117.4
113.0
113.0
113.0
121.7

101.1
93.6
93.6
94.7
93.6
95.7
95.7
95.7
95.7
95.7
95.7
95.7
95.7
95.7
95.7
95.7
95.7
95.7
96.8
97.9
98.9
101.1
103.2
104.3
104.3
105.3
105.3

On­
ions

P ota ­ T om a­
Peas, toes,
toes, Coffee
canned
w hite canned

Lard,
pure

Sugar

T ea

183.3

121.1

135.3

101.2

91.9

74.1

101.8

129.6

175.0
187.5
195.8
195.8
195.8
187.5
187.5
183.3
187.5
187.5
183.3
183.3
204.2
212.5
204.2
195.8
187.5
183.3
175.0
166.7
158.3
154.2
158.3
162.5
166.7
170.8

100.0
105.3
113.2
113.2
115.8
114.9
116.7
115.8
115.8
116.7
117.5
116.7
116.7
116.7
116.7
117.5
117.5
119.3
120.2
120.2
120.2
121.1
121.1
121.1
121.1
121.1

141. 2
152.9
158.8
164.7
170.6
170.6
164.7
158.8
158.8
158.8
158.8
147.1
135.3
129.4
123.5
117.6
117.6
123.5
123.5
117.6
111.8
105.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

96.3
96.3
101.2
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
103.7
103.7
103.7
103.7
104.9
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
101.2
101.2
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
101.2
101.2
101.2
101.2

88.6
88.3
88.6
88.6
89.3
90.6
91.3
92.3
91.9
92.3
92.6
92.6
92.6
92.3
92.3
92.3
92.6
93.0
93.0
93.6
94.0
94.3
94.0
94.0
94.0
93.6

58.9
59.5
59.5
61.4
63.9
64.6
65.2
65.2
65.2
63.9
63.9
63.9
65.2
65.8
66.5
67.7
71.5
82.9
91.1
93.0
93.7
93.7
93.0
95.6
96.2
98.7

100.0
98.2
98.2
101.8
98.2
98.2
100.0
100.0
98.2
98.2
98.2
96.4
98.2
100.0
103.6
105.5
103.6
103.6
103.6
103.6
103.6
103.6
103.6
101.8
101.8
100.0

124.8
125.6
125.6
125.7
126.7
127.0
127.4
128.1
126.7
128.5
129.0
129.8
129.4
128.5
130.1
130.7
131.3
132.2
132.5
132.9
132.5
132.7
132.9
132.5
133.3
133.8

Table 7 shows biweekly prices for the year 1934 for 78 articles of
food in 51 large cities combined.
Table 7.—Average Retail Prices of 78 Foods in 51 Large Cities Combined, 1934

Y ear and m onth

Cereals

B akery products

Flour, Corn Rolled
M aca­
Corn W heat R ice, roni,
w hite, m eal, oats,
w heat, pound pound flak es1 cereal2 pound pound
pound

Bread, Bread, Bread, Cake,
w hole­ pound,
w hite,
rye,
w heat, pound w heat, pound
p ound
pound
C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

1934 average_____ ____

4.9

4.5

6.9

8.7

24.2

8.0

15.7

8 .2

8.7

8.8

22.6

16
30
13
27
M ar. 13___________
27___________
Apr. 10_____ - . -24___________
M ay 8___________
22___________
June 5--------- _ _.
19___________
Ju ly 3 ___________
17___________
31___________
A ug. 14-. ________
28___________
Sept. 11___________
25___________
Oct. 9 . ____ _____
23___________
N o v . 6 ______ .
20___________
D ec. 4____ _____
18___________

4. 7
4. 7
4. 7
4. 8
4. 8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.9
5.0
5.0
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5 .1

4. 2
4. 2
4.4
4. 3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.5
4.3
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.5
4.5
4.6
4.6
4.7
4.7
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8

6. 6
6. 5
6.6
6. 7
6. 6
6.6
6.7
6.7
6.7
6.7
6.8
6.8
6.7
6.8
6.8
6.9
6.9
6.9
7.0
7.1
7.2
7.2
7.3
7.3
7.3
7.4

9.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
9.1
9.0
9.1
9.1
9.0
9.1
8.9
8.5
8.4
8.4
8.4
8.3
8.3
8.3
8.3
8.4
8.4
8.4
8.4
8.4
8.4
8.5

24.1
24. 2
24.2
23.9
24.3
24.3
24.3
24.3
24.2
24.2
24.2
24.2
24.2
24.2
24. 2
24.2
24.3
24.3
24.2
24.2
24.3
24.3
24.3
24.3
24.3
24.3

7.3
7. 5
7. 6
7. 7
7.8
7.8
7.8
7.9
7.8
7.9
7.9
7.9
8.1
8.2
8:2
8.2
8.2
8.3
8.3
8.3
8.3
8.2
8.3
8.2
8.2
8.1

15.7
15. 6
15.5
15. 5
15.6
15.5
15.7
15.6
15.5
15.6
15.6
15.6
15.6
15.7
15.6
15.8
15.7
15.8
15.8
15.8
15.9
15.9
15.9
15.8
15.8
15.8

7.9
7.9
7.9
7.9
7,9
7.9
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.3
8.4
8.4
8.4
8.4
8.4
8.4
8.3
8.3
8.3

8.6
8.6
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.7
8.7
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.9
8.9
8.9
8.9
8.9
8.9
8.9
8.9
8.9

8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.7
8.7
8.7
8.7
8.8
8.7
8.8
8.8
8.9
8.9
8.9
8.9
9.0
9 .0
9.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
9.0

22.2
22. 1
22.2
22.3
22. 2
22. 2
22.3
22.6
22.9
22.6
22.7
22.7
22.9
22.9
22.8
22.8
22.3
22.7
22. 7
22.7
22.8

Feb


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1 8-ounce package.

2 28-ounce package.

481

RETAIL PRICES

Table 7.—Average Retail Prices of 78 Foods in 51 Large Cities Combined, 1934—
Continued
Beef

1934 a v er a g e..................
2..................
16___________
3 0 ....................
Feb. 13___________
27___________
Mar. 13___________
27.......................
Apr. 10......................
24.................... .
M a y 8 ___________
22___________
June 5___________
19....................
J u ly 3___________
17— .................
31___________
Aug. 14___________
28___________
Sept. 11___________
25___________
Oct. 9......................
23___________
N o v . 6 . . ..................
20____ ____ _
D ec. 4 . .....................
1 8 . . . ...........

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

27.4

C e n ts

C e n ts

31.3

22.1

C e n ts

16.3

10.7

24.9

32.6

10.6

18.3

25.0

20.3

27.5
28.1
28.2
28.5
28.8
28.8
29.2
29.6
30.3
31.2
31.4
31.8
32.0
32.6
32.9
32.8
32.9
33.8
34.8
34.6
33.8
33.2
32.1
31.4
31.5
31.3

24.0
24.4
24.5
24.7
24.9
25.0
25.1
25.6
26.5
27.2
27.6
27.9
28.2
28.7
29.0
29.0
29.0
29.8
30.8
30.7
29.8
29.1
28.2
27.7
27.5
27.4

19.7
20.0
20.1
20.3
20.5
20.5
20.7
20.8
21.5
22.0
22.2
22.2
22.4
22.5
22.6
22.6
22.6
23.2
24.3
24.6
24.0
23.9
23.2
23.1
22.9
22.8

14.7
14.8
14.8
14.9
15.0
15.1
15.2
15.5
15.8
16.1
16.2
16.3
16.4
16.5
16.6
16.5
16.5
17.2
18.3
18.5
17.9
17.7
17.3
17.0
16.9
16.9

9.6
9.9
10.0
10.2
10.2
10.3
10.2
10.2
10.2
10.5
10.3
10.4
10.4
10.4
10.5
10.4
10.4
10.9
11.8
11.9
11.6
11.5
11.6
11.4
11.4
11.5

20.8
21.5
22.7
24.3
24.7
24.7
25.1
25.2
26.4
27.6
27.8
28.1
27.2
26.9
26.2
25.0
24.7
25.1
25.5
25.2
24.7
24.0
23.5
23.3
23.4
23.6

16.0
17.7
17.8
18.1
18.0
18.1
18.8
20.2
20.2
20.4
19.8
19.9
19.3
18.3
18.2
18.6
18.8
18.5
18.2
17.9
17.6
17.4
17.4
17.6

19 9
20 0
19.9
23.7
23.9
24.6
24.1
23.7
24.1
24.3
23.9
23.8
24.5
26.0
25.5
25.0
25.8
32.5
32.4
28.5
27.4
27.0
25.3
24.4
23.9
24.3

15.6
19.1
19.1
19.8
19.6
19.0
19.5
19.5
19.2
18.8
19.5
20.8
20.4
19.8
20.6
27.0
27.0
23.5
22.5
21.9
20.7
19.8
19.3
19.7

Pork—C ontinued

Year and m onth

1934 average________
Jan.
Feb.
M ar.
Apr.
M ay
June
J u ly
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
N ov.
D ec.

2................
16____ ____
30_________
13_________
27_________
13_________
27...........—
10_________
24_________
8_________
22_________
5— ...........
19_________
3_________
17_________
31_________
14_________
28_________
11_________
25_________
9_________
23................
6______ . .
20_________
4 _ _ ______
18_________

Pork

C hu ck
Sirloin R ound R ib C hu ck
R ib
or
Loin
steak, steak, roast, roast, Plate, Leg, chops, Breast, shoul­ Chops, roast,
pound pound pound pound p o u n d pound pound pound der, pound pound
pound

Y ear and m onth

Jan.

Lam b

Veal

28.7
31.0
31.4
31.8
32.0
32.4
33.4
35.6
35.7
36.0
35.5
35.3
35.0
33.4
33.2
33.8
33.8
32.7
32.1
31.3
30.7
30.4
30.3
30.8

P ou l­
try

9.3
10.3
10.5
10.7
10.8
10.7
10.8
11.5
11.6
11.6
11.4
11.3
11.0
10.5
10.3
10.5
10.8
10.7
10.6
10.6
10.3
10.1
10.2
10.3

Fish, canned

R oast­
Sal­
Bacon, Ham, H am , H am ,
Salt
C u t­
ing
sliced, sliced, whole, picnic, pork, lets, chick­ m on,
pink,
pound p ound pound smoked, pound pound ens,
pound
pound 16-oz.

C e n ts

D a iry prod­
ucts

Sal­
B u t­
m on,
ter, C heese,
red,
pound
pound
16-oz.

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

28.9

21. 5

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

36.9

14.8

17.6

30.9

24.2

14.2

21.3

31.0

23.7

23.5
23.4
23.7
23.7
24.3
25.1
25.6
25.8
25.9
25.9
26.0
26.7
27.4
28.5
29.2
29.5
29.8
32.1
34.6
34.9
35.0
34.3
33.6
33.3
33.3
33.4

31.4
31.4
31.6
32.0
32.3
32.8
33.1
33.3
33.4
33.9
34.4
35.6
37.3
38.4
38.7
39.3
39.6
41.2
42.8
43.0
42.0
41.3
40.3
39.8
39.3
39.4

29.4
30.1
30.4
30.3
30.4
30.4
30.5
30.9
30.9
30.6
30.7
30.8
30.8
30.5
30.5
31.6
32.6
32.6
32.3
32.2
31.9
31.1
31.2
31.0

21. 5
22.4
22.8
23.4
23.5
24.0
24.4
24.7
24.8
25.4
25.4
24.3
24.2
23.5
23.7
23.7
24.0
24.5
25.1
25.6
25. 1
24.8
24.4
24.4
24.4
24.5

14.3
14.3
14.4
14.2
14.3
14.3
14.2
14.2
14.2
14.1
14.2
14.2
14.2
14.2
14.1
14.0
14.0
13.9
13.9
13.7
13.6
13.6
13.5
13.4

20.9
20. 9
21.2
21.2
21.2
21.1
21.2
21.3
21.3
21.4
21.2
21.3
21.3
21.5
21.5
21.5
21.4
21.4
21.4
21.3
21.4
21.3
21.3
21.2
21.3
21.2

25 2
25. 5
26.3
30.3
30.9
31.9
30.7
29.3
28.8
29.6
29.6
30.1
30.3
30.3
30.1
30.4
32.1
33.6
32.9
32.3
32.1
32.6
34.3
35.1
35.1
35.4

22 1
22. 0
22.5
23.3
23.9
24.1
24.2
24.1
23.6
23.3
23.4
23.5
23.6
23.6
23.7
23.6
23.6
24.3
24.4
24.2
24.0
23.7
23.8
23.9
24.0
24.1


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

17.1
17.4
17.8
18.4
18.5
18.6
18.7
18.8
19.3
20.5
21.8
22.9
23.5
23.8
23.9
25.0
26.2
26.0
25.4
24.3
23.8
23.3
23.2
23.1

11.8
11.9
12.5
13.4
13.8
13.9
14.0
13.8
13.9
14.0
14.6
15.3
15.3
15.5
15.6
16.4
17.5
17.5
17.3
16.8
16.2
15.9
15.8
15.7

13.6
14.4
14.6
15.1
15.2
15.0
15.1
15.1
15.4
15.4
15.8
16.3
16.6
16.8
17.2
19.5
21.6
22.1
22.2
22.0
21.8
21.9
21.9
22.3

C e n ts

482

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW--- FEBRUARY 19 3 5

Table 7.—Average Retail Prices of 78 Foods in 51 Large Cities Combined, 1934—
Continued
D airy products—
C ontinued

Y ar and m onth

F ruits, fresh

F a ts and oil

V ege­
Eggs,
B a­ L em ­
Lard, table Oleo­ dozen A p ­
M ilk , M ilk ,
Lard, com ­
lard
Oranges
na­
Cream,
m
ar­
fresh, evap ­
ples, nas, ons, dozen
pure, pound, su b ­ garine,
H p in t
quart orated3
pound dozen dozen
pound pound sti­ pound
tu te,
pound

11;34 average........
16...........
30-.........
Feb. 13..........
27...........
M ar. 13...........
27_____
Apr. 10-------24_____
M a y 8-------22...........
June 5...........
19..........
Ju ly 3...........
17_____
31_____
A ug. 14..........
28...........
Sept. 11...........
26...........
Oct. 9_____
23_____
N o v . 6-------20-.........
D ec. 4-------18_____

C e n t s C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

11.3

6.7

14.2

11.7

10.6

19.2

13.5

29.9

6.3

23.1

29.0

32.9

11.2
11.1
11.0
11.6
11.2
11.1
11.1
11.1
11.1
11.1
11.1
11.1
11.2
11.2
11.2
11.3
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.7
11.6
11.7
11.7
11.7
11.7

6.8
6.8
6.8
6.8
6.8
6.8
6.8
6.8
6.7
6.8
6.8
6.8
6.8
6.8
6.7
6.7
6.8
6.8
6.8
6.8
6.7
6.7
6.7
6.7
6.7
6.7

14.4
14.3
14.1
14.3
14.2
14.2
14.0
14.1
14.1
14.1
14.0
14.2
14.2
14.4
14.3
14.4
14.2
14.2
14.3
14.3
14.2

9.3
9.4
9.4
9.7
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.3
10.3
10.1
10.1
10.1
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.7
11.3
13.1
14.4
14.7
14.8
14.8
14.7
15.1
15.2
15.6

9.4
9.2
9.4
9.6
9.5
9.5
9.5
9.5
9.5
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.9
10.2
11.0
11.8
12.3
12.4
12.6
12.8
13.0
13.3
13.9

19.1
19.2
19.1
19.1
19.1
19.2
19.1
19.1
19.0
19.1
19.1
19.0
19.1
18.9
18.9
19.0
18.9
19.0
19.1
19.3
19.4
19.3
19.4
19.6
19.6
19.8

12.4
12.5
12.7
12.5
12.7
12.6
12.7
12.6
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.9
13.3
13.6
13.6
13.5
13.4
13.4
14.2
14.3
14.6
15.0
15. S
15.5
15.6
16.0

30.8
29.9
29.6
28.0
25.8
24.7
24.6
24.0
23.5
23.3
23.4
23.7
24.6
25.4
26.3
27.9
30.3
32.9
34.3
35.2
35.7
37.6
39.3
40.1
39.6
37.3

6.2
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.9
7.0
7.0
7.2
7.5
7.1
6.5
6.0
5.8
5.7
5.7
5.6
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.9

25.1
24.1
23.2
23.2
23.6
23.0
22.5
21.0
22.4
22.5
22.2
22.3
22.9
23.0
23.2
23.4
23.5
22.9
23.6
24.0
23.9
23.7
23.3
22.8
22.5
22.3

28.7
28.2
28.2
28.6
28.5
28.1
27.5
27.2
29.2
30.9
32.2
31.3
31.7
31.7
30.5
29.8
28.9
28.0
27.9
28.6
28.4
27.5
27.5
27.2

27.0
27.8
27.8
27.0
27.1
27.6
27.8
27.7
27.7
29.7
32.9
34.2
39.4
38.9
38.1
36.9
37.5
37.2
37.0
37.0
35.9
39.4
37.4
33.5
30.3
28.8

V egetables, fresh
Year and m onth

1934 average________
16___________
30.................. F eb. 13...........- ..........
2 7 .....................
M ar. 13......................
27___________
Apr. 10______ ____
24___________
M a y 8 - - . ................
22___________
June 5 . .....................
19___________
Ju ly 3 ......................
17___________
31___________
A ug. 14-------------28____ ____ Sept. 11......................
25— - .........—
Oct. 9______ ____
23.......................
N o v . 6 - - . ................
20______ ____
D ec. 4___________
18___________
3 14W-ounce can.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

B eans,
green,
pound

C ab­
bage, Carrots, Celery, L ettuce,
bunch
stalk
head
pound

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

10.4

3.5

5.3

12.0
12.8
13.4
13.5
13.8
13.0
12.3
12.3
8.8
7.4
7.6
7.7
8.1
8.7
10.0
8.9
8.5
8.0
7.9
8.6
10.9
12.7
11.0
14.3

4.6
4.7
4.5
4.2
3.9
3.8
3.7
3.5
3.5
3.7
3.7
'3.5
3.3
3.2
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.5
3.3
3.1
2.9
2.7
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.8

5.9
5.9
5.8
5.7
5.6
5.5
5.5
5.6
5.4
5. 3
5.4
5.2
5.0
4.9
4.9
4.9
5.0
4.9
4.9
4.8
4.9
5.0
5.3
5.8

C e n ts

9.8

9.7
9.5
9.5
9.7
9.5
9.7
9.8
9.8
10.6
11.5
12.8
13.1
11.3
10.2
9.6
9.4
9.1
8.6
8.3
8.2
8.3
8.8
9.1
9.5

C e n ts

SweetOnions, Potatoes, potatoes, Spinach,
pound
pound
pound
pound
C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

8.9

4.4

2.3

4.9

7.0

8.5
8.4
8.3
8.1
8.0
8.2
9.3
10.1
10.8
10.5
9.5
9.1
8.2
9.3
9.5
9.1
9.6
9.3
8.8
8.2
8.1
8.1
8.8
9.3

4.2
4.5
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.5
4.5
4.4
4.5
4.5
4.4
4.4
4.9
5.1
4.9
4.7
4.5
4.4
4.2
4.0
3.8
3.7
3.8
3.9
4.0
4.1

2.4
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.5
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
2.0
2.1
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7

4.6
4.7
4.7
4.8
5.0
5.1
5.1
5.3
5.6
5.9
6.1
6.3
6.7
6.6
6.1
5.2
4.7
4.3
3.9
3.7
3.7
3.8
4 .2
4.4

7.7
7.4
7.1
7.1
6.7
6.7
6.5
6.8
6.0
5.6
5.9
6.0
6.7
7.9
8.8
8.9
8.3
7.3
6.8
6.6
6.6
6.7
7.0
8.9

RETAIL PRICES

483

Table 7.—Average Retail Prices of 78 Foods in 51 Large Cities Combined, 1934Continued
F ruits, canned
Year and m onth

1934 average_____
Jan.
Feb.
M ar.
Apr.
M ay
June
Ju ly
A ug.
Sept.
Oct.
N ov.
D ec.

2 ______
16............
3 0 ...........
13______
27............
13............
27.............
10______
24______
8 .........
22______
5______
19______
3______
17............
3 1 ............
14______
28______
11______
25______
9______
23............
6______
20______
4______
18______

V egetables, canned

Peach­
Pork
Pears, P in e­ A s­ Beans,
es,
para­
Corn, Peas, T om a­ and Peach­ Prunes, R ai­
no. apple,
es,
no.
no.
gus, green, no. 2 no. 2 toes, beans,
pound sins,
2H
no. 2
no. 2
pound
2^
16-oz. pound
2J-6 no. 2
C e n ts

C e n ts

18.4

21.4

17.5
17.6
17.7
17.7
17.8
17.8
17.9
18.0
17.9
18.1
18.1
18.1
18.2
18.2
18.3
18.5
18.6
18.7
18.9
19.1
19.2
19.2
19.3
19.4
19.3
19.3

20.6
20.7
20.6
20.6
20.8
20.8
20.7
20.8
20.8
21.0
21.0
21.0
21.0
21.1
21.1
21.1
21.4
21.6
21.8
22. 1
22.3
22. 4
22.5
22.5
22.7
22.6

C e n ts C e n t s

22.2

21.5
21.6
21.6
21.8
21.8
21.9
21.9
22.0
22.0
22.0
22.1
22.2
22.2
22.3
22.4
22.5
22.6
22.6
22.7
22.6
22.7
22.6
22.6
22.6

V egetables, dried
Year and m onth

1934 average______
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
M ay
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
N ov.
D ec.

2.............
16______
30______
13______
27______
13______
27______
10______
24______
8 ______
22______
5 . . .........
19______
3______
17............
31______
14______
28______
11______
25............
9 .......... .
23______
6______
20______
4______
18______

F ruits, dried

BlackL im a N a v y
eyed
peas, beans, beans,
pound pound pound

23.8

23.3
23.0
23.1
23.1
23.1
23.3
23.3
23.5
23.5
23.4
23.5
23.6
23.9
23.9
23.8
24.2
24.3
24.4
24.4
24.5
24.5
24.4
24.6
24.7

C e n ts

C e n t s C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

11.8

11.9

17.3

10.4

6.8

15.5

11.4

9.6

14.2
15.0
16.1
16.1
16.5
16.4
16.6
16.5
16.5
16.6
16.8
16.6
16.6
16.6
16.6
16.8
16.8
17.0
17.1
17.1
17.1
17.3
17.3
17.3
17.3
17.3

9.9
9 9
10.4
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.6
10.6
10.6
10.6
10.8
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.4
10.4
10.3
10.3
10.3
10.3
10.4
10.4
10.4
10.4

6. 5
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.9
6.8
6.9
6.7
6.6
6.7
6.7
6.7
6.7
6.7
6.6
6.6
6.6
6.7
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.9
6.9
6.9
6.9
6.9

14.7
15.0
15.2
15.3
15.3
15.4
15.3
15.5
15.5
15.4
15.5
15.4
15.5
15.5
15.3
15.5
15.5
15.7
15.7
15.8
15.9
16.0
16.1
16.1

10 8
10 8
11.0
11.0
11.2
11.3
11.3
11.4
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.7
11.7
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.4
11.5
11.4
11.4
11.4

Q 3
Q 3

11.6
11.7
11.9
11.8
11.8
11.8
11.8
11.7
11.8
11.7
11.8
11.6
11.5
11.6
11.6
11.7
11.7
11.7
11.9
11.8
11.9
11.9
11.9
11.9

11.0
11.0
11.1
11.0
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.9
12.1
12.3
12.3
12.4
12.4

Sugar and sw eets

Beverages

C e n ts

9.3
9.3
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.5
9.5
9.6
9.6
9.6
9.6
9.6
9.7
9.7
9.7
9.7
9.7
9.7
9.7
9.7
9.7
9.7
9.7
9.7

M iscellaneous foods

Sugar,
Pea­
Salt, Soup, T o­
granu­ Corn M olas­ Cof­
Tea,
nut
si­
fee',
table, tom a­ m ato
lated,
ses 5
pound
butter,
pound
pound
to 6 juice 7
p ound rup 4
pound

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

7.6

9.7

5.9

5.6

12.8

13.7

29.4

70.5

16.8

4.4

8.1

8. 6

9.6
9.5
9.6
9.6
9.6
9.7
9.6
9.6
9.6
9.6
9.6
9.6
9.6
9.7
9.7
9.7
9.9
9.9
9.9
9.9
9.9
9.9
9.9
9.9

5.8
5.7
5.8
5.8
5.9
5.9
5.8
5.8
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.8
5.8
6.0
6.2
6.5
6.5
6.4
6.3
6.2
6.1

5.5
5.4
5.4
5.6
5.4
5.4
5.5
5.5
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.7
5.8
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.6
5.6
5.5

12.8
13.1
13.2
13.6
13.6
13.6
13.5
13.8
13.8
13.8
13.8
13.9
14.1
14.1
14.1
13.9
13.9
14.0
13.9
13.9
13.9
13.9
13.8
13.9

26.4
26.3
26.4
26.4
26.6
27.0
27.2
27.5
27.4
27.5
27.6
27.6
27.6
27.5
27.5
27.5
27.6
27.7
27.7
27.9
28.0
28.1
28.0
28.0
28.0
27.9

67.9
68.3
68.3
68.4
68.9
69.1
69.3
69.7
68.9
69.9
70.2
70.6
70.4
69.9
70.8
71.1
71.4
71.9
72.1
72.3
72.1
72.2
72.3
72.1
72.5
72.8

16.3
16.2
16.3
16.3
16.4
16.4
16.3
16.5
16.5
16.6
16.6
16.7
16.7
16.7
16.8
16.8
16.9
17.0
17.0
17.2
17.4
17.6
17.8
17.9

4.6
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.5
4.5
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3

8.5
8.4
8.1
8.1
8.0
8.1
7.9
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.2

8.5
8.6
8.6
8.5
8.6
8.5
8.4
8.6
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.7
8.7
8.6
8.7
8.7
8.7
8.7
8.8
8.6
8.6
8.5
8.5
8.6

7.7
7.6
7.7
7.5
7.6
7.5
7.5
7.4
7.4
7.3
7.3
7.3
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.5
7.6
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.2
7.9
8.0
8.0

4 24-ounce can.

* 18-ounce can.


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12.9
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.6
12.5
12.4
12.5
12.5
12.6
12.5
12.7
12.6
12.6
12.7
12.7
12.9
12.9
13.0
13.2
13.1
13.2
13.2
13.3

• 104S-ounce can.

7

C e n ts C e n ts

13^ -ounce can.

484

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW--- FEBRUARY 193 5

History and method.—In 1904 the Commissioner of Labor of the
Department of Commerce and Labor published retail prices of the
foods shown to be most important in the wage earners’ market basket
by a study of family expenditures in 1901.1 Price quotations were
secured for 30 foods from 1890 through 1903. Annual statistics
from 1904 to 1933 have been published in various bulletins on retail
prices. Since July 1915 the Monthly Labor Review has included
much information on this subject. Additions to and modifications
in the foods priced and the cities reporting have been made from time
to time. An index of the cost of food at retail is now computed,
weighted by purchases in 1918-19. Weighted average prices for
1913 are used as the base. The weights used in constructing this
index are based on the quantities of 42 foods purchased by wage
earners and low-salaried workers.
Subject to certain minor qualifications, Bulletin No. 495, “ Retail
Prices 1890-1928”, may be used as a reference for the history and
statement of method used in computing the indexes of the cost of
food that wage earners buy.
Data for the tabular statements shown in this report are compiled
from averages of actual selling prices. Since August 15, 1933, the
Bureau has collected food prices every 2 weeks in order that current
information may be available. Prior to this time prices related to
the 15th of the month. Reports are now received for 78 commodities
from retail dealers in 51 cities. In addition to the 42 articles in the
index, 3 commodities were added to the Bureau’s list of food items
beginning with August 29, 1933. These items are rye bread, canned
peaches, and canned pears. Thirty-one food commodities were
added beginning January 30, 1934. These items are lamb chops,
breast of lamb, chuck or shoulder of lamb, loin roast of pork, whole
ham, picnic ham, salt pork, veal cutlets, canned pink salmon, lard
compound, whole-wheat bread, apples, lemons, canned pineapple,
dried peaches, fresh green beans, carrots, celery, lettuce, sweetpotatoes, spinach, canned asparagus, canned green beans, dried blackeyed peas, dried lima beans, corn sirup, molasses, peanut butter, table
salt, tomato soup, and tomato juice. Two food commodities, cream
and pound cake, were added beginning March 13, 1934. Weights
for these additional foods are to be computed in the near future so
that they may be included in the food-cost indexes.
The trends of the retail cost of food in large cities combined, from
1913 to date, are shown in table 8 for commodity groups.
1 E ighteenth A nnual R eport of th e C om m issioner of Labor, 1903.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

486

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW--- FEBRUARY 193 5

Table 8.—Retail Cost Indexes of 42 Foods in Large Cities Combined, by Com­
modity Groups, 1913-34, Inclusive 1
[1913=100]

Year and
m onth

A ll
foods

D airy
Cere­
M eats prod­
als
ucts

Other
foods

Year and
m onth

A ll
foods

D airy
Other
Cere­
M eats prod­ foods
als
ucts

145.9
157.4
160.6
155.4
154. 3
156.7
147.1
121.3
102.1
99.7
110.8

160.4
176. 2
175.5
170.7
167.2
164.1
158.0
135.9
121.1
126.6
147.9

150. 2
163.0
171.3
169.9
179.2
188.4
175.8
147.0
116.0
102.7
117.1

142.8
147.1
145.5
148.7
150.0
148.6
136. 5
114. 6
96.6
94.6
102.2

154.3
169.8
175.9
160.8
152.4
157. 0
148.0
115.9
98.6
98.3
105.4

142.4
142.5
142.8
143.3
143.4
143.4
144.7
144. 7
144.0
144. 2
144.4
145. 7
146.5
148.6
147.7
149.0
149. 6
150.8
151 6
151. 7
152. 0
151.8
152.1
150. 9
150.9
150.9

100.8
102.3
103.0
106.7
107.8
109.1
109.7
110. 5
112.6
114.9
115.3
116.1
117.8
120.0
120.5
120.2
121.1
129.2
133. 8
131. 7
128. 4
126.4
122. 6
120 6
119. 9
120.1

95.7
96.0
95.9
102. 6
101.8
102.3
101.1
99.7
99.0
99.9
99.9
100.4
101.1
101.1
100.8
101.6
103. 4
105.6
105 4
105. 3
105 4
105. 4
107. 6
108 4
108 5
108.8

104.6
105.8
106.7
106. 5
105.7
104. 8
104.1
102. 7
102.1
102. 4
102.7
101. 2
101.2
101.2
101.4
101. 9
103. 8
107.2
108. 8
108 7
108.1
108. 8
109. 0
109 3
108. 8
107.2

By years
100.0
102.4
101.3
113.7
146.4
168.3
185.9
203.4
153.3
141.6
146.2

1913.
1914.
1915.
1916.
1917.
1918.
1919.
1920.
1921.
1922.
1923.

100.0
106.7
121. 6
126.8
186.5
194.3
198.0
232.1
179.8
159.3
156.9

100.0
103.4
99.6
108.2
137.0
172.8
184.2
185.7
158.1
150.3
149.0

100.0
97.1
96.1
103.2
127. 6
153.4
176.6
185.1
149. 5
135.9
147.6

100.0
103.8
100.1
125.8
160.4
164.5
191.5
236.8
156.1
147.0
154.3

1924..................
1925..................
1926...................
1927_________
1928_________
1929_________
1930_________
1931_________
1932_________
1933_________
1934_________

By m o n th s for 1933 and 1934
1933
Jan. 15______

94.8

112.3

Feb. 15______

90.9

M ar. 15...........

90.5

Apr. 15............

99.9

93.3

94.1

112.0

99.0

90.3

84.8

112.3

100.1

88.3

84.3

90.4

112.8

98. 8

88.7

84.3

M a y 15______

93.7

115.8

100.1

92.2

89.0

June 15______

96.7

117.2

103.7

93.5

94.9

J u ly 1 5 .-......... 104.8

128.0

103.5

97.7

110.3

A ug. 15______
A ug. 29...........
Sept. 12_____
Sept. 2 6 ____
Oct. 10______
Oct. 2 4 ...........
N o v . 7______
N o v . 21_____
D ec. 5_______
D ec. 19______

137.8
138.8
140.2
142.7
143.8
143.3
143.4
143.5
142.5
142.0

105.7
106.9
104.4
107.8
107.3
106.3
105.9
104.1
101.2
100.4

96.5
97.5
97.8
97.9
98. 6
98.4
98.6
98.5
98. 7
94.7

110.2
109.2
109.4
107.2
105.9
104.7
105. 2
106. 5
105.0
103.8

106.7
107.1
107.0
107.4
107.3
106.6
106.7
106.8
105.5
103.9

1934
Jan. 2 _______
Jan. 1 6 .-.........
Jan. 30______
F eb. 13______
Feb. 27______
M ar. 13_____
M ar. 27......... .
Apr. 10____ .
Apr. 24— . . .
M ay 8
M a y 22_____
June 5
June 19______
Ju ly 3............
Ju ly 17______
Ju ly 31______
A ug. 14
A ug. 28_____
Sept. 11
Sept. 25
Oct. 9
Oct. 23
N ov. 6
N o v . 20
D ec. 4
D ec. 18______

104.5
105.2
105.8
108.3
108.1
108.5
108.0
107. 4
107.3
108. 2
108.4
108.4
109.1
109.6
109.9
110.4
111. 8
115.3
116. 8
116.4
115. 6
115.4
115 3
114.9
114. 6
114.3

1 T h e num ber of cities used for th is table increased from 39 cities in 1913 to 51 cities in 1920-34, inclusive.

The chart on page 485 shows the trend in the retail cost of all food
and of the classified groups, cereals, meats, dairy products, and other
foods in 51 large cities combined from January 15, 1929, to December
18, 1934, inclusive.
R e t a il P ric e s o f E le c tr ic ity , N o v e m b e r 15, 1934
ITH this issue the method of reporting electricity rates for 51
cities has been changed in order to present more clearly the
cost of electric current to the average family than has been possible
with the publication of residential rate schedules shown heretofore in
June and December of each year in conjunction with the cost-of-living
study.

W


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487

RETAIL PRICES

For each city total net monthly prices and average prices per kilo­
watt-hour have been computed for blocks of 25 kilowatt-hours and
40 kilowatt-hours for lighting and appliances; 100 kilowatt-hours for
lighting, appliances, and refrigeration; and 250 kilowatt-hours for
ighting, appliances, refrigeration, and cooking.
These prices are based on the requirements of a five-room house,
including living room, dining room, kitchen, and two bedrooms,
which has been selected as typical of the average working man’s
home.
The specifications used as the basis for application of rates are:
Floor area:
Connected load:

1,000 square feet.
Lighting and appliances______________
Refrigeration_______________________
Cooking____________________________ 6,
Measured demand: Lighting and appliances_____________
Refrigeration_______________________
Cooking____________________________ 2,
Outlets:
Fourteen 50-watt.
Active room count: In accordance with schedule of rates.

w a tts

700
300
000
600
100
300

T a b le 9 . — T o ta l a n d U n it N e t M o n th ly P ric e s of S pecified A m o u n ts of E le c tric ity ,
B a se d o n R a te s as o f N o v e m b e r 15, 1934, b y C itie s
[P = P r iv a te u tility .

M = M u n icipal plantl
N e t m o n th ly price per kilow atthour

■ T otal net m on th ly price

R egional area and city

L ighting and
sm all appliances

25 kilo­
w atthours
N orth A tlantic:
B o sto n _______________ P
B r id g e p o r t...
------ P
B uffalo_____ _____ j - - P
Fall R iv er____________P
M anchester- ______ -P
N ew a rk ______________ P
N ew H a v e n __________ P
N e w Y ork C ity:
N ew Y ork-- -------- P
Staten Island ----- P
B rook lyn .- ----------P
Ph iladelp h ia_________ P
P ittsb u rg h ----------------- P
Portland, M a in e___ _P
P rovid en ce___________ P
R ochester____________ P
Scranton_____________ P
South A tlantic:
A tlanta:
Im m ed iate. -------- P
I n d u c e m e n t1___ P
B altim ore____________ P
See footnotes at end of table.


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L igh t­
L igh t­ ing ap­
ing ap­ pliances,
L ighting and
p lian ces refrig­
and re­ erator, sm all appliances
frigera­
and
tor
range

40 k ilo­ 100 kilo­ 250 kilo­ 25 kilo­
w attw attw attw atthours
hours
hours
hours
C e n ts

L igh t­
L igh t­ ing ap­
ing ap­ p liances,
pliances refrig­
and re­ erator,
frigera­
and
tor
range

40 kilo­ 100 kilo­ 250 kilo­
w attw attw atthours
hours
hours
C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

$1. 65
1. 31
1.13
2.00
2.34
2.15
1.31

$2.40
2.10
1.70
2. 75
3.24
3.20
2.10

$5.20
5. 25
3.06
5.50
5.36
5.30
5.25

$9. 70
10.90
5.31
10.25
8. 36
9. 80
10.90

6.6
5.3
4.5
8.0
9.4
8.6
5.3

6.0
5.3
4.3
6.9
8.1
8.0
5.3

5.2
5 .3 '
3.1
5.5
5.4
5.3
5.3

3.9
4. 4
2.1
4.1
3.3
3.9
4.4

1. 80
2.15
1.80
1. 58
1.55
1.88
1.93
1. 65
1. 75

2. 55
3.11
2. 55
2. 40
2.20
2.63
2.91
2.40
2.80

5. 55
5.51
5.55
4. 45
4.10
4. 73
5.81
5.00
5.00

13.05
8.91
13.05
8.70
8.60
7.73
9.84
10.00
9.50

7.2
8.6
7.2
6.3
6.2
7.5
7.7
6.6
7.0

6.4
7.8
6.4
6.0
6.6
7.3
6.0
7.0

5.6
5.5
5.6
4. 5
4.1
4.7
5.8
5. 0
5.0

5.2
3.6
5. 2
3. 5
3. 4
3.1
3.9
4.0
3.8

1. 62
1.45
1. 25

2. 37
2.12
2.00

4. 57
3. 95
4.18

8. 32
6. 57
8.98

6.5
5.8
5.0

5.9
5.3
5.0

4.6
4. 0
4. 2

3.3
2.6
3.6

5. 5

488

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 193 5

Table 9 . —Total and Unit Net Monthly Prices of Specified Amounts of Electricity,
Based on Rates as of November 15, 1934, by Cities— Continued
[P = P rivate u tility .

M = M u n icipal com pany]

N e t m o n th ly price per kilow atthour

T otal net m on th ly price

R egional area and city

South A tla n tic—C ontinued.
C harleston, S. C ______P
Jack sonville
______ M
N orfolk_______________P
R ich m on d ____________P
S avan n ah . . .
_ . P
W ashington, D . C ____P
N orth Central:
C hicago______________ P
C in cin n ati_____ _____ P
C levelan d . . . . . . .
P
M
C olu m bu s______ . . . . P
M
D e t r o it 23____________ P
I n d ia n a p o lis... . . . . . P
K ansas C ity ________.P
M ilw a u k e e 3 ____
_P
M inn eap olis____ ___ P
O m aha_______ _____ P
P e o ria .. ________ ____ P
St. L ouis 3___ _______ P
P
P
S t. P a u l ... ______
Springfield, 111________P
M
S o u th Central:
B i r m in g h a m ..___ _P
D a lla s___ . . . . . . . . . P
H ou ston ___________ __P
L ittle R ock __________ P
L o u is v ille 2. . . ______ P
M em p h is_____________P
M obile:
P resen t__________ P
O bjective 1 . ____ P
N ew O rleans______ _P
VVestern :
B u tte _______ _______ P
D en ver___ ___ __ __P
Los A ngeles__________ P
P ortlan d, Oreg___ . . . P
P
Salt Lake C ity 2______ P
San F rancisco________ P
S ea ttle_______________ P
M

L ighting and
sm all appliances

L igh t­
L igh t­
ing ap­ ing ap­
pliances,
pliances
L ighting and
refrig­
and re­
sm all appliances
frigera­ erator,
and
tor
range

L ig h t­
L ig h t­
ing ap­ ing ap­
p lian ces,
p lian ces refrig­
and re­
frigera­ erator,
and
tor
range

25 kilo­
w atthours

40 kilo­
w atthours

100 kilo­ 250 kilo­ 25 kilo­
w attw attw atthours
hours
hours

100 kilo­ 250 kilo­
w attw atthours
hours

$2.12
1.75
1.63
1.63
1. 63
.98

$3.15
2.80
2. 60
2.60
2. 38
1.56

$5.85
7.00
5. 30
5. 30
4.57
3. 60

$10. 09
7. 95
8. 25
8. 25
8. 32
5. 67

8.5
7.0
6.5
6.5
6.5
3.9

7.9
7.0
6.5
6.5
6.0
3.9

5.8
7.0
5.3
5.3
4.6
3.6

4.0
3.2
3.3
3.3
3.3
2.3

1.51
1. 25
1.00
.88
1. 25
1. 25
1.43
1.44
1. 63
1.55
1.85
1. 38
1.50
1.19
1.07
1.96
1. 25
1. 25

2.04
1. 70
1.60
1.31
1. 95
2.00
1.99
2.30
2.30
2.04
2. 33
2.20
2. 01
1.71
1.43
2.39
1. 90
1.90

3. 75
3.00
4.00
3. 05
4. 50
4. 75
3. 65
4. 80
4. 00
3. 75
4. 04
4. 25
3.81
3.13
2.85
4.10
3. 90
3. 02

8.02
6.00
9.88
7.40
8. 50
10.00
7.12
8. 53
7. 75
7. 08
7. 34
8.15
6.81
6.22
5. 70
8. 38
6. 90
4. 80

6.0
5.0
4.0
3.5
5.0
5.0
5.7
5.8
6.5
6.2
7.4
5. 5
6.0
4.8
4.3
7.8
5.0
5.0

5.1
4.3
4.0
3.3
4.9
5.0
5.0
5.8
5.8
5.1
5.8
5.5
5.0
4.3
3.6
6.0
4.8
4.8

3.8
3.0
4.0
3.1
4.5
4.8
3.7
4.8
4.0
3.8
4.0
4.3
3.8
3.1
2.9
4.1
3.9
3.0

3.2
2.4
4.0
3.0
3.4
4.0
2.8
3.4
3.1
2.8
2.9
3.3
2.7
2.5
2.3
3.4
2.8
1.9

1.55
1.38
1.30
2.10
1. 29
1.38

2. 30
2.20
1.90
2.90
2.06
2.20

4. 05
4. 60
4. 30
5.10
3.91
4. 25

7.80
8. 40
8.28
9. 60
8. 55
8. 75

6.2
5.5
5.2
84
5.2
5.5

5.8
5.5
4.8
7.3
5.2
5.5

4.1
4.6
4.3
5.1
3.9
4.3

3.1
3.4
3.3
3.8
3.4
3.5

1. 55
1.45
2.13

2. 30
2.13
3. 25

4. 05
3. 95
6.00

7. 60
6. 58
10. 75

6.2
. 5.8
8.5

5.8
5.3
8.1

4. 1
4.0
6.0

3.0
2.6
4.3

2.00
1.50
1.20
1. 38
1.38
1.92
1. 53
1. 38
1. 40

2. 60
2. 40
1.81
1.95
1.95
2.99
2.10
2.20
2.20

4. 50
4. 80
3.31
3. 39
3. 39
4. 92
4. 20
3. 40
3. 40

8.00
9. 30
6.31
6. 09
6. 09
7. 85
7. 85
6.28
6. 40

8.0
6.0
4.8
5.5
5.5
7.7
6.1
5.5
5.5

6.5
6.0
4.5
4.9
4.9
7.5
5.3
5.5
5.5

4.5
4.8
3.3
3.4
3.4
4.9
4.2
3.4
3.4

3. 2
3.7
2. 5
2.4
2.4
3. 1
3.1
2.5
2,5

C e n ts

40 kilo
w atthours
C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

1 T h e In d u cem e n t” rate in A tlan ta and “ O b jective” rate in M ob ile are designed to encourage greater
use of electricity. C ustom ers using more current in a given m on th than w as used in th e corresponding
m onth of the preceding year are b illed under these schedules.
2 R ates include sales tax.
3 R ates include free lam p renewal service.

There were electric-rate changes during 1934 in 18 of the 51 cities
reporting to the Bureau. For those cities net monthly prices and
prices per kilowatt-hour for December 15, 1933, are shown in table 10.

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RETAIL PRICES

Table 10 . —Total and Unit Net Monthly Prices of Specified Amounts of
Electricity, Based on Rates as of December 15, 1933, by Cities
[P = Private u tility]
N e t m o n th ly price per kilow att-hour

T otal net m on th ly price

L ighting and
sm all ap pli­
ances

Regional area and city

L igh t­
ing, ap­
pliances,
and
refriger­
ator

L igh t­
ing, ap­
pliances,
refriger­
ator, and
range

L ighting and
sm all ap pli­
ances

L ig h t­
ing, ap­
pliances,
and
refriger­
ator

L igh t­
ing, ap­
pliances,
refriger­
ator, and
range

25
kw.-hr.

40
kw.-hr.

100
kw.-hr.

250
kw.-hr.

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

C e n ts

25
kw.-hr.

40
kw.-hr.

100
kw.-hr.

250
kw.-hr.

$1. 75
1.15

$2. 50
1. 75

$5. 30
2.78

$9. 80
5. 79

7.0
4.6

6.3
4.4

5. 3
2.8

3.9
2.3

1.78
2.30
1. 78
2. 25

2. 53
3. 20
2. 53
3.00

5. 50
5. 60
5. 50
6.00

12.93
9.00
12.93
9. 50

7.2
9.2
7.2
9.0

6.3
8 .0
6.3
7.5

5.5
5.6
5. 5
5. 0

5.2
3.6
5.2
3.8

1.75
1.75
2. 50
.98

2.80
2.80
3.40
1.56

6.40
6. 40
5.49
3.75

12. 40
12. 40
9. 49
5. 67

7.0
7.0
10.0
3.9

7.0
7.0
8 .5
3.9

6.4
6.4
5. 5
3.8

5.0
5.0
3.8
2.3

1. 75
1.50
1.56

2. 30
2.40
2. 50

4.10
5.50
4.84

8. 60
8.95
10. 92

7.0
6.0
6.3

5.8
6.0
6.3

4.1
5.5
4.8

3.4
3.6
4.4

1.44
1.45
2.35
1.90
1.75

2.30
2. 05
3. 20
2.58
2.60

4. 70
4.45
5.40
4.38
4.80

8. 50
8. 43
9.60
8.88
9. 30

5.8
5.8
9.4
7.6
7.0

5.8
5.1
8.0
6.4
6.5

4.7
4. 5
5.4
4. 4
4.8

3.4
3.4
3.8
3.6
3.7

1.55
1.45
2.46

2. 30
2.13
3. 63

4.05
3. 70
7.66

7. 80
6.36
16. 76

6.2
5.8
9.8

5.8
5.3
9.1

4.1
3.7
7.7

3.1
2.5
6. 7

N orth A tlantic:
_ _--P
B o sto n ____ __
Buffalo-^- __________ P
N ew York C ity:
N ew Y ork ------------ P
Staten Island _____ P
B rook lyn _________P
Scranton_____________ P
South Atlantic:
N orfolk_______ ______ P
R ich m on d ____________P
S a vann ah _____ ______ P
W a shin gton __________ P
N orth Central:
C in cin n ati____________P
C olu m bu s____________ P
Indianapolis__________P
South Central:
D a lla s ..- -------- ------------P
H ou ston _____________ P
L ittle R ock __________ P
L ou isville 1___________ P
M em p h is......................--P
P resen t_____________
O bjective 2 _________
N ew O rlean s.- ----------P

1 R ates include sales tax.
i T h e “ Objective ’’ rate is designed to encourage greater use of electricity. C ustom ers using more current
in a given m onth than w as used in the corresponding m onth of the preceding year are billed under this
schedule.

Table 11 shows the percentage decrease since December 1913 in the
price of electricity for the 32 cities included in the cost-of-living
survey. In November 1934 there were decreases of 1.7 percent since
June 1934 and 4.9 percent since December 1933.
Table 11 . —Percentage Decrease Since December 1913 in the Price of Electricity
in 32 Cities Combined
December 1914 to November 1934

D ate

D ecem ber 1914_______
D ecem ber 1915_______
D ecem ber 1916______
D ecem ber 1917_______
June 1918________ ___
D ecem ber 1918_____ June 1 9 1 9 _______ - .
D ecem ber 1919_______
June 1920____________
D ecem ber 1920_______
M a y 1921____________
Septem ber 1921_____
D ecem ber 1921_______
M arch 1922__________
June 1922____________

Percent­
age
decrease
from D e­
cember
1913
3.7
6.2
8.6
11.1
11.1
6.2
6.2
7.4
7.4
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.9
6.2


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D ate

Septem ber 1922______
D ecem ber 1922_______
M arch 1923...... ........... .
June 1923____________
Septem ber 1923_______
D ecem ber 1923_______
M arch 1924___________
June 1924__________ Septem ber 1924_______
D ecem ber 1924_______
June 1925_____________
D ecem ber 1925 _______
June 1926_____________
D ecem ber 1926_______
June 1927------ ------- ------

Percent­
age
decrease
from D e­
cember
1913
6.2
7.4
7.4
7.4
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
9.9
9.9
11.1
11.1
12.3

D a te

D ecem ber 1927
June 1928____________
D ecem ber 1928______
June 1929_____________
D ecem ber 1929_____ June 1930_____________
D ecem ber 1930_______
June 1931_____________
D e c e m b e r 1931 __
June 1932_____________
D ecem ber 1932_______
June 1933_____________
D ecem ber 1933_______
June 1934_____________
N ovem b er 1934-----------

Percent­
age
decrease
from D e ­
cember
1913
12.3
13.6
14.8
17.3
17.3
18.5
18.5
19.8
19.8
21.0
19.8
19.8
24.7
27.2
28.4

490

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 19 3 5

R e t a il P ric e s o f C o al, D e c e m b e r 15, 1934
ETAIL prices of coal as of the 15th of each month are secured
from each of the 51 cities from which retail food prices are
obtained. The prices are representative of curb delivery of the kinds
of coal sold to wage earners. Charges are not included for storing the
coal in cellar or bin where an extra handling is necessary.
Average prices for bituminous coal of several kinds in 38 cities
combined, and for stove and chestnut sizes of Pennsylvania anthra­
cite in 25 cities combined, are computed from the quotations received
from retail dealers in all cities where these coals are sold for house­
hold use. In addition to the prices for Pennsylvania anthracite,
prices are shown for Colorado, Arkansas, and New Mexico anthracite
in those cities where these coals form any considerable portion of the
sales for household use.
An average price for the year 1913 has been made from the averages
for January and July of that year. The average price for each month
has been divided by this average price for the year 1913 to obtain the
relative prices.

R

Table 12 . —Average Retail Prices of Coal in Large Cities Combined 1
December and November 1934, and December 1933
A verage retail price per
ton of 2,000 pounds

R elative retail price
(1913=100)

Percentage change
D ec. 15, 1934
com pared w ith —

A rticle
1934

1934
1933,
D ec. 15

D ec. 15 N o v . 15
B itu m in ou s___________
P enn sylvan ia anthracite:
S to v e__________ _____
C h estn u t_______________

1933,
1934,
D ec. 15 N o v . 15
D ec. 15

N o v . 15

1933,
D ec. 15

$8.36

$8.35

$8.18

153.8

153.7

150.6

+ 0 .1

+ 2 .1

13. 22
13.02

13. 25
13. 04

13. 45
13.24

171.1
164.5

171.6
164.8

174.0
167.2

- .3
- .2

—1.7
— 1.6

1Prices of bitu m in ou s coal are for 38 cities, and prices of P en n sylvan ia anthracite are for 25 cities.

Table 13 shows retail prices of bituminous coal for household use in
38 cities in December and November 1934 and in December 1933.
Table 14 shows similar data for anthracite coal in 31 cities.


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RETAIL PRICES

Table 13.—Average Retail Prices of Bituminous Coal per Ton of 2,000 Pounds,
by Cities
December and November 1934, and December 1933
1934
C ity , and grade and size of
coal

D ec.
15

N orth A tlan tic area:
Pittsburgh:
Prepared sizes________ $4.20
South A tla n tic area:
A tlanta:
7.02
Prepared sizes________
B altim ore:
Prepared sizes:
9.25
L ow v o la tile_______
R u n of mine:
7.25
H igh v o la tile_______
C harleston, S. C.:
Prepared sizes________ 10.00
Jacksonville:
11.13
Prepared sizes________
Norfolk:
Prepared sizes:
8.00
H igh v o la tile_______
9. 50
L ow v o la tile ______
R un of mine:
8.00
L ow v o la tile_______
R ichm ond:
Prepared sizes:
7. 67
H igh v olatile----------8.87
L ow v o la tile_______
R un of mine:
7.75
L ow v o la tile_______
Savannah:
Prepared sizes------------ i 10.03
W ashington:
Prepared sizes:
2 9.00
H igh v o la tile ______
L ow v o la tile_______ 2 10. 47
R un of m ine:
M ixed ___________ 2 8.02
N orth C entral area:
Chicago:
Prepared sizes:
8.25
H igh v olatile_______
10.01
L ow v o la tile _______
R un of mine:
7.76
L ow v o la tile_______
C incinnati:
Prepared sizes:
H igh v o la tile .-..........
L ow v o la tile_______
C leveland:
Prepared sizes:
H igh v olatile_______
L ow v o la tile_______
Colum bus:
Prepared sizes:
H igh volatile______
L ow v o la tile_______
D etroit:
Prepared sizes:
H igh v o la t i le - - .........
L ow v o la tile_______
R u n of m ine:
L ow v o la tile_______

N ov.
15

D ec.
15

$4.19

$4. 75

7. 02

6.98

9.38

9. 38

7.29

7.61

10.00

9.79

11.13

11.13

8. 00
9. 50

8.00
9. 50

8.00

8.00

7.67
8.87

7.83
8.87

7.75

7.25

i 10.03

1

2 9.00
2 10.47

2 8. 64
2 10. 31

28.02

2 7.88

10. 04

8. 24
10. 01

8. 21
10.83

7.76

7.76

5. 92
7.55

5.85
7.50

6.15
7.92

6.77
8.79

6. 75
8.79

6. 20
9. 00

6. 45
7.75

1934

1933

6.45
7.75

6.10
7.50

7.17
8. 52

7.12
8. 52

6.84
7.55

7.98

7.98

6.70

C ity, and grade and size of
coal

N o rth Central area—C on.
Indianapolis:
Prepared sizes:
H igh volatile_______
Low v olatile...............
R un of mine:
Low v o la tile....... .......
K ansas C ity:
Prepared sizes:
M ilw au k eePrepared sizes:
H igh volatile_______
Low v o la tile_______
M inneapolis:
Prepared sizes:
H igh volatile_______
L ow v o la tile_______
Omaha:
Prepared size s. ............
Peoria:
Prepared sizes_______
St. Louis:
Prepared sizes...............
St. Paul:
Prepared sizes:
H igh volatile_______
Low v o la tile_______
Springfield, 111.:
Prepared sizes...............
South C entral area:
Birm ingham :
Prepared sizes................
D allas:
Prepared sizes...............
H ouston:
Prepared sizes...............
L ittle Rock:
Prepared sizes........ .......
Louisville:
Prepared sizes:
H igh volatile.........
Low v olatile_______
M em phis:
Prepared sizes........—
M obile:
Prepared sizes________
N ew Orleans:
Prepared sizes_______
W estern area:
B u tte:
Prepared sizes_______
D enver:
Prepared sizes-----------Los A ngeles:.......... ...........
Prepared sizes_______
Portland, Oreg.:
Prepared sizes________
Salt Lake C ity:
Prepared sizes— ........
San Francisco:
Prepared sizes_______
Seattle:
Prepared sizes_______

1933

D ec.
15

N ov.
15

$6.40
8. 63

$6.42
8. 53

D ec.
15

$5.93
8.20

7.61

7.51

7.00

6.01

5.98

5. 79

7.98
10. 65

7.98
10.65

7.50
9.83

10.58
13.17

10. 33
12.95

9. 91
12.24

8.55

8.57

8.56

6.84

6. 76

6.43

5.99

5. 51

5. 55

10.28
13.18

10.16
13.07

9.98
12.33

4. 54

4.54

4.09

6.29

6.29

6.01

10.25

10.25

10.50

11. 75

11.75

11.60

8.17

8.17

8.33

6.15
8. 11

6.16
7.98

5. 62
8.06

7.19

7.15

7.14

9.00

8.97

8.46

10.60

10. 60

10.07

9.77

. 9.80

9.85

7.81

7.81

8.10

16.78

16.78

17.30

11.56

11. 53

12.88

6.66

7.38

7.78

15. 21

15.04

16.06

9.64

9.82

9.73

1 A ll coal sold in Savannah is w eighed b y th e city . A charge of 10 cents per ton or half ton is m ade. T h is
additional charge has been included in the above price.
2 Per ton of 2,240 pounds.

109041—35------16


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492

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW--- FEBRUARY 1935

Table 14.—Average Retail Prices of Anthracite Coal per Ton of 2,000 Pounds,
by Cities
December and November 1934, and December 1933
1934

1934

1933

1933

C ity and size of coal

C ity and size of coal
D ec.
15

N ov.
15

D ec.
15

D ec.
15

N ov.
15

D ec.
15

$8.63
8.38

$8.63
8.38

$8.85
8.60

11.75
11. 54

13. 00
12.75

13. 25
13.00

13. 50
13. 50

13. 50
13. 50

14.00
14.00

13.00
13.00

13.00
13.00

14.00
14.00

Pennsylvania anthracite
N orth A tlan tic area:
Boston:
S tove - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C hestnut
Bridgeport:
S t o v e ........................ ...........
C h estn u t________________
Buffalo:
S to v e-------- ------------------- Chestnut, _ _ _ _ _ _
F all R iver:
S to v e___________________
Chestnut,
M anchester:
S t o v e .....................................
Chestnut,
New ark:
S to v e ___________________
C h estn u t--------- --------------N e w H aven:
Stove
____________ _
C h estn u t...............................
N ew York:
S tove
__ _________ _
C h estn u t_____________
Philadelphia:
Stove
C h e stn u t.------ ---------------Pittsburgh:
S tove
______________
C h estn u t_________ _____
Portland, M aine:
S tove
. . __________
C h estn u t—........ .......... .......
Providence:
S to v e .
__ ____________
C h estn u t......................... ..
Rochester:
_______________
Stove
C h estn u t......................... ..

$13.75 $13. 75 $13.75
13.50 13.50 13.50
13. 50
13. 50

13. 50
13.50

13. 75
13.75

12.90
12. 65

12.94
12.65

12.85
12. 60

14.50
14. 25

14.50
14. 25

14. 50
14.25

15.50
15.50

15.50
15. 50

15.00
15.00

11.65
11.40

11.70
11.45

12.75
12.50

13. 65
13.65

13.65
13.65

13.90
13.90

12.70
12.44

12. 45
12.20

12. 45
12.20

11.20
10.96

11.13
10.88

12.25
12.00

12. 75
12.75

12.75
12. 75

12.88

14.50
14. 25

14. 50
14. 25

14.50
14. 25

15.00
14. 75

14.75 114. 75
14. 50 114.50

12.98
12. 73

12.98
12.73

13.10
12.85

N orth A tla n tic area—C ontd.
Scranton:
S to v e___________________
C h e s tn u t _______________
South A tlan tic area:
Baltim ore:
S to v e_____ ______ ______
C hestn u t...............................
Norfolk:
S to v e___________________
C hestn u t________________
Richm ond:
S to v e___________________
C h e s tn u t............................
W ashington, D . C.:
S to v e___________________
C h estn u t— -------- -----------N orth Central area:
Chicago:
S tove......... ............. ............. .
C h estn u t________________
C leveland:
S to v e................... - .................
C hestn u t________________
D etroit:
S to v e.......................................
C h estn u t________________
M ilw aukee:
S to v e____________ ______
C h estn u t________________
M inneapolis:
S to v e ----------------------------C h estn u t________________
St. Louis:
S to v e......... .............................
C h estn u t________________
S t. Paul:
S to v e ___________________
C h e stn u t_______________

214.30 214.30 214.45
214.00 214.00 214.15
13.82
13. 57

13.82
13. 57

13.99
13.79

12.48
12.23

12.43
12.23

12.38
12.13

12.40
12.19

12.40
12.19

12.62
12.36

13.55
13.30

13.55
13. 30

13.25
13.00

15.80
15.55

15.80
15.55

15.50
15. 25

14.08
13.83

13.73
13.45

13.91
13.72

15.80
15. 55

15.80
15. 55

15. 50
15.25

Other anthracite
N orth C entral area:
K ansas C ity:
A rk a n sa s'fiirn a ca __ _ _ $10. 50 $10. 50 $10.50
s t o v e . _______ 11.75 11.50 12.58
South C entral area:
Dallas:
A rkansas, egg.
_______ 13.50 13. 50 14.00
H ouston:
Arkansas, egg—.................. 14. 50 14.50 14. 67
L ittle Rock:
Arkansas, egg....................... 10.50 10.50 10. 50

W estern area:
D enver:
Colorado, furnace_______ $15.50 $15.50
sto v e _________ 15.50 15. 50
San Francisco:
N e w M exico, egg________ 25. 63 25.63
Colorado, egg___________ 25.11 25.11

1 T he average price of coal delivered in bins is 50 cents higher than here show n.
delivered in bins.
2 Per ton of 2,240 pounds.


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Practically all coal is

493

RETAIL PRICES

Retail prices of coal were collected on January 15 and July 15 for
the years 1913 through 1919 from the cities covered in the retailfood study. Beginning with June 1920 prices have been collected on
the 15th of each month.
Table 15 shows for large cities combined average prices of bitumi­
nous coal and of Pennsylvania white-ash anthracite, stove, and chest­
nut sizes on January 15 and July 15, 1913 to 1932, and for each
month from January 15, 1933, to December 15, 1934.
Table 15.—Average Retail Prices of Coal in Large Cities Combined, 1913 -24,
Inclusive 1
B itu m in o u s

P en n sylvan ia anthra­
cite, w h ite ash—
S tove

Year and
m onth

A v­
erage
price,
2,000
lb.

R e la ­
tive A v ­
price erage
(1913 price,
= 100) 2,000
lb.

D o l.

1913: Yr. a v .
Jan ___
J u ly —
1914: Jan — .
J u ly —
1915: Jan ___
J u ly —
1916: Jan___
J u ly —
1917: Jan—
J u ly —
1918: Jan___
J u ly ...
1919: Jan___
J u ly ...
1920: Jan___
J u ly ...
1921: Jan___
J u ly —
1922: Jan___
J u ly —
1923: Jan___
J u ly ...
1924: J a n ....
J u ly —
1925: Jan___
J u ly ...
1926: Jan___
J u ly ...
1927: J a n ....
J u ly ...
1928: Jan___
J u ly __

5.43
5.48
5. 39
5.97
5. 46
5.71
5.44
5.69
5. 52
6.96
7. 21
7. 68
7.92
7.90
8.10
8.81
10. 55
11.82
10.47
9.89
9.49
11.18
10.04
9.75
8.94
9.24
8.61
9. 74
8.70
9.96
8.91
9. 30
8. 69

7.73
7.99
7.46
7.80
7. 60
7.83
7.54
7.93
8.12
9.29
9.08
9.88
9.96
11.51
12.14
12.59
14.28
15.90
14.90
14.98
14. 87
15.43
15.10
15. 77
15.24
15. 45
15.14
(>)
15. 43
15. 66
15.15
15.44
14.91

C hestnut

R e la ­ A v ­ R ela­
tiv e erage tiv e
price price, price
(1913 2,000 (1913
=100) lb.
= 100)
D o l.

100.0
103.4
96.6
100.9
98.3
101.3
97.6
102.7
105.2
120.2
117.5
127.9
128.9
149.0
157.2
162.9
184.9
207.0
192.8
193.9
192.4
199.7
195.5
204.1
197.2
200.0
196.0
m

199.7
202.7
196.1
199.8
192.9

7.91
8.15
7. 68
8.00
7. 78
7.99
7.73
8.13
8.28
9.40
9.16
10.03
10.07
11.61
12.17
12. 77
14. 33
16.13
14.95
15.02
14.92
15.46
15.05
15. 76
15.10
15.37
14.93
(2)
15.19
15.42
14.81
15.08
14. 63

A v­
erage
price,
2,000
lb.

R e la ­
tive A v ­
price erage
(1913 price,
= 100) 2,000
lb.

D o l.

100.0
103.0
97.0
101.0
98.3
101.0
97.7
102.7
104.6
118.8
115.7
126.7
127.3
146.7
153.8
161.3
181.1
203.8
188.9
189.8
188.5
195.3
190.1
199.1
190.7
194.2
188.6
(2)
191.9
194.8
187.1
190.6
184.9

P enn sylvan ia anthra­
cite, w h ite ash—
Stove

Y ear and
m onth

D o l.

100.0
100.8
99.2
109.9
100.6
105.2
100.1
104.8
101.6
128.1
132.7
141.3
145.8
145.3
149.1
162.1
194.1
217.6
192.7
182.0
174.6
205.7
184.7
179.5
164.5
170.0
158.5
179.3
160.1
183.3
163.9
171.1
159.9

B itu m in o u s

1929: Jan___
J u ly —
1930: Jan___
J u ly —
1931: Jan— _
J u l y .1932: Jan___
J u ly —
1933: Jan—
F e b --M ar—
A p r .-M a y ..
J u n e .J u ly —
A u g .-S ep t—
O ct__
N ov—
D e c ..1934: J a n ....
F e b -.M ar—
A p r. .
M a y ..
June. .
Ju ly —
A u g -.S ep t-O c t ...
N o v .- .
D e c -.-

9.09
8. 62
9.11
8. 65
8.87
8.09
8.17
7.50
7.46
7.45
7.43
7.37
7.17
7.18
7. 64
7. 77
7. 94
8.08
8.18
8.18
8.24
8.22
8.23
8.18
8.13
8.18
8.23
8.30
8.31
8.35
8.35
8.36

R e la ­ A v ­
tiv e erage
price price,
(1913 2,000
= 100) lb.

D o l.

167.2
158.6
167.6
159.1
163.2
148.9
150.3
138.0
137.3
137.0
136.7
135.6
132.0
132.1
140.7
143.0
146.0
148.7
150.6
150.6
151.6
151.3
151.5
150.5
149.5
150.5
151.5
152.6
153.0
153.6
153.7
153.8

15. 38
14.94
15. 33
14. 84
15. 12
14. 61
15.00
13. 37
13. 82
13. 75
13.70
13. 22
12.44
12.18
12.47
12.85
13.33
13.44
13. 46
13.45
13.44
13.46
13. 46
13.14
12. 53
12.60
12. 79
13.02
13. 25
13.32
13. 25
13.22

C hestnut
R e la ­
tiv e
price
(1913
= 100)

D o l.

199.1
193.4
198.4
192.1
195.8
189.1
194.2
173.0
178.9
178.0
177.3
171.1
161.0
157.6
161.3
166.3
172.5
174.0
174.3
174.0
174.0
174.3
174.2
170.1
162.2
163.0
165. 5
168.5
171.4
172.4
171.6
171.1

15. 06
14. 63
15. 00
14. 53
14.88
14. 59
14.97
13.16
13. 61
13.53
13. 48
13.00
12. 25
12.00
12. 26
12. 65
13.12
13. 23
13. 26
13. 24
13. 25
13.27
13. 27
12.94
12. 34
12. 40
12. 60
12.83
13.05
13.11
13.04
13.02

190.3
184.8
189.5
183.6
188.1
184.3
189.1
166.2
171.9
171.0
170.4
164.3
154.8
151.6
155.0
159.8
165.8
167.1
167.5
167.2
167.4
167.7
167.6
163. 5
155.9
156.7
159.2
162.1
164.9
165.7
164.8
164.5

1 T h e num ber of cities used for th is table varied during the years show n . For b itu m in ou s coal the n u m ­
ber increased from 27 cities in 1913 to 45 cities in 1920, th en decreased to 38 cities in 1923-34. For P e n n ­
sy lv a n ia anthracite the num ber increased from 27 cities in 1915 to 39 cities in 1919-20, th en decreased to 28
cities in 1925-34.
2 Insufficient data.

The chart on page 494 shows the trend in retail prices of stove
and chestnut sizes of Pennsylvania anthracite in 25 cities combined,
and of bituminous coal in 38 cities combined. The trend is shown
by months from January 15, 1929, to December 15, 1934, inclusive.

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co

495

RETAIL PRICES

R e t a il P ric e s o f G as, N o v e m b e r 15, 1934
HE net price per 1,000 cubic feet of gas for household use in
each of 51 cities is published in June and December of each year
in conjunction with the cost-of-living study. The average family
consumption of manufactured gas is estimated to be 3,000 cubic feet
per month. In cities where a service charge or a sliding scale is in
operation, families using less than 3,000 cubic feet per month pay a
somewhat higher rate than here shown; while those consuming more
than this amount pay a lower rate. The figures here given are believed
to represent quite closely the actual monthly cost of gas per 1,000
cubic feet to the average wage earner’s family.
Table 16 shows the net price of manufactured gas on November 15
and June 15, 1934, and December 15, 1933, by cities. These prices
are based on an estimated average family consumption of 3,000 cubic
feet per month.

T

Table 16.—Net Price per 1,000 Cubic Feet of Manufactured Gas, by Cities
November and June 1934, and December 1933
C ity

B altim ore_________
B irm in gham ______
B oston ____________
C harleston, S. C . . .
C lev ela n d ...-.............
D etro it........................
Fall R iv er________
Ind ianap olis______
Jacksonville_______
M an ch ester_______
M ilw a u k ee—.............
M inn eap olis..............
N ew ark ___________
N ew H a v e n _______
N ew Y o rk ________

N o v . 15,
1934

June 15,
1934

D ec. 15,
1933

$0.85
.80
1.16
1. 40
1.25
.79
1.14
.95
1.92
1.34
.82
.96
1.21
1. 13
1.21

$0.85
.80
1.16
1.40
1. 25
.79
1.14
.95
1.92
1.34
.82
.96
1.21
1.13
1.21

$0.85
.80
1.16
1.45
1. 25
. 79
1.14
.95
1.92
1.34
.82
.96
1.21
1.13
1.22

C ity

N orfolk
Omaha
Philadelphia
Portland, M a in e .-Portland, Dreg
Providence
R ic h m o n d ___ _
R och ester..
St. L o u is..
St. Paul
Savannah
Scranton
Seattle
W ashington
H onolulu, T . H ___

N o v . 15,
1934

June 15,
1934

$1 18
.73

$1 18
7fi
88

1.42
1 17
1 13
1. 29
1. 00
1 1.30
.90
1.45
1.40
1. 48
.85
1.68

1.42
1 17
1 13
1 29
1 00
1 1 30
90
1 45
1 40
1 48
85
1.68

88

D ec. 15,
1933

$1 1K
79
88

1.42
1 17
1 13
1 29
00
1 1 30
90
1 45
1 40
1 42
85
1.68

1

i Price b ased on 24 therm s, w hich is th e eq u ivalent of 3,000 cubic feet of gas of a heating valu e of 800 B . t. u.
per cu b ic foot.

Table 17 shows by cities net prices on November 15 and June 15,
1934, and December 15, 1933, for natural gas and for mixed manu­
factured and natural gas (preponderantly natural gas). These prices
are based on an estimated average family consumption of 5,000 cubic
feet per month.


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496

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW--- FEBRUARY 19 35

Table 17 . —Net Prices per 1,000 Cubic Feet of Natural or Mixed Manufactured
and Natural Gas, by Cities
November and June 1934, and December 1933
C ity

N o v . 15,
1934

June 15,
1934

$1.09
. 65
. 70
i 1.30
75
53
. 55
. 79
.96
. 75
.95

$1.09
. 65
.70
i 1.30
. 75
. 60
. 55
.79
.99
. 75
.95

A tlanta __
Buffalo
B u tte
C hicago,- ------------C in c in n a t i
O le v e l a n d
C n ln m b n s

D allas
D en ver ________
H ouston
Kansas C ity, M o . .

D ee. 15,
1933
$1.09
.65
. 70
i 1.30
.75
. 60
. 55
. 79
.99
.75
.95

C ity

L ittle R o c k .. _
Los A n g e le s _____
L ou isville --_
M em p h is________
M ob ile __
N ew Orleans. ____
Peoria. . .
.. . .
Pittsb u rgh
.
Salt Lake C ity ____
San Francisco_____
Springfield------------

N o v . 15,
1934

June 15,
1934

$0. 65
.79
.58
.95
1.24
.95
2 1.95
.60

$0. 65
.79
.56
.95
1.24
.95
2 1. 95
.60

D ec. 15,
1933
$0. 65
.79
.45
.95
1.24
.95
2 1.95
.60

1.01

1.01

1.01

.97
21.28

.97
2 1.28

.97
2 2. 00

1 Price based on 40 therm s, w hich is th e eq u ivalent of 5,000 cubic feet of a heating valu e of 800 B . t. u. per
U U U 1 U 1U U L.

_

2 Price based on 50 therm s, w hich is th e eq u ivalen t of 5,000 cubic feet of a heating valu e of 1,000 B . t. u.
per cu b ic foot.

From the prices quoted on manufactured gas, average net prices
have been computed for all cities combined. Prices and changes as
indicated by relative prices based on April 1913 are shown in table
18 for various dates since 1913.
T a b le 1 8 .— A v e rag e N e t P ric e s o f M a n u fa c tu re d G a s in L a rg e C itie s C o m b in e d 1

April 1913 to November 1934

D ate

1913—A pril
.
____
1928—D ecem ber
1929—D ecem ber
1930—June
. . __________
D ecem ber
____ _____
1931—June . ______________
D ecem b er___________ .

A verage
net price

$0.95
1. 22
1. 21
1. 21
1.18
1.18
1.15

R elative
price
(A pril
1913=
100)
100.0
128. 4
127.4
127.4
124.2
124. 2
121.1

D a te

1932—June . . . .
___
D ecem b er_____ _ ___
1933—June .
____
D e c e m b e r ..
____
1934—J u n e . . ................................
N ovem b er_________ . .

A verage
net price

$1.15
1.15
1.14
1.14
1.14
1.14

R elative
price
(April
1913=
100)
121.1
121.1
120.0
120.0
120.0
120.0

1 T h e num ber of cities u sed for th e tab le has gradually decreased during these years from 43 cities in April
1913 to 29 cities in June 1932-N ov. 1934, in clusive.


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WHOLESALE PRICES
W h o lesa le P ric e s in D e c e m b e r 1934
HE general level of wholesale commodity prices advanced onehalf of 1 percent from November to December 1934. The
index of the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the United States De­
partment of Labor rose to 76.9 percent of the 1926 average.
The December index registered an advance of 6.5 percent over
the low point of the year (January), when the index was 72.2, and
a decrease of nearly 1 percent from the 1934 high, 77.6 in September.
The December 1934 index was 8.6 percent above December 1933,
22.8 percent above December 1932, and 12 percent above Decem­
ber 1931. However, when compared with December 1930, the De­
cember 1934 prices were down by 3.4 percent and when compared
with December 1929 were lower by 17.6 percent.
Of the 10 major groups of items covered by the Bureau, 7 groups
(farm products, foods, hides and leather products, textile products,
building materials, chemicals and drugs, and miscellaneous commodi­
ties) registered increases in December 1934 as compared with the
preceding month. The remaining groups—fuel and lighting mate­
rials, metals and metal products, and house-furnishing goods—
showed slight decreases. Changes in prices by groups of commodi­
ties were as follows:

T

T a b le 1 .— N u m b e r o f Ite m s C h a n g in g in P ric e fro m N o v e m b e r to D e c e m b e r 1934
Groups

Increases

Decreases

A ll com m od ities__________________________________________________

191

Farm p rod ucts__ ________________________________________________
F o o d s i_______________________________________ ____ ______________
H ides and leather products______________ _______ _ . . ______ _ .
T extile products__________________________________________________
F u el and lighting m aterials____ __________________________________
M etals and m etal p ro d u c ts._______ ________ ______________________
B u ild ing m aterials__________ _ ______________ ___ _______________
C hem icals and drugs______________________________________________
House-furnishing goods________ __________________________________
M iscellaneous . _______________________________ ________________

36
51
10
31
7
18
15
13
3
7

117
22
24
2
20
8
13
8
3
6
11

N o change
476
9
47
29
61
9
99
63
73
52
34

Raw materials, including farm products, coffee, copra, hides and
skins, raw silk, coal, crude petroleum, iron ore, crude rubber, and
other similar commodities, registered an advance of 1.3 percent, and
were 18 percent above the December 1933 level. Finished prod­
ucts, among which are included more than 500 manufactured arti
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497

498

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW----FEBRUARY 1 9 3 5

cles, advanced one-fourth of 1 percent over November and were
6.3 percent above the corresponding month of 1933. Semimanu­
factured articles, including such items as raw sugar, leather, iron
and steel bars, pig iron, and other similar goods, declined by onetenth of 1 percent, as compared with the preceding month, and 1.8
percent below December of last year.
The combined index of “All commodities exclusive of farm products
and processed foods” registered no change between November and
December, but were higher than a year ago by six-tenths of 1 per­
cent. The nonagricultural commodities group, which includes “All
commodities except farm products,” advanced one-tenth of 1 per­
cent to a point 5.1 percent above a year ago.
The greatest advance from November to December was recorded
by the farm products group, with the average rising nearly 1.7 per­
cent. Important articles in this group contributing to the rise
were ewes, 31 percent; wethers, 26 percent; corn, 11 percent; rye
10 percent; barley and steers, 9 percent; and hogs and lambs, 7
percent. Smaller increases were shown for wheat, cotton, hay,
peanuts, and tobacco. Live poultry, on the other hand, decreased
3 percent; eggs, 2 percent; and fresh apples, three-fourths of 1 per­
cent. The December 1934 index of farm products, 72, was ap­
proximately 30 percent above that of December 1933; it was more
than 63 percent higher than December 1932; as compared with
December 1929, however, farm products were down by 29 percent.
Chemicals and drugs, with an index of 77.8, advanced 1.2 percent,
due to higher prices for chemicals, fertilizer materials, and mixed
fertilizers. Lower prices were reported for drugs and pharma­
ceuticals.
A 6.8 percent increase in hides and skins and 1.4 percent for leather
forced the index of hides and leather products up 1 percent to 85.1.
The subgroup of shoes was slightly lower, while other leather products
remained unchanged.
Miscellaneous commodities, with an index of 71, were higher by
one-half of 1 percent due to an advance of nearly 14 percent for cattle
feed. Crude rubber and paper and pulp decreased three-fourths of 1
percent and other miscellaneous items showed a smaller decline
Automobile tires and tubes were unchanged.
Textile products rose four-tenths of 1 percent during the month.
Average prices of silk and rayon were higher by 5 percent; knit goods
1.5 percent; and other textile products one-tenth of 1 percent; cotton
goods and woolen and worsted goods were slightly lower. The sub­
group of clothing showed no change. The index for the group, 70,
was 8 percent lower than December a year ago when the index was
76.4. It was, however, 36.7 percent above the low point of 1933
(February), when the index was 51.2.

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WHOLESALE PRICES

499

The foods group advanced one-fourth of 1 percent, to 75.3 percent
of the 1926 average., showing an increase of 20.5 percent over De­
cember 1933 when the index was 62.5, and an increase of 29 percent
over December 1932 when the index was 58.3. The wholesale price
food index for December 1934 was 8.5 percent lower than for Decem­
ber 1930, and 23.7 percent below that of December 1929 when the
indexes were 82.4 and 98.7, respectively. Important price advances
in this group were recorded for butter, cheese, bread, oatmeal, corn
meal, fresh beef, lamb, mutton, fresh pork, veal, coffee, lard, oleo­
margarine, and most vegetable oils. Lower prices were recorded for
flour, macaroni, ham, mess pork, dressed poultry, and sugar.
Advances in the price of sand and gravel and window glass caused
the general level of building materials to advance one-tenth of 1
percent. The subgroups of brick and tile, lumber, cement, paint and
paint materials, lumber materials, and structural steel were unchanged.
The December index for the building-materials group, 85.1, is onehalf of 1 percent lower than for the corresponding month of 1933,
although it is 22 percent above the low of 1933 (February), with an
index of 69.8.
Higher prices for coal were offset by decreases in electricity, gas,
and petroleum products, resulting in the group of fuel and lighting
materials declining nearly 1 percent. Coke remained unchanged at
the level of the previous month.
The index of metal and metal products, 85.9, was lower by threetenths of 1 percent, due to declining prices of certain iron and steel
items, nonferrous metals, and motor vehicles. Average prices of
agricultural implements were up nearly 1 percent, while plumbing and
heating fixtures were unchanged.
The group of house-furnishing goods, with an index of 81.2, also
registered a slight decrease, amounting to one-tenth of 1 percent.
Both furniture and furnishings shared in the decline.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics index, which includes 784 price
series weighted according to their relative importance in the country’s
markets, is based on the average prices of 1926 as 100.
Index numbers for the groups and subgroups of commodities for
December 1934, in comparison with November 1934, and December
of each of the past 5 years, are contained in the accompanying table.


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500

M O N TH LY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 19 3 5

T a b le 2 .— In d e x N u m b e rs o f W ho lesale P ric e s b y G ro u p s a n d S u b g ro u p s of
C o m m o d itie s
[1926 = 100]

Groups and subgroups

A ll com m odities __________ _ _________ ____
Farm p r o d u c ts.______ __________ _______ ___
G r a in s... . . __________________ ________
L ivestock and p o u l t r y .______ _________
Other farm products_____ _ ______ . . .
F o o d s_______ _ ______________ ____________
B utter, cheese, and m ilk ______ . ________
Cereal products__________________________
Fruits and vegetab les________ __________
M e a ts_______________________ __________
Other foods______________________ _______
H ides and leather p rod u cts__________________
B oots and shoes_________________________
H ides and sk in s___________ ____________
L eather_________________________________
Other leather products__________________
T extile products_____________________________
C loth in g____________ . ________ . . .
C otton goods____________________________
K n it good s___ ____ ____ ____ __________
Silk and rayon . . _ . __________________
W oolen and w orsted goods_______________
Other textile p rod ucts_____ _____________
F u el and lighting m aterials__________________
A nth racite________________ _______ ____
B itu m in ou s coal_______________________ .
____________ . __________ _
C oke____
E lectricity_______________________________
G as______________________________ _____
Petroleum p rod ucts___________ _________
M etals and m etal p rod ucts__________________
A gricultural im p lem en ts_________________
Iron and steel__________ _ . . __________
M otor veh icles______ ___________________
N onferrous m etals_______________________
P lum b in g and h eatin g___________________
B u ild ing m aterials___________________________
Brick and t i l e .. ______________________
C em en t___ _______ _________ .
L u m ber___________________________ _
P ain t and pain t m aterials_________
P lum b in g and h eatin g___________________
Structural s te e l.. . ___ ________ ________
Other build in g m aterials_________________
C hem icals and drugs______________________ .
C hem icals_______________________________
D rugs and p h a r m a ceu tic a ls________ ____
Fertilizer m a teria ls.. ___________________
M ixed fertilizers___________________ _____
House-furnishing g o o d s _________ _______ _
F u rn ish in gs_______________________ . ._
Fu rn itu re___ . _____________ . . __ _
M iscellaneous_______ _________________ _____
A utom obile tires and t u b e s . . . ______ . . .
C attle fe e d ... ______________ _____
Paper and p u lp ________ ______
Rubber, crude_________ _____ _. .
Other m iscellaneous___
_____________
R aw m aterials
_________
. ... . .
Sem im anufactured articles___ ______ _______
F inish ed p rod ucts___________________________
N onagricultural com m od ities.
________ . . .
A ll com m odities other than farm products and
foods_____ ___________ _______ __________

D e­
N o­
D e­
D e­
D e­
D e­
D e­
cember vember cember cember cember cember cember
1934
1934
1932
1933
1931
1930
1929
76.9

76.5

70.8

62.6

68.6

79.6

93.3

72.0
91.5
57.2
75.1
75.3
79.6
92.2
62.4
69.0
74.3
85.1
97.2
67.4
71.8
85.7
70.0
78.4
84.3
61.9
27.1
74.0
68.6
73.7
82.3
96.5
85.6
(•)
(i)
49.8
85.9
92.7
85.6
94.6
67.5
68.8
85.1
91.2
93.9
81.2
78.8
68.8
92.0
89.8
77.8
82.2
73.4
65.3
73.7
81.2
84.2
78.2
71.0
47.5
123.1
81.5
26.4
80.7
73.1
71.0
79.5
77.8

70.8
87.2
54.0
75.8
75.1
78.6
91.0
65.3
68.4
74.0
84.2
97.3
63.1
70.8
85.7
69.7
78.4
84.4
61.0
25.8
74.1
68.5
74.4
82.1
96.4
85.6
94.0
92.4
50.5
86.2
91.9
86.0
94.7
67.7
68.8
85.0
91.2
93.9
81.2
78.8
68.8
92.0
89.4
76.9
80.9
73.5
64.6
73.5
81.3
84.3
78.4
70.6
47.5
108. 2
82.1
26.6
80.8
72.2
71.1
79.3
77.7

55.5
60.4
38.0
64.3
62.5
65.1
84.7
63.0
46.0
63.4
89.2
98.6
74.9
80.1
87.6
76.4
87.9
85.5
71.2
29.6
84.3
75.9
73.4
81.5
90.6
83.6
94.0
92.2
51.6
83.5
85.1
83.6
90.9
66.6
72.5
85.6
85.7
91.2
88.0
77.5
72.5
86.8
88.6
73.7
79.2
59.0
68.1
69.9
81.0
82.9
79.3
65.7
43.2
60.3
82.5
18.0
79.0
61.9
72.3
74.8
74.0

44.1
31.7
38.7
51.3
58.3
59.5
61.7
52.8
49.4
66.1
69.6
83.8
41.7
59.2
81.9
53.0
62.5
51.7
49.3
29.3
54.2
66.6
69.3
88.7
80.2
75.3
104.1
96.5
45.0
79.4
84.5
78.8
93.0
48.3
67.5
70.8
75.1
81.1
56.5
68.1
67.5
81.7
80.1
72.3
79.7
54.7
63.1
65.6
73.6
74.7
72.7
63.4
44.6
37.1
73.0
6.8
81.3
52.1
57.7
68.4
66.5

55.7
47.0
51.7
61.2
69.1
79.8
72.2
63.5
63.2
67.2
79.8
89.2
48.8
78.6
99.7
60.8
70.8
56.4
58.5
39.0
63.9
71.3
68.3
94.8
83.8
81.1
104.1
98.2
39.6
82.2
85.5
81.0
95.2
53.8
79.9
75.7
80.0
74.6
65.8
76.6
79.9
81.7
81.5
76.1
80.8
61.0
70.1
77.1
78.5
76.6
80.6
66.8
40.8
53.9
80.8
9.5
85.9
60.2
63.7
73.3
71.3

75.2
64.0
76.3
78.1
82.4
89.2
75.9
75.4
89.2
77.0
91.4
97.7
69.4
91.5
104.8
73.7
83.5
75.6
72.3
48.2
73.9
77.8
74.0
89.6
89.1
83.8
100.7
95.4
51.1
87.9
94.4
86. 6
96.0
71.7
85.3
84.8
87.1
90.6
78.2
83.7
85.3
81.7
89.3
85.6
89.9
65.7
81.4
90.6
88.8
85.6
92.5
73.5
50.2
78.2
84.0
18.6
90.3
74.2
75.1
82.8
80.5

101.9
97.5
94.6
108.2
98.7
101.6
87.9
107.4
103 2
94.6
107.3
106.1
107.4
110.6
106.3
87.8
88.9
96.2
86.5
74.5
85.2
89.6
83.1
91.2
92.4
84.2
97.5
91.7
69.9
98.5
97.3
93.8
104. 2
102.2
92.2
94.4
93.9
89.2
91.9
96.6
92.2
97.0
96.9
93.5
98.7
71.3
89.5
97.1
94.7
94.0
95.4
82. 2
53.0
122.4
88.2
33.2
100.0
95.0
92. 0
92.7
91.5

78.0

78.0

77.5

69.0

72.3

80.3

90.5

1 D ata not y e t available.

Wholesale Price Trends During 1934

T he general level of the wholesale commodity prices rose to 74.9
percent of the 1926 average for the year 1934 as a whole, showing an
increase of nearly 14 percent over the average for 1933, when the index

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WHOLESALE PRICES

501

was 65.9, and an increase of 15.7 percent over 1932, when the index
was 64.8. When compared with 1929, with an index of 95.3, the 1934
level was lower by 21.3 percent. During the year the trend was
steadily upward except for slight reactions in April and October.
The accumulated rise from January to December was 6.5 percent.
Prices of farm products showed wide variation during the year with
the result that from the low in January to the high in September an
increase of 25 percent was recorded. The year index for the group,
65.3, was 27 percent higher than for 1933, when the index was 51.4,
and 35.5 percent higher than 1932, when the index was 48.2. Grains
were up over 40 percent; livestock and poultry 18.7 percent; and other
farm products, including cotton, eggs, fruits, hay, milk, tobacco,
potatoes, and wool 26.3 percent.
Foods for the year 1934 were 16.5 percent higher than for 1933 due to
an advance of 26 percent in meats; 20 percent in butter, cheese, and
milk; 18 percent in cereal products; and 9 percent in fruits and
vegetables and other foods. The index for the group as a whole
was 70.5.
Price increases in the hides and leather products group were not so
pronounced as in most of the other groups. All subgroups recorded an
increase ranging from 2 percent in hides and skins to 8.8 percent in
shoes. The index for the group, 86.6, compares with 80.9 for a year
ago, showing an increase of 7 percent.
The trend in textile products was downward during the year.
The general level was 12.5 percent above a year ago. Cotton goods
were up 21.5 percent; woolen and worsted goods 15 percent; clothing
14.3 percent, and knit goods 7.3 percent. Silk and rayon prices, on
the other hand, were lower by 12.7 percent. The index for the group
was 72.9 compared with 64.8 for 1 year ago and 54.9 for 2 years ago.
' An advance of about 25 percent in petroleum products, 14 percent
in bituminous coal, and 9 percent in coke resulted in fuel and lighting
materials increasing 11 percent over the previous year. Average
prices of anthracite were slightly lower.
Metals and metal products with an index of 86.9 were nearly 9 per­
cent above the year 1933. Nonferrous metals were up 13.5 percent;
iron and steel 10.3 percent; plumbing and heating fixtures 8 percent;
agricultural implements 7 percent; and motor vehicles 6 percent.
Average prices of building materials weakened slightly during the
closing months of 1934. The year index, 86.2, however, is 12 percent
above 1933, when the index was 77. Lumber was up 19.5 percent;
brick and tile 14 percent; structural steel and other building materials
9 percent; and cement and paint and paint materials 8 percent.
Chemicals and drugs showed an increase of 4.8 percent over
the previous year, the smallest recorded for any of the 10 major groups,

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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1 9 3 5

although drugs and pharmaceuticals were up 28 percent; mixed fertiliz­
ers 15 percent; and fertilizer materials 2 percent. The subgroup of
chemicals remained unchanged from last year.
Both furniture and furnishings in the group of house-furnishing
goods were higher than 1933. Furnishings recorded an increase of 10
percent while furniture advanced 5 percent. The index for the group,
81.5, was 7.5 percent over last year.
In the group of miscellaneous commodities, crude rubber recorded
an increase of over 117 percent over 1933, and cattle feed 54 percent.
Automobile tires and tubes, paper and pulp, and other miscellaneous
commodities showed smaller increases. The level for the group as a
whole for 1934 was 11.5 percent above the previous year.
Raw materials, including farm products, coffee, hides and skins, raw
silk, coal, crude petroleum, crude rubber, and other similar commodi­
ties, registered an advance of 21.5 percent over 1933, and 24.5 percent
over 1932. They were, however, 29.5 percent below the 1929 level.
The groups of semimanufactured articles and finished products re­
corded increases of 11 percent over 1933. Semimanufactured articles
were 22.7 percent over 1932, while finished products advanced 11
percent over the same period.
Nonagricultural commodities, with an index of 76.9, were 11.5 per­
cent higher than 1933 and 12.5 percent higher than 1932.
The group of “ All commodities other than farm products and
foods” advanced 10 percent over 1933 and nearly 12 percent over
1932.
T a b le 3 .— In d e x N u m b e rs o f W h o lesale P ric e s b y G ro u p s a n d S u b g ro u p s of
C o m m o d itie s
[1926=100]

Groups and subgroups

Year
1934

D ecem ­
ber 1934

Year
1933

Year
1932

Year
1931

Year
1930

Year
1929

All com m od ities_____________________________

74.9

76.9

65.9

64.8

73.0

86.4

95.3

Farm p rod ucts___________________ ________
Grains______________________ ___________
L ivestock and p ou ltry___________________
Other farm products_____________________
F ood s________________ ____ _________________
B u tter, cheese, and m ilk ___________ ____
Cereal products_________________________
Fruits and vegetables______ _____________
M e a ts_______________________________ ___
Other foods_____ _______ ________________
H ides and leather p rod ucts_____________ ____
B oots and shoes_____________ ___ - ____
H ides and sk in s____ ________________ __ _
L eather_________________________ _______
Other leather products__________________
T extile products_____________________________
C loth in g________________________________
C otton goods____________________ _______
K n it good s________ ____ ________________
Silk and rayon __________________________
W oolen and w orsted goods_______________
Other textile p rod ucts____________ _____ _

65.3
74.5
51.5
70.5
70.5
72.7
88.7
67.5
62.9
66.6
86.6
98.1
68.6
75.0
86.6
72.9
82.5
86.5
63.2
26.7
79.7
73.1

72.0
91.5
57.2
75.1
75.3
79.6
92.2
62.4
69.0
74.3
85. 1
97. 2
67.4
71.8
85.7
70.0
78.4
84.3
61.9
27.1
74.0
68.6

51.4
53.1
43.4
55.8
60.5
60.7
75.0
61.7
50.0
61. 1
80.9
90.2
67.1
71.4
81.1
64.8
72.2
71.2
58.9
30.6
69.3
72.5

48.2
39.4
48.2
51.4
61.0
61.3
66.4
58.0
58.2
60.7
72.9
86.1
42.1
65.1
90.1
54.9
63.0
54.0
51.6
31.0
57.7
67.9

64.8
53.0
63.9
69.2
74.6
81.8
73.1
72.4
75.4
69.8
86.1
93.7
60.2
86.2
101.4
66.3
75.9
66.1
60.9
43.5
68.2
75.1

88.3
78.3
89.2
91.1
90.5
95.5
81.5
96.6
98.4
80.9
100.0
102.0
91.0
101.3
105.5
80.3
86.2
84.7
80.0
60.2
79.0
84.2

104.9
97.4
106. 1
106.6
99.9
105.6
88.0
97.8
109.1
93.9
109.1
106.3
112.7
113.2
106.4
90.4
90.0
98.8
88.5
80.4
88.3
93. 1


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503

WHOLESALE' PRICES

T a b le 3 .— In d e x N u m b e rs o f W h o lesale P ric e s b y G ro u p s a n d S u b g ro u p s o f
C o m m o d itie s— C o n tin u e d
[1926=100]

Groups and subgroups

F u el and lighting m aterials__________________
A nth racite________________________ _____
B itu m in ou s coal_________ ______________
C o k e__ _________________________________
E lectricity ________________ ____ ________
Gas____ ________________________________
Petroleum p rod u cts. _____ _____________
M etals and m etal p rod ucts__________________
Agricultural im p lem en ts_________________
Iron and steel . . . . ____________ _____ _
M otor veh icles__________________________
Nonferrous m etals. ____ _______________
P lum b in g and h eatin g_______ ______ _ .
B u ild ing m aterials______________ ___________
B rick and tile _
__________ ___ . .
C em ent ________________________________
L u m ber_____ .
__ _____ ______
.
P a in t and pain t m aterials_______________
P lum b in g and h e a t in g ______ . _
Structural steel . . _
_________ ______
Other building m aterials________________
C hem icals and drugs____________________ .
C hem icals
___ ___ _________ _______ !
D rugs and pharm aceuticals______________
Fertilizer m a teria ls.. ___________________
M ixed fertilizers. . __ ___ ____ ____ _
H ouse-furnishing g o o d s ___ __________ ____ _
F u r n is h in g s .._______ _______ ___ _
F u rn itu re. . ______ _ __ . . ________
M iscellaneous _______. ____________________
A utom obile tires and tu b es__ . . . ___ _
C attle feed ____________ _______________
Paper and p u lp ... .
. . . ______ . .
R ubber, c r u d e _______ ____ _ __________
Other m iscellaneous_____ __ ___ _
__
R aw m a teria ls..
. . . .
.. _________ . . .
Sem im anufactured articles__ _____________
Finished p r o d u c t s .___
__ _______ ___
N onagricultural com m od ities____ ____ _
A ll com m odities other than farm products and
foods______________________________________

Year
1934

D ecem ­
ber 1934

Year
1933

Y ear
1932

Y ear
1931

Year
1930

Year
1929

73.3
80.1
94.5
84.8
0)
(0
50.5
86.9
89. 6
86. 7
95.9
67. 7
72. 6
86.2
90. 2
93.2
84. 5
79.5
72. 6
90.8
90. 3
75.9
79.6
72.1
67.1
72.5
81.5
84.1
79.0
69.7
44.9
89.4
82.7
26. 5
82.1
68. 6
72.8
78.2
76.9

73. 7
82.3
96. 5
85. 6
(0
(')
49.8
85.9
92.7
85.6
94.6
67.5
68.8
85.1
91.2
93.9
81.2
78.8
68. 8
92.0
89.8
77.8
82. 2
73.4
65.3
73.7
81. 2
84. 2
78.2
71.0
47.5
123.1
81.5
26.4
80. 7
73.1
71.0
79. 5
77. S

66.3
82. 2
82.8
77.9
94.3
97.5
41.0
79.8
83.5
78.6
90.2
59.6
67.1
77.0
79.2
86. 1
70.7
73.3
67.1
83.1
82. 7
72.6
79. 6
56.3
65. 9
64. 5
75.8
76.6
75.1
62.5
42.1
57.9
76.6
12. 2
76.2
56.5
65.4
70. 5
69.0

70.3
88.4
82.0
77.7
104.7
101.3
45.4
80.2
84.9
79.4
94.1
49.8
66.8
71.4
77. 3
77.2
58. 5
71.1
66.8
80.9
79.5
73.5
79.5
57.7
66.9
69.3
75.1
75.4
75.0
64.4
41.1
46.0
75.5
7.3
83.7
55.1
59.3
70.3
68.3

67.5
91.1
84.6
82.4
98.8
98.7
39.5
84.5
92.1
83.3
94.8
61.9
84.7
79.2
83.6
79.4
69. 5
79.4
84. 7
83.1
84.8
79.3
83.0
62.8
76.8
82.0
84.9
82.2
88.0
69.8
46.0
62.7
81.4
12.8
88.0
65.6
69.0
77.0
74.6

78.5
89.1
89.4
84.0
97.7
97.3
61.5
92.1
95.0
89.1
100.3
82.4
88. 6
89.9
89.8
91.8
85.8
90.5
88.6
87.3
93.3
89.1
93.7
68.0
85.6
93.6
92.7
91.4
94.0
77.7
51.3
99.7
86.1
24.5
95. 5
84.3
81.8
88.0
85.9

83.0
90.1
91.3
84.6
94.5
93.1
71.3
100.5
98.7
94.9
106.7
106. 1
95.0
95.4
94.3
91.8
93.8
94.9
95.0
98.1
97.7
94.2
99.1
71.5
92.1
97.2
94.3
93.6
95.0
82.6
54.5
121. 6
88.9
42.3
98.4
97.5
93.9
94.5
93.3

78.4

78.0

71.2

70.2

75.0

85.2

91.6

1 Data not yet available.

Purchasing Power of the Dollar at Wholesale, December 1934
C h a n g e s in the buying power of the dollar expressed in terms of
wholesale prices from 1913 to December 1934 are shown in table 6.
The figures in this table are reciprocals of the index numbers. To
illustrate, the index number representing the level of all commodities
at*wholesale in December 1934 with average prices for the year 1926
as the base is shown to be 76.9. The reciprocal of this index number
is 0.0130 which, translated into dollars and cents, becomes $1,300.
Table 4 shows that the dollar expanded so much in its buying value
that $1 of 1926 had increased in value to $1,300 in December 1934 in
the purchase of all commodities at wholesale.
The purchasing power of the dollar for all groups and subgroups of
commodities for the current month in comparison with the previous
month and the corresponding month of last year is shown in table 4.


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1 9 3 5

T a b le 4 .— P u rc h a s in g P o w e r o f th e W h o lesale P ric e D o lla r b y G ro u p s a n d
S u b g ro u p s o f C o m m o d itie s fo r S pecified D a te s
[1926=$1]
D ecem ­
ber 1934

N o v em ­
ber 1934

D ecem ­
ber 1933

Y ear 1934

A ll com m od ities__________________________________________

$1. 300

$1.307

$1,412

$1.333

Farm products_____________ _________ ____________________
G rains________________________________________________
L ivestock and p o u ltry ______ ________ ______________ .
Other farm p rod ucts__________________________________
F ood s______ ____________ ________________________________
B u tter, cheese, and m ilk ___ ________ _________________
Cereal p rod ucts____ _____ ____________________________
Fruits and vegetab les_________________________________
M eals.............. .................................. .........................
Other foods__ ________________________________________
H ides and leather products_____________________________ _.
B oots and shoes________________________ _______ .
H ides and skin s_________ __________________ ____ ____
L eather___ _____ _____________________________________
Other leather products_______________________________
T extile products___________________ _____________________
C loth in g_____ _____ __________________________________
C otton goods________________________________ _____ _
K n it goods_______________________________________ . .
Silk and rayon ___________ _______ _____________ ______
W oolen and w orsted goods_____ _________ ________
Other textile products___ ___________
Fuel and lighting m aterials____________________
A nth racite____________________________________
B itu m in ou s coal_________ ____ ____________
Coke . . _ _____________________________ _____
E lectricity _______ _______ ___________ ______
G as. _______________ ____ ___________________________
Petroleum products________________________________
M etals and m etal p r o d u c ts.._________ ____________________
A gricultural im p lem en ts________ _____ _______
Iron and steel_____________ _________
M otor veh icles_______________________________ . . .
Nonferrous m eta ls................................. .....................
P lum b in g and h eatin g__________________ _______
B uilding m aterials___________________________ _____
Brick and tile ____________________________
C em en t________________________ ____ _________
L um ber. . . . _______________________
P ain t and pain t m aterials ________________________
P lum b in g and h eatin g_ ___________________ . . .
Structural steel_______________ _____ ______
Other building m aterials_____________________________
C hem icals and drugs_____ _____ _________ . .
C hem icals___ T________________________________
D rugs and pharm aceuticals____ ______________________
Fertilizer m aterials___________ ______ _
M ixed fe r tiliz e r s.._____ _____________________ .
House-furnishing goods_______________ . _________
Furnishings____________________ _______
Furniture____________ ____ ________________________
M iscellaneous___________ _______________________ .
A utom obile tires and tu b e s___________________________
C attle feed_________ _____ _____________ .
Paper and p u lp __________________________________ . _.
Rubber, crude___________________________________
Other m iscellaneous______________________ . . .
R aw m aterials..................... ....................... ............. ...
Sem im anufactured articles____________ _____ _______
F inished p rod ucts____ _
_____ ____ ______________
N onagricultural com m od ities____________ _ _ __________
A ll coinm odi ties other than farm products and foods______

1. 389
1.093
1. 748
1.332
1.328
1.256
1.085
1.603
1.449
1. 346
1.175
1.029
1.484
1. 393
1.167
1.429
1.276
1.186
1. 616
3.690
1.351
1.458
1. 357
1. 215
1.036
1.168
(9
(>)
2.008
1.164
1.079
1.168
1.057
1.481
1.453
1.175
1.096
1.065
1.232
1.269
1.453
1.087
1.114
1.285
1.217
1. 362
1.531
1.357
1.232
1.188
1.279
1.408
2.105
.812
1.227
3.788
1.239
1. 368
1.408
1.258
1.285
1.282

1.412
1.147
1.852
1.319
1.332
1.272
1.099
1.531
1.462
1.351
1.188
1.028
1.585
1.412
1.167
1.435
1.276
1.185
1.639
3.876
1.350
1.460
1. 344
1.218
1.037
1.168
1.064
1. 082
1.980
1.160
1. 088
1.163
1.056
1.477
1.453
1.176
1.096
1. 065
1. 232
1.269
1.453
1.087
1.119
1.300
1.236
1.361
1.548
1. 361
1.230
1.186
1.276
1.416
2.105
.924
1.218
3. 759
1.238
1.385
1.406
1.261
1. 287
1.282

1.802
1. 656
2.632
1. 555
1. 600
1.536
1.181
1.587
2.174
1.577
1.121
1. 014
1.335
1.248
1.142
1.309
1.138
1.170
1.404
3.378
1.186
1.318
1. 362
1.227
1.104
1.196
1.064
1.085
1.938
1.198
1.175
1.196
1.100
1.502
1. 379
1.168
1.167
1.096
1.136
1.290
1.379
1.152
1.129
1.357
1.263
1.695
1.468
1.431
1.235
1.206
1.261
1. 522
2.315
1. 658
1.212
5.556
1. 266
1. 616
1.383
1.337
1.351
1.290

1.531
1.342
1.942
1. 418
1. 418
1.376
1.127
1.481
1. 590
1.502
1.155
1.019
1.458
1.333
1.155
1.372
1.212
1.156
1.582
3.745
1.255
1. 368
1.359
1. 248
1.058
1.179
0)
C)
1.980
1.151
1.116
1.153
1.043
1.477
1.377
1.160
1.109
1. 073
1.183
1.258
1.377
1.101
1.107
1.318
1.256
1.387
1.490
1.379
1.227
1.189
1.266
1.435
2. 227
1.119
1. 209
3. 774
1. 218
1.458
1.374
1.277
1.299
1.274

Groups and subgroups

1 Data not yet available.


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en


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05

507

WHOLESALE PRICES

Wholesale Prices, 1913 to December 1934
T a b l e s 5 and 6 present index numbers of wholesale prices and
purchasing power of the dollar by groups of commodities, by years
from 1913 to 1934, inclusive, by months from January 1933 to
December 1934, inclusive, and by weeks for December 1934.
Table 5.—Index Numbers of Wholesale Prices
[1926=100]

P erio d

B y years:
1913......... ............... ._
1914______________
1915............. ...............
1916______________
1917_____ ________
1918____ _________
1919______________
1920______________
1921______________
1922._____ _______
1923______________
1924______________
1925______________
1926______________
1927................... .........
1928_______ ___ _
1929______________
J930______________
1931______________
1932__ _____ ______
1933______________
1934______________
B y m o n th s:
1933:
J a n u a r y ______
F e b r u a ry _____
M a r c h ________
A p ril_________
M a y ---------- . .
J u n e _________
J u ly __________
A u g u s t.. . . .
S e p te m b e r... .
O c to b e r____
N o v e m b e r____
D e c e m b e r____
1934:
J a n u a r y ______
F e b r u a ry _____
M a rc h ___ ____
A p r il_________
M a y ________ _
J u n e . ..................
J u ly __________
A u g u s t_______
S e p te m b e r____
O cto b e r______
N o v e m b e r____
D ecem b er____
B y w eeks:
D e cem b er 1, 1934...
D e cem b er 8, 1934...
D ecem b er 15, 1934.
D ecem b er 22, 1934.
D ecem b er 29, 1934.

H id es T e x ­
F a rm
and
p ro d ­ F oods le ath er tile
u cts
p ro d ­ p ro d ­
u cts
u cts

M etals
H o u se
F uel
a n d B u ild C h e m
fu r­
and
ing
icals
m
e
tal
n is h ­
lig h t­
p ro d ­ m a te ­ a n d
ing
ing
rials dru g s
u cts
goods

M iscellaneous

A ll
com ­
m o d i­
ties

71.5
71.2
71.5
84.4
129.0
148.0
157.6
150.7
88.4
93.8
98.6
100.0
109.8
100.0
99.4
105.9
104.9
88.3
64.8
48. 2
51.4
65.3

64. 2
64.7
65.4
75.7
104. 5
119.1
129.5
137.4
90.6
87.6
92.7
91.0
100. 2
100. 0
96.7
101.0
99.9
90.5
74.6
61.0
60.5
70.5

68.1
70.9
75.5
93.4
123.8
125.7
174.1
171.3
109.2
104.6
104.2
101.5
105.3
100.0
107.7
121.4
109.1
100.0
86.1
72.9
80.9
86.6

57.3
54.6
54.1
70.4
98.7
137.2
135.3
164.8
94.5
100.2
111.3
106.7
108.3
100.0
95.6
95.5
90.4
80.3
66.3
54.9
64.8
72.9

61.3
56.6
51.8
74.3
105.4
109.2
104.3
163.7
96.8
107.3
97.3
92.0
96.5
100.0
88.3
84.3
83.0
78.5
67.5
70.3
66.3
73.3

90.8
80.2
86.3
116.5
150.6
136.5
130.9
149.4
117.5
102.9
109.3
106.3
103.2
100.0
96.3
97.0
100.5
92.1
84.5
80.2
79.8
86.9

56.7
52.7
53.5
67.6
88.2
98.6
115.6
150.1
97.4
97.3
108.7
102.3
101.7
100.0
94.7
94.1
95.4
89.9
79. 2
71.4
77.0
86.2

80.2
81.4
112.0
160.7
165.0
182.3
157.0
164.7
115.0
100.3
101.1
98.9
101.8
100.0
96.8
95.6
94.2
89.1
79.3
73.5
72.6
75.9

56.3
56.8
56.0
61.4
74.2
93.3
105.9
141.8
113.0
103.5
108.9
104.9
103.1
100.0
97.5
95.1
94.3
92.7
84.9
75.1
75.8
81.5

93.1
89.9
86.9
100.6
122.1
134.4
139.1
167.5
109.2
92.8
99.7
93.6
109.0
100.0
91.0
85.4
82.6
77.7
69.8
64.4
62.5
69.7

69.8
68.1
69.5
85.5
117. 5
131.3
138.6
154.4
97.6
96.7
100.6
98.1
103.5
100.0
95.4
96.7
95.3
86.4
73.0
64.8
65.9
74.9

42.6
40.9
42.8
44.5
50.2
53.2
60.1
57.6
57.0
55.7
56.6
55.5

55.8
53.7
54.6
56.1
59.4
61.2
65.5
64.8
64.9
64.2
64.3
62. 5

68.9
68.0
68.1
69.4
76.9
82.4
86.3
91.7
92.3
89.0
88.2
89. 2

51.9
51. 2
51.3
51.8
55.9
61.5
68.0
74.6
76.9
77.1
76.8
76.4

66.0
63.6
62.9
61.5
60.4
61.5
65.3
65.5
70.4
73.6
73.5
73.4

78.2
77.4
77. 2
76.9
77.7
79.3
80.6
81.2
82.1
83. 0
82.7
83.5

70.1
69.8
70.3
70.2
71.4
74.7
79.5
81.3
82.7
83.9
84.9
85.6

71.6
71.3
71. 2
71.4
73.2
73.7
73.2
73.1
72.7
72.7
73.4
73.7

72.9
72.3
72.2
71.5
71.7
73.4
74.8
77.6
79.3
81. 2
81.0
81.0

61.2
59.2
58.9
57.8
58.9
60.8
64.0
65.4
65.1
65.3
65.5
65.7

61.0
59.8
60.2
60.4
62.7
65.0
68.9
69.5
70.8
71. 2
71.1
70.8

58.7
61.3
61.3
59.6
59.6
63.3
64.5
69.8
73.4
70.6
70.8
72.0

64.3
66. 7
67.3
66.2
67.1
69.8
70.6
73.9
76.1
74.8
75.1
75.3

89.5
89.6
88.7
88.9
87.9
87.1
86.3
83.8
84.1
83.8
84.2
85.1

76.5
76.9
76.5
75.3
73.6
72.7
71.5
70.8
71.1
70.3
69.7
70.0

73.1
72.4
71.4
71.7
72.5
72.8
73.9
74.6
74.6
74.6
74.4
73.7

85.5
87.0
87. 1
87.9
89.1
87.7
86.8
86.7
86.6
86.3
86.2
85.9

86.3
86.6
86.4
86.7
87.3
87.8
87.0
85.8
85.6
85.2
85.0
85.1

74.4
75.5
75.7
75.5
75.4
75.6
75.4
75.7
76.5
77.1
76.9
77.8

80.8
81.0
81.4
81.6
82.0
82.0
81. 6
81.8
81.8
81.7
81.3
81.2

67.5
68.5
69.3
69.5
69.8
70.2
69.9
70. 2
70.2
69.7
70.6
71.0

72.2
73.6
73.7
73.3
73.7
74.6
74.8
76.4
77.6
76.5
76.5
76.9

71.1
71.7
71.1
71.2
72.6

75.0
74.9
75.4
75.4
76.3

84.9
85.0
85.7
86.4
86.6

69.3
69.3
69.4
69.7
69.7

75.7
76.0
75.2
75.0
74.7

85.3
85.4
85.4
85.5
85.5

84.9
85.1
85.0
84.7
84.9

77.4
77.8
78.0
78.1
78.3

82.7
82.4
82.4
82.5
82.5

70.8
71.0
71.2
71.1
71.1

76.5
76.7
76.7
76.7
77.1

1 0 9 0 4 1 — 3 5 --------17


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508

MONTHLY LABOR HEVIEW--- FEBRUARY 193 5

Table 6.—Purchasing Power of the Dollar Expressed in Terms of Wholesale
Prices
[1926=$1]

P erio d

B y years:
1913______ _____ 1914______________
1915______________
1916______________
1917______________
1918______________
1919______________
1920______________
1921______________
1922______________
1923______________
1924______________
1925______________
1926______________
1927______________
1928______________
1929______________
1930______________
1931______________
1932______________
1933______________
1934______________
B y m o n th s:
1933:
J a n u a r y ______
F e b r u a r y _____
M a rc h ................
A p ril_________
M a y __________
J u n e __________
J u ly ---------------A u g u s t_______
S e p te m b e r____
O c to b e r______
N o v e m b e r____
D e c e m b e r____
1934:
J a n u a r y ______
F e b ru a ry _____
M a rc h ________
A p ril_________
M a y __________
J u n e __________
J u ly __________
A u g u s t_______
S e p te m b e r........
O c to b e r_____
N o v e m b e r____
D e c e m b e r____
B y w eeks:
D ecem b er 1, 1934__
D ecem b er 8, 1934__
D ecem b er 15, 1934..
D ecem b er 22, 1934_
D ecem b er 29, 1934,.

H ides
Tex­
F a rm
and
p ro d ­ Foods le a th e r tile
p
ro d ­
p ro d ­
u cts
u c ts
ucts

eta ls B u i l d ­ C h e m ­ H o u se
F u e l Man
d
fu r­
and
in g
icals
n is h ­
m e ta l
lig h t­ p ro d ­ m a te ­ a n d
in g
ing
rials d ru g s goods
u cts

M iscellaneous

All
com ­
m o d i­
ties

$1.399 $1. 558 $1.468 $1. 745 $1.631 $1.101 $1. 764 $1. 247 $1. 776 $1. 074
1.404 1.546 1.410 1.832 1.767 1.247 1. 898 1. 229 1. 761 1.112
.893 1.786 1.151
1.399 1.529 1.325 1.848 1.931 1.159 1. 869
.858 1.479
.622 1.629
.994
1.185 1.321 1. 071 1.420 1. 346
.664 1.134
.819
.775
.957
.808 1.013
.949
.606 1.348
.549 1.072
.744
.840
.733 1.014
.676
.796
.729
.916
.772
.574
.764
.944
.635
.739
.865
.637
.719
.959
.664
.584
.728
.607
.611
.669
.666
.607
.705
.597
1.131 1 .104
.916 1.058 1.033
.851 1. 027
.870
.885
.916
.972 1.028
1.066 1.142
.998
.932
.997
.966 1.078
.956
1.014 1.079
.898 1. 028
.915
.989
.918 1.003
.960
.920
.941
.978 1.011
.953 1.068
1.000 1.099
.985
.937 1.087
.998
.923 1.036
.969
.983
.982
.917
.911
.950
.970
1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
1.006 1.034
.929 1.046 1.133 1.038 1.056 1.033 1.026 1.099
.944
.824 1.047 1.186 1.031 1.063 1.046 1.052 1.171
.990
.995 1.048 1.062 1. 060 1.211
.953 1.001
.917 1.106 1. 205
1.133 1.105 1.000 1.245 1. 274 1. 086 1. 112 1.122 1. 079 1.287
1.543 1.340 1.161 1.508 1.481 1.183 1.263 1.261 1.178 1. 433
2. 075 1.639 1. 372 1.821 1.422 1 247 1.401 1.361 1.332 1.553
1.946 1.653 1.236 1. 543 1. 508 1. 253 1. 299 1.377 1.319 1.600
1.531 1.418 1. 155 1.372 1.364 1.151 1.160 1.318 1.227 1.435

$1.433
1.468
1.439
1.170
.851
.762
.722
.648
1.025
1.034
.994
1.019
.966
1.000
1.048
1.034
1.049
1.157
1.370
1.543
1.517
1.335

2.347
2.445
2. 336
2. 247
1.992
1.880
1.664
1.736
1.754
1. 795
1.767
1.802

1.792
1.862
1.832
1.783
1.684
1.634
1.527
1.543
1.541
1.558
1.555
1.600

1.451
1.471
1.468
1.441
1.300
1.214
1.159
1.091
1.083
1.124
1.134
1.121

1.927
1.953
1.949
1.931
1.789
1.626
1. 471
1.340
1.300
1. 297
1.302
1.309

1. 515
1. 572
1.590
1.626
1. 656
1.626
1.531
1.527
1.420
1.359
1.361
1.362

1.279
1.292
1.295
1.300
1.287
1.261
1.241
1.232
1. 218
1.205
1.209
1. 198

1.427
1.433
1.422
1.425
1.401
1.339
1. 258
1.230
1.209
1.192
1.178
1.168

1. 397
1.403
1.404
1.401
1. 366
1.357
1.366
1.368
1.376
1.376
1.362
1.357

1.372
1.383
1.385
1.399
1.395
1.362
1.337
1.289
1.261
1.232
1.235
1.235

1.634
1.689
1.698
1.730
1.698
1.645
1.563
1.529
1.536
1.531
1.527
1. 522

1.639
1.672
1.661
1.656
1. 595
1.538
1.451
1.439
1.412
1.404
1.406
1.412

1.704
1. 631
1.631
1.678
1.678
1.580
1.550
1.433
1.362
1.416
1.412
1.389

1. 555
1.499
1. 486
1.511
1.490
1.433
1.416
1.353
1.314
1.337
1. 332
1.328

1.117
1.116
1.127
1.125
1.138
1.148
1.159
1.193
1.189
1.193
1.188
1.175

1.307
1.300
1.307
1.328
1.359
1.376
1. 399
1.412
1.406
1.422
1.435
1.429

1.368
1.381
1.401
1.395
1.379
1.374
1.353
1.340
1.340
1.340
1.344
1.357

1.170
1.149
1. 148
1. 138
1.122
1.140
1.152
1.153
1.155
1.159
1.160
1.164

1.159
1.155
1.157
1.153
1.145
1.139
1.149
1.166
1.168
1.174
1.176
1.175

1. 344
1.325
1.321
1.325
1.326
1.323
1.326
1.321
1.307
1.297
1.300
1.285

1.238
1. 235
1. 229
1.225
1.220
1.220
1.225
1. 222
1.222
1.224
1.230
1. 232

1.481
1.460
1.443
1. 439
1.433
1.425
1.431
1. 425
1.425
1.435
1.416
1.408

1.385
1.359
1.357
1.364
1.357
1. 340
1.337
1.309
1.289
1.307
1.307
1.300

1.406
1. 395
1.406
1.404
1.377

1.333
1.335
1.326
1.326
1.311

1.178
1.176
1.167
1.157
1.155

1.443
1.443
1.441
1.435
1.435

1.321
1.316
1.330
1. 333
1.339

1.172
1.171
1.171
1.170
1.170

1.178
1.175
1.176
1.181
1.178

1.292
1.285
1.282
1.280
1.277

1.209
1. 214
1.214
1. 212
1. 212

1.412
1.408
1.404
1.406
1. 406

1.307
1.304
1.304
1.304
1. 297

Index Numbers and Purchasing Power of the Dollar of Specified Groups of
Commodities, 1913 to December 1934

I n t a b l e 7 the price trend since 1913 is shown for the following
groups of commodities: Raw materials, semimanufactured articles,
finished products, nonagricultural commodities, and all commodities
other than farm products and foods.
In the nonagricultural commodities group all commodities other
than those designated as “ Fsirm products” have been combined into

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WHOLESALE PRICES

one group. All commodities with the exception of those included in
the groups of farm products and foods have been included in the
group of “ All commodities other than farm products and foods.”
The list of commodities included under the designations of “ Raw
materials”, “ Semimanufactured articles”, and “ Finished products”
are contained in the October 1934 issue of this publication.
Table 7.—Index Numbers by Special Groups of Commodities
[1926=100]

Y ear

1913_________
1914________
1915_________
1916_________
1917-.................
1918.................
1919_________
1920_________
1921_________
1922_________
1923_________
1924_________
1925_________
1926_________
1927_________
1928____ ____
1929_________
1930_________
1931_________
1932_________
1933_________
1934_________

N onSem iagriR aw m a n u - F in ­
culished
m a te ­ factu ra l
tu
re
d
p
ro
d
­
rials
com
­
a r ti­
u c ts
m o d i­
cles
ties

68.8
67.6
67.2
82.6
122.6
135.8
145.9
151.8
88.3
96.0
98.5
97.6
106.7
100. 0
96.5
99.1
97.5
84.3
65.6
55.1
56.5
68.6

74.9
70.0
81.2
118.3
150.4
153.8
157.9
198.2
96.1
98.9
118.6
108.7
105.3
100.0
94.3
94.5
93.9
81.8
69.0
59.3
65.4
72.8

69.4
67.8
68.9
82.3
109.2
124.7
130.6
149.8
103.3
96.5
99.2
96.3
100.6
100.0
95.0
95.9
94.5
88.0
77.0
70.3
70.5
78.2

69.0
66.8
68.5
85.3
113.1
125.1
131.6
154.8
100. 1
97.3
100.9
97.1
101.4
100.0
94.6
94.8
93.3
85.9
74.6
68.3
69.0
76.9

All
com ­
m o d i­
ties
o th e r
th a n
farm
p ro d ­
u cts
an d
foods
70.0
66.4
68.0
88.3
114.2
124. 6
128.8
161.3
104.9
102.4
104.3
99.7
102.6
100.0
94.0
92.9
91.6
85.2
75.0
70.2
71.2
78.4

M o n th

1933:
J a n u a r y ___
F eb ru ary -M a rc h ____
A p ril____ _
M a y ______
J u n e ___ _
J u ly _______
A u g u st____
S ep te m b er
O ctober
N o v e m b e rD ecem b er—
1934:
J a n u a r y ___
F e b r u a r y .M a rc h ____
A p ril______
M a y ______
J u n e . . -- _
J u ly _______
A u g u s t ___
S e p te m b e r.
O cto b er___
N o v e m b e r.
D e c e m b e r..

A ll
com ­
Sem iN o n - m o d i­
m an u agrities
F in ­
R aw
facculo th e r'
m a te ­ tu re d ish ed tu ra l
th
an
rials
a r t i­ p ro d ­ com ­ farm
u cts
cles
m o d i­ p r o d ­
u cts
ties
an d
foods

50.2
48.4
49.4
50.0
53.7
56.2
61.8
60.6
61.7
61.8
62.4
61.9

56.9
56.3
56.9
57.3
61.3
65.3
69.1
71.7
72.9
72.8
71.4
72.3

66.7
65.7
65.7
65.7
67.2
69.0
72.2
73.4
74.8
75.4
75.2
74.8

64.9
63.7
63.8
63.7
65.4
67.4
70.7
72.0
73.7
74.4
74.2
74.0

67.3
66.0
65.8
65.3
66.5
68.9
72.2
74.1
76.1
77.2
77.2
77.5

64.1
06.0
65.9
65.1
65.1
67.3
68.3
71.6
73.9
72.1
72.2
73.1

71.9
74.8
74.3
73.9
73.7
72.9
72.7
72.6
71.8
71.5
71.1
71.0

76.0
77.0
77.2
77.1
77.8
78.2
78.2
79.2
80.1
79.2
79.3
79.5

75.0
76.1
76.2
76.2
76.6
76.9
76.9
77.8
78.4
77.6
77.7
77.8

78.3
78.7
78.5
78.6
78.9
78.2
78.4
78.3
78.3
78.0
78.0
78.0

Table 8 shows the purchasing power of the dollar in terms of the
special groups of commodities as shown by index numbers contained
in table 7. The period covered is by years from 1913 to 1934, in­
clusive, and by months from January 1933 to December 1934, inclu­
sive. The method used in determining the purchasing power of the
dollar is explained on page 503.


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW--- FEBRUARY 193 5

Table 8.—Purchasing Power of the Dollar by Special Groups of Commodities
[1926=$!]

Period

SemianuRaw mfacm ate­ tured
rials pro d ­
ucts

All
com­
Non- m odi­
ties
F in ­ agriculother
ished tu
ral
th
an
prod­ com­ farm
ucts m odi­ prod­
ties
ucts
and
foods

1913________ $1.453 $1. 335 $1,441 $1.449
1914________ 1.479 1.429 1.475 1.497
1915________ 1.488 1. 232 1.451 1.460
1916_______ 1.211
.845 1.215 1.172
.884
1917________
.816
.665
.916
.802
.799
1918________
.736
.650
.766
1919________
.685
.633
.760
.659
.505
.668
.646
1920________
1921________ 1.133 1.041
.968
.999
1922________ 1.042 1.011 1.036 1.028
1923________ 1.015
.843 1.008
.991
1924________ 1. 025
.920 1.038 1.030
.994
.937
.986
1925________
.950
1926________ 1. 000 1.000 1.000 1.000
1927________ 1.036 1.060 1.053 1.057
1928________ 1.009 1. 058 1.043 1.055
1929________ 1.026 1.065 1.058 1.072
1930________ 1.186 1.222 1.136 1.164
1931________ 1. 524 1.449 1.299 1.340
1932________ 1.815 1.686 1.422 1.464
1933________ 1.770 1.529 1.418 1.449
1934________ 1.458 1.374 1. 279 1.300

$1.429
1.506
1.471
1.133
.876
.803
.776
.620
.953
.977
.959
1.003
.975
1. 000
1.064
1.076
1.092
1.174
1. 333
1.425
1.404
1.276

Period

1933:
Jan u a ry ---F e b ru a ry ..
M arch ____
A pril_____
M a y ______
Ju n e ______
Ju ly ______
A ugust___
Septem ber.
October___
N ovem ber.
D ecem ber..
1934:
Jan u a ry ---F e b ru a ry ..
M arch ____
A pril_____
M a y ______
J u n e ___ _
Ju ly ______
A ugust___
Septem ber.
O ctober___
N ovem ber.
D ecem ber..

SemiNonmanu- F in ­ agriRaw
fac- ished culm ate­ tured prod­ tural
rials prod­ ucts
com­
ucts
m odi­
ties

All
commoditiesother
than
farm
prod­
ucts
and
foods

$1. 992 $1. 757 $1. 499 $1. 541
2. 066 1.776 1. 522 1. 570
2.024 1. 757 1. 522 1. 567
2.000 1. 745 1. 522 1. 570
1.862 1. 631 1.488 1. 529
1.779 1. 531 1.449 1.484
1.618 1.447 1.385 1.414
1. 650 1.395 1. 362 1. 389
1.621 1.372 1. 337 1. 357
1. 618 1.374 1.326 1.344
1.603 1.401 1.330 1.348
1. 616 1.383 1.337 1.351

$1. 486
1. 515
1 520
1. 531
1. 504
1.451
1. 385
1 350
1.314
1.295
1.295
1.290

1.560
1.515
1.517
1.536
1. 536
1.486
1.464
1. 397
1.353
1.387
1.385
1.368

1.391
1.337
1. 346
1.353
1. 357
1. 372
1. 376
1.377
1.393
1.399
1.406
1.408

1.316
1.299
1. 295
1. 297
1. 285
1. 279
1. 279
1. 263
1.248
1. 263
1.261
1. 258

1. 333
1.314
1. 312
1. 312
1. 305
1. 300
1. 300
1 285
1.276
1.289
1.287
1.285

1.277
1.271
1 274
1 272
1 267
1 279
1 276
1 277
1.277
1.282
1.282
1.282

The December 1934 issue of the Monthly Labor Review gives a brief
history of the Bureau’s wholesale price work. Reference is made
to previous reports containing a discussion of the method used in
calculating the indexes.


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COST OF LIVING
C h a n g e s in C o st o f L iv in g i n t h e U n ite d S ta te s ,
N o v e m b e r 1934
HE average cost of the goods purchased by the families of wage
earners and low-salaried workers in the larger cities of the
United States increased not quite 2 percent in the 5-month period
from June 1934 to November 1934. On November 15, 1934, the
Bureau’s index of living costs was 138.9, when costs in 1913 are
taken as 100, as compared with 136.4 in June 1934, an increase of
1.8 percent. The survey upon which these figures are based covers
32 cities, each with a population of over 50,000 persons, scattered
throughout the United States.
These index numbers present changes in the cost of the goods and
services purchased by families of wage earners and low-salaried
workers from time to time in the 32 cities surveyed. They cannot
be used to measure differences in the cost of these goods from city to
city. Insofar as possible the kind and quality of the goods priced
in each city have been maintained constant throughout the period in
which the Bureau has been gathering retail prices, but the quality of
the goods priced varies from city to city with the purchasing habits of
moderate income families in these cities.
There are serious technical obstacles in the way of determining the
cost of the same level of living from one part of the country to another.
Differences in climate and custom make it difficult to determine what
goods must be included in the budgets which would provide the same
level of living in, for example, New Orleans and Boston. And even
if such budgets had been agreed upon, the problem of pricing goods of
identical quality in different communities would not have been
solved. Most consumers’ goods are not graded according to stand­
ard specifications, and even store buyers are frequently ignorant of
the technical description of the goods they buy and sell.
The indexes shown hereafter are constructed by pricing, from time
to time, a long list of the goods most important in the spending of the
families of wage earners and low-salaried workers as shown by a study
of 12,096 families made in 1918-19.
The food prices used in this compilation were drawn from retailprice quotations secured in 51 cities. These quotations were ob­
tained from a representative number of grocers, meat dealers, bakers,
and dairymen in each city and covered 42 articles of food. Fuel and
light prices, including gas, electricity, coal and other fuel and light
items, were obtained by mail from regular correspondents. All
other prices were secured in 32 cities by personal visits of representa­
tives of the Bureau.
Prices of men’s and boys’ clothing were secured on 31 articles.
The principal articles were suits, overcoats, hats, caps, overalls,

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512

M O N TH LY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1 9 3 5

shoes, rubbers, repair of shoes, underwear, and furnishings. Prices
of women’s and girls’ clothing were taken on 37 articles, including
coats, dresses, shoes, rubbers, repair of shoes, kimonos, hosiery,
underclothing, and yard goods used in making dresses and aprons.
The number of dwellings for which rents were secured varied from
400 in Mobile to 2,500 in New York City.
The 20 furniture and house-furnishing articles on which prices were
obtained included living-room furniture, dining-room and bedroom
suites, rugs, linoleum, household linens, bedding, sewing machines,
stoves, brooms, refrigerators, and kitchen tables.
The miscellaneous group of items included transportation costs,
motion pictures, newspapers, medical and dental services, hospital
care, spectacles, laundry, cleaning supplies, barber service, toilet
articles and preparations, telephone rates for residential service, and
tobacco products.
For each of the items included in the clothing, house-furnishing
goods, and the miscellaneous groups, 4 quotations were secured in
each city except in New York where 5 quotations were obtained. For
items such as street-car fares, telephone rates, and newspapers, 4
quotations were not always possible.
Since 1919, when the indexes were first computed, certain changes in
the list of goods priced have been made as a result of fundamental
changes in consumer purchasing habits, but comparisons from one
pricing period to another are based on the cost of goods of identical
kind and quality.
In the 32 cities covered, the cost of 3 major groups of family expendi­
tures increased, 2 showed no change, and 1 decreased in the 5-month
period. In the construction of the index retail price changes are
weighted according to the importance of these items in family spend­
ing The fact that average food costs were 5.8 percent higher in
November than in June 1934 was, therefore, the most important
factor in the increase of the cost of the entire budget priced. Fuel
and light costs increased 1.3 percent during the period, and the average
cost of liouse-furnishing goods increased 1 percent. Average rent
costs in the cities studied remained unchanged from June to November.
The average cost of the miscellaneous group of items remained the
same. Average clothing costs decreased one-tenth of 1 percent from
June to November.
Comparing costs in November 1934 with costs in December 1933,
the goods purchased by the families of wage earners and low-salaried
workers increased 2.9 percent. Food costs increased 8.7 percent, the
costs of house-furnishing goods;2.9 percent, and clothing costs increased
2 percent. The cost of rents decreased 1.7 percent and that of fuel
and light 0.8 percent. The average cost of the miscellaneous group
of items remained the same.

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COST OF LIVING


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C
n1
i—
CO

514

M O NTHLY LABOR REVIEW----FEBRUARY 1 9 3 5

Between the peak period of June 1920 and November 1934 the
average cost of the goods purchased by these families decreased 35.8
percent. The cost of food decreased 47.6 percent, clothing costs 52.6
percent, the cost of rents 24.2 percent, fuel and light costs 8.1 percent,
the average cost of house-furnishing goods 42.1 percent, and the
average cost of the miscellaneous group of items 2.7 percent.
During the 5-month period the average cost of food increased in
each of the 32 cities except 1. The increases ranged from 13 percent
in Los Angeles to 1 percent in Detroit and Philadelphia. The
average cost of food decreased 1 percent in Indianapolis.
The cost of clothing bought by these groups increased slightly in
15 cities. The largest increase was reported from Birmingham where
a rise of 1 percent was reported. Increases as small as one-tenth of
1 percent were found in Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, Memphis,
and Mobile. Decreases were found in the cost of clothing in 15
cities, ranging from 0.2 percent in Norfolk to 1.3 percent in Buffalo
and Savannah. No change in the cost of the clothing budget priced
was reported from Atlanta or Chicago.
Average rental costs increased in 11 cities. The increases ranged
from 8.5 percent in Detroit to one-tenth of 1 percent in Washington,
D. C. Decreases were shown in 21 cities, ranging from one-tenth of
1 percent in Portland, Oreg., to 2.1 percent in St. Louis, Mo.
Increases in the cost of fuel and light were reported from 21 cities.
These increases ranged from 5.3 percent in Mobile to one-tenth of 1
percent in Los Angeles. Decreases in the cost of this group of items
were reported from 9 cities, ranging from 7.8 percent in St. Louis to
one-tenth of 1 percent in Kansas City and Seattle. No change in
fuel and light costs was reported from Jacksonville and San Francisco.
The cost of house-furnishing goods included in the index increased
in 29 of the 32 cities. The increases ranged from 3 percent in Rich­
mond to one-tenth of 1 percent in San Francisco and Scranton.
Decreases were reported in two cities. Cleveland reported a decrease
of 0.8 percent and New York a decrease of one-tenth of 1 percent.
No change in the cost of such goods was reported from Detroit.
The total cost of the goods and services included in the miscellaneous
group of items increased slightly in 19 cities, decreased in 10 cities,
and did not change in 3 cities. The increases ranged from 1.3 per­
cent in Birmingham to one-tenth of 1 percent in Cleveland. The
decreases ranged from 2.5 percent in Jacksonville to one-tenth of 1
percent in Mobile. No change in the cost of these items was re­
ported in Cincinnati, Detroit, and Washington, D. C. The items
responsible for changes in the cost of the miscellaneous group varied
from city to city. The cost of tobacco increased in 26 cities, an
average of 2.7 percent, and the cost of soap in 16 cities, an average
of 1.9 percent. The cost of the medicines included in the index

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515

COST OF LIVING

declined in 5 cities, an average of 2.7 percent, and the cost of laundry
in 8 cities, by an average of 4.4 percent.
Plans are now being perfected for a revision of the commodities
priced, the consumption weights, and the methods of computing
these indexes.
Table 1 shows indexes which present changes in the average cost
of goods purchased by the families of wage earners and low-salaried
workers in the larger cities in the United States, by groups of items,
from 1913 to November 1934.
T a b le 1 .— In d e x e s o f th e C o st o f G oods P u rc h a s e d b y W age E a rn e rs a n d LowS a la rie d W o rk e rs in th e L a rg e r C itie s o f th e U n ite d S ta te s
Index num bers (1913=100)
D ate
A ll item s

Average, 1913......................... .........
D ecem ber 1914______________ ..
D ecem ber 1915—- ........................ .
D ecem ber 1916.............................. D ecem ber 1917............................. —
D ecem ber 1918________________
June 1 9 1 9 _____________________
D ecem ber 1919________________
June 1920_______________ _____ _
D ecem ber 1920_________________
M a y 1921______________________
Septem ber 1921___________ ___ _
D ecem ber 1921________________
M arch 1922____________________
June 1922______________________
Septem ber 1922............................
D ecem ber 1922..................................
M arch 1923___ _____ __________
June 1923______________________
Septem ber 1923________________
D ecem ber 1923................. ...............
M arch 1924___ - _______________
June 1924___ ____ ___________
Septem ber 1924_______________
D ecem ber 1924________________
June 1925............................ ........ .
D ecem ber 1925________________
June 1926______________________
D ecem ber 1926________________
June 1927______________ —- ——
D ecem ber 1927— .............. .............
June 1928__________ ____ ______
D ecem ber 1928__________ ____
June 1929- - ----- --- ---------------D ecem ber 1929________________
June 1930--------------------------------D ecem ber 1930________________
June 1931— ----------------------------D ecem ber 1931____________ ___
June 1932______________________
D ecem ber 1932______________ June 1933 _______ _____ _______
D ecem ber 1933________________
June 1934______________________
N ovem b er 1934.................... ............

Food

100.0

100.0

103.0
105.1
118.3
142.4
174.4
177.3
199.3
216.5
200.4
180.4
177.3
174.3
166.9
166.4
166.3
169.5
168.8
169.7
172.1
173.2
‘ 170. 4
1169.1
170.6
172.5
173.5
177.9
174.8
175.6
173.4
172.0
170.0
171.3
170.2
171.4
166.6
160.7
150.3
145.8
135.7
132.1
128.3
135.0
136.4
138.9

105.0
105.0
126.0
157.0
187.0
184.0
197.0
219.0
178.0
144.7
153.1
149.9
138.7
140.7
139.7
146.6
141.9
144.3
149.3
150.3
143.7
142.4
146.8
151.5
155.0
165.5
159.7
161.8
158.5
155.9
152.6
155.8
154.8
158.0
147.9
137.2
118.3
114.3
100.1
98.7
96.7
105.5
108.4
114.7

Clothing
100.0
101.0
104.7
120.0
149.1
205.3
214.5
268.7
287.5
258.5
222.6
192.1
184.4
175.5
172.3
171.3
171.5
174.4
174.9
176. 5
176.3
175.8
174.2
172.3
171.3
170.6
169.4
168.2
166.7
164.9
162.9
162.6
161.9
161.3
160.5
158.9
153.0
146.0
135.5
127.8
121.5
119.8
133. 6
136.4
136.3

R ent
100.0
100.0
101.5
102.3
100.1
109.2
114.2
125.3
134.9
151.1
159.0
160.0
161.4
160.9
160.9
161.1
161.9
162.4
163.4
164.4
166.5
167.0
168.0
168.0
168.2
167.4
167.1
165.4
164.2
162.1
160.2
157.6
155.9
153.7
151.9
149.6
146.5
142.0
136.2
127.8
118.0
108.8
104.1
102.3
102.3

F u el and
light

Housefurnish­
ing goods

100.0

100.0

100.0

101.0
101.0
108.4
124.1
147.9
145.6
156.8
171.9
194.9
181.6
180.9
181.1
175.8
174.2
183.6
186.4
186.2
180.6
181.3
184.0
182.2
177.3
179.1
180.5
176.5
186.9
180.7
188.3
180.8
183.2
177.2
181.3
175.2
178.7
172.8
175.0
165.4
168.0
157.1
156.9
1148. 6
159.3
156.0
158.0

104.0
110.6
127.8
150.6
213.6
225.1
263.5
292.7
285.4
247.7
224.7
218.0
206.2
202.9
202.9
208.2
217.6
222.2
222.4
222.4
221.3
216.0
214.9
216.0
214.3
214.3
210.4
207.7
205.2
204.6
201.1
199.7
198.5
197.7
195.7
188.3
177.0
167.1
153.4
147.4
147.7
164.8
167.8
169.5

103.0
107.4
113.3
140.5
165.8
173.2
190.2
201.4
208.2
208.8
207.8
206.8
203.3
201.5
201.1
200.5
200.3
200.3
201.1
201.7
201. 1
201.1
201.1
201.7
202.7
203.5
203.3
203.9
204.5
205. 1
205.5
207.1
207.3
207.9
208.5
208.1
206.6
205.4
202.1
199.3
194.5
195.9
195.9
195.9

M iscel­
laneous

1 Corrected figure.

Table 2 shows the percentage change in the average cost of goods
purchased by families of wage earners and low-salaried workers in
each of 32 large cities in the United States, by cities, from June 1920,
December 1929, December 1933, and June 1934 to November 1934.
Between June 1920, the peak period, and November 1934 all cities
showed decreases in the average cost of goods purchased by these

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

516

M O NTHLY LABOR REVIEW---- FEBRUARY 1 9 3 5

groups, ranging from 43.3 percent in Detroit, Mich., to 30.3 percent
in San Francisco, Calif.
During the period from December 1929 to November 1934 the
average cost of‘goods purchased showed decreases ranging from 24.7
percent in Chicago, IK, and Detroit, Mich., to 14.1 percent in Wash­
ington, D. C.
Comparing costs in November 1934 with costs in December 1933,
the cost of goods purchased increased in all of the 32 cities. The
increases ranged from 4.9 percent in Birmingham, Ala., and Houston,
Tex., to 0.6 percent in Scranton, Pa.
In the 5-month period from June 1934 to November 1934 the cost
of goods purchased by wage earners and low-salaried families increased
in each of the 32 cities studied except one, Indianapolis, where a
decline of 0.1 percent appeared. The increases ranged from 4.2 per­
cent in Birmingham, Ala.; 3.7 percent in Houston, Tex.; 3.4 percent
in both Los Angeles and New Orleans; and 3.1 percent in Portland,
Oreg., to 0.2 percent in Scranton, Pa.
T a b le 2 .— P e rc e n ta g e C h a n g e in C o st o f G o o d s P u rc h a s e d b y W age E a rn e rs
a n d L o w -S a la rie d W o rk e rs in th e L a rg e r C itie s o f th e U n ite d S ta te s
Percentage decrease
from—
Area and city

Average, U n ited S ta tes.................................................... .........
N orth A tlan tic area:
B oston _____ _________ ____________ _______ _______
B u flalo______________ ____________ _______ ______
N ew Y ork ________________________________ _____
P h iladelp h ia________ ______ _____ ________________
P ittsb u rg h ,.................... ......................... ................... ...........
Portland, M e ______ _______ ____________________
Scranton.............. ..................... ................... ........... ...............
South A tlan tic area:
A tla n ta .. .......................... .................................
B a ltim o r e .._______ ___________ _______ _________
Jacksonville_________ _____ _______________________
N o r fo lk ......................................... ............. .........
R ich m on d ______ ________ _________ _______ _____
Savann ah ________ _______ ___________________ ____
W ashin gton —...................................... ............... .................
N orth Central area:
C hicago__________________ _________ ___ ________ _
C in cin n ati___ ____ ________ ____ ______ _____ ____
C le v e la n d ...____ ___ _________ _______ ___________
D etroit......................................... ............. ................. .............
Ind ianap olis_________ ________ _____ _______ _____
K ansas C ity ................................. ............... ............. ............
M inn eap olis............... ................. .......................... .......... .
St. L ouis__________________ _____________ ________
South Central area:
B irm in gham ........................................ ..................................
H o u sto n ................. .................................. ...............................
M e m p h is ............ ................................. ......... ............. ............
M ob ile________________ _____ ________ ____ _______
N ew O rlean s................ ....................... ................... .........
W estern area:
D en v er................. ................... ............................ .................
Los A ngeles____________ _____ _______ _____ ______
Portland, Oreg.................................... ............... ...................
San Francisco...................... ......... ......... ............. .................
S e a t t le .....................................................................................

1Decrease.

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June 1920 D ecem ber
1929 to
to N o v em ­
N ovem ber
ber 1934
1934

Percentage increase
from—
D ecem ber
1933 to
N ovem b er
1934

June 1934
to N o v em ­
ber 1934

35.8

19.0

2.9

1.8

34.6
34.7
34.0
34.1
34.9
32.7
32.2

18.2
19.7
18.3
19.5
21.2
15.7
19.3

2.8
1.8
1.8
1.9
3.0
2.3
.6

1.8
.9
1.0
.4
.8
2.1
.2

38.2
31.8
37.4
34.9

38.6
32.1

20.2
16.6
18.3
16.6
16.2
18.3
14.1

4.0
3.0
2.0
2.9
2.9
1.7
3.9

2.6
2.2
1.3
1.5
2 .0
1.3
1.9

39.0
33.2
35.3
43.3
37.8
38.9
34.7
35.7

24.7
20.1
18.2
24.7
21.4
17.5
19.4
21.3

1.6
2.1
2.2
4 .0
1.3
3.0
1.4
2.2

1.8
1.7
.4
1.3
i .1
2.1
.9
1.7

38.6
36.1
34.5
35.8
31.5

22.1
19.2
17.7
19.4
18.2

4.9
4.9
3.8
2.4
3.2

4.2
3.7
2.3
2.7
3.4

36.6
32.7
37.9
30.3
34.2

17.9
19.6
17.9
15.0
17.8

3.4
2.9
3.9
3.9
2.6

2.4
3.4
3.1
2.9
2.1

33.0

COST OF LIVING

517

For 19 cities data are available back to December 1914 and for
13 cities back to 1917. Sufficient data on price changes of items in­
cluded in the index were available to extend the index for the United
States back to 1913, but were not available f^r^the individual cities
for which indexes are computed.
•
The percentage change in the cost of goods purchased by wage
earners and low-salaried workers in 19 large cities from December
1914 to November 1934 and specified intervening dates are shown
in table 3.
Indexes for other dates specified in table 1 are available for these
cities but are omitted as a matter of economy in printing.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

518

M O N TH LY LABOR REVIEW----FEBRUARY 1 9 3 5

T a b le 3 .— C h a n g es in th e C o st o f G o o d s P u rc h a s e d b y W ag e E a r n e r s a n d L ow S a la rie d W o rk e rs in 19 L a rg e C itie s in th e U n ite d S ta te s
Percentage of increase over D ecem ber 1914 in expenditure for—
C ity and date
A ll item s

NORTH ATLANTIC AREA
Boston, M ass.:
June 1920 _________________
D ecem ber 1920____________
June 1929____ ____________
D ecem ber 1929—........ ........... June 1 9 3 0 .______ _______
D ecem ber 1930_______ ____
June 1931_________ _______
D ecem ber 1931_____________
June 1932... . ____________
D ecem ber 1932____ — ___
June 1933__________________
D ecem ber 1933_____________
June 1934____ _________
N ovem b er 1934____ . ___
Buffalo, N . Y .:
June 1920__________________
D ecem ber 1920____________
June 1929 — ___________
D ecem ber 1929____ _______
June 1930_______ ________
D ecem ber 1930____________
June 1931__________________
D ecem ber 1931_____________
June 1932______ _____ _____
Decem ber 1932____________
June 1933__________________
D ecem ber 1933____________
June 1934________ . ______
N ovem b er 1934. __________
N ew York, N . Y .:
June 1920__________________
D ecem ber 1920____________
June 1929 _________________
D ecem ber 1929____________
June 1930 _____ ___________
D ecem ber 1930____________
June 1931— _______________
D ecem ber 1931____________
June 1932 . . ______________
D ecem ber 1932_____________
June 1933__________________
D ecem ber 1933_____________
June 1934._____ _________ _
N ovem b er 1934 ___________
Philadelphia, Pa.:
June 1920_________________
D ecem ber 1920_____________
June 1929____________ _____
D ecem ber 1929____________
June 1930. . . . ____________
D ecem ber 1930_____________
June 1931__________________
D ecem ber 1931_____________
June 1932_____________ ____
D ecem ber 1932_____________
June 1933_________ _______
D ecem ber 1933_____________
June 1934...
____________
N ovem b er 1934____________
Portland, M aine:
June 1920. . . _____________
D ecem ber 1920___________ _
June 1929... ______________
D ecem ber 1929_____________
June 1930__________________
D ecem ber 1930_____________
June 1931_______ ______ . .
D ecem ber 1931_____________
June 1932... . ____________
D ecem ber 1932_____________
June 1933_________________
D ecem ber 1933_____________
June 1934— _______________
N ovem ber 1934____________

1Decrease.

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Food

Clothing

R en t

F u el and
light

H ousefurnish­
ing
goods

M iscel­
laneous

110.7
97.4
65.4
68.4
63.1
59.2
47.1
44.1
32.6
30.4
27.3
34.1
35.3
37.8

105.0
74.4
47.1
53.2
43.7
36.7
14.6
12.8
i 4.8
' 2.8
i 6.2
1.6
4.7
9.1

211.1
192.7
79.0
79.0
78.3
72.6
66.7
58.0
49.5
40.5
39.7
56.5
59.0
60.1

16.2
25.8
50.7
49.2
47.1
44.7
41.8
38.4
35.1
28.1
21.7
17.2
15.0
14.1

83.6
106.0
87.7
94.3
88.7
95.7
85.3
86.0
70.7
73.1
64.6
71.7
66.4
72.1

233.7
226.4
118.4
118.0
113.6
107.6
97.4
89.9
72.6
59.3
62.6
83.6
84.5
85.2

91.8
96.6
92.1
92.9
92.5
92.3
92.3
91.3
87.9
85.5
84.0
85.1
85.7
86.1

121.5
101.7
78.8
80.0
76.0
69.4
58.3
51.8
44.7
39.8
35.5
42.0
43.3
44.6

115.7
78.5
54.6
57.9
47.2
35.8
16.0
6.7
1.3
.5
i 2.9
6.5
10.1
13.7

210.6
168.7
71.2
71.0
70.0
62.0
52.3
45.4
37.0
25.6
25.7
39.9
41.0
39.2

46.6
48.5
67.0
66.5
65.0
62.5
56.5
50.4
39.7
29.4
19.6
14.7
12.8
12.0

69.8
74.9
123.2
127.0
122.9
126.7
121.3
124.8
113. 8
117.4
111.7
119.5
114.7
119.6

199.7
189.2
104.4
104.2
105.0
96.4
84.0
72.4
56.9
51.9
52.4
67.8
73.7
75.1

101.9
107.4
118.9
119.1
120.4
118.4
116.4
114.2
110.8
106.4
100.0
100.6
101.2
100.8

119.2
101.4
75. 5
77.1
71.7
67.5
57.1
52.0
44.8
40.2
35.5
42.1
43.3
44.7

105.3
73.5
50.6
54.9
43.7
35.9
19.6
14.4
4.1
1.9
1.9
8.9
11.6
14.7

241.4
201.8
87.8
85.9
85.5
82.2
67.6
56.5
51.0
37.6
34.8
51.0
55.5
54.4

32.4
38.1
67.6
66.1
65.1
63.1
61.5
58.4
53.0
44.1
35.2
29.0
26.4
24.8

60.1
87.5
92.0
95.1
85.7
90.9
86.3
90.4
76.5
80.4
73.0
80.3
71.3
78.3

205.1
185.9
96.2
95.4
90.5
85.5
62.5
52.3
44.7
37.9
39.4
56.3
58.5
58.3

111.9
116.3
121.4
122.9
123.3
123.7
123.5
120.6
118.6
116.0
108.7
107.7
108.1
108.9

113.5
100.7
73.1
75.0
69.0
64.5
55.3
50.5
38.6
33.9
30.1
38.2
40.2
40.8

101.7
68.1
50.0
56.1
42.6
34.4
20.8
17.0
.1
i 3.8
i 5.2
6.0
12.8
13.9

219.6
183.5
72.6
71.2
69.7
64.9
57.6
42.0
33.4
26.3
23.6
36.8
38.7
39.1

28.6
38.0
59.9
56.5
54.0
51.2
45.8
40.3
33.7
25.7
17.7
12.8
10.5
11.1

66.8
96.0
85.4
86.3
86.5
95.8
80.5
91.7
67.4
71.9
62.8
75.7
66.4
65.2

187.4
183.4
84.1
84.7
83.2
75.3
63.2
54.1
43.9
31.8
26.7
46.7
50.5
52.3

102.8
122.3
121.2
121.2
121.4
120.7
118.5
117.6
113.2
108.7
104.5
106.1
104.7
104.3

107.6
93.1
64.8
65.8
61.5
57.2
48.2
45.1
36.9
32.3
29.0
36.7
36.9
39.8

114.5
78.7
54.3
55.7
45.9
38.5
20.5
17.2
5.2
2. 1
L4
7.7
8.9
14.8

165.9
147.8
65.8
65.6
65.4
60.4
55.7
47.9
38.6
24. 7
23.1
39.8
43.0
44.0

14.5
20.0
19.8
19.8
19.9
19.3
17.9
17.0
15.0
11.6
6.9
3.8
1.5
.5

83.9
113.5
94.1
101.9
96.9
99.9
95.3
97.3
84.1
85.9
66.6
74.3
68.9
75.1

190.3
191.2
112.3
112.1
111.9
105.8
99.2
91.0
81.1
69.9
75.7
87.6
92.3
93.6

89.4
94.3
97.3
97.1
97.1
95.9
95.9
95.7
94.9
93.5
92.0
95.6
93.6
94.0

519

COST OF LIVING

T a b le 3 .— C h a n g es in th e C o st o f G oods P u rc h a s e d b y W age E a r n e r s a n d L ow S a la rie d W o rk ers in 19 L arg e C itie s in th e U n ite d S ta te s — C o n tin u e d
Percentage of increase over D ecem ber 1914 in expenditure for—

F u el and
light

Housefurnish­
ing
goods

C ity and date
A ll item s

Food

Clothing

R en t

M iscel­
laneous

SOUTH ATLANTIC AREA

Baltim ore, M d.:
June 1920__________________
D ecem ber 1920_____________
June 1929
____________
D ecem ber 1929 __
June 1930__________________
D ecem ber 1930_____________
June 1931
-_____
D ecem ber 1931_____________
June 1932 _________________
D ecem ber 1932_____________
June 1933__________________
D ecem ber 1933_____________
June 1934___________ ____
N ovem b er 1934____________
Jacksonville, Fla.:
June 1920 __
____________
D ecem ber 1920_____________
June 1929 _________________
D ecem ber 1929____________
June 1930 _______________ D ecem ber 1930_____________
June 1931__ _____ _________
D ecem ber 1931_____________
June 1932 _________________
D ecem ber 1932_____________
June 1933___ ______________
D ecem ber 1933_____________
June 1934 __ ______________
N ovem b er 1 9 3 4 .__________
Norfolk, Va.:
June 1920__ _______________
D ecem ber 1920________ ___
June 1929__ _______________
D ecem ber 1929_____________
June 1930__
____________
D ecem ber 1930_____________
June 1931.. _______________
D ecem ber 1931_____________
June 1932__________________
D ecem ber 1932___ _______
June 1933__________________
D ecem ber 1933____________
June 1934__________________
N ovem b er 1934. __________
Savannah, Ga.:
June 1920 . . ______________
D ecem ber 1920____________
June 1929__________________
D ecem ber 1929_____________
June 1930__________________
D ecem ber 1930_____________
June 1931__________________
D ecem ber 1931_____________
June 1932 _________________
D ecem ber 1932____________
June 1933__________________
D ecem ber 1933____________
June 1934__________________
N ovem b er 1934____________
W ashington, D . C.:
June 1920 _________________
D ecem ber 1920 ___________
June 1929 _________________
D ecem ber 1929____________
June 1930 _________________
D ecem ber 1930____ _______
June 1931__ _______________
D ecem ber 1931_____________
June 1932 _________________
D ecem ber 1932___ _______
June 1933__________________
D ecem ber 1933_____________
June 1934__________________
N ovem b er 1934____________
i Decrease.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

114.3
96.8
73.8
75.1
71.6
65.8
55.8
51.8
41. 0
38.1
33.9
41.9
43.0
46.1

110.9
75.6
53.8
56.7
47.2
36.9
18.7
14.4
i 1.0
i .4
i 3.8
7.8
10.3
18.0

191.3
159.5
67.5
67.2
65.9
58.1
51.6
41.9
32.7
26.5
24.0
39.0
42.6
41.5

41.6
49.5
65.2
63.4
62.4
61.3
59.8
56.3
51.5
37.9
29.8
24.5
22.1
21.0

57.6
79.0
80.7
86.1
80.9
85.6
78.7
83.9
67.9
75.1
62.8
75.7
69.7
74.8

191.8
181.9
100.4
99.4
95.6
86.0
72.1
66.8
55.6
48.0
47.4
64.5
66.0
66.8

111.4
112.9
119.8
120.2
127.0
126.5
125.6
124.5
119.1
117.1
114.5
115.1
116.4
114.7

116.5
106.2
66.9
65.8
61.0
56.9
47.4
40.5
31.6
27.6
23.6
32.8
33.8
35.5

90.1
65.6
37.4
40.8
31.9
28.4
8.4
1.4
i 10.7
i 12.5
i 15.7
i 4.3
i 5.0
3.1

234.0
209.3
83.9
82.4
80.4
71.9
65.4
49.7
41.3
35.2
33.6
50.8
56.5
56.0

28.9
34.1
19.8
13.2
3.2
i 1.5
> 5.9
i 9.7
i 15.8
i 20.7
i 25.9
i 27.5
i 28.0
i 27.2

72.6
92.6
77.1
75.0
70.6
66.3
64.0
61.0
53.4
49.6
48.1
53.6
55.1
55.1

224.2
222.3
117.8
113.9
110.5
103.3
89.9
81.7
62.1
55.6
52.6
81.9
80.3
82.8

102.8
105.6
105.1
101.0
102.4
101.0
100.2
97.6
92.9
88.1
82.3
84.7
86.0
81.4

122.2
109.0
72.3
73.5
67.9
64.8
54.0
48.8
39.9
36.5
30.2
40.6
42.6
44.7

107.6
76.3
51.9
55.8
43.3
36.7
15.0
9.8
‘.3
i 4.7
i 11.4
1.7
3.6
10.3

176.5
153.6
71.3
70.4
68.7
66.2
57.7
46.2
38.9
34.2
31.0
45.4
50.1
49.8

70.8
90.8
38.8
37.1
36.0
33.3
32.6
29.3
27.0
18.2
16.2
7.5
6.1
4.0

110.6

128.9
94.3
92.7
87.3
97.0
83.6
83.0
67.4
68.4
53.4
70.3
64.0
68.9

165.0
160.5
85.2
83.0
80.4
73.5
63.8
56.1
47.4
42.4
40.5
56.9
60.2
62.0

108.4
106.3
118.0
119. 3
118.6
119.0
119.0
118.3
107.8
110.3
100.2
108.2
111.5
109.6

109.4
98.7
57.2
57.2
53.1
48.3
40.7
33.9
25.0
22.0
18.7
26.3
26.9
28.5

91.7
63.5
33.9
35.1
25.2
17.7
1.5
i 4.7
i 18.1
i 16.8
i 20.8
i 10.0
i 9.6
i 2.6

212.1
171.5
68.2
67.7
66.0
61.4
58.0
44.6
35.2
29.0
26.9
44.0
47.9
46.0

33.5
58.6
32.7
28.3
27.0
19.6
15.8
9.5
4.0
i 4.3
i 9.7
i 12.7
i 13.5
i 14.9

65.3
94.4
55.8
56.1
54.2
56.2
50.7
40.9
39.6
37.6
36.6
43.3
34.8
35.6

207.2
206.6
117.9
117.2
113.7
110.1
98.5
89.0
79.0
67.4
67.9
80.8
84.2
86.2

83.8
91.5
83.8
84.5
84.7
83.8
83.8
82.3
76.8
75.2
70.8
70.8
71.5
70.1

101.3
87.8
60.0
59.2
55.5
51.8
43.0
39.0
29.5
25.8
J 23.7
31.6
34.1
36.7

108.4
79.0
58.4
57.4
49.1
41.3
22.8
17.8
2.4
i 1.4
» 1 .0
8.4
13.9
20.5

184.0
151.1
64.4
62.3
60.5
55.4
49.7
39.7
28.0
20.7
« 17.6
35.7
39.1
38.4

15.6
24.7
30.5
30.0
29.7
28.7
28.2
27.9
27.1
22.5
17.2
14.3
13.7
13.8

53.7
68.0
38.0
39.7
36.2
36.6
32.5
34.9
26.7
29.2
2 23.4
28.3
24.8
28.0

196.4
194.0
100.0
100.2
100.4
93.0
86.6
79.9
61.2
57.3
55.4
72.8
74.5
75.5

6 8 .2

* Corrected figure.

73.9
74.0
74.3
73.8
76.8
75.7
75.3
74.6
72.7
70.1
72.1
72.4
72.4

520

M O NTHLY LABOR REVIEW---- FEBRUARY 1 9 3 5

T a b le 3 .— C h a n g es in th e C o st o f G oods P u rc h a s e d b y W ag e E a r n e r s a n d L ow S a la rie d W o rk e rs in 19 L a rg e C itie s in th e U n ite d S ta te s — C o n tin u e d

C ity and date

Percentage of increase over D ecem ber 1914 in expenditure for—
HouseF u el and furnish­
M iscel­
Clothing
A ll item s
Food
R en t
light
laneous
ing
goods

NORTH CENTRAL AREA

Chicago, 111:
June 1920----- --------- -------------D ecem ber 1920______________
June 1 9 2 9 ... -----------------------D ecem ber 1929______________
June 1930____________________
D ecem ber 1930______________
June 1931____________________
D ecem ber 1931--------------------June 1932____________ _______
D ecem ber 1932______________
June 1933____________ _______
D ecem ber 1933______ _____ -June 1934______________ _____
N ovem b er 1934......................... ..
C leveland, Ohio:
June 1920---------- ------------------D ecem ber 1920............................
June 1929____________ ______ D ecem ber 1929______________
June 1930____________________
D ecem ber 1930--------------------June 1931------- -------------------D ecem ber 1931--------------------June 1932___________________
D ecem ber 1932______________
June 1933___________________
D ecem ber 1933______________
June 1934____________________
N ovem b er 1934_____________
D etroit, M ich.:
June 1 9 2 0 ..- -------------------- D ecem ber 1920________ _____
June 1929___________________
D ecem ber 19 2 9 _____________
June 1 9 3 0 --. _______________
D ecem ber 1930--------------------June 1931. _ ________________
D ecem ber 1931................. ..........
June 1932 ___________ _____
D ecem ber 1932______________
June 1933_____________ ______
D ecem ber 1933______________
JuDe 1 9 3 4 .-- ______________
N ovem b er 1934......................... ..

114.6
9 3 .3
72 .3
73 .7
69.1
62 .2
51 .8
4 6 .2
33 .1
28 .2
24 .0
28 .7
28 .5
3 0 .8

120.0
70 .5
6 3 .0
67 .3
56 .9
4 5 .6
26 .7
23.1
5 .4
1.3
1.2
6 .5
8.1
13.2

205.3
158.6
51 .5
4 9 .2
47 .7
3 7 .2
3 0 .3
19.5
11 .0
7 .6
6 .1
17.0
20.3
20 .3

35.1
48. 9
8 0 .3
77 .2
75.1
71.1
6 4 .4
56. 5
38 .8
24 .9
8 .7
2 .1
1 .1
1.7

6 2 .4
8 3 .5
5 0 .7
56 .7
51 .5
54 .8
49 .5
52 .5
42 .1
44 .1
28.1
2 40 .5
3 3 .2
38 .8

215.9
205.8
9 7 .4
9 7 .0
92 .1
82 .7
67 .7
57 .8
37.1
3 4 .6
3 5 .4
5 0 .0
52.1
53 .6

8 7 .5
9 6 .5
101.7
102.9
104.7
104. 5
103.3
9 8 .6
9 4 .2
9 3 .0
8 9 .9
89 .7
8 7 .0
8 7 .6

120.3
107.3
75 .7
74 .3
73.3
66 .2
54 .4
50 .0
42 .7
36 .9
34 .3
39 .5
41 .9
42 .5

118.7
71 .7
5 0 .6
4 7 .0
42 .0
2 9 .5
9 .6
4 .1
i 6 .4
i 10.3
i 10.1
1.7
3 .6
6 .9

185.1
156.0
63 .9
6 3 .2
61 .6
52.1
4 1 .8
36 .8
3 0 .2
2 5 .3
24 .3
3 3 .7
36 .6
35 .9

4 7 .3
8 0 .0
59 .5
58 .9
56 .4
55 .3
48 .6
41 .0
29 .9
18 .2
6 .1
i 1 .1
.8

9 0 .3
9 4 .5
160.5
163.1
160.2
162. 5
158.0
159. 5
156.4
155.4
150.3
156.1
156. 6
142.2

186.5
176.8
8 9 .4
8 8 .8
87 .7
75 .5
6 4 .4
5 8 .3
4 1 .6
36.1
3 9 .6
52 .6
60 .2
58 .9

117.9
134.0
117.9
118.3
125.3
124.2
118.6
119.0
121.2
114.8
111.8
112.4
114.1
114.3

136.0
118.6
78.1
77 .8
72.3
6 1 .6
5 0 .4
41 .9
3 0 .9
25.7
21 .0
28 .7
3 2 .2
3 3 .9

132.0
75.6
5 9 .2
57 .9
47 .6
3 2 .6
14.7
7 .7
i 7 .7
1 11.3
1 8 .8
1 .3
8 .4
9 .5

208.8
176. 1
62 .5
61 .7
59 .6
5 0 .2
44 .0
33 .1
26.8
25 .9
21 .0
37.1
4 0 .4
4 0 .5

68 .8
108.1
77 .3
77 .8
7 3 .2
60 .0
4 5 .4
3 1 .0
17.8
1.1
i 11.3
i 16.2
i 13.9
i 6 .6

74 .9
104.5
72 .8
77 .5
6 7 .2
71 .0
6 1 .4
59 .3
4 6 .2
4 7 .2
2 37 .5
4 8 .2
4 8 .3
51 .4

206.7
184.0
8 1 .2
79 .4
76 .7
66.5
58 .8
4 9 .3
3 2 .7
3 2 .2
3 1 .0
46 .3
5 2 .0
5 2 .0

141.3
144.0
130.4
130.6
131.1
125.1
123.7
118.1
116.1
110.7
100.8
103.6
102. 2
102.2

112.2
104.0
66 .1
6 8 .0
62 .3
5 4 .7
4 5 .2
41. 1
29 .6
2 3 .0
22 .4
29 .3
3 0 .8
35 .7

107.5
8 3 .2
51.1
55 .8
4 3 .0
32 .8
11.2
9 .5
i 7 .5
i 10.5
i 9 .2

211.3
187.0
8 4 .7
84.1
8 2 .8
65 .6
63 .8
52 .5
4 2 .0
30.4
2 9 .0
4 3 .4
4 5 .7
4 5 .8

i
i
i
i
i

25 .3
35 .1
27 .5
27.1
25 .7
2 3 .8
20 .0
12.3
1.2
11.1
17 .0
18.1
18.4
15.3

55 .1
7 4 .2
29.1
31 .8
25 .3
2 4 .0
18.9
16.8
11.8
5 .9
3 .9
6 .5
4 .2
5 .7

213.9
208.2
129.0
129.5
127.2
113.8
110.0
9 9 .1
8 7 .0
7 5 .0
7 5 .2
9 2 .2
95.3
9 6 .7

9 0 .4
103.9
9 2 .1
9 2 .5
9 2 .5
9 2 .3
92 .1
9 2 .9
8 8 .5
8 3 .2
8 2 .5
8 2 .1
8 1 .6
8 2 .1

107.0
9 3 .3
64 .0
64 .8
60.3
54.4
43 .0
3 8 .0
27 .4
25 .9
22.1
29 .8
29 .4
32 .9

110.5
73 .5
47 .5
49 .0
39 .6
33 .0
12.1
7 .4
i 10 .0
i 9 .0
i 12.1
i 4 .0
i 3 .2

137.4
122.2
47 .2
4 7 .2
46 .8
40.0
34.1
26 .2
18.9
17.6
16.8
31 .3
3 2 .7
3 2 .8

3 4 .6
53 .6
41 .0
4 0 .6
38 .9
36.3
32 .5
24 .6
16.3
3 .6
i 5 .6
■ 8 .6
i 10.3
i 10.1

8 6 .3
122.3
8 4 .0
8 5 .8
81 .2
3 58.6
49 .6
49 .7
4 2 .1
34 .7
2 5 .8
3 9 .4
3 1 .6
3 8 .6

177.9
175.4
8 7 .9
8 7 .3
85 .6
73.5
57.5
50 .6
4 3 .5
4 3 .8
44 .1
64 .9
6 5 .7
69 .5

100.3
100.7
108.1
108.3
108.1
107.5
105.4
102.3
98 .1
9 7 .7
9 3 .7
9 6 .6
9 4 .8
9 4 .6

1. 1

SOUTH CENTRAL AREA
H ouston, Tex.:
June 1920-.
.........................
D ecem ber 1920___ __________
June 1929___ _______ ________
D ecem ber 1929............................
June 1930.................. ......................
D ecem ber 1930.......................... ..
June 1931__________ _____ ____
D ecem ber 1931............................
June 1932_________ ______ ____
D ecem ber 1932............................
June 1933___________________
D ecem ber 1933______________
June 1934____________________
N ovem b er 1934. ______ ______
M obile, Ala.:
June 1920___________________
D ecem ber 1920____ _________
June 1929_________ _________ _
D ecem ber 1929............................
June 1930. _ .................. .............
D ecem ber 1930______________
June 1931____________________
D ecem ber 1931______________
June 1 932.......................................
D ecem ber 1932______________
June 1933......................................
D ecem ber 1933______________
June 1934____________________
N ovem b er 1934_____________

1.0

4 .5
15.4

4.4

* Decrease.
2 Corrected figure.
3 T h e decrease is due prim arily to the change in consum ption and price accom panying th e change from
m anufactured to natural gas.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

521

COST OF LIVING

T a b le 3 .— C h a n g e s in th e C o st o f G oods P u rc h a s e d b y W ag e E a rn e rs a n d L ow S a la rie d W o rk ers in 19 L a rg e C itie s in th e U n ite d S ta te s — C o n tin u e d
Percentage of increase over D ecem ber 1914 in expenditure for—
C ity and date
A ll item s

Food

Clothing

R en t

F u el and
light

Housefurnish­
ing
goods

M iscel­
laneous

WESTERN AREA

101.7
96.7
68.9
68.7
63.7
58.1
48.2
45.1
35.2
32.1
25.7
31.9
31.2
35.7

90.8
62.7
41.2
40.9
30.9
21.0
3.1
5.7
« 12.0
i 8.1
i 13.9
14.0
i 7.0
5.1

184.5
166.6
69.3
69.3
68.1
60.2
50.7
40.0
32.0
26.3
24.8
40.8
46.0
46.1

42.6
71.4
45.2
43.7
39.8
36.9
31.3
25.7
15.8
4.8
i 5.6
» 10.5
i 13.4
i 14.5

53.5
53.5
50.6
51.4
45.6
47.6
47.0
46.6
45.3
45.6
43.1
38.8
38.2
38.3

202.2
202.2
106.5
105.9
103.6
93.0
77.8
71.2
54.9
49.5
46.7
67.8
69.6
73.8

86.6
100.6
111. 1
111.7
110.2
110.2
107.7
103.5
102.7
96.2
87.0
86.4
86.2
86.6

100.4
80.3
50.7
51.6
49.1
41.5
35.2
31.9
22.7
20.1
2 15.5
19.8
20.7
24.5

107.1
60.9
41.4
43.7
34.2
17.8
8.2
6.0
1 6.9
i 6.8
i 10.7
i 6.8
i 5.4
5.4

158.6
122.1
48.4
47.8
44.8
38.4
32.9
23.3
15.9
10.0
10.6
21.8
24.4
23.7

33.2
36.9
11.0
8.2
5.4
2.4
» 1.3
> 6.2
i 13.2
i 19.0
i 23.9
i 27.2
> 27.7
i 27.8

46.9
65.9
51.4
61.8
49.7
55.5
36.4
40.1
22.9
24.9
319.8
35.4
35.1
32.3

183.9
179.9
79.7
81.0
78.6
69.7
65.8
56.8
42.7
36.4
37.5
50.8
52.8
56.0

79.7
81.1
77.3
77.7
86.6
85.1
83.6
82.9
79.6
76.9
67.5
67.2
67.4
68.2

96.0
85.1
60.1
60.8
55.9
51.5
42.8
38.1
30.8
28.9
2 25.5
31.6
32.8
36.7

93.9
64.9
45.1
48.7
40.4
32.0
15.8
10.3

191.0
175.9
82.8
81.5
77.9
72.0
66.3
57.5
48.7
39.6
37.4
59.2
63.7
64.0

9.4
15.0
31.9
30.4
28.1
26.1
24.2
20.2
14.8
9.3
3.9
1 1.2
i 2.9

47.2
66.3
43.7
40.3
3 28.7
32.0
28.8
30.6
25.1
24.6
24.5
25.2
23.4
23.4

180.1
175.6
97.8
97.4
100.6
91.6
79.3
66.6
52.9
49.1
49.8
64.3
65.0
65.2

79.6
84.8
83.4
82.5
80.9
82.0
79.1
78.7
76.2
74.8
> 71.0
72.5
73.0
74.6

110.5
94.1
67.7
68.7
65.4
58.4
52.3
48.0
38.2
2 33.8
2 32.4
35.1
35.8
38.6

102.3
54.1
43.7
45.9
38.1
22.5
12.2
8.8
• 3.1
1 5.1
1 3.6
i 2.0

173.9
160.5
66.6
66.6
64.6
59.7
55.7
45.9
35.2
28.7
28.8
42.1
45.4
44.4

74.8
76.7
52.4
52.1
50.1
47.8
44.4
37.5
25.3
15.4
8.0
3.1
i.l
1.5

65.8
78.7
62.1
65.8
65.5
64.0
54.0
61.5
56.3
> 49.6
45.6
47.2
46.0
45.9

2 2 1.2

90.4
95.5
98.8
98.8
98.6
97.6
96.6
94.6
90.5
88.8
3 85.4
85.4
85.4
85.8

.5

2.7
1.9
4.8
6.1
16.1

.1
00
00

Los A ngeles, Calif.:
June 1920. ________________
D ecem ber 1920 ___________
June 1929__________________
D ecem ber 1929 ....... ...............
June 1930....................................
D ecem ber 1930. __________
June 1931 . . ______________
D ecem ber 1931______ _____
June 1932__________________
D ecem ber 1932 ___________
June 1933... ______________
D ecem ber 1933 __________
June 1934................................ .
N ovem b er 1934____________
Portland, Oreg.:
June 1920. . ---------------------D ecem ber 1920 ----------------June 1929----- ---------------------D ecem ber 1929 ----------------June 1930________ _______
D ecem ber 1930 -----------------June 1931__________ ______ _
D ecem ber 1931 -----------------June 1932__________________
D ecem ber 1932. ---------------June 1933__________________
D ecem ber 1933. ---------------June 1934------ ------------------N ovem b er 1 9 3 4 .. -----San Francisco and Oakland,
Calif.:
June 1920. - ---------------------D ecem ber 1920______ _____
J une 1929 ----------------------- D ecem ber 1929____________
June 1930-.- ---------------------D ecem ber 1930. . . . ______
June 1931-.
-------------------D ecem ber 1931. ---------------June 1 9 3 2 ... ------------------- .
D ecem ber 1932------------------June 1933____________ _____
D ecem ber 1933___. . . --------June 1934---------------------------N ovem b er 1934____________
Seattle, W ash.:
June 1920__________________
D ecem ber 1920 . . ----------June 1929 -------------------- . . .
D ecem ber 1929 . . . ---------June 1 9 3 0... ---------------------D ecem ber 1930 ___________
June 1931- ------------------------D ecem ber 1931____________
June 1932................................ ..
D ecem ber 1932 __________
June 1933. . -------------------D ecem ber 1933 ___________
June 1934.__ ---------------------N ovem b er 1934_______ ____

.5

216.4
131.7
132.6
132.4
128.0
114.5
103.1
83.4
77.7

82.1
98.5
98.5
9 9 .9

1 Decrease.
1 Corrected figure.
.
3 T h e decrease is due prim arily to th e change in consum ption and price accom panying th e change from
m anufactured to natural gas.

The percentage change in the cost of goods purchased by wage
earners and low-salaried workers in 13 large cities from December
1917 to November 1934 and specified intervening dates are shown
in table 4.

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522

M O N TH LY LABOR REVIEW---- FEBRUARY 1 9 3 5

This table is constructed in the same manner as table 3 and differs
only in the base period.
T a b le 4 .— C h a n g es in th e C o st o f G oods P u rc h a s e d b y W age E a rn e rs a n d L ow S a la rie d W o rk e rs in 13 L a rg e C itie s in th e U n ite d S ta te s
Percentage of increase over D ecem ber 1917 in expenditure for—
C ity and date
11 item s

Food

Clothing

R en t

F u el and
light

Housefurnish­
ing
goods

M iscel­
laneous

NORTH ATLANTIC AEEA
P ittsb u rgh , Pa.:
June 1 9 2 0 ..-......................
D ecem ber 1920________
June 1929______________
D ecem ber 1929________
June 1930...........................
D ecem ber 1930________
June 1931___ ____ _____
D ecem ber 1931________
June 1932______________
D ecem ber 1932________
June 1933______________
D ecem ber 1933________
June 1934______________
N ovem b er 1934.............
Scranton, Pa.:
June 1920______________
D ecem ber 1920________
June 1929........................ .
D ecem ber 1929________
June 1930____ ____ ____
D ecem ber 1930. ............
June 1931______________
D ecem ber 1931________
June 1932...................... .
D ecem ber 1932.................
June 1933_____ ____ ___
D ecem ber 1933.................
June 1934______________
N ovem b er 1934................

49.1
39.3
23.2
23.2
19.9
15.2
8.4
4.5
• 3.4
i 5.8
i 9.8
i 5.7
i 3.7
i 2.9

36.5
14.3
.6
1.2
i 5.6
i 13.4
i 24.2
i 29.2
i 38.4
i 38.8
i 40.3
i 33.6
i 29.1
i 26.3

91.3
75.4
2.9
2. 1
1.5
i 3.9
i 9.4
i 13.3
i 17.0
i 21.2
i 22.7
2 1 16.1
i 14.1
i 13.8

34.9
35.0
68.3
67.1
64.9
63.7
56.8
52.3
35.9
29.4
10.9
7.1
3.5
2.3

31.7
64.4
85.6
86.0
85.1
84.4
83.1
83.8
81.6
77.4
76.9
82.6
81.7
80.2

77.4
78.1
15.1
14.6
13.5
6.6
.4
i 6.4
> 14.5
‘ 17.0
i 18.1
i 7.9
i 5.3
i 4.4

41.2
46.3
48.1
47.5
47.9
47.5
46.9
45.6
42.5
40.8
38.7
39.7
40. 5
39.5

51.5
39.1
26.3
27.3
23.5
19.5
11.8
8.4
1.3
1.5
i 4.2
2.1
2.5
2.7

41.4
17.8
2.9
6.5
1.8
i 8.1
i 20.3
i 22.8
i 32.1
i 33.4
i 35.1
i 27.6
i 27.3
i 26.0

97.7
76.5
15.2
13.7
13.5
10.7
3.9
i 7.1
i 9.5
i 14.1
i 15.1
i 4.3
i 1.7
> 2.4

17.2
18.5
68.1
63.9
60.5
59.1
53.2
51.8
43.8
40.6
30.1
26.5
23.8
22.8

43.5
67.3
65.0
67.6
60.2
66.1
61.3
69.5
45.3
53.3
33.5
47.4
38.9
44.0

62.8
62.0
26.5
26.0
26.0
22.9
18.2
7.3
3.7
i 2.5
8.0
11.7
11.8

47.9
50.4
57.5
57.3
57.3
56.8
55.2
55.2
52. 1
51.0
48.1
49.9
50.8
49.9

46.7
38.5
13.6
13.5
7.9
4.5
i 1.7
i 6.2
' 11.5
i 15.4
i 17.2
i 12.9
i 11.7
i 9.4

34.0
12.8
.3
.1
i 7.9
i 13.1
i 24.2
i 29.2
i 36.6
i 39.8
i 39.4
i 35.9
i 33.3
i 28.6

80.5
56.5
.3
1.6
1 2.8
■ 6.4
i 8.5
i 16.7
i 21.4
i 24.9
i 25.7
i 15.9
i 14.4
i 14.4

40.4
73.1
37.5
35.9
32.8
30.8
28.3
19.6
14.6
.2
i 5.8
1 11. 2
■ 12.0
i 11.7

61.0
66.8
28.4
31.6
> 11.6
11.6
3.6
4.8
i 2.7
.4
i 6.6
4.6
.8
4.1

65.0
58.4
14.6
14.1
11.2
8.0
1.7
i 5.7
i 12.3
i 16.4
i 16.1
i 3.0
1.5
3.0

34.6
39.7
33.0
34.2
31.8
30.5
28.2
28.7
28.2
25.4
21.8
23.6
22.7
23.3

43.8
33.3
14.2
14.9
12.5
9.3
2.4
.3
i 6.7
i 9.6
i 12.1
i 6.4
i 5.6
i 3.7

36.1
11.9
i 5 .0 i 3.4
i 8.0
i 14.9
i 27.2
i 29.2
i 39.2
i 39.7
i 41.7
i 34.4
i 32.2
i 28.4

93.6
69.0
4.2
4.2
3.3
2.0
i 2.4
i 8.6
i 13.9
> 18.1
1 19.1
■7.8
i 6.1
i 7.0

12.5
25.9
28.3
27.0
26.5
25.5
24.4
21.8
20.0
10.4
7.0
1 1.3
i 2.5
i 3.6

36.1
62.2
42.0
44.7
38.5
42.0
33.1
37.6
25.6
24.5
17.7
27.6
22.1
24.2

75.4
70.0
32.4
31.3
30.0
26.6
18.6
15.5
2.8
i 1.6
t 2.1
12.9
14.3
17.7

32.4
30.0
40.2
41.0
41.3
41.0
40.6
40.3
38.3
34.4
30.9
33.0
33.4
34.6

1.0

SOUTH ATLANTIC AREA
A tlan ta, Ga.:
June 1920______________
D ecem ber 1920________
June 1929............................
D ecem ber 1929________
June 1930______________
D ecem ber 1930.................
June 1931............................
D ecem ber 1931________
June 1932______ ____ _
D ecem ber 1932________
June 1933______________
D ecem ber 1933________
June 1934______________
N ovem b er 1934...............
R ichm ond, Va.:
June 1920..........................
D ecem ber 1920..................
June 1929..........................
D ecem ber 1929.................
June 1930______________
D ecem ber 1930_________
June 1931____ ____ ____
D ecem ber 1931..................
June 1932.......................... ..
D ecem ber 1932..................
June 1933______________
D ecem ber 1933_________
June 1934.............................
N ovem b er 1934________

1 Decrease.
2 Corrected figure.
* T h e decrease is due prim arily to the change in consum ption and price accom panying the change from
m anufactured to natural gas.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

523

COST OF LIVING

T a b le 4 .— C h a n g es in th e C o st o f G oods P u rc h a s e d b y W age E a rn e rs a n d L ow S a la rie d W o rk e rs in 13 L a rg e C itie s in th e U n ite d S ta te s — C o n tin u e d
Percentage of increase over D ecem ber 1917 in expenditure for—
C ity and date
A ll item s

NORTH CENTRAL AREA
C incinnati, Ohio:
June 1920________________
D ecem ber 1920 ____ _ . __
June 1929__________________
D ecem ber 1929______
June 1930 __ ______________
D ecem ber 1930___. . . _ _
June 1931___
__________
D ecem ber 1931_____ . . . .
June 1932__ ________ ___ D ecem ber 1932_____________
June 1933____ ____________
D ecem ber 1933____________
June 1934.__________ ______
N ovem b er 1 9 3 4 .______ . . .
Indianapolis, Ind.:
June 1920 _________ _______
D ecem ber 1920_____________
June 1929.. . .................... ..
D ecem ber 1929_____________
June 1930__ _______ _______
D ecem ber 1930____________
June 1 9 3 1 _________ ______
D ecem ber 1931____________
June 1932 . . ____________
D ecem ber 1932____________
June 1933. _ ____________
D ecem ber 1933_____________
June 1934 _______ ___ ___ .
N ovem b er 1934____________
K ansas C ity, M o.:
June 1920___ ____________
D ecem ber 1920__________ . .
June 1929 . ______________
D ecem ber 1929_____ . ____
June 1930 _____ ___________
D ecem ber 1930_____________
June 1 9 3 1 ___
. . ____
D ecem ber 1931____________
June 1932__________________
D ecem ber 1932 ____________
June 1933__
__________ .
D ecem ber 1933_____________
June 1934 ___ _____________
N ovem b er 1934__ ______ ___
M inneapolis, M inn.:
June 1920 _______________
D ecem ber 1920_____________
June 1929________________ .
D ecem ber 1929_____________
June 1930__________________
D ecem ber 1930_____ ______
June 1931 _______
____ .
D ecem ber 1931____________
June 1932__________________
D ecem ber 1932_____________
June 1933 _______________ .
D ecem ber 1933_____________
June 1934 _ _______________
N ovem b er 1934_________ . .
St. L ouis, M o.:
June 1920 . . ____ _ ______
D ecem ber 1920____________
June 1929. ________ ______
D ecem ber 1929_____________
June 1930 . . _____ _____ .
D ecem ber 1930_______ ___
June 1931
________ _ . .
D ecem ber 1931_____________
June 1932 _________________
D ecem ber 1932_____________
June 1933 _________________
D ecem ber 1933_____________
June 1934________________ .
N ovem b er 1934____________
> D ecrease.

109041—35----- 18


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Food

C lothing

R ent

F u el and
light

Housefurnish­
ing
goods

M iscel­
laneous

47.1
34.7
21.8
23.1
20.1
16.6
9.1
5.8
1 2.3
i 4. 5
2 i 7. 5
i 3. 7
i 3.3
i 1.7

38.7
10.3
2.5
4. 5
i 1.2
i 8.0
i 20.4
i 24.2
i 37.3
> 38.3
i 38.7
i 33.5
i 31.5
i 27.2

96.7
73.5
i 5.8
i 6.4
i 7.1
i 8.7
i 17.5
i 22.4
i 24.3
i 26.9
i 28.7
i 23.5
i 21.7
i 21.4

13.6
25.0
56.9
56.7
54.5
52.8
49.3
43.9
34.1
25.2
13.8
11.3
8.9
7.2

26.9
34.1
60.8
70.9
63.6
69.7
59.2
64.6
54.7
60.0
51.2
65.7
61.9
61.4

75.5
66.7
13.6
13.1
11.6
8.7
> .4
i 5.1
i 11.3
i 15.8
i 12.3
i 3.9
i 1.1
.1

47.6
53.4
49.7
51.2
51.5
49.4
51.5
50.3
48.6
47.6
2 44.2
45.6
44.3
44.3

50.2
37.6
17.7
18.8
16.1
10.8
3.0
‘ .8
i 6.6
‘ 9.5
i 11.9
1 7.8
i 6.5
1 6.6

49.0
11.0
1 .8
2.0
i 2.7
i 14.2
i 26.5
i 29.1
i 37.6
i 39.0
i 39.4
i 35.0
‘ 31.7
i 32.4

87.9
72.3
3.0
2.4
1.2
i 1.6
i 10.4
i 19.4
i 22.9
i 25.5
i 25.9
i 17.6
i 16.4
i 17.0

18.9
32.9
28.4
27.9
25.9
23.9
16.8
11.3
3.4
i 6.6
1 14.7
i 17.3
i 19.2
i 19. 0

45.6
60.3
26.1
31.0
24.8
30.2
23.8
23.7
12.1
17.3
14.1
26.3
26.3
31.1

67.5
63.0
12.7
11.7
9.0
5.6
1 3.6
i 12.4
i 17.0
i 19.1
i 16.5
1 6.6
i 4.9
1 3.6

40.5
47.5
52.3
52.0
51.8
50.4
49.5
49.2
48.5
44.8
40.3
41.0
40.6
40.9

51.0
39. 5
11.0
11.7
9.0
7. 7
2.9
‘ 1.1
> 8.5
i 10.5
1 12.7
2 i 10.4
i 9. 7
1 7.8

44.9
10.2
i 5.3
i 2.2
i 8.6
i 15. 8
i 24.9
i 28.9
i 38.7
i 38.4
i 38.5
i 36.0
i 33.0
i 28.2

104.5
76.3
2. 4
1.8
1.5
1.0
i 1.7
i 9.9
i 17.1
i 21.6
i 22.8
i 15.2
‘ 13.8
i 14.1

29.4
63.9
21.1
20.1
19.4
19.8
17.4
16.3
8.2
2.8
i 7.9
i 10.4
i 12.6
i 12.9

35.2
55. 1
26.3
23.9
24.0
22.0
19.7
14.3
12.0
9.4
8.0
2 9.7
11.2
11.1

73.0
68.7
5.1
3.4
2.1
i 1.1
i 6.2
i 11.5
i 18.0
i 21.1
' 20.3
i 11.9
i 12.9
1 12.6

37.1
40.3
37.0
36.9
36.9
44.3
44.0
42.3
37.6
35.9
33.6
32.9
31.6
32.3

43.4
35.7
15.4
16.2
14.1
10.6
5.0
2.1
i 4.9
1 7.5
i 12.2
i 7.6
i 7.1
i 6.3

50.0
13.0
1.8
3.9
i 1.0
i 9.4
i 21.2
i 25.5
i 35.2
i 36.0
* 38.7
i 30.5
i 27.5
i 25.3

76.7
63.6
i 1.8
i 2.8
13.5
i 4.4
i 8.8
i 16.2
i 23.3
i 26.4
i 28.2
i 20.1
i 18.5
i 17.8

10.7
36.8
25.6
25.2
23.6
23.5
21.4
19.8
12.1
6.7
» 2.7
‘ 6.2
i 8.6
‘ 9.8

36.9
60.3
41.9
44.3
46.2
39.9
41.6
44.3
37.1
39.2
22.4
31.5
29.4
34.2

65.5
65.8
10.5
10.9
10.6
7.8
3.7
i 2.7
i 12.4
i 14.1
i 13.8
i 3.9
i 3.1
1 1.1

31.3
37.6
36.7
36.6
36.3
37.0
35.4
36.1
35.6
30.3
27.2
26.3
24.4
24.2

48.9
35.4
20.5
21.7
18.3
13.9
6.2
1.4
> 4.3
i 7.4
i 9.6
i 6.3
i 5.8
i 4.2

46.2
8.8
i .4
i .5
i 6.7
i 14.9
i 24.9
i 29.8
i 38.3
i 39.4
i 38.2
i 33.7
i 32.9
i 27.9

89.7
70.0
1.7
.8
(4)
i 1.4
i 10.7
i 19.2
i 22.4
i 25.7
i 26.6
i 17.8
1 10. 4
i 15.7

29.8
42.4
71.8
69.2
66.0
59.5
53.0
44.0
34.4
22.3
11.2
4.8
2.2
.1

19.6
42.6
22.5
33.4
21.8
29.1
12.4
20.7
17.4
14.1
2 .3
13.5
22.4
12.9

73.1
70.2
17.8
16.2
16.9
15.4
5.9
i .6
i 8.6
i 12.7
i 11.5
i 2.2
.7
1.4

37.6
43.2
38.4
44.2
44.6
42.1
41.5
39.2
39.1
38.7
36.1
36.4
35.6
36.0

2 Corrected figure.

4 N o change.

524

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW--- FEBRUARY 193 5

T a b le 4 .— C h a n g e s in th e C o st o f G oods P u rc h a s e d b y W age E a rn e rs a n d L o w S a la rie d W o rk e rs in 13 L a rg e C itie s in th e U n ite d S ta te s — C o n tin u e d
Percentage of increase over D ecem ber 1917 in expenditure for—
C it y a n d d a te
A ll ite m s

Food

C lo th in g

R ent

F uel and
lig h t

H o u sefu r n ish ­
in g
goods

M is c e l­
la n e o u s

SOUTH CENTRAL AREA
B ir m in g h a m , A la.:
J u n e 1920____________________
D e c e m b e r 1920______________
J u n e 1929____ _____ _________
D e c e m b e r 1929______________
J u n e 1930____________________
D e c e m b e r 1930____ _________
J u n e 1931____________________
D e c e m b e r 1931______________
J u n e 1932__________ ______
D e c e m b e r 1932............... .............
J u n e 1933____________________
D e c e m b e r 1 9 3 3 ...........................
J u n e 1934___
___ _________
N o v e m b e r 1934___________ _
M e m p h is , T e n n .:
J u n e 1 9 2 0 ._______ __________
D e c e m b e r 1920______________
J u n e 1929____________
____
D e c e m b e r 1929_____________
J u n e 1930____________________
D e c e m b e r 1930.------------------J u n e 1931____________ _______
D e c e m b e r 1931_______ ______
J u n e 1932______________ . . .
D e c e m b e r 1932______________
J u n e 1933___________ ______
D e c e m b e r 1933____________ .
J u n e 1934___________________
N o v e m b e r 1934_____________
N e w O rleans, L a.:
J u n e 1920____________________
D e c e m b e r 1920_________
..
J u n e 1929
___ _________
D e c e m b e r 1929_________ . . .
J u n e 1930 . ______________
D e c e m b e r 1930______________
J u n e 1931__________________ .
D e c e m b e r 1931______________
J u n e 1932____________________
D e c e m b e r 1932______________
J u n e 1933 ._ _______________
D e c e m b e r 1933______________
J u n e 1934____________ . _
N o v e m b e r 1934________ . . .

41 .9
33 .3
12.3
11 .8
8 .2
3 .8
> 5 .6
i 9 .6
i 16.4
i 1 8 .7
i 21 .4
1 17 .0
i 16.4
1 1 2 .9

36 .4
11.9
i 3 .9
i 2 .8
i 8 .9
1 1 4 .0
i 3 0 .6
i 3 3 .2
i 4 0 .8
i 39 .9
1 4 0 .8
1 3 7 .3
i 3 7 .0
i 3 0 .8

6 6 .4
45.1
i 4 .3
i 5 .0
i 5 .9
1 9 .1
i 13.1
1 2 0 .1
i 25 .5
i 2 8 .2
i 28 .6
i 17.7
i 16.5
i 15.7

40 .3
68 .5
50 .8
4 0 .8
35 .9
2 3 .5
15.1
1 .5
i 7 .6
i 22 .7
i 2 8 .4
1 3 0 .8
i 30 .9
i 2 7 .4

55 .3
7 4 .2
3 5 .5
3 8 .8
3 3 .2
3 8 .5
2 5 .3
2 4 .9
9 .0
9 .2
2 .3
15.9
16.6
19.0

5 5 .6
48 .1
10.6
10 .5
9 .3
2 .7
i 5 .4
i 11 .0
» 2 3 .4
» 2 4 .4
» 2 6 .4
» 15.9
» 1 4 .2
» 12 .9

2 8 .7
30 .4
26.1
2 7 .2
2 6 .4
25 .1
2 4 .2
2 4 .1
2 1 .6
21 .0
15 .6
17 .0
18 .2
19 .7

4 6 .4
3 9 .3
16.8
16 .5
14 .7
10 .4
3 .4
1.5
i 7 .1
i 10.4
i 12 .0
i 7 .6
i 6 .3
i 4 .1

3 8 .8
7 .0
i 6 .0
i 5 .1
i 10 .6
i 19 .2
i 31 .3
1 3 4 .2
i 4 2 .3
i 43 .3
i 4 4 .0
i 38.1
i 3 5 .8
i 3 1 .6

77.5
5 9 .0
i.l
i.l
1.6
l 2 .4
i 4 .8
i 10.4
i 14.5
i 19 .0
i 19.6
i 11.0
i 9 .9
i 9 .8

35 .9
6 6 .2
4 2 .6
4 0 .6
3 9 .6
35 .8
29 .8
18 .4
11.3
1.7
i 7 .5
i 12 .2
i 12.7
■ 10 .2

4 9 .7
105.4
3 6 3 .6
5 5 .3
58 .9
57 .9
4 8 .3
4 8 .3
4 5 .9
3 1 .7
3 1 .6
43 .3
4 0 .3
42 .4

67 .1
5 3 .9
1 3 .8
13.9
13 .3
10 .7
6 .2
» .9
» 6 .5
» 14.7
» 13 .6
“ 3 .7
».4
1 .5

3 8 .8
4 3 .2
3 8 .5
3 8 .6
3 9 .6
3 8 .8
35 .5
3 5 .2
2 9 .0
3 1 .3
28 .9
3 1 .0
3 2 .2
3 3 .0

41 .9
36 .7
17.8
18.8
14.8
10.2
1 .2
.3
i 6 .4
i 7 .2
i 10.4
i 5 .8
1 6 .0
i 2 .8

2 8 .6
10.7
i 4 .3
i 1 .8
i 9 .8
i 15.0
i 30 .3
i 30 .3
i 4 0 .5
i 38 .5
i 41 .6
i 34 .8
1 35 .5
i 28 .2

9 4 .9
69 .4
12.6
12.6
12.0
.1
i 2.7
i 9 .7
i 13.9
i 16.2
i 18.5
3 i 11.4
i 9 .9
i 10.4

12.9
39 .7
53 .6
51.3
4 9 .2
45.3
4 3 .0
38 .7
35 .4
26 .9
21.1
16.3
14.1
12.6

43 .3
4 1 .5
3 14.9
18.1
12.4
14 .4
i 6 .5
4 .1
' 4 .4
i 6 .4
i 10.7
4 .9
2 .0
4 .2

75 .9
63 .9
15.9
15.7
14 .8
10 .2
5 .9
».5
» 8 .7
» 10 .8
i 11 .2
1 .2
3 .1
4 .3

4 2 .8
57 .1
45 .9
4 5 .8
46 .5
46 .5
43 .1
4 5 .2
42 .6
4 1 .6
3 9 .2
39.1
39 .8
40 .1

50 .3
3 8 .7
15.6
16.1
13.0
9 .7
3 .8
.3
i 6 .3
i 8 .3
i 10.5
i 7 .8
i 6 .9
1 4 .7

4 1 .5
7 .9
' 7 .4
i 6 .8
i 11.9
i 19.9
i 28 .7
i 30 .6
i 38 .6
i 37 .7
i 38.8
i 3 5 .0
i 32 .9
i 27 .6

9 6 .8
78 .3
8 .0
7 .9
7 .0
5 .5
2 .3
i 6 .5
i 15.3
i 19.7
i 19.9
i 14.0
i 12.8
1 12.5

51 .9
69 .8
52 .3
51.1
49 .4
47 .8
43 .1
37.1
28 .2
20 .5
11.3
5 .7
3 .1
2 .8

2 2 .3
47 .1
3 19.0
2 9 .2
22 .6
2 7 .4
7 .9
7 .1
1 .2
i 4 .8
' 3 .2
5 .0
5 .0
2 .7

6 0 .2
58 .9
17.4
16.0
15.3
12 .4
8 .1
».2
1 9 .1
1 10.7
i 10.9
i 1 .4
.3
1 .4

3 5 .4
3 8 .8
3 8 .8
3 8 .7
3 8 .0
3 7 .6
36 .9
36 .5
35 .8
3 4 .2
3 1 .2
3 1 .2
31 .9
32 .3

WESTERN AREA
D e n v e r , C olo.:
J u n e 1920 ____________ ______
D e c e m b e r 1920____________ .
J u n e 1929___ ________ ______
D e c e m b e r 1929............................
J u n e 1930.._ _ ____________
D e c e m b e r 1930_____
J u n e 1931. _________________
D e c e m b e r 1931______________
J u n e 1932____________________
D e c e m b e r 1932............................
J u n e 1933____________________
D e c e m b e r 1933______________
J u n e 1934____________________
N o v e m b e r 1934_____________

“ Decrease; corrected figure.
1 Decrease.
1 Corrected figure.
3
T h e decrease is due prim arily to the change in consum ption and price accom panying the change from
m anufactured to natural gas.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

525

COST OF LIVING

Table 5 shows group weights used in computing the index of cost
of all items purchased by wage earners and low-salaried workers in
32 cities and the United States. These weights were derived from
a study made by the Bureau in 1918-19 of the disbursements of
12,096 families in 92 cities.
Table 5.—Group Weights Used in Computing Index of Cost of All Items
Purchased by Wage Earners and Low-Salaried Workers

C ity

Food

C loth­
ing

R ent

Fuel
and
light

H ouse
furnish­
ing
goods

M iscel­
laneous

A tla n ta ____________________________ ____ _
B altim ore_________________________ _____
B irm in gham _____ _______________________
B oston ___________________________________
B u ffalo__________________________________
C hicago_________________ ________ _____
C in cin n a ti_______________________________
C levelan d ________________________________
D en ver _____ _________________________
D etro it__________________________________
H o u sto n _________________________________
Indianapolis_____________________________
Jack sonville__
_____________________ __
K ansas C ity ______________________ ______
Los A ngeles____________________
M e m p h is_________ _____ ___________ ____
M in n e a p o lis .............................. ....................... .
M o b ile___ _____________________________
N ew Orleans_____________________________
N ew Y o rk _______________________________
Norfolk _________________________________
P h iladelp h ia____________ _______________
P ittsb u rgh ___________________ ____ ______
Portland, M a in e . _ _______ ____________
Portland, Oreg_______ . _______________
R ich m o n d _____________ ________________
St. L o u is._______ ________________________
San Francisco____________________________
S a v a n n a h ... ______________ ____________
Scranton_________________ ____ __________
S e a ttle .. . . .
_ ________________________
W ashington, D . C _______________________

38. 5
42.0
38.1
44.5
36.1
37.8
40. 6
35.6
38.3
35. 2
38.4
37.0
34.6
38.7
35.8
36. 2
35.4
39. 1
42.6
42.0
34. 9
40. 2
40. 2
41. 2
34. 3
41. 6
38. 5
37.9
34. 3
42.6
33. 5
38.2

18.6
15.1
16. 5
15. 5
17. 5
16. 0
15. 2
16.0
16. 2
16.6
15.2
15.8
16.8
15.2
14.9
16.3
15. 5
18. 6
15.0
16. 6
21.1
16.3
17.8
17.4
16. 1
15.9
15.0
16.6
18.8
18. 4
15.8
16.6

10.4
14.0
12.2
12.8
15. 4
15.0
14. 5
16.4
12.0
17.5
13. 2
13.1
12.3
13. 6
13.4
13. 5
16.8
10.3
12.0
14.9
11.8
13. 2
14. 5
12.3
12.8
10.5
13.4
14.8
12.9
10.9
15.4
13.4

5. 6
5.0
4.6
5. 6
4.9
6.1
4.2
4.1
5.7
6. 4
4. 2
5.9
4. 6
5. 7
3.1
5.1
6.8
5.1
4.8
4.5
5. 4
5.1
3. 2
6.4
4.9
5.6
4.9
4. 1
5.7
4. 6
5.4
5.3

5. 6
4.3
5.3
3.3
5. 6
4. 4
5. 2
6. 0
5. 5
5.9
5.6
5.9
5.4
4.9
5.1
4. 5
4.8
4.3
3.9
3.3
6. 7
4.4
5. 4
4. 1
6. 1
4.8
5.6
4. 2
5. 1
4.9
5. 1
5.1

21.4
19.7
23.3
18.3
20. 6
20.6
20.3
21.8
22.4
18.3
23.4
22. 2
26.3
21.8
27.7
24.4
20. 5
22.5
21.8
18. 7
20. 2
20.8
18. 9
18.5
25.7
21. 5
22. 6
22.4
23.2
18.5
24.7
21.3

U n ited S tates______________________

38.2

16.6

13.4

5.3

5.1

21.3

Changes in Living Costs From the First 6 Months of 1928 to November
1934
T h e Economy Act of March 20, 1933 (H. R. 2820), directed the
President of the United States to reduce salaries of Federal employees
in accordance with the reduction in the cost of living until that
reduction equaled 15 percent of basic salaries or salaries in effect when
the act was passed. The act further empowered the President then to
eliminate that portion of the reduction and restore salaries when the
changes in the cost of living warranted such action. The base period
selected in accordance with the act was the 6 months ending June 30,
1928. From these figures the President was authorized to determine
an index figure of the cost of living to be used as the base and from
future investigations to determine index figures upon which shall be
based further changes in employees’ salaries. The period to be
covered by each survey was 6 months.

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

526

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 19 3 5
Wage Earners and Lower'Salaried Workers

In spite of the increases reported in the last 11 months, the average
cost of goods purchased by the wage-earner and low-salaried families

COST OF LIVING B Y GROUPS OF
ITEMS TOR SPECIEIED DATES
In d ex N um bers (1913 100)
"

U. S. Department of Labor
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Washington.

Average Dec. '2? & June 28
J u n e 1933

Dec. 1933
June 1931
Nov. 1931
A verage Dec. '27 & June 28
June 1933
Dec. 1933
Ju n e 1934
Noe. 193 4
A verage Dec. ’2 7 8, June 28
Ju n e 1933
Dec. 1933
June 1934
Nov. 1934
A verage Dec. '27 & June '28
June 1933
Dec. 1933
Ju n e 1934
Nov. 1934

7/7//////7///777////A//AA/////7///AAAAAA//AAAA///m

W SlT nT Z N N zm m

m 7///7/7/7777////7/77//7//7/7//77gA
77/7//////777/////A ///A /////777777A
27///77/7777777/g//7///7/7/777////77777777777A

2 J " 'U " V '/// /// /// /// //A
v * . ° ° 4 * z m /Z

///////////A

m77//////77777/7777777//7/7//A
,/7/////7///77/7//7////777777/7/7///////\
y// / / / / / / / / / / / / / / Z

///y

/ / // / / / // / / // / / / A

NNi'/((J3//_
/‘//’/NN77777A
y C lo th in g

W 7///77/7777777A
77777777/7/7///////7///777777777A
7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 ///7 //7 ///////////////7 A
7777777/777/777777/7/7777777777777777777

- K e n t/ / / / / / / / / / / / / / / A
7 2 7 7 7 //7 7 7 /////////////A
'¿ '/////////////////////A

A verage Dec. '27 & June '28 Y ////////////7 7 /7 7 7 /7 /////////7 /////////7 7 A
J u n e 1933
Dec. 1933
J u n e 1934
/’ / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / A
Nov. 1934
77777/7777/7///7/7777777//777777/////A
A vera g e Dec. '27 & June 28 7ZZZZZZ7ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZA
Ju n e 1933
7
7
flZiF y?
Dec. 1933
J u n e 1934
A777777/7777777/77777/7/A/7AAA7A////777A
Nov. 1934
7777777777777777//77////////777/77777//A
A vera g e Dec. 2 7 &. June 28
J u n e 1933
Dec. 1933
J u n e 1934
Nov.
1934

m is n iia n e w 77777//7/7////7 //7 ///7 /7 )l
y77777777777777777777777777777/777777777777777A
V 7/777777//7////A /A A ///////7777777/////777777A .

0

30

to o

130

200

was 18.8 percent lower in November 1934 than in the first 6 months
of 1928. Average rental costs were lower by 35.6 percent; the cost of
food, by 25.7 percent; house-furnishing goods, by 16.5 percent;

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

527

COST OF LIVING

clothing, by 16.3 percent; fuel and light, by 12.3 percent; although the
cost of goods and services classified as “ miscellaneous” was only
4.6 percent lower.
Table 6 shows indexes of the cost of goods purchased by wage
earners and low-salaried workers in the larger cities of the United
States from the first 6 months of 1928 to December 1933, June 1934,
and November 1934.
Table 6 .—Indexes of the Cost of Goods Purchased by Wage Earners and LowSalaried Workers in the Larger Cities of the United States
[Average D ecem ber 1927 an d June 1928=100]

C ity and date
A verage, U n ited States:
D ecem ber 1933________ _____
June 1934.
_ _____________
N ovem b er 1934_____________

A ll item s

Food

Clothing

R ent

HouseFuel and furnish­
light
ing goods

M iscel­
laneous

78 .9
7 9 .8
8 1 .2

68 .4
70 .3
74 .3

8 2 .1
8 3 .8
8 3 .7

6 5 .5
64 .4
6 4 .4

8 8 .4
8 6 .6
8 7 .7

8 1 .2
8 2 .7
8 3 .5

9 5 .4
9 5 .4
9 5 .4

8 0 .2
8 0 .9
82 .4

6 7 .9
6 9 .9
72 .9

8 6 .8
8 8 .2
8 8 .8

7 7 .0
7 5 .5
74 .9

8 8 .7
8 6 .0
8 8 .9

8 2 .0
8 2 .4
8 2 .8

9 7 .0
9 7 .3
97 .5

79 .1
79 .8
8 0 .6

69. 2
7 1 .6
7 3 .9

8 1 .6
8 2 .2
8 1 .2

6 6 .2
65 .1
6 4 .7

9 6 .4
9 4 .3
96. 5

8 1 .6
8 4 .4
85 .1

9 2 .4
9 2 .7
9 2 .5

8 0 .4
8 1 .8

7 1 .4
7 3 .2
7 5 .2

79 .1
81. 5
8 0 .9

76 .0
7 4 .4
7 3 .5

9 2 .4
8 7 .8
9 1 .3

7 8 .0
79 .1
7 9 .0

9 5 .0
9 5 .2
9 5 .5

7 8 .2
79 .3
7 9 .6

6 9 .0
73 .4
7 4 .2

77 .3
78 .4
78 .6

6 6 .5
65. 2
6 5 .5

9 4 .5
8 9 .5
8 8 .8

7 8 .6
80. 7
8 1 .6

9 3 .1
9 2 .5
9 2 .3

7 6 .3
77 .9
7 8 .6

6 7 .2
7 1 .8
7 4 .6

i 80 .7
8 2 .6
8 2 .9

6 1 .7
5 9 .6
5 8 .9

9 7 .8
9 7 .3
9 6 .5

7 7 .5
7 9 .6
8 0 .4

9 5 .3
9 5 .8
9 5 .2

8 2 .6
8 2 .8
8 4 .5

6 8 .6
69 .3
73.1

8 3 .9
8 5 .8
8 6 .4

8 4 .9
8 3 .0
8 2 .2

8 7 .0
8 4 .3
8 7 .4

87 .1
8 9 .2
8 9 .8

103. 5
102.5
102.7

8 0 .0
8 0 .3
8 0 .4

6 9 .8
70.1
7 1 .4

8 2 .3
8 4 .5
8 3 .9

7 3 .3
71 .7
71 .1

8 5 .6
8 0 .7
8 3 .6

8 2 .4
8 5 .2
8 5 .3

9 6 .0
9 6 .6
9 6 .0

7 6 .3
7 7 .4
79 .4

6 4 .0
6 6 .6
7 1 .3

8 3 .9
8 5 .4
8 5 .4

6 3 .8
63. 2
6 3 .4

7 7 .5
74 .7
7 7 .2

8 3 .9
8 7 .8
89 .1

9 2 .5
9 1 .8
9 2 .3

81. 5
8 2 .1
8 3 .9

6 9 .6
71 .3
7 6 .2

8 2 .6
8 4 .7
8 4 .1

7 4 .4
7 2 .9
72 .3

9 5 .6
9 2 .3
9 5 .1

8 0 .6
81 .4
8 1 .8

9 9 .8
100.4
9 9 .6

7 7 .8
7 8 .4
7 9 .4

6 8 .9
68 .4
7 4 .2

8 1 .4
8 4 .5
8 4 .2

51 .1
5 0 .8
5 1 .3

8 5 .7
8 6 .6
8 6 .6

8 2 .0
8 1 .3
8 2 .4

9 0 .2
9 0 .8
8 8 .6

81. 5
8 2 .7
8 3 .9

6 6 .5
6 7 .8
7 2 .1

8 4 .9
8 7 .6
8 7 .4

7 5 .3
7 4 .4
7 2 .9

8 6 .5
8 3 .3
8 5 .8

8 3 .9
8 5 .6
8 6 .6

9 9 .0
9 8 .1

8 0 .8
8 1 .4
8 3 .1

6 7 .8
70.1
7 4 .0

8 7 .6
8 9 .3
8 8 .4

7 5 .4
7 4 .5
7 3 .6

8 5 .6
8 1 .9
8 3 .3

8 3 .9
8 4 .9
8 7 .4

9 4 .3
9 4 .6
9 5 .5

8 0 .2
8 0 .6
8 1 .6

6 7 .6
6 7 .9
73.1

8 5 .4
8 7 .7
8 6 .5

6 4 .0
6 3 .4
62 .3

9 0 .5
8 5 .1
8 5 .6

8 1 .7
8 3 .2
8 4 .1

9 4 .2
9 4 .5
9 3 .8

8 2 .1
8 3 .7
8 5 .3

6 9 .2
7 2 .7
7 6 .9

8 1 .3
8 3 .3
8 2 .9

8 5 .7
8 5 .3
8 5 .4

9 1 .9
8 9 .4

91.7

8 5 .2
8 6 .1
8 6 .6

99.1
9 9 .3
9 9 .3

NORTH ATLANTIC AREA

B oston:
D ecem ber 1933______________
June 1 9 3 4 .. _______________
N ovem b er 1 9 3 4 . .......................
Buffalo:
D ecem ber 1933_____________
June 1934___ ________________
N ovem b er 1934......................... ..
N e w York:
D ecem ber 1933___ __________
June 1934
. . . ______
N ovem b er 1934
_____ __
Philadelphia:
D ecem ber 1933___________ . .
June 1934 __________________
N ovem b er 1934__ _______ . .
Pittsb u rgh :
D ecem ber 1933______________
June 1934__ __ ___ ________
N ovem b er 1934. ___________
Portland, M aine:
D ecem ber 1933______________
June 1934
_______________
N o v em b er 1934. __________
Scranton:
D ecem ber 1933___ _____ _____
June 1934 ___ _____________ .
N ovem b er 1934. __________

81.1

SOUTH ATLANTIC AREA

A tlanta:
D ecem ber 1933______________
June 1934__ _________________
N ovem b er 1934_____________
Baltim ore:
D ecem ber 1933______________
June 1934 ___________________
N ovem b er 1934 ____________
Jacksonville:
D ecem ber 1933 ____________
Ju ne 1934........................................
N ovem b er 1934. ___________
N orfolk:
D ecem ber 1933 _____________
June 1934
_______________
N ovem b er 1934. __________
R ichm ond:
D ecem b er 1933______________
June 1934 .
_____________
N o v em b er 1934_____________
Savannah:
D ecem ber 1933______ ____ ___
June 1934 . ________________
N o v em b er 1934__________ . .
W ashington:
D ecem ber 1933______________
June 1934__ _________________
N ovem b er 1934...........................
1 C orrected figure.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

97.5

528

M ONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1 9 3 5

Table 6.—Indexes of the Cost of Goods Purchased by Wage Earners and LowSalaried Workers in the Larger Cities of the United States— Continued

C ity and State

A ll item s

Food

C lothing

R en t

Fuel and
light

H ousefurnish­
ing goods

M iscel­
laneous

NORTH CENTRAL AREA

Chicago:
D ecem ber 1933______________
June 1934 ___________________
N ovem b er 1934_____________
C incinnati:
D ecem ber 1933______________
Tune 1934____________________
N ovem b er 1934_____________
C leveland:
D ecem ber 1933____ _________
Ju ne 1934___ ________________
N ovem b er 1934_____________
D etroit:
D ecem ber 1933______________
June 1934____________________
N ovem b er 1934__________ __
Indianapolis:
D ecem ber 1933................. ..........
June 1934____________________
N ovem b er 1934_____________
Kansas C ity:
D ecem b er 1933........................
Ju ne 1934________________ _
N ovem b er 1934_____________
M inneapolis:
D ecem ber 1933______________
June 1934_________ _________
N ovem b er 1934_____________
8 t. Louis:
D ecem ber 1933______________
June 1934--------- - __________
N ovem b er 1934______ _____

7 4 .4
74 .3
7 5 .7

6 6 .2
6 7 .2
7 0 .4

7 6 .2
7 8 .3
7 8 .3

5 4 .2
53. 1
5 2 .7

1 9 0 .5
8 5 .8
8 9 .4

7 4 .9
7 6 .0
7 6 .7

9 5 .3
9 3 .9
9 4 .2

7 9 .5
79 .8
8 1 .1

6 7 .0
6 9 .0
7 3 .3

7 9 .6
8 1 .5
8 1 .8

7 0 .7
69 .1
6 8 .1

101.0
9 8 .7
9 8 .4

8 2 .8
8 5 .3
8 6 .3

97 .1
9 6 .3
9 6 .3

7 8 .5
7 9 .9
8 0 .2

6 4 .9
6 7 .8
6 9 .9

8 0 .6
8 2 .3
8 1 .9

6 1 .6
6 0 .3
6 1 .4

9 7 .5
9 7 .6
9 2 .2

7 8 .6
8 2 .5
8 1 .9

9 7 .9
9 8 .7
98 .8

7 2 .4
7 4 .4
7 5 .4

65 .1
69 .7
7 0 .4

8 3 .5
8 5 .5
8 5 .6

46 .1
4 7 .4
5 1 .4

8 4 .6
8 4 .7
8 6 .5

79 .9
8 3 .0
8 3 .0

89. 1
8 8 .5
8 8 .5

7 7 .7
7 8 .8
7 8 .7

66 .1
6 9 .4
6 8 .7

7 9 .0
8 0 .2
7 9 .6

6 2 .5
6 1 .0
6 1 .2

9 5 .9
9 5 .9
9 9 .5

8 0 .8
8 2 .3
8 3 .4

9 2 .5
9 2 .2
9 2 .4

8 0 .2
8 0 .9
8 2 .6

6 8 .2
7 1 .4
76 .5

8 2 .2
8 3 .5
8 3 .2

7 0 .8
6 9 .0
6 8 .8

i 8 5 .1
8 6 .3
8 6 .2

8 2 .1
8 1 .2
8 1 .5

9 7 .9
9 6 .9
9 7 .4

7 9 .9
8 0 .4
8 1 .1

68 .9
71 .9
74.1

8 0 .9
8 2 .5
8 3 .2

7 2 .9
71.1
70 .1

9 0 .4
8 9 .0
9 2 .3

8 4 .6
8 5 .3
87 .1

9 4 .4
9 3 .0
9 2 .8

77 .6
78 .0
7 9 .4

68 .3
69.1
7 4 .3

79 .6
8 0 .9
8 1 .6

59.1
57 .6
56 .5

8 9 .7
9 6 .7
8 9 .2

79 .8
8 2 .2
8 2 .8

9 9 .5
9 8 .9
9 9 .2

72 .4
7 2 .9
75 .9

64 .6
6 4 .9
71 .3

8 5 .9
8 7 .2
8 8 .0

43.1
4 3 .0
4 5 .2

8 1 .9
8 2 .4
8 4 .1

73 .8
75 .3
76 .4

91 .1
9 2 .1
9 3 .2

77 .9
78.8
8 1 .7

6 7 .7
70.1
7 7 .4

77.1
78.3
78 .4

6 2 .5
6 2 .2
6 4 .6

8 0 .8
79.1
8 0 .2

8 2 .5
83 .8
8 4 .4

95 .4
95 .2
9 5 .4

7 9 .0
8 0 .2
8 2 .0

67 .3
69 .8
74 .3

8 7 .6
8 8 .7

88. S

5 9 .8
59 .5
6 1 .2

8 5 .3
8 3 .5
8 4 .8

i 8 3 .0
8 5 .9
8 7 .5

9 5 .8
9 6 .6
9 7 .2

7 8 .9
7 8 .7

80.8

6 4 .7
6 5 .3
7 0 .4

8 9 .0
8 9 .9
9 0 .0

6 4 .6
6 3 .4
6 3 .5

7 2 .9
6 8 .9
72 .5

8 4 .4
8 4 .8
8 6 .8

9 5 .6
9 4 .7
9 4 .6

79.1
7 8 .9
8 1 .6

6 9 .2
6 8 .5
7 6 .2

i 7 8 .2
79 .5
79 .1

7 4 .5
73.1
72 .1

76 .8
7 4 .7
7 6 .3

8 4 .4
8 6 .0
8 7 .0

9 4 .4
9 4 .9
9 5 .1

79 .6
8 0 .4
8 2 .3

7 0 .4
7 2 .7
7 8 .4

79.1
8 0 .2
8 0 .5

6 7 .3
6 5 .6
6 5 .4

8 0 .8
8 0 .8
79.1

8 1 .6
8 3 .0
8 3 .9

98.1

7 8 .0
77 .6
8 0 .3

6 9 .7
6 7 .5
7 6 .3

8 2 .1
85 .1
8 5 .2

5 7 .4
55 .5
54 .8

8 8 .6
8 8 .2
8 8 .3

7 8 .2
7 9 .0
8 1 .0

8 9 .8
8 9 .7
8 9 .9

79 .0
79 .6
82 .1

6 8 .0
6 9 .0
76 .9

8 0 .7
8 2 .4
8 1 .9

58 .8
5 8 .4
5 8 .3

8 5 .3
8 5 .1
8 3 .4

8 2 .3
8 3 .4
8 5 .1

9 4 .6
9 4 .7
95 .1

8 2 .4
83.1
8 5 .5

7 2 .9
73 .8
8 0 .7

8 7 .1
8 9 .6
8 9 .8

73 .6
7 2 .4
71.1

8 5 .0
8 3 .8
8 3 .8

8 1 .1
8 1 .4
8 1 .5

9 6 .2
9 6 .4
97 .3

8 1 .2
8 1 .6
8 3 .3

7 1 .3
7 2 .9
7 9 .2

8 4 .0
8 5 .9
8 5 .3

66 .0
64 .0
6 3 .7

9 2 .9
92 .1
92 .1

8 4 .8
8 4 .8
8 5 .4

9 3 .7
93 .7
9 3 .9

SOUTH CENTRAL AREA

Birm ingham :
D ecem b er 1933___ _________
June 1934___ ______ _________
N ovem b er 1934_____________
H ouston:
D ecem ber 1933_______ ______
June 1934___ _____________
N ovem b er 1934_____________
M em phis:
D ecem ber 1933 _____________
June 1934____________________
N ovem b er 1934_____________
M obile:
D ecem ber 1933________ . . .
June 1 9 3 4 .. ________________
N ovem b er 1934_____________
N ew Orleans:
D ecem ber 1933______________
June 1934___ __ ____________
N ovem b er 1934_____________
WESTERN AREA

D enver:
D ecem ber 1933______________
June 1934________ __________
N ovem b er 1934_____________
Los Angeles:
D ecem ber 1933_____________
June 1934. _ ________________
N ovem b er 1934_____________
Portland, Oreg.:
D ecem ber 1933______________
June 1934_________ _____ _____
N ovem b er 1 9 3 4 .. __________
San Francisco:
D ecem ber 1933______________
June 1934------------ --------------N ovem b er 1934___ _________
Seattle:
D ecem ber 1933____________ .
June 1934- . . ___________
N ovem b er 1934________ _____
1 Corrected figure.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

9 8 .6
9 8 .9

COST OF LIVING

529

Federal Employees Living in Washington

The average cost of the goods purchased by Federal employees and
their families living in Washington, D. C., increased 1 percent in the
5-month period from June 1934 to November 1934. On November
15, 1934, the Bureau’s index of living costs for Federal employees
living in Washington, D. C., was 87.3, when costs in the first 6 months
of 1928 are taken as 100, as compared with 86.4 in June 1934.
The survey of living costs on which these figures are based was
conducted by pricing a list of the most important goods customarily
purchased by Federal employees and their families in the first 6
months of 1928. This list was determined in a study of the actual
expenditures of Federal employees made in the fall of 1933. In­
sofar as possible, the goods priced in November 1934 were of the
same kind and quality as those purchased by representative Federal
employees in 1928.
In the 11-month period from December 1933 to November 1934
the cost of goods purchased by the Federal employees increased 2.7
percent. The cost of goods purchased by the families of custodial
employees with salaries under $2,500 increased 3.4 percent. This
increase was more than the increases shown for the other groups in
the Federal service because of the larger proportion of the expendi­
tures of this group allotted to purchases of food. Increases during
this 11-month period were 2.7 percent for the families of other
employees with salaries under $2,500, 3.1 percent for the families
of employees with basic salaries of $2,500 and over, and 0.8 percent
for employees living as single individuals.
From June 1934 to November 1934 the increase was again the
greatest for the families of custodial employees. The index of the
cost of goods and services purchased by single individuals, whose
purchases are in many ways different from those of family groups,
decreased from June to November.
Kents increased slightly in the period from June to November
1934, except for the types of houses rented by the custodial group.
The index of total housing costs was also influenced by the costs of
home owning, which, with the exception of house repairs, remained
unchanged. The slight decline in transportation costs for all groups
but the custodial is explained by the price declines of some of the
medium priced automobiles which are in the list of items purchased
by all but the custodial group. The indexes of the costs of personal
care and recreation show decreases from June to November 1934
because of price declines in soaps, haircuts, and tobaccos.
The percents of change for all groups of items for all types of
Federal employees studied are shown in table 7.


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530

M O N TH LY LABOR REVIEW---- FEBRUARY 1 9 3 5

Table 7.—Percent of Change in the Cost of Goods Purchased by Federal
Employees in Washington, D. C.
[From June 1934 to N ovem b er 1934]
E m p loyees livin g in fam ily groups
E m ployees
E m p loyees livin g as
w ith basic
single
salaries
in d ivid u als
of $2,500
and over

C ustodial
em ployees
w ith basic
salaries
less than
$2,500

Other
em ployees
w ith basic
salaries
less than
$2,500

A ll groups____________________ _______ ___

+ 2 .0

+ 0 .7

+ 1 .4

- 0 .1

+ 1 .0

F o o d _____________________________________
C loth in g................... ......................... .....................
H o u s in g ......................................................... .......
H ousehold operation...... .....................................
Furnishing and eq u ip m en t........... ..................
T ransportation.............................................. .......
Personal care...................................................... ..
M edical care......................................................... ..
R ecreation_______________ _______ ______ _
Form al education ..............................................
Life insurance__________ __________ ______
R etirem ent fund_________________________

+ 5 .9
+ .2
-.3
+ 2 .6
- .2
+ .5
- 4 .6
+ .2
-.6

+ 3 .3
- 1 .1
+ .6
+ 1 .7
-. 1
- 1 .5
- 2 .7
+ 1 .0
- 1 .9
+• 1

+ 6 .5
-.9
+ 1 .0
+ 2 .1
-.1
- 2 .8
-3 .0
+• 8
- 2 .3
+ .1

+ 1 .0
- 1 .9
+ 1 .2

+4. l
- 1 .1
+• 7
+ 1 .8
-. 1
- 1 .7
-2 .7
+ .9
- 2 .2
+ .1

C om m odity group

0)
0)
(9

(9
0)

(9
(9

All em ­
ployees

(9

+ .5
- .6
- 1 .8
+ 1 .1
-3 .0
+• 1

(9
(9

(9
(9

1 N o change.

The average cost of goods purchased by Federal employees living
in Washington, D. C., was 12.7 percent lower than in the first 6
months of 1928. That costs for Federal employees living in Wash­
ington have declined less than costs for wage earners throughout the
country is shown by the decrease of 18.8 percent since the first 6
months of 1928 reported by the Bureau of Labor Statistics for the
latter group.
The index of the cost of goods purchased by families of custodial
employees with basic salaries under $2,500 has been lower than
those for other Federal employees in all periods for which these indexes
have been computed. The large proportional expenditure by this
group for food and the type of food purchased accounts for the lower
level of this index. The index of the cost of goods purchased by
Federal employees living as single individuals, on the other hand,
has remained at a higher level because of the influence of the relatively
stable prices of meals purchased in restaurants and boarding houses.
The index numbers for June and November 1934 for each group of
Federal employees studied, and for December 1933, June 1934, and
November 1934 for all employees are shown in table 8:


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

531

COST OF LIVING

Table 8 .—Indexes of the Average Costs of Goods Purchased by Federal
Employees Living in Washington, D. C., June 1934 and November 1934
[First 6 m on ths of 1928=100]
Em ployees livin g in fanlily groups

C om m odity group

C ustodial
em ployees
w ith basic
salaries
less than
$2,500 i

Other
em ployees
w ith basic
salaries
less than
$2,500 8

E m ployees
w ith basic
salaries
of $2,500
and over 3

E m ployees
livin g as
single in ­
divid u als

A ll em ployees

June N o v . June N ov. June N o v . June N o v . D ec. June N o v .
1934 1934 1934 1934 1934 1934 1934 1934 1933 4 1934 * 1934
A ll groups_____ _______ _________

83.9

85.6

86.4

87.0

86.1

87.3

88.8

88.7

85.0

86.4

87.3

F o o d ____________________________
72.4 76.7 75.5 78.0 72.7 77.4 83.1 83.9 72.8 75.5 78.6
C loth in g_________________________ 87.5 87.7 85.0 84.1 85.5 84.7 83.7 82.1 83.4 85.1 84.2
H o u sin g .____ ______ ____ _______
87.5 87.2 88.6 89.0 88.9 89.8 85.9 86.9 87.9 88.2 88.8
H ousehold op eration.-.................... . 86.1 88.3 86.5 88.0 85.1 86.9 94.9 94.9 87.9 86.5 88.1
91.2 91.0 91.2 91.1 91.3 91.2 92.7 93.2 87.3 91.3 91.2
Furnishings and eq u ip m en t__
T ransportation__________________
96.9 97.4 91.8 90.4 90.7 88.2 96.3 95.7 88.6 92.2 90.6
Personal care........................................
86.6 82.6 84.2 81.9 86.5 83.9 85.3 83.8 88.5 85.2 82.9
M edical care_____________________ 98.2 98.4 96.0 97.0 95.5 96.3 96.6 97.7 95.9 96.0 96.9
97.4 96.8 93.8 92.0 93.3 91.2 95.7 92.8 91.9 94.3 92.2
R ecreation______________________
Form al ed u cation _______________ 110.1 110.1 108.7 108.8 107.1 107.2 108.7 108.8 108.1 108.1 108.2
Life insurance________ ____ ______ 106.1 106.1 106.1 106.1 106.1 106.1 106.1 106.1 105.5 106.1 106.1
R etirem ent fund...... ........................... 100.0 100. C 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
1 A verage
3 A verage
8 A verage
* R evised

size of fam ily 5.25 persons.
size of fam ily 2.56 persons.
size of fam ily 3.30 persons.
figures.

C o st o f L iv in g in t h e U n ite d S ta te s a n d in F o re ig n
C o u n tr ie s
HE trend of cost of living in the United States and certain
foreign countries for June and December 1930, 1931, 1932, 1933,
and 1934, is shown in the following table. In cases where data for
December 1934 are not available, the latest information is given and
the month noted. The number of countries included varies according
to the available information.
A general index and index numbers for the individual groups of
items are presented for all countries shown with the exception of
Australia, Ireland, the Netherlands, Peru, and South Africa. Four
countries publish a general index and an index number for food only.
Fuel and light is not shown separately for Australia but is included
in the miscellaneous group index, while the same is true of Peru.
Caution should be observed in the use of the figures because of
differences in the base periods, in the number and kind of articles in­
cluded, and the number of localities represented. There are also
very radical differences in the method of the construction and calcu­
lation of the indexes.
The table shows the trend in the general cost of living and for the
groups of food, clothing, fuel and light, and rent for the countries for
which such information is published in original sources.

T


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532

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 193 5

Table 9 . —Index Numbers of Cost of Living for Specified Periods for the United
States and Certain Foreign Countries
C oun try____________

U nited
States

A ustra­
lia (30
tow ns)

Austria,
V ienna

B elgium

Food,
clothing,
fuel and
Food,
Food,
Food,
light,
clothing, clothing, clothing,
C o m m o d i t ie s
rent,
fuel and fuel and
rent,
in clud ed __________
houselight,
light,
m iscel­
furnish­
rent,
rent,
ing goods, laneous sundries 1 sundries
m iscel­
laneous

Bureau
C om pu tin g a g e n c y -.. of Labor
Statistics

Bureau
of Cen­
sus and
Statistics

B ase period_________ 1913=100

1923-27
= 1,000

General:
1930—Ju n e______
D ecem b er..
1931—Ju n e______
D ecem b er..
1932—Ju n e .........—
D ecem b er..
1933—Ju n e______
D ecem b er..
1934—Ju n e______
D ecem b er..
Food:
1930—Ju n e______
D ecem ber—
1931—J u n e___ _
D ecem b er..
1932—June______
D ecem ber—
1933—Ju n e____ _
D ecem b er..
1934—June _____
D ecem b er..
C lothing:
1930—-J u n e .. .
D ecem b er..
1931—J u n e .. ___
D ecem b er..
1932—June . . ._
D ecem b er..
1933—J u n e. . .
D ecem b er..
1934—J u n e .. . . .
D ecem b er..
Fuel and light:
1930—J u n e___ . .
D ecem b er..
1931—J u n e______
D ecem b er..
1932—J u n e .. . . .
D ecem ber...
1933—Ju n e___
D ecem b er..
1934—J u n e ... . .
D ecem b er..
Rent:
1930—J u n e______
D ecem b er..
1931—J u n e______
D ecem b er..
1932—J u n e______
D ecem b er..
1933—J u n e______
D ecem b er1934—June______
D ecem b er..

M inistry
of Labor
and
Social
Welfare

Canada

Food,
Food,
clothing, clothing,
fuel and fuel and
light,
light,
sundries
rent,
(revised) sundries

Federal
S tatisti­
cal
Bureau

Czecho­
China,
Shanghai slovakia,
Prague

Food,
Food,
clothing,
clothing,
fuel and
fuel
and
light,
light,
rent,
rent,
m iscel­ sundries 1
laneous

D o m in ­ N ational
ion B u ­
Tariff
Office of
reau of
C om ­
Statistics
Statistics m ission

Ju ly 1914 1913 = 100
1926 = 100 1926=100 1926=100
= 100

Ju ly 1914
= 100

166.6
160.7
150. 3
145.8
135.7
132.1
128.3
135. 0
136.4
4 138.9

2 991
2 926
2 830
5 845
2 835
2 811
2 803
2 805
2 818
2 817

113
108
106
108
109
107
106
106
105
4 105

224.0
222.5
204.5
193.1
179.7
187.9
177.2
183.3
168.5
4 178. 5

3 93. 7
3 93.7
3 81.1
3 81.1
75.3
74.1
68.6
68.2
66.0
« 66.1

100.2
95.9
88.7
85.9
81.0
79.5
77.0
77.9
78.2
79.0

120.2
113.3
121.0
121.2
121.3
108.0
105.4
102.6
98.5
110.4

111.1
105.8
106.8
101.6
103.6
103.8
102.7
99.6
84.7
4 83.1

147.9
137.2
118.3
114.3
100.1
98.7
96.7
105.5
108.4
4 114.7

968
871
833
809
803
759
759
769
777
6 805

121
111
108
110
113
109
106
104
102
4 100

201.1
200.1
176.5
160.7
143.8
156.9
143.4
153.6
134.0
4 150.0

3 86.7
3 86.7
3 68.0
3 68.0
65.1
62.1
59.2
61.4
59.8
5 60.1

100.4
91.5
75.0
71.2
62.1
64.0
62.2
66.6
67.6
69.3

119.2
100.8
99.6
97.0
107.3
84.5
84.1
79.8
75.4
90.4

118.1
109.4
109.3
99.1
101.4
102.3
98.8
92.7
79.6
4 76.1

158.9
153.0
146.0
135. 5
127.8
121.5
119.8
133. 6
136.4
4 136.3

183
177
162
166
162
162
159
157
157
4 157

262.0
259.8
250. 8
246.4
236.1
231.9
225. 2
222.3
215.9
4 212. 3

3 97.3
3 97.3
3 86.8
3 86.8
77.5
77.2
59 7
57.9
56.6
» 56.6

95.0
88.3
81.1
76.4
71.9
69.2
66.1
69.2
70.1
71.0

99.1
99.0
110.2
108.8
98.3
92.0
89.5
87.4
83.4
4 82.7

133.2
119.9
111.9
105. 8
100.5
96.1
95.4
95.4
81.0
4 82.1

172.8
175. 0
165.4
168.0
157.1
156.9
148.4
159. 3
156.0
4 158.0

104
104
104
104
104
105
105
112
109
4 109

204.6
198. 3
184.0
182.4
173.8
177.0
164.9
161. 7
151.7
4 150. 3

3 89.8
3 89.8
3 82.6
3 82.6
85.3
82.6
76.0
76.6
74.1
s 74.0

94.9
95.7
93.3
93.9
90.9
89.3
87.6
87.2
87.2
88.4

120.5
119.6
128.3
140.8
131.7
128.7
115.9
114.4
101.2
4 110.0

121. 6
121.6
119.7
119.7
117.5
117.4
114.7
114.7
95.6
4 96.2

149.6
146. 5
142.0
136.2
127.8
118.0
108.8
104. 1
102.3
4 102. 3

22
25
25
27
28
28
28
28
29
4 31

406. 0
405.0
402.5
401.0
398.5
397.5
394.8
393.1
392.2
4 391 2

3 99.5
3 99. 5
3 91.3
3 91.3
84.3
84.3
83.8
81.6
77.8
»77.8

105.5
105.5
103.3
99.3
93.9
90.0
84.0
80.4
79.7
80.3

104.5
104.5
105.6
107.3
107.3
108.8
109.8
110.2
110.3
4 111.4

49.6
52.8
54.4
54.4
54.4
54.4
54.9
54.9
45.7
4 45.7

1 Gold.
2 Quarter.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Federal
S tatisti­
cal
Bureau

Bulgaria

s Y early on ly.
4 N ovem b er.

5 Septem ber.
6 October.

533

COST OP LIVING

Table 9 . —Index Numbers of Cost of Living for Specified Periods for the United
States and Certain Foreign Countries—Continued
C o u n try ______ ______

E stonia,
T allin

Finland

France,
Paris

Germany H ungary

Food,
Food,
Food,
Food,
Food,
clothing, clothing,
clothing, clothing, fuel and fuel and clothing,
C om m odities
in ­ fuel and
fuel
and
fuel, rent,
light,
light,
cluded ____________
light,
light,
light,
rent, sun ­ rent, sun ­
rent
rent, etc. taxes, etc.
dries
dries

Bureau M inistry
C om puting a g e n c y ... of S tatis­ of Social
tics
Affairs

B ase p e r io d .. ______ 1913 = 100

General:
1930 - J u n e ______
D ecem b er..
1931—J u n e ._____
D ecem b er..
1932—J u n e .. - _
D ecem b er..
1933—June - -_.
D ecem b er..
1934—J u n e . . ___
D ecem b er..
Food:
1930—J u n e ...
D ecem b er..
1931—Ju n e_____
D ecem b er..
1932—J u n e .. . _
D ecem b er..
1933—Ju n e_____
D ecem ber .
1934—Ju n e______
D ecem b er..
C lothing:
1930—June
D ecem ber.
1931—June
D ecem b er..
1932—June
D ecem ber
1933-—June
D ecem b er..
1934—June
D ecem b er..
F u e l a n d light:
1930—June
D ecem ber .
1931—June
D ecem b er..
1932 —June
D ecem b er..
1933—June
D ecem b er..
1934-—June
D ecem b er..
R ent:
1930—June
D ecem b er..
1931—June
D ecem b er..
1932—June
D ecem b er..
1933 —June
D ecem ber _
1934-—June
D ecem b er..

India,
B om b ay

Ireland

Italy,
M ilan

Food,
Food,
Food,
clothing, clothing, clothing,
fuel
and
fuel
and
fuel and
light,
light,
light,
rent, sun ­ rent, sun ­
rent
dries
dries

D ep art­ M u n ici­
C om m is­ Federal
m en t of
sion for
Labor
pal A d ­
S tatisti­ Central
stu d y of cal B u ­ Office of Ind u stry In d u stry
m in is­
Statistics
and C om ­
cost of
tration
reau
merce
living

January- JanuaryJune
1913-14=
June
1914 =
100
1914=
100
100

1914 =
100

Ju ly
1914=
100

JanuaryJu ly
1913-14=
June
100
1914=100

102
99
104
95
95
89
85
90
88
< 85

1,108.3
1, 083. 2
1,019.9
1, 048. 0
1, 003. 4
1, 021.1
985.3
990.6
965.8
< 1,021.5

572
597
589
531
535
516
516
526
522
«511

148.2
142.6
137.4
130.8
120.5
118.2
118.0
120.6
120.5
<122.3

104.8
99.7
100.0
99.9
98.9
94.8
92.1
87.8
90.4
«89.2

140
121
109
109
107
110
104
98
95
< 101

2 168
2 168
2 156
2 165
2 159
2 155
2 148
2 156
2 149
2 157

530.9
508.3
488.0
472.7
471.7
468.0
446.7
449.9
419.3
<421.0

101
96
93
80
80
75
74
79
77
<72

937.2
903.3
842.4
918.8
871.0
910.2
881.7
881.2
852.0
< 941.7

593
636
642
555
567
531
532
548
544
' 525

144.9
138.9
133.2
124.5
115.6
112.9
113.7
117.8
117.8
< 119.5

102.4
95.0
96.5
93.0
93.3
86.7
84.4
74.3
79.6
«77.7

137
116
101
101
99
103
95
88
85
<92

2 156
2 156
2 139
2 155
2 144
2 135
2 126
2 140
2 129
2 143

522. 5
499.0
456.6
437.8
438.0
433.9
402.9
408.9
383.3
< 386. 7

150
147
147
145
141
136
120
134
129
< 129

1, 045. 6
1,033. 6
1,004.1
975.7
979.1
978.2
963. 6
958.6
958.0
< 957.8

626
610
552
508
499
499
499
504
504
5 504

167.1
149.9
137.6
125.0
112. 0
107.3
105.8
108.2
109.8
< 115.5

127.5
117.8
114.8
116.7
111.2
109.1
101.3
104.4
101.7
«101.7

138
125
123
117
115
116
115
111
111
< 113

508. 8
447.7
421.2
390.3
371.8
366.1
347.7
347.6
329.3
<329. 5

96
94
80
76
65
64
57
60
60
< 62

1.407.1
1.290.1
1,066. 8
913.5
865.9
887. 4
878.1
897.1
898.8
< 905. 2

607
633
596
619
592
617
585
613
563
« 573

140.0
141.2
136.3
139.4
125.4
128.0
125.1
128.0
124.6
< 127.5

129.4
129.4
128.6
141.0
136.6
133.7
128.8
133.7
135.2
< 133.7

143
141
143
145
137
137
136
136
136
< 136

473.0
457.3
424.3
404.3
403.6
394.4
393.3
392.2
382.2
< 382.9

52
52
145
145
144
135
120
114
112
< 112

1.467.0
1.467.0
1.373.1
1.373.1
1,263.9
1,252. 0
1.132.1
1.132.1
1,082.6
< l', 082.6

350
350
350
360
360
375
375
375
375
'375

129.8
131.3
131.6
131.6
121.4
121.4
121.3
121.3
121.3
< 121.2

86.3
86.3
86.3
86.3
86.3
86.3
86.3
86.3
86.3
«86.3

172
172
158
158
158
158
158
158
158
< 158

410.2
422.2
473.1
482.7
445.1
490.5
488.9
491.0
431.9
<431.7

2 Quarter.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

4 N ovem ber.

' September.

6 October.

534

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW--- FEBRUARY 1935

Table 9 . —Index Numbers of Cost of Living for Specified Periods for the United
States and Certain Foreign Countries— Continued
C o u n try ......... . .............

N eth er­
lands,
A m ster­
dam

N ew
Zealand

N orw ay

Peru,
L im a

South
Africa

Sweden

Food,
Food,
clothing, clothing,
fuel,
fuel,
light,
light,
rent,
rent,
sundries sundries

Food,
clothing,
rent,
sundries

Bureau
of Sta­
tistics

C ensus
Central
and Sta­
S tatisti­
tistics
cal Office
Office

Office of
Office of Census Board of
Social
In v e sti­
and
gations Statistics W elfare

1926-1930 Ju ly 1914 1913=100
B ase period_________ 1911-1913
= 10 0
= 1 ,0 0 0
= 10 0
General:
1930—J u n e______
D ecem b er—
1931—J u n e______
D ecem b er.1932—J u n e______
D ecem ber—
1933—J u n e______
D ecem b er..
1934—Ju n e______
D ecem b er..
Food:
1930—Ju n e______
D ecem b er..
1931—J u n e ... . . .
D ecem b er..
1932—J u n e______
D ecem b er..
1933—Ju n e______
D ecem ber—
1934—J u n e______
D ecem b er..
Clothing:
1930—Ju n e______
D ecem b er..
1931—J u n e .. . . .
D ecem b er..
1932—Ju n e______
D ecem ber
1933—J u n e______
D ecem ber .
1934—J u n e . . ___
D ecem b er..
F u el and light:
1930—J u n e_____
D ecem b er..
1931—J u n e ... . . .
D ecem b er..
1932—J u n e__ . . .
D ecem b er..
1933—J u n e______
D ecem b er—
1934—J u n e______
D ecem b er..
B en t:
1930—Ju n e______
D ecem b er..
1931—J u n e. . . .
D ecem b er..
1932—Ju n e______
D ecem b er..
1933—J u n e______
D ecem b er..
1934—J u n e______
D ecem b er..

162.1
156.6
153.5
145.2
140.9
140.2
137.4
142.5
139.9
» 140.1
151.6
144.8
140.6
125.5
119.2
119.2
116.5
128.3
123.1
* 123. 6

2 Quarter.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

3 839
3 806
2 796
3 800
3 812
2 810

161
159
151
150
149
148
147
146
148
‘ 149

170
162
160
153
152
150
149
148
151
‘ 154

988
922
839
835
778
713
723
751
778
‘ 780

151
149
138
136
133
132
130
129
132
‘ 134

158
151
150
145
144
137
138
140
149
‘ 153

952
3 924
3 877
2 849
3 826
3 784
2 821
3 823
3 833
3 834

153
148
143
142
144
143
142
143
144

s 14 4

990
2 994
2 990
3 975
2 978
2 954
2 894
2 849
2 856
2 835

157
150
148
146
146
142
139
137
136
‘ 137

3
3
3

990
963
913

3 888

2

2

3 1 ,0 1 2

998
964
2 922
3 816
3 795
2 768
2 761
2 758
2 756
3

2

174
174
173
173
172
172
172
168
168
* 166
‘ N ovem b er

200

186
177
166
159
147
150
150
158
‘ 167

1914=
1 ,0 0 0

1,293
1,258
1,233
1,206
1,179
1,146
1,148
1,174
1,164
‘ 1,158
1 ,1 2 0

1,085
1,064
1,004
963
926
989
1,050
1,041
* 1,028

Federal
Labor
Office

M inistry
of Labor

J u ly 1914 June 1914 J u ly 1914
= 10 0
= 10 0
= 10 0

2 165
2 163
3 160
3 158
3 157
2 156
2 153
2 154
3 153
2 155

158
156
150
145
138
134
131
131
129
‘ 129

154
155
145
148
142
143
136
143
138
144

140
137
130
2 128
2 125
2 125
2 119
2 123

151
149
141
134
125

138
141
127
132
123
125
114
126
117
127

2

2

2

2 12 0
3

125

181
178
175
2 170
2 168
2 167
2 163
2 163
2 165
2 167
2

2

2

2 160
2 156
155
3 150
2 149
2 144
2 139
2 136
2 136
2 136
2

190
180
171
163
155
155
150
150
146
‘ 146

U nited
K ing­
dom

Food,
Food,
Food,
Food,
clothing,
clothing, clothing,
fuel,
fuel a n d
fuel,
fuel,
light,
light,
light,
light,
rent,
rent,
rent,
rent,
sundries taxation,
sundries sundries
sundries

Food,
C om m odities in clud ­
ed ................................. all com ­
m odities

C om pu tin g agency—.

S w itzer­
land

3
3

205
205

2 206
3
2
2

206
206
206

2 202
2 202
2 202
2 201

5 Septem ber.

12 0

116
117
115
* 115
160
155
145
137
127
12 2

117
115
115
* 115
132
131
127
125

213
205
195
190
190
188
185
185
188
188

118
119
116
‘ 115

170
175
170
175
170
173
168
170
168
170

185
185
187
187
187
187
184
184
182
‘ 182

153
154
154
154
154
155
156
156
156
156

12 1
12 1

PUBLICATIONS RELATING TO LABOR
Official—United States
M a r y l a n d .— Commissioner of Labor and Statistics.

Forty-second annual report,
Baltimore, 1934- 56 pp.
M a ssa c h u se t t s .— Department of Labor and Industries. Labor Bulletin No.
168: Time rates of wages and hours of labor in Massachusetts, 1933. Boston,
[19S4\. 76 pp.
N a ssa u C o unty (N ew Y ork ).— Emergency Work Bureau. Report of activities
for the period June 1, 1933, to June 17, 1934■ Mineola {L. I.), N. Y., 1934107 pp., Ulus.
N ew H a m psh ir e .— Commission on Unemployment Reserves. A proposed
unemployment-insurance measure for New Hampshire. Concord, 1934•
34 PPReviewed in this issue.
P e n n s y l v a n ia .— Department of Labor and Industry. Special Bulletin No. 37:
Asbeslosis, Part 1.— The collection and counting of dust encountered in asbestos
fabricating plants. Harrisburg, 1934■ 9 pp., chart, illus.
This bulletin describes the apparatus used for the collection of asbestos dust
and the method of making the dust counts, and discusses the relative efficiency
of distilled water and ethyl alcohol as a collection medium.
W isc o n sin .—Industrial Commission. Unemployment Compensation Depart­
ment. History and status of Wisconsin’s Unemployment Compensation Act.
Madison, 1934- 8 pp,
Reviewed in this issue.
-------——— -------- Standard unemployment-benefit plan {reprinted July 193If). Madi­
son, 1934• 13 pp.
This standard unemployment-benefit plan was drawn up by the commission
for the use of employers who wish to submit voluntary-exempted plans which
can be clearly and promptly approved by the commission.
U n it e d S t a t e s .— Congress. House. Report No. 1944 ( 73d Cong., 2d sess.):
To amend the Railway Labor Act of May 20, 1926. Report [to accompany
H. R. 9861] of Mr. Crosser, Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce.
Washington, 1934- 16 pp.
------------------------ Report No. 1988 {73d Cong., 2d sess.): Provide a retirement
system for railroad employees. Report [to accompany H. R. 9911 ] of Mr.
Crosser, Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce. Washington, 19344 pp.
--------------- -— — Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce. Railway Labor
Act amendments: Hearings {73d Cong., 2d sess.), May 22-25, 1934, on H. R.
7650, a bill to relieve the existing emergency in relation to interstate railroad
transportation, to provide for the prompt disposition of disputes between carriers
and their employees, and to amend sections 1 ,2 ,3 , 5, and 6 of the Railway Labor
Act, approved May 20, 1926. Washington, 1934- 178 pp.
------- Department of Agriculture. Bureau of Agricultural Economics. Interstate
migrations among the native white population as indicated by differences between
State of birth and State of residence: A series of maps based on the census,
1870-1930, by C. J. Galpin and T. B. Manny. Washington, 1934- 105 pp.
Although the data on which the maps are based give the most comprehensive
evidence available on the volume and direction of interstate migrations among the
native white people in the population, the figures do not cover all of the movements
of this part of the population.
1933.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

535

536
U

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 1935

n it e d

S t a t e s .—

D e p a r tm e n t of C o m m erce.

B u re a u of F o re ig n a n d D o m e stic

Trade Information Bulletin No. 820: Manufacturing develop­
ments in Argentina. Washington, 1934■ @6 PPC o m m e rc e .

In c lu d e s in fo rm a tio n on o c c u p a tio n a l d is trib u tio n of g a in fu lly e m p lo y e d p e rs o n s
a n d on w ages a n d la b o r c o n d itio n s.

Census of electrical industries, 1932: Electric
railways and motor-bus operations of affiliates and successors. Washington,
1934. 123 pp.

------------- - B u re a u of th e C en su s.

D a ta on e m p lo y m e n t a n d e a rn in g s, ta k e n fro m th is re p o r t, a re g iv e n in th is
issue of th e M o n th ly L a b o r R ev iew .
B u re a u of L a b o r S ta tis tic s . Serial No. R. 174British health-insurance system. Washington, 1934• 34 PP- (Reprint from
November 1934 Monthly Labor Review.)
--------------- W o m e n ’s B u re a u . Bulletin No. 119: Hours and earnings in the leatherglove industry. Washington, 1934- 32 pp.
------------------------ Bulletin No. 127: Hours and earnings in tobacco stemmeries.
Washington, 1934- 29 pp., charts.
-------D e p a r tm e n t of th e I n te rio r . Office of E d u c a tio n . Bulletin, 1934, No. 7:
Bibliography of research studies in education, 1932-33, prepared by Ruth A.
Gray. Washington, 1934- 349 pp.
-------E m p lo y e e s ’ C o m p e n s a tio n C o m m issio n . Medical facilities available to em­
ployees of the United States Government injured in the performance of duty under
Federal Compensation Act of September 7, 1916. Washington, 1934- 49 pp.
-------G o v e rn m e n t P rin tin g Office. Health: Diseases, drugs, and sanitation.
List of publications relating to above subjects for sale by Superintendent of
Documents, Washington, D. C. Washington, 1934- 67 pp. {Price list 51.)
-------D e p a r tm e n t of L a b o r.

In c lu d e s re fe re n c e s to re p o r ts on o c c u p a tio n a l d iseases a n d m o r ta lity .
--------------- Labor: Child labor, women, employment, wages, workmen’s insurance,

and compensation. List of publications relating to above subjects for sale by
Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. Washington, 1934■ 40 pp.
{Price list 33.)
-------T a riff C o m m issio n . Report No. 83 {second series): Laces and lace articles.
Washington, 1934■ 342 pp., diagrams, illus.
D a t a on w ages in th e lace in d u s trie s of th e U n ite d S ta te s a n d fo re ig n c o u n trie s
a re in c lu d e d in th e r e p o r t.

Official—Foreign Countries
C o l u m b i a ( C a n a d a ) . — M in im u m W age B o a rd .
Report for the year
ended December 31, 1933. Victoria, 1934- 37 pp. {Reprinted from the
annual report of the Department of Labor, 1933.)
F i n l a n d . — S o sia lim in iste rio .
Ammattientarkastus vuonna 1933. Helsinki, 193475 pp., illus.
B

r it is h

R e p o rt on fa c to ry in s p e c tio n in F in la n d in 1933, in c lu d in g d a ta on h o u rs of
la b o r, u n e m p lo y m e n t, in d u s tr ia l a c c id e n ts a n d d iseases, w o rk m e n ’s c o m p e n s a tio n ,
etc.
F

. — C o m m issio n S u p é rie u re de la C aisse N a tio n a le des R e tra ite s p o u r la
V ieillesse. Rapport sur les opérations et la situation de cette caisse, 1933.

rance

Paris, 1934-

154 PP-

T h e a n n u a l re p o r t of th e F re n c h n a tio n a l o ld -ag e r e tir e m e n t f u n d fo r 1933.
-------C o m m issio n S u p é rie u re des C aisses N a tio n a le s d ’A ssu ran ces en C as de
D écès e t en C as d ’A c c id e n ts. Rapport sur les opérations et la situation de

ces deux caisses, 1933.

Paris, 1934-

55 pp.

A n n u a l re p o r t fo r th e y e a r 1933 of th e n a tio n a l life in s u ra n c e f u n d a n d of th e
n a tio n a l a c c id e n t in s u ra n c e fu n d .
-------M in istè re de la S a n té P u b liq u e .

Office N a tio n a l d ’H y g iè n e S ociale. Réper­

toire bibliographique d’hygiène sociale pour Vannée 1933.
[Various paging.)

Paris, 1934.

C lassified b ib lio g ra p h y on social h y g ie n e in c lu d in g b o th F re n c h a n d fo reig n
p u b lic a tio n s . T h e re fe re n c e s in c lu d e p u b lic a tio n s th r o u g h th e y e a r 1933.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

PUBLICATIO NS RELATING TO LABOR
G

537

B r i t a i n .— B o a rd of T ra d e . Final report on the fourth census of production
(1930): Part I I I — The food, drink, and tobacco trades; the chemical and allied
trades; the paper, printing, and stationery trades. London, 1934■ 529 pp.

reat

G ives, in a d d itio n to v o lu m e of p ro d u c tio n , s ta tis tic s on e m p lo y m e n t a n d w ag es,
p e r c a p ita o u tp u t , a n d h o rse p o w e r a v a ila b le a n d u sed .
-------D e p a r tm e n t of O v e rse a s T ra d e .

Economic conditions in Morocco, 1932-1933.

London, 1934■ 71 VV-i map.
T h is re p o r t, co v erin g th e F re n c h , S p a n ish , a n d T a n g ie r zo n es of M o ro cco ,
c o n ta in s som e in fo rm a tio n o n c o st of liv in g , h o u sin g , a n d c a re of th e in d ig e n t.

Draft unemployment assistance (determination of need
and assessment of needs) regulations, 1934, dated December 11, 1934, made by
the Minister of Labor under sections 38 (3) and 52 (2) of the Unemployment,
Assistance Act, 1934■ London, 1934■ 8 pp.
--------------- Memorandum explanatory of the draft regulations made under sections
38 (3) and 52 (2) of the Unemployment Assistance Act, 1934■ London, 1934.
10 pp. (Cmd. 4765.)
-------M in is try of L a b o r.

— — -------The Unemployment Insurance (removal of difficulties)

Order, 1934,
dated December 4, 1934, made by the Minister of Labor under the Unemploy­
ment Act, 1934- London, 1934■ 4 PP- (Cmd. 4761.)
■
—------------Report on juvenile employment for the year 1933. London, 1934. 34 pp.
--------------- N a tio n a l A d v iso ry C o u n cils fo r Ju v e n ile E m p lo y m e n t. Joint report
on the organization and development of the vocational guidance service in
Great Britain. London, 1934■ 34 pp.
-------R e g is try of F rie n d ly S ocieties. Registered trade unions: Statistical summary
1924-33. London, 1934. 5 pp.
I n d i a . — C h ief In s p e c to r of M in es. Annual report, for the year ending December 31,
1933. Delhi, 1934■ 172 pp., charts.
A v e ra g e w eekly w o rk in g h o u rs in 1933 a n d a v e ra g e d a ily e a rn in g s in D e c e m b e r
1933, fo r v a rio u s o c c u p a tio n s in specified m in e ra l fields, a n d d a t a o n a c c id e n ts
in m in es, a re g iv e n in th is v o lu m e.
L a b o r O f f i c e .—Studies and Reports, Series B, No. 21: Social
aspects of industrial development in Japan, by Fernand Maurette. Geneva,
1934. 69 pp. (World Peace Foundation, American agent, Boston.)

I n ter n a tio n a l

In c lu d e s d a t a o n w ages a n d a d d itio n s to w ages, w o rk in g h o u rs, h o lid a y s,
g e n e ra l s ta n d a r d of liv in g , c o st of liv in g , a n d o u tp u t of w o rk e rs.
------- Studies and Reports, Series F, Second Section (Safety), No. 7: Safety in

spray painting. Geneva, 1935.
American Agent, Boston.)

104 pp., Ulus.

(World Peace Foundation,

T h is re p o r t c o n ta in s a d iscu ssio n of th e v a rio u s iis k s to w h ic h s p r a y p a in te rs
a re e x p o sed b o th fro m th e m a te ria ls u sed in th e p a in ts a n d th e fire a n d explosion
h a z a rd s . T h e re is a se c tio n o n p ra c tic a l sa fe ty m e a s u re s w ith illu s tra tio n s of
v a rio u s ty p e s of e x h a u s t e q u ip m e n t, a n d o n e o n 'th e sa fe ty re g u la tio n s in \a r io u s
c o u n trie s c o n ta in in g th e t e x t of th e o rd e rs o r re g u la tio n s.
N

e p a r te m e n t v a n S ociale Z ak en . Centraal verslag der arbeidsinspectie in het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden over 1933. Hague, 1934. 307
pp., diagrams, Ulus.

e t h e r l a n d s ;—D

R e p o rt o n la b o r in s p e c tio n in th e N e th e rla n d s in 1933, in c lu d in g in fo rm a tio n
on p ro te c tiv e le g isla tio n , in d u s tria l a c c id e n ts a n d o c c u p a tio n a l d iseases, sa fe ty
re g u la tio n s a n d th e ir e n fo rc e m e n t, o v e rtim e a n d S u n d a y w o rk , m e d ic a l e x a m in a ­
tio n s of w o rk e rs w ith re fe re n c e to c e rta in d iseases in specified o c c u p a tio n s, e tc .

Wetenschappelijke balans van de vrijwillige ouderdomsverzekering (fonds B) op 31 December 1933. Amsterdam, 1934. 51 pp.

-------R ijk s v e rz e rk e rin g s b a n k .

R e p o rt o n th e a c tiv itie s of th e v o lu n ta ry o ld -a g e in s u ra n c e s y s te m in th e
N e th e rla n d s a t th e e n d of 1933, in c lu d in g fo rm u la s fo r c a lc u la tio n of c o n trib u tio n s
a n d b e n e fits.
P

araguay

.—

C a ja de J o b ila c io n e s

Memoria.

Asuncion, 1932.

y

P e n sio n e s d e

E m p le a d o s [F e rro v ia rio s .

16 pp.

R e p o rt on th e a c tiv itie s of th e p e n sio n fu n d of ra ilw a y e m p lo y ees in P a ra g u a y .


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M O N TH LY LABOR REVIEW— FEBRUARY 19 3 5

S w itzer l a n d .— B u re a u

Suisse, 1933.

F é d é ra l

Berne, 1934•

de

S ta tis tiq u e .

Annuaire statistique de la

4-89 pp.

T h is Sw iss s ta tis tic a l y e a rb o o k c o n ta in s figures o n th e o c c u p a tio n a l cen su s,
h o u sin g , c o st of liv in g , re ta il a n d w h o lesale p ric e s, u n e m p lo y m e n t, s trik e s a n d
lo c k o u ts, a n d w ages.
W arsaw (P oland ).— G lôw ny w W y d z ia le S ta ty s ty c z n y .

Warszawy, 1932.

Warsaw, 1934■

Rocznik statystyczny

116 pp., maps.

T h is s ta tis tic a l a n n u a l in c lu d e s in fo rm a tio n o n w elfa re w o rk , c o s t of liv in g ,
w ages, e m p lo y m e n t serv ice, in d u s tria l d is p u te s , e tc ., in W a rsa w in 1932. P r in te d
in P o lish , w ith ta b le of c o n te n ts a n d ta b le h e a d s also in F re n c h .

Unofficial
The financing of unemployment relief: An address before
the Commonwealth Club of San Francisco, Calif., on December 3, 1934• New
York, Chase National Bank, 1934■ 19 pp.

A ld ric h , W inth ro p W.

I n th is d iscu ssio n of d e sira b le m e a s u re s to b e follow ed in p ro v id in g u n e m p lo y ­
m e n t relief, v a rio u s m e a s u re s w h ic h h a v e b e e n in effect o r h a v e b e e n p ro p o s e d a re
a n a ly z e d .
for A d u lt E d u c a t io n .
Radburn: A plan of living.
A study made by Robert B. Hudson under the supervision of John 0 . Walker,
manager of the Radburn Association. New York, 60 East 48d Street, 1934118 pp., illus.

A m erican A sso ciation

A n a c c o u n t of a p la n n e d c o m m u n ity w h ic h is c o n sid e re d b y th o s e a s s o c ia te d
w ith th e u n d e rta k in g a s a h ig h ly su ccessfu l e x p e rim e n t.
of L a b o r .
Report of the proceedings of the fifty-fourth
annual convention, held at San Francisco, Calif., October 1 to 12, inclusive,
1934. Washington, 1934■ 755 pp., charts.

A m er ica n F e d e r a t io n

A n a c c o u n t of th e p ro c e e d in g s of th is c o n v e n tio n w as p u b lis h e d in th e M o n th ly
L a b o r R e v ie w fo r D e c e m b e r 1934.

Modern housing.
331 pp., plans, diagrams, illus.

B a u e r , C a t h e r in e .

New York, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1934-

R ev iew s th e d e v e lo p m e n ts in h o u sin g since th e e a rly n in e te e n th c e n tu r y a n d
tra c e s th o s e eco n o m ic fo rces a n d m o v e m e n ts w h ic h h a v e b e e n re sp o n sib le fo r
p ro g re ss to w a rd th e b e s t m o d e rn h o u sin g .
A n a p p e n d ix c o n ta in s a d iscu ssio n ,
c o u n tr y b y c o u n try , of th e h o u sin g s itu a tio n in th o s e c o u n trie s in w h ic h th e r e
h a s b een c o n sid e ra b le p u b lic ly a id e d h o u sin g , th e m e a s u re s ta k e n to p ro v id e
good, lo w -co st h o u sin g , a n d th e re s u lts (in te r m s of d w ellin g s p ro v id e d ). A
b ib lio g ra p h y a n d in d e x a re also in c lu d e d .

The open door at home: A trial philosophy of national
New York, Macmillan Co., 1934. 831 pp.

B e a r d , C h a r les A.

interest.

T h is v o lu m e w as p re p a r e d u n d e r th e a u sp ic e s of th e S o cial S cience R e se a rc h
C o u n cil, w ith th e a id of a g r a n t fro m th e C a rn e g ie C o rp o ra tio n . I t is a n a t t e m p t
to a id in u n d e rs ta n d in g a n d m e e tin g th e p ro b le m s of in te r n a tio n a l tr a d e re la tio n s
a n d of m o re a d e q u a te u tiliz a tio n of la b o r a n d o th e r n a tio n a l re so u rc e s fo r th e
p u rp o s e of a v o id in g w o rld co n flicts a n d of a tt a in i n g a h ig h s t a n d a r d of life a n d
s e c u rity fo r th e A m e ric a n p eo p le.
B r o w n , A. B a r r a tt .

Watson, Ltd., 1934■

The machine and the worker.
815 pp.

London, Ivor Nicholson &

L e c tu re s a n d essa y s e m b o d y in g o b s e rv a tio n s a n d re fle c tio n s b y th e p rin c ip a l
of R u s k in C ollege, O xford, w ho re fe rs to h is w o rk a s b e in g a n “ ex c u rsio n on th e
b o rd e r lin es of p sy c h o lo g y a n d e c o n o m ic s.” I t is b a s e d on th e a u th o r ’s firs t-h a n d
in q u irie s in E n g la n d , b u t th e a n a ly s is is d e sig n e d to c la rify m a n y of th e g e n e ra l
p ro b le m s co m m o n to m a c h in e in d u s tr y w h e re v e r fo u n d .
and L u b in , I sad o r .
The British attack on unemployment.
Washington, Brookings Institution, 1934• 825 pp.

H il l , A. C. C ., J r .,

T h is v o lu m e , in w h ic h th e a u th o r s d isc u ss th e v a rio u s m e a s u re s a d o p te d in
G re a t B rita in to m e e t th e se rio u s d eg re e of u n e m p lo y m e n t w h ic h h a s p re v a ile d
in t h a t c o u n tr y m o re o r less s te a d ily sin ce 1921, is im p o r t a n t a t th e p re s e n t tim e
in view of th e a t t a c k u p o n th e p ro b le m in th is c o u n try . T h e re is a re v ie w in th e
firs t se c tio n of th e b o o k of th e m e th o d s u se d to ta k e c a re of th e u n e m p lo y e d
th r o u g h th e M id d le A ges, w h e n m a n y h a rs h a n d re p re ssiv e m e th o d s w ere u sed ,
u p to th e fin al e n a c tm e n t of th e ISiational In s u ra n c e A c t in 1911. T h e seco n d
se c tio n co v e rs th e p o lic y of g u id an ce , in c lu d in g d iscu ssio n of th e e m p lo y m e n t


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

PUBLICATIO NS RELATING TO LABOR

539

e x c h a n g e sy s te m , relief w o rk s, a n d tra n s fe re n c e a n d tr a in in g of w o rk e rs. P a r t 3
d e a ls w ith th e p o licy of relief c o v e rin g th e d e ta ils of th e u n e m p lo y m e n t-in s u ra n c e
s y s te m a s e sta b lish e d b y th e v a rio u s a m e n d m e n ts in c lu d in g th e U n e m p lo y m e n t
A c t of 1934. I n th e la s t se c tio n of th e b o o k v a rio u s c ritic ism s w h ic h h a v e b een
m a d e a g a in s t th e sy s te m a re a n sw e re d in th e lig h t of th e B ritis h ex p e rie n c e .
T h e a p p e n d ix e s c o n ta in s ta tis tic a l in fo rm a tio n re g a rd in g co v erag e, c o n tr ib u tio n s '
b e n e fits, e tc .
I n st it u t e for S c ien c e
A g ric u ltu ra l L a b o r.

of

L abor ( K u r a s ik i , J a p a n ).

R e s e a rc h S ta tio n fo r

Report No. 1: Organization and function of the Research
Station for Agricultural Labor, by Gitd Teruolca, director. Kurasiki, 1934.
22 pp., diagrams, illus.

In c lu d e d in th e fu n c tio n s of th is a g ric u ltu ra l s ta tio n a re th e in v e s tig a tio n of
th e d is trib u tio n of la b o r a m o n g fam ilie s, r a t e of sick n ess, m e d ic a l costs, n u tr itio n
a n d d o m e s tic la b o r.
J oint C ommittee on R esea r c h of t h e P e n n s y l v a n ia S chool of S ocial W ork
and the C om munity C ouncil of P h il a d e l p h ia .
The patient in hospital

and clinic: A study of duplication in care and of ability to pay. Philadelphia
311 South Juniper Street, 1934. 17 PP- {Reprinted from the Weekly Roster
and Medical Digest, August 11, 1934 -)
T h is r e p o r t d e a ls w ith th e d u p lic a tio n in h o s p ita l c a re th r o u g h p a ti e n ts going
fro m h o s p ita l to h o s p ita l a n d in th e a b ility to p a y of p e rs o n s re c e iv in g fre e t r e a t ­
m e n t in h o s p ita ls o r clinics.
A. G.
The correct economy for the machine age: The economic policy
which must be pursued if prosperity is to be achieved and then maintained.
London, Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd., 1935. 256 pp.
N agoya C h a m ber of C ommerce and I n d u s t r y . Industrial and labor conditions
in Japan, with special reference to those in Nagoya. Nagoya, Japan, 1934.
54 pp., charts.
N a tio nal C o n fe r e n c e of S ocial W or k . Proceedings, at the sixty-first annual
session, held in Kansas City, Mo., May 20-26, 1934. Chicago, University of
Chicago Press, 1934. 621 pp., charts.
M

cG regor,

A m o n g th e m a n y p a p e rs in th is v o lu m e t h a t h a v e a d ire c t b e a rin g u p o n la b o r
p ro b le m s a re th e follow ing: T h e F e d e ra l E m e rg e n c y R elief A d m in is tra tio n , its
p ro b le m s a n d sig n ifican ce; R e lie f a n d re c o n s tru c tio n ; Social p la n n in g a n d th e
f u t u r e ; T h e c o n c e p t of so cial ju s tic e in th e lig h t of to d a y ; Social in s u ra n c e ; H e a lth
in s u ra n c e ; A d e q u a te h e a lth se rv ic e fo r all th e p e o p le ; Social le g isla tio n ; T h e co m ­
m o n g o als of la b o r a n d social w o rk ; P u tt in g fo u r m illio n s to w 'ork; T h e effect of
t h e N . R . A. on la b o r; H o w fa r ca n th e u n e m p lo y e d b e re a b s o rb e d in in d u s try ?
a n d T e c h n iq u e s in re a d ju s tin g th e u n e m p lo y e d to in d u s try .
In fo rm a tio n S ervice. For­
eign Affairs Series, Memorandum No. 14 : The International Labor Organiza­
tion in theory and practice—its structure and activities, class and national con­
flicts that occur within it, its accomplishments, and theory underlying its work.
New York, 247 Park Avenue, '1934. 7 pp.
O c h sn e r , E dw ard H . Social insurance and economic security. Boston, Bruce
Humphries, Inc., 1934. 289 pp.

N a tio nal I n d u st r ia l C o n fe r e n c e B oard , I n c .

T h e w rite r discu sses th e v a rio u s fo rm s of so cial in s u ra n c e , th e g r e a te s t stre ss
b e in g la id o n p ro b le m s c o n n e c te d w dth h e a lth in s u ra n c e . H e c ite s th e e x p erien ce
of E u ro p e a n c o u n trie s a n d c o n c lu d e s t h a t su c h in s u ra n c e p e n a liz e s th e in d u s tr i­
o us, fru g a l, a n d th r i f t y in o rd e r to c a re fo r th e la z y , sh iftle ss, a n d im m o ra l m e m ­
b e rs of th e c o m m u n ity .
P a r r y , E liza be th A .,

a nd

K in g , H aro ld .

don, Hodder & Stoughton, Ltd., 1934.

New leisure and old learning.
32 pp.

Lon­

A r e p o r t o n su c c e ssfu l e x p e rim e n ta l classes fo r u n e m p lo y e d m e n a n d w om en
h e ld in th e D a v id L ew is C lu b , L iv e rp o o l, J u n e 1 9 3 2 -M a rc h 1934.

A directory of organizations in the
Chicago, 850 East 58th Street, 1934.

P u bl ic A d m in istr a tio n C lea rin g H o u s e .

field of public administration, 1934.
175 pp.

1 0 9 0 4 1 — 3 5 --------19


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M O NTHLY LABOR REVIEW---- FEBRUARY 1 9 3 5

R e ta il M er ch an ts C ommittee for th e S tu dy of P roposed S ocial a n d
U nem plo ym ent L eg isl a t io n . Unemployment reserves— study, outline, per­

tinent questions, list of references.

[New York], 1934■

%4 VP-

T h is p a m p h le t c o n ta in s a d ig e s t of th e W isco n sin u n e m p lo y m e n t-in s u ra n c e
law a n d of th e fe a tu re s of b ills in tro d u c e d in C o n g ress a n d in S ta te le g is la tu re s ;
a s u m m a ry of u n e m p lo y m e n t in s u ra n c e in o th e r c o u n trie s ; a n d a rg u m e n ts fo r
a n d a g a in s t th is fo rm of in s u ra n c e .

Labor’s fight for power.
Doran & Co., Inc., 1934■
pp.

S okolsky , G eorge E .


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o

Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday,