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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
JAMES J. DAVIS, Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ETHELBERT STEWART, Commissioner

MONTHLY

LABOR REVIEW
VOLUME XVI


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NUMBER 2

FEBRUARY, 1923

WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

1923


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CERTIFICATE.
This publication is issued pursuant to the
provisions of the sundry civil act (41 Stats.
1430), approved March 4, 1921.

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Contents.
Special articles:
Page.
Canal-boat children, by Ethel M. Springer...................................................... 1-21
Immigrant aid: Legislative safeguards, and activities of Bureau of Im­
migration, by Mary T.Waggaman................................................................... 22-35
Industrial relations and labor conditions:
Preliminary report of United States Coal Commission................................... 36-42
Report of railway committee to United States Coal Commission.................. 42-44
Conditions of harvest labor in the wheat belt, 1920 and 1921........................ 44-50
Women’s Industrial Conference,Washington, D. C........................................... 50-57
Trend in policies of employers’ associations in various countries................. 58-60
Italy and Spain—Industrial conditions in the almond industry.................. 60, 61
Prices and cost of living:
Retail prices of food in the United States......................................................... 62-85
Retail prices of coal in the United States......................................................... 86-91
Retail prices of gas: in the United States........................................................... 92-94
Retail prices of electricity in the United States.............................................. 94-99
Retail prices of dry goods in the United States.............................................. 99-110
Index numbers of wholesale prices in December, 1922...................................
Ill
Index numbers of wholesale prices, by years, 1890 to 1922............................
112
Wholesale prices of commodities, October to December, 1922, and average
for year 1922.................................................................................................. 112-122
Changes in cost of living in the United States............................................. 122-131
Wages and hours of labor:
Wage rates on American and foreign cargo steamships, 1922..................... 132-138
Cleveland—Wages in machine shops........................................................... .
139
Colorado—Weekly wages in certain occupations.............................................
140
International comparison of real wages.......................................................... 140-147
Australia—Wages and hours of labor in Sydney and Melbourne, June 30,
1922.....................
147-149
Belgium—Wages and production in coal mines, 1919 to 1921 and September,
1922....................
149,150
Canada—Wages and hours of labor, 1922....................................................... 150-153
Germany—Real value of salaries and wages in Hamburg, 1920 to 1922... 153-159
Great Britain:
Wage rates and employment in railway service................................... 159-161
Leave with pay in British industries..................................................... 162,163
Japan—Wages in Tokio in September and October, 1922.......................... 163,164
South Africa—Wages of European workers................................................... 164,165
Labor agreements, awards, and decisions:
Hat and cap industry—St. Louis.......................................................................
166
Men’s clothing industry—Boston.......................................................................
167
Railroads—Decisions of the Railroad Labor Board:
Maintenance of way—Rules.................................................................... 167-170
Telegraphers’ wages................................................................................... 170-173
Soft-drink workers—Portland......................................................................... 173-176


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IV

CONTENTS.

Women in industry:
Page
Missouri and Alabama—Working women...................................................... 177-181
New York City—Survey of office cleaners.................................................... 181,182
Employment and unemployment:
Employment in selected industries in December, 1922.............................. 183-186
Extent of operation of bituminous coal mines, December 2 to 23, 1922___
187
Recent employment statistics—
California.................................................................................................... 187-189
Colorado..........................................................................................................
189
Connecticut...........................................................................................
189,190
New York.................................................................................................... 190,191
Housing:
Federal, State, and municipal aid to housing, 1918 to 1922: A selected
bibliography, by Ellen Agnes Hoffman..................................................... 192-210
Continuity of employment in the building trades..........................................
211
South America—Housing situation................................................................ 212-219
Industrial accidents and hygiene:
Safety activities of the United States Government, by Ethelbert Stewart,
U. S. Commissioner of Labor Statistics..................................................... 220-223
Coke-oven accidents in the United States during 1921................................ 224,225
Coal-dust explosion tests................................................................................... 225-228
Gas masks and respirators for use in railroad tunnels.................................. 228,229
Colorado—Metalliferous mine accidents, 1920 and 1921.............................. 229, 230
Great Britain—Effects of fatigue and temperature on causation of industrial
accidents.......................................................................................................... 230, 231
Workmen’s compensation and social insurance:
Recent compensation reports—
Hawaii.............................................................................................................
232
Kentucky..................................................................................... ............... 232,233
Nebraska...................................................................................................... 233, 234
Pennsylvania.................................................................
234-236
Tennessee........................................................................................................
237
United States............................................................................................... 237-241
Great Britain—Unemployment insurance, by industries............................ 241-243
Labor laws and court decisions:
Decisions of courts and opinions affecting labor, 1921................................ 244,245
Membership in I. W. W. a criminal offense under California statute........ 245-247
Employers’ liability in interstate or intrastate commerce.......................... 247-249
Turkey—Industrial legislation............................................................................
249
Yugoslavia—Law establishing a general emigration bureau....................... 249, 250
Labor bureaus:
Organization and activities of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. 251
Labor organizations:
Finland—Trade-union m ovem ent.................................................................. 252, 253
International Congress of Building W orkers..................................................
253
International Congress of Transport Workers................................ ............... 253, 254
Conciliation and arbitration:
Conciliation work of the Department of Labor in December, 1922, by Hugh
L. Kerwin, Director of Conciliation............................................................ 255-256
South Africa—Conciliation machinery for mining in d u stry ....................... 256-258
Immigration:
Statistics of immigration for November, 1922, by W. W. Husband, Commis­
sioner General of Immigration...................................................................... 259-264


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CONTENTS.
What State labor bureaus are doing:

V

Page

California..................................................................................
265
Colorado............................................................................................................. 265-267
Massachusetts......................................................................................
267
North Carolina.............................................. .........................................
267 268
Pennsylvania..................................................................................
'
268
Current notes of interest to labor:

Migration of colored workers from the South...................................................
269
Meeting of National Personnel Association................................................
269
Meeting of International Association on Unemployment........................... 269,270
International Conference on Psychology and Vocational Guidance..............
270
Merger of two international social science associations....................................
271
Denmark and Germany—Reciprocity of unemployment relief.....................
271
Publications relating to labor:

Official—United States..................................................................................... 272-274
Official—foreign countries............................................................................... 274-277
Unofficial........................................................................................................... 277,278


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW
vol.

x v i—n o . 2

WASHINGTON

Fe b r u a r y , 1923

Canal-boat Children.1
B y E t h e l M . S p r in g e r .

ADR. 3
EPORTS of unfavorable conditions among children living on
canal boats in England,3 and rumors that unfavorable condi­
tions also existed among children living on waterways in the
United States, led the Federal Children’s Bureau to'make an inquiry
into the situation in this country. Through preliminary correspond­
ence it was learned that probably the only canals upon which any
number of families lived upon barges were the Chesapeake and Ohio
Canal in Maryland, the Lehigh and the Delaware Division Canals in
Pennsylvania, and the canal system in New York State.
A field inquiry was therefore made by the bureau during the year
1921 along the canals in Maryland and New York State, a similar
study of the situation on the Pennsylvania canals being undertaken
simultaneously by the Pennsylvania Public Education and Child
Labor Association. The findings of these inquiries indicate that
while the number of children living on canal boats in this country is
small, the conditions under which they are living and working present
unusually serious problems. School attendance is difficult, hours
of work are excessively long, doctors are inaccessible, and proper
recreation is lacking.
Canal operation in the United States began early in the nine­
teenth century and reached the height of its activity about 1870.
With the extended development of railroads, however, came a decline
in the importance of canal transportation. In 1908, when the
last comprehensive report on the subject was issued by the Gov­
ernment, 45 canals were listed as in operation and 54 as abandoned.
Despite this fact, considerable attention has been given during
the last decade to the development of inland waterways. In 1918
New York State opened the new State Barge Canal, having greater
depth and width than the old Erie Canal which it supersedes, and
modern locks capable of use by large steam-towed vessels. Gradu­
ally the canals which were constructed with so little width and depth
that only small mule-drawn boats could use them have been aban­
doned, until now the only important canals on which mules are used
are the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and the Lehigh Canals.
In all, 354 children were found living on canal boats during the
year of the study. The canals surveyed include both old and new
systems and illustrate strikingly the differences and the similarities
between them. On all canals the fact that the inherent nature
of the work necessitates long periods away from a home on shore

R

1 Report of a study made by the Industrial Division of the Children’s Bureau, U . S. Department of Labor.
2 Canal Boat Children, by Robert J. Parr, National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children,
London, 1910; National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, Annual Report for 1920-21,
London; Great Britain, Ministry of Health, Departmental Committee on Living-in on Canal Boats, Report.
* * * London, 1921.


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2

M ONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

is an impelling motive to boatmen to take their wives and children
with them. On the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal the large majority
of the captains had their wives and children with them; on the
Lehigh and the Delaware Division Canals, probably because of the
small size of the boat cabins, the captains usually took with them
only those children who could assist in the work; on the New York
canals, as on the Chesapeake and Ohio, the majority of the captains
had their wives and their children wi-th them, but because of the
arrangement of the boats in fleets, there were few captains com­
pared with the number of boats operated and consequently fewer
children. The principal difference between life on the old and on
the new canals, so far as the children are concerned, lies in the fact
that on the older canals child labor is profitable and practically indis­
pensable while on the newer canals there is little place for it. Except
for this decrease in the work of children the newer canals have most
of the evils of the old. On the new canals, to be sure, boats are
being constructed with larger cabins and better sanitary arrange­
ments, but under both systems there are the same conditions in
regard to irregular school attendance, improper medical care, inade­
quate recreation, and exhausting hours of labor for those children
who work.
While the bureau’s study did not include vessels other than canal
boats it can safely be assumed that similar conditions exist for
children living on other types of watercraft.3
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal.

'"THE Chesapeake and Ohio Canal extends from Washington, D. C.,
A to Cumberland, Md., along the eastern bank of the Potomac
River, a distance of 185 miles, with an ascent of 609 feet which is
overcome by means of 75 locks.4 The canal varies in width at the
surface from 55 to 65 feet and at the bottom from 30 to 42 feet and
has a depth of 6 feet throughout. The open season lasts approx­
imately nine months, from early March till December. During the
winter months it is customary to drain the canal to prevent damage
which might be caused by freezing.
The principal cargo has always been bituminous coal mined in the
mountains about Cumberland, which is transported to Georgetown.
Boatmen said that they averaged two round trips a month, the dis­
tance from Cumberland to Georgetown being covered in from six
to eight days, and the return trip in from four to six days.
Practically all the traffic at the time of the study was conducted
by one company which owned the boats and employed captains
to operate them. The policy of this company was to give preference
to married men on the ground that a married man is steadier in his
job than a single man, and that the presence of his wife and children
on a boat raises the moral tone. For the year 1920, the company
reported that all but 7 of the 66 captains on its pay roll were married
men.
8 During the course of the investigation, the attention of the bureau was called to the fact that children
were living on river and harbor boats, especially in New York Harbor, and it was also reported that children
sometimes lived with their parents on coastwise freight vessels. See also M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w
July,. 1918: “ New York harbor employees,” by Benjamin M. Squires.
* The number of locks has varied during the history of the canal from 75 to 81.


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CANAL-BOAT CHILDREN.

3

Of the 59 captains who were married, 41 were found who had their
children with them during the season studied. The number of
children found accompanying their families was 135 (70 boys and
65 girls) ; of these, 48 were under 7 years of age. In addition to
these children there were found on canal boats 7 boys who were
employed as deck hands by captains to whom they were not related.
One of these boys was 11 years of age, four were 14, one was 15, and
one 16 years of age. It is known that not all the families were
located and interviewed and it is probable that the number of in­
dependent child workers found is still less indicative of the actual
number on the canal boats, inasmuch as they were even more difficult
to locate than families.
Boat Work.

The operation of canal boats is an occupation handed down from
father to son. Said one mother: “ The children are brought up on
the boat and don’t know nothin’ else, and that is the only reason
they take up ‘boating.’ 5 Boys work for their fathers until they are
big enough to get a boat of their own, and it’s always easy to get
a boat.” Several men complained that they knew ‘'nothing else”
and realized that their children would have the same disadvantage.
Most of the fathers had begun boating before they were 13 years of
age; but since the majority had begun by helping their own fathers
they did not become “ captains” at an especially early age, many of
them not until they were 25 years or over. Four men, however, had
become captains before they were 16. The mother of one of these
had died when he was 12 years of age, leaving $2,100 in cash to each
of 14 children. The boy boated for one season with an older brother,
receiving as compensation for the season’s work, an overcoat, a
“ made” (as distinguished from homemade) suit of clothes, and
$7.50. When he was 14 he bought his own boat and team of mules
and became an independent captain. During the first season he
saved $700 and “lived like a lord.” He began with practically no
education, and though he had been a captain for 54 years he had
never learned to read and write. Several of his sons became boatmen
and at the time of the study a 16-year-old grandson was boating
with him.
All the captains included in the study were native white. Seven
were illiterate. Their wives also were all native white. Five of them
were illiterate. One captain, who had begun boating with his father
when he was 5 years of age, said that altogether he had gone to
school only 29 months. By the time he reached the fourth grade the
children of his own age had long since completed the grammar grades
and he was ashamed to go into classes with younger boys and girls.
He seemed to regret his own lack of education and said that when his
little girl was old enough to go to school he should stop boating.
Operation of boats.—The operation of the old-fashioned canal boat
used on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal consists in driving the mules
and in steering the boat. The mules are harnessed tandem to two
long ropes or “ lines” attached to the bow of the boat. From two to
five mules are used by “ spells,” two or three mules being stabled in
the fore cabin at rest while the others draw. The boat hands take
6“ Boating” is the term used by workers on canal and other boats to designate their life and occupation.


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MONTHLY LABOE REVIEW.

turns at driving, either walking beside the mules or riding the leader.
Although the captains usually do some of the driving, especially if
the boat travels at night, they consider it a child's job during the day.
In dry weather the towpath, which is level except at the approaches
to the locks, is well beaten down and easy to walk on, but in summer
the work is wearisome and hot. In wet weather the path is muddy
and slippery, and consequently shoes and clothing get very hard
wear. One captain considered himself the best father on the canal
because he provided his boys with rubber boots.
Steering the boat is accomplished by means of the “ stick” located
on the quarter-deck at the stern of the boat. This controls the
rudder or “ paddle,” and may be guided by the pilot standing or
sitting against it. As there is practically no current to change the
direction of the boat, the operation is very simple and the mother of
the family often steers while doing household tasks that permit. A
young child can steer a light boat, as the stick moves easily, but to
steer " loaded boats requires strength. The only complications in
steering occur at the locks or when other canal boats are passed.
Locks are 15 feet wide and approximately 100 feet long. The
usual method of opening and shutting them is by pushing heavy
beams which extend from the swinging gates on each side. At the
time of the study the lock tenders were mostly old men who were
assisted by the women and children of their families; the boat workers,
however,'frequently helped to operate the locks as it is sometimes
necessary for several persons to brace themselves against the beams
of the gates. (See Fig. 3.) Boats approach the locks so slowly that
the steersman has ample time to fit the boat into the lock. Careful
calculation, however, is required as the locks are only one foot wider
than the boats. (See Fig. 4.) A severe jolt against the wall of the
lock has been known to sink a boat. When the boat is in the lock,
the boatmen untie the mules and make the boat fast by wrapping
ropes around heavy posts which are driven deep into the ground near
the lock wall. After a lock is filled or emptied the boatmen pull in
their ropes and steer the boat through. If another boat is waiting
to enter a lock as one leaves it, great care must be exercised by the
steersmen of both boats.
Hours of boat work.—Hours of travel on the canal were practically
continuous. Fifteen hours a day was the minimum reported by any
of the boat families; 18 was the number of hours most frequently
reported; and several families stated they worked longer. One
family had operated its boat without taking any intervals for rest.
“ It never rains, snows, or blows for a boatman, and a boatman never
has no Sundays,” explained one father. “ We don’t know it’s Sun­
day,” said another, “ till we see some folks along the way, dressed up
and a-goin’ to Sunday school.” One captain and his wife who re­
ported working 15 hours a day employed no crew but depended on
the assistance of two children, a girl 14 years of age and a boy of 5.
The girl did almost all the driving, usually riding muleback, and the
parents steered. The little boy helped with the driving, but did not
drive for more than a mile or two at a time. The boat was kept
moving until the girl could drive no longer, then the boat was tied up
for the night. “ We’d boat longer hours if the driver felt like it,”
said the father.


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»

«


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5

CANAL-BOAT CHILDREN.

Boat work done by children.—Only the limitations of their physical
strength prevented children on this canal from performing all opera­
tions connected with handling canal boats. Consequently when they
reported that they had done boat work it meant that they had assisted
in all parts of the work. The older children, of course, bore heavier
burdens than the younger.
CHILDREN BOATING ON CHESAPEAKE AND OHIO CANAL, 1920, CLASSIFIED B Y AGE
AND NUM BER OF SEASONS W ORKED.

Number who had done boat work each specified number
.
of seasons.
Age.
1

5 years or under..........................
6 years.....................................
7 years.........................................
8 years.................................
9 years................................
10 years..............................
11 years...............................
12 years..............................
13 years............................
14 years...............................
15 years............................
16 years......................
17 years............................
Total...........................

3
3
2
1

2

1
2
1
3
3
5
1

18

1
3

2
1
2

4

20

5

6

7

8

1

2

3
1
2

3

Num­
ber
who
had Total.
Not
done
10 or re­
no
9 more.
port­ Total. boat
ed.
work.

1
1
2
2
1
2

2
1

1
1

1
3
1

1

14 8

2
2
i
i

9

1
2
1

i
1

1

1

1

9

1

1
1 "T

1
1
8

i

1
1

5

1

i
i

1

3

7

94

48

142

As the above table shows, 94 children, or all except 7 of those over
6 years of age, were found assisting in the work. Twenty-one of the
children had begun to help when they were not more than 6 years of
age,_ and 8 of these had begun when not more than 5. The following
stories illustrate the life of the boat children.
One of the boating households consisted of four persons—the
captain and his assistant “ deck hand,” the captain’s wife, and their
11-year-old daughter. The child had been driving, steering, and
doing housework about the boat for “ several years,” but she did
not like boating and got very lonely. Her father said that she
could do anything the r‘hand” could do, but he felt it necessary to
hire a man because, as he put it, “ you have to rest once in a while.”
“ The women and children are as good as the men,” he said. “ If it
weren’t for the children the canal wouldn’t run a day.” The girl’s
school attendance for the year 1920-21 had been 89 days out of 177,
or 50 per cent of the school term.
An 11-year-old boy who had been helping his father since he was
6 years old had become his father’s “ right-hand man.” This boy
was one of a family of seven children, two older than he, one a girl
of 7, and the others under 6 years of age. “ A boat is a poor place
for little children,” said the father, “ for all they can do is to go in
and out of the cabin.” The four older children were accustomed to
helping with the boat work, but the father depended especially on
the 11-year-old boy. He could do any sort of work and often drove
for long hours, and even well into the night. His school attendance
in 1920—21 was only 93 days out of a possible 178. The father him-


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M ONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

self commented on this poor record and said that while he regretted
it he was obliged to “ boat” his children as he could not afford with
his large family to hire extra help.
One 17-year-old girl boasted that she had been working on canal
boats for 12 seasons. The mother of this girl had had 17 children,
8 of whom were living. Of the 9 children who had died, 8 had died
in infancy. The 2 oldest living children had married and left home.
The remaining 6 children, including the 17-year-old girl, 2 boys
who were 15 and 12 years of age, respectively, and 3 girls, aged 11,
6, and 2, traveled with their parents on the canal. All except the
youngest were regular boat hands, having .begun to work when 6
years of age. The mother stated that for many years it had not
been necessary for them to employ a crew as they had plenty of
their “ own hands.” During the season selected for study their boat
had traveled 19 hours a day 7 days a week. While the 6-year-old
girl was allowed to go to bed at 8 and presumably had lighter duties
than the others, the 4 older children worked on shifts all day long,
snatching a nap now and then. They went to bed at 10 p. m. and
had to be up and ready to start again at 3 a. m. The oldest girl
had stopped school on completing the fourth grade. The 4 other
children who had been in school during 1920-21 had records which
showed attendance varying from 29 per cent to 73 per cent of the
term. The 15-year-old boy, with an attendance record of 29.6 per
cent, had just completed the fourth grade and was not planning to
return to school in the fall.
Earnings.

Earnings of fathers .—Reports of earnings showed rather low incomes
as compared with the general run of wages in other industries. Cap­
tains were paid per ton per trip, receiving about $75 or $80 for a
trip. Captains who needed more assistance than members of the
family could render paid the wages of “ deck hands” out of their
own income, usually $12 to $20 a trip, although young boys got less,
sometimes receiving clothing in lieu of wages or part of wages.
While half the captains included in this study had paid helpers, the
majority of the families having four or more children did not hire
crews. Many of the captains said that without the assistance of
their children they could not have made both ends meet.
In addition to the wages of hired hands, the boat captain had to
meet the expense of certain equipment and repairs. The “ fall
board” or gangplank over which the mules were led from the boat
to shore had to be replaced frequently; the price of a new board
was about $16. Troughs for the mules ranging in cost from $2.50
to $4.50 were supplied by some captains. Every man was expected
to furnish oil for his “ bow lamp,” the expense varying with the
number of hours that the boat was operated after dark. This
expenditure averaged about $10 per season. Some men were obliged
to replace the stakes for tying up the boat at night. In every
instance the boat was furnished by the company and certain necessary
articles of equipment were usually provided, such as mules, feed,
harness, and “ lines.” A few boatmen owned their mules, but in
such cases the company furnished feed and made the captain a cash
allowance for every trip on which his mules were used.


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CANAL-BOAT CHILDREN.

7

During 1920 most of the captains received less than $1,250 from
boat work. About two-thirds supplemented such earnings either by
winter employment or by incidental work during the season. For
example, one man owned towing mules which he hired out; other
captains secured small loads of incidental freight consisting of general
merchandise, farm products, or shipments for the pleasure parks or
summer camps. On the revenue from this incidental freight the
company collected from the captains a toll of 7 cents on the dollar.
The one captain who had made more than $1,850 during the sea­
son of 1920 was a man who was somewhat in debt at the beginning
of the season. With his wife and six children and one deck hand he
undertook to operate two boats. The mother and father each took
charge of one boat, keeping the vessels as close together as possible.
The boats practically never stopped and every member of the family
except the two youngest children, 3 and 5 years of age, had a definite
schedule of duties. During the season they made 13-j trips with one
boat and 14 with the other. (The largest number of trips made by
any one boat on the canal that season was 18|-.)
Earnings of children.—In six instances the children who “ boated”
with their families received pay for their work. One father
had paid his 13-year-old son $5 a trip; another father had
given his son, aged 1/, $15 per trip. Two boys, 9 and 12 years of
age, living under the guardianship of their older brother, had each
received $8 per trip. Two other boys, 11 and 16 years of age, work­
ing^01, their stepfather, received, respectively, $7 and $12 per trip.
The seven boys who worked as regular boat hands independently
of their families reported wages ranging from $5 to $15 a trip, three
being paid $10 a trip. Except in the case of one boy, these wages
were below the average paid to deck hands on the canal. None of
these boys, except possibly one concerning whom complete informa­
tion was not given, received clothing in addition to wages. All, of
course, were fed and housed.
The total earnings for the children who received cash wages for
boat work during the season of 1920 ranged from $35 to $247.50,
the highest amount having been received by one of the boys who
was paid by his own father. Only six reported any employment
other than boating. Two of these boys had worked in “ factories,”
two in tanneries, one as a laborer for a building contractor, and one
girl as a domestic.
Living Conditions.

The average size of the cabins on the boats of the Chesapeake and
Ohio Canal was 10 by 12 feet. All cabins had two bunks, one set
into the inner wall of the main cabin and the other located in the
so-called stateroom, which was partitioned off from the main cabin
by a diagonal wall. (See Fig. 5.) These bunks were 36 inches wide,
sufficient space for one person but ordinarily occupied by two. In
addition to the cabin bunks, the feed box extending across the deck
at the center of the boat was ordinarily used for sleeping purposes.
This box was 4 feet wide and 4 feet high, and with blankets spread
over the hay and other feed it provided a fairly comfortable bed,
used in some cases by the deck hands and occasionally by the chil­
dren. Often in hot weather the floor of the deck was used as a bed,


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but some mothers stated that they were afraid to let the children
sleep away from the cabin.
In spite of the narrowness of the berths, the cabins were ordina­
rily regarded by the families as providing sleeping space for four
persons. To these may be added two places in the feed box, making
a maximum accommodation of six places. Of the 41 families vis­
ited, however, 10 had from 7 to 10 members, and 19, almost half,
had more than 4 persons. Possibly the most distressing instance of
congestion existed in a family of 9. The mother said she made a
bed for the children on the floor, but “ when you get seven down
there, there ain’t room left to walk around without stepping on them.”
The floors of the cabins were frequently left bare, although 14 fami­
lies reported linoleum coverings. One family stated that it was
impossible to use any sort of covering as the floors leaked and were
always damp.
The accompanying plan shows that the stove occupied a place m
the main cabin near the steps to the deck. Coal was ordinarily
burned in these stoves and in several instances the family reported
that the fire was kept through the night. One mother spoke of the
heat of the cabin as being almost unendurable. Practically every
boat was provided with a heavy canvas awning and in pleasant
weather the boat family spent most of the day on deck. (See Fig. 6.)
Water for drinking "and for cooking purposes was secured from
springs along the canal and stored in barrels or kegs; for washing,
the canal water was used. In no instance had it been piped into the
cabin as in some of the boats on New York canals. Toilet facilities
were entirely lacking. Cabin windows were not screened and in some
places, especially at terminals, the families were troubled by flies.
Most families complained of mosquitoes.
Food supplies could be secured at any town along the canal; but
the families agreed it was better to “ stock u p ” at Georgetown, as the
stores in the smaller places charged much higher rates. No family
reported the regular use of fresh milk. Most families reported that
they could get milk at the locks or at farm houses, but not for daily
use. None of them had refrigerators, though many were in the habit
of getting small pieces of ice to cool drinking water.
Five captains lived the year round on their boats, one having lived
on his boat for 18 years. All the other families visited maintained
homes on land. The dwellings were chiefly small detached wooden
houses, some being built of logs. None of them had modern con­
veniences in the way of inside plumbing. Nearly all, however, were
located in or near towns along the canal within one mile of schools.
Opportunities for Education.

According to the parents’ statements, 102 children, including all
those of compulsory school age or over, had at one time or another
attended school. Of the 14 known to have stopped school before the
year of the study, one had completed the second grade; 2 had stopped
upon the completion of the third grade; 5, of the fourth grade; and
1, of the sixth; 3 had finished the seventh grade; for the remaining 2,
the grade attained at the close of the school history was not known.
One of these children who had stopped going to school was 11 years


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F I G . 5.— P L A N


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C A N A L BOAT.


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CANAL-BOAT CHILDREN.

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of age; and one, 13; the others were 14 years of age or over. Over
three-fourths of the children 8 years of age or over who had attended
school during the year 1920-21 were one or more years retarded;
over one-half were two years or more below the normal grade for
their age. Every reasonable effort was made by the Children’s
Bureau agents to secure the attendance records of these children. Of
the 52 for whom the actual record was secured, one girl of 7 years had
perfect attendance. Seven children, including this girl, had attended
80 per cent or more of the term; 17, three of them girls, had attended
less than oO per cent of the term. Two boys, 9 and 15 years of a^e
and one girl of 12, had attended less than 10 per cent of the term.° ’
Facilities for Medical Care.

W

Very little use of the services of doctors had been made by the
canal-boat families. A large proportion of them did not regard
ordinary illness as an excuse for sending for a physician. “ We never
need a doctor, said one father. “ We just stay sick until we get
well.” Among nine families who seemed to think it would be easy
to get a doctor while boating, four qualified their statement with the
remark (hat it might be necessary to go long distances. Said one of
these: 'You can always get a doctor in a day.” Another said
Easy, if you have the money.” In one family that had been
obliged to search for a doctor, comment was made on the fact that
the shifting of the boat necessitated having different doctors at differ­
ent places, an unsatisfactory and expensive arrangement. More
than half the families reported that it was difficult to get a doctor,
and in the mountains at the upper end of the canal, or along the
long levels ” it was practically impossible to secure medical assistance. Fifteen of the children were reported to have had serious
illnesses during 1920.
Information concerning conditions at the time of their most recent
confinements was secured from mothers of children born subsequent
to December 31, 1915. Four children had been born on boats and
22 on land. The mothers of two of the babies born on boats had been
attended at confinement by physicians. Thirteen of the 22 mothers
giving birth to children on land were attended by physicians; 2 were
attended by midwives; for the other 7 mothers the facts were not
reported. Some children reported as having been born on land had
been born at lock houses or in villages where the mother had neither
hospital care, friends, nor home conveniences. One mother had had
14 children, all born on boats. She had never had a physician, but
always a midwife, and had received no care after delivery. At the
time of the study 7 of these children had died.
Accidents to Children.

Numerous accidents had occurred among the boat children.
Forty-five children had fallen into the canal more or less frequently;
11 had been kicked by mules; 1 had been burned; 1 cut with an
axe; another, dragged by a mule over a lock gate. One mother said
that her four children had had many accidents. The oldest had had
his nose broken by a kick from a mule. Fortunately the boat was
near a town in which he secured hospital treatment. With the


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exception of the baby all had fallen into the canal many times, and
once when the lock master, by closing the gates too soon, dragged
the awning off the deck and the children with it, they were caught
between the gate and the boat. In telling about these accidents, the
mother seemed to consider them an inevitable part of boating.
Recreation.

Opportunities for recreation were very meager. Several families
when asked about their pleasures and recreation, replied that they
had none. Nearly all said that their only friends were the other
boating families. Some complained that the children got lonely and
restless. One father who was musical was teaching his children to
sing and to play on the banjo and the mandolin. Some of the
children spoke of good times swimming in the canal, especially when
they reached the lower levels, or were detained for a number of days
at the terminal. Unfortunately at this point, the water of the canal
was much polluted; the towpath, which furnished almost the only
playground for the children, was littered with manure and refuse,
and children were obliged to find play spaces between the mules
standing along the path.
The Lehigh and the Delaware Division Canals.8

npHE history of the Pennsylvania canals shows the same
decline in traffic that has occurred on other systems. Expensive
constructions undertaken by the State in the early half of the nine­
teenth century were later "bought up by railroads and gradually
allowed to go into disuse as steam transportation became more
popular. At present only two canals are in operation in Pennsyl­
vania, both under the control of one company. These two, the
Lehigh and the Delaware Division Canals, are used in transporting
anthracite from Coalport, near Mauch Chunk, to points on the
Delaware Diver. The Lehigh Canal, located along the Lehigh River,
extends from Mauch Chunk to Easton; the Delaware Division Canal,
supplementing the Lehigh, extends along the Delaware River from
Easton to Bristol, the total length of the two canals being 108 miles.
The round trip from Mauch Chunk to Easton requires about four
days; the trip to Bristol, about eight. The open season for these
canals is eight or nine months. The boats used on these canals were
smaller than those used on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. In fact
the cabins on these boats were so small that it was astonishing that
any family attempted to keep house in them. The long hours,
however, constrained the captains to have living quarters on the
boats and, as at least one assistant was necessary for the operation
of a vessel, it was not strange that men with families took one or
more members of their households with them. Sixteen captains
were found who had had children on the canals during the season of
1920—in 13 instances their own or step-children, in one instance
a young nephew, and in two others, boys who were not related to them.
6 The information on which this section is based was secured through the cooperation of the Pennsylvania
Public Education and Child Labor Association.


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Boat Work.

Earnings of boatmen.—As was the case on the Chesapeake and Ohio
Canal the company controlling the canal owned the boats and
employed captains to operate them. The captains secured such
help as they found necessary. Captains were paid on a ton-mile
basis, the rate for carrying one ton of coal from Coalport to Bristol
being $1 and the rates for intermediate stations being in proportion
to the distance. Each boat carried from 90 to 95 tons.7 Assistant
boatmen were paid by trip or by the day or week. Although the
conditions of employment were similar to those on the Chesapeake
and Ohio the, working expenses of the captains on these canals were
heavier. Whereas on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal the company
usually furnished not only the boat but the mules, their feed, harness,
and “lines,” on the Pennsylvania canals the captains were required
to supply the mules and their upkeep. Mules were furnished by the
company to those who did not own them, the terms being an install­
ment payment on the purchase of the animals, usually $5 a trip; this
was deducted from the captain’s pay and at the close of the season
interest was charged on the amount remaining unpaid. The captains
also had to meet other expenses, such as feed, ‘‘lines,” and other
equipment. Frequently a man’s working expenses amounted to
one-third or more of his gross receipts.
Earnings from boating alone did not constitute a sufficient income
for men with families. Every captain interviewed had had other
sources of income; all of them had had some occupation during the
winter and some had had positions which they had kept during the
entire 12 months. For example, several of the men were lock
tenders and by depending on the services of other members of their
families they were able to keep these positions while operating boats.
Earnings for boat work for the season studied in no case exceeded
SI,250. The additional earnings from winter employment raised the
general average of the men’s earnings for the year between $300 and
S400. The largest annual income reported by any captain for the
year in question was $1,977. In six families the father’s earnings
had been supplemented by the wages of other members of the family;
in this group the largest family income reported for the year was
$2,286.83.
Boat work done by children.—Probably because of the small size of
the cabins the fathers usually took with them only those children
who could be of service in operating the boat. A total of 33 children
were reported by the 16 families as having made canal trips during
1920. Of the 33 children, 25 were boys and 8 were girls. None of
the girls had assisted on the boat during the 1920 season, but 21 of
the boys had done so. Of the boys who had helped with the boat
work, 4 were between 5 and 10 years of age, 6 between 11 and 13
years, and 11 between 14 and 17 years, inclusive.
Although few in number, proportionately more of the children on
these canals than on any of the other canals included in the study
were violating State laws, inasmuch as Pennsylvania forbids the em­
ployment on boats of children under 16 years of age. Every child
7 Chesapeake and Ohio boats earned about 110 tons and New York boats about 240.

28491°—23

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M ONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

over 10 years of age on the boats was assisting with the work, and 5
of them were receiving pay.
The terms on which these children worked were interesting. One
14- year-old lad who worked for a man not related to him, had been
engaged to drive mules at $7 per trip. The captain paid the boy’s
wages to his father who allowed the child to keep $2 a trip. One
15- year-old boy who was ordinarily his father’s assistant, was given
a temporary position as captain. For 27 days this boy had full re­
sponsibility for a boat. He hired an older boy as deck hand, met
all the incidental expenses of his trips, and received pay from the
company at regular rates. One captain employed his two sons to
operate the boat while he himself remained on shore as a lock tender.
In this case the older of the two boys, who was over 18 years of age
and therefore not included in this study, received wages. The
younger boy, 15 years of age, worked with his brother for 6 months
without pay. According to the father’s statement, the boat was
operated 6 days a week, 18 hours a day, usually from 3.30 a. m. to
9.30 p. m. The boy said he got up at any time in the morning between
3.30 and 6 o’clock and went to bed between 9.30 and 11 at night.
Living Conditions.

Cabins on the boats of the Lehigh and the Delaware Division
Canals were smaller than those on the boats of any of the other
canals visited. They measured only 8 by 10 feet and were entered
by means of a ladder. Two wooden bunks, one above the other,
were built into the side of the cabin; a cupboard was constructed
across one corner; a folding shelf or table also constituted a part of
the stationary equipment. Such other articles as were needed were
provided by the boatmen. Several families managed without chairs.
The coal or oil stoves were kept in the cabin during the cool weather
but were set up on deck when it was hot. Some of the families explained
their lack of a washtub by stating that the washing was done at home
on shore. Normally the two bunks in the cabin provided a sleeping
space for two persons; yet with one exception the boating groups were
made up of three or more persons. Two captains each had their
wives and five children with them. One captain had constructed an
extension to the lower bunk to accommodate himself, his wife, and
8-year-old daughter. The man who helped him with the work slept
in the upper bunk. Another family reported that they made up
beds for the children on the floor. This does not, on the whole, repre­
sent any greater congestion than on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal.
There were, however, no partitions in these cabins as there were on
the Chesapeake and Ohio boats, and no attempts at privacy. Toilet
facilities, as on the boats of other canals, were entirely lacking.
Although supplies were easily procurable men said that living on
the boat was more expensive than living on land for the reason that
much of the food had to be purchased in prepared form. Baking was
not attempted on the boats, and the cupboards were not large enough
to store considerable quantities.
All except one of the captains maintained homes on land. Six
families owned houses which they had occupied for several years;
three lived at the locks in houses provided by the company; the four


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captains who rented their houses paid from $5 to $13 a month rental.
In none of the houses they occupied was there any plumbing.
Opportunities for Education.

Although when in winter quarters all except one family lived within
one mile of a school, the school attendance of the canal-boat children
was seriously affected by the fact that boating began in April and
closed in November. Two who claimed to be "stiff in school” had
not attended at all during the year of the study. Reports showed
that more than half were below normal grade. Among those who
had stopped school only one had completed the seventh grade; three
had failed to complete the sixth grade.
Facilities for Medical Care and Recreation.

Proportionately more sickness was reported among these children
than among the children on the other canals; on the other hand, medi­
cal care was much more accessible. A physician attended the birth
of the one child who was reported as having been born on a boat.
Falling into the water was a common occurrence among the children
here, as on the other canals, and seemed to be taken as a matter of
course. Hours of sleep, though in some instances unduly short,
averaged longer than for the children on the Chesapeake and Ohio
Canal.
Recreation for these children was entirely lacking. Sometimes
they mingled with other children when the boats stopped to load or
unload. "We never boated Sunday,” said one mother, "but we
didn’t go to church because we have no Sunday clothes.” Resting
on Sunday seemed to be the greatest pleasure known to the families.
New York Canals.

YV/HILE the Chesapeake and Ohio and the Pennsylvania canals
V* are still operated according to the methods of the early days of
canal transportation, New York has revolutionized its system, by
abandoning the mules and towpaths and introducing the use of steam
power. Utilizing the old canals in some sections, constructing
entirely new waterways in others, the State of New York has enlarged
and improved its system in the expectation that the increased facil­
ities will enable the canals to become an integral part of the trans­
portation system. The State canal system, completed in 1918, com­
prises a number of waterways, the main thoroughfares being the Erie
Canal, now known as the State Barge Canal, and the Champlain
Canal. The depth of the old canals has been increased from 5 feet on
the Champlain and 7 feet on the Erie to a minimum depth of 12 feet
throughout. The locks have also been greatly enlarged so as to
accommodate boats 300 feet long.
The State Barge Canal extends from Troy to Buffalo, connecting
Lake Erie with the Hudson River and New York Harbor. The total
distance from Buffalo to the New York terminal is 507 miles. The
trip, which took 5 weeks when mules were used, can now be made by
steam-towed barges in about 10 days. The Champlain Canal provides
the inland water route from New York to Quebec. From the New


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M ONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

York terminals to the Canadian line is 321^ miles. On sections of
this route in Canada mule towage is still necessary. The trip from
Quebec to New York usually takes from 3 to 5 weeks. The season
for these canals is from about May 1 to December 1.
Among the important cargoes carried on the New York canals are
coal, lumber, wood pulp, grain, flaxseed, sugar, salt, petroleum, sand,
cement, and general merchandise. Grains travel from the west via
Buffalo and the canal to New York. Among the boatmen on the
Champlain Division, the report was common, “ We carried coal up
and lumber down,” referring to the traffic of lumber and wood pulp
towards New York and the transportation of coal to Canada. Sand
and cement were handled to a considerable extent in the vicinity of
Syracuse. Not only the greater volume of traffic, but also the diver­
sity of cargoes, differentiate the situation in New York from that in
Maryland and in Pennsylvania, where coal is the one important cargo.
Moreover, while the history of the latter canals shows a steady
decrease in tonnage, the traffic on the New York system has increased
every year since 1918, when the improved canals went into operation.
Whereas the Chesapeake and Ohio, the Lehigh, and the Delaware
Division Canals were privately owned and in each case the company
operating the canal owned most, if not all, the boats, in New York
the canals are owned and operated by the State and navigation is
free. While the State has furnished some towing facilities in order
to bridge the period of change from the use of mules to the use of
steam, it has not handled freight. All traffic has been carried on by
transportation companies or by individual boat owners.
With the change to steam power have come changes in arrange­
ments of boats and in the personnel of crews. Whereas, on the old
systems, mule-towed boats traveled separately, the steam-towed
barges are propelled in fleets consisting of the “ steamer” and several,
usually five or six, barges called “ consorts.” In this arrangement
it is unnecessary for every vessel to carry a full crew. The “ steamer,”
which may be a tug or a steam-propelled barge, carries the pilot or
captain with a crew of five or six men. The “ consorts” are considered
adequately manned if one individual is on them.
This coupling up of the boats has also had its effect on the svstem
of ownership. Owners of boats or barges which are not self-propelled
must secure motive power. Those who own two or more barges can
carry large enough cargoes to afford towage charges or may find it
profitable to invest in a “ steamer” of their own; but for the man who
owns but one barge, the expense of towage has been so serious a
matter that many have dropped out of the business. According to
the report of the State superintendent of public works, for 1920: “ No
doubt exists in the mind of anyone that the day of the individual
operator has passed.”
During 1920, a large part of the canal traffic was handled by
companies operating from 10 to 100 boats each. Some individual
boat owners chartered their boats to these companies, attaching
them to the company fleets and being paid by the companies on a
tune basis. In such cases the owner could not control his working
conditions as he did when boating independently. His working
hours and the type and size of the cargo were regulated by the coim
pany. “ When we come to a town,” complained the wife of one of


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these men, “ the pilot does not give me time to go to market. The
only safe way for me to manage is to lay np supplies for the trip and
it is not always convenient for me to do th at.”
Besides losing his independence the boat owner or captain who is
working for a company may have to endure living conditions on the
boat which he would not tolerate if the situation were within his
control. The difference between the cabins of independent owners
and of company employees was as great as that between the homes of
the independent merchant and of the average wage earner ashore.
The immaculate, neatly painted cabins of some of the independent
boatmen, with attractive curtains at the windows, spotless linen on
the bunks, good lamps, and stationary washstands, were in marked
contrast with company cabins that bore no evidence of interest on
the part of the company and little sense of responsibility on the part
of the employee.
Boat

Work.

Families on boats.—Grouping boats in fleets has greatly reduced
the number of captains and consequently decreased the number of
families living on boats. Formerly every boat had its captain, and
most captains took their families with them; at present, however,
there is one captain for the fleet, and usually only the captain’s boat,
and possibly the first consort, have families aboard. During 1920
the total number of boats operated on the New York canals was 798;
but this number must be divided by six or seven to estimate, roughly,
the number of fleets. Not all the boat families could be located
and interviewed, but 71 were visited who had taken with them 179
children on canal boats in 1920. Of these children, 61 of whom were
under 6 years of age, 92 were boys and 87 were girls.
All the boatmen were American born and all were able to read and
write. Of their wives, 10 were foreign born, 7 being French Canadians.
One of these Canadian women could not speak English, and one could
not read or write any language. With the boat families on the New
York canals, as on other canals, boating was a family occupation
handed down from father to son. Among the fathers of the 71
families visited, 62 had begun their industrial life as boat workers
assisting their fathers, most of them before they were 12 years of
age. At the time of the study, 47 of the men owned their boats,
8 of them operating under charter to companies; 23 were operating
for companies on a salary basis. The remaining father was below
the rank of captain and he was the son of a captain, traveling with
his young wife and baby in his father’s fleet.
Hours of boat work.—Where an independent owner had full control
of the situation, as on stretches of lake and river, he ran his boat 24
hours a day, for speed in transit meant more trips, more freight
carried, and greater returns. The length of the workday on the canal,
however, that is in the artificial sections of the waterways between
the locks, was ordinarily 10 or 12 hours. The superintendent of
public works stated in his report that agreements with chartered
towboats restricted the working-day to 12 hours; this he regretted
as it doubled the time required for a trip. In general boats were
operated for as many hours and as nearly continuously as possible.


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M ONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.
Earnings.

Earnings of fathers.—The income of men operating for themselves
was based on the tonnage of their cargoes. From their gross income,
which was often several thousand dollars, they had to deduct heavy
expenses for towage, equipment, repairs, wages of a crew if they had
no boys or young men in their own families, and other charges such as
taxes, insurance, registration, clearance, fees, and dockage. One
captain who ran two boats from New York to Quebec said he expected
to clear $1,000 a trip, making two and sometimes three trips in a
season. The expenses of towing, he said, just about “ ate up ” the
returns on one boat.
Men on a salary basis were sure of their pay and were subject to
very little if any expense connected with boating. Company rates
of pay ranged from $110 a month for the captain of a consort to $165
for the master pilot. Mates received $90 a month. In addition to
the monthly wage, a per diem allowance of from 90 cents to $1 per
day for food was made by some companies and was ordinarily paid
over to the ship’s cook. Since she was usually the captain’s wife
and the mother of the family she tried to procure provisions for the
entire family out of this per diem allowance.
The majority of men whose boat earnings for the season of 1920
were reported earned $1,250 or over, showing much better financial
returns from their work than were found on other canals. Propor­
tionately fewer had supplemented their boat earnings by winter
«employment. Among the captains interviewed were men who owned
and operated several boats and whose net returns amounted to sev­
eral thousand dollars; others had had a bad season and had hardly
¿been able to make ends meet.
Earnings of children.—Whereas on both the Chesapeake and Ohio
and the Pennsylvania canals the great majority of the children
helped with the boat work, very few assisted in operating the boats
on the New York canals. The reason for this was that the operations
performed by children on the mule-drawn vessels were not called for
in operating steam-towed barges. There were no mules to drive and
the boats were much too heavy for a child to steer. Out of a total of
179 children living on the New York boats only 19 reported that they
had done boat work during the season.
Ten of these 19 boys were reported by their fathers as helping
with the boat work without pay. The other 9 boys had been em­
ployed as deck hands at regular rates; 1 at $80 a month, 5 at $90
a month, and 1 at $100. These boys, from whom the full work of
an adult was expected, were employed in the fleets of which their
fathers were the captains, but they were paid by the company oper­
ating the boats. The youngest of them was 12 years of age, another
was 15, and the others were 16 and 17. The 12-year-old worked one
month during the school vacation; the 17-year-old who received $80
was employed only one month; the others worked during the entire
canal season. The season’s earnings for some of these boys amounted
to $700 or $800.
The child labor laws in New York State at the time of the study
made no reference to boat employees, but no child under 14 years of
age was allowed to undertake any kind of work during school hours.


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Only three children living on canal boats reported work other than
that connected with the boats. One 17-year-old girl, while her
father’s boat was docked in New York Harbor, had been employed at
$20 a week as an inspector in a sweater factory; one boy had been a
salesman in a dry goods store at $10 a week; and one of the boys
who had been a paid deck hand during the summer had worked for
two weeks in the winter in a box factory.
Living Conditions.

Because boat owners have regarded the operation of the improved
New York canals as more or less of an experiment they have been
somewhat slow to construct new boats, and although a number of
large steel barges have been built, the predominating type of canal
boat in use in 1920 was still the old-fashioned 240-ton wooden barge.
The cabins on these boats were located at the stern and usually
measured 12 by 14 or 10 by 12 feet. To this floor space a few more
inches were added by shelves, cupboards, and chests of drawers.
Bunks and beds also were frequently built into the wall of the boat
The best cabins had one side partitioned off with sliding doors, making
altogether three compartments—one large enough to accommodate
a double bed or bunk, another containing the cook stove and cup­
board, while the main cabin was utilized as living room and addi­
tional sleeping space. Here was a folding table, which could be
opened at mealtime, and along the wall a bunk also folded to half
dimensions or shut into the wall under the deck. In some cabins
cretonne curtains concealed the bunk. The partitions insured privacy
which was entirely lacking in more simply constructed cabins. No
toilet facilities were found on any of the canal boats visited, though
it was reported that some of the newer barges provided them.
Water for washing was usually drawn from the canal or river, but
the more intelligent families secured their drinking water from city
hydrants at the terminals. All who traveled over the Champlain
route, however, said that the lake water was very clear and suitable
for drinking purposes. The best cabins had stationary basins sup­
plied with water from a tank on the deck above. Others had a barrel
of water on the deck or in the cabin, from which the water was dipped
with pails.
Three families had cabins fitted with electric lights. These were
families which lived on “ steamers” and could utilize power generated
by the engine. All others used oil lamps, which were more or less
ornamental according to the taste and income of the family.
Sleeping accommodations were in many cases inadequate. Among
the 68 families whose sleeping arrangements were reported 35 had
sleeping places for every member of the household, while 33 had
fewer places than there were persons to be accommodated. The
worst condition found in respect to sleeping space was the case of
a family consisting of father, mother, and four children living on a
boat having sleeping space for only two persons. During extreme
hot weather, when some could lie out on the upper deck under an
awning the lack of bunks was not much of a problem, but for families
that remained on the boats throughout the winter, as 35 of the 68
reporting did, the crowded conditions were serious.


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Space on the upper deck was frequently utilized by mothers who
did their washing there and hung the clothes on lines stretched the
full length or part length of the boat. Some boats were provided
during the winter with storm or winter cabins, rough caps or cupolas
of boards covered with tarred paper. These served to keep the inside
cabins warmer and provided a storage space for such articles as wash
tubs and pails. On the whole, although some cabins were attractive
and comfortable, others were greatly congested, dirty, and without
adequate ceiling or furniture.
The boats of recently formed companies are built along modern
and sanitary lines, but inasmuch as companies operating these boats
do not permit employees to take their families with them, the cabin
improvements in the newest barges do not benefit the children living
on the canals.
Food supplies could be secured at the various stopping places
along the routes, though many families who could afford it made a
practice of stocking up at the terminals. A few boatmen reported
that the company supplied ice. Fresh milk was one of the most
difficult articles to secure and only 13 families reported that they
had been able to have it every day. Five families made no attempt
to have fresh milk; others purchased it when they could and supple­
mented the supply with canned milk. Considering the fact that in
the small group studied there were 76 children 6 years of age and
under, the lack of fresh milk constituted a serious disadvantage of
canal-boat life.
Forty-two families had winter quarters on shore. Small settle­
ments of boatmen’s families are located at Whitehall and at Champlain
m northern New York, another cluster near Buffalo, and another
in the central part of the State to the west of Syracuse. Many
families who have made boating their principal occupation live at
Champlain and Whitehall, and the homes of retired boatmen are
among the finest in these communities. In the group studied, most
of the families having homes on shore had the advantage of city
conveniences, were located within one mile of schools, and on the
whole represented a higher economic level than the boat families
found on other canals.
Opportunities for Education.

All the children of school age were attending school. Children
who had permanent winter homes showed fairly good attendance
while those who remained all winter on the canal boats showed low
percentages of attendance. More than half the children for whom
lull facts were reported, however, were below the normal grade for
their age. The children of families on canal boats moored in the
basins or to piers in New York Harbor attended schools in New
York City, Brooklyn, and in New Jersey. Though the distance from
the piers to the schools was not great, children at Erie Basin had
almost a mile to go, across dumps and unpaved streets and paths.
Moreover, those who were back of the first tier of boats had to jump
from one deck to another to get ashore. The boats were fastened as
closely together as was practicable, but the levels of the decks varied
with the rise and fall of the tide and the loading and unloading of the
holds, and at times there was considerable risk in jumping from boat


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to boat or from the boats to the shore. Children living on boats
moored at the Shadyside and Edgewater Basins, on the Jersey bank
of the Hudson, were in a still more hazardous position because of
the wreckage that obstructed the space between the boats and the
shore. Numbers of sunken canal boats cluttered these basins and
families had to cross these wrecks to get to land. The school at
Edgewater was at the top of the Palisades so that a steep climb
up the embankment was necessary in order to reach it. One mother
located at Edgewater said she never went ashore because of the diffi­
culties of getting from boat to boat. Her little son, however, was
attending the school at the top of the bluff.
Facilities for Medical Care.

41

Among the families that had required the services of physicians
some had found that it was very difficult to get a doctor; it was
universally conceded that in an emergency arising while the boats
were crossing the lakes (Lake Oneida or Lake Champlain) it would
be impossible to secure medical aid. Some said that it was not easy
to get a doctor while on the Hudson. Most of the families agreed
that on the canals doctors were fairly accessible and that the pilots
were considerate in stopping the boats if anyone was ill enough to
need a physician. Forty-six children in 29 families had been ill
during the year of the study. Whenever possible, a sick child was
left on shore. One mother who reported that her children were
never very healthy said she always planned to have “ a lot of medicine
on board.’’
*
Fifty-eight children were reported as having been born on boats.
Detailed information was secured regarding the conditions at time
of the birth of the youngest child born subsequent to December 31,
1915. In most cases it was reported that the boat had docked
during the mother’s confinement and more frequently than not the
services of a physician had been secured. One father said that his
boat dropped out of the fleet when the time for his wife’s confinement
arrived. The boat had been delayed two days and had then been
attached to another tow. Boatmen’s wives who could reach New
York Cit}^ at the time of a childbirth were especially fortunate because
of the fact that the canal terminals at Piers 5 and 6, East River, are
almost directly opposite a well-equipped city hospital. One mother
who had been confined there said that the doctors and nurses fre­
quently came over to the boats to see her babies. - Several women
had had the care and advice of physicians both before and after
confinement. While other women had not been so fortunate the
reports as a whole showed more favorable confinement conditions
than those found among canal families elsewhere.
Accidents to Children.

•

Decks of canal boats make a picturesque but somewhat restricted
playground. A baby tethered on a sunny day to the flat, smooth top
of a closed hatch is probably as well off as any baby need be, certainly
infinitely better off than most city babies shut within four walls.
The children, however, who attempt to play ball or hide-and-seek on
the narrow decks run great hazards. It was a common occurrence for


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M ONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

a child to tumble off a boat. One mother of seven children laughed
at the question and said, “ Why yes, they are always falling in.” Five
families reported the loss of one or more children through drowning.
One mother had lost four children while on canal boats. The
oldest child had died of “ sunstroke” ; the second, 5 years of age, had
been drowned; another had been burned to death by an explosion of
oil on the barge; another, a baby, had died of spinal meningitis
after being dropped on the deck of the boat and injured. One of the
surviving children had been injured by the oil explosion which killed
the third child.
.
.
Another mother had lost a little girl by the explosion of a rifle m
the cabin of the canal boat. It was two hours before the boat could
reach port and then it was some time before a doctor could be secured.
After this experience the mother was unwilling to accompany her
husband and permitted only one of the children, an 18-year-old boy,
to go with the father. She thought that women and children should
be prohibited by law from going on the boats.
Recreation.

Social life among these families as among those on other canals is
necessarily restricted. No families mentioned the attractions of
towns except those who made a practice of wintering in New York
Harbor. Even among such families those docking at the Manhattan
piers had a great advantage over those docking in Brooklyn or on the
Jersey side, as far as accessibility to the city was concerned. One
harbor boatman who was interviewed in a Brooklyn basin said that
he hardly dared to go ashore alone at night because of the stories he
had heard of holdups. The usual reply to the inquiry regarding social
pleasures was a reference to other boat families, and sometimes this
reference was deprecatory. One mother said: “ You don’t like to mix
with the other boat people. You don’t know anything about them.”
Harbor Conditions.

More than one-third of the families included in the study of the
New York canals were interviewed in New York Harbor. Inasmuch
as many of the canal boatmen bring their boats to New York at the
close of the canal season and become harbor workers for the winter
months the conditions in New York Harbor have an important bear­
ing upon the lives of the canal-boat families.
The vastness of the activities of this largest port of the United
States is suggested by the fact that over 6,000 vessels are registered
at the New York customhouse. Many of these, of course, are passen­
ger or freight steamers engaged in foreign or coastwise trade; but it
is estimated that more than 3,000 boats, including both registered
and unregistered vessels, are used for purely local traffic. As the
canal boatmen come down to the harbor they pick up cargoes wher­
ever they can find them and thus come, for the time being, into close
contact with the life of the harbor.
Harbor conditions necessitate the presence of someone on the boats
at all times of day and night. As piracy is reported to be common
and the danger from fire is great, it is customary for the boat owners
and operators cither to employ captains who are willing to remain on


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board all 24 hours of the day or to employ watchmen in addition to
the day workers. The irregularities, however, which exist under a
system in which some boats are manned by one person for 24 hours
and other boats are operated on a 10 to 12 hour day with a watchman
at night give rise to dissatisfaction on the part of both employers and
employees. A boatman who lives on board his vessel with his
family may be, from some points of view, an advantage to the em­
ploying company; but many of the boatmen feel keenly that condi­
tions on the boats are not favorable for women and children, giving
the following as the principal reasons for their attitude: Congestion
in cabins and lack of sanitary facilities, fostering immorality and
disease; inaccessibility of schools and doctors; lack of opportunities
for recreation; and dangers from fire.
Unsuccessful attempts were made both in 1920 and 1921 to secure
legislation forbidding the presence of women and children on boats.
While the proposed laws were intended to regulate conditions in New
York Harbor they’were not restricted in their application and would,
if passed, affect all waterways in the State. Already a number of the
more progressive transportation companies, both on the canals and
in the harbor, have forbidden employees to have women and children
with them on the boats; and it is noteworthy that leaders among the
boat employees are in accord with this decision.


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Immigrant Aid: Legislative Safeguards, and Activities of Bureau of
Immigration.
B y M ary T. W aggam an.

HE United States Bureau of Immigration is charged with the
administration of various immigration laws, including those re­
lating to the exclusion of Chinese and the examination of sea­
men.1 From the standpoint of the welfare of the immigrant, some of
the provisions of these laws no doubt need to be amended. However,
a close study of existing Federal legislation on immigration and of
the rules issued or promulgated in connection therewith discloses, on
the whole, a protective attitude on the part of the Government
towards the aliens at our gates and within our borders. Even when
the provisions or regulations are primarily defensive against the
incoming or remaining of undesirable foreigners such measures seem
at the same time to contemplate the safeguarding of these strangers.
In illustration of this attitude of the Government as manifested in the
various immigration laws and rules, a number of these measures are
summarized below.
It should be noted that immigrants arriving at ports of entry are
subjected to both physical and mental examination, as well as to the
ordinary inspection by officers of the Immigration Service. Among
the classes denied admission to the United States are persons with
specified mental defects or physical diseases, paupers, beggars, va­
grants, criminals, polygamists, prostitutes and procurers, anarchists,
persons who are opposed to organized government, persons likely to
become public charges, contract laborers, illiterates, and persons who
arrive after the quota of their country under the 3 per centum limit
law is filled.
The number debarred from entry in the year ending June 30, 1922,
was 13,731, and the number of immigrant aliens admitted, 309,556.2
The immigrant aliens who entered the United States in the year
ending June 30, 1921, before the 3 per centum law was in actual opera­
tion, aggregated 805,228.2 Notwithstanding this great reduction in
the volume of immigration, the influx of aliens is still vast enough
to make the administration of many of the following measures an
important part of the work of the Federal Government.
In addition to the examination of immigrants the officials of the
United States Bureau of Immigration at the several water ports
of entry inspected 973,804 alien seamen.3

T

i United States. Department of Labor. Bureau of Immigration. Immigration laws. Act of F eb . 5,
1917- and acts approved Oct. 16, 1918, Oct. 19, 1918, May 10, 1920, June 5, 1920, Dec. 26, 1920, and May 19
192b as amended, and act of May 26, 1922. Rules of May 1, 1917. 7th ed., August, 1922. Treaty, laws,
and rules governing admission of Chinese. Rules of May 1, 1917, 3d ed., October, 1920.
2 United States Department of Labor.
Bureau of Immigration. Annual report of the Commissioner
General, 1922. Washington, 1922. p. 24.
s Idem, p. 3.


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Provisions in Immigration Laws and Regulations Relative to the Safeguarding
of Immigrants.

T^HE safeguards for aliens provided in the measures here outlined
are obvious even in those instances where the dominant motive
of the law or regulation is the protection of the people of the United
States.
Inspection of vessels.—Immigration officials inspecting passengers
and crews on board vessels are instructed to observe and report on
the prevailing conditions of sanitation and comfort on such vessels.
Competency of medical examiners.—The United States public health
officers, both men and women, detailed to examine incoming aliens
are required to have “ at least two years’ experience and practice
m their profession since receiving the degree of doctor of medicine.”
Officers with special training in diagnosing mental disorders are
provided for the examinations for mental defects or insanity. When
civilian surgeons are used in emergency cases such surgeons are
required to have had four years of professional experience.
Hospital treatment.—An alien afflicted with tuberculosis or with a
loathsome or dangerous contagious disease is mandatorily debarred
but may be admitted for treatment if the Secretary of Labor is
satisfied that to refuse such treatment would be inhumane or cause
unusual hardship or suffering, in which case the alien shall be treated
in the hospital, under the supervision of the immigration officials
at the expense of the vessel transporting him.
An alien, otherwise admissible, who is afflicted with a disease
which is easily curable shall be treated in a hospital at the expense
of the steamship company bringing him, his admissibility under the
law in other respects to be determined after his discharge. Where
one member of a family being so afflicted, is admitted to a hospital,
the cases of the remaining members are generally held in abeyance
pending his release.
Whenever an alien shall have been naturalized or shall have
taken up permanent residence in the United States and thereafter
shall send for his wife or minor children, and she or they shall be
found to be afflicted with any contagious disorder, such wife or children
shall be held until it is found whether the disorder is easily curable.
If the disorder is found to be easily curable and the responsible
person is willing to assume the expense of hospital treatment, the
wife or children may be accorded such treatment until cured, or,
if otherwise admissible, may be landed provided other persons are
not endangered thereby. This section of the law has other pro­
visions to meet specified circumstances which need not be taken
up in detail here.
It is also provided that alien seamen.who, on arrival at United
States ports are found to be afflicted with certain disabilities or
diseases, shall be placed in a hospital designated by the immigra­
tion officials in charge at the port of arrival for treatment.
The responsibility of steamship companies for hospital treatment
of sick immigrants is taken up later.
If the proper authorities deem that immediate deportation would
unduly imperil the safety or health of an insane alien, he may be held
for treatment at the expense of the Government.


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Accompanying aliens.—When an examining medical officer certifies
that a rejected alien is helpless because of infancy or illness and such
rejected alien is accompanied by another alien whose protection or
guardianship is required by the one who is helpless, the accompanying
alien may likewise be excluded.
Unaccompanied children under 16 years of age.—Among the excluded
classes named in the law are “ all children under 16 years of age, un­
accompanied by or not coming to one or both of their parents, except
that any such children may, in the discretion of the Secretary of
Labor, be admitted if in his opinion they are not likely to become a
public charge and are otherwise eligible.”
Boards of inquiry.—Arriving aliens who in the judgment of the
examining inspector are not clearly and beyond all doubt entitled to
admis sion are held for examination before a board of special inquiry
composed of three immigration officers. An alien thus held is per­
mitted to have a friend or other representative appear with him before
the board, but he may not have legal counsel.
Appeals.—An alien rejected by a board of special inquiry is allowed,
under certain circumstances, to appeal through the Commissioner
General of Immigration to the Secretary of Labor, and in prosecuting
such appeal is allowed to have legal counsel. Only attorneys of good
standing are permitted to practice before the United States Depart­
ment of Labor.
To facilitate the handling of appeal cases a Board of Review was
created in 1922 in the office of the Secretary of Labor. Sometimes
from 75 to 100 cases have been referred to the board in one day.
While two years ago it took a week or ten days to secure a decision on
an appeal made at Ellis Island, according to the Secretary’s report
the period has now been reduced to three or four days.4
An alien who has been certified as insane or mentally defective may
appeal to the board of medical officers of the United States Public
Health Service and may engage at his own expense a medical witness.
The immigration regulations also provide that an alien shall be
given as prompt notice as possible regarding the disposition of his
case after appeal has been made.
Whenever an appeal results in an order to admit on bond, such
bond shall be in the sum of $500 unless otherwise directed.
Privilege of remaining at station.—An admitted alien may stay a
few days at an immigration station by paying actual expenses, if the
proper immigration official deems the reasons for such stay satis­
factory. If the delay is caused by accident or unavoidable conditions
and the alien is unable to meet the expenses involved in the postpone­
ment of his departure, the immigration officer in charge may authorize
that such expenses be paid by the Government.
Care in awarding contract for exchanging money, etc.—The contract
for exchanging money, keeping eating houses, passenger and baggage
transportation, and similar privileges connected with any United
States immigration station shall be awarded to “ the lowest responsible
and capable bidder, after public competition.”
4 United States.
Department of Labor. Annual report of the Secretary of Labor, 1922. Washington.
1922. p. 86.


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“

25

Prevention of prostitution.—In addition to excluding prostitutes and
procurers and forbidding the importation into the United States of
any alien for the purpose of prostitution or for any other immoral
purpose” the immigration law provides that whoever shall “ hold or
attempt to hold * * * or shall keep, maintain, control, support,
employ, or harbor in any house or other place, for the purpose of
prostitution or for any other immoral purpose, any alien, in pursuance
of such illegal importation, shall in every such case be deemed guilty
of felony, conviction for which is punishable by imprisonment for
not more than 10 years and a fine of not exceeding $5,000.
. -Aliens who, after admission to the United States, are found prac­
ticing prostitution or who are in any way associated with such practice
are deportable on warrant of the Secretary of Labor.
Protection from fraud and distress.— The Commissioner General of
Immigration ‘1shall issue from time to time such instructions * * *
as he shall deem best calculated * * * for protecting the United
States and aliens migrating thereto from fraud and loss, and shall have
authority to enter into contract for the support and relief of such
aliens as may fall into distress or need public aid.;; He is also authorized to send back to their native country at any time within three
years after their admission to the United States, at the expense of the
Government, any aliens who “ fall into distress or need public aid
from causes arising subsequent to their entry and are desirous of
being so removed.”
Responsibilities of steamship companies.—With certain exceptions,
the expenses involved in the removal of an alien from the vessel which
brought him to the United States or in his detention, whether or not
he is admitted or deported, must be met by the owners, masters,
agents, or consignees of such vessel. These expenses may include the
immigrant’s maintenance, medical treatment in hospital, and burial
in case of death.
Not only are fines levied upon steamship companies for unlawfully
bringing certain deportable aliens, but such companies must, in such
cases refund to the alien, through the collector of customs at the
United States port, the sum which was paid for such alien’s passage,
from “ the initial point of departure, as indicated in his ticket, to thé
port of arrival.” The respohsibility of steamship companies to return
deportable aliens continues for a period of five years.
Aliens denied admission to the United States shall at once be sent
back, “ in accommodations of the same class in which they arrived,”
to the country from which they came, unless the Secretary of Labor is
of the opinion that “ immediate deportation is not practicable or
proper.” The steamship companies are required to return such aliens
without expense either to the aliens or the Government.
When a rejected or deported alien has need of special attention
and care, the steamship company involved must meet this require­
ment on the return ocean voyage and, except under certain circum­
stances, during the subsequent inland journey. When it is found
that any steamship company has neglected to fulfill its duties in this
connection, the Secretary of Labor shall employ suitable persons as
attendants for like dependent aliens subsequently deported on vessels
of that line.


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Vessels responsible for the hospitalization, observation, and other
expenses incident to the care of their afflicted seamen will not be
allowed to clear until all those expenses, including burial costs in case
of death, “ are paid or satisfactorily guaranteed.”
If the requirements of the law make it necessary to return an
afflicted seaman to his own country, the immigration officer must have
a satisfactory guaranty that such seaman will have proper medical
attention and that the crew and passengers of the vessels transporting
him will be safeguarded from contagion.
In certain cases alien seamen afflicted with certain diseases or liable
to become public charges are allowed to pass through the United
States, but the master of the vessel responsible for the return of such
seamen to their own country must make due arrangements for their
care during transit and provide enough money to cover the expense
involved.
Suitable landing places.—The law requires that persons, companies,
or transportation lines bringing in aliens for hire from Mexico or
Canada shall provide suitable and conveniently located landing places
for such passengers.
Interior stations.-—In order to facilitate the handling of the work of
the United States Immigration Bureau, interior stations are main­
tained in many of the important population centers. The law also
provides for the establishment of interior stations to protect aliens
from fraud and loss and to promote the distribution of aliens. In the
discretion of the Secretary of Labor aliens in transit from ports of
entry may be accompanied by immigration officers.
Considerationfor fam ily ties.—Among the exceptions to the literacy
requirements is the one which allows an alien who is admissible or is
already in the United States to bring in or send for certain near
relatives even if such relatives are unable to read.
Under the 3 per centum limit law children under 18 years of age of
citizens of the United States are not charged against the quota, and
the same law directs that as far as possible preference shall be given
to near relatives (1) of citizens of the United States, (2) “ of aliens in
the United States who have applied for citizenship in the manner
provided by law, or (3) of persons eligible to United States’ citizen­
ship who served in the military or naval forces of the United States
at any time between April 6, 1917, and November 11, 1918, both
dates inclusive, and have been separated from such forces under
honorable conditions.”
Religious refugees.—Aliens who prove to the satisfaction of the
proper immigration officer or the Secretary of Labor that they are
seeking admission to the United States to escape religious persecution
in the country in which they last had permanent residence are exempt
from the literacy test.
Arrests on warrant for deportation.—Before calling attention to some
of the measures for safeguarding immigrants who are arrested with
a view to deportation, it should be noted that for certain causes
aliens may be deported irrespective of the length of time they have
been in this country; for various other causes the time limitation is
five years; and in certain other instances the deportable period is
restricted to three years.


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In a deportable case the alien is allowed to examine his warrant of
arrest am
that he shall be granted a hearing, at the beginning of which he is
to be informed that he may have counsel if he so desires. A note
to this rule reads as follows: “ If the alien is unable to speak or un­
derstand English, an interpreter should be employed where prac­
ticable. If the alien is physically or mentally incapable of testifying
some relative or friend, if any, should be questioned.”
A record of the hearing in a warrant case must be sent to the
United States Bureau of Immigration, also “ any written argument
submitted by counsel and the recommendations of the examining
officer and the officer in charge.” In the case of an alien physically
or mentally afflicted, it is required that the record of the hearing be
accompanied by a medical certificate indicating whether or not de­
portation would endanger such alien’s life and whether or not he will
need special care on his return voyage.
Aliens who can not furnish bail shall not be kept in jail if any
other secure place can be found in which to hold them.
In the case of the detention of arrested deportable alien women or
girls special protective procedure is prescribed, covering the char­
acter of the place in which they are detained and the presence of
special woman officers, whose duty it is to cooperate with the philan­
thropic and similar organizations which aid immigration officials in
cases of this kind. A special woman officer is sometimes called upon,
in the interest of proper and humane administration, to make a
separate investigation and report from those made by the inspector
holding the hearings under an arrest warrant.
If it is decided that it is absolutely necessary to confine an alien
woman or girl in jail, explanation of such action must be promptly
made to the United States Bureau of Immigration. When an alien
woman or girl is placed under the guardianship of a society for any
length of time, the organization shall be requested to report weekly
as to the behavior and condition of such charge.
In addition to existing arrangements resulting from the white slave
traffic international agreement and of section 6 of the white slave
act of June 25, 1910, efforts have been made to insure that deported
women and girls, upon disembarkation at a foreign port, will at least
be “ in a position where responsible and charitably dispc 1
will have knowledge of them and be able, wherever
extend assistance.”
Section 6 of the white slave act above referred to reads in part as
follows :
* * * in pursuance of and for the purpose of carrying out the terms of the agree­
ment or project of arrangement for the suppression of the white-slave traffic, adopted
July 25, 1902, for submission to their respective Governments by the delegates of
various powers represented at the Paris conference and confirmed by a formal agree­
ment signed at Paris on May 18, 1904, and adhered to by the United States on June
6, 1908, as shown by the proclamation of the President of the United States, dated
June 15, 1908, the Commissioner General of Immigration is hereby designated as the
authority of the United States to receive and centralize information concerning the
procuration of alien women and girls with a view to their debauchery, and to exercise
supervision over such alien women and girls, receive their declarations, establish
their identity, and ascertain from them who induced them to leave their native
countries * * *.
28491°—23----3

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The difficulties and expense of deportation of aliens under warrant
proceedings are immensely increased by the fact that almost all
European Governments require that their citizens or subjects before
repatriation be furnished with passports by representatives of such
Governments. Some of these countries will not receive their citizens
or subjects at all as deports from the United States if they have been
“ without the realm in excess of a specified time.” Sometimes for­
eign consuls in the United States will not issue passports until they
have communicated with their home Governments, by which investi­
gations are made. Lack of sufficient appropriation has made it
necessary for the Bureau of Immigration to restrict its field officers’
activities in connection with the deportation of aliens unlawfully
resident here to the more extreme cases.5
Activities of Immigration Bureau.

'"THERE has been considerable criticism in the past regarding the
*■ inefficient methods used in handling immigrants at a number
of the larger ports of entry, and in some instances charges of cor­
ruption have been made.6 Soon after the present Secretary of
Labor began his administration he appointed a committee, com­
posed of representatives of the Office of the Secretary and of the*
Bureau of Immigration, to look into these charges. In his annual
report for the fiscal year 1922 the Secretary states that as a result'
of these investigations "a reorganization has been had with mostsalutary effects. Resignations were received from a number of imortant officers and there were some removals. The methods of
andling aliens, of keeping the accounts, and generally of administra­
tion were reorganized and standardized and that process is still going
on.” The increase in efficiency at the larger ports is reported as par­
ticularly marked.
An Advisory Committee on Welfare of Immigrants was appointed
in June, 1921, by the Commissioner General of Immigration. The
personnel of this organization, which serves without compensation,
is as follows: Chairman, Fred. C. Croxton, chairman of the Ohio
Council of Social Agencies; secretary, Mrs. Nathaniel Thayer, director
of the Division of Immigration and Americanization of the Depart­
ment of Education of Massachusetts; Miss Julia Lathrop, formerly
Chief of the United States Children’s Bureau; W. W. Sibray, of the
United States Bureau of Immigration at Pittsburgh; Charles P .
Neill, formerly director of the National Catholic Service School,
and Miss Loula D. Lasker, who was active in Red Cross work.
The committee has visited a number of the immigrant stations,,
but its principal investigations have been of Ellis Island, the port of
entry of the great bulk of immigration in this country, as is shown,
by the following table, taken from the annual report of the Commis­
sioner General of Immigration for 1922 (p. 24).

E

6 United States. Department of Labor.

1922. Washington, 1922. p. 17.

6 United States. Department of Labor.

1922. p. 85.


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Bureau of Immigration.

Report of the Commissioner General,

Annual report of the Secretary of Labor, 1922. Washington,

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IMMIGRANT AID: ACTIVITIES OF IMMIGRATION BUREAU.

ALIENS ADM ITTED, D E PA R T E D , D E B A R R E D , AND D E PO R T E D , FOR THE FISCAL
Y EAR S ENDIN G JUNE 30, 1921 AND 1922.
Aliens.
1921

Port.

Admitted.

Immi­
grant
aliens.

New York, N. Y .
Boston, Mass.......
Philadelphia, Pa.
Baltimore, M d ...
Portland, Me.......
New
Bedford,
Mass...................
Providence, R .I ..
Newport News,
V a.......................
Norfolk, V a .........
Savannah, Ga__
Miami, Fla...........
Key West, Fla__
Other Atlantic
ports...................
Tampa, F la.........
Pensacola, F la . . .
Mobile, A la ..........
New Orleans, La.
Galveston, T ex...
Other Gulf ports..
San Francisco,
Calif....................
Portland, Oreg...
Seattle, W ash___
Alaska...................
Mexican border:
Land ports.......
Sea ports...........
Through Canada:
Atlantic ports..
Pacific ports__
Border stations.
Honolulu,Hawaii.
Porto Rico...........

Non­
immi­
grant
aliens.

1922

Departed.

Admitted.
Departed.
De­
De­
port­
port­
De­
ed
De­
ed
Emi­ Nonafter Immi­ Non­ Em i­ Non- barred after
emi­ barred land­
emi­
grant grant
grant immi­
grant
land­
aliens. aliens.
ing. aliens. grant aliens. grant
ing.
aliens.
aliens.

560,971 87,682 203,941 110,105
51,565 1,827 2,517
768
24,432 1,187 3,548
892
265
29
1
9
1,122
107
46
795
2,990
12,860

122
440

2,200
2,765
30
1,929
2,231

5
39
1
3,227
9,002

145
1,141
14
31
1,801
448
13

133
1,687
1
45
2,767
172
5

2
17

34
24

7
877
34
1

10
2,989
123

8,361 14,102
98
41
3,682 2,878
162
32

6,876
7
1,971
100

8,689
151
2,790

29,790 18,934
117
340

4,598
262

2,304
1,265

19,521 2,783
870 2,159
72,652 19,032
2,531 2,212
491 1,944

7,852 2,395
1,290 2,268
4,826 16,765
1,463 4,145
562 1,919

1,078
3,614

343
359
16

1,220 2,992
1,008 16,163

3,819 1,302 209,778 65,962 153,874 96,354
204
102 4,924
838 8,053 1,438
178
69 3,257
275 4,943
729
234
51
163
60
43
16
8
10
105
40
27
360
21
69

8
11

527
2,010

85
432

116
353
22
52
80

12
IT

]
24

7
18

184
531
12
996
623

64
63
16
32
236
55
4

12
2
1
2
31
15
1

28
314
6
23
878
79
4

288
4
90
8

88
6
69
12

6,724
59
2,837
97

3,898 1,158
142
75
83
57
138
26
10
3

1,681
3,060

123
224

43
161

10
20

2,934
5,304

4
1,353
595

69
3
2,741
6,744

40
143
8
39
62

12
19

30
800

34

53

20
2,715
47

7
1,021
39

30i
2,453
37

6,986
35
2,195
40

7,362
12
2,169
46

7,112
63
2, 562

1,108 1,575 19,069 13,983
3
5
178
443

3,826
1,185

518
1,576

1,507 1,492
7
9

195
47 5,906
17
6
792
6,378 1,016 46,465
32
15 2,679
30
5
308

2,284 1,152
1,428 3,106
4,014 12,849
1,328 4,720
324 1,640

59
85
126
7
6,507 1,064
24
4
40
5

1,510
4,171
9,628
2,893
1,498

22
22
3
12
147
62
1
346
12
55
12

21

33
1
30
17
27
49
31
62

Total.............. 805,228 172,935 247,718 178,313 13,779 4,517 309,556 122,949 198,712 146,672 13,731 4,345
Pbilippinelslands 10,652 7,129 1,724 14,455
454 6,537 9,237 1,105 16,861 1,004
743
53

It will be noted from the above table that in both 1921 and 1922
the immigrant aliens entering at Ellis Island were more than double
the number admitted in the same period at all other ports combined.
The Mexican borderland ports and the Canadian border stations
receive immigrants in considerable numbers, but it is quite obvious
that the welfare and protection of persons who come merely across
the border do not constitute quite so serious a problem as the assist­
ance of those who have come a long journey overseas. The de­
crease in the number of immigrants from Canada and Mexico is
attributed to the industrial depression in the United States, as the
3 per centum limit law does not apply to native Canadians and Mexi­
cans or to aliens who have resided in Canada or Mexico for five years
prior to their seeking admission to the United States.
In connection with the inquiries of the Advisory Committee
the United States Bureau of Immigration sent out a circular letter


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

in the fall of 1921 addressed to commissioners of immigration and
inspectors in charge of districts, requesting them to report on the
work of welfare organizations among arriving immigrants. It also
indicated that comment on work among foreign-born residents in
any particular community would be of interest, and suggestions were
asked for the improvement of the service to immigrants. As the
replies to the questionnaire inclosed in the circular letter concerned
principally the activities of welfare organizations and not the work
of the Bureau of Immigration, these reports will not be taken up
in detail in this article.
Ellis Island Station.

Immigrants arriving at Ellis Island must undergo both physical and
mental examinations by United States public health officers. When
passed by these officers, the newcomers are inspected by an official
of the United States Immigration Service, who refers aliens of doubt­
ful admissibility to temporary detention rooms, from which they are
summoned before special inquiry boards.
Aliens held for examination by special immigrant inspectors or
before boards of special inquiry are not allowed personal communica­
tion with relatives or friends.' Such relatives or friends may, how­
ever, by inquiring at a special desk at the station, secure information
regarding the welfare of the detained aliens and the status of their
cases. When the immigrants are ordered admitted, or their cases
are completed before the boards, visiting is permitted. There is a
room at the station for visitors and a kindergarten for detained
children.
Admitted aliens are transported from Ellis Island in barges to the
proper railway depots. Women with children or women traveling
alone are turned over to the care of appropriate welfare societies.
Representatives of some 14 organizations interested in aiding immi­
grants have headquarters at Ellis Island station in the department of
social service.7
Recommendations of Advisory Committee. —The Advisory Committee
on Welfare of Immigrants held hearings in the fall of 1921 with repre­
sentatives of various welfare agencies working at the New York port
of entry, carefully investigated the Ellis Island station, and early in
January, 1922, made the following unanimous recommendations:8
An official director of information should be appointed to take entire charge of the
welfare work at Ellis Island, such official to be under the immediate direction of the
commissioner of immigration of New York.
That interpreters speaking several languages and trained in social work be appointed
to serve immigrants pending their inspection and during such time as they are not
permitted direct communication with their friends.
That a plan be developed for the systematic exchange of allowed information
between immigrants who are detained and their waiting friends.
That women and young children be provided with separate and considerably im­
proved night quarters and that a trained dietitian be placed in charge of the feeding
of the children.
That detained immigrants be provided with better laundry facilities.
That the representatives of private welfare organizations who are authorized to
carry on work at the station be allowed, under the direction and supervision of the
Federal director of information, to aid in general welfare service for immigrants after
they have been duly examined.
7 Report of the Advisory Committee on Welfare of Immigrants, October 31 to November 3, 1921.
» Records of the United States Bureau of Immigration.


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IMMIGRANT AID! ACTIVITIES OF IMMIGRATION BUREAU.

31

That three separate religious services, Protestant, Jewish, and Catholic, be held on
Sundays “ with occasional services for other groups when needed.”
That when aliens are excluded and deported an explanation of the reason for such
action should be given to them and also, when practicable, to their interested relatives
and friends.
That there shall be some welfare workers on duty at all hours.
That official interpreters meet arriving immigrants when embarking on the barges
taking such aliens from the vessel to Ellis Island and that an information service be
made available to them while they are detained at the Island. Heretofore immigrants
have been without service of this kind until their examination was completed, and
frequently they have been held apart from the public for several weeks pending their
examination by a special board of inquiry.
That pending medical examination immigrants be taken to large and comfortable
reception rooms in the main immigration building instead of being held on the barges.
That milk and crackers be served to all women and children at meals in the dining
room and between meals and at bedtime in the detention quarters. Previously, only
the small children had been provided with such food.
That the large room on the ground floor of the main building which is being used as
a money exchange and railway ticket office be converted into a day room for detained
women with children, such room to be provided with conveniences for the care of the
children and to have easy access to an outdoor recreation place fitted up as a play­
ground. That other commodious outside rooms near large porches with a view of the
bay be made available as day rooms for other detained immigrants. That a large
outside room be made into a dormitory for women and children, so that they will not
have to occupy the general dormitories.

An appropriation of $100,000 for the current fiscal year has been
made by Congress for improvements at Ellis Island. Additional
appropriations are available for improving the heating and plumbing
in the hospitals. The complete program has not yet been put into
effect. Since the appropriation was made, however, various changes
have been inaugurated tending to better the conditions under which
all immigrants are detained.
At Ellis Island the men awaiting deportation on warrant are segre­
gated from immigrants who are excluded on arrival or otherwise
detained. In some cases, however, it is necessary to confine stowa­
ways and other young men and boys with criminals pending their
deportation, and the United States Department of Labor is endeavor­
ing to discover a way in which to separate completely the criminal
from the noncriminai class, but the problem of securing adequately
guarded quarters away from the Island is a difficult one.9
Attention was called in the hearings of the Advisory Committee
(p. 107) to the overactivity of welfare organizations in appeal cases.
Reference is also made in the latest annual report of the Secretary of
Labor to the pressure brought to bear in these cases by relatives and
attorneys, and “ very frequently Congressmen and Senators become
interested in behalf of relatives of constituents, to the great embar­
rassment of enforcing officers as well as the Senators and Congress^
men.” It is almost needless to say that the administration of the law
in regard to appeals has been subject to considerable criticism.10
With reference to the many hardships arising out of the enforce­
ment of the excluding provisions of the law it should be noted that
the Secretary of Labor is strongly advocating the passage of legis­
lation requiring that blood, physical, mental, and character tests be
given abroad to prospective emigrants before they have broken up
6 Report of the Advisory Committee on Welfare of Immigrants, Jan. 27-28, 1922.
10 Survey, New York, Dec. 1, 1922, p. 336.


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MONTHLY LABOE REVIEW.

their homes and made the sacrifices necessary for a long journey.
The attitude of foreign governments, however, regarding such exami­
nations is a matter which will have to be reckoned with.
The Advisory Committee also unanimously declared 11 that the
motion pictures being shown at Ellis Island were in many cases
“ vicious and inappropriate” and suggested that some one be assigned
to select suitable pictures especially adapted to immigrant spectators
and that the director of welfare be made responsible in this matter.
Medical inspection.— According to a report of the Surgeon General
of the United States, under date of August 2, 1922, “ the facilities
provided at the Ellis Island immigration station for the medical
examination of aliens and the care and control of those requiring
hospitalization can be accepted as satisfactory in every respect and
as constituting a high standard. Ample space is provided for the
primary and secondary examination and suitable quarters afforded
for the conducting of examinations of both male and female when
divested of their clothing. There are also provided adequate labo­
ratory facilities for performing tests which are essential in arriving at
a diagnosis of most of the infectious diseases.” 12
The hospital has a large recreation room where convalescent men
may play billiards and other games, and there is a library available
for all. On island No. 3 there is a contagious hospital, a kinder­
garten for children, and a playground.13
Recommendations of Secretary of Labor.—The inadequacy of the
space and the “ antiquated” character of the equipment at the Ellis
Island station is commented upon by the Secretary of Labor in his
annual report for the fiscal year 1922 (p. 86) in which he recommends
careful consideration for improvements along these lines.
Other Stations.

Boston.— The Advisory Committee found the East Boston station
(1) lacking in facilities for taking care of the sick; (2) without any
recreational facilities; (3) with overcrowded offices for the officials
and employees; (4) without provision for the care of mothers with
very young babies.
It had been hoped to move the station to the Boston side of the
harbor to piers which were constructed during the war by other
governmental agencies, but it was found that the law would require
the United States Immigration Service to rent the pier space at a sum
greatly exceeding any available funds under present appropriations.
The Secretary of Labor has recommended “ consideration of the
suggestion that proper legislation be had which will make possible
the use of otherwise unemployed Government buildings for the immi­
gration service in Boston.” 14
San Francisco.—The Secretary of Labor recommends that “ steps
be taken for the erection of a suitable immigrant station in the city of
San Francisco with a view of abandoning the station at Angel Island.”
11 Report of the Advisory Committee on Welfare of Immigrants, Jan. 27-28, 1922, p. 1.
12 United States. Department of Labor. Annual report of the Secretary of Labor, 1922. Washington,
1922. p. 94.
13 Report of Advisory Committee on Welfare of Immigrants, Oct. 31, 1922.
14 United States. Department of Labor. Annual report of the Secretary of Labor, 1922. Washington,
1922. p. 87.


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IMMIGRANT AID: ACTIVITIES OF IMMIGRATION BUREAU.

33

Both the island and the station are unsuitable for the purpose for
which they are being used. The buildings are of wood, without
adequate fire protection, and nearly all the fresh water for the island
has to be brought there in scows. The cost of putting the station in
repair would, the Secretary of Labor states, “ go a long ways toward
constructing a new station on the mainland.” The new buildings
would cost approximately $600,000. It has been estimated that this
change in location would save from $75,000 to $100,000 annually in
overhead charges.14
Seattle.—The Government pays a very high rent for the Seattle
immigration station, which is not half large enough for its purpose.
The need for a new station at this port which would be commensurate
with the volume of immigration handled there has been emphatically
pointed out by the Secretary of Labor.14
Chicago.—The activities of the Chicago immigration station are
confined chiefly to enforcing the deportation provisions of the law
and the meeting of arriving immigrants, their direction and protec­
tion being left largely to welfare organizations. The acting inspec­
tor in charge, under date of October 25, 1921, wrote to headquarters
in Washington, D. C., as follows: “ In my opinion the organizations
engaged in this class of work in this city are able to handle the situa­
tion adequately * * *. I do not believe that official aid is necsary. In fact these organizations, which are engaged solely in aid­
ing the immigrants, can work more advantageously without connec­
tion with or aid from any official agency which is engaged in enforc­
ing deportation provisions of the law.” He also suggested that the
methods of communication between detained immigrants at Ellis
Island and relatives at points of destination should be improved. In
many cases these relatives go from depot to depot, meeting train
after train, because of having no definite knowledge as to when or
where the expected immigrants will arrive.
According to the chairman of the Advisory Committee, a large
crowd of newly arrived aliens going to Chicago is sometimes put on
a train which “ has no real accommodations,” and the immigrants
arrive in that city in a “ deplorable condition.” 17 Miss Grace Abbott,
Chief of the United States Children’s Bureau and former director of
the Immigrants’ Protective League of Chicago, expressed herself
before the Advisory Committee in favor of the Government’s as­
suming responsibility for immigrants in transit from ports of entry
to interior stations.18
The following excerpt is from a statement prepared for the Advisory
Committee early in 1922 by Dr. Ernest Freund, president of the Im­
migrants’ Protective League, and of the Commission for the Uniform­
ity of Legislation in the United States.
It is hoped that eventually the activities of the State [immigration] commission
will be revised but it can not be expected that the State will assume functions which
not only more properly belong to the Federal Government, b ut which the Federal
Government is alone fitted to perform. This observation applies particularly to the
supervision of immigrant arrivals. I t is extremely doubtful whether the Immin United States. Department of Labor. Annual report of the Secretary of Labor, 1922. Washington,
1922. p. 87.
17 Hearings before the Advisory Committee on Welfare of Immigrants, p. 7.
i* Report of Advisory Committee on Welfare of Immigrants, Jan. 27-28, 1922, p. 6.


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M ONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

grants’ Protective League, which has attended to this in the past, will be financially
able to do it in the future, and if it will have resources, they should be applied to
forms of protection which the Government can not properly perform.
Of the things that the league has done in the past, the Government should particu­
larly undertake the following, as part of the work of an immigrant station in Chicago:
Procure from Ellis Island lists of all immigrants bound for Chicago.
Notify those whose addresses have been given.
Aid friends in Chicago to communicate with arrivals in New York.
Prepare affidavits where necessary in order to comply with landing requirements.
Maintain an agency for giving advice, receiving complaints and referring those
applying to the appropriate local authorities or voluntary organizations.
Assist those in transit through Chicago to other points.
Moreover, in cases in which thè Government has occasion to enforce the restrictive
or repressive provisions of the immigration acts, some friendly governmental repre­
sentative should be prepared to advise the alien or his friends of his rights under the
law.

Pittsburgh.—The Pittsburgh immigration office assists relatives
and friends to fill out affidavits for aliens detained at ports of entry.19
There is close and enthusiastic cooperation at this station between the
representatives of the Federal Government and the various agencies
in the locality interested in immigrant aid and protection.20
Medical inspection.—The United States Department of Labor has
repeatedly made recommendations to Congress for appropriations
and remedial legislation to improve facilities for the medical exami­
nation of arriving immigrants. The following extract from a letter
from the Surgeon General of the United States, dated April 11, 1922,
shows graphically the present inadequacies of the service along this
line at stations other than Ellis Island:
* * * I think it should in all frankness be pointed out that at the majority of the
ports of entry a thorough mental and physical examination is impracticable because
of the lack of facilities * * *. In order to effect a thorough mental examination,
there should be provided a laboratory, hospital facilities, and adequate barracks
accommodations for the detention and observation of aliens for varying periods. As
a matter of fact, the only ports of entry which have such facilities are San Francisco,
New York, and to a less extent New Orleans * * *. The situation on the Mexican
border is especially deplorable.21

At various ports of entry aliens who require hospitalization pend­
ing deportation or diagnosis are placed in hospitals which are not
controlled by the United States Department of Labor, and the care
and detention of these immigrants are delegated to the physicians in
charge of such institutions, who have no police powers in these cases.
The medical officers at various ports are obliged to examine aliens
on shipboard, because there is no provision for quartering them on
land, and not infrequently the officers are unable to secure the privacy
which decency demands for such examinations.22
The Secretary of Labor characterizes “ as astounding” the Surgeon
General’s statement in his report of May 2, 1922, to the Commissioner
General of Immigration, as to the lack of facilities for the detention,
observation, proper medical examination, and diagnosis of diseases
of aliens arriving at the ports of Porto Rico.23
19 Report of Advisory Committee on Welfare of Immigrants, Jan. 27-28,1922, p. 10.
" Id em , p. 16.
21 United States. Department of Labor. Annual report of the Secretary of Labor, 1922. Washington,,
1922, p. 88.
22 Report of Surgeon General to Secretary of Labor, Aug. 6, 1922. In annual report of Secretary of Labor
1922. Washington, 1922, p . 94.
”
92United S ta te s ' D eP ai tm entoi Labor. Annual report of Secretary of Labor, 1922. Washington, 1922,


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IMMIGRANT AID: ACTIVITIES OF IMMIGRATION BUREAU.

35

The Surgeon General’s report of August 6, 1922, made at the
request of the Secretary of Labor, further emphasized the need for
the enlargement of the immigration stations at numerous ports to
include hospital facilities. The bed capacity of the hospitals tenta­
tively recommended by the Public Health Service officers was as
follows: Boston, Mass., 40; Baltimore, Md., 20; Mobile. Ala., 20;
Norfolk, Va., 50; New Orleans, La., 30; Pensacola, Fla., 20; Port­
land, Me., 30; San Diego, Calif., 20; Savannah, Ga., 10; Seattle,
Wash., 30; San Juan, Porto Rico (number not specified).24
Suggested Plan for Land Settlement.

The present Commissioner General of Immigration is deeply inter­
ested in the matter of placing immigrants on the land. He has
repeatedly called attention to the large amount of undeveloped land
available for small farms and believes that Federal and State gov­
ernmental machinery should be coordinated and set in motion for the
utilization of some of these lands for the placement of immigrants.
The Federal agencies whose cooperation he suggests would be very
important in this scheme are the Federal Farm Loan Bureau, the
General Land Office, the Bureau of Education, the Reclamation
Service, the Bureau of Soils, the States Relations Service, the Bureau
of Agricultural Economics, the Department of Commerce, the United
States Employment Service, the Bureau of Naturalization, and the
Bureau of Immigration.
The Commissioner General belie'ves that “ an American farm is the
best possible instrument of Americanization.” He says: ‘‘Put immi­
grants of almost any race in an American farming community under
conditions which will insure economic success, give them real Amer­
ican schools for their children, and there will be no immigration
problem so far as they are concerned.” 25
It is of interest to note that there were 10,529 immigrant farm
laborers and 7,676 immigrant farmers admitted in the fiscal year
192226 after the 3 per centum law went into operation compared with
32,400 immigrant farm laborers and 22,282 immigrant farmers in the
year ending June 30, 1921.27
Conclusion.

These recent official surveys and resulting recommendations indi­
cate that existing conditions present large opportunities for improving
governmental service to incoming aliens, and it is to be hoped that
appropriations will be made available to effect the needed changes.
The fact that these investigations have been made is additional evi­
dence of the vital interest of both the Secretary of Labor and the
Commissioner General of Immigration not only in the general effi­
ciency of the immigration service but in the welfare of the immigrant.
24United States. Department of Labor. Annual report of Secretary of Labor, 1922. Washington,
1922, pp. 95, 96.
25Extract quoted from letter of Commissioner General of Immigration to the Secretary of Labor, dated
Jan. 11, 1922.
26United States. Department of Labor. Bureau of Immigration. Report of Commissioner General,
1922. Washington, 1922. p. 31.
27United States. Department of Labor. Bureau of Immigration. Report of Commissioner General,
1921.

Washington, 1921. p. 33.


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IN D U S T R IA L R E L A T IO N S A N D L A B O R C O N D IT IO N S.

Preliminary Report of United States Coal Commission.

HE United States Coal Commission has just submitted to
Congress its preliminary report on the coal industry. In the
report it is stated that the commission has not yet gathered
enough information on a number of controversial matters connected
with the industry to enable it to make a report on these points, but
investigation of these is under way.
“ In reality,” it is stated, “ the coal industry includes three inter­
related industries—mining, transportation, and marketing.”

T

The coal mining industry, in point of numbers employed, outranks any single
manufacturing industry and stands next to transportation and agriculture. Approxi­
mately three quarters of a million men are employed in this industry, of whom 90 per
cent work underground.
The capital invested, according to the rough figures of the census, is $2,330,000,000,
of which $430,000,000 is invested in the anthracite region and the remainder in the
bituminous fields. There are only 174 producers of anthracite and 8 of these control
over 70 per cent of the annual output, while there are at least 6,000 commercial pro­
ducers of soft coal, to say nothing of thousands of wagon mines and country coal banks.
These producers operate 9,000 commercial mines.
Each coal district, if not each mine, has its own local customs and problems, deter­
mined by the quality of coal, thickness of seam, attitude of the bed, conditions of
mining, the markets which it can reach, its freight rates, its labor policy and other
factors. In the matter of wage scales, even in the union districts where wage scales
are determined by joint agreement, we find variations from district to district and from
mine to mine. Still more difficult to summarize are the wage rates in nonunion mines.
Not only are these wage rates complicated, but the opportunity to labor varies so
greatly from field to field or mine to mine, depending on character of coal, nearness
to the market, and commercial connections, that it is hazardous to make any general­
ization concerning miners’ earnings.
No less difficult under such conditions is the determination of average cost ol profit.
These subjects require specific and very detailed, painstaking investigation, which
is complicated by the varying prices charged and received for the coal, quantity
and quality both entering into the subject. The bituminous output is consumed
approximately in the following percentages: Railroads, 28; industrials, 25; coking,
15; domestic, 10; iron and steel, 7; public utilities, 7; export, 4; mines, 2; bunkers, 2.
The coal industry does not end at the mine. Some 180 railroads take the coal at
the mine mouth and transport it to thousands of destinations. Because the railroads
are the largest customers of the bituminous industry, and because coal—anthracite
and bituminous—constitutes one-third of the railroads’ freight the problems of the
two are closely interwoven and their interests interdependent. Not only does irreg­
ularity in coal output mean serious fluctuations in revenue but excessive irregularity
imposes impossible traffic demands on the railroads. On the other hand, interference
with rail transportation means a corresponding stoppage of output for the mines and
shortage of fuel for the consumer. No solution of the coal problem can be found that
does not recognize this community of interest between coal and transportation. But
this community of interest, though simply stated, is not simple upon examination.
The movement of coal by rail and water is complicated by variations in freight rates,
arbitrary differentials, and competition between different coals and between carriers.
Nor does the coal industry end with transportation. To connect the thousands of
producers, big and little, with more than 90,000 buyers of carload lot coal scattered
over 48 States, requires a widespread system of wholesale marketing. Sometimes
this marketing is reduced to the simplest terms, as when a steel plant or railroad buys
a mine and consumes its entire output. Sometimes it is conducted by the selling
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department of a large operating company. Sometimes the task of bringing together
producer and consumer is performed by an independent wholesaler or selling agent.
There are some hundreds of large wholesalers and a much greater number, perhaps
3,500 in all, of smaller middlemen. Like the business of running mines, the business
of selling hasits problems and, like mining, it has also its abuses.
The final link in the chain of coal supply is the retailer, who receives coal in car­
load lots from car or yard storage and delivers it in smaller quantities to the con­
sumer. There are some 38,000 retail coal dealers, most of them conducting a small
business. They handle about 130,000,000 tons of coal, or 14 per cent of the bituminous
and two-thirds of the anthracite produced.
Combined charges of the railroad, the wholesaler, and the retailer in most localities
exceed the price of the coal at the mines. Therefore it is readily seen that the problem
whether the transportation and marketing charges are just and fair is of the utmost
concern to the consumers of coal.
D e f ic ie n c ie s

in

S e r v ic e .

The widespread public dissatisfaction with the service rendered by the coal industry
is not confined to matters of shortage and price, for a train of unfortunate consequences
has followed those recurring periods of scarcity; deterioration in the quality of fuel
delivered; congestion of railway traffic, necessitating the neglect of other freight
to give preference to coal, to the serious harm of other business; and breakdown0 of
mutual confidence of producers and consumers of coal as expressed in the customary
contractual relations.
How many there are we do not yet know, but there are certain mines which con­
tract a part of their potential output, say 60 per cent, reserving the' balance for spot
coal. These operators guard themselves against car shortage by clauses which compel
them to fill their contracts only in proportion to the relative car supply. So in recent
years, when speculators with contracts could get only a partial supply of cars, they
would use only the 60 per cent of available cars for deliveries upon their contracts,
while the other cars would be used for spot coal—that is, they prorate their contracts
with the sole purpose of having free coal for a higher spot market.
The record of production and distribution of coal in recent years may be summed
up in the word “ instability,” and this instability in the supply of one of the most
fundamental of all raw materials has been an important cause in unsettling business
and in delaying the return of normal times.
L a rg e P r o fits .

It has been suggested to us that one.of the causes of high prices of coal is profiteering.
There has been profiteering in the sense that grossly exorbitant profits have been
taken at times by many operators, brokers, and retailers—profits that have been dis­
proportionate to the cost of the coal or the service rendered or the risk incurred.
But this commission has not yet obtained the figures for the past 10-year period
specifically required by the act in order to settle this question. A thorough exam­
ination of the profits of production and distribution, including the revenue derived
from associated enterprises, is already under way.
L a b o r D iffic u ltie s .

Others attribute the instability in the coal industry primarily to labor troubles.
There can be no doubt that two of the three periods of high prices since 1916 have
been caused largely by labor troubles. In the first period of scarcity—August, 1916,
to March, 1918—there were no strikes of consequence, and therefore some other explan­
ation of the high prices and distress must be found.
*
The second period of runaway prices, November, 1919, to late in 1920, was originally
caused by a nation-wide strike of miners beginning November 1, 1919. In this case
the shortage created by the strike was aggravated by difficulties in transportation,
resulting in part from severe weather and in part from a strike of railway switchmen’
and was further intensified by an unprecedented demand for export and by boom
times at home.
In the third period of shortage and high prices, from which we have not yet emerged,
the primary cause was a nation-wide suspension of mining, involving practically all
union men, which closed the anthracite region completely and shut down two-thirds
of the capacity in the bituminous fields of the United States and Canada. As to the
merits of that suspension, whether it more resembled a “ strike” or a “ lockout,” the


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commission expresses no opinion in this report. The point of immediate interest ia
that, as before, the effects were prolonged and intensified by transportation troubles
until prices rose alarmingly and industrial plants began to close.
We may refer to the unfortunate and unusual coincidence of the general cessation
of work in the union mines in the summer of 1922 with that of the railroad shopmen
and other crafts within the same period. The former very largely curtailed the out­
put of the mines, and the latter so affected transportation in the fall and early winter
as to interfere seriously with the distribution of coal. The effect was seriously to
deplete the usual supply of coal with which the country enters the winter.
When work was resumed and the mines were once more turning out their product,
it was found that the increased output could not be distributed apace with production,
for the effect of one cessation of labor was not so quickly remedied as the other, and
not even yet has the transportation equipment been restored to its former condition.
With the shortage of coal and lack of railway facilities the fall season opened with
general bidding for the supply on hand. Prices were forced up, with the obvious
effect on the public.
. .
Whatever the cause or the merits of the labor controversy, it is clear that an in­
definite repetition of these crises in the production and distribution of coal would be
intolerable. Industry and the home alike must be freed from the menace of constant
interruption of their coal supply.

Feeling that “ the responsibility of settling its disputes rests pri­
marily upon the industry,” and realizing that the commission itself
“ is vested by the law creating it with no functions of mediation or
arbitration,” the commission offered no suggestions until it was in­
formed that the efforts of the representatives of the operators and
miners to reach an agreement at a joint meeting in Chicago were on
the verge of failure. The commission then, on January 2 and 4, 1923,
sent telegrams to operators and union miners^ participating in the
meeting in which it pointed out the necessity of an agreement which
would keep the mines in operation, and warned that “ failure to agree
would create an intolerable situation.” The commission urged that
the present arrangement be continued until April 1, 1924, “ by which
time this commission expects to have found and reported fully all the
facts over which your disagreements have arisen, with recommenda­
tions to the Congress, and by which time the Congress will have had
opportunity to consider and take such action in the premises as it
may deem wise.”
Separate replies were received from the operators and miners par­
ticipating in the meeting. That of the operators noted the fact that
the representatives of mine operators and miners had failed to agree
and expressed the opinion that this failure was due to “ the cumber­
someness of a nation-wide conference of bituminous coal operators
and coal miners, representing fifteen producing districts” which
“ made success impossible.” The operators pointed out that the
conference had no authority as to the renewal of the agreement but
stated that that subject would be a matter for the consideration of a
subsequent conference. The reply of the miners stated their view
that “ the situation is not hopeless but, on the contrary, it is reason­
ably certain that a wage scale conference will convene before the end
of this month,” and a later telegram from Mr. John L. Lewis, presi­
dent of the United Mine Workers of America, stated that a confer­
ence between representatives of the miners and operators of the Cen­
tral Competitive Field would be held January 18, “for the purpose of
negotiating an agreement for wages and working conditions in the
bituminous industry of that area.”
In view of these replies, the commission felt that it has reason to
believe that “ an agreement will be reached in the near future that


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will avert any widespread cessation of mine operation in the union
fields on April 1, thus assuring the needed coal supply for at least
another year.”
We are seeking to promote industrial peace by ascertaining and publishing certain
facts. The first group of these includes reliable data on wage rates and earnings, ok
the volume of employment, on the costs and profits of the industry, on the competi­
tion of other fuels and of coal produced by nonunion mines. All of these subjects
the commission’s staff is now studying, and the results of its investigations will be
made public in supplementary reports to Congress as fast as they become available.
Up to this time returns on costs are already received and are being analyzed from
about 2,000 operators, representing about 40 per cent of the total bituminous output.
A second group of facts required includes the effect upon the industry of provisions
for the check-off of union dues, participation in management or limitation upon
freedom of management, and other working conditions. "This also involves investi­
gation of what causes petty strikes resulting in costly stoppage of operations.
Collective bargaining should rest upon reason rather than upon force. American
law and American public opinion recognize the right to organize into unions and
the right to work without let or hindrance. It is alleged by the mine workers that
in Logan County, West Virginia, Somerset County, Pennsylvania, and elsewhere,
free speech and peaceful persuasion have been denied, in violation of the law. I t is
charged by operators, on the other hand, that the agents of the union have resorted
to violence in their efforts to organize the nonunion fields and thereby to lessen com­
petition of nonunion coal produced at lower costs. We will investigate and report
upon the methods used by union miners to organize these fields and the methods
used by the operators to prevent such organization.
Car S h o rta g e .

4P

An opinion commonly expressed before the commission is that the primary cause
of scarcity and high prices of coal is transportation deficiency.
There have been recurring periods of “ car shortage,” and such periods have gen­
erally been accompanied by high prices of coal. There are many other causes for
the inadequacy of transportation besides the absence of cars, such as lack of motive
power, congestion of yards, terminal facilities, or gateways, single tracks where double
tracks are needed, inability to coordinate movement of boats and cars at ports, strikes
of railway labor, and severe winter storms temporarily blockading traffic. Any one
of these elements may be responsible for what to the operator at a mine seems a simple
‘‘shortage of cars. ”
Car shortage occurred at intervals before the war, but since 1916 it has appeared
more frequently and for longer periods, and its effects upon prices and coal supply
have been more serious. This increase in transportation disability as a factor inter­
fering with the movement of coal is in part due to the depreciation of equipment
under the strain of war and labor complications. This important subject—inade­
quacy of railroad equipment—is under careful study by the Interstate Commerce
Commission, as well as by this commission, and it is hoped that definite findings and
recommendations can be made later.
The so-called “ car shortage” is not always due to insufficient coal-carrying equip­
ment alone. In part it has been due to an overload upon the transportation system
beyond what that system could reasonably or properly be expected to bear. The
period of coal shortage and high prices from the middle of 1916 to March, 1918, was
marked by almost continuous complaint of lack of cars at the mines. But the volume
of traffic thrown upon the roads as a result of the war exceeded anything in their
previous history, and when by the summer of 1918 adequate preparation had been
made to handle the traffic all current requirements for coal were met and an unprece­
dented surplus accumulated in storage.
In the next period of shortage—November, 1919, to late 1920—the roads were called
upon to make up for six weeks ’ stoppage in coal production caused by a nation-w'ide
miners’ strike. On November 1, 1919, the union bituminous miners stopped work,
and when they resumed, on December 13, the movement of coal was 26,000,000 tons
behind the previous year. The railroads were then asked to make up the deficit
and to do it on top of the regular current movement of coal and other freight. The
extra load came at a time when the export business in coal was unprecedented and
when general business was booming. Even so, the railroads could probably have
met the demand had it not been for the severe storms of that winter and the switch­
m en’s strike of the following spring. As it was, they established a new record for


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total volume of traffic handled, and by the end of 1920 the deficit in coal supply had
been overcome and the price was again normal.
Since the resumption of work, in August, 1922, after five months’ cessation, more
bituminous coal has been offered for shipment than the railroads have been able to
carry, but only by investing money in a transportation system vastly in excess of
reasonable requirements may the people of the country expect the railroads to make
up within a few weeks the consequences of the five months’ suspension of a large
part of the coal mining.
At the beginning of 1923 the bituminous coal industry presents to the country its
usual contradictions. The one complaint common to most of the coal mining terri­
tory is that of “ car shortage” ; yet the outstanding fact is that in spite of a miner’s
election day and the Christmas holidays, these coal mines produced in December,
1922, over 46,000,000 tons of soft coal. An actual shortage of anthracite has kept
domestic consumers on the verge of a buyer’s panic, restrained only by the coopera­
tion of the larger coal operators with the Federal and State fuel distributors, yet the
46,000,000 tons of soft coal were probably sufficient for the country’s needs for current
consumption, even in December, if evenly distributed. The fact that low coal
reserves in the hands of the consumers are not being rapidly replenished doubtless
adds to the fear of scarcity, yet a full car supply for the country’s soft coal mines,
as rated by the railroads would have furnished transportation in December for more
than 75,000,000 tons or 20,000,000 tons more than the country ever took from the
mines in a single month. Plainly, “ 100 per cent car supply, ” as based on such inr
flated ratings, would create a car surplus or a coal surplus far beyond the ability of
the market to absorb.
O v e r d e v e lo p m e n t.

Already in our study we have come to see that underlying these immediate causes
of scarcity and high prices—labor difficulties and transportation deficiency—are
other causes; namely, the irregularity of demand and the overdevelopment of the
mining industry. These basic factors apply directly only to bituminous coal but
indirectly they affect anthracite as well, for anthracite is in competition with bitum i­
nous coal and the wage scale in the one industry is influenced by changes in the other.
We find that in the bituminous industry since 1890 the mines have averaged, over
the country as a whole, only 213 days out of a possible working year of 308 days.
These averages, of course, show nothing as to the relative annual earnings of individual
miners or their individual opportunity to work. In 1920, a year of active demand,
the average time worked was only 220 days, and in 1921, the year of depression, it
dropped to 149 days, with many districts showing a figure much below this average.
Over a long period comparatively little of the time lost has been on account of strikes
and that in the years when there are no strikes the aggregate time lost from all causes
is about as great as in those when strikes occur. In the twenty-three years over
which the statistical record of strikes extends, the time lost because of strikes has
averaged nine days a year, or less than 10 per cent of the time lost for all causes com­
bined.
The other attributed cause, lack of transportation facilities during the annual
peak of railroad business, commonly known as “ car shortage,” enhances the cost to
the consumer, but it does not explain the short working year for the miners. When
the needed coal is supplied the miner gets it out at one time or another and his work
takes so much time and no more. Short working time is the result of overdevelop­
ment in the industry. There are more mines and more miners than the needs of the
country require.
A cause of part-time operations of the bituminous mines is the variation in demand
for the product, in part annual and in part seasonal. In so far as the irregularity
in demand is seasonal, greater in cold weather than in summer, the lost time m sum­
mer is unavoidable unless some means can be devised to encourage the storage of coal
during the dull months. The seasonal fluctuation in demand varies greatly from
one district to another; in some fields of the East it is unimportant; further West it
is dominant.
Moreover, our preliminary studies show that even in times of maximum demand
the mines as a whole do not work full time. In other words, the mine capacity is
in excess even of maximum requirements. Although the country has never been
able to absorb in a year more than 579,000,000 tons of bituminous coal, the present
capacity of the mines is well above 800,000,000 tons.
The steady increase in the army of bituminous coal miners during the last four
years, notwithstanding a lessened demand for their product is also a fact that stands
out in the statistical records furnished the commission by the United States Geological


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Survey. In 1918, the year of maximum coal output, when 579,000,000 tons were
mined, 615,000 men were employed in the bituminous coal mines, nearly 622 000
the next year, over 639,000 in 1920, and in 1921, 663,000 mine workers were employed
in producing about 416,000,000 tons. To get a year comparable in soft coal output
with 1921 we have to go back to 1910, when 417,000,000 tons were mined, and it is
signifleant that in that year less than 556,000 mine workers were employed or about
a million more tons of coal with 100,000 fewer miners.
The difference between 1910 and 1921 may be viewed by the consumer of bitum i­
nous coal somewhat as follows: The manufacturer who bought 10,000 tons of steam
coal m 1910 paid for the year’s labor of 13J mine workers, whereas if he bought the same
amount of coal in 1921 he paid the wages of nearly 16 mine workers. This plainlv is
not progress, but the mistake must not be made of blaming the miner for a decreased
output, for the average miner’s daily output in 1921 was A \ tons, taking the 8 000
commercial mines, large and small, in the United States, and in 1910 his daily output
was about 3£ tons, although this difference is attributable in part to the increased use
of machines. But in 1910 the average bituminous coal mine was operating 217 davs
as against 149 days in 1921.
This condition of overdevelopment in mines and of surplus number of miners is an
underlying cause of the instability of the industry. I t means unemployment and
interm ittent employment to the coal miner and a direct loss to him of earning power.
I t explains his need and demand for a day wage rate higher that the average for most
other industries. It has also adversely affected the profits of the operator and imposed
a burden on the consumer.
^
The seasonal character of coal movement is a serious handicap to the railroads in
those districts where it is the rule. If the peak demands of the mines are to be met
the earner must provide equipment for which there is no use in the off season.
The unequal distribution of work between mines, attributed by many persons to the
assigned and private car system, is also being considered by the Interstate Commerce
Commission at this time. By this system men in one mine may get perhaps only one
day s work a week and others, even in an adjoining mine, may get six days’ work
causing discontent and strengthening the demands for higher rates of pay applicable
As for the public, the cost of maintaining an overdeveloped industry is reflected in
the high price of coal. We do not know accurately the extent of burden, b ut it mav
™ennnne “ easured,
9°.st of keeping in the industry an excess of perhaps
2U0,0()0 miners and their families and the excess investment in mines.
The commission is convinced that there can be no permanent peace in the industry
until this underlying cause of instability is removed. Diverse causes have apparently
promoted overdevelopment and inquiries are in progress as to the relative importance
among others, of the following: The policy of railroads toward encouraging the open­
ing of new mines and new mine fields as sources of revenue; car distribution rules
that permit, if they do not encourage, larger capacity than the market obviously
requires; the opening of new mines by large consumers; the establishment of freight
rates that encourage the development of new fields; shifts in centers of consumption
that abandon old fields and encourage new fields; the difference between union and
nonunion wage costs; large scale suspensions in the unionized fields; and irreeularitv
of demand.
b
J
C o a l S to ra g e .

A preliminary survey indicates that much can be done to overcome irregular demand
by encouraging the storage of coal, and the commission can not stress too strongly the
great advantage of coal storage during the spring and summer for fall and winter use.
This recommendation should apply to all consumers of coal—the railroads, the public
utilities, the industries, and the home—and on the measure in which it may be adopted
will largely depend the evenness of distribution and the cost of coal to the public
during the season of heavy consumption. In addition, it will contribute to more
continuous operation of the mines during the summer, distributing employment more
evenly throughout the year, thus tending to stabilize the industry. Coal storage
generally adopted by the consumer, large and small, would benefit the carrier systems
of the country by equalizing their load. It should have the effect of reducing the price
of coal to the consumer.
^

The report concludes as follows:
The way in which to reduce the overdevelopment of the mining industry is fraught
with so many complications, not all of which are evident at first glance, that the
.commission has not yet had time to ascertain sufficient facts on which to base any


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recommendations now to he made to the Congress. While it might be expected that in
an overdeveloped industry aggressive competition would have driven out mines with
high producing costs and forced prices to the consumer down to a minimum, so many
such complex factors have operated to prevent the free play of economic forces that
a very detailed and comprehensive investigation is required before a valid conclu­
sion can be reached.
The inquiry involves the whole question as to what is best for the people—'free
competition, Government or private ownership, regulation or control in the coal
industry. Should the operators in given areas be permitted to combine, so that the
low-cost mines would furnish the product to the people and the high-cost mines kept
in abeyance to meet an emergency, properly regulated as to price and profit by some
governmental agency, or should this prime necessity of life and business be left
wholly to open competition in the market? This problem is of so great moment
with reference not only to theories of government b ut also to the economic -life of
the Republic that the view of the commission must be left to its final report.
There can be no satisfactory agreement as to wage rates and no lasting peace between
operators and men unless steadier employment can be provided. There can be no
satisfactory solution of our transportation problem as long as the railroads are sub­
jected to sudden peak loads of coal traffic at the season when the demands of agricul­
ture and industry are at their height.
The commission believes that the public interest in coal raises fundamental ques­
tions of the relation of this industry to the Nation and of the degree to which private
right must yield to public welfare. I t may bo that both private property in an ex­
haustible resource and labor in a public-service industry must submit to certain
modifications of their private rights, receiving in return certain guaranties and privi­
leges not accorded to purely private business or persons in private employ.

Report of Railway Committee to United States Coal Commission.

PRELIMINARY report prepared by a special committee ap­
pointed by the American Railway Association to render such
assistance as possible has just been filed with the United States
Coal Commission.
Referring to the production and distribution difficulties in the coal
industry, the report in part said:

A

We feel that the real remedy is to be found in the adoption by the American peo­
ple, speaking through legislative bodies and regulating commissions, of policies winch
will bring about:
First. Such an attitude toward the railroads as will convince the public that money
invested in railroads will receive a fair return, thereby strengthening railroad credit
and making it possible to increase railroad facilities so as to care for the growing
transportation needs of the country.
Second. Peace in the coal industry and in the railroad industry, with such rela­
tions between employers and employees as will prevent strikes, the fruitful cause of
interrupted production and restricted transportation.
I t has been intimated that an immediate contributing cause of difficulty is found
in “ inadequate transportation facilities.” To what extent the conditions which
create this impression are attributable to the abnormal overexpansion of the coal
industry by the uneconomic multiplication of mine operations it is not our province
to determine. It is enough to point out that there is an immediate demand on the
part of an important section of the shipping public for additional rail transportation
facilities; and, furthermore, the growth of the country and the increase of its com­
merce would in themselves constitute sufficient reasons for developing the carriers’
facilities to meet the demands which are sure to be made upon them. B ut this can
only be done by the investment of additional capital, and additional capital can be
secured only by the reasonable assurance of a fair return, and this assurance will not
exist unless the investing public has reason to expect from the Government a liberal
and not a repressive attitude.

The report calls attention to the fact that in 1920 a total of
14,766 bituminous coal mines were in operation, an increase of 154


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per cent over the total number in operation in 1910, while coal
production increased only 37 per cent.
“This shows a continual decrease in the production per mine,” the
report says. “ Had the 1910 tonnage production per mine been
maintained in 1920, the tonnage of that year could have been pro­
duced by 7,950 mines instead of 14,766.”
This means that the railroads were called upon to divide the available cars among
6,800 more mines in 1920 than would have been necessary had the average produc­
tion per mine been maintained on the 1910 basis. Expressed in another way, it
means that the 150,000,000 tons by which the coal production in 1920 exceeded 1910
was gathered from 6,800 additional mines, calling for vastly increased motive power,
coal-car supply, and man power for the railroads to serve them all.
While complete statistics for 1922 are not as yet available, such information as is
in hand justifies the conclusion that this tendency toward inflation of the bituminous
coal industry continues.
The expansion was not confined to the increase in number of mines. The number
of cars ordered, based on the rated ability of the mines to produce coal, kept pace
with the increase in number of mines, until for the year 1920 the mines ordered cars
sufficient to load 830,000,000 tons, which was 46 per cent more than the total con­
sumption of the country.
In October and November, 1922, after the mines got fully under way following
the miner’s strike, the mines of the United States ordered cars for 165,000,000 tons,
which was at the rate of approximately 1,000,000,000 tons per annum, or at the rate
of twice the annual consumption of the country.
The outstanding feature is the enormous increase in the number of mines contrasted
with the relatively small increase in production, and is, we believe, a prime factor
contributing to the plight in which the bituminous coal industry and the country
finds itself at this time.
It has been shown that the coal produced increased from 1910 to 1920 37 per cent,
while the number of mines increased 154 per cent, requiring a greater amount of
transportation service. To meet this increased demand the railroads provided
additional coal cars, with an increased aggregate tonnage capacity of 42J per cent,
in comparison with an increase of coal tonnage produced of 37 per cent.
In addition, the aggregate tractive effort of the motive power provided by the
railroads increased 53.1 per cent. Furthermore, the investment in road and equip­
ment, for the purposes of coal and other traffic, increased 39.7 per cent.
It is therefore pleasing to note the increase in transportation efficiency from the
fact that a greater transportation capacity was provided with a minimum increase
in individual units. I t further indicates an economical policy in providing trans­
portation facilities.
The results of this policy are to be found in the freight transportation service ren­
dered by the railways during this same period, for in 1920 they handled an increase
in freight traffic of 62J per cent, measured in net ton-miles, compared with 1911.
This increased freight service in 1920 was accomplished with an actual decrease in
the number of freight-train miles, while there was an increase over 1911 of 46 per cent
in the average train load.

The report points out that strikes among certain classes of rail­
road employees, miners, longshoremen, lake seamen, and tugboat
men “ have all been potent factors in disrupting the orderly and
regular flow of coal from producing centers to their normal markets.”
This has thrown undue and abnormal strains upon transportation facilities,
causing congestion of railway channels and gateways, which decidedly slowed up
movement of loaded and empty coal cars through such congested channels and gate­
ways, causing great loss of car utilization and decreasing the number of cars available.
I t will thus be seen that general car shortage periods are usually related closely to
major industrial disturbances.
It seems that the railways have fairly kept pace with the increase in coal produc­
tion, but even with such additions and improvements they are unable to provide
adequate service to accommodate a sporadic expansion and contraction of the coal
industry such as has existed in recent years.
Notwithstanding the fact that, as shown by the foregoing figures, railroad facilities
have increased in greater ratio than coal tonnage, and in spite of the fact that there
have been frequent periods when a substantial portion of the carriers’ equipment
2S4910—23----- 4
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has been stored for lack of traffic, it has also happened that the carriers have been
unable to furnish transportation service for the traffic currently offered. In such
situations the public insistently contends, as in fact the bituminous coal operators
are doing at the present time, that the facilities of the carriers are inadequate. It is
of course, certain that the commerce of the country will increase, with resulting
increase of traffic, and that periods will continue to recur when the railroads will be
unable, as heretofore from time to time, to transport traffic as offered. If the public
desires such service, it is obvious that the facilities of the carriers will have to be
substantially increased in order to enable them to meet the public demand, which
increase will be possible only in the event that railroad credit is strengthened and
a more liberal treatment extended than has heretofore prevailed.

Conditions of Harvest Labor in the W heat Belt, 1920 and 1921.

WING partly to their general isolation and partly to their
traditional individualism agricultural laborers are less articu­
late as regards their needs and wishes than industrial workers.
Farm hands in the United States, generally speaking, do not organize
nor make collective agreements fixing hours and wages and other labor
conditions, nor do they go on strike in order to alleviate the inequali­
ties of their position. Farm wage bargains are in the main indi­
vidual ones, the details of which are usually known only to the con­
tracting parties. The increasing urgency of certain phases of the
farm labor problem, however, has in recent years produced a de­
mand for reliable data concerning this scattered group of workers,
and the departments of agriculture, both State and Federal, have
been and are making efforts to secure such information.
The bases of this brief account of the labor problems of the wheat
harvest of the Middle West are two reports1 by D. D. Lescohier,
produced in collaboration with the Bureau of Agricultural Economics
of the United States Department of Agriculture, whose field agents
secured most of the information. The area covered by the investiga­
tion extends from Fort Worth, Tex., to the Canadian boundary and
includes the Fort Worth and Panhandle districts of Texas, north
central and northwestern Oklahoma, the western two-thirds of
Kansas, southern and eastern Nebraska, north central and north­
eastern South Dakota, most of North Dakota east of the Missouri
River, and the Red River Valley of Minnesota. The small-grain
harvest which yearly necessitates a force of over 100,000 men to
handle nearly 450,000,000 bushels of wheat and 600,000,000 bushels
of oats, barley, rye, and buckwheat, is a national rather than a
local enterprise, constituting, in the words of the author of the
reports, “ one of the most dramatic episodes in the economic life of
the United States,” and, it may be added, if individual cases are
considered, one of the most romantic episodes as well.

O

Number and Classes of the Harvest Hands.

RAWING to its shifting, seasonal character the exact number of
workers in the annual harvest labor force is indeterminable, but it
is said to include from 100,000 to 200,000 persons, who may be divided
1

U. S. Department of Agriculture. Office of Farm Management and Farm Economics (now a part of
the Bureau of Agricultural Economics). Harvest labor problems in the wheat belt, by D. D. Lescohier,
collaborator. Washington, 1922. Bulletin No. 1 0 2 0 : Preliminary report on harvest labor investigations'
1921, by D. D. Lescohier.


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generally into four groups, as follows: (1) Residents of towns of the
small-grain States who work for wheat growers in their vicinity;
(2) men who from year to year make advance contracts with the
farmers for whom they work; (3) transient hands regularly employed
on farms, in shops, factories, etc., who temporarily engage in harvest
work; (4) transient laborers, really professionals, who “ make the
harvest” fairly regularly as a part of their year’s employment.
Members of the first group naturally constitute a large proportion
of the total number of harvest hands. Their proximity to the work
gives them the advantage in securing the best jobs. Some of these
men follow the harvest northward, but most of them obtain work
in the vicinity of their homes after the harvest is past. This is also
true of the contract men, thousands of whom contract with the same
farmers year after year, often staying on through the threshing and
the fall work. The members of these two groups are able to work
from 45 to 100 days at the special harvest wages, and since they are
in addition spared the traveling and other expenses which must be
met by outside workers they realize the most financially from the
harvest work and in some instances eventually acquire farms of
their own. Transient hands, as the grouping indicates, include both
temporary and regular seasonal harvest labor. Their periods of
employment are shorter than those in the first two groups and their
earnings consequently less.
Data relative to the age when becoming wage earners, education,
and previous occupational training were secured for 1920 in the cases
of 153 harvest hands and are shown in the table following:
AGE W H E N BECOMING WAGE EA RN ER S, EDUCATION, AND OCCUPATIONAL T R AIN ­
ING OF 153 TR ANSIENT HARVEST H A NDS IN 1920.

Age when becoming wage
earners.

Num­
ber of
cases.

14 years................................
15 years................................
16 years................................
Over 16 years......................

26
29
30
24
33

11

Education.

Less than fifth grade___
Ninth or tenth grade___
Finished high school___
In college............7............
Unknown..........................

Num­
ber of
cases.

2
11

103
13
5

Occupational training.

Trade apprenticeship__

Num­
ber of
cases.
94
7
52

2
11
6

Regular Occupations of Transient Hands.

HTHE regular occupations of these 153 men varied greatly. Thirteen
were farmers, most of whom owned small farms or homesteads
and were trying to earn a little extra money for payments on them
or for their development; 20 were ordinarily employed as factory
hands, mechanics, or in some mercantile undertaking in which work
was slack at the time; 11 were students, either college or high school,
who were taking advantage of high wages to help put themselves
through school; a number were farm hands who were lured from farm
to farm by advances in wages. Fifty-five of the 153 men considered
were what is known in the wheat area as "floaters,” or as they ex­
pressed it, they were "on the road”—that is, they were confirmed


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migratory laborers whoseambition
was simplyto earn enough
during the summer to carry them comfortably through the winter.
In the investigation made during the harvest season of 1921 the
customary occupations of 14,133 harvest hands were recorded, a
general classification of which is shown in the following statement:
Agriculture...................................................................................................................
Clerical w ork...............................................................................................................
Common laborers........................................................................................................
Manufacturing industries..........................................................................................
Merchants or salesmen...............................................................................................
Professions...................................................................................................................
Semiskilled men (expressmen,oil-field workers, restaurant workers).................
Skilled men:
Building trades.......................................................................................
Other lines (musicians,miners, etc., not ofa factory character)...................
Students.......................................................................................................................
Not reported................................................................................................................

4,130
209
4, 654
1; 994
140
27
1,090
808
606
422
53

T otal.................................................................................................................. 14,133

Of the 153 men for whom this information was received in 1920,
all came from humble homes, 94 from farms, the others from cities
or villages. Twenty-nine were foreign born. Similar statistics for
1,125 men in the 1921 investigation show that 623, or 55.4 per cent,
were born on farms and that 242 of these were still engaged in agri­
cultural pursuits. One hundred and eighteen were common laborers,
and the others were usually employed in nonagricultural occupations.
One hundred and ten of the 1,125 were foreign born, the Scandinavian
countries contributing the largest proportion.
Savings and Living Conditions.

HTHE savings of the 153 harvest workers investigated in 1920 included
A real estate, Government bonds, and cash, the cash amounts ranging
from “ a little nest egg for a rainy day” to $35,000 in one case, invested
in a building in Chicago, and $43,000 in another, invested in Penn­
sylvania coal lands and urban property not described. Forty-three
had attempted farming, 27 of whom had been unsuccessful. The
savings of 18 “ floaters” averaged $345; only 1 possessed more than
$500, and 3 reported less than $100. Eleven farm hands on the con­
trary reported average savings of $4,475 each, and 3 others owned
farms or city real estate.
Most of the men spoke well of their employers’ treatment of them,
admitting that the farmers generally “ treated them square.” The
greatest fault found was with inadequate or uncomfortable sleeping
quarters. Board furnished was universally good.
Motives for Following the Harvest.

rTvHE motives which urge men to the harvest fields are, in the words
A of the author of these reports, “ as varied as human life.” The
investigators found in the fields “ farmers whose crops had been ruined
or impaired by hail, drought, storm, or fire; some who had not enough
land under cultivation to afford them a livelihood, and others who
were seeking new locations; students and young men who were
looking for experience, a vacation, a chance to see the world; prodigal


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sons trying to earn enough money to return to the homes they had
forsaken; soldiers and sailors who had developed a thirst for roaming
while in the Army and Navy; and men attracted by the lure of the
great out-of-doors or the pleasure of harvesting.” But reduced to
their simplest terms the strongest reasons were (1) lack of employ­
ment, either permanent or temporary; (2) the hope of making “ a
big stake” ; (3) the lure of adventure and unusual experience; and
(4) habit.
With the “ seasonal floater” the “ harvest is a habit” whose yearly
fascination he is unable to resist. Thousands go to the harvest fields
in order to satisfy their cravings for adventure and new experiences.
“ The grain harvest of the Central West,” says Mr. Lescohier, “ is one of
the few big adventures left in American life. The frontier and the
Indians have been conquered; the lands of the West have been put
under the plow; the secret resting places of the gold and silver have
been explored and exploited; and the harvest mobilization now
remains the most dramatic, adventurous experience in the industrial
life of the Nation. From every State in the Union men of a hundred
different occupations come to rub elbows for a few days or weeks in the
garnering of millions of bushels of grain over a territory adequate for
an empire, and then vanish one by one back into the everyday walks
of life. The quiet pursuits of agriculture become dramatic; imagi­
nations are fired; the glamour and lure of adventure prevail over the
humdrum of life.”
Difficulties Operating Against Satisfactory Employment Conditions-

pROM the standpoint of the farm hand a most important difficulty
* in harvest work is the fluctuation in the demand for labor.
Owing to the seasonal character of the farming industry, especially of
the small-grain part of it, the demand for harvest labor is of necessity
many times greater than that during the planting and growing of the
crops. This means irregularity of employment for many of the men.
At the height of the season the harvesting in each county or section is
usually all completed about the same time. The army of workers
must then either redistribute themselves in the vicinity or make the
next harvest farther north, entailing in either case a loss of time and
wages and in many instances the additional expense of travel. The
report for 1920 finds that on the average 154 men spent 26 days in
the harvest area, working 1*5 days and losing 11 days.
Similar data for 998 men secured in 1921 show that these men, on
the average, worked 8.34 days out of 16.32 days in the harvest area,
losing nearly 50 per cent of their time. In comparison with the large
number of men engaged in the grain harvest these are rather small
numbers upon which to base general deductions, but they indicate
the general tendency to irregularity of employment prevailing in an
important industry.
Climatic conditions that retard or advance the time of harvest also
affect the volume of the demand for labor, while damage to crops by
rust, grasshoppers, drought, hail, etc., which materially reduce the
output, the concentration of labor during the threshing season, and
variations in wage rates also tend to produce conditions eventually
resulting in irregularity of employment.


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

It follows from the foregoing that an outstanding labor problem
of the wheat area is the development of adequate machinery for the
mobilization and distribution of harvest labor. Efforts have been
made by State labor offices to estimate with some degree of accuracy
the amount of labor which will be needed during a certain season,
but the only known definite method for computing the number of
harvest hands needed for a certain season was that adopted by a
group of county agents at Manhattan, Kans., in November, 1919, and
later put into operation in Kansas. Describing the method the
report says:
This formula gives a reasonably conservative estimate of the amount of labor needed.
The Office of Farm Management and Farm Economics had found that the average
header crew consists of 6 men; the county agents of Kansas had found that a county
is usually harvested in about 10 days; and it was found that a crew harvests, on the
average, 30 acres a day. Assuming a supply of labor on the farm averaging 1.3 men
to a farm, the following formula was devised:
Divide the number of acres of wheat in the county by 50, subtract the man power
on the farms and that available from towns within the county. The difference rep­
resents the men needed from outside the county. This formula may be expressed as
follows:
A= number of acres of wheat within a county.
m f=m an power of the farms (number of farms multiplied by 1.3).
m t= m an power available from towns within the county.
mo= number of men needed from the outside.
50

(m f+m t)=m o.

While this formula would not apply accurately to counties that do not use the
headers, it is better than wild estimates for computing the demand in any wheat
county.
Applying this formula to the 8,943,000 acres of wheat harvested in Kansas in 1920,
the State farm demonstrator estimated a need for 50,000 men in addition to those
resident in the wheat counties.

Published statements in newspapers regarding prospective labor
needs and prevailing wage rates, advertising by public and private
employment agencies, estimates given out by railroads, and industrial
information passed on from one workman or group of workmen to
another are important means of attracting men to the harvest fields,
and each without the exercise of great care has the serious weakness
of securing an oversupply of labor at some places while at others
grain wastes for lack oi hands to gather it. “ To. be reliable,” con­
tinues the report for 1920, “ advertising must be centralized and coor­
dinated. To give out accurate forecasts of the need for harvest
labor, all agencies need information upon the acreage to be harvested,
the condition of the crops in each locality, the available local labor
supplies, weather conditions, the agencies which feed labor into the
harvest, the experience of preceding years, the unemployment that
prevails in the cities of the central part of the country and the wages
current there, and the extent to which the labor employed in the
southern wheat area can be used in the northern area. Only a Gov­
ernment office in touch with responsible correspondents throughout
the wheat belt and able to combine and analyze their reports is in a
position to appraise correctly the harvest labor needs or to forecast
harvest wages. ”
Since 1917 the United States Department of Labor through its
Employment Service has done much to furnish reliable information


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not only for the mobilization of harvest labor but also for its distri­
bution. Through the cooperation established between this service
and the State employment agencies, the United States Department
of Agriculture, and the State and local agricultural officials, the work
of existing public employment agencies has been centralized and made
more effective, crop information compiled by the United States
Department of Agriculture has been furnished the Employment
Service, and county agricultural agents and farm bureaus have used
their good offices to place harvest hands where they were needed.
Each of the States in the wheat belt has one or more permanent
State employment offices and during the rush season establishes
temporary offices, some financed by Federal funds, others by State
funds, and still others by Federal and State funds combined/ These
offices merely distribute harvest labor to the various local represen­
tatives, who in turn place the men with the employing farmers.
The heavy expenses of transportation, even if men seeking work
during harvest live in the wheat belt, discourages some of the best
hands from a second venture. Expenses incurred by 2,643 transient
hands before beginning the harvest work in 1920 ranged from less
than $10 in the cases of 663 men to $100 or more in the cases of
3 men. It is the consensus of opinion among employment officials,
agricultural officials, and farmers’ organizations that the harvest
labor situation would be improved by the running of excursions to
and from the harvest fields, which would bring necessary harvest
hands to the places needing them. Canada has adopted this system
with effective results in controlling the supply and distribution of
harvest labor.
Wages of Harvest Labor.

'"THE variation in harvest wages which occurs not only as between
1 different States but also as between the different counties and
sections of individual States is a perplexing question from the stand­
point of both the worker and the employer. Both are dissatisfied;
one because he does not receive as high a daily wage as is paid else­
where, perhaps not 10 miles away; the other because he feels com­
pelled to pay the higher wage rate set by his neighbor. According
to the report for 1920, farmers in some sections deliberately lured
labor from near-by farms by the offer of better wages. Where the
men were organized the farmers were forced to meet their demands;
where the farmers had agreed upon a standard wage, as in Kansas,
the men were obliged to accept the established rates. Two distinct
needs as regards harvest wages are, the author believes, apparent:
(1) A standard wage known to everyone concerned, in each locality;
(2) wages as uniform as possible, with due consideration given to the
varying conditions in the different localities. The daily wage rates
paid harvest hands during the seasons 1920 and 1921 are shown in
the table following.


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D A ILY WAGES OF H A R V EST HANDS IN THE W HEAT BEL T , 1920 AND 1921, B Y STATES.
State.

1920

North Dakota....................
Kansas.................................
South Dakota.....................

0)
$9. 00 to $7. 00
35. 50 to 6.50
6.00
47.00
6.00to 7.00

1 About 50 cents lower than those in North Dakota.
s About the same as those in North Dakota.
3 Approximately.
4 In central, north central, and northwestern Kansas.

1921
(2)
13. 00 to $4. 00
3. 50 to 4. CO
4. 00 to 5.00
5.00
3.00 to 3. 50

In southern counties Oklahoma wages prevailed,

Statistics based on the earnings and the expenses of 1,022 men
employed in the harvest of 1921 showed that average earnings
amounted to $40.09, while average expenses for subsistence during
unemployed periods were $15.88, or a little more than one-third of
their earnings.
Conclusion.

A S A result of his study of this phase of agricultural labor the
author reached the following conclusions regarding possible
improvement in the employment conditions of workers in the grain
harvest:
The continual fluctuation in harvest labor demand, caused by climate, pests, etc.,
makes it imperative that additional means be found to facilitate the spread of reliable
information concerning harvest conditions among those who constitute the potential
supply of harvest labor. The daily bulletins issued by the Federal Employment
Service during the winter-wheat harvest may be cited as an important step in this
direction. Without the further development of such a service, the mobilization of
the army of harvest laborers must remain largely a matter of guesswork.
Wildcat advertising by misinformed or unscrupulous persons causes the loss of
much time and money and even produces distress among transient harvest hands.
Newspapers outside of the wheat belt frequently are misled into giving publicity
to erroneous statements about the demand for harvest labor.
Most of those who “ make the harvest” get no more than a mere subsistence out
of the venture. The comparatively small number who save money are those who,
through fortunate location or foresight, are able to secure steady work without being
forced to make long “ jumps.”
I t seems desirable that a definite standard wage for each State, or perhaps for each
distinct region within States, should be established annually.
While it is impossible that State or regional standards should be uniform, such
standards should be as nearly uniform as possible under the prevailing conditions.
Employment offices must follow the policy of adhering to the “ going wage.” 2

Women’s Industrial Conference, Washington, D. C.

HE industrial conference called by the Women’s Bureau of the
Department of Labor held its first session on Thursday morn­
ing, January 11, 1923. In opening the proceedings, Miss Mary
Anderson, Director of the Women’s Bureau, called attention to its
representative character. It was representative of the Union as a
whole, since delegates were present from 42 States, covering every
part of the country. It was representative of industry as a whole,

T
1

The expression “ going wage” is used here to signify that wage which the majority of farmers are
willing to pay and at which labor ern be secured for them.


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since, either by speakers or delegates, employers, employees, per­
sonnel workers, social engineers, and industrial experts of every kind
were represented. And it was representative of the varied life of
the Union since delegates were present from over 60 national
organizations dealing with social, religious, welfare, industrial, educa­
tional, and vocational problems. Either among delegates or speak­
ers practically every variety of attitude toward industrial problems
had its representative.
Miss Anderson also stressed the fact that the aim of the conference
was educational. It was not proposed to take any action unless a
desire to do so developed in the gathering itself. Since the dele­
gates had not been instructed by their organizations, it would clearly
be unfair to ask them to adopt any definite program of action, and
there was no intention of doing so. The purpose was to study and
discuss the problems growing out of the industrial employment of
women in the hope that this would help to promote local campaigns
for education and perhaps action on these problems.
Thé first speaker of the day was Hon. James J. Davis, Secretary of
Labor, who extended a cordial welcome to the delegates both on
behalf of the President and of the Department of Labor. The
President, Secretary Davis explained, had hoped to welcome the
assembly in person, but being prevented by stress of official duties
from doing so had sent a letter of greeting, which was read to the
conference, expressing not only his welcome to this particular assem­
blage, but his approval of such gatherings:
#

Long before women were called to that broader participation in public affairs,
which is now both their duty and the public’s advantage, I was personally strongly
convinced of the great benefits which would be derived from a more insistent expres­
sion and more general consideration of woman’s point of view in relation to social
and industrial concerns.
The revolutionary change that has taken place in the status of woman in the world
of business and affairs has not only justified but necessitated that broader and more
intimate activity of women in behalf of the particular phases of public and social
interests which especially appeal to them. Conferences and continuing organized
activities of the kind represented by the present gathering are certain to be of very
definite public benefit, and I have much pleasure and satisfaction in welcoming the
present gathering to Washington, and in expressing the hope that its considerations
may prove as helpful as its most ardent supporters could possibly wish.

After reading the President’s welcome, Secretary Davis addressed
the conference on the general subject of women in industry, stressing
the need of protective legislation as to hours, wages, and working
conditions, and unequivocally declaring against the industrial employ­
ment of mothers of young children. Such employment, he declared,
is an outrage.
Take out of industry these mothers who have babes to care for. An economic
structure which is anywhere based upon the labor in industry of the mothers of the
nation is false and sooner or later it will come crashing down about our heads. If in
this conference we can do this one thing, if we can each and every one of us go hence
filled with the determination to stamp out the need for the industrial exploitation of
the mother whose babes need care, we shall have accomplished much.

Equal pay for equal work, the Secretary declared, was a mere
matter of justice, yet in many cases it is difficult or impossible for
women unaided to secure this. Fair wages, regulation of hours, and
the enforcement of healthful working conditions are required in the
public interest, since to-day more than one-fifth of the women of the


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United States are employed in gainful occupations. Whatever con­
tribution woman may make to industry it can not equal in social
value her potential contribution as a mother, and for its own sake
society must safeguard this potentiality.
The first speaker at the afternoon session was Mr. Charles Cheney,
representing the National Association of Manufacturers, who spoke
on the topic: What woman workers mean to industry. Women^mean
primarily, he said, a supply of labor. Each industry has its separate
labor requirements and will seek its own source of supply. In doing
this it must consider, first, the kind of worker best suited to the work
to be performed; second, the number and character of workers avail­
able; and third, the relative economy of the employment of various
kinds of workers, allowing for the natural and legal limitations placed
upon each kind. Industry will give employment to women or to men
either because they are better adapted to the work in question, or
because scarcity of labor forces it, or because their work can be
secured at the lowest cost. “ It must be remembered that the lowest
cost does not necessarily mean the lowest wage.” Because of this
natural and inevitable tendency of industry to seek the kind of labor
it finds most profitable it is doubtful whether special protective legis­
lation may not prove a grave handicap to women, tending to exclude
them from many kinds of industrial work. This would be unfor­
tunate, because experience shows that it is desirable that industry
should be so organized that in every locality there should be a fairly
even distribution of the amount of work open to men and women.
When there is a scarcity of work for women they compete among
themselves for employment until they bring down the wage level
unreasonably, and even their low wages will not secure employment
for all.
In discussing the limitation of hours for woman workers Mr. Cheney
pointed out the difficulty of maintaining different schedules of hours
for men and women. Ordinarily their work is interdependent, so
that if the women’s hours are limited the men’s are also in fact,
though not in theory. “ The short-time workers must therefore be
chargeable not only with the loss due to their own failure to function,
but also with the consequent loss of efficiency of the men as well.”
The most controversial question connected with the employment
of women, Mr. Cheney held, is the proper wage scale. In discussing
this, it is necessary to bear in mind the many factors which enter into
the value, actual and potential, of an employee to an industry.
The mere number of hours a worker is employed or the amount of
piecework turned out is a very imperfect measure of this value. The
skill due to training and long experience, ability to turn from one
occupation to another, initiative, willingness to take responsibility,
and regularity of attendance all count heavily in determining the
worker’s value to the employer. As a general rule, women fall be­
hind men in these and other factors, and the difference between their
wages and men’s reflects this variation. There is great need of a
careful study of the whole wage problem in order to secure an accurate
and scientific basis for fixing wages, but such a basis can not be reached
by a mere demand for equality without considering the many factors
which are required to make up real equality.


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Miss Mary Van Kleeck, of the Russell Sage Foundation, followed
Mr. Cheney, her topic being: What industry means to woman workers.
It means, she said, first, an opportunity to earn; second, a test of en­
durance; and third, a challenge to take part in the construction of a
better industrial order. It means not only an opportunity to earn,
but also to share in the joy of work suited to her capacity, and in the
sense of power which comes from economic independence. Con­
sidering the various factors involved in opportunity this should
mean: (1) A chance to choose freely the occupation for which she
is best fitted; (2) a chance to be trained for it; (3) a chance to
advance to more important work in her chosen field; and (4) fair
compensation for the work she does.
Miss Van Kleeck stressed the need of thinking in terms of fact,
and of basing any attempt at improving conditions upon knowledge
of what conditions really are. She pointed out that we have now a
large and constantly increasing body of data collected by govern­
mental and private agencies bearing upon the conditions under which
women are employed, their hours, wages, home conditions, and so
on, and that it is essential to take this into consideration in proposing
any plan for improvement. She also urged that in considering em­
ployment problems weight should be given to the interest of society
in the matter. Employers and employees are not the only interested
parties; society as a whole has a strong interest in the right adjust­
ment of these matters, and no solution which loses sight of this fact
is likely to be satisfactory. Legislation, based on a body of facts and
recognizing the interests of the public as well as of the two parties
actively concerned, is likely to be a more effective method of remedy­
ing undesirable conditions than the unaided efforts of the women
affected.
So far, laws passed to limit the working day for women have resulted in the recovery
of leisure for both men and women in the same industry. The time may come when
men, too, may discover the need for laws limiting their hours. Meanwhile, the
limitations of our Constitution and the prevailing opinion in industry itself show' that
the practical next step is to make more adequate the labor laws which establish better
standards of employment for women, and therefore raise standards for all workers.

Mrs. Raymond Robins, president of the International Federation
of Working Women, speaking on the same topic, made a strong plea
for a better industrial order for workers regardless of sex. The
industrial problem of to-day, she pointed out, “ is the struggle of the
group at the bottom trying to find its way up to the larger things of
life.” It will not be settled until the less fortunate have obtained
a larger share of life. In this struggle women have a special interest,
and here they can bring to bear their political power.
We are more deeply concerned than the men with feeding, clothing, and housing
the world. We are not theorists. We know that we can not feed and clothe and house
the children, we can not take them out of the factories into the schools, wq can not
warm our homes, on theories. We are realists. We are weary of the haggling, the de­
bates, the theories of the masters of the world in the face of suffering and cold and hun­
ger. The earth is rich with the means of life. We want bread and coal and the right
to an education; we want our children in the schools and out of the factories; we want
peace, not war; we want peace. At each election we intend to test the party in power
by the facts of our human welfare. These simple understandable facts will, I believe,
be the determining factor in the votes of women. Men and women of eager brains
and strong hands are ready to work. We have the workers; we have the means;
what is it that is wrong?


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M ONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

The morning session of Friday, January 12, began with an address
by Mrs. Florence Kelley, executive secretary of the National Con­
sumers’ League, on home work. She called attention to the fact that
while the kinds of work sent out to be done in the home have changed
within the last 20 or 30 years, it is doubtful whether the practice has
diminished. The introduction of the parcel post and the motor
truck has made it possible to send such work out through a much
wider territory and has immeasurably increased the difficulty of
keeping it under official supervision. From a social standpoint, one
of the greatest evils of home work is that it brings the whole vast
body of possible home workers into potential competition with the
factory workers and thereby enables the unscrupulous employer to
beat down wages and to block efforts at improving conditions.
England and Australia have found it possible to combat this feature
by the establishment of wage boards in sweated industries, which
set a minimum below which wages, whether in the shop or the home,
may not fall. This has not, in England, abolished home work, but
it has made it impossible for the employer to use the potential com­
petition of home workers against the shop or factory workers.
Dr. ft. A. Spaeth, of Johns Hopkins University, spoke on the topic,
Health standards for women in industry. The change in industrial
methods, he said, which has brought it about that women now carry
on their share of the industrial work of the world in factories rather
than in the home, demands a careful study of working conditions to
see whether special restrictions should be placed on the work of
women. The most fundamental difference between men and women
is the child-bearing function of women, and this is the outstanding
reason for special health legislation for women. Such legislation
should be based on more careful study of facts than is the case at
present. For instance, women certainly ought not to lift weights
exceeding some definite amount, but the amount fixed by law in
different places ranges from 15 to over 50 pounds. Obviously, some of
these limitations are wrongly fixed. As to matters of general health,
improvements would be possible for both men and women without
detriment to industry if jobs were more closely analyzed, if machinery
were utilized wherever possible to take the place of human strength,
if tools were adapted to the height, strength, and other physical pecu­
liarities of those expected to use them, and if workers were taught
the most effective method of applying their strength.
The employment of married women presents the most difficult
problems of health regulation, because motherhood exposes women
to dangers from which other women are free. A period of rest
before and after childbirth has been discussed, but this seems
impracticable, as it would place the mother at a distinct disadvantage
as compared with single women. “ College professors are the only
eople who can ask for three months off and get away with it.”
ight employment for mothers may be possible when labor is scarce,
but not under ordinary conditions. The best solution would appear
to be the payment of a wage to husbands which would render it
unnecessary for mothers to enter industry. Another way might be
to permit the giving of birth-control information by industrial phy­
sicians to industrial women. This might be worth trying, but would
not be a panacea.

E


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INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS AND LABOR CONDITIONS.

W1

^

55

Apart from the liabilities involved in the maternal function, there
is not much evidence that women are more seriously affected by
industrial conditions than men. It is very doubtful whether it is
desirable to attempt to secure a shorter workday for them than for
men, since this places them at a disadvantage in regard to employ­
ment. The matter of domestic duties outside of the hours of indus­
trial employment constitutes a serious problem which it is difficult to
reach through legislation. For women the task or piecework system
has some advantages, since it gives them some choice as to the length
of time they shall work. In general the employment of women calls
not so much for special conditions as for an effort to make conditions
the best possible for both sexes.
Doctor Spaeth’s address was followed by considerable discussion
from the floor, in which some of the delegates voiced their dissent
from the idea that the task system is desirable, or that instruction in
birth control is an advisable method of meeting the problem of the
mother in industry. Miss Lathrop, former head of the Children’s
Bureau, indorsed Doctor Spaeth’s statement that the wages of men
should be made sufficient for family support, so that married women
need not enter industry. The family is likely to be for some time to
come the social unit, and the home needs the mother’s care. Mater­
nity is not only a function but a profession, and the mother should
not be obliged to take on a second vocation.
Miss Mary Gilson, of the Joseph & Feiss Co., Cleveland, spoke on
what woman workers mean to industry. In that plant there are
1,000 woman workers and 500 men, and the company has tried out the
effect of shorter working hours, establishing a five-day week. This
has proved very popular among the women,"but the men do not seem
to care so much for it. One effect has been a great improvement in
regularity of attendance among women.
Women’s wages formed the subject of discussion at the afternoon
meeting. The first speaker was Mrs. Maud Swartz, president of the
National Women’s Trade Union League. Mrs. Swartz called atten­
tion to the expense of the low wage in terms of excessive turnover
and frequent industrial disputes, and pointed out that the underpaid
worker must be provided for by subsidized agencies in case of inter­
mittent enrployment, and illness or death in her family. Passing the
costs of higher wages on to the public, she contended, is not so formi­
dable a thing. In illustration of this she cited a case in which the
price of candy had to be advanced only one-fourth of a cent a pound
to offset a raise in wages of $2.50 a week (from $14 to $16.50) for the
girl workers in a certain candy factory.
The second speaker was Miss Sophonisba P. Breckenridge, associate
professor of sociology in the University of Chicago, who declared that
numerous misapprehensions concerning women’s position had re­
sulted from “ the complicated character of the two demands, an
occupational wage and equal rights of admission to all occupations.
Even high courts think women’s political emancipation has been
accompanied by her occupational emancipation.” The working out
of this problem rationally and permanently must be free from dis­
crimination against women on the basis of sex, and due consideration
must be given to the different groups which constitute the total


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

number of male wage earners, as well as to the different groups com­
posing the total number of woman breadwinners.
The United States is clear that neither young girls nor young boys are to be con­
scripted by a low wage scale for men into the army of wage workers. An equally clear
determination is working itself out to the effect that mothers with young children are
to be allowed to devote their strength to the nurture of the children and the building
up of sound family life. If they have husbands who can work, the mothers and young
children are to be maintained out of the husband’s earnings; and two interesting bodies
of doctrine are being developed, calling for an adequate wage for husbands who can and
will work, and disciplinary measures for those who can but will not work. These are
to be supplemented by mothers’ aid laws for the wives of those who can not work.
Of unmarried workers there are two groups, those in the category of learners and
those fully competent. For the first, the demand should be for the widest opportunity
for choice and training. For the fully trained, the demand should be for an occu­
pational wage, according to tests set up, and for women the great demand must be for
opportunity to submit to those tests.

In discussing the question of women’s dependents, Miss Breckenridge suggested the need of better definitions of this term, and
mentioned that recently several surveys had been made on the sub­
ject, the value of which was less than it would otherwise have been
simply because of the lack of a recognized definition of the word
“ dependent.”
Discussion from the floor gave further emphasis to this point.
Mention was made of a s-tudy recently made in Indiana concerning the
aid given by women to their families and of an inquiry conducted by
the Women’s Educational and Industrial Union of Boston into
working women’s provision for their old age, as showing the impor­
tance of a further investigation of the extent of financial responsi­
bility for their families assumed by woman wage earners.
Discussing the general subject of women’s wages, several colored
delegates mildly intimated that the white women did not take the
interest they might in the wages of their darker sisters, one delegate
making a special plea for cooperation between the white and colored
women to work out labor standards for the kitchens of the country.
On Saturday, January 13, the morning session was devoted to a
consideration of labor legislation for women. Miss Melinda Scott, of
the United Textile Workers of America, spoke from the point of view
of a trade-union organizer, to whom legislation is a necessary device
until women shall be sufficiently organized to help themselves.
Legislation is necessary to secure a fair deal for the child; the mother
needs rest before and after childbirth, and child labor should be pro­
hibited by Federal legislation. A reasonable degree of education,
at least through the high school, is needed to fit the child for his part
in life, and a playtime in childhood is his right. Legislation is neces­
sary also, at present, to secure fair hours for the woman worker.
The 48-hour week where tried has resulted in an improvement in
quantity and quality of output and in greater health and safety to
the worker. Nightwork for women must be eliminated. The
majority of women so employed are married, and they can not
work at night and care properly for their homes and children in the
day; also, night work involves special dangers to health and morals.
Legislation is also needed to do away with home work, to insure
proper sanitary conditions in factories and shops, and to establish
minimum wage standards. It should also be used to establish proper
compensation for workers injured by accident or industrial disease.


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INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS AND LABOR CONDITIONS.

57

In brief, while only cooperation between employers and employees
can really solve the problems of employment, legislation can be used
as a temporary measure to alleviate some evils and prevent others.
Miss Merica Hoagland, of the Diamond Chain & Manufacturing Co.
of Indianapolis, the second speaker on this topic, frankly opposed
special protective legislation for women. As a citizen, she expressed
an unwillingness to give up her right of contract; as a member of an
industrial organization, she did not wish to have “ square dealing
policies” interfered with by arbitrary legislative limitations.
Through the series of studies of “ Women in Industry” being made by a State
federation of business and professional women of which I am a member, the conviction
is growing stronger and stronger that regulation through the cooperation of owners
managers, and those employed, is far preferable to the proposed protective legislation
imposed without the consent of the majority of those affected by it, and executed by
tax-supported more or less autocratic bureaus or commissions.
While it seems to some of us undesirable to repeal at one fell swoop the protective
legislation enacted for women in the past, it also appears not only desirable but quite
necessary that henceforth labor legislation shall be equally applicable to adult men
and women, to whom equal economic opportunity shall be one of the achievements
of the near future when the repeal of discriminatory laws shall have been gradually
accomplished, as better methods of regulation gain acceptance.

The labor legislation equally applicable to adult men and women,
Miss Hoagland thought, might properly include provision for “ better
physical surroundings in well-lighted, heated, and ventilated buildings,
with proper maintenance of machine and safety appliances; personal
hygiene and prevention of health hazards; compensation extensions;
vocational training, information, guidance, and placement; housing
and transportation; reduction of seasonal unemployment; adoption
of work standards and of uniform employment records.
The two addresses of the morning, representing opposite views,
were followed by earnest discussion which was continued through
the afternoon. While no formal resolutions were adopted, it appeared
that the conference as a whole strongly approved protective legisla­
tion for women.
The conference closed on Saturday night with a dinner, at which
various speakers emphasized the need of having women among the
officers assigned to enforce labor laws.
Throughout the conference the speeches and the discussions in
general brought out four points, as being, in the opinion of the
majority of the gathering, of special importance:
(1) The extension of laws protecting children from industrial
employment, securing for them a fair education, and giving due care
to their healthful physical development.
(2) Protective legislation for women, covering hours, wages, night
work, and health conditions of employment.
(3) The necessity of preventing the industrial employment of
mothers, and of seeing that they are adequately cared for in some
other manner.
(4) The necessity for basing attempted action on facts, and the
consequent importance of supporting all reliable fact collecting
agencies, such as the Federal and State bureaus and various private
agencies engaged in the study of industrial problems.


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

Trend in Policies of Employers’ Associations in Various Countries.

SURVEY of recent changes in the policies and activities of em­
ployers’ organizations in various countries was published in
theDecember, 1922, issue of the International Labor Review.
According to that article, “ the imperative necessity of reducing
costs has been the dominant thought behind the policy of employers’
associations during the past 18 months,” the three principal methods
in favor for effecting such reduction being wage decreases, longerworking hours, and greater efficiency.
Wage reductions.—In nearly every country changes in cost of
living have been regarded as a “ sufficient reason” for adjusting
wages. It would seem, however, that “ the majority of employers
are opposed to the rigid application of this principle and argue that
the only plan which can be considered as economically sound is to
pay what the industry can afford.”

A

As a broad generalization it may be said that on a rising market variations in the
cost of living are usually accepted by employers as affording a reliable basis for wage
adjustments; but on a falling market the essential consideration is “ what industry
can bear, ” and the extent to which the cost of living is accepted as a modifying factor
usually depends upon the bargaining power of the parties concerned.

In France and Germany many employers have resorted to family
allowances or special grants, from central funds contributed by
groups of employers, to workers with family responsibilities.
In the matter of wage negotiations the general trend of employers’
associations is “ toward uniform policy but decentralized action.”
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Finland offer an interesting illus­
tration of the adoption of these methods along international lines.
A complementary policy of employers’ organizations in countries
where there is the least centralization in wage negotiations has been
the institution of “ propaganda against existing wage scales, which in
some industries have continued above the general level.”
Hours of work.—The movement to increase the hours of the working
day, or in any event to oppose any further reduction of hours, has
been more or less intense in all industrial countries, but particularly
so in western Europe—France, Belgium, Denmark, and Sweden hav­
ing been very active in such campaign. It must be remembered
that the main motive back of this movement “ is not increased pro­
duction, but reduction of costs.” Parallel, therefore, with this
attempt to lengthen the working-day is frequently found a move­
ment for the organization of short time. Objection to the 8-hour day
has been especially striking in some industries, for example, the
building industry and industries largely dependent upon machinery.
The suggestions for amending the regulations for working hours
vary, of course, in different countries, but may be classified under a
few principal heads. Besides the proposal “ that arrangements be
made to distribute the hours of work over a longer period than a
day or week” the following typical propositions have been offered:
(1)
Suspension of the 8-hour day act till the general economic situation permits of
its enforcement, or until an international agreement can be arrived at.
(2)
Legal recognition of agreements between employers’ and workers’ associations
providing for modifications in the hours of work
(3)
Permission to work extraordinary overtime as a transitional measure, e. g., 800
hours per annum for 7 years.


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INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS AND LABOR CONDITIONS.

(4)
Extensive exemptions, according to the needs of the district, industry, and
type of work.

&

-

A

Outside of continental Europe employers’ organizations have not
been so concerned regarding the regulation of the hours of labor,
possibly because such hours are, on the whole, less regulated in other
parts of the world.
Employers’ associations in Norway, Sweden, and Poland have
declared themselves opposed to holidays with pay.
Increased efficiency.—It is stated in the article that employers’
associations in the United States have given more attention to the
matter of reducing costs by greater industrial efficiency than similar
organizations in any other country.
By way of illustrating this declaration reference is made to the
"deep impression” made upon employers by the report on "Waste
in Industry” prepared by the Federated American Engineering
Societies, the full recognition by business men of the importance of
industrial statistics, and the great interest being taken by such men
in the study of business cycles.
Employers’ opposition to trade-union practices tending to restrict
output is reported as being especially noticeable in the building trades
in the United States.
The Federation of Swedish Industries has proposed that a govern­
mental commission be created for promoting the standardization of
industrial products.
In referring to the movement among employers for vocational and
apprenticeship training, attention is called to the schemes for rapid
and strictly practical training of apprentices in various industries in
the United States, particularly in the metal, printing, and construc­
tion industries. Mention is also made of the interest employers’
organizations in France, especially the chambers of commerce, have
been taking in apprenticeship and the improvement of training courses
in the national technical schools.
Reducing costs to increase demand.—A. few far-seeing employers have
pointed out the need of studying closely the final results of methods
used in the reduction of costs in order to make sure that such methods
are of a character to increase effective demand.
Industrial control.— The recent so-called "open shop” campaign in
the United States is cited as an example of the counter movements
by employers to meet "the incursions made by workers’ organiza­
tions upon managerial functions.” The Engineering and National
Employers’ Federation in Great Britain has declared in connection
with the engineering lockout in the spring of 1922 that " it is essential
in the interest of the country, the work people, and the employers
that freedom of management should be maintained in the works.”
The General Confederation of Italian Industry considers it a duty to
oppose by every means at its disposal the growth of workers’ control
of industry, as the workers consider such control "a step toward
revolution and the abolition of the present economic system.”
Conciliatory attitude of employers.—The report of the New Jersey
Chamber of Commerce and of the committee on industrial relations
of the Merchants’ Association of New York are cited as manifestations
of a conciliatory attitude on the part of certain employers’ associa­
tions in the matter of industrial relations. A brief description is
28491°—23----- 5


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M ONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

given of the National Alliance of Employers and Employees in Great.
Britain, recently reorganized on a national scale, which lias for its aim
the establishment of a better understanding between industrial and.
labor leaders.
Employers' proposals for averting industrial disputes.—Employers;
in various countries are in favor of works councils as means for avoid­
ing industrial controversies. Some space is accorded the recent efforts,
in the United States to establish industrial courts and to the proposalsupported by some employers in Great Britain for an “ industrial
truce” of 10 years, during which period strikes and lockouts would
be prohibited.
Employers’ responsibilities for welfare of worlcers.—-The objections;
to trade boards in Great Britain, to bills on family allowances and so­
cial insurance in France, to bills on unemployment insurance, employ­
ment exchanges, and the regulation of trade agreements in Germany,,
and the demand for “ less government in business and more business;
in government” in the United States show the tendency of employers’
organizations to oppose anything like “ paternalism” or “ bureau­
cratic mismanagement” by governments. On the other hand, these;
organizations have displayed a readiness to cooperate with govern­
ments in the drafting of legislation and the working out of industrial
problems.
Welfare activities are reported as less marked than in the period
preceding the recent industrial depression. The safety movement,
however, continues to hold the interest of employers’ associations.
Organization.—Progress is reported in the formation of new employers’ associations and in the development of existing bodies. The
International Organization of Industrial Employers is now well es­
tablished and includes a recently created agricultural section.
Together with the movement toward greater centralization in the
organization of employers’ associations, a certain trend toward
decentralization in administration is discernible.

Industrial Conditions in the Almond Industry of Italy and Spain.1

LMOND growing is an industry of Mediterranean countries
dating back to prehistoric times. While almonds may be
grown as far north as latitude 45° their culture is followed
chiefly along the east coast of Italy in and about Foggia and Bari,
along the east and south coasts of Spain from Barcelona to Malaga,
and in the islands of Sicily, Majorca, and Iviza.
During 1920, according to data compiled by the Italian Office of
Agricultural Statistics, Italy produced 303,352,960 pounds of almonds
as compared with 140,212,560 pounds in 1915, while the total pro­
duction of these nuts in Spain during the season of 1920-24 is esti­
mated by the Comité Information de Producciones Agrícolas at
287,325,957 pounds gathered from 18,299,656 trees on an area of
194,570 acres.

A

i United States. Department of Agriculture. Bureau of Agricultural Economics.
try in Italy and Spain, by Edward A. Foley. Report F. S. 22, N ov. 1, 1922.


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The almond indusr

Q

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS AND LABOR CONDITIONS.

{p

61

The Italian almonds are grown chiefly by peasants who own little
farms which in many cases have been handed down as the generations
came and went. In the Bari district these peasants are as a rule
poor and illiterate and follow the most primitive methods of almond
culture. They live largely from the crops raised on these small
holdings, their necessary cash expenses being met by the income from
their almonds. On the larger estates more modern methods of
cultivation are followed, but cheap hand labor, receiving con­
siderably less than 50 cents a day, is employed for everything.
Special efficiency is, under these conditions, naturally not demanded.
The shelling and grading of the almonds for export are carelessly
done by hand by women, who receive about 97 cents a day.
In the Balearic Islands almonds are grown both by the large estate
owners and by the peasants on their small farms. On Majorca, the
largest island of this group, the almond crop is the cash crop. The
natives here as a rule hold their nuts for good prices, and shell them
only when the demand is promising. Peasant labor on the islands
receives from 20 to 40 cents a day. On the Spanish mainland the
grading of the almonds is done by women paid at the rate of 80 cents
or $1 a day. Hand grading is followed because it results in less
damage to the nuts and also because hand labor is cheap and
abundant.
While the same low standards of living and backward methods of
farming prevail among the peasant farmers of Spain as of Italy, con­
siderable improvement has been shown, especially in Italy, in the
methods of almond culture and export during the past few years.
A progressive spirit is being inculcated in the Italian peasants by the
Department of Agriculture. At Bari and Sicily the departments
of agriculture are “ quite up to date and are working with the farmers
and also with the trade.” This aid, the author believes will mean
much in the future.
Commenting upon the possibilities of American competition with
these countries in almond culture Mr. Foley says:
* * * American growers with their high standards of living can never hope to
bring their product into successful competition with the almonds grown in Italy
and Spain where the needs of the peasants are so easily satisfied. I t is therefore
important that American growers treat the almond-growing industry as a luxury
business only, so that by raising only the finer grades and by intensive cultivation
they may overcome, if possible, the cheap labor and low standards of living that
prevail in Spain and Italy.


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f287}

P R IC E S A N D C O S T O F LIVING,

Retail Prices of Food in the United States.

HE following tables are based on figures which have been received
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics from retail dealers through
monthly reports of actual selling prices.1
Table 1 shows for the United States retail prices of food on Decem­
ber 15, 1921, and on November 15 and December 15, 1922, as well as
the percentage changes in the year and in the month. For example,
the price of strictly fresh eggs per dozen was 70.5 cents on December
15, 1921; 64.5 cents on November 15, 1922; and 66.5 cents on De­
cember 15, 1922. These figures show a decrease of 6 per cent in the
year, but an increase of 3 per cent in the month.
The cost of the various articles of food,2 combined, showed a de­
crease of 2 per cent in December, 1922, as compared with December,
1921; and an increase of 1 per cent in December, 1922, as compared
with November, 1922.

T

T able 1 __ AVERAGE RETAIL PRICES OP SPECIFIED POOD ARTICLES AND PE R CENT
OF INCREASE OR DECREASE DECEM BER 15, 1922, COMPARED W ITH DECEMBER 15.
1921, AND NOVEMBER 15, 1922.
[Percentage changes of five-tenths of 1 per cent and over are given in whole numbers.]

Average retail price on—
Article.

Unit.
Dec. 15,
1921.

Nov. 15,
1922.

Dec. 15,
1922.

Cents.

Cents.

Cents.

Per cent of increase
(+ ) or decrease (—)
Dec. 15,1922, com­
pared with—
Dec. 15,
1921.

Nov. 15,
1922.

37.3
36.8
+4
Pound.............
35.3
-1
Sirloin steak..............
+2
Round steak.............
....... do...............
31.5
-2
32.0
+2
2* 7
27.3
-1
27.5
Rib roast....................
....... do...............
19.4
___ d o ...............
19.6
-1
Chuck roast...............
+1
-1
....... d o ...............
12.7
12.7
Plate beef...................
....... d o ...............
3 0.4
29.5
-3
-1 1
Pork chops.................
33.0
....... do...............
3X.7
40.9
+4
-1
Bacon..........................
40.3
44. 4
+2
Ham ............................
....... do...............
46.3
45.4
-2
___ d o ...............
32.3
35.8
35.6
+ 10
-1
Lamb, leg of..............
33.9
33.6
-6
-1
___ do...............
35. 8
Hens............................
31.4
-7
- 0 .3
___ d o ...............
33.9
31.5
Salmon, canned, red
14.1
13.4
13.7
-3
Quart...............
+2
Milk, fresh.................
11.7
11.9
-6
+2
12.7
15—16 oz. can ...
Milk, evaporated...
60.2
+ 16
52.1
+ 10
Pound.............
54.6
B utter........................
28.1
-5
+2
___ do...............
28.7
30.1
Oleomargarine..........
27.1
27.3
-4
___ do...............
28.5
Nut margarine..........
+1
35.5
33.0
36.6
+
3
___ d o ...............
Cheese.........................
+11
15.9
17.6
-1
17.5
+ 10
___ d o ...............
Lard............................
1 In addition to monthly retail prices of food and coal, the bureau secures prices of gas and dry goods
from each of 51 cities and for electricity from 32 cities. These prices are published at quarterly intervals
in the M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w .
2 The following 22 articles, weighted according to the consumption of the average family, have been used
from January, 1913, to December, 1920: Sirloin steak, round steak, rib roast, chuck roast, plate beef, pork
chops, bacon, ham, lard, hens, floury corn meal, eggs, butter, milk, bread, potatoes, sugar, cheese, rice,
coffee, and tea. The remainder of the 43 articles shown in Tables 1 and 2 have been included in the weighted
aggregates for each month, beginning with January, 1921.

I» 2
IV8

62

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[288]

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD.

63

AVERAGE R ETA IL PRICES OF SPEC IFIED FOOD ARTICLES AND P E R C E N T
15’ 1922’ compared w i t h decem S eT S J

Average retail price on—
Article.

Crisco........................
Eggs, strictly fresh.
Eggs, storage...........
Bread........................
Flour.........................
Corn meal.................
Rolled oats...............
Corn flakes...............
Cream of Wheat__
Macaroni...................
R ice...........................
Beans, n a v y ...........
Potatoes...................
Onions.......................
Cabbage....................
Beans, baked...........
Corn, canned...........
Peas, canned...........
Tomatoes, canned..
Sugar, granulated..
T ea............................
Coffee........................
Prunes......................
Raisins......................
Bananas...................
Oranges.....................

Unit.

Pound...........
Dozen.............
....... d o .............
Pound...........
___ d o .............
___ do.............
___ do.............
8-oz. package.
28-oz.;
Pounc
___ d o .. .
___ d o .. .
___ d o . . .
___d o .. .
___d o .. .
No. 2 can.
. ...d o ...
___d o . . .
___d o .. .
P o u n d ...
___do___
___d o ___
___do___
___d o ___
Dozen___
___d o ___

All articles combined 1.

Dec. 15,
1921.

Nov. 15,
1922.

Dec. 15,
1922.

Cents.

Cents.

Cents.

21.6

70.5
49.1
9.1
5.0
4.1
9.6
11.9
29.3
20.2

9.3

8.2

3.1

8.0

5.1
13.8
16.0
17.8
13.0
6.5
67.7
35.6
18.7
25.5
37.3
50.3

23.2
64.5
39.8
8.7
4.8
3.9

8.8

9.7
25.6
19.9
9.5
10.2

2.1

4.4
3.4
13.2
15.2
17.4
12.8

8.1

68.5
36.5
20.2

19.8
36.8
51.0

23.3
66.5
40.8

8.6

4.9
4.0
8.7
9.7
25.5
20.0

9.5
10.5

2.1

4.6
3.6
13.1
15.2
17.4
12.7
8.3
68.5
36.7
20.1

19.2
37.1
48.5

Per cent of increase
(+ ) or decrease (—)
Dec. 15,1922, com­
pared with— .
Dec. 15,
1921.

Nov. 15.
1922.

+8

+0.4
+3
+3

-6

-1 7
-5
-2
-2

-9
-1 8
-1 3

-1

+2

-1
+2

+3

-1
- 0 .4

+1

+ 28
-3 2
-4 3
-2 9
-5
-5

+5

-2
-2

-1

+28

+1

+3
+7
-2 5

-1

-4
-2

+3
+6

-1
+2

+1

- 0 .4
-3

+1
-5

+1

1 See note 2, page 62.

Table 2 shows for the United States average retail prices of speci­
fied food articles on December 15, 1913 and 1914, and on December
15 of each year from 1917 to 1922, together with the percentage
changes in December of each of these specified years compared with
December, 1913. For example, the price per quart of fresh milk
was 9.1 cents in December, 1913; 9 cents in December, 1914; 13.1
cents in December, 1917; 15.7 cents in December, 1918; 16.7 cents in
December, 1919; 16.8 cents in December, 1920; 14.1 cents in De­
cember, 1921; and 13.7 cents in December, 1922. As compared
with the average price in December, 1913, these figures show the
following percentage changes: A decrease of 1 per cent in December,
1914; and the following increases: 44 per cent in December, 1917;
73 per cent in December, 1918; 84 per cent in December, 1919; 85
per cent in December, 1920; 55 per cent in December, 1921; and 51
per cent in December, 1922.
The cost of the various articles of food, combined, showed an
increase of 41 per cent in December, 1922, as compared with De­
cember, 1913.


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64

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW,

T a b l e 2 .—AVERAGE R E TA IL PRICES OF SPEC IFIED FOOD ARTICLES AND PE R CENT

OF INCREASE OR D ECREASE DECEM BER 15 OF CERTAIN SPEC IFIED YEAR S COM­
PA R E D W ITH DECEM BER 15, 1913.
[Percentage changes of five-tenths of 1 per cent and over are given in whole numbers.]

Average retail prices Dec. 15—
Article.

Unit.

Per cent of increase (+ ) or decrease
(—) Dec. 15 of each specified year
compared with Dec. 15, 1913.

1913 1914 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1914 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922
Cts. Cts. Cts.

Sirloin steak............
Round steak...........
Rib roast..................
Chuck roast.............
Plate beef.................
Pork chops..............
Bacon........................
Ham..........................
Lamb, leg of............
Salmon,

canned,

Milk, fresh...............
Milk, evaporated
B utter............... . _..
Cheese.. 7 .................
Lard..........................
Crisco...................
Eggs, strictly fresh.
Eggs, storage...........
Bread........................
Flour.........................
Corn meal................
Corn flakes.............
Cream of Wheat.
Macaroni..................
R ice.........................
Potatoes.. ”.............
Onions....................
Cabbage....................
Corn, canned.........
Sugar, granulated..
T ea............................
Coflee........................
Prunes......................
Raisins.....................
Bananas....................
Oranges....................

Pound.
. . .d o . .
. . .d o . .
. . .d o . .
. . .d o . .
. . .d o . .
. . .d o . .
. . .d o . .
. . .d o . .

2 5 . 1 25.6
22.6 23.0
19.9 20.1
16.2 16.5
12.4 12.5
20.3 19.5
26.7 27.8
26.5 26.8
18.5 19.0
20.8 19.9

32.0
30.0
25.4
21.5
16.2
33.9
48.8
43.4
30.2
30.4

Cts.

Cts.

Cts. Cts. Cts.

40.4
38.2
31.9
27.3
21.1
41.3
58.5
53.3
34.4
38.4

39.1
35.9
30.3
24.3
17.3
38.1
50.3
49.9
33.6
39.1

39.7j35.3 36.8
35.7 [30.8 31.5
30.1 26.7 27.3
23.2 19.2 19.4
16.5 12.8 12.7
33.0 30.4 29.5
47.4 38.7 40.3
49.9 44.4 45.4
35.2 32.3 35.6
40.2 35.8 33.6

+2
+2
+1
+2
+1
-4
+4
+1
+3
-4

+27 +61
+33 +69
+28 +60
+33 +69
+31 +70
+67 + 103
+ S3 + 119
+64 + 101
+63 +86
+46 + 85

129.0 131.4 136.4 138.4 32.5 31.4
Quart. 9.1 9.0 13.1 15.7 16.7 16.8 14.1 13.7 - 1

1 Both pink and red.
! 15-16 oz. can.

+1
s 8-oz. package.
* 28-oz. package.

+58
+58
+51
+43
+33
+63
+78
+88
+90
+93

+41 +47
+36 +39
+34;+37
+ 19+20
+3 +2
+ 50+ 45
+4o! + 51
+68!+71
+75 +92
+72 +62

+44 +73 +84 +8o + 55 +51

(2)
16.9 14.8 12.7 11.9
Pound. 39.7 39.3 54.3 72.7 78.0 62.0 52.1 60.2 - 1
43.4 39.5 30.1 28.7
35.8 34.7 28.5 27.3
. . .d o .. 22.5 23.0 34.5 42.7 43.3 39.0 33.0 36.6 + 2
. . .d o .. 15.8 15.4 33.4 34.2 34.9 25.6 15.9 17.5 - 3
37.7 29.5 21.6 23.3
Dozen. 47.6 47.8 63.5 81.1 90.1 92.4 70.5 66.5 + 6.4
. . .d o .. 34.5 31.7 45.0 58.1 63.5 69.4 49.1 40.8 - 8
Pound. 5.6 6.5 9.3 9.8 10.2 10.8 9.1 8.6 + 16
. . .d o . . 3.3 3.7 6.8 6.7 7.7 6.6 5.0 4.9 + 12
. . .d o .. 3.1 3.2 7.1 6.4 6.6 5.5 4.1 4.0 + 3
9.2 10.9 9.6 8.7
(3)
14.1 14.1 11.9 9.7
30.2 29.3 25.5
27.6
(«)
19.8 21.6 20.2 20.0
13.2 9.3 9.5 + 1
17.7
11.6
13.9
. .. d o . . 8.7 8.8
12. 2 9.4 8.2 10.5
18.8
. . .d o .. 1.8 1.4 3.0 3.2 4.3 3.2 3.1 2.1 -2 2
5. C 3.9 8.1 4.1 8.0 4.6
6.1 3.4 5.1 3.6
(5)
17.0 16.3 13.8 13.1
(5)
18.9 17.8 16.0 15.2
(5)
19.2 18.7 17.8 17.4
(i)
16.1 13.0 13.0 12.7
Pound. 5.4 6.1 9.5 10.8 14.5 10.5 6.5 8.3 + 13
. . .d o . . 54.5 54.7 62.1 67.4 69.3 72.1 67.7 68.5 + 0.4
. . .d o .. 29.7 29.6 30.3 32.4 48.9 39.7 35.6 36.7 +0.3
16.4 19.2 29.3 25.6 18.7 20.1
.. .do. .
15.0 16.1 23.9 32.4 25.5 19.2
40.4 41.8 37.3 37.1
. . .d o ..
52.0 49.5 50.3 48.5

All articles combined 6...................

+56
+59
+52
+ 50
+40
+88
+88
+88
+82
+88

+37 +83 +93 +56 + 3 i +52
+53 +90 +92 +73 +47 +63
+ 111 + 116 + 121 +62 + 1 + 11
+33 +70 +S9 +94 +48
+30 +68 + 84 + 101 +42
+66 +75 + 82 +93 +63
+ 106 + 103 + 133 + 100 +52
+ 129 + 106 + 113 +77 +32

+ 40
+ 18
+54
+48
+29

+33 +60 + 103 +52 + 7 +9
+67 +78 + 139 + 78 +72 + 17

+76 + 100 + 169 +94 +20 +54
+ 14 +24 +27 +32 +24 +26
+2 +9 +65 +34 + 20 +24

+ 51 +79 + 89 +71 +44 + 41
6 No. 2 can.
6 See note 2, page 62.

Table 3 shows for the United States average retail prices of the
principal articles of food for the years 1913 and 1922, and for each
month of 1922.
Meat prices showed a slight increase in December as compared
with the retail price in January. Groceries, however, decreased
slightly during the year 1922.


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[290]

65

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD.

Table 3 .—AVERAGE R ETA IL PRICES OF 1 HE PRINCIPAL A R T IC IE S OF FOOD IN
THE U N IT E D STATES, B Y Y EARS 1913 AND 1922, AND B Y MONTHS FOR 1922.

1922
A v­
erage
for
vear Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May .Tune July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
1913. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15.

Article.

Unit.

Sirloin steak.........
Round steak.........
Rib roast...............
Chuck roast..........
Plate beef..............
Pork chops...........
Bacon, sliced........
Ham, sliced..........
Lam b.....................
H ens.......................
Salmon, canned,
red.
Milk, fresh.............
Milk, evaporated.

P o u n d ..
.. .d o----.. .d o ----.. .d o .. . .
.. .d o ----.d o___
...d o ....
. . .d o .. . .
.. .d o ----. .. d o ----..d o -----

B utter....................
Oleomargarine__
N ut margarine—
Cheese....................
Lard.......................

P o u n d .. 38.3 45.3 45.9 45.8 45.2
29.3 28.3 27.9 27.7
.. .d o ----28.2 27.5 27.0 26.9
.. .d o ----.. .d o ----- 22. i 32.9 32.9 33.0 32.1
. . . d o . . . . 15.8 15.4 15.9 17.3 16.9
21.6 21.7 21.9 22.1
Dozen... 34.5 49.9 48.4 31.8 31.7
39.3 39.1
P o u n d .. 5.6 8.8 8.6 8.7 8.7
. . . d o . . . . 3.3 4.9 5.1 5.3 5.3
. . .d o ----- 3.0 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9
9.2 8.9 8.8 8.7
. . .d o ----10.7 10.3 10.2 10.1
8-oz. pkg
26.6 26.2 26.0 25.9
28 oz.pkg
20.3 20.2 20.2 20.0
. . .d o ----- 8.7 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.4
8.2 8.3 8.9 9.3
.. .d o ----.. .d o----- i. 7 3.3 3.3 3. 1 2.9
9.1 10.9 11.6 13.8
. . .d o .. . .
5.0 5.7 5.4 5.3
.. .d o___
13.5 13.3 13.2 13.1
N o. 2 can
16.0 15.9 15.7 15.6
.. .d o ----17.7 17.8 17.7 17.8
.. .d o ----13.2 13.4 13.6 13.7
. . .d o .. . .
P o u n d .. 5.5 6.2 6.4 6.5 6.7
.. .d o___ 54. 4 68.3 67.8 67.5 67.7
. . .d o ----- 29.8 35.7 35.6 35.6 35.7
18.8 18.8 19.2 20.0
.. .d o___
.. .d o----25.0 24.8 24.6 24.4
36.6
36.8 36.9 36.1
D ozen...
46.2 48.5 53.9 61.1
...d o ....

Eggs, strictly fresh
Bread.....................
Flour......................
Com meal.............
Rolled oats...........
Corn flakes............
Cream of W heat..
R ice........................
Beans, navy.........
Potatoes.................
Onions...................
Cabbage.................
Beans, baked........
Corn, canned........
Peas, canned........
Tomatoes, canned
Sugar, granulated.
Tea..........................
Coffee.....................
Prunes...................
Bananas.................
Oranges..................

Quart. . .
15-16 oz.

Av­
erage
for
year
1922.

c ts .

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

25.4
22.3
19.8
16.0
12.1
21.0
27.0
26.9
18.9
21.3

35. 3
30.4
26.7
19. C
12.8
28.9
37.6
44.2
33.9
36.9
33.3

35.2
30.2
26.5
18.9
12.8
29.3
37.9
46.5
35.4
36.9
32.9

35.9
30.8
27.0
19.3
13.0
31.3
39.0
49.8
37.5
37.8
32.6

36.4
31.4
27.3
19.5
13.0
33.0
39.7
50.7
38.5
37.8
32.4

37.7
32.5
27.9
19.8
13.0
34.4
39.8
51.3
39.2
37.7
32.3

38. 4
33.5
28.2
20. 1
12.9
33.9
40.4
51.9
38.0
36.9
32.2

39.2
34.2
28.5
20.3
12.8
34.4
40.6
52.3
37.4
35.7
32.1

39. 0
34.1!
28. 2
20.0
12.6
35.1
40.6
50.8
36.0
34.9
31.9

38.7
33.6
28.1
20.0
12.6
36.4
40.4
48.4
35.9
34.9
31.7

38.3
33.1
28. C
19.9
12.8
36.6
40.8
47.6
35.9
34.8
31.6

37.3
32.0
27.5
19.6
12.7
33.0
40.9
46.3
35.8
33.9
31.5

36.8
31.5
27.3
19.4
12.7
29.5
40.3
45.4
35.6
33.6
31.4

37.4
32.3
27.6
19.7
12.8
33.0
39.8
48.8
36.6
36.0
32.2

8.9 13.6 13.2 13.0 12.7 12.5 12.5 12.8 13.0 13.1 13.3 13.4 13.7 13.1
12.4 11.6 11.3 11.1 11.0 10.9 10.9 10.8 10.8 11.2 11.7 11.9 12.3
44.9
27.5
26.7
30.8
17.0
22.2
33.5

44.9
27.5
26.7
31.1
17.2
22.4
34.1

45.7
27.5
26.6
31.5
17.2
22.7
36.0

44.2
27.6
26.6
31.8
17.2
22.9
37.1

46.7
27.8
26.8
32.1
17.2
23.0
44.8

8.8
5.3
3.8
8.7
10.0
25.8
20.1
9.5
9.7
3.0
9.8
5.7
13.1
15.5
17.8
13.7
6.6
67.9
35.9
20.4
24.2
36.2
62.0

8.8
5.3
3.9
8.7
9.9
25.8
20.0
9.6
10.6
3.5
8.0
5.1
13.2
15.5
17.8
13.9
7.1
68.0
36.1
20.6
24.1
36.3
63.5

8.8
5.2
3.9
8.7
9.8
25.8
20.0
9.6
11.1
3.6
7.0
4.6
13.3
15.4
17.8
13.8
7.6
68.0
36.2
20.8
24.0
35.8
63.2

8.7
5.1
3.9
8.7
9.8
25.7
20.0
9.6
11.3
2.6
5.9
3.8
13.4
15.4
17.6
13.6
8.1
68.3
36.2
20.8
23.2
34.2
64.8

8.7
4.9
3.9
8.7
9.8
25.6
19.9
9.6
10.8
2.3
5.1
3.7
13.4
15.3
17.5
13.1
7.9
68.2
36.2
20.9
22.1
34.0
64.8

50.8
27.8
26.9
34.1
17.5
23.2
54.3
39.1
8.7
4.8
3.9
8.7
9.7
25.6
19.9
9.6
10.1
2. 2
4.4
3.5
13.2
15.3
17.4
12.7
7.9
68.2
36.3
20.6
20.7
35.6
61.1

54.6
28.1
27.1
35.5
17.6
23.2
64.5
39.8
8.7
4.8
3.9
8.8
9.7
25.6
19.9
9.5
10.2
2.1
4.4
3.4
13.2
15.2
17.4
12.8
8.1
68.5
36.5
20.2
19.8
36.8
51.0

60.2
28.7
27.3
36.6
17.5
23.3
66.5
40. 8
8.6
4.9
4.0
8.7
9.7
25.5
20.0
9.5
10.5
2.1
-4.6
3.6
13.1
15.2
17.4
12.7
8.3
68.5
36.7
20.1
19.2
37.1
48.5

47.9
28.0
27.0
32.9
17.0
22.5
44.4
39.7
8.7
5.1
3.9
8.8
10.0
25.8
20.0
9.5
9.9
2.8
7.9
4.6
13.3
15.5
17.6
13.4
7.3
68.1
36.1
20.1
23.0
36.0
57.4

Table 4 shows the trend for the United States in the retail prices
of the principal articles of food, by relative figures. These figures
have been computed by dividing the average price for each month of
1922 and the average for the year 1922 by the average price for each
article for the year 1913. Should the percentage increase since 1913
he desired, it is only necessary to subtract 100 from these relative
figures.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

f291J

66

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW,

T able 4 .—RELA TIV E R ETA IL PRICES OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF FOOD IN
TH E U N IT E D STATES B Y Y EAR S, 1913 AND 1922, AND B Y MONTHS FOR 1922.

Article.

Unit.

Sirloin steak.........
Round steak........
Rib roast...............
Chuck roast..........
Plate beef..............
Pork chops...........
Bacon, sliced........
Ham, sliced..........
Lamb.....................
Liens.......................
Milk, fresh.............
Butter....................
Cheese....................
Lard.......................
Eggs,strictlyfresh
Bread.....................
Flour......................
Corn m eal.............
Rice........................
Potatoes................
Sugar, granulated.
Tea..........................
Coflee.....................

P o u n d ..
..d o .......
..d o .......
..d o .......
..d o .......
..d o .......
.. do.......
..d o .......
..d o .......
Quart. . .
Pound..
..d o .......
Dozen...
P o u n d ..
..d o .......
..d o .......

All articles com­
bined.1

1922
A v­
erage
for
year Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
1913. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15.
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

139
136
135
119
106
138
139
164
179
173
153
118
149
97
145
157
148
130
107
194
113
126
120

139
135
134
118
106
140
140
173
187
173
148
120
149
101
140
154
155
130
107
194
116
125
119

141
138
136
121
107
149
144
185
198
177
146
120
149
109
92
155
161
130
107
182
118
124
119

143
141
138
122
107
157
147
188
204
177
143
118
145
107
92
155
161
130
108
171
122
124
120

148
146
141
124
107
164
147
191
207
177
140
117
139
108
97
157
161
127
109
176
120
125
120

151
150
142
126
107
161
150
193
201
173
140
117
141
109
99
157
161
130
110
206
129
125
121

154
153
144
127
106
164
150
194
198
168
144
119
143
109
104
157
158
130
110
212
138
125
121

154
153
142
125
104
167
150
189
190
164
146
115
144
109
108
155
155
130
110
153
147
125
121

no

no

135
144
125
121

100

142

142

139

139

139

141

142

139

140

152
151
142
125
104
173
150
ISO
190
164
147
122
145
109
130
155
148
130

151
148
141
124
106
174
151
177
190
103
149
133
154
111
157
155
145
130

Av­
erage
for
year
1922.

129
144
125
122

147
144
139
123
105
157
151
172
189
159
151
143
161
111
187
155
145
130
109
124
147
126
122

145
141
138
121
105
140
149
169
188
158
154
157
166
111
193
154
148
133
109
124
151
126
123

147
145
139
123
106
157
147
181
194
169
147
125
149
108
129
155
155
130
109
165
133
125
121

143

145

147

142

1 See note 2, p. 62.

Table 5 shows the changes in the retail prices of each of 22 articles
of food 3 as well as the changes in the amounts of the articles that
could be purchased for $1, each year, 1913 to 1922, and for each
month of 1922.
T able 5 .—-AVERAGE R ETA IL PRICES OF SPECIFIED ARTICLES OF FOOD AND AMOUNT
PURCHASABLE FOR $1, IN EACH Y E A R , 1913 TO 1922, A N D B Y MONTHS FOR 1922.
Sirloin steak. Round steak.
Year.

Rib roast.

Chuck roast.

Plate beef.

Pork chops.

Aver­
Aver­
Aver­
Aver­
Aver­
Aver­
age
age Amt.
Amt.
age
Amt.
age Amt.
age Amt.
age Amt.
retail for $1. retail for $1. retail for SI. retail for $1. retail îor SI. retail for SI.
price.
price.
price.
price.
price.
price.
P e r lb.

1913..................... $0. 254
1914....................
.259
1915..................... .257
1916..................... .273
1917..................... .315
1918....................
.389
1919..................... .417
1920..................... .437
1921..................... .388
1922..................... .374
.353
January__
February.. .352
March......... .359
April........... .364
May............. .377
June............ .384
.392
July............
August....... .390
September. .387
October___ .383
N ovem ber. .373
December.. .368

L b s.

P e r lb.

3.9 $0. 223
3.9
.236
3.9
.230
3.7
.245
3.2
.290
2.6
.369
2.4
.389
2.3
.395
2.6
.344
2.7
.323
2.8
.304
.302
2.8
2.8
.308
2.7
.314
2.7
.325
2.6
.335
2.6
.342
2.6
.341
2.6
.336
2.6
.331
2.7
.320
2.7
.315

L bs.

P a lb.

L bs.

4.5 $0.198
4.2
.204
4.3
.201
4.1
.212
3.4
.249
2.7
.307
2.6
.325
.332
2.5
2.9
.291
3.1
.276
3.3
.267
3.3
.265
3.2
.269
3.2
.273
3.1
.279
3.0
.282
2.9
.285
2.9
.282
3.0
.280
3.0
.281
3.1
.275
3.2
.273

P e r lb.

5.1 SO. 160
4.9
.167
5.0
.161
4.7
.171
4.0
.209
3.3
.266
3.1
.270
3.0
.262
3.4
.212
3.6
.197
3.7
.190
3.8
.189
3.7 . 193
3.7
.195
3.6
.199
3.5
.201
3.5
.203
3.5
.200
3.6
.200
3.6
.199
3.6
.196
.194
3.7

L bs.

P e r lb.

6.3 SO. 121
.126
6.0
6.2
.121
5.8
.128
4.8
.157
3.8
.206
3.7
.202
3.8
.183
4.7
.143
.128
5.1
5.3
.128
5.3
.128
5.2
.130
5.1
.130
5.0
.130
5.0
.129
4.9
.128
5.0
.126
5.0
.126
5.0
.128
5.1
.127
5.2
.127

L b s.

P e r lb.

8.3 $0. 210
7.9
.220
8.3
.203
7.8
.227
6.4
.319
4.9
.390
5.0
.423
.423
5.5
7.0
.349
7.8
.330
7.8
.288
7.8
.293
7.7
.313
7.7
.330
7.7
.344
7.8
.339
7.8
.344
7.9
.351
.364
7.9
7.8
.366
7.9
.330
7.9
.295

L bs.

4.8
4.5
4.9
4.4
3.1
2.6
2.4
2.4
2.9
3.0
3.5
3.4
3.2
3.0
2.9
2.9
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.7
3.0
3.4

•Although monthly prices have been secured on 43 food articles since January, 1919, prices on only 22
of these articles have been secured each month since 1913.


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[2 9 2 ]

BETAIL PRICES OF FOOD.

67

T a b l e 5.—A V ER A G E

R ETA IL PRICES OF SPEC IFIED ARTICLES OF FOOD AND
AMOUNT PU R C HASABLE FOR $1 LY EACH Y EAR, 1913 TO 1922, A N D B Y MONTHS
FOR 1922— Concluded.
Bacoa.
Year.

Ham.

Lard.

Hens.

Eggs.

Butter.

Aver­
Aver­
Aver­
Aver­
Aver­
Aver­
age
age
Amt.
Amt.
age
Amt.
age
Amt.
age
Amt.
age I Amt.
retail for SI. retail for $1. retail for SI. retail for SI. retail for $1. retail for SI.
price.
price.
price.
price.
price.
price.
P e r lb

L bs.

1913..................... SO. 270
1914..................... .275
1915..................... .269
1916..................... .287
1917..................... .410
1918..................... .529
1919..................... .554
1920..................... .523
1921..................... .427
1922..................... .398
.376
January__
February.. .378
March......... . 390
April........... .397
May............
.398
June............ .404
July............
.406
August....... .406
September. .404
October___ .408
N ovem ber. .409
December.. .403

Cheese.
P e r lb.

L bs.

1913..................... $0.221
1914..................... .229
1915..................... .233
1916..................... .258
1917..................... .332
1918....................
.359
1919....................
.426
1920..................... .416
1921..................... .340
1922..................... .329
January__
.329
February... .329
March......... .330
April........... .321
M ay............ .308
June...........
.311
July............. .315
August....... .318
September. .321
October___ .341
November.. .355
December.. .366

1913.................... 10.017
.018
1914....................
1915..................... .015
.027
1916.....................
1917..................... .043
1918..................... .032
1919..................... .038
1920..................... .063
1921..................... .(ÿ l
1922....................
.028
.033
January__
February... .033
March......... .031
April........... .029
May............. .030
.035
June...........
July............. .036
August....... .026
September.. .023
October___ .022
November.. .021
December.. .021

L bs.

L b s.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

O ts.

P e r lb.

L b s.

Bread.
P e r lb.

L bs.

L bs.

L b s.

Flour.
P e r lb.

L b s.

[293]

Tea.
P e r lb.

L b s.

1.8
1.8
1.7
1.5
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5

1.8
1.8

D o zs.

P e r lb

L bs.

2.9 $0.383
.362
2.8
2.9
.358
. 394
2.7
2.1
.487
1.8
.577
1.6
.678
.701
1.5
2.0
.517
2.3
.479
2.0
2.1
.459
3.1
.458
3.2
.452
3.0
.449
2.9
.449
2.8
.457
2.7
.442
2.2
.467
1.8
.509
1.6
.546
.602
1.5

Corn meal.
P e r lb.

30.3 SO. 030
29.4
.032
23.8
.033
22.7
.034
14.3
.058
14.9
.068
13.9
.064
12.3
.085
17.2
.045
19.6
.039
20.4
.039
19.6
.039
18.9
.039
18.9
.039
18.9
.038
18.9
.039
19.2
.039
19.6
.039
20.4
.039
20.8
.039
20.8
.039
20.4
.040

3.4 SO. 544
3.4
.546
3.3
.545
.546
3.3
.582
3.3
3.3
.648
.701
2.3
2.1
.733
.697
2.8
2.8
.681
.682
2.8
.680
2.8
2.8
.675
2.8
.676
.679
2.8
.680
2.8
.680
2.8
.682
2.8
.682
2.8
.682
2.8
.685
2.7
2.7
.685

L bs.

18.2 SO. 298
16.9
.297
15.2
.300
12.5
.299
.302
10.8
.305
10.3
8.8
.433
5.2
.470
12.5
.363
.361
13.7
.357
16.1
.356
15.6
15.4
.356
14.9
.357
15.2
.359
14.1
.361
.362
13.2
.362
12.3
.362
12.7
12.7
.363
.365
12.3
12.0
.367

P e r dz.

4.7 SO. 345
4.6
.353
4.8
.341
4.2
.375
3.5
.481
2.7
.569
2.4
.628
2.2
.681
2.5
.509
2.8
.444
2.7
.499
2.7
.484
2.6
.318
2.6
.317
2.7
.335
2.7
.341
2.8
.360
2.9
.371
2.9
.448
2.9
.543
2.9
.645
3.0
. 665

17.9 $0.033
15.9
.034
14.3
.042
13.7
.044
10.9
.070
10.2
.067
10.0
.072
8.7
.OSI
10.1
.058
11.5
.051
11. 4
.04)
11.6
.051
11.5
.053
11.5
.053
11.4
.053
11.4
.053
11.4
.052
.051
11.5
11.5
.049
11.5
.048
11.5
.048
11.6
.049

Coffee.
P e r lb.

P e r lb

6.3 SO. 213
6.4
.218
6.8
.208
5.7
.236
3.6
.286
3.0
.377
.411
2.7
3.4
.447
5.6
.397
5.9
.360
6.5
.389
6.3
.369
5.8
.378
5.9
.378
5.9
.377
5.8
.369
5.8
.357
5.8
.349
5.8
.349
5.7
.348
5.7
.339
5.7
.336

11.2 $0. 056
11.2
.063
11.4
.070
11.0
.073
9.0
.092
7.2
.098
6.5
.100
6.0
.115
6.8
.099
7.6
.087
7.4
.088
7.6
.086
7.7
.087
7.9
.087
8.0
.088
8.0
.088
7.8
.088
7.8
.087
7.6
.087
7.5
.087
7.5
.087
.086
7.3

Sugar.

58.8 $0.055
55.6
.059
66.7
.066
37.0
.oso
23.3
.093
31.3
.097
26.3
.113
15.9
.194
32.3
.080
35.7
.073
.062
30.3
30.3
.064
32.3
.065
34.5
.067
33.3
.066
27.8
.071
27.8
.076
38.5
.081
43.5
.079
45.5
.079
47.6
.081
47.6
.083

P e r lb

3.7 $0.158
3.7
.156
3.8
. 14S
3.4
.175
2.6
.276
2.1
.333
1.9
.369
1.8
.295
2.0
.180
2.0
.170
2.3
.154
2.2
.159
2.0
.173
2.0
.169
1.9
.170
.172
1.9
.172
1.9
2.0
.172
2.1
. 172
2.1
.175
2.2
.176
2.2
.175

Milk.
P e r qt.

4.5 $0.089
4.4
.089
4.3
.088
3.9
.091
3.0
. 112
2.8
.139
2.3
.155
2.4
.167
2.9
.146
3.0
. 131
3.0
.136
3.0
.132
3.0
.130
3.1
.127
3.2
.125
3.2
. 125
3.2
.128
3.1
.129
3.1
.131
2.9
.133
2.8
.134
2.7
.137

Potatoes.
P e r lb.

P e r lb

3.7 $0.269
3.6
.273
3.7
.261
3.5
.294
2.4
.382
1.9
.479
.534
1.8
1.9
.555
2.3
.488
2.5
.488
.442
2.7
2.6
.465
2.6
.497
2.5
.507
2.5
.513
2.5
.519
2.5
.523
2.5
.508
.484
2.5
2.5
.477
2.4
.463
.454
2.5

L b s.

2.6
2.8
2.8
2.5
2.1
-1.7
1.5
1.4
1.9
2.1
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.3
2.1
2.0
1.8
1.7

Rice.
P e r lb.

'33.3 $0.087
31.3
.088
30.3
.091
29.4
.091
17.2
. 104
14.7
. 129
15.6
.151
15.4
.174
22.2
.095
25.6
.095
25.6
.093
25.6
.093
25.6
.093
25.6
.094
26.3
.095
25.6
.096
25.6
.096
25.6
.096
25.6
.096
25.6
.096
25.6
.096
25.0
.095

L bs.

11.5
11.4
11.0
11.0
9.6
7.8
6.6
5.7
10.5
10.5
10.8
10.8
10.8
10.6
10.5
10.4
10.4
10.4
10.4
10.4
10.4
10.5

68

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

Index Numbers of Retail Prices of Food in the United States.

IN TABLE 6 index numbers are given which show the changes in
1 the retail prices of each of 22 food articles,4by years from 1907 to
1922, and by months for 1921 and 1922.5 These index numbers, or
relative prices, are based on the year 1913 as 100, and are computed
by dividing the average price of each commodity for each month and
each year by the average price of that commodity for 1913. These
figures must be used with caution. For example, the relative price
of rib roast for the year 1920 was 168, which means that the average
money price for the year 1920 was 68 per cent higher than the average
money price for the year 1913. The relative price of bacon for the
year 1919 was 205 and for the year 1920, 194, which figures show a
drop of 11 points but a decrease of only 5 per cent in the year.
In the last column of Table 4 are given index numbers snowing the
changes in the retail cost of all articles of food combined. From
January, 1913, to December, 1920, 22 articles have been included in
the index, and beginning with January, 1921, 43 articles have been
used.4 For an explanation of the method used in making the link
between the cost of the market basket of 22 articles, weighted accord­
ing to the average family consumption in 1901, and the cost of the
market basket based on 43 articles and weighted according to the
consumption in 1918, see M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w for March, 1921
(p. 25).
The curve shown in the chart on page 70 pictures more readily to
the eye the changes in the cost of the family market basket and the
trend in the cost of the food budget than do the index numbers
given in the table. The retail cost of the food articles included in
the index has decreased since July, 1920, until the curve is brought
down in December, 1922, to approximately where it was in July,
1917. The chart has been drawn on the logarithmic scale,6 because
the percentages of increase or decrease are more accurately shown
than on the arithmetic scale.
4See note 2, p. 62.
5For index numbers of each month, January, .1913, to December, 1920, see M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w
for February, 1921, pp. 19-21.
6For a discussion of the logarithmic chart, see article on “ Comparison of arithmetic and ratio charts,” bv

Lucian W. Chaney, M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w for March, 1919, pp. 20-34. Also, “ The ‘ratio’ charts,”
by Prof. Irving Fisher, reprinted from Quarterly Publications of the American Statistical Association
June, 1917, 24 pp.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

{FABLE 6 .—IN D E X N U M B E R S SHOW ING CHANGES IN T H E R E T A IL PRIC ES OF T H E P R IN C IP A L A R TIC LES OF FOOD IN T H E U N IT E D ST A T ES B Y
Y E A R S, 1907 TO 1922, A N D B Y MONTHS FOR 1921 A N D 1922.
[Average for year 1913=100.]
Round Rib Chuck Plate Pork B a­
B u t­
Year and m onth. Sirloin
steak. steak. roast. roast. beef. chops. con. Ham. Lard. Hens. Eggs. ter. Cheese. M ilk. Bread


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

71
73
77
80
81
91
100
102
101
108
124
153
164
172
153
159
151
154
157
158
157
158
157
153
147
141
139
147
139
139
141
143
148
151
154
154
152
151
147
145

68
71
74
78
79
89
100
106
103
110
130
165
174
177
154
163
153
157
160
160
160
161
160
154
148
139
138
145
136
135
138
141
146
150
153
153
151
148
144
141

76
78
81
85
85
94
100
103
101
107
126
155
164
168
147
157
148
152
154
153
151
148
147
144
139
135
135
139
135
134
136
138
141
142
144
142
142
141
139
138

100
104
101
107
131
166
169
164
133
148
138
141
140
138
135
129
130
128
124
120
120
123
119
118
121
122
124
126
127
125
125
124
123
121

100
104
100
106
130
170
167
151
118
140
129
130
127
124
117
109
112
110
109
106
106
106
106
106
107
107
107
107
106
104
104
106
105
105

74
76
83
92
85
91
100
105
96
108
152
186
201
201
166
171
156
168
177
167
162
163
181
179
171
152
145
157
138
140
149
157
164
161
164
167
173
174
157
140

74
77
83
95
91
91
100
102
100
106
152
196
205
194
158
169
166
155
164
161
159
160
162
159
153
147
143
147
139
140
144
147
147
150
150
150
150
151
151
149

76
78
82
91
89
91
100
102
97
109
142
178
199
206
181
180
179
181
183
181
182
190
197
191
180
170
165
181
164
173
185
188
191
193
194
189
180
177
172
169

81
80
90
104
88
94
100
99
93
111
175
211
234
187
114
141
131
124
116
108
103
106
115
113
109
105
101
108
97
101
109
107
108
109
109
109
109
111
111
111

81
83
89
94
91
93
100
102
97
111
134
177
193
210
186
200
201
203
202
194
181
182
183
179
175
168
168
169
173
173
177
177
177
173
168
164
164
163
159
158

84
86
93
98
94
99
100
102
99
109
139
165
182
197
148
229
139
121
99
97
101
123
138
146
171
201
204
129
145
140
92
92
97
99
104
108
130
157
187
193

85
86
90
94
88
98
100
94
93
103
127
151
177
183
135
159
148
150
145
111
105
122
134
132
139
139
136
125
118
120
120
118
117
117
119
115
122
133
143
157

100
104
105
117
150
162
193
188
154
175
174
176
169
143
133
133
148
148
149
151
149
149
149
149
149
145
139
141
143
144
145
154
161
166

87
90
91
95
96
97
100
100
99
102
125
156
174
188
164
183
173
171
167
162
160
157
161
158
160
161
158
147
153
148
146
143
140
140
144
146
147
149
151
154

100
113
125
130
164
175
179
205
177
193
189
188
184
177
175
173
173
171
170
166
163
155
157
154
155
155
157
157
157
155
155
155
155
154

95
102
109
108
102
105
100
104
126
135
211
203
218
245
176
203
197
194
179
173
179
176
173
170
164
155
152
155
148
155
161
161
161
161
158
155
148
'145
145
148

88
92
94
95
94
102
100
105
108
113
192
227
213
217
150
173
167
160
153
150
150
147
150
147
143
140
137
130
130
130
130
130
127
130
130
130
130
130
130
133

100
101
104
105
119
148
174
200
109
137
121
113
106
101
101
100
101
103
107
108
107
109
107
107
107
108
109
110
110
110
110
110
109
109

105
111
112
101
130
135
100
108
89
159
253
188
224
371
182
176
153
147
135
129
159
200
247
235
206
188
182
165
194
194
182
171
176
206
212
153
135
129
124
124

Cof­
fee.

All
Tea. articles
com­
bined.

105
107
100
117
115
100
108
120
146
169
176
205
353
145
176
162
176
176
153
142
129
136
133
125
122
118
133
113
116
118
122
120
129
138
147
144
144
147
151

iöö
100
101
100
101
102
145
158
122
129
126
125
123
121
120
119
119
119
119
119
119
121
120
119
119
120
120
121
121
121
121
122
122
123

iöö
100
100
100
107
119
129
135
128
133
131
131
129
129
126
127
127
127
127
127
124
125
126
125
124
124
125
125
125
126
125
125
126
126

82
84
89
93
92
98
100
102
101
114
146
168
186
203
153
172
158
156
152
145
144
148
155
153
153
152
150
142
142
142
139
139
139
141
142
139
140
143
145
147

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD,

[295]

1907...........................
1908...........................
1909...........................
1910............................
1911...........................
1912............................
1913............................
1914...........................
1915............................
1916............................
1917............................
1918...........................
1919............................
1920............................
to 1921: A v . for year..
^
January...........
i_j
February..........
March...............
A p ril.................
M ay...................
June...................
J u ly ...................
A u g u st.............
September.......
October............
N ovem ber........
December.........
1922: A v . for year..
January............
February..........
March...............
A p ril.................
M ay...................
J urie..................
J u ly ...................
A ugust.............
September.......
October............
November........
December.........

Corn Rice. Pota­ Su­
Flour. meal.
toes. gar.

-I
O
T R EN D IN TH E R E T A IL COST OF A LL A R TIC L ES OF FO O D , COMBINED, FO R THE U N IT E D ST A TES, B Y M ONTHS, JA N U A R Y , 1913, TO D E C E M B ER , 1922.

400
375
350
325
300
275
250
225
200

175
150
125
100

75

50

40

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW,


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[Average cost for 1913=100.]

71

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD.

Table 7 shows by index numbers the trend in the retail cost of food
in the United States from 1890 to 1922. The percentage decrease
in the cost from 1921 to 1922 was 7 per cent, while the percentage
increase from 1890 to 1922 was 103 per cent. This percentage means
that the cost of food in 1922 was more than twice as much as it was
in 1890.
Table 7.—IN D E X NUM BERS SHOWING THE TREND IN THE RETAIL COST OF FOOD >
IN THE U N ITED STATES, B Y YEARS, 1890 TO 1922.
[Average for year 1913=100.]

Year.

1890....................
1891.....................
1892....................
1893....................
1894....................
1895....................
1898....................
1897....................
1898....................

Relative
price.
70
71
69
71
68
67
65
65
67

Year.

1899.................
1900.................
1901.................
1902.................
1903.................
1904.................
1905.................
1906.................

Relative
price.
68
69
72
75
75
76
76
79

Year.

1907.................
1908.................
1909.................
1910.................
1911.................
1912.................
1913.................
1914.................

Relative
price.
82
84
89
93
92
98
100
102

Year.

1915...............
1916
1917 ..
1918
1919 ..
1920
1921
1922

Relative
price.
101
114
146
168
186
203
153
142

1The number of articles included in the index number for each year has not been the same throughout
the period, but a sufficient number have been used fairly to represent food as a whole. From 1890 to 1907,
30 articles were used; from 1907 to 1913, 15 articles; from 1913 to 1920, 22 articles; and for the year 1921, 43
articles. The relatives for the period have been so computed as to be comparable with each other.

Retail Prices of Food in 51 Cities on Specified Dates.

A VERAGE retail food prices are shown in Table 8 for 39 cities

for December 15, 1913, for December 15, 1921, and for Novem­
ber 15 and December 15, 1922. For 12 other cities prices are shown
for the same dates, with the exception of December, 1913, as these
cities were not scheduled by the bureau until after 1913.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[297]

72

M ONTHLY LABOR REVIEW
T a ble 8 .—A VERAGE RETAIL PRICES OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTICLES

[The prices shown in this table are computed from reports sent m onthly to the Bureau by retail dealers.

Baltimore, Md.

Atlanta, Ga.
Article.

Unit.

Sirloin steak.....................
Round steak.....................
Rib roast...........................
Chuck roast.......................
Plate beef..........................

Pound..........
........do...........
........do...........
........do...........
........do...........

Birmingham, Ala.

Dec. 15—

Dec. 15—
Dec. 15—
Nov Dec
Nov. Dec
Nov Dec.
15, 15,
15, 15,
15, 15,
1913 1921 1922. 1922 1913 1921 1922. 1922. 1913 1921 1922. 1922.
Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

34.7
31.4
25.7
18.3
11.9

32.8
29.8
25.4
18.1
11.7

33.6
30. S
27.4
19.7
13.3

35.4
32.7
28. f
19.2
12.7

35.0
32.0
28.7
19.2
13.1

28.0
23.0
20.5
16.1
10.0

Cts.

32.4
29.6
25-1
17.5
11.9

22. i
20.8
17.5
153
12.6

Cts.

23.7
21.3
19.7
15.8
9.9

33.6
29.7
24.c
19.0
11.9

33. (
29-7
24. £
19.5
12.4

33.0
29.5
25.1
19.7
11.7

Pork chops........................ ........do........... 23.3
........do........... 31.4
H am ................................... ........do............ 30.0
Lamb, leg o f ..................... ........do........... 20.2
20. f

29.3
39.5
44.8
31.9
33. C

32.9
38.1
46.9
37.7
29.9

27.6
37.1
46.7
35.8
30.3

17.0
20.5
27.5
17.5
20.7

29.1
32. C
47.3
33.4
35. S

31.9
36.5
49.9
36.7

28.2
35.4
50.6
36.5
35. S

20.6
33. C
32.0
21.9
19.3

29.7
41.C
44.8
35.4
32.3

33.9
41.7
46.8
35.6
30.9

29.7
41.4
45.5
35.6
30.6

........do............
15.6 28.4
Milk, fresh......................... Quart............ 10.8 17.8 16.7
14.7 13.6
B u tter.. ‘ .......................... Pound.......... 40.4 52.2 54.6
Oleomargarine................. ........do........... ... 33.3 30.8

27.8 26.2
27.9
16.7 8.7 12.0 12.0
14.0
11.7 11.3
58.3 40.2 58.6 59.2
28.0 25.7
31.7

26.6
34.7 30.5 30.5
13.0 10.0 20.0 19.0 19.0
11.7
13.7 13. C 13.1
64.6 44.0 51.3 53.1 58.6
26.3
35.7 32.9 33.9

........do...........
30.2 27.4 26.4
28.1 27.5 27.5
31.0 29.4 30.6
Cheese. .1 .......................... ........do........... 25.0 32.1 35.1 36.8 23.3 33.4 35.2 36.1 23.0 30.8 35.1 37.2
........do........... 15.5 16.6 18.2 18.0 14.8 15.9 17.0 17.0 15.7 15.2 18.0 17.8
........do...........
20.3 21.7 21.8
19.7 22.4 22.1
23.5 21.5 22.0
Eggs, strictly fresh.......... Dozen........... 43.3 63-0 51.8 59.5 40.4 71.3 68.7 66.4 41.8 63.1 50.8 62.0
Eggs, storage....................
Bread..................................
Flour..................................
Corn m eal..........................

........do........... 28.5 53.8 40.7 41.6 33.1 49.4 36.4 37.6 35.0 46.4 41.4 43.5
Pound.......... 5.6 10.0 9.6 9.6 5.5 8.6 8.3 8.4 5.4 9.3 9.0 9.0
........do........... 3.4 5.5 5.2 5.3 3.1 4.9 4.6 4.6 3.6 5.9 5-6 5.7
........do........... 2.0 2.7 3.2 3.2 2.5 3.2 3.2 3.1 2.5 2.9 3.0 3.0
........do...........
9.4 8.4 8.5
11.2 9.5 9.5
10.5 9.5 9.6

R ice.................................... ........do...........
........do...........
Potatoes............................. ........do...........
........do...........
........do...........

12.3 9.6 9.6
29.2 26.6 26.6
21.9 21.6 21.9
8.6 8.9 8.9 9.0
9.7 11.7 12.0
2.3

........do...........
Tomatoes, canned........... ........do...........
Sugar, granulated........... Pound..........
Coffee..................................
........do...........
Oranges.............................. ........do............

4.2 3.2 3.1
9.9 6.1 6.1
6.0 4.5 4.7
14.2 13.5 13-3
16.5 15.9 16.0

10.5 9.0 8.9
27.9 24.5 24.5
20.3 19.2 19.4
9.0 9.5 9.3 9.3
8.0 9.9 10.3
1.8

3.2 2.0 2.0
7.8 4.7 4.8
4.6 3.4 3.6
12.5 11.9 12.0
15.8 14.1 14.2

12.3
30.8
20.3
8.2 9.3
9.5
2.1

10.1
27.4
19.7
9.7
11.5

10.1
27.2
19.7
9.6
11.4

4.2 3.1 3.2
9.0 5.4 5 5
5.8 4.6 4.8
15.2 15.1 15.0
17.2 16.1 16.1

18.0
13.4
7.0
60.0 89.8
32.0 35.4

18.2
12.5
8.5
88.6
36.5

18.0
16.9
11.2
12.6
8.8 4.9 6.0
88.6 56.0 64.5
36.8 24.4 30.9

15.7
11.4
7.5
65.0
32.4

16.2
20.3
12.4
11.3
7.6 5.2 6.5
65-9 61.3 82.7
32.6 28.8 36.8

19.2
11.2
8.2
82.2
37.6

20.1
11.3
8.7
81.8
37.4

19.0
26.2
24.4
33-9

22.1
21.4
26.2
40.4

21.1
20.6
24.4
40.0

18.8
17.9
25.9
52.4

18.8
16.5
26.6
46.8

20.6
26.6
32.5
36.6

22.0
21.3
35-0
46.4|

21.3
20.6
34.7
40.4

5 5

17.9
23.8
27.5
45-7

1 The steak for which prices are here quoted is called “ sirloin” in this city, but in most of the other
cities included in this report it would be known as porterhouse steak.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

73

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD.
OF FOOD FOR 51 CITIES ON CERTAIN SPECIFIED DATES.
As some dealers occasionally fail to report, the number of quotations varies from month to month.]
Bridgeport,
Conn.

Boston, Mass.

Buffalo, N. Y .

Butte, Mont.

Charleston, S C.

Dec. 15—
Dec. 15—
Nov. Dec.
Nov. Dec. Doc. Nov. Dec.
Nov. Dec. Dec. Nov. Dec.
15,
15, 15,
15,
15,
15, 15,
15, 15, 15,
15,
15,
1921. 1922. 1922. 1913 1921 1922. 1922. 1921. 1922. 1922. 1913 1921 1922. 1921.
1922.
1922.
1921

Dec. 15—
1913

Cts.

C ts.

Cts.

C ts.

C ts.

C ts.

C ts.

C ts.

Cts.

133.0 1 55.4 '61.7 '60.3 41.5 43.7 43.6 21.6
34.3 48.2 49.3 47.7 36.5 37.7 36.7 18.8
23.7 33.9 36.0 36.0 32.7 33.6 33.1 16.4
16.2 24.0 24.4 23.2 22.8 23.9 23.3 15.0
15.6 15.4 15.4 10.3 10.6 10.9 11.8

32.5
26.8
25.9
19.1
12.0

36.4
29.6
27. 1
19.8
12.0

35.9
29.4
26.7
19.6
12.0

26.8
23.4
22.4
16.0
11.3

28.0
24.6
22.9
16.5
11.4

27.6
24.3
22.7
15.9
11.3

22.5
21.0
20.0
15.0
12.5

34.9
32.9
29.1
21.8
14.6

33.2
30.9
26.8
19.8
13.4

C ts.

33.2
30.9
27.7
19.8
13.2

25.0
27.0
27.5
24.0
21.8

C ts.

C ts.

C ts.

C ts.

C ts.

C ts.

C ts.

Cts.

21.9
24.3
30.7
20.2
24.0

33.2
36.6
50.6
36.3
42.1

36.7
38.7
51.5
39.3
41.0

32.2
38.5
50.5
39.2
40.1

32.5
41.8
51.8
36.2
40.8

34.5
45.1
52.9
37.0
39.1

30.7
44.7
52.5
36.6
39.1

17.6
20.6
26.3
15.4
19.8

30.9
31.3
44.5
25. 0
34.6

34.1
35.2
46.9
30.6
34.7

30.1
35.0
46.2
30.9
35.1

27.1
49.2
52.9
23.6
29.1

32.5
47.7
53.4
31.2
27.7

30.0
48.6
53.4
28.9
26.2

35.0
37.0
44.3
38.5
40.9

34.5
37.9
45.0
43.1
37.0

29.7
38.4
43.3
41.9
36.6

33.7
15.4
13.1
53.6
31.2

29.6
14.5
12.0
52.7
28.3

29.7
14.5
12.2
56.6
28.5

37.1
15.0
12.7
52.3
28.3

33.3
14.0
11.5
52.6
27.0

33.3
15.0 8.Ó
12.0
55.7 39. Ì
27.5

29.2
15.0
11.4
53.8
28.7

27.4
14.0
11.4
56.5
27.3

27.4
14.0
11.6
61.7
27.5

40.4
14.3
13.3
50.0
35.0

37.7
14.2
12.3
54.3
30.0

28.7
37.7
14.2 12. Ó 18.7
12.4
12.3
56.9 39. Ò 49.4
29.3
30.0

27.5
18.5
11.6
49.3
27.6

27.1
18.0
11.9
55.6
27.0

28.6 26.3
33.5 37.0
16.5 18.4
22.1 24.1
95.0 100.6

25.9
37.4
18.4
24.6
87.7

25.7
33.4
15.1
20.3
89.1

25.0
35.2
17.5
23.0
87.5

28.3 26.9 25.7
25.5
35.9 21.5 32.5 34.6 35.5
17.5 14.2 14.7 16.8 16.7
20.0 21.8 22.2
22.9
89.4 47.6 74.8 75.9 70.8

33.0
36.7
20.7
25.1
71.4

30.2
36.7
22.0
26.0
65.6

30.4
36.7 21. Ò
20.9 15.0
26.3
78.1 46.7

28.0
33.6
18.8
21.3
44.0

28.0
35.0
18.8
21.6
51.2

51.6
9.4
5.7
5.0
9.1

45.8
8.4
5.5
4.9
8.4

45.6 50.3 43.3 45.2 31.4 47.3 37.3 38.4
8.4 9.7 8.4 8.4 5.6 8.7 8.3 8.2
5.5 5.2 4.9 4.9 3.0 4.5 4.3 4.4
4.8 7.7 6.9 6.9 2.6 3.8 3.4 3.3
8.4 7.9 8.1
8.2 9.4 8.5 8.5

48.3
9.6
5.6
4.4
8.2

41.2
9.7
5.5
3.9
6.7

44.4 35.2 44.1 34.5 35.8
9.7 6.4 10.3 9.5 9.4
5.5 3.7 6.1 5.9 5.9
3.9 2.6 3.1 3.0 3.0
10.5 9.5 9.5
6.7

11.7
29.4
24.1
10.3
7.9

10.0
25.9
23.7
11.1
10.3

10.0 10.7 9.3
25.9 28.4 25. 3
23.8 24.5 23.9
11.0 9.7 10.3
10.5 8.8 10.5

10.7 9.2 9.2
28.1 25.3 25.4
21.9 21. 7 22.0
9.3 9.0 9.0 9.0
8.0 10.3 10.5

13.6
33.2
22.6
9.3
8.7

11.9
28.8
22.5
9.6
9.3

11.9
29.2
23.3
9.9
9.3

10.0
25.0
19.6
6.5
11.3

10.0
25.0
19.7
6.4
11.4

2.8
8.9
5.8
15.1
19.1

2.2
4.3
4.5
14.4
18.5

3.0 2.2 2.1
8.2 4.4 4.5
4.9 3.6 3.9
llr? 12.2 12.2 11.9
18.7 19.2 17.9 17.9

2.4 1.7 1.7
8.8 4.7 4.7
3.7 2.2 2.6
11.4 11.0 11.1
16.1 15.0 15.0

1.7
7.8
5.0
19.2
17.9

1.2
3.8
2.7
17.5
16.1

2.5
5.0
3.8
11.3
14.3

21.0
12.9
6.3
67.2
41.3

21.7
13.5
8.0
68.9
43.0

21.6
14.0
8.3
68.9
42.8

21.0
12.8
6.3
58.9
35.4

20.1
12.8
7.8
57.6
34.9

17.4
20.1
13.1
12.5
7.9 5. i 6.1
57.6 45.0 60.8
34.9 29.3 33.2

16.7
13.4
7.9
60.9
34.5

16.0
13.1
8.1
61.3
35.0

17.2
15.5
8.7
76.2
46.1

16.1
14.7
9.9
79.0
45.8

1.2 2.2 3.5 2.4
9.2 5.0
3.9 ...
5.3 3.8
3.0 ...
...
11.8
11.3
17.9
16.1 ........ 14.2 14.3
18.2 18.5
16.5
11.5 10.4
14.7
9.9 5.Ó 6.0 7.7
79.0 50.0 74.9 71.4
45.8 26.8 32.4 32.4

18.5
10.4
8.0
71.4
32.4

19.2
24.3
46.4
55.6

21.0
19.2
47.5
50.0

21.2
18.9
45.9
51.3

19.0
26.4
36.7
52.1

19.8
19.1
36.0
51.5

19.7
19.2
36.0
47.4

19.5
18.4
44.7
55.2

19.4 19.3 21.2 20.5
17.7 29.5 21.5 20.8
46.4 2 15.4 2 15.0 2 15.7
53.7 55.9 54.2 50.0

20.6
19.4
33.3
35.4

20.3
19.2
35.6
36.3

8.9
37.9

23.4
15.8
57.5
36.0
5.9
3.6
3.6

9.4
1.7

5.3
58.6
33.0

9.3
25.3
24.2
10.1
10.9

2.2
5.1
4.8

1.7

18.1
22.7
42.6
54.6

*Per pound.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[299]

29.0
30.1
17.2
20.9
53.2

12.4
29.4
19.9
5.6 6.6
9.7

...

18. S
24.9
38.0
32.3

74

MONTHLY LABOE EEVIEW.
T a b l e 8 .—AVERAGE RETAIL PRICES OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTICLES

Chicago, 111.
Article.

Unit.

Cincinnati, Ohio.

Cleveland, Ohio.

Dec. 15—

Dec. 15—
Dec. 15—
Nov. Dec.
Nov. Dec.
Nov. Dec.
15, 15,
15, 15,
15,
;
1922. 1922,
1913 1921 1922. 1922. 1913 1921 1922. 1822.

is,

Cts.

Sirloin steak.
Round steak.
Rib roast___
Chuck roast..
Plate beef___

Pound.
___ do..
----- do..
.do.
.do.

Pork chops...
Bacon.............
H am ...............
Lamb, leg of.
H ens...............

.do.
.do.
.do.
.do.
.do.

Salmon, canned, red.
Milk, fresh...................
Milk, evaporated.
B utter..........................
Oleomargarine...........

....... do...........
Quart...........
15-16 oz. can
P ound..........
....... do...........

N ut margarine............................do.
Cheese...........................................do.
Lard.............................................. do.
Crisco................................. '.........do.
Eggs, strictly fresh.......... D ozen..
Eggs, storage...................
Bread................................
Flour................................
Corn meal........................
Rolled oats......................

....... do._
Pound.
....... do..
....... do..
....... do..

Corn flakes..........
Cream of Wheat.
Macaroni.............
R ice.....................
Beans, n a v y ___

8-oz. p k g ..
28-oz. pkg.
Pound___
....... do........
....... do........

Potatoes.........
Onions........... .
Cabbage..........
Beans, baked.
Corn, canned..

.do.
....... do___
....... do___
No. 2 can.
....... do___

Peas, canned..........
Tomatoes, canned.
Sugar, granulated.
T ea..........................
Coflee......................

.do.
.do.
Pound.
....... do..
....... do..

Prunes...
Raisins...
Bananas.
Oranges..

.do.
___ do.
Dozen.
___ do.

Cts.

Cts.

24.1 38.9
21.2 29.6
19.7 29.2
15.7 19.4

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

11.

38.6
29.9
29.5
19.8

38.1
29.4
28.9
19. 5!

23.0
20.7
19. 5
15.3
12.0 12.0 11.8 11.8;

29.7
27.0
25.4
16.3
12.9

32.0
29.3
26.6
17. 5

17.9
32.0
31.
19.4
17.7

29.0
45.2
47.0
32.5
32.0

28.9
45.9
47.7
35.4
30.7

25.9
45.4:
46. 5!
34.4!
29.5'

25.7
30.9
44. 5
29.2
34.0

27.1
35.0
47.6
31.4
33.5

C ts.

18.9
22.6
27. 8
17.5
22. 7:

34.

32.0 3 1 .9 ........ 1 29.3
12.0 12. Oj 8.0: 13.0
11.7 10.5 l l . l ! ........ : 11.
51.2 54.5 60. 4: 39. 3 50. 5
25.3 23.8 25. 3 ____ 28.9

8.0 12.0

24.5 22.4
25.3 35.8 37.4
15.0 15.4 16.8
21.3 22 .8
69.2 60.3

6.1

8.1

10.9 9. 5 9.4
28.0 24.2 24.1
18.3 18.3 18.0
9.7 9.7 9.5
7.7 10.2 10.6

1.

1.7
7.2
4.5
5.9 a
3.7
13.0 12.7 12.9
15.3 13.7 14.1

20.3
19.5
38.3
52.1

Cts.

33.0
27.0
24.9
18.5
11.5

30.5
40.6
46.3
34.1
32.6

27.3
40.1
45.1
33.4
32.9,

........1 33.0 29.
8.0 13.0 13.0
..
11.7 11.3
42.2 56.3; 59.4
..
29.9 28.5

30.0
14.0
11.5
64.4
29.3

19.4 28.3
27.9Ì 34.8
36.3’ 43.8
18.0 28.2
19.3 32.8

27.4
32.3
16.2
21.4
76.9

26.0
33.9
18.0
23.5
75.5

27.1
35.2
18.3
23.7
76.1

8.1

2.8
8.6 8.6

11.3 9.4 9.4
28.7 24.7 24.3
18.0 16.5 16.2
9.2
6.9 9.5

8.8

3.1
7.7
5.0

11.

14.

6.0

20.6
20.8
37.5
57.9,

27.9 28.0
12.0 12.0
11.0 11.5
54.5 60.4
28.7 29. 5

C ts ,
29.8 33.9
25.9 28.1
22.0 ! 24. 4
17.9: 18.9
11.3 11.2

C ts.

47.7 36.8 37.4 34.3 51.5 43.2 42.4
8.6 8.4 8.4 5.6
7.9 7.9
5.0 4.6 4.6 3.1 5.1 4.7 4.7
3.0
2.9 2.9 3.8 3.5 3.6
9.4
9.6 8.5

16.0 15.5 15.6
16.7
13.7 13.3 13.5
12.3
5.1
7.6 7.7 5.2 6.4
55.0 66.1 66.6 67.4 60.0 69.0
30.7 34.1 34.8 35.2 25.6 30.4
19.7
26.1
36.9
53.7

25.0
33.5
45.5
32.1
32.8

Cts.

24.6
21.7
18.6
17.0
12.5

24.0
27.9 26.9 28.4
38.8 21.4 34.0 35.4 36.8 24.0
16.9 13.9 12.9 15.7 15.7 16.4
22. ...... 20.8 22.1 22.4
65. 38.0 63.0 63.7 59.9 48.0

32.0 49.1 37.8 39.3 30.6
9.8 9.7 9.7 4.8
4.4 4.2 4.3 3.3¡
2.9 5.7 5.1 5.1 2.8
9.0 7.9

2.

C ts.

32.1
29.1
26.7
17.1
12.8 13.4

2.1 2.0 2.0

4.5 4.8
3.4 3.6
11.5 11.3
13.8 13.8
16.4
12.3
7.9
69.3
31.8

3.0
7.9
5.2

2.0

17.4 17.1
13.7 13.6
5.4
8.1
68.0 50.0 65.1 68.4
31.6 26.5 36.0 38.2
12.2

8.1

2.0

3.8 4.0
3.1 3.4
12.8 12.3 12.4
16.6 15.9 15.5

16.4

19.4 19.2
22.9 19.9 18.8
40.3 38.5 38.7
42.4 42.8 43.1
20,

8.6

12.4 10.0 10.0
28.8 25.9 25.6
21.1 20.5 20.0
9.0 9.7 9.0 9.0
7.5 9.7 9.9

6.6

17.5
24.3
45.7
55.3

17.3
13.5

8.2

68.0

39.0

20.0 19.4

20.3 20.1
44.5 45.0
52.6 50.0

1 The steak for which prices are here quoted is called “ rump” in this city, but in most of the other cities
included in this report it would be known as porterhouse steak.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[300]


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

76

MONTHLY LABOE REVIEW.
T a b l e 8 — AVER A G E R E TA IL PRICES OF TH E PR IN C IPA L ARTICLES

Houston, Tex.
Article.

Round steak...............................
Rib roast.....................................
Chuck roast................................
Plate beef..............................
Pork chops.................................
B acon...*....................................
H am .............................................
Lamb, leg of...............................
H ens.........................................
Salmon, canned, red.............
Milk, fresh.................................
Milk’ evaporated.....................
B u tter...* ............................
Oleomargarine..........................

Unit.

Pound.........

Dec Nov Dec.
15, 15, 15,
1921. 1922. 1922.

Indianapolis, Ind.
Dec. 15—

Dec. 15—
Nov Dec.
Nov. Dec.
15,
15, 15,
1913 1921 1922. 1922. 1913 1921 1922. 1922.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

29.6
28.1
24.1
20.0
15.2

C ts.

29.3
27.8
23. i
19.1
14.4

29.1
27.7
23.9
18.9
14.6

C ts.

30.4
28.7
23.6
19.6
13.3

Cts.

25.5
24.2
17.
16.3
12.5

34. (
32.5
25.6
21.7
13.8

Cts.

Cts.

34.9
33.1
25.6
21.6
13.9

Cts.

25.5
21.0
21.5
14.1
10.6

34.2
29.5
25.8
17.5
9.8

Cts.

33.5
27.7
26.2
15.8
10.8

32.1
26.7
25.4
15.8
10.9

33.2
49.9
49.3
33.0
32.0

33.3
46.2
47.5
34.3
31.1

28.8
43.9
46.7
34.4
31.7

20.7
29.7
30.3
19.0
20.8

25.8
36.4
46.8
32.5
31.1

31.1
39.0
49. C
37.1
30.4

27.3
38.0
48.2
33.6
29.8

22.5
30.1
29. S
20.6
24.2

31.7
37.7
45. (
35.6
34.8

33.5
37.9
45.5
34.8
34.0

29.2
35.4
43.6
35.0
34.3

30.5 30.7
18.1
15.8 15.8 8.0 11.3
12.4 12.9
12.4
53.4 58.8 38.3 48.2
33.0 32.8
29.6

37 2
10.3
11.7
54.5
27.3

36.5
33.1 30.4 29.7
10.3 12.3 20. C 17.7 17.7
11.6
13.6 11.7 12.1
59.5 39.6 52.6 54.1 59.3
28.2
30.4 29.9 29.0

26.5
36.2
15.2
22.7
57.5

27.1
31.6 29.2 28.8
37.4 22.5 31.7 35.0 35.9
14.7 15.3 17.5 17.5 17.7
23.4
21.6 21.7 22.5
60.2 50.0 67.8 62.9 67.2

32.6
16.7
15-16 oz. can 12. £
48.0
32.7

N ut margarine........................... ........do........... 30.0 29.5 29.6
Cheese.........................................
30.5 35.1 36.1 21.8
Lard...........................................
17.3 18.6 17.9 14.6
Crisco......................................
21.7 24.6 24.3
Eggs, strictly fresh.................. Dozen........... 54.4 44.9 51.5 38.5
Eggs, storage.............................
Bread......................................
Flour.....................................
Corn m eal....................................
Rolled oats.................................
Corn flakes..................................
Cream of W heat........................
Macaroni................................
Rice...........................................
Beans, navy............................
Potatoes.......................................
Onions.........................................
Cabbage.....................................
Corn, canned..........................
Peas, canned..............................
Tomatoes, canned.....................
Sugar, granulated......................
T ea...........................................
Coffee......................................
Prunes.........................................
Raisins.................................
Bananas............................
Oranges.....................................

Jacksonville, Fla.

28.3
33.3
12.5
21.5
62.4

43.6 38.5 40.3 32.8 47.3 38.7 37.6 40.0 49.5 42.5 42.3
8.4 6.6 6.6 5.1 8.6 7.8 7.3 6.1 10.4 10.6 10.6
5.2 5.1 5.1 3.1 4.8 4.5 4.6 3.7 5.9 5.6 5.4
3.7 3.3 3.6 2.6 2.8 2.9 3.0 2.8 3.3 3.3 3.3
10.5 8.7 8.7
8.9 7.8 8.0
11.1 9.7 9.5
8-oz. p k g___ 12.6 9.7 9.7
11.8 8.9 9.0
12.7 9.8 9.6
28-oz. p k g . .. 29.6 24.8 24.7
31.4 26.3 26.6
30.6 25.9 25.3
20.2 19.9 19.9
19.8 18.9 18.8
26.8 19.3 19.4
7.8 7.7 7.7 9.2 9.9 10.3 10.0 6.8 8.8 8.9 8.7
9.0 10.0 10.3
7.6 10.0 10.3
9.3 11.3 11.1
4.1 3.4 3.6 1.7 2.7 1.7 1.5 2.5 4.0 2.7 2.9
7.5 5.3 5.4
8.3 4.2 4.4
9.6 5.0 5.1
6.0 4.7 4.9
5.4 3.7 3.8
6.6 4.5 4.6
No. 2 can__ 13.4 14.0 13.8
13.6 13.3 13.3
12.6 11.9 12.1
13.9 13.6 13.6 .... 15.0 13.7 13.6
17.3 15.9 16.0
........d o ........... 17.7 18.7 18.4 .... 15.5 15.5 15.4
20.2 17.1 16.3
....... d o ........... 13.4 12.0 12.1
14.4 13.6 13.5
12.3 10.5 10.9
6.0 8.1 8.5 5.8 6.8 8.6 8.8 5.9 6.9 8.0 8.3
72.1 72.2 72.2 60.0 79.1 75.6 76.1 60.0 85.2 83.7 84.5
31.2 32.1 32.3 30.0 37.7 37.3 37.8 34.5 38.1 37.9 38.3
........do........... 18.0 21.1 20.9 .
19.4 21.4 21.5
17.8 21.0 21.3
25.2 20.5 19.9 .
27.6 21.4 20.2
27.1 20.61 20.0
30.6 31.3 31.9 .
28.7 28.7 30.0
35.0 30.0 30.7
47.2 48.5 43.2 .
47.7 49.3 47.5
35.6 30.6 31.0

1 The steak for which prices are here quoted is called "sirloin” in this city, but in most of the other cities
included in this report it would be known as porterhouse steak.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[302]

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD.

77

OF FOOD FOR 51 CITIES ON CERTAIN SPEC IFIE D D A TE S—Continued.
Kansas City, Mo.

Little Rock, Ark.

Los Angeles, Calif.

Louisville, Ky.

Manchester, N. H.

Dec. 15—

Dec. 15—
Dec. 15—
Dec.1 5 Dec. 15—
Nov Dec.
Nov Dec
Nov Dec
Nov Dec
Nov Dec.
15, 15,
15, 15,
15, 15,
15, 15,
15, 15,
1913 1921 1922. 1922. 1913 1921 1922. 1922. 1913 1921 1922. 1922. 1913 1921 1922. 1922. 1913 1921 1922. 1922.
C ts.

C ts.

C ts.

C ts. Cts

24.6
22.1
18.1
15.6
12.2

C ts.

C ts.

33.3
27.8
23.6
16.6
10.8

35.8
30.0
23.8
17.4
10.9

34.8 25.0
29.2 20.0
23.6 20.0
16.9 16.3
10.6 12.5

32.2
29.3
25.9
18.0
13.9

C ts. Cts. C ts.

30.0
29.1
24.4
17.5
12.7

C ts.

31.7
28.3
25.1
17.7
13.6

23.1
21. S
19.4
16.1
13.4

32.9
27.4
27. f
17.9
13.1

33.1
28. i
28.7
18.3
13.3

19.6
30.3
28.8
18.7
16.4

28.2
43.0
49.2
28.6
31.2

29.8
43.5
45.2
30.9
28.3

25.3 20.0
43.5 36.7
45.0 27.5
31.4 18.8
27.7 20.0

30.1
41.2
47.5
32.9
29.4

33.9
42.6
49.1
35.0
29.3

31.5 25.3
41.8 33.5
46.9 34.5
35.7 19.1
29.2 27.9

35.9
52.2
57.6
27. 4
43.1

32.7
*9.3 14.7
13.5
"40."3 49.8
29.2
...

31.9
12.7
11.8
54.1
26.6

31.7
13.0 ÌÒ.5
12.1
61.3 45.' Ò
27.0 ....

33.4
15.0
13.9
51.9
31.3

30.3
15.0
12.5
52.9
29.3

28.3 27.0 27.1
36.1 37.5 23."3
16.4 16.8 17.5 17.5 16.5
23.3 24.3 23.9
38. Ô 58.4 50.9 58.7 40. Ò

30.1
32.9
18.4
21.7
57.2

28.6
37.6
19.7
22.9
45.5

22.Ò 33.7

C ts. C ts Cts C ts. C ts. C ts. C ts. Cts. Cts.
33.7 23.0 28.1 29.4 29.3 134.5 1 50.3 1 50.4 1 50.0

28.1 20.0 26.5
28.7 18.1 22.2
18.2 15.5 16.7
13.6 13.1 13.3

27.4
22.4
16.8
12.8

26.7 28.8 43.2 41.6 41.9
22.5 20.8 25.3 25.9 24.8
16.8 17.3 20.9 20.8 19.7
13.1
15.8 14.7 14.3

40.0
52.6
60.8
33.4
39.7

37.1 19.0 25.3
52.8 27.0 32.3
59.8 28.5 39.6
33.6 18.2 29.0
39.1 21.6 30.7

28.7
38.4
41.7
33.0
28.1

25.0
37.1
40.2
32.5
28.6

31.3
33.9
40.3
34.3
45.7

34.3
34.6
41.2
35.7
41.7

27.9
34.9
40.9
35.1
40.7

29.9
40.9
15.3 ÌÒ
.Ó 14.0
12.9
11.5
59.9 39.7 54.3
29.5
32.1

39.3
15.0
10.8
55.4
32.2

38.6
32.2
15.0 8.6 11.0
10.9
13.5
59.2 41.3 54.3
31.2
29.3

29.4
12.0
11.6
56.1
27.6

30.0
33.2
13.0 8.0 15.0
12.0
14.2
61.9 41.4 56.8
28.1
30.5

30.0
13.0
13.2
55.7
28.0

29.7
13.0
13.4
58.2
28.5

29.4
38.7 Ì9.5
19.4 18.1
22.5
46.6 53.3

28.9
37.4
19.8
23.6
64.8

28.9
28.9
38.0 22.5 29.4
20.0 15.8 13.3
23.6
22.4
63.2 36.6 62.6

26.0
34.0
15.6
23.3
54.1

26.7
24.3 23.3
36.4 22.3 34.1 35.7
15.3 15.8 16.7 17.4
23.3
21.5 23.2
60.0 52.4 89.6 85.2

23.3
35. 7
17.5
23. 7

29.6
37.8
17.3
21.6
64.6

33.0 47.2 37.3 38.9
50.1 38.3 41.2 3S.3 45.7 43.8 44.9
6.0 9.6 7.9 7.9 6.0 8.4 8.3 8.3 6.0 9.2 9.0 8.8
3.0 4.8 4.5 4 5 3.6 5.4 5.3 5.3 3.5 4.8 4.9 5.0
2.8 4.8 4.4 4.5 2.8 2.9 3.2 3.2 3.5 4.1 4.5 4.6
11.1 10. 2 10.2
10.6 10.2 10.3
... 10.2 8.2 8.2

13.0 9.9 9.9 _ 12.8 9.8 9.8
30.3 26.3 26.5 _ 29.8 26.3 26.8
22.1 21.2 21.4
21.4 21.5 21.6
8.7 8.7 9.3 9.1 8.3 8.1 8.4 8.2 7.7
8.6
10.5
10.8
8.4 10.7 11.4
....
...

...

1.9

...
...
...

...
...

33.3 46.8 38.2 37.3 37.0 51.0 42.5
5.7 8.9 8.8 8.8 5.9 8.3 7.6
3.5 5.0 5.1 5.2 3.4 5.5 5.1
2.4 2.3 2.6 2.8 3.4 5.2 4.6
.... 9.8 8.6 8.6
9.6 8.9

12.1 9.9 10.0
11.1 9.4 9.3
28.1 24.2 24.4
29.4 24.7 24.7
17.2 16.0 16.0
19.2 17.1 17.2
10.0 9.7 9.5 9.0 8.9 8.6 8.5
8.2 9.2 9.4
7.1 9.7 10.2

2.9 2.2 2.0 2.2 3.5 2.4 2.6 1.9 3.3 2.6 2.5 2.0 2.6 1.7 1.6
9.1 4.7 5.2 .... 8.8 5.5 5.5
7.6 4.6 4.8
8.5 3.4 4.0
5.7 3.2 3.3
6.7 4.1 3.9
3.7 4.5 4.4
5.4 3.2 3.4
14.3 14.7 14.2 _ 13.6 13.5 13.3
15.9 13.7 13.4
12.6 12.1 11.9
13.4 13.7 13.7 .... 15.9 14.9 14.9
18.2 16.1 16.1
15.8 14.1 13.6

15.0 15.5
13.3 13.1
5. 5 6.8 8.4
54. 0 79.1 80.5
27.8 35. 9 37.7
18.0
29. 4
11.9
58.9

15.2 ....
13.2
8.6 5.3
80.0 50.0
38.0 30.8

20.4 20.5
20.7 20.2
12.5 413.3
55.3 53.9

18.9
12.7
7.4
90.8
38.1

20.9 20.9
22.9
10.3
57.7

.... 26.3
_ <10.5
... . 51.1

1 No. 2J can.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

18.6
13.1
8.8
91.8
39.7

18.6
12.8
9.0 5.3
91.8 54.5
39.7 36.3
20.2
21.5
<10.3
46.8

—

18.1
*16.1
6.6
66.7
37.7

19.2
15.8
8.3
72.1
38.2

17.4 19.1
27.5 19.5
<11.5 <11.6
40.0, 44.5

* No. 3 can.

19.3
24.0
27.5
20.0
24.5

7 7 .5
4 4 .1
7 .6
5 .1
4 .5
8 .5

13.0 9.5 9.5
29.2 26.1 25.6
25.5 24.5 24.7
8.8 9.2 9.2 9. 0
8.2 10.2 10.4
1.6

2.7 1.9 1.9
8.5 3.9 4.3
5.1 3. 8 3.6
16.2 15.1 1 5 . 1
18.9 17.6 17.2

19.4
16.5
15.5
13.4
8.5 5.3 6.6
72.1 65.0 76.9
38.8 27.5 33.6

15.5
11.4
8.1
72.4
35.2

15.5
21.9
11.3
19.5
8.2 5.3 6. 8
72.4 47.5 57.8
34.9 32.0 38.7

20.4
18.1
8. 2
57.7
39.2

20.3
318.8
8. 6
57.1
38.2

19.3
18.7
11.5
38.5

20.1
19.4
33.9
40.8

19.9
19.3
37.2
38.8

20.3
19.1
10.1
54.1

19.7
19. 0
<10.5
52.1

18.9
24.7
36.0
35.9

19.5
24.2
10.2
55.2

<Per pound.

19.5
24.2
<10.2
55.2

78

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW,
T able 8 .—AVERAGE R E TA IL PRICES OF THE PRIN C IPA L ARTICLES
Memphis, Tenn.
Article.

Unit.

P o u n d ...
........do—
........d o ....
........do—
........do___

Pork chops.................
Bacon..........................
H am ............................
Lamb, leg of..............
Hens............................

........do___
........do___
........do___
........do___
........do___

Salmon, canned, red
Milk, fresh. . . . . . . . . .
Milk, evaporated___
B utter.........................
Oleomargarine..........

........do...........
Quart...........
15-16 oz. can.
Pound..........
........do...........

N ut margarine..........
Cheese.........................
Lard............................
Crisco..........................
Eggs, strictly fresh..

........do.
........do.
........do.
........do.
Dozen.

Eggs, storage.............
Bread..........................
Flour...........................
Corn meal...................
Rolled oats................

........do........
Pound___
........do........
........d o ... A
........do........

Corn flakes.................
Cream of Wheat.......
Macaroni....................
R ice.............................
Beans, n a v y..............

8-oz. p k g ..
28-oz. pkg.
Pound___
........do........
........do.......

Potatoes.....................
Onions........................
Cabbage.....................
Beans, baked............
Corn, canned.............

........do........
........do........
........do........
No. 2 can..
........do........

Peas, canned.............
Tomatoes, canned...
Sugar, granulated. . .
Tea..............................
Coffee..........................

........do........
........do........
Pound___
........do........
........do........

Prunes........................
Raisins........................
Bananas.....................
Oranges......................

........do.......
........do........
Dozen.......
........do........


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Minneapolis, Minn.

15— Nov.
Dec. 15—
Dec 15—
Dec.
Nov. Dec.
Nov. Dec.
15, 15,
15. 15,
15, 15,
1922.
1922.
1922.
1922.
1921
1913 1921
1913 1921 1922. 1922.
Cts.

Sirloin steak..............
Round steak.............
Rib roast....................
Chuck roast...............
Plate beef...................

Milwaukee, Wis.

C ts.

Cts.

27.4
24.1
22.2
16.0
12.5

Cts.

C ts.

30.0
26.8
22.3
16.6
12.2

Cts.

28.6
25.4
21.7
16.7
12.5

23.4
21.6
18.8
16.4
12.1

C ts.

33.5
29.7
25.5
20.9
13.1

Cts.

Cts.

35.8
31.4
25.7
21.8
12.4

36.0
30.9
26.2
21.4
12.5

19. Î
18.0
18.7
14.7
10.0

Cts.

Cts.

26.9
23.6
21.3
16.1
9.3

29.5
25.1
23.5
17.3
9.2

29.3
24.9
23.5.
17.31
9.5

28.3 24.9
38.3 37.9
1 46.2 i 46.2
36.6 35.3
29.4 27.6

17.4
27.4
27.8
18.5
17.2

26.8
40. C
44. C
33. 1
29.9

30.8
41.7
45.0
35.9
27.3

27.2
41.2
44.8
35.8
28.0

17.2
26.7
28.3
14.6
16.4

26.4
40.4
40.7
28.6
27.9

29.8
44.1
44.4
31.7
26.2

27.5
43.8
45.1
31.5
27.6

32.3
10.0
10.9
54.8
25.0

32.6
42.1
10.0 8.0 11.0
11.3
13.3
60.5 36.9 46.4
26.3
28.8

39.0
11.0
11.9
52.3
25.4

37.9
11.0
12.1
57.7
27.0

26.3
36.8
M3.2
32.4
30.5
40.7
17.0
14.3
48.9
31.0

34.8
15.0
11.4
51.1
31.0

34.6
38.3
15.0 7.0 9.0
11.8
12.3
55.9 38.8 51.0
30.0
26.3

28.3 26.5 26.7

25.8 24.2 25.2

26.5 25.0 25.1

22.0 29.9 33.9 35.9 22.3 30.9 34.3 34.8 21.3 30.4 33.8 35.2

15.0 14. 4 16.0 15.8 16.0 16.0 17.7 17.7 15.4 14.6 17.0 17.0
19.4 20.7 20. 2
21.9 22.6 22. 6
22. & 24 3
39.0 57.3 43.6 51.5 40.0 71.6 56.7 67.1 39.1 63.2 55.1 60.9
30.0 45.7 39.0 39.0 33.0 46.0 36.4 36.3 31.6 46.1 36.0 36.5
9.6 9.0 9.1 5.7 8.5 8.8 8.9 5.6 8.4 9.0 9.0
3.5 5.6 5.3 5.3 3.0 4.6 4.2 4.2 2.8 4.9 4.6 4.7
2.5 2.6 2.8 2.8 3.2 4.4 3.7 3.8 2.5 4.2 3.8 3.9
10.4 9.0 8.9
6.9 7.1 7.3
8.0 8.0 8.2

6.0

2.0

12.4 9.5 9.6
28.5 25.6 25.3
16.5 17.5 17.8
7.8 8.3 8.2
8.1 10.1 10.6

11.5 9.0 ' 9.0
28.5 24.5 24.5
18.3 17.2 17.4
9. 0 9.9 10.0 9.7
7.6 9.9 10.2

12.4 9.9 9.8
29.1 25.0 25.0
17.6 17.6 17.7
8.6 9.5 9.6 9.9
8.8 9.5 9.8

3.4 2.4 2.5
8.1 3.8 4.3
5.0 2.6 3.3
14.1 13.1 13.3
15.2 14.3 14.3

1.7

1.6

2.7 1.4 1.3
8.2 4.1 4.4
5.1 1.6 2.3
11.7 11.1 11.6
15.2 14.9 15.0

18.7 17.4 17.4
15.1
12.6 12.3 12.5
12.8
5.3 6.7 8.4 8.3 5.5 6.2
63. 86.5 85.9 82.6 50.0 68.5
27.5 37.9 36.6 36.6 27.5 32.4
19.3
29.0
32.0
41.4

22.5
20.1
32.2
47.8

1 Whole.

20.5
19.3
34.4
43.0

15.5
13.5
7.9
68.7
33.3

[304]

15.4
16.2
13.6
15.2
8.0 5.0 6.7
68.6 45.0 63.4
33.8 30.8 39.6

18.3 20.6 20.6
25.2 18.4 18.3
i 10.4 a 10.4 3 10.2
54.8 54.5 54.2
* No. 3 can.

3.0 1.4 1.4
6.9 3.8 3.9
4.9 2.0 2.8
15.4 15.2 14.2
14.3 13.3 13.5

19.3
25.7
3 11.5
61.3

15.3
14.7
8.4
65.0
40.7

15.6
14.7
8.5
65.0
40.7

21.2
19.9
12.3
58.6

20.8
19.4
12.3
55.3

79

BETAIL PBICES OF FOOD.
OF FOOD FOR 51 CITIES ON CERTAIN SPECIFIED D A TES—Continued.
M otile, Ala.

Newark, N. J.

Nov. Dec.

Dec. 15—

New Orleans, La.

New York, N. Y.

Dec. 15— Nov.
Dec.
Nov. Dec.
15,
15,
15,
1921. 1922. 1922. 1913 1921 1922. 1922. 1913 1921 1922. 1922. 1913 1921 1922. 1922. 1913 1921 1922. 1922.
Dec. Nov. Dec.

Dee. 15—

New Haven, Conn.

Nov. Dec.

C ts.

Cts.

C ts.

C ts.

Cts.

C ts.

C ts.

C ts.

C ts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

C ts.

Cts.

C ts.

29.4
29.3
24.8
19.6
15.7

30.0
29.2
26.0
19.5
15.8

27.2
26.5
21.0
17.3
12.4

39.6
38.9
32.3
21.1
12.1

43.5
42.0
34.3
22.1
11.8

42.4
40.1
33.6
22.5
12.1

Cts.

30.8
28:4
22.8
18.8

46.4
38.6
32.9
24.0
15.1

49.0
40.1
34.5
24.7
14.3

Cts.

29.4
29.4
25.2
21.0
14.9

48.2
39.7
33.4
24.1
14.5

21.5
19.1
18.5
15.4
12.0

30. C
27.3
26.3
18.8
16.0

30.5
27. C
27.5
18.9
15.5

31.2
27.7
27.2
19.0
16.0

25.7
25.3
21.3
15.8
14.5

40.5
39.2
35.3
22.2
18.0

41.9
40.0
35.3
21.8
17.5

40.6
39.1
35.3
21.7
17.7

34.3
43.8
44. a
31.7
36.9

35.8
43.5
45.4
33.3
35.0

35.0 21.0 31.8 34.4 30.1
41.9 25.3 34.6 39.0 38.8
45.8 1 19.8 1 26.7 1 27.9 1 27.2
34.4 20.0 36.6 37.9 37.5
35.0 23.4 39.5 38.5 37.3

19.6
28.2
30.8
18.7
23.3

31.8
41.7
49.8
34.8
42.9

34.3
41.3
53.4
38.2
41.2

30.5
41.3
52.2
37.6
40.6

24.0
30.4
27. C
20.5
22.0

33.0
41. C
45.6
36.3
36.3

36.1
41.1
44.1
39.3
36.3

32.2
40.9
42.2
38.5
36.5

18.4
25.5
29.0
15.4
20.7

36.1
38.3
50.7
33.7
38.8

36.7
39.8
53.0
34.3
36.9

33.7
39.1
50.6
34.4
35.9

35.2
17.5
12.7
53.7
31.0

30.3
15.1
12.6
56.3
30.2

30.3
15. 0 9.0
12.8
62.2 43.7
30.3 ........

36.9
29.6
17.5 9.0 15.0
11.9
12.3
63.1 37.3 50.7
29.3
28.5

33.4
15.0
11.3
49.2
29.3

33.2
37.6
15.0 9.8 14.7
11.8
12.0
53.3 39.8 52.0
29.7
30.4

37.7
14.0
11.6
53.1
28.8

37.5
14.0 9.0
11.8
59.0 4Ì. 1
30.1 ...

35.4
15.0
11.1
53.9
30.6

29.2
15.0
11.0
57.4
28.5

29.7
16.0
11.7
61.7
28.3

29.4
31.5
15.9
21.3
61.4

27.5
35.9
17.4
22.7
46.1

28.0
27.8 25.5 25.9
26.7 27.0 27.0
29.2 27.7 28.1
27.4
39.7 24.8 35.5 36.7 37.6 23.5 33.2 34.4 35.0 21.9 31.6 36.1 36.8 20.2 33.9
17.8 16.3 15.3 17.4 17.5 15.6 15.4 17.2 17.0 15. C 14.7 16.8 16.9 16.1 16.8
22.8
20.2 22.3 22.3
19.8 22.1 22.1
21.5 22.8 22.8
20.3
51.0 57.2 80.6 83.4 80.5 56.4 91.9 87.2 83.5 34.0 53.8 42.8 49.1 54.3 82.0

26.4
34.3
17.7
23.0
80.3

25.6
36.1
17.9
22.9
79.0

31.3
17.0
11.3
54.8
30.4

29.6
16.5
11.3
58.2
29.0

47.1 37.4 38.4 35.6 51.0 42.8 43.4 34.2 51.5 42.4
8.3 8.3 8.3 5.5 9.3 8.6 8.6 6.0 9.4 8. 1
5.1 5.2 5.4 3.6 4.9 4.8 4.9 3.1 4.9 4.8
3.0 3.1 3.3 3.6 5.8 6.2 6.5 3.2 5.8 5.7
8.6 8.2 7.9
10.6 9.0 9.0
10.0 8.9

43.7 30.0 44.0 35.6 37.4 36.7 50.6
8.1 5.0 8.1 7.6 7.7 6.1 9.9
4.8 3.7 5.7 5.6 5.7 3.2 5.0
5.9 2.7 2.9 3.2 3.2 3.4 6.0
8.9
9.4 8.9 8.9
8.9

C ts.

Cts.

39.8 41.9
9.8 9.7
4.9 4.9
5.4 5.5
7.9 7.9

11.9 9.4 9.4
28.3 24.2 24.2
19.4 20. 1 20. 3
8.5 8.5 8.6
8.6 12.1 11.8

10.2 8.9 8.9
28.4 25.4 25.4
19.3 21.2 21.1
9.0 8.7 9.0 8.9
7.8 9.7 10.4

10.9 9.4 9.5
28.4 24.8 24.8
21.7 22.3 22.4
9.3 9.1 10.2 10.0
8.1 9.7 9.9

11.1 9.5 9.5
28.5 24.5 24.4
9.5 9.5 9.5
7.5 8.1 8.8 8.6
7.6 10.3 10.2

10.0
28.6
20.0
8.0 9.0
8.7

8.6 8.7
24.6 24.6
20.3 20.1
9.2 9.2
10.5 11.1

3.9 2.8 2.9
8.9 4.5 4.7
5.6 3.6 3.7
13.6 12.9 13.3
16.2 14.9 15.0

2.5

1.7

2.2

2.4

2.4 2.6
4.1 4.7
3.0 3.4
11.6 11.6
14.4 14.1

3.7 2.2 2.3
8.7 5.2 5.1
5.2 4.1 4.2
11.3 11.0 11.1
16.1 14.4 14.6

3.0 2.1 2.1
8.1 5.0 5.2
5.2 3.5 3.6
13.6 12.2 12.4
19.0 18.1 17.5

3.7 3.0 2.9
7.1 4.0 4.2
5.5 4.0 3.8
13.1 12.7 12.8
14.2 12.9 13.0

4.1
7.7
5.0
12.4
14.7

17.6
13.0
6.8
73.5
32.2

15.9
12.2
8.4
76.3
35.6

15.7
18.0
12.4
11.2
8.6 5.3 5.7
76.3 53.8 50.5
35.6 29.3 31.5

17.3
11.2
7.7
49.5
33.0

17.3
22.0 21.2 21.1
18.1 16.7
11.2
2 22.2 2 22.5 2 22.2
12.9 12.1
8.0 5.5 6.2 7.9 8.0 5. i 6.0 7.7
50.8 55.0 54.9 56.9 56.9 62.1 70.9 72.0
33.0 33.8 37.7 38.4 38.6 25.0 30.3 30.9

16.7
16.5
11.6
11.9
7.8 4.9 5.7
72.0 43.3 50.3
30.9 27.2 32.4

16.3
11.0
7.7
50.1
33.0

16.3
10.8
7.7
50.2
33.0

18.6
24.9
28.0
41.1

20.8
21.5
26.9
41.0

20.3
20.6
27.3
43.3

18.3
18.0
37.5
56.0

18.3
17.8
37.8
50.5

21.3
19.0
23.8
45.7

18.8
18.0
43.5
60.8

19.0
17.6
43.8
52.9

16.8
23.3
41.5
58.6

17.8
24.6
34.6
52.5

19.7
18.6
32.7
50.1

19.0
18.0
32.0
46.5

18.6
25.6
21.3
45.5

21.2
19.8
25.0
45.0

' Per pound.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

I

rsos]

18.0
24.6
42.8
62.6

80

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW,
T able 8 __ AVERAGE RETAIL PRICES OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTICLES
Omaha, Nebr.

Norfolk, Va.

Peoria, 111.

Dec. 15—

Dec. Nov. Dec.
15,
15,
15,
192Ì. 1922. 1922.

1913

Nov. Dec. Dec. Nov. Dec.
15,
15,
15,
15,
15,
1921 1922. 1922. 1921. 1922. 1922.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

35.6
29.8
29.8
19.0
13.7

36.7
30.8
30.1
19.5
14.4

36.3
30.0
29.5
19.1
14.0

26.0
22.4
20.0
16.6
11.2

32.1
28.8
23.9
18.5
10.7

35.4
32.0
24.8
19.4
10.7

34.4
30.7
24.6
18.9
10.3

30.6
29.2
22.9
18.8
12.8

30.9
29.8
23.3
19.2
12.5

30.4
29.1
23.0
19.2
12.8

27.4
33.8
38.8
35.0
36.6

31.2
37.3
40.7
38.7
35.8

28.8
36.3
39.6
37.2
35.6

19.7
28.0
30.0
16.3
15.6

28.7
44.8
48.8
29.7
28.9

31.3
45.9
49.7
36.7
27.7

26.7
45.6
48.5
35.8
26.4

27.4
41.9
47.7
32.1
30.7

30.4
42.5
47.9
34.4
27.6

27.0
41.1
45.4
34.4
27.4

30.6
18.0
12.0
53.7
29.0

29.1
17.0
10.9
53.8
28.4

29.9
17.0
11.3
58.1
30.4

33.7
12.8
12.8
49.0
31.2

33.0
11.0
11.9
50.9
29.3

33.5
11.0
11.8
58.2
28.9

33.3
12.7
13.1
47.5
29.5

33.1
10.6
11.8
51.5
27.7

33.1
10.8
11.8
59.0
29.2

30.3
30.8
16.6
20.3
63.9

26.6
33.7
16.8
21.9
56.3

28.5
35.5
16.9
22.0
60.8

28.4
32.5
18.7
22.8
58.1

27.6
34.4
18.9
24.3
45.0

27.9
35.4
19.1
24.4
53.8

28.0
32.7
15.9
22.7
66.8

26.9
36.1
17.2
24.4
55.7

27.4
36.7
17.1
24.4
59.5

Eggs, storage...................... ........do...........

47.1
9.1
5.2
3.2
9.7

38.4
8.1
4.8
3.6
7.8

38.7
8.1
4.9
3.5
8.1

46.7
10.0
4.1
3.4
10.6

34.9
9.8
4.2
3.5
9.9

36.0
9.8
4.2
3.5
9.6

45.9
9.2
5.0
3.8
10.2

36.3
8.5
4.8
3.7
8.8

36.7
8.5
4.7
3.7
9.1

Com flakes.......................... 8-oz. pkg___
Cream of Wheat................ 28-oz pkg__

11.4
29.4
19.7
10.0
8.7

9.4
25.4
20.2
9.9
9.7

9.6
25.4
19.9
9.9
10.0

13.8
30.8
20.8
8.9
8.3

9.6
25.3
20.9
9.8
11.0

10.2
24.8
20.8
9.3
11.2

13.3
30.5
20.8
9.2
8.1

10.0
27.5
20.0
9.9
10.4

10.0
26.8
19.8
9.9
10.8

3.3
8.5
4.8
10.8
15.5

2.2
4.7
3.7
10.5
14.6

2.3
5.3
3.8
10.6
15.0

2.7
8.5
5.8
15.7
14.7

1.6
4.1
2.8
15.9
16.8

1.5
4.2
2.9
15.4
16.0

2.6
8.8
5.8
14.6
14.7

1.7
4.7
3.2
13.4
14.6

1.7
4.9
3.4
13.7
14.6

19.9
11.5
6.3
79.9
38.9

18.7
11.1
7.7
77.1
37.3

18.8
11.3
8.0
76.8
37.7

16.2
14.4
6.6
71.4
37.5

16.7
14.5
8.6
76.5
39.9

16.7
13.8
8.8
74.2
40.5

16.3
13.1
7.1
62.9
31.6

17.0
14.4
8.8
61.1
36.0

17.0
14.4
8.9
61.1
36.0

18.8
25.6
36.0
44.8

19.3
19.1
33.2
45.1

19.4
18.9
33.5
40.5

Sirloin steak.......................

Pound..........
........do...........
........do...........

Eggs, strictly, fresh...........

Dozen...........

Tomatoes, canned............. ........do...........

8.7
37.2

23.5
17.6
36.0
31.7
5.2
2.8
2.5

8.5
2.0

5.7
56.0
30.0

18.9 20.5 20.1 22.3 22.3 22.3
27.0 21.8 21.3 29.3 21.4 20.4
« 10.9 « 11.3 ‘12.4 < 10.7 * 11.4 ‘ 11.8
53.4 52.3 51.2 55.0 46.3 42.1

1 The steak for which prices are here quoted is called “ sirloin” in this city, but in most of the other cities
included in this report it would be known as “ porterhouse” steak.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[306]


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

82

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.
T able 8 .—AVERAGE RETAIL PRICES OP THE PR IN C IPA L ARTICLES
Richmond, Va.
Article.

Unit.

Rochester, N .Y .

St. Louis, Mo.

Dec. 15—

Dec. 15—
Nov. Dec. Dec. Nov. Dec.
Nov. Dec.
15, 15, 15, 15, 15,
15, 15,
1922,
1922.
1922.
1921.
1922.
1913 1921
1913 1921 1922. 1922.
C ts.

C ts.

C ts.

C ts.

C ts.

C ts.

C ts.

Sirloin steak................................ P o u n d ............
Round steak...............................
Rib roast.....................................
Chuck roast..............................
Plate beef.................................... ......... d o ..............

22.2
20.0
18.9
15.9
13.2

36.7
31.8
29. 4
23.0
17.0

36.9
32.6
29.0
21.5
16.1

36.5
31.9
29.1
21.2
15.9

35.3
30.3
26.5
21.8
12.0

36.8
31.2
26.7
21.9
12.3

36.1
30.7
27.2
21. 7
12.1

Pork chons.................................
B a co n ...'.................................... ........do...........
H am ............................................. ......... d o ..............
Lamb, leg of...............................
Hens. . .. 7 ..................................

20.8
25.0
25.0
19.3
19.3

29.3
33.7
38.0
38.3
34.1

33.5
37.9
41.0
43.0
34.1

29.3
37.2
41.0
40.3
34.7

32.2
32.8
45.6
34.2
37.6

34.2
36.8
47.3
36.3
36.9

32.5
36.1
46.8
36.6
36.8

Salmon, canned, red.................
Milk, fresh....... .'..........................
Milk, evaporated.......................
B u tter...* ...................................
Oleomargarine............................

32.5
10.0 14.0
14.1
42.2 58.8
32.6

32.0
14.0
13.1
58.3
29.0

32.0
14.0
12.8
66.8
29.5

30.6
14.0
12.9
52.1
30.3

29.1
13.0
12.0
53.0
28.7

28.9 32.5 31.9 32.1 31.8
14.0 8.8 10.0 12.0 13.0
12.0
11. 1 11.3 11.2
59.1 39.6 52.5 57.7 63.6
28.5
27.4 26.4 27.3

N ut margarine...........................
28.6 27.6 27.6
Cheese.. ............................ .
22.3 32.9 36.4 37.7
Lard...................
15.4 17.5 18.1 17. 9
Crisco........................................... ........do...........
21.8 23.5 23.4
Eggs, strictly fresh.................... Dozen........... 38.0 69.4 61.4 62.8

29.2
34.5
15.9
20.5
84.6

26.8
35. 8
17. 5
22.5
77.4

26.4
25.6 24.9
36.7 20.7 30. 2 34.5
17.1 12.7 11.9 13. 8
23.1
20.7 22. 2
80.9 40.8 57.4 56.3

Eggs, storage..............................
Bread___ .”. .........
Flour........................
Corn m eal....................................
Rolled oats..................................

33.2 50.4 40.3 40.4 48.7 39.7 41.4
5.3 10.6 9.2 9. 2 8.2 8.0 8.0
3.2 5.1 5.0 5.0 4.9 4.9 4.9
2.3 3.9 4.3 4.1 5.1 4.8 4.9
10.6 9.5 9. 4 7.6 7.8 7.4

Com flakes..................................
Cream of W heat........................
Macaroni..................................... P o u n d .." ...
Rice......................
10. 0
Beans, navy................................
Onions.........................................
Cabbage.......................................
Beans, baked..............................
Corn, canned..............................
Peas, canned..............................
Tomatoes, canned.....................
Sugar, granulated...................... P o u n d .........
Tea................................................
Coffee...........................................
Prunes.........................................
Raisins.........................................
Bananas.......................................
Oranges.......................................

2. 0

12.6
30.9
20.8
11. 4
9.4

9.6 11.6 9.7 9.7
26.5 28.6 24.8 24.8
20.3 20. 2 18.8 19. 0
11.2 9.3 9. 4 9.5
10.7 8.2 10.2 10. 4

4.3 2.7 2.6 2.5 1. 4 1.4
8.9 5. 3 5.4 7.3 4.5 4.3
5.2 3.8 4.0 4.1 2.6 2 .6
12.2 12.0 11.8 12.0 11. 8 11. 4
15. 4 14.8 14.8 15.8 15. 9 15. 9

C ts.

C ts.

C ts.

26.6 32.1 34.4 33.6
15.9 17. 8 18. 4 18. 5
12.8 12.7 12.3 12.6
17.8
25.0
27. 3
18.3
17.3

5. 6
2.9
2.6

26.9
34.8
42. 4
28.7
31.3

28. 4
39.3
42.1
33.3
28.3

23. 8
38.1
41.2
33.1
28.3

25.3
36.1
14.1
22.1
59.8

41. 6 36.8 37.3(
9. 5 8.9 8. 9
4. 4 4.1 4 2
2.7 3.0 3.0
9.1 8.2

8.0

10. 6 8.9 8 9
28.8 24.2 24.3
21.0 20. 4 20.7
8. 2 8. 5 8 7 9 0
7.4 9. 8 9 8
1.7

3 2 2 2 2 2
8.4 4.3 4 6
4.6 2.6 3.3
11. 4 10. 9
15. 2 14.9 14.fi

11.1

20.3 19.0
13.3 12.2
5.4 6.6 8.2
56.0 85.3 79.9
26.8 36.3 35.7

19. 3
12.0
8.4
79. 9
35.6

19.2
12.1
6.2
61.0
33.5

19.0
12. 8
7.9
61.4
34.4

18.9
13. 0
8.0 5.1
61. 4 55. 0
34.8 24. 4

16.0 16.4 16.4
12.7 11.3
J)
6 .2 8.1 8.2
68.1 66. 8 66. 4
32. 2 34.9 35. 3

20.3
24.5
37.9
42.3

22.7
19.3
37.3
46.0

19. 4
25.1
41.3
56. 3

20.0
19. 2
41. 4
61.7

20.6
18. 9
42.9
53.4

18 7
25. 5
32.3
46.5

i No. 2£ can.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

9.8
26.5
20.3
11. 6
10. 6

C ts.

23. 6 29.0 31. 4 31.0
19. 5 26. 8 27.2 26.7

[308]

22.5
20. 5
36.5
53.2

11

21 4
18.5
31.1
45.0

20 R
18 1
31.1
49.0

83

BETAIL PRICES OF FOOD.
OF FOOD FOR 51 CITIES ON CERTAIN SPECIFIED D A TES—Continued.
St. Paul, Minn.

Salt Lake City, Utah San Francisco, Calif. Savannah, Ga.

Scranton, Pa.

I
Dec. 15—
Dec. 15—
Dee 15—
Nov Dec
Nov Dec
Nov Dec Dec Nov Dec
Nov. Dec.
15,
15, 15,
15, 15, i5,
15,
15,
1922.
1922.
1922.
1922.
1922.
1922.
1921.
1922.
1922.
1913 1921
1913 1921
1913 1921
1913 1921 1922. 1922.
Dec. 1 6 -

Cts. Cts. Cts.
25.0 30.0 32.6
26.0
19.6: 23.8 26.2
16.0 17.6 19.0
10.3 9.5 10.4

Cts.
32.4
26.1
26.2
19. 1
10.1

Cts.
22.6
20.0
19.0
14.5
12.5

Cts.
26.9
23.2
20.8
16.3
11.1

Cts.
26.5
23.6
21.3
16. i

Cts.
25.4
22.4
20.4
16.1
11.2 11.4

Cts.

Cts.

20. (
21.7
15. C
15.0

21.( 29.0

25. £
27.8
17.0
14.2

Cts.
29. S
27.0
28. 2
17.8
14.9

Cts.
29. £
27.2
28.5
18.2
11.7

Cts.
30.0
25.7
24.3
16.8
14.0

Cts.
28.7
24.3
21.2
15.3
13.5

Cts.
29.3
24.0
21.9
14.7
12.6

Cts.
25.5
21.5
22.8
17.6
11.3

Cts.
46.2
36.4
34.1
24.7
11.4

47.0
37.5
35. 0
25.0
11.3

46.8
37.3
34.6
25.2
11.3

17.4
26.0
27.0
16.3
16.8

23.4
29.0
30.0
18.0
22.6

27.9
38.3
42.5
25.5
35.2

32.0
40. i
47.1
31.6
32.2

24.2
34.4
34. C
16.6
24.5

20.8
25.8
27.7
18.7
21.8

33.6
41.2
49.6
38.5
43.3

20.S 25.3
26.0
38.7
41.8
29.3
27.4

30.1
40.7
43.3
31.2
24.8

25.9
40.4
42.4
31.6
26.1

38.8
53.2
52.1
31.0
44.6

37.9
53. £
53.5
35.5
42.3

37.4
53. £
52.6
35.6
42.4

28.2
35.6
38.3
35.0
34.5

31.0
36.8
39.2
39.2
32.3

27.3
36.6
38.1
37.5
30.7

37.3
42.5
54.4
43.0
41.5

33.1
41.7
53.3
42.2
41.1

37.2
7.8 11.0
13.5
36.9 44.7
28.9

35.2
11.0
11.7
50.9
28.3

35.2
35.5 32.9 32.9
28.8
11.0 8.7 12.5 9.0 9.7 ÌÓ.C 14.0
12.1
12.6 11.2 11.1
12.0
56.8 40.0 47.7 53.1 56.3 38.6 55.1
28.3 ........ 30.0
29.5
........ ........

28.2
11.5
10.6
56.8
28.8

28.3
13.0
10.7
59.0
29.0

40.5
20.0
11.6
53.5
33.9

35.0
17.3
11.2
53.4
31.7

35.6
38.3 36.4
17.3 8.8 14.0 13.0
11.4 37.8 13.1 11.8
60.2
52.0 » 50.7
32.7 ... 30.0 27.8

36.6
14.0
12.2
54.0
27.6

26.8
30.1 28.9 28.8
29.8 30.0 28.7
35.5 24.2 30.0 30.9 31.0 2Ì.0 36.3 38.7 37.5
17.8 19.7 17.6 19.8 20.1 18.0 18.3 19.4 19.6
25.2
24.4 26.4 26.5
22.6 25.1 25.2
60.8 48.3 58.9 54.3 56.1 53.3 64.1 67.4 61.6

30.6
31.2
19.7
19.3
62.3

29.0
33.8
17.8
21.8
54.6

30.3
29.0
36.2 18.3 31.5
18.0 16.5 17.0
21.7
22.1
65.3 52.5 87.7

24.0
34.5
18.0
23.5
76.1

28.0 27.0
2Ì.Ó 31.8 35.3
14.8 15.2 17.8
24.9 25.0
37.6 65.7 51.4

30.8 47.3 37.5 38.8 37.0 47.2
6.0 8.4 9.4 9.4 5.9 9.6
2.8 5. 0 4.9 4.9 2.4 3.1
2.5 4.0 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.9
9.5 9.4 9.4 ........ 10.6
13.7 9.9 10.0
13.7
29.1 26.0 26.0
30.8
18.6 19.0 19.2
22.6
10.0 9.0 9.5 9.6 8.2 8.5
8.8 10.4 10.0
8.3
1.4

2.7 1.3 1.4
6.4 3.3 3.3
5. 5 1.8 2.6
15.3 14.7 14.5
16.2 14.2 14.4

...

26.9 21.2 19.9
HI. 8 2
12.4 12.4
55.8 66.2 57.3

...

41.9 41.5
8.7 a 7
5.4 5.3
5.9 5.7
9.8 9.6

11.7
25.6
20.7
9.1
10.0

9.8 9.9
26.5 26.6
23.0 23.0
9.7 9.7
11.2 11.4

11.8
25.8
20.6
9.1
10.0

12.2 10.7 10.9 10.6 9.0 9.1
28.8 25.2 25.2 29.8 24.9 24.8
13.4 13.9 14.0 20. 1 17.6 17.8
8.5 8.5 9.2 9.2 8.0 7.8 7.9
7.2 9.2 9.1 9.0 11.0 11.6

16.0
13.9
9.1
79.1
43.9

15.8
18.1
13.4
14. 3
9.2 5.4 6.4
79.4 50.0 57.5
43.8 32.0 33.8

15.8 18.1 18.6

...... 24.9 18.8 19.0
215. 8 214. 5 214.9
46.9 43.1 46.7

Per pound.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

23.5
33.6
17.9
23.4
71.1

39.4 41.1 41.7 42.2 41.7 43.7 48.4 38.1 39.7 35.3 50.6
9.4 9.4 5.9 8.5 9.0 9.0 10.4 8.7 8.7 5.5 10.2
3.2 3.4 3.4 5.2 5.2 5.3 5.5 5.4 5.5 3.6 5.9
3.6 3.7 3.5 4.7 4.6 4.6 2.6 2.7 2.8
7.0
9.2 9.1
9.9 9.3 9.5 10.1 8.6 8.5
11.0

2.2 1.2 1.2 1.9 3.5 2.6 2.4 3.6 2.2 '2.4
6.2 2.9 2.9
5.4 3.2 3.1 9.1 6.2 5.8
3.5 2.8 2.9
6. 8 4. 5 4. 4
17.9 16.8 16.5
16.2 15.1 14.9 13.4 13.1 12.9
15.1 14.5 14.4
17.5 16.7 16.3 15.0 14.4 14.8

1.4

16.7 10.1 16.4
15.5
14.3 14.3 14.3
13.4
5. i 6.7 8.5 8.6 5.8 7.7
45.0 65.8 64.2 65.4 65.7 82.0
30.0 39.8 40.7 39.9 35.8 44.9

...... 19.3 22.3 21.9

2a 6
39. t
45. C
31.3
31.4

........

16.5
22.9
39.3
51.8

12.3
29.1
23.4
8.5 9.8
9.7

2.0 2.0

3.0
7.6
4 9
13.0
16.6

12! 9 12! 7
16.3 16.3

17.4 17.7 18.6 16.4 16.2
14.3 H 4.3 12.1 10.2 10.2
8.2 8.4 6.5 7.7 8.1 5.5
57.3 57.3 68.2 66.8 66.2 52.5
35.7 35.7 32.2 33.4 33.8 31.3

17.5
13.2
6.8
61.8
38.9

18.0 17.9
13.0 13.4
8.1 8.3
59.0 60.1
38.3 38.8

19'. 2
18.9
37.1
53.8

17.2
26.6
36.2
51.1

19.1 19.0
20.2 19.6
32.7 31.9
54.8 51.4

19.2
18.8
34.3
51.3

19.4
23.7
37.0
38.2

20.5
19.4
34.2
39.0

19.8
18.9
37.1
39.7

1.9

....

4.7

4. 9

84

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW,

Table 8.—AVERAGE R E TA IL PRICES OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF FOOD FOR 51
CITIES ON CERTAIN SPECIFIED D A TE S—Concluded.
Seattle, Wash.
Unit.

Article.

Sirloin steak.
Round steak.
Rib roast.......
Chuck roast..
Plate beef___
Pork chops...
Bacon.............
Ham ...............
Lamb, leg of.
Hens...............
Salmon, canned, red.
Milk, fresh................. .
Milk, evaporated.......
B utter..........................
Oleomargarirffe...........
N ut margarine...........
Cheese..........................
Lard..............................
Crisco............................
Eggs, strictly fresh...
Eggs, storage...............
•Bread............................
Flour............................
Corn meal....................
Rolled oats..................
Corn flakes.............
Cream of W heat...
Macaroni.................
R ice.........................
Beans, n a v y ..........
Potatoes..................
Onions.....................
Cabbage..................
Beans, baked........
Corn, canned.........
Peas, canned..........
Tomatoes, canned.
Sugar, granulated.
T ea...........................
Coffee.......................
Prunes.....................
Raisins....................
Bananas.................
Oranges...................

Springfield, 111.

Washington, D . C.

3. 15— Nov. Dec.
Dec. Nov. Dec. Dee. 15— Nov Dec.
15,
15.
15,
15,
15.
15, 15,
1921 1922. 1922. 1921. 1922. 1922. 1913 1921 1922. 1922.

Cts. Cts. Cts.
Pound.
23.6 29.0 29.2
___ do..
20.6 25.4 25.7
.do.
20.0 22.4 23.9
.do.
15.6 16.3 16.0
.do.
12.9 12.7 12.7
.do.
24.0 33.6 35.9
.do.
33.0 47.7 49.5
.do.
30.0 49.3 51.1
.do.
18.0 27.5 31.7
24.6 35.3 29.7
.do.
.do.
31.9 31.2
Quart........... 9.
12.0 13.0
15-16 0 7 . can.
12.2 11.0
Pound..........43.
49.6. 54.8
___ d o ....
30.0 28.5
___ do..
30.3 28.9
___ do..
22.3 34.1 35.4
___ do..
16.9 17.0 19.5
___ do..
25.4
54.2 58.3 60.0
Dozen..
37.0 48.8 43.3
___ do..
8.1
8.6
Pound.
4.3
4.5
2.9
___do..
3.3
....d o ..
3.8
3.9
___do..
8.5
8.3
8-oz. p k g ..
13.3 11.7
28-oz. pkg.
30.3 26.9
17.9 18.6
Pound___
7.7 10.2 10.8
___do........
___do........
8.0
9.4
2.4
1.5
___ do___
1.7
___ do___
7.1
3.9
3.8
___do___
3.0
17.2 15.5
No. 2 can.
___do___
17.8 16.8
___do..
18.4 19.0
___do..
‘ 15.7 ' 16.4
Pound.
7.1
8.5
50.0 62.2 66.4
....d o ..
28.0 36.6 39.0
___do..
___do.
17.2 18.1
___do.
25.4 18.5
Dozen.
2 15.0 2 14.2
___do.
50.9 58.4

6.6

6.1

1 No. 2J can.

Cts.
29.3
25.8
24.0
16.1
12.7
34.8
48.4
49.6
32.7
31.0
31.2
13.0
11.1
57.1
29.7
29.0
36.2
19.7
25.5
56.4
43.0
8.6
4.6
3.9
8.2
11.7
26.9
18.5
10.9
9.4
1.7
4.1
3.2
15.2
16.8
18.5
116.4
8.9
66.4
39.0
18.1
18.7
2 14.8
54.3

Cts.
29.9
29.4
19.4
17.3
11.8
26.4
37.5
41.7
31.4
30.4
37.3
12.5
13.5
50.9
29.9
28.8
33.4
15.1
20. 4
69.7
50.0
10.3
5.4
4.0
10.7
13.5
30.5
20.9
9.1
7.8
2.7
8.5
6.2
14.3
15.5
18.0
14.2
7.1
73.7
34.9
19.9
28.2
2 10.5
54.0

Cts.
29.3
29.7
21.7
18.5
12.2
30.6
39.0
43.2
35.6
29.7
33.6
11.1
12.3
56.3
28.1
26.3
37.5
17.4
23.1
58.5
39.1
9.5
5.1
4.2
10.1
9.8
26.8
20.5
10.4
10.1
1.9
4.5
3.2
13.7
14.3
17.9
14.5
8.8
72.6
36.3
20.4
22.9
2 12.0
57.3

Cts.
28.9
28.7
21.6
17.9
12.2
26.2
38.7
43.2
35.6
29.3
33.4
11.1
12.6
61.7
28.3
27.4
38.3
17.4
23.1
62.5
39.2
9.5
5.1
4.5
10.1
9.8
26.8
20.5
10.1
10.6
1.9
4.7
3.6
13.7
14.3
17.9
14.4
9.0
72.9
36.3
22.8
21.6
2 11.6
56.2

Cts.
26.5
22.6
21.0
17.3
12.4
19.9
24.9
29.0
19.4
22.0
9.0
42.3
23.5
15.0
42. i
35.0
5.5
3.8
2.6

9.4
1.8

5.0
57.5
28.8

Cts. Cts.
39.9 42.3
33.8 35.0
33.1 33.5
21.9 22.6
13.3 12.8
34.0 35.4
35.9 40.1
51.1 55.2
38.1 41.1
38:4 38.7
32.7 28.8
15.0 14.0
13.1 11.4
57.1 56.9
28.9 27.0
28.3 27.0
35.4 37.7
15.1 17.5
21.7 32.3
73.6 69.0
54.4 40.0
7.9 8.5
5.6 5.2
3.9 3.6
10.8 9.2
11.3 9.4
28.8 25.3
22.5 21.7
10.0 10.7
8.3 10.5
3.9 2.6
8.5 4.8
4.7 3.7
12.2 12.0
15.6 14.7
16.8 16.0
12.6 11.3
6.7 7.7
75.5 75.2
33.1 34.6
20.6 21.9
24.5 20.5
37.4 35.3
47.6 47.4

Cts.
41.8
34.5
32.6
22.5
12.5
32.0
39.0
55.2
41.7
37.7
28 0
14.0
11.5
62.8
27 8
27 2
38.1
17.2
23 2
70.4
43.8
8.5
5.2
3.6
9.3
9.4
25.3
21.0
10.4
10.9
2.7
5.1
3.8
11.9
14.6
15.9
11.2
7.9
76.0
34.4
22.1
18.7
37.5
46.2

2 Per pound.

Comparison of Retail Food Costs in 51 Cities.

nnABLE 9 shows for 39 cities the percentage of increase or decrease
1 in the retail cost of food7 in December, 1922, compared with the
average cost in the year 1913, in December, 1921, and in November,
1922. For 12 other cities comparisons are given for the one-year and
the one-month periods. These cities have been scheduled by the
bureau at different dates since 1913. These percentage changes are
based on actual retail prices secured each month from retail dealers
and on the average family consumption of these articles in each city.8
7 For list of articles see note 2, p. 62.
• The consumption figure used from January, 1913, to December, 1920, for each article in each city is
given in the Monthly Labor R eview for November, 1918, pp. 94 and 95. The consumption figures
which have been used for each month beginning with January, 1921, are given in the Monthly Labob
R eview for March, 1921, p. 26.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

L3I0]

BETAIL PBICES OE FOOD,

85

Effort has been made by the bureau each month to have perfect
reporting cities. For the month of December, 98 per cent of all the
firms reporting in the 51 cities sent in a report promptly. The fol­
lowing were perfect reporting cities; that is, every merchant in the
following-named 29 cities who is cooperating with the bureau sent in
his report in time for his prices to be included in the city averages:
Atlanta, Birmingham, Boston, Bridgeport, Charleston, Chicago,
Cincinnati, Detroit, Houston, Indianapolis, Kansas City, Little Rock,
Los Angeles, Manchester, Memphis, Milwaukee, Newark, New Haven,
New Orleans, New York, Omaha, Peoria, Portland, Me., Providence,
St. Louis, Salt Lake City, Savannah, Scranton, and Seattle.
The following summary shows the promptness with which the
merchants responded in December:
R E TA IL PRICE R EPO R TS RECEIVED DURING DECEM BER.
Geographical division.
United
States.

Item.

Percentage of reports received......................
Number of cities in each section from
which every report was received..............

North
South
Atlantic. Atlantic.

*

North
Central.

South
Central.

Western.

98

99

97

99

98

98

29

9

3

9

5

3

T able 9 — PERCENTAGE CHANGES IN THE RETAIL COST OF FOOD IN DECEMBER
1922, COMPARED W ITH THE COST IN NOVEMBER, 1922, DECEMBER, 1921 AND WITH
THE AVERAGE COST IN THE YEAR 1913, B Y CITIES.

City.

Percentage
increase
December
1922,
compared
with year
1913.

Percentage
decrease
December
1922,
compared
with De­
cember,
1921.

Percentage
increase
December
1922,
compared
with No­
vember,
1922.

A tlanta...............
Baltimore...........
Birmingham___
Boston.................
Bridgeport..........

44
51
49
51

Buffalo................
B u tte ...................
Charleston..........
Chicago...............
Cincinnati..........

54

1
2 1

46
49
41

4

2

2

2

2

0
2

2
1

1
1

2

2

4

3

1 0 .1
2

»0 . 1

46
39
49

1

2

0 .1
2

4

Fall R iver..........
H ouston..............
Indianapolis___
Jacksonville.......
Kansas City.......

36
40
41

Little Rock........
Los Angeles____
Louisville...........
Manchester.........
Memphis.............

38
42
38
44

36


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

5
3

3
4

6
2
»1
0 .2
8

4

Mobile .*...............

Percentage
increase
December
1922,
compared
with No­
vember,
1922.

45
2

3

i

2

1

45

52

City.

Percentage
decrease
December
1922,
compared
with De­
cember,
1921.

12

Cleveland...........
Columbus...........
D allas..................
D enver................
D etroit................

3

Percentage
increase
December
1922,
compared
with year
1913.

1

New Orleans___

44
56
41

3
5

Philadelphia___

50
49

Portland, Oreg..

36

St. Louis.............
St. Paul..............
Salt Lake C ity. .

47

22
0 .1

2
2

27

4

1

San Francisco...
Savannah...........

45

1

1

54
39

5

3

6
23

0.4

0.4
»1

1

0 .3

2

2

57

2

2

10.4
1

2
1
0
2
1 1

2

4

Washington, D .C
1 Decrease-

* Increase.

[311]

55

1

1

86

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

Retail Prices of Coal in the United States.®

HE following table shows the average retail prices of coal on
December 15, 1921, and on November 15 and December 15,
1922, for the United States and for each of the cities included
in the total for the United States. Prices for coal are secured from
the cities from which monthly retail prices of food are received.
In addition to the prices for Pennsylvania anthracite, prices are
shown for Colorado, Arkansas, and New Mexico anthracite in those
cities where these coals form any considerable portion of the sales
for household use.
The prices shown for bituminous coal are averages of prices of the
several kinds used. The coal dealers in each city are asked to quote
prices on the kinds of bituminous coal usually sold for household use.
The prices quoted are for coal delivered to consumers, but do not
include charges for storing the coal in cellar or coal bin where an
extra handling is necessary.

T

AVERAGE R ETA IL PRICES OF COAL, PE R TON OF 2,000 PO UNDS, FOR HOUSEHOLD
U SE, ON DECEM BER 15, 1921, AN D ON NOVEM BER 15 AN D DECEM BER 15, 1922.
1921

1922

City, and kind of coal.
Dec. 15.
U nited States:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
S to v e ............................................................................
C hestnut......................................................................
B itum inous........................................................................
Atlanta, Ga.:
Bitum inous.........................................................................
Baltimore, Md.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove.............................................................................
Chestnut.....................................................................
Bitum inous.......................................................................
Birmingham, Ala.:
Bitum inous.....................................................................
Boston, Mass.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove...........................................
Chestnut.......................................................................
Bridgeport, Conn.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove.......................................................
Chestnut.....................................................................
Buffalo, N. Y.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove.............................................................................
Chestnut.....................................................................
B utte, Mont.:
Bitum inous.............................................
Charleston, S. C.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove.......................................................
Chestnut..................................................
Bitum inous.................................................
Chicago, 111.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove............................................................................
Chestnut................................ , .............................
Bitum inous.......................................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove..............................................
Chestnut.......................................................................
Bitum inous.........................................................................

Nov. 15.

Dec. 15.

$15.092
15.129
10.275

$15,534
15.521
11.311

$15. 527
15.516
11.233

8.729

10.462

10.404

i 15.000
i 14.750
8.050

i 15. 750
i 15.750

• 16.250
1 16.267

11.000

1 0 .200

7.770

8.314

8.398

15.500
15.500

16.000
16.000

16.000
16.000

14.500
14.400

16.125
16.125

15.563
15.750

13.120
13.120

13.238
13.238

13.238
13.238

11.740

11.513

11.500

i 17.000
i 17.100

i 17.000
i 17.100

i 17.000
i 17.100

1 2 .000

1 2 .000

1 2 .000

15.560
15.530
8.922

16.080
15.850
10.833

16.180
16.000
10.820

15.500
15.750
7.563

9.61.9
9.619
1 Per ton of 2,240 pounds.
° Prices of coal were formerly secured semiannually and published in the March and September issues of
the Monthly L abor R eview . Since June, 1920, these prices have been secured and published monthly.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[312]

RETAIL PRICES OF COAL.

87

AVERAGE R E TA IL PRICES OF COAL. PE R TON OF 2,000 PO UN D S, FOR HOUSEHOLD
U SE, ON DECEM BER 15,1921, AND ON NOVEM BER 15 AN D DECEM BER 15, 1922—Con.
1921

1922

City, and kind of coal.
Dec. 15.
Cleveland, Ohio:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove.................................
Chestnut...........................
Bitum inous............................
Columbus, Ohio:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Chestnut...........................
Bitum inous.............................
Dallas, Tex.:
Arkansas anthracite—
T1. E gg....................................
Bitum inous.............................
Denver, Colo.:
Colorado anthracite—
Stove, 3 and 5 m ixed. . .
Furnace, 1 and 2 mixed.
Bitum inous.............................
Detroit, Mich.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove.................................
Chestnut...........................
Bitum inous............................
Fall River, Mass.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove...................................
Chestnut............................
Bitum inous..............................
Houston, Tex.:
Bitum inous..............................
Indianapolis, Ind.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove...................................
Chestnut............................
Bitum inous..............................
Jacksonville, Fla.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove...................................
Chestnut............................
Bitum inous..............................
Kansas City, Mo.:
Arkansas anthracite—
Furnace..............................
Stove, No. 4 ......................
Bitum inous..............................
Little Rock, Ark.:
Arkansas anthracite—
Egg......................................
Bitum inous..............................
Los Angeles, Calif.:
Bitum inous..............................
Louisville, Ky.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove...................................
Chestnut............................
Bitum inous..............................
Manchester, N . H.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove...................................
Chestnut............................
Bitum inous..............................
Memphis, Tenn.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove...................................
C hestnut...........................
Bitum inous..............................
Milwaukee, Wis.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove...................................
Chestnut............................
Bitum inous..............................
Minneapolis, Minn.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove...................................
Chestnut............................
Bitum inous..............................


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[313]

Nov. 15.

Dec. 15.

*14.375
14.438
8.519

*15. 875
15.875
10.526

*15.675
15.675
10.900

15.083
7.554

.605

9.742

18.417
15.462

18.000
15.538

18.125
15.477

15.917
15.917
10.921

17.000
17.000
11.168

17.000
17.000
11.041

14.563
14.563
8.781

15.688
15.688
12.219

15.938
15.938
12.031

15.167
15.000
9.500

16.500
15.833
11.000

11.000

12.333

12. 750

12.833

15.750
15.667
8.000

15.750
15. 750
9.825

15. 750
15.750
9.613

17. 500
17.500
13.000

18.500
18. 500
15.000

15.000

17.286
18.000
9.453

17.000
17.938
9.643

16.929
17.875
8.964

16.000
13.133

15.000
13.167

15.000
12.500

19.000

16. 500

16.500

16. 875
16.917
8.090

10.283

10.114

16.500
16.500
11.333

17.667
17.667
14.000

18.000
18.000
14.000

18.000
18.000
8.393

9.464

9.411

16.010
15.950
10.556

16.324
16.304
12.611

16.424
16.404
12.423

17.950
17.950
12.498

17.500
17.470
14.125

17.660
17.670
14.188

16.500
15.750

88

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW,

AVERAGE R E TA IL PRICES OF COAL, PE R TON OF 2,000 PO UN D S, FOR HOU SEHOLD
U SE , ON DECEM BER 15,1921, AND ON NOVEM BER 15 A N D DECEM BER 15, 1922—Con.
1921

1922

City, and kind of coal.
Dec. 15.
Mobile, Ala.:
Bitum inous.........................................................................
Newark, N . j.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove...................................................
Chestnut.......................................................................
New Haven, Conn.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove........................
Chestnut.......................................................................
New Orleans, La.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove....................
Chestnut....................................
Bitum inous..............................
New York, N. Y.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove...................................
Chestnut............................
Norfolk, Va.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove..................
Chestnut............................
Bitum inous...........................
Omaha, Nebr.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove...........................
Chestnut.........................
Bitum inous................
Peoria, 111.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove..........................
Chestnut.....................
Bitum inous...............................
Philadelphia, Pa.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove........................
Chestnut..................
Pittsburgh, Pa.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove....................
Chestnut..............
Bitum inous................
Portland, Me.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove....................
Chestnut................................
Bitum inous....................
Portland, Oreg.:
Bitum inous....................
Providence, R. I.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove...................................
Chestnut..............
Bituminous....................
Richmond, Va.:
Pennsylvania anthracite
Stove....................
Chestnut.................................
Bitum inous...................................
Rochester, N . Y.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove....................
Chestnut........................................
St. Louis, Mo.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove........................
Chestnut................................
Bitum inous...................................
St. Paul, Minn.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove.....................
Chestnut.........................
Bitum inous.............
1 Per ton of 2,240 pounds.
s Fifty cents per ton additional is charged for “ binning.”
le coal into the cellar.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[314]

Nov. 15.

Dec. 15.

$11,357

$10.688

12. 850
12.850

12.750
12.750

14. 000
14.000

15. 333
15.333

15.333
15.333

18.000
18. 000
10. 781

20.750
20.750
11.292

21.500
21.500

13.300
13.300

13.833
13.833

14.000
14. 000
9. 429

16.000
16.000
12.381

21. 600
21.600
12.368

22.000
22.000
12.571

15. 500
15.500
6.083

7.625

1 14.313
1 14.313

»14. 538
1 14.538

1 15.500
1 15.667
6.750

17.000
17.000
8.375

$10,969

114.969

15.843
15. 843
12.924
’ 15.000
* 15.000

15.500

14.250
14. 250
10.846
13.550
13.550
16.188
16.375
7.200
17.950
17.950
13.202

ft*

14.256

14.369

Most customers require binning or basketing
“
&

89

RETA IL PR IC E S OE COAL.

A V ERAGE R ETA IL PRICES OF COAL, PE R TON OF 2,000 PO U N D S, FOR HOUSEHOLD
USE, ON DECEM BER 15,1921, AND ON NOVEM BER 15 AN D DECEM BER 15, 1922—Con.
1921

1922

City, and kind of coal.
Dec. 15.
Salt Lake City, Utah:
Colorado anthracite—
Furnace, 1 and 2 mixed
Stove, 3 and 5 m ixed...
Bitum inous........................... .
San Francisco, Calif.:
New Mexico anthracite—
Cerillos egg......................
Colorado anthracite—
E gg....................................
Bitum inous.............................
Savannah, Ga.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove.................................
Chestnut...........................
Bitum inous.............................
Scranton, Pa.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove.................................
Chestnut...........................
Seattle, Wash.:
Bituminous.............................
Springfield, 111.:
Bituminous.............................
Washington, D. C.:
Pennsylvania anthracite—
Stove..................................
Chestnut...........................
Bitum inous.............................

$

19.125
20 . 000
9.061

Nov. 15.

000
20.000
9.466

Dec. 15.

$ 20 .

$ 9.452

27.250

26 . 750

26.750

26 . 250
19.273

24 . 250
17. 900

24.250
17.900

317.100
3 17.100
3 12.267

3 17.600
3 17. 600
» 12.267

3 17.100
3 17.100
3 14.183

9 . 783
9.783

9.783
10.267

9.817
10.300

4 10.325

4 10. 211

4 10.068

4.625

5.325

5.350

1 15.064
1 14.700
1 9 . 575

1 15.629
1 15.629
1 11. 296

1 15.871
1 15. 871
1 11.296

1 Per ton of 2,240 pounds.
» AH coal sold in Savannah is weighed by the city. A charge of 10 cents per ton or half ton is made.
This additional charge has been included in the above prices.
4 Prices in zone A. The cartage charges in zone A were as follows: December, 1920, $1.85; November
and December, 1921, $1.75. These charges have been included in the averages. The cartage charges in
Seattle during these months have ranged from $1.75 to $2.80 according to distance.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[315 ]

co

o
T R E N D IN R E T A IL PR IC E OE COAL FO R T H E U N IT E D ST A T ES J A N U A R Y , 1913, TO D E CEM BER , 1922.

200

175
150

[316]

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

125
100

75

50
40

M O N T H L Y LABOR REVIEW ,

400
375
350
325
300
275
250
225

91

RETAIL PR IC E S OF COAL.

The following table shows for the United States both average and
relative retail prices of Pennsylvania white ash coal, stove and
chestnut sizes, and of bituminous coal on specified dates from January,
1913, to December, 1922. An average price for the year 1913 has
been made from the averages for January and July of that year.
The average prices for each month have been divided by this average
price for the year 1913 to obtain the relative prices.
July, 1922, compared with July, 1913, shows an increase of 99 per
cent in the price of Pennsylvania white ash stove coal, 94 per cent
m the price of chestnut, and 76 per cent in the price of bituminous.
December, 1922, compared with July, 1922, shows an increase of
4 per cent in the price of Pennsylvania white ash stove and in the
price of chestnut, and an increase of 18 per cent in the price of
bituminous coal.
The figures for the chart, showing the trend in the retail prices of
coal, have been taken from the table.
AVERAGE AND RELA TIV E PRICES OF COAL IN TON LOTS FOR THE U N IT E D STATES
ON SPECIFIED DATES FROM JANUARY 15, 1913, TO DECEM BER 15, 1922.
Pennsylvania anthracite, white ash.
Stove.

Year and month.

Average
price.

Relative
price.

Relative
price.

Average
price.

Relative
price.

$7.73
7.99
7.46

100
103
97

$7.91
8.15
7.68

100
103
97

$5.43
5. 48
5.39

100
101
99

7.80
7.60

101
98

8.00
7.78

101
98

5.97
5.46

no
101

7.83
7.54

101
98

7.99
7.73

101
98

5.71
5.44

7.93
8.12

103
105

8.13
8.28

103
105

5.69
5.52

105
102

9.29
. 9.08

120
118

9.40
9.16

119
116

6.96
7.21

128
133

9.88
9.96

128
129

10.03
10.07

127
127

7.68
7.92

141
146

11.51
12.14

149
157

11.61
12.17

147
154

7.90
8.10

145
149

12.59
14.28

163
185

12.77
14.33

161
181

8.81
10.55

162
194

15.99
14.90

207
193

16.13
14.95

204
189

11.82
10.47

218
193

14.98
14. 92
14.89
14.89
14. 85
14.88
14.87
0)
15.11
15.39
15.53
15. 53

194
193
193
193
192
193
192
C1)
196
199
201
201

15.02
14.99
14.94
14.94
14.91
14.93
14. 92
0)
15.13
15.37
15. 52
15.52

190
189
189
189
188
189
189

9.89
9.71
9.72
9.62
9.50
9.48
9.49
(l)
11.08
11.26
11.31
11.23

182
179
179
177

1 No satisfactory prices on account of strike.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Chestnut.

Average
price.
1913—
Average for year................................
January............................................
July...............................................................
1914—
January....................................................
July..............................................................
1915January............................................
July..............................................................
1916January..........................................
July................................................... ..........
1917—
January............................................
J u ly ......................................................
1918January................................................
July..............................................................
1919—
January............................................
July................................................
1920January..................................................
July..............................................................
1921—
January....................................................
July..............................................................
1922—
January.......................................................
I ebruary.............................................
March.....................................
April...................................
May..............................................................
June........................................................
July..............................................................
August.........................................................
September...............................................
October..................................................
N ovem ber...................................
D ecem b er......................................
I

2 S 4 9 1 °— 23------ 7

Bituminous.

[317]

(i)

191
194
196
196

105
100

•

(i)

174
175
204
207
208
207

co
to
T R E N D IN R E T A IL PR IC E OF GAS, FO R T H E U N IT E D ST A T E S, A P R IL , 1913, TO D E CEM BER , 1922.

M O N T H L Y LABOR REVIEW ,

[318]

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

93

R ETA IL PR IC E S OF GAS.

Retail Prices of Gas in the United States.“

HE following table shows for 51 cities the net price for the first
1,000 cubic feet of gas used for household purposes. Prices
are, in most cases, for manufactured gas, but prices for natural
as have also been quoted for those cities where it is in general use.
or Buffalo and Los Angeles prices are given for natural and manu­
factured gas, mixed. The prices shown do not include any extra
charge for service.

T

f

N E T PRICE FOR THE FIRST 1,000 CUBIC F E E T OF GAS, FOR HOUSEHOLD USE, ON A PR IL
15 OF EACH YEAR 1913 TO 1920, AND ON MAY 15, SEPTEM BER 15, AND DECEM BER 15,
1921, AN D MARCH 15, JUNE 15, SEPTEM BER 15, AND DECEM BER 15, 1922, B Y CITIES.
City.

Apr !Apr Apr. Apr. Apr Apr Apr !Apr May Sept Dec Mar. June Sept Dec.
15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15,
1913. 1914. 1915. 1916. 1917. 1918. 1919. 1920. 1921. 1921. 1921. 1922. 1922. 1922. 1922.

Atlanta, Ga.............
$1.00 $1.00 $1.00 $1.00 $1.00 $1.00 $1.15 $1.15 $1.90 $1.65 $1.65 $1.65 $1.65 $1.65 $1.65
Baltimore, Md....... .
.90 . 8( . 8C .75 .75 .75
.75 .75 .75 .92 .92 .92 .92 .92 .92
Birmingham, Ala....... , 1.00 1 .95 .95 .95 .95 .95
.95 .95 .88 .88 .88 .88 .88 .80 .80
Boston, Mass................. .82 : .82 . 8C . 8C .80 .85 1.02 1.07 1.42 1.35 1.34 1.34 1.32 1.30 1.30
Bridgeport, Conn......... 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.10 1.10 11.30 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.50 1.50 1.50
Buffalo, N. Y ............
1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.45 1.45 1.45 1.45
Butte, Mont................... 1.50 1.50 1.5C 1.5C 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 2.10 2.10
Charleston, S. C............ 1.101 1.10 1.1C 1.10 1.0C 1.10 1.10 1.25 1.55 1.55
Chicago, 111..................... . 80 . 8C .80 .80 . 8C .75i .94 .90 1.29 1.29
Cleveland, Ohio............ .80 .80 .80 .80 .80 .80
.80 .80 .80 .80
Denver, Colo...............
Detroit, Mich...............
Fall River, Mass.........
Houston, T ex ...............
Indianapolis, Ind.........

.85 .80
.75 .75
.80 .80
1.00 1. OC
.60 .55

1.45
2.10
1.55
1.29
.80

1.45
2.10
1.55
1.20
.80

1.45
2.10
1.55
1.20
.80

1.45
2.10 2.10
1. 55 1.55
1.20 1.20
.80 .80

.80 .80 .80 .85
.75 .75 .75 .75
.80 .80 .80 .95
1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
.55 .55 .55 .55

.95 .95 .95 .95 .95 .95 .95 .95 .95
.79 .79 .85 .85 .85 .79 .79 .79 .79
.95 1.05 1.25 1.15 1.15 1.15 1.15 1.15 1.15
1.00 1.09 1.09 1.09 1.09 1.09 1.09 1.09 1.09
.60 .60 .90 .90 .90 .90 U .20 >1.20 21.20

Jacksonville, F la .......... 1.20 1.20 1.15 1.15 1.15 1.25
Manchester, N. H ........ 1.10 1. 10 1.00 1.00 1. 00 1.00
Memphis, Tenn........... 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Milwaukee, W is ........... .75 .75 .75 .75 .75 .75
Minneapolis, Minn....... .85 .80 .80 .77 .77 .77

1.25 1.50 1.75 1.75 1.75 1.75 1.65 1.65 1.65
1.10 1.10 31.50 31.50 31.50 31.40 31.40 31.40 3], 50
1.00 il. 10 1.35 1.35 1.35 1.35 1.20 1.20 1.20
.75 .75 .90 .90 .90 .90 .90 .98 .98
.95 .95 1.28 1.11 1.11 1.02 1.02 .99 .99

Mobile, Ala.................... 1.10 1.10 1.10 1. 10 1.10 1.10
Newark, N . J................. 1.00 .90 .90 .90 .90 .97
New Haven, Conn....... .90 .90 .90 .90 .90 1.00
New Orleans, L a.......... 1.10 1. 00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
New York, N. Y .......... .84 .84 .83 .83 .83 .83

1. 35
.97
1.10
1.30
.85

1.35 1.80 1.80 1.80 1. 80 1.80 1.80 1.80
1.15 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.25 1.25 1.25
1.10 >1. 10 il. 10 M.IO 11.10 1.45 1.45
1.30 1.30 1.45 1.45 1.45 1.45 1. 30 1.30
.87 «1,30 41. 28 «1.28 «1.28 «1.27 H. 27 31.21

Norfolk, V a ....................
Omaha, Nebr................
Peoria, 111.......................
Philadelphia, P a ..........
Pittsburgh, P a ..............

1.20
1.15
.85
1.00
1.00

1.60
1.15
.85
1.00
(6)

1.00
1.15
.90
1.00
1.00

1.00
1.15
.90
1.00
1.00

1.00
1.15
.90
1.00
1.00

1.00
1.00
.90
1.00
1.00

1.00
1.00
.85
1.00
1.00

1.20
1.15
.85
1.00
1.00

1.40
1.53
1.20
1.00
(6)

1.35
1.45
1.20
1.00
(6)

1.35
1.45
1.20
1.00
(•)

1.45
1.40
1.20
1.00
(6)

1.40
1.35
1.20
1.00
(6)

1.40
1.35
1.20
1.00
(6)

1.35
1. 35
1.20
1.00
(6)

Portland, M e .............. 1. 10 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Portland, O reg............. .95 .95 .95 .95 .95 .95
Providence, R. I . . ___ .85 . 85 .85 .85 .85 1.00
Richmond, Ya .............. .90 .90 .90 .80 .80 .80
Rochester, N . Y ........... . 95 .95 .95 .95 .95 .95

1.40 1.40 1.85 1.85 1.75 1.75 1.65 1.65 1.55
.95 .95 1.67 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.43 1.43
1.30 1.30 11.25 U.25 il. 25 il.2 5 il.2 5 11.15 11.15
1.00 1.00 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30
.95 .95 71. 05 71.05 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.05

St. Louis, Mo.................
St. Paul, M inn..............
Salt Lake City, U ta h ..
San Francisco, C alif...
Savannah, Ga...............

.75 .85 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05
. 85 .85 1. 00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 .85 1.00
1.1031.30 31.52 31.52 31.52 ’ 1.52 31.52 1.52 31.52
.95 .95 1.05 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.02 .92 .92
1.25 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.45 1.45 1.45

.80
.95
.90
.75

.80
.90
.90
.85

.80
.90
.90
. 85

.80
.85
.90
.85

.75
.85
.90
. 85

.75
.85
.90
.85

Scranton, P a ................. .95 .95 .95 .95 .95 1.15
Seattle, W ash................ 1.00 1.00 1.00' 1.00 l. 00 1.25
Springfield, 111............... 1.00 1. 00 1. 00, 1.00 1. 00 l. 00
Washington, D. C........ .93, .93 .93 .93 .80 .90
1

1.30 1.30 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.60
1.25 1.55 1. 55 1.55 1. 55 1.55 1.55
1.10 1.10 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40
.95 .95 1.25 1.25 1.10 1.10 1.05

1.60 1.60
1.55 1.55
1.40 1.40
1.05’ 1.05
1

1 Plus 50 cents per month service charge.
1 The rate was increased from 90 cents by order of the Federal court, and is subject to final decision b y
the same court. Pending the decision this increase has been impounded.
3 Plus 25 cents per month service charge.
4 The prices of two companies included in this average have an additional service charge of 24 cents
per day.

3The price of one company included in this average has a n additional service charge of 2| cents per day.

6 Sale of manufactured gas discontinued.
7 Plus 40 cents per month service charge.

0 R e t a i l p r ic e s of g a s a r e p u b l is h e d a t q u a r t e r l y i n t e r v a l s i n t h e M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w .


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[319]

94

M O N T H L Y LABOR REV IEW .

N E T PRICE FOR THE FIR ST 1,000 CUBIC FE E T OF GAS, FOR HOUSEHOLD USE, ON
A PR IL 15 OF EACH Y E A R , 1913 TO 1920, AND ON MAY 15, SE PT E M BE R 15, AND DECEM BER
15, 1921, AND MARCH 15, JUNE 15, SE PT E M BE R 15, AND DECEM BER 15, 1922, B Y CITIES—
Concluded.
N a tu r a l g a s.
Apr. Apr. Apr. ¡Apr. Apr. Apr. Apr. Apr. May Sept. Dec. Mar. June Sept. Dec.
15,
15,
15,
15,
15,
15,
15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15,
15,
1913. 1914. 1915. 1916. 1917. 1918. 1919. 1920. 1921. 1921. 1921. 1922. 1922. 1922. 1922.

City.

Buffalo, N. Y . . $0.30 $0.30 $0.30 $0.30 $0.30 $0.30 $0.35 $0.35 $0.35 $0.40 $0.40 $0.42 $0.42
.50 $6.50 $6.50
.50
.50
.35
Cincinnati,Ohio. .30 .30 .30 .30 .30 .35 .35 .35 .35
.40
.40
.40
.45
.40
.35
Cleveland, Ohio. .30 .30 . 30; . 30 .30 .30 .35 .35 .35
1
.45
.45
.45
.45
.45
.45
.30 .30 .30 .30 .30
Dallas, Tex.......
. 45 .45 . 45( . 45 .45 .45 .45 .45 .674 .674 .674 .674 .674 .674 .674
Kansas City,Mo. .27 .27 . 27* .27 .30 .60 .80 .80 1.80 1.80 1.80 1.80 1.80 1.85 1.85
.45
.45
. 45
.45
.45
.45
LittleRock,Ark. .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .45 .45 . 45
. 65
.65
. 65
.65
. 65
. 65
.65
.65 .65
Louisville, K v ..
.62
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.45
Pittsburgh, Pa. .28 .28 .28 .28 .28 .28 .35 .35 .45
1
M a n u fa c tu r e d a n d n a tu r a l g a s, m ix e d .
LosAngales, Calif.
Buffalo, N. Y . .

..

!
$0.68 $0.68 $0.68 $0.6S $0.75 SO. 7 5 ! $0.75 $0.76 $0.76; $0.76 $0.73 $0.70 $0.69
s. 68
.63
|
1
1

1

1 Plus 50 cents per month service charge.

8 Price includes a coal charge.

From the prices quoted on manufactured gas in 43 cities average
prices have been computed for the 43 cities combined and are shown
in the next table for April 15 of each year from 1913 to 1920 and for
May 15, September 15, and December 15, 1921, and March 15, June
15, September 15, and December 15, 1922. Relative prices have been
computed by dividing the price of each year by the price in April, 1913.
As may be seen in the table, the price of manufactured gas changed
but little until 1921. The price in December, 1922, showed an in­
crease of 34 per cent since April, 1913. From September, 1922, to
December, 1922, there was no change in price.
AVERAGE i AND R ELA T IV E PRICES OF M ANUFACTURED GAS, FOR HOUSEHOLD USE,
PE R 1,000 CUBIC FE E T , ON A PR IL 15 OF EACH Y E A R , 1913 TO 1920, AN D ON MAY 15, SE P­
TEM BER 15, AND DECEM BER 15, 1921, AND MARCH 15, JUNE 15, SE PT E M BE R 15, AND
DECEM BER 15, 1922, FOR ALL CITIES COMBINED.
[Average prices iu April, 1913=100.]
Date.
April
April
April
April
April
April
April
April

15, 1913...............................
15j 1914................................
15' 1915................................
15j 1916...................
15i 1917...............................
15', 1918................................
15^ 1919................................
15; 1920................................

Average
price.

Relative
price.

$0 . 9 5

100

.9 4
.93

.92
.92
.95
1.04
1.09

Date.
May 15, 1921................................

99

98
97
97
100
109
115

March 15, 1922............................

Average
price.
$1.32
1.31
1.30
1.29
1.29
1.27
1.27

Relative
price.
139
138
137
136
136
134
134

i N et price.

Retail Prices of Electricity in the United States.

HE following table shows for 32 cities the net price per kilowatt
hour of electricity used for household purposes Rates for
these cities are shown for certain specified months; for 19 cities
from Decetnber, 1914, to December, 1922, and for 13 cities from
December, 1917, to December, 1922.
The consumption per month is expressed in hours of demand for
several of the cities from which prices for electricity have been ob­
tained. Since the demand is determined by a different method in each
city, the explanation of these methods is given following the table.

T


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[320]

N E T PRICE PE R KILOW ATT HOUR EOR ELECTRICITY, FOR HOUSEHOLD USE, IN SPEC IFIED MONTHS, 1914 TO 1922, FOR 32 CITIES.

City.

Measure of consumption,
per month.

First 60 hours’ use of demand.
Next 120 hours’ use of demand.
First 30 hours’ use of dem and..
N ext 30 hours’ use of dem and..

cember,
1915.

December,
1916.

December,
1917.

June.

December.

June.

December.

June.

December.

May.

Septernber.

Decem- March. June.
ber.

Septernber.

December.

Cents.

Cents.

Cents.

Cents.

Cents.

Cents.

C ents.

C ents.

C ents.

Cents.

Cents.

C ents. C ents.

C ents.

Cents.

C ents.

7.0

8.0
8.0
8.1

8.0
8.0
7.7

8.0
8.0
7.7

8.0
8.0
7.7

8.1
8.0
7.7

8.1
8.0
7.7

8.1
8.0
7.7

8.1
8.0
7.7

8.1
8.0
7.7

8.1
8.0
7.7

8.1
8.0
7.7

8.1
8.0
7.7

1 11.5 7 11.4
1 11.5 7 11.4
7.0
7.0
4.0
4.0
1.5
1.5
9.0
9.0
5.0
5.0
3.0
3.0
8.5
8.5
6.5
6.5
3.5
3.5

1 11.8
7 11.8
7.0
4.0
1.5
9.0
5.0
3.0
8.5
6.5
3.5

7 11.8
7 11.8
7.0
4.0
1.5
9.0
5.0
3.0
8.5
6.5
3.5

7 11.3
7 11.3
7.0
4.0
1.5
9.0
5.0
3.0
8.5
6.5
3.5

7 11.2
7 11.3
7.0
4.0
1.5
9.0
5.0
3.0
8.5
6.5
3.5

7 11.0
7 11.0
7.0
4.0
1. 5
9.0
5.0
3.0
8.5
6.5
3.5

10.0
10.0
7.0
4.0
1. 5
9.0
5.0
3.0
8. 5
6. 5
3.5

10.0
10.0
7.0
4.0
1. 5
9.0
5. 0
3.0
8. 5
6.5
3.5

9.5
9. 5
7.0
4. 0.
1. 5
9.0
5.0
3.0
8. 5
6. 5
3.5

9.5
9.5
7. 0
4. 0
1.5
9.0
5.0
3.0
8. 5
6. 5
3.5

5.0
4 10.0 4 10.0 4 10.0 4 10.0 4 10.0
5. 0
5. 0
5.0
5.0
5.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3Ì0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
3 12.6 3 12.6 3 12.6 3 12.6 3 12.6 3 12.6 3 12.6

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

3.0
8.0
12.6

3.0
8.0
12.6

3.0
8.0
12.6

3.0
8.0
12.6

3.0
8.0
12.6

3.0
8.0
12.6

3.0
8.0
10. 8

3.0
8. 0
10.8

8.5

8.5

8.5

7.0
8.0
8.1

10.0
10.0
7.0
5.0
1.5
10.0
5.0
3.0

10 0
10.0
7.0
4.0
1.5
10.0
5.0
3.0

10.0
10.0
7.0
4.0
1.5
9.0
5.0
3.0

10.0
10.0
7.0
4.0
1.5
9.0
5.0
3.0
8.5
3.5

Cleveland:
Company A 2. . .
Company B ___

8 .0

8.1

10.0 1 11.2
10.0 1 11.5
7.0
7.0
4.0
4.0
1.5
1.5
9.0
9.0
5.0
5.0
3.0
3.0
8.5
8.5
6.5
6.5
3.5
3.5

3 10.0 3 10.0 3 10.0
3.0

3.0

First 3 kilowatt hours per » 12.6 3 12.6
active room.
3.6
3.6
8.1
8.1
First 39 hours’ use of dem and..
4. 5

3.6
8.1
4.5

Indianapolis:
Company A ___
Company B ___
7.0

7.0

7.0

3.6
8.1
4.5

3.6
8.1
4.5

3.6
8.1
4.5

3.6
8.1
4.5

3.6
8.1
4.5

3.6
8.1
4.5

3.6
8.1
4.5

3.6
8.1
4. 5

3.6
8.1
4. 5

3.6
8.1
4.5

3.6
7.2
4. 5

3.6
7.2
4. 5

3.6
7. 2
4.5

3.6
7.2
4.5

«6.5
7 5.0

«6.5
7 5.0
«6.5
7 5.0
7.0
7.6

«6.5
7 5.0
«6.5
7 5.0
7.0
8.4

«6.5
7 5.0
«6.5
7 5.0
7.0
8.4

«6.5
7 5.0
«6.5
7 5.0
7.0
9.0

«6.5
7 5.0
« 6.5
7 5.0
7.0
8.7

«7.5
7 7.0
«7.5
7 7.0
7.0
8.7

«7.5
7 7.0
«7.5
7 7.0
7.0
8.7

«7.5
7 7.0
«7.5
7 7.0
7.0
8.7

»7.5
7 7.0
«7.5
7 7.0
7.0
8.7

«7.5
7 7.0
« 7.5
7 7.0
7.0
8.7

«7.0
7 6. 5
«7.0
7 6.5
7.0
8.7

7.0
6. 5
7.0
6. 5
7.0
8.7

7.0
6.5
7.0
6. 5
7.0
8.7

7 5.0
7.0
7.6

First 3 kilowatt hours per room
(minimum, 3 rooms).
1
4.8
4.8
Excess...........................................
1 Price includes a coal charge, and a surcharge of 10 per ce nt from December, 1918, to June,
1920, and 5 per cent from December, 1920, to December, 1921.
2 For determination of demand see explanation following table.
3 First 35 hours’ use of demand. For determination of demand see explanation follow­
ing table.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

5.4
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.2
5.6
5.2
4 First 1,000 kilowatt hours.
3 First 2 kilowatt hours’ per active room.
6 First block of demand. For determination of demand in effect from December,
1917, to March, 1922, and that in effect in June, 1922, see explanation following table.
7 Excess.

R ETA IL PR IC E S OF ELECTRICITY,

Boston:
Company A ___

Cents.

1922

1921

1920

1919

1918
De­
cernber,
1914.

N E T PRICE P E R KILOW ATT HOUR FOR ELECTRICITY, FOR HOUSEHOLD USE, IN SPECIFIED MONTHS, 1914 TO 1922, FOR 32 CITIES—Concluded.
1918
City.

Measure of consumption,
per month.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1920

1921

1922

De­
cem­
ber,
1915.

De­
cem­
ber,
1916.

De­
cem­
ber,
1917.

June.

De­
cem­
ber.

June.

De­
cem­
ber.

June.

De­
cem­
ber.

May.

Sep­
tem­
ber.

De­
cem­ March. June.
ber.

Sep­
tem­
ber.

Cents.

C ents.

Cents.

Cents.

Cents.

C ents.

Cents.

Cents.

Cents.

Cents.

Cents.

Cents.

Cents.

Cents.

C ents.

C ents.

5. 5
5.5

5.5
5.5

5.5
5.5

5.5
5.5
8 6.0

5.5
5.5
8 6.0

5.5
5.5
8 6.0

5.5
5.5
8 6.0

5.5
5.5
86.0

5.5
5.5
86.0

6.2
6.2
9 9.0

6.2
6.2
9 9.0

6.2
6 2
99.0

6.2

6.2

5.6

5.6

5.6

9 9.0

9 9- 0

9 9.0

9 9.0

8.0

7.6

7.6

9.5

9.5

9.5

m 10.5

9.5

9.5

9-5

9.5

5.0
9.5

5.7

5.7

7.1

7.1

7.1

7.1

10 7.8

7.1

7.1

7.1

7.1

7.1

8.0
7.0
6.0

8 n il 11 7 11 11 7
7.0
9.1
9-1
6.0
7.8
7.8

9.1
7.8

Q1
7.8

Q 1

7.0

7.0

7.0

7.1

7.1

De­
cem­
ber.

7.8

7.8

7.8

7.8

7.8

7.8

7.8

7.8

n 8.0
10.0
11.0
9.0

8.0
10.0
11.0
9.0

7.0
10.0
8.0
9.0

7.0
10.0
8.0
9.0

7.0
10.0
8.0
9.0

7.0
10.0
8.0
9.0

7.0
10.0
8.0
9.0

7.0
10.0
8.0
9.0

15 7.9
10.0
is 9.0
9.0

is 7.9
10.0
is 8.8
9.0

16 7.7
10.0
168.8
9.0

16 7.7
10.0
is 8.7
9-0

is 7.5
10.0
is 8.4
9.0

is 7.4
10.0
is 8.4
9.0

is 7.5
10.0
15 8.5
9.0

15 7.6
10.0
15 8.6
9-0

w 10.0 ” 10.0

9.0
7.0
10.0
8.0
6.0
8.0

9.0
7.0
10.0
80
6.0
8.0

9.0
70
10.0

9.0
70
10.0

9.0
7.0
10.0

9.0
7.0
10.0

8.0
7.0
10.0

8.0
7.0
9.0

6.0
8.0

6.0
8.0

6.0
8.0

6.0
8.0

6.0
8.0

8.0
7.0
10.0
8 0
6.0
8.0

6.0
8.0

« 10.0
10 0
11.0
9.0

10.0

10.0

9.0
7.0
10.0

9.0
7.0
10.0
17 8.0

9.0
7.0
10.0
17 8.0

9.0
7.0
10.0
17 8.0

9.0
7.0
10.0
17 8.0

9.0

8.5

8.0

8.6

8.0

8.0

8.0

9.0
7.0
10.0
8.0
6.0
8.0

7.6
6.7
2.9
is 9.0
si 7.0
22 4 .0

7.6
6.7
2.9
19 9.0
7.0
22 4.0

7.6
6.7
2.9
19 9.0
2i7 .0
22 4 .0

7.6
6.7
2.9
7.3
6.7
2.9
9.0

7.6
6.7
2.9
7.3
6.7
2.9
9.0

7.6
6.7
2.9
7.3
6.7
2.9
9.0

7.6
6.7
2.9
7.3
6.7
2.9
9.0

7.6
6.7
2.9
7.3
6.7
2.9
9.0

7.6
6.7
2.9
7.3
6.7
2.9
9.0

7.6
6.7
2.9
7.3
6.7
2.9
9.0

7.6
6.7
2.9
7.3
6.7
2.9
9.0

7.6
6.7
2.9
7.3
6.7
2.9
9.0

7.6
6.7
2.9
7.3
6.7
2.9
9.0

7.6
6.7
2.9
7.3
6.7
2.9
9.0'

7.6
6.7
2.9
7.3
6.7
2.9
9.0

7.6
6.7
2.9
7.3
6.7
2.9
9.0

7.6
6.7
2.9
7.3
6.7
2.9
9.0

7.6
5.7
2.9
7.6
5.7
2.9

8 1
6.2
3.4
7.6
5.7
2.9

7.6
5.7

7.6
5.7

7.6
5.7

7.6
5 7

76
57

7 6
5 7

7 6
5 7

7.6
5 7

7.6
5 7

7.6
5 7

7.6
5 7
2.9

7.6
5.7
2.9

7.6

2.9

7.6
5 7
2.9

7 6
5 7
2.9

............

7.6
5.7
2.9
7.6
5.7
2.9

5.7
2.9
5.7
2.9

2 Q

7.6
5.7
2.9

7.6

7.6

7.6
5 7

5 7

5 7

2.9

2.9

2.9

2.9

5 7

7.6

M O N T H L Y LABOR REVIEW .

[B22]

Los Angeles:
Company A ___ First 100 kilowatt hours...........
Company B ___ ........do ............................................
Memphis...................
room.
Excess...........................................
Minneapolis.............
active room.
N ext 3 kilowatt hours per
active room.
Mobile.......................
New Orleans 12........
Next 30 kilowatt hours.............
New York:
Company A ___ First 1,000 kilowatt hours........
Company B w.. All current...................................
Company C 2. . . First 60 hours’ use of demand..
Norfolk.....................
Philadelphia:
Company A ___ First 12 kilowatt hours.............
Next 75 kilowatt hours.............
Company B ___ First 500 kilowatt hours...........
Pittsburgh 2............. First 30 hours’ use of demand.
N ext 60 hours’ use of demand.
Portland, Me........... All current..............................
Portland' Oreg.:
Company A . .. First 9 kilowatt hours...............
N ext kilowatt hours 18..............
Next 50 kilowatt hours.............
Company B ___ First 13 kilowatt hours.............
N ext kilowatt hours20.........
Next 50 kilowatt hours.............
Richmond, V a........ First 100 kilowatt hours...........
St. Louis:
Company A28. . First block of demand.............
Next block of demand.........
E xcess.....................................
Company B 2<.. First block of demand.........
N ext block of demand............
Excess...........................................

1919

De­
cem­
ber,
1914.

«

San Francisco:

7.0
7.0

7.0
Company A ___ First 50 kilowatt hours.
7.0
Company B — ........d o ............................
Savannah:
Company A ---- ........d o ..............................
5.4
E xcess...............................
il 6.0
Company B ___ First 100 kilowatt hours.
Scranton................... First 150 kilowatt hours.
Seattle:
Company A — First 45 kilowatt hours............. 28 6 . 0
5.5
Company B — ........d o .........................................
Washington, D. C.2. First 120 hours’ use of demand. 10.0

7.0
7.0

7.0
7.0

8.0
8.0

28 8.0
28 8.0

25 8.0
25 8.0

25 8.0
25 8-0

259.2
9 .2

8.5
8 .5

8.5
8.5

8.5

8.5

8.5

8.5
8 .5

8.5

8.5
8 .5

9.0

9.0

9.0

9.0

9.0

9.0

9 .0

9 .0

9.0

9 .0

9.0

9.0

9.0

9.0

7.2
8.0

27 7.2
9.0

27 7 . 2

27 7.2

27 9.6
10.0

9 .0
1 0 .0

9 .0
1 0 .0

10.0

9.0
10.0

9.0

10.0

9.0
10.0

9 .0

1 0 .0

27 7.2
10.0

27 7.2

1 0 .0

10.0

9.0
10.0

5.5
5.5

5.5
5.5

5 .5
5 .5
10.0

5.5
10.0

5.5
5 .5
10.0

6 .0
6 .0
10.0

6 .0
6 .0
10.0

6 .0
6 .0

10.0

5.5
5.5
10.0

5.5

10.0

10.0

6 .0
6 .0
10.0

6.0
6.0
10.0

6.0
6.0
10.0

10.0

7.0
7.0

«10.8 “ 10.8 26 10.8
5.4
5.4
n6.0 H6.0
5.5
5.5

5.5
5.5

10.0

10.0

27

-a n u u rie u i.

,

.

. .

„

, „

is The number of kilowatt hours paid for at this rate is that in excess of the nrst 9
kilowatt hours until 100 hours’ use of the demand is reached. After 100 hours of demand
has been consumed the lower rate can be applied. For determination of demand see
explanation following table.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

8.5

6 .0
6.0

6.0
6.0
10.0

19 First 6 per cent of demand.
For determination of demand see explanation follow­
ing lauie.
29 For an installation of 600 watts or less 7 kilowatt hours will apply. For each 30
watts of installation in excess of 60 watts one additional kilowatt hour will apply.
2 1 N ext 6 per cent of demand.
For determination of demand see explanation following
table.
22 Excess.
2s For determination of demand in effect from December, 1917, to October, 1919, and
that in effect since Oct. 31,1919, see explanation following table.
2< For determination of demand in effect from December, 1917, to July 31, 1922, and
that in effect since July 31,1922, see explanation following table.
29 First 30 kilowatt hours.
2« First 10 kilowatt hours.
22 First 50 kilowatt hours.
28 First 60 kilowatt hours.

RETAIL P R IC E S OE ELECTRICITY,

2 For determination of demand see explanation following table.
8 First 50 kilowatt hours. There is an additional charge of 30 cents per month. At
the end of the year any amount paid in excess of 1 \ cents per kilowatt hour is refunded.
9 First 50 kilowatt hours.
10 Price includes a 10 per cent surcharge,
n First 100 kilowatt hours.
i2 There is an additional service charge of 25 cents per month in New Orleans.
10 First 250 kilowatt hours.
11 First 900 kilowatt hours.
« Price includes a coal charge.
....
io A discount of 5 per cent is allowed on all hills over $2 when payment is made withm

8 .5

CO

98

M O N T H L Y LABOR REV IEW .

Determination of Demand.

IN BUFFALO, from December, 1914, to December, 1922, there
1 has been no change in the method of determining the number
of kilowatt hours to be paid for at each rate The demand consists
of two parts—lighting, 25 per cent of the total installation, but never
less than 250 watts; and power,
per cent of the capacity of any
electric range, water heater, or other appliance of 1,000 watts or
over and 25 per cent of the rated capacity of motors exceeding onehalf horsepower but less than 1 horsepower. The installation is
determined by inspection of premises.
In Chicago, from December, 1914, to December, 1922, the equiva­
lent in kilowatt hours to 30 hours’ use of demand has been estimated
as follows: For a rated capacity of 475 to 574 watts, 11 kilowatt
hours; 575 to 674 watts, 12 kilowatt hours; 675 to 774 watts, 13
kilowatt hours; and 775 to 874 watts, 14 kilowatt hours. Although
the equivalent in kilowatt hours to 30 hours ’ use of demand of from
1 to 1,500 watts is given on the printed tariff, the equivalent is here
shown only for installations of from 475 to 874 watts; the connected
load of the average workingman’s home being, as a rule, within this
range.
In Cincinnati, from December, 1917, to December, 1922, the
demand has been estimated as being 70 per cent of the connected
load, excluding appliances.
In Cleveland, from December, 1914, to December, 1916, inclusive,
Company A determined the demand by inspection as being 40 per
cent of the connected load. From December, 1917, to December,
1919, there was a fixed number of kilowatt hours to be paid for at
the primary rate by all customers, after which there was a flat rate
for all current consumed.
In Houston, from December, 1914, to December, 1922, the demand
has been estimated as 50 per cent of the connected load, each socket
opening being rated at 50 watts.
In Indianapolis the determination of demand has been the same
for both companies. From December, 1917, to March, 1922, the
first block of demand for these companies was for 1.5 kilowatt
hours per socket for not less than 10 sockets, 1 kilowatt hour per
socket for the next 10 sockets, and 0.5 kilowatt hour per socket
for excess sockets.
From April 1, 1922, to July 1, 1922, the first block of demand
consisted of the first 5 kilowatt hours for each of the first 5 active
rooms plus the first 3 kilowatt hours for each additional room,
but not less than 15 kilowatt hours per month. Beginning July
1, 1922, a fixed number of kilowatt hours is to be paid for at each
rate.
In New York the demand for Company C from December, 1914,
to December, 1922, when not determined by meter, has been com­
puted at 50 per cent of total installation in residences, each standard
socket being rated at 50 watts and all other outlets being rated at
their actual kilowatt capacity.
In Pittsburgh from December, 1919, to December, 1922, the
demand has been determined by inspection. The first 10 outlets
have been rated at 30 watts each, the next 20 outlets at 20 watts


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[324]

♦

RETA IL PR IC E S OF DRY GOODS.

99

each, and each additional outlet at 10 watts. Household utensils
and a iances of not over 660 watts each have been excluded.
In
Hand, Oreg., from June 16, 1917, to December, 1922, the
demand for Company A has been estimated as one-third of the con­
nected lighting load. Ranges, heating devices, and small power up
to rated capacity of 2 kilowatts are not included.
From December, 1914, to December, 1916, inclusive, the demand
for Company B, when not based on actual measurement, was esti­
mated at one-third of the connected load. No demand was estab­
lished at less than 233 watts. Since December, 1917, the present
schedule has been in effect.
In St. Louis the first block of demand for Company A from Decem­
ber, 1917, to October, 1919, consisted of the first 4 kilowatt hours per
month for each of the first 4 active rooms and the first 2£ kilowatt
hours for each additional active room. The second block consisted
of additional energy until a total of 7 kilowatt hours per month per
active room had been consumed, after which the third rate became
effective. Since October 31, 1919, the first block has consisted of the
first 5 kilowatt hours per month for each of the first 5 active rooms,
and the first 2 \ kilowatt hours for each additional active room. The
second block has been for additional energy until a total of 9 kilowatt
hours per active room shall have been consumed. The third rate
then becomes effective.
From December, 1917, to July 31, 1922, the number of kilowatt
hours paid for at the primary and secondary rates for Company B
was as follows: For homes of 4 rooms or less, 8 kilowatt hours at the
primary rate and 6 at the secondary rate; 5 or 6 rooms, 12 kilowatt
hours at the primary rate and 9 at the secondary rate; 7 or 8 rooms,
16 kilowatt hours at the primary rate and 12 at the secondary rate;
9 or 10 rooms, 20 kilowatt hours at the primary rate and 15 at the
secondary rate. Beginning with August 1, 1922, the following
number of kilowatt hours have been paid for at the primary and the
secondary rates: For homes of 4 rooms or less, 10 kilowatt hours at
the primary rate and 8 at the secondary rate; 5 or 6 rooms, 15 kilo­
watt hours at the primary rate and 12 at the secondary rate; 7 or 8
rooms, 20 kilowatt hours at the primary rate and 16 at the secondary
rate; 9 or 10 rooms, 25 kilowatt hours at the primary rate and 20 at
the secondary rate.
In Washington, D. C., from December, 1914, to December, 1922,
the demand as determined by inspection consists of 100 per cent of
the connected load, excluding small fans and heating and cooking
appliances.
Retail Prices of Dry Goods in the United States.1

HE following table gives the average retail prices of 10 articles
of dry goods on the 15th of February, May, August, and Octo­
ber, 1921, and on the 15th of March, June, September, and
December, 1922, by cities. The averages given are based on the retail
prices of standard brands only.

T

1 R e ta il prices of d ry goods are secured from each of 51 cities a n d are p u b lish e d a t q u a rte rly in te rv a ls in
th e M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w .


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[325]

A tlanta, Ga.
1921

Unit.

Article.

Feb.
15.

1922

1921

Oct.
15.

Mar.
15.

June
15.

Sept.
15.

Dec.
15.

Feb.
15.

May
15.

Aug.
15.

Oct.
15.

Mar.
15.

June
15.

Sept.
15.

SO. 251
. 183
.246
.453
. 187
.647
1.583
.212
1.000
3.937

SO. 257
.181
. 254
.471
.211
.693
1.594
.221
.950
3.868

$0.150
.263
. 171
.254
. 459
.204
.735
1.646
.218
.950
3.913

SO. 257
. 178
.253
.471
.212
.728
1.652
.210

$0.268
.175
.259
.452
.217
.718
1. 655
.216
.990
3.695

SO. 264
. 178
.261
. 451
.234
.708
1.652
.225
1.000
3.483

$0.243
.161
.234
.349
.211
.673
1.754
.252
1.077
6.113

SO. 238
. 161
.238
.368
.216
.673
1.736
.223
1.080
5.894

SO.200
.238
.147
.241
.365
.208
.649
1.707
.219
1.140
4.711

$0.217
.238
.149
.241
.375
.225
.748
1.762
.223
1.008
4.479

SO. 217
.235
.158
.243
.376
.226
.739
1.718
.223
1.000
4.131

SO. 244
. 156
.236
.361
.212
. 695
1.655
.216
.952
4.479

SO. 243
.158
.233
.366
.218
.689
1.673
.231
.993
4.427

$0.208
.258
. 171
.235
.386
.237
.686
1.778
. 236
.968
4.633

SO. 142
.261
.170
.238
.452
.252
.669
1.685
.212
.880
3.995

$0.161
. 246
.174
.228
.440
.244
.672
1.636
.215
.896
3.675

$0.250
.177
.225
.447
.247
.666
1.501
.239
.950
3.709

3.868


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Y a rd ....
.. . d o . . . . SO. 258
. .. d o ___
. 175
...d o ....
.251
. . .d o ___
.413
. . .d o ----. 194
. . .d o ----.604
Each__
1.517
Yard__
.245
.. . d o . . . .
1.096
Pair....... 4.804

4

$0. 250
. 148
.249
.419
. 175
.591
1.469
.205
.974
4.154

SO. 125
.250
. 140
.242
. 454
.166
.558
1. 395
.210
.980
4. 066

$0.093
.256
. 154
.243
.503
. 185
.629
1.550
.207
.930
4.143

SO. 100
.261
.161
.246
.490
.177
.639
1.469
.202
. S68
4.183

Dec.
15.

B oston, Mass.

Birmingham, Ala.

Gingham, apron, 27 to 28 in ch . . .
Gingham, dress, 27-inch................
Gingham, dress, 32-inch................
Muslin, bleached............................
Sheeting, bleached, 9-4.................
Sheets, bleached, 81 by 90............
Outing flannel, 27 to 28 inch........
Flannel, white, wool, 27-inch___
Blankets, cotton, 66 by 80............

1922

Aug.
15.
I

$0. 250
.158
.245
.483
.214
.668
1.591
.248
1.117
4. 740

Baltim ore, Md.

$0.100
.245
. 170
.257
.463
. 177
.648
1.482
. 205
.923
4.183

SO. 100
.245
.163
.265
.473
. 191
.643
1.491
.215
1.004
4.036

SO. 113
.265
.162
.269
. 436
.218
.639
1.509
.216
1.063
4.320

SO. 150
.266
. 178
.240
. 504
.262
.666
1.663
.251
.998
4.735

$0.150
.246
.206
.248
.499
.238
.659
1.698
.259
.891
4.368

SO.150
.241
.162
.245
.521
.244
.661
1.619
.249
.891
4. 483

$0.150
.252
.172
.245
.559
. 258
.680
1. 664
.240
.927
4.588

SO. 142
.257
. 173
.239
.490
.249
.681
1. 659
.211
.880
4.000

M O N T H L Y LABOR REV IEW .

[326]

Gingham, apron, 27 to 28 inch. . .
Gingham, dress, 27-inch...............
Gingham, dress, 32-inch................
Muslin, bleached.............................
Sheeting, bleached, 9-4.................
Sheets, bleached, 81 by 90............
Outing flannel, 27 to 28 in ch ........
Flannel, white, wool, 27-inch___
Blankets, cotton, 66 by 80............

Y ard.. . .
.. . d o . . . . $0.275
.. .d o ----.161
...d o .. ..
.238
. . .d o .. . .
. 464
.. .d o ___
.222
.. .d o ___
.662
Each__
1.599
.265
Yard__
. .. d o ___
1.250
Pair....... 3. 240

May
15.

100

AVERAGE R ETA IL PRICES OP 10 ARTICLES OF D R Y GOODS ON FE B R U A R Y 15, MAY 15. AUGUST 15, AND OCTOBER 15, 1921, AN D ON MARCH 15,
JUNE 15, SEPTEM BER 15, AN D DECEMBER 15, 1922.

B ridgeport, Conn.
1
$0.278
.185
.253
.488
.241
.660
1.855
.300
1.250
6.050

$0.255
.182
.237
.488
.208
.677
1.855
.252
5. S50

SO. 245
. 170
.230
.474
.200
. 677
1.741
.225
.700
5.000

$0.248
. 166
.242
.488
.221
.673
1.774
.225
.700
5.063

$0.246
. 170
.260
.496
.223
.709
1.786
.238
.750
5.042

$0.245
. 174
.227
.450
.227
.678
1.773
.274
.670
5.150

$0.255
. 174
.244
.423
.232
.680
1.710
.246
.897
4.388

$0.258
.178
.249
. 445
.233
.688
1.710
.249
.833
4.388

$0 113
.285
. 196
.242
.491
.258
.681
1.789
.297
.865
5.530

ShO 110
.259
.160
.257
.522
.226
.689
1.718
.231
5.416

$0 10ft
.262
.158
.280
.506
.216
.676
1.702
.228
.850
5.384

B utte, Mont.

[327]

Calico, 24 to 25 inch...........
Percale.........................................
Gingham, apron, 27 to 28 inch
Gingham, dress, 27-inch..........
Gingham, dress, 32-inch........
Muslin, bleached.....................
Sheeting, bleached, 9-4..........
Sheets, bleached, 81 by 90....
Outing flannel, 27 to 28 in ch .
Flannel, white, wool, 27-inch
Blankets, cotton, 66 by 80.

Yard.
. .d o . .
..d o ..
. .d o . .
..d o ..
. .d o . .
. .d o . .
Each.
Yard.
. .d o . .
Pair..

SO. 150
.334
.214
.300
.478
.244
.842
2. 113
.308
.950
4. 875

SO. 150
.310
. 188
.270
.471
.244
.788
1.992
.286
1.013
5.190

$0.150
.258
. 180
.248
.478
.228
.767
1.933
.272
1.013
5.270

$0.133
.260
.154
.248
.438
.244
.797
2.044
.266
.932
5.270

SO. 133
.263
. 170
.261
.438
.241
.803
2. 044
.264
.890
5. 130

SO. 126
.279
.142
.245
.559
.208
.641
1.569
.200
.950
4.986

SO. 129
.250
.143
.245
.592
.214
.649
1.566
.209
.892
4.628

$0.137
.246
.157
.241
. 565
.226
.711
1.654
.198
.896
4.607

$0.117
.231
.157
.236
.537
.203
.672
1.643
.189
1.420
4.772

.263
. 179
.261
.482
.216
.674
1.674
.240

.281
.201
.255
.510
.219
.667
1.64«
.218
. 913
4.160

SO. 289
.213
.266
.503
.240
.671
1.669
.233

$0.119
.241
. 163
.236
.403
. 199
.614
1.579
.207
.818

SO. 125
.241
.161
.228
.424
.204
. 607
1.521
.208
.835
4.215

$0.150
.255
. 179
.228
.428
.219

$0.132
.244
.155
.240
.490
.196
.629
1.650
.200
.926
3.976

SO. 150
.235
.161
.250
.462
.204
.645
1.624
.201
.928
4.115

4. 474

4.241

$0.133
.335
.178
.237
.430
.239
.823
1.991
.266
.964
5.260

$0.100
.305
. 182
.235
.464
.239
.816
2.010
.267
.980
4.860

SO. 133
.295
. 178
.242
.460
.243
.810
2.000
.259
1.088
5.088

$0.133
.265
.164
.232
.420
.223
.614
1.553
.262
1.073
4.060

SO. 131
.244
.153
.217
.373
.194
.602
1.539
.218
.713
4.135

SO. 113
.239
.153
.218
.376
.193
.588
1.511
. 197
.725
3.655

$0.113
.233
. 158
.222
.410
.201
.590
1.544
. 198
.758
3.572

SO. 119
.238
.153
.247
. 415
.203
. 664
1.685
.208
.760
3.880

1. 703
.235
.938
3.860

Cincinnati, Ohio.
SO. 119
.226
.154
.226
.503
.205
.666
1.574
.198
1.400
4.688

$0.122
.237
.155
.228
. 456
.215
.667
1.655
.210
1.475
4.667

SO. 107
.240
. 160
.224
.453
.234
.709
1.640
.213
1.500
4.492

SO. 173
.276
.165
.244
.574
.213
.643
1.604
.237
1.250
4.920

$0.150
.268
.145
.242
. 561
.208
.639
1.617
.215
.983
4.771

SO. 150
.245
.139
.252
.549
.195
.629
1.550
.209
.873
4.211

$0.150
.254
.144
.237
.525
.201
. 654
1.695
.206
.910
3.979

$0.129
.246
. 149
.237
.511
.198
.625
1.667
.202
.926
3.903

SO. 242
.182
.261
.449
.218
.650
1.581
.211
.963
4.237

101


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

$0.132
. 2S4
.159
.255
.579
.228
.637
1.530
.236
1.100
5.098

$0 10ft
.263
.181
.266
.533
.229
.708
1.739
.212
.865
4.796

Charleston, S. C.

Chicago, 111.
Calico, 24 to 25 inch......................
Percale............................................
Gingham, apron, 27 to 28 in c h ..
Gingham, dress, 27-inch..............
Gingham, dress, 32-inch..............
Muslin, bleached...........................
Sheeting, bleached, 9-4...............
Sheets, bleached, 81 by 90..........
Outing flannel, 27 to 28 inch___
Flannel, white, wool, 27-inch___
Blankets, cotton, 66 by 80..........

^o n o
.257
.163
.267
.522
.221
.705
1.668
.226
.865
5.210

RETAIL PRICES OF DRY GOODS.

Calico, 24 to 25 inch......................
Yard.
Percale............................................. . . . d o . .
Gingham, apron, 27 to 28 in ch . . . . . d o . .
Gingham, dress, 27-inch.........
...d o ..
Gingham, dress, 32-inch.........
. . . d o ..
Muslin, bleached......................
...d o . .
Sheeting, bleached, 9-4..........
. . . d o ..
Sheets, bleached, 81 by 90__
E ach..
Outing flannel, 27 to 28 inch.
Yard..
Flannel, white, wool, 27-inch
...d o ..
Blankets, cotton, 66 by 80.
Pair...

Buffalo, N. Y.

Columbus, Ohio.

Cleveland, Ohio.

Article.

1921

1922

1921

Unit.
May
15.

Aug.
15.

Oct.
15.

Mar.
15.

June
15.

Sept.
15.

Dec.
15.

Feb.
15.

May
15.

Sheets, bleached, 81 by 90............ Each__
Outing flannel, 27 to 28 inch........ Yard__

$0.276
.175
.238
.528
.252
.676
1.558
.234

$0,131
.259
.157
.247
.538
.244
.676
1.613
.203
1 117
4.756

$0.133
.259
.167
.242
.553
.239
.682
1.675
.229
. 983
4.550

$0.158
.250
.168
.243
.473
.230
.642
1.625
.215
1.017
4.441

$0.160
.265
.176
.244
.489
.238
. 656
1.655
.243
1.017
4.494

$0.160
.279
.189
.257
.490
.241
.692
1.714
.240
.950
4.572

$0.141
.251
.176
.279
.584
.209
.709
1.777
.250

5.420

$0.125
.263
.140
.243
.516
.229
.666
1.525
.205
1 000
4.529

$0.145
.267
.163
.275
.593
.222
.763
1.743
.290

Blankets, cotton, 66 by 80............ Pair.......

$0.125
.249
.174
.229
.508
.238
.696
1.523
.204
1 000
4.779

4.749

4.711

Aug.
15.

[328]

Yard___ $0.125
.270
.174
.247
.516
.209
.593
Sheets, bleached, 81 by 90............ Each__
1.529
Outing flannel, 27 to 28 inch........ Y ard....
.194
Gingham, apron, 27 to 28 in c h ... . ..d o .......
Gingham, dress, 27-inch............... .. .do.......
Gingham, dress, 32-inch............... . ..d o .......

Blankets, cotton, 66 by 80............


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

♦

Pair.......

4.156

$0.125
.246
.143
.225
.542
.187
.570
1.514
.184
4.350

$0.100
.233
.143
.225
.513
.195
.559
1.443
.196
.650
4.706

$0,100
.219
.152
.228
.495
.207
.634
1.483
.187
.850
4.583

$0.100
.219
.162
.237
.497
.206
.627
1.561
.188
4.522

Oct.
15.

$0.132 $0.146
. 25(K
.244
.170
.164
.280
.276
.570
.583
.190
.210
.699
. 639
1.709
1.715
.218
.228
1.250
4. 564
4.747

Mar.
15.

June
15.

Sept.
15.

Dec.
15.

$0.148
.246
.169
.281
.581
.215
.750
1.786
.234
1.250
4.089

$0.141
.253
.167
.280
. 556
.210
.736
1.763
.238
1.250
4.205

$0.144
.258
.173
.293
. 534
.215
.726
1.750
.247
1.000
4.272

$0.140
.271
.196
.308
.459
.242
.748
1.762
.250

$0.195
.298
.178
.263
.507
.231
.779
1.704
.237
.979
4.725

$0.175
.275
.176
.269
.479
.236
.739
1.673
.228
.973
4.842

$0.152
.279
.178
.267
.502
.238
.725
1.676
.233
.967
4.569

4.211

Denver, Colo.

Dallas, Tex.
Calico, 24 to 25 inch........................

1922

$0.108
.246
.162
.245
. 457
.204
.625
1.486
.187
.750
4.500

$0.108
.238
.168
.249
. 439
.214
.593
1.506
.191
.850
3.930

»

$0.119
.239
.187
.248
.433
.225
.632
1.508
.217
1.000
4.321

$0.175
.348
.179
.264
.626
.245
.716
1.823
.271
5.393

$0.145
.321
.170
.242
.565
.239
.754
1.922
.218
1.425
5.646

$0.134
.304
.160
.249
.571
.234
.740
1.862
.212
1.050
5.542

$0.140
.293
.165
.246
.571
.228
.767
1.S71
.215
1.125
5.458

$0.167
.298
.168
.258
.535
.221
.768
1.754
.218
.979
4.854

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW,

Feb.
15.

Gingham, apron, 27 to 28 in c h ... . ..d o .......
Gingham, dress, 27-inch................ . ..d o .......
Gingham, dress, 32-inch............... . ..d o .......

102

AVERAGE RETA IL PRICES OF 10 ARTICLES OF D R Y GOODS ON F E B R U A R Y 15, MAY 15, AUGUST 15, AND OCTOBER 15, 1921, A N D ON MARCH 15,
JU N E 15, SEPTEM BER 15, AND DECEMBER 15, 1922—Continued.

D etroit, Mich.
Yard..
..d o ...
. .d o ...
..d o ...
..d o ...
..d o ...
. .d o ...
Each..
Yard..
..d o ...
Pair...

$0.136
.282
.190
.225
.574
.225
. 715
1.727
. 263
1.233
5.013

«0.136
.282
.181
.219
.520
.220
.693
1.770
.247
1.233
4.708

$0.136
.262
.172
.220
.489
.209
.698
1.765
.229
1.233
4.623

$0.136
.270
.174
.216
.501
.217
.731
1. 862
.221
1.233
4.498

$0.129
.264
.172
.223
.510
.223
.733
1.751
.220
1.233
4.270

$0.121
.258
.178
.220
.494
.228
.718
1.733
.218
1.317
4.144

SO.120
.258
.176
.216
.472
.231
.714
1.746
.226
1.067
4.280

$0.255
.193
.227
.460
.242
.744
1.781
.236
1.083
4.375

SO. 238
.167
.240
.390
.230
.783
1.610
.258

SO. 246
.145
.238
.402
.203
.688
1.690
.254

4.320

3.555

SO. 246
.143
.243
.460
.221
.697
1.680
.236
.690
4.944

H ouston, Tex.

[329]

Calico, 24 to 25 inch........................
Percale..............................................
Gingham, apron, 27 to 28 in ch . . .
Gingham, dress, 27-inch................
Gingham, dress, 32-inch................
Muslin, bleached............................
Sheeting, bleached, 9-4.................
Sheets, bleached, 81 by 90.............
Outing flannel, 27 to 28 inch........
Flannel, white, wool, 27-inch___
Blankets, cotton, 66 by 80............

Y ard ...
.. .do__
. .do__
..d o __
..d o __
..d o __
..d o __
E ach ...
Y ard ...
..d o __
Pair__

SO. 125
.280
.163
.220
.497
.209
.588
1.654
.203
.804
5.932

$0.123
.282
.158
.204
.523
. 173
.518
1.528
.188
.723
4.983

$0. 123

.262
.168
.199
.515
.176
.565
1.507
.170
.723
3.943

SO. 130
.280
.190
.208
.507
. 181
.580
1.510
.183
.723
4.270

SO. 122
.268
.172
.210
.505
. 188
.579
1.613
.182
. 762
4. 270

$0.144
.270
.170
.243
.446
.216
.642
1.482
.210
.850

$0.144
.290
. 170
.243
.540
.204
.608
1.444
.206
.850
4.250

$0.144
.290
.170
.234
.521
.216
.588
1.512
.218
.850
4.186

SO. 144
.270
.170
.240
. 465
.215
.670
1.498
.220
4.186

$0. 258

4.406

4.384

.170
. 910
4.278

¥0.260
. 164
.280
.430
.244
.714
1.740
.245
Q03
3.903

$0.125
.272
. 173
.257
.512
.213
.683
1.593
.206
1.050
4. 439

SO. 125
.270
.172
.278
.461
.213
.657
1.564
.210
1. 033
4.484

SO. 131
.252
. 180
.261
.443
.241
.684
1.561
.211
1.005
4.468

SO. 142
.258
.210
.282
.490
.223
.718
1.646
. 220
.725
5.176

$0. 145
.270
.210
.276
.470
.233
.718
1.647
.240
.725
4.747

$0.140
.277
.210
.276
.447
.255
.749
1.574
.230
.975
4.783

.283
.433
.227
.705
1.717
.203

SO. 248
.156
.280
.450
.240
.693

$0.126
. 242
.167
.205
.486
.184
.574
1.518
.173
.773

SO. 128
.252
.167
.208
.485
.190
.582
1.576
. 198
.850
4.733

SO. 133
.257
.181
.224
.460
.199
.600
1.609
. 197
.845
4.599

SO. 140
.295
. 171
.249
.410
.238
.698
1.527
.254
.997
4.905

$0.128
.285
. 164
.242
.381
.220
.671
1.571
.228
.997
4. 503

SO. 123
.275
. 165
.263
. 456
.215
.683
1.523
. 198
.997
4. 808

$0.132
.275
. 177
.263
.445
.224
.694
1.620
.205
1. 047
4.941

SO. 126
.277
.168
.260
.532
.208
.693
1.611
.200
1.023
4.628

K ansas City, Mo.
SO. 142
.270
.164
.232
.439
.217
.710
1.460
.195
.750
4.250

SO. 142
.270
.160
.228
.425
.219
.750
1.478
. 195
.750
3.908

$0.107
.266
.163
.246
.423
.235
.733
1.462
.235
.750
3.893

$0.161
.284
. 190
.270
.555
.241
.705
1.712
.243
.750
5.431

$0.149
.260
.181
.267
.534
.204
.699
1.675
.223
.750
4.969

SO. 138
.251
. 189
.273
.522
.225
.660
1.519
.203
.920
4.810

SO. 153
.273
.183
.270
.487
.232
.715
1.644
.221
.920
4.994

SO. 144
.270
.206
.270
.487
.229
.743
1.612
.222
.850
4.997

103


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

$0.138
.300
.160
.233
.438
.229
.688
1.615
.270
.850
5.317

$0.258
.158
.283
.443
.223
.720
1.710
.228

Indianapolis, lad .

Jacksonville, Fla.
Calico, 24 to 25 inch........................
Percale...... ........................................
Gingham, apron, 27 to 28 inch. . .
Gingham, dress, 27-inch................
Gingham, dress, 32-inch................
Muslin, bleached.............................
Sheeting, bleached, 9-4.................
Sheets, bleached, 81 by 90.............
Outing flannel, 27 to 28 inch........
Flannel, white, wool, 27-inch___
Blankets, cotton, 66 by 80............

SO. 248
.151
.270
. 450
.226
.708
1.683
.228
.625
4.788

RETAIL PRICES OF DRY GOODS.

Calico, 24 to 25 inch..................
Percale.........................................
Gingham, apron, 27 to 28 inch
Gingham, dress, 27-inch..........
Gingham, dress, 32-inch..........
Muslin, bleached.......................
Sheeting, bleached, 9-4............
Sheets, bleached, 81 by 90___
Outing flannel, 27 to 28 in c h ..
Flannel, white, wool, 27-inch.
Blankets, cotton, 66 by 80___

F all River, Mass.

Little Rock, Ark.
Article.

1921

Unit.
Feb.
15.
Yard___ 80.200
.276
.do.......
.188
.215
-do.......
.do.......
.409
.do.......
.221
.664
Each___ 1.700
.238
Yard__
.911
.. .do.......
Pair....... 4.175
..
..
..
..

Los Angeles, Calif.
1922

1921

1922

May
15.

Aug.
15.

Oct.
15.

Mar.
15.

June
15.

Sept.
15.

Dec.
15.

Feb.
15.

May
15.

Aug.
15.

Oct.
15.

Mar.
15.

June
15.

Sept.
15.

Dec.
15.

$0.133
.261
.156
.208
.399
.200
.583
1.543
.197
.771
3.875

80.140
.230
. 163
.236
.433
. 198
.567
1.484
.206
.886
3.895

$0.153
.237
.163
.235
.427
.199
. 610
1. 522
.203
.875
4.095

80.113

80.114

SO. 118

80.150

$0.150

80.125

$0.125

$0.125

$0.163

$0.138

80.168

$0. 223

.150
.231
.451
.183
. 687
1.646
.178
.894
3.676

.150
.229
.427
. 184

.175
.233
.436
.204

. 188
.262
.406
.240

.186
.274
.584
.247

.185
.251
.557
.230

.178
.254
.518
.217

.178
.251
. 544
.223

. 172
.257
.556
.226

. 173
.255
.548
.225

. 173
.240
.550
.237

. 186
.243
.561
.238

1.531
. 187
.867
3.386

1.640
.228
.915
3. 393

1.607
.233
1.067
3.792

1.623
.269
.950
5.106

1.586
.255
1.317
4.633

1.596
.246
1.317
4.342

1.618
. 245
1.200
4.581

1.662
.239
1.250
4.443

1.632
.241
1.125
4.436

1.695
.242
1.125
4.489

1.699
.258
1.033
4.493

Louisville, Ky.
Calico, 24 to 25 inch........................
Percale.....................................
Gingham, apron, 27 to 28 in ch . . .
Gingham, dress, 27-inch................
Gingham, dress, 32-inch................
Muslin, bleached.............................
Sheeting, bleached, 9-4.................
Sheets, bleached, 81 by 90.............
Outing flannel, 27 to 28inch........
Flannel, white, wool, 27-inch___
Blankets, cotton, 66 by 80............


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Y a r d .... 80.134
.261
.156
.269
.532
. 194
.635
E a ch .... 1.932
.257
Yard__
. . .do.......
.875
Pair....... 5.917
. . -do.......
...d o .......
.. .do.......

$0.129
. 246
.159
.261
. 550
. 189
. 609
1.604
.220
.670
5.000

$0.125
.257
.143
.260
.539
. 199
.616
1.608
.228
.750
4.980

80.128
. 257
.158
.264
.521
.214
.686
1.625
.244
.770
4.265

80.122
. 257
.163
.252
. 454
. 198
.675
1.620
.240
.807
3. 787

Manches ter, N. H.
80.125
270
.156
.262
.461
. 207
. 658
1. 579
.240
.973
4.057

*

80.133

80.140

$0.130

$0,129

$0.128

$0.133

$0.133

$0.139

80.125

$0.125

.163
.251
.478
. 210
. 635
1.566
.251
1.053
4.722

.180
.275
.491

.156
.233
.450

.163
.222
.439

.163
.221
.427

. 167
.222
.413

. 167
.224
.456

. 151
.211
.453

. 170
.210
.387

.178
.236
.387

683
1.709
.240
1.007
4. 490

1.625
.230
1. 250
4.302

1.636
.240
.885
4.009

1.634
.228
.840
4.472

1.681
.230
.843
4.351

1.656
.223
.864
4.083

1.505
.231
. 868
3. 752

1.520
.230
.895
3.464

1.630
.216
.903
4.102

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW,

[330]

Calico, 24 to 25 inch........................
Percale.........................................
Gingham, apron, 27 to 28 in c h .. .
Gingham, dress, 27-inch................
Gingham, dress, 32-inch................
Muslin, bleached.............................
Sheeting, bleached, 9-4.................
Sheets, bleached, 81 by 90.............
Outing flannel, 27 to 28 inch.......
Flannel, white, wool, 27-inch...
Blankets, cotton, 66 by 80............

104

AVERAGE RETAIL PRICES OF 10 ARTICLES OF D R Y GOODS ON F E B R U A R Y 15, MAY 15, AUGUST 15, A N D OCTOBER 15, 1921, AND ON MARCH 15,
JU N E 15, SEPTEM BER 15, AN D DECEMBER 15, 1922—Continued.

♦
Memphis, Tenn.
Calico, 24 to 25 inch........................
Percale...............................................
Gingham, apron, 27 to 28 inch__
Gingham, dress, 27-inch................
Gingham, dress, 32-inch................
Muslin, bleached.............................
Sheeting, bleached, 9-4..................
Sheets, bleached, 81 by 90.............
Outing flannel, 27 to 28 inch........
Flannel, white, wool, 27-inch___
Blankets, cotton, 66 by 80............

$0.144
.301
. 150
.266
. 545
.204
. 552
1.627
.209
. 875
4.857

$0.153
. 295
. 146
.250
. 548
.203
. 659
1.635
. 191
• 87o
4.945

$0.121
. 255
. 146
. 251
.524
.201
. 651
1.611
. 190
. 875
4.900

$0.133
. 275
.161
.269
. 533
.199
.712
1.689
.202
.917
4.546

$0.132
.252
.159
.251
.518
.203
.672
1.740
.190
.870
4.506

$0.135
.238
.156
.249
.501
.206
.632
1.661
.185
.870
4.459

$0.135
.266
.159
.259
.461
.237
.691
1.723
.240
.990
4.326

$0.150
.265
.175
.290
. 455
.231
. 683
1.756
.230

$0.155
.260
.176
.258
.519
.263
.664
1.734
.280

4.488

5.032

$0.122
.260
.173
.243
.502
.219
.681
1.760
.201
.850
4.368

$0.130
.258
.173
.242
.514
.219
.650
1.744
.193
.850
4.533

Minneapolis, Minn.

[331]

Calico, 24 to 25 inch........................
Percale...............................................
Gingham, apron, 27 to 28 inch__
Gingham, dress, 27-inch................
Gingham, dress, 32-inch................
Muslin, bleached.............................
Sheeting, bleached, 9-4..................
Sheets, bleached, 81 by 90.............
Outing flannel, 27 to 28 inch........
Flannel, white, wool, 27-inch___
Blankets, cotton, 66 by 80.............

Yard.
.. .do..
.. .do..
.. .do..
.. .do..
.. .do..
.. .do..
Each.
Yard.
.. .do..
Pair..

$0.132
. 242
. 169
. 264
. 618
.233
.624
1.639
.220
5.098

$0.130
. 244
. 165
. 265
.671
.228
.622
1.682
.198
.720
4.992

$0,111
.262
. 165
. 254
. 551
.229
. 614
1.639
.203
1.115
4.634

$0,111
. 258
. 160
.258
.562
.225
.634
1.681
.211
.916
4.457

$0.107
.267
.162
.258
.543
.226
.666
1.741
.206
.948
4.509

$0.125
.303
.183
.243
. 508
.219
.670
1.809
. 245
1.140
4.760

$0.100
.277
.163
.236
. 504
.218
.670
1.769
. 228
1.068
4.521

$0.104
.283
. 150
.234
.500
.203
. 665
1.769
.218
1.053
4.558

$0.100
.277
.150
.248
.494
.209
.665
1.786
.221
1.053
4.849

$0.100
.277
.150
.241
.554
.231
.745
1.824
.222
1.020
5.125'

$0,123
.258
. 176
.244
.465
.225
.682
1.530
.234

$0. ] 50
.231
. 165
.268
.415
.238
.707
1.736
.221

$0.150
244
. 173
.286
.431
. 239
. 706
1.780
. 217

4.353

4.184

4.380

$0.105
.259
.155
.260
.494
.228
.659
1.670
.215
.990
4.542

$0.105
.256
.159
.244
.520
.230
. 656
1.709
.221
.990
4.703

$0.121
.262
.170
.252
.558
.239
.661
1.765
.237
.928
4.751

$0.150
.244
.158
.221
.398
.219
.590
1.570
.226
.590
4.979

$0.150
.256
.150
.220
.476
.213
.620
1.570
.225
.763
4.858

$0.144
.239
.145
.209
.415
.197
.620
1.461
.193
.857
4.841

$0.144
.244
.150
.209
.410
.199
1.504
.193
.897
5.000

$0.148
.239
.150
.212
.421
.198
.568
1.517
.188
.890
4.428

$0.146
.239
.150
.212
.397
.202
. 593
1.493
.188
.785
4. 464

$0.153
.260
. 150
.221
.440
.198
.624
1.556
.201
.910
4.281

$0.150
. 266
. 150
.222
.510
. 195
. 624
1.571
.207

$0.125
.254
.159
.233

$0.125
.260
. 164
.232
.424
.226
.628
1.572
. 219
.837
4.583

$0.125
. 274
.179
.273
.460
. 227
.649
1.639
.242
.916
5.050

4.247

N ew Haven, Conn.
$0.102
.293
.158
.236
.502
.234
.745
1.841
.225
1.062
4.536

$0.107
.283
.164
.236
. 456
.231
. 745
1.768
.237
1.083
4.042

$0.129
.282
.188
.290
.461
.234
.747
1.718
.242
1.183
3.875

$0.144
. 255
.177
.263
.459
.221
.675
1.552
.263
.810
4.634

$0.136
.236
.168
.240
.439
.210
.647
1.512
.213
.838
4.496

$0.125
.239
.154
.235
.499
.211
.634
1.518
.211
.800
4.365

$0.125
.245
.157
.239
.476
.219
.646
1.525
.212
.875
4.366

$0.125
.248
.159
.239
. 498
.222
.671
1.608
.219
. 875
4.457

. 220
.648
1.563
.218
.857
4.643

105


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Yard.
.do..
...d o ..
.. .do..
...d o .,
.do.,
.do..
Each.
Yard.
.. .do..
Pair..

.236
.705
1.706
.209
1 000
4.463

$0.132
.258
.176
.241
.473
.232
.708
1.763
.224
1 non
4.411

Mobile, Ala.

Newark, N. S .
Calico, 24 to 25 inch........................
Percale...............................................
Gingham, apron, 27 to 28 in ch ....
Gingham, dress, 27-inch................
Gingham, dress, 32-inch................
Muslin, bleached.............................
Sheeting, bleached, 9-4..................
Sheets, bleached, 81 by 90............
Outing, flannel, 27 to 28 inch.......
Flannel, white, wool, 27-inch___
Blankets, cotton, 66 by 80............

$0.132
.265
.184
.243

RETAIL PRICES OF DRY GOODS.

Yard.
.. .do..
. . .do..
...d o ..
...d o ..
...d o ..
.. .do..
Each.
Yard.
.. .do..
Pair..

Milwaukee, Wis.

New York, N. Y.

N ew Orleans, La.

Article.

Feb.
15.

May
15.

Aug.
15.

Oct.
15.

Mar.
15.

June
15.

Sept.
15.

Dec.
15.

Feb.
15.

May
15.

Aug.
15.

Oct.
15.

Mar.
15.

June
15.

Sept.
15.

Dec.
15.

Each__
Yard__

$0.150
.226
.180
.220
.637
.192
.557
1.695
.184

$0.131
.226
.170
.224
.598
.178
.508
1.407
.184

$0.134
.2[)0
.150
.215
.437
.172
.523
1.409
.179
.750

5.130

$0.120
.225
.174
.222
.503
.191
.522
1.440
.182
.750
4.270

$0.117
.213
.150
.215
.466
.170
.513
1.434
.179
.750

Pair.......

$0.131
.215
.150
.216
.499
.174
.482
1.319
.182
.750
4.415

$0.125
.220
.167
.223
. 405
' .188
. 535
1.461
.175
.750
4.085

$0.129
.239
.172
.230
.384
.203
.576
1.494
.201
.750
3.923

$0.173
.284
.181
.262
.628
.230
.682
1.626
.263
.979
5.482

$0,125
.254
.152
.262
.588
.213
.644
1.593
.223
.991
4.517

$0.132
.253
. 155
.249
.541
.210
. 650
1.611
.227
1.008
4.483

$0.129
.257
. 155
.260
.515
.225
.674
1.629
.223
1.030
4.550

$0.140
.261
.166
.257
.515
.220
.697
1.711
.218
.930
4.130

$0.144
.265
.176
.242
.492
.216
.685
1.715
.204
.915
4.146

$0.136
.264
.179
.241
.473
.224
.700
1.636
.219
.975
4.075

$0.138
.268
.186
.246
.480
.240
.706
1.695
.233
.964
4.183

$0.151
.283
.183
.259
.485
.226
.726
1.747
.220
1.214
4.264

$0.141
.264
.180
.259
.456
.234
.727
1.776
.22S
1.192
3. §84

$0.145
.273
.185
.259
.431
.243
.756
1.844
.248
1.163
4.181

Yard__
...d o .......
.. .do.......
...d o .......
.. .do.......

Omaha, Nsbr.

N orfolk, Va.
'
Calico, 24 to 25 inch.........................
Percale...............................................
Gingham, apron, 27 to 28 in c h .. .
Gingham, dress, 27-inch................
Gingham, dress, 32-inch................
Muslin, bleached.............................
Sheeting, bleached, 9-4— ............
Sheets, bleached, 81 by 90.............
Outing flannel, 27 to 28 in ch ........
Flannel, white, wool, 27-inch.......
Blankets, cotton, 66 by 80.............


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Yard__ $0.150
.273
. ..d o .......
.188
. ..d o .......
.243
. ..d o .......
. 455
. ..d o .......
.245
.. .do.......
.701
. . .do.......
1.699
Each__
.249
Yard__
. ..d o ...^ . 1.035
Pair....... 5.143

$0,258
.175
.244
. 455
.216
.677
1.685
.231
1.035

$0,150
.240
.175
.241
.461
.205
.664
1.647
.190
1.035
3.317

$0.150
.240
.179
.242
.457
.218
.675
1.697
.199
1.058
3.500

$0.139
.246
.182
.242
.485
.216
.691
1.686
.196
1.058
3.500

$0.144
.256
.178
.243
.461
.21S
.676
1.603
.196
1.078

*

$0.138
.260
.176
.243
.442
.222
.679
1.676
.215
1.108
4.317

$0.150
.276
.182
. 250
.459
.239
.716
1.697
.240
1.080
4.317

$0.142
.286
.185
.268
.581
.232
.741
1.725
.256
1.250
4.707

$0.127
.276
.182
.252
.529
.204
.720
1.696
.215
1.210
4.382

$0.141
.259
.173
.259
.509
.212
.722
1.713
.207
1.070
4.663

$0.141
.290
.188
.260
.488
.232
.725
1.784
.210
1.088
4.544

$0.149
.290
.189
.263
.533
.219
.744
1.864
.218
1.130
4.705

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

[3 3 2 ]

Calico, 24 to 25 inch........................
Percale................................ - ............
Gingham, apron, 27 to 28 inch—
Gingham, dress, 27-inch................
Gingham, dress, 32-inch................
Muslin, bleached.............................
Sheering, bleached, 9-4..................
Sheets, bleached, 81 by 90.............
Outing flannel, 27 to 28 inch........
Flannel, white, wool, 27-inch---Blankets, cotton, 66 by 80............

1922

1921

1922

1921

Unit.

106

A V ERAGE R E T A IL PRICES OF 10 ARTICLES OF D R Y GOODS ON F E B R U A R Y 15, MAY 15, AUGUST 15, AND OCTOBER 15, 1921, AN D ON MARCH 15,
JU N E 15, SEPTEM BER 15, AN D DECEMBER 15, 1922—Continued.

Peoria, 111.

28491°—23----- 8

Y a rd ....

80.250
.167
.241
.565
.221
.. .do.......
.630
Each__
1.673
.246
Y a rd ....

80.125
.240
.156
.249
.522
.213
.687
1.619
.226

5.313

4.626

.. .do.......
.. .do.......
.. .do__ _

Pair.......

$0.125
.292
.164
.262
.544
.203
.680
1.658
.240
.950
4.152

80.125
.271
.174
.257
.570
.223
.678
1.697
.220
.950
4.478

80.108
.251
.176
.250
.548
.225
.734
1.741
.213
1.250
4.353

$0,113
.245
.176
.246
.473
.227
.762
1.837
.217
4.292

$0.100
.266
.178
.258
. 450
.241
.760
1.782
.227
1.250
4.456

$0.113
.267
.178
.261
.442
.248
.710
1.802
.244
1.100
3.928

$0.176
.253
.169
.216
.499
.238
.676
1.623
.223
1.101
4.664

$0,119
.251
.161
.221
.526
.231
.657
1.581
.203
1.068
3.737

$0.119
.251
.164
.236
.531
.226
. 654
1.555
.193
1.020
4.174

Pittsburgh, Pa.

[333]

Calico, 24 to 25 inch........................
Percale..............................................
Gingham, apron, 27 to 28 in c h .. .
Gingham, dress, 27-incli................
Gingham, dress, 32-inch................
Muslin, bleached.............................
Sheeting, bleached, 9-4..................
Sheets, bleached, 81 by 90.............
Outing flannel, 27 to 28 inch.........
Flannel, white, wool, 27-inch.......
Blankets, cotton, 66 by 80............

$0.156
Yard .
.279
.. .do.......
...d o .......
.178
.239
...d o .......
.. .do.......
.551
.219
.674
.. .do.......
1.692
Each__
.257
Yard__
.. .do....... 1.000
Pair....... 3.450

80.144
.265
.172
.229
.563
.201
.640
1.703
.205
.813
4.350

80.148
.255
.149
.236
.528
.203
.632
1.623
.193
.865
3.897

$0.134
.245
.149
.243
.547
.223
.641
1.618
.191
.865
3.963

80.133
.251
.162
.238
.498
.221
.664
1.623
.194
.772
3.600


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Yard

$0.138
.336
.183
.243
.527
.238
.646
1.760
Each__
.244
Yard__
.. .do....... 1.133
Pair....... 5.144
..
..
..
..

.do.......
.do.......
.do.......
.do.......

$0.135
.329
.178
.245
.561
.239
.633
1.753
.222
1.217
4.748

80.135
.293
.178
.243
.567
.228
.650
1.769
.207
1.133
4.748

80.135
.286
.167
.247
.555
.233
.652
1.765
.212
1.100
4.524

$0.135
.286
.161
.238
.558
. 235
.652
1.756
.218
1.100
4.495

$0.121
.263
.168
.243
.530
.232
.714
1.625
.216
1.052
4.328

$0.119
.257
.168
.237
.455
.231
.682
1.583
.214
1.028
4.271

$0.251
.170
.225
.453
.237
.664
1.554
.216
1.124
4.601

$0,249
.171
.233
.466
.253
.674
1.600
.223
1.100
4.939

80.125
.246 '$0.242
.190
.190
.250
.253
.494
.446
.218
.212
.680
.651
1.688
1.594
.217
.212
.985
.985
4.273
3.886

80.125
.273
.210
.248
.464
.210
.660
1.551
.236
1.088
4.200

$0.265
.210
.248
.448
.212
.681
1.657
.222
1.070
4.100

$0.248
.174
.226
.407
.218
.637
1.545
.219
1.020
4.433

$0.138
.248
.175
.240
.404
.223
.650
1.553
.221
.932
4.406

Portland, Me.
$0.135
.233
.166
.240
.447
.205
.670
1.538
.208
.791

$0.138
.233
.171
.244
.433
.221
.704
1.436
.214
.950
4.183

$0.138
.238
.175
.243
.451
.226
.664
1.479
.215
1.020
3.338

$0. 235
. 190
.245
.493
.224
.651
1.602
.270
1.445
4.347

$0.250
.190
.250
.521
.206
.674
1.649
.247
.935
4.058

SO. 258
.190
.250
.507
.218
.639
1.671
.239
.865
4.060

$0.125
.237
.190
.250
.501
.226
.647
1.664
.222
.990
4.643

Providence, R. I.

Portland, Oreg.
Calico, 24 to 25 inch........................
Percale..............................................
Gingham, apron, 27 to 28 in c h .. .
Gingham, dress, 27-ineh................
Gingham, dress, 32-inch................
Muslin, bleached.............................
Sheeting, bleached, 9-4..................
Sheets, bleached, 81 by 90.............
Outing flannel, 27 to 28 inch........
Flannel, white, wool, 27-inch.......
Blankets, cotton, 66 b y 80............

$0.121
.252
.159
.236
.512
.237
.680
1.564
.208
1.027
4.369

$0.135
.286
.167
.239
.553
.238
.669
1.821
.215
.925
4.271

$0.129
.307
.167
.242
.541
.235
.666
1.812
.231
1.033
4.521

$0.138
.320
.178
.244
.539
.238
.661
1.790
.230
1.150
4.519

$0.135
.250
.178
.252
. 456
.193
.633
1.528
.245
.980
4.550

80.125
.241
.160
.217
.457
.200
.613
1.593
.241
.940
4.613

$0.129
.229
.194
.228
.474
.204
.607
1.621
.236
.893
4.519

80.137
.244
.171
.235
.461
.213
.640
1.614
.235
.888
4.934

80.143
.232
.174
.240
.453
.212
.666
1.717
.235
.888
4.717

$0.245
.173
.235
.408
.217
.643
1.537
.233
.980
4.516

RETAIL PRICES OF DRY GOODS,

Calico, 24 to 25 inch........................
Percale...............................................
Gingham, apron, 27 to 28 in c h ...
Gingham, dress, 27-inch................
Gingham, dress, 32-inch................
Muslin, bleached.............................
Sheeting, bleached, 9-4..................
Sheets, bleached, 81 by 90.............
Outing flannel, 27 to 28 inch........
Flannel, white, wool, 27-inch.. . .
Blankets, cotton, 66 by 80.............

Philadelphia, Pa.

O

Richmond, Va.
Article.

Feb.
15.
Calico, 24 to 25 inch........................

R ochester, N. Y,

1921

Unit.

1922

1921

1922

May
15.

Aug.
15.

Oct.
15.

Mar.
15.

June
15.

Sept.
15.

Dec.
15.

Feb.
15.

May
15.

Aug.
15.

Oct.
15.

Mar.
15.

June
15.

Sept.
15.

Dec.
15.

$0.162
.252
.157
.236
.468
.222
.647
1.594
.219
.906
5.274

$0.159
.234
. 150
.230
.469
.228
.639
1.528
.200
.897
4.264

$0.141
. 239
.160
.234
.468
.226
.688
1.601
.201
.911
4.468

$0.127
. 243
.178
.239
.482
.210
.703
1.675
.200
.876
4.398

$0.133
.246
.175
.243
.447
.210
. 663
1.625
.201
.864
3.788

$0.133
. 246
.175
.246
.413
.220
.635
1.632
.207
.923
4.137

$0.133
. 248
.175
.260
.414
.238
.651
1.665
.223
.957
4.228

$0.138
280
.164
.251
.562
. 214
. 621
1.773
.253
1.173
5.920

$0.125

$0.143

$0.143

$0.143

$0.134

SO. 140

$0.133

156
.242
.589
. 201
. 637
1.748
.233
1.125
4.566

154
.234
.579

.167.
.238
.563

.163
.230
.531

.163
.221
.514

.165
.221
.472

.167
.235
.469

. 634
1.795
.221
1.115
5.050

. 63Q
1.839
.213
1.115
4.340

1.815
.203
1.115
4.432

1.659
.205
1.016
4.450

1.710
.203
.935
4.243

1.775
. 205
.990
4.210

St. Louis, Mo.
Calico, 24 to 25 inch........................
Gingham, apron, 27 to 28 in c h ...
Gingham, dress, 27-inch................
Gingham, dress, 32-inch................
Muslin, bleached.............................
Sheeting, bleached, 9-4..................
Sheets, bleached, 81 by 90.............
Outing flannel, 27 to 28 inch........
Flannel, white, wool, 27-inch.......
Blankets, cotton, 66 by 80............


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Y a rd .... $0.131
. 262
.154
.238
.593
.208
. .do.......
.670
Each__
1.729
Y a rd ....
. 238
.. .do.......
.985
Pair....... 4.916
.. .do.......
.. .do.......
.. .do.......

$0.144
.273
.149
.243
.508
.203
.652
1.627
.220
. 960
4.618

SO. 120
.248
.149
.238
.502
. 197
. 650
1.607
.215
.848
4.511

SO. 134
. 280
.160
.249
.521
.207
.680
1.666
.237
.910
4.476

St. Paul, Minn.

$0.150
. 269
.169
.256
.517
.201
.711
1.601
.198

$0.150
. 241
.166
.262
.503
. 195
.668
1.629
.190

SO. 142
. 254
.164
.248
.519
. 205
.659
1.601
.177

4.385

4.365

4.511

*

SO. 140
.179
.248
.491
. 227
. 686
1.695
.200
.925
4.388

$0.156
251
.163
.242
.503
217
.632
1.631
.242
. 9S0
51346

$0.128

$0.131

80.131

$0.128

$0.128

*0.125

$0.125

.158
.244
.530
227
.643
1.686
.201

.164
.240
.502

.164
.248
.516

.163
.243
.463

.166
.251
.489

.168
.251
.506

.173
.247
.493

.636
1.629
.201

.658
1.642
.210

5.393

4.838

4.584

.699
1.712
.202
.975
4.501

.648
1.683
.201
.975
4.758

.650
1.697
.206
.750
4.598

.658
1.706
. 219
1.077
4.449

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

[33 4 ]

Y a rd .... $0.145
.257
.156
.244
.409
.225
.652
1.615
.251
.913
5.229

Gingham, apron, 27 to 28 in c h ... .. .do.......
Gingham, dress, 27-inch................ .. .do.......
Gingham, dress, 32-inch................ .. .do.......
.. .do.......
Sheeting, bleached, 9-4.................. .. .do.......
Sheets, bleached, 81 by 90............. Each___
Outing flannel, 27 to 28 inch........ Yard__
Flannel, white, wool, 27-inch___ . ..d o .......
Blankets, cotton, 66 by 80............ Pair.......

108

AVERAGE R E T A IL PRICES OF 10 ARTICLES OF D R Y GOODS ON FE B R U A R Y 15, MAY 15, AUGUST 15, AND OCTOBER 15, 1921, A N D ON MARCH 15,
JUNE 15, SEPTEM BER 15, AND DECEMBER 15, 1922—Continued.

*

San Francisco, Calif.

Salt Lake City, U tah.
Calico, 24 to 25 inch........................

Percale...................................

Yard..
...d o ...
...d o ...
...d o ...
...d o ...
.. .d o ...
.. .d o ...
Each..
Yard..
.. .d o ...
Pair...

$0.144
.299
.154
.238
.494
.240
.833
1.844
.291

$0.132
.285
.150
.247
.558
.218
.741
1.864
.241
1.217
4.987

4.984

$0.134
.289
.161
.257
.550
.232
.730
1.771
.240
.820
5.490

$0.144
.300
.148
.255
.551
.230
.711
1.765
.238
.855
4.906

$0.144
.300
.169
.275
.517
.230
.749
1.834
.234
.717
4.774

$0.144
.305
.154
.275
.521
.220
.756
1.816
.232
.900
4.631

$0.150
.315
.172
.275
.519
.233
.744
1.787
.239
1.021
4.916

$0.138
.318
.172
.274
.527
.239
.748
1.786
.251
.937
4.630

$0.372
.175
.254
.581
.235
.725
1.957
.323
1.625
5.920

$0.100
.337
.175
.259
.600
.240
.687
1.782
.269
1.250
5.104

$0.100
.322
.150
. 2i>8
.578
.225
.687
1.768
.254
1.750
5.073

Savannah, Ga.
Calico, 24 to 25 inch........................
Percale...............................................
Gingham, apron, 27 to 28 in c h ...
Gingham, dress, 27-inch................
Gingham, dress, 32-inch................
Muslin, bleached...........................
Sheeting, bleached, 9-4..................
Sheets, bleached, 81 by 90............
Outing flannel, 27 to 28 inch........
Flannel, white, wool, 27-inch---Blankets, cotton, 66 by 80............

Yard..
.. .d o ...
.. .d o ...
...d o ...
.. .d o ...
.. .d o ...
.. .d o ...
Each..
Yard..
.. .d o ...
Pair...

$0. 257
. 150
.243
.503
.199
.608
1.370
.209

4.500

$0.230
. 150
.248
.538
.209
.520
1.401
.211
.890
3.750

$0.250
.155
.248
.537
.221
. 645
1.559
.208
.890
4.316

$0.263
.175
.252
.494
.223
.699
1.671
..201
.785

$0,245
.172
.268
.486
.222
.713
1.723
.206
.785

$0. 260
.167
.264
.464
. 229
.697
1.662
.205
.785

$0. 261
.174
.265
.471
.239
.688
1.728
.205
.785
3.923

$0.150
.290
.161
. 250
.470
.252
.695
1.856
.236
.990
4.707

$0.125
.250
.159
. 246
.548
.229
.705
1.756
.211
.865
3.990

$0.125
.247
.158
.242
.492
.219
.679
1.783
■J91
.845
4.559

$0,150
.317
.192
.259
.543
.251
.70S
1.800
.263
1.225
4.700

$0.145
.283
.192
.244
.537
.235
.708
1.785
.237
1.288
4.479

$0.130
.275
.196
.242
.555
.237
.704
1.840
.236
1.138
4.700

$0.130
.275
.206
.245
. 564
.242
.717
1.827
.239
1.138
4.621

$0,117
.279
.183
.245
.540
.245
.753
1.883
.241
1.138
4.707

$0.287
.250
.264
.518
.225
.725
1.675
.249
1.125
4.383

$0,290
.225
.259
.522
.234
.761
2. Oil
.262
1.250
4.867

$0.155
.247
.158
.251
.512
.244
.730
1.816
.216
. 953
4.769

$0.121
.247
.169
.248
.484
.220
.758
1.809
.215
.903
4.671

$0.122
.241
.175
. 255
.490
.236
.745
1.828
.215
.928
4.238

$0.125
.244
.167
.246
.467
.231
.689
1.760
.214
.938
4.301

$0.125
. 256
.176
.255
.437
. 237
.703
1.683
.203
.958
4.284

$0,117
.279
.190
.239
.533
.235
.710
1.800
.235
1.075
4.707

$0.140
.295
.180
.239
.564
.242
.714
1.810
.247
1.050
4.450

$0.294
.196
.244
.505
.242
.727
1.804
.262
1.050
4.288

$0.136
.264
.173
.228
.435
.228
.605
1.752
.233
.750
4.917

$0.134
.258
.168
.253
.411
.199
. 653
1.617
.221
.750
4.203

$0.126
.249
.168
.259
.399
.206
.646
1.589
.211
. 575
4.069

$0.129
.243
.175
.240
.438
.210
.653
1.627
.218
.717
4.124

$0,124
.244
.171
.248
.411
.200
.659
1.706
.227
.750
4.108

$0.115
.245
.166
.244
.396
.196
.672
1.594
.215
.725
4.085

$0.127
.251
.165
.248
.413
.205
.615
1.611
.188
.783
3.958

$0.123
.253
.170
.243
.413
.229
.650
1.623
.236
.750
3.698

109


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Y ard...
...d o __
...d o __
.. .do__
.. .do__
.. .do__
.. .do__
E ach...
Y ard...
.. .do__
Pair__

$0,301
.190
.247
.527
.225
.735
1.693
.249
1.125

Springfield, 111.

Seattle, Wash.
Calico, 24 to 25 inch........................
Percale...............................................
Gingham, apron, 27 to 28 inch---Gingham, dress, 27-inch................
Gingham, dress, 32-inch................
Muslin, bleached.............................
Sheeting, bleached, 9-4.................
Sheets, bleached, 81 by 90.............
Outing flannel, 27 to 28 inch........
Flannel, white, wool, 27-inch___
Blankets, cotton, 66 by 80...'.___

$0.329
.165
.261
.571
.222
.775
1.846
.243
1.125
4.955

Scranton, Pa.

1
1
$0.257
.158
.247
. 4G0
.243
.620
1.630
.246

$0.100
.334
.165
.261
.550
.225
.725
1.763
.250
1.175
4.955

RETAIL PRICES OF DRY GOODS.

Gingham, apron, 27 to 28 inch. . .
Gingham, dress, 27-inch................
Gingham, dress, 32-inch................
Muslin, bleached.............................
Sheeting, bleached, 9-4..................
Sheets, bleached, 81 by 90.............
Outing flannel, 27 to 28 inch,____
Flannel, white, wool, 27-inch___
Blankets, cotton, 66 by 80............

110

AVERAGE R E TA IL PRICES OF 10 A RTICLES OF D R Y GOODS ON FE B R U A R Y 15, MAY 15, AUGUST 15, AND OCTOBER 15, 1921, A N D ON MARCH 15,
JUNE 15, SEPTEM BER 15, AND DECEM BER 15, 1922—Concluded.
W ashington, D. C.

Article.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Y ard...
.. .do__
.. .do__
.. .do__
...d o __
...d o __
.. .do__
E ach ...
Y ard...
...d o __
Pair__

1922

1921

Feb.
15.

May
15.

Aug.
15.

Oct.
15.

Mar.
15.

June
15.

Sept.
15.

Dec.
15.

$0.170
.267
.179
.263
.511
.213
.683
1.652
.246
.875
5.592

$0.160
.277
.170
.255
.498
.214
.669
1.598
.198
.826
5.403

$0.160
.267
.168
.261
.498
.204
.675
1.624
.192
.796
5.065

SO. 160
.269
.168
.283
.500
.227
.680
1.712
.199
.851
4.986

$0.160
.270
.165
.275
.498
.201
.702
1.625
.202
.980
4.562

$0.255
.173
.268
.465
.203
.662
1.630
.202
.997
4.296

SO. 271
.169
.249
.458
.203
.693
1.672
.198
1.054
3.955

$0.274
.188
.263
.433
.229
.700
1.645
.199
.956
3.931

Feb.
15.

May
15.

Aug.
15.

1922
Oct.
15.

Mar.
15.

June
15.

Sept.
15.

Dec.
15.

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW,

[336]

Calico, 24 to 25 inch........................
Percale...............................................
Gingham, apron, 27 to 28 inch___
Gingham, dress, 27-inch................
Gingham, dress, 32-inch................
Muslin, bleached.............................
Sheeting, bleached, 9-4.................
Sheets, bleached, 81 by 90.............
Outing flannel, 27 to 28 inch........
Flannel, white, wool, 27-inch___
Blankets, cotton, 66 by 80.............

1921

Unit.

Ill

WHOLESALE PRICES.

Index Numbers of Wholesale Prices in December, 1922.

LTHOUGH the tendency of wholesale prices was upward in
December, no change from the general level of the previous
month is shown by the weighted index number compiled by
the United States Department of Labor through the Bureau of
Labor Statistics. This index, which includes 404 commodities or
price series taken in representative markets, and which is weighted
according to the relative importance of such commodities, rounds off
to 156 for December, the same figure as announced for November.
While there was no increase in the general price level as meas­
ured by the index number, appreciable advances took place among
certain farm products, clothing materials, chemicals, and house­
furnishing goods. Among farm products, corn, oats, rye, wheat,
hogs, lambs, cottonseed, flaxseed, milk, peanuts, onions, and potatoes
all showed small price increases over the month before. The increase
in this group as a whole approximated If per cent. Cloths and cloth­
ing, due to increases in cotton woven goods, cotton yarns, worsted
yarns, and raw silk, averaged about 1 per cent higher than in Novem­
ber. Chemicals and drugs were 2f per cent higher and housefur­
nishing goods If per cent higher than in the month before. A small
increase was also reported for food articles.
To offset these price increases, there were decreases among impor­
tant fuel and lighting materials and among metals and metal products.
Fuel and lighting averaged almost 1 per cent and metals If per cent
lower than in November. No change in the general price level was
reported for building materials or for miscellaneous commodities.
Of the 404 commodities or series of quotations for which comparable
data for November and December were collected, increases were
shown in 170 instances and decreases in 70 instances. In 164
instances no change in price was reported.

A

IN D E X NUM BERS OF W HOLESALE PRICES, B Y GROUPS. OF COMMODITIES.
[1913=100.]
1921

1922

Commodity group.
December.
Farm products......................................................................................
Cloths and clothing..............................................................................
Fuel and lighting..................................................................................
Metals and metal products................................................................
Building materials...............................................................................
Chemicals and drugs...........................................................................
House-furnishing goods......................................................................
Miscellaneous.........................................................................................
All commodities...................................................................................

120
136
180
199
113
158
127
178
121
140

November.
143
143
192
218
133
185
127
179
122
156

December.
145
144
194
216
131
185
130
182
122
156

Comparing prices in December with those of a year ago, as measured
by changes in the index numbers, it is seen that the general level has
risen I l f per cent. Farm products show the largest increase, 20f
per cent. Building materials have increased 17 per cent, metals 16
per cent, fuel and lighting 8f per cent, and clothing 7f per cent in
price in the year. Food articles, chemicals and drugs, housefurnishing
goods, and miscellaneous commodities all show smaller increases com­
pared with prices of a year ago.

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[337]

112

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

Index Numbers of Wholesale Prices, by Years, 1890 to 1922.

O MEET the demand for index numbers of wholesale prices for
years prior to 1913, comparable with the revised figures for
years and months since 1913 recently computed by the United
States Department of Labor through the Bureau of Labor Statistics,
the following table is presented. While the results here shown for
earlier years are necessarily based on a smaller number of com­
modities than the data for recent years, the figures are believed to
furnish a reliable barometer of wholesale price changes in general
over the period stated.

T

R EVISED IN D E X NUM BERS OF W HOLESALE PRICES, B Y Y EAR S, 1890 TO 1922.
[1913=100.]

Year.

1890..............................
1891..............................
1892..............................
1893..............................
1894..............................
1895..............................
1896..............................
1897..............................
1898..............................
1899..............................
1900..............................
1901..............................
„1902..............................
„1903..............................
1904..............................
1905..............................
1906..............................
1907..............................
1908..............................
1909..............................
1910..............................
1911..............................
1912..............................
1913..............................
1914..............................
1915..............................
1916..............................
1917..............................
1918..............................
1919..............................
1920..............................
1921..............................
1922..............................

Farm
prod­
ucts.

70
75
68
71
61
61
55
59
63
64
70
74
81
77
81
79
80
87
86
97
103
93
101
100
103
104
123
190
218
231
218
124
133

Foods.

Cloths
and
cloth­
ing.

Fuel
and
light­
ing.

Metals
and
metal
Prod­
ucts.

86
85
79
85
75
74
69
71
74
74
79
79
83
81
84
86
83
89
91
97
101
97
104
100
102
105
121
167
188
207
220
144
138

95
91
91
90
79
77
76
75
77
80
88
81
82
87
88
90
98
105
94
98
100
96
97
100
98
98
127
175
228
253
295
180
181

62
60
57
58
56
66
65

116
102
92
85
72
77
78
72
72
110
108
103
100
99
88
98
113
121
95
93
94
89
99
100
85
99
162
231
187
162
192
129
122

56
67
76
73
84
98
87
81
85
89
88
84
78
76
84
100
93
88
126
169
170
181
241
199
218

Build­ Chemi­ House- Misfur­
cals
ing
celnishing laneand
mate­
ous.
rials. drugs. goods.
82
78
74
73
70
68
68
66
70
77
81
78
80
82
79
85
95
100
92
95
98
98
99
100
92
94
120
157
172
201
264
165
168

91
92
93
91
82
81
81
88
97
101
102
105
108
105
105
103
96
98
99
100
102
102
101
100
101
134
181
202
215
169
200
136
124

88
89
85
85
80
77
77
75
78
80
87
87
87
90
89
88
91
98
92
92
96
93
94
100
100
100
106
125
153
184
254
195
176

99
97
91
92
88
93
92
93
96
100
104
96
93
102
110
117
116
111
101
130
151
111
110
100
95
95
121
148
156
175
196
128
117

All
com­
modi­
ties.
81
80
75
77
69
70
67
67
70
75
81
79
84
86
86
86
89
94
90
97
101
93
99
100
98
101
127
177
194
206
226
147
149

Wholesale Prices of Commodities, October to December, 1922, and
Average for Year 1922.

N CONTINUATION of information first published in the M o n t h l y
L a b o r R e v i e w for May, 1922, there are presented herewith the
average prices in October, November, and December of the com­
modities included in the series of index numbers of wholesale prices
constructed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. For convenience of
comparison with pre-war prices, index numbers based on average
prices in the year 1913 as 100 are shown in addition to the statement
of absolute money prices. Average prices for the year 1922 are also
included in the table.

I


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[338]

♦

113

WHOLESALE PRICES,

W HOLESALE PRICES OP COMMODITIES, OCTOBER TO DECEM BER , 1922, AN D Y E A R
1922.
Index numbers.
(1913=100.)

Average prices.
Commodity.
Oct.,
1922.

Nov.,
1922.

Dec.,
1922.

Year, Oct., Nov., Dec., Year,
1922. 1922. 1922. 1922. 1922.

F a r m p ro d u c ts.

(a) Grains:
Barley, malting, per bushel, Chicago...............
Corn, per bushel, Chicago—
Contract grades...............................................
No. 3 m ixed.....................................................
Oats, contract grades, per bushel, Chicago___
R ye, No. 2, per bushel, Chicago........................
Wheat, per bushel—
No. 1, northern spring, Chicago..................
No. 2, red winter, Chicago...........................
No. 2, hard winter, Kansas City................
No. 1, northern spring, Minneapolis..........
No. 1, hard white, Portland, Oreg.............
(6) Live stock and poultry:
Cattle, steers, per 100 pounds, Chicago—
Choice to prince..............................................
Good to choice................................................
Hogs, per 100 pounds, C hicagoH eavy...............................................................
L ight.................................................................
Sheep, per 100 pounds, Chicago—
Ewes, native, all grades...............................
Lambs, western, good to choice.................
Wethers, fed, good to choice.......................
Poultry, live fowls, per pound—
Chicago.............................................................
New York........................................................
(c) Other farm products:
Beans, medium, choice, per 100 pounds, New
Y ork......................................................................
Clover seed, contract grades, per 100 pounds,
Chicago.................................................................
Cotton, middling, per pound—
New Orleans....................................................
New York........................................................
Cotton seed, per ton, average price at gin........
Eggs, fresh, per dozen—
Firsts, western, Boston................................
Firsts, Chicago................................................
Extra firsts, Cincinnati................................
Candled, New Orleans..................................
Firsts, New York...........................................
Extra firsts, western, Philadelphia...........
Extra pullets, San Francisco......................
Flaxseed, No. 1, per bushel, Minneapolis........
Hay, per ton—
Alfalfa, No. 1, Kansas City..........................
Clover, mixed, No. 1, Cincinnati. . . . ..
Timothy, No. 1, Chicago..............................
Hides and skins, per pound—
Calfskins, No. 1, country, Chicago.............
Goatskins, Brazilian, New York...............
Hides, heavy,country cows,No. 1,Chicago.
Hides, packers, heavy, native steers,
Chicago............................ , ...........................
Hides, packers, heavy, Texas steers,
Chicago.........................................................
Hops, prime to choice, per pound—
New York State, New York........................
Pacifies, Portland, Oreg...............................
Milk, fresh, per quart—
Chicago, delivered..........................................
New York, delivered.....................................
San Francisco, delivered..............................
Onions, fresh, yellow, per 100 pounds, Chicago.
Peanuts, No. 1, per pound, Norfolk, V a ..........
Potatoes—
White, good to choice, per 100 pounds,
Chicago..........................................................
Sweet, No. 1, per five-eighth bushel,
Philadelphia................................................
Rice, per pound, New Orleans—
Blue Rose, head, clean.................................
Honduras, head, clean..................................

30.66( Î0.678 $0.68£ $0. 633 105.5 108.3 110.2 101.3
.691
.686
.432
.776

.722
.717
.445
.868

. 734
.722
.459
. 89C

.623
.614
.396
.883

110.6
111.5
114.8
122. C

115.5
116.5
118.4
136.4

117.4 99.6
117.3 99.7
122.1 105.3
139.8 138.8

1.178
V 177
1.139
1.132
1.270

1.228
1.273
1.175
1.218
1.440

1.274
1.325
1.188
1.251
1.515

1. 282
1.238
1.213
1.345
1.358

129.1
119.3
129.9
129.6
136.7

134.4
129.1
134.0
139.4
155.0

139.5
134.4
135.4
143.2
163.1

12. 240 12.619 12.438 10.317 137.1 141.3 139.3 115.5
10.245 10. 500 10.581 9- 438 120.4 123.4 124.4 110.9
9. 360
9.430

8.244
8.206

8.256
8.269

9.393 111.9
9.727 111.5

98.5
97.1

98.7 112.3
97.8 115.1

5.325 6.438 6. 219 5.787 113.6 137.4 132.7 123.5
13. 500 14.050 14.869 13.183 173.2 180.3 190.8 169.1
6.525 7.906 7.544 7.304 122.0 147.9 141.1 136.6
.176
.250

.168
.211

.168
.228

.217 114.2 108.7 108.7 140.8
.269 149.3 126.2 136.2 160.7

7.150

7. 906

7.625

7.616 179.2 198.2 191.1 190.9

19. 400 20. 220 20.120 20.115 117.5 122.4 121.8 121. 8
.221
.204 173.8 200.8 200.3 160.6
.255
.254
.212 178.0 200.1 201.0 165.9
.256
.257
.228
31.790 40.180 42.930 35.039 145.9 184.4 197.0 160.8
.441
.346
.438
.325
.429
.475
.464
2.385

.527
.484
.553
.344
.540
.586
.486
2.495

.551
.475
.503
.355
.531
.554
.475
2.625

.352
.302
.327
.300
.347
.369
.322
2.477

175.5
153.2
195.8
138.7
172.3
180.2
173.2
176. 8

209.5
214.3
247.0
146.7
216.9
222. 4
181. 5
185.0

219.2
210.4
224.6
151.5
213.4
210.2
177.4
194.6

139.8
133.7
146.1
128.1
139.3
139.9
120.2
183.6

23. 000 23.875 23.350 20.423 162.1 168.3 164.6 144.0
14. 875 15. 875 15.875 16.730 95.5 101.9 101.9 107.4
21. 900 22.625 21.250 22.923 136.6 141.2 132.6 143.0
.197
.993
.145

.189
.998
.144

.160
.983
.124

.160 104.2 100.1 84.8 85.0
.912 139.6 140.4 138.2 128.2
.112 95.8 95.3 82.4 74.0

.227

.228

.204

.180 123.4 124.0 111. 1 98.0

.207

.208

.185

.167 114.2 115.0 102.3

92.5

.230
.089

.230
.090

.230
.075

.253
.139

86.4
51.8

86.4
52.4

86.4
43.6

94.8
81.0

.055
.079
.068
1.300
.038

.055
.079
.068
1.625
.059

.056
.089
.068
2.288
.061

.051
.073
.068
3.757
.042

127.8
178.1
158.1
82.7
106.5

127.8
178.1
158.1
103.3
165.9

129.9
200.7
158.1
145. 5
171.3

119. 2
164.3
158.1
239.0
117.5

.915

.863

1.106

1.693

89.4

84.2 108.1 165.3

.388

.442

.544

.892

80.3

91.5 112.7 184.9

.042
.062

.040
.062

.038
.058

.044 0)
(L
C1)
(x)
.059 122.3 122.1 114.6 116.4

iN o 1913 base price.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

140.4
125.5
138.3
154.0
146.2

[339]

114

M O N T H L Y LABOR REVIEW ,

W HOLESALE PRIC ES OF COMMODITIES, OCTOBER TO DECEM BER , 1922, A N D YEAR
1922—Continued.
Index numbers.
(1913=100.)

Average prices.
Commodity.
Oct.,
1922.

Nov.,
1922.

Dec.,
1922.

Year, Oct., Nov., Dec., Year,
1922. 1922. 1922. 1922. 1922.

F a r m p ro d u c ts —Concluded.
(c) Other farm products—Concluded.
Tobacco, Burley, good leaf, dark red, per 100
Dounds, Louisville, K y .................................... $27. 500 $27,500 $27,500 $27,500
Wool, Ohio, per pound, B o sto n Fine clothing, scoured................................... 1.297 1.351 1.378 1.219
Fine delaine, scoured.................................... 1.31C 1.357 1.357 1.238
1.152 1.174 1.174 1.040
Half blood, scoured.......................................
One-fourth and three-eighth grades,
.836
.946
.946
.782
scoured..........................................................

208.3 208.3 208.3 208.3
210.1 218.9 223.2 197.5
238.4 247. C 247.0 225.2
231.7 236.2 236.2 209.0
174.8 197.6 197.6 163.6

F oods.

(а) Meats:
Beef, fresh, per pound—
.155
Carcass, good native steers, Chicago..........
.148
Sides, native, New York..............................
Beef, salt, extra mess, per barrel (200 pounds),
New York........................................................... 14. 700
.232
Hams, smoked, per pound, Chicago.................
.231
Lamb, dressed, per pound, Chicago.................
.110
Mutton, dressed, per pound, New York..........
Pork, fresh, per pound—
.258
Loins, Chicago................................................
Loins, western, New York..........................
.293
Pork, cured—
Mess, salt, per barrel (200 pounds), New
Y ork................................. ............................ 28.700
Sides, rough, per pound, Chicago...............
.133
Sides, short clear, per pound, Chicago___
.143
Poultry, dressed, per pound—
Hens, heavy, Chicago....................................
.231
Fowls, 48-56 pounds to dozen, New York.
.293
Veal, dressed, good to prime, per pound, New
York......................................................................
.300
(б) Butter, cheese, and milk:
Butter, creamery, extra, per pound—
Boston...............................................................
.450
Chicago.............................................................
.441
Cincinnati2......................................................
.396
New Orleans....................................................
.452
New York........................................................
.461
Philadelphia....................................................
.468
St. Louis...........................................................
.445
San Francisco..................................................
.531
Cheese, whole milk, per pound—
American twins, Chicago..............................
.237
State, fresh flats, colored, average, New
York...............................................................
.249
California flats, fancy, San Francisco........
.263
Milk, fresh. (See Farm products.)
Milk, condensed, case of 48 14-ounce tins, New
York...................................................................... 5.720
Milk, evaporated, case of 48 16-ounce tins,
New York............................................................ 4.440
(c) Other foods:
Beans, medium, choice. (See Farm products.)
Bread, per pound—
Chicago.............................................................
.076
Cincinnati........................................................
.062
New Orleans....................................................
.058
New York........................................................
.074
San Francisco..................................................
.069
Cocoa, beans, Arriba, per pound. New Y ork..
.115
Coffee, Rio, No. 7, per pound, New York.......
.102
Copra, South Sea, sun dried, per pound New
York......................................................................
.044
Eggs, fresh. (See Farm products.)
Fish—
Cod, large, shore, pickled, cured, per 100
pounds, Gloucester, Mass......................... 7.000
Herring, large, split, per barrel (180-190
pounds), New York.................................... 7.500
Mackerel, salt, large, 3s, per barrel, Boston 12.870
Salmon, canned, Alaska, red, per dozen,
factory...........................................................
2.375
INo 1913 base price.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[340]

.155
.137

.155
.146

.150 119.7 119.7 119.7 115.9
.138 118.2 109.3 116.9 110.1

11. 750 12.125 13.312 77.7 62.1 64.1 70.3
.213
.206
.264 139.6 127.9 124.1 159.1
.229
.239
.255 155.5 153.9 160.7 171.1
.118
.120
107.3 114.6 114.6 116.7
•W
.185
.235

.152
.193

.214 173.3 124.5 102.3 143.9
.236 192.1 154.3 126.7 154.9

29.500 28.438 27.284 127.7 131.3 126.5 121.4
. 134
.134
.133 107.2 108.5 108.3 107.4
.140
.139
.141 112.5 109.7 109.2 110.3
.216
.263

.218
.256

.247 159.8 149.6 150.4 170.9
.279 160.4 143.9 140.4 153.1

.300

.300

.300 165.9 165.9 165.9 165.9

.495
.498
.455
.500
.511
.516
.499
.482

.541
.536
.535
.530
.542
.553
.536
.515

.404
.390
.367
.431
.406
.414
.396
.433

141.9
142.1
(>)
134.5
142.8
143.4
144. 0
167.6

156.1
160.3
(l )
148.8
158.3
158.4
161.4
152.0

170.7
172.8
(D
157.7
168.0
169.7
173.4
162.4

127.3
125.8
(*)
128.1
125. 8
127.1
128.2
136.6

.244

.265

.204 167.3 172.1 186.5 143.9

.262
.231

.270
.248

.218 161.6 169.8 175.4 141.3
.228 164.7 144.9 155.3 143.0

6.113

6.000

5.247 121.7 130.1 127.7 111.6

4.881

4.925

4.137 125.6 138.1 139.3 117.0

.076
.062
. 058
.074
.069
. 109
. 108

.076
.062
.060
.074
.069
.111
.111

.075
.062
.061
.072
.064
.116
.103

177.0
174.7
190.8
174.1
173. 0
74.9
91.6

177.0
174.7
190.8
174.1
173.0
71.5
97.3

177.0
174.7
196.7
174.1
173.0
72.4
99.8

175.4
174.7
199.7
169.1
159.3
75.6
92.1

.046

.048

.046

42.0

43.8

45.6

43.7

7.000

7.000

6.708 104.4 104.4 104.4 100.0

7. 500 7.500 7.500 113.2 113.2 113.2 113.2
12.870 12.870 14. 438 116.0 116.0 116.0 130.1
2.425

2.425

2.407 162.6 166.0j 166.0 164.8

2 As to score.

115

W HOLESALE PR IC E S.

W HO LESA LE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, OCTOBER TO D ECEM BER, 1922, A N D Y E A R
1922—Continued.
Index numbers.
(1913=100.)

Average prices.

Oct.,
1922.

Nov.,
19225

Dec.,
1922.

Year, Oct., Nov., Dec., Year,
1922. 1922. 1922. 1922. 1922.

F oods —Concluded.

(c) Other foods—Concluded.
Flour, rye, white, per barrel, Minneapolis___
Flour, wheat, per barrel—
Winter patents, Kansas City......................
Winter straights, Kansas City....................
Standard patents, Minneapolis...................
Second patents, Minneapolis.......................
Patents, Portland, Oreg...............................
Patents, soft, winter, St. Louis...................
Straights, soft, winter, St. Louis................
Patents, Toledo..............................................
Fruit, canned, per case, New York—
Peaches, California, standard 2Js...............
Pineapple, Hawaiian, sliced, standard 2-ts.
Fruit, dried, per pound, New York—
Apples, evaporated, State, choice..............
Currants, uncleaned, barrels......................
Prunes, California, 60-70s.......................
Raisins, coast, seeded, bulk.......................
Fruit, fresh—
Apples, Baldwins, per barrel, Chicago___
Bananas, Jamaica, 9s, per bunch. New
York............................................
Lemons, California (300-360 count), per
box, Chicago................................
Oranges, California, choice, per box, Chi­
cago.............................................................
Glucose, 42° mixing, per 100 pounds, New
York.....................................
Hominy grits, bulk, carlots, per 100 pounds,
f. o. b. mill...................................
Lard, prime, contract, per pound, New York.
Meal, corn, per 100 pounds—
White, f. o. b. Decatur, 111...............
Yellow, Philadelphia...............................
Molasses, New Orleans, fancy, per gallon, New
York..........................................
Oatmeal, carlots, in barrels (180 pounds), per
hundredweight, New York.......
Oleomargarine’, standard, uncolored, per
pound, Chicago..................................
Oleo oil, extra, per pound, Chicago........
Pepper, black, Singapore, per pound, New
York................................................
Rice. (See Farm products.)
Salt, American, medium, per barrel (280
pounds), Chicago.................................
Sugar, per pound, New York—
Granulated, in barrels.............
Raw, 96° centrifugal..............
Tallow, edible, per pound, Chicago..
Tea, Formosa, fine, per pound, New York
Vegetables, canned—
Corn, Maryland standard, per dozen, New
York..........................
Peas, State and western, No. 5, per dozen,
New York.............................
Tomatoes, New Jersey, standard, No. 3,
per dozen, New York........
Vegetables, fresh. (See Farm products.)
Vegetable oil—
Coconut, crude, per pound, Pacific coast.
Corn, crude, in barrels, per pound, New
York.............................
Cottonseed, prime, summer, yellow, per
pound. New York.............
Olive, edible, in barrels, per gallon, New
York..........................
Peanut, crude, per pound, m ill..
Soya bean, crude, in barrels, per pound.
New York..............
Vinegar, cider, 40 grain, in barrels, per
gallon. New York........................

$4. 86C $5. 031 $5.138 $5. 312 155.6 161.1 164.5 170.1
6.381
5.719
6.43S
6.170
7.016
5.915
5.319
5.825

6.475
5.706
6.713
6.431
7.436
6.263
5.563
6.269

6.510
5.860
6. 775
6.575
7.646
6.330
5.725
6.425

6.848
6.130
7.282
6.961
7.769
6.358
5.716
6.101

1.975
3.500

1.975
3.500

1.975
3.525

1.957 130.2 130.2 130.2 128.9
3.273 170.5 170.5 171.7 159.4

(3)
(3)
.115
.111

.115
(3)
.118
.113

.114
(3)
.116
.113

.168
160.7 158.5 234.3
. 130
189.3
. 118 174.5 179.1 176.2 179.1
.128 152.9 155.0 155.0 176.7

2.750

4.250

4.500

6. 713

2.035

2.035

2.035

2.264 132.4 132.4 132.4 147.1

8.719

6.760 178.4 192.7 151.0 117.1

10.300 11.125

161.4
148.3
146.4
145.4
165.4
137.1
130.8
132.6

162.3
152.3
147.8
148.7
170.7
138.6
134.6
136.0

170. 7
159.3
158.9
157.4
172. S
139.2
134.4
129.1

86.7 133.9 141.8 211.5

8.700

7.375

5.156

7.849 196.8 166.9 116.7 177.6

2.920

3.070

3.070

2.721 136.6 143.6 143.6 127 3

1.450
.117

1.450
.121

1.522
.114

1.308 87.8 87.8 92.2 79.2
.115 105.8 109.9 103.5 104.3

1.400
1.880

1.400
2.086

1.472
1.977

1. 258 87.5 87.5 92.0 78.6
1.778 131.2 145.5 137.9 124 0

.475

.525

.525

.444 124.8 137.8 137.8 116.4

3.281

3.389

3.320

3.043 132.6 136.9 134.1 122.9

.185
.106

.192
.119

.205
.132

.183 113.8 118.3 126.2 112.8
.107 92.1 103.2 114.6 92.5

.099

.099

.099

.101

2.390

2.390

2.390

2.415 234.3 234.3 234.3 236.8

.066
.054
.079
.305

.068
.056
.086
.310

.069
.057
.085
.310

.059 154.3 159.7 162.3 139.1
.047 154.9 160.0 162.6 133.1
.078 99.8 108.4 107.2 98.2
.302 122.8 124.8 124.8 121.8

91.1

91.1

91.2

92.7

.825

.825

.825

.909 130.1 130.1 130.1 143.3

1.340

1.350

1.350

1.401 154.6 155.8 155.8 161.6

1.500

1.500

1.650

1.550 115.4 115.4 126.9 119.2

.080

.081

.086

.084

.088

.097

.102

.101 145.5 160.5 167.5 166.2

66.7

67.8

71.7

70.2

.092

.094

.097

.101 127.4 129.8 134.2 138.8

1.800
.085

1.800
.103

1.800
.120

1.787 106.6 106.6 106.6 105.8
.096 0 )
«
(l)
0

.105

.105

.105

.109 171.6 171.6 171.6 178.1

.250

.220

. 220] .276 224. o; 197.1 197.1 247.1
» No quotation.

1 No 1913 base price.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

159.1
148.7
140. A
139.5
156.1
129.5
125.1
123.3

[341]

116

M O N T H L Y LABOR REV IEW .

W HOLESALE PRIC ES OF COMMODITIES, OCTOBER TO D ECEM BER, 1922, A N D YEAR
1922—Continued.
Index numbers.
(1913=100.)

Average prices.
Commodity.
Oct.,
1922.

Nov.,
1922.

Dec.,
1922\

Year, Oct., Nov., Dec., Year,
1922. 1922. 1922. 1922. 1922.

Cloths a n d clothing.

(o) Boots and shoes, per pair, factory:
Children’s—
Little boys’, gun metal, blucher................. $1.615 $1,615
1.568 1.568
Child’s, gun metal, polish, high c u t..........
Misses’, black, vici, polish, high cut.........
1.853 1.853
Youths’, gun inetal, blucher........................ 1.473 1.473
Men’s—
Black, calf, blucher........................................ 6.350 6.350
Black, calf, Goodyear welt, bal................... 4.850 4.850
Black, dress, Goodyear welt, side leather. 3.150 3.150
Gun metal, Goodyear welt, blucher.......... 4.650 4.650
Mahogany, chrome, side, Goodyear welt,
bal................................................................... 3.600 3.600
Tan, dress, Goodyear welt, calf.................. 4. 850 4.850
Tan, dress, Goodyear welt, side leather... 3.350 3.350
1.645 1.645
Tan, grain, blucher........................................
Vici kid, black, Goodyear w elt................... 5.750 5.750
Women’s—
Black, kid, Goodyear welt, 8.¡.-inch lace... 4.250 4.250
Colored, calf, Goodyear w elt,lace oxford.. 4.000 4.000
Bad, black, McKay sewed, lace oxford__
3.350 3.350
Patent leather pump, McKay sew ed........ 3.600 3.600
(6) Cotton goods:
Denims, Massachusetts, 2.20 yards to the
pound, per yard, New York............................
.210
.232
Drillings, brown, per yard, New York—
Massachusetts’ D standard, 30-inch............
.147
.161
Pepperell, 29-inch, 2.85 yards to the pound
.151
.157
Flannels, per yard, New York—
Colored, 2.75 yards to the pound................
.170
.191
.142
.154
Unbleached, 3.80 yards to the pound........
Ginghams, per yard—
Amoskeag, 27-inch, 6.37 yards to the
pound, New York.......................................
.126
.135
Lancaster, 26pinch, 6.50 yards to the
pound, Boston............................................
.135
.135
Hosiery, per dozen pairs—
Men’s half hose, combed yarn, New York. 1.650 1.650
Women’s, cotton, silk mercerized, mock
seam, New York....................................... . 2.720 2.765
Women’s combed yarn, 16-ounce, New
York............................................................... 1.725 1.760
Muslin, bleached, 4/4, per yard—
(3)
. 185
.157
Lonsdale, factory............................................
.157
Rough Rider, New York..............................
.150
.155
.265 (3
)
Print cloth, 27-inch, 7.60 yards to the pound,
.072
per yard, Boston................................................
.077
Sheeting, brown, 4/4 yard—
Indian Head, 2.85 yards to the pound,
Boston...........................................................
.145
.145
Pepperell, 3.75 yards to the pound, New
York...............................................................
.140
.135
Ware Shoals, 4 yards to the pound, New
York...............................................................
.108
.117
Thread, 6-cord, J. & P. Coats, per spool,New
.058
York......................................................................
. 058
Underwear—
Men’s shirts and drawers, per dozen garments, New York....................................... 7 .50C 7.50C
Women’s union suits, combed yarn, per
dozen, New York........................................ 14.00C 14.00C
Yarn, per pound, Boston—
Carded, white, mulespun, northern, 10/1
. 42C
.391
cones...............................................................
Carded, white, mulespun, northern, 22/1
.452
. 424
cones...............................................................
.456
Twisted, ordinary, weaving, 20/2...............
.405
Twisted, ordinary, weaving, 40/2...............
.571
.629
8 No quotation.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[342]

$1,615 $1,615 166.5 166.5 166.5
1.568 1.568 181.7 181.7 181.7
1.853 1.853 173.2 173.2 173.2
1.473 1.473 143.4 143.4 143.4

166.5
181.7
173.2
143.4

6.350
4.850
3.150
4.650

6.506
4.612
3.005
4.571

204.0
153.2
140.8
237.9

204.0
153.2
140.8
237.9

204.0
153.2
140.8
237.9

209.0
145.6
134.3
233.8

3.600
4.850
3.350
1.692
6.000

3.484
4.742
3.307
1.649
5.833

223.3
153.2
149.7
122.2
200.6

223.3
153.2
149.7
122.2
200.6

223.3
153.2
149.7
122. 3
209.3

216.0
149.8
147.8
125.7
203.5

4.250
4.000
3.350
3.600

4.335
4.000
3.350
3.600

141.7
183.9
224.9
261.8

141.7
183.9
224.9
261.8

141.7
183.9
224.9
261.8

144.5
183.9
224.9
261.8

.240

.203 163.5 180.5 186.7 157.9

.167
.160

.138 177.8 195.2 201.9 166.4
.137 183.8 190.4 194.4 166.3

.200
.157

.170 168.1 188.8 197.4 168.1
.136 191.8 207.2 211.5 183.7

.135

.128 193.9 207.7 207.7 196.2

.145

.136 218.4 218.4 234.6 219.9

1.750

1.650 205.1 205.1 217.5 205.1

2.800

2.730 153.7 156.1 158.1 154.2

1.800

1.717 178.8 182.3 186.6 178.0

.185
.157
.160
3

.171
217.2 217.2 200.0
.148 194.1 194.1 194.1 183.7
.142 186.9 193.5 199.0 176.7
.274 236.9
245.5

.077

.066 207.5 222.0 223.2 1S9.9

.160

.120 172.2 172.2 190. C 153.0

.140

.125 183.9 191. C 191. C 170.4

()

.120

. 102 176.4 190.1 195.6 168.4

.058

.058 148.7 148.7 148.7 148.7

7.500

7.500 176.5 176.5 176.5 176.5

14.00C 14.00C 169.7 169.7 169.7 169.7
.425

.361 176.5 189.7 191.0 163.0

.460
.466
.643

.397 171.2 1S2.6 186.0 160.5
.365 174.1 196.2 200.7 156.8
.549 149.2 164.2 167.7 143.3

117

WHOLESALE PRICES.

W HOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, OCTOBER TO D ECEM BER, 1922, A N D Y E A R
1922—Continued.
Index numbers.
(1913=100.)

Average prices.
Commodity.
Oct.,
1922.

Nov.,
1922.

Dec.,
1922.

Year, Oct., Nov., Dec. Year,
1922. 1922. 1922. 1922. 1922.

Cloths a n d clothing - Concluded.

(c) Woolen goods:
Flannel, white, 4/4, Ballard Vale, No. 3, per
yard, factory....................................................
SI. OOC
Overcoating, soft faced, black, per yard, Boston.................................................
(3)
Suitings, per yard—
Clay worsted, diagonal, 12-ounce, factory.. (3)
Clay worsted, diagonal, 16-ounce, factory.. 2.958
Middlesex, wool-dyed, blue, 16-ounce,
New Y ork...............................................
3.285
Serge, 11-ounce, factory................................. 2.456
Trousering, cotton warp, 11/11% ounce, per
yard, New Y ork........................................
1.50C
Underwear—
Merino, shirts and drawers, per dozen garments, factory...................................
30.50C
Men’s union suits, 33 per cent worsted, per
dozen, New York..................................
29.40C
Women’s dress goods, per yard—
Broadcloth, 94-ounce, 54-56-inch, New
Y o r k ..........................................
2.093
French serge, 35-inch, factory....................
. 655
Poplar cloth, cotton warp, factory...........
.325
Silician cloth, cotton warp, 50-inch, New
York...............................
.522
Storm serge, double warp, 50-inch, factory.
.824
Yarn, per pound—
Crossbred stock, 2/32s, Boston...................
1.500
Halfblood, 2/40s, Philadelphia.................... 2.100
Fine domestic, 2/50s, Philadelphia............. 2.400
(d ) Silk, etc.:
Linen shoe thread, 10s, Barbour, per pound,
New York........................................
2.077
Silk, raw, per pound—
China, Canton filature, extra extra A,
New Y ork.........................
7.938
Japan, Kansai, No. 1, New Y ork...
8.330
Japan, special extra extra, New Y ork___ 8.624
Silk yarn, per pound, New York—
Domestic, gray spun, 60/1............................ 4.361
Domestic, gray spun, 60/2, No. 1 ................ 5.341

Si.oor $1.00f SO. 937 215.8 215.8 215.

202.0

0

(3)

1.802

(3)

3.038

(3)
3.038

2.025
172.0
2. 715 214.0 219.8 219.8 196.5

3.420
2 .52(

3.420
2.52C

3.101 212.6 221.4 221.4 200.7
2. 271 217.2 222.9 222.9 200.9

1.60C

1.65C

1.57S 132.6 141.4 145.8 139.6

131.3

30. 50C 30.50C 30.167 155.8 155.8 155.8 154.1
29. 40C 29.400 27.930 299.5 299.5 299.5 284.4
2.093
.725
.350

2.093
.725
.350

1.976 159.1 159.1 159.1 150.2
.663 198.4 219.7 219.7 200.9
.329 171.1 184.2 184.2 173.3

.615
.950

.615
.950

.532 161.3 190.2 190.2 164.6
.838 146.4 168.9 168.9 149.0

1. 650
2.200
2. 500

1.650
2.250
2. 550

1.413 193.1 212.4 212.4 181.9
2.043 188.2 197.1 201.5 183.0
2.320 227.7 237.1 241.9 220.1

2.077

2.077

2.077 232.6 232.6 232.6 232.6

7.742
7.889
8.183

7.566
8.232
8.526

7.342 226.9 221.3 216.2 209.8
7.219 228.9 216.8 226.2 198.4
7.648 211.6 200.9 209.3 187.7

4. 488
5.400

4.508
5.439

4.352 149.5 153.9 154.6 149.2
5.344 154.1 155.8 156.9 154.2

10.240
10. 530
10. 433
10.526

10.240
10.520
10. 418
10.521

10.340
10.635
10.621
10.632

6.663
7.513
4.150
6.390

6.138
7.450
3.775
6.390

5.875
7.450
3.605
5.890

F u e l a n d lighting.

(a) Anthracite coal, per gross ton, New York,
tidewater:
Broken.......................................................
Chestnut....................................................
Egg............................................................................
Stove...................................................
(&) Bituminous coal:
Mine run, per net ton, Chicago..........................
Prepared sizes, per net ton, Chicago.................
Screenings, per net ton, Chicago......................
Mine run, Kanawha, per net ton, Cincinnati..
Mine run, smokeless, New River, per net ton,
Cincinnati......................................
Mine run, Pocahontas, per gross ton, Norfolk,
V a .............................................................
Prepared sizes, Pittsburgh, per net ton...........
[c) Other fuel and lighting:
Coke, Connellsville, furnace, per net ton, at
ovens....................................................
Gasoline, motor, per gallon, New York...........
Matches, average of several brands, per gross,
New York....................................................
Crude petroleum, per barrel, at wells—
California, 20°..................................................
Kansas-Oklahoma.........................................
Pennsylvania...............................................
Refined, petroleum, per gallon, New York—
Standard white, 110° fire test......................
Water white, 150° fire test............................

230.3
198.2
206.0
208.0

230.3
198.0
205.7
207.9

232.6
200.1
209.7
210.1

230.2
199.5
205.5
209.9

5.877 (1)
(l)
C1)
0
6. 587 C1)
0
0
(!)
4.176 0
0
C)
0
5.203 290.5 290.5 267.7 236.5

7.490

7.490

7.490

5.624 310.5 310.5 310.5 233.1

7.000
5.625

7. 500
5.250

7.960
5.250

6.322 233.3 250.0 265.3 210.7
5.158 (!)
(i)
C1)
0

9. 800
.245

7.188
.240

7.000
.228

7.136 401.7 294.6 286.9 292.5
.251 145.6 142.6 135.5 149.3

1.540

1.540

1.540

1.540 189.7 189.7 189.7 189.7

.630
1.250
3.000

.630
1.250
3.000

.630
1.250
3.000

.920 180.0 180.0 180.0 262.9
1.796 133.8 133.8 133.8 192.2
3.173 122.4 122.4 122.4 129.5

.128
. 215]

.138
.220

1 No 1913 base price.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

10.233
10. 599
10.405
10.622

[343]

.136
.126 147.7 159.3 157.0 145.8
.220
.208 174.4 178.4 178.4 168.5
8No quotation.

118

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

W HOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, OCTOBER TO D ECEM BER, 1922, AND Y E A R
1922—Continued.
Index numbers.
(1913= 100.)

Average prices.
Commodity.
Oct.,
1922.

Nov.,
1922.

Dec.,
1922.

Year, Oct., Nov., Dec., Year,
1922. 1922. 1922. 1922. 1922.

M e ta ls a n d m eta l p ro d u c ts.

(o) Iron and steel:
Iron ore, per ton, lower lake ports—
Mesabi, Bessemer, 55 per c en t....................
Non-Bessemer, 51J per c en t.........................
Pig iron, per gross ton—
Basic, valley furnace.....................................
Bessemer, Pittsburgh....................................
Foundry, No. 2, northern, Pittsburgh___
Foundry, No. 2, Birmingham, A la............
Ferromanganese, per gross ton, seaboard........
Spiegeleisen, 18 and 22 per cent, per gross ton,
furnace..................................................................
Bar iron, per pound—
Best refined, Philadelphia............................
Common, f. o. b. Pittsburgh........................
Bars, reinforcing, per 100 pounds, Pittsburgh..
Nails, wire, per 100 pounds, Pittsburgh...........
Pipe, cast-iron, 6-inch, per net toil, New York.
Skelp, grooved, per 100 pounds, Pittsburgh. .
Steel billets, per gross ton, Pittsburgh—
Bessemer..........................................................
Open hearth....................................................
Steel, merchant bars, per 100 pounds, Pittsburgh....................................................................
Steel plates, tank, per pound, Pittsburgh.......
Steel rails, per gross ton, Pittsburgh—
Bessemer, standard.......................................
Open hearth, standard..................................
Steel sheets, black, per pound, Pittsburgh___
Steel, structural shapes, per lOOpounds, Pittsburgh....................................................................
Terneplate, 8 pounds I. C., per base box (200
pounds), Pittsburgh.........................................
Tin plate, domestic, coke, per 100 pounds,
Pittsburgh...........................................................
Wire, per 100 pounds—
Barbed, galvanized, Chicago.......................
Plain, fence, annealed, Pittsburgh.............
(6) Nonferrous metals:
Aluminum, per pound, New York...................
Copper, ingot, electrolytic, per pound, refinery.
Copper, sheet, per pound, New York...............
Copper wire, bare, per pound, m ill...................
Lead, pig, per pound, N ew Y ork......................
Lead, pipe, per 100 pounds, New York............
Quicksilver, per pound, New York...................
Silver, bar, fine, per ounce, N ew York.............
Tin, pig, per pound, New York................... .
Zinc, sheet, per 100 pounds, factory..................
Zinc, slab, per pound, New York.......................

$5.700 $5,700 $5,700 $5.921 137.3 137.3 137.3 142.7
5.050 5.050 5.050 5.271 148.5 148.5 148.5 155.0
30. 900 27. 750 24. 813
35.170 33. 520 29.895
33.570 29. 645 27.395
26.800 23. 500 22. 875
80.500 100.000 100.000

24.264
27.633
27.029
19.712
71.619

210.1
205.3
209.7
229.2
138.1

188.7
195.7
185.2
201.0
171.6

168.7
174.5
171.1
195.7
171.6

165.0
161.3
168.8
168.6
122.9

37.750 36.900 35.250 33.760 151.0 147.6 141.0 135.0
.026 154.2
.030
.030
.030
.023 157.6
.026
.026
.026
2.125 2.075 2.075 1.733 154.5
2.800 2.800 2.800 2.610 153.9
54.500 54.500 54.750 51.435 233.2
2.000 2.000 2.000 1.731 143.9

1.54.2
157.6
150.8
153.9
233.2
143.9

153.6
157.6
150.8
153.9
234.3
143.9

135.9
137.6
126.0
143.5
220.1
124.5

40.000 37.750 36.500 33.990 155.1 146.4 141.5 131.8
40.000 37.750 36.500 33.990 153.3 144.7 139.9 130.3
2.000
.021

2.000
.020

2.000
.020

1.721 129.2 129.2 129.2 111.2
.017 142.6 134.5 131.8 116.9

42.250 43.000 43.000 40.692 150.9 153.6 153.6 145.3
42.250 43.000 43.000 40.692 140.8 143.3 143.3 135.6
.032 159.4 153.4 150.7 145.7
.034
.033
.035
2.125

2.050

2.000

9.600

9. 600

9.600

1.733 140.7 135.7 132.4 114.8
9.600 138.4 138.4 138.4 138.4

4.750

4.750

4.750

4.736 133.5 133.5 133.5 133.1

3.690
2.450

3.690
2.450

3.690
2.450

3.512 159.8 159.8 159.8 152.1
2.310 162.0 162.0 162.0 152.7

.201
.137
.208
.160
.067
7.801
.950
.684
.346
7.902
.072

.214
.136
.208
.160
.072
8. 297
. 957
.655
.369
8.418
.075

.223
.141
.210
.165
.073
8.378
.965
.643
.377
8.510
.074

.187
.134
.203
.156
.058
6.828
.786
.679
.325
7.427
.061

85.0
87.0
97.9
95.6
151.6
153.5
168.1
111.7
77.2
109.1
124.0

90.4
86.6
97.9
95.6
164.5
163.3
169.3
106.9
82.3
116.2
128.5

94.1
89.6
99.0
98.3
165.5
164.9
170.9
104.9
83.9
117.5
127.3

78.9
85.4
95.6
93.1
131.6
134.4
139.2
110.9
72.4
102.5
104.3

B u ild in g m a teria ls.

(a) Lumber:
Douglas fir, per 1,000 feet, mill—
No. 1 common, boards..................................
No. 2 and better, drop siding......................
Gum, sap, first and seconds, per 1,000 feet, St.
L ouis.....................................................................
Hemlock, northern, No. 1, per 1,000 feet,
Chicago.................................................................
Maple, hard, No. 1 common, 4/4, per 1,000 feet,
Chicago.................................................................
Oak, white, plain, No. 1 common, 4/4, per
1,000 feet, Cincinnati.........................................
Pine, white, No. 2 barn, per 1,000feet, Buffalo,
N . Y ......................................................................
Pine, yellow, southern, per 1,000 feet, mill—
Boards, No. 2 common, 1 x 8 ......................
Flooring, B and better..................................
Timbers, square edge and sound................
Poplar, No. i common, 4/4, per 1,000 feet, Cincinnati..................................................................
Spruce, eastern, random, per 1,000 feet, Boston.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

19.50C 19.500 19.500 15. 250 211.8 211.8 211.8 165.6
41.000 41.000 41.000 36.250 236.5 236.5 236.5 209.1
49.60C 51.500 53.000 46.115 239.7 249.0 256.3 223.0
37. 500 37. 500 37. 500 35.240 177.8 177.8 177.8 167.1
58.50C 60.90C 63.250 52.962 194.1 202.0 209.8 175.7
69.50C 70.000 71.250 67.346 187.8 189.2 192.5 182.1
67.00C 67.000 67.000 63.346 229.3 229.3 229.3 216.7
24.96C 24.83C 24.430 21.607 196. C 195.0 191.8 169.7
49.86C 49. 270 49.690 45.463 216.4 213.9 215.7 197.4
28.440 29.530 29.700 24.118 194.3 201.8 203.0 164.8
56.00C 63.75C 67.50C 59.471 169.5 193. C 204.3 180.1
32.800 36.375 37.500 32.664 151.3 167.8 173.0 150.7

[344]

119

WHOLESALE PRICES.

W H O LESA LE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, OCTOBER TO DECEM BER 1922 AN D YEAR
1922—Continued.

Index numbers.
(1913=100.)

Average prices.
Commodity.
Oct.,
1922.

Nov.,
1922.

Dec.,
1922.

Year, Oct., Nov. Dec. Year,
1922. 1922. 1922. 1922. 1922.

B u ild in g m a te ria ls —Concluded.

(а) Lumber—Concluded.
Lath, yellow pine, No. 1, per 1,000 m ill...........
Shingles—
Cypress, 16 inches long, per 1,000, m ill___
Red cedar, 16inches long, per 1,000, m ill..
(б) Brick, common building, per 1,000:
Simple average of 82 yard prices....................
Run of kiln, f. o. b. plant, Chicago...............
(c) Structural steel. (See Metals and metal prod­
ucts.)
(d) Other building materials:
Cement, Portland, per barrel, f. o. b. plant—
Simple average of 6 plant prices in Pa.,
Ind., Minn., Tex., and Calif....................<
Buffington, Ind. (representative of east­
ern prices).....................................................
Crushed stone, 14", per cubic yard, New York.
Gravel, per ton, f. o. b. pit, average of 22 plant
prices....................................................................
Hollow tile, building, per block, Chicago..'
Lime, common, lump, per ton, f. o. b. plant,
average of 15 plant prices.................................
Sand, building, per ton, f. o. b. pit, average of
26 plant prices..............................................
Slate, roofing, per 100 square feet, f. o!’b."
quarry.................................................................
Glass, plate—
3 to 5 square feet, per square foot, New
York...............................................................
5 to 10 square feet, per square foot, New
York...............................................................
Glass, window, American, f. o. b. works—
Single A, per 50 square f e e t ........................
Single B, per 50 square f e e t ........................
Linseed oil, raw, per gallon, New York...........
Putty, commercial, per pound, New York__
Rosin, common to good (B), per barrel, New
York......................................................................
Turpentine, southern, barrels, per gallon,
New Y ork............................................................
White lead, American, in oil, per pound,
New York............................................................
Zinc oxide (white zinc), per pound, New
York............................................ ................
Pipe, cast-iron. (See Metals and metal prod-’
ucts.)
Copper, sheet. (See Metals and metal prod­
ucts.)
Copper wire. (See Metals and metal prod­
ucts.)
Lead pipe. (See Metals and metal products.)
Nails. (See Metals and metal products.)
Reinforcing bars. (See Metals and metal
products.)
Roofing tin (terneplate). (See Metals and
metal products.)
Zinc, sheet. (See Metals and metal prod­
ucts.)

$6.14C $5.69C $5.360 J4.98C 202.

187.

176.; 163.8

5.438 162.4 162.
3.298 179.0 183.

162. 153.5
161.' 167.7

13.847 13.905 13.876 13. 702 203.8 204.
8.970 8.700 8.750 8.705 181.7 176.

204. 201.8
177.2 176.3

5.75C
3.52C

5.750
3.600

5.750
3.180

1.912

1.892

1.884

1.805 184.0 182.0 181.3 173.7

1.750
1.650

1.750
1.650

1.731
1.650

1.611 173.1 173.1 171.2 159.3
1.692 183.3 183.3 183.3 188.0

.903
.081

.887
.081

.916
.067

.892 182.7 179.4 185.2 180.4
.078 126.3 126.3 105.3 121.9

9. 098

9. 401

9.411

8.858 220.5 227.9 228.2 214.7

.617

.619

.640

.605 162.1 162.6 168.1 158.7

9.500

9.500

9.500

9.540 205.4 205.4 205.4 206.3

.440

.440

.440

.413 185.9 185.9 185.9 174.6

.610

.610

.610

.537 191.6 191.6 191.6 168.6

3.994
3.468
.880
.048

4.275
3.612
.875
.048

4.275
3.612
.886
.048

4. 030
3.523
.849
.048

6.865

6.581

6.219

5.781 142.5 136.6 129.1 120.0

1.530

1.578

1. 403

1.150 357.6 368.7 327.8 268.8

.105

.110

.111

.120 155.3 162.7 164.2 176.9

.063

.063

.063

.068 116.2 116.2 116.2 126.9

.029
.011
.054
.111
.007

.030
.010
.053
.125
.007

.032
.010
.053
.125
.007

.026 147.4 154.1 163.9 135.6
.011 84.6 76.9 76.9 87.7
.060 111.5 107.6 107.6 122.1
.108 83.5 94.3 94.3 81.7
.008 73.0 70.0 70.0 76.0

.360
.810
.035
.300
1.975

.360
.930
.035
.300
2.150

.376
1.070
.035
.300
2. 210

.055

.055

.555

175.6
156.2
190.4
179.2

188.0
162.7
189.4
179.2

188.0
162.7
191.7
179.2

177.2
158.6
183.8
179.2

Chem icals a n d d rugs.

(a) Chemicals:
Acids, per pound, New Y o r k Acetic, 28 per cent.................................
Muriatic, 20°................................
Nitric, 42°.....................................
Stearic, triple pressed...................
Sulphuric, 66°..........................................."” ]
Alcohol, per gallon, New Y o r k Denatured, No. 5, 188 proof.........................
Wood, refined, 95 per cent...........................
Alum, lump, per pound, N ew York___!! !.! !
Ammonia, anhydrous, per pound, New York.
Bleaching powder, per 100 pounds, New York.
Borax, crystals and granulated, per pound,
New York..............................................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[345]

.334
.637
.034
.300
1.844

98.4
169.3
200.0
120.0
167.3

98.4
194.4
200.0
120.0
182.0

102.8
223.7
200.0
120.0
187.3

91.3
133.1
195.4
120.0
156.2

.055 146.7 146.7 146.7 146.7

120

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

W HOLESALE PR IC ES OF COMMODITIES, OCTOBER TO D ECEM BER , 1922, AND YEAR
1922—Continued.

Average prices.

/

Index numbers.
(1913=100.)

Commodity.
Oct.,
1922.

Nov.,
1922.

Dec.,
1922.

Year, Oct., Nov., Dec., Year,
1922. 1922. 1922. 1922. 1922.

C h em icals a n d d ru g s— Concluded.

(a) Chemicals—Concluded.

Copper, sulphate, 99 per cent crystals, per
per pound, New YorJc....................................... SO. 058
Copra, South Sea. (See Foods.)
.119
Formaldehyde, per pound, New York.............
Oil, vegetable—
Coconut, crude. (See Foods.)
Corn, crude. (See Foods.)
Palm kernel, crude, per pound, New
.082
York...............................................................
Soya bean, crude. (See Foods.)
Potash, caustic, 88-92 per cent, per pound,
.064
1.100
Sal soda, per 100 pounds, New York................
Soda ash, 58 per cent, light, per 100 pounds,
New Y ork............................................................ 1.950
Soda, bicarbonate, American, per pound,
.018
f. o. b. works........................................................
Soda, caustic, 76 per cent solid, per pound
.035
New York............................................................
Soda, silicate of, 40*, per 100 pounds, New
.775
Sulphur, crude, per gross ton, New York........ 14.000
Tallow, inedible, packers’ prime, per pound,
.076
Chicago.................................................................
(6) Fertilizer materials:
Acid phosphate, 16 per cent basis, bulk, per
ton, New York.................................................... 7.750
Ammonia, sulphate, double bags, per 100
pounds, New York............................................ 3. 575
Ground bone, steamed, per ton, Chicago.......... 25.500
Muriate of potash, 80-85 per cent, K. C. L.
bags, per ton, New Y ork................................. 32.950
Phosphate rock, 68 per cent, per ton, f. o. b.
2.750
m ines....................................................................
Soda nitrate, 95 per cent, per 100 pounds, New
York...................................................................... 2.369'
Tankage, 9 and 20 per cent, crushed, per ton,
f. o. b. Chicago.................................................... 38. 563
(c) Drugs and pharmaceuticals:
Acid, citric, domestic, crystals, per pound,
.500
New York............................................................
Acid, tartaric, crystals, U . S. P., per pound,
.320
New York............................................................
Alcohol, grain, 190 proof, U . S. P., per gallon,
New York............................................................ 4. 720
Cream of tartar, powdered, per pound, New
York......................................................................
.265
Epsom salts, U . S. P., in barrels, per 100
pounds, New Y ork............................................ 2. 750
.185
Glycerine, refined, per pound, New York.......
Opium, natural, U . S. P., per pound, New
Y ork...................................................................... 6.750
Peroxide of hydrogen, 4-ounce bottles, per
gross, New Y ork................................................. 7.500
Phenol, IT, S. P. (carbolic acid), per pound,
.235
New York............................................................
Quinine, sulphate, manufacturers’ quota­
.500
tions, per ounce, New Y ork............................

$0.058 $0. 058 SO. 058 111.9 110.4 111.5 111. 3
.135

.152

.100 140.8 160.1 179.5 118.9

.077

.082

.085

.064
1.100

.063
1.100

.059 179.8 180.3 175.6 16L9
1. 233 183.3 183.3 183.3 205.5

1.950

1.950

1.964 334.3 334.3 334.3 336.8

.018

.018

.018 175.0 175.0 175.0 182.0

.035

.036

.036 237.0 241.8 243.8 247.9

81.1

76.4

81.2

84.5

.775
.808 121.9 121.9 121.9 127.2
.775
14. 000 14.000 14.077 63.6 63.6 63.6 64.0
.082

.082

.071 106.9 115.8 115.7 100.0

8.375

9.750

8.889 100.7 108.8 126.9 115.5

3.550 3.540 3. 375 114.3 113.6 113.2 108.1
24. 000 24. 000 24.654 126.8 119.3 119.3 122. 6
35. 550 35. 550 33.519

86.8

93.5

93.5

88.1

2.750

2.700

3.067

80.7

80.7

79.2

90.0

2.463

2.574

2.535

96.0

99.7 104.3 102.7

42.500 45.650 37.109 165.1 181.9 195.4 158.9
.500

.500

.466 115.0 115.0 115.0 107.1

.320

.320

.307 105.1 105.1 105.1 100.8

4.720

4.736

4. 707 188.9 188.9 189.5 188.3

.265

.265

.267 111.2 111.2 111.2 112.0

2.750
.185

2.750
.185

2.557 250.0 250.0 250.0 232.4
.166 93.9 93.9 93.9 84.2

6.750

6. 750

6.120 112.2 112.2 112.2 101.7

7.500

7.500

7.510 187.5 187.5 187.5 187.7

.338

.350

.176 213.7 307.3 318.4 160.3

.500

.500

.542 227.7 227.7 227.7 246.9

H ou se-fu rn ish in g goods.

(a) Furniture:

B ed room Bed, combination, per bed, factory...........
Chair, all gum, cane seat, per chair, factory.
Chifforette, combination, per chifforette,
factory...........................................................
Dresser, combination, per dresser, factory.
Rocker, quatered oak, per chair, Chicago.
Set, 3 pieces, per set, Chicago......................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

35. 000 35. 000 37. 000 36.292 155.6 155.6 164.4 161.3
5.250 5.500 5.500 5.292 233.3 244.4 244.4 235.2
40.000 40.000 42.000 42.167
56. 750 58.000 60.000 55.063
4.410 4.655 4.655 4. 451
38. 710 38. 759 38.759 36.672

[346]

123.1
157.6
215.3
203.9

123.1
161.1
227.2
204.1

129.2
166.7
222.2
204.1

129.7
153.0
217.2
193.3

121

WHOLESALE PRICES,

W H O LESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, OCTOBER TO D ECEM BER, 1922, AND Y E A R
1922—Continued.

Average prices.

Index numbers.
(1913=100.)

Commodity.
Oct.,
1922.

Nov.,
1922.

Dec.,
1922.

Year, Oct., Nov., Dec., Year,
1922. 1922. 1922. 1922. 1922.

H o u se-fu rn ish in g goods —Concluded.

(«) Furniture—Concluded.
Dining room—
Buffet, combination, per buffet, factory.
Chair, all gum, leather slip seat, per 6,
factory.........................................................
Table, extension, combination, per table,
factory......................................................... .
liv in g room—
Davenport, standard pattern, per daven­
port, factory................................................
Table, library, combination, per table,
factory...........................................................
K itch en Chair, hardwood, per dozen, Chicago.......
Refrigerator, lift top type, each, factory..
Table, with drawer, per table, Chicago...
(b) Furnishings:
Blankets—
Cotton, colored, 2 pounds to the pair, per
pair, New York..........................................
Wool, 4 to 5 pounds to the pair, per pound,
factory...........................................................
Carpets, per yard, factory—
Axminster, Bigelow......................................
Brussels, Bigelow...........................................
Wilton, Bigelow.............................................
Cutlery—
Carvers, 8-inch, per pair, factory................
Knives and forks, per gross, factory..........
Pails, galvanized-iron, 10-quart, per gross,
factory...................................................................
Sheeting, bleached, 10/4—
Pepperell, per yard, New York................ .
Wamsutta, per yard, factory......................
Tableware—
Glass nappies, 4-inch, per dozen, factory.
Glass pitchers, ^-gallon, per dozen, factory
Glass tumblers, |-pint, per dozen, factory.
Plates, white granite, 7-inch, per dozen,
factory...........................................................
Tea cups and saucers, white granite, per
dozen, factory..............................................
Ticking, Amoskeag, A. C. A., 2.85 yards to
the pound, per yard, New York....................
Tubs, galvanized-iron, No. 3, per dozen,
factory...................................................................

$56. 750 $56. 750 $56. 750 $55.688 132.0 132.0 132.0 129.5
31.500 33.000 33.000 31.750 210.0 220.0 220.0 211.7
33.500 33. 500 35.000 33.667 181.1 181.1 189.2 182.0
61. 500 64.500 64.500 62.000 178.3 187.0 187.0 179.7
34.000 34.000 35.500 34.125 170.0 170.0 177.5 170.6
14. 700 14. 700 14. 700 14.749 230.8 230.8 230.8 231.5
16.200 16. 200 16.200 16.200 156.8 156.8 156.8 156.8
3.773 3.773 3. 773 3.670 265.5 265.5 265.5 260.3

1.266

1.370

1.370

1.268 209.2 226.4 226.4 209.5

1.250

1.250

1.250

1.166 163.3 163.3 163.3 152.4

3.072
2. 832
4.848

3.072
2.880
4.848

3.168
2.880
4.848

2.904 229.3 229.3 236.5 216.8
2. 768 219.2 222.9 222.9 214.2
4. 668 201.3 201.3 201.3 193.9

1.200 1.200 1.300 1. 20S 160.0 160.0 173.3 161.1
12.000 12.000 13.000 12.083 208.7 208.7 226.1 210.1
22.645 22.667 20.976 20.423 154.4 154.6 143.0 139.2
.463
.888

(3)
1888

(3)
.888

.445 193.6
186.2
.904 272.7 272.7 272.7 277.4

.250
1.820
.230

.250
1.820
.230

.250
1.820
.230

.263 227.3 227.3 227.3 238.6
1.826 227. 5 227.5 227. 5 227.5
.208 191.7 191.7 191.7 172.9

.980

.980

.980

.980 211.5 211.5 211.5 211.5

1.260

1.260

1.260

1.260 221.0 221.0 221.0 221.0

.250

.280

.280

.255 185.7 208.0 208.0 189.4

6.911

6.958

6.726

6.131 168.3 169.4 163.8 149.3

M iscellaneous.

(e) Cattle feed:
Bran, per ton, Minneapolis.................................
Cottonseed meal, prime, per ton. New Y ork..
Linseed meal, per ton, New York.....................
Mill-feed, middlings, standard, per ton, Min­
neapolis.................................................................
( 6) Leather:
Calf, chrome, B grade, per square foot, Boston.
Glazed kid, black, top grade, per square foot,
Boston..................................................................
Harness,Calif, oak, No. 1, per pound, Chicago.
Side, black, chrome, B grade, per square foot,
Boston..................................................................
Sole, per pound—
Hemlock, middle, No. 1, B oston................
Oak, scoured backs, heavy, Boston...........
Union, middle weight, New York.............
(c) Paper and pulp:
P ap erNewsprint, rolls, per pound, f. o. b. m ill..
Wrapping, manila, No. 1, jute, per pound,
New York.....................................................
Wood pulp, sulphite, domestic, unbleached,
per 100 pounds, New York...............................

22.000 22.625 24.063 20.123 119.8 123.2 131.0 109.6
42.250 49. 750 51. 750 48. 792 133.7 157.4 163.7 154.4
46.250 50.000 50.000 48.442 162.8 176.0 176.0 170.5
23.150 23.500 24.031 21.115 119.0 120.8 123.5 108.6
.465

.450

.450

.443 172.5 166.9 166.9 164.1

.750
.480

.750
.461

.750
.461

.704 299.5 299.5 299.5 281.2
.437 119.7 114.8 114.8 108.9

.285

.285

.285

.258 111.4 111.4 111.4 101.0

.350
.535
.520

.350
.525
.535

.350
.525
.535

.350 124.1 124.1 124.1 124.1
.519 119.2 117.0 117.0 115.7
.491 129.6 133.3 133.3 122.4

.039

.039

.039

.037 190.0 190.0 190.0 178.4

.090

.091

.093

.088 183.4 187.1 189.6 181.1

2.635

2.675

2.675

2.562 118.4 120.2 120.2 115.1

* No quotation.


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122

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

W HOLESALE PRIC ES OF COMMODITIES, OCTOBER TO D ECEM BER, 1922, A N D YEAR
1922—Concluded.

Average prices.

Index numbers.
(1913=100.)

Commodity.
Oct.,
1922.

Nov.,
1922.

Dec.,
1922.

Year, Oct., Nov., Dec., Year,
1922. 1922. 1922. 1922. 1922.

M isc e lla n e o u s— Concluded.
(d) Other miscellaneous:

Hemp, manila, fair, current shipment, per
pound, New York.............................................. $0.073 $0.073 $0. 080 $0,074 78.1 78.3 86.5 79.2
Jute, raw, medium grades, per pound, New
.079
.066 108.4 100.9 117.8 99.0
.073
.068
York......................................................................
Lubricating oil, paraffin, 903 gravity, per
.230 161.4 161.4 161.4 161.4
.230
.230
.230
gallon, New York...............................................
Rope, pure manila, best grade, per pound,
.182
.187 127.7 124.0 124.0 127.2
.182
.187
Rubber, Para, island, fine, per pound, New
.223
.183 24.2 27.1 27.6 22.6
.219
.196
York......................................................................
Sisal, Mexican, current shipment, per pound,
.064
.064
.065 151.2 147.7 149.1 149.5
.065
New York............................................................
Soap—
3.960 3.960 3.960 3.960 128.4 128.4 128.4 128.4
Laundry, per 100 cakes, Cincinnati...........
Laundry, per 100 cakes, Philadelphia.. . . 4.900 4.900 4.900 4.900 138.9 138.9 138.9 138.9
.051
.051 140.5 140.5 140.5 140.5
.051
.051
Starch, laundry, bulk, per pound, New York.
T obacco.701
.701 180.2 180.2 180.2 180.2
.701
.701
Plug, per pound, New York........................
Smoking, per gross 1-ounce bags, New
York............................................................... 9.920 9.920 9.920 9.920 175.9 175.9 175.9 175.9

Changes in Cost of Living in the United States.

HE Bureau of Labor Statistics has secured data on cost of living
for December, 1922, the results of which are shown in the fol­
lowing tables. The information is based on actual prices secured
from merchants and dealers for each of the periods named. The
prices of food and of fuel and light (which include coal, wood, gas,
electricity, and kerosene), are furnished the- bureau in accordance
with arrangements made with establishments through personal visits
of the bureau’s agents. In each city food prices are secured from 15
to 25 merchants and dealers, and fuel and light prices from 10 to 15
firms, including public utilities. All other data are secured by special
agents of the bureau who visit the various merchants, dealers, and
agents and secure the figures directly from their records. Four
quotations are secured in each city (except in Greater New York,
where five are obtained) on each of a large number of articles of
clothing, furniture, and miscellaneous items. Rental figures are
secured for from 375 to 2,000 houses and apartments in each city,
according to its population.
Table 1 shows the changes in the total cost of living from June,
1920, and September, 1922, respectively, to December, 1922, in 32
cities, and in the United States, as determined by a consolidation of
the figures for the 32 cities.

T


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#

123

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING.

T able 1.—CHANGES IN TOTAL COST OF LIVING IN SPECIFIED CITIES FROM JUNE,
1920, AND FROM SE PTEM BER , 1922, TO DECEM BER, 1922.

City.

Detroit^ Mich..............................

Mobile, A la ..................................

Per cent Per cent
of
of
decrease increase
Septem­
June,
1920, to ber, 1922,
Decem­ to Decem­
ber, 1922. ber, 1922.
21.5
20.3
20.2
21.6
21.5
21.7
22.6
21. 4
19.1
24.6
20.6
20.9
22.5
23.0
13.5
19 0
17.7
23.3

1.1
2.2
1.6
2.6
1. 7
1.4
1.2
2.8
3.0
1.4
1.8
1.5
1.7
1. 8
1.2
.6
1.8
2.1

Per cent
of
decrease
June,
1920, to
Decem­
ber, 1922.

Per cent
of
increase
Septem­
ber, 1922,
to Decem­
ber, 1922.

16.4
20.5
23.5
20.0
19.5
21.0
22.1
20.0
21.4

0.7
2.7
1.1
*«. 1
2.1
1.6
1.2
2.1
1.7

Scranton, P a...............................
Seattle, W ash..............................
Washington, D. C......................

19.0
25.1
19.2
20.8
20.8

1.1
1.2
2.5
.1
1.7

United States...................

21.7

1.9

City.

New York, N. Y ........................
Norfolk, V a .................................
Portland^ Me...............................
Portland, Oreg............................
St. Louis, Mo..............................
San Francisco and Oakland,
Calif...........................................

Table 2 shows the changes from December, 1914, to December,
1922, by specified periods, in 19 cities.
In studying this and the following tables it should be borne in
mind that the figures for the 19 cities in Table 2 are based on the
prices prevailing in December, 1914, the figures for the 13 cities in
Table 3 are based on the prices prevailing in December, 1917, while
the figures for the United States, shown in Table 4, are a summariza­
tion of the figures in Tables 2 and 3, computed on a 1913 base.
It will be noted that from the beginning of the studies to June, 1920,
there was, with an occasional exception, a steady increase in prices,
becoming much more decided during the latter part of that period.
From June to December, 1920, however, there was an appreciable
drop in the figures representing the combined expenditures. While
rents and fuel and light continued to advance considerably and mis­
cellaneous items to a less extent, the large decrease in food and cloth­
ing and the somewhat smaller decrease in furniture and house fur­
nishings had the effect of reducing the totals for December by from
2.5 to 10 per cent in the several cities below the price for June. The
figures for the period from December, 1920, to May, 1921, show a
larger decrease than the previous six-month period, ranging from 7.2
to 11.9 per cent. The small decrease in furniture and furnishings and
the increase in fuel and light shown in the period from June to Decem­
ber, 1920, were changed to decided decreases in the period from
December. 1920, to May, 1921, while the rapid decrease in food and
clothing shown in the former period continued. However, housing
made an appreciable advance while miscellaneous items increased
only slightly.
In the period from May to September, 1921, the downward move­
ment was not so rapid as during the two previous periods, the de­
creases ranging from nothing to 3.8 per cent, while the average for
the United States was 1. 7 per cent.
28491°—23----- 9

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124

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

The decrease from September to December, 1921, was also slight,
ranging from nothing to 3 per cent, the average for the United States
again being 1.7 per cent.
The decrease from December, 1921, to March, 1922, was more
decided, ranging from 2.3 per cent to 5.9 per cent, the average for the
United States being 4.2.
The changes from March to June, 1922, were very small, ranging
from a decrease of 1.4 per cent to an increase of 1 per cent, the
average based upon the figures for the 32 cities being a decrease of
0.2 per cent. In nearly all of the cities there was a small increase in
th# cost of food and a slight decrease in clothing, fuel and light,
furniture, and miscellaneous. Housing showed a small increase in
several cities and a decrease in others.
The changes from June to September, 1922, ranged from a decrease
of 1.6 per cent to an increase of 1.4 per cent, the average for the
32 cities being a decrease of 0.2 per cent. In many of the cities the
change was less than half of 1 per cent.
In nearly all the cities there was a small decrease in the cost of food,
clothing, and miscellaneous items. The cost of furniture and house
furnishings and of rents increased in some cities and decreased in
others. As a result of the recent miners’ strike the coal situation is
more or less unsettled and as a consequence the figures in fuel and
light are somewhat irregular. In a few instances the prices given are
apparently those that were in effect before the scarcity of coal caused
a rise in price. In other cities coal is such a small factor in the cost
of fuel and light that the strike had no appreciable effect on this item.
In the period from September to December, 1922, an increase is
shown in the total cost of living in each of the 32 cities. These in­
creases range from 0.1 to 3.1 per cent, the average being 1.9 per
cent.
In all cities the cost of food and of furniture has increased. Clothing
and rents have increased slightly in some cities and decreased in
others. The cost of fuel and light has increased in most cities. It
should be borne in mind that this item is based on the prices of coal,
wood, gas, electricity, and kerosene. In most cities where a decrease
is shown in the cost of fuel and light, this is due to the fact that other
items than coal enter largely into the question. In most cities mis­
cellaneous items show no change or a slight decrease in cost.
During the year from December, 1921, to December, 1922, there
was an average decrease of 2.8 per cent in the total cost of living in
the United States.


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[350]

^

125

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING.

T a b l e 2 — CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN 19 CITIES FROM DECEM BER, 1914, TO

DECEM BER, 1922.
B a ltim o r e , M d.

Per cent of increase from December, 1914, to—
expenditure.

Dec., Dec., Dec., Dec., Dec., June, Dec., May, Sept., Dec., Mar., June, Sept., Dec.,
1915. 1916. 1917. 1918. 1919. 1920. 1920. 1921. 1921. 1921. 1922. 1922. 1922. 1922.

Food................. 1 4.1
Clothing.......... 2.7
Housing........... 1.2
.5
Fuel and light.
Furniture and
furnishings.. 5.8
Miscellaneous.. 1 1.4

20.9
24.0
.9
9.1

64.4 96.4 92.5 110.9 75.6 43.4 48.6
52.1 107.7 177.4 191.3 159.5 123. 2 101. 5
3.0 13.8 25.8 41.6 49.5 63.0 64.0
25.5 46.0 48.1 57.6 79.0 70.9 84.9

39.4
77.8
65.6
90.9

46.1
SO. 5
66.9
94.9

26.4
18.5

60.8 122.3 167.0 191.8 181.9 147.5 128.7 123. 7 115.0 113.3 114.2
51.3 78.7 99.4 111.4 112.9 111.8 112.2 108.6 106.9 104.4 103.8

116.6
102.6

Total—

18.5

51.3

1 1.4

84.7

98.4 114.3

96.8

77.4

76.5

46.9
88.6
64.7
85.5

38.3
82.0
65.2
85.5

39.9
78.9
65.4
84.8

73.2

67.9

67.6

67.2

70.9

34.3
98.9
33.9
93.9

32.5
96.7
34.4
92.5

B o s to n , M a ss.
F o o d ............... 10.3
Clothing.......... 6.6
hi
Housing...........
Fuel and light. 1.1
Furniture and
furnishings.. 8.4
Miscellaneous.. 1.6

18.0
21.9
.1
10.5

45.8 74.9 80.8 105.0 74.4 41.9 52.1 50.4
47.5 117.5 192.4 211.1 192.7 150.3 118.8 106.3
i .l
2.8 12.2 16.2 25.8 29.8 31.6 33.8
29.2 56.6 63.2 83.6 106.0 97.8 94.4 98.5

37.4
92.4
34.9
91.7

44.9
92.0
36.7
99.9

26.3
15.7

58.4 137.6 198.7 233.7 226.4 171.2 139.5 136.9 128.1 124.2 124.0
38.1 62.0 81.1 91.8 96.6 96.2 94.6 93.0 91.6 89.5 89.3

133.6
87.8

1.6

15.7

38.1

Total__

70.6

92.3 110.7

97.4

74.4

72.8

70.2

61.2

59.6

60.9

65.1

50.8
96.5
61.7
79.7

39.4
87.7
61.9
78.8

B u ffa lo , N . Y .
Food.................
Clothing..........
Housing...........
Fuel and light.
Furniture and
furnishings..
Miscellaneous.

2.4
8.9
1.2
1.3

30.1
29.6
4.7
9.3

64.1 87.8 94.7 115.7 78.5 37.7 49.9
58.5 123.1 190.8 210.6 168.7 131.6 102.4
9.4 20.7 29.0 46.6 48.5 61.1 61.7
23.5 49.3 55.7 69.8 74.9 73.9 79.5

38.5 41.2
83.6 79.4
64.7 64.7
78.8 122.1

48.8
81.4
64.9
115.7

7.1
3.5

24.1
24.4

50.2 106.3 165. 4 199.7 189.2 151.3 130.9 124.7 115.5 108.0 107.8
51.1 76.0 90.3 101.9 107.4 107.8 105.7 103.0 99.5 97.9 97.9

112.8
97.5

T o ta l....

3.5

24.4

51.1

80.9 102.7 121.5 101.7

80.3

78.4

76.8

69.9

68.6

71.0

73.9

120.0 70.5 41.9
205.3 158.6 122.7
35.1 48.9 78.2
62.4 83.5 65.3

51.3
86.0
79.8
67.1

48.3
74.3
83.9
69.4

38.3
66.8
84.1
54.8

41.6
63.0
87.4
55.4

C h ica g o , I I I .
Food.................
Clothing..........
Housing...........
Fuel andlight.
Furniture and
furnishings..
Miscellaneous.

2.7
7.5
i.l
1 .9

25.2
24.2
.7
6.6

53.4 78.7 93.1
50.6 138.9 224.0
1.4
2.6 14.0
19.3 37.1 40. 1

40.7
65.8
87.6
64.3

44.8
67.5
88.9
65.6

5.9
3.0

20.0
19.5

47.5 108.9 176.0 215.9 205.8 162.4 138.0 133.7 114.5 108.5 107. 5
41.8 58.7 84.3 87.5 96.5 98.5 97.5 94.5 92.7 87.9 87.3

120.4
86. 7

T otal...

3.0

19.5

41.8

72.2 100.6 114.6

93.3

78.4

75.3

72.3

65.1

65.0

65.6

68.0

C le v e la n d , O h io .
Food.................
Clothing..........
Housing...........
Fuel andlight.
Furniture and
furnishings..
Miscellaneous.
Total —

1.4
2.0
.1
.3

26.4
18.0
.9
10.0

54.3 79.4 92.9 118.7 71.7 37.4
43.7 102.6 171.2 185.1 156.0 124.0
11.3 16.5 39.9 47.3 80.0 88.1
26.8 51.9 62.9 90.3 94.5 89.6

47.7 40.9 29.8 34.6 32.3
90.8 85.8 77.4 72.4 69.5
82.8 81.2 72.0 69.6 70.1
91.9 103.8 102.2 102.2 113.5

41. 1
70.9
74.0
116.3

4.7
1.4

19.7
19.1

47.8 102.4 112.3 129.1 121.3 86.8 67.9 60.5 50.5 50.0 53.6
42.9 67.1 85.9 117.9 134.0 129.6 123.4 123.2 111.1 110.7 109.4

63.6
109.4

1.4

19.1

42.9

i Decrease.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

71.4

95.1 116.8 104.0

84.7

79.9

76.4

66.2

66.6

65.8

70.4

126

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

T a b l e 3 .—CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN 19 CITIES FROM D ECEM BER, 1914, TO

DECEM BER, 1922—Continued.
D e tr o it, M ic h .

Per cent of increase from December, 1914, to—
Item of
expenditure.

Dec., Dec., Dec., Dec., Dec., June, Dec., May, Sept., Dec., Mar., June, Sept., Dec.,
1915. 1916. 1917.* 1918. 1919. 1920. 1920. 1921. 1921. 1921. 1922. 1922. 1922. 1922.

Food................
Clothing..........
Housing...........
Fuel and light.
Furniture and
furnishings..
Miscellaneous.

4.1
2.3
2.1
1.6

26.5
18.9
17.5
9.9

59.7 82.5 99.5 132.0 75.6 41.1
46.7 113.8 181.8 208.8 176.1 134.1
32.6 39.0 60.2 68.8 108.1 101.4
30.2 47.6 57.9 74.9 104.5 83.6

39.8
81.2
87.6
90.3

44.8
79.9
92.1
92.8

8.7
3.5

24. 5
22.3

50.4 107.3 172.6 206.7 184.0 134.0 102.9 96.8 82.6 76.0 80.0
49.9 72.6 100.1 141.3 144.0 140.1 131.9 130.7 126.3 121.3 122.2

81.1
121.5

T o ta l....

3.5

22.3

49.9

78.0 107.9 136.0 118.6

93.3

54.3
99.9
96.6
81.9

88.0

47.3
92.5
91.1
77.5

36.5
82.7
88.0
74.0

43.1
81.4
86.9
75.2

82.4

74.6

75.3

75.6

78.0

40.2
98.8
39.5
34.4

38.9
98.4
38.5
32.9

H o u s to n , T ex.

Food................. 1 1.0
Clothing.......... 2.7
Housing........... 1 2.3
Fuelandlight. 1.9
Furniture and
furnishings.. 6.1
Miscellaneous. 1.3

19.9
25.0
1 7.3
8.3

57.3 86.1 97.5 107.5 83.2 45.6 49.7 50.1
51.5 117.3 192.0 211.3 187.0 143.4 111.5 104.9
1 7.7 1 1.7 13.4 25.3 35.1 39.4 39.4 39.8
22.7 47.5 60.0 55.1 74.2 46.0 39.0 39.4

38.5
97.8
38.1
35.7

45.0
98.2
37.3
39.2

29.6
16.4

62.3 119.9 181.8 213.9 208.2 173.7 156.7 148.2 137.5 133.7 131.8
44.9 67.6 88.2 90.4 103.9 100.8 100.0 99.0 96.0 94.0 93.0

140.4
93.0

1 .3

16.4

44.9

Total__

67.2

65.9

65.4

68.4

1 0.3 17.6 .50.8 76.2 80.9 90.1 65.6 32.6 43.1 40.6 30.0
10.5 33.7 71.9 130.5 217.2 234.0 209.3 167. 5 131.1 117.9 104.8
5.9 22.0 28.9 34.1 36.5 37.7 38.3 37.6
‘ 6.9 H8. 2 U8.7
2.3 15.1 55.2 64.1 72.6 92.6 80.7 68.1 68.9 61.6
(2)

30.6
99.9
35.3
58.9

28.9
99.1
34.2
58.9

34.8
99.3
35.1
65.7
127.1
94.7

75.7 101.7 112.2 104.0

79.7

75.0

73.6

J a c k s o n v ille , F la .

Food.................
Clothing..........
Housing...........
Fuel and light.
Furniture and
furnishings..
Miscellaneous.
Total__

15.1
1.3

43.4
14.7

73.7 126.5 186.2 224.2 222.3 182.7 140.9 134.9 122.0 115.3 117.7
41.6 60.5 80.9 102.8 105.6 107.5 100.9 99.3 98.7 95.5 95.5

1.3

14.7

41.6

71.5 101.5 116.5 106.2

85.8

78.7

75.1

68.0

65.7

65.0

67.8

39.3
98.3
86.0
52.7

38.4
94.3
90.1
52.7

27.5
84.4
96.0
48.4

30.6
81.3
95.6
39.1

L o s A n g e le s , C a lif.

Food................. 1 4.1
Clothing.......... 2.8
Housing........... 1 2.7
.4
Fuel and light.
Furniture and
furnishings.. 6.3
Miscellaneous. 1 1.9

0.4
14.3
1 2.5
2.3

33.4 61.8 71.0 90.8 62.7 33.2
45.0 109.1 167.6 184.5 166.6 127.4
4.4 26.8 42.6 71.4 85.3
1 .6
10.4 18.3 35.3 53.5 53.5 52.7

34.0
78.2
94.4
35.9

39.4
78.0
94.8
35.6

23.1
7.7

56.4 118.5 175.5 202.2 202.2 156.6 148.4 143.2 133.7 128.8 128.1
28.9 52.0 76.9 86.6 100.6 96.8 98.8 99.6 104.0 103.8 102.2

138.1
101.2

1 1.9

7.7

Total—

78.7

76.8

76.4

72.4

72.5

72.4

74.5

80.6 98.4 110.5 73.5 39.1
86.0 123.7 137.4 122.2 90.6
11.2 29.6 34.6 53.6 53.3
57.1 75.6 86.3 122.3 102.1

43.7
68.1
53.1
97.2

42.4
57.7
49.9
98.2

32.3
50.3
48.4
86.1

33.2
49.7
47.7
84.4

32.9
51.0
47.3
90.9

39.1
50.8
43.8
96.4

42.8 108.3 163.3 177.9 175.4 140.7 124.3 116.9
43.2 72.4 87.0 100.3 100.7 96.9 96.1 94.3

98.2
89.6

97.8
87.5

93.1
87.3

97.9
91.0

55.8

55.3

55.5

58.8

28.9

58.0

85.3 101.7

96.7

M o b ile , A la .

Food................. J 1.0 19.9
9.0
Clothing.......... 2.0
Housing........... 1 1.9 1 4.3
8.8
Fu d and light. (s)
Furniture and
furnishings.. 4.1 15.3
Miscellaneous. 1«.4 13.8
Total__ 1 .4 13.8


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

57.3
38.8
1 3.6
27.1

43.2

71.4

94.5 107.0

• Decrease.

93.3

70.8

67.2

63.6

1No change.

[352]

127

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING,

T a b l e 2.—CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN 19 CITIES FROM DECEM BER, 1914, TO

DECEM BER, 1922—Continued.
N ew

Y o rk, N . Y .

Per cent of increase from December, 1914, to—
expenditure.

Food.................
Clothing..........
Housing...........
Fuel and light.
Furniture and
furnishings..
Miscellaneous.
Total__

Dec., Dec., Dec., Dec., Dec., June, Dec., May, Sent., Dec., Mar., June, Sept., Dec.,
1915. 1916. 1917. 1918. 1919. 1920. 1920. 1921. 1921. 1921. 1922. 1922. 1922. 1922.
1.3
4.8
1 .1
i.l

16.3
22.3
i .1
11.0

55.3 82.6 91.0 105.3 73.5 42.5 50.3 51.8 36.5 40.0
54.2 131.3 219.7 241.4 201.8 159.5 131.5 117.8 107.1 103.0
2.6
6.5 23.4 32.4 38.1 42.2 44.0 53.7 54.5 55.7
19.9 45.5 50.6 60.1 87.5 95.9 92.4 'JO. 7 89.4 89.0

38.8
98.1
56.2
97.7

49.5
98.3
56.7
95.7

8.4
2.0

27.6
14.9

56.5 126. 5 172.9 205.1 185.9 156.5 136.7 132.0 122.3 118.3 117.9
44.7 70.0 95.8 111.9 116.3 117.6 117.8 116.9 113.2 112.8 112.4

121.6
111.6

2.0

14.9

44.7

77.3 103.8 119.2 101.4

81.7

79.7

79.3

69.9

70.7

69.7

74.2

86.2 91.5 107.6 76.3 45.4
94.6 158.4 176.5 153.6 121.6
39.0 63.3 70.8 90.8 94.6
74.6 89.9 110.6 128.9 97.3

50.2
93.9
94.6
98.1

43.4
90.2
93.4
91.6

31.9
81.8
91.7
93.5

33.5
77.6
88.1
87.7

N o r fo lk , V a.

Food................
Clothing..........
Housing...........
Fuel and light.
Furniture and
furnishings..
Miscellaneous.
Total—

0.8
.8
.1
(2)

22.4
6.0
1 1.7
17.0

63.9
31.6
1 1.7
33.3

32.4
74.6
82.5
97.8

38.6
73.2
77.2
106.5

.6
.6

8.7
14.7

39.0 105.5 143.6 165.0 160.5 129.0 110.5 106.1 95.0 88.4 86.7
45.2 76.8 97.5 108.4 106.3 106.3 112.5 109.3 102.6 100.8 100.6

89.1
99.6

.6

14.7

45.2

80.7 107.0 122.2 109.0

88.1

83.9

79.2

71.3

69.5

68.1

69.9

34.4
96.2
48.7
89.7

38.1
89.5
49.6
85.7

P h ila d e lp h ia , P a .
Food................
Clothing..........
H ousing..........
Fuel and light.
Furniture and
furnishings..
Miscellaneous.

0.3
3.6
i.3
1.8

18.9
16.0
i.7
5.4

54.4 80.7 87.2 101.7 68.1 37.8 44.6 43.9
51.3 111.2 190.3 219.6 183.5 144. 7 112.2 104.6
2.6
8.0 16.7 28.6 38.0 44.2 47.1 48.1
21.5 47.9 51.3 66.8 96.0 85.6 89.3 92.0

32.7
87.4
51.1
86.3

43.4
87.6
52.9
93.0

6.9
1.2

19.9
14.7

49.8 107.7 162.8 187.4 183.4 135.5 109.1 101.6 91.7 90.0 89.1
43.8 67.5 88.6 102.8 122.3 119.2 116.4 116.2 113.8 112.3 111.5

96.9
110.7

Total__

1.2

14.7

43.8

73.9

96.5 113.5 100.7

79.8

76.0

74.3

68.2

68.2

65.5

70.7

86.8 91.9 114.5 78.7 46.7
85.8 148.5 165.9 147.8 116.3
2.5 10.7 14.5 20.0 23.1
67.7 69.8 83.9 113.5 96.8

56.8
96.6
23.3
90.9

54.8
88.1
26.6
94.0

39.2
81.0
27.0
93.8

39.9
76.7
24.8
96.1

P o r tla n d , M e.
Food................. i 2.0
Clothing.......... 2.1
.2
H ousing.........
.4
Fuel and light.
Furniture and
furnishings.. 6.2
Miscellaneous. 1.4

18.6
9.7
.6
11.4

49.8
32.8
2.4
28.9

44.5
74.8
26.3
96.7

49.
74.8
30.7
94.7

20.9
13.8

43.5 110.8 163.7 190.3 191.2 152.2 139.1 123.6 110.6 108.1 106.4
38.0 65.6 83.2 89.4 94.3 94.1 94.1 91.2 89.5 88.2 88.0

114.2
88.0

1 .4

13.8

38.0

Total__

72.2

91.6 107.6

72.1

72.0

69.2

60.7

59.7

61.5

64.1

26.0
91.2
42.9
67.1

35.9
70.4
43.3
58.9

33.1
65.3
43.3
59.4

24.6
55.5
43.2
56.2

26.5
53.2
43.3
50.3

30.1
53.4
43.7
59.0

34.3
54.9
43.6
65.7

54.5 109.0 145.1 183.9 179.9 148.0 126.9 121.9 104.6 101.9 100.3
31.2 57.9 71.6 79.7 81.1 81.1 80.9 80.0 78.9 78.5 80.5

102.9
79.4

93.1

P o r tla n d , O r eg.
Food................
Clothing..........
Housing..........
Fuel and light.
Furniture and
furnishings..
Miscellaneous.

i 3.8
9.8 42.2
3.0 15.8 44.4
110.9 119.6 122.2
i 1.0
3.4 20.2
2.9
i 3.1

18.0
6.1

T otal.... 13.1

6.1


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

31.2

70.6 81.6 107.1 60.9'
96.6 142.1 158.6 122.1
12.3 27.7 33.2 36.9
30.9 42.3 46.9 65.9

64.2

83.7 100.4

80.3

1 Decrease.

62.2

60.5

58.3

2 No change.

[353]

52.3

52.1

54.2

56.1

128

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW,

T a b l e 2 .—CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN 19 CITIES FROM D ECEM BER, 1914, TO

DECEM BER, 1922—Concluded.
S a n F ra n c is c o a n d O a k la n d , C a lif.

Per cent of increase from December, 1914, to—
expenditure.

Dec., Dec., Dec., Dec., Dec., June, Dec., May, Sept., Dec., Mar., June, Sept., Dec.,
1915. 1916. 1917. 1918. 1919. 1920. 1920. 1921. 1921. 1921. 1922. 1922. 1922. 1922.

Food................. i 4.3
Clothing.......... 2.5
Housing.......... 1.7
Fuel and light. i . l
Furniture and
furnishings.. 6.0
Miscellaneous. i 1.7

9.6
14.5
i 2.5
4.6

35.9 66.2 74.2 93.9 64.9 33.3 40.6 40.4
43.6 109.0 170.4 191.0 175.9 140.9 110.1 106.3
i 4.0 i 3.9
9.4 15.0 21.7 23.6 25.8
4.7
14.4 30.1 41.3 47.2 66.3 63.3 65.3 65.3

34.6
86.1
30.3
52.0

38.8
85.4
30.0
52.5

21.7
8.3

48.2 103.4 143.8 180.1 175.6 143.9 121.7 113.9 105.6 104.4 103.8
28.6 50.5 74.7 79.6 84.8 84.4 87.4 86.8 84.4 83.7 83.5

105.4
84.2

Total__ i 1.7

8.3

28.6

57.8

87.8

96.0

29.6
97.8
27.7
65.3

31.1
90.7
29.4
59.5

64.6

63.6

57.5

56.8

57.1

58.8

17.6 50.8 76.2 80.9 91.7 63.5 28.7 36.8
24.1 56.6 133.6 195.9 212.1 171.5 133.2 101.3
13.0 1 4.3
5.9 22.0 33.5 58.6 61.9 60.6
1 1.7 121.1
37.5 52.2 65.3 94.4 74.2 66.4

33.7
84.2
60.9
66.1

16.7
74.1
58.8
65.3

22.7
71.7
57.8
55.2

13.4
77.4
56.5
60.6

20.8
76.2
52.7
68.3

12.8
14.5

50.7 128.6 182.1 207.2 206.6 175.9 150.2 133.7 126.0 120.1 121.6
42.5 67.3 82.0 83.8 91.5 93.0 88.0 87.4 84.6 81.1 80.9

123.8
79.5

14.6

42.5

85.1

66.7

S a v a n n a h , G a.
Food................ i 0.3
Clothing..........
.8
Housing.......... i 1.4
Fuel and light. i 1.3
Furniture and
furnishings.. 1.8
Miscellaneous. 1.2
1.2

Total__

75.0

98.7 109.4

77.6

71.3

66.2

56.9

56.8

55.0

56.8

72.5 80.9 102.3 .54.1 27.1
88.0 154.5 173.9 160.5 128.7
44.3 71.5 74.8 76.7 74.8
51.8 63.8 65.8 78.7 78.7

34.9
93.5
71.3
77.3

30.5
88.7
69.2
69.0

27.1
79.8
67.0
67.5

30.0
78.0
64.7
64.0

98.7

S e a ttle , W ash.
Food................
Clothing..........
Housing...........
Fuel and light.
Furniture and
furnishings..
Miscellaneous.
Total__

1
1

2.8
1.2
2.4
1 .2

8.5
11.3
5.4
2.9

38.7
36.4
! .6
23.9

31.6
73.9
63.4
62.7

33.9
74.2
63.1
59.6

52.3 141.5 201.0 221.2 216.4 177.2 151.7 149.9 142.4 137.3 134.7
31.1 58.5 86.8 90.4 95.5 105.5 105.5 102.6 99.2 97.6 97.4

136.1
96.4

1

1

8.5
1.0

27.4
7.4

1

1.0

7.4

31.1

69.9

97.7 110.5

94.1

80.2

75.5

71.5

67.4

67.0

66.5

66.7

59.1
89.8
29.1
57.6

51.1
87.1
30.4
49.9

40.8
79.8
31.3
47.1

44.3
77.5
31.4
44.5

W a s h in g to n , D . C .
Food.................
Clothing...........
Housing...........
Fuel and light.
Furniture and
furnishings..
Miscellaneous .
Total__

0.6
3.7
1 1.5
(2)

15.7
23.2
1 3.7
7.3

(3)
61.1 90.9 93.3 108. 4 79.0 47.4
60.1 112.6 165. 9 184.0 151.1 115.9
1 3.4
1 1.5
5.4 15.6 24.7 28.8
24.9 40.9 42.8 53.7 68.0 57.1

42.5
75.5
32.1
49.0

49.2
74.8
32.6
55.1

6.3
.4

30.5
15.3

72.1 127.4 159.3 196.4 194.0 149.0 132.1 122.4 110.4 108.1 109.3
44.3 55.9 62.7 68.2 73.9 72.0 70.5 75.8 73.7 73.7 73.7

112.6
72.0

1.0

14.6

47.3

1 Decrease.

73.8

2 No change.

87.6 101.3

87.8

67.1

66.2

63.0

56.8

57.6

56.9

59.5

3 Figures in this column are for November, 1919.

Table 3 shows the changes in the cost of living from December,
1917, to December, 1922, m 13 cities. The table is constructed in
the same manner as the preceding one and differs from it only in the
base period, and in the length of time covered.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[3541

129

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING,

T a ble 3 .—CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN 13 CITIES FROM DECEMBER, 1917, TO

DECEM BER, 1922.
A tl a n t a , G a.

Per cent of increase from December, 1917, to—
Item of expenditure.

Food.........................................
Clothing............... .................
Housing..................................
Fuel and light........................
Furniture and furnishings..
Miscellaneous.........................

Dec., June, Dec., June, Dec., May, Sept., Dec., Mar., June, Sept., Dec.,
1918. 1919. 1919. 1920. 1920. 1921. 1921. 1921. 1922. 1922. 1922. 1922.
19.0
29.1
14.0
17.0
24.9
14.8

18.0
40.7
14.5
17.9
30.1
21.5

27.9
66.9
32.6
30.8
49.9
31.7

34.0
80.5
40.4
61.0
65.0
34.6

12.8 1 8.9 1 5.8 1 7.2 ' l l . 9 '10.5 '12.3
58. 5 35. 2 13.6
8.3
1.9
.4
3.1
73.1 78.8 77.0 75.4 72.2 68.1 63.2
66. 8 56.1 46.6 43.7 34.8 39.1 58.7
58.4 38.0 25.3 23.0 16.1 15.2 13.9
39.7 40.5 39. 4 39.7 36.1 34.5 34.2

i 8.9
2.8
62.7
57.6
17.4
34.1

T otal............................. 19.7

23.3

37.9

46.7

38.5

25.2

20.7

18.7

13.9

15.1

13.8

13.7

B ir m in g h a m , A la .
Food........................................
Clothing..................................
Housing...................................
Fuel and light.......................
Furniture and furnishings..
Miscellaneous.........................

17.7
23.9
8.1
22.8
19.4
13.8

18.3
29.8
12.8
31.9
20.2
16.3

26.5
57.6
34.9
39.8
45.1
26.8

36.4
66.4
40.3
55.3
55.6
28.7

11.9
45.1
68.5
74.2
48.1
30.4

'9 .1
24.8
77.4
54.3
32.0
33.8

'6 .2
6.7
76.5
53.1
15.0
35.9

18.5 11 •. 0 '13.1 114.5
' .4 ' 5.2 16.1 1 1.2
70.9 67.5 67.0 66.0
44.1 29.8 25.0 40.0
12.0
3.0
3.3
5.4
35.5 31.8 30.4 29.6

'9 .9
i 1.7
62.3
49.9
8.9
29.6

Total............................. 17.0

19.8

34.3

41.9

33.3

22.1

19.6

16.2

13.2

11.0

10.7

11.4

C in c in n a ti, O h io .
15.3
33.8
.2
10.0
25.7
20.4

18.1
48.3
.8
5.6
30.5
21.8

22.9 38.7
84.2 96.7
12.8 13.6
11.0 26.9
51. 1 75.5
40.3 47.6

10.3
73.5
25.0
34.1
66.7
53.4

i 7.4
49.0
27.6
15.7
39.7
52.3

' 2.2
22.6
28.2
15.6
25.2
48.2

' 8.3 '12.4
13.9
6.7
28.5 30.3
42.4 35.6
22.3 16.7
47.3 44.4

1 8.9 ‘ 12.7 ' 10.4
4.9
5.5
5.5
31.0 33.6
35.2
35.2 58.2
61.0
15.8 15.7
17.2
44.0 43.6
42.7

Total............................. 17.3

21.1

35.2

34.7

2lT 7

18.3

15.3

12.7

12.5

13.8

Food........................................
Clothing..................................
Housing..................................
Fuel and light.......................
Furniture and furnishings..
Miscellaneous.........................

47.1

11.8

D e n v e r, C olo.

Food........................................
Clothing..................................
Housing..................................
Fuel and light.......................
Furniture and furnishings..
Miscellaneous.........................

20.0
40. 1
12.8
8.1
22.6
14.8

20.7
53.2
21.8
8.4
31.3
17.7

26.0
82.1
33.5
19.6
46.3
32.3

41.5
96.8
51.9
22.3
60.2
35.4

7.9 '13.1
78.3 53.9
69.8 76.9
47.1 37.5
58.9 42.5
38.8 42.8

' 7.8
33.7
80.1
40.0
32.5
44.1

>8.8 '17.6 '14.2 '17.2
27.7 18.3 15.3 15.9
82.6 84.4 84.8 85.0
39.7 33.1 32.8 41.4
27.9 21.1 20.4 20.0
43.1 40.2 38.1 37.7

' 9.0
16.6
86.9
40.7
21.2
37.6

T otal............................

20.7

25.3

38.2

50.3

38.7

26.1

24.5

18.1

21.6

i 11.1
8.6
44.1
73.4
16.7
46.7

26.9

18.5

18.8

I n d ia n a p o lis , I n d .
17.8
32.4
1.6
19.8
18.9
21,9

16.4
40. 1
2.6
16.7
24.8
26.8

28.2
73.8
11.6
27.3
48.4
38.2

49.0
87.9
18.9
45.6
67.5
40.5

11.0.
72.3
32.9
60.3
63.0
47.5

'10.1
45.8
37.4
49.4
35.3
47.4

i 2.1
21.5
41.4
47.5
25.0
46.5

i 8.4 '13. 4 '9 .9 '13.2
16.2 10.9
7.9
8.3
43.8 42.2 41.3 41.7
42.5 34.8 44.9 71.3
22.5 13.9 13.7 14.2
46.2 45.8 45.4 46.0

Total..................... ....... 19.1

21.1

36.5

50.2

37.6

23.9

22.6

19.3

Food.........................................
Clothing..................................
Housing..................................
Fuel and ligh t.......................
Furniture and furnishings..
Miscellaneous.........................

i Decrease.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[355]

15.3

16.4

17.1

18.8

130

M O N T H L Y LABOR REVIEW ,

T able 3 .—CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN 13 CITIES FROM DECEM BER, 1917, TO
DECEM BER, 1922—Continued.

Kansas C ity , Mo.
Per cent of increase from December, 1917, to—
Item of expenditure.

Dec., June, Dec., June, Dec., May, Sept., Dec., Mar., June, Sept., Dec.,
1918. 1919. 1919. 1920. 1920. 1921. 1921. 1921. 1922. 1922. 1922. 1922.
17.3
40.7
5.4
18.0
31.1
15.6

15.1
44.7
6.7
9.6
37.9
20.8

24.5 44.9
89.9 104.5
26.0 29.4
27.5 35.2
61.8 73.0
31.5 37.1

10.2 i 8.3
76.3 52.3
63.9 65.0
55.1 43.3
68.7 50.0
40.3 40.4

i 4.3
27.9
66.2
43.7
32.8
38.2

i 6.6 ‘ 15.7 •13.5 Ï16.1
24.1 17.4 15.9 14.7
69.7 64.8 59.4 57.8
42.6 36.0 36.3 47.1
26.2 15.2 11.6 10.3
37.6 33.1 32.3 32.4

Total............................. 19.6

20.6

38.2

39.5

23.9

22.5

F o o d .......................................
Clothing..................................
Housing..................................
Fuel and ligh t.......................
Furniture and furnishings..
Miscellaneous.........................

51.0

27.3

15.3

15.0

i 12.0
14.6
61.4
40.2
12.1
33.3

14.2

16.2

M e m p h is , T e rm .
20.3
27.7
G)
26.8
25.4
16.1

22.7
38.3
8.2
23.4
30.7
20.9

28.4
66.2
23.1
34.1
53.2
28.3

38.8
7.0 114.2 19.2 111.2 116.1 115.1 117.7
77.5 59.0 36.1 20.2 15.3
9.3
7.3
7.0
35.9 66.2 79.7 77.7 77.3 75.5 74.8 73.9
49.7 105.4 64.5 66.1 67.1 61.8 56.3 70.4
67.1 53.9 29.9 19.2 14.7
8.9
6.8
7.8
38.8 43.2 42.9 42.2 42.3 39.9 37.8 37.8

T otal............................. 18.3

23.3

35.2

46.4

Food.........................................
Clothing..................................
Housing..................................
Fuel and lig h t.......................
Furniture and furnishings..
Miscellaneous.........................

39.3

26.7

25.1

23.2

1

14.9
6.7
72.5
69.2
12.2
37.4

19.2

18.2

17.9

18.6

M in n e a p o lis , M i n n .
17.7
33.5
i.l
14.7
18.1
12.3

21.4
40.1
12.0
13.4
23.6
15.9

34.1
67.0
8.0
22.4
45.6
25.4

50.0
76.7
10.7
36.9
65.5
31.3

13.0
63.6
36.8
60.3
65.8
37.6

1

7.9
41.0
39.0
52.8
43.3
37.9

13.5 14.9 110.0
18.4 14.3
9.7
44.0 46.7 46.7
50.5 50.2 43.7
30.5 27.9 21.9
37.3 37.4 34.5

16.0
7.9
44.6
43.7
21.4
32.6

19.9
6.0
46.2
44.8
21.3
32.5

15.3
6.5
46.8
47.0
22.5
32.6

T otal............................. 15.8

18.8

32.7

43.4

35.7

23.7

21.6

17.3

15.9

18.0

Food........................................
Clothing..................................
Housing..................................
Fuel and lig h t.......................
Furniture and furnishings..
Miscellaneous.........................

N e w O rle a n s,

20.7

17.0

La.

16.6
36.8
G)
19.7
23.8
15.9

17.4
48.8
.1
20.8
30.0
17.5

21.1
83.2
10.8
24.7
57.7
35.1

28.6
94.9
12.9
36.3
75.9
42.8

10.7 110.7 16.4
69.4 45. 0 29.2
39.7 46.7 49.5
41.5 29.2 36.2
63.9 47.7 30.7
57.1 58.2 61.0

19.3 112.0 112.8 113.7 110.5
24.9 18.9 15.6 15.4
16.2
57.9 58.2 58.5 58.7
54.7
40.4 31.8 33.4 30.7
38.5
28.5 20.8 17.9 17.7
26.2
60.2 59.1 58.6 55.6
51.9

T otal............................ 17.9

20.7

33.9

41.9

36.7

Food.........................................
Clothing..................................
Housing..................................
Fuel and ligh t.......................
Furniture and furnishings..
Miscellaneous.........................

23.8

23.8

22.7

19.9

18.9

17.8

18.6

P itts b u r g h , P a .
18.8
35.9
7.6
9.2
26.3
16.3

16.2
45.3
13.5
9.4
34.1
16.7

25.1
82.8
15.5
9.8
63.1
28.3

36.5
91.3
34.9
31.7
77.4
41.2

14.3
75.4
35.0
64.4
78.1
46.3

18.8
50.7
55.5
59.8
58.2
48.6

1

3.0
27.2
55.5
55.6
36.2
47.6

15.6 114.4 112.2 111.7
23.6 19.3 17.3 14.0
55.3 55.3 56.7 56.7
66.2 66.0 66.0 73.0
31.6 23.7 20.1 22.0
48.0 44.4 43.4 42.8

15.4
13.1
56.7
72.8
25.1
42.8

T otal............................. 19.8

21.8

36.2

49.1

39.3

27.7

24.4

22.8

20.1

Food.........................................
Clothing..................................
Housing..................................
Fuel and lig h t.......................
Furniture and furnishings..
Miscellaneous........................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1 Decrease.

* No change.

[356]

17.4

17.8

17.6

131

CHANGES IN COST OE LIVING.

T able 3 .— C H A N G E S I N C O S T O F J I V I N G I N 13 C I T I E S F R O M D E C E M B E R , 1917, T O
D E C E M B E R ^ 1922— C o n c lu d e d .

R ic h m o n d , V a .

Per cent o f in c r e a s e fro m D e c e m b e r , 1917, to—
Item of expenditure.
Dec., June, Dec., June, Dec., May, Sept., Dec., Mar., June, Sept., Dec.,
1918. 1919. 1919. 1920. 1920. 1921. 1921. 1921. 1922. 1922. 1922. 1922.
Food........................................ 20.5
Clothing.................................. 33.8
Housing..................................
Fuel and lig h t.......................
Furniture and furnishings.. 26.3
9.0
Miscellaneous........................

1.0
11.8

T otal............................. 17.9

20.6

42.3
3.6
11.4
28.6
13.5

23.1
78.6
9.8
18.7
55.9
24.0

36.1
93.6
12.5
36.1
75.4
32.4

11.9
69.0
25.9
62.2
70.0
36.0

17.4 11.0
43.8
29.4
47.1
48.8
38.7

24.2
33.0
46.7
36.0
38.4

20.6

32.0

43.8

33.3

20.2

19.5

S t . L o u is ,
Food......................................... 18.0
Clothing.................................. 32.4
Housing................................... 2.7
Fuel and light.......................
4.8
Furniture and furnishings..
Miscellaneous......................... 14.5

16.1
39.3
3.8
3.7
32.5
15.7

26.2
78.1
16.8

16.7

17.9

21.8

Total.............................

110.2

34.1
46.8
33.0
38.4

15.9
34.2
36.7
28.1
35.5

‘ 7.8
12.9
34.5
33.4
27.6
34.7

18.3

12.9

13.2

21.2

110.8 16.3
10.6 10.6
35.4
44.5
27.5
34.6

35.3
54.2
29.4
33.5

12.1

14.4

M o.

8.8

52.9
30.3

46.2
89.7
29.8
19.6
73.1
37.6

70.0
42.4
42.6
70.2
43.2

43.8
52.5
30.9
43.5
42.1

34.2

48.9

35.4

23.1

8.2

12.9

1 1 0.1

111.6 H4.0 112.1 »13. 8 19.5
17.2
9.1
7.9
6. 2 6.3
63.8 64.1 65.7 67. 0 68.0
33.4 30.9 32.3 44. 3
48.9
19.2 14.3 12.8 12. 3
14.9
40.6 34.7 33.2 33. 1 33.4
22.0 18.5 14.7 15.1 15. 0 17.0

14.5

21.2

61.2
29.5
25.1
42.0

S c r a n to n , P a .
41.4
97.7
17.2
43.5
62.8
47.9

17.8
76.5
18.5
67.3
62.0
50.4

14.0 2.8

25.7
35.6
24.9

26.9
82.1
2.4
31.5
48.9
34.7

54.3
41.5
62.8
48.6
54.6

31.3
42.2
64.8
34.6
53.8

4.1
29.1
44.6
67.1
30.7
52.4

16.8
25.2
46.6

16.7
24.2
52.8

25.7
50.1

25.0

37.1

51.5

39.1

28.2

26.3

26.3

20.4

Food.........................................
Clothing..................................
Housing...................................
Fuel and light........................
Furniture and furnishings..
Miscellaneous.........................

21.3
34.4
.5
24.7
27.0
21.4

18.1
49.6

Total.............................

21.9

6.2

19.0

21.1

68.0
24.2
49.9

53.1
69.3
25.4
49.3

20.9

19.4

1 2 .1

20.7
53.6

68.6

28.5
49.3
22.4

1 Decrease.

The following table shows the changes in the cost of living in the
United States from 1913 to December, 1922. These figures are a
summarization of the figures for the 32 cities which appear in the
preceding tables, computed on a 1913 base.
T able 4 .—CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN THE U N IT E D STATES, 1913 TO
DECEMBER, 1922.
Per cent of increase from 1913 (average) to—
expenditure.

Dec. Dec. Dec. Dec. Dec. Dec. June, Dec. May, Sept., Dec., Mar., June,
1914. 1915. 1916. 1917. 1918. 1919. 1920. 1920. 1921. 1921. 1921. 1922. 1922.

Food................. 5.0
Clothing...........
Housing........... (i)
Fuel and lig h t.
Furniture and
furnishings.. 4.0
Miscellaneous.. 3.0

5.0 26.0 57.0 87.0 97.0 119.0 78.0
187. 5 1.58. 5
34.9 51.1
71.9 94.9

1.0 4.7 20.0 49.1 105.3 168.7
1.5 2.3
.1 9.2 25.3
1.0 1.0 8.4 24.1 47.9 56.8
10.6 27.8 50.6 113.6 163.5

Total___

3.0

44.7

122.6
59.0
81.6

53.1
92.1
60.0
80.7

49.9
84.4
61.4
81.1

38.7
75.5
60.9
75.8

41.0
72.3
60.9
74.2

Dec.,
1922.
39.8
71.3
61.1
S3.6

46.6
71.5
61.9
86.4

192.7 185.4 147.7 124.7 118.0 106.2 102.9 102.9 108.2
7.4 13.3 40.5 65.8 90.2 101.4 108.2 108.8 107.8 106.8 103.3 101.5
100.5

101.1

5.1 18.3 42.4 74.4 99.3 116.5 100.4

1 No change.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[357]

80.4

77.3

74.3

66.9

66.6

66.3

69.5

W A G ES A N D H O U R S O F LA B O R .

Wage Rates on American and Foreign Cargo Steamships, 1922.

HE American Steamship Owners’ Association has furnished the
Bureau of Labor Statistics with statements of wage rates paid
on 60 cargo steamships, of which 28 were foreign.
The nationality and dates of report are as follows:

T

NATIO N A LITY OF VESSELS AN D DATE OF REPO R TS.
Number
of vessels.

Nationality.
United States:
Shipping Board.............................................................
Other..............................................
Belgian.....................................................................
British......................................................
Danish..................................................
D utch...................................................
French....................................................
Spanish.............................................
Swedish................................................................
T otal...................................................

Date of report.

17
15

2
8
3
7

1
5
2

July 24 to Sept. 7.
July 31 to Aug. 22.
Aug. 12 and 17.
Aug. 10 to Sept. 11.
Aug. 12 and 14.
Aug. 8 to Sept. 5.
Aug. 12.
June 9 to July 12.
Aug. 25.

60

From these reports a table has been prepared by the Bureau of
Labor Statistics showing the different rates paid and the number of
vessels paying the specified rates.
Braces are used when any vessel pays more than one rate.
The wage rates for foreign vessels are stated in the reports both in
the money of the country and in United States money. The United
States money equivalent only is here presented.
The money equivalent varies slightly in the different reports as
follows:
Belgian franc___
British pound. ..
Danish kroner...
Dutch florin____
French franc___
Spanish peseta..
Swedish krona...
Hongkong tael...
Hongkong dollar
Indian rupee__

$0. 08J
$4.45- 4.47
.39-

.20

. 40
.09
. 1583- . 16
.265
.58
.54
.29- .30

A separate tabulation is given for the rates for Lascars and Chinese.
A few minor and infrequent occupations are omitted from this
table.
132


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[358]

RATES OF WAGES PE R MONTH AND NUM BER OF VESSELS R E PO R T E D AS PA Y IN G SAME, 1922.
American.
Belgian.
Shipping Bd.

British.

Danish.

Dutch.

French.

Spanish.

Swedish.

Other.

Occupation.
Num­ Wages Num­ Wages Num­ Wages Num­ Wages Num­ Wages Num­ Wages Num­ Wages N um ­ Wages Num­ Wages
ber of
ber of
ber of
ber of
ber of
ber of
ber of
ber of
ber of
per
per
per
per
per
per
per
per
per
ves­ month.
ves­ month.
ves­ month.
ves­ month.
ves­ month.
ves­ month.
ves­ month.
ves­
ves­ month.
sels.
sels.
sels.
sels.
sels.
sels.
sels.
sels. month.
sels.
2

115
130
135
140
145

1
1
4
8
1

115.00
125.00
130.00
140.00
145.00

2

1
1
2
5
7
1

95
110
120
130
125
140

1
1
2
2
8
1

95.00
105.00
110.00
115.00
125.00
130.00

2

Radio operators.

17

90

3
3
9

80.00
85.00
90.00

Boatswains

1
15
1

55
65
70

5
1
1
4
1

50.00
52.50
55.00
65.00
70.00

$135
150
155
160
165

Second mates

1
1
1
7
7

Third mates

[359]


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

$91.23
95. 89
100.13
104.58
109.27
118.46
138.26
151.64

1 $145.00
2 155.00

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

$84.63
108.00
112.32
115.20
128.00
134.00
124.80

1

$63.99

1
1
1
1
1

$88.00
94. 98
96.00
118.73
120.00

1
1

58.24

2
1
1
1
1
1
1

73.43
80.28
89.00
93.66
96.11
122.65
127.11

3

115.00

1
1
1
1
1
2

76.05
78.00
79.20
81.90
84.24
96.00

1

49.50

1
2
1
1

63.32
64.00
79.15
80.00

2

87.41

50.96

2
1
1
1
1
1
1

57.85
64.67
77.88
78.05
78.23
102. 58
104.81

2

80.00

1
1
1
1
1
2

50.70
52.00
59.67
61.20
66. 30
68.00

1
1

54.33
66.25

1
1

49.17
53.52

3

77.00

2

68.00

1

42.75

1
1
1
1

51.18
51.29
57.85
60.21

3

50.00

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

50. 70
52.00
54.00
56. 55
62.40
70.00
74.00

1

34.20

1
1

49.03
51.68

$63.70

1

2

31.85

1
1

30.87
31.20

$106.00
113.95

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.

1 $135.00
1 140.00
4 150.00
7 165.00
1 170.00
1 175.00

1
1
]
6
8

First mates

*
CO

CO

134

RATES OF W AGES P E R MONTH AND NUM BER OF VESSELS R EPO R T ED AS PAYING SAME, 1922—Continued.
American.
Belgian.
Shipping Bd.

British.

Danish.

Dutch.

French.

Spanish.

Swedish.

Other.

Occupation.
Num­
N um ­ Wages Num­
N um ­ Wages Num­ Wages Num­ Wages Num­ Wages N um ­ Wages Num­ Wages
ber of Wages
ber of
ber of
ber of Wages
ber of
ber of
ber of
ber of
ber of
per
per
per
per
per
per
per
per
per
ves­ month.
ves­ month.
ves­ month.
ves­ month.
ves­
ves­
ves­
ves­
ves­
sels.
sels.
sels.
sels. month. sels. month. sels. month. sels. month. sels. month. sels.
1 $45.00
1
47. 50
15 » 55.00

4
2
1
6
2

$40.00
42.00
45.00
47.50
50.00

Ordinary^ eam en.................................

1
14
1

35.00
40.00
45.00

4
5
2
1

30.00
35.00
40.00
47.50

Chief engineers................................

1
8
7
1

220.00
230.00
240.00
250.00

1
1
3
1
2
2
5

185.00
235.00
250.00
255.00
260.00
285.00
295.00

2

87.36

1 104. 58
1 117.93
1 126.83
1 136.03
1 158.33
1 158.69
1 196. 24
1 205.16

3

First assistant engineers....................

1
1
2
7
6

130.00
150.00
155.00
160.00
165.00

1
1
4
7
1
1

135.00
140.00
150.00
165.00
170.00
175.00

2

58.24

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

91.23
100.13
104. 58
104. 81
118.19
118.46
138.26
147.18

Second assistant engineers................

1
1

115.00
130.00

2
1

115.00
125.00

2

50.96

1
1

71.20
73.43


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

f

2

$27.00

1 $44.50
- / 44.60
\ 46.83
f 44.60
J 45.48
1 53.52
1 54.84
1 53.40
1
1
1

3

$36.00

1 $44.85
1 46.00
1 50. 70
2
52.00
1 / 52.00
\ 54.00

1

$29. 70

1
1
1
1
1

$21.60
26.12
26.40
31.66
32.00

1
1
1
1
1

19.20
23.75
24.00
28.49
28.80

$42.40

2

/
\
/
\

29.15
31.80
29.15
34.45

1
1
1
2
1

25.35
26.00
26.52
30.00
46.00

190.00

1
1
1
1
1
2

134.00
146.25
157.95
164. 00
185.25
190.00

1

66.60

1
1
1
1
1

128.00
158.30
160.00
174.13
176.00

1
1

127.20
153.70

1
2

145.00
155.00

1
1
1
2
1
1

92.00
97.20
99.45
105.30
120.00
128.00

1

54.90

1
1
1
1
1

88.00
94.98
96.00
118. 76
120.00

1
1

78.18
91.43

3

120.00

1
1

64.35
66.00

1

45.00

1
2

63.32
64.00

1
1

58.30
71.55

24.53
31.22
44.50

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW,

[360]

Able seam en.........................................

♦
135.00
140.00
145.00

3
8
1

130.00
140.00
145.00

Third assistant engineers.

1

95.00
120.00
125.00
130. 00
140.00

1
1
2
8
1

95.00
105.00
115.00
125.00
130.00

2

50.96

50.00
55.00
65.00

2
2
10
1

50.00
52.50
55.00
60.00

2

30.58

47.50
50.00
57.50

4
2
1
7
1

40.00
45.00
47.50
50.00
55.00

2

29.12

1
5

35.00
40.00
50.00

2
2

30.00
40.00

1
15
1

100.00
105.00
115.00

1
3
5
6

95.00
100.00
105.00
110.00

2

43.68

1

65.00
70.00
90.00
100.00

4
9
1

80.00
90.00
95.00

2

43.68

1
7
6
1

Oilers

1

1

15
Firemen

1
1

15

Coal passers.

Stewards.

Cooks

4
11
1

80.28
95. 89
96.11
100.13
113. 73
118.19

2 57.85
1 64.67
1 78.05
1 78.23
1 91.23
1 93.66
1 102. 58
1
1

1

2

80.00

48.95
57.85

46.73
/ 55.63
\ 57.85

1
1
1
1
1

66.60
72.15
77.20
80.00
96.00

1
1
Î
1
1
1

32.00
36.00
59.67
62.40
64.00
68.00

1
1

52.00
55.58

1
1

79.15
80.00

1
1

33.60
37.99

2

45.05

3

37.00

1
1

46.80
48.00
/ 48.00
\ 54. 00
1
56.55

1

32.40

1
1
1

24.00
27.70
28.00
/ 28.49
\ 33.24
1
33.60

42.40

3

37.00

1
f
1 4
l

40.00
36.00
44.00
46.00

1

29.70

1
1
1

23.75
24.00
28.80

29.15

2 64.53
1 66.90
1 73.43
1 73.59
1 78.23
1 102.58
1 104.81

3

99.00

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

35.10
56.55
58.50
60.00
68.00
70.00
76.00

1

33.75

1
1
1

33.24
33.60
37.99

1
1

74.20
82.15

1
1
1

3

50.00

1
1
2
1
1

52.65
60.00
62.40
64.00
70.00

1

36.00

2

14.25

1
1

51.68
54.33

-

60.08
64.67
68.98

1
1
1

I 14.40
\ 17.60

24.00
33. 24
33.60

135


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1

1
1
1
1
1
1

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.

1

7
7

136

RATES OF WAGES PE R MONTH AND NUM BER OF VESSELS R EPO R T ED AS PAYING SAME, 1922—Concluded.
American.
Belgian.
Shipping Bd.

British.

Danish.

Dutch.

French.

Spanish.

Swedish.

Other.

Occupation.
Num­ Wages N um ­ Wages Num­ Wages Num­ Wages Num­ Wages Num­ Wages Num­ Wages Num ­ Wages Num ­ Wages
ber of
ber of
ber of
ber o f
ber of
ber of
ber of
ber of
ber of
per
per
per
per
per
per
per
per
per
ves­ month.
ves­
ves­ month.
ves­
ves­
ves­
ves­
ves­
ves­
sels. month. sels. month. sels. month. sels.
sels. month. sels. month. sels. month. sels. month. sels.
$15.00
65.00
70.00

1

50.00

1
1
1
14

25.00
26.50
30.00
35.00

1
1

$65.00
70.00

2

$30.58

1
1
1

1
2

$15.60
20.00
/ 15.60
\ 27.30
1
31.20
36.00
2

$37.83
46.83
51.18

1

$27.00

l

27.00

£S9Sl

W aiters..................................................

3
7

Mess boys.......................... ..............

1
1

Carpenters.............................................


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

3

32.50
35.00

70.00

1

1
11

3

20.00
26.50
30.00

$20.00

f 10.14
1 f 10.53

1
1

l 11.70
11.70
14.00
15.60
24.00

1

16.00

1

1

1
1
2
9

30.00
32 50
35.00
40.00

4
1
2

50.00
55.00
57.50

1

33.38

1

$33.13

1 /
\

1

7.95
11.93
18.55

1
1

49.03
51.68

f$16.00
\ 12.80
/ 15.83
\ 17.41
/ 16.00
\ 17.60

10.80
1 \1 13.50

1

1

/
\
f
\

7.20
12.00
14.25
17.42

.
1

1
1

55.63
55.75
57.98

3

41.00

2
1
1

56.55
64.00
70.00

1

33.30

1
1
1

24.00
29.29
29.60

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW,

9

65.00
70.00

Wipers.

50.00

30.00
35.00
40.00

Water tenders...

65.00

50.00
55.00

U tility m en........

50.00

50.00
45.00
52.50

Deck engineers.

60.00
70.00

Storekeepers........

50.00
55.00

20.40
23.75

14.00
16.00
66.90

26.40
37.99
38.40

52.65

40.00
52.00
58.00

34.65

37.99

27.70
28.00

Second stewards.

37.83
46.83
50.06
80.28

Donkey m en.......

51.18


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

35.20
37.99

50.70

30.87
31.20

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR,

[363]

Quartermasters.

64.53
64.67
64.82
75.82

I

Oo

138

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

RATES OF WAGES PE R MONTH AND NUM BER OF VESSELS R E PO R T ED AS PAYING
SAME TO LASCAR AND CHINESE EM PLOYEES.
B r i t i s h v essels.

Occupation.

Num­
ber of

Num-

Wages
per
month.

sels.

Occupation.

Carpenters..
Donkey men
Oilers.............
Stewards.

Cooks..........
Second cooks

Messmen............
Quartermasters.
Storekeepers.
Trimmers..
Mess boys..
Coal passers
Waiters.......
Mess boys..

1
3
2
1
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
i
i
i
i
2
/
\

1
1 /\
2
1

Firemen.

1

Seamen.

*

L a sc a rs —Concluded.

L a sc a rs.

1

1

1

Wages
per
month.

vessels.

i

$36.00
8.12
10.50
7.54
9.60
27.00
21.75
23.20
25.50
11.60
13.05
13.50
22. 50
10.50
15.95
16.50
20.70
7.25
10.80
13.50
5. 22
7.20
9.86
5.22
7.20
10.15
6.67
10.15
10.50
6.67
13.50
6.67
9.00
9.00
10.50
11.10
13.20
22.50
7.25
6.38
6.09
5.80
7.25
6.67
6.38
5.80
5.22
5.22
5.80
6.38
6.67
6.96
7.25

f

i

i
I
f
\

i
i
2
1
1 \/
1
3
1
1
(

2 i
1
f
1 {
|
1 \/
f
1 i
1

$7.50
6.60
7.50
8.40
9.30
8.12
8.12
8.70
8.70
10.50
6.38
6.60
6.67
6.38
8.70
17.40
18.00
22.50
8.12
8.70
10.15
10.73
9.00
11.10
17.11
10.73
10.15
11.10
13.20
13.80

Chinese.

1
12.76
1 /\ 22.04
22.91
{ 20.88
22.04
1 \ 22.91
| 23.49
1 30.16
1
22.91
1
22.91

D u tc h vessels.
Chinese —Concluded.

Chinese.

Firemen................................................


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

( $37.05
1 4 39.00
1 42.90
f 40.00
42.00
44.00
| 48.00
f 40.80
42.00
1
44.00
46.00
1 50.00

Mess boys.............................................

[364]

1
2
1

$37.05
42.00
10.80
i 10.80
1 f 12.80
[ 14.80

139

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.

Wages in Machine Shops in Cleveland District.1

HE following averages, taken from wage statistics for the Cleve­
land, Ohio, district, are fairly representative of the averages
in the largest districts of the country represented in the Na­
tional Metal Trades Association. The comparison is given to indicate
the changes in wages applied to the more important classifications.
The maximum and minimum hiring rates at present are 20 per cent
above to 20 per cent below the average. In 85 per cent of all reports,
the minimum or maximum rates paid do not vary over 10 per cent
from the above averages in Cleveland.

T

AVERAGE H O U R LY RATES OF WAGES FOR SPEC IFIED OCCUPATIONS IN MACHINE
SHOPS, 1915, 1920, 1922, and 1923.

Occupation.

Average
hourly rate,
February,
1915.

Average
hourly rate
at peak,
1920.

Average
hourly rate,
January 1,
1922.

$0.40
.35
.325
.375
.30
.35
.25
.30
.35
.30
.25
.30
.375
.25
.30
.325
.25
.275
.30
.30
.30
.35
.25
.30
.20

$0.79
.72
.65
.61
.72
.705
.50
.69
.65
.62
.54
.59
.72
.555
.65
.65
.56
.63
.58
.70
.71
.92
.54
.60
.45

$0.61
.50
.45
.50
.45
.50
.30
.50
.50
.35
.30
.35
.55
.35
.40
.40
.40
.45
.50
.50
.50
.70
.30
.45
.30

1 Iron Trade Review, Jan. 4, 1923, p. 29.

28491 °-~23----- 10

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[3651

Average
hiring rate,
January,
1923.
$0.65
.575
.515
.565
.52
.57
.36
.55
.51
.40
.40
.45
.56
.46
.50
.50
.43
.50
.58
.60
60
.75
.40
.54
.38

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

140

Weekly Wages in Certain Occupations in Colorado.

HE following wage data are taken from the eighteenth biennial
report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics of Colorado, 19211922:

T

W EEKLY' W AGES IN CERTAIN OCCUPATIONS IN COLORADO IN 1918, 1920, AND 1922.
------------ » -----------------Weekly wages.
Weekly wages.
Occupation.
Occupation.
1918

1920

1922

1922

1918

1920

$9.00
9.00
8.00
12.00
12.00
12.00
8.00
13.50
12.00

$15.00
15.00
13.00
16.00
15.00
18.00
16.00
16.00
15. 00

$15.00
15.00
12. 50
12.50
15.00
15.00
15.00
15.00
14.50

20.00
14.00
10.00
12.00
20.00
12.00

40.00
22.00
15.00
13.50
25.00
15.00

35.00
27. 50
17.50
13.50
24.00
17.50

18.00
12.00
9. 00
9.00
10'. 00
8.00
8.00

20.00
15.00
12.00
12.00
14.00
14.00
12.00

20.00
15.00
12.00
14.00
17.50
17.50
15.00

L a u n d rie s —Concluded.

D e p a r tm e n t stores.

$80.00 $135.00
18.00
25.00
17. 50
27. 50
22.00
14.00
18.00
9.00
Wagon boys................
Elevator conductors..
Cash girls.....................

8.00
12.00
7.00
5.00

20.00
22.00
12.00
10.00

$125.00
22.50
25.00
18.50
15.00
17.50
20.00
12.00
10.00

R e sta u ra n ts.

G arm en t m a n u fa ctu rin g .

Female workers:

Male workers:
Engineers.....................
Foremen......................
Markers........................
Washers.......................
Wringers......................

Female workers:
Finishers......................
Ironers..........................
Mangle girls.................
Office............................
Seamstresses...............
Sorters..........................
Starchers......................
Washers.......................
Wrappers.....................

45.00
15.00
25.00

50.00
18.00
30.00

45.00
20.00
30.00

22. 00
20.00
18.00
12.00

25.00
20.00
18.00
18.00

25.00
22.50
24.00
22.00

20.00
25.00
24. 00
80. 00
14. 00
15. 00

29.00
*35.00
35.00
30.00
22.00
20. 00

30.00
37.50
30.00
26.00
25.00
22.50

Male workers:
Cooks............................
Second cooks...............
Dishwashers...............
Bus boys......................
Store room...................
Female workers:
Cooks............................
Second cooks...............
Dishwashers...............
Waitresses...................
Counters......................
Pantries.......................
Cashiers........................

\

international Comparison of Real Wages.

INCE the termination of the war the industrial countries of the
world have been engaged in a fierce competitive struggle for a
share in the world’s trade. It is therefore only natural that
American manufacturers have of late been keenly interested in wage
rates abroad, since in the case of most industrial products wages
form the principal factor in the cost of production. Consequently
the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, being charged with
the duty of collecting and issuing information concerning the levels,
of wages and prices at home and abroad, has been in receipt of an
unusually large number of inquiries as to how wages at home com­
pare with wages in some foreign country. These inquiries usually
take some such form as: “ How do the wages of machinists in the
United States compare with the wages of machinists in Germany ?”
To such an inquiry the bureau may cautiously respond: “ In May,
1922, the union time rate of a machinist was, on the average, 77
cents per hour in the United States and 21 marks in Germany.”

S


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[366]

^

WAGES AND H O U RS OF LABOR.

141

In most instances the inquirer is, however, not satisfied with this
reply and will renew his question with: " Thank you for the informa­
tion, but I want to know what are the wages of the German machinists
in American money. Will you please give me a plain answer to a
plain question ?”
When the inquirer is told that several plain answers, but unfor­
tunately all of them different, can be given to the plain question
even with the data which the bureau has on hand, and that still
other answers could be given were better data available, he is dis­
appointed and forms an uncomplimentary opinion about the efficiency
of Government research agencies in general and that of the Bureau
of Labor Statistics in particular.
The above situation—applied to statistical organizations in Great
Britain, but equally applicable to this bureau—is cited in an article,
"Comparative real wages in Great Britain, France, Germany, Bel­
gium, and the United States,” by John Hilton, director of statistics
of the British Ministry of Labor, published on October 26, 1922, in
the “ Reconstruction in Europe” supplement (section 9) to the Man­
chester Guardian Commercial. The inquirer, it is stated, and with
him the general public, makes the great mistake of assuming that
there exists in every civilized country a Government agency in pos­
session of accurate, up-to-date information concerning current wages
and prices, and that the data are everywhere collected, collated, and
presented in a manner that insures comparability with the corre­
sponding data for other countries. That, unfortunately, is not the
case. As a rule the information needed to attempt a comparison of
either nominal (money) or real wages for a given trade or occupation
is either wholly lacking or too imperfect for use. Until the various
countries come to recognize that labor statistics are of importance
and agree to collect, compile, and publish them in close accordance
with some agreed method, this initial disability will continue.
Difficulties in Comparing Wages in Different Countries.

HTHE writer makes an attempt to indicate some of the handicaps,
A problems, and pitfalls that lie in wait for any one desirous of
giving a conscientious answer to a question of the above order. To
make the discussion definite and practical he takes as the question
to be answered: "W hat were the comparative wages in April-May,
1922, of bricklayers, carpenters, machinists, hand compositors (book),
and unskilled metal workers in the United Kingdom, Germany,
France, Belgium, and the United States?”
These five occupations and five countries were not chosen hap­
hazard, but were rather carefully selected. They are occupations
and countries for which the information available is " less than usually
defective.” The rather indefinite period April-May, 1922, was taken
because corresponding data of a varied kind for a number of coun­
tries are seldom available for any recent date or for any particular
day or week. Also it was necessary to use a somewhat elastic period
dating prior to the latest depreciation of the German mark, "for since
that time the movements in prices and wages in Germany have been
so rapid as to overwhelm the statistician in his endeavor to record
them.”


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[3 6 7 ]

142

M O N T H L Y LABOR REV IEW .

In describing the difficulties encountered in making international
comparisons of wages, the author says:
In attempting comparisons even of nominal money wages difficulties arise from
the fact that in some countries excellent information is obtainable as to the standard
time rates of wages, while in others the best information relates to average earnings.
Rates and earnings can not, of course, be treated as though they were directly com­
parable. Occupations, again, are not always quite the same in one country and
another; while working conditions may differ to 'a quite material degree. These
difficulties can, however, in many cases, be satisfactorily met.
But when it is sought to make a comparison of real wages, i. e., the real value in
terms of goods and services of the worker’s reward for a given period or amount of
labor, the difficulty is immensely increased in that, as well as the comparable wage
information, there is needed comparable information as to what the money wages
will buy. True, most countries of industrial importance issue statistics of price
changes, but the differences between one country and another in the method of col­
lecting and compiling such statistics are great. There are issued in many countries
index numbers of the movements in both wholesale and retail prices; and it may be
regarded in some quarters as an open question whether international comparisons of
real wages should be computed with reference to the wholesale or the retail price
changes. For the moment, we shall assume that retail price index numbers are
deemed to be the more appropriate.
The accuracy of retail price index numbers depends, first, upon the extent and
accuracy of the price returns received by the statistical bureau; secondly, upon the
accuracy of the information as to the relative consumption of each commodity or
service, information necessary for “ weighting” purposes; and, thirdly, upon the
method employed in working up the material into an index number. In these re­
spects the index numbers of the five countries with which we are here concerned
exhibit marked differences. The British index number is calculated upon a pre­
war standard budget, arrived at by taking the average of some 2,000 working-class
family budgets obtained in 1904, supplemented by the results of an inquiry into the
cost of living in 1912. The United States index is calculated upon a war-time stand­
ard budget based on records collected from some 12,000 working-class families in 1917
and 1918. In the German and French index numbers the relative importance of the
various commodities is determined not with reference to actual family budgets but
from a hypothetical budget intended to reflect a postwar standard. The Belgian
index number is not based on any family budget, either hypothetical or typical, and
the consideration given to the relative importance of the various items entering into
working-class consumption is somewhat arbitrary.
Comparability of the retail price index numbers is further affected by differences
in the extent to which the budget employed covers the whole range of items that
enter into the cost of living of working-class families. House rent, for instance, does
not appear in the Belgian list of commodities. Many other differences of material
and method could be indicated, but enough has been said to show that caution must
be observed in weighing the results of international wage comparisons in which
indices of movements in prices have to be employed.

Methods of Making International Comparisons.

NOTWITHSTANDING these dissimilarities in material and
* ^ method, it is stated, “ interesting and perhaps useful conclu­
sions can be reached from comparisons based on such wages and
prices information as is available, provided the material is handled
with due thought and reasonable care.”
* * * Assuming that the comparison is to be of standard time rates prevailing
in similar occupations in two countries, and that the prices data used shall relate to
retail prices, the answer to our question might be attempted along four lines:
(1)
The money wages of the worker in one country, as paid in the currency of that
country, may be converted, at the rate of exchange prevailing at the time, into the
currency of the other country, and the two sums compared. The results obtained by
this method, which enjoys much popularity, are almost meaningless and extremely
deceptive, particularly at the present time, when the exchanges are subject to the
most violent fluctuation.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[368]

;

143

WAGES AND HOUES OF LABOR.

(2 ) A comparison of the real wages obtaining in the two countries may be made by
reducing the money wages in each country to their pre-war purchasing power in the
ratio indicated by the published “ cost-of-living” index number for the country.
Were it correct to assume that a given quantity and fineness of coined gold would
purchase in all countries before the war the same quantity of goods and services en­
tering into working-class consumption, this method, subject to the reservations and
qualifications mentioned above, would be statistically sound.
(3) Since, however, it is known that before the war this internal purchasing power
parity did not obtain, and certain information indicating roughly what adjustments
should be made in this respect is extant, a calculation can be made which allows for
both the reduced purchasing power of the national currency since before the war and
the internal purchasing power of that currency relative to other currencies prior to
tiie war. This method, when it is applicable, gives,, within the reservations and
qualifications already noted, a valid basis for a comparison of real wages.
(4) The comparison may take the form of a statement of the number of hours which
must be worked in similar occupations to earn the money required to purchase a given
list of necessaries. This method sidetracks foreign exchanges, cost-of-living index
numbers and pre-war purchasing power parities, and gives by far the cleanest basis
for a true international comparison of real wages. The two main obstacles to its use
are the differences in the typical budgets of the several countries, and the inadequacy
of information as to the actual prices prevailing in the various countries for identical
commodities.
t

Practical Application of the Various Methods.

'"THE rates of money wages for 48 hours’ work (the hourly rate multiplied by 48 irrespective of the hours actually constituting a nor­
mal week) in the five occupations and countries mentioned above in
April-May, 1922, are shown in Table 1 below in the currency in which
they are paid and spent. In this and in succeeding tables the arith­
metical mean of the wage rates in the five occupations is given for
each country, but “ it should be recognized that in the absence of
figures which could be used for weighting the rates according to the
relative importance in each country of the trades to which they relate
the means can not be taken to represent true averages.”

♦

TABLE 1 .—R A TES

OF MONEY WAGES FOR 48 H O U R S’ W ORK IN SELECTED OCCU­
PATIONS IN FIVE COUNTRIES, APRIL-M AY, 1922.1

Occupation.

Bricklayer...........................................................
Carpenter............................................................
Machinist.............................................................
Compositor (bookwork)..................................
Unskilled metal worker...................................
Arithmetical m ea n ................................

Great
Britain.

Germany.

France.

Belgium.

M a rk s.

F ra n cs.

F ra n cs.

United
States.

s.

d.

88
88
79
95
61

0
0
0
0
0

1,008
1,003
1,048
933
987

130
166
120
144
96

120.0
116.0
108.0
120.0
84.0

$60.00
54.00
36.96
51.00
14.40

82 2

997

131

109.6

43.27

1 The wages shown in this table are based as far as possible on minimum hourly rates fixed by collective
agreement. Those for Great Britain relate to London, those for Germany to Berlin, those for France to the
industrial North, those for Belgium to Brussels, Antwerp, Mons, and St. Nicholas, and those for the United
States to New York City. The sources used are: Great Britain—Ministry of Labor Gazette; Germany—
Wirtschaftund Statistik, No. 9,1922, France—Bulletin du Ministère du Travail, April-June, 1922, and LTmprimerie Française, Jan. 16, 1922; Belgium—Revue du Travail, January, March, and June, 1922; United
States—M o n t h l y L a b o k R e v ie w , March, April, and June, 1922, and Industrial Relations, Boston, A ug.
26, 1922.

-0

If the first method of comparison described above is applied, the
foreign wages shown in Table 1 must be converted into a common cur­
rency—in the article under review, into English money—-at the rates
of exchange current at the period to which the figures relate. The
rates of exchange used in the article were: Germany, 1,286 marks;


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[369]

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

144

France, 48.28 francs; Belgium, 52.54 francs; and United States, $4.43
to the pound sterling. The results are set out below in Table 2.
T a b l e 2 .—IN T E R N A TIO N A L COMPARISON OF MONEY WAGE RATES

FOR 48 HO U R S’
W ORK CONVERTED INTO ENGLISH CURRENCY AT T H E CURRENT RATES OF FO R­
EIGN EXCHANGE, APR IL-M A Y , 1922.
Index numbers (Great Britain=
100).

Money wage rates.
Occupation.

Great Ger­
Bel­
Brit­ many. France. gium.
ain.
s. d.

Carpenter...................................
Machinist...................................
Compositor (hook)...................
Unskilled metal worker..........

88
88
79
95
61

0
0
0
0
0

Arithmetical m ean ... 82 2

s . d.

15
15
16
14
15

8
8
4
6
4

15 6

s . d.

53
68
49
59
39

s .d .

6
9
9
8
7

54 4

45
44
41
45
32

8
2
1
8
0

42 9

United
States.

s . d.

Great Ger­
Bel­ United
Brit­ many France. gium. States.
ain.

270 11
243 10
166 10
230 3
65 0

100
100
100
100
100

18
18
21
15
25

61
78
63
62
65

51
$Q
52
48
52

308
277
211
242
107

196

100

19

66

51

229

4

This kind of comparison was legitimate enough before the war, when an effective
gold standard secured a certain stability of the exchanges, and when the internal and
external purchasing power parities of the various currencies were not seriously dis­
cordant, as they are at the present time. From such a comparison, in existing condi­
tions, fantastic conclusions can be and are drawn. It can be used to “ demonstrate,”
for example, that wages in the United Kingdom were in April-May last 5 times higher
and in the United States 12 times higher than in Germany. Comparisons made on
this basis are misleading and apt to be mischievous. They have a certain utility for
definite purposes when used in conjunction with other material; otherwise they are
meaningless.
To reach an opinion as to how the real wages of foreign workers compare with those
of corresponding workers in this country [Great Britain] at the present time, the third
method indicated above may be adopted. Under this method the transfer from for­
eign to British currency is effected without reference to the present fluctuating rates
of foreign exchange. The method is roundabout. It consists of ascertaining for each
country the pre-war monetary equivalent of the present money wages in that country,
and comparing those pre-war équivalents in the light of such information as is available
as to what retail purchasing power a given sum then represented in the several coun­
tries. For each foreign wage quoted in the table we have, in the first place, computed
the sum which represented the equivalent purchasing power in the country to which
it relates in 1914. This is done by dividing the wage by the coefficient of the rise in
the cost of living in that country, as shown by its official index number. The sum
thus arrived at has next been converted into shillings at parity of exchange. The
sum resulting from this conversion has then been adjusted to the conditions of the
English pre-war market by applying such indices as are available as to the relative
“ cost of iiving” 1in the different countries in 1913. Finally, by the use of the British
“ cost-of-living” index, that sum is found which represents the purchasing power in
this country at the date to which the figures relate of each of the foreign wage rates
quoted in the table.

The cost-of-living index numbers used in the article under review
were the means for April and May, 1922, except in the case of France
(Paris) and the United States, for which the figures are computed
quarterly. The figure for the second quarter was taken for France,
and that for June, 1922, for the United States. The actual figures
used were: Great Britain, 182; Germany, 3571; France, 302; Belgium,
366; United States, 167. (Pre-war=100.)
For effecting the necessary adjustment to British pre-war condi­
tions “ so as to make allowance for difference in the cost-of-living
levels between country and country before the war,” the only existing
1 “ Cost of living” is used here and elsewhere in the article as a contraction for “ level of retail prices of
commodities entering into working-class household consumption.”


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[370]

145

WAGES AND HOURS OE LABOR.

indexes available were those obtained in a series of investigations
carried out by the Labor Department of the Board of Trade, in the
various countries, in the period 1905-1909, the results of which were
carried down to the year 1913 in a report issued in 1914 by the South
African Government entitled “ Report of the Economic Commission.”
The conclusion reached in the latter report (which, it is to be noted,
covered food and rent only) was that the working-class cost of living
in Great Britain being represented by the figure 49, the corresponding
figure for France was 54, for Germany 56, for Belgium 45, and for
the United States 71. In other words, 49s. spent in Great Britain
would procure the same supply of household commodities as the par
equivalent of 54s. spent in France, 56s. spent in Germany, and 71s.
spent in the United States.
By applying the method just described to the figures in Table 1,
the results shown below in Table 3 are obtained. In this table each
foreign wage rate is expressed as a sum corresponding approximately
to its purchasing power in Great Britain (as regards commodities
consumed by the working classes). The use of English currency as
a common denominator makes possible a comparison of real wages in
the various countries in a number of selected occupations in the spring
of 1922. The general effect of this comparison becomes even clearer
when shown in the form of index numbers.
T a b l e 3 .—IN T E R N A TIO N A L COMPARISON OP REAL W AGES FOR 48 HO U R S’ W ORK

E X P R E SSE D IN ENGLISH CURRENCY, APR IL-M A Y , 1922.
Index numbers
(Great Britain=100).

Real wages.
Occupation.
Great Ger­
Bel­
Brit­ many. France. gium.
ain.
s.

Bricklayer..................................
Carpenter...................................
M achinist............... ....................
Compositor (book)...................
Unskilled metal worker..........

88
88
79
95
61

d.

0
0
0
0
0

Arithmetical m ean........ 82 2

s.

d.

s.

44
44
45
40
43

2
2
11
11
3

56 11
72 8
52 6
63 0
42 0

52
50
46
52
36

57

47 6

43 8

d.

5

s.

d.

0
3
9
0
5

Ger­
United Great
Bel­ United
France. gium.
States. Brit­
States.
ain. many.
d.
188 1
169 3
115 10
139 10
45 2

100
100
100
100
100

50
50
58
43
71

65
83
66
66
69

59
57
59
55
60

214
192
147
168
76

135

100

54

70

58

159

s.

8

In order to make clear the precise meaning of the real wage rates
shown in the preceding table the author gives an example of the
manner in which a particular rate, that of a German unskilled metal
worker, is arrived at. This figure is obtained as follows:
The [money wage] rate for unskilled laborers in the Berlin metal trades in AprilMay, 1922, was 958 marks for a 461-hour week. This represents approximately 987
marks for 48 hours. * * * The German cost-of-living index for April -May was
3,571 (1913-14=100); it follows that a sum of 987 marks had in April-May, 1922, about
the same purchasing power in Germany, as, say one thirty-sixth of that sum (viz, 2 1 \
marks) had before the war. At par of exchange (11.8d. to the mark) 2 1 \ marks repre­
sented 27s. 2d. But the cost of living was found to be higher in Germany than in this
country [Great Britain] before the war, in the proportion 8 (Germany) to 7 (United
Kingdom). A proportionately smaller sum (i. e., seven-eighths of 27s. 2d.), viz, 23s.
9d. would therefore have been needed in this country [Great Britain] to purchase at
retail the necessaries which it would have required 21 \ marks to purchase in Ger­
many. But what could be got for 23s. 9d. before the war in this country [Great Britain]
would have cost 82 per cent more in April-May when our [the British] cost-of-living
index stood at 182 (July, 1914=100). This gives 43s. 3d.—the figure shown in the
table.
[371]

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146

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

The fourth method, “ more direct but less widely practicable/’ of
measuring the relative real value of the remuneration obtained by
labor for a given service in different countries is that of making a
calculation of the number of hours’ labor required to be worked in
order to earn the money needed to purchase a given supply of house­
hold provisions of everyday use.
The ideal here would be to have a list of commodities which enter into workingclass consumption in about the same proportions in all the countries compared, a list
which would be representative as regards price movements of the full working-class
budget. Unfortunately, that ideal is unattainable in the present state of international
statistical development. There are, however, a few articles of food which enter largely
into the household consumption of all working-class families, irrespective of nation­
ality the retail prices of which can be ascertained’; and a selection of these has been
made for our present calculation. Not enough is known of the proportionate part
played by these items in the household budgets of the different countries, and there­
fore no attem pt has been made to “ weight” them in accordance with any accepted
regimen. The articles it is proposed to take are one 4-pound loaf of household bread,
7 pounds of wheaten flour, 1 pound of fresh butter, 1 quart of fresh milk, and half a
dozen eggs (other than new laid).

In the following table are shown the average retail prices prevailing
in June, 1922, for specified quantities of each of these articles in the
various countries so far as obtainable from published official sources:
Table 4 —AVERAGE R E TA IL PRICES OF CERTAIN ARTICLES OF FOOD IN FIVE
COUNTRIES, JU N E, 1922J

[1 kilogram=2.2046 pounds; 1 liter=1.0567 quarts.]
Great Britain.

Germany.

France.

Belgium.

United States.

Article of food.
Unit.

Price.

Unit.

s. d.

Bread..........................
Wheat flour...............
Butter, fresh.............
Milk, fresh.................
Eggs............................

4 lb s . . 0 101
6
L b .... 1 10
Q t----- 0 51
£ doz.. 0 10i

7 lb s .. 1

Price.

Unit.

Price.

M arks.

K ilo...
8.20
K ilo...
9.60
K ilo... 144.00
Liter., 10.00
i doz.. 33.00

Unit.

F ra n cs.

K ilo...
K ilo...
K ilo...
Liter..
i doz..

1.05
1.35
12.55
0.80
2.50

1 The prices for Great Britain are averages for the whole country.
capital only (in the United States for the largest city, New York).

Price.

Unit.

F rancs.

K ilo...
K ilo...
K ilo...
Liter..
J doz..

0.95
1.20
12.50
1.25
2.52

L b ....
L b ....
L b ....
Q t----i doz..

Price.
Cents.

8.9
5.4
44.6
13.0
20.8

The other prices are averages for the

From the money wage rates shown in the original currency (Table
1), used in conjunction with the above table of retail prices, are
obtained the figures given below in Table 5 “ which reflect inversely
the relative value of the worker’s labor time” in the occupations and
countries compared.
Table 5.—IN T E R N A TIO N A L COMPARISON

OF THE R ELA T IV E R E A L V A LUE OF
W OR K ER S’ W AGES IN APRIL-M AY, 1922, M EASURED B Y T H E N U M BER OF HOURS
OF LABOR R E Q U IR E D TO EA RN THE SUM N E E D E D TO PURCHASE A CERTAIN
SU P P L Y OF FO ODSTUFFS.
Relative real value of wages (Great
Britain=100).

Number of hours of labor.
Occupation.

Great Ger­
Bel­ United Great Ger­
Bel­ United
Britain. many. France. gium. States. Britain. many. France. gium. States.
Bricklayer.............................
Carpenter..............................
Machinist..............................
Compositor (book)..............
Unskilled metal w orker...

3
3
3i
3
4*

71

5
6
5

7i

Arithmetical m ea n ..

3i

7i


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

n

71
7J

71

6
6
6}
6
8i

1
li
2
li
5i

100
100
100
100
100

41
41
45
39
62

55
60
54
60
58

50
50
48
50
51

940
86

5f

6|

2i

100

46

57

50

206

5Ì

[372]

300
240

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.

147

It is pointed out that the differences in the results obtained in
Tables 3 and 5 need cause no surprise. Had the data used in working
the third and fourth methods been comprehensive and accurate the
ratios arrived at in Tables 3 and 5 would have been identical. It will
be seen that they are not. In Table 5 the position of the German,
French, and Belgian workers shows to greater disadvantage as com­
pared with those of Great Britian than in Table 3, and that of the
American workers to greater advantage. “ How far the divergences
are due to shortcomings in the official retail price index numbers
and in the measures of pre-war retail purchasing power parity which
we have used, and how far they are due to the fact that in our fourth
method only certain articles of food are taken into account, to the
exclusion of rent, clothing, fuel, household gear, etc., it is not possible
to say. Taken in conjunction, the two sets of results would seem
to indicate that the real wages of German workers were in the spring
of this year somewhere about half, those of the Belgian workers
something more than half, those of the French workers something
like two-thirds, and those of the United States workers from one ana
a half to twice those of the British worker.” The abnormally low
position in the two tables of the unskilled laborer in the United States
indicates that the pronounced tendency in Europe of greater equaliza­
tion of the wages of skilled and unskilled workers has not yet made
itself felt to the same extent in the United States.
Wages and Hours of Labor in Sydney and Melbourne, Australia,
June 30, 1922.1

THE June, 1922, number of the
IN (pp.
82 and 83) data showing the minimum weekly rates of wages
M

onthly

L abor

R

e v ie w

and the general hours of labor of adult workers in specified occupa­
tions in Sydney and Melbourne in July, 1914, and on December
31, 1921, were published. Similar data as fixed by the award,
determination, or agreement in force June, 30 1922, are given in
the table which follows:
MINIMUM RATES OF WAGES AND ORDINARY HOURS OF LABOR OF A D ULT WORKERS
PER
AND M ELBOURNE, JUNE 30, 1922, B Y SEX,' IND U STR Y ,
AND OCCUPATION.
’
[Shilling at par=24.3 cents; penny=2.03 cents.]

Sydney.

Melbourne.

Sex, industry, and occupation.
Wages.
Bakeries.
M ales.
Bakers.....................................
Board hands........................
Ovenmen. .
Building trades:
Bricklayers..............................
Carpenters........................................
Gas fitters......... ............................
Laborers...........................................
Masons, stone.......................................

s.

d.

96
100
105

6
6
6

113 21
107 3
113 6
100 10
109 7

Hours.

Wages.

Hours.

s.

d.

44
44
44

94
120
120

0
0
0

48
48
48

44
44
44
44
40

110
102
102
97
115

0
8
8
2
0

44
44
44
44
44

‘ Australia. Bureau of Census and Statistics. Labor and industrial branch. Statement showing
minimum rates of wages and ordinary hours of labor for adult male workers in Sydney and Melbourne
Australia, at June 30, 1922. Melbourne, Oct. 7, 1922.
’


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[373]

148

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW,

MINIMUM R A TES OF W AGES A N D O R D IN A R Y H O U R S OF LABOR OF A D U LT W ORKERS
P E R W E E K , IN SY D N E Y AN D M EL B O U R N E, JUNE 30, 1922, B Y SE X , IN D U STR Y ,
AND OCCUPATION—Continued.
Sydney.

Melbourne.

Sex, industry, and occupation.
Wages.

Hours.

Wages.

Hours.

M a les —Continued.

Building trades—Concluded.
Painters...............................................................................
Paper hangers....................................................................
Plasterers............................................................................
Plumbers............................................................................
Clothing, ready-made:
Cutters.................................................................................
Pressers, coat......................................................................
Tailors.................................................................................
Metal trades:
Blacksmiths........................................................................
Boilermakers......................................................................
Fitters..................................................................................
Linemen..............................................................................

s.

I ll
Hl

34
3J

44
44

I
Cooks, hotel........................................................................ •!
l
Waiters, hotel....................................................................
Printing and bookbinding:
Bookbinders.......................................................................
Compositors, job................. ..............................................
Compositors, newspaper—
Day work.....................................................................
Night work.................................................................
Linotype operators, job...................................................
Machinists, newspaper—
Day work....................................................................
Night work.................................................................
Stereotypers, newspaper—
Day work....................................................................
Night work.................................................................
Textiles, woolen:
Carders................................................................................
Spinners..............................................................................
Transportation:
Locomotive engineers—
First class....................................................................
Second class.................................................................

Third class...................................................................


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[374]

3
3

44
44

44 4

3

44

100
102
102

0
6
6

44
44
44

102
102
102

6
6
6

44
44
44

3
8]
3
6
7 ]
[
84 1

44
44
44
44

44
48
44
48

84

44 ■!

103 8
110 0
103 8
103 6
89 0
and
104 0
88 0
to
102 0
109 10
103 8

107

{

(
44 ]
l

44
44

113 10
106 3
85 0
to
143 6
85 0

\

J

and
118 3
102 8

}

1

\

J
]
r
J

f 75 0
to
48 -!
l 130 0
48
74 0

44
44

48
48
44
44

)
\

J

48
48

99
102

0
0

44
44

106
106

0
0

48
48

114
124
108

0
0
2

44
42
44

120
140
115

0
0
0

44
44
42

114
124

0
0

44
42

111
129

7
3

44
44

106
111

6
6

44
42

105
116

9
1

42
42

83
82

0
6

44
44

84
85

0
0

48
48

130

0

48

0

123
114
and
117
102
to
111

0
0

124

96
93
87
and
90

f 106 0
to
Third class................................................................... -!
l 118 0
Locomotive firemen—
100 0
First class....................................................................
94 0
Second c la ss...............................................................

Street-ear conductors—
First year.....................................................................
Second year......................................... ........................
Third year...................................................................
Street-car motormen—
First year.....................................................................
Second year.................................................................
Third year...................................................................

d.

96
96

110 11

{

Pattern makers.................................................................
Turners................................................................................
Personal service:

s.

107

106
107
106
100
( 103
Molders, iron...................................................................... 1 and
l 107
Molders, steel.....................................................................

d.

1
l
I

(
48 J
[
(
48
l
48
48

48
l

48

l

48

0
0
0 ]
[
0 J

48
48

0
0
0

88

0

[
48 ■1
l

85
88
91

0
0
0

44
44
44

88
91
94

6
6
6

48
48
48

91
94
97

0
0
0

44
44
44

88
91
94

6
6
6

48
48
48

48

149

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.

MINIMUM R A TE S OF W AGES AN D O R D IN A R Y HOURS OF LABOR OF A D U LT W OR K ER S
P E R W E E K , IN SY D N E Y A N D M ELBO U R N E, JUNE 30, 1922, BY SE X , IN D U ST R Y ,
AND OCCUPATION—Concluded.
Melbourne.

Sydney.
Sex, industry, and occupation.
Wages.

Wages.

Hours.

Hours.

M ales— C o n c lu d e d .

Wood working:
Cabinet makers........
Coopers.......................

s.

d.

101

9
0
6

Clothing, ready-made:
Machine operators, coats.......................
Machine operators, trousers and vests
Tailoresses, coats.....................................
Tailoresses, trousers and vests.............
Paper trades:

49
48
49
45

9
3
9
9

44
44
44
44

Box makers...............................................

43

6

(
44 ]

Sawyers, band or jig
Sawyers, circular.

(
<
1
[
•!
1

6
6
6

d.

s.

44
44

101
110
97
and
99
89
to
97

)
(
f
]
(
1

no

(
44 ]
44 \
[

93
and
99
90
and
96

6
0
0 1
\

48
44
44

0 1
0 j
(
0 J

44

9
3
9
9

44
44
44
44

F em ales.

Personal service:
Waitresses, hotels...................................
Printing and bookbinding:
Folders.......................................................
Sewers........................................................

»

49
48
49
46

{

Textiles, woolen:
Weavers, loom .........................................

0 j
>

6 1

48
48

0

48

45

0

44 0
40 0
and
48 0

44

48

0

48

44

50

6

48

44

46

0

48

51

[
•!
i

48
and
53

53

3

1
(
J

Wages and Production in Belgian Coal Mines, 1919 to 1921, and
September, 1922.

REPORT of the Belgian National Joint Mining Commission,
published in the Revue du Travail (Brussels), November,
1922 (pp. 1709-1711) gives the average wages, output per
worker, selling price of coal, and the per cent which the wages form
of the prices of salable coal in the different mining sections of the
country for the years 1919 to 1921 and for September, 1922.
The average daily wages quoted are for all workers except those
not directly concerned with the operation of the mines, such as those
engaged in the construction of buildings, setting up machines, etc.
The wages as reported include all bonuses, and no deduction is made
of fines and the tax for the mutual aid and insurance funds. Pay­
ments for sickness, accidents, and the value of the coal either given
outright to the workers or sold at a discount are not added to the
wages. By salable coal is meant all coal produced during the period
which was not used in the operation of the mines or distributed free
to the workers.
The following table shows the average daily wages, average output
per employee, labor cost per salable ton of coal, average selling price per
ton of salable coal, and the percentage which wages form of the selling

A

4P


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[375]

150

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

•rice of the coal in the principal coal-mining sections of Belgium for
September, 1922, as compared with the years 1919, 1920, and 1921.
and

D^J,LYJ i A£ES’ OUTPUT per employee , labor cost, selling price
AND PERCENTAGE which the labor cost forms of the selling
^Septem ber '[f9i PAL C0AL MINING sections of Belgium in 1919, 1920, 1921,
[1 franc at par = 19.3 cents.]

Date and locality.

Couchant de Mons:
1919..........................................................
1920..................................
1921..................................
September, 1922...........................
Centre:
1919..............................
1920................................
1921................................
September, 1922.....................
Charleroi:
1919...............................
1920...........................
1921.....................
September, 1922..................
Namur:
1919...........................
1920...........................
1921.......................
September, 1922..........
Liege (exclusiv e of Herve):
1919...........................
1920.........................
1921..............................
,
September, 1922..................
Herve:
1919.......................
1920.......................
1921.....................
September, 1922..........
Bassin du Sud:
1919.........................
1920...........................
1921.........................
September, 1922...................
*

Average
daily
wages.

Output
per worker
per day.

Cost of
labor per
ton.

Average
selling
price per
ton.

F ra n c s.

S h o rt tons.

F ra n c s.

F ra n c s.

12. 59
22.88
23.29
19.36

0.39
.40
.40
.40

13.02
22.53
22 72
19. 52

.43
.44
.42
.41

12. 94
22.08
22.47
19.65

.46
.48
.48

12. 52
22. 25
22.91
20.18

.46
.49

11.90
22.03
22.55
19.10

35.81
54.’ 6l

52.06

43.88

49.3
56.8
60.5
59.9
48.7
57.0
65.3
68.0

45.36
wJToO

.38
.41

64.87
51.28

.56
.42
.44
.43
.42

55.7
66.7
71.4
72.4
51.8
61.6
66.2
67.7

.49

12.60
22. 34
22.74
19.46

74.66

33.09

.39

12.02
21.85
22.70
19.79

64.34

Per cent
labor cost
is of selling
price.

94.56

51.0
63.5
68.6
57.8

39.26

41.5
50.2
54.2
51.8

51.03

50.5
61.0
65.0
66.2

I

Wages and Hours of Labor in Canada, 1922.

HE following tables are taken from a bulletin entitled “ Wages
and Hours of Labor in Canada, 1921 and 1922,” published by
the Department of Labor of Canada.
Table 1 presents index numbers of rates of wages per hour in
important occupational classes. The table shows that the level of
wages in the trades brought into the average in 1920 stood 92.1 per
cent above the average for 1913. The index number decreased to
186.1 in 1921 and to 176.8 in 1922.
Table 2, which presents rates of wages per hour and hours of labor
per week in 1922, is copied from the bulletin but is abridged as to
occupations and very much abridged as to cities.
Table 3 presents average wages and hours in certain occupations,
computed from reports from individual establishments shown sepa­
rately in the bulletin. In computing these averages, the wages and
hours for the several plants are added and divided by the number of
plants. No weighting could be made, as the number of employees is
not shown in the bulletin.

T


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[376 ]

151

WAGES AND HOUKS OF LABOR.

T able 1.—IN D E X NUM BERS OF RATES OF WAGES PE R HOUR FOR VARIOUS CLASSES
OF LABOR IN CANADA, 1901 TO 1922.
[1913=100.]

Year.

Build­ Metal Print­
ing
ing
trades. trades. trades.

Elec­
tric
rail­
ways.

Com­
mon
factory
labor.

Steam Coal
Aver­
rail­
ways. mining. age.

Miscel­
laneous Lum­
factory bering.
trades.
■

1901.
1902.
1903.
1904.
1905.

60.3
64.2
67.4
69.7
73.0

68.6
70.2
73.3
75.9
78.6

60.0
61.6
62.6
66.1
68.5

64.0
68.0
71.1
73.1
73.5

70.8
73.6
76.7
78.6
78.9

82.8
83.8
85.3
85.1
86.3

67.8
70.2
72.7
74.8
76.5

1906.
1907.
1908.
1909.
1910.

76.9
80.2
81.5
83.1
86.9

79.8
82.4
84.7
86.2
88.8

72.2
78.4
80.5
83.4
87.8

75.7
81.4
81.8
81.1
85.7

80.2
85.5
86.7
86.7
91.2

87.4
93.6
94.8
95.1
94.2

78.7
83.6
85.0
85.9
89.1

1911.
1912.
1913.
1914.
1915.

90.2
96.0
100.0
100.8
101.5

91.0
95.3
100.0
100.5
101.5

91.6
96.0
100.0
102.4
103.6

88.1
92.3
100.0
101.0
97.8

96.4
98.3
100.0
101.7
101.7

97.5
98.3
100.0
101.9
102.3

92.5
96.0
100.0
101.4
101.4

94.9
98.1
100.0
101.0
101.0

95.4
97.1
100.0
103.2
106.2

93.3
98.8
100.0
94.7
89.1

1916.
1917.
1918.
1919.
1920.

102.4
109.9
125.9
14S. 2
180.9

106.9
128.0
155.2
180.1
209.4

105.8
111.3
123.7
145.9
184.0

102.2
114.6
142.9
163.3
194.2

104.9
110.1
133.2
154.2
186.6

111.7
130.8
157.8
170.5
197.7

105.7
117.5
139.8
160.4
192.1

110.4
129.2
152.3
180.2
215.3

115.1
128.0
146.8
180.2
216.8

109.5
130.2
150.5
169.8
202.7

1921.
1922..

170.5
162.5

186.8
173.7

193.3
192.3

192.1
184.4

165.3
155.1

208.3
197.8

186.1
176.8

190.6
183.0

202.0
189.1

152.6
146.7

T able

3 .—RATES OF WAGES P E R HOUR AND HOURS OF LABOR PE R W E E K IN
CANADA, 1922.
[Canadian money.]

Occupation.

Month
1922.

Building trades:
Bricklayers..............................
Carpenters...................................
Painters...................................
Plumbers...................................
Plasterers...................................
Ordinary laborers......................
Metal trades:
Blacksmiths............................
Boiler makers........................
Machinists.............................
Iron molders........................
Pattern makers..................
Sheet-metal workers.................
Auto mechanics.................
Printing trades:
Compositors, hand, newspaper...
Compositors, hand, jo b .............
Compositors,linotype,newspaper.
Pressmen, cylinder, job.................
Pressmen, web, newspaper..........
Electric railways:
Conductors and motormen.........
Linemen........................................
Trackmen.....................................

Jun e..

. AcFo.'.:

Quebec.
Rate.

$0.75
$0.40- .50
.35- .47
.50- .60
.70
. 25- . 30
.50- .651

Hours.

.45- .60
A pr...
1 29.00
1 29.00
. ..d o ...
1 29.00
. ..d o ...
i 24.00
...d o ... 25.00-29.00
.45
.40
.331

rs77]

Rate.

54
48-60 $0. 50- .65
<ci
.60- .65
48-60
.60- .70
54
. 80- . 90
48-60
.25- .30
55

.55
55
.40- .50 55-60
.44- . 501 55-60

1 Rates per week.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Montreal.

48-60

. 52J.55.50.60.60.60.35-

. 65
.63
.70
.70
.72
.65
.65

Ottawa.

Hours.

Rate.

$0. 85

11 50
50-60

.45- .50

50-58

.70-

.75

.48

44
44
44
44
48
44-50
44-50
44-50

44-55
50-54

.75
.46- .59

48
1 36.00
48
i 38. 00
48
1 36.00
48
■35.00
48
i 36.00
48
i 38.00
48 136.0040.0048 135.00-37.84
' 48 136.0040.7048
i 35. 00
60
70
60

Hours.

60

44-50
.. 451
451
44-48
44-48
54
54

1 52

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW,

T a b l e 2 .—RA TES

OF WAGES P E R HOUR A N D HOURS OF LABOR PE R W EEK IN
CANADA, 1922—Concluded.

Month
in
1922.

Occupation.

Building trades:
Bricklayers.......................................
Carpenters.........................................
Painters.............................................
Plumbers..........................................
Plasterers..........................................
Ordinary laborers..........................
Metal trades:
Blacksmiths.....................................
Boiler makers..................................
M achinists.......................................
Iron molders....................................
Pattern makers...............................
Sheet-metal workers......................
Auto mechanics..............................
Printing trades:
Compositors, hand, newspaper..
Compositors, hand, job.................
Compositors,linotype,newspaper.
Pressmen, cylinder, job................
Pressmen' web, newspaper.........
Electric railways:
^ Conductors and motormen..........
L inem en................................: .........
Trackm en.........................................
1

Toronto.
Rate.

Hours.

June..
$1 . 0 0
...d o .. . $0.80- .90
. ..d o ... .65- .75
.90
...d o ...
1.00
...d o ...
.45
. ..d o ...
A pr...
...d o ...
. ..d o ...
. ..d o ...
...d o ...
. .. do...
June.

.60- .65
.60- .70
.50- .70
.50- .70
.60- .75
.60- .75
.55- .65

Apr...
I 38. 00
...d o ... 132.00-38.00
...d o ... 138.00-43.00
1 36. 00
...d o ...
... d o .. .
1 37. 00
June..
...d o ...
. ..d o ...

.72.45-

W innipeg.

.60
.7,8
.62

Rate.

Vancouver.

Hours.

Rate.

Hours

44
44
$1.06i
44
$1.15
44 $0.85- .90
44
.811
44
44
.70- .75
44
.75
44
44
.90
44 $0.90 - 1 . 0 0
44
44
44 1 . 0 0 - 1 .041
1.07 i
44
44
.40- .45 44-60
. 40 - .50 44-50
44-50
48
44-50
44-50
44-50
44-491
44-55

.67.72.55.54.65. 6,5.60-

44-50
50
44-50
44-50
40-50
44-48
49-54

.70
.74
.70
.72
.72
. 75
.75

. 60 -

.831 44-48
.831 44-48
. 8 3 44-48
.75
44
.761
44
.871
44
.75
44

46 140.50-44.10
44-48
1 39.60
46 >40.50-44.10
45-48
1 39. 60
48
1 40. 50

48
1 47. 50
44-48 135.00-48.00
45-48
1 47. 50
48
1 36.00
48
1 44.00
48
48
48

. 70 . 671.671. 60 -

.56
.78- .91
.40- .44

50
48
48

. 40 -

45
44
45
44
48

.581
.871
.54

48
44
44

Rates per week.

T a b l e 3 .—AVER A G E

[Canadian money.

R A TE S OF WAGES AND H OURS OF LABOR FOR SPEC IFIE D
OCCUPATIONS IN CANADA, 1922.

The figures shown are simple averages of reports from individual establishments.]
Wages.
Month in
1922.

Occupation.

Time unit.

Meat packing:
Saw mills:

Average
amount.

$0. 492
.467

51.7
50.6

7.42
4.17
3.14

57.7
57.8
57.8

5.94
4.85
3.35
3.25

i8
28
28
28

<9.00
8.02
7.05
6.89
6. 58

28
28
28
28
28

7.23
5. 48
5.13
4.78
4.30

28
28
28
28
«8

Coal mining:
Nova Scotia—

Alberta—

Vancouver—'
........d o ...........
. . .. d o ..........
Laborers' surface.................................................... ........d o ........... ........do___
1 Average earnings per day worked on contract.
2 Per day.
3 Minimum rate per day when not working on contract, per ton, yard, etc.
4Estimated.


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[378]

Average
hours
worked
per week.

153

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.
T a b l e 3 .—AVER A G E

RATES OF WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR FOR SPEC IFIED
OCCUPATIONS IN CANADA, 1922—Concluded.

*

Wages.
Month in
1922.

Occupation.

Time unit.

Cotton manufacturing:

April............. Hour.........
........d o . . . .
........d o ...........
........d o .. . .
........do........... . ___do___

Woolen manufacturing and knitting:
c

........do ...........
........do...........
. ___do........... ....... d o . . . .
........d o . . . .
........d o . . . .
____ d o . . . .

BootsAnd shoes: *

W eek........
........d o . . . .
. ___d o ........... ........d o ___
........d o .. . .
........d o .. . .
........d o .. . .

Sash and doors:

Average
amount.

Average
hours
worked
per week.

$0 294
.352
.237
.462
.269
.300
.222

51.7
51.7
51.3
52.0
52.0
51.9
51.4

.341
.278
. 453
.261
.277
.306
.423

51.7
51.7
51.8
52.7
53.4
52.1
51.9

26.21
27.00
5 20. 37
23.49
33.27
621.16
22.15

49.9
50.0
50.0
50.0
49.6
49.3
50.1

Hour.........
........d o ........... ........d o . . . .

.551
.506

50.3
50.3

........d o .. . .
........d o .. . .
d o _____ ___ d o ___
1

.439
.431
.397

50.8
50.9
50.9

Furniture:
.
6Including both males and females.

Real Value of Salaries and Wages in Hamburg, Germany, 1920 to 1922.

WING to the enormous depreciation of German money, statistics
of actual wages paid in Germany in postwar times have very
little meaning for the American student of economic conditions
in Germany. Hourly wage rates of from 40 to 50 marks for skilled
and semiskilled workers, daily wage rates of nearly 400 marks for
unskilled labor, and monthly salaries of 14,750 marks for Govern­
ment employees of medium rank look very big if we compare these
rates with pre-war rates, but what the worker is interested to know
is the present purchasing value of these salaries and wages as com­
pared with their pre-war purchasing value. Some light on this
subject is shed by a recent publication of the Statistical Office of the
free State of Hamburg1 which contains detailed statistics as to
money wages and salaries paid in Hamburg in 1920, 1921, and 1922,
and their actual value as compared with wages and salaries current
on July 1, 1914.

O

Nominal (Money) Salaries and Wages.

IN THE following two tables are shown the money salaries and
* wages of Government employees and of typical skilled, semi­
skilled, and unskilled workers in 1914, 1920, 1921, and 1922, and
their increase is illustrated by index numbers with July 1, 1914, as
> Germany (Hamburg). Statistisches Landesamt. Der Wert der Gehälter und Löhne in Hamburg.
Hamburg, 1922. Statistische Mitteilungen über den Lamburgischer Staat, Nr. 13.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[37 9 ]

154

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW,

a base. The salaries quoted are those fixed by the civil service
salaries laws of 1912, 1920, and 1921, while the wage rates quoted
for manual workers are the minimum wage rates fixed by collective
agreements.
In Table 2 a wider range of dates is given and the order of the
table has been arranged so as to show the course of wages for workers
according to their degree of skill.
T a b l e 1 — M ONEY

SALARIES AN D WAGES OF GOVERNMENT EM PLOYEES
MANUAL W ORKERS IN HAMBURG, 1914 A N D 1920 TO 1922.

AND

[1 mark at par=23.8 cents.]
Occupation.

July 1,1914.

Apr. 1, 1920.

Dec. 1, 1921. Aug. 15, 1922.

%
M o n th ly sa la ries.

Government employees:1
Statutory, high rank...............................
Statutory, medium rank.....................
Statutory, low rank...................................
Temporary...............................................

M a rk s.

814. 08
329.92
204.25
166.67

M a rk s.

2,594.42
1,741.25
1,353.75

M a rk s.

5.955.00
3,387.50
2,510. 00
2.590.00

M a rk s.

22.589.17
14,750.00
11.654.17
11,898.75

W eek ly w age rates.

Printers..................................
Bakers...............................
Truck drivers........................
Freight handlers..........................
Laborers, distilleries.....................
Chauffeurs.....................................

34.38
36.00
35.00
30.00
33.00
35.00

139.38
188.00
215.00
208.00
175.00
235.00

590.00

1,533. 00
2,308.50
2.470.00
2.370.00
1.950.00
2.470.00

D a ily w age rates.

Laborers, grain elevators, warehouses, e tc . ..
Ship cleaners.............................
Stevedores..............................
Laborers, coal trade...................

5.00
5.00
5.40
5.70

36.20
36.20
37.20
23.20

94.00
96.80

394.00
394.00
395.00
397.00

H o u rly w age rates.

Upholsterers.................
Masons...............................
Machinists.....................
Furriers...............................
Tailors..............................
Plumbers..........................
Shoemakers............................
Cabinet makers..............................
W orkers in chemical factories___
Textile workers..........................
Excavation workers..................

0.75
.90
.75
.60
.65
.80
.60
.65
.50
.60
.50

3.25

2.85
4.25

1 These employees are given a special allowance based on the number of children,
this allowance for three children.


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[380]

12. 40

42.25
51.00
44.15
36.00
40.00
50.55
38.00
43.50
45.00
36.00
49.00

These salaries include

155

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.

T able 3.—IN D E X NUM BERS OF MONEY SALARIES AND WAGES OF GOVERNMENT
EM PLOYEES AND MANUAL W ORKERS IN HAMBURG, 1920 TO 1922.
[July 1, 1914=100.]

Occupation.

Government employees:1
Statutory, high rank......................................
Statutory, medium rank...............................
Statutory, low rank.......................................
Temporary..............................................................
Skilled workers:
Printers.............................................................
Upholsterers.....................................................
Masons...............................................................
Machinists........................................................
Furriers.............................................................
Tailors...............................................................
Plumbers..........................................................
Shoemakers......................................................
Bakers...............................................................
Cabinet makers................................................
Semiskilled workers:
Workers in chemical factories......................
Truck drivers...................................................
Textile workers...............................................
Workers in distilleries....................................
Unskilled workers:
Excavation workers.......................................
Laborers, grain elevators, warehouses, etc.
Ship cleaners....................................................
Laborers, coal trade.......................................
Stevedores.........................................................
Freight handlers..............................................

Apr. 1, Apr. 1, Oct. 1, Jan. 1, Apr. 1, July 1, Aug. 15,
1920.
1921.
1921.
1922.
1922.
1922.
1922.

319
528
663
766

375
632
809
992

731
1027
1224
1554

797
1188
1489
1873

949
1580
2072
2587

1827
2974
3844
4805

2775
4471
5706
7139

405
433
483
693
458
415
650
433
522
477

799
800
756
867
1000
962
825
933
833
969

1097
947
1000
1133
1500
1192
1100
1167
922
1292

1507
1760
1511
1560
2167
1938
1625
2083
1653
2031

2248
2193
2744
2373
3333
2462
3031
2667
2333
2877

4052
4333
4078
4000
5000
3692
4556
4083
3833
5154

4517
5633
5667
5887
6000
6154
6319
6333
6413
6692

570
614
533
530

1150
886
1083
909

1350
1100
1367
1164

2150
1714
2100
1788

3300
2457
3000
2682

5400
3994
4167
4485

9000
7057
6000
5970

850
724
724
407
689
693

1340
1100
1100
1014
1037
1000

1720
1280
1280
1242
1204
1250

2640
1880
1880
1698
1759
1900

4740
2680
2680
2400
2500
2700

7070
4540
4540
4035
4222
4560

9800
7880
7880
6965
7315
7900

1 These employees are given a special allowance based on the number of children.
theseindex numbers are based include this allowance for three children.

The salaries on which

The preceding two tables give a clear picture of the rise of money
salaries and wages in Hamburg in postwar as compared with pre­
war times. They show above all that the lower the salary or wage
was in pre-war times, the greater has been the proportionate rise
of both salaries and wages. In addition the tables bring out another
very important fact. Before the war the remuneration of intellectual
and manual work was with a few unimportant exceptions governed
by the character of the work. The higher the qualifications demanded
by the work the greater was the remuneration for it, and intellectual
work was therefore better paid than purely manual labor. The
movement of salaries and wages in postwar times, as shown in the
preceding tables, indicates, however, that after the war the remunera­
tion for work which requires technical training has lagged relatively
far behind that for manual labor which requires no occupational
training at all.
A comparison of the salaries of Government employees for July 1,
1914, and August 15, 1922, shows that the average salary of employees
in statutory positions of high rank, inclusive of allowances for their
children, was 28 times as great on August 15, 1922, as on Jnly 1, 1914;
those of employees of medium and of low rank, 45 times and 57
times as great, respectively; while that of workers of nonstatutorv
grade was 71 times as great as comparable pre-war rates.
In the case of manual workers the wages of skilled workers per­
forming highly qualified work have risen much less in proportion
than those of semiskilled and unskilled workers. The wages of
printers, who have always been considered the elite of skilled workers,
indicate the smallest per cent of increase. On August 15, 1922, they
28491°—23----- 11

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[381]

156

M ONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

were 45 times as great as on July 1, 1914. The wages of masons
who do work of a more manual character, show a relatively greater
rise, having increased to 57 times the amount paid in July, 1914.
Still greater was the relative increase in the case of other skilled
workers, such as machinists, furriers, tailors, plumbers, shoemakers,
bakers, and cabinet makers.
The relatively great wage increase in the case of semiskilled work­
ers—i. e., of unskilled workers who have undergone a brief period of
training in the attendance of machines, etc.—is also noticeable. Of
this class of workers, those in chemical factories received the largest
wage increase, their wages in August, 1922, being ninety times as
great as they were in July, 1914. In the case of other semiskilled
workers, wages had increased to 60 to 70 times the pre-war wages.
Unskilled workers, especially those who performed the heaviest
manual labor, obtained the greatest wage increases during the period
under review. The increase obtained by excavation workers exceeded
that of all other wage workers listed in the preceding tables, their
wage in August, 1922, being nearly one hundred times their pre-war
wage. The wages of other unskilled workers increased in a some­
what lesser extent, but still their wages had risen to from 70 to 79
times their pre-war amount.
During the last three years the pay of the unskilled workers has
approached that of the highly qualified workers. The phenomenal
increase in the cost of living made it necessary that the salaries and
wages of the former be increased at a higher rate than those of the
latter.
Real Value of Salaries and Wages.

1V/IONEY wages do not, however, convey an idea of the real value of
^
wages. This value becomes evident only when money wages
are compared with the prices for the necessaries of life. The real
value of salaries and wages is expressed in their purchasing power.
In order to compute the real value of salaries and wages in Ham­
burg, the Statistical Office of that State has assumed that the real
value of the mark is in the same relation to its nominal value as the
pre-war cost-of-living index (100) is to the cost-of-living index for
the point of time in question (for instance, the index 100 as of July
1, 1914, increased to 7019 on August 15, 1922). The real value of
the mark on August 15, 1922, as compared with par in 1914 was
thus obtained by dividing 100 by 7019 = 0.014, making 1 mark of
August 15, 1922, equal to only 0.014 mark of July 1, 1914. The real
value of salaries and wages was then calculated by multiplying the
money salary or wage by the real value of the mark obtained by the
procedure described above. To illustrate: The average monthly
salary of a Government employee of medium rank, inclusive of
allowance for three children, was 329.92 marks on July 1, 1914, and
14,750 marks on August 15, 1922. The real value of the 14,750
marks is found by multiplying that amount by 0.014. By doing so
it is found that his salary on August 15, 1922 (14,750 marks), has a
purchasing value of only 206.50 marks as of July 1, 1914, or 62.6
per cent of its pre-war purchasing value.


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[382]

157

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.

In this manner the Statistical Office has computed the real value
of salaries and wages for April 1, 1920, and for each month of 1921
and 1922 up to August, 1922, and has shown this value in marks and
expressed in index numbers. Figures for a few representative
months were selected from the original tables and are reproduced
below.
Table 3 shows real salaries and wages according to method of pay­
ment and Table 4 indicates the relative value compared with July 1,
1914, according to the degree of skill of the workers.
T able 3 — REAL VALUE OF SALARIES AND WAGES OF GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES
AND MANUAL W ORKERS IN HAMBURG, 1914 AND 1920 TO 1922.
[1 mark at par=23.8 cents.]
Occupation.

July 1, 1914.

Apr. 1, 1920.

Dec. 1, 1921. Aug. 15, 1922.

M o n th ly salaries.

Government employees:1
Statutory, high rank........................................
Statutory, medium rank.................................
Statutory, low rank..........................................
Temporary..........................................................

M a rk s.

814. 08
329. 92
204. 25
166.67

M ark s.

281.55
188.91
146.91
138. 50

M a rk s.

348.33
198.17
146.83
151. 50

M a rk s.

316.17
206. 50
183. 08
166.50

W eekly w age rates.

Printers........................................................................
Bakers..........................................................................
Truck drivers.................... ........................................
Freight handlers........................................................
Laborers, distilleries.................................................
Chauffeurs...................................................................

34. 38
36. 00
35. 00
30. 00
33. 00
35. 00

15.12
20. 40
23.33
22. 57
18. 99
25. 50

30.30
24. 57
35.10
33. 35
34.52
36. 27

21. 74
32.32
34. 58
33. 18
27. 58
34. 58

5. 50
5.50
5.56
5.66

5. 48
5. 48
5.53
5.58

.70
. 75
.68
.70
.53
.74
.50
.71
.63
.48
.73

.59
.71
.62
.50
.56
.71
.53
.61
.63
.50
.69

D a ily w age rates.

5.00
5.00
5.40
5.70

Laborers, grain elevators, warehouses, etc..........
Ship cleaners.......................................... ....................
Stevedores..................................................................
Laborers, coal trade..................................................

3. 92
3.92
4. 04
2.52
H o u rly wage rates.

Upholsterers...............................................................
Masons.........................................................................
Machinists..................................................................
Furriers........................................................................
Tailors..........................................................................
Plumbers....................................................................
Shoemakers.................................................. ...........
Cabinetmakers...........................................................
Workers in chemical factories................................
Textile workers.........................................................
Excavation workers.................................................

.75
.90
.75
.60
.65
.80
.60
. 65
.50
.60
.50

.35
.47
.56
.30
.29
.56
.28
.34
.31
.35
.46

1
These employees are given a special allowance based on the number of children.
this allowance for three children.


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These salaries include

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

158

Table 4.—R EAL V A LU E OF SA LARIES AND WAGES OF GOVERNM ENT EM PLOYEES
A N D M ANUAL
NUM BER S.

W ORKERS

IN

HAM BURG, 1920 TO

1922, E X P R E SSE D

BY

IN D E X

[July 1, 1914=100.]

Occupation.

Government employees:1

Skilled workers:

Semiskilled workers:

Unskilled workers:
Laborers, grain elevators, warehouses, etc.

Apr. 1, Apr. 1, Oct. 1, Jan. 1, Apr. 1, July 1, Aug. 15,
1922.
1922.
1922.
1922.
1921.
1921.
1920.

34.6
57.3
71.9
83.1

39.9
67.3
86.2
105.7

60.3
84.7
101.4
128.2

44.7
66.6
83.5
105.1

30.5
50.7
66.5
83.0

42.7
69.6
90.0
112.5

38.8
62.6
79.8
99.9

44.0
46.7
52.2
74.7
50.0
44.6
70.0
46.7
56.7
52.3

85.1
85.3
80.0
92.0
106.7
1Q3.1
87.5
100.0
88.8
103.1

90.5
78.7
82.2
93.3
123.3
98.5
91.3
96.7
80.2
106.2

84.5
98.7
84.5
88.0
121.7
109.2
91.3
107.7
92.7
113.8

72.2
70.7
87.8
76.0
106.7
78.5
97.5
85.0
74.9
100.0

94.8
101.3
95.6
93.3
116.7
86.2
106.3
95.0
89.7
120.0

63.2
78.7
78.9
82.7
83.3
86.2
88.8
88.3
89.8
93.8

62.0
66.7
58.3
57.5

126.0
92.0
115.0
100.1

112.0
90.7
113.3
96.0

120.0
96.1
118.3
100.3

106.0
64.6
96.7
86.1

126.0
93.5
98.3
104.9

126.0
98.8
83.3
83.6

92.0
78.4
78.4
44.2
74.8
75.2

142.0
117.2
117.2
108.1
110.4
106.5

142.0
105.6
105.6
102.5
99.3
103.1

148.0
105.4
105.4
95.3
98.7
106.6

152.0
86.0
86.0
77.1
80.2
86.7

166.0
106.2
106.2
94.4
98.9
106.7

138.0
109.6
109.6
97.9
102.4
110.6

1 These employees are given a special allowance based on the number of children.
these index numbers are based include this allowance for three children.

The salaries on which

The preceding two tables bring out the following facts:
1. The great increase in money salaries and wages has in most
instances been more than offset by the extraordinary increase of the
cost of living.
2. The real value of salaries and wages has undergone great fluc­
tuations because of the fact that salary and wage increases were,
as a rule, granted only after the real value of salaries and wages had
been considerably decreased through increases in the cost of living.
The fluctuations therefore indicate that prices rose so rapidly that
salary and wage increases could not keep step with them.
3. The real value of salaries, and of wages in many cases, has
considerably decreased as compared with pre-war times.
4. The tendency to remunerate unskilled labor, requiring only
physical effort, at a much higher rate than skilled and intellectual
workers, shown in the above discussion of money salaries and wages,
is revealed even more clearly in considering the real value of salaries
and wages. While part of the manual workers, especially the unskilled
workers, were on the whole able to adjust their wages to the increased
cost of living, and a few of them received wages having an even greater
purchasing value than in pre-war times, the salaries of the intellectual
workers as well as the wages in a number of skilled trades have in an
increasing measure lagged behind the increase in the prices of all
necessaries of life.
In judging the fluctuations of the real value of salaries and wages,
it should be remembered that the figures given in the preceding
tables represent average values. Owing to the socially and eco-


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WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.

159

nomically unsound wage policy now prevailing in Germany, which
allows the same pay to a young single workman if he is over 21
years of age as to a married workman who has to provide for a wife
and children, there is considerable difference in the standard of
living. The young single workman is to-day in receipt of a wage
which allows him to live essentially better than in pre-war times
and to use his earnings for luxuries, such as alcoholic beverages,
tobacco, and amusements, while the father of a large family suffers
greatly under the present high cost of living and has to struggle
more now with economic distress and worries of all kinds than before
the war.
In comparing the wages of manual workers with the salaries of
Government employees, it should be kept in mind that the wage
rates of manual workers given in the preceding tables are the mini­
mum wage rates fixed by collective agreements. A considerable
number of manual workers receive higher wages than the minimum
rates and their earnings are also frequently increased by overtime
work and by piecework premiums. The earnings of manual workers,
especially the unskilled workers, are therefore in many instances con­
siderably greater than those shown in the tables. Government
employees, on the other hand, as a rule do not have any subsidiary
earnings, and their salaries represent their whole income from work.
When these facts are considered, the picture of the economic situation
of Government employees assumes a still more hopeless aspect.

Wage Rates and Employment in the British Railway Service.

HE British Ministry of Transport has recently published sta­
tistics 1 showing the number of persons employed by 33
British railway companies during the weeks ending March 19,
1921, and March 25, 1922, and giving a comparison of the weekly
wages paid a number of the principal groups of railway workers on
January 1, 1921, and July 1, 1922. The data relative to the num­
bers employed include all persons actually employed during the
weeks indicated, both by the railway companies and by the railway
clearing house, except those who were paid for time amounting to
less than three days in the week and those employed by contractors.

T

* Ministry of Labor Gazette, London, December, 1922, p. 473.


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160

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

PERSONS EMPLOYED ON B R IT ISH RAILW AYS, B Y OCCUPATION AND SEX, MARCH
19, 1921, A N D MARCH 25, 1922.
Number of persons employed 1 in the week
ending—
Occupation.

Mar. 19, 1921.
Males.
1,835
17;673
50
12,726
78,768
7,163
5,756
2,749
2,116
1,766
20,359
37,400
35,888

Guards:

18,095
9; 074
8,759
44,785
2,002
5,223
113,670
2,510
3; 161
68,377
246
2,945

Porters:

23,530
32,761
1,098
1,587
5,070
30,724
7,928

Switchmen:"

435
19,080
5', 927
1,000
1,505
74,724
708,465

Mar. 25, 1922.

Females.

8
11 565
967
13
4
1,363
5

1
93
1,060
94

6
31
51

12
20

Males.
1,735
17,354
26
11,807
76,442
5,735
4,972
2 ,398
2,019
1,600
14,925
35,854
35,411
16,188
7,886
8,086
37,732
1,958
5,056
10i; 056
2,347
2,986
63,021
'227
2,761
20,032
27,538
912
1,301
i , 659
29,795
e;66o

Females.

5
9,291
926

1,235
4

10
57
1,015
69

5
16
14

3
16

7
12,077

422
17,685
5,507
934
1,554
76,781

10,753

27,405

653,362

23,440

1
27

21

1 Excluding those employed by the Manchester Ship Canal, who numbered 1,415, March, 1921, and 1,303,
March, 1922.
2 Drivers of horses used in switching.
3In charge of switches.

The wage rates quoted in the following table are standard rates
plus bonuses, if any, paid at the dates used for bases of comparison.
Those for January 1, 1921, include the cost of living sliding scale
bonus and in addition certain special advances granted in May,
1920. During the period January 1 , 1921, and July 1 , 1922, the
reductions under the sliding scale 'which changed with the changing
cost-of-living index, amounted to 17s. ($4.14, par) per week, and in
addition the special advances granted to different grades of workers
were wholly or partly withdrawn, with the provision that certain
minimum standard rates should be maintained. The rates given for
July 1, 1922, are still operative. In the case of some grades of rail­
way workers it is customary to fix different rates of wages for (a)
London, (b) industrial areas, and (c) rural areas. The lower rates
in the ranges of wages given in the table apply generally to the rural
areas; the higher rates to London.


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161

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.

PREVAILING RATES OF W E EK LY WAGES ON BRITISH RAILW AYS, JA N U A RY 1, 1921,
AND JULY 1, 1922, B Y OCCUPATION.
[1 shilling at par=24.3 cents; 1 penny=2.03 cents.]
Standard wage rates plus bonuses, if
any, under sliding scale payable on—
Occupation.
W

,

Jan. 1, 1921.

Carters, freight:
Carters................................................
Carters, head.....................................
Drivers, electric vehicles...............
Drivers, petrol or steam vehicles.
Checkers, freight.....................................
Engine cleaners:
Engine cleaners...............................
Foremen—
Fewer than 30 engines..........
More than 30 engines.............
Guards, freight and passenger:
First and second years.................
Third and fourth years.................
Fifth year.........................................
Sixth year and over......................
Laborers:
Locomotive shed hands............... .
Signal and telegraph hands........
Locomotive engineers and motormen
First and second years...................
Third and fourth years..................
», Fifth
year..........................................
Sixth year and over........................
Locomotive firemen:1
First and second years...................
Third and fourth years..................
Fifth to tenth years........................
Eleventh year and over.................
Permanent way men:
Gangers..............................................
Subgangers........................................
Undermen.........................................
Porters, freight and passenger:
Freight handlers............. ...............
Traffic—
Grade 1.

{

/
i

f

\

Grade 2.
/

District relief porters___

\
f
\

Horse and coach porters
Head porters.....................
Letter sorters—
Headquarters............
Others........................
Parcel porters—
H ead...........................

s.

d. s . d.

5.

d. s. d.

70
71
76
78
72

6-77
6-79
0-80
0-82
6-79

51
52
57
58
53

0-56
0-58
0-59
0-61
0-58

6
6
6
0
6

46 0

77
80
84
87

0
0
0
0

66 0

73
76
80
83

0
6
0
6

52
55
60
65

69 0
71 6
68 0-75 0

60 0

0
6
0
0

50 0
50 6
49 0-54 0

89
95
101
107

0
0
0
0

72
78
84
90

0
0
0
0

71
77
80
89

0
0
0
0

57
63
66
72

0
0
0
0

73 6-86 6
70 0-79 6
68 0-76 0

54 0-65 6
51 0-58 6
49 0-55 0

67 0-73 6

48 0-52 6

70
72
66 0-70
69
72
70
73
68 0-72

51
51
47
49
50
51
51
52
49 0-51

6
6
0
{
6
0
6
0
6

0
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
6

55 0
53 0

(
\
f
i

76
78
71
74

0
6
6
0

56
57
52
53

0
6
0
0

{

83
77
80
76
70
73

6
0
0 I
6
6
0

65
60
55
51
52

0
0
6
0
0

f

I

1 Extra pay when mileage in any turn of duty exceeds 125 miles.

[387 ]

6
6
6
0
6

65 0

76 0
73 0

Others.
Shunters, freight and passenger:
Class 1.........................’ ............
Class 2.
Class 3.
Class 4.
Yard foremen—
Class 1.........................................
Class 2 .........................................
Signalmen.................................................
Vanmen:
Electrically-driven vehicles..........
Petrol and steam driven vehicles.
Horse-drawn vehicles.....................


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 1, 1922.

94 6
91 0
68 0-96 6

75 0
70 0
49 0-75 6

76 6-80 6
78 0-82 0
70 6-77 6

57 0-59 6
58 0-61 0
51 0-56 6

162

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

Leave with Pay in British Industries.1

N PRE-WAR days the granting of leave with pay to wage earners
in British industries was unusual. The factory and workshop
act of 1901 did, it is true, provide that vacations amounting to
six days a year must be granted, either on the public holidays or on
other days or half days, to women and to all workers under *18 years
of age employed in workshops and factories, and while men over 18
years of age were not mentioned in the act they were usually granted
the leave provided under its terms.
In addition to the statutory holidays many firms granted other
holidays, but as a rule only clerks, foremen, apprentices, and other
small classes of employees on “standing wages’* (those considered to
be regularly employed) were paid for these holidays. The principal
exceptions to this rule were the railway service, the public utilities
(gas, water, electricity, tramway, etc., services, and the road, sanitary,
etc., services of local authorities), and the newspaper printing in­
dustry, in each of which the majority of the wage earners were
granted annual leave of from 3 to 12 days, with pay.
Since the beginning of 1919 there has been a noticeable extension
of this practice of leave giving. In 1920 there were 58 collective
agreements, 20 of which were general, and 38 district agreements
under whose provisions arrangements for leave with pay in the
case of wage earners were made. It was estimated at that time that
about 2,000,000 workpeople were covered by these agreements. In
the recent arrangements, leave with pay is granted, in most in­
stances, exclusive of legal holidays.
A study made by the Ministry of Labor of the period August, 1920,
to the present time shows that notwithstanding the depression through
which British industry has been passing, the number of collective
agreements including this condition of employment has steadily
increased to over 100, of which 20 are general agreements and 93 are
district agreements. Included among the general agreements are
the railway service (traffic section), printing and bookbinding (ex­
cept newspapers, London), paint and varnish manufacture, flour
muling, tramway undertakings, cocoa, chocolate, confectionery, fruit
preserving industries, etc. Specific instances of industries and occu­
pations covered in the district agreements are wholesale textile
warehouses, baking, butchering, brewing, and clothing trades, shoe
and slipper manufacture, compositors, machine managers, etc., on
newspapers (London), employees of cooperative societies in various
towns, and wholesale grocers’ assistants.
Considerable variation exists in the length of the periods of leave
granted, the qualifying service required, and the amount of payment
made. According to the table shown in the Ministry of Labor
Gazette, December, 1922 (p. 474), leave with pay covers from 3 days
to 21 days (one instance); the number of months of service required
in the industries concerned ranges from no specified time to three
years (two instances).

I

The majority of the formal agreements provide that payment shall be made for
statutory holidays, and in addition for a certain period varying in different cases
1922L pp°r474 Z475C’ London ^I10w the Ministry of Labor Gazette], August, 1920, pp. 421, 422 ,and December


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

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+

WAGES AND HOUES OF LABOR.

163

usually from 3 to 12 days m each year. Payment for this period, however, is generally
conditional on the employee having had 6 or 12 months’ service, and in some cases the
amount of holiday varies according to the length of service. In the case of timeworkers payment is generally at the full weekly rates of wages, and in some instances
provision is made for the payment of pieceworkers on the same basis. In the paper
bag making trade and in the printing trade in the provinces pieceworkers receive an
amount equivalent to the average of their weekly earnings in the previous six months,
but m the case of compositors in London they receive payment at the rate of their
average earmngs, less overtime payments, as shown on their income tax returns for the
preceding year. In the paint, color, and varnish trades pieceworkers are paid at
eir average weekly earnings for the previous month. In the cement industry the
average of three months is taken, and in the pen-making trade the average of the first
tour of the five weeks preceding the holiday. In the match manufacturing industry
payment is based on the average weekly hours in the year preceding the holiday.

Many of the agreements specify that leave with pay shall be
taken on consecutive days or during the summer months. Pay­
ment is withheld in some cases when workmen are absent without
sufficient cause for seven days during the preceding year or if they
fad to report for a full day’s work on the day following their vaca­
tion. Some industries make additional payments to workers who
leave their positions before taking their leave. u In the paper-bag
making, printing, and copper-plate engraving (London) trades an
employee who leaves after six months’ service without having had
his holiday leceives one day s pay for each two months of service.
Newspaper printers in London who leave their employment before
March 31 leceive one-twelfth of two weeks’ wages for each month’s
service since the previous October. An employee in the paint,
color, and varnish trades who leaves within a month prior to the
date fixed for his holiday receives the holiday payment.”
Many agreements with individual firms also contain provisions
for annual leave for wage workers. The brush and broom trade
board has recommended the granting of one week’s holiday with
pay to all employees in this industry who have given a year’s service
while the Wholesale Clothing Manufacturers’ Federation has an­
nounced its approval of payment for a week’s leave but has left
the matter to the discretion of the districts and the individual em­
ployers. Employers in the tin box making trade are in favor of
granting their employees 1 week’s holiday with pay after 12 months’
service, 6 days leave after 9 months’ service, and 5 days’ leave at
the completion of 6 months’ service. All these cases seem to indi­
cate an increasing tendency on the part of employers generally to
recognize the value of a few days’ freedom to workers who could
not afford to “ lay off” unless their wages were continued.

Wages in Tokio in September and October, 1922.

CONSULAR report dated November 29, 1922, gives the
following data, compiled by the Tokio Chamber of Commerce, regarding the daily wages in effect in Tokio in Sep­
tember and October, 1922. Of the 49 occupations listed 9 show
increases and 8 reductions in the wages in October over those of
the preceding month.

A


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164

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

DAILY WAGES IN VARIOUS OCCUPATIONS IN TOKIO IN SEPTEM BER AND OCTOBER,
1922.
[1 yen at par=49.85 cents.]

Occupation.

Silk yarn spinners, fem ale---Silk loom operators, hand.......

Chemical medicine workers. . .
“ Sake” distillers.......................

Septem­
ber.

October.

Yen.

Y en.

Yen.

i 0.95
1 1.04
i 1.16
2.50
1 1.00
1.60
1.06
4.63
3.39
3. 78
4.72
3. 33
2.20
2.50
2.92
1.74
2.70
1.20
1. 50
3.00
2.10
.95
1.50
1.70
i 1.75

10.95
11.02
i l . 16
3.00
11.00
1.60
1.06
3.68
2.68
3.64
4.12
3.18
2.20
2.65
2.91
1.76
2.70
1.20
1. 51
3.00
2.10
.95
1.50
'2.30
11.75

Septem­ October.
ber.

Occupation.

Yen.

1.50
1.64
2.08
» 1.67
1.50
4.00
2.50
2.50
2.95
13.30
5.00
4.50
2.50
4.20
4.00
13.00
12.80
2.23
1 3 .40
2.06
1.19
3.10
1 1.10
1 1. 07

Soy brewers................................
Sugar refiners.............................
Millers, flour...............................
Confectioners.............................

Bookbinders...............................
Typesetters.................................
Masons (plastering, etc.)..........
Stonemasons..............................
Painters.......................................
Tile layers...................................
Bricklayers.................................
Mat makers.................................
Joiners..........................................
Tailors (foreign dress)..............
Coolies, m ale..............................
Coolies, female............................
Fishermen...................................
Maidservants..............................

1.50
1.64
2.08
11.67
1.60
4.00
2.50
2.50
2.95
1 3 .30
5.00
4.50
2.50
4.20
4.00
1 3 .OO
1 3 .OO
1.84
1 3 .2 0

2.06
1.19
3.05
1 1 .1 0

11.07

1 Includes cost of meals.

Wages of European Workers in South Africa.

HE standard or average wages paid to European adult male
workers in various industrial areas in the Union of South
Africa, as of December 31, 1921, are shown in the fourth
number, 1922, of Social Statistics, published by the South African
Office of Census and Statistics. These figures are shown below:

T

STA N D A RD OR AVERAGE WAGES OF E U R O PE A N A D ULT MALE W ORKERS IN CER- *
TAIN IND U STR IA L A REAS IN SOUTH AFRICA, DECEM BER 31, 1921, B Y IN D U STR Y
AND OCCUPATION.
[Shilling at par=24.3 cents; penny=2.03 cents.]
Standard or average wages of European adult male workers in—
Industry and
occupation.

Cape
Penin­
sula.

Port
Eliza­
beth.

East
Lon­
don.

Kim­
berley.

Pieter­
maritz­
burg.

Dur­
ban.

Pre­
toria.

WitBloem­
waters- fontein.
rand.

P e r day.
E n gin eerin g a n d
m eta l w o r k i n g .
s.

Blacksmiths.............
Boiler makers..........
Brass finishers.........
Coppersmiths...........
Fitters..................-..
Holders.....................
Pattern makers.......
Turners.....................
Electricians..............


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

25
28
28
28
25
25
25
25
28

d.

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25

d.
4

s.
25

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25

d.

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

s.

d.

30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30

[390]

0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

s.

30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30

d.

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

S.

30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30

d.

S.

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

29
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
29

d.

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

s.

28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28

d.

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

d.

S.

28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28

0
0

0
0
0

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.

165

STA N D A RD OR AVER A G E WAGES OF E U R O PE A N ADULT MALE W O R K ER S IN CER­
TAIN IN D U ST R IA L A R EA S IN SOUTH AFRICA, DECEM BER 31, 1921, BY IN D U STR Y
AND OCCUPATION—Concluded.
Standard or average wages of European adult male workers in—
Industry and
occupation.

Cape
Penin­
sula.

Port
Eliza­
beth.

East
Lon­
don.

Kim­
berley.

Pieter­
maritz­
burg.

Dur­
ban.

Pre­
toria.

Witwaters- Bloem­
rand. fontein.

P e r hour.
B u ild in g .
s.

Bricklayers...............
Carpenters................
Masons......................
Painters, glaziers,
paper h a n g e r s ,
and sign w riters..
Brush hands............
Plasterers..................
Plumbers..................

d.

s.

3 6
3 6
3 6

3 2
3 6
3 2

3 2
3 2
3 2

2 11
3 3
2 11

5. d.
3 2
3 2
3 2

s. d.
3 61
3 6i
3 6i

2
2
3
3

2
2
3
3

2
2
3
3

2
2
2
2

2
2
3
3

3
3
3
3

2
2
6
6

(1.

81
8*
2
2

s.

d.

s.

81
81
2
1

d.

11
11
11
11

8|
8*
2
2

s,

d.

3 1 0
3 1 0
3 1 0

li
li
61
6|

3 1 0
3 1 0
3 1 0
3 1 0

d.

3 10
3 10
3 10
3
3
3
3

3 10
3 1 0

3 10

10
10
10
10

3 4
3 4
3 10
3 1 0

S treet ra ilw a y s .

Condu c t o r s a n d
motormen:

[ 1 6
First year.......... < to
1 1 7

1 7
to
1 8

1 9
to
2 0

Second year___

1 9

1 10

Third year........

1 11

Fourth year___
Fifth year..........
Sixth year.........

2 3

f 2 0
2 6 [ to
l 2 li

■16 0
to
1 18 6

[ 2 8i
1

2 3

2 6

2 3Î

1 18

6

2 10i

1 lii

2 3

2 6

2 3}

1

19 3

3 li

21
3

2 3
2 3
2 3

2 6
2 6
2 6

2 3i
2 3i
2 3j

1

1 20 0
20 0
' 20 0

3 li
3 11
3 li

2 1*
2
2

I
[
1

1

3 0

i
1

3 0 ]
1
3 3 -J!
[
3 6
3 6
3 6

1 5
1
1
to
1
to1
1
2
2
2

6
7
8
9
10
3
3
3

P e r week.
P r in tin g , bookbin din g, etc.

Bookbinders and
rulers......................
Lithographers..........
Compositors.............
Machine operators
(day work)...........
Machine operators
(night work).........
Machinists................
Stereo typers.............

138 6
138 6
138 6

138 6
138 6
138 6

152 3

152 3

152

164 3

152 3

164 3

187 6

187 6

176 0

167 6
138 6
138 6

167 6
138 6
138 6

167 6
138 6
138 6

180 9
149 3
149 3

167 6
138 6
138 6

180 9
149 3
149 3

206 6
170 6
170 6

206 6
170 6
170 6

193 6
160 0
160 0

6

105 11

101 11

145 5

123 6

137 0

142 11

148 5

125 11

125 3
158 9

116 0
153 3

117 7
146 0

131 6
168 7

133 3
146 11

140 3
153 10

144 4
169 11

162 11
183 2

131 2
156 11

97
144
80
no
92

95
151
60
98
107

83
130
69
84
89

96
184
80
108
96

108 0
142 8
96 0
122 8
91 7

97
177
111
163
97

131 5
199 9
141 2

138 6
138 6
138 6
3

149 3
149 3
149 3

138 6
138 6
138 6

149 3
149 3
149 3

170 6
170 6
170 6

170 6
170 6
170 6

160 0
160 0
160 0

General m an u factu rin g.

General average 3. . .

102

M iscellaneous.

Salesmen, mercantile e s t a b l i s h ments 3...................
Clerical occupations.
Cooks, barmen, and
hotel porters 4___
Sanitary inspectors.
Farriers.....................
Hairdressers.............
Firemen 0................

1

9
0

8
1

1

9
0

9
7

9
3
10

3
3

9
3
0

6
10

1
9
7
3
5

122 11

127 1

127
219
123
160
138

10

9
11

9
6

107
157
103
116
92

5
0
4
0
4

1 Per day.
2.General average of certain occupations in baking, boot and shoe making, brewing, coach and wagon
building, furniture manufacturing, leather working, tailoring, and woodworking.
3 General average wage, including commission on sales.
4 Average wage includes estimated cost of board and lodging.
6 Quarters are provided free.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[391]

L A B O R A G R E E M E N T S , A W A R D S, A N D DECISIO N S.

Hat and C ap Industry—St. Louis.

HE St. Louis local of the United Cloth Hat and Cap Makers of
North America has signed a working agreement with eight St.
Louis firms, according to information reaching this bureau.
The agreement went into effect September 1, 1922, and is to continue
for the period of one year. In case any change in the agreement is
desired by either party at the expiration of the contract such party
must give written notice 30 days before the agreement expires.
The agreement provides for a closed union shop, for the division
of work during slack periods, for a 44-hour week, a weekly pay day,
for six legal holidays with pay, and for admission to the factory at
all times of the business representative of the union.
The manufacturers agree not to give out work to be done in non­
union shops, nor to compel employees to do work for any other
manufacturer involved in a strike or lockout. All complaints,
disputes, or grievances are to be taken up for adjustment between
the manufacturer and the union’s business representative.
Employees must give one week’s notice before leaving their jobs.
Discharge of employees without sufficient cause until an opportunity
has been given for joint investigation of the reason is forbidden.
The rate of wages remains unchanged.
The agreement carries an employment guaranty as follows:

T

The party of the first part guarantees to employ its employees not less than 48 weeks
to the year, not to include overtime; and the employees agree to work overtime when
necessary, for the same rate of pay received for straight time. When unable to supply
48 weeks per year, the party of the first part agrees to pay its employees time and onequarter for overtime.

The arrangements for employment of workers in case the union
is unable to furnish competent ones are also of interest.
At such times that the party of the second part is unable to furnish the party of the
first part with competent employees the party of the first part shall have the privilege
of securing employees, to be designated as apprentices, the rate of wages for such
employees for the first 30 days of their employment to be determined by the party of
the first part, and the number of such employees to be agreed upon between the
party of the first part and the business representative of the union. Apprentices,
after the first 30 days of their employment, shall become members of the union, and
their wages shall be not less than $12 per week for the first four weeks of their employ­
ment as members of the union, and their wages shall be increased at the rate of $1 per
week each month for a period of six months.

166

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[392]

LABOR AGREEMENTS, AWARDS, AND DECISIONS.

167

Men s Clothing Industry—Boston.

THhas
L Boston
joint board of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers
concluded agreements with manufacturers and contractors

m the trades controlled by the Amalgamated in the Boston market.
.The agreements provide for the 44-hour week and a closed union
shop New help hired in case the union can not supply a sufficient
number of workers must join the Amalgamated Clothing Workers
after the expiration of one week.
Adi matters in controversy are first to be taken up by the shop
chairman and the employer; should the parties be unable to agree on
the matter, it is to be referred to the manager of the joint board
tor him to adjust with the employer.
Any question of a general nature such as a change in the hours of
work, wages or working conditions and the introduction of new machinery in the shops of the clothiers, as well as other matters, must be
jointly agreed upon or arbitrated.
Somewhat unusual are the features of the agreements relating to
the employment of contractors, which are as follows :
The employer further agrees in consideration of the employees aiding in the proper
manufacture of clothing that he will employ only such contractors as may be mutually
agreed upon between the parties to this agreement; it being the intention of the
parties in making this arrangement to stabilize and standardize the clothing industry
of this city.
•?ih!uenlP,110yer further aSrees that for the present he will only have the work made
with the following contractors who are duly registered in the office of the joint board'
[names of contractors].

The agreements are continuing, to remain in force for one year from
date and from year to year thereafter unless either party desires to
cancel the agreement, in which event notice must be given 30 days
before the expiration of each yearly period.
As a guaranty against the violation of these agreements, says the
Advance,1 each contractor is to give cash security to the association
wnh which he is affiliated, the association to make a deposit with
the union.
Railroads—Decisions of the Railroad Labor Board.
Maintenance of Way—Rules.

T™

#

disputes between the carriers and the maintenance of way
men embodied requests for increased compensation and for cer­
tain changes in rules and working conditions. In decision No. 1267
(summarized in the Monthly L abor R eview for December, 1922,
p. 117) the board disposed of the dispute relative to wages; decision
No. 1450, effective January 1 , 1923, hereinafter noted, determines
the deputes relating to rules and working conditions.
The Railroad Labor Board in decision No. 501 (Monthly L abor
R eview for February, 1922, pp. 86-92) promulgated rules and
working conditions for this class of workers, but the employees
1 Advance, New York, Sept. 22, 1922, p. l.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[393]

168

M O N T H L Y LABOR REVIEW .

requested reconsideration of certain rules contained therein and the
addition of certain others. Rules promulgated in decision No. 501,
it will be remembered, revised the war-time maintenance of way
national agreement. The outstanding features of this revision
included provisions for the payment of punitive overtime after the
tenth hour, instead of after the eighth hour, on continuous service,
as had been the case under the national agreement, and for the
revision of other rules so that the subjects involved might be left
open for local adjustment. The present ruling continues in effect
the sections of decision No. 501, involving scope of the rules (article
I ) ; discipline and grievances (article IV); hours, service, overtime,
and calls (article V); and general rules (article VI), except that the
following sections were added to article V:
S e c . ( c - 1 ).

*

*

*

.

Employees’ time will start and end at designated assembling points for each class
of employees.
S e c . (h). * * *
Supervisory forces shall be compensated on the same overtime basis as the men
supervised when the general force is required to work in excess of eight (8) hours per
day.
S e c . (k-1). Where special work, not within the scope of this agreement, is done
outside of regular work period and extra compensation agreed upon, overtime will
not apply.1
S e c . (r). Except as provided in these rules no compensation will b e allowed for work
not performed.1

In practically all the submissions filed in this case the employees
requested that a rule be incorporated in the agreement which would
prohibit the carrier from contracting its work to outside concerns.
It was the opinion of the board that its position on this question had
been so clearly and definitely set out in numerous recent decisions,
that a further reiteration of its position was unnecessary.
* * * the Labor Board does not feel that it is necessary to incorporate_ in the
several agreements a rule relating to this subject. Should a question arise which can
not be satisfactorily settled in conference between the interested parties in regard to
the question of contracts, the matter should be submitted to the Labor Board in
conformity with the provisions of the transportation act, 1920.

Numerous other questions were submitted to the board in this
case in connection with which there were no corresponding rules in
either the national agreement or decision 501. Such questions are
remanded for further conference between the interested parties in an
effort to reach an agreement.
Certain carriers raised the issue in this case that a portion of the
employees embraced in the classes involved in this decision were on
strike and therefore not entitled to be heard before the board at this
time. On this point the board says:
* * * The fact that some of these employees are on a strike does not preclude
the organization from presenting a dispute in behalf of those employees who are
actually in the service of the carrier. The employees in the service can not equitably
be deprived of their right to appear before the Labor Board because others are out on
a strike.
1This section appeared in the war-time national agreement.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[391]

LABOR AGREEMENTS, AWARDS, AND DECISIONS.

169

The new rules promulgated by the board at this time are as follows:
A r t ic l e

I—S c o p e .

No change from Decision No. 501.
A r t ic l e

II—S e n io r ity .

S ec t io n (a ). Seniority begins a t the time the employee’s pay starts.
_ Sec. (b). Rights accruing to employees under their seniority entitle them to con­
sideration for positions in accordance with their relative length of service with the
railroad, as hereinafter provided.
Sec. (c-1). Seniority rights of employees are confined to the subdepartment in
which employed.
Sec. (d-1). Seniority rights of laborers, as such, will be restricted to their respective
gangs, except that when force is reduced laborers affected may displace laborers junior
in service on their seniority district.
Sec. (d-2). Seniority rights of laborers to promotion will be restricted to the territory
under the jurisdiction of only one supervisor or other corresponding officer, except
that for laborers in the mechanical department such rights will be confined to the
place where employed.
Sec. (e) Seniority rights of supervisory forces in the bridge and building department
will extend over the territory under the jurisdiction of one division superintendent.
Seniority rights of supervisory forces in the track and roadway departments will
extend over the territory under the jurisdiction of one roadmaster.
Seniority rights of supervisory forces over laborers in the maintenance of equipment
department will extend over the territory under the jurisdiction of one master me­
chanic.
Sec. (f). Employees assigned to temporary service may, when released, return to
the position from which taken without loss of seniority.
S e c . (g). Seniority rosters of employees of each subdepartment by seniority dis­
tricts will be separately compiled. Copies will be furnished foremen and employees’
representatives and be kept at convenient places available for inspection by employees
interestedSec. (h). Seniority rosters will show the name and date of entry of the employees
into the service of the railroad, except that names of laborers will not be included and
their seniority rights will not apply until they have been in continuous service of the
railroad in excess of six (6) months.
Sec. (i). Rosters will be revised in January of each year and will be open to correc­
tion for a period of sixty (60) days thereafter.
S e c . (j). Employees given leave of absence in writing by proper authority of the
railroad, for six (6) months or less, will retain their seniority. Employees failing to
return before the expiration of their leave of absence will lose their seniority rights,
unless an extension has been obtained.
Sec. (k). When employees laid off by reason of force reduction desire to retain
their seniority rights, they must file with the officer of the sub department notifying
them of the reduction, their address, and renew same each sixty (60) days. Failure
to renew the address each sixty (60) days, or to return to the service within seven
(7) days after being so notified, will forfeit all seniority rights.
S ec. (1). Employees temporarily transferred by direction of the management, from
one seniority district to another, will retain their seniority rights on the district from
which transferred.
Sec. (m). In case of change in seniority districts a relative proportion of the total
employees affected will be transferred to, and their seniority rights adjusted in, the
revised districts, by the management, with a properly constituted committee repre­
senting the employees.
S ec. (n). Employees accepting positions in the exercise of their seniority rights
will do so without causing extra expense to the railroad, except as provided in these
rules.
A r t ic l e I I I .—Promotions.
S e c t io n (a). Promotions shall be based on ability, merit and seniority. Ability
and merit being sufficient, seniority shall prevail, the management to be the judge.
S ec. (b). In transferring employees to fill vacancies or new positions, the provisions
of section (a) of this article will apply.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[395]

170

M ONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

S e c . ( c ). Employees are entitled to promotion only on the district and in the sub­
department over which their seniority rights prevail.
S e c . (d ). Employees declining promotion shall not lose their seniority, except to
the employee promoted and only in the next higher rank of service.
S e c . (e). Employees accepting promotion and failing to qualify within thirty (30)
days may return to their former positions.
S ec. (f). New positions and vacancies will be bulletined within thirty (30) days

previous to or following the dates such vacancies occur, except that temporary vacan­
cies need not be bulletined until the expiration of thirty (30) days from the date
such vacancies occur.
S e c . (g). Promotions to new positions or to fill vacancies will be made after bulletin
notice has been posted for a period of ten ( 1 0 ) days at the headquarters of the gangs
in the sub department of employees entitled to consideration in filling the positions,
during which time employees may file their applications with the official whose
name appears on the bulletin. The appointment will be made before the expiration
of thirty (30) days from the date the bulletin is posted and the name of the employee
selected will then be announced. New positions or vacancies may be filed tem­
porarily, pending permanent appointment.
S e c . (h). The general rule of promotion and seniority will not apply to positions
of track, bridge and highway crossing watchmen and flagmen at railway (noninterlocked) crossings, but, when practicable, such positions will be filled by incapacitated
employees from any department, and preference in filling and retaining these positions
will be determined by the degree to which incapacitated for other work, seniority
in the service of the railroad and ability to perform the work.

A dissenting opinion by one of the labor members of the board
and a supporting opinion by the chairman accompany this majority
decision. The dissenting opinion is directed at the rules adopted by
the majority relative to pro rata payment for overtime and Sun­
day and holiday work. In the supporting opinion the chairman
defends the majority ruling but concurs to a partial extent in the
dissenting opinion in his dissatisfaction with the rule providing pro
rata rate of pay for Sunday work. He says:
I believe that the principle embraced in the Sunday rule of the shop crafts, as
set out in decision No. 222—namely, that time and one-half should be paid for Sunday
work, except such work as is unavoidably and regularly performed on Sundays,
and which is absolutely essential to the continuous operation of the railroads—should
obtain in the case of the maintenance-of-way employees.

Telegraphers’ Wages.

Upon application of 11 western carriers, the Railroad Labor Board
in its decision No. 1448, effective January 1, 1923, decided that the
inequalities heretofore existing in the rates of pay of employees in
station and telegraph service of the carriers party to this decision
should be eliminated.
The labor board pointed out that for some years prior to 1917
telegraphers employed by the carriers were paid a monthly salary to
cover the full calendar days of the month, i. e., 28, 30, or 31. On
some roads overtime was paid on Sundays and holidays after regu­
larly assigned hours. Some agreements provided for payment on
a working-day basis, in which case the monthly rates were less than
rates applying to employees working on a calendar-month basis. Late
in 1917 telegraphers in the service of these carriers received an increase
in wages of 12 per cent and the calendar month basis was changed to
a working-day month basis. Thereafter the rate formerly applying
for service performed on the calendar days of the month applied for
the working days of the month and additional compensation was paid
for service on other than working days, i. e., on Sundays and holidays.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[396]

*

LABOR AGREEMENTS, AWARDS, AND DECISIONS.

171

In December, 1918, the Railroad Administration in supplement
No. 13 to general order No. 27 ruled that telegraphers should be paid
on an hourly basis to be determined as follows:
(b) To determine the hourly basis for positions held by monthly paid employees,
multiply by 12 the regular monthly rate in effect as of January 1 , 1918, prior to thè
application of general order No. 27 (exclusive of all compensation for extra services),
divide by 306 (number of working days for the year), and apply provisions of section
(e) of this article . 1

In the application of this ruling the question arose, on the roads
where the 26-day month was in vogue, as to what would be included
in the “ regular monthly rate7’ and what constituted the “ extra
services” to be excluded. The employees claimed that the earnings
within the regularly assigned hours of the calendar days of the month
should be the basis upon which the increases should be applied, i. e.,
that not only earnings of the 26 days but also of the regularly assigned
Sunday and holiday work should be included in computing the
regular monthly rate. The carriers protested this and contended
that supplement No. 13 was never intended to include compensation
for Sunday and holiday services where such service was paid for as
overtime.
The differences in the rates which would result from these interpre­
tations of supplement No. 13 are brought out in the minority opinion
of a labor member of the board accompanying the decision, as follows:
The following examples show three employees—A, B, and C—each receiving $85
per month on a 26-day basis, working the hours shown in the example:
Prior to January 1, 1918.
Employee.

Week­
day
hours.

A ........................
B ..........................
C......................

8
8
8

Sunday
hours.
0

Monthly
rate.

Sunday
rate.

$85.00
8.5.00
85.00

$3.28
6.56

Total
compen­
sation.
885.00

Under supplement No. 13 to general order No. 27, their rates, notwithstanding that
“ B ” regularly received $88.28 per month, and “ C” received $91.56 per montA were
figured on an $85 a month basis.

This dispute was submitted to the Board of Railroad TVages and
Working Conditions of the Railroad Administration and interpreta­
tion No. 8 was promulgated, which provided that the “ total amount of
salary earned from the railroad within the regular assigned hours on
the calendar days of the month shall be considered the basic rate”
upon which supplement No. 13 was to be applied. The hourly rates
in the adjustment under interpretation No. 8 and including the
increases provided in supplement No. 13 were as follows:
Employee.

A ................................
B .....................
C....................................

Basing rate.

New hourly
rate under
supplement
No. 13.

$85. 00
88.28
91.56

$0.5675
.5850
.6000

1 Section (e) of Article I refers to employees paid on a basis of 10 hours or more to constitute a day’s work.

2 8 4 9 1 ° — 23-------12


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[3 9 7 ]

172

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

Supplement No. 13 provided that the monthly rate should be multiplied by 12
(months) and divided by 306 (days) which is 365 days less 52 Sundays and 7 holidays.
To demonstrate our contention, let us assume that our employees were paid on a daily
basis instead of a 26-day month basis. Under this assumption our daily rate would
have been multiplied by 365 (days) and divided by 306 (days) and by 8 (hours) to
ascertain the new hourly rate, but in the application of the wage order our 26-day
month is the same as the daily basis. It is clear that if the employees were paid on
a daily basis and worked on Sundays they would be paid extra for Sundays.

The employees further state that—
After the interpretation was issued, conferences ensued between the representatives
of the telegraphers and the carriers at which the employees said that they admitted
the fact that the interpretation established inequalities, and suggested the advisability
of distributing the total amount of the increase accruing from interpretation No. 8
equitably to all positions to eliminate the inequalities, but this proposition of the
employees was declined and the interpretation placed in effect in accordance with
the language thereof.
The employees contend that when supplement 13 to general order No. 27 was
applied to the employees in telegraph and station service working on the 26-day
month basis, no recognition was given to the fact that the schedule wage was for 26
days per month, but the salary shown in the schedule was arbitrarily considered as
being for 365 days per annum, the same as on other railroads, working the calendar days
of the m onth; that interpretation No. 8 was a compromise settlement through which the
carriers have profited at the expense of the employees for three years, and did not
give the employees the full amount they were entitled to; furthermore, that the
inequalities would not now exist had a correct application of supplement 13 been made
in accordance with the employees ’ contentions in the first instance, and that the request
of the carriers now presented is merely for the purpose of securing a wage reduction
through a subterfuge.

It was the contention of the carriers involved (Chicago & North­
western Railway Co., Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Co.,
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Co., Chicago, Rock Island
& Pacific Railway Co., Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha Railway
Co., Great Northern Railway Co., Illinois Central Railroad Co., Minne­
apolis & St. Louis Railroad Co., Minneapolis, St. Paul & Saulte Ste.
Marie Railway, Northern Pacific Railway Co., and Southern Pacific
Co., Pacific system) that inequalities produced by the application
of this interpretation not only created an additional expenditure of
over $1,000,000 per annum, but also created a very disturbing situa­
tion in that agents previously receiving a substantial differential
over telegraphers were by this order receiving less than the tele­
graphers working at the same stations, notwithstanding the fact
that the class of work and responsibility remained unchanged.
It was stated that on some roads where prior to the promulgation
of interpretation No. 8 there were 30 rates of pay, there were as a
result of this order 172 rates of pay, and that on lines represented in
this controversy 11,008 employees received increases and 4,027
received no increases. The carriers contended that this resulted in
old experienced agents holding responsible positions taking assign­
ments of less responsibility where rates of pay were increased under
interpretation No. 8, and agents of less experience accepting the
important stations, thereby impairing the efficiency of the service.
The majority of the board decided that, effective January 1, 1923,
the inequalities in rates of pay of employees in station and telegraph
service of the carriers party to this decision should be eliminated by
reducing the hourly rate of said employee an amount equivalent to
the increase resulting from the application of interpretation No. 8
to supplement No. 13.


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LABOR AGREEMENTS, AWARDS, AND DECISIONS.

173

This decision, the telegraphers claim, will result in an average
reduction of $114 per annum for the 11,008 telegraphers directly
affected.
A dissenting opinion was filed by one of the labor members of the
board who states that he submitted the following proposed decision,
which was rejected by a vote of 5 to 3:
The Labor Board therefore decides that the increases accruing to the employees
through the application of interpretation No. 8 to supplement No. 13 were not improper; but in the application of the increases certain inequalities were created which
should be eliminated by distributing to the employees in station and telegraph
service on the carriers parties hereto, the aggregate amount of the increase accruing
through the application of said interpretation.
. Conference shall be held on or before December 1 0 , 1922, for the purpose of arrang­
ing the details of the distribution in a manner mutually agreeable to the employees
and the carrier, and effective December 16, 1922.

“ This proposed decision,” says the dissenting opinion, “ would
have resulted in adjusting any existing improper differentials with­
out adding one additional penny to the pay rolls of the carrier. The
decision of the majority arbitrarily puts into effect differentials
that were in effect during the year 1917, and every practical railroad
man must admit that this decision will create a multitude of un­
justifiable differentials in rates of pay, and that the existing dissatis­
faction and discontent of these employees will be augmented by this
impracticable decision, the only effect of which is to bring about
another reduction in wages veiled by a thinly spread smoke screen
which simply emphasizes the desire of the majority to deny the
employees an opportunity to meet the respective carriers in con­
ference and work out an equitable adjustment of anv existing
improper differentials.”
1
J
S
Solt-Drink Workers—Portland.

TN CONFORMITY with the plan of this bureau to publish in full
from, time to time, in this section oi the M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w
significant agreements which show the trend of industrial relation^
m the industries where such contracts ¿ire mnde, the following
contract between local union No. 320 of the United Brewery, Flour,
Cereal, and Soft Drink Workers of America, with certain manu­
facturers and firms of Portland, Oreg., and vicinity, is reprinted
herewith.
The United Brewery, Flour, Cereal, and Soft Drink Workers of
America, it will be remembered, is industrial in structure and affiliated
with the American Federation of Labor.
S e c t io n 1. Only members in good standing of said local union No. 320 shall be
employed m and around all cereal, beverage, and soft drink establishments and
malt houses. Men engaged to watch property exclusively, and doing no employees’
work m manufacturing department, are exempt.
In cases of vacancies arising, all employees shall be employed through the free
employment office of the union, the employers to have the right of selection from the
list of all the employees out of employment.
S ec 2. Should the union be unable to furnish help during the busy season, from
April 1st to October 1st, extra help may be employed, as long as such employment
does not cause any lay-off to the union men. All such extra help shall have a permit
card issued by local union No. 320 before they can go to work. A permit card is


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

good for one month only, but can be renewed again, excepting when a good standing
member of the International Union of United Brewery, Flour, Cereal, and Soft Drink
Workers reports for work, then the last permit card man put to work shall, at the
last day of the month, upon which his card expires, be laid off and the union member
shall take his place.
.
.
If a vacancy in the regular force takes place, and no union member is out of work,
the oldest permit card man in point of service shall fill such vacancy if capable. _
Permit card men shall receive the wages paid to union men in the department in
which they are employed, except as otherwise provided in this agreement.
S ec. 3. No member shall be discharged or discriminated against for upholding
union principles. A man who works under the instruction of the union, or who
serves on a committee, shall not lose his position or be discriminated against for this
reason. The necessary time to discharge these duties shall be granted him.
Any member of the union shall have the right to lay off from his work in case he
has some business to attend pertaining to the union. He must, however, notify the
manager or superintendent of the necessity to lay off and inform him of the probable
length of his absence, in order to provide for a substitute, if necessary. He shall not
receive any pay during his absence unless the work is done by him at the request of
the employer. In cases where there is not sufficient work in a department to employ
an additional man, a union man from another department may help out temporarily,
providing that such work does not last longer than one week.
In case an employee lays off with the consent of the manager or superintendent,
or if he becomes sick, his place may be filled temporarily by a competent out-ofwork member until his return, if necessary.
M a n u f a c t u r in g

D epartm ent.

S ec. 4. Eight (8 ) consecutive hours with one (1) hour interval for meals shall
constitute a day’s work, and six (6 ) days a week’s work, except as otherwise provided.
The regular working day shall not commence before 7 a. m. and shall not con­
tinue after 5 p. m.
.
The following shall be considered as the work of the manufacturing department.
All maltster’s work in the malthouse and all work in the brewhouse, cellars, wash­
house and pitch house. The men employed in the malthouse connected with cereal
beverage plants shall receive work in other departments after malting season closes,
whenever possible.
D e l iv e r y

D epartm ent.

S ec. 5. Hours of work shall be the same as in the manufacturing department
except at the option of the employer, work may terminate at 6 p. m.
B o t t l in g

S ec.

6.

D epartm ent.

Hours of work shall be the same as in the manufacturing department.

Class A. The machine men, regular packers, headers, w'rappers, soaker men, offbearers shall be considered bottlers, also the extract mixer and draught pumper, as
well as truck checkers.
,

Class B. Truckers, helpers, and other men not included in Class A shall be con­
sidered as bottlers’ helpers.
Class C. Permit card men shall be considered as temporary men employed under
section 2 and working in the bottling department.
Y ardmen.

S ec. 7. Yardmen will work the same hours as those employed in the manufac­
turing department. Yardmen may, in emergenci.es, be employed directly by the
employing firm, and if not already a member of the said local union, they shall at
once apply for membership and shall only be put to work after depositing initiation
fee with the secretary of the union. Section 12 of this contract shall not apply to
yardmen. They may be laid off by the employer without any restriction.


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LABOR AGREEMENTS, AWARDS, AND DECISIONS.

175

W a g es.
S e c . 8 . The following wages are to be paid during the term of this contract,
per week:

Manufacturing department:Brewers............................................................ $31.50
Delivery department: Drivers........................................................................ 31.50
Bottling department:
Class A bottlers......................................................................................... 30.00
Class B bottlers......................................................................................... 27.00
Class C bottlers......................................................................................... 27.00
Yardmen.............................................................................................................. 27.00
Wages are to be paid weekly in full in legal currency.
O v e r t im e .

_S ec. 9. All work done in excess of the eight (8 ) hours shall be considered over­
time: P r o v id e d , h o w e v e r , That the night man or night men in the brewhouse shall
work eight (8 ) consecutive hours, interrupted by one ( 1 ) hour for meals; their work­
ing time shall begin according to mutual understanding between the employer and
employees concerned: A l s o p r o v id e d , That overtime for first hour of overtime for
delivery department shall be at regular time.
All work on Sundays and holidays mentioned in this contract shall be considered
and paid for as overtime, including work in the malthouse. The following days shall
be considered holidays: New Year’s Day, First of May, Decoration Day, Fourth of
July, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas. The employer shall not lay
the employee off on other holidays unless mutually agreed upon.
Overtime must be paid for and "shall not be taken out. All overtime to be equally
divided among employees, if possible. It shall be expressly understood that no
overtime shall be worked when other members are being laid off except in cases of
emergency. Overtime shall be worked only in case of necessity.
The following rate per hour for overtime shall be paid:
Manufacturing department:Brewers.......................................... $0 . 9 9
Delivery department: Drivers........................................................................ 6 6 and$0.99
Bottling department:
Class A .............................................................................................. 9 3
Class B .............................................................................................. 8 4
Class C...............................................................................................84
Yardmen...................................................................................................84
S ec . 10. The wage and overtime scales listed above shall not be reduced.
S ec. 11. In case of sickness, the employee shall be reemployed upon recovery.
Sec. 12. Should dullness of trade necessitate reduction of working force, the
employee shall be laid off in an impartial way in rotation. No employee shall be
laid off for longer than one week at a time.
S ec. 13. Each firm shall put at the disposal of the employees a room which can be
heated, wherein to change and dry their clothes. In case an employee is changed from
hot to cold, or from cold to hot department, the time shall be given him to change his
clothes.
No employee shall be compelled to varnish casks or storage tanks without proper
safety guards, and without being furnished with safety devices, such as mask, etc.,
according to the existing State law. To avoid accidents, no employee shall be com­
pelled to work on or around casks or tanks under unusual pressure.
If a cooper is employed at the cereal beverage plant, he shall have charge of all the
cooper work, the repairing and casks for varnishing whenever special cooper work is
required.
S e c . 14. The union label of the International Union of United Brewery, Flour,
Cereal and Soft Drink Workers of America shall be supplied to all firms that comply
with the provisions of this contract. Union-made materials, sirup, and machinery
shall have preference.
Sec . 15. The employer shall provide emergency bandages and medicines free of
charge in his shop to be used in case of accident.
Sec. 16. Any and all differences that may arise as to the interpretations of this
agreement, as well as any and all other differences that may arise between an em­
ployer and the employee shall be referred to a board of arbitration, consisting of two
members of the Union No. 320 and two representatives of the firm concerned; shall


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

these four fail to agree they shall elect a fifth disinterested person, and the decision
of the majority of the whole shall be final and binding on all parties.
No shop strike shall be ordered before submitting the differences between the
employer and employee to arbitration, and whenever a written request is made for
arbitration or any matter whatsoever, such request will be acted upon without any
unnecessary delay, and no excuse, that the matter is not subject for arbitration, shall
be presented by either party, but such arbitration must be had forthwith.
S e c . 17. This agreement shall continue and remain in force from the 16th day
of May, 1923, inclusive.
Notice of the intention of either party desiring any change to be made in this agree­
ment before the renewal thereof, shall be given by the party desiring the change
to be made to the other party, together with a copy of the proposed new agreement,
at least thirty (30) days before the expiration of this contract. In case no such written
notice and copy of the proposed new agreement be given, then it is hereby expressly
agreed and understood that this agreement shall be and is hereby renewed and ex­
tended in full force and effect to the 15th day of May, A. D. 1924.


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W O M EN IN IN D U S T R Y .

Working Women in Missouri and Alabama.

HE Women’s Bureau of the United States Department of Labor
has recently issued preliminary reports on investigations dealing
with working women, made in Missouri and Alabama in 1922.
In Missouri the inquiry was undertaken in order to secure facts
for the newly appointed minimum wage commission and dealt mainly
with hours and wages. In Alabama it was made in response to
requests from the Alabama League of Women Voters and the Ala­
bama Federation of Women’s Clubs, and dealt with “ the condi­
tions under which women were employed in the industries of the
btate of Alabama.” For both States the reports are given tenta­
tively, with reservations as to possible corrections when the detailed
studies are published, but in both cases it is believed that such cor­
rections will not materially affect the data now given out.
The study in Missouri, made in May and June, 1922, dealt with
15,363 white and 1,537 colored women, and covered 160 establish­
ments in 23 cities and towns. Of the white women, the largest
groups were employed in the manufacture of men’s shirts and over­
alls, m the manufacture of shoes, and in general mercantile stores,
these three groups comprising practically half of the entire number
studied. Over half ol the colored women (53 per cent) were found
in the manufacture of food products, 17.9 per cent were in tobacco
factories, and 23.4 per cent m laundries.
The Missouri law limits the employment of women in factories
and similar establishments to 9 hours a day and 54 hours a week.
The scheduled hours of the establishments visited were for the most
part well within these limits, none having more than 54 hours per
week, and only one having more than 9 hours a day. The distribu­
tion of women by scheduled daily hours was as follows:

T

*

Hours per day.

Per cent.

Under 8 hours....................................................................................................... 1 . 3
8 hours..................................................................................................................... 2 1 . 2
Over 8 and under 9 hours.................................................................................. 25. 4
9 hours................................................................................................................. ] 52^ o
Over 9 and under 10 hours........................................................................................ 1

The custom of shortening the day on Saturday was quite general,
but the number of hours thus deducted from the" week’s work varied
considerably. About one-third (32.2 per cent) of the women had a
scheduled week of 48 hours or less, for 20.9 per cent it was over 48
but under 50, for 34.5 per cent it was 50 but under 52, for 2.6 per cent
it was 52 and under 54, and for 9.7 per cent it was 54. The women
working a 54-hour week were mainly employed in the manufacture
of food products and of shoes, in general mercantile establishments,
and in laundries. The report calls attention to the fact that sched­
ules of 48 hours a week or less were established by 29.5 per cent of


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

the firms, employing 32.3 per cent of the women, a fact which may
be regarded as casting doubt on the necessity for longer schedules.
The establishment of reasonable hours for such large groups of women shows that
the drain on strength and vitality caused by too long hours is not essential to success­
ful production, and indicates the practicability of including all women in the groups
of those whose working hours are not so long as to be a menace to health and efficiency.

Wages were studied in detail, the actual earnings for a normal
week being taken for the whole group, and special studies being made
of actual earnings for a year and of the relation of earnings to time
worked. The difference in the earnings of colored and white women
is so great that the facts are presented separately for the two groups.
For the normal week studied, the distribution of the women by
earnings groups was as follows:
D ISTR IB U TIO N , B Y E ARNINGS FOR ONE W E EK , OF W HITE AND COLORED WOMEN
IN M ISSOURI FOR WHOM INFORM ATION WAS SECURED
White women earning Colored women earning
each specified amount. each specified amount.
Week’s earnings.
Number.

Per cent.

787
3,323
2,561
3,630
2,554
1,036
1,472

16.7
23.6
16.6
6.7
9.6

5.1

15,363

100.0

21.6

Number.
587
643
159
89
49
9

1

1,537

Per cent.
38.2
41.8
10.3
5.8
3.2

.6

.1

100.0

The median earnings for white women were $12.65, for colored
women $6 per week. For white women the median earnings ranged
from $15.90 for those employed in manufacturing electrical products to
$9.80 for those in 5 and 10 cent stores. For colored women the range
is from $9.80 for those in laundries to $4.60 for those in the manu­
facture of food products. The data concerning earnings of time and
piece workers are thus summed up:
Of the white women who worked practically full time during the week—48 or
more hours or on 5 days or more — one-half earned less than $13.60 or $13.90, respec­
tively. The negro women who worked practically full time received much less than
the white women, the medians of their earnings for these groups being $11.05 and
$7.75.
Earnings of pieceworkers were in general somewhat higher than those of time workers,
but the difference was not great enough to result in a very large median, the highest
found for pieceworkers being $16.25 for the 149 women who were employed in the
manufacture of electric products.
When the figures on earnings are considered separately for St. Louis, Kansas City,
and other places in the State, it appears that earnings on the whole are higher in
St. Louis than in Kansas City, and that the other places in the State rank lower than
either of the two cities. This does not always hold true for the more detailed figures
showing earnings by industry.

The investigation in Alabama, the field work for which was done
in February, March, and April of 1922, covered 4,966 white and 760
colored women employed in 131 establishments, all sections of the
State being covered. The inquiry included manufacturing establish-


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WOMEN IN INDUSTRY.

ments of various kinds, retail stores, printing establishments, and
laundries.
Sixty and eight-tenths per cent of the women scheduled worked in textile mills,
18.7 per cent in retail stores, and 8.5 per cent in laundries. An overwhelming
majority of the textile workers—-92.9 per cent—were white; and of the 7.1 per cent
who were negroes the majority did cleaning work in the mills; 85.1 per cent of the
women in power laundries were negroes who worked chiefly on flat-work machines,
at hand and machine pressing, and occasionally on extractors.

Alabama has no legal restrictions on the length of the working day,
and the proportion of women working long hours was larger than was
the case in Missouri. By scheduled daily hours their distribution was
as follows:
Hours per day.

Per cent.

8 hours or under............................................................................................
Over 8 and under 9 hours.............................................................................
9 hours.............................................................................................................
Over 9 and under 10 hours...........................................................................
10 hours...........................................................................................................
Over 10 and including 11 hours..................................................................
Irregular..........................................................................

8.2
14.7
9. 5
13.5
37.4
15.4
1-4
100.0

The weekly hours were also long. About one-eighth of the women
(12.6 per cent) had scheduled weekly hours of 48 or under; for 26.6 per
cent the hours were over 48, running up to and including 54; and for
60.4 per cent they were 55 or more. For 13.2 per cent they were 60
or over, the majority of these women being employed in the textile
mills. Night work was also found.
During the course of this survey 299 women were reported to be working on night
shifts in the factories investigated. This number represents only 5 per cent of the
women who worked during the daytime. One hundred and seventy of these women
worked 11 hours a night and 55 hours a week. The next largest number, 78, worked
a 12-hour night and a 60-hour week. In establishing by law the abolishment of
night work for all women—a standard which at present obtains for 95 per cent of the
women in the plants visited—Alabama would register officially the stand in regard
to night work which industry has already taken in that State.

The survey was made during a period of industrial depression, and
perhaps because of this the hours actually worked differed widely
from the scheduled hours. For 1,985 of the women it was possible
to secure figures showing the hours actually worked during the week
for which earnings were taken.
Fifty-two and one-half per cent of the women whose actual hours were reported
had worked less than full time. That undertime was considerable as well as wide­
spread is shown by the fact that for almost one-tenth of the women working less than
scheduled hours, undertime was 30 hours or more a week, and for 66.5 per cent of
them undertime amounted to 10 hours or more a week.

A

Actual earnings for a week, taken from establishment pay rolls for
4,868 white women, showed that one-half of these earned less than
$8.80. By industries the median earnings ranged from $6.85 in the
manufacture of hosiery to $17.30 in the printing and publishing in­
dustry, in which, however, only 29 women included in the survey
were employed. The next highest median—$12.45—was found
among the 780 women employed in general mercantile establish-


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

ments. For 2,247 white women covered by the Alabama study both
hours and earnings were secured, showing the following results:
Number of Median
women, earnings.

Hours worked.

Under 30 hours.................................................................................
30 and under 44 hours.....................................................................
44 and under 48 hours.....................................................................
48 and under 50 hours.....................................................................
50 and under 55 hours.....................................................................
55 hours..............................................................................................
Over 55 and under 60 hours..........................................................
60 hours and over.............................................................................

265
390
303
127
250
650
94
168

$3. 70
6.40
8.25
9. 80
9.35
10.00
10.70
10.70

This shows fully two-fifths (42.6 per cent) of the women working
less than 48 hours per week, a situation which is plainly abnormal,
and which shows that these earnings can not be considered indicative
of conditions when employment is at its usual level. I t is worth
noticing, however, how little connection there seems to be between
the hours worked and the earnings. The median for those working 48
and under 50 hours is only 20 cents less than for those working 55
hours, and not a dollar less than for those working 60 hours or over.
This, the report holds, seems to show that there is no standard
length of working week in the State, so that “ although a woman
does not get a full week’s wage until she has worked 55 hours in one
plant, in another she gets her full wage for 50 and in another for 48
hours of work.”
The survey of working conditions shows a wide variation in the
provisions made for the health and comfort of workers. Perhaps
the outstanding fact is that legal requirements along this line are
few and that the employer who tries to safeguard his workers against
unnecessary strain and discomfort and risk is in direct competition
with the employer who cares for none of these things. The report
gives considerable attention to the matter of correct posture while at
work. From the standpoint of health it is highly desirable that a
woman should be able to alternate between sitting and standing,
but when this is not possible on account of the nature of the work, it
is all the more important that chairs designed to meet the health
needs of specific occupations should be provided.
Each woman who sita at work needs a chair of a height which permits her to operate
with least strain, with a back which supports her spine in moments of relaxation, with
a broad, slightly saddle-shaped seat round edged in front, and with a foot rest if her
feet do not rest squarely on the floor. Each woman who stands at work needs a chair
with a back, so that in stated rest periods or while waiting for material she may be
relieved and renewed after the strain of standing.

Many of the establishments visited were far from meeting this
standard. In the textile mills the majority of the women worked
at standing jobs, and for them little provision had been made for any
period of relaxation.
In one mill girls sat on window sills or leaned against posts; in another they used
the edge of trucks; in another they were perched on beams of cotton thread; and in
still another some had brought low boxes for themselves which they used with the
wall for a back. Only one of the 16 mills employing weavers supplied chairs. Seven
of them supplied no seats whatever.

In power laundries, with few exceptions, the workers “ stood con­
tinuously more or less in one spot, and in a majority of cases on a
cement floor. Over two-thirds of the laundries had supplied no


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181

seats for any of their workers.” Five of the stores visited supplied
seats with backs; thirteen supplied stools; one supplied no seats
whatever.
A study was also made of conditions in regard to lighting, ventila­
tion, rest rooms, sanitary accommodations, supply of drinking water,
and the like. Wide variations were found in all these respects. In
fact, the feature which stands out most prominently in this prelim­
inary survey is the lack of any generally accepted standard. In
some establishments thoroughly up to date and healthful conditions
were found; in others, conditions were almost incredible. Thus, in
regard to sanitary accommodations, establishments employing at
least 50 per cent of the women met all the requirements of health and
decorum, while in others accommodations ranged progressively down­
ward to nine establishments, employing 68 women, which failed to
provide separate toilets for men and women. Thirty-five plants
provided rest rooms, but in 97 there was no place for the women to
lie down but the floor in the toilet room. Fifteen plants supplied
cool drinking water with individual cups or angle jet bubblers, but
in 38 a common drinking cup was in use, in 39 no cups at all were
supplied, and 3 supplied a bucket and dipper. Twenty-one plants
had suitably equipped lunch rooms, 6 supplied hot food at cost, and
12 others provided gas plates on which the women could heat food
or make a cup of tea, but in 99 there were no lunch rooms or cooking
facilities. Similar variations are noted in regard to other conditions,
and the conclusion is reached that there is decided need for spreading
the gospel of healthful conditions.
In certain plants, of course, the working conditions are good and their cumulative
effect promotes health; but, on the whole, a much higher standard of working condi­
tions is necessary throughout Alabama if the standards in practice for women in
plants under thoughtful employers are to be established for all women in all plants.

Survey of Office Cleaners in New York City.

HE Consumers’ League of New York, in its bulletin for Decem­
ber, 1922, has an article on office cleaners in Lower New
York, based on a neighborhood survey made by one of the
churches in the district. Records were obtained for 308 woman
office cleaners, largely foreigners. Of these, 270 have been in the
country over five years, but only 76 are citizens, while 37 others
have their first papers. The age level is rather high, only 9 being
under 20, and 175 being over 30. The hours worked vary, several
recognized schedules being in use, and these being further compli­
cated by the fact that one woman may work two, or even three
shifts in the 24 hours.

T

M
-

Several schedules of hours are found. The commonest is to have one-half of the
work done at night and the other half in the morning. This means that women come,
in some instances, from five or six to eight o’clock at night and again from four or five
to eight o’clock in the morning. When this split shift is used, the sweeping and
cleaning of baskets is done at night, and the dusting in the morning. In this wav
the dust raised in sweeping is allowed to settle before dusting, and offices used at night
may be cleaned before 9 a. m. In one building visited the work is done in one threehour-and-fifty-minute shift, from 4 to 7.50 a. m. The superintendent stated that he
made the change from the double to the single schedule of hours during the war when


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

labor was scarce, in order to attract married women, and that he had found it just as
effective as the split trick.

Ten dollars a week is the standard wage. In some cases women
were receiving $12 a week for the regular shift of four or five hours,
but this was the upper limit of wages found. This does not differ
widely from the figures set by the Massachusetts Minimum Wage
Commission, which in 1920 set the minimum wage for office cleaners,
if employed less than 42 hours a week, at 37 cents an hour, amount­
ing to $8.88 for a four-hour and $11.10 for a five-hour shift six days
a week. The amount of work expected of the women seems consid­
erable.
The amount of floor space which each woman is required to cover varies from 5,500
to 9,000 square feet in the buildings visited. This means approximately 12 to 23
rooms with the desks and chairs and, in some cases, a flight of stairs and a lavatory.
The heavy sweeping and window cleaning and occasional vacuum cleaning is done
by men for the most part. The women are not paid for overtime. In no cases do
they receive increased wages with length of service. New employees receive the
same amount as a woman who has been at it for 20 years.

Generally speaking, the work is undertaken from necessity. The
peculiar arrangement of hours fits into the exigencies of a married
woman’s home life better than a schedule which requires her to be
away from home for eight or nine consecutive hours, and the insuf­
ficient earnings of the men make it necessary for the women to bring
in something.
The most striking economic factor in the situation is the inability of the majority
of the husbands and other male members to earn wages in any sense adequate to
support themselves and their dependents. The men work on the docks, in the
restaurants, and in the buildings of the neighborhood as porters, window cleaners, or
elevator operators or starters. In many cases they are totally unskilled and receive
meager pay; in the rest, their work is so irregular that, although their hourly rate of
wages is on the whole fairly good, their yearly income is very low.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

I

EM PLO Y M EN T AND U N EM PLO Y M EN T.

Employment in Selected Industries in December, 1922.

R

EPORTS concerning the volume of employment in December,
1922, were made to the Bureau of Labor Statistics by 3,294
representative establishments in 43 manufacturing industries,
covering 1,587,708 employees, whose total wages during the one-week
pay-roll period reported amounted to $40,174,295.
The same establishments reported only 1,551,080 employees in
November, and total pay rolls of $39,017,717. Therefore in Decem­
ber, in the 43 industries combined, there was an increase over Novem­
ber of 2.4 per cent in the number of employees and of 3 per cent in
total pay rolls.
Increases in the number of employees in December, 1922, as com­
pared with employees for identical establishments in November, 1922,
are shown in 33 of the 43 industries and decreases in the remaining 10
industries.
Pottery, owing to the resumption of work after the settlement of
the strike, shows the greatest increase, 29.9 per cent, agricultural
implements following with an increase of 14.8 per cent. Car building,
foundry and machine shops, men’s clothing, and shipbuilding show
increased employment ranging from 4 to nearly 8 per cent.
Fertilizers show decreased employment of 11.4 per cent, and flour,
brick, and chewing and smoking tobacco of from 3 to 6 per cent.
Increases in the total amount of the pay rolls in December, 1922,
as compared with November, 1922, are shown in 33 of the 43 indus­
tries, leaving only 10 industries which show decreased pay-roll totals.
The greatest increase, 25.7 per cent, is shown in the pottery industry,
followed by agricultural implements, 18.4 per cent, shipbuilding, 10.2
per cent, and men’s clothing and foundry and machine shops, each
9.3 per cent.
The greatest decreases in the total pay rolls in December, as com­
pared with November, are shown in women’s clothing, 9.3 per cent,
fertilizers, 7.9 per cent, and flour, 5.5 per cent.
*


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[4001

183

184

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

COMPARISON OF EMPLOYMENT IN IDENTICAL ESTABLISHM ENTS D U R IN G ONE
W E E K 1 IN NOVEM BER AND IN D ECEM BER, 1922.

Industry.

Agricultural implements........................
Automobiles..............................................
Automobile tires.......................................
B aking........................................................
Boots and shoes........................................
Brick...........................................................
Carriages and wagons..............................
Carpets........................................................
Car building and repairing.....................
Chemicals...................................................
Clothing, men’s.........................................
Clothing, women’s...................................
Cotton finishing.......................................
Cotton manufacturing............................
Electrical machinery, apparatus and
supplies...................................................
Fertilizers..................................................
Flour...........................................................
Foundry and machine shops.................
Furniture...................................................
Glass...........................................................
Hardware...................................................
Hosiery and knit goods..........................
Iron and steel............................................
Leather.......................................................
Lumber, millwork................................
Lumber, sawm ills....................................
Millinery and lace goods.........................
Paper boxes...............................................
Paper and pulp.........................................
Petroleum..................................................
Pianos.......................................................
Pottery.......................................................
Printing, book and job...........................
Printing, newspapers..............................
Shipbuilding.............................................
Shifts and collars...................................
Silk..............................................................
Slaughtering and meat packing...........
Stamped ware...........................................
Stoves....................................................
Tobacco, chewing and smoking...........
Tobacco, cigars and cigarettes...............
W oolen manufacturing...........................

Amount of pay roll
Estab­ Number on pay
Per
roll in—
in—
lish­
cent
ments
of
in­
report­
crease
ing for
) or
Novem­ Novem­ Decem­ (+de­
Novem­
Decem­
ber and ber,
ber,
crease
ber, 1922. ber, 1922.
1922.
Decem­ 1922.
(-).
ber.

Per
cent
of in­
crease
(+ )
or de­
crease
(-)•

51
111
67
141
ill
150
17
23
84
40
114
92
19
124

16,026
165,762
36,936
23,099
70,101
13, 862
1,547
19,322
73,726
14,025
41,363
9,856
14,455
97,846

18,395
170,229
38,137
22,549
71,457
13,268
1,608
19,600
76,803
14,058
43,587
9,608
14,853
99,002

+14.8
+2.7
+ 3.3
- 2 .4
+ 1.9
- 4 .3
+ 3.9
+ 1.4
+ 4.2
+ .2
+ 5.4
-2 .5
+ 2 .8
+ 1.2

$396,846
5,551,731
968,469
591,399
1, 572,283
330,919
35,261
526,243
2,108,289
333,243
1, 041, 020
292,032
323,311
1,625,813

$469,838
5,352,947
1,024,712
564,956
1,678,820
316, 093
36,924
537,209
2,192,656
345,819
1,138,316
264,971
339,765
1,682,020

+ 18.4
-3 .6
+ 5 .8
-4 . 5
+ 6 .8
-4 .5
+ 4.7
+ 2.1
+ 4 .0
+ 3 .8
+ 9.3
-9 .3
+ 5.1
+ 3 .5

70
22
30
188
92
101
21
117
133
120
119
176
18
58
104
28
11
17
89
99
16
73
127
74
11
22
8
105
101

58,222
2,220
5,602
88,662
19,543
27,624
18,179
48,794
190,728
26,989
17,060
56,597
2,926
9,806
38,713
41,903
4, 485
2,330
15,667
27,436
11,550
21,048
39, 804
84,799
6,354
7,059
1,438
26,032
51,583

60,124
1,968
5,423
92,671
20,083
27,771
18,814
49,180
195,602
27,182
16,836
55,291
3,078
9,903
39,030
42,693
4,580
3,027
16,432
28,095
12,437
21,495
40, 804
88,829
6,268
7,056
1,353
26,039
52,490

+ 3.3
-1 1 .4
-3 .2
+ 4.5
+ 2 .8
+ .5
+ 3.5
+ .8
+ 2.6
+ .7
- 1 .3
- 2 .3
+ 5.2
+ 1.0
+ .8
+ 1.9
+ 2.1
+ 29.9
+ 4.9
+ 2.4
+ 7.7
+2.1
+ 2.5
+ 4 .8
-1 .4
(2)
- 5 .9
(s)
+ 1.8

1,438,294
38,205
154,538
2,412,193
478,243
667,099
412,508
825,761
5,319,324
632,046
405,792
1,024, 804
62,287
204,781
945,736
1,276,976
130,682
54,984
534,034
991, 035
322,275
297,310
786,597
1,915,045
141,488
198,487
23,511
483,189
1,143,634

1,510,159
35,206
146,067
2,635,352
496,936
698,356
431,380
828,394
5,474,043
646,268
403,218
998j 167
64, 887
211,892
953,327
1,359,364
132,413
69,136
564,475
1,029,138
355,121
323,765
805, 040
2,009,328
142,077
201,536
23j 229
478', 779
1,202,296

+ 5 .0
-7 .9
-5 .5
+ 9.3
+ 3 .9
+ 4.7
+ 4.6
+ .3
+ 2 .9
+ 2 .3
— .6
-2 .6
+ 4 .2
+ 3 .5
+ .8
+ 6 .5
+ 1.3
+25.7
+ 5.7
+ 3 .8
+ 10.2
+ 8 .9
+ 2 .3
+ 4 .9
+ .4
+ 1.5
-1 .2
- .9
+ 5.1

1 In previous months tlm pay-roll period in each industry has been tabulated on the basis used by the
majority of establishments in the industry in their reports to this bureau, pay-roll periods of other lengths
being brought to the length obtaining in the majority of the establishments. This has resulted in 39 indus­
tries being reported on a weekly basis, and two each on a half-monthly and bi-weekly basis. Beginning
with this month, for the sake of uniformity, all industries will be tabulated on a weekly basis.
2 Decrease of less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.
3 Increase of less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

Comparative data relating to identical establishments in 13 manu­
facturing industries for December, 1922, and December, 1921, appear
in the following table. The number of employees increased in tho
year in 10 industries and decreased in 3.
Automobiles, car building, and iron and steel, as in the last two
months, show largely increased employment, the per cent of increase
in 1922 being 31.5, 28.7, and 26, respectively.
Men’s clothing continues to show largely decreased employment,
the percentage being 12.3.
The total of the pay rolls was considerably increased in 1922 in 10
of the 13 industries, iron and steel and automobiles leading with 65.8


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[410]

185

EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT.

and 63.2 per cent, respectively, and car building and woolen following
with 26.2 and 18.5 per cent, respectively.
Men’s clothing shows a decrease in pay-roll total of 19.8 per cent.
COMPARISON OF EMPLOYMENT IN IDEN TIC A L ESTABLISHM ENTS D U R IN G ONE W E E K
IN DECEM BER, 1921, AND IN DECEM BER, 1922.
Estab­
lish­
Number on pay
ments
roll in—
report­
ing for
Decem­
ber,
both Decem­ Decem­
years. ber, 1921. ber, 1922.

Industry.

Autom obiles.............................................
Boots and shoes.................................. .
Car building and repairing...............
Clothing, men’s ........................................
Cotton finishing.......................................
Cotton manufacturing............................
Hosiery and knit goods......................
Iron and steel...................................... .
Leather.......................................................
Paper and pulp.........................................
Silk..............................................................
Tobacco, cigars, and cigarettes.............
W oolen manufacturing..................... .

46
75
55
43
16
52
62
105
33
51
43
54
22

96,091
57,613
42,615
32,716
13,191
43,218
31,828
116,132
12,182
23,651
18,112
16,689
20,991

126,333
60,005
54,836
28,681
13,926
45,546
31,048
146,358
13,407
26,106
17,548
17,071
23,253

Per
Per
Amount of pay roll
cent
cent
in—
of in ­
of in­
crease
crease
(+ )
(+ )
or de­
or de­
crease December, December, crease
(-)■
(-)■
1921.
1922.
+31.5 $2, 528,627 $4,126,486
+ 4 .2 1,325,925 1,425,871
+28.7 1, 211,766 1,528,975
789,059
-1 2 .3
983,627
294,797
+ 5 .6
316,683
742,780
786,059
+ 5 .4
548,050
- 2 .5
523,043
+26. 0 2,428,833 4,027,559
+ 10.1
308,806
262,926
+ 10.4
568,273
639,505
- 3 .1
397,119
377,991
303,156
321,981
+ 2.3
470,255
+10.8
557,246

+63.2
+ 7 .5
+26.2
-1 9 .8
+ 7 .4
+ 5.8
- 4 .6
+65.8
+ 17.5
+ 12.5
-4 .8
+ 6 .2
+ 18.5

COMPARISON OF P E R CAPITA EARNINGS IN DECEM BER, 1922, W ITH THOSE IN NO­
VEM BER, 1922.

Industry.

Shirts....................................................
Tobacco, cigars, and cigarettes___
Boots and shoes..................................
Foundry and machine shops..........
Petroleum...........................................
Glass.....................................................
Fertilizers............................................
Clothing, men’s ..................................
Chemicals............................................
Woolen manufacturing.....................
Agricultural im plem ents.................
Automobile tires................................
Paper boxes........................................
Cotton finishing..................................
Shipbuilding.......................................
Cotton manufacturing......................
Stamped ware....................................
Electrical machinery, apparatus,
and supplies....................................
Stoves...................................................
Leather................................................
Printing, newspapers........................

Per cent of in­
crease (+ ) or
decrease (—) in
December, 1922,
as compared
with Novem­
ber, 1922.

+6.6
+5.0
+4.7
+ 4.5
+ 4.5
+4.1
+ 4.0
+ 3.8
+ 3.5
+3.3
+ 3.2
+ 2.5
+ 2.5
+ 2.3
+2.3

+ 2.2
+ 1.8

+ 1.7
+ 1.6

+ 1.5
+ 1.4

Industry.

Furniture.............................................
Hardware.............................................
Printing, book and job.....................
Carpets.................................................
Carriages and wagons.......................
Lumber, mill work.............................
Iron and steel.....................................
Slaughtering and meat packin g.. .
Paper and p u lp ..................................
Brick.....................................................
Car building and repairing..............
Silk........................................................
Lumber, sawmills..............................
Hosiery and knit goods....................
Pianos..................................................
Tobacco, cigars, and cigarettes___
Millinery and lace goods..................
B aking.................................................
Flour....................................................
Pottery................................................
Automobiles.......................................
Clothing, women’s ............................

Per cent of in ­
crease (+ ) or
decrease ( —) in
December, 1922,
as compared
with Novem­
ber, 1922.
+ 1.1
+ 1.1

+ .8
+.7
+.7

+.7
+ .4
+.2
0 -.2
-.2
-.2

-.3
-.5

- .8

-.9
-

1.0
2.1

-2 .4
-3 .2
-

6.1

-6 .9

i No change.

Wage adjustments occurring between November 15 and December
15 were reported by various establishments in 38 of the 43 industries
included in this report, although the total number of such wage
changes was considerably less than the total in any one of the three
monthly periods preceding.
All of the changes reported were increases except one each in the
brick, leather, and sawmill industries, and two in the women’s cloth­
ing industry. From one to four establishments, only, reported in-


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[411]

186

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

creases in the several industries, except in foundry and machine
shops and glass (each 14), leather (8), sawmills (7), furniture (6),
and newspaper printing, paper boxes, and woolen manufacturing
(each 5).
WAGE ADJUSTM ENTS OCCURRING B E T W E E N NOVEM BER 15 AND DECEM BER 15, 1922.

Industry.

Agricultural implements
Autom obiles.....................
B aking..............................
Brick..................................
Car building and repairing...................................
Carriages and wagons. . .
Chemicals..........................
Clothing, men’s ...............
Clothing, women’s ..........
Cotton finishing...............
Cotton manufacturing...
Electrical machinery,
apparatus, and supp lies................................
Flour..................................
Foundry and machine
shops...............................

Furniture..........................

Glass...................................

Per
cent cent
N um ­ Per
of
of in­
total
ber of crease
estab­ ( + ) or de­ em­
lish­
ployees
affect­
ments. crease
(-)•
ed.
l
1
1
1
1
1
1
l
1

+ 10
+10
+ 18
+ 10
O)
+7
+5
+5
C1)

15
9
2
5
8
100
66
100
100

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
i
1
1
1
1
1
1

+7
+6
-f-5
+ 12.5
+9
+8
+7
+ 10
+5
+5
+ 10
—15
-3 7
+ 10
+ 10
+ 10

3
12
6
37
3
93
100
13
20
18
94
43
16
100
100
95

1
1
1
1

+ 12
+ 6.3
+ 1.8
(2)

8
17
9
67

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1

+ 15
+ 15
+ 15
+ 11
+ 11
+ 10
+ 8 .5
+ 8 .5
+ 8 .2
+ 7 .2
+ 6 .3
-fo
+ 4.6
+3
+10
+10
+5
(3)
(4)
+1
+ 10
+10
+10
+10
+ 10
+10
+ 10
+10
+10
+ 8 .7

18
10
2
26
3
3
100
30
12
9
3
77
3
16
11
3
38
15
3
1
100
94
88
77
72
71
67
63
59
27

Industry.

Glass..................................
Hosiery and knit goods..

Leather..............................

Lumber, m illw ork..........
Lumber, sawmills...........

Millinery and lace goods.
Paper boxes......................
Paper and p u lp ...............
Petroleum.........................
Musical instruments.......
Printing, book and jo b ..
Printing, newspapers__

Shirts and collars............
Silk.....................................

Slaughtering and meat
packing..........................
Stamped ware..................
Stoves.................................
Tobacco, chewing and
smoking..........................
Woolen manufacturing..

a Increase; per cent not reported.

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

+5
+3
+ 10
+ 10
(a)

+ 13.4
+ 10
+ 6 .8
+5
+21
+ 15
+ 11
+ 9.5
+ 8 .5
+6-7
+1
+1
-1 0
+ 12.5
+5-7.5
(°)
+ 10
+ 10
+ 10
+ 7.5
(a)
-6
+ 15
+ 10
+5-10
+5
+ 10
+10
(6)
+7
+24
+5
+5
+20
+ 10
+ 10
+8
+7.3
+5
+ 15
+ 12.5
+ 10
+ 10

[4 1 2 ]

100
2
3
7
2
10
44
96
30
1
78
2
6
3
15
100
9
100
3
38
100
100
(5) ■
2
69
8
100
14
2
5
3
57
48
16
37
3
2
17
2
25
18
10
4
37
65
14
83
6
1

1
1
1
1
1
1

+6
(7)
+ 12.5
+ 10
+6

10
33
14
3
4
4

1
1
1
1
2

+4
+ 15
+9
+7
+5

20
50
3
15
100

4 Increase of 2J cents per hour.
6 All but salaried employees.
6 Increase to 40 cents per hour to laborers.
7 Increase of 2 cents per hour.

1Decrease; per cent not reported.
2 Increase of 5 to 10 cents per hour.
s Increase of 2 to 4 cents per hour.


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Per
N um ­ Per cent cent of
of in­
ber of crease
total
estab­ (+ ) or de­ em­
lish­
ployees
ments. crease
affect­
(-)•
ed.

187

EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT.

Extent of Operation of Bituminous Coal Mines, December 2 to 23, 1922.

ONTINUING a series of tables which have appeared in previous
numbers of the M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w , the accompanying
table shows for a large number of mines in the bituminous coal
fields the number of mines closed the entire week and the number
working certain classified hours per week from December 2 to Decem­
ber 23, 1922. The number of mines reporting varied , each week
and the figures are not given as being a complete presentation of all
mines, but are believed fairly to represent the conditions as to regu­
larity of work in the bituminous mines of the country. The mines
included in this report ordinarily represent from 55 per cent to
60 per cent of the total output of bituminous coal. The figures are
based on data furnished the Bureau of Labor Statistics by the United
States Geological Survey.

C

W ORKING TIME IN BITUM INOUS COAL MINES IN THE U N IT E D STATES, B Y W EEK S,
DECEM BER 2 TO DECEM BER 23, 1922.
(The mines included ordinarily represent from 55 to 60 per cent of the total output.)
[Prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics from data furnished b y the United States Geological Surrey.]
Mines—
Num­
ber of
Week
mines
ending—
re­
port­
ing.

Working Working Working Working Working
Working Working
8 and
16 and
24 and
32 and
40 and
full timeless than less
than
less
than less than less than less than of 48 hours
8 hours. 16 hours. 24 hours.
32 hours. 40 hours. 48 hours. or more.

Closed
entire
week.

Per No. Per No. Per No. Per
Per
Per
Per
Per
No. cent.
cent.
cent.
cent. No. cent. No. cent. No. cent. No. cent.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.

2 ...
9 ...
16__
23 . . .

2,190
2,178
2,091
2,101

96
131
92
81

4.3
6.0
4.4
3.8

233 10.6
204 9.4
245 11.7
236 11.2

623
602
606
706

28.4
27.6
29.0
33.6

526
426
480
427

24.0
19.6
23.0
20.3

282
304
238
213

12.9
14.0
11.4
10.1

199
167
170
168

9.1
7.7
8.1
8.0

183
180
180
156

8.4
8.3
8.6
7.4

48
164
80
117

2.2
7.5
3.8
5.6

Recent Employment Statistics.
California.

CCORDING to the findings of a survey conducted by the State
Bureau of Labor Statistics in cooperation with the United
States Employment Service, published in Employment Bul­
letin No. 7 of the Bureau of Labor Statistics of California, the number
of persons employed by 521 industrial establishments in California in
November, 1922, was 107,724, as compared with 91,269 in the corre­
sponding month of the previous year—an increase of 18 per cent.
Of the 38 industries reporting, all but 5 had more workers on their
pay rolls in November, 1922, than were reported for the same month
m 1921, the volume of employment having increased 30 or more

A

28491°— 23----- 13

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188

M ONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

per cent in 12 industries, among which the following were the most
important from the viewpoint of numbers employed:
Per cent of
increase.

Sawmills and logging camps.
Gas engines, pumps, boilers.
Brick, stone, and clay products
Mineral oil refining......................
Tin cans........................................
Foundry and machine shops---Canning, drying, and preserving
Iron and steel forgings................
Structural and ornamental steel.
Wagons and autos, including bodies.

30
33. 3
46. 1
49.4
49. 9
50.1
50.2
71. 9
75.1
94. 5

The percentage decreases in two of the five industries showing
reduction of employment were very slight. The other decreases
were:
Per cent of
decrease.

Railroad repair shops............................
Shipbuilding, including naval repairs.
Tobacco products...................................

9. 6
16. 3
22. 8

Private Employment Offices.

Certain data with regard to private and public employment offices
in California are shown in a typewritten summary of the 18th biennial
report of the California Bureau of Labor Statistics. According to
this summary, in 1920-21, the fees collected by 192 private employ­
ment offices totaled, in round numbers, $1,024,632, an average of
$5,337 per agency. In the following year the collections by 184
agencies amounted to $1,026,177, an average of $5,577 per agency.
Nearly two-thirds of the fees in 1921-22 were collected from male
applicants for employment. In that year the agencies for teachers
averaged the largest amounts in collected fees. The next highest
collections were made by the agencies for hotel workers. Approxi­
mately 67 per cent of the commercial agencies charge fees ranging
from 25 to 50 per cent of the first month’s salary of the applicant.
The fee of teachers’ agencies is generally 5 per cent of the applicant’s
first month’s salary, while hotel and domestic and oriental agencies
usually charge 10 per cent, but when board and room are not included
in the salary sometimes only 8 or 9 per cent of the amount received
by the applicant for his first month’s work is charged.
Higher fees are charged in months in which work is relatively
slack than in the summer when more jobs are available.
The number of licenses issued to private employment offices in
1914 was 355. After the creation of free public employment offices
in the State in 1915 the number of private employment offices began
to decrease and in 1919 there were only 184. Since 1920, however,
the number of licenses for private employment agencies has increased,
240 such licenses having been issued in 1922.
Investigation of misrepresentations.—During the biennial period
1920-21 and 1921-22, 1,352 misrepresentation cases were investi­
gated by the bureau, and as an outcome of its findings reimburse­
ments aggregating $5,096.71 were made by private employment
agencies to applicants for positions.


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[414]

EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT.

189

Public Employment Office».

During 1920-21 and 1921-22 the free public employment'offices
furnished 345,410 jobs to 140,054 persons who applied for work—
an average of 2.36 jobs per applicant. Of these 345,410 positions
61,039 were furnished to women.
According to a conservative estimate, the free public employment
system ha,s saved the workers of California $439,880 during the two
years ending June 30, 1922.
Colorado.

HTHE following figures on the activities of public employment offices
1 in Colorado for 1921 and 1922 are taken from the 18th biennial
report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics of that State:
APPLICATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT, PO SITIO N S SECURED, AND APPLICATIONS FOR
H E L P IN THE FIV E STATE FR E E EMPLOYMENT OFFICES, 1921 AND 1922. >
Item.

1921

Applications for employment..........................................
Positions secured.........................................................
Applications for help..............................................................

1922

51,796
21,302
30, 305

44,699
20,474
23,272

Total.
96,495
41, 776
53,577

1 Years beginning December, 1920, and December, 1921.

The per capita cost, 62.7 cents, for placements in Colorado is said
to be “ very much less than in other States similarly situated.”
Private employment agencies.—The total number of positions
secured through private employment agencies from July, 1921, to
November, 1922, inclusive, was 47,200. The registration fee for
professional employees is limited to $2 and for common labor, to $1.
A fee must be returned on request if the applicant does not secure
work through the employment agency within 5 days.
While at present private offices do'not seem to be detrimental to
the workers of Colorado, yet in some cases the agencies handling
only professional positions “ unnecessarily encourage labor turnover
by placing clients in a position, charging a fee, and then in a short
time offering the same person a place commanding a higher salary
and, of course, charging another and higher commission.”
Connecticut.

’"THE report of the Connecticut Bureau of Labor for the month
1 ending December 31, 1922, on the activities of the five State
employment offices is here summarized:
OPERATIONS OF CONNECTICUT PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT OFFICES, DECEM BER, Î922.
Item.

Males.

Applications for employment.................................
Applications for help............................................
Situations secured........................................................
Per cent of applicants supplied with positions:
November, 1922...........................
December, 1922............... ..............


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[415]

Females.

Total.

2,206
1,927
1,670

1,497
1,533
1,312

3,703
3', 460
2 ,982

79.8
75.7

88.6
80.8

84
80.5

190

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

In November, 1922, help was furnished to 89.4 per cent of those
applying for workers, and m the following month to 86.1 per cent.
New York.

HTHE gain in employment in the manufacturing industries of New
York State from November to December, 1922, amounted to
1 per cent, and the total gain since December of 1921, to 15 per cent,
according to a statement issued by the Labor Department of New
York, based on reports from manufacturers and taken from their
actual pay-roll records.
The net increase in the number of workers between November and
December in the State as a whole was about 15,000. About 27,000
employees were added to the pay rolls, mostly in the metal trades,
the wood manufacturing industries, the shoe factories, the printing
establishments, and the silk mills. At the same time about 12,000
employees were released. The industries in which the largest num­
ber of workers was dropped were the women’s apparel shops, the
canneries, the candy factories, the biscuit factories, and the brick
yards. In most cases these reductions were seasonal and therefore
temporary. The number of workers in the manufacturing industries
of New York State is still over 200,000 less than the number employed
at the peak of activity in March, 1920.
Practically all the metal working trades added to the number of
their employees. The railway equipment factories, where employ­
ment has been high for some time, added the largest number of
workers.
The general improvement in business conditions is shown in the
additional forces employed in the manufacture of typewriters, cash
registers, computing machines, and similar articles. The factories
making office furniture have also been increasing the number of their
employees. The furniture factories as a whole and the piano makers
again added more workers.
In the paint factories employment rose slightly. Of the other
builders’ supplies, the cement mills, the cut-stone yards, and the
brick yards reduced employment somewhat in December.
There was another large increase in December as in November
in the manufacture of dyes. In the drug factories and the factories
making chemicals for industrial purposes, employment rose slightly.
Among the paper-products industries the end of the Christmas
demand showed itself in the reduced employment in the making of
paper boxes. The wall-paper factories, the makers of paper patterns,
and the shops making calendars added more workers. There were
numerous increases in employment in the printing industry. On the
whole the tendency of employment in the plants making pulp and
paper was downward.
In the textile mills the general tendency was upward. The largest
increase was in the manufacture of broad silks. The carpet factories
continue to add to their forces. In the felt mills, especially in those
making hats, employment rose, following reductions last month. In
the cotton and the knitting mills, employment remained about the
same as in November.


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[416]

E M PL O Y M E N T AND U N E M P L O Y M E N T .

191

The clothing industry as a whole reported the largest proportionate
gains from November to December. This was due entirely to the
seasonal increase in employment in the men’s clothing factories, and the
expansion in the factories making men’s shirts and furnishings.
The food products industries were the only large industrial group
to report general reductions in employment and these were all
seasonal. There was a small reduction in the flour and feed mills,
and a heavier one in the plants making biscuits and crackers.


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H O U SIN G .

Federal, State, and Municipal Aid to Housing, 1918 to 1922: A
Selected Bibliography.
By E l l e n A g n e s H o f f m a n .

Bibliographies.
A. K.
Housing problem.

B it t n e r ,

Indiana University, extension division bulletin Jan. 1921.

A study outline which includes a selected bibliography, p. 22-30.

L. H.
A list of references on the housing problem on file in the New York municipal
reference library. New York public affairs information service, Mar. 28, 1922.
(Typewritten.)

B olander,

Government aid: Federal, State, and municipal, p. 31-37.

Quarterly. N. Y.“ A journal of housing advance issued by the National Housing Association.”—
Subtitle.

H o u s in g B e t t e r m e n t .

Bibliographies in various issues from Feb. 1919 to Sept. 1921.
K im b a l l , T h e o d o r a .

Selected bibliography of industrial housing in America and Great Britain during
and after the war.
{ I n United States Department of Labor, bureau of industrial housing and trans­
portation. Report of the United States housing corporation, 1919, v. 2,
p. v-xix.)
Governmental aid, p. vii-x, xviii.

Annotated.

Also printed separately.

F. H.
Character and scope of government and municipal aid in the erection or purchase
of workmen’s homes.
Library school, University of Wisconsin, June, 1918. (Typewritten.)

W hyte,

Entries annotated.

General References.
F. L.
Government housing—Federal, State, municipal—is it desirable?
( I n National conference on housing. Proceedings (1918), v. 7, p. 70-81,
discussion on p. 292-296.)

A ckerm an,

“ Proposes that adequate homes for all the people and the land upon which these homes are to
be built, be made a basis of Government credit.”—Article.
A r o n o v ic i, Ca r o l .

Housing and the housing problem.

McClurg, 1920.

(Social science series.)

“ Dr. Aronovici reviews the whole housing problem. The need for a broader constructive program
is indicated and the fundamental principles of such a program are outlined.”—Bittner.
Reviewed in Survey, May 15, 1920, v. 44, p. 253.

H. R.
How to meet the housing situation.
Atlantic, Mar., 1921, v. 127, p. 411-413.

B r ig h a m ,

The author, who was formerly counsel for the United States Housing Corporation, argues against
Government or municipal financial aid.

192

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[418]

193

HOUSING.
A. 0.
New mortgages for old.
National Municipal Review, Dec., 1920, v. 9, p. 777-780.

COMEY,

Arguments for a Federal mortgage bank to stabilize building loans at low rates.
features and the necessary mechanism.

Outlines essential

R. M.
Exemption of mortgage interest as a solution of the housing problem.
( I n National tax association, State and local taxation, 1920, v. 13, p. 226-235.)

H a ig ,

Also printed separately.

See also Architectural Forum, Jan. 1920, v. 32, p. 48; Housing Betterment, June, 1921, v. 10, p.

126-127.

J. A.
The need for permanent housing boards.
Survey, Oct. 16, 1920, v. 45, p. 92-93.

H a m il t o n ,

Author is chairman of the housing committee of the New Y ork State Reconstruction Commission.
H a r r in g t o n , J o h n .

The housing and high cost of living problem.
1920. (Typewritten.)

Wisconsin tax commission, Apr.

Tax exemption on buildings and taxation of land values.

J. K.
[Questions on the housing problem in the social studies column of the Survey.]
Survey, Oct. 16, 30, 1920, v. 45, p. 109, 173.

H art,

These questions are on the economic aspects of housing and housing remedies.
are also suggested.

Books for reference

C.
Cooperation of Department of Commerce in national housing problems.
United States Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Commerce Re­
ports, May 13, 1921, No. I l l , p. 883-886.

H oover, H .

Suggests that “ certain broader aspects of fundamental improvement in conditions could be wisely
undertaken through Federal assistance and Cooperation with the professional and trade organiza­
tions.” This address was given before the American Institute of Architects, May 12,1921.
T h e H o u s i n g F a m i n e ; H o w to E n d I t . Dutton, 1920.
“ Triangular debate between J. J. Murphy, who speaks for the free functioning of private enter­
prise; Mrs. E. E. Wood, for State and municipal aid; and F. L. Ackerman, for a complete change
m our industrial life which will eliminate profits and price competition and incidentally settle the
housing difficulty.”—American City.
Reviewed in American Journal of Sociology, Sept. 1921, v. 27, p. 261; Booklist, Feb. 1921, v. 17,
p. 177; Freeman, June 8,1921, v. 3, p. 309; Review of Reviews, Oct. 1921, v. 64, p. 448; Survey, Apr.
2,1921, v. 46, p. 14.
Ihlder, Jo h n.

Extent of the housing shortage in the United States.
National Municipal Review, Nov., 1921, v. 10, p. 558-562.
“ Its economic and social effects, resources available in dealing with it.”—Subtitle.

C. G.
The case of Government housing.
New Republic, Jan. 18, 1919, v. 17, p. 335-337.

L a F arge ,

Warns against the real-estate speculator.
L a n d a n d T a x a t io n .
( I n Ontario Housing Committee report, 1919, p. 44-51.)
Discusses relation of the housing problem to the land problem and states several solutions.
S ee also United States Bureau of Labor Statistics M o n t h l y L aboe R e v i e w , May, 1918, v. 6,
p. 1316-1325.

F. T.
The housing situation in England and the United States.
Dodge Co., 1920. (Pamphlet.)

M il l e r ,

New York, F. W.

General survey including analysis of legislative results.
Reviewed in Housing Betterment, May, 1920, v. 9, p. 99.
M u n ic ip a l H o u s i n g .

Housing Betterment, May, 1920, v. 9, p.135-137; June, 1921, v. 10, p. 108-110.
Present status of municipal housing; also discusses constitutional limitations.

N a t io n a l C o n f e r e n c e

on H o u s i n g .

New York, National Housing Association.

1918-date, v. 7-date.
S e e index.


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[419]

194

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW,

T h e N e e d op P r o p e r M a n a g e m e n t .

Housing Betterment, June, 1921, v. 10, p. 209.
Government housing policy involves not merely building of houses but the responsibility of man­
aging such property.
N e w I n t e r n a t i o n a l Y e a r b o o k . New York, Dodd, 1918-1921. 4 v.
See each volume under the heading "Housing” ; also under “Architecture” in the 1921 volume.
O n t a r io .

H o u s in g c o m m itte e .

“ Public policy in housing.”
( I n its report, 1919, p. 22-43.)
Analyzes conditions in Canada, United States, New Zealand, and South Africa, with emphasis
on the responsibility of municipalities.
P r iv a t e B u i l d i n g V e r s u s G o v e r n m e n t B u i l d i n g .

Housing Betterment, Apr., 1922, v. 11, p. 128-129.
Brief statement giving seven reasons for private building.
P urd y , L aw son.

Constitutionality of tax exemption laws.
Housing Betterment, Apr., 1922, v. 11, p. 241-244.
Reports conditions in New York, New Jersey, and other States. Cites cases.

R. E.
Exemption from taxation and other subsidies.
( I n National housing association. Proceedings, 1921, v. 8, p. 227-234.)

S im o n ,

Opposes exemptions; favors Federal bureau for housing information.
Stabler, W alter.

Income tax versus the housing shortage.
National Municipal Review, Apr., 1920, v. 9, p. 204-206.
Author believes that there is vastly more need for tax exemption on city mortgages for housing
of urban population than there is for exemption of farm loan bonds. The author is connected with
the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co.
S t a t e a n d M u n i c ip a l A i d f o r H o u s i n g .

American City, Nov., 1920, v. 23, p. 463.
Three constructive proposals: Use of State or municipal credit, tax exemption on new buildings
for dwellings, and creation of housing boards.
S u g g e s t e d R e g u l a t i o n s W h ic h M ig h t G o v e r n P u b l ic L o a n s to C o n t r a c t o r s
o r C o m m e r c ia l B u i l d i n g C o m p a n i e s .
( I n Ontario Housing committee report, 1919, p. 123-124.)
U n it e d St a t e s .

B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s .

Legal aspects of the housing problem.
( I n its M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w , May, 1921, v. 12, p. 925-933.)
Discussion includes account of State aid in various States.

-----

D e p a r tm e n t o f C o m m erce.

action.

The housing shortage; a problem for community

Washington, 1922.

A mimeographed circular stating certain facts which need to be determined for each community.
V e il l e r , L . T .

A model housing law.

Rev. ed.

New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 1920.

Includes discussion of housing reform through legislation; also standards of the Federal Govern­
ment.
Reviewed in American City, Aug., 1920, v.23, p. 231; Housing Betterment, Feb., 1920, v. 9, p.45-46.
W h y I s M u n i c ip a l H o u s i n g N e c e s s a r y ?

Women and the City’s Work, Oct. 26, 1920.
city of New York. (Pamphlet.)

Women’s municipal league of the

Possibilities: Four opinions by housing experts—C. H . Whitaker, C. Stein, F. L. Ackerman,
S. Browne.

F. B.
Must we await constitutional amendments before cities can engage in housing?
American City, Feb., 1919, v. 20, p. 185-187.

W il l ia m s ,

Presents arguments for the negative and cites court decisions.

E. E.
Housing of the unskilled wage-earner.
progress series.)

W ood,

Macmillan, 1919.

(American social

“ Taken as a summary of reports and proposals, a clear, concise statement of what has been done
and of what is now definitely before us in the form of concrete proposals, Mrs. Wood’s book is a valu­
able contribution.”—Survey.
Also reviewed in the American Journal of Sociology, Jan., 1926, v, 26, p. 507; Dial, Sept. 20, 1919,
v. 67, p. 274.
[420 ]


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HOUSING.

195

P A R T I .— F E D E R A L A N D S T A T E A I D .

<•

U n ite d S ta te s .

.

F e d e ra l A c tiv itie s D u r in g the W a r.

F. L.
Houses and ships.
American City, Aug., 1918, v. 19, p. 85-86.

A ckerm an ,

Gives account of the housing work of the United States Shipping Board.

----- War-time housing.
American City, Feb., 1918, v. 18, p. 97-100.
Outlines a program for the United States which includ es a commission to study the final disposition
of these Government properties.

J. I.
Congress and the United States Housing Corporation.
Housing Betterment, May, 1920, v. 9, p. 145-148.

B r ig h t ,

Refutation of report (Dec. 16,1919) of the Senate investigating committee.
Similar article in Outlook, Mar. 3, 1920, v. 124, p. 394-395.

Ca w c r o f t , E r n e s t .

The present and future government of war-created communities.
National Municipal Review, Jan., 1919, v. 8, p. 52-60.
“ Deals with the general principles of government which ought to he observed in the war commu­
nities; special reference to the towns of the Shipping Board w ith which Mr. Cawcroft was con­
nected.“—Kimball.

R. S.
The Government’s model villages.
Survey, Feb. 1, 1919, v. 41, p. 585-592.

C h il d s ,

Constructive criticism, advocates a permanent housing bureau; illustrated.

R. S.
Group ownership of housing.
New Republic, Mar. 30, 1918, v. 14, p. 257-259.

C h il d s ,

Suggests that “ the Government gradually sell all the real estate intact to the communities which
would thus eventually o-wn their underlying land and all the buildings.”

----- What will become of the Government housing?
National Municipal Review, Jan., 1919, v. 8, p. 48-52.
Suggests a solution; lists principal permanent housing projects with brief description of each.

C o n y n g t o n , M a r y ( a n d L e if t jr M a g n u s s o n ).

Government residence halls, Washington, D. C.
( I n United States Bureau of Labor Statistics M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w ,
Oct., 1919, v. 9, p. 997-1003.)
Gives provisions, cost, and maintenance; illustrated.
See also Review of Reviews, Dec., 1919, v . 60, p. 603.

A. W.
Standards set by the new Federal war suburbs and war cities.
American Civic Association bulletin, Oct., 1918. Series2, No. 12. (Pamphlet.)

Craw ford,

. “A critical general consideration by a leading town-planning lawyer of the standards in govern­
mental housing, more particularly the Shipping Board projects, but also the Housing Bureau
standards.' '—Kimball.

F ederal H

o u s in g .

United States Bureau of Labor Statistics M o n t h l y R e v i e w , Feb., 1918, v. 6, p.
456-460.
Account of the movement in the United States.

Gove, Geo rg e.

Community values in Government housing.
American City, Jan., 1920, v. 22, p. 1-7.
Account, with illustrations, of some Government towns, including Yorkship village. Author
is housing adviser, American City Bureau.
See also American City, Jan., 1919, v . 20, p. 23-25; Housing Betterment, Dec., 1921, v. 10, p. 311-314.

ft

G overnm ent H

o u s in g in

P r a c t ic e .

Housing Betterment, Dec., 1921, v. 11, p. 305-310.
Cases cited to show the difficulty of renting and operating these houses on an economic basis.


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[421]

196

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW,

Ihlder, John.

Card houses: can the Federal Government afford to abandon its industrial villages?
Survey, Jan. 18, 1919, v . 41, p. 519-521.
“ Spirited account of the hearings before the Senate and House Committees in regard to the con­
tinuation of the work of the United States Housing Corporation after the signing of the armistice.”—
Housing Betterment.

------Uncle Sam as an auctioneer.
Survey, Feb. 8, 1919, v. 41, p. 659-660.
“ What is the Federal Government going to do with its housing projects?’’—Subtitle.
Other references to the sale of these projects are in Housing Betterment, Sept., 1919, v. 8, p. 42—
45;
Dec., 1919, v. 8, p. 64; Feb., 1920, v. 9, p. 48; Apr., 1922, v. 11, p. 247; Nation, Jan. 18, 1919, v. 108,
p. 84-85.
K n o w l e s , M o r r is .

What about the Government housing program?
Engineering News-Record, Feb. 13, 1919, v. 82, p. 329-331.
“ Urges that Government housing projects should be made into ‘going concerns’ before relin­
quishment by the Government.”—Kimball.

F. L.
Lessons from housing developments of the United States Housing Corporation.
United States Bureau of Labor Statistics M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w , May,
1919, v. 8, p. 1253-1264; also p. 564-569.

Ol m st ed ,

Includes illustrations and plans.
Also printed separately.

C. ( a n d H . P . G r e e n ).
Keeping the costs of building the Government houses.
Engineering News-Record, Aug. 7, 1919, v. 83, p. 252-271.

P r io r , J.

System of reporting progress and cost that was used by the United States Housing Corporation.
Tables and diagrams.
Similar account in Crowell’s Government war contracts (Carnegie Endowment for International
Peace. Prelirdinary economic studies of the war, No. 25), p. 263.

W. E.
Government housing at home and abroad.
American Industries, Sept., 1919, v. 20, p. 25-27.

Shannon,

Opposed to Government control and the adoption of foreign plans.
U n it e d S t a t e s .
p o r ta tio n .

D e p a r tm e n t o f L a b o r.

B u r e a u o f I n d u s t r i a l H o u s in g a n d

Report of the United States Housing Corporation, 1919-1920.

T ra n s­

2 v.

v. 1. Organizations, policies, transactions,
v. 2. Houses, site-planning, utilities.
See also Housing Betterment, June, 1919, v. 8, p. 60.

------------ H o u s in g

C o r p o r a tio n .

Report of the Secretary of Labor.
p. 156-160; 1921, p. 18-21.)

(In

1918, p. 132-136; 1919, p. 187-196; 1920,

Explains organization, work accomplished, disposal of records, and sale of the properties.

------------ Standards recommended for permanent industrial housing developments.
( I n its report, 1919, v. 2, p. 505-509.)
Also printed separately.
See the discussion of these standards by John Nolen (in National conference on housing.
ings (1918) v. 7, p. 118-127).

—— S h i p p i n g

Proceed­

B o a rd .

Annual report, 1918-1921.

4 v.

See index under housing projects.
V e il l e r , L a w r e n c e .

Government’s standards for war housing.
Housing Betterment, May, 1918, v. 7, p. 1-18.
Reprinted from Architectural Record, Apr., 1918, v. 43, p. 344-359.
W a r H o u s in g in t h e U n it e d S t a t e s .

Housing Betterment, Feb., 1919, v. 8, p. 6-13.
Includes tabulated r6sum6s of the housing projects of the Emergency Fleet Corporation and the
United States Housing Corporation.


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HOUSING.
F e d e ra l A c tiv itie s S in c e the W a r.

C h il d , S t e p h e n .

How the United States can help build homes.
National Municipal Review, Jan., 1921, v. 10, p. 16-22.
“A defense of the war housing work of the Federal Government and a proposal to capitalize the
war experience.”—Subtitle. Favors the Tinkham bill.

C o n g r e s s A id s B u il d in g

L o a n A s s o c ia t io n s .

and

Housing Betterment, Jan., 1922, v. 11, p. 104-105.
Tax exemption.

Co n g r e s s

and

H o u s in g .

Housing Betterment, June, 1921, v. 10, p. 106-108.
Brief statement of bills introduced by Senator Calder (S. 1152, S. 1807, S. 690, S. 1836, 8 . 797, S.
575) and Representative Kelly (H. R . 14, 855).

C o n g r e s s M a y A ct

H

to

B u il d in g .

elp

Housing Betterment, Feb. 1919, v. 8, p. 24-25.
Tentative plan provides for the establishment of home loan banks.

C o n g r e s s io n a l I n q u ir y

on

H

o u s in g .

Housing Betterment, May, 1920, v. 9, p. 12-121.
Text of Calder resolution (S. Res. 350).

F e d e r a l A id

H

to

o u s in g i n t h e

U n it e d S t a t e s .

Housing Betterment, Sept. 1919, v. 8, p. 41-42; Dec. 1919, v. 8, p. 34.
Account of S. 1469, Senator Calder’s bill known as “ Federal home loan act” ; H. R 6371 (sub­
stitute bill by Representative J. I. Nolan) known as “ Federal building loan bank act” - and S. 168
Senator Kenyon’s bill.

F e d e r a l C o m m is s io n

to

S t u d y F in a n c in g

op

H o u s in g .

Housing Betterment, Feb. 1919, v. 8, p. 14.
Summarizes Senator Kenyon’s bill (S. 5581, Feb. 12. 1919) to establish a temporary commission
to report on best methods for providing credit for housing.

F ederal Governm ent

and

H o u s in g .

National Municipal Review, Mar. 1919, v. 8, p. 197-198.
Discusses the possible creation of a Federal agency to deal with industrial housing, town planning
and municipal affairs.

G o v e r n m e n t A id

to

H

o u s in g .

Housing Betterment, Feb. 1919, v. 8, p. 14-24.
Considers adaptation of Canadian plan to the U nited States.

G o v er n m en t D uty

in t h e

H o u s in g C r i s i s .

Literary Digest, Oct. 23, 1920, v. 67, p. 20.
Quotes opinions from various newspapers.

G o v e r n m e n t H o u s in g B u r e a u .

Housing Betterment, Sept. 1921, v. 10, p. 245-246.
Account of appropriations and personnel of the new division of building and housing organized
under the Bureau of Standards of the D epartn ent of Commerce.

Go v ern m en t U rged

to

B u il d H

om es.

Housing Betterment, Dec. 1921, v. 10, p. 310-311.
Suggestion made by the American Association of U niversity Women.

H

o over

B u il d in g C o d e C o m m it t e e .

Housing Betterment, Dec. 1921, v. 10, p. 349-352.
Account of research being done by th is com m ittee. S ee also Housing B etterm ent, Dec. 1921
v. 10, p. 314-323; Apr. 1922, v. 11, p. 164-177.
’

H

o o v e r ’s

P la n

to

P r o v id e M o r e H o m e s .

Literary Digest, Aug. 20, 1921, v. 70, p. 12.
Diversion of savings bank funds to home building use.

H o u s in g

and

H

ome

L o a n s.

Survey, June 7, 1919, v. 42, p. 407.
Proposals for Federal legislation submitted by a committee of the Conference on Social Agencies
and Reconstruction, N ov. 1918.

H o u s in g P o s t - m o r t e m

in t h e

Sen a te.

American City, Feb. 1920, v. 22, p. 110.
Suggests a Federal Housing Bureau which would make available the valuable information ob­
tained by the United States Housing Corporation.


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

198
J a m es, H a rlea n .

Lessons from Government experience in housing.
National Municipal Review, Aug. 1921, v. 10, p. 427-433.
Includes discussion of Calder-Tinkham bill (S. 1152, H. R. 5227).

M. C.
Let Congress solve the housing problem.
Searchlight, Feb. 1921, v. 5, p. 16-18.

K elly,

Sketches a plan to create the United States Home Loan Board at Washington which shall have
general supervision of postal savings banks and their deposits.

L abor D epa rtm en t

in

“ O w n Y o u r O w n H o m e ” C a m p a ig n .

Housing Betterment, June 1919, v. 8, p. 32-34.
Discusses benefits and lists chairmen.

The Labor Department favors home loan banks.

B. J.
Government housing a failure.
•
Housing Betterment, Dec. 1921, v. 10, p. 311-314.

N ew m an,

“ A business venture which was legitimate at one tim e but which can not be justified as a peace­
time proposition.”— Article.

No N a t io n a l H o u s in g C o n f e r e n c e .
Housing Betterment, Apr. 1922, v. 11, p. 249-251.
Reviews results accomplished by the Department of Commerce and indicates future plans.

R e h o u s in g

of

W a s h in g t o n A l l e y D w e l l e r s .

Housing Betterment, Dec. 1919, v. 8, p. 62-63.
Under Senate bill 2084, the United States may become landlord in the District of Columbia.

S ecretary H oo v er T a k es

up

H

o u s in g .

Housing Betterment, June 1921, v. 10, p. 99-106, 111; Dec. 1921, v. 10, p. 346-349.
The Department of Commerce seeks to cooperate with the building industry in the reduction of
waste and increase of stability in operation. Secretary Hoover explains the services which a division
of building and housing could render.

G. H.
,
.
...
. ^
Urgent need for a Federal bureau of housing and living conditions in Depart­
ment of Labor.
American City, Mar. 1920, v. 22, p. 222-223. '

T in k h a m ,

Arguments presented by Congressman Tinkham for the creation of such a bureau which will
conduct research and experimentation and serve as a clearing house of information. (H. R. 7014.)
See also Housing Betterment, Sept. 1919, v. 8, p. 45-48; Review of Reviews, Dec. 1919, v. 60, p.
597-598.

To P r o m o t e R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t .
Housing Betterment, May 1920, v. 9, p. 157.
Brief explanation of Senate bill 3477 to aid people in acquiring rural homes at reasonable cost.

U n c l e S am O p e n s M o d e l V il l a g e

fo r

N eg ro es.

Housing Betterment, Dec. 1919, v. 8, p. 47.
At Truxton, Virginia.

U n it e d S t a t e s .

C o n g ress.

A bill to create a bureau of housing and living conditions in the Department of
Labor. 66 Cong., 1st sess., July 8, 1919. H. R. 7014.
Known as the Tinkham bill.

________A bill authorizing the Secretary of Commerce to establish in the National
Bureau of Standards a division to be known as the division of construction and
housing. 67 Cong., 1st sess., May 26, 1921.
Known as the Calder bil!.
, , _
_
Data acquired by the United States Housing Corporation and the Emergency Fleet Corporation
may be transferred to this division which would be a national clearing house of statistical and tech­
nical information.

------------A bill to encourage home ownership and to stimulate the buying and build­
ing of homes; to create a standard form of investment based on building association
mortgages, to create Government depositories and financial agents for the United
States, to furnish a market for Government bonds. 67 Cong., 1st sess. 1921.
Reintroduced by Senator Calder as S. 797, also by Representative J. I. Nolan as H . R. 229.
as the “ Federal home loan bank act.”

Known

------------ C o m m itte e o n co m m erce.
Report No. 84 to accompany S. 1890, to establish the division of construction and
housing. 67 Cong., 1st sess. 1921. (Pamphlet.)
Gives merits of the bill.


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HOUSING.
U n it e d S t a t e s C o n g ress.

Hawaiian homes commission act, 1920.

67 Cong., 1st sess.

S. 1881.

Authorizes commission to lease to native Hawaii ans the right to the use and occupancy of certain
lands, to be exempt from all taxes for first five years. Establishes “ Hawaiian home loan fund.”

----- B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s .
The Calder report on the building situation.
( I n its M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w , June, 1921, v . 12, p . 1212-1216.)
Summary of Senate report No. 829 (66th Cong., 3d sess.) of the Committee on Reconstruction and
Production. States ten recommendations including loans and tax exemptions.
Discussed in Housing Betterment, Apr. 1921, v. 10, p. 48-55; Survey, Apr. 2, 16, 1921, v. 46, p.
20-21, 86-87.

V e il l e r , L a w r e n c e .

The housing situation and the way out.
cations, 1920, No. 55.

National Housing Association publi­

Proposes creation of a new Federal bureau charged with the sole duty of grappling with the situa­
tion. Does not advocate Government housing or Government-aided housing.
Reprinted from Architectural Record, Dec. 1920, v. 48, p. 531-534.

W hy

a

D iv is io n

of

H o u s in g

is

N eeded.

Housing Betterment, June 1921, v. 10, p. 102-106.
A discussion of the Federal bill providing for a division of building and housing under the Depart­
ment of Commerce.
S ta te A id .

F. L.
Housing in New York; the special session of the New York State legislature.
Journal of the American Institute of Architects, Nov. 1920, v. 8, p. 379-384.

Ackerm an ,

Analyzes the situation and comments on the acts of commission and omission.

C a l if o r n ia .

An act directing the commission of immigration and housing to investigate and
propose legislation for the acquisition and building of homes for workingmen,
with the financial assistance of the State of California. Statutes, 1921, ch. 142,
p. 143.
This commission is to report to the 1923 legislature a bill or bills embodying a plan and the method
of carrying it out.

W. L.
The Untermeyer revelations.
Survey, Jan. 1, 1921, v. 45, p. 491-495.

Ch e n e r y ,

Gives an account of the investigations of the Joint Legislative Housing Committee of the New
York Legislature.

S. T.
How Pennsylvania is building up forest communities.
( I n United States Dept, of Agriculture Bulletin No. 638, 1918, p. 8.)

Dana,

Buildings owned and rented by the State.

W. F.
Housing legislation in Illinois.
Survey, Oct. 22, 1921, v. 47, p. 115.

D odd,

History of the bills proposed by the Illinois Housing and Building Commission.

F iv e G o v e r n o r s T a k e

up

H o u s in g .

Housing Betterment, Feb. 1919, v. 8, p. 28-31.
Excerpts from speeches by the Governors of Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Illinois,
and Iowa.

H o u s in g L e g is l a t io n

in t h e

U n it e d S t a t e s .

American Architect, Sept. 29, 1920, v. 118, p. 408.
Enabling acts of various States discussed by a member of the New York bar.

R. V.
New York Legislature acts on housing.
National Municipal Review, Dec. 1920, v. 9, p. 762-765.

I n gersoll,

Explains tax exemption of new buildings planned and used for dwelling purposes.

I ow a, G overnor

o f.

Home financing.
( I n his Message, 1921, p. 24-26.)
Suggests that the State should establish a fund to aid home building.
See also Housing Betterment, Dec. 1919, v. 8, p. 81-82.


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M O N T H L Y LABOR REVIEW .

K a n s a s S t a t e S u b s id y

F arm H o m e s.

fo r

Housing Betterment, Sept. 1921, v. 10, p. 268-269.
Constitutional amendment to create and maintain a fund.

W. H.
Housing by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
(In Whitaker’s The housing problem in war and in peace, 1918, p. 94-97.)

K il h a m ,

Includes the act and plans.

Low C o st H o u s in g

in

C a l if o r n ia .

Housing Betterment, Apr. 1922, v. 11, p. 239-240.
Developed through the initiative of the State Commission of Immigration and Housing.
See also Housing Betterment, Feb. 1918, v. 7, p. 56-57; Apr. 1921, v . 10, p. 90-91; Sept. 1921, v. 10,
p. 251-252.

M a s s a c h u s e t t s . H o m e s te a d C o m m is s io n .

Annual report, 1919.
Reviews the work of the commission including the Lowell project, which was the first public
housing project in the United States.

-----

P u b lic W e lfa re D e p a r tm e n t.

D iv is io n o f h o u s in g a n d to w n p l a n n i n g .

Housing experiment at Lowell.
( I n its annual report, 1920, p. 9.)
Table giving financial status.

N o r t h D a k o t a . I n d u s tr ia l c o m m is s io n .

Home Building Association.
( I n its North Dakota industrial program, 1921, p. 53-56.

(Pamphlet.))

Explains operations of this association which is under the control of the Industrial Commission.
See also Housing Betterment, Sept. 1919, v. 8, p. 83-85.

P e n n s y l v a n ia . C o m m is s io n o n C o n s titu tio n a l A m e n d m e n t a n d R e v is io n .

Housing problem.
( I n its Proceedings, 1919-1920, v. 3, p. 469-477; or in its Brief folio, No. 38.)
Constitutional changes necessary to solve.

T h e P h il ip p i n e s .

Housing Betterment, Apr. 1921, v. 10, p. 40.
Legislative appropriations proposed.

P urdy, L a w so n .

[Constitutionality of tax exemption laws.]
Housing Betterment, Apr. 1922, v. 11, p. 241-244.
Reports conditions in New Jersey, New York,and other States.

Cites cases.

A. E.
Housing policy for New York.
Survey, Oct. 2, 1920, v. 45, p. 3-4.

S m it h ,

The author, Governor of New York, explains the law recommended by him.

----- Housing problems and ways of promoting home ownership.
( I n Conference of governors of the United States. Proceedings, 1920, p. 112138.)
Describes conditions in New York, also the findings of the Lockwood Investigating Committee.

S t a t e A id A d v o c a t e d .

Housing Betterment, Feb. 1920, v. 9, p. 59-60.
Plan, suggested by Senator Lord, to aid salaried workers in Minnesota who wish to build homes.

C. S.
Housing crisis in New York.
Survey, Sept. 1, 1920, v. 44, p. 659-662. .

St e in ,

Gives the recommendations of the State Reconstruction Commission, favoring constitutional
amendment for extension of State loans to aid building of low-priced homes.
See also American City, Nov. 1920, v. 23, p. 463.

W a n t S t a t e A id E x t e n d e d

in

Ma ssa c h u se t t s.

Housing Betterment, Feb. 1918, v. 7, p. 78-79; May, 1918, v. 7, p. 43.
Requests of four cities, which the legislature failed to grant.

T h e W ay

of th e

R efo rm er

is

H ard.

Housing Betterment, Jan. 1922, v. 11, p. 98-103.
Attempts of the Louisiana State Housing Commission to secure tax exemption.


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HOUSING.
British Empire.
G rea t B r i t a i n a n d her p o ss e s sio n s, e x c e p t C a n a d a .

A c k e r m a n , P . L.

Housing.
National Municipal Review, Apr. 1920, v. 9, p. 201-203.
“ The turn of affairs in England.’’—Subtitle.

A d d is o n , C h r is t o p h e r .

Housing.
Nineteenth Century, Sept. 1921, v. 90, p. 369-382.
The author was formerly Minister of Health and directed Government housing in England.

An A r c h it e c t u r a l H o r n e t ’s N e s t .

Housing Betterment, Apr. 1922, v. 11, p. 139-140.
“ The architect must face the prime responsibility of the financial disaster of the great State housing
scheme.”—Sir Charles Ruthen, present Director-General of Housing of the Ministry of Health and
also President of the Society of Architects.

A. F.
Britain’s attem pt to solve the housing and land problem.
(/«N ational Civic Federation commission on foreign inquiry.
tion in Great Britain and France, 1919, p. 367-398.)

B e m is ,

Labor situa­

This report followed an investigation in Great Britain.

H. J.
Housing in England.
Architectural Forum, Oct. 1921, v. 35, p. 136-140.

B r in s t in g l ,

“ The failure of the Government’s post-war housing enterprise.’’—Subtitle.
plans.

Illustrations and

B r it is h H o u s in g N a t io n a l iz a t io n : A n E x p e n s iv e F a il u r e .

Engineering News-Record, Sept. 15, 1921, v. 87, p. 436.
Similar article in United States Bureau of Labor Statistics M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w . Sent
1921, v. 13, p. 653.
' 1

T h e B ubble B u rsts.

Housing Betterment, Jan. 1922, v. 11, p. 1-14, 21-22.
Discusses causes of the failure of England’s housing policy.

T h e B u il d in g G u il d s .

Housing Betterment, June 1921, v. 10, p. 217-220.
Explains the Government plan of giving guild subsidies.

Collapse

of t h e

N a t io n a l H o u s in g S c h e m e .

People’s Yearbook and Annual of the English and Scottish Wholesale Socie­
ties, 1922, p. 228-236.)

{In

Survey of the year.
See also the same Yearbook for 1920 and 1921.

C o o p e r a t iv e W h o l e s a l e S o c ie t ie s L im it e d , E n g l a n d .
{ I n National housing after the war, annual, 1918, p. 251-261.)
Emphasizes the part that these societies can take in providing homes.

G r e a t B r it a in .

H o u se o f C o m m o n s.

Civil services estimates, 1921-1922, for the Ministry of Health.
(In its Parliamentary debates, 1921, 5th ser., v. 144, p. 2458-2570.)
“ Interesting discussion in which all phases of the Government’s housing policy were subjected to
the most minute examination and consideration.”—Housing Betterment.

----- L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t B o a rd .
Manual on the preparation of State-aided housing schemes, 1919, London, His
Majesty’s stationery office. (Pamphlet.)
Detailed discussion of standards and summary of steps to be taken by local authorities. Includes
terms of financial assistance to public utility societies.
----- M in is tr y o f H e a lth .

49

Report of the Departmental Committee on the High Cost of Building Workingclass Dwellings. [Cmd. 1447] 1921. London, His Majesty’s stationery office.
(Pamphlet.)
Contains comparative diagram showing relative percentage increase in cost of living and cost of
completed houses in Great Britain and the United States.
Report summarized in United States Bureau of Labor Statistics Monthly L abor R eview
N ov. 1921, v. 13, p. 1098-1100.


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

G r e a t B r it a i n .

M in is tr y o f R e c o n s tr u c tio n .

A d v is o r y C o u n c il.

W o m e n 's H o u s in g

S u b c o m m itte e .

Final report.

[Cmd. 9232] 1919.

Discusses requirements necessary to secure health and convenience of tenants, especially the house­
wife.
Digest ofreportin United States Bureau of Labor Statistics M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w , May, 1919,
v. 8, p. 1534. Also reprinted as supplement to Journal of the American Institute of Architects, May
1919.

------------ H o u s in g ( F in a n c ia l A s s is ta n c e ) C o m m itte e .
Final report. [Cmd. 9238] London, His Majesty’s stationery office, 1919.
Considers loan and credit facilities, also subsidies to bodies and persons other than public utility
societies and housing trusts.

H

o u s in g in

E ngland.

Housing Betterment, May 1918, v. 7, p. 18-20; June 1919, v. 8, p. 13-14; Sept.
1919, v. 8, p. 4-6, 12-15, 19-23; Dec. 1919, v. 8, p. 13-14; Feb. 1920, v. 9,
p. 1-3; May 1920, v. 9, p. 89-98; Apr. 1921, v. 10, p. 1-17; June 1921, v. 10,
p. 188-194, 208; Apr. 1922, v. 11, p. 126-127.
Read chronologically, these articles give a general survey.
See also American City, May 1920, v. 22, p. 493-496.

I n E g y pt.

Housing Betterment, Jan. 1922, v. 11, p. 314.
Houses built by the Government for its employees.
I n E ngland.

Housing Betterment, Apr. 1922, v. 11, p. 117-126.
Discussion of the Geddes Economy Report which suggests that Government-built houses be sold
at an average price equivalent to 50 per cent of their cost.

I r is h H

o u s in g

G ra nts.

Housing Betterment, May 1920, v. 9, p. 101-102.
Specifies terms of money grants.

E. J.
British Government’s huge housing scheme.
Engineering News-Record, July 29, 1920, v. 85, p. 217-218.

Meh ern ,

Summary of plan by the editor of this magazine.

M oral

op th e

H

o u s in g

F ia s c o .

New Statesman, July 23, 1921, v. 17, p. 433-435.
Frank discussion of the housing situation in England by an English periodical.

N a t io n a l H

o u s in g a n d

T o w n P l a n n in g C o u n c il .

Inter-allied housing and town planning congress, London.
(1) Memorandum relative to the preparation and carrying into effect of hous­
ing schemes under the housing and town planning act of July 1919.
(2) Memorandum relative to the choice of tenants, the fixing of rents and
other points arising in regards to the administration of housing schemes by
local authorities under the Government housing policy.
(3) Memorandum on difficulties in carrying the housing schemes of local
authorities into effect.
These three pamphlets were published in 1920 by the National Housing and Town Planning
Council, 41 Russel Souare, London, W. C. 1.
A

N a t io n a l H

o u s in g

P o l ic y .

Garden Cities and Town Planning, Mar. to Nov. 1921, v. 11 (new series) See
index.
These articles on housing in Great Britain include a discussion of the necessary administrative
and legislative action.

N a t io n a l M is m a n a g e m e n t : T h e H

o u s in g

P roblem .

Spectator, Nov. 22, 1919, v. 123, p. 681-683; Dec. 13, 1919, v. 123, p. 800-801:
May 8, 1920, v. 124, p. 607-608.
The English situation as viewed by an English periodical.

N olen, J o h n .

Types of England’s war housing.
American City, Feb. 1918, v. 18, p. 100-101.
Descriptive account.

R. W.
How Great Britain attempted to solve the housing problem.
Industrial Management, Feb. 1922, v. 63, p. 74-76.

P atm ore,

General survey of the situation.


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HOUSING.
S m it h , L . S.

World housing and town planning congress (London, 1920) and the English
housing program, 1920. (Pamphlet.)
The author, who was the Wisconsin delegate, is professor of city planning and highway engineer­
ing at the University of Wisconsin.
J b

U n it e d S t a t e s .

B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s .

Administration of the Woolwich (Well Hall, Eltham, Kent) Government hous­
ing scheme.
( I n its M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w , Oct. 1918, v. 7, p. 1094-1096.)
States conditions.
Plans of W ell Hall (in Whitaker’s The housing problem in war and in peace, p. 78-82.)

------------ Housing in Great Britain.
( I n its M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w , Aug. 1920, v. 11, p. 356-369.)
Much source material, listed in a note, was the basis for this article.
and control by the Government.

Reviews extent of assistance

------------Housing situation in England.
( I n its M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w , Jan. 1921, v. 12, p. 213-221.)
Outlines the policy of the Government and presents the charges as to responsibility for delay.

------------ Progress of the Government housing program in Scotland.
( I n its M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w , Sept. 1921, v . 13, p. 653-655.)
Summarizes report of Scottish Board of Health on State-aided housing.
See also Housing Betterment, Jan. 1922, v. 11, p. 22 which gives statistics.

------------ Public utility societies, England.
( I n its M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w , N o v . 1918, v. 7, p. 1422-1425; June 1919 v. 8
p. 1911; Aug. 1920, v. 11, p. 367-368.)
Detailed explanation of the advantages to be gained by having the Government work with these
societies.

V e il l e r , L a w r e n c e .

How England is meeting the housing shortage.
Housing Betterment, Sept. 1920, v. 9, p. 207-312.
“ Accurate and detailed information including consideration of the needs, the means adonted.
the difficulties, and the results.”—American City.
Also reviewed in Saturday Evening Post, N ov. 13,1920, v. 193, p . 3 4 + ; Survey, Jan. 29,1921, v. 45,
p . 626-627; United States Bureau of Labor Statistics M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , Aug. 1921, v.
13, p . 393-394.

W hat

the

T en a n ts

of t h e

E n g l is h G o v e r n m e n t H

o uses

T h in k

of

T hem .

Housing Betterment, Apr. 1922, v. 11, p. 143-144.
General consensus is favorable.
C anada.

A d a m s, T h o m a s.

Housing developments as a post-war problem in Canada.
( I n United States Bureau of Labor Statistics M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w ,
July 1919, v. 9, p. 248-255.)
Address delivered before the National Conference of Social Work, June 7, 1919, by the housing
and town planning adviser to the Canadian Government.
. Other articles covering the same general ground are American City, Apr. 1919, v. 20, p. 323; Hous­
ing Betterment, Feb. 1919, v. 8, p. 14-24; May 1920, v. 9, p. 118-120; Apr. 1921, v. 10, p. 4 0 - 4 2 ; National
Municipal Review, July 1919, v. 8, p. 353-359.

----- Town planning in relation to land taxation; cities should have agricultural
zones; examples of Canadian cities.
National Municipal Review, Mar. 1919, v. 8, p. 109-113.
“ If governments would give us the right, kind of legislation to control land development, it will
be a great aid toward the solution of the housing problem. Given this legislation and a proper
organization to begin with, financial aid can produce better results.”—Article.

B uckley, Alfred .

Government housing in Canada.
National Municipal Review, Aug. 1920, v. 9, p. 481-484.
Results of the Canadian housing act after being in operation one year.

C a n a d a . C o m m is s io n o f C o n s e rv a tio n .

Federal and provincial housing schemes.
( I n its Conservation of Life, Jan. 1919; July 1919.)
“ Most practicable step toward the provision of good housing by Federal cooperation which has
yet been taken in any country.”—C. S. Taylor, project engineer with Mann & MacNeile Co., New
York, advisers to the United States Government on housing projects.

28491°—23----- 14

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204
Ca n a d a .

C o m m is s io n o f C o n s e r v a tio n .

Partner-ownership building societies: their object and methods of organization.
( I n its Conservation of Life, Oct. 1919, v. 5, p. 69-79.)
Explains the Canadian provision that public money m ay be advanced for building houses.

-----

D e p a r tm e n t o f L a b o r .

Report of the housing committee of the Dominion cabinet.
( I n its Labor Gazette, 1919, v. 19, p. 447-450.)
Statement of general principles including conditions on which loans will be granted. More
explanation of loans is given in the Ontario Sousing Committee’s Report, 1919, p. 105-110.

M. B.
Another Canadian Province to engage in housing.
American City, Jan. 1920, v. 22, p. 54.

D ix o n ,

New Brunswick complies with the Government prerequisites for a loan and adopts housing act.
D o m i n io n o p C a n a d a H o u s i n g L o a n .
( I n United States Bureau of Foreign and

Domestic Commerce, Commerce Reports,

Mar. 9, 1919, No. 52, p. 1001.) ‘
Public comment has been favorable. Quotes amounts available for each Province.

S. T. J.
Dominion of Canada housing loan.
Architectural Forum, Aug. 1919, v. 31, p. 41-45.

F ryer,

Complete account by a Canadian architect.

Plans and illustrations.

I n t h e P r o v in c e op Q u e b e c .

Housing Betterment, Apr. 1921, v. 10, p. 44-47.
Varying opinions expressed as to the success of the plan.
See also Housing Betterment, Dec., 1919, v. 8, p. 17.

A. H.
Housing problem and its solution.
( I n Ontario Housing Committee Report, 1919, p. 131-149.)

L eake,

This first-prize essay emphasizes need for education through the Federal and Provincial Com­
missions and the schools.
O n t a r io .

R o u s i n g C o m m itte e .

Report including standards for inexpensive houses for Ontario and typical plans.
Toronto, 1919.
Summarized in U n ite d States Bureau of L a b o r Statistics M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , J u n e 1919,
v. 8, p. 1844-1847.

■
------------Rural housing.
( I n its report, 1919, p. 62-79.)
Describes conditions in Canada and concludes that financial assistance from the Government
should be as available to formers as to city lot owners.
B e lg iu m .

H o u s in g in B e l g iu m .

Housing Betterment, Feb. 1920, v. 9, p. 45; May 1920, v. 9, p. 114.
States conditions of loan.
C z e c h o s lo v a k ia .

U n it e d St a t e s .

B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s .

Housing measures in Czechoslovakia.
( I n its M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w , Apr. 1921, v. 12, p. 846-849.)
Includes loans and tax exemptions.
vey, June 11, 1921, v. 46, p. 350.

See also Housing Betterment, Apr. 1921, v. 10, p.35-36; Sur­

Denmark.

A.
Housing in Denmark.
Housing Betterment, Feb. 1920, v. 9, p. 15-16.

B je r r e ,

Percentage rate of State loans given.

F. C.
Housing problem in Denmark.
Garden Cities and Town Planning, Oct. 1921, v. 11, p. 239.

B o ldsen,

Government provides loans.
H o u s in g in D e n m a r k .

Housing Betterment, Jan. 1922, v. 11, p. 45-46.
“ The housing act provides for subsidies and State aid is being extended from year to year until
the housing shortage has been m et.”—Article.


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HOUSING.
F rance.

B emis, A. F.

France’s determined efforts to house her people.
{ I n National Civic Federation commission on foreign inquiry.
situation in Great Britain and France, 1919, p. 399-114.)

Labor

This report followed an investigation in France.

F rance E mbarking on a Vast Scheme.

Housing Betterment, Jan. 1922, v. 11, p. 34-35.
Annual grants or subsidies are given by the Government to public committees and private socieSee also Housing Betterment, Dec. 1919, v. 8, p. 20-22; Apr. 1921, v. 10, p. 24-25; June 1921 v. 10
p. 224-228.
'
f
1

S elt.tf.r , H enri .

Housing problem and public action in France.
VGarden Cities and Town Planning, Sept. 1921, v. 11, p. 208-214.
illustrations.

Map and

“ Careful study by a leading housing expert and public official.”—Housing Betterment.

U nited States. B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s .

State loans for cheap dwellings in France.
( /n it s Monthly Labor R eview , Feb. 1920, v. 10, p. 557-559.)
Includes a tabulation of maximum annual rental of apartments for the construction of which State
loans are granted.
H o lla n d .

Child, Stephen .

Housing and Town Planning in Holland.
American City, Feb. 1922, v. 26, p. 103-106.
Housing activity is very marked.

State subsidies.
H u n gary.

U nited States. B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s .

Housing in Hungary.
{ I n its Monthly L abor R eview , Feb. 1921, v. 12, p. 428-429.)
Government contemplates setting aside a sum for construction of houses.
I t a ly .

I taly.

Housing Betterment, June 1921, v. 10, p. 237-238; Apr. 1922, v. 11, p. 158-161.
Europe ’£ i A rtlcfe g°n° further in furnishing Government aid than almost any other nation of

Melani, A lfredo.

Workingmen’s houses in Italy.
Architectural Record, Aug. 1919, v. 16, p. 176-185; Sept. 1919, v. 16, p. 243Government aid through loans and tax exemption. Detailed account with illustrations and plans.
J u g o s la v ia .

A

H ousing B oom

in

J ugoslavia.

Housing Betterment, Apr. 1922, v. 11, p. 161-163.
National tax exemption laws.
N orw ay.

U nited States.

B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s .

Norwegian experiments in house construction.
{ I n its Monthly Labor R eview , Nov. 1921, v. 13, p. 1102-1103.)
Experiments made by the Technical University at Trondhiem, with grants from the general Gov­
ernment and the municipality.
S p a in .

T he Situation in Spain .

Housing Betterment, Apr. 1921, v. 10, p. 36-37.
Tax exemption.
Sw eden.

H ousing in S weden .

Housing Betterment, June 1921, v. 10, p. 235-237.
Grants State funds to local authorities; special State housing loan fund; and direct subsidies.


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW,
P A R T I I .— M U N I C I P A L A I D .
U n ite d S ta te s .

B oston.

C o m m itte e o n h o u s in g .

Report of the committee appointed by Mayor Peters on housing, 1918 (City docu­
ment 121).
Recommends public assistance toward building multiple dwellings at low rental.
Reviewed in Housing Betterment, Feb. 1919, v. 8, p. 31-39. See also Housing Betterment, Feb.
1918, v. 7, p. 64-66; Dec. 1919, v. 8, p. 43.

CONYNGTON, MARY.

Effect of the tax exemption in New York City on housing.
( I n United States Bureau of Labor Statistics Monthly L abor R eview ,
Apr. 1922, v. 14, p. 631-640.)
Analysis which presents both the disadvantages and the advantages.
See also Nation, Nov. 2, 1921, v. 113, p. 495-496; New York Legislative document, No. 60, 1922, p.
243-244; United States Bureau of Labor Statistics M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w , Aug. 1921, v . 13, p. 392.

Curran , H . H .

One hundred million dollars in new housing under tax exemption.
National Municipal Review, Oct. 1921, v. 10, p. 502-505.
Describes what is being done in New York City to provide homes under the law granting tax
exemption for new houses.

H amilton, J. A.

Need for permanent housing boards.
Survey, Oct. 16, 1920, v. 45, p. 92-93.
Proposes the establishment of local housing boards in New York State.

H ousing P rogram for A merican Municipalities.

Modern City, Sept. 1921, p. 12-13.
Resume of report prepared by the civic development department of the Chamber of Commerce of
the United States.

Milwaukee .

A s s o c ia tio n o f C o m m erce.

C o m m itte e o f tw e n ty -o n e .

Garden Homes Co.
( I n the committee’s Report on unemployment, 1921, p. 7-8.)
Recommends that the Association of Commerce and the city of Milwaukee buy stock in this comnany, which was organized under chapter 402, Laws of Wisconsin, 1919. Typewritten report.
See also Housing Betterment, May 1920, v. 9, p. 166-167; Survey, June 19, 1920, v . 44, p. 412-413.

----- H o u s in g C o m m is s io n .
Report, Nov. 30, 1918.
Suggestions for State legislation.

Municipal H ousing .

Housing Betterment, May 1920, v. 9, p. 135-137.
Summary of conditions in Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, and Minnesota.
draft of a proposed amendment to the New York State constitution.

Gives the

Municipal H ousing, for P aterson [N. J.].

Housing Betterment, Feb. 1920, v. 9, p. 46-47.
City to become a municipal landlord; constitutional difficulties involved.

Municipal H ousing [in P ittsburgh] D eclared U nconstitutional.

Housing Betterment, Dec. 1919, v.' 8, p. 38-39, 45-46.
Suggests substitute plan.

Municipal R econstruction and H ousing .

Housing Betterment, Feb. 1919, v. 8, p. 48-49.
Program of the Bureau of Municipal Research of Rochester, N . Y .
aid in the form of long-term loans at low rates of interest.

Refers to State or Federal

Municipal Tax E xemption Stimulates H ome B uilding .

American City, Jan. 1922, v. 26, p. 10.
' Summarizes effect in New York State on building and vacant lots.
See also Housing Betterment, Apr. 1921, v . 10, p. 64-66.

N ew Y ork R eal E state B oard.

Recommendations on legislation to relieve the housing shortage.
1920. (Pamphlet.)

New York,

Opposes State or municipal housing, tax exemption; favors mortgage interest exemption.


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HOUSING.

W. H.
Copartnership housing in Milwaukee.
Housing Betterment, Sept. 1921, v. 10, p. 284-287; Jan. 1922, v. 11, p. 72.

SCHUCHARDT,

The Common Council of Milwaukee purchased stock in Garden Homes Co. Objectives of the nlan
are explained.
J
1
T a x E x e m p t io n o p N e w D w e l l i n g s .

Housing Betterment, Dec. 1921, v. 10, p. 341-346.
Includes the New York enabling act, the city ordinance, and statistics.
U n it e d S t a t e s .

B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s .

Municipal and cooperative housing law in Wisconsin.
( I n its M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w , Sept. 1919, v . 9, p. 959-961.)
“

A T v S d S S S : S ,'/ “

n

Y

p ' 156" 157; A” ' “ “

K

,or ““ er“ ted M M a i“ 's

A rcU t“ *. “ »

•

*

•

u r . p-

B r it is h E m p ir e .

G rea t B r i t a i n a n d her p o ss e s sio n s, e x c e p t C a n a d a .

T he F irst Municipal H ouses .

Municipal Journal [London], Dec. 5, 1919, v. 28, p. 1237.

(Illustrated.)

“ Concrete cottages at Poole [England].”—Subtitle.

Glasgow’s Municipal H ousing .

American Architect, June 2, 1920, v. 117, p. 702.
™£.at the one thoroughly successful exponent of municipal management has accomplished
during the fifty years of the continuance of the experiment.”—Article
aoeompnsnea
See also Housing Betterment, May, 1920, v. 9, p. 103-105.

H olland, B ernard .

Municipal housing in England.
Edinburgh Review, Oct., 1919, v. 230, p. 309-325.
Presents pre-war period, changes due to the war, and the present and future policies.

H ousing .
( I n New South Wales Official Yearbook, 1920, p. 737-742.)
History and statistics, State schemes, including loans, municipal housing
v lit p 53 54USmg Betterment’ D ec” 1919>v - P -19-20; June, 1921, v. 10, p. 240-252; January, 1922,

H ousing in I ndia .

Housing Betterment, Sept., 1919, v. 8, p. 38-39.
Bombay grants loans to cooperative building societies.

H ousing in N ew Z ealand.

Housing Betterment, Apr., 1921, v. 10, p. 38-39.
Terms of Government subsidy; municipal aid is also given
^ S e e ^ a lso United States Bureau of Labor Statistics Monthly L abor R eview , July, 1921, v. 13,

L ondon ’s H ousing N eeds .

Housing Betterment, April, 1921, v. 10, p. 19.
Summary of account in Housing, the publication issued by the Ministry of Health, for Dec. 6, 1920.

Municipal L oans in [Good H ope] A frica.

Housing Betterment, May, 1920, v. 9, p. 117.
The City of Good Hope is empowered to grant building loans to persons of limited means
means.

See also National Municipal Review, February, 1920, v. 9, p. 107.

T he Municipalities as Landlords.

Municipal Journal [London], Aug. 22, 1919, v. 28, p. 835-836.
housing j ’—Subtitle.he speeulative bllil(ler aud house ow ner-new problems created by emergency

Savory, E. W.

Survey of the Bristol [England] housing scheme.
Bristol Times and Mirror Office. June, 1920.

(Pamphlet.)

Written by the chairman of the Bristol Housing and Town Planning Committee.

Plans.

S tate P reparation; A Model Village in L ondon

Municipal Journal [London], Jan. 17, 1919, v. 28, p. 61-62.
m u S ^ d w clo p m cn tA ^ —KimbMl.Cte(i ^


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BritiSh G° Vermnent as a model for ^ter-war com-

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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

T enants

for

M u n ic ip a l H

L e e d s [E n g l a n d ],

o u s e s in

United States Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Commerce
Reports, Oct. 16, 1919.)

(In

Gives method of choosing tenants; brief statement about the loan voted by the Leeds City Council.

U n it e d S t a t e s . B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s .

Housing after the war in Scotland.
( I n its M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w , M a y , 1918, v . 6, p . 287-289; Feb., 1921,
v . 12, p . 429.)
Reviews plan by which municipalities are to receive State aid; the plan in Dundee is explained
in the second reference.
See also Housing Betterment, Feb., 1918, v. 7, p. 69-71.

------------[Municipal] housing in Nottingham, England.
( I n its M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w , M a y , 1921, v . 12, p . 1090.)
/

C anada.

A d a m s, T h o m a s.

Housing and town planning in Great Britain.
( I n Ontario Housing Committee Report, including standards for inexpensive
houses, 1919, p. 111-121.)
Concludes with discussion of financial results of municipal dwellings.

C it y B u il d s H

o m e s to

S o l v e H o u s in g P r o b l e m .

San Francisco Municipal Record, Mar. 31, 1921.
Brief statement about the erection of 100 cottages by Walkerville, Ontario.

M o n tr ea l T a k e s A dvantage

of

G o v er n m en t A id .

Housing Betterment, June, 1919, v. 8, p. 42-43.
O n t a r io .

H o u s in g C o m m itte e .

Town planning.
( I n its Report, 1919, p . 80-87.)
Recommends that town planning be made obligatory for all urban municipalities.

----- B u r e a u o f M u n ic ip a l A ffa ir s .
Report re housing for 1919, including reports of officials, statements as to opera­
tions of housing commissions, plans, etc., 1920.
Includes plans with architects’ and town planners’ comments.

Q u ebec P ro po ses

a

M e m o r ia l C it y .

Housing Betterment, Dec., 1919, v. 8, p. 16-17.
The building of this proposed model suburb is to be aided by a Government loan.

B.
Why Ontario has become a landlord.
Housing Betterment, June, 1919, v. 8, p . 48-51; Sept., 1919, v. 8, p. 30-32.

S i s s o n s , C.

Emphasizes responsibilities of municipalities; lists municipalities which have taken advantage
of the law. The author is secretary of the Ontario Housing Committee.

U n it e d S t a t e s .

B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s .

Aid by Canadian Government for provincial housing schemes.
( I n its M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w , Feb., 1919, v . 8, p . 569-570.)
Terms of the loans to provincial governments to aid them in making loans to municipalitiesText of the order in council which was passed in December, 1918.

J. E.
The Ontario housing problem; An attem pt at its solution.
( I n Ontario Housing Committee Report, 1919, p. 150-155.)

W eth erell, M rs.

Suggests steps in organizing municipal building.

T h e W ork

of t h e

P r o v in c e

of

O n t a r io .

Housing Betterment, Apr. 1921, v. 10, p. 43-44.
Reviews the report of the director of the Bureau of Municipal Affairs.
A rgentina.

U n it e d S t a t e s .

B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s .

Municipal housing scheme in Buenos Aires.
( I n its M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w , N o v . 1921, v. 13, p. 1097; Mar. 1922, v. 14,
p. 550-551.)
Ordinance permitting use of real estate, unimproved or occupied by inadequate structures, as
sites for modern houses. Tax exemption granted.
Similar article in Housing Betterment, Jan. 1922, v. 11, p. 57-58.


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209

Austria.

H.
Housing situation in Vienna.
Garden Cities and Town Planning, Dec. 1921, v. 11, p. 270-273.
tions and tables.

Ch a pm a n ,

Illustra-

Financial assistance has been promised by the State and the municipality

Brazil.

I n R io

de

J a n e ir o .

Housing Betterment, Jan. 1922, v. 11, p. 57.
Tax exemption law revived.
S ee also Housing Betterment, Apr. 1921, v. 10, p. 38.

Denmark.

D e n m a r k ’s H

o u s in g

Sh o r t a g e .

Housing Betterment, Feb. 1290, v. 9, p. 23.
Brief statement of aid given by Copenhagen.
Finland

U n it e d S t a t e s .

B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s .

Housing in Finland.
( I n its M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w , Aug. 1920, v. 11, p. 374-376; Apr. 1921,v. 12,
p. 843-844; Nov. 1921, v. 13, p. 1101.)
Government plan includes subsidies in the form of interest-free loans.
Terms of the loans to municipalities and public utility companies are explained in Housing Better­
ment, Apr. 1921, v. 10, p. 33-34.
France.

H. M. a n d L. R.
Municipal apartments of Paris help solve the housing problem.
American City, Jan. 1922, v. 26, p. 52-53.

D a v id s o n ,

Fourteen municipally owned and operated apartment houses designed to favor families with
children.
Same article in Housing Betterment, Apr. 1922, v. 11, p. 153-155. S ee also United States Bureau
of Labor Statistics M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , N ov . 1921, v. 13, p. 1101-1102; Housing Betterment,
Apr. 1921, v. 10, p. 30-31.
Germany.

G erm a n H

o u s in g

P la n s.

In United States Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Commerce Re­
ports, Aug. 10, 1918.
Reviews the activity of the towns, also proposals of the Reichstag committee.

S ee also New International Yearbook, 1921, p. 326.

Holland.

U n it e d S t a t e s .

B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s .

Improvement in housing conditions in the Netherlands.
( I n i t s M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w , July 1921, v . 13, p . 188-189.)
Government subsidies are given to municipalities, building societies, and private individuals.

See also Housing Betterment, Feb. 1920, v. 9, p. 25-26; Juno 1921, v. 10, p. 233.

Italy.

B ig B u il d in g P r o g r a m

for

R om e.

Housing Betterment, May 1920, v. 9, p. 114-115.
Loans from the Italian Government.

U n it e d S t a t e s .

B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s .

State aid to solve housing problems in Italy.
( I n its M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w , Oct. 1919, v. 9, p. 1270-1271; May 1920,
v. 10, p. 1269-1270.)
Loans are granted to building organizations, cooperative societies, and municipalities. Imported
building materials are exempted from custom duties.
Japan.
Ja p a n .

Housing Betterment, June, 1921, v. 10, p. 242-243.
Municipal building by two cities; Government loan.


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW,
Norway.

H

o u s in g in

N orw ay.

Housing Betterment, May, 1920, v. 9, p. 110-114; Apr. 1921, v. 10, p. 32-33.
State subsidies; also refers to municipally, built houses.
S ee also U nited States Bureau of Labor Statistics M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w , Aug. 1920, v. 11,
p. 374; Apr. 1921, v. 12, p. 844-845.
Peru.

U n it e d S t a t e s .

B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s .

Dwellings for public employees in Peru.
{ I n its M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w , Oct. 1919, v . 9, p. 1271; Apr. 1921, v . 12,
p. 852.)
Outlines plan of the law giving municipal aid.
Sweden.

U n it e d S t a t e s .

B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s .

Housing situation in Sweden.
(In its M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w , Apr. 1921, v. 12, p. 845-846.)
Municipally owned or managed houses rent for less than other dwellings. Table given.
The 1920 bill regarding the State housing loan fund is outlined in United States Bureau of Labor
Statistics M o n t h l y L a b o r R eview , Aug. 1920, v. 11, p. 373-374.
Switzerland.

S it u a t io n

in

S w it z e r l a n d .

Housing Betterment, June 1921, v. 10, p. 233-235; Apr. 1922, v. 11, p. 155-156.
Restrictions have been placed upon the granting of subsidies; municipal building.
S ee also United States Bureau of Labor Statistics Monthly L abor R eview , Aug. 1920, v. 11,
p. 373.

U n it e d S t a t e s .

B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s .

Housing activities in the municipality of Zurich, Switzerland.
( L n its Monthly Labor R eview , Mar. 1922, v. 14, p. 551-554.)
Municipally owned dwellings; State, cantonal, and municipal subsidies.


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211

Continuity of Employment in the Building Trades.

HE building situation in Cleveland has two recent developments,
described in the American Contractor for December 16, 1922,
in both of which an improvement in continuity of employment
for the workers is one of the results. One is a new organization, the
Home Builders ’ Exchange, formed during the past summer and made
up of the interests specially concerned in building houses. The
organization is developing along a number of lines, but one which
has already shown good results is a plan for keeping hold of the labor
supply already on hand. A contractor belonging to the* exchange
who finds that work of a given kind on his job is approaching com­
pletion sends notice to the central office that he will soon lay off such
and such workmen. Thereupon every contractor belonging to the or­
ganization is notified, and usually a place is ready for the men as soon
as they are laid off. This not only saves the employee from the loss
of time involved in looking for jobs, but enables the contractors to
attract and hold a good class of workers. A special effort is made
to find places which will suit the individual needs of the men con­
cerned.

T

Usually work can be found for the men close by their own homes, and much wasted
effort in traveling can thus be eliminated. Because of the ability of this group of small
builders to keep men steadily employed by finding work for them through the
exchange they are able to hold a class of carpenters and masons on the job who would
otherwise seek and obtain work on big buildings where more continuous employment
usually exists.

The other development is in connection with the erection of a huge
office building which will be one of the four leading buildings of the
country, having a net rentable floor area of 1,173,700 square feet.
Construction was begun on August 1, 1922, and it is hoped that the
building will be finished by or before April 1 , 1924. This means
that work will be carried on through the severest periods of two
winters. The cost of winter construction is estimated at from 3 to
10 per cent higher than that of similar work done in moderate
weather, owing to the extra work and arrangements needed to keep
materials in workable condition, the decrease of labor efficiency, the
greater danger of accidents, and so on. Nevertheless, the policy of
continuous work has been adopted, mainly because of the heavy
carrying charges on the investment, but partly, also, because the
company undertaking this job considers it advantageous to keep
its force together. It holds that there is a decided gain in efficiency
when the workmen become well acquainted and accustomed to work­
ing together.
Each foreman has some strong and some weak points. Because they have worked
together and know each other’s capacity, there i3 no experimenting done in times of
stress. Somebody on the job knows just what to do under every difficulty, and this
person is the one that steps in to do it, by common consent.
The same is true of the craftsmen and semiskilled workmen. Labor turnover is
kept at a minimum and each foreman, knowing the capacity of his men, is able to
pick out the proper person to handle any important section of the job.
From the point of view of the contractor winter work is valuable as it allows manage­
ment methods to be introduced which prevent labor turnover and encourage this
important item of coordination.


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

Housing Situation in South America.

HE problems arising from a shortage of hygienic houses at
rentals within the means of the working classes have presented
themselves in varying degrees of intensity in the countries of
South America. Government aid has taken various forms, prin­
cipally rent regulation, remission of customs duties on building
materials used for workmen ;s homes, exemption from building taxes
and current rates or from general taxation for a term of years, loans
to cooperative and other associations and to individuals for building
workmen^ homes, and actual building programs. It is the purpose
of this article, so far as information is available, to note the principal
lines of activity and achievements of these countries in solving their
housing problems.

T

Argentina.1

rT !HE most serious housing problems in Argentina have arisen in
1 the capital of the Republic, though other cities have felt the effects
of the housing shortage to some extent. The loss of population on
account of the emigration of foreigners from Buenos Aires during
the war was more than offset by the great influx of workmen to
that city on account of the war-time prosperity and activity. This
increase in population brought on a serious state of affairs as regards
suitable and sufficient housing at a rent the working class could pay.
Another difficulty arose from the fact that there was a prepon­
derance of houses of a medieval type, occupying much valuable space
without affording proportionate housing capacity. The ordinary
dwelling house of Buenos Aires is said to be a one-story structure of
massive brick walls with a large interior “ patio” or open courtyard.
The consequence is that on a ground area which in a modern American
city district would comfortably provide space for six families in a
three-story apartment, in Buenos Aires barely provides for six persons.
Still another cause of housing shortage and high rents was the
cessation of building construction during the war, which had made it
difficult and costly to secure building materials, most of which had
to be imported. The number of building permits issued by the
municipality of Buenos Aires dropped from 14,142 in 1913 to 6,813
in 1915 and averaged less than 6,000 for the next four years. The
number then increased to 9,729 in 1920 and to 13,536 in 1921, almost
equal to the 1913 figure. Most of the permits issued during the
war years were for business premises and warehouses.
As will be noted from the following table, showing the increases
in the prices of various building materials from 1911 to April, 1922,
there was in general a considerable decline from 1920 and 1921 prices
in April, 1922, though the prices of most of the articles were still
above the 1911 and 1915 levels.
1The data on which this seetion is based are from Argentina, V I Memoria de la Comisión Nacional de
Casa« Baratas, 1921-1922, Buenos Aires, 1922; Argentina, Crónica Mensual del Departamento Nacional del
Trabajo, Buenos Aires, June, July, 1922; Argentina, Boletín Oficial, Buenos Aires, Oct. 12, 1915 (p. 181),
April 30, 1917 (p. 635), and Jan. 19, 1918 (p. 333); Review of the River Plate, Buenos Aires, July 28, 1922
(p. 211); and The American Review of Reviews, New York, August, 1922, pp. 177-180, “ Government hous­
ing in Argentina,” by Adeline K. Brady.


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HOUSING,

CHANGES IN PRICES OF BUILD IN G MATERIALS IN BU EN O S A IRES, 1911 TO 1922.
[1 paper p e s o a t par=42.45 C en ts.]

Material.

Unit.

Lime, Cordoba........................

Metric ton.

Sand........................................... Cu. m eter.
1,000. .
Brick, machine-made............ . /.d o ..........
Iron 1-beams............................ Metric ton.
Lumber:
White pine boards, No. 5. Sq. ft........
Spruce boards a n d

Hard wood........................ Cu. meter.
Glass, double strength.......... Sq. m eter.

1911

1915

1918

1919

1920

1921

April,
1922

P eso s.

P e so s.

P eso s.

P e so s.

50. 00
26. 00
6. 00
30. 00
43.00
90.00

45.00
26.00
5.50
27. 00
45. 00
160.00

P e so s.

P e so s.

P e so s.

70.00
50.00
6.50
22. 00
48.50
450.00

59. 00
55.00
7.00
30.00
50.00
477.00

69.00
47. 00
9. 00
45.00
65.00
440. 00

75.00
52.00
9.00
42. 00
60.00
318.00

.30

.33

.60

.60

.60

.68

.68

. 14
.22
60.00
3.50

.16
. 16
24
65.00
3.50

.43
.40
.40
90. 00
10. 50-17. 00

.50
.46
.50
130. 00
12. 00
45.00

.40
.35
.40
135.00
12.00
45.00

.37
.30
. 43
130. 00
9.50
50. 00

.37
.32
.43
130. 00
8.50
48. 00

7. 50

12. 00

36.00

40.00
32. 00

40. 00
16.00

40. 00
23.00

41.00
12.00

24.00
16.00

26. 00
18.00

28.00
20.00

33. 00
24. 00

32.00
22. 00

45. 00
28.00

27. 00
16.30
33.00

Gypsum' coarse or black,
Marble, common white:
0.04 meter thick............... Sq. m eter.
0.02 meter thick............... . . .d o ..........
Doors, transoms, and win-

24.00

28.00

34.00

40. 40

40.00

40.00

120. 00

150. 00

450.00

450.00

540. 00

570. 00

Roofing tiles, foreign, Saco1.000.........
French ” paving

tiles

for

Tile,white glazed, 0.15x0.15
Kalsomining, 3 coats, plain
surface...................................

Sq. m eter.

Electricity installations........

Gal............
1,000..........
(2)

65.00
36.00
8.50
42.00
74.00
227.27

65.00

80. 00

140.00

120. 00

195.00

260.00

130. 00

132. 00

110. 00

300. 00

ISO. 00

ISO. 00

115.00

200.00

.12
16.00
3.00
24.00
11.00

.12

.15

56.00
33. 00

48. 00
50. 00

.15
45. 00
9. 00
50. 00
18.00
55.00
50.00

.20
25.00
8.20
75.00
10.20
70.00
30. 00

.30
23.00
7.20
45.00
9. 30
88.00
25.00

.25
18.00
8.00
43.00
12.00
88. 00
22.00

30.00

1 Quantity not given.

2 Per connection.

The increased cost of labor in construction work during the same
period, as shown in the following table, was another factor that had
a deterrent effect on building:
A VERAGE DAILY WAGES IN BU IL D IN G T R AD ES IN BU EN O S A IR E S, 1911 TO 1922.
[1 paper peso at par=42.45 cents.]
1911

Occupation.

1915

P e so s. P e so s.

Carpenters..............................................................................
Iron workers..........................................................................
Marble workers.....................................................................
Masons...................................................................................
Painters..................................................................................
Plasterers..............................................................................
Laborers.................................................................................

4.00
4. 50
5.00
4. 50
4. 00
5.00
2.20

3. 50
3. 50
4.00
3.50
3.00
4.00
2.00

1920

1921

April, 1922.

P e so s.

P e so s.

P e so s.

7.00-7.50
7.00-7. 50
7.00-8.00
6.00-7.00
6.00-7.00
7.00-7. 50
4.00-4. 50

7.50
9.00
8.00
7. 50
7.50
8.50
5.00-5. 50

8.00-9.20
9.00
8.00-9.00
7.00-7.20
7.00-8.00
8.00
4.50-5.00

The rapid increase in population and the great decrease in the
amount of building resulted in overcrowding that seriously menaced
the health of all concerned. It was the general rule, it is stated, to
rent only one room of a house to a family, the washing and cooking
being done in the common courtyard. These houses became known
as “ conventillos,” meaning “ little convents.”


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

Another result was greatly increased rents. An investigation made
by the National Department of Labor of the average rent of one
room in a tenement house showed a period of decline from 1914 to
1916, followed by increasing rents till 1920, with a very slight decrease
in 1921. Index numbers showing the changes from 1914 to 1921
are as follows:
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921

100

83
71
95
101

129
170
169
Legislation.

The conditions just described led to the enactment of a housing
law (No. 9677) in 1915, regulations for which were issued in April,
1917. In December of the latter year the benefits of the law were
extended to workmen employed in the arsenals and workshops
operated by the Army and Navy. The law provides for a National
Commission on Low-priced Houses (Comisión Nacional de Casas
Baratas), consisting of five members, whose function it is to study
and promote the construction and sanitation of low-priced houses,
as well as to engage in the actual construction of such houses.
Such houses are to be sold at cost to reliable persons with families,
who are to be chosen by lot from among skilled and unskilled laborers
and salaried employees. Such persons shall not have property
worth more than 3,000 pesos ($1,274, par) or an equivalent income.
The buyer will make monthly payments on principal and interest,
the rate of interest being 3 per cent and the period of amortization
20 years. Import duties on materials for all such houses will be
remitted. The commission may issue temporary life insurance
olicies to those buying homes under these conditions. Where a
ouse is erected for the owner’s personal use and does not cost more
than 10,000 pesos ($4,245, par), the import duties will be remitted
and the property will be exempt from the land tax for 10 years.
Benefit and cooperative societies and societies which build only lowpriced houses or lend money for building such houses are declared
exempt from “ fiscal” taxes {impuestos fiscales) if their plans are
approved by the commission. The regulations contain detailed
rovisions as to the location, construction, and sanitation of such
ouses, ample toilets, baths, and washrooms being required. To
offset the scantiness of the furniture in the average laborer’s home,
it is specified that cupboards and other pieces be built into the
houses. The National Postal Savings Fund may lend the commis­
sion up to 50 per cent of its deposits at 5 per cent interest.
Mention should also be made of the measures enacted late in 1921
to limit rents for two years to the January 1 , 1920, rate, and to
regulate leases and evictions, and also of the amendment to the
retirement law for employees on Government-controlled railroads
permitting loans from the retirement and pension fund to employees
who wish to buy or build homes.2 The municipal government of

E

E

2 M o n th ly L a b o k R e v ie w , December, 1921 (p. 161), a n d November, 1922 (p p . 202, 203).


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215

Buenos Aires has passed several ordinances on the subject of housing,
two of which have been noted in the M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w .3
The most recent effort on the part of the municipality to provide
more homes for the working class was tye reviving (with slight
modifications) on July 25, 1922, of an ordinance that had been
passed in 1913, a u t h o r i z i n g the construction of 10,000 houses for
salaried employees and workmen. The outbreak of the World War
prevented the concessionaire company from carrying out its con­
tract. The company is now to undertake the construction of 10,000
dwellings at the rate of at least 1,000 per annum. The houses are
to be assigned by lot to salaried employees and workmen whose
salaries are not more than 400 pesos national currency (SI70, par)
per month, preference being given to those having the largest families.
The selling price is to be at the rate of 85 pesos, national currency
($36, par), per month until the debt is canceled, this payment to
include the stipulated profit of the contracting company on each
house.
Building Activities of the National Commission on Low-priced Houses.

*

w

After a period of study and investigation of housing conditions
the National Commission on Low-priced Houses began its building
activities in 1919. The first housing venture was a four-story tene­
ment house (casa colectiva), of brick and concrete stucco, consisting of
sixty-seven 2 and 3 room apartments and costing 806,509.41 pesos,
national currency ($342,363, par). The rents were fixed at 47, 45,
42, 40, 38, and 35 pesos ($20, $19, $18, $17, $16, and $15, par) per
month. This tenement is of the general type that is to be used by
the commission for crowded city districts. Such tenements are built
primarily for families with many children, and each tenement fronts
on a park or playground. While the plans do not retain the open
patio for each apartment, they include a large courtyard, the area of
which is required by law to be not less than 50 square meters in the
case of four-story buildings.
The first tenement was not completed till about the middle of 1921,
but before it was ready for occupancy 2,318 families had petitioned
for quarters. Formal applications were limited to families with an
income of less than 200 pesos ($85, par) per month, preference being
given to the largest families. The final list from which the drawing
was made contained 570 names. Exceptional preference and direct
assignment were made in the case of 15 laborers, each with a wife and
10 children and having a small income, who at the time of the lottery
were each occupying one or two rooms in the “ conventillos ” and
paying 40 to 60 pesos ($17 to $25, par) per month for rent.
/
The next building operation undertaken by the commission was
a group of 160 individual houses, consisting of three and four rooms
each, besides bathroom and kitchen, which rent for 45 and 55 pesos
($19 and $23, par) per month, respectively. This community of
laborers’ homes when completed will consist of 300 houses. This
community group system is considered a decided departure in South
American housing, inasmuch as the architects completely abandoned
the old Spanish and Moorish styles. The ground plan is a direct
» November, 1921 (p. 153), and March, 1922 (p. 140).


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

copy of the community housing plan so much used in the United
States during the last few years. The houses are two stories in
height and built of brick and stucco with Spanish tile roofs.
Another tenement consisting of eighteen 3-room and twenty-three
2-room apartments, renting for 60 and 50 pesos ($25 and $21, par)
per month, respectively, has been completed. At the close of
the period covered by the report of the commission (June, 1922)
plans were being made for 80 more houses, which will form part of
a new community group of 501 houses, and sites had been obtained
for 1,000 more dwellings, though funds were not then available for
construction work.
The commission has also approved plans for 64 individual houses
and a tenement house to be constructed by the Unión Popular
Católica Argentina.
The provincial governments are to some extent following the lead
of the National Government in undertaking to improve and increase
housing facilities. For example, the Province of Santa Fé has a
housing commission called Junta Provincial de Fomento de Casas
Baratas, with main offices in Rosario and Santa Fé. The national
commission also has honorary subcommissions at various points in
the interior.
It is said that little building is being done by private initiative
because those who would ordinarily build houses to rent feel that
the terms of the rent law make such an investment unprofitable.
Therefore in spite of the efforts of the national commission and the
municipality of Buenos Aires, there is still a serious housing shortage
in the national capital, which was estimated to be from 30,000 to
40,000 dwellings in July, 1922. It is believed, however, that sufficient
building has been done to alleviate the conditions in the worst of the
“ conventillos.” It is said that the most important accomplishment
of the commission has been the breaking down of the barriers of
tradition and the introduction of a modern style of housing more
suitable to a great city.
Chile.4
HTHE housing problems of Chile have not been confined entirely to
the cities but have arisen also in the nitrate fields of the north
and the coal-mining regions of the south. In the nitrate fields, where
the housing is necessarily of a more or less temporary character,
the Government, with the cooperation of the operators, has succeeded
in materially improving housing conditions since the report of the
Government commission in 1917. Considerable improvement in
the housing facilities at the coal mines has been noted since the
investigation made by a Government commission during the coal
strike of 1920. It is said that the serious shortage of suitable houses
has compelled the authorities to permit the continued use of many
dwellings that are insanitary and uninhabitable under the law and
that should be condemned and torn down.
At Arica, one of the nitrate ports, work has been started on the
first of three workmen’s apartment houses to be erected by the
4 The data on which this section is based are from Chile, Ley y ordenanza sobre habitaciones para obreros,
con las modificaciones * * *, Santiago, 1919; Chile, La Revista de la Habitación, Santiago, March
and April, 1922; El Mercurio, Santiago, Sept. 5-20,1922, and report oí United States consul at Arica, Nov.
13, 1922.


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H O U SIN G .

217

municipal government. The buildings will be 1-story high, and
each will contain 60 apartments of identical size, consisting of 4
bedrooms, kitchen, covered patio (court, dining, and sitting room),
open patio, and toilet facilities. The central court, or patio, will
contain flower beds and facilities for washing clothes. Later on bath
houses are to be installed. The rents are to be no higher than are
necessary to cover interest, expenses, depreciation, and sinking
fund and will include electric lights and water. It is stated that the
principal railroad entering the city plans to erect similar structures
for its employees on the same street.
Legislation.

The Chilean law relating to workmen’s houses (No. 1838) was
passed in 1906 and amended in 1909, 1911, 1912, and 1916. Under
the terms of this law a housing commission called the Consejo
Superior de Habitaciones para Obreros was created to supervise
the work of the commissions in the Departments and also to serve
as the commission for the Department of Santiago. The duties of
these commissions are (1) to promote the construction of cheap
hygienic houses for sale or for rent to the working class, (2) to look after
the sanitation of workers’ homes, (3) to approve plans and fix condi­
tions for receiving aid from the commission in building houses for
workers, (4) to engage in actual building enterprises, and (5) to
encourage the organization of building societies.
A period of 20 years is allowed for paying for houses sold to work­
men. The Mortgage Loan Fund (Caja de Crédito Hipotecario) may
loan up to 75 per cent of the value of the property on building oper­
ations that have been approved by the commission. The President
is authorized to build houses for workmen and low-salaried employees
in Government industrial establishments.
As amended in 1916 the law provides that houses which have been
declared “ hygienic” by the housing commission and whose monthly
rental value is not more than 80 pesos 5 need pay only half the reg­
ular taxes and shall enjoy low water rates. All these concessions
stop if the house ceases to be “ hygienic” or is unoccupied. Building
and cooperative societies, factory owners, stock companies, etc., which
build such houses shall also enjoy the benefits allowed by the law.
The great defect of the law is said to be that it does not provide
funds.
Housing Exposition and Conference.

An exposition of economical housing (exposición de la habitación
económica) was held in Santiago September 3 to 28, 1922, and in
connection with it a conference which lasted from September 4 to 16.
The exposition consisted of exhibits of building materials of all sorts,
drawings, pictures, and plans of low-priced houses that would meet
the requirements of health and sanitation. The conference was
attended by Government officials, architects, and others interested
in building, trade-union members, and private individuals interested
in housing and welfare work. A number of Buenos Aires architects
6 Presumably paper pesos, which are normally worth about 20 cents in United States money.
gold peso at par is worth 36.5 cents.


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

and housing specialists were present and took part. The general
subjects of discussion were the political and social influence of hous­
ing, the relation between the value of property and the rent, the
relation of the State to the housing problem, building materials and
methods of construction, application of a decreasing mixed life
insurance for buying small holdings, minimum hygienic require­
ments in economical housing, relation of rent for cheap houses to
wages and salaries, and sanitation, heating, and lighting.
The report given on the work of the housing commissions and the
municipalities from 1906 to 1921 showed that 1,415 owners had been
compelled to demolish 13,630 rooms, where 35,374 people lived, and
repairs had been required on 507 properties containing 847 rooms,
inhabited by 22,718 persons. In Santiago the commission had
built, on 162 sites, 3,418 houses, containing 8,274 rooms.
Rents are reported to be high because of the scarcity of houses.
The housing shortage is due, in turn, to the high cost of building
materials and labor, as well as to the poor public lighting system,
bad paving, lack of easy communications, and high cost of sewerage,
gas, etc.
The director of the Chilean Labor Office urged the creation of a
social museum, such as exists in Argentina and Brazil, to study social
problems, and it is thought likely that this suggestion will be carried
out, and a part of the exhibits retained as a nucleus for a museum.
Other Countries.6

I7ROM the little information that is available concerning the housing
A situation in the other countries of South America, it is evident
that in most of them the Governments are taking steps to improve
and in'crease the facilities for housing the working classes. The
Colombian law of August 31, 1921, concerning hygienic measures in
the petroleum industry 7requires the companies to construct sanitary
dwellings for their workmen. The Paraguayan housing law and the
issuance of bonds by the Peruvian Government for building work­
men’s dwellings in Lima and Callao have already been noted in the
M onthly L

abor

R

e v ie w

.8

Uruguay.—A reference to the construction of over 100 homes by
the Uruguayan Government in 1921 indicates that most of them
were constructed according to models in the United States, Germany,
and Norway, thus showing a tendency in Uruguay, as well as in
Argentina, to break away from the Spanish and Moorish types of
architecture.
To check the rapidly rising rents a law was passed June 20, 1921,
making the rate on December 31, 1919, the legal maximum rate for
all dwellings in the towns and cities of Uruguay for a period of three
years from the date of promulgation of the law.9
Brazil.—In 1921 a considerable shortage of houses in Rio de
Janeiro was reported. In Pernambuco the municipal prefect was
calling for bids for the construction of 2,500 workmen’s houses.
6 The data on which this section is based are from Bulletin of the Pan American Union, Washington,
August, 1920, February and July, 1921; report of United States consul at Rio de Janeiro, Sept. 5,1922.
7 M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w , February, 1922, p . 139.
8 April, 1921 (p. 136), and March, 1922 (p. 157).
9 M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w , November, 1921, p. 159.


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H O U SIN G .

219

The decree of August 21, 1922, authorizes the construction of not
more than 5,000 homes for Government employees and laborers.
The cost of each is not to exceed 10 contos ($5,462, par). The
Government is also authorized to make loans to Government em­
ployees and laborers who possess land and who desire to construct
residences. Such loans may not exceed 25 contos ($13,654, par).
Easy payments in monthly installments that may extend over a
period of 15 years are provided for. Money will be advanced to
army and navy officers and Government employees for the purpose
of purchasing or building residences. The amounts so advanced
will be based on the pensions and salaries of the officers and upon
the pensions of the Federal Government employees. One per cent
of the total advance of the Government must be deposited each
month.
The Government is authorized to negotiate a loan of 30,000 contos
($16,386,500, par) for 20 years, to waive or reduce import duties on
such material as may be necessary for the construction of the houses,
barring articles of luxury, to waive stamp and other taxes, and to
facilitate the construction of houses through the sale of property at
reasonable prices and through other means.

28491°—23----- 15

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IN D U S T R IA L A C C ID E N T S A N D H Y G IE N E .

Safety Activities of the United States Government.1
B y E t h e l b e r t S t e w a r t , U n i t e d S t a t e s C o m m i s s i o n e r o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s .

HERE can be no question that the United States Government
from its very beginning has fully appreciated its responsibility
along those lines now covered by the somewhat general term
"safety work.”
The first tangible application of the idea involved in this phrase
by Governments anywhere was the erection of lighthouses and shore
signals of various types to protect life and property at sea. The
Massachusetts colony of Boston built the first lighthouse in America,
celebrating its completion September 15, 1716, an early date for
modern lighthouse development; the Eddystone, England’s first
lighthouse, was built in 1699, only 17 years before.
Other colonies followed the example of Boston, building light­
houses and installing buoys and other signals, paying for their
maintenance by the levy of a tax of 1 penny per ton on the cargoes
of incoming and outgoing vessels. When the United States Govern­
ment was formed in 1789 there were transferred to it by the colonies
all such structures then existing, which consisted of 12 lighthouses,
1 fog signal and 10 buoys, thus marking the first consolidation of
control of “ those numerous works for the protection of navigation
and the safeguarding of life and property which now place the coasts
of the United States among the best lighted and marked in the
world.”
In June, 1921, the United States Lighthouse Service maintained
16,456 aids to navigation of all kinds, including 5,756 lights of all
classes, 593 fog signals, of which 48 were submarine signals. These
figures do not include 152 whistling buoys and 386 bell buoys.
At that date the service maintained light vessels on 49 stations and
had for this purpose 64 such vessels, 15 of which were for relief work.
Practically 6,000 persons were employed; and the maintenance cost
of the service in 1921 was $9,594,466. Three radio fog signal stations,
the first in this country, were placed in commission by the Light­
house Service in May, 1921.
Closely allied to this is the romantic work of the Coast Guard,
which on June 30, 1922, had 235 active stations, 42 inactive stations
(made so by lack of funds), and 77 vessels guarding coasts and harbors,
employing in this capacity 4,200 men and expending practically
ten millions of dollars a year. This bald statement of equipment
leaves out of account the picturesque patrol of 10,000 miles of coast
by young men walking up and down the beach, dressed and equipped
to plunge instantly into the sea to rescue drowning bathers or to

T

1 Reprinted from the National Safety News, Chicago, January, 1923, pp. 27, 28.

220

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hasten to signal stations to report the sighting of rowboats, fishing
craft, or larger vessels in distress.
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1922, 2,954 human lives
were saved by the Coast Guard, while assistance was rendered to 14,531
persons oil board ships in distress.
Then comes the Steamboat Inspection Service, which during the
fiscal year, 1922, inspected 13,131 vessels, and I say vessels because
while the law requires careful inspection of boilers the actual inspec­
tion includes examination of engines and all other parts of the ma­
chinery of boats.
The Government many years ago recognized its duty to assist in
rendering the mines of the country more safe. For this purpose the
Bureau of Mines was established to promote safety in the mining
and metallurgical industries. The work of this bureau is far-reaching
in its scope, covering studies of explosive gases, investigational work
along safety lines, including mine ventilation problems, testing of
permissible explosives and approved electrical mine equipment,
development of oxygen-breathing apparatus, and studies of the
explosion hazards in coal mines and the explosibility of coal dust.
During the year ending June 30, 1922, the 10 mine rescue cars and
10 safety stations of the United States Bureau of Mines trained 16,289
persons in first-aid and mine rescue work. Adding to these the 61,607
persons trained in previous years, we get a total of 77,896 persons
trained in first-aid and mine rescue work. Assistance was rendered
at 24 mine accidents. All mines in which explosions or fires occurred
during the year were investigated and recommendations made to the
mine operators. Cooperation in this work was maintained with the
United States Public Health Service in studying health conditions in
mines and with the National Safety Council in the use of safety
devices and safe practices. Practically half a million dollars per
year is expended by this bureau.
The toll of life and limb on railroads put upon our statute books a
law which sought in the first instance to protect railroad men by the
installation of safety couplers on freight cars.
The Bureau of Locomotive Inspection during the fiscal year ending
June 30, 1922, made 60,812 locomotive inspections; and here again
the inspection is not confined to the boilers alone but covers the entire
machinery of the engine. During the year this service expended
$290,000. In addition, there is the Bureau of Safety, which, starting
out to inspect the safety-appliance equipment on railroads, really
inspects every part of cars, both passenger and freight. The latest
available figures for this bureau are for 1921, and show 865,858 freight
cars inspected, 20,082 passengers cars, 21,353 locomotives, with a
total of 56,584 defects of all classes discovered and corrected.
I wonder if the million and over of our citizens who visited the
national parks last year realize that the National Park Service main­
tains over 200 men for four months of the year in these parks to
provide for the safety and comfort of the visiting million ? I wonder
how many noticed the parapets at dangerous places along the road
or knew that approximately $300,000 was spent on these safety pre­
cautions in addition to the $180,000 required to maintain the force
of 200 guides and guards and rangers ? In addition the Public Health


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Service keeps a detail of inspectors in the national park to look after
the sanitary conditions.
The Post Office Department in its efforts to provide safety devices
for catching the mail by flying trains, and by improving the con­
struction of railway mail cars, has reduced to a minimum the acci­
dents from falls and falling objects.
The Government Printing Office with its 14,000 machines equipped
with the most approved safety devices is another example of the
Government’s regard for safety.
The Bureau of Engraving and Printing moved into a building ideally
constructed. In this plant are individual motor-driven machines
equipped with automatic electric-control, and, in addition, auto­
matically controlled “ start,” “ stop,”/'safe,” “ ready,” pilot stations.
The printing presses are equipped with electrically connected safety
bars so coupled with motor controllers that any displacement of a
safety bar by accidental or intentional contact with an operative will
instantly stop the press—a press can not be operated unless all the
safety devices are in place ready for emergency service; it is wellnigh a model plant.
If we construe the term “ safety work” as applying to all activities
as well as to all methods and devices which have for their ultimate
purpose the conservation of human life, limb, and property, then we
must include a large proportion of the work of the Department of
Agriculture.
"For instance, the Meat Inspection Division of the Bureau of
Animal Industry with its system of labeling meats as healthful has
regained for us markets from which our pork products had been
excluded under suspicion of trichina and has put the whole slaugh­
tering and meat-packing industry of the country upon a level of
cleanliness and safety of which the country may well be proud.
During the fiscal year 1921 inspections were conducted in 892 estab­
lishments in 265 cities and towns, and this inspection covered 62,055,485 animals. The dairy and market milk stations, the work clone in
the interest of sanitation on live-stock farms, the control of Texas
fever and other cattle diseases by this bureau are simply staggering
in their detail and a mere list would occupy more space than can be
devoted to this entire article.
The administration of the food and drugs act, which is being more
than liberally construed by that department in its administration,
not only enables it to check the manufacture and sale of deleterious
foods, but has inspired an enormous amount of constructive work
along the lines of adding to the items of possible human food and the
better and more healthful preparation of all food. As being directly
in the line of safety work, the Bureau of Chemistry in the Depart­
ment of Agriculture has jurisdiction over all plants where grain or
vegetable dusts become a source of danger to human life through
possibility of explosion.
The Forest Service employs large numbers of men and expends
great sums of money annually in the prevention of forest fires and
in the work of extinguishing them when they do occur. Few realize
that during the past half century over 3,000 lives have been lost m
forest fires. During the year i921 there were 6,000 forest fires.
Over 375,000 acres of national forest land were burned over; $532,811


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was spent by the Government to fight these fires, and the total
damage done amounted to $200,000.
The Weather Bureau, embodying the practical application of
meteorological science to the daily aftairs of life, now shoots by wire­
less telegraphy across the sea warnings to vessels of dangerous storms,
outlining hurricane areas, and the general weather conditions, which
mean so much to safety on the seas. The value of this service to our
shipping interests, particularly along the coast line, has been more
appreciated since the warning issued for the hurricane that passed
over New Orleans on September 29, 1915, resulted in great saving of
life and property. However, there is very little public appreciation
as yet of the safety value of the Weather Bureau. With the entrance
of the airplane into our social life not only for the purposes of the
Post Office Department, but sooner or later for commercial purposes,
the services of the bureau grow in value as they come to be appre­
ciated.
No effort is here made to give anything bordering upon a complete
list or census of the governmental activities that might properly be
classified as safety work. Only the names can be mentioned of such
important functions as that of the Hydrographic Office of the Navy
Department, which has for its object “ the improvement of the means
for navigating safely the vessels of the Navy and of the mercantile
marine,” the Bureau of Standards, where practically all of the work
must be so classified, since to standardize is to “ safetyize.”
I should like to talk about the work of the Children’s Bureau and
what it has done along the lines of safety in reducing the hazards of
being born, in reducing infant mortality, and in saving the lives of
mothers in that first and greatest work of the human race. I would
like to say something of the work of the Bureau of Labor Statistics
in its attempts early and late to systematize and standardize the
reporting of accidents so that the subject of accident prevention
can be intelligently studied. I should like to mention the work of
the Government bureaus and departments in aiding the development
of standard codes to the end that we may intelligencize (I don’t care
whether Webster knew of this word or not) factory inspection.
In this group working toward uniform codes I also find the Navy
Department through its interest in the navy yards, the War Depart­
ment through its interest in the effect of such codes upon the arse­
nals, the Public Health Service through its interest in sanitation and
hygienic conditions of industry, the Bureau of Standards through its
interest in standardization, the Department of Labor through its
interest in men.
Some day a complete list of all governmental activities bearing
directly or indirectly upon the development of that great human
impulse which in its surgings has been called “ safety” should be
made in order to develop an appreciation of the magnitude of what
the Government is doing to voice its sincerity of interest, and thus
inspire our citizens with more enthusiasm for safety effort.


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Coke-oven Accidents in the United States During 1921.

REPORT, by William W. Adams, of the United States Bureau
of Mines (Technical Paper 318), of the accidents at coke ovens
during the calendar year 1921 shows a lower fatality rate than
in any year since 1915 and, with the exception of 1920, a lower nonfatal injury rate for the same period. A reduction in the number
of accidents was to be expected because of the industrial depression
during the year, which had resulted in a reduced number of employees
and a smaller aggregate number of shifts, but that the accident
rates were actually lower in proportion to the amount of work done
was considered to be a decidedly encouraging feature of a year of
depression.
According to the reports which are voluntarily furnished to the
Bureau of Mines by owners and operators of coke ovens, there were
17 men killed and 1,853 injured during the year, the accident rates
being 1.23 killed and 133.62 injured per thousand full-time or 300dav workers. The average working force was 16,204 men, who worked
on an average 257 days per man.
The reports for 1921 covered the operations of 6,881 by-product
ovens and 17,509 beehive ovens. The by-product industry employed
10,193 men and the time worked averaged 325 days per man. Among
these workers 12 were killed and 1,517 were injured, showing rates of
1.09 and 137.50, respectively, per 1,000 300-day workers, while in the
beehive ovens 6,011 men were employed at an average of 141 days
per man and there were 5 fatal accidents and 336 injuries, resulting
in a rate of 1.76 killed and 118.52 injured per thousand employed.
The following table shows the number and classification of injuries
reported to the bureau for the six-year period 1916 to 1921:

A

NUM BER AN D CLASSIFICATION OF IN JU R IE S IN COKE OVENS OF T H E
STATES, 1916 to 1921.
1916

Item.

1917

Slight injuries (time lost, 1 to 14 days, inclu sive)..........
Total fatalities and injuries...........................................

1919

1920

1921

45

76

73

53

49

17

2
81
686
4,468

2
72
735
5,904

2
73
969
6,748

2
121
790
3 ,11S

3
76
722
2,614

24
318
1,511

5,237
5,282
31,603

6,713
6,789
32, 417

7, 792
7,865
32,389

4,031
4,084
28,741

3, 415
3,464
28,139

1,853
1,870
16,204

Serious injuries (time lost, more than 14 days):
Permanent disability—
Partial2................................................ ......................

1918

U N ITED

1 Permanent total disability: Loss of both legs or arms, one leg and one arm, total loss of eyesight, paraly­
sis, or other condition permanently incapacitating a workman from doing any work in a gainful occupation.
2 Permanent partial disability: Loss of one foot, leg, hand, eye, one or more fingers, one or more toes,
any dislocation where ligaments are severed, or any other injury known in surgery to be permanent partial
disability.

The accident rates shown in the following table are based on the
number of 300-day workers employed. The table shows the number
of men employed, the average days of labor per year, the fatalities
and injuries, and the rates per 1,000 300-day workers for the calendar
years 1916 to 1921.


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NUM BER OF EMPLOYEES, DAYS OF LABOR PERFORM ED, FATALITIES AND INJURIES
IN Ct)KE OVENS IN THE U N IT E D STATES, 1916 TO 1921.

Number killed.

Men employed.
Year.

Aver­
age
days
Actual
active. number.

Equiv­
alent in
300-day
workers.

Number injured.

Days of
labor
performed.

Total.

Per 1,000
300-day
workers.

Total.

Per 1,000
300-day
workers.

1916.......................................
1917.......................................
1918.......................................
1919.......................................
1920.......................................

324
329
329
289
319

31,603
32,417
32,389
28,741
28,139

34,119
35,595
35,476
27,674
29,921

10,235,674
10,678,429
10,642,688
8,302,059
8,976,214

45
76
73
53
49

1.32
2.14
2.06
1.92
1.64

5,237
6,713
7,792
4,031
3,415

153.49
188.59
219.64
145.66
114.13

Average for five years---1921.......................................

319
257

30,658
16,204

32,557
13,868

9,767,013
4,160,298

59
17

1.81
1.23

5,438
1,853

167.03
133.62

The principal causes of nonfatal accidents at all coke ovens were
falling objects, burns, falls of persons, hand tools, haulage, and nails
and splinters, in the order named, while the highest fatality rates
were due to coke-drawing machines, falls of persons, and haulage
equipment. In the following table the number of fatalities and
injuries occurring during the year ending December 31, 1921, and the
rate per 1,000 300-day workers are shown by causes.
NUMBER OF FATALITIES AND INJURIES AND RATE PE R 1,000 300-DAY W ORKERS FOR
THE Y E AR ENDING DECEM BER 31, 1921, BY CAUSES.

Injured.

Killed.

Rate
. Rate
per 1,000
1,000
Number. per
300-day Number. 300-day
workers.
workers.

Cause.

1

.07

1
2

.07
.15

123
28
33
21
204
182
8
226
9
229
56
20
714

17

1.23

1,853

3
1
4
1
4

0.22
.07
.29
.07
.29

8.87
2.02
2.38
1.51
14.71
13.12
.58
16.30
. 65
16.51
4.04
1.44
51.49
133.62

Coal-dust Explosion Tests.1

HE results of a series of tests of coal-dust explosions, conducted
by engineers of the Bureau of Mines in their experimental mine
near Pittsburgh, which were carried on during the years 1913 to
1918, have been published recently. In the United States, during the
years 1901 to 1910, the report states, there were 106 gas and dust
explosions, each of which killed five or more men, in bituminous and
subbituminous mines. A total of 3,296 were killed in these explo­

T

i t . S. Bureau of Mines Bui. No. 167: Coal-dust explosion tests in the experimental mine, 1913 to 1918,
inclusive. Washington, 1922.


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MONTHLY LABOE REVIEW.

sions. During the 10 years 1911 to 1920 there were 75 such ex­
plosions with 2,057 deaths—a reduction of 1,239 deaths when com­
pared with the earlier period, although the average number of
miners and the average production had increased nearly one-half.
Prior to a series of preliminary tests made in 1911 and 1912 there
had been much skepticism among practical mining men as to the
explosibility of coal dust, it having been considered that fire damp
or gases of unknown composition were the causes of these explosions
which had resulted in so much damage and loss of life. The violent
explosions produced in these first tests, however, established the
fact be}'ona dispute that dry coal dust in a mine is decidedly dan­
gerous even without the presence of inflammable gas in the air.
From 1913 to May, 1918, 494 explosion tests were made in the
experimental mine, and while much information was obtained in
regard to the starting, propagation, limitation, and prevention of
coal-dust explosions, there are still many problems which are not
entirely solved.
The experimental mine was opened by the bureau in order to
make large-scale explosion tests under actual mine conditions, as
the engineers of the bureau considered that while the tests made
in steel-surface galleries in Great Britain, France, and Germany
were of value, preventive measures developed by the gallery ex­
periments should be confirmed or modified by actual mine tests.
Coal dust is formed in a mine in a variety of wuys. In drilling,
the production of dust, although small, is unavoidable. Machine
cutting also produces considerable unavoidable dust, as does blasting
and picking the coal by hand. Avoidable causes which produce a
great deal of dust are overloaded cars and cars having spaces through
which the coal can fall, and the practice of using coal for ballasting.
Such coal is soon pulverized by the feet of men, horses, and mules
and produces large quantities of dust. Coal dust at the working
face, therefore, can not be prevented, but it is possible almost en­
tirely to prevent its production and distribution in the entries.
Coal dust will not explode unless ignited in the air, so that mines
which are free from fire damp and in which explosives are seldom used
are practically free from explosions. The sources of ignition of coaldust explosions in the United States, in the order of their impor­
tance, are as follows:
1. Long-flame explosives.
2. Ignition of bodies of fire damp.
(a) Ignition of fire damp by open lights.
(b) Ignition of fire damp by grounding of electric wires.
(c) Ignition of fire damp by explosives.
(<d ) Ignition of fire damp by defective safety lamps or an opened safety lamp.
(e) Ignition of gases methane and distilled hydrocarbon gases—by mine fires.
3. Direct ignition of coal dust in air by electric arcing, as by the “ short” from a
trolley wire.
4. Direct ignition of coal dust in air by an open lamp or torch.

In tests to determine whether or not explosions travel with the
air, as had been believed to be the case, it was found that wdiile
the movement is slightly faster with the air current than against
it the coal-dust explosions propagate in any direction in which there
is coal dust of sufficient purity. The amount of coal dust which
may propagate an explosion is only 0.05 ounce for each cubic foot


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227

of air space. Pure anthracite dust in air will not ignite, while dry
subbituminous dust is highly explosive. In testing the size of
particles of coal dust from different mines it was found that most
mine road dust passing through a 20-mesh screen contained not
more than 20 per cent that would pass through a 200-mesh screen,
while 75 per cent of pulverized dust would pass through a screen
of that size. The limit of explosibility when mixed with incom­
bustible matter like shale dust varies according to the percentage
of fine dust, 10 per cent of road dust which would pass through a
200-mesh screen requiring the addition of 50 per cent of shale dust to
render it inert, while 20-mesh rib or timber dust of which 40 per cent
would pass through a 200-mesh screen requires the addition of twice
its weight in shale dust in order to prevent explosion.
Pests of the efficacy of wetting the dust in mines in the prevention
of explosions showed that it is necessary that no dry dust should be
present anywhere and the watering must be done frequently enough
to keep the old dust wet and to wet the new dust before any large
amount has accumulated. As pure coal dust is exceedingly difficult
to wet, it is necessary to mix it with rock dust or deliquescent salts.
The watering method, however, requires much attention and is likely
to cause a sense of security when there is a dangerous amount of dust
in some parts of the mine.
The control of propagation of an explosion through the establish­
ment of so-called dustless zones or of watered or wet zones, if there is
any dust on the ribs or timbers, was found to be impossible. On the
other hand, the flame of explosions can be limited by the use of rockdust barriers of different types or by rock dusting. While the bureau
does not advocate changing from watering to rock dusting in a mine
where it is shown that the dust is kept wet, still a number of
the most disastrous explosions in this country, it is said, have
occurred in mines which have been considered well equipped with
sprinklers, force tank cars, and humidifying methods. The use of
rock dust in this country has been so limited that it can not yet be said
to have proved an absolute protection. Its greatest advantage is that
it can be used in every entry and that under ordinary conditions a
treated entry will remain safe for a considerable period without further
treatment, while in a mine using the watering method a single day in
cold weather in which the dust is not watered may render it dangerous.
Tests have shown that a given percentage of incombustible material
in a dust mixture will prevent the propagation of an explosion. The
quantity of rock dust needed in any given place depends therefore upon
the amount of coal dust that is present or may be deposited in the
immediate future. Objection has been made to the use of rock dust
because of the alleged danger to miners’ lungs, but pulverized shale
dust has been shown by British commissions investigating this point
not to be injurious.
The use of shale dust in an amount equal to or ranging to twice the
amount of coal dust does not require the mechanical mixing of the shale
with the coal dust, as the air waves advancing before an explosion raise
both the coal dust and shale dust into suspension and they are thus
automatically mixed in the air. It is, however, considered safer to
have the shale dust in the top layer.


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MONTHLY LABOE BEVIEW.

Other tests have been made on a variety of barriers the purpose of
which is to launch into the air the rock dust or shale dust on the barriers
by the violent air waves which always immediately precede an explosive
flame. The inert dust absorbs heat and separates individual particles
of coal dust by a screen of incombustible dust. If sufficient inert dust
is thus automatically put into the air it has been found that it will
extinguish the most violent as well as the weaker explosions. The
use of barriers instead of rendering coal dust inert by water or rock
dusting is not advocated by the bureau but it does consider them
valuable as additional precautions.
Further tests on most of these questions are contemplated as well
as on problems which have as yet received little attention, with the
possible result, it is stated, that modifications in the systems used and
in those proposed for safeguarding against explosions may be shown
to be desirable.
Gas Masks and Respirators for Use in Railroad Tunnels.1

SERIES of tests by engineers of the United States Bureau of
Mines have been made for the purpose of devising a mask for
the protection of train crews in passing through railroad tun­
nels. Analyses were also made of tunnel atmospheres in order to
determine the amount of dangerous gases present. Recent investi­
gation has shown that the Army gas mask while affording protec­
tion from all the gases met in warfare does not protect against all
|
gases met in industry, particularly against carbon monoxide and
against such common industrial gases as illuminating gas, natural gas,
and ammonia. Work has been done by the bureau on a “ universal”
mask which would protect the wearer against all the gases commonly
met and a light-weight form of this mask has been developed for the
use of city firemen.
The air in a railroad tunnel is affected by the flue gases and smoke
particles from the steam locomotive and the amount of such gases
present varies with the coal used, the method of firing, and the excess
of air admitted to the fire box. The dangerous products resulting
from combustion of the fuel are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide,
and sulphur dioxide. Immediately after firing these gases are present
in greater quantities, and for this reason firing of locomotives is seldom
done just before entering or while passing through a tunnel. Carbon
dioxide, it is stated, is one of the least troublesome of tunnel gases
since about 3 per cent in the atmosphere can be breathed without
noticeable effect and it is not asphyxiating until it reaches more than
6 per cent, a point which is unlikely to be reached in railroad tunnels.
The percentage of sulphur dioxide also is never large enough to be
dangerous but it causes much discomfort because of its irritating
effect on the eyes and throat. Other sources of irritation in locomo­
tive smoke are solid particles of ash, cinders, soot, tar, and vapors.
While none of these substances are poisonous they are extremely ^
disagreeable when mixed with exhaust steam and breathed at an
uncomfortably high temperature. The temperatures in the locomo

A

1

United States Bureau of Mines Technical Paper 292: Tests of gas masks aud respirators for protection
from locomotive smoke in railroad tunnels with analyses of tunnel atmospl leres. Washington, 1922.


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INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS AND HYGIENE.

229

tive cab were found to ran^e from 50° to 100° F. higher than the
normal tunnel atmosphere due to the heat radiated from the boiler
and firebox together with the hot smoke and exhaust steam. In
actual temperature tests a maximum of 131° F. was registered,
although it was considered that sometimes the temperatures must
have been much higher owing to the lag in registration of the ther­
mometer.
Numerous cases, both in this country and abroad, are cited of
train crews or workmen being overcome 'by heat and flue gases, gen­
erally when heavy trains with more than one locomotive became
stalled.
Experiments were made with three types of gas masks, two of
which, the Army mask and a pocket canister, gave protection from
sulphur dioxide, smoke, cinders, and all flue gases except carbon mo­
noxide, and the third ol which included carbon monoxide protection.
The pocket canister, which was found perfectly satisfactory, con­
tained a granular mixture of charcoal and soda' lime, the soda lime
granules containing a mixture of caustic soda, slaked lime, and
Portland cement. The bottom of the canister is perforated with
small holes with a screen to retain the charcoal and soda-lime ab­
sorbent. A piece of Turkish toweling is placed on top of the absorb­
ent to act as a filter and a stiff wire screen is held rigidly upon the
absorbent by springs. The canister is held in the mouth by thin
rubber leaves and each canister has clips for closing the nostrils
attached to it by cords. Rubber-edged goggles were found to prevent
eye irritation from the sulphur dioxide.
The engineers and firemen have been accustomed in going through
tunnels to breathe through handerchiefs stuffed into their mouths.
Although this gives some relief from the heat and smoke particles it
does not serve for the choking gases and vapors.
The tests which were made under the ordinary conditions prevail­
ing in both ventilated and unventilated tunnels did not show dan­
gerous percentages of carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide present,
although there was always enough sulphur dioxide to be extremely
irritating. It is considered that while it is possible that in the event
of a tram being stalled men using the charcoal and soda-lime canister
might be asphyxiated by carbon monoxide, this hazard is so unusual
that ordinarily it is not necessary to carry protection against this gas.
The pocket canisters are much more convenient to carry than the
Army gas masks but as they contain only from one-fourth to onethird tire quantity of absorbent their capacity for holding gas is
correspondingly reduced. They are, however, a satisfactory protec­
tion against mild concentrations of poisonous gases and vapors and
against coarse dust and the large carbonized particles present in
locomotive smoke.
Metalliferous Mine Accidents in Colorado, 1920 and 1921.

MONG the tabular statements published in the annual report
of the Colorado Bureau of Mines for the year 1921 is the fol­
lowing in which the fatal and serious accidents in the metal
mines, quarries, mills, and smelters of the State are shown for 1920
and 1921:

A


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MONTHLY LABOE REVIEW.

D AYS OF EMPLOYMENT IN AN D ABOUT METAL M INES. MILLS, SM ELTERS, AND QUAR­
RIES, AND NU M BER OF MEN K ILLED AN D SE R IO USLY IN JU R E D P E R 10,000 DAYS OF
EMPLOYMENT IN 1920 A N D 1921.
Days of
employment.

Serious injuries
(time lost over 14 days).

Fatalities.

1920

1921

1920

1921

Kind of mine.
1920

1921

Num­ Rate Num­ Rate Num­ Rate Num­ Rate
ber of per ber of per ber of per ber of per
acci­
acci­
acci­
acci­
dents. days. dents. days. dents. days. dents. days.

10,000

1,100,688

382, 719
776,046
1,35L 585
' 185j 461
20; 896
Placer mines (dredges)..

859, 185
285,030
207,723
395', 109
151, 554
12,515
11,259

22 0.1998
5 . 1306
2 .0257
3 .0221
4 .2157
1 .4785

10,000

17 0.1978
.0350

1
1
1

.0253
.0659

7 6.2170

10,000

190
62
39
63
29
9

1.726
1.620
.502
.465
1. .563
4.307

10,000

138
55
17
26

21
2
8

1.501
1.929
.81.83
.658
1.385
1.598
7.105

1Not segregated in 1920.

Effects of Fatigue and Temperature on Causation of Industrial
Accidents, Great Britain.

RECENTLY published British report 1 gives the results of
studies of the influence of temperature and other conditions
on the frequency of industrial accidents and of the relation
of fatigue and accuracy to speed and duration of work. In a study
by the Health of Munition Workers’ Committee in 1918 it was shown
that the temperature of workshops exercised a very marked influence
upon the accident incidence. In the present investigation a con­
tinuous temperature record was kept for a nine-month period in a
factory making 9.2-inch howitzer shells, and for a twelve-month
period in a factory making 6-inch shells. As cuts formed over 70
per cent of all the accidents treated and as they afford a reliable
indication of accident frequency since nearly all persons thus injured
report for treatment, the accident records were confined to this form
of injury. In the first factory it was found that both men and women
experienced a minimum number of cuts at 70° to 74° F. with a sharp
rise in the number at higher temperatures. At temperatures below
70° to 74° there was a gradual increase in accident frequency which
reached its maximum for both men and women at 50° to 54°, no
temperature lower than 50° being recorded. While the processes of
manufacture in the two factories are very similar, they take about
twice as long for the larger sized shell, so that there is usually
more waiting and standing about in this factory. This was con­
sidered to account in part for the fact that in the 6-inch shell
factory the minmum accident frequency was at temperatures rang­
ing from 65° to 69°, the differences in the methods of heating also
being considered a factor in this result. The highest accident rate
was found to be at the same temperatures as at the first factory,
50° to 54°, with a slight reduction in the accident rates at lower
temperatures. This reduction in the rates at the lowest tempera-

A

1

Great Britain. Industrial Fatigue Research Board. Report No. 19: Two contributions to the study of
accident causation. London, 1922. General series No. 7.


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231

tures was considered to be due probably to insufficiency in the number
of records or to the fact that in very cold weather the production
rate and with it the liability to accidents was likely to be reduced. It
is pointed out in this connection that the best temperature for ac­
cident prevention is not necessarily the best one for working efficiency,
although there is no exact information as to what constitutes the best
temperature for work requiring different degrees of exertion. Ac­
cidents increased with the fall of temperature at about the same
rate among both men and women, averaging about 35 per cent more
accidents at the maximum than at the minimum temperature.
The hourly incidence of accidents in the day shift at the projectile
factory followed closely the variations in output. They were low at
first, reached their maximum in the middle of the shift, and were then
gradually reduced. The night-shift accidents, however, showed no
relation to output, being greatest during the first hour of work, after
which there was a sharp decrease. Psychical factors were considered
to contribute to this result. The influence of fatigue in causing ac­
cidents was evident in the 6-inch shell factory as a reduction in the
hours from 61 to 39^ per week for women was followed by a large
reduction in the number of accidents.
The study of the relation of fatigue and accuracy to speed and
duration of work presents data bearing on the extent to which inac­
curacy of movement depends upon the rate of movement or upon
fatigue. In all the experiments two tests of muscular precision
involving eye-hand coordination were used, and while the results
obtained were not considered conclusive since modification of the ex­
periments might show more or less different results, the data given
in the report show that—
* * * (1) An increase in rate of movement (for certain rates used) causes an
increase in the inaccuracy of movement, and that the faster the rate in operation
at any time, the greater in general is the increase in inaccuracy produced by any unit
increase in rate; (2) continuous work for several hours (in one case for 31 hours) with
tests of motor precision fails to show a gradual increase in inaccuracy but the very
reverse, the resulting inaccuracy curve being almost the exact opposite of the typical
industrial accident curve for the morning hours; (3) a curve for inaccuracy of movement,
broadly similar to the typical industrial accident curve for the morning hours, can be
experimentally obtained by gradually increasing the rate of movement in a morning
period of continuous work with motor precision tests.
In view of what is known concerning hourly variations in speed of production, the
conclusion suggested by these results is that the principal factor in the hourly varia­
tions in the number of industrial accidents is not “fatigue,” but rate of work. There
may be hours of the workday for which this conclusion is not true, and the question
whether this is so or not is highly important; but the conclusion seems true for the
morning hours at least.


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W O R K M E N 'S C O M P E N S A T IO N A N D SO C IA L
IN SU R A N C E .

Recent Compensation Reports.
Hawaii.

HE Workmen’s Compensation Law of Hawaii, 1915, establishes
separate industrial accident boards for each of the four coun­
ties of the Territory. By far the greater part of the industry
and population comes under the jurisdiction of the Honolulu board,
covering the Island of Oahu. This board reports for the year ending
June 30, 1922, a total of 2,584 accidents, of which 1,714 were minor,
i. e., the disability did not exceed 7 days, so that no compensation
was required. However, in a number of these, wages were paid
during the whole of the disability period. In 826 cases there was
total disability varying from 10 days to 3 months, and in 23 the
disability had not yet terminated. There was 1 case of permanent
total disability, while 20 accidents were fatal. Disability cases, 1,009
in number, called for awards amounting to $29,358; while for per­
manent partial disability (65 claims) $28,182.72 was paid in addi­
tion to $2,808.77 for total disability preceding the permanent partial
status. In addition to the above, $2,259.10 was paid out for medical
and hospital expenses, making a total of $33,250.59.
Awards in death cases amounted to $36,503.91, medical, hospital,
and burial expenses bringing the total up to $37,528.36. The total
awards for all classes amounted to $94,004.63, besides $33,197.91 for
medical and hospital expenses. Medical and hospital expenses pro­
vided by sugar plantations and by the city and county of Honolulu
are not included in the above.
The Hawaii board reported 928 accidents, the majority of which
were minor cases. Six were fatal and 84 necessitated loss of time
ranging from 1 to 3 months. The Maui board reported 767 accidents,
212 of which caused disability of more than 7 days’ duration, besides
134 pending, and 7 fatalities. The total compensation paid for
disabdities was $5,191.78, nearly all of which is by self-insuring
concerns. The board in Kauai reported 187 accidents, 5 of which
were fatal. Compensation was reported in 66 cases.

T

Kentucky.

HTHE Kentucky Workmen’s Compensation Board has recently issued
its fifth annual report, covering the year ending June 30, 1921.
The compensation statute, according to the report, seems to be satis­
factory in its workings, judging from the few complaints that have
reached the board, and during the year there has been a large increase
in the number of employers who have elected to operate under the
act. Of the 8,566 employers who have accepted the act since its
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233

inception, only 52 have withdrawn and of these many have either
gone out of business or have reaccepted the act under a new name.
Risks are divided into two groups for insurance rating purposes—coal mining and industrial. Mine rates are dealt with as a single
class, while industrial risks are divided into 953 separate classes
with varying basic rates. A request to the board for an increase in
rates allowed insurance carriers was followed by an investigation
which resulted, first, in a refusal to allow the increase, and second,
on further investigation in a downward revision of the existing
rates. The basic coal mine rate was reduced from $3.65 to $3.40,
and the minimum rate from $2.75 to $2.50. In the revision of
industrial rates the basic rates on 495 classifications were decreased,
and 362 were increased, while on 96 the old rate was retained. The
net result as regards industrial risks was an average about equal to
the old rate, but taking into consideration the increased benefits
under the 1920 amendment to the act, there is an average decrease;
while on the same basis the decrease in the coal-mining rate is
greater than appears from the reduction of premiums.
The report shows the number of employers electing each year, the
number in 1921 being greater than for any previous year except the
first, being 1,765 as against 1,126 last year and 807 in the year pre­
ceding that. The number of accidents reported in 1921 (fiscal year)
was 16,909 as compared to 16,155 in the previous year. Several
financial statements and a number of tables of accidents are given.
The accident data are not classified, being merely detailed state­
ments as to the number of accidents reported from each of the
various industries with classifications according to cause, 86 causes
being named. A statement is made of the number of cases in which
agreements were approved for specific periods of compensation, of
the nature of injury indicated by the agreements approved, etc.
The lack of classification makes any comparisons with other reports
impossible, nor can any summary be made of the figures for the
State itself. The total compensation agreed upon was $446,734.81,
while the amounts arrived at under written awards total $184,821.93.
The number of persons injured at different ages and the weekly wages
of those injured are also given in another section, the largest number
(1,532) receiving $30 per week.
Recommendations to the legislature include one for the transfer
of the control of rates to the insurance department of the State,
leaving the compensation board free to devote its entire time to the
administration of the other provisions of the act. Recommenda­
tions made in the last report are repeated in regard to the clarifica­
tion of the situation as to the maximum weekly benefit. The
original allowance of $12 was in some sections of the act changed to
$15 in 1920, but others were left unchanged, resulting in a confused
and complicated system which the board recommends should be
corrected so as to provide a uniform maximum of not less than $15
per week.
Nebraska.

■"THE Department of Labor of Nebraska has issued a typewritten
A report showing the activities of the compensation division for
the six months ending December 30, 1922, and a resume of activities
for the four-year period 1919 to 1922. A report for the calendar

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M ONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

year 1922 is also given. This later report shows 13,932 first reports
and 11,629 final reports during the year; 2,303 cases are therefore
pending. Lump-sum settlements, 40 in number, involved the
amount of $64,551.79. The total compensation paid during the
year was $526,715.46, besides medical and hospital expenses amount­
ing to $181,231.56, or a total of $707,947.02.
The number of accidents for the year is the greatest reported dur­
ing the history of the law, but only by a rather small margin as there
were 13,676 in 1920 and 13,293 in 1917. However, the compensa­
tion paid is greater by more than $120,000 than the amount paid
in 1920, while in 1917 it was but $101,204.51, besides medical, etc.,
expenses.
During the last four years compensation has been paid when due,
as well as medical and hospital expenses, in approximately 47,000
cases “ without a dispute” ; investigations by adjusters of insurance
companies or by self-insured employers have followed rather than
preceded the grant of medical attention. “ If compensation was
coming to the injured worker it was paid at the end of the second
week following the accident, as provided by law.”
The number of cases coming before the commissioner on contest
has greatly increased, but 74 being heard during the years 1917-18,
while during the four years 1919 to 1922 the commissioner passed on
774 contested cases.
Pennsylvania.
Report of Bureau of Workmen's Compensation, 1922.

rT H E Bureau of Workmen’s Compensation of the Department of
Labor and Industry of Pennsylvania has furnished in typewritten
form a summary report of the accidents, etc., during the calendar year
1922, together with data covering the period of the operation of the
law, from January 1, 1916, to December 31, 1922. The number of
accidents reported in 1922 was 146,255, an increase of 6,058 as compared
with the previous year, but nearly 40,000 less than in 1918, and more
than 100,000 less than in 1916, when 255,616 were reported. How­
ever, the number of compensable accidents was greater in 1922
(86,367) than in any other year with the exception of 1920, when
93,598 were found compensable. The total number of accidents
reported since the compensation law became effective is 1,282,315.
Fatal cases in 1922 aggregated 1890, of which 732 were in the
industrial group, 809 in the mining industry, and 349 in the public
service group. The number of fatal accidents last year was the
smallest for any year since the inception of the act, despite the fact
that there was a serious catastrophe in the Cambria County coal
mines in which 77 persons were killed. Expenses of this accident are
said by “ a conservative estimate” to be $225,000. So far as records
to date disclose there were 31 widows, 10 mothers, 9 fathers, and 53
boys and 45 girls under 16 who were beneficiaries under the agree­
ments approved by the board.
The number of agreements for the payment of compensation
approved during the year was 62,793, including 1,565 fatal and 1,173
permanent disability cases. Of this latter group total disability
was due in 14 cases to the loss of both eyes; 5 to the loss of both hands;


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WORKMEN S COMPENSATION AND SOCIAL INSURANCE.

235

1 to the loss of both arms; 6 to the loss of both feet; 3 to the loss of
both legs; and 34 to miscellaneous causes.
The total compensation incurred by all agreements was $10,853,344,
distributed as follows: Fatal cases, $5,062,490; permanent disability,
$2,226,364; temporary disability, $3,564,490. The total compensation
incurred during the history of the act is $69,892,995.
The average compensation per case of death in 1922 was $3,497.50
in 1,444 cases. In 3,180 cases there were no dependents, the average
payment in such cases being $97.96.
A series of tables shows for each principal member the total number
of agreements and awards and the total compensation incurred for
dismemberment during the history of the act. The average in 3,905
cases of loss of eye was $1,334; these include 99 cases in which both
eyes were lost. For the loss of a hand (including 12 cases in which
both hands were lost) the average in 1,649 cases was $1,727; for the
loss of an arm (including one loss of both arms) an average of $2,070
in 517 cases; for the loss of a foot (including 15 cases in which both
feet were lost), $1,551 in 859 cases; for the loss of a leg (including 15
cases in which both legs were lost), $2,041 in 650 cases.
Temporary disabilities were compensated to the number of 60,055;
the average compensation for the 7 years has been $47 each in 427,266
cases.
During 1922 contested cases were assigned to referees in 2,388
instances; in S86, awards were approved; in 539, they were disallowed;
while 809 cases were dismissed and 157 withdrawn. Petitions for
modification, review, termination, and reinstatement of agreements
amounted to 2,077; of these 1,154 were granted and 894 refused,
leaving 29 pending.
The compensation bureau maintains an adjustment division
consisting of a force of eight men with headquarters in four principal
industrial centers and the chief adjuster at the capital. “ The services
of these adjusters have been the means of settling many disputed
cases, which otheiwise would have resulted in litigation and legal
expense to employers and employees. ” A plea is made for an increase
in the number of these men by whose activities the number of dis­
puted claims “ could be materially reduced.” The total number of
cases investigated and adjusted in 1922 was 3,803; compensation
agreements were secured and approved in 1,626 instances; in 218 cases
noncompensable accidents were adjusted; in 154, interstate commerce
cases were settled under the Federal Liability Act, not coming under
the compensation statute; in 259, fatal cases were investigated and
closed in which no dependents were found, etc. There were 159 cases
on hand at the close of the year.
A division of exemption and insurance considers the application of
persons desiring self-msurance. There were 514 applications during
the year, chiefly among the larger employers. “ In normal times
the self-insured companies have two-thirds of the accidents of the
State. No employee in Pennsylvania has ever suffered the loss of
any or all of his compensation due to the failure of a self-insurer to
comply with the provisions set forth in his application for exemption. ”
The law of Pennsylvania requires each employer either to insure
his liability or obtain exemption, and an amendment of 1921 pre­
scribes a penalty of $1 per day for each employee during the con284910—23----- 16

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M ONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

tinuance of the failure of the employer to take the required steps.
The effort to reduce the number of rejections of the compensation
act to a minimum has resulted in a reduction of these rejections to
75 companies, the majority of which employ hut one person or “ are
in extremely nonhazardous industries. ” The penalizing amend­
ment above referred to is said to have aided particularly in the success
of this effort.
Report of State Workmen’s Insurance Fund, 1921.

The manager of the State Workmen’s Insurance Fund of Penn­
sylvania has issued a condensed financial statement of the fund
as of December 31, 1921. This shows assets aggregating $5,657,952.67. The various classes of reserves aggregate $2,748,045; other
liabilities are incurred in the 1922 premium paid in advance, amount­
ing to $205,641.55, showing a surplus of $2,704,266.12.
The statement bears the announcement that initial rates of the
fund are 10 per cent below those of other carriers, so that compari­
sons as to expense ratio must be made with that in mind. A table
is presented showing earned premium, incurred expenses, expense
ratio, and interest ratio, for all carriers in the State writing over
$300,000 of industrial compensation insurance, and oyer $200,000
of coal mine compensation insurance. The State fund is one of the
four leading insurance carriers in industrial insurance, and one of
two in coal mining. The largest amount of earned premium was
received by the Pennsylvania Manufacturers’ Association Casualty
Insurance Co., the amount being $2,284,890 with an expense ratio
of 17 per cent and interest ratio of 5.8 per cent. The next largest
premium was $2,171,804, written by the Travelers’ Insurance Co.;
this had an expense ratio of 44.8 and an insurance ratio of 5. The
third company in rank was the Aetna Life Insurance Co. with an
earned premium amounting to $1,155,204, an expense ratio of 44.9,
and an interest ratio of 4.6. The State fund had earned premiums
amounting to $1,153,724, with an expense ratio of 18.2 and an interest
ratio of 12.5. The next highest company had earned premiums
amounting to $899,495. Expense ratios ranged from 89.2 to 17 per
cent, noted for the Pennsylvania Manufacturers’ Association Casualty
Insurance Co.
In coal mining the Associated Companies was the largest carrier,
with $1,523,090 earned premiums, an expense ratio of 37, and an
interest ratio of 5. The State fund comes next with $1,183,215
earned premiums, an expense ratio of 22, and an interest ratio of
12.5. The next highest company had an earned premium of $580,321.
Expense ratios ranged from 42 to 22.
The statement was made that if insurance had been written at
stock company rates, the expense ratio of the State fund would have
been 16.5 per cent (the lowest) of industrial premiums and 20 per
cent of coal mining premiums. The high ratio of interest earnings
to premium income reduces the actual expense ratio of the State fund
to 5.7 per cent of industrial premiums and 9.5 per cent of coal mine
premiums, placing the expense ratio for the State fund in a class
entirely by itself.


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Tennessee.

TTHE Bureau of Factory and Workshop Inspection of Tennessee is
1 charged with the administration of the compensation act of this
State, and it includes in its ninth annual report a brief statistical state­
ment of the accidents reported from July 1, 1920, to December 31, 1921,
a period of 18 months, classified according to source and nature of the
injuries and the amount of compensation paid. The number of acci­
dents was 25,370, involving compensation amounting to $311,851.06.
The accidents for the year July 1 , 1920, to July 1 , 1921, numbered
17,189, of which 3,139 were compensated, calling for $249,999 in
benefits. For the last 6 months of 1921 the number of accidents was
8,181, of which 1,347 were found compensable, calling for $61,852.06.
Of the total number of accidents for the 18 months, 17,858 are re­
ported as occurring in manufacturing. Coal mines are not covered
by the act except by election, and the statistics indicate only a slight
election to come under the act, all mines (iron, copper, zinc, phos­
phate, and coal) furnishing but 1,884 accidents, only slightly above
the number in lumber (1,684) and foundries (1,662). These three
groups are included under the classification “ Manufactures.”
United States.

T T IE United States Employees Compensation Commission’s latest
1 report covers the year ending June 30, 1922, being the sixth
annual report. The accident data chiefly relate to the experience of
the calendar year 1921, covering cases upon which final action was
taken during that year.
The custom of preceding years in making specific recommendations
for amendatory legislation is not followed, but emphasis is laid upon
the need of thorough investigations, demands for which “ have been
throughout the year past greatly in excess of the powers of the com­
mission’s limited force.” It is also pointed out that amounts “ likely
to be paid as compensation because of lack of sufficient investigation
are many times in excess of the possible cost of the making of proper
investigations.”
The rapid readjustment of working forces in the various depart­
ments following the war led to a considerable scattering of claimants,
with corresponding difficulties of investigations and reports; the
making of claims has also been affected. In this connection the
hardship resulting from the requirement of notice of claim within
one year is referred to, but “ in view of the expressed time limitation
of the compensation act it is not possible to grant relief in these
cases.” In connection with the above, note may be made, though
not referred to in the report, of an amendment to the twentieth
section of the act, approved June 13, 1922. This extends the period
for making original claims of civilian employees of the expeditionary
forces of the United States serving outside the territory of the United
States, and sustaining injury during the period of the Great War,
for a term of one year after the passage of this act.
A third point that is dwelt upon at some length is injuries as dis­
tinguished from accidents. The policy of the commission to construe
the term “ personal injuries” as covering not only accidents, but also
“ any bodily injury or disease due to the performance of duties and

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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

causing incapacity for work” is set forth. There is also a detailed
table showing injuries caused by poisonous and corrosive substances
and occupational diseases. The showing in this connection is purely
factual in form, but is in effect a cogent argument in behalf of the
inclusion of such injuries under the act.
Table 1 of the statistical presentation shows the number of injuries
reported and claims received from the enactment of the law, Sep­
tember 7, 1916, to September 30, 1922. The number for the calendar
year 1921 was 18,390, as against 20,080 for the preceding year, a
decrease of 8.4 per cent. The number of claims received was 8,167,
of which 310 were for death. There were 10,932 claims in 1920, of
which 427 were for death. The monthly data for the nine months
of 1922 show uniformly a decrease from the previous year in so far
as claims are concerned, and in five months for the number of injuries
reported.
The second table shows the number of injuries, by extent of dis­
ability, for each department or important bureau or establishment
during the calendar year 1921. The injury hazard naturally varies
greatly in the different departments according to the nature of the
work; there is also a great difference in the number of employees.
For these reasons a mere enumeration of the number of persons
injured in each department lacks the significance that it would have
if numbers and occupations were more fully set forth. However, it
is obvious that in the navy yards and arsenals, and in the railway
mail service there is a greater hazard than in the offices in which
clerical employees predominate. The Department of Agriculture
reports 423 injuries, of which 8 were fatal; of these, 217 with 4
fatalities were in the Forest Service. In The Department of Com­
merce there were 163 injuries, 6 being fatal; of these, 91 were in
lighthouse operations, all fatalities occurring in that connection.
The Government Printing Office reports 75 injuries, 1 fatal. In the
Interior Department there were 553 injuries and 12 fatalities; of
these, 313 with 5 deaths were in the Reclamation Service. In the
Department of Labor there were 66 injuries reported, 1 of them being
fatal. The Navy Department repor ted 2,802 injuries, of which 36 were
fatal; of these, 2,272 injuries and 27 fatalities were in the navy yards.
The Post Office Department ranks next to highest with 3,592 injuries
and 51 deaths. The city mail service (outdoor) is responsible for
1,892 injuries and 15 deaths, while the aerial service is charged with 57
injuries, 15 of which were fatal. The Treasury Department reported
759 injuries, 25 being fatal; the largest number of injuries occurring
in the Bureau of Engraving and Printing (261), though a slight
majority of the fatalities (13) was in the Internal Revenue Service.
The War Department shows the highest number of injuries, 4,098,
and also of deaths, 114. The Engineering Department is charged
with 1,483 injuries and 62 deaths, and the Quartermaster Department
with 1,232 injuries and 31 deaths; the Ordnance ranks next with
1,029 injuries, though but 13 deaths were reported. The Shipping
Board shows a high rate of fatalities compared with the total number
of injuries, there being 50 fatal cases out of 177 injuries reported.
This is doubtless due to the nature of the employment, which includes
a number of sailors on vessels, who are subject to the seamen’s rights
of care, cure, and continuance of wages for the term of the voyage.


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This would dispose of a lar^e number of temporary disability cases,
so that there would be neither claim nor report of the injury. The
grand total is 12,906 injuries, of which 310 resulted in death, 89 in
permanent total disability, 571 in permanent partial disability, and
11,936 in temporary total disability.
Of this latter group, 2,231 recovered within 3 days, while 2,435
returned to work within 4 to 7 days, inclusive. The number whose
disability continued from 8 to 14 days was 2,552; from 15 to 21 days,
1,335; from 22 to 28 days, 826; and over 28 days, 2,557.
A similar distribution to that used in the foregoing table is followed
in Table 3, which shows the number of injuries and duration of dis­
ability for tabulatable accidents and awards for compensated cases.
The data here given are affected by the fact that in the Government
service the grant of annual leave is availed of in a number of cases,
thus securing the continuance of full wages for such period as the
employee may elect up to the statutory allowance. This renders
the figures for awards incomparable with the results under State
laws where employees involved have only the award under the com­
pensation statute. Thus, when only the compensated cases are con­
sidered, 5.6 per cent of the time lost in 1920 was covered by leave with
pay, while for 1921, 7.2 per cent was thus cared for. In a very consid­
erable number of cases no claim is filed, the commission being able to
render “ no entirely satisfactory explanation ” for such failure. Of the
total number of temporary total disabilities disposed of during the cal­
endar year 1921, 11,936 in number, 6,502 were followed by compensa­
tion, 2,730 were cared for by absence with pay, while in 518 cases, with
a total duration of 5,684 days, no claim was filed. In 2,186 cases
disability continued for not more than 3 days, the total being 4,502
days’ disability. The average days’ duration of all cases was 24, and
of compensated cases 37; while the average award, which does not
include the amount of leave with pay, was $66.70.
Other tables show the number of permanent partial disabilities
with duration and awards for compensated cases; medical payments
for each department and office; total medical payments in all cases
included in annual reports from September 7, 1916, to December 31,
1921; permanent partial disabilities by location for the same period;
nature of injury with resulting disability for the calendar year 1921;
nonfatal cases showing results in cases with infection; distribution of
accidents according to the duration of disability and extent of
permanent disability; duration of disability in cases of temporary
total disability; comparison of wage loss and compensation paid;
deaths with and without dependents and value of awards; widows to
whom compensation was awarded for the period of the law; cessation
of dependency of widows for the same period; duration of widow­
hood in cases of remarriage; remarriage rates by ages of widows for
a six-year period; summary of awards and valuations for the calendar
year Í921; and injuries caused by poisonous and corrosive substances
and occupational diseases.
Permanent partial disabilities, reported in Table 4, are treated
under the Federal statute in a different method from that used by
most of the States. Payment is made for the term of permanent
disability, but on return to work without loss of wage the case is con­
sidered closed. However, subsequent loss of earnings due to the same


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injury may lead to a reopening of the case despite its apparent termi­
nation. In 1921, 277 dismemberment cases were closed in the above
sense, showing an average duration of time lost, 106 days. Of these,
230 were compensated for an average of 124 days and an average
award of $713.36. In 29 cases the time loss was covered by leave, in
7 others no claim was filed, in 4 disability caused less than 3 days loss
of time, and in 7 no time was lost. Besides these there were 293
cases of loss of function only, with an average time loss of 300 days;
of these, 267 were compensated for an average of 327 days each, the
average award being $1,462.08. There were 26 cases not compen­
sated for the same reasons as above, 17 by reason of being covered
by leave.
The Federal statute bases compensation on the salary, giving twothirds pay up to $100, so that the maximum benefit is $66.67 per
month. A table is given showing a comparison between wage loss
and compensation paid, from which it appears that for the 6,502
compensated cases in 1921 there was a wage loss of $1,000,640.52,
while compensation amounted to $433,698.55, or but 43.34 per cent
of the wage loss. This slightly exceeds the percentage in 1920, when
it was but 41.18. “ For the higher paid employees the percentage
of the wage loss received as compensation was considerably below
40 per cent; in other words, the employee’s money loss of wages
because of injuries greatly exceeds the compensation cost to the
Government.”
Of 310 fatal cases passed upon by the commission in 1921, 60 were
without dependents, while 250 left dependents of various classes,
totaling 537. Of these, 162 were widows, 131 were sons under 18
years of age, and 132 were daughters under the same age, while
dependents over 18 years of age and incapable of self-support were
10 in number. There were 33 fathers and 60 mothers, besides other
relatives. Of 135 widows whose dependency ceased between Sep­
tember 7, 1916, and September 6, 1922, 79 had children and 56 were
without children; dependency ceased in 102 cases by reason of remar­
riage and in 33 by reason of death. There were 4 remarriages between
3 and 6 months after the death of the husband and 11 more before
the first year’s expiration. The largest number (21) married after
12 but under 18 months of widowhood, 20 more marrying before the
expiration of the second year. The next two 6-months’ periods
show 13 and 16 additional marriages, respectively. Seven remarried
after more than 4 years. The remarriage rate for the 6-year period
is somewhat higher than for the 5-year period shown in the fifth
annual report, being 3.72, as against the showing last year of 3.68,
but is still considerably below the 3-year experience shown by a
Pennsylvania report covering 3 years, which gave the remarriage
rate of 4.16 per hundred widows. The rate for those under 21 was
17.95, and from 21 to 26, 8.93, the reduction continuing until at the
ages 46 and under 51 the rate was but 0.72 per cent, no marriage
being reported above that age. The average age of those remarried
was 29, which was identical with that of Pennsylvania.
Combining the cessations by reason of remarriage and those by
reason of death, a combined cessation rate is given of 4.92 per hun­
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The table on occupational diseases, etc., shows 81 cases of injury
due to the handling of or contact with poisonous substances, 2 of
them resulting fatally; 78 cases of injury from inhaling poisonous
fumes, 1 resulting fatally; 3 from swallowing poisonous substances,
1 resulting fatally; 109 from handling or contact with corrosive sub­
stances, 1 resulting fatally; 2 from inhaling fumes from corrosive
substances; while 47 others, 9 of them fatal, are charged to occupa­
tional diseases, though the term is not used in its ordinary sense,
the diseases being bronchitis, diphtheria, malaria, tuberculosis, etc.,
found to have been incurred by reason of the condition of the
employment.
Unemployment Insurance, by Industries, Great Britain.

HE Ministry of Labor Gazette of Great Britain of December,
1922, carries a memorandum of the Minister of Labor addressed
to the National Confederation of Employers’ Organizations and
the Trades Union Congress General Council. In February, 1922, the
then Minister of Labor addressed a letter to representative associa­
tions of employers and employed with regard to the possibility and
desirability of placing unemployment insurance on the basis of
insurance by industries. A large number of such letters were sent
out, but “ the number of replies received has been frankly disap­
pointing—about 10 per cent.” However, so pressing is the situation
with regard to unemployment insurance that it was regarded as
desirable “ to consider the whole problem on the broadest lines,”
and with specific regard to a recommendation of a special committee
that the possibility of extending unemployment insurance by indus­
tries be further explored. . “ The problem of unemployment is among
the most urgent and serious of present times, and, while the existing
crisis must be dealt with by emergency measures, I regard it as
scarcely less important to take early measures in order to secure the
continuance in future of a comprehensive scheme of unemployment
insurance.” '
The appointment of a committee of experts to consider the matter
of insurance by industries had been recommended, but the circum­
stances did not seem favorable to such action. The letter above
referred to was, however, thought desirable as a preparatory step.
The existing law carries a limited provision enabling an industry
to undertake its own insurance. The memorandum states that this
provision (sec. 18 of the act of 1920) has thus far been made use of
by but one industry, and that this scheme is now in suspense owing
to the financial condition of the Unemployment Insurance Fund.
Formidable difficulties of demarcation are recognized, “ and the
necessary measure of common agreement among the diversified
interests which exist in almost any industry is difficult to secure.”
The memorandum continues:

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* * * In any development the main objects to be kept in view are:
(1)
To link up together as closely as possible the financial responsibility for paying
benefit with the responsibility of finding employment so as to give the greatest pos­
sible incentive for the reduction of unemployment.
(2)
To give a full opportunity to industries (or smaller units) of providing for their
own unemployment in the hope that, at any rate in the case of industries with average


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or less than average risks, it will be possible to secure (without any diminution of rea­
sonable contributions from the State) additional advantages for the worker.
Possible methods of securing these objects are indicated in the paragraphs below.
M e th o d A .

It is for consideration whether the responsibility for unemployment and unemploy­
ment insurance should not be deflected entirely away from the State and placed
upon industry. The steps that necessarily have been taken in the past four years
have fostered the view that the responsibility is a State matter. It may be contended
that this is not a right view, and that the duty of making provision for unemployment
should be placed more directly on those engaged in industry. On this basis unemploy­
ment insurance would take some such form as follows:
As from an appointed date a statutory liability would be placed upon every employer
to devise, in association with his workpeople, an approved scheme of unemployment
insurance; by such scheme any workmen in the employment of the employer on or
after the appointed date would, if and when the workmen became unemployed,
receive from the employer (or from such joint agency as the employer and his work­
people might have set up) unemployment benefit at the prescribed rate for a pre­
scribed period.
It is not necessary at this stage to elaborate the details of this proposal, but pro­
visions would probably be required enabling employers to deduct agreed contributions
from the workers’ wages, and arrangements would be necessary for workers not in
employment at the appointed date to remain under the State insurance scheme, at
any rate for a time.
M e th o d B .

Bearing in mind (1) the extent to which there is movement of labor, particularly
unskilled labor, from one industry or establishment to another; (2) the fact that in
almost every trade there is a “ margin” or fringe of labor exposed to more than the
normal risk of unemployment; and (3) the fact that there are very large numbers of
small employers whose circumstances are such that they could not readily set up a
self-contained private scheme, it may be found that there is much to be said for con­
tinuing the State unemployment insurance scheme in its entirety, but at the same time
making arrangements whereby industries having private schemes of insurance would
contribute to the State insurance fund only an appropriate part of the contribution
in order to cover the cost of what might be termed a “ basic rate” of benefit, the
balance of the contribution being retained by the industry for the purpose of providing
other benefits suited to its own conditions. Under such an arrangement all insured
workers in whatever industry, and however they moved from one industry to another,
would be secured at least the advantages of the State scheme; but it is clear that only
industries with relatively low risks would initiate private schemes.
M e th o d C.

Another suggestion, intermediate in character, between Method A and Method B,
would be along the following lines:
(1) There should be every encouragement to employers and workpeople to devise
arrangements which, with proper safeguards, would amount in each case to a self-con­
tained scheme for the industry or part of the industry (including, of course, all classes
of labor employed), those who are out of employment receiving their unemployment
benefit from what may be termed a ‘‘private scheme. ”
_ (2) Private schemes for industries with high risks, as well as for industries with low
risks, should, if possible, be facilitated by means of an adjustment—under adequate
safeguards—of the contribution from the State insurance fund, such contribution being
higher in the case of industries with high risks than in the case of industries with low
risks.
(3) So far as employers and workpeople are not covered by private schemes they
must be dealt with by the State scheme.
(4) In accordance with thegeneral principle of insurance, industries or parts of indus­
tries where unemployment is low must contribute to some extent towards the provision
to be made under the State scheme for industries where unemployment is high.
(5) In order to limit the liability of employers and workpeople and at the same time
to secure to the workpeople the payment of unemployment benefit for a reasonable
period, those insured under a private scheme might be a charge upon that scheme for


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243

some specified period, falling back upon the State scheme when that period has been
exhausted.
(6) Industries or parts of industries which undertook to devise and maintain private
schemes might contribute to the State fund only such amounts as might be ascertained
to be the appropriate charge upon that industry or part of the industry in respect of:
(a) Its proportion of the general burden of unemployment in the country; and (6) the
estimated cost of the fall-back benefit payable from the State insurance fund to the
workpeople in whose cases the payments under the private scheme had come to an end.
(7) Industries or parts of industries that did not devise and maintain private schemes
would have to pay the full contribution to the State insurance fund.
The administrative problem is to determine in relation to each of these alternatives
the way in which private schemes may be encouraged, whilst at the same time securing:
(a ) That there is a definite incentive to industries to devise means whereby the vol­
ume of unemployment is kept as low as possible.
(b ) That workers moving from one industry to another remain effectively covered
by insurance.
(c) That the cost of unemployment insurance to the exchequer is not increased
beyond that normally involved by the present unemployment insurance acts.
(d ) That the arrangements are sufficiently simple not to lead to excessive expendi­
ture upon administration, whether by the Government departments concerned or by
those responsible for the private schemes.


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L A B O R LA W S A N D C O U R T D ECISIO N S.

Decisions of Courts and Opinions Affecting Labor, 1921.

PPROXIMATELY 250 cases, illustrating many phases of the
questions involved in the relations of employers and employees,
are presented in Bulletin 309, Decisions of courts and opinions
affecting labor, 1921, recently published by the United States Bureau
of Labor Statistics. One-half of these cases relate to questions
arising in the administration of the workmen’s compensation laws,
while 37 are selected cases relating to labor organizations, their
status, activities, etc. Other subjects receiving attention are
minimum wage laws, under which four cases are considered and the
Federal statute relating to railroad service, under which there are
twelve. Although a great majority of the States have workmen’s
compensation laws, there is still frequent recourse to the common
law or statutes relative to employers’ liability, a score of such cases
appearing in the report, besides a group in which the rights of seamen
are considered.
The bulletin, while limited to the activities of the courts for a
single year, is in effect a presentation of cases on labor law in which
nearly every active phase of the subject is touched upon. It contains
the important decision of the Supreme Court in the case of American
Steel Foundries v. Tri-City Central Trades Council, in which the
Clayton Act was construed; also the decision of the same court
(Truax v. Corrigan) holding the Arizona statute restricting the issue
of injunctions in labor disputes unconstitutional, more on account of
its construction than on account of its actual terminology.
The constitutionality of the workmen’s compensation law of
Indiana in its compulsory application to coal mines and important
decisions relating to classification, injuries, etc., are among the
important decisions under this head. Diversity of opinion marks
the construction adopted by the courts of different States, as one in
Indiana allowing compensation for death due to the inhalation of
impure air in a mine, while the Supreme Court of Colorado took the
opposite view, though by a divided court.
The exuberant spirit of healthy young workmen frequently finds
expression in acts not connected with the employment, as by throw­
ing missiles, pushing, scuffling, etc., or the perennial criminal folly of
applying compressed air hose to the body, usually with fatal results.
The Supreme Court of Nebraska regarded this last act as compensable,
since under the conditions of employment and the class of workers
employed the event might arise, as it held it did, out of the employ­
ment. The California court, on the other hand, said there was
nothing in the nature of the employment to require the men to
throw missiles, and the contention that some frolicking is inevitable
was not regarded as sufficient justification for an award. In Ohio a

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playful scuffle for the possession of a tool resulted in the loss of an
eye, for which compensation was awarded and affirmed.
When a combination is such a restraint of commerce as to be
a monopoly offensive to the antitrust law, whether membership in
the I. W. W. is itself a violation of a State “ criminal syndicalism”
statute, the rights of members of a local as against the officers of the
federation to which the union belongs, the extent to which picketing
can be engaged in, the legality of boycotts and secondary boycotts,
and the right of an expelled member to reinstatement are discussed
in one or more cases in the section devoted to labor organizations.
None of the cases is reproduced fully, but a summary statement
introduces in most cases quotations from the language of the courts,
setting forth concisely the principal points involved, in such a way as
to facilitate an understanding of the subject matter.

Membership in I. W. W. a Criminal Offense Under California Statute.

N ACT of the California Legislature of 1919 (ch. 188) provides
penalties for what is designated as “ criminal syndicalism.”
The term is defined as “ any doctrine or precept advocating,
teaching, or aiding or abetting the commission of crime, sabotage
(which word is hereby defined as meaning willful and malicious
physical damage or injury to physical property), or unlawful acts of
force and violence or unlawful methods of terrorization as a means
of accomplishing a change in industrial ownership or control, or
affecting any political change.” The second section specifies various
offenses or acts, the commission of which is declared to be felony and
punishable by imprisonment. In the main the list designates acts
of teaching, aiding or abetting by spoken or written words, and the
encouragement and commission of the things condemned by the
law. The fourth subdivision of the section, however, declares that
anyone who “ organizes or assists in organizing, or is or knowingly
becomes a member of any organization,” etc., whose purpose is to
advocate, abet, or aid criminal syndicalism is guilty of a felony.
In a case recently before the District Court of Appeals of California
a conviction of the lower court was affirmed over the contention that
the indictment was defective, the testimony uncertain, and the
evidence insufficient to support the verdict. (People v. Roe, 209
Pac. 381.) The court points out that each of the various subdivisions
of section 2 “ describes or specifically enumerates different and
distinct acts,” the commission of which would necessarily be pleaded
with particularity sufficient to inform the accused of the precise acts
with th e ‘commission of which he was charged. Subdivision 4 on
the other hand declares that membership is in itself an offense, and
this is sufficiently charged by repeating the language of the sub­
division.
“The acts therein denounced as acts of criminal syndicalism are
sufficiently described by the language itself to make it perfectly
clear what was thereby intended,” citing language to that effect in
an earlier case decided by the supreme court of the State (People v.
Steelik, 203 Pac. 78). The indictment charged membership in an
organization “known and designated as ‘the Industrial Workers of

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the World,’ * * * which said organization * * * was then
and there organized and assembled to advocate, teach, and aid and
abet criminal syndicalism.”
In view of this charge and construction of the statute and further
of the admitted membership in the organization, the only point
remaining was to determine whether the organization was one
actually advocating, etc., criminal syndicalism. It was in this con­
nection that the second contention was offered as to the admission
of testimony. One witness, Arada, a laborer, testified that in August,
1917, he and 48 or more other laborers were digging potatoes on a
ranch near Stockton, and that while so engaged some 14 other men
appeared and applied for employment. They were accepted and
worked the remainder of the day, retiring at night to the bunkhouse
on the ranch with the other men. On the following morning the
14 new men abandoned their work and left the farm, the others
continuing their employment. However, they had not proceeded
far until a burning sensation was felt on their feet, which presently
became unbearable so that they could not continue at work. On
removing their shoes they discovered that acid in the form of a
powder had been deposited therein by some one, the resulting in­
juries being so serious as to require medical treatment. Arada
testified that he was compelled, as a result of the burns produced,
to remain in the county hospital under treatment for over a year,
amputation being considered at one time as probably necessary to
save his life. None of the 48 workers was a member of the I. W. W.
but after the 14 left the ranch some I. W. W. papers were found in
the bunkhouse where the latter slept the one night that they were
at the ranch.
It was objected to this testimony that it was hearsay and further
that no definite connection of the acts with the I. W. W. organization
was established and therefore no connection with the present de­
fendant. However, other witnesses who had been members of the
I. W. W. testified that a chemical combination of the nature of the
one used in the instance cited “ was one of the instrumentalities
employed by said-organization to terrorize laboring men and thus
so intimidate them as to cause them to refuse to take employment
in the fields or fruit orchards of the country.” This testimony, to­
gether with the circumstances of finding the I. W. W. papers, was
said to constitute sufficient foundation tor the allowance of Arada’s
testimony, not for the purpose of connecting the defendant Roe with
the acts supposed to have been committed by the 14 men, but solely
to show the character of the organization to which he and they are
alleged to and presumably did belong.
There was other evidence of ex-members of the organization who
had been called upon to testify in detail as to its principles and
activities both prior and subsequent to the date of the enactment of
the statute. The court ruled that this testimony was admissible “ as
tending to disclose the character of said organization —a proposition that had been fully examined and conclusively considered in
the Steelik case referred to above.
The defendant was arrested in June, 1921, while selling and distrib­
uting I. W. W. literature, many copies of which in various forms
he had in his possession. Quotations from these documents set


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forth the well-known attacks on existing governmental and industrial
conditions, declaring that “ the working class and the employing class
have nothing in common/’ and that “ between these two classes a
struggle must go on until the workers of the world organize as a
class, take possession of the earth and the machinery of production,
and abolish the wage system.” The court stated that on the face
of such statements they appeared to be nothing more “ than an
innocent or a legitimate economic proposition. No one of sense and
fairness will deny the right of the laboring classes to maintain an
organization for proper self-protection.” Nor is it a crime to advo­
cate the equal distribution of the fruits of all material or industrial
activity; but “ when in attempting to crystallize such a condition
any organization resorts to criminal acts of any character, or pro­
poses to do it by the destruction of property and vested rights, then
it has clearly transcended the line of demarcation between right and
wrong. * * * The record before us overflows with proof of the
most dastardly crimes known to the criminal law which were resorted
to for the avowed purpose of terrorizing the people, in the vain hope
of intimidating them into accepting the propaganda of the I. W. W.
as the true faith in the matter of government. ” Arson, the will­
ful destruction of machinery, and other acts of terrorization were
named in the testimony of witnesses who were former members of
the organization; and teachings and acts of a criminal nature were
abundantly testified to, as appeared from the record brought up
from the court below.
No error being found in the form of the indictment or in the
admission of evidence, the judgment was affirmed.

Employers’ Liability in Interstate or Intrastate Commerce.

HE Supreme Court of the United States has apparently written
the concluding chapter in an unusual, though in many respects
typical, suit for damages. John W. Kinney was an engineer on
a freight train, employed at the time of his injury in yard service
for the Michigan Central Railway Co. His injury resulted from a
collision of his train with a passenger train of the New York Central
& Hudson River Railroad. The original complaint set forth facts
that would have given a cause of action at common law or under
the statutes of New York or the Federal Employers’ Liability Act,according as one or the other of these laws might be found to govern
»the case. The complaint alleged a notice such as is required by the
New York statute, and to that extent implied an intention to rely
upon that law. The first trial was concluded February 11, 1910, at
which time a verdict of $20,000 was rendered. This was afterwards
set aside and a new trial granted. On January 23, 1911, there was a
retrial and a verdict for $23,000, from which an appeal was taken to
the appellate division which reversed the judgment of the trial court.
The third trial was had in October, 1912, when a verdict for $12,000
was rendered, Ayhich was affirmed on appeal to the appellate division;
however, on June 17, 1913, the court of appeals reversed this judg­
ment and granted a new trial. Kinney’s attorneys then requested

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an order of the court allowing an amendment of the complaint so
as to permit an allegation that the injury was received in interstate
commerce. This order was granted, and was affirmed on appeal to
the appellate division. The fourth trial followed in March, 1917,
which resulted in a disagreement of the jury, while on the fifth trial,
in May, a verdict was rendered of no cause of action. This time the
plaintiff appealed and secured a reversal of the decision of the trial
court and directions for a new trial. This (the sixth) was had on
January 27, 1919, and resulted in a verdict for the plaintiff in the
amount of $32,000.
Alleging special difficulties and extraordinary conditions the plain­
tiff moved for an ex tra allowance of costs under section 6233 of the
Code of Civil Procedure of the State of New York. The decision on
this motion was rendered April 3, 1919, the court finding that there
were “ many difficult and troublesome questions of law involved,”
as well as practical railroad problems, complex and calling for a
large amount of evidence. An allowance of 5 per cent on the verdict
of $32,000 was therefore ordered. Both the judgment on the verdict
and the order granting an additional allowance of costs were carried
to the appellate division, where on January 1, 1920, the judgment
for damages was affirmed and the order granting the allowance of
costs was reversed. Following this there was an appeal to the court
of appeals of the State, in which a number of facts noted above were
set forth and the contention made that the pleading under the
Federal statute was not made until more than two years after the
cause of action accrued, and was therefore barred by the statute of
limitations. However, the judgment of the courts below was affirmed
with costs. From this a writ of certiorari was sued out in the Supreme
Court of the United States, bringing the case before that body. Here
on November 21, 1922, the case was argued, the decision being
announced December 4, affirming the judgment of the courts below
in the award of damages. It was said that the amended complaint
seeking recovery under whatever law the jury should find applicable
was not forbidden by the statutes of the United States, and the
allowance of an amendment more than two years after the injury
was not in contravention of the statute of limitations, because “ the
declaration was consistent with a wrong under the law of the State
or of the United States as the facts might turn out. The amend­
ment merely expanded or amplified what was alleged in support of
the cause of action already asserted and was not affected by the
intervening lapse of time; the facts constituting the tort were the
same, whichever law gave them that effect.” (Cases cited.)
This proceeding would seem to be an illustration of weight in con­
nection with the consideration of the desirability of a compensation
statute that, coordinated with the State laws on the subject, would '
secure to railroad employees a prompt and certain redress for injuries
received in the course of employment. More than 12 years elapsed
from the rendition of the first verdict in February, 1910, to the
affirmance by the Supreme Court of the United States in December,
1922. Costa have accumulated and expenses of various kinds have
had the inevitable effect of absorbing a large proportion of the
$32,000 verdict finally affirmed.
The citations in the case are under the heading, Kinney v. N. Y.

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Cent. & H. R. R. Co., or in the appeal cases, N. Y. Cent. & H. R.
R. Co. v. Kinney, and are reported in 148 App. Div. 900, 132 N. Y.
Supp. 1134; 157 App. Div. 942, 142 N. Y. Supp. 1126; 217 N. Y.
325, 111 N. K. 1048; 98 Misc. Rep. 11; 162 N. Y. Supp. 42; 164
N. Y. Supp. 1098; 166 N. Y. Supp. 868; 171 N. Y. Supp. 1090; 175
N. Y. Supp. 241; 190 App. Div. 967, 179 N. Y. Supp. 929; 231 N. Y.
578, 132 N. E. 895; 43 Sup. Ct. 122.

Industrial Legislation in Turkey.

CCORDING to a note in the New York Medical Journal and
Medical Record, December 20, 1922 (p. 731) the first legis­
lation designed to better the condition of working people has
recently been enacted in Turkey. The legislation in question relates
to conditions affecting workers in the mining districts. It is pro­
vided by these laws that mine owners must construct houses of
concrete, stone, or brick for their workers, and that these houses must
have wooden floors and an adequate number of windows. Each
mining district must have a public bath, a mosque, and evening
schools, and a pension fund for injured and aged employees must
be created.

A

Law Establishing a General Emigration Bureau in Yugoslavia.

LUZBENE Novine, the official gazette of Yugoslavia, published
in its issue of November 4, 1922, a law enacted on October 11,
1922, which established in Yugoslavia a General Emigration
Bureau. This bureau, which is subordinated to the Ministry of
Social Welfare, began its activities on October 25, 1922. Its tem­
porary offices are now at Zagreb, and the law provides that it shall
be transferred to one of the Adriatic ports as soon as transport of
emigrants through such ports begins.
The activities of the new bureau are to include: (1) Supervision of
the activities of steamship companies and their agencies in so far as
they relate to the transport of emigrants; (2) inspection of the mov­
ing of emigrants; (3) the final decision of appeals against decisions
of port police authorities; (4) the management of the State depot
for emigrants at Zagreb; (5) the rendering of decisions on requests
for emigration passports; (6) inspection of all emigration authorities
in the country; (7) the keeping of registers of Yugoslav subjects
abroad and of aliens in Yugoslavia; (8) the safeguarding abroad of
Yugoslav emigrants; (9) the maintaining of an information service
on employment and living conditions in countries of immigration,
transport, etc.; (10) the publishing of statistics on emigration from,
and immigration into, Yugoslavia and other countries.
The chief of the bureau is appointed by royal decree. He is to be
assisted by other officials, the number and salaries of whom will be
fixed in the budget. Only persons knowing the English language
may be appointed as officials of the General Emigration Bureau.

S


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

Persons knowing another largely used foreign language may also be
appointed as officials, provided they obligate themselves to learn
English within one year. The bureau is to be composed of several
divisions in accordance with the various activities assigned to the
bureau by the law. Until the abolishment of the existing district
bureaus has been decreed these shall assist the general bureau at
Zagreb in its activities and in the solution of all problems. Appeals
against decisions of the General Bureau of Emigration are to be
made within a period of 14 days to the Ministry of Social Welfare,
whose decision shall be final. The present law came into force on
the date of its publication in the official gazette.


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14761

L A B O R B U R E A U S.

Organization and Activities of the United States Bureau of Labor
Statistics.1

HE economic importance to the country at large of the United
States Bureau of Labor Statistics is shown in an account of its
history, activities, and organization which has recently been
compiled by ji member of the staff of the Institute of Government
Research. ^ The value to the public, whether interested from the
employers or workers’ viewpoints, of a fact-finding agency unin­
fluenced by partisan considerations can hardly be questioned"
Created by act of Congress in 1884, the bureau has passed through
several changes of organization, being finally incorporated in the
newly created Department of Labor in 1913. Its functions have
remained practically unchanged, however, throughout its existence
and it has been the authoritative medium for many years for the
collection and dissemination of statistical information regarding
wholesale and retail prices, wages and hours of labor, and cost of
living. Special studies are carried out on many subjects of impor. tance in the industrial life of the country such as workmen’s com­
pensation, industrial accidents and hygiene, labor legislation,
employment and unemployment, and collective bargaining, and trade
agreements, dhe work of the statistical and editorial and research
divisions, the major part of which is the result of original investiga­
tions, is made available to the public through a series of bulletins,
some of which are published annually and others at irregular in­
tervals, and through the M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w . Practically
the entire field of labor questions is thus covered by the bureau in
a more or less comprehensive manner.
Appendixes to the bulletin give a survey of the personnel and
annual salary rates, a classification of the bureau’s activities, a
description of its publications, an index to laws and a bibliography
relating to the bureau, a financial statement, and a chronological
list of publications of the bureau.

T

1 U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Bui. No. 319: The Bureau of Labor Statistics, United States Department of Labor: Its history, activities, and organization.

«

2S401

23-------17


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[4 7 7 ]

251

L A B O R O R G A N IZ A T IO N S .

Trade-Union Movement in Finland.1

HE Finnish Federation of Trade-Unions, the affiliated member­
ship of which before the civil war amounted to 160,695, was
completely destroyed by the time hostilities had ceased.
All trade-unions were dissolved and the property of the organizations
was either destroyed or confiscated by the victors.
After a great effort the trade-union movement of Finland had been
reconstituted at the beginning of 1919 under the leadership of Matti
Paasivuori, an old experienced trade-union leader, who was elected
president. Immediately afterwards the communists, at the insti­
gation of the Russians, began their covert and open attempts to
place the trade-union movement under the dictatorship of their
party with the ultimate result that they gained control of the feder­
ation and the old experienced trade-unionists were excluded. Only
trusted communists were allowed to be the spokesmen of the tradeunions, and within the organizations an open campaign of calumny
was started against the noncommunist elements. The trade-union
members were forced to swell the membership of the Communist
Party by means of compulsory payment of contributions to that
party. Similarly, a ruthless agitation was conducted against the
International Federation of Trade Unions of Amsterdam, and no
stone was left unturned to discredit that organization. At the
beginning of 1921 a referendum was taken at the instigation-of the
communist leaders on the question as to whether the Finnish Federa­
tion of Trade-Unions should be independent or affiliated with Mos­
cow. When the final vote on the question was taken in February,
1922, only 18,006 votes were cast altogether; of these, 12,000 were
cast in favor of affiliation with the Moscow International, and 5,843
against. The number of votes cast represented only 37 per cent of
the total affiliated membership of the federation.
The situation is at present very difficult. The workers are leaving
the organizations in large numbers, thus weakening the whole move­
ment. The officers of the Finnish Federation of Trade-Unions have
so far not given effect to the decision of affiliating with Moscow, but
are keeping the matter in abeyance. As it is to be feared that the
great mass of workers will leave the trade-unions, the executive
committee of the Social-Democratic Party has appointed a committee
with the object of considering the possibility of reorganizing the
trade-union movement on its former basis.
According to the annual report of the directorate of the Finnish
Federation of Trade-Unions, the unions affiliated with it had a membership of 59,470 at the beginning of 1921. At the end of the third

T

1 The International Trade-Union Movement. Amsterdam, September-Oetober, 1922, p. 295, Korrespondenzblatt des Allgemeinen Deutschen Gewerkschaftsbundes, Berlin, December 2, 1922, p. 648.

252


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LABOR ORGANIZATIONS.

253

quarter of 1921 this number had fallen to 47,917; later on it rose
again, and at the end of 1921 the membership was 48,589, of which
7,593 were female members and 1,276 were apprentices. During
1921 the federation expended 147,128 Finnish marks ($28,395.70,
par) for strike benefits and 174,111.45 marks ($33,603.51, par) for
educational purposes. The total income of the federation was
504,405.45 marks ($97,350.24, par). Wage statistics given in the
report, which cover 35,000 members show that the average hourly
wage of men was 5.63 marks ($1.09, par), of women, 3.15 marks
(61 cents, par), of male apprentices, 3 marks (58 cents, par), and of
female apprentices, 1.87 marks (36 cents, par). The daily hours of
labor were as a rule eight.

International Congress of Building Workers.1

HE International Federation of Building Workers held its fifth
congress at Vienna, October 2 to 5, 1922. Delegates from 15
national building workers’ organizations were present, also the
secretaries of the international federations of carpenters, painters,
and stone workers and a representative of the International Labor
Office. The international organization of building workers now has
affiliated with it 22 federations in 17 countries, its total membership
aggregating over 1,200,000. The federations of Poland and Spain
“ have intimated their desire for admission.”
One of the principal subjects for discussion was the organization of
an international industrial federation to include the international
federations of building workers, stone workers, carpenters, and
painters. A committee was appointed to work out a plan by which
these several crafts could preserve their autonomy within the pro­
posed single federation.
The congress decided not to admit the Russian Federation of Build­
ing Workers, but to maintain friendly relations with it.
Arrangements were made for a special conference in November,
1922, for the consideration of the matter of rebuilding devastated
regions and the International Federation of Building Workers will
establish an office for the recruiting of foreign laborers for recon­
struction work.
As a result of a joint congress of building guilds and building work­
ers the International Federation of Building Guilds was organized.

T

International Congress of Transport Workers.

BRIEF report on the congress of the International Federation of
Transport Workers, which met in Vienna in the early part
of last October, was published in the International Labor
0 Review for December, 1922. The more than 100 delegates in attend­
ance at the congress came from 19 different countries and represented
a membership of 2,300,000.

A

1 I n te r n a tio n a l L a b o r R eview, Geneva, December, 1922, pp. 927, 928.


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254

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

The railwaymen’s committee requested the secretariat of the feder­
ation to formulate a plan for the international regulation of the labor
conditions of transport workers. Each national organization would
be expected to take action in its own country “ in accordance with
the scheme laid down” and report results to the secretariat. The
latter would, in cooperation with the International Federation of Trade
Unions and the International Labor Office, endeavor to bring about
the establishment of international standards.
The congress adopted a resolution of the dock workers’ committee
setting forth the following demands: “ Raising of wages in ports
where the standard is low up to that of ports where the standard is
highest; fullest measure of workers’ control; control of labor supply
by unions; provision of maintenance allowances to compensate for
casual nature of dock employment; full wages in case of accidents;
regulations for safety, including prohibition of employment of
women and children. Affiliated organizations are instructed to
employ all means at their disposal to carry through these demands. ”
The devising of a uniform scheme for socializing the transport indus­
try was regarded as impossible in view of “ the economic, geographical,
and cultural differences between countries.”


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[480]

C O N C IL IA T IO N A N D A R B IT R A T IO N .

Conciliation Work of the Department of Labor in December, 1922.
B y H u g h L . K e r w i n , D ir e c t o r o f C o n c i l ia t io n .

HE Secretary of Labor, through the Division of Conciliation,
exercised his good offices in connection with 30 labor disputes
during December, 1922. These disputes affected a total of
23,961 employees. The table following shows the name and location
of the establishment or industry in which the dispute occurred, the
nature of the dispute (whether strike or lockout or controversy not
having reached strike or lockout stage), the craft or trade concerned,
the cause of the dispute, its present status, the terms of settlement,
the date of beginning and ending, and the number of workmen
directly and indirectly affected.

T

LABOR D ISPU TES H A N D LED B Y THE U N ITED STATES D E PA R TM EN T OF LA BO R
THROUGH ITS DIVISION OF CONCILIATION, DECEM BER, 1922.
Company or industry and location.

Nature of
controversy.

Glen Alden Coal Co., Nanticoke, P a .. Strike..
S. J. Cohen & Bro., Philadelphia, Pa- ....... do.
Children’s clothing manufacturers,
New York City.
Nagle Packing Co., Jersey City, N. J . .

Craft concerned.

Present
status.

Cause of dispute.

Miners................... Working conditions
Clothing workers. Violation of agree­
ment.
........d o .................... Piecework.................

Adjusted.
Do.

Truck drivers___ Union activities.......

U nclassi­
fied.
Do.

Midland Tailors Co., Chicago, 111........

Tailors................... Renewal of agree­
ment.
Candy drivers (jobbers), Chicago, 111..
Candy workers... To unionize drivers..
Tyler Tube & Pipe Co., Washington,
Employees........... Company refused to.
Pa.
sign agreement.
Cincinnati Traction Co., Cincinnati,
.do.
Electrical work­ Conditions................
Ohio.
ers.
Saco-Lowell Co., Saco, M e................... . . . . d o .......... Molders................. . . . .d o.........................
Julius Kayser Knitting Mills, Brook­ Controversy. Knitters............... Working conditions.
lyn, N. Y.
Boston Colliery, Scranton, P a............. Strike..
Employees........... ___do.........................
Polliser, Janet & Ravet, New York ___do.
Dye workers........
City.
Chasin & Rubin, manufacturers, New
.do.
Shirt makers........ Asked raise and
York City.
union recognition.
Pottery workers, Evansville, Ind.......
Pottery workers.. Asked increase.........
5 firms electrical contractors, Los
Inside w irem en.. Asked new scale;
Angeles, Calif.
closed shop.
Coal miners, Indiana fields................... Threatened Miners................... Check-off system __
strike.
Hudson Coal Co., Scranton, P a .......... Strike........... Coal m iners.......... Working conditions.
Webb Mine, Shadyside, Ohio............. . . . . d o .......... ___d o .................... . . . .d o .........................
H. P. Wylie China Co., Huntington, ___d o .......... Potters.................. Asked 7 per cent in­
W. Va.
crease.
McNichol Pottery Co., Clarksburg,
___ d o .................... ___d o .........................
W. Va.
Printing pressmen, Cincinnati, Ohio..
Pressmen............. Wage cut; conditions
Granite manufacturing firms, Quincy,
Mass.
Granite quarries, Quincy, Mass..........
Jones Brothers, Barre, V t ...................
McDonald & Sons (monuments),
Barre, Vt.
Wells & Lamson Quarrying Co.,
Barre, Vt.
Gindici Bros, (monuments), Barre,
Vt.
Victory Granite Co., A. Sangavetti
Co., and Chioldi Co., Barre, Vt.
Novelli & Calcagin Co. (monuments),
Barre, Vt.


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Pending.

Do.
Adjusted.
Adjusted.
Pending.
Unable to
adjust.
Adjusted.
Pending.
Adjusted.
Do.
Pending.
Adju sted

U nclassi­
fied.
Cutters.................. 20 per cent cut; con­ Adjusted.
ditions.
Quarrymen.......... Wages; closed shop..
Do.
Granite cutters... 20 per cent cut; con­
Do.
ditions.
___d o .........................
___d o .........................
___d o ..................
. . . .d o .................
Granite workers.

[481]

255

256

M ONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

LABOR D ISPU TES H A N D LED B Y THE U N IT E D STATES D EPA R TM E N T OF LABOR
THROUGH ITS DIVISION OF CONCILIATION, DECEM BER, 1922—Concluded.
Workmen
affeeted.

Date of—
Company or industry and location.

Terms of settlement.
Begin­
ning.

Glen Alden Coal Co., Nanticoke, P a ..
S. J. Cohen & Bro., Philadelphia, Pa.
Children’s clothing manufacturers,
New York City.
Nagle Packing Co., Jersey City, N. J . .
Midland Tailors Co., Chicago, 111.......
Candy drivers (jobbers), Chicago, 111..

1922.
Return on company’s terms. Nov. 24
Discharged men reinstated.. Dec. 2

1922.
Nov. 26
Dec. 13

N o possibility of adjustment. Nov. 1
Neither agree to conciliation.
Adjusted prior to commis­ Oct. 20
sioner’s arrival.
Signed scale.............................. July 1

Nov.

Tyler Tube & Pipe Co., Washington,
Pa.
Cincinnati Traction Co., Cincinnati, On company’s term s.
Ohio.
Saco-Lowell Co., Saco, Me...................
Chasin & Rubin, manufacturers, Demands granted.
New York City.
Pottery workers, Evansville, Ind — No cut; return as before.......
5 firms electrical contractors, Los Partially adjusted; small
Angeles, Calif.
firms agree.
Coal miners, Indiana fields................. Company agreed to check-off
assessment.

Dec.

1

1

Dec.

8

Printing pressmen, Cincinnati, Ohio. Companies declined media­
tion.

Di­
Indi­
rectly. rectly.

850
200
2,000

18
60
280

Dec. 11

Dec. 15

200
120

3,600
700

1922.
Dec. 11

170

.. .d o ----

.d o ___

225

1923.
Jan. 1

Dec. 13

1,100

Strike lo st..............

.. .d o ----- Dec. 19

2,500

1922.
No cut; satisfactory adjust­ Apr. 1 .. - d o . . .
ment.
___ d o ...................................... .. .d o ----- . . . d o . . .

300

.. .d o ----- . . . d o . . .

75

.. .d o ----- . . . d o . . .

22

.. -do----- . . . d o . . .

50

.. .d o ----- . . . d o . . .

27

T otal..............................................

400

1921.
Sept. 1

Wages unchanged.

McDonald & Sons (monuments),
Barre, Vt.
Wells & Lamson Quarrying Co.,
.do.
Barre, Vt.
Gindici Bros, (monuments), Barre,
-do.
Vt.
Victory Granite Co., A. Sangavetti Satisfactory adjustment___
Co., and Chioldi Co., Barre, Vt.
Novelli & Calcagin Co. (monuments), ___ d o ......................................
Barre, Vt.

200

Dec. 23

1

Oct.

7,000
150

250
400

1923.
Jan. 3

H. P. Wylie China Co., Huntington, Increase not allowed.
W. Va.
McNichol Pottery Co., Clarksburg, ........do ...........................
W. Va.

Jones Brothers, Barre, V t...................

Dec. 13

Dec. 16

Hudson Coal Co., Scranton, Pa.
Webb mine, Shadyside, Ohio...

Granite
manufacturing
firms,
Quincy, Mass.
Granite quarries, Quincy, Mass........

Ending.

50

2,500

25

27

13,659

On January 1, 1923, there were 47 strikes before the department
for settlement and in addition 8 controversies which had not yet
reached the strike stage. Total number of cases pending was 55.

Conciliation Machinery for Mining Industry in South Africa.

T THE close of the strike in the mining industry on the Rand
(South Africa), a brief account of which appeared in the May,
1922, issue (pp. 196-197) of the M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w ,
an effort was made to formulate a method of conciliation designed

A


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CONCILIATION AND ARBITRATION.

257

to bring about a better understanding between employers and em­
ployees in the industry and thus avert, as far as possible, the recur­
rence of strikes in the industry in the future.
With this end in view the chamber of mines and the unions acting
separately prepared individual solutions of the difficulties. Then
after a five-day conference, at which both employers and workers
were represented, the following conciliation scheme as given by A.
Cooper Key, editor of the South African Mining Review, Johannes­
burg, in the International Labor Review for December, 1922 (pp.
914, 915), was agreed upon on August 22, 1922, and became operative
October 1 of this year. The scheme follows:

te

The scheme is based on the assumption that neither employers nor employees will
avail themselves of the corresponding province of the Transvaal Industrial Disputes’
Prevention Act. The conciliation machinery is subject to modification at any time
by the conciliation board, and is terminable on six months’ notice by either side.
The provisions do not apply to officials, which term includes foremen who have a
30-day notice clause in their contract of employment, shift bosses, dust inspectors,
employees on secretarial, clerical, and store-keeping work, assaying, hospital, and
compound work.
No strike or lockout shall take place until the procedure laid down has been com­
pletely carried out in regard to the point in dispute. The penalty clause of six
months’ imprisonment for either employers or employees embodied in the chamber
of mines draft proposals was eyidently dropped. A month’s notice is to be given of
any alteration in working conditions, by posting in the mine or, if of general applica­
tion, to the whole Rand, by publication in the newspapers and to the trade unions
concerned. It is laid down that, for the time being, trade-union methods of handling
disputes are recognized by the gold producers’ committee. It is made clear that
shop and shaft stewards and work shop committees are not recognized by the gold­
mining industry. Any employee is at liberty to become a member of a trade union
or not, as he thinks fit. When a trade-union official is present at a discussion, an
official of the employers’ organization may also attend, if the mining company desires
it. Nonunion members shall have exactly the same rights in lodging complaints
as trade unionists.
Any complaint must in the first instance be laid before the official concerned within
three days; it must directly concern the employee. If satisfaction be not obtained,
he may lay his case before the manager. If no agreement is arrived at, he may again
interview the manager, bringing with him a whole-time official of his trade union.
Should an agreement still not be reached, the trade-union official may again inter­
view the manager, the employee concerned not being present. Unless otherwise
arranged, interviews shall take place outside working hours. Where a number of
employees are concerned they may appoint a deputation not exceeding five, with
the same precedure. The manager shall not be required to discuss with third parties
individual contracts, engagement, suspension, discharge, promotion, or derating of
employees; on those matters his decision shall be final. For a period of six months
the decision of the manager on a complaint made by an employee and supported by
a whole-time trade-union official shall be final. The arrangement for union officials
to interview the management may continue after the six months by mutual arrange­
ment between the gold producers’ committee and the unions which desire continuance.
When a dispute between the management and a body of employees comprising all
those of a particular class, or numbering more than ten, is not settled under the
previously explained procedure, the employees may request that the matter be
brought before the board of directors, the meeting to take place within a week. The
men, accompanied, if they wish, by their trade-union representatives, shall discuss
the matter with the directors and such individuals as they may invite, not more
than seven persons on either side. In the event of no agreement being arrived at
within a fortnight, either party or the minister of mines, acting through the Depart­
ment of White Labor, may apply, within 21 days of the meeting, for the calling
together of a conciliation board.
Points of collective bargaining in regard to wages, hours, and other conditions shall
be discussed between the trade union concerned and the gold producers’ committee.
The procedure in the event of disagreement is to be as just described. The maximum
number of persons present is to be nine on either side.


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

The handing conciliation board will deal with matters referred to it under the
foregoing procedure, and any dispute which it is mutually agreed shall be so dealt
with. The board is to consist of 12 members, 6 appointed by the gold producers’
committee and 6 elected by the employees of the mines, 2 to be elected by under­
ground 'workers, one each by skilled mechanics, engine drivers and firemen, reduction
workers, and other surface workers. The mining industry board shall appoint the
first conciliation board, which shall hold office for a year. Thereafter members shall
be appointed for two years. Of the first elected board three members shall retire at
the end of the year.' Retiring members are eligible for reelection and provision
is made for substitutes, who shall be the candidates securing the next highest number
of votes. Elections are to be by secret ballot, conducted by the inspector of white
labor. Only men who are actually employed by the mines, or who, if out of work,
were last employed within eight weeks, are entitled to vote. Only actual employees
or whole-time trade-union officials are eligible for election. Provision is made for
casual vacancies. For the first six months one of the representatives of the gold
producers’ committee shall be chairman, one of the employees’ representatives vicechairman, the positions then being reversed.
For each dispute the board shall agree upon an independent referee; failing agree­
ment selection shall be made by the chief justice of the Union of South Africa. In
the event of the board being unable to arrive at an agreement within a fortnight, the
referee shall be called in. The matter in dispute shall again be discussed with the
referee fn the chair. His report shall be published in three newspapers within a
week of presentation. “ It will be in no way binding on either side, but no action
in the way of strike or lockout may take place on the point at issue until fourteen
days after' publication * *
The board shall draw up its own standing orders,
which shall be consistent with this memorandum. Expenses of the board shall be
borne by the Government, the necessary secretarial and clerical assistance being
provided by the Department of the Inspector of White Labor.


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IMMIGRATION.

Statistics of Immigration for November, 1922.
B y

W . W . H u s b a n d , C o m m is s io n e r

General

op

I m m ig r a t io n .

HE following tables show the total number of immigrant aliens
admitted into the United States and emigrant aliens departed
from the United States from July to November, 1922. The
tabulations are presented according to the countries of last perma­
nent or future permanent residences, races or peoples, occupations,
and States of future permanent or last permanent residence. The
last table (Table 6) shows the number of aliens admitted under the
per centum limit act of May 19, 1921, from July 1 to December 31,
1922.

T

T a b l e 1 . — INW A R D AND OUTW ARD PA SSENG ER MOVEMENT, JULY TO NOVEM BER, 1922.

Arrivals.

Departures.

Non­
immi­ United
Emi­
grant
States Aliens
Total
de­ arrivals.
grant
aliens citizens
aliens.
admit­ arrived. barred.
ted.

Nonemi­
grant
aliens.

United
States
citi­
zens.

41,241
42,735
49,881
54,129
49, 814

12,001
12,298
17,135
17,063
12,316

22,279
31,407
54,766
34,678
21,251

1,191
1,537
1,528
1,558
1,612

76,712
87,977
123,310
107,428
84,993

14,738
10,448
7,527
7,192
7,077

16,096
9,051
9,734
10,645
10,202

53,069
21,364
18,668
19,546
15,354

83,903
40,863
35,929
37,383
32,633

Total........................ 237,800

70,813

164,381

7,426

480,420

46,982

55,728

128,001

230,711

Period.

Immi­
grant
aliens
admit­
ted.

July, 1922...........................
August, 1922......................
September, 1922...............
October, 1922....................
November, 1922................

Total
depar­
tures.

T a b l e Z. —LAST PER M A NEN T RESIDENCE

OF IMMIGRANT A LIEN S ADM ITTED A N D
F U T U R E PER M A NEN T R ESIDENCE OF EMIGRANT A L IE N S D E P A R T E D , DURING
JULY TO NOVEM BER, 1922, B Y COUNTRIES.
Immigrant.
Country.

to No­
July to No­
November, July
vember, November,
vember,
1922.
1922.
1922.
1922.

A ustria.........................................................
Hungary........................................................................
B elgium ..............................................................
Bulgaria........................................................
Czechoslovakia..................................................
Denmark.................................................
Finland......................................................
France, including Corsica.....................................
Germ any...............................................
Greece....................................................
Ithlv, including Sicily and Sardinia.....................
Netherlands..............................................
Norway................................................
Poland.......................................................
Portugal, including Cape Verde and Azores Islands........
Rumania.......................................................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Emigrant.

[485]

998
980
240
78
2,417
367
478
408
3,672
618
7,886
212
397
4,228
419
1,538

4,384
4,932
1,307
316
12,147
1,674
2,3S4
2,580
15,053
3,024
39,739
1,050
3,418
16,714
2,125
7,744

15

136
641
309
80
1,414
'204
184
841

43
39
9

119
43
20
80
112
267
2,337
22
84
253
420
68

993

1,740
13j 897
'215
403

4,137
1, 620
'754

259

260

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW,

T a b l e 2 .— LAST PER M A NEN T RESIDENCE OF IMMIGRANT A LIEN S ADMITTED AND

FU T U R E PERM ANENT RESIDENCE OF EMIGRANT A L IE N S D E P A R T E D , DUR IN G
JU L Y TO NOVEM BER, 1922, B Y C O UNTRIES-Concluded.
Immigrant.
Country.

November, July to No­ November, July to No­
vember,
vember,
1922.
1922.
1922.
1922.

R ussia........................................................
Spain, including Canary and Balearic Islands...................
Sweden..................................................
. .
Switzerland.........................................................
Turkey in Europe............................................
United Kingdom:
E ngland..........................................................................
Ireland......................................................................
Scotland........................................................
Wales........................................................................
Y ugoslavia......................................................................
Other Europe...................................
Total Europe.............................................................
China.............................................................
Japan......................................................
India..................................................................
Turkey in Asia..........................................
Other A sia.......................................
Total A sia.....................................
Africa................................................................
Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand............................
Pacific Islands (not specified).................
British North America..........................
Central America..........................................
Mexico.....................................
South America.................................
W est I n d ie s.....................................
Other countries....................................
Grand to ta l......................................................

Female.......................................................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Emigrant.

[4861

2,324
76
1,330
388
681

9,091
605
5,946
1,945
2,130

87
341
70
33
10

1,768
l ’453
442
279
101

2,121
2,157
1,507
106
942
38

10,322
8,449
7,221
547
4,963
375

259
56
17
58
7

3,040
912
446
21
1,271
99

36,604

170,185

4,869

37,400

383
589
25
210
47

2,323
2,337
122
1,571
212

569
473
21
62
9

1,911
1,456
78
545
43

1,254

6,565

1,134

4,033

38
80
5
7,766

365
402
35
30,704
561
21,650
1,729
5,595
9

6
54
4
241
56
283
114
316

69
231
10
1,321
276
1,130
748
1,760

88

2,733
359
885
2

,

49,814

237,800

7,077

46,982

26,513
23,301

128,933
108,867

5,204
1,873

30,810
16;172

261

IMMIGRATION.

T a b l e 3 .—IMMIGRANT ALIENS ADM ITTED AN D EMIGRANT ALIEN S D E P A R T E D , JULY

TO NOVEMBER, 1922, B Y RACES OR PEOPLES.
Immigrant.
Race or people.

July to
July to
Nov., 1922. Nov.,
1922. Nov., 1922. Nov., 1922.

African (black).........................................................................
Armenian...................................................................................
Bohemian and Moravian (Czech).........................................
Bulgarian, Serbian, and Montenegrin................................
C hinese......................................................................................
Croatian and Slovenian..........................................................
Cuban.......................................................... ...............................
Dalmatian, Bosnian, and Herzegovinian..........................
Dutch and Flem ish.................................................................
East Indian................................................................................
English.......................................................................................
F in n ish .....................................................................................
French........................................................................................
German.......................................................................................
Greek...........................................................................................
Hebrew.......................................................................................
Irish.............................................................................................
Italian (north)..........................................................................
Italian (south).........................................................................
Japanese.....................................................................................
Korean........................................................................................
Lithuanian................................................................................
Magyar........................................................................................
Mexican......................................................................................
Pacific Islander.........................................................................
Polish..........................................................................................
Portuguese.................................................................................
Rumanian.........................................
Russian.......................................................................................
Ruthenian (Russniak)...........................................................
Scandinavian (Norwegians, Danes, and Swedes)............
Scotch.........................................................................t . .............
Slovak.........................................................................................
Spanish....................................................................
Spanish American....................................................................
Syrian.........................................................................................
Turkish.......................................................................................
Welsh..........................................................................................
West Indian (other than Cuban).........................................
Other peoples............................................................................
T otal................................................................................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Emigrant.

[487]

390
401
1,080
361
333
638
85
82
529
22
4,595
377
2,164
5,707
748
6,837
3,243
1,565
6,414
567
13
354
1,085
2,668
3
1,624
450
176
408
116
2,434
2,569
913
239
149
137
77
155
84
22

3,149
1,822
4,681
. 1,441
2,027
3,360
727
404
2,418
73
20,301
1,877
9,156
24,305
3,742
27,082
12,581
7,705
32,456
2,266
45
1,236
5,499
21,202
13
8,622
2,234
885
1,623
407
12,433
11,380
5,480
1 710
846
852
201
618
595
346

83
6
122
48
551
10
57
6
79
19
537
24
97
169
272
20
68
161
2,195
458
8
25
47
275

49,814

237,800

7,077

248
433
66
81
227
42
8
389
95
67
10
11
49
14

564
57
1,154
1,145
1,867
143
369
106
548
54
4,384
225
1,045
1,307
1,778
284
947
1,462
12,538
1,437
23
1,010
732
1,063
2
4,003
1,687
698
880
15
1,201
643
287
1 712
’ 593
477

81
41
260
160
46,982

262

M ONTHLY LABOR REVIEW,

T a b l e 4 .—IMMIGRANT A LIENS ADM ITTED AND EMIGRANT ALIENS D E P A R T E D , JULY

TO NOVEMBER, 1922, B Y OCCUPATIONS.
Immigrant.
Occupation.

Emigrant.

July to
July to
Nov., 1922. Nov.,
1922. Nov., 1922. N ov., 1922.

Professional:
Actors..................................................................................
Architects...........................................................................
Clergy..................................................................................
Editors................................................................................
*Electricians...................- ...................................................
Engineers (professional)..................................................
Lawyers..............................................................................
Literary and scientific persons......................................
Musicians...........................................................................
Officials (Government)....................................................
Physicians..........................................................................
Sculptors............................................................................
Teachers.............................................................................
Other professional.............................................................

49
17
206
11
130
193
15
69
97
54
71
26
233
232

371
83
882
43
610
864
76
289
507
263
320
154
1,320
1,297

12
1
52
1
4
22
3
3
8
20
12
5
27
30

69
16
' 280
9
39
120
. 23
57
70
105
74
44
235
267

Total................................................................................

1,403

7,079

200

1,408

301
212
201
21
1
202
34
770
1
17
1
1,312
561
206
17
77
30
. 222
. 28
145
289
459
309
337
47
23
43
620
161
13
29
32
32
54
17
232
437
44
35
694
16
35
52
3
8
38
168
4
18
376

1,297
1,008
930
78
6
883
145
3,848
16
141
5
6,483
2,574
1,276
121
349
124
858
124
661
1,249
2,241
1,631
1,587
183
112
356
2,156
779
57
145
142
231
264
88
1,126
2 ,106
259
112
3,221
71
84
176
14
70
171
825
16
81
1,825

15
19
5

122
159
07
4

13
2
40

in
43
276
1
57

Total.......................................................................

8,984

Miscellaneous:
Agents..............................................................................
Bankers..............................................................
Draymen, hackmen, and teamsters.............................
Farm laborers............................... ............

97
8
58
2,927

Skilled:
Bakers.................................................................................
Barbers and hairdressers................................................
Blacksmiths.......................................................................
Butchers..............................................................................
Cabinetmakers...................................................................
Carpenters and joiners....................................................
Cigar makers......................................................................
Clerks* and accountants..................................................
Dressmakers......................................................................
Engineers (locomotive, marine, and station ary)....
Gardeners............................................................................
Iron and steel workers.....................................................
Jewelers...............................................................................
Locksmiths........................................................................
Machinists...........................................■..............................
Mariners..............................................................................
Masons.................................................................................
Mechanics (not specified)...................... ........................
Metal workers (other than iron, steel and tin )..........
Millers............................................................................
Milliners.................................................................
Miners....................................................................
Painters and glaziers............................................
Pattern makers......................................................
Photographers............................................................
Plasterers..................................................................
Plumbers........................................................
Printers...........................................................
Saddlers and harnessmakers..........................................
Seamstresses......................................................................
Shoemakers...........................................................
Stokers...................................................................
Stonecutters..........................................................
Tailors....................................................................
Tanners and curriers..............................................
Textile workers (not specified)....................................
Tinners...................................................................
Tobacco workers..................................................
Upholsterers..................................................
Watch and clock makers................................................
Weavers and spinners...........................................
Wheelwrights...........................................................
Woodworkers (not specified).........................................
Other skilled.........................................................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[488]

12
123
15
17
13

3

845
164
70
6
73

46
15

4
37
24
8
218
192
105
159
2
8
24
413
96

1
1

16
11

4

39

7
29
5

46
243
36

27

312

3

13

1
2
2
17
50
20
16
2
2

2

4
38

13
224

4
42

11
302

42,305

614

4,612

434
54
240
12,332

8
3
3
70

58
38
20

479

263

IM M IG RA TIO N ,
table

4 .—IMMIGRANT ALIENS ADMITTED AND EMIGRANT ALIENS
JULY TO NOVEM BER, 1922, B Y OCCUPATIONS—Concluded.
Immigrant.

D E PA R TE D ,

Emigrant.

Occupation.
July to
July to
Nov., 1922. Nov.,
1922. Nov., 1922. Nov., 1922.
Miscellaneous—Concluded.

Merchants and dealers....................................................
Other miscellaneous.............................................. .........
Total.........................................................................

1,063
161
22
6,322
35
964
6,426
1,815

5,512
467
78
35,598
164
4,433
30,943
8,232

195
7
4
3,382
• 4
248
191
311

964
31
17
18,890
39
1,371
1,944
1,674
25,525

19,898

98,487

4,426

No occupation (including women and children)..............

19,529

89,929

1,837

15,437

Grand total.........................................................

49,814

237,800

7,077

46,982

T a b l e 5 — FU T U R E PERM A NEN T RESIDENCE OF IMMIGRANT A LIENS ADMITTED AND

LAST PERM AMENT RESIDENCE OF EMIGRANT A LIENS D E P A R T E D , JULY TO NO­
VEM BER, 1922, B Y STATES AND TER RITO RIES.

Immigrant.

Emigrant.

States.
July to
July to
Nov., 1922. Nov.,
1922. Nov., 1922. Nov., 1922.
Alabama....................
Alaska........................
Arizona......................
Arkansas....................
California...................
Colorado.....................
Connecticut...............
Delaware....................
District of Columbia
Florida.......................
Georgia.......................
Hawaii........................
Idaho..........................
Illinois........................
Indiana......................
Iowa............................
Kansas........................
Kentucky..................
Louisiana...................
Maine..........................
Maryland...................
Massachusetts...........
Michigan....................
Minnesota................ ,
Mississippi.................
'Missouri......................
Montana....................
Nebraska...................
N evada......................
New Hampshire___
New Jersey................
New Mexico..............
New York.................
North Carolina..........
North Dakota...........
Ohio............................
Oklahoma..................
Oregon........................
Pennsylvania...........
Philippine Islands..
Porto Rico.................
Rhode Island............
South Carolina.........
South Dakota...........
Tennessee........... .......
Texas........... ..............
U ta h ..........................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

51
7
700
24
4,281
170

, 56»

1 02

167
279
53
3,819
469
295
143
50
121

600
295
4,058
2,686

574
40
415
139
182
20

321
2,735
116
14,655
14
126
1,977
48
381
4,924
26
559
11

62
37
581
104

[489]

236
89
4,397
101
17,151
805
4,952
252
768
1,337
250
1,124
260
18,060
2,237
1,414
613
279
588
2,484
1,2X8
16,795
11,801
3,069
155
1,915
646
893
174
1,337
13,289
421
67,859
162
527
9,619
287
1,517
21,189
4
115
2,514
70
336
212
13,891
504

7
25
983
27
100
3
30
76
3
17
11
354
30
37
12
4
34
4
14
647
192
51
4
27
38
28
8
10
221
7
2, S44
7
15
157
5
48
380
18
124
5
8
2
134
36

22

37
121

52
3,942
125
990
36
208
536
38
256
49
2,882
294
178
74
39
181
68

216
4,288
1,403
335
16
311
128
151
30
66

2,077
41
18,869
16
57
1,657
42
262
3,871
5
118
609
10

35
16

532
116

264

♦

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW,

T a b l e 5 .—F U T U R E PE R M A N E N T R E SID E N C E OF IMMIGRANT A LIEN S ADM ITTED AND

LAST PER M A NEN T R E SID E N C E OF EMIGRANT A LIEN S D E P A R T E D , JULY TO NO­
V E M B E R , 1922, B Y STATES AN D T E R R IT O R IE S—Concluded.
Immigrant.

Emigrant.

States.
July to
July to
Nov., 1922. Nov.,
1922. N ov., 1922. N ov., 1922.
Vermont.....................................................................................
Virginia.......................................................................................
Virgin Islands............................................................................
Washington...............................................................................
West Virginia............................................................................
Wisconsin...................................................................................
Wyoming...................................................................................
Total.................................................................................

207
108

6

35
89

814
201
692
54

875
561
11
3,767
1,035
3,387
248

181
27
61
8

736
241
452
44

49,814

237,800

7,077

46,982

T a b l e 6 — STATUS OF TH E IMMIGRATION OF A L IE N S INTO T H E

U N IT E D STATES
U N D E R T H E P E R CENTUM LIMIT ACT OF MAY 19, 1921, AS E X T E N D E D B Y PUBLIC
RESOLUTION NO. 55, SIX TY -SE V EN T H CONGRESS, A PPR O V ED MAY 11, 1922, JU LY 1
TO DECEM BER 31, 1922.

Country or region of birth.

Maximum
monthly
quota.

Albania..............................................
Armenia ( R ussian)........................
Austria..............................................
Belgium.............................................
Bulgaria............................................
Czechoslovakia................................
Danzig...............................................
Denmark...........................................
Finland.............................................
Fium e................................................
France................................................
Germany...........................................
Greece................................................
H ungary...........................................
Iceland..............................................
Italy...................................................
Luxemburg......................................
Memel region...................................
Netherlands.....................................
N orway.............................................
Poland...............................................
Eastern Galicia................................
Pinskregion.....................................
Portugal............................................
Rumania..........................................
Bessarabian region.........................
Russia................................................
Esthonian region............................
Latvian region.................................
Lithuanian region..........................
Spain..................................................
Sweden..............................................
Switzerland......................................
United Kingdom............................
Yugoslavia.......................................
Other E urope.................................
Palestine...........................................
Syria..................................................
Turkey..............................................
Other Asia........................................
Africa.................................................
Atlantic Islands..............................
Australia...........................................
New Zealand and Pacific Islands

58
46
1,490
313
61
2,871
60
1,124
784
14
1,146
13,521
659
1,128
15
8,411
19
30
721
2,440
4,215
1,157
857
493
1,484
558
4,323
270
308
462
182
4,008
750
15,468
1,285
17
12
186
478
16
25
24
56
16

T otal.......................................

71,561

Admitted
Dec. 1-31.

17
18
909
148
14
1,238
15
166
211
14
251
2,545
116
646
6
1,698

Annual
quota.

Admitted
July 1 to
Dec. 31.

Balance
for year.*

36
14

288
230
7,451
1,563
302
14,357
301
5,619
3,921
71
5,729
67,607
3,294
5,638
75
42,057
92
150
3,607
12,202
21,076
5,786
4,284
2,465
7,419
2,792
21,613
1,348
1, 540
2,310
912
20,042
3, 752
77,342
6,426
86
57
928
2,388
81
122
121
279
80

272
229
4,735
1,549
276
13,990
107
2,218
2,832
45
3,186
18,730
3,294
5,485
51
41,928
92
34
1,590
4,176
18,218
2,316
2,088
2,464
6,971
421
13,774
123
887
2,273
912
7,726
2,750
39,884
5,973
85
57
916
2,387
81
122
63
279
69

12,307
988
37,259
407
(»)
(a)
<*>
(*)
<2>
i*)
57
(a)
3

23,947

357,803

215,658

139,770

9
192
382
2,842
611
511
22
1,385
102
2,785
23
178
231
2
357
326
4,697
807
1
147
274
1

11
(J )

2,652

(2)

22
160
193
3,389
1,059
26
2,530
48,639
(s)
30
24

(2)

(*)

113
2,014
7,996
2,654
3,301
2,039
(2)
286
2,342
7,533
1,184
552

(»)
(s)

* After all admissions and pending cases have been deducted from the annual quota.
* Exhausted for year. Pending cases for which quotas have been granted cover differences between
annual quota and number already admitted.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[490]

W H A T S T A T E L A B O R B U R E A U S A R E D O IN G .

California.

'“PHE data here given are from a typewritten summary of the forth* coming 20th biennial report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics
of California for the years 1920-21 and 1921-22.
Collection of wage claims.—During the period covered by the report
out of 22,718 wage claims filed with the bureau, 10,538, or 46.4 per
cent, were collected, the amount thus secured reaching $450,164,
over six times that collected in 1913. It is estimated that in addi­
tion to these collections the bureau saves the workers of California
from $55,000 to $85,000 a year in legal fees.
Wages of cannery hands in Alaska.—As the result of the bureau’s
supervision of wage payments to Alaska salmon cannery workers,
the net average earnings of such workers, which were at a low level,
have steadily increased.
Eight-hour law.—In the above-mentioned biennial period 870 com­
plaints relative to violations of the 8-hour law were investigated by
the bureau. Restaurants led in the number of violations. Hotels,
apartment houses, and boarding houses ranked next in the frequency
of infringements of this law.
Child labor.—In the scholastic year 1921-22, 2,395 working per­
mits were issued to children—1,423 to children between 14 and 15
years of age and 972 to children between 15 and 16 years of age. In
1920-21 only 1,203 permits were issued—a little more than one-half
the number in 1921-22.
In 1910 there were 11,251 gainfully employed children in Cali­
fornia; in 1920 only 9,057—a decrease of 19.5 per cent.
Inspection.—The bureau’s factory inspection work has been
handicapped by the inadequacy of appropriations. There are
approximately 12,000 industrial establishments in the State and the
bureau has but one factory inspector. Only 2,267 inspections of
factories and mercantile establishments were made by the bureau
in the two years ending June 30, 1922. During this period the
bureau started 80 prosecutions for violations of the labor law. In
51, or 63.7 per cent, of these cases convictions were secured.
Colorado.1

0

'"PHE enforcement of the factory inspection law of Colorado has
been of great assistance in the reduction of the number of industrial accidents in the State. While the law is in very many respects
a good one, it has various defects, it is said, among them being the
lack of standardization of the bureau’s inspection work with that of
1Colorado. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Biennial report, 1921-1922. Denver, 1922.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[491]

265

266

M O N T H L Y LABOR REVIEW .

private accident insurance companies whose safety orders so often
differ very considerably from the State law. Moreover, the wording
of the law fails to bring out clearly the absolute authority of the
bureau’s inspectors “ to enforce necessary safety orders. * * *
A State law should supersede in authority all self-made rules.”
During 1921, 2,084 safety and sanitary orders were issued; in
1922, 2,270. The total number of inspections for 1921-22 was
5,185, which greatly exceeded the number for any other similar
period.
✓
The sanitary conditions of restaurants in all parts of the State have
been very much improved. The issuance of a special compliance
letter to establishments which have been found “ strictly sanitary,”
has resulted in considerable clearing up.

The possession of these

certificates is highly appreciated and the restaurants have shown
themselves willing to meet the obligations imposed before such
endorsements are conferred.
Child labor.—During the biennial period covered by the report
compliance with the child-labor law was secured without recourse
to court proceedings. Taking all things into consideration, there
have been remarkably few objections to the operation of the act.
During 1921 and the first nine months of 1922, 1,400 working cer­
tificates were issued to school children in Denver, 14.2 per cent more
than in 1919-1920.
Collection of wage claims.—The bureau has no legal power to en­
force the payment of wage claims. “ Only moral suasion is used.”
From December, 1920, to November, 1922, inclusive, 2,735 claims
were filed involving $261,174.35. Of these claims 1,936 were paid,
the amount collected aggregating $127,790.61. This work was done
without charge to claimants.
The following statement reveals the difficulties which confront the
bureau as a wage collection agency:
In this wage claim work we are handicapped and retarded not only by lack of legal
power, but also by the absence of any statute fixing a legal workday, and one fixing a
minimum wage for such a day. Many more persons than one is willing to admit are
employed on terms that are thoroughly indefinite as to either time or wages. They
are employed “ by the month” and expected to work every day and as long in a day
as strength will permit. They are promised “ what they are worth,” or the “going
wage.” Such arrangements inevitably breed misunderstandings of a kind that can
never be settled in a way that the worker can get a square deal. So we would recom­
mend that if such a thing is possible, a statute should be enacted stating definitely
what is a “ day” for the worker, and another one fixing a minimum pay for such a day.
This for both men and women in all occupations, and whether the employer is a com­
pany, or a corporation, or a private citizen. We believe that such a statute would be
of very widespread benefit to a class of people who greatly need State aid.

Woman’s eight-hour law.—The woman’s 8-hour law of Colorado was
enacted a decade ago. The bureau considers that the unsatisfactory
results of this legislation are due to the fact that this measure in­
cludes but few occupations. It is urged in the report that the law be
amended “to cover all women working in any occupation of what­
ever kind or character.”
Beet-sugar industry.—A special report is made on 16 beet-sugar
factories of the State. About 200,000 acres of land were in cultiva­
tion in 1921 to provide raw material for these establishments. The
cultivation and harvesting of this crop involved wage payments
amounting to $6,000,000, or $30 an acre. When to this sum is added


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WHAT STATE LABOR BUREAUS ARE DOING.

267

the $5,449,416 paid to 6,833 men and 252 women employed in these
16 factories, the total payroll aggregates $11,449,000.
Newspaper industry. The newspaper industry is a very impor­
tant one in Colorado, the capital invested in such industry by pub­
lishers being $5,336,465; the number of wage earners employed
2,178, and the average yearly pay roll, $3,379,986.

Massachusetts.

T H E following regulations 1 for safeguarding power-press tools
have been adopted by the Massachusetts Department of Labor
and Industries to become effective February 1, 1923:
(1) All power press tools in use shall be constructed, or effective safety appliances
provided, to prevent the hand of an operator from being in the hazard zone at the time
of operation; if—
(а) The speed of the press when running continuously is more than 30 working
strokes per minute and the clutch is engaged for each stroke.
(б) The speed of the press is more than 45 working strokes per minute, the stroke is
less than 4 inches and the press is running continuously.
(2) Power shall be off and press drive wheel shall be at rest while tools are being
adjusted, except where the control allows the ram to be stopped at any point of the
SliO K G .

(3) No person shall render inoperative or fail to use any safety appliance which has
been provided in accordance with section 1.
N o t e 1.- Safety appliances may be of the following types:
(а) Stationary guards.
(б) Movable guards of the sweep type, operating positively from the ram or shaft
and not from the tripping mechanism.
(c) Movable guards of the gate type, closing in advance of the operation of the
clutch.
(d) Mechanical means; such as chute, slide, dial, magazine or roll feeds.
(e) Double hand trips.
( j ) Pliers or other hand implements.

North Carolina.2
T T IE enactment of an 8-hour law and a workmen’s compensation
law “ without regard to fault of workmen,” and the creation of a
State labor board for the adjustment of industrial controversies are
among the outstanding recommendations made by the commissioner
of labor and printing in his letter transmitting the report of his
department for the biennial period 1921—1922 to the governor of the
State. Provisions for the inspection of boilers, drastic legislation for
the safeguarding of machinery, and the strengthening of existing
laws relating to women in industry and child labor are also recom­
mended.
The commissioner points out that while “ North Carolina has
become one of the leading manufacturing States, it is also one of the
most delinquent in providing and maintaining industrial standards
for the protection of workers.” It is one of the six States in the
Union which has no compensation law.
1Massachusetts. Department of Labor and Industries. Recommendations of punch press committee
regarding safeguarding power press tools.
! News and Observer, Raleigh, Dec. 19, 1922, pp. 1, 2.

28491°—23----- 18

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268

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

Over 19,000 men and women have found jobs and positions in the
past year through the recently created employment bureau which
operates under the direction of the State Department of Labor and
Printing.
Pennsylvania.1

’"PHE commissioner of the Department of Labor and Industry of
Pennsylvania is of the opinion that the apprenticeship system of
the State urgently requires consideration. The industrial board may
make, -at an early date, a survey to find out what progress has been
made in the matter of training prospective workers in industry.
Building code.-—In the beginning of 1923 Pennsylvania will bave a
building code which will meet a long-standing need in State admin­
istration by coordinating various departmental activities. The
Departments of Health, State, Police, and Labor and Industry have
jurisdictional functions in regulating building. The code, as drafted,
would include these regulations. Provision would also be made “ for
concerted enforcement and administration.” This scheme is reported
as harmonizing with the governor’s policies in regard to govern­
mental supervision. Although the code will not cover first and second
class cities, it will be drawn up along the lines of the Pittsburgh,
Philadelphia, and Scranton codes.
Increase in building plans.—The State Bureau of Inspection has
approved 20 per cent more building plans in 1922 than in 1921,
taking as basis of comparison the first nine months. Building con­
struction activities are reported as 100 per cent better than in 1918.
At present there seems to be no cessation in the construction of homes,
apartments, schools, factories, business houses, and amusement
places. All plans for buildings of over two stories, public buildings,
and factories, except in first and second class cities, are approved by
the Department of Labor and Industry.
Acceptance of industrial home work rulings.—According to a report
made by the committee on women and children, replies received
from employers in all parts of the State show “ a most favorable
spirit in acceptance of the industrial home work rulings of the board.”
Petitions in general indicate efforts to get better acquainted with the
rules in order to avoid violations.
1Pennsylvania. Department of Labor and Industry. Labor and Industry, Harrisburg, November,
1922.


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[494]

C U R R E N T N O T E S O F IN T E R E S T T O L A B O R .

Migration of Colored Workers from the South.

EDR several months past there have been occasional notices of a
* renewed migration of colored workers from Southern States to
Northern cities, and various explanations have been offered for it.
The following statement of the underlying reason is taken from the
report of the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond for December 30,
1922:
Reports of serious conditions among the tenant farmers of lower and central South
Carolina are reaching us. Most of these tenant farmers are negroes, and usually
at this season of the year they have some money from their cotton crops; hut this
year the damage done to cotton by the boll weevil was so serious that few of the
tenants have surplus funds after paying rent, fertilizer bills, and supply bills. In a
great many instances these bills have been only partly paid. Living in a purely
agricultural section, these farmers are unable to secure work to tide them over until
planting time again, and in many cases their landlords are unable to “ carry” them
through the winter. As a result, many negroes are leaving the farms for Northern
cities where they hope to secure work for the winter. Some of them will return
South in the spring, but many of the younger ones will doubtless find the cities to
their liking and will remain there permanently. An important effect of the migration
is a possible shortage of tenant labor on the cotton plantations next year.

Meeting of National Personnel Association.1

National Personnel Association (a merger of the National
association of Corporation Training and the Industrial Relations
Association of America) held its meeting in Pittsburgh November 8,
9, and 10, 1922, which was attended by 400 delegates.
Among the subjects discussed at this conference were: The social
and economic effects of the United States immigration policy, training
immigrant workers, shop training, progress 01 trade apprenticeship,
employment and labor turnover, psychological tests, job analysis,
developing men for executive positions, training of foremen, personnel
problems of small offices, economics for employees, pension plans, and
health education.
Meeting of International Association on Unemployment.2

’“THE International Association on Unemployment held a meeting
* at Geneva on October 20, 1922. The conference was attended
by representatives from Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, France,
Hungary, Italy, Norway, Spain, and Switzerland, who unanimously
decided that the association should resume its work, the activities of
the organization at least along international lines having been susIron Age, New York, Nov. 16, 1922, p. 1315.
2International Labor Office. Industrial and Labor Information, Geneva, Oct. 30, 1922, pp. 7, 8.
1


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269

MONTHLY LABOE REVIEW.

270

pended since August, 1914. A provisional executive committee will
endeavor to bring together the national sections and individual
members making up the organization in 1914. A full meeting will
be called for as early a date as practicable to draft a constitution and
new rules. Pending this conference the provisional committee will
arrange for the association to participate in the international socio­
political congress which it is proposed to convene in 1923 or 1924.
One of the principal aims of the association will be to conduct
propaganda for the ratification of the draft conventions and recom­
mendations on unemployment which have been adopted by the Inter­
national Labor Office. The association will again take up its studies
of unemployment and emigration problems and other factors influ­
encing the labor market. Research will be supplemented by active
work for the adoption of measures required to improve existing
conditions.
International Conference on Psychology and Vocational Guidance.1

■
“THE third international conference on psychology as applied to
1 vocational guidance was in session in Milan from October 2 to 4,
1922, with delegates from the following 12 countries in attendance:
Belgium, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy.,
Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Poland, Rumania, Spain, and Switzer­
land. The relations between psychology and various kinds of
scientific research were emphasized in many of the papers presented
at the meeting, and the need in vocational guidance, of the coopera­
tion of physiologists, doctors, educationalists, and economists was
pointed out.
Among other problems discussed were the international standardi­
zation of tests, vocational abilities, innate and acquired abilities, and
the psychological classification of occupations.
It was proposed by the principal of the Lausanne School of Crafts
to divide manual occupations into “ finger-tip trades,” “ hand trades,”
and “ arm trades.”
A French delegate submitted a “ medical counterindication card,”
the heading of which read:
The doctor’s certificate will be most useful if he is asked to provide suggestions of
occupations which the candidate can not follow without danger to himself or others,
rather than positive indications of trades for which the candidate is particularly suited.

In a report on an investigation into the causes of fatal accidents it
was stated that out of 100 such accidents 49 were found to be due to
“ maladaptation of the worker to his work.”
Several papers dealt with the research activities of vocational
guidance institutions in Amsterdam, Barcelona, Berlin, Brussels,
Geneva, London, Paris, Prague, and elsewhere.
i International Labor


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Review, Geneva,

Dec., 1922, pp. 1004, 1005.

[496]

CURRENT NOTES OF INTEREST TO LABOR.

271

Merger of Two International Social Science Associations.1

/ \ T the meeting of the International Association for Labor Legis­
lation, held at Geneva in October, 1922, a brief report, of which
conference appeared in the January, 1923, M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w ,
it was agreed to interpret the term “ labor legislation” in the consti­
tution of this organization as including social insurance. Through
this agreement the work of the International Association for Social
Insurance was for practical reasons merged with that of the firstmentioned. body. The same agreement transferred unemployment
insurance from the program of the International Association on
Unemployment to the combined program of the other two organiza­
tions. The International Association on Unemployment will con­
tinue as an independent body dealing only with problems of the
labor market.
Reciprocity of Unemployment Relief in Denmark and Germany.2

'T H E Danish authorities, who until now have granted unemployment
donations only to those German workers who were domiciled in
Denmark before the war, have decided to grant such donations to
all German unemployed workers who have been residing in Denmark
since July 1, 1919.
As a measure of reciprocity, the German minister of labor has
directed that similar benefits shall be paid to all Danish workers
residents of Germany since July 1, 1919.
1American Labor Legislation Review, New York, December, 1922 pp. 234 235
3Reichs-Arbeitsblatt, Berlin, Aug. 15, 1922, p. 426.
9


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P U B L IC A T IO N S R E L A T IN G T O L A B O R .

Official—United States.
Ca l if o r n ia .— I n d u s tr ia l A c c id e n t C o m m is s io n .

SO, 1 9 2 2 .

S a c r a m e n to , 192 2 .

This report is summarized
L a b or R e v ie w .

R ep o rt fr o m

J u l y 1 , 1921, U

June

123 p p .

on pages 170 to 172 of the January issue of the M o n t h l y

C o l o r a d o .— B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s .

B ie n n ia l re p o rt, 1 9 2 1 -1 9 2 2 .

D e n v e r, 1 9 2 2 ..

63 p p .

Certain information from this report is published on pages 265 to 267 of this
issue of the M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w .
----- B u r e a u o f M in e s . A n n u a l re p o r t f o r the yea r 1921. D e n v e r , 1922. 5 5 p p .
Accident statistics from this report are published on pages 229 and 230 of this issue
of the M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w .
H a w a i i .—G o v e rn o r. R e p o r t to the S e c re ta ry o f the I n te r io r [ fo r the fisc a l year e n d in g
J u n e 3 0 , 1922].

W a s h in g to n , 192 2 .

116 p p .

M ap.

The section relating to the work of the industrial accident boards during t h e fiscal
year 1921-22 is reviewed on page 232 of th is issue of the M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w .
K e n t u c k y .— W o r k m e n ’s C o m p e n s a tio n B o a r d . R e p o r t, J u n e 3 0 , 1920, to J u n e 30,
192 1 .

[ F r a n k fo r t, 19 2 2 .]

43 p p .

A brief digest of this report is given on pages 232 and 233 of this issue of the
Mo nthly L a bor R e v ie w .

------------ R e p o r t
[1922].

o f le a d in g d e c isio n s, M a rch 1 6 , 192 0 , to M arch 1 , 1922.
222, v i p p .

F r a n k fo r t

M a s s a c h u s e t t s .— D e p a r tm e n t o f E d u c a tio n .

D i v is io n o f u n iv e r s ity e x te n s io n .
The
M a ss a c h u se tts p r o b le m o f im m ig r a n t e d u c a tio n i n 1 9 2 1 -2 2 . B o s to n , 1 9 22. 2 3 p p .
B u l l e t i n , w h o le N o . 50.

A report on the results accomplished during the past three years by approximately
100 Massachusetts cities and towns in the education of foreign-speaking adult
immigrants.
U n it e d S t a t e s .— B u r e a u o f E ffic ie n c y .
to O ctober 3 1 , 192 2 .

R e p o r t f o r the p e r io d f r o m N o v e m b e r 1 , 1921,
W a s h in g to n , 192 2 . 19 p p .

----- D e p a r tm e n t

o f A g r ic u ltu r e . B u r e a u o f A g r ic u ltu r a l E c o n o m ic s .
T h e a lm o n d
i n d u s tr y i n I t a ly a n d S p a i n , by E d w a r d A . F o le y .
W a s h in g to n , 1922. 5 8 p p .
M im e o g ra p h e d . R e p o r t F . S . 2 2 .

A brief digest of this report appears on pages 60 and 61 of this issue of th e Monthly
L a bor R e v ie w .

-------------O ffice
tio n s , 1921.

o f F a r m M a n a g e m e n t a n d F a r m E c o n o m ic s . H a r v e s t la b o r in v e s tig a ­
P r e lim in a r y re p o r t. [ W a s h in g to n , 1922.]
9 pp.
M im e o g ra p h e d .

A review of this report may be found on pages 44 to 50 of this issue of the Monthly
Labor R eview .
------------------ H a r v e s t

la b o r p r o b le m s i n the w h e a t b elt.

W a s h in g to n , 1922.

35 p p .

B u l l e t i n N o . 1020.

A review of this bulletin may be found on pages 44 to 50 of this issue of the M o n t h l y
L a b o r R e v ie w .

272


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[498]

PUBLICATION’S RELATIN'G TO LABOR.
U nited States.—D e p a r tm e n t o f C o m m erce.
f o r the fis c a l y e a r e n d e d J u n e 3 0 , 192 2 .

273

B u r e a u o f N a v ig a tio n . A n n u a l re p o rt
W a s h in g to n , 1922. 178 p p .

Among the labor data in this publication are the reports on nationality, discharge,
desertion, wages, and allotment of wages of seamen. Appendix B contains 32 pages,
which are chiefly taken up with wage statistics for this class of workers.

------------ B u r e a u

o f the C e n su s.
W a s h in g to n , 19 2 2 . 52 p p .

A n n u a l re p o rt f o r the fis c a l y e a r e n d e d J u n e SO, 1922.

The report shows the character and scope of the statistics gathered by this bureau.

----- D e p a r tm e n t

o f L a b o r . B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s .
T h e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s ,
U n ite d S ta te s D e p a r tm e n t o f L a b o r : I t s h is to r y , a c tiv itie s , a n d o r g a n iz a tio n , by
G u s ta v u s A . W eber.
W a s h in g to n , 19 2 2 . 59 p p . B u l l e t i n N o . 3 1 9 .
M isc e lla n e o u s
series.

This report is reviewed on page 251 of this issue of the Monthly Labor R eview .

----------------- 7
192 2 .

D e c is io n s o f c o u r ts a n d o p in io n s a ffe c tin g labor, 1921.
W a sh in g to n
3 5 2 p p . B u l l e t i n N o . 3 0 9 . L a b o r la w s o f the U n ite d S ta te s series.

A brief review of this bulletin appears on pages 244 and 245 of this issue of the
Monthly Labor R eview .

----- ------ W o m e n ’s

B u r e a u . P r e lim in a r y r e p o rt o n h o u rs a n d w ages o f w o m e n i n
in d u s tr y i n M is s o u r i.
W a s h in g to n , 1922. 23 p p .

A résume of this report is given on pages 177 and 178 of this issue of the Monthly
Labor R eview .

----- D e p a r tm e n t

o f the I n te r io r . B u r e a u o f M in e s. A n n u a l re p o rt f o r the fis c a l year
e n d e d J u n e 3 0 , 1922.
W a s h in g to n , 1922. 33 p p .

Contains a discussion of the coal strike, and an account of the varied activities of
the bureau, including training in first-aid and rescue work, and studies of health
hazards in the petroleum industry.

------------------ C o a l-d u st
W a s h in g to n , 192 2 .

e x p lo s io n tests i n the e x p e r im e n ta l m in e , 1913 to 1918 in c lu s iv e
x x i i , 639 p p . I llu s tr a te d . B u l l e t i n N o . 167.

This bulletin is reviewed on pages 225 to 228 of this issue of the Monthly L abor
R eview .

------------ 7 ~7 — C o k e-o ve n

a ccid en ts i n the U n ite d S ta te s d u r in g the ca len d a r y e a r 1921
W . A d a m s.
W a s h in g to n , 1922. 3 4 p p .
T e c h n ic a l p a p e r 318.
Data from this report are given on pages 224 and 225 of this issue of the Monthly
Labor R eview .
by W illia m

----- .------.-----

T e sts o f g a s m a s k s a n d re sp ira to r s f o r p r o te c tio n f r o m lo c o m o tiv e sm o k e
i n ra ilr o a d t u n n e ls w ith a n a ly s e s o f t u n n e l a tm o sp h e re s.
W a s h in g to n 1922
27 w
T e c h n ic a l p a p e r 292.

For a résumé of this bulletin see pages 228 and 229 of this issue of the Monthly
Labor R eview .

*----------- B u r e a u
in g to n , 1 9 2 2 .

#

o f P e n s io n s .
29 p p .

R e p o r t f o r the fis c a l y ea r e n d e d J u n e 3 0 , 1 9 22.

W ash­

Includes report on the operation of the retirement law for Federal employees. A t
the close of the fiscal year there were 7,576 annuitants, as compared with 6,471 a year
earlier, and a surplus in the retirement fund of $18,134,263.91 as compared with
$9,672,842.03 at the close of the previous fiscal year. During the year a total of
$6,392,327.11 was disbursed for annuities, refunds, and allowances. During the
period covered by the report there were 614 deaths of annuitants; and 70,580 refunds
amounting to $2,203,198.04. The average annual rate of annuity was $564.48; 1,475
persons received annuities ranging between $180 and $360, inclusive; 728, annuties
ranging between $576.01 and $648, inclusive; and 3,202, annuities ranging between
$648.01 and $720, inclusive.


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274

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

U n it e d S t a t e s .—E m p lo y e e s ’ C o m p e n s a tio n C o m m is s io n .
J u n e SO, 1 9 2 2 .

W a s h in g to n , 1 9 2 2 .

R e p o r t, J u l y 1, 1921, to

I ll pp.

A summary of this report is given on pages 237 to 241 of this issue of the M o n t h l y
L a bor R e v ie w .

----- F e d e ra l

B o a r d f o r V o c a tio n a l E d u c a tio n . P ro c e e d in g s o f the f i r s t n a tio n a l c o n fe r­
ence o n v o c a tio n a l r e h a b ilita tio n o f p e r so n s d isa b le d i n in d u s tr y o r o th e rw ise , S t .
L o u is , M o ., M a y 15, 16 , 17, 1 9 2 2 .
W a s h in g to n , 1 9 22. 1S8 p p .

This report of the proceedings of the first national vocational rehabilitation confer­
ence covers work done for persons disabled in industry and in other ways. The
phases of rehabilitation work dealt with in the speeches and discussions were reciproc­
ity among the States; cooperation of State departments, of private agencies, and of
industry in the work; rehabilitation of certain types of disabilities; proposed investi­
gations by Federal and State boards, and problems for future legislation.
----- In te r s ta te C o m m erce C o m m is s io n . A n n u a l r e p o rt [ fo r y ea r e n d in g O ctober S I , 1922,
e xce p t as o th erw ise n o te d ].

W a s h in g to n , 192 2 .

239 p p .

The report of the Bureau of Safety contains statistics of accidents on steam rail­
roads in 1921.

Official— Foreign Countries.
A r g e n t i n a .— C o m is ió n N a c io n a l de C asas B a r a ta s .
A ir e s , 192 2 .

99 p p .

M e m o ria ,

1 9 2 1 -1 9 2 2 .

B uenos

I llu s tr a te d .

The report of the National Commission on Low-priced Houses for 1921 and the
first half of 1922. Data from this report were used in this issue of the M o n t h l y
L a b o r R e v ie w (pp. 212 to 216).
A u s t r a l ia .— [D e p a r tm e n t o f the T r e a s u r y .]

I n v a l i d a n d old-age p e n s io n s .
f o r the tw e lv e m o n th s e n d e d J u n e 3 0 , 192 2 .
M e lb o u rn e , 1 9 22. 10 p p .

S ta te m e n t

----------—

M a te r n ity a llo w a n c e s. S ta te m e n t s h o w in g n u m b e r o f c la im s g r a n te d a n d
rejected, e x p e n d itu r e , a n d cost o f a d m in is tr a tio n d u r in g the tw e lv e m o n th s end ed
J u n e 3 0 ,1 9 2 2 .
M e lb o u rn e , 192 2 . 3 p p .

The claims paid during the year numbered 138,140; those rejected, 520. The
amount paid out in maternity allowances was £690,700 ($3,361,292, par), while the
cost of administration was £15,441 ($75,144, par).
----- (N e w S o u t h W a l e s ). — D e p a r tm e n t o f L a b o r a n d I n d u s tr y . R e p o r t o n the w o r k in g
o f the fa c to r ie s

a n d sh o p a ct, 191 2 , d u r in g the yea r 1 9 21.

------ (Q u e e n s l a n d ). — D e p a r tm e n t o f L a b o r.
B r is b a n e , 192 2 .

S y d n e y , 1 9 22.

40 p p '.

R e p o r t f o r y ea r e n d e d J u n e SO, 1922.

50 p p .

According to the report there were on March 31, 1922, 32,820 persons employed in
the registered factories and 23,104 persons employed in shops. Factory accidents
numbered 275 during the year ending June 30,1922. Two hundred and fifty-six wage
awards were in operation. Comparative tables show the rates of wages payable under
the various industrial awards, 1917 to 1922, both inclusive.
----- (T a s m a n ia ). — G o v e r n m e n t S t a tis tic ia n . S ta tis tic s f o r the y ea r 1 9 2 0 -2 1 . [H obart]
192 2 .

[ V a r io u s p a g in g .]

Includes among other data the number of workers in various industries, their
wages, hours, and output.
----- I n d u s tr ia l D e p a r tm e n t. S e v e n th a n n u a l re p o rt f o r 1 9 2 1 -2 2 , o n fa c to r ie s , w ages
boards, sh o p s , etc.

-----

H o b a r t, 1922.

39 p p .

(V ic t o r ia ) .— R e g is tr a r o f F r ie n d ly S o c ie tie s .
4 pp.

R e p o r t, 1921.

M e lb o u rn e , 1922.

B e l g iu m .— M in is tè r e de l ’I n té r ie u r et de V H y g iè n e .

A n n u a ir e s ta tis tiq u e de la B e lg iq u e
et d u C o n g o B e lg e , 1 9 1 5 -1 9 1 9 . l re p a r tie : a n n é e s 1 9 1 4 -1 9 1 8 . 2 me p a rtie : a n n é e
1919.
T o m e 46. B r u s s e ls , 192 2 . x v , 240 p p .

This number of the statistical yearbook of Belgium and the Belgian Congo is divided
into two sections, the first part dealing with the years 1914 to 1918, inclusive, and the


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PUBLICATION’S RELATING TO LABOR.

275

second with the year 1919. The usual statistics relating to the population, commerce,
industry, agriculture, education, etc., are given and in addition there is a section
dealing with special conditions during the period of the war.
Ca n a d a .—D e p a rtm e n t, o f L a b o r . W ages a n d h o u rs o f labor i n C a n ada, 1921 a n d 1 9 22.
O tta w a . 1922.

39 p p .

W ages a n d h o u rs o f la b o r re p o rt N o . 4-

Figures from this report are g iv e n o n pages 150 to 153 of this issue of the M o n t h l y
L a b o r R e v ie w .
------ (O n t a r io ). — D e p a r tm e n t o f L a b o r.
1921.

T h e fir s t a n n u a l re p o rt,

1920.

T o r o n to ,

57 p p .

G e r m a n y ( H a m b u r g ). — S ta tis tis c h e s L a n d e s a m t.
m H a m b u r g ^ H a m b u r g , 1922. 37 p p .
d en h a m b u r g is c h e n S ta a t, N r . 13.

D e r W ert der G ehälter u n d L ö h n e
3 charts. S ta tis tis c h e M i tte ilu n g e n ü b e r

A Statistical study of the Statistical Office of the free State of Hamburg on the nominal
and real value of salaries and wages in Hamburg in 1920, 1921, and 1922, as compared
with those paid on July 1, 1914. The principal contents of the study are discussed in
a n article in the present issue of the M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v ie w (pp. 153 to 159).
G r e a t B r it a i n .— H o m e Office.
192 2 .

-----

F a c to ry a n d w o r k sh o p orders.

1922 e d itio n .

London

291 p p .

I n d u s tr ia l F a tig u e R esea rch B o a rd .
T w o c o n tr ib u tio n s to the s tu d y o f accid en t
c a u s a tio n . L o n d o n , 1922. x i, 36 p p . R e p o r t N o . 19. G en era l series N o . 7.

A digest of this report is given on pages 230 and 231 of this issue of the M o n t h l y
L a bor R e v ie w .

■
-----

M in e s D e p a r tm e n t. R e p o r ts o f secretary f o r m in e s a n d c h ie f in s p e c to r o f m in e s f o r
yea r e n d in g D ecem b er 3 1 , 1921. L o n d o n , 1922. 181 p p .

The total output of minerals froih the mines and quarries of Great Britain for the
year 1921 was 201,999,903 tons as compared with 284,601,174 tons in 1920. Of this
total production of minerals coal comprised 163,251,181 tons as compared with 229,532,081 in the preceding year.
The total number of workers employed was 1,226,917, representing a decrease of
110,380 persons over the preceding year. Of the total number employed in 1921,
968,646 were underground or inside workers; 258,271 above ground or outside workers!
The average weekly number of days during 1921 on which the mines were in actual
operation was 4.72 and the aggregate number of days on which coal was mined during
the year was 184.18.
Fatal accidents in the mines in 1921 numbered 768 as compared with 1,130 in 1920.
A decrease is also shown in the persons injured, the number being 86,888 in 1921 and
118,490 in 1920. Of the fatal accidents in 1921, 690 occurred underground; 78 above
ground. In this connection the fact that owing to a suspension of work for about three
months the miners were not exposed to the usual number of occupational risks, should
be taken into consideration.
The report also contains among other subjects a general review of the coal-mining
industry in 1921, including the stoppage from March 31 to July 4 of that year; the
mining industry act, 1920, and the miners’ welfare fund.
----- R e g is tr a r o f F r ie n d ly S o c ie tie s. R e p o r ts f o r the yea r e n d in g D ec. 3 1 , 1920. P a r t
A — A p p e n d i x ( A ) . S ta tis tic a l a n d o th er in fo r m a tio n r e la tin g p r in c ip a lly to f r i e n d l y
societies, orders a n d branches, w o r k m e n 's c o m p e n s a tio n schem es, lo a n soc ietie s a n d
r a ilw a y sa v in g s b a n k s . L o n d o n , 192 2 . v ii, 3 4 p p .

----- - —

R e p o r t s f o r the years 1 9 1 8 -1 9 2 0 .
L o n d o n , 192 2 . iv , 179 p p .

P a r t B . I n d u s t r i a l a n d p r o v id e n t societie s.

I n t e r n a t io n a l L a b o r O f f ic e . — E m ig r a tio n a n d im m ig r a tio n : L e g is la tio n a n d treaties
G en eva , 192 2 .

x v , 439 p p .

The compilation, which is in three parts, is not complete, but is an attem pt to
present the essential points of lengthy and complex legislation and diplomatic texts.
Part I deals with legislation on emigration and contains 11 chapters. Among the
subjects treated are the following: The definition of an emigrant; the right to emigrate


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW.

and the restrictions on that right; the passport; emigration funds; the protection of
emigrants before departure; protective measures to be carried out by agents engaged
in transport emigration and recruiting, which measures concern the obligation of such
agents as to contracts, the repatriation of emigrants, the care of their money, the
transportation of their luggage, etc.; the restriction on the activities of agents and
the penalties for their violation of the law, the transportation of emigrants by sea and
by land, the protection of emigrants abroad by their own Governments, emigrants in
transit, and repatriation.
In Part II, on immigration legislation, the first chapter gives definitions of the
term “ immigrant.” In the four remaining chapters of the section are presented
provisions regarding conditions of admission, administrative bodies dealing with*
immigration and advantages granted immigrants, their admission and rejection and
their treatment after arrival, including registration, facilities for securing employ­
ment, and protection.
In Part I II the international agreements relative to emigration and immigration
are analyzed, the general treaties being taken up in Chapter I and the special treaties,
both bilateral and multilateral, in Chapter II.
Some of the matters covered by the special treaties are: Accident insurance; oldage and invalidity insurance; health insurance; unemployment insurance; savings;
protection of workers, minors, and infirm; public health, charitable relief, legal
assistance; prohibition of night work for women; prohibition of the use of white phos­
phorus in match manufacture; the suppression of traffic in women and children; and
the conventions and recommendations of the international labor conferences.
I n t e r n a t io n a l L a b o r O f f ic e . —S ta tis tic s o f u n e m p lo y m e n t i n v a r io u s c o u n tr ie s , 1910
to 1 9 2 2 . G en ev a , M a y , 1 9 2 2 .
m e n t series.

28 p p .

S tu d ie s a n d r e p o rts, 1 9 22, N o . 1 .

U n e m p lo y ­

Four sets of tables give some indication of the fluctuations in employment from
1910 up to March, 1922, in all countries for which official employment statistics have
been regularly published. The first set gives for each country the per cent of unem­
ployed trade-union members in all the trades covered by the statistics and in the
principal trade groups. The second set gives for certain trade groups (metal indus­
tries, building trades, woodworking, textiles, and transportation) the per cent of
unemployed trade-union members in certain countries. The third and fourth sets
of tables show the state of unemployment in 1921 and 1922 in certain countries (Aus­
tria, France, Italy, Switzerland, Czechoslovakia, and the United States) which do
not publish data as to unemployment among trade-union members, but publish
unemployment statistics based on the number of applicants for work at public
employment exchanges, the number of persons in receipt of unemployment benefits,
the number of persons totally unemployed and on short time, or on the increase and
decrease of persons employed by industrial establishments making reports.
N e t h e r l a n d s . — C e n tra a l B u r e a u vo o r de S ta tis tie k .

O verzicht v a n d e n o m v a n g e n den
v o r n a a m s te n in h o u d der co llectieve a rb e id so v e re e n k o m ste n o p 1 J a n u a r i 1922.
T he
H a g u e , N o v e m b e r, 1 9 2 2 . 49 p p . S t a tis tie k v a n N e d e rla n d , N o . 356.

A bulletin of the Central Statistical Bureau of the Netherlands on the extent of
collective agreements in that country at the beginning of 1922 and on the principal
contents of ex sting agreements. The contents of the bulletin will be discussed in an
article in a subsequent issue of the M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w .
------ (A m s t e r d a m ). —G e m e e n te -A rb e id s b e u rs .
V ersla g o ver het ja a r 1 9 21. A m s te r d a m ,
1 9 2 2 . 67 p p .
V ersla g en v a n B e d r ijv e n , D ie n s te n e n
A m s te r d a m , N o . 2.

C o m m is s io n der G em eente

The annual report for the year 1921 of the municipal labor exchange of Amsterdam.
■
----- G e m e e n te lijk A r b e id s b u r e a u . V ersla g over h et ja a r 1 9 2 1 . A m s te r d a m , 1 9 22. 55 p p .
V e rsla g en v a n B e d r ijv e n , D ie n s te n e n C o m m is s io n der G e m ee n te A m s te r d a m , N o . 17.

The annual report of the labor bureau of the city of Amsterdam, containing statis­
tics and data as to number of manual workers employed by the municipality, their


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PUBLICATIONS RELATING TO LABOR.

occupations, wages, working conditions, etc., and also general unemployment statis­
tics of the city of Amsterdam.
N o r w a y .— D e p a r te m e n te t f o r H a n d e l, S jg fa r t, I n d u s t r i og F is k e r i. P o s ts ty r e ls e n .
N o r g e s p o s tv e s e n .
C h r is tia n ia , 1 9 2 2 . 1 1 2 p p .
N o rg e s O ffisielle S t a t i s t i c , V I I , 50.

Statistics on Norway’s mail service. Refers briefly to the railroad strike of Decem­
ber, 1920, and the steamship strike of June, 1921, and to the State pension fund. The
postal service also has three benefit funds, which are noted in this report: The Postal
Relief Fund, which under certain circumstances aids widows, children, and parent
of deceased employees; the Postal Benefit Fund for employees, etc., who do nots
come under the State Pension Fund; and Gulbrandsen’s legacy, the interest of which
is divided equally among three needy persons in certain positions.

Report on the fishing industry of Norway for 1919. According to the statistics of
the State Insurance Institute on accident insurance for fishermen there were 91,435
fishermen. According to the parish constables there were in all 109,764 fishermen,
with fishing the sole occupation of 27,124, the main occupation of 44,564, and an
extra source of profit for 38,076. Prices on cod, liver, roes, and fish heads are given
for the 10-year period 1910 to 1919, and prices of herring, sprat, salmon, mackerel,
lobsters, etc., are also given.
S w e d e n — R ik s fo r s a k r in g s a n s ta lte n . [B e ra tte lse ] dr 1921.
S v e r ig e s O ffid e lla S t a t i s t i k . F ô r s à k r in g s v à s e n .

S to c k h o lm

1922.

32 p p .

Report of the State Insurance Institute of Sweden for the year 1921. The number
of employers registered with the institute during 1921 was about 351,110. During
that year 21,428 accidents to workers insured with the institute were reported. About
2,480 of these concerned employees of self-insured employers and 4,570 were among
State employees.
°
The report also covers the operations of the 1908 and 1918 accident insurance laws
for fishermen, accident insurance in military service, annuities for illegitimate chil­
dren, and life insurance in connection with home-owning loans.
- S o d a ls ty r e ls e n

L iv s m e d e ls fo r b r u k n in g e n i n o m m in d r e h em edlade h u s h d ll u n d e r

a ls t a t i s ti k 91 ^ ~ 1 9 1 S '

S to c ^ flo lm ’ 1 9 2 2 -

1Jfl PP-

S v e r ig e s O fficiella S t a t i s t i k .

S o c i-

Results of an investigation by the Swedish Labor Bureau (S o d a ls ty r e ls e n ) into
the quantity and cost of food consumed by certain classes during the years 1914 to
1918. The second part treats of the effect of high costs on the nutritive value of the
foods bought. Prizes were given to families keeping household accounts, which the
report states probably aided results. For the best books premiums of from 5 to 10
kronor ($1.34 to $2.68, par) were given and in addition during the last two investi­
gations a special compensation of 5 kronor for 1917 and 8 kronor ($2.14, par) for 1918
was given for each completely kept household book.
U n i o n o p S o u t h A f r i c a .— O ffice o f C e n su s a n d S ta tis tic s . S ta tis tic s o f w ages a n d
i n d u s tr ia l matters^ a n d o f re ta il a n d w h o lesa le p ric e s , r e n ts , a n d cost o f liv in a (1 8 9 5
to 1 9 2 2 ). P r e to r ia , 192 2 . 124 p p . S o d a l s ta tis tic s , N o . 4 , 1922.

Statistics on wages from this report are given on pages 164 and 165 of this issue of
the M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w .

Unofficial.
C a l if o r n ia

U n iv e r s it y

D i v is io n

o f v o c a tio n a l e d u c a tio n .

R esearch a n d

service

C
n nr T
y
anr» m} ire p 0 rt ° f the deP a r tm e n t o f p a r t- tim e e d u c a tio n , S to c k to n ,
C a lif 1 9 2 1 -2 2 . B e rk e le y , 192 2 . 32 p p . P a r t- tim e e d u c a tio n series, N o . 12
D iv i­
s io n b u lle tin N o . 10.
F is h e r , B o y d .
x n , 315 p p .

M e n ta l causes o f a c d d e n ts .

B o s to n , H o u g h to n

M ifflin

Co

1922

■’
This study of accident causation analyzes the different conditions or attitudes of
the mind which are responsible for many accidents with a view to suggesting methods
by which this particular phase of the safety problem may be met.
[503]

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278

M O N T H L Y LABOR REV IEW .

F i s h e r , I r v i n g . T h e m a k in g o f in d e x n u m b e r s . A s tu d y o f th eir v a rie tie s, tests, a n d
r e lia b ility . B o s to n , H o u g h to n M ifflin C o ., 1922. x x x i , 526 p p .

This volume is a study of formulas for index numbers. A formula has been devel­
oped which is designed to stand the tests both of a high degree of accuracy and speed
of calculation. The book has been planned to meet the needs of different classes of
readers from the specialist in mathematics to the general reader who merely wants
to know something about index numbers. Directions are given for the reading of the
book, so that it may be used to the greatest advantage. The appendixes include a
discussion of the influence of weighting, a list of formulas for index numbers, numerical
data and examples, and a selected bibliography.
I o w a S t a t e C o l l e g e . E n g in e e r in g e x te n s io n d e p a r tm e n t.
i n the n e e d le -w o r k in g trade. A m e s [1922]. 82 p p .

O u tlin e s o f in s tr u c tio n

The material in this study is, as its name indicates, designed for use in public
part-time and factory vestibule schools where girls are planning to enter or have already
entered the needle-working trade.
M o n t g o m e r y , B o -G a b r i e l d e . B r itis h a n d c o n tin e n ta l la b o r p o lic y .
P a u l, T re n c h , T r u b n e r & C o. { L td .) , 192 2 . x x v i i , 5 7 5 p p .

L ondon, K egan

A discussion of the political labor movement and labor legislation in Great Britain,
France, and the Scandinavian countries, 1900 to 1922. C'hapters 1 to 19 deal with the
general development of the political labor movement in each of the countries included
in the survey. Chapter 19 summarizes the important features and characteristics of
the political labor movements in the five countries concerned, while in chapters 20
to 26 special issues of labor policy are considered. Among these are: The legal posi­
tion of trade-unions; conciliation and arbitration; minimum wage; legal regulation
of the hours of labor; unemployment; joint industrial organization, and nationaliza­
tion of industries. In addition, five appendixes outline the work and organization
of the ministry of labor of each country included in the study.
N a t io n a l S a f e t y C o u n c i l . P ro c e e d in g s , e le v e n th a n n u a l s a fe ty cong ress, D e tr o it,
A u g u s t 2 8 - S e p te m b e r 1, 1 9 2 2 . [C hicago] 192 2 . 1074 p p .

This report of the proceedings of the annual safety congress is abridged to about
one-half the complete stenographic report. The prepared papers are reproduced in
full or slightly condensed but the discussions are much condensed. An account of
the congress was given in the M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w for October, 1922, pp. lo9—161.
W a t k i n s , G o r d o n S . A n in tr o d u c tio n to the s tu d y o f la b o r p ro b le m s.
T h o m a s Y . C ro w e ll C o ., 192 2 . x v , 664 p p .

N ew

Y ork,

This study of the facts and conditions which influence industrial relations is pre­
sented from the standpoint both of past experience and present conditions. It con­
sists of a historical summary of the nature and development of the problems in Eng­
land and the United States, an analysis of the problems in regard to living standards,
wages and the wage system, hours, child and woman labor, unemployment, labor
turnover, immigration, and industrial unrest, and the last section deals with the
agencies and methods of adjustment including labor and employer organizations
and associations, shop committees, personnel administration, profit-sharing systems,
cooperation, and industrial education and training.


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o
*
m

[504]